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Our people are like gardens" : music, performance and aesthetics among the Lolo, West New Britain Province,… Stewart, Lynn Leslie 1989

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"OUR MUSIC,  P E O P L E ARE  PERFORMANCE  WEST NEW  AND  BRITAIN  LIKE  GARDENS"  A E S T H E T I C S AMONG  P R O V I N C E , PAPUA  THE  NEW  LOLO  GUINEA  By LYNN B.A., M.A.,  A  THESIS  LESLIE  McMaster McMaster  SUBMITTED  THE  University, University,  IN P A R T I A L  REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR  STEWART  FOR  OF  1980 19S1  F U L F I L L M E N T OF  THE  DEGREE  OF  PHILOSOPHY  i n THE  F A C U L T Y OF  Department  We  of Anthropology  accept to  THE  GRADUATE  this  thesis  the required  U N I V E R S I T Y OF  ©  Lynn  Leslie  and  as  Sociology  conforming  standard  BRITISH  November  STUDIES  COLUMBIA  1989 Stewart,  1989  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of  this thesis for  department  or  by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be granted her  representatives.  It  is  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  '*JTVA?6  t°ac ac)y  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  /O??'/'/  9-a  (  °*  J'ecsti  ABSTRACT  Relationships  among t h e A e s t h e t i c , c u l t u r e , and  music a r e p r o b l e m a t i c epiphenomenal  Frequently  considered  as  t o c u l t u r e , m u s i c and t h e a r t s a r e t y p i c a l l y  seen as a d j u n c t s  t o ceremonial  activity-  This dissertation  e x a m i n e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e A e s t h e t i c , m u s i c and p e r f o r m a n c e in  the context  Britain  of t h e L o l o , A r a i g i l p u a V i l l a g e ,  Province,  research  Aesthetic  Aesthetic  of the A e s t h e t i c  and t o d i s c o v e r  and c u l t u r e  For  t h e purposes of t h i s  i s defined  considered  applicable f o r cross-  t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e  articulate.  as that  responses t o extraordinary are  New  Papua New G u i n e a , i n an a t t e m p t t o  develop a d e f i n i t i o n cultural  West  f a c e t of r e l i g i o n  focused  powers t h o u g h t t o m a i n t a i n  t o be p r o p e r  members o f a community  d i s s e r t a t i o n , the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  and e x t r a o r d i n a r y  forms of a e s t h e t i c s , s o c i a l ,  powers.  on what  human Three  p e r f o r m a n c e , and m u s i c a l , a r e  t a k e n a s t h e means and methods o f d i r e c t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s between man and e x t r a o r d i n a r y At  present,  secularisation  the Lolo  powers. a r e engaged  i n a process of  r e s u l t i n g p r i m a r i l y from t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of  Christianity, dissertation Aesthetic changes  to  Western  medicine  examines  the  social  life,  and the  and  money.  relationship and  between  addresses  Aesthetic.  iii  This  the  the  impact  of  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  T h e r o a d t o c o m p l e t i o n o f a Ph.D. i s lined with p e o p l e who h a v e a s s i s t e d i n t h e p r o j e c t i n o n e way or another. I would l i k e t o s i n g l e o u t c e r t a i n of them who h a v e , t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s , p r o v i d e d me w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n , a s s i s t a n c e , and w e l l - p l a c e d kicks. I am g r a t e f u l t o t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s a n d Humanities R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l of Canada f o r t h e f u n d s t h a t k e p t body and s o u l t o g e t h e r and p r o v i d e d t h e f u n d s f o r t h e r e s e a r c h . A Norman M a c k e n z i e F e l l o w s h i p a l s o p r o v i d e d f u n d s . My c o m m i t t e e p r o v i d e d me w i t h a s s i s t a n c e a n d support f a r beyond the c a l l of duty. Dr. D a v i d L i a n g and Dr. E l l i o t W e i s g a r b e r of t h e Department of M u s i c , and Dr. John LeRoy of A n t h r o p o l o g y , a l l gave g e n e r o u s l y of t h e i r t i m e and t h o u g h t s . Dr. B i l l McKel1 i n and Dr. A l a n T h r a s h e r e n r i c h e d me w i t h t h e i r t h o u g h t s a n d I h a v e t a k e n h e a r t f r o m their support. A s p e c i a l d e b t i s owed t o D r . K.O.L. B u r r i d g e . am e x t r e m e l y g r a t e f u l f o r h i s s u p p o r t a n d stimulating t h o u g h t s f o r w i t h o u t them, t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n c o u l d n o t been w r i t t e n .  I have  I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o t h e " W e s t New B r i t a i n C l u b " , f o u n d e d i n f o r m a l l y by Dr. D a v i d C o u n t s o f McMaster U n i v e r s i t y and Dr. D o r o t h y C o u n t s of t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo. Dr. Bi1 T h u r s t o n , Dr. R i c k G o u l d e n , and Dr. N a o m i S c a l e t t a , a l s o m e m b e r s o f t h e W e s t New B r i t a i n Club, are good f r i e n d s and s t i m u l a t i n g c o l l e a g u e s . I have gained immeasurably by t h e i r t h o u g h t s and assistance. O t h e r s have a l s o been s t r o n g s u p p o r t s . Chris N i k o r a k , D a p h n e K e l g a r d , Shawn C h i s h o l m , J e f f and Cathy Bowman, a n d G r e g S t e v e n s h a v e a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e w r i t i n g of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . My c o l l e a g u e s a t C i t i z e n A c t i o n G r o u p , H a m i l t o n , e s p e c i a l l y J o n B u t t r u m a n d Wendy C a r o n , h a v e e n c o u r a g e d a n d i n s p i r e d me t h r o u g h o u t t h e w r i t i n g of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . My assistance grateful.  f a m i l y have g i v e n u n q u e s t i o n e d s u p p o r t and t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r s , f o r w h i c h I am v e r y  T h e g r e a t e s t d e b t o f a l l i s owed t o t h e L o l a , e s p e c i a l l y my g o o d f r i e n d s i n A r a i g i l p u a . Their acceptance a n d t r u s t b o t h w a r m e d a n d h u m b l e d me. I dedicate this d i s s e r t a t i o n t o them, w i t h t h a n k s . i v  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  Page i i  . . . . . . . .  Acknowledgements  .  Table of Contents List  of F i g u r e s  v  and Maps  v i i  O r t h o g r a p h i c Note  v i i  Introduction CHAPTER  CHAPTER  CHAPTER  CHAPTER  I  II  III  IV  iv  viii A e s t h e t i c s and C u l t u r e  . . . . . . . . .  1  The P r o b l e m and i t s C o n t e x t The S t u d y o f A e s t h e t i c s Art i n Anthropology Current Perspectives C u l t u r e and Beyond Performance The A e s t h e t i c , A e s t h e t i c s , and t h e Aesthetic Experience  1 4 6 10 16 21  The E t h n o g r a p h i c S e t t i n g  30  The L a n d The Language E c o n o m i c and P o l i t i c a l The A r t s A g e n t s o f Change  31 37 40 45 61  25  Setting  The Moral Dimensions o f S o c i e t y  . .  .  72  Namor, t h e C r e a t o r B e i n g Kinship Character of K i n R e l a t i o n s Residence Moral Content of K i n R e l a t i o n s D e s c e n t and I n h e r i t a n c e Moral U n i t s of S o c i e t y Discussion  73 76 77 88 91 94 104 106  Food and Performance  112  Food Food Food Food Food  114 116 124 130 132  Plants i n Everyday L i f e and S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s and t h e Cash Economy and P e r f o r m a n c e v  Performance Discussion CHAPTER V  CHAPTER VI  Evaluation  Performance, C u l t u r a l The A e s t h e t i c  140 146 V a l u e s and 158  D e a t h and t h e M o r t u a r y C y c l e Namelomelos The M o r t u a r y The F i r s t b o r n D i s c u s s i o n and A n a l y s i s  159 161 170 185  The Moral Aesthetic  189  O r d e r , Power, a n d t h e  The M o r a l O r d e r Power General P r i n c i p l e s CHAPTER V I I  Vokoi: S o c i a l Drama, P e r f o r m a n c e and t h e A e s t h e t i c Performance  CHAPTER V I I I  CHAPTER IX  Music-Making  1B9 196 204 Drama  and M e t a p h o r and A e s t h e t i c s  209 227 233  I n s t r u m e n t s and t h e A e s t h e t i c Musical Instruments i n Ceremonial Contexts Musical Instruments i n Non-ceremonial Contexts Singing T r a n s m i s s i o n of Music D i s c u s s i o n and A n a l y s i s  234  256 261 265 266  M u s i c A n a l y s i s and t h e A e s t h e t i c  273  Lolo Musical C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Performance S t r u c t u r e T r a n s c r i p t i o n and A n a l y s i s Discussion  275 277 279 304  237  CONCLUSION  307  APPENDIX 1  317  APPENDIX 2  320  Notes  322  References Cited  330 vi  L I S T OF MAPS Map 1  .  .  .  i  x  L I S T OF FIGURES Figure  1  L o l o Ceremonies  .  Figure 2  The N a r o g o C y c l e  .  Figure  3  Kundu and Garamut  Figure  4  Bamboo I n s t r u m e n t s  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  55 160 247  .  260  ORTHOGRAPHIC NOTE  In t h e t e x t o-f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , appears i n bold For  -face t y p e ,  terms i n e i t h e r  while  Tok P i s i n  Maleu  vocabulary  terms a r e u n d e r l i n e d .  l a n g u a g e , /ng/ i n t h e t e x t s h o u l d  be r e a d a s  INTRODUCTION  This  d i s s e r t a t i o n i s , among o t h e r  cultural  ethnography of  interior  of  Guinea  (see The  through  northeast map  which  West New  purpose of  and  n a t u r e of  Upon a n a l y s i s of  the  the  be  how  c o n c e p t s of  Aesthetic  distilled  be  a e s t h e t i c s and  the  notion  i n what ways a r e  and  of  argue that  an  the  Papua  New  this  a l l f a c e t s of understanding  the  and  question manner i n  secular  material,  questions.  life.  this  The  power p r o d u c e  firsts an  with Western n a t i o n s  changes i n the  of  examine,  of  " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake"?  t o c h a n g e s i n t h e s e c o n c e p t s of  e x a m i n a t i o n of  basic  and  ethnographic  compared  exploration  The  Aesthetic  being  can  The  of  performance, the r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n t o two  that  seconds  Province,  i n ceremonial  Lolo  problem can Lolo  Britain  culture.  i t i s made m a n i f e s t  do  mountain d w e l l e r s  t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to  m u s i c and  Aesthetic  addresses the  Lolo,  a  p. i x ) .  a s t u d y of  between t h e  the  things,  being  of  and  problem  Lolo the  Aesthetic  The related  power? necessitates  cultural  life,  Aesthetic  can  since only  I be  gained  through  context.  As  an  I conducted  not  only  were t h e  but  that  the  in  shaping  and  existence  and  c o n v e n t i o n s and  the  Lolo  not  recognize  includes  p o w e r s , and  I here l a b e l  events,  the  the  Aesthetic  contexts  "Aesthetic"  quintessence spirit  items,  of  beings,  predicated  which o u t l i n e s  social  spirits.  I have  Lolo  would  analytically  i n t e r a c t i o n with  and  A  interaction for  While the  spirits.  on  the  interaction.  The  a l l extraordinary  Armstrong  humans  in a different  and  latter beings  and  substances associated  (1971,  r e s t s upon t h e with  and  as  such are  and  accorded  their  with  category,  1981), the of power.  placed  given  which  i n the  on  the  realm  special status  extraordinary  c o n s t i t u t i o n , that  concept  Items  d e f e r e n t i a l treatment.  power, t y p i c a l l y but  1975,  notion  power a r e  i s thus focused  t h e m s e l v e s and  are  organization.  Aesthetic.  invested  Aesthetic,  their  element of  i s placed  Following  practices  one  such a d i s t i n c t i o n ,  t h e s e p o w e r s , and  the  order,  i n t e r a c t i o n with  that  creative role  social  organization  i n t e r a c t i o n with  cultural  culture intimately linked,  a dynamic and  p r i n c i p l e s governing  and  i t became c l e a r  principles for social  critical  those guiding  of  and  i s i n t e r a c t i o n with  separated  i t s social  c u l t u r e and  social  a moral  of  research,  played  maintaining  of  n e c e s s a r y and  my  Aesthetic  Aesthetic  Culture the  understanding  or  of  within The  powers  i s , the  conceived  as  inherent  in  a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y i n e v i d e n c e i n humans.  x  This  q u i n t e s s e n t i a l power i s c o n c e i v e d social  as  that  which  universe.  makes  p o s s i b l e an  ordered  cosmos and  The  term  "Aesthetic"  i s used  i n t h i s sense each t i m e i t appears i n  the d i s s e r t a t i o n . The of  religion  are,  by  concept of are  their  i n t i m a t e l y connected. and  Aesthetic  quite similar.  v i r t u e of  religion  the  The  as  Aesthetic  concern with As  Burridge  u s e d h e r e and  spirits  and and  that  religion powers,  (1969:6-7) s a y s  about  religious activity,  The r e d e m p t i v e p r o c e s s i n d i c a t e d by t h e a c t i v i t i e s , m o r a l r u l e s , and a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t power w h i c h , p e r t i n e n t t o t h e m o r a l o r d e r and t a k e n on f a i t h , n o t o n l y e n a b l e a p e o p l e t o p e r c e i v e t h e t r u t h of t h i n g s , but guarantee that they are indeed p e r c e i v i n g t h e t r u t h of t h i n g s . Any  activity  can  and  when t h i s  be  i s so,  invested that  with r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  activity  has o v e r r i d i n g importance. It points to t h a t w h i c h p e r m e a t e s and i n f o r m s a w h o l e way o f l i f e , and more c r u c i a l l y , i t i n d i c a t e s s o u r c e s o r p r i n c i p l e s of power which a r e r e g a r d e d as p a r t i c u l a r l y c r e a t i v e o r d e s t r u c t i v e ( i b i d , p. 4) . The  i s s u e h e r e i s power:  constitution, Since  manifestations,  both the  Aesthetic  power, s p e c i f i c a l l y  ultimate  religion  using  in t h i s dissertation rather Aesthetic,  h e u r i s t i c device  are  power, t h e  Aesthetic  useful  of  perceived  of  purposes, the  value  and  addressed  my  the  and  i t s definition,  the  rather  concerned  question  concept of  with  must  be  the  than r e l i g i o n .  than r e l i g i o n ,  which p r o v i d e s xi  effects.  is a  for analytical  For  continuity  i n the study  of a s o c i e t y which i s u n d e r g o i n g  process  of s e c u l a r i z a t i o n , b r o a d l y  process  by w h i c h a s o c i e t y c h a n g e s f r o m a p r i m a r y  on  defined  religious principles to the secular.  Aesthetic  a  here as the emphasis  Hence, t h e  i s here seen as t h a t f a c e t of r e l i g i o n  a s a whole  w h i c h r e f e r s t o an e x e r c i s e o f , o r r e s p o n s e t o , extraordinary  powers t a k e n t o p r o d u c e , m a i n t a i n ,  what i s v i e w e d  as proper  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  members o f a community and e x t r a o r d i n a r y The moral  rendered  device,  from t h e moral separation as  order  and nonmoral  advantage: sui generis  second, i t allows  powers.  abstracted  and d e s i g n a t e d  i t m i g h t be an o r d e r  Aesthetic  powers.  by v i r t u e o f i t s i n t i m a t e  i t i s usefully  has a twofold  appreciated;  one  distinct  to extraordinary  heuristic  human  A e s t h e t i c i s seen as a p a r t of t h e o v e r a l l  order  relation  or restore  and  As an separated  'the A e s t h e t i c ' . first,  This  the Aesthetic  c a n be s e e n and  f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e  i n i t s relations to extraordinary  hand and m o r a l i t y on t h e o t h e r .  powers on t h e  It i s the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between, and a r t i c u l a t i o n s o f , t h e two aspects  o f t h e moral  order  that provide  t h e key t o t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e A e s t h e t i c and c u l t u r e . As be  said  that  Aesthetic either  a preliminary hypothesis  or problematic,  t h e dynamic between m o r a l  order  and t h e  i s such t h a t each r e i n f o r c e s t h e o t h e r  i s strong  or f i r m , but should xii  i t can  when  e i t h e r be o v e r l y  permissive,  weak, o r i n f i r m ,  then  there i s a progressive  weakening of b o t h . Access  t o e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers i s d i r e c t e d  aesthetics,  including  aesthetics,  and s o c i a l  performance  aesthetics,  aesthetics.  live  harmoniously  modes o f a c c e s s t o  powers w h i c h n o t o n l y e n a b l e with  the s p i r i t  world  The s o c i a l  r u l e s and c o n v e n t i o n s  aesthetic  for their  other  powers f o r  p r o v i d e s humans w i t h  dealings with other  b e i n g s and e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers i n s e c u l a r o r contexts.  humans t o  and w i t h  humans, b u t a l l o w humans t o assume s p i r i t themselves.  musical  Each of t h e s e forms of  a e s t h e t i c s c a n be c o n c e i v e d a s p r o p e r the q u i n t e s s e n t i a l  human  everyday  M u s i c a l a e s t h e t i c s e n a b l e s humans t o u s e m u s i c a l  i n s t r u m e n t s and s o n g s f o r p o s i t i v e e n d s , i n t h a t m a i n t a i n good r e l a t i o n s w i t h  they  the extraordinary.  Performance a e s t h e t i c s d i r e c t s a c t i o n and  by  e x e c u t i o n of c e r e m o n i a l , so t h a t  i n the preparation t h e r e l a t i o n s of  humans and e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers a r e e n h a n c e d , and t h e e n d s of  the ceremonial  achieved.  These t h r e e forms of  aesthetics serve to c l a r i f y  t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e  relationship played  between t h e A e s t h e t i c and c u l t u r e c a n be  out i n a v a r i e t y  importance  o f c o n t e x t s , and u n d e r s c o r e t h e  o f t h e A e s t h e t i c a s an a n a l y t i c a l c o n s t r u c t .  This dissertation  proposes  t o demonstrate  relationship  between t h e A e s t h e t i c and c u l t u r e .  end,  I o u t l i n e s t h e r e s e a r c h problem  Chapter  the To t h i s  i n d e t a i l , and  presents the  the  d e f i n i t i o n s and  dissertation.  a e s t h e t i c s and  chapter  i n d i c a t e s how  literature.  i s that  its  cultural  can  be  A discussion  of  current  of  the  context.  separated  from  t o seem s u i g e n e r i s ,  tradition,  all-important. of  the  The  concept  of  throughout  perspectives  A central  issue raised in  importance of  studying  In a l i t e r a t e  c u l t u r e , an  art  literature  t h i s c a n n o t be  Aesthetic  Aesthetic and  made  objectification  done, and  and  this  tends to o b j e c t i f y .  so  c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h an  the  and  within  i t s s o c i o - c u l t u r a l context since  on  and  t h e s e h a v e been d e f i n e d  In a n o n — l i t e r a t e c u l t u r e , l a c k i n g t h e literary  used  performance i n anthropology  ethnomusicology appear i n the  c o n c e p t s t o be  how  of  context  a  is  exploration  i t i s used  in  this  dissertation. Chapter the  Lolo  and  II p r o v i d e s  this discussion  relationship  of  the  e c o n o m i c and  political  performance, are e x a m i n a t i o n of Christianity, attempt  to  moral  of  the  land,  s e t t i n g , the This  a g e n t s of  Aesthetic. Lola  i n d i c a t e how i n the  and  t h e s e a g e n t s of  Aesthetic,  language,  i s followed  social  to  The  a r t s , music  W e s t e r n b i o - m e d i c i n e , and  and  by  an  cultural  money, i n  change, an  change have caused  r e s u l t i n g i n changes  to  order.  Chapter focusing  e t h n o g r a p h i c background  t o the  discussed.  three  gaps t o appear the  Lolo  the  on  I I I i s a s t u d y of  kinship  and  descent xi v  as  Lolo  social  they reveal  organization, the  moral  principles  of L o l o s o c i a l  Both t h e l i v i n g since s p i r i t s ,  activity  or the s o c i a l  aesthetic.  and t h e dead a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n a l y s i s , both  mythical  i n f l u e n c e on t h e d a i l y Chapter  life,  and a n c e s t r a l , h a v e  lives  of contemporary  Lolo.  IV e x a m i n e s t h e p l a c e o f f o o d  by e x a m i n i n g t h e r o l e o f f o o d  including  gardening  and f o o d  research,  i t became c l e a r  exchange.  great  i n secular  i n everyday  life  As I c o n d u c t e d  t o me t h a t were I t o g a i n  my  insight  i n t o t h e a r t i c u l a t i o n s between c u l t u r e and t h e A e s t h e t i c , I would have t o c o n s i d e r  food  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of these  t o m u s i c and c e r e m o n i a l  Food and c e r e m o n i a l the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s examination  provide  and g a r d e n s and t h e performance.  t h e v e h i c l e s and o c c a s i o n s f o r  of e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers, hence  of these  shows t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e m o r a l  order  o f c u l t u r e and s o c i a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e m o r a l  order  o f t h e A e s t h e t i c merge and c o a l e s c e  i n special  events. Also discussed food  on a d a i l y  social  to  IV i s how t h e L o l o u s e  b a s i s a s a means t o m a i n t a i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and e x p r e s s  relationships. and  i n Chapter  and e v a l u a t e  Food and t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n  f e m i n i n i t y i s a l s o addressed. t h e economy i s c o n s i d e r e d ,  traditional  food  initiate  these  of m a s c u l i n i t y  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  of food  i n c l u d i n g changes t o  p r a c t i c e s as t h e L o l o begin  m o n e t a r y economy.  or  This i s followed  participation  by an e x a m i n a t i o n  and p e r f o r m a n c e i n c l u d i n g t h e r o l e o f f o o d  xv  ina l l  in a of  •facets of c e r e m o n i a l  activity  t h e e x e c u t i o n of t h e e v e n t . consideration food  Chapter  out  and  The  initial  chapter  o f t h e v a l u e s o f f o o d and  t o t h e moral  outlining  -from  o r d e r and  the processes  The  by w h i c h c e r e m o n i a l s  ideological  Chapter in  VI  v a l u e s and  pulls  The  intent  c y c l e of t h e  is  A e s t h e t i c , and  articulated Chapter  from  the s t a r t  illustrate  the use  extraordinary the context  Lolo  the  i s t o attempt of b e i n g  t o d e m o n s t r a t e how  their  to  and  the A e s t h e t i c  ceremony, V o k o i ,  in  in social  t o d e m o n s t r a t e how  of s y m b o l s and  powers.  power  life.  manipulations  and  among  material  of p r e p a r a t i o n s t o i t s e v a l u a t i o n t o  performance a e s t h e t i c s , through  o r d e r , power and  V I I e x a m i n e s one  norms and  are  ceremonials  a n a l y s i s of the  Lolo concepts  with everyday  Lola  the a r t i c u l a t i o n s  of t h i s c h a p t e r  answer t h e q u e s t i o n o f how p r o d u c e an  carried  the A e s t h e t i c .  I t i s an  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e moral Aesthetic.  are  together the ethnographic  the previous chapters.  detail both  and  performance,  metaphors, speaks t o  T h i s performance i s viewed w i t h i n  of the s o c i a l  of  activity,  b a s e s of c e r e m o n i a l s  values, including  cultural  a  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  e x a m i n e d , a s a r e t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e s e cultural  with  to the A e s t h e t i c .  f o l l o w i n g t h e major c e r e m o n i a l  ceremonials,  concludes  V delves i n t o Lolo ceremonial  known a s n a r o g o .  manifest  preparations to  interaction  execution.  xvi  leading to i t s  Chapter an  examination  r o l e and in  VIII d i s c u s s e s L o l o music-making, of i n s t r u m e n t s  v a l u e s of music-making  relation  instruments  and  Chapter chapter  by and  c o n t a i n s a formal  i s carried  a e s t h e t i c s and  t o determine  and  composition.  the formal  an  i s also  lyrical  content  A  differences  on  ones.  the  imported  musical  c u l t u r e of t h e c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e of  s o n g s t r u c t u r e and  The  speak t o  replacing  question  of  the  addressed.  dissertation  concludes  p r o c e s s of s e c u l a r i z a t i o n  Field  one  to determine  ceremony and  imported  the  analysis.  a n a l y s i s of  t o a s s e s s t h e impact  ceremonies with  The  of m u s i c a l  a e s t h e t i c s governing  out  between t h e two  Aesthetic  Music-making  music.  musical  indigenous  the  musical  to the L o l o i n order  c o m p a r i s o n between an  how  contained within  IX e n t e r s t h e r e a l m  c a n o n s of m u s i c a l  indigenous  - f u n c t i o n s , and  in society.  i n t h e a c t o f making  ceremony i n d i g e n o u s  one  their  t o the A e s t h e t i c i s d i s c u s s e d i n terms of  powers h a r n e s s e d  The  and  including  and  with  a d i s c u s s i o n of  i t s impact  the  upon t h e L o l o .  Research  Field November, Village,  r e s e a r c h was  1985. but  The  conducted  primary  research s i t e  v a r y i n g amounts o f t i m e  mountain L o l o v i l l a g e s  such  from  March was  were s p e n t  as Ararau,  to Araigilpua i n other  A s e l m e p u a , Makuar,  N a p i t i g o n g p u a and done i n two  Idne-Lolo  Most o f gathered varying  using  the  Tok  familiarity  villages,  data  used  participant  Pisin  with  able to blend  the  research,  questions  the  M a l e u and  many o f my  Given that  language,  was  also  Rilmen.  in this dissertation  In t h e  and  local Tok  earlynstages  vernaculr,  Pisin.  informants  of  as  the  my  increased,  would r e s p o n d t o I would c l a r i f y  t o use  of  Toward t h e end  the L o l o p e r c e i v e  I attempted  were  interviews  language used, but  i n Maleu, r e s p o n s e s which  Pisin.  inferior  was  Lepo and  observation  Maleu, the  was  was  Additional research  d e g r e e s of f o r m a l i t y .  resesarch,  Tok  Rovata.  Tok  Pisin  Maleu as  I of  my with  as  an  much a s  I  able. The  subject  matter of  my  research,  m u s i c and  p e r f o r m a n c e , meant t h a t  I depended more on  of  L o l o song, s t o r y , music  people than others.  performance s p e c i a l i s t s  are,  and  primary  so  they  issues.  acted  Matters  d e a l i n g with  considered  by  women, and  i t was  were d i r e c t e d . direct  me  a s my  the  L o l o t o be  food,  I found  toward those T h u s , most o f  and  families.  that  for  and men,  these  however, were  more p r o p e r l y t h e queries  domain  i n these  of  matters  t h e L o l o t h e m s e l v e s would  whom t h e y my  groups  most p a r t , s e n i o r  informants  t o women t h a t my  expert. with  f o r the  certain  music  considered  informants  xviii  t o be  were o l d e r ,  most married,  CHAPTER I  AESTHETICS AND  The  CULTURE  P r o b l e m and i t s C o n t e x t  This  dissertation considers  one b a s i c  problem,  that  o-f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between c u l t u r e and t h e A e s t h e t i c , and e x a m i n e s i t on two l e v e l s o-f a b s t r a c t i o n . is  ethnographic.  What a r e L o l o  First,  concepts of being  power, and how do t h e s e p r o d u c e an A e s t h e t i c  of t h i s question  c u l t u r e as s o c i a l politics be the  demands t h a t  organization,  seen w i t h i n  t h e A e s t h e t i c can  i t s ethnographic context.  S e c o n d , what a r e  and c u l t u r a l  underpinnings?  between c u l t u r e and t h e A e s t h e t i c m o l d i n g and g u i d i n g One  aim of t h i s  economy,  so that  e f f e c t s of changes t o e i t h e r t h e A e s t h e t i c  social  The  such f a c e t s of  religious beliefs,  and s o on be c o n s i d e r e d  and  that i s  comparable with a European concept of a e s t h e t i c s ? exploration  the issue  the other  or t o i t s  C l e a r l y , t h e movement i s r e f l e x i v e , with  each  d e p e n d i n g on c i r c u m s t a n c e .  dissertation i s to discover  1  how t h e L o l o  2 c o n c e i v e o f t h e A e s t h e t i c , and how t h e y relationship  describe the  between i t and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e i r  My i n v e s t i g a t i o n  of the L o l o i s taken  culture.  from  a  p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t c a n b e s t be d e s c r i b e d a s i n t e r p r e t i v e . Following that  Geertz  (1973sB9), t h e p e r s p e c t i v e taken  here i s  culture i s an h i s t o r i c a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d p a t t e r n o f m e a n i n g s embodied i n s y m b o l s , a s y s t e m o f i n h e r i t e d conceptions expressed i n symbolic f o r m s b y means o f w h i c h men communicate, p e r p e t u a t e , and d e v e l o p t h e i r k n o w l e d g e a b o u t and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d l i f e .  Especially that  relevant to this dissertation  i s Geertz'  notion  symbols i n c u l t u r e f u n c t i o n t o s y n t h e s i z e a people's ethos — t h e t o n e , c h a r a c t e r , and q u a l i t y o f t h e i r l i f e - t h e p i c t u r e t h e y have o f t h e way t h i n g s i n s h e e r a c t u a l i t y a r e , t h e i r most comprehensive i d e a s of order ( i b i d ) .  What i s o f i m p o r t a n c e  here  i s t h e n o t i o n t h a t meaning and  v a l u e s a r e embedded i n s y m b o l s w h i c h s e r v e t o s y t h e s i z e and communicate t h o s e perpetuate  v a l u e s and b e l i e f s ,  indigenous  demonstrated  conceptions  i n further  and by d o i n g s o ,  of order.  chapters, Lolo social  As i s life  and  p e r f o r m a n c e a r e v e h i c l e s f o r communcation o f v a l u e s and beliefs,  and i t i s i n t h i s way t h a t t h e A e s t h e t i c ,  aesthetics, rendered 1979,  and t h e m o r a l  meaningful.  Coplan  orientation  o r d e r a r e a r t i c u l a t e d and  (See a l s o B r e n n e i s  1987, and F e l d i n s t u d i e s of  1987, C h e r n o f f  1982 f o r e x a m p l e s o f t h i s performance).  3  The  set  of  framework f o r t h e  p r e m i s e s o u t l i n e d below c o n s t i t u t e s discussion  i n the  fallowing  chapters.  T h e s e p r e m i s e s , w h i l e t h e y s p e a k more d i r e c t l y ethnographic problem, a l s o address the providing  an  relationship the  to  the  l a r g e r problem  a l t e r n a t i v e l e n s through which t o view between t h e  conceptual  Aesthetic  framework i s a s  and  the  culture.  by  the  Briefly,  follows:  (1)  To u n d e r s t a n d m u s i c and m u s i c - m a k i n g , t h e r e must c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c o n t e x t i n which t h a t music c r e a t e d and p e r f o r m e d .  (2)  C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c o n t e x t i n v o l v e s most g e n e r a l l y an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c u l t u r e i n w h i c h t h e m u s i c i s f o u n d , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of t h e A e s t h e t i c w i t h i n t h a t c u l t u r e .  (3)  L o l o s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s a f a c e t of the o v e r a l l moral o r d e r , m a i n t a i n e d and e x p r e s s e d by d e a l i n g s with food i n c l u d i n g production, d i s t r i b u t i o n , c o n s u m p t i o n and e x c h a n g e .  (4)  " M o r a l " i s h e r e t a k e n t o be t h a t w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d by t h e L o l o t o be r i g h t , p r o p e r , o r appropriate i n p r i n c i p l e i n a given s i t u a t i o n .  (5)  The A e s t h e t i c p r o v i d e s an o r d e r w h i c h i s p a r t o f t h e o v e r a l l m o r a l o r d e r o f c u l t u r e and s o c i a l organization. It governs dealings with e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers. The d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e f a c e t s of t h e m o r a l o r d e r d e a l i n g w i t h o r d i n a r y and e x t r a o r d i n a r y i s an a r b i t r a r y one u s e d f o r h e u r i s t i c p u r p o s e s , s i n c e t h e L o l o would n o t r e c o g n i z e such a d i s t i n c t i o n .  (6)  O c c a s i o n s c e n t e r e d on f o o d and k i n - b a s e d a c t i v i t i e s a r e h e r a l d e d by ceremony and p e r f o r m a n c e .  (7)  L o l o p e r f o r m a n c e s a r e e x c e p t i o n a l and p o t e n t e v e n t s b e c a u s e t h e o r d i n a r y and e x t r a o r d i n a r y merge, t h e m o r a l o r d e r o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h a t o f t h e A e s t h e t i c c o a l e s c e , making e a c h p e r f o r m a n c e a r a r e and s i n g u l a r e v e n t .  be is  4 B e f o r e e m b a r k i n g on the  p r o b l e m demands an  aesthetics,  presented,  ethnographic i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  exploration  specifically  anthropology.  an  how  of  i t has  the  been u s e d  Once t h i s b a c k g r o u n d  of  the  Aesthetic  as  has  to present  i t will  be  of  in  information  i t i s t h e n p o s s i b l e f o r me  definitions  concept  used  been  my in  own this  dissertation.  The  Study of  Aesthetics  Aesthetics,  briefly  Western usage, i s the e x a m i n a t i o n of criteria and  "science  argued  of  i n the  the  so-called art objects  criteria  how  well  that  according  terms " a r t " ,  h a v e been a s s i g n e d  highly  the in  s t u d y of  asserts  here the that  external  main c u r r e n t s  philosophy  art  object  However,  as  "beauty"  of  thought  which i s of  tend  perception. concerning  well-represented  aesthetics.  The  u n i v e r s a l i s t p o s i t i o n a f t e r Nketia  a e s t h e t i c s and  parameters are and  the  numerous  s p e c i a l i z e d meanings which  a e s t h e t i c s , each of  l i t e r a t u r e on  called  two  to  satisfies  " a e s t h e t i c s " and  to obscure c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n There are  the  abject  u s e d t o measure b e a u t y .  below, the  conventional  b e a u t i f u l " , the  r e s u l t i n g i n judgments c o n c e r n i n g  i t s "beauty", o r ,  specific  defined  aesthetic standards  first, (1984),  or  u n i v e r s a l s which o p e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y  to social  or c u l t u r a l  contexts . 1  This  of  5 position  also asserts  should  be  taking  i n t o account the  creator  according  that  or  which a t  the  logical  The  i t s e x t r e m e can  wrote of  be  i t s height  musical  and  mental  observer.  perhaps reached who  to  evaluation  or  o-f " a r t  objects"  r a t i o n a l processes, emotional  s t a t e of  universalist  aesthetics  the  perpsective,  labelled "art for art's with the  not  writings  of  sake",  Hanslick  that  The b e a u t i f u l i s and r e m a i n s b e a u t i f u l t h o u g h i t a r o u s e s no e m o t i o n w h a t e v e r , and t h o u g h t h e r e be no one t o l o o k a t i t . In o t h e r words, a l t h o u g h t h e b e a u t i f u l e x i s t s f o r t h e g r a t i f i c a t i o n of the o b s e r v e r , i t i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f him. In t h i s s e n s e , m u s i c t o o , has no aim ( o b j e c t ) and t h e mere f a c t t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r t i s so c l o s e l y bound up w i t h o u r f e e l i n g s by no means j u s t i f i e s the assumption that i t s a e s t h e t i c p r i n c i p l e s depend on t h i s u n i o n ( 1 9 8 4 s 1 0 ) . The aesthetics cultural  and  and  structure,  t o a d h e r e n t s of  and  1977,  (Crawford The  writers  [Epperson  that  context  e m o t i o n , and  as  of  a  meaning.  studied  used  to Aristotle, St.  1967,  Beardsley  later  echoed  O s b o r n e 1974,  relativist  within  be  According  Thomas A q u i n a s and  19633) and  the  as r e l i g i o u s  ( f o r example P l a t o ,  Richter  G r e e n e 1957,  major t h r u s t  f o r m s must be  1967,  Cassirer  1974,  places  firmly within  t h i s p o s i t i o n , art could  such medieval  Lippman  of  i n proper morality,  Augustine  relativist,  e x a m i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  such f a c e t s  social  instruct  the  standards f o r evaluation  c o n t e x t by  aesthetics belief,  second c u r r e n t ,  1966,  i n Kant  White  1979).  orientation i s that  t h e i r c o n t e x t s of  creation  art so  6 a s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c r e a t i v e -force and  their  effects  on  audiences. Both of t h e s e c u r r e n t s of thought s t u d i e s o f f o r m and  s t y l e of a r t o b j e c t s s i n c e  i m p o s s i b l e t o study a e s t h e t i c s from e i t h e r without considering under  study.  without  incorporate  perspective  t h e f o r m a l elements of t h e  However, t h o s e who  would  c o n t e x t at worst complete t h e i r  i t is  objects  argue f o r a e s t h e t i c s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s with  e x a m i n a t i o n s of f o r m a l elements as a base from which compare, c o n t r a s t cultures,  based  on  and p r o p o r t i o n . that  aesthetic  a Western way  and e v a l u a t e v a r i o u s works f r o m "universal"  s t a n d a r d s of form,  F o l l o w e r s of t h e second t r e n d c o n v e n t i o n s and  non—Western  different structure  would  argue  methodologies developed from  e p i s t e m o l o g y c o n s t i t u t e one,  to gain  to  but not t h e o n l y ,  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a r t , p a r t i c u l a r l y  a r t from  cultures.  In t h i s c h a p t e r , I e x a m i n e t h e ways t h a t a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and  e t h n o m u s i c o l a g i s t s have s t u d i e d  aesthetics,  i n o r d e r t o p l a c e t h e problem under  here within  i t s scholarly  context  i n which  I d e v e l o p d e f i n i t i o n s and  the  aesthetic.  Art  i n Anthropology Merriam  context as well  (1964), i n a d i s c u s s i o n  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Western  aesthetics,  a r t and  examination  as p r o v i d e the c o n c e p t i o n s of  of t h e p r o v i d e s a summary  7 of  the  " a r t f o r a r t ' s sake", or  According  u n i v e r s a l i s t , perspective.  to t h i s p o s i t i o n , the  n e c e s s a r i l y detached observer places  the  and  aesthetic experience  o b j e c t i v e and  work o f  art  one  i n which  " a t arm's l e n g t h ,  w e r e . . . t o e x a m i n e i t f o r what i t i s " ( p . 2 6 1 ) . argues that  adherents to t h i s p o s i t i o n are  " m a n i p u l a t i o n of he  f o r m f o r i t s own  maintains that  sound the  itself  allows  priority  assigned  a r t s t o be  The  that  (1971) s e e s a s  impact  of  anthropological  studies  anthropologists  have f a i l e d  a r e s u l t of  context. scholars  been p e r c e i v e d the  of  the  c a p a b l e of  the  music stirring  study of  form  i s far-reaching,  c o n t r i b u t i n g to the art.  to understand the  as  the  territory  of  and  of  and lack  Merriam b e l i e v e s  of  clearly  contexts  one of  that  n a t u r e of of  art  seemed t o mean  other  the  from  t h i s separation  by  that  h a v e been r e l u c t a n t t o e n c r o a c h on  what  disciplines,  has  most  humanities.  Boas 1927), t h e  contexts  this  u s a g e has  In e a r l y s t u d i e s (e.g.,  " i t i s the  a n a l y t i c a l separation  i n popular  anthropologists  notably  to  Finally,  Western c o n v e n t i o n s  w i d e s p r e a d Acceptance  The and  further  committed  removed f r o m t h e i r  aesthetics.  a r t s as  to the  t o s c r u t i n y b a s e d on  Merriam  He  (p.266).  f o r the  subjected  t o be  the  as i t  (p.263).  i n Western a e s t h e t i c s  which i s c o n s i d e r e d  emotions" The  sake"  is  i n that  the  which c o n c e n t r a t e d  a r t s were s e p a r a t e d  approach  on  the  from  to a r t s from other  arts  their cultures  8 was p r e d o m i n a n t l y W e s t e r n w i t h a n a l y s i s of formal consideration the of  t h e -focus o f s t u d y b e i n g t h e  elements g i v i n g  t o context.  methodological  little  These s t u d i e s  o r no generally  p r o c e d u r e s and t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s  t h e f i n e a r t s and a r t h i s t o r y . This  lack  methodological involved  o f an a p p r o p r i a t e  t h e o r e t i c a l and  o r i e n t a t i o n was b u t one o f t h e p r o b l e m s  i n t h e s t u d y of a r t s from non-Western  cultures.  Other problems c i t e d  h a v e been r e l a t e d t o l a n g u a g e  (Goldwater  1973:3).  Many l a n g u a g e s l a c k  translated  a s " a r t " o r "beauty", terms which  h a v e been a s s o c i a t e d  designate  objects  as a r t i s t i c  Another problem Platonic  distinction  distinction  object  i s considered  the  (Sieber  other  I f an that  i t properly i s  o f t h e domain o f s t u d y of a e s t h e t i c s  If  since  restricts  many non—Western  cultures  which a r e used p r i m a r i l y f o r p r a c t i c a l  purposes, these objects aesthetic  Since  a  of t h e f i n e a r t s .  or f u n c t i o n , then  outside  study t o the f i n e a r t s .  of o b j e c t s .  t h a n t o be a d m i r e d , t h e n  Western P l a t o n i c t r a d i t i o n  produce o b j e c t s  reluctant to  1971:204) r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e  a representative  h a s same u t i l i t y Crafts fall  This  creations or not.  w h i c h r e s t s on t h e u t i l i t y  h a s no f u n c t i o n  a craft.  traditionally  between t h e f i n e a r t s and c r a f t s ,  object  abject  t e r m s w h i c h c a n be  with s t u d i e s of a e s t h e t i c s .  a p p a r e n t a b s e n c e p e r h a p s made r e s e a r c h e r s  an  followed  objects  frequently  were n o t  and h e n c e were n e g l e c t e d .  considered In a d d i t i o n ,  9 until  recently,  reluctant  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s themselves  t o r e l y on  interpretation,  i n d i g e n o u s e x e g e s i s and  preferring  their  viewpoints regarding the a r t s  own,  (Fagg  Studies i n ethnomusicology problems.  Ethnomusicology  comparative of  any  music. lack  musicology  and  young d i s c i p l i n e ,  particular  of t h e o r e t i c a l i t could  ethnomusicology  possessed  developed suffered  i n i t s e a r l y days,  often  theoretical  and  orientation  was  of t h e  put  i n the  position  terminology, often  r e m i n i s c e n t of t h e s p l i t  i n the d i r e c t i o n  with critique  music).  in aesthetics,  musicology  of a n t h r o p o l o g y  prevailing  quality  some  while others  (Merriam  as i n t h e s t u d y of a e s t h e t i c s ,  between two  as  perspective.  a l s o possessed a Janus-like  e t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t s l e a n e d toward  split  on  popular at a given  ( s e e , f o r e x a m p l e , F e l d ' s 1974  Ethnomusicology  ethnomusicology  relied  a  Unfortunately,  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e a n a l y s i s of  tended  from  sank i n t o f a d d i s m by a d o p t i n g  a d a p t i n g t h e o r y , method, and  which,  as  suffered  thus often  linguistics.  pains  problems  barrow from o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s such  unfortunate results  in  out of  t h e usual growing  E t h n o m u s i c o l o g i s t s were t h u s f r e q u e n t l y  of  similar  quite recently  combined w i t h t h e  time r e g a r d l e s s of t h e s u i t a b i l i t y  of  "objective"  1973:156).  p e r s p e c t i v e s and  anthropology, sociology,  whatever  more  t o t h e s t u d y o f a phenomenon a s d i f f i c u l t  Ethnomusicology,  whatever  h a v e been  t r e n d s of thought,  1969).  t h e r e was one  using  In a  10 Western p r o c e d u r e s another  viewing  understanding social  and  studied that  to study  musical  music as a s o c i a l  o f w h i c h was  cultural  m u s i c and  form  and  Fundamentally,  product,  those  implicitly  observers should  e q u a l l y informed  regarding  standards  used  for evaluation.  However, t h i s  universal  standard  aesthetic  criteria.  a different  contemporary w r i t e r s , to the study  of  who assumed  presupposed and  evaluate their  f o r m s i n t h i s manner were v i e w e d a s m y s t i f i e d , as o p e r a t i n g from  of  aesthetic  d e f i n i t i o n s of a r t , beauty, d i d not  the  be  investigators,  T h o s e who  and  extensive study  a r t o u t s i d e of c o n t e x t  a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s and  style,  cultural  d e p e n d e n t on  context.  and  art  rather  s e t of assumptions.  