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The Britten-Purcell realisations : connecting the past to the present through the voice of Peter Pears Hendsbee, Blaine Gregory 2007

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THE BRITTEN-PURCELL REALISATIONS: CONNECTING THE PAST TO THE PRESENT T H R O U G H THE VOICE OF PETER PEARS  by  BLAINE GREGORY HENDSBEE B.Mus.Ed., Dalhousie University, 1984 M . M u s . , The University of British Columbia, 1998  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF  DOCTOR OF M U S I C A L A R T S in  THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A  September 2007 © Blaine Gregory Hendsbee, 2007  Abstract This thesis w i l l examine Benjamin Britten's realisations o f several o f Henry Purcell's songs taken from Orpheus Britannicus and Harmonia Sacra and explore how these realisations were created by practical performance considerations at the time o f composition (realisation) and the role that tenor Peter Pears played in this process. The thesis w i l l consider how these songs combine the thinking o f both Purcell and Britten. It w i l l also take into consideration how the tenor solo vocal technique changed between the time o f Purcell and Britten and how Peter Pears' unique vocal ability synthesized these two approaches to technique.  Although Purcell also wrote songs to be accompanied by larger instrumental forces, only the realisations and performance requirements o f the continuo songs can be discussed in this document. The majority o f songs Britten and Pears selected fall into this category. These songs w i l l be analyzed using the following criteria: harmonic changes introduced by Britten, the manner in which the accompaniments are adapted or realised to meet the demands o f the text, the specific editorial indications added by both Britten and Pears, the technical approach required for a tenor to perform these songs, and how these songs showcased the unique vocal, histrionic, and musical abilities o f Peter Pears.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  ii  Table o f Contents  iii  List o f Figures  iv  Acknowledgments  v  CHAPTER 1  1  The Source: Purcell  1.1 .Henry Purcell: The Orpheus Britannicus 1.2 Continuo songs 1.3 Benjamin Britten: The new Orpheus Britannicus CHAPTER 2  The Britten-Purcell Realisations  2.1 Britten and Pears as collaborative performers 2.2 Britten's performance considerations 2.3 Critical response CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4  V o c a l Performance o f the Britten-Purcell Realisations  Overview The 17 -century voice Change in vocal technique The voice o f Peter Pears  CHAPTER 4  th  Song Analysis  4.1 Overview 4.2 Parameters for analysis 4.3 Realisations from Orpheus Britannicus 4.3.1 "Hark the E c h ' i n g A i r " 4.3.2 "Sweeter than Roses" 4.3.3 " M a d Bess" 4.3.4 " M a n is for the Woman M a d e " 4.4 Realisations from Harmonia Sacra 4.4.1 "Morning Hymn" 4.4.2 "Evening H y m n "  1 2 3 5 5 8 11 15 15 15 19 21 24 24 24 25 25 31 39 46 49 49 54  C H A P T E R 5 Conclusion  62  Bibliography  63  iv  List of Figures Figure 1. Facsimile o f 1698 London Edition of " I ' l l Sail Upon the D o g Star"  3  Figure 2. Britten's introduction for the realisation o f "I attempt from L o v e ' s sickness to f l y "  10  Figure 3. Diagram o f laryngeal positions during singing  20  V  Acknowledgements  It is with sincere appreciation that I thank several people for their help, advice, guidance, knowledge and support i n the creation o f this document: Dr. J. Evan Kreider, my research paper supervisor; Ray Nurse whose Performance Practice Seminar brought forth the initial topic; the Britten-Pears Library at Aldeburgh and Research Officer, Lucy Walker; Dr. Deanna Oye and Glen Montgomery, my collaborative pianists at the University o f Lethbridge; David Shefsiek for his tireless editorial comments and personal support; Dr. Terence Dawson for his collaborative piano partnership on three Doctoral Recitals: and Prof. Nancy Hermiston , my graduate advisor, for her help and continuing guidance throughout this project.  1  1  The Source  1.1  Henry Purcell: The Orpheus Britannicus  Henry Purcell (1659-1695) is often regarded as the last great English composer until Benjamin Britten (1913-1976). During his life, Purcell was regarded as the Orpheus Britannicus, or British Orpheus. He wrote for the voice in a variety o f different musical genres, such as incidental music for plays, sacred works, opera, music-drama entertainments, and solo song. He was particularly successful i n setting the English language to music. Indeed this strength was even acknowledged during the composer's lifetime by Henry Playford in his preface to Orpheus Britannicus I (1698): The Author's extraordinary Talent in all sorts o f Musick is sufficiently known, but he was especially admir'd for the V o c a l , having a peculiar Genius to express the energy o f English Words, whereby he m o v ' d the Passions o f all his Auditors. 1  Comparisons are often drawn between the style o f text settings by Purcell and Britten. The sweeping comment is often made that both composers set English text with a feeling for the natural inflection and communication o f the language unrivalled by any other composers before or since. Britten readily acknowledged his admiration and respect for the way Purcell set text and how it influenced his own compositional technique. In program notes for the first performances o f Peter Grimes he wrote, "One o f my chief aims is to try to restore to the musical setting of the English language a brilliance, freedom, and vitality that have been curiously rare since the death o f P u r c e l l . "  1  He was  Henry Purcell, Orpheus Britannicus: The First Book, A Facsimile of the 1698 London Edition  (New York: Broude Brothers, 1965), 122. Program notes, Peter Grimes (London: Sadlers Wells, 1945). 2  z  2 later quoted, "I had never realised, before I first met Purcell's music, that words could be set with such ingenuity, with such colour."  1.2  3  C o n t i n u o songs  W i t h the restoration o f England's monarchy i n 1660, the musical arts once again flourished. Purcell's solo songs were consequently written in the many different forms inherited and developed during England's Restoration period. The solo song forms Purcell developed and expanded are loosely grouped under the name o f continuo songs and fall into two large categories, dance songs and declamatory songs, the latter o f which Purcell developed into the extended song. According to Holman, the dance songs, typically in strophic form, are settings o f less weighty verse, in lines o f short and regular length, with easily anticipated musical accents, rhyme schemes and matching cadences. Holman reports that the declamatory song, by contrast, was used for more serious poetic ideas, cast in duple time, and often requiring a slow tempo.  4  But the vocal line mirrored the inflections o f speech and illustrated the words with appropriate images, so they are rarely tuneful, though they tend to have more melodic coherence than true recitative, Italian or English. Declamatory songs were in theory through composed . . . . 5  Both dance and declamatory song forms functioned for varied occasions, both sacred and secular, and were further subdivided under the genres o f drinking songs, glees, catches, mad songs, dialogue songs, and extended declamatory songs.  Benjamin Britten, "Talking about Music," interview by John Amis, B B C sound machines, Britten-Pears Library, The Red House, Aldeburgh, undated tape. Peter Holman, - Henry Purcell - Oxford Studies of Composers (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 24. Ibid., 26. 3  4  5  3 A s was the practice o f that time, Purcell's continuo songs are notated with just the melody, text and the figured bass line.  F i g u r e 1. F a c s i m i l e o f 1 6 9 8 L o n d o n E d i t i o n o f " I ' l l S a i l U p o n t h e D o g S t a r "  A S O N G  i n t h e 4th. A& o f the Foofs Preferment.  Source: Orpheus Britannicus  6  It was expected that the performers were well-versed in realising figured bass accompaniments in a suitable, captivating, and supportive manner. In the early part o f the 1600's, the accompaniment would have been performed on a lute, possibly by the singer. This began to change later in the century when the more robust theorbo replaced the lute, giving way in the last quarter o f the 1600's to the harpsichord. A bass viol joined the ensemble when available, but it was certainly not required.  1.3  B e n j a m i n B r i t t e n : T h e new O r p h e u s B r i t a n n i c u s  When Benjamin Britten was still studying composition at Royal College he was not particularly drawn to his immediate predecessors who were using folk song as their inspiration, but rather he was attracted to the music o f Henry Purcell. Decades later he told Murray Schafer, 6  Purcell, Orpheus Britannicus: The First Book, A Facsimile of the 1698 London Edition, 1 2 2 .  4  Purcell is a great master at handling the English language in a song, and I learned much from him. I recall a critic once asking me from whom I had learned to set English poetry to music. I told him Purcell: he was amazed. I suppose he expected me to say folk music and Vaughan Williams . . . [my] First Canticle was . . . certainly modeled on the Purcell Divine Hymns; but few people know their Purcell well enough to realise that. 7  Similarities have frequently been drawn between the music o f Britten and Purcell. In an article from Music Survey entitled "Britten 'The Eclectic', " Charles Stuart writes about the influence o f Purcell on Britten. The most fruitful and readily definable o f all Britten's "adopted" manners is Purcellian. Listening not only to Britten's outright realisations o f Purcell's vocal music but also to the chacony o f the second string quartet, . . . I sense an affinity so deep as to be almost filial. Britten uses the Purcellian idiom, applying it to new purposes, with as much assurance, flexibility and affection as i f it were a peculiarly personal inheritance . . . . I think o f the grandeur o f the V i o l i n Concerto's closing pages. Purcell could not have written this music. Nor could Britten himself have written it had his mind not been moved and fired by the Purcell tradition.  7  Christopher Headington, Britten: the composer as contemporary (London: Butler and Tanner,  1981), 75. 8  8  Charles Stuart, "Britten 'The Eclectic', " Music Survey, n.s. (1949-1952): 249-250.  