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Cooperative learning activities : the study of random groupings and sociometric groupings and their impact… Lang, Esther Uldene 1991

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COOPERATIVE LEARNING ACTIVITIES: THE STUDY OF RANDOM GROUPINGS AND SOCIOMETRIC GROUPINGS AND THEIR IMPACT ON SELF-ESTEEM by ESTHER ULDENE LANG B. Ed., U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Education, C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1991 (c) E s t h e r Uldene Lang, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ^.U^/XXALXJ^C^J -j- 3ry^t^u^X^rxO The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date ^JU /??/  DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T T h i s s t u d y e x a m i n e d two p o l a r i z e d v i e w s o f s e l e c t i n g s t u d e n t s f o r g r o u p i n g f o r c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , t o s e e w h a t i m p a c t e a c h h a d o n s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m . One m a j o r q u e s t i o n f o r m e d t h e b a s i s o f t h e s t u d y : I s t h e r e a n y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m a t t h e G r a d e 7 l e v e l , o v e r a s i x m o n t h p e r i o d o f t i m e , i f t h e t e a c h e r w e r e t o c h o o s e g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p f o r c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s r a n d o m l y , a s o p p o s e d t o s o c i o m e t r i c a l l y . T h e s u b j e c t s w e r e 41 G r a d e 7 s t u d e n t s i n two c l a s s e s w i t h i n t h e same e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n a s m a l l t own i n t h e I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . K e e p i n g c l a s s e s i n t a c t , o n e c l a s s was g r o u p e d s o c i o m e t r i c a l l y f o r t h r e e S o c i a l S t u d i e s u n i t s s e t u p i n C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g f o r m a t , w h i l e t h e o t h e r c l a s s was g r o u p e d r a n d o m l y f o r t h e same t h r e e u n i t s . S u b j e c t s w e r e g i v e n t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f -C o n c e p t S c a l e a n d t h e C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y a t t h r e e t i m e s d u r i n g t h e s t u d y - b e f o r e a n y C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , a t t h e e n d o f t h e s i x m o n t h a c t i v i t i e s , a n d a f t e r two m o n t h s o f no C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s m e a s u r e was u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t e a c h g r o u p , a s a w h o l e , h a d a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n p e r c e i v e d s e l f - e s t e e m , a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t a n y c h a n g e s i n s e l f - e s t e e m w e r e more s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e s o c i o m e t r i c g r o u p i n g o r i n t h e r a n d o m g r o u p i n g . i i T e s t s w e r e h a n d - s c o r e d , a n d t h e i r m e a n s , sums o f s q u a r e s , d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m , mean s q u a r e s , F - r a t i o s , a n d p r o b a b i l i t i e s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d by e n t e r i n g t h e d a t a i n t o a c o m p u t e r a n d u s i n g t h e ANOVAR command f i l e o f t h e S P S S : X p r o g r a m t o c a l c u l a t e t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e d a t a f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s a m p l e , t h e r e i s n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s e l f - e s t e e m o f t h e s t u d e n t s g r o u p e d r a n d o m l y o r s o c i o m e t r i c a l l y . T h e r e was a l s o n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s e l f - e s t e e m o f m a l e s v e r s u s f e m a l e s . H o w e v e r , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e o v e r t i m e , w i t h t h e c o m b i n e d g r o u p s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s c o u l d h a v e h a d some i m p a c t o n s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m i n g e n e r a l . i i i T A B L E OF CONTENTS A B S T R A C T i i L I S T OF T A B L E S v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i C H A P T E R I : NATURE OF T H E STUDY 1 A . T h e S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m 1 B . R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e S t u d y 1 C . T h e P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y 3 D . T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 3 E . Q u e s t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 7 F . H y p o t h e s i s 8 G . D e f i n i t i o n s 8 H . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e P a p e r 10 C H A P T E R I I : REVIEW OF THE L I T E R A T U R E 11 A . S t u d i e s R e l a t i n g t o C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g a n d t h e A f f e c t i v e D o m a i n 11 B . S t u d i e s R e l a t i n g t o H e t e r o g e n e o u s G r o u p i n g s a n d C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g 15 C H A P T E R I I I : D E S I G N OF T H E STUDY 19 A . S u b j e c t s a n d L e n g t h o f S t u d y 19 B . I n v e n t o r i e s 20 1. C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y 21 2 . P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e 22 i v C . P r o c e d u r e s 23 1. P r e S t u d y P h a s e 23 a . C o n s e n t f o r t h e S t u d y 23 b. P r e T e s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 25 c . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f C l a s s e s 27 2. T h e C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g P h a s e 28 a . M a t e r i a l s U s e d 28 b. C l a s s r o o m P r o c e d u r e s 29 3. T e s t i n g P h a s e 31 C H A P T E R I V : R E S U L T S AND A N A L Y S I S OF DATA 34 A . S a m p l e 34 B . F a c t o r s i n S c o r i n g 35 C . D a t a A n a l y s i s 36 C H A P T E R V : SUMMARY, C O N C L U S I O N S , AND I M P L I C A T I O N S 50 A . Summary 50 1. P u r p o s e 50 2. Q u e s t i o n s 51 B . C o n c l u s i o n s 52 C . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 57 D . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 58 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 60 A P P E N D I C E S 64 A . A p p e n d i x A : Summary o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e R e l a t i n g t o C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g 65 B . A p p e n d i x B : S a m p l e L e t t e r s o f P e r m i s s i o n 67 C . A p p e n d i x C : S a m p l e C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g L e s s o n P l a n s 72 v L I S T OF T A B L E S T a b l e 1: Summary o f P o p u l a t i o n o f M a l e / F e m a l e i n t h e S t u d y 20 T a b l e 2: D e s i g n o f t h e S t u d y 31 T a b l e 3 : Summary o f Raw D a t a f o r S o c i o m e t r i c G r o u p b y G e n d e r o n C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y 37 T a b l e 4: Summary o f Raw D a t a f o r Random G r o u p b y G e n d e r o n C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y 38 T a b l e 5: Summary o f Raw D a t a f o r S o c i o m e t r i c G r o u p by G e n d e r o n t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e 39 T a b l e 6: Summary o f Raw D a t a f o r Random G r o u p b y G e n d e r o n t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e 40 T a b l e 7: Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o n t h e C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y 42 T a b l e 8: Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e o n t h e P i e r s -H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e 42 T a b l e 9 : Summary o f Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o n t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e f o r t h e S o c i o m e t r i c a l l y A s s i g n e d G r o u p 44 T a b l e 10 : Summary o f Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o n t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e f o r t h e R a n d o m l y A s s i g n e d G r o u p . . . . 44 T a b l e 11 : Summary o f Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o n t h e C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y f o r t h e S o c i o m e t r i c a l l y A s s i g n e d G r o u p 45 T a b l e 12 : Summary o f Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o n t h e C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y f o r t h e R a n d o m l y A s s i g n e d G r o u p 45 T a b l e 1 3 : Summary o f Means R e l a t i n g t o T i m e o n t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e . 46 T a b l e 14: Summary o f Means R e l a t i n g t o T i m e o n t h e C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y 46 v i T a b l e 1 5 : Summary o f R e s u l t s o f T u k e y ' s P o s t - H o c T e s t f o r t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e 48 T a b l e 16 : Summary o f R e s u l t s o f T u k e y ' s P o s t - H o c T e s t f o r t h e C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y 48 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS V e r y l i t t l e c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d i n i s o l a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y h a s t r u l y b e e n b a s e d o n c o o p e r a t i o n , c o l l a b o r a t i o n , a n d c o r r o b o r a t i o n . I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o t h e f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e : * D r . F l o r e n c e P i e i r o n e k , my c o m m i t t e e c h a i r p e r s o n , f o r h e r g u i d a n c e a n d s u p p o r t , * D r . D . A l l i s o n f o r h i s comments a n d s u g g e s t i o n s i n s u p p o r t o f my p r o p o s a l , a n d h i s p a t i e n c e w i t h my s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s , * D r . A . L u k a s e v i c h f o r r e a d i n g my t h e s i s , * D r . H . R a t z l a f f f o r h i s a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g , a n d f o r h i s w i s d o m i n many t h i n g s , * my p a r e n t s , M r . a n d M r s . T h e o d o r e L a n g , f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d w i l l i n g n e s s t o h e l p i n a n y s i t u a t i o n , * my c o l l e a g u e s , e s p e c i a l l y D a n i e l S t r a c h a n a n d R o g e r B e n n e t t who a l l o w e d me t o s h a r e t h e i r c l a s s e s w i t h t h e m , a n d who h e l p e d me t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a l d a t a , a n d made b e n e f i c i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s t u d e n t s , * t h e s t u d e n t s i n t h e G r a d e 7 c l a s s e s who w e r e w i l l i n g t o g i v e f e e d b a c k o n t h e i r f e e l i n g s , a n d t o t h e i r p a r e n t s who a l l o w e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o be u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . v i i i CHAPTER I : NATURE OF T H E STUDY A . T h e S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m A l t h o u g h much r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n c o m p l e t e d o n t h e u s e o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n r e l a t i o n t o s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t a n d t o s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t l i t t l e r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n d o n e t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r o r n o t some f o r m s o f h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p i n g s h a v e more i m p a c t o n s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m t h a n h a v e o t h e r s . T h i s s t u d y was o r g a n i z e d t o a l l o w t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o e x p l o r e two m e t h o d s o f h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p i n g o f s t u d e n t s , t h a t o f s o c i o m e t r i c g r o u p i n g b y s t u d e n t a b i l i t y o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d r a n d o m g r o u p i n g o n t h e o t h e r , a n d t h e i r c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t s o n s e l f - e s t e e m o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e u p p e r i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s , o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . B. R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study The term " c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g " has become very popular i n e d u c a t i o n a l methodology. Although many r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s have been c a r r i e d out t o determine the i n f l u e n c e o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s on student achievement (Davidson, 1985; Johnson, 1981; Newmann, 1987; S l a v i n 1980, 1983a, 1983b) and on student s e l f - e s t e e m ( S l a v i n , 1983a; Sharan, 1980), t h e r e are s t i l l numerous unanswered q u e s t i o n s . 1 C o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g i s a t e c h n i q u e f o r g r o u p i n g s t u d e n t s f o r c l a s s r o o m w o r k . I t i s b a s e d o n t h e t h e o r y t h a t w h e r e a c o o p e r a t i v e g o a l s t r u c t u r e e x i s t s , s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e y c a n a c h i e v e t h a t g o a l , o n l y i f e a c h o t h e r s t u d e n t i n t h a t g r o u p d o e s h i s / h e r p a r t . T h i s h a s b e e n t e r m e d , "We s i n k o r swim t o g e t h e r " ( J o h n s o n , J o h n s o n , & H o l u b e c , 1 9 8 6 , p . 8 ) . T h e r e f o r e , t h e makeup o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s h o u l d b e s t u d i e d . Two b a s i c t y p e s e x i s t , h o m o g e n e o u s ( w h e r e s t u d e n t s a r e r o u g h l y o f e q u a l a b i l i t y ) a n d h e t e r o g e n e o u s ( w h e r e s t u d e n t s a r e o f v a r i o u s a b i l i t i e s ) . C o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r e s s e s t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y f o r h e t e r o g e n e o u s s t u d e n t g r o u p i n g s i n t h e l i g h t o f c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s ; h o w e v e r , l i t t l e r e s e a r c h seems t o h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e i m p a c t o f d i f f e r i n g a p p r o a c h e s t o " s e l e c t i o n " o f h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p i n g s o n s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m . A u t h o r s o f b o o k s e x t o l l i n g c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t a t e two a p p a r e n t p o l a r p o s i t i o n s , a n d e v e r y t h i n g i n b e t w e e n . One e x t r e m i t y i s t o g r o u p s t u d e n t s by means o f a s o c i o m e t r i c s u r v e y , i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t s o f l o w - , m i d d l e - , a n d h i g h -a c h i e v e m e n t , i n c l u d i n g m a l e a n d f e m a l e , i n c l u d i n g e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e w h o l e c l a s s , a n d i n c l u d i n g s t u d e n t s who a r e i n t r o v e r t e d / e x t r o v e r t e d . T h e o t h e r e x t r e m i t y i s t o r a n d o m i z e t h e g r o u p i n g s by n u m b e r i n g s t u d e n t s a n d m a k i n g a l l s t u d e n t s h o l d i n g t h e number " f o u r " i n t o a g r o u p , o r by g i v i n g o u t p i e c e s o f c o l o u r e d p a p e r r a n d o m l y w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . Many o f t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s a p p e a r d e s i r a b l e 2 a c c o r d i n g t o l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d , b u t w h a t e f f e c t d o e s e a c h h a v e o n t h e s e l f - e s t e e m o f t h e s t u d e n t s ? C . T h e P u r p o s e o f t h e S t u d y T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e way G r a d e 7 s t u d e n t s w e r e a s s i g n e d t o g r o u p s c a u s e d a n y s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m . T h i s was d o n e o v e r a p e r i o d o f s i x m o n t h s , u s i n g c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o t e a c h S o c i a l S t u d i e s c o n t e n t . D . T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y Some S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s s t i l l h a v e s c h o o l s w h i c h i n c l u d e G r a d e 7 c l a s s e s i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y s y s t e m . T h e c u r r e n t b e l i e f among many t e a c h e r s , c o n c e r n i n g s t u d e n t s e l f - c o n c e p t , seems t o b e t h a t s t u d e n t s i n G r a d e s 7 s h o u l d h a v e h e a l t h y s e l f - c o n c e p t s b y t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e t h e o l d e s t s t u d e n t s i n t h e s c h o o l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h i s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t r u e . A t t h e G r a d e 7 l e v e l , o b s e r v a t i o n s t e n d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t s e l f - c o n c e p t i s v e r y f r a g i l e a n d c a n r a p i d l y d e t e r i o r a t e . I n many c a s e s i t d o e s n o t seem t o b e s t a b i l i z e d . S t u d e n t s a p p e a r t o h a v e many " m o u n t a i n t o p " e x p e r i e n c e s , b u t many " v a l l e y s " w i t h w h i c h t o c o n t e n d a s w e l l . N o t a l l s t u d e n t s become b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s , 3 but the tendency t o r e b e l o r t o compete f o r a t t e n t i o n seems to be more p r e v a l e n t . While they wish a l l students t o do w e l l and t o achieve t h e i r p o t e n t i a l , t e a c h e r s are now being f a c e d w i t h such concepts as mainstreaming o f s p e c i a l needs stud e n t s , ungraded classrooms, and new c u r r i c u l u m s t r a n d s based on i n t e g r a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m content ( S u l l i v a n , 1988). C o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g has been suggested as one s t r a t e g y t o address many o f the concerns t e a c h e r s have about the wide a b i l i t y range expected t o co-e x i s t i n t h e i r classrooms ( S u l l i v a n , 1988). Research i n d i c a t e s t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g does indeed enhance s e l f - e s t e e m i n students (Aronson, 1978; Johnson & Johnson 1983, 1987; Roark & Sharah, 1989; Sharan, 1980; S l a v i n 1980, 1981, 1983a, 1983b, 1986, 1987b, 1988a, 1989, 1990), probably because g o a l s are s t r u c t u r e d so t h a t the students are interdependent upon o t h e r workers w i t h i n t h e i r group. T h e r e f o r e they must be concerned w i t h the v a l u e o f each person w i t h i n the group, and depend on o t h e r s b e s i d e s themselves. In working toward a common g o a l , the group may encounter a d i v i s i o n o f la b o u r o r a d i v i s i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , so t h a t each member p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e w i t h i n the group. Thus the w e l l -f u n c t i o n i n g group i s p r o v i d i n g encouragement f o r the unde r a c h i e v e r s , and m o t i v a t i o n f o r the unmotivated. G r a d u a l l y , over a p e r i o d o f time, a network o f support i s b u i l t , and student s e l f - e s t e e m g e n e r a l l y tends t o become more p o s i t i v e . Each person i n the group i s accountable t o every o t h e r member i n terms of the commitment t o the p r o j e c t . 