than  More  however, a r e moving f r o m u n i v e r s a l s  context.  Current Perspectives  At p r e s e n t , s t u d i e s o f b e c o m i n g more common and in  are c l e a r l y  (Geertz  1977)  and  utilising  categories for analysis  studies,  data to a n a l y t i c a l adhering  t o an  (e.g., Robbins  to the data.  c o n s t r u c t s i s not  indigenous  the  v i e w a s an  are  trends  "native's point  indigenous  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s and  a s means t o b r i n g i n s i g h t  i n anthropology  responsive to  a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , f o c u s i n g on  of view" and  the a r t s  conceptions  1982).  In  categories are However,  regarded  by  adequate or  these used  fitting those sufficient  11 treatment.  Thus, i n d i g e n o u s e x p l a n a t i o n s  categories  are  explication than  used as  being  a r t s and  aesthetics.  their  own  19B3,  terms  Mills  considered cultural kinship  as  and  data,  illuminating  is.  abject  1971,  of  study  and  the  the  a r t s and  the  Steager  considered that, for  basic  researcher  the  1976).  (e.g.,  not social  occur  whether  literal and  an  field  t r a n s l a t e s indigenous o n e s and (Leach  Geertz  1973,  then  Kei1  1979,  1973:772) c a n Wagner 1967,  ethno-aesthetics  attending  conceptualizations Munn 1973a and according should  terms  back  Thus, i n contemporary s t u d i e s af are  or  example,  i s analogous to  aesthetics, researchers  1982,  a  19B2  1979).  as  vocabulary  " p o e t i c meanings"  More s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  s t u d i e s of  are  same way  i n d i g e n o u s d e f i n i t i o n s and  1982).  and  those  these  Feld  a e s t h e t i c s are  into anthropological  preserved  Labby  Feld  1979,  a r t and  t r a n s l a t i o n which  that  the  analyze  Hanna 1977,  i s k i n s h i p or a r t s  to understand  and  1979,  1966,  Schwimmer  research,  in that  so  grasped  (Bohannon  t o d e f i n e and  epiphenomena, but  constructs  again  studied  S i m i l a r t r a n s l a t i o n processes  interpretive research  i s t r u e f o r s t u d i e s of  I t i s more i n s t r u c t i v e t o a l l o w  phenomena i n t h e  translation  and  more v a l u a b l e  same p e r s p e c t i v e  In more c u r r e n t  the  vehicles for explicating  considered  p e o p l e whose a r t s a r e  and  indigenous  explanation. The  in  the  and  be 1981  music, to  (Chernoff  1973b, S t o n e  t o Bohannon  (1961:92),  include discussion  of  (1) t h e a r t o b j e c t s , (2) a w i d e k n o w l e d g e of t h e p e o p l e who made t h e o b j e c t s , (3) a r a t h e r s p e c i f i c knowledge of t h e c r i t i c i s m of t h e o b j e c t s by members of t h e s o c i e t y w h i c h u s e them, (4) a g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e of comparative a e s t h e t i c s . . . . Hence b o t h  context  and  a thorough  understanding  Conceptions, stitution similar  intense,  a position  but  not  There i s thus mundane and echoed  i n t h e works of Mills  and  have undergone being  of the  a  c o n s i d e r e d as everyday  a  life  "art for art's  sake"  i s c o n s i d e r e d a s a more different connection  a connection later Turner  experience . 2  between  proposed  1986)  Hymes 1981,  Kant  1959,  especially i n the  the by  w r i t e r s (Dewey  of p o e t i c s as used  1977,  con-  those  Platonic  Stravinsky  1942,  1983).  a e s t h e t i c s and a r e no  then,  definitions  the a e s t h e t i c  longer r e s t r i c t e d  perspectives. benefit  1971,  the concept  Clearly  and  than  qualitatively,  ( e . g . , Brown  Turner  experience  the a e s t h e t i c ,  i d e a s about the  s e p a r a t e from  typical  a continuity  1978,  reviving sense  Rather  to  aesthetics.  experience  k i n d of e x p e r i e n c e  movement, a e s t h e t i c  Llamzon  of a r t s and  of t h e a e s t h e t i c  experience,  exegesis are c r i t i c a l  d e f i n i t i o n s and  transformation.  singular  and  indigenous  from  t h i s expansion,  of W e s t e r n  conceptions  experience  h a v e been  expanded  and  by  arts obviously  t h e same t a k e n ,  bring refreshing  arts.  of a r t ,  t o p u r e l y Western  S t u d i e s of n o n — W e s t e r n  Western p e r s p e c t i v e s can the study  and  new  non-  insights  to  In o r d e r in  cultural  and  that  a n a l y s i s , the  forms are  p o s i t i o n of  lyrics,  subtly  by  beliefs, of  subject  the  i n t o a concrete  t r a d i t i o n s be reaffirmed, innovation  preserved  but and  the  be  by  what i t  fact  that  contexts.  a c a r v i n g and values,  A r t can  and  so  Art  of  underlying  provide  w h i c h new  incorporated  means of  on,  putting  or  more  a  cultural  Not  3  a r t s can  can  considered  tangible form . the  art  a t t i t u d e s , or  t h u s be  w o r l d , a way  and  a means by  i n f l u e n c e s can  only  can  ideology  a context cultural  for  elements  ( G e r b r a n d s 1967,  or  Peacock  1975). Therefore,  and  objectifies  way  the  world  believe, style  ideology.  making s e n s e o f  meaningful  cultural  cultural  useful  other  O v e r t l y , f o r e x a m p l e , by  matter of  communicating in short,  ideology  1968,  ways.  Like  v i r t u e of t h e  grounded w i t h i n t h e i r  be  art within society  re—examined.  i t d o e s s o by  communicate i n two song  d e f i n i t i o n s can  c u l t u r e , a r t i s rendered  c o m m u n i c a t e s and  the  broad  c u l t u r e must l i k e w i s e be  f a c e t s of  way  these  as a p a r t of  ideology,  is.  How  i s predicated  r e g a r d l e s s of  the  manipulation  of  a characteristic impressionism  the  both formal  beliefs  i d e a of  style.  to social  medium, s t y l e and  combination,  i n music.  art  symbolic  such as  reflects  about  a r t i c u l a t i o n s take  i s a p p l i c a b l e b o t h t o a r t and  arts,  life,  articulating  these on  social  form, I  The  notion  action.  In  i s taken as  the  elements to  romanticism  In a n t h r o p o l o g y  the  Geertz  of  create  or (1973) f o r  14 e x a m p l e , - f o i l o w i n g Weber, e c h o e s t h i s in  h i s d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e  life.  Forge's  "limitations limited  definition  of  " c h r o n i c c h a r a c t e r " of  (1979:281) d e f i n i t i o n  of s t y l e  social  as  of c h o i c e " i s a p t , s i n c e c h o i c e s c a n  with respect to behaviour,  style  be  to composition,  or  to  performance. F o r my term  "social  refers local  to  purposes,  aesthetics"  i s used  aesthetic  e x p r e s s i o n and  criteria  dissertation,  consistent  social  epistemological  In a d d i t i o n  aesthetics  and  One  way an  of  and  s o on  of c u l t u r a l  their  own  moral  this  while  than between  placing  indigenous c o n c e p t i o n s of the study  S t u d i e s of  of  law,  would seem t o be p r e d i c a t e d  relativism  a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s t o be  in  a e s t h e t i c s as d e f i n e d above  upon i n d i g e n o u s c o n c e p t i o n s of m o r a l i t y . impact  emotion,  here r a t h e r  concepts  been somewhat n e g l e c t e d .  kinship  with!  action.  to study s o c i a l  examination  Cfused  conveys connections  metaphysical  and  to being  Unfortunately i n anthropology,  m o r a l i t y has religion,  i s used  the  with  with other concepts  t h e s e i n the c o n t e x t of s o c i a l  morality.  chapters,  n o t i o n s of personhood,  s i n c e i t more a d e q u a t e l y  through  in later  (1987:237),  f o r coherence...and  experience".  terminologically  is  Brenneis  " i n t e l l e c t u a l , sense-making a c t i v i t y  ethnopsychological  style  following  perhaps  However,  the  causes  wary o f b e i n g a c c u s e d  s t a n d a r d s upon t h e moral  of  imposing  s t a n d a r d s of  those  whom t h e y s t u d y . about the  Consequently, there  m o r a l s of  a n t h r o p o l o g y of  a n t h r o p o l o g y , but  morals.  (1969), Chernoff  (1981).  Others, perhaps choosing by  the  considering of  the  term  "good  should  do  it  and  appears that  situation, style  morality  c r e a t i o n and  position  reminiscent  a e s t h e t i c and  both the  parallel  involve ideas  m e d i a t i o n of  artistic  the  artistic  apparent that  and  aesthetics. directs as  two  c r e a t i o n of  ideology  the  the  are  Wagner  baggage  new  1978  terms f o r discussion  between  f o r what  people  reasons.  l i m i t s placed  on  both behaviour  choices,  and  performance, hence, r e t u r n i n g of  Classical  various  and  the  parallel  philosophy,  t y p e s of  production  current  with,  which l i k e w i s e b e g i n s with  a  study  of  includes  l i n e s of  perspectives,  analysis obtain.  arts.  Parallel  i s a second  which  In  of  of  in then  t o , and  l i n e of  consideration  i t is  consideration  i s made m a n i f e s t  delineates style, of  to  moral.  ideology  Aesthetics  the  aesthetics  a r t , a n a l y s i s begins with  t h e n how  and  a b o u t what i s good,  and  directs  the  acting i n concert  ideology  a c u l t u r e , what  or  From t h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f  the  the  to t h i s  have c r e a t e d  desirable within  i n a given  Through the  to avoid  written  life").  s i n c e both  appropriate  about  (1955) and  ( f o r example S m i t h ' s  There i s a d e f i n i t e morality,  little  ( 1 9 7 9 ) , Read  "morality",  morality  been much  Notable exceptions  Burridge  carried  has  conceived  analysis  ideology,  but  s e e k s t o examine i t s a p p e a r a n c e i n m o r a l i t y . ideology social  becomes t h e  style,  Culture  and  which  social  aesthetic,  i s reflected in  change a r e  i n t e r e s t s of  c o h e r e n c e and  muted  There i s a p a r a l l e l sake" p e r s p e c t i v e  models t o the developing culture.  and  1971)  consistency.  interpretive perspectives  In  applied  are  cross—cultural1y,  compare m o d e l s .  between t h e  "art for  mainstream anthropology  phenomena of  More c u r r e n t  of  a culture  consistent c u l t u r e and  meaningful  the  art's  (Bernstein  both approaches a p p l y e s s e n t i a l l y Western  a coherent,  of  in  and  mainstream  other cultures  logical  and  i n the  hopes of  r a t i o n a l p i c t u r e of  i n t e r p r e t i v e approaches  i n d i g e n o u s models t o a c h i e v e f u n d a m e n t a l l y t h e portrait  extent  individualism,  ( c f Murphy  a n t h r o p o l o g y , Western models a r e  in that  to a c e r t a i n  approaches, c r e a t i v i t y ,  dynamism and  1978)  a  Beyond  more c u r r e n t  while  w h i c h t a k e s on  plus  behaviour.  In m a i n s t r e a m a p p r o a c h e s , and in  Morality  use same e n d s ,  i n which c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of  with other aspects. s o c i e t y are  explained  a  In b o t h c a s e s , and  model p r o p o s e d  for analysis  the  anthropologist  or  in that  of  culture  rendered  originates t h o s e who  a  facets  v i a t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to other f a c e t s ,  the  that  i n the are  whether  mind  studied.  of  17 Each of  of these approaches  t h r e e f a c t o r s which Bateson  description,  i s based  on a  (1978:90-98) h a s i s o l a t e d  as  t a u t o l o g y , and e x p l a n a t i o n w h i c h a r e ,  according  t o Bateson,  characteristic  thought.  Description  includes the "facts"  differences"  combination  of Western or  scientific  "effective  and s u g g e s t i o n s o f c o n n e c t i o n s between  facts  ( p . 9 0 ) , and e x p l a n a t i o n c o n n e c t s r e l a t i o n s among f a c t s and "maps" t h e s e r e l a t i o n s among f a c t s o n t o connects propositions p r o p o s i t i o n s about that  t h e y each  (p.91).  t a u t o l o g y which  In t h i s p r o c e s s , d a t a and  t h e data a r e connected  g i v e credence  i n such  and c o h e r e n c e  a way  to the other.  In s p i t e o f t h e s e p e r c e i v e d l i m i t a t i o n s , a n a l y s i s and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l reflects  a profound  possess singular  comparison  statement:  c a n b e done a t a l l  a l l p e o p l e a s humans  commonalities.  In d i s c u s s i n g  commonalities,  v a r i o u s terms a r e proposed  another  i n addition  factor  c u l t u r e and s o c i e t y "metaculture"*, 1978),  "trope"  "mythic" because  called  (Bateson  1986) and " s u p r a c u l t u r a l " o r  1983),  each  asserts that  a l l cultures,  t h e y a r e a l l composed o f humans, p o s s e s s t h i n g s i n  common, t h e p r e s e n c e culture or social Bateson called  that  b e i n g and h i s  Variously  " a e s t h e t i c s " or "metapattern"  (Armstrong  these  to indicate  t o man's p h y s i c a l  must be c o n s i d e r e d .  (Wagner  that  o f which cannot  structure  alone.  (1978) a r g u e s  the "ultimate unity"  be a t t r i b u t e d t o  that  the aesthetic  c a n be  (p. 19) o r " t h e p a t t e r n w h i c h  18 connects" actually pattern  (p. 8 ) , and a response  (p. 9) »  thus the a e s t h e t i c  t o r e c o g n i t i o n and  He  proposes  response  is  empathy w i t h  t h e e x i s t e n c e of  three  fundamental  t y p e s o f p a t t e r n w h i c h he  d e s c r i b e s as  second,  third  First  and  connections  order connections.  a r e c o m p a r i s o n s between two  same g r o u p , s e c o n d pattern  (p.  themselves of  is  11), with connected  p a t t e r n s " , the  12).  important  first  and  second  order  (p.  "two  which or  " p a t t e r n through  i s "a p a t t e r n "mind" time"  context  t h e r e i s no  to Bateson,  forces"  by and  second  individual  Bateson,  (p.  of  (p. 17)  large social  (p. 17)  by  (1983) a r g u e s  that  are o p e r a t i v e , the f i r s t f o r c e i n w h i c h man  or c u l t u r a l  imperative  imperatives,  i n w h i c h man  v i r t u e of having  lived  p a t t e r n s i n the s u p r a c u l t u r e , with component t h r o u g h  t h e bounds of humanness and  in i t .  individual  integrity.  Armstrong  links  of  i s creative  culture,  the  "might mark  the a d d i t i o n  w h i c h man  an  obeys  Like  Armstrong r e c o g n i z e s p a t t e r n s w i t h i n c u l t u r e  individual  15)  meaning...contexts  Armstrong  or s u p r a c u l t u r a l  human and  the world"  (p.  18).  "institutional"  an  by  s i n c e " a l l communication n e c e s s i t a t e s  Similarly man,  i n the  connections  meaning b e c a u s e t h e r e i s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  contexts"  within  order  are connections  to the metapattern  context, a  context...without  for  connections  first,  individuals  " p a t t e r n which c o n n e c t s "  For Bateson  confer  order  the  and  an and  maintains  these patterns to  19 "diachronic  consciousness"  and " s y n c h r o n i c  the  farmer r e f e r r i n g t o c u l t u r a l  and  the latter  in  t h e world  aesthetic  abject and  tension  as both s u b j e c t  from i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n  " a f f e c t i n g p r e s e n c e " o r power  i n t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e a e s t h e t i c and o b j e c t  energy from t h i s t e n s i o n Wagner  generalizations  Armstrong a l s o argues t h a t t h e  i s imbued w i t h  which r e f l e c t s  and human  consciousness a r i s i n g  (p. 1 9 ) .  consciousness",  (1986) d e f i n e s  and d e r i v i n g g r e a t  (pp.  power  5-7).  "trope"  as  a s i n g l e phenomenon o r p r i n c i p l e C t h a t l c o n s t i t u t e s human c u l t u r e and c u l t u r a l capabi1ity....The phenomenon i s c o h e r e n t and p e r v a s i v e , o r g a n i z i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f meaning o v e r t h e w h o l e s c a l e — r a n g e o f c u l t u r a l f o r m s (p. 126, emphasis o r i g i n a l ) . He f u r t h e r s t a t e s t h a t serving  t o organize  generality  there  are three  orders  cultural  symbolism  with  perception  according and  "core"  and c u l t u r a l  symbols  perception  (p.  Like  (p.  127).  require,  t o Wagner, a body t o o r i e n t p e r c e p t i o n  a mind f o r " c o n s o c i a t i o n "  i n space,  129).  those w r i t i n g from t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e approach,  they a r e united considered  increasing  f r o m i n d i v i d u a l c u l t u r e s t o human c u l t u r e a s a  w h o l e , i n w h i c h c a n be f o u n d Physical  of trope,  i n their  i n discussing  move f r o m c u l t u r a l  insistence that  a r t and a e s t h e t i c s .  considerations  the  human, t h e c u l t u r a l ,  are  defined,  context  that  be  In o r d e r  to  o f a r t and a e s t h e t i c s t o  i s , t h e manner i n w h i c h  c o n s t i t u t e d and a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h i n  these  a specific  culture, systems  must be c o n s i d e r e d  since  "observable aesthetic  a r e a s v a r i a b l e - f r o m p e o p l e t o p e o p l e o f t h e same  t i m e , and  from epoch  economies"  t o epoch  (Armstrong  — as s o c i a l  systems  1983:8).  What t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s h a v e i n common d i s t i n g u i s h e s them f r o m b o t h m a i n s t r e a m anthropology  i s their  on c u l t u r e o r s o c i a l c o n s i s t e n c y and does  explain,  agreement structure  that  or attempt  and  which interpretive  an e x p l a n a t i o n  i s incomplete.  coherence within  not acknowledge  and  one  Painting  particular  to i d e n t i f y ,  founded out  culture  l e t alone  t h e p e r v a s i v e human n a t u r e o f p e o p l e i n c u l t u r e .  E a c h a d m i t s t o o , o f b e i n g u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e more t h a n s u p p o s i t i o n s about c u l t u r e and  t h e c o n n e c t i o n s between  the larger  imaginary conversation  pattern.  individuals,  As B a t e s o n s a i d  i n an  with h i s daughter,  What d o e s e.e. cummings s a y ? 'Always t h e more b e a u t i f u l answer who a s k s t h e more d i f f i c u l t question.' Something l i k e t h a t . You s e e I am n o t a s k i n g a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n e a c h t i m e . I am making t h e same q u e s t i o n bigger. The s a c r e d ( w h a t e v e r t h a t means) i s s u r e l y r e l a t e d (somehow) t o t h e b e a u t i f u l ( w h a t e v e r t h a t means). And i f we c o u l d s a y haw t h e y a r e r e l a t e d , we c o u l d p e r h a p s s a y what t h e words mean. Or p e r h a p s t h a t would n e v e r be n e c e s s a r y . E a c h t i m e we add a r e l a t e d p i e c e t o t h e q u e s t i o n , we g e t more c l u e s t o t h e s o r t o f answer we s h o u l d e x p e c t (1978:235-236, emphasis o r i g i n a l ) .  Performance  Moving from the p r a c t i c a l , these  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l  ideology to social an  life.  how  answer t o t h i s  (Bauman 1986:3).  t h e n e x u s o f human and performance  can  be  to  in  activity.  musical  of...  Analytically,  i n which m e t a p h y s i c a l  c o n s t r u c t s , m o r a l i t y , the s o c i a l  t h e s t u d y of p e r f o r m a n c e  and  f o r the L o l o , i s  i s central  to  and  aesthetic  t h e A e s t h e t i c a r e merged i n a s i n g l e e n t i t y .  reason,  study  performance,  the essence  Performance,  spirit  to  ideology to art  found  function,  provides the v e h i c l e  epistemological and  to link  o f how  In t h e s t u d y of m u s i c and  "the enactment of t h e p o e t i c artistry"  theoretical  t h e q u e s t i o n must be r a i s e d  ideas, s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  aesthetics,  and  For  this  this  dissertation. The  s t u d y of performance  performer  and  culture.  Lord  audience  are c r i t i c a l  (1958:27)),  Yugoslavian folk  and  singers,  t h e r o l e s of  the  t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  i n h i s seminal discussed the  study  of  importance  performers. What i s of i m p o r t a n c e h e r e i s n o t t h e f a c t of e x a c t n e s s , b u t t h e c o n s t a n t e m p h a s i s by t h e s i n g e r on h i s r o l e i n t h e t r a d i t i o n . I t i s n o t t h e c r e a t i v e r o l e t h a t we h a v e s t r e s s e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e of c l a r i f y i n g a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g about o r a l s t y l e , but t h e r o l e of c o n s e r v e r of t h e t r a d i t i o n , t h e r o l e of the defender of the h i s t o r i c t r u t h of what i s b e i n g s u n g ; f o r i f t h e s i n g e r c h a n g e s what he has h e a r d i n i t s e s s e n c e , he f a l s i f i e s t r u t h . I t i s not the a r t i s t b u t t h e h i s t o r i a n who s p e a k s a t t h i s  of  of  moment, a l t h o u g h t h e s i n g e r ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e h i s t o r i a n i s t h a t o-f g u a r d i a n o f legend. Audiences too a r e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s "are not s o l e l y are, rather, (Brenneis  targets f o r rhetorical  active  interpreters,  they  and r e s p o n d e n t s "  (1977,  d i r e c t o r s such as  1985, 1986b) and o t h e r s , p e r f o r m a n c e i s  t o t h e symbolic or r e l i g i o u s study of r i t u a l  Turner  They  1987:237).  Schechner  (e.g.,  1967, 1969, 1974, 1986b). Singer  of  strategies;  critics  With t h e h e l p o f t h e a t r i c a l  added  i n performance.  (1972), i n o r d e r t o s t u d y t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s  Indian s o c i e t y ,  model",  proposed t h e " c u l t u r a l  an h e u r i s t i c  abstraction" structure"  d e v i c e which  moves up t h e " l a d d e r o f  (p. 65) f r o m p e r f o r m a n c e  (p. 6 4 ) .  performance  He a r g u e s t h a t  to "cultural  by b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e  f o r m a l , o b s e r v a b l e u n i t s o f p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e p a t t e r n s and p r i n c i p l e s of performance extended culture.  similar  and t h e n  by a n a l y s i s t o t h e p a t t e r n s and p r i n c i p l e s o f Singer  sake, r a t h e r , abstract  c a n be d i s c o v e r e d  i s not looking  a t performance  he u s e s p e r f o r m a n c e  and l e s s v i s i b l e to that  a s a means t o i n v e s t i g a t e  a s p e c t s of c u l t u r e ,  of S c h i e f f e l i n  f o r i t s own  a treatment  (1976) i n h i s s t u d y o f t h e  Gi s a r o ceremony among t h e K a l u l i . In a n o t h e r example, performance  events as  Bauman  (1986:4)  describes  a p r o d u c t of t h e s y s t e m a t i c i n t e r p l a y of numerous s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s , p r o m i n e n t l y including the following: 1) P a r t i c i p a n t s ' i d e n t i t i e s and r o l e s ; 2) The e x p r e s s i v e means employed i n performance; 3) S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n a l g r o u n d r u l e s , norms, and s t r a t e g i e s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e and c r i t e r i a f o r i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and evaluation; 4) The s e q u e n c e o f a c t i o n s t h a t make up t h e s c e n a r i o o f t h e e v e n t (Bauman 1986:4). Other s t u d i e s of performance symbolic  or textual  (1985) c a l l s  a s p e c t s of performance.  discursive analysis  and  meanings which  (1985:709) a r g u e s t h a t performance that  Schieffelin  rather  a linguistic  i s i n c o m p l e t e and  p e r f o r m a n c e s work, t h a t  symbols  the  these symbolic or hermeneutic a n a l y s e s  "meaning c e n t r e d " and a r g u e s t h a t  why  h a v e c e n t e r e d on  i s , how  a v o i d s such i s s u e s  t h e y communicate  t h e y u n d e n i a b l y do.  i t i s the e x p e r i e n t i a l  than only the l i n g u i s t i c  makes p e r f o r m a n c e  or as  the  Schieffelin a s p e c t of  or symbolic  effective:  ...through p e r f o r m a n c e , meanings a r e formulated i n a s o c i a l r a t h e r than a c o g n i t i v e s p a c e , and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e engaged w i t h t h e s y m b o l s i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n a l c r e a t i o n of a performance r e a l i t y , r a t h e r than merely being informed by them a s knowers. In r e f e r e n c e t o K a l u l i (p. 722)  states  seances as performances,  Schieffelin  that  The s o c i a l l y emergent d i m e n s i o n o f performance, c o n s t r u c t e d through the i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e p e r f o r m e r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s b u t n o t r e d u c i b l e t o them, c o n s t i t u t e s t h e r e a l i t y i n which t h e a c t u a l work o f t h e s e a n c e g e t s done.  24  And  -further, . . . t h e meaning a-f r i t u a l p e r f o r m a n c e i s o n l y p a r t l y r e s i d e n t i n t h e s y m b o l s and s y m b o l i c s t r u c t u r e s o f which i t i s constructed. To a l a r g e d e g r e e . . . t h e m e a n i n g s o f t h e s y m b o l s and o f t h e r i t e i t s e l f a r e created during the performance, evoked i n t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s i m a g i n a t i o n i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n between t h e p r i n c i p l e p e r f o r m e r s and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ( i b i d ) .  For S c h i e f f e l i n , capacity symbols  participating  i n performance  i s what makes t h e p e r f o r m a n c e or the "text"  (1986s377)  i n whatever  work, n o t t h e  of t h e performance a l o n e .  s a y s of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  As G e e r t z  between t e x t and  performance: They a r e p e r c e i v e d n o t a s i n d e p e n d e n t r e a l i t i e s t o be f i t t e d t o g e t h e r i n t h e name of m e c h a n i c a l o r q u a s i - m e c h a n i c a l 'such a r e t h e f a c t s ' e x p l a n a t i o n ; r a t h e r t h e y come a s ' s e e i n g a s ' e l u c i d a t i o n s o f one a n o t h e r , i n s e p a r a b l e moments o f an i n t e r p r e t i v e d i a l e c t i c , i n p r i n c i p l e endless. Thus t h e performance the l i g h t part  must be e x a m i n e d ,  of a d i a l e c t i c a l  Experiencing  In t h e same v e i n , K a p f e r e r (1986) s u g g e s t s  a performance  other experience. bath a r t i s t i c  generalizing, artistic  i s an a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e .  r e n d e r s m e a n i n g f u l and c o h e r e n t  The f o r m and c o n t e n t o f p e r f o r m a n c e ,  and s o c i a l ,  which  but as a  p r o c e s s o f e x p e r i e n c e and  response t o performance  dialectic  not only f o r  i t c a s t s on o t h e r a s p e c t s o f c u l t u r e ,  interpretation. that  itself  are subjected  to the interpretive  i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g and  and w h i c h  recalls,  and m o r a l c o n v e n t i o n s .  articulates,  and u n i f i e s  Performance renders meaningful of s y m b o l s and  other  metaphors  experience  through  t h e use  (Fernandez  1982,  1986)*  Metaphors s e r v e t o u n i t e the m a t e r i a l elements  and  t r a p p i n g s of a p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h more a b s t r a c t and  perhaps  unconscious  evident  i d e a s , o r , use  a s a model t o g r a s p elusive"  and  " t h e more f a m i l i a r  clarify  ( E a r t h 1975:210).  ground our  conceptual  experience"  (Beck  As  the  less  such,  evident  metaphor  enables  1978:84).  The  study  taking place in a specific  a deeper understanding  performance i t s e l f , communicated  gaining  the  of  cultural  of  most f a c e t s o f s o c i a l  The  life,  s i n c e i t s study  this  studying  the study  but  Two  sensations  r e q u i r e s an  the A e s t h e t i c  i s s u e s emerge f r o m  o f why  the  t h e m e c h a n i c s of  that  social  examination  certain  Experience  of a e s t h e t i c s has  o f m u s i c and  a r t within i t s context  understanding  o n l y of  i s a n a t u r a l means o f  chapter, the concept  examined, as has anthropology.  not  life.  A e s t h e t i c . A e s t h e t i c s , and  In  concrete  t o i n f o r m a t i o n about o t h e r a s p e c t s of  or  to  performance  performance,  i n f o r m a t i o n and  Performance, then,  access  "helps  o f what g i v e s r i s e t o  v i a t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , and  communication.  and  s t r u c t u r e s i n the r e a l i t y of  metaphors a l l o w s f o r a g r e a t e r understanding the events  and  been  the a r t s i n  this discussion:  allows f o r the  items  a r e seen  within  their  c o n t e x t s as and  " a r t " or as  a e s t h e t i c s and  simultaneously  imbued w i t h  the a e s t h e t i c  s e p a r a t e from,  everyday  e x p e r i e n c e such  t h e two,  with  different, such  an  the aesthetic  y e t an  integral  qualities: be s e e n  p a r t of  there i s continuity  experience  as  between  i n v o k i n g powers o f  that  the experience  a  of  i s profound.  Armstrong  invested  e x p e r i e n c e can  e x t r a o r d i n a r y order such  event  venerated  that  "aesthetic"  (1981) a r g u e s  or accorded with  special  that  o b j e c t s which  treatment  are  are objects  power:  I t i s t h e work's power w h i c h demands o u r a t t e n t i o n ; i t i s power w h i c h q u i c k e n s us s o t h a t we g r e a t l y p r i z e s u c h t h i n g s and, t h u s , s o u n i v e r s a l l y we make them; and i t i s power w h i c h b o t h r e q u i r e s and v a l i d a t e s t h o s e s a c r i f i c e s we e x a c t o f o u r s e l v e s and of our goods i n t h e i r b e h a l f (p.6). This  i s true too f o r the Lolo.  p r a c t i c e s are potent are themselves w i t h c a r e and that  s a t u r a t e d w i t h power and deference.  t h e s e o b j e c t s and  o b j e c t s or  because they e i t h e r  p a r t o f t h e moral  The  i n v o k e power, o r are thus  the treatment  of t h i s  dissertation  then,  consider  In t h e a n a l y t i c a l  an  framework, " A e s t h e t i c " r e f e r s  t o , or e x e r c i s e s o f , t h a t  t o be  an  different  c a t e g o r i e s o f meaning a t t a c h e d t o t h e n o t i o n o f  to responses  of  practices.  framework i s n e e d e d t o s e p a r a t e  Aesthetic.  treated  Lolo Aesthetic constitutes  order governing  For the purposes analytical  Certain  p o w e r f u l , g e n e r a l l y by  which t h e v i r t u e of  Lolo connections  with  ultimate  perspective  or extraordinary  and t h a t p r e s e n t e d  are  concerned  with  and  mysterious,  power.  Both t h e L o l o  i n the analytical  -framework  powers, powers which a r e e x t r a o r d i n a r y  and w h i c h humans c a n n o t hope t o  completely  control. Aesthetics gain  access  morality defined  t o t h e r e a l m of t h e powers.  by t h e L o l o ,  r u l e s and c o n v e n t i o n s g o v e r n i n g  objects for  and p r a c t i c e s imbued w i t h  order.  aesthetics" refer to  t h e treatment of  power, and p r e s c r i p t i o n s  t o t h e realm of t h e A e s t h e t i c .  experience order  i s that  of the s o c i a l  experiencing a result  of experiencing organization  t h e power i n v e s t e d  plus  human a c t i o n a s  c a r r y i n g out c e r t a i n p r a c t i c e s a l s o considered  relate  as  c o n s t i t u t e t h e moral  " p e r f o r m a n c e " , and " s o c i a l  w h i c h humans  Aesthetics,  or the g u i d e l i n e s f o r appropriate  "Musical", the  i n c l u d e s t h e means w i t h  to  The a e s t h e t i c  t h e m e r g i n g o f t h e moral  with  t h e A e s t h e t i c , and  i n the objects  of t h e proper use of a e s t h e t i c s .  c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e L o l o and a n a l y t i c a l  or  events,  The  perspectives  i s as  foilows.  Lolo Perspective  Analytical  Powers o f r e p r o d u c t i o n and c r e a t i o n - mythical spirits  The A e s t h e t i c  Ancestral  spirits  Performance  aesthetics  Humans and human a c t i o n (moral/immoral b e h a v i o u r )  moral  order  Perspective  The  L o l a mast o f t e n u s e  intermediaries extraordinary  i n the  p o w e r s , and  v e h i c l e s f o r the  connection  mythical  beings.  a result  with is  of  extraordinary  the  a result  performers.  If the and  hence e x t r a o r d i n a r y b e n e f i t s of wrath of respect  i f t h e y do  not  the  powers.  with  their  the  audience f a i l  Lolo  supernatural  are  denied  are  to  fail  this  the  in  aesthetics are  The  This process  the  aesthetics,  Aesthetic.  that  k n o w l e d g e and  l o s s of  the  i s more f u l l y  that  the  Musical,  thus not  resonant  are  Aesthetic  d r a m a t i c c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e and  chapters.  the  subject  of  and  a p p r o p r i a t e l y d i r e c t e d toward  recently abbreviated  likewise abbreviated.  general.  t o make  the  make p r o p e r u s e not  and  power whicl  p a r t i c i p a t i o n with  P e r f o r m a n c e s can  l o s i n g knowledge of  their  and  association  t h i s premise, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t  social  as  powers of  the  powers, the  i f performances are  p e r f o r m a n c e , and  the  spirits  to  a s s o c i a t i o n s with  is,  B a s e d on  ancestral  supernatural,  p e r f o r m e r s and  spirits.  to  performances  performance i t s e l f , of  as  L o l a , power i n p e r f o r m a n c e comes  t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s and  the  Lolo are  the  powers v i a t h e  audience as  connection  access  ceremonial  of  spirits  p e r f o r m e r s ' i n t e r a c t i o n and  t r a n s f e r r e d t o the  the  gaining  between humans and  For  the  of  use  activities  thus the  as  process  ancestral  social  developed  in  becoming thus  has  life  in  later  The cultural and  -Following  context  performance,  social  and  f o r a study  provide  the s o c i a l  and  by p r e s e n t i n g  the "chronic  music  character", This  provides  t o e x a m i n e t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  musical  everyday  and  o-f t h e L o l o A e s t h e t i c ,  a e s t h e t i c s or m o r a l i t y of the L o l o .  b a s i s from which social  chapters  life.  a e s t h e t i c s , performance,  the A e s t h e t i c ,  CHAPTER  THE  The outlined  basic  below.  II  ETHNOGRAPHIC  ethnographic  SETTING  c o n t e x t o-f t h e L o l o i s  T h i s c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s needed i n  order to p l a c e the L o l o i n r e l a t i o n societies,  and  dissertation, setting  to other  lielanesian  most i m p o r t a n t l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o  this  t o b e g i n the p r o c e s s of u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f L o l o m u s i c making and  a r t i c u l a t i o n s between, c u l t u r e ,  the  the c o n s t i t u t i o n s o f , social  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  the  Aesthetic. The economy and and by  l a n d i n h a b i t e d by politics,  performance my  and  the L o l o , t h e i r  the a r t s i n c l u d i n g  are addressed.  i n f o r m a n t s who  said  an  people  demanded an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  life.  The  agents  of change, C h r i s t i a n i t y ,  money, w h i c h , i n my on  analysis,  stories,  T h e s e were s e l e c t e d  that  chapter concludes  language,  understanding  examination  the Lolo A e s t h e t i c .  30  of  Western b i o - m e d i c i n e  h a v e had  for  me  of t h e L o l o  o f t h e s e f a c e t s of  w i t h an  music  the greatest  Lolo three and impact  The  Land  The  Lolo  live  i n the  n o r t h w e s t e r n West New  Britain  They number a p p r o x i m a t e l y through seven v i l l a g e s separate and  districts  traditional  origin  spread  out  1200  i n the  my  Papua New  p e o p l e and  are  according  These are  research.  spread  m o u n t a i n s , and  out  three  mountain stories  t h e y have  t o o c c u p y a b r o a d band t h a t  =  to elevation  the  Their  o-f  Guinea.  Lolo divide into  differentiated  affiliation.  mountainous a r e a  Province,  which t h e  among whom I c o n d u c t e d their  interior  Lolo,  place  subsequently  stretches across  the  i siand. On district four  the  north  coast  administration  Lolo v i l l a g e s ,  n e a r Cape G l o u c e s t e r  centre,  housing  the  i n h a b i t a n t s of  these v i l l a g e s  Gloucester  was  c h o s e n t o be  capitalize  on  the  South of the  literature  thought  (Capell  separate along are  on  the  1962)  that  most t r a d i t i o n a l  term  of  the  Lolo  Cape post  to  Idne-Lolo.  Britain,  it  live  south coast  i n the of  In was  Idne r e f e r r e d t o  mountain L o l o c o n s i d e r e d  the  The  area.  West New  towards the  the  ceremonials i n the  i n the  are  coastal Lolo.  administration  However, t h o s e who  Idne R i v e r  a subgroup of  the  i n 1959)  moved h e r e a f t e r  mountain L o l o a r e  l a n g u a g e s of  language.  beach or  the  development the  established  (the  a  villages  the  island  t o be  the  Lolo s i n c e they continue  to  r e p e r t o i r e w h i c h h a v e been  perform  elsewhere live  abandoned.  When t h e L o l o t a l k  on t h e Idne R i v e r , t h e y c a l l  questioned  about  the relationship  because  they a r e not mountain d w e l l e r s l i k e  The I d n e - L o l o spend  villages visiting coastal  coastal,  the sophisticated  the river.  sure-footed  i n mountain  several  and r a n g e  on t h e c o a s t t o t h e v e r y  I was u n a b l e ,  Lolo,  different  m o u n t a i n and r i v e r i n e ,  primarily  to visit  because  impassable  traditional of the r a i n  even f o r t h e  a l l t h e Idne v i l l a g e s .  However,  d a y s i n two I d n e - L o l o v i l l a g e s and met many  of  t h e s e p e o p l e when t h e y v i s i t e d  in  which  is  the central  I conducted  Araigilpua,  the v i l l a g e  t h e b u l k o f my r e s e a r c h .  Araigilpua  v i l l a g e w i t h t h r e e up t h e m o u n t a i n , and  t h r e e down i n t o t h e v a l l e y ,  and a s w e l l  i s c o n s i d e r e d by  t h e L o l o t o be t h e c e n t r e o f t h e i s l a n d . of  t o go t o  more t i m e  three very  w h i c h made p a t h s between v i l l a g e s  I spent  "true" L o l o but  k i n and a r r a n g i n g c e r e m o n i a l s t h a n t h e  L o l o thus occupy  environments,  on  only  group. The  from  b u t when  they a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d  p e o p l e who, f o r e x a m p l e , u s e c a n o e s  gardens.  who  between t h e L o l o and t h e  I was i n f o r m e d  their  those  "Idne",  "Idne",  are r i v e r  that  them  about  the area f a r other reasons as well,  the a i d post, C a t h o l i c  It i s the centre  f o r i t i s here  that  c h u r c h , and community s c h o o l a r e  located.  When o f f i c i a l  b u s i n e s s t a k e s p l a c e , f o r example  district  court, a v i s i t  officer)  o r any o t h e r d i s t r i c t  by t h e d i d i m a n officer,  (agricultural i t i s to Araigilpua  33 that  they  attend Lolo  come t o h o l d  these  m e e t i n g s and  between t h e  experience  two  prevailing  a great  However, 1985, wettest  stranding four  able  to  meet p e o p l e -from e a c h  pressure  of r a i n  when I d i d my  year  placed  on  t h a t any rivers  f o r the  research,  could  was  boundary Northwest  Lolo  entire  remember.  turned  the  systems, the  generally  year.  considered  to  A f t e r even  an  into raging  p e o p l e f o r d a y s between v i l l a g e s .  and  The  damage t o g a r d e n s was  Lolo are  a x e s , bush k n i v e s  Log  bridges  various  kinds  of  taro  (Ipomoea b a t a t a s ) .  digging  These are  t o t a r o as  "our  food  indigenous  to the  their  while  ancestors.  sweet p o t a t o e s  supplemented pitpit  by  other  area  and  sweet  and  raw  potato the  that taro i s  the  one  crop  are  seasonal.  The  ubiquitous  and  grass  the  soft  the e q u a l l y ubiquitous  s t a t e which a r e  the  year,  taro i s  s e a s o n a l l y a v a i l a b l e foods such a k i n d of  Lolo  planted  Taro i s a v a i l a b l e throughout the  i s eaten,  in their  use  say  ( H i b i 5 c u s manihot Abelmoschus m a n i h o t) , greens spinach  and  s t a p l e f o o d s of  b o n e s " and  (Setaria palmifolia),  shoot of which  the  in  t o p l a n t g a r d e n s of  (Aj^ae^aeae f a m i l y )  refer  only  sticks  of  extensive.  swidden h o r t i c u l t u r a l i s t s  and  be  torrents often  f e e t i n d i a m e t e r washed away, o l d e r h o u s e s c a v e d  from r a i n ,  by  I was  w i n d s , meaning t h a t t h e deal  hour's heavy r a i n ,  who  i n t h i s way  i s unfortunately  Southeast trade  the  meetings.  village. Araigilpua  and  their  as inner  aibika  resembling  cooked u n t i l  slimy  and  g e l a t i n o u s and  used as  •foods f o r m t h e  b a s i s of  composed a l m o s t  i n f r e q u e n t , and  of  pork d i s t r i b u t e d provide The  a few  planted  ready f o r  the  so  i s p r o t e i n poor,  but  n e i t h e r pork  will  left  be  continuously  Talis types  eye  f a l l o w , and so  that  new  there  recent  (Terminalia)  a d d i t i o n to the from the  and  aila  n u t s consumed Additional  for  housebuilding  again  for  gardens at old Crops  a l w a y s be  food  P e o p l e work g a r d e n s on their  north  (Inocarpus  resources and  area,  s o on, be  such as  land acquired  names, and  a  the  first  trees  coast  after  WWII.  faqifer)  are  two  galip. firewood,  materials  are a v a i l a b l e i n the  acquired  also  in plantations  Coconuts are  in addition to  Barden l a n d can  g i v e r s of  fallow for  gardens.  will  only  f o o d s mentioned above, L o l o  t o economic development.  been b r o u g h t up  of  nor  harvesting.  relatively having  form  diet.  fertile  h a v e c o c o n u t s w h i c h some L o l o h a v e p l a n t e d an  fishing  some w h i c h a r e c u r r e n t l y p r o d u c i n g , left  being  i s i n the  L o l o t h u s have s e v e r a l  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e  with  Night  diet  gardens are  that they The  These  L o l o a r e g e n e r a l l y used f o r  After this,  g a r d e n s r e a d y t o be are  meal.  carbohydrates.  at ceremonials  next g e n e r a t i o n .  various stages,  which  every  a s u b s t a n t i a l a d d i t i o n to the  about twenty years the  of  with  most p r o t e i n i n t h e  gardens of  seasons.  a diet  entirely  is  fishing  a garnish  f r o m numerous from p a r e n t s ,  l a n d upon w h i c h t h e y  bush. sources. from  have  use  the  rights,  rights  u s u a l l y granted  by s i b l i n g s .  Each L o l o has  a c c e s s t o s e v e r a l p l a t s o f l a n d , w h i c h , i-f u s e d are t y p i c a l l y either producing  f a l l o w , newly p l a n t e d , o r a l r e a d y  thus ensuring a constant  Gardens a r e t h e f o c a l  thevillage  shameful  home c l o s e t o d a r k children returns  will late  of duty  t h e gardens,  Women  Women r e t u r n  f o r a woman t o r e t u r n  b e h u n g r y and n e e d i n g from  food.  since i t i s considered  b e c a u s e by t h i s t i m e ,  f e e d s do n o t e a t u n t i l event,  i n g a r d e n work.  i n mid-afternoon,  and a d e r e l i c t i o n  supply of ready  p o i n t o f L o l o work.  s p e n d most o f t h e d a y engaged to  as gardens,  h e r husband and  food.  I f a woman  t h o s e whom s h e c u s t o m a r i l y  quite late  i n t h e evening.  In t h i s  a h u n g r y man g o e s t o a s i s t e r ' s h o u s e o r t o h i s  mother, complains  a b o u t h i s w i f e , and i s g i v e n f o o d and  sympathy. A man's s c h e d u l e  f o r gardening  more d e p e n d e n t upon p e r s o n a l Unless  i s d i f f e r e n t and  p r e f e r e n c e than  a man i s a p a r t o f an o r g a n i z e d  i s a woman's.  l a b o u r p a r t y , he i s  f r e e t o r e t u r n t o t h e v i l l a g e when he l i k e s , w h e t h e r o r n o t he h a s a c c o m p l i s h e d habit  anything  i n t h e garden.  of r e t u r n i n g t o the v i l l a g e  Men a r e i n t h e  i n the early afternoon t o  h a v e a nap i n t h e men's h o u s e , s i t i n t h e s u n and g o s s i p , or  l o o k f o r someone t o make them f o o d .  complaint  A very  common  i s t h a t w i v e s a r e t o o b u s y t o cook f o r them i n  t h e g a r d e n s a n d , o u t o f d e s p e r a t i o n , t h e y must come back t o t h e v i l l a g e t o be f e d .  While observed of  working  regarding the treatment  garden r u b b i s h .  hidden  food  eaten from  i t s use  eyes are peeled  Gardens are favoured  betel  nut  by a s o r c e r e r .  