5  2  The Britten-Purcell Realisations  2.1  B r i t t e n a n d P e a r s as c o l l a b o r a t i v e p e r f o r m e r s  Although today people think o f and remember Benjamin Britten as a great 2 0 -century th  composer, he was also a prominent pianist for most o f his life, which enabled him to bring himself as a composer into his role as performer. Remarking on this duality, Eric Roseberry writes, Benjamin Britten's secondary, but none the less significant and complementary, role as performer o f other men's music is well known today and justly admired . . . . H i s performances are supremely creative: the composer nourishes the performer in him, and vice versa, which provokes the reaction, as one admires an interpretive idea in the performance o f a . . . Schubert song partnered by Britten at the piano... 'how Schubertian' and yet 'how Brittenish'. 9  In addition to his compositional activities, Britten maintained an extremely busy performing career, appearing frequently in recital with his partner, the tenor, Peter Pears (1910-1986).  M u c h has been written about the lives and careers o f Britten and Pears, their personal correspondence, documents, articles and reviews o f their performances. This material w i l l therefore not be reviewed yet again in this study, except when directly related to the composition and performance o f the Britten-Purcell realisations.  The duo, concerned with mounting pre-war tensions in Europe and in search o f increased career opportunities, departed for North America in A p r i l o f 1939. When war broke out  Eric Roseberry, "Britten's Purcell Realizations and Folksong Arrangements," Tempo 57 (Spring  1961): 7.  later that year, as longtime pacifists, they remained in America until 1942. It was during this self-imposed exile that they began to work on the first o f the realisations, and where they premiered several o f them in joint recitals.  Upon their return to England in 1942, they were eager to make public amends for abandoning England during the first years o f W W I I and re-establish their careers at home. After both had been granted exemption from active duty as pacifists by the British war tribunal, they were able to resume their musical endeavors. Although both men had careers independent o f the other, Pears with his operatic and oratorio engagements and Britten as a composer, they also continued to build their collaborative projects, accepting recital engagements throughout Great Britain during the war years.  They were engaged by the Council for the Encouragement o f M u s i c and Arts ( C E M A ) , a forerunner to the Arts Council o f Great Britain, to perform recitals throughout England. These recitals proved to be a perfect platform for presenting the freshly-inked BrittenPurcell realisations. The Purcell repertoire was an ideal choice. Although many o f Purcell's works had fallen into public neglect, his name was still a treasured cornerstone o f British music. It is entirely possible that the relative neglect o f Purcell made him that much more appealing to Britten and Pears, who now brought his music before the public in a new and "contemporary" light. Britten's ongoing fascination with Purcell's daring harmonic structures and the suitability o f the songs to Pears' vocal skills only strengthened the choice. Yet another boon was that the Purcell texts were in the vernacular and thus readily enjoyable to the often less-than-musically erudite audiences  7  for whom they performed.  Although these songs were programmed for their musical  value, they also encompassed a wide range of emotions and moods and included dramatic scenarios which beautifully displayed Pears' celebrated dramatic flair and interpretive artistry.  Britten's letters include several casual references to their concert programs and repertoire. From their earliest recitals together in the 1930s they regularly programmed the songs o f Purcell, and clearly enjoyed performing this repertoire and the public reception it received. In 1945, i n a letter to Ralph Hawkes, a friend in the N e w Y o r k office o f his publisher, Boosey and Hawkes, Britten stated, "it is most wonderful music and gets extraordinary receptions everywhere. Peter and I have done it all over this country, and we're going to do some o f the big pieces in Amsterdam and Brussels next month." '  1  A s Britten's and Pears' careers took on an international scope, their arrangements o f Purcell's songs remained a standard component in their programs. Britten writes, In practically every one o f our concerts, given the length o f three continents over the last twenty years, Peter Pears and I have included a group o f Purcell's songs. Although they were not included for chauvinistic reasons, it has been nice to find that foreign audiences accept these English songs alongside those o f their own great classic song writers. 12  Britten again comments, It is pleasant to get cheers at the end o f Purcell's ' A l l e l u i a ' in the home o f Schubert and Wolf, requests for a repeat o f ' M a n is for the woman made' in the birthplace o f Mozart, appreciative giggles at the end o f 'There's not  Headington, Britten: the composer as contemporary, 119. Donald Mitchell, ed., Letters from a Life: The Selected Letters and Diaries of Benjamin Britten: 1913-1976, Volume Two, 1939-1945 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 1285-6. Benjamin Britten, "On realizing the continuo in Purcell's songs," in Henry Purcell, 1659-1695, Essays on His Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959), 7. 10  11  12  8  a swain on the Plain' in Faure's home town, and an impressive silence as the last bars o f Job's Curse' die away in Dusseldorf, where Schumann spent many years. A n d not only in foreign places too - where, to our shame, the music o f Purcell is still shockingly unknown. 13  2.2  Britten's performance considerations  Britten, a very fine pianist with a somewhat non-traditional technique, wanted to display his own virtuosity in these recitals and place his own compositional ideas before the public. Purcell's songs and Britten's realisations o f them provided a dual outlet for both his compositional and pianistic abilities. This duality was commented upon in a review from 1961.  The happy fusion o f Britten's exceptional talents as performer and composer attains complete fulfillment, perhaps, in his activity as an interpreter o f the music o f Henry Purcell - a highly sympathetic figure with whom Britten has strong creative affinities, and possibly the greatest single influence on the development o f his own vocal and operatic style.  1 4  The realisations were written for piano for two principal reasons. Britten was a pianist, and not versed i n harpsichord technique, and as these first recitals were being held during the infancy o f the early music revival, there were no harpsichords in the concert venues in which they performed. Many o f the songs they wanted to perform were unavailable in modern published versions, and Britten considered the realisations o f the continuo parts which already existed to be pedantic, harmonic filler. He claims in his essay in the volume o f his writings collected by lifelong friend Imogen Hoist on the bicentenary o f Purcell's death, "It [i.e., Purcell song repertoire] is unknown because so much o f it is  13  14  Britten, "On realizing the continuo in Purcell's songs," 7. Roseberry, "Britten's Purcell Realizations and Folksong Arrangements," 7.  9 unobtainable in print, and so much o f what is available is in realisations which are frankly dull and out o f date."  1 5  Regarding the realisation o f the figured bass Britten continues,  If the tradition o f improvisation from a figured bass were not lost, this would not be so serious, but to most people until a worked-out edition is available, these cold unfilled-in lines mean nothing, and the incredible beauty and vitality, and infinite variety o f these hundreds o f songs go undiscovered. 1 6  Although Britten never claimed to be a specialist in Baroque music, his gifts as both composer and pianist were tailor-made for creating modern realisations o f the figured bass lines o f Purcell's continuo songs and they provided him with a stimulating and creative challenge.  1 7  He coupled his talents as a composer and pianist to create dazzling,  evocative and captivating realisations for these songs, often requiring an extremely fluid technical prowess. Sometimes the realisations remain quite close to the Purcell figured bass, but are made more pianistic and brought to the public in clear and playable versions. In addressing the performance realities o f the recital format, Britten did not shy away from adding an introduction i f he felt it would prepare both singer and audience for the ensuing material.  15  16 17  18  IQ  Britten, "On realizing the continuo in Purcell's songs," 7. Ibid.. Roseberry, "Britten's Purcell Realizations and Folksong Arrangements," 7. Ibid..  10  F i g u r e 2. B r i t t e n ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n f o r t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f "I a t t e m p t f r o m L o v e ' s sickness to f l y "  With gentle movement VOICE  PIANO  |_ four burs ad libitum  Source: Five Songs from Orpheus Britannicus 19 © Copyright 1960 by Boosey & C o . Ltd. Reprinted by permission In the more serious sacred songs, extended mad songs and declamatory pieces, the realisations take on a pronounced 2 0 -century flavour, infused with his own personal th  interpretation.  He uses the full spectrum of the piano's timbres and inserts some  characteristic Britten dissonances. He later defended this practice in an article about his realisations. But just a filling i n by these harmonies above the correct notes is not enough; one dimension is still lacking, the dimension o f one's own personal reaction to the song, which i n former days would have been supplied by the improvisation. This dimension comes from the texture o f 20 the accompaniment and the way the harmonies are filled in.  B y using the full capabilities o f the piano and adding his own personal harmonic flashes, the songs become a hybrid creation by both Purcell and Britten. Humphrey Carpenter claimed that "Britten's Purcell realisations are idiosyncratic rather than historically  Henry Purcell, Five Songs from Orpheus Britannicus, ed. Benjamin Britten and Peter Pears. (London: Boosey and Hawkes, I960,), 1. Britten, "On realizing the continuo in Purcell's songs," 7. 