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Hardy's dangerous companion : a study of the poetic relationship between Thomas Hardy and A.C. Swinburne Pearkes, Eileen Delehanty 1991

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HARDY'S DANGEROUS COMPANION: A STUDY OF THE POETIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THOMAS HARDY AND A.C. SWINBURNE by EILEEN DELEHANTY PEARKES B.A. Stanford University, 1983 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER: OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (English) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1991 (c) E i l e e n Delehanty Pearkes, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^MQrUtSM The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date oa- it mi DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Thomas H a r d y ' s e l e g y t o A.C. S w i n b u r n e , c o m p o s e d i n 1910 s h o r t l y a f t e r h i s d e a t h , p o i n t s t o a p o e t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o p o e t s w h i c h g o e s b e y o n d a d m i r a t i o n o r i n f l u e n c e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n H a r d y a n d S w i n b u r n e h a s n o t b e e n a d e q u a t e l y e x p l o r e d b y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y c r i t i c s , a n d i t i s t h e c e n t r a l p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s t o e x a m i n e more c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s b e t w e e n t h e m on t h e l e v e l o f t e c h n i q u e . A n a l y s i s o f H a r d y ' s e l e g y e n t i t l e d "A S i n g e r A s l e e p " s u g g e s t s how H a r d y may h a v e i d e n t i f i e d w i t h S w i n b u r n e o n t h e l e v e l o f t e c h n i q u e . S w i n b u r n e a n d H a r d y b o t h l i v e d i n L o n d o n i n t h e 1 8 6 0 s , a l i v e l y p e r i o d w h i c h p r o v i d e d them b o t h w i t h much c r e a t i v e a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l s u s t e n a n c e , i n c l u d i n g i n t h e a r e a o f p r o s o d y . A n d a l t h o u g h H a r d y ' s c a r e e r a s a n o v e l i s t t e m p o r a r i l y e c l i p s e d h i s c a r e e r a s a p o e t , t h e s e e d s p l a n t e d i n t h o s e e a r l y d a y s i n L o n d o n p r o v i d e d h i m w i t h a n e n d u r i n g s y m p a t h y f o r S w i n b u r n e ' s w o r k w h i c h c o n t i n u e d l o n g a f t e r he r e s u m e d h i s c a r e e r a s a p o e t . S e v e r a l c o m p o n e n t s o f H a r d y ' s t e c h n i q u e s u g g e s t a s y m p a t h e t i c c o n n e c t i o n w i t h S w i n b u r n e o n H a r d y ' s p a r t , r e f l e c t i n g n o t s o much i n f l u e n c e b u t r a t h e r i n s p i r a t i o n . H a r d y ' s m e t r i c a l b o r r o w i n g o f s e v e r a l f o r m s u n i q u e t o S w i n b u r n e d i d n o t r e s u l t i n poems o f i d e n t i c a l c h a r a c t e r ; H a r d y ' s a d a p t a t i o n s e x h i b i t h i s d i s t i n c t p o e t i c s t y l e . H i s e x p e r i m e n t s i n c l a s s i c a l p r o s o d y a r e s i m i l a r t o S w i n b u r n e ' s i i i i n t h e i r willingness to r e s i s t convention. In h i s use of t r i s y l l a b i c s u b s t i t u t i o n , Hardy has tested the l i m i t s of t h i s technique j u s t as Swinburne has, and i t can be argued that Hardy i s ultimately more successful i n h i s attempts to loosen the iambic l i n e . The two poets also conducted extensive experiments i n the use of rhyme, either through imitation of established schemes or invention of new patterns. This comparison of the techniques of Swinburne and Hardy prompts some reconsideration of Hardy as a naive and clumsy poet, and suggests that he was f a r more learned and considerate i n h i s use of prosody than has been concluded by many twentieth-century c r i t i c s . Hardy's uneven but highly expressive rhythms demonstrate not naivete, but a desire to t e s t the bounds of t r a d i t i o n , and i t was i n t h i s desire that he found poetic companionship with Swinburne. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract i i Table of Contents i v Acknowledgements v I. "A Singer Asleep" 1 II . Swinburne and Hardy i n London i n the 1860s 9 I I I . Common Forms: a comparison of several poems 19 IV. Experiments i n C l a s s i c a l Prosody 32 V. T r i s y l l a b i c Substitution and the Iambic Quatrain 53 VI. Rhyme 57 VII. Conclusion 64 Bibliography 72 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This t h e s i s began and has been completed as a r e s u l t of the assistance, encouragement and knowledge of my advisor, Professor Andrew Busza. I o f f e r s p e c i a l thanks to the members of my committee: Professor Lee Johnson and Professor John Wisenthal f o r sharing t h e i r time and expertise, and to Pamela D a l z i e l f or her energy and in t e r e s t . Additional thanks should go to the s t a f f of the Riddington Room in the UBC Main Library. I also owe a debt of gratitude to my husband, Timothy Pearkes, without whose hours of child-minding and enduring i n t e l l e c t u a l support I could not have continued t h i s project. 1 I. In 1910 Thomas Hardy v i s i t e d the grave of Algernon Charles Swinburne i n Bonchurch on the I s l e of Wight to pay h i s respects to the f i e r y , red-headed poet whose l y r i c s had scandalized the s t a i d V i c t o r i a n l i t e r a r y world of the 1860s and 1870s. The occasion prompted Hardy to compose an elegy to Swinburne e n t i t l e d "A Singer Asleep" — j u s t as Swinburne had elegized the l i t e r a r y rebel Baudelaire almost f i f t y years e a r l i e r with h i s l y r i c t r i b u t e "Ave Atque Vale." 1 The elegy i s a nostalgic record of Hardy's fas c i n a t i o n with and admiration for Swinburne, and with i t Hardy pays t r i b u t e to what he believed to be Swinburne's contributions to l i t e r a t u r e : a r t i s t i c freedom, prosodic experimentation and disdain for V i c t o r i a n prudery. Yet, the poem may also suggest a more profound connection between the two poets. Hardy's t r i b u t e i s charged with empathetic as well as sympathetic overtones and expresses more than fas c i n a t i o n and admiration. What was Hardy's r e l a t i o n s h i p to Swinburne? Did he i d e n t i f y strongly with him, and i f so, i n what sense? The poem opens with an impression of the place where "the Fates have f i t l y bidden" that Swinburne be buried: the seacoast. Hardy's use of "Fates" appropriately r e f l e c t s h i s respect for Swinburne's neo-paganism. Indeed, Mill g a t e writes that t h i s respect i n c l i n e d him to be "much offended" by the cross which had 1 See "'Ave Atque Vale' : An Introduction to Swinburne." In t h i s essay, Jerome J . McGann o f f e r s an exhaustive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the elegy i n which he presents i t as representative of Swinburne's "obsession" with death and as a t r i b u t e to the French poet and his v i s i o n . 2 been placed on the grave - i n v i o l a t i o n of Swinburne's wishes, Hardy believed (467). In the next stanza, he echoes Swinburne's p l a y f u l and i r o n i c use of r e l i g i o u s figures by describing the e f f e c t of the release of Poems & Ballads "as though a garland of red roses / Had f a l l e n about the hood of some smug nun." The imagery Hardy chooses indicates deep f a m i l i a r i t y with Swinburne's verse, and admiration for the s t a r t l i n g e f f e c t i t may have had on "V i c t o r i a ' s formal middle time." I t i s with "quick glad surprise" that Hardy f i r s t read "New words, i n c l a s s i c guise," i n d i c a t i n g h i s pleasure both i n the content which r e j e c t s convention while embracing o r i g i n a l i t y , and in the form, which operates within " c l a s s i c " constraints. The following stanza r e i t e r a t e s t h i s idea by p r a i s i n g the "passionate pages" for t h e i r honest descriptions of "hot sighs, sad laughters, kisses, tears" and the poet, who "Blew them not naively, but as one who knew / F u l l well why thus he blew." Here Hardy asserts that Swinburne composed poetry with conscious recognition of the knowledge of the c r a f t of poetry. Swinburne's knowledge and a b i l i t i e s are praised further i n Hardy's depiction of Sappho. Rising from the water "as a dim / Lone shine upon the heaving hydrosphere," she greets the phantom poet and suggests that no need ex i s t s to discover the l o s t fragments of her verse, assuring him that, " ' S u f f i c i e n t now are thine."* Swinburne's verse, Hardy suggests, i s a " s u f f i c i e n t " replacement f o r the l o s t fragments of a Greek poet who i s recognized f o r her s k i l l f u l use of metre. His suggestion of poetic 3 lineage r e f l e c t s profoundly the degree to which Hardy admired Swinburne's s k i l l and recognized the technical b r i l l i a n c e of h i s poetry. Hardy's deliberate return i n the next stanza to h i s own perspective perhaps also suggests a poetic succession: that which Sappho graciously passes to Swinburne may, i n Hardy's mind, have been passed on to himself. The form of the elegy also pays t r i b u t e to Swinburne's range of technique by e x h i b i t i n g a v a r i e t y of stanza forms . Four of the stanzas are quintets, four are sestets, while the concluding stanza i s an octet; a l l are u n i f i e d by the use of a shortened f i n a l l i n e . The basic iambic rhythm i s varied with the use of t r i - s y l l a b i c s u b s t i t u t i o n , and the rhyme patterns are unfixed, ranging from couplet form to alternating and then to enclosed. The o v e r a l l e f f e c t i s one of richness and va r i e t y of sound, rhythm and metre, a f i t t i n g prosodic t r i b u t e to a poet who challenged the accepted practices of conventional prosody and experimented widely within the t r a d i t i o n . Hardy's elegy, therefore, r e f l e c t s h i s admiration for Swinburne's l y r i c a l g i f t s , as well as for the l a t t e r ' s daring i n h i s choice of subject matter. I t i s possible that the q u a l i t i e s possessed by Swinburne which Hardy emphasized i n h i s elegy are those with which Hardy most strongly i d e n t i f i e d . Coleridge has argued that an elegy "must tr e a t of no subject for i t s e l f ; but always and exclusively with reference to the poet himself..." (263, hi s emphasis); t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the elegy as e s s e n t i a l l y s e l f - r e f l e x i v e would indicate that Hardy's chosen d e t a i l s and 4 perspectives on Swinburne o f f e r clues as to how he regards himself as a poet and therefore how he might i d e n t i f y with h i s subject. Hardy's focus on d e t a i l s describing Swinburne's defiance of the constraining influences of V i c t o r i a n prudery, h i s metrical v i r t u o s i t y and h i s studied and consciously t r a d i t i o n a l forms are not c o i n c i d e n t a l . They suggest that he i d e n t i f i e d strongly with Swinburne at a l l these l e v e l s . In 1918 just eight years following the composition of t h i s elegy, and a decade before Hardy's own death, Edmund Gosse, biographer of Swinburne and l i t e r a r y f r i e n d of Hardy, published an a r t i c l e i n the Edinburgh Review c a l l e d "Mr. Hardy's L y r i c a l Poems." In i t he praises Hardy's poetry and points out that Hardy's career as a poet began many decades before the pu b l i c a t i o n of Wessex  Poems; i n fa c t , i n 1866, i n London — the same year and place i n which Poems & Ballads had astonished i t s readers. Gosse continues by pointing out that even i f Hardy had been able to publish early i n h i s career, " i t may well be doubted whether h i s poems would have been received i n the mid-Victorian age with favour, or even have been comprehended": Mr. Hardy was asking i n 1866 for novelty of ideas, and he must have been conscious that h i s questioning would seem inopportune. He needed a d i f f e r e n t atmosphere, and he l e f t the task of r e v o l t to another, and at f i r s t sight, a very unrelated force, the 'Poems and Ballads' of that same year. But Swinburne 5 succeeded i n h i s revolution, and although he approached the art from an opposite d i r e c t i o n , he prepared the way f o r an ultimate appreciation of Mr. Hardy....The differences i n t h e i r s t y l e s do not a f f e c t t h e i r common attit u d e , and the sympathy of these great a r t i s t s f or one another's work has already been revealed, and w i l l be s t i l l more c l e a r l y exposed. (273-4) Gosse's a r t i c l e was indeed prescient, but i r o n i c a l l y so. In fa c t , rather than "expose" the "sympathy of these great a r t i s t s for one another's work," twentieth-century c r i t i c i s m has concentrated on t h e i r differences i n s t y l e and d i c t i o n and la r g e l y on that basis, dismissed Swinburne as any kind of "influence" on Hardy. A survey of Hardy c r i t i c i s m provides l i t t l e evidence of Gosse's anticipated exposition of the poets* common attitude and "sympathy" for each other's work. In 1930, H.J.C. Grierson commented only that " i t i s a strange, wheezy note i s Hardy's, a f t e r the clamour and clangour of Swinburne." In 1946, CM. Bowra wrote that "the poets Hardy most loved, Scott, Shelley, Keats, and Swinburne l e f t no trace" on h i s work, and that his or i g i n s as a countryman determined h i s outlook (222) . In 1969 Kenneth Marsden echoed Bowra: I t i s s t r i k i n g that except for the Shakespearian provenance of some early sonnets, only Browning's influence r e a l l y 6 shows i n Hardy.... consciously or not, [Hardy] knew that h i s fav o r i t e s were not the food h i s creative f a c u l t i e s needed. (232) And i n 1975 Robert G i t t i n g s commented that Hardy appeared to allow Swinburne's " l i q u i d l y r i c g i f t [to] wash over him i n a t i d e of pure pleasure, without once considering i t as a model" (81). Only recently have c r i t i c s and scholars begun to recognize the sympathetic connection between the two poets, and to i d e n t i f y Hardy's a f f i n i t i e s with Swinburne. Pinion's A Commentary on Thomas  Hardy's Poetry (1976) mentions the r e l a t i o n s h i p of Swinburne's work to Hardy's, but primarily i n connection with the novels. Not u n t i l Ross Murfin's 1978 study of Swinburne, Hardy, and Lawrence did c r i t i c i s m begin to elaborate on Gosse*s i n i t i a l observations. Murfin suggested that "the importance of Swinburne's poetry to Thomas Hardy has always been underestimated, and, i n nearly a l l cases u t t e r l y ignored" (81). In the same year, David Reide concluded that although Swinburne's poetry " i s generally bardic" while Hardy's i s e s s e n t i a l l y "dramatic," the two poets c l e a r l y shared the "attitudes" which Gosse i n s i s t s are common to them (217-18). And f i n a l l y , Dennis Taylor's 1988 study of Hardy's prosody makes the f i r s t modern c r i t i c a l connection between the two poets on the l e v e l of technique. At l a s t , a f t e r many decades, Gosse's insig h t s are being "more c l e a r l y exposed" as he had predicted. In t h i s study, I s h a l l move a step beyond the work of Taylor and Murfin by providing comparative metrical analysis of selected verse of Swinburne and Hardy, demonstrating the a f f i n i t i e s which Gosse 7 f i r s t noted. The c r i t i c s who looked for signs of influence understandably found l i t t l e evidence, for as Gosse pointed out o r i g i n a l l y , and as c r i t i c i s m has recently demonstrated, the connection between Swinburne and Hardy i s one of "common at t i t u d e . " Hardy, " i n sp i t e of h i s si l e n c e of fo r t y years" a f t e r the publi c a t i o n of Poems &  Ballads. "laboured with Swinburne at a revolution against the optimism and s u p e r f i c i a l sweetness of h i s age" (Gosse 273-4). This common attitude manifests i t s e l f on a l l l e v e l s of t h e i r poetry: theme, d i c t i o n , s t y l e and technique, and involves experimentation and poetic revisionism, but within the framework and matrix of t r a d i t i o n . Neither Hardy nor Swinburne wished to make a break with t r a d i t i o n : t h e i r educations, i n t e l l e c t u a l concerns and poetry i t s e l f demonstrate that c l e a r l y . Their shared aesthetic involved the ardent pursuit of honesty and freedom of expression, but always with attention to the rules governing poetic form. However, they both wished to challenge accepted ideas and accepted poetic practices. The experimentation i n t h e i r poetry demonstrates a tendency to r e s i s t complacency. While t h i s adherence to t r a d i t i o n and resistance of convention may seem i n i t i a l l y to be a contradiction, i n f a c t i t i s not. I s h a l l argue that what Hardy saw i n Swinburne's poetry i n London i n the 1860s was a combination which p a r t i c u l a r l y appealed to him and inspired him: a challenge of conventional poetic practices with an accompanying respect for the laws and t r a d i t i o n s governing English verse. And, while Swinburne's work c e r t a i n l y was not the only 8 i n t e l l e c t u a l i n s p i r a t i o n i n the development of Hardy's poetry, h i s was an important force, both at the time Hardy f i r s t read h i s poems and throughout Hardy's poetic career. 