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Local government heritage planning legislation in British Columbia Habkirk, Allison Margaret 1990

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LOCAL GOVERNMENT HERITAGE PLANNING LEGISLATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA By ALLISON MARGARET HABKTRK B.A. (Honours) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School o f Community and Reg i ona l P lann ing ) We accep t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d s t andard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1990 C o p y r i g h t A l l i s o n Margaret Habk i rk , 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of & M M U M t ^ * Tag£»KWlflo tUa^KliU^ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date *>\ • APe.' DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T LOCAL GOVERNMENT HERITAGE PLANNING LEGISLATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by A l l i s o n Margaret Habk i rk L o c a l Government H e r i t a g e P l a n n i n g L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n v e s t i g a t e s and c r i t i q u e s the community p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s o f the p r o v i n c i a l government wh i te paper Toward  H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s under taken from the p e r s p e c t i v e s o f the e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s and the v iews o f p r o f e s s i o n a l h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . The p r imary o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s a r e : i ) t o i l l u s t r a t e by examining the h i s t o r y o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s t h a t t h e r e i s a common p a t t e r n t o t h e e v o l u t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and t h a t the p r o p o s a l s o f Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s p a t t e r n i i ) t o examine the v iews o f p r o f e s s i o n a l h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s r e g a r d i n g the proposed p o l i c i e s and i i i ) t o argue t h a t the proposed p o l i c i e s demonstrate bo th s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses and t h a t a s t r o n g imp lementa t i on framework w i l l be r e q u i r e d i f t h e p o l i c i e s a re t o be implemented e f f e c t i v e l y . These o b j e c t i v e s a re a c h i e v e d by the use o f two methods. F i r s t , t h e h i s t o r y o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t r a c e d through a rev iew o f t h e r e l e v a n t h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on the l e g i s l a t i o n o f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Second, f i f t e e n p r o f e s s i o n a l h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s from a c r o s s B r i t i s h Columbia a re i n t e r v i e w e d r e g a r d i n g t h e i r v iews on the proposed p o l i c i e s . i i The f i r s t c o n c l u s i o n o f the t h e s i s i s t h a t t h e r e i s a p a t t e r n t o t h e development o f h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . T h i s p a t t e r n i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t e a r l y h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n focuses l a r g e l y on t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s and monuments and t h a t over t ime the l e g i s l a t i o n e v o l v e s and u l t i m a t e l y demonstrates t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : one, the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the c o n t e x t o f i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s i n c l u d i n g g roup ing o f i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s t o form h i s t o r i c a reas and d i s t r i c t s , two, the i n t e g r a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n t o the day t o day p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s o f l o c a l government and t h r e e , the d e v o l u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n from s e n i o r t o l o c a l governments. The da ta c o l l e c t e d from the c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s broad suppor t f o r the c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s o f the proposed p o l i c i e s but t h a t t h e r e a re s i g n i f i c a n t weaknesses i n the d e t a i l s o f t h e p r o p o s a l s . The p l a n n e r s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e r e a r e weaknesses i n the a b i l i t y t o implement the p o l i c i e s w i t h i n e x i s t i n g l o c a l government a d m i n i s t r a t i v e practices. The t h e s i s a l s o conc ludes t h a t the community p l a n n i n g p r o p o s a l s o f Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n a re c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e p o l i c i e s o f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s and i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t the l o g i c a l next s t e p i n t h e development o f h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . However, the p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d c l e a r l y c a u t i o n e d t h a t the d e t a i l s o f the p o l i c i e s must be rev iewed , c l a r i f i e d and • • • 1 1 1 m o d i f i e d i f t hey a re t o be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented. T h e i r concerns f ocu sed on t h r e e g e n e r a l a r e a s : t h e p l a n n e r s i n d i c a t e d i n some cases t h a t they d i d not suppor t i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c i e s as p roposed , s econd l y they reques ted c l a r i f i c a t i o n and d e t a i l i n g o f t h e imp lementa t i on o f i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c i e s and t h i r d l y , they a d v i s e d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o s u c c e s s f u l l y implement the p o l i c i e s . The f i n a l c o n c l u s i o n o f the t h e s i s concerns the importance o f t r a i n i n g p e r s o n n e l t o implement new h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n . The c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h the p l a n n e r s h i g h l i g h t e d t h e c u r r e n t weaknesses o f t r a i n i n g f o r h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s and emphasized the importance o f t h i s shor tcoming f o r the f u t u r e o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT -Ii TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER 1 HERITAGE POLICY AMD LEGISLATION IN CONTEXT 8 1.1 The Development o f H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n 9 Grea t B r i t a i n . 10 U n i t e d S t a t e s 15 1.2 Canadian L e g i s l a t i v e Context 24 F e d e r a l 25 P r o v i n c i a l 31 1.3 B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e Context 33 H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t 38 Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n 40 CHAPTER 2 CONSULTATION PROCESS 50 2.1 Methodology 50 R a t i o n a l e 50 Research Des ign 51 In te rv iewee S e l e c t i o n P roces s 51 C o n s u l t a t i o n Des ign 53 v CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OF PROPOSED HERITAGE PLANNING POLICIES AND CONSULTATION RESULTS 54 3.1 Background 54 3.2 P r o j e c t P r i d e Task Fo r ce 54 3.3 H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t 55 3.4 Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n 55 3.5 M u n i c i p a l A c t H e r i t a g e P o l i c i e s 55 3.6 O f f i c i a l Community P l an H e r i t a g e P o l i c i e s 56 3.7 H e r i t a g e I n v e n t o r i e s 62 3.8 H e r i t a g e R e g i s t r i e s 63 3.9 H e r i t a g e Impact Assessment 63 3.10 Temporary P r o t e c t i o n 65 3.11 H e r i t a g e Zoning 66 3.12 Green Door P o l i c y 71 3.13 Compensation f o r D e s i g n a t i o n 72 3.14 Review Proces s 73 3.15 P e n a l t i e s 74 3.16 Support Programs 74 3.17 Covenants and Easements 75 3.18 E x p r o p r i a t i o n 76 3.19 T r a n s i t i o n P e r i o d . . 77 3.20 H e r i t a g e P l a n n i n g 78 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS 80 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 92 APPENDICES 99 Appendix A: P r o v i n c i a l and T e r r i t o r i a l H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n and M u n i c i p a l H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n F i g u r e s 99 Appendix B: S e l e c t e d Recommendations o f the P r o j e c t P r i d e Task Fo r ce 101 Appendix C: C o n s u l t a t i o n Format 104 Appendix D: C o n s u l t a t i o n R e s u l t s by P o l i c y A rea and By Q u e s t i o n 110 GLOSSARY 136 V i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e I - The Development o f C o n s e r v a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n i n Grea t B r i t a i n 12 F i g u r e II - The Development o f C o n s e r v a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n i n The U n i t e d S t a t e s 16 F i g u r e I I I - The Development o f C o n s e r v a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada 26 F i g u r e IV - The Development o f C o n s e r v a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia 34 F i g u r e V - Summary o f the Development o f C o n s e r v a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n i n Great B r i t a i n , the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia 47 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s gave suppor t and a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s and a r e t h e r e f o r e d e s e r v i n g o f s p e c i a l thanks . F i r s t , I would l i k e t o thank the M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e f o r t a k i n g t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o d r a f t Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n and a l s o f o r t h e i r s t a f f s ' comments on my r e s e a r c h . Second, thanks must go t o the p l a n n e r s who gave o f t h e i r p r e c i o u s t ime and by do ing so made my r e s e a r c h bo th p o s s i b l e and i n t e r e s t i n g . T h i r d , I am i n d e b t e d t o my committee, Dr. M i c h a e l S e e l i g , Dr. Ha l Kalman and P a t r i c k F r e y , who o f f e r e d t h e i r wisdom and suppor t t o my e f f o r t s . F i n a l l y , s p e c i a l thanks and g r a t i t u d e a re owed t o my husband, Dav id Leishman, who l i s t e n e d t o my e n d l e s s r a n t i n g and commentary on f a c t s and d e t a i l s which f o r over s i x months seemed t o me t o be the most s i g n i f i c a n t event s i n the h i s t o r y o f the w o r l d . v i i i INTRODUCTION H e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s r e l a t i v e l y young i n B r i t i s h Columbia hav ing become an accep ted s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f the p l a n n i n g p r o f e s s i o n i n the p r o v i n c e over the l a s t t e n y e a r s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e , a r e l a t i v e l y undeveloped f i e l d o f s tudy i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h e n , t h a t the p r a c t i c e o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g may soon undergo a major e v o l u t i o n a r y development as a r e s u l t o f a p r o p o s a l t o c r e a t e new p r o v i n c i a l h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . L e g i s l a t i o n proposed i n the government White Paper Toward  H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . was r e l e a s e d t o the p u b l i c i n January 1990. The p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e White Paper r e p r e s e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n government p o l i c y r e s p e c t i n g h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n . I t i s suggested t h a t i f t he p r o p o s a l s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e White Paper a re passed i n t o law the p r a c t i c e o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n the P r o v i n c e w i l l change p r o f o u n d l y . Purpose The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine, from a p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e community p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s proposed i n Toward  H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h r e e f o l d : i ) To i l l u s t r a t e by examining the h i s t o r y o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s t h a t 1 t h e r e i s a common p a t t e r n t o the e v o l u t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . G iven the examples o f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s i t i s argued t h a t the p o l i c i e s o u t l i n e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n a re the l o g i c a l next s t ep i n the development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . i i ) To examine the v iews o f p r o f e s s i o n a l h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s r e g a r d i n g the community p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . The i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s examinat ion i s t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f the proposed p o l i c i e s . i i i ) To argue t h a t the p o l i c i e s c o n t a i n e d i n Toward  H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n demonstrate bo th s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses and s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o argue t h a t a s t r o n g framework f o r imp lementat ion i s r e q u i r e d i f t he p o l i c i e s a r e t o be implemented e f f e c t i v e l y . Context A l t h o u g h r e l a t i v e l y young i n B r i t i s h Columbia and indeed Canada, h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h ^ i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . Most n o t a b l y , p l a n n i n g f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s has a l o n g h i s t o r y i n both Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In t h e s e c o u n t r i e s h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i s an a ccep ted p a r t o f t h e day t o day community p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . Though the approach i n Grea t 2 B r i t a i n d i f f e r s somewhat from t h a t o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , both c o u n t r i e s v iew h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g as a p a r t o f managing bo th the p h y s i c a l env ironment and change i n t h e i r communit ies . In t h i s r e g a r d bo th c o u n t r i e s have w e l l deve loped l e g i s l a t i o n which r e g u l a t e s h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The l i t e r a t u r e on c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g and l e g i s l a t i o n i n Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s r i c h . By compar i son, r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e o f Canada ' s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e f i e l d has been documented. T h i s perhaps r e f l e c t s the immature s t a t e o f c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n Canada. S i g n i f i c a n c e The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t i t sheds l i g h t on the e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the development o f h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n and i t examines B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c u r r e n t p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s i n the c o n t e x t o f t he se e x p e r i e n c e s . F u r t h e r , t h i s t h e s i s demonstrates t h a t c o n c e p t u a l l y the p r o p o s a l s c o n t a i n e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e  C o n s e r v a t i o n a r e not r a d i c a l i n approach but a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y p a t t e r n o f l e g i s l a t i v e and c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s o f o t h e r l o c a l e s . Moreover , g i v e n the r a p i d changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n bo th urban and r u r a l env i ronments i n the p r o v i n c e today , h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s an e f f o r t t o manage 3 env i r onmenta l change. Indeed t h e r e a re commentators such as K e v i n Lynch and John C o s t o n i s t h a t b e l i e v e the v a l u e o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s not so much the s a v i n g o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y o r h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b u i l d i n g s but the management o f env i ronmenta l change i n a r a p i d l y chang ing s o c i e t y . To some, h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d one a spec t o f env i ronmenta l and r e s o u r c e management. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the White Paper, Toward H e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n , r e f e r s t o h e r i t a g e as a " s u s t a i n a b l e r e s o u r c e " ( M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e , 1990, p . 2 ) . I t i s a l s o impor tant t h a t the p r o c e s s o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i t s e l f be p l a n n e d . T h i s t h e s i s a l l ows an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p l a n n e r s t o p r o v i d e comment on, and i n p u t i n t o , the development o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t i o n . Methodology As t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s i n c l u d e an examina t ion o f the h i s t o r y o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and an assessment o f the p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n , two r e s e a r c h methods a re u t i l i z e d . F i r s t , c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e from Great B r i t a i n , the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada i s s u r v e y e d . The purpose o f t h i s rev iew i s t o examine t h e h i s t o r y o f c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t i o n and t o i l l u s t r a t e the p a t t e r n s o f l e g i s l a t i o n development i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . 4 The second method used i s a survey o f f i f t e e n p r o f e s s i o n a l h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s from a c r o s s B r i t i s h Columbia who were c o n s u l t e d t o s o l i c i t t h e i r v iews on the p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s was under taken t o i d e n t i f y t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f the proposed l e g i s l a t i o n from t h e p o i n t o f v iew o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s and t o a s ses s the imp lementa t i on requ i rements o f the p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s . Scope and L i m i t a t i o n s T h i s t h e s i s i s i n tended t o f ocus p r i m a r i l y on h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g p o l i c y development i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t f o c u s e s on t h e community p l a n n i n g a s p e c t s o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g and i t does not address the i s s u e s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n o f n a t u r a l o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f the b u i l t env i ronment. F u r t h e r , t h i s t h e s i s i s l i m i t e d t o examining h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c y from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s and i t does not p u r p o r t t o r e f l e c t the o p i n i o n s o r a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p r i v a t e o r p o l i t i c a l s e c t o r s . Though the se components a r e r e c o g n i z e d as v i t a l , s i g n i f i c a n t and e s s e n t i a l t o t h e over a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f l e g i s l a t i o n , they a re not w i t h i n t h e scope o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . O r g a n i z a t i o n Chapter One c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e p a r t s : the Development o f H e r i t a g e 5 C o n s e r v a t i o n L e g i s l a t i o n i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s , t h e Canadian L e g i s l a t i v e Context and the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e C o n t e x t . T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t f o r t h e two main themes o f the t h e s i s : h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g p o l i c y . I t i n c l u d e s a rev iew o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and p l a n n i n g . Chapter Two o u t l i n e s the methods used i n the c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s (Appendix 1 1D" d e t a i l s the c o n s u l t a t i o n r e s u l t s ) . Chapter Three p r o v i d e s an a n a l y s i s o f the c o n s u l t a t i o n r e s u l t s and s p e c i f i c a l l y rev iews t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f the p o l i c i e s o f Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d by tho se s u r v e y e d . Chapter Four summarizes the c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e t h e s i s and o u t l i n e s a reas f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . D e f i n i t i o n s H e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n t e rm ino l o gy i s f r e q u e n t l y m i sunders tood o r m i su sed . The g l o s s a r y a t t h e end o f the t h e s i s p r o v i d e s d e f i n i t i o n s o f commonly used terms. 6 Perhaps t h e most important term i s the word h e r i t a g e i t s e l f . In t h e p a s t t h i s word has o f t e n been used i n a l i m i t e d way t o r e f e r o n l y t o b u i l d i n g s o r s t r u c t u r e s o f h i s t o r i c o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l impor tance . C u r r e n t l y however, the term h e r i t a g e has t aken on a much b roade r meaning and i t i s g e n e r a l l y a ccep ted t o i n c l u d e t h e b u i l t env i ronment, the n a t u r a l environment and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y . Fo r the purposes o f t h i s r e s e a r c h the b roader d e f i n i t i o n o f the word i s u sed. The terms c o n s e r v a t i o n and p r e s e r v a t i o n a re a l s o impor tan t i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . Though they a r e f r e q u e n t l y used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y , f o r the purposes o f t h i s t h e s i s , a d i s t i n c t i o n i s b€ made. C o n s e r v a t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t what i s b e i n g conserved i s done so i n the c o n t e x t o f a chang ing environment and t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n i s r e s p o n s i v e t o t h a t env i ronment . P r e s e r v a t i o n on t h e o t h e r hand, i s used t o r e f e r t o p r o t e c t i o n o f a r e s o u r c e which i s under taken i n i s o l a t i o n o f i t s env i ronment . 7 CHAPTER 1 HERITAGE PLANNING IN CONTEXT T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s an overv iew o f both the l e g i s l a t i v e and p l a n n i n g p o l i c y c o n t e x t s o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The Chapter c o n s i s t s o f t h r e e p a r t s : an overv iew o f the h i s t o r y and development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Grea t B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , an overv iew o f the development o f Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n and an a n a l y s i s o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ' s c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . The purpose o f t h i s overv iew i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s have a much l o n g e r h i s t o r y o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n than does Canada and t h a t t h e r e i s a p a t t e r n t o the development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s overv iew p l a c e s B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ' s contemporary l e g i s l a t i v e p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s i n the c o n t e x t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . Under s t and ing the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i s impor tan t as i t has been suggested t h a t "The o n l y western c o u n t r y which g i v e s l e s s p r o t e c t i o n t o landmarks and neighbourhoods (than Canada) i s Monaco" (Denhez, 1976, p .29 ) . The p a u c i t y o f Canadian h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n has been blamed on more than t h e youth and i n e x p e r i e n c e o f Canadian l e g i s l a t o r s . Denhez, Canada ' s eminent h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n lawyer suggested t h a t " p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s i n Canada have f r e q u e n t l y e x e r c i s e d a k i n d o f w i l l f u l b l i n d n e s s t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r e c e d e n t s , o s t e n s i b l y based upon t h e s u b l i m e l y p a r o c h i a l n o t i o n t h a t t h e i r problems bore no 8 resemblance t o those o f anywhere e l s e i n the w o r l d " (Denhez, 1976, p . 3 0 ) . The f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l e d examinat ion o f l e g i s l a t i o n from o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a p a t t e r n t o the development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . I d e n t i f y i n g t h i s p a t t e r n i s impor tant as i t a l l o w s t h e l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia t o be v iewed w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . T h i s rev iew i s under taken i n an e f f o r t t o demonstrate t h a t the p r o p o s a l s i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . 1.1 Development of Conservation L e g i s l a t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n b r i e f l y o u t l i n e s the h i s t o r y o f t h e development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Great B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and sugges t s t h a t the development o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n each l o c a l e f o l l o w s a t y p i c a l and p r e d i c t a b l e p a t t e r n . As l e g i s l a t i o n i s the l e g a l t r a n s l a t i o n o f p o l i c y , t r a c i n g the e v o l u t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i o n h e l p s us t o under s tand t h e development and e v o l u t i o n o f p o l i c y . In t h e case o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n , t h e e v o l u t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s the development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g p o l i c y from t h e e a r l y monument p r e s e r v a t i o n movements t o t h e contemporary comprehens ive p l a n n i n g approach. 9 The development o f B r i t i s h and Amer ican h e r i t a g e p r e s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c y i s w e l l documented by o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g Jane Fawcett (ed) i n The Fu tu re o f the Pa s t . John Harvey i n C o n s e r v a t i o n o f B u i l d i n g s and W i l l i a m s and K e l l o g g (eds) i n Readings i n H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n , However, l i t t l e e f f o r t has been made t o i d e n t i f y a p a t t e r n i n the development o f the l e g i s l a t i o n . Not on l y i s i t v a l u a b l e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t h i s t o r i c c o n s e r v a t i o n has e x i s t e d , i n some form, s i n c e " t h e r e has been something h i s t o r i c t o p r e s e r v e " . ( W i l l i a m s , 1983, p.5) but a l s o t h a t t h e r e i s a p a t t e r n t o t h e e v o l u t i o n o f l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s argued t h a t j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n i t i a l l y deve lop l e g i s l a t i o n which i d e n t i f i e s and p r o t e c t s i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s and t h a t over t ime t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n expands and deve lops t o i n c l u d e t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1) R e c o g n i t i o n not on l y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s , but a l s o t h e i r c o n t e x t s and f u r t h e r , r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s . 2) I n t e g r a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n t o the c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s o f the j u r i s d i c t i o n . 3) D e v o l u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o l o c a l governments. G rea t B r i t a i n The f i r s t c o n s e r v a t i o n s t a t u t e passed i n Great B r i t a i n i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the e f f o r t s o f W i l l i a m M o r r i s who founded t h e S o c i e t y f o r the P r o t e c t i o n o f A n c i e n t B u i l d i n g s i n 1877 (Suddards, 1982, p . l ) . In 1853, John Rusk in , a contemporary o f W i l l i a m M o r r i s and author o f The Seven Lamps o f A r c h i t e c t u r e , wro te , 10 " I t i s . . . n o q u e s t i o n o f exped iency o r f e e l i n g whether we s h a l l p r e s e r v e the b u i l d i n g s o f p a s t t imes o r n o t . We have no r i g h t whatever t o touch them. They a re not o u r s . They be long p a r t l y t o those who b u i l t them, and p a r t l y t o a l l g e n e r a t i o n s o f mankind who a re t o f o l l o w u s " ( W i l l i a m s , 1983, p.21) The f i r s t c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Grea t B r i t a i n , the A n c i e n t  Monument P r o t e c t i o n A c t , was passed i n 1882 f i v e y e a r s a f t e r the f ound ing o f the S o c i e t y f o r the P r o t e c t i o n o f A n c i e n t B u i l d i n g s (Suddards, 1982, p . 2 ) . T h i s A c t l i s t e d f o r p r o t e c t i o n 29 monuments, a l l " ea r thworks , s tone c i r c l e s and t h e l i k e - o f which t h e most impor tant was Stonehenge" (W i l l i ams , 1983, p . 2 6 ) . The A n c i e n t B u i l d i n g and Monument A c t was the f i r s t i n a s e r i e s o f a c t s i n Grea t B r i t a i n which concerned c o n s e r v a t i o n . The development o f t h i s e a r l y l e g i s l a t i o n suppor t s the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n beg in s w i t h i n d i v i d u a l monument p r e s e r v a t i o n . The a c t s which f o l l o w e d t h i s s imp le l e g i s l a t i o n expanded the scope and purpose o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . Contemporary c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Great B r i t a i n p r o v i d e s f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f monuments, s i t e s , a r e a s , d i s t r i c t s , ne ighbourhoods and complete towns. F i g u r e I o u t l i n e s the development o f the l e g i s l a t i o n i n Great B r i t a i n and a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p o l i c y developments i l l u s t r a t e d i n the l e g i s l a t i o n f o l l o w s . 11 FIGURE I THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSERVATION LEGISLATION IN GREAT BRITAIN Sources Used: Fawcet t , 1976 Suddards, 1982 & W i l l i a m s , 1983 1882 A n c i e n t Monuments P r o t e c t i o n A c t * R e g i s t r y o f 29 p r e h i s t o r i c monuments 1900 A n c i e n t Monuments P r o t e c t i o n A c t * Expanded the r e g i s t r y t o i n c l u d e med ieva l b u i l d i n g s as w e l l as p r e h i s t o r i c remains . The A c t d e f i n e d a monument as "any s t r u c t u r e , e r e c t i o n o r monument o f h i s t o r i c o r a r c h i t e c t u r a l i n t e r e s t " o t h e r than an i n h a b i t e d d w e l l i n g house. 1907 N a t i o n a l T r u s t A c t * C r e a t e d the N a t i o n a l T r u s t 1913 A n c i e n t Monuments and P r o t e c t i o n A c t * The Commiss ioners o f t h e Board o f P u b l i c Works "empowered t o p repare and p u b l i s h a l i s t o f monuments whose p r e s e r v a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d t o be o f N a t i o n a l Importance" . * Empowered commiss ioners t o make a p r e s e r v a t i o n o r d e r p l a c i n g the monument under p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t y o r the M i n i s t r y o f Works as g u a r d i a n s . 1931 A n c i e n t Monuments and P r o t e c t i o n A c t * I nc reased the powers o f the Board and r e q u i r e d t h a t p r e s e r v a t i o n o rde r s be r e g i s t e r e d i n the L o c a l Land Charges R e g i s t r y . * Enab led l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o e s t a b l i s h p r e s e r v a t i o n schemes t o p r o t e c t a reas around monuments thus i n t r o d u c i n g the concept o f a rea c o n s e r v a t i o n . 1932 Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t * L o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s a u t h o r i z e d t o make p r e s e r v a t i o n o r d e r s w i t h the app rova l o f t h e M i n i s t e r . 