4 W i t h i n t h e i r group, students are encouraged t o ask q u e s t i o n s and t o e x p l a i n t h e i r r e a s o n i n g p e r t a i n i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r t o p i c . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s shared, and students b e g i n to r e c o g n i z e t h a t the p r o j e c t cannot be completed without the commitment o f the whole group. In o r d e r t o work w e l l together, students are taught s o c i a l s k i l l s and encouraged to use these s t r a t e g i e s t o h e l p the group f u n c t i o n i n a h e a l t h y manner. The teacher p r o v i d e s the g o a l s , the s o c i a l s t r a t e g i e s , and the group feedback. In many ways, much o f the t e a c h e r ' s concern about student achievement w i t h c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s has been answered i n the r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . There are i n d i c a t i o n s of h i g h e r achievement, i n c r e a s e d r e t e n t i o n , g r e a t e r use of h i g h e r l e v e l r e a s o n i n g , i n c r e a s e d p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g , more on-task behavior, and g r e a t e r c o l l a b o r a t i v e s k i l l s (Aronson, 1978; Davidson, 1985; Johnson & Johnson, 1975; Johnson, Maruyama, Johnson, Nelson, Skon, 1981; Newmann & Thompson, 1987; Sharan 1980; S l a v i n 1980, 1981, 1988a, 1988b, 1990; S l a v i n & K a r v e i t , 1981). I f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g promotes p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m and g r e a t e r achievement a c c o r d i n g t o the r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , then i t may be b e n e f i c i a l f o r t e a c h e r s to f i n d ways t o i n c o r p o r a t e these i d e a s i n t o t h e i r p r e s e n t t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Over the p a s t two years School D i s t r i c t #30 has e s t a b l i s h e d a long-range p l a n , based on the a d v i c e o f a P l a n n i n g Committee made up of parents, t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and non-teaching employees. The f i r s t 5 o b j e c t i v e i s t o "promote the development o f an environment i n the s c h o o l , the home and the community t h a t a s s i s t s c h i l d r e n t o develop a h e a l t h y s e l f - c o n c e p t " (S.D.#30, 1989, p.2). Teachers and D i s t r i c t p e r s o nnel are attempting t o implement s t r a t e g i e s i n which t h i s g o a l can be e x p l o r e d . C o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g has become a " g r a s s r o o t s " movement, supported m o n e t a r i l y by the D i s t r i c t . Much o f the l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n suggests t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g groups should be heterogeneous, w i t h a mixture o f students (Aronson, 1978; Dept. o f C o o p e r a t i o n and C o o p e r a t i v e Development, 1983; Dishon & O'Leary, 1984; Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1986; Sharan & Sharan, 1987; Rhoades & McCabe, 1985; S l a v i n , 1988b; S t a n f o r d , 1977; Vermette, 1988). Some r e s e a r c h e r s d e f i n e j u s t how heterogeneous, w h i l e o t h e r s l e a v e t h a t t o the judgement o f the teacher. On one hand, random groupings are recommended where the t e a c h e r i s not p e r c e i v e d as "choosing" the students f o r a group, but i t i s the " l u c k of the draw". On the o t h e r hand, s o c i o m e t r i c groupings are recommended, where i t i s hoped t h a t a student w i l l work with a t l e a s t one student he s e l e c t s , and o t h e r s chosen by the teacher to make the group heterogeneous a c c o r d i n g t o some pre-determined c r i t e r i a such as l e v e l o f achievement. S t i l l o t h e r l i t e r a t u r e recommends i n c o r p o r a t i n g both i d e a s of s o c i o m e t r i c groupings and random groupings. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s worthwhile t o study both p o l a r i z e d forms o f heterogeneous groupings to determine which, i f e i t h e r , c r e a t e s 6 more p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h s t u d e n t s a t a n age o f f r a g i l e s e l f - c o n c e p t s . E . Q u e s t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y One m a j o r q u e s t i o n f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r t h i s s t u d y : A . I s t h e r e a n y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s t u d e n t s e l f -e s t e e m a t t h e G r a d e 7 l e v e l , o v e r a s i x m o n t h p e r i o d o f t i m e , i f t h e t e a c h e r w e r e t o c h o o s e g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p f o r c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s r a n d o m l y , a s o p p o s e d t o s o c i o m e t r i c a l l y ? A d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o g e n d e r w e r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d : i . A r e t h e r e a n y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e m a l e / f e m a l e p e r c e p t i o n s o f s e l f - e s t e e m b e f o r e t h e s t u d y , a t t h e e n d o f a s i x m o n t h p e r i o d o f t i m e , a n d a f t e r a p e r i o d o f two m o n t h s o f no c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ? I s t h e r e a n y e v i d e n c e o f b o y s o r g i r l s h a v i n g more p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m b e f o r e a n d a f t e r t h e s t u d y ? D o e s g e n d e r r e l a t e t o i m p r o v e m e n t o f s e l f - e s t e e m a t t h e G r a d e 7 l e v e l ? 7 F . H y p o t h e s i s 1 . T h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s t u d e n t s e l f -e s t e e m a t t h e G r a d e 7 l e v e l , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e C o o p e r s m i t h I n v e n t o r y o f S e l f - E s t e e m a n d t h e P i e r s -H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e , b e t w e e n s o c i o m e t r i c g r o u p i n g o f s t u d e n t s a n d r a n d o m g r o u p i n g o f s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s c o n d u c t e d o v e r a p e r i o d o f s i x m o n t h s . G . D e f i n i t i o n s F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s w i l l be d e f i n e d a s : C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g - a s t r a t e g y e m p l o y e d b y a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r , i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o l e a r n i n g t e a m s . A g r o u p g o a l i s g i v e n , a n d m u s t be a c h i e v e d b y t h e g r o u p a s a w h o l e . E a c h g r o u p member mus t b e a c c o u n t a b l e t o e a c h o t h e r g r o u p member f o r h i s / h e r c o m m i t m e n t t o r e a c h i n g t h e g o a l . T h e r e i s s h a r e d l e a d e r s h i p a n d s h a r e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A g r o u p r e w a r d i s g i v e n o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e g r o u p h a v i n g a c h i e v e d t h e g o a l ( b a s e d o n t h e m o d e l o u t l i n e d by J o h n s o n , J o h n s o n & H o l u b e c , 1 9 8 6 ) . 8 S e l f - e s t e e m - o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as sc o r e s on the P i e r s -H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f Concept S c a l e and on the Coopersmith Inventory o f Self-Esteem. I t r e p r e s e n t s a s e t o f a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s t h a t a person b r i n g s w i t h him- or h e r s e l f when f a c i n g the world. I t i s a p e r s o n a l judgment o f worthiness expressed i n the a t t i t u d e s a person holds toward the s e l f (Coopersmith, 1981, p.1,2). P o s i t i v e S e l f - e s t e e m - a student f e e l s l o v e d and f e e l s worthy of being l o v e d . He i s a c c e p t i n g o f h i m s e l f and o f o t h e r s . He has a c a r i n g and understanding a t t i t u d e toward o t h e r s . He has s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and i s ab l e t o take reasonable r i s k s without undue a n x i e t y . He b e l i e v e s t h a t success i s l i k e l y a f t e r r e asonable e f f o r t . He b e l i e v e s t h a t one's c o n t r i b u t i o n s can make a p o s i t i v e d i f f e r e n c e t o o n e s e l f , one's home, one's s c h o o l and one's community (S.D.#30). Random S e l e c t i o n - students are chosen t o be members of a group, a t random. Perhaps students are numbered i n s i x e s , o r g i v e n p i e c e s o f c o l o u r e d paper randomly as they a r r i v e i n c l a s s . The teacher has no pr e - c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s about which students w i l l perform w e l l w i t h which o t h e r s t u d e n t s , o r about p e r s o n a l i t y c l a s h e s which may occur. There i s no d e l i b e r a t e attempt t o mix a b i l i t y l e v e l s o r sexes. S o c i o m e t r i c S e l e c t i o n - each student i s g i v e n a c a r d and asked t o p l a c e on i t the names o f two or more students w i t h which he 9 w i s h e s t o w o r k . T h e t e a c h e r c o l l e c t s t h e c a r d s a n d a n a l y z e s w h i c h s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m h a v e n o t b e e n c h o s e n b y a n y o t h e r s t u d e n t s , a n d b u i l d s a n e t w o r k o f s u p p o r t i v e s t u d e n t s a r o u n d t h e i s o l a t e s . T h u s t h e s e g r o u p s become t e a c h e r - c h o s e n . H . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e P a p e r T h i s p a p e r i s o r g a n i z e d i n f i v e m a j o r c h a p t e r s . T h e f i r s t c h a p t e r , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y , g e n e r a l l y d e a l s w i t h t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e , i t s q u e s t i o n s a n d h y p o t h e s i s , a n d t h e w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n s . C h a p t e r two r e v i e w s t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g t o t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a n d t h e a f f e c t i v e d o m a i n , a n d t o h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p i n g s a n d c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g . C h a p t e r t h r e e f o c u s e s s p e c i f i c a l l y o n t h e d e s i g n o f t h e s t u d y , i n c l u d i n g t h e s u b j e c t s a n d l e n g t h o f s t u d y , t h e i n v e n t o r i e s u s e d t o t e s t s e l f - e s t e e m o f t h e s t u d e n t s , a n d t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r d u r i n g t h e p r e s t u d y p h a s e , t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g p h a s e , a n d t h e t e s t i n g p h a s e . C h a p t e r f o u r d e a l s w i t h t h e a c t u a l d a t a a n d i t s s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . C h a p t e r f i v e c l o s e s t h e s t u d y w i t h t h e summary , c o n c l u s i o n s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 10 CHAPTER I I : REVIEW OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E T h i s c h a p t e r r e v i e w s a number o f r e c e n t s t u d i e s u n d e r two h e a d i n g s : a . ) s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a n d t h e a f f e c t i v e d o m a i n , a n d b . ) s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p i n g s a n d c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g . T h i s r e v i e w f o c u s e s o n t h e g e n e r a l i d e a s o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e a f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r s o f s t u d e n t s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , a n d t h e n becomes more f o c u s s e d , c o n s i d e r i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e p e r c e i v e d d e s i r a b i l i t y o f h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s i n c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g . L i t e r a t u r e o n t h i s t o p i c i s g e n e r a l l y o f t h r e e b a s i c t y p e s : Some c o n t a i n s e x a m p l e s o f r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , some o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i d e a s o f o t h e r s , a n d some o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , b a s e d o n t h e r e s e a r c h o f o t h e r s . A . S t u d i e s R e l a t i n g t o C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g a n d t h e A f f e c t i v e  D o m a i n M u c h r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n c a r r i e d o u t o n t h e e f f e c t s o f b o t h c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a n d c o m p e t i t i v e l e a r n i n g o n s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r ( A r o n s o n , 1978; J o h n s o n & J o h n s o n , 1987; J o h n s o n , M a r u y a m a , J o h n s o n , N e l s o n & S k o n , 1981; S h a r a n , 1980, 1984). H o w e v e r , o n l y a few r e s e a r c h e r s seem t o h a v e b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d i e s . 11 Major c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s review w i l l be g i v e n t o E. Aronson (1978), D.W. Johnson & R.T. Johnson (1975, 1983, 1987), R.E. S l a v i n (1980, 1981, 1983a, 1983b, 1986,1987a, 1987b. 1987c, 1987d, 1988a, 1988b, 1989, 1990), and S. Sharan (1980, 1984), i n the f i e l d o f education, and A.E. Roark and H.S. Sharah (1989) i n the f i e l d o f b e h a v i o r a l s o c i o l o g y . These r e s e a r c h e r s d i s c u s s the p o t e n t i a l o f c o o p e r a t i v e s t r a t e g i e s i n classrooms and i n s o c i e t y . Johnson, Johnson, and Holubec (1986) concluded t h a t c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s are i n c l i n e d t o i m i t a t e each o t h e r s ' b e h a v i o r s and t o i d e n t i f y w i t h persons who have the b e h a v i o r s they d e s i r e . Being r e j e c t e d by one's peers tends t o b r i n g on a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s . C h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s need c o n s t r u c t i v e peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o a v o i d the p a i n o f l o n e l i n e s s . Peers seem to have a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on p r o d u c t i v i t y , and g r e a t e r achievement i s found i n c o o p e r a t i v e s i t u a t i o n s than i n c o m p e t i t i v e ones. Where a c h i l d has weak s k i l l s o r i s unmotivated, c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h peers has powerful e f f e c t s on h i s / h e r p r o d u c t i v i t y . Although Aronson's d a t a from a few years e a r l i e r (1978) concurs, he i n d i c a t e s t h a t a more p o s i t i v e achievement r e s u l t s among lower a c h i e v e r s , but t h a t h i g h a c h i e v e r s "are not harmed" by c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r a t e g i e s . I t i s important t h a t c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s f e e l a sense o f b e l o n g i n g w i t h i n a group, because t h i s w i l l enhance t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m , and a l l o w them t o f u n c t i o n w e l l both s o c i a l l y and a c a d e m i c a l l y . The p a t t e r n then becomes c y c l i c a l . 