9 II . Gosse's a r t i c l e of 1918 maintains that Swinburne and Hardy "approached the a r t from an opposite d i r e c t i o n , " which i s perhaps a reference to the f a c t that they were trained and prepared for t h e i r work as poets i n very d i f f e r e n t ways. Hardy's observation that he was "so l a t e i n getting [his] p o e t i c a l barge under way" while Swinburne "was so early with h i s f l o t i l l a " (Letters vol.4 16) i s a revealing metaphor for t h e i r careers, and for the background and education which prepared them. Hardy's choice of the metaphor of " f l o t i l l a " for Swinburne indicates h i s recognition of the l a t t e r ' s manifold a b i l i t i e s , 'regal' preparations and decidely flamboyant career. By comparison, Hardy's more deliberate education and slow r i s e to fame are analogous to the plodding, u t i l i t a r i a n nature of a "barge." Swinburne's b i r t h into an a r i s t o c r a t i c family offered him a l i f e of p r i v i l e g e , economic security and s o c i a l status; Hardy's a r r i v a l i n a cramped cottage i n r u r a l Dorset i n i t i a l l y determined for him a f a r more li m i t e d horizon both f i n a n c i a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y . When we read accounts of the two poets' childhoods, we are struck by the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of Swinburne's r i s e to fame, and the i n c r e d i b i l i t y of Hardy's. Very l i t t l e about t h e i r early years predicts that they would one day be i n London at the same time, and eventually develop a sympathy fo r and admiration of each other's work. Hardy arri v e d i n London i n A p r i l 1862 to work as an a r c h i t e c t u r a l assistant, the same year i n which Swinburne began to 10 compose many of the poems which would l a t e r appear i n Poems &  Ballads (Lafourcade 96 f f . ) . Between 1862-65, Hardy's goals slowly evolved from material and s o c i a l to l i t e r a r y and emotional (see M i l l g a t e 74-101) and i t i s clear that by 1865, he had begun hi s methodical, self-conscious and l i f e - l o n g t r a i n i n g as a poet. At t h i s time, he purchased N u t t a l l ' s Standard Pronouncing Dictionary and Walker's Rhyming Dictionary, studied The Golden Treasury and read poetry from Shakespeare to Tennyson, s i g n a l l i n g h i s ultimate goal to combine, i f possible, the ministry with the writing of poetry (Millgate 96). He also began keeping a notebook on poetry, e n t i t l e d "Studies, Specimens &c." (Millgate 87). His comments i n Early L i f e that he cared for l i f e as an "emotion" (70) r e f l e c t a r e j e c t i o n of purely material and s o c i a l success; although he continued to work d i l i g e n t l y as an ar c h i t e c t , Hardy had begun to prepare himself mentally and emotionally for the l i f e of a poet. I t i s important to note that Hardy' s preparation for and i n t e r e s t i n poetry were well underway before he could have encountered Swinburne's Atalanta i n Calydon i n 1865 or Poems &  Ballads i n 1866. Despite the r e l a t i v e tardiness and poverty of Hardy's education as compared to that of Swinburne, he would have been prepared enough to note and appreciate the prosodic devices and r i c h c u l t u r a l texture of Swinburne's work. Hardy's belated p u b l i c a t i o n of h i s f i r s t volume of poetry can lead to a misrepresentation of h i s development as a poet, and of Swinburne's r e l a t i o n s h i p with him. As Gosse pointed out i n h i s 1918 a r t i c l e , Hardy was a poet who laboured with Swinburne, who would have seen 11 Poems & Ballads as a contemporary example of prosody's p o t e n t i a l . Hardy may have f i r s t learned of Swinburne's work with the pub l i c a t i o n of Atalanta i n Calydon i n March 1865. I t s publication was a l i t e r a r y sensation. This "modern" Greek tragedy could not have been le s s l i k e The I d y l l s of the Kino;; nothing remotely resembling i t had been written i n English since Shelley's Prometheus Unbound (Henderson 106), and i t s choruses possessed a qu a l i t y which neither Tennyson nor Browning displayed: speed. These "new words i n c l a s s i c guise" must have captivated Hardy as they did most of l i t e r a r y London. In that same year, Hardy copied a revealing passage from Newman's Apologia: The tr u t h was, I was beginning to prefer i n t e l l e c t u a l excellence to moral; I was d r i f t i n g i n the d i r e c t i o n of l i b e r a l i s m , (quoted i n L i t e r a r y Notebooks vol.1 8) In another note on Newman which was omitted from Early L i f e . 2 he revealed even more c l e a r l y h i s developing agnosticism: "Poor Newman! His gentle c h i l d i s h f a i t h i n revelation and t r a d i t i o n must have made him a very charming character" (quoted i n Personal  Notebooks 218). Hardy's d i s t i n c t l y patronizing tone indicates a developing s k e p t i c a l attitude toward r e l i g i o u s f a i t h and other established p r a c t i c e s . The 1860s were a "decisive stage i n 2 This and many other passages which Hardy intended to be included were omitted by Florence Hardy i n her version of the L i f e published as Early L i f e and Later Years. 12 philosophy and episteraology, i n philology and prosody" and these developments "profoundly impressed Hardy's mind at a formative stage" (Taylor x v i i ) , 3 In t h i s state of mind, he would have been attracted on the one hand to the undisguised neo-paganism and, on the other, the prosodic experimentation of Atalanta. He stood to be profoundly affected by Poems & Ballads, which Swinburne published i n 1866. Hardy's church attendance had been on the decline since the summer of 1864, his self-imposed study of English poetry and c l a s s i c a l languages was well underway, and he was i n c l i n e d to exalt "the merits and reputations of poets f a r above those of mere n o v e l i s t s " i n the l i t t l e l i t e r a r y lectures he gave to the other people i n the architecture o f f i c e at about t h i s time (Millgate 92). Hardy himself quotes from a journal entry from the 1860s: A sense of the truth of poetry, of i t s supreme place i n l i t e r a t u r e , had awakened i t s e l f i n me. At the r i s k of ruining a l l my worldly prospects I dabbled i n it....was forced out of i t . . . i t came back upon me.... A l l was of the nature of being led by a mood, without foresight, or regard to whither i t led. (Later Years 185) This passage uses the language of theological r e v e l a t i o n to describe a "conversion" to a very unusual r e l i g i o n , that of poetry. 3 Unless otherwise indicated, t h i s and a l l subsequent entries c i t e d as "Taylor" r e f e r to Hardy's Metres and V i c t o r i a n Prosody. 13 I t was with t h i s conviction about the importance of poetry that he would encounter Poems & Ballads. Poems & Ballads was published i n August 1866. The t h i r d stanza of "A Singer Asleep" suggests that Hardy read i t immediately upon i t s appearance, perhaps inspired to do so when he came across the scathing review by John Morley i n Saturday Review, a p e r i o d i c a l to which Horace Moule had introduced Hardy while he was s t i l l i n Dorchester. In hi s review, Morley says that " i t i s of no use...to scold Mr. Swinburne for gr o v e l l i n g down among the nameless shameless abominations which i n s p i r e him with such frenzied d e l i g h t . " He c r e d i t s Swinburne's courage for asking h i s readers to "go hear him tuning h i s lyre i n a stye" and condemns him for "the mixture of vileness and childishness of depicting the spurious passion of a putrescent imagination" (quoted i n Swinburne: The  C r i t i c a l Heritage). 4 Undoubtedly, what would have captivated Hardy i n i t i a l l y about Poems & Ballads was the "gesture on behalf of freedom" represented by the e r o t i c and spurious contents of the volume, a gesture which made Swinburne an i n s p i r a t i o n and a kind of prophet to many young men of the age. In mid-century, poets were generally regarded as the most elevated and serious kind of writer, useful either as entertainers, guides or moral leaders (Heyck 41) ; the a r t i s t i c freedoms represented i n the passionate and highly charged pages of 4 I r o n i c a l l y , i t was Morley who advised Hardy to ignore the " f o o l e r i e s of c r i t i c s " (Millgate 231). Moreover, Swinburne's poetry was published by the Fortnightly Review from 1862-75, some of i t during Morley's tenure as editor, from 1867-82. 14 Poems & Ballads were not guiding or moralizing i n a way that would have pleased Mrs. Grundy. Accurately r e f l e c t i n g t h i s expectation of the poet as moral leader, John Morley's review of Poems &  Ballads i n the Saturday Review pointed out that Swinburne paid no "attention to c r i t i c a l monitions as to the duty of the poet" and was " f i r m l y and avowedly fix e d i n an attitude of r e v o l t against the current notions of decency and d i g n i t y and s o c i a l duty" (Hyder C r i t i c a l Heritage). Swinburne's blasphemous metaphors, frank displays of carnal pleasure and t r e a t i s e s on lesbian love h o r r i f i e d reviewers and drawing rooms a l i k e , but delighted l i b e r a l i n t e l l e c t u a l s . His disregard for the d i d a c t i c r o l e of the poet demonstrated a defiance of the market-dependent production of p u b l i c l y acceptable ideas (Heyck 42) and set him apart as one who could not, as he i n s i s t e d i n a l e t t e r to Lady Trevelyan immmediately p r i o r to the volume's publication, do "as Hamlet advises [and] betake [himself] 'to a nunnery'" (Letters vol.1 141). Swinburne's reaction to suggestions that he bowdlerize or even suppress passages or poems before publication was defiant. P r i o r to the volume's publication, he had written to Lord Lytton that to surpress some of the more controversial sections would injure "the whole structure of the book, where every part has been as c a r e f u l l y considered and arranged as I could manage" (Letters vol.1 172). While many other poets of the time allowed t h e i r ideas to be guided by the market power of the reading public and by public V i c t o r i a n morality and values, Swinburne rejected t h i s readiness to compromise and seemed to be resuming the posture of an heroic poet taken e a r l i e r by many of his Romantic predecessors. He asserted to William Rossetti a f t e r the volume's publication that " i t i s r e a l l y very odd that people. . . w i l l not l e t one be an a r t i s t , but must needs make one out to be a parson or a pimp" (Letters vol.1 193). With the publication of Poems & Ballads, the l i t e r a r y i n i t i a t i v e unquestionably passed to a new generation of poets, of which Swinburne was the pre-eminent representative (Thomas 110), acting as "a symbol of genteel r e b e l l i o n " (111). He appealed to Hardy at a time when Hardy "was i n a r e s t l e s s mood, f u l l of hopes and ideas but despairing of t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n " (Millgate 95). Like Shelley, whom Hardy so admired, Swinburne re b e l l e d thoroughly and courageously; such a defiant gesture for the sake of a r t i s t i c freedom was not missed by Hardy, as his description of reading with "quick, glad surprise" implies. Although i t may be true that the influence of Swinburne was more emotional than i n t e l l e c t u a l , the a n t i - C h r i s t i a n and Hellenic ideas i n Atalanta and Poems & Ballads probably resonated as well (Bjork i n Page, ed. 106). In addition, as Dennis Taylor's study has recently shown, Hardy the technician did not miss the r i c h and complex array of new verse forms displayed i n both volumes. Saintsbury describes Swinburne as exh i b i t i n g i n Poems & Ballads "every s l e i g h t of hand of the English poet" i n his use of equivalence, substitution, stanza construction and l i n e . His f i r s t volume of poetry also demonstrated a vari e t y and i n d i v i d u a l i t y of construction which was almost bewildering, though every one of them responds, with utmost accuracy, to the laws and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s of English prosody (History 342). 16 Yet Swinburne's verse experimentation was not unanticipated. I t came at a time when in t e r e s t i n poetic form was on the r i s e . The number of a r t i c l e s and books published on metre doubled i n ten years, from 21 i n the 1850s to 41 i n the 1860s (Taylor 20) . Related to t h i s growing i n t e r e s t i n English prosody was a r e v i v a l of i m i t a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l metres i n English, the most s i g n i f i c a n t upsurge since the sixteenth century (Taylor 56-7). The r i c h v a r i e t y of metrical forms, rhyme schemes and rhythmic patterns contained i n Poems & Ballads r e f l e c t e d t h i s renaissance i n prosody and offered an example and i n s p i r a t i o n to any reader who looked beyond i t s con t r o v e r s i a l content to i t s techhnique. Just as Swinburne's early verse offered Hardy an example of a r t i s t i c l i b e r t y and freedom of expression, i t also educated him i n the technical p o s s i b i l i t i e s of freedom within t r a d i t i o n , both c l a s s i c a l and modern. Although Hardy's e a r l i e s t poems o f f e r s t r i k i n g evidence that he was intent on associating himself with conventional verse models and thus, exercising "an almost manic degree of formal control and technical firmness" (Morgan 1), he did not continue to maintain such r i g i d and unimaginative control over the shape of h i s verse. Ross Murfin has recently observed that the poems Hardy composed i n 1865-67 "are c l e a r l y Swinburnian...in t h e i r obsessively precise metrical, or more p r e c i s e l y diametrical, sound patterns... i n t h e i r Sapphic stanza forms..." (83), but he does not elaborate further, or provide any s p e c i f i c analysis. Murfin's comments are representative of the paucity of c r i t i c a l work on Hardy which discusses the development of h i s technique 17 accurately and concretely. In fa c t , the 'obsessive' pr e c i s i o n of Hardy's poetry would have been i n greater part due to his r e p l i c a t i o n of proven forms such as the sonnet than to Swinburne's influence, since Swinburne's poetry exhibits neither "obsessively precise" nor "diametrical" sound patterns. In addition, the Sapphic stanza forms, examples of which Hardy may well have found i n Poems & Ballads, are not at a l l l i k e Swinburne's; they carry Hardy's stamp of o r i g i n a l i t y and indicate that Hardy's work on c l a s s i c a l forms was part of a larger p o e t i c a l movement, not just a r e p l i c a t i o n of Swinburne. More to the point, the experiments, challenges and innovations i n prosody conducted by Swinburne i n the 1860s might have encouraged Hardy to pursue some of h i s own. Rather than merely a s s i m i l a t i n g Swinburne's technique, Hardy took i n s p i r a t i o n from h i s poetic companion's l i b e r a l and ambitious attitude toward prosody. Like Swinburne, Hardy desired to apply the p r i n c i p l e of l i b e r t y to prosody. While they took very d i f f e r e n t paths to London, and did not meet i n t h e i r youthful days there, the two poets crossed paths i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and p o e t i c a l l y ; for both the 1860s were years of experimentation and development which set the tone for l i f e - l o n g i n t e r e s t i n poetic form, and helped them form the conviction that English prosody had l i m i t l e s s p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Of Poems & Ballads. Lord Lytton wrote to Bulwer Lytton that "the beauty of d i c t i o n and masterpiece of c r a f t i n melodies r e a l l y at f i r s t so dazzled me, that I did not see the naughtiness t i l l pointed out....1 suspect he would be a dangerous companion to another poet" 18 (The L i f e of Edward Bulwer vol.2 437). Lytton was correct i n h i s observation of another poet 1s r e l a t i o n s h i p with Swinburne being f i l l e d with r i s k : i t would be easy for a weak poet to imitate him with disastrous r e s u l t s ; Swinburne's own self-parody i s proof of t h i s p o t e n t i a l . 