1933 A n c i e n t Monuments and P r o t e c t i o n A c t * C r e a t e d i n t e r i m p r e s e r v a t i o n n o t i c e s which were v a l i d f o r a p e r i o d o f 21 months a f t e r which t ime they would e x p i r e i f a p r e s e r v a t i o n o r d e r was not i n p l a c e . 1937 C i t v o f Bath Ac t * C r e a t e d t o p r o t e c t and p r e s e r v e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the C i t y o f Bath . 12 1944 Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t * Amended t o enab le the M i n i s t e r o f Town and Country P l a n n i n g t o p repare l i s t s o f b u i l d i n g s o f s p e c i a l a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e t o gu ide l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . 1947 Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t * "Group V a l u e " o f b u i l d i n g s r e c o g n i z e d . 1953 A n c i e n t Monuments and P r o t e c t i o n A c t * M i n i s t e r o f Works a u t h o r i z e d t o make g r a n t s f o r the maintenance or r e p a i r o f s i g n i f i c a n t b u i l d i n g s and t h e i r con ten t s and f o r amenity l a n d s . 1957 C i v i c T r u s t E s t a b l i s h e d 1967 C i v i c A m e n i t i e s Ac t * Enab le c o n t r o l o f c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s . * P r o t e c t e d on l y l i s t e d b u i l d i n g s ; n o n - l i s t e d b u i l d i n g s remained u n p r o t e c t e d . 1968 Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t * P rocedures changed and l i s t s became automat i c p r e s e r v a t i o n o r d e r s . 1971 C i v i c Amen i t i e s A c t * Repea l o f the C i v i c Amen i t i e s A c t and r e - e n a c t e d c o n s e r v a t i o n a reas as p a r t o f the Town and Country  P l a n n i n g A c t . 1972 Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t * A u t h o r i z e d t o c o n t r o l the d e m o l i t i o n o f u n l i s t e d b u i l d i n g s i n c o n s e r v a t i o n a reas and t o p r o v i d e g r an t s f o r work i n c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s . 1974 Town and Country Amen i t i e s A c t * C o n s o l i d a t e d l e g i s l a t i o n and r e q u i r e d the p r e p a r a t i o n o f p r e s e r v a t i o n and enhancement p r o p o s a l s by l o c a l p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t i e s . P r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t r e e s were a l s o i n c l u d e d i n t h i s A c t . * P r o t e c t e d a l l b u i l d i n g s w i t h i n a c o n s e r v a t i o n a rea ( p r e v i o u s l y on l y l i s t e d b u i l d i n g s were p r o t e c t e d ) . 13 S e v e r a l impor tant t r e n d s a re apparent i n F i g u r e I. F i r s t , over the p e r i o d o f a c e n t u r y the focus o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n has s h i f t e d away from p r o t e c t i n g i n d i v i d u a l monuments t o p r o t e c t i n g whole c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s . Ev i dence t o suppor t t h i s i d e a i s found i n the 1931 A n c i e n t Monuments P r o t e c t i o n A c t which enab led l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o e s t a b l i s h p r e s e r v a t i o n schemes t o p r o t e c t t h e a rea around monuments. T h i s was the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e concept o f c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a s . The need f o r t h i s p r o t e c t i o n came about as a r e s u l t o f damage caused by the q u a r r y i n g o f the a r e a around H a d r i a n ' s w a l l (Fawcett , 1976, p .21 ) . Second l y , many o f the powers f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s and a reas have been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e Town and  Country P l a n n i n g A c t and thus c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o ' c o n v e n t i o n a l ' community p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s . I n t e g r a t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n powers i n t o l o c a l government p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n took p l a c e as e a r l y as 1932 when l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s were empowered t o e s t a b l i s h " p r e s e r v a t i o n schemes" under t h e Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t . Two a rea s which immed ia te ly took advantage o f t he se p r o v i s i o n s were Elm H i l l i n Norwich and t h e C i t y o f Bath (Fawcett , 1976, p . 2 1 ) . F i n a l l y , i t i s demonstrated t h a t t h e r e i s a d e v o l u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n from t h e n a t i o n a l government t o l o c a l government. D e v o l u t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n powers began as e a r l y as 1913 w i t h the A n c i e n t Monuments P r o t e c t i o n A c t which 14 enab led Boards o f P u b l i c Works t o l i s t "monuments o f n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e " . S i n c e t h a t t ime l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s have r e c e i v e d i n c r e a s e d powers under s u c c e s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n . The Town and  Country P l a n n i n g A c t (19 32) i s n o t a b l e i n t h i s r e g a r d . T h i s p a t t e r n o f development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i s not u n i q u e , i n f a c t , i t w i l l be demonstrated t h a t i t i s t y p i c a l and t h a t t h e Amer ican e x p e r i e n c e d u p l i c a t e s t h i s p a t t e r n . F u r t h e r , i t w i l l be shown t h a t though i n comp le te , the p a t t e r n o f development o f Canadian c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i s s i m i l a r . I t i s argued t h a t the p r o p o s a l s i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n a re t h e l o g i c a l next s tep i n the p a t t e r n f o r B r i t i s h Co lumbia . U n i t e d S t a t e s The development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , c h r o n i c l e d i n F i g u r e II, f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f G rea t B r i t a i n . The f i r s t i n t e r e s t and t h e f i r s t l e g i s l a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s focused on t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l h i s t o r i c monuments. " E a r l y e f f o r t s i n p r e s e r v a t i o n d e a l t w i t h landmarks as a r t i f a c t s h e l d s e p a r a t e from the community f o r v e n e r a t i o n , p l e a s u r e o r e d u c a t i o n " (Murtagh, 1988, p . 1 1 ) . G e n e r a l l y , these e a r l y examples o f p r e s e r v a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s emphasized s i t e s and b u i l d i n g s o f h i s t o r i c and p a t r i o t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . A l though t h i s d i f f e r e d from the a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l emphasis which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the c o n s e r v a t i o n e f f o r t s o f Great B r i t a i n i t i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t e a r l y 15 FIGURE I I THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSERVATION LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES Sources Used: B e l l (1985), E a r l y , (1984), Hosmer (1981) Jacobs (1966), Murtagh (1988), Roddewig (1983) & W i l l i a m s (1983) 1853 Mount Vernon Lad i e s A s s o c i a t i o n formed ( c h a r t e r e d 1856) * F i r s t na t ionwide p r e s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n which was formed t o p r e s e r v e George Wash ington ' s home. 1872 Ye l l ows tone N a t i o n a l Park A c t 1906 U n i t e d S t a t e s A n t i q u i t i e s A c t * A u t h o r i z e d the p r o t e c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c landmarks, s t r u c t u r e s and o b j e c t s on l ands c o n t r o l l e d by the U n i t e d S t a t e s (Casa Grande, A r i z o n a the f i r s t monument r e c o g n i z e d under t h i s A c t ) . 1916 N a t i o n a l Park System Organ ic A c t * E s t a b l i s h e d the N a t i o n a l Parks S e r v i c e and gave i t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r n a t i o n a l p a r k s , monuments and r e s e r v a t i o n s . 1931 C h a r l e s t o n , South C a r o l i n a , P r e s e r v a t i o n Ord inance * F i r s t m u n i c i p a l p r e s e r v a t i o n o rd i nance i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 1935 H i s t o r i c S i t e s A c t * D e c l a r e d p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c s i t e s , b u i l d i n g s and o b j e c t s o f n a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y . A l s o , d i r e c t e d the S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r t o under take programs w i t h r e s p e c t t o h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n . 1937 New O r l e a n s , L o u i s i a n a , V i eux Ca r re P r e s e r v a t i o n Ord inance * P r e s e r v a t i o n o rd inance t o p r o t e c t t h e V i e u x C a r r e d i s t r i c t i n New O r l e a n s . 1939 San A n t o n i o , Texas , La V i l l i t a P r e s e r v a t i o n Ord inance * P r e s e r v a t i o n o rd inance p r o t e c t i n g t h e La V i l l i t a d i s t r i c t i n San A n t o n i o , Texas . 1949 N a t i o n a l T r u s t f o r H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n E s t a b l i s h e d 1966 N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t * T h i s A c t c r e a t e d the N a t i o n a l R e g i s t e r o f H i s t o r i c B u i l d i n g s , p r o v i d e d f o r the c r e a t i o n o f s t a t e and l o c a l programs and p r o v i d e d g r a n t s f o r programs. 16 1966 Department o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t * E s t a b l i s h e d a p o l i c y o f p r e s e r v i n g n a t u r a l and man-made s i t e s a l ong highway r o u t e s . 1966 Demonstrat ion C i t i e s A c t * E s t a b l i s h e d a p o l i c y o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f Hous ing and Urban Development which r e c o g n i z e d p r e s e r v a t i o n and p e r m i t t e d fund ing o f p r e s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s . 1969 N a t i o n a l Env i ronmenta l P r o t e c t i o n A c t * S t r e s s e d f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n and r e q u i r e d env i ronmenta l impact assessment s t u d i e s . 1971 E x e c u t i v e Order #11593 * S t a t e d "The f e d e r a l government s h a l l p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p i n p r e s e r v i n g , r e s t o r i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g the h i s t o r i c and c u l t u r a l env ironment o f the n a t i o n " . 1976 Tax Reform A c t * Tax i n c e n t i v e s c r e a t e d t o encourage r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s . 1981 Economic Recovery Tax A c t * A d d i t i o n a l t ax s av i n g p r o v i s i o n s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s c r e a t e d . 1982 N a t i o n a l Env i ronmenta l P r o t e c t i o n A c t * A d d i t i o n o f p r e s e r v a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s t o t h i s A c t . 1986 Economic Recover Tax A c t * Reduced t ax i n c e n t i v e s f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . 17 Amer ican l e g i s l a t i o n focused on i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s and monuments. The f i r s t f o rma l h i s t o r i c c o n s e r v a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s was the Mount Vernon L a d i e s A s s o c i a t i o n was founded i n 1853 w i t h the s i n g l e purpose o f r e s t o r i n g George Wash ing ton ' s home (W i l l i ams , 1983, p .38 ) . G e n e r a l l y , t h i s and o t h e r e a r l y examples o f h i s t o r i c c o n s e r v a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e d e s c r i b e d as hav ing narrow aims such as the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a s i n g l e b u i l d i n g (W i l l i ams , 1983, p . 3 8 ) . These e a r l y Amer ican i n i t i a t i v e s d i f f e r e d from those i n Grea t B r i t a i n i n t h a t t hey were f r e q u e n t l y sponsored by p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s as opposed t o government (Murtagh, 1988, p . 3 7 ) . They had i n common w i t h t h e B r i t i s h t r a d i t i o n the g o a l o f p r e s e r v i n g s i n g l e b u i l d i n g s and s i t e s . Dur ing t h e same p e r i o d as the Mount Vernon L a d i e s A s s o c i a t i o n was work ing t o p r e s e r v e the b u i l t env ironment ano ther movement was fo rming t o p r e s e r v e the n a t u r a l env ironment i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " W r i t e r s l i k e Thoreau and Emerson . . .e spoused the m y s t i c a l v i r t u e s o f the v a n i s h i n g w i l d e r n e s s b e f o r e the m idd le o f t h e N i n e t e e n t h Century . The d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e some p a r t o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s was a c e n t r a l m o t i f i n the f ound ing o f Y e l l o w s t o n e N a t i o n a l Park " (Marty, 198£f4, p . 6 4 ) . Ye l l ows tone Park, t h e w o r l d ' s f i r s t n a t i o n a l pa rk , was e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the p a s s i n g o f the park b i l l on March 1, 1872 ( E a r l y , 1984, p . 7 8 ) . C o r n e l i u s Hedges, a proponent o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f 18 Ye l l ows tone Park s a i d a t the t ime , " T h i s g r e a t w i l d e r n e s s does not be l ong t o u s . I t be longs t o t h e n a t i o n . L e t us make a p u b l i c pa rk o f i t and s e t i t a s i d e . . . n e v e r t o be changed but t o be kep t s a c r e d a lways " (Marty, 1984, p .64 ) . There a re commentators who suggest t h a t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the pa rk was m o t i v a t e d by development i n t e r e s t s who had p r o f i t s r a t h e r than p r e s e r v a t i o n i n mind. Whatever the m o t i v a t i o n s , the c r e a t i o n o f t h e park , " though i t d i d not e s t a b l i s h an immediate t r e n d . . w a s impor tant t o subsequent p r e s e r v a t i o n movements" ( E a r l y , 1984, p .72 ) . F u r t h e r , i n t h i s r e g a r d , a contemporary w r i t e r comments " Ye l l ows tone s t a r t e d something. Eve r s i n c e men have t r i e d t o s a feguard some o f the b e s t o f what i s , and what has been, even though i t has meant g i v i n g q u a l i t y p r i o r i t y over p r o f i t " . He added t h a t Ye l l ows tone i s " a wor ld symbol, a f l a m i n g e v a n g e l i s t t o those who b e l i e v e remembrance o f some t h i n g s p a s t i s nece s sa ry f o r s a n i t y i n a mad p r e s e n t " ( F ran tz i n E a r l y , 1984, p .75 ) . The f i r s t c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s bea r s out t h e i d e a t h a t s i n g l e monument c o n s e r v a t i o n dominated e a r l y l e g i s l a t i o n . The U n i t e d S t a t e s A n t i q u i t i e s A c t , pas sed i n 1906, " a u t h o r i z e d the P r e s i d e n t t o s e t a s i d e h i s t o r i c landmarks, s t r u c t u r e s and o b j e c t s l o c a t e d on l ands c o n t r o l l e d by the U n i t e d S t a t e s as n a t i o n a l monuments, r e q u i r e d pe rm i t s f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s on f e d e r a l l a n d and e s t a b l i s h e d c r i m i n a l and c i v i l p e n a l t i e s f o r v i o l a t i o n o f the A c t " ( B e l l , 1985, p.6) 19 Two decades l a t e r John D. R o c k e r f e l l e r J r . i n i t i a t e d the r e s t o r a t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f W i l l i a m s b u r g and by do ing so e x p e d i t e d t h e e v o l u t i o n o f h i s t o r i c c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g and c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n the c o u n t r y . "By r e c r e a t i n g a town a t the f i n e s t p e r i o d o f h i s t o r y and o p e r a t i n g i t s o l e l y as a museum, the W i l l i a m s b u r g p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t s p o p u l a r i z e d an approach t o landmark p r e s e r v a t i o n t h a t has c a p t u r e d t h e p u b l i c ' s i m a g i n a t i o n . . . Many c i t i e s have r e c o g n i z e d the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a p p l y i n g the broad v i s i o n o f the p l a n n e r s o f v i l l a g e r e s t o r a t i o n p r o j e c t s t o t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f urban h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s . " (W i l l i ams , 1983, p.43) F o l l o w i n g the example o f W i l l i a m s b u r g , o t h e r communit ies a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y began t o l ook a t the c o n s e r v a t i o n p o t e n t i a l o f t h e i r own neighbourhoods and d i s t r i c t s and a t t h e i r p o l i c i e s and laws t h a t would enab le them t o undertake c o n s e r v a t i o n e f f o r t s . The f i r s t Amer ican l o c a l government o rd inance c r e a t e d t o p r o t e c t an h i s t o r i c a rea was passed i n 1931 i n C h a r l e s t o n , South C a r o l i n a . Ord inances t o p r o t e c t the V ieux Ca r re i n New Or l ean s i n 1937 and the La V i l l i t a i n San A n t o n i o i n 1939, soon f o l l o w e d . The purpose o f these e a r l y p r e s e r v a t i o n o rd i nance s was t o " f r e e z e a b u i l d i n g o r a neighbourhood a t a p o i n t i n t i m e " (Roddewig, 1983, p . 2 ) . These e a r l y o rd i nance s became the models f o r d i s t r i c t c o n s e r v a t i o n throughout the c o u n t r y and they s i g n i f i e d t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n i s t s t h a t more than i n d i v i d u a l b u i l d i n g s and monuments needed t o be p r o t e c t e d i f t he c h a r a c t e r o f d i s t r i c t s and neighbourhoods was t o be p r e s e r v e d . 20 The H i s t o r i c S i t e s A c t o f 1935 d e c l a r e d t h e importance o f the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c s i t e s as a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y . However, t h e p r o v i s i o n s f o r imp lementat ion o f t h i s p o l i c y were weak and i t f a i l e d t o e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t o o t h e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s and i n i t i a t i v e s . ( B e l l , 1985, p . 6 ) . By t h e 1950 ' s , the p o t e n t i a l o f h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t p r e s e r v a t i o n was b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d and " i t became c l e a r t h a t h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n c o u l d be a c a t a l y s t f o r the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f ne i ghbourhoods . " (Roddewig, 1983, p . 2 ) . Two decades had passed s i n c e t h e f i r s t l o c a l government d i s t r i c t o rd i nance had been passed and h i s t o r i c zon ing and o rd i nance s had become an accep ted p a r t o f the c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n e r ' s t o o l k i t . The 1966 N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t o u t l i n e d a comprehens ive and i n t e g r a t e d approach t o h i s t o r i c c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g . The A c t made s e v e r a l impor tant changes t o e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c i e s . F i r s t , i t p r o v i d e d f o r t h e expans ion and maintenance o f the N a t i o n a l R e g i s t e r o f H i s t o r i c P l a c e s by t h e S e c r e t a r y o f the I n t e r i o r . Second, the A c t encouraged S t a t e and l o c a l p r e s e r v a t i o n programs. Under the terms o f the A c t s t a t e programs must i n c l u d e : the appointment o f a S t a t e H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a S t a t e P r e s e r v a t i o n Review Board and adequate p u b l i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s t a t e H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r must i n v e n t o r y the h i s t o r i c p r o p e r t i e s i n the s t a t e and p repa re and implement a 21 h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n p l a n . I t i s a l s o impor tant t o note t h a t i n c o n c e r t w i t h the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t , many S t a t e s a re making p r o v i s i o n s t o a l l o w l o c a l governments t o under take p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s ( B e l l , 1985, p . 7 ) . T h i r d , the A c t p r o v i d e d match ing g ran t funds t o S t a t e s f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s . In 1969 t h e f e d e r a l government passed the f i r s t N a t i o n a l  Env i r onmenta l P r o t e c t i o n A c t (NEPA). The A c t " s t r e s s e d f e d e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n and r e q u i r e d env i ronmenta l impact s t u d i e s t o focus the a t t e n t i o n o f f e d e r a l a genc ie s on the e f f e c t t h e i r p r o j e c t s have on t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s " (Murtagh, 1988, p . 7 4 ) . S i g n i f i c a n t t ax i n c e n t i v e p r o v i s i o n s f o r b u i l d i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n were c r e a t e d i n the Tax Reform A c t (1976), Economic Recovery A c t (1981) and t h e Economic Recovery Tax A c t (1986). These t ax re fo rms p r o v i d e d the means f o r imp lementa t ion o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . They encouraged the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the p r i v a t e s e c t o r i n c o n s e r v a t i o n programs th rough t h e use o f f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s . I t s hou ld be noted t h a t t h e l a t e s t o f these a c t s , the Economic Recovery Tax A c t , reduced t h e l e v e l o f i n c e n t i v e a l l owed i n t h e two e a r l i e r a c t s . The N a t i o n a l Env i ronmenta l P o l i c y A c t o f 1982 r e i n f o r c e d the f e d e r a l government 1 s commitment t o h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n by add ing t o NEPA a p o l i c y which r e q u i r e s t h e f e d e r a l government t o " c a r r y out i t s p l an s and programs i n such a way as t o p r e s e r v e impor tan t h i s t o r i c , c u l t u r a l and n a t u r a l a s p e c t s o f our n a t i o n a l h e r i t a g e " ( B e l l , 1985, p .17 ) . A l though the h i s t o r y o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i s s h o r t e r i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s than t h a t o f Great B r i t a i n , t h e p a t t e r n o f development i s s i m i l a r . The f i r s t t r e n d e v i d e n t i s the t r a n s i t i o n from monument p r e s e r v a t i o n t o the more comprehens ive a r e a and d i s t r i c t approach t o c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g . In the ca se o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the p r o g r e s s i o n from monument p r e s e r v a t i o n t o d i s t r i c t p r e s e r v a t i o n took p l a c e over a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d o f t ime and may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the i n f l u e n c e and e x p e r i e n c e o f Great B r i t a i n and t o the work o f John D. R o c k e r f e l l e r J r . a t W i l l i a m s b u r g . In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i t was l o c a l governments such as New O r l e a n s and C h a r l e s t o n which through the use o f l o c a l o rd i nance s l e a d t h e way t o the c r e a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s . H i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s were f o r m a l i z e d n a t i o n wide w i t h t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e 1966 N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t . The second impor tant t r e n d , a l s o s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f Great B r i t a i n , i s t he i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s i n t o c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . T h i s was accomp l i shed much more q u i c k l y i n the U.S. than i n Grea t B r i t a i n w i t h t h e c r e a t i o n of t h e C h a r l e s t o n , South C a r o l i n a Ord inance and tho se which f o l l o w e d . These o rd inance s e s t a b l i s h e d a p receden t f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n as a p l a n n i n g purpose i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . L a t e r examples o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n c l u d e p r o v i s i o n s o f the Department o f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t which r e q u i r e d p r e s e r v a t i o n o f man made and n a t u r a l s i t e s a l ong highways, Demonstrat ion C i t i e s  A c t which encouraged HUD t o adopt a p o l i c y o f p r e s e r v a t i o n r a t h e r than d e m o l i t i o n and rep lacement and t h e N a t i o n a l  Env i ronmenta l P r o t e c t i o n Ac t which r e q u i r e d env i ronmenta l impact s t u d i e s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s a c l e a r t r e n d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s toward the d e v o l u t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n t o l o c a l government. T h i s i s e v i denced by the e n a b l i n g o f l o c a l government o r d i n a n c e s , by the N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t p r o v i s i o n s which encourage l o c a l government programs and i n i t i a t i v e s and t h e v i t a l r o l e o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n the n a t i o n a l r e g i s t e r . 1.2 Canadian L e g i s l a t i v e Context T h i s s e c t i o n f ocu se s on the h i s t o r y o f Canadian c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n an e f f o r t t o t r a c e t h e development o f Canadian c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t because o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e powers o f the F e d e r a l Government o f Canada t h e b u l k o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n f a l l s t o t h e P r o v i n c i a l governments and t h a t t h e f e d e r a l r o l e i s 24 t h e r e f o r e l i m i t e d . F e d e r a l The B r i t i s h Nor th Amer ica A c t o f 1867, subsequent l y renamed the C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t , s i g n i f i c a n t l y l i m i t s the e x t e n t t o which the F e d e r a l government i n Canada may become i n v o l v e d i n h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n . Under the se A c t s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o p e r t y ma t te r s arid l o c a l government i s a l l o c a t e d t o the p r o v i n c e s . The r e l a t i v e l y minor r o l e the F e d e r a l Government p l a y s i n h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n Canada i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o bo th o f the p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d examples o f B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s which demonstrate s t r o n g s e n i o r government invo lvement i n h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n . Indeed bo th c o u n t r i e s have passed numerous n a t i o n a l s t a t u t e s gove rn ing h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . Canada on t h e o t h e r hand, w i t h l i m i t e d F e d e r a l Government powers, has o n l y minor f e d e r a l s t a t u t e s c o n c e r n i n g h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n . These i n c l u d e the H i s t o r i c S i t e s and Monuments  A c t , I nd i an A c t . N a t i o n a l Parks A c t and C u l t u r a l P r o p e r t y Import  and E x p o r t A c t (Ward, 1988, p .65 ) . Government sponsored h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n e f f o r t s on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e a r e t h e r e f o r e l i m i t e d i n l a r g e p a r t t o i n c e n t i v e s and p e r s u a s i v e i n i t i a t i v e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the r o l e o f the F e d e r a l Government i s l i m i t e d t o : management o f p r o p e r t y over which i t has c o n t r o l , r e s e a r c h and f i n a n c e (Denhez, 1978, p .12 ) . F i g u r e I I I o u t l i n e s the development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada. 25 FIGURE I I I THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSERVATION LEGISLATION IN CANADA Sources Used: Denhez (1978), Lazea r (1981), O r r (1986) & Ward (1988) 1885 Order i n C o u n c i l t o e s t a b l i s h the Ban f f Hot Sp r ing s r e s e r v e 1887 Rocky Mountains Park A c t * C rea ted t o e s t a b l i s h what i s now c a l l e d Ban f f n a t i o n a l Park and r e f e r r e d t o the " p r e s e r v a t i o n " o f the Park. 1919 H i s t o r i c S i t e s and Monuments Board e s t a b l i s h e d t o a d v i s e the M i n i s t e r on the n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f pe r sons , p l a c e s o r e v e n t s . 1930 N a t i o n a l Parks A c t * P r o h i b i t e d ' i n d u s t r i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n ' i n n a t i o n a l p a r k s . 1953 H i s t o r i c S i t e s and Monuments A c t * Enab led the F e d e r a l Government t o commemorate, c a r e f o r and a c q u i r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s and t o e s t a b l i s h museums. 1970 Canadian Inventory o f H i s t o r i c B u i l d i n g s (CIHB) i n i t i a t e d 1973 H e r i t a g e Canada Foundat ion e s t a b l i s h e d 26 The f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t Canadian n a t i o n a l p o l i c y which concerned h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the H i s t o r i c S i t e s and Monuments Board i n 1919 which was c r e a t e d " f o r the purpose o f a d v i s i n g the M i n i s t e r on the n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f pe r sons , p l a c e s o r e v e n t s " ( Lazear , 1981, p . 6 ) . As i s the case i n Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h i s p o l i c y was c r e a t e d i n o r d e r t o r e c o g n i z e i n d i v i d u a l h i s t o r i c s i t e s and monuments. I n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h i s e a r l y p o l i c y was the c r e a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l pa rk s i n Canada. In 1883 W i l l i a m Van H o m e , i n s p i r e d by t h e beauty o f Lake L o u i s e , i n i t i a t e d the i d e a o f a ' N a t i o n ' s P a r k 1 f o r Canada (Pearce, 1962, p .54 ) . On November 25 1885, by Order i n C o u n c i l , the Ban f f Hot Sp r i ng s Reserve was approved thus c r e a t i n g the w o r l d ' s t h i r d n a t i o n a l park p receded o n l y by Y e l l o w s t o n e Park i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Roya l N a t i o n a l Park i n A u s t r a l i a (Marty, 1984, p .41 ) . The Order i n C o u n c i l r e f e r r e d o n l y t o t h e reserve 's " s a n i t a r y advantage t o the p u b l i c " and i t was not u n t i l l a t e r t h a t the n o t i o n o f p r e s e r v a t i o n e n t e r e d i n t o t h e p i c t u r e (Marty, 1984, p .40 ) . On June 23, 1887 the Rocky Mountain Park A c t was passed t o f o r m a l l y p r o t e c t both the Ban f f Hot S p r i n g s and the a rea s u r r o u n d i n g the s p r i n g s (Pearce, 1962, p .12 ) . The A c t s t a t e d t h a t t h e pa rk was t o be a "A p u b l i c pa rk and a p l e a s u r e ground f o r the b e n e f i t , advantage and enjoyment o f t h e peop le o f 27 Canada" (Luxton, 1975, p .57 ) . The A c t a l s o i n c l u d e d C lause 4(a) which p r o v i d e d f o r the " c a r e , p r e s e r v a t i o n and management o f the p a r k " (Marty, 1984, p .64 ) . Though t h e l e g i s l a t o r s o f the t ime had mode l l ed the A c t on the American A c t which d e d i c a t e d Ye l l ows tone N a t i o n a l Park, the Canadian l e g i s l a t o r s " t r i e d t o frame an a c t t h a t would make the r e s e r v e a commerc ia l s ucce s s , but save i t from the abuses o f the i g n o r a n t and the a v a r i c i o u s . . . o n e v e r y important word was used i n c o n n e c t i o n w i th the M i n i s t e r ' s powers i n 1887: the word p r e s e r v a t i o n " (Marty, 1984, p . 6 4 ) . Four decades l a t e r i n 1930 the N a t i o n a l Parks A c t was pas sed . T h i s A c t was s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t removed ' i n d u s t r i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n ' from the N a t i o n a l Parks (Marty, 1984, p . 9 9 ) . The word ing o f the A c t i l l u s t r a t e s a p o l i c y s h i f t , " N a t i o n a l Parks a r e d e d i c a t e d t o the Canadian peop le f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t , e d u c a t i o n and enjoyment, but they must be l e f t un impa i red f o r t h e p l e a s u r e o f f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s " (Luxton, 1974, p . 