t h a t an  Even i f t h i s  is  not  If  gardens belong  p e r m i t t e d u n l e s s one  labelled  a thief  behaviour  B o t h g a r d e n s and  then  r e s p e c t , and  a person's  worth  good f o o d , v i t a l  the q u a l i t y  a  fine  i t be  level  garden, person  gardens belong food  t h e r e i s no  o f f o o d , one  food  Any  f o r people  obtained p r i o r  Should  L o l o can  with  unauthorized  t r e s p a s s e d i n gardens belonging  a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t one  and  and  targets for  i s the case,  has  to non-kin,  excuse f o r one's presence.  be  gathered  Upon e n t e r i n g a  It i s unacceptable  a f a m i l y member.  can  disposal  p r o t e c t i n g i t and  e n t e r t h e gardens of o t h e r s u n l e s s t h o s e  has  the  i n the gardens i s covered  f o r evidence  trespassed.  one  and  are  must e x e r c i s e g r e a t c a u t i o n i n d i s p o s i n g o f  of r e d s p i t  preventing  has  of f o o d  rules  l e a v i n g s s i n c e t h e gardens a r e so v u l n e r a b l e .  waste from coat  one  strict  A l l refuse i s carefully  i n the brush.  s o r c e r y and garden  i n the garden,  gathering  permission. acceptable  t o non-kin  then  one  o f t h e most s e r i o u s another.  are t r e a t e d with s i m i l a r  in Lolo society.  to  discovered that  against  of each  to  i s used  in  care  determining  Good g a r d e n s p r o d u c e  f o r good h e a l t h and  for successful  ceremonials. Food events.  The  i s central success  i n L o l o p e r f o r m a n c e and  or f a i l u r e  of s u c h  events  ceremonial i s based  in  37 l a r g e p a r t on  the q u a l i t y  distributed.  I t can  t h e r e i s no  and  t h e q u a n t i t y o-f -food  correctly  ceremony w i t h o u t  be  said  o-f t h e L o l o t h a t  -food, and  no  food  without  ceremony.  From t h e s i m p l e s t meal t o t h e most  elaborate  ceremonial  event,  and  distribution  of  the c o l l e c t i o n ,  food  render  preparation  visible  and  a c t i o n that i s at the very  The  Language  a complex  foundation  M a l e u , t h e v e r n a c u l a r s p o k e n by member o f t h e S i a s i Austronesian (Thurston  group of  19B7).  M a l e u was who  was  Namor, t h e c r e a t o r b e i n g .  given  to people.  As  language, Maleu speakers easiest  l a n g u a g e t h a t one  and  one  who  is,  according  has  not  culture.  of  three  guardian  and  dialect  i s called  the f i r s t  that the  the  the  Maleu  language first  language i s the  could possibly learn  mastered  by  messenger f o r  b e c a u s e i t was  insist  Britain  to the Lolo people  to  speak,  l a n g u a g e i n s e v e r a l weeks  to the L o l o , a hopeless  deliberately One  one  Language i t s e l f  well,  belief  the L o l o , i s a  l a n g u a g e s and  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e L o l o , s i n c e i t was  being  of L o l o  of  l a n g u a g e f a m i l i e s o f N o r t h w e s t e r n New  Maleupua, t h e b i r d  given  web  idiot  o r one  who  is  uncooperative. o f M a l e u i s s p o k e n by  t h e t i p of t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t and  another  the Kilenge by  those  at  who  38 live  i n the v i c i n i t y  of Saksak  on t h e west  coast.  D i f f e r e n c e s among t h e s e d i a l e c t s a r e m i n i m a l is  a Maleu  speaker can e a s i l y  speaker from another area. between d i a l e c t s b a s e d Kilenge  "cut t h e i r  K i l e n g e sounds dialect tend  s t a n d s up."  T h e L o l o make  o f t h e s p e e c h . The  and i n d e e d M a l e u  the talk  spoken  "sleeps".  Those  T h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n c e e i t h e r spoken  by a  t o the Lolo around  i n h i g h , pinched tones such t h a t  t o my e a r between M a l e u  of a  distinctions  s t a c c a t o t o one accustomed  i n which  t o speak  understand the d i a l e c t  on t h e sound  talk"  and a n y o n e who  Saksak  "their  talk  t o the Lolo or  by a L o l o o r s p o k e n  by an  Idne-Lolo. One's a b i l i t y  t o converse i n the native  marks one a s an i n s i d e r  to the culture,  vernacular  w h i l e t h o s e who a r e  unable t o converse remain a t t h e o u t s i d e of t h e s o c i a l boundaries. being  like  I was r e p e a t e d l y t o l d a Lolo required  and u s e i t e x c l u s i v e l y . noticeable  i n regard  those l i v i n g in  Maleu  was c o n s i d e r e d  t o t h e way t h a t  language  especially  people talked  about  who were u n a b l e t o communicate  Tok P i s i n  disgraceful  plus their  that  own l a n g u a g e .  the effort  to learn  It  Maleu  made.  Thurston family  I understand t h e i r  T h i s a t t i t u d e was  i n the village  b u t spoke  had n o t been  that  by my i n f o r m a n t s t h a t  (1987) n o t e s t h a t  of l a n g u a g e s t e n d t o speak  speakers of the S i a s i fewer o t h e r  t h a n do o t h e r s i n West New B r i t a i n .  This  languages  i s so f o r the  39 L o l o perhaps  because  intelligible  d i a l e c t s of Maleu a r e  s p o k e n by a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e t h e need t o speak s e v e r a l Araigilpua, spoken  i n the area precluding  different  languages.  most p e o p l e s p e a k some Kabana  i n the Bariai  (the language  area of t h e north c o a s t ) ,  knowledge o f l a n g u a g e s w h i l e t h e y know t h a t New B r i t a i n ,  In  from  some h a v e  t h e south c o a s t , but g e n e r a l l y ,  many o t h e r l a n g u a g e s  a r e used  i n West  most do n o t s p e a k them w i t h a n y d e g r e e o f  fluency. In c o m p a r i s o n P r o v i n c e , Tok P i s i n relatively than  archaic  i s spoken v e r y r a r e l y form  v a r i a n t s found,  rarely  heard  swearing  t o o t h e r a r e a s i n West New  Tok P i s i n  school  I  among M a l e u s p e a k e r s e x c e p t f o r  back from  school i nthe  language.  i n Maleu.  i ti s definitely  Tok P i s i n  o r Tok P i s i n  spoken a t a l l .  i s taught  once l e a v i n g  regarded  a s an  i n t h e community  t h e s c h o o l y a r d , resume  They would s p e a k M a l e u e x c l u s i v e l y b u t  the teachers a l l e g e d l y English  used  just  since  but c h i l d r e n ,  speaking  words  O l d e r p e o p l e sometimes c h i d e d c h i l d r e n f o r  Tok P i s i n  inferior  anglicized  o c c a s i o n a l l y by s o c c e r p l a y e r s , and  s o m e t i m e s by c h i l d r e n  using  and i s a  f o r e x a m p l e , on t h e n o r t h c o a s t .  and i n s u l t s ,  afternoon.  u s i n g f a r fewer  Britain  h i t them i f t h e y do n o t u s e e i t h e r  while at school.  English  D u r i n g my s t a y i n t h e v i l l a g e  i s not I heard  English  s p o k e n o n l y o n c e when a s c h o o l - a g e d  child  English  to scold  children or  a younger s i b l i n g .  School  used  40 t h o s e who h a v e had some f o r m a l w i t h even a l i m i t e d  education are the only  understanding  L a n g u a g e i s an i m p o r t a n t one's i d e n t i t y  among t h e L o l o .  L o l o then  one i s l i k e  analogous  to social  language. different  Each d i f f e r e n t cultural  of E n g l i s h . means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g  I f one c a n s p e a k l i k e  a L o l o and t h u s  ability.  linguistic  The L o l o e q u a t e  language  complex  so that  regarded  as o u t s i d e r s .  the L o l o sense recalls their  their  special  their  like  truly  language  reinforce  b u t t h e name o f t h e l a n g u a g e close relation  s t a t u s among t h e w o r l d ' s  In t h i s way, l a n g u a g e ,  c u s t o m and  are automatically  Not o n l y d o e s l a n g u a g e  origins,  ability i s  one o n l y f e e l s  language  of uniqueness,  a  i s a s s o c i a t e d with a  c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h o s e w i t h whom one s h a r e s a w h i l e t h o s e who s p e a k a n o t h e r  ones  certain  t o Namor, and  peoples as  "chosen".  a r t forms such as  b a s k e t r y , become "marks" o f t h e L o l o and s e r v e t o d e f i n e Lolo as d i s t i n c t .  E c o n o m i c and P o l i t i c a l  Setting  Traditionally, well-off. a result poor,  t o be  R a r e l y d i d they e x p e r i e n c e a shortage of food as of inclement  a great variety  the bush.  t h e L o l o considered themselves  w e a t h e r , and e v e n i f g a r d e n s of w i l d  Their definition  y e a r s , and w h i l e w e a l t h  f o o d was a l w a y s a v a i l a b l e i n  of wealth  still  were  has changed aver t h e  means h a v i n g  many p i g s and  41 traditional  h o u s e h o l d g o o d s i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s , t o be  wealthy L o l o  t o d a y means h a v i n g  Western goods l i k e "kauboi"  aluminum c o o k i n g p o t s ,  (flashy) s h i r t s ,  increasingly  necessary  their  t o buy  taxes,  treats their  like  of  some c a s h and  prestige  f o r the  and  Lolo  goods. since  an  i n the  status.  t i n plates,  It i s thus  t o have cash t o school  are  these are  no  increase  t o the  longer  still  way  to  and  even  s i n c e e a c h ceremony  one  of  to  now  exchange  a v a i l a b l e without  of  i n d i v i d u a l ' s w e a l t h , one traditional  pay  supplies  Cash i s r e q u i r e d  money i n a d d i t i o n Pigs  possessing  c h i l d r e n , and  work p r o p e r l y  exchange of  traditional  m e a s u r e s of  a radio.  biscuits for their  conduct ceremonial an  or  c l o t h i n g , t o buy  o v e r a l l wealth  includes  these plus  a  the  who  having  central  aspires  to  many p i g s ,  must  h a v e a c c e s s t o money t o amass them. Surprisingly, analogous to pigs requires  i n the  but  meaning t h a t the  r u l e at  t o 60  f o r at only  the  T h u s , a l a r g e sum  of  k i l o g r a m s of  was  i n A r a i g i l p u a , at  postponed u n t i l rice.  view. rice  ceremonial  for distribution.  amount o f  i s cash only  rice  of cash  and  the  least three  i s needed,  c a s h up  c o l l e c t e d to  ceremonial could  front.  purchase While I  e v e n t s were  r a i s e the  i s necessary to obtain  It i s  p r i c e of  u s u a l l y consumed.  those responsible Cash  Each  least a portion  money must be  40  the  Lolo  a small  store  the  buy  i s assuming a p o s i t i o n almost  l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of  possible to barter pig,  rice  money  to  a l l traditional  a  •farms a-f w e a l t h f r o m p i g s t o c a r v e d shell  money  ( n a m a t a v u v u ) , and  w h i c h a r e now The  an  e x p e c t e d p a r t of ceremonial  Lolo are,  unfortunately,  on  Opportunities limited  with  carrying  their  k i n who  f o r earning  cargo f o r the  p l a n t a t i o n s with  some d e g r e e o f  af  regular transportation. The  foreseeable  t o the  f u t u r e t o be  t h i n g s as g r a n t s likely  are  to coastal peoples,  they very  poor.  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  and  t h a t of  that  they  clothes, their  dress are  but  work the  the  availability  in  the  a d v a n t a g e of  Their poverty living  It i s a source  i n rags,  h a v e no  of  is of  d i s t r i b u t i o n s at ceremonials  children rice, are  sa  such are  comparison visible, the  Lolo  are  shame f o r t h e  soap f o r washing  unable to give t h e i r  copra  condition  more p r o s p e r o u s c o a s t a l d w e l l e r s  apparent.  or  Gloucester.  least  of  very  roadwork  d e v e l o p m e n t and  standard  find  so.  describe themselves i n  and  immediately  to take  for agricultural  t o remain, as  the  success,  u n l i k e l y at  able  done  p l a n t and  Lolo v i l l a g e s precludes  L o l a then,  to  v i l l a g e are  f r o m Cape  Province  road  distributions.  village  projects like  of t h e  goods  definite  have a l r e a d y  s t o r e s up  Britain  and  i n t o a m o n e t a r y economy.  money i n t h e  only occasional  O t h e r s i n West New  any  at a  i n v a r i a b l y forced to leave the  work o r r e l y  (natavila)  t o purchase Western  d i s a d v a n t a g e i n terms of e n t r y They a r e  bowls  meager.  Lolo  their and  that  43 Nonetheless, time  L o l o men and women s p e n d much o f t h e i r  involved i n social  and p o l i t i c a l  owing t o t h e n a t u r e o f l o c a l it  from  with  t h e support  h i s or her social  social  that  highly  increase that available.  an i n d i v i d u a l  political  In s p i t e o f t h e i r  considered  d e s i r a b l e t o possess  Certain  people  birth  a r e born  o b l i g a t i o n s t o be c a l l e d  more l i k e l y activity. spheres  traditional  than  family. not t o  t o g r a n t f a v o u r s , and be i n d e b t e d ,  i n at a later  date.  f o r the Lolo takes place i n a and modern, a l t h o u g h  men a r e  i n "modern" i n either  political o r both  t o gain these p o s i t i o n s using a  of t r a d i t i o n a l  weight  of options  i n f l u e n c e by  they w i l l  women t o p a r t i c i p a t e  and a t t e m p t  i t i s  i n f l u e n c e and  Men a s p i r e t o h o l d p o s i t i o n s  combination greater  activity  be  a c t i o n s and c a r e f u l  do f a v o u r s f o r o t h e r s s o t h a t  framework b o t h  ethos,  with  t h o s e who may be i n a p o s i t i o n  Political  c a n muster  i n t o an a l r e a d y i n f l u e n t i a l  a r e very c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r  creating  success i s  influence will  egalitarian  Guinea,  the appropriate  i n f l u e n c e by u s i n g t h e v a r i e t y  v i r t u e of t h e i r  offend  Political  n e t w o r k and l a c k i n g  s k i l l s means t h a t  minimal.  to  i n Papua New  i s i m p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e t h e two.  achieved  All  politics  m a c h i n a t i o n s , and  a n d modern t e c h n i q u e s  i s p l a c e d on t r a d i t i o n a l  means.  although  For  e x a m p l e , s h o u l d one a s p i r e t o h o l d a n y o f t h e e l e c t e d positions individual  in village  g o v e r n m e n t , one must be a p o w e r f u l  i n the traditional  sense  possessing a large  44 number of  p i g s and  able to c a l l this,  on  to deal  or  not  be  provincial  Possession  of  with  a significant  of  the  village  and  attack  political,  getting  or  be  a swelled  a s c e n d a n c y , and  have t h e  possessions and  can  be  or  with  Lolo.  Lolo.  To  affairs  lives  people are  initiated or  economic  i n the  the  of favoured  Typically  in  f o r many  imagined s l i g h t ,  to  someone a l e s s o n  h e a d , t o e n s u r e t h a t no  one  else  for  gains  on. L o l o , members of  greatest  which a r e  e a s e of  the  most i m p o r t a n t l y ,  grievances  their  modern  f o r the  and  to teach  example f a t h e r s o r b r o t h e r s ,  Family  in  to  dealings  involved  endemic among t h e  attacked,  so  Among t h e for  figure  since influential  sorcery  7  of  social  a curse  r e v e n g e f o r some r e a l  first  tangles  i s t o p l a c e one's l i f e  Buinea, as  Added  and  officials.  visible  targets for sorcery,  reasons,  supporters.  intimidated in their  high  one's f a m i l y a t r i s k ,  Papua New  wealth  the  s t a t u s i s a t o n c e a b l e s s i n g and be  forms of  must d e m o n s t r a t e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n effectively  b u r e a u c r a c y and district  traditional  a l a r g e number of  candidates  ability  other  to address.  To  access  the  others  in their  family, i t s t i l l  t o one  i s denied  other,  the  and  most to  family,  feared.  personal  t a r g e t s of  a certain  g l o r y of  the  greatest  members r e f l e c t  the  are  favoured  have t h e  one's immediate  sorcerers,  number  extent,  of  while  accomplishments of  family the  means t h a t what i s g i v e n s o one  i s not  safe  even  45 among c l o s e k i n . means o f s o c i a l  Sorcery  c o n t r o l and m a n i p u l a t i o n  makes e a c h L o l o walk  avoid  being  potent  practiced  a t i g h t r o p e i n an e f f o r t  s t a t u s and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y reputation  i s t h u s one o f t h e most  to  and  enhance  ensorceled.  The  of t h e L o l o as dangerous s o r c e r e r s i s  w i d e s p r e a d , and h a s been blamed Siasi-Ki1enge-Lolo  trade  f o r t h e demise of t h e  ( Z e l e n i e t z 1980).  Certainly i t  d o e s n o t make f o r c a r d i a l  r e l a t i o n s and  r e a s o n why  i n f r e q u e n t l y i n t o other  t h e L o l o marry  Sorcery or f a c e — t o — f a c e  i s likely  one groups.  h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r more t h a n d a y - t o - d a y , interaction.  Sorcery,  sorcery,  holds  a l l Lolo  evaluate  their  a c t i o n s , t r y t o second-guess a c t i o n s of  sorcerers,  and t a i l o r  i n check.  or t h e t h r e a t of  their  They must  b e h a v i o u r t o minimize danger.  In a d d i t i o n , and more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , sorcery  i s p r a c t i c e d would  problem. order,  Sorcery  constantly  t h e d e g r e e t o which  seem t o p o i n t  i s symptomatic  to a  of a c h a n g i n g L o l o  w h i c h h a s c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r t h e L o l a way  is  argued below  of  sorcery,  that  serious  of l i f e .  these changes, i n c l u d i n g the  are the natural  moral It  increase  c o n s e q u e n c e s o f an A e s t h e t i c i n  t r a n s i t i on.  The  Arts  Verbal  Arts The t e l l i n g  social  life.  o f s t o r i e s i s an i m p o r t a n t  The c o n t e n t  of s t o r i e s s e r v e s  part  of  Lolo  to reinforce  the  Lolo  s e n s e o f u n i q u e n e s s and p r o v i d e s  lessons  i n L o l o h i s t o r y and m o r a l i t y .  stories  i s an o c c a s i o n  of  sociability  tell  Adults  moral  and o l d e r  them t o l d The  kilkilnga, telling  children often  Lolo  and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e t e l l i n g . differentiate  three  among n a p u , p u n g u n g a , and  genres of s t o r i e s .  of s t o r i e s ,  the Lolo  When r e f e r r i n g  p a r t i c u l a r genre of s t o r y , t h e r e  for  story or story t e l l i n g  being  no g e n e r i c  i n the v i l l a g e  from s p i r i t s hunting  and p r e p a r i n g  g a r d e n work r e q u i r e t h a t bush.  because of the dangers  a g r o u p o f men s p e n d a n i g h t i n  some d r o p o f f t o s l e e p ,  man t e l l i n g  such  f o r c e r t a i n kinds of  A f t e r d a r k , t h e y s i t by a f i r e  Periodically one  at night  Generally,  and s o r c e r e r s , b u t c e r t a i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s  wild pigs  word  i n Maleu.  Napu a r e t h e " s t o r i e s o f t h e n i g h t " . people stay  to the  use t h e term a p p r o p r i a t e t o  the  the  imperative  s t o r i e s t o young c h i l d r e n , and e v e r y o n e d e l i g h t s i n  hearing  as  with  The a c t o f t e l l i n g  i n which t h e L o l o  i s enacted.  the hearers  and t e l l  but there  napu.  i s always  s t o r i e s and someone l i s t e n i n g .  Napu t e l l  of animals o r s p i r i t s  who l i v e  i nthe  bush and many o f them e x p l a i n how t h e y came t o c o o p e r a t e with  man.  One s t o r y d e s c r i b e s  skin  f o r t h e h e a d s o f drums, a n o t h e r t e l l s  be  domesticated.  in  t h i s genre, that  nights  I was t o l d  how man came t o u s e l i z a r d  by one o l d e r  t h e s t o r i e s helped  how p i g s came t o man, a  specialist  t o pass t h e long  and make t h e d a r k b u s h , t e e m i n g w i t h  dangers a t  47  night, and  less frightening.  render  familiar  r e m i n d s men o f t h i s keeps m a l e v o l e n t All  The s t o r i e s ,  he s a i d ,  the night creatures. while the a c t i v i t y  spirits  befriend  Telling  around  napu  the f i r e  a t bay.  napu a r e s i m i l a r l y  structured.  Each i s about  t e n m i n u t e s l o n g , b e g i n s by i n t r o d u c i n g t h e c e n t r a l characters, journey.  and c o n t i n u e s w i t h an a c c o u n t  The c e n t r a l  animal  Each napu h a s a s p e c i a l the p a r t i c u l a r song  animal  o f an e v e n t  c h a r a c t e r i s then  concludes  fables,  song c o n s i d e r e d a s a l e i t m o t i f f o r  involved i n the story.  with a statement  The a n i m a l ' s  between t h e a n i m a l and  man i s e x p l a i n e d a l o n g w i t h a s t a t e m e n t as a r e s u l t  of t h i s  and t h e  r e m i n i s c e n t of Aesop's  i n which t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  behaviour  or a  introduced.  i s sung t w i c e i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t o r y ,  story  human  of proper  moral  relationship.  On o c c a s i o n a g r o u p o f men may h o l d a n i g h t o f story cooked fires  telling  f o r the v i l l a g e .  and d i s t r i b u t e d ,  In t h i s  and members o f t h e v i l l a g e  and s i t o u t s i d e w h i l e t h e men t e l l  In t h i s way, c h i l d r e n  learn  enjoys the entertainment. learned,  although  children  i n l e s s formal  t o me by c h i l d r e n ,  instance, food i s  the stories  napu u n t i l while  T h i s i s one way t h a t  many a r e t o l d  were p r e s e n t , t h e y beamed w i t h  dawn.  everyone napu a r e  by p a r e n t s t o t h e i r  settings.  and i f t h e i r  light  S e v e r a l n a p u were  told  parents or other adults pride.  48 When p e o p l e g a t h e r e d usually  to tell  h i l a r i o u s occasions.  contrast,  preparation, the  by c h i l d r e n , and s e t t l e i n  o f g o s s i p i n g and s t o r y t e l l i n g .  the t e l l i n g  o f pungunga r e q u i r e s  i s a time of g r e a t  few t i m e s t h a t  small  Pungunga t e l l  By  elaborate  solemnity,  and i s one o f  c h i l d r e n a r e n o t welcome.  o f t h i n g s t h a t happened  i n the past.  These s t o r i e s d e s c r i b e t h e o r i g i n s of d i f f e r e n t customs, c e r e m o n i a l s , creator  being  walked  proper  setting Prior  respected  the land.  rehearsed,  all  details  so on.  to  to telling  was t a k e n t o c r e a t e t h e  pungunga a g r o u p o f o l d and h i g h l y  a t one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e i r  making s u r e  of t h e chronology  The c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e s e their  houses  o f e v e n t s and  g r o u p s and t h e h o u s e  rehearsals provided  ownership of s t o r i e s .  ownership of s t o r i e s patterns  their  regarding  a r e ready t o hear t h e  significance.  In t h i s  i s e s t a b l i s h e d , i n a way t h a t  of descent  mean t h a t o t h e r s  clues  Pungunga a r e p a s s e d b y a f a t h e r  h i s s o n s when he j u d g e s t h a t t h e y  general  and s o when  and a t m o s p h e r e .  s t o r i e s and a p p r e c i a t e  not  stories,  great  s u c h a s p l a c e names, names o f c h a r a c t e r s , and  chosen t o h o l d the  For t h i s reason,  t o these  t o me, c a r e  men g a t h e r e d  and  foods,  and s p e a k o f t h e t i m e when Namor t h e  i m p o r t a n c e was a t t a c h e d pungunga were t o l d  were  They would crowd i n t o my  h o u s e , men and women a c c o m p a n i e d •for an e v e n i n g  n a p u t o me, t h e s e  among t h e L o l o .  do n o t know t h e s t o r i e s ,  way, follows  Ownership  does  rather, i t  49 means t h a t  certain  h a v e what c a n  be  p e o p l e , by  c a l l e d use  and  t h u s have the  and  can  virtue  rights  authority  to  are  the  say  which v e r s i o n  for  a discussion  arbiters of of  Rehearsal telling,  the  of  authority  i s an  especially  in  d i s a g r e e on  some p o i n t  discussions  are  those possessing  the  kin  links.  older  man,  the  effrontery his of  in challenging  elders. a story  I f a man and  chances are  that  regard  by  h i s peers.  regard  to  the  Lolo of  regard  genre are  them t o  derision  1987  the  During participants in  these  proper c r e d e n t i a l s  in  disagrees with for  an  his  knowledge of  his  opinion  one  of  disregarded,  individual  i s held  Knowledge i s e s p e c i a l l y  When t h o s e w i t h o u t t h e  s n o r t s of  or  particular  while others with  stories told  to  story  Participants  superior  Those with the  this particular  power  Coplan  Lolo  as  i s reprimanded  pungunga c o n t a i n i n g  identity.  are  a r g u e s w i t h a n o t h e r a b o u t some a s p e c t  i s ignored  that  erupt  story.  the  stories  the  (Cf.  pungunga.  I f a y o u n g e r man  y o u n g e r man  stories,  the  e l e m e n t of  arguments o c c a s i o n a l l y  f o r m of  links,  songs).  c a s e of  the  tell  i s correct  rehearsals,  of  particular  s t o r i e s with  important  i n the  kin  These i n d i v i d u a l s  the  story  to  their  publicly  pass these s t o r i e s along.  t h o s e who  of  me,  less  proper  in  critical  s t o r i e s fundamental  greatest  venerated  amount o f and  held  knowledge a r e sanction  for  less  in  the  to  high  respected.  telling  v i l l a g e r s , and  with  knowledge  certain  t h e i r e f f o r t s were r e w a r d e d  from other  low  with  accusation  50 that  they  were " r u b b i s h " .  the t e l l e r s  indeed  In some c a s e s ,  knew l i t t l e  i t was c l e a r  of t h e s t o r i e s .  that  In o t h e r s ,  however, t h e v e r s i o n s o f t h e s t o r i e s were s i m i l a r , b u t since the t e l l e r the  stories  those  lacked the authority t o t e l l  t h e m s e l v e s were s e e n a s "no good".  who t o l d  stories  good" t h e m s e l v e s , not  Frequently,  w h i c h were "no good" were a l s o "no  s i n c e o n l y an u p s t a r t would  tell  a story  rightfully his. Pungunga a r e r e m i n d e r s  that  without  these  stories,  away and d i s a p p e a r . is  the stories,  happening.  especially his  they  one, t h e t e l l e r  out as t h e masters of t h i s i n their  remember more o f t h e s t o r i e s  fade what  a pungunga,  would a p o l o g i z e f o r Certain  individuals  genre, not because  entirety,  than  would  i s precisely  I was t o l d  knowledge o f t h e s t o r y .  know t h e s t o r i e s  and L o l o b e l i e v e  traditions  Unfortunately, this  an i m p o r t a n t  are singled  their  Almost each time  incomplete  of t h e past  but because  do o t h e r s .  By  they  losing  e n t i r e s t o r i e s and p a r t s o f o t h e r s , t h e L o l o a r e l o s i n g p a r t s of t h e A e s t h e t i c . important  moral  specifically Aesthetic  stories  provide  l e s s o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e L o l o  the s p i r i t  world,  this particular  leads to a corresponding  since their their  Since these  understanding  loss  order,  f o r b e l i e f s and  a s s o c i a t e d p r a c t i c e s i s gone. B o t h napu and pungunga a r e c o n s i d e r e d  to  l o s s of t h e  i n moral  of t h e foundation  world,  be i n d i g e n o u s  b u t c a n a l s o be f o u n d  by t h e L o l o  among o t h e r  groups  in  West  third  New  genre,  Kilkilnga go  Britain  to  (Scaletta  k i l k i l n g a , i s not  are  riddles.  another  man  the  and  wants,  and  asks.  Unfortunately,  few  people  what  other  i n the  The  Lolo  status  art"  has  are  reflects  and  knowledge  the  making  Story functions.  story  to  any  Bauman  to  most for  in their  the  Story  Lolo  (1986:113)  he  since  notions  telling  in story  true  he  what  these  will  ver  them.  acknowledge  adept  he  what  contributes to  Prowess  others  those  and  The  indigenous  nut,  him  of  tell  telling.  1986.8)  be  betel  give  quite particular  telling  As  and  heard  know how  to  1980).  p i c t u r e s of  guess  society.  causes  wants  verbal  to  Zelenietz  considered  man  I never  area  (Bauman  within  If a draw  c o n s t i t u t e s good  "verbal  1985,  a  person's  telling  vast  big  a  i s  of  cultural  men.  f u l f i l l s  a  number  of  states,  When o n e l o o k s t o t h e s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s b y which s o c i a l l i f e i s accomplished, one f i n d s - with s u r p r i s i n g frequency - people t e l l i n g s t o r i e s t o e a c h o t h e r , a s a means of g i v i n g c o g n i t i v e and e m o t i o n a l coherence t o e x p e r i e n c e ; c o n s t r u c t i n g and n e g o t i a t i n g social identity; investing the experiential landscape with moral s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a way t h a t c a n b e b r o u g h t t o b e a r o n human behaviour; generating, i n t e r p r e t i n g , and t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e work e x p e r i e n c e ; and a h a s t of o t h e r reasons. These telling.  highly  considered  certainly  Individual identity  recognition and  statements  and  respect  knowledgeable to  be  the  given  apply  i s gained to  those  raconteurs.  essence  of  Lolo  to  Lolo  from  story  the  considered Much  of  what  culture i s  talented i s  contained  within  t h e Namor s t o r i e s and o t h e r  stories, the  most p a r t i c u l a r l y  ordinary  orders  articulated given  stories.  pungunga, t e l l  and t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y  of each, while  origin  Lolo  of t h e o r i g i n s of  and d e s c r i b e  t h e moral  i n d i c a t i n g how t h e two a r e  ideologically  and i n a c t i o n .  It i s clear  that  t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of L o l o s t o r i e s f o r t h e information  contained  within  and f o r t h e i r  social  significance, losing  p a r t s o f s t o r i e s and e n t i r e s t o r i e s c o n s t i t u t e s a vacuum i n Lolo  life.  spirits  Stories tell  how t h e L o l o a r e c o n n e c t e d t o  and p o w e r s , h e n c e t h e A e s t h e t i c .  component o f t h e A e s t h e t i c in  t h e moral  since  order  Loss of t h i s  contributes to further  o f c u l t u r e and s o c i a l  organization,  knowledge of t h e s t o r i e s i s r e q u i r e d  coherent  the connections  changes  t o render  between t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y  and t h e  mundane.  M u s i c and P e r f o r m a n c e More t h a n any o t h e r Lolo consider clearly  separates  merely a b r i e f  them f r o m o t h e r  i n greater  which  g r o u p s , and t h a t  t o t h e essence of t h e i r  most which  culture.  This  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o m u s i c and p e r f o r m a n c e o f  m u s i c among t h e L o l o . subject  culture, the  m u s i c and p e r f o r m a n c e a s t h a t  s p e a k s most d i r e c t l y is  f a c e t of t h e i r  Further  chapters  deal  with  this  depth.  Maleu c o n t a i n s  no g e n e r i c  Each time t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s  terms f o r sang a r music.  take place  they a r e l a b e l l e d  53 according  to their  ceremonials  context.  t h e L o l o use t h e term  loosely  as f e a s t ,  certain  types of ceremonial  discussed  elaborate ceremonial  detail  complex  in slighlty  thefollowing  Vokoi, Netutnetne, Rumburumbu. according  The n a r o g o c y c l e i s  i n Chapter  V.  possessed  a r i c h and  (See F i g u r e 1). different  among t h e K i l e n g e and t h e Kabana. included  narogo which g l o s s e s  events.  Lolo traditionally  these ceremonies  types of  b u t w h i c h more p r o p e r l y r e f e r s t o o n l y  i n further  The  For certain  form  Certain of c a n be f o u n d  T h e L o l o complex  indigenous ceremonies:  K a i , Vukumu,  N a v o l t o m a r e , Naosung, M a l a n g g a n , and  Several of these a r e not c u r r e n t l y  t o t h e L o l o , because of incomplete  Netutnetne,  a performance  are l a r g e l y  f o r g o t t e n by e v e n t h e o l d e s t  performed,  knowledge.  f o r women o n l y , and Rumburumbu, Lolo.  Naosung and  M a l a n g g a n h a v e n o t been p e r f o r m e d  f o r years.  very potent ceremonials  t h e most p o w e r f u l and  frightening  masked s p i r i t s  t o t h e gardens h o u s e , and w i l l hidden. about  involving  known t o t h e L o l o .  when t h e s e s p i r i t s not return u n t i l  emerge f r o m  Women  flee  t h e men's  the f i g u r e s a r e again  My i n f o r m a n t s would n o t s i n g  t h e performances  These a r e  t h e songs o r t a l k  because of t h e i n h e r e n t danger.  T h e s e t o p i c s were v i r t u a l l y  t h e o n l y ones about  which  they  were n o t f o r t h c o m i n g . Vukumu and V o k o i  were g i v e n t o t h e L o l o by Namor  a l o n g w i t h Naosung and M a l a n g g a n .  K a i and N a v o l t o m a r e were  54 gifts  from  songs from  a spirit  b e i n g who,  a mouth l o c a t e d  lacking  be  a r e c o n s i d e r e d by t h e  i n d i g e n o u s w i t h t h e most i m p o r t a n t  Namor a l o n g w i t h t h e i r  the  i n h i s armpit.  Most o f t h e s e c e r e m o n i e s to  a h e a d , sang  stories,  g i v e n t o them  performance  m a g i c and  Lolo by the  55 Figure 1 Lolo  Ceremonies  Ceremony  Description  Nakamutmut  Performed i n t h e context of Half Lolo, f i r s t b o r n ceremonial, t o "pull" half Bariai p i g s f o r Vukumu, and t o c e l e b r a t e namos, t h e male and f e m a l e f i r s t b o r n c h i l d r e n , the wealth amassed f o r t h e ceremony, and t h e act of c e l e b r a t i o n i t s e l f . This i s c u r r e n t l y performed.  Navoltomare  Part of t h e narogo c y c l e of Indi genous c e r e m o n i e s f o r m o r t u a r i e s and - headless the f i r s t b o r n . Performed t o spiri t r a i s e t h e c e n t r a l post of t h e men's h o u s e , and t o c e l e b r a t e t h e " r e b i r t h " o f t h e s p i r i t s who l i v e i n t h e men's h o u s e . Primary p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e agnates of t h e men's h o u s e g r o u p f o r w h i c h t h e p o s t i s r a i s e d , secondary p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e c o g n a t e s , more d i s t a n t k i n , and members o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l g r o u p . Not now p e r f o r m e d , i t h a s been r e p l a c e d by S i a .  Vokoi  Performed f o r female f i r s t b o r n Indigenous named S a l i k i t o c a l l h e r name, t o — a gift " t u r n h e r i n t o a man", and t o f r o m Namor c e l e b r a t e her marriage. Part of narogo ceremonial c y c l e . Performed by a g n a t e s and c o g n a t e s o f G a l i k i ' s p a t e r n a l men's h o u s e g r o u p . Last performed i n i t s e n t i r e t y about 20 y e a r s ago.  Naosung  P e r f o r m e d f o r male f i r s t b o r n named N a t a v o l o t o c a l l h i s name, and g i v e him f e m a l e r e p r o d u c t i v e powers. Performed by a g n a t e s and c o g n a t e s o f h i s p a t e r n a l men's h o u s e g r o u p . Last p e r f o r m e d a b o u t 30 y e a r s ago. Naosung masks b u r n e d i n 1930's.  Source  Indigenous - a gift f r o m Namor  Figure  1 (can't)  Malanggan  P e r f o r m e d t o t u r n B a l i k i back Indigenous i n t o a woman. Part of narogo - Namor c y c l e , and was p e r f o r m e d b y G a l i k i ' s male a g n a t e s and c o g n a t e s . L a s t p e r f o r m e d a b o u t 30 y e a r s a g o . M a i a n g g a n masks b u r n e d i n 1930's.  Netutnetne  Performed a s p a r t of t h e narogo Indigenous c y c l e f o r female f i r s t b o r n i n - Namor prepration f o r marriage. Female a g n a t e s and c o g n a t e s were k e y participants. No l o n g e r p e r f o r m e d , t h e l a s t p e r f o r m a n c e was a b o u t 40 y e a r s ago.  Vukumu  P a r t o f t h e narogo c y c l e , and performed t o p u t b l a c k bands on l e g s o f male f i r s t b o r n . Key p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e a g n a t e s o f male f i r s t b o r n b e i n g d e c o r a t e d . S t i l l p e r f o r m e d i n Idne v i l l a g e s , l a s t p e r f o r m e d a b o u t 20 y e a r s ago Lolo villages.  Kai  Indi genous — Namor  in  O r i g i n a l l y p e r f o r m e d by young men Indigenous o f men's h o u s e g r o u p s a s a way t o — h e a d l i d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r s t r e n g t h and t o spirit a t t r a c t women. S t i l l performed, a l t h o u g h now o n l y a s an a d j u n c t t o Sia.  57 e x p e c t a t i o n s -for a p p r o p r i a t e p r e p a r a t i o n s and p i g s and  o t h e r forms of w e a l t h  distributed  q u a n t i t i e s o-f  i n t h e c o u r s e of  performance. Indigenous  ceremonies  a r e viewed  property belonging to the Lolo,  as being  actual  s i n c e Namor g a v e t h e s e  them a l o n g w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e . L o l o t h u s h a v e what i s a n a l o g o u s performance  t o " c o p y r i g h t " over  of t h e s e ceremonies.  These ceremonies  t h e p r o p e r t y of  i n d i v i d u a l s but r a t h e r  who  have a s t a k e i n e n s u r i n g t h a t  as a r e s u l t  p r o p e r l y executed hands.  Certain  and  belong  not allowed t o f a l l  individuals,  ideally  the  into  to The  the  are  not  to a l l Lolo they  are  t h e wrong  "boss" of  the  men's h o u s e o r n a t a v a l o , h a v e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r ensuring  that  performances  are c a r r i e d  However, i f , a s i s t h e c a s e men's h o u s e i s n o t s e e n expert  assumes t h i s It  say that  no  such  i n Umelpua, t h e e l d e r  a s c a p a b l e , an  t h e y would n o t sold  like  t o another  qualms a b o u t  of  individual  more  lesser  ar s e l l  a ceremony.  The  t o s e e one group  of t h e  of p e o p l e , but t h e y  performances  which  a ceremony, one  n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h t h o s e who One from  ceremony, M u r m u r  t h e Arawe on  must f i r s t  include In  engage i n  hold copyright. (Arawe A i u ) , was  the south coast.  A Lola  Lola  important  t h o s e w h i c h were g i v e n by someone o t h e r t h a n Namor. o r d e r t o buy  the  responsibility.  i s p a s s i b l e t a buy  performances  out p r o p e r l y .  purchased  family  with  have  Arawe k i n had place  seen  and  wealth f o r i t s performance.  representative to discuss  The which  i t was  decided  t h e Arawe would  be p a i d  t h i s was  that  p u r c h a s e r s would  Murmur s o t h a t there  first  hold  the Lolo could  carved  bowls  and c l a y p o t s ,  cooked  p o r k and  from t h a t  five  price for  females,  l a r g e s h a r e s of  came t o t e a c h  the  Lolo.  t h e L o l o number Murmur a s  sell  Murmur t o a n o t h e r g r o u p  f r o m t h e Arawe.  t i m e and  one  after  In t h i s e v e n t , t h e b u t t h e L o l o would  t r o u b l e as i n s t r u c t o r s r e c e i v i n g  l e s s t h a n i f t h e ceremony was  this  and  not r e c e i v e compensation,  for their  owners.  m a l e s and  The  would  of the i n d i g e n o u s ceremonies.  L o l o c a n now  permission  Arawe would paid  perform  ceremonies, a l t h o u g h the q u a l i t y of ownership i s  The seeking  f o r a l l who now  sold.  l e a r n i t c o r r e c t l y , and  several  p r o c e e d e d , and  be  a s p e c i a l ceremony  f o r the r i g h t s t o performance.  food  began  lengthy  come t o a L o l o v i l l a g e ,  pigs, three  different  a  Murmur c o u l d  adult  "their"  acquire  Thus,  After  eight  This duly  t o use i t i n  o f t h i s f a m i l y went t o t h e Arawe and  t h e p u r c h a s e o f Murmur.  negotiations,  of  wished  o f Vukumu s i n c e t h e y were u n a b l e t o  sufficient  in  i t performed  purchased from the  Purchases of a l l t r a d i t i o n a l  ceremonies  true follow  pattern. The  L o l o welcome any  excuse t o s i n g . mourning  Every Lolo  occasion  sings  g i v i n g them  lullabies,  play  an songs,  songs, e u l o g y songs, songs from ceremonies  or  be  ballads,  on an a l m o s t  walk t o and f r o m  daily  basis.  t h e gardens,  People  of  West New B r i t a i n  s i n g i n g (Counts,  1985)  while  they  and n e a r l y a n y a c t i v i t y c a n  be e n l i v e n e d by s p o n t a n e o u s s i n g i n g . from  sing  Many o t h e r  groups  c o n s i d e r t h e L o l o t o be t h e m a s t e r s  personal  communication  and b e l i e v e t h e y p o s s e s s  t h e most  1983, S c a l e t t a  extensive  r e p e r t o i r e of songs i n c e r e m o n i a l s . L o l o music musical is  i s mainly  instruments,  regularly  used  Bamboo jaw h a r p s a r e  by young men t o w h i l e away t h e t i m e , o r  to occupy themselves publicly,  They p o s s e s s few  and o n l y t h e kundu o r h o u r g l a s s drum  i n performance.  played, but u s u a l l y  played  vocal.  on l o n g w a l k s .  others a r e played  Certain flutes are i n t h e p r i v a c y of t h e  men's h o u s e o r i n t h e bush away f r o m used  f o r ceremonial  successful beloved  purposes  wooing g u a r a n t e e d  Flutes are  and f o r l o v e charms  kind of f l u t e .  Lolo value musicianship  and u s e t h i s a s a means  t o g r a n t h i g h o r low s t a t u s t o i n d i v i d u a l s . wide k n o w l e d g e o f s o n g s a r e g e n e r a l l y t h o s e comparable c u l t u r a l "big  the L o l o having  vocal  ability  at least  possess  t h e s t a t u s of valued,  i d e a s a b o u t what makes a good  Their c r i t e r i a  a r e remarkably  Western s o c i e t y ,  who  Good s i n g e r s a r e a l s o  very d e f i n i t e  or a poor s i n g e r .  Those having a  k n o w l e d g e and a r e g r a n t e d  man" o r " b i g woman".  with  i f a young man t h i n k s o f h i s  while playing a p a r t i c u l a r The  women.  used  similar  i n assessments of  t o those  used i n  i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f male v o i c e s .  Men,  a c c o r d i n g t o my i n f o r m a n t s ,  voices, notes or  a wide v o c a l range,  rather  fact  tones,  and i t i s a mark o f t a l e n t  h i t e x c e p t i o n a l l y high notes  although  t h a t a woman c a n h i t t h e s e n o t e s  importance combination produced  no l o s s o f t i m b r e  Women on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e e x p e c t e d  nasal  than  the quality  round  and s h o u l d be a b l e t o s i n g  a t t h e extremes of t h i s range with  power.  can  s h o u l d have f u l l ,  t o sing i n  i f a woman  i n t h i s case, the  i s of g r e a t e r  of t h e sound produced.  of high, nasal tones  and t h e f u l l  This  lower  tones  by t h e men i s d e s i r a b l e and p l e a s i n g t o t h e L o l o  ear. Land, language, intrinsically  items  c o n s i d e r e d by t h e L o l o t o be  valuable, the verbal arts,  p e r f o r m a n c e , a l l h a v e , and a r e i m p o r t a n t intimate connections  to spirits  This intimate connection with and  political  greater  action  extraordinary.  aspects of Lolo  of s p i r i t  power.  life  Economic  a n d i n f l u e n c e , h e n c e more w o r l d l y  power, and w h i l e c o n s t i t u t e d still  their  provide the route t o possession of  amounts o f w e a l t h  human b e i n g s ,  because o f ,  and e x t r a o r d i n a r y p o w e r s .  imbues t h o s e  t h e w e i g h t and s i g n i f i c a n c e  a n d m u s i c and  primarily  of a c t i o n  n e c e s s i t a t e d e a l i n g with t h e  with  other  61 Agents of  Change  This d i s c u s s i o n i s intended for  examinations  Lolo.  I t i s not  documentation  on  of  social  and  my  intention  to provide the  cultural here  context  c h a n g e among  to provide  Lolo contact history-  extensive  Rather,  I intend  f o c u s on  t h r e e agents of change, the m i s s i o n i z a t i o n  process,  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of Western b i o — m e d i c i n e ,  g r o w t h o f a m o n e t a r y economy, w h i c h , f r o m my the s i t u a t i o n ,  h a v e had  r e l a t i o n s with  the s p i r i t s  for in and  the g r e a t e s t impact and  their  t h i s a n a l y s i s were c o l l e c t e d the  village  (who  mission.  As  rather  interpretation  an  and  to  the  a n a l y s i s of on  Lolo  f e l l o w humans.  f r o m s e n i o r men  Data  and  women  would d e s c r i b e t h e m s e l v e s a s C h r i s t i a n )  i n d i s c u s s i o n s with such,  the  this  the  incumbent  i s not  an  priest  at the  historical  of h i s t o r y  Kilenge  analysis,  as g i v e n  t o me  by  but my  i nformants. The extremely  i n t r o d u c t i o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y  potent  secularization.  f o r c e i n the process The  latter  t o one  been  an  of m o d e r n i z a t i o n  and  term r e f e r s t o the p r o c e s s  w h i c h t h e L o l o a r e moving f r o m an religious principles  has  orientation  i n which t h e y  guided  by  are guided  by  secular. B e c a u s e of t h e L o l o ' s i s o l a t e d early  c o n t a c t s with  missions  location,  came s e c o n d hand.  