19  2 0  11 21  accurate, and make the music seem like the work o f one man, Britten - Purcell."  Since  Britten was fully cognizant that there would be opposition from early music purists regarding his approach to realization, he explained his practical approach. If one is realising for a piano, it is important to be aware o f the difference in sound from harpsichord and string bass, for which most o f the songs would have been written. There must be compensation for the lack o f sustaining power o f the actual bass notes (repeated notes, octaves, trills, tremolandi for crescendi, etc.), as well as an awareness o f the difference between the plucked and the hammered strings. Actually the sound that Purcell expected can give one ideas - dry clear arpeggios, grace-notes, octave doublings, sudden contrasts in dynamics or range, and that wonderful short staccato. 22  He claimed that the Purcell pieces had by and large been neglected because o f creative dullness and a sense o f austere reverence towards Purcell by earlier composers, performers, and editors.  2 3  He acknowledged the inherent possibilities in realising these  songs, recognizing the recent musical contributions and similiarities in approach between Michael Tippett, Walter Bergmann and himself, and called for other contemporaries to explore new realisations.  2.3  Critical response  Critical reaction to these realisations was rather mixed at the time o f their publication. A cross section o f reviews from the time w i l l illuminate the diverse response. Commenting favourably, Eric Roseberry praised Britten's attention to editorial detail. These directions, together with an almost Mahlerian scrupulousness o f phrasing and dynamic detail, reveal the editor's passionate concern to make his intentions clear. Others may feel these songs differently, but  21  22  Humphrey Carpenter, Benjamin Britten: A Biography (London: Faber and Faber, 1992), 229. Britten, "On realizing the continuo in Purcell's songs," 7.  12  there can be no doubt about the immediacy and sharp precision o f Britten's sympathetic reaction to the original c o n c e p t i o n . 24  In a rather critical review from 1948 i n Music-Survey, Harold Truscott takes umbrage at both the creator's talent (Purcell) as well as their re-creator's success (Britten), although grudgingly acknowledges that Britten did select the "best o f the lot" and did some sound scholarship when bringing them before the public. Not content just to review Britten, he took the opportunity to comment on Purcell as well, taking exception to the long-held claim that Purcell was a master o f English text setting.  Turning to Britten's realisations  of Purcell he then ponders the hybrid nature o f the material, Is it that Britten has put a lot o f himself into them, or is it, as I am incline to think, that Britten's own style, where there is one, has been so influenced by Purcell (when Mahler w i l l make room) that when he realises perfectly these Purcellian accompaniments we are immediately confronted by bits o f Britten? However it is, there are moments when Purcell hovers dangerously near Britten or Britten near Purcell, and these moments fall doubtfully on the ear.  These realisations have often come under critical attack for their seemingly heavy-handed dramatic approach, the use o f piano and the "Brittenish" quality o f the accompanying sonorities. Peter Evans dealt with Britten's use o f Purcell's music, particularly The Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra (also known as Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Purcell) commenting, " . . . those who find uncomfortable the stylistic dichotomy o f Britten's piano-accompanied Purcell song realisations w i l l be no less discomfited by the portly orchestral guise in which Purcell's theme is presented.  2 4  2 5  27  Roseberry, "Britten's Purcell Realizations and Folksong Arrangements," 7. Harold Truscott, "Hearing Britten's Style in the Purcellian Accompaniments," Music Survey,  Volume 1, Number 4 (1948): 120. Ibid.. Peter Evans, The Music of Benjamin Britten (London: J.M. Dent and Sons Ltd, 1989), 301. 2 6  2 7  13  The matter o f early music authenticity in these realisations is again remarked on by Paul Kildea in his book, Selling  Britten.  The concept o f authenticity in early music, already emerging in England during the 1930's, became a stronger, i f slow-fused, force after 1945: Britten's approach to this complicated and contentious issue - established in his . . . realisations o f Purcell's songs - was directly opposed to the teachings o f scholars such as Dent or Thurston D a r t . . . . To Britten 'effect' was more important than so-called authenticity, yet his slightly dismissive tone i n the introduction . . . suggests that he was well aware o f the growing arguments for the latter. 2 8  It is vital to the understanding and appreciation o f these realisations that they be viewed in the light o f the time and purpose for which they were created. In 1996, Michael Oliver weighed in on this aspect o f the Britten-Purcell realisations. They are . . . a fascinating indication o f Britten's attitude to a composer who influenced h i m greatly. They [Britten's realisations] . . . have tended to fall out o f use as the attractions of'authentic' Purcell have become more manifest. But Britten's editions made this music accessible at a time when it would otherwise have remained unperformed, and they played an important part in the revaluation o f a great composer much o f whose music was then little k n o w n . 2 9  Britten often remarked that he was not composing for future generations and posterity, but rather for pleasing the people at that moment and to enhance their lives. The way he was able to link the past with contemporary compositional trends and still communicate to a large and relatively popular audience was remarkable.  2 8  In his Aspen A w a r d  Paul Kildea, Selling Britten; Music and the Market Place (Oxford: Oxford University Press,  2002), 92. 2 9  3 0  Michael Oliver, Benjamin Britten (London: Phaidon Press Limited, 1996), 1 4 3 . Headington, Britten: the composer as contemporary, 75.  14  acceptance speech he said, "That is what we should aim at - pleasing people today as seriously as we can, and letting the future look after itself."  3 1  Financial and commercial considerations were also not left out of the debate, and radio programmers commented on the relative merits of these realisations, as seen in BBC's interdepartmental correspondence in Britten's "composer file." Purcell's realisations in Britten's hands have become matters of argument and contention in the musical world and are in some quarters actively disliked. If the enjoyment of Purcell's music, in say, the Golden Sonata or the Queen's Epicedium is the reason for broadcasting it, the older realisations are better. If an examination of the principles governing thorough-bass and its realisation are intended, Britten's editions will provoke discussion. Therefore, generally, I think we would suggest the more normal realisations on Home and Light, and Britten's realisations on Third (i.e., so-called elitist programs of the B B C ) . 3 2  Despite these contradicting criticisms and arguments regarding the Britten-Purcell realisations, the fact remains that these idiosyncratic creations have withstood the test of time. They remain a fixture in recital programs by the novelty of the juxtaposition of such seemingly divergent musical periods. Today, they serve as reminders of the dynamic musical experimentation of Britten's time, and a musical record of this particular mid 20 -century approach to early music revival. th  31  i n  Oliver, Benjamin Britten, 213. Kildea, Selling Britten; Music and the Market Place, 93.  3  Vocal Performance of the Britten-Purcell Realisations  3.1  Overview  Having looked at the roles o f both Purcell and Britten in the creation o f these pieces, it is time to address the final factor in these "modern" realisations, the singer for whom they were realised, tenor Peter Pears. Pears' vocal technique encompassed both contemporary and earlier traditions, and his technical versatility is a defining element o f the realisations. In a 1946 review o f a Britten-Pears performance o f Purcell's "Lord, What is Man? " critic W i l l i a m McNaught wrote that it communicated "an intricate and unified whole, compounded o f Purcell's mind, his fellow-composer's, and the mind and gifts o f the singer."  3.2  3 3  The 17  t h  -century voice  The voice o f the contemporary tenor, or perhaps more appropriately stated, the way in which the contemporary professionally trained operatic tenor approaches and uses his voice, is considerably different than that of singers in Purcell's time. It would seem that the voices for which Purcell wrote were generally much lighter and more naturally produced than those o f today's professional solo singers.  These voices were neither  untrained nor amateur, but simply were not called upon to create vast volumes of sound. Solo song, as previously noted, was accompanied by the lute, theorbo, or harpsichord. Relative to the full texture and robust sonority and volume o f today's concert grand piano or the volume o f sound produced by an orchestra, these instruments are quite subdued  William McNaught, "London Concerts: Purcell-Britten," Musical Times, V o l . 87, No. 1236 (1946): 60.  16  and more intimate. Likewise, the solo singers of Purcell's time were not called upon to fill large public concert halls seating audiences o f 3,000 people as are today's professional singers. For example, one need only compare the orchestral forces accompanying a soloist in Purcell's opera Dido and Aeneas with those in an opera by Richard Strauss to understand the different demands placed on singers' techniques in these two historical eras. This raises the question whether one singer can perform both styles o f repertoire with equal success.  The type o f voices for which Purcell composed his solo song were sweet, relatively small and pure, with clear diction; abundant volume was not desirable attribute.  34  In 1636  Charles Butler wrote that vocalists should "sing as plainly as they would speak: pronouncing every syllable and letter (especially the vowels) distinctly and treatably."  Another observation attributed to Andreas Ornithoparchus (1609) and translated by John Dowland cautions the singer to "take heed, lest he began too loud braying like an Asse.. .For G o d is not pleased with loud cryes, but with lovely sounds."  