8 4 ) . Under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the f i r s t Commissioner o f Dominion Pa rk s , J . B . H a r k i n , the f i r s t h i s t o r i c parks were e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canada: F o r t Howe i n New Brunswick i n 1914 and F o r t Anne i n Nova S c o t i a i n 1917. J . B . H a r k i n "was one man who s t r o v e t o do something c o n c r e t e t o keep the pa s t a l i v e i n t h e n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . He f e l t t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c s i t e s and s t r u c t u r e s , and the commemoration o f h i s t o r i c event s s i g n i f i c a n t 28 t o t h e whole n a t i o n , c o u l d be b e s t c a r r i e d out by t h e N a t i o n a l Parks Branch. The A c t o f 1930 p r o v i d e d f o r h i s t o r i c parks t o be e s t a b l i s h and managed by the N a t i o n a l Parks Branch (Marty, 1984, p .146 ) . The H i s t o r i c S i t e s and Monuments A c t . pas sed i n 1953, s p e c i f i c a l l y addressed the i s s u e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t and management o f Canad ian h i s t o r i c s i t e s and monuments. T h i s A c t enab led the F e d e r a l Government t o commemorate h i s t o r i c s i t e s , t o make agreements r e g a r d i n g the c a r e o f h i s t o r i c s i t e s , t o e s t a b l i s h h i s t o r i c museums and t o a c q u i r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s . Under t h i s A c t the f e d e r a l government i s a b l e t o name n a t i o n a l h i s t o r i c s i t e s , however i t cannot p r o t e c t these p r o p e r t i e s and such d e s i g n a t i o n s have no l e g a l e f f e c t (Murtagh, 1988, p . 3 ) . T h i s s t a t u t e has r e c e i v e d o n l y minor r e v i s i o n s over the l a s t t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s . In 1970 t h e suppor t s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d t o t h e H i s t o r i c S i t e s and Monuments Board by the M i n i s t r y o f t h e Environment under took t o c r e a t e t h e Canadian Inventory o f H i s t o r i c B u i l d i n g s . The I nven to ry surveyed b u i l d i n g s a c r o s s the c o u n t r y and documented the n a t i o n ' s h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s (Lazear , 1981 ,p .6 ) . In 1973 t h e F e d e r a l Government e s t a b l i s h e d the H e r i t a g e Canada Founda t i on as an independent c h a r i t a b l e f o u n d a t i o n and p r o v i d e d t h e Foundat ion w i t h a $12 m i l l i o n endowment fund (Her i t age Canada, 1973-74, p . 2 ) . The H e r i t a g e Canada Foundat ion was 29 e s t a b l i s h e d " f o r the purpose o f h o l d i n g and p r e s e r v i n g b u i l d i n g s , n a t i o n a l a reas and s c e n i c l andscapes t h a t a r e p a r t o f t h e Canadian h e r i t a g e " ( F a l k n e r , 1977. p .36 ) . The p r i o r i t i e s o f the Governors o f H e r i t a g e Canada were o u t l i n e d i n t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e F o u n d a t i o n ' s w e l l known magazine H e r i t a g e Canada: " s t r o n g e r l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r o t e c t h e r i t a g e , a c q u i s i t i o n o f l a n d , p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , support f o r l o c a l g roups , s t r o n g membership base and i n c r e a s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l and t r a d e s k i l l s " ( P h i l l i p s , 1974, p . 3 ) . O ther F e d e r a l i n i t i a t i v e s i n c l u d e a 1976 agreement t o adhere t o the Convent ion Concern ing the P r o t e c t i o n o f the World C u l t u r a l  and N a t u r a l H e r i t a g e o therw i se known as t h e UNESCO World H e r i t a g e Convent ion (Denhez, 1978, p . 4 ) . T h i s c o n v e n t i o n o u t l i n e s g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f h i s t o r i c s i t e s and monuments. A l though F e d e r a l Government p r o t e c t i v e powers f o r p r e s e r v a t i o n a r e l i m i t e d i t shou ld be noted t h a t one f e d e r a l a c t does have c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on c o n s e r v a t i o n i n Canada. The Income Tax  A c t t r e a t s demol i shed p r o p e r t y as " l o s t " which means t h a t d e m o l i t i o n a vo i d s " r e c a p t u r e " o f any o v e r - d e p r e c i a t i o n o f the p r o p e r t y f o r t ax purposes and s e c o n d l y , p e r m i t s t o t a l d e d u c t i o n o f t h e book v a l u e o f the b u i l d i n g which i s demol i shed (Ward, 1988, p . 7 ) . T h i s A c t t h e r e f o r e encourages , o r a t l e a s t p r o v i d e s i n c e n t i v e f o r the d e m o l i t i o n o f p r o p e r t i e s . 30 As e v i d e n c e d by the above, the h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n i t i a t i v e s o f t h e F e d e r a l Government i n Canada a re l i m i t e d i n compar i son w i t h tho se o f Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In t h i s c o u n t r y , due i n l a r g e p a r t t o the na tu re o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t o f 1867, t h e l i o n ' s share o f the l e g i s l a t e d e f f o r t i s under taken a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . P r o v i n c i a l As t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t a l l o c a t e s the powers r e l a t e d t o h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o the p r o v i n c e s , each p r o v i n c e has sought t o c r e a t e i t s own c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . In t h i s r e g a r d F a l k n e r w r i t e s , " P r o v i s i o n s o f the BNA A c t pe rm i t any p r o v i n c e t o c o n t r o l by l e g i s l a t i o n the p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e o b j e c t s , l ands and b u i l d i n g s t h a t have been a p a r t o f t h a t p r o v i n c e ' s h i s t o r y . What i s o f h i s t o r i c consequence i n Quebec may be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f New Brunswick o r B r i t i s h Co lumbia, f o r example. I t i s t h e r e f o r e up t o each p r o v i n c e t o c o n s i d e r i t s own p a r t i c u l a r e v o l u t i o n and c u l t u r e . " ( F a l k n e r , 1977, p . 3 8 ) . S e v e r a l a t tempts have been made t o survey the contemporary p r o v i n c i a l c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada i n c l u d i n g H e r i t a g e Canada i n 1974, Denhez i n 1979, Ward i n 1986 and a p a r t i a l su rvey by O r r i n 1986. A survey o f p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a "monumental t a s k . . . ( a s ) p r o v i n c i a l a c t s a f f e c t i n g b u i l d i n g s , o r s i t e s w i t h b u i l d i n g s , d i f f e r from one p r o v i n c e t o ano ther . They may a l s o have v a r i o u s t i t l e s and f a l l w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n o f s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t depar tments " ( F a l k n e r , 1977, p .39 ) . 31 Both Denhez and O r r conc lude t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n v a r i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from p r o v i n c e t o p r o v i n c e and thus the powers under each s t a t u t e v a r y s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f those r e g u l a t i o n s which concern the d e l e g a t i o n o f powers t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (Denhez, 1979, p. 30) (Orr , 1986, p. 1 ) . Ward ' s s tudy o f p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n comp l ie s bo th p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l government l e g i s l a t i o n from a c r o s s the c o u n t r y . A summary o f h i s work i s i n c l u d e d i n two t a b l e s which form Appendix "A " o f t h i s t h e s i s . S e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f h i s work a re worthy o f n o t e . F i r s t , most p r o v i n c e s a re a b l e t o p r o v i d e f o r d i s t r i c t c o n s e r v a t i o n . I t i s impor tant t o note however t h a t on l y Quebec ' s l e g i s l a t i o n addresses the i s s u e o f d i s t r i c t c o n s e r v a t i o n s p e c i f i c a l l y . Other p r o v i n c e ^ r e f e r o n l y t o s i t e s which may be as l a r g e o r s m a l l as the government chooses t o d e s i g n a t e . T h i s suggests t h a t i n most c a s e s , a t l e a s t i n p r a c t i c e , p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n has e v o l v e d beyond t h e s i n g l e monument s t a ge . I t does remain however, t h a t t h e l e g i s l a t i o n has perhaps not e v o l v e d t o meet the demands o f p r a c t i c e . Second, w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the i n t e g r a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t o c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s Ward comments " In no p r o v i n c e a re m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o b l i g e d , as t hey a re under 32 t h e B r i t i s h C i v i c Amenity A c t , t o p l a n f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n " (Ward, 1988, p . 1 5 ) . T h i s indeed suggests t h a t p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada has not y e t e v o l v e d t o the p o i n t where c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s v iewed as a r o u t i n e a spec t o f l o c a l government p l a n n i n g . F i n a l l y , Ward ' s work suggests t h a t some d e l e g a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o l o c a l governments has t aken p l a c e . Much o f t h i s d e l e g a t i o n however appears t o be a consequence o f s t a t u t e s which a l r e a d y e x i s t such as l a n d use c o n t r o l s r a t h e r than l e g i s l a t i o n which i s designed t o s p e c i f i c a l l y address the i s s u e s o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n (Ward, 1988, p . 9 ) . G i ven t h e work of Ward, t h i s t h e s i s does not a t tempt t o su rvey the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s from a c r o s s Canada i n d e t a i l . Ra the r , development of h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s d e t a i l e d i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e t h e c o n t e x t w i t h i n which t o c o n s i d e r the more r e c e n t l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s . 1.3 B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e Context T h i s s e c t i o n t r a c e s the development o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia. In a d d i t i o n t o examining the h i s t o r y o f the P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i t a l s o i n c l u d e s an examina t i on o f the e x i s t i n g H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t and p r o v i d e s an overv iew of the community p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . 33 I l l u s t r a t i o n IV o u t l i n e s the development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n p r o v i d e s background i n f o r m a t i o n on the major p o l i c y changes t o the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . The f i r s t c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia was pas sed i n 1925. The H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t enab led t h e L i e u t e n a n t Governor i n c o u n c i l t o " d e c l a r e any p r i m i t i v e f i g u r e o r l egend c u t i n o r p a i n t e d upon any r o c k , o r group o f such f i g u r e s o r l egends , o r any s t r u c t u r e , o r any n a t u r a l o b j e c t e x i s t i n g w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e t o be a ' h i s t o r i c o b j e c t ' " . As was the case i n Grea t B r i t a i n , t h i s e a r l y l e g i s l a t i o n f ocu sed on a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s and monuments. The next g e n e r a t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n was deve loped and adopted by the P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t u r e i n 1960. The A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t d i s t i n g u i s h e d between s i t e s and o b j e c t s , a p r i n c i p l e which has c a r r i e d through t o t h e c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n (Ward, 1988, p . 7 3 ) . T h i s A c t p r o v i d e d f o r the d e s i g n a t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c s i t e s and i t i d e n t i f i e d , and p reven ted removal o f , h i s t o r i c o b j e c t s but i t d i d not p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r d e s i g n a t i o n . Other impor tan t f e a t u r e s o f t h i s A c t i n c l u d e d t h e r e p e a l o f the 1925 H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t but i t h e l d o v e r the d e s i g n a t i o n s o f the A c t . 34 FIGURE IV THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSERVATION LEGISLATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Sources : H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t (1925), A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t (1960), A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t (1972) M u n i c i p a l A c t (1973) and H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t (1977) 1925 H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t * F i r s t c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . * P r o v i d e d f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t s o n l y . 1960 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t * D i s t i n g u i s h e d between s i t e s and o b j e c t s . * P rov i ded f o r d e s i g n a t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c s i t e s but not f o r o b j e c t s . * I n t roduced the concept o f compensat ion. 1972 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t * Broadened the d e f i n i t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e . * Compensation c l a u s e not i n c l u d e d i n t h i s A c t . * De s i gna t i on s made under A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c  S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t c a r r i e d over under new A c t . 1973 M u n i c i p a l A c t * Enab led c o u n c i l s t o d e s i g n a t e b u i l d i n g s , s t r u c t u r e s o r l a n d s . * Enab led c o u n c i l s t o e s t a b l i s h h e r i t a g e a d v i s o r y committees. 1977 H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t * Recogn ized a d i s t i n c t i o n between p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l government powers f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n . * Devo lved p r o v i n c i a l powers t o l o c a l governments. * S p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d " a r c h i t e c t u r a l " s i t e s . * P r o v i d e d f o r the c r e a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l h e r i t a g e a d v i s o r y committees. * E s t a b l i s h e d the B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e T r u s t . * P r o v i d e d f o r d i s c r e t i o n a r y compensat ion by l o c a l governments. * D id not r e p e a l d e s i g n a t i o n s made under A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t (1972) . 35 Perhaps t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f the 1960 A c t was the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the concept o f compensat ion. P r i o r t o 1960 t h e r e was no requ i rement f o r , o r ment ion o f , compensat ion f o r l o s s o r i n j u r i o u s a f f e c t which r e s u l t e d from the d e s i g n a t i o n o f a h i s t o r i c o b j e c t . The 1960 A c t however, i n c l u d e d a c l a u s e which p r o v i d e d f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f compensat ion by the Supreme Cour t f o r any d imin i shment o f v a l u e which r e s u l t e d from an e x c a v a t i o n o r a l t e r a t i o n o f an h i s t o r i c s i t e . The A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t was r e v i s e d i n 1972. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t the compensat ion p r o v i s i o n o f the 1960 A c t was not h e l d o v e r i n t h e 1972 A c t . A l though d e s i g n a t i o n s made under t h e e a r l i e r A c t c o n t i n u e d t o be v a l i d under the l a t e r A c t , compensat ion was not p r o v i d e d f o r . R e l a t e d t o t h e 1972 r e v i s i o n s was a l a t e r amendment t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t i n 1973. The amendments which added S e c t i o n 714(a) t o the A c t enab led c o u n c i l s t o d e s i g n a t e " b u i l d i n g s , s t r u c t u r e s o r l a n d s " f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n purpose s . I t a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f m u n i c i p a l h e r i t a g e a d v i s o r y committees. By compar i son w i t h Great B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , B r i t i s h Columbia was l a t e i n adop t ing l e g i s l a t i o n which r e c o g n i z e d the v a l u e and p r o v i d e d f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g s on a r c h i t e c t u r a l grounds. I t was not u n t i l 1977 t h a t the 36 P r o v i n c i a l Government passed the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t which f o r t h e f i r s t t ime i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ' s h i s t o r y s p e c i f i c a l l y a l l owed f o r t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e s i t e s which i n c l u d e d s i t e s o f " h i s t o r i c , a r c h i t e c t u r a l , a r c h a e o l o g i c a l , p a l a e o n t o l o g i c a l o r s c e n i c s i g n i f i c a n c e " . The second s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t i s t h a t i t d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e powers o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government from those o f M u n i c i p a l Governments. A number o f t r e n d s a re apparent i n t h i s c h r o n i c l e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . F i r s t , as we have seen i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n s d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , the f ocus o f e a r l y l e g i s l a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t l y s i t e s p e c i f i c . That i s t o say t h a t the l e g i s l a t i o n does not p r o v i d e f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f the s i t e and t h e s i t e c o n t e x t . Second ly , B r i t i s h Columbia has been r e l a t i v e l y s low t o deve lop i t s l e g i s l a t i o n and by compar i son w i t h Grea t B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s i t has not reached the same l e v e l o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n terms o f management o f t h e b u i l t env i ronment . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the l e g i s l a t i o n does not i n t e g r a t e the concept o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n t o the normal p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s o f l o c a l governments. T h i r d l y , t h e i n d i v i d u a l a c t s o f 1925, 1960, 1972, 1973 and 1977 i l l u s t r a t e a g r a d u a l d e v o l u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n from the P r o v i n c e t o l o c a l government. One f u r t h e r comment on the subs tance o f t h e A c t s i s t h e chang ing 37 p o s i t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government w i t h r e s p e c t t o the i s s u e o f compensat ion. Compensation w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s but l e t i t s u f f i c e t o say t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l Government has been i n c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r p o l i c i e s r e g a r d i n g t h i s i s s u e . In o r d e r t o more f u l l y unders tand the c o n t e x t o f the proposed l e g i s l a t i v e p o l i c i e s i t i s nece s sa ry t o examine i n d e t a i l t he 1977 H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t . H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n Ac t The f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n examines the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t o f 1977. "The ( P r o j e c t P r ide ) Task Fo rce r e c e i v e d i n c o n t e s t a b l e e v i d e n c e t h a t the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t r e q u i r e s s i g n i f i c a n t changes t o make i t an e f f e c t i v e a i d t o h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n . 1 1 (Stewardship and O p p o r t u n i t y : Report o f the  M i n i s t e r i a l Task Fo rce on H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n . 1987, p.47) "The law i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e l a t i n g t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n o f our h e r i t a g e i s s e r i o u s l y d e f e c t i v e . The d e f i c i e n c i e s o f t h e H e r i t a g e  C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t a re p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b i n g , as many o f them had t h e i r o r i g i n s not i n d e l i b e r a t e and in formed c h o i c e but i n s u p e r f i c i a l r e s e a r c h o r c a r e l e s s d r a f t i n g . A f u r t h e r cause f o r conce rn i s t h e l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f m u n i c i p a l and r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g powers f o r the purposes o f h e r i t a g e p r o t e c t i o n . The l e g a l framework o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s inadequate f o r t h e t a s k . " (Ward, 1988, p.106) 38 "When the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t was pas sed i n 1977, i t was c o n s i d e r e d t o be the b e s t h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada. However, s i n c e then t h e l e g a l , t e c h n i c a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t o f the A c t has changed and i t has become i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent t h a t t h e p r e s e n t l e g i s l a t i o n does not p r o v i d e an adequate b a s i s f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n programs. " (Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . 1990, p.4) When the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1977 i t marked a s i g n i f i c a n t s h i f t i n t h e p o l i c y d i r e c t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government i n t h a t i t broadened the d e f i n i t i o n o f " h e r i t a g e " t o s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e a r c h i t e c t u r a l s i t e s , i t r e c o g n i z e d t h e r o l e o f l o c a l governments i n c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g and i t p r o v i d e d i n c e n t i v e programs f o r l o c a l governments and p r o p e r t y owners through t h e c r e a t i o n o f the B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e T r u s t . As the above t h r e e commentaries suggest , t h e H e r i t a g e  C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t has been the focus o f much c r i t i c i s m i n c o n s e r v a t i o n c i r c l e s . The s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t have been w e l l documented by Or r (1986), the P r o j e c t P r i d e Task Fo r ce (1987) and Ward (1988). These commentaries focus on bo th the l e g a l d r a f t i n g and the p o l i c y weaknesses o f the s t a t u t e . In l a r g e p a r t t h e c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e A c t focus on the p r o v i s i o n s which d e a l w i t h d e s i g n a t i o n , n o t i f i c a t i o n , compensat ion, p r o t e c t i o n o f d e s i g n a t e d p r o p e r t i e s , p r e v e n t a t i v e measures, enforcement, p l a n n i n g powers, t h e b a l a n c e o f t h e r i g h t s o f the p u b l i c v e r s u s p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s and i n c e n t i v e s f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n . 39 In 1987 t h e P r o j e c t P r i d e Task Fo r ce was e s t a b l i s h e d by the M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n and was g i v e n the mandate "To rev iew h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n , p o l i c y , and programs i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia , through a p r o c e s s o f b road p u b l i c c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h a v iew t o p r o v i d i n g the M i n i s t e r o f Tour i sm, R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e w i t h the g u i d e l i n e s f o r an approach t o t a k i n g c a r e o f our p a s t f o r g e n e r a t i o n s t o come" ( P r o j e c t P r i d e Task F o r c e , 1987, p . 5 ) . The r e p o r t o f the Task Fo r ce i n c l u d e s over 40 recommended changes t o t h e H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t . The recommendations o f the Task Fo rce a re i n c l u d e d i n Appendix " B " . The recommendations focus l a r g e l y on t h e a reas o f weakness noted above and they i n c l u d e a wide range o f proposed amendments. These recommendations formed the b a s i s f o r t h e development o f the p o l i c i e s c o n t a i n e d i n the White Paper Toward H e r i t a g e  L e g i s l a t i o n . Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n The P r o v i n c i a l White Paper, Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n , was r e l e a s e d i n January 1990 as a p o l i c y document and was i n t e n d e d t o form t h e p o l i c y b a s i s f o r d r a f t i n g new c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the P r o v i n c e . The p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s i n c l u d e d i n t h e White Paper were based on f o u r key p r i n c i p l e s : (1) H e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n law must a c h i e v e a f a i r and e f f e c t i v e ba l ance between the r i g h t s o f t h e p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owner and the o b j e c t i v e s o f the community. 40 (2) Community h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g must be b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e d i n t o normal l o c a l government p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s , so t h a t l a s t - m i n u t e c r i s i s response management i s l e s s nece s sa ry and l e s s p r e v a l e n t . (3) There need t o be more i n c e n t i v e s and s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s t o encourage and f a c i l i t a t e h e r i t a g e s teward sh ip . (4) There must be r e a l i s t i c p e n a l t i e s f o r tho se who l a w f u l l y damage or d e s t r o y p r o t e c t e d h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s . (Toward H e r i t a q e e L e g i s l a t i o n . 1990, p.6) The White Paper i n c l u d e s p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s which c o v e r a broad range o f t o p i c s i n c l u d i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and p r e - h i s t o r i c s i t e s , community p l a n n i n g , the b u i l t env i ronment, t r e e s , i n c e n t i v e s f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n and t r a n s i t i o n i s s u e s . As t h i s t h e s i s f ocu se s on community p l a n n i n g h e r i t a g e p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g summary o f the White Paper p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e s on l y t ho se p o l i c i e s which p r i m a r i l y concern the b u i l t env ironment and community p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s . A l though i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and p r e - h i s t o r i c s i t e s a r e r e l e v a n t t o community p l a n n i n g because o f the d i s t i n c t i o n s made i n the l e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e powers o f l o c a l government, t h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be c o n f i n e d t o those p o l i c i e s over which l o c a l government w i l l have d i r e c t c o n t r o l . The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f summary o f the l o c a l government community h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s proposed i n Toward H e r i t a g e  L e g i s l a t i o n : 41 COMMUNITY PLANNING FRAMEWORK Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t a spec t o f the White Paper i s the p r o p o s a l t o i n c o r p o r a t e h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n t o the r o u t i n e p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s o f m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s . To t h i s end, t h e White Paper proposes t o move p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o community h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g from the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n Ac t t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t . In t h i s way, i t i s hoped t h a t h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g w i l l become a p a r t o f community p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s i n g e n e r a l . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t s t r u c t u r a l change i n the l e g i s l a t i o n , s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c requ i rements w i l l be added t o the p r o v i s i o n s o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t . These i n c l u d e : O f f i c i a l Community P l a n P o l i c i e s The White Paper proposes t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t s i n c o r p o r a t e p o l i c i e s which addres s the i s s u e s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n o f community h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s i n t o t h e i r O f f i c i a l Community P l a n s . I t i s p roposed t h a t these p o l i c i e s w i l l p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r a l l o t h e r community h e r i t a g e i n i t i a t i v e s . I t i s a l s o proposed t h a t communit ies not be a b l e t o under take o t h e r i n i t i a t i v e s i f community h e r i t a g e p o l i c i e s a re not i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r OCP. The most impor tant a spec t o f t h i s i n i t i a t i v e i s the p r o p o s a l which w i l l r e q u i r e i n c l u s i o n i n t h e OCP o f s t andards f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment o f community h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s . The White Paper i s not s p e c i f i c about the l e v e l o f d e t a i l r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s e p o l i c i e s . H e r i t a g e I nvento ry The White Paper proposes t h a t f o l l o w i n g t h e a d o p t i o n o f OCP p o l i c i e s the m u n i c i p a l i t y o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t may under take an i n v e n t o r y o f the community * s h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s . The i n v e n t o r y i s t o be based upon t h e assessment s tandards s e t out i n t h e OCP. H e r i t a g e R e g i s t r y F o l l o w i n g the comp le t i on o f an i n v e n t o r y , a c o u n c i l o r r e g i o n a l board may by bylaw c r e a t e a H e r i t a g e R e g i s t r y . T h i s r e g i s t r y i s t o i n c l u d e tho se p r o p e r t i e s t h a t the c o u n c i l o r board deems t o meet the s e l e c t i o n s tandards s e t out i n the OCP. 42 HERITAGE IMPACT ASSESSMENT The White Paper proposes that a council or regional board may request a developer to undertake a heritage impact assessment study i n cases where i n the council or boards view the developers proposal may adversely a f f e c t a registered heritage property. The White Paper does not specify the requirements of impact assessment studies. TEMPORARY PROTECTION The White Paper provides councils and regional boards with the a b i l i t y to temporarily protect properties for a period of two months by resolution. The purpose of t h i s period would be to allow the council or board to study conservation a l t e r n a t i v e s . An additional protection period of two months may be allowed i f a designation or heritage zoning bylaw i s introduced. A one-time nine month heritage control period may also be enacted by a council or regional board to allow for a major community planning e f f o r t . HERITAGE ZONING The heritage zoning proposals of the White Paper recommend consolidation of a l l land use controls related to heritage properties into heritage zoning bylaws. I t i s proposed that the following controls be included into heritage zoning: - heritage protection s i m i l a r to designation - design control - use and density r e f l e c t i n g the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n - f l e x i b i l i t y s i m i l a r to Development Variance Permits and Boards of Variance - maintenance standards Heritage zoning would only be available to those communities which have adopted OCP heritage p o l i c i e s and a heritage r e g i s t r y . Further, heritage zoning would only be avail a b l e to properties on a heritage r e g i s t r y . The White Paper also recommends that a green door p o l i c y be established for applications that meet the conservation standards set by a municipality or regional d i s t r i c t . HERITAGE DESIGNATION The White Paper proposes to c l a r i f y the issue of compensation for designation by recommending s p e c i f i c provisions for compensating individuals whose property has been designated. 