Kilenge, the Lolo's neighbours  on  the north  their The  coast,  had  by  the  become f a m i l i a r  with  missions  and  through  s t o r i e s b r o u g h t by  their  Siasi.  A Lutheran  had  territory, force.  and  The  attributed on  The  K i l e n g e responded  The  L o l o at the t r a d e and  1929,  the Sacred  Heart  II  o n l y by  (ibid,  pp.  the  these  and  the coast at t h i s  Christian of  time,  and  mission  on  a few  t o my  informants,  occasions prior  the mission  attempted  1950's s e t up  a small  informants  the  Order which  priests, during  World  ( t h e r e were no  Idne—Lolo  received  given  the  Lolo their  location  was i n c o n s i s t e n t .  Mission contact with According  the  i n Kilenge included  t e a c h i n g s from A n g l i c a n s ) , but  the L o l o , contact  (Zelenietz  i n Kilenge  Serman  the mountain L o l o w i t h i n i t s t e r r i t o r y on  already  stories.  Japanese occupation The  attack  of t h e K i l e n g e , the  Irish  35—36).  had  t o my  established a mission by  early  were i n v o l v e d w i t h  according  at the request  s i n c e been s t a f f e d  interrupted War  with  was  the Lutherans  time  Siasi  t o t h i s news by  Naosung masks, w h i c h t h e S i a s i t o a demand by  the  powerful  f o l l o w i n g an  were l i k e w i s e f a m i l i a r  has  a  to divine retribution  Kilenge-Lola-Siasi  of  was  I s l a n d i n 18SS  done i n r e s p o n s e  In  been e s t a b l i s h e d i n  e x p l o s i o n of R i t t e r  their  1980s 165).  activities  trading partners,  according to the S i a s i ,  the mission.  burning  mission  mission  t h e L o l o began i n t h e they  were v i s i t e d  t o W o r l d War  II.  by  After  more s u s t a i n e d c o n t a c t and s c h o o l , church  and  aid  a  1930's. priest  the in  post.  War, the  63 The and  mission  found  i tdifficult  the school,  t h e L o l o s a y t h a t i t was c l o s e d more o f t e n t h a n n o t .  A t t e m p t s were made t o open o t h e r the L o l o area, but these Papua New G u i n e a n S e l f in  to staff  1975, t h e p r e s e n t The  the  late  church  area. his  usually talk  community s c h o o l  developed.  i n 1985.  catechist  arrived,  f r e q u e n t l y , f o r example,  Previous  the Lolo  unlike making  incumbents a t t h e m i s s i o n  once o r t w i c e each y e a r ,  o f one p r i e s t  Until  when he made h i s p a t r o l s i n t h e  say that the current p r i e s t ,  visits  patrolled  was  h a s n e v e r had a r e s i d e n t p r i e s t .  My i n f o r m a n t s  trips  With  Government i n 1973 and I n d e p e n d e n c e  by t h e p r i e s t  predecessors,  five  s u f f e r e d t h e same f a t e .  1960's, when t h e f i r s t  were v i s i t e d  schools further a f i e l d i n  and t h e L o l o  who d i d n o t come i n t o t h e m o u n t a i n s f o r  a p e r i o d o f some y e a r s . Even now, t h e p r i e s t ' s to  the v i l l a g e  being  visits  a hasty  service,  be  done s u c h  to  return to the coast.  although frightens  usually arrives,  d o e s w h a t e v e r e x t r a t a s k s need t o  as performing  answer q u e s t i o n s  Transport  s o h a z a r d o u s and t h e w e a t h e r s o  u n p r e d i c t a b l e mean t h a t t h e p r i e s t conducts  are brief.  group marriages,  T h e r e i s no t i m e  o r p r o v i d e any r e l i g i o u s  since the priest, the v i l l a g e r s ,  a tall  and v e r y  and t h e n  leaves  f o r the priest to instruction, imposing  figure,  i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t a n y o n e would  have t h e t e m e r i t y t o ask q u e s t i o n s .  64 In s p i t e o f t h e l i m i t e d mission  presence  informants,  was a d e c i d e d  the f i r s t  face-to-face contact, the force.  m i s s i o n a r i e s encouraged  abandon t h e u s e o f masks, i n c l u d i n g and  M a l a n g g a n , two o f t h e i r  ceremonials. they given  t o my  the Lolo to  p e r f o r m a n c e s o f Naosung  most i m p o r t a n t  The L o l o a c q u i e s c e d  were l i k e l y  According  to their  and  powerful  requests,  since  f r i g h t e n e d of t h e consequences of r e f u s a l ,  the cataclysm  of R i t t e r  antagonism of t h e mission. ceremonies, the Lolo l o s t  Island following Siasi  W i t h t h e abandonment o f t h e s e their  usual  means o f a c c e s s t o  t h e powers o f t h e s e p e r f o r m a n c e s which a s w i l l  be r e c a l l e d  from p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s , i n v o l v e t h e t r a n s f e r  o f m a l e and  f e m a l e r e p r o d u c t i v e powers t o t h e i r  As i s  demonstrated are central  i n further chapters,  of s p i r i t s ,  powers assumed by human Christianity  so  spirit  isolated,  their  directly to  p o w e r s , and s p i r i t  beings.  o f f e r e d a r o u t e t o p o w e r s , b u t powers  w h i c h t h e L o l o were u n f a m i l i a r .  although for  powers o f r e p r o d u c t i o n  t o t h e Lolo A e s t h e t i c , speaking  Lolo conceptions  with  opposites.  instruction  Because t h e L o l o a r e  i n C a t h o l i c i s m was t r u n c a t e d  t h e r e a r e , and h a v e b e e n , c a t e c h i s t s i n A r a i g i l p u a  some y e a r s . Villagers,  t h e m a j o r i t y o f whom c o n s i d e r e d  t h e m s e l v e s t o be C h r i s t i a n s , Catholic times  doctrine.  of c r i s i s ,  Questions  often questioned  me a b o u t  would u s u a l l y a r i s e  during  f o r example when t h r e e v i l l a g e r s d i e d i n  rapid  s u c c e s s i o n , o r when a l m o s t  Ararau v i l l a g e  were s t r i c k e n  questions,  I concluded  reconciling  Christian  their  affairs where  of t h e i r  souls,  malevolent their and  whereupon  their  indigenous  difficulty beliefs.  o f h e a v e n and t h e s o u l o f t h e d e a d who  continue to p a r t i c i p a t e  descendants.  Heaven,  are  remain i n the  f o r the Lolo, i s  t h e s o u r c e of d e s t r u c t i v e powers, of  spirits,  dwell.  dead a r e s t o l e n  taken  with  in spirits  v i l l a g e s and who  From  t h e L o l o have g r e a t  concepts  odds w i t h L o l o b e l i e f s  near  with p o l i o .  concepts  F o r example, C h r i s t i a n at  that  a l l o f t h e young women o f  They f e a r  that  t h e s p i r i t s of  by t h e s o u l s o f m a l e v o l e n t  t o h e a v e n where  they themselves  t h e y a r e s e n t back t o wreak  become  spirits evil,  h a v o c on t h e  vi11agers. The L o l o a r e h i g h l y c o n f u s e d n a t u r e o f t h e powers o f C h r i s t i a n i t y , a c c e s s t o t h e s e powers a d v o c a t e d addition, is  what  presented t h i s power in  and t h e means o f  by t h e m i s s i o n a r i e s .  In  t h e L o l o know o f t h e powers o f C a t h o l i c i s m  a t odds w i t h t h e i r  particularly  with regard t o the  i n that  traditional the realm  n o t i o n s of powers,  most  o f r e p r o d u c t i v e powers i s  a s p a r t o f t h e male domain, w h i l e f o r t h e L o l o , i s female.  The e f f e c t  knowledge o f t h e powers  means w i t h w h i c h t o a d d r e s s Catholicism  o f t h i s h a s been a  ( t h e A e s t h e t i c ) and a l o s s o f them  (aesthetics).  h a s a s y e t been u n a b l e  substitute Aesthetic.  loss  Once t h e r e a s o n s  to provide a  f o r , and t h e means  66 of,  access to the  associated according  extraordinary  are  gone, s o  p r a c t i c e s , p r a c t i c e s which a r e to the  moral  o r d e r of  organization.  In a d i s c u s s i o n  missionization  on  notes that  traditional  i n a BBC  radio  the of  are  played  c u l t u r e and  the  impact  of  out social  of  Motu d a n c e , McLean  broadcast  their  1956,  (19S6s34)  i t was  stated  that u n s u c c e s s f u l a t t e m p t s had been made t o r e v i v e t h e d a n c e i n v i l l a g e s where i t had lapsed. The r e a l r e a s o n was t h a t t h e Motu no l o n g e r s t o o d t o g a i n f r o m a r i t u a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e i r a n c e s t r a l gods. The Motu had moved f r o m s u b s i s t e n c e g a r d e n i n g t o a c a s h economy. T h e r e was 'no a n c e s t r a l r i t e f o r o b t a i n i n g h i g h e r wages' ( e m p h a s i s original). Thus,  "once t h e  irrelevant,  s o n g s and  they ceased  t o be  Consequently, the social  organization  Hence, b o t h t h e parallel  Burridge  (ibid). the  to a similar the  moral  (197S), i n a d i s c u s s i o n  underlying  (p.  once the  that  o r d e r of  became  culture  and  erosion.  order  follow  change.  examines the 15)  and  issue  performed"  moral  i s subject  Aesthetic  p a t h s of  dances at  impact  of  p r o c e s s of  of  missionization,  Christianity. missionization  He  states  begins,  The p e r s o n - a p a r c e l of c u s t o m a r y r i g h t s and o b l i g a t i o n s - i s c a p a b l e of b e c o m i n g an i n d i v i d u a l t o y w h i c h ! I mean t h e c a p a c i t y t o d e l i b e r a t e l y step o u t s i d e custom, t r a d i t i o n , and g i v e n s o c i a l r o l e s , r i g h t s , and o b l i g a t i o n s , s c r u t i n i z e them, f o r m u l a t e a m o r a l c r i t i q u e , and, w i t h o u t r e l i n q u i s h i n g p a r t i c i p a t o r y values, e n v i s a g e a new s o c i a l o r d e r g o v e r n e d by new moralities.  67 And - f u r t h e r  (p. 16) ,  The c o n c e i v i n g o f an a l t e r n a t i v e s o c i a l o r d e r , a new m o r a l i t y , i s what i s important. And d o i n g s o e n t a i l s c o n c o m i t a n t a l i e n a t i o n s f r o m what i s g i v e n and t r a d i t i o n a l . Thus, t h e m i s s i o n p r e s e n c e communicates to s o c i a l way  life,  antagonistic  In t h e L o l o  mythical their  h a s been t h e i n c r e a s i n g  sacra,  a c c e s s t o them.  group.  t e n d e n c y t o abandon the Lolo  from  t h e o n t o l o g y o f t h o s e p o w e r s , and means o f Performances dedicated are lost  the s p i r i t s  culture are likewise changes c o n t r i b u t e  t o p r o p i t i a t i n g and  o r abandoned.  and t h e i r a c t i o n s ,  s t o r i e s which o u t l i n e t h e c r e a t i o n lost  Stories  as well  of a s p e c t s of  o r abandoned.  The  and f u r t h e r  as Lolo  resultant  t o changes t o the A e s t h e t i c ,  knowledge o f a e s t h e t i c s , perception  of t h e host  powers, hence s e p a r a t i n g  working with s p i r i t s describing  to that  case, the r e s u l t of t h i s p r o c e s s of  and s p i r i t  own  approach  and p r o v i d e s an example o f an a l t e r n a t i v e  of b e i n g , o f t e n  missionization  a critical  gaps i n  a l t e r i n g o f , or  of change, i n t h e moral o r d e r of  social  organization. A f o r c e which f u r t h e r Aesthetic post  i s Western b i o - m e d i c i n e .  i n Araigilpua since  by Papua New  the e a r l y  Guinean n a t i o n a l s .  dokta. a Kilenge, years.  s e r v e s t o change t h e  Lolo  T h e r e h a s been an a i d 1950's w h i c h i s s t a f f e d  The c u r r e n t  h a s been i n t h e v i l l a g e  orderly  for fifteen  P r i o r t o the advent of the a i d past,  healing  or  involved in  the  the  use  a s s i s t a n c e o-f s p e c i a l i s t s ,  o f p l a n t m a t e r i a l s and  used t o e f f e c t of  disease  cures.  treated  a s s u p e r s t i t i o n , an  current  dokta,  limited  t o what he  although  in  their  these  the  t o the  cause of  when he  was  realm the  of  which c o u l d  the  be  To  inflicted  and  intimate the  order  and  ill  to cure  and  means o f  t r a i n e d by  the  the  the  the  the  spirit the  to f i r s t  o r by  death of  gain  determine  In t h i s  symptoms o f  view,  spirits, the  the  person the  healer  disease,  spirit,  had  caused  or p r o p i t i a t i n g  the  spirits  sorcerer.  powers h e l d by  The  access  T h i s demanded the  to these  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  disease  a i d post  healer  a p a t i e n t then,  gaining  t h e o r i e s of  hence rendered  ineffective.  heal  magic than t h e  the disease.  p e o p l e use  knowledge of  i n the  manipulating  knowledge o f  proper  m e d i c i n e and  sorcery  which, e i t h e r s o r c e r e r or  disease,  the  medicine i s  then to cure. by  result  i n reading  or working s t r o n g e r an  and  effectively  adept  determining  h e l d by  that the  powers i n o r d e r  illness  diseases  t o be  were  1955.  could  had  magic  theories  curing  attitude s t i l l  h i s knowledge of  learned  diseases  afflicted.  associated  means o f  Indigenous medicine r e q u i r e d access  knowledgeable  When W e s t e r n m e d i c i n e and  were i n t r o d u c e d ,  Australians  those  and  the  spirits, powers i n Western  i n s i s t e n c e that  c o n t r i b u t e d t o a l o s s of  p o w e r s and indigenous  Western medical  spirit healers  techniques  induced  disease,  largely have not,  however,  replaced very  i n d i g e n o u s means, s i n c e t h e  l i m i t e d , the  s u p p l i e s , and medical  itself  people p e r s i s t  u s u a l l y has  i n dying  area  where t h e  the  p o t e n t i a l f o r d e a t h by  reality,  the  l o s s of  terrible  thing  consequences. this  with  on  Lolo.  failure  i m p u n i t y , s i n c e no  The  This  of  the Lolo  one,  live  and  Lolo,  too  does the  of  the  the  sure evidence that moral  and  death  to k i l  even the  and  is a  d o k t a . has  the  them.  their  lives.  Their  every a c t i o n by  the  fear  is  sorcerers.  This  consequences  Western m e d i c i n e have both Aesthetic  i n the  sorcerers  people holding  the  and  life  thus  order.  Lolo  Neither  view.  The  t o become some of  powers of when t h e  life  served  eliminating  a c c e s s t o , c e r t a i n powers.  have a l l o w e d  powerful  omnipresent  Aesthetic.  a v i a b l e replacement  created  an  for sorcerers  e l s e , i s i n d i c a t i v e of  t o c a r v e away p o r t i o n s and  shockingly  impact  possible actions  changes i n the  knowledge o f ,  is  the  in fear for their  i n terms of  Catholicism  proved  l o s s has Aesthetic  power t o p r e v e n t  more t h a n a n y t h i n g the  the  not  at times almost palpable,  evaluated  of  Western  a c c e s s t o powers f o r h e a l i n g  f o r the The  sorcery  indigenous medicine allows  knowledge or  is  medical  i n s p i t e of  mortality rate  and  of  no  treatment. In an  high  a i d post  d o k t a ' s knowledge i s  and  Aesthetic  has  vacuums  the  most  death  over  changes,  s  70 Money i s a n o t h e r  -force s e r v i n g  means o f a c c e s s t o t h e A e s t h e t i c .  to a l t e r  traditional  Items f o r m e r l y u s e d  exchanges are t h i n g s i n v e s t e d with s i g n i f i c a n c e power, s i n c e s p i r i t s  i f not  have d e s i g n a t e d t h e s e items  important  or v a l u a b l e .  Carved  bowls, c l a y  money and  pigs are the t r a d i t i o n a l  pots,  Each  shell  items of wealth,  prescriptions, the  t o be e x c h a n g e d and  by a d h e r i n g  the p a r t i c i p a n t s are assured  and  to  and  these  of harmony  with  spirits. Money, on  intrinsic  t h e o t h e r hand, d o e s n o t p o s s e s s  a s s o c i a t i o n s with the s p i r i t s .  increasing  importance  significance performance Its  a l l of  i n d i g e n o u s ceremony p r e s c r i b e s t h e k i n d s  amounts of w e a l t h  with  as  w h i c h h a v e i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h L o l o ceremony custom.  in  i n ceremonial  of t r a d i t i o n a l  wealth  and  increasingly chipping  thus  a e s t h e t i c s a s s o c i a t e d with  by  the L o l o i n a c q u i r i n g  potent  force  in itself  away a t p e r f o r m a n c e  I t s presence  exchanges undermine  perceived s i g n i f i c a n c e to whites,  experienced  any  performances.  the  difficulties  i t , make money and  one  a e s t h e t i c s and  the  undermine  these and  and  an  which i s hence  the  Aesthetic. Each agent in  o f c h a n g e moves t h e L o l o f u r t h e r  t h e p r o c e s s of s e c u l a r i z a t i o n ,  domain o f s p i r i t s constituted secular  by  and  spirit  t h e L o l o , and  that  i s , further  powers a s d e f i n e d toward  from  the  and  a u n i v e r s e of  powers i n t r o d u c e d by E u r o p e a n s .  along  more  P r e v i o u s l y , power  71  and  i n f l u e n c e emanating  from s p i r i t s  were c e n t r a l  i n the constitution  human b e i n g s  and s p i r i t s  Lolo  life.  foreign, spirits  Currently, Christianity,  and a s s u c h or s p i r i t  activities  life,  with  t o s t e e r t h e course of Western medicine  and  i n f l u e n c e s on L o l o l i f e , a r e  h a v e no c o n n e c t i o n  to  indigenous  powers.  These t h r e e f a r c e s , and  of everyday  cooperating  money, some o f t h e most p a t e n t  and s p i r i t  Christianity,  Western  medicine  (19B9,  personal  money, a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o what B u r r i d g e  communication) has d e s c r i b e d a s a p r o c e s s of universal isation.  Each of t h e s e ,  most  particularly  Christianity,  moves t h e f o c u s f r o m c u l t u r a l  particularity  to a perspective that i s global or  generalizing,  speaking  the L o l o w i l l  likely  universal  to universal values.  be a b s o r b e d  orientation.  of  culture,  near  At t h i s p o i n t i n t h e p r o c e s s , t h e  and t y p i c a l  organized  next  chapter  into social  focuses  c r i t i q u e of are i n a state  conceptions  on t h e s o c i a l  life  of t h e  ways i n w h i c h L o l o a r e  groups which a l s o f u n c t i o n a s moral  This a n a l y s i s i s intended  e x i s t e n c e o f a moral  a c t i on.  of t h e i r  of t h i s process,  examining t h e d i f f e r e n t  units.  t h e Western  anomie. The  Lola,  Ultimately,  by and i n t o  L o l o appear t o be a t t h e b e g i n n i n g their  s p e c i f i c i t y and  order  t o demonstrate the  p r e d i c a t e d upon  o f power, b e i n g ,  and r i g h t  indigenous  and a p p r o p r i a t e  CHAPTER I I I  THE  MORAL DIMENSIONS OF SOCIETY  This chapter organization. society as  playing  The p e r s p e c t i v e  and j u r a l  character.  Lolo  f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n out i n s o c i a l  interaction Lolo  n a t u r e o f p e o p l e and o f s p i r i t s . organization  likewise provides  social  taken here i s that  i s composed o f g r o u p s p o s s e s s i n g  a social  provides  i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f L o l o  a moral, as well  social  organization  of m o r a l i t y ,  spirits  This social  the context  and m o r a l  i n which  First,  i s intended  assuming t h a t  c o l l e c t i o n s o f p e o p l e who h o l d in  common and a r e m o r a l l y  everyday  life  practices,  t o address the f o l l o w i n g Lolo groups a r e  values  and s o c i a l  bound t o g e t h e r  and c e r e m o n i a l ,  practices  by t h e s e i n  what a r e t h e s e v a l u e s and  and how a r e t h e y r e f l e c t e d  organization? and  humans  conducted.  T h i s chapter questions.  and t h e  concepts of t h e  c e r e m o n i e s a r e p e r f o r m e d , and i n t e r a c t i o n between and  Lolo  in social  S e c o n d , what a r e t h e m o r a l  u n i t s of s o c i e t y ,  how do i n d i v i d u a l s become members o f t h e s e moral  units?  Third, and  what a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s between humans and s p i r i t s ,  how a r e t h e s e  Finally,  played  out i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ?  how d o e s L o l o s o c i a l  principles  organization  of the A e s t h e t i c as defined  reflect  in this  dissertation? To with  explore  these  an a b b r e v i a t e d  parthenogenesis,  questions,  t h i s chapter  begins  v e r s i o n o f t h e L o l o myth o f  a myth t h a t p r o v i d e s  cosmological  explanation  f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f L o l o s o c i e t y and m o r a l  relations.  Lolo kinship, including definition  terminology, relations are  then  character  o f k i n s h i p , t h e moral  and d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o c i a l examined.  examination  The c h a p t e r  of the nature  N e x t , g r o u p s a s moral  spirits  chapter  in social  concludes  between s o c i a l  life  Namor. t h e Creator  The  with  content  and m o r a l i t y  t u r n s t o an  and c h a r a c t e r  of L o l o  life  and m o r a l  order.  descent.  The r o l e o f  organization i s discussed.  The  a d i s c u s s i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p  and t h e A e s t h e t i c .  Being  L o l o myth o f p a r t h e n o g e n e s i s  was t o l d  N a h a l o , t h e s e n i o r male o f A r i a g i l p u a v i l l a g e . brothers  of k i n  u n i t s a r e examined, as a r e t h e  r e l a t i o n s between s o c i a l the  then  identity  of k i n , k i n  who a s s i s t e d him i n t h e t e l l i n g ,  t h e b r e v i t y and i n c o m p l e t e n e s s  t o me by  He, and h i s  apologized f o r  o f t h e s t o r y , even  though  the  version  long.  of the s t o r y  I recorded  i s close  t o s i x hours  The Namor o d y s s e y , w h i c h no one i n t h e L a l o a r e a  remembers, t a k e s s e v e r a l  days t o t e l l ,  and i s a d e t a i l e d  a c c o u n t o f Namor's j o u r n e y s and a d v e n t u r e s . omitted  t h e d e t a i l s o f Namor's a c t i v i t i e s ,  included  only In  but  a brief  summary o f t h e n s t o r y .  t h e b e g i n n i n g , t h e L o l o s a y , t h e r e was n o t h i n g  i n the middle.  and s o o n t h e s i l t and muddy. in  slab  being,  He p a d d l e d h i s f e e t  was s t i r r e d  up u n t i l  sitting  i n t h e water,  t h e w a t e r was  thick  Namor t o o k h a n d f u l s o f t h e muck and s q u e e z e d i t  h i s h a n d s and s e t i t down.  until  I have h e r e  and have  t h e s e a , and Namor, an e n o r m o u s l y t a l l  on a r o c k  now  he had c r e a t e d of rock  He c o n t i n u e d  the f i r s t  land  t o do t h i s  and a m o u n t a i n .  His  was now a t t h e t o p o f t h e m o u n t a i n , and h e r e  he made h i s home. He c r e a t e d on t h e l a n d .  life  He l a y t h e c a r v i n g  i t to rise.  Namor t h e n t o o k a h a n d f u l  into  t h e s h a p e o f a n o t h e r man.  like  the f i r s t ,  more c o m p a n i o n s ,  men needed  He blew  live,  i t man and Namor  blew  away, and a man  o f e a r t h and f o r m e d i t  t h e f i g u r e came t o l i f e .  men a h o u s e i n w h i c h t h e y c o u l d needed  down, c a l l e d  threw t h e c a r v i n g  things  i t i n the  The f i g u r e d i d n o t r e s p o n d .  into the figure,  remained.  a n i m a l s , and a l l o t h e r  He t h e n t o o k a t r e e and c a r v e d  s h a p e o f a man. asked  the trees,  into  t h i s t o o and  He g a v e t h e two  and b e c a u s e t h e y  made more men and more h o u s e s .  women, s o w i t h b o n e s removed f r o m t h e back o f  The  75 the f i r s t first  man, Namor b u i l t a woman.  village  was c a l l e d  n o t h i n g b u t rows o f men's h o u s e s ,  women and c h i l d r e n . to  with t h e  man and b o r e h i m c h i l d r e n . This f i r s t  of  She l i v e d  Rovata,  and c o n s i s t e d  and t h e houses of  Namor d e c i d e d t h a t  p e o p l e s h o u l d move  o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e l a n d , and s o M a l e u p u a , Namor's b i r d  spirit with  g u a r d i a n , was s e n t t o d i s p e r s e t h e men's h o u s e s , and  them, t h e i r For  language  called  Maleu.  many y e a r s , t h e p e o p l e  were happy.  Namor t r a v e l l e d  lived  through  w i t h Namor and  the land  and c r e a t e d  o t h e r p e o p l e s , and t h e s e o t h e r s h e l p e d t h e f i r s t with in  t r a d e items from  t h e mountains.  food  the sea, since the f i r s t  He g a v e t h e f i r s t  a n d showed them how t o l i v e  people died  Namor became a n g r y  t h e n went away, f a r f r o m without  their  l i v e s remain  power  remain. Certain  this  p e o p l e c e r e m o n i e s and  a good  life  i n which  w h i c h my i n f o r m a n t s  with t h e f i r s t  o t h e r p e o p l e s and l a n g u a g e s  have l i v e d  lived  other.  Then, f o r a r e a s o n a b o u t  created  people  o n l y o f o l d a g e , t h e r e was no war, and a l l  p e o p l e h e l p e d each  disagreed,  people  discussion  the benefit  He  c o l o u r s , and  Ever s i n c e ,  the Lolo  of h i s presence,  although  i n h i s shadow s i n c e h i s i n f l u e n c e and  elements of s o c i a l  men's h o u s e g r o u p s ,  the Lolo.  and s k i n  people.  of t h i s  myth a r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n  organization.  T h e themes o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e o p l e and t h e  76  land,  r e l a t i o n s h i p o f humans t o s p i r i t s ,  between t h e L o l o and o t h e r discussed  peoples,  relationships  and l a n g u a g e , a r e  f u r t h e r below.  Kinship  The distant  Lolo differentiate  k i n according  t o four  criteria  men's h o u s e g r o u p a f f i l i a t i o n , D e p e n d i n g on t h e s i t u a t i o n ,  between c l o s e k i n and including  blood,  e x c h a n g e , and i n t e r a c t i o n .  one o r more o f t h e s e  takes precedence i n determining  criteria  the nature of the kinship  r e l a t i on. Kinship The  i s Hawaiian o r g e n e r a t i o n a l .  sex o f e g o i s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e when r e f e r r i n g t o  s i b l i n g s with siblings bigger, a load vis  terminology  s i b l i n g s o f same sex d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  of o p p o s i t e  sex.  The s u f f i x  " l i a " means s m a l l e r .  "ge" means " f i r s t "  other  or  Each p o s i t i o n c a r r i e s with i t  o f o b l i g a t i o n and a s p e c i a l c o d e o f c o n d u c t  vis-a-  kinship positions.  In t h e L o l o e x t e n d e d categories  are recognized.  fathers  ( t a m a g e ) , FB  F  includes M  family,  (tamagelia), (legane),  S i b l i n g s are designated  as o l d e r  (toage),  (liuklia).  younger B  three  The f i r s t ,  ( a n a g e ) , FZ  B  from  (teklia),  parent,  and MB  and MZ  basic  kinship  includes  (oage).  (nagelia).  o r y o u n g e r t h a n egos  elder  The same t e r m s a r e u s e d  Mother  elder  Z (liuge),  younger Z  i n reference  t o FBS,  FED,  F Z S , FZD, MBS, MBD, MZS, MZD.  ego's s i b l i n g s ' (male).  offspring  Grandparent  (tivuge or t i v u k l i a )  E g o ' s o f f s p r i n g and  are tumelia  (female)  and g r a n d c h i l d s h a r e  and t u m l i a  a k i n term  d e p e n d i n g on t h e e l d e r o r y o u n g e r  s t a t u s of t h e grandparent.  Character  of K i n R e l a t i o n s  T h i s s e c t i o n examines s p e c i f i c in  order  t o p o i n t out t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s of  apparent moral  i n different  was p r e s e n t e d  form o f moral  these  Some o f t h i s  t o me by my i n f o r m a n t s  What i s p r e s e n t e d  certainly  behaviour  and by e x t e n s i o n , t h e  l e s s o n s , some was i n f e r r e d  behaviour.  case:  relationships,  imperatives guiding t h i s behaviour.  information  of  r e l a t i o n s among k i n  from  i n the  observations  below i s l a r g e l y  the ideal  i d e a l s a r e n o t met on a d a i l y  basis  s i n c e L o l o do q u a r r e l a n d b e h a v e w r o n g l y t o w a r d t h e i r k i n . This particular  analysis,  however, i s d i r e c t e d  towards t h e  normative. Mother - Daughter Mathers a r e t e a c h e r s .  A t a young a g e , d a u g h t e r s  are taught  how t o g a r d e n , c o o k , and l o o k a f t e r  children.  Mothers a l s o teach  with and  others:  their  daughters  t o r e s p e c t , h e e d , and s e r v e f o o d  younger how t o b e h a v e t o o l d e r men  women, t o a v o i d b u t p a y r e s p e c t t o s o r c e r e r s , and t o  avoid  compromising  as t h e g i r l s  s i t u a t i o n s with  get older.  young b o y s ,  The most i m p o r t a n t  especially  lesson  taught  79 is  the  others  value i n the  compliment or  of  hard  work, a l e s s o n w h i c h  h o u s e h o l d and  village.  t h a t a young g i r l  can  from anyone f o r t h a t m a t t e r ,  The  i s reinforced highest  r e c e i v e from her i s that  by  mother,  " s h e ' s a good  worker". Daughters l e a r n e a r l y about exchange r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They a r e in  the  sent  village,  explained.  For  t a r o t o my sister."  reason  Laitenge.  "Bive  girls  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with with  the  food  for various  f o r the  e x a m p l e , a mother may  Make s u r e way,  b u n d l e s of  and  sister Or,  Kataka. In t h i s  with  gift say  are  "Take t h e s e  t o my  good o n e s - he's  taught  others,  about t h e i r  and  how  t o deal  living  i s usually  I always g i v e food  some sweet p o t a t o e s they're  kin  a  to  three  my  brother firstborn."  significant appropriately  these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Mothers expect  r e s p o n s i b l e and  that  their  dependable, w i l l  daughters w i l l do  their  bidding,  r e s p o n d when demands f o r a s s i s t a n c e a r e  made.  instilled  beyond.  in girls  mothers say  that  disobedient  and  gardening to play  and  with  f r o m a b o u t age  school lazy.  cooking their  teaches t h e i r Girls  after  that  are  school  s c h o o l , but  However, be with  f r e q u e n t l y run  Mothers, while  influence.  will  This i s  to help  excuse i t because of  i s a bad  and  daughters to  expected  friends instead.  condoning t h i s behaviour, perception  3 and  be  their  not  off  79 When g i r l s full—time  helpers  have t h e i r  food  Mothers expect  the  their  for their  schooling,  mothers.  t o t h e household  their  At t h i s  become  age, they  and f o r c e r e m o n i a l .  daughters t o f l i r t  with  young men, b u t  n o t h e s i t a t e t o speak i f a d a u g h t e r ' s b e h a v i o u r  exceeds  bounds o f p r o p r i e t y . When a d a u g h t e r m a r r i e s ,  ritual the  they  own g a r d e n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r  contributing  do  finish  a s p e c t s o f c o o k i n g , and t e l l  female p e r s p e c t i v e  occurs. their  Brides  This  birth  to shift  and a t t e n d  shift  them  them t h e  "women's s e c r e t s " :  o f male powers and how p r e g n a n c y  a r e expected  new f a m i l i e s ,  husbands. gives  mothers teach  attention to  t o t h e wishes of t h e i r  i s especially  t o her f i r s t  their  child,  a p p a r e n t when a woman  a l t h o u g h a mother  expects her daughters t o respond  still  t o her requests f o r  assistance. M o t h e r - Son The "letting their  mother—son r e l a t i o n s h i p  go".  M a l e i n f a n t s and t o d d l e r s  mothers, but I n o t i c e d  that  young b o y s were r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r for  discipline  their  father's  encouraged As  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  or i n s t r u c t i o n . importance,  a r e cared  i n many c a s e s ,  f o r by  even  f a t h e r s or other  Boys a r e r e p e a t e d l y  i n f l u e n c e and s t r e n g t h ,  very  males t o l d of and a r e  t o e m u l a t e them. boys get o l d e r ,  mothers t e l l  them t o "go away  f r o m t h e women", and s e n d them away t o t h e i r  fathers or  80 o t h e r male k i n . like  One b o y , a b o u t  b o y s who s t a y e d w i t h t h e i r would c a l l  away.  a man f r o m  Adolescent to shirk  youths  their  male o r f e m a l e ,  a r e expected  with  t o be Both  youths,  to slide  In  these cases, youths As  interaction  i n gardening  especially cases while  very s t r o n g l y  of proper t o an  work  a couple of days,  t o younger  children.  a r e demanded t o heed t h e i r  mothers.  They a r e s t i l l  f o r the household,  male.  they a r e expected  mothers and  mothers.  grow i n t o men, t h e y h a v e l e s s and l e s s  with t h e i r  are p r i m a r i l y  f o r more t h a n  or i f they a r e cruel  youths  troublesome  b u t do n o t h e s i t a t e  i f they allow t h e i r  they s t e a l ,  of  a g e mates o r o l d e r men.  f o r example i f t h e y a r e r u d e  if  and  with o t h e r males i s  responsibilities.  behaviour,  responsibilities  help  men,  t h e men's h o u s e t o t a k e t h e boy  i f they t r a n s g r e s s t h e boundaries  adolescent elder  him r e p e a t e d l y t h a t  m o t h e r s c o u l d n o t grow i n t o  with t h e i r  fathers are quite lenient scold  with h i s  Most b o y s a r e happy t o l e a v e t h e company o f t h e i r  m o t h e r s and s p e n d t i m e  to  She t o l d  T h i s r e l u c t a n c e t o spend time  unusual.  and  years o l d , d i d not  t o s l e e p i n t h e men's h o u s e , and would f i g h t  mother n e a r l y e v e r y n i g h t .  and  eight  When i t i s t i m e  but t h e i r  grandparents,  I was i n t h e v i l l a g e about  activities  f o r them t o m a r r y ,  t o d e f e r t o t h e wishes  their  expected t o  of t h e i r  parents  b u t t h e r e were a c o u p l e where a young man  h i s own c h o i c e o f a mate and was  felt  allowed  t o marry h e r , a l b e i t  with  some g r u m b l i n g  and d i r e  predictions. Father  - Daughter Fathers spoil  their  daughters  until  them t o b e g i n  t o t a k e some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  the gardens.  After  their  daughters,  their  mothers.  this,  i t i s t i m e -for  f o r working i n  f a t h e r s have l i t t l e  and t e n d  t o do w i t h  t o l e a v e them i n t h e c a r e o f  F a t h e r s do, however, p u t enormous p r e s s u r e on t h e i r daughters  t o be good w o r k e r s and h o s t e s s e s .  fathers talked died  f r e q u e n t l y of h i s f i r s t b o r n  while s t i l l  girl,  a very hard  a teenager. worker.  One o f my daughter  She was, he s a i d ,  h a v e some.  taking girl  She was a l w a y s s m i l i n g ,  care of people  with  food.  t o passersby  he s a i d ,  Other  and a l w a y s  men t o o u s e d  a s an example o f a good L o l o d a u g h t e r ,  talked  fine  Whenever s h e c o o k e d , s h e would  cook l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s o f f o o d , and would c a l l to  a  who had  of her i n terms of her a b i l i t i e s  this  and a l w a y s  a s a w o r k e r and a  generous cook. F a t h e r s l e a v e most i n s t r u c t i o n women. until  The r e l a t i o n s h i p t h e daughters  somewhat f o r m a l .  between f a t h e r s and  m a r r y and h a v e c h i l d r e n  Daughters a r e expected  f a t h e r s and o t h e r m a l e s , b u t i n a "seen capaci ty.  and d i s c i p l i n e t o daughters  i s f r i e n d l y but  t o serve  their  and n o t h e a r d "  T h i s c h a n g e s when a d a u g h t e r After  this,  the relationship  feels  almost  enter  flirtatious  daughters,  noticed  t h a t many t i m e s ,  more t i m e  ostensibly  j o k i n g with  grandchildren. something  like  When  daughters  I f a man  often v i s i t h i s  t o see t h e i r  children,  however, t h e f a t h e r would  h i s daughter I asked  than  but I  spend  attending t o the  men a b o u t t h i s ,  " i t make u s b o t h  child.  into a joking  i n character.  i n need o f c h e e r i n g up, he w i l l  married  her f i r s t  between f a t h e r s and  becomes more r e l a x e d , and t h e y relationship  bears  t h e y would s a y  happy f o r h e r t o c a r e f a r  t h e o l d man". Father-Son Fathers t y p i c a l l y s o n s when t h e y of  their  pay l i t t l e  attention  to their  a r e v e r y y o u n g , and l e a v e them i n t h e c a r e  mothers.  As b o y s a g e , t h e y  are turned  and d i s c i p l i n e .  over t o  their  fathers f o r instruction  Fathers  their  s o n s t o t h e men's h o u s e t o s l e e p and t o work  take  with  them i n t h e g a r d e n s . F a t h e r s a r e charged teaching  their  the s p i r i t s their  sons t h e e s o t e r i c  who l i v e  inside,  t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of l o r e o f t h e men's h o u s e ,  t h e "marks" o r s y m b o l s o f  men's h o u s e g r o u p , f l u t e s ,  instruction period  with  and s o on.  This  or m a s c u l i n i z a t i o n process extends  of years, beginning  with  men's h o u s e a f t e r c i r c u m c i s i o n .  over  a boy's s e c l u s i o n  a  i nthe  Fathers expect be  rebellious.  a -father and  I t i s not  son  is  firstborn. part  prefer that  of  i n to the  son,  F a t h e r s say t o be  the  things  s e r i o u s l y , and  generally  who  was  s o n s and  were e x t r e m e l y r a r e .  very short  duration  typically  and  while they  ceremonial  work, s o n s a r e  without question.  A r g u m e n t s between u n m a r r i e d ceremonial  son  for  w i t h them,  to is  power  would recognize  t h e m s e l v e s by r e b e l l i n g .  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ceremonial  "big"  of  fight  and  s u d d e n l y seems  and  o t h e r hand, r e g a r d i n g  obey t h e i r f a t h e r s  minutes,  t h i s jockeying  a man,  assert  These  e s p e c i a l l y i f the  that  t h e i r sons d i d not  t h e i r sons w i l l  father  and  between  argument.  r a g e -for a b o u t f i f t e e n  g r o w i n g up  that  On and  give  them t r o u b l e  -for a d i s c u s s i o n  i n t o a heated  i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h e  d e f l a t e and his  unusual  to erupt  arguments t y p i c a l l y then,  t h e i r sons to g i v e  by  expected  Sons s h o u l d the  sons  fathers  take  the  elder  to the  do.  regarding  Those which d i d o c c u r  were a l w a y s won  supported  obligations  by  the  m a l e s of  were  father, the  v i 1 1 age. Once m a r r i e d , t h e matters s h i f t s political  and  t o h i s own ceremonial  son's a l l e g i a n c e new  household  In  d e b a t e s , however, a f a t h e r  can  from h i s sons.  however, a s o n  may  oppose h i s f a t h e r  cause.  few  instances  father  in question  was  of  low  In t h e  of  and  everyday  family.  demand s u p p o r t  In t h e  in  political to further  t h i s that  status,  and  arena, his  awn  I witnessed, allegiance  to  the  84 t h i s man would n o t h a v e h e l p e d ambitions  of h i s son.  ceremonial and  t o advance t h e p o l i t i c a l  Typically,  and p o l i t i c a l  h a s more c h i l d r e n ,  affairs,  sons support  fathers i n  and a s t h e s o n m a t u r e s  h i s , and n o t h i s f a t h e r ' s ,  becomes  the public voice. Brother-Brother When y o u n g , t h e way t h a t another  i s largely  a number  b r o t h e r s b e h a v e t o w a r d one  d e p e n d e n t upon t h e i r  age d i f f e r e n c e .  If  o f y e a r s s e p a r a t e s them, an o l d e r b r o t h e r t o r m e n t s  h i s younger b r o t h e r u n m e r c i f u l l y , o f t e n i n j u r i n g  him.  h o u s e was n e x t  a s many  lesser that  d o o r t o t h e a i d p o s t , and a s w e l l  injuries,  I saw one young boy i m p a l e d  h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r had d e l i b e r a t e l y  another  young boy who h a d been s h o t  arrow, a g a i n d e l i b e r a t e l y . older  brothers are treated  serious  incidents resulted  censure  from t h e i r  by a s p e a r  t h r o w n a t h i m , and  i n t h e head w i t h an  Minor i n j u r i e s lightly,  inflicted  while these  i n the older siblings  gardening,  is  agnatic  depend  on one a n o t h e r  Provision  important,  requested  discussed  more receiving  i n close  f o rassistancei n  i n h o u s e b u i l d i n g , o r f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n any o t h e r  undertaking. especially  by  f a m i l i e s and o t h e r s i n t h e v i l l a g e .  Once b r o t h e r s m a r r y , and i f t h e y r e s i d e proximity, they  My  of wealth  f o r ceremonial i s  s i n c e i t i s f r e q u e n t l y a b r o t h e r who  t o h e l p p r o v i d e p i g s f o r exchange.  b e l o w i n more d e t a i l  descent  below.  This i s  i n the examination of  Sister  - Sister Like  the brother—brother  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among s i s t e r s and  support.  sisters,  I-f t h e r e  the elder  are characterized  rearing.  sister  This  assumes an a l m o s t m a t e r n a l  allows  d o m i n a n t and i n f l u e n t i a l often  life  reside  role,  t o assume a  which t h e younger  pattern  and i s v e r y  sister  of cooperation strong  lasts  i f sisters  S i s t e r s a r e expected t o  e v e r y day i f t h e y r e s i d e  of food  i n t h e same  are not extravagant.  Rather,  village. small  f o r example a few t a r o o r sweet p o t a t o e s , a r e  sufficient. regularly  S i s t e r s give  and f r e q u e n t l y  vice versa.  must a l w a y s g i v e  but  sister  with  t o g a r d e n c o o p e r a t i v e l y and  This  i n close proximity.  These g i f t s gifts,  duties.  between s i s t e r s ,  exchange food  give  time h e l p i n g  role  r e j e c t s as she matures.  share household  and  spent  the older  S i s t e r s a r e expected  for  by mutual a i d  i s a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n a g e between  toward t h e younger from having child  relationship,  food  gifts  kinship This  feelings. laziness,  t o one a n o t h e r  and r e c e i v e to their  food.  told  that  daughters  "true"  When a d u l t  of personal  obligation holds true  proper,  feelings rather between  regardless  sisters  daughters  mothers, i t i s considered  o b l i g a t i o n such as t h a t  Mildred,  more  t h a n do m o t h e r s t o a d u l t  I was r e p e a t e d l y  more an e x p r e s s i o n  built-in  food  of  than a  sisters. personal  a young woman w i t h a r e p u t a t i o n f o r  perpetually  asked her s i s t e r  Timo f o r f o o d ,  salt,  or  whatever  s h e had on hand.  Mildred  and f e l t  instead  of spending her time v i s i t i n g  always  gave M i l d r e d  Timo s h r u g g e d so  that  Timo had no r e s p e c t f o r  s h e s h o u l d be w o r k i n g  what s h e a s k e d .  and s a i d  i n her garden  and g o s s i p i n g , b u t When I a s k e d  "She's my s i s t e r .  h e r why,  I'm a good  woman,  I h a v e t o g i v e h e r what s h e a s k s . " When s i s t e r s  interaction  with t h e i r  obligations.  Sisters  teach the daughters their  marry, t h e y m a i n t a i n a h i g h l e v e l of sisters assist  of t h e i r  m a r r i a g e s , and a i d e a c h  ceremonial united  work.  front  Sisters  i n disputes.  i n spite  of t h e i r  one a n o t h e r sisters  new  with c h i l d  about  care,  cooking p r i o r t o  other i n preparations f o r  a r e a l s o expected  t o present a  Not d o i n g s o i s a cause f o r  scandal. Grandparent  - Grandchild  Grandparents  spoil  their  As t h e g r a n d c h i l d r e n g e t o l d e r , more s t e r n  a n d demanding.  grandchildren the  sponsor  the grandparents  a r e q u i t e h i g h , which  grandparents  c e r e m o n i a l work f o r t h e i r  Grandparents  kin, especially  firstborn.  frequently  g r a n d c h i l d r e n , and a s  s p o n s o r s , p a y o u t l a r g e amounts o f w e a l t h  done f o r a  j u s t i f y by  t h e y must g i v e t o t h e i r  f o r c e r e m o n i a l work.  d e b t s among t h e i r  become  E x p e c t a t i o n s p l a c e d on  amount o f w e a l t h a n d e f f o r t  grandchildren  v e r y young g r a n d c h i l d r e n .  and i n c u r  heavy  i f t h e c e r e m o n i a l work i s  87 Grandchildren g e n e r a l l y -fall their  grandparents,  and  mostly  f e w e r of t h e t e n s i o n s n o t e d fathers.  G r a n d c h i l d r e n do  k n o w l e d g e and  to help t h e i r  with  Mother's Brother Mother's S i s t e r  and  respect their  and  feel  equivalent,  them i f t h e y a r e  Behavioural1y,  although  i t i s misplaced  i n which t h e  Kilkiluange,  a man  individual h e l d i n low  they  equated  are a l s o  i s held.  r e g a r d by  behaviour  i s typically  respect.  powerful. words and  their  children  labours.  of f o o d , and  r e c e i v e food  of t h e esteem  siblings'  them i n t h e i r gifts  children,  with  and the degree of example is  whose  amused t o l e r a n c e r a t h e r i s strong  and  are very a t t e n t i v e  to h i s  requests.  Regardless held,  her  Another b r o t h e r , K a l a l ,  His s i s t e r ' s  For  /  roughly  r e g a r d by h i s s i s t e r ,  l i k e w i s e h e l d i n low  than  who  / Father's Brother  t h e d e g r e e of d e f e r e n c e  t o w a r d him  in  sick.  a t t e n t i v e n e s s shown d e p e n d s t o some e x t e n t on esteem  and  grandparents'  a r e o f t e n t h e ones  / Father's Sister  mother.  