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Planning for a multiple airport system in the Lower Mainland MacLaren, Guy 1991

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PLANNING FOR A MULTIPLE AIRPORT SYSTEM IN THE LOWER MAINLAND BY GUY MACLAREN B. A. , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1988 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( S choo l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l ann ing ) We accep t t h i s t h e s i s as con fo rm ing to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER 1991 0 GUY MACLAREN, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of f= c n r ^ r o J ^ c q The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada D a t e o^-r n , m i DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT As the p o p u l a r i t y of a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has grown, so has the t r a f f i c at a i r p o r t s around the world. Many North American a i r p o r t s are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y congested as more people are f l y i n g and as more a i r c r a f t and a i r l i n e s are o p e r a t i n g . As a i r c r a f t movements at these a i r p o r t s have r i s e n , so has the c a l l f o r expansion of these f a c i l i t i e s . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s one such case. B u i l t on Sea I s l a n d i n 1931, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l has served the people of the Lower Mainland very w e l l over the y e a r s . Recent trends i n the a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y , coupled with Vancouver's s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n with r e s p e c t to the P a c i f i c market and the Lower Mainland's r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , have r e s u l t e d i n a major jump in the a i r t r a f f i c volume at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l over the past decade. A i r p o r t planners and government o f f i c i a l s have responded to t h i s r a p i d growth by implementing v a r i o u s enhancement measures and by proposing the p h y s i c a l expansion of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l by b u i l d i n g a t h i r d runway. A t h i r d runway w i l l g r e a t l y improve c o n d i t i o n s at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l by reducing co n g e s t i o n and consequently d e c r e a s i n g a i r c r a f t d e l a y s . With the t h i r d runway in p l a c e , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l w i l l be able to e f f e c t i v e l y compete with other west coast a i r p o r t s i n a t t r a c t i n g new business and investment, e s p e c i a l l y from the r a p i d l y growing P a c i f i c Rim. But an important q u e s t i o n remains: f o r how long? B u i l t on an i s l a n d , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l can only expand by so much. The t h i r d runway r e p r e s e n t s the l a s t major expansion p o s s i b i l i t y a v a i l a b l e to the a i r p o r t . If a v i a t i o n f o r e c a s t s f o r the r e g i o n are e s s e n t i a l l y c o r r e c t , or more imp o r t a n t l y , are c o n s i d e r a b l y under-estimated, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l w i l l be congested once again e a r l y in the next century. T h e r e f o r e there i s a need at t h i s time to begin planning f o r the i n e v i t a b l e : a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system in the Lower Mainland. Vancouver's growing s t a t u r e as an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i t y i n d i c a t e s that growth in t h i s region w i l l continue w e l l i n t o the next century, but a l l may be f o r not i f t h i s region cannot o f f e r an e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e a i r p o r t system. Only a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system w i l l be able to handle the p r e d i c t e d passenger and cargo loads r e s u l t i n g from t h i s growth and r e c o g n i t i o n of the Lower Mainland. There i s no need to begin b u i l d i n g a second a i r p o r t at t h i s time; however p l a n n i n g f o r such an a i r p o r t system must begin soon. T h i s p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s : * D e c i d i n g on an a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n * E n s u r i n g that land i s a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l a i r p o r t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e requirements (roads, t r a n s i t l i n k s , p a r k i n g , and a i r p o r t r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i a l complexes) * N o t i f y i n g the p u b l i c of a i r p o r t development i n t e n t i o n s * I n c o r p o r a t i n g a development plan f o r the second a i r p o r t The q u e s t i o n of when to b u i l d a second a i r p o r t or even i f a second f a c i l i t y should be b u i l t remains undetermined but i f planners wait u n t i l i t i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary to b u i l d one, the land and time r e q u i r e d may not be a v a i l a b l e . Everyone w i l l l o s e . Hence, the time i s now to beginning pla n n i n g f o r a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system i n the Lower Mainland. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT Pg. i i LIST OF TABLES Pg. v i i LIST OF FIGURES Pg. v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Pg. ix 1.0 INTRODUCTION Pg. 1 1.1 Purpose and Scope Pg. 4 1.2 O r g a n i z a t i o n Pg. 9 2.0 OVERVIEW OF AIRPORT PLANNING STRATEGIES AND AIRPORT SYSTEMS 2.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Pg. 11 2.2 A i r p o r t Development Pg. 14 2.3 A i r p o r t Systems Pg. 17 3.0 RECENT TRENDS IN THE AVIATION INDUSTRY 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Pg. 23 3.2 Passenger Volumes Pg. 24 3.3 A i r c r a f t T y p e / S i z e s Pg. 25 3.4 D e r e g u l a t i o n Pg. 28 3.5 Open Sk ie s Pg. 31 4.0 AIRPORT PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE LOWER MAINLAND 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Pg. 33 4.2 The Present A i r p o r t System Pg. 36 4.3 The Role of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l and I t s I n t e r a c t i o n With The Community Pg. 44 4.3.1 Economic Impacts Pg. 44 4.3.2 Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Pg. 47 4.3.3 N a t u r a l Environment Pg. 53 4.4 The Cur rent S i t u a t i o n at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l Pg. 55 4.5 S t r a t e g i e s To R e l i e v e A i r p o r t Conges t ion Pg. 58 4.5.1 Short Term I n i t i a t i v e s Pg. 59 4.5.2 Long Term I n i t i a t i v e s Pg. 62 5.0 THE CONCEPT OF A MULTIPLE AIRPORT SYSTEM IN THE LOWER MAINLAND 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Pg. 68 5.2 Why Pg. 70 5.3 When Pg. 79 5.4 How Pg. 83 5. 5 Where pg. 95 6.0 CONCLUSION Pg. 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY Pg. 107 v i i LIST OF TABLES Tab le 1 Lower Ma in land and Southern Vancouver I s l and A i r p o r t s : Access Times And C o n s t r a i n t s pg. 43 Tab le 2 Ease Of Access At Canadian And World A i r p o r t s pg. 50 Tab le 3 R e l i a b i l i t y Of A i r Passenger F o r e c a s t s Made For Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t in 1973, 1980, 1987 pg. 72 Tab le 4 Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t : Enp laned And Deplaned Passengers pg. 86 Tab le 5 Runway U t i l i z a t i o n at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l By Power P l an t of A i r c r a f t , 1980 - 1989 pg. 88 Tab le 6 Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t : Enp laned And Deplaned Cargo (Tonnes) pg. 90 Tab le 7 Lower Ma in land And Southern Vancouver I s l and A i r p o r t s : Runway C a p a c i t i e s pg. 99 Tab le 8 Lower Ma in land And Southern Vancouver I s l and A i r p o r t s : Env i ronmenta l I ssues And C o n s t r a i n t s pg. 101 LIST OF FIGURES v i i i Figure 1 Commercial Jet Airplanes pg. 26 Figure 2 Location Map: Vancouver International Airport pg. 34 Figure 3 Airport Road Congestion pg. 49 Figure 4 A i r c r a f t Movements: Vancouver International Airport pg. 56 Figure 5 Alternative Airport Development Options pg. 66 Figure 6 A i r c r a f t Demand Vs. Capacity: Vancouver International Airport pg. 74 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thank the f o l l o w i n g people and o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r t h e i r h e l p and support in the c r e a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s paper: My Mom, Dad, and b r o t h e r , my a d v i s o r s and e x t e r n a l readers, P r o f e s s o r S e t t y Pendakur, P r o f e s s o r Mike Tretheway, my f r i e n d s p r o f e s s o r s , and c o l l e a g u e s at the School of Community and Regional Planning, Transport Canada (Vancouver), the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t P lanning Committee, and to my f r i e n d s at M @ P's. 1.0 INTRODUCTION In the p a s t , the pr imary o b j e c t i v e of Canadian a i r p o r t development was to l o c a t e a i r p o r t s near the deve l op ing urban c e n t r e s . A l though o f t e n o r i g i n a l l y des i gned fo r m i l i t a r y purposes , these a i r p o r t s served Canadians w e l l as commercia l a i r c r a f t f a c i l i t i e s . Today, many of these o r i g i n a l a i r p o r t s i t e s are no longer i d e a l f o r the m e t r o p o l i t a n reg i on s that they s e r v e . As Canada ' s l a r g e r urban c e n t r e s grew, a i r p o r t s became surrounded by non-compat ib le commercia l and r e s i d e n t i a l developments, thereby imposing l i m i t a t i o n s on any p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e a i r p o r t expans ion or development. To make matters worse, the a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y i t s e l f has seen unprecedented growth in the past two decades - p l a c i n g i n c r e a s e d p r e s s u r e on the c a p a c i t y of many of these a i r p o r t s . R e c e n t l y , some of Canada ' s l a r g e r and b u s i e r a i r p o r t s have been under i n c r e a s i n g p re s su re to expand o p e r a t i o n s as a i r and s u r f a c e conge s t i on i n t e n s i f i e d at these s i t e s . For M o n t r e a l , T o r o n t o , and Vancouver , a i r p o r t expans ion has been a prominent i s s u e over the past twenty year s as a i r t r a f f i c l e v e l s approached these a i r p o r t s ' c a p a c i t i e s . A l though each a i r p o r t may be as unique as the c i t i e s themse lves , the pr imary q u e s t i o n each c i t y f aces in a i r p o r t development remains the same: do we expand the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t y or do we deve lop new f a c i l i t i e s in a separa te l o c a t i o n ? Mont rea l chose to b u i l d a new a i r p o r t s i t e wh i le Toronto chose to expand i t s e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t . Now i t i s V a n c o u v e r ' s t u rn to choose. Over the past decade, conge s t i on at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l has been a growing problem fo r not on ly the a i r p o r t users and o p e r a t o r s , but f o r the e n t i r e p r o v i n c e i t s e l f . Conges t ion at the a i r p o r t r e s u l t s in a i r c r a f t d e l a y s , thereby i nduc ing h i gher c o s t s f o r both the passengers and the a i r l i n e s . As these de l ay s p e r s i s t , the p r o v i n c e as a whole w i l l l o s e p o t e n t i a l economic investment as people and companies w i l l a v o i d the congested a i r p o r t . As a i r t r a f f i c l e v e l s and conge s t i on r i s e s , the environment w i l l be f u r t h e r contaminated wh i le n a t u r a l h a b i t a t s w i l l con t inue to be d i s r u p t e d and d i s p l a c e d . Hence, everyone l o s e s . In i t s f i r s t decades of e x i s t e n c e , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e d v a r i o u s forms of expans ion and enhancement of i t s f a c i l i t i e s when a i r t r a f f i c l e v e l s at the a i r p o r t warranted i t . S i nce the 1960 ' s , no s u b s t a n t i a l expans ion program been implemented. T h i s i s not to say that expans ion has not been c o n s i d e r e d . Proposed expans ion to the s i t e - i n the form of a t h i r d runway - has been d i s c u s s e d f o r n e a r l y t h i r t y y e a r s . For v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l , e n v i r o n m e n t a l , and economica l reasons , c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s t h i r d runway has been c o n s t a n t l y postponed. Conges t ion at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l has now reached l e v e l s which r e q u i r e the a i r p o r t to expand in o rder to remain an important and e f f i c i e n t component in the Canadian a i r p o r t system. The time has come to b u i l d t h i s t h i r d runway at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l as the e x i s t i n g i n f r a s t r u c t u r e has reached i t s c a p a c i t y l i m i t . The a d d i t i o n of a t h i r d runway w i l l no doubt r e l i e v e present and f u t u r e conge s t i on problems at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . A v a i l a b l e space on Sea I s l and ( l o c a t i o n of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l ) i s l i m i t e d . There i s on ly enough room for an a d d i t i o n a l runway. F u r t h e r expans ion by way of a f o u r t h runway i s i m p o s s i b l e . I f p re sen t a v i a t i o n t rends con t inue and a i r l i n e i n d u s t r y f o r e c a s t s are a c c u r a t e , the a d d i t i o n of a t h i r d runway w i l l on ly rep re sen t a s h o r t - t e r m " b a n d - a i d " s o l u t i o n to the f a r more s e r i o u s l ong - te rm problem of a i r p o r t c o n g e s t i o n . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l can p l a y a p i v o t a l r o l e in Canada 's f u t u r e economic development g i ven Vancouver ' s s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n w i th r e spec t to the P a c i f i c Rim. In o rder f o r Canada to reap the p o t e n t i a l economic w i n d f a l l i n t h i s c o n s t a n t l y growing market, Vancouver must be an e f f e c t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k between Canada and the P a c i f i c . In o ther words, Vancouver must be ab le to o f f e r a p r o d u c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t a i r p o r t system. Without such an a i r p o r t system, Vancouver ' s economic growth w i l l s tagnate and the a i r p o r t w i l l become a major hand icap to the c i t y , p r o v i n c e and c o u n t r y . In o rder to ensure the f u t u r e economic s t r e n g t h and w e l l -be ing of Vancouver and the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , p l anner s must be ready to look beyond the s h o r t - t e r m s o l u t i o n s and i n s t e a d p l an f o r the l o n g - t e r m . A i r p o r t p l anner s must be prepared to deve lop an a i r p o r t system i n the Lower Ma in land which w i l l be a b l e to s a t i s f y the needs of the l o c a l c i t i z e n s and the count ry i t s e l f well into the 21st Century. Now i s the time to give careful consideration to developing a multiple airport system in the Lower Mainland. This i s not to say that a second international-sized airport s i t e should be developed now or even in the next several years, but thoughtful preliminary planning must begin soon. An airport cannot be b u i l t overnight. It can take up to a decade before a new airport i s f u l l y operational. This time span does not even include the time required to locate a new s i t e , develop the necessary infrastructure and consult with the public and private sectors. Therefore i t i s necessary to begin preliminary planning of a multiple airport system soon in order to ensure that, i f and when a second airport i s required, a e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e airport system can be implemented. 1.1 Purpose and Scope The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to examine the need for the preliminary planning for the development of a multiple airport system in the Lower Mainland. A multiple airport system refers to an a i r transportation system in which there i s more than one airport serving mainline commercial a i r t r a f f i c for a metropolitan area. In the case of the Lower Mainland, a multiple airport system would involve Vancouver International operating in conjunction with a second international-sized commercial a i r p o r t , both s e r v i n g a i r c a r r i e r s and cargo o p e r a t i o n s . Seve ra l sma l l e r a i r p o r t s would serve gene ra l a v i a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l ana l yze in d e t a i l four s p e c i f i c a spec t s f a c i n g p l anne r s when d e v e l o p i n g a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system: 1 . Why shou ld a second a i r p o r t s i t e be p lanned fo r and developed? In o ther words, what j u s t i f i e s the d e c i s i o n to b u i l d a second commercia l a i r p o r t i n s t e a d of expanding p resent f a c i l i t i e s ? 2. When shou ld t h i s second a i r p o r t s i t e be p lanned and developed? Can p l anne r s a f f o r d to wait u n t i l conges t i on problems f o r c e the c r e a t i o n of a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system? 3. Where shou ld t h i s second s i t e be l o ca ted ? Is there a l o c a t i o n p r e s e n t l y used as an a i r p o r t which can be expanded or i s t he re a s u f f i c i e n t amount of , undeveloped l and a v a i l a b l e to b u i l d a new a i r p o r t ? 4. How w i l l t h i s second s i t e be developed? In o ther words, how w i l l the a i r l i n e o p e r a t i o n s be i n t e g r a t e d between the two a i r p o r t s and how w i l l t h i s a f f e c t both the passengers and the a i r l i n e s ? I t i s important to note that i t i s not the e x p l i c i t purpose of t h i s t h e s i s to dec i de on the best l o c a t i o n f o r a second commercia l a i r p o r t in the Lower Ma in l and . A l though the q u e s t i o n of l o c a t i o n w i l l be d e a l t w i th in t h i s paper , the time and re sou rce s r e q u i r e d f o r such an under tak ing are not p o s s i b l e w i t h i n the framework of t h i s paper . Sugges t ions of s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s w i l l be o f f e r e d . 6 C e r t a i n assumptions or premises are taken i n t o account in p r e s e n t i n g t h i s p r o p o s a l : * A i r t r a f f i c at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l w i l l con t inue to grow at p resent or h i gher r a t e s . * A s u i t a b l e second s i t e f o r a commercia l a i r p o r t in the Lower Ma in land i s p o s s i b l e . * P resent commercia l a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s on Sea I s l and have reached or w i l l soon reach c a p a c i t y . * The c u r r e n t s u r f a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e su r round ing the present a i r p o r t s i t e has reached or i s near c a p a c i t y . Moreover, t h i s i n f r a s t r u c t u r e cannot be e a s i l y a d j u s t e d or expanded to e f f e c t i v e l y meet i n c r e a s e d ground t r a f f i c volumes due to h e a v i e r a i r t r a f f i c volumes r e s u l t i n g from added c a p a c i t y at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . A l though t h i s paper focuses on the a i r p o r t system i n the Lower Ma in l and , r e f e r e n c e s w i l l be made to n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r p o r t systems. Comparing Vancouve r ' s a i r p o r t system to that of London ' s or New Y o r k ' s i s l i k e . c o m p a r i n g n i gh t and day as t h e i r l o c a t i o n , s i z e , and p o p u l a t i o n base are v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t . Important l e s sons can be l e a r n t about m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t systems and how to implement such a system in the Lower Ma in land by u s i ng examples from o ther reg ions of the wor l d . The main p r i n c i p l e s of a i r p o r t p l ann ing w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d w i t h i n the framework of t h i s paper . These p r i n c i p l e s can be 7 summarized as f o l l o w s : 1. RECOGNITION OF NEED - P l anner s must r ecogn i ze the need at a t ime s u f f i c i e n t l y in advance of t h i s need to permit the o r d e r l y development of f a c i l i t i e s . 2 . STATISTICS AND FORECASTS - A c r u c i a l element in the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of need fo r an a i r p o r t . Most p l a n n i n g d e c i s i o n s in a i r p o r t development are based on s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and f o r e c a s t i n g . 3. EXAMINATION OF ALTERNATIVES - At t h i s stage in a i r p o r t p l a n n i n g , i t i s important fo r p l anner s to as sess requ i rements and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to the c u r r e n t a i r p o r t s i t u a t i o n . In o ther words, do you expand the present s i t e or deve lop a new s i t e ? 4. SITE SELECTION - A c r i t i c a l f a c t o r in the p o t e n t i a l success of a new a i r p o r t . S e l e c t i o n of a new s i t e w i l l depend on: * a v a i l a b i l i t y of l and * t e r r a i n and m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s * acces s to s u r f a c e t r a n s p o r t * env i ronmenta l concerns * e f f e c t on a i r s p a c e 5. LAND ACQUISITION - T h i s i n v o l v e s the s e c u r i n g of an agreed upon s i t e in o rder to prevent u n d e s i r a b l e l and s p e c u l a t i o n . 6. DEVELOPMENT PLAN - Having dec ided to b u i l d a new a i r p o r t and where to b u i l d i t , a i r p o r t p l anner s must then determine what and how much to b u i l d . 7. CONSULTATIVE PROCESS - A i r p o r t p l anner s must p r o v i d e a forum fo r c o n s u l t a t i o n on a l l important a i r p o r t p l a n n i n g ma t te r s . P a r t i e s i n v o l v e d in t h i s p roces s would i n c l u d e : the a i r l i n e s , the genera l p u b l i c , and a i r t r a n s p o r t o r i e n t e d i n d u s t r i e s . 8 . PASSENGER TERMINAL CONSIDERATIONS - T h i s p l ann ing i n v o l v e s the l e v e l of s e r v i c e at the new t e r m i n a l , the des i gn of the t e r m i n a l , and the o p e r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . 9. AIRPORT OPERATIONS PLANNING - A i r p o r t o p e r a t i o n s p l a n n i n g i n v o l v e s e v a l u a t i n g o p e r a t i n g concept s and management systems. T h i s i n c l u d e s manpower needs, co s t recovery and r e l a t e d f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g , and l e a s i n g and market ing a c t i v i t i e s . As ment ioned, these p r i n c i p l e s of a i r p o r t p l ann ing w i l l be d i s c u s s e d wi th re spec t to the c u r r e n t and p o s s i b l e f u t u r e a i r p o r t system in the Lower Ma in l and . I t i s important to note that these p r i n c i p l e s w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d i n the above o r d e r , but w i l l be d e a l t w i th throughout the contex t of t h i s paper . F i n a l l y , there are many e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s which can a f f e c t the demand at an a i r p o r t . These e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s i n c l ude the p o p u l a t i o n growth r a t e s of the r e g i o n , the demographic compos i t i on of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n , the economic c l i m a t e in a r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i nnova t i ons in the a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y . A l though these f a c t o r s a re when p l ann ing a i r p o r t systems f o r a r eg i on such as the Lower Ma in l and , they w i l l not be d e a l t d i r e c t l y w i t h i n the framework of t h i s paper . Each of these f a c t o r s a lone c o u l d warrant a r e p o r t of t h i s s i z e . 9 1.2 O r g a n i z a t i o n The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the t h e s i s i s as f o l l o w s : Chapter Two summarizes the p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n a i r p o r t p l ann ing s t r a t e g i e s and a i r p o r t systems. T h i s chapter w i l l focus on d e f i n i n g what c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a good a i r p o r t i s composed of and what e lements must be taken i n t o account when p l a n n i n g fo r the development or expans ion of an a i r p o r t f a c i l i t y . The d i f f e r e n c e s between s i n g l e and m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t systems, i n c l u d i n g the advantages and d i sadvantages of each system, w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d a long w i th the f a c t o r s which h e l p to determine which system i s best s u i t e d fo r a p a r t i c u l a r r e g i o n . Chapter Three d i s c u s s e s recent t rends in the a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y on a r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c a l e . An a i r p o r t i s not s o l e l y a f f e c t e d by l o c a l or r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l a v i a t i o n t rends and d e c i s i o n s can h e a v i l y impact the o p e r a t i o n s of an a i r p o r t . D i s c u s s i o n w i l l focus on passenger volumes, a i r c r a f t types and s i z e s , and events such as d e r e g u l a t i o n and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a p o s s i b l e "Open S k i e s " p o l i c y - a l l of which have had major impacts on a i r p o r t p l a n n i n g s t r a t e g i e s and a i r p o r t systems i n Canada. Chapter Four d i s c u s s e s a i r p o r t p l ann ing and development in B r i t i s h Co lumbia . I t i s important to understand the present a i r p o r t system in e x i s t e n c e in the Lower Ma in land in order to b e t t e r understand the argument fo r a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system in t h i s r e g i o n . T h i s chapter w i l l s p e c i f i c a l l y focus on the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , i n c l u d i n g t r a f f i c types and volumes, and w i l l a l s o present c u r r e n t and proposed a i r p o r t s t r a t e g i e s to r e l i e v e a i r p o r t conge s t i on at t h i s a i r p o r t . Chapter F i v e d e t a i l s the concept of a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system in the Lower Ma in land . T h i s chapter p re sen t s the f a c t o r s and elements i n v o l v e d in p l ann ing and d e v e l o p i n g t h i s form of an a i r p o r t system in the Lower Ma in l and . S p e c i f i c a l l y , que s t i on s as to why such an a i r p o r t system shou ld be implemented, when a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system shou ld be deve loped , how o p e r a t i o n s would be s p l i t between the f a c i l i t i e s and where a second a i r p o r t would be l o c a t e d , w i l l a l l be d i s c u s s e d . Chapter S ix summarizes the arguments o f f e r e d in support of a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system in the Lower Ma in land and proposes which s teps shou ld be taken now in o rder to ensure that the implementat ion of such an a i r p o r t system i s preformed at the a p p r o p r i a t e time and in proper c o n j u n c t i o n w i th the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . 2.0 OVERVIEW OF AIRPORT PLANNING STRATEGIES AND AIRPORT SYSTEMS 2.1 Introduction The primary function of an airport is to f a c i l i t a t e the movement of both passengers and cargo by a i r . As part of a larger l o g i s t i c a l system, an airport allows for the e f f i c i e n t flow of goods and people both to and from a region. An airport also acts as a transfer node between two regions. Moreover, an airport allows for the transfer of passengers and cargo from one mode of transport (aviation) to another (surface transport). An airport is a v i t a l component of a national or international a i r transportation system and as such, i s an important transportation and communications l i n k , helping to ensure the e f f e c t i v e movement of people, goods, and services. Airports do not solely a f f e c t transportation; airports have a great impact on most facets of urban l i f e . Airports represent the largest land users on the urban periphery. At one point, Mirabel International Airport was roughly twice the size of the c i t y of Montreal. The surface area of the Dallas/Fort Worth Airport i s larger than Manhattan Island while Charles de Gaulle Airport is nearly one-third the size of a l l of P a r i s . 1 Feldman, E l l i o t . The P o l i t i c s of Canadian Airport  Development. Durham: Duke Press Policy Studies, 1983, p. 12. Opera t i ons of t h i s magnitude can have both p o s i t i v e and nega t i ve impacts . A i r p o r t s represent a s t rong source of p o t e n t i a l economic b e n e f i t s i n such areas as employment and c a p i t a l inves tment . In the case of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , the a i r p o r t generates n e a r l y 3 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s a year in economic output 2 wh i le d i r e c t l y employing or s u s t a i n i n g 45,000 j o b s . The urban environment su r round ing the p e r i p h e r y of a i r p o r t s can be seen both as an economic b e n e f i t and as a s o c i a l a i l m e n t . The C i t y of Richmond, which surrounds V a n c o u v e r . I n t e r n a t i o n a l , e s t ima te s that the economic impact of the a i r p o r t on t h i s community in 1987 amounted to 423 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ( t o t a l d i r e c t , i n d i r e c t and induced) wh i le 35% of a l l jobs c r e a t e d by the 3 a i r p o r t are s i t u a t e d in Richmond. A i r p o r t s can a l s o have nega t i ve impacts on the c h a r a c t e r of ad jacen t communit ies and can a l t e r the everyday l i f e s t y l e of i t s c i t i z e n s . Problems such as a i r and no i se p o l l u t i o n i r r i t a t e r e s i d e n t s and can make a common ac t of l i f e such as t a l k i n g and l i s t e n i n g a d i f f i c u l t t a s k . Increased t r a f f i c conge s t i on not on l y generates more n o i s e and a i r p o l l u t i o n , but a l s o makes the s t r e e t s more dangerous f o r c h i l d r e n and p e t s . Other elements such as d e c r e a s i n g r e a l e s t a t e v a l u e s , water p o l l u t i o n , and d i s r u p t e d 2 T ranspor t Canada. The Economic Impact of Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . TP 9820 (Vancouver, 1989). 3 . . . Ba l anc ing Richmond's V i s i o n s ; Community Development and A i r p o r t No ise M i t i g a t i o n . F i n a l r e p o r t p repared by Hor i zon P a c i f i c Ventures L i m i t e d f o r the Richmond Chamber of Commerce, January , 1991, p. 5. w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t s a l l h e l p to d e t e r i o r a t e the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n neighbourhoods surrounding an a i r p o r t . Each i n d i v i d u a l may have a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e of an a i r p o r t . P o l i t i c a l and community l e a d e r s see an a i r p o r t as an important gateway to the country, an important source of revenue and job c r e a t i o n , and a major component of growth and p r o s p e r i t y . The a i r l i n e s see the a i r p o r t as a c r i t i c a l (and o b v i o u s l y necessary) element i n t h e i r b u s i n e s s . Persons l i v i n g near the a i r p o r t may see i t as a major f o r c e i n t h e i r economy, a necessary e v i l , or i n some cases, a continuous i r r i t a n t . For the a i r t r a v e l l e r , h i s p e r s p e c t i v e i s e s s e n t i a l l y based on convenience. For example, how easy i s i t to get to the a i r p o r t ? Are f l i g h t s c o n s t a n t l y delayed? Is p a r k i n g convenient and e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e ? Although there i s a l a r g e degree of v a r i a n c e in the p e r s p e c t i v e s on an a i r p o r t , these f a c i l i t i e s can be judged on 4 c e r t a i n b a s i c and o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a : * Design should be a e s t h e t i c and f u n c t i o n a l . * Access to and from f a c i l i t y should be convenient and s u f f i c i e n t to handle c u r r e n t and f u t u r e t r a f f i c demand. * F a c i l i t y should be s a f e and e f f i c i e n t . * A i r p o r t should be responsive to f u t u r e needs d i c t a t e d by growth and be s e n s i t i v e to community needs and the needs of i t s surrounding neighbors. 4 . . . . Robart, C a r l . " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a Good A i r p o r t , " i n C r i s i s : Puget Sound A i r p o r t S a t u r a t i o n . Regional A v i a t i o n Task Force, 1990. An a i r p o r t which responds p o s i t i v e l y to t h i s c r i t e r i a would have to be c o n s i d e r e d a "good" a i r p o r t . In other words, both e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e . In most i n s t a n c e s , t h i s i s not the case. Therefore a i r p o r t p l a n n i n g and development i s a h i g h l y complicated and c o n t r o v e r s i a l task. I t i s very u n l i k e l y that an a i r p o r t w i l l s u i t or please everyone a f f e c t e d by i t s o p e r a t i o n s . If c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s and p r e c a u t i o n s are taken i n t o account, an a i r p o r t w i l l be able to operate with a minimum amount of c r i t i c i s m or concern. 2.2 A i r p o r t Development In g e n e r a l , there are four major d e c i s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with a i r p o r t development, a l l of which are i n f l u e n c e d by v a r i o u s t e c h n o l o g i c a l , economic and l e g a l f a c t o r s . These d e c i s i o n s 5 a r e : 1. Whether to b u i l d a d d i t i o n a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e . 2. P e r c e i v e d a l t e r n a t i v e responses to demand (between expanding e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and the development of a new a i r p o r t ) . 3. S i t e l o c a t i o n of new a i r f a c i l i t i e s . 4. Procedures and t i m i n g f o r s i t e a c q u i s i t i o n . 5 Feldman, E l l i o t . The P o l i t i c s of Canadian A i r p o r t  Development. Durham: Duke Press P o l i c y S t u d i e s , 1983, p. 14. With in each d e c i s i o n , v a r i o u s assumptions and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be made. Past a i r p o r t development has shown that some of these d e c i s i o n s have been compromised or n e g l e c t e d through poor p l a n n i n g . Commercial a v i a t i o n f o r e c a s t i n g i s d i f f i c u l t as major d e c i s i o n s are based on i n f o rma t i on which, in most c a se s , can be very q u e s t i o n a b l e . The poor r e l i a b i l i t y of commercia l a v i a t i o n f o r e c a s t i n g i s due in pa r t to the wide range of c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s which c o n t i n u e to expand wh i l e the p l anner s a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l them appears to be d i m i n i s h i n g . For example, d u r i n g economic growth, i t i s sa fe to assume there w i l l be a co r re spond ing growth in the a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y . But the wor ld economy i s not commanded by t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n e r s . A i r p o r t p l anner s w i l l j u s t i f y expans ion by p r o j e c t i n g t r a f f i c growth which exceeds c a p a c i t y . There are c e r t a i n assumptions made by p l anner s wi th regard to j u s t i f y i n g expans ion . F i r s t , when a i r p o r t p l anner s dec i de that f u t u r e demand w i l l exceed the c a p a c i t y of a f a c i l i t y , they have done so by c a l c u l a t i n g the c a p a c i t y of the f a c i l i t y - a c a l c u l a t i o n which in i t s e l f i s based on c e r t a i n as sumpt ions . Capac i t y i s c a l c u l a t e d f o r the worst case s c e n a r i o . In o ther words, the t ime of the day, week, and year when the a i r p o r t i s under i t s g r e a t e s t demand. In many c a s e s , these f a c i l i t i e s may be u n d e r - u t i l i z e d throughout most of the year yet p l anne r s do not attempt to so l ve t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y by l i m i t i n g peak demand. I t i s r a re f o r a i r p o r t p l anne r s to l i m i t peak hour demand ( i n some cases by s h i f t i n g t r a f f i c or moving non-commercia l a i r c r a f t ) and hence these p l anner s assume that p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s such as a i r p o r t s are open to everyone and f u n c t i o n wi th a minimum amount of o p e r a t i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s . The d e c i s i o n to expand an e x i s t i n g s i t e or c r e a t i n g a new f a c i l i t y i s u s u a l l y dominated by economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . It i s s a fe to say that a new a i r p o r t can be b u i l t in v i r t u a l l y any reg i on of Canada, however, the i n c r e d i b l y h i gh c o s t s of such a venture o f t e n p r o h i b i t i t . With such a p o t e n t i a l l y expens ive d e c i s i o n , c a r e f u l c a l c u l a t i o n s must be preformed in order to f u l l y r ecogn i ze the economic f e a s i b i l i t y of expanding a present s i t e (which in many cases may a l r e a d y be f e e l i n g the e f f e c t s of urban encroachment) or d e v e l o p i n g a new and l e s s r e s t r i c t e d s i t e . These economic c a l c u l a t i o n s , l i k e t r a f f i c f o r e c a s t i n g , are based on c e r t a i n assumpt ions . P l anner s f r e q u e n t l y do not i n c l ude i n d i r e c t c o s t s such as no i se and p o l l u t i o n - which a f f e c t the su r round ing neighbourhoods - as p e r t i n e n t economic c r i t e r i a when making the c h o i c e . P l anner s a l s o tend to be shor t s i g h t e d in t h e i r economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In the shor t term, expans ion of p re sen t f a c i l i t i e s may seem e c o n o m i c a l l y b e n e f i c i a l yet long term f o r e c a s t s may i n d i c a t e the need f o r the development of a new l o c a t i o n . There a re many v a r i o u s t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which are r e q u i r e d when d e c i d i n g on the l o c a t i o n of a new s i t e . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e topography, m e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s , the su r round ing urban and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to a i r t r a n s p o r t requirements, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of l a n d . ^ Given past experiences, these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s are not n e c e s s a r i l y given s u f f i c i e n t importance. The Ch a r l e s de G a u l l e A i r p o r t i n P a r i s i s plagued by fog while Chicago's Midway A i r p o r t and Washington's N a t i o n a l A i r p o r t are surrounded by 7 homes. Many of the world's l a r g e r and b u s i e r a i r p o r t s appear to have been l o c a t e d f o r reasons based on other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s rather than t e c h n i c a l ones. 2.3 A i r p o r t Systems There are two b a s i c a i r p o r t systems i n o p e r a t i o n today: the s i n g l e a i r p o r t system and the m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system. Which system i s implemented w i l l depend on v a r i o u s f a c t o r s - a l l of which w i l l be d i f f e r e n t f o r e a c h ' c i t y . These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e demand, l o c a t i o n , atmospheric c o n d i t i o n s , the topography of the re g i o n , and f a c i l i t y c a p a b i l i t y . 6 I b i d , p. 19. 7 I b i d , p. 19. 18 A. The S i n g l e A i r p o r t A s i n g l e a i r p o r t (and i t s a i r l i n e s ) s e r v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c i t y w i l l be competing with other modes of t r a n s p o r t . The t r a f f i c t h i s a i r p o r t and i t s a i r l i n e s w i l l generate depends on the comparative advantages they can provide as compared to the other modes of t r a n s p o r t . In t h i s case, the a i r p o r t ' s advantage i n o f f e r i n g high speed t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s o f f s e t by the g e n e r a l l y higher c o s t of t h i s s e r v i c e . A i r p o r t s and a i r l i n e s i n general w i l l capture p r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the long d i s t a n c e t r i p market. The high speed of a i r c r a f t w i l l save the passenger t r a v e l time and consequently t r a v e l expenses ( l o d g i n g and meals). A i r p o r t s t r y to e n t i c e passengers by o f f e r i n g new, comprehensive, and e f f i c i e n t t e r m i n a l s e r v i c e . Any a d d i t i o n s or up-grading of these f a c i l i t i e s w i l l probably l e a d to i n c r e a s e d c o s t s to the passenger s i n c e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s can be passed on to a i r p o r t users through i n c r e a s e d parking fees or d i r e c t l y through f a r e i n c r e a s e s due to higher charges f o r a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i o n s . The l o c a t i o n of the a i r p o r t w i l l have a d i r e c t impact on the l e v e l of a i r t r a f f i c . C i t i e s l i k e to keep a i r p o r t s as d i s t a n t as p o s s i b l e due to noise and p o l l u t i o n concerns. Hence when new a i r p o r t s are b u i l t to r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , they are l o c a t e d at a much g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e from the c i t y as compared to the o l d l o c a t i o n . A i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n at these d i s t a n t a i r p o r t s tend to be r e l a t i v e l y l e s s a t t r a c t i v e as compared to other modes of transport, especially with respect to short distance t r i p s . Remote airports w i l l usually require some form of high-speed ground link' to the c i t y centre, thereby adding to the overall cost of the development of such an a i r p o r t . B. Multiple Airports i As airports become congested, planners and developers attempt to increase capacity by expanding the existing f a c i l i t i e s . This i s not always possible. If expansion i s d i f f i c u l t or impossible, planners look toward the development of a new airport and thus creation of a multiple airport system. Under this system, one or more s a t e l l i t e airports w i l l be associated with the main airport serving a p a r t i c u l a r metropolitan area. Multiple airports serving one c i t y are becoming more common in the world's airport system. In 1989, eight of the world's top twenty destinations (based on passenger and freight movement figures) operated with multiple Q a i r p o r t systems, including the top f i v e . Although the creation of a multiple airport system may solve the problem of a i r and surface congestion, other d i f f i c u l t i e s are encountered. The question of how to s p l i t the t r a f f i c between s a t e l l i t e a i r p o r t s and the primary airport i s very important. In many urban centres, general aviation and pleasure f l i g h t s operate out of s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t i e s created for th i s purpose. Thus, i t i s more Aeroports de Paris. 1989 Annual Report. Paris: Department of Corporate Communication, 1989, p. 6. important to focus on commercial t r a f f i c . In order to do so, the behaviour of both the a i r l i n e s and passengers must be analyzed. I t i s a common assumption that t r a f f i c at an a i r p o r t depends on the a i r p o r t ' s a b i l i t y to i n f l u e n c e i t s "catchment area". T h i s catchment area r e f e r s to the p a r t i c u l a r t e r r i t o r y surrounding the a i r p o r t f o r which t h i s f a c i l i t y s e r v e s . C e r t a i n s t u d i e s have shown that a i r p o r t s do not have to depend p r i m a r i l y on t h e i r catchment a r e a . A n a l y s i s has shown that people may d e l i b e r a t e l y a v o i d the c l o s e r a i r p o r t and i n s t e a d use a l a r g e r and b u s i e r , -although more d i s t a n t - f a c i l i t y . T h i s phenomenon w i l l u s u a l l y occur when the more d i s t a n t a i r p o r t can o f f e r more e f f i c i e n t s e r v i c e with respect to the number of f l i g h t s o f f e r e d to a c e r t a i n d e s t i n a t i o n and b e t t e r t e r m i n a l s e r v i c e s . The frequency of a i r l i n e f l i g h t s p l a y s an important r o l e i n d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g which f a c i l i t y to use. The g r e a t e r the number of f l i g h t s to a c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n that an a i r p o r t can o f f e r w i l l l i k e l y mean more convenient d e p a r t u r e s , and hence more a t t r a c t i v e s e r v i c e to the o r i g i n a t i n g passenger. Moreover, a connecting passenger using a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system w i l l l i k e l y use the a i r p o r t with g r e a t e r s e r v i c e s i n c e t h i s f a c i l i t y w i l l o f f e r more p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t r a n s f e r r i n g to co n n e c t i o n s . I t i s important to note that not a l l passengers are concerned with frequency. Passengers using c h a r t e r o p e r a t i o n s w i l l not be concerned with frequency as there i s only one departure time. A survey i n C l e v e l a n d showed that over h a l f the a i r t r a v e l l e r s from Akron (with a population well over 400,000 at the time of the survey) w i l l drive 25 miles beyond Akron's airport to g use the f a c i l i t i e s at Cleveland. In general, data indicates that more distant s a t e l l i t e airports w i l l generally attract approximately 1/4 of their passengers from their catchment area. 1^ Therefore, i t i s important for a second airport to be a t t r a c t i v e to potential users outside of the airport's catchment area in order to be e f f e c t i v e . S a t e l l i t e airports are considered an economic handicap by many a i r l i n e s due to their lack of attractiveness to passengers. Furthermore, a i r l i n e s are strapped with added costs by having to double their operations, s t a f f , and equipment. Thus, ' many a i r l i n e s prefer to concentrate their services at the main metropolitan a i r p o r t . Studies have shown that s a t e l l i t e airports may only generate 10% of a metropolitan's t o t a l a i r c r a f t t r a f f i c . 1 1 Hence p o l i c i e s are often implemented in which airports in a multiple airport system cater to s p e c i f i c markets. In New York, La Guardia caters to domestic f l i g h t s while Kennedy serves the international market. The same can be said for multiple airport systems operating in c i t i e s such as Montreal, Paris, and Chicago. Airport planners must be prepared to accept the fact that a i r l i n e s are unlikely to offer to divide their services 9 N e u f v i l l e , Richard. Airport Systems Planning. Toronto: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1976, p. 68. 1 0 Ibid, p. 71. 1 1 Ibid, p. 71. between two or more a i r p o r t s . One way of easing t h i s problem i s fo r each a i r p o r t to serve a c e r t a i n designated sector of a i r t r a f f i c . In order to ensure a proper d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a f f i c between a i r p o r t s , governments and planners have be known to implement c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the F e d e r a l Government has implemented a quota on the t o t a l number of op e r a t i o n s that can use a c e r t a i n a i r p o r t , as i s the case i n New York and Chicago. In B r i t a i n , c e r t a i n a i r l i n e s are a u t h o r i z e d to use a p a r t i c u l a r a i r p o r t . For Canadian c a r r i e r s s e r v i n g London, A i r Canada i s a u t h o r i z e d to use Heathrow A i r p o r t while Canadian I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s a u t h o r i z e d to use Gatwick A i r p o r t . Planning f o r m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t s i s a complicated process, r e q u i r i n g great c o n s i d e r a t i o n to a l l f a c e t s of the a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y . Planning f o r second a i r p o r t s i s not simply a matter of o r g a n i z i n g t r a f f i c s e p a r a t i o n between the two a i r p o r t s . Operations at each a i r p o r t must be planned with respect to the s e r v i c e that i t w i l l p r ovide to the e n t i r e a i r p o r t system i n i t s reg i o n and the a v i a t i o n system nation-wide. 23 3.0 RECENT TRENDS IN THE AVIATION INDUSTRY 3.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Before d i s c u s s i n g a s p e c i f i c a i r p o r t system such as tha t in the Lower Ma in l and , i t i s important to ana lyze the a i r l i n e i n d u s t r y as a whole. An a i r p o r t such Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s not a f f e c t e d s o l e l y by f a c t o r s in the sur round ing r e g i o n , but i s a f f e c t e d by many f a c t o r s on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c a l e . Recent t rends and events in the a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y , such as new a i r c r a f t t ypes , i n c r e a s i n g passenger volumes, the advent of d e r e g u l a t i o n , and the growing i n t e r e s t in "Open S k i e s " , have brought about unpre -cedented growth and changes in t h i s i n d u s t r y . A i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n has become a very popu lar and e f f i c i e n t way to t r a v e l and f o r e c a s t s i n d i c a t e that t h i s p o p u l a r i t y w i l l c o n t i n u e . As t h i s p o p u l a r i t y has grown, so has the t r a f f i c at a i r p o r t s around the wor l d . A i r p o r t s are becoming more and more congested as more peop le are f l y i n g and as more a i r c r a f t and a i r l i n e s a re o p e r a t i n g . Recent s t a t i s t i c s in the a v i a t i o n i n d u s t r y i n d i c a t e that p resent conge s t i on l e v e l s at a i r p o r t s i s not a temporary phenomena and that overcrowding w i l l con t inue to p lague many of the w o r l d ' s b u s i e r and more important a i r p o r t s . 24 3.2 Passenger Volumes World a i r t r a f f i c has grown s t e a d i l y over the past decade. In 1989, the a i r l i n e s of the 162 member c o u n t r i e s of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i v i l A v i a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n (ICAO) f lew 1,797 b i l l i o n p a s s e n g e r s - k i l o m e t e r s , an i n c r e a s e ' o f 5% from 1988. 1 The t o t a l number of passengers c a r r i e d was over 1 b i l l i o n f o r the t h i r d s t r a i g h t year and i n c r e a s e d by 3% from 1988. A s i m i l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n to ICAO, the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r T ran spor t A s s o c i a t i o n (IATA) expects o v e r a l l growth f o r a i r t r a v e l i n 1990 to be 8% and w i l l c on t i nue to grow at a r a t e of 6.5% over the next f i v e y e a r s . The f a s t e s t growing reg i on w i l l con t inue to be the Far E a s t , wi th annual growth e s t ima ted at 9.9% fo r Nor theas t A s i a and 8.8% fo r 2 Southeast A s i a through to 1994. The e s t imate f o r North American t r a v e l f o r t h i s same time p e r i o d i s an annual r a t e of 6.8%, wh i le 3 Europe w i l l show a growth r a t e of 6.2%. S t a t i s t i c s f o r Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s show the same s u b s t a n t i a l growth as tha t of the wor ld market. In Canada, the number of passengers t r a v e l l i n g by a i r has more than doubled 1 A e r o p o r t s De P a r i s . 