12 G r e a t e r s e l f - e s t e e m equals g r e a t e r p r o d u c t i v i t y which equals g r e a t e r s e l f - e s t e e m . In 1980, Johnson's r e s e a r c h supported some i n t e r e s t i n g t h e o r i e s : peer acceptance i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h w i l l i n g n e s s t o engage i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ; i s o l a t i o n i n the classroom i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h a n x i e t y , low s e l f - e s t e e m , poor i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , emotional handicaps, and p s y c h o l o g i c a l pathology; r e j e c t i o n by peers i s r e l a t e d t o d i s r u p t i v e classroom behavior, h o s t i l e b e h a v i o r and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward o t h e r students and s c h o o l ; acceptance by peers i s r e l a t e d t o u t i l i z a t i o n of a b i l i t i e s i n achievement s i t u a t i o n s (Johnson, Johnson & Holubec, 1986). T h e r e f o r e t e a c h e r s would be wise to arrange o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r students t o i n t e r a c t w i t h each other, w h i l e s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t r o l o f the group dynamics. S l a v i n has completed much o f the r e s e a r c h p u b l i s h e d c o n c e r n i n g c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g ( S l a v i n , 1980, 1981, 1983a, 1983b, 1986, 1987b, 1988a, 1989, 1990). He r e p o r t s t h a t students i n c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s seem t o l i k e o t h e r students and f e e l l i k e d by o t h e r s more than the students i n a c o n t r o l group do. He a l s o r e p o r t s t h a t students f e e l more s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r s c h o o l work when they work i n teams than when they work independently, and t h a t t h i s can a l s o l e a d to an i n c r e a s e i n s e l f - e s t e e m . In some o f h i s r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s , he compared d i f f e r e n t types of c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r u c t u r e s ( S l a v i n , 1981, 1983b, 1988a), but i n most cases, the type o f technique used t o c a r r y out c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g d i d not seem 13 t o matter. There was s t i l l a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s and s e l f - e s t e e m . He a l s o conducted some s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o interdependence o f students i n c o o p e r a t i v e groups and group reward, and found t h e r e was a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n as w e l l ( S l a v i n , 1988a). Sharan conducted experimentation i n s c h o o l s i n I s r a e l , where problems o f e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s were pronounced. In h i s s t u d i e s he r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e d cohesiveness among classmates and a more p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of r e l a t i o n s w i t h peers (Sharan, 1980). However, an i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t i n h i s data was t h a t o p i n i o n s o f m a j o r i t y groups toward m i n o r i t y groups were more p o s i t i v e than the o p i n i o n s o f the m i n o r i t y groups toward m a j o r i t y groups. He a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t s i x hours a week o f c o o p e r a t i v e group a c t i v i t i e s d i d not e f f e c t s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the s o c i a l f a b r i c o f the classroom as a whole (Sharan, 1980). In one of h i s l a t e r s t u d i e s (1984) h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t the students t e s t e d l i k e d themselves and o t h e r s j u s t as much as i n the c o n t r o l group. He found no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . T h i s study was Secondary School based, and comprised l e s s o n s by a s i n g l e t e a c h e r f o r s i x hours each week. He concluded t h a t the amount o f time f o r c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s was too s h o r t f o r i t t o g r e a t l y impact student s e l f - e s t e e m . He i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t would probably have been more s i g n i f i c a n t i f more te a c h e r s had r e i n f o r c e d the technique, but t h a t was d i f f i c u l t w i t h the composition of Secondary School c u r r i c u l u m and s c h e d u l i n g . 14 T h i s major body o f r e s e a r c h suggests t h a t c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g i s indeed a mode i n which t o study student s e l f -esteem, and i n d i c a t e s t h a t the t r e n d w i l l be more p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m . C a u t i o n must be taken t o s t r u c t u r e t a s k s so t h a t interdependence and i n d i v i d u a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y can be achieved, and students must be working toward a common g o a l ( S l a v i n 1988a; Davidson, 1986; Johnson, Johnson & Holubec, 1986). Research r e s u l t s have a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t s u b j e c t content i s q u i t e i r r e l e v a n t i n c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g , as the emphasis i s on the s t r a t e g y or method and not on the s u b j e c t matter (Johnson, Maruyama, Johnson, Nelson & Skon, 1981). B. S t u d i e s R e l a t i n g t o Heterogeneous Groupings and Co o p e r a t i v e  L e a r n i n g The p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f p u t t i n g c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g theory i n t o p r a c t i c e i n the classroom are o f concern t o c lassroom t e a c h e r s . The s e l e c t i o n of groupings f o r c h i l d r e n becomes a major commitment. Although t h e r e i s much support f o r the theory of heterogeneous groupings f o r c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (Dishon & O'Leary, 1984; Johnson & Johnson 1975; Johnson, Johnson & Holubec, 1986; S l a v i n 1988b), there appears to be a d e a r t h o f r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o the e f f e c t s of heterogeneous groupings on student achievement and s e l f - e s t e e m , and the e f f e c t s o f homogeneous groupings on student achievement and s e l f - e s t e e m . 15 A c c o r d i n g t o most o f the implementors, c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g groups should be s m a l l f o r g r e a t e r f a c i l i t y o f d i s c u s s i o n . They should c o n t a i n boys and g i r l s , a s s e r t i v e and n o n - a s s e r t i v e students, f a s t and slow r e a d e r s , low-, medium-, and h i g h - a c h i e v e r s , and be m u l t i e t h n i c (Aronson, 1978; Johnson, Johnson & Holubec, 1986; S l a v i n , 1988b). S l a v i n g i v e s two reasons f o r mixed-performance l e v e l s w i t h i n each group: Students w i t h d i f f e r e n t performance l e v e l s w i t h i n a team can t u t o r each oth e r ; by p r o v i d i n g balanced teams, no s i n g l e team has an advantage i n academic performance ( S l a v i n , 1983b). Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec (1986) contend t h a t , i n heterogeneous groups based on mixed a b i l i t y , t h e r e w i l l be more e l a b o r a t i v e t h i n k i n g , more fre q u e n t g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g o f e x p l a n a t i o n and g r e a t e r p e r s p e c t i v e taken i n d i s c u s s i n g m a t e r i a l . T h i s should r e s u l t i n an i n c r e a s e i n the depth of student understanding, the q u a l i t y o f reasoning, and the accuracy o f long-term r e t e n t i o n . A heterogeneous group i n v o l v e s s tudents working c o o p e r a t i v e l y t o g e t h e r so t h a t the s k i l l s and experience of the i n d i v i d u a l s t udents can become the s k i l l s and experiences of a l l (Rhoades & McCabe, 1985). S l a v i n a l l e g e s t h a t some of the s t u d i e s he has conducted i n d i c a t e d t h a t group g o a l s and i n d i v i d u a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y are e s s e n t i a l t o student p e r c e p t i o n s o f the worth o f the group ( S l a v i n , 1988a). S t a n f o r d suggests t h a t c a u t i o n should be taken i n s e l e c t i n g the s i z e o f the groups. I f the group i s too l a r g e , the amount o f time f o r each member t o speak i s s e v e r e l y 16 l i m i t e d . A s a r e s u l t s t u d e n t s may become r e s t l e s s , b o r e d , o r d i s r u p t i v e . C o n v e r s e l y , i f t h e g r o u p i s t o o s m a l l , t h e r e may b e a more n a r r o w r a n g e o f o p i n i o n s a n d a l a c k o f b o t h m a t e r i a l a n d human r e s o u r c e s a d e q u a t e t o c o m p l e t i n g t h e t a s k s u c c e s s f u l l y ( S t a n f o r d , 1 9 7 7 ) . D i r e c t i o n s f o r t e a c h e r s o n how t o s e l e c t h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s f o r c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g seem t o f a l l i n t o two p o l a r i z e d c a t e g o r i e s , a n d a n y number o f i n t e r m e d i a t e c a t e g o r i e s . None o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s a p p e a r t o b e b a s e d o n r e s e a r c h , b u t m e r e l y o n s p e c u l a t i o n by t h e e x p e r t s . One way s u g g e s t e d t o s e l e c t s t u d e n t s f o r g r o u p s i s t o p r o v i d e a t y p e o f s o c i o g r a m w h e r e e a c h s t u d e n t g i v e s names o f o t h e r c l a s s m a t e s w i t h w h i c h he w o u l d l i k e t o w o r k . T h e t e a c h e r a n a l y z e s t h i s l i s t , f i n d s t h e " i s o l a t e s " who h a v e n o t b e e n c h o s e n b y a n y o n e , a n d b u i l d s a n e t w o r k o f s u p p o r t a r o u n d t h o s e i s o l a t e s ( J o h n s o n & J o h n s o n , 1 9 7 5 ) . T h e o t h e r e x t r e m e i s t o r a n d o m i z e t h e g r o u p s b y s u c h m e t h o d s a s c o u n t i n g t o 6, a n d h a v i n g a l l t h e "ones" become a g r o u p , e t c . I n b e t w e e n , we h a v e t e a c h e r s e l e c t i o n a n d m i x i n g o f s t u d e n t s o n t h e b a s i s o f c e r t a i n p r e - d e t e r m i n e d m e a s u r e s s u c h a s g e n d e r , a b i l i t y , i n t e r e s t i n a s p e c i f i c t o p i c , e t h n i c i t y , a n d a s s e r t i v e n e s s . A n o t h e r m e t h o d s u g g e s t e d was r a n d o m - s t r a t i f i c a t i o n w h i c h c a n mean p l a c i n g names o f s t u d e n t s i n r a n k i n g o r d e r o f a b i l i t y , a n d s e l e c t i n g a name f r o m t h e f i r s t g r o u p , a name f r o m t h e l a s t g r o u p , a n d a name f r o m t h e m i d d l e g r o u p ( J o h n s o n , J o h n s o n & H o l u b e c ) . Some i m p l e m e n t o r s recommend v a r y i n g t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s f o r g r o u p i n g s . D i s h o n a n d O ' L e a r y ( 1984 ) s u g g e s t t h a t 17 i f t h e t e a c h e r a l w a y s c h o o s e s t h e g r o u p s , h e / s h e s e n d s t h e m e s s a g e t h a t o n l y t h e g r o u p s t h a t t h e t e a c h e r s e t s u p w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l . T h e r e f o r e a n a r g u m e n t f o r h a v i n g r a n d o m g r o u p i n g w o u l d b e t o s e n d a m e s s a g e t o t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t a n y g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s f r o m t h e c l a s s r o o m c a n w o r k t o g e t h e r s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a c o o p e r a t i v e g r o u p . S t a n f o r d (1977) p r e f e r s r a n d o m a s s i g n m e n t w h e r e s t u d e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s c o p e w i t h t h e s o c i a l p r o b l e m s a s t h e y a r i s e . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s c o n v e y s t o t h e s t u d e n t s t h a t a l l p e r s o n s i n t h e c l a s s a r e o f e q u a l v a l u e , a n d t h a t k n o w i n g o r l i k i n g d o e s n o t make o n e p e r s o n m o r e v a l u a b l e t o t h e t a s k . Y e t some i m p l e m e n t o r s , s u c h a s R h o a d e s a n d M c C a b e (1985) recommend r a n d o m s e l e c t i o n o n l y f o r n o n - a c a d e m i c a c t i v i t i e s o r a c a d e m i c a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h c a r e f u l a r t i c u l a t i o n o f s t u d e n t a b i l i t y l e v e l s i s n o t e s s e n t i a l . I n a n a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e p i c t u r e o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e , a s y n o p s i s h a s b e e n p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x A . I n c o n c l u s i o n , w i t h a l a c k o f r e s e a r c h o n t h e t o p i c o f s e l f - e s t e e m a s i t r e l a t e s t o t y p e s o f h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p i n g , i t i s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o s t u d y s t u d e n t r e a c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e two p o l a r i z e d g r o u p s t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e i s a more p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m i n one g r o u p o r t h e o t h e r , a f t e r a n e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . 18 C H A P T E R I I I : D E S I G N OF T H E STUDY T h i s c h a p t e r i s d e v o t e d t o a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n d e s i g n i n g a n d e x e c u t i n g t h i s s t u d y . T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e c o m p o n e n t s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s u b j e c t s a n d l e n g t h o f t h e s t u d y , t h e s e l f - e s t e e m i n v e n t o r i e s u s e d , a n d t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n t h e p r e s t u d y p h a s e , t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g p h a s e , a n d t h e t e s t i n g p h a s e . A . S u b j e c t s a n d L e n g t h o f S t u d y T h e s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e f r o m two i n t a c t G r a d e 7 c l a s s e s w i t h i n t h e same s c h o o l i n a s m a l l m i n i n g c o m m u n i t y i n t h e I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S t u d e n t s a r e o f a m i x e d a b i l i t y , f r o m m o s t l y m i d d l e - c l a s s , t w o - p a r e n t f a m i l i e s . T h e r e i s n o t a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e c o m m u n i t y , n o r w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . T a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s t h e b r e a k d o w n o f c l a s s e s b y g e n d e r . 19 T a b l e 1: Summary o f P o p u l a t i o n o f M a l e / F e m a l e i n t h e S t u d y C l a s s A C l a s s B M a l e s 10 8 F e m a l e s 11 12 T o t a l s 21 20 A l t h o u g h i n i t i a l g r o u n d w o r k was l a i d b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o r t h e m o n t h s o f S e p t e m b e r a n d O c t o b e r , t h e p a r t o f t h e s t u d y d i r e c t l y i n v o l v i n g t h e s t u d e n t s b e g a n i n N o v e m b e r a n d r a n u n t i l t h e e n d o f A p r i l , a t o t a l o f s i x m o n t h s . T h e n , t h e d e l a y e d t e s t i n g was g i v e n a f t e r a p e r i o d o f a l m o s t two m o n t h s o f n o c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . T h u s t h e s t u d y r a n t h e f u l l l e n g t h o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r , b u t t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r o n l y s i x m o n t h s . T h e r e a r e some g o o d i n v e n t o r i e s o f s e l f - e s t e e m w h i c h h a v e b e e n p u b l i s h e d . W h i l e i n some c a s e s i t i s t e m p t i n g t o p u t t o g e t h e r o n e ' s own i n s t r u m e n t , i t i s a l s o t i m e c o n s u m i n g B . I n v e n t o r i e s 20 t o e s t a b l i s h v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f a p i l o t s t u d y . 1 . C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y T h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e , much o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n v o l v i n g s e l f - e s t e e m a n d c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a p p e a r e d t o u s e t h e C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y ( 1 9 6 7 ) . A l t h o u g h t h i s i n v e n t o r y i s n o t r e c o m m e n d e d f o r c l i n i c a l a n a l y s i s o f s t u d e n t s , i t i s r ecommended f o r r e s e a r c h . A c c o r d i n g t o s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d i t h a s g o o d i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . I n s t u d i e s by e x t e r n a l r e s e a r c h e r s K o k e n e s ( 1 9 7 4 , 1978) a n d K i m b a l l , (1972) t h i s i n v e n t o r y i s r e p o r t e d t o h a v e c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y by b o t h g r a d e a n d g e n d e r f o r c h i l d r e n i n G r a d e s 4 - 7 . A s r e l a t i n g t o r e l i a b i l i t y , t e s t i n g b y S p a t z a n d J o h n s t o n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , K i m b a l l ( 1 9 7 2 ) , F u l l e r t o n ( 1 9 7 2 ) , a n d T a y l o r a n d R e i t z (1968) h a s i n d i c a t e d i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g b e t w e e n .8 a n d . 9 o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e ( C o o p e r s m i t h , 1 9 8 1 , p p . 12 - 1 5 ) . A s i n g l e t e s t e n c o m p a s s e s a g e s 8 - 1 5 , a n d c o n t a i n s f i v e s c a l e s - g e n e r a l s e l f , s o c i a l s e l f - p e e r s , h o m e - p a r e n t s , s c h o o l - a c a d e m i c , a n d a l i e s c a l e . A l t h o u g h a l l o f t h e s c a l e s may n o t b e p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s s t u d y , t h e y d o h e l p t o d e t e r m i n e t h e " w h o l e " o f t h e p e r s o n . T h e t e s t s a r e b r i e f a n d f a i r l y e a s i l y s c o r e d b y h a n d w i t h a n a n s w e r k e y . 21 2. P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e The P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e (1969) does not appear t o be i n as wide a use i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h as the Coopersmith Inventory o f Self-Esteem; however, i t i s sometimes used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h i t . P i e r s - H a r r i s c o r r e l a t e d (r=.85) wi t h Coopersmith i n s t u d i e s a t the Grade 5/6 l e v e l by Schauer, i n 1975 ( P i e r s , 1984, p. 59). The P i e r s - H a r r i s has been recommended as the most p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound instrument f o r c h i l d r e n , but c a u t i o n should be used i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the c l u s t e r s c o r e s ( M i t c h e l l , 1985, p. 1169). Major t e s t i n g conducted on t h i s s c a l e suggests t h a t i t i s a h i g h l y r e l i a b l e instrument. S t u d i e s on T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y conducted i n both the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s c h o o l systems by P i e r s and H a r r i s (1964), Wing (1966), McLaughlin (1970), P l a t t e n and W i l l i a m s (1979), Shavelson and Bolus (1982) r e p o r t e d r e l i a b i l i t y ranges o f .65 t o .81. Many o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h e r s a l s o conducted s t u d i e s on the i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f the P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f Concept S c a l e ( L e f l e y , 1974; Yonker, B l i x t and Dinero, 1974); Winne, Marx and T a y l o r , 1977; Smith and Rogers, 1978; F r a n k l i n , Duley, Rousseau and Sabers, 1981) and found c o e f f i c i e n t s r a n g i n g from .88 t o .93. The P i e r s - H a r r i s S c a l e i s t h e r e f o r e judged t o have adequate temporal s t a b i l i t y and good i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( P i e r s , 1984, p. 57). 