are  between, f o r e x a m p l e , s a n s  These p o s i t i o n s a r e t e r m i n o l o g i c a l l y father  There  Grandchildren are g e n e r a l l y w i l l i n g  grandparents,  s p e n d most t i m e  t h e w i s h e s of  d e f e r t o them.  wisdom, even i f t h e y  a more "modern" w o r l d .  i n with  almost  children  i n which t h e s e p e o p l e  are s t i l l  These households  should they daily.  expected  assist  receive frequent  r e s i d e i n t h e same  If t h e i r  to  are  siblings'  village,  children  are  88 young, t h e y a c t a s s u r r o g a t e p a r e n t s  i ftheir  parents are  away.  Residence  When c o n s i d e r i n g where t o r e s i d e a f t e r c o u p l e c o n s i d e r s such gardens  largest  a n d , most i m p o r t a n t ,  ceremonial  raising  a woman f r o m  live  there.  first  generations  s h o u l d marry i n t o  decided  Aselmepua  rarely  considerations a r e given p r i o r i t y .  achieved  In s p i t e  of a v a i l a b l e c h o i c e s , v i r i l o c a l i t y i s  norm f o r r e s i d e n c e .  i s most common among t h o s e who a r e r e c e n t l y  One young woman who had j u s t told  me t h a t  given b i r t h  t o her  s h e and h e r h u s b a n d h a d moved  t h r e e t i m e s s i n c e t h e y had m a r r i e d . argued  alternate.  L o l o tend t o change r e s i d e n c e s q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y  this  child  their  o f c h o i c e i s s o l a r g e and b e c a u s e o t h e r ,  the s t a t i s t i c a l  married.  and i n f u l f i l l i n g  T h i s i s , however, an i d e a l  t h i s wide range  The  them i n h o u s e  Ideally,  one o f h e r c h i l d r e n  more p r a c t i c a l  on t h e  A s e l m e p u a f o r example m a r r i e s and moves t o  s i n c e t h e range  although  children,  obligations.  Araigilpua,  of  producing  where t h e y c a n c o u n t  network of k i n t o a s s i s t  construction,  and  a  a r e , where t h e y h a v e t h e most l a n d f o r f u t u r e  gardens,  If  f a c t o r s a s where t h e i r  marriage,  w i t h t h o s e t h e y had c h o s e n t o move away r a t h e r t h a n  Each t i m e ,  to live  near  t h e y had and had  continue t o fight.  Oddly  89 enough, i n each  c a s e where a c o u p l e had  t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e move was I suspect that not  that  of  support  It  i s better  resulting frequent  rather,  vital  the u n d e r l y i n g reason  i n o r d e r t o meet c e r e m o n i a l  this  risk  welcome o r i n v i t e d )  visit,  visits  which o f t e n  T h e s e p a t t e r n s and moving t o t h e v i l l a g e  preferred  last  several  withdrawal  inconvenience  In a d d i t i o n  k i n from  other  villages  months. i n couples  Since s i b l i n g  groups  people often  are a  choose  siblings.  sibling  unit.  group  i s an  important  Generally, siblings reside  members o f t h e same men's h o u s e g r o u p .  residential  and  t o g e t h e r and  are  Sibling  groups,  composed most u s u a l l y o f b r o t h e r s o r b r o t h e r s and  new  t o cooperate i n l a r g e - s c a l e p r o j e c t s such gardens,  house c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  ceremonials, as well food  to  Groups The  tend  to  (although not  preferences result  for interaction,  move where t h e y h a v e  always  of t h e f a t h e r , mother, i n - l a w s ,  or s i b l i n g s .  group  that  was  obligations.  t h e shame and  l a c k of s u p p o r t .  always  social  were t h u s  c h a n g e s o f r e s i d e n c e , i t i s common  grandparents,  f o r moving  they feared the p o s s i b l e  t o move t h a n  from  -frequently,  -fight.  t h e y f o u g h t a l l t h e t i m e and  uncomfortable,  Sibling  a  moved  exchange.  a s on  collecting  a daily  Participation  sisters,  a s making  brideprice,  b a s i s i n gardening  i n these a c t i v i t i e s i s  and  and  90 largely in  p r e d i c a t e d on r e s i d e n c e .  closest  regularly, enlisted  Those s i b l i n g s  residing  p r o x i m i t y engage i n t h e s e c o o p e r a t i v e  ventures  while s i b l i n g s  living  only i n order t o p a r t i c i p a t e Women who have m a r r i e d  maintain  ties  spouse d i e s ,  with  their  or c l a s s i f i c a t o r y  and i n t h i s e v e n t ,  ties  with  In c e r t a i n  law  village  sibling  v i l l a g e and e n l i s t into  siblings  i s c l o s e by, m a i n t a i n  a f f i n e s b e h a v e much  i n cooperative a c t i v i t i e s . gardening,  and, s h o u l d  i n some p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r c e r e m o n i a l taboos  still  taboo,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a f f i n e s i n everyday  ceremonial,  events.  nor can they  affines speak  In s p i t e o f t h e d i s t a n c e imposed by  the closeness achieved  siblings  they  o b t a i n , f o r example,  may n o t e a t i n e a c h o t h e r ' s p r e s e n c e , e a c h o t h e r ' s name.  like  Brothers-in-  b r o t h e r s - i n - l a w r e s i d e i n t h e same men's h o u s e ,  However, a f f i n a l  residing  e x c h a n g e f o o d a s do s i s t e r s and  sometimes h e l p each o t h e r with  cooperate  another  group.  circumstances,  Sisters-in-law  one a n o t h e r  I f a woman's  can choose whether t o a t t a c h t o  group, o r , i f t h e n a t a l the original  village  I n d i v i d u a l s marrying  this  assist  groups.  s h e may r e t u r n t o h e r n a t a l  v i l l a g e may h a v e r e a l  siblings.  i n ceremonial.  i n t o another  sibling  the a i d of her s i b l i n g s .  there,  - f u r t h e r away may be  affairs.  a f f i n e s cooperate  by c o o p e r a t i o n  creates  that are similar  t o those of  In t h e e x e c u t i o n o f with  their  own k i n g r o u p s .  91 Moral  Content of  Certain  Kin  Relations  themes r e g a r d i n g  r e l a t i o n s p e r v a d e any toward  kin.  d i s c u s s i o n of  T h e s e themes a r e  which d e s c r i b e s ,  i n the  kin  kin.  take care The  category help  of  of  first  and  adolescents,  u s u a l l y does, with  that  without  largely  b e c a u s e s u c h a p e r s o n has i n gardening  and  support  kins  of  them i n d i s p u t e s ,  D e v e l o p m e n t of  aspects  of  Lolo  off  dead, with  Also to  work, t o s i d e  with  Identity  social  life  Lolo recognize  that rather  The  to  them.  i n d i v i d u a l s as  but  to  i s expected  imperative  a s s i s t a n c e with  development of  morality,  imperative  to help  i s significant.  to protect  Social  each  ceremonial.  This s e c t i o n addresses the different  one  kin r e l a t i o n s i s the  to provide  In  i s expected  i s better no  behave  Namor s t o r y ,  rebellion  this  kin  ways i n w h i c h  adulthood.  kin a person  Second, s o l i d a r i t y characteristic  i n the  above, the  but  of  kin should  theme i n v o l v e s a s s i s t a n c e .  believe  labour  content  Utopian phase, the  A c e r t a i n degree of  f r o m c h i l d r e n and  moral how  rooted  r e l a t i o n s h i p discussed  i s strong.  diminish,  the  question  of  how  contribute to  the  social  c h i l d r e n are  not  and  moral  born  t h a t c h i l d r e n must be  beings.  The  i n possession t a u g h t how  of to  "grow up  human".  For boys,  this  involves participation  a p r o c e s s of m a s c u l i n i z a t i o n , a p r o c e s s w h i c h removes boys from women, and girls, in,  and  p l a c e s them s o l i d l y  their  maturation  responsibility  the c e n t r a l  development.  ritual  involves increasing  activity  A l l children,  r e c e i v e food from  given i n their  o r h a v e r e c e i v e d and  and  other For  participation and  children,  and  firstborn,  c o n t e x t s and  t h e y a r e shown t h e f o o d t h e y  why.  themselves,  a r e shown how  the  moral  have  Food exchange i s e x p l a i n e d i n  giving  i t came f r o m  especially  names.  to children:  ceremonies  o f men.  s e t s the stage f o r  others i n ceremonial  detail  who  m o t h e r s and  i n the world  f o r , food, gardens,  physically  c o n s t i t u e n t s of t h e women's domain.  Early  food  t h e i n f l u e n c e s of t h e i r  in  told  who  are  i t g o e s t o and  Before they are a c t i v e  they p a r t i c i p a t e  i n food  why,  or  i n the  exchange,  t h e y a r e p a r t of a l a r g e n e t w o r k o f  exchange. Certain  events, such  as c i r c u m c i s i o n ,  participation  i n a dance, r e c e i v i n g  marriage,  parenthood,  individual and  by  clearly  and  a name, menarche,  are treated  i s t h e f o c u s of a t t e n t i o n  first  w i t h ceremony. i n these  ceremonies,  ceremonially bracketing these events, the passes  i n t o a new  phase of s o c i a l  life  attendant r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  These l i f e - c y c l e  an  f o r example,  instructional  circumcision,  component:  An  individual  with i t s events  have  after  b o y s a r e s e c l u d e d i n t h e men's h o u s e f o r  instruction  i n m a s c u l i n i t y , the  -feminine p o w e r s , and way,  those  certain  celebrated learn  expectations, along  with  dangers i n h e r e n t i n  ritual their  paraphernalia.  new  concomitant  In  this  o b l i g a t i o n s and cosmological  rationale. Social t h e moral addition  order  model m o r a l  take place i n l e s s  t o w a r d s k i n and  behaviour.  Given  e v a l u a t i o n s of b o t h , breach,  and  Increased participation of,  and  formal to  spirits,  topic  a d u l t s a r e seen  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  in social  life  i n general  i n , t h e moral order  greater efficacy  i n these  allows  individual  understanding  o f and  f a c i l i t y with  extraordinary  powers, t h e n a t u r e  In e f f e c t ,  day  life,  Concomitant with with  and  morals,  parallel  awareness  Increased  e n g e n d e r s a more  Socialization  ceremonial.  endless  order.  a w a r e n e s s of d e a l i n g s w i t h  i n every  is a  increased  sophisticated  out  to  sanctions.  i n t h e moral  played  do  comment on  participation  p o w e r s , and  In  a c t i o n s , motives f o r a c t i o n ,  resultant  in  behave  of  provide constant  participation  ways.  t h a t what p e o p l e  f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n and  conversation, people's  their  increased participation  t o o v e r t comments a b o u t how  appropriately  constant  d e v e l o p m e n t and  supernatural  dealings.  L o l o g r e a t e r and the nature  of b e i n g ,  and this  how  they  i s moral  greater participation  greater  of  how  these  are  are manifest  in  instruction.  in social  life,  Lolo  a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t h e realms of t h e A e s t h e t i c , and l e a r n a b o u t t h e v a r i o u s t h o s e v e h i c l e s which promote extraordinary  D e s c e n t and  forms of a e s t h e t i c s ,  harmony between  humans and  powers.  Inheritance  D e s c e n t among t h e L o l o  i s rooted  i n t h e myth o f  p a r t h e n o g e n e s i s , and h a s a s i t s i d e o l o g i c a l f o c a l men's h o u s e .  Because of i t s d i s t i n c t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r e , t h e  men's h o u s e  i s also the visual  or hamlet.  The men's h o u s e h a s a t a l l ,  built  on t h e g r o u n d , w h i l e  peaked  Adult  older sleep their  Namor's b i r d  short  o f age and  younger boys  t h e men's h o u s e s .  original  men's h o u s e  village,  so l i n k i n g  sleep  i n t h e houses.  created  guardian,  village,  houses i n a  man, t h e v i l l a g e  b u t rows and rows o f men's h o u s e s . spirit  and i s  Domestic dweelings f a c e  i n t h e men's h o u s e , w h i l e  was n o t h i n g  dispersed  houses have  men and b a y s o f a b o u t S y e a r s  m o t h e r s and s i s t e r s  village  s l o p i n g roof  a t an a n g l e t o o t h e r  When Namor f i r s t  the  ordinary  of each L o l o  t h e c e n t r a l p l a z a , and i n e a c h  men's h o u s e s i t s  corner.  with  focus  r o o f s and a r e on s t i l t s .  one a n o t h e r a c r o s s the  point the  of Rovata  Maieupua,  gave M a l e u t o t h e p e o p l e and E a c h s e n i o r male  became t h e s e n i o r  male  the people t o the land  b a s i s f o r t h e L a l o system of descent.  of each  o f e a c h new and p r o v i d i n g P r i o r t o an  95 examination of L o l o relationship It original name.  descent,  i t i s useful  between t h e men's h o u s e and t h e v i l l a g e .  i s f r o m t h e name o f t h e s e n i o r  k i n groups t h a t  known a s a men's h o u s e r e g a r d l e s s i s there.  member o f t h e  t h e men's h o u s e l a n d  E a c h men's h o u s e i s l o c a t e d  building  to describe the  takes i t s  on a named p l o t o f l a n d o f whether o r n o t a  E a c h men's h o u s e b u i l d i n g h a s i n s i d e i t  several  stones conceived  spirits  of t h e ancestor  as t h e p h y s i c a l  manifestations  of  f o r whom t h e p l o t was named and h i s  kin. E a c h men's h o u s e h a s a " b o s s " o r a N a t a v o l o i s more p r o p e r l y associated The It  a name, b u t h a s become a  with the senior  natavolo  natavolo.  male o f t h e men's h o u s e g r o u p .  i s t h e spokesman f o r t h e men's h o u s e g r o u p .  i s h i s d u t y t o a n n o u n c e d e a t h s and i n d i c a t e t h a t  momentous e v e n t h a s o c c u r r e d slit—gong.  The n a t a v o l o  responsibility  by p l a y i n g  of s l e e p i n g  This  with t h e i r  t h e qaramut o r  i n t h e room a t t h e back o f t h e  associated  and o t h e r  ceremonial  i s a weighty r e s p o n s i b i l i t y indeed.  embodying s p i r i t have g r e a t  beings are exceptionally  p o t e n t i a l f o r causing  In a d d i t i o n t o c e r e m o n i a l  group c o l l e c t i v e l y  owns s u c h t h i n g s  types of  paraphernalia. Materials p o w e r f u l , and  trouble.  n a t a v o l o * s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o ensure that happen.  some  h a s t h e p r i v i l e g e and  men's h o u s e w h i c h h o u s e s a n c e s t r a l spirits  title  I t i s the t h i s does n o t  objects,  t h e men's h o u s e  a s t h e p l o t where t h e  96 men's h o u s e b u i l d i n g  i s situated,  p i g and f i s h  n e t s , and  si it—gongs. The men's h o u s e dangerous t h i n g s , thus behaviour house.  i s home t o many p o w e r f u l and numerous r u l e s r e s t r i c t t h e  o f men, women and c h i l d r e n  Women a r e n o t a l l o w e d  w h i l e near  t h e men's  i n s i d e o r around t h e back o f  t h e men's h o u s e and a r e n o t a l l o w e d  t o e a t any of t h e f r u i t  picked  They a r e n o t a l l o w e d t o  from  the trees at the rear.  go c l o s e by u n l e s s t a k i n g f o o d case,  a woman s h o u l d  t o a man o u t s i d e .  stand a r e s p e c t f u l  In t h i s  d i s t a n c e from t h e  d o o r and c a l l  t o one o f t h e men t o come o u t and t a k e t h e  food  This i s especially  inside.  Older a  women, t h o s e  little  closer  t r u e f o r y o u n g e r women.  past c h i l d - b e a r i n g age, a r e a b l e t o get  t o t h e men's h o u s e .  F o r example,  i t is  a c c e p t a b l e f o r an o l d e r woman t o sweep t h e a r e a up c l o s e t o t h e men's h o u s e w h i l e y o u n g e r women a r e p r o h i b i t e d  from  doing so. Men t r e a t and s u r r o u n d i n g s the  interior  morning  volatile. night,  with respect.  with proper  People  are usually  with  the building  t o keep clean,  L a t e n i g h t and  when t h e s p i r i t s a r e most  sound  asleep during the  h a s t h e most r u l e s f a r p r o p e r  Women a r e n o t t o s h o u t ,  make a c l a t t e r  i t s contents  a r e expected  decorum.  a r e dangerous times  so t h e e a r l y morning  behaviour.  They  and t h e a r e a s u r r o u n d i n g  and a r e t o b e h a v e early  t h e men's h o u s e b u i l d i n g ,  yell  at their  children,  d i s h e s and p o t s , o r make a n y l a u d  noise  at a l l . this  Children  time.  e s p e c i a l l y a r e r e s t r a i n e d from p l a y i n g a t  O n l y a f t e r t h e s u n i s up i n t h e s k y and t h e men  h a v e emerged f r o m t h e men's h o u s e i s i t p e r m i s s i b l e loud  noises. Not  the  only  a r e men's h o u s e s and members v u l n e r a b l e t o  whims o f s p i r i t s ,  actions the  of other  men.  but they a r e a l s o  i n danger from t h e  The men's h o u s e b u i l d i n g , e s p e c i a l l y  b e d s s l e p t i n by t h e members, i s a f a v o r i t e t a r g e t f o r  sorcery.  While  I was i n t h e v i l l a g e ,  was a t t r i b u t e d t o s o r c e r y  caused  important  man i n t h e v i l l a g e ,  a t l e a s t one d e a t h  by a s o r c e r e r  m a l e v o l e n c e on t h e b e d o f a member.  able  members began t o l o c k t h e  t o discourage sorcerers.  important Lolo.  power o f s o r c e r y  t h e y would be  The men's h o u s e i s t h e most  building figuratively  That s o r c e r y  working h i s  A f t e r t h e d e a t h o f an  d o o r t o t h e men's h o u s e i n t h e h o p e s t h a t  and  and s y m b o l i c a l l y  f o r the  c a n be p r a c t i c e d h e r e i n d i c a t e s t h e  r e l a t i v e t o t h e power o f t h e men's h o u s e ,  i s i n d i c a t i v e of s e r i o u s  p r o b l e m s f o r t h e L o l o . The  men's h o u s e b u i l d i n g i s u s e d f o r many p u r p o s e s . where t h e a d u l t  males of t h e v i l l a g e  d e l i b e r a t i o n s over v i l l a g e place,  and where d i s t r i c t  the  village.  the  past.  since the  t o make  i ti s built  a physical  on t h e i r  a r e present  land  where  and c e r e m o n i a l s  officials  It i s also a visible  It provides  ancestors  affairs  sleep,  It i s  take  meet w i t h t h e men o f  and t a n g i b l e r e m i n d e r o f link  t o the ancestors  and named a f t e r them, and  in spirit  and i n " f l e s h "  i nthe  98 stone in  representations.  t i m e and  The  men's h o u s e s i t u a t e s t h e  i n s p a c e , g i v i n g them a l o c a t i o n w h i c h  men's h o u s e members back t o t h e continue  to link  members of  ancestors  successive  and  the  men's h o u s e i s a d w e l l i n g  o r d i n a r y and  the  extraordinary  D e s c e n t and at  least  toward  r e l a t e d n e s s , b o t h male and resulting the is  in a prevailing  Lolo relatedness, critical.  ancestors the  i n the  apical  land  by  past,  The  Namor.  they  female.  first  the  weighted,  When  judging  considered, ideology.  of  linking  i n each  were  given  i n the  overall  L o l o system of  Kwaio  k i n i n more  (Keesing  Strength  remote to  recent  1970,  of c h a r a c t e r  choice  effect  of  which a l t h o u g h  of  either  and the  this  patrifi1iation.  descent 1971,  closely 1975,  resembles  1982).  L o l o d i s t i n g u i s h between m y t h i c a l  beings  to  f e m a l e l i n k s were m e n t i o n e d ,  b i a s i s cumulative  The  kin,  i s always t r a c e d  ancestors  appear t o i n f l u e n c e the The  For  case,  f a m i l i e s who  When L o l o t a l k e d of  female l i n e .  Kwaio, t h e  sex  Descent  m a l e s were p r e d o m i n a n t .  patrilineal  first  r a t h e r than the  b o t h m a l e and  accomplishment  the  descent  However, i n d i s c u s s i o n s of  although  of  male l i n e .  cognatic  of t h e  Most  more f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o male k i n t h a n  generations,  male o r  the  and  female l i n e s are  mythic past.  will  i n which  flexible  group r e f e r e n t s a r e ,  ancestors  which  coexist.  i n h e r i t a n c e are  ideologically,  connects  generations.  importantly,  Lolo  that  Like  the  beings,  the  human i n f o r m were n o t  quite  human, and a n c e s t r a l (Keesing  1982s 75)  L o l o descent  spirits  of s o c i a l  c a n be v i e w e d  w h i c h a r e t h e "known groups.  as taking  c o g n a t i c , a g n a t i c and n o n - a g n a t i c Each  form  of descent  r e f e r e n c e t o an a p i c a l founder given  Also l i k e  a n c e s t o r w h i c h f o r t h e Kwaio i s t h e  o f a s h r i n e and f o r t h e L o l o t h o s e Keesing  agnatic descent  is  descent  female".  individuals  (1971:122)  as fallows.  i s an " u n b r o k e n c h a i n o f f i l i a l  non-agnatic  forms:  descent.  d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e s e forms of descent  female",  links,  Cognatic  male o r  i s a " c h a i n o f male l i n k s " , and  a "chain of l i n k s a t l e a s t  F o r both  t h e Kwaio,  i s d e f i n e d i n terms of  a men's h o u s e by Namor.  descent  three  founders  one o f w h i c  t h e Kwaio and t h e L o l o ,  A p e r s o n ' s r i g h t s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s c a n be viewed a s a composite bundle t h a t i s put t o g e t h e r f r o m t h e b u n d l e s o f f a t h e r and mother i n ways r e f l e c t i n g t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of e a r l y l i f e and c h i l d h o o d r e s i d e n c e ( K e e s i n g 1971:122). While  r e c o g n i z i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e and s i g n i f i c a n c e  male and f e m a l e  links,  t o male l i n k s .  Descent  a descent p r i n c i p l e  both  that  Kwaio and L o l o accord  groups  t h e n , based  of both primacy  a s t h e y a r e upo  i s primarily agnatic,  c a n t h e n be c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e d i s p e r s e d c a t e g o r y of p e r s o n s , c o g n a t i c a l l y descended f r o m t h e f o u n d i n g a n c e s t o r s , whose p r i m a r y attachments a r e t o other p l a c e s (Keesing 1971:123). In t h e L o l o c a s e , c o g n a t e s descent  directly  house.  Given  a r e t h o s e who  trace  t o t h e f o u n d i n g a n c e s t o r o f t h e men's  the cognatic descent  principle,  i t is  100 possible t o hold  membership  simultaneously.  The L o l a ,  d e g r e e s o f membership better not  control  access t o resources,  Agnates hold  to build  Settlement  the  closer  that  p r i m a r y membership entitles  to sleep  i n a men's h o u s e  an i n d i v i d u a l  the closer  male, f o r  i n t h e men's h o u s e and t h e on men's h o u s e  p r o v i d e s a rough i n d i c a t o r  land.  of s t a t u s of  o n e ' s h o u s e i s t o t h e men's h o u s e ,  one i s r e l a t e d  t o t h e "boss" a r s e n i o r  male o f  men's h o u s e g r o u p . P r i m a r y membership  to  different  and s o membership i s  a house f o r h i s f a m i l y  pattern  membership:  recognize  descent.  P r i m a r y membership  example, t h e r i g h t right  however,  men's h o u s e g r o u p s  i n men's h o u s e g r o u p s , p r o b a b l y t o  equated with c o g n a t i c  group.  i n several  property held  i n c l u d e s such importantly,  also entitles  a male t o a c c e s s  i n common by t h e men's h o u s e .  i t e m s a s p i g and f i s h  n e t s , b u t most  a g n a t e s have a c c e s s t o r i t u a l  s u c h a s masks and f l u t e s , lore surrounding  Property-  paraphernalia  and t h e r i g h t s t o t h e e s o t e r i c  these objects  including  origin  stories  (pungunga). T h u s , p r i m a r y membership  i n a men's h o u s e g r o u p  c e m e n t s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  living  g r o u p members,  their  spirit  beings resident i n  the  g r o u n d upon  masks Full  a n c e s t o r s , and t h e m y t h i c a l  (their  w h i c h t h e men's h o u s e i s s i t u a t e d  corporeal  participation  beings)  in ritual  live  inside  activities  and whose  t h e men's h o u s e .  i s t h u s incumbent  101 on p r i m a r y members, r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e t h e r t h e y  live in  c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e men's h o u s e . Boys l e a r n membership  early  i n t h e men's h o u s e .  one a n o t h e r  agnates  seclusion,  residential  their  process. males have c e r t a i n  rights  i n their  men's h o u s e and men's h o u s e g r o u p .  They a r e  t o s l e e p i n t h e men's h o u s e b u t i t i s s a i d  rather  rights  i n t h e men's h o u s e .  t u t o r s and m e n t o r s t h r o u g h  " s l e e p n o t h i n g " , meaning  guest  related to  which i s t h e formal b e g i n n i n g of t h e  Non-agnatic  they  seclusion  a c t as t h e i r  masculinization  allowed  A group of boys,  by a g n a t i c d e s c e n t , u n d e r g o e s c i r c u m c i s i o n  t o g e t h e r and s u b s e q u e n t Elder  of t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of primary  t h a n member.  similar  that  that  t h e y have t h e s t a t u s o f  In a c t u a l i t y ,  non-agnates have  t o t h o s e o f p r i m a r y members, b u t t h e s e  r i g h t s a r e earned  by r e s i d e n c e and p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  rather  t h a n by v i r t u e o f a g n a t i o n . N o n - a g n a t e s may a l s o b u i l d land  and c a n and do p a r t i c i p a t e  Regarding agnate  the latter  would be p r i v y  activities  p r i m a r y members. less consideration agnates  in ritual  activities.  however, i t i s u n l i k e l y  that  t o t h e most i m p o r t a n t  ritual  knowledge o f t h e men's h o u s e . ritual  h o u s e s upon men's h o u s e  i s treated Their than  became t o o v o c a l  a non-  Non-agnate's involvement i n more l i g h t l y  than  that of  s u g g e s t i o n s and d e s i r e s a r e g i v e n those of agnates, and demanding,  and s h o u l d n o n -  they a r e reminded  that  their  primary a f f i l i a t i o n  non-agnates t y p i c a l l y members, u n l e s s case,  their  equivalent  accede to the  they are  personal to that  i s elsewhere.  of  Although the  primary Lolo  a  result,  primary  i n d i v i d u a l s , i n which  them s t a t u s  roughly  members.  men's h o u s e g r o u p i s b a s e d  descent, considering  i t solely  limiting.  Holy  Following  wishes of  charismatic  power g r a n t s  As  as  a descent  on  group i s  (1976:126),  we s h o u l d a l s o remember t h a t t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n on t h e g r o u n d s of t h e i r d e s c e n t i d e o l o g i e s i s n o t on a p a r w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e on ' f u n c t i o n a l ' o r ' o p e r a t i o n a l ' grounds, as, e.g., political, economic or r e l i g i o u s groups. These l a t t e r may be f o r m s o f c o r p o r a t e n e s s , and p e r t a i n to the substance r a t h e r than the i d e o l o g y o f g r o u p membership. This  i s true f o r the  residence  and  Lolo, s i n c e other  even p e r s o n a l  choice,  over descent  in considerations  affiliation,  f a c t o r s which, f o r the  considerations  of  the  f a c t o r s , such  may  take  as  precedence  of men's h o u s e g r o u p  functions  and  Lolo, are  important  p u r p o s e s of  in  men's nous;  groups. The  s i t u a t i o n i s s i m i l a r f o r women a s  primary a l l e g i a n c e i s t o the they are  r e l a t e d by  which p l a c e s obligated  the  greatest  to assist  residential  agnatic  well.  men's h o u s e g r o u p t o d e s c e n t , and  activity  men's h o u s e g r o u p , a s w e l l  for as  which  i t i s this  demands upon them.  in ritual  Their  They  group are  their their  own.  103 Lolo corporate r e s i d e n c e , which personal 1957).  choice  gain these  (cf Barnes  and s u p p o r t  cooperate  1962, B a r t h  s o t h a t chances f o r economic  of s i b l i n g s  Given  Siblingship  i s critical in  A choice of r e s i d e n c e o f t e n  i n t h e normal  1969).  1973, B u r r i d g e  o f r e s i d e n c e , m a r r i a g e and s o on a r e  a r e maximized.  manipulations.  b a s e d on  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f l u i d i t y and  and d e s i g n e d  on t h e l o c a t i o n  1959,  i s itself  Manipulations  opportunistic  groups a r e p r i m a r i l y  depends  since siblings generally  round of d a i l y  affairs  t h e amount o f f l e x i b i l i t y  (Burridge and t h e  r e l a t i v e autonomy o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o make c h o i c e s , t h e L o l o utilize  two p a r a l l e l  on p e r s o n a l  networks of r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  choice, the other  Depending  on t h e s i t u a t i o n ,  activated  so that i n d a i l y  g r o u p members, and t h o s e  on k i n s h i p  one network affairs,  in  c l o s e p r o x i m i t y may c o o p e r a t e  in  t h e event  of ceremonial  by t h e l a r g e r The  k i n network  two main  social  preferences  forviri1ocality,  life.  house  f r i e n d s o r who  i n daily  live  activities,  while  i s enlisted  groups f o r t h e L o l o a r e t h e  given  are c r i t i c a l  men's  to participate.  consistent,  group.  1982).  or the other i s  work, an i n d i v i d u a l  men's h o u s e g r o u p and t h e s i b l i n g  sibling  (cf Rabbins  siblings,  who a r e good  one b a s e d  group.  t h e cognatic descent  T h e s e may be  construct,  and a d e s i r e t o r e s i d e i n a  However, t h e r e a r e o t h e r  social  i n d i s c u s s i o n s of L o l o s o c i a l  life  u n i t s which as moral  104 Moral  U n i t s of  The  most b a s i c  individual. influence  Society  Individuals  over  age  sex,  of  the  of  expected  and,  to  since  rebel,  to  Lolo adults  young L o l o a r e  wise not  expectations d i f f e r individuals,  of  is  power  l i v e s of  and  quality  given  of  the  expected  to  age.  too  So  they are  one  has  the and  others,  and  collective  extent  does not  with others.  to  however, s e t transgress.  the  the  age  of  the  the  As  one  to correspond  occur Young and  in  a  Lolo  to that  well, between  individuals.  The  between young s i s t e r s ,  s i s t e r s age,  support  upon  boundaries  relationship  a l l individuals:  expected  a certain  d e p e n d s upon  disobey t h e i r elders,  relationship  a s s i s t and for  to  morality  human a c t i o n  do,  given  example, changes as  Lolo  deal  the  individual  relationships  misbehave.  for  Lolo society  responsibility for  i n d i v i d u a l , and  character,  moral  l i v e s and  d e g r e e of  character  vacuum, t h e are  of  life. The  the  unit  have a g r e a t  t h e i r own  thus bear a high moral  moral  although they  another r e g a r d l e s s as  individual  more c l o s e l y  to  are of  Lolo  age,  ideals  of  morality. The  unit. nuclear  The  household composition  family,  horizontally.  but  i s a s o c i a l , moral of  a household  i s frequently  Predictably,  and  is typically a  extended  household  corporate  v e r t i c a l l y or  members i n t e r a c t  with  105 one  another  with greater frequency  and i n t e n s i t y  than  with  other k i n . Within the household, imperatives are c l e a r l y assist based  with  defined.  a l l household  division  each  individual's A l l household  matters,  following  cooking, or ceremonial  particular  member o f a h o u s e h o l d  work.  t h e gender-  c o n t r i b u t e wealth,  role  o u t by  i n ceremonial or  a l l members o f t h e h o u s e h o l d a r e  to contribute.  demands may c a u s e  Even i f a  h a s been s i n g l e d  h i s or her k i n t o play a p a r t i c u l a r  for  members  of l a b o u r , whether t h e s e a r e f o o d g a t h e r i n g ,  gardening,  required  moral  The e x t r a b u r d e n s imposed  some f r i c t i o n ,  by t h e s e  b u t i t i s r a r e and  cause  a g r e a t d e a l o f n e g a t i v e comment s h o u l d t h e r e q u e s t be  refused = Household for  some r e a s o n  members c a n e x p e r i e n c e some t e n s i o n i f  t h e r e i s t e n s i o n between t h e f a m i l i e s o f  t h e male and f e m a l e  heads of t h e household.  In t h i s  household  members must c h o o s e whose s i d e t o t a k e .  according  t o t h e L o l o moral  but  this  The associated strong  typically  (see Chapter  V I I f o r an  tension).  men's h o u s e g r o u p , with a n c e s t r a l  responsibility  Activities  Ideally,  code, k i n should s i d e with k i n ,  i s not always t h e case  example o f t h i s  case ,  engaged  s i n c e i t i s so c l o s e l y  and m y t h i c a l s p i r i t s ,  has a  t o be a c o n s c i o u s l y moral  unit.  i n by t h e members a s a c o l l e c t i v e a r e  of a ceremonial  nature.  Ceremonial  activities  106 enable the continuation humans and t h e s p i r i t most i m p o r t a n t  o f h a r m o n i o u s r e l a t i o n s between  w o r l d , t h u s t h e men's h o u s e g r o u p ' s  function  i s a moral, rather  than a  corporate  one. When t h e men's h o u s e g r o u p a c t s a s a c o l l e c t i v e , i t bears t h e burden of m o r a l i t y they a r e a l l r e s p o n s i b l e prescribed  by Namor.  Namor and o t h e r at r i s k ricochet  f o r others  f o r conducting  Failing  mythical  and a n c e s t r a l  anyone, n o t j u s t  like  the g u i l t y  whom t h e c e r e m o n i a l  performance. moral  and p u t s a l l  anger, l i k e  s o r c e r y , can  a scattergun,  punishing  As w e l l , t h o s e f o r  work i s p e r f o r m e d  Future  as  spirits  parties.  h o u s e g r o u p t o do i t p r o p e r l y  ceremonial  t o do s o i n c u r s t h e w r a t h o f  of punishment s i n c e s p i r i t o r be b r o a d c a s t  since, as Lolo,  depend on t h e men's  t o d e r i v e t h e b e n e f i t s of t h e  generations  of L o l o  t o o depend on t h e  b e h a v i o u r o f t h e men's h o u s e g r o u p , f o r i n t h e  absence of w r i t t e n ceremonial  records,  c o r r e c t t r a n s m i s s i o n of  knowledge r e q u i r e s c o r r e c t e x e c u t i o n ,  men's h o u s e g r o u p members a r e c h a r g e d . ceremonial  specialists  individuals,  Discussion  - The R o l e o f t h e S p i r i t s  preceding  play s i g n i f i c a n t  which  reason,  and v e n e r a t e d  f o r t h e i r s i s a weighty o b l i g a t i o n  From t h e spirits  are respected  For t h i s  with  indeed.  i n Lolo Social  Life  discussion, i t i s clear that the  r o l e s i n t h e everyday a f f a i r s of  107 the  Lolo  as  well  between two credited  the  Each  of  Lolo.  died.  Their  the  For  mythical  reasons.  E a c h of as  the  mythical The  of  t h e y see  cause a rash w h i c h may The Lolo  fail  beat  their  the  and  of  can  unpredictable. destruction  days, seven  people  be  equally  spirits  transgressions  are  cited had  caused  by  the  The  mythical  slight,  my  to their  past,  the  be  amount  spirits  example a b o v e ,  vulnerable  may  deaths  offenders.  anger.  If  a day-to-day b a s i s , i f  may  of  time.  Lola to  d i r e c t e d toward a c t u a l  spirits  part  the  i n the  a n g e r e d by  i n the  on  by  that  are  wives, i f c h i l d r e n are mythical  during  the  become a n g r y f o r a v a r i e t y  and  practiced.  not  expressed  would, or  spirits,  d e a t h s , as  are  was  those  demanding.  d e a t h and  f a l l o w i n g was  t o behave p r o p e r l y  abused, the  very  spirits  mythical  o r may  innocent  anger t h a t  something t h a t  punished. sorcery  i n three  or  ancestral  f r i g h t e n i n g and  f r o m Mount L a n g l a  The  angered  i s powerful  b r i n g widespread  spirits,  eruptions  informants  spirits  a l l t h i n g s , and  are  example,  Lolo distinguish  d e a t h s were a t t r i b u t e d t o a n g e r an  mythical  constant  of  The  mythical  spirit  spirits  a n g e r e d , t h e y can  to the  of  spirits,  origin  kind  Mythical If  i n ceremonial.  t y p e s of  with  spirits.  as  neglected, be  i f food  angered.  p u n i s h m e n t may  be  men  is  If e i t h e r mild  or  severe. The  spirits  greatest  is failure  cause of  to properly  anger f o r the  mythical  o b s e r v e custom.  Spirits  can  108 be a n g e r e d  by  ceremony and period  the simultaneous  performance  a modern d a n c e ; a f a i l u r e  o f m o u r n i n g by  the performance  judgement i n s u b s t i t u t i n g  an  i n d i g e n o u s one;  to perform  a failure  of a  traditional  to observe a  o f a ceremony; a  imported  performance  i n d i g e n o u s ceremony  f o r example i f p i e c e s a r e m i s s i n g , i f t h e  execution  i s sloppy, or i f food d i s t r i b u t i o n  of  a r e not adequate;  angered  by  and  bad  f o r an  properly,  wealth  decent  finally,  the i n a p p r o p r i a t e treatment  and  exchanges  t h e y can  of  be  ceremonial  p a r a p h e r n a l i a. In s h o r t , both  i n n o c e n t and  performance  the s p i r i t s guilty  aesthetics.  u n p r e d i c t a b l e and necessarily  are angered  Because t h e i r  toward  a guilty  better  not  party, a l l Lolo are Each  ignore these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  than murderers,  Ancestral  a sentiment  the  individual  then,  the L o l o f e e l  However, a n c e s t r a l unexpectedly  are  concerned.  are considered  inferred  from  no  many  spirits.  spirits,  unpredictable.  ancestors,  and  is  anger  with the mythical s p i r i t s  c o n v e r s a t i o n s about  equally  punish  as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e w e l l - b e i n g of o t h e r s  where r e l a t i o n s T h o s e who  wrath  of t h e i r  v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e a c t i o n s of o t h e r s . c a n be s e e n  will  f o r v i o l a t i o n s of s o c i a l  the d i r e c t i o n  directed  and  w h i l e somewhat l e s s f e a r e d , a r e  As d i r e c t a closer  spirits  t o o can  t u r n dangerous.  descendants and  of  these  more p e r s o n a l bond.  be b e n e v o l e n t , and  Ancestral  spirits  are  then  invoked  109 to a s s i s t activity use  the  with gardening, ceremonial, h e a l i n g , which needs s p i r i t  opinions  spirits  (and  guidance.  any  Contemporary  subsequent a c t i o n s )  as a y a r d s t i c k  or  of  Lolo  ancestral  w i t h w h i c h t o measure t h e i r  own  actions. The their  r e l a t i o n s h i p between L o l o  living  Tallensi. calls  descendents i s s i m i l a r to that  Fortes  ancestor  combination  ancestral  of  of  (1987:79), i n a d i s c u s s i o n  worship, describes belief  and  ritual  this  spirits  and  the  of  what  he  r e l a t i o n s h i p as  a  practice,  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h r u l e s of c o n d u c t , w h i c h s e r v e s t o e n t r e n c h t h e p r i n c i p l e of j u r a l a u t h o r i t y together with i t s c o r o l l a r y , l e g i t i m a t e r i g h t , and i t s r e c i p r o c a l , d e s i g n a t e d a c c o u n t a b i l i t y , a s an i n d i s p u t a b l e and s a c r o s a n c t v a l u e - p r i n c i p l e of t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m . In t h i s way,  the  the  living  and  provides  with of  the  the  and  moral  the  dead.  social  Ancestral sphere:  the  incorporated descent  i n t o the  humans, s p i r i t s social  the  as  fact  well  are  organisation,  not but  as  and  mythical  bound by rather  as  the  part  incorporeal  mundane c o n t e x t s ,  their  a  influence.  Ancestral  are  appropriately  they are  descent  both  spirits,  considered  power and as  encompassess  to deal  are  that  system of  clearly  Lolo  living  dead c o - e x i s t .  groups as  the  spirits  remove t h e i r  In c e r e m o n i a l and  of  dead, a n c e s t r a l  a guide f o r the  b e i n g s does not  living  order  spirits and  are  the are  members of  descendents.  moral  transcend  order i t .  of  Unlike the  Humans,  110 however, must a b i d e by t h e moral action both  in their  principles  d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e l i v i n g and t h e d e a d , i n  e v e r y d a y and c e r e m o n i a l  c o n t e x t s , o r be p r e p a r e d f o r  t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f b r e a c h i n g t h e moral Spirits, response  both  t o a breach  death  o f moral  principles,  from  and d e s t r u c t i o n .  as e i t h e r  principles.  m y t h i c a l and a n c e s t r a l ,  s a n c t i o n s which can range of  of s o c i a l  can,i n  impose  negative  a poor  garden  c r o p t o a wave  Unpleasant  events  are construed  p u n i s h m e n t by t h e s p i r i t s ,  t h e s p i r i t s have " t u r n e d t h e i r  or as evidence  backs"  o r withdrawn  that their  support. The ideally  then,  a c t as a check a g a i n s t t h e L o l o ,  p r e v e n t i n g them f r o m  the s p i r i t s , their  spirits,  acting  i n ways t h a t  will  anger  and p r o v i d i n g them w i t h a means t o e v a l u a t e  a c t i o n s and t h e a c t i o n s o f o t h e r s .  The " w o r s t  case"  s c e n a r i o f o r t h e L o l o i s one i n w h i c h t h e y h a v e l o s t  their  knowledge of custom s o t h o r o u g h l y t h a t  t h e y h a v e no  knowledge o f , and means t o , a c t i n ways t h a t the s p i r i t s . killed,  Were t h i s  will  please  t o be t h e c a s e , t h e L o l o would be  one by o n e , f a m i l y by f a m i l y , u n t i l t h e r e would be  no L o l o l e f t  upon t h e e a r t h .  the L o l o v o i c i n g principles, aesthetic  their  very real  performance,  fear  of l o s s  t h e body o f w h i c h c a n be c a l l e d  as defined i n t h i s  The  T h i s s c e n a r i o c a n be s e e n  next  chapter  indicating  o f moral  the social  dissertation.  i s an e x a m i n a t i o n how s o c i a l  o f f o o d and  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and  as  Ill c o n c e p t s o f power activities preparation  are interrelated  i n food  i n s e c u l a r and c e r e m o n i a l and e x e c u t i o n  related  c o n t e x t s , and i n t h e  o f ceremony.  CHAPTER  IV  FOOD AND P E R F O R M A N C E  The illuminate social  i n t e n t i o n of t h i s  chapter  t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between t h e m o r a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e A e s t h e t i c .  r e l a t i o n s among f o o d ,  food  are discussed, followed  preparation  chapter  concludes  with  of L o l o The  order,  t o performance  i s c u s t o m " and e q u a t e  food  preparation.  involved i n ceremonial  or o b l i q u e l y , s i n c e food f o r ceremonial  performance i t s e l f . and d u r i n g  events  Much o f t h e  involves  as well  as i n the course  Food exchanges which t a k e  place  as important  I n d e e d , a ceremony i s t h o u g h t  exchange, although  t h i s may t a k e 112  food,  p l a y s a major p a r t  a ceremony a r e c o n s i d e r e d  performance i t s e l f . food  "food  performances with  preparations  with  exchange  an a n a l y s i s o f how f o o d and  Lolo say that  preparation directly  and f o o d  and t o t h e A e s t h e t i c i n g e n e r a l .  The ceremonial  chapter,  and p e r f o r m a n c e .  p e r f o r m a n c e speak t o t h e L o l o moral aesthetics,  order of  In t h i s  by an e x a m i n a t i o n  p e r f o r m a n c e and t h e n e x u s o f f o o d  to  i s to further  place  i n the of the prior as the  t o begin  hours  be-fore t h e s t a r t critical  o-f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e .  i n terms of a c t u a l l y  Food i s n o t o n l y  running  a performance, but  t h e L o l o s a y t h a t y o u c a n n o t h a v e ceremony o r any p e r f o r m a n c e o f any k i n d w i t h o u t is  important  t o examine f o o d  food.  Far t h i s reason, i t  i n i t s relationship to  performance a e s t h e t i c s . I arrived  i n A r a i g i l p u a intending t o study  p e r f o r m a n c e and a e s t h e t i c s among t h e L o l o b u t was frustrated these  b e c a u s e my a t t e m p t s t o g a t h e r  t o p i c s were i n v a r i a b l y  s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h Kahn  1984, M e i g s  was p r e s e n t e d was g i v e n " further  food.  met w i t h  1971),  t o me on a p l a t t e r ,  (Meigs 1984:x).  discovered  t h a t food  L o l o moral  order  a comment  having  others  (e.g.,  " C t l h e i s s u e of food  and f i n a l l y  As I d i r e c t e d  i n t h e d i r e c t i o n s suggested  initially  i n f o r m a t i o n on  Eventually, like  1984 and Young  music,  I a t e what I  my i n v e s t i g a t i o n s  by my i n f o r m a n t s ,  I  and p e r f o r m a n c e h e l d t h e k e y t o t h e  and t h e A e s t h e t i c .  F o o d p r o v i d e s a means f o r c r e a t i n g , d e f i n i n g and sustaining cultural  social  relationships,  identities,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  assists  i n t h e maintenance of o r d e r l y  the supernatural, expresses  v a l u e s a b o u t t h e way t h e w o r l d and  c a n be u s e d t o e x p r e s s  negative  s a n c t i o n s , as well  nutritional  needs.  