1989 Annual Repor t . P a r i s : Department of Corpora te Communicat ions, 1989, p. 5. 2 I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r T r a n s p o r t A s s o c i a t i o n . Annual Report  1990. Geneva, 1990, p. 8. I t i s important to note that these e s t ima te s were made be fo re the M idd le East c r i s i s (Gul f War) and the c u r r e n t economic r e c e s s i o n that most c o u n t r i e s have been e x p e r i e n c i n g s i n c e 1990. I t i s l i k e l y tha t the 1990 e s t ima te s w i l l be h i gher than the a c t u a l r a te due to t h i s c r i s i s and due to the p resent economic c o n d i t i o n s . s i n c e 1970 whi le the number of passengers t r a v e l l i n g by a i r in the U n i t e d S t a te s has almost t r i p l e d s i n ce 1970. In Canada in 1988, p a s s e n g e r - k i l o m e t e r s i n c r e a s e d by 16% from 1987 whi le there was an 18% i n c r e a s e in t a k e o f f s and l a n d i n g s . Between 1984 and 1988, the t o t a l number of passengers u s ing Canadian a i r p o r t s i n c r e a s e d by 24%. I t i s e s t ima ted that by the year 2000, over 25 m i l l i o n passengers w i l l have t r a v e l l e d by a i r i n Canada in that year wh i le over 48 m i l l i o n passengers w i l l have e i t h e r f lown in or out of the c o u n t r y . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t i s e s t imated that over 680 m i l l i o n passengers w i l l have flown w i t h i n the count ry in the year 2000 whi le over 763 m i l l i o n w i l l have f lown in or out of 4 the c o u n t r y . 3.3 A i r c r a f t T y p e \ S i z e s As would be expec ted , the growing p o p u l a r i t y and use of a i r t r a v e l i n recent year s has l e d to a co r re spond ing i n c r e a s e in the number of a i r c r a f t r e q u i r e d to s a t i s f y these demands. By the end of 1989, t he re were 9,160 j e t t r a n s p o r t s o p e r a t i n g in the wor ld , 5 4,464 of which operate in the U n i t e d S t a t e s . A n t i c i p a t e d growth in a i r t r a v e l i n d i c a t e s tha t p re sen t f l e e t s are not s u f f i c i e n t in numbers to meet p r e d i c t e d demand. Between 1990 and 2005, i t i s 4 The Boeing Company. Cur ren t Market Out look . Prepared by the Boeing A i r p l a n e Company, Februa ry , 1988. 5 The Boeing Company. World J e t I nventory . S e a t t l e , 1989. e s t i m a t e d that the w o r l d ' s a i r l i n e s and a i r cargo companies w i l l r e q u i r e an e s t ima ted 10,000 new a i r c r a f t i n order to r e p l a c e o l d e r a i r c r a f t and meet a n t i c i p a t e d growth. As the s i z e of a i r l i n e f l e e t s c o n t i n u e s to grow, a i r p o r t s w i l l s u f f e r i n c r e a s e d c o n g e s t i o n due to the l a r g e r numbers of a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i n g . There are s e v e r a l m i s concep t i on s about the s t a t u s of the w o r l d ' s a i r c r a f t f l e e t . F i r s t l y , a l though new a i r c r a f t p r e s e n t l y be ing b u i l t or be ing deve loped a re i n many cases l a r g e r than t h e i r p re sen t c o u n t e r p a r t s , the d i f f e r e n c e in c a p a c i t y i s not tha t s u b s t a n t i a l . F I G U R E 1 C O M M E R C I A L J E T A I R P L A N E S Boe inn Committed Products 737-300/-400/-500 757-200/ER/PF/Combi » 767-200/-200ER/-300/-300ER 747-2007-200 Convertible/ -200SR/-200 Freighter 747-300/-300 Cornbi 747-400/-400 Combi McDonne l l Doug las MOB0 Series DC10-30/MD 11 Ai rbus A320 A310 A300-600/-600R A330/A340 Fokker F-23 F-100 . Brit ish Ae ro space 146-100/-200/300 Products in Development/Study Boe ing 7J7 and Derivatives 757 Freighter/Convertible 7C7 Stretch/Main Deck Freight 747-200F/747 Advanced Studies McDonne l l Doug las MD-91X MD-92X Ai rbus s^=enr=ar» A320 Stretch S o u r c e : The Boeing Company. Cur rent Market Out look . P repared by the Boeing A i r p l a n e Company, February 1988. In o ther words, we w i l l not be see ing a i r c r a f t c a r r y i n g a thousand passengers l a n d i n g at our a i r p o r t s in the near f u t u r e and probab ly not u n t i l w e l l i n t o the 21st Century . The development of a i r c r a f t capab le of c a r r y i n g tw ice the number of passengers as t o d a y ' s l a r ge -body a i r c r a f t can no doubt h e l p r e l i e v e conges t i on at busy a i r p o r t s as l e s s a i r c r a f t w i l l be r e q u i r e d to c a r r y the same number of passengers as today; however t h i s p o s s i b l e development can not be c o n s i d e r e d as a v i a b l e s o l u t i o n to a i r p o r t conges t i on at t h i s p o i n t in t ime. Second ly , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of new a i r c r a f t does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean the removal of o l d e r a i r c r a f t . Many a i r l i n e s which a c q u i r e new a i r c r a f t are do ing so to add to t h e i r c a p a c i t y , and not to r e p l a c e e x i s t i n g a i r c r a f t . For i n s t a n c e , American A i r l i n e s has i n c r e a s e d i t s f l e e t s i z e by 225 a i r c r a f t between 1983 and 1988 but s t i l l opera tes 164 Boeing 727 ' s (a twenty year o l d a i r c r a f t ) . ^ American A i r l i n e s on l y r e t i r e d two of these ag ing a i r c r a f t s i n c e 1983. On the wor ld s c a l e , in 1985 and 1986, on ly 45 a i r c r a f t were r e t i r e d wh i le the s i z e of the wor ld f l e e t 7 . i n c r e a s e d by 11%. Thus, as a i r l i n e s ho ld on to t h e i r o l d a i r c r a f t and con t i nue to purchase new a i r c r a f t , a i r p o r t s w i l l c o n t i n u e to get b u s i e r and consequent l y w i l l r e q u i r e more space. Even when a i r l i n e s do r e t i r e t h e i r o l d a i r c r a f t , the p lanes a re not n e c e s s a r i l y s c rapped . For i n s t a n c e , A i r Canada i s ^ F l i n t , P e r r y . " O l d p l a n e s , new money," in A i r T ranspor t  Wor ld. January , 1989, p. 131. 7 I b i d , p. 131. p r e s e n t l y phas ing out i t s o l d 727 a i r c r a f t but these a i r c r a f t are not be ing e l i m i n a t e d from the wor ld f l e e t . F e d e r a l Expre s s , an a i r cargo company, i s pu rcha s ing these a i r c r a f t and hence these p lanes w i l l s t i l l be c o n t r i b u t i n g to the i n c r e a s i n g conges t i on at a i r p o r t s . A i r l i n e s are c o n t i n u i n g to order a i r c r a f t at a very steady r a t e . The Boeing A i r c r a f t Company has r e p o r t e d a back log of over 1,700 a i r c r a f t w i th d e l i v e r i e s of new a i r c r a f t schedu led through to the year 2000. P r e s e n t l y , Boeing i s a t tempt ing to produce commercia l a i r c r a f t at a r a t e of 34 per month. In the U n i t e d S ta tes a l o n e , the two l a r g e s t a i r c a r r i e r s (American and Un i ted ) have, combined, f i r m o rder s f o r 513 a i r c r a f t w i th op t i on s to buy g rough ly another 400 a i r c r a f t . 3.4 D e r e g u l a t i o n The advent of d e r e g u l a t i o n in both Canada and the U n i t e d S t a te s has had pro found e f f e c t s on a i r p o r t s in North Amer ica . Under d e r e g u l a t i o n , a i r l i n e s a re p e r m i t t e d to set t h e i r own f a r e s and choose t h e i r own routes and the f requency of t h e i r s e r v i c e on these r o u t e s . Governments w i l l s t i l l r e g u l a t e s a f e t y and a i r 8 W i l s o n , J . "Boe ing and Douglas d i s c o v e r booms cause problems t o o , " i n I n t e r v i a Aerospace Review, August 1990. g . . Ziemba, S t a n l e y . " A i r l i n e s face the g rey ing of t h e i r f l e e t s , " i n J o u r n a l of Commerce, January , 1991. t r a f f i c c o n t r o l . D e r e g u l a t i o n has r e s u l t e d in the c r e a t i o n of new a i r l i n e s and new r o u t e s . With more routes and a i r c r a f t be ing o f f e r e d , a i r p o r t s have become i n c r e a s i n g l y conges ted . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , a i r l i n e s e r v i c e has expanded to the po in t where there are 40% more f l i g h t s now s e r v i n g w i t h i n the U.S. than p r i o r to d e r e g u l a t i o n . 1 ^ S ince a i r l i n e s are a l l owed under d e r e g u l a t i o n to set t h e i r own f a r e s , there has been i n ten se f a re c o m p e t i t i o n between a i r l i n e s and thus f a r e s are now l e s s than they would have been under r e g u l a t i o n . In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f a re s have - on average -i n c r e a s e d s i n c e d e r e g u l a t i o n but at a r a te which i s l e s s than that of i n f l a t i o n . With d e r e g u l a t i o n , a i r l i n e s a re now ab le to p r i c e d i s c r i m i n a t e and can o f f e r l a r g e d i s c o u n t s in the o f f - p e a k p e r i o d s , thereby i n c r e a s i n g the number of passengers f l y i n g in these u s u a l l y l e s s busy o f f - p e a k p e r i o d s . In 1980, the average d i s c o u n t % o f f a coach f a r e in the U n i t e d S ta te s was 43% whi le in 1988, t h i s average had reached 63%. T h e r e f o r e , due to i n c rea sed f a r e sav ing s - a d i r e c t r e s u l t of d e r e g u l a t i o n - more people are now f l y i n g who o therwi se may not have, thereby i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r a i r t r a v e l and i n c r e a s i n g conge s t i on at a i r p o r t s . D e r e g u l a t i o n he lped to i n t r o d u c e the concept of the "hub and spoke" system. In the p a s t , a i r l i n e s would g e n e r a l l y operate a l i n e a r network in which the m a j o r i t y of c i t i e s were served by d i r e c t f l i g h t s . Under the hub and spoke system, an a i r l i n e w i l l 1 ^ A i r T ran spor t A s s o c i a t i o n of Amer i ca . A i r T ranspor t 1990. The Annual Report of the U.S. Scheduled A i r l i n e s I ndu s t r y . June, 1990. des i gna te a c e r t a i n a i r p o r t as i t s "hub" wh i le the other c i t i e s in t h i s a i r l i n e ' s network w i l l be connected by " spokes " to t h i s hub. In o ther words, a "hub" i s the po in t at which va r i ou s c o n n e c t i n g " spoke" f l i g h t s are schedu led to a r r i v e and depart w i th the i n t e n t of c o n n e c t i n g both passengers and cargo to other o n - l i n e d e s t i n a t i o n s . A i r l i n e s u s ing t h i s system are ab le to i n c r e a s e depar tu re f r e q u e n c i e s , thereby i n c r e a s i n g t r a f f i c -p a r t i c u l a r l y at the hub a i r p o r t s . For Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , the a i r p o r t i s a "hub" of four separa te "hub and spoke" systems. These systems a r e : 1. L i nk s l o c a l Canadian and U.S. communit ies to the r e s t of the wor l d . 2 . Serves n a t i o n a l and t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r o u t e s . 3. A c o n n e c t i o n p o i n t to d e s t i n a t i o n s in the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 4. Serves as a r e g i o n a l hub fo r B r i t i s h Columbia ( i n c l u d i n g c o r p o r a t e a i r c r a f t ) . The use of the hub and spoke system has meant a great i n c r e a s e i n the number of sma l l e r commuter f l i g h t s s e r v i n g the communit ies sur round ing a hub. These sma l l a i r l i n e s or " p a r t n e r s " ( s u b s i d i a r i e s ) of l a r g e r a i r l i n e s can o f f e r more f requent s e r v i c e to l o c a l and r e g i o n a l d e s t i n a t i o n s ; however t h i s same f requent s e r v i c e c o n t r i b u t e s to the conge s t i on at many of the b u s i e r a i r p o r t s . 31 3 . 5 Open Sk ie s In October 1990, a v i a t i o n o f f i c i a l s and p o l i t i c i a n s from Canada and the Un i ted S t a te s began d i s c u s s i n g the c r e a t i o n of a new b i l a t e r a l commercia l a i r t r e a t y . Under t h i s new arrangement, commonly r e f e r r e d to as the "Open S k i e s " p o l i c y , a i r l i n e s from both c o u n t r i e s would be a l l owed unprecedented acces s to a l l domest ic rou te s on e i t h e r s i de of the bo rde r . Ins tead of r e q u i r i n g app rova l from both n a t i o n s , a i r l i n e s w i l l be pe rm i t ted to f l y passengers in t h e i r ne i ghbor ing na t i on on any route which that a i r l i n e deems as be ing p r o f i t a b l e . E s s e n t i a l l y , Canadian and American a i r l i n e s w i l l be ab le to f l y passengers anywhere in North Amer i ca . By d e r e g u l a t i n g c r o s s - b o r d e r t r a f f i c , t h i s pact shou ld r e s u l t i n more s e r v i c e and cheaper f a r e s fo r the passenger . Moreover, t h i s new d e r e g u l a t i o n pact w i l l r e s u l t in i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c at a i r p o r t s such as Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . P r e s e n t l y , Canadian A i r l i n e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l (CAI) has l i m i t e d acces s to the Un i ted S t a te s from Vancouver, o f f e r i n g s e r v i c e to H o n o l u l u , San F r a n c i s c o , and Los Ange le s . In a n t i c i p a t i o n of "Open S k i e s " , CAI has a p p l i e d f o r 12 new r o u t e s , i n c l u d i n g th ree new routes l i n k i n g Vancouver w i th the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 1 1 With a new a i r t r e a t y , i t i s expected that sma l l e r r e g i o n a l U.S. a i r l i n e s such as Hor i zon A i r 1 1 W i l s o n , Mark. "Cash ing in on the a i r p a c t , " The  P r o v i n c e , November 8, 1990, p. 56. w i l l extend s e r v i c e beyond Vancouver to c i t i e s such as Ca l gary and Edmonton, thereby i n c r e a s i n g the number of passengers and a i r t r a f f i c at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . Larger American a i r l i n e s may beg in to f l y premium domest ic Canadian routes such as Vancouver -Toronto . G iven the p resent s i t u a t i o n at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , i t would not be s u r p r i s i n g to see major growth at t h i s a i r p o r t in both t r a n s - b o r d e r s e r v i c e and from new c a r r i e r s on domestic Canadian rou te s w i th the advent of "Open S k i e s " . In the f i r s t h a l f of 1990, 1.2 m i l l i o n passengers f lew between Vancouver and S e a t t l e , yet 70% of these passengers were t r a v e l l i n g e i t h e r to or from other U.S. d e s t i n a t i o n s which a re not served by a i r from i o Vancouver . In t h i s same time p e r i o d , t r a n s - b o r d e r t r a f f i c through Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n c r e a s e d by 16.4%, thereby 1 3 i n d i c a t i n g the p o t e n t i a l of new t r a n s - b o r d e r r o u t e s . P r e s e n t l y , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l o f f e r s s e r v i c e to the west coas t of the U.S. and two f l i g h t s a day to Ch i cago . With "Open S k i e s " a i r l i n e s a re hoping to be a b l e to o f f e r s e r v i c e from Vancouver to such d e s t i n a t i o n s as Denver, New York, and A t l a n t a . 1 2 I b i d , p. 56. 1 3 I b i d , p. 56. 33 4.0 AIRPORT PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE LOWER MAINLAND 4.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n When the C i t y of Vancouver f i r s t began to deve lop a m u n i c i p a l a i r p o r t , i t was not done so much f o r n e c e s s i t y as i t was done fo r wounded p r i d e . C h a r l e s L i n d b e r g , on a wor ld tour f o l l o w i n g h i s s u c c e s s f u l s o l o A t l a n t i c c r o s s i n g , r e j e c t e d v i s i t i n g Vancouver in 1929 as t h i s c i t y c o u l d not o f f e r a proper a i r p o r t fo r him to l and a t . 1 Two year s l a t e r , on J u l y 22, 1931 Vancouver ' s f i r s t m u n i c i p a l a i r p o r t opened on Sea I s l and (see F i g u r e 2 ) . In i t s f i r s t year s of e x i s t e n c e , Vancouver ' s a i r p o r t was sma l l i n s i z e and importance by t o d a y ' s s t andards . In 1931, 536 passengers a r r i v e d at Vancouver ' s a i r p o r t on 309 f l i g h t s , 2 r e p r e s e n t i n g an average of 1.73 passengers per f l i g h t . I t d i d not take long f o r V a n c o u v e r ' s a i r p o r t to begin to p r o s p e r . In 1934, t r a n s b o r d e r s e r v i c e was i n t r o d u c e d when U n i t e d A i r l i n e s began s e r v i c e between S e a t t l e and Vancouver. By 1937, V a n c o u v e r ' s a i r p o r t had two f u l l y paved runways a long wi th an assortment of tax iways and ramps. Dur ing World War I I, Vancouver ' s a i r p o r t p l ayed a p i v o t a l r o l e i n the n a t i o n ' s a i r de fence - i t was Canada ' s l a r g e s t west 1 T r a n s p o r t Canada. F l y i n g H i gh : The F i f t i e t h Ann i ve r s a r y of  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . TP 3118E (Ottawa, 1981). 2 I b i d . Figure 2 Source: Transport Canada. coas t a i r base. By the end of the war, Vancouver ' s a i r p o r t had undergone an e x t e n s i v e development program which saw the c r e a t i o n of new b u i l d i n g s and hangers , and the l eng then ing of the two runways. By the 1950 ' s , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l (the name of the a i r p o r t was changed from Sea I s l and A i r p o r t to Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l in 1948) had deve loped i n t o an important t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k between Canada and the r e s t of the wor ld . Improvements c o n t i n u e d in 1950 when a new t e r m i n a l was b u i l t at the a i r p o r t and consequent l y was l a t e r expanded in 1957. Dur ing t h i s decade, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l s u p p l i e d s e r v i c e to p o i n t s a l l a c r o s s the coun t ry and a l s o to p o i n t s in the Un i ted S t a t e s , Europe, A s i a and A u s t r a l i a . The past s e v e r a l decades have seen s u b s t a n t i a l growth in t r a f f i c at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . As the number of passengers and f l i g h t s u s ing Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l has grown, so has the d e s i r e f o r the expans ion of these f a c i l i t i e s . For more than twenty y e a r s , p o l i t i c i a n s , p l a n n e r s , a i r p o r t o f f i c i a l s and c i t i z e n s have been d i s c u s s i n g and deba t ing a p ropo sa l fo r the 3 c r e a t i o n of a t h i r d runway. As Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l ' s r o l e i n Canada ' s a i r p o r t system and economy con t i nue s to grow, the q u e s t i o n of c a p a c i t y and expans ion w i l l remain a c r i t i c a l i s sue i n p l a n n i n g the Lower M a i n l a n d ' s f u t u r e a i r p o r t system. 3 The concept of a p a r a l l e l runway was f i r s t p re sented f o r p u b l i c review in 1972. For v a r i o u s p o l i t i c a l , economic and env i ronmenta l reasons , the p r o j e c t has been c o n t i n u o u s l y d e f e r r e d pending f u r t h e r s tudy . By 1990, over 150 s t u d i e s have been undertaken on t h i s p r o j e c t . 36 4.1 The Present A i r p o r t System Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l se rves both the Lower Ma in land and Southern Vancouver I s l and - a combined p o p u l a t i o n of a p p r o x i -mately 2.2 m i l l i o n p e o p l e . G rea te r Vancouver r e p r e s e n t s the t h i r d l a r g e s t urban area in Canada and i s t h i s c o u n t r y ' s bus ines s and f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l of the West. As a whole, a i r p o r t s in B r i t i s h Columbia generate on average 2.2 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s in bus iness a year - Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t i n g 1.6 b i l l i o n of t h i s amount . 4 Apart from Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , the re are 7 o ther l and a i r p o r t s , s i x l a r g e s c a l e f l o a t p lane f a c i l i t i e s , and v a r i o u s sma l l s c a l e l a n d i n g s t r i p s and h e l i p o r t s s e r v i n g the Lower Ma in l and . There are a l s o s e v e r a l a i r p o r t s in the Un i ted S t a te s which have an impact on the a i r p o r t system in the Lower Ma in l and . These a i r p o r t s - i n the S ta te of Washington - i n c l ude commercia l ( Be l l i n gham) , m i l i t a r y (Whidbey I s l a n d ) , and genera l a v i a t i o n a i r p o r t s (Po in t Roberts and B l a i n e ) . The seven l and a i r p o r t s (apart from Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l ) spread throughout the Lower Ma in land handled over 800,000 a i r c r a f t movements l a s t year - almost th ree t imes as many 5 movements than at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . I t i s important to note tha t the t r a f f i c compos i t i on i s c o n s i d e r a b l y d i f f e r e n t between Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l and these a i r p o r t s . Whereas 4 No reco l Env i ronmenta l C on s u l t an t s L t d . YVR P a r a l l e l  Runway P r o j e c t P r e l i m i n a r y Env i ronmenta l Impact  S tatement. March, 1990, p. 32. 5 I b i d , p. 32. Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l d e a l s most ly w i th l a r g e commercia l m u l t i -engine a i r c r a f t , the o ther seven a i r p o r t s ' s t r a f f i c i s dominated by l i g h t s i n g l e engine a i r c r a f t and l o c a l f l i g h t s . As the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s i n d i c a t e , each of the seven sma l l e r a i r p o r t s has v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p e r t i n e n t elements which h e l p to d e f i n e each f a c i l i t y ' s r o l e in the o v e r a l l a i r p o r t system in the Lower Ma in l and . ABBOTSFORD Abbo t s f o rd A i r p o r t i s l o c a t e d in the D i s t r i c t of Matsqui in the C e n t r a l F r a s e r V a l l e y , approx imate ly 80km southeast of Vancouver. The a i r p o r t i s owned and opera ted by T ranspor t Canada. T h i s a i r p o r t serves as the pr imary a l t e r n a t e f o r Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l when f a c i l i t i e s on Sea I s l and are c l o s e d due to poor weather c o n d i t i o n s . A l though the a i r p o r t i s p r i m a r i l y surrounded by a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d , t h e r e are some low d e n s i t y r e s i d e n t i a l developments a long i t s p e r i p h e r y . E x i s t i n g lands de s i gna ted f o r a i r p o r t development a l l o w fo r some a d d i t i o n a l expans ion at A b b o t s f o r d . T h i s expans ion can i n c l u d e an a d d i t i o n a l runway and l a r g e r t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s . The sur round ing t e r r a i n g r e a t l y l i m i t s the number of a i r c r a f t movements per hour . In 1987, t he re were 10,400 I.FR ( In s t rumenta l F l i g h t Rules) movements.^ Access to the a i r p o r t i s v i a the Trans Canada Highway wi th the t r a v e l t ime between Abbo t s f o rd and Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l t a k i n g between 60 to 90 minutes . BOUNDARY BAY Located 25km southeast of Sea I s l a n d , Boundary Bay A i r p o r t i s the c l o s e s t a i r p o r t to Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . The land sur round ing the f a c i l i t y i s p r i m a r i l y a g r i c u l t u r a l with some i n d u s t r i a l and urban l and uses in the west. T h i s a i r p o r t has been c l a s s i f i e d by T ranspor t Canada as a r e g i o n a l a i r p o r t s e r v i n g l i g h t weight a i r c r a f t . As a de s i gna ted r e l i e v e r a i r p o r t fo r Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , Boundary Bay se rves both sma l l commercia l and p r i v a t e gene ra l a v i a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s (bus iness and r e c r e a t i o n a l ) . Due to r e s i d e n t i a l and e c o l o g i c a l concern s , f a c i l i t i e s at Boundary Bay w i l l u n l i k e l y be enhanced to improve c a p a c i t y . The a i r p o r t i s w e l l l o c a t e d to serve the Su r rey , Lang ley , White Rock and D e l t a reg ions u s ing sma l l commuter a i r c r a f t . T r a v e l t ime between Boundary Bay and Vancouver i s between 30 to 60 minutes as there i s a l r e a d y severe road 6 A i r t r a f f i c opera te s under e i t h e r V i s u a l F l i g h t Rules (VFR) or I n s t rumenta l F l i g h t Rules ( IFR) . With good v i s i b i l i t y , a i r c r a f t operate under VFR whi le IFR i s used d u r i n g c o n d i t i o n s of r e s t r i c t e d v i s i b i l i t y . IFR c o n t r o l s the a l t i t u d e and f l i g h t path of an a i r c r a f t e i t h e r whol ly or in por t by r e f e r e n c e to i n s t rument s . Under VFR, p i l o t s are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r own n a v i g a t i o n and s e p a r a t i o n of a i r c r a f t . Most l a r g e j e t and turbo prop a i r c r a f t norma l ly f l y u s ing IFR. congestion at peak times of the day in th i s region. 