22 In a d d i t i o n t o the above t e s t f e a t u r e s , the P i e r s - H a r r i s was r e l a t i v e l y easy t o ad m i n i s t e r t o the students, and q u i t e easy t o hand s c o r e w i t h a key. I t was advantageous, f o r comparative purposes, t o perform both of these t e s t s t o g e t h e r , as p r e t e s t s , p o s t - t e s t s , and delayed t e s t s i n both groupings. The time i n v o l v e d i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g them was r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l w i t h r e s p e c t t o the v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n they allowed t o be gathered t o v a l i d a t e the student p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f - e s t e e m . C. Procedures The study r e q u i r e d t h r e e d i s t i n c t phases: l j Pre-Study Phase, 2) Coopera t i v e L e a r n i n g Phase, and 3) T e s t i n g Phase. Each of these w i l l be d i s c u s s e d o u t l i n i n g the s a l i e n t a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d i n each phase. 1. Pre Study Phase a. Consent f o r the Study P r i o r t o the study, c o n t a c t was made wit h numerous agencies t o a c q u i r e necessary p e r m i s s i o n t o conduct r e s e a r c h . F i r s t of a l l , the Superintendent of Schools, through the S e c r e t a r y - T r e a s u r e r , gave p e r m i s s i o n t o conduct r e s e a r c h u s i n g human s u b j e c t s w i t h i n the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t (Appendix B). Secondly, the E t h i c s Committee a t U.B.C. approved the 23 a p p l i c a t i o n t o c o n d u c t e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h u s i n g human s u b j e c t s ( A p p e n d i x B ) . U p o n r e c e i v i n g t h e f o r m a l a p p r o v a l a b o v e , t h e P r i n c i p a l o f t h e s c h o o l w h e r e t h e r e s e a r c h was t o t a k e p l a c e g a v e p e r m i s s i o n t o c o n d u c t r e s e a r c h u s i n g human s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l , a n d p r o v i d e d a l e t t e r i n s u p p o r t o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o b e s e n t w i t h t h e c o n s e n t f o r m s t o t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d ( A p p e n d i x B ) . T h e n t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e s t u d e n t s who w e r e r e g i s t e r e d i n b o t h o f t h e G r a d e 7 c l a s s e s g a v e t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o b e i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y . P e r m i s s i o n f o r m s c o n t a i n e d a c h o i c e s t a t e m e n t f o r p a r e n t s t o a l l o w o r n o t a l l o w t h e i r c h i l d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y a n d a c l a u s e t o a l l o w them t o w i t h d r a w t h e i r c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e t e s t i n g a t a n y t i m e ( A p p e n d i x B ) . A l l p e r m i s s i o n f o r m s w e r e r e t u r n e d i n s u p p o r t o f t h e p r o j e c t , a l t h o u g h two s e t s o f p a r e n t s made a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o d i s c u s s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y b e f o r e t h e y c o m m i t t e d t h e i r s u p p o r t . I t was e m p h a s i z e d t o a l l p a r e n t s t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n w o u l d n o t l o w e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s l e v e l s o f a c h i e v e m e n t , a n d t h a t a l l r e s u l t s o f s u r v e y s w o u l d b e c o n f i d e n t i a l a n d n o t r e v e a l e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n a n y w a y . I t was a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e raw d a t a w o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e o n l y t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n d u n i v e r s i t y p e r s o n n e l c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p r o j e c t . T h e f i n a l p e r m i s s i o n a n d a p p r o v a l was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e two G r a d e 7 c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d . T h e y g a v e t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o t e a c h t h e s u b j e c t o f S o c i a l 24 S t u d i e s i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s f o r t h r e e h o u r s e a c h week , f o r a d u r a t i o n o f s i x m o n t h s . T h e y w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o b e o n h a n d t o make o b s e r v a t i o n s o n s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r s w i t h i n g r o u p s , a n d t o a s s i s t i n i n f o r m a l d a t a c o l l e c t i n g when a p p r o p r i a t e . M i n o r i n s e r v i c e was p r o v i d e d f o r t h e s e two t e a c h e r s t o a l l o w them t o a s s i s t t h e r e s e a r c h e r , a n d t o k e e p t h e d a t a a s p u r e a s p o s s i b l e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e y w e r e a s k e d n o t t o c o n d u c t c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s b e f o r e t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , o r f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n e x c e p t u n d e r t h e g r o u p i n g s a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . b . P r e T e s t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n B e f o r e a n y c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o o k p l a c e w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s , t h e two s u r v e y f o r m s ( P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e a n d C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y ) w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d a s p r e t e s t s t o a l l t h e s t u d e n t s . T h e two t e s t s w e r e c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d , w i t h h a l f t h e c l a s s r e c e i v i n g t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s s c a l e f i r s t , a n d t h e C o o p e r s m i t h s e c o n d , a n d v i c e v e r s a . B e f o r e b e g i n n i n g , t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e g i v e n a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e b a s i c s u r v e y a n d t h e p r o m i s e t h a t a l l t e s t r e s u l t s w o u l d be c o n f i d e n t i a l a n d o p e n t o n o p e r s o n n e l o t h e r t h a n t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n d t h e a p p l i c a b l e u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f i n v o l v e d . T h e y w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o s t a t e t h e i r f e e l i n g s h o n e s t l y . 25 T h e r e w e r e n o names p l a c e d o n t h e p a p e r s , b u t s t u d e n t c o d e n u m b e r s w e r e u s e d t o e n a b l e t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o o r g a n i z e t h e d a t a . T h e s e s t u d e n t n u m b e r s w e r e o b t a i n e d b y t a k i n g t h e c l a s s l i s t s o f s t u d e n t s a n d r a n d o m l y a s s i g n i n g t h e n u m b e r s i n t h e f i r s t c l a s s f r o m 101 t o 1 2 1 , a n d i n t h e s e c o n d c l a s s f r o m 201 t o 2 2 0 . T h e s e n u m b e r s w e r e p l a c e d o n t h e s t u d e n t s ' d e s k s w i t h m a s k i n g t a p e , s o t h a t a s e a c h t e s t was c o m p l e t e d , t h e s t u d e n t s c o u l d r e c a l l t h e i r n u m b e r s t o p l a c e o n t h e i r s e c o n d t e s t . T h e t e s t i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e r e a d f r o m t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s m a n u a l , p a g e 7 , a n d a d j u s t e d t o f i t b o t h t e s t s . T h e r e s e a r c h e r c o l l e c t e d t h e t e s t s a s e a c h s t u d e n t f i n i s h e d , a n d g a v e t h e s t u d e n t t h e s e c o n d t e s t f o r m , e a c h t i m e c h e c k i n g t o s e e t h a t t h e s t u d e n t number c o r r e s p o n d e d w i t h t h a t o n t h e s t u d e n t ' s d e s k . Some d e c i s i o n s h a d t o be made l a t e r , r e l a t i n g t o s t u d e n t s who moved i n o r o u t o f t h e c l a s s e s . When a new s t u d e n t a r r i v e d i n o n e c l a s s a f t e r one m o n t h o f t h e s t u d y , p a r e n t a l p e r m i s s i o n was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e r e s e a r c h , a n d a n e x t r a s t u d e n t number a d d e d t o t h a t c l a s s l i s t . S t u d e n t s w e r e p r e t e s t e d w i t h C o o p e r s m i t h I n v e n t o r y , a n d P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e , o n O c t o b e r 2 4 , a few d a y s b e f o r e t h e r e s e a r c h e r was s c h e d u l e d t o b e g i n t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c o n t e n t f o r t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g . O n l y one s t u d e n t was a b s e n t , o n a h u n t i n g t r i p , a n d s o c o m p l e t e d t h e t e s t s u p o n r e t u r n t o c l a s s . 26 c . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f C l a s s e s T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c l a s s e s . E a c h c l a s s r o o m was a s s i g n e d a g r o u p i n g s t y l e . T h i s was d o n e b y h a v i n g t h e t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d p u l l a n "R" f o r Random G r o u p i n g a n d a n "S" f o r S o c i o m e t r i c G r o u p i n g o u t o f a b o x . T h e s e w e r e i n t a c t c l a s s g r o u p i n g s s o a s n o t t o d i s t u r b t h e w o r k i n g s o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d c l a s s r o o m , a n d t o be a b l e t o e n l i s t t h e a i d o f t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . O n c e a c l a s s r o o m was c h o s e n t o r e p r e s e n t a p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p i n g s y s t e m , t h a t s y s t e m o f d e t e r m i n i n g s t u d e n t g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m was m a i n t a i n e d f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e p e r i o d o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , w i t h i n t h e c l a s s w h e r e g r o u p i n g s w e r e i n r a n d o m f a s h i o n , a t t h e e n d o f e a c h u n i t t h e new g r o u p s w e r e a g a i n c h o s e n i n r a n d o m f a s h i o n . T h i s meant t h a t e a c h s t u d e n t was a s k e d t o d r a w a number o u t o f a b o x a n d p l a c e h i s / h e r name o n i t . S t u d e n t s who w e r e a b s e n t h a d t h e i r names s e l e c t e d r a n d o m l y a s w e l l . I n t h e s o c i o m e t r i c g r o u p s , s t u d e n t s w e r e g i v e n a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o " c h o o s e " t h r e e o r f o u r s t u d e n t s w i t h w h i c h t o w o r k i n t h e f i r s t , s e c o n d , a n d t h i r d u n i t t e a m s . T h e r e s e a r c h e r t h e n t o o k t h e l i s t s a n d o r g a n i z e d t h e m f i r s t o f a l l b y t h e n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s who h a d b e e n c h o s e n b y o t h e r s . T h e s e w e r e o b v i o u s l y t h e m o s t p o p u l a r , a n d p r o b a b l y a b l e t o w o r k w i t h a n y o t h e r s t u d e n t . T h o s e who w e r e c h o s e n b y n o one w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s i s o l a t e s a n d g i v e n some o f t h e i r c h o i c e s a s a p a r t o f t h e i r g r o u p . T h e n o t h e r s w e r e a d d e d , a t t e m p t i n g t o 27 k e e p a b a l a n c e o f b o y s a n d g i r l s , a n d l o w - , m i d d l e - , a n d h i g h -a c h i e v e r s . M o s t s t u d e n t s w e r e g r o u p e d w i t h a t l e a s t o n e p e r s o n t h e y h a d c h o s e n . O v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s i x m o n t h s , t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e p a r t o f t h r e e d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s o r t e a m s . A f t e r t h e f i r s t t e a m g r o u p i n g , s t u d e n t s w e r e e n c o u r a g e d t o l i s t o n t h e i r s e l e c t i o n p a p e r , d i f f e r e n t s t u d e n t s t h a n t h o s e w i t h whom t h e y h a d a l r e a d y b e e n g r o u p e d . I n e a c h c a s e , g r o u p s i z e was l i m i t e d t o f o u r s t u d e n t s , a l t h o u g h o n e g r o u p h a d f i v e s t u d e n t s e a c h t i m e t o t a k e t h e e x t r a s t u d e n t . T h e r e s e a r c h e r t r i e d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e same s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e g r o u p o f f i v e , w e r e o n l y w i t h t h e l a r g e r g r o u p o n c e . 2 . C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g P h a s e a . M a t e r i a l s U s e d S o c i a l S t u d i e s was t h e c o n t e n t u s e d t o c o n d u c t c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g . T h e r e w e r e t h r e e m a j o r u n i t s o f s t u d y - t h e S u m e r i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , t h e E g y p t i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n , a n d t h e G r e e k c i v i l i z a t i o n . E a c h l e s s o n was p r e p a r e d t o e n s u r e a g r o u p g o a l , a n d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f e a c h s t u d e n t o n e a c h o t h e r w i t h i n t h e g r o u p . L e s s o n s w e r e d i s c u s s i o n o r i e n t e d , u s i n g t e x t b o o k s a n d s u p p l e m e n t a r y m a t e r i a l s a s r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n ( A p p e n d i x C ) . 28 b. Classroom Procedures I t was necessary t o o u t l i n e and f o l l o w s p e c i f i c g u i d e l i n e s f o r classroom management t o ensure maximum e f f e c t s o f C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g . Because the r e s e a r c h e r ' s s c h o o l had a v a r i e t y o f " p u l l -out" programs such as Band, Shuswap Language, and L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e , and many s p e c i a l t y rooms r e q u i r i n g t i m e t a b l i n g such as Computer, L i b r a r y , and Gymnasium, i t was very important t o e s t a b l i s h a t i m e t a b l e f o r S o c i a l S t u d i e s as a p r i o r i t y . As the r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d not be t e a c h i n g i n both classrooms a t once, three one-hour b l o c k s o f time per c l a s s needed t o be r e s e r v e d . The teacher w i t h the Random Grouping chose the 9:30 to 10:30 p e r i o d on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays, w h i l e the teacher w i t h the S o c i o m e t r i c Grouping chose the 11:00 to 12:00 p e r i o d on the same days. T h e r e f o r e the c l a s s e s c o u l d be kept s i m i l a r i n content, time, and r e s e a r c h e r / t e a c h e r . Although time i n the f i r s t two months was t o have been a l l o t t e d t o develop t r u s t f o r groupings, the r e s e a r c h e r f e l t t h a t a l l o f these students a l r e a d y knew each o t h e r w e l l and t h a t team b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s would be more b e n e f i c i a l as the groups were formed. Before the study began, students i n C l a s s "A" were g i v e n cards t o i n d i c a t e the names o f f o u r f e l l o w s t u d e n t s , both male and female, w i t h which they would l i k e t o work on t h e i r f i r s t u n i t o f study. 29 S t u d e n t s i n C l a s s " B " w e r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e i r f i r s t g r o u p i n a r a n d o m f a s h i o n f o r t h e i r f i r s t u n i t o f s t u d y . A f t e r e a c h s t u d e n t h a d w r i t t e n h i s / h e r name o n t h e s e l e c t e d c a r d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a d e a c h t e a m s t a n d , a n d was a b l e t o g i v e t h e s t u d e n t s a p r e v i e w o f t h e i r g r o u p s , a n d was a l s o a b l e t o j u d g e t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s o f t h e g r o u p , b o t h a c a d e m i c a l l y a n d c o o p e r a t i v e l y , w i t h a m i n d t o m e n t a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r d e a l i n g w i t h p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m s . S t u d e n t s r e m a i n e d i n t h e i r t e a m s f o r a w h o l e u n i t o f w o r k , f r o m t h e t o p i c i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e f i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n o n t h e u n i t . When t h e new s t u d e n t a r r i v e d , s / h e was a s k e d t o c h o o s e a l e t t e r f r o m t h e b o x ( r a n d o m g r o u p i n g ) . S / h e s p e n t t h e d a y w i t h t h a t g r o u p , b u t a s t h a t g r o u p was h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y k e e p i n g o n t a s k , a n d a n o t h e r g r o u p h a d o n e s t u d e n t who c o n s i s t e n t l y m i s s e d t h e f i r s t h a l f o f t h e c l a s s f o r L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e , t h e r e s e a r c h e r c h a n g e d t h e new s t u d e n t t o t h e g r o u p w i t h a p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t . T o b e g i n a new u n i t o f s t u d y , a new t e a m g r o u p was s e l e c t e d o n c e a g a i n , a c c o r d i n g t o w h e t h e r t h e c l a s s h a d b e e n a s s i g n e d r a n d o m g r o u p i n g s o r s o c i o m e t r i c g r o u p i n g s . T h e amount o f t i m e i n v o l v e d i n a u n i t o f s t u d y g a v e s t u d e n t s a g o o d o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e members o f e a c h s m a l l t e a m b e f o r e t h e y w e r e d i s b a n d e d a n d r e a s s e m b l e d . I t a l s o a l l o w e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r / t e a c h e r t o i m p l e m e n t more o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c c o u n t a b i l i t y s t r a t e g i e s a n d s t u d e n t i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e s t r a t e g i e s deemed n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s 30 ( S l a v i n 1988a). Some o f these i n c l u d e d student r o l e s w i t h i n teams, group g o a l s , and group rewards. 