43 Ambiguity w i l l no longer e x i s t with respect to compensation as monetary compensation w i l l become mandatory for a l l designated properties which suffer a loss of value r e s u l t i n g from the designation. MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS The proposed p o l i c i e s w i l l allow l o c a l governments to enter into agreements with private property owners to provide grant funds for maintenance of heritage properties where the cost of maintenance can not reasonably be expected to be paid by a property owner. Further, i t i s proposed that a l o c a l government may i n cases, where a property owner can not be contacted or who f a i l s to respond, undertake maintenance work to prevent loss or d e t e r i o r a t i o n of a s i t e and to charge the costs to the owner. REVIEW PROCESS The White Paper recommends that a review process be established fo r a l l indiv i d u a l s affected by heritage zoning, designation, temporary protection, impact assessment order or the general regulations or support programs. The review process would be established through the O f f i c e of the Inspector of M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . PENALTIES I t i s proposed that the penalties for i n f r a c t i o n s of regulations relevant to heritage issues be increased to maximums of $50,000 and two years imprisonment for an i n d i v i d u a l and $1,000,000 and two years imprisonment for a corporation. SUPPORT PROGRAMS The following support i n i t i a t i v e s are proposed to be i n i t i a t e d or continued by the p o l i c i e s i n the White Paper: non-financial - regulatory f l e x i b i l i t y - green-door p o l i c y - f i r e and building code compliance alt e r n a t i v e s f i n a n c i a l - waiving of a l l application fees - authority to provide f i n a n c i a l assistance - a b i l i t y to give tax r e l i e f - B.C. Heritage Trust Programs 44 COVENANTS AND EASEMENTS I t i s p roposed t h a t l o c a l governments may use covenants and easements f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n purposes . EXPROPRIATION The White Paper proposes t h a t h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n be added t o the e x i s t i n g p u b l i c - u s e and redevelopment purposes f o r e x p r o p r i a t i o n . TRANSITION ISSUES The White Paper proposes t h a t d e s i g n a t i o n s made under the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t remain i n f o r c e f o r a p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s a f t e r which t ime they would have t o be r e - e n a c t e d under the new l e g i s l a t i o n and they would be s u b j e c t t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e new l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s suggested t h a t the above o u t l i n e d p r o p o s a l s w i l l b e g i n t o deve lop h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o a l e v e l c o n s i s t e n t w i t h l e g i s l a t i o n i n Grea t B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t i s apparent from the p r o p o s a l s t h a t the l e g i s l a t i o n w i l l address more than i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s , s econd l y t h a t i t w i l l i n t e g r a t e h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n t o the c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s o f l o c a l government and t h i r d l y t h a t i t w i l l d e v o l v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o l o c a l government. Summary T h i s Chapter has examined the development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Great B r i t a i n , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Canada and i n a d e t a i l e d way, B r i t i s h Co lumbia . F i g u r e V summarizes the s i g n i f i c a n t l e g i s l a t i v e developments i n a l l o f t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n s d i s c u s s e d . 45 AC F I G U R E V SUMMARY O F T H E D E V E L O P M E N T O F C O N S E R V A T I O N L E G I S L A T I O N I N G r e a t B r i t a i n U n i t e d S t a t e s 1880 1890 1882 A n c i e n t Monuments  P r o t e c t i o n Act (1853) Mount Vernon A s s o c i a t i o n formed (1872) Y e l l o w s t o n e N a t i o n a l Park e s t . 1900 1900 A n c i e n t Monuments  P r o t e c t i o n Ac t 1910 1907 N a t i o n a l T r u s t Ac t 1913 A n c i e n t Monuments and  P r o t e c t i o n Ac t 1906 U n i t e d S t a t e s A n t i q u i t i e s A c t 1916 N a t i o n a l Park System Organ i c A c t 1920 1930 1931 A n c i e n t Monuments  and P r o t e c t i o n Act 1932 Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t 1933 A n c i e n t Monuments  and P r o t e c t i o n Act 1940 1937 C i t y o f Bath Act 1944 Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t 1947 Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t 1931 C h a r l e s t o n Ord inance 1935 H i s t o r i c S i t e s A c t 1937 V i e u x C a r r e Ord inance 1939 San A n t o n i o O rd inance 1949 N a t i o n a l T r u s t e s t . 1950 1960 1953 1957 A n c i e n t Monuments  and P r o t e c t i o n Act C i v i c T r u s t E s t a b l i s h e d 1966 1967 1968 1970 1971 1972 1974 1980 C i v i c Amen i t i e s Ac t 1966 Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t  C i v i c Amen i t i e s Ac t 19 6 6 Town and Country P l a n n i n g A c t  Town and Country Amen i t i e s Act1969 1976 N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c  P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t  Department o f  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n A c t  D e m o n s t r a t i o n  C i t i e s A c t  NEPA Tax r e f o r m A c t 1981 Economic Recovery  Tax A c t 1982 E n v i r o n m e n t a l  P r o t e c t i o n A c t G R E A T B R I T A I N , T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S , C A N A D A A N D B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A C a n a d a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1885 Ban f f S p r i n g s Reserve 1887 Rocky Mounta in Park A c t 1919 H i s t o r i c S i t e s and Monuments Board e s t . 1925 H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s  P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t 1930 N a t i o n a l Parks Ac t 1953 H i s t o r i c S i t e s and  Monuments A c t 1960 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and  H i s t o r i c S i t e s  P r o t e c t i o n A c t 1970 Canad ian I nvento ry o f H i s t o r i c B u i l d i n g s 1973 H e r i t a g e Canada e s t . 1973 M u n i c i p a l A c t (Sec. 714a) 1977 H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t 47 The o b j e c t o f t h i s examinat ion i s t o suggest t h a t a p a t t e r n e x i s t s i n the development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the p a t t e r n i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t j u r i s d i c t i o n s t y p i c a l l y i n i t i a t e l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t f ocu se s on s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l monuments o r s i t e s and t h a t i t i s o n l y a f t e r a p e r i o d o f t ime and e x p e r i e n c e t h a t more comprehens ive l e g i s l a t i o n i s p roduced . U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n pos ses ses t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1) R e c o g n i t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s and t h e i r c o n t e x t s and r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t s . 2) I n t e g r a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n t o the c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s o f the j u r i s d i c t i o n . 3) D e v o l u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o l o c a l governments. T h i s Chapter a l s o suggests t h a t Canadian l e g i s l a t i o n i n g e n e r a l and B r i t i s h Columbian l e g i s l a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r i s underdeve loped r e l a t i v e t o the l e g i s l a t i o n o f bo th Grea t B r i t a i n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t has been i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia remains f ocu sed on s i n g l e s i t e s and on d e s i g n a t i o n . Second, t h a t the concept o f a r e a c o n s e r v a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n t o c o n v e n t i o n a l p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s has been l i m i t e d . T h i r d l y , i t i s i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t (1977) enab led some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o be devo l ved t o l o c a l governments. I t has been shown t h a t the e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s d e f i c i e n t and t h a t i t r e q u i r e s major r e v i s i o n . The 48 P r o v i n c i a l Government hav ing r e c o g n i z e d t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s proposed major p o l i c y changes t o t h e l e g i s l a t i o n which a re o u t l i n e d i n t h i s Chapter . The p r o p o s a l s i n c l u d e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n a r e an at tempt t o c r e a t e more comprehensive c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n f o r t h e P r o v i n c e and i t i s suggested t h a t g i v e n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s d i s c u s s e d , r e v i s e d l e g i s l a t i o n i s the l o g i c a l next s tep i n the development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i s B r i t i s h Co lumbia . 49 CHAPTER 2 CONSULTATION PROCESS 2 .1 Methodology Given t h a t a need f o r new h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n has been e s t a b l i s h e d and t h a t p o l i c i e s f o r new l e g i s l a t i o n have been proposed by the P r o v i n c e , e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s a l s i s war ranted p r i o r t o d r a f t i n g and enactment o f new l e g i s l a t i o n . In t h e p r e f a c e t o Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n , the M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e wrote , " B e f o r e advanc ing our f i n a l recommendat ions ( for l e g i s l a t i o n ) , I would l i k e t o c o n t i n u e the d i a l o g u e t h a t we began w i t h ' P r o j e c t P r i d e ' and r e c e i v e your v iews on our p r o p o s a l s " ( M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e , 1990, p . i ) . T h i s t h e s i s and the c o n s u l t a t i o n survey i n p a r t i c u l a r i s an e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e feedback t o the M i n i s t r y which i s c o l l e c t e d and a n a l y z e d ijs a s y s t e m a t i c way. T h i s Chapter o u t l i n e s the r a t i o n a l e f o r the t h e s i s r e s e a r c h , d e t a i l s t h e r e s e a r c h de s i gn and o u t l i n e s t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . The da ta c o l l e c t e d i n the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s i s d e t a i l e d i n Appendix "D" and a n a l y z e d i n Chapter T h r e e . R a t i o n a l e The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h emphasizes t h e r o l e o f p l a n n e r s i n t h e development and imp lementat ion o f p o l i c y and l e g i s l a t i o n . 50 I t i s suggested t h a t p l a n n e r s , as imp lementerso f l e g i s l a t i o n , shou ld be i n v o l v e d i n the development o f l e g i s l a t i o n because o f t h e i r i n t i m a t e knowledge o f the imp lementa t ion p r o c e s s . A l though i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t o t h e r g roups , such as the p r i v a t e s e c t o r and p o l i t i c i a n s , a l s o p l a y a r o l e i n the imp lementa t ion o f p o l i c y i t i s suggested t h a t p l a n n e r s pos ses s a un ique p e r s p e c t i v e which i s d e s e r v i n g o f s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . I t would have been e q u a l l y v a l i d t o have focused upon another s e c t o r o r i f t ime p e r m i t t e d t o have undertaken a comprehens ive su rvey . However, g i v e n t ime and budget l i m i t a t i o n s t h i s r e s e a r c h focuses e x c l u s i v e l y on the p e r s p e c t i v e o f l o c a l government p l a n n e r s . Research Des ign As a r e s u l t o f the complex na tu re o f t h e p o l i c i e s proposed i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n i t was determined t h a t n e i t h e r w r i t t e n su rveys nor t e l ephone surveys would e l i c i t t h e d e t a i l e d responses t h a t were d e s i r e d . I t was conc luded t h a t p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s o f approx imate l y one t o two hours each would be n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e the d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . A c o n s u l t a t i o n , o r s u r v e y , format was des i gned which h i g h l i g h t e d a l l o f the major p o l i c y a reas o u t l i n e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s were c o n t a c t e d and the c o n s u l t a t i o n s were conduc ted . F i n a l l y the r e s u l t s o f the c o n s u l t a t i o n s were c o l l a t e d . I n te rv i ewee S e l e c t i o n P roces s A l though h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s becoming more 51 accep ted i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t remains the p r o v i n c e o f a s m a l l group o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a n n e r s . A n a l y s i s and c r i t i c i s m o f d e t a i l e d h e r i t a g e p o l i c i e s r e q u i r e s e x p e r i e n c e i n implement ing e x i s t i n g p o l i c i e s and r e g u l a t i o n s and some knowledge o f the proposed p o l i c i e s . For t h i s reason i t was determined t h a t o n l y p l a n n e r s and h e r i t a g e c o n s u l t a n t s i n v o l v e d i n h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n and s p e c i f i c a l l y h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g would be c o n t a c t e d f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n s . The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n o f the c o n s u l t a t i o n c a n d i d a t e s was t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l pos ses s d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e i n the f i e l d o f l o c a l government h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g and t h a t p r e f e r a b l y they pos ses s some p r o f e s s i o n a l l o c a l government e x p e r i e n c e . The l i s t o f i n t e r v i e w e e s was comp i led from a l i s t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s who a t tended an i n f o r m a t i o n s e s s i o n on t h e White Paper which was sponsored by the Un ion o f B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s on 1990-FEB-21. T h i s i n i t i a l l i s t was supplemented by the recommendations o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government. V i r t u a l l y a l l l o c a l government p l a n n e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia who have some e x p e r i e n c e i n implement ing h e r i t a g e p o l i c i e s were i n t e r v i e w e d . F u r t h e r , a number o f c o n s u l t a n t s who a r e i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d . Every e f f o r t was made t o c o n s u l t a l l p l a n n e r s i n the P r o v i n c e who met the s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . 52 The f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s were i n t e r v i e w e d ; S teve Barber , H e r i t a g e P l a n n e r , C i t y o f V i c t o r i a John B a s t a j a , P l anner ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Maple R idge Marta Farevaag , H e r i t a g e P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t Rober t Hobson, H e r i t a g e P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t Don Luxton, H e r i t a g e C o n s u l t a n t Gary Penway, P l anner ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , C i t y o f Nor th Vancouver . Tamina De Jong , P l anner ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , Coqu i t l am A l e x Jamieson, P l anner ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , Richmond Ha l Kalman, P r e s e r v a t i o n C o n s u l t a n t Rober t Lemon, P r e s e r v a t i o n C o n s u l t a n t J a q u i e M u r f i t t , H e r i t a g e P l anner , C i t y o f Vancouver Judy Ober l ander , P r e s e r v a t i o n C o n s u l t a n t B i l l Rapanos, P l anner ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , Burnaby Debra Sargent , P l anner ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , C i t y o f Nanaimo V a l d a V i d n e r s , H e r i t a g e C o n s u l t a n t C o n s u l t a t i o n Des ign The c o n s u l t a t i o n format was des i gned t o f o l l o w the community p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s o u t l i n e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . As imp lementa t ion was o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t each p o l i c y q u e s t i o n i n c l u d e d a r e q u e s t f o r comment on t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f implement ing the proposed p o l i c y . The format was de s i gned w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n t h a t the c o n s u l t a t i o n p r o c e s s would be as i n f o r m a l as p o s s i b l e and the i n t e r v i e w e e s were a s su red t h a t t h e i r responses would be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l . 53 CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OF PROPOSED HERITAGE PLANNING POLICIES AND CONSULTATION RESULTS T h i s c h a p t e r summarizes the r e s u l t s o f the c o n s u l t a t i o n s w i t h h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s o u t l i n e d i n Appendix "D" and p r o v i d e s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f implement ing the p o l i c i e s p roposed i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . The c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d by p o l i c y and i s c o n s i s t e n t i n format w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the C o n s u l t a t i o n Format (Appendix " C " ) . 3.1 Background A number o f q u e s t i o n s were asked i n o r d e r t o g a i n a g e n e r a l sense o f the l e v e l o f r e l e v a n t e x p e r i e n c e o f the i n t e r v i e w e e s and t o determine i f c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g was a f ocus o f t h e i r c u r r e n t work. A l l o f the i n t e r v i e w e e s con f i rmed t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g was a p a r t o f t h e i r c u r r e n t work and a l l c o n f i r m e d t h a t they had some e x p e r i e n c e i n l o c a l government c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g . 3.2 Project Pride Task Force Because o f the d i r e c t l i n k between the recommendations o f the P r o j e c t P r i d e Task Fo r ce and the p o l i c i e s proposed i n Toward  h e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n , the i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked i f they were aware o f the Task Fo r ce Review and i f they had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the Review p r o c e s s . Of the f i f t e e n i n t e r v i e w e e s twe lve were f a m i l i a r w i t h the Review p r o c e s s and t e n had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n i n t h e p r o c e s s . 54 A l l o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t hey agreed w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n o f the Task Fo r ce t h a t the e x i s t i n g h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e r e q u i r e s r e v i s i o n . 3.3 Heritage Conservation Act When asked t o i d e n t i f y the s i g n i f i c a n t weaknesses o f the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t the f o u r most common responses were: d e s i g n a t i o n , compensat ion, l a c k o f i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o r o u t i n e p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s and development p e r m i t r e g u l a t i o n s . The f o u r most common s t r e n g t h s i d e n t i f i e d were: d e s i g n a t i o n , t h e mere e x i s t e n c e o f the A c t , temporary p r o t e c t i o n measures and t h e A c t ' s b r e v i t y and s i m p l i c i t y . G e n e r a l l y t h e responses t o the q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s were weak and no one j u r i s d i c t i o n was rega rded as hav ing model l e g i s l a t i o n . 3.4 Toward Heritage L e g i s l a t i o n A l l o f the i n t e r v i e w e e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e White Paper Toward H e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n . 3.5 Municipal Act Heritage P o l i c i e s The p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i c a t e d a lmost complete consensus i n response t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s shou ld be i n c l u d e d i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t . On ly one respondent i n d i c a t e d t h a t h e r i t a g e r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d not be 55 i n t e g r a t e d . T h i s overwhelming suppor t was j u s t i f i e d by the respondents on the b a s i s t h a t h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d by them t o be a l e g i t i m a t e p l a n n i n g purpose and i t s hou ld t h e r e f o r e be i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t a t u t e which r e g u l a t e s p l a n n i n g i n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia . The c a u t i o n a r y comments i n c l u d e d concerns r e g a r d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n b e i n g l o s t i n the mids t o f o t h e r r e g u l a t i o n s i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t and the a f f e c t t h a t changes t o t h e A c t t o accommodate h e r i t a g e p o l i c i e s , may have on o t h e r e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . These comments suggest t h a t h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n shou ld perhaps be i d e n t i f i e d i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t as a s epa ra te s e c t i o n o f P a r t 29. 3.6 O f f i c i a l Community Plan Heritage P o l i c i e s In re sponse t o the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g i n c l u s i o n o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s a l l o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s suppor ted the concep t . The consensus o f the respondents may be a t t r i b u t e d t o c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e . By d e f i n i t i o n under S e c t i o n 945 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l  A c t . "A community p l a n i s a g e n e r a l s ta tement o f b road o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s o f the l o c a l government r e s p e c t i n g the form and c h a r a c t e r o f e x i s t i n g and proposed l a n d use and s e r v i c i n g r e q u i r e d i n the a rea cove red by the p l a n " . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e A c t r e f e r s t o t h e " f o rm and c h a r a c t e r o f e x i s t i n g and proposed l a n d u se " which suggests t h a t i n c l u s i o n 56 o f " b road o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s " f o r the management o f h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s would be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s and w i t h the e x i s t i n g M u n i c i p a l A c t r e g u l a t i o n s . I t i s apparent from the responses t h a t p l a n n e r s r e g a r d management o f h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s i n a way c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the management o f o t h e r r e s o u r c e s i n t h e i r communit ies . The responses i n c l u d e d comments r e g a r d i n g the d i f f i c u l t y w i t h which community p l a n s a re amended. These concerns r e l a t e t o the requ i rement t h a t o f f i c i a l community p l a n s , as by laws, must r e c e i v e f o u r r e a d i n g s from a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l o r r e g i o n a l board and must a l s o r e c e i v e a rev iew a t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . T h e r e f o r e , any amendments t o o f f i c i a l community p l a n s r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e s t a f f t ime and expense and would n o r m a l l y be under taken o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y . T h i s was the major source o f c r i t i c i s m o f the concept o f i n c l u d i n g p o l i c i e s i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h the consensus r e g a r d i n g the p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n , when asked about the s p e c i f i c s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e p l a n s the i n t e r v i e w e e s unanimous ly suppor ted the p r o p o s a l t o i n c l u d e a g e n e r a l r a t i o n a l e and g e n e r a l h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s . Aga in the se p r o p o s a l s a re c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s i n the p r o v i n c e . A l though t h e r e was suppor t f o r the p r o p o s a l t o i n c l u d e g e n e r a l h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s , t h i s 57 suppor t d i d not always c a r r y over t o t h e q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the i n c l u s i o n o f s p e c i f i c i tems i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s . Only 3 o f 14 i n t e r v i e w e e s suppor ted the concept o f i n c l u d i n g " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment s t anda rd s " i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s . A l though the respondents g e n e r a l l y suppor ted t h e concept o f a d o p t i n g the se s tandards they d i d not suppor t t h e i d e a o f i n c l u d i n g them i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s . Of those who d i d not suppor t the i n c l u s i o n o f the s t anda rd s , t h e r e was g e n e r a l agreement t h a t the amending p rocedure would become an o b s t a c l e . F u r t h e r , i t was suggested t h a t t h e i n c l u s i o n o f d e t a i l e d s t andards i n an o f f i c i a l community p l a n would a l t e r the l e v e l o f s p e c i f i c i t y o f community p l a n s o u t l i n e d i n S e c t i o n 945 o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t and g e n e r a l l y a ccep ted i n p r a c t i c e throughout the p r o v i n c e . S e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w e e s recommended t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment s tandards shou ld be r e f e r e n c e d i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s but t h a t the s tandards themse lves shou ld be i n a s e p a r a t e p o l i c y document. One o t h e r concern which was r a i s e d suggested t h a t l o c a l governments, w i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s , do not have the e x p e r t i s e t o d r a f t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment s t andard s and t h a t t h i s shou ld be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the p r o v i n c i a l government. On t h e q u e s t i o n o f i n c l u s i o n o f d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s t h e r e was no consensus . Of t h e f o u r t e e n 58 respondents seven i n d i c a t e d t h a t d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s d i d not be l ong i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s . Of t h e s e seven, f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y noted t h a t d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s shou ld be r e f e r e n c e d , but not i n c l u d e d , i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s . The overwhelming reason f o r not s u p p o r t i n g t h i s concept was s i m i l a r t o t h e p r e v i o u s q u e s t i o n i n t h a t the respondents noted t h a t a bylaw and p u b l i c h e a r i n g p roce s s would be r e q u i r e d t o amend the g u i d e l i n e s . One respondent noted t h a t i f g u i d e l i n e s were i n a document adopted by a r e s o l u t i o n o f c o u n c i l o n l y a r e s o l u t i o n would be r e q u i r e d t o amend them. The l e v e l o f s p e c i f i c i t y o f p o l i c i e s i n the o f f i c i a l community p l a n was r a i s e d aga in i n response t o t h e q u e s t i o n which asked i f d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s shou ld be i n c l u d e d i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s . The responses expres sed concern t h a t d e t a i l e d d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s would a l t e r the accep ted l e v e l o f s p e c i f i c i t y i n e x i s t i n g o f f i c i a l community p l a n s . Of the seven i n d i v i d u a l s who responded p o s i t i v e l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i t was noted t h a t e i t h e r g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s shou ld be i n c l u d e d o r t h a t t h e g u i d e l i n e s s h o u l d be s p e c i f i c t o i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s . I t s hou ld be noted t h a t the M u n i c i p a l A c t c u r r e n t l y p r o v i d e s f o r i n c l u s i o n o f g u i d e l i n e s under S e c t i o n 945(4) (g ) f o r commerc ia l , i n d u s t r i a l o r m u l t i - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l development which a re i n c l u d e d w i t h i n development permi t a r e a s . However, i t i s not c l e a r i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t i f d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s may be i n c l u d e d 59 f o r development permi t a reas d e s i g n a t e d under S e c t i o n 945 ( 4 ) ( c ) . T h i s s e c t i o n s t a t e s t h a t a reas may be d e s i g n a t e d development pe rm i t a reas f o r " t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l o r m u n i c i p a l h e r i t a g e s i t e s , under the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t " . When asked i f o f f i c i a l community p l a n s shou ld i n c l u d e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n development pe rm i t a reas t h e respondents i n d i c a t e d overwhelming suppor t f o r the concept w i t h twe lve o f the t h i r t e e n re spond ing p o s i t i v e l y t o the q u e s t i o n . Though development pe rm i t s have been used i n B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e 1977, t h e r e i s some debate over t h e a p p r o p r i a t e use o f t h e s e f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n purpose s . Development p e r m i t s "assume t h e i r c r i t i c a l importance . . . i n the c o n t r o l which they a l l o w m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o e x e r c i s e over unsympathet i c development i n s e n s i t i v e a r e a s " (Ward, 1988, p . 9 6 ) . D e s p i t e r e v i s i o n s t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t i n 1985 and 1987 however, problems remain w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e use o f development p e r m i t s f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n purposes . Ward o u t l i n e s the se i n h i s c r i t i q u e o f the e x i s t i n g H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t and t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . " . . . t h e i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e power t o e s t a b l i s h development pe rm i t a reas f o r h e r i t a g e purposes must be a p p r e c i a t e d . Above a l l , t he power may be used t o p r o t e c t o n l y s i t e s de s i gna ted as such under t h e H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t . A t p r e s e n t t h e s e number o n l y 369 throughout the p r o v i n c e - a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f s i t e s , b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c t u r e s o f h e r i t a g e s i g n i f i c a n c e or i n t e r e s t a re not d e s i g n a t e d under the A c t . Moreover, i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t development p e r m i t a reas a re a p p r o p r i a t e t o p r o t e c t s i n g l e h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s o r s t r u c t u r e s . F i n a l l y the at tempt a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n made i n 1985 genera ted a major u n c e r t a i n t y , which s t i l l e x i s t s as t o the p e r m i s s i b l e geog raph i c e x t e n t o f development p e r m i t a reas d e s i g n a t e d f o r h e r i t a g e purposes . Cou ld t h e l e g i s l a t u r e have i n tended t h a t such a reas must be c o n f i n e d t o the boundar ie s o f the h e r i t a g e s i t e s which they a re de s i gna ted t o p r o t e c t ? I f t h a t were the c a se , the added c o n t r o l over unsympathet i c development o b t a i n e d through the development p e r m i t system would be m in ima l , f o r the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t a l r e a d y p r o v i d e s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i t h the c o n t r o l bo th over b u i l d i n g on m u n i c i p a l l y d e s i g n a t e d l a n d and over d e m o l i t i o n and e x t e r n a l a l t e r a t i o n o f m u n i c i p a l l y d e s i g n a t e d b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c t u r e s . But i f development pe rm i t a reas may i n c l u d e p r o p e r t y s i t u a t e d o u t s i d e p r o t e c t e d s i t e s , where a re the boundar ie s t o be drawn? On t h i s the A c t i s s i l e n t . " (Ward, 1988, p.97) The d e f i c i e n c i e s o f the e x i s t i n g development p e r m i t r e g u l a t i o n s o u t l i n e d by Ward a re c l e a r l y r e c o g n i z e d by the p l a n n e r s who were i n t e r v i e w e d . T h e i r consensus on the q u e s t i o n o f i n c l u s i o n o f development pe rm i t a reas i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s suggests t h a t t hey see a need t o u t i l i z e development p e r m i t a reas f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n purposes and f u r t h e r , t h a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s i s needed. When asked what o t h e r p o l i c i e s shou ld be i n c l u d e d i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s two sugges t i on s were made. The f i r s t recommendation was t h a t p u b l i c awareness program p o l i c i e s shou ld be i n c l u d e d and second t h a t t h e r e shou ld be r e f e r e n c e made t o the community ' s i n v e n t o r y i n the o f f i c i a l community p l a n . In summary, i t i s r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r t h a t the p l a n n e r s c o n s u l t e d b e l i e v e t h a t o f f i c i a l community p l a n s shou ld remain b road p o l i c y 61 documents f o r communit ies . Moreover, t h e i r responses i n d i c a t e d t h a t s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s shou ld be r e f e r e n c e d i n o f f i c i a l community p l a n s but f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ease they shou ld not be i n c l u d e d i n the bylaw document. 