5 For a strong poet, however, the r i s k involved was worthwhile and Swinburne's example and companionship offered much creative i n s p i r a t i o n . Swinburne's work presented Hardy with enormous and e x c i t i n g challenges i n prosody. In part, as a r e s u l t of Swinburne's e f f o r t s , t h i s decade gave Hardy enough to think about for a l i f e t i m e (Taylor, Hardy's Poetry x v i i i ) , and the companionship he f e l t with Swinburne, although i t was i n i t s early stages one-sided, offered Hardy enduring poetic sustenance. 5 The parody, e n t i t l e d "Nephelidia," was published along with his other parodies of contemporary poets i n The Heptalocria or the Seven Against Sin. I t begins: From the depth of the dreamy decline of the dawn through a notable nimbus of nebulous noonshine P a l l i d and pink as the palm of the flag-flower that f l i c k e r s with fear of the f l i e s as they f l o a t , Are they looks of our lovers that lustrously lean from a marvel of mystic miraculous moonshine, These that we f e e l i n the blood of our blushes that thicken and threaten with throbs through the throat? 19 I I I . Hardy's fa s c i n a t i o n with poetic form i s evident i n the r i c h v a r i e t y of forms he employed. Of the 1093 extant poems, Hardy used over 790 d i f f e r e n t metrical forms (that i s , forms distinguishable by rhyme scheme and the number of accents/line, not including d i f f e r e n t stanza forms within the same poem). Of these, f u l l y one ha l f imitated 170 d i f f e r e n t established forms (Taylor 71). Such numbers indicate that Hardy was fascinated by the metrical successes of other poets, and had no d i f f i c u l t y co-opting forms for his own use. While the fa c t that Hardy imitated forms i s not unusual, the number and scope of h i s imitations i s , f o r he chose to reproduce not only established, t r a d i t i o n a l forms such as the Spenserian stanza, the sonnet or the ballad, but also more obscure and i n d i v i d u a l ones. He kept "quantities of notes on rhythm and metre," including "outlines and experiments i n innumerable o r i g i n a l measures." Hardy c a l l e d these experiments and outlines "verse skeletons" (Later Years 79-80), although h i s explanation does not suggest that many of these " o r i g i n a l " forms were adapted from those of other poets (Taylor passim). Of the 170 forms Hardy used as models, s i x originate with Swinburne. They provide tangible evidence of Hardy's i n t e r e s t i n Swinburne's prosodic experiments. These metrical borrowings demonstrate c l e a r l y that Hardy admired and was interested i n Swinburne's technique. The poems he chose to work with were not t r a d i t i o n a l and widely accepted forms which he f e l t bound as a 20 learned poet to reproduce, 6 but were a l t e r a t i o n s or even subversions of those t r a d i t i o n a l forms. Four of the s i x metrical forms Hardy borrowed are quatrains, the most frequently employed stanza form i n English v e r s i f i c a t i o n . Swinburne alt e r e d both l i n e length and metre to create these o r i g i n a l v a r i a t i o n s of the t r a d i t i o n a l form. Two of the poems, "An Interlude" and "In Memory of Walter Savage Landor" appeared i n the 1866 e d i t i o n of Poems & Ballads and are marked by Hardy i n h i s 1873 e d i t i o n (Taylor 223, 224). "A Wasted V i g i l " i s from Poems &  Ballads (Second Series), and "Lines on the Monument of Giuseppe Mazzini" appeared i n A Midsummer Holiday and other Poems, which Hardy owned i n the t h i r d e d i t i o n (1904). Swinburne's experiments with t r a d i t i o n a l forms, and Hardy's in t e r e s t i n these experiments, span many decades. "An Interlude" a l t e r s the standard iambic quatrain with anapaests. I t employs the standard rhyme scheme found i n the "common measure" hymn form, yet complicates that scheme by al t e r n a t i n g masculine with feminine rhyme. The mixture of iambs and anapaests conveys a lighthearted tone, creating l i n e s which skip l i g h t l y , a movement p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to the poem's desc r i p t i o n of an i d y l l i c encounter between two lovers: 6 See William Morgan, "The Novel as Risk and Compromise, Poetry as Safe Haven: Hardy and the V i c t o r i a n Reading Public; 1863-1901." In the essay, Morgan i d e n t i f i e s Hardy's "intention to associate himself with t r a d i t i o n a l poetic authority" by reproducing numbers of fixed-form, strophic poems, es p e c i a l l y sonnets, making " p l a i n his l o y a l t y to Shakespeare, Spenser, Donne, Wordsworth, Keats, and other masters of the forms he had chosen" (1). X I X * « X I X Your feet i n the full-grown grasses X 1 K. X i * i Moved so f t as a weak wind blows; x i x X i x i x You passed me as A p r i l passes, X I X I X x > With face made out of a rose. (11. 12-16) Hardy echoes the form of "An Interlude" i n two poems, "The Fi d d l e r " and "The Old Neighbour and the New." In the f i r s t , the t r i p l e rhythm with free duple substitutions reinforces the sound and sense of the f i d d l e r i n much the same way that "An Interlude" conveys the l i g h t step of two lovers. The f i r s t stanza begins with iambs predominating over anapaests, as the f i d d l e r waits to begin playing: X I x J X | X The f i d d l e r knows what's brewing To the h i l t of h i s l y r i c wiles * I X I X I X The f i d d l e r knows what ruing •*• i > i x I W i l l come of t h i s night's smiles! (11. 1-4) And, as the f i d d l e r begins to play, the poem modulates to the t r i p l e rhythm and the pace quickens: x x i x i x x i x He sees couples j o i n them f o r dancing, X I X X I X x I And afterwards j o i n i n g for l i f e , X I * X I X X I X He sees them pay high for t h e i r prancing x x I K x i x I By a welter of wedded s t r i f e . (11. 5-8) "The F i d d l e r " i s one of many examples of Hardy's s e n s i t i v i t y to sound and meaning i n the composition of poetry, and i t suggests that his r e p l i c a t i o n of a ce r t a i n form could be i n t r i n s i c a l l y appropriate to the subject matter of the poem. He has accomplished a metrical experiment and a successful a r t i s t i c rendering i n a poem which balances an in t e r e s t i n form with content. But Hardy was not always so successful, as i s demonstrated by his adaptation of the anapaestic trimeter of "An Interlude" i n "The Old Neighbour and the New" (Taylor 223) , which alternates masculine and feminine double rhyme. Samuel Hynes has pointed out that " i n many poems the use of one meter rather than another seems adventitious and often the meter chosen i s patently unsuitable to the material" (6). "The Old Neighbour and the New" bears out t h i s c r i t i c i s m . The b r i e f but poignant reminiscence of an old neighbour i n contrast to a new one i s too nostalgic and r e f l e c t i v e a subject to s u i t the l e v i t y of the metrical pattern: x » x x i x J X | The newcomer urges things on me; x x J x x i x i I return a vague smile thereto, x i x <» i x x i x The olden face gazing upon me » x x i x i Just as i t used to do. (1. 9-12) Here, Hardy's use of the metrical pattern of "An Interlude" i s "adventitious" and the poem's composition suggests that metre could fascinate him so much that he neglected other aesthetic considerations. What must have attracted Hardy to the anapaestic trimeter quatrain? Aside from the novelty of the form, the free use of iambic subsitutions may have appealed because such s u b s t i t u t i o n offered greater metrical f l e x i b i l i t y . This use of su b s t i t u t i o n also allowed subtle but adroit s h i f t s i n tone and pace, even within the narrow confines of a three-foot l i n e and a f o u r - l i n e stanza. The remaining quatrain forms which Hardy chose to imitate a l l 23 work i n one way or another with the concept of a shortened l i n e . In "In Memory of Walter Savage Landor," Swinburne has alternated tetrameter with dimeter, while preserving the standard al t e r n a t i n g rhyme scheme, a pattern which Hardy matches i n "A King's Soliloquy" and "The Occultation" (Taylor 224) . The a l t e r n a t i o n between long and short l i n e i s even more pronounced i n "Lines on the Monument of Guiseppe Mazzini" where Swinburne juxtaposes a pentameter l i n e with a dimeter, a pattern Hardy employs i n "Former Beauties" (Taylor 228) . Both of Swinburne's experiments can be seen as variants of the standard 4-3-4-3 hymn stanza. The shortened second and fourth l i n e s dramatically a l t e r the v i s u a l shape of the stanza, an e f f e c t which would have appealed to Hardy, who always took into account the v i s u a l impact of a stanza. 7 The shortened l i n e i s also found i n the two other poems by Swinburne whose form Hardy employed, " F e l i s e " and "Dolores." Both poems appeared i n Poems & Ballads. F i r s t Series, and are marked by Hardy i n h i s 1873 e d i t i o n (Taylor 236, 248). While " F e l i s e " i s a quintet i n duple r i s i n g rhythm and "Dolores" i s an octet i n d u p l e - t r i p l e r i s i n g rhythm, both poems close each stanza with a two-foot l i n e , an innovation which Saintsbury praised e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y i n h i s History of English Prosody: The i s o l a t i o n or i n d i v i d u a l i s i n g of the f i n a l l i n e at once breaks the monotony...[ It] 7 Although never acknowledged by Hardy, h i s concern with the v i s u a l impact of a stanza must have been rel a t e d to h i s t r a i n i n g as an a r c h i t e c t . He does make the connection between architecture and h i s penchant for cunning i r r e g u l a r i t y i n Later Years, see below pp. 65-66. 24 reminds you that you are at the end of one stanza, and i t prepares you for the next. (vol.3 345) And, further d i s p e l l i n g monotony, both of these experiments depend on the free exchange of duple and t r i p l e rhythms. I t i s perhaps the exchange of these rhythms which creates the hypnotic " c o i l i n g and u n c o i l i n g " stanzas which Samuel Chew describes as "moving i n gyrations [seeming] never to get anywhere" (91). Their appearance i n 1866 was revolutionary. The e i g h t - l i n e stanza of "Dolores" which both Saintsbury and Chew praise highly for i t s o r i g i n a l i t y and e f f e c t i s - l i k e that of "An Interlude" - based on the anapaestic trimeter, a form which had i t s o r i g i n i n the eighteenth century with the "ri c k e t y j i n g l e of Byron's and Shenstone's and Cowper's three-foot anapaest" (Saintsbury, v o l . 3 96) . By f r e e l y s u b s t i t u t i n g duple rhythms and shortening the f i n a l , eighth l i n e , Swinburne transforms the e f f e c t of the metre, a transformation which could not have escaped the notice of Hardy. Amidst the s t o l i d and by that time predictable blank verse of Tennyson, such experimentation was e x c i t i n g and energizing i n i t s a b i l i t y to a l t e r t r a d i t i o n a l forms and breathe new l i f e into prosody. 8 Hardy uses t h i s e i g h t - l i n e stanza i n "The Strange House." 8 An a r t i c l e from The Spectator written immediately following Swinburne's death i n 1909 payed t r i b u t e to his power of adaptation of established metrical patterns: "A commoner example of t h i s power of adaptation i s , of course, to be found i n the "Dolores" measure. Mr. Swinburne saw that the anapaests Praed had used for humourous verse and drawing-room s a t i r e might e a s i l y be employed for serious poetry." While the basic metrical structure i s i d e n t i c a l , a comparison of the two poems demonstrates the d i s t i n c t s t y l e s of these poets. Hardy transfers none of the heated passion and tortuous expression of Swinburne's poem about "the s e n s u a l i t i e s of a man f o i l e d i n love and weary of loving" (Chew 91); h i s poem describes Max Gate i n AD 2000, when the house i s inhabited by ghosts of the past, presumably Hardy and Emma. Nor does he employ the d i g n i f i e d and commanding d i c t i o n of "Dolores." The poem i s a dialogue between people who may be l i v i n g at Max Gate i n the next millennium. Although the poem does operate within the basic structure of Swinburne's metrical pattern, Hardy employs fewer t r i s y l l a b i c rhythms (Taylor 248), eliminating some of the speed and movement present i n "Dolores." In addition, the f i r s t foot i n each l i n e of "The Strange House" i s iambic, while Swinburne's i n i t i a l feet are eit h e r iambic or anapaestic. Hardy's a l t e r a t i o n s within the basic structure taken from Swinburne s u i t the c o l l o q u i a l tone of "The Strange House"; conversation i n t r i p l e rhythms would not r e f l e c t as r e a l i s t i c a l l y the predominantly iambic rhythms of conversational English. In "At Castle Boterel," Hardy adapts Swinburne's f i v e - l i n e iambic tetrameter of " F e l i s e " by including more t r i s y l l a b i c s u b s i t i t u t i o n and alternating masculine with feminine rhyme. Hardy's versions of the metrical patterns of "Dolores" and " F e l i s e " strongly support h i s statement i n the L i f e that he kept a f i l e of verse skeletons dating from even his e a r l i e s t days as a poet and used or adapted them to his purposes, sometimes many years l a t e r . 26 Hardy's adaptations of Swinburne's forms are not those of a novice poet r e p l i c a t i n g with admiration. Instead, they demonstrate that he takes i n s p i r a t i o n more than influence from the metrical patterns, and sometimes with superior r e s u l t s . He i s able to take i n s p i r a t i o n from the i n t r i g u i n g elements of the poem and produce h i s own version - using and adapting a l l of the good, while avoiding the less successful features. While the metrical framework of the two poems i s very s i m i l a r (Taylor 236), the two poems are remarkably d i s s i m i l a r i n tone and pace; through h i s more l i b e r a l use of t r i s y l l a b i c substitution and feminine endings, Hardy creates a poem of l i l t i n g nostalgia and sweetness of r e c o l l e c t i o n . Swinburne's more consistent use of iambs and heavier masculine endings r e s u l t s i n a poem of slower movement and greater oppressiveness. Swinburne's " F e l i s e " opens with the epigraph "Mais ou sont les neiges d'antan?", 9 s e t t i n g the tone for a poem which laments the end of a mutual love ("One love grows green when one turns grey;/ This year knows nothing of l a s t year") and whose speaker r e f l e c t s i r o n i c a l l y upon the mutability of love and passion. The d i s p i r i t e d tone i s reinforced by the monotony of iambs which r a r e l y bridge two words. x ' X I K • X I What s h a l l be said between us here X l x i x i K I Among the downs, between the trees, 9"But where are the snows of bygone years?", a l i n e Swinburne takes from Francois V i l l o n . I t appears i n Le Testament as the r e f r a i n l i n e of a ballade c a l l e d "Des Dames du Temps Jadis," or "Of the Ladies of Bygone Times," which mourns the loss of celebrated female beauties i n his t o r y . 