It is not that  innately loud voices did not exist; o f course they did, but they just were not highly cultivated and were not the ideal aesthetic most commonly desired or appreciated by those audiences. This was confirmed in 1667 by Samuel Pepys when reporting on an amateur who sang in the Chapel Royal "very handsomely, but so loud that people did  3 4  3 5  Holman, Henry Purcell, 31. E. H . Jones, The Performance of English Song, 1610-1670 (New York and London, Garland  Publishing Inc., 1989), 19. R. Spencer, "The Performance Style of the English Lute Ayre c. 1600," The Lute Society Journal, Volume X X I V , (1984): 58. 3 6  17  laugh at him - as a thing done for ostentation".  37  Another quotation from 1685 noted  that a female singer's voice was "so loud, as tooke away much o f the sweetenesse . . . certainly never woman had a stronger, or better [voice] could she possibly have govern'd it; She would do rarely in a large Church among the Nunns."  3 8  In addition to sheer bulk o f sound, vibrato is also a technical vocal feature that differs between the contemporary and earlier eras. Vibrato was not taboo, but was used as a vocal and musical enhancement as opposed to a vocal constant, as now is the case. On the subject o f the acceptable use and type o f vibrato preferred in the 17 -century, Roger th  North claims it to be likened to a gentle and slow wavering, not into a trill, upon the swelling the note; such as trumpets use, as i f the instrument were a little shaken with the wind o f its owne sound, but not so far as to vary the tone [i.e., pitch], which must be religiously held to its place, like a pillar on its base, without the least loss o f a c c o r d . 39  Greater emphasis was also placed on the proper and clean execution o f coloratura and the graces (i.e., ornaments) and above all on the clean articulation and intelligibility of text.  Since the Britten realisations were, for the most part, written for the tenor voice, specifically that o f Peter Pears, only this vocal type and range w i l l be examined. Purcell, in all likelihood wrote for what would, i f heard today, be labeled a natural tenor voice. This male voice naturally sits higher in pitch than does the male norm, the baritone, both in speech as well as song, and has an ease and natural facility particularly in the upper Samuel Pepys, Letters and the Second Diary of Samuel Pepys, ed. R. G . Howarth (London, J. M . Dent, 1932), 425. Holman, Henry Purcell, 32. 3 7  3 8  18 part o f the vocal range.  To modern ears, the most likely equivalent is a very fine tenor  chorister. The natural range o f the tenor voice, without mixing or blending into falsetto, and without advanced training and technical manipulation to take the full voice (voce plena) unnaturally higher, stops at approximately A . When looking at Purcell's songs 4  and assuming that Baroque pitch was nearly a semitone lower than today's A ( A = 440), 4  the usual range o f most o f the songs for tenor lies comfortably within this natural tenor range. There are certainly songs for male voice which go somewhat higher ( B b , B tq ), 4  4  but in all likelihood, a clever blending o f full voice, to head voice, and then into falsetto was employed to create a seamless range, possibly more like that o f a countertenor. Most countertenor parts, however, are similar to French haute-contre parts . . . they do not go higher than A - B b , and can easily be sung by light, high tenors, particularly since evidence from woodwind instruments suggests that the secular pitch in England around 1700 was around A =406. Some countertenors probably blended high tenor and falsetto voices; indeed, it is hard to imagine how else the parts in B l o w ' s Ode on the Death of Mr. Henry Purcell, with the range D - D , could have been 4  4  4  5  sung.  41  Jeremy Noble further supports this use o f lighter tenor voices: A s for the counter-tenors it looks as though they - or at any rate the majority o f those in the Chapel Royal - were more like high light tenors than purely falsetto voices, for Purcell rarely makes them go higher than Bb or B , while his tenors have an equal range about a major third l o w e r .  42  The solo tenor voice o f Purcell's time was responsible for creating a distinctly different sound than today's professional non-specialist (i.e., not specifically early music) tenor  Richard Miller, Training Tenor Voices (Belmont, C A : Schirmer Books, 1993), ix. Holman, Henry Purcell, 35. Jeremy Noble, "Purcell and the Royal Chapel in, Henry Purcell 1659-1695 Essays on His Music (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959), 63. 4 1  4 2  19 must create. To continue this discourse, we w i l l now consider a few o f the physiological changes in vocal technique which occurred in the first quarter o f the 19 -century. th  3.3  Change in vocal technique  Almost all instruments started to increase in size, volume, and strength early in the 19 -century in order to cope with the increasing demands being placed on them. The th  human voice was no exception, and needed to keep pace. Entire treatises, such as Richard M i l l e r ' s Training Tenor Voices, have been devoted to the study o f vocal technique, but the scope o f this document allows us only a brief overview. When the natural male voice ascends in pitch, the larynx rises. Ultimately the vocal apparatus reaches a point o f unbearable tension and the man's voice cracks and switches into falsetto. In the hands o f skilled performers at a soft dynamic with very little pressure on the apparatus, the shift can be almost undetectable, and was apparently practiced by 17  th  century countertenors, but when increased amplitude is required and used, the change in register (passaggio) or break is clearly heard. Over time, a physical maneuver was perfected in order to maintain this full, robust sound, capable o f filling an opera house, and to take the voice to extremes o f pitch, well out o f the natural tenor range. When approaching the passaggio, the larynx is gently and consciously shifted downward, which creates the need for other subtle modifications to the apparatus, and pressure is increased on the instrument and the air column becomes more compressed. This is currently the accepted vocal technique for the tenor voice. One excellent and somewhat simplified description o f this process is found in Potter's Vocal Authority: We know from Garcia's treatise in 1841 that the lowered larynx position (the voix sombree) was a novelty in the 1830's and was not known earlier,  20 and this enables us to make certain assumptions about a pre-Garcia voice. It is reasonable to assume that earlier singers sang with the larynx closer to the higher position used in speaking. This enabled them to distinguish clearly between the vowels and made their voices light and agile: exactly the kind o f voice one would need for the intimate performance o f chamber music or the more florid ornamentation o f the late Renaissance, baroque and classical p e r i o d s . 43  The following illustration from Manuel Garcia's treatise shows the rudimentary physical modifications which occur inside the throat and mouth between the so-called natural production, voix blanche (timbre clair), and the more enhanced production voix sombree (timbre sombre).  Figure 3. D i a g r a m o f laryngeal positions during singing  Vc« Ileal s e c t i o n f r o m the f r o n t to the back of t h e h e a d , s h o w i n g d e p r e s s i o n o f the soft palate a n d a h i g h p o s i t i o n of the l a r y n x .  D i a g r a m of the s a m e p a n s , s h o w i n g the soft pitliiU: raised a n d the l a r y n x d e p r e s s e d .  Source: Manuel Garcia, Hints on Singing  44  With this increased volume, clarity o f diction is lost, because o f a conscious lowering o f the jaw, and for many men their facility with agility is also compromised. Although the glottal articulation o f running rapid passages is now considered somewhat taboo by vocal John Potter, Vocal Authority: singing style and ideology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 53. Manuel Garcia, Hints on Singing (London: E. Ascherberg and Company, 1894), 11. 4 3  4 4  21 pedagogues, in the 17 -century, glottal articulation o f runs was fully expected. A s th  Julianne Baird comments, . . . singers negotiated fast passages with a lightening quick kind o f glottal articulation, which was performed on the soft palate. The air percussed against the soft palate the way it does in a giggle . . . , it gave the voice the ability to move quickly or with agility. 4 5  3.4  T h e voice of Peter Pears  Peter Pears had the ideal type o f voice and vocal technique to perform these hybrid realisations which encompass two very different vocal performance styles. H i s versatile and unique technique can be attributed to two major influences. In his early career he worked as a professional chorister (i.e., the natural tenor voice) in London with the B B C Singers and sang in a vocal sextet called the N e w English Singers, specializing in Elizabethan madrigals and other early music i n addition to some small solo oratorio engagements. Committed to forging a successful solo career, he undertook rigorous technical study during his years in America (1939-1942). B y the time he returned to England, the technical progress was remarkable. Music that had previously been beyond his technical control was now within his ability to perform publicly. One o f Britten's first compositions for Pears' voice, the taxing Michelangelo Sonnets, was favourably reviewed in the New Statesman and Nation by Edward Sackville-West who said o f Pears, "it is long since we heard an English tenor with a voice at once so strong, so pure and so sweet".  46  A s this quotation illustrates, Pears did indeed develop a sturdy technique,  secured his upper range and added weight to his sound. H i s voice gradually developed into a full-blown operatic tenor voice capable o f handling the rigorous vocal demands.  Bernard Sherman, Inside Early Music: Conversations with Performers (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977), 231. Oliver, Benjamin Britten, 84. 4 5  4 6  22 His subsequent solo engagements bear testament to this and he was regularly engaged to sing a diverse array o f repertoire encompassing the leggiero as well as the full lyric roles including Tamino (Die Zauberflote), Almaviva (7/ Barbiere di Siviglia), Hoffmann (Les Contes d'Hoffmann),  Alfredo (La Traviata), Duke (Rigoletto), Ferrando (Cosifan tutte),  Vasek (The Bartered Bride), Rodolfo (La Boheme) and subsequently the title role in Peter Grimes.  