3.7 H e r i t a g e I n v e n t o r i e s The i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked t o respond t o the p r o p o s a l i n the White Paper which recommends t h a t communit ies under take " h e r i t a g e i n v e n t o r i e s , e v a l u a t i n g p r o p e r t i e s a c c o r d i n g t o the assessment s tandards e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r o f f i c i a l community p l a n s " ( P rov ince o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia, 1990, p . 1 1 ) . F u r t h e r , t hey were asked t o comment on the p r o p o s a l t h a t would r e q u i r e c o m p l e t i o n o f an i n v e n t o r y p r i o r t o implement ing h e r i t a g e z o n i n g . The m a j o r i t y o f the re spondent s , t e n o f f i f t e e n , suggested t h a t h e r i t a g e i n v e n t o r i e s shou ld not be the f i r s t s t ep i n t h e p r o c e s s and f u r t h e r t h a t i n v e n t o r i e s i n some c a s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a r g e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , shou ld be done on a a r e a by a r e a b a s i s . The concern expres sed by s e v e r a l o f the respondents suggested t h a t l a r g e s c a l e i n v e n t o r i e s a re enormous u n d e r t a k i n g s and t h a t they d i f f u s e the e n e r g i e s o f a community. In t h i s r e g a r d i t was suggested t h a t i n v e n t o r i e s and subsequent h e r i t a g e zon ing shou ld be implemented on an a rea b a s i s r a t h e r than a community wide b a s i s . 62 3.8 H e r i t a g e R e g i s t r i e s Of f i f t e e n re spondent s , t h i r t e e n suppor ted t h e concept o f c r e a t i n g h e r i t a g e r e g i s t r i e s . In g e n e r a l , suppor t was a t t r i b u t e d t o the b e l i e f t h a t h e r i t a g e r e g i s t r i e s w i l l h e l p t o r a i s e the awareness o f the h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s i n communit ies and t h a t they w i l l a i d i n m o n i t o r i n g the r e s o u r c e s . O p p o s i t i o n t o t h e concept was made on the grounds t h a t h e r i t a g e r e g i s t r i e s w i l l con fuse the p u b l i c on the d i f f e r e n c e between d e s i g n a t e d b u i l d i n g s and l i s t e d b u i l d i n g s , t h a t t hey may not i n c l u d e d i s t r i c t s and t h a t the c r e a t i o n o f an i n v e n t o r y and r e g i s t r y w i l l s t r e t c h the r e s o u r c e s o f communit ies . 3.9 H e r i t a g e Impact Assessment The p r o p o s a l t o pe rmi t l o c a l governments t o r e q u e s t h e r i t a g e impact assessment s t u d i e s produced mixed r e a c t i o n from the p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d ; w i th f o u r s u p p o r t i n g the concep t , f o u r oppos ing and seven c a l l i n g f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . Of tho se who suppor ted t h e concept the comment was made t h a t d e v e l o p e r s shou ld be r e q u i r e d t o pay f o r the s tudy but t h a t i t s h o u l d be s u p e r v i s e d by l o c a l government o f f i c i a l s . Those i n t e r v i e w e d who d i d not suppor t t h e use o f impact assessment s t u d i e s d i d so on v a r i o u s grounds. A number o f concerns were expres sed on p r o c e s s grounds s u g g e s t i n g t h a t impact assessment s t u d i e s would c o m p l i c a t e t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s and t h a t t hey would be t ime consuming and e x p e n s i v e . F u r t h e r , 63 t h e r e was concern expres sed t h a t impact assessment s t u d i e s a re based on t h e assumpt ion t h a t the proposed p r o j e c t w i l l p roceed and t h a t m i t i g a t i o n o f n e g a t i v e impacts a re t h e major c o n c e r n . One respondent who i n d i c a t e d some e x p e r i e n c e w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n o f env i ronmenta l impact assessment s t u d i e s noted t h a t w h i l e env i ronmenta l impacts a r e measurab le , c u l t u r a l impacts such as those which would be enumerated i n a h e r i t a g e impact assessment a re no t . Based upon t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n he conc luded t h a t impact assessment s t u d i e s a re not an a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n purposes . Perhaps t h e most impor tant response t o t h i s q u e s t i o n was made by tho se who i n d i c a t e d t h a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e concept was needed. In t o t a l , n e a r l y 50% o f t h e respondents d i d not under s tand the concept as p roposed . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by the responses t o the next q u e s t i o n which asked what t h e purpose o f h e r i t a g e impact assessment s t u d i e s might be . The re sponses suggested t h a t t h e r e was c o n f u s i o n about the purpose o f h e r i t a g e impact assessment s t u d i e s . Some o f the responses suggested t h a t an impact assessment s tudy would be s i m i l a r t o a r e s t o r a t i o n f e a s i b i l i t y s tudy which would examine t h e c o s t s and f e a s i b i l i t y o f p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a b u i l d i n g o r s i t e . O ther s suggested t h a t a f e a s i b i l i t y s tudy s h o u l d address m i t i g a t i o n measures. 64 The c o n f u s i o n about the na tu re o f h e r i t a g e impact s t u d i e s c a r r i e d through t o the t h i r d q u e s t i o n on the t o p i c which asked the respondents t o comment on what shou ld be i n c l u d e d i n a h e r i t a g e impact assessment s tudy . The responses cove red a number o f a reas i n c l u d i n g an assessment o f t h e impact o f a p r o j e c t on the c o n t e x t u a l a rea w i t h an examinat ion o f t h i n g s l i k e s c a l e , s e t b a c k s , l a n d s c a p i n g and d e n s i t y , the economics o f c o n s e r v i n g a b u i l d i n g o r s i t e o r the a r c h i t e c t u r a l o r h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a b u i l d i n g o r s i t e . C l e a r l y t h e r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t c o n f u s i o n about the concept o f h e r i t a g e impact assessment s t u d i e s which r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . 3.10 Temporary P r o t e c t i o n P e r i o d s When asked t o comment on the p r o p o s a l t o extend temporary p r o t e c t i o n p e r i o d s from the c u r r e n t n i n e t y days t o one hundred and twenty days , t e n o f the f i f t e e n i n t e r v i e w e e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t one hundred and twenty days was adequate. Those who suppor ted the a d d i t i o n o f t h i r t y days t o the temporary d e l a y p e r i o d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s would a l l o w more t ime t o respond t o c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s and a l s o t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c p e r i o d g i v e s the d e v e l o p e r c e r t a i n t y t h a t a d e c i s i o n w i l l be made. Those who opposed the l e n g t h o f the p e r i o d d i d so on t h e b a s i s t h a t i t i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t ime t o a l l o w f o r a p p l i c a t i o n s t o go th rough t h e c o u n c i l and p u b l i c a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . They i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s i s o f p a r t i c u l a r concern i n the case o f r e z o n i n g 65 a p p l i c a t i o n s which a number o f the respondents i n d i c a t e d t ake a t l e a s t s i x months t o be p r o c e s s e d . The White Paper p r o p o s a l a l l o w s a two month temporary d e l a y p e r i o d i n a case where a d e s i g n a t i o n o r h e r i t a g e zon ing bylaw i s i n t r o d u c e d . C l e a r l y , the f i v e p l a n n e r s who responded n e g a t i v e l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n f e l t t h a t t h i s would be i n s u f f i c i e n t t ime t o complete the r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s . 3.11 H e r i t a g e Zoning The p r o p o s a l t o c r e a t e a new p l a n n i n g mechanism r e f e r r e d t o as h e r i t a g e zon ing sparked c o n t r o v e r s y amongst the p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d . As a group they were d i v i d e d i n t h e i r o p i n i o n on the concept w i t h n ine i n suppor t and s i x i n o p p o s i t i o n . I t i s impor tan t t o note t h a t o f the n i n e who suppor ted t h e concept f i v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the concept needed f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , t ho se who suppor ted the concept o f h e r i t a g e zon ing d i d so on a c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s and i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t would a l l o w c o u n c i l s and p l a n n e r s another t o o l w i t h which t o p l a n f o r the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s . Those p l a n n e r s who opposed t h e concept o f h e r i t a g e zon ing d i d so on t h r e e g e n e r a l bases : f i r s t on the grounds t h a t what was b e i n g proposed d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from c o n v e n t i o n a l z o n i n g , s e c o n d l y , t h a t h e r i t a g e zon ing bylaws would be d i f f i c u l t i f not i m p o s s i b l e t o d r a f t and t h i r d l y , t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f such 66 zon ing would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t . On t h e f i r s t p o i n t s e v e r a l p l a n n e r s commented t h a t zon ing i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s used t o r e g u l a t e use and d e n s i t y . S e c t i o n 963 o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t a l l ows l o c a l government t o r e g u l a t e " ( i ) t h e use o f l a n d b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c t u r e s , ( i i ) t he d e n s i t y o f t h e use o f l a n d , b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c t u r e s , and ( i i i ) the s i t t i n g , s i z e and d imens ions o f (A) b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c t u r e s , and (B) uses t h a t a re p e r m i t t e d on the l a n d " (R .S .B .C . , 1979, C .290) . I t i s not on l y conven t i on but law i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t zon ing address on l y use and d e n s i t y i s s u e s and t h a t o t h e r i s s u e s such as de s i gn a re d e a l t w i t h by o t h e r means such as development p e r m i t s . The Canadian Bar A s s o c i a t i o n , B.C. Branch i n t h e i r r e p o r t on the White Paper c o n c u r r e d w i t h the p l a n n e r s who noted t h a t what i s b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o as zon ing i n t h e White Paper d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from c u r r e n t p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s . In t h e r e p o r t o f the Bar A s s o c i a t i o n i t was p o i n t e d out t h a t " . . . h e r i t a g e zon ing i s d i f f e r e n t i n na tu re from what i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y seen as z o n i n g . T r a d i t i o n a l zon ing i n B r i t i s h Columbia a l l o w s the r e g u l a t i o n o f l a n d use , d e n s i t y , s i t i n g and so on, but s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o h i b i t s the r e g u l a t i o n o f d e s i g n d e t a i l . H e r i t a g e z o n i n g , on the o t h e r hand, i s a e s t h e t i c a l l y b a s e d . " (Canadian Bar A s s o c i a t i o n , B.C. Branch, 1990, p . 2 ) . 67 On t h e second p o i n t , the p l a n n e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t by r e s t r i c t i n g h e r i t a g e zon ing t o e x i s t i n g uses and d e n s i t i e s and by i n c l u d i n g the o t h e r i tems proposed, such as r e g u l a t o r y f l e x i b i l i t y and d e s i g n c o n t r o l s , d r a f t i n g o f the a c t u a l h e r i t a g e zon ing bylaw, g i v e n c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s , would be d i f f i c u l t . The t h i r d g e n e r a l a rea o f concern d e a l s w i t h the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f implement ing t h e new h e r i t a g e z o n i n g . Four o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r v i e w e d suggested t h a t h e r i t a g e zon ing would be an " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n i gh tmare " . T h i s was suggested t o be the case e s p e c i a l l y i f s e p a r a t e zon ing bylaws would have t o be deve loped f o r each s i t e . Of cou r se , i t was i n d i c a t e d t h a t zon ing bylaws would be r e q u i r e d t o go through the c o n v e n t i o n a l p u b l i c p r o c e s s and t h a t chang ing o r amending h e r i t a g e zon ing bylaws would i n v o l v e tremendous s t a f f t ime . The i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked t o respond t o a number o f s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the p r o p o s a l s t o c o n s o l i d a t e s e v e r a l o f r e g u l a t o r y mechanisms i n h e r i t a g e zon ing by laws. Of f o u r t e e n p l a n n e r s , twe l ve i n d i c a t e d t h a t d e m o l i t i o n c o n t r o l be longed i n h e r i t a g e z o n i n g . One respondent suggested t h a t i f h e r i t a g e zon ing was i n tended t o r e p l a c e d e s i g n a t i o n t h a t d e m o l i t i o n c o n t r o l had t o e x i s t somewhere. On ly two i n d i v i d u a l s suggested t h a t d e m o l i t i o n c o n t r o l shou ld not be i n c l u d e d i n h e r i t a g e z o n i n g and they d i d so on the premise t h a t a l t hough d e m o l i t i o n c o n t r o l s hou ld e x i s t , a h e r i t a g e zon ing bylaw was not t h e p l a c e 68 f o r i t . In response t o the q u e s t i o n o f whether d e s i g n c o n t r o l s shou ld be i n c l u d e d i n h e r i t a g e zon ing , the i n t e r v i e w e e s were not i n agreement. Of f o u r t e e n respondents n i n e suppor ted t h e concept and f i v e d i d no t . Of those who d i s a g r e e d w i t h the p r o p o s a l they d i d so on the b a s i s t h a t a l though d e s i g n c o n t r o l i s impor tant i t does not be long i n a mechanism which has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y used t o c o n t r o l use and d e n s i t y . They a l s o suggested t h a t d e s i g n c o n t r o l s c o u l d be r e f e r e n c e d i n the zon ing bylaw but t h a t they s h o u l d not be i n c l u d e d i n i t . F i n a l l y , f o u r o f t h e p l a n n e r s commented t h a t development pe rm i t s a re c u r r e n t l y used t o e f f e c t d e s i g n c o n t r o l and t h a t they a re the a p p r o p r i a t e mechanism f o r t h i s purpose . A l though t h e p l a n n e r s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t use and d e n s i t y r e g u l a t i o n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y p l a c e d i n zon ing bylaws and e l e v e n o f f o u r t e e n respondents suppor ted . t h e i d e a o f new use and d e n s i t y c o n t r o l mechanisms, some s t r o n g doubts about the f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h i s p r o p o s a l were r a i s e d by t h r e e o f the re sponden t s . Those who d i d not suppor t t h i s concept suggested t h a t under t h e c u r r e n t r e g u l a t i o n s i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t use and d e n s i t y r e g u l a t i o n s may not be v a r i e d from s i t e t o s i t e . In o r d e r t o a l l o w f o r t h i s , s epa ra te bylaws would be r e q u i r e d f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r o p e r t i e s . F u r t h e r , i t was suggested by one i n t e r v i e w e e t h a t r e s t r i c t i n g the a l l o w a b l e use and d e n s i t y 69 r e g u l a t i o n s t o what i s e x i s t i n g on the s i t e would " d i s c o u r a g e p r o p e r t y owners from t a k i n g i n i t i a t i v e s l i k e r e s t o r a t i o n o r redevelopment on the s i t e " . T h i s respondent conc luded t h a t the r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s which would be r e q u i r e d t o make any changes t o use o r d e n s i t y would " a c t as a d e t e r r e n t " t o c o n s e r v a t i o n i n i t i a t i v e s . On t h e t o p i c o f r e g u l a t o r y f l e x i b i l i t y the p l a n n e r s were s p l i t w i t h seven s u p p o r t i n g and seven oppos ing the p r o p o s a l . In g e n e r a l , t ho se who suppor ted the p r o p o s a l d i d so on the grounds t h a t r e g u l a t o r y f l e x i b i l i t y i s f r e q u e n t l y needed t o accommodate c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s and t h a t s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n shou ld be g i v e n t o h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t i e s . Those who d i d not suppor t the concept i n d i c a t e d t h a t the mechanisms f o r r e g u l a t o r y f l e x i b i l i t y a l r e a d y e x i s t through mechanisms l i k e Boards o f V a r i a n c e and Development V a r i a n c e P e r m i t s . F u r t h e r , i t was commented t h a t i f a p p r o p r i a t e h e r i t a g e zon ing bylaws a r e w e l l d r a f t e d t o beg in w i t h t h e r e would not be a need f o r the r e g u l a t o r y f l e x i b i l i t y . The f i n a l q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the h e r i t a g e zon ing p r o p o s a l s asked t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s t o comment on the p r o p o s a l t o i n c l u d e maintenance s tandards i n h e r i t a g e zon ing by laws. Only f o u r o f t h e f o u r t e e n respondents suppor ted t h i s p r o p o s a l . Of the t e n who d i d not suppor t the concept , f o u r s p e c i f i c a l l y commented t h a t maintenance s tandards do not be long i n a zon ing by law. These same f o u r suppor ted the concept o f hav ing maintenance 70 s t andards but noted t h a t they shou ld be l o c a t e d e l sewhere . In l a r g e p a r t the c o n t r o v e r s y over h e r i t a g e zon ing appears t o f ocus upon what zon ing has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been thought o f and what i s p e r m i t t e d under the terms o f the e x i s t i n g M u n i c i p a l A c t . Zon ing has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been used as a use and d e n s i t y r e g u l a t i o n and add ing o t h e r components t o zon ing bylaws would change i t s fundamental p remi se s . The p l a n n e r s v o i c e d t h e i r suppor t f o r the t o o l s proposed but were s p l i t and i n some cases con fu sed about how these t o o l s would be implemented and how they would impact c u r r e n t zon ing p r a c t i c e s i n the P r o v i n c e . 3.12 Green Door P o l i c y The m a j o r i t y o f the respondents suppor ted t h e concept o f a l l o w i n g l o c a l governments t o implement a g reen door p o l i c y f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s . Of the f o u r t e e n respondents e l e v e n i n d i c a t e d suppor t a l though t h r e e o f t h e s e expre s sed s p e c i f i c conce rn r e g a r d i n g the r e s o u r c e s which would be needed t o suppor t t h i s i n i t i a t i v e . Of the e l e v e n , two i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o o r d i n a t i o n o f departments and app rova l s would a l one e x p e d i t e t h e a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s . Among those who opposed the p r o p o s a l i t was commented t h a t i t was e i t h e r unneces sa ry , except perhaps i n t h e l a r g e communit ies i n the P r o v i n c e , o r t h a t concerns about i n e q u i t a b l e t rea tment would a r i s e . 71 3.13 Compensat ion f o r D e s i g n a t i o n A long w i t h h e r i t a g e zon ing the p r o p o s a l s f o r mandatory compensat ion f o r d e s i g n a t i o n were c o n t r o v e r s i a l . Of the f i f t e e n p l a n n e r s o n l y two suppor ted the concept , t e n opposed the concept and 3 were undec ided . The two p l a n n e r s who i n d i c a t e d suppor t f o r mandatory compensat ion argued t h a t i t would put a p r i c e on h e r i t a g e and t h a t i t would r e s u l t i n d e s i g n a t i o n b e i n g used on l y as a c r i s i s management t o o l . One respondent i n d i c a t e d t h a t mandatory compensat ion would u l t i m a t e l y l e a d t o b e t t e r p l a n n i n g . H i s r e a s o n i n g was t h a t d e s i g n a t i o n would be avo ided due t o the h i g h c o s t s and t h a t t h i s would f o r c e l o c a l governments t o p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g . Those who d i d not suppor t the concept o f mandatory compensat ion f o r d e s i g n a t i o n o f f e r e d a v a r i e t y o f r ea sons . Of tho se p l a n n e r s who d i d not suppor t the p r o p o s a l two argued t h a t d e s i g n a t i o n s h o u l d be v iewed as a l a n d use r e g u l a t i o n and as such compensat ion shou ld not be p a i d . One argued t h a t mandatory compensat ion would i n s u r e t h a t no b u i l d i n g s would be d e s i g n a t e d i n t h e f u t u r e . The arguments f o r and a g a i n s t compensat ion a re complex and a re d e t a i l e d by Denhez i n h i s a r t i c l e "What P r i c e H e r i t a g e " . In t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f compensat ion Denhez comments t h a t , " . . . i n p o i n t o f f a c t the overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f j u r i s d i c t i o n s i n Canada and throughout t h e wes tern w o r l d have indeed opted a g a i n s t o b l i g a t o r y c o m p e n s a t i o n . . . i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t governments which have s e r i o u s l y s t u d i e d the q u e s t i o n w i l l move toward o b l i g a t o r y compensat ion. In f a c t , t h e r e i s i n c r e a s i n g s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t B r i t i s h Co lumbia , which i s c u r r e n t l y one o f the on l y two p r o v i n c e s i n Canada w i t h such a scheme, w i l l s c r ap i t i n the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e " (Denhez,1981, p.13) Denhez conc ludes i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n t h a t mandatory compensat ion p r e s e n t s more problems than s o l u t i o n s and he recommends t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e i n c e n t i v e p l a n s such as t ax r e l i e f be c o n s i d e r e d by l o c a l governments (Denhez, 1981, p . 1 3 ) . The i s s u e s r a i s e d by the m a j o r i t y o f the p l a n n e r s surveyed suggest t h a t mandatory compensat ion w i l l not a i d i n p l a n n i n g f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n and w i l l not encourage t h e use o f d e s i g n a t i o n as a p l a n n i n g t o o l . In f a c t , the re sponses suggest t h a t w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f mandatory compensat ion, d e s i g n a t i o n w i l l become e x t i n c t . S e v e r a l o f the r e sponden t s ' comments suppor t the arguments o f Denhez. by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i n c e n t i v e programs would a c h i e v e the g o a l o f c o n s e r v a t i o n b e t t e r than mandatory compensat ion. 3.14 Review Proces s The o p i n i o n s o f the p l a n n e r s surveyed were d i v i d e d on t h e p r o p o s a l t o i n s t i t u t e a rev iew p r o c e s s th rough t h e I n s p e c t o r o f M u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Of the p l a n n e r s e i g h t agreed t h a t an appea l p r o c e s s shou ld be a v a i l a b l e a l though f o u r o f t h e s e recommended t h a t t h e appea l shou ld be heard by a q u a l i f i e d agency. Of the seven who d i d not suppor t the p r o p o s a l f o u r suggested t h a t the 73 p r o p o s a l needed f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , the opponents r a i s e d concerns about the s t a f f t ime r e q u i r e d t o accommodate the rev iew and t h a t t h e rev iew p r o c e s s shou ld be c l e a r l y s p e l l e d ou t . I t i s apparent t h a t the p l a n n e r s a re concerned not so much w i t h the concept o f an appea l p roce s s but t h a t t h e p r o c e s s shou ld be a d m i n i s t e r e d by q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n n e l and c l e a r l y l a i d ou t . They a l s o expre s sed concerns about the i n c r e a s e d r e s o u r c e s which would be needed t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the rev iew p r o c e s s . 3.15 P e n a l t i e s The p l a n n e r s surveyed gave overwhelming suppor t t o the p r o p o s a l t o i n c r e a s e p e n a l t i e s f o r i n f r a c t i o n s ; o f the f i f t e e n p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d , t h i r t e e n suppor ted the p r o p o s a l and two remain u n d e c i d e d . In t h i s r e ga rd the p l a n n e r s commented t h a t g r e a t e r enforcement w i l l be neces sa ry t o t ake advantage o f the i n s t i t u t i o n o f new p e n a l t i e s . 3.16 Support Programs The responses were d i v i d e d on the t o p i c o f t h e adequacy o f suppor t programs f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n the P r o v i n c e . Of the respondents e i g h t i n d i c a t e d t h a t the c u r r e n t o r proposed programs a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t w h i l e s i x suggested t h a t t hey a re adequate. The comments o f those who f e l t t h e programs a re i n s u f f i c i e n t a r e v a r i e d . Those comments which were made most 74 f r e q u e n t l y suggested a number o f a reas which c o u l d be addre s sed : - f o u r i n d i c a t e d t h a t more t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e shou ld be a v a i l a b l e from the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch, t h r e e suggested t h a t b u i l d i n g and f i r e code compl i ance a l t e r n a t i v e s a re needed, - t h r e e commented t h a t more e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d , - two i n d i c a t e d t h a t programs o t h e r than H.A.R.P. a re needed t o a s s i s t p r i v a t e l y owned h e r i t a g e b u i l d i n g s , - two commented t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y shou ld not be d e v o l v e d w i thou t r e s o u r c e s b e i n g a l l o c a t e d t o implement and a d m i n i s t e r the new i n i t i a t i v e s , - two suggested t h a t the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch w i l l have t o p r o v i d e suppor t and a s s i s t a n c e i f t he White Paper p r o p o s a l s become l e g i s l a t i o n and - two commented t h a t more p u b l i c awareness programs a r e needed. Of tho se who commented t h a t the programs a re s u f f i c i e n t o n l y one comment was made which suggested t h a t the i n c e n t i v e s were w e l l c o v e r e d . 3.17 Covenants and Easements The m a j o r i t y o f the p l a n n e r s , e l e v e n o f f i f t e e n , suppor ted the use o f covenants and easements f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n purpose s . G e n e r a l l y , the comments r e g a r d i n g suppor t f o r t h e use o f t h e s e were r e l a t e d t o b e i n g a b l e t o use them as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o d e s i g n a t i o n o r s imp ly as another mechanism t h a t may be used i n a p p r o p r i a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s . Some o f t h e concerns about u s i n g them suggested t h a t l e g a l a d v i c e w i l l be r e q u i r e d and t h a t t hey w i l l have t o be mon i to red and m a i n t a i n e d . 75 Of those who d i d not f avour the use o f covenants and easements, i t was g e n e r a l l y suggested t h a t o t h e r t o o l s i n c l u d i n g d e s i g n a t i o n a re a v a i l a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h e same ends. In response t o the q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the p r o p o s a l t o have the B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e T r u s t become more a c t i v e i n the purchase o f h e r i t a g e covenants and easements, t h e respondents were d i v i d e d : s i x suppor ted the p r o p o s a l , s i x opposed i t and t h r e e were undec ided . Those who suppor ted the p r o p o s a l commented t h a t the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e and t h e r e s o u r c e s o f the T r u s t would be u s e f u l i n implement ing the use o f covenants and easements. Of the s i x who opposed the p r o p o s a l t h r e e expres sed concern about the a b i l i t y o f the T r u s t t o under take the i n i t i a t i v e . The p l a n n e r s who i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were u n c e r t a i n about the p r o p o s a l i n c l u d e d two who f e l t t h a t t h i s would be an i n t e r f e r e n c e by a s e n i o r agency. 3.18 E x p r o p r i a t i o n There was l i t t l e d i sagreement about the p r o p o s a l t o i n c l u d e h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n as a purpose f o r e x p r o p r i a t i o n . Of the 14 p l a n n e r s who responded e l e v e n suppor ted t h e p r o p o s a l . G e n e r a l l y , the comments suggested t h a t e x p r o p r i a t i o n shou ld be used as a l a s t r e s o r t and t h a t h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n as a p l a n n i n g purpose i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o t h e r r a t i o n a l e s f o r e x p r o p r i a t i o n . The two p l a n n e r s who opposed t h e use o f e x p r o p r i a t i o n f o r h e r i t a g e purposes and the two who were 76 u n c e r t a i n suggested t h a t i t was t oo extreme a measure and t h a t i t would l i k e l y not be u sed . 