27 X I X I X | X | In f i e l d s that knew our feet l a s t year x i x I X I X | In sight of quiet sands and seas, x i x ^  i This year, Felise? The use of strong stresses at the end of two-syllable words and the consistent use of masculine rhyme convey the sense of weight and force the pace to slacken. Swinburne's r i g i d and ceaseless a p p l i c a t i o n of iambic tetrameter (in 176 l i n e s , only 22 employ t r i s y l l a b i c substitution) i s an experiment i n consistency - and monotony. " F e l i s e " i s a testimony to Swinburne's reputation as a tedious poet, but the poem also demonstrates h i s remarkable a b i l i t y to shape and mold the language to f i t h i s metrical pattern. Hardy undoubtedly noted with admiration h i s contemporary's f a c i l i t y with language, but may have also registered the poem's r e s u l t i n g monotony. While " F e l i s e " i s a poem of extraordinary technical v i r t u o u s i t y , i t s monotony and persistence i n tone and pace b e l i e i t s r i c h subject matter, the mutability of love, and the i r o n i c a l sadness of i l l - t i m e d passion: i x x i x i x l Now, though your love seek mine for mate, * i x I I t i s too l a t e . "At Castle Boterel," on the other hand, demonstrates a richness of idea and expression which r e f l e c t s the complexity of the emotions i t records: developing a f f e c t i o n , love and longing. Hardy's decision to loosen the r i g i d i t y of the iambic pattern of hi s model, and to alternate masculine and feminine rhymes i n "At Castle Boterel" r e s u l t s i n a poem of much less metrical weight, monotony and oppressiveness. Moreover, Hardy places the strong 28 stress i n the f i r s t or second s y l l a b l e of some words, a small a l t e r a t i o n of Swinburne's pattern which r e s u l t s i n a f a r more r e s i l i e n t , perhaps even dynamic sound pattern: x l x i x x i x i x I look behind at the fading byway x i x x I X I X | And see on i t s slope, now g l i s t e n i n g wet, x I x I D i s t i n c t l y yet One of the more s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n Hardy's poem i s i t s r e l i a n c e on t r i s y l l a b i c s u b s t i t u t i o n . Here, he surpasses Swinburne at h i s own game, introducing a movement and pace which s u i t s the poem e n t i r e l y . In the f i r s t three stanzas, the use of these t r i p l e rhythms r e p l i c a t e s the jerking carriage r i d e i n both the present and h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n of the past: x x j X X j x x l x « x As I drive to the junction of lane and highway, x x i x x I x x i x I And the d r i z z l e bedrenches the waggonette, X | X | x x l x i x I look behind at the fading byway x i x x I x i x l And see on i t s slope, now g l i s t e n i n g wet, x i x I D i s t i n c t l y yet x i x x i x I x i x Myself and a g i r l i s h form benighted x / x i x x « x < In dry March weather. We climb the road x I A I X X I X I X , Beside a chaise. We had just alighted X i X i x I x | To ease the sturdy pony's load x X < x i When he sighed and slowed. The uneven, jerking rhythm r e f l e c t s the movement of the horse-drawn journey, e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i n a l four l i n e s of the stanza above. 29 Equally s i g n i f i c a n t to the sound and sense of the verse i s Hardy's use of feminine rhyme. A feminine ending i n the f i r s t and t h i r d l i n e s of each stanza r e s u l t s i n a weakening of emphasis: K i x i x X I X ( X I look and see i t there, shrinking, shrinking, y x i x i x i x i I look back at i t amid the r a i n , x x i x x i x x j *. I x For the very l a s t time; for my sand i s sinking, The r e c o l l e c t i o n s Hardy describes are, i n f a c t , fading, and are not as sharp and defined as a more recent memory might have been. His use of the feminine ending contributes to t h i s sense of f a l l i n g o f f and evokes the sweet sadness of the poem. A consistent use of masculine endings would have resulted i n a poem of somewhat harsher and more d e f i n i t i v e sound; Hardy's decision to a l t e r the pattern to which Swinburne adhered r e l i g i o u s l y demonstrates h i s s e n s i t i v i t y to rhythm as an evocative instrument. The changes Hardy made to the basic rhythm he found i n " F e l i s e " show how he could draw e f f e c t i v e l y on suggestions from other poets. His a l t e r a t i o n of the iambic tetrameter supports the suggestion made by Trevor Johnson i n a recent essay on Hardy and the English poetic t r a d i t i o n that c r i t i c s have been too extreme i n charging Hardy with being a naive poet operating i n a vacuum rather than i n the l i n e of t r a d i t i o n (Johnson 49). C r i t i c s have been too extreme, and yet Hardy's adaptation of " F e l i s e " i n part explains why they might have overlooked h i s l i n k s with t r a d i t i o n , and h i s t e c h n i c a l a b l i l i t i e s . While Swinburne's poem i s an obvious tech n i c a l success - one could not miss the a r t f u l iambic r e g u l a r i t y - Hardy's v i r t u o s i t y i s less conspicuous, and indeed one can 30 appreciate h i s prosodic s k i l l much more f u l l y when one juxtaposes "At Castle Boterel" with " F e l i s e . " Who knows what i n p a r t i c u l a r interested Hardy about t h i s poem, enough for him to scan i t , probably record i t s pattern i n one of h i s verse skeletons, and use i t himself many years l a t e r as the metrical base f o r "At Castle Boterel." I t may be that he was - as with "Dolores" - captivated by the v i s u a l and metrical impact of a f i n a l l i n e being half the length of the other l i n e s i n a stanza. 1 0 While h i s poem varies widely from Swinburne's o r i g i n a l i n rhyme and rhythm, i t consistently maintains the shortened f i n a l l i n e . Or, i t may be that Hardy saw the metre of " F e l i s e " simply as a unique form which he might one day be able to adapt to his own uses. Comparison of these four poems demonstrates i n part why Swinburne's influence on Hardy has not drawn attention to i t s e l f . While the stanzas of "The Strange House" owe t h e i r metrical form and rhyme scheme to "Dolores," the d i c t i o n and subject matter r e f l e c t Hardy's own peculiar background as a poet. At the time when c r i t i c s s t i l l consistently recognized and discussed the consummate metrical a b i l i t i e s of Swinburne, Hardy's verse was not yet c a r e f u l l y studied for i t s form. And, the recent recognition of Hardy's i n t e r e s t i n p r a c t i c i n g and reproducing within the wide range of English prosodic p o s s i b i l i t i e s comes at a time when c r i t i c a l commentary on Swinburne's concern with poetic form i s 1 0 See George Herbert's "Virtue" for an early English example of t h i s use of a shortened f i n a l l i n e . Trevor Johnson's a r t i c l e (see above p. 28) develops a connection between Herbert and Hardy, although he does not mention t h i s poem i n p a r t i c u l a r . 31 v i r t u a l l y non-existent. That the two authors' poems demonstrate few s i m i l a r i t i e s on the l e v e l of d i c t i o n , tone and subject matter reinforces the observation that Hardy had a conscious i n t e r e s t i n poetic form and may have even been moved by some poems exclusively on that l e v e l . Just as an ar c h i t e c t would study the formal components of a building and piece them together to form h i s own s t y l e , Hardy studied the formal components of English verse, and constructed h i s own poetic idiom. 32 IV. But Hardy's i n t e r e s t i n Swinburne's verse forms goes beyond borrowing or copying. Some of Swinburne's poems were contemporary, successful examples of the i n q u i r i e s and experiments into prosody taking place i n the second half of the nineteenth century. Publication of c l a s s i c a l experiments i n the 1860s — when Hardy was embarking on h i s s e l f - d i r e c t e d study of poetry and Swinburne was working on Atalanta and Poems & Ballads ( F i r s t Series) — reached a zenith which could only be r i v a l l e d by the number of experiments conducted i n the la t e sixteenth century (Taylor 56-7). V i c t o r i a n poets were again interested i n the r e p l i c a t i o n of c l a s s i c a l , quantitative metres i n English, a q u a l i t a t i v e language. Hardy, although he was at the time completely unknown as a poet, was unquestionably experimenting with the hexameter and other c l a s s i c a l forms i n the 1860s and again when he resumed the f u l l - t i m e pursuit of poetry i n the 1890s (see Taylor 258 f f . ) . One c l a s s i c a l l i n e at the centre of t h i s l i v e l y discussion was the d a c t y l i c hexameter, a metre used i n antiquity primarily i n the epic, but also found i n l y r i c , elegiac, philosophical and s a t i r i c a l poetry. Nineteenth-century poets generally regarded t h i s hexameter l i n e as a supreme challenge for several reasons. F i r s t , the six - f o o t , f a l l i n g t r i p l e rhythm begins necessarily with a strong s y l l a b l e ; t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t to accomplish i n English without consistently promoting unimportant s y l l a b l e s or using anacrusis. Second, the hexameter has a d i s s y l l a b i c ending (either the trochee or spondee), and t h i s 33 ending becomes monotonous i n a predominantly monosyllabic language. And t h i r d , i n an uninflected language such as English, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to keep the unstressed part of the feet c l e a r and strong enough (Murray, The C l a s s i c a l T r a d i t i o n 105-6). These d i f f i c u l t i e s c l e a r l y explain why English poets struggled to f i n d accentual-s y l l a b i c equivalents for the hexameter as well as for other c l a s s i c a l rhythms. S t r i c t a p p l i c a t i o n of quantitative measure to the metrical conventions of a q u a l i t a t i v e language presented unresolvable d i f f i c u l t i e s (see Taylor 10 f f ) . U n t i l the publication of Poems & Ballads i n 1866, the use of the hexameter had large l y been r e s t r i c t e d to l i g h t or comic verse. Swinburne•s experiments demonstrate a return to the once appropriate l y r i c and elegiac treatments while at the same time e x h i b i t i n g an e x c i t i n g break with the conventions associated with t r i p l e rhythms. Hardy's c l a s s i c a l experimentation accomplishes a s i m i l a r purpose. Like Swinburne, he was attempting to break with convention while respecting the metrical laws of the accentual-s y l l a b i c t r a d i t i o n . In "Hesperia" and "In Tenebris I I I , " the two poets seek to adhere to the metrical laws of the accentual-syllabic t r a d i t i o n while attempting to loosen the conventions surrounding that t r a d i t i o n . The poems attack i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l as well as prosodic conventions of the V i c t o r i a n period by t r e a t i n g subjects which were neither appropriate for parlour rooms nor p a r t i c u l a r l y u p l i f t i n g . While the poems are i n many respects d i s s i m i l a r , and a gap of t h i r t y years separates them, they demonstrate that both 34 Swinburne and Hardy were concerned with achieving the f u l l p o t e n t i a l of accentual-syllabic verse by r i s i n g above the established conventions of the nineteenth century. In "Hesperia," Swinburne balances a r e b e l l i o u s r e j e c t i o n of conventional wisdom about metrical patterns and 'appropriate' subject matter with a great respect for and knowledge of the t r a d i t i o n a l laws of poetry and c l a s s i c a l culture. He seems to have "Hesperia" i n mind when he asserts: Law, not lawlessness, i s the natural condition of poetic l i f e ; but the law must i t s e l f be poetic and not pedantic, natural and not conventional. ("Dedicatory E p i s t l e " Poems &  Ballads ( F i r s t Series), 1904 ed., i v , my emphasis) His formulation echoes A r i s t o t l e , who assumes that the poet w i l l know and s t r i c t l y observe the metrical laws and that "whatever v a r i e t y of metrical e f f e c t the poet may produce or aim at, i t must always be a va r i e t y inside the rules of a r t " (Murray, The C l a s s i c a l T r a d i t i o n 18). Swinburne's description of himself as a "lawful" poet contrasts s i g n i f i c a n t l y with h i s l i t e r a r y reputation j u s t as Hardy's reputation as a clumsy poet was u n t i l recently d i f f i c u l t to rec o n c i l e with h i s i n t e r e s t i n metre. Swinburne's b r i l l i a n t technique has been unfortunately eclipsed by the view that he wrote unseemly verse and spent much of h i s time ranting and raving i n drunken stupor. A mention of Swinburne's name conjures more c l e a r l y the image of a naked s l i d e down Gabriel Rossetti's bannister and the sound of monotonous, superfluous verse, than i t does te c h n i c a l b r i l l i a n c e and devotion to a r t i s t i c freedom. A comparison of "Hesperia" with "In Tenebris I I I " w i l l help to c l a r i f y that Swinburne and Hardy were both fascinated with the concept of ordered l i b e r t y , and that Hardy may have been inspired by Swinburne, the bold, experimental poet who delightedly threw o f f the mantle of convention while refusing to leave behind the structures and security of established t r a d i t i o n . "Hesperia" depicts a mortal male's passionate desire for Hesperia, one of four daughters of Venus who guard the garden of the Hesperides i n the f a r west, "where the sea without shore i s " (1. 1). The poem i s i n many respects a l y r i c a l f l i g h t : a f l i g h t of imagination, as Swinburne pairs a d i s i l l u s i o n e d mortal lover with one of the daughters of the Hesperides, a f l i g h t of rhythm as anapaests and dactyls combine i n a metrical tour de force and a f l i g h t from r e a l i t y as the speaker yearns to escape to the west with h i s mythic lover. The speaker's desire i s e r o t i c and highly charged with physical and s p i r i t u a l passion, and i t evokes a strong sense of un r e a l i t y . The poem depicts emotional confusion r e s u l t i n g from disillusionment with corporeal passion. Swinburne's p a r t i c u l a r adaptation of the hexameter l i n e i s appropriately matched to t h i s sense of confusion. Rather than r e s t r i c t h i s l i n e s to the r i g i d structure of the c l a s s i c a l hexameter (f i v e dactyls and a f i n a l trochee), Swinburne boldly substitutes anapaests for dactyls, a move which observes the laws of s u b s t i t u t i o n but unconventionally p a i r s two opposing t r i p l e rhythms. With these substitutions he avoids the heavy and monotonous pattern of a d a c t y l i c foot and at the same time evokes a powerful sensation of movement and u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y : i x x i x x i x i x. x. / x x . Out of the golden remote wild west where the sea without l x shore i s , I * X. I X X | X X I x x ' x x, F u l l of the sunset, and sad, i f at a l l , with the f u l l n e s s of joy, X X I X i x * I X X l X X I X As a wind sets i n with the autumn that blows from the region x i x of s t o r i e s Here, the t h i r d l i n e of the poem breaks the heavy pattern of i n i t i a l strong stresses by substituting anapaests for dactyls. The i n s e r t i o n of a l i n e of anapaests breaks the po t e n t i a l monotony of i n i t i a l strong stresses and also suggests the s w i r l i n g of wind by reversing the two t r i p l e rhythms. As the poem progresses, intermittent anapaestic l i n e s continue to break the heavy pattern of dactyls. This interplay between two t r i p l e rhythms demonstrates Swinburne's willingness to experiment within the confines of t r a d i t i o n . While convention would deny that anapaests could be e f f e c t i v e l y substituted for dactyls, the experiment i n "Hesperia" demonstrates that such an exchange successfully adapts the c l a s s i c a l hexameter i n a q u a l i t a t i v e language; without making concession to quantity, Swinburne creates a l y r i c hexameter l i n e by stretching the po t e n t i a l of the metrical laws surrounding the accen t u a l - s y l l a b i c t r a d i t i o n . Other metrical e f f e c t s used by Swinburne i n "Hesperia" 37 indicate h i s respect for the prosodic t r a d i t i o n . In order to avoid the monotony of the hexameter's d i s s y l l a b i c ending, Swinburne alternates the use of the f i n a l