This versatility allowed h i m to combine both pre- and post- c. 1830 vocal techniques, whether consciously or not; he made use o f the full sound as well as the less-produced, more natural sound. The duality o f technical approaches is characteristic o f his vocal style clearly heard in all o f his many recordings throughout a very long and successful career. He was willing to bend and modify his voice technically as the musical and emotional demands o f the repertoire required. H i s attention to clear delineation o f text is exemplary, both in studio and live recordings. Pears' fluency and virtuosity i n rapid passage work, showcased in much o f the early music Britten wrote for h i m , is astonishing for a voice o f this size. These vocal traits made the music o f Purcell as realised by Britten, demanding a fuller yet malleable sound, an ideal vehicle to showcase Pears' prowess as a singing artist.  When listening to live recordings o f Britten and Pears performing these Purcell realisations, one is struck with the remarkable ease with which Pears negotiates his voice. A t times, he swells to full operatic intensity so as not to be overpowered by the weighty realisation accompaniments supporting him, while at other moments, he sweetly and  23  effortlessly floats a high tessitura. He can execute coloratura passages in full voice with all notes cleanly delineated, and at the same time, communicate the text with impeccable diction. In addition to the qualities mentioned, detailed knowledge o f the vast collection of works Britten tailored for the Pears voice suggests other unique vocal traits. H i s ability to maintain a high tessitura for extended periods ( D - G ) , an exploitation o f the 4  4  pitch E (intoned and sung repeatedly), his characteristic mezza voce and ability to sing at 4  ppp levels, as well as a robust baritonal quality in his lower range ( C - G ) were all well 3  3  suited to the vocal lines o f Purcell in the songs they selected to perform. Judging from audience response as well as reviews o f his performances, he also brought incredible emotional commitment, charisma, and dramatic flair to his performances.  The strength o f the Britten-Pears artistic partnership was great, and Pears recognized and appreciated Britten's sensitivity to his vocal abilities. Pears said, " B e n was extraordinarily sensitive as a pianist, both to what I wanted to do with a song and in what he wanted to achieve. He could make lighter sounds than anyone else I can recall...."  4 7  It is unlikely that these realisations would have been created had it not been for the adaptability and appropriateness o f the voice o f Peter Pears to this particular repertoire. His influence on Britten and these realisations cannot be marginalized. In an essay, Pears acknowledges this symbiotic relationship. "He made my career by all the wonderful works he wrote for me. O n the other hand, he said he would not have achieved anything without me."  4 7 4 8  4 8  Alan Blyth, Remembering Britten (London: Hutchinson, 1981), 18. Alan Blyth, Remembering Britten, 18.  24  4.  Song Analyses  4.1  Overview  The first book o f these songs was published in 1947 by Boosey and Hawkes, and several volumes o f solos as well as duets and chamber pieces continued to appear until 1971, containing material from both Orpheus Britannicus and Harmonia Sacra. Many o f these works are subsequently being re-released in new folios, also by Boosey and Hawkes.  Britten and Pears remained lifelong devotees and proponents o f the music o f Purcell. Their combined private library maintained at their home in Aldeburgh contains many volumes o f Purcell's music, several with their personal annotations. It is unclear at this point which specific editions and volumes they consulted and used as their primary source for the continuo songs they later realised for performance, so this remains a fascinating and useful topic for further research.  4.2  4 9  Parameters for analysis  A study o f Britten's arrangements o f six o f Purcell's songs w i l l help us understand Britten's modernizations o f these 17 -century compositions for audiences o f the th  20 -century. Information about the first performances o f the Britten-Purcell realisations, th  the original interpreters and first publication dates w i l l be provided for each song. The  4 9  Research Officer - Thematic Catalogue project to the author, email, June 23, 2006. Lucy  Walker believed that there was no definitive source edition upon which Britten and Pears based their realisations and suggests that tracing the authentic "sources would comprise a considerable Phd. -sized project".  25 piano part w i l l be examined to determine whether Britten changed Purcell's harmonic structure, or altered the bass line in an attempt to enhance Purcell's setting o f the text. We w i l l also examine the ways Britten interpreted Purcell's figures and reconfigured them for use at a modern concert piano. Countermelody constructions and editorial additions in the piano part w i l l also be noted.  The pitch and rhythm o f Purcell's vocal lines in all o f these vocal compositions are essentially unaltered, although in a few instances the key o f the song has been transposed. Pears is credited as the editor o f the vocal line and his additions and their effect w i l l be noted. Finally, the unique qualities o f Pears' voice and dramatic capabilities which are showcased and exploited by this material w i l l also be examined, and a number o f suggestions w i l l be provided for 21 -century professional tenors interested i n attempting st  to amalgamate pre- and post- 1830s vocal techniques in this music.  Orpheus Britannicus  4.3  Realisations f r o m  4.3.1  " H a r k the E c h ' i n g A i r "  This song was the first o f the Britten-Purcell realisations to be performed publicly. During their time in America, Britten and Pears began work on several o f the Purcell songs. This song was first performed by the duo on November 9, 1939 at Hotel Henry Perkins, Rivershead, N Y . That same evening another Purcell realisation, "The Knotting Song," was also premiered. Purcell's version was published i n Book II o f Orpheus Britannicus by Playford, under the title " A Single Song" (pp. 18-19) in C major, but  26 Britten and Pears lowered the key to Bb major, presumably in order to accommodate the tenor's negotiation o f the passaggio.  Although Purcell's original bass line is relatively unchanged, Britten has occasionally added lower octave doublings to increase the sonority and richness (e.g., mm. 1-2 and the added B b in m. 6). In m m . 6-9 Britten changed the bass line from the sustained three 1  measure low Bb to alternating rolled tonic chords and single lower octave tonic pitches every two beats to give motion and added buoyancy to support the broken arpeggiated figure in the vocal line. Sonority is further increased in this passage by the additional use of the editorial Ped. symbol. Britten also specified that the dynamic levels should be increased (e.g., mm. 13-14) by adding editorial cresc. and hairpin markings, and he later added upper octave bass line doublings to thicken the texture leading into the first and second endings. Britten altered Purcell's bass line on the fourth beat o f the penultimate measure o f the song, replacing Purcell's F - F with the octaves below ( F ' - F ) in order to 2  3  2  enhance the thrust into the final cadence. This lower sonority is also the lowest note in the piece, adding increased cadential interest and strength, and supporting the singer's intensification o f the cadence. The use o f the added lower octave by Britten is continued into the first ending (m. 31) and added to the rolled chord for the final measure o f the song.  Possibly because o f the added octave, Britten chooses to leave out the 3 o f the chord in r d  the left hand o f the final bar for a cleaner texture. This same open chord texture (rootfifth-octave) is used by Britten earlier in the song with the ornament found in mm. 16-19  27 and 23-25 as w e l l as m. 31. Each time this figure/ornament appears it is accompanied by Britten's editorial Ped. indication and followed by editorial staccato markings. Despite the open chord ornament, the removal o f the piano dampers gives a richer sonority at these points, creating a mixture o f textures. These staccato indications contrast particularly well with the vocal line which is marked legato. Perhaps the intention was more in keeping with Pears' editorial markings (m. 17), giving buoyancy and helping the singer glide through these figures gracefully. Other editorial indications added by Britten for the bass line are the tenuto accents in m.20, indicating that the singer's natural inclination to accelerate to the cadence should be resisted.  The true genius o f invention i n Britten's Purcell realisations is found prominently in the construction o f the right hand o f the piano part, bearing in mind that the songs in Playford's Orpheus Britannicus  consist o f only the bass with occasional figures, and the  vocal melody line and text.  The triumphant tone o f the song is established in the first measure with the pseudo trumpet fanfare w h i c h then disperses into a preview o f the opening roulade which the singer subsequently mimics (m. 2). This flourish paints both the "air" and subsequently the "ech'ing air" i n the text. Whenever basic chordal accompaniment is used to support the voice, Britten maintains the two-part trumpet duo type o f writing, as in mm. 3-4, 5, 10-11 and 12-13. Britten is careful to limit his rapid 16 note passage work for the right th  hand to moments when the voice is not moving in 16 note patterns, thereby both th  28 maintaining clarity and creating constant motion and dialogue between the voice and piano.  Britten creates increased excitement and contrast for the vocal line by providing complimentary, yet contrasting figures in the right hand o f the piano. For example, in the sequence (mm. 6-9) Britten uses full octave descending 16 note runs which alternate th  with the upwardly rising and exciting arpeggiation figures in the voice on the word "triumph". Underlying excitement is kept alive by repeating the 16 note F (mm. 12-13) th  4  while there is a stasis in the vocal line. The ascending octave-and-a-half run in the first ending o f the first section (m. 15) also increases the energy and leads to a renewed and energetic repetition o f the opening material. Although the first half o f the song is nearly void o f any o f Britten's adventurous 2 0 century harmonic colourings, he does include th  one o f his characteristic semitone clashes, the E4, leading tone o f the dominant, which slightly anticipates and thrusts toward the dominant before Purcell perhaps would have done, had he been realising this song. The Et] was also briefly introduced on the first beat o f m. 11, where there is a noisy clash between E , F , G , A and B b .  