39 PITT MEADOWS P i t t Meadows Airport i s located approximately 40 km from Vancouver International Airport. Primarily a general aviation a i r p o r t , P i t t Meadows i s owned and operated by Transport Canada. Although the airport i s c l a s s i f i e d as a lo c a l commercial a i r p o r t , i t presently has no f a c i l i t i e s to accommodate larger scheduled commercial a i r c r a f t . Expansion at P i t t Meadows in 1985 allowed for a larger range of a i r c r a f t to use the f a c i l i t i e s however the airport i s located in the a r r i v a l f l i g h t path of Vancouver International and thus has a limited hourly capacity (as a i r c r a f t must f i t into the Vancouver a i r t r a f f i c flow). Moreover, P i t t Meadows Airport does not have an instrument (IFR) approach. Travel time between the airport and- downtown Vancouver i s between 60 to 90 minutes. LANGLEY Langley Airport i s located approximately 60 km southeast of Vancouver International A i r p o r t . The f a c i l i t y i s owned and operated by the Township of Langley. As a r e l i e v e r airport for Vancouver International, Langley i s c l a s s i f i e d as a loca l , commercial a i r p o r t , serving l i g h t weight a i r c r a f t . Expansion opportunities at t h i s f a c i l i t y are limited due to surrounding r e s i d e n t i a l / c o m m e r c i a l l and uses and due to env i ronmenta l conce rn s . The a i r p o r t does not have a t e r m i n a l b u i l d i n g and does not have instrument (IFR) approach. Moreover, the a i r p o r t ' s l o c a t i o n between Vancouver ' s and A b b o t s f o r d ' s f l i g h t paths make f u t u r e development of t h i s f a c i l i t y i l l o g i c a l . I t i s approx imate ly a 40 minute d r i v e from the a i r p o r t to downtown Vancouver. CHILLIWACK C h i l l i w a c k A i r p o r t i s l o c a t e d 110 km east of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l and i s approx imate ly a 90 minute d r i v e from downtown Vancouver . The a i r p o r t i s owned and opera ted by the M u n i c i p a l i t y of C h i l l i w a c k and i s c l a s s i f i e d as a genera l a v i a t i o n f a c i l i t y s e r v i n g the Lower Ma in l and . The f a c i l i t y does not have an instrument (IFR) approach and has no c o n t r o l tower. Expans ion o p p o r t u n i t i e s at t h i s a i r p o r t a re l i m i t e d due to r e s i d e n t i a l developments on the no r thern p e r i p h e r y and the Trans Canada Highway on the southern p e r i p h e r y . VICTORIA V i c t o r i a I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s l o c a t e d 20 km from V i c t o r i a and i s 75 km from downtown Vancouver . The a i r p o r t i s owned and opera ted by T ranspor t Canada. Annual c a p a c i t y at t h i s f a c i l i t y i s 175,000 movements, w i th a t e r m i n a l c a p a c i t y of 1,300,000 passengers a year, and an a i r c r a f t passenger c a p a c i t y of 200. T e r r a i n west and no r th of the a i r p o r t has r e s u l t e d in c o n s t r a i n t s to expans ion . V i c t o r i a A i r p o r t ' s r o l e as an a l t e r n a t e to Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s l i m i t e d s i n c e t r a v e l l i n g from V i c t o r i a to downtown Vancouver or Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e q u i r e s e i t h e r another f l i g h t or a two hour f e r r y t r i p . VANCOUVER In the case of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , the a i r p o r t can be c o n s i d e r e d one of the most c o n v e n i e n t l y l o c a t e d a i r p o r t s in Canada w i th regard to the m e t r o p o l i t a n market i t s e r v e s . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s l o c a t e d 12 km from downtown Vancouver and t h e r e f o r e i s w e l l l i n k e d to most deve loped areas in the Lower Ma in l and . A car t r i p from downtown Vancouver to the a i r p o r t w i l l take approx imate l y 20 minutes ( t r a f f i c pend ing ) . Over 65% of the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n and more than 80% of r e g i o n a l employment i s 7 l o c a t e d w i t h i n a 25 km r a d i u s of the a i r p o r t . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l p l a y s s e v e r a l important r o l e s on a l o c a l , r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l s c a l e in Canada ' s a i r p o r t system. F i r s t l y , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s a hub a i r p o r t f o r l o n g - h a u l domes t i c , t r a n s b o r d e r and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r s e r v i c e s . Second ly , the a i r p o r t a c t s as a r e g i o n a l hub f o r commuter s e r v i c e s to B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ' s i n t e r i o r , A l b e r t a , and the northwest coas t of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i r d l y , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l r ep re sen t s 7 I b i d , p. 34. the base for B r i t i s h Columbia's resources industries and to u r i s t charter operations. Fourthly, Vancouver International i s considered to be Canada's gateway to the Asian-Pacific market, and f i n a l l y , the airport is an important maintenance and servicing center for a i r l i n e s . In essence, Vancouver International i s the largest and most important of the more than 200 land based airports in B r i t i s h Columbia. TABLE 1 LOWER MAINLAND AND SOUTHERN VANCOUVER ISLAND AIRPORTS: ACCESS TIMES AND CONSTRAINTS A I H T O K I ' l,uw«r M i t o t a n * Vantuuv« r l * M n u U 4 M l llvNHxbry H«y AMMtfoKJ Ijngky I'll I MCMtOWt Oiilliwack ANNUAL UK CAPACITY Wi l l i TI-CII CAINS (IWJ) 325 000 lo 4VI mi) 17 (XX) lu 100 MX) 511 4<XI lo VO (KM) ii irnu 5<>ft (XXI lo 671 7111 TKAVI-L I1MI: 1-K.OM DOWNTOWN VANCOUVI-K (I990 2IMI) 211 Minuiei 30 lo AO Minute. 60 lu 90 Minuiei 60 to 90 Minuter 60 lo VO Mmixci 90 lo 120 Minuter TERMINAL CAPACITY E/D (19*1) PASSBNOERS 10 000 000 100 000 100 000 100 000 10 M0 000 TERMINAL OKSir.N A/C SIZE PASSENGER 400 19 19 19 ENVIRONMENTAL IJMITATIONS • A / C a*** of M I « » rm ft. • AK 19 icau w under • Mounuint • I J I U Conrlrainu ' Land Conurainu Vancouver lalann' Vwiima Ninnmu 210 MHIIUCI 210 Minuter I 300 000 500 000 200 SO Source: Norecol Environmental Consultants Ltd. Vancouver  International Airport P a r a l l e l Runway Project Preliminary  Environmental Impact Statement. March. 1990. 44 4.3 The Role of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l and I t s I n t e r a c t i o n With The Community Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l ' s r o l e i s not s o l e l y concerned with s e r v i n g r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l a v i a t i o n s e r v i c e s w i t h i n Canada ' s a i r p o r t system. T h i s a i r p o r t p l a y s a s i m i l a r l y important r o l e with many d i f f e r e n t a spec t s of every day l i f e in B r i t i s h Co lumbia . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l has a s t rong impact on the economy, i t has s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s , i t a f f e c t s o ther forms of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and i t has a s t rong impact on the env i ronment. A l though each impact i s impor tant , t h i s paper w i l l ana l yze three of the more p e r t i n e n t impacts tha t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l has on both the Lower Ma in land and B r i t i s h Columbia i n g e n e r a l . 4.3.1 Economic Impacts Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e in B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ' s economy. The a i r p o r t generates m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s and c r e a t e s thousands of jobs fo r B r i t i s h Co lumbia . There are th ree l e v e l s of economic a c t i v i t i e s generated by the presence of the a i r p o r t . These a c t i v i t i e s can be summarized a s : A. D i r e c t Economic A c t i v i t i e s - C rea ted by a i r p o r t o p e r a t i o n s o c c u r r i n g at the f a c i l i t y such a s : a i r l i n e passenger and cargo s e r v i c e s , f u e l l i n g and i n - f l i g h t c a t e r i n g , a i r p o r t c o n c e s s i o n s , t r a v e l a g e n c i e s , h o t e l s , a n d government a g e n c i e s . 45 B. I n d i r e c t Economic A c t i v i t i e s - C rea ted by the p r o v i s i o n of m a t e r i a l s and s e r v i c e s to the companies and o p e r a t o r s i n v o l v e d in d i r e c t economic a c t i v i t i e s . These a c t i v i t i e s a re commonly preformed at l o c a t i o n s away from the f a c i l i t y . C. Induced Economic A c t i v i t i e s - C rea ted by i n d i v i d u a l s employed in both d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t economic a c t i v i t i e s who purchase consumer goods. O v e r a l l , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l c r e a t e d 2.7 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s in economic output wh i le c o n t r i b u t i n g 2.7% of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ' s o Gross Domestic Product in 1987. T h i s economic output i s c r e a t e d by the a i r p o r t ' s a b i l i t y to a l l ow a i r c a r r i e r s and suppor t i ng bus ines se s to operate and generate income. T h i s same income i s then used to purchase goods and s e r v i c e s , employ l o c a l peop le , pay f o r the use of the a i r p o r t and to pay f o r t a x e s . The a i r p o r t d i r e c t l y employs 14,000 peop le wh i l e s u s t a i n i n g over 31,000 jobs ( i n d i r e c t and induced employment) in B r i t i s h Columbia - r e p r e s e n t i n g 2.4% of B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ' s t o t a l work g f o r c e . In 1987, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l generated over 1.5 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s in wages and p r o f i t s f o r B r i t i s h Co lumbia . I t i s e s t imated tha t by the year 2001, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l w i l l generate an economic output of over 5 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s whi le s u s t a i n i n g over 50,000 j o b s . 1 ^ p T ran spo r t Canada. The Economic Impact of Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . TP 9820 (Ottawa, 1989), p. 5. 9 I b i d , p. 7. 1 0 I b i d , p. 1. Communities near the a i r p o r t r e c e i v e s u b s t a n t i a l economic b e n e f i t s by i t s p re sence . Over 85% of the t o t a l work f o r ce at the a i r p o r t l i v e in the four sur round ing communit ies - Vancouver, Richmond, D e l t a and Su r rey . In Richmond a l o n e , 25% of t h i s community ' s work f o r c e i s employed at Sea I s l a n d . 1 1 The importance of the f u t u r e e f f i c i e n c y of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l can be seen through the f o l l o w i n g f o r e c a s t . The next 10% i n c r e a s e in the passenger volume at Vancouver 1 2 I n t e r n a t i o n a l w i l l generate the f o l l o w i n g i n t o the economy: * 297 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s in economic ou tpu t . * Gross domest ic product of 163 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . * D i r e c t employment of 960 j o b s . * I n d i r e c t employment of 1,500 jobs in the p r o v i n c e . T h e r e f o r e i t i s important tha t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l remains an e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e a i r p o r t in order to a l l ow fo r the maximum economic b e n e f i t s which can accompany t h i s form of o p e r a t i o n . As conge s t i on i n c r e a s e s , Vancouver ' s r o l e in Canada ' s a i r p o r t system and the co r re spond ing p o t e n t i a l economic b e n e f i t s w i l l be d r a s t i c a l l y reduced. 1 1 I b i d , p. 8. 1 2 I b i d , p .10. 47 4 .3 .2 Ground T r a n s p o r t a t i o n The a t t r a c t i v e n e s s and success of an a i r p o r t i s g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d by i t s a b i l i t y to ma in ta in a s t rong ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e . In o ther words, how w e l l i s the a i r p o r t connected to the su r round ing community and how f a s t and e f f e c t i v e l y passengers and goods can t r a v e l between the a i r p o r t and t h e i r in tended d e s t i n a t i o n ? The most common form of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n between an a i r p o r t and the d e s t i n a t i o n or po in t of o r i g i n i s by au tomob i le . The roads l e a d i n g in and out of a i r p o r t s in many of North A m e r i c a ' s l a r g e r m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r s a re becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y conges ted , thereby adding on both time and co s t to a p e r s o n ' s j ou rney . L i k e many a i r p o r t s , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s beg inn ing to f e e l the e f f e c t s of a conges ted road network sur round ing the f a c i l i t y . As a i r t r a f f i c at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n c r e a s e s , so l i k e w i s e does the t r a f f i c on the sur round ing roads - a l though not n e c e s s a r i l y at co r re spond ing r a t e s . The a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l to p e r s p e c t i v e users becomes d i m i n i s h e d as the l e v e l of ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e a v a i l a b l e f o r both passengers and cargo d e c r e a s e s . There a r e s e v e r a l unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l ' s ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s . F i r s t , , the a i r p o r t i s l o c a t e d on an i s l a n d and hence a l l acces s to t h i s f a c i l i t y i n v o l v e s the use of b r i d g e s or t u n n e l s ; in t h i s case on ly b r i d g e s are used to acces s the i s l a n d . P r e s e n t l y , there are th ree b r i d g e s connec t i ng the a i r p o r t w i th the r e s t of the Lower Ma in land - the Ar thur La ing B r i d g e , the Moray Channel B r i d g e , and the Dinsmore Br idge (see F i g u r e 3 ) . U n l i k e most a i r p o r t s , any new acces s routes or expans ion of e x i s t i n g routes w i l l r e q u i r e the c r e a t i o n of a new br idge or the expans ion of a p r e s e n t , both 1 3 very c o s t l y and p o t e n t i a l l y d i f f i c u l t v e n t u r e s . Second ly , c o n t r a r y to most a i r p o r t s (as i n d i c a t e d in Tab le 2 ) , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s l o c a t e d very near the m e t r o p o l i t a n cen te r i t s e r v e s . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l can be reached from downtown Vancouver w i t h i n twenty minutes - an unusua l l y short d i s t a n c e and t r a v e l t ime f o r an a i r p o r t which serves a l a r ge m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . NOTE: The Government of B r i t i s h Columbia i s p r o v i d i n g funds f o r the c r e a t i o n of a new b r i dge connec t i n g Richmond to Sea I s l a n d . C o n s t r u c t i o n of the Number 2 Road Br idge may commence once M u n i c i p a l and F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s have r e s o l v e d a l l t e c h n i c a l d e t a i l s . FIGURE 3 AIRPORT ROAD CONGESTION Source: Transport Canada 50 TABLE 2 EASE OF ACCESS AT CANADIAN AND WORLD AIRPORTS C i t y D i s t ance from downtown T r a v e l l i n g t ime (min.) H a l i fax 42 km 80 Edmonton 31 km 30 Toronto 29 km 30 Do rva l (Mt l . ) 22 km 25 M i r a b e l (Mt l . ) 54 km 60 D a l l a s / F t . Worth 27 km 55 Tokyo (Na r i t a ) 66 km 120 New York (Kennedy) 24 km 75 London (Heathrow) 24 km 50 Source : T ran spo r t Canada T h i r d l y , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s p o o r l y connected to the highway network, thereby d i m i n i s h i n g e f f e c t i v e acces s to t h i s f a c i l i t y . The pr imary reason f o r t h i s d e f i c i e n c y l i e s in a d e c i s i o n made twenty year s ago to f o r b i d the c r e a t i o n of any new expressway system to serve the urban c o r e . T h i s l a ck of an expressway system has meant h i g h t r a f f i c volumes on the roads and b r i d g e s su r round ing the a i r p o r t , a l l of which have a l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y . F i n a l l y , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y between downtown and a major commuting sou rce . The Dinsmore and Moray Br idges d e l i v e r t r a f f i c onto Sea I s l and whi le the Ar thur Lang Br idge connects Sea I s l and to downtown Vancouver. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the Ar thur La ing B r idge i s a popu lar and conven ient commuting c h a n n e l , thereby i n c r e a s i n g conges t i on on t h i s v i t a l ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k w i t h , the a i r p o r t . It has reached a p o i n t where over h a l f the t r a f f i c t r a v e l l i n g on Sea I s l and was n o n - a i r p o r t commuting t r a f f i c . In a r e p o r t r e l e a s e d in 1989, the Grea te r Vancouver T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Task Fo rce announced p r o j e c t i o n s of t r a f f i c volumes f o r the th ree b r i d ge s s e r v i n g Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . F o r e c a s t s i n d i c a t e that the Moray Channel and Dinsmore Br idges w i l l s h o r t l y be over c a p a c i t y wh i le the A r thur L a i n g Br idge i s approach ing c a p a c i t y . P r o j e c t e d i n c r e a s e s i n commuting t r a f f i c a lone w i l l push t r a f f i c l e v e l s over c a p a c i t y on a l l three b r i d g e s . Between 1987 and 1996, commuting demands w i l l i n c rea se by 75% on the A r thur La ing B r idge wh i l e i t w i l l more than double 1 4 on the Dinsmore B r i d g e . Apart from the p r i v a t e au tomob i l e , there are s e v e r a l other op t i on s a v a i l a b l e to the a r r i v i n g or d e p a r t i n g passenger . There a re th ree p r i v a t e bus companies which serve the a i r p o r t w i th r e g u l a r s c h e d u l i n g . These buses t r a v e l to downtown, the F r a s e r V a l l e y and the Tsawwassen f e r r y t e r m i n a l . There a re s e v e r a l tour 1 4 T r an spo r t Canada. YVR: P a r a l l e l Runway P r o j e c t  Env i ronmenta l Impact Statement. TP 10173E (Vancouver, 1990), p. Ch. 10, p .39. o p e r a t o r s which use buses to t r a n s p o r t tour groups between the a i r p o r t and such p l a c e s as t h e i r h o t e l or a c r u i s e s h i p t e r m i n a l . An important yet u n d e r - u t i l i z e d and i n f r e q u e n t source of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and from the a i r p o r t i s B.C. T r a n s i t . Buses opera te between the a i r p o r t and Vancouver, Richmond, and Ladner . P r e s e n t l y , on ly 2.6% of a i r p o r t users u t i l i z e B.C. T r a n s i t buses 1 5 . to t r a v e l to and from the a i r p o r t . T h i s low r i d e r s h i p can be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t that c i t y buses are not des igned or equipped to handle passengers w i th luggage. Furthermore, passengers are not w e l l a cqua in ted w i th p r i c e s and t r i p c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the bus s e r v i c e . The in f requency of B.C. T r a n s i t ' s s e r v i c e i s a l s o a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . P r e s e n t l y , B.C. T r a n s i t a i r p o r t s e r v i c e opera tes once every h a l f hour dur ing peak p e r i o d s ( rush hour) and once an hour at o f f - p e a k t imes . Given t h i s i n f r e q u e n t s e r v i c e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that t r a n s i t r i d e r s h i p i s low at the a i r p o r t . Moreover, a i r p o r t employee s h i f t changes a re not at peak t imes and s i n c e B.C. T r a n s i t ma in ta in s low f requency s e r v i c e at o f f peak hours , t r a n s i t s e r v i c e i s not r e c e p t i v e to t h i s o f f peak demand. A p r o p o s a l has been put forward to deve lop a r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n k between downtown Vancouver and Richmond Town Cen te r . If implemented, t h i s new t r a n s p o r t a t i o n source w i l l he lp slow i n c r e a s e s in road t r a f f i c but w i l l not e l i m i n a t e i t . In f a c t , t h i s r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n k w i l l remove l i t t l e of thevpresent road 15 B.C. T r a n s i t . Submiss ion to Env i ronmenta l Assessment  Pane l P a r a l l e l Runway P r o j e c t , Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . January , 1990, p. 25. t r a f f i c and w i l l be geared towards absorb ing new commuter t r a v e l . I t has been f u r t h e r proposed to c r e a t e a r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n k between the a i r p o r t and the Richmond l i n e . Such a development w i l l h e l p a l l e v i a t e the growing problems encountered by the p resent ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system however the e a r l i e s t time that such a l i n k would be implemented i s l a t e 1996. I t i s more l i k e l y tha t to begin w i t h , some form of s h u t t l e bus w i l l be used to connect the a i r p o r t to the Richmond s t a t i o n . 4.3.3 N a t u r a l Environment A growing concern w i t h i n a i r p o r t p l a n n i n g r e v o l v e s around the e f f e c t s tha t an a i r p o r t can have on the sur round ing env i ronment. G iven the l o c a t i o n of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l in the F r a s e r R i ve r e s t u a r y , the environment i s of c r i t i c a l importance in t h i s c i t y ' s a i r p o r t p l ann ing and development. Opera t i on s at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l can g r e a t l y a f f e c t f i s h and w i l d l i f e r e sou rce s hav ing not on ly l o c a l , but r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The F r a s e r R i ve r e s t u a r y suppor t s a l a r ge and v a r i e d w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t . T h i s a rea i s an important o v e r w i n t e r i n g a rea f o r water fowl and a c r i t i c a l s t a g i n g a rea on the P a c i f i c f l yway. On an annual b a s i s , t h i s r e g i on suppor t s over h a l f a m i l l i o n b i r d s a year wh i l e n e a r l y 1,5 m i l l i o n b i r d s use the d e l t a du r i n g peak m i g r a t i o n . On Sea I s l and a l o n e , over 230 s p e c i e s of b i r d s have been i d e n t i f i e d . Raccoons, beaver s , r a b b i t s and other l a r ge mammals can be found on Sea I s l and a long wi th an ex ten s i ve number of sma l l e r mammals. The e s tua ry i t s e l f supports 5 d i f f e r e n t s pec i e s of P a c i f i c " salmon a long wi th an assortment of other a q u a t i c s p e c i e s . As conge s t i on con t i nues to i n c r e a s e at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , the r i c h w i l d l i f e h a b i t a t on Sea I s l and w i l l be in i n c r e a s i n g danger. No i se , a i r , and water p o l l u t i o n w i l l c on t i nue to p lague both the n a t u r a l and human env ironment. T h i s i s not to say that no f u r t h e r expans ion shou ld be done at the a i r p o r t or tha t o p e r a t i o n s shou ld be reduced. I f f o r e c a s t e d movements are e s s e n t i a l l y c o r r e c t , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l - even with a t h i r d runway - w i l l have d i f f i c u l t y in p re fo rming everyday o p e r a t i o n s in a sa fe and o r d e r l y manner and thus w i l l r a i s e the r i s k of p o t e n t i a l env i ronmenta l d i s a s t e r s on Sea I s l a n d . The human environment i s l i k e w i s e a f f e c t e d by the o p e r a t i o n s of an a i r p o r t such as Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . A i r c r a f t no i se and no i se generated by a i r p o r t t r a f f i c can h inder the everyday l i f e s t y l e of r e s i d e n t s i n the sur round ing communit ies . The p o l l u t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i th the burn ing of j e t f u e l not on ly has nega t i ve h e a l t h impacts on the e n t i r e Lower Ma in land , but e s p e c i a l l y f o r those working and l i v i n g near the a i r p o r t f a c i l i t y . These same gases generated by burnt j e t f u e l have a l s o been l i n k e d to the "greenhouse" e f f e c t and the d e p l e t i o n of the T ran spo r t Canada. YVR Runway P r o j e c t Env i ronmenta l Impact  Statement: Summary Repor t . TP 10173E (August, 1990), p. 7. ozone layer. Runoff water from airport a c t i v i t i e s contribute p o l l u t i o n in the surrounding water thereby increasing health hazards and af f e c t i n g water recreation a c t i v i t i e s . 4.4 The Current Situation at Vancouver International Over the past decade, congestion and delays have become a common sight at Vancouver International as a i r t r a f f i c movements have continued to increase at a steady rate. Forecasts for a i r t r a f f i c movements over the next decade indicate that there is no r e l i e f in sight. Moreover, the P a c i f i c market i s expected to see the highest rate of growth in thi s industry, thereby adding to Vancouver International's busy operations given i t s importance as Canada's gateway to the P a c i f i c . If Vancouver International wishes to be competitive and e f f e c t i v e in this growing market and in the world aviation market as a whole, appropriate steps w i l l have to be taken to ensure that Vancouver w i l l be able to handle i t s important task as Canada's Western gateway. Vancouver International, Canada's second busiest a i r p o r t , saw an estimated 9,300,000 passengers pass through i t s doors in 1989 while a i r c r a f t movements reached 325,000 - well above the p r a c t i c a l capacity of th i s f a c i l i t y . As Table 3 indicates, takeoffs and landings at Vancouver International have increased by nearly 50% since 1984 - representing the largest growth rate at any Canadian a i r p o r t . 