trochee with c a t a l e x i s throughout the poem. This move makes possible the al t e r n a t i o n of masculine and feminine rhyme, further d i s p e l l i n g the monotony. As a r e s u l t , Swinburne i s able to employ the trace of a c l a s s i c a l form and yet exh i b i t extraordinary freedom and c r e a t i v i t y within that form. By s t r i c t l y observing metrical law but applying i t i n revolutionary fashion, he produces a b r i l l i a n t and i n t r i c a t e poem. This increased metrical f l e x i b i l i t y p a r a l l e l s Swinburne's departure from the conventional treatment of love. "Hesperia" i s a v i v i d , e r o t i c f l i g h t of passion which f l i e s i n the face of more conventional, restrained treatments of the e r o t i c such as the sonnets of Elizabeth Barrett Browning or Tennyson's neo-medieval romances. Unfortunately, V i c t o r i a n audiences used to more less f a n t a s t i c a l statements of love could not understand Swinburne's poem as a statement of fancy more than of fa c t . As experimental as his metres, the story of "Hesperia" remains mythical and f a n c i f u l from beginning to end, thus providing i n f i n i t e l i b e r t y to the poet who was also experimenting with the depth and breadth of an imagined r e a l i t y . By choosing a mythical subject as object f o r the passions of the poem's speaker, Swinburne of f e r s h i s f i r s t clue that the verse w i l l be concerned with fancy more than with f a c t . According to the myth, Hesperia i s one of the daughters of the evening who l i v e d i n the f a r west guarding the golden f r u i t of the garden and singing 38 for recreation. The daughters sang i n chorus near a gushing spring which spurted f o r t h ambrosia. Swinburne has chosen a highly appropriate object f o r the speaker's a f f e c t i o n , but rather than leave Hesperia i n the f a r west as a distant object of worship, he brings her i n "as a b i r d borne i n with the wind from the west," "st r a i g h t from the sunset across white waves." The rushing dactyls and s w i r l i n g anapaests along with the a l l i t e r a t i o n a l l reinforce the ephemeral, f a n c i f u l v i s i o n of the poem. Having adapted the c l a s s i c a l myth, Swinburne proceeds to portray the speaker's previous amorous experiences and h i s feelings f o r Hesperia i n bold language and images. The speaker c a l l s f or Hesperia to release him from "love that r e c a l l s and represses,/That cleaves to my f l e s h as a flame" and from "the b i t t e r delights of the dark, and the feverish, the f u r t i v e caresses." Such images are powerful and e r o t i c , and t h e i r presence i n the poem contributed to i t s shocking e f f e c t . The speaker yearns for Hesperia to ease the pain of a love that "wounds as we grasp i t , and blackens and burns as a flame." Hesperia may provide the speaker with escape from h i s c r u e l former lover who i s "flushed as with wine with the blood of her lovers." He wishes to " f l y " with the lovely goddess to a f a n c i f u l r e s p i t e "where l i f e breaks loud and unseen, a sonorous i n v i s i b l e t i d e . " Swinburne's images are graphic and at the same time oddly enchanting; they present love as a paradoxical power which can wound as well as heal, which has a physical as well as s p i r i t u a l dimension. To Victorians who "were at once obsessed with sex and t e r r i f i e d of i t " (Henderson 130), t h i s p o r t r a i t of love as 39 a physical experience with s p i r i t u a l hazards was shocking, daring and unconventional. The speaker's desire to f l y from the cru e l force of human physical passion and j o i n Hesperia the goddess "by the meadows of memory" and "the highlands of hope" i s underlined by the rushing rhythmic pattern. Swinburne's p a r t i c u l a r adaptation of the hexameter merges form with content by evoking a rush of wind and a sw i r l i n g f l i g h t . The alter n a t i o n of anapaest and dactyl, either from l i n e to l i n e or foot to foot within a l i n e , reinforces the sense that the speaker's experience, l i k e the metrical pattern, i s groundless and unfixed. Adaptation of the hexameter goes beyond mere tech n i c a l v i r t u o s i t y ; "Hesperia" i s a poem which makes a statement about love on several l e v e l s . T h i r t y years a f t e r Swinburne composed and published h i s daring hexameter experiment, Hardy wrote a series of poems e n t i t l e d "In Tenebris". The t h i r d i n t h i s series, "In Tenebris I I I , " represents one of Hardy's experiments with the hexameter form. Unlike "Hesperia," "In Tenebris I I I " remains grounded i n the darkest moments of misery and despair. This poem presents i n many ways a contrast to Swinburne's f l i g h t of imagination. Hardy's hexameter experiment i s much shorter (20 l i n e s to Swinburne's 92), less varied and more evidently philosophical, but i t shares with "Hesperia" a s u i t a b i l i t y of form and content, a respect for metrical law and an attempt to translate the hexameter into a c c e n t u a l - s y l l a b i c measure. "In Tenebris I I I " i s the t h i r d and me t r i c a l l y the most complex i n the s e r i e s . The speaker's brooding about "when he might have died before becoming d i s i l l u s i o n e d " i s the ultimate of t h i s series of dark and sombre poems which " o f f e r some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f or c a l l i n g Hardy a pessimist" (Bailey 188 & 180). Just as Swinburne's "Hesperia" challenged mid-Victorian prudery, Hardy's poem challenges V i c t o r i a n optimism and f a i t h i n the in d i v i d u a l ' s power to control or determine h i s experience. "In Tenebris" demonstrates that Hardy was aware of the problems of adapting the hexameter l i n e . Like Swinburne, h i s knowledge of prosody provided him with tools to create a unique so l u t i o n . Hardy's sub s t i t u t i o n of trochees for dactyls interrupts the p o t e n t i a l monotony of the f a l l i n g t r i p l e rhythm while s t i l l preserving the dolorous tone evoked by the i n t i t i a l strong stresses: / X X . I X x i x x i x j x t * . Fashioned and furbished the s o i l into a summer-seeming order Hardy's choice of trochees as a substitute for dactyls i s more conservative than Swinburne's choice of anapaests, but i s equally suited to the subject matter of his poem; the r e p e t i t i o n of the heavy stresses prevents the dactyls from rushing too much and lending too much l e v i t y to a poem which i s about an i n d i v i d u a l who i s weighted with and nearly immobilized by knowledge that "the world was a welter of f u t i l e doing." The poem plods heavily j u s t as Swinburne's "Hesperia" swirls l i g h t l y . Although Hardy begins 16 l i n e s of the poem with the strong stress of a dactyl, he does employ anacrusis four times ( l i n e s s i x , nine, 13 and 18) i n order to be able to begin l i n e s with weak 41 words. By doing so, he also r e l i e v e s the pattern of two adjacent strong stresses at the end of one l i n e and the beginning of the next. More frequently, Hardy makes hi s f i n a l trochee c a t a l e c t i c — i n the f i r s t and f i n a l l i n e of each f o u r - l i n e stanza — i n order to end the l i n e on a strong stress and thus envelop two feminine rhymes with two masculine rhymes. He further complicates the rhyme pattern by constructing double rhyme (for example, border/order, f o l k there/awoke there) on the feminine rhyme, again adapting the c l a s s i c a l l i n e to h i s own conventions, not those of the mid-Vic t o r i a n s . Unlike "Hesperia," Hardy's poem i s grounded firm l y i n r e a l i t y . This poem i s not an escape from but a confrontation with the human condition. The speaker's reminiscences of happy moments i n h i s past are provoked by hi s b i t t e r recognition that he might have been better to have "passed then and the ending have come" before he "had learnt that the world was a welter of f u t i l e doing." Hardy's i s a curious twist on nostalgic r e f l e c t i o n : h i s speaker r e c a l l s happy memories only to wish that none had followed them. The poem traces the o r i g i n of the speaker's despair to the recognition that " v i s i o n could vex" and "knowledge could numb," perhaps a reference to the impact of ideas such as Darwin's theory of evolution which caused many Victorians disillusionment and even despair as established f a i t h s and certitudes were c a l l e d into question. Whatever the source of the speaker's b i t t e r despair, Hardy's poem represents the questioning and self-doubt which o f f s e t some of the tremendous optimism and f a i t h i n the established s o c i a l 42 and i n t e l l e c t u a l orders of the V i c t o r i a n period. Just as Swinburne's "Hesperia" depicts one man's disenchantment with the s a t i s f a c t i o n s of purely physical love, Hardy's poem evokes through both image and sound the extraordinary disillusionment and depression which could r e s u l t from the shattering of established b e l i e f s and f a i t h s . I t succeeds e s p e c i a l l y because the semantic l e v e l of the poem i s reinforced with corresponding sound, rhythm and metre. "Hesperia" and "In Tenebris I I I " represent two highly appropriate and i n t r i c a t e adaptations of an extremely challenging metrical structure. Rather than f a l l prey to quantitative experimentation l i k e that conducted by Tennyson, both Swinburne and Hardy chose to evoke the hexameter i n terms of English prosody, not the reverse. Both poems prove that English metrical law holds extraordinary p o s s i b i l i t i e s , p o s s i b i l i t i e s which were not necessarily being r e a l i z e d by relegating accentual-syllabic adaptation of the hexameter to " l i g h t verse." Through t h e i r use of many t r a d i t i o n a l metrical techniques, Hardy and Swinburne have created l y r i c s which demonstrate an in t e r e s t i n adapting c l a s s i c a l forms with t r a d i t i o n a l tools, but are unwilling to y i e l d to the V i c t o r i a n conventions which surrounded those forms. Both Swinburne and Hardy also experimented with various forms of sapphic verse. In the nineteenth century, sapphic experimentation took place on thematic and te c h n i c a l l e v e l s . On the one hand, poets and scholars continued a centuries-old struggle to t r a n s l a t e into English the elegant and musical fragments of the Greek poet Sappho, either into verse or a more l i t e r a l prose equivalent. Hardy praises Swinburne's e f f o r t s i n t r a n s l a t i o n i n a l e t t e r to the poet i n 1897: One day, when examining several English imitations of a well-known fragment of Sappho, I interested myself i n t r y i n g to s t r i k e out a better equivalent for i t than the commonplace "Thou, too, shalt die" &c. which a l l the tr a n s l a t o r s had used during the l a s t hundred years. 1 1 I then stumbled upon your "Thee, too, the years s h a l l cover" [in "Anactoria"], and a l l my s p i r i t for poetic pains died out of me....Having rediscovered t h i s phrase, i t c a r r i e d me back to the buoyant time of 3 0 years ago, when I used to read your early works walking along the crowded London streets, to my imminent r i s k of being knocked down. (Letters. vol.2 158) The f i n a l sentence i n t h i s b r i e f piece of correspondence has often been quoted as evidence of Hardy's infatuation with Swinburne's early verse while l i v i n g i n London. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the l e t t e r demonstrates Hardy's and Swinburne's common i n t e r e s t i n the poetry of Sappho, and Hardy's s e n s i t i v i t y to the challenge of t r a n s l a t i n g 11 Hardy's "Sapphic Fragment" indicates that he s e t t l e d on "Dead shalt thou l i e . " He chose as an epigraph for h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of the fragment two other tr a n s l a t i o n s , "Thou shalt be - Nothing" (Omar Khayyam) and "Tombless, with no remembrance" (William Shakespeare. 44 from a quantitative to a q u a l i t a t i v e language without s a c r i f i c i n g poetic grace. The t r a n s l a t i o n of a sapphic fragment to which Hardy r e f e r s i s one i n unrhymed iambic verse which Swinburne interpolated into "Anactoria," h i s poem about love between Aphrodite and Sappho. Interest i n Sappho's verse went beyond the need to translate e f f e c t i v e l y one l i n e of the fragments. Nineteenth-century poets were also preoccupied with the form of Sappho's verse. Most commonly, attention to sapphic form included the creation of a 'sapphic e f f e c t , ' concluding a stanza with a two-beat l i n e (Taylor 260). Less commonly, poets attempted to "translate" sapphic metre into English accentual-syllabic verse, composing q u a l i t a t i v e verse within a quantitative matrix. One such experiment i s Swinburne's ambitious attempt at accentual-syllabic sapphic metre, "Sapphics," published i n Poems & Ballads ( F i r s t Series). While the technical nature of "Sapphics" may not have moved Hardy emotionally as much as the t r a n s l a t i o n of Sappho i n "Anactoria" obviously did, there i s evidence that i t intrigued him. He c a r e f u l l y scanned several l i n e s of the poem i n h i s (1873) e d i t i o n of Poems & Ballads. The tone of Hardy's l e t t e r to Swinburne and Hardy's scanning of "Sapphics" together indicate that Swinburne's experiments d i r e c t l y motivated Hardy to experiment as well — with dramatically d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . What began f o r Hardy as an emotional reaction to the poetic beauty of a t r a n s l a t i o n , may have led to an i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t i n the sapphic stanza and the metrical challenges i t represented to nineteenth-century poets. Technical analysis and comparison of Swinburne's "Sapphics" and Hardy's "The Temporary the A l l " w i l l demonstrate how each poet responded to the challenge of t r a n s l a t i n g quantitative Greek metre into a c c e n t u a l - s y l l a b i c verse. Swinburne's poem i s a masterful tr a n s p o s i t i o n quoted frequently by c l a s s i c a l scholars as an admirable English version of the Greek metrical e f f e c t . Hardy's i s a more problematic adaptation whose metre puzzled c r i t i c s s u f f i c i e n t l y to prompt Hardy to add the s u b t i t l e "Sapphics" to explain the metre (Purdy 287). As with h i s adaptation of the d a c t y l i c hexameter, Hardy's sapphics may have found i t s i n s p i r a t i o n i n Swinburne, but i t takes on a metrical ambiguity and complexity which i s d i s t i n c t l y Hardy's. Swinburne's fascination with the poet Sappho and her works has a long h i s t o r y ; from h i s e a r l i e s t acquaintance with Greek verse at Eton, he revered her works and her l i l t i n g verse. Edmund Gosse notes that he early demonstrated a preference for l y r i c poetry such as Sappho's (Swinburne 24-5). His early and l a s t i n g experience with Sappho's verse undoubtedly made his ear se n s i t i v e to her metrical e f f e c t s and influenced the success of his "Sapphics," a poem which one c l a s s i c a l scholar singles out as the best representation i n English of Sappho's rhythms: "With such l i n e s as these r i n g i n g i n the reader's ears, he can almost hear Sappho her s e l f singing...." (Wharton 43). Like "In Hesperia," "Sapphics" makes no concessions to quantitative i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The poem mimics the Greek metrical pattern J U l U I U U I U J U ( l ) by t r a n s l a t i n g i t d i r e c t l y into an acce n t u a l - s y l l a b i c structure. Swinburne does not attempt to 46 reproduce the c l a s s i c a l metre; instead, he produces a verse which i s p a r a l l e l to the o r i g i n a l . Recognizing the l i m i t a t i o n s of English for expressing quantitative measure, he suggests a sapphic pattern by echoing p r e c i s i o n of sound pattern. The poem avoids monotony and achieves l y r i c grace through the f l e x i b l e placement of the optional spondaic foot, promotion or demotion of stresses, restrained use of s o f t consonant a l l i t e r a t i o n , and assonance. These techniques are perhaps more suggestive of the sapphic rhythm than the metrical pattern i t s e l f , and t h e i r use r e f l e c t s Swinburne's s e n s i t i v i t y not only to metre, but to the poem's o v e r a l l e f f e c t on the ear. While the metrical pattern i s unmistakeable, the more i n t r i c a t e prosodic techniques are less d i s c e r n i b l e even though they may contribute more to the poem's successful evocation of a c l a s s i c a l metre than the metre i t s e l f . Rules of Greek prosody i d e n t i f y the second foot i n the f i r s t three l i n e s of the sapphic stanza as either a spondee or a trochee. The L a t i n version of t h i s form requires that the second foot be a spondee. Swinburne's decision to use both spondee and trochee in t e r m i t t e n t l y r e f l e c t s h is knowledge of c l a s s i c a l form and, perhaps, a recognition that unbending metrical form i n c l a s s i c a l adaptation r e s u l t s i n monotonous and s t i l t e d English verse which f a i l s to capture the grace of c l a s s i c a l l y r i c s . Thus the poem opens: I x i I (x) i x x r x i 1 A l l the night sleep came not upon my eyelids and s h i f t s i n the next l i n e to: / x i ' ' x x I x | x Shed not dew, nor shook nor unclosed a feather Swinburne extends t h i s f l e x i b l e adaptation of Greek and Lat i n form by s u b s t i t u t i n g spondees for some of the f i n a l trochees with words or phrases such as "eyelids" (a v a r i a t i o n noted by Hardy i n h i s scansion of 1. 