h e l p s f o r g e i n d i v i d u a l and  s  b e l i e f s and  i s and t h e way i t s h o u l d b e ,  o p i n i o n s o r impose p o s i t i v e o r as f u l f i l l i n g  b i o l o g i c a l and  114 Food and p e r f o r m a n c e a r e i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d , n o t only because food event,  culture. context  food  custom, t r a d i t i o n ,  What f o o d  Food  events.  and t h e r e l a t i o n s o f f o o d  means i n t h e  context  Thus, c o n s i d e r a t i o n  t o performance  f o r the examination  provide  o f t h e L o l o moral  and p e r f o r m a n c e a e s t h e t i c s .  Plants  Taro It  of t h e i r  l i f e i s r e s t a t e d , i n t e n s i f i e d and  during ceremonial  the necessary  ceremonial  o f f o o d and  and t h e e s s e n c e  d o e s and i m p l i c i t l y  of everyday  reconfirmed  order  component o f e a c h  b u t by v i r t u e o f t h e L o l o e q u a t i o n  ceremony w i t h  of  i s a central  figures  clearly  largely  surpasses  in stories,  other  foods  i n significance.  c h i l d r e n ' s games i n c o r p o r a t e  t a r o a s c h a r a c t e r s , and t h e L o l o c a l l  taro their  "bones".  Neke, t h e "mother" o f a l l t a r o p l a n t s , was given  t o t h e L o l o by a f e m a l e bush s p i r i t .  original  food  of  diet.  their  different  possessed  who c a n i d e n t i f y plant  each  or a t the tuber  some f o r t h e i r  female.  over  seventy  names f o r  A knowledgeable gardener  i s one  k i n d by l o o k i n g a t t h e l e a v e s o f t h e itself.  p l a c e of o r i g i n  o t h e r s have p e r s o n a l  T h i s was t h e  by t h e L o l o and r e m a i n s t h e s t a p l e  I collected  k i n d s of t a r o .  first  A l l t a r o p l a n t s a r e named, (e.g., B a i n i n g o r K i l e n g e ) ,  names and a r e d e s i g n a t e d  The names g i v e n  t o these  a s male o r  t a r o a r e f a m i l y names,  115 thus e s t a b l i s h i n g a kinship  between t h e t a r o p l a n t and  t h o s e who a r e members o f t h e k i n g r o u p t o whom t h e name belongs. found and is  If a wild  transplant well  stock.  generally  B e f o r e t h i s can o c c u r , t h e tuber several  well  "better"  seasons of c a r e f u l  as being  than o t h e r s  preferred  appropriate  times t o provide  p r o c e s s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a new t a r o  takes several  As  are  plant.  f o r food  others will  Some t a r o a r e b e l i e v e d  t h e m s e l v e s become s t r o n g .  blood  the blood  which h e l p s  outstanding consumption. inferior  Some  kin.  The " b e s t "  taro  g e n e a l o g y , were named by to influential  t o be " s t r a n g e r "  than  t o s i c k persons t o eat so that  assume some o f t h e s t r e n g t h  cleanse  propagation.  d i s t r i b u t i o n a t c e r e m o n i a l s , and  f o r giving to significant  and a r e g i v e n  plant  and a r e t h u s s u i t e d f o r i m p o r t a n t  i n d i v i d u a l s , o r which b e l o n g  families.  must  adequate  named, t a r o a r e e v a l u a t e d .  t h o s e which p o s s e s s a l e n g t h y  notable  After the taro  t h e f i n d e r may d i s t r i b u t e t h e n e w l y  and r e p l a n t e d This  gifts,  i t i n t o h i s or her garden.  established  split  are  u n l i k e any c u l t i v a t e d , i s  i n t h e b u s h , t h e n whoever f i n d s i t may name t h e p l a n t  domesticated be  taro plant,  they  o f t h e t a r o and w i l l  These t a r o a r e thought t o  a n d , when e a t e n w i t h g r e e n s , c r e a t e wash away i l l n e s s .  new  T a r o w i t h no  q u a l i t i e s a r e used p r i m a r i l y f o r o r d i n a r y O n l y when b e t t e r  taro are i n short  t a r o used f o r c e r e m o n i a l  purposes.  supply a r e  116 The including of  L o l a r e c o g n i s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of foods  bush f o o d ,  European o r i g i n .  composed o f f o o d s general, well  as being  strong  t h e most i m p o r t a n t food.  although  used  famine foods.  spite  frequency.  of i t s h i g h  but o f f i c e  i n Everyday  When f o o d carefully  cooks c o l l e c t  diet, these  although  a t r e a t , and  p r e s t i g e v a l u e , d o e s n o t h a v e much to the Lolo.  need e d u c a t i o n s  T h i s i s why their  steady  diet  them u n f i t f o r  work.  Life  i s brought  i n from t h e gardens, i t i s f o r s t o r a g e and  It i s disgraceful  t o s t o r e food  Not  only  and  o t h e r s a r e warned n o t t o e a t t h e i r  separated  activity.  "White" f o o d ,  s o r t e d and o r g a n i z e d  distribution.  makes one  physical  Thoughtful  t i n n e d meat and s o on r e n d e r s  anything  i s also  a r e not used  white skin  Food  nutritionally,  but they  people  rice,  Garden f o o d , a s  the diet,  value according  with  of food i n  i n addition t o the regular  and u s e them t o v a r y great  or food  i s predominantly  E a t i n g garden food  nutritional  of  diet  and a b l e t o engage i n s t r e n u o u s  are p r i m a r i l y  with  Because t h e i r  foods  f r o m g a r d e n s , when s p e a k i n g  the best  Bush f o o d s ,  foods  and " w h i t e "  t h e L o l o mean g a r d e n p r o d u c e .  considered  in  garden food  haphazardly.  i s one a p o o r h o u s e k e e p e r b u t a l s o a "bad" p e r s o n  and s t o r e d a c c o r d i n g  food.  t o ownership.  Food  i s also  If several  people  i n a household  sorted  and s t o r e d a c c o r d i n g On a d a i l y  and  share  duties, their  i s distributed  p a r c e l s of food  G i f t s a r e made a f t e r  who h a s v i s i t o r s having  rather  their  project.  are situation  specific  frequent  gifts  r e c e i v e food with  food  frequency,  of food,  while  t o those  regularity  contact  food  For food  at a distance  nearby because of t h e  and i n t e n s i t y  of s o c i a l  lapse, thus  relations.  g i v i n g and  means o f s u s t a i n i n g s o c i a l  relationships.  t h i s reason,  received.  c l o s e by, r e c e i v e  kin living  living  i s the primary  and s o c i a l  in all  One must be open and g e n e r o u s  R e l a t i o n s h i p s not maintained receiving  food.  go t o k i n ,  i s a key f a c t o r  Non—kin, i f l i v i n g  more r a r e l y .  gifts  gifts  Proximity  a  anger o r  by w i t h h o l d i n g  Most raw and c o o k e d f o o d  of food.  who i s  by r u l e s , b u t  of a q u a r r e l with  t h a t person  close kin.  food,  and p r a c t i c e d somewhat  f o r example, one e x p r e s s e s  gifts  with  G i f t s a r e not governed  relative,  especially  live  g a r d e n s , o r who h a s a s s i s t e d w i t  t o whim. In t h e c a s e  with  who  c o n s i d e r i n g i s s u e s such as  according  dissatisfaction  (several taro,  and o n e t o a  and i s i n need o f h e l p  t r o u b l e with  some r e c e n t  t o others,  and g r e e n s f o r example) t o t h o s e  c l o s e by, perhaps a bundle t o a s i s t e r brother.  food i  t o ownership.  b a s i s , food  i n v o l v e s taking small  sweet p o t a t o e s  gardening  i t i s crucial  I t i s necessary  t o keep t r a c k o f a l  t o know who g a v e raw f o o d  118 or  a meal s o t h a t  gifts  a means f o r e v a l u a t i n g as  then  indicates failure  towards t h a t Not food  other  only  special  Food  food  and o b l i g a t i o n s  accounts  I t i s openly  i n p u b l i c v i e w , and o f f e r e d t o a l l one may be h o a r d i n g  w i t h no i n t e n t i o n o f s h a r i n g , the imperative  directly  of generosity.  The  meat. T h e s e i t e m s a r e c o s t l y , d i f f i c u l t  with t h e i r  prodigious  appetites  eat r i c e  late at night  imperative  to obtain of r i c e  now t e n d  behind closed  doors.  t o cook Repeated  i s an i m p r o p e r and f l a g r a n t e x h i b i t i o n  w e a l t h and c a n damage o n e ' s  similar  a kilogram  a few a d u l t s , h e n c e t h e L o l o  Another  for  i s a p u b l i c matter.  i n p r i v a t e means t h a t  consumption of r i c e of  i n one's d u t i e s  sister,  i s s c r u t i n i z e d and m o n i t o r e d by  be e a t e n  Eating  feeds only and  except f o r a  a f f e c t e d by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f g o o d s s u c h a s r i c e and  tinned and  but food  should  contradicting is  value  i f food i s  do d o n o r s and r e c i p i e n t s m a i n t a i n  villagers.  present.  i s also  sister.  gifts,  stored,  F o r example,  from a l l k i n i n t h e v i c i n i t y  this  This  a r e l a t i o n s h i p and a s s e s s i n g  a p e r s o n and a s a k i n s m a n .  received  of  c a n be r e c i p r o c a t e d .  important  reputation.  gift  i s firewood.  Subject  c o n v e n t i o n s o f g i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g a s f o o d ,  the Lolo  household stored. blackened  an i n t e g r a l p a r t  has a p l a t f o r m This  of the food  over t h e hearth  wood becomes v e r y  by s o o t  and smoke.  network.  to i t is Every  where wood i s  d r y and a s t i m e p a s s e s i s  Food c o o k e d by t h i s wood i s  119 given  e x t r a s t r e n g t h , and s o t h i s f i r e w o o d  women i n c h i l d b i r t h  o r t o women i n m o u r n i n g  When p l a n n i n g a m e a l , t h e f i r s t who i s s u b j e c t t o what f o o d those  who s h a r e d  foods  deceased meal  ate just  eaten  forbidden  was t a r o ,  imposed  t o death,  then  those  ill.  The taboos  those  who were v e r y s e r i o u s l y  Breaking  sibling)  a r e observed  taboos  make them  affected  violently  a year,  t o t h e taboo  earth  must be d e c i d e d .  may  for life. relatively  individual  merely  f o o d , and makes a  t o t h e gardens of t h e deceased.  Once f o o d f o r a meal h a s been c h o s e n , cooking  although  by t h e d e a t h  i s an o c c a s i o n f o r a s m a l l ,  commemorative t r i p  i f the last  who t a k e on t h e t a b o o a r e  t o e a t t h e p r e v i o u s l y tabooed  special  during the i n i t i a l  f o rat least  by a d h e r i n g  f o r certain  i s t h a t which t h e  p r i v a t e ceremony, i n w h i c h t h e t a b o o e d begins  dies,  or c l o s e personal  f o r example,  taro since eating i twill  honour t h e deceased  When a kinsman  The f o o d t a b o o e d  prior  considerationi s  assume t a b o o s  t o t h e taboos  of mourning.  seclusion.  a close kinrelationship (for  blood  t o t h e deceased  i n addition  period  taboos.  a household,  example, a n a t u r a l p a r e n t , relationship  i s given t o  Roasting,  boiling  t h e method o f  or baking  oven a r e t h e a v a i l a b l e c h o i c e s , a l t h o u g h  i n an  the earth  oven r e q u i r e s s o much p r e p a r a t i o n t h a t i t i s u s u a l l y reserved  f o rceremonial  the d u t i e s .  o c c a s i o n s when s e v e r a l p e o p l e  share  120 Cooking preparations. foods  as  baked  i n an  cut  with are  events  cases  requires  they  h a v e been  t o remove t h e o u t e r  in a certain  each p i e c e halved approximately  and  equal  critical,  s i n c e food  standards  i s discarded.  carefully  placed  halved  first again  in size.  while  split  on  a daily  ceremonials,  meet t h e  Once t h e f o o d  i n t h e e a r t h oven and  pudding  certain  i n massive carved  Each o p e r a t i o n ceremony w i t h  done by the use  of  lengthwise  appropriate i t is  baked. and  preparing  preparation for  taken  is itself  special  tuber  f o r example s t i r r i n g  bowls, are  t h e men  each  i s prepared,  However, d u r i n g  operations,  second  V i s u a l appearance i s  t h a t does not  basis.  a  each  so t h a t a l l p i e c e s  Women a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o k i n g food  First,  Once p e e l e d ,  Taro are  are  specially  twice.  skin,  surface.  way.  same  f o r everyday consumption  T a r o f o r example, a r e p e e l e d  creates a uniform  elaborate  l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of t h e  or b o i l e d  e a r t h oven a f t e r  i s peeled  peeling is  In t h e s e  are roasted  prepared. tuber  -for c e r e m o n i a l  over  by  invested  utensils,  ritual  taro  the  men.  with acts  and  songs. Good c o o k s a r e a d m i r e d They a r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e serve.  Their roasted  foods  boiled  greens are a r t f u l l y  tubers  are  ovens has  smooth and no  punctures  and  visual h a v e no  respected  a p p e a r a n c e of  food  t r a c e of c h a r r e d  t w i s t e d and  c l e a n l y c u t , and from f o r k s .  individuals.  knotted, food  they  skin,  peeled  cooked  i n earth  F o o d must a l s o t a s t e  121 good and a good cook a d d s q u a n t i t i e s o f s a l t like  c u r r y powder i f t h e s e  another  consideration.  consuming a v a r i e t y  are available.  of d i f f e r e n t  utensils refuse  i s properly discarded.  whom t h e y  which  nutritious,  i s served,  certain  indicate deference  l a r g e amounts o f c u l t u r a l  to  served  first,  s i t and e a t .  come f r o m h i g h food  generosity as w e l l .  conventions are  and r e s p e c t .  wealth. they  first.  T h e s e men a r e  those  or those  who  large  Not o n l y a r e p r o m i n e n t  are a l s o given  their  possess  song  who h o l d  the best  places  men a r e p r e s e n t and  s t a t u s f a m i l i e s themselves, after  In a n y  k n o w l e d g e , f o r example  I f t h e wives of these  immediately  value  visually  and i n v a r i a b l y  story specialists,  amounts o f t r a d i t i o n a l persons  People  9  usually firstborn,  specialists,  households,  who c a r e a b o u t f o o d , r e s p e c t f o o d and  g a t h e r i n g , p r o m i n e n t men r e c e i v e f o o d elders,  i s prepared,  i s swept and a l l  t h a t makes one i l l .  serve.  When f o o d  area  food, but f o r t h e i r  Good c o o k s a r e t h o s e  observed  Good c o o k s a r e  Food f r o m d i r t y  goad c o o k s n o t o n l y f a r t h e i r and t a s t y  nutrition  and an a w a r e n e s s o f  foods.  clean, the hearth  means  and l a r g e amounts o f  Hands a r e washed b e f o r e f o o d  I was warned, i s f o o d  those  milk  values of d i f f e r e n t  a r e kept  appealing  foods  To many, p r o p e r  i n c l u d e s s p a r i n g use of coconut  h y g i e n i c cooks.  Nutrition i s  For the Lolo, eating well  greens t o cleanse the blood.  the medicinal  and d e l i c a c i e s  they  receive  h u s b a n d s . T h o s e who r e c e i v e  their  food  standing  last  who  in that particular  difference served.  i n the  s i z e of  Rather, the  indicator  of  New order.  are those  At  social  respected.  worldly  c a t e c h i s t , and  This respect people  making t h e  company.  hand b u t  of  food,  are  food  extent,  people  the church  and  are  or  the  thus tempered  with  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  i t i s never passed  food  from  hand  directly  into  t h e hand o f  T h i s a p p l i e s not  only  to serving  as w e l l .  When g i v i n g o r d i n a r y  to give these  to the  more s i g n i f i c a n t  the meals  gifts  senior  gifts  are  male.  i s a favoured gardens, food  or households.  These  by  different,  i s served,  to the s e n i o r  tamper w i t h  to a lesser  men  v i l l a g e r s somewhat u n c o m f o r t a b l e i n  i t i s acceptable  Food  pecking  i s , f o r many p e o p l e ,  female of a h o u s e h o l d w h i l e given  i s r e c e i v e d i s the  first.  education  i s always p l a c e d  of  is  1 0  recipient.  to g i f t s  food  p o s i t i o n s sanctioned  When f o o d  but  i n what f o o d  where e x c e p t i o n a l l y p r o m i n e n t  receive their  s i n c e these  intended  T h e r e i s no  i n which f o o d  g o v e r n m e n t , h a v e money and  to  social  position.  the doctor,  occupy o f f i c i a l  their  gathering.  the p o r t i o n s or  order  a gathering  the teachers,  and  lowest  p o s i t i o n s h a v e been added t o t h i s  are absent,  fear  have t h e  Great  target for sorcery. itself,  c a r e must be  or food  Sorcerers  r e f u s e i n gardens  e x e r c i s e d when  accepting  f r o m a known s o r c e r e r , s i n c e t o r e f u s e would be  to  risk far  t h e s o r c e r e r ' s wrath. the Lola.  Family  home and b e l o n g i n g s but  Customarily,  if  unavoidable  is  safe.  lavish their  members w i t h  a r e those  access  food  eaten.  most l i k e l y  t a one's  of food  t o present  g i v e n b y s o r c e r e r s i s a c c e p t e d and  The r e c i p i e n t s c a n o n l y hope t h a t i t  Known s o r c e r e r s a r e t h u s  gifts  easy  given  f r e q u e n t and  i n t h e hope t h a t t h e y  malice elsewhere.  will  i s a t a r g e t b e c a u s e o f i t s power.  power t h r o u g h  t h e g r o u n d , and t h r o u g h  realms of the A e s t h e t i c , notably  Attacking attack  food,  direct  A n a l o g o u s t o t h e men's h o u s e o r  gardens, food  other  situation  a r e most g r e a t l y f e a r e d a s s o r c e r e r s  a t t h e same t i m e ,  food.  This i s a d i f f i c u l t  Food  gains  a s s o c i a t i o n with ceremonial.  g a r d e n s o r t h e men's h o u s e i s t r u l y an  upon t h e A e s t h e t i c , i n t h a t o b j e c t s s a t u r a t e d  with  t h e powers o f t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y , h e n c e t h e A e s t h e t i c , a r e the o b j e c t s of a s o r c e r e r ' s malice. Eating food.  i s secondary  Receiving food  friends, welfare. social  food  or receiving  means t h a t one b e l o n g s ,  or i n short, people  who a r e c o n c e r n e d  G i v i n g and r e c e i v i n g  security  to giving  by e s t a b l i s h i n g  n e t w o r k s and w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r  food  has k i n , f o r one's  e n s u r e p h y s i c a l and  one's p o s i t i o n sphere  within kin  of v i l l a g e  relations.  124 F o o d and S o c i a l  The maintain vehicle  Lola  u s e f o o d a s a means t o c r e a t e ,  social relationships, f o r the creation  defining  one's p o s i t i o n  discussed support  i n Chapter  i d e n t i t y and f o r  v i s - a - v i s that  and r e c e i v i n g with  fulfill  t h e i r moral  duties  of k i n r e l a t i o n s -  and r e c e i v i n g enable Lolo  m e a l s , and  individuals to  i m p e r a t i v e s towards o t h e r s .  women a r e t h e g i v e r s  As  i n the c r i t e r i a f o r  food, giving  food r e l a t e d  of others-  p r i n c i p l e s o f mutual a i d ,  k i n and i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n  helping  the  of s o c i a l  I I , moral  de-fine and  and s o f o o d becomes t h e  and e x c h a n g e a r e c e n t r a l  defining Giving  Relations  and r e c e i v e r s  of food  Although  among t h e L o l o ,  s o c i a l a s p e c t s of t h e s e i n t e r c h a n g e s a r e extended t o  include  households rather  than applying  solely to  indi viduals. For  the Lolo,  giving  and r e c e i v i n g  each person has a p l a c e w i t h i n of  the fact that  positions  within  than o t h e r s . food  classificatory characterized  that  certain  n e t w o r k p l a c e g r e a t e r demands  of whether t h e y a r e n a t u r a l  exchange  or  s i b l i n g s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s by a l m o s t d a i l y e x c h a n g e o f f o o d .  type of r e l a t i o n s h i p gifts,  However,  S i s t e r s , f o r example, h a b i t u a l l y  regardless  mean  t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m by v i r t u e  one g i v e s and r e c e i v e s . the kinship  food  although  Thus, t h e  determines t h e frequency of food  the frequency  i s t e m p e r e d by  physical  distance.  Never g i v i n g  food  away c a n c a u s e a r u p t u r e gifts  basic  i n the relationship,  importance of personal  p r i n c i p l e s of L o l o s o c i a l  Chapter  III.  giving  food  Cooperation  food,  preference  organisation discussed i n  among s i b l i n g s  serves t o further establish  send a c h i l d which  arrive^  receive gifts live  cooked food the  to a sister's i s then  groupings  those  offered  or i n case  a p l a t e of  as w e l l .  affected  In a d d i t i o n , f o r t h o s e  end o f t h e v i l l a g e ,  Gifts  I f a number  of s i c k n e s s , those  who  an o c c a s i o n a l g i f t o f  o f raw f o o d  G i f t s of cooked f o o d  who a r r i v e when a meal  a meal  as  nearby  and s e r v e s  are often given t o  t h e men's h o u s e f o r t h e c o n s u m p t i o n o f a l l men i n s i d e . well,  food  a r e made c o n s t a n t l y ,  house with  replaces habitual g i f t s  same p u r p o s e .  i n daily  d i v i d e d among a l l p r e s e n t .  of cooked f o o d .  at the other  t o exchange  T h o s e who l i v e  m e a l s a r e d e p e n d e n t on s i t u a t i o n  of g u e s t s  and  c o r p o r a t e g r o u p among t h e L o l o .  g e n e r a l l y t o t h e same p e o p l e .  cooked food  i s expected,  residential  G i f t s of meals o r cooked f o o d  often  echoes t h e  The i m p o r t a n c e of p r o x i m i t y  t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  of  hence t h e  i t i s s i b l i n g s who a r e e x p e c t e d  most o f t e n .  giving  and  some d i s t a n c e  a r e made b u t a r e o c c a s i o n a l . The  in  to kin living  As  i s i n progress are  r e g a r d l e s s o f whether o r n o t t h e y  have  eaten. Maintaining who l i v e  good r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  nearby i s fundamentally  k i n and t h o s e  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  126 women. those  They h a r v e s t with  -food, cook -food and u l t i m a t e l y a r e  t h e power t o c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n  r e l a t i o n s h i p s s i n c e they giving  and r e c e i v i n g  incurred  o-f f o o d .  The o t h e r  to b r i n g her the usual  One woman i n t h e v i l l a g e  gifts  of food.  apology  She f o l l o w e d t h i s  and n e x t  illustrates  day t h e g i f t s  by r e f u s i n g  T h i s a c t i o n on t h e  her t o p u b l i c l y  S i n c e s h e r e c e i v e d no f o o d ,  dead.  by s p r e a d i n g  women r e t a l i a t e d  o f t h e v i l l a g e women c a u s e d  herself. thus  i n l a r g e p a r t on t h e  t h e wrath of h e r female neighbours  malicious gossip.  part  a r e based  these  mourn f o r  s h e was d e s e r t e d and  announcement w i t h  a public  of food  This  two b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s .  resumed.  The f i r s t  speaks t o t h e  importance of food  gifts.  implies  from one's k i n and n e i g h b o u r s .  alienation  The absence o f t h e s e  gifts  Alienation  and i t s r e s u l t a n t  isolation  worse than  death.  women h o l d t h e means t o e i t h e r  preserve  Secondly,  or destroy Men  are, f o r the Lolo,  kin relationships.  play a smaller but s i g n i f i c a n t  role  i n this  process.  Men p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e i n l a r g e - s c a l e g a r d e n i n g  projects,  and i n p r e p a r i n g f o o d  a daily  basis, their  role  women t o be g e n e r o u s w i t h reputation  i srestricted their  may l e g i t i m a t e l y  matters  food  gifts  concerning  beat  food,  household.  h i s wife  events.  On  t o encouraging t h e since the  o f t h e men r e s t s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t  l a r g e s s o f t h e women o f t h e i r man  f o r ceremonial  on t h e  The o n l y t i m e  a  i s i f she i s remiss i n  f o r example f a i l i n g  i n her  127 ceremonial guests,  responsibilities,  or f a i l i n g  amounts o f f o o d . fulfill  failing  t o f e e d a man's  t o provide t h e f a m i l y with  adequate  I f a man's w i f e and u n m a r r i e d  a l l food-related obligations,  daughters  h i s reputation i s  enhanced a c c o r d i n g l y . Social  differentiation  in  Lolo conceptions  on  more t h a n  i n regard  division  i s marked.  constitution  and b e a r  food  and g i v i n g  automatically  birth and thus  food  with  of labour this  A child  The L o l o  m a t u r e , s o do r e l a t i o n s h i p s . t o each  view each  at birth  e n t e r s a network o f k i n r e l a t i o n s , identity.  that  o f men  as analogous i n that  relationship.  a social  bear  t h e importance of  independently  contributions. birth  Women  and g e s t a t i o n , t h e f a c t  G i v i n g food  t o r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a s a c h i l d  necessary  a r e based  preparation  the Lolo recognize  children  initial  creates a social  the c h i l d  and f o o d  reflected  Food a l s o s p e a k s t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n and  i n conception  outweighs t h e i r giving  t o gardening  and a l t h o u g h  carry  with  o f m a s c u l i n i t y and f e m i n i n i t y .  t h e man's r o l e women  Dealings  mere c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f a d i v i s i o n  although  children,  of food.  by g e n d e r i s a l s o  providing  also gives  needs food  t o grow  Food and women's work a r e  i n d i v i d u a l ' s p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  survival. Women h a v e power t o g i v e o r deny l i f e . carry  abort.  a  pregnancy t o term, can p r a c t i c e b i r t h Just as e a s i l y ,  they  Women c a n control or  c a n a l l o w r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o be  128 perpetuated food. in  or destroyed  For these  reasons,  t h i s r e s p e c t they  newly-married beating that  are at their  mercy.  young men f o r a r g u i n g  they  Were t h i s  wife,  or withholding  men a r e c a u t i o u s w i t h  them, o r m i s t r e a t i n g them.  should  them.  by g i v i n g  s o behave, t h e i r t o occur,  o r be g u a r a n t e e d  women s i n c e  Dlder their  men c h i d e wives,  Y o u n g e r men a r e warned w i v e s would s t o p  a man would c e a s e  a childless  B o t h men and women r e a l i z e differentiation  with  g i f t s o-f  and c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y  regard  to the creation  social  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and ceremony.  feeding  t o have a  marriage. the essential of t h e i r  roles  with  and m a i n t e n a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s , Food  i s a female  d o m a i n , and p e r f o r m a n c e t h e p r o v i n c e o f men. Just food  c o n t r i b u t e s t o one's s o c i a l  a i d s i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and d e f i n i t i o n  identity and  as food  a s an i n d i v i d u a l .  of one's  A good L o l o woman works  h e r g a r d e n s a r e monuments t o h e r p r o d u c t i v i t y .  a l w a y s h a s enough f o o d family,  her guests,  providing and  identity,  food  hard She  a v a i l a b l e and more t o f e e d h e r  and t o f u l f i l l  f o r ceremonial.  her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n  Generosity  when g i v i n g  food  o b s e r v a n c e o f c o r r e c t p r o t o c o l i n s e r v i n g and  distributing  show t h a t o n e c a r e s a b o u t o n e ' s r e p u t a t i o n a s  a L o l o woman.  Treatment of food  gauging  a woman's s t a n d i n g  Failing  t o observe  distribution  p r o v i d e s t h e barometer f o r  i n t h e v i l l a g e a n d among k i n .  and o u t d o t h e c o n v e n t i o n s  c a n t u r n a woman i n t o  of food  a p a r i a h , and d e s t r o y  129 her  h u s b a n d ' s and f a m i l y ' s r e p u t a t i o n s i n t h e p r o c e s s .  woman may be f o r g i v e n n e a r l y e v e r y t h i n g e x c e p t food.  abusing  1 1  F o r men t o o f o o d as  A  individuals.  through weight  their  i scritical  In o r d e r  f o r them t o a c h i e v e  w i v e s and d a u g h t e r s ,  i n t h e gardens.  i n their  they  constitution renown  must p u l l  their  A s u c c e s s f u l and p r o d u c t i v e  r e q u i r e s t h e combined e f f o r t s  o f men a n d women.  garden  Without  t h i s c o o p e r a t i o n , g a r d e n s q u i c k l y d e t e r i o r a t e and produce small of  wizened food  this  food  described as "pig food".  as g i f t s  one's r e p u t a t i o n .  or during ceremonial  T h o s e who do l i t t l e  r e c e i v e food  for their  themselves.  Getting food  of  efforts  should  f o r nothing  s e v e r e l y damages  but expect t o be ashamed o f makes p e o p l e  objects  scorn. Clearly,  food  p r o v i d e s a means by w h i c h L o l o men  and  women c r e a t e and cement i n d i v i d u a l  men  and "good" women a r e h a r d  and  show i t by t h e i r  who a r e r e s p e c t e d L o l o and with rarely other  identity.  w o r k e r s who r e s p e c t  "Good" others  w i s e and j u d i c i o u s u s e o f f o o d .  Lolo  by o t h e r s h a v e a good s t a n d i n g among t h e  their  k i n , a r e known i n o t h e r  areas, are  t h e b u t t o f g o s s i p o r a n g e r , c a u s e few p r o b l e m s villagers, are likely  exemplifying  conduct  a Lolo, avoid in  Presentation  h i s good  t o a v o i d s o r c e r y , a n d , by-  considered  a p p r o p r i a t e and p r o p e r f o r  t h e w r a t h o f Namor and t h u s  graces.  with  b e n e f i t by b e i n g  130 Food  and t h e Cash  Food development only  i s entering  course,  rather cash  food,  food  scarce  after  they  bought  On s e v e r a l  owing  f o rgarden while  Until  food  they  cooked,  who h a d m o n e y  and a t e pork  who h a d n o n e .  There  were were  w a s much  food  This  occasions women  would  i n return.  Now  a p p l i e s , of  when were  needed  I was i n t h e v i l l a g e , had been  a new  a t the store as well  to the rain, which  economy,  quite recently, Lolo  usually receiving  food  foods.  Twice  t h e monetary  i s offered f o rsale.  t o "white"  indigenous  into  f o rthe Lolo.  exchange  however,  Economy  food  as to  was  forced  t o pay  f o r ceremonials.  men s h o t  wild  pigs  c u t up a n d s o l d . bitterly  resented  disgruntled talk  which,  Those by  about  those those  who a t e p o r k . One horrified  incident  many  women  remain  month  after  marking  was  which  woman  from  provincial proceeds  there  was s o l d  a young  village  i n mourning  was o f f e r e d f o r s a l e After  i s a ceremony  rather  period  capital,  than  t o be s p l i t  i n a lumber decided among  and food  certain  given  that  t h e pork  away.  On  this  buta l l  The deceased  recently returned  camp  outside the  food  should  himself,  one  distribution  o f mourning.  and n o t o n l y  and h e r husband,  working  a death,  seclusion f o rapproximately  a p i g was k i l l e d  food  food  of the villagers.  t h e end of t h e formal  occasion, other  i n which  be s o l d  h i sb r o t h e r s ,  t ot h e  with  and h i s  af f i n e s . and  He r a t h e r  terrified  rumours of h i s a b i l i t i e s  affines  t o acquiesce.  h i s affines.  A h a t temper  as a s o r c e r e r persuaded h i s  F o r o l d e r L o l o and t r a d i t i o n a l l y -  minded y o u n g e r L o l o , t h i s was v i e w e d a s a v e r y b r e a c h of L o l o custom. a b o u n d e d , and t h o s e  D i r e p r e d i c t i o n s o f Namor's w r a t h  seen as r e s p o n s i b l e , a f f i n e s  were shunned and o s t r a c i z e d . feared  for their  villagers  that  lives  they  punished and  sorcery  K i n of t h e t r a n s g r e s s o r s  was b e l i e v e d  were d o i n g  them f o r t h e i r  t h i s type  no harm, b u t g o s s i p mistreatment  with the  t h e small Club,  "Bate" of  again.  i n which t h e s a l e of food raising  going  t o stock  a small  o r t h e L o l o v i l l a g e s may o r g a n i z e  i n which food  i s s o l d , again  money f o r t h e a i d p a s t ,  to raise  a l l understand  r a i s e money. attend this  these  and s e l l s i t s t o r e r u n by  a dance o r small  amounts  that food  At  these  i s sold explicitly to  Even s o , many o l d e r v i l l a g e r s r e f u s e t o e v e n t s b e c a u s e t o them t h e s a l e o f f o o d i n  manner r e p r e s e n t s  problem  events.  the school, ar to contribute  t o w a r d s t h e p u r c h a s e o f a community t r u c k . events,  and ceremony  o c c a s i o n a l l y makes f o o d  profits  am  and o s t r a c i s m  of food  These a r e p r i m a r i l y fund  L o l o Women's C l u b  The young  t o make some money  o f i n c i d e n t n e v e r occurred  sanctioned.  The  inevitable.  wished  T h e r e a r e some i n s t a n c e s is  included,  s i n c e t h i s a c t i o n so angered t h e  men r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s o n l y thought  serious  a violation  of L o l a m o r a l i t y .  i s n o t a l a c k o f money, a l t h o u g h  The  i t i s certainly  scarce,  s i n c e small  villagers •food  amounts o-f money c i r c u l a t e  v i a ceremonial  distributions.  among  The i s s u e i s t h a t  i s n o t a commodity t o be s o l d .  Food and P e r f o r m a n c e  Lolo ceremonial that  c e r t a i n events take  individual's that  e v e n t s have p r e d i c t a b l e c y c l e s i n  life.  a particular  place  at c e r t a i n times during  Thus, b e f o r e event  will  i t i s a c t u a l l y announced  take  place,  there  i s casual  comment t h a t , f a r e x a m p l e , i t i s t i m e f o r a c h i l d circumcised, is  married,  key i n t h i s .  they  o r named.  The g r a n d p a r e n t  D e p e n d i n g on t h e i r  protocol  information  and p r o v i d e  the  ceremony.  the  person  generation  proceedings.  on c o r r e c t  most o f t h e w e a l t h e x c h a n g e d  "officially"  sponsoring  who, a f t e r  the event, u s u a l l y the  of t h e c h i l d ,  public  responsibility,  c o n s u l t i n g h i s k i n , assumes  father  who assumes t h e p r i v a t e , most  even t h o u g h  of e n s u r i n g  during  announcement i s made, however, by  father  responsibility  f o r the  and i n s t r u c t i o n  The f o r m a l  t o be  status i n the v i l l a g e ,  assume much o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  They p r o v i d e  an  that  i t i s , f o r example, h i s critical,  the performance i s p r o p e r l y  executed. The the  start  weeks.  announcement o f an i m p e n d i n g  of vigorous  ceremony s i g n a l s  d e l i b e r a t i o n s t h a t carry  on f o r  E a c h n i g h t , t h e members o f t h e s p o n s o r i n g  men's  133 house group g a t h e r of  t o organize t h e event,  o t h e r men's h o u s e g r o u p s w i t h  proceedings. those  joined  an i n t e r e s t  i n the  Also included are s p e c i a l i s t s .  assembled  the s p e c i a l i s t  possess  by members  I f none o f  the appropriate cultural  i scalled  knowledge,  i n as a consultant t o the  proceedings. In  the course  of the d e l i b e r a t i o n s ,  t h e men d e c i d e  who i s t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r the ceremonial  and d u r i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e i t s e l f .  This  i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t h e purpose of t h e performance and  t h e type  indigenous  of ceremonial.  t o t h e Lolo, possess  t y p e s and amounts o f w e a l t h of  "True"  p i g s t o be g i v e n  directives  t o those  who a c t i n a c e r t a i n  s o on.  event  In g e n e r a l , however, t h o s e  a r e those While  the female sponsors, children),  wealth  who s p o n s o r t h e  these d e l i b e r a t i o n s a r e being c a r r i e d out,  relatives  of those  the sisters should  involved  of the sponsors  t h e y be p r e s e n t  (the wives of t h e and t h e i r  i n the village  with  gardening,  female or l i v e This  h a r v e s t i n g and c o o k i n g  I f t h e r e a r e t o o few women p r e s e n t , women e n l i s t t h e  of t h e i r  their  capacity,  who must p a y .  includes assisting  aid  numbers  t o be e x c h a n g e d ,  c l o s e b y , a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r f e e d i n g t h e men.  food.  those  governing the  t h a t must be e x c h a n g e d ,  amounts and k i n d s o f t r a d i t i o n a l and  Lolo ceremonials,  female  kin.  Food p r e s e n t e d  d e l i b e r a t i o n s must be t a k e n  t o t h e men d u r i n g  t o t h e men's house and  134 given  with  have t h e i r  appropriate  decorum and ceremony.  own d e l i b e r a t i o n s .  As t h e men n e g o t i a t e  men's h o u s e , t h e women n e g o t i a t e w h i l e Women l e t t h e i r uncertain  must be g i v e n  Men r e a l i z e  have l a i d decided  what f o o d ,  is  who d r e s s e s  the child  previous  evaluated  who  who a c t s a s a masked  I f , f o r e x a m p l e , two men must  to participate  forms of wealth.  person  these  according  must  provide secure  a p i g means  o f k i n must be  i t i s t i m e f o r one o r  i n t h i s way.  must p r o v i d e  twenty fathoms of s h e l l  disposal,  involvement  t o a s c e r t a i n whether  a certain  them, t h e y  T h u s , d e c i d i n g who p r o v i d e s  ceremonial  amassing t h e other  obtain  i n ceremonial  r e q u i r e s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  a d u l t p i g s b u t do n o t p o s s e s s  another  have  p l a y , who  and men's r e g a l i a ,  form of wealth,  Each o f t h e s e  them f r o m o t h e r s .  that  involved will  They  who l e a d s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e , and when t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  numerous v a r i a b l e s .  that  1 2  n e g o t i a t i o n s , t h e men  who makes t h e d a n c e s k i r t s  t o be h e l d .  four  wish t o a v o i d  r u l e s f o r t h e performance.  donates a p i g o r other figure,  cooperation.  t h e c l o s e of t h e formal t h e ground  -food.  t h a t t h e w i s h e s o f t h e women  what r o l e e a c h h o u s e h o l d  provides finery,  their  i n the  male k i n i n no  s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i f they  t r o u b l e and s e c u r e By  preparing  o p i n i o n s be known t o t h e i r  terms.  The women t o o  T h e same i s t r u e f o r Once i t i s e s t a b l i s h e d  five  carved  b o w l s and  money, i t i s up t o t h a t p e r s o n t o t o w h a t e v e r means a r e a t h i s  g e n e r a l l y by c a l l i n g  i n o l d d e b t s o r c r e a t i n g new  135 ones. into  These requirements  are, to a certain  gong.  end o f d e l i b e r a t i o n s  The d a t e  those  with  they  o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e i s made known, and f o r  of t h e i r  have s u f f i c i e n t  present  wealth  some o f t h e m a t e r i a l s h o u l d  k i n by making t h e i r  t h e labour begins.  situation  on hand.  begin  to enlist  r e q u e s t s known.  invariably requiring  results  ceremonial  at least  about t o c o l l e c t  indebted  t h e a i d of  At t h i s person  obligations.  of each person's  events.  i s n o t uncommon  that  This  i n h o u r s o f argument and d e b a t e ,  an a s s e s s m e n t  be c o n c l u d e d it  kin to f u l f i l l  feel  by o t h e r s  j u n c t u r e , more d e l i b e r a t i o n s b e g i n a s e a c h n e g o t i a t e s with  t o t h e event  ideally  i t s e l f , but  f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o be a r g u i n g  items  again  involvement i n  These n e g o t i a t i o n s should  a week p r i o r  They  and d e c i d e i f  I f they  be p r o v i d e d  s e r v i c e s i n t h e past, they  their  i s s o u n d e d by t h e s l i t -  obligations to f u l f i l l ,  must t a k e s t o c k  past  built  kinship status. The  for  extent,  and r a c i n g  f o r e x c h a n g e on t h e m o r n i n g o f t h e  performance. F e m a l e k i n and t h e w i v e s o f t h o s e large part i n these negotiations. debates wealth event.  with  their  involved play a  Women p a r t i c i p a t e  own o r h u s b a n d ' s k i n c o n c e r n i n g t h e  t o be e x c h a n g e d , w h i l e o r g a n i s i n g t h e f o o d Similar  i n the  processes  f o r the  obtain i n n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r food.  Women must c o n s i d e r who owes them f o r s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d and t o w a r d whom t h e y  may become i n d e b t e d .  L i k e t h e men's  136 negotiations, still  shortly  persuading  b e f o r e t h e performance,  kinswomen t o a s s i s t  women a r e  them i n t h e i r  preparations. F o r t h e women, t h e week b e f o r e t h e ceremony i s spent  collecting  decorating day  firewood, food, the materials f o r  the participants,  before t h e event,  collected,  it  l o o s e ends a r e t i e d  one e a r t h oven.  t o t h e one l o c a t e d  i s t h o s e who l i v e  t h e work  i s t o prepare  fire  built  t o them, and s o a g a i n  i n the closest  p r o x i m i t y who make up  begins e a r l y .  t h e e a r t h oven.  with a t h i c k  Firewood  h e a t i n g , t h e women p r e p a r e depending  prepared  i s brought,  on t h e f i r e ,  While  t h e food.  Food u s e d  This takes  and t h e  f o r ceremonial  several  and how much  purposes  must  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e d i c t a t e s d e s c r i b e d above.  i n t h i s p r o c e s s by g a t h e r i n g d o z e n s o f  coconuts,  husking  a  the stones are  on t h e s i z e o f t h e c e r e m o n i a l  i srequired.  The f i r s t  blanket of l e a v e s so that t h e  stones a r e thoroughly heated.  assist  The h o u s e h o l d s a r e  i n the hearth, stones p i l e d  whole i s c o v e r e d  be  Each  closest  morning o f t h e event  task  food  food  parties. The  hours  The  up, t h e l a s t  and t h e d a y ' s l a b o u r p a r t i e s o r g a n i z e d .  v i l l a g e has a t l e a s t attached  and making d a n c e s k i r t s .  them, and g r a t i n g  t h e coconut  Men  "dry" for  coconut  milk. When t h e s t o n e s a r e t h o r o u g h l y h e a t e d , opened.  Hot s t o n e s a r e p u s h e d  t o one s i d e ,  t h e oven i s  and a l a y e r o f  banana l e a v e s i s p l a c e d on t h e h e a r t h . organized The  food  s o t h a t e a c h woman's f o o d i s very  memorizing  just  carefully  The l e a v e s a r e  c a n be k e p t  p l a c e d on t h e l e a v e s , e a c h woman  what s h e h a s c o n t r i b u t e d , and l e a v i n g a  s p a c e between h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s and t h o s e women.  Greens a r e i n s e r t e d  coconut  milk  arranging tightly be  heated layer  poured over  stones  t h e food  s o t h a t t h e whole i s  The  i n the stones.  on t o p and t h e oven i s c l o s e d .  breath  Since i t  t o c o o k , t h e women a r e  and a s s i s t  their  male k i n i n  business. t h i s time,  p a r t s i n t h e event.  performance, prepare  their  details  of t h e event,  wealth,  or a s s i s t  t h e men h a v e been p r e p a r i n g f o r They r e h e a r s e regalia,  organize  i n the food  q u a n t i t i e s of b e t e l exchange, f o r paying consumption  must  on t o p o f t h e mound, and a n o t h e r  s e v e r a l hours f o r t h e food  minute  the leak  cooks evenly.  o f l e a v e s i s added t o h o l d t h e h e a t  During their  a r o u n d t h e f o o d , and  T h e oven i s c l o s e d by  so that t h e food  are piled  free t o catch their last  all.  of t h e other  I f a n y steam i s v i s i b l e ,  and c o v e r e d  Wood i s p i l e d takes  i n spaces  banana l e a v e s o v e r  enclosed.  found  separate.  finalize  the last  f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of preparations.  n u t and t o b a c c o dancers  t h e songs f o r t h e  Large  a r e needed f o r  and s i n g e r s , a n d f o r  during t h e performance.  These a r e c o l l e c t e d i n  a d v a n c e b u t on t h e d a y o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e a r r a n g e m e n t s a r e made f o r t h e i r  distribution.  138 E a c h ceremony o f f i c i a l l y distribution. of  the  in  leaf  A mat  of  banana l e a v e s  bundles f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  leaf  who  have p r o v i d e d  mat.  contributed  L a r g e p o r t i o n s of  a  i s laid  those  the p r e p a r a t i o n s . involved  those who  lion's  for  the  share  event,  food i n the  who  that  everyone's e f f o r t s  they  h a v e done a s e r v i c e , t h e  follows a circulatory involved  i n one After  way  or  the food  One was  recipient  like  blood  apt  distribution  have done  doing  the  but  work food.  their  those  work,  reflecting  t o me  during  The  a l l who  h a v e been  e x c h a n g e of o n l y one  remaining  Pigs are  a  s i n c e i t flowed s i n c e the  the  so  f o r whom  simile  Lolo ceremonials,  to the r e c i p i e n t s .  the  people  another.  distributed.  house of  by  remarked  system through  killed,  live  man  during  r e c e i v e t h e most  i n food  v i l l a g e , an  At  and  and  q u a n t i t y of f o o d  valuables occurs. cooked  who  t h e same  to the event,  are paid  that food  the e n t i r e  those  on  those  h a v e a s s i s t e d them i n t h e i r  assistance.  