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UBC Theses and Dissertations

From saviour to witness : the transformation of the ethos of Roman Catholic missionaries, 1890-1990,… Weeren, John S. 1991

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FROM SAVIOUR TO WITNESS. The . Trans-format i on of the Ethos of Roman C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a r i e s , 1890-1990, with P a r t i c u l a r Reference t o L a t i n America By JOHN S. WEEREN H.B.A., Univ. of King's C o l l e g e & Dalhousie U n i v e r s i t y , 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of H i s t o r y ) We Accept t h i s T h e s i s as Conforming t o the Required Standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1991 (c) John S. Weeren, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of H i s t o r y  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date May 1991 DE-6 (2/88) A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which has o c c u r r e d i n Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s ' c o n c e p t i o n s of t h e i r h o s t s and themse lves between 1890 and 1990. Through the d e l i n e a t i o n and c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n of the e thos which p r e v a i l e d i n m i s s i o n a r y c i r c l e s at the beg inn ing and at the end of t h i s p e r i o d — the one d e f i n i t i v e l y l o s i n g i t s ascendancy t o the o ther i n the 1960s — t h i s t h e s i s demonstrates t h a t the d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r h o s t s has narrowed d r a m a t i c a l l y . In 1890 most m i s s i o n a r i e s b e l i e v e d tha t the. r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l systems i n which they worked were waste lands i n compar ison with t h e i r own and t h a t the sooner they c o u l d be harmonized with western norms the b e t t e r i t would be. In 1990 most m i s s i o n a r i e s b e l i e v e d tha t the r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l systems i n which they worked c o n t a i n e d g rea t r i c h e s and tha t as much c o u l d be l e a r n e d from t h e i r ho s t s as c o u l d be imparted t o them, i f not more. E q u a l i t y , once based on u n i f o r m i t y , i s now acknowledged i n d i v e r s i t y . U n d e r l y i n g t h e s e changes has been the e v o l v i n g c h a r a c t e r of the r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r wor lds i n which m i s s i o n a r i e s have l i v e d , the c a r d i n a l f e a t u r e of which has been the e r o s i o n of a E u r o c e n t r i c model of human e x i s t e n c e . In sum, t h i s t h e s i s , which i n t e g r a t e s L a t i n Amer ica i n t o a g l o b a l p a t t e r n of m i s s i o n a r y thought and a c t i o n , i l l u m i n a t e s the e thos of m i s s i o n a r i e s past and p re sen t and the f o u n d a t i o n on which each has r e s t e d . i i i Tab le of Contents A b s t r a c t p. i i . Tab le of Content s . p. i i i . I n t r o d u c t i o n p. 1. The E r a of the Sav iour . . p. 7. The Nature of R e l i g i o c u l t u r a l I n e q u a l i t y p. 10. L a t i n American A spec t s of R e l i g i o c u l t u r a l I n e q u a l i t y . p. 31. The E ra of the Witness p. 51. The Bases of Community p. 53. V i c t o r i a Nueva: The C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of Community . . . p. 69. C o n c l u s i o n p. 89. Notes p. 92. B i b l i o g r a p h y p. 107. 1 I n t r o d u c t i on The Roman C a t h o l i c Church has sent -forth m i s s i o n a r i e s s i n c e i t s i n c e p t i o n two m i l l e n n i a ago. A l though the adherent s i t has won through t h i s p r a c t i c e have never c o n s t i t u t e d more than a sma l l percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n of the g l o b e , i t s reach has been wide. In t h i s i t has been f a i t h f u l t o the w i l l of i t s f ounde r , who t o l d h i s a p o s t l e s on t a k i n g l e a v e of them t o "Go i n t o the whole wor ld and preach the gospel t o every c r e a t u r e . " 1 The c o n t e n t s of the gospel have not changed, but the e thos o r , i n the t e rm ino l o gy of the A n n a l i s t e s , the m e n t a l i t e of the men and women who have d i s sem ina ted i t has. An e v a n g e l i c a l c o n c e r n , common t o every epoch, f o r the s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l w e l f a r e of man has been expres sed i n many ways because m i s s i o n a r i e s have d e f i n e d themse lves and t h e i r ho s t s i n many ways. T h i s , i n t u r n , can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the s h i f t i n g i m p e r a t i v e s of the environment i n which they have o p e r a t e d . A l i e n r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l systems have, t h e r e f o r e , been viewed i n an e s s e n t i a l l y p o s i t i v e l i g h t by some m i s s i o n a r i e s and i n an e s s e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e l i g h t by o t h e r s . If t h e r e have been those who have deemed t h e i r ho s t s t h r a l l s of S a t a n , t h e r e have been tho se who have deemed t h e i r ho s t s h e i r s of C h r i s t , a l b e i t unconsc ious ones. Depending, i n s h o r t , on the e thos which has animated them, i t s e l f a measure of the t imes i n which they have l i v e d , m i s s i o n a r i e s have e s t a b l i s h e d g rea t d i s t a n c e s and smal l — c o n c e p t u a l l y and, i p s o f a c t o , 2 p r a c t i c a l l y — between t h e i r ho s t s and themse lves . The l a s t 100 yea r s have w i tnes sed a gradual but pro found a l t e r a t i o n i n t h i s d i s t a n c e , m i r r o r i n g a marked f l u i d i t y i n the r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r wor ld s . "Today , " a b i shop prominent i n m i s s i o n a r y c i r c l e s s t a t e d i n 1968, "we a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g an a c c e l e r a t i o n of h i s t o r y which means tha t the changes which i n the past happened i n the Church over the cour se of c e n t u r i e s now take p l a c e i n a decade. In the past changes d i d not impinge on the con sc i ou sne s s of the members of the Church. Only the h i s t o r i a n s knew about them. But now the changes a re happening w i t h i n our own l i f e t i m e and we have t o adapt our psycho logy a c c o r d i n g l y . " 3 T h i s m i s s i o n a r i e s have done, and w h i l e these men and women have not been e q u a l l y f l e x i b l e , one e thos has , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , l o s t i t s pr imacy t o another . In 1890 they were more l i k e l y than not t o r ega rd t h e i r ho s t s as ben ighted c h i l d r e n and themse lves as e n l i g h t e n e d a d u l t s . In 1990 they were more l i k e l y than not t o regard t h e i r ho s t s and themse lves as p u p i l s and t e a c h e r s of one ano ther . Much of what they d e p r e c i a t e d i n f avour of t h e i r own p a t t e r n of e x i s t e n c e a c e n t u r y ago, they uphold at i t s expense today , f o r the p e o p l e s i n t h e i r c a r e , once w ide l y thought t o be impr i soned i n the n a t u r a l o r d e r , a re now w ide l y thought t o embody a s u p e r n a t u r a l dynamic. S a v i o u r s were f e l t t o be e s s e n t i a l i n the one ca se . Witnesses a re f e l t t o be e s s e n t i a l i n t h e o t h e r . M i s s i o n a r i e s d i d not l o ve t h e i r 3 hos t s mora or l e s s i n 1890 than i n 1990, but a sent iment which was once p r i m a r i l y engendered by p i t y i s now p r i m a r i l y engendered by r e s p e c t . T h i s change i n e thos has c a r r i e d m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r ho s t s from a s t a t e of maximal t o a s t a t e of minimal p o l a r i t y . In e s sence , i t c o n s t i t u t e s a movement from an unequal t o an equal r e l a t i o n s h i p on an i n d i v i d u a l p l ane and from a d u a l i s t i c t o a h o l i s t i c community on a c o l l e c t i v e p l a n e . The o b j e c t of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o e l u c i d a t e t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . It w i l l do so by d e l i n e a t i n g and c o n t e x t u a l i z i n g the e thos which was ascendant i n 1890 and the e thos which was ascendant i n 1990, e thoses wh ich , between them, dominated the i n t e r v e n i n g c e n t u r y . In keeping with the t w o f o l d na tu re of i t s s u b j e c t , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n s i s t of two p a r t s . Be fo re t u r n i n g t o the f i r s t of them, however, the o u t l i n e p re sen ted here must be q u a l i f i e d i n a number of r e s p e c t s . F i r s t l y , wh i l e the scope of t h i s t h e s i s i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l , r e f l e c t i n g the c a t h o l i c c h a r a c t e r of the Church , i t devotes p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o L a t i n Amer ica . T h i s a rea of the wor ld has been n o m i n a l l y C a t h o l i c f o r c e n t u r i e s , but m i s s i o n a r i e s have always c o n s i d e r e d i t t o be a worthy f i e l d of endeavour, and between 1890 and 1990, thousands made i t t h e i r home. Indeed, i n 1967, t h e r e were more Canadians s t a t i o n e d i n L a t i n America than on any o ther c o n t i n e n t . 3 It was i n t h i s year tha t the i n i t i a l groundwork 4 was l a i d f o r the m i s s i on which forms the f o c a l p o i n t of the second p a r t of t h i s t h e s i s . E s t a b l i s h e d i n the Pe ruv i an community of V i c t o r i a Nueva by the A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x and the Congrega t ion of the S i s t e r s of C h a r i t y of S a i n t V incen t de Paul of H a l i f a x , the p a r i s h of San Jose Obrero i s exemplary of the e thos which c u r r e n t l y h o l d s sway i n a preponderance of m i s s s i o n s . Second l y , t h i s t h e s i s w i l l not and, g i ven the na tu re of i t s e v i d e n t i a l base , cannot speak f o r every m i s s i o n a r y . The Church has never been a m o n o l i t h i c e n t i t y , even at i t s most u l t r amontane , and the peop le s of Europe and North Amer i ca , from whom m i s s i o n a r i e s have t y p i c a l l y been drawn, have never formed a seamless c i v i l i z a t i o n , potent though t h i s concept has been. N e i t h e r of the e those s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n has ever been u n i v e r s a l l y s u b s c r i b e d t o , though the c o m p l a i n t s of c r i t i c s a re themse lves a testament t o the predominance each has en joyed . Thus, when m i s s i o n a r i e s a re mentioned i n t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s on l y t o the e thos of the m a j o r i t y t h a t r e f e r e n c e i s b B i n g made, b e a r i n g i n mind tha t today'B m a j o r i t y was y e s t e r d a y ' s m i n o r i t y and v i c e v e r s a . T h i r d l y , w h i l e i t c l e a r t ha t the p e r i o d t h i s t h e s i s spans has been d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the d e c l i n e of one e thos and the r i s e of ano the r , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p i n p o i n t the moment at which t h e weight of m i s s i o n a r y o p i n i o n t i p p e d the s c a l e s i n favour of the new over the o l d . For a n a l y t i c a l purposes a c l e a r l i n e must be drawn between them, but t o a f f i x a da te 5 to i t would be a r b i t r a r y and, t h e r e f o r e , i n a p p r o p r i a t e . What can be s a i d with c e r t a i n t y , however, i s tha t the postwar e r a i n genera l and the tumultuous 1960s i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t i t u t e a d e c i s i v e t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the manner i n which m i s s i o n a r i e s have d e f i n e d themse lves and t h e i r h o s t s . F o u r t h l y , t h i s t h e s i s does not c o n t a i n an imputa t i on tha t of the two e thoses which have p r e v a i l e d i n the l a s t 100 y e a r s , one has been s u p e r i o r . Each has been a product of i t s t i m e s , and i t i s w i t h i n the parameters of i t s t imes tha t each must be s c r u t i n i z e d . Only by immersing o n e s e l f i n the epochs which have c r a d l e d o n e ' s s u b j e c t s i s i t p o s s i b l e to do j u s t i c e t o them, a v o i d i n g t h e danger of v iewing the wor ld through the eyes of those who conform t o o n e ' s norms. If one were t o ven tu re a judgement, one c o u l d do so f a i r l y o n l y wi th r e f e r e n c e t o what has t r a n s p i r e d between, not w i t h i n , epochs. An example may make t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n c l e a r e r . It would be u n f a i r t o s t a t e t h a t the m i s s i o n a r i e s of 1890 were l e s s worthy than the m i s s i o n a r i e s of 1990 because c e r t a i n r a c i a l p r e j u d i c e s were harboured by the former and eschewed by the l a t t e r . To do so would be t o suggest t h a t c o l o u r b l i n d n e s s i s a cons tan t e t h i c a l s t a n d a r d . What i t would be f a i r t o s t a t e , however, i s t ha t the d i m i n u t i o n of r ac i sm among m i s s i o n a r i e s i s a p o s i t i v e development. In c l o s i n g , a word about the b i b l i o g r a p h y on which t h i s t h e s i s r e s t s i s i n o r d e r . The m i s s i on i n V i c t o r i a Nueva has 6 •furnished a wea l th of p r imary m a t e r i a l , c h i e f among which i s the o r a l t e s t imony of ten men and women who have, i n v a r i o u s c a p a c i t i e s , been a s s o c i a t e d wi th i t . The i n f o r m a t i o n which has been ga thered i n t h i s qua r te r i s merely i l l u s t r a t i v e , however, f o r the e thoses which form the s u b j e c t of t h i s t h e s i s a re e x p l i c a t e d through a broad range of p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s . In a d d i t i o n t o m i s s i o n a r y l i t e r a t u r e , of which t h e r e i s an abundance, they i n c l u d e c o l l e c t i o n s of e c c l e s i a s t i c a l documents, t h e o l o g i c a l works, books and p e r i o d i c a l s of genera l i n t e r e s t t o the l a i t y and the c l e r g y , and, l a s t but not l e a s t , o ther h i s t o r i e s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i t appears t h a t a comprehens ive a n a l y s i s of the C h u r c h ' s m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y has yet t o be under taken. Indeed, The E n c y c l o p e d i a of R e l i g i o n goes so f a r as t o say tha t "No s a t i s f a c t o r y h i s t o r y of Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n s e x i s t s . " " * What f o l l o w s , i t i s hoped, w i l l he lp to f i l l t h i s l a c u n a . 7 The E r a of the Sav iour From e a r t h ' s da rk , c r u e l p l a c e s , From many a weary one, The c r y i s 'Come and he lp us , Who grope as i n the n i g h t , Our eyes a r e b l i n d and s i g h t l e s s , 0 show us the t r u e l i g h t . M i s s i o n a r y Hymn, The Book of Common P r a i s e . 1938 Without a sense of u t i l i t y , w i thout the c o n s o l i n g c o n v i c t i o n tha t t h e i r work pos ses ses some m a t e r i a l or s p i r i t u a l v a l u e , m i s s i o n a r i e s would f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o f u n c t i o n . T h i s s t a t e of mind, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m i s s i o n a r i e s of every epoch, shou ld not be confused with a d u r a b l e but d i s c o n t i n u o u s b e l i e f i n the s u p e r i o r i t y of t h e i r r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l system and the i n f e r i o r i t y of t h e i r h o s t s ' . It was t h i s b e l i e f which l a y at the hear t of the ethos which animated the men and women who s tand on the f a r s i d e of the i d e o l o g i c a l d i v i d e p re sen ted i n t h i s t h e s i s . In t h e i r eyes the f a i t h they had been commissioned t o propagate was t o n o n - C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n s , t o the i d i o s y n c r a t i c C a t h o l i c i s m of L a t i n Amer ica — where, i n the p a r l a n c e of the t i m e , m i l l i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s were "more pagan than C h r i s t i a n " " 3 — and t o o the r C h r i s t i a n communions what day i s t o n i g h t . The c i v i l i z a t i o n i n which t h e i r f a i t h was e n s h r i n e d , the v i t a l i t y of which was e v i d e n t from i t s i n e x o r a b l e march around the g l o b e , was a l s o e x a l t e d t o the det r iment of o t h e r s . The a b b r e v i a t e d l i f e s p a n of the g e n e r a l i t y of m i s s i o n a r i e s i s a sombre testament t o the h a r d s h i p s they a endured, but however b leak t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , they c o u l d r e j o i c e i n t h e i r b i r t h r i g h t and lament i t s absence i n t h e i r h o s t s . V i r t u e , which was d e f i n e d i n t h e i r terms, was t r e a t e d i n a p r o p r i e t a r y f a s h i o n , as an o r i e n t a t i o n which had, on the whole, t o be i n s t i l l e d r a t h e r than evoked i n the peop le s i n t h e i r c a r e . Even i n the 1930s, when, on every c o n t i n e n t , t h e r e were l o n g - s t a n d i n g c o n t a c t s between m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r h o s t s , the ve ry e x i s t e n c e of such r i g h t e o u s n e s s was an open q u e s t i o n . In 1936, at the Second Se s s i on of the Semaines d 'Eitudes M i s s i o n n a i r e s du Canada, a r e p o r t a sked, "Le pa len e s t - i l c apab le de v e r t u ? , " and though the m i s s i o n a r y who authored i t conc luded t h a t n a t u r a l , as opposed t o s u p e r n a t u r a l , v i r t u e s c o u l d be found i n h im, he acknowledged t h a t "chez l e s i n f i d e l e s l e s v e r t u s humaines s o i e n t t o u j o u r s d e f e c t u e u s e s par quel que c d t e , s o i t dans l e u r m o t i f , dans l e u r e x t e n s i o n ou l e u r mode."** M i s s i o n a r i e s were not b l i n d t o t h e i r shor t comings , but these l i m i t a t i o n s were f e l t t o be minor i n comparison wi th those of the peop le s i n t h e i r c a r e , s u b j e c t , as they were adjudged t o be, t o e v i l s which c r i p p l e d the s p i r i t and c o r r u p t e d t h e f l e s h . M i s s i o n a r i e s were conv inced t h a t , thanks t o the g o s p e l , they and the m i l l i o n s of C a t h o l i c s of whom they were the vanguard were u n i q u e l y equipped t o be masters of the e a r t h and i n s t rument s of heaven and, as s uch , a r b i t e r s of what was t r u l y human and d i v i n e . In the c e r t a i n t y tha t they 9 a lone h e l d the keys to a complete e x i s t e n c e , they c o u l d not but heed the f i g u r a t i v e c r i e s of the m u l t i t u d e s o u t s i d e t h e i r ga te s and c o n f e r t h e i r w o r l d l y and o t h e r w o r l d l y t r e a s u r e s on them. As E l i a s Manning, an American m i s s i o n a r y based i n B r a z i l , s t a t e d i n r e t r o s p e c t , "We came with the i d e a t h a t we on l y have something t o g i v e — a r e a l i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l p a t e r n a l i s m — and no th ing t o l e a r n . It had not always been so. The seventeenth c e n t u r y , f o r example, was n o t a b l e f o r the d e f e r e n c e m i s s i o n a r i e s c o u l d and d i d show t o t h e i r h o s t s . The Congregat ion f o r t h e P ropaga t i on of the F a i t h , founded i n 1622 t o oversee the m i s s i ona ry a c t i v i t y of the Church , d e d i c a t e d i t s e l f t o the f o rmat i on of i nd i genous C h r i s t i a n communit ies i n which m i s s i o n a r i e s would adapt themse lves t o the customs of the peop les i n t h e i r c a r e r a t h e r than the o ther way around. F i g u r e s l i k e Matteo R i c c i and Roberto de N o b i l i went t o g rea t l e n g t h s t o make the gospel as r e f l e c t i v e of i t s Ch inese and Indian m i l i eux as i t was r e f l e c t i v e , i n t h e i r homeland, of i t s I t a l i a n . It was i n the c r e a t i o n of the f i r s t and, f o r some two and a h a l f c e n t u r i e s , the l a s t b i shop of Ch inese and Indian o r i g i n i n the h i s t o r y of the Church , however, t ha t t h i s i d e a l took i t s most powerfu l form. The e l a s t i c i t y which was e x h i b i t e d i n the se yea r s was not u n c o n t r o v e r s i a l , and, as t ime pa s sed , i t s opponents grew i n i n f l u e n c e . In 1742 and 1744 Bened i c t XIV u n e q u i v o c a l l y 10 condemned the r i t e s through which R i c c i and N o b i l i had o r i e n t a l i z e d C a t h o l i c i s m , s e e i n g i n them a con tamina t i on r a t h e r than an enr ichment of the body he headed. "The f i r s t g rea t attempt at ' accommodat ion ' had f a i l e d , " w r i t e s Stephen Nei11 of t h i s e p i s o d e . "Rome had r u l e d t h a t Roman p r a c t i c e , e x a c t l y as i t was at Rome, was t o be i n every d e t a i l t he law f o r the m i s s i o n s . T h i s was t o govern Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r y p r a c t i c e f o r the next two hundred y e a r s . " 0 When the c e n t u r y compassed i n t h i s t h e s i s opened, the b e l i e f tha t one r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l system c o u l d and shou ld s e r v e as a u n i v e r s a l model was as s t r ong as e v e r . The proper r o l e of m i s s i o n a r i e s at t h i s j u n c t u r e was s p e l t out by Leo XIII i n 1894 i n an e n c y c l i c a l t o the b i shop s of Pe ru . In u r g i n g tha t more m i s s i o n a r i e s be sent t o t h i s c o u n t r y ' s I nd i ans , he noted of the fo rmer , "These men do not y i e l d t o f l e s h and b l o o d , but l e a v i n g t h e i r b r o t h e r s b e h i n d , do e v e r y t h i n g t o win s o u l s f o r C h r i s t , t o b r i n g c i v i l i z e d c u l t u r e and g e n t l e manners t o a barbarous p e o p l e , and t o d i s p e l the darkness of i g n o r a n c e , so tha t they may r e c e i v e a  p l a c e among those s a n c t i f i e d by f a i t h . ' " * It i s t o the e thos the se words e x e m p l i f i e d , an e thos which i n t e r p o s e d a f o r m i d a b l e d i s t a n c e between m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r h o s t s , t ha t t h i s t h e s i s now t u r n s i n d e t a i l . The Nature of R e l i q i o c u l t u r a l I n e q u a l i t y The d i v i s i o n of the wor ld i n t o haves and h a v e - n o t s , i n the broades t sense of t he se words, was not the i n v e n t i o n of 11 m i s s i o n a r i e s , f o r the monopo l i z a t i on of r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l v a l u e s on which i t was p r e d i c a t e d sprang from a Z e i t g e i s t which pervaded Europe and North Amer ica . M i s s i o n a r i e s , s t and ing at the p o i n t where West met Eas t and North met South , gave s t r ong v o i c e to t h i s d ichotomy, but i t s e x i s t e n c e depended on p i l l a r s f a r g r e a t e r than themse lves , namely, on the Church and t h e S t a t e of which they were a p a r t . The f o r m a t i v e i n f l u e n c e these b o d i e s had on t h e i r e thos w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n . That e x e r t e d by the Church w i l l be d e a l t w i th f i r s t . R e l i g i o u s i n e q u a l i t y — t o s e t i t s c u l t u r a l f a c e t a s i d e f o r a moment — was roo ted i n a b e l i e f t h a t the Church of Rome and the Church of C h r i s t were i d e n t i c a l , t h a t i s t o say , t ha t the c o n s t i t u t i v e e lements of the h o l y , c a t h o l i c , and a p o s t o l i c Church of the N icene Creed were t o be found i n the body p r e s i d e d over by the pope and nowhere e l s e . N o n - C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n s were, i p s o f a c t o , f a l s e , and o the r C h r i s t i a n communions, t o g e t h e r with the i d i o s y n c r a t i c C a t h o l i c i s m of L a t i n Amer i ca , were r i d d l e d wi th d e f e c t s . Pao lo Manna, a h i g h l y regarded m i s s i o n a r y of the t i m e , was a c t i n g on t h i s premise when he a v e r r e d t h a t " t h e C a t h o l i c Church a l one has the m i s s i on of l e a d i n g a l l men a long the road of s a l v a t i o n . N e i t h e r P r o t e s t a n t m i s s i o n a r i e s nor those sent by o ther d i s s e n t i n g and sepa ra ted churches have any a u t h o r i t y t o preach and e v a n g e l i z e . . . . T ru th i s but one, and the C a t h o l i c Church 12 i s the s o l e d e p o s i t o r y of t h i s t r u t h . " 1 0 It i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t ha t the Church shou ld look upon i t s e l f as complete i n every way, as the beg inn ing and the end of man's sea rch f o r God r a t h e r than as a t r a v e l l e r on t h i s j ou rney . What l a y beyond i t s w a l l s was impure, and what l a y w i t h i n them was i n v i o l a t e , l e a v i n g s canty room f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l a d a p t a t i o n and the r e c e p t i v i t y t o t h i n g s u n f a m i l i a r i m p l i c i t i n i t . Permanence, not r e l e v a n c e t o t ime and p l a c e , was the p r i d e of the Church. In the words of one C a t h o l i c theo log i an s " i t i s the Roman C a t h o l i c Church which i s the f i n a l s tage of the kingdom of God on e a r t h " and " t h e s o c i e t y which s tands i n f i r m o p p o s i t i o n t o the kingdom of Satan and which count s no a l l i e s i n t h i s o p p o s i t i o n . " 1 1 The Church had many s i n n e r s i n i t s m id s t , but i t chose t o dwel l on i t s p e r f e c t i o n , what the F i r s t V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , h e l d from 1869 t o 1870, lauded as i t s " m a r v e l l o u s e x t e n s i o n , i t s eminent h o l i n e s s , and i t s i n e x h a u s t i b l e f r u i t f u l n e s s i n every good t h i n g . " 1 3 Interwoven with t h i s complacency was an i s o l a t i o n f o s t e r e d p a r t l y from wi thout and p a r t l y from w i t h i n the C a t h o l i c f o l d , an i s o l a t i o n symbo l i zed by the s e l f - i m p r i s o n m e n t of P i u s IX f o l l o w i n g the f a l l of Rome t o the ons laught of I t a l i a n n a t i o n a l i s m . That p a r t of the wor ld which d i d not bear t h e V a t i c a n ' s stamp — and i t was by f a r the g r e a t e r p a r t — was viewed wi th a n t i p a t h y , t u r n i n g the Church i n t o a r e a c t i v e r a t h e r than an a c t i v e 13 p l a y e r on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t age . I t s o p p o s i t i o n to the s e p a r a t i o n of Church and S t a t e was a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h i s sometimes j u s t i f i e d and sometimes u n j u s t i f i e d antagonism. Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the Church can be l i k e n e d t o a r e d o u b t a b l e f o r t r e s s or a c e l e s t i a l c i t y , b u t , perhaps , the most e v o c a t i v e image comes from the pen of the C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g i a n , W i l l i a m F r a z i e r , f o r whom i t approximated a s anc tua ry . "A s a n c t u a r y , " i n h i s words, " i s a p l a c e of r e f u g e s i t u a t e d i n a h o s t i l e env i ronment , which j u s t i f i e s i t s e x i s t e n c e by b r i n g i n g men i n t o i t s premises i n o rder t o p r o t e c t and n o u r i s h them. For a long t i m e , the Church conce i ved i t s e l f more or l e s s i n t h i s way, as a k ind of s ac red v e s s e l or r e c e p t a c l e possessed of s a v i n g r e s o u r c e s not a v a i l a b l e , or at l e a s t not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , beyond i t s v i s i b l e c i r c u m f e r e n c e . The m i s s i on of t h i s Church was t o extend i t s un ique r i c h e s t o a l l men by l a b o r i n g t o c o n t a i n a l1 men." 1 3 From the s t a n d p o i n t of the Church, t h e n , the wor ld was d i v i d e d i n t o two a n t i t h e t i c a l r e l i g i o u s camps — one composed of peop le who f o l l o w e d i t s t e a c h i n g s and one composed of peop le who d i d not — camps between which t h e r e c o u l d be no e q u a l i t y . The duty of m i s s i o n a r i e s was t o s e r ve as a human b r i d g e between them, not i n o rder t o f a c i l i t a t e a common sea rch f o r new l e v e l s of f r a t e r n i t y and s a n c t i t y but i n o rder t o e f f e c t the u n c o n d i t i o n a l c o n v e r s i o n of one p a r t y . The end t o which a l l m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y was 14 d i r e c t e d was the s a l v a t i o n of s o u l s from the man i fo ld m i s e r i e s which were thought t o beset them i n the here and now and, i t was f e a r e d , i n the h e r e a f t e r . It was the f a t e awa i t i n g t h e i r ho s t s i n death r a t h e r than i n l i f e which was of p r imary concern t o m i s s i o n a r i e s , f o r w h i l e the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s who were i n v i n c i b l y i gnoran t of the Church but i m p l i c i t l y wished t o be long to i t was not c o n s i d e r e d t o be an i m p o s s i b i l i t y , n e i t h e r was i t c o n s i d e r e d to be a c e r t a i n t y . As P i u s XI I , w r i t i n g i n 1943, ob se rved , t h e i r s was a " s t a t e i n which they cannot be su re of t h e i r s a l v a t i o n . For even though by an unconsc ious d e s i r e and l ong ing they have a c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p with the M y s t i c a l Body of the Redeemer, they s t i l l remain d e p r i v e d of those many heaven ly g i f t s and h e l p s which can on l y be enjoyed i n the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . " 1 * Una ided , t h e i r p r o s p e c t s were n o t , i n sum, regarded as r o s y . The sna re s of Satan were, i n f a c t , d e t e c t e d at every t u r n , i n t e n s i f y i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n s between m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r h o s t s . It was h i s domin ion, both a c t u a l and p o t e n t i a l , which m i s s i o n a r i e s b e l i e v e d themse lves t o be e rod ing when they p roc l a imed t h e g o s p e l . "Perhaps you may laugh t h a t I dare exhor t you t o embrace the l i f e of the f o r e i g n m i s s i o n s , " wrote one. "Laugh i f you w i sh , but remember t h a t the d e v i l a l s o w i l l laugh i f C a t h o l i c p r i e s t s do not go t h e r e . Laugh i f you w i sh , but the day w i l l come when you w i l l see these i d o l a t e r s weeping e t e r n a l t e a r s . " 1 0 15 "Oaze on the se m i s e r a b l e s avages , " wrote a n o t h e r , " s c a t t e r e d over the p l a i n s , the spo r t of the g ro s se s t s u p e r s t i t i o n s , and i n danger of be ing p r e c i p i t a t e d i n t o the abyss of H e l l , where f o r a l l e t e r n i t y , the E v i l One r e i g n s s u p r e m e ! " 1 * In an e n c y c l i c a l t o the b i shop s of L a t i n Amer i ca , i s s u e d i n 1912, P i u s X c a l l e d f o r an i n c r e a s e i n m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y i n o rder t o " d e l i v e r the Ind ians , where t h e i r need i s g r e a t e s t , from the s l a v e r y of S a t a n , 1 , 1 * demons t ra t ing tha t the t h r e a t he posed was taken s e r i o u s l y at the c e n t r e as we l l as on the f r i n g e s of the Church. Aga in s t t h i s backdrop, i t i s not t o be wondered at t ha t m i s s i o n a r i e s saw l i t t l e t o admire i n t h e i r ho s t s and much t o compass ionate. S i n c e communication between the " c h i l d r e n of l i g h t " and the " c h i l d r e n of d a r k n e s s " 1 0 was c o n f i n e d t o an e x p o s i t i o n of the p e r f e c t i o n of the f o r m e r ' s c reed and the de l i nquency of the l e t t e r ' s , and s i n c e t h i s e x e r c i s e had no o ther p o i n t than t o i n c r e a s e the ranks of the f a i t h f u l and dec rease the ranks of the f a i t h l e s s , the p r o c e s s by which the gospel was spread assumed the complex ion of a m i l i t a r y o p e r a t i o n . M i s s i o n a r i e s looked upon themse lves and were looked upon by t h e i r a p o l o g i s t s as v a l i a n t s o l d i e r s whose m i s s i on c o n s i s t e d of conquer ing and, t h u s , s a v i n g a l l who d i d not acknowledge the Church as t h e i r mother. M a r t i a l a n a l o g i e s abounded. In the p a s s i o n a t e words of B ishop P a t r i c k Donahue of Wheel ing: "an o rder has gone f o r t h to us , and w i l l go from t h i s n i g h t , 'Forward the L i g h t B r i g a d e ! ' And we know when we cha rge , 16 even t o our d e a t h , t ha t no one has b lundered . . . , f o r the order was g i ven and i s a s t a n d i n g mandate f o r these n i ne teen c e n t u r i e s down, t o go f o r t h and c a p t u r e the f o r t r e s s e s of i n f i d e l i t y and e r r o r and s i n , and t o teach a l l n a t i o n s the f a i t h of Je su s C h r i s t . " 1 ' There was a d i s t i n c t l y i m p e r i a l i s t i c tone t o m i s s i o n a r y r h e t o r i c , complete wi th a j i n g o i s m as b e l l i c o s e as t h a t of any temporal power. The scramble f o r A f r i c a and the r i v a l r y i n h e r e n t i n t h i s e x e r c i s e was r e c r e a t e d on a g l o b a l s c a l e and over a p r o t r a c t e d p e r i o d by an army of m i s s i o n a r i e s r e s o l v e d on ex tend ing the sway of C h r i s t and h i s v i c a r t o the ends of the e a r t h i n the t e e t h of an e q u a l l y determined host of P r o t e s t a n t p r o s e l y t i z e r s . The b a t t l e c r y of R i c h a r d Sykes, P r e f e c t A p o s t o l i c of Zambesi, was not a t y p i c a l . It i s a testament t o the breadth and, s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , the narrowness of the v i s i o n of the m i s s i o n a r i e s of t h i s epoch, f i t t i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of a body wh ich , i n i t s e a r t h l y fo rm, s t y l e d i t s e l f the Church M i l i t a n t . " T h e r e i s o n l y one k ind of i m p e r i a l i s m which r e a l l y c o u n t s , " he s t a t e d , "and tha t i s the i m p e r i a l i s m of the C a t h o l i c Church; which knows no boundar ie s but the l i m i t s of the w o r l d . . . . It i s t ime tha t t h e r e was a g rea t awakening on a most momentous matter tha t w i l l not wait — t ime t h a t the c o n s c i e n c e of the whole C a t h o l i c wor ld shou ld be aroused t o the f a c t t h a t , i f t he C a t h o l i c Church w i l l not en te r i n t o i t s i n h e r i t a n c e , the s e c t s w i l l and f i l c h from 17 her tha t which i s h e r s . It i s t ime tha t the F i e r y C ro s s shou ld be c a r r i e d round the wor ld and tha t every town and v i l l a g e and c o u n t r y s i d e shou ld be summoned t o p repare i t s h o r s e , f o o t and a r t i l l e r y and move a g a i n s t the enemy, paganism, i n i t s many f o r m s . " 2 0 Thus, c e n t u r i e s a f t e r the conquest of L a t i n Amer i ca , when, a c c o r d i n g t o The C a t h o l i c  E n c y c l o p e d i a of 1911, " t h e t r iumphant march of C a s t i l e ' s banner was a l s o the g l o r i o u s advance of the s i gn of the S a v i o u r , " 2 3 m i s s i o n a r i e s marched b o l d l y i n t o s t r ange s o c i e t i e s and, condemning what they found, c a l l e d on t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s t o accept the g o s p e l . The terms drawn up by the se unarmed c o n q u i s t a d o r e s were f a r more comprehens ive than t h i s s u r render might sugges t , however, f o r the f a i t h they i n t r o d u c e d t o the peop le s i n t h e i r c a r e was s teeped i n the c u l t u r e of Europe and North America and, as a r e s u l t , was at odds w i th the e n t i r e p a t t e r n of e x i s t e n c e on which i t ob t ruded . The c u l t u r a l f a c e t of the i n e q u a l i t y m i s s i o n a r i e s deemed t o e x i s t between t h e i r ho s t s and themse lves can be t r a c e d t o t h i s f a i l u r e t o d i s t i n g u i s h the kerne l of C a t h o l i c i s m from the husk, a f a i l u r e seen i n t h e i r p r o p e n s i t y , as C a r d i n a l Stephen Kim of Seoul phrased i t , " t o r e j e c t a r b i t r a r i l y the c u l t u r e of the m i s s i on coun t r y as pagan and l e s s than human w h i l e at the same t ime imposing on c o n v e r t s , as i n t e g r a l p a r t s of f a i t h or the good news, e lements which were r e a l l y on l y a c c i d e n t a l e x p r e s s i o n s of 18 European c u l t u r e . " 2 2 If t h e Church of Rome c o n s i d e r e d i t s boundar ie s t o be coterminous wi th those of the Church as i t was d i v i n e l y conce i ved and o rda ined t o be , i t a l s o i d e n t i f i e d them wi th the expans i ve f r o n t i e r s of western c i v i l i z a t i o n , c l o s i n g the minds of m i s s i o n a r i e s t o the abundant good which was p re sen t e l sewhere i n the wor ld . As the d i s t i n g u i s h e d C a t h o l i c w r i t e r , H i l a i r e B e l l o c , put i t , " t h e F a i t h i s Europe and Europe i s the F a i t h . " 2 3 Indeed, t a k i n g t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p another s t e p , the Church p o r t r a y e d i t s e l f as the f o n t from which the c u l t u r e of Europe and North Amer ica sprang . S i n ' s handiwork a p a r t , t h e r e was no th ing which c o u l d not be s a i d t o owe i t s o r i g i n t o the gospel and, t h u s , no th ing which c o u l d not be j u s t l y d i s semina ted i n i t s name. "What i s known as 'European c i v i l i z a t i o n ' i s not a r a c i a l or n a t i o n a l but an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and C h r i s t i a n i n h e r i t a n c e and deve lopment , " an examinat ion of the p r o p r i e t y of t r a n s p l a n t i n g the c u l t u r e s of m i s s i o n a r i e s ' homelands c o n c l u d e d . "The Church i s not o c c i d e n t a l j u s t because the Occ iden t hap ly i s C h r i s t i a n . Consequent ly the Church does not need t o be d e o c c i d e n t a l i z e d i n o rder t h a t the O r i e n t be C h r i s t i a n i z e d . " 2 * Omitted from t h i s t r e a t i s e was any r e f e r e n c e t o the Churches i n communion w i th Rome, the o r i e n t a l c h a r a c t e r of which might be thought t o have p revented such e x c l u s i v e n e s s . However, U n i a t e C a t h o l i c s , who not u n t i l 1917 were g i ven a cong rega t i on — an 19 e c c l e s i a s t i c a l department of government — of t h e i r own, were c o n s i d e r e d t o be o d d i t i e s r a t h e r than adherent s of r i t e s of equal s t a t u s wi th the L a t i n r i t e . Only i n 1946, f o r example, d i d a c a r d i n a l from the E a s t , the Armenian P a t r i a r c h , make bo l d t o wear h i s n a t i v e garb i n Rome, so ent renched were the f o r c e s of a E u r o c e n t r i c c o n f o r m i t y . The d e p o s i t of f a i t h , t h e sy s temized t r u t h s which c o n s t i t u t e the e t e r n a l and u n i v e r s a l c o r e of C a t h o l i c i s m , c o u l d not be separa ted from i t s vo luminous c l o t h i n g , wi th the r e s u l t t h a t other modes of d r e s s , even i n n o n e s s e n t i a l s , were looked upon askance. The Grego r i an chant was d e s t i n e d t o r e p l a c e the beat of the tom-tom, and n o n d e s c r i p t schoo l u n i f o r m s , costumes of s i n g u l a r d e s i g n . In 1967 Adr i an H a s t i n g s , an a u t h o r i t y on t h e Church i n A f r i c a , d e s c r i b e d the l egacy of these p o l i c i e s . Of A f r i c a ' s Church , he wrote , "Her t e a c h i n g has been a lmost u n i v e r s a l l y expressed i n Western s c h o l a s t i c f o r m u l a s , her l i t u r g y has not been adapted at a l l , her churches a r e f u l l of cheap European a r t of the poore s t t y p e , her hymnology i s a h o t c h - p o t c h of popu lar me lod ie s p i c k e d up from the m i s s i o n a r i e s ' homelands, her development has been c o n s t a n t l y f e t t e r e d by the canon law and t ype s of Church s t r u c t u r e which were worked out f o r l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d Churches i n western E u r o p e . " 2 0 What i s now regarded wi th d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was once, of c o u r s e , regarded with composure. T h i s f a c t must not be he l d a ga in s t the m i s s i o n a r i e s of the p a s t , f o r they were as anx ious t o 20 u n f e t t e r t h e i r ho s t s as the m i s s i o n a r i e s of the p r e s e n t . What s e t s them apar t a re t h e i r concept s of f reedom, not t h e i r d e d i c a t i o n t o t h i s i d e a l . The d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r ho s t s took a t a n g i b l e form i n t h e m i s s i on s of t h i s epoch. G e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as the f o r e i g n m i s s i o n s , t he se e n t i t i e s were t r e a t e d l e s s as i n t e g r a l yet un ique components of the Church than as s a t e l l i t e s i n o r b i t around i t . T h e i r l i neament s were determined i n Europe and North Amer i ca , f o r , i n s o f a r as i t was f e a s i b l e , they were des i gned t o r e c r e a t e the r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l system of t h e i r f ounder s r a t h e r than permeate t h e r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l system of t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s . The c o n d i t i o n s i n which m i s s i o n a r i e s l i v e d o f t e n d i f f e r e d l i t t l e from those of t h e i r h o s t s , but t h i s was not c o n s i d e r e d t o be a sound l ong - te rm arrangement. M i s s i o n a r i e s b e l i e v e d tha t the p roce s s of r a i s i n g the peop le s i n t h e i r c a r e from so g rea t a depth to so g rea t a he i gh t was bes t accompl i shed i n e l a b o r a t e r u r a l and urban compounds, r e d o l e n t of the mores and crowded wi th the p r o d u c t s of t h e i r homelands. In these i s l a n d s of c i v i l i t y and C a t h o l i c i t y — two s i d e s , i t was m a i n t a i n e d , of a s i n g l e c o i n — the conver ted were i n s u l a t e d from the unconve r ted , s t r a i n i n g or s e v e r i n g f a m i l i a l and communal t i e s which c o u l d have been p r e s e r v e d wi th a minimum of d i s l o c a t i o n had m i s s i o n a r i e s been c o n d i t i o n e d t o be more c r i t i c a l of themse lves and l e s s c r i t i c a l of t h e i r h o s t s . 21 The advent of m i s s i o n a r i e s c o u l d , t h u s , be s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t an end as much as a b e g i n n i n g . Bapt i sm, the e n t r e e t o t h e i r w o r l d , c o n f e r r e d a new persona on i t s r e c i p i e n t s , marking a r u p t u r e between an i g n o b l e past and a nob le f u t u r e r a t h e r than a s i g n i f i c a n t s tep on a d i v i n e l y graced cont inuum. That t h i s sacrament was i m p l i c i t l y endowed wi th a much wider s i g n i f i c a n c e than i t s t h e o l o g i c a l meaning denotes i s ev i den t from the o b s e r v a t i o n s of a J e s u i t who tou red the m i s s i on s of southern A f r i c a i n the 1930s. " N a t i v e s , " he wrote , " a r e ve ry apt t o t h i n k of bapt i sm as an i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o the whi te man's l i f e , and seek i t from anyone who w i l l p r o v i d e i t and scorn those who have not got i t . " 2 * The task c o n f r o n t i n g m i s s i o n a r i e s was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d not i n terms of expanding the p o t e n t i a l i t y of an i n v i o l a b l e whole but i n terms of c o n s t r u c t i n g new men and women. M i s s i o n s were the l a b o r a t o r i e s i n which t h i s p r o b l e m a t i c p roce s s took p l a c e . David Ratermann, who, i n 1956, j o i n e d two c o l l e a g u e s i n found ing the f i r s t m i s s i on i n L a t i n America t o be sponsored by an American d i o c e s e , was one of the many m i s s i o n a r i e s who sought t o mould t h e i r ho s t s i n t h e i r image. "I thought of the church i n the S t a t e s as be ing a p r e t t y darn good c h u r c h , v i g o r o u s , f l o u r i s h i n g , " he r e c a l l e d . "I thought of the church i n L a t i n America as be ing impover i shed and weak i n many ways. My i n i t i a l sense of d i r e c t i o n , p r i o r i t y , was t h a t I thought the church shou ld deve lop and become l i k e the church i n the Un i ted S t a t e s . . . 22 . Very h o n e s t l y I have gone 180 degrees on t h i s . It i s a b a s i c f a l l a c y t o t h i n k of the church as hav ing t o be born and deve lop i n one a rea by a p l an tha t has been the h i s t o r y of development i n ano ther . . . . I t h i n k now i t sounds awful t o say , but I t h i n k we were t r y i n g t o make North American C a t h o l i c s out of these p e o p l e . " 2 7 ' S e l f - r e p r o a c h of t h i s n a t u r e i s a p roduct of h i n d s i g h t , and so i t must be under s tood , but c r i t i c i s m of the m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y of the past i s by no means new. The e thos which generated i t was not shared by everyone. A l though t h e i r v o i c e s c a r r i e d l i t t l e weight b e f o r e the postwar e r a , t h e r e were men and women who argued tha t the u n i v e r s a l i t y the Church embodied i n p r i n c i p l e c o u l d not be r e c o n c i l e d with the p a r t i c u l a r i t y i t e x h i b i t e d i n p r a c t i c e . What they saw as the n e g a t i v e consequences of p r e s e n t i n g the gospel i n a European and North American form were p o i n t e d out . One a r t i c l e , f o r example, e s t a b l i s h e d a t r e n c h a n t connec t i on between the n a t i o n a l i s t i c q u a l i t y of m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y and the modest r e s u l t s , q u a n t i t a t i v e l y speak ing , i t was a c h i e v i n g . It was noted t h a t " q u i t e o f t e n , p r o b a b l y , i t i s not so much a c o n f l i c t between n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s on the pa r t of the persons t o be e v a n g e l i z e d and C a t h o l i c i s m t h a t o p e r a t e s t o l i m i t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of our m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s , as i t i s a c o n f l i c t between the n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s of the m i s s i o n a r i e s and of the persons t o be c o n v e r t e d . " z o A f t e r an enumerat ion of v a r i o u s i n s t a n c e s i n 23 which the f o r e i g n n e s s of the C h u r c h ' s message prevented i t s a c cep tance , i n c l u d i n g a case i n which French m i s s i o n a r i e s i n S y r i a were m o b i l i z e d t o suppres s an u p r i s i n g a ga in s t the mandatary — s e t t i n g back t h e i r work i n c a l c u l a b l y — the c o n c l u s i o n was reached t h a t "we have a European Church e x e r c i s i n g c e r t a i n spheres of i n f l u e n c e i n Ch ina — Japan, I n d i a , A f r i c a — r a t h e r than a n a t i v e C a t h o l i c Ch inese Church manned by Ch inese p r i e s t s , governed by Ch inese b i s h o p s , suppor ted by a Ch inese l a i t y . " 3 ' The p r i c e of admiss ion t o m i s s i on s was, i n d e e d , a h i gh one, demanding, as i t d i d , t h a t so much of the known be abandoned and so much of the unknown be embraced. Some d e c l i n e d t o pay t h i s p r i c e , and where, as i n C h i n a , xenophobia was s t r o n g , m i s s i on s became an o b j e c t of v i o l e n t a t t a c k s . The d i s t a n c e between m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r ho s t s was here at i t s most apparent . Others agreed t o pay t h i s p r i c e , f o r , apar t from the a t t r a c t i o n of the gospel i n and of i t s e l f , m i s s i o n s o f f e r e d a benign means of l e a r n i n g the ways of the whi te man at a t ime when the whi te man c o u l d not be w i t h s t o o d . The d i s t a n c e between m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r ho s t s was here at i t s l e a s t apparent . Y e t , i t e x i s t e d . As long as m i s s i o n s were run from top t o bottom by European and North American C a t h o l i c s , c o n v e r t s c o u l d on l y f e e l c omp le te l y at home i n them by becoming European and North American C a t h o l i c s , and, w i thout e x c e p t i o n a l i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e s o u r c e s , t h i s f e a t was beyond t h e i r power. Even 24 had they been a b l e t o overcome the d i s t i n c t i o n s which ca s t them i n the r o l e of c h i l d r e n and m i s s i o n a r i e s i n the r o l e of a d u l t s , they would have had to surmount the c o l o u r ba r . The r a c i sm e x h i b i t e d by m i s s i o n a r i e s evoked p r o t e c t i v e r a t h e r than e x p l o i t a t i v e i n s t i n c t s , but i t s e f f e c t was s e g r e g a t i v e . White and b l ack may have been c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e i n the s i g h t of God, b u t , i n many c a s e s , s e p a r a t e pews and, i n d e e d , s e p a r a t e churches were a s s i gned t o them. E q u a l i t y without a p l a c e f o r d i v e r s i t y was, i n a word, i l l u s o r y . The i n a b i l i t y of t h e i r ho s t s t o emulate them f u l l y j u s t i f i e d m i s s i o n a r i e s i n m a i n t a i n i n g themse lves i n p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y long a f t e r s e l f - r e l i a n t churches shou ld have begun t o c o a l e s c e . It i s remarkab le tha t t h e r e were as many n a t i v e p r i e s t s as t h e r e were i n t h i s epoch, f o r wh i l e the importance of forming an i nd i genous c l e r g y was u n d i s p u t e d , m i s s i o n a r i e s saw t h i s as a l eng thy p r o c e s s i n which they would ho ld a dominant p l a c e f o r an i n d e f i n i t e number of y e a r s . "As f a r as p o s s i b l e , " Wanna s t a t e d , " t h e young a s p i r a n t s t o the p r i e s t h o o d i n the m i s s i on s a re chosen from f a m i l i e s t h a t have two or t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s of C a t h o l i c b lood i n t h e i r v e i n s . . . . It i s not easy t o e r a d i c a t e the po i son of so many c e n t u r i e s of paganism from the h e a r t s of the neophytes . It i s e q u a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r them t o a p p r e c i a t e and t o a c q u i r e the v i r t u e , the z e a l , t he detachment from t h e wor ld t h a t a re neces sa ry i n the 25 s a c e r d o t a l s t a t e . " 3 0 Tak ing 1921, the date t h i s work was p u b l i s h e d , as a r e f e r e n c e p o i n t , the g u i d e l i n e s Manna enunc i a ted would have d e p r i v e d a newly e v a n g e l i z e d a rea of the s e r v i c e s of a n a t i v e son u n t i l the t w e n t y - f i r s t c e n t u r y . Cand ida tes who passed muster were t y p i c a l l y g i ven s u b o r d i n a t e o c c u p a t i o n s , f u r t h e r pos tpon ing the day when they c o u l d expect t o s tand on an equal f o o t i n g with t h e i r mentors. "I know i n our t imes of an A f r i c a n major sem ina ry , " Ha s t i ng s no ted , " i n which, not so many yea r s ago, d u r i n g the canon law c o u r s e , the s e c t i o n on p a r i s h p r i e s t s was s imp ly omi t ted with the remark 'None of you w i l l ever be p a r i s h p r i e s t s ! ' Only the s e c t i o n on c u r a t e s was t o be t r e a t e d . " 3 1 So l i t t l e f a i t h d i d m i s s i o n a r i e s p l a c e i n t h e i r p ro tege s t h a t P i u s XI, who took a deep - sea ted i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r work, was moved t o c h i d e them p u b l i c l y . In an e n c y c l i c a l t o the b i shops of the w o r l d , i s sued i n 1926, he d i r e c t e d the f o l l o w i n g words t o the p r e f e c t s and v i c a r s a p o s t o l i c who, t o g e t h e r , oversaw the bulk of the C h u r c h ' s m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y : "From the f a c t t ha t the Roman P o n t i f f has e n t r u s t e d t o you and t o your a s s i s t a n t s the task of p reach ing the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n t o pagan n a t i o n s , you ought not t o conc lude tha t the r o l e of the n a t i v e c l e r g y i s merely one of a s s i s t i n g the m i s s i o n a r i e s i n minor ma t te r s , of merely f o l l o w i n g up and comp le t ing t h e i r work. . . . How can the Church among the heathens be deve loped today u n l e s s i t 26 be b u i l t of those very e lements out of which our own churches were b u i l t ; t ha t i s t o say , u n l e s s i t be made up of p e o p l e , c l e r g y , and r e l i g i o u s o r d e r s of men and women r e c r u i t e d from the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n s of the s e v e r a l r e g i o n s ? Why shou ld the n a t i v e c l e r g y be f o r b i d d e n t o c u l t i v a t e t h e i r own p o r t i o n of the L o r d ' s v i n e y a r d , be f o r b i d d e n t o govern t h e i r own p e o p l e ? " 3 3 Thanks t o s t r o n g l y worded r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of t h i s k i n d , m i s s i o n a r i e s g r u d g i n g l y began t o cede a u t h o r i t y t o t h e i r a u x i l i a r i e s . When, f o r example, P i u s XI wished t o e l e v a t e n a t i v e s t o the Ch inese e p i s c o p a t e , the c o u n t r y ' s p r i n c i p a l m i s s i o n a r i e s in formed h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e tha t no one was q u a l i f i e d to f i l l t h i s o f f i c e , but when p r e s s e d , they found s i x men who, i n 1926, were c o n s e c r a t e d i n S t . P e t e r ' s B a s i l i c a , u n d e r s c o r i n g t h e i r new autonomy. Such s t e p s , however, on l y addressed a symptom, a l b e i t an important one, of the a p o t h e o s i s of the r e l g i o c u l t u r a l system m i s s i o n a r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d . A comprehens ive cour se of t reatment was not deemed neces sa ry u n t i l the postwar e r a . In 1945, on the eve of Indian independence and the p r o c e s s of d e c o l o n i z a t i o n i t se t i n t r a i n , Archb i shop Thomas Robert s of Bombay d e c l a r e d tha t the " r ep roach must be removed t h a t C h r i s t i a n i t y i n I nd ia i s not on l y of Western o r i g i n , but a Western t h i n g i n i t s ve ry c o m p o s i t i o n , i n i t s e s s e n c e . " 3 3 It was, i n f a c t , on l y at the e l e v e n t h hour , when m i s s i o n a r i e s saw t h a t power was about t o pass from the 27 hands of t h e i r countrymen t o the hands of t h e i r h o s t s , t h a t they began t o r e - e v a l u a t e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the peop le s i n t h e i r c a r e , opening t h e i r ea r s t o v o i c e s o ther than t h e i r own. T h i s change was not c o n f i n e d t o c o l o n i a l a r e a s , f o r i t re sona ted at the c l o s e of the 1960s i n L a t i n Amer i ca , where, i n a con tex t of f a l l i n g American p r e s t i g e , the Church m i s s i o n a r i e s had come t o r e v i v i f y a s s e r t e d i t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . P l u r a l i s m , long frowned upon, came t o be seen at the lowest and the h i ghe s t e c c l e s i a s t i c a l l e v e l as a v i t a l component of a C h r i s t i a n o r d e r , though the ques t i on of how much v a r i e t y i s opt ima l c o n t i n u e s t o be debated. These developments w i l l be e x p l o r e d i n the second h a l f of t h i s t h e s i s , but they a re touched on here t o i l l u s t r a t e the important p a r t the S t a t e has p l ayed i n shap ing the e thos of m i s s i o n a r i e s . The empires i n whose shadows they s tood were regarded not on l y as a concomitant of the dominion they were f o r g i n g , but as a l e g i t i m a t i o n of i t . The S t a t e as we l l as the Church p roc l a imed the i n e q u a l i t y of the wor lds t o which m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r ho s t s be longed , f o r both bod ie s assumed and e x e r c i s e d the r i g h t t o push the f r o n t i e r s of western c i v i l i z a t i o n outward, r e g a r d l e s s of the l o s s of i d e n t i t y i t e n t a i l e d f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s who f e l l w i t h i n t h e i r ambit . The s a n c t i o n of t h e S t a t e was more potent than t h i s , however, f o r wh i l e r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s c o u l d on l y ask tha t they be g i ven f r e e r e i n i n f o r e i g n l a n d s , s e c u l a r l e a d e r s c o u l d demand i t . U n t i l the p r o t e c t i v e carapace of 28 Europe and North America c rumbled , m i s s i o n a r i e s had l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e t o be any th ing o ther than what they were at home. The g l o b a l e x t e n s i o n of European and North American i n f l u e n c e i n the l a s t y e a r s of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and the f i r s t y e a r s of the t w e n t i e t h was, t h u s , an unprecedented v a l i d a t i o n of and f o u n d a t i o n f o r m i s s i o n a r i e s ' r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l