1), "forehead" (1.49), " a l l men" (1.52), "b i r d soars" (1. 56) and "dewfall" (1. 72). These l i b e r t i e s may destroy any precise correspondence with the c l a s s i c a l metre, but they do not detract from the poem's charm and beauty (Hamer 320) . Swinburne abandons precise t r a n s l a t i o n , perhaps because he has recognized that the c l a s s i c a l l y r i c cannot be t r u l y reproduced i n English; i t can only be suggestive of c l a s s i c a l rhythms, metres and sounds. F.W. Newman, an editor of Matthew Arnold's essays and tr a n s l a t o r of the I l i a d , observes that Greek i s "a highly vocalized tongue; while ours i s o v e r f i l l e d with consonants" (quoted i n Smith 152). Swinburne works to recreate t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c by r e s t r a i n i n g h i s use of a l l i t e r a t i o n and emphasizing repeated vowel sounds. The infrequent a l l i t e r a t i v e consonants are so f t and smooth, as i n "western waters" (1.11), " f l y i n g feet" (1.17), and " l a u r e l by l a u r e l " (1.32), with "doves departing" (1. 45) one of only two examples of hard consonant a l l i t e r a t i o n i n the entir e poem. The e f f e c t of t h i s softened a l l i t e r a t i o n i s a smooth and supple sound which de-emphasizes the consonant sounds and hig h l i g h t s vowels. The poem's assonance reinforces the e f f e c t achieved by the s o f t a l l i t e r a t i o n . For example, i n l i n e 7, So f t l y touched mine eyelids and l i p s ; and I too, 48 Swinburne rhymes the long i i n "mine," "eye" and " I , " as well as the short i i n " l i d s " and " l i p s . " And throughout the poem, he repeats the same word or p r e f i x several times i n a stanza (for example, "saw" i n stanzas 3 and 12 and "un" i n stanza 3 and 19) i n order to repeat and emphasize the vowel sounds. Newman's comments on the sound q u a l i t y of Greek and Swinburne's attempt to reproduce the sense of Greek verse i n rhythm and sound prompt a reconsideration of the c r i t i c i s m of Swinburne's verse as re p e t i t i o u s and mesmerizing, and therefore lacking i n substance. "Sapphics" c l e a r l y demonstrates that Swinburne's intention was to suggest the sound and sense of the quantitative verse of Sappho, while r e s t r i c t i n g himself to the prosodic too l s of the accentual-s y l l a b i c t r a d i t i o n . The unmistakable and admired sapphic rhythms of Swinburne's poem contrast sharply with the rhythms of "The Temporary the A l l " which so puzzled Hardy's c r i t i c s . No one seemed r e a l l y to understand the metrical structure of t h i s poem; yet i t was a poem which was unquestionably valued by Hardy, who chose to place i t at the beginning of his f i r s t published c o l l e c t i o n of verse. I r o n i c a l l y , the poem did receive s p e c i f i c praise from Swinburne, who, i n a l e t t e r to Hardy acknowledging receipt of a copy of Wessex Poems, said that he admired "none more than the fr o n t i s p i e c e so happily chosen and the poem i t i l l u s t r a t e s " (Letters vol.6 133). Hardy had perhaps placed too much confidence i n the successful i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s metrical structure, the knowledge of h i s c r i t i c s , and to a small extent, h i s own a b i l i t y ; h i s decision to place the s u b t i t l e "Sapphics" i n the next e d i t i o n i s i n one sense representative of h i s career as a poet: Hardy's i n t e r e s t i n c l a s s i c a l prosody and h i s attempts at reproducing i t have not been c l e a r l y understood, nor have they been properly appreciated. While the c r i t i c s ' response i s understandable given the poem's metrical ambiguity, the subsequent dismissal of Hardy's e f f o r t s as amateur or unsuccessful has not acknowledged h i s a b i l i t y to control metre and h i s s o l i d understanding of c l a s s i c a l prosody. He recognized t h i s himself when he commented that "he often wrote verse i n Sapphics but i n t e n t i o n a l l y not quite correct - a bad thing to do because then people thought he did not know what Sapphics were" (Felkin, quoted i n Bailey 48). In fact, "The Temporary the A l l " demonstrates that Hardy did know sapphic verse, even i f h i s attempt may not have been received as successful as had that of Swinburne. Hardy's comment that he wrote sapphics "not quite correct" applies unquestionably to "The Temporary the A l l . " Ten of 24 l i n e s do not scan confidently as sapphic l i n e s ; of these, two are adonic l i n e s which break the pattern of a dactyl followed by a trochee or spondee. While the s y l l a b l e count remains constant at 11 i n each l i n e , the placement of stresses varies f a r more than Swinburne's occasional spondee substituted for a dac t y l . The f i r s t l i n e sets the tone for metrical ambiguity: l x I x x I (x) | i x I X Change and chancefulness i n my flowering youthtime While the f i r s t foot i s decidely a trochee, the next two feet, "chancefulness i n my" are problematical. Hardy has apparently chosen "chancefulness" as an experiment of building words on common 50 roots l i k e the poet Barnes (Bailey 48), but favouring d i c t i o n over metre presents a problem of scansion: i t i s d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y confidently the stress pattern as that of a d a c t y l . The next two words " i n my" could be scanned as pyrrhic or trochaic, although neither choice i s e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y or f i t t i n g . Subsequent l i n e s present s i m i l a r uncertainties i n scansion. Is the f i r s t foot i n l i n e s 3 and 17 a trochee or a spondee? Does Hardy consistently place the dactyl i n the t h i r d foot where i t would be expected, or does he move i t to the second foot? Does he i n t e n t i o n a l l y follow a dactyl with a pyrrhic, thus s e t t i n g up four consecutive unstressed s y l l a b l e s ? Plausible misreadings of Hardy's metrical intentions can be applied to nearly one-half of the ent i r e poem and set a tone not of consistency and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , but, indeed of "change and chancefulness." Hardy's a l t e r a t i o n of the adonic l i n e hints at the purposefulness of h i s a l t e r a t i o n s of the standard sapphic metre. The two adonic l i n e s which break the dactyl-trochee/dactyl-spondee pattern are also the only f i n a l l i n e s i n stanzas to assume the f i r s t - p e r s o n voice. Both l i n e s , So self-communed I and Thus I...But l o , me! r e s i s t scansion e n t i r e l y , but may be read as a dactyl-trochee with anacrusis and c a t a l e x i s framing the l i n e . Such a reading would support Hardy's statement that he knew sapphics, but did not always follow the metrical rules p r e c i s e l y . These problematic scansions indicate that Hardy, l i k e Swinburne, was r e s i s t i n g the precise and unbending ap p l i c a t i o n of a quantitative metre within an accentual-syllabic framework. Unlike "Sapphics," however, Hardy's e f f o r t i s f a r from l i l t i n g and sonorous: "The Temporary the A l l " i s h a l t i n g , eccentric and even awkward i n places. Yet, i t i s not so much Hardy's t i n k e r i n g with the metrical structure as i t i s h i s admixture of sounds that undermines a p o t e n t i a l l y smooth and recognizable rhythm. Like "Sapphics," the poem has no end-rhyme and depends on assonance and a l l i t e r a t i o n to provide sound continuity. Yet, Hardy's choice of a l l i t e r a t i n g consonants r e f l e c t s less concern than Swinburne with the de-emphasis of harsh consonants which break up vowel sounds. Hardy's opening a l l i t e r a t i o n "change and chancefulness" i s abrupt and choppy, as i s "despite divergence"; the predominance of the hard d i n "fused us i n friendship" and "did a damsel saunter" also creates a break. A tension e x i s t s between the d i c t i o n and sound of words which i s not present i n Swinburne's poem; t h i s tension contributes to a less graceful poem, but also a phonically r i c h e r one. While Swinburne's sapphics l u l l and mesmerize l i k e the Sirens' songs, Hardy's verse i n i t i a l l y puzzles and then fascinates the reader with i t s metrical ambiguity and verbal e c c e n t r i c i t y . However, the poem's unevenness and less obvious success i s not, as Davie asserts, the product of an autodidact whose verse form "mirrors a cruel s e l f - d r i v i n g , a shape imposed on the material" (Davie 16, h i s emphasis), but rather that of a poet whose i n t r i c a t e knowledge of t r a d i t i o n a l prosody sometimes cramped the freedom of h i s l i n e . Hardy was inspired by the p o t e n t i a l of English verse rather than driven by a desire to master i t on his own terms, and to describe h i s s t y l e as something "imposed" on language does not accurately r e f l e c t h i s profound respect for and knowledge of English prosody, nor does i t adequately recognize the subtlety of h i s own prosody. Hardy's self-teaching i s , however, an important element which contributes to the e c c e n t r i c i t y of t h i s sapphic verse. His s e l f -i n s t r u c t i o n i n Greek did not begin u n t i l h is early twenties, as opposed to Swinburne's early immersion i n the language and l i t e r a t u r e . His ac q u i s i t i o n of knowledge about the language and culture was necessarily less systematic, rigorous and complete. The structure and sound of hi s sapphics r e f l e c t s the i n d i v i d u a l i t y and independence of h i s education, just as Swinburne's poem r e f l e c t s the depth and breadth of his systematic c l a s s i c a l t r a i n i n g . "Sapphics" r e f l e c t s a profound understanding of and s e n s i t i v i t y to Greek prosody and i t s po t e n t i a l to be r e p l i c a t e d i n English verse; the sapphic form i s organic to the sound and sense of the poem. "The Temporary the A l l , " on the other hand, exhibits a tension between the form inspired by Greek prosody, the texture of English d i c t i o n and the philosophical ideas Hardy was s t r i v i n g to convey. In the batt l e between sound and meaning, neither has won out i n t h i s sapphic experiment, but the lack of a v i c t o r makes for a m e t r i c a l l y i n t r i c a t e and ph i l o s o p h i c a l l y compelling poem. 53 V. In h i s study of Thomas Hardy's prosody, Dennis Taylor speculates that the t r i s y l l a b i c substitutions of "Neutral Tones" may have been inspired by Hardy's work with the sapphic form; he suggests that the poem "has a much more i n t e r e s t i n g mixture of iambs and dactyls, perhaps reminiscent to Hardy of the dactyls and trochees i n sapphics" (261). Although the poem does contain a "mixture" of duple and t r i p l e rhythms, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see the l a t t e r as f a l l i n g rather than r i s i n g , or to perceive any r e a l connection with the sapphic form. The intent of t h i s poem i s not so much to mimic an established form as to generate through free anapaestic s u b s i t i t u t i o n a new and s t a r t l i n g l y e f f e c t i v e form based on the iambic quatrain. In an early study of Hardy's verse, Samuel Hynes commented that "though he invented stanzas, [Hardy] never ventured f a r from the iambic norm which had been the standard English rhythm f o r four centuries," surmising i n explanation that perhaps Hardy "was me t r i c a l l y less r a d i c a l than the others..." (79). Hardy's "Neutral Tones" i s only one of many poems which refute Hynes on both points. The poem's base rhythm i s iambic, but only marginally so, and i n a fashion that i s not at a l l t y p i c a l of the "norm": nearly hal f of the feet are anapaestic substitutions, an unusually high r a t i o . By so f r e e l y and almost equally exchanging anapaests and iambs, Hardy has created a metre which challenges the iambic "norm" f a r more than conforms to i t ; the poem r e c a l l s several written by Swinburne 54 i n the l a t e 1860s i n which he was experimenting with the juxtaposition of duple and t r i p l e rhythms. The metrical technique of "Neutral Tones" i s perhaps one more example of the e f f e c t Swinburne's verse had on Hardy's. Considered i n l i g h t of Swinburne's several experiments with the juxtaposition of duple and t r i p l e rhythms, "Neutral Tones" appears more c l e a r l y as an example of Hardy's ambitious and energetic attempt to meet accentual-s y l l a b i c challenges. The prosodic laws of accentual-syllabic verse have always discouraged unrestrained use of substitution because such use could destroy the consistency of the underlying verse rhythm. A study of English metre written i n 192 3 allows that t r i s y l l a b i c feet may be substituted i f : a) the two unstressed s y l l a b l e s are l i g h t and can be pronounced ra p i d l y , so that the t r i p l e foot occupies the same time as a duple foot, and b) the stressed and unstressed s y l l a b l e s keep the same r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n (Smith 38) . In addition, the smoothness of t r i s y l l a b i c s ubstitution may be enhanced by vowel coalescence, e l i s i o n of vowel and consonant and the bridging of two words by the t r i p l e foot (Smith, passim). Swinburne's "An Interlude" and "Les Noyades" from Poems &  Ballads are two of many poems which demonstrate h i s s k i l l i n combining duple and t r i p l e rhythms. Both are anapaestic, but with free and almost equal numbers of iambic feet, the mirror image of "Neutral Tones." In the f i r s t stanza of "An Interlude," s i x of 12 feet are iambic: x x i x i x x. i x In the greenest growth of the Maytime, 55 * « x. y | x ' I rode where the woods were wet, x i x i x x i x Between the dawn and the daytime; x i x I X X | The spring was glad that we met. The second stanza contains f i v e iambs, the t h i r d , four, the fourth, eight. Reading these poems, Hardy would have remarked - as c r i t i c s did - the smoothness of the t r a n s i t i o n from one rhythm to the next, the consistent and strong sense of the base t r i p l e rhythm despite the numbers of duple feet, and the appropriate adaptation of t r i p l e rhythm to a serious and solemn subject. Almost without exception, the t r i p l e feet i n these two poems: either employ e l i s i o n I x. x i x, x, x » X, (Marjvellous mercies), vowel coalesence (me as A p j r i l ) or x x i x x a l l i t e r a t i o n (where the woods), or bridge two words (In the i x 1 green|est growth), i n order to compress the t r i p l e foot as much as possible. Swinburne's technique seems to allow the poem to sustain the t r i p l e rhythm by bringing i t i n l i n e with the speed of the basic iambic rhythm. The consistent and free a l t e r n a t i o n between iambs and anapaests creates a v i t a l and varied movement, and slows the pace of the t r i p l e rhythm enough to free i t of any comic e f f e c t . Hardy applies the same p r i n c i p l e of free exchange of duple and t r i p l e rhythms i n "Neutral Tones," but introduces some differences. His choice of iambic as the base rhythm y i e l d s a slower, more contemplative pace, and his anapaests are not always as smooth as those of Swinburne. He does, however, resemble Swinburne i n h i s K X I X bridging of words with t r i p l e feet (as though chid|den) i n nearly x x I h a l f of the anapaests, and also i n h i s use of e l i s i o n (by a pond) 56 { K K I X and, le s s seldom, vowel coalescence (tedjious r i d j d l e s ) . Six of the t r i p l e feet i n the poem do not demonstrate any attempts to "smooth" the t r a n s i t i o n from duple rhythm. For x x I x x / x * example, i n l i n e s 8-9, "on which l o s t , " "by our love" and "on your i mouth" a l l scan as anapaests, but have not been constructed to move quickly. These and other elongated t r i p l e feet serve to reinforce the contemplative, even hesitant tone of the poem. Scanning "Neutral Tones" i n juxtaposition with Swinburne's two poems of s i m i l a r metrical shape creates the d i s t i n c t impression that i n the dilemma between form and content, Swinburne more often chose the former, and Hardy the l a t t e r . Such a conscious or unconscious choice by Hardy may have involved a s a c r i f i c e of f l u i d i t y , and of the impression of technical a b i l i t i e s , but the r e s u l t i s a poem with a r i c h semantic texture recording an intensely personal experience (Bailey 56). The cl e a r e s t understanding of Hardy's metrical intent might be accomplished by considering the poem i n terms of temporal rather than s y l l a b i c r e g u l a r i t y . Measuring the phonetic duration of each foot i n addition to i d e n t i f y i n g i t s metrical value r e s u l t s i n an impression of evenness and consistency. "Neutral Tones" demonstrates that Hardy was, i n fact, a poet who respected laws of prosody and challenged the vari e t y of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . This poem a l t e r s the iambic quatrain rhyming abba which Tennyson established as a norm, through the free use of t r i s y l l a b i c s u b s t i t u t i o n and a s l i g h t l y shortened f i n a l l i n e i n each stanza. 