In the right hand, Britten also doubles the broken chordal ornament which was examined earlier in the bass line in mm. 16-19, 24-25, and then after establishing this ornament, lets it speak on its own in the right hand in mm. 28-29 before returning to the right and left hand coupling for the first ending (mm. 31). Britten also adds another grace ornament, the acciaccatura, to give fresh colour to the word "clap" (mm. 21, 27-28). To bring this word out even more, Britten also adds editorial accent indications ( ' ) on the  29 chords which the acciaccatura decorates, perhaps to give the illusion o f the cupids flapping their wings.  The vocal melody is mimicked with a right hand melodic echo o f the dotted eighth rhythm (mm. 18-19) but not before cleverly giving the illusion o f presenting it first for the singer's use (mm. 16-17). This lilting melodic figure is used throughout this second section o f the song as a unifying graceful motivic device (mm. 21-26 and 28-30).  Britten is specific in his choice and indication o f legato slurs, staccato markings, and other accents or non-accented notes. A l l o f these minute markings support, echo or foreshadow the text. When these markings are observed, much o f the singer's interpretive work is done for him, or at least supported by the pianist's efforts.  Pears' editorial indications give one a wonderful idea o f how he would have approached this song in performance. He starts by marking the opening/orte, which to a 20 -century th  singer indicates that an increased amount o f vocal muscle mass should be employed; however, he marks the coloratura passage in the second measure (clear). Therefore a balance must be achieved by the singer between the more robust forte sound, and rapid articulation o f the melismas which are a dominant feature o f this song. In addition, the tempo indication placed by Pears at the beginning o f the song is Quick and brilliant, again reinforcing the singer's need to temper quantity o f sound with rapid execution of coloratura. The alternating 16 note pitch patterns in the first melisma (mm. 2-3) require th  the singer to add a slight glottal articulation to maintain the brilliance, rapidity and  30  clearness o f the passage, especially at the forte dynamic level. The repetition o f the opening half o f the song is marked repeat p, indicating that Pears was equally adept at the execution o f coloratura passages in a range o f dynamics.  The choice o f key, B b major, lowered from Purcell's original o f C major, reduces the amount o f laryngeal modification (or cover) that the tenor is forced to employ, as the majority o f the scale passages only ascend to F , a pitch which is not necessary to cover, 4  and thus further enables the singer to maintain the suggested tempo. Another passage requiring this Baroque approach to articulation is found in m. 12, where he writes marked above the oscillating 16  th  figures.  Pears shows his sensitivity to future singers using these realisations by including some of his breath markings, such as the one indicated in m. 11, which would have given him a brief moment o f laryngeal relaxation after the ascending and descending passage (mm. 711). Note also the dynamic indication softer, placed above m. 7, suggesting that the singer not over-pressurize the lower part o f his range, despite the desire to mimic a trumpet in this section. Pears indicates a return to full volume only as the singer finishes this flourish (m. 9) and is required to cover on the turn between F and G . Many singers 4  4  w i l l discover that this delay in adding weight helps them make a smoother technical transition.  The editorial indication for the second half o f the song, p gracefully, asks the singer to adjust the mood and vocal colour at this juncture in order to portray the cupids' little  31 wings clapping. He also places legato slurs over the dotted eighth followed by two eighths pattern previously noted in the piano part. The legato marking would also lead the singer to avoid detaching, re-attacking or aspirating the 16 note in the pattern. th  The  dynamic marking of p and the tessitura in which this section o f the song sits require the singer to use much more head voice than is perhaps required in the opening o f the song. This abundant head voice mix in the E - F range was one o f the characteristic features o f 4  4  Pears' voice, and this section o f the song surely effectively displayed this quality. Note the slur indications over the melismas in mm. 21-22, 25-26 and 29-30. This contrast from the opening half o f the song would suggest that these melismas are to be sung without the use o f glottal strokes, showing instead the use o f a hybrid and flexible vocal technique within the same composition. The second half o f the song should therefore be in marked contrast to the declamatory and brilliant trumpet calls in the first half.  The final measures o f the song have an increase in dynamic marking to / f o r the final •a  sustained B b . N o decay is indicated for the singer, so as the piano's volume decays, the voice w i l l remain firm and strong for a decisive final punctuation o f sound, and with the reduced piano presence the final consonants o f "wings" w i l l also be clearly audible when the singer concludes in triumph.  4.3.2. "Sweeter than Roses" This song, found in Book I o f Playford's Orpheus Britannicus (pp. 60-61) was premiered by Britten and Pears at London's National Gallery on November 23, 1945, grouped with the new realisation o f Purcell's " I f Music be the Food o f L o v e " ( 1 version). "Sweeter st  32  than Roses" was premiered by broadcast two years later on B B C ' s Light Programme, again performed by Britten and Pears. Britten retained Purcell's original key o f Bb major but changed the time signature from common time to cut time.  Britten fully exploited the lower range of the modern 20 -century piano, which o f course th  Purcell did not have at his disposal, and the effect is one o f underlying sonorous warmth which enhances the passionate text o f this song. Britten drops Purcell's bass line an octave, beginning in m. 2 (Bt|), and extends this rich sonority for the next textual phrase ("or cool evening breeze", mm. 4-5), and again in mm. 9-12. Consistent with his other Purcell realisations, in the bass line Britten only alters register, and occasionally duration and rhythm (mm. 14-16), yet rarely the functional bass pitches. Purcell's original version sustained the G (mm. 14-16). Britten changes the formerly sustained note to an eighthnote followed by rests (first half o f m.14) which is then re-articulated every two beats until m. 16 when two quarter-note low G ' s are sounded. This rhythmic device, while not altering the melodic structure o f the bass line, adds increased interest to the text's main idea, the "dear kiss." He further underscores the text by doubling Purcell's bass line at mm. 16-17, which by virtue o f the richer sonority o f the lower notes o f the piano has the effect of intensifying the text. He then keeps the lower octave voicing for Purcell's "trembling" effect (m. 18). A n effective device is created to enhance the word "freeze" (mm. 20-22) by adding acciaccatura ornaments before the widely spaced (registrally) fp chords, and Britten again doubles the bass line.  33 Leading into the second section o f the song, Britten prepares the listener for the approaching pseudo-fanfare with a reinforced bass line sf low C (m. 27), and then 1  proceeds to continue the doubling through mm. 32, which is then repeated with the next appearance o f the ritornello (mm. 39-44). A rare instance o f an actual pitch alteration, and thus harmonic alteration, is seen in m. 46 where Britten changes the bass line's rhythm from Purcell's quarter followed by half, to a half followed by quarter note, which momentarily alters the harmonic structure from the second beat being based on D major to an A minor ( 1 inversion) structure. Britten brings the song to a resounding st  conclusion with the doubling o f octaves (mm. 64-69) and an acciaccatura doubled C and 1  C , plunging to the lowest reaches o f the 20 -century concert grand, reinforcing the 2  th  primary textual emphasis on the subject, the final word "me."  Britten's editorial markings, as in "Hark the E c h ' i n g A i r " , support his innovative chordal realisation and counter-melody construction. Gently undulating arpeggiated triplet 16  th  note chords create a feeling o f compound time in the piano part and characterize the opening 15 measures o f the song, generally mirroring the dynamic indications in the vocal line. While these compound meter chords support the voice harmonically, they also increase the underlying intensity o f the text by their juxtaposition with the duple time 16 notes in the vocal line, and this element creates a feeling o f free recitative or th  Recitativo andante. The rhythmic tension between the voice and piano is a predominant feature in several o f Britten's original piano-voice compositions as well.  34  The interplay between voice and piano is intricate, with neither being the primary focus in the song. For example, in m. 12 the voice introduces a descending melodic figure on the words "on a warm," which the piano then imitates in canon. The piano propels the voice forward in m.14 with a counter-melody, a descending scale passage. The scale (^increases in dynamic intensity (cresc.) and supports the singer into the first important ^emotional and vocal climax o f the piece (mm. 15-16). This moment culminates in a new piano figure, the rolled and accented chords (m. 16) which stress the importance o f the word "kiss." Then Britten again introduces a new figure in the right hand o f the piano, a parallel open 6 or faux-bourdon figure (mm. 16-17), which the voice echoes in canon. th  The contrast between the vocal line's moving figure and the piano's stasis o f motion creates a riveting aural effect on the word "freeze" (mm. 20-21). A l s o note how wide a spacing Britten uses on these chords, creating a frozen void between inner and outer voices. These musical devices are very much in keeping with the Baroque fascination with text painting, and Britten shows himself to be a master o f this craft throughout this song.  