chauv in i sm. In the age of i m p e r i a l i s m , an e r a secure i n the c o n v i c t i o n tha t " g rea t empires a re as much a n e c e s s i t y of our t ime as a re huge m e r c a n t i l e c o m p a n i e s " 3 * , the n o t i o n tha t one shoe c o u l d and shou ld f i t everyone, no matter what t h e i r r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l measurements, appeared more r e a l i s t i c than ever b e f o r e . The u n i t y of the Roman Empi re , so conduc i ve t o the spread of C h r i s t i a n i t y , seemed to f i n d a new i n c a r n a t i o n as independent peop le s were sub juga ted , i n a c c e s s i b l e l ands were p e n e t r a t e d and s t r i p p e d of t h e i r mys tery , and s o c i e t i e s , long c l o s e d t o f o r e i g n e r s , were shaken to t h e i r f o u n d a t i o n s . P rov ided they took p l a c e i n a l o o s e l y C h r i s t i a n atmosphere, these events were welcomed by m i s s i o n a r i e s , who saw i n them the p r e l u d e t o t h e m a t e r i a l and s p i r i t u a l r e g e n e r a t i o n of the wor ld . If t he whi te man was k i n g , so , p e r f o r c e , was the C h r i s t i a n . Even the C h u r c h ' s o l d e s t enemy appeared t o be i n d i s a r r a y i n the i n te rwar y e a r s . "Take Is lamism — once so f e a r e d and so t h r e a t e n i n g , " ma rve l l ed A lexandre Le Roy, s u p e r i o r genera l of the Holy Ghost F a t h e r s . "Wounded and weakened i n the person of the Great Turk , i t has l o s t i t s supremacy over 29 T r i p o l i , Egypt , the I s l ands of the Aegean Sea, P a l e s t i n e , Mesopotamia, S y r i a , and Armenia. C o n s t a n t i n o p l e i t s e l f w i l l perhaps become the common p r o p e r t y of C h r i s t i a n powers. Th ings tha t our f a t h e r s would never have dreamed of coming t o pa s s , we see happening b e f o r e our ve ry eyes . T h e r e f o r e , we can say with S t . P a u l , A g rea t door has been opened f o r  the Gospel of C h r i s t . " 3 0 The equa t i on of the demise of the Ottoman Empire with the demise of Islam was symptomatic of a genera l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p o l i t i c a l and r e l i g i o u s paramountcy. The un ion of Church and S t a t e — t y p i f i e d by the r e a l p a t rona to  de l a s Ind ias — which had d i s t i n g u i s h e d the f i r s t s tage of European expans ion was a t h i n g of the p a s t , but the t i e s u n i t i n g m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r homelands 1 1 agents con t inued to be s t r o n g . In the words of Heinz G o l l w i t z e r : " M i s s i o n a r y h i s t o r y — e s p e c i a l l y i n the Far East but a l s o i n A f r i c a and o ther non-European a reas — o f f e r s numerous examples of a community of i n t e r e s t s and a c t i o n between m i s s i on s of a l l f a i t h s and the i m p e r i a l i s t p o l i c i e s of the European s t a t e s . " 3 * Whi le m i s s i o n a r i e s d i d not a lways see eye t o eye wi th t h e i r countrymen and w h i l e they were prepared t o c r o s s swords with them on beha l f of the peop le s i n t h e i r c a r e , t h e r e was an awareness on the pa r t of each p a r t y t h a t , o v e r a l l , they had more i n common than n o t , an awareness t h a t even when t h e i r i n t e r e s t s d i d not o v e r l a p , the same f l a g f l e w above t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s and the same God watched over 30 t h e i r d e s i g n s . M i s s i o n a r i e s viewed themse lves as the guard i ans of a l l t ha t was worthy i n the march of Europe and North Amer ica t o g r e a t n e s s , and though many of t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s would have accorded them a l e s s e x a l t e d p l a c e i n t h i s movement, few would have a t t ached no va l ue t o t h e i r p re sence . C h a r l e s L a v i g e r i e , founder of the White F a t h e r s , who ro se t o the rank of P r imate of A f r i c a , t o l d h i s m i s s i o n a r i e s tha t they were working both f o r the Church and f o r F r a n c e , one of many p a t r i o t i c u t t e r a n c e s which found a f i t t i n g answer i n Leon Sambet ta ' s d e c l a r a t i o n tha t " a n t i - c l e r i c a l i s m , Mons ignor, i s f o r F r a n c e ; i t i s n ' t f o r e x p o r t . " 3 ' 7 I n s tances of t h i s meeting of minds abounded, u n d e r s c o r i n g the f a c t t h a t m i s s i o n a r i e s saw t h e i r n a t u r a l p a r t n e r s not i n t h e i r h o s t s but i n t h e i r countrymen. An o f f i c i a l of the Church of S c o t l a n d devoted an e n t i r e volume to the b l e s s i n g s c o n f e r r e d by m i s s i on s on the B r i t i s h Empire and to the s e r v i c e s rendered t o them by i t i n r e t u r n . Without m i s s i o n s , he wrote , "how changed the Empire on which we l ook ! It s h r i n k s i n ve ry a r e a . Uganda, Nyasaland and many another s m a l l e r l a n d , drop from out the map. They a r e now c o l o u r e d o ther than r e d , f o r they a re not B r i t i s h . M i s s i o n s brought them i n , and i f m i s s i on s van i sh so a l s o do t h e i r v a lued d o w r i e s . " 3 ' 9 C o n v e r s e l y , "no chaos , caused by war r ing t r i b e s , has been s u f f e r e d t o e x t i n g u i s h i n any E m p i r e - a r e a t h e l i g h t of the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n . The Pax 31 B r i t a n n i c a has he lped the on-coming of the Pax C h r i s t i . " 3 * y In the same v e i n , Germany's a c q u i s i t i o n of C h i n a ' s Kiaochow Bay i n 1898 was a source of immense s a t i s f a c t i o n t o m i s s i o n a r i e s and governmental o f f i c i a l s a l i k e . In a d d i t i o n t o " the genera l f u r t h e r i n g of our p o l i t i c a l and economic i n t e r e s t i n Eas t A s i a " a ch ieved through t h i s demarche, the Re i ch s t ag was i n f o r m e d , "we a re bound t o t ake very s e r i o u s note of the f a c t t ha t the head of these m i s s i on s B ishop Anzer t e l l s us i n uncompromising f a s h i o n t h a t our occupa t i on of K i ao - chao i s a matter of l i f e and death not on l y f o r the p r o s p e r i t y but f o r the con t i nued e x i s t e n c e of the Ch ina m i s s i o n . " * 0 I t a l y ' s conquest of E t h i o p i a , the l a s t b l a c k - r u l e d s t a t e , e x c e p t i n g L i b e r i a , i n A f r i c a , i n 1936 saw a s i m i l a r harmony of i n t e r e s t s . C a r d i n a l A l f r e d o Schus ter of M i l an was not a l one i n r e j o i c i n g t h a t " t h e I t a l i a n s tandard c a r r i e s forward i n t r iumph the C ro s s of C h r i s t , smashes the c h a i n s of s l a v e r y , and opens the way f o r the m i s s i o n a r i e s of the g o s p e l . " ' * 1 It was i n ca ses such as these t h a t r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l i n e q u a l i t y found f u l l measure. L a t i n American Aspec t s of R e l i g i o c u l t u r a l I n e q u a l i t y It might be thought t h a t L a t i n America would have been t r e a t e d i n a markedly d i f f e r e n t way than A f r i c a , A s i a , and Ocean i a , thanks t o i t s long exposure t o C a t h o l i c i s m and the c i v i l i z a t i o n with which t h i s f a i t h was i n t e r t w i n e d . The p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n which, f o r c e n t u r i e s , the Church enjoyed i n the c o l o n i e s and, l a t e r , i n the r e p u b l i c s of t h i s pa r t of 32 the wor ld might be assumed to have s h i e l d e d t h e i r i n h a b i t a n t s from the u n f a v o u r a b l e compar i sons m i s s i o n a r i e s drew between themse lves and t h e i r ho s t s i n o ther l and s . U n t i l 1908, a f t e r a l l , Great B r i t a i n and t h e Un i ted S t a t e s , the dominant powers i n the Western Hemisphere, were s u b j e c t t o the Congrega t ion f o r the P ropaga t i on of the F a i t h and, t h u s , j u r i d i c a l l y , were m i s s i o n a r y t e r r i t o r i e s , whereas L a t i n Amer i ca , wi th the e x c e p t i o n of c e r t a i n r e g i o n s , was a f u l l - f l e d g e d element w i t h i n the s u p r a n a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the Church. Ye t , wh i l e the g e n e r a l i t y of L a t i n Americans were not regarded as ou t - and -ou t pagans, n e i t h e r were they regarded as ou t - and -ou t C h r i s t i a n s . Whi le they were t e c h n i c a l l y C a t h o l i c and, by the second quar te r of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , t e c h n i c a l l y s o v e r e i g n — George C a n n i n g ' s boast t ha t " Span i sh America i s f r e e and i f we do not mismanage our a f f a i r s s a d l y she i s E n g l i s h " * z bear s remembering — they d e v i a t e d s h a r p l y from European and North American r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l norms. M i s s i o n a r i e s were c o n f r o n t e d wi th i n d i v i d u a l s who d i f f e r e d from them not on l y i n appearance and i n t a s t e but i n the v a l u e s and mores which governed t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th one another and i n the b e l i e f s and p r a c t i c e s which governed t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with God. S i n c e what was c o n s i d e r e d t o be d i f f e r e n t i n t h i s epoch was c o n s i d e r e d t o be f l a w e d , L a t i n Americans were added t o the l i s t of peop le s who needed t o be r e c a s t on European and North American l i n e s . 33 The f a c t t ha t a l a ck of i nd i genous e c c l e s i a s t i c a l personne l n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e i r p re sence was f o r m i s s i o n a r i e s an i l l - o m e n , and what they found on a r r i v i n g i n L a t i n America con f i rmed t h e i r f o r e b o d i n g s . In t h e i r d i s t a s t e f o r and d i s t r u s t of d i v e r s i t y , they were quick t o take e x c e p t i o n t o and s low t o make a l l owances f o r a wide range of phenomena, from the e c l e c t i c d e v o t i o n s which took the p l a c e of formal observances t o the compromi sos which took the p l a c e of o f f i c i a l l y s a n c t i o n e d mar r i ages . The r e a c t i o n of a French churchman t o the r e l i g i o s i t y he encountered i n Mexico i s i l l u s t r a t i v e of t h i s p o s t u r e . "The m y s t e r i e s of the M idd le Ages a re u t t e r l y outdone by the b u r l e s q u e ceremonies of the Mex i can s , " he wrote i n an account wh ich , among o ther t h i n g s , d e p l o r e d the custom of danc ing w i t h i n church w a l l s . "The accouchement of the V i r g i n on Chr i s tmas n i gh t appears t o me as i n d e c e n t . In F rance the p o l i c e would f o r b i d the ceremony as a shock t o p u b l i c mora l s . But p u b l i c m o r a l i t y be ing a t h i n g unknown i n Mex ico , the custom of r e p r e s e n t i n g the accouchement of the V i r g i n i n many of the churches o f f e n d s no o n e . " - * 3 To be a c c u r a t e , the m o r a l i t y of F rance was unknown i n Mex ico, but because what was a c c e p t a b l e and unaccep tab le i n Europe and North America was u n i v e r s a l i z e d , Mexicans c o u l d be l e g i t i m a t e l y found d e f i c i e n t . It was unusual f o r c r i t i q u e s t o reach the p o i n t of denying L a t i n Americans as a whole, as opposed t o p o r t i o n s of i t s Indian p o p u l a t i o n , a l l marks of membership i n the C a t h o l i c f o l d , 34 though v iews of the k ind expres sed by an American m i s s i o n a r y i n Cuba, who s t a t e d tha t " t h e Cubans have no r e l i g i o n , and the Church i n Cuba i s d e a d " * * were not unknown. P r o t e s t a n t s , c a s t i n g themse lves as South Amer icans , might a s s e r t t h a t "we a r e as d e s t i t u t e of s p i r i t u a l , s a v i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y as those who have never heard the Gospel message of s a l v a t i o n , " * ® but C a t h o l i c s were not p repared t o cons i gn a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the C h u r c h ' s adherent s t o a v o i d i n which i r r e l i g i o u s and h e r e t i c a l f o r c e s would be f r e e t o c l a i m them as t h e i r own. There was more than ample work t o be done as i t was, so broad was the d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r ho s t s c o n s i d e r e d t o be. The p o s i t i o n occup ied by each p a r t y , as d e f i n e d by the f o rmer , w i l l now be examined i n t u r n . In pos t independent L a t i n Amer i ca , a p a r t of the wor ld which found i t s e l f h e a v i l y r e l i a n t f i r s t on Great B r i t a i n and then on the Un i ted S t a t e s , m i s s i o n a r i e s were as con ten t as t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n c o l o n i a l a reas t o i d e n t i f y themse lves wi th a non ind igenous power. At the t u r n of the c e n t u r y , the Amer icans among them, f l a n k e d by p i o u s i m p e r i a l i s t s , regarded t h e i r c o u n t r y ' s growing might with unconcea led p l e a s u r e . God, i n t h e i r e y e s , had g i ven the Un i ted S t a t e s a m i s s i on t o r e v i t a l i z e the w o r l d , and the b e n e f i c e n t s t r e n g t h i t had been g ranted t o f u l f i l l t h i s task would s t r a i g h t e n t h e i r path as they i n f u s e d l e s s f o r t u n a t e peop le s wi th the a f f l a t u s of " t h e E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g r a c e . " * * T h i s term — 35 p r e f e r a b l e , from a C a t h o l i c p o i n t of v iew, t o tha t of Anglo-Saxon — was employed by Archb i shop W i l l i a m O ' C o n n e l l of Boston i n an addres s which demonstrated h i s C h u r c h ' s r e s o l u t i o n t o spread i t s wings. "The p r o v i d e n t i a l hour of o p p o r t u n i t y has s t r u c k , " he t o l d the F i r s t American C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a r y Congress i n 1908. "We must be up and do ing . . . Our coun t r y has a l r e a d y reached out beyond her boundar ie s and i s s t r i v i n g t o do a work of e x t e n s i o n of American c i v i c i d e a l s f o r o ther p e o p l e s . S h a l l i t be s a i d t h a t the Church i n t h i s l and has been o u t s t r i p p e d i n z e a l and energy by the c i v i l power under which we l i v e ? " * 7 ' These words were echoed by an o f f i c i a l of the C a t h o l i c Church E x t e n s i o n S o c i e t y , who urged h i s c o r e l i g i o n i s t s t o "put American methods of r a p i d and powerfu l development i n t o the u p b u i l d i n g of our own Church i n North Amer i ca , i n the P h i l i p p i n e s , and i n Cuba, and then i n t o a l l of the w o r l d , r e a l i z i n g , undoubted ly , God ' s p l an i n c a l l i n g so sudden ly i n t o e x i s t e n c e t h i s new Nat ion and equ ipp ing i t wi th i t s marvelous means of shedding l i g h t and i n f l u e n c e over a l l t he w o r l d . ' " * 0 These were heady days , days of seeming ly l i m i t l e s s p o s s i b i l i t i e s , and m i s s i o n a r i e s , g a l v a n i z e d by such f l i g h t s of r h e t o r i c , se t f o r t h i n the b e l i e f t h a t , as Amer icans , they had no peer . Accommodation, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n L a t i n Amer i ca , a p l a c e the Un i ted S t a t e s f a n c i e d as i t s back y a r d , was out of the ques t i on. As the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y u n f o l d e d , the s t i c k Theodore 36 Rooseve l t and h i s g e n e r a t i o n had w ie lded wi th such gusto was used with i n c r e a s i n g c i r c u m s p e c t i o n , and m i s s i o n a r i e s , no longer preceded by t h e Mar ine Corp s , mastered t h e i r exuberance. N e v e r t h e l e s s , a s t r ong a f f i n i t y c o u l d be found among Amer icans wi th a s t ake i n L a t i n Amer i ca , whether they r e p r e s e n t e d the Church , the government, or p r i v a t e e n t e r p r i s e . M i s s i o n a r i e s were s u p p o r t i v e of Wash ington ' s hemi spher i c p o l i c i e s and e v a l u a t e d the r o l e of American c a p i t a l i n t h i s p a r t of the wor ld i n p o s i t i v e terms. C r i t i c i s m was u s u a l l y r e s e r v e d f o r the p a s t , s e r v i n g as a f o i l t o a r o sy p resent and a f u t u r e f i l l e d wi th even g r e a t e r promise . As Ge ra l d C o s t e l l o no tes i n h i s c h r o n i c l e of American m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y i n L a t i n Amer i ca , " t h e p a t r i o t i c z e a l of the U. S. m i s s i o n e r s c o l o r e d t h e i r e n t i r e m i s s i on approach. They were, as more than one commentator has ob se rved , b r i n g i n g t h e i r Americanism wi th them as much as — perhaps more than — t h e i r C h r i s t i a n i t y . " * " " T h i s u n i t y was e s p e c i a l l y apparent i n the r e a c t i o n of Church and S t a t e t o t h e Cuban R e v o l u t i o n . In F i d e l C a s t r o , both p e r c e i v e d a s e r i o u s menace which would, they f e a r e d , d e s t a b i l i z e L a t i n America by i m p e r i l l i n g t h e i r a l l i e s and c o r e l i g i o n i s t s . Communism was a common enemy, and i t was t o h a l t i t s spread and r e d r e s s the sy s temic weaknesses which l a y beh ind i t t ha t they embraced the c o u n t r i e s of L a t i n America wi th an unwonted s o l i c i t u d e . The v o i c e s demanding an e q u i t a b l e a l l o t m e n t of weal th 37 and power i n L a t i n Amer i ca , buoyed by a t i d e which had momentar i ly swept the m i l i t a r y out of a l l but a handfu l of p r e s i d e n t i a l p a l a c e s , c o u l d not be d i s r e g a r d e d . The f a i l u r e of L a t i n A m e r i c a ' s i n s t i t u t i o n s — the Church among them t o meet the needs and ma in t a i n the a l l e g i a n c e of t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s was e q u a l l y obv i ou s . What c r e a t e d the g r e a t e s t a n x i e t y i n e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and governmental c i r c l e s , however, was not the source of t h i s t u r b u l e n c e but i t s p o t e n t i a l consequences . The p a r a l l e l s between the p o s i t i o n each p a r t y adopted a re s t r o n g , as the s ta tements of two C a t h o l i c s demonstrate. The f i r s t comes from John Kennedy who, i n a message t o Congress , warned tha t " i f we a re u n w i l l i n g t o commit our r e s o u r c e s and energy t o the task of s o c i a l p rog re s s and economic development — then we f a c e a grave and imminent danger tha t de spe ra te peop le s w i l l t u r n t o communism or o ther forms of t y ranny as t h e i r on l y hope f o r change. Wei 1 - o r g a n i z e d , s k i l l f u l , and s t r o n g l y f i n a n c e d f o r c e s a re c o n s t a n t l y u r g i n g them t o take t h i s c o u r s e . , , a s o The second comes from A idan C a r r , an e d i t o r of The H o m i l e t i c  and P a s t o r a l Review, who a l e r t e d h i s c o r e l i g i o n i s t s t o the f a c t t ha t "w i th the sharp t h r u s t by Communism f o r dominat ion i n the l ands t o the s o u t h , and with the vas t r e s o u r c e s of American P r o t e s t a n t i s m be ing poured i n t o i t s ' m i s s i o n s , ' t h e r e i s a s tunn ing c h a l l e n g e t o the Church i n the U.S. t o extend i t s p re sen t e f f o r t s f a r beyond t h e i r p resent l i m i t . More manpower and more money must be put t o work i n South 38 and C e n t r a l Amer ica . That i s , i f we a re r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p r e s e r v i n g (and deepening) the F a i t h (and democracy v s . t o t a l i t a r i a n atheism) t h e r e . " 6 5 1 Sent iments such as the se took c o n c r e t e form i n p l a n s of equal magnitude and equal i mpract i c a l i t y . In 1961 the A l l i a n c e f o r P r o g r e s s , an amb i t i ou s i n t e r - A m e r i c a n programme of soc ioeconomic development p r e d i c a t e d on u n p a l a t a b l e and, t h e r e f o r e , q u i c k l y emasculated re fo rms was f o r g e d . Addres s ing a group of L a t i n American d i p l o m a t s , Kennedy c a l l e d f o r "a vas t new 10-year p l an f o r the Amer icas , a p l an t o t r an s fo rm the 1960's i n t o an h i s t o r i c decade of democra t i c p r o g r e s s . " 5 5 2 On August 17, the day on which the c h a r t e r e s t a b l i s h i n g the A l l i a n c e was s i g n e d , Ago s t i no C a s a r o l i , speak ing at a g a t h e r i n g of American r e l i g i o u s on beha l f of the P o n t i f i c a l Commission f o r L a t i n Amer i ca , l i k w i s e proposed the adop t i on of "a g reat Ten-Year P l an of a i d t o L a t i n Amer i ca , by means of per sonne l and of f o u n d a t i o n s . " 5 5 3 If executed i n a f e r v e n t f a s h i o n , new l i f e , i t was a n t i c i p a t e d , would be b rea thed i n t o the Church i n t h i s pa r t of the wor ld . I t s g r e a t e s t hand i cap , a c h r o n i c sho r tage of p r i e s t s , would be overcome, e n a b l i n g i t t o p r e s e r v e i t s endangered patr imony u n t i l a s u f f i c i e n t number of L a t i n Americans c o u l d be found t o c a r r y out i t s work. It was not long b e f o r e a s tream of North American m i s s i o n a r i e s — C a s a r o l i d e l i v e r e d h i s speech i n Canada on August 22 — r o l l e d southward, m ing l i n g wi th the spa te 39 c a l l e d f o r t h by the A l l i a n c e . The Church even had a Peace Corps , an o r g a n i z a t i o n formed i n 1960 and known as the Papal V o l u n t e e r s f o r L a t i n Amer ica . It was d i f f i c u l t f o r L a t i n Americans t o d i s t i n g u i s h one se t of f o r e i g n e r s from ano ther . In a c r i t i q u e of American m i s s i o n a r y invo lvement i n L a t i n Amer i ca , Ivan I l l i c h , a c l e r i c a l en fant t e r r i b l e , condemned t h i s i n t i m a c y , c o n c l u d i n g t h a t " the U. S. m i s s i o n e r tends t o f u l f i l l the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of a c o l o n i a l power ' s l a c k e y c h a p l a i n . " 0 - * I l l i c h ' s words, which appeared i n 1967, c r e a t e d a f u r o r e , bu t , on r e f l e c t i o n , many m i s s i o n a r i e s came to r e c o g n i z e tha t they were not devo id of t r u t h . In adher ing t o North A m e r i c a ' s r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l norms t o the e x c l u s i o n of L a t i n A m e r i c a ' s , m i s s i o n a r i e s threw themse lves open t o a s y m b i o t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r countrymen r a t h e r than wi th t h e i r h o s t s , i n c r e a s i n g the power of the former and d e c r e a s i n g the power of the l a t t e r t o promote t h e i r p e c u l i a r i n t e r e s t s . As long as m i s s i o n a r i e s were conv inced tha t what was good enough f o r North America was good enough f o r L a t i n Amer i ca , a meaningfu l exchange between themse lves and t h e i r hos t s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be un impor tant . The p r a c t i c e of g i v i n g wi thout r e c e i v i n g , however, meant tha t the best of i n t e n t i o n s were not accompanied by t h e . bes t of unde r s t and ing . The m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y of t h i s epoch was by no means w i thout p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s , b u t , more o f t e n than n o t , i t s impact was b lun ted by an i gnorance of L a t i n American 40 r e a l i t i e s . For one t h i n g , m i s s i o n a r i e s f a i l e d t o a t tune themse lves t o the c a p a c i t i e s of t h e i r h o s t s . L o u i s C a i s s i e , a p r i e s t of the A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x , who served i n Peru from 1968 t o 1972, w i tnessed the d i s c r e p a n c y between the r e s o u r c e s at t h e d i s p o s a l of North Americans and L a t i n Americans on v i s i t i n g m i s s i o n s of an o l d e r v i n t a g e than h i s own. "We were a b l e t o observe what had happened i n some of the m i s s i on s i n o ther a reas tha t had been e s t a b l i s h e d by some of the American groups . . . wi th l a r g e s c h o o l s , l a r g e medica l c l i n i c s , and l a r g e r e c t o r i e s and conven t s , and so k ind of c r e a t e d a new American i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , " he r e c a l l s . "They accompl i shed marve l l ou s t h i n g s f o r the peop le b u t , at the same t i m e , a l i e n a t e d them from t h e i r own p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I can remember going t o one p l a c e i n T r u j i l l o . . . and r e f l e c t i n g tha t the Pe ruv i an s i n tha t p a r t i c u l a r p a r i s h c o u l d n ' t p o s s i b l y a f f o r d even t o change the l i g h t bu lb s i n t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s . They became t o t a l l y dependent on American m o n e y . " O D For another t h i n g , m i s s i o n a r i e s f a i l e d t o a t tune themse lves t o the wants of t h e i r h o s t s . From Zelma L e B l a n c , a S i s t e r of C h a r i t y , who has made Peru her home s i n c e 1969, comes an example of the s i n c e r e b u t , because i t was i l l - i n f o r m e d , m i sp laced concern which c o u l d be ev inced f o r L a t i n Amer icans . A d e c i s i o n was made i n one d i s t r i c t t o c o n s t r u c t two s i l o s , e n a b l i n g peasants t o s t o r e l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of g r a i n , b u t , yea r s l a t e r , she r e l a t e s , " t h e y ' r e empty. T h e y ' v e never been used. The peop le who 41 had t h i s p r o j e c t never looked i n t o i s t h e r e a need of a s i l o . They Cthe peasan t s ] do not s t o r e g r a i n . They grow i t and use i t . , , e 5 * The seminary e s t a b l i s h e d and opera ted by the Canadian Church on b e h a l f of the Honduran Church i n Teguc i g a l pa was s u i t e d n e i t h e r t o the needs nor t o the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l s i t was des i gned to b e n e f i t . I t s m u l t i p l e problems are r e d u c i b l e t o a f a i l u r e t o communicate. On March 28, 1966 a r e p o r t was sent t o the b i shops of Canada by B ishop A lexander C a r t e r of S au l t S a i n t e Ma r i e , p r e s i d e n t of the Canadian E p i s c o p a l Commission f o r L a t i n Amer i ca , i n which the t r o u b l e s of the seminary , opened i n 1962, were examined. T h i s r e p o r t was not i n tended f o r genera l consumption and, t h e r e f o r e , has the v i r t u e of candour. Based on e x t e n s i v e c o n v e r s a t i o n s wi th Canadians and Hondurans, i t conc luded tha t the seminary was too sumptuous, too c o s t l y , too i s o l a t e d , and, i n terms of i t s o p e r a t i o n s , t oo independent . "By Canadian s t a n d a r d s , " C a r t e r wrote , " t h e seminary i s not l u x u r i o u s . But compared t o s i m i l a r b u i l d i n g s i n the coun t r y t h e r e i s no doubt tha t t h e r e i s t oo much d i f f e r e n c e . I am t o l d tha t the young s tuden t s a r r i v i n g f o r p h i l o s o p y CsicZI a re l o s t when they a re g i ven t h e i r own room — something they never had i n t h e i r l i f e . " ' 5 7 ' On a s t i l l more b a s i c p l a n e , he noted t h a t the l o c a l b i shops " say tha t ours i s the most expens i ve seminary i n L a t i n Amer ica . Moreover t h i s seminary was t o be a g i f t t o the Honduras 42 B i shops . They d o n ' t want i t ; they c a n ' t a f f o r d t o accept i t ! The Archb i shop of T e g u c i g a l p a t o l d me tha t t h i s seminary as i t s tands would impover i sh them. We would be g i v i n g them a wh i te e l e p h a n t . , , ! 