3. T e s t i n g Phase The d e s i g n o f the study c o u l d be diagrammed as f o l l o w s : T a b l e 2: Design of the Study Group 1 : 0-| X 1 0 2 0 3 Group 2: 0-j X 2 0 2 0 3 As determined by the d e s i g n of the study, a f t e r the three major S o c i a l S t u d i e s U n i t s were completely f i n i s h e d , on May 1, the students a g a i n completed the i n v e n t o r i e s ( P i e r s - H a r r i s and Coopersmith), a g a i n i n counterbalanced f a s h i o n . T h i s was r e f e r r e d t o as the post t e s t i n g . F i n a l l y , w i t h the Coopera t i v e L e a r n i n g element completed, the students were taught S o c i a l S t u d i e s by t h e i r r e g u l a r t e a c h e r f o r the months o f May and June. Each teacher agreed t o use a b a s i c t r a d i t i o n a l s t y l e o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , with no c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g groups. On June 19 the t e s t s were ag a i n g i v e n i n counterbalanced f a s h i o n t o a l l o f the stu d e n t s . 31 T h i s t i m e t h e r e w e r e t h r e e s t u d e n t s a b s e n t , a n d t h e s e t e s t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d l a t e r , o n J u n e 23. A l s o , o n e s t u d e n t who h a d moved away j u s t a s t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g c o m p o n e n t h a d f i n i s h e d , c o m p l e t e d t h e f o r m s a n d r e t u r n e d t h e m b y m a i l , b e f o r e t h e e n d o f J u n e . T h e s e f i n a l t e s t s w e r e r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e d e l a y e d t e s t i n g . D u r i n g e a c h t e s t i n g p e r i o d , some s t u d e n t s f e l t t h e n e e d t o a s k q u e s t i o n s t o c l a r i f y t e s t s t a t e m e n t s . One q u e s t i o n was a s k e d c o n s i s t e n t l y i n e a c h t i m e f r a m e , b y n u m e r o u s s t u d e n t s . T h i s r e l a t e d t o t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s S c a l e , q u e s t i o n #55 - "I h a v e l o t s o f p e p . " S t u d e n t s a s k e d what "pep" m e a n t , a n d w e r e t o l d " e n e r g y " . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e r e s e a r c h e r n o t e d t h a t t h e t e r m " p ep " was somewhat o u t d a t e d . T h e o t h e r q u e s t i o n a s k e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s S c a l e was #35 - "I am o b e d i e n t a t h o m e . " What d i d " o b e d i e n t " mean? T h e s t u d e n t was t o l d " d o i n g w h a t y o u a r e a s k e d t o d o " . S t u d e n t q u e s t i o n s d e a l t w i t h s e m a n t i c s a n d t h e r e f o r e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r s h o u l d n o t h a v e i n t e r f e r e d w i t h t h e c h o i c e s made b y t h e s t u d e n t s . A l s o r e l a t i n g t o t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s S c a l e , t h r e e s t u d e n t s w e r e " o n l y c h i l d r e n " , a n d a s k e d how c o m p l e t e q u e s t i o n s #72 -"I l i k e my b r o t h e r ( s i s t e r ) " , a n d #32 - "I p i c k o n my b r o t h e r ( s ) a n d s i s t e r ( s ) , " a s t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a d i n s i s t e d t h a t n o q u e s t i o n be l e f t b l a n k . A s t h e y w e r e b o t h h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r h a d t h e o p t i o n o f a s k i n g t h e s t u d e n t t o s u p p o s e h e / s h e h a d a s i b l i n g , o r d e f a u l t i n g e a c h s t a t e m e n t t o t h e p o s i t i v e o n e a c h t e s t . R e a l i z i n g t h a t m o s t " o n l y 32 c h i l d r e n " w o u l d n o t w a n t t o make j u d g e m e n t o n a h y p o t h e t i c a l q u e s t i o n , #72 was d e f a u l t e d t o " y e s " a n d #32 d e f a u l t e d t o " n o " . T h i s was one o f t h e o p t i o n s g i v e n i n t h e m a n u a l ( P i e r s , 1 9 8 4 , p . 8 ) . T h e s t u d e n t s h a d two d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e C o o p e r s m i t h I n v e n t o r y . One i n v o l v e d t h e u s e o f t h e c o l u m n t i t l e s " L i k e Me" a n d " U n l i k e M e " , e s p e c i a l l y i n d e a l i n g w i t h n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . T h e r e s e a r c h e r e q u a t e d t h e c o l u m n s w i t h " Y e s " o r "I a g r e e " a n d "No" o r "I d i s a g r e e " , w h i c h a p p e a r e d t o s a t i s f y t h e s t u d e n t s ' a n x i e t i e s . Q u e s t i o n #40 a p p e a r e d t o b o t h e r some s t u d e n t s - "I w o u l d r a t h e r p l a y w i t h c h i l d r e n y o u n g e r t h a n I a m . " One s t u d e n t t o l d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t h a t s / h e p l a y e d w i t h y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n , b u t o n e s o f t h e same a g e , a n d o l d e r o n e s t o o . T h e r e s e a r c h e r h e l p e d t h e s t u d e n t t o c l a r i f y t h e s t a t e m e n t b y p l a c i n g t h e e m p h a s i s o n " w o u l d r a t h e r " w i t h i n t h e s e n t e n c e . T h e e n d o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s i g n a l l e d t h e e n d o f t h e s t u d e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e a c t u a l s t u d y . 33 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF DATA T h i s chapter p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of the study through the use of t a b l e s and e x p l a n a t i o n s . I t d i s c u s s e s the sample, the f a c t o r s taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s c o r i n g the i n v e n t o r i e s , and the s t a t i s t i c a l a nalyses performed on the raw data. A. Sample T h i s study was completed by a t o t a l of 41 students from two Grade 7 c l a s s e s , w i t h i n the same s c h o o l , i n a s m a l l mining town i n the I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia. They were of mixed a b i l i t y , and mainly from m i d d l e - c l a s s , two-parent f a m i l i e s . There i s not a n o t i c e a b l e d i v e r s i t y of e t h n i c background e i t h e r w i t h i n the s c h o o l , or w i t h i n the c l a s s . These students were asked t o f i l l out two s e l f - e s t e e m i n v e n t o r i e s b e f o r e a six-month p e r i o d of c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s ( p r e - t e s t ) , again a t the end of the six-month study (post t e s t ) , and f i n a l l y two months l a t e r , a t the end of the s c h o o l year a f t e r a p e r i o d of no c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s (delayed t e s t ) . 34 B . F a c t o r s i n S c o r i n g S e v e r a l f a c t o r s h a d t o b e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when m a r k i n g a n d s c o r i n g t h e i n v e n t o r i e s . One c o n s i d e r a t i o n was t h a t o f d a t a w h i c h was i m p o s s i b l e t o r e a d . On a s i n g l e s u r v e y , two o f t h e " a n s w e r s " c o u l d n o t b e c o u n t e d b e c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t h a d a s i n g l e c i r c l e e n c o m p a s s i n g b o t h t h e " y e s " a n d "no" a n s w e r s . O m i t t e d a n d d o u b l e r e s p o n s e s w e r e n o t t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e t o t a l raw s c o r e ( P i e r s , 1984 , p . 8 ) . A n o t h e r a n s w e r was n o t c o u n t e d when t h e s t u d e n t p u t a c i r c l e b e t w e e n b o t h a n s w e r s . A l l o t h e r a n s w e r s w e r e a b l e t o b e a c c u r a t e l y i n t e r p r e t e d a s t o t h e i n t e n d e d a n s w e r s . E v e r y s e t o f t e s t s was s c o r e d a s i n g l e t i m e , a n d t h e n c h e c k e d f o r e r r o r s i n m a r k i n g b y r e - s c o r i n g e a c h p a p e r . I f a n e r r o r was e n c o u n t e r e d , t h o s e p a p e r s w e r e p u t a s i d e u n t i l t h e y c o u l d b e c h e c k e d f o r a t h i r d t i m e . Some d e c i s i o n s h a d t o b e made r e l a t i n g t o s t u d e n t s who l e f t t h e s c h o o l . Two m o n t h s i n t o t h e s t u d y o n e s t u d e n t moved a w a y . A l t h o u g h s / h e c o m p l e t e d t h e p o s t t e s t , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n a c o m p l e t e s e t o f r e s u l t s ( t o i n c l u d e t h e d e l a y e d t e s t i n g ) . T h e r e f o r e t h e r e s u l t s w e r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i n a l d a t a a n d t h e s t u d e n t number was d r o p p e d f r o m t h e s t u d y . A n o t h e r s t u d e n t l e f t a t t h e e n d o f t h e s t u d y , b u t l e f t a n a d d r e s s w h e r e t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d m a i l t h e d e l a y e d t e s t i n g f o r m s f o r c o m p l e t i o n . T h i s s t u d e n t ' s r e s u l t s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n 35 t h e t o t a l s u r v e y , a s s / h e was a p a r t o f t h e g r o u p f o r t h e w h o l e o f t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . C . D a t a A n a l y s i s P r e t e s t , p o s t - t e s t , a n d d e l a y e d t e s t r e s u l t s w e r e c o m p a r e d a n d a n a l y z e d . T h e raw s c o r e f r o m t h e C o o p e r s m i t h I n v e n t o r y was t h e t o t a l v a l u e o f t h e 50 s t a t e m e n t s , n o t i n c l u d i n g t h e l i e s c a l e , m u l t i p l i e d by 2 t o y i e l d a s c o r e o u t o f 1 0 0 . T a b l e 3 a n d T a b l e 4 s u m m a r i z e t h e s e raw s c o r e s b y c l a s s g r o u p i n g . T h e s c o r e f r o m t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s s c a l e was t h e t o t a l v a l u e o f t h e 80 q u e s t i o n s . T a b l e 5 a n d T a b l e 6 s u m m a r i z e t h e s e raw s c o r e s b y c l a s s g r o u p i n g . 36 T a b l e 3: Summary o f Raw Data f o r S o c i o m e t r i c Group by Gender on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory i d e r / l .D. P r e - t e s t Post t e s t Delayed M/1 44 52 56 M/2 84 72 76 M/3 86 92 86 M/4 96 96 98 M / 5 88 82 86 M / 6 82 84 82 M/7 40 66 64 M/8 86 86 90 M/9 38 52 40 M/10 68 84 72 F/1 94 94 98 F / 2 98 96 98 F / 3 50 54 44 F / 4 86 72 76 F / 5 80 76 86 F / 6 80 86 84 F/1 68 56 84 F / 8 54 58 60 F / 9 76 68 64 F/10 74 76 82 F/1 1 84 90 92 37 T a b l e 4: Summary of Raw Data f o r Random Group by Gender on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory Gender/I.D. P r e - t e s t Post t e s t Delayed M/1 88 94 90 M/2 82 64 80 M/3 52 60 90 M/4 78 74 90 M / 5 94 90 90 M / 6 40 40 28 M/7 56 62 72 M/8 54 32 56 F/1 56 68 92 F / 2 44 68 54 F / 3 82 78 78 F / 4 84 70 82 F / 5 46 56 50 F / 6 78 76 90 F / 7 70 56 62 F / 8 22 . 20 22 F / 9 66 66 80 F/10 70 84 76 F/11 98 88 94 F/12 60 56 46 38 Table 5: Summary of Raw Data for Sociometric Group by Gender on the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale ler/I.D. Pre-test Post test Delayed M/1 37 43 52 M/2 73 65 69 M/3 69 71 73 M/4 77 77 79 M/5 76 78 78 M/6 61 65 68 M/7 35 53 60 M/8 63 68 72 M/9 38 46 45 M/10 49 42 46 F/1 69 73 74 F/2 74 76 75 F/3 39 47 48 F/4 72 69 71 F/5 57 60 72 F/6 67 58 58 F/7 58 72 64 F/8 52 57 61 F/9 67 69 70 F/10 55 60 65 F/11 69 70 74 39 Table 6: Summary of Raw Data for Random Group by Gender on the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale Gender/I.D. Pre-test Post test Delayed M/1 74 77 77 M/2 64 63 60 M/3 49 51 63 M/4 59 54 64 M/5 71 70 70 M/6 29 36 28 M/7 34 46 48 M/8 42 37 51 F/1 55 67 70 F/2 32 59 44 F/3 66 64 70 F/4 69 64 72 F/5 41 48 53 F/6 61 55 64 F/1 51 41 38 F/8 22 22 23 F/9 62 61 66 F/10 64 65 61 F/1 1 75 77 78 F/12 51 55 44 40 F r o m t h e raw d a t a i n T a b l e 3 , T a b l e 4 , T a b l e 5 , a n d T a b l e 6, d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y c o m p u t e r s y s t e m a n d t h e s t a t i s t i c s p r o g r a m S P S S : X . U s i n g a r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e ( A N O V A R ) , t h i s p r o g r a m p r o v i d e d a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e v a r i a n c e f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e b e t w e e n t h e f a c t o r s o f g e n d e r a n d c l a s s g r o u p i n g , a n d w i t h i n t h e f a c t o r s o f t i m e ( p r e t e s t , p o s t t e s t , a n d d e l a y e d t e s t ) . Means w e r e g i v e n f o r e a c h o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s . F o r e a c h c o m p l e t e s e t o f d a t a ( P i e r s - H a r r i s a n d C o o p e r s m i t h ) , t h e sum o f s q u a r e s , d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m , mean s q u a r e s , F r a t i o , a n d p r o b a b i l i t y ( s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s e t a t p < . 0 5 ) w e r e c a l c u l a t e d . T a b l e 7 a n d T a b l e 8 show t h e i n t e r a c t i o n f a c t o r s f o r e a c h o f t h e s u r v e y s i n v o l v e d . 41 T a b l e 7: Summary of A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory Source SS df MS F - r a t i o Prob. Gender 0.000 1 0.000 0.000 0.999 Grouping 1885.916 1 1885.916 1 .967 0.169 Gen/Group 211.807 1 211.807 0.221 0.641 S(Within) 35474.000 37 958.757 Time 434.338 2 217.169 3.655* 0.031 Gen/Time 20.429 2 10.215 0.172 0.842 Group/Time 155.999 2 77.999 1 .313 0.275 Gen/Gr/Time 230.319 2 115.160 1 .938 0.151 CS(Within) 4397.375 74 59.424 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e s e t at .05 (=3 .15) Table 8: Summary o f A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e on the P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e Source SS df MS F - r a t i o Prob. Gender 140.774 1 140.774 0.266 0.609 Grouping 1586.012 1 1586.012 3.002 0.091 Gen/Group 43.637 1 43.637 0.083 0.775 S(Within) 19546.750 37 528.291 Time 448.858 2 224.429 8.923* 0.001 Gen/Time 28.022 2 14.011 0.557 0.575 Group/Time 15.498 2 7.749 0.308 0.736 Gen/Gr/Time 2.896 2 1 .448 0.058 0.994 CS(Within) 1861 .313 74 25.153 * l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e s e t a t .05 (=3.15) 42 A c l o s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the summary o f r e s u l t s f o r a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e from Table 7 and Tab l e 8 i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the genders, between the s o c i o m e t r i c and random groupings, o r between the groupings by gender. There a l s o appears t o be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females on p r e t e s t , post t e s t , and d e l a y e d t e s t s , o r o f the grouping s t y l e s on the p r e t e s t , p o s t t e s t and dela y e d t e s t s . T h e r e f o r e , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s can be accepted on the b a s i s o f the data c o l l e c t e d . T h i s means t h a t , i n t h i s sample, there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n student s e l f - e s t e e m a t the Grade 7 l e v e l , as measured by the Coopersmith Inventory o f Self-Esteem and the P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e , between s o c i o m e t r i c grouping of students and random grouping o f students p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s conducted over a p e r i o d o f s i x months. The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n c e w i t h i n the f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o the time - p r e t e s t , post t e s t , and delayed t e s t r e s u l t s . Although t h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e o n l y r e l a t e d p e r i p h e r a l l y t o the study, the r e s e a r c h e r wanted t o determine e x a c t l y where i t was. In a n a l y z i n g the data, means and standard d e v i a t i o n s were a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r each o f the sources. Table 9, Tab l e 10, Table 11, and Tab l e 12, summarize these means and standar d d e v i a t i o n s f o r each of the groupings, by gender and time. Table 13 and Tab l e 14 prese n t the means o f the sample as they r e l a t e t o time. 43 T a b l e 9: Summary o f Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s on the P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e f o r the S o c i o m e t r i c a l l y Assigned Group P r e t e s t Post t e s t Delayed t e s t Mean S. ,D. Mean S. D. Mean S.D. Male 57.800 16. .719 60 .800 13. 742 64.200 12.700 Female 61.727 10. .537 64 .636 8. 812 66.545 8.371 Tabl e 10: Summary of Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s on the P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e f o r the Randomly Assigned Group P r e t e s t Post t e s t Delayed t e s t Mean S. ,D. Mean S. D. Mean S.D. Male 52.750 16. .884 54 .250 14. 888 57.625 15.203 Female 54.083 15. ,722 56 .500 14. 299 56.917 16.572 44 T a b l e 11: Summary o f Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory f o r the S o c i o m e t r i c a l l y Assigned Group P r e t e s t Post t e s t Delayed t e s t Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Male 71.200 22.215 76.600 15.579 75.000 17.518 Female 76.727 14.920 75.091 15.162 78.909 16.790 Tabl e 12: Summary of Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory f o r the Randomly Assigned Group P r e t e s t Post t e s t Delayed t e s t Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Male 68.000 19.828 64.500 21.693 74.500 22.367 Female 64.663 20.703 65.500 17.810 68.833 22.131 45 T a b l e 1 3 : Summary o f Means R e l a t i n g t o T i m e o n t h e P i e r s -H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t D e l a y e d T e s t Mean 5 6 . 7 8 0 5 9 . 2 9 3 6 1 . 4 1 5 T a b l e 1 4 : Summary o f Means R e l a t i n g t o T i m e o n t h e C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t D e l a y e d T e s t Mean 7 0 . 1 4 6 7 0 . 5 8 5 7 4 . 