distribution  piled to  s i n c e they  o n e s who  goes t o those  wrapped  major a s s i s t a n c e  inevitably  food  throughout  sponsor,  In e f f e c t ,  are the  food  are given  of p r o v i d i n g t h e w e a l t h  they  the  centre  c o n t r i b u t e d the p i g f o r  They h a v e a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d f o o d  the degree of  food  provided  These are  from the s t a r t .  the  who  and  1 3  s e r v i c e s f o r the  wealth,  c o n s u m p t i o n , and  given  with  v i l l a g e , t h e e a r t h oven i s o p e n e d , t h e f o o d  the  food  begins  tied  pig i s  pigs  under  o r u n d e r t h e h o u s e where  the  are the  food  139 recipient  i s staying,  b a s k e t s , and SD  on  are d i s t r i b u t e d .  A p i g may carved  number o f a c c u m u l a t e d occupy  towards  contribution.  owes a  several large  In most c a s e s , w e a l t h g o e s t o  kinship  positions,  and  so  circulatory  wealth,  system.  t h e same p e o p l e r e c e i v e w e a l t h a s  receive  l a r g e amounts o f f o o d , s i m u l t a n e o u s l y e m p h a s i z i n g c o n t r i b u t i o n s and from  each  their  household  then d i s t r i b u t e d After  among t h e  t h e f o o d and  volunteered finery,  themselves The  about  recipient,  household  h a v e been  begins.  distributed,  o r who  places,  have  drummers d r e s s i n t h e i r  a rest and  of  performance  h a v e been s e l e c t e d  continues throughout  Dancers  where i t  Biven the length  take, the  t h e dance ground,  f o r f o o d and  f o u r a.m.  person  a r e f o r t h e moment s p e c t a t o r s  around  a break  take t h e i r  wealth  t o be d a n c e r s and  performance  with  T h o s e who  t h o s e who  One  their  occupants.  these other a c t i v i t i e s  b e g i n s a t dusk.  ties.  the food to that  the ceremonial performance time that  kinship  i s designated the o f f i c i a l  responsible for taking is  close  and  distribution,  whom one  f o o d , o p e r a t e s as a p a r a l l e l  Fundamentally,  laplap  gave a p i g , p r o v i d e d  debts.  close  money,  rice,  h a v e made a m a j o r  go t o someone who o r t o one  shell  lamps,  Like the food  t o t h o s e who  bowls,  t h o s e who  c a r v e d bowls,  goods such as kerosene  v a l u a b l e s go  like  and  and  the dancing  the night,  at midnight  s i n g e r s may  thus everyone  who  arrange  wishes  usually  and  tire to  starts.  and  again at others  participate  140 has is  a c h a n c e t o do s o . well  the  up i n t h e s k y .  The d a n c i n g  hosted and  collect  their  and t h o s e  belongings  the ceremonial  until  begin  not remaining  and l e a v e .  to clean  calls  i n the  Those  who  up, g a t h e r i n g  leaves  g a r b a g e and s w e e p i n g t h e v i l l a g e .  Performance  Evaluation  My q u e s t i o n s interpreted  a b o u t e v a l u a t i o n o f p e r f o r m a n c e s were  by my i n f o r m a n t s  as questions  e m p h a s i s on t h e p l a c e o f f o o d a result the  the food  of t h e performance, although  deal  food  and o f f o o d The  providers  first  Lolo,  ceremonials  o f w e i g h t on t h e r o l e o f  the Lolo evaluate  are considered  purpose i f they  the  e l d e r s would have p e r f o r m e d  t h u s a s much l i k e Namor i n t e n d e d intended  that a l l Lolo should  accordance  this dictate  with  a r e performed i n  as p o s s i b l e .  be g e n e r o u s w i t h  Namor's w i s h e s t h a t  i n ceremonial.  For the  s u c c e s s f u l and t o h a v e  their  their  in a  and q u a n t i t y o f f o o d .  properly f u l f i l l e d way t h a t  This  i n performance.  thing that  performance i s the q u a l i t y  as  t h e musical  perception  a great  This  distribution  u n t i l hours l a t e r .  places  food.  i n performance e v a l u a t i o n i s  of t h e Lolo d e s i g n a t i n g  start  about  p e r f o r m a n c e may n o t b e g i n  in  t h e sun  The l e a d e r o f t h e d a n c e t h e n  performance t o a h a l t ,  village  continues  the Lolo  them and Since  Namor  food,  i t is  fulfill  T h o s e who h a v e o u t d o n e  141 themselves i n c o n t r i b u t i n g food food,  a r e spoken of with  respect food,  i s given  in  only the best  r e s p e c t and a d m i r a t i o n .  This  n o t o n l y t o t h e women who p r o v i d e d t h e  b u t t o a l l members o f t h e h o u s e h o l d . Unlike food,  Either  and g i v i n g  one f u l f i l l s  items  a r e non-negotiable.  o n e ' s o b l i g a t i o n s o r one d o e s n o t , b u t  t h e matter of food,  diminish  of wealth  t h e r e i s room t o e i t h e r  better or  o n e ' s r e p u t a t i o n a n d s t a t u s and t h a t o f t h e  household.  For t h i s reason,  flow of food,  the Lolo carefully  s i n c e i t p r o v i d e s an accurate  monitor t h e  indicator  woman's v a l u e , h e n c e t h e v a l u e o f h e r h o u s e h o l d ,  and o f a  woman's p e r c e p t i o n o f h e r own a n d h e r h u s b a n d ' s k i n . one  fails  t o meet o n e ' s o b l i g a t i o n s f o r p r o v i d i n g  the p a s s i b l e reasons is  evidence  sorcery,  other  weighty ceremonial k i n , t h a t person  s a y t h a t he w i l l  o b l i g a t i o n s , * or 1  i s u s u a l l y e x c u s e d and  badly  date.  t o p r o v i d e a d e q u a t e amounts o f  or t r e a t s her c o n t r i b u t i o n with  distributing  wealth,  and i f t h e r e  make up f o r i t a t a l a t e r  However, i f a woman f a i l s food,  are considered  prepared  food  i n d i f f e r e n c e by  o r common t a r o , s h e  becomes an o b j e c t o f s c o r n , and h e r e n t i r e h o u s e h o l d in for  t h e eyes of t h e other stinginess,  villagers.  She e a r n s  falls  a reputation  i m p l y i n g t h a t she does not r e s p e c t h e r k i n  or her r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of  If  t h a t a man i s down on h i s l u c k b e c a u s e o f  uncooperative people  f o rthis  of a  and s o i s o s t r a c i s e d , t h e s u b j e c t  m a l i c i o u s g o s s i p , and s h e , o r someone e l s e o f h e r  142 household  o r c l o s e k i n , becomes a l i k e l y  sorcery.  Meanness w i t h  bad, and  but  poor treatment  "covers  sort  food  easily  the  a r e good  e r a d i c a t e d but  i f the food  covers  food,  generations,  distributions  a wide c i r c l e A colourful  at  on  and  from the admiring  ceremonials  t h e ground  comments, i s , f o r t h e L o l o , a metaphor f o r t h e  "good  c o n s i s t s of harmonious r e l a t i o n s  between humans and  a n c e s t o r s and  mythical  Seeing  spirits.  spread  r e i n f o r c e s the n o t i o n of harmonious r e l a t i o n s , to  have a s u c c e s s f u l f o o d  distribution,  these  and  out f o r i n order relationships  must be  harmonious, or at l e a s t  achieve  t h i s abundance, s i n c e the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a  distribution  take  at l e a s t  nurturing  social  relations  requisite  food.  The  of  food  the c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t  g r o u p s and  so t h e food  of p r e p a r i n g  i n order  to produce  for distribution  spread and  out  food and  the product  men's h o u s e  for distribution  descent  to  gardens  i s the  of s i b l i n g g r o u p s and  a metaphor f o r s i b l i n g s h i p Lolo.  h a r m o n i o u s enough  a year  life".  among humans,  between humans  a l l the food  in  abundant proud  life  judging  for  this  and  A good  of  i s immoral  A r e p u t a t i o n of persists  as  t h e o f f e n d i n g woman.  t h i s , food  the c e n t r e of the v i l l a g e . display  f o r ceremonial  shame".  d e s c e n d a n t s of  In v i e w of  a r e g u l a r b a s i s i s seen  food  t h e house w i t h  i s not  affecting  of  on  t a r g e t -for  i s also  a s d e f i n e d by  the  143 T h u s , a good f o o d their  social  operating  will  and c o s m o l o g i c a l  as they should,  sanction.  If the food  t h e musical  blessing  distribution  and a r e b l e s s e d  distribution  aesthetics are followed  then,  The judged  voices,  have t h e  food  c o r r e c t l y hence e n a b l i n g  the Lolo  and a c c e s s  powers.  musical  performance i t s e l f  t o be a s u c c e s s i f t h e r e  present.  so t o o  and p e r f o r m a n c e  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e realm of t h e A e s t h e t i c extraordinary  that  supernatural  i t too w i l l  In e f f e c t ,  social  by  i s successful  performance be, s i n c e  indicates that  the Lolo  n e t w o r k s a r e i n p l a c e and  of t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l .  distribution  tells  The L o l o  say that  i s a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e  they l i k e  b o t h m a l e and f e m a l e , combined  l a r g e number o f drums.  As w e l l  i s superficially  t h e s o u n d o f many w i t h t h e sound o f a  as sounding  good, t h e  p r e s e n c e o f a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e s u p p o r t s t h e n o t i o n o f a good kin  life,  since this  and n o n - k i n  i n d i c a t e s good r e l a t i o n s h i p s among  i f many p e o p l e a t t e n d  More c r i t i c a l l y , by  specialists,  specialists adding  "real": and  a good p e r f o r m a n c e i s one h e a d e d  t h e more t h e b e t t e r .  The p r e s e n c e o f  r a i s e s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m u s i c p e r f o r m e d by  authority  Authority  and p e r f o r m .  and a u t h e n t i c i t y t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e .  and a u t h e n t i c i t y make t h e p e r f o r m a n c e more there  i s no d o u b t t h a t  hence l e g i t i m a t e .  successful  the performance i s genuine  They a r e a l s o d e d i c a t e d  and p r o p e r e x e c u t i o n  to the  of t h e performance,  since  144 their  reputation as s p e c i a l i s t s Thus, i f t h e s e elements  performance,  t h e audience  proceedings)  i s more i n v o l v e d .  men,  a r e present  audience  performance.  i na  (never t o t a l l y a t t e n t i v e t o t h e Women c l o w n by a p i n g t h e  o t h e r men and women l e a v e t h e a u d i e n c e  performers, may  r i d e s on e a c h  members s i n g  and j o i n t h e  a l o n g , r e q u e s t songs, o r  indeed b e g i n songs which a r e then  taken  up by t h e  performers. P e r f o r m a n c e a e s t h e t i c s p r o v i d e t h e means w i t h the performance  i s used  t o gain access t o extraordinary  powers.  These e f f o r t s  presence  of t h e s p e c i a l i s t s .  a r e enhanced, i f n o t enabled,  a b l e t o do t h i n g s t h e c o r r e c t performers and  by t h e  They a r e t h e o n e s who a r e way, b y e n s u r i n g  that  know t h e words, d a n c e s t e p s , drumming p a t t e r n s ,  a r e a b l e t o do t h e s e  performers  i n synchrony;  t o match t h e i r  the support food  which  standards;  forcing  the other  and f i n a l l y , by h a v i n g  o f a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e  who w i l l  prepare  and do a l l t h e work i n v o l v e d i n e x e c u t i n g t h e  performance. Power i n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e sources.  F i r s t , t h e performance  comes f r o m  d e r i v e s power f r o m i t s  h e r i t a g e o f m y t h i c a l and a n c e s t r a l ceremony i s i n v o k e d powerful  substances,  the performance ceremony.  powers.  by t h e p e r f o r m e r s ' such  as wild  several  Power i n t h e  i n g e s t i o n of  g i n g e r , which  constitute  magic g i v e n by s p i r i t s a l o n g w i t h t h e  The performance  itself  b r i n g s t h e s e powers t o  145 contemporary L o l o p a r t i c i p a t i n g audience  or as  i n the performance,  performers.  Power i s g i v e n p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e L o l o k n o w l e d g e i s power, and in  their  men  e x p e r t i s e and  (usually natavolo) •  their  The  t o the s p e c i a l i s t s .  specialists  c a p a c i t y a s a u t h o r i t i e s by  k n o w l e d g e and  as  are  v i r t u e of  powerful  their  p o s i t i o n s as  performer  To  important  assumes power  through  t h e c o n t e x t and  a c t of performance,  conduit  of t h e s e powers t o t h e a u d i e n c e ,  and  thus  a c t s as  a  connecting  the e x t r a o r d i n a r y to the o r d i n a r y . Power a l s o comes f r o m itself  i s powerful  i n that  a s o u r c e of power, and protected of  with  audience  i t i s grown i n t h e g r o u n d  food itself  i s , i f grown f o r c e r e m o n i a l ,  the a i d of powerful  e x p e r i e n c e , an and  performers,  quantitatively Power, t h e n ,  different  spirits.  corporeal  The  connecting  although  Performances  their  use  mythical  are  songs t h a t  power.  b e i n g , and  themselves  both  of  involvement.  i s the  connection  transcendant incorporeal  or  engage i n e x t r a o r d i n a r y  of p e r f o r m a n c e  t h e embodiment of a s p i r i t drumming  audience,  o r d i n a r y men  by  the  the experience i s  g i v e n the degree and  is felt  m y t h i c a l b e i n g s a r e p r e s e n t as  b e i n g s , and  a c t s through  e x p e r i e n c e which  f o r performers  the e x t r a o r d i n a r y .  experiences:  and  food:  e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers w i t h t h e o r d i n a r y c o n s t i t u t e s  aesthetic  to  t h e e x c h a n g e of  m a g i c , by  acting  in singing,  as  dancing,  have a h e r i t a g e of  By a d h e r i n g t o p e r f o r m a n c e this, food  social  aesthetics  exchange  merging  aesthetics,  i n the successful  and t h e e x c h a n g e  and p r i o r t o  e x e c u t i o n of t h e  o f w e a l t h , by c o n n e c t i n g and  t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y and t h e mundane, t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  t a k e s b o t h p e r f o r m e r s and a u d i e n c e t o t h e r e a l m o f t h e extraordinary,  hence  the Aesthetic-  Discussion  The  principles  illustrate  the gravity  ceremonial  context-  fulfill  a l l food  m a i n t a i n one's villagers, help  will  sorcery, incurring to  of e v a l u a t i o n  of proper treatment of food  It i s crucial  standing  w i t h one's  t o ensure that  in a  f o r a household t o  o b l i g a t i o n s t o enhance  or at l e a s t  k i n and among o t h e r  s h o u l d one need  assistance  be f o r t h c o m i n g , t o m i n i m i z e t h e d a n g e r s  that  from  t o p l e a s e Namor and r e d u c e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f h i s wrath,  t o p l e a s e and s u p p o r t o n e ' s  m a i n t a i n L o l o custom  continue as a v i a b l e  and t r a d i t i o n  culture.  that  "kastam  that  acting  food  p r o p e r l y and c a r r y i n g  their  of performances  so that  I was t o l d  i hat" ( l i t e r a l l y ,  "custom  empties t h e i r  t h e L o l o can  o v e r and o v e r  i s hard")  a s Namor w i s h e d , b e i n g a good  abilities  k i n , and  Lolo,  meaning  treating  out ceremonial t o t h e best of  i s debilitating.  I t d r a i n s them o f w e a l t h ,  g a r d e n s , and r o b s them o f s t r e n g t h  p r e p a r a t i o n s and e x e c u t i o n o f p e r f o r m a n c e s a r e s o  since the  147 strenuous.  However, i n t h e n e x t  that  w o r t h i t t o be a good L o l o .  i t was  greater  satisfaction  growing  up  for  f o r them t h a n  imbued w i t h p r o p e r  This  breath,  items  pigs,  always  There  was  t o see t h e i r  moral  rice,  and  Indigenous  no  children  more  e m p h a s i s on  u s i n g western  i n ceremonials.  difficult  cash f o r  goods as  exchange  Lolo ceremonials r e q u i r e  l a r g e amounts of w e a l t h  i f t h e y a r e t o be p e r f o r m e d  specified  the L o l o say  by  ceremonials  Namor, and  and  from not do  more and  from  other groups  t h e Arawe). carry  more on  ceremonials ( S i a from  These a r e e a s i e r  bound t o u s e  they  Lolo  have  the S i a s i ,  Murmur  s i n c e they  "doubling" ceremonial  t h e L o l a do  f o r the purposes  intended.  c e r e m o n i a l s a r e d e c r e a s i n g , and ( u s i n g one  Performances  several  to traditional f a d i n g and  not  do as  feel  f a r which  of  indigenous  t h e phenomenon a f performance  f o r numerous  f o r example s i m u l t a n e o u s l y c a l l i n g  circumcising  ceremonies  Namor's  Thus, the  to perform  As w e l l ,  these ceremonials  t h e y were o r i g i n a l l y  sorrow  that  t h e i m p e r a t i v e s f a r l a r g e e x c h a n g e s of w e a l t h  indigenous ceremonials.  purposes,  acts.  as  these  They a l s o f e a r  t h e r e p e r c u s s i o n s of s u c h  are r e l y i n g purchased  they value  t o o much t o c o n s i d e r a p e r f o r m a n c e  d i s r e g a r d s Namor's i n s t r u c t i o n s . anger  told  standards.  i s , however, b e c o m i n g more and  the Lolo given the increasing  buying  I was  b o y s ) i s more common. L o l o s i n c e t h e y can  a name and This  see  t h o s e of o t h e r s g a i n i n g  causes  their ascendancy.  148 These i n d i v i d u a l s c a l l ceremonials  from  t h e p r a c t i c e of  others l i k e  ceremonial, since t h i s but  i s better The  t h a n no  the S i a s i  i s not  ceremonial  i s s u e of p o v e r t y  at  significant  cause  people  analysis reveal  purchased  that  malaise r e s u l t i n g  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s reached muster t h e r e q u i s i t e notwithstanding  i s but  from  loss.  In h e r  study  between two and  given  along with  food.  and  of t h e A e s t h e t i c .  f o c u s must s h i f t  of c e r t a i n  as t h e u n d e r l y i n g  (1984)  intrinsic  h o m e o p a t h i c and  taste  Hua,  o f power.  and  the  distinguishes  food,  values, while f o r the  i t s producer,  from  c e r e m o n i a l s and  Meigs  v a l u e r e s t s upon a t r a n s f e r  assumes t h e p o w e r s o f  and  ceremonies,  i s s u e s such  Nutritional,  q u a l i t i e s are i n t r i n s i c extrinsic  The  of t h e Hua,  value.  not  a symptom o f a much  t y p e s of v a l u e a s s o c i a t e d with  extrinsic  be  because the L o l o are a b l e t o  e c o n o m i c s t o more f u n d a m e n t a l  of t h i s  a  now  examination  the f a i l u r e  poverty.  f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n  Rice i s  f o r t h e goods  goods f o r o t h e r  their  a cursory  t h i s out as  goods t o  However, f u r t h e r  poverty  and  w i t h money, and  are p a i d i n cash  s e r v i c e s they provide.  impact  would b e a r  f o r e x e c u t i o n of c e r e m o n i e s ,  infrequently  here,  f o r l o s s of c e r e m o n i a l .  e x c h a n g e d must o f t e n be  reasons  all.  i s central  of the L o l o s i t u a t i o n  deeper  o r t h e Arawe w a s t e d  what Namor i n t e n d e d f o r them,  examination  necessary  performing  Food  t h e s e powers  are  149 The For  Lolo a l s o recognize these  the Lolo, values e x t r i n s i c  relationships. food is  t o food  gifts,  involve  e x c h a n g e s , and  o b l i g a t i o n s a r e o p e r a t i n g as they  Lolo social  lesser  ideally daily  life  and t h o s e  round of food  provide  social  then  so too  Namor and  Ancestral s p i r i t s are  who p r o p e r l y f u l f i l l  have n o t h i n g  of v a l u e s .  ceremonial  should,  and L o l o r e l a t i o n s w i t h  members o f t h e s u p e r n a t u r a l .  satisfied  and  If food  two t y p e s  their  t o f e a r from malevolent e x c h a n g e s and f o o d  duties  spirits.  i n ceremonial  t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e L o l o c a n measure t h e o r d e r l y  proper  f u n c t i o n i n g of t h e i r  Each L o l o p o s s e s s e s r e l a t i o n s with surrounding  k i n although  proper  society.  a l a r g e measure o f c o n t r o l subject to certain  ways t o d e a l  with  k i n and  non-kin.  exchanges c o n s t i t u t e t h e c e n t r a l  of  o t h e r s on a d a i l y  interacting relations  negative by  small  By g i v i n g  effective sanctions.  basis,  either  means  maintaining  p o s i t i v e or  much good f o o d  frequently, or  amounts o f common t a r o o r " p i g f o o d " o n e  make d e f i n i t e  recipient.  join  c a n be done w i t h  effect.  giving  can  with  over  conventions  However, s i n c e f o o d  these  The  statements  about one's f e e l i n g s f o r t h e  G i f t s a r e very p u b l i c , means o f e x p r e s s i n g Everyone i s thus  s i d e s , o r make t h e i r  making t h i s  a very  o p i n i o n s o r imposing  aware o f a n y t e n s i o n , f r e e t o  own o p i n i o n s known w i t h  Food t r a n s f e r s a r e r e s p o n s i v e  negative  to daily  food.  h a p p e n i n g s and  150 events  thus  expressed  p r o v i d i n g a r e c o r d o-f f e e l i n g s a n d o p i n i o n s  by i n d i v i d u a l s .  Food of  L o l o m o r a l i t y and c o n v e n t i o n s .  frequency one is  i sa highly sensitive  and q u a l i t y  of food  c a n s e e who h a s o f f e n d e d  indicator  By e x a m i n i n g  then,  bulletin  whom, t o what d e g r e e , and what  vis-a-vis  the q u a l i t y feelings,  i sitself  care of t h e i r  kin.  regularly,  performing to maintain  h o l d t h e key t o t h e s e  women a b u s e t h i s  chi1dbearing  assisting  ceremonials  which  and c h i l d  members o f t h e s o c i e t y .  directives  t o be g e n e r o u s w i t h Taking  power.  T h i s , combined  i s a l s o an e x p r e s s i o n o f m o r a l i t y .  They were i n s t r u c t e d  over  This i s  power, and a power  makes them f o r m i d a b l e  moral  f o r proper  male k i n and t h e i r h u s b a n d s  conception,  t h a t most o f t h e i r  Clearly  has c o n t r o l  problems.  i n t h e h a n d s o f women.  power o v e r  Food  food  and c o r r e c t i n g  a c t i o n should  resides primarily  say  individual  provides  and a means f o r e x p r e s s i n g  However, t h e i r  Food t h e n ,  raising,  Each  t r u e f o r women s i n c e t h e y  are able t o take  their  food  follow directives  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  transactions.  with  kin.  punishing,  especially  In e f f e c t ,  of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  t h e L o l o do n o t b l i n d l y  behaviour  amounts,  t r a n s f e r r e d on a d a i l y b a s i s ,  done t o c o r r e c t t h e s i t u a t i o n .  a daily  of v i o l a t i o n s  The L o l o  came f r o m Namor. food  and t o t a k e  c a r e o f k i n means g i v i n g them i n c e r e m o n i a l  them  or other  t h e way Namor i n t e n d e d ,  work,  and h e l p i n g  t h e c u l t u r e so that f u t u r e generations  of Lolo  benefit. food  Nearly  i s the  receiving matters,  these  p r i m a r y way  food,  and  to care  food  and  collective  extrinsic  food,  giving  and  food,  are  at the  ceremonials. very  b a s i s of  a l s o be  e x a m i n e d on  the  values,  and  individual  perspective.  intrinsically k i n and  fun.  For  Lolo  anticipate.  f r o m an  They p r o v i d e  an  opportunity  d a n c e , s i n g , and  Performances a l s o g i v e the The  long  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  basis  a l l Lolo, ceremonials  friends, gossip,  good f o o d .  and  by  considerations.  intrinsic  of  f o r k i n by  obligations for  i t s treatment  Performance can  with  are expressed  providing assistance in food-related  fulfilling  Thus, food moral  a l l of  r a i n y months a r e  ceremonial  of and  are  t o meet eat  plenty  L o l o something  dreary,  events provides  and  t  plannin  a welcome  distraction. Extrinsically, the  expression  perpetuate  of  of  I n d i v i d u a l s can  their  For the  ideology  having use  renown, and  fulfilled  Lolo  Lolo cultural  satisfaction  gain  Lolo ceremonials  proper  the  conducted  be  assured  obligations to L o l o , the  moral  and  a ceremonial  that  an  of  moral  the  they  the  well. status  have  and  properly  kin. order  analytical  order  and  g i v e the L o l o  ceremony t o e n h a n c e t h e i r  can  with  a vehicle for  morality, maintain  integrity,  r e l a t i o n s among p e o p l e ,  supernatural, between t h e  and  are  as a whole  t h i n g s and  distinction  ordinary  and  concerns  the made h e r e  t h a t of  the  152 extraordinary. a r e , and  The  t o t h e way  the proper  and  in  III.  Chapter  for  proper  sisters with other  moral  should  things should  i n these  work, a s s i s t  Order r e s t s f i r s t  relations.  instructions  depend on  distribution  of  For  g i v e each o t h e r  Again,  the proper  instructions example,  support  each o t h e r s '  many of  on  discussed  food, always  during ceremonial,  s o on.  things  among k i n , a s  of t r o u b l e , l o o k a f t e r  o r a d o p t them, and  daily  be.  Namor g a v e t h e L o l o c e r t a i n  habitually  i n times  a great  s p e a k s t o t h e way  harmonious r e l a t i o n s  conduct  their  order  help  each children  these  treatment  and  food.  Proper  relations  with  extent  on  T r e a t m e n t of  food.  measure of a p e r s o n ' s  the supernatural  a c t s , and  food  also rest  provides  to  the  ceremonial  participation  adds or s u b t r a c t s t o t h i s measure, depending  on  success  a person's  swift  t o a n g e r and  maintaining  proper  ways o f w h i c h he death  punish,  To  with  would a p p r o v e .  prevent  angering  Thus,  Namor r e q u i r e s a c t i n g i n Failure  v i l l a g e s destroyed,  t h e ways t h a t t h e i r ceremonial  Namor, a p u n i t i v e b e i n g  i s highly feared.  relations  to individuals,  anarchy. in  or f a i l u r e .  t o do  s o means  c h a o s , anomie  Namor, t h e L o l o t r y t o  ancestors did, especially  food  and  events.  that  the L o l o t r y t o adhere t o s o c i a l  and  live  regarding  In s h o r t , what t h i s means i s  performance a e s t h e t i c s , thereby  a e s t h e t i c s and  maintaining  the  moral  153 order,  and  hence are a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e  i n the realm  of  the A e s t h e t i c The People that  moral  work h a r d  they  order  too  i s manifest  t o keep g a r d e n s p r o d u c i n g  are able to survive p h y s i c a l l y  Arrangements f o r food  must s o m e t i m e s be  a d v a n c e s o t h a t t h e r e i s an  t o Namor's w i s h e s and  integrity  is  context,  for  t h e moral  Proper  Namor's d e s i r e s a r e b e i n g  carried  r e l a t i o n s with e x c h a n g e and  kin are maintained  a s s i s t a n c e , and  p r o p e r l y done e n s u r i n g participate.  social  especially support,  a good  Isolation and  life  cultural  order  and  out,  that  f o r those  order.  alone  not  i s considered L o l o moral  and  and  In e v e r y d a y  immoral  but  life aid  the  II,  Lolo  desire to  be  pathological.  i s t o a i d o t h e r s and  participation.  and  and  i n Chapter  L o l o c u l t u r e and  imperative  involvement  who  are the a n t i t h e s e s  t o s u r v i v e . The  only  through  is  c o o p e r a t i o n , mutual  Without t h i s , unable  proper  strengthened  i m p e r a t i v e s as d i s c u s s e d  t h e m s e l v e s would be  their  p e r f o r m a n c e shows  alienation  during ceremonial,  are emphasized.  and  i s very  the  i s participation  cosmological  the moral  strongest  in  ceremonials  that the ceremonial  Central to t h i s  involvement.  sustain  made y e a r s  so t h a t t h e i r  of L o l o c u l t u r e .  the  socially.  s i n c e f o r the L o l o , ceremonies expose  underpinnings  of  and  so  preserved.  In t h e c e r e m o n i a l  that  life.  good f o o d  adequate supply  according  apparent  i n everyday  Food i s  to  The  154 central  in t h i s respect  contact  and  moral  s i n c e i t i s the  assistance.  u n i t s of  society, individuals,  would be  the  The  order  social and  food  enhance the  centrality  of  system. an  "any  food  and  For  Weiner,  act  of  ceremonial  the  functions. o f new  f o r the  "reproduction"  in Lolo  f o r the  ideology, an  members o f  songs.  ways i n the  i t i s too  economic  but  or  exchange i s suited for  a p a r t of  a larger  r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l the  regenerate  premise  created.  both r e p r o d u c t i v e  i s an  absolute  the  group, can  as  that  c e r t a i n elements (p.  71).  i s t h e meaning a s c r i b e d t o  "regeneration"  be  and  s o c i e t y to continue"  elements already  Food  w h i c h can  (19S0) model o f r e c i p r o c i t y  Lolo f u l f i l l  what i s  Thus, because of  a f e a t u r e of  c r e a t i n g , while  revitalizing  ceremonials  value:  involvement  former.  values as  on  W e i n e r ' s argument i s b a s e d on  i n order  the  men's  the  o b j e c t s , names, s t o r i e s ,  s o c i e t y must r e p r o d u c e and  value  to  d e s i r a b l e , and  i n c o r p o r a t i n g p e o p l e and  objects.  for  and  a n a l y s i s i n which exchanges a r e  system  of  these  Weiner's  If not,  interaction,  which they  t o see  according  i s predicated  appropriate  participation,  simple  order.  t o human b e i n g s ,  Lolo value  and  h o u s e h o l d s , and  improperly.  moral  good, p r o p e r , applied  moral  executed  of  Performance r e q u i r e s that a l l  h o u s e g r o u p s , work i n c o n c e r t p r i n c i p l e s of  common c u r r e n c y  the  r e f e r s to F o o d and and  regenerative  necessity for c r e a t e new  ceremonial  reproduction  relationships  155 and  g i v e new  meaning t o e s t a b l i s h e d o n e s , c a n renew  r e d e f i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p s on a d a i l y lapsed  relationships.  movers o f r e g e n e r a t i o n and  food  distribution  and  morality. The  value  of c h o i c e  heuristic  f o r the L o l o s i n c e each i s a revitalization  rather  b e h a v i o u r , as seen  order  and  Forge's d e f i n i t i o n ,  the  i n d i s c u s s i o n s of f o o d  style reflects  t h e complex  freedom  of  exchanges  of moral  above.  attitudes  and  ceremonial discussed  in this  Each L o l o performance  requires the e f f o r t s  o f most  1 = 5  so a l l i n v o l v e d  experience the performance  i n some c a p a c i t y r a t h e r  Experiencing  a performance  given  that  (Schieffelin  ideology,  styles.  The  than as  f o r the  p a r t i c i p a t i o n are  morality,  "socially  and  social  emergent  key and  dimension"  1985:722) o f p e r f o r m a n c e , a p a r a l l e l  nation  af r e g e n e r a t i o n ,  as  spectators.  i s doubly s i g n i f i c a n t  i n v o l v e m e n t and  in their  performance  Weiner's  have t h e  c o n v e n t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s  participants  elements  ideology  t h a n r u l e s i s i n t h i s c a s e a more  a c t i o n s b a s e d on f o o d  villagers  Lolo  performance  of L o l o  approach, s i n c e the Lolo c l e a r l y  t o m a n i p u l a t e moral  chapter.  prime  g o v e r n i n g b e h a v i o u r and i n t e r a c t i o n .  limits  social  revive  ceremonial are the  v e h i c l e f o r t r a n s l a t i n g t h e moral  Considering  and  and  into action i s , recalling  limits  Lolo  Food  b a s i s and c a n  and  i s what makes t h e  to  performance over  work, b o t h a t t h e  notions  of  p e r f o r m e d , and S t o r i e s are Galiki  s o c i e t y does not  order. and  lost  are  or  replaced  parts no  ceremonial  h o n o u r s , and  their  lost.  indicated l o s s of  by  The  the  The  failure  say  that  lack  the  items are  explain  eliminating indeed the  the  f o r any  other  t h e y do,  and  Aesthetic.  The  as  full  of  most  well  knowledge o f root  the  the  used  questions  of  seems r o o t e d  in  Aesthetic  used  the  the  to  Lola  could  i t would  seem  than far  Lolo  this,  behave  Aesthetic.  reproductive  to Lola social  i s that  of  other  i n the  a l l properly  the  workings  explanation  s u r v i v a l and  are  as  However,  rather  why  strongly  ceremonials  q u a n t i t i e s , and  The  are  problem.  items r e q u i r e d .  goods r e q u i r e d  like  ceremonies  i t appears that  powers fundamental and  with  t h e s e i t e m s c a n n o t be  physical  f o r human l i f e  ceremonies.  sorcery  e n t i r e ceremony.  ways t h a t  powers a r e  the  of  longer  Aesthetic,  a v a i l a b l e and  t o reduce the  Social  indeed  lack  material  goods i n s u f f i c i e n t  preferable  in  and  reflect  s p e c i a l names  given  the  no  they cannot perform  these lasses, since  amass t h e  and  The  the  alien  associated  i s probably at the  because they  ceremonies.  of  a c c e s s t o and  Lolo  material  longer  omnipresence of  means of  Aesthetic  by  forgotten,  Natavolo are  likewise  currently  Many c e r e m o n i e s a r e  and  the  performance  time. However, L o l o  Lolo  moment o f  life  i n the  and domain  which o r i e n t s  and  of  157 o r d e r s t h e s e powers. so  much f r o m t h e r e a l m o f t h e A e s t h e t i c  focus or orienting l a r g e gaps.  relation longer does  principles  o r d e r which  o n l y has r e l e v a n c e i n  make s e n s e , h e n c e  away.  t h e gap, nor does Western  t h e l o s s of the A e s t h e t i c  absence  o f an a r t i c u l a t e d  participate.  c a u s e s t h e moral by s o r c e r y .  Aesthetic,  order t o Hence, i n  t h e moral  order  i t s coherence. T h u s f a r , what h a s been  largely  normative portrayal  performance, order  Catholicism  medicine, s i n c e so  have t h e knowledge o r s k i l l s t o f u l l y  loses  indicating  and s p e c i f i c  narogo,  t h e major  of L o l o s o c i a l  a  l i f e and v i a t h e moral  forms of a e s t h e t i c s such as performance itself.  In t h e n e x t c h a p t e r ,  ceremonial c y c l e of t h e L o l o  i t s relationship  a detailed  p r e s e n t e d h a s been  haw t h e s e a r e l i n k e d  aesthetics t o the Aesthetic  in  The o l d r e l e v a n c e s no  are f a l l i n g  d e c a y , a d e c a y marked most c l e a r l y the  means t h a t t h e  o f L o l o a r e gone o r have  t o a coherent Aesthetic.  not f i l l  Thus,  t h e l o s s of  T h e r e i s t h u s no r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e L o l o t o  adhere t o a moral  few  In t h e c a s e o f t h e L o l o ,  t o the Aesthetic.  This  e x a m i n a t i o n o f one p e r f o r m a n c e  i s examined  i s f o l l o w e d by  from t h i s  cycle.  CHAPTER V  PERFORMANCE. CULTURAL VALUES AND THE AESTHETIC  In t h i s extant  chapter,  I examine t h e v a r i o u s  i n the Lolo repertoire.  virtually directly  a l l ceremonial to Lolo  moral  proper  Lolo  the supernatural,  and an  cosmic order.  This chapter  i n short, explores  the occasions  with  t o Lolo  they  other social  these issues v i a of food  during  which food  regard  t o t h e dead and t h e f i r s t b o r n , a r e  with  celebrated.  These e v e n t s a r e seen  and k i n s h i p  i n the context  of the  Aesthetic. The  possessing  Lolo ceremonial  c y c l e c a n be c o n c e i v e d  two b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s  i n c l u d i n g those  commemorate t h e dead and t h o s e w h i c h c e l e b r a t e specifically categories use  and s p e a k  1 6  and c o n s u m p t i o n  specifically  Lolo  include  i n that  and h a r m o n i o u s r e l a t i o n s  examination of the production  and  which o c c u r s  and t h e A e s t h e t i c  i n v o l v e food, and w i t h  These performances  activity  order  performances  the firstborn  celebrate certain  t h e deaths of important  during  child,  the cycle,  or l a u t a v e .  people:  and f i r s t b o r n  which the l i v i n g ,  1 7  mortuary  s e n i o r males a s  as  Both ceremonies  signposts  ceremonies a r e performed  for  firstborn  children.  c e r e m o n i a l s a r e i n any  T h i s does not imply t h a t way  exclusive,  s t a t u s e s of i n d i v i d u a l s a r e s e l e c t e d c y c l e s so that the  i n t o two  purposes.  As  one  of  the mortuary  are  the other. and  Death  and  linked.  1  This  i s used o n l y f o r h e u r i s t i c t h e two  firstborn  overlap  and  elements  c e r e m o n i e s as segments of  m o r t u a r y and  firstborn  one  ceremonies  (see F i g u r e 2 f o r a diagram of  B  the Mortuary  and  life  T h e r e i s no  without  life,  twisted  and  the  and  Cycle  are, f o r the Lolo,  life  inextricably  w i t h o u t d e a t h and  s o t h e two  major  k n o t t e d t o g e t h e r by p r e p a r a t i o n s ,  i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e l i v i n g  Two  distinct  context  no  death  t y p e s of ceremonial a r e  and  is  the e f f e c t s of  cycle).  Death  for  i n these  As w e l l , L o l o t h e m s e l v e s c o n c e i v e  Collectively,  known a s n a r o g o  entire  categories  i s shown below,  of  certain  i m p i n g e on t h e l i v e s o f a l l .  separation  process.  as f o c i  w h i l e not a l l a r e c e l e b r a t e d ,  celebration  echo  rather,  these  performance  and  k i n d s of c e r e m o n i e s a r e performed  of t h e mortuary.  individual the actual  were e x e m p l a r s  dead: mortuary  The  first  the funeral itself,  c o n s i s t s of  and  mourning,  dedicated  the  dead.  i n the ceremonies the second  to individuals  o f L o l o c u l t u r e and embodiments o f p r o p e r  who  161 social  conduct.  ritual, living the  the and  Unlike  i n d i v i d u a l f u n e r a l s and  mortuary as of  L o l o way  life of  a whole i s a c e l e b r a t i o n of  itself  life  associated  can  and  the  i t s p e r f o r m a n c e means t h a t  continue,  hence i t s f o c u s  on  the  firstborn.  Namelomelo:  The  Called  namelomelo  commemorates t h e group.  If f o u r  corresponding ceremonial the  Mortuary  d e a t h s of or f i v e  senior  firstborn  d e c i s i o n f o r namelomelo t o  Receiving  affines. assist  the  the  T h o s e whom t h e  receive  in turn  ("pig  and  a  ready  for  men's h o u s e makes  of  process  original of  the the  deceased mark").  men's h o u s e g r o u p  number of  d e b t s and  a piece  the  host  i n number t o t h e  assessing  a men's h o u s e  a f f i n e s of  cooked pork b e g i n s the  w e a l t h and  of  mortuary  c h i l d r e n are  cooked pork  marked must s u p p l y  equivalent  the  begin.  beginning,  r e c e i v e q u a n t i t i e s of Those so  men  s e n i o r male of  s i g n a l the  1 9  s e n i o r males have d i e d ,  number o f  work, t h e  To  pigs  (croton),  with  deceased.  of  assessing  o b l i g a t i o n s of  kin  and  r e c i p i e n t s have chosen the  original  " p i g of  to  the  mark". The are  next three  years  spent s e l e c t i n g p i g s  croton) f o r the  or  so p r e c e d i n g  ( " p i g s of  c e r e m o n i e s and  the natem"  ensuring  the or  ceremonies red  they t h r i v e  with  162 careful this  responsibility  small of  f e e d i n g and c e r e m o n i a l s .  or sickly  so they  will  pig i sa slap  make a good s h o w i n g .  censure  the required ceremonial,  complementarity  or sorcery.  recalling  o f m a l e and f e m a l e  with  p i g s t o t h e host  the designs  group. S p e c i a l the poles.  (namer)  rope  A  labour. poles for  village areselected belonging  lien  the essential  In t h e months b e f o r e t h e c e r e m o n i e s , carrying  with  i n t h e face f o r t h e sponsors  t h e ceremony and g u a r a n t e e s  conduct  Women a r e c h a r g e d  and c a r v e d  t o t h e men's h o u s e  (manggasi) i s made t o t i e t h e p i g s t o  In t h e h o s t  village,  t h e r e d c r o t o n t o mark t h e  deceased  a r e p l a n t e d a t t h e r e a r o f t h e men's h o u s e and  periodic  f e a s t s mark t h e g r o w t h o f t h e p l a n t .  p r e p a r a t i o n s a r e completed, On red  t h e day o f t h e event,  f o r t h e event  joined  thefurthest  their  arrival  village,  village  i n each s u c c e s s i v e v i l l a g e  p i g s and t h o s e g o i n g  t o attend.  these  i sset.  the pigs a r e decorated i n  and b l u e p a i n t i n d e s i g n s m a t c h i n g t h o s e  T h o s e coming f r o m are  a date  Once  on t h e p o l e s .  s e t o u t f i r s t and by t h o s e  The s l i t - g o n g  carrying strikes  upon  t o i n d i c a t e t h e number o f p i g s e n t e r i n g t h e  and a g a i n a s t h e y  l e a v e t o show how t h e numbers o f  p i g s have i n c r e a s e d . By has  t h e time  t h e host  village  i sreached,  s w e l l e d t o a s many a s f o u r o r f i v e  slit-gong  strikes  t o count  beginning  o f t h e ceremony.  t h e crowd  hundred p e o p l e .  The  t h e p i g s and t o a n n o u n c e t h e Women h i d e i n t h e i r  h o u s e s , and  163 those  women an t h e p a t h s hang back u n t i l  slit—gong,  a powerful  spirit  t h e sound o f t h e  v o i c e d a n g e r o u s t o women, h a s  subsided. The  "pigs of the r e d croton"  p a i r s through t h e centre paired these  according villages  could  dotted  indicating  Villages are  g r o u p i n g s and p i g s  are likewise paired.  villages  lines  of t h e v i l l a g e .  to traditional  representing  a r e then staked i n  The l i n e o f p i g s  appear a s f o l l o w s , with t h e  which p i g s a r e t r a d e d .  Aselmepua  Aliopua  Aselmepua  Kakumo  Orelmo  <  > Aliopua  Aliopua  <  > Orelmo  Ararau  <  > Rovata  Ararau  <  > Rovata  Makvar  Araigilpua  Araigilpua  Ararau  When p i g s f r o m t h e p a i r e d v i l l a g e s cognate of t h e deceased to  each v i l l a g e  opposite. recipient  In e f f e c t ,  leads the recipient  f l i n g s a handful i s repeated  this  different  a  of the p i g t o h i s  of lime  red croton,  and t h e  powder o v e r t h e p i g .  u n t i l the p i g switch  i s a switch  between t h e a f f i n e s  a r e traded^  who d e l i v e r e d t h e " p i g o f t h e mark"  The d o n o r s l a p s t h e p i g w i t h  This process  from  i s concluded.  of nearly equivalent  pigs  o f t h e d e c e a s e d , a l l o f whom a r e f r o m  men's h o u s e g r o u p s .  164 The of  remaining pigs are " c a l l e d "  t h e d e c e a s e d and  given  senior  to senior  deceased.  These  t h e ground  b e h i n d t h e men's h o u s e  deaths occurred. the red croton carried  Following  and  c o g n a t e of t h e f i r s t  slit-gong  strikes,  under  a huge f e a s t The  and  o f p i g s and  ceremonial  plant.  masked a u t o c h t h o n o u s i n s i d e t h e back  i n preparing  they are i n s u l t e d  figures  The  the  participants.  f o r the  When p e r f o r m e d  the  ( n a v a l a ) who These  by  live spirit  appearance  If there are  r e f u s e t o appear  e m e r g e n c e f r o m t h e men's h o u s e  major  i s a performance  s o make t h e i r  p i g exchange. and  croton  concludes with  ceremonies,  Nakamutmut  by p i g s and  the mortuary  prosperity.  f o r the  room o f t h e men's h o u s e .  f i g u r e s are c a l l e d following  spirit  the  a r e o c c u p i e d by a f e a s t f o r  t a r o , and  o f Nakamutmut.  until  go t o t h e  t a k e n by  The p i g e x c h a n g e  event of t h e mortuary  performance  and  down  t h e r e c i p i e n t ' s house.  food d i s t r i b u t i o n  days f o l l o w i n g  carries  g i v e n t h e " p i g of  c o u n t i n g t h e p i g s now  cognates of t h e deceased.  pigs,  the next f u r t h e r  group  the  the second i s  Each of t h e s e p i g s i s s l a p p e d w i t h t h e r e d  t a k e n away t o be t i e d  growth  deceased  t h i s o r d e r , t h e h o l d e r s of r e d c r o t o n the a f f i n a l  from  i n t h e o r d e r i n which  t h e r e d c r o t o n a t t h e base of t h e  pigs representing mark".  m a l e s remove t h e r e d c r o t o n  down t h e stem,  carries  croton  male c o g n a t e s o f t h e  up n e a r t h e t o p o f t h e p l a n t ,  further  the l a s t  The  by t h e r e d  and  i s a celebration  so  few their  of w e a l t h  i n t h e c o n t e x t of t h e  m o r t u a r y , Nakamutmut s e r v e s a d u a l both  as a c e l e b r a t i o n i n response  e x c h a n g e d and a s a c a l l of  Vukumu.  that  position  "pulls"  simultaneously  c e r e m o n i e s h e l d f o r t h e dead a l o n e  c o n s t i t u t e s a powerful  c e l e b r a t e s both t h e appearance  birth  of ancestor  t h e gap between t h e s p i r i t Spirit  for the Lolo.  and t h u s  spirits  i n Nakamutmut a r e m a l e and  genders e q u a l l y represented.  Males, c a l l e d  widower) a r e much l a r g e r  their  Naviuviu  ( t h e mother o f A i k o s ) .  sweeping s k i r t  of wild ginger  r e c t a n g u l a r mask. in  The g i n g e r  m a g i c , d e n o t e male g e n d e r .  collapsing  worlds.  and a l w a y s a p p e a r i n e v e n numbers w i t h  than  It  c o n t i n u i t y , with  effectively  and t h e human  f i g u r e s appearing  and b e g i n n i n g  t h e dead and t h e f i r s t b o r n .  