3 e » In t h i s , as i n many such v e n t u r e s , t e n s i o n s c r i p p l e d what c o u l d have f l o u r i s h e d i n the p resence of another e t h o s , an e thos which would have p r e s e r v e d the generous s p i r i t which s u f f u s e d the work of the m i s s i o n a r i e s of t h i s epoch but which would have eschewed i t s u n i l a t e r a l t h r u s t . An e thos of t h i s k i n d , however, presupposes a b e l i e f i n the e q u a l i t y of m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r h o s t s , and the c o n c e p t i o n of L a t i n Americans which p r e v a i l e d , l i k e the c o n c e p t i o n which was e n t e r t a i n e d of everyone who dwelt o u t s i d e the r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l p a l e of Europe and North Amer i ca , l e f t no doubt as t o the absence of an e g a l i t a r i a n e t h i c . In one of the many d i s p u t e s which have b e d e v i l l e d Mex ican-Amer ican r e l a t i o n s , the government of Mexico compla ined t h a t the government of the Un i ted S t a t e s t r e a t e d Mexicans "as savages , as K a f f i r s of A f r i c a , " but even i f Wash ington ' s r e f e r e n c e s t o " t h e v o l a t i l e and c h i l d i s h c h a r a c t e r of t he se people" 5 3 * 1 ' were the more a c c u r a t e r e f l e c t i o n of o p i n i o n above the R io Srande, i t i s c l e a r t h a t a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e was f e l t t o e x i s t between North Americans and L a t i n Amer icans . Such was the view of m i s s i o n a r i e s , both b e f o r e and a f t e r they en te red l ands which, as P i u s X h i m s e l f remarked, " a r e s u b j e c t e d t o burn ing 43 southern sun , which c a s t s a langour i n t o the v e i n s and as i t were, d e s t r o y s the v i gour of virtue"*<= The n e g a t i v i t y of t h e i r tone owes much t o t h e f a c t t ha t they p e r s o n a l i z e d what, by the s t andards of t h e i r homelands, were L a t i n A m e r i c a ' s shor tcomings . To i n d i v i d u a l s were a t t r i b u t e d f a u l t s wh ich , on i n v e s t i g a t i o n , would have been d i s c o v e r e d t o o r i g i n a t e i n the s o c i e t y of which they were t y p i c a l l y a power les s p a r t , i n the g l o b a l s o c i e t y i n which t h e i r s was i n c o r p o r a t e d , and i n the h i s t o r i c a l f o r c e s which had moulded each. Ye t , a thorough i n q u i r y i n t o the s t r u c t u r a l de te rm inan t s which c o n d i t i o n e d the l i v e s of the peop le s i n m i s s i o n a r i e s ' c a r e was not under taken. The s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s wh ich , however undeve loped, would have l e s sened m i s s i o n a r i e s ' dependence on and p r e o c c u p a t i o n with a non ind igenous se t of r e f e r e n c e s were by and l a r g e i gnored i n favour of c l a s s i c a l and, t h e r e f o r e , e s s e n t i a l l y p a r o c h i a l d i s c i p l i n e s . " I t i s a s c a n d a l , " George Korb , one of an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n f l u e n t i a l a r r a y of c r i t i c s of the e thos under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , d e c l a r e d i n 1961, " t h a t some m i s s i o n a r i e s a re s t i l l sent out wi th l i t t l e b e t t e r t r a i n i n g i n a rea s t u d i e s than Marco P o l o had f o r h i s t r i p t o C h i n a , " a p r a c t i c e which, as he a p t l y put i t , l a y beh ind the u b i q u i t o u s " ' b i l l i a r d b a l l ' m i s s i o n a r y who j a r s the l o c a l p o p u l a t i o n but absorbs n o t h i n g . " * 1 That m i s s i o n a r i e s shou ld l i n k the unwholesome s t a t e of L a t i n Amer ica — or so i t appeared t o 44 them — wi th the c l i m a t e , the p redominant l y t o r r i d na tu re of which was h e l d t o have a bane fu l i n f l u e n c e on the human c h a r a c t e r , shows the ex ten t of t h e i r r e s e a r c h . In j u s t i c e t o the m i s s i o n a r i e s of t h i s epoch, however, i t must be borne i n mind t h a t , c o n c e p t u a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y , t h e i r work was framed i n i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c terms. They focused on s o u l s , not s o c i e t i e s , and, i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o t r a n s f o r m these f r e e - f l o a t i n g e n t i t i e s , sought t o i s o l a t e the peop le s i n t h e i r c a r e from the m i l i e u i n which they found them. When, t o t h i s , i s added a r a c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s which m inu te l y c l a s s i f i e d the p o p u l a t i o n of the g lobe a c c o r d i n g t o i t s b lood wi th an eye t o e x p l a i n i n g s o c i e t a l d i f f e r e n c e s g e n e t i c a l l y , the f a i l u r e of m i s s i o n a r i e s t o look f u r t h e r a f i e l d than t h e i r ho s t s f o r a redeemable c u l p r i t i s e x p l i c a b l e . From the p e r s p e c t i v e of m i s s i o n a r i e s , t h e n , i f m i l l i o n s of L a t i n Americans e x h i b i t e d a want of f o r e s i g h t i n the o r d e r i n g of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , i t was because they were i r r e s p o n s i b l e and not because they had been den ied a s t ake i n the f u t u r e . If they expres sed t h e i r s e x u a l i t y f r e e l y , i t was because they were l i c e n t i o u s and not because they had l i t t l e m a t e r i a l s o l a c e i n t h e i r l i v e s and few means of s a t i s f y i n g the sometimes c o s t l y p r e c o n d i t i o n s f o r p r o p r i e t y . If t h e i r f a i t h was s u f f u s e d wi th a d e v o t i o n t o the dead, be i t t h e i r deceased r e l a t i o n s or the c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t , i t was because they were d i s t o r t i n g the gospel and not because 45 g e n e r a t i o n s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d opp re s s i on had d i s t o r t e d them. Cry of the P e o p l e . Penny L e r n o u x ' s u n s e t t l i n g p o r t r a i t of the Church i n contemporary L a t i n Amer i ca , r e l a t e s a popu la r s t o r y i n which the Angel G a b r i e l d e p r e c a t e s the m u n i f i c e n c e wi th which God had t r e a t e d t h i s p o r t i o n of c r e a t i o n . "Ah , s a i d God, but wait t i l l you see the k ind of peop le I'm go ing t o put t h e r e ! " * 2 It i s a s l u r , a l b e i t s e l f - i n f l i c t e d , which Lernoux r e f u t e s but which many European and North American C a t h o l i c s would have endorsed and, i n s o f a r as they conv inced L a t i n Americans of i t s v e r a c i t y , p e r p e t u a t e d . At i t s most s i m p l i s t i c , the p i c t u r e which was drawn of L a t i n Americans was b l a t a n t l y r a c i s t , though the r e a d e r s of the C a t h o l i c p e r i o d i c a l s i n which these p o r t r a y a l s appeared would not have c o n s i d e r e d them t o be s e n s a t i o n a l . In an a r t i c l e w r i t t e n with the o b j e c t of making South Americans b e t t e r known t o North Amer icans , B r a z i l ' s r a c i a l compos i t i on was lamented, note be ing made of the f a c t t ha t " t h e touch of the brush i s p re sen t i n n i n e t y - f i v e per cent of the c i v i l i z e d p o p u l a t i o n " and t h a t t h i s " n e g r o i d r a c e has a l l the weaknesses of both parent s t o c k s of which the e v i l i n f l u e n c e i s f e l t i n every branch of the s o c i a l s y s t e m . " * 3 An a r t i c l e on Mexico a t t r i b u t e d i t s problems t o an i 1 1 - c o n c e i v e d i n t e r m i n g l i n g of Spanish and Indian b l o o d , the product of wh ich , the m e s t i z o , be ing p re sen ted as an unhappy h y b r i d "who i s n e i t h e r whi te nor r e d , but who posses ses a 46 dual na tu re of c u l t u r e d whi te man and barbarous Ind ian. Thanks t o t h i s two fo l d c h a r a c t e r , he i s condemned, l i k e a modern T a n t a l u s , t o e n v i s i o n g rea tne s s wi thout po s se s s i n g the means of a t t a i n i n g i t . More common than these broad c r i t i q u e s were s e l e c t i v e charges wh ich , because of t h e i r p r e c i s i o n , possessed a j u d i c i o u s aura but wh ich , i n r e a l i t y , were e q u a l l y r a c i s t . The p o s t u l a t e f avoured above a l l o t h e r s was tha t L a t i n Americans were c o n g e n i t a l l y i n d o l e n t and were, t h e r e f o r e , i n c a p a b l e of runn ing t h e i r a f f a i r s i n a manner of maximum b e n e f i t t o themse lves without the g a l v a n i z i n g p resence of f o r e i g n mentors. In the words of one m i s s i o n a r y a p o l o g i s t : "The f a c t i s t ha t the r e l i g i o n of C e n t r a l America i s not what i t shou ld be, and i t i s our concern t o see i f something cannot be done by us t o remedy mat te r s . T h i s r e l i g i o u s l a s s i t u d e i s due, not t o any a n t i - c l e r i c a l p o l i t i c a l or economic f a c t o r s , but r a t h e r t o a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c l a s s i t u d e of the peop le s who l i v e near the e q u a t o r . " * ° R e f l e c t i n g on the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of Mexican migrants t o n o n - C a t h o l i c i n f l u e n c e s , a p r i e s t engaged i n m i s s i ona ry work among them s t a t e d , " P r o t e s t a n t i s m demands no o b l i g a t i o n s and, i n t h i s s en se , i t appea l s t o the Mex icans , s l o t h f u l by n a t u r e . C a t h o l i c i t y demands o b l i g a t i o n s and i t i s a d i f f i c u l t matter t o rouse the Mexicans t o f u l f i l h i s Cs ic3 o b l i g a t i o n s t o God and Church. As l a t e as 1945, an a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y w r i t t e n work on South Amer i ca , based on a y e a r l o n g tour of t h e c o n t i n e n t , 47 c o u l d conc lude wi th a chap te r on r a c e . In the name of i n t e r - A m e r i c a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g , as embodied i n the Good Neighbour P o l i c y of the Rooseve l t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Pe te r Dunne, i t s J e s u i t a u t h o r , s p e l l e d out the d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h a r a c t e r which d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i s ho s t s from h i s countrymen. Whi le he was moved t o p r a i s e the " c u l t u r e d L a t i n gen t l emen" * 7 ' of South Amer ica on many c o u n t s , the u n c u l t i v a t e d masses below them f a r e d bad ly at h i s hands. The reader i s f o r c i b l y s t r u c k by an imperv iousnes s t o even the most e lementary of causa l f a c t o r s — apar t from the na ture of the peop le themse lves — i n h i s enumerat ion of the i r r i t a n t s which m i l i t a t e d a ga in s t a smooth r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t y p i c a l South American and the t r a n s p l a n t e d North Amer ican. "There a re t i m e s , " he wrote, "when the n o r t h e r n e r i s w i tnes s t o an almost u n b e l i e v a b l e i m p r a c t i c a b i l i t y . . . . When a t r a i n comes i n t o the s t a t i o n an u n r u l y mob of ragged f e l l o w s b u r s t s i n t o the coach t o demand your bags tha t they may have a t i p f o r c a r r y i n g them a few f e e t . . . . There i s dust on the t a b l e s , d i r t on the f l o o r s of i n s t i t u t i o n s . P i c t u r e s a r e a l l owed t o hang awry. Nobody ever t h i n k s of s t r a i g h t e n i n g them. Th ings broken a re not r e p a i r e d . So much (door -knobs , w a t e r - c l o s e t s , l o ck s ) i s out of o r d e r ; so many t h i n g s a re l e f t u n f i n i s h e d . These may be smal l i t ems . Y e t , the c a r e l e s s n e s s and want of t i d i n e s s and order they i n d i c a t e a re o b j e c t i o n a b l e . " t " a That the poor of L a t i n Amer ica might be p reoccup ied wi th que s t i on s of 48 s u r v i v a l does not appear t o have en tered h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . In the postwar e r a , L a t i n Americans ceased t o be the s u b j e c t of r a c i a l l y i n s p i r e d commentar ies, not on l y because of the growing u n a c c e p t a b i 1 i t y of such themes but because the source of L a t i n A m e r i c a ' s t r o u b l e s was at l a s t t r a c e d t o something deeper than b l o o d . M i s s i o n a r i e s and those of t h e i r c o r e l i g i o n i s t s who par took of t h e i r concerns opened t h e i r eyes t o the soc ioeconomic i n e q u i t i e s wh ich , i n t h e i r u n s e l f c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , p revented the bulk of L a t i n Americans from o b t a i n i n g a t o l e r a b l e s tandard of l i v i n g and encouraged the dread hand of communism t o show i t s e l f . Ye t , i f these doub ly endangered i n d i v i d u a l s no longer f i g u r e d as the pr ime o b s t a c l e t o the s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l renewal of L a t i n Amer i ca , n e i t h e r were they f e l t t o be competent t o over see i t s r e s c u e . The European and the North American s t i l l knew b e s t , s t i l l he l d the s e c r e t t o a c a r e f r e e sou l and body, and u n t i l such t ime as t h i s b e l i e f was f o r saken i n m i s s i ona ry c i r c l e s , a s t a t e of e q u a l i t y c o u l d not e x i s t between m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r h o s t s . Communicat ion, i n s h o r t , would c o n t i n u e t o be a one-way a f f a i r . The p a r a l l e l i s m between e c c l e s i a s t i c a l and governmental e f f o r t s t o gu ide the d e s t i n y of L a t i n America through an i n f u s i o n of f o r e i g n r e s o u r c e s has been d e s c r i b e d above. What has not been s a i d i n so many words i s tha t t h i s o p e r a t i o n was symptomatic of a genera l l a ck of c o n f i d e n c e i n the c a p a c i t y of L a t i n Americans t o r e s o l v e t h e i r problems without 49 d i r e c t i o n from abroad. "In a l l the C a t h o l i c c o u n t r i e s of the w o r l d , but e s p e c i a l l y i n n a t i o n s which l i k e French Canada a re nearer t o the L a t i n m ind , " a Canadian c o n t r i b u t o r t o The American E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Review announced i n 1961, "an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c ru sade i s be ing o r gan i zed t o save H i s p a n i c America from the s p i r i t u a l anarchy f e a r e d , "*•*' t o save H i s p a n i c Amer i ca , t h a t i s t o say , on beha l f and i n beha l f of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . Even at the c l o s e of the 1960s, when m i s s i o n a r i e s began to s i t at the f e e t of t h e i r h o s t s , the e thos which had long d e c l a r e d the conver se t o be the r u l e endured i n some q u a r t e r s . C a i s s i e , f o r example, was s t r u c k by the p e r s i s t e n c e of " c o l o n i a l m e n t a l i t i e s , " the " b i g daddy who knew much b e t t e r than these l i t t l e Peruv i an c h i l d r e n what was good f o r t h e m , " 7 ' 0 among the Spanish at a t ime when m i s s i o n a r i e s of o ther n a t i o n a l i t i e s were b r i d g i n g the d i s t a n c e which l a y between themse lves and L a t i n Amer icans. V e s t i g e s of t h i s s p i r i t c o n t i n u e t o l i n g e r wherever m i s s i ona ry work i s under taken , but t h e r e i s now no c o l l e c t i v e s a n c t i o n f o r what i s o f t e n an u n i n t e n t i o n a l p a t e r n a l i s m . At no t ime has L a t i n America been c o n s i d e r e d t o be wi thout need of m i s s i o n a r i e s — the documents of the Second Genera l Con ference of the L a t i n American E p i s c o p a t e , he l d i n 1968, even c o n t a i n a c a l l f o r " L a t i n America t o be d e c l a r e d m i s s i o n a r y t e r r i t o r y with a program f o r i n - d e p t h e v a n g e l i z i n g w o r k " 7 i — but whether the bases of and the 50 s o l u t i o n s t o t h i s need shou ld be d e f i n e d i n s i d e or o u t s i d e the r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l system L a t i n America forms, i n c o n c e r t wi th or i ndependen t l y of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s , i s a que s t i on which has admi t ted of two answers. It i s a l s o the q u e s t i o n which l i e s at the hea r t of the change i n e thos documented i n t h i s t h e s i s , f o r on i t has h inged the e q u a l i t y or i n e q u a l i t y of m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r h o s t s , not on l y i n L a t i n America but i n l ands around the wor ld . As the pages which f o l l o w w i l l demonst ra te , a d e c i s i o n has been w ide l y made t o c r e a t e i n m i s s i on s C h r i s t i a n communit ies i n which the best of West and East and North and South i s s ha red , i n which C a t h o l i c i s m i s an outgrowth of d i a l o g u e , not monologue, and i n which m i s s i o n a r i e s c o n c e n t r a t e on bea r i n g w i tnes s t o what i s good i n t h e i r ho s t s r a t h e r than s av ing them from what i s e v i l . It i s f a s h i o n a b l e t o c r i t i c i s e the m i s s i o n a r i e s of the epoch p r e s e n t l y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r f a i l i n g t o embrace t h i s model. Such c r i t i c i s m , however, presupposes tha t they had a v i a b l e c h o i c e . U n t i l the postwar e r a , t h e r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r wor lds i n which they l i v e d p re sen ted on l y one. 51 The E r a of the Witness The Church t h e r e f o r e has t h i s e x h o r t a t i o n f o r her sons: p r u d e n t l y and l o v i n g l y , through d i a l o g u e and c o l l a b o r a t i o n with the f o l l o w e r s of o ther r e l i g i o n s , and i n w i tnes s of C h r i s t i a n f a i t h and l i f e , acknowledge, p r e s e r v e , and promote the s p i r i t u a l and moral goods found among these men, as we l l as the v a l u e s i n t h e i r s o c i e t y and c u l t u r e . D e c l a r a t i o n on the R e l a t i o n s h i p of the Church t o N o n - C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n s Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , 1965 As the 1960s u n f o l d e d , two f a c t s i m p r i n t e d themse lves on the minds of m i s s i o n a r i e s . The f i r s t was tha t the Church they r e p r e s e n t e d was undergo ing i t s most s i g n i f i c a n t s e l f - r e f o r m a t i o n s i n c e the T r i d e n t i n e e r a , an aqqi ornamento which was b reach ing the w a l l s which kept C a t h o l i c and n o n - C a t h o l i c at odds with and i n i gnorance of one ano ther . The second was tha t the c i v i l i z a t i o n they embodied was r e t r e a t i n g , n o t a b l y i n p o l i t i c a l terms, from p a r t s of the wor ld which had on ly l a t e l y been regarded as u n f i t t o r u l e themse lves , a r e v e r s a l which evoked the K i p l i n g e s q u e r e f l e c t i o n t h a t " a l l our pomp of y e s t e r d a y / I s one with Nineveh and T y r e . These changes i n Church and i n S t a t e , c a l l i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n , as they d i d , many of the premises on which m i s s i o n a r i e s based t h e i r work, marked the end of the pr imacy of the e thos p re sen ted i n the f i r s t h a l f of t h i s t h e s i s , and the beg inn ing of the pr imacy of the e thos p resented i n the second. The Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , he l d from 1962 t o 1965, sought t o i n c o r p o r a t e the Church i n t o the 52 v a r i e g a t e d wor ld from which i t had, i n l a r g e p a r t , s tood a l o o f . It d i d so by t u r n i n g t o i t s C h r i s t o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n s , by l o o k i n g , i n the words of a c o n c i l i a r f a t h e r , "beh ind the c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y Church , behind the Counter—Reformat ion , beh ind the medieval s y n t h e s i s , back t o the Church b e f o r e the estrangement of Eas t and West, t o the Church b e f o r e the c o n f r o n t a t i o n wi th Greek c u l t u r e and p h i l o s o p h y , t o the p r ima l s o u r c e : t o C h r i s t i n P a l e s t i n e . " 7 ' 3 Only by t r a n s c e n d i n g i t s h i s t o r y d i d the Church b e l i e v e tha t i t c o u l d f i n d an u n t h r e a t e n i n g and unthreatened p l a c e i n the h i s t o r y of o ther c o l l e c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a p o s t c o l o n i a l c o n t e x t . By p l a c i n g an emphasis on C h r i s t qua C h r i s t r a t h e r than on C h r i s t as transmuted through the ebb and f low of western c i v i l i z a t i o n , the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l p rov i ded m i s s i o n a r i e s wi th a new s tandard t o uphold among themse lves and t h e i r h o s t s , a s tandard whose independence ensured tha t e q u a l i t y i n d i v e r s i t y would no longer be regarded as a c o n t r a d i c t i o n i n terms. The A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x , cosponsor of the m i s s i on i n V i c t o r i a Nueva around which much of the p re sen t d i s c u s s i o n w i l l r e v o l v e , d e f i n e d i t s m i s s i ona ry under t ak ing i n the f o l l o w i n g words: "The message of C h r i s t i s t ha t God l i v e s i n a l l men, c a l l i n g them t o communion with H imse l f and t o u n i t y among themse lves . To s t r i v e toward tha t u n i t y and brotherhood among a l l men, our Church of H a l i f a x has accepted t o s e r ve i n P e r u . " 7 ' ' * M i s s i o n a r i e s were be ing asked 53 to bear w i tnes s t o bonds which e x i s t e d with or without them and which, there - fo re , needed t o be a c t u a l i z e d i n s t e a d of c r e a t e d . T h i s may appear t o be a f i n e d i s t i n c t i o n , b u t , without i t , a new r e l a t i o n s h i p between m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r ho s t s would not have c o a l e s c e d . When these p a r t i e s were deemed unequa l , u n i t y was viewed as a s t a t e which c o u l d not and shou ld not be formed c o o p e r a t i v e l y , but when the se p a r t i e s ceased t o be so d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , t h e r e was no a l t e r n a t i v e but t o work t oge the r i n the name of a common humanity and d i v i n i t y and, t h u s , no a l t e r n a t i v e but t o t r e a t o ther r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l systems with the s e n s i t i v i t y wi th which one t r e a t e d o n e ' s own. The o l d r e l a t i o n s h i p between m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r ho s t s was d e s t i n e d t o be s l ow ly but s u r e l y r e p l a c e d by what the Un i ted Church of Canada c a l l s " p a r t n e r s i n m i s s i o n , " ' 7 ' 3 an a p p e l l a t i o n which c a p t u r e s , f a r b e t t e r than the term, m i s s i o n a r y , the communal s p i r i t which in forms the l i f e of the t y p i c a l m i s s ion of today . For the men and women who have served or a re s e r v i n g i n V i c t o r i a Nueva, as f o r many of t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s , t o be a m i s s i ona ry i s t o be a member of a nascent or mature community of i n te rdependent and i n t e r a c t i v e C a t h o l i c s at peace with those who do not p a r t a k e i n t h e i r f e l l o w s h i p on a c r e d a l l e v e l and at peace among themse lves . The c h a r a c t e r of t he se C h r i s t i a n communit ies w i l l now be c o n s i d e r e d i n depth . The Bases of Community "When a C h r i s t i a n goes t o a f o r e i g n land as a 54 m i s s i o n a r y , " the A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x d e c l a r e d , "he or she goes t o he lp b r i n g about the d i s c o v e r y of God ' s p r e s e n c e . " 7 ' * It i s t e l l i n g t h a t no a l l u s i o n was made t o s av ing wretched s o u l s from p e r d i t i o n . On the c o n t r a r y , the g race of God was s a i d t o be at work i n everyone. T h i s c o n c e p t i o n of m i s s i ona ry a c t i v i t y p l a c e s those who have t r a d i t i o n a l l y d i r e c t e d i t and those t o whom i t has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y d i r e c t e d on the same fundamental p l a n e , a l l o w i n g the se g roup ings t o b l u r t h e i r r o l e s . The premise u n d e r l y i n g the r i g i d d i v i s i o n of f u n c t i o n s which once ob ta ined — the premise tha t God channe l s h i s g i f t s through one r e l i g i o n and one r e l i g i o n o n l y , a condu i t f u r t h e r c o n s t r i c t e d by i t s c u l t u r a l s p e c i f i c i t y — i s no longer c o n s i d e r e d t o be t e n a b l e . Whi le m i s s i o n a r i e s c o n t i n u e t o b e l i e v e tha t j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s f u l f i l l e d i n the sacraments , they no longer see i t s imp ly as a f u n c t i o n of the sacraments . For them, the r e a l i t y of s a l v a t i o n must be p roc l a imed among r a t h e r than c o n f e r r e d upon the peop le s i n t h e i r c a r e . The m i s s i o n a r i e s of V i c t o r i a Nueva do not account f o r the presence of God i n t h i s community on the grounds tha t many of i t s unchurched i n h a b i t a n t s have been b a p t i z e d . T h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n i s much more basa l than t h i s . Ma r t i n C u r r i e , a p r i e s t of the A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x , who se rved i n Peru from 1975 t o 1980, b e l i e v e s t h a t the na tu re of God h i m s e l f — the f a c t , t o paraphrase him, tha t God i s the a r c h i t e c t of l i f e and the sou rce of the l o v e which may or may not f i l l i t 55 — determines h i s whereabouts. C o n t r a r y t o what m i s s i o n a r i e s once thought , he s t a t e s , " I f peop le were a l i v e and peop le were l o v i n g , God was t h e r e long b e f o r e we got t h e r e . We weren ' t t a k i n g any th ing t o them. , ' 7 ' 7 ' M i s s i o n a r i e s have, i n s h o r t , moved f a r beyond t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s ' dark p r o g n o s t i c a t i o n s conce rn ing the f a t e of i n f i d e l s and h e r e t i c s , te rms , i t shou ld be n o t e d , which have van i shed from the C h u r c h ' s l e x i c o n . The A b s o l u t e , though honoured w i th many names, i s looked upon today as the c e n t r e of an o r g a n i c u n i t y i n which peop les of every r e l i g i o u s p e r s u a s i o n and of none c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y s h a r e , thanks t o t h e i r d i v i n e l y c o n c e i v e d , i n c a r n a t e d , and ransomed humanity. God i s a p o i n t from which they a re b e l i e v e d t o have come and t o which they a re b e l i e v e d t o be p r o c e e d i n g , a movement they can on l y a r r e s t by d e f y i n g t h e i r innermost s e l v e s , f o r , as John Paul II s t a t e d i n an e n c y c l i c a l i s s u e d i n 1979, " C h r i s t i s i n a way u n i t e d to the human person -•-every person wi thout e x c e p t i o n — even i f the i n d i v i d u a l may not r e a l i z e t h i s f a c t . " 7 ' 0 The new s t a t u s of the wor ld which owes no a l l e g i a n c e o r , i n L a t i n Amer i ca , on l y a shaky a l l e g i a n c e t o the Church was cap tu red by Rome's S e c r e t a r i a t f o r N o n - C h r i s t i a n s when, speak ing of God, i t d e c l a r e d tha t " eve ry r e a l i t y and every event a re surrounded by H i s l o v e . In s p i t e of the sometimes v i o l e n t m a n i f e s t a t i o n of e v i l , i n the v i c i s s i t u d e s i n the l i f e of each i n d i v i d u a l and every peop le t h e r e i s p resent the power of g race which e l e v a t e s 56 and redeems. T h i s i s not tantamount t o say ing tha t the Church rega rd s every body of b e l i e f as conforming e q u a l l y we l l t o the w i l l of Sod, f o r were the Church t o do so , i t would compromise the un iqueness of C h r i s t and the e n t i t y he founded, e v i s c e r a t i n g the pr imary task of m i s s i o n a r i e s , a t a sk which remains the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of the g o s p e l , i f on l y by example. In the eyes of i t s exponents , C a t h o l i c i s m p r o v i d e s the most complete means of u n i t i n g o n e s e l f wi th God and neighbour of any f a i t h , but these means a re no longer f e l t t o be who l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o i t i n s o f a r as a l l f a i t h s a re f e l t t o be encompassed by God. For the Church , t h e r e i s s t i l l on l y one way to heaven, the way of an e x p l i c i t o r , f a i l i n g t h a t , an i m p l i c i t f a i t h i n C h r i s t , but t h i s way has never been d e f i n e d more comprehens ive ly than today. Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the l i g h t i n which the Church views i t s e l f i s n e c e s s a r i l y d i f f e r e n t from what i t was when t r a v e l l e r s on the path t o e t e r n i t y were deemed t o c o n s t i t u t e a s e l e c t group of way fa re r s i n cons tan t danger of con tamina t i on at the hands of t h e i r unworthy f e l l o w men and women. Whereas the Church of 1890 d i d e v e r y t h i n g i n i t s power t o s e p a r a t e i t s e l f from the n o n - C a t h o l i c wor ld — m i s s i o n a r i e s v e n t u r i n g i n t o i t l i k e l i f e - s a v e r s i n a g a l e — the Church of 1990 devotes much of i t s e n e r g i e s t o meeting i t and, through t h i s e n c o u n t e r , a f f i r m i n g i t s g o d l i n e s s . What, f o r F r a z i e r , was a s anc tua ry i s now, i n h i s words, a 57 " s i g n of s a l v a t i o n i n the wor ld . . . . As a s a n c t u a r y , the Church c o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e l e g i t i m a t e l y on p r o v i d i n g i t s members wi th the sacraments and the Word of God, and i t s non-members wi th a p p r o p r i a t e inducements t o pa r t ake of t he se r i c h e s . But i f the Church i s a s i g n , i t s e n e r g i e s w i l l be cen te red not o n l y on i t s own sacramenta l l i f e , but on the pascha l mystery at work i n the event s of s e c u l a r l i f e and t ime. " « 9 0 In r a i s i n g m i l l i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s t o the d i g n i t y of a f e l l o w s h i p which i s deemed at once human and d i v i n e , i r r e s p e c t i v e of the p resence or the absence of m i s s i o n a r i e s , the Church has not s imp ly engaged i n an act of magnanimity. I t , t o ge the r with i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , has humbled i t s e l f . One cannot , i n j u s t i c e , i n d u l g e i n s e l f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n when r a y s of t h i s g l o r y are b e l i e v e d t o emanate from a m u l t i p l i c i t y of p o i n t s e x t r i n s i c t o o n e ' s r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l system. The language of war has d i s appeared from m i s s i ona ry r h e t o r i c , f o r one cannot j o i n b a t t l e wi th m i r r o r s , however c l o u d e d , of o n e s e l f . The h u m i l i t y which c h a r a c t e r i z e s contemporary C a t h o l i c i s m i s not s imp ly a p roduct of a r e l a t i v e change i n i t s p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s o ther bod ie s of b e l i e f , however. An a b s o l u t e a l t e r a t i o n i n i t s po s tu re has o c c u r r e d , f o r the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l chose not t o equate the Church of Rome with the Church of C h r i s t , d e c l a r i n g tha t the Church of C h r i s t , " e r e c t e d f o r a l l ages as ' t h e p i l l a r and mainstay of the t r u t h , ' " i s not the Church of Rome b u t , 58 i n s t e a d , " s u b s i s t s " ® 1 i n i t . T h i s smal l but p i v o t a l change was d i c t a t e d not on l y by the c o n v i c t i o n tha t the t r u t h has many l o c i but by the c o n v i c t i o n tha t the t r u t h , though ves ted i n the Church of Rome, i s not who l l y man i f e s t . Human f a l l i b i l i t y , i t i s a rgued, has ensured tha t the t r u t h i s n e i t h e r p e r f e c t l y adhered t o nor p e r f e c t l y d i s c e r n e d . The gu i se i n which the Church now p r e s e n t s i t s e l f , t h e r e f o r e , i s t ha t of a p i l g r i m whose f a i t h l e s s n e s s impedes h i s p rog re s s t o h i s ho l y d e s t i n a t i o n but whose f a i t h impe l s him towards i t . Movement, not s t a s i s , i s the o rder of the day. In the words of the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , " C h r i s t summons the Church , as she goes her p i l g r i m way, t o tha t c o n t i n u a l r e f o r m a t i o n of which she a lways has need, i n s o f a r as she i s an i n s t i t u t i o n of men here on e a r t h . T h e r e f o r e , i f the i n f l u e n c e of event s or of the t imes has l ed to d e f i c i e n c i e s i n conduc t , i n Church d i s c i p l i n e , or even i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of d o c t r i n e (which must be c a r e f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the d e p o s i t i t s e l f of f a i t h ) , these shou ld be a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e c t i f i e d at the proper m o m e n t . " e z T h i s i s a noteworthy s ta tement , f o r i t p l a c e s the duty of a t t a i n i n g p e r f e c t i o n on the Church as we l l as on the c o l l e c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e i t and, i n do ing s o , f o r g e s another l i n k between them, a l i n k based not on what they ho ld i n common but on what they l a c k . There i s an awareness, moreover, t ha t i t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e f o r t h e r e t o be f a c e t s of the t r u t h which have been a s s i m i l a t e d more c o m p l e t e l y o u t s i d e the Church o r , i n the 59 case of L a t i n Amer i ca , on i t s f r i n g e s than i n s i d e i t . C a t h o l i c s c an , t h u s , a c q u i r e i n s i g h t s i n t o the proper o r d e r i n g of t h e i r s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l l i v e s from the very i n d i v i d u a l s whom they a re c a l l e d upon t o i n i t i a t e i n t o the f u l l n e s s of t h e i r f a i t h . T h i s i s a c r u c i a l p o i n t , f o r from i t has sprung the d i a l o g i c n a t u r e of contemporary m i s s i ona ry a c t i v i t y , w i thout which t h e r e would be l i t t l e growth on the pa r t of m i s s i o n a r i e s , i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t i n g i n an unbalanced C h r i s t i a n community. In o ther words, i t i s not c o n s i d e r e d to be enough t o d i s c o v e r o n e ' s own v a l u e s i n the e x i s t e n c e of o ther peop le s or t o seek out v a l u e s which e lude both p a r t i e s . As m i s s i o n a r i e s have r e a l i z e d a l i t t l e wonder ing l y , i t i s neces sa ry t o accept tha t c o n v e r s i o n , i n the form of an i n v i t a t i o n t o improve o n e s e l f , can be e f f e c t e d through exposure t o the v a l u e s of t h e i r h o s t s . T h i s has been the f i n d i n g of those who have worked or a re working i n V i c t o r i a Nueva. C e c i l i a Hudec, a S i s t e r of C h a r i t y , who was based i n Peru from 1979 t o 1990, a r r i v e d wi th her mind on the b e n e f i t s she c o u l d o f f e r her ho s t s and l e f t wi th her mind on the b e n e f i t s she had d e r i v e d from them. Whi le she and her c o l l e a g u e s were p o s i t i v e l y p red i spo sed t o the Pe ruv i an s who r e c e i v e d them and, t h u s , were w i l l i n g t o en te r i n t o t h e i r l i v e s , i t i s her b e l i e f tha t " p r o b a b l y none of us r e a l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t we would be e v a n g e l i z e d i n the p roce s s and tha t we would r e a l l y come t o know Jesus i n a very d i f f e r e n t k ind of way among them. I 60 t h i n k tha t t ha t has happened, tha t we've been c h a n g e d . " 0 3 The m i s s i o n a r i e s of today have r e c o g n i z e d the v a l i d i t y of the admoni t ion of a Pe ruv i an who, l i k e many of h i s countrymen, was inundated wi th the l a r g e s s e i n s p i r e d by an ethos which d i d not b e l i e v e i n r e c i p r o c i t y . " ' Y o u came down h e r e , ' he s a i d — he meant most ly the Amer icans , but a l l t he r e s t of u s , the A u s t r a l i a n s l i k e myse l f , were a l s o i n c l u d e d — 'You came down here with a f u l l c h a l i c e , o v e r f l o w i n g . Instead you shou ld have come wi th an empty cup. We would have f i l l e d i t f o r you. " ' a * Once the Church conc luded tha t the r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l systems i n which i t s m i s s i o n a r i e s opera ted c o u l d , i n the words of John Paul II, " s t i m u l a t e her both t o d i s c o v e r and acknowledge the s i g n s of C h r i s t ' s p resence and of the working of the S p i r i t as we l l as t o examine more deep ly her own i d e n t i t y and to bear w i tnes s t o the f u l l n e s s of r e v e l a t i o n which she has r e c e i v e d f o r the good of a l l , " 0 0 i t was i n a p o s i t i o n to become a u n i v e r s a l body i n a new sense, drawing sus tenance from d i v e r s e p e o p l e s , whether they were f o r m a l l y l i n k e d t o i t or no t . The Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , whose i n t e r n a t i o n a l complex ion was wi thout precedent i n c o n c i l i a r a n n a l s , marked the end of the C h u r c h ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n with Europe and, as the absence of the p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e s long a s s o c i a t e d with such a s semb l i e s demonst ra tes , of E u r o p e ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n with the Church. No longer do m i s s i o n a r i e s f e e l t ha t they can l e g i t i m a t e l y 61 uphold the c i v i l i s a t i o n from which most, though, today , not a l l , of t h e i r number a re drawn as p e c u l i a r l y C h r i s t i a n and, t h e r e f o r e , normat i ve . Indeed, churchmen i n s i d e and o u t s i d e m i s s i ona ry c i r c l e s have ques t i oned whether t h e i r s i s a C h r i s t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n at a l l . They have p o i n t e d wi th concern t o the i n c r e a s i n g l y god le s s c h a r a c t e r of European and North American s o c i e t y — l i t t l e comfort i s found i n the f a c t t h a t , i n many q u a r t e r s , h o s t i l i t y t o r e l i g i o n has y i e l d e d t o i n d i f f e r e n c e — and have c a l l e d f o r a new e v a n g e l i z a t i o n of what have been termed p o s t - C h r i s t i a n l and s . " Fo r the f i r s t t ime i n the h i s t o r y of the C h u r c h , " the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l was t o l d by one of i t s f a t h e r s , "a C o u n c i l i s meeting i n an age of a t h e i s m . W e l l might G a b r i e l l a V i i l e i a , a S i s t e r of C h a r i t y , who served i n Peru from 1968 t o 1974, demand i n r e f e r e n c e t o her h o s t s , "Who a re we to go t h e r e and t e l l them what to do? ' " 3 7 ' The f a l l of Europe and North America from t h e i r p o s i t i o n of c e n t r a l i t y i n the minds of m i s s i o n a r i e s was f a c i l i t a t e d by the changing g e o p o l i t i c a l f o r t u n e s of these a rea s . Europe was the f i r s t t o l o s e i t s seat and, wi th i t , i t s s t a t u s as a u n i v e r s a l model , a f a c t f o r c i b l y brought home t o the Church by the sometimes i gnomin iou s , sometimes d i g n i f i e d r e t r e a t of the c o n t i n e n t ' s p r o c o n s u l s , m i s s i o n a r i e s ' l o n g - t i m e a l l i e s . Even the Suez C a n a l , the l i f e l i n e of emp i re , cou ld not be h e l d . The s c o r e s of new n a t i o n s which emerged from the maelstrom of the Second World 62 War a s s e r t e d t h e i r own i d e n t i t y and, not u n e x p e c t e d l y , had l i t t l e t o l e r a n c e f o r m i s s i o n a r i e s who f a i l e d t o v a l u e i t . P r o p r i e t o r s had, o v e r n i g h t , tu rned i n t o gue s t s , and, i n not a few i n s t a n c e s , unwelcome ones. S u r v i v a l , i f no th ing e l s e , demanded t h a t an i nd i genous Church , wi th a s t r ong a f f i n i t y with i t s n o n - C h r i s t i a n and non-European env i ronment , be g i ven every he lp i n e n t r e n c h i n g i t s e l f . The temperament of the West was a l s o chang ing , symbo l i zed by the Un i ted Nations'* c h a r t e r which, as e a r l y as 1945, bound i t s s i g n a t o r i e s t o promote se l f - government i n t h e i r dependenc ie s , mindfu l t ha t " t h e i n t e r e s t s of the i n h a b i t a n t s of these t e r r i t o r i e s a re p a r a m o u n t . " 0 0 A g e n e r a t i o n l a t e r , so d i s t a s t e f u l had c o l o n i a l i s m become tha t the White F a t h e r s withdrew from the Portuguese p o s s e s s i o n of Mozambique r a t h e r than lend i t s r u l e r s t a c i t countenance by o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n i t s b o r d e r s . There i s no more e loquent te s t imony t o m i s s i o n a r i e s ' ' succes s i n d i v e s t i n g themse lves of t h e i r p a t e r n a l i s t i c i n h e r i t a n c e than tha t of T a n z a n i a ' s J u l i u s Nye re re , who expres sed the d e s i r e tha t the Church would " c a r r y on p r e a c h i n g the Message of C h r i s t and thus he lp us reconquer our DIGNITY, our LIBERTY and our EQUALITY, " e " ' s t a t e s which were once d e f i n e d i n terms which were more i n d i c a t i v e of wh i te a s p i r a t i o n s than b l a c k . American and Canadian churchmen, i n s o f a r as t h e i r a n a l y s i s of North A m e r i c a ' s p l a c e i n the wor ld c o i n c i d e d , c o u l d a f f o r d t o watch the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the g rea t 63 empires wi th a c e r t a i n i n s o u c i a n c e . The New World had l i f t e d the mantle of g l o b a l l e a d e r s h i p -from the s h o u l d e r s of the Old and would, i t was a n t i c i p a t e d , w i e l d i t s newly a c q u i r e d powers i n a w o r t h i e r f a s h i o n than any peop le who had h i t h e r t o possessed them. T h i s complacency was s h a t t e r e d by the Vietnam War, a c o n f l i c t which not o n l y d i s p e l l e d the i l l u s i o n of American i n v i n c i b i l i t y bu t , i n c o n j u n c t i o n wi th the broad a s s a u l t on the s t a t u s quo which d i s t i n g u i s h e d the 1960s, prompted many i n d i v i d u a l s — C a t h o l i c s and n o n - C a t h o l i c s a l i k e — t o ques t i on the p r o p r i e t y of American invo lvement i n the a f f a i r s of o ther c o u n t r i e s . From t h i s s o u l - s e a r c h i n g emerged a consensus t h a t , i n many r e s p e c t s , the American way was not the most s u i t a b l e way f o r underdeve loped l ands t o r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . It was f e l t , moreover, tha t the most nox ious e lements i n North American l i f e , such as i r r e s p o n s i b l e forms of c a p i t a l i s m , were be ing a l l owed to take roo t where t h e i r p resence c o u l d l e a s t be t o l e r a t e d , r e n d e r i n g the developmenta l cour se i n ques t i on not on l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e but h a r m f u l . North A m e r i c a ' s m i s s i o n a r i e s have deemed i t e s s e n t i a l , t h e r e f o r e , t o e s t a b l i s h a d i s t a n c e between themse lves and t h e i r c o u n t r i e s ' governmental and b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s and, when the o c c a s i o n w a r r a n t s , t o speak out a ga in s t the e v i l s generated by t h e i r p o l i c i e s and i n f avour of c o u n t e r a c t i v e measures. They have made the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r ho s t s t h e i r own, even when t h i s has cont ravened the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r countrymen. 64 Under the heading of " S o l i d a r i t y With Loca l C h u r c h , " the b i shops of the Un i ted S t a t e s , i n a p a s t o r a l l e t t e r i s s u e d i n 1986, s a n c t i o n e d t h i s s t a n d , n o t i n g tha t when " m i s s i o n a r i e s come from a coun t r y l i k e the Un i ted S t a t e s , which has g rea t p o l i t i c a l and economic i n t e r e s t s throughout the w o r l d , t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l i f e of the l o c a l church can p l a c e them i n c o n f l i c t w i th the p o l i c i e s of t h e i r own government o r , i n d e e d , of t h e i r host government. N e v e r t h e l e s s , they must be i n un ion wi th the d iocesan b i shop and the l o c a l church which they have been sent t o s e r v e . " ' 5 ' 0 The d e f e r e n c e shown t o Churches , however n a s c e n t , i n t o which m i s s i o n a r i e s a re r e c e i v e d i s symptomatic of a new c o l l e g i a l i t y w i t h i n the C a t h o l i c f o l d i t s e l f . Whi le Rome remains the c e n t r e of a u t h o r i t y and, as such , w i e l d s an e x t e n s i v e i n f l u e n c e , i t s imperium has been tempered by a r e s p e c t f o r the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of the w o r l d ' s peop le s and the C h r i s t i a n communit ies t o which they g i v e b i r t h . In t h i s l i g h t , Rome can be seen as merely one of the thousands of l o c a l Churches wh ich , t o g e t h e r , c o n s t i t u t e the u n i v e r s a l Church. Each of t he se Churches i s f r e e , as the use of the v e r n a c u l a r i n the l i t u r g y a t t e s t s , t o expres s i t s C a t h o l i c i t y i n a d i f f e r e n t way, p rov i ded the u n i t y they form i s not the reby endangered. The f a i t h of a l l i s , t h u s , e n r i c h e d . The i n c h o a t e l o c a l i t i e s i n which m i s s i o n a r i e s o f t e n o p e r a t e a re c o n s i d e r e d t o be no l e s s i n t e g r a l t o the Church than i t s most v e n e r a b l e s ee s , and, as many European 65 and North American p r e l a t e s have d i s c o v e r e d , the v o i c e s of t h e i r nonwhite c o l l e a g u e s can be as p e r s u a s i v e as t h e i r own, i f not more so , when genera l e c c l e s i a s t i c a l p o l i c i e s a re f o r m u l a t e d . There i s no th ing f o r e i g n about the m i s s i on s of today , f o r m i s s i ona ry a c t i v i t y has ceased t o f a l l t o a s e l e c t group of C a t h o l i c s but t o the Church as a whole, opening the door t o a m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l f low of p e r s o n n e l , an e v e n t u a l i t y f a l l i n g v o c a t i o n s i n the F i r s t World and r i s i n g v o c a t i o n s i n the T h i r d render a l l but i n e v i t a b l e . The Church , i n s h o r t , has r e s o l v e d to make i t s home i n every c u l t u r e , c o n s c i o u s tha t on l y i n t h i s way can i t tap the goodness which l i e s i n each of i t s a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l members and, t h u s , draw near the d e i t y i n which t h i s goodness i s he l d t o have i t s o r i g i n . In the judgement of the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , " t h e Church , sent t o a l l peop les of every t ime and p l a c e , i s not bound e x c l u s i v e l y and i n d i s s o l u b l y t o any r a c e or n a t i o n , nor t o any p a r t i c u l a r way of l i f e or any customary p a t t e r n of l i v i n g , a n c i e n t or r e c e n t . F a i t h f u l t o her own t r a d i t i o n and at the same t ime c o n s c i o u s of her u n i v e r s a l m i s s i o n , she can enter i n t o communion wi th v a r i o u s c u l t u r a l modes, t o her own enr ichment and t h e i r s t o o . The C a t h o l i c i s m of today i s an i n c a r n a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n , c l o s e l y a t tuned t o the un ique c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n which each of the C h r i s t i a n communit ies which adhere t o i t s t e n e t s f i n d s i t s e l f . To c i t e the documents of the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l a f i n a l t ime , "The 66 joy s and the hopes, the g r i e f s and the a n x i e t i e s of the men of t h i s age, e s p e c i a l l y those who are poor or i n any way a f f l i c t e d , t he se too a re the j oy s and hopes, the g r i e f s and a n x i e t i e s of t h e f o l l o w e r s of C h r i s t . ' " ' ' 3 The p o s t u r e the Church has adopted i n r e l a t i o n to the r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l systems of the w o r l d , the c o n v i c t i o n , i n the words of Paul V I , t h a t " e v a n g e l i z a t i o n cannot be complete . . u n l e s s account i s taken of the r e c i p r o c a l l i n k s between the Gospel and the c o n c r e t e per sona l and s o c i a l l i f e of f nan , ' " ? 3 can bes t be e x p l i c a t e d by examining i t s v i s i o n of God, i t s r a i s o n d ' e t r e . T h i s God, i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o the c o n c e p t i o n of him which once enjoyed wide c u r r e n c y , i s not a be ing enthroned i n an empyrean des i gned by a heaven ly M i c h e l a n g e l o but a be ing who, though by no means c o n f i n e d t o i t , dwe l l s i n the c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n i n s p i r i n g h i s t o r y of mankind, a God as v a r i e d as the peop le s who compr ise the human f a m i l y . In a r e l i g i o n r i c h i n images, the s a l i e n c e of which c o n t i n u a l l y changes, the most powerfu l at p resent i s a r guab ly t h a t of an obscure Nazarene who began and ended h i s l i f e i n p o v e r t y . A two fo l d i m p e r a t i v e i s d i s c e r n e d i n the se even t s . The f i r s t i s t h a t C h r i s t i a n s must seek t h e i r namesake i n the wor l d , i n s i t u a t i o n s as d i v e r s e as they a r e c o n c r e t e , r a t h e r than import him — c o n s t r i c t e d i n t o one shape through a long exposure t o western c i v i l i z a t i o n — from o u t s i d e i t . The second i s t ha t C h r i s t i a n s who b e l i e v e tha t they pos ses s e v e r y t h i n g must seek t h e i r namesake i n the 67 midst of those whom they b e l i e v e possess n o t h i n g , i n the ma l t rea ted poor with whom he a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f . M i s s i o n a r i e s have taken these i n j u n c t i o n s s e r i o u s l y . "We d o n ' t l i k e t o have our Bod down here i n the d i r t w i th u s , " C u r r i e admi t s , "but t h a t ' s where h e ' s a t , t h a t ' s where God ' s a t , down i n the muck and the d i r t wi th us . He ' s not pure and s p o t l e s s , removed up t h e r e s o m w h e r e . " 9 A As t o the s e c t o r s of humanity i n which he i s deemed t o be at h i s most v i s i b l e , t h e s e can be found i n abundance i n such p l a c e s as L a t i n Amer ica where, a c c o r d i n g t o C u r r i e , "you see how hard these peop le s t r u g g l e j u s t t o s u r v i v e , you see tha t t h e y ' v e had to l i v e wi th i n j u s t i c e , you see tha t t h e r e ' s been v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t them f o r yea r s by keeping them i l l i t e r a t e , by keeping them poor , and y o u ' r e go ing t o say , . . . ' H e ' s go ing t o save these peop le b e f o r e he saves a l o t of those who are w e l l - d r e s s e d and s a i l around on t h e i r yacht wi th t h e i r p r i v a t e c h a p l a i n or those D f us who d o n ' t need t o make any e f f o r t r e a l l y t o p r a c t i c e our f a i t h . ' The Jesus who always worked wi th the marg ina ted , h e ' s go ing t o be t h e r e . I t h i n k we ' re go ing t o f i n d him t h e r e a l o t more than we f i n d him i n o ther a rea s , " " P O From another v i s i t o r t o L a t i n America comes a v i v i d example of the C h u r c h ' s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o see C h r i s t i n the most l owly and p e r i p h e r a l of human b e i n g s , and t o i d e n t i f y i t s e l f wi th them and t h e i r t h i r s t f o r the d i g n i t y , l i b e r t y , and e q u a l i t y of which Nyerere speaks. In an address d e l i v e r e d i n 1968 t o the peasants of 68 Colombia and, by e x t e n s i o n , the whole of L a t i n Amer i ca , Paul VI o f f e r e d the se v i c t i m s of i n j u s t i c e f a r more than c h a r i t y . He o f f e r e d them homage and, wi th i t , the homage of the Church he r e p r e s e n t e d , l i n k i n g them i n an i n t i m a t e way wi th the E u c h a r i s t i t s e l f , so t r u l y a re the poor b e l i e v e d t o embody C h r i s t . "You, be loved sons , a re C h r i s t f o r u s , " he t o l d h i s l i s t e n e r s . "And we who have the awesome d e s t i n y of be ing the V i c a r of C h r i s t . . . — we bow b e f o r e you, and we wish t o r e c o g n i z e C h r i s t i n you as i f once more a l i v e and s u f f e r i n g . " " '^ M i s s i o n a r i e s of the o l d schoo l might be f o r g i v e n i f , l i k e the Jews of T h e s s a l o n i c a i n P a u l i n e t i m e s , they charged t h e i r s u c c e s s o r s with t u r n i n g the wor ld up s i de down. Wi th in the con tex t of t h e i r work, the m i s s i o n a r i e s of today have brought the wor ld — C a t h o l i c and n o n - C a t h o l i c , deve loped and underdeve loped , whi te and b l ack — t o g e t h e r , a l b e i t l e s s i n p r a c t i c e than i n t h e o r y . They have drawn these p o l e s t o g e t h e r , t he reby d r a m a t i c a l l y r e d u c i n g the d i s t a n c e between themse lves and t h e i r h o s t s , not by a b o l i s h i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s but by c e l e b r a t i n g them, not through d i c t a t i o n but through d i s c u s s i o n , a l l i n the b e l i e f t ha t wi thout e q u a l i t y , a genuine community cannot f l o u r i s h , whether i t i s composed of s e v e r a l hundred peop le or s e v e r a l b i l l i o n . In the words of one of the many Marykno l l F a t h e r s who have served i n P e r u , t h e r e i s a " r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t as the m i s s i ona ry does not have a l l the answers, i t i s a two-way s t r e e t between him and the 69 peop le . There i e a mutual r e v e a l i n g of God between them tha t u l t i m a t e l y e n r i c h e s and h e l p s each t o become f u l l y h imsel f . T h e working out of t h i s new r e l a t i o n a l b a s i s of m i s s i ona ry a c t i v i t y , as r e v e a l e d i n the l i f e of V i c t o r i a Nueva, w i l l be d e s c r i b e d below. V i c t o r i a Nueva: The C r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of Community V i c t o r i a Nueva, l i k e many of the b a r r i a d a s which r i n g the c i t i e s of L a t i n Amer i ca , can on l y be d e s c r i b e d as i n h o s p i t a b l e , however modest o n e ' s s t anda rd s . S i t u a t e d on the o u t s k i r t s of C h i c l a y o , c a p i t a l of the department of Lambayeque and, with 347,702 i n h a b i t a n t s , f i f t h l a r g e s t c i t y i n P e r u , V i c t o r i a Nueva i s a poor community i n a n a t i o n of poor communit ies. ' 5 * 0 To l i v e w i t h i n i t s boundar ie s i s t o l i v e i n a d e s e r t , a s p a r s e l y vege ta ted a rea of w h i r l i n g sand the product of d a i l y winds — and f l u c t u a t i n g tempera tu res . On the r a r e o c c a s i o n s when r a i n f a l l s , i t can wreak havoc, t u r n i n g d i r t f l o o r s i n t o mud and t u r n i n g w a l l s and r o o f s , i n which adobe i s w ide l y u sed , i n t o a shambles. On October 31, 1968, when a m i s s i o n , i n the form of the p a r i s h of San Jose' Obre ro , was o f f i c i a l l y opened by the A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x and the Congregat ion of the S i s t e r s of C h a r i t y of S a i n t V i n c e n t de Paul of H a l i f a x , t h e r e were no a m e n i t i e s whatsoever. Running water , sewerage, and e l e c t r i c i t y were l u x u r i e s t h e peop le of V i c t o r i a Nueva had not yet m e r i t e d , p l a c i n g the hor se s at a nearby r a c e t r a c k i n the more e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n of the two. It was from the t aps 70 which se rved these an ima l s t ha t pa r t of the water used i n the b a r r i ada came. M i s f o r t u n e breeds m i s f o r t u n e . "The dark even ings and n i g h t s b r i n g out the t h i e v e s , " the m i s s i o n a r i e s r e p o r t e d i n 1969, "and many f a m i l i e s have s u f f e r e d the l o s s of c h i c k e n s , ducks , t u r k e y s , r a b b i t s , e t c . , from t h e i r backyards ; l o s s e s which they can i l l a f f o r d . " " Compounding the ha rd sh ip of an inadequate c i v i c i n f r a s t r u c t u r e has been a s p i r a l l i n g p o p u l a t i o n . The peop le of V i c t o r i a Nueva, many of whom are I nd i ans , a re p a r t of a seeming ly e n d l e s s stream of mig rant s who have moved from r u r a l t o urban a r e a s , thereby exchanging one p r e c a r i o u s e x i s t e n c e f o r ano ther , i n the hope of s e c u r i n g a b e t t e r l i f e f o r themse lves and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . T h e i r numbers, w h i l e d i f f i c u l t t o measure p r e c i s e l y , have swe l l ed t o some 100,000, a t h r e e f o l d i n c r e a s e s i n c e the a r r i v a l of the m i s s i o n a r i e s . An i n d i v i d u a l can e a s i l y be l o s t i n t h i s sea of s t r e s s e d humanity. True s e c u r i t y can on l y be a t t a i n e d on a c o l l e c t i v e b a s i s . However, the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r t h i s — i n c l u d i n g as b a s i c an element as c o n f i d e n c e i n o n e s e l f and o n e ' s ne i ghbour s — are not abundant i n the b a r r i a d a s of L a t i n Amer ica . V i c t o r i a Nueva was t h e r e f o r e a f i t t i n g a rea i n which t o c o n c r e t i z e the new o r i e n t a t i o n i n m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y , the c e n t r e p i e c e of which i s , as d i s c u s s e d at l eng th above, the f o rma t i on of a community, the a n t i t h e s i s of a l