57 VI. Rhyme, Hardy read i n the preface to hi s Rhyming Dictionary, i s "the purple band on the pr i n c e l y toga of the poet," a verse ornament "unknown to the Anglo-Saxon poet" whose primary adornment was a l l i t e r a t i o n , but gradually adapted into English poetry beginning i n medieval times (Walker x l i i ) . Hardy's purchase of the rhyming dic t i o n a r y i n 1865 was part of hi s methodical preparation as a poet (Millgate 87), and the appearance of Poems & Ballads i n 1866 was f o r him a stunning contemporary example of rhyme's p o t e n t i a l for i n t r i c a c y ; u n t i l that point, the understated sound patterns of Tennyson's verse were se t t i n g the standard for rhymes of l i m i t e d complexity and o r i g i n a l i t y (Gosse, "A Plea For Certain Exotic Forms of Verse" 71) . For example, while Fitzgerald's Rubaivat of Omar Khayyam had been published i n 1859, i n t e r e s t i n i t s i n t r i c a t e Persian stanzas did not become widespread u n t i l a f t e r h i s death i n 1883 (Taylor 233). Poems & Ballads and Swinburne's l a t e r volumes a l l contain a r i c h v a r i e t y of rhyme - including an adaptation of the Rubaivat stanza - and his e f f o r t s i n t h i s area were acknowledged by Hardy i n the copying of various rhyme schemes and adaptations of others (see above). Swinburne's work drew on many centuries of examples of rhyming i n English and Continental verse and offered Hardy contemporary, published examples of rhyme's p o t e n t i a l and challenge. An exhaustive study of Swinburne and Hardy•s use of rhyme would be extensive, for both poets experimented and adapted widely. 58 Their poetry serves as a catalogue of the standard end-rhyme patterns found i n sonnets, ballads, heroic couplets and c e r t a i n exotic forms of verse transplanted from I t a l y and France, as well as more o r i g i n a l patterns they developed themselves. In addition, they explored the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of other repeated patterns, experimenting i n the use of assonance, a l l i t e r a t i o n and i n t e r n a l rhyme. I w i l l not be conducting here a f u l l analysis of t h e i r use of rhyme; however, t h i s study of t h e i r verse form would be incomplete without some comments on the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r repeated sound patterns. One of the most prominent features of the verse of both Swinburne and Hardy i s the extensive use of a l t e r n a t i n g masculine and feminine rhyme. This technique was employed frequently by Swinburne i n Poems & Ballads ( F i r s t Series) i n , among others, "The Garden of Proserpine," "An Interlude," and "Dolores," and also i n subsequent volumes. Hardy uses the alternating pattern i n "At Castle Boterel," "In Tenebris I I I , " "The F i d d l e r , " and many other poems. By al t e r n a t i n g masculine and feminine rhymes, he and Swinburne were able to enrich the texture of sounds and vary stress patterns. Hardy i n p a r t i c u l a r often uses feminine rhyme to indicate the s h i f t of mood or tone from l i n e to l i n e (see discussion of "At Castle Boterel," above), while Swinburne's s h i f t s from masculine to feminine seem more often to be purely examples of t e c h n i c a l v i r t u o s i t y . Their extensive use of t r i p l e rhythms lent both Swinburne and Hardy the opportunity to take the double rhymes of feminine endings 59 one step further. Swinburne's i s o l a t e d use of t r i p l e rhyme i n "Dolores" and Hardy's i n "The Voice" demonstrate t h e i r willingness to apply forms conventionally associated with comic verse to elegiac or dramatic verse. 1 2 The preface to Hardy's Rhyming Dictionary does not mention t r i p l e rhyme, and h i s early poetry contains no examples of t h i s type; i t i s e n t i r e l y possible that "Dolores" presented Hardy with h i s f i r s t contemporary example of t r i p l e rhyme applied to a serious subject. I f so, i t i s an example which he adapted appropriately and successfully i n "The Voice." Hardy and Swinburne also shared an i n t e r e s t i n employing rhyme to unify the stanzas of a poem. This technique i s the primary d i s t i n g u i s h i n g feature of a Persian stanza form, i n which a l l f i n a l l i n e s of stanzas rhyme with each other. Hardy wrote three poems i n t h i s abcD pattern, "My C i c e l y , " "The Mother Mourns" and "The F l i r t ' s Tragedy" (Taylor 233), a l l of which vary from the standard r e f r a i n l i n e by employing d i f f e r e n t forms of the rhyme word. In "The Mother Mourns," for example, Hardy employs 21 v a r i a t i o n s of the rhyme word "lane," producing a unifying e f f e c t which i s both more i n t r i c a t e and more various than that of a r e f r a i n l i n e . Swinburne produced a s i m i l a r e f f e c t i n "Dolores," although h i s i s only a loose adaptation of t h i s Persian p r i n c i p l e . In "Dolores," each e i g h t - l i n e stanza follows the ababcdcd rhyme pattern, with an eighth r e f r a i n l i n e , "Our Lady of Pain" completing 1 2 Comic applications of t r i p l e rhyme such as Byron's i n Don  Juan were more the rule, or l i m i t a t i o n , i n the nineteenth century. T r i p l e rhyme was, however, a feature of medieval L a t i n verse; Sydney mentioned i t i n the Defense of Poesie and used i t i n Arcadia. every other stanza. In these alternating stanzas, the s i x t h l i n e s o f f e r a t o t a l of 28 v a r i a t i o n s on the rhyme word "pain." I t may only be a coincidence that Hardy's poem, composed much l a t e r than Swinburne's, uses the same rhyme ending and even employs several of the same words. In any case, the tangential s i m i l a r i t i e s between "Dolores" and "A Mother Mourns" indicate that both poets were interested i n the p o t e n t i a l for v a r i a t i o n s of the same sound to unify the poem. The p o t e n t i a l for linkage of stanzas through rhyme was also explored by both poets. In "Laus Veneris" (Poems & Ballads. F i r s t Series), Swinburne rhymes the t h i r d l i n e of the f i r s t and second stanzas, the t h i r d and fourth stanzas, and so f o r t h - which are unrhymed within t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l stanzas - creating an e f f e c t , to use Saintsbury's description, of each alternating stanza "[holding] out a f e e l e r to the next." Hardy composed a f a r more elaborate version of l i n k i n g rhyme i n "Friends Beyond," s p e c i f i c a l l y terza rima, as used by Dante i n the Divine Comedy. In "Friends Beyond," the second l i n e of each three-line stanza rhymes with the f i r s t and t h i r d l i n e s of the subsequent stanza, r e s u l t i n g i n the l i n k i n g of one stanza with the next without the closure of Swinburne's rhyming p a i r s . Each stanza introduces a rhyme word which l i n k s i t to the following stanza, creating a succession of l i n k i n g rhymes. Hardy i d e n t i f i e d the terza rima as one of Swinburne's favourites. Either Swinburne indicated h i s preference i n one of the few private conversations they had, or Hardy i s unconsciously i d e n t i f y i n g h i s own connection between Swinburne's rhyme pattern and h i s own 61 version of terza rima. Swinburne's and Hardy's wide-ranging experimentation with and invention of rhyme patterns was undoubtedly influenced by t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n various other exotic forms which enjoyed a renaissance i n England i n the l a s t h a l f of the century. In the 1877 C o r n h i l l  Magazine a r t i c l e by Edmund Gosse e n t i t l e d "A Plea For Certain Exotic Forms of Verse," Gosse introduced several forms of verse and explained why he believed contemporary English poetry could be enriched by more attention to i n t r i c a t e rhyme schemes and rhythmic patterns. According to Gosse, "Half the pleasure given to the reader, h a l f the sense of richness, completeness, and grace which he vaguely perceives and unconsciously enjoys" i s the r e s u l t of the tech n i c a l labours of a poet who struggles to master i n t r i c a t e rhyme forms. "In s p i t e of Milton, i n sp i t e of Tennyson," Gosse asserts, "the world can never grow too old to be bewitched by the s i r e n of rhyme" (71). Swinburne and Hardy both seemed to answer Gosse's plea f o r greater i n t r i c a c y of rhyme: Swinburne with h i s two poems e n t i t l e d "Rondel" i n Poems & Ballads ( F i r s t Series) and the c o l l e c t i o n A Century of Roundels (1883), and Hardy with h i s experimentation with and adaptation of the v i l l a n e l l e , t r i o l e t and various forms of the rondeau. 1 3 The two poets' p a r a l l e l i n t e r e s t i n these forms demonstrates t h e i r a b i l i t y to construct highly con t r o l l e d verse, and t h e i r desire to t e s t the l i m i t s of rhyme i n 1 3 See "The Caged Thrush Freed and Home Again" ( v i l l a n e l l e ) ; "How great my g r i e f " and "The Coquette and A f t e r " ( t r i o l e t s ) ; and, "The Roman Road" and "The Skies F l i n g Flame," i n Dynasts (rondeaux). 62 English by using forms more e a s i l y constructed i n romance languages. Of these forms, the rondeau and i t s variants have the most diverse a p p l i c a t i o n i n t h e i r verse. Swinburne's c o l l e c t i o n of roundels i s an admirable tour de force, displaying technical b r i l l i a n c e i n i t s a b i l i t y to mould and shape language as well as to r e s t r i c t h i s t y p i c a l l y "broad and sweeping measures" with one-hundred poems i n t h i s " r i g i d l y determined fi x e d form" (Gosse, L i f e 266-7). His "roundel," a term which was used by Chaucer and others as a synonym f o r the rondeau, trims one l i n e from each of the rondeau's f i r s t and t h i r d stanzas to produce a poem eleven l i n e s long and also moves the r e f r a i n from l i n e eight to l i n e four (Rooksby 251). Gosse's description of i t as " r i g i d l y determined" i s not e n t i r e l y accurate, for the roundels vary i n the metrical pattern and the p o s i t i o n and length of the r e f r a i n l i n e (Rooksby 252) . Hardy's va r i a t i o n s on the rondeau were far more extensive and could be said to represent i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n the hi s t o r y of the form (Taylor 253). While three of h i s rondeaux are s t r i c t adaptations ("The Roman Road," "Midnight on Beechen, 187-," and "The Skies F l i n g Flame" i n Dynasts), many others are much looser adaptations (Taylor 252). For example, i n describing "When I Set Out for Lyonnesse" i n 1924, Hardy c a l l e d i t "one of the many v a r i e t i e s of Roundelay, Roundel, or Rondel" (Bailey 270). The poem i s i n three stanzas and opens and closes each stanza with the same l i n e , using only two rhymes i n each stanza, but not the same rhymes i n a l l stanzas (Taylor 253). Hardy's variati o n s on t h i s r e p e t i t i o n of l i n e s of the rondeau go even further i n many poems which repeat i n i t i a l l i n e s as r e f r a i n l i n e s , including "She R e v i s i t s Alone..." and "By Henstridge Cross" (Taylor 254), although they do l i m i t two rhymes per stanza. His departures from the rondeau norm are more s i g n i f i c a n t than those of Swinburne, and suggest a more imaginative and f l e x i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of l i n e r e p e t i t i o n and r e f r a i n . Perhaps more thoroughly than any other of t h e i r contemporaries, Hardy and Swinburne experimented with an extensive v a r i e t y of end rhyme patterns, and t h i s experimentation serves as an important adjunct to t h e i r metrical accomplishments. Their use of end-rhyme added a layer of i n t r i c a c y and complexity to verse which was already a labyrinth of metrical patterns. And yet, t h e i r numerous o r i g i n a l applications of standard rhyming patterns also indicate that they did not view t h i s extra layer of i n t r i c a c y as an incumbrance to t h e i r freedom. Rather, i t was a challenge which translated into the freedom of invention. 