A s the voice first comes to rest ("freezes" m. 22), the piano once again creates the impetus to move into the next section o f text, "then shot like fire," with the sharply accented (marcato) bass line and driving chordal 16 note right hand attacks, creating th  the requisite "shot" effect, soon articulated in the voice part (m. 23). This section, marked sempre forte in the voice part, drives directly onward to the second part o f the song.  35 Britten adds the tempo indication of Allegro brillante (m. 28) to the second part o f the song. In the opening and second ritornello (mm. 28-32 and 39-44), Britten recalls a trumpet fanfare with the martial dotted eighth followed by 16 rhythmic figure, evoking th  the triumph o f love, and highlights it with a rather strident pedal point G in the upper 5  voice o f the right hand chords. Britten includes the pitch G in nearly every measure o f the opening 22 bars o f this section, creating tension between the tonic and dominant key centres. Further adding to the brilliant opening o f the second half is the dynamic indication/marcatissimo, yet his sensitivity to the accompanying aspect o f the piano part is shown in his editorial markings, such as the drop in dynamics f r o m / t o p when the voice enters (mm. 32 and 44) and his marking molto sostenuto senza Pedale (m. 32) while the voice is doing coloratura work above it (mm. 33-38).  In m. 51 a contrasting  motive is introduced, and Britten highlights this with a drop in dynamics (mf), a six bar legato slur line (mm.51-57), adds the pedal (con Ped.), and marks the entire section legatissimo.  This contrast in editorial markings reflects the text as the singer shifts from  a rather martial phrase ("victorious") to a more gentle text ("dear kiss").  There is a brief return to the opening section's emphasis on the word "kiss," which Britten colours with a counter-melody having the same rhythm as the voice (mm. 57-58) before heading into a nine measure coda stressing the word " a l l . " Britten adds a right hand counter-melody to create a total o f three intertwining melodic lines: voice, right hand, and left hand (mm. 60-end). Each o f the lines continues to grow through the use o f dynamics and accents (vocal line), lower octave doublings in the left hand, and upper octave doublings, more fully voiced chords and a string o f parallel fifths (starting in mm.  36 65) in the right hand, until the climax o f the song is reached on the final word ("me"), a masterstroke by the poet, subsequently expounded upon by Purcell and grandly treated by Britten and interpreted by Pears.  "Sweeter than Roses" is an excellent song to highlight and illustrate the previously discussed two-fold vocal approach best suited to contemporary tenor performances o f this Baroque-based repertoire in mid-20 -century conditions and performance expectations, th  at which Pears was so adept. The opening bar, starting on E b (pp) and turning over the 4  passaggio note o f F while making a crescendo and decrescendo, requires considerable 4  control o f the laryngeal function. The first three beats (vocal line) can be performed by a light tenor without any modification o f laryngeal position, but vocal depth, warmth and colour w i l l be sacrificed. To achieve maximum colour and richness for this musical and emotional textual effect, the Eb should be started in a lighter mechanism (head voice), and then in order to achieve the crescendo, increased breath energy and compression must be added to the tone, while gently lowering the laryngeal carriage. A s soon as this is accomplished, the process needs to be reversed in order to make the diminuendo and descend the scale into a full chest m i x on the G . Since this type o f melodic passage was a specialty o f Pears, Britten exploited his particular ability in this register to great effect in several o f the original compositions he created for Pears.  Pears was also a master o f vocal colour and shading, both o f which lend themselves wonderfully to this repertoire. O n the word "cool" (m. 3, beats one and two), a Baroqueinspired straight tone effect could be effectively employed, and then after the indicated  37 breath (m. 3), during which time the larynx is released from the momentary laryngeal constriction caused by such a straight tone effect, the ensuing phrase can be sung with a fully released sound by contemporary standards, thereby juxtaposing both sounds and styles in an appropriate and artistic manner.  The indicated breath i n m. 10, as marked by Pears, gives the tenor a momentary release to prepare for the next ascent into voce plena in testa (full voice in head), on the F (m. 11) 4  on the [i] vowel o f "ev'ning." The crescendo (m. 10) also indicates a need for increased support and intensity at this point o f the phrase.  A slight coup de glotte (stroke o f the glottis), or detached (aspirated) articulation is needed to clarify the rapid 3 2  n d  notes on "dear" (mm. 14-16). This was an accepted  feature in baroque singing and although often eliminated in contemporary professional singing, its technical application is perfectly suitable and justified at this point in the song. The first forte ascent into the upper voice is seen in m. 15 ("dear"). To give voice to this phrase in a larger hall when accompanied by a concert grand, the tenor must use full-voice above the staff to achieve the desired effect. Thus, the jaw must be slightly slackened, the laryngeal space increased and the vowel modified, to create the breadth o f sound contemporary audiences expect o f a professional tenor voice.  Full-voiced singing must also be employed starting at m. 23 to avoid being covered by the thrusting accented chords o f the piano. Full voice must subsequently be taken all the way up to the top At? (adjusted for the standard octave transposition for tenor range) and 4  38 continuing through the crescendo on G (m. 26). These bursts o f wonderful full-voiced 4  singing were also a key feature o f Pears' vocalism. Although he did not sustain this aggressive vocalism for extended periods, he was capable o f producing considerable quantities o f sound for short periods o f time. Britten understood his collaborator's voice so well that, in his own original vocal compositions, he invariably gave Pears moments o f dynamic repose after these large vocal outbursts. Such a moment o f repose is offered by Purcell to the singer in mm. 28-31, and further highlights the innate suitability o f this repertoire to the technical capabilities o f Pears' instrument.  The coloratura passage extending from mm. 33-38 was also tailor-made to exploit Pears' abilities. He was capable o f remarkably clean coloratura and could negotiate difficult passages with seeming ease throughout his range. This particular run is potentially difficult for modern tenors because they must repeatedly traverse the upper passaggio, while maintaining clarity and accuracy. Note the swells (cresc, decres.) indicated over the pinnacle o f each o f the first ascending three measures o f this run. Pears was obviously aware o f the need for increased support and intensity as the voice ascended, and yet realized it would not be wise to push too hard after each crest was attained. The accents on the descending part o f the run (mm. 36-38) show how Pears would have given strength o f voice to the principal note, and then lightly eased off the pressure on the more rapid 16 notes to keep the voice from getting over-weighted while maintaining buoyancy throughout this passage. Additionally, a glottal stroke or aspirate must be employed to make the repeated pitches sound ( F , E , D , in mm. 36-37). The entire 4  4  4  phrase requires breath control as well, for it is stretched over eight measures, without a  39 breath indicated by Pears. This again points to the masterly control o f his unique and colourful instrument.  There is a momentary respite from full-voiced singing (mm. 51-60) before the slow build-up to the forte ending, with loud piano accompaniment. The vocal line has contrasting broad sweeping legato markings and accents (mm. 64, 66, 67) as well as markings o f cresc. (m. 61) and then a reminder o f sempre cresc. (m. 66). This ending obviously calls for great strength o f voice and full-voiced singing in order not to be overwhelmed by the accompanying piano, and to achieve the effect desired by Britten and Pears.  4.3.3  " M a d Bess"  " M a d Bess," dedicated to soprano Joan Cross, was given its world premiere by Britten and Pears on November 17, 1945 at the Philharmonic Hall i n Liverpool, England, and was grouped with " M u s i c for a While," also dedicated to Cross. This was another of the songs Playford collected i n Orpheus Britannicus, Book I (p. 101), which he entitled "Bess o f Bedlam." The Purcell key o f C major remains intact in the Britten realisation.  This song follows the paradigm o f traits consistent throughout Britten's catalogue o f Purcell realisations. Britten maintains the integrity o f the bass line (e.g., m m . 16-22,4046, 64-66 and 72-79), enhancing it only to utilize the dramatic sonority o f the contemporary piano with lower octave doublings (e.g., mm. 1- 13, 14, 34-37, 47-56, 7986 and 99-103). Occasionally Britten supplants Purcell's bass line with a lower octave,  40 leaving the piano's middle register open for additional harmonic figures (e.g., mm. 14-17, 22-33, 61-63 and 93-99). In two instances Britten alters the register o f Purcell's bass line, dropping it by an octave and additionally doubling this change a further octave below to create a broader canvas o f musical colours to support the text (e.g., mm. 57 and 104).  This song was a fantastic vehicle for Pears' strengths as an actor, and the dramatic construction o f the song as a "mad scene" was one which Britten subsequently adopted and constructed for Pears in his operas Peter Grimes and A Midsummer Night's  Dream.  This song gives scope for multiple histrionic shadings such as rage, jealousy, torment, melancholy, despair, joy, and rapture, and two distinct characters, the Narrator and Bess. Interpretively, the door is also left open for the singer to impersonate spirits o f the dead, and different ages and moments in Bess's life and stages o f her relationship with her exlover, who presumably cheated on her, causing her subsequent mental collapse.  