l t h a t d i v i d e s or l i m i t s human be ing s . T h i s was the paramount task which f aced the founder s of San Jose' Obrero 71 and the r o o t l e s s men and women who c o n s t i t u t e d t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n , a task which impinged and impinges — f o r i t i s not regarded as f i n i t e — on every f a c e t of s p i r i t u a l and m a t e r i a l e x i s t e n c e . "We can never b u i l d enough community, t r u s t i n g one ano the r , s h a r i n g , and r e a c h i n g o u t , " no tes V i l l e l a . " E v e r y t h i n g comes out of c o m m u n i t y . " 1 0 0 The t h r e e f u n c t i o n s of communal l i f e she enumerates p r o v i d e a s u i t a b l e framework i n which t o examine the work of her c o l l e a g u e s . It would be wrong t o conc lude from what f o l l o w s tha t no m i s s teps have been made, tha t p r i n c i p l e s have always been upheld i n p r a c t i c e , but t h e r e i s ample ev i dence to show tha t i n g rea t t h i n g s and i n smal l t he m i s s i o n a r i e s of V i c t o r i a Nueva have been animated by the ethos which has t rans formed the c h a r a c t e r of m i s s i ona ry a c t i v i t y as much i n L a t i n America as anywhere e l s e . The g u l f between the wor ld of these p r i e s t s and s i s t e r s and tha t of t h e i r ho s t s i s a wide one. It m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f not on l y i n what i s s a i d and done and thought , but i n the legacy of the past and the promise of the f u t u r e . Every t ime a m i s s i o n a r y and a peasant s m i l e , t h e i r t e e t h p r o c l a i m the d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r u p b r i n g i n g . Every t ime a m i s s i ona ry and a peasant v i s i t t h e i r p l a c e s of o r i g i n , the s e c u r i t y which awa i t s the fo rmer , under the c a r e of an a f f l u e n t Church , and the i n s e c u r i t y which awa i t s the l a t t e r , under the ca re of p e n n i l e s s k i n s f o l k , i s h i g h l i g h t e d . The d i s p a r i t i e s of which these a re examples a re not a l lowed t o 72 s tand i n the way of a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between North and South Amer ican , however, f o r i n V i c t o r i a Nueva, as e l sewhere , d i f f e r e n c e s per se a re viewed i n a p o s i t i v e l i g h t . The d i v e r s e p o s i t i o n s which r e s u l t from t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a re regarded as something t o be j o i n t l y e x p l o r e d , and on l y when t h i s exchange and the under s tand ing which f l ows from i t i s comp le te , i s i t f e l t t h a t a d e c i s i o n can be made by the i n d i v i d u a l s i n v o l v e d as t o whether or not t o modify t h e i r p o s t u r e . It i s b e l i e v e d tha t through such p r o c e s s e s , which r e s p e c t the i n t e g r i t y of everyone conce rned , d u r a b l e p a r t n e r s h i p s are f o r g e d . "I t r y t o be equal wi th p e o p l e , " e x p l a i n s Mary Beth Moore, a S i s t e r of C h a r i t y , who has worked i n Peru s i n c e 1982. "To me, f r i e n d s h i p i s b u i l t on e q u a l i t y . You c a n ' t be the nun or the exper t or the madrec i t a and s t i l l be f r i e n d s . " 1 0 1 The c o u n c i l which was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1970 t o d i r e c t the l i f e of San Jose* Obrero a t t e s t s t o the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of t h i s e q u a l i t y , t o the commitment of the m i s s i o n a r i e s t o d i s p e r s e a u t h o r i t y among the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n . The c o u n c i l , which c o n t r a d i c t e d the v e r t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d Church of the days b e f o r e the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , has assumed more and more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y wi th the pa s s i ng y e a r s , t o the p o i n t , i n Moore ' s words, t ha t "we l e t the peop le run i t . " l o z These i nd i genous l e a d e r s have not ceased t o be Pe ruv i an i n the i n t e r i m nor have the m i s s i o n a r i e s ceased t o be Canad ian. I n s tead , both have emerged wi th something of 73 the o ther i n them, l e a d i n g them, i n t u r n , t o a deeper awareness of t h e i r own p o t e n t i a l and t h e i r own shor tcomings . Both have been touched i n a way which would have been i m p o s s i b l e had m i s s i o n a r i e s p l ayed the parent and t h e i r ho s t s the c h i l d . T h i s , i n the eyes of the m i s s i o n a r i e s , i s the essence of s h a r i n g . Be fo re a meaningful encounter c o u l d take p l a c e , however, an a p p r o p r i a t e contex t had t o be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r i t , a con tex t i n which d i f f e r e n c e s , so va lued i n o ther c i r c u m s t a n c e s , had p e r f o r c e t o be avo ided . A d i a l o g u e c o u l d not o c c u r , i t was b e l i e v e d , i f t h e r e was not a modicum of common ground on which t o ho ld i t . The f i r s t h a l f of t h i s t h e s i s has shown t h a t , t r a d i t i o n a l l y , the environment m i s s i o n a r i e s sought to c r e a t e f o r themse lves and those of t h e i r ho s t s who chose t o j o i n them was markedly d i s t i n c t from i t s s u r round ing s . The p r i e s t s and s i s t e r s of V i c t o r i a Nueva tu rned t h e i r backs on t h i s p r a c t i c e and i n what, i n 1968, was something of a n o v e l t y , made every e f f o r t t o m i r ro r the l i f e s t y l e of the peop le of the b a r r i a d a . The d w e l l i n g s they occup ied were comparable to those of t h e i r hos t s and, at f i r s t , were ren ted from them. There was no th ing i n s i d e or out which c o u l d render a v i s i t o r i l l at ease , not even a roo f so c o n s t r u c t e d as t o w i ths tand a heavy r a i n . Canadian r e c t o r i e s a re t y p i c a l l y equipped with every comfo r t , but San Jose O b r e r o ' s , l i k e the homes around i t , was on l y g r a d u a l l y s u p p l i e d with the most b a s i c of them. 74 I t s occupants worked by the l i g h t of kerosene lamps, made do with an outhouse, and, i n t h e i r words, "had t o j o i n the peop le i n the queue at the p u b l i c water Bupply every morning. In a way t h i s has been good as i t has demonstrated t o the peop le our w i l l i n g n e s s t o l i v e as much as p o s s i b l e wi th and l i k e them. But the l ack of shower f a c i l i t i e s has been a l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t . " 1 " 3 Whi le the s i s t e r s i n i t i a l l y wore a m o d i f i e d h a b i t , the p r i e s t s c u s t o m a r i l y d res sed i n o r d i n a r y c l o t h e s , another means of l e s s e n i n g the d i s t a n c e between themse lves and t h e i r c o n g r e g a t i o n . G l a n c i n g through a c o l l e c t i o n of photographs from 1968 and 1969, one must look tw i ce t o determine who i s who. The Pe ruv i an s who a r e p i c t u r e d i n the r e c t o r y appear t o be as much at home as the m i s s i o n a r i e s who r e s i d e t h e r e . Wherever i t was neces sa ry t o e r e c t new b u i l d i n g s , pa i n s were taken t o ensure not on l y tha t they were compat ib le with e x i s t e n t ones, but t ha t the men and women f o r whose b e n e f i t they were i n tended would rega rd them as t h e i r own. The complex which was c o n s t r u c t e d t o s e r ve as the p r i n c i p a l p l a c e of worship and assembly i n V i c t o r i a Nueva i s a case i n p o i n t . F o r m a l l y i naugura ted on J u l y 8, 1973, i t r e p r e s e n t e d a c o o p e r a t i v e under t ak ing on the p a r t of the cong rega t i on of San Jose Obrero and the cong rega t i on s of the A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x , the c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d with i t be ing even l y s p l i t between the two. The onus i n f u n d - r a i s i n g f e l l on the fo rmer , however, f o r the l e v e l of Canadian support was 75 l i n k e d t o the c a l i b r e of Pe ruv i an g e n e r o s i t y . Indeed, i t was agreed with the c o n t r a c t o r , a member of San Jose Obrero , t ha t work c o u l d be h a l t e d " a t any s tage of c o n s t r u c t i o n i n order t o b r i n g home f o r c e f u l l y t o our peop le the need t o r a i s e more m o n e y . " 1 0 * As t o l a b o u r , both c o n t r a c t u a l and v o l u n t a r y , t h i s was s u p p l i e d by r e s i d e n t s of the b a r r i a d a , guarantee ing tha t they would t ake per sona l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the f i n a l p roduc t . Determined t o s tand on an equal f o o t i n g with t h e i r h o s t s , the p r i e s t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s sometimes backbreak ing t o i l , much to the d e l i g h t of t h e i r f e l l o w l a b o u r e r s . An i n s i s t e n c e tha t the peop le of V i c t o r i a Nueva l e a r n t o he lp themse lves r a t h e r than l e a r n t o r e l y on the he lp of o t h e r s was extended t o every sphere of m i s s i ona ry a c t i v i t y . Amid the o p p r e s s i v e pover ty of the b a r r i ada, t h e r e was a s t r ong tempta t i on t o address the needs of i t s peop le through an i n f u s i o n of m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s , but t h i s p a t e r n a l i s t i c urge was s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s i s t e d . "You see the need, and you have s o l u t i o n s , and you c o u l d p o s s i b l y remedy c e r t a i n problems i n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s , " no tes L e B l a n c , "but i t ' s much b e t t e r t o ho ld back. If you do not have the peop le wi th you r i g h t from the b a s i c e f f o r t s t o remedy a s i t u a t i o n , then i t ' s not t h e i r s , and y o u ' r e not apt t o get the e f f o r t on t h e i r pa r t t o s u s t a i n i t a f t e r w a r d s . " 1 0 0 Through t h i s p o l i c y , the m i s s i o n a r i e s made i t abundant ly c l e a r t ha t whatever i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e 76 growth was d e s t i n e d t o occur would occur and, e q u a l l y impor t an t , c o u l d occur w i t h i n the e x p e r i e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s of the poor. It was f e l t t h a t under no c i r c u m s t a n c e s shou ld a l i n k a g e be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the minds of the l a t t e r between f o r e i g n weal th and such goods and s e r v i c e s as they pos ses sed . The c r e a t i o n of a s t a t e of dependency and the sense of a l i e n a t i o n and inadequacy which sooner or l a t e r must accompany i t was, t h u s , a vo ided . Not everyone foresaw these consequences , f o r , a c c o r d i n g to C a i s s i e , the i n i t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n of many peop le was tha t "we would se t up a schoo l and a medica l c l i n i c because t h a t ' s what a l l t he o ther g r i n g o s had done. We d i s a p p o i n t e d many of them by not do ing i t , but i n the long run I t h i n k t h a t the l o c a l Pe ruv i an peop le who were r e a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r C h r i s t i a n community . . . r e a l l y bought i n c o m p l e t e l y i n t o the c o n c e p t . " 1 0 f i l It was a concept pregnant wi th p o s s i b i 1 i t e s , f o r with the m i s s i on i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the l i f e of V i c t o r i a Nueva, the s tage was se t f o r the i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n and p r a c t i c a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n which a re deemed e s s e n t i a l t o succes s by the m i s s i ona ry e thos which predominates today . M i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r ho s t s were soon t o f i n d tha t i t i s e a s i e r t o approach one another with empty hands than with f u l l ones and, through t h i s t r a n s p a r e n t p o v e r t y , i d e n t i f y the fundamental i m p e r a t i v e s imposed on them — s i n g l y and toge ther — by t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . The most b e n e f i c i a l form of s h a r i n g c o u l d , i n s h o r t , t ake p l a c e , t o ge the r with the t r u s t 77 and ou t reach V i l l e l a i d e n t i f i e s as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a t r u e community. The r a m i f i c a t i o n s of each of these q u a l i t i e s w i l l now be c o n s i d e r e d . The n a t u r e of the s h a r i n g which has o c c u r r e d i n San Jose Obrero can best be gauged from i t s r e s u l t s , from the changes which have been e f f e c t e d i n the out look of the m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r ho s t s s i n c e 1968. The i n f l u e n c e the p r i e s t s and s i s t e r s have had on the peop le wi th whom they have worked has not been r e s t r i c t e d t o the t r a n s m i t t a l of knowledge, rang ing from a new under s tand ing of the sacraments t o a new comprehension of the p r i n t e d word. It i s something more profound than t h i s , f o r t o o l s which a re not accompanied by the i n t e r i o r w i l l t o w i e l d them a re without u t i l i t y . What the m i s s i o n a r i e s have succeeded i n i n c u l c a t i n g i n the men and women who have taken an a c t i v e pa r t i n the l i f e of San Jose Obrero has been a sense of s e l f - w o r t h . T h i s s e l f - w o r t h has no th ing to do with t h e i r w o r l d l y s t a t u s , which, i n the absence of a j u s t soc ioeconomic o r d e r , i s n e g l i g i b l e , and has no th ing t o do with t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , wh ich , i n the absence of an adequate e d u c a t i o n a l sys tem, a re underdeve loped. T h e i r new d i g n i t y stems, r a t h e r , from the f a c t t ha t they a re human be ings and from the r e a l i z a t i o n , g r a d u a l l y i n s t i l l e d i n them by word and example, t ha t they a re t h e r e f o r e b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s of C h r i s t , a messiah who, i t i s p o i n t e d o u t , e l e c t e d t o walk the e a r t h i n t h e company of the poor and t o make the poor 78 the b e a r e r s of h i s redempt ive message. In the words of the weekly p a r o c h i a l b u l l e t i n , "no hay en C r i s t o y en l a i q l e s i a n inquna d e s i q u a l d a d fundamentada en r a z a o n a c i o n a l i d a d , en  condici6n s o c i a l o sexo. porque 'no hay n i j u d i o n i q r i e q o ,  no hay n i e s c l a v o n i hombre l i b r e ; no hay n i hombre n i  mujer, pues todos somos "UNO" en C r i s t o J e s u s . ' " 1 ° 7 ' Out of t h i s oneness has sprung a f e e l i n g of power which, when coup led with a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h e i r environment i n the l i g h t of the g o s p e l , has l e d the members of San Jose Obrero to a s s e r t themse lves i n both r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r a f f a i r s . The s t a t u s quo, which o r d a i n s tha t some are born t o c o n t r o l and some are born t o be c o n t r o l l e d , has ceased t o be a c c e p t a b l e . C a i s s i e o f f e r s a v i v i d example of the metamorphosis which can occur when m i s s i o n a r i e s t r e a t t h e i r ho s t s as they would wish themse lves t o be t r e a t e d . He r e l a t e s the s t o r y of a v i r t u a l l y i l l i t e r a t e peasant who, when he f i r s t made c o n t a c t wi th the m i s s i o n a r i e s , d i d so with a bared head and downturned eyes , the manner the c l a s s t o which he belonged had been taught t o assume when add re s s i n g a person i n a p o s i t i o n of a u t h o r i t y . When C a i s s i e i n v i t e d him t o r a i s e h i s eyes from the ground, he r e f u s e d . E f f o r t s were subsequent l y made t o i n v o l v e him i n the a c t i v i t i e s of San Jose' Obre ro , thereby making him f e e l tha t he was an i n t e g r a l and i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r t of t h i s young community. A t a l e n t e d mason, he was p r e v a i l e d upon to take a l e a d i n g pa r t i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n which was underway at 79 tha t t ime. S i m i l a r l y , he was welcomed i n t o one of the i n t i m a t e groups i n which m i s s i o n a r i e s and members of t h e i r cong rega t i on gather t o deepen t h e i r commitment t o and under s tand ing of Sod and one another . The r e s u l t , a c c o r d i n g to C a i s s i e , was tha t "he s t a r t e d h e a r i n g the word of h i s own d i g n i t y . When I r e t u r n e d — i t must have been t h r e e or f ou r yea r s a f t e r I had l e f t the m i s s i on — he was the number one C h r i s t i a n l eader i n h i s l a r g e community, i n h i s p a r i s h , not on l y i n the smal l group. He was g e t t i n g up on Sundays and g i v i n g the t e a c h i n g , the homi l y . He had gone on a summer cour se t o L ima, the c a p i t a l , t o a c q u i r e the s k i l l s of c a t e c h i s t and t h i n g s l i k e t h a t , and he was the l eader and as proud as c o u l d b e . " l o s The m i s s i o n a r i e s of V i c t o r i a Nueva have been moved no l e s s deep ly than t h e i r ho s t s i n the cour se of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p . What i s d i f f e r e n t i s the d i r e c t i o n of t h i s movement. Whi le many members of San Jose Obrero have been u p l i f t e d , the p r i e s t s and s i s t e r s who a s s i s t e d i n t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n have been humbled. They have been a b l e t o pa r take i n the l i f e of the b a r r i a d a i n a way which has brought them f a c e t o f a c e wi th the pover t y and the f o r t i t u d e which c h a r a c t e r i z e i t . The peop le of V i c t o r i a Nueva have served as a model f o r them, showing them what s t r e n g t h and weakness r e a l l y a r e . The m i s s i o n a r i e s have come t o see tha t they have not been o b l i g e d t o e x e r c i s e the one or endure the other i n Canada i n any th ing more than a s u p e r f i c i a l way. 80 They have come t o see tha t the m i l i e u i n which they were r a i s e d has demanded l e s s of them and been g i ven l e s s by them i n r e t u r n than the m i l i e u i n t o which the t y p i c a l Pe ruv i an i s born . No tw i th s tand ing a d v e r s i t i e s of every d e s c r i p t i o n , the t h e o l o g i c a l v i r t u e s of f a i t h , c h a r i t y , and hope — so termed by the Church because of t h e i r d i v i n e provenance — are f e l t by the m i s s i o n a r i e s t o be more r a d i c a l l y p re sen t i n V i c t o r i a Nueva than i n t h e i r own communit ies . H u m i l i t y i s evoked by the knowledge tha t t h e y , who a re t e a c h e r s , a re a l s o p u p i l s and tha t through the i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y of t h e i r h o s t s , they are c l o s e r t o beho ld ing C h r i s t than ever b e f o r e . "Many m i s s i o n a r i e s coming back w i l l say , 'You know, I r e c e i v e d more than I ever g a v e , ' " no tes V i i l e i a , "and they say tha t i n a l l t r u t h f u l n e s s . " 1o It i s the g reat c a p a c i t y of t h e i r ho s t s t o l o ve which has most s t r u c k the m i s s i o n a r i e s . Whi le t h i s l ove i s not n e c e s s a r i l y w e l l - i n f o r m e d or wel1-channe l 1ed, i t r e p r e s e n t s f o r these p r i e s t s and s i s t e r s the essence of C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h e i r acknowledgement tha t the r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l system from which they have come i s b e r e f t of the same pa s s i on and would do we l l t o imbibe i t unde r s co re s how d i f f e r e n t i s t h e i r e thos from t h a t which p roc l a imed the s u p e r i o r i t y of a l l t h i n g s European and North Amer ican. Moore, f o r example, was impressed by the depth of the compassion of the peop le of V i c t o r i a Nueva, a compassion she would have been h a r d - p r e s s e d t o muster. She uses as an i l l u s t r a t i o n the 81 s t o r y of a woman who r e c e i v e d word tha t the i l l e g i t i m a t e son of her husband of twenty y e a r s , born wh i l e she was p regnant , wished t o s t a y with her w h i l e v i s i t i n g the a r e a . When she r a i s e d t h i s matter i n the woman's group of which she was a member, Moore ' s i n s t i n c t was t o commiserate with her and suggest t h e youth s tay with a ne i ghbour , but the o ther women were i n s i s t e n t tha t she f o r g i v e the wrong done t o her and take him i n . "I was a s t o n i s h e d , " Moore r e c a l l s . "I d o n ' t know i f I 'd do i t . Even though I h o p e f u l l y wou ldn ' t hate the boy, t o have him under my own roo f with my own son and my own husband, a h ! " 1 1 0 Mary E l l e n L o a r , who, as a s e n i o r o f f i c e r of the S i s t e r s of C h a r i t y between 1980 and 1988, was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her o r d e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s i n P e r u , compares the goodness of which t h i s i s but one of many i n s t a n c e s with what passes as goodness i n Canada, and f i n d s the l a t t e r want ing. She d e s c r i b e s a group of men who had s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r meagre wages and walked a whole day i n order t o p e t i t i o n the a u t h o r i t i e s f o r a s c h o o l t e a c h e r f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . In the e v e n i n g , d e s p i t e t h e i r wear ine s s , they ga thered t o d i s c u s s the meaning of the r e i g n of God. When asked how i t c o u l d be brought about , they t a l k e d of c a r i n g f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n by go ing the e x t r a m i l e f o r them as they had l i t e r a l l y done tha t day. By Canadian s t a n d a r d s , Loar r e f l e c t s , " t h e y ' r e not r e a l l y t ha t r e l i g i o u s a peop le because they on l y have Mass t h e r e about once a yea r . Ye t , i n terms of t h e i r under s t and ing a l l of t h e i r l i f e a c t i v i t i e s 82 i n terms of the r e i g n of God, t h e y ' r e m i l e s ahead . . . of where somebody would be here because we might have so r i t u a l i z e d be ing a good person [ tha t i t ] means go ing t o Mass on Sunday and not commit t ing a d u l t e r y . " 1 1 1 Thus i t i s t ha t C a i s s i e can conc lude wi thout h e s i t a t i o n tha t " t h e m i s s i o n a r y i s the one who goes t o be conver ted as we l l as t o conver t o t h e r s . I t ' s wa lk ing the journey t o g e t h e r . " 1 1 3 5 If such s h a r i n g r e p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t break with the p a s t , so , t o o , does the t r u s t and ou t reach which accompany i t . I n so fa r as que s t i on s of t r u s t a re concerned , the p r i e s t s and s i s t e r s of V i c t o r i a Nueva go t o g reat l e n g t h s , i f not a lways t o s a n c t i o n , at l e a s t t o make a l l owances f o r the very c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s found so t r o u b l i n g i n the peop le who surrounded them. What were once cons t rued as be ing v i c e s can now be d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s . One of these c a t e g o r i e s c o n s i s t s of p a t t e r n s of b e l i e f and conduct which, wh i l e d i s t i n c t from those of Europe and North Amer i ca , a re viewed by m i s s i o n a r i e s as a wholesome e x p r e s s i o n of the r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l system i n which they f i n d themse lves and, t h u s , as t r e a s u r e s t o be d i l i g e n t l y p r o t e c t e d . P e r u v i a n s , f o r example, a re a t a c t i l e p e o p l e , a t r a i t they d i s p l a y not on l y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with one another but i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with God. T h e i r s t r ong sense of the bond between the s p i r i t u a l and the p h y s i c a l l e a d s them to c a r e s s and k i s s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the s a i n t s i n a way which would be i n c o n c e i v a b l e i n a 83 Canadian p a r i s h . A l i e n though t h i s form of r e l i g i o s i t y i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o a pa r t of the wor ld whose devo t i on t o the s a i n t s i s waning, p r a c t i c e s such as the pa s s i n g from hand t o hand of a s t a t u e of Mary a re t r e a t e d with r e s p e c t by m i s s i o n a r i e s . Time, t o t u r n t o the temporal r e a l m , a l s o has a d i f f e r e n t s i g n i f i c a t i o n f o r P e r u v i a n s than f o r Canad ians . To the f o rmer , p u n c t u a l i t y or even the keeping of appointments i s un impor tan t , a source of f r u s t r a t i o n f o r anyone, however s e n s i t i v e , who has been taught t o opera te by the c l o c k . The m i s s i o n a r i e s of V i c t o r i a Nueva a re no e x c e p t i o n , b u t , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s , they do not rega rd t h e i r ho s t s as be ing i r r e s p o n s i b l e , f o r they sense tha t a d i f f e r e n t and, a r g u a b l y , w o r t h i e r se t of v a l u e s i s at p l a y . C u r r i e remembers w a i t i n g i n v a i n f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o appear at the hour at which they were expec ted . "Why d i d n ' t they come?" he asks . "They c o u l d come and see me any t i m e , but t h e i r u n c l e j u s t happened t o a r r i v e from the mounta in, and h e ' s l e a v i n g the next day. I'm always go ing t o be here f o r them, but h e ' s on l y pa s s ing through. Or they d i d n ' t come because t h e i r neighbour got s i c k , and they had t o go, as they say , acompanar, j u s t t o s i t wi th them, which i s b e a u t i f u l i n many w a y s . " x 1 3 The o ther ca tego ry of one - t ime e v i l s a l l u d e d to above a l s o c o n s i s t s of p a t t e r n s of b e l i e f and conduct which a re at v a r i a n c e with European and North American norms, b u t , i n t h i s c a s e , t he se p a t t e r n s a re c o n s i d e r e d by m i s s i o n a r i e s t o 84 be i n v a r y i n g degrees unhea l thy and, t h u s , i n need of m o d i f i c a t i o n . S t i l l , no rep roaches are l e v e l l e d at the men and women who adhere t o the i m p e r f e c t modes of thought and a c t i o n i n q u e s t i o n . These peop le a re not regarded as s i n n e r s but as v i c t i m s of s i n , an a c c u s i n g f i n g e r be ing p o i n t e d not t o them but t o the soc ioeconomic s t r u c t u r e s which shape t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . What i s s t r i k i n g about the m i s s i o n a r i e s of V i c t o r i a Nueva i s the l e v e l of comprehension they b r i n g t o i s s u e s which once e l i c i t e d c r i e s of immora l i t y or s u p e r s t i t i o n . One of the c a r d i n a l f e a t u r e s of Pe ruv i an r e l i g i o s i t y , f o r example, i s the dominant p l a c e i t g i v e s t o human m o r t a l i t y and, i n s o f a r as C h r i s t met a p a i n f u l end on e a r t h , d i v i n e m o r t a l i t y . The c u l t of the dead, as t h i s phenomenon can s u i t a b l y be c a l l e d , i s expressed i n e l a b o r a t e obsequ ies and r e c u r r i n g memor ia l s , a f e r v e n t s p i r i t of p e n i t e n c e , t i n g e d , at t i m e s , with d e s p e r a t i o n , and an ob se s s i on with C h r i s t at h i s most a b j e c t , the consummation of which i s the p a s s i o n a t e c e l e b r a t i o n s which mark Good F r i d a y . In c o n t r a s t , E a s te r and the t r iumph i m p l i c i t i n i t mean l i t t l e or no th ing t o P e r u v i a n s . T h i s imbalance i s one the m i s s i o n a r i e s a re committed t o r e d r e s s i n g , not because the peop le who g i v e v o i c e t o i t a re do ing wrong — on the c o n t r a r y , under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , they a re do ing r i g h t — but because a wrong i s be ing done t o them. The e r u p t i o n of g r i e f which o c c u r s a s , say , the S t a t i o n s of the Cros s a re be ing made i s i n t e r p r e t e d as a c a t h a r t i c phenomenon, a 85 c o l l e c t i v e r i t u a l i z a t i o n of the o the rw i se unendurab le sorrows of the poor . L i k e w i s e , the a n x i e t y which i s everywhere man i fe s t t o secu re God ' s favour on beha l f of the l i v i n g and the dead through a c t s of m o r t i f i c a t i o n i s unders tood as a n a t u r a l r e a c t i o n t o the t e r r i b l e u n c e r t a i n t i e s which c o n f r o n t the poor. " I t i s the s u f f e r i n g C h r i s t t h a t they e x p e r i e n c e , " Loar e x p l a i n s . "Most of those peop le have not had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o move beyond tha t t o the n i c e , neat Jesus tha t we see sometimes p o r t r a y e d on c r o s s e s i n p r i e s t l y robes . We're not i n the d a y - t o - d a y s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l . " 1 1 - * An equal degree of p e r c e p t i v i t y i s shown by m i s s i o n a r i e s i n the f a c e of another form of popu lar e scape , namely, a l c o h o l . Widespread p u b l i c i n t o x i c a t i o n i s viewed as an u n f o r t u n a t e but under s t andab le i ndu l gence on the par t of men and women who cannot a f f o r d o ther d i v e r s i o n s or even the s o l i t u d e i n which t o d r i n k d i s c r e e t l y . Having i d e n t i f i e d the r o o t s of the t r o u b l e s which beset t h e i r h o s t s , the m i s s i o n a r i e s of V i c t o r i a Nueva have devoted t h e i r e n e r g i e s t o b r i n g i n g about the l i g h t e n i n g and, u l t i m a t e l y , the e l i m i n a t i o n of t he se modern c r o s s e s . It i s here tha t q u e s t i o n s of ou t reach come t o the f o r e . In c o n t r a s t t o former t i m e s , t h e r e i s a b e l i e f t h a t l i t t l e can be accompl i shed i f the l o c u s of m i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t y i s h i g h l y p a r t i c u l a r i z e d , t ha t i s t o say , i f C h r i s t i a n i t y i s d e f i n e d i n terms of the c a p a c i t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of 86 s o l i t a r y C h r i s t i a n s r a t h e r than those of a community of C h r i s t i a n s . There i s a l s o a b e l i e f t h a t l i t t l e can be ach ieved i f t h i s community i s a l l owed t o f u n c t i o n i n i s o l a t i o n from the communit ies which e n c i r c l e and i n t e r s e c t i t . A c c o r d i n g l y , the m i s s i o n a r i e s have g e n t l y turned the eyes of San Jose Obrero outward, c u l t i v a t i n g the a n a l y t i c a l f a c u l t i e s which must be engaged i f i t s members a re t o opera te s u c c e s s f u l l y on a broad and v a r i e d s t a ge . To a t t a i n t h i s o b j e c t , a t r i p a r t i t e programme was implemented, c o n s i s t i n g of t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s , namely, s e e i n g , j u d g i n g , and a c t i n g . The f i r s t s tep demands tha t men and women r e f l e c t on t h e i r o f t e n p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e s , the second tha t they e v a l u a t e the se e x p e r i e n c e s u s ing the Old and New Testaments as i n t e r p r e t i v e t o o l s , and the t h i r d tha t they take measures to r e c o n c i l e t h e i r r e a l i t y wi th tha t of the g o s p e l . Working i n smal l g roups , the m i s s i o n a r i e s might, f o r example, i n v i t e t h e i r ho s t s t o t a l k about the problem of m a l n u t r i t i o n , e l i c i t i n g a n x i e t i e s which would o therw i se never be a i r e d i n p u b l i c . At an a p p r o p r i a t e moment, the d i s c u s s i o n would be deepened through the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a b i b l i c a l passage, such as the s t o r y i n which C h r i s t m i r a c u l o u s l y f eed s 5000 men and an u n s p e c i f i e d number of dependents wi th on l y f i v e l o ave s and two f i s h . Out of t h i s f u s i o n of the word of God and the word of the p e o p l e , a s imp le yet po tent l e s s o n would then be c o l l e c t i v e l y drawn. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , i t would be tha t t h e r e i s ample 87 nourishment f o r everyone who c r a v e s i t , p r o v i d e d the f r u i t s of the e a r t h and the sea a re shared . C h r i s t h imse l f i s shown t o demonstrate tha t hunger i s a burden which need not be borne. The m a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the goods of t h i s wor ld i s , t h u s , c a l l e d i n t o que s t i on and, wh i l e a g l o b a l problem cannot be r e s o l v e d by a handfu l of P e r u v i a n s , the n e c e s s i t y and — through communal a c t i o n — the p o s s i b i l i t y of e f f e c t i n g l o c a l changes i s made c l e a r . The r e s u l t s of t h i s awakening can be found i n the comedores which have sprung up throughout Pe ru . These c u l i n a r y c e n t r e s , e s t a b l i s h e d by the poor f o r the poor , a l l ow women to p repare common meals , r e d u c i n g expenses and r a i s i n g n u t r i t i o n a l s t anda rd s . T h e i r reach extends f u r t h e r than t h i s , however, f o r the comedores have taken s t e p s t o secure t h e i r own sou rce s of food and income and t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e i r c l i e n t s , among them f i r s t a i d . Above a l l , they have enab led an oppressed c l a s s of an oppressed c l a s s t o enhance t h e i r l i v e s and those of t h e i r f a m i l i e s . As Hudec r e p o r t e d i n 1986, "Women who had been t i m i d and a f r a i d i n a man's wor ld were l e a r n i n g t o expres s t h e i r needs t o a u t h o r i t i e s and groups who c o u l d he lp them. They were l e a r n i n g t o r e l a t e t o g e t h e r , t o work out problems t o g e t h e r , t o p l an and o r g a n i z e a c t i v i t i e s . " 1 i a They, l i k e the members of San Jose Obrero , have l e a r n e d t o t r an scend t h e i r environment by t r a n s f o r m i n g i t i n accordance with the gospel i n a communal c o n t e x t . Ju s t how important t h i s 88 contex t has been t o the m i s s i o n a r i e s of V i c t o r i a Nueva can be seen i n t h e i r b e l i e f tha t the mark of a c o n s c i o u s C h r i s t i a n i t y , the sacrament of bap t i sm, i s c o n t i n g e n t not on l y on the good s t and ing of an i n d i v i d u a l o r , i n the case of a c h i l d , a c o u p l e but on the v i a b i l i t y of the community of which they a re a p a r t . 1 1 * P r e c i s e l y what c o n s t i t u t e s a v i a b l e community v a r i e s from p l a c e t o p l a c e , but the A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x has i d e n t i f i e d i t s c o n s t a n t s . The m i s s i on i n V i c t o r i a Nueva, l i k e every m i s s i on i n which m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r ho s t s have sought t o make the gospel a r e a l i t y i n p a r t n e r s h i p with one ano ther , i s des igned t o be a "community of f a i t h and l o v e i n which brotherhood i s expe r i enced and l i v e d and i n which human growth i s made p a s s i b l e by c a r i n g f o r one another and r e s p e c t i n g the d i g n i t y of man . " 1 1 - 7 ' A b e t t e r a r t i c u l a t i o n of the m i s s i ona ry ethos which predominates today would be hard to f i n d . 89 C o n c l u s i on The p r a y e r s which a re r e c i t e d i n C a t h o l i c churches on Good F r i d a y have long c o n t a i n e d a r e f e r e n c e to n o n b e l i e v e r s . Be fo re the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , the Church expressed the hope tha t " a lm i gh ty God may remove i n i q u i t y from t h e i r h e a r t s , so tha t they may l e a v e t h e i r i d o l s and be conver ted t o the l i v i n g and t r u e G o d . " 1 1 0 A f t e r the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , i n c o n t r a s t , the Church expressed the hope tha t " they may a l l r e c o g n i s e i n the l i v e s of C h r i s t i a n s the tokens of your CGod'sH l o ve and mercy, and g l a d l y acknowledge you as the one t r u e God and Fa ther of us a l l . " 1 1 * * ' The e thoses which form the s u b j e c t of t h i s t h e s i s are encap su l a ted i n the se i n t e r c e s s i o n s . Both r e v e a l a d e s i r e t o b r i n g those f u r t h e s t from the c e n t r e of the Church to a f u l l awareness of God, but the paths they propose be f o l l o w e d i n the p u r s u i t of t h i s goal a re very d i f f e r e n t . The. o l d i n t e r c e s s i o n i s i m p l i c i t l y c a l l i n g f o r s a v i o u r s , f o r m i s s i o n a r i e s who w i l l open the eyes of t h e i r ho s t s t o what they l a c k . The new i n t e r c e s s i o n i s i m p l i c i t l y c a l l i n g f o r w i tne s se s , f o r m i s s i o n a r i e s who w i l l open the eyes of t h e i r ho s t s t o what they pos ses s . N o n b e l i e v e r s a re summoned t o abandon t h e i r b e l i e f s i n the one ca se . B e l i e v e r s a re summoned t o l i v e t h e i r b e l i e f s i n the o t h e r . The n a t u r e of m i s s i o n a r i e s ' r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r ho s t s has depended on the l i g h t i n which t h i n g s n o n - C a t h o l i c have been v iewed. Those who have regarded them as 90 e s s e n t i a l l y bad have n a t u r a l l y b e l i e v e d tha t the l e s s they have t o do with them the b e t t e r , a c o n v i c t i o n which l i e s behind the s o l i t a r y na tu re of the s a v i o u r ' s work. Those who have regarded them as e s s e n t i a l l y good have n a t u r a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the more they have to do with them the b e t t e r , a c o n v i c t i o n which l i e s behind the communal na tu re of the w i t n e s s ' work. A f o r e i g n g o s p e l , u n i l a t e r a l l y imp l an ted , has emerged i n the f i r s t i n s t a n c e , and an ind i genous g o s p e l , c o o p e r a t i v e l y unea r thed , has emerged i n the second. P l u r a l i s m has been shunned or embraced as f e r v e n t l y i n L a t i n America as anywhere e l s e , f o r d e s p i t e i t s nominal C a t h o l i c i t y , i t has been grouped with a l i e n r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l systems i n m i s s i o n a r i e s ' minds. In a sense , the R io Grande i s the border every m i s s i o n a r y has c o n f r o n t e d on encoun te r i ng h i s h o s t s , a border some have deemed an o b s t a c l e and some have deemed an i n v i t a t i o n t o communicat ion. Why m i s s i o n a r i e s saw between themse lves and t h e i r ho s t s so g rea t a d i s t a n c e i n 1890 and so smal l a d i s t a n c e i n 1990 i s a ques t i on which has i t s answer i n the r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r wor lds of t h e i r day. E q u a l i t y has been d e f i n e d d i f f e r e n t l y at d i f f e r e n t t i m e s , and, wi th e x c e p t i o n s , m i s s i o n a r i e s have accepted the p r e v a i l i n g d e f i n i t i o n . A m i s s i ona ry who, a c e n t u r y ago, den ied h i s C h u r c h ' s monopoly i n t r u t h would be viewed as odd ly as a m i s s i ona ry who, today , den ied h i s C h u r c h ' s o b l i g a t i o n t o acknowledge t r u t h 91 o u t s i d e i t s e l f . A m i s s i o n a r y who, a c e n t u r y ago, denounced the p r e t e n s i o n s of Europe and North America t o c h a r t the d e s t i n i e s of nonwhite peop le s would be viewed as odd ly as a m i s s i ona ry who, today , championed the r i g h t of Europe and North America t o e x e r c i s e t h i s t r u s t e e s h i p . It i s as impor tan t , t h e r e f o r e , t o c o n t e x t u a l i z e the e thoses which have dominated the l a s t 100 yea r s as i t i s t o d e l i n e a t e them. T h i s t h e s i s has sought t o do b o t h , and i f the m i s s i o n a r i e s of the past and the p resent are b e t t e r understood i n consequence, i t w i l l have ach ieved i t s purpose. a 92 Notes 1. Mk. 16:15, C. C. D. 2. Joseph B lomjous, " M i s s i o n s and M i s s i o n a r i e s of Tomorrow," i n E x e c u t i v e Committee, N a t i o n a l M i s s i on Study Week, e d . , The Church i s M i s s i on (London: G e o f f r e y Chapman, 1969), pp. 171-172. 3. In terms of manpower, on l y A f r i c a , w i th 1856 Canadian m i s s i o n a r i e s at work among i t s p e o p l e , c o u l d compete with L a t i n Amer i ca , where the t o t a l f o r t h i s year s tood at 1998 ( L a t i n American O f f i c e , Canadian C a t h o l i c Con fe rence , "Canadians i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , " Bui 1 e t i n [January 1971], p. 19, A r c h i v e s of the A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x [ h e n c e f o r t h i d e n t i f i e d as A. A. H.3). 4. Stephen C. Ne i11, " C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n s , " The Encyc l oped i a of R e l i g i o n , 9 (1987), p. 579. 5. Glenn D. K i t t l e r , The Marykno l l F a t h e r s ( C l eve l and : World P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1961), p. 299. 6. Emery Champagne, "Les r e s s o u r c e s de 1'ame des i n f i d e l e s , " i n S e c r e t a r i a t General de L "Union M i s s i o n n a i r e du C l e r g e 8< S e c r e t a r i a t des Semaines d ' E t u d e s M i s s i o n n a i r e s , e d s . , La c o n v e r s i o n des i n f i d e l e s (Quebec: Archeveche de Quebec 8< Ottawa: Univers i ty? d 'Ot tawa, 1936), pp. 133-134. 7. Gera ld M. C o s t e l l o , M i s s i o n t o L a t i n America (Marykno l l : O r b i s Books, 1979), p. 71. 8. Stephen Ne i11 , C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n s (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1964), p. 194. 9. Leo XI I I , " I n t e r G r a v e s , " i n C l a u d i a C a r l e n , e d . , The  Papal E n c y c l i c a l s , 5 v o l s , ( n .p . : McGrath P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1981), v o l . 2, p. 349. 10. Pao lo Manna, The Conver s ion of the Pagan World (Boston: S o c i e t y f o r the P ropaga t i on of the F a i t h , 1921), p. 10. The monopo l i z a t i on of t r u t h on the pa r t of the Church found one of i t s most uncompromising e x p r e s s i o n s i n P i u s X I ' s e n c y c l i c a l , "Mor ta l ium Animos. " Issued i n 1928, i t h a r s h l y depreca ted the y o u t h f u l ecumenica l movement, which sought t o u n i f y a s p l i n t e r e d Chr i s tendom, and fo rbade C a t h o l i c s from hav ing any th ing t o do wi th i t s p r o j e c t s . D i a logue was an a l i e n concep t , f o r d i s u n i t y was a problem which admit ted of but one s o l u t i o n : an u n c o n d i t i o n a l r e t u r n t o the e x i s t e n t u n i t y of the Church r a t h e r than a f a l l a c i o u s u n i t y formed i n c o n c e r t wi th i t . In the tone of an unbending p a r e n t , the 93 pope s t a t e d , " L e t , t h e r e f o r e , the separa ted c h i l d r e n draw n igh t o the A p o s t o l i c See, set up i n the C i t y which Peter and P a u l , the P r i n c e s of the A p o s t l e s , c o n s e c r a t e d by t h e i r b l o o d ; t o tha t See, We r e p e a t , which i s ' t h e roo t and womb whence the Church of God s p r i n g s , ' not wi th the i n t e n t i o n and the hope t h a t ' t h e Church of the l i v i n g God, the p i l l a r and ground of the t r u t h ' w i l l c a s t a s i d e the i n t e g r i t y of the f a i t h and t o l e r a t e t h e i r e r r o r s , b u t , on the c o n t r a r y , tha t they themse lves submit t o i t s t e a c h i n g and government" (P ius XI, "Mor ta l ium Animos, " i n C l a u d i a C a r l en , e d . , The  Papal E n c y c l i c a l s , 5 v o l s . Cn .p . : McGrath P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 19813, v o l . 3, p. 318). 11. John J . K i n g , " S a l v a t i o n and the C h u r c h , " The American E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Review, 144 (March 1961), p. 190. 12. Cuthber t B u t l e r , The V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , 2 v o l s . (London: Longmans, Green ?< C o . , 1930), v o l . 2, p. 261. 13. W i l l i a m B. F r a z i e r , " G u i d e l i n e s f o r a New Theology of M i s s i o n , " i n Ge ra l d H. Anderson & Thomas F. S t r an sky , e d s . , M i s s i on Trends No. 1 (New York: P a u l i s t P re s s & Grand Rap ids : Wm. B. Eerdmans P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1974), p. 27. 14. P i u s XI I, " M y s t i c i C o r p o r i s C h r i s t i , " i n C l a u d i a Ca r l e n , e d . , The Papal E n c y c l i c a l s , 5 v o l s . ( n .p . : McGrath P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1981), v o l . 4, p. 58. 15. Pao lo Manna, The Workers Are Few (Boston: S o c i e t y f o r the P ropaga t i on of the F a i t h , 1911), pp. 65-66. 16. I b i d . , p. 67. 17. P i u s X, " L a c r i m a b i l i S t a t u , " i n C l a u d i a C a r l e n , e d . , The Papal E n c y c l i c a l s , 5 v o l s , ( n .p . : McGrath P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1981), v o l . 3, p. 132. C e r t a i n s c h o l a r s , i t i s t r u e , conc luded t h a t even the l e a s t deve loped peop le s of the wor ld had been touched by remnants of the p r i m i t i v e r e v e l a t i o n f i r s t vouchsa fed to Adam — a t r i c k l e down theo ry which i s now c o n s i d e r e d t o be un tenab le — and t h a t , as a consequence, they had "a n o t i o n of an Unseen God . . . ; of the s u r v i v a l of the s o u l ; of reward and punishment; of the need of p raye r and s a c r i f i c e " (John J . C o n s i d i n e , The V a t i c a n M i s s i o n E x p o s i t i o n [New York: Macmi l l an C o . , 1925D, p. 106), but c o n s t r u c t s such as t h i s had a l i m i t e d impact i n the f i e l d . There , beyond the c i r c l e s of l i g h t thrown out by m i s s i o n s , darkness was w ide l y f e l t t o r e i g n supreme. 18. Manna, The Workers Are Few, p. 26. 19. P a t r i c k James Donahue, "The P o s s i b i l i t i e s of the F u t u r e , " i n F r a n c i s C. K e l l e y , e d . , The F i r s t American 94 C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a r y Congress (Chicago: J . S. Hyland & C o . , 1909), pp. 315-316. Many yea r s would pass b e f o r e m i s s i o n a r i e s assumed t h e i r d u t i e s wi thout the i n t e n t i o n of t a k i n g command — as opposed t o p l a c i n g themse lves at the s e r v i c e of — the communites i n which they worked. A r e p o r t p resented by B ishop Eduardo P i r o n i o of La P l a t a , s e c r e t a r y genera l of the L a t i n American E p i s c o p a l C o u n c i l , i n 1969 on the s u b j e c t of f o r e i g n c l e r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e t o L a t i n America demonstrated tha t the shadow ca s t by t h i s form of m i s s i ona ry a c t i v i t y had not yet been e n t i r e l y d i s p e l l e d . In some c a s e s , he wrote , " t h e f o r e i g n e r a r r i v e s wi th a c e r t a i n a i r of s u p e r i o r i t y t ha t makes him l i t t l e l e s s than a conqu i s t ado r or ' c o l o n i z e r . ' Thus he makes no s e r i o u s e f f o r t at pe r sona l or p a s t o r a l a d a p t a t i o n , and he merely t r i e s t o t r a n s p l a n t or import i d e o l o g i e s and methods tha t do not f i t i n t o the L a t i n American s i t u a t i o n " (Eduardo F. P i r o n i o , " F o r e i g n P r i e s t s i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , " i n Peruv i an B i s h o p s ' Commission f o r S o c i a l A c t i o n , e d . , Between Honesty and Hope CMarykno l l : Marykno l l P u b l i c a t i o n s , 19703, p. 238). 20. R i cha rd Sykes, " F o r e i g n M i s s i o n s : A Program of A c t i o n , " The E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Review, 62 (February 1920), pp. 129-130. 21. J . M o r e n - L a c a l l e , " P e r u , " The C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 11 (1911), p. 732. A l though the p ropaga t i on of C a t h o l i c i s m i n c o l o n i a l L a t i n America does not f a l l w i t h i n the purview of t h i s t h e s i s , the l i g h t i n which the m i s s i ona ry a c t i v i t y of t h i s p e r i o d i s viewed c o n s t i t u t e s a bench mark by which the ethos of l a t e r epochs can be measured. Glowing d e p i c t i o n s of the conques t , such as tha t which appeared i n Amer ica , a prominent C a t h o l i c p e r i o d i c a l , i n 1924, r e v e a l how u n c r i t i c a l m i s s i o n a r y w r i t e r s cou ld be of t h e i r r e l i g i o c u l t u r a l system and, c o n v e r s e l y , how c r i t i c a l they cou ld be of those which l a y beyond i t s f r o n t i e r s . Thus, one l e a r n s tha t C o r t e s d i d not i n t e n d t o conquer New Spain bu t , r a t h e r , was provoked i n t o do ing so by b e l l i g e r e n t Ind ians , tha t these peop le "were not i n a h igh s t a t e of c i v i l i z a t i o n , but were h o s t i l e savages speak ing many d i f f e r e n t languages, p r a c t i s i n g abominable r e l i g i o u s r i t e s i n which human s l a u g h t e r p l ayed a p r i n c i p a l p a r t , " and t h a t the S p a n i a r d s , hav ing saved them from the h o r r o r s of paganism, ushered i n an u n p a r a l l e l e d r e i g n of harmony and abundance ( J . N. P a t t e r s o n , "A P u z z l i n g M i s s i o n P rob lem, " Amer i ca , 31 CMay 31, 19243, p. 154). 22. Stephen Kim, "A Church t h a t Turns Outward t o the W o r l d , " O r i g i n s , 16 (October 23, 1986), p. 333. 23. H. B e l l o c , Europe and the F a i t h (London: Cons tab le & C o . , 1921), p. 5. 24. John-Mary Simon, " Is t he Church O c c i d e n t a l i z e d ? , " The 95 E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Review, 77 (September 1927), p. 250. A minute e x p o s i t i o n o f the C h r i s t i a n -foundations of western c i v i l i z a t i o n can be found i n a P r o t e s t a n t work whose aim was t o show tha t every f a c e t of contemporary p r o g r e s s , t ha t most r e v e r e d of European and North American s h i b b o l e t h s , was r e d u c i b l e t o the t e a c h i n g s of C h r i s t and h i s past and p re sen t f o l l o w e r s . In the words of i t s a u t h o r , "our s c i e n c e i s a r e s u l t of our g o s p e l ; and hence a l l our c i v i l i z a t i o n i s on l y a synonym f o r the gospel of Jesus C h r i s t — a by -p roduc t of the g o s p e l . T race t h i s thought out t o a l a s t a n a l y s i s , and we have a r a i l r o a d t r a i n , a t r o l l e y c a r , a t e l e g r a p h , a t e l e p h o n e , a phonograph, a watch i n your pocke t , a f i l l i n g i n your t o o t h , g l a s s e s on your eyes , and a l l the g rea t m a c h i n e r y - f i l l e d m i l l s which i t has r e q u i r e d thought t o p roduce , and thought and i n t e l l i g e n c e t o o p e r a t e " ( Isaac T a y l o r Head land, Some By -P roduc t s of M i s s i o n s [New York: Method i s t Book Concern , 19123, pp. 36 -37 ) . 25. Ad r i an H a s t i n g s , Church and M i s s i o n i n Modern AjFrica (New York: Fordham U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), p. 26. 26. C. C. M a r t i n d a l e , A f r i c a n Anqelus (London: Sheed & Ward, 1933), p. 298. 27. C o s t e l l o , M i s s i o n t o L a t i n Amer i ca , p. 75. 28. J . E l l i o t Ross, " F o r e i g n M i s s i o n s a F a i l u r e ? , " The C a t h o l i c Wor ld . 123 ( Ju l y 1926), pp. 437-438. 29. I b i d . , p. 439. 30. ' Manna, The Conver s ion of the Pagan Wor ld, pp. 146-147. The anna l s of the Church i n L a t i n America demonstrate tha t an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o grant power to or acknowledge the worth of i nd i genous C a t h o l i c s was not r e s t r i c t e d t o the Old World. A l though , i n 1537, Paul III had decreed tha t Ind ians were genuine human be ing s and were both a b l e and anx ious ' t o embrace the dogma of C a t h o l i c i s m , they were long p r o s c r i b e d from t a k i n g ho l y o r d e r s . In c o l o n i a l t i m e s , even c r i o l 1 o s found i t d i f f i c u l t t o en te r the upper reaches of the Church. Of the 706 b i shop s who he l d o f f i c e i n Span i sh America i n t h i s p e r i o d , 85 per cent were p e n i n s u l a r e s (A. T i b e s a r et a l . , " L a t i n Amer i ca , Church i n , " New C a t h o l i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , 8 [1967] , p. 451) . It i s the l egacy of t h i s e x c l u s i v i t y which i s of r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s t h e s i s . Held at a rm ' s l eng th f o r c e n t u r i e s , ever the o b j e c t of m i n i s t r a t i o n s and never m i n i s t e r s t o o t h e r s , Ind ians and the marg ina l masses of which they formed a pa r t ceased t o t h i n k of the p r i e s t h o o d as a v a l i d v o c a t i o n f o r p e p l e of t h e i r stamp. In 1970, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g an enormous i n f l u x of m i s s i o n a r i e s i n the cour se of the p r e c e d i n g decade, L a t i n Amer ica had the most un f avou rab le r a t i o of p r i e s t s t o C a t h o l i c s i n the wor ld . 96 Whi le the m i s s i o n a r i e s of the epoch p r e s e n t l y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n were not r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s imba lance, t h e i r e thos d i d not f a c i l i t a t e i t s r e d r e s s . 31. Adr i an H a s t i n g s , "In the F i e l d , " i n E x e c u t i v e Committee, N a t i o n a l M i s s i o n Study Week, e d . , The Church i s M i s s i on (Londons G e o f f r e y Chapman, 1969), pp. 84-85. 32. P i u s XI, "Rerum E c c l e s i a e , " i n C l a u d i a C a r l e n , e d . , The Papal E n c y c l i c a l s , 5 v o l s , ( n .p . : McGrath P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1981), v o l . 3, p. 286. 33. T. D. Robe r t s , "An Archb i shop Looks at I n d i a , " The  Month, 181 (September—October 1945), p. 338. 34. A. V. D i c e y , L e c t u r e s on the R e l a t i o n Between Law and P u b l i c Op in ion i n England Dur ing the N ine teenth Cen tu ry , 2nd ed. (London: Macmi l lan & C o . , 1914), p. 456. 35. Manna, The Conver s ion of the Pagan Wor ld, p. 61. 36. Heinz G o l l w i t z e r , Europe i n the Age of Imper i a l i sm: 1880-1914 (London: Thames & Hudson, 1969), p. 104. 37. G e o f f r e y Moorhouse, The Mi s s i ona r i es (London: Eyre Methuen, 1973), p. 212. 38. J . N. O g i l v i e , Our E m p i r e ' s Debt t o M i s s i o n s (London: Hodder 8< S toughton, n . d . ) , p. 251. 39. I b i d . , p. 258. 40. Stephen N e i l l , C o l o n i a l i s m and C h r i s t i a n M i s s i o n s (London: L u t t e r w o r t h P r e s s , 1966), p. 155. The p r o t e c t i o n extended t o m i s s i o n a r i e s by t h e i r homelands was not c o n f i n e d to the t e r r i t o r i e s over which these powers r u l e d . P r o t e c t o r a t e s , such as the one e s t a b l i s h e d i n Ch ina by F r a n c e , p l a c e d m i s s i o n a r i e s and t h e i r f l o c k s i n a p r i v i l e g e d p o s i t i o n v i s - a - v i s l o c a l n o n - C a t h o l i c s . U n t i l o ther c o u n t r i e s c l a imed the r i g h t t o look a f t e r t h e i r own m i s s i o n a r i e s , every C a t h o l i c s t a t i o n e d i n Ch ina was f o r m a l l y g ranted the s t a t u s of a F rench s u b j e c t and, as such , enjoyed the support of French c o n s u l a r o f f i c i a l s i n the c o n f l i c t s which not i n f r e q u e n t l y a rose wi th Ch inese a u t h o r i t i e s . In t h i s c a s e , as i n many o t h e r s , m i s s i o n a r i e s were the means of expanding the reach of more than j u s t the g o s p e l . 41. J . Derek Holmes & Bernard W. B i c k e r s , A Short H i s t o r y of  the C a t h o l i c Church (New York: P a u l i s t P r e s s , 1984), p. 264. 42. John G a l l a g h e r & Ronald Rob inson, "The Imper ia l i sm of F ree T r a d e , " i n Wm. Roger L o u i s , e d . , Imperi a l i sm (New York: 97 New V iewpo in t s [ F r a n k l i n Watts3, 1976), p. 62. 43. John W. B u t l e r , "Mexico and C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , " i n W i l l i a m D. G ran t , e d . , Chr i s tendom Anno Domini MDCCCCI, 2 v o l s . (Toronto! W i l l i a m B r i g g s , 1902), v o l . 1, p. 356. 44. W. M. Kennedy, "The R e v o l u t i o n i n Cuba, " The Dub l i n Review, 304 (January 1913), p. 69. 45. James S. Denn i s , F o r e i g n M i s s i o n s A f t e r a Century (Ed inburgh: O l i p h a n t , Anderson & F e r r i e r , 1894), p. 139. It i s a measure of the repugnance L a t i n American C a t h o l i c i s m aroused i n P r o t e s t a n t h e a r t s t h a t the broad-minded looked with equan imi ty on the presence of C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s i n t h i s pa r t of the wor ld . Concluded one, " I f r e l i g i o n has no th ing t o do with m o r a l i t y , then i t i s a l l w e l l . We can l eave South America a l one . But i f as we b e l i e v e r e l i g i o n i s no th ing but a l i v i n g m o r a l i t y , the m o r a l i t y of a t r u e and l o v i n g f e l l o w s h i p with a Heavenly F a t h e r , . . . then we are no C h r i s t i a n s i f we do n o t , whether American P r o t e s t a n t or American C a t h o l i c , c a r r y such a r e l i g i o n t o South Amer ica " (Robert E. Speer , South American Prob lems, 2nd ed. [New York: Student Vo lun teer Movement f o r F o r e i g n M i s s i o n s , 19133, pp. 194-195). H i s i n v i t a t i o n was spurned , f o r though h i s v iews of L a t i n American C a t h o l i c i s m were not who l ly at odds with those of h i s C a t h o l i c countrymen, the po i sonous s t a t e of i n t e r - C h u r c h r e l a t i o n s i n t h i s epoch demanded tha t the charges of a P r o t e s t a n t be u n e q u i v o c a l l y r e p u d i a t e d . "He wants us t o p i t y ben ighted South A m e r i c a , " an a r t i c l e i n Ameri ca r i p o s t e d . "We p i t y South A m e r i c a ' s ben ighted defamers" ( J . B. Culemans, "Ben ighted South A m e r i c a , " Ameri c a , 16 [December 16, 19163, p. 225). 