64 VII. In h i s r e c o l l e c t i o n s of h i s early days i n London i n Early  L i f e . Hardy makes several references to Swinburne which suggest a d i s t i n c t desire to associate himself c l o s e l y with the man he l a t e r termed as a "brother-poet" (Later Years 135). In h i s description of a restaurant c a l l e d "Newton House" he said that "a few years a f t e r Hardy frequented i t Swinburne used to dine there..." (55). Several pages l a t e r he o f f e r s that "during part of h i s residence at Westbourne Park V i l l a s he was l i v i n g within h a l f a mile of Swinburne..." (65). And, i n his depiction of the summer spent i n Weymouth, he presented himself as "being - l i k e Swinburne - a swimmer.. . r i s i n g and f a l l i n g with the t i d e i n the warmth of the morning sun" (84) . These references seem to be attempts on Hardy's part to a l i g n himself as a contemporary and companion of Swinburne, emphasizing that they l i v e d , and therefore worked, i n the same context. In fact, t h e i r association goes much deeper than having dined i n the same restaurant, or shared an in t e r e s t i n swimming; Hardy's references are j u s t one more example of h i s curious and enigmatic method f o r revealing truths about himself. Swinburne and h i s poetry meant a great deal to Hardy, but the poet and his work provided an example more than an influence. Hardy was unquestionably inspired by the man for whom "every metre was d o c i l e and p l a s t i c i n h i s hands" (Leith 32) , and who endured savage 65 c r i t i c i s m for the sake of his a r t . "There i s no new poetry," said Hardy, "but the new poet - i f he carry the flame on further... comes with a new note. And that new note i t i s that troubles the c r i t i c a l waters" (Later Years 78). Hardy's words can be applied to a des c r i p t i o n of both h i s and Swinburne's careers; they were companions i n t h e i r desire to "carry the flame on further" by te s t i n g poetic conventions and challenging prosodic norms. And yet, each man met with mixed success i n h i s campaign against complacency. I n i t i a l l y h a i l e d by the c r i t i c s , Swinburne was soon i n i l l repute for h i s defiance of moral constraints, and by the end of the nineteenth century h i s bright star had faded. Today, Swinburne i s studied infrequently, and h i s contributions to prosody are seldom recognized. Why? He was perhaps i n part a vict i m of a phenomenon which Hardy described i n Later Years: As to reviewing. Apart from a few b r i l l i a n t exceptions, poetry i s not at bottom c r i t i c i z e d as such, that i s , as a p a r t i c u l a r man's a r t i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of l i f e , but with a secret eye on i t s theological and p o l i t i c a l propriety. Swinburne used to say to me that so i t would be two thousand years hence; but I doubt i t . (183) Perhaps Swinburne's reputation could never recover from the savage c r i t i c i s m of his 'theological and p o l i t i c a l propriety,' but such a long-lasting and nearly permanent condemnation i s u n l i k e l y . I t could be that c r i t i c i s m of the past century has f u l f i l l e d Hardy's 66 expectation and judged Swinburne's poetry 'as a p a r t i c u l a r man's a r t i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of l i f e ' which was uncomfortable or unpalatable. Even one of Swinburne's greatest champions, George Saintsbury, i d e n t i f i e d a weakness inherent i n Swinburne which may p a r t i a l l y explain h i s faded reputation: ...his extraordinary command of metre has led him to make new and ever new experiments i n i t . . . t o plan sea-serpents i n verse i n order to show how e a s i l y and gr a c e f u l l y he can make them c o i l and uncoil t h e i r enormous length, to bu i l d mastadons of metre that we may admire....In other words, he has sometimes, nay too often, forgotten the end while exulting i n h i s command of the means (Essays vol.2 222). Another of Swinburne's great admirers, Hardy, also appears to have acknowledged Swinburne's f i x a t i o n on technique at the expense of his poetry's philosophical substance. In 1898, he copied the following phrase from an October 29 a r t i c l e i n the Spectator: "...Swinburne, i f he live...mastery of words, rather than any int e r p r e t a t i o n of l i f e " (quoted i n L i t e r a r y Notebooks vol.2 71, Hardy's e l l i p s i s ) . A 1909 entry i n L i t e r a r y Notebooks (vol. 2 239) demonstrates that he had read an a r t i c l e on Swinburne from the Spectator of A p r i l 17: That i s why h i s verse, which at f i r s t 67 astonishes us by h i s perfection of sound, i n the end i s apt to weary and prove unsatisfying. There i s too much a r t i f i c e and too l i t t l e i n s p i r a t i o n . ("Swinburne as a Master of Metre" 605-606) Hardy's notes hint that he, l i k e Saintsbury, perceived that t e c h n i c a l v i r t u o s i t y was admirable, indeed necessary, but could not alone produce poetry of l a s t i n g i n t e r e s t and v i t a l i t y . He said i n a l e t t e r to Florence Henniker i n 1909, "This i s what makes Swinburne the greater writer [than Meredith], though he i s much the smaller thinker: he knew so well how to appeal" (Letters vol.4 24) . Hardy's comments show that the rhythmic musicality of Swinburne's verse appealed to him a great deal, but that he was not impressed with i t s corresponding repetitiveness and rather empty in t e r p r e t a t i o n of l i f e . In h i s eagerness to conduct r a d i c a l and compelling metrical experiments, and to demonstrate h i s command of metre, Swinburne created verse of technical perfection. But the unending and persistent musicality of Swinburne's verse ultimately r e f l e c t s a v i s i o n of l i f e as d u l l , r e p e t i t i o u s and perhaps even profoundly empty. This i s a v i s i o n which does not o f f e r l a s t i n g and i n t r i g u i n g analysis, and which i s not echoed i n the verse which Hardy composed throughout hi s l i f e . Unfortunately, Hardy's r i c h e r interpretations of l i f e -r e f l e c t e d p a r t l y i n his uneven, enigmatic a p p l i c a t i o n of prosody -were also i l l - t r e a t e d by c r i t i c s . Hardy f e l t that h i s own approach to technique was not well understood: 68 The reviewer so often supposes that where a r t i s not v i s i b l e i t i s unknown to the poet under c r i t i c i s m . Why does he not think of the art of concealing art? There i s a good reason why. (Later Years 184) Hardy's d e l i b e r a t e l y unorthodox application of prosodic techniques has been f o r years profoundly misunderstood as a r e f l e c t i o n of h i s ignorance or poor t r a i n i n g . But an analysis of h i s poetry i n the context of Swinburne's shows that he was i n f a c t carrying Swinburne's unconventional practices one step further. He applied the p r i n c i p l e s of substitution and metrical f l e x i b i l i t y to his verse, but avoided monotony with an abundance of unorthodox twists and turns. Hardy c a l l e d t h i s "the p r i n c i p l e of spontaneity" and equated i t a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y with an e f f e c t "found i n mouldings, tracery, and such l i k e " (Later Years 78-9). Unfortunately, the p o t e n t i a l for understanding Hardy's enigmatic prosodic technique has faded together with Swinburne's reputation has. Few c r i t i c s have understood Hardy's attempts to t e s t the bounds of prosody, and most have interpreted those attempts as a f a i l u r e to adhere to convention, and, therefore, to t r a d i t i o n . Samuel Hynes has commented that Hardy shared with the more r a d i c a l innovators of h i s time a c e r t a i n experimental s p i r i t , but he was both less extreme and less programmatic than they....though he invented stanzas, [he] never ventured f a r from the iambic norm which had been the standard English rhythm for four centuries. Perhaps he was m e t r i c a l l y less r a d i c a l than the others because he was a more self-taught poet; whatever the reason, he did have a naive reverence f o r , or at l e a s t a dependence on, the forms which he inherited. (79) These mistaken observations are representative of a great body of c r i t i c i s m which dismisses Hardy's experiments as f a i l u r e s . In fac t , Hardy did venture far from the iambic norm, but he ventured forward, b u i l d i n g on the gradual loosening of the iambic l i n e . This loosening of the iambic l i n e began with free s u b s t i t u t i o n such as that accomplished by Swinburne and perhaps sees i t s zenith i n Hardy's bumpy but highly expressive rhythms. His use of inherited forms, as i n the case of Swinburne, demonstrates not simply a "naive reverence" for t r a d i t i o n , but a respect and admiration for, as well as knowledge of, the hist o r y of English prosody. To dismiss Hardy as naive does not do j u s t i c e to h i s art, and should c r i t i c i s m p e r s i s t i n drawing t h i s conclusion, i t would be ignoring the great body of information now available which vindicates Hardy as an extremely learned, thoughtful and consciously experimental poet. Far from naive, Hardy was a poet whose c a r e f u l l y assembled body of knowledge expressed i t s e l f i n an often misunderstood sense of poetic decorum. Hardy knew the rules, and was w i l l i n g to apply them, but not i n conventional fashion. I t i s possible that h i s 70 knowledge of and respect for prosody i s not immediately evident i n his poetry because h i s reputation as a no v e l i s t has affected the analysis of h i s verse. Most students of Hardy encounter him as the f i r s t c r i t i c s did - f i r s t as nov e l i s t , then as poet. I t would be d i f f i c u l t not to allow h i s prose voice to influence one's int e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s poetic voice; read l i k e prose, and without consideration of the experimental t r a d i t i o n i n which Hardy was composing, h i s m e t r i c a l l y ambiguous and experimental verse does not sound l i k e poetry. Unfortunately perhaps for Hardy, he chose to avoid the tendency to "exhibit h i s learning, or hi s f i n e taste, or hi s s k i l l i n mimicking the notes of his predecessors" (Early L i f e 167). Instead, he d e l i b e r a t e l y attempted to construct verse which was not pedantic, but was nonetheless r i c h i n verbal texture and overflowing with h i s own peculiar i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of l i f e . As a r e s u l t , h is knowledge and s k i l l i n prosody have been for some time hidden by the c r i t i c a l conclusion that h i s avoidance and r e j e c t i o n of conventional prosody was a r e s u l t of h i s i n a b i l i t y to use i t . This conclusion i s most unfair to Hardy, and has undoubtedly precluded much r i c h and s a t i s f y i n g study of h i s verse. Analysis of Hardy's poetry within the context of a developing t r a d i t i o n demonstrates that he was carrying the flame on further, t e s t i n g the bounds of the t r a d i t i o n i n which he was trained. I t was i n t h i s desire to move forward that he found poetic companionship with Swinburne, and ultimately surpassed him. In the uneven and imperfect rhythms of Hardy's verse resonates the 71 imperfection and ambiguity of the human experience. Somehow, Swinburne's sw i r l i n g , t e c h n i c a l l y u p l i f t i n g measures convey a sense of u n r e a l i t y and r e p e t i t i v e emptiness. I t i s the humanity of Hardy's verse which produces i t s r i c h and l a s t i n g appeal, and i r o n i c a l l y , which i s the source of so much c r i t i c a l misunderstanding. 72 Works Consulted Bjork, Lennart J . "Hardy's Reading." Thomas Hardy: The Writer and His Background. Norman Page, ed. London: B e l l & Hyman, 1980. Bowra, CM. "The L y r i c a l Poetry of Thomas Hardy." Inspiration  and Poetry. London: Macmillan, 1955. Buchanan, Robert William. The Fleshly School of Poetry and  Other Phemnomena of the Day. N.P.: n.p., 1872. Burdett, Osbert. "How to Read Swinburne." Saturday Review (London), 151 (18 A p r i l 1931): 576-77. Butler, A.J. "Mr. Hardy as a Decadent." National Review (London), 27 (May 1896): 384-90. Chesterton, G.K. "On Algernon Charles Swinburne." A l l i s G r i s t :  A Book of Essays. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1932. Chew, Samuel C. Swinburne. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, 1929. Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. Table Talk. (23 October 1833):263. London: Chiswick Press, 1923. Connolly, Thomas E. "Swinburne on 'The Music of Poetry'." PMLA, 72 (1957): 680-688. Swinburne's Theory of Poetry. New York: State U. of New York, 1964. Cook, David A. "The Content and Meaning of Swinburne's 'Anactoria.*" V i c t o r i a n Poetry. 9 (Spring/Summer 1971): 77-93. Davie, Donald. Thomas Hardy and B r i t i s h Poetry. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973. E l i o t , T.S. After Strange Gods: A Primer of Modern Heresy. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1934. "Swinburne as Poet." The Sacred Wood. London: Methuen, 1928. Fredeman, William E. "Algernon Charles Swinburne: 1837 - 1909." PreRaphaelitism: a B i b l i o c r i t i c a l Study. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U. Press, 1965. F u l l e r , Jean Overton. Swinburne: A Biography. London: Chatto 73 and Windus, 1968. Gibson, James and Trevor Johnson, eds. Thomas Hardy: Poems. A  Casebook. London: Macmillan, 1979. Gi t t i n g s , Robert. Young Thomas Hardy. London: Heinemann, 1975. Gosse, S i r Edmund. The L i f e of A. C. Swinburne. London: Macmillan, 1917. "A Plea f o r Certain Exotic Forms of Verse." C o r n h i l l Magazine. 36 (1877): 53-79. "Mr. Hardy's L y r i c a l Poems." Edinburgh Review. 227 ( A p r i l , 1918): 272-93. Grierson, H.J.C. "The Nineties." L y r i c a l Poetry from Blake to  Hardy. London: Hogarth Press, 1928. Guerard, Albert J. "The I l l u s i o n of Si m p l i c i t y : the Shorter Poems of Thomas Hardy." Sewanee Review 72 (Summer 1964): 363-88. Hamer, Enid. The Metres of English Poetry. London: Metheuen, 1939. Hardy, Evelyn. Thomas Hardy: A C r i t i c a l Biography. London: Hogarth Press, 1954. Hardy, Florence. The Early L i f e of Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1928. The Later Years of Thomas Hardy. London: Macmillan, 1930. Hardy, Thomas. The Collected Letters of Thomas Hardy. Eds. Richard L. Purdy and Michael Mi l l g a t e . 7 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978-88. The Complete Po e t i c a l Works of Thomas Hardy. Ed. Samuel Hynes. 3 vols, to date. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1982-85. The L i t e r a r y Notebooks of Thomas Hardy. Ed. Lennart J. Bjork. 2 vols. London: Macmillan, 1985. The Personal Notebooks of Thomas Hardy. Ed. Richard Taylor. London: Macmillan, 1978. Thomas Hardy's Personal Writings: Prefaces. L i t e r a r y Opinions. Reminiscences. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1966. Henderson, P h i l i p . Swinburne: The P o r t r a i t of a Poet. London: 74 Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974. Heyck, Thomas W. The Transformation of I n t e l l e c t u a l L i f e i n  V i c t o r i a n England. London: Croom Helm, 1982. Hickson, Elizabeth Cathcart. The V e r s i f i c a t i o n of Thomas Hardy. P h i l i d e l p h i a : University of Pennsylvania, 1931. Howe, Irving. Thomas Hardy. New York: Macmillan, 1967. Hyder, C.K. "Algernon Charles Swinburne." The V i c t o r i a n Poets:  A Guide to Research. 2nd ed. Ed. Frederic E. Faverty. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard U. Press, 1968. , ed. Swinburne: The C r i t i c a l Heritage. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1970. Hynes, Samuel. The Pattern of Hardy's Poetry. Chapel H i l l : U. of North Carolina Press, 1961. Johnson, Trevor. "'Ancestral Voices': Hardy and the English Poetic T r a d i t i o n . " V i c t o r i a n Poetry. 29 (Spring 1991): 47-92. H ' P r e — C r i t i c a l Innocence' and the Anthologist's Hardy." V i c t o r i a n Poetry. 17 (Spring/Summer 1979): 9-29. Lafourcade, Georges. La Jeunesse de Swinburne (1837-1867). London: Humphrey Mi l f o r d for Oxford U. Press, 1928). Swinburne: A L i t e r a r y Biography. London: Oxford U. Press, 1932. Leith, Mary Charlotte J u l i a (Gordon). 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Roach, John. A History of Secondary Education i n England. 1800- 1870. London: Longman Group, 1986. Rooksby, Rikky. "Swinburne i n Miniature: A Century of Roundels." V i c t o r i a n Poetry. 23 (1985): 249-265. Sacks, Peter M. The English Elegy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1985. Saintsbury, George. The Collected Essays and Papers of George  Saintsbury. 2 vols. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1923. A History of English Prosody. 3 vols. 1906. New York: Russell & Russell, 1961. Smith, Egerton. The P r i n c i p l e s of English Metre. Oxford: Oxford 76 U. Press, 1923. Swinburne, Algernon Charles. The Heptalogia or the Seven Against  Sin. London: Chatto & Windus, 1880. The Poems of Algernon Charles Swinburne. 6 v o l s . London: Chatto & Windus, 1904. Swinburne Replies. Ed. C. K. Hyder. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse U. Press, 1966. The Swinburne Letters. Ed. C e c i l Y. Lang. 6 vols. New Haven, Conn.: Yale U. Press, 1959-62. Taylor, Dennis. Hardy's Metres and V i c t o r i a n Prosody. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988. Hardy's Poetry. 1860-1928. New York: Columbia U. Press, 1981. Thomas, Donald. Swinburne: the Poet i n h i s World. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1979. Thomson, J.A.K. C l a s s i c a l Influences on English Poetry. London: George A l l e n & Unwin, 1951. V i l l o n , Francois. The Complete Works of Francois V i l l o n . Trans. Anthony Bonner. New York: David McKay, 1960. Walker, John. A Rhyming Dictionary. Ed. J. Longmuir. London: William Tegg, 1865. Wharton, Henry Thornton. Sappho: Memoir. Text, Selected Renderings and a L i t e r a l Translation. New York: Brentano's, 1920. Zabel, Morton D. "Hardy i n Defense of h i s Art: The Aesthetic of Incongruity," Southern Review 6 (Summer 1940): 125-49. 

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