3.19 T r a n s i t i o n P e r i o d The q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g the l e n g t h o f t h e proposed t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d drew i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . Not o n l y d i d the respondents not answer the q u e s t i o n as asked but they responded w i t h near consensus on t h e concept o f a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d i n g e n e r a l . Of the f i f t e e n respondents t h i r t e e n c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t the concept o f a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d which r e q u i r e d r e d e s i g n a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e s i t e s was u n a c c e p t a b l e . Some o f the f r e q u e n t l y heard comments i n c l u d e d : " w i l l l e a d t o d e d e s i g n a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s i t e s " , " i n s a n e " , " w i l l r e q u i r e a tremendous amount o f work" and "new compensat ion agreement(s) w i l l be r e q u i r e d and may d u p l i c a t e p r e v i o u s agreements " . The responses suggested t h a t one o f the p r i n c i p a l concerns o f the p l a n n e r s f ocu sed upon the p r o p o s a l which would implement mandatory compensat ion f o r i n j u r i o u s a f f e c t caused by d e s i g n a t i o n o f a s i t e . I t was suggested t h a t not o n l y would the i s s u e o f f u n d i n g f o r the compensat ion be a concern but a l s o the s t a f f t ime r e q u i r e d t o p r o c e s s r e d e s i g n a t i o n was a c o n c e r n . As o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 2 t h e r e a re p receden t s f o r h o l d i n g over d e s i g n a t i o n s o f p r e v i o u s c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t s i n the P r o v i n c e when new a c t s a r e i n t r o d u c e d . In 1972 t h e new A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and 77 H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t h e l d o v e r the d e s i g n a t i o n s o f the p r e v i o u s A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t (1960) and i n 1977 the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t d i d not r e p e a l the d e s i g n a t i o n s made under the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s  P r o t e c t i o n A c t o f 1972. The p l a n n e r s who opposed the r e p e a l o f t h e d e s i g n a t i o n s a f t e r the proposed f i v e y e a r t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d s t r o n g l y recommended t h a t t h i s p r o p o s a l be abandoned. The two p l a n n e r s who suppor ted t h e p r o p o s a l i n d i c a t e d t h a t a p r o c e s s o f r e d e s i g n a t i o n would r e a f f i r m t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f community r e s o u r c e s and they d i d not expres s concern r e g a r d i n g the p o t e n t i a l f o r payment o f mandatory compensat ion. 3.20 H e r i t a g e P l a n n i n g As one o f t h e major o b j e c t i v e s o f the White Paper p r o p o s a l s i s t o i n t e g r a t e h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n t o the r o u t i n e p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s o f l o c a l governments, the p l a n n e r s i n t e r v i e w e d were asked t h e i r o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g whether h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g shou ld be i n t e g r a t e d . The f i f t e e n respondents i n d i c a t e d unanimous suppor t f o r t h i s p r o p o s a l . Though the suppor t f o r the concept was c l e a r , the p l a n n e r s made s e v e r a l comments e x p r e s s i n g concern about the l i k e l i h o o d o f t h i s becoming a r e a l i t y . When asked f o r a g e n e r a l comment on whether t h e p o l i c i e s proposed would r e s u l t i n an " i n t e g r a t e d and comprehens ive approach t o h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g " the responses were mixed. Of the 78 respondents e i g h t agreed and t h r e e d i s a g r e e d . Though t h i s i s no doubt i n p a r t a r e s u l t o f the g e n e r a l na tu re o f t h e q u e s t i o n , the comments t h a t accompanied the s h o r t answers a r e t e l l i n g . Four o f t h e p l a n n e r s suggested t h a t imp lementa t ion o f the proposed p o l i c i e s was a c o n c e r n . F u r t h e r , two respondents suggested t h a t more suppor t was needed from t h e H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch and two suggested t h a t more t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l was needed. These comments suggest t h a t i n g e n e r a l the p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s a re suppor ted by t h e h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g community but t h a t t h e r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t concern about how the p o l i c i e s a r e implemented and where the r e s o u r c e s w i l l come from t o i n s u r e t h a t they a re implemented. 79 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSIONS The p r imary g o a l o f t h i s t h e s i s as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n i s t o examine, from a p l a n n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e p o l i c i e s f o r l e g i s l a t i o n proposed i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s a re o u t l i n e d : i ) To i l l u s t r a t e by examining the h i s t o r y o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s t h a t t h e r e i s a common p a t t e r n t o the e v o l u t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n . G iven the examples o f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s i t i s argued t h a t the p o l i c i e s o u t l i n e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n a r e the l o g i c a l next s t ep i n the development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . i i ) To examine the v iews o f p r o f e s s i o n a l h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s r e g a r d i n g the community p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s i n c l u d e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . i i i ) To argue t h a t the p o l i c i e s c o n t a i n e d i n Toward  H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n demonstrate bo th s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses and s p e c i f i c a l l y , t o argue t h a t a s t r o n g framework f o r imp lementat ion i s r e q u i r e d i f t h e p o l i c i e s a re t o be implemented e f f e c t i v e l y . Chapter 1 rev iewed the development o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i n Great B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s and conc luded t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a p a t t e r n i n the development o f h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n and t h a t the c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n o f t h e s e j u r i s d i c t i o n s pos ses s a t l e a s t t h r e e s i g n i f i c a n t common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e f i r s t , r e c o g n i t i o n o f more than i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s and monuments. That i s t o say , t h a t i n i t i a l l y c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n may o n l y r e c o g n i z e i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s and monuments, but over t ime the l e g i s l a t i o n i s m o d i f i e d t o r e c o g n i z e the c o n t e x t o f i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s , g roup ings o f i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s and c o n s e r v a t i o n d i s t r i c t s . 80 Second, t h e l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e s f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n t o the day t o day p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n s . T h i r d l y , the l e g i s l a t i o n encourages d e v o l u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n from s e n i o r governments t o l o c a l governments. One o f the s i g n i f i c a n t q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s i s whether the p r o p o s a l s i n c l u d e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n w i l l produce l e g i s l a t i o n which w i l l r e f l e c t t he se c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . With r e s p e c t t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f more than i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s , t h e r e i s ev i dence t o suggest t h a t indeed the p o l i c i e s o f Toward H e r i t a g e  L e g i s l a t i o n w i l l promote the r e c o g n i t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n a reas and d i s t r i c t s . Dur ing the l a s t decade, l o c a l governments th roughout t h e P r o v i n c e have been t a k i n g s t e p s t o r e c o g n i z e h e r i t a g e a reas through the i n f o r m a l use o f development p e r m i t s and i n a few i s o l a t e d ca se s , through t h e use o f d e s i g n a t i o n . H e r i t a g e z o n i n g , as proposed i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n , w i l l p r o v i d e an a d d i t i o n a l t o o l t o enab le l o c a l government t o p r o t e c t h e r i t a g e a r e a s . C l e a r l y , the c r e a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e zon ing i s a response t o the needs o f communit ies t o p r o t e c t not o n l y i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s but a l s o a reas and d i s t r i c t s o f h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e . With r e s p e c t t o the second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g i n t o t h e day t o day p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f l o c a l governments, t h e r e can be no doubt . Toward 81 H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n i s c l e a r on t h i s mat te r as i t has as one o f i t s key p r i n c i p l e s "Community h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g must be b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e d i n t o normal l o c a l government p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s e s so t h a t l a s t - m i n u t e c r i s i s response management i s l e s s nece s sa ry and l e s s p r e v a l e n t " ( M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e , 1990, p . 6 ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the i n t e g r a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e r e g u l a t i o n s i n t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t s i g n i f i e s a major s h i f t o f p o l i c y which r e c o g n i z e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o c a l government p l a n n i n g i n g e n e r a l and h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g . F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s the q u e s t i o n o f d e v o l u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o l o c a l government. L o c a l governments i n B r i t i s h Columbia have p l a y e d a key r o l e i n h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n f o r some t ime and the p r o p o s a l s i n Toward  H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n w i l l enhance t h i s r o l e . Ev i dence t o suppor t t h i s p r o p o s i t i o n i n c l u d e s the p r o p o s a l t o i n t e g r a t e h e r i t a g e r e g u l a t i o n s i n t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t . t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l l o c a l government p l a n n i n g t o o l s such as h e r i t a g e zon ing and t o r e q u i r e i n c l u s i o n o f h e r i t a g e p o l i c i e s i n O f f i c i a l Community P l a n s . From t h e a n a l y s i s o f the development o f l e g i s l a t i o n i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s we may conc lude w i t h some c e r t a i n t y t h a t the p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s o f Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n w i l l move h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . A l s o impor tant i s the 8 2 c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the proposed p o l i c i e s a re not r a d i c a l i n na tu re and t h a t they a r e i n many ways c o n s i s t e n t w i t h those c u r r e n t l y used i n p r a c t i c e i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . The second and t h i r d o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s t h e s i s f ocus upon the d e t a i l o f the proposed p o l i c i e s w i t h a v iew t o i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. In Chapter 3 t h e v iews o f t h e 15 h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e d e t a i l e d and a n a l y z e d . These v iews i l l u s t r a t e t h a t a l though t h e r e i s g e n e r a l suppor t f o r the proposed p o l i c i e s t h e r e a re a number o f a reas o f s i g n i f i c a n t concern shared by many o f t h e p l a n n e r s . In the m a j o r i t y o f ca ses the concerns o f the p l a n n e r s f ocus on t h e i r a b i l i t y as l o c a l government b u r e a u c r a t s and c o n s u l t i n g p l a n n e r s t o implement t h e proposed p o l i c i e s . The major a reas o f concern o u t l i n e d by t h e p l a n n e r s i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : i ) The p r o p o s a l t o f o r m a l i z e i n c l u s i o n o f d e t a i l e d h e r i t a g e r e g u l a t i o n s such as i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment s tandards and d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s i n O f f i c i a l Community P l a n s . i i ) The p r o p o s a l t o r e q u i r e l o c a l governments t o complete h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s p r i o r t o i n i t i a t i n g o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . i i i ) The p r o p o s a l t o enab le r e q u e s t s f o r h e r i t a g e impact assessment s t u d i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p l a n n e r s expre s sed concern r e g a r d i n g t h e i r g e n e r a l n a t u r e and purpose , the s tudy p r o c e s s , t r a i n i n g f o r s tudy p e r s o n n e l and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f the p a r t i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r u n d e r t a k i n g the s t u d i e s . i v ) The p r o p o s a l t o c r e a t e a new r e g u l a t o r y mechanism c a l l e d h e r i t a g e zon ing . The p l a n n e r s q u e s t i o n e d t h e b a s i c concept o f h e r i t a g e zon ing and the p r o p o s a l t o i n c l u d e d e s i g n c o n t r o l s , r e g u l a t o r y f l e x i b i l i t y and maintenance s tandards i n z o n i n g . 83 v) The p r o p o s a l t o r e q u i r e mandatory compensat ion f o r l o s s r e s u l t i n g from h e r i t a g e d e s i g n a t i o n . v i ) The proposed rev iew p r o c e s s and s p e c i f i c a l l y the n a t u r e and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s p r o c e s s . v i i ) The p r o p o s a l t o use easements and covenants f o r h e r i t a g e purposes and f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e T r u s t t o become i n v o l v e d i n the purchase o f such agreements. v i i i ) The p r o p o s a l t o implement a t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d which w i l l r e q u i r e r e d e s i g n a t i o n o f a l l e x i s t i n g d e s i g n a t e d s i t e s w i t h i n a f i v e y e a r p e r i o d . Three l e v e l s o f c r i t i c i s m a re e v i d e n t i n the comments o f the p l a n n e r s . F i r s t , i n some ca se s , such as the p r o p o s a l t o i n c l u d e d e t a i l e d r e g u l a t i o n s i n O f f i c i a l Community P l a n s , mandatory compensat ion and the t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d , the p l a n n e r s opposed the p r o p o s a l s and recommended rev iew o f the proposed p o l i c i e s . The second l e v e l o f c r i t i c i s m apparent i n the responses i s t h a t a number o f t h e p r o p o s a l s r e q u i r e c l a r i f i c a t i o n and more d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n s . T h i s i s t r u e i n the cases o f the p r o p o s a l s f o r h e r i t a g e impact assessment, the rev iew p r o c e s s and t h e use o f covenants and easements. The p l a n n e r s r e q u e s t e d t h a t the se p r o p o s a l s be d e t a i l e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y so t h a t i t i s c l e a r how they w i l l f i t i n t o e x i s t i n g l o c a l government p r a c t i c e s and p r o c e d u r e s . F i n a l l y , the p l a n n e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t suppor t from the P r o v i n c e would be nece s s a r y f o r the imp lementa t ion o f the proposed p o l i c i e s . That i s t o say, t h a t the p l a n n e r s i n d i c a t e d they were by and l a r g e i n suppor t o f the n o t i o n o f d e v o l u t i o n o f 84 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o l o c a l government but t h a t r e s o u r c e s shou ld be fo r thcoming from the P r o v i n c e t o enab le l o c a l governments t o undertake the i n i t i a t i v e s r e q u i r e d by new l e g i s l a t i o n . The responses o f the p l a n n e r s suggest t h a t i f t he proposed p o l i c i e s a r e s u c c e s s f u l l y t r a n s l a t e d i n t o l e g i s l a t i o n t h e r e must be a p l a n f o r the imp lementat ion o f the l e g i s l a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h a t t h e r e shou ld be a framework f o r the imp lementa t ion phase. I t i s suggested t h a t t h i s framework shou ld i n c l u d e c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the p o l i c i e s , e x t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g f o r p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d i n the imp lementa t ion and t h a t r e s o u r c e s f o r imp lementa t ion be made a v a i l a b l e t o l o c a l governments. T h i s t h e s i s has focused on s e v e r a l s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the development o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n and on t h e p r o p o s a l s i n c l u d e d i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n . There a r e however, a number o f r e l a t e d i s s u e s which a r i s e out o f t h i s work. A t t h i s j u n c t u r e i t i s perhaps v a l u a b l e t o ask the quest ion, 'what does t h i s r e s e a r c h mean i n the g r e a t e r c o n t e x t o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n B r i t i s h Co lumb ia ? ' The advancement o f the p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s o u t l i n e d i n t h e White Paper sugges t s t h a t p l a n n i n g f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n B.C. i s e n t e r i n g a new phase o f development; one which f o r t h e most p a r t c o u l d be v iewed as p r o g r e s s i v e and o f b e n e f i t t o the 85 c i t i z e n s o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia. I f t he concept s o f t h e White Paper a re c a r r i e d through t o the l e g i s l a t i o n phase, h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n B.C. w i l l be d r a m a t i c a l l y t r a n s f o r m e d . The most s i g n i f i c a n t change w i l l come about as a r e s u l t o f the i n t e g r a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n t o the r o u t i n e p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s o f l o c a l governments. In the p a s t , h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g has e x i s t e d as an i s o l a t e d f u n c t i o n d i s t i n c t from the p r o v i s i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g o u t l i n e d i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t . The e x i s t e n c e o f t h e H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n  A c t has ensured t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g and c o n v e n t i o n a l community and l a n d use p l a n n i n g has been ex t reme ly l i m i t e d . Most l o c a l governments v iew h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g as something s p e c i a l and o u t s i d e t h e i r normal p l a n n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . I n t e g r a t i o n o f the p o l i c i e s i n t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t i s l i k e l y t o a l t e r t h i s p e r c e p t i o n and the r e a l i t y p r o f o u n d l y . I t i s suggested t h a t over t ime h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g w i l l be v iewed as a r e s o u r c e management i s s u e s i m i l a r t o many o t h e r r e s o u r c e i s s u e s managed by p l a n n e r s . With t h i s no doubt w i l l come the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t c o n s e r v i n g the P r o v i n c e ' s h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s i s a l e g i t i m a t e a c t i v i t y o f l o c a l governments and not j u s t the o b s e s s i o n o f s m a l l s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g roups . I f h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s a r e t o be conserved i n t h i s p r o v i n c e i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e r e g u l a t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l . 86 The White Paper p l a c e d s p e c i a l emphasis on t h e n o t i o n o f b a l a n c i n g p u b l i c and p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s . T h i s emphasis w i l l encourage l o c a l governments t o s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r t h e i r c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s and i t w i l l no doubt encourage p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owners t o become aware o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t i e s . Both the e x i s t e n c e and form o f c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i s key t o s u c c e s s f u l imp lementat ion o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n e f f o r t s i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . A l though l e g i s l a t i o n on i t s own cannot e f f e c t c o n s e r v a t i o n , i t i s a neces sa ry p a r t o f t h e p r o c e s s . A d m i t t e d l y i t must be accompanied by i n c e n t i v e s and p o l i t i c a l w i l l , however, c o n s e r v a t i o n programs r e q u i r e t o o l s f o r imp lementa t ion and l e g i s l a t i o n i s o f t e n the source o f t h e s e t o o l s . Two c u r r e n t examples h i g h l i g h t the d i f f i c u l t i e s which r e s u l t from weaknesses i n l e g i s l a t i o n . F i r s t , development p e r m i t s as p r o v i d e d f o r i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t and t h e H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n  A c t , may not be used e f f e c t i v e l y i n r e s i d e n t i a l a reas because o f the l a c k o f c l a r i t y and s p e c i f i c i t y i n t h e l e g a l d r a f t i n g . Development p e r m i t s c o u l d be t remendous ly u s e f u l i f they were a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s . Without them the p o t e n t i a l f o r d i s t r i c t c o n s e r v a t i o n i n r e s i d e n t i a l a reas i s ex t reme ly l i m i t e d . A second example comes from Sec. 292 o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t . T h i s s e c t i o n p r o h i b i t s c o u n c i l s from p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d t o 87 p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y owners. The r e s u l t i s t he i n a b i l i t y o f l o c a l governments t o p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e s t o p r o p e r t y owners f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r p r o p e r t y . These examples i l l u s t r a t e t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n may a l l o w o r p r o h i b i t e i t h e r r e g u l a t o r y c o n t r o l s o r i n c e n t i v e s . A framework o f l e g i s l a t i o n i s neces sa ry t o p r o v i d e the neces sa ry " t o o l s " f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n t o communit ies . Without the a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l s the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s e r i o u s l y l i m i t e d . An a d d i t i o n a l a rea o f note a r i s i n g from t h i s r e s e a r c h i s the e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f p l a n n e r s i n the a rea o f h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e management. In the cour se o f c o n d u c t i n g the c o n s u l t a t i o n s i t became apparent t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s i n t h e P r o v i n c e a re s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about t h e i r a b i l i t i e s t o p l a n f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n . The m a j o r i t y o f the p l a n n e r s c o n s u l t e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n the h e r i t a g e f i e l d was l i m i t e d and t h a t t hey d i d not c o n s i d e r themse lves e x p e r t s i n the f i e l d . The r e a l i t y however, i s t h a t they a re the e x p e r t s i n the p r o v i n c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia and indeed Canada, t r a i n i n g f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s l i m i t e d and thus the m a j o r i t y o f h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s l e a r n on the j ob w i thou t t h e b e n e f i t o f f o rma l t r a i n i n g o r mento r sh ip . I f new l e g i s l a t i o n i s pas sed i n t h e P r o v i n c e the weak l i n k i n the c h a i n w i l l not be 88 the l a c k o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n but r a t h e r the l a c k o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l t o implement the l e g i s l a t i o n . By t h e i r own admi s s ion many o f the p l a n n e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not f u l l y unders tand the e x i s t i n g t o o l s a v a i l a b l e t o them l e t a l one t h e new t o o l s proposed i n the White Paper . In some cases t h i s i s e v i d e n t i n the c o n s u l t a t i o n r e s u l t s where i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d not respond t o q u e s t i o n s because they d i d not under s tand the e x i s t i n g mechanisms. I f new l e g i s l a t i o n i s t o be f u l l y e x p l o i t e d by l o c a l governments t h i s weakness must be r e s o l v e d . I t i s suggested t h a t a t l e a s t t h r e e a reas shou ld be addres sed i n any t r a i n i n g program f o r l o c a l government h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s . F i r s t , an e f f o r t shou ld be made t o i n c r e a s e p l a n n e r s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c o n s e r v a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . The c o n s u l t a t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t few o f the p l a n n e r s have a good u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s manage t h e i r h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s . I t was a l s o apparent t h a t even w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e t h e r e i s l i m i t e d i n t e r a c t i o n among h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s and t h e r e f o r e o n l y l i m i t e d c r o s s f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f i d e a s and p r a c t i c e s . In o r d e r t h a t p l a n n e r s a v o i d ' r e i n v e n t i n g t h e whee l ' e ve ry t ime they a re f aced w i t h a new prob lem, they need t o under s tand the e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Second, t r a i n i n g i n the use o f e x i s t i n g mechanisms would be o f 89 g r e a t b e n e f i t t o h e r i t a g e p l a n n e r s . There a re some good t o o l s a v a i l a b l e a t the p r e s e n t t ime , such as development pe rm i t s and covenant s , which a re under u t i l i z e d because o f a l a c k o f t r a i n i n g i n t h e r e p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . I n f o rmat i on and t r a i n i n g r e g a r d i n g e x i s t i n g t o o l s would no doubt encourage t h e i r use and thus improve the a b i l i t y o f l o c a l governments t o b e t t e r conserve t h e i r h e r i t a g e r e s o u r c e s . F i n a l l y , i t i s apparent t h a t t r a i n i n g w i l l be nece s s a r y i f t he proposed mechanisms a re t o be used e f f e c t i v e l y . I f t he White Paper p r o p o s a l s a re t r a n s l a t e d i n t o l e g i s l a t i o n they w i l l no doubt be e x t e n s i v e and comprehensive i n form and subs tance . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such changes w i l l be d ramat i c and w i l l o n l y be r e a l i z e d i f p l a n n e r s a c ro s s the P r o v i n c e under s tand how t o use the new l e g i s l a t i o n . As t h e c o n s u l t a t i o n r e s u l t s sugges ted, imp lementa t ion i s t h e key t o t h e succes s o f new l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s impor tan t t h a t the P r o v i n c e addres s the concerns expres sed by the p l a n n e r s and t h a t t hey a l s o address the concerns expres sed above r e g a r d i n g t r a i n i n g p l a n n e r s t o use the l e g i s l a t i o n . In c l o s i n g , i t i s p rom i s i n g t o see t h a t t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia has proposed such comprehens ive l e g i s l a t i o n and t h a t they under took such an e x t e n s i v e rev iew p r o c e s s through bo th the P r o j e c t P r i d e Task Fo rce and the White Paper Review. I t i s 90 hoped t h a t t h e s e e f f o r t s w i l l be f o l l o w e d by bo th r e v i s i o n s t o the p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s t o r e f l e c t the concerns o f p l a n n e r s and adequate t r a i n i n g which w i l l ensure the imp lementa t ion o f the l e g i s l a t i o n . 91 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ( C i t e d Sources) BOOKS B e l l , C. (1985). F e d e r a l h i s t o r i c case law. Washington: U.S. P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . C o n s t o n i s , J . (1989). Icons and a l i e n s . Urbana: U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s . Denhez, M. (1979). P r o t e c t i n g the b u i l t env i ronment. Ottawa: H e r i t a g e Canada. Dunsavage, L. (1975). The making o f a h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t : Swiss  Avenue. Washington D.C.. : The P r e s e r v a t i o n P r e s s . E a r l y , K . (1984) . " F o r the b e n e f i t and enjoyment o f the p e o p l e " .  C u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f Ye l l ows tone N a t i o n a l  Park . Washington: Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . F a l k n e r , A. (1977). Without our p a s t ? . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f To ron to P r e s s . Fawcet t , J . (1976). The f u t u r e o f the p a s t . London: Thames and Hudson. Harvey, J . (1972). C o n s e r v a t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s . London: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toron to P r e s s . H e r i t a g e Canada (1974) . Who we a re and where we came from. H e r i t a g e Canada Annual Repor t . S p r i n g 1974. p . 1 - 3 . Hosmer, C. (1981). P r e s e r v a t i o n comes o f age. C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e : The U n i v e r s i t y P res s o f V i r g i n i a . Lux ton , E. (1975). Ban f f : Canada ' s f i r s t n a t i o n a l pa rk . Ban f f : Summerthought L i m i t e d . Lynch, K . (1972) . What t ime i s t h i s p l a c e ? . Cambridge: MIT P r e s s . Mar ty , S. (1984). A grand and f abu lous n o t i o n . T o r o n t o : NC P r e s s . Murtagh, W. (1988) Keeping t ime . P i t t s t o w n : M a i n s t r e e t P r e s s . Roddewig, R. (1983). P r e p a r i n g a h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n  o r d i n a n c e . Ch i cago : Amer ican P l a n n i n g A s s o c i a t i o n . Suddards, R. (1982). L i s t e d b u i l d i n g s : The law and p r a c t i c e . London: Sweet and Maxwel l . 92 Thurbe r , P. & Moyer, R. (1984). S t a t e e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r  l o c a l p r e s e r v a t i o n commiss ions. Washington: N a t i o n a l T r u s t For H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n . W i l l i a m s , N. & K e l l o g g , E. (Eds ) . (1983). Readings i n h i s t o r i c  p r e s e r v a t i o n . New Brunswick, New J e r s e y : Cen t re f o r Urban P o l i c y Re sea rch . DISSERTATIONS AND THESES L a z e a r , S.B. (1981). M u n i c i p a l h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g i n Canada. Unpub l i s hed m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia, Vancouver . O r r , S.D. (1986). An A n a l y s i s o f h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t y l e g i s l a t i o n :  B a l a n c i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t w i t h p r o t e c t i o n f o r the p r i v a t e  p r o p e r t y owner. Unpub l i shed m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia , Vancouver. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS P r o j e c t P r i d e Task Force (1987). S tewardsh ip and o p p o r t u n i t y . V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y o f Tour i sm, R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e . M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l a f f a i r s R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e (1989). B r i t i s h Columbia de s i gna ted h e r i t a g e s i t e s r e g i s t r y . V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e . M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e (1990). Toward h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n : A p r o p o s a l f o r p u b l i c r ev iew. V i c t o r i a : M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e . Ward, N. (1988) . H e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n - T h e b u i l t env i ronment . Environment Canada Working Paper No. 44. 93 J O U R N A L S Denhez, M. (1976). Conserv ing neighbourhoods and landmarks: The Canadian p rob lem. Urban Forum. 2:1. 27-35. Denhez, M. (1978). H e r i t a g e law. H e r i t a g e Canada. June 1978. 44. Denhez, M. (1981). What p r i c e h e r i t a g e ? . P l a n Canada. 21 :1 . 5-13. Denhez, M. (1984). A t a x i n g q u e s t i o n : What Canada can l e a r n from the U.S. t ax i n c e n t i v e s . Canadian H e r i t a g e . Dec  1983/January 1984. 6-8. G a l l a g h e r , T . (1990). Heady t imes f o r h e r i t a g e - c o n s c i o u s . B r i t i s h Columbia Repor t . 20. 6. J a c o b s , S. (1966). A r c h i t e c t u r a l p r e s e r v a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s : The governments r o l e . H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n Today. 