1 4 6 46 One m e t h o d o f i d e n t i f y i n g e x a c t l y w h e r e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e w a s , r e l a t i n g t o t h e f a c t o r o f t i m e was t o u s e T u k e y ' s P o s t -H o c T e s t . T h i s was c o n d u c t e d , u s i n g t h e means f r o m T a b l e 13 a n d T a b l e 14 w h e r e " q " e q u a l s t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e m e a n s , d i v i d e d by t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f t h e mean ( q = d i f / S ^ . ) T h e T u k e y P o s t - H o c T e s t r e s u l t s a r e f o u n d i n T a b l e 15 a n d T a b l e 1 6 . F o r t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s S c a l e , u s i n g t h e q t a b l e o f m e a s u r e s , X-j - X ^ was f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , w h e r e t h e c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f q f o r 3 a n d 60 d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m i s 3 . 4 0 w i t h t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e s e t a t . 0 5 . T h e r e f o r e i t a p p e a r s t h a t , f o r t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e s t u d y , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n s e l f - e s t e e m f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e u n i t o n c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g , u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h e s c h o o l y e a r . A l t h o u g h t h e r e c o u l d be many e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e u s e o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n a c l a s s r o o m d o e s i n d e e d e n h a n c e s e l f - e s t e e m o f b o t h b o y s a n d g i r l s i n G r a d e 7 . A n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n c o u l d s i m p l y r e l a t e t o m a t u r i t y . T h e s e t e s t r e s u l t s c o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t when s t u d e n t s a r e e n c o u r a g e d , a n d b e g i n t o f e e l more p o s i t i v e a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h e i r l e a r n i n g , t h e y c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e i n a more p o s i t i v e m a n n e r t h a n t h e y w o u l d l i k e l y h a v e o p e r a t e d i f t h e y h a d n o t b e e n t a u g h t some s o c i a l s k i l l s a n d e n c o u r a g e d t o u s e t h e m . T h i s l e a r n i n g a p p e a r s t o h a v e t r a n s f e r r e d w e l l , a n d c o n t i n u e d t o o p e r a t e i n t e r n a l l y f o r s t u d e n t s . 47 T a b l e 15: Summary o f R e s u l t s o f T u k e y ' s P o s t - H o c T e s t f o r t h e P i e r s - H a r r i s C h i l d r e n ' s S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e D i f f e r e n c e q *1 - *2 56.780 - 59.293 = 2. 513 3.20842 *1 - *3 56.780 - 61.415 = 4. 635 5.91765* *2 " *3 59.293 - 61.415 = 2. 176 2.70922 * l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e s e t a t .05 T a b l e 16: Summary o f R e s u l t s o f T u k e y ' s P o s t - H o c T e s t f o r t h e C o o p e r s m i t h S e l f - E s t e e m I n v e n t o r y d i f f e r e n c e q *1 - *2 70.146 - 70.585 = 0.439 0.36046 *1 " *3 70.146 - 74.146 = 4.000 3.32256 x 2 " *3 70.585 - 74.146 = 3.561 2.95791 * l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e s e t a t .05 48 I n t e r p r e t i n g the data from Table 16, u s i n g the q t a b l e o f measures where the c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f q f o r 3 and 60 degrees o f freedom i s 3.40, th e r e was found t o be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n any o f the means a t the .05 l e v e l . The most s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d be found a t the .1 l e v e l where the c r i t i c a l v a l u e o f q was 2.96. In c o n s i d e r i n g why the r e s u l t s o f the two t e s t s ( P i e r s - H a r r i s S c a l e and Coopersmith Inventory) were s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t , the r e s e a r c h e r re-examined each o f the blank t e s t forms. The r e s e a r c h e r r e c a l l e d t h a t a few of the students had encountered d i f f i c u l t i e s w ith the l o g i s t i c s o f the Coopersmith t e s t , i n t r y i n g t o determine how they should answer n e g a t i v e l y s t a t e d q u e s t i o n s , u s i n g the columns " l i k e me" and " u n l i k e me". I f some o f the students encountered t h i s d i f f i c u l t y and were helped w i t h the semantics, there were probably o t h e r s who encountered such d i f f i c u l t i e s , and took a guess a t the answer. In c o n c l u s i o n , every p r e c a u t i o n was taken t o ensure t h a t the d a t a was kept as pure as p o s s i b l e , and the s c o r i n g manuals c o n s u l t e d f o r matters o f t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and f o r measures o f c o n s i s t e n c y and r e l i a b i l i t y . 49 C H A P T E R V : SUMMARY, C O N C L U S I O N S , AND I M P L I C A T I O N S T h i s c h a p t e r b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y i n summary f o r m , a n d r e l a t e s t h e f i n d i n g s t o t h e o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s i s . I t a l s o r e p o r t s o n t h e c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d o n t h e d a t a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a n d t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . I t c o n s i d e r s t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y r e l a t i n g t o o t h e r p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r c h a n g e s i n s e l f - e s t e e m , a n d s u g g e s t s f u r t h e r p o s s i b l e r e s e a r c h o n t h e t o p i c o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a n d s e l f - e s t e e m g r o u p i n g s . A . Summary 1 . P u r p o s e T h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o g a t h e r d a t a f r o m two t y p e s o f g r o u p i n g s ( s o c i o m e t r i c a n d r a n d o m ) , b a s e d p r i m a r i l y o n t h e o p i n i o n s o f s t u d e n t s , r e l a t i n g t o t h e i r s e l f - e s t e e m o v e r a p e r i o d o f s i x m o n t h s , d u r i n g w h i c h t h e i r S o c i a l S t u d i e s was p r e s e n t e d by means o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . A l t h o u g h t h e d a t a was c o l l e c t e d b y f o r m a l t e s t i n g , t h e s t u d y d i d e n c o u r a g e some i n f o r m a l i n p u t f r o m s t u d e n t s , p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , a n d a d m i n i s t r a t o r s b a s e d o n o b s e r v a t i o n s m a d e . 50 2. Questions One major question formed the basis for t h i s study: Is there any s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n student self-esteem at the Grade 7 l e v e l , over a s i x month period of time, i f the teacher were to choose group membership for cooperative learning a c t i v i t i e s randomly, as opposed to sociometrically? The analysis of the data suggests that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the self-esteem of the students grouped randomly as opposed to those grouped sociometrically. The second question related peripherally to the f i r s t : Are there any s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n the male/female perceptions of self-esteem before the study, at the end of a six month period of time, and a f t e r a period of two months of no cooperative learning a c t i v i t i e s ? Is there any evidence of boys or g i r l s having more p o s i t i v e self-esteem before and a f t e r the study? Does gender r e l a t e to improvement of self-esteem at the Grade 7 l e v e l ? The r e s u l t s of the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of the data of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r sample, as outlined i n Table 7 and Table 8 , 51 w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s r e a l l y n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n p e r c e p t i o n s o f s e l f - e s t e e m i n b o y s v e r s u s g i r l s o v e r a n y o f t h e t e s t i n g p e r i o d s . T h e r e i s n o a c t u a l e v i d e n c e o f o n e g e n d e r h a v i n g more p o s i t i v e e s t e e m t h a n t h e o t h e r , e i t h e r b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f d a t a f r o m t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s a m p l e , g e n d e r h a s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n t o t h e i m p r o v e m e n t o f s e l f - e s t e e m a t t h e G r a d e 7 l e v e l . B . C o n c l u s i o n s A l t h o u g h t h e f o r m a l d a t a i n d i c a t e d n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e s e l f - e s t e e m o f t h e two g r o u p s o f s t u d e n t s a f t e r a n e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , i t d i d p r o v i d e a n i n s i g h t i n t o a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n g e n e r a l s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m o v e r t h e s i x m o n t h p e r i o d . T h e r e c o u l d be many r e a s o n s f o r t h i s p o s i t i v e c h a n g e . F i r s t o f a l l , o v e r s u c h a t i m e s p a n , o n e w o u l d e x p e c t s t u d e n t s t o show a g r e a t e r l e v e l o f m a t u r i t y . H o w e v e r , a f t e r t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by C o o p e r s m i t h i n 1 9 6 7 , he came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t " a t some t i m e p r e c e d i n g m i d d l e c h i l d h o o d , a p e r s o n a r r i v e s a t a g e n e r a l a p p r a i s a l o f h i s o r h e r w o r t h , w h i c h r e m a i n s r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e a n d e n d u r i n g o v e r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l y e a r s " ( C o o p e r s m i t h , 1 9 8 1 , p . 5 ) . P i e r s s u b s t a n t i a t e s C o o p e r s m i t h ' s f i n d i n g s when s h e s t a t e s t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d u s e o f h e r s c a l e i s " b a s e d o n t h e b e l i e f t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d a r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t v i e w o f t h e m s e l v e s , 52 w h i c h d e v e l o p s a n d s t a b i l i z e s d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d " ( P i e r s , 1 9 8 4 , p . 4 3 ) . A s e c o n d p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e c h a n g e i n s e l f -c o n c e p t o v e r t i m e , i s t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t , t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g , d i d a c t u a l l y c a u s e s t u d e n t s t o i m p r o v e t h e i r s e l f -e s t e e m . P i e r s o n c e a g a i n c o n f i r m s t h i s t h e o r y when s h e s t a t e s t h a t " i n c h i l d r e n , s e l f - c o n c e p t i s i n i t i a l l y m o r e s i t u a t i o n a l l y d e p e n d e n t a n d becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y s t a b l e o v e r t i m e " ( P i e r s , 1 9 8 4 , p . 4 3 ) . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , when j o i n e d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h o f s u c h e d u c a t o r s a s S l a v i n , S h a r a n , A r o n s o n ) a n d t h e J o h n s o n b r o t h e r s , w o u l d h e l p t o v a l i d a t e t h i s s t u d y . P e r h a p s t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g p r o v i d e s t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - c o n c e p t s c a n t h r i v e . A l t h o u g h t h e f o r m a l d a t a a r e u s u a l l y more w i d e l y a c c e p t e d , more i n f o r m a l d a t a f r o m t h o s e w i t h i n t h e g i v e n s t u d y s i t u a t i o n c a n h e l p t o t r i a n g u l a t e t h e s t u d y . T h e i n f o r m a l d a t a w h i c h f o l l o w s , a l t h o u g h o p e n t o v a r i e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , w o u l d h e l p t o s u p p o r t t h e t h e o r y t h a t C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s c a n c r e a t e more p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m i n s t u d e n t s . One d a y , n e a r t h e e n d o f A p r i l , t h e p r i n c i p a l o f t h e s c h o o l d i s c u s s e d t h e o n g o i n g w o r k o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r , a n d made t h e comment t h a t f r o m p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , s / h e h a d e x p e c t e d t o d e a l w i t h more d i s c i p l i n e p r o b l e m s i n t h e G r a d e 7 c l a s s e s t h a n s / h e r e a l l y h a d t o t h i s y e a r . S / h e was v e r y p l e a s e d , a n d h o p e d t h a t p e r h a p s some o f t h e r e a s o n c o u l d b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a n d t h e t e a c h i n g a n d r e i n f o r c i n g o f p o s i t i v e s o c i a l s k i l l s . 53 T h e G r a d e 7 c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s b o t h made comments o n how w e l l t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p s w e r e w o r k i n g , a n d c e l e b r a t e d s t u d e n t s u c c e s s e s w i t h p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k t o t h e s t u d e n t s a n d t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r . One t e a c h e r commented t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r a p p e a r e d t o b e " h a v i n g f u n " w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s . F o r t h e M a r c h r e p o r t c a r d , t h e t e a c h e r o f t h e S o c i o m e t r i c G r o u p a s k e d h i s s t u d e n t s t o w r i t e t h e i r own r e p o r t c a r d comments f o r t h e i r own p a r e n t s , l i s t i n g s t r e n g t h s a n d w e a k n e s s e s , a n d a s t r a t e g y p l a n f o r t h e f i n a l t e r m . T h e r e s e a r c h e r was p e r m i t t e d t o r e a d t h r o u g h t h e s e , b u t n o t t o c o p y t h e m . I t a p p e a r e d t h a t m o s t s t u d e n t s h a d p u t f o r t h much t h o u g h t , a n d h a d i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i r b e h a v i o r i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s much a s t h e r e s e a r c h e r w o u l d h a v e i n t e r p r e t e d i t . A t t h e P a r e n t - T e a c h e r i n t e r v i e w s , t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s e n c o u r a g e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o s i t w i t h them f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s , a l t h o u g h n o p a r e n t s made f o r m a l comments o t h e r t h a n t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d t o b e d o i n g w e l l a n d e n j o y i n g S o c i a l S t u d i e s . P e r h a p s t h e b e s t i n d i c a t i o n o f p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t w i t h t h e s t u d y was t h e f a c t t h a t n o p a r e n t c o n s i d e r e d r e m o v i n g h i s / h e r c h i l d f r o m t h e t e s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h e y e a r . T h e r e s e a r c h e r a l s o n o t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d u r i n g t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s l e s s o n s : M o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w e r e o n t a s k f o r m o s t o f t h e o n e - h o u r p e r i o d . A l t h o u g h some s t u d e n t s f o r g o t t o p r a i s e e a c h o t h e r , when a s k e d w h e r e t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t w a s , t h e s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e t o g e t h e r , a n d r e a l l y d i d n o t n e e d v e r b a l r e i n f o r c e m e n t f r o m t h e i r g r o u p . 54 One g r o u p o f two m a l e a n d two f e m a l e s t u d e n t s i n t h e r a n d o m g r o u p i n g w e r e s o p l e a s e d w i t h t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y c o u l d a l l w o r k t o g e t h e r t h a t t h e y s p e c i f i c a l l y a s k e d i f t h e y c o u l d w o r k t o g e t h e r f o r a l l o f t h e u n i t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s was n o t p o s s i b l e u n d e r t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . T h e r e s e a r c h e r n o t e d t h a t some l o w - a c h i e v i n g s t u d e n t s b e g a n t o f e e l f r e e t o a s k o t h e r s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r g r o u p f o r h e l p , a n d t h e o t h e r s t u d e n t s b e g a n t o d e v e l o p p a t i e n c e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . One g r o u p t o o k o n t h e a d d e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f h e l p i n g t h e p a r t -t i m e s t u d e n t (due t o a p u l l - o u t p r o g r a m ) c a t c h u p t o t h e r e s t o f t h e g r o u p , a n d m a i n t a i n a p a s s i n g m a r k o n t e s t s . A n a d d e d b e n e f i t was t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o u n d t h a t some s t u d e n t s h a d d o n e o u t s i d e r e s e a r c h t o h e l p t h e i r g r o u p s p e r f o r m w e l l . T h i s i n d e p e n d e n t l e a r n i n g a d d e d m o t i v a t i o n w i t h i n t h e g r o u p . One o f t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h l a r g e c l a s s g r o u p i n g s h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n t h a t a few o f t h e s t u d e n t s h o l d a l l t h e v o c a l o p i n i o n s . I n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s t r u c t u r e , some s t u d e n t s who h a d n o t r e a l l y b e e n i n i t i a l l y a c c e p t e d b y t h e c l a s s g r o u p , became more v o c a l w i t h i n a s m a l l g r o u p , a n d f o u n d t h a t t h e y w e r e e n c o u r a g e d i n t h e i r i d e a s . I n t h e r a n d o m l y g r o u p e d c l a s s , a n a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n o c c u r r e d r a n d o m l y . T h r e e g i r l s , a l l f r i e n d s , a n d o n e b o y w e r e a s s i g n e d t o t h e same g r o u p . On n u m e r o u s o c c a s i o n s l i t t l e o n - t a s k b e h a v i o r t o o k p l a c e u n t i l t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v e n e d . I n t h e s o c i o m e t r i c a l l y g r o u p e d c l a s s , 55 t h e r e s e a r c h e r a l l o w e d o n e g r o u p o f f r i e n d s , two b o y s a n d two g i r l s t o w o r k t o g e t h e r o n t h e i r l a s t u n i t . T h i s g r o u p a l s o e x p e r i e n c e d p r o b l e m s k e e p i n g o n t a s k . H o w e v e r , i n e a c h c a s e t h e g r o u p d y n a m i c s became a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h e g r o u p s o f f r i e n d s who w o r k e d t o g e t h e r f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d t h a t d i v e r s i t y was n e e d e d w i t h i n g r o u p s t o c a u s e t h e m t o w o r k more e f f e c t i v e l y . T h e r e s e a r c h e r was e n c o u r a g e d b y many o f t h e f r i n g e b e n e f i t s o f t h e s t u d y c o n d u c t e d . A l t h o u g h t h i s b o d y o f r e s e a r c h a p p e a r e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t s e l f - e s t e e m was n e i t h e r h e l p e d n o r h i n d e r e d b y t h e g r o u p i n g m e t h o d u s e d f o r c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g , t h e r e a r e u n d o u b t e d l y i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t o d a y . F o r m a l t e s t i n g a n d i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i c a t e a n i m p r o v e m e n t i n s e l f - e s t e e m o f s t u d e n t s who w o r k i n c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g g r o u p s . P e r h a p s t h e t e a c h e r ' s j u d g e m e n t i n o r g a n i z i n g g r o u p s i s s t i l l t h e m o s t r e l i a b l e s t a n d a r d . T h i s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e a c t u a l t e a c h i n g a n d s t u d e n t p r a c t i c i n g o f s o c i a l s k i l l s c o u l d e n h a n c e t h e s e l f -e s t e e m o f m o s t o f t h e s t u d e n t s , a n d l e a d t o g r e a t e r a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e Y e a r 2000 c u r r i c u l u m d e a l s w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t y t o e d u c a t e t h e w h o l e c h i l d t o f i t i n t o a n e v e r -c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y . I t e n c o u r a g e s t e a c h e r s t o b e f a c i l i t a t o r s , t o h e l p s t u d e n t s t o become i n d e p e n d e n t a n d m o t i v a t e d l e a r n e r s . W i t h t h i s c h a l l e n g e , a n y b e n e f i t s d e r i v e d f r o m c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g s h o u l d n o t be o v e r l o o k e d , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e way i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h e r c h o o s e s t o g r o u p t h e s t u d e n t s . 