56 Figure 4 AIRCRAFT MOVEMENTS VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT 4 0 0 — r — 1984 198S 1986 1987 1988 Source: Transport Canada. Demand at Vancouver International can be characterized as f o l l o w s : 1 7 * 83% of runway movements involve a i r c a r r i e r operations. * Turboprop t r a f f i c has increased by over 300% since 1980. * 67% of a l l movements are under Instrument F l i g h t Rules (IFR). * Operations are sustained at a rate greater than 40 movements per hour (7am - 7pm l o c a l time). * The p r a c t i c a l runway capacity i s 277,000 annual movements. * 8% of runway movements are private a i r c r a f t and routine government operations. Source: Transport Canada. D a i l y f l i g h t d e l a y s , a pr imary r e s u l t of c o n g e s t i o n , are not on ly c o s t l y in both t ime and money to the passenger , but a l s o become a tremendous burden on the a i r c a r r i e r s themse lves . i P r e s e n t l y , approx imate ly 30% of a l l f l i g h t s d e p a r t i n g Vancouver 1 8 I n t e r n a t i o n a l are de l ayed to some degree. It has reached a po in t now where d a i l y de l ay s average 12 hours per day at the a i r p o r t . These de l ay s c o s t the a i r l i n e s c l o s e to 600,000 d o l l a r s a month. On a v e r a g e , i t c o s t s an a i r l i n e rough ly 100 d o l l a r s a minute wh i le a 747 l a r ge body a i r c r a f t remains i d l e on the ground due to c o n g e s t i o n . When these a i r c r a f t are de l ayed due to a i r p o r t c o n g e s t i o n , i t i s u s u a l l y the passenger who w i l l pay - both in the shor t term ( l a t e f o r an appointment) and in the long term ( i n c r e a s e d f a r e s ) . T r an spo r t Canada e s t ima te s on a i r t r a f f i c at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n d i c a t e that t h i s f a c i l i t y shou ld con t inue to exper i ence growth in both passengers and runway movements. The annual passenger volume at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s expected to grow to over 16 m i l l i o n by the 2003 - r e p r e s e n t i n g a 78% i n c r e a s e 1 9 from the l e v e l i n 1989. A i r c r a f t movements a re expected to i n c r e a s e to 441,000 by the same year - an annual r a t e of i n c rea se of 2 . 4 % . 2 0 1 8 A i r Canada. P r e s e n t a t i o n to P u b l i c Hear ings Into The  Env i ronmenta l Impact of Runway Expans ion at Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . F e b r u a r y , 1991, p. 4. 1 9 I b i d , p. 5. 2 0 I b i d , p. 5. Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l ' s a i r s e r v i c e s can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as f o l l o w s : ^ 1 * 19 f l i g h t s a day to Ea s te rn Canada * Approx. 170 f l i g h t s a day to d e s t i n a t i o n s in Western Canada * 41 f l i g h t s a week to A s i an d e s t i n a t i o n s * 33 depa r tu re s a week to Europe Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s now ranked f o u r t h in North America w i th re spec t to hand l i n g t r an sbo rde r pas senger s . Between 1988 and 1989, t r an sbo rde r t r a f f i c rose 9.2% at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . I t i s f o r e c a s t e d that t r an sbo rde r t r a f f i c w i l l grow from 1.6 m i l l i o n passengers in 1989 to approx imate ly 2.7 m i l l i o n in the 22 year 2003 and reach 3 m i l l i o n over the f o l l o w i n g f i v e y e a r s . 4.5 S t r a t e g i e s to R e l i e v e A i r p o r t Congest ion As d e l a y s have i n c r e a s e d at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , a i r p o r t o p e r a t o r s have been f o r c e d to deve lop s t r a t e g i e s to h e l p decrease d e l a y s by reduc ing c o n g e s t i o n . S t r a t e g i e s of t h i s type w i l l u s u a l l y i n v o l v e a d d i t i o n s to the f a c i l i t y or the upgrading of p re sen t equipment used to monitor the o p e r a t i o n s . These s t r a t e g i e s can be e i t h e r shor t term or long term remedies and 21 T ran spo r t Canada A i r p o r t s . YVR Annual Review: Year Ended March, 1990. TP 9560E (Vancouver, 1991), p. 5. 22 A i r Canada. P r e s e n t a t i o n to P u b l i c Hear ings Into the  Env i ronmenta l Impact of Runway Expans ion at Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . Feb rua ry , 1991, p. 9. w i l l vary i n co s t and e f f e c t i v e n e s s . In the case of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , s e v e r a l s t r a t e g i e s have been i n t r o d u c e d or proposed to h e l p a l l e v i a t e conge s t i on at the a i r p o r t . Some of the shor t term s t r a t e g i e s have a l r e a d y been implemented wh i le long term - g e n e r a l l y more expens ive and l a r g e r in s c a l e - are now be ing p re sen ted to the p u b l i c f o r d i s c u s s i o n and a n a l y s i s . 4.5.1 Short Term I n i t i a t i v e s Short term s t r a t e g i e s are be ing i n i t i a t e d at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l in order to h e l p make a i r p o r t o p e r a t i o n s more e f f i c i e n t under the two runway c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Under these s t r a t e g i e s , the a i r c ra f t -movement c a p a c i t y of the f a c i l i t y i s i n c r e a s e d thereby a l l o w i n g fo r more a i r c r a f t to use the f a c i l i t y but not n e c e s s a r i l y d e c r e a s i n g the conges t i on and d e l a y s . Short term i n i t i a t i v e s at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n c l u d e : * Implementat ion of a computer i zed runway c a p a c i t y - management program to h e l p maximize d a i l y runway use. * Implementat ion of an A i r T r a f f i c Flow Management System that meters t r a f f i c i n t o Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l at r a t e s which are c o n s i s t e n t wi th the a i r p o r t ' s c a p a c i t y . * The use of a minimum l a n d i n g f e e , which in t h i s c a se , has been set at $25 per a i r c r a f t l a n d i n g . * Implementat ion of a f l i g h t r e s e r v a t i o n system which c o u l d l i m i t , under extreme c o n d i t i o n s , the number of a r r i v a l s and depa r tu re s d u r i n g peak p e r i o d s . F u r t h e r i n i t i a t i v e s have been i n t r o d u c e d which w i l l improve the taxiway c a p a c i t y , e n a b l i n g a i r c r a f t to spend l e s s time on the main runway. The c o n v e r s i o n of a taxiway i n t o a " s t u b " runway has he lped to reduce the number of commuter a i r c r a f t depar tu re s on the two l a r g e r runways. Combined, these short term i n i t i a t i v e s w i l l h e l p c a p a c i t y i n c r e a s e at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l by about 8%. T h i s percentage i n c r e a s e i s min imal and can on ly e f f e c t i v e l y c u r t a i l c onge s t i on at the f a c i l i t y f o r two or th ree y e a r s . I t i s important to note that not a l l these i n i t i a t i v e s may produce the d e s i r e d or expected r e s u l t s . In the case of the l a n d i n g f e e , much d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i c i s m has been made on t h i s d e c i s i o n . E s s e n t i a l l y , implementing a minimum l a n d i n g fee at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l w i l l h e l p the a i r p o r t to d i s courage d i s c r e t i o n a r y a i r c r a f t from us ing t h i s f a c i l i t y . A minimum l a n d i n g fee i n c r e a s e s the c o s t s f o r a i r c r a f t o p e r a t o r s u s ing Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . T h i s fee can h e l p reduce conges t i on at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l s i n c e some o p e r a t o r s w i l l reduce f l i g h t a c t i v i t i e s at the a i r p o r t due to the h i gher c o s t s induced by the fee wh i le some a i r c r a f t o p e r a t o r s may r e l o c a t e to o ther Lower Main land a i r p o r t s i f these h i gher c o s t s cannot be passed on to t h e i r passengers . There i s no doubt tha t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e q u i r e d a minimum l a n d i n g f e e , but the d e c i s i o n to set the fee at $25 cannot be c o n s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e . T h i s fee of $25 i s not c o n s i d e r e d p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h , e s p e c i a l l y compared to fees at other s i m i l a r l y s i z e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l a i r p o r t s . For i n s t a n c e , Heathrow A i r p o r t in London has minimum l a n d i n g fees of up to $500. A $25 minimum l a n d i n g fee w i l l have l i t t l e impact on r e g i o n a l a i r c a r r i e r s , bus ines s a i r c r a f t , and c h a r t e r companies - the p r i n c i p a l o p e r a t o r s tha t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l wishes to c o n s o l i d a t e . A h i gher l a n d i n g fee of $100 would have a g r e a t e r impact on these o p e r a t o r s and would l i k e l y f o r c e many of them to r e l o c a t e at r e l i e v e r a i r p o r t s . By implementing a $25 minimum l a n d i n g f e e , i t i s hoped that by 1996 non-commercia l l i g h t a i r c r a f t w i l l r ep re sen t on ly 5% of a l l e x i s t i n g t r a f f i c . In t h e i r r e p o r t , Economic A n a l y s i s of a i r f i e l d Capac i t y Enhancement S t r a t e g i e s f o r Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t , H i c k l i n g Con s u l t an t s i n d i c a t e that a 25$ minimum l a n d i n g fee w i l l reduce the e s t imated 116,700 de lay hours f o r 1993 by over 20,000 hour s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , a minimum l a n d i n g fee of 100$ would reduce the number of de l ay hours to an e s t imated 56,000 by 1993. Moreover, a h i gher minimum l and ing fee of $100 w i l l generate c o n s i d e r a b l y h i gher l a n d i n g fee revenues f o r the a i r p o r t i t s e l f . Large commercia l c a r r i e r s would a l s o be impacted by the l a r g e r l a n d i n g fee but not enough to change or te rminate s e r v i c e at the a i r p o r t . However in the f u t u r e , i f Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l imposes a l a r g e r l a n d i n g fee than $100, i t i s p o s s i b l e that the a i r p o r t may l o se some of i t s bus ines s as some commercia l c a r r i e r s may opt to by-pass Vancouver f o r another nearby a i r p o r t which impose lower l a n d i n g f e e s . Other op t i on s are a v a i l a b l e . For i n s t a n c e , h i gher l a n d i n g fees can be adopted at peak p e r i o d s in order to h e l p make e f f e c t i v e use of runway c a p a c i t y . T h i s l a n d i n g fee s t r u c t u r e i s used at Heathrow A i r p o r t i n London. 4.5.2 Long Term I n i t i a t i v e s As i s i n d i c a t e d by the name, short term i n i t i a t i v e s can be u s e f u l as temporary s o l u t i o n s in r e l i e v i n g conges t i on at a i r p o r t s - but these s o l u t i o n s are temporary. In the case of a i r p o r t s such as Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , long term s o l u t i o n s are r e q u i r e d as p resent t r a f f i c l e v e l s and f o r e c a s t e d l e v e l s i n d i c a t e that shor t term s o l u t i o n s a re inadequate . Three s t r a t e g i e s have been proposed as s o l u t i o n s f o r conges t i on and t r a f f i c c a p a c i t y f o r Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l : 1 . S ta tus quo, 2. c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new p a r a l l e l runway, or 3. a l t e r n a t e a i r p o r t development. 6 3 S ta tus Quo As the e x p r e s s i o n i m p l i e s , t h i s o p t i o n r e q u i r e s no a d d i t i o n s to the p resent i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and no t r a n s f e r of a i r t r a f f i c to o ther a i r p o r t s . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d by some that the p resent c o n d i t i o n s at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l are exaggerated and that the a i r p o r t i s not p r e s e n t l y conges ted (s imply p o o r l y managed) and w i l l not have p r e d i c t e d c a p a c i t y problems in the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . Us ing t h i s op t i on i s both damaging and n e a r - s i g h t e d . Cur rent d e l a y s at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l (and the co r re spond ing i n c r e a s e i n both f i n a n c i a l and env i ronmenta l c o s t s ) , a long w i th the f a c t tha t the a i r p o r t i s p r e s e n t l y o p e r a t i n g at c a p a c i t y and that a i r c r a f t movements w i l l i n v a r i a b l y i n c r e a s e , render t h i s o p t i o n u s e l e s s . P a r a l l e l Runway A n a l y s i s has i n d i c a t e d that the development of a new t h i r d runway at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l would be the most b e n e f i c i a l s t r a t e g y of the t h r e e . The proposed t h i r d runway would be approx imate l y 3030 meters in l e n g t h and would c o n s t i t u t e a c o n c r e t e s u r f a c e . The runway would be l o c a t e d p a r a l l e l to the p resent main runway, approx imate ly 1.7 km apar t (See F i g u r e 2 ) . The two runways would be f a r enough apar t to a l l ow f o r s imul taneous t a k e - o f f s and l and ing s by a l l types of a i r c r a f t . The c u r r e n t runway would be de s i gna ted as the pr imary depar tu re runway wh i le the p a r a l l e l runway would e s s e n t i a l l y be used f o r a r r i v a l s . Implementat ion of a t h i r d runway c o u l d i n c r e a s e c a p a c i t y at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l by 70%. A l though the c r e a t i o n of a t h i r d runway w i l l g r e a t l y h e l p the e f f i c i e n c y of t h i s f a c i l i t y , i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean the end of c a p a c i t y problems at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . The a d d i t i o n of a t h i r d runway w i l l g r e a t l y enhance the c a p a c i t y of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l but i f the " h i g h " e s t imate s f o r f u t u r e t r a f f i c l e v e l s i s a ch ieved at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , then conges t i on w i l l aga in become a problem at t h i s f a c i l i t y in the near f u t u r e . I t i s a l s o important to note that the c r e a t i o n of a t h i r d runway w i l l a l s o r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e a d d i t i o n s both on the tarmac and in the t e r m i n a l . That i s to say, new tax iways , h i gh speed e x i t s , approaches and roads w i l l a l s o have to be c o n s t r u c t e d to a l l ow the e f f i c i e n t use of the new runway. The t e r m i n a l b u i l d i n g i t s e l f w i l l have to be expanded in order to be a b l e to e f f e c t i v e l y handle the i n c r e a s i n g number of passengers u s ing the f a c i l i t y . I nc reased passenger l e v e l s at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l w i l l a l s o mean i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c on the sur round ing roads - thereby r e q u i r i n g the a d d i t i o n of new roads and b r i dge s or the expans ion of e x i s t i n g roads . Hence when c o n s i d e r i n g the c o s t of c o n s t r u c t i n g a t h i r d runway, one must be p repared to take c o r r e s p o n d i n g f a c t o r s i n t o account i n the o v e r a l l assessment of t h i s p r o j e c t . 65 A l t e r n a t e A i r p o r t s In a long term c a p a c i t y a n a l y s i s , the a d d i t i o n of a t h i r d runway can be c o n s i d e r e d a short term s o l u t i o n . Given Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l ' s geographic l o c a t i o n , the t h i r d runway i s the l a s t l a r ge s c a l e a d d i t i o n which t h i s f a c i l i t y can implement to compensate f o r i n c r e a s i n g a i r t r a f f i c l e v e l s . If a v i a t i o n t r a f f i c l e v e l s c o n t i n u e to i n c r e a s e at a s teady r a t e , a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s to Sea I s l a n d would have to be c o n s i d e r e d to r e l i e v e the h i gh t r a f f i c l e v e l s at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . To accompl i sh t h i s r e l i e f , an e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t in the Lower Ma in land would be augmented to i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t anda rd s . As i n d i c a t e d in F i g u r e 5, at p resent there are e s s e n t i a l l y t h ree cand ida te s i t e s fo r t h i s a l t e r n a t e a i r p o r t : A b b o t s f o r d , P i t t Meadows, and Boundary Bay. There may be other p o s s i b l e s i t e s however these three s i t e s a l r e a d y have present a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s and o p e r a t i o n s . It i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more expens ive and d i f f i c u l t to b u i l d a new a i r p o r t from s c r a t c h r a t h e r than a l t e r i n g or expanding p resent a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s . P r e s e n t l y , the on ly l o g i c a l l o c a t i o n f o r an a l t e r n a t e a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n i s A b b o t s f o r d . Under t h i s c a p a c i t y s o l u t i o n , Abbo t s fo rd A i r p o r t would be enhanced in o rder to accommodate f u t u r e a v i a t i o n t r a f f i c in t h i s r e g i o n . T h i s a i r t r a f f i c c o u l d i n c l u d e r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . Opera t i on s and f a c i l i t i e s at Boundary Bay A i r p o r t would l i k e w i s e be enhanced in order to handle g r e a t e r volumes of non-commerc ia l a i r t r a f f i c . 66 F i g u r e 5 A L T E R N A T I V E AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT OPTIONS Source: H i c k l i n g Economics and Policy D i v i s i o n . Economic  Analysis of A i r f i e l d Capacity Enhancement Strategies for  Vancouver International A i r p o r t . Vancouver: James F. Hick l i n g Management Consultants Ltd., March 1990. P i t t Meadows c o u l d l i k e w i s e p i c k up some of the non-commercia l a i r t r a f f i c ; however f u r t h e r expans ion or enhancement of the f a c i l i t i e s i s neces sa ry . In the case of both A b b o t s f o r d and Boundary Bay, expans ion of p resent f a c i l i t i e s would i n c l u d e ex ten s i on of runways, t e r m i n a l b u i l d i n g expans ion , and i n c r e a s e d apron, p a r k i n g , and taxiway c a p a c i t y . Moreover, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s between these two a i r p o r t s and Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l a long wi th downtown Vancouver would a l s o have to be improved in o rder to handle the i n c r e a s e d v e h i c l e t r a f f i c f l ows . These improvements c o u l d i n c l u d e expans ion of p resent highway system (more lanes or new roads) or the e x t e n s i o n of the S k y t r a i n l i g h t r a i l system. The o v e r a l l expans ion and enhancement p r o j e c t s necessary to use a l t e r n a t e a i r p o r t s i n the Lower Ma in land would r e q u i r e at l e a s t ten year s in order to deve lop and implement. 68 5 . 0 THE CONCEPT OF A M U L T I P L E A I R P O R T SYSTEM IN THE LOWER MAINLAND 5.1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The development of a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system i s a complex and d i f f i c u l t t a s k . The abundance of e lements and f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d in making the d e c i s i o n to deve lop a second a i r p o r t f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e s input from v a r i o u s peop le i n c l u d i n g p l a n n e r s , e n g i n e e r s , p o l i t i c i a n s and the a v i a t i o n community i t s e l f . In the case of the Lower Ma in l and , the concept of a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system has been d i s c u s s e d wi th both app rova l and c r i t i c i s m . Advocates of a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system tend to be those who see no need f o r the present a i r p o r t f a c i l i t y on Sea I s l a n d to be expanded. Opponents of a second a i r p o r t tend to be those who c o n s i d e r expans ion of the present a i r p o r t s i t e as the s o l u t i o n to f u t u r e a i r p o r t c a p a c i t y requ i rement s . Both may be wrong. The development of a t h i r d runway w i l l h e l p r e l i e v e conges t i on at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l over the next f i f t e e n to twenty y e a r s . L i k e any th ing which i s c o n f i n e d , Sea I s l and can on ly endure so much expans ion be fo re complete s a t u r a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d . The obv ious q u e s t i o n a r i s e s : what next a f t e r tha t ? In t h i s c a se , a second a i r p o r t w i l l be the on ly f e a s i b l e s o l u t i o n . As w i th any development of t h i s magnitude and importance, c a r e f u l and a p p r o p r i a t e p l ann ing must be done to ensure i t s success and at the same time cause the l e a s t amount of d i s t u r b a n c e to the sur round ing community and env i ronment. There w i l l no doubt be major c r i t i c i s m and o p p o s i t i o n towards a p l an to deve lop a second a i r p o r t f a c i l i t y . But p l ann ing fo r such a f a c i l i t y now does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that such an o p e r a t i o n w i l l have to be implemented. If p l anner s wait twenty year s be fo re p l ann ing a second a i r p o r t , the r e q u i r e d land may no longer be a v a i l a b l e to deve lop such a p r o j e c t wh i le the l eng th of t ime needed to p l an and deve lop t h i s f a c i l i t y w i l l r e s u l t in tremendous conges t i on and l o s s of economic output at the present s i t e . One cannot s imply dec i de to deve lop a second a i r p o r t and then beg in b u i l d i n g i t . T h i s k ind of development must be t h o u g h t f u l l y p l anned . Ques t ions such as how to deve lop a second a i r p o r t s i t e , where to l o c a t e i t , when and why t h i s development should occu r , must a l l be answered in order to h e l p j u s t i f y the need to begin p l a n n i n g f o r t h i s type of a i r p o r t system. But i t i s not as s imple as how, when, where or why. Economic, s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s w i l l a l s o p l a y an important r o l e in the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . The most important q u e s t i o n to be answered in a i r p o r t development i s where to b u i l d a new f a c i l i t y . Once the q u e s t i o n of l o c a t i o n has been answered, o ther p e r t i n e n t ques t i on s w i l l a r i s e i n c l u d i n g : * What r ep re sen t s the c o r r e c t p l ann ing h o r i z o n w i th re spec t to the number of years r e q u i r e d to reach o p e r a t i o n a l c a p a c i t y ? 7 0 * What i s the best economica l s t a g i n g fo r the development of a new f a c i l i t y ? In economics, s h o r t - t e r m ga ins may, and o f t en do, l e a d to l ong - te rm l o s e s . Hence a proper ba lance must be m a i n t a i n e d . * How w i l l the new a i r p o r t operate w i t h i n the present a i r p o r t system? In other words, what t r a f f i c w i l l be a s s i gned to the new f a c i l i t y , both i n i t i a l l y and p r o g r e s s i v e l y over t ime. It i s important f o r a i r p o r t p l anne r s to p l an f o r the f u t u r e , not s o l e l y f o r p resent needs. Development of a new a i r p o r t cannot be seen as a s h o r t - t e r m s o l u t i o n but as a l ong - te rm s o l u t i o n thereby r e q u i r i n g l ong - te rm p l ann ing and l ong - te rm f o r e s i g h t . 5.1 Why Before p l ann ing and d e v e l o p i n g a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system, the q u e s t i o n of why such a development shou ld be pursued must be p r o p e r l y answered. As the development of M i r a b e l A i r p o r t in Mont rea l has shown, the importance of showing why a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system shou ld be implemented does not l i e in s t a t i s t i c a l f o r e c a s t s a l o n e . 1 Many o ther f a c t o r s must be taken i n t o account in o rder to j u s t i f y why a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system shou ld be F o r e c a s t s of the number of a i r passengers who would use the Mont rea l a i r p o r t (Dorva l ) by the l a t e 1970's f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e . A leng thy r e c e s s i o n , a long w i th p o l i t i c a l t en s i on s in the P r o v i n c e of Quebec and poor a i r p o r t p l ann ing reduced p o t e n t i a l a i r t r a f f i c l e v e l s at the Mont rea l a i r p o r t s . Today, f a c i l i t i e s at M i r a b e l remain h e a v i l y u n d e r - u t i l i z e d . implemented. S t a t i s t i c s f o r Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n d i c a t e that the a i r p o r t i s ' a l r e a d y o p e r a t i n g at c a p a c i t y l e v e l s at c e r t a i n t imes of the day and a i r c r a f t and passenger movements are f o r e c a s t e d to con t i nue to i n c r e a s e over the next decade. These s t a t i s t i c s a lone cannot j u s t i f y the implementat ion of a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system in the Lower Ma in l and . As was shown wi th M i r a b e l , s t a t i s t i c s may not be as a c c u r a t e as a n t i c i p a t e d and hence a second a i r p o r t may not 2 be r e q u i r e d . As i s i n d i c a t e d in Tab le 3, a i r passenger f o r e c a s t s f o r Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l have in the past been h i gh compared to the a c t u a l t r a f f i c , a l though more recent f o r e c a s t s (1987) have been s l i g h t l y under a c t u a l passenger volumes. The development of a new a i r p o r t i s u s u a l l y the r e s u l t of over u t i l i z a t i o n of o ther a i r p o r t f a c i l i t i e s . In the case of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , o v e r - u t i l i z a t i o n i s becoming a d a i l y e x p e r i e n c e . In t h e i r r e p o r t The Case For The P a r a l l e l Runway, c o n s u l t a n t s at Sypher .Mue l l e r I n t e r n a t i o n a l l i s t the f o l l o w i n g damages r e s u l t i n g from c o n s t r a i n t s at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l : * H igher c o s t s and a i r f a r e s due to e x t r a f u e l burned, crew c o s t s and poor u t i l i z a t i o n of a i r c r a f t . * Undermining Vancouver ' s r o l e as a domest ic hub and consequent ly l o s i n g t r a f f i c to Ca l ga ry and Edmonton. I t i s un jus t to compare the M i r a b e l exper i ence w i th the present c i r cums tances in the Lower Ma in land when d e c i d i n g on which course of a c t i o n to pur sue . That i s to say, the economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n in the Lower Ma in land today cannot be compared to the co r re spond ing s i t u a t i o n in Quebec in the e a r l y 1970 ' s . TABLE 3 RELIABILITY OF AIR PASSENGER FORECASTS MADE FOR VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL IN 1973, 1980, 1987 T o t a l P a s s e n g e r s E n p l a n e d & D e p l a n e d ( O O O s ) F o r e c a s t s Made I n A c t u a l 1973 1980 1987 1970 2 , 4 3 5 1971 2 , 6 6 0 1972 3 , 1 7 5 1973 3 , 7 1 5 1974 4 , 1 7 5 3 , 9 5 0 1975 4 , 4 9 0 4 , 2 0 0 1976 4 , 6 9 5 4 , 5 0 0 1977 5 , 1 1 0 4 , 850 1978 5 , 6 1 6 5 , 3 5 0 1979 6 , 4 7 7 5 , 8 5 0 1980 7,06'+ 6 , 5 0 0 1981 7 , 1 3 3 6 , 8 0 0 1982 6 , 3 6 0 7 , 6 0 0 6 , 8 0 0 1983 6 , 3 7 0 8 , 0 0 0 1984 6 , 7 6 9 8 , 9 0 0 7 , 7 0 0 1985 7 , 0 1 8 9 , 7 5 0 1986 8 , 4 1 5 10 , ' •SO 8 , 8 0 0 1987 7 , 8 2 2 1 1 , 3 0 0 1988 8 , 8 4 0 1 2 , 2 5 0 9 , 7 0 0 8 , 2 1 4 1989 9 , 1 4 4 1 3 , 2 0 0 8 , 5 4 0 1990 1 4 , 2 0 0 1 0 , 5 0 0 8 , 7 8 0 1991 9 , 2 8 4 1992 1 1 , 5 0 0 1993 1 6 , 5 0 0 1994 1 2 , 6 0 0 1996 1 3 , 9 0 0 1 1 , 8 6 0 2001 1 3 , 7 2 0 2 0 0 6 1 5 , 4 0 0 S o u r c e : T r a n s p o r t C a n a d a , A i r p o r t P l a n n i n g C o m m i t t e e , F i na1  R e p o r t . M a r c h 1 9 7 6 ; T r a n s p o r t C a n a d a , V a n c o u v e r  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t M a s t e r P l a n . D e c e m b e r 1 9 8 1 , T P 2 3 7 5 ; T r a n s p o r t C a n a d a , YVR A i r s i d e D e m a n d / C a p a c i t y  A n a l y s i s . J u n e 1 9 8 9 , T P 9 4 1 1 E , A p p . 