1966. O b e r l a n d e r , J . (1984). A p r e s e r v a t i o n i s t ' s v o c a b u l a r y . Canadian H e r i t a g e . February /March 1984. 46-48. Pea rce , W. (1962). E s t ab l i s hment o f n a t i o n a l pa rk s i n the r o c k i e s . A l b e r t a H i s t o r i c a l Review. S p r i n g 1962. p .8 -18 . P h i l l i p s , R. (1974). On the t h r e s h o l d . H e r i t a g e Canada. 1:1. 1-3. Ward, R. (1988). H e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Co lumbia . U.B.C Law Review. 22 :1 . 61-106. 94 INTERVIEWS Steve Ba rber , H e r i t a g e P l a n n e r , C i t y o f V i c t o r i a John B a s t a j a , P l anne r ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Maple R idge . Marta Farevaag , H e r i t a g e P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t Rober t Hobson, H e r i t a g e P l a n n i n g C o n s u l t a n t Gary Penway, P l anner ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , C i t y o f Nor th Vancouver . Tamina De Jong , P l anner ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , Coqu i t l am A l e x Jamieson, P l anner ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , Richmond Ha l Kalman, P r e s e r v a t i o n C o n s u l t a n t . Rober t Lemon, P r e s e r v a t i o n C o n s u l t a n t Donald Lux ton , H e r i t a g e C o n s u l t a n t J a q u i e M u r f i t t , H e r i t a g e P l a n n e r , C i t y o f Vancouver Judy O b e r l a n d e r , P r e s e r v a t i o n C o n s u l t a n t B i l l Rapanos, P l anner ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , Burnaby Debra Sa rgent , P l anner ( r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r i t a g e ) , C i t y o f Nanaimo V a l d a V i d n e r s , H e r i t a g e C o n s u l t a n t LEGAL REFERENCES Canada H i s t o r i c S i t e s and Monuments A c t . S.C. 1952-53, c . 39, s. 1. H i s t o r i c S i t e s and Monuments A c t . R.S. c . H-6, s . l . B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t . S .B.C. 1960, c . 2. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t . S .B.C. 1972, c . 4. E x p r o p r i a t i o n A c t . S .B.C. 1987. H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t . S .B.C. 1979, c . 165. H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t . S .B.C. 1925, c . 1 7 . M u n i c i p a l A c t . S .B.C. 1973, c . 290, Sec. 714 (a ) . M u n i c i p a l A c t . S .B.C. 1979, c . 290. 95 UNPUBLISHED SOURCES Repor t o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Review Sub-committee (Her i t age L e g i s l a t i o n ) o f the M u n i c i p a l Law S e c t i o n and Rea l P r o p e r t y S e c t i o n o f the Canadian Bar A s s o c i a t i o n , B.C. Branch. 1990. 96 LITERATURE CONSULTED BOOKS F i t c h , J . (1982). H i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n . New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Company. Hayden, D., Hoffman, W. & M i l e s , C. (1982). Urban p r e s e r v a t i o n  through h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t p l a n n i n g . Los Ange l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a . Hosmer, C. (1965). Presence o f the p a s t . New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. Hosmer, C. (1981). P r e s e r v a t i o n comes o f age. C h a r l o t t e s v i l l e : U n i v e r s i t y P res s o f V i r g i n i a . J a c o b s , S. (1966). A r c h i t e c t u r a l p r e s e r v a t i o n i n Europe. C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y . N a t i o n a l League f o r C i t i e s (1982). P r e s e r v a t i o n o r d i n a n c e s and  f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s : How they gu ide d e s i g n . Washington D.C.: N a t i o n a l League f o r C i t i e s . N a t i o n a l T r u s t f o r H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n (1978). P r e s e r v a t i o n :  toward an e t h i c i n the 1980 ' s . Washington D.C.: The P r e s e r v a t i o n P r e s s . N a t i o n a l T r u s t f o r H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n (1985). C o n t r o v e r s i e s  i n h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n : Under s tand ing t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n  movement today . Washington D.C.: N a t i o n a l T r u s t f o r H i s t o r i c P r e s e r v a t i o n . T a y l o r , C. (1990). N e g o t i a t i n g the p a s t . M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l -Queen ' s U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Waters , J . (1983). M a i n t a i n i n g a sense o f p l a c e . A thens : The U n i v e r s i t y o f G e o r g i a . DISSERTATIONS AND THESES James, S. (1983). H e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g . Unpub l i shed m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia , Vancouver . Van Weston, P. (1970). Goa l f o r m u l a t i o n and achievement i n  h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t p r e s e r v a t i o n . Unpub l i shed m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia, Vancouver . 97 JOURNALS Change i n Quebec law w o r r i e s h e r i t a g e advoca te s . Canadian  H e r i t a g e . 13 :1 . 13. G a i t , G. (1982). A l l About Easements. Canadian H e r i t a g e . May  1982a. 33. Huot, W. (1981). Compensation f o r D e s i g n a t i o n . H e r i t a g e West. S p r i n g 81. 15-16. Mani toba u n v e i l s new h e r i t a g e a c t . Canadian H e r i t a g e . 13 :1 . 11. S e e l i g , M. (1974). Area c o n s e r v a t i o n as an a s s e t t o p l a n n i n g -not a " n e c e s s a r y e v i l " . A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record . Dec '74 . 106-109. Farevaag , M. (1990). Toward h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n : a p r o p o s a l f o r p u b l i c r ev iew. P l a n n i n g Forum. A p r i l 1990. 7. NEWSPAPER ARTICLES Appe lbe , A. " C o u n c i l endorses h e r i t a g e house p l a n " The Vancouver  C o u r i e r . 4 A p r i l 1990, p. 8. Bramham, D. & B u t t l e , J . " B .C . government wants j a i l , f i n e s f o r h e r i t a g e v i o l a t o r s " The Vancouver Sun. 8 January 1990, p . 1 . T r u s c o t t , B. " H e r i t a g e needs more p r o t e c t i o n " The Vancouver  C o u r i e r . 21 January 1990, p .8 . UNPUBLISHED SOURCES A r c h i t e c t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f B r i t i s h Columbia (1990). Review of "Towards H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n " f o r t h e M i n i s t e r o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e . M i n i s t r y o f M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s , R e c r e a t i o n and C u l t u r e (1990). News Re lea se "White paper recommends s t r o n g e r h e r i t a g e powers " , 8, January 1990. Un ion o f B r i t i s h Columbia M u n i c i p a l i t i e s (1990). Notes from h e r i t a g e seminar . 98 A P P E N D I X " A " S U M M A R Y O P C A N A D I A N P R O V I N C I A L A N D L O C A L H E R I T A G E L E G I S L A T I O N S O U R C E : W A R D , 1 9 8 6 PROVINCIAL AMP TERRITORIAL HfRITAGi IfGtSLAIION U u l y , 19B^ > Recommended H r i nee f rlwer d Nova N e « Br 111sh Nor thwest by UNESCO Newfound I and I s I and Scot I a Brunsw tck Quebec Ontario Man i1 oca Sask ate he«an A i oet t a Col uff.b 1 a Ter r I tor I e& Yukon Are clear cr l te - Not No ria given for the discussed definition of Heritage Property? Must notice be Not given of impend- discussed ing demoI It ion of unregistered Her I tage Property? Is Government Yes under any obiIgation to attempt to protect unreg i stored Heritage Property? Can demolition of Yes sn unci ass11ied bu tId ing be delayed pending study? Can det•n it ive Yes protect i on agoi nst demolition be given to a buiIding (short of expropriation)? No No No Yes No Yes Yes Archooo-log leal si tes On I y Ar c r iaoo-log i eel sites only Yes Archaoo- NO Yes logical Wot perm, si tes protection on I y Archaeo- Indian logical Archaeo-sltes logical only sites on I y Prob-ably Is radius around Yes monument protected? Can government Yet decisions on designation be appealed to higher authority by statute? Is the defIn it i ve Yes preservation of distr icts speci f leal ly foreseen? Can maintenance Yes of Heritage Property be enforced? Can Heritage Sites Yes be inspected? Does government have right of f i rs t refusal on sale of Her i tage Bui tdtngs? Can Her i tage Properties be exempted fron> bul Iding codes? Can 11 legally altered Heritage BuiIdings be restored at owner 1 s expense? What is the maximum penalty for of fences? NOt No di scussed Not J1000 specif ied plus 3 months Yes "Areas" No No No No No No No No Yes Yes ind i v. p t us up to I year or both \100000 corps. 10 days plus 1 year ( IndIv. t50000 for corps. Yes Yes At gov't expense Gov't Yes subsi dlzed bulIdings on I y JI00OO 1100 plus 125000 DOGGO DOG 1)000 plus 6 months Indlv. $250000 corps. I 1 Yes Yes Unclear Prob-ably Yes No No Yes Yes • No Yes No No 150000 12000 $ 200 1200 plus 1 plus under Area year 6 months Oevel> Ordin. pI us Max. fIne damages 1500 plus up to 6 months ' The fa* empowers protection of "si tes'* , which can be as large ai a d » s i r i c t , ^ Provision for Regulations established but not Regulations them^eIveb. ' Under Planning Act, max. fine of D000 for (ndiv. and 1^000 lor cor p i . plu^ possibly up to t mos. imprisonment. * During authorized a l terat ions. Source: Update of Protecting  the BulIt Environment <?982> 99 TABLE 2 WJHICIPAL HERITAGE LEGISLATION ' J u l y , 19851 Newfoundland Prince Edward Island Nova Scotia New Brunswick Quebec Ontario Saskatchewan Br i t ish Columbia Northwest Terr i tor ies St. John's Elsaahers Charlottetown Winnipeg Elsewhere I s her Itege No conservatIon an obi Igatory part ol municipal planning? Is municipality obliged No to ( l ie environmental Impact e*ie*Aent on denol I tlon of heritage? Can municipality give Yes permanent protection to buiIdings? Can municipality give Ye* temporary protection to buiIdlngs? Can municipality regulate Bulk and Height res Design res Use ret Set-back ret Slgntl ret Can municipality accept res or reject applications for construction on heritage sites on a discretionary batlt? Can municipality enforce me Intenence of dwelling Interiors Ves of dwelling exteriors ret of non-reaI dential Interiors Yes of non-residential exteriors? No Can municipality compel protection of trees Yes landscaping? No Can I l legal ly altered Yes buildings be restored et owner's expense? Usual maximum penalty 1100 for offences. res res res Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes res No res res Unc leer res "•I res res res Yes res res res res Yes UncI ear Yes UncI ear No 200 $90 • 90 1500 • days SI000 90 days for subse-quent offences res y es res ret Yes No res Yes Yes Yes Yes But mey be compel led res res res res res res res Probably ProbebIy Yes res 5100 per day • ImprIson-ment on default of payment res res Yes res Yes r e , 1 Yes1 res Yes-Yes Ye* Yes Ye* Yes Ye* Ye* Depend 5 on c i ty res re* re* re* re* $10000 for indlv. and $50000 for corp* . under HerItage Act plus I year 11000 PIennIng and Municipal Acts. SI0OO • 6 mo*. for indlv. $5000 for corps. $1000 ' 6 mo*. for indlv. $5000 for corp* . res res re* res re* No $1000 • 6 mo*. res re* re* re* res re* res re* 'lo-re* re* $2000 • 6 mo*. re* ye» Tes •e* Ye* to re* $500 • add i 11 one I f I ne of $t00/dey for contInu i ng of fences re* Yes Except in munlcipel i t le* regulated by the C i t ies and Towns Act. ^ Except under development control schemes. ' Except In Montreal, Ouebec and rural munic ipal i t ies . 4 Except for health, safety or "public nuisance" v io la t ions . Non-resl dent I el buildings and apt. blocks Source: Update of Protecting the Unclear Bu i l t Environment (19621 APPENDIX "B" SELECTED RECOMMENDATIONS OP THE PROJECT PRIDE TASK FORCE R E C O M M E N D E D C H A N G E S A N D N E W PROVISIONS FOR T H E H E R I T A G E C ONSE RVATION A C T 1.0 C H A N G E S - G E N E R A L 1.1 Allow for the selective protection of nat-ural heritage in the Heritage Conservation Act. 1.2 Extend the definition of heritage site by including cultural landscapes and con-texts within which heritage resources are found that are important to the value of the resource. 1.3 Clarify the term "significance" as used in the current definitions of the^ 4rf, or delete use of the term. 1.4 Ensure that ignorance of any of the pro-visions of the legislation is not protection to the contravenor. 1.5 There are numerous other definitions that could be incorporated into the Act, for example; - archaeological artifact, archaeological site, conservation, economic value, heritage property, interpretation, land, and minister. 1.6 Incorporate into the Act a definition for the word "alter" to mean any form of alteration to a heritage site, including to destroy, desecrate, deface, move, exca-vate, dig. 2.0 C H A N G E S - BRITISH C O L U M B I A H E R I T A G E T R U S T 2.1 Insert a provision expanding the objects of the British Columbia Heritage Trust by including the role of interpretation of heritage property in the province. 2.2 Insert a provision expanding the powers of the British Columbia Heritage Trust by allowing it to improve, as well as acquire and dispose of property. 2.3 Clarify the taxation status of sites owned by the British Columbia Heritage Trust regarding the provision of grants in lieu of taxes. 3.0 C H A N G E S - MUNICIPAL 3.1 Insert a provision defining a municipal heritage object as being a heritage object designated under the Act by a municipal-ity and provide the necessary operational clauses allowing for municipal designa-tion of heritage objects. 3.2 Delete any provision for compensation being paid to owners of heritage sites and objects designated under the municipal provisions of the legislation. 3.3 Clarify the start and finish point in the 90-day total temporary delay of work period. 3.4 Expand the scope of municipal heritage advisory committees with regard to areas for their deliberations as referred to them by council. 4.0 C H A N G E S - PROVINCIAL 4.1 Insert a provision defining a Provincial Heritage Object as being a heritage object designated under the Act by the Province. 4.2 Clarify that the Lieutenant Governor in Council may designate personal property as a Provincial Heritage Object. 4.3 Ensure that the Minister may issue a Per-mit for the excavation or alteration of any protected heritage site, not just desig-nated sites. 4.4 Ensure that all pre-contact North Amer-ican Indian heritage sites are protected from alteration unless authorized by a Permit issued by the Minister. 4.5 Increase and stratify penalties for viola-tion of the legislation to levels appropriate to the contraventions. Provide signifi-cantly higher penalties for corporate infractions compared to those perpetrated by individuals. 4.6 Expand the powers of the Minister by allowing any potential "protected heri-tage site" to be posted in accordance with the legislation. 4.7 Ensure that the provisions for site inves-tigations and surveys are clarified per-taining to: Minister's authority on private land, regarding orders, access, response to natural causes, removal of heritage objects. - Extension of authority to ranges of investigation broader than field work. - Minister's authority to order mitiga-tion measures in response to site sur-veys and site investigations. - Minister's authority to make an order in the absence of evidence of the exist-ence of a site. - Clarify the "owner pays" and "owner preserves" policy. - Provide "due process" measures for the protection of the land-owner. - Provide right of access for the Minister or delegate to properties having the potential to be designated. 4.8 Include a statement clarifying the need for a resource to have heritage signifi-cance before it can be designated. 5.0 N E W PROVISIONS - G E N E R A L The following provisions are recom-mended for incorporation into heritage legislation that is assumed to include the provisions of the Heritage Conservation Act as amended in conjunction with Appendix 7.12, Sections 1.0 - 4.8. 5.1 Incorporate a mechanism by which notice of all protected heritage resources, whether land, structures or objects, is reg-istered on land tides or other documents, whether land or objects. 5.2 Incorporate into the provincial and municipal designation processes and the issuance of Ministerial Orders, provi-sions for the protection of heritage prop-erty owners' rights through avenues of notification and appeal. 5.3 Incorporate at the municipal and prov-incial levels, provisions allowing for the review of heritage designation accom-panied with a system of due process. 5.4 Clarify the continuity of heritage desig-nations under previous legislation with existing and future legislation. 5.5 Incorporate provisions for the protection of designated heritage sites and objects from willful neglect by owners. 5.6 Establish a right of access for the Minister or council to protected heritage sites for inspection purposes. 5.7 Include a provision for the establishment of a Heritage Arbitration Board to hear appeals of local and provincial govern-ment use of heritage authority. 6.0 N E W PROVISIONS - MUNICIPAL 6.1 Incorporate a provision allowing regional districts to have the equivalent of munic-ipal powers relating to heritage conserva-tion, including the provision of site and object designation in unincorporated areas. 102 1 0 0 STEWARDSHIP A N D OPPORTUNITY 6.2 Enable municipalities to protect the inte-riors, exteriors and landscape features of heritage properties. 6.3 Enable municipalities to provide subsi-dies and other incentives for retention, development and protection of private heritage property. 6.4 Include provisions in heritage legislation and in conjunction with other legislation, that allow municipalities to offer incen-tives for the conservation of heritage property, for example: direct financial assistance, tax relief, transfer of develop-ment rights, mortgage guarantees, relax-ation of building, fire and zoning codes and legislation, and others. 7.0 NEW PROVISIONS - PROVINCIAL 7.1 Ensure that the provisions of heritage leg-islation are binding on the Crown. 7.2 Incorporate a provision making it illegal to be in the possession of artifacts or other materials or remains illegally removed from a protected heritage site. 7.3 Incorporate a provision making it illegal to remove artifacts or other materials or remains that have been legally or illegally removed from a protected heritage site, from the Province, unless expressly per-mitted to do so by the Minister. 7.4 Clarify the process for the undertaking of site investigations and site surveys; include provisions for post investigation/ survey review periods, and apply this to heritage objects and to historic sites. 7.5 Expand the powers of the Minister by allowing the issuance of stop work orders or to suspend, for appropriate periods of time, any approval issued by a council or Minister of the Crown that may have a deleterious effect on a heritage site or object. 7.6 Incorporate criteria for the payment by landowners of site surveys and investiga-tions. 7.7 Incorporate a mandate for the Heritage Conservation Branch in the legislation by creating the agency and providing objects and powers. 7.8 Include a provision assigning ownership of all pre-contact archaeological artifacts discovered after passage of the new legis-lation to the Crown in trust. 7.9 Incorporate a form of status in the legis-lation that serves commemorative or hon-orary purposes as opposed to designation. 7.10 Enable the erection of commemorative plaques and interpretive signage on or near heritage resources. 7.11 Incorporate regulations into the legisla-tion pertaining to the establishment of provincial heritage management guide-lines. 7.12 Incorporate regulations into the legisla-tion pertaining to the establishment of heritage resources impact assessments. 7.13 A category of designation referred to as "Provincial Heritage Trail" should be included in the Heritage Conservation Act. 103 APPENDIX " C " CONSULTATION FORMAT Background 1) Name: 2) P o s i t i o n : 3) How l o n g have you been i n v o l v e d i n h i s t o r i c p r e s e r v a t i o n ? 4) What i s t h e focus o f your c u r r e n t work? P r o j e c t P r i d e Task Fo r ce 5) A re you aware o f the P r o j e c t P r i d e Task F o r c e wh ich i n v e s t i g a t e d h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s s u e s a c r o s s the P r o v i n c e i n 1987? 6) Were you i n v o l v e d i n the Task Fo r ce rev iew? 7) One o f the recommendations o f the Task F o r c e Repor t was t h a t the H e r i t a g e  C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t shou ld be r e v i s e d . Does the A c t r e q u i r e r e v i s i o n ? H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t 8) What a r e the s i g n i f i c a n t weaknesses o f the e x i s t i n g h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n ? i e . d e s i g n a t i o n compensat ion development permi t a rea r e s t r i c t i o n s OCP p o l i c i e s c o n s e r v a t i o n not d e f i n e d as a p l a n n i n g purpose zon ing l i m i t a t i o n s ad hoc approach o t h e r 104 9) What do you perceive to be the s i g n i f i c a n t strengths of the Act? 10) Are you aware of other j u r i s d i c t i o n s which have l e g i s l a t i o n which you believe to be superior to the Heritage Conservation Act? Toward Heritage Conservation 11) Are you f a m i l i a r with the White Paper Toward Heritage Legislation? 12) Could you comment on the following p o l i c y areas proposed i n Toward Heritage  Legislation? S p e c i f i c a l l y , could you comment on the implementation implications. Inclusion of conservation regulations i n the  Municipal Act 13) Should conservation regulations be included i n the Municipal Act? 14) implementation implications? O f f i c i a l Community Plan P o l i c i e s 15) Do you agree that l o c a l government should include detailed conservation p o l i c i e s i n t h e i r OCP's? 16) What do you think should be included i n the OCP p o l i c i e s ? i e . r a t i o n a l e for heritage conservation general heritage planning p o l i c i e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment standards design guidelines heritage conservation development permit areas 105 o t h e r 17) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? H e r i t a g e I n v e n t o r i e s 18) Do you suppor t the concept o f r e q u i r i n g l o c a l governments t o conduct h e r i t a g e i n v e n t o r i e s b e f o r e t a k i n g o t h e r i n i t i a t i v e s ? 19) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? H e r i t a g e R e g i s t r i e s 20) W i l l h e r i t a g e r e g i s t r i e s as proposed be b e n e f i c i a l ? 21) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? H e r i t a g e Impact Assessment 22) D e s c r i b e what you see as the purpose o f h e r i t a g e impact assessment? 23) What do you t h i n k shou ld be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e h e r i t a g e impact assessment s t u d i e s ? 24) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? Temporary P r o t e c t i o n 25) A re t h e temporary p r o t e c t i o n p e r i o d s proposed inadequate , adequate o r too long? 26) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? H e r i t a g e Zon ing 27) Do you suppor t the concept o f h e r i t a g e zoning? 106 28) Should t h e f o l l o w i n g be i n c l u d e d i n the proposed zon ing p r o v i s i o n s ? h e r i t a g e p r o t e c t i o n s i m i l a r t o d e s i g n a t i o n d e s i g n c o n t r o l use and d e n s i t y c o n t r o l s ( e x i s t i n g ) f l e x i b i l i t y s i m i l a r t o DVP and BOV maintenance s tandards 29) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? Green Door P o l i c y 30) Is t he green door p o l i c y f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n p r o j e c t s needed? 31) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? D e s i g n a t i o n 32) Would mandatory compensat ion f o r i n j u r i o u s a f f e c t i n c u r r e d as a r e s u l t o f compensat ion have a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e a f f e c t on h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n ? 33) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? Review Proces s 34) I s t h e proposed rev iew p r o c e s s f o r p r o p e r t y owners a f f e c t e d by h e r i t a g e zon ing , d e s i g n a t i o n , temporary p r o t e c t i o n , impact assessment, g e n e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s o r suppor t programs needed? 107 35) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? P e n a l t i e s 36) A re t h e proposed p e n a l t i e s i nadequate , adequate o r too h igh? 37) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? Support Programs 38) A re t h e proposed suppor t programs i n s u f f i c i e n t , s u f f i c i e n t o r too generous? N o n - f i n a n c i a l r e g u l a t o r y f l e x i b i l i t y g reen door p o l i c i e s f i r e and b u i l d i n g code compl iance a l t e r n a t i v e s F i n a n c i a l w a i v i n g o f a p p l i c a t i o n f ee s a u t h o r i t y t o p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e t ax r e l i e f B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t Programs 39) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? Covenants and Easements 40) Do you suppor t the use o f covenants and easements? 41) Shou ld the B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t i n i t i a t e a program t o purchase c o n s e r v a t i o n easements? 42) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? E x p r o p r i a t i o n f o r C o n s e r v a t i o n 43) Do you suppor t the concept o f e x p r o p r i a t i o n f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n purposes? 108 44) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s T r a n s i t i o n 45) I s t he 5 yea r t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d i nadequate , adequate or too long? 46) imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? H e r i t a g e P l a n n i n g 47) Do you t h i n k t h a t h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s shou ld be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the r o u t i n e p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s o f l o c a l governments? 48) Do you t h i n k t h a t the p o l i c i e s o f Toward  H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n w i l l p r o v i d e f o r an i n t e g r a t e d and comprehensive approach t o h e r i t a g e p l ann ing ? 109 APPENDIX "D" CONSULTATION RESULTS The f o l l o w i n g appendix o u t l i n e s the r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s and i n c l u d e s an examinat ion o f both the s h o r t answers g i v e n by the i n t e r v i e w e e s and t h e i r comments on i n d i v i d u a l p o l i c i e s . T h i s s e c t i o n i s o r g a n i z e d t o f o l l o w bo th the C o n s u l t a t i o n Format (Appendix B) and the o r d e r o f the p o l i c i e s i n Toward H e r i t a g e  L e g i s l a t i o n . 2 . 2 . 1 Background A number o f background q u e s t i o n s were asked i n o r d e r t o genera te a g e n e r a l sense o f the e x p e r i e n c e o f the i n t e r v i e w e e s and t o determine i f c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g was a focus o f t h e i r c u r r e n t work. Years o f e x p e r i e n c e i n the h e r i t a g e f i e l d ? 1-5 y e a r s 6 6-10 y e a r s 6 10-15 y e a r s 3 Focus o f c u r r e n t work? A l l o f t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s con f i rmed t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g was a p a r t o f t h e i r c u r r e n t work and a l l c on f i rmed t h a t they had some e x p e r i e n c e i n l o c a l government c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g . 110 2.2.2 Project Pride Task Force Because o f t h e d i r e c t l i n k between the recommendations o f the P r o j e c t P r i d e Task Fo r ce and the p o l i c i e s i n Toward H e r i t a g e  L e g i s l a t i o n the i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked i f they were aware o f the Task F o r c e Review and i f they had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the rev iew p r o c e s s . Aware o f t h e rev iew p roces s ? yes - 12 no - 3 P a r t i c i p a t e d i n the rev iew p roces s ? yes - 10 no - 5 The i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked i f they agreed w i t h the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e Task Fo r ce rev iew which suggested t h a t t h e c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r e d r e v i s i o n . C u r r e n t c o n s e r v a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n r e q u i r e s r e v i s i o n ? agree - 15 d i s a g r e e - 0 111 2.2.3 H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t The i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked t o comment on the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f e x i s t i n g h e r i t a g e l e g i s l a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g summarizes t h e comments and where a comment was made by a number o f i n t e r v i e w e e s i t i s noted i n p a r e n t h e s i s e s : Weaknesses? d e s i g n a t i o n (10) compensat ion (12) development p e r m i t a reas (6) l a c k o f awareness o f the HCA (4) no p l a n n i n g t o o l s (2) i s not i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s (5) l i m i t e d i n scope (3) no c o n t r o l s f o r b u i l d i n g i n t e r i o r s (4) l i m i t e d t o d e s i g n a t i o n (2) no c o n t r o l s f o r l andscape f e a t u r e s S t reng th s ? the e x i s t e n c e o f the HCA (3) the HCA e s t a b l i s h e d the B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t the HCA brought numerous f u n c t i o n s t o g e t h e r temporary p r o t e c t i o n measures o f the HCA (2) the HCA does not r e q u i r e compensat ion l o c a l government powers d e s i g n a t i o n under HCA (5) f l e x i b i l i t y open ended p r o c e s s demonstrates p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p b r e v i t y and s i m p l i c i t y o f HCA (2) l i m i t a t i o n s o f the HCA f o r c e p l a n n e r s t o be c r e a t i v e When asked i f they knew o f o t h e r j u r i s d i c t i o n s which pos ses sed "model l e g i s l a t i o n " the f o l l o w i n g comments were made: Other j u r i s d i c t i o n s w i t h model l e g i s l a t i o n ? Eng land and S c o t l a n d because o f the s t r o n g p l a n n i n g and T r u s t r o l e s . Man i toba and s p e c i f i c a l l y the powers g i v e n t o Winn ipeg. O n t a r i o (2) Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Quebec (2) O n t a r i o because o f the i n t e g r a t i o n o f c o n s e r v a t i o n and p l a n n i n g powers. A l b e r t a G a l v a s t o n , Texas B r i s b a n e , A u s t r a l i a C a l i f o r n i a S e a t t l e 112 2.2.4 Toward Heritage L e g i s l a t i o n A l l i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked i f they were f a m i l i a r w i t h Toward  H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n and a l l responded w i t h the a f f i r m a t i v e . The i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked t o respond t o a v a r i e t y o f q u e s t i o n s which d e a l t w i t h s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s proposed i n the White Paper. The f o l l o w i n g summarizes the re sponses : Municipal Act Heritage P o l i c i e s Support t h e concept o f i n c l u d i n g c o n s e r v a t i o n r e g u l a t i o n s i n the  M u n i c i p a l Ac t ? agree - (14) comments and imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - w i l l broaden both p o l i t i c a l and p l a n n i n g suppor t f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n - w i l l h e l p t o i n t e g r a t e h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g and w i l l make i t more v i s i b l e - l e g i t i m i z e s h e r i t a g e as a p l a n n i n g purpose - must be c a r e f u l t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n does not get l o s t i n the MA - t h e HCA shou ld remain t o d e s i g n a t e i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s and d i s t r i c t s - more conven ien t and w i l l r e l a t e c o n s e r v a t i o n t o l a n d use - h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n i s a p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t y (2) - i n c l u s i o n i n the MA w i l l ensure a p u b l i c rev iew p r o c e s s d i s a g r e e - (1) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - c r a z y but an i n t e r e s t i n g approach. I t may cause more problems than i t i s worth and i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine how changes t o the MA w i t h a f f e c t o t h e r e x i s t i n g r e g u l a t i o n s . C a u t i o n i s recommended. 