56 C . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y T h i s p a r t o f t h e s t u d y d e a l s w i t h a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r f a c t o r s w h i c h c o u l d p o s s i b l y h a v e i n f l u e n c e d s t u d e n t s e l f -e s t e e m , a s i t may r e l a t e t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a . I t a l s o d i s c u s s e s some l i m i t a t i o n s a s t o t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s t o a d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e s e a r c h e r d i d a l l t h e t e a c h i n g f o r t h e s t u d y , i t w o u l d b e i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r how much i m p a c t t e a c h i n g s t y l e o r t e a c h e r p e r s o n a l i t y w o u l d h a v e o n s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m ? How much o f . a n i n f l u e n c e w o u l d t h e m o t i v a t i o n o r p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e t e a c h e r h a v e o n s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m ? T e a c h e r s a r e b e c o m i n g more a w a r e o f v a r i e d l e a r n i n g s t y l e s o f s t u d e n t s . How w o u l d s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m b e a f f e c t e d b y t h i s f a c t o r ? A r e a l l s t u d e n t s h e l p e d b y c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q u e s , o r a r e some i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e p r o c e s s b e c a u s e t h e y o p e r a t e i n a d i f f e r e n t l e a r n i n g s t y l e ? L e a r n i n g s t y l e seems t o b e o f t e n a f f e c t e d b y t h e o b v i o u s f a c t t h a t we a r e a m u l t i - e t h n i c s o c i e t y . Some c u l t u r e s c u l t i v a t e c o o p e r a t i o n more o b v i o u s l y t h a n d o o t h e r s . What r o l e d o e s c u l t u r e p l a y i n s e l f - e s t e e m o f s t u d e n t s ? A l t h o u g h i n t h i s s t u d y , s o c i a l s k i l l s w e r e t a u g h t a n d p r a c t i c e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s l e s s o n s , t h e G r a d e 7 p r o g r a m d o e s n o t o p e r a t e i n a v a c u u m f r o m o t h e r s u b j e c t s . T h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s o f t h e two c l a s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e b o t h t e a c h i n g t h e " Q u e s t P r o g r a m " r e l a t i n g 57 t o s o c i a l s k i l l s f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . P e r h a p s t h e s e s k i l l s , w h i c h w e r e a l s o some o f t h e o n e p r a c t i c e d i n t h e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g g r o u p s w e r e p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e g e n e r a l i m p r o v e m e n t i n s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m . T h e f o l l o w i n g l i m i t a t i o n s p e r t a i n t o t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s a m p l e . T h e m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n was t h e s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e . W i l l t h e r e s u l t s o f two s a m p l e s o f 21 a n d 20 g e n e r a l i z e t o t h e l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n ? T h e d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y was d e r i v e d f r o m o n e s p e c i f i c s c h o o l i n o n e s p e c i f i c s m a l l c o m m u n i t y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t d e t e r m i n e , w i t h o u t a d d i t i o n a l e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e s u l t s w o u l d g e n e r a l i z e t o a n y o t h e r s c h o o l i n a s i m i l a r l o c a t i o n , o r i n a l a r g e r u r b a n a r e a . P e r h a p s t h e r e s u l t s c a n o n l y b e l o c a l i z e d . Was t h e s a m p l e r e a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o t h e r G r a d e 7 c l a s s e s o r d i d t h i s s a m p l e h a v e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f e a t u r e s w h i c h c o u l d i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e r e s u l t s ? D . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h i s s e c t i o n o f t h e s t u d y w i l l d e a l w i t h some o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r r e s e a r c h e r s t o become i n v o l v e d i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . Now t h a t C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g a n d a l l i t s f a c e t s h a v e come u n d e r c l o s e s c r u t i n y b y e d u c a t o r s , t h e r e a r e g r e a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o c o m b i n e t h e o r y w i t h p r a c t i c e a n d t o d o f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y , t h a t o f t r y i n g t o g e n e r a l i z e t h e r e s u l t s o f a s m a l l s a m p l e t o a 58 p o p u l a t i o n , t h i s s t u d y w o u l d c e r t a i n l y e n c o u r a g e r e p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s . D u r i n g t h e s t u d y , much d a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d w h i c h w e r e n o t d i r e c t l y u s e d i n t h e s t u d y , a n d t h e s e c o u l d b e o r g a n i z e d i n t o t h e s t r a n d s s u g g e s t e d b y C o o p e r s m i t h ( G e n e r a l , S o c i a l , Home, S c h o o l ) o n h i s i n v e n t o r y , a n d b y P i e r s ( B e h a v i o r , I n t e l l e c t u a l a n d S c h o o l S t a t u s , P h y s i c a l A p p e a r a n c e a n d A t t r i b u t e s , A n x i e t y , P o p u l a r i t y , a n d H a p p i n e s s a n d S a t i s f a c t i o n ) o n h e r t e s t t o s e e i t t h e r e a r e a n y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e s t r a n d s . Were t h e r e a n y p a r t i c u l a r s t r a n d s w h e r e c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g a f f e c t e d s e l f - e s t e e m more t h a n t h e o t h e r s ? D i d g e n d e r become more s i g n i f i c a n t i n o n e s t r a n d o v e r a n o t h e r ? I f , a s P i e r s (1984) a n d C o o p e r s m i t h (1981) b o t h seem t o s u g g e s t , t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t o f a s t u d e n t b e g i n s t o s t a b i l i z e d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d , u p t o what s t u d e n t a g e c o u l d a t e a c h e r e x p e c t t o h a v e a m a j o r i m p a c t o n s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m ? C o u l d t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y be r e p l i c a t e d w i t h i n o t h e r I n t e r m e d i a t e G r a d e s ? F i n a l l y , b e c a u s e many o f o u r s c h o o l s h a v e s t u d e n t s o f m u l t i - e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d s , s t u d i e s c o u l d b e c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t f i r s t - o r s e c o n d - g e n e r a t i o n n a t i o n a l i t y i s a p r e d i c t o r o f p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m . I f t e a c h e r s c o u l d f o c u s o n t h e p o s i t i v e s e l f - e s t e e m t h a t seems a p p a r e n t i n c e r t a i n c u l t u r e s , t h e y c o u l d c a p i t a l i z e o n t h e d i v e r s i t y t h a t seems n e c e s s a r y i n a n y c o o p e r a t i v e l e a r n i n g g r o u p i n g . 59 BIBLIOGRAPHY Andersen, M., Nelson, L. R., Fox, R. G. & Gruber, S. E. (1988). " I n t e g r a t i n g C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g and S t r u c t u r e d L e a r n i n g : E f f e c t i v e Approaches t o Teaching S o c i a l S k i l l s " . Focus On E x c e p t i o n a l C h i l d r e n . 20(9), 1-8. Aronson, E. (1978). The Jigsaw Classroom. B e v e r l y H i l l s : Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . Brandt, R. (1987). "On Cooperation i n S c h o o l s : A C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h David and Roger Johnson". E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p . 45_(3), 14-19. Coopersmith, S. (1981). Self-Esteem I n v e n t o r i e s . 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W. & Johnson, R. T. (1975). L e a r n i n g Together And Alone. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e -H a l l , Inc. Johnson, D. W. & Johnson, R. T. (1983). "The S o c i a l i z a t i o n and Achievement C r i s i s : Are C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g Experiences the S o l u t i o n ? " In L. Bickman (Ed.), A p p l i e d S o c i a l Psychology Annual 4, B e v e r l y H i l l s , CA: Sage P u b l i c a t i o n s . Johnson, D. W. & Johnson, R. T. (1987). L e a r n i n g Together and Alone. Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e -H a l l , Inc. 60 Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J . (1986). C i r c l e s o f L e a r n i n g : Cooperation i n the  Classroom. Edina, Minnesota: I n t e r a c t i o n Book Company. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T. & Maruyama, G. (1983). "Interdependence and I n t e r p e r s o n a l A t t r a c t i o n Among Heterogeneous and Homogeneous I n d i v i d u a l s : A T h e o r e t i c a l F o r m u l a t i o n and a Meta-Analysis o f the Research." Review  o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research. 53., 5-54. Johnson, D.W., Maruyama, G., Johnson, R., Nelson, D., & Skon, L. (1981). " E f f e c t s o f C o o p e r a t i v e , Competitive, and I n d i v i d u a l i s t i c Goal S t r u c t u r e s on Achievement: A Meta-A n a l y s i s " . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 89, 47-62. M i l l e r , N., Brewer, M. B. & Edwards, K. (1985). "Cooperative I n t e r a c t i o n i n Desegregated S e t t i n g s : A L a b o r a t o r y Analogue". J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I ssues. 41(3), 63-79. M i t c h e l l , J . V. J r . (Ed.) (1985). The N i n t h Mental Measurements Yearbook. L i n c o l n , Nebraska: U n i v e r s i t y of Nebraska. Moorman, C. & Dishon, D. (1983). Our Classroom. We Can Learn Together. 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"Improving S o c i a l - E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t u d i e s Problem S o l v i n g Through C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g " . American  E d u c a t i o n a l Research J o u r n a l . 25, 573-591. 61 Sapon-Shevin, M. & Schniedewind, N. (1990). " S e l l i n g C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g Without S e l l i n g I t Short " . E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership, 47.(4), 63-65. School D i s t r i c t #30. (1989). Long Range P l a n . A s h c r o f t , B.C.: School D i s t r i c t #30. Sharan, S. (1980). "Cooperative L e a r n i n g i n Small Groups: Recent Methods and E f f e c t s on Achievement, A t t i t u d e s , and E t h n i c R e l a t i o n s " . Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l  Research. 50(2), 241-271. Sharan, S. (1984). C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g i n the Classroom. H i l l s d a l e , N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , P u b l i s h e r s . Sharan, Y. & Sharan, S. (1987). " T r a i n i n g Teachers f o r C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g " . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p . 45(3), 20-25. S l a v i n , R. E. (1980). "Cooperative L e a r n i n g " . Review o f  E d u c a t i o n a l Research. 50. 315-342. S l a v i n , R. E. (1981). " S y n t h e s i s o f Research on Co o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g " . E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership. 38(8), 655-660. S l a v i n , R. E. (1983a). C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g . New York: Longman. S l a v i n , R. E. (1983b). Student Team L e a r n i n g : An Overview and P r a c t i c a l Guide. Washington, D.C.: N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n . S l a v i n , R. E. (1986). "Learning Together". American  Educator. 10(2), 6-13. S l a v i n , R. E. (1987a). "Cooperative L e a r n i n g and the C o o p e r a t i v e S c h o o l " . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p . 45.(3), 7-13. S l a v i n , R. E. (1987b). C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g : Student Teams. Washington, D.C; N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1987. S l a v i n , R. E. (1987c). "Cooperative L e a r n i n g : Where B e h a v i o r a l and Humanistic Approaches t o Classroom M o t i v a t i o n Meet". The Elementary School J o u r n a l . 88(1), 29-36. S l a v i n , R. E. (1987d). "When Does C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g Increase Student Achievement?" P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 94, 429-445. S l a v i n , R. E. (1988a). "Cooperative L e a r n i n g and Student Achievement". E d u c a t i o n a l Leadership, 46(2), 31-33. 62 S l a v i n , R . E . ( 1 9 8 8 b ) . " S y n t h e s i s o f R e s e a r c h o n G r o u p i n g i n E l e m e n t a r y a n d S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s " . E d u c a t i o n a l  L e a d e r s h i p , 4 6 ( 1 ) / 6 7 - 7 7 . S l a v i n , R . E . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . S c h o o l a n d C l a s s r o o m O r g a n i z a t i o n . H i l l s d a l e , N . J . : L a w r e n c e E r l b a u m A s s o c i a t e s , P u b l i s h e r s . S l a v i n , R . E . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . " R e s e a r c h o n C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g : C o n s e n s u s a n d C o n t r o v e r s y " . E d u c a t i o n a l L e a d e r s h i p . 4 7 ( 4 ) , 5 2 - 5 4 . S l a v i n , R . E . & K a r w e i t , N . L . ( 1 9 8 1 ) . " C o g n i t i v e a n d A f f e c t i v e O u t c o m e s o f a n I n t e n s i v e S t u d e n t Team L e a r n i n g E x p e r i e n c e " . J o u r n a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l E d u c a t i o n . 5 0 . 2 9 - 3 5 . S t a n f o r d , G . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . D e v e l o p i n g E f f e c t i v e C l a s s r o o m G r o u p s . New Y o r k C i t y : H a r t P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y , I n c . S u l l i v a n , B . M . ( C o m m ) ( 1 9 8 8 ) . A L e g a c y f o r L e a r n e r s . T h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n o n E d u c a t i o n . V i c t o r i a : P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V e r m e t t e , P . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . " C o o p e r a t i v e G r o u p i n g i n t h e C l a s s r o o m : T u r n i n g S t u d e n t s i n t o A c t i v e L e a r n e r s " . T h e  S o c i a l S t u d i e s . 7 9 . 2 7 1 - 2 7 3 . Webb, N . M . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . "Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n I n t e r a c t i o n a n d A c h i e v e m e n t i n C o o p e r a t i v e S m a l l G r o u p s . " J o u r n a l o f  E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . 7 6 ( 4 ) , 3 3 - 4 4 . Webb, N . M . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . " S t u d e n t I n t e r a c t i o n a n d L e a r n i n g i n S m a l l G r o u p s : A R e s e a r c h S u m m a r y . " I n S l a v i n , R . E . , S h a r a n , S . , K a g a n , S . , H e r t z - L a z a r o w i t z , R . , Webb, C , & S c h m u c k , R . ( E d s . ) . L e a r n i n g t o C o o p e r a t e . C o o p e r a t i n g t o  L e a r n . ( p p . 1 4 7 - 1 7 2 ) . New Y o r k : P l e n u m . W i e r s m a , W. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . R e s e a r c h M e t h o d s i n E d u c a t i o n : A n  I n t r o d u c t i o n . T o r o n t o : A l l y n a n d B a c o n , I n c . 