46. W i l l i a m H. 0 ' C o n n e l l , "A rchb i shop 0 'Connel1 ' s • A d d r e s s , " i n F r a n c i s C. K e l l e y , e d . , The F i r s t American C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a r y Congress (Chicago: J . S. Hyland & C o . , 1909), p. 364. 47. I b i d . , pp. 364-365. 48. M. A. Fann ing , "The Oppor tun i t y of the Layman," i n F r a n c i s C. K e l l e y , e d . , The F i r s t American C a t h o l i c M i s s i o n a r y Congress (Chicago: J . S. Hyland & C o . , 1909), p. 239. 49. C o s t e l l o , M i s s i on t o L a t i n Amer i ca , p. 49. 50. John F. Kennedy, " A l i a n z a para P r o g r e s o , " The Department of S t a t e B u l l e t i n , 44 ( A p r i l 3, 1961), p. 475. 51. A idan M. C a r r , "Once A g a i n , " The H o m i l e t i c and P a s t o r a l Review, 61 (December 1960), pp. 268-269. The Church i n 98 Canada was of the same mind. As i t s b i shops s t a t e d when they p roc l a imed t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n to come t o the a i d of L a t i n Amer i ca , "w i th God ' s h e l p , we s h a l l c o n t r i b u t e to p r e v e n t i n g the tr iumph of Marx i s t i d e o l o g y which i s a lways l o o k i n g f o r s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e s and i n e q u a l i t i e s , not i n o rder t o remedy them but so as t o sow the seeds of anarchy and t o e s t a b l i s h an inhuman and God less d i c t a t o r s h i p " ( A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Board , Canadian C a t h o l i c C o n f e r e n c e , " J o i n t P a s t o r a l L e t t e r of the Canadian E p i s c o p a t e on A p o s t o l i c C o - o p e r a t i o n Between Canada and L a t i n Amer i ca " (January 13, 1960) , p. 8, A. A. H.) . T h i s l e t t e r was i s s u e d i n the t r a i n of a meeting he l d i n Washington i n the f a l l of 1959 at which r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Canad ian , Amer ican, and L a t i n American e p i s c o p a t e s l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n s f o r an unprecedented programme of a s s i s t a n c e to L a t i n A m e r i c a ' s be leaguered Church. 52. Kennedy, " A l i a n z a para P r o g r e s o , " p. 472. 53. Ago s t i no C a s a r o l i , "Papa l P lan f o r L a t i n A m e r i c a , " Review f o r R e l i g i o u s , 21 (January 1962), p. 17. 54. Ivan I l l i c h , "The Seamy S i d e of C h a r i t y , " Amer ica , 116 (January 21, 1967), p. 90. 55. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with L o u i s C a i s s i e (Amherst, Nova S c o t i a ) , A p r i l 8, 1987. 56. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with Zelma LeBlanc ( H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a ) , August 31, 1987. 57. A lexander C a r t e r , "The Canadian M i s s i o n a r y E f f o r t i n L a t i n Amer i ca " (March 28, 1966), p. 10, A. A. H. 58. I b i d . , p. 11. 59. R. R. Pa lmer, A H i s t o r y of the Modern Wor ld, 2nd ed. (New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1956), p. 625. 60. P i u s X, " L a c r i m a b i l i S t a t u , " p. 132. 61. George M. Korb, "The S c i e n t i f i c S c r u t i n y of M i s s i on Methods, " The American E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Review, 144 (February 1961) , p. 118. 62. Penny Lernoux, Cry of the Peop le (Garden C i t y : Doubleday & C o . , 1980), p. 15. 63. C. L o u i s C o f f i n , "Our South American N e i g h b o r s , " Amer i ca , 2 (February 19, 1910), p. 499. 64. 0. North Tower, "The Men from Heaven, " The Catho l i c 99 World., 125 ( Ju l y 1927), p. 485. 65. E l b r i d g e Co l by , "The M i s s i o n F i e l d i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a , " The E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Review. 62 (February 1920), p. 145. 66. W i l l i a m S c h a e f e r s , "The P a r i s h P r i e s t and Mexican S e t t l e m e n t s , " The E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Review, 63 (October 1920), p. 395. 67. Pe ter Masten Dunne, A Padre Views South Amer ica (Milwaukee: Bruce P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1945), p. 281. 68- I b i d . , pp. 286-287. 69. Paul Bouchard, " R e l i g i o n i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , " The American E c c l e s i a s t i c a l Review, 144 ( A p r i l 1961), p. 238. For Bouchard and h i s l i k e - m i n d e d c o r e l i g i o n i s t s , two dangers were c o n f r o n t i n g C a t h o l i c i s m i n L a t i n Amer ica : t ha t of Sov i e t communism and tha t of American P r o t e s t a n t i s m . The t h r e a t they posed was r e l a t e d , f o r a sw i t ch i n r e l i g i o u s l o y a l t i e s was viewed as a p r e l u d e t o a complete abandonment of r e l i g i o n i n favour of the m a t e r i a l i s t i c c reed propounded by the f o l l o w e r s of Marx. Unen l i gh tened L a t i n Amer icans , a c l a s s which would appear t o i n c l u d e a p l u r a l i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n , a re ca s t i n the r o l e of sheep wh ich , i f l u r e d from t h e i r l o n g - t i m e shepherds , must sooner or l a t e r wander i n t o the s i n i s t e r embrace of the enemies of western c i v i l i z a t i o n . 70. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with L o u i s C a i s s i e . 71. Samuel Ruiz G a r c i a , " E v a n g e l i z a t i o n i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , " i n L o u i s Michae l Co lonnese , e d . , The Church i n the  P resent -Day T ran s fo rmat i on of L a t i n America i n the L i g h t of the Counc i1 , 2 v o l s . (Bogota: Genera l S e c r e t a r i a t , L a t i n American E p i s c o p a l C o u n c i l & Washington: L a t i n Amer ica Bureau, Un i ted S t a t e s C a t h o l i c Con fe rence , 1970), v o l . 1, p. 167. For an independent a n a l y s i s of the s t a t e of C a t h o l i c i s m below the R io Grande, Ivan V a l l i e r ' s C a t h o l i c i s m , S o c i a l C o n t r o l , and M o d e r n i z a t i o n i n L a t i n  America shou ld be c o n s u l t e d . The p o s i t i o n of the Church i s shown t o be f a r from s t r o n g , long d i s t i n g u i s h e d , as i t has been, by a poor l e v e l of o r g a n i z a t i o n , a tenuous p l a c e i n the l a r g e l y e x t r a e c c l e s i a s t i c a l r e l i g i o s i t y of those who c a l l themse lves C a t h o l i c s , and, i n t e r t w i n e d with the se hand i cap s , an unhea l thy dependence on e x t e r n a l c e n t r e s of i n f l u e n c e . The C h u r c h ' s f a i l u r e t o become i t s own master has p revented i t , i n t u r n , from c r e a t i n g a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e system of v a l u e s through which a consensua l b a s i s f o r s o c i e t y as a whole can be deve loped . The r e s u l t , a c co rd ing t o V a l l i e r , has been c h r o n i c i n s t a b i l i t y w i t h i n the L a t i n American body p o l i t i c . What i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the 100 contex t of the ques t i on at hand — whether or not the presence of m i s s i o n a r i e s was and i s a need fu l one — i s the l i n k a g e V a l l i e r e s t a b l i s h e s between the f r a i l t y of the Church and i t s a forement ioned concomi tan t s and the d i s appearance of the m i s s i o n a r y f e r v o u r which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the f i r s t y e a r s of I be r i an r u l e i n the New World. In h i s words, "By g i v i n g up the m i s s i ona ry t h r u s t (and with i t the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of b u i l d i n g up a s t rong r e l i g i o u s l y based r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th the peop le and the c a p a c i t y t o a c h i e v e autonomous r e l i g i o u s s t r e n g t h o u t s i d e the c o m f o r t i n g embrace of the p o l i t i c a l o r d e r ) , the Church l o s t one of i t s key o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o form and c r e a t e a c u l t u r a l l y based system of r e l i g i o - e t h i c a l l e a d e r s h i p " (Ivan V a l l i e r , C a t h o l i c i s m . S o c i a l C o n t r o l , and Modern i za t i on i n L a t i n America CEnglewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 19703, p. 48 ) . What i s at i s s u e , t h e n , i s not the p r o p r i e t y of m i s s i ona ry a c t i v i t y i n L a t i n America but the way i n which i t has been c a r r i e d out . 72. Rudyard K i p l i n g , " R e c e s s i o n a l , " i n L o u i s Untermeyer, e d . , The C o n c i s e T rea su ry of Great Poems (Garden C i t y : Permabooks CDoubleday 8< Co. 3, 1953), p. 408. 73. C h r i s t o p h e r B u t l e r , "The Aggiornamento of V a t i c a n II," i n John H. M i l l e r , e d . , V a t i c a n II: An I n t e r f a i t h A p p r a i s a l (Notre Dame: U n i v e r s i t y of Notre Dame P re s s & New York: A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1966), p. 10. 74. A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x , "The Church of H a l i f a x and P e r u , " The Archd iocesan B u l l e t i n (October 21, 1973), p. 1, John Hayes C o l l e c t i o n (hence fo r th i d e n t i f i e d as J . H. C . ) . 75. " M i s s i o n a r i e s Make Way f o r P a r t n e r s i n M i s s i o n , " The Un i ted Church Observer , 52 (October 1988), p. 31. 76. A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x , "The Church of H a l i f a x and P e r u , " p. 1. 77. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with Mar t in C u r r i e (Dartmouth, Nova S c o t i a ) , A p r i l 21, 1987. 78. John Paul II, "The Redeemer of the Human Race , " The Pope  Speaks, 24 (Summer 1979), p. 118. The most complete e n u n c i a t i o n of t h i s i n v i s i b l e union can be found i n the works of the eminent C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g i a n , K a r l Rahner. Conf ronted with two seeming ly i n c o m p a t i b l e t r u t h s , namely, the i n d i s p e n s a b i 1 i t y t o s a l v a t i o n of a f a i t h i n C h r i s t and the u n i v e r s a l i t y of the F a t h e r ' s s a l v i f i c p l a n , Rahner p o s i t s an anonymous but genuine C h r i s t i a n i t y i n which the grace of God i s o p e r a t i v e and through which e t e r n a l l i f e i s a t t a i n a b l e , a seed , t o use h i s imagery, from which the p l a n t of a t a n g i b l e C h r i s t i a n i t y s p r i n g s . I f , i n h i s words, "a C h r i s t i a n must r e c o g n i z e a s i n q l e meaning and a s i n q l e 101 dynamism runn ing through the whole h i s t o r y of mankind, then he must s imp ly have a s i n g l e answer as t o how and i n what way he can r e c o g n i s e i n every one o-f h i s f e l l o w s a b r o t h e r i n the sense i n which C h r i s t i a n i t y r e c o g n i z e s every i n d i v i d u a l as a b r o t h e r , a sense , t ha t i s , which i s not merely humanist but t r u l y C h r i s t i a n . There must be a C h r i s t i a n theo ry t o account f o r the f a c t tha t every i n d i v i d u a l who does not i n any a b s o l u t e or u l t i m a t e sense act a g a i n s t h i s own c o n s c i e n c e can say and does say i n f a i t h , hope, and l o v e , Abba w i t h i n h i s own s p i r i t , and i s on these grounds i n a l l t r u t h a b ro the r t o C h r i s t i a n s i n God ' s s i g h t " <Karl Rahner, T h e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s , 20 v o l s . [New York: Seabury P r e s s , 19763, v o l . 14, p. 294). For Rahner, the concept of the anonymous C h r i s t i a n o f f e r s a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s prob lem, b u t , however the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the n o n - C a t h o l i c i s e x p l a i n e d , an u n c o n d i t i o n a l b e l i e f i n the oneness of mankind, a oneness which honours d i f f e r e n c e s , l i e s at i t s h e a r t . 79. S e c r e t a r i a t f o r N o n - C h r i s t i a n s , "The Church and Other R e l i g i o n s , " The Pope Speaks, 29 ( F a l l 1984), p. 259. 80. F r a z i e r , " G u i d e l i n e s f o r a New Theology D f M i s s i o n , " p. 30. 81. Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , "Dogmatic C o n s t i t u t i o n on the C h u r c h , " i n Walter M. Abbo t t , e d . , The Documents of V a t i c a n II (New York: G u i l d P r e s s , 1966), p". 23] 82. Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , "Decree on Ecumenism," i n Walter M. Abbo t t , e d . , The Documents of V a t i c a n II (New York: G u i l d P r e s s , 1966), p. 350. Hans Kung, whose wide t h e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e the f i e l d of ecumenism, a t t a c h e s g rea t importance t o the concept of p i l g r i m a g e and the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n t e r r e l i g i o u s under s tand ing i nhe ren t i n i t . Accord ing to Kung, "when as a C h r i s t i a n I am conv inced tha t mine i s the t r u e f a i t h bea r i n g w i tne s s t o the one t r u e God, t h a t , i n s h o r t , mine i s the t r u e r e l i g i o n , I am not j u s t i f i e d i n c l a i m i n g t o posses s the t r u t h e x h a u s t i v e l y . The whole t r u t h i s God a l o n e , and he t r a n s c e n d s a l l our c a t e g o r i e s of t h i n k i n g and a c t i n g . . . . Even C h r i s t i a n i t y i s i n v i a : ours i s a Church on p i l g r i m a g e , on the way, which has not yet a r r i v e d at the goal of see ing God f a c e t o f a c e . . . . Thus we can accept tha t we are not a l o n e , t h a t hundreds of m i l l i o n s of o ther men and women of a l l p o s s i b l e c o n f e s s i o n s and denominat ions and r e l i g i o n s a re a l s o on the way (Hans Kung, "Ecumenism and T r u t h : The Wider D i a l o g u e , " The T a b l e t , 243 [January 28, 19893, p. 93 ) . 83. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with C e c i l i a Hudec ( H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a ) , May 25, 1987. 102 84. C o s t e l l o , M i s s i o n t o L a t i n Amer ica , p. 60. 85. John Paul II, "The M i s s i on of the Redeemer," The Pope  Speaks, 36 <May-June 1991), p. 166. 86. James Sweeney, "Europe! A New E v a n g e l i s a t i o n , " The  Month, 247 (May 1986), p. 157. It i s a measure of how r a d i c a l l y the s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g of C a t h o l i c s i n the West has changed tha t a spokesman f o r the b i shops of Spa in c o u l d s t a t e t h a t " Spa in i s now a coun t ry of m i s s i on where the r o l e of the Church i s one of e v a n g e l i z i n g r a t h e r than p a s t o r a l c a r e " (Reuter s , " Span i a rd s are More S e c u l a r , " The  C h r o n i c l e - H e r a l d , 41 CAugust 19, 19893, p. 5-WJ), t h i s i n a coun t ry which once g l o r i e d i n i t s C a t h o l i c i t y . 87. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with G a b r i e l l a V i l l e l a ( H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a ) , October 31, 1987. 88. Un i ted N a t i o n s , " C h a r t e r of the Un i ted Nat ions and S t a t u t e of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Court of J u s t i c e , " Yearbook of the Un i ted N a t i o n s , 38 (1984), p. 1303. 89. Do l1ar -a -Month M i s s i o n a r y C l u b , White F a t h e r s , "The White F a t h e r s " ( n . d . , n . p . ) , p. 3. 90. N a t i o n a l Conference of C a t h o l i c B i shops , "To the Ends of the E a r t h , " O r i g i n s , 16 (December 4, 1986), p. 460. The d i s p a r a t e r e a c t i o n s of American m i s s i o n a r i e s and American governmental o f f i c i a l s t o the f o r c e f u l n a t i o n a l i s m e x h i b i t e d by the m i l i t a r y government of Peru i n the l a t e 1960s and e a r l y 1970s r e v e a l e d tha t the paths of each were d i v e r g i n g . The e x p r o p r i a t i o n of American i n t e r e s t s , such as those of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Petro leum Company, aroused Wash ington ' s i r e , l e a d i n g i t t o take a v a r i e t y of r e t a l i a t o r y measures, but was endorsed by many m i s s i o n a r i e s , i n c l u d i n g Amer icans , s c o r e s of whom went so f a r as t o i s s u e a statement i n support of P e r u ' s p o s i t i o n . For the i n i t i a l group of m i s s i o n a r i e s i n V i c t o r i a Nueva, on whom these developments had a r a d i c a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e , the g r e a t e s t e x t e r n a l t h r e a t t o the w e l f a r e of P e r u v i a n s d i d not o r i g i n a t e i n the S o v i e t Un ion , as t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s would have a v e r r e d , but i n the Un i ted S t a t e s . "We very q u i c k l y p e r c e i v e d t h a t the enemy wasn ' t communism," C a i s s i e r e c a l l s , "but the enemy was American i m p e r i a l i s m , wi th the b i g t r a n s n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s k ind of c o n t r o l l i n g the l i v e s of peop le everywhere. In L a t i n Amer i ca , the r e a l i t y has always been n o r t h - s o u t h , never e a s t - w e s t " (Personal i n t e r v i e w with L o u i s Cai s s i e ) . 91. Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l , " P a s t o r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n on the Church i n the Modern W o r l d , " i n Walter M. Abbo t t , e d . , The Documents of V a t i c a n II (New York: G u i l d P r e s s , 1966), p. 103 264. The p r a c t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s of t h i s s tatement w i l l be d e a l t with i n the next s u b s e c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s i n the contex t of the m i s s i on i n V i c t o r i a Nueva. . In terms of the Church i n i t s e n t i r e t y , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l d i v e r s i t y , as unders tood by John Paul II, y i e l d s the f o l l o w i n g i m p e r a t i v e s . "The good news of J e s u s , " he t o l d an American aud ience i n 1987, "must be p roc l a imed i n the language tha t p a r t i c u l a r peop le under s t and , i n a r t i s t i c symbols tha t g i v e meaning to t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , i n ways tha t co r re spond as f a r as p o s s i b l e t o t h e i r own a s p i r a t i o n s and needs, t h e i r manner of l o o k i n g at l i f e and the way i n which they speak to God. At the same t ime t h e r e must be no b e t r a y a l of the e s s e n t i a l t r u t h w h i l e the Gospel i s be ing t r a n s l a t e d and the c h u r c h ' s t e a c h i n g i s be ing passed down" (John Paul II, "The E t h n i c U n i v e r s a l i t y of the C h u r c h , " O r i g i n s , 17 [October 15, 19873, p. 308). 92. I b i d . , pp. 199-200. 93. Paul V I , " E v a n g e l i z a t i o n i n the Modern Wor l d , " The Pop_e Speaks, 21 (Spr ing 1976), p. 17. 94. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with Mar t in C u r r i e . ?5- I b i d . 96. Paul V I , "Address t o the P e a s a n t s , " i n L o u i s Michae l Co lonnese , e d . , The Church i n the Present -Day T ran s fo rmat i on of L a t i n America i n the L i g h t of the Counc i1 , 2 v o l s . (Bogota: Genera l S e c r e t a r i a t , L a t i n American E p i s c o p a l Counc i l & Washington: L a t i n America Bureau, Un i ted S t a t e s C a t h o l i c Con fe rence , 1970), v o l . 2, p. 256. The C h u r c h ' s devo t i on t o the poor , a devo t i on which t akes the form of a p r e f e r e n t i a l , though not an e x c l u s i v e , l o ve f o r a l l who have been den ied the f u l l n e s s of t h e i r humanity, has been expressed r e p e a t e d l y i n the year s which have f o l l o w e d the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l . As John Paul II, speak ing of h i s p o n t i f i c a t e , noted i n 1985, "I w i l l i n g l y take t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o repeat and s t r e s s t ha t the commitment to the poor c o n s t i t u t e s a dominant mot ive of my p a s t o r a l a c t i o n and the cons tan t s o l i c i t u d e accompanying my d a i l y s e r v i c e t o the peop le of God. . . . As I s a i d at Santo Domingo r e c e n t l y : 'The pope, the c h u r c h , and her h i e r a r c h y w i l l t o go on be ing p resent i n the cause of the poor man, h i s d i g n i t y , h i s p romot ion , h i s r i g h t s as a pe r son , h i s a s p i r a t i o n t o unpostponab le s o c i a l j u s t i c e ' " (John Paul II, "One Church , Many C u l t u r e s , " O r i g i n s , 14 [January 10, 19853, p. 501) . 97. F red Smi th , "The M u t u a l i t y of E v a n g e l i z a t i o n : Fa ther Inocente S a l a z a r , " i n Ge ra l d H. Anderson & Thomas F. S t r a n s k y , e d s . , M i s s i on Trends No. 2 (New York: P a u l i s t P re s s Z< Grand Rap ids : Wm. B. Eerdmans P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1975), 104 p. 144. 98. " P e r u , " The Europa World Year Book. 2 (1989), p. 2064. P e r u ' s income per c a p i t a i s the - f i f t h lowest i n L a t i n America — Cuba and the Dominican Repub l i c a re i n c l u d e d here — and the second lowest i-f on l y the L a t i n c o u n t r i e s of South Amer ica a re c o n s i d e r e d . The l e v e l of i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y i n P e r u , expressed as a p r o p o r t i o n of every 1000 l i v e b i r t h s , i s 82, the second h i ghes t i n L a t i n Amer ica . I l l i t e r a c y , an a f f l i c t i o n of the h e a l t h y and the unhea l t y a l i k e , i s h i ghe r i n Peru than i n any o ther L a t i n count ry i n South Amer ica ( "Nat ions of the W o r l d , " The Canadian World Almanac & Book of F a c t s , 1988, pp. 141-224). 99. A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x , " L e t t e r from our P r i e s t s i n 1969), p. 4, J . H. C.' 100. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with G a b r i e l l a V i l l e l a . The community e n v i s i o n e d by the m i s s i o n a r i e s of V i c t o r i a Nueva c o n s i s t s , i n t h e i r words, of "a group of committed b e l i e v e r s who v o l u n t a r i l y share f a i t h , wor sh ip , t ime and t a l e n t s f o r the development not on l y of themse lves but of the l a r g e r community" (San Jose Obrero , " P a s t o r a l P lan f o r San Jose Obrero P a r i s h " CMarch 19753, p. 2, A r c h i v e s of the S i s t e r s of C h a r i t y of H a l i f a x Thence fo r th i d e n t i f i e d as A. S. C. H. 3 ) . 101. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with Mary Beth Moore ( H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a ) , January 25, 1989. 102. Ibid.. 103. A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x , " L e t t e r from our P r i e s t s i n P e r u , " p. 4. 104. Kev in MacPherson, L e t t e r t o R i cha rd Murphy (October 17, 1972), p. 1, J . H. C. 105. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with Zelma L e B l a n c . Thus, the worst t r a p i n t o which m i s s i o n a r i e s b e l i e v e tha t they can f a l l i s t o a l l ow themse lves t o become the s o l e means by which t h e i r ho s t s a re a b l e or w i l l i n g t o improve t h e i r l o t . Symptomatic of t h i s predicament i s the c h a r i t y m i s s i o n a r i e s once d i spensed wi th abandon. Now they r e s e r v e i t f o r d i r e s i t u a t i o n s , f o r a lms, i n t h e i r eyes , not on l y t h r e a t e n t o c r e a t e r i c e C h r i s t i a n s — C h r i s t i a n s whose a l l e g i a n c e t o the Church i s c o n t i n g e n t on the d i sbursement of a m a t e r i a l good of which they a re i n need — but t o l eave the problems which l i e behind the p l e a s of the needy u n r e s o l v e d . When the we l l runs d r y , as i t one day must, m i s s i o n a r i e s f e a r t ha t those who are r e c e i v i n g a i d would be l i k e l y t o f i n d themse lves as 105 bad ly o f f as they were b e f o r e they ob ta i ned i t , i f not more so. Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the chances tha t a s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t community c o u l d take shape would be, at b e s t , remote. 106. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with L o u i s C a i s s i e . 107. San Jose Obrero , "A lgunos pensamientos sobre nue s t ro conse jo p a r r o q u i a l , " B o l e t i n ( A p r i l 26, 1970), p. 1, A. A. H. T h i s passage can be rendered i n E n g l i s h as " i n C h r i s t and i n the Church t h e r e i s no fundamental i n e q u a l i t y of r a c e or n a t i o n a l i t y , of s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n or sex, because ' t h e r e i s n e i t h e r Jew nor Greek, t h e r e i s n e i t h e r s l a v e nor f reeman, t h e r e i s n e i t h e r man nor woman, s i n c e a l l of us a re "ONE" i n C h r i s t J e s u s . ' " 108. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w wi th L o u i s C a i s s i e . 109. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with G a b r i e l l a V i l l e l a . 110. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with Mary Beth Moore. 111. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with Mary E l l e n Loar ( H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a ) , November 27, 1987. 112. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with L o u i s C a i s s i e . 113. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with Mar t in C u r r i e . 114. Per sona l i n t e r v i e w with Mary E l l e n Loar . That Pe ruv i an s do, i n d e e d , s t r u g g l e f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d i s a f f i r m e d by C u r r i e , who f l a t l y r e j e c t s the once popu lar charge tha t L a t i n Americans a re s l o t h f u l . "Why are peop le poor? " he asks . "Not because t h e y ' r e l a z y . We've seen too many movies of Mexicans s i t t i n g under t r e e s strumming g u i t a r s . If you had t o c a r r y cement on your shou lder i n a bucket up t h r e e or four f l i g h t s of s t a i r s i n the hot sun . . . f o r two d o l l a r s a day, you wou ldn ' t do i t . T h e r e ' s not a l a z y bone i n t h e i r body" (Persona l i n t e r v i e w with Ma r t i n C u r r i e ) . 115. C e c i l i a Hudec, " I n t e g r a t i n g F a i t h and J u s t i c e " (1986), p. 1, A. S. C. H. 116. The p a s t o r a l r e c o r d s of San Jose Obrero s y s t e m a t i z e t h i s change, i d e n t i f y i n g the sacraments "as a s i gn tha t the good news has taken seed or r o o t " and answering the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s i n the l i g h t of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : " Is t h e r e a formed C h r i s t i a n community here? No. Could sacraments l o g i c a l l y e x i s t here then? No. It f o l l o w s then tha t e v a n g e l i z a t i o n must come f i r s t " (San Jose Obrero , "Work S e s s i o n " [October 9, 19693, p. 1, A. S. C. H.) . 106 C h r i s t i a n i t y , i n o ther words, i s not c o n s i d e r e d t o be a p r i v a t e a f f a i r . 117. A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x , "The Church of H a l i f a x and P e r u , " p. 1. 118. F. X. Lasance & F r a n c i s Augus t ine Walsh, The New Roman  M i s sa l (New York: Benz iger B r o t h e r s , 1945), p. 484. 119. N a t i o n a l O f f i c e f o r L i t u r g y , Canadian C a t h o l i c Con f er en c e , Sunday Mass Book f o r Canada (Ottawa: P u b l i c a t i o n s S e r v i c e , Canadian C a t h o l i c Con fe rence , 1976), p. 408. 107 Bi b l i ography Abbrev i a t i ons A. A. H. — A r c h i v e s of the A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x . J . H. C. — John Hayes C o l l e c t i o n . A. S. C. H. — A r c h i v e s of the S i s t e r s of C h a r i t y of H a l i f a x . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Board, Canadian C a t h o l i c Con fe rence . " J o i n t P a s t o r a l L e t t e r of the Canadian E p i s c o p a t e on A p o s t o l i c C o - o p e r a t i o n Between Canada and L a t i n A m e r i c a . " January 13, I960. A. A. H. A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x . "The Church of H a l i f a x and P e r u . " The A rchd ioce san B u l l e t i n (October 21, 1973). J . H. C. A r c h d i o c e s e of H a l i f a x . " L e t t e r from our P r i e s t s i n P e r u . 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