6 - 1 . 73 * Loss of Western Canada - U.S. P a c i f i c Northwest t r a n s i t t r a f f i c , i t can pass through e i t h e r Ca l ga ry or Edmonton. * Reg iona l B.C. s e r v i c e s bypass ing congested Vancouver and f eed ing c a r r i e r s wi th S e a t t l e , Spokane or P o r t l a n d hubs. * D i v e r s i o n of t r a n s A t l a n t i c - Western Canada rou tes from Vancouver to r e l a t i v e l y uncongested Ca l ga ry or Edmonton. * D i v e r s i o n of l o n g - h a u l domest ic Canadian t r a f f i c through the U n i t e d S t a t e s . A i r l i n e s in the U.S. c o u l d s iphon Toronto bound t r a f f i c o f f v i a Be l l i ngham A i r p o r t in the S ta te of Washington. In the p a s t , Be l l i ngham has been s u c c e s s f u l i n l u r i n g t r a n s b o r d e r (Vancouver - S e a t t l e ) passengers bound f o r other U.S. dest i na t i o n s . * Weakening of Vancouver as an a i r cargo t e r m i n a l . Vancouver i s i d e a l l y l o c a t e d f o r t ranshipment of h i g h - v a l u e t r a n s p a c i f i c a i r cargo f o r a i r or t ruck d e l i v e r y throughout North Amer ica . P r e s e n t l y , Vancouver i s l o s i n g a i r cargo to S e a t t l e , Chicago and Ea s te r n Canadian p o i n t s . The development of a t h i r d runway at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l w i l l h e l p to p revent t h i s type of damage; however these same problems may reappear in ten year s time i f c u r r e n t t r a f f i c f o r e c a s t s are e s s e n t i a l l y c o r r e c t . T r an spo r t Canada has a l r e a d y admi t ted that i t p r e d i c t s a 50% i n c r e a s e in t r a f f i c at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l by the year 2010 and consequent l y admits that conges t i on w i l l r e t u r n to t h i s f a c i l i t y by t h i s t ime, even wi th the t h i r d runway 3 in o p e r a t i o n . As F i g u r e 6 shows, i f the h i gh f o r e c a s t s are c o r r e c t , Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l - even w i th the t h i r d runway and Community Forum on A i r p o r t Development. P o s i t i o n Paper on  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t P a r a l l e l Runway P r o j e c t . Vancouver , 1991, p .1 . 74 FIGURE 6 AIRCRAFT DEMAND VS. RUNWAY CAPACITY VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT V) £ c c . -— CO o o V---<o z uz c/: ,— z c . < NWA' • *~-< ANN! ANN! c/: z uz > 600 n 500-400-- = COO -100-0 Copocitf octuelle + PAC + Diste porolljle Existing Capacity + CIP + Parallel Runway Copocite oc'uelle Existing Cc:" i ty* • " • " E l e v e e High Moyen.ne Medium ipccite' actue!ie + PAC Existing Cs;cc'\. C : = Evolution de la demonde Historic Demand 1970 1975 I 1980 YEAR i 1 I 1 1985 1990 1995 2000 ANNEE l o * Frifvison; ce lo demance Denond Forecosts 2005 Vejiiiez ncter: PAC = Programme d'aecroissement de Ic ecpcciie Note: CIP = Capacity improvement Progrom Sou rce : T r a n s p o r t Canada c a p a c i t y improvement programs - w i l l aga in be reach ing c a p a c i t y by the year 2005. It i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e l y that t r a f f i c l e v e l s w i l l be that h i gh ten year s from now yet i t i s not u n r e a l i s t i c to assume that l e v e l s w i l l be around that of the "medium" f o r e c a s t , thereby i n d i c a t i n g that c a p a c i t y and conge s t i on w i l l s t i l l become a problem w i t h i n the next twenty y e a r s . Research preformed at the Massachusetts I n s t i t u t e of Technology has found that a pr imary (or o r i g i n a l ) a i r p o r t w i l l r e q u i r e approx imate ly 20 m i l l i o n annual enplanements/deplanements in o rder to j u s t i f y the development of a second a i r p o r t to serve 4 the same r e g i o n . T ran spo r t Canada f o r e c a s t s i n d i c a t e that Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l w i l l pass t h i s 20 m i l l i o n passenger t h r e s h o l d e a r l y in the next c e n t u r y . In other words, w i th i n the next ten to f i f t e e n y e a r s . The development of a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system w i l l a l l ow the Lower Ma in land to a c t i v e l y compete in the wor ld a v i a t i o n market and at the same time w i l l g i ve Vancouver many economic b e n e f i t s . De lays at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l due to conges t i on a re hav ing an adverse e f f e c t on both the a i r p o r t i t s e l f and the Lower Ma in land as a whole. T r a v e l de l ay s f o r t o u r i s t s hur t s tour i sm which i s p r e s e n t l y B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ' s second l a r g e s t i n d u s t r y . T r a v e l d e l a y s f o r bus ines s peop le a l s o have a nega t i ve impact on t h i s r e g i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l l o s e s both time and money and may 4 . . . H i c k l i n g Economics and P o l i c y D i v i s i o n . Economic A n a l y s i s of A i r f i e l d C a p a c i t y Enhancement S t r a t e g i e s fo r Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . Vancouver: James F. H i c k l i n g Management C o n s u l t a n t s L t d . , March 1990, p. 91. a l s o l o se bus ines s o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I f an a i r p o r t such as Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l becomes the reason f o r t r a v e l d e l a y s , then many t r a v e l l i n g bus iness peop le w i l l s imply o v e r f l y the a i r p o r t , thereby a v o i d i n g d e l a y s . There have been examples in o ther North American c i t i e s where bus ines s groups have d e c i d e d to change the l o c a t i o n of annual meetings - a f t e r c o n s e c u t i v e years at that p a r t i c u l a r c i t y - due to a i r t r a v e l de l ay s at the l o c a l m e t r o p o l i t a n a i r p o r t . Vancouver i s q u i c k l y becoming regarded as one of the w o r l d ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i t i e s . The c i t y p r e s e n t l y has a World Trade Center and a wor ld c l a s s convent i on c e n t e r . Vancouver ' s growing i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t a t u r e i s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t that in A p r i l of t h i s y e a r , the annual meet ing of the A s i an Development Bank was h e l d in Vancouver - the f i r s t t ime t h i s meeting has been h e l d o u t s i d e of A s i a . Vancouver i s one of Canada ' s two I n t e r n a t i o n a l F i n a n c i a l Center s and there i s a s t rong i n d i c a t i o n that Vancouver may a l s o become an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Mar i t ime Cen te r . As an I n t e r n a t i o n a l C i t y , Vancouver must be ab le to o f f e r e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e a i r p o r t s e r v i c e . M a i n t a i n i n g a l l s e r v i c e s on Sea I s l a n d may h e l p to j e o p a r d i z e Vancouver ' s " I n t e r n a t i o n a l " r e c o g n i t i o n . P lanners and p o l i t i c i a n s must be p repared to p l an an a p p r o p r i a t e a i r p o r t system in the Lower Ma in land in order to ensure tha t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l does not deve lop a s i m i l a r r e p u t a t i o n as tha t of o ther conges ted West Coast a i r p o r t s such as Los Ange l e s . V a n c o u v e r ' s geographic l o c a t i o n i s s t r a t e g i c a l l y p l a c e d wi th re spec t to the P a c i f i c market and North American markets . It i s e s t imated that by the end of t h i s c e n t u r y , over 50% of the wor ld Gross Domestic Product (GNP) w i l l be generated in c o u n t r i e s on 5 the P a c i f i c Rim. It i s f o r e c a s t e d that w i t h i n t h i s decade, more peop le w i l l be f l y i n g a c ro s s the P a c i f i c from North America than ac ro s s the A t l a n t i c . In 1984, th ree out of every f i v e 747 jumbo a i r c r a f t f l y i n g in the a i r were f l y i n g over the A t l a n t i c . Today, th ree out of every f i v e of t h i s a i r c r a f t are now f l y i n g over the P a c i f i c . * * The number of passengers f l y i n g d i r e c t between Canada and Japan has more than doubled to over 430,000 between 1982 and 1989. A s i an c o u n t r i e s are p r e s e n t l y p l ann ing f o r i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c l e v e l s at t h e i r a i r p o r t s . New a i r p o r t s are be ing b u i l t in Hong Kong and Osaka wh i le new c a p a c i t y i s be ing added at N a r i t a (Tokyo) and S ingapore . As i t s tands now, Vancouver ' s p o s i t i o n f o r the P a c i f i c Rim market i s a l r e a d y weakening. In t h e i r r e p o r t : The Case For The  P a r a l l e l Runway , S ypher :Mue l l e r Consu l t an t s i n d i c a t e that Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l ' s r o l e as a P a c i f i c gateway i s th rea tened by: * Large volumes of E a s te rn C a n a d a - P a c i f i c t r a f f i c be ing p roces sed through U n i t e d S ta te s gateways. 5 Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t L o c a l A i r p o r t A u t h o r i t y . P r e s e n t a t i o n to the Env i ronmenta l review Panel of the  Proposed P a r a l l e l Runway fo r the Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l  A i r p o r t . Vancouver, Februa ry , 1991, p. 7. 6 I b i d , p. 8. 7 F e d e r a l Env i ronmenta l Assessment Review O f f i c e . Compendium of Submiss ions Rece ived by the YVR  Env i ronmenta l Assessment P a n e l . Vancouver, 1991, p. 103. 78 * Hubs in D a l l a s , Ch i cago , M inneapo l i s and D e t r o i t are w e l l p o s i t i o n e d to d r a i n t r a f f i c from Canada. * D e l t a A i r l i n e ' s a g g re s s i ve expans ion on t r a n s - P a c i f i c routes from P o r t l a n d . D e l t a i s ab le to o f f e r conven ient s i n g l e - a i r l i n e s e r v i c e s from Vancouver to Tokyo, Seoul and T a i p e i . * C o n t i n e n t a l A i r l i n e s o f f e r i n g new s e r v i c e from S e a t t l e in o rder to b e t t e r compete w i th Northwest A i r l i n e s on the S e a t t l e - T o k y o r u n . If Vancouver cannot o f f e r e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e a i r p o r t s e r v i c e to the P a c i f i c market, these passengers and a i r c r a f t w i l l use o ther west coas t f a c i l i t i e s or even e a s t e r n l o c a t i o n s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Boeing 747-400 a i r c r a f t a l l ows a i r l i n e s to o f f e r non- s top s e r v i c e from the North American East Coast to the O r i e n t . In f a c t some As i an c a r r i e r s have a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d that they would p r e f e r to use Toronto r a the r than Vancouver as t h e i r gateway to Canada. With re spec t to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by a i r , Vancouver i s c l o s e r to many of the r a p i d l y growing economies on the P a c i f i c Rim than e i t h e r Los Angeles or S e a t t l e . Fur thermore , Vancouver by a i r i s c l o s e r to many important c e n t e r s in Europe than l a r ge West Coast q c i t i e s such as Los Angeles and San F r a n c i s c o . Moreover, e a s i e r acces s to the w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t market due to the Canada - U.S. Free Trade Agreement has a l l owed Vancouver to become an important c e n t e r f o r the t r a n s f e r r i n g of goods to l a r ge wealthy markets i n the Western and Southern U n i t e d S t a t e s . In Europe, the g radua l i n t r o d u c t i o n of a market economy in q F l i g h t s from a c i t y such as London to Vancouver are 90 minutes s h o r t e r than f l i g h t s between London and Los Ange les . East B loc c o u n t r i e s i s the g r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n of the European Economic Community (EEC) w i l l r e s u l t in g rea te r l e v e l s of a i r t r a f f i c l i n k i n g these reg ions wi th the r e s t of the wor ld . The g l o b a l marketp lace w i l l f low through the most e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e hubs, r e g a r d l e s s of p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n . Hence Vancouver and the Lower Ma in land as a whole, has g reat p o t e n t i a l i f the a p p r o p r i a t e a i r p o r t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s i n p l a c e . 5.2 When An a i r p o r t i s not something tha t can be b u i l t o v e r n i g h t . It takes years of p r e p a r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g in o rder to deve lop a f a c i l i t y of t h i s magnitude. Time and p l ann ing a re not on ly r e q u i r e d f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the a i r p o r t i t s e l f , but are l i k e w i s e r e q u i r e d fo r the c r e a t i o n and m o d i f i c a t i o n of su r round ing roads and i n f r a s t r u c t u r e which h e l p to connect the a i r p o r t to the community i t s e r v e s . The a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of an a i r p o r t f a c i l i t y i s r e l a t i v e l y qu i ck in comparison to the p r e p a r a t i o n r e q u i r e d . Community forums, env i ronmenta l assessments , l and use c o n f l i c t s and p o l i t i c a l wrang l ing w i l l g r e a t l y lengthen the t o t a l amount of t ime that i t takes to deve lop a new a i r p o r t . A recent example of t h i s t ime consuming proces s i s i n Denver, where a f t e r c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y and p u b l i c debate s t r e t c h i n g over almost a decade, the c i t y has f i n a l l y d e c i d e d to b u i l d a new a i r p o r t to serve the community. Even a f t e r the a i r p o r t i t s e l f i s b u i l t , t ime i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s new f a c i l i t y to reach i t s expected l e v e l of o p e r a t i o n . Past expe r i ence s i n d i c a t e that i t takes a new second a i r p o r t at l e a s t ten years to mature. T h i s matura t ion p e r i o d i n d i c a t e s the time i t would take be fo re a second a i r p o r t would be ab le to ach ieve i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l . T h i s p o t e n t i a l takes time as the market must a d j u s t to the concept of a second a i r p o r t and a i r l i n e s and other o p e r a t o r s must have time to l o c a t e t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s t h e r e . In the case of the a i r p o r t system in the Lower Ma in land, the development of a second a i r p o r t w i l l not be r e q u i r e d fo r at l e a s t another decade; however t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean p u t t i n g the i s sue on the back -bu rne r . E a r l y p l ann ing and c o n s u l t a t i o n does not mean that a new a i r p o r t has to be b u i l t or ever w i l l be b u i l t . If the time comes when a second a i r p o r t w i l l be r e q u i r e d f o r the Lower Ma in l and , then we w i l l be one s tep c l o s e r . The time has come to begin p r e p a r a t i o n . A s i t e can be chosen. P lans can be deve loped f o r the t e r m i n a l and runway c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . P o t e n t i a l l and use and env i ronmenta l c o n f l i c t s can be d i s c u s s e d and h o p e f u l l y r e s o l v e d . The l and r e q u i r e d f o r the sur round ing a i r p o r t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and r e l a t e d o p e r a t i o n s must be a v a i l a b l e and o b t a i n a b l e . A l l of these f a c t o r s can be t a c k l e d now without r e q u i r i n g the development of a new a i r p o r t . I f the p u b l i c i s n o t i f i e d of t h i s p o t e n t i a l development now, then c o n f l i c t s and o p p o s i t i o n a r i s i n g from these p r o p o s a l s can be addressed now, thereby c l e a r i n g way f o r the development of such a f a c i l i t y when the time has come. The development of a new a i r p o r t i s a very c o s t l y procedure yet these costs, can be even h i gher i f the a p p r o p r i a t e i n i t i a l p l a n n i n g has not been t aken . For i n s t a n c e , i f no a c t i o n i s taken in the near f u t u r e on d e v e l o p i n g a second a i r p o r t in the Lower Ma in l and , c o s t s fo r deve l op ing such a f a c i l i t y may be g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d i f a second a i r p o r t f a c i l i t y becomes a n e c e s s i t y . P r e l i m i n a r y p l ann ing he lp s f i n d the i d e a l l o c a t i o n and he lp s implement an e f f e c t i v e development t i m e t a b l e , whereas deve lop ing a second s i t e on ly when i t i s a b s o l u t e l y necessary w i l l mean rushed p l a n n i n g and development on what would l i k e l y be a l e s s than i d e a l l o c a t i o n and under un favo rab le c o n d i t i o n s . U n c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r s can a l s o p l ay a r o l e wi th re spec t to when a second f a c i l i t y shou ld be implemented. World c r i s i s such as t h i s y e a r ' s Gu l f War l ead to major drops in wor ld a v i a t i o n t r a f f i c . Economic r e c e s s i o n s can a l s o l ead to major drops in the number of peop le f l y i n g . T h e r e f o r e one month i t may appear that t h e r e i s an immediate need f o r a second a i r p o r t , yet over the next coup le of months t h i s need may have been g r e a t l y reduced. Other u n c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r s which may a f f e c t the d e c i s i o n of when to deve lop a new a i r p o r t i n c l u d e c o n f l i c t i n g or competing a c t i v i t i e s at o ther su r round ing a i r p o r t s . Due to geog raph i ca l l o c a t i o n and r e s t r a i n t s , a i r p o r t s in the Lower Main land have c o n f l i c t i n g a i r s p a c e w i th a i r p o r t s in the S t a t e of Washington. These a i r p o r t s compete w i th each o ther to a t t r a c t more bus ines s in the form of passengers and c a r g o . If c a p a c i t y has been added to an e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t in the s t a t e of Washington or a new U.S. f a c i l i t y i s b u i l t hear the bo rder , there may be no need to deve lop a second a i r p o r t . The Port of S e a t t l e was c o n s i d e r i n g 9 b u i l d i n g a new a i r p o r t and i f t h i s d e c i s i o n had pas sed, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l would have l o s t some of i t s bus ines s and the p r a c t i c a l i t y of b u i l d i n g a second f a c i l i t y would a l s o have been l o s t . For the time be ing there i s s t i l l a l a r ge a v i a t i o n market to c a p t u r e . Any d i s c u s s i o n or p roposa l on a new a i r p o r t shou ld not commence u n t i l there has been a f i n a l d e c i s i o n made on the development of the t h i r d runway. If t h i s runway p r o j e c t does not m a t e r i a l i z e , then development of a second a i r p o r t may be r e q u i r e d sooner or p o s s i b l y never s i n c e the op t i on to add c o n s i d e r a b l e c a p a c i t y at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l w i l l s t i l l be a v a i l a b l e . It would be i m p r a c t i c a l to deve lop a l t e r n a t e a i r p o r t s be fo re adding a t h i r d runway to Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . If a second a i r p o r t were deve loped p r i o r to development of a t h i r d runway, " r e l u c t a n t " u ser s of t h i s new a i r p o r t would l i k e l y abandon i t once new c a p a c i t y - i n the form of a t h i r d runway - was added at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . T h i s type of r e s u l t i s a l r e a d y ev iden t in the Lower Ma in l and . When Boundary Bay A i r p o r t was r e a c t i v a t e d , t r a f f i c l e v e l s at P i t t Meadows decreased d r a m a t i c a l l y . It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h i s runway p r o j e c t has been d i s c u s s e d 9 . The Port of S e a t t l e has d e c i d e d t h a t , f o r the time be ing , no new a i r p o r t w i l l be deve loped to serve the S e a t t l e -Tacoma r e g i o n . If a new a i r p o r t were to be deve loped , i t would l i k e l y be done at one of the present Boeing a i r f i e l d s in the r e g i o n , thereby d i m i n i s h i n g both the co s t and the time u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r development of a new a i r p o r t . and proposed at v a r i o u s t imes over the past twenty y e a r s . Given t h i s p receden t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine how long i t w i l l take i f development of a new a i r p o r t i s p roposed. 5.3 How The q u e s t i o n of how to deve lop a second a i r p o r t i s of c r i t i c a l importance i n the f u t u r e success of that p a r t i c u l a r a i r p o r t system. Deve lop ing a second a i r p o r t r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l and t h o u g h t f u l p l ann ing on what the r o l e of t h i s new f a c i l i t y w i l l be, who w i l l t h i s a i r p o r t s e r v e , and how can i t be c o n v e n i e n t l y a c c e s s i b l e . These a re on ly some of many q u e s t i o n s which have to be addressed in any p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s on a p o t e n t i a l m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system. The f i r s t f a c t o r which must be addressed i s the r o l e that the second a i r p o r t would p l a y . T h i s second a i r p o r t shou ld not a c t as c o m p e t i t i o n to Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , but ac t as a pa r tner and r e l i e v e r . Hence o p e r a t i o n s at both a i r p o r t s shou ld be under one c o n t r o l w i th both a i r p o r t s o f f e r i n g the same a i r p o r t s e r v i c e s at comparable p r i c e s and q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e . P r e s e n t l y , T ranspor t Canada c o n t r o l s o p e r a t i o n s at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l however by the end of t h i s year i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l may be c o n t r o l l e d by a L o c a l A i r p o r t A u t h o r i t y (LAA). Apart from a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l and s a f e t y , t h i s p u b l i c l y owned A u t h o r i t y would set a l l commercia l p o l i c i e s and make a l l f i n a l decisions concerning the a i r p o r t . If Vancouver International f a l l s under the management structure of a LAA, then any future develop of alternate s i t e s should likewise be under thi s same control. A multiple airport system under one non-governmentally controlled body w i l l allow these airports to follow regional and community goals, while management w i l l be capable of fast and creative responses to market changes and opportunities. Most importantly, a i r p o r t s in the Lower Mainland w i l l be able to pursue p o l i c i e s which w i l l benefit these individual airports themselves, but could not be j u s t i f i e d as a national airport p o l i c y . In order to create an e f f i c i e n t airport system, both airports should not be catering to the same market. In other words, a i r t r a f f i c components such as international , regional, charter, and cargo would each be designated to a pa r t i c u l a r a i r p o r t . For example, under the airport system incorporated at Paris, each airport serving the Paris region has a certain r o l e . One airport serves national and regional passengers, while a second airport serves international passengers. Other airport s serve the remaining t r a f f i c . Several f a c i l i t i e s serve corporate and business t r a f f i c while another f a c i l i t y handles only helicopters and one f a c i l i t y i s used for g l i d i n g . 