63 A P P E N D I C E S i 64 APPENDIX A Summary o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e R e l a t i n g t o C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g 65 SYNOPSIS OF LITERATURE RELATING TO COOPERATIVE LEARNING AUTHOR SELF OTHERS SCHOOL ACIIIEV. COOP/ COMP ETHNJ Andersen (1988) Aronson (1978) Pos Pos same pos/low Yes Brandt (1987) Davidson (1985) pos/goals Dept. of Coop (1983) Dishon/O'Leary(1984) Johnson/Johnson(75) Pos Pos/work Pos Johnson/Johnson(83) Pos Pos Pos/Teach-Subj Johnson/Johnson(87) Pos Pos Pos/Teach/Subj Yes Pos Johnson et a l (86) Johnson et a l (83) Pos Pos Johnson et a l (81) Pos/Ages/Subj Yes Rote=0 Pos M i l l e r et a l (85) Moorman/Dishon(83) Newmann/Thompson(87) Pos/Some types Rhoades/McCabe(85) Roark/Sharah(89) Pos Pos Ross (1988) Sapon-Shevin/ (90) Sharan (1980) Pos Pos Pos Yes Pos Sharan (1984) Same Same Yes Same Sharan/Sharan(1987) S l a v i n (1980) Pos Pos Pos Pos S l a v i n (1981 ) Pos/Jig Pos Pos/most pos/TGT Pos S l a v i n (1983a) Pos Pos S l a v i n (1983b) Pos S l a v i n (1986) Pos Pos Pos S l a v i n (1987a) S l a v i n (1987b) Pos Pos S l a v i n (1987c) S l a v i n (1987d) S l a v i n (1988a) Pos Pos pos/goals pos/ind.account S l a v i n (1988b) pos S l a v i n (1989) Pos Pos/ mnstr pos/sub Pos S l a v i n (1990) pos pos pos/consensus 26 (19Pos/7=0) Slavin/Karweit(81) pos/Math Stanford (1977) Vermette (1988) Webb (1984) Webb (1985) COMMENTS Quotes other researchers Advice on Coop. Learning Advice on Groupings Advice on Groupings Soc. i s o l a t e s i n t e g r a t e quicker Also Pos f o r Disabled & Non-Review of Research Findings Hetero-/Homogeneous Comparison Grouping Data Quote.Johnson and Johnson Successful at Sr. High l e v e l ? ? ? Information on Groupings As r e l a t e s to Psychotherapy Quotes other researchers Comments only Review of Research on D i f f . S t y l e s 6hrs/wk too short-Secondary-based For Teachers: How to Set Up Synthesis of studies Compar. of St y l e s of Coop Learning Varying Techniques Discussion Student Teams Stategy Discussion Discussion - quotes other research Study of D i f f . forms of C-L Grouping S t y l e s Reviews of Research Urban/Rural=0 Discussion of Groups Discussion of Groups Male/Fern. D i f f . i n coop groups Quotes other researchers APPENDIX B (i) Superintendent's Letter of Permission ( i i ) Approval of Ethics Committee at U.B.C. ( i i i ) P r i n c i p a l ' s Letter to Parents (iv) Parental Consent Form 67 ASHCROFT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL P.O. Box 40, 711 H i l l Street, Ashcroft, B.C. VOK 1A0 PHONE: 4 5 3 - 9 1 7 7 F A X : 453 -9040 CONSENT FORM TITLE OF PROJECT: Cooperative Learning A c t i v i t i e s : The Study of Random Groupings and Sociometric Groupings and Their Impact on Self-Esteem. INVESTIGATOR: Esther Lang (as p a r t i a l requirement f o r a Master of Arts Degree from UBC) Ashcroft Elementary School FACULTY ADVISOR: Dr. F. Pieronek, Graduate Studies, UBC. Ashcroft Elementary School has been sel e c t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p r o j e c t that w i l l be taking place during t h i s school year. The p r o j e c t i s designed to study student r e a c t i o n to being placed i n l e a r n i n g groups. This i s important to allow students to f e e l good about t h e i r l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . The students involved w i l l be asked to complete a s e r i e s of questions r e l a t i n g to t h e i r f e e l i n g s , at three d i f f e r e n t times during the school year. The pr o j e c t w i l l take no more than a t o t a l of three hours. Your c h i l d ' s name w i l l not appear on the survey. You may take your c h i l d out of the p r o j e c t at any time. His/her n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n or withdrawal from the project w i l l not influence ordinary school achievements and w i l l not a f f e c t his/her c l a s s standing. If you have any questions, please do not h e s i t a t e to c a l l Miss Lang at the school. Complete and Return by October 19. 1990 P r o j e c t : Student Learning Groups I am w i l l i n g to allow my c h i l d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r o j e c t . Yes No I hereby acknowledge that I have received a copy of the consent form. Parent(s) Signature: Date: 71 A P P E N D I X C ( i ) S a m p l e C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g L e s s o n o n Sumer ( i i ) S a m p l e C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g L e s s o n o n E g y p t ( i i i ) S a m p l e C o o p e r a t i v e L e a r n i n g L e s s o n o n G r e e c e ( i v ) S a m p l e S t u d e n t I n f o r m a l S o c i a l S t u d i e s S u r v e y F o r m ( v ) S a m p l e S t u d e n t I n f o r m a l P e r s o n a l S u c c e s s F o r m 72 GRADE 7 S O C I A L S T U D I E S ONE HOUR 22 S T U D E N T S / C L A S S T O P I C : Sumer - R e l i g i o n a n d G o v e r n m e n t I N S T R U C T I O N A L O B J E C T I V E S : t h e s t u d e n t w i l l b e a b l e t o e x p l a i n t h e r o l e o f r e l i g i o n a n d g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e p e o p l e . M A T E R I A L S : C i v i l i z a t i o n s o f t h e P a s t ( p h o t o c o p i e d ) p . 5 4 - 5 7 a n d 60 - 61 O t h e r P l a c e s , O t h e r T i m e s ( t e x t ) p . 44 - 46 ASSIGNMENT TO GROUPS: s o c i o m e t r i c (Dan) r a n d o m ( R o g e r ) R O L E S : j i g s a w f o r m a t - o n e e x p e r t p e r 2 p a g e s T H E L E S S O N T A S K : E a c h s t u d e n t e x p e r t w i l l s t u d y h i s p a p e r a n d e x p l a i n i n h i s own w o r d s w h a t he h a s l e a r n e d a b o u t r e l i g i o n o r g o v e r n m e n t . T h e n e a c h t e a m w i l l p r o v i d e a n s w e r s t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. G i v e t h e t h r e e m o s t i m p o r t a n t r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s o f t h e S u m e r i a n s . 2 . D e s c r i b e w h a t a z i g g u r a t l o o k e d l i k e a n d why i t was b u i l t t h a t w a y . 3 . Who d i d t h e l u g a l r e p r e s e n t ? What was t h e j o b o f t h e l u g a l ? 4 . How d i d t h e S u m e r i a n s f i n d o u t w h a t t h e g o d s w a n t e d them t o d o ? 5 . What p o w e r s d i d t h e l u g a l h a v e ? G i v e 5 e x a m p l e s . P O S I T I V E I N T E R D E P E N D E N C E : g o a l o r i e n t e d . B o n u s p o i n t s (10) f o r a l l c o r r e c t a n s w e r s . B o n u s p o i n t s f o r k e e p i n g o n t a s k a n d s h a r i n g w o r k l o a d . I N D I V I D U A L A C C O U N T A B I L I T Y : g r o u p p r o d u c t ; j i g s a w = m i n i e x p e r t s C R I T E R I A FOR S U C C E S S : c o m p l e t i o n o f e x e r c i s e s E X P E C T E D B E H A V I O R S : s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , s h a r i n g w o r k l o a d , d i s c u s s i o n , t a k i n g t u r n s . S O C I A L S K I L L T E A C H I N G S K I L L S P R A C T I C E D : s h a r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , s h a r i n g w o r k l o a d , d i s c u s s i o n a s t o c o r r e c t n e s s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a n s w e r , t a k i n g t u r n s C R I T E R I A FOR S U C C E S S : B e g i n w i t h 10 p o i n t s , a n d k e e p them a l l b y b e i n g o n t a s k U S E REWARDED B Y : t e a m b o n u s p o i n t s MONITORING AND P R O C E S S I N G MONITORING B Y : T E A C H E R S MONITOR F O R : k e e p i n g o n t a s k PROCESS B Y : t e a c h e r o b s e r v a t i o n ; s t u d e n t i n f o r m a l o b s e r v a t i o n 73 GRADE 7 S O C I A L S T U D I E S ONE HOUR 21 S T U D E N T S / C L A S S T O P I C : M i d d l e K i n g d o m : Economy a n d G o v e r n m e n t I N S T R U C T I O N A L O B J E C T I V E S : t h e s t u d e n t w i l l b e a b l e u s e t h e i r k n o w l e d g e o f h i s t o r y t o s o l v e p r o b l e m s . M A T E R I A L S : O t h e r P l a c e s , O t h e r T i m e s ( t e x t ) p . 87 - 9 0 ; s t r a t e g y s h e e t ASSIGNMENT TO GROUPS: s o c i o m e t r i c (Dan) r a n d o m ( R o g e r ) R O L E S : G r o u p L e a d e r - §2 / C h e c k e r / R e c o r d e r - §3 R e p o r t e r - #4 T H E L E S S O N T A S K : T h e s t u d e n t s h o u l d h a v e p r e v i o u s l y r e a d t h e t e x t , a s o u t l i n e d o n t h e i r c a l e n d a r . T o e n s u r e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a l l s t u d e n t s i n g r o u p , t e a m w i l l s p e n d f i v e m i n u t e s i n o r a l r e v i e w o f r e a d i n g s . T e a c h e r w i l l a d m i n i s t e r s h o r t q u i z t o e s t a b l i s h w h e t h e r o r n o t s t u d e n t s h a v e r e a d t h e m a t e r i a l . L o w e s t q u i z s c o r e w i l l b e t e a m s c o r e . S t u d e n t s w i l l b e a s s i g n e d r o l e s , a n d a s k e d t o b r a i n s t o r m i d e a s f o r w o r k s h e e t e x e r c i s e . L a s t 15 m i n u t e s o f c l a s s t i m e w i l l b e g i v e n t o o r a l r e p o r t s r e l a t i n g t o q u e s t i o n . P O S I T I V E I N T E R D E P E N D E N C E : r o l e s - L e a d e r t o k e e p t h i n g s o n t r a c k - R e c o r d e r t o t a k e n o t e s - R e p o r t e r t o g i v e o r a l r e p o r t I N D I V I D U A L A C C O U N T A B I L I T Y : o r a l r e p o r t g i v e n b y s p o k e s p e r s o n C R I T E R I A FOR S U C C E S S : g o o d i n f o r m a t i o n i n f i n a l r e p o r t ; t h o u g h t E X P E C T E D B E H A V I O R S : e n c o u r a g i n g e a c h o t h e r . S O C I A L S K I L L T E A C H I N G S K I L L P R A C T I C E D : g i v i n g p u t - u p s , e n c o u r a g i n g o t h e r s D E F I N E D : p o s i t i v e l y e n c o u r a g i n g c l a s s m a t e s MONITORING AND P R O C E S S I N G MONITORING B Y : T E A C H E R S MONITOR F O R : e n c o u r a g i n g , p u t - u p s ; c a l c u l a t e WHO i s g i v i n g them I N T E R V E N E I F : o n e p e r s o n i s g i v i n g a l l t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t , o r i f t h e t o n e o f t h e t e a m becomes n e g a t i v e f o r a n y r e a s o n . PROCESS B Y : t e a c h e r s h e e t s END B Y : d e b r i e f i n g - t e a c h e r a n d s t u d e n t 74 E G Y P T T A S K S H E E T FOR MIDDLE KINGDOM - ECONOMY AND GOVERNMENT Y o u a r e K i n g A k h t o y ' s t r u s t e d a d v i s o r s . T h e k i n g h a s a s k e d t h a t y o u d e v e l o p a p l a n t o e n s u r e t h e s a f e t y o f t h e E g y p t i a n s . O v e r t h e p a s t s e v e r a l d e c a d e s i n v a d e r s h a v e r a i d e d E g y p t a n d a t t a c k e d v i l l a g e s . T h e k i n g d o m h a s b e e n s p l i t a p a r t b y w a r r i n g NOMARCHS. K i n g A k h t o y i s c o u n t i n g o n y o u t o r e t u r n E g y p t t o t h e s p l e n d o r o f t h e O l d K i n g d o m . What w i l l y o u a d v i s e K i n g A k h t o y t o d o ? I ( M i s s L a n g ) am K i n g A k h t o y . I w i l l l i s t e n t o y o u r p r e s e n t a t i o n s ( O r a l l y ) a n d w e i g h them a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a d v i c e y o u g i v e me. I r e s e r v e t h e r i g h t t o a s k q u e s t i o n s i f I do n o t u n d e r s t a n d . What y o u t e l l me w i l l make me d e c i d e t h e m e r i t o f y o u r p o s i t i o n ? W i l l I r e t a i n y o u o r make y o u a s l a v e ? (25 p o i n t s w i l l b e a s s i g n e d t o t h e g r o u p s w i t h t h e b e s t s u g g e s t i o n s . ) HERE A R E T H E R O L E S FOR T O D A Y . L e a d e r s h i p D u t i e s : E n s u r e s t h a t e v e r y o n e u n d e r s t a n d s t h e t a s k . B e g i n s t h e d i s c u s s i o n . M a k e s s u r e e v e r y o n e s t i c k s t o t h e t a s k . E n c o u r a g e s e v e r y member t o c o n t r i b u t e . M a i n t a i n s t i m e s c h e d u l e . E n s u r e s a c o n c l u s i o n i s r e a c h e d . R e c o r d e r D u t i e s : T a k e n o t e s i n b r i e f f o r m . S u m m a r i z e w h a t s p e a k e r h a s s a i d . A s k q u e s t i o n s o f s p e a k e r t o c l a r i f y i d e a . R e p o r t e r D u t i e s : L i s t e n c a r e f u l l y . T h i n k a b o u t w h a t i s s a i d . C o n t r i b u t e y o u r own i d e a s . R e r e a d w h a t r e c o r d e r h a s w r i t t e n s o y o u c a n u n d e r s t a n d i t . 75 GRADE 7 SOCIAL STUDIES ONE HOUR 21 STUDENTS/CLASS TOPIC: Comparison o f l i f e i n Sparta and Athens INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES: the student w i l l be a b l e t o use r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l t o compare and c o n t r a s t l i f e i n Sparta w i t h l i f e i n Athens. MATERIALS: C i v i l i z a t i o n s o f the Past p. 110-111; Other P l a c e s , Other Times ( t e x t ) p. 125-132 - one worksheet per team ASSIGNMENT TO GROUPS: s o c i o m e t r i c (Dan) random (Roger) ROLES: #3 = l e a d e r t o keep group on task #4 = r e c o r d e r - one s e t o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o photocopied. THE LESSON TASK: Students spend f i v e minutes d i s c u s s i n g what they have read i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r today's e x e r c i s e . Recorder w r i t e s 5 major p o i n t s from today's l e s s o n r e a d i n g s . Students then begin e x e r c i s e t o d i s c u s s and r e c o r d i d e a s comparing l i f e i n Sparta w i t h l i f e i n Athens. Students then d i s c u s s which p l a c e they would p r e f e r t o l i v e , and why? POSITIVE INTERDEPENDENCE: a s i n g l e copy product, produced by group e f f o r t , and i n i t i a l l e d f o r agreement. INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY: each person must perform r o l e , and d i s c u s s i d e a s from h i s / h e r p e r s p e c t i v e ; compromising CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS: working to g e t h e r c o o p e r a t i v e t o complete one product. EXPECTED BEHAVIORS: c r i t i c a l l i s t e n i n g , on task, d i s c u s s i o n , n e g o t i a t i o n . SOCIAL SKILL TEACHING SKILL PRACTICED: n e g o t i a t i n g , r e s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t s . CRITERIA FOR SUCCESS: keeping on task, c o o p e r a t i n g t o complete task, encouraging team members, n e g o t i a t i n g USE REWARDED BY: teacher p r a i s e d u r i n g d e b r i e f i n g MONITORING AND PROCESSING MONITORING BY: both student and teacher MONITOR FOR: meeting g o a l s , g i v i n g put ups, keeping on task, c o o p e r a t i n g , n e g o t i a t i n g INTERVENE IF: groups cannot s o l v e t h e i r own problems PROCESS BY: Student P e r s o n a l Success Charts Teacher c h a r t from m o n i t o r i n g each group Teacher g i v i n g group mark f o r c o o p e r a t i o n END BY: p r a i s i n g groups f o r what they d i d w e l l . 76 WORKSHEET FOR COMPARISON OF L I F E I N SPARTA AND ATHENS Team Name: F i n d a n d n u m b e r a l l t h e d i f f e r e n c e s y o u c a n f i n d b e t w e e n S p a r t a a n d A t h e n s i n t e r m s o f e d u c a t i o n , c i t i z e n s h i p , g o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h e m i l i t a r y . I n c l u d e o t h e r i d e a s y o u f i n d as w e l l . SPARTA ATHENS 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 10 Come t o a c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n a s t o w h i c h c i t y y o u r g r o u p w o u l d w i s h t o l i v e i n . T r y t o g e t a l l y o u r t e a m t o a g r e e , a n d b e a b l e t o g i v e r e a s o n s , o r a l l y , f o r y o u r c h o i c e . 77 STUDENT INFORMAL S O C I A L S T U D I E S SURVEY My name i s My t e a m was I f e l t c o m f o r t a b l e i n my g r o u p I a d d e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n s I k e p t o n t a s k I a c c e p t e d a n d c a r r i e d o u t v a r i o u s r o l e s I d i d my f a i r s h a r e o f c l a s s w o r k I d i d my f a i r s h a r e o f t h e g a m e b o a r d I c o o p e r a t e d w i t h a l l my t eam members I l e a r n e d how t o p l e a s e my t eam My t e a m was p l e a s e d w i t h my p e r f o r m a n c e I t o l d a l l my t e a m members how much a p p r e c i a t e d t h e i r e f f o r t s I d i d t h e d a i l y r e a d i n g s I s t u d i e d f o r t h e g r o u p t e s t I s t u d i e d f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e s t I e n j o y e d b e i n g i n my g r o u p I e n j o y e d t h e s t u d y o f E g y p t I made u s e o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c a l e n d a r p r o v i d e d V G G S P 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 VP My o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e C o m m e n t s : What I d i d w e l l o n t h i s u n i t : What I c a n d o b e t t e r n e x t t e r m : What I am w i l l i n g t o w o r k o n : 78 PERSONAL S U C C E S S CHART OF My g o a l f o r t h i s p a r t o f t h e s e s s i o n i s : D E S C R I P T O R S I - 1 r e a d t h e l e s s o n . 2 -1 3 - 1 was o n t a s k i n g r o u p . 4 -1 5 -1 g a v e a t l e a s t two i d e a s . 6 -1 7 -1 g a v e a t l e a s t o n e p u t - u p 8 -1 p e r t e a m member 9 -1 c o o p e r a t e d f u l l y w i t h my 1 0 - 1 I I - 1 met my p e r s o n a l g o a l 1 2 - 1 t o d a y . d i d n o t r e a d t h e l e s s o n , was n o t o n t a s k i n g r o u p , d i d n o t g i v e a t l e a s t two i d e a s . d i d n o t g i v e a t l e a s t one p u t - u p p e r t e a m member , d i d n o t c o o p e r a t e f u l l y d i d n o t meet my p e r s o n a l g o a l t o d a y . A p r i l 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 A p r i l 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 A p r i l 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 A p r i l 16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 A p r i l 17 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 A p r i l 23 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 A p r i l 24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 A p r i l 25 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 A p r i l 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 12 N O T E : A l o t o f o d d n u m b e r s mean y o u a r e d o i n g w e l l . T h e e v e n n u m b e r s i n d i c a t e w h e r e y o u n e e d t o make some c h a n g e s . 79 

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