113 O f f i c i a l Community Plan Heritage P o l i c i e s I n c l ude h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s i n O f f i c i a l Community  P lans? agree - (15) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - w i l l i n c r e a s e the a f f e c t o f the p o l i c i e s - i f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s go ing t o be e f f e c t i v e i t must s t a r t w i t h the most b a s i c p l a n n i n g document - t h i s i s a n e c e s s i t y - h e r i t a g e must be regarded as a p a r t o f t h e r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r y (2) - O f f i c i a l Community P l ans a re where c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s be l ong and i t won ' t e x a c t l y commit c o u n c i l but t h e c o u n c i l c a n ' t c o n t r a d i c t t h e p o l i c i e s e i t h e r - i t w i l l g i v e c o n t i n u i t y - t h i s w i l l p r o v i d e f o r a l o n g term framework f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n - p o l i c i e s shou ld be e x p l i c i t - t h i s i s t he o n l y way t o go - OCP 's shou ld be regarded as e v o l v i n g documents - any changes t o the O f f i c i a l Community P l a n w i l l r e q u i r e a p u b l i c h e a r i n g (2) - what r e a l a f f e c t would t h i s a c t i o n have? - t h e r e must be a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f p o l i c y t h a t can be f o l l o w e d by the u n i n i t i a t e d r e a d e r - imp lementa t i on mechanism i s key d i s a g r e e - (0) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : The i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked t o comment on what p o l i c i e s shou ld be i n c l u d e d i n O f f i c i a l Community P l ans R a t i o n a l e f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n ? agree - (15) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - s ta tement o f v a l u e s and p o l i c i e s o n l y d i s a g r e e - (0) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : Genera l h e r i t a g e p l a n n i n g p o l i c i e s ? agree - (15) comments and imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : 114 d i s a g r e e -comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : 115 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and assessment s tandards? agree - (3) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : d i s a g r e e - (11) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - s t andards shou ld form an appendix t o the OCP (2) t h e s e shou ld be a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as l o c a l governments l a c k the t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e - p l a c i n g the se i n an OCP w i l l make i t d i f f i c u l t t o r e v i s e them (2) - d i f f e r e n t a reas i n one m u n i c i p a l i t y o r r e g i o n a l d i s t r i c t w i l l r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t s tandards - t h e s e shou ld be r e f e r e n c e d i n the OCP (2) - may be cumbersome - i n c l u d i n g d e t a i l e d p o l i c i e s i n the OCP w i l l change the l e v e l o f s p e c i f i c i t y o f the document and would be b e t t e r p l a c e d i n a h e r i t a g e management p l a n Des ign g u i d e l i n e s ? agree - (7) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - u n l i k e l y t o be a p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y - t h e s e s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d f o r development pe rm i t a rea s - g e n e r a l d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s shou ld be i n c l u d e d - d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s shou ld be a rea s p e c i f i c (2) d i s a g r e e - (7) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s shou ld be r e f e r e n c e d but shou ld be a s e p a r a t e p o l i c y document (4) - i f t h e s e were e n s h r i n e d i n the OCP i t would r e q u i r e a bylaw t o amend them - i f they were i n a s e p a r a t e p o l i c y document i t would o n l y r e q u i r e a r e s o l u t i o n o f c o u n c i l t o amend them - t h i s would make the d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s r i g i d I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n development p e r m i t  a reas? agree - (12) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - p r o v i d e s another r a t i o n a l e f o r the use o f development pe rm i t a rea s under t h e MA d i s a g r e e - (1) comments and imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - would be b e t t e r p l a c e d i n a h e r i t a g e management p l a n 116 Other p o l i c i e s ? comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - p u b l i c awareness p o l i c i e s - i n v e n t o r y shou ld be r e f e r r e d t o 117 Heritage Inventories Support the concept o f r e q u i r i n g l o c a l governments t o conduct  i n v e n t o r i e s p r i o r t o u n d e r t a k i n g o t h e r c o n s e r v a t i o n i n i t i a t i v e s ? agree - (5) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - s hou ld know what you have got (4) - f i n e but may need an i n t e r i m s tep - t h e d i f f i c u l t y w i t h u s i n g i n v e n t o r i e s i n t h i s way i s d e f i n i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s an i n v e n t o r y as they c o u l d v a r y from a l i s t t o an e v a l u a t e d i n v e n t o r y d i s a g r e e - (10) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - s hou ld not be o b l i g a t o r y - some cases do not r e q u i r e an i n v e n t o r y (4) - t h e t a c k must be e a s i l y a ch ieved - may bog down community energy (2) - b u r e a u c r a t i c - s hou ld be done an as needed b a s i s - depends on the community - t oo narrow - i n v e n t o r i e s a re not always the f i r s t s t ep - mapping out a h e r i t a g e program shou ld come f i r s t (2) i n v e n t o r i e s a re the most v a l u a b l e r e s e a r c h r e s o u r c e a community can have but they a re r a r e l y a n a l y z e d and they a re o f t e n done i n i s o l a t i o n from a n y t h i n g e l s e - may be a p p r o p r i a t e t o t a c k l e a s m a l l a rea f i r s t (2) - i n v e n t o r i e s a re not an end i n themse lves 118 Heritage Registries Support t h e concept o f h e r i t a g e r e g i s t r i e s ? agree - (13) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - w i l l h e l p t o mon i tor a l t e r a t i o n s and d e m o l i t i o n s (3) - w i l l h e l p t o r a i s e awareness o f s i g n i f i c a n t b u i l d i n g s (5) - w i l l h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h ground r u l e s - use as a base t o a s ses s c o s t s and b e n e f i t s o f i n i t i a t i v e s - w i l l h e l p t o know what i s l e f t - w i l l become a p u b l i c p r o c e s s d i s a g r e e - (2) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - may not i n c l u d e h e r i t a g e d i s t r i c t s and a reas - u s e f u l but w i l l r e q u i r e an i n v e n t o r y - why a r e they needed? (2) - w i l l s t r e t c h the r e s o u r c e s o f communit ies - may con fuse the p u b l i c on the d i f f e r e n c e between d e s i g n a t e d and l i s t e d b u i l d i n g s - t h e danger w i t h r e g i s t r i e s i s t h a t they o f t e n t e n d t o exc lude suppor t o r c o n t e x t u a l b u i l d i n g s 119 H e r i t a g e Impact Assessment Support concept o f H e r i t a g e Impact Assessment? agree - (4) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s - shou ld be an independent s tudy p a i d f o r by d e v e l o p e r but s u p e r v i s e d by l o c a l government d i s a g r e e - (4) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s - u n r e a l i s t i c as f o rmu la ted - assumes t h a t a p r o j e c t w i l l go ahead and t h e o n l y d e c i s i o n t o be made i s m i t i g a t i o n measures (3) - development pe rm i t s a l r e a d y d e a l w i t h m i t i g a t i o n (2) - p r o t r a c t s the app rova l p r o c e s s - c r e a t e s u n c e r t a i n t y - b i a s e s may e x i s t i f d e v e l o p e r h i r e s the c o n s u l t a n t (3) - becomes another game t h a t d e v e l o p e r s p l a y b e t t e r than government - d e s i g n g u i d e l i n e s shou ld p r o v i d e gu idance on m i t i g a t i o n (2) - s h o u l d not be one t ime o n l y - p r o c e s s must be c l e a r and d e t a i l e d c r i t e r i a f o r s tudy i s needed (2) - t ime consuming and expens i ve (2) - where does i t f i t i n t o the p r o c e s s - cumbersome p r o c e s s - env i ronmenta l impacts a re measurable but c u l t u r a l impacts a re not maybe - (7) - needs c l a r i f i c a t i o n (7) Purpose o f H e r i t a g e Impact Assessments? - may h e l p peop le t o come t o terms w i t h the i s s u e s - t o m i t i g a t e impact - makes d e v e l o p e r s answerable - a l l o w s f o r i n p u t (2) - s hou ld a s se s s community v a l u e s - economic a n a l y s i s (2) - d e l a y t a c t i c - draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i s s u e s 120 What shou ld be c o n s i d e r e d i n h e r i t a g e impact assessment s t u d i e s ? - s c a l e - f e e l i n g - v o i d s and s o l i d s - s e tback s - rhythm - l a n d s c a p i n g - impact on su r round ing l a n d uses (4) - impact o f i n c r e a s e d d e n s i t i e s - economic impact (3) - s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d e t a i l s both i n t e r i o r and e x t e r i o r - c o s t s o f c o n s e r v a t i o n and community c o s t o f l o o s i n g the b u i l d i n g - r e - u s e o p t i o n s - b u i l d i n g c o n d i t i o n (3) - form and c h a r a c t e r - m i t i g a t i o n measures - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - impact o f moving b u i l d i n g s - h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f b u i l d i n g (2) - b u i l d i n g i n t e g r i t y - h i s t o r i c and s o c i a l v a l u e 121 Temporary Protection Support l o n g e r temporary p r o t e c t i o n p e r i o d s ? adequate - (10) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - c u r r e n t l y t h e r e i s not enough t ime f o r i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g , n e g o t i a t i o n and a r r a n g i n g something l i k e a t r a n s f e r o f development r i g h t s - t he se a r e u s e f u l i n e l e v e n t h hour s i t u a t i o n s - s e r v e s a purpose i n i d e n t i f y i n g the v a l u e o f the r e s o u r c e - a d e f i n i t e p e r i o d i s good as d e v e l o p e r s have a r ea sonab le r i g h t t o ge t a d e c i s i o n inadequate - (5) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - not enough t ime t o get an a p p l i c a t i o n through c o u n c i l (4) - 120 days i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r a r e z o n i n g too l o n g -comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : 122 Heritage Zoning Support the concept o f h e r i t a g e zoning? agree - (9) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - s hou ld a l l o w bo th v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l zon ing - g e n e r a l l y agree but i t needs c l a r i f i c a t i o n (5) - w i l l put the b a l l i n c o u n c i l s c o u r t - t he more t o o l s p l a n n e r s have the b e t t e r d i s a g r e e - (6) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - zon ing bylaws w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o deve lop - h e r i t a g e zon ing i s over do ing i t - d e f i n i n g p e r m i t t e d uses need c l a r i f i c a t i o n as i t c o u l d r e s t r i c t uses t o l e s s than what i s a l l owed under e x i s t i n g zon ing (2) o t h e r zon ing i s u s e f u l f o r c o n s e r v a t i o n purposes i e . comprehens ive development d i s t r i c t s - not s i n g l e b u i l d i n g o r i e n t e d (2) - w i l l h e r i t a g e zon ing do the same t h i n g s as development pe rm i t s ? - w i l l be an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n ightmare (4) - would p r e f e r an o v e r l a y zon ing - w i l l t h i s a f f e c t the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l zon ing - c o n v e n t i o n a l zon ing bylaws as they e x i s t may be used t o suppor t c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g - t h i s i s proposed as a one s tep p r o c e s s but how w i l l i t be implemented (2) - a l t hough t h i s i s c a l l e d zon ing i t i s not - t h e t o o l s a l r e a d y e x i s t t o do a l l t he t h i n g s proposed - t h i s needs t o be thought through - p o l i t i c a l l y t h i s w i l l be a d i s a s t e r - zon ing i s suppose t o c o n t r o l use and d e n s i t y - zon ing bylaws are cumbersome t o change Support i n c l u s i o n o f " h e r i t a g e p r o t e c t i o n s i m i l a r t o d e s i g n a t i o n  ( d e m o l i t i o n c o n t r o l ) i n h e r i t a g e zoning? agree - (12) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - i f t h i s i s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r d e s i g n a t i o n then i t must e x i s t i n the zon ing - d e m o l i t i o n c o n t r o l shou ld be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e d i s a g r e e - (2) comments and implementat ion, i m p l i c a t i o n s : - d e m o l i t i o n c o n t r o l s shou ld be a v a i l a b l e but not i n a zon ing 123 bylaw - perhaps i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t Support the i n c l u s i o n o f de s i gn c o n t r o l i n h e r i t a g e zoning? agree - (9) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - t h e s e need t o be a rea s p e c i f i c d i s a g r e e - (5) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - development pe rm i t s a l r e a d y a l l o w t h i s (2) - d e s i g n c o n t r o l s shou ld be i n development p e r m i t s (2) - d e s i g n shou ld be r e f e r e n c e i n the zon ing bylaw - must d e a l w i t h on a s i t e by s i t e b a s i s Support t h e i n c l u s i o n o f use and d e n s i t y c o n t r o l s ( e x i s t i n g ) i n  h e r i t a g e zoning? agree - (11) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - t h e s e shou ld be a v a i l a b l e f o r d e s i g n a t e d b u i l d i n g s d i s a g r e e - (3) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - not as proposed i n the wh i te paper - cannot v a r y from s i t e t o s i t e (2) - needs f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n as " e x i s t i n g use and d e n s i t y " r e g u l a t i o n s may d i s c o u r a g e p r o p e r t y owners from t a k i n g i n i t i a t i v e s l i k e r e s t o r a t i o n o r development on s i t e . The r e z o n i n g p r o c e s s w i l l a c t as a d e t e r r e n t . Support t h e i n c l u s i o n o f " f l e x i b i l i t y s i m i l a r t o Development  V a r i a n c e p e r m i t s and Board o f V a r i a n c e " i n h e r i t a g e zoning? agree - (7) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s ? - w i l l a l l o w more f l e x i b i l i t y - s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n shou ld be g i v e n t o h e r i t a g e p r o p e r t i e s d i s a g r e e - (7) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - t h e s e do not be long i n a zon ing bylaw - p u t t i n g t h e s e i n zon ing bylaws i s redundant - a l t hough t h i s i s a good i d e a a p p r o p r i a t e zon ing r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d reduce the need f o r t h i s 124 Support the i n c l u s i o n o f maintenance s t andards i n h e r i t a g e  zoning? agree - (4) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : d i s a g r e e - (10) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - i n t e r e s t i n g concept but shou ld not n e c e s s a r i l y be i n c l u d e d i n a zon ing bylaw (2) - t h i s i s a vague and weak concept - maintenance s tandards do not be long i n a zon ing bylaw but s h o u l d e x i s t e l sewhere (2) - perhaps u n s i g h t l y premises bylaws c o u l d be used t o a c h i e v e the same end - t h e s e s h o u l d be i n a o v e r l a y zone - t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y shou ld be a b l e t o do r e p a i r work and charge p r o p e r t y owners through t h e i r t axes 125 Green Door P o l i c y Support t h e concept o f a Green Door P o l i c y ? agree - (11) comments anq imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - where w i l l t he r e s o u r c e s come t o suppor t t h i s (3) t h e r e may be a problem w i t h i n e q u i t a b l e t rea tment o f a p p l i c a t i o n s - a n y t h i n g t h a t w i l l make the a p p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e a s i e r i s a good t h i n g but c o o r d i n a t i o n o f app rova l s would r e a l l y make a d i f f e r e n c e (2) - a p p r o v a l p r o c e s s shou ld be c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d d i s a g r e e - (4) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - t h i s may be j u s t i f i e d i n the l a r g e c i t i e s i n the P r o v i n c e but i t i s not nece s s a r y i n s m a l l e r c i t i e s - a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s shou ld be t r e a t e d e q u a l l y - t h i s i s p i e i n the sky - a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s shou ld be e x p e d i t e d 126 Compensat ion f o r D e s i g n a t i o n Support the concept o f mandatory compensat ion f o r d e s i g n a t i o n ? agree - (2) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - w i l l put a p r i c e on h e r i t a g e - may be nece s s a r y t o a c h i e v e consensus - i f d e s i g n a t i o n i s used o n l y as a c r i s i s management t o o l then compensat ion i s a p p r o p r i a t e and i t w i l l l e a d t o b e t t e r p l a n n i n g i n o r d e r t o a v o i d the c r i s e s d i s a g r e e - (10) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - i f i t i s v iewed as a l a n d use c o n t r o l t h e r e shou ld not be compensat ion (2) - compensat ion shou ld not be mandatory (3) - o t h e r i n c e n t i v e s shou ld be o f f e r e d - t h i s w i l l ensure t h a t no b u i l d i n g s a re d e s i g n a t e d except f o r the r a r e v o l u n t a r y d e s i g n a t i o n - a l t hough t h i s would c l a r i f y the amb igu i ty o f the e x i s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i d e a l l y t h e r e shou ld be no compensat ion undec ided (3) - c a r r o t s shou ld be used r a t h e r than s t i c k s 127 Review Proces s Support the concept o f a rev iew p roces s ? agree - (8) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - some appea l p r o c e s s i s needed (2) - s hou ld be done through a q u a l i f i e d agency (4) - may add t o the atmosphere o f f a i r n e s s d i s a g r e e - (7) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - needs c l a r i f i c a t i o n (4) - who would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the rev iew - s hou ld be s e p a r a t e from the M i n i s t e r s i m i l a r t o the ALR rev iew - p o l i t i c a l and complex - w i l l genera te a l o t o f s t a f f t ime (2) - rev iew p r o c e s s shou ld be b i n d i n g - c o u l d d e l a y the p roce s s - h e r i t a g e shou ld not be s i n g l e d out - i f d e c i s i o n s on zon ing a re not a p p e a l a b l e then why shou ld h e r i t a g e d e c i s i o n s be - l e g i s l a t i o n shou ld be c l e a r about what may be rev iewed 128 Penalties Are the proposed p e n a l t i e s too h i g h , adequate o r t oo ;ow? too h i g h -comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : adequate - (13) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - money may not be enough o f a d e t e r r e n t - t he p e n a l t i e s w i l l g i v e the l e g i s l a t i o n some t e e t h (2) - b e t t e r enforcement i s needed t oo low -comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : unsure - (2) 129 Support Programs Are t h e proposed suppor t programs i n s u f f i c i e n t , s u f f i c i e n t o r  t oo generous? i n s u f f i c i e n t - (8) comments: - w i thou t suppor t from the F e d e r a l Government l i t t l e w i l l change - m i s s i n g income t ax i n c e n t i v e s - b u i l d i n g and f i r e compl iance codes needed (3) - B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t Programs (except HARP) do not h e l p p r i v a t e l y owned b u i l d i n g s (2) - B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t programs do not p r o v i d e money t o cove r l a n d s c a p i n g c o s t s - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y shou ld not be devo l ved w i thou t suppor t money b e i n g p r o v i d e d (2) - more e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i s needed (3) - t h e H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch w i l l need t o p r o v i d e added suppor t t o communit ies i f the White Paper becomes l e g i s l a t i o n (2) - - w h i l e c o s t s have r i s e n , g r an t s from the B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t have d e c l i n e d - programs a r e not wide r ang ing enough - more p u b l i c awareness programs a re needed (2) - a program f o r de s i gn a s s i s t a n c e i s needed - more t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e c o u l d be o f f e r e d by the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch (4) e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f f ounda t i on s and s o c i e t i e s s h o u l d be encouraged through a p p r o p r i a t e programs - model bylaws and p rocedures shou ld be made a v a i l a b l e - a l t hough the programs are comprehens ive the d i f f i c u l t y i n the p a s t has been weak d e l i v e r y t o l o c a l governments - p l a n n i n g t o o l s o t h e r than f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s shou ld be deve loped - m u n i c i p a l app rova l systems f avour new development over r e h a b i l i t a t i o n t h i s shou ld change s u f f i c i e n t - (6) comments: - good j o b i n c o v e r i n g i n c e n t i v e s too generous - (0) comments: 130 Covenants and Easements Support the use o f covenants and easements? agree - (11) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - t h e s e can be used as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o d e s i g n a t i o n (2) - l o c a l governments w i l l need l e g a l a d v i c e i n o r d e r t o use the se - i f t h e s e a r e used someone w i l l have t o mon i to r and m a i n t a i n them - t h e s e may be used i n s t e a d o f development p e r m i t s f o r d e s i g n c o n t r o l - t h e s e shou ld be r e g i s t e r e d on the l a n d t i t l e - c o u l d be u s e f u l i f used l i k e a comprehens ive development agreement d i s a g r e e - (4) comments and imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - t h e r e a re b e t t e r t o o l s c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e - h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n shou ld be done out o f p r i d e not out o f a b a r g a i n - d e s i g n a t i o n a l r e a d y l ooks a f t e r t h i s Support t h e B.C. H e r i t a g e T r u s t t o purchase h e r i t a g e  c o n s e r v a t i o n easements? agree - (6) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - t h i s makes sense p a r t i c u l a r l y where t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i s r e q u i r e d - t h e T r u s t c o u l d a c t as an advocate - t h i s may be a good t r a n s i t i o n t o o l - i f t hey have the r e s o u r c e s t o t ake i t on d i s a g r e e - (6) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - w i l l t he T r u s t have the manpower t o do the j o b and t o t ake the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y s e r i o u s l y (3) - l o c a l governments a re b e t t e r managers o f t h e s e (2) u n c e r t a i n - (3) comments and imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - perhaps the government shou ld as i s the case w i t h f l o o d p l a i n r e g u l a t i o n s - t h i s might l e a d t o s e n i o r government i n t e r f e r e n c e a t t h e same t ime as t hey a re t r y i n g t o devo l ve r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (2) - needs c l a r i f i c a t i o n 131 Expropriation Support the concept o f e x p r o p r i a t i o n f o r h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n  purposes? agree - (11) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s - s hou ld be used o n l y w i th g r e a t c a u t i o n - as l o n g as i t i s use c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the E x p r o p r i a t i o n A c t - i n some cases t h i s c o u l d be a u s e f u l t o o l - may not be used - c o n s i s t e n t w i t h o t h e r e x p r o p r i a t i o n purposes d i s a g r e e - (2) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - you would o n l y get away w i t h u s i n g t h i s once - t h i s s u g g e s t i o n f l i e s i n the f a c e o f the b a s i c p h i l o s o p h y o f e x p r o p r i a t i o n which suggests t h a t i t be used f o r un fo re seen c i r c u m s t a n c e s - c o u l d l e a d t o an ad hoc approach u n c e r t a i n - (2) - t h i s i s a power fu l and d r a c o n i a n t o o l - would s c a r e peop le o f f - not opposed but p robab l y would not use i t 132 T r a n s i t i o n P e r i o d Is the proposed t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s i nadequate ,  adequate o r t oo long? inadequate - () comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : adequate - (2) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - f a i r and w i l l r e a f f i r m community r e s o u r c e s - adequacy w i l l depend on the i n d i v i d u a l m u n i c i p a l i t y t oo l o n g -comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : opposed t o requ i rement t o r e d e s i g n a t e s i t e s - (13) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - may l e a d t o d e - d e s i g n a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s i t e s (2) - w i l l d i f f u s e c o n s e r v a t i o n e f f o r t s - requ i rement t o r e d e s i g n a t e p r o p e r t i e s i s i n sane and w i l l r e k i n d l e o l d d i s p u t e s (3) - w i l l r e q u i r e a tremendous amount o f work (3) what w i l l happen t o p r o p e r t i e s which were d e s i g n a t e d p r e v i o u s l y and have been bought and s o l d knowing ly , a new compensat ion agreement w i l l be r e q u i r e d and may d u p l i c a t e p r e v i o u s agreements (3) - emphasises d e s i g n a t i o n - r e d e s i g n a t i n g e x i s t i n g s i t e s i s l i k e d r i v i n g fo rward w h i l e l o o k i n g i n the rev iew m i r r o r - t h i s w i l l r e s u l t i n an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n ightmare does not c o n s i d e r the f a i r n e s s o f r e d e s i g n a t i n g and compensat ing s i t e s which were d e s i g n a t e d 20 y e a r s ago - w i l l e rode the t r u s t which has deve loped i n communit ies - t h i s w i l l l e a d t o r e a l problems and c o u l d n ' t be worse - t he appea l p r o c e s s shou ld be bee fed up and r e d e s i g n a t i o n shou ld be abandoned 133 2.2.5 Heritage Planning Should h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n p o l i c i e s be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the  r o u t i n e p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s o f l o c a l governments? agree - (15) comments and imp lementat ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : - i f t hey a r e not i n t e g r a t e d l e s s w i l l be accomp l i shed t h i s w i l l h e l p but c o n s e r v a t i o n can not be a c h i e v e d e x c l u s i v e l y through l e g i s l a t i o n - h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n would then be based upon community v a l u e s - may l e a d t o d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s m a l l communit ies where t h e r e i s l i t t l e e x p e r t i s e - p l a n n i n g s c h o o l s need t o do more t r a i n i n g i n c o n s e r v a t i o n p l a n n i n g - o b j e c t i v e l a u d a b l e but not c e r t a i n i f i t can be a c h i e v e d d i s a g r e e -comments and imp lementa t ion i m p l i c a t i o n s : W i l l t he p o l i c i e s i n Toward H e r i t a g e L e g i s l a t i o n l e a d t o an  i n t e g r a t e d and comprehensive approach t o h e r i t a g e p l ann ing ? Yes - (8) comments: - more p o s i t i v e than n e g a t i v e (4) - they w i l l i f they can be implemented (2) - i n t e g r a t i o n o f p o l i c i e s i n t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t w i l l h e l p t o a c h i e v e t h i s - i t w i l l p r o v i d e the t o o l s - r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t and t h e H e r i t a g e  C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t needs c l a r i f i c a t i o n No - (3) comments: - imp lementa t i on i s a b i g concern (2) t h e suppor t i n f r a s t r u c t u r e i s weak and t h e H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch w i l l need t o p r o v i d e suppor t t o l o c a l governments so they can use the new l e g i s l a t i o n (2) - more t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l i s r e q u i r e d (2) - w i l l need p o l i t i c a l w i l l , money and l e a d e r s h i p - needs r e f i nement - h e r i t a g e w i l l become a d i r t y word w i t h t h e s e p o l i c i e s - need new a s s i s t a n c e programs 134 Other Comments on the White Paper - more d i a l o g u e i s r e q u i r e d - not su re t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s w i l l use the h e r i t a g e zon ing - t h i s c o u l d s e t h e r i t a g e c o n s e r v a t i o n back - needs c l a r i f i c a t i o n - many e x i s t i n g t o o l s a re ove r l ooked - a v a i l a b l e t o o l s shou ld be r e f i n e d which would p r o v i d e f o r a smoother t r a n s i t i o n - imp lementa t ion i s the key - a range o f i n c e n t i v e s shou ld e x i s t - h i s t o r i c a l a r chaeo logy a t the l o c a l government l e v e l shou ld be encouraged - d e v o l u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a concern - t h e r e shou ld be s t r o n g l e a d e r s h i p from the P r o v i n c e and they shou ld adopt c o n s e r v a t i o n s tandards and t h e r e shou ld be a s t r o n g P r o v i n c i a l c o n s e r v a t i o n a c t . P r o v i n c i a l powers shou ld e x i s t f o r l o c a l governments t o f a l l back on. - have not addres sed the i s s u e o f d e s i g n a t i o n o f o b j e c t s - more i n t e g r a t i o n o f a rchaeo logy i s needed - p r o t e c t i o n o f n a t u r a l s i t e s and v iews i s not addres sed i n the White Paper ( l andscape c o n s e r v a t i o n shou ld be addressed) 135 GLOSSARY ( Excerp ted From Ober l ande r , 1984, p.46) Architectural Conservation: R e f e r s t o t h e p h y s i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n a b u i l d i n g t o c o u n t e r a c t d e t e r i o r a t i o n o r t o ensure i t s s t r u c t u r a l s t a b i l i t y . Treatments o f t e n used i n t h i s p roce s s i n c l u d e the c l e a n i n g o f w a l l p a p e r , rea t tachment o f l o o s e p l a s t e r , masonry r e p o i n t i n g and c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f an e x i s t i n g f o u n d a t i o n . Heritage Area: A synonym f o r a d e s i g n a t e d h i s t o r i c d i s t r i c t o r c o n s e r v a t i o n a r e a which denotes a ne ighbourhood u n i f i e d by a s i m i l a r u se , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s t y l e o r h i s t o r i c a l development. Preservation: A g e n e r i c term f o r the b road range o f p r o c e s s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e s t o r a t i o n , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and a d a p t i v e r e -use o f h i s t o r i c s t r u c t u r e s . Other a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , maintenance and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o r h i s t o r i c r e s o u r c e s form an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e movement t o r e t a i n e lements from the p a s t . Rehabilitation: I s o f t e n used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h r e n o v a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f an e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g . T h i s p r o c e s s extends t h e s t r u c t u r e ' s u s e f u l l i f e th rough a l t e r a t i o n s and r e p a i r s w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g i t s impor tant a r c h i t e c t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l and c u l t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s . Renovation: I s a g e n e r i c term used t o d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c l u d i n g r e m o d e l l i n g , r e c y c l i n g and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . I t r e f e r s t o the improvement o f e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s o r ne ighbourhoods. Restoration: The p r o c e s s o f r e t u r n i n g a b u i l d i n g o r s i t e t o a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d i n t ime . The degree o f i n t e r v e n t i o n and the removal o r rep lacement o f p a r t s may be de termined by an h i s t o r i c a l event a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g o r by a e s t h e t i c i n t e g r i t y . Revitalization: D e s c r i b e s the p r o c e s s o f economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l redevelopment o f an a rea o r s t r e e t . O f t e n the b u i l d i n g s i n the se areas a re o f h e r i t a g e m e r i t d e s p i t e t h e i r s t a t e o f n e g l e c t p r i o r t o r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . 136 

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