1 0 S p l i t t i n g up national and regional services between two f a c i l i t i e s i s a costly and cumbersome venture for both the Aeroports De Paris. ADP in 1989. Paris: Department of Corporate Communication, 1990. a i r l i n e and the passenger . In t h i s c a se , i t would seem to be most l o g i c a l to de s i gna te the second a i r p o r t as the i n t e r n a t i o n a l and overseas base wh i le Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l would remain the r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l a i r p o r t . I t i s common sense that an a i r p o r t which i s de s i gna ted fo r commuter and r e g i o n a l t r a f f i c shou ld be l o c a t e d c l o s e r to the m e t r o p o l i t a n cen te r r a t h e r than f u r t h e r away. P l a c i n g commuter and r e g i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s at a second s i t e would i n c r e a s e minimum connec t i ng t imes by two to th ree hours (bus t r a v e l to and from Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l ) thereby e s s e n t i a l l y p r e v e n t i n g same day bus ines s t r a v e l to and from B.C. communit ies - apar t from those who o r i g i n a t e d or te rmina ted t h e i r t r a v e l i n Vancouver. Of the 1.8 m i l l i o n passengers who t r a v e l l e d to and from B.C. communit ies in 1988, 40% of these persons connected at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . These 750,000 people would be g r e a t l y i nconven ienced by moving commuter and r e g i o n a l t r a f f i c f u r t h e r away than i t s p re sen t l o c a t i o n at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . Moreover, i f r e g i o n a l and commuter s e r v i c e s were s p l i t between two a i r p o r t s , i n e q u i t i e s would a r i s e . Commuter and r e g i o n a l a i r l i n e s s t i l l u s ing Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l would have an u n f a i r advantage s i n c e competing commuter and r e g i o n a l a i r l i n e s us ing the new a i r p o r t would have a d d i t i o n a l c o s t s both in ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and t ime , and thus would be l e s s a t t r a c t i v e to the p o t e n t i a l cus tomer. L o g i s t i c a l l y , i t would be e a s i e r to move the i n t e r n a t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s s i n c e these o p e r a t i o n s a re not as e x t e n s i v e as the 86 l o c a l and r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e s . As i n d i c a t e d i n Tab le 4, i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a f f i c represen ted on l y 12% of the t o t a l m a i n l i n e t r a f f i c f o r Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n 1989. TABLE 4 V A N C O U V E R I N T E R N A T I O N A L A I R P O R T E N P L A N E D A N D D E P L A N E D P A S S E N G E R S Y e a r D o m e s t i c 1 198<4 ' . . 0 0 6 . 6 7 3 1985 ' l , 1 0 8 , 8 1 8 1986 4 , 6 9 9 , 5 0 8 1987 4 , 1 8 5 , 2 7 1 1988 <»,601 ,'100 1989 ' . , 3 9 8 , 5 0 0 1996 1.0 5 , 8 5 0 , 0 0 0 Med 6 , 2 9 0 , 0 0 0 H i 7 , 2 6 0 , 0 0 0 2001 Lo 6 , 5 7 0 , 0 0 0 Med 7 . 2 1 0 , 0 0 0 H i 8 , 4 2 0 , 0 0 0 Ma i n 1 i ne Un i t T o l l frarisborder Other Inl. iot.il 1 , 3 0 3 , 1 5 3 1 , 2 1 0 , 0 8 0 1 , 7 0 5 . 3 6 6 1 , 5 6 0 , 5 ' l 5 1 . 5 9 3 , 6 0 0 1 , 6 3 2 , 5 0 0 1 , 6 9 0 , 0 0 0 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 , 2 6 0 , 0 0 0 1 , 8 5 0 , 0 0 0 2 , 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 , 6 1 0 , 0 0 0 '428,819 '130, 796 5 2 3 , 2 0 3 5 8 5 , 7 5 2 72*4,500 8 '47,500 5 , 7 3 8 , 6 ' l 5 5 , 7 4 9 , 6 9 4 6 , 9 2 8 . 0 7 7 6 , 3 3 1 , 5 6 8 6 . 9 1 9 . 5 0 0 6 , 8 7 8 , 5 0 0 7 0 0 , 0 0 0 8 , 2 ' I 0 , 0 0 0 8 5 0 , 0 0 0 9 ,1 ' 40 , 000 9 ' l 0 , 000 10 , '160 , 000 8 5 0 . 0 0 0 9 . 2 7 0 , 0 0 0 1 , 1 1 0 . 0 0 0 1 0 . 6 2 0 , 0 0 0 1 , 2 8 0 , 0 0 0 1 2 , 3 1 0 , 0 0 0 Clint t e r 5 8 1 , 9 1 8 66 7 . 852 5 1 3 . 0 7 7 39 '4 ,299 3 70.(100 'I'I 3, 300 '120 , 0 00 5 2 0 , 0 0 0 5 8 0 , 0 0 0 ' 180 .000 6 1 0 . 0 0 0 6 9 0 , 0 0 0 Other Unit Tol 'I'18 ,'493 6 0 0 , 5 3 1 9 / 3 , 6 7 1 1 , 0 9 6 , 5 6 4 1 , 5 5 0 . 2 0 0 1 , 8 2 2 , 1 0 0 1 , 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 , 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 . 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 . 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 , 8 5 0 , 0 0 0 iota) 6 , 7 6 9 . 0 5 6 7 , 0 1 8 . 0 7 7 8 , 4 1 4 , 8 2 5 7 . 822 , ' 1 31 8 , 8 ' ) 0 , 100 9 , 1 '13, 900 10 , '160, 000 1 1 , 8 6 0 , 0 0 0 1 3 , 5 ' l O , 0 0 0 1 1 , 7 5 0 , 0 0 0 1 3 , 7 3 0 , 0 0 0 1 5 , 8 5 0 , 0 0 0 S o u r c e : T r a n s p o r t Canada P r e s e n t l y t he re a re 74 schedu led d e p a r t u r e s a week from Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l to over seas d e s t i n a t i o n s wh i l e t h e r e are over 170 d e p a r t u r e s a day to d e s t i n a t i o n s in Western Canada a l o n e . 1 1 Due to g e o g r a p h i c a l and a i r s p a c e r e s t r a i n t s , any second a i r p o r t i n the Lower Ma in land would have d i f f i c u l t y s e r v i n g l o c a l and r e g i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s due to the h i g h number of h o u r l y l and ing s and 1 1 T r a n s p o r t Canada A i r p o r t s . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t Annual Review: Year Ended March 1990. TP 10062E (Vancouver, 1991), p. 5. t a k e o f f s t h i s t r a f f i c produces (See Table 5). Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s a r a t h e r unique a i r p o r t i n that i t serves a dual r o l e . That i s to say, the a i r p o r t serves as a hub fo r B r i t i s h Columbia d e s t i n a t i o n s and a l s o serves as the P a c i f i c Rim's gateway to Canada. As the P a c i f i c market cont i n u e s to grow, Vancouver's r o l e as a gateway f o r t h i s t r a f f i c w i l l become i n c r e a s i n g l y important and the a p p r o p r i a t e f a c i l i t i e s must be in pla c e to r e c e i v e t h i s t r a f f i c . Hence i t would be b e n e f i c i a l to s p l i t o p e r a t i o n s between a i r p o r t s based on t h i s dual r o l e - one a i r p o r t serves as a hub while the other serves as a gateway. T h i s form of s p l i t o p e r a t i o n s i s common i n many m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t systems i n op e r a t i o n today. C i t i e s such P a r i s , New York, and Montreal have m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t s i n o p e r a t i o n with r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e at one s i t e while i n t e r n a t i o n a l f l i g h t s operate out of a second a i r p o r t . As M i r a b e l A i r p o r t i n Montreal has demonstrated, s p l i t t i n g a i r p o r t o p e r a t i o n s s t r i c t l y between n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e does not ensure success. A more e f f e c t i v e s c e n a r i o c o u l d i n v o l v e s p l i t t i n g the o p e r a t i o n s of the two n a t i o n a l c a r r i e r s between the two a i r p o r t s along with n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e r v i c e . In other words, A i r Canada would operate out of one a i r p o r t while Canadian A i r l i n e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l would operate out of the ot h e r . In t h i s way, passengers a r r i v i n g at e i t h e r a i r p o r t w i l l s t i l l be ab l e to make connections to r e g i o n a l or n a t i o n a l l o c a t i o n s . RUNWAY UTILIZATION PLANT OF TABLE 5 AT VANCOUVER INTERNATIONAL AIRCRAFT, 1980 - 1989 BY POWER Air c r a f t Movements (Thousands) JET TURBO PISTON TOTAL No . '/. No. No. 7. I 990 95.3 40.0 19.9 8.6 118.7 51 .5 230 .9 1981 97.5 42.6 21 .5 9.4 110.0 48.0 229 .0 1982 90.0 44 .7 22.5 1 1 .2 88.5 44 . 1 201 .3 1983 84 .5 43.0 23.8 12.1 88.2 44 .9 196 .5 1 984 84 .5 44.0 32.3 16.9 74.8 39. 1 191 .3 1985 89 .3 42.7 40.7 19.4 79.2 37.9 209 .4 1 986 96.9 38.8 58.0 23.2 94.6 38.0 249 .5 1987 96.3 35.7 71.7 26.6 101 .5 37.7 269 .5 1988 101.4 35.3 86.4 30.0 99.6 34 .7 287 .4 1 989 102.6 36.4 91.6 32.5 87.3 31.1 281 .5 1 990« 100.7 37.4 105.3 39. 1 63.2 23.5 269 .2 Source: Transport Canada. YVR Par a l l e i Runwav Project EIS t • August 1990 Preliminary f , TP1073E, Table 3-3 and Figure 3-1. igures from Transport Canada, 18/1/91. By d e s i g n a t i n g a i r t r a f f i c in t h i s manner, a i r l i n e s would not be d u p l i c a t i n g t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s , thus making Vancouver a l e s s a p p e a l i n g l o c a t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l c a r r i e r s cannot o f f e r l o c a l and r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e s u s ing t h e i r a i r c r a f t and hence would not be r e q u i r e d to use the two a i r p o r t s . The two Canadian c a r r i e r s would not have to d u p l i c a t e t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s s i n c e each would be s e r v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a i r p o r t . S p l i t t i n g up o p e r a t i o n s in t h i s manner i s a l s o more b e n e f i c i a l to the passenger . A bus ines sper son l e a v i n g Ca lgary for Vancouver does not want to t r a v e l an hour a f t e r l and ing at the a i r p o r t in order to reach downtown - making the t r i p downtown longer than the f l i g h t i t s e l f . C o n v e r s e l y , someone who has t r a v e l l e d 10 to 12 hours from overseas w i l l not be as h o s t i l e towards an hour journey downtown. G e n e r a l l y , bus iness people f l y i n g overseas do not a r r i v e an hour be fo re t h e i r meeting whereas a bus ines sper son from Ca l ga ry would l i k e l y do so. If I n t e r n a t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s were removed from the a i r p o r t , c o n g e s t i o n would be a l l e v i a t e d , but not t e r m i n a t e d . Other o p e r a t i o n s would l i k e w i s e have to be moved. These c o u l d i n c l u d e o p e r a t i o n s such as c h a r t e r , t r a i n i n g and r e c r e a t i o n , c o r p o r a t e , c i v i l , and m i l i t a r y . Some of these o p e r a t o r s can be r e l o c a t e d at 1 2 v a r i o u s sma l l a i r p o r t s in the Lower Ma in l and . 12 . P r e s e n t l y at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , commercia l t r a f f i c r e p r e s e n t s 85% of a l l t r a f f i c wh i le c o r p o r a t e a i r c r a f t i s 7% and the remainder i s r ep re sen ted by p r i v a t e , s t a t e , and m i l i t a r y t r a f f i c . Moving t h i s non-commercia l t r a f f i c w i l l on ly mean the removal of 15% of the t o t a l t r a f f i c at YVR, thereby r e s u l t i n g in a s h o r t - t e r m s o l u t i o n . 90 In f a c t , over the past f i v e years some of these o p e r a t o r s have a l r e a d y been moved to the Boundary Bay A i r p o r t . An a p p r o p r i a t e l i n k a g e w i t h l i g h t r a i l t r a n s i t between t h i s f a c i l i t y and Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l would make the i nconven ience to c o n n e c t i n g passengers v i r t u a l l y n e g l i g i b l e . Vancouver i s w e l l s u i t e d f o r the a i r - s e a and a i r - t r u c k t r a n s p o r t of cargo and hence cargo t r a f f i c i s an important o p e r a t i o n a t Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . As i n d i c a t e d in Tab le 6, in 1989 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 124,000 tonnes of f r e i g h t was hand led at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t i n g an i n c r e a s e of 17% from 1988. TABLE 6 V A N C O U V E R INTERNAT IONAL A IRPORT E N P L A N E D AND DEPLANED C A R G O (TONNES) - M a i n l i n e U n i t T o l l C h a r t e r O t h e r Y e a r D o m e s t i c T r a n s b o r d e r O t h e r I n t . T o t a l I n t . U n i t T o l l 1981 5 9 , 0 8 9 1 0 , 1 1 8 1 1 . 9 1 8 257 0 1985 6 0 , 6 3 1 1 0 , 1 3 3 1 2 , 3 4 4 1 , 6 6 8 0 1986 6 0 , 0 1 4 1 1 , 8 5 8 1 5 , 6 7 5 1 ,891 0 1987 6 0 . 0 9 5 1 3 , 7 5 8 1 5 . 6 6 9 2 . 0 3 0 0 1988 6 5 . 9 2 5 1 5 . 0 8 5 1 9 . 8 5 9 2 , 0 6 9 0 1989 7 7 , 9 9 1 1 8 , 3 7 7 2 5 , 9 3 8 1 2 2 , 3 0 6 2 , 0 1 9 0 T o t a l 8 1 , 4 1 2 8 4 , 7 7 6 8 9 , 4 3 8 9 1 . 5 5 2 1 0 2 , 9 3 8 1 2 4 , 3 2 5 S o u r c e : T r a n s p o r t Canada I t has been f o r e c a s t e d that s e a - a i r cargo a t Vancouver w i l l grow 1 3 by up to 20% over the next t h ree y e a r s . Moving these ca rgo o p e r a t i o n s to another a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n would be an expens ive task T r a n s p o r t Canada A i r p o r t s . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l  A i r p o r t Annual Review: Year Ended March 1990. TP 10062E (Vancouver , 1991), p. 14. as a l l necessary i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s p r e s e n t l y l o c a t e d at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . Overn ight f r e i g h t s e r v i c e would have to remain at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l as these ope ra to r s have a t i g h t t ime schedule which r e q u i r e s them to be near the m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r . A l l - c a r g o c a r r i e r s w i th non- rush items c o u l d be moved to another f a c i l i t y as t h i s s e r v i c e does not r e q u i r e c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to downtown. T h i s o p t i o n would not be f a v o r a b l e s i n c e a c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o p o r t i o n of f r e i g h t a r r i v i n g in Vancouver i s connected to other f l i g h t s . I t i s important to r e a l i z e that 80% of a l l f r e i g h t t r a v e l l i n g through Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s c a r r i e d in the ho lds of passenger a i r c r a f t wh i le the r e s t i s c a r r i e d by f r e i g h t e r a i r c r a f t . T h e r e f o r e moving cargo o p e r a t i o n s to a new l o c a t i o n would a c t u a l l y represent a sma l l p r o p o r t i o n of the t o t a l f r e i g h t o p e r a t i o n s . If i n t e r n a t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n s were moved to a new l o c a t i o n , an a p p r o p r i a t e f r e i g h t t r a n s p o r t l i n k between the two a i r p o r t s would have to be implemented as some of t h i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l cargo would be connec t i n g to o ther a i r c r a f t bound f o r n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l d e s t i n a t i o n s . As Canada ' s P a c i f i c gateway, Vancouver p l ay s an important r o l e in the cargo i n d u s t r y and thus any a i r p o r t system in Vancouver must be ab le to o f f e r both s u f f i c i e n t and e f f i c i e n t cargo s e r v i c e s . L i k e pas sengers , most cargo i s t ime s e n s i t i v e and can be e a s i l y r e - r o u t e d to o ther west coas t d e s t i n a t i o n s such as S e a t t l e , P o r t l a n d , and San F r a n c i s c o - a l l of whom would be g l ad to p i ck up a d d i t i o n a l cargo t r a f f i c . A major c r i t i c i s m of a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system i s the inconven ience fo r c o n n e c t i n g passengers of t r a v e l l i n g between the a i r p o r t s . Exper i ence from M i r a b e l A i r p o r t and Edmonton I n t e r n a t i o n a l c l e a r l y shows the d i f f i c u l t y in a t t r a c t i n g customers un le s s some form of f a s t and r e l i a b l e ground t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e to the m e t r o p o l i t a n cen te r be ing s e r v e d . A long journey between a i r p o r t s w i l l co s t the passenger both t ime and money and may r e s u l t i n missed connec t i ons or t r a v e l l i n g at un f avo rab le t imes . By improv ing t r a v e l t imes between two a i r p o r t s , the newly e s t a b l i s h e d a i r p o r t w i l l be ab le to a t t r a c t more t r a f f i c . T h e r e f o r e i t i s important that an e f f i c i e n t and e f f e c t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k i s a v a i l a b l e between two a i r p o r t s s e r v i n g one r e g i o n . There are s e v e r a l good examples in o ther c i t i e s of e f f e c t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s between a d i s t a n t s a t e l l i t e a i r p o r t and the m e t r o p o l i t a n c e n t e r i t s s e r v e s . In London, Gatwick A i r p o r t i s se rved by a f a s t and r e l i a b l e express t r a i n . T r a i n s l eave every f i f t e e n minutes f o r downtown London c o v e r i n g the route i n 30 minutes . These t r a i n s f u l l y accommodate the needs of the t r a v e l l e r s . I nc luded on board are e x t r a luggage space, 1 4 c r e d i t c a r d opera ted te lephones and snack b a r s . A l though not p r e s e n t l y i n c o r p o r a t e d , f a s t and r e l i a b l e t r a i n s e r v i c e i s p lanned t o soon serve Heathrow A i r p o r t i n London. E l e c t r i c t r a i n s e r v i c e i s p lanned f o r Heathrow runn ing every f i f t e e n minutes B r i t i s h A i r p o r t s A u t h o r i t y . Gatwick Guide 1990. London: McM i l l an M a r t i n L t d . , 1990, p. 55. from e a r l y morning u n t i l l a t e at n i g h t . These t r a i n s w i l l l i n k up wi th London ' s underground t r a n s i t s e r v i c e at c e r t a i n s t a t i o n s . In P a r i s , p l a n i n g i s underway to l i n k up C h a r l e s - d e - G a u l l e A i r p o r t by unmanned m e t r o - s t y l e t r a i n s wi th the n a t i o n a l h i gh speed t r a i n (TGV) network. T h i s w i l l enable passengers u s ing the a i r p o r t to reach v i r t u a l l y a l l of F r a n c e ' s major towns and other major c i t i e s in Europe. A i r p o r t a u t h o r i t i e s in P a r i s have a l s o implemented a major p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n campaign to h e l p r e l i e v e peak hour ground t r a f f i c conge s t i on at the a i r p o r t . C a l l e d "Papa B r avo " , t h i s campaign i n v o l v e s the use of the r a d i o , the p r e s s , and p o s t e r s to in form p o t e n t i a l u ser s of the a i r p o r t . The p u b l i c i s encouraged to use p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t r a the r than t h e i r c a r s to 1 5 t r a v e l to the a i r p o r t . In the case of the Lower Ma in l and , a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k between Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l and a second a i r p o r t would l i k e l y i n v o l v e a r a p i d t r a n s i t system. L i g h t r a i l l i n e s c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d a long present r i g h t s - o f - w a y 1 ^ and these new l i n e s c o u l d a l s o be i n t e g r a t e d wi th the p r e s e n t l y e s t a b l i s h e d system, thereby l i n k i n g the new a i r p o r t not on ly w i th Vancouver 1 5 Ae ropo r t s De P a r i s . ADP in 1989. P a r i s : Department of Corpora te Communication, 1990, p. 46. 1 ^ It i s important to note that many o b s t a c l e s may be encountered by a t tempt ing to b u i l d a new l i g h t r a i l system us ing e x i s t i n g r i g h t s - o f - w a y . Communities w i l l o f t e n re fu se new r a i l c o n s t r u c t i o n as i t may b lock road t r a n s p o r t or e l i m i n a t e p re sen t r a i l l i n e s . Fur thermore , under u t i l i z e d r i g h t s - o f - w a y are be ing examined fo r t h e i r p o s s i b l e economic b e n e f i t s and thus these l i n e s may not e x i s t when the time comes f o r implementing a new l i g h t r a p i d t r a n s i t . I n t e r n a t i o n a l , but the r e s t of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area as w e l l . I n c o r p o r a t i n g such t r a n s i t s e r v i c e w i l l a l s o be g r e a t l y b e n e f i c i a l to urban commuters who p r e s e n t l y use the congested road network to t r a v e l from t h e i r homes in the o u t l y i n g reg ions to work in downtown Vancouver. C o n s t r u c t i n g such a t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k would be a c o s t l y and t i m e l y v e n t u r e . In t h e i r r e p o r t Economic A n a l y s i s of A i r f i e l d  C a p a c i t y Enhancement S t r a t e g i e s f o r Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l  A i r p o r t , H i c k l i n g C o n s u l t a n t s e s t imate that implementing a Sky T r a i n System between a i r p o r t s would cos t 38.7 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s per k i l o m e t e r . G iven the t ime i t has taken to study p o s s i b l e expans ion of the e x i s t i n g Sky T r a i n routes in the m e t r o p o l i t a n area i t s e l f , i t i s not wrong to assume that i t would take years be fo re any such system would be implemented between two a i r p o r t s . T h e r e f o r e i t i s important to p lan fo r such t r a n s p o r t a t i o n l i n k s now in o rder to h e l p ensure the success of a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system i f such a system were to become r e a l i t y . T h i s i s not to say tha t c o n s t r u c t i o n shou ld begin once a p o t e n t i a l second a i r p o r t s i t e i s chosen, but tha t p r e l i m i n a r y p l a n n i n g , such as where and how a r a p i d t r a n s i t l i n e c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d and how i t would e f f e c t su r round ing communit ies , shou ld begin in the near f u t u r e . 95 5.4 Where The q u e s t i o n of where to l o c a t e a second a i r p o r t i s the most c r u c i a l and d i f f i c u l t of a l l p l ann ing d e c i s i o n s a s s o c i a t e d wi th a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system. If p o o r l y chosen, the s i t e f o r a second a i r p o r t may a c t u a l l y work aga in s t tha t a i r p o r t , and the r e s t of the a i r p o r t system in g e n e r a l . A poor l o c a t i o n would h inder not on ly a i r p o r t o p e r a t i o n s , but a l s o the sur round ing communities and the env i ronment. Due to the h i gh c o s t s of a i r p o r t c o n s t r u c t i o n , the i s sue of l o c a t i o n cannot be taken l i g h t l y . I t i s not the e x p l i c i t purpose of t h i s paper to dec ide on where a second a i r p o r t shou ld be l o c a t e d f o r t h i s i s a d e c i s i o n which must be c a r e f u l l y ana l yzed by an a r r ay of p r o f e s s i o n a l s over a c o n s i d e r a b l y leng thy time p e r i o d . However i t i s important to d i s c u s s what l o c a t i o n p o s s i b i l i t i e s e x i s t and what f a c t o r s must be taken i n t o account wi th re spec t to these p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Each e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t in a reg ion such as the Lower Ma in land w i l l have a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of f a c t o r s due to i t s l o c a t i o n which w i l l a f f e c t the o p e r a t i o n s of tha t p a r t i c u l a r f a c i l i t y . The more s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s can be summarized as f o l l o w s : * A i r space f a c t o r s * M e t e o r o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s * T o p o g r a p h i c a l c o n d i t i o n s * Env i ronmenta l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s * Su r face t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c a p a c i t y An i d e a l l o c a t i o n would have p o s i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r each of these f a c t o r s and at the same time be ab le to operate at an e c o n o m i c a l l y j u s t i f i a b l e l e v e l . In the case of the Lower Ma in l and , there i s no one l o c a t i o n which i s i d e a l for the development of a new a i r p o r t . As would be expec ted , i t i s very u n l i k e l y tha t any l o c a t i o n where a present a i r p o r t e x i s t s c o u l d meet the demands and requ i rements of everyone; however some e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n s w i l l d e f i n i t e l y meet l e s s o p p o s i t i o n than o t h e r s . The one l o c a t i o n in the Lower Ma in land which has c o n s i s t e n t l y been . mentioned as a p o s s i b l e r e l i e v e r a i r p o r t i s A b b o t s f o r d . Compared to o ther e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t s in the Lower Ma in l and , Abbo t s f o rd appears to be the best s u i t e d as i t i s the on ly o ther e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t capab le of h a n d l i n g l a r g e a i r c a r r i e r t r a f f i c . But i t i s by no means the p e r f e c t l o c a t i o n . A b b o t s f o r d A i r p o r t , an a l l weather a i r p o r t , i s ranked 12th in Canada f o r a i r c r a f t movements. The t e r m i n a l can accommodate a i r c r a f t i n the twenty passenger range but the a i r p o r t i t s e l f can accommodate any commerc ia l , p r i v a t e , or m i l i t a r y a i r c r a f t in e x i s t e n c e today. The c u r r e n t passenger volume at Abbo t s f o rd i s approx imate l y 3,500 per y e a r , w i th an e s t imated 6,000 by the year 2 0 0 1 . 1 7 Noreco l Env i ronmenta l Con su l t an t s L t d . YVR P a r a l l e l  Runway P r o j e c t P r e l i m i n a r y Env i ronmenta l Impact  Statement. Prepared f o r T ran spo r t Canada, March, 1990, Ch. 3, p. 40. Abbo t s f o rd i s used as an a l t e r n a t e to Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l when poor weather p revent s the use of f a c i l i t i e s on Sea I s l a n d , hence A i r Canada and Canadian A i r l i n e s ma in ta in sma l l o f f i c e s . In 1988, there were 13,400 IFR movements at A b b o t s f o r d . The sur round ing topography at Abbo t s f o rd A i r p o r t and a i r s p a c e r e s t r i c t i o n s (both in the Lower Ma in land and ac ro s s the border) have r e s u l t e d in a low average of 15 IFR f l i g h t per hour, wi th t h i s number be ing as low as 3 under poor weather c o n d i t i o n s . New techno logy and f a c i l i t y improvements w i l l a l l ow the IFR c a p a c i t y at A b b o t s f o r d to be i n c r e a s e d over the next decade. By the tu rn of the c e n t u r y , A b b o t s f o r d A i r p o r t c o u l d have an IFR c a p a c i t y of 25 f l i g h t s per hour, making i t f a r more v i a b l e as a r e l i e v e r to Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , - e s p e c i a l l y fo r i n t e r n a t i o n a l f l i g h t s whose h o u r l y movements at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l are not as f requent as r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l f l i g h t s . In o rder to make Abbo t s f o rd A i r p o r t an a t t r a c t i v e second a i r p o r t f o r Vancouver, c o n s i d e r a b l e changes at the f a c i l i t y w i l l have to o c c u r . These changes i n c l u d e expans ion of t e r m i n a l f a c i l i t i e s , ex ten s i on of runways, taxiways and ramps, and b e t t e r s u r f a c e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c a p a c i t y to and from the a i r p o r t and to and from Vancouver i t s e l f . Abbo t s f o rd A i r p o r t s t i l l has a c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e l and re se rve a l l o w i n g f o r the expans ion of f a c i l i t i e s and the development of an a d d i t i o n a l runway. In the long run , development of Abbo t s f o rd may be 1 8 T ran spo r t Canada. Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t  P a r a l l e l Runway P r o j e c t Env i ronmenta l Impact Statement. TP 10173E (Vancouver, 1990), Ch. 3, p. 27. i m p r a c t i c a l . Regard less of improved IFR c a p a c i t y , Abbo t s fo rd c o u l d never ach ieve hou r l y a i r c r a f t movements of an a i r p o r t such as Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . If a i r t r a f f i c volume p r e d i c t i o n s fo r the Lower Main land prove to be g r e a t l y u n d e r - e s t i m a t e d , A b b o t s f o r d A i r p o r t would not be a b l e to e f f e c t i v e l y f u n c t i o n as a s a t e l l i t e a i r p o r t . T h e r e f o r e i t i s important to r e s e a r c h other p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s where there i s ample a v a i l a b l e l and (with or without an e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t ) to deve lop a second a i r p o r t . Such a development would i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r a b l y h i gher c o s t s and a l e n g t h i e r p l ann ing and c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s , but the Lower Ma in land would have an a i r p o r t system capab le of hand l i ng a i r t r a f f i c w e l l i n t o the 21st Cen tury . The same expans ion p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r A b b o t s f o r d cannot be preformed at most o ther e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t s in c o n s i d e r a t i o n in the Lower Ma in l and . Boundary Bay A i r p o r t has been de s i gna ted by the government as an a i r p o r t f o r s e r v i n g l i g h t a v i a t i o n . As such ,the f a c i l i t y at Boundary Bay i s q u i c k l y approach ing c a p a c i t y (See Tab le 7). Fur thermore, a i r s p a c e c o n s t r a i n t s due to the p r o x i m i t y of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l keep h o u r l y IFR movements low. The a i r p o r t at P i t t Meadows i s l i k e w i s e c o n s t r a i n e d in hour l y a i r c r a f t movements (both IFR and VFR) due to i t s p r o x i m i t y to Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . The Lang ley A i r p o r t has the same l i m i t a t i o n s due to a i r s p a c e c o n f l i c t s as i t i s l o c a t e d between Vancouver and A b b o t s f o r d . Opera t i on s at P i t t Meadows and Lang ley a re a l s o cons t ra ined , .by. s ize, c o n s t r a i n t s and env i ronmenta l T A B L E 7 L O W E R M A I N L A N D A N D S O U T H E R N V A N C O U V E R I S L A N D A I R P O R T S : R U N W A Y C A P A C I T I E S AIKIDKT ASSUMED TKAHTC MIX IIH/VIV I ' I K K ANNUAL CAI-AIMY I9HH DbMAND FORECAST YGAR WHEN DEMAND EXCEEDS CAPACITY* Lower Mainland Vancouver International liouiulufy Huy AMxNs l i i r i l L i i n g k y P i l l Mcw l i iws O i i l l i w a i k 6 2 % to 4 H % ID, h i W % 1% K I W » (II. m i l l l ) % (1% u> 1(10% 0 % lu 1 0 0 % 277 OIHr I'XI l l l l l l l o 210 0 0 0 2M> (KM) to 250 0 0 0 I'x.) I KX I i o 210 0 0 0 2'Xl 0 0 0 m 310 0 0 0 MIO m i o to no 0 0 0 287 364 155 6 0 * 153 6 2 } 121 041 11} 891 50 000* 1990 IW2 to IW6 Beyond 2001 Beyond 2001 Beyond 2001 Beyond 2001 Vant'iiuvrr Island V K I H I I;I N . I I M I I I M I 2 Ul INK) io 25(1 000 nai INX) io no ooo 200 033 62 776 C u i i c i i i l y l i c m c c > | U i n k ' ( l H I a t u r g c i K X I ( X X I i . i | > ; « . u y h y a n m i | i r i i v c i n c n i p r o g r u m I ' .MlllMIC I l k ' M ' l i M i ' t ' : i \ l \ .IIC i M M ' i l O H . H I »%MMIItll t l i l l l k H i l t . I I M I ; | H ' I L | K ' l l l k ' l l l IHI l l l . l l l l . l l l l l 1111» S U l y i l l g UMISlUIII 2001 B e y o n d 2001 Source: Norecol Environmental Consultants Ltd. Vancouver International Airport P a r a l l e l Runway Project Preliminary Environmental Impact Statement. March. 1990. ~~ concerns (See Tab le 8 ) .These a i r p o r t s cannot e f f e c t i v e l y handle m a i n l i n e c a r r i e r t r a f f i c however these f a c i l i t i e s can be e f f e c t i v e in d r a i n i n g gene ra l a v i a t i o n away from Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . Smal l s c a l e commercia l and p r i v a t e a i r c r a f t o p e r a t i o n s s t i l l o p e r a t i n g out of Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l can be de s i gna ted f o r Boundary Bay and P i t t Meadows; however some enhancements would be r e q u i r e d at these f a c i l i t i e s to handle the i n c r e a s e d t r a f f i c l o a d . With r e spec t to p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n in the Lower Ma in l and , the c h o i c e of an a i r p o r t s i t e such as Abbo t s f o rd seems a l l the more l o g i c a l . As i s s tands now, a s i g n i f i c a n t number of peop le l i v e in the o u t l y i n g reg ions of Vancouver and thus are in f a c t c l o s e r to p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t e a i r p o r t s r a t h e r than Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . F o r e c a s t s in p o p u l a t i o n growth f o r the Lower main land i n d i c a t e tha t these o u t l y i n g reg ions ( e s p e c i a l l y south and east of Vancouver) w i l l see the h i ghes t i n c r e a s e s i n p o p u l a t i o n over the next two decades . I t would on ly make sense that shou ld a second a i r p o r t be r e q u i r e d , that i t s l o c a t i o n shou ld be s i t u a t e d somewhere in these r a p i d l y growing r e g i o n s . L i k e w i s e , i f the p o p u l a t i o n growth e s t ima te s a re e s s e n t i a l l y c o r r e c t , then the t ime i s now fo r the p r e l i m i n a r y p l ann ing of a second a i r p o r t l o c a t i o n s i n c e i t i s not unreasonab le to assume that l and r e q u i r e d f o r such a development may be d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n i n ten or twenty year s from now. As i t s tands now, the on ly e x i s t i n g a i r p o r t which can e f f e c t i v e l y handle m a i n l i n e c a r r i e r t r a f f i c i s A b b o t s f o r d . 101 T A B L E 8 LOWER MAINLAND AND SOUTHERN VANCOUVER ISLAND A I R P O R T S : ENVIRONMENTAL I S S U E S AND C O N S T R A I N T S AIRPORT PHYSICAL CONSTRAINTS ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Lower Mainland Boundary Bay Abbotsford Langley Pit Meadows Chilli wack Vancouver Island Victoria Legal restrictions Maximum aircraft weight 5670 kg Maximum runway length 1145 m Airspace interaction with Vancouver Airspace interaction with Bellingham High terrain Land availability High terrain Land availability • Noise, Wetlands • Noise • Noise • Noise • Noise • Urban encroachment • Noise, approach Nanjimo High terrain Noise S o u r c e : N o r e c o l E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n s u l t a n t s L t d . Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t P a r a l l e l Runway P r o j e c t P r e l i m i n a r y  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact S ta tement . March, 1990. 1 02 be made at t h i s f a c i l i t y , t h i s a i r p o r t should not be e l i m i n a t e d as a p o t e n t i a l s i t e f o r a second a i r p o r t . However Abbotsford should not be chosen as the second s i t e u n t i l a l l other p o s s i b i l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g b u i l d i n g a new a i r p o r t on undeveloped land, have been e f f e c t i v e l y r u l e d out. 1 03 6.0 CONCLUSION Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t i s at a c r o s s r o a d . The time has come fo r c a r e f u l p l a n n i n g of t h i s a i r p o r t f a c i l i t y to ensure i t s f u t u r e succes s . A p p r o p r i a t e p l ann ing i s not on ly needed fo r the f u t u r e e f f i c i e n c y of the a i r p o r t , but a l s o f o r the f u tu re p o t e n t i a l of the Lower Ma in l and . If Vancouver wants to meet the a v i a t i o n demands of the 21st Century , then changes to the Lower M a i n l a n d ' s a i r p o r t system must begin now. G iven B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ' s mountainous t e r r a i n and consequent ly i t s i s o l a t e d communit ies, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that the people of B r i t i s h Columbia f l y more o f t e n than anyone e l s e in Canada. A v i a t i o n t rends such as d e r e g u l a t i o n and "Open S k i e s " a long with Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l ' s i d e a l l o c a t i o n f o r the growing P a c i f i c market, i t s m u l t i p l e hub r o l e , and the c i t y ' s l o c a t i o n as an end po in t f o r t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l s e r v i c e s have a l s o added to the heavy demand on Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l . As a r e s u l t , in the past f i v e year s the average r a t e of growth at Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l has been 6%. Almost 10 m i l l i o n people now use t h i s f a c i l i t y . F o r e c a s t s i n d i c a t e that t h i s number may reach 15 m i l l i o n by the beg inn ing of the next c e n t u r y . If the c u r r e n t a i r p o r t system remains unchanged, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l and the Lower Main land as a whole w i l l not be ready f o r t h i s demand. Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l i s now p r e p a r i n g f o r i n c r e a s i n g demands on i t s f a c i l i t y , but i s t h i s the f i n a l s o l u t i o n ? B u i l d i n g a t h i r d runway w i l l a l l ow fo r Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l to compete 1 04 with o ther west coas t a i r p o r t s in a t t r a c t i n g the growing l u c r a t i v e P a c i f i c market. Moreover, the added c a p a c i t y w i l l a l l ow the a i r p o r t to min imize de l ay s which are p r e s e n t l y p l a gu ing t h i s f a c i l i t y . With t h i s enhancement, Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l can become an e f f i c i e n t w o r l d - c l a s s a i r p o r t , a l l o w i n g f o r B r i t i s h Columbia to p rosper and g i v i n g Vancouver the. o p p o r t u n i t y to deve lop i n t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i t y . But t h i s w i l l not happen o v e r - n i g h t . I t w i l l take year s f o r the c i t y to b u i l d t h i s r e p u t a t i o n . Meanwhi le, Vancouve r ' s a i r p o r t w i l l con t inue to get b u s i e r and b u s i e r . A v i a t i o n f o r e c a s t s i n d i c a t e that Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l , even w i th i t s added c a p a c i t y , may s t i l l s u f f e r from conges t i on and d e l a y s e a r l y i n t o the next c e n t u r y . T h i s can h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d a s e l l i n g po in t f o r f u t u r e investment in t h i s p rov ince and c e r t a i n l y not a s e l l i n g p o i n t f o r a i r l i n e s . The a i r l i n e i n d u s t r y i s r a p i d l y chang ing . By the beg inn ing of the next c e n t u r y , s e v e r a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l m e g a - c a r r i e r s w i l l emerge through s t r a t e g i c a i r l i n e a l l i a n c e s . A i r p o r t s i d e a l l y l o c a t e d such as Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l can become an important l i n k in these new m e g a - c a r r i e r s ' networks. However an a i r p o r t such as Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l can a l s o be o v e r - f l o w n i f i t does not have an e f f i c i e n t a i r p o r t system in t a c t . I f Vancouver wishes to p l a y an important r o l e i n the growing wor ld a v i a t i o n market, more w i l l have to be done. The time has come to c o n s i d e r expans ion not on l y on Sea I s l a n d , but of the a i r p o r t system as a whole in the Lower Ma in l and . Expans ion of 1 05 f a c i l i t i e s on Sea I s l and can on ly go so f a r . In o ther words, i t i s time to beg inn ing p l a n n i n g fo r a m u l t i p l e a i r p o r t system to serve t h i s r e g i o n . T h i s does not mean tha t a second a i r p o r t shou ld be e r e c t e d now , but tha t p l ann ing f o r such a f a c i l i t y shou ld begin soon. An important component of a i r p o r t p l ann ing which needs to be c o n s i d e r e d now i s l o c a t i o n . An a p p r o p r i a t e l o c a t i o n , a long with the necessary l and and zon ing r e q u i r e d fo r a i r p o r t r e l a t e d i n f r a s t r u c t u r e must be ana l yzed and dec i ded upon soon. It takes a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of t ime to deve lop an a i r p o r t yet time i s not on Vancouver ' s s i d e . The Lower Ma in land c o n t i n u e s to grow both in p o p u l a t i o n and s i z e . Open space f o r development i s becoming more and more of a r a re commodity. If p l anne r s wait another twenty year s be fo re d e c i d i n g that a second a i r p o r t i s r e q u i r e d , i t may be too l a t e to deve lop a second e f f i c i e n t an e f f e c t i v e a i r p o r t . C u r r e n t l y , the re a re no p l ans to implement any such system. In f a c t , no o v e r a l l p l an f o r a i r p o r t development has been implemented or even i n t r o d u c e d to t h i s r e g i o n . A recent T ran spo r t Canada p u b l i c i n f o r m a t i o n document s t a t e s : " F u t u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n may have to be g iven to a l t e r n a t i v e s i t e s to Sea I s l and to handle i n c r e a s e d a v i a t i o n t r a f f i c tha t c o u l d occur e a r l y in the next c e n t u r y " . 1 Such vague comments show l i t t l e concern and l ack of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a very imminent prob lem. If t h i s l ack of p l ann ing remains the case at T r an spo r t Canada, the Lower M a i n l a n d ' s 1 T r an spor t Canada. Community Repor t . TP 10086E (Vancouver, 1990). a i r p o r t system and i t s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system as a whole w i l l be g r e a t l y impeded. The time i s now to prepare an a i r p o r t development plan f o r the e n t i r e Lower Mainland and most importantly, one which takes i n t o account the l i m i t e d c a p a c i t y of f a c i l i t i e s on Sea I s l a n d . 107 BIBLIOGRAPHY A e r o p o r t s De P a r i s . ADP in 1989. P a r i s : Department of Coporate Communicat ion, 1990 A e r o p o r t s De P a r i s . 1989 Annua l Repor t . P a r i s : Department Of C o r p o r a t e Communication, 1990. A i r Canada. P r e s e n t a t i o n To P u b l i c Hear ings Into The  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact Of Runway Expans ion At Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . Vancouver , February 1991. B r i t i s h A i r p o r t s A u t h o r i t y . 1990 Annual Review And Summary  F i n a n c i a l S ta tement. London, 1990. Boe ing Commerc ia l A i r p l a n e Company.Current Market Ou t l ook : World  T r a v e l market Demand And A i r p l a n e Supply Requirements. S e a t t l e , Feb rua ry 1988. B r i t i s h Co lumbia Chamber of Commerce. C r i t i q u e Of V a r i o u s  Repor t s R e l a t i n g To The Proposed P a r a l l e l Runway At Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . Vancouver : Trans I n t e r n a t i o n a l Research I n c . , November, 1990. C i t y of Chicago Department of A v i a t i o n . Delay R e d u c t i o n / E f f i c i e n c y Enhancement F i n a l R e p o r t . I l l i n o i s : Ch icago De lay Task F o r c e , December 1990. C i t y of Ch icago Department of A v i a t i o n . Ground Acces s Study  E x e c u t i v e Summary. Ch i cago : T e r m i n a l Support Work Group, F e b r u a r y , 1991. Community Forum on A i r p o r t Development. P o s i t i o n Paper On  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t P a r a l l e l Runway P r o j e c t . Vancouver , 1991. F a t t e d a d , S i d . Submission of Canadian A i r l i n e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l To  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessmant Review P a n e l . Vancouver , February 1991. F e d e r a l En v i r on men t a l Assessmant Review O f f i c e . Compendium Of  Submi s s i ons On Transpor t Canada ' s P a r a l l e l Runway P r o j e c t  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Impact S tatement. Vancouver , October 1990. F e d e r a l Env i r onmenta l Assessment Review O f f i c e . Compendium of  Submi s s i on s Rece ived By The Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t  E n v i r o n m e n t a l Assessment P a n e l . Vancouver , January 1991. Fe ldman, E l l i o t . The P o l i t i c s Of Canadian A i r p o r t Development. Durham: Duke P re s s P o l i c y S t u d i e s , 1983. 1 08 Government Of P r o v i n c e Of B r i t i s h Co lumbia . Submiss ion To  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t P a r a l l e l Runway Env i ronmenta l  Assessment Review P a n e l . Vancouver, February 1991. G rea te r Vancouver Reg iona l D i s t r i c t . Submiss ion To The Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t Env i ronmenta l Assessmant Review P a n e l . Vancouver, February 1991. H i c k l i n g Economics and P o l i c y D i v i s i o n . Economic A n a l y s i s Of  A i r f i e l d C a p a c i t y Enhancement S t r a t e g i e s For Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . Vancouver: James F. H i c k l i n g Management Consu l t an t s L t d . , March 1990. I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r T ran spor t A s s o c i a t i o n . Annual Report 1990. Geneva, October 1990. M e t r o p o l i t a n Washingtron A i r p o r t s A u t h o r i t y . Annual Report 1990. V i r g i n i a , 1990. Noreco l Env i ronmenta l C o n s u l t a n t s L t d . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l  A i r p o r t P a r a l l e l Runway P r o j e c t P r e l i m i n a r y Env i ronmenta l Impact  Statement. P repared f o r T ran spor t Canada, March 1990. N e u f v i l l e , R i c h a r d . A i r p o r t Systems P l a n n i n g : A C r i t i c a l Look At  The Methods And E x p e r i e n c e . Mas sachuset t s : Macmi l lan Press L t d . , 1976. P o l i c y , P l ann ing and Programming, A i r . Mont rea l A i r p o r t s System  Study: An I n te r im Report On A i r p o r t Role O p t i o n s . M o n t r e a l , December 1980. P r i n e t C o n s u l t a n t s . Vancouver A i r p o r t C a p a c i t y The Hub And Spoke  System And I t s Importance To The Reg iona l Economy. Vancouver, February 1991. Rad fo rd , K. The A n a l y s i s Of C o n f l i c t s Over The L o c a t i o n Of  A i r p o r t s Near Major P o p u l a t i o n C e n t e r s . U n i v e r s i t y of To ron to /Yo rk : J o i n t Program in T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , 1984. Readings In A i r p o r t P l a n n i n g . U n i v e r s i t y of To ron to : L e c t u r e s p re sen ted by Cent re For Urban and Community S t u d i e s , 1972. Reg iona l A v i a t i o n Task F o r c e . C r i s i s : Puget Sound A i r p o r t  S a t u r a t i o n . S e a t t l e , 1989. S e a l y , Kenneth. A i r p o r t S t r a tegy And P l a n n i n g . London: Ox ford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976. Smith, Dona ld . A i r p o r t P l ann ing And Management. C a l i f o r n i a : Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1984. 1 09 T r a n s p o r t Canada A i r . F l y i n g H i gh ; The F i f t i e t h Ann i ve r sa ry Of  Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . TP 3118E (Vancouver, 1981). Tran spo r t Canada A i r . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t Master P lan  Study Repor t . Master P lan P r o j e c t , TP 2373 (October, 1980). T ran spo r t Canada A i r . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t Master  P l a n . TP2375 (Ottawa, 1981). T r an spo r t Canada A i r p o r t s . Community Repor t . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t P a r a l l e l Runway P r o j e c t , No.1 . TP 10086E (Vancouver, 1990). T r a n s p o r t Canada A i r p o r t s . Mont rea l A i r p o r t s . TP9752 (Mont rea l , 1990). T r an spo r t Canada A i r p o r t s . The Economic Impact of Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t . TP9820 (Vancouver, 1989). T r an spo r t Canada A i r p o r t s . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t Annual  Review; Year Ended March 1988. TP 9560E (Vancouver, 1989). T r an spo r t Canada A i r p o r t s . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t Annual  Review; Year Ended March 1990. TP 10062E (Vancouver, 1991). T r an spo r t Canada A i r p o r t s . Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t  P a r a l l e l Runway P r o j e c t Env i ronmenta l Impact Statement Summary  Repor t . TP 10173E (Vancouver, 1990). T r an spo r t Canada A i r p o r t s A u t h o r i t y Group. Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t A i r s i d e C a p a c i t y Enhancement P r o j e c t  A i r s i d e Demand/Capacity A n a l y s i s . ACE P r o j e c t Team, TP 9411E (June 1989). T r a n s p o r t Canada A i r p o r t s Group. B.C. A i r p o r t s 2000. Vancouver: P r i n e t C o n s u l t a n t s , TP 105 41E (October 1990). T r an spo r t Canada A i r p o r t s Group. Vancouver I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t  A i r s i d e C a p a c i t y Enhancement P r o j e c t : Response To Request For  A d d i t i o n a l I n fo rmat ion And C o n s u l t a t i o n On The Proposed P a r a l l e l  Runway P r o j e c t . TP10714E (Vancouver, 1990). T r a n s p o r t Canada A i r s i d e C a p a c i t y Enhancement P r o j e c t . Vancouver  I n t e r n a t i o n a l A i r p o r t P a r a l l e l Runway P r o j e c t Env i ronmenta l  Impact Statement. TP 10173E (Vancouver, 1990). Vancouver I n t e r a n t i o n a l A i r p o r t L o c a l A i r p o r t A u t h o r i t y . P r e s e n t a t i o n To The Env i ronmenta l Review Panel Of The Proposed  P a r a l l e l Runway For Vancouver I n t e r a n t i o n a l A i r p o r t . Vancouver, February 1991. 1 10 BIBLIOGRAPHY - PERIODICALS " A i r p o r t expans ion? Wait j u s t a m inu te , " The Vancouver Sun, September 18, 1990, p. A6. B i n k l e y , A l e x . "Proposed open - sk i e s pact has p i t f a l l s , exper t s s ay , " The Vancouver Sun, October 10, 1990, p. A11. D a n i e l s , A l a n . " C i t y a i r p o r t seen q u i c k l y r i s i n g as key gateway," The Vancouver Sun, January 25, 1991, p. D1. D a n i e l s , A l a n . "New runway c a l l e d v i t a l to t o u r i s m , " The  Vancouver Sun, January 31, 1990. D a n i e l s , A l a n . Report backs t h i r d runway," The Vancouver Sun, J u l y 4, 1990, p. C1. F o s t e r , C e c i l . " A i r l i n e s say de l ay s are c o s t i n g them $100 m i l l i o n , " The F i n a n c i a l Pos t , February 6, 1990, p. 6. " F u t u r i s t i c a i r - r a i l p l an f o r S e a t t l e , " The P r o v i n c e , January 14, 1990, p. C91. God ley , E l i z a b e t h . "Ma in land mayhem f o r e c a s t , " The Vancouver  Sun, October 1, 1990, p. B3. God ley , E l i z a b e t h . "Runway impact forum f o c u s , " The Vancouver  Sun, October 2, 1990, p. C1. God ley , E l i z a b e t h . " T h i r d a i r p o r t runway c a l l e d c r i t i c a l f o r a r e a , " The Vancouver Sun, September 29, 1990, p. B10. J ack son , B a r t . "Most Lower Ma in land r e s i d e n t s favor t h i r d runway, p o l l f i n d s , " The Vancouver Sun, October 18, 1990, p. B1. Lamb, James. " A i r p o r t growth: i t ' s a long saga , " The Vancouver  Sun, September 20, 1989, p. A13. "Long wait f o r runway," The P r o v i n c e , January 31, 1991, p. 40. Matas, Rober t . "Runway p l an wins backers each time p lane l a t e , " The Globe And M a i l , January 21, 1991, P. A8. McArthur , Doug las . "An i n t e r n a t i o n a l t a l e of two a i r p o r t s , " The  Globe And M a i l , October 6, 1990, p. F11. "No p l a n n i n g at a i r p o r t s , " The P r o v i n c e , October 31, 1990, p. 32. 111 "Open Sk ie s l e a d i n g to U.S. , " The Vancouver Sun, February 18, 1991. P i t o n , Margare t . " R e l i e f of a i r p o r t conges t i on seen, but problems remain to be s o l v e d , " The Globe And M a i l , September 26, 1989, p. C5. "The t h i r d runway humbug e l ement , " The Vancouver Sun, November 13, 1989, p. A8. T i e r n e y , Ben. " A i r p o r t p l an f aces b i t t e r t u r b u l e n c e , " The  Vancouver Sun, October 5, 1990, p. A3. U s i n g e r , M i c h e a l . "Runway reques t p remature , " The Vancouver  C o u r i e r , J u l y 25, 1990, p. 1. Wigod, Rebecca. "A wing and a p r a y e r , " The Vancouver Sun, February 8, 1991, p. A8. W i l s on , Mark. "Bonanza f o r a i r p o r t , " The P r o v i n c e , December 5, 1989, p. 31. W i s l o n , Mark. " B u s - l i n k boost eyed f o r a i r p o r t , " The P r o v i n c e , January 22, 1991, p. 23. W i l s on , Mark. "Cash ing in on a i r p a c t , " The P r o v i n c e , November 8, 1990, p. 56. W i l s o n , Mark. "Richmond weal th t i e d to ta rmac , " The P r o v i n c e , January 31, 1991, p. 40. W i l s o n , Mark. "Second runway a must , " The P r o v i n c e , A p r i l 11, 1990, p. 39. 

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