statement  and d e a t h  children.  Vukumu and a s s u c h  i n narogo  segment w h i c h h o n o u r s b o t h  female,  t o putting black  (nakue) on t h e l e g s o f m a l e f i r s t b o r n  a pivotal  completing  It  f o r more p i g s f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  L o l o s a y t h a t Nakamutmut  occupies  t o t h e number o f p i g s  Vukumu i s a ceremony d e d i c a t e d  woven b a n d s The  purpose, -functioning  female  their  Aikos (the counterparts  A i k o s w e a r s a huge  l e a v e s and b e a r s  a long  l e a v e s , m a t e r i a l u s e d by men Naviuviu  i s clad  i n banana  l e a v e s and w e a r s a s m a l l e r , t r i a n g u l a r  mask.  mark N a v i u v i u  a r e u s e d by women t o  wrap b u n d l e s  as feminine of food.  represent  leaves  The c o s t u m e s a r e v e r y e l a b o r a t e and  r e q u i r e hours t o prepare dancers  because they  Banana  and d o n .  a r e very powerful  The b e i n g s  whom t h e  and s o t h e d a n c e r s  must  166 do t h e i r with  work w e l l .  Magic  t h e h e l p o-f t h i s  spirits  spirit  privacy  o f t h e bush  Children  them and  assume t h e p o w e r s o f t h e that  power t o t h e ceremony.  on t h e d a y o f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e ,  where t h o s e who a r e t o d a n c e  preparations.  men's h o u s e  viciously  light  to assist  f i g u r e s a r e t a k e n f r o m t h e men's h o u s e  make t h e i r the  magic  t h e m s e l v e s and t r a n s f e r Before f i r s t  the  i s needed  In t h e m o r n i n g ,  can be seen.  slashed are told  as s p i r i t s path  the strength  intruding  been  i s c h u r n e d and t o r n up. and power o f t h e  b e i n g s who made t h e s e p a t h s and a r e warned t o s t a y s i n c e any c h i l d  from  T r e e s and b r a n c h e s h a v e  and t h e g r o u n d about  their  to the  on t h e i r  away,  preparations i s  unceremoniously eaten. The rebuilding  final  phase  of t h e mortuary  t h e men's h o u s e ,  group.  significant  building  construction searching  preparation  The men's h o u s e  on t h e i r  i s a l a r g e and  requiring  weeks o f  t r e e s f o r p o s t s and p l a n k s and f o r t h e  of t h e m a t e r i a l s f o r b u i l d i n g .  Navoltomare  carried  of t h e  and a s s u c h , m a t e r i a l s f o r  When t h e men's h o u s e called  and f i r s t b o r n  must be o f h i g h q u a l i t y  f o r good  involves  a l e n g t h y p r o c e s s which  i n v o l v e s cognates of both deceased men's h o u s e  cycle  i s ideally  fordistribution  frame  i s c o m p l e t e d , a ceremony  performed.  at t h i s  s h o u l d e r s and men carry  When f o o d i s  c e r e m o n y , women c a r r y food  on t h e i r  food  h e a d s , an  167 inversion  of usual  procedures.  C u r r e n t l y , however,  c e r e m o n y , most u s u a l l y S i a , i s c h o s e n Next, t h e t h a t c h •finished.  i n i t s stead.  i s p u t on and t h e w a l l s a r e  A l l t h a t r e m a i n s t o be done i s t o d e c o r a t e t h e  door, e x t e r i o r posts designs  belonging  include iconic  and t h e w a l l  above t h e door  t o t h e men's h o u s e g r o u p .  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of s p i r i t  symbolizing  locations significant  members, f o r example a r i v e r t h e men's h o u s e was s a i d  whence a s p i r i t The  being  equal  T h e s e marks animals  designs  t o t h e men's h o u s e  where t h e o r i g i n a l  senior  t o bathe, o r t h e rock  male  from  emerged.  men's h o u s e i s l i k e  grows weaker and f i n a l l y with  with  beings,  s u c h a s s n a k e s o r c r o c o d i l e s , and g r a p h i c  of  another  a man i n t h a t  " d i e s " with  g r a v i t y and ceremony.  i t ages,  i t s "death"  treated  L i k e the ceremonies f o r  t h e d e c e a s e d , t h e f o c u s o f t h e men's h o u s e c h a n g e s f r o m a concentration specifically transformed spirit  on t h e dead t o a c o n c e n t r a t i o n the firstborn.  preparations  figures.  completed, spirit  s o must t h e  Concurrently  with t h e  r e a d i e d f o r t h e work o f c r e a t i n g t h e new A f t e r t h e men's h o u s e b u i l d i n g i s  t h e men's h o u s e members make new masks f o r t h e  figures.  figures:  inside.  "born",  f o r e r e c t i n g t h e men's h o u s e , numerous l a r g e  gardens a r e being spirit  A s t h e men's h o u s e must be  i n t o a b u i l d i n g newly  figures living  on t h e l i v i n g ,  navala  The L o l o h a v e t h r e e t y p e s  of s p i r i t  w h i c h a p p e a r d u r i n g Nakamutmut, and  168 n a o s u n g and m a l a n g g a n w h i c h a p p e a r o n l y ceremonials painted  bearing  white with  and  the s p i r i t  the  faces.  designs  figure  manner.  trade  made f r o m s o o t ,  item  during  T h e s e masks a r e a l l  specific  painted  t o t h e men's h o u s e  i n r e d and b l a c k  upon  masks, t h e p a i n t s must b e made i n t h e Red p a i n t  r e d ocher found  important  both  itself  For these  traditional special  t h e same names.  t o men  (amonmon) i s made f r o m a  i n t h e m o u n t a i n s w h i c h was an  with  the S i a s i ,  and b l a c k  c o c o n u t o i l and b l a c k  the  power o f t h e masks, d e c o r a t i o n  and  t o t h e accompaniment o f s p e c i a l  earth.  (natoa) i s To e n h a n c e  i s conducted songs.  masks c o - e x i s t i n t h e men's h o u s e u n t i l  with  magic  The new and o l d  a special  feast i s  prepared. The together coconut  produce from t h e l a r g e gardens i s gathered  and p u t i n t o an enormous bag (nage) made o f woven strips.  The bag i s s t r u n g  on f o u r p o l e s  f o r m o f a s q u a r e and r e q u i r e s s e v e r a l s t r o n g carry  They carry  i t into the village.  i nthe  young men t o  t h e bag t o t h e  c e n t r e o f t h e d a n c e g r o u n d and s e t i t down, s o l a r g e and fully-packed  with  food  men's h o u s e men a t t a c k causing  t h e food  outpouring. much f o o d  inside  t h a t i t remains u p r i g h t . t h e bag w i t h to spill  Those assembled  over  and a x e s ,  i n a massive  s c r a m b l e madly t o g a t h e r  as  a s p o s s i b l e a n d , when i t i s a l l c o l l e c t e d , s i t  down f o r a f e a s t p r e p a r e d house.  knives  Senior  by t h e women o f t h e h o s t  Enough p i g s p r o v i d e d  by t h e h o s t  men's  men's h o u s e h a v e  169  been  killed  and c o o k e d s o t h a t  r e c e i v e s a large share. f i g u r e s a r e removed into  At t h i s p o i n t ,  be p r e s i d e d  The f i n a l celebrating night  o v e r by t h e s e n i o r  t h e d e c e a s e d and f i r s t b o r n  The mother  i s t o take place.  men's h o u s e f u l l  firstborn  firstborn  or not.  she t i r e ,  sun r i s e s ,  after  nalolonga  huge n o i s e ,  i s full  o f women and  night  f o r whom t h e  be c o n t i n u o u s l y r o c k e d s h e must  singing  i s sung.  i n a woman's  immediately pass t h e  the child  i s never s t i l l .  hundreds of l u l l a b i e s , t h e  t h e w a l l s and stamp  t h e g r o u n d making a  w h i l e t h o s e i n s i d e t h e f i r s t b o r n ' s house  with  their  As  The men i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e  a l l r o c k back and f o r t h  h o u s e sways the  of t h e  On t h e n i g h t o f  The f i r s t b o r n  t o another so that  men's h o u s e pound  and  and f a t h e r  firstborn  o f men f r o m numerous men's h o u s e  i s s t a g e d must  Should  final  i s an a l l -  In t h e l a p o f e v e r y woman i s a baby o r young  ceremony lap.  together  (nalolonga) f o r a  n a l o l o n g a , t h e house of t h e f i r s t b o r n  child,  male.  p r e s e n t a p i g t o t h e men's h o u s e , and a n n o u n c e  t h e event  groups.  in their  s t a g e i n o p e n i n g t h e men's h o u s e and  t h e men's h o u s e g r o u p .  that  taken  (navovo) o f t h e men's h o u s e where  performance of l u l l a b i e s  firstborn  the  the o l d s p i r i t  t h e bush t o be b u r n e d , and t h e new p l a c e d  they w i l l  the  figure  i n s e c r e c y f r o m t h e men's h o u s e ,  homes i n t h e back room  of  e a c h new s p i r i t  vigorously  movements.  so that  stand  the entire  When t h e s o n g i s done,  o f n a l o l o n g a i s o v e r and t h e men's h o u s e  170 officially beginning  completed. o-f t h e  firstborn. firstborn  p h a s e of  ceremonials there are between t h e  position  of  literature  the on  s u g g e s t but  dead and  the  to  the the  h i n t s of  the  firstborn.  p r i m o g e n i t u r e and  firstborn  do  not  child  the  delve into firstborn  cosmology  (e.g., Bateson  exception  to  firstborn  i n the  this  repeat  The  life.  their  and  be  exceptional  found  These  special to  West New  w r i t e s and  the So  birth  or  adoption  e v i d e n c e of  Firstborn,  the  social A  of  more t h a n s e c o n d b o r n o r  occupy a s i g n i f i c a n t  families  firstborn's  and  and  by  birth  position  life  notable the  L o l o are  related  not  to  to  reiterate  here the  to Lolo.  i s , for  the  perpetuation  of  subsequent  i n the of  lives  extension, to  the  rest  initiates  the  beginning  too  and  Province.  a firstborn  continuity  the  Britain  as  firstborn  the  n a t u r e and  (1985) s t u d y of  a r e a of  of  in  references  M e i g s 1984).  linguistically.  significance  tangible  children,  to  in relation  i s Scaletta's Bariai  the  S c a l e t t a ' s work, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t  d i s c u s s the  LDIO,  are  the  1958,  Kabana a b o u t whom she  both c u l t u r a l l y  The  e c h o e s and  Melanesian s o c i e t i e s .  i m p o r t a n c e of  and  solely  Firstborn  References to  The  narogo dedicated  the  Namelomelo i s c o m p l e t e , a l t h o u g h d u r i n g  relationship  The  T h i s ceremony a l s o s i g n a l s  the of  of Lolo. the  171  relationship  between g r a n d p a r e n t  relationship  central  and  grandchild  (tivuge), the  and  material  to Lolo social  i t i s the grandparent wealth  t h i s work, a c h i l d  life  The  grandparent  who  not o n l y p r o v i d e s  a s u c c e s s f u l , p r o d u c t i v e and  firstborn  the e f f o r t s  of the  i s n o t , however, t h e  Grandparents  themselves  to increase their  Without "true" moral  grandparents. sole  use t h e f i r s t b o r n  their  main c h a n c e  Their  e f f o r t s enhance t h e s t a t u s of t h e i r  ultimately reflected  work  leads the events.  would be u n a b l e t o grow i n t o a  are secured through  beneficiary.  life.  a  f o r the g r a n d c h i l d ' s ceremonial  M a t u r a t i o n and  The  grandchild,  g e n e r a t i o n s s h a r e names, s h a r e a k i n t e r m  b u t a l s o s p o n s o r s , o r g a n i z e s and  Lolo.  and  renown and  prestige.  children  back t o t h e g r a n d p a r e n t s .  which  This  l e a d s t o c o m p e t i t i o n between g r a n d f a t h e r s s i n c e e a c h eager and  t o be t h e one  to c e l e b r a t e the f i r s t b o r n  g a i n renown t h e r e b y .  provided  with a f i r m  ceremonial will  work f o r t h e i r  firstborn  their  grandchildren  i n ever-increasing  grandparent-grandchild parent  to child The  and  special  preferential  child  is  are  t o perform  g r a n d c h i l d , work  i s transferred  to  circles primarily  g e n e r a t i o n s and  from  one  grandchild  p a r e n t s w i t h renown  d e a t h s , renown w h i c h  is  often  p a r e n t s of the f i r s t b o r n  f o u n d a t i o n upon w h i c h  c o v e r t h e names o f t h e i r  after  the  The  as  which  even their from  the  s e c o n d a r i l y from  the  to parent.  s t a t u s of the f i r s t b o r n  treatment of the f i r s t b o r n  i s reflected i n everyday  in  life  and  the  firstborn.  ceremonial Since  so  ceremonies f o r the  cycle dedicated  much l a b o u r  firstborn,  and  wealth are  taken  celebrated  Hence, i f a f i r s t b o r n  off  a porch,  way,  then those r e s p o n s i b l e  traditional  D e p e n d i n g on  goes e i t h e r t o the  firstborn.  precious  beings.  their  with  They a r e  firstborn The  choice  parents'  To special  are  foods,  capacity  are  incorporates celebrates  the  and  "firsts"  the  firstborn  and  rise  living  "firsts"  and  of  as  work i f  demand  and  that  t o c e n s u r e and  and  i s in  gossip.  to underscore  in relation  T h i s phase of  both small i n the  development of  others.  any  nothing  narogo i s dedicated  c e r e m o n i e s on  i n the  injury,  "rubbish".  firstborn.  various  the  F a i l u r e to treat a  firstborn  s e c o n d p h a s e of  t o do  denied  injured  treated  i m m e d i a t e l y on are  any  grandparents  fed  known a s  c e l e b r a t e the  m a t u r a t i o n of  or  required  and  falls  equivalent,  n a t u r e of  parents  to give.  s t a t u s among t h e  dead, the  to the  not  appropriately gives  offenders  redress  the  the  injured in  N o r m a l l y , f i r s t b o r n s must be  they d e s i r e otherwise, served  i s "wronged",  g i v i n g a p i g or other,  wealth.  compensation  must pay  in  that  harm b e f a l l s  i s h i t , spoken t o i n anger, or  f a m i l y , u s u a l l y by  the  t o e n s u r e t h a t no  the  invested  i t stands to reason  m e a s u r e s must be one.  to c e l e b r a t i n g  and  life  of  social  to  to  their  the  the  ceremonial  grand s c a l e s , the  work and  firstborn,  r e l a t i o n s between  M a t u r a t i o n C e r e m o n i e s -for t h e F i r s t b o r n Each greeted  "-first"  i n the l i f e  w i t h ceremony.  Small  p l a c e when t h e f i r s t b o r n to  f e a s t s and e x c h a n g e s  i s first  taken  t h e houses of other v i l l a g e r s ,  another  v i l l a g e , dressed  attends a ceremonial each  event,  firstborn  begins the proceedings.  occasion  f o r the firstborn  In  event) Each  t a k e s t h e c h i l d and "first"  i s an  t o r e c e i v e g i f t s and f o r t h e  t o be c o m p e n s a t e d w i t h f o o d and  items of wealth. These  first  gets a haircut,  ( o r kinswoman i f t a k i n g a  formally  small  i n the river, to  c u t s a t o o t h and s o on.  t o a ceremonial  "guardian" of the c h i l d  take  o u t s i d e t h e house,  t o bathe  i n clothing,  o f t h e s e c a s e s , a kinsman  female  of  of t h e f i r s t b o r n i s  "firsts"  time that  a r e performed  a significant  the firstborn.  passive recipient  event  i n recognition  takes place i n the l i f e  In t h e s e c a s e s , t h e f i r s t b o r n of the food of others.  ceremony marks t h e f i r s t name o f t h e f i r s t b o r n ,  time  that  indicating  food that  A  i s the  special  i s given i n the the firstborn  become an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t  i n the c i r c u l a t i o n  among c o g n a t e s  L i k e n e d by t h e L o l o t o  baptism,  this  when t h e c h i l d  and a f f i n e s .  ceremony i s c r u c i a l truly  of the  since this  has  of food  i s t h e moment  b e g i n s t h e p r o c e s s of "growing  up  Lolo". If,  however, a f e m a l e  child  i s named S a l i k i  t h e s e e v e n t s , r a t h e r than b e i n g minor o c c a s i o n s  then  attended  p r i m a r i l y by c o g n a t e s o f t h e f i r s t b o r n , ceremony on a g r a n d s c a l e .  Galiki  escalate  was t h e f i r s t  firstborn  and a p p e a r s a s a c e n t r a l character  stories.  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e g u l a r  surrounding be  the treatment  named G a l i k i ,  may carry  nothing  should  are  severe indeed.  pig.  Galiki  instead  conditions  should  think  that  be i n j u r e d o r harmed, t h e Each time t h a t of small  Galiki  which she r e c e i v e s  because G a l i k i  This  ceremonial  child  Galiki  repercussions  p a s s e s one o f t h e  items of wealth, she r e c e i v e s  more p i g s .  a  i n her  One w o u l d  i s t h e r e c i p i e n t o f s o much  p a r e n t s would c l a m o u r t o h a v e t h e i r Galiki.  that  obtains  As w e l l , s e p a r a t e c e r e m o n i e s a r e p e r f o r m e d  honour, d u r i n g  and  i n numerous  on h e r h e a d , no one may walk b e h i n d h e r ,  and  "firsts",  female  prohibitions  of a f i r s t b o r n ,  the following  into  female f i r s t b o r n  that named  i s n o t , however, t h e c a s e , s i n c e t h e  that  must be p e r f o r m e d f o r G a l i k i  frightening, putting  same h o l d s t r u e male f i r s t b o r n .  i s dangerous  a l l of G a l i k i ' s k i n a t r i s k .  f o r N a t a v o l o , t h e name g i v e n He i s l e s s c e l e b r a t e d  than  The  t o the f i r s t Galiki,  a l t h o u g h he t o o h a s c e r e m o n i e s p e r f o r m e d f o r h i s b e n e f i t . When a f i r s t b o r n parents' groom. as  wealth  i s immediately  The f i r s t b o r n  two p i g s ,  marries,  a large portion  given  to the bride or the  s o n o r d a u g h t e r may r e c e i v e  f i v e c l a y cooking  twenty fathoms of s h e l l  pots,  of t h e  f i v e carved  a s much b o w l s , and  money, i n a d d i t i o n t o , i n a  daughter's case, her r e g u l a r  dowry o f h o u s e h o l d g o o d s and  175 items and  of  value.  should  ideally  purposes but marriage items  remain  of w e a l t h  her  first  child,  child's  one  i n debts  way,  the  certain  i n h e r i t a n c e system.  birth.  These  young and  as w e l l as b e i n g  has  burdens.  can  for distribution,  preparations the in  m a t e r i a l l y unable  to  During  provide  since  inexperienced  e l e c t e d t o t a k e on  s o he  f o r ceremonies  of t h e g r a n d p a r e n t s ,  are too  assume t h e c e r e m o n i a l who  ceremonial  In t h i s  preparations begin  shoulders  ways o f t r a d i t i o n  calls  firstborn.  only,  i t i s known t h a t a woman i s p r e g n a n t  of t h e c h i l d  grandfather  used f o r o t h e r  i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e owner u n t i l  greet the  upon t h e  parents  be  i s marked f o r f i r s t b o r n s  fallow a specialized  soon as  which w i l l fall  not  of h i s o r h e r  As with  T h i s wealth  the pregnancy, this  the  the  responsibility  t h e newborn w i t h  t h e o t h e r , a young p i g , f o r  two  pigs,  the  child.  Woven B l a c k  Bands  Vukumu i s p e r f o r m e d nakue  ( b l a c k woven bands) on  Vukumu i s " p u l l e d " by without  the  l e g o f male  firstborn.  t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f Nakamutmut f a r  a l a r g e s c a l e performance t o h e r a l d i t s coming,  Vukumu c o u l d n o t stick  f o r the purpose of p u t t i n g  of r o l l e d  be and  done.  The  painted tobacco.  mark d u r i n g t h e m o r t u a r y , t h o s e preparing  mark o f Vukumu i s a  long  Since receiving  this  s e l e c t e d h a v e been  p i g s f o r vukumu i n t h e same manner a s  described  176 for  t h e mortuary  tobacco  p i g exchange.  i s charged  Unless t h i s  i s adept  requests t h e a s s i s t a n c e of a  human".  in their  m a k i n g , he  specialist.  Vukumu i s a n o t h e r  s t e p i n "growing  B l a c k woven b a n d s a r e s y m b o l i c  receiving  o n e v i a Vukumu means t h a t  bird  Namor's c o m p a n i o n s , r e n d e r i n g t h e m y t h i c The f i r s t b o r n  up  o f t h e L o l o , and  one t r u l y  They d a n c e w i t h D i r o m , a c r a z e d s p i r i t  contemporary.  of t h e  w i t h p r o v i d i n g a p i g and t h e nakue.  individual  Performing  The r e c i p i e n t  i s a Lolo.  and one o f  p a s t r e a l and  becomes f u r t h e r  and f u r t h e r  enmeshed i n t h e n e t w o r k s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and o b l i g a t i o n s in  w h i c h he w i l l  participate until  t h o s e who h a v e p e r f o r m e d presented he  will  he d i e s .  He "owes"  f o r h i m , he "owes" t h o s e who  p i g s i n h i s h o n o u r , and f a r t h e r e s t  be r e p a y i n g t h e s e d e b t s and c o n t r a c t i n g  have  of h i s l i f e new  ones.  Namos Narnos i s t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t b o r n ceremonies.  The t e r m  refers to certain firstborn services o n l y used age is  namos i s a c o n f u s i n g one i n t h a t i t  ceremonial  work f o r a f i r s t b o r n ,  being c e l e b r a t e d themselves, involved i n these contexts. when a male f i r s t b o r n  i s c i r c u m c i s e d and a f e m a l e decorated  i n dance r e g a l i a  ceremony f o r t h e f i r s t  time.  t o the  and t o t h e g o o d s and The t e r m  of four or f i v e firstborn  namos i s years of  o f t h e same a g e  and p a r t i c i p a t e s This i s the f i r s t  in a time  in a  177 firstborn's  life  t h a t s e x u a l i t y and f u t u r e r e p r o d u c t i v e  powers a r e a c k n o w l e d g e d a n d , h e n c e f o r t h , t h e f i r s t b o r n wear c l o t h i n g  t o cover  their  manner a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e i r A grandfather  g e n i t a l s and l e a r n  event,  of t h e f i r s t b o r n  duty  i s taken  attached  are carved  with  the carved  as lekmos,  post  t o t h e porch  decorated  deceased  beings,  f o r the occasion are l i f t e d t o carry  collected.  front  cluster  the the children  faces.  children  them i n t o t h e v i l l a g e . the pole  tightly  upon  money also  a r o u n d t h e men  and p o l e s f r o m w h i c h i t e m s o f  a r e s u s p e n d e d and h o l d of t h e i r  animals  t o the shoulders of  M a l e and f e m a l e k i n o f t h e f i r s t b o r n ,  and d e c o r a t e d ,  designs  and who h a v e been  w h i c h a r e s l u n g a l l t h e p o t s , b o w l s and s h e l l  wealth  The p o s t s  relatives.  k i n s m a n h a v e been s e l e c t e d t o carry  carrying  girl  b e f o r e d a r k on t h e d a y o f t h e e v e n t ,  male kinsmen d e p u t i z e d  painted  His first  o f h e r house.  whom t h e ceremony i s p e r f o r m e d  other  denoting  t o t h e men's h o u s e g r o u p o f t h e carver,  Just  and f r o m  which, i f f o r a boy  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of s p i r i t  or p o r t r a i t s of s i g n i f i c a n t  for  event,  i n t o t h e men's h o u s e , and f o r a  (nariuriu)  belonging  for this  of a l l i m p l i e d i n t h e term n a m o s .  i s t o prepare  (nil)  i s chosen t o bear  of the p r e p a r a t i o n s t o the c o n c l u s i o n of the  he r e f e r s t o t h e c h i l d  possession  to act i n a  gender.  the burden of t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s the beginning  must  l a r g e branches of t r e e s i n  The two g r o u p s f r o m t h e p a i r e d  Two  178 villages,  s i n g i n g and  ground from  accompanied  by drums, e n t e r t h e  o p p o s i t e e n d s o-f t h e v i l l a g e .  e a c h o t h e r , a s e n i o r m a l e of t h e h o s t boar's  t u s k s between h i s t e e t h , f a c e p a i n t e d w i t h  lime  carrying first  brandishing closer  a spear,  t o one  h i s spear  t h e two  g r o u p and at both.  and  t h e s e mats.  p l a c e d on  firstborn  slap  s p e a r s and  pacification  with  and  covered  colour:  milk, both  Carved  i t on  with in  their  between them  bowls f u l l  of  Prior  l i m e powder  the  white  powerful  then  village.  for battle  with  nao.  white  i s t h e c o l o u r o f semen  and  f o r the Lolo.  the L o l o both  f o r the  in a  White i s  g r a d u a l l y turned  substances  They  t o m i s s i o n i z a t i o n and  a l l exposed s k i n  skinchangers  t o i t and  Lime  power  b e c a u s e t h e L o l o must t r a d e v a l u a b l e s  neighbours  sufficient  through  the  carried  each o t h e r s ' c h e s t s ,  run y e l l i n g  powder i s h i g h l y v a l u e d by intrinsic  spins in c i r c l e s  i n the area, w a r r i o r s dressed  Namor's a i d , and  breast  g r o u p s move c l o s e r  t o be c i r c u m c i s e d a r e  L i m e powder i s a mark o f war.  a powerful  two  other,  a r o u n d among t h e k i n s m e n o f t h e f i r s t b o r n .  h a n d f u l s and  loincloth  The  the  p a n d a n u s mats a r e p l a c e d b e f o r e t h e d o o r o f The  r o a r , grab  then  groups,  g r o u p s meet i n t h e c e n t r e .  men's h o u s e .  are passed  d a n c e s between t h e two  as t h e speardancer  New  grab  near with  advancing  until  they  men's h o u s e  powder and  and  As  dance  on  the coast t o a c q u i r e marine  amounts f o r a ceremony o f  this  sort.  shells  179 Two f e m a l e and  k i nof the f i r s t b o r n  t h e b o y i s p l a c e d s o he s t a n d s w i t h  their  backs.  T h e s e women a r e a g n a t e s  kneel  upon t h e mats  one f o o t  on e a c h o f  of t h e f i r s t b o r n ,  s i n c e o n l y t h e y c a n be c l o s e when t h e b l o o d o f a n o t h e r i s to  be s p i l l e d .  They a r e women p a s t c h i l d b e a r i n g y e a r s , s o  t h e r e i s no d a n g e r t h a t a s e x u a l l y p o t e n t the boy's  female  c a n harm  genitals.  A carved  bowl f i l l e d  with  l i m e powder i s p l a c e d  u n d e r t h e b o y ' s p e n i s , and a young m a l e , a l s o o n e b l o o d , stands  by t h e b o y , s u p p o r t i n g h i m a n d p l a c i n g  t h e b o y ' s mouth s o t h a t i n s t e a d o f c r y i n g b i t e down on h i s hand.  h i s hand i n  o u t , t h e boy can  In p r e v i o u s y e a r s , a s e n i o r male of-  t h e men's h o u s e g r o u p t o w h i c h t h e b o y s b e l o n g e d cutting. dokta.  Currently, this  a local  medical  r e m o v e s i t by s l i c i n g t i s s u e from  i s done i n A r a i g i l p u a  orderly. i t with  He g r a s p s  t h e head o f t h e p e n i s .  up w i t h  into  a roar of  ( l o u d e r i f he d o e s n o t c r y o u t ) and b o r n e away t o  holding  t h e bowl  process  i s repeated  boys then  with  f o r each boy b e i n g c i r c u m c i s e d . (neremi)  and Nakamutmut i s p e r f o r m e d ,  appearance of t h e female  The  The  i n t h e men's h o u s e .  t h e c i r c u m c i s i o n , t h e f o o d from  distributed,  another  s o t h a t no b l o o d d r i p s t o t h e g r o u n d .  enter seclusion  After  first  t h e f o r e s k i n and  The b l o o d d r i p s  t h e men's h o u s e i n t h e arms o f h i s a g n a t e ,  is  by t h e  a r a z o r b l a d e and t r i m s e x t r a  t h e L i m e powder, t h e b o y i s l i f t e d approval  d i d the  firstborn  the platforms marking t h e  i n dance  regalia.  ISO At t h e c o n c l u s i o n , t h o s e who t h e men  who  spilling who  h e l d the boys,  have p a r t i c i p a t e d ,  t h e women who  o f b l o o d " , t h o s e who  helped  are  money, c a r v e d b o w l s o r woven b a s k e t s  The  dokta.  " p a i d -for t h e  made d a n c e r e g a l i a  i n t h e d e c o r a t i n g a r e compensated  s h a r e of f o o d they  the  and  with  in addition  those  shell to  the  receive.  boys remain  in seclusion  while they are i n s t r u c t e d  f o r the next  i n male e s o t e r i c  weeks  lore.  The  s e c r e t s of t h e f l u t e s a r e r e v e a l e d , a l o n g w i t h the s e c r e t s of  the l e a s t  powerful  spirit  house.  They a r e a l s o t o l d  women.  Given  seclusion,  that  their  something  with natoa,  instruction  in seclusion,  black volcanic  e a r t h o v e n , and  paint  of  enter  until  they are f u l l y  most  able to  the boys' ash  p a i d by  teeth are  which has  blackened  been baked  i n an  a r e s u b j e c t t o numerous f o o d t a b o o s .  e v e r y day  and  of the dangers  i s abbreviated with the  bodies are painted with red ochre.  agnate  i n t h e men's  i t s implications.  While  applied  live  t h e b o y s a r e young when t h e y  dangerous i n f o r m a t i o n l e f t appreciate  f i g u r e s who  These pigments  during seclusion.  E a c h boy  has  are a young  the sponsoring grandfather t o reapply  a c t a s a mentor t h r o u g h  seclusion.  Their  the  Male k i n of  the boys s t a y c l o s e t o the v i l l a g e w h i l e they are i n seclusion. brushed dry  up.  by  Should  t h e y go  into  the bush, t h e y might  s p i d e r webs w h i c h w o u l d c a u s e  the boys'  be  penes t o  181  To p r o p e r l y c o n c l u d e seclusion,  apocalyptic  turns  the period of  a young male s h a p e c h a n g e r named P o r o v i s i s  summoned f o r a ceremony  hiding  and " s e a l "  called  naviu.  war o f a l l a g a i n s t  under a p o s t  a l l i n mythic t i m e s by  i n t h e men's h o u s e .  i n t o a s m a l l , round, p e r f e c t l y  summoned by s p e c i a l , he i s f o u n d ,  P o r o v i s s u r v i v e d an  strong—smelling  i s taken  For naviu,  smooth  stone,  leaves.  i n t o t h e men's h o u s e and p l a c e d  T h o s e who h a v e been a c t i n g a s t e a c h e r s  t o t h e boys d r e s s  i n scented  with  r e d ochre.  bawl  i n which P o r a v i s  i s concealed.  t o the other,  Passing  they  and m e n t o r s faces  f o r the occasion  f r e e now t o do a s t h e y  I t i s taken  t o heart  t h e howl inside,  The b o y s a r e  b u t i t i s hoped  the instruction  from  w h i c h h a s been  i s distributed.  please,  t h e bowl  sing until  t h e b o y s a r e b r o u g h t o u t s i d e , and f o o d  have t a k e n  under  i n a carved  l e a v e s and p a i n t t h e i r  t h e d o o r o f t h e men's h o u s e .  prepared  once  They l e a v e t h e men's h o u s e c a r r y i n g t h e  one e n d o f t h e l i n e reaches  and i s  Porovis,  a b u n d l e o f b a k e d and m a g i c a l l y t r e a t e d l e a v e s bowl.  Porovis  they  that  received  they  during  seclusion.  Masked S p i r i t  Ceremonies  Until Natavolo children, having  e a r l y adolescence  i s reached,  h a v e been c e l e b r a t e d s i m i l a r l y with  their  the exception  "firsts"  greeted  G a l i k i and  t o other  firstborn  o f r e c e i v i n g more p i g s a n d with  more pomp.  Maturation  182 means t h a t  Galiki  " t r u e " L o l o and  firstborn.  Galiki but  names G a l i k i  grow more "human", more  inherent i n their  are delayed u n t i l  to t h i s ,  Natavolo  hence a b l e t o understand  responsibilities exceptional  and  N a t a v o l o have r e c e i v e d that  Galiki Vokoi.  Only those f i r s t b o r n  granted  N a t a v o l o can use  children  purposes,  freedom  for Galiki  rights to  i s that  She  the  concrete sign  the  She  of  and  i s taken  had  a l l these o b j e c t s e x p l a i n e d t o her.  a constant reminder  senior  fora l l  i s " t u r n e d i n t o a man"  shown t h e masks and  h e r name, a f o r m a l and and  of  t h e s e names.  o f t h e men's h o u s e .  shown t h e f l u t e s , of  she  inside,  significance  i s also  of her s p e c i a l  t o o t h e r s of her  given status  uniqueness.  N a t a v o l o r e c e i v e s h i s name d u r i n g a ceremony Naosung, which  i n v o k e s some o f t h e most d a n g e r o u s  b e i n g s known t o t h e L o l o .  My  name i s enough t o b r i n g  spirit tense  s i n c e even m e n t i o n i n g  h a v o c upon t h e v i l l a g e .  b e i n g e n d e m i c among t h e L o l o , t h e y f e e l enough c o v e r t e v i l  called  i n f o r m a n t s were v i s i b l y  a s t h e y d i s c u s s e d Naosung w i t h me  the  been  r e c e i v e s h e r name w i t h a p e r f o r m a n c e  What i s s i g n i f i c a n t  i n t e n t s and  o t h e r names p r i o r  they are to r e c e i v e  m a l e s o f men's h o u s e s a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e and  as  ceremonials  N a t a v o l o a l t h o u g h t h e y have not  formally granted.  names G a l i k i  status  older.  i t i s understood and  special  assume t h e  For t h i s reason, t h e i r  they are  and  and  like  that  they  Sorcery have  f o r c e s t o c o p e w i t h , s o Naosung i s no  the  183 longer performed  and h a s n o t been f o r some y e a r s .  Naosung, t h e g e n d e r s women and G a l i k i , event, is  are totally  t h e only female  i s decorated l i k e  granted female  transvestism  a man.  from  Up u n t i l  carrying  performance.  h a s been a k i n d this point,  of h a l f -  Galiki  burdens and, i n f a c t ,  Malanggan, h e r f i n a l  p r o c e s s by t u r n i n g  h a s been  o b j e c t s such  t o court disaster  My  informants  by d i s c u s s i n g  this in a l l i n the  would be s t r u c k down d e a d , and t h e l i v e s  o f g e n e r a t i o n s t o come i n p e r i l .  When M a l a n g g a n i s d o n e ,  t u r n s b a c k i n t o a woman a n d i s e x p e c t e d , status,  most  During  s i n c e t o r o u s e M a l a n g g a n means t h a t  immediate v i c i n i t y  her s p e c i a l  doing  numerous p o w e r f u l  a s d o g ' s t e e t h on h e r h e a d .  were r e l u c t a n t detail  pile  from  ceremony, c o m p l e t e s t h e  h e r back i n t o a woman.  Malanggan, v e r y p o t e n t s p i r i t s  Galiki  Natavolo  t o h a v e a n y t h i n g p l a c e d on h e r head and i s t h u s  women's work.  great  miles of t h e  D u r i n g Naosung,  which c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s  male/half-female.  excused  within  Men d r e s s a s  r e p r o d u c t i v e powers t h r o u g h t h e  Since Vokoi, Galiki  forbidden  reversed.  During  t o do t h e r e q u i s i t e  i n s p i t e of  women's work.  Marriage B e f o r e any L o l o m a r r i e s , i t i s e x p e c t e d  that  they  c a p a b l e o f d o i n g a l l t h e work  that  have proved  themselves  is  o f an i n d e p e n d e n t  required  means t h a t  householder.  t h e y c a n do a l l g a r d e n  F o r men,  work, c a n b u i l d  this  a solid  184 h o u s e , and a r e b e c o m i n g a d e p t and  obligations.  good c o o k s expected of  Women t o o s h o u l d be good g a r d e n e r s and  with a l l that  this  implies.  t o d e f e r t o t h e wishes  a mate.  position  They a r e a l s o  of t h e i r  elders  i n a choice  Again, the grandparental generation i s i n a  of great i n f l u e n c e e s p e c i a l l y  firstborn great  i n t h e manipulation of debts  regarding the  s i n c e i t i s t h e y who h a v e e x p e n d e d a n d i n v e s t e d  amounts o f e n e r g y  and w e a l t h  i n t h e course of  ceremonial. F o r young men, no s p e c i a l p r e p a r e them f o r m a r r i a g e . are prepared only c a l l e d has  f o r marriage Netutnetne.  disappeared.  their  sixties,  their  parents.  similar,  Young f i r s t b o r n and f e t e d  had s e e n  i n a ceremony f o r women  T h i s i s another  i t , b u t had o n l y heard  a r e now f r e e t o m a r r y .  for firstborn that  and s u b s e q u e n t  c h a n g e h a n d s , and t h e f i r s t b o r n  wealth  passed  from  firstborn  go t o h e r a s g i f t s  of i t from  women a s w e l l .  children are  receives the special Galiki i s  T h i s time, t h e o b j e c t s from  b l a c k b i r d s who a r e t h e c e n t r a l competing  men i n  Marriage  to firstborn.  h o n o u r e d o n c e more by V o k o i .  each  which  more p i g s a r e e x c h a n g e d , more i t e m s o f  wealth  collected  L o l o event  The same i s t r u e f o r s e n i o r  except  women however,  None o f my i n f o r m a n t s , a l l s e n i o r  Firstborn ceremonies  ceremony i s r e q u i r e d t o  akor, t h e t h i e v i n g  figures  i n t h e ceremony,  t o be t h e o n e t o g i v e h e r t h e most  goods.  The firstborn  birth  of t h e f i r s t b o r n ' s f i r s t b o r n s e t s t h e  c y c l e i n motion a g a i n ,  person as t h e r e c i p i e n t status as f i r s t b o r n birth The they  for a lifetime,  Discussion  One m a i n t a i n s  b u t o n c e one h a s g i v e n  m a t u r e and t o h a v e "grown up L o l o " .  need o f i n s t r u c t i o n  the Lolo  e n e r g y and v a l u a b l e s  invest great  and ceremony.  the a c t i v i t i e s  The  t o e n d , b u t i t must be r e a l i z e d  i s operating  a t one s t a g e  f o u r v i l l a g e s on t h e c o a s t ,  v i l l a g e s as w e l l . simultaneously  for  or another  and among t h e  T h i s means t h a t e a c h L o l o  cycle  that  i n each  this men's  villages, Idne-Lolo  individual  p l a y s numerous r o l e s i n many c y c l e s .  h o u s e h o l d , one p e r s o n may b e marked t o p r o v i d e  m o r t u a r y work i n O r e l m o and p r o v i d e  In any wealth  a pig for affines  marked f o r a m o r t u a r y p i g e x c h a n g e i n Makvar. be  preceding  i n one such  house group i n each of t h e seven mountain L o l o  given  since  amounts o f t i m e ,  i n t h e narogo c y c l e .  has f o l l o w e d  from beginning  the  one's  and A n a l y s i s  Clearly,  discussion  a new  of a t t e n t i o n thus t u r n s t o t h e newlyborn  have t h e g r e a t e s t  cycle  of honour.  one i s c o n s i d e r e d  focus  t h i s time with  Another  may  marked a s namos i n R o v a t a and due t o r e c e i v e a p i g f r o m  a mortuary provide  i n Ararau.  food  Finally,  a n o t h e r may be marked t o  f o r a c i r c u m c i s i o n , a n a m i n g , and f o r b o y s  emerging from s e c l u s i o n .  Thus, t h e narogo c y c l e i s , i n  186 actuality,  l a y e r upon l a y e r o f c e r e m o n i a l  through t h e e n t i r e Lolo c u l t u r e area,  u n i t i n g them,  ideologically  and p r a g m a t i c a l l y ,  while  them o f t h e i r  common h i s t o r y and b e l i e f s .  Each i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s increase the  i n resources,  income e x c e e d s expenses.  constantly and  ideally  involved  affines f o r assistance ceremonial.  assets  In t h i s p r o c e s s ,  i n providing  reminding  b o t h a d r a i n and an so that  men a r e  o f one s o r t o r a n o t h e r ,  time canvassing  Negotiations  forcefully  accumulating  i n negotiations  s p e n d much o f t h e i r  spread out  their  k i n and  materials f o r  a r e b a s e d on e l a b o r a t e  systems of  c h e c k s and b a l a n c e s i n w h i c h e v i d e n c e must b e p r o d u c e d t o prove that  one owes o r i s owed.  Women p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s t o o , although  their  c o n t r i b u t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y done i n t h e  p r i v a c y o f t h e home.  Overtly,  women a r e s l a v e s t o t h e i r  g a r d e n s and t o t h e p i g s , e n s u r i n g are of  thriving high  labour  i s spread  c o r r e c t t o say as t h e L o l o  "imprisoned" providing be  so that  the crops  they w i l l  and p i g s  be r e a d y and  q u a l i t y t o enhance t h e s t a t u s of t h e h o u s e h o l d . This  is  as they should  that  by t h e i r  t h e m s e l v e s do, t h a t  season.  t h e Lolo a r e chained  needs t h e c o o p e r a t i o n  In f a c t , i t they a r e  d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n  f o r each ceremonial  said that  o v e r many y e a r s .  of o t h e r s  e x a m p l e , i s t o be p r o p e r l y  By e x t e n s i o n ,  t o one a n o t h e r .  i t can  One  i f one's f a t h e r , f o r  buried  and mourned, o r i f o n e ' s  son  must be c i r c u m c i s e d and c o r r e c t l y  ways o-f men. aims a r e  I t i s through  food  instructed  and c e r e m o n i a l  on t h e that  such  accomplished.  Not  o n l y does narogo i n v o l v e t h i n g s o f v a l u e ,  a t h i n g of v a l u e energy i n v e s t e d .  in itself,  i t i s  r e g a r d l e s s o f e x p e n s e and  Participation  i n and t h r o u g h  t h e narogo  c y c l e s e r v e s t o f u r t h e r l o c a t e t h e L o l o t e m p o r a l l y and spatially. firstborn  The combined f o c u s on t h e dead and t h e with  t h e men's h o u s e t h e c e n t r e o f t h e a c t i o n  p l a c e t h e L o l o on " t h e i r " sanction present  with  g r o u n d by v i r t u e o f a n c e s t r a l  a simultaneous  and f u t u r e by h o n o u r i n g  an  emphasis f u r t h e r p l a y e d  in  w h i c h o f t h e two c e n t r a l  of  life  in  relationship  c h a r a c t e r s , one i s n e a r t h e e n d  Everyday  i n v o l v e s preparations f o r events  life  p i g s with  future.  month o r n e x t  with  food  completion  of ceremonial.  f o r another,  support  activity  e v e n t , and  r e l a t i o n s h i p s that are  necessary  f o r successful  Regardless  of one's p r i v a t e  one n e e d s t h a t o t h e r  i n ceremonial  event  g e n e r a t i o n , m a r k i n g and r a i s i n g  the social  t o and c r i t i c a l l y  both  A l l L o l o make p l a n s f o r  an e y e t o w a r d s a p a r t i c u l a r  maintaining  ceremonial  3 0  work by m a r k i n g g a r d e n s f o r a s p e c i f i c  whether next  and  o u t i n t h e lekmos  near t h e b e g i n n i n g .  ceremonial  feeling  t h e dead and t h e n e w l y b o r n ,  and t h e o t h e r  t h e n e a r and d i s t a n t  central  c o n c e n t r a t i o n on t h e p a s t ,  activity  f o rassistance  since i t i s this  t h a t a l l o w s e a c h L o l o t o grow up human.  IBS Were c e r e m o n i a l live  and  humanity both  e x p e r i e n c e s of The  live  l i t e r a l l y and  while ceremonial  examining  they  "as  achieving  wild  n e x t c h a p t e r e x p a n d s on  the  pigs".  largely  normative.  In  preparing  Food  f o r and  an  discussion  actual  moral  a daily and  executing  one  display. by  discussion  from the  basis,  brackets  order,  analysis  events that  state  nurtures  this analysis  fallowing  Chapter VII,  ceremony, V o k o i , t a k e s t h e the  their entire  into a  formalizes  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e  describing  longer  humanity i n a s p e c t a c u l a r  Again, the  c o u r s e of  know them, and,  work d r a m a t i c a l l y  Aesthetic.  by  would no  f i g u r a t i v e l y on  the  real  Lolo  c o s m i c o r d e r u p s e t , would d e c l i n e  w h i c h p e o p l e would  and  done, t h e  w i t h human b e i n g s as  social in  work n o t  of  power, is one  ideal to  transpire ceremony.  in  the the  CHAPTER  THE  MORAL O R D E R .  I now t u r n  POWER.  This discussion  ethnographic data the  Aesthetic  begins with of  social  grounded chapter of  order,  power, and t h e  i s intended  thus f a r presented  and a e s t h e t i c s .  t o put t h e  i n t o t h e concepts of  To t h i s  end, t h i s  a summary o f p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e L o l o  organization.  indicating  AND T H E A E S T H E T I C  t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h e i n t e r —  r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e m o r a l Aesthetic.  VI  This  how t h e moral  i s followed  order  of s o c i a l  a presentation  t h e r e l a t i o n s among t h e A e s t h e t i c ,  and  culture.  The  Moral  moral  order  by a d i s c u s s i o n organization i s  i n L o l o c o n c e p t s o f power and r e a l i t y . concludes with  chapter  of general  The principles  a e s t h e t i c s , a r t forms  Order  Lolo  social  life  interaction  with  other  interaction  with  spirits,  i n v o l v e s more t h a n d e a l i n g s and  humans.  Social l i f e  and s o s u c c e s s f u l 189  also  involves  social  l i f e and  190 social  harmony demand a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e n a t u r e and  constitution  of s p i r i t s .  Just  as i n d i v i d u a l s  must  know  e a c h o t h e r t o l i v e i n harmony w i t h them, s o must t h e L o l o know t h e s p i r i t s t o h a v e a s i m i l a r The m o r a l predicated  o r d e r of s o c i a l  harmony. organisation  i s thus  upon an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , and f a c i l i t y  with, the  n a t u r e o f humans and t h e n a t u r e o f s p i r i t s and s p i r i t powers. the  The men's h o u s e  institutional  house  foci  groups, s i b l i n g  and c e r e m o n i a l p e r f o r m a n c e p r o v i d e  f o r c o n c e p t s o f power and men's g r o u p s , and r e s i d e n t i a l  provide the context f o r social principles  and  organization,  and s e c u l a r  c a n be summarized  each L o l o  individual.  dialect  a direct  of Maleu,  link  and c e r e m o n i a l a c t i v i t y ,  i n three p r i n c i p l e s ,  A s e n s e of group  their  and a s e n s e o f s e l f Their  l o c a t e s them i n s p a c e , and p r o v i d e s  through t h e i r  a n c e s t o r s t o Namor.  and  r e s i s t a n c e t o Tok P i s i n  Their  through t h e i r  perception  o f i t a s an i n f e r i o r  attachment  t o Maleu. their  describe their  Stories,  and t h e i r  It defines  equation of language and t h e i r  language underscore told  i n Maleu,  u n i q u e n e s s a s a group past  a r e important  language, s p e c i f i c a l l y  group  custom.  identity,  and g r o w t h .  them a s a c u l t u r a l  emphasize  t o these  v a l u e s a r e a p p a r e n t and m a n i f e s t i n  c o o p e r a t i o n , and c o n t i n u i t y  to  according  o f r e a l i t y and