Although Purcell has clearly delineated many o f these dramatic episodes in his original version, in the hands o f Britten the piece takes on a larger more operatic scope, lending itself to a broad and intense interpretive approach, as witnessed by the riveting performances o f dramatic artists such as Jon V i c k e r s .  5 0  Britten enriches, enhances and  expands Purcell's original framework using several techniques, some o f which have been observed in previous analyses, but which are given much broader and varied treatment in this song: counter-melody construction, detailed editorial markings, and inner voice textural realisation o f the harmonic structure. Unlike the other three songs analysed from 50  My Song Resounds, Jon Vickers, C B C , PSCD 2024.  41 Orpheus Britannicus, Britten takes a few liberties with the harmonic structure o f the underlying chords which could be construed as somewhat ambiguous because o f Purcell's lack o f basso continuo figures. A s these four elements are closely intertwined, they w i l l be viewed simultaneously. Britten's choices can always be linked to the text, and correlations between these elements and the underlying text w i l l be noted.  The song begins with the marking o f Recitativo fantastico,  indicating to both pianist and  singer the inherent creative freedom they are granted i n their interpretations. Although a sectionalised song with a recurring dance-like ritornello, a unifying motive that runs throughout the song is created by Britten in the two upbeats to the song embellishing the tonic chord with unison left and right hands. This "fantastico" motive returns in mm. 3 and 5, in modified form in m. 13, and again in mm. 38 and 87 and as a so-called bookend postlude in the final bar o f the song (m. 105). Two other similar broken chordal figures demark other sections o f the song, one in m. 47 and again at m. 60.  The quiet opening mood ("silent shades") o f the song is maintained with the use o f a series o f sustained four-voiced homophonic chords (mm. 1 -6) which Britten connects with a series o f common tone pitches tied between chords and often across bar lines, and the entire section is marked sost. (sostenuto). The voice mimics this restrained feeling with a dynamic indication of p, and does not swell until m. 5 (cresc).  Britten gives  initial momentum and aural interest to the first two phrases (mm. 1 and 3) by the editorial hairpin crescendi climaxing in fp. Britten introduces a passing note dissonance (F ) in the 4  right hand (m. 6) which Purcell does not indicate in his figured bass. This dissonance  propels the melodic phrase forward, even though the singer takes the indicated breath, and the subsequent resolution ( E ) creates a plateau for the Purcellian vocal flourish 4  leading to the mention o f the god o f rain ("Jove") in m. 7, editorially marked by Pears with an accent for further emphasis. Britten adds a 7-6 suspension in the right hand o f m. 7 to help maintain the intensity for the singer on the top F ("Jove") and to continue the momentum o f the phrase through to its textual conclusion on "year" (m.-9). To delineate the next phrase o f text ("Poor senseless B e s s . . . lovesick melancholy"), Britten introduces a broken chord grace note embellishment figure (mm. 9, 10 and m. 11) which tonally anticipates the chord it decorates, thereby further moving the action o f the song forward. This important phrase, which imparts the information that Bess is "senseless" because o f a lost love, returns to a hushed dynamic (p) which creates a v i v i d contrast to the next section o f the song.  Bess' voice is first displayed i n m. 14, in the section marked Animato e ritmico, as she recalls the first joys o f love and passion. Britten has marked almost every bar in this section (mm. 14-21) with fp accents, using rolled chords to realise the harmonic structure, doubling the melody and the exuberant dotted rhythms o f the voice part, and using marcato accents on the phrase (mm. 17-18) to colour the power the god, Oberon. A s Bess moves into the next section o f the song, which Purcell helps make unique with a switch to 3-4 time. Britten further highlights this section with a very different realisation of the supporting harmonic structure in the piano part.  Immediately before this section beginning in m. 23, Britten modifies Purcell's harmony (m. 21), with an implied C major chord (m. 22, beat three), being replaced by an A minor chord (first inversion), momentarily foreshadowing the next melancholic section. This new melancholic section (starting in m. 22) is marked Piu lento e tranquillo, and the dynamic indication for the piano drops to pianissimo level for the first time in the song, helping to highlight this part further. The figure Britten uses to support the text is an elegiac broken and embellished chordal pattern (mm. 21-34), leaving the first eighth note of every bar i n the right hand o f piano empty so the voice and text are clearly audible and more free to colour the text. Additionally, the left hand chords are open-spaced rolled chords in an udulating (half plus quarter note) rhythmic ebb and flow. Sensitivity to the support o f the voice is shown again in mm. 25-27 and m. 30 and 34-37 where Britten indicates hairpin crescendi when the voice goes into the upper range. The brief two bars marked Recitativo (mm. 38-39), create a bridge to yet another bright 3-4  (Allegretto)  section starting i n m. 40. Britten leaves the piano part rather stark (m. 38) so that the voice can shape the rhythm and intensity o f the key words in the text ("For since my love is dead, and all my joys are gone").  The section marked Andante tranquillo (mm. 46-56) begins with Bess' "groan" being echoed in the extreme lower range o f the piano with a small dynamic hairpin (m. 47), again pointing to Britten's sensitivity to supporting and enriching the text. The lush fourvoiced right hand chords with tenuto accents dominate this section and give it a unique quality which differs from everything that has come before. Britten keeps the dynamic markings at pp and ppp levels throughout the section as Bess lies "down to die." The  descending fauxbourdon (first inversion) chords in the left hand (mm. 50-51) result in a slightly altered state-of-being for the character, as do the planing passing-chords (m. 54, right hand), illustrating her further descent into madness. These, however, are chords which Purcell did not specify. Britten also alters the harmonic realisation (m. 55, beat three), and whereas Purcell calls for a C major (first inversion) sonority, Britten changes this chord to E minor, thereby giving a more somber close to this section.  The next several sections musically evoke an emotionally unstable, perhaps even schizophrenic person, through the use o f rapid and frequent tempo changes and alterations between recitative and measured tempi: Recitativo Presto (m. 57), Allegretto (come sopra) (m. 60), Recitativo Animato (m. 66), and Allegretto (come sopra) (m. 72). The first o f these recitative sections has tremolandi throughout all three bars, gradually increasing in dynamic intensity as the text become more desperate, and the vocal line continually ascends to a fortissimo (ff) E§ with a fermata (m. 60), supported with a threeoctave rolled chord. The singer is given a moment to change emotions (or characters or personalities) before launching into the vigorous dance ritornello again at m. 61 at a soft dynamic, underscored by taut, lightly voiced chordal support (mm. 61-65). The ensuing recitative section again returns to the lower octave menacing sounding tremolandi ( G and C, mm. 66-71) and swells to a climax at m. 71. Britten, always sensitive that the voice should not be covered by heavy piano texture, only makes the dramatic colour effects after the voice has completed its text. Each vocal phrase seems to be ignited by a distinctive rhythmic figure in the piano part o f two sixteenth notes followed by an eighth note capped with marcato accents. This figure propels the singing-actor forward to the  climax o f this section, ending on a long (lungd) fermata (m. 71) for both piano and voice The immediate return to the sprightly dance ritornello marked staccato gives a moment of repose, before the deceptive false ending o f the song (mm. 83-87), which is prepared with a gradual slowing o f tempo and a crescendo in both the voice and piano (piu cresc. ed. allarg.).  One final pairing o f Recitativo lento (m. 87) and 3-4 dance-like ritornello (m. 93) bring the song to its conclusion, and after the tonic preparation in m. 87, this section acts as a coda. Bess' death, or ultimate descent into madness, is musically portrayed with the unresolved A minor (first inversion) chord (m. 92) which then ushers in the return to the narrator's voice (m. 93) to conclude the drama. Britten altered this A minor chord from Purcell's original C major sonority, possibly to add more poignancy to the death o f Bess. Britten provides for this dramatic ending and death with an immediate decease o f dynamics from forte to piano (m. 87), and subsequently drops down to pianissimo (mm. 88-92). The departure o f Bess' mortal being is indicated by Britten with the harmonic realisation in the right hand chords (mm. 89-92) in open sixths in the upper range o f the piano, all marked with long legato slurs (both right and left hands) and with the lower reaches o f the piano being avoided. The song ends with a gradual crescendo as the chordal accompaniment becomes thicker and more widely spaced (mm. 99-104). After the voice has finished, Britten recalls the recitativo fantastico leading into silence, as a post-script to the song.  figure with a diminuendo  This song would have provided Pears a framework showcasing several o f his vocal strengths. H i s full-voiced (operatic) upper voice strength, available to him for short durations, was exploited in the climaxes o f the song (e.g., mm. 60, 70-71, and 99-104), as was the strength o f his lower register, which is uncommon in the tenor voice (mm. 60, 70-71). Additionally his voix-mixte and voce finta could be used for great dramatic effect when the character o f Bess is limpidly singing (e.g., mm. 21-26, 38-40, 47-56 and 87-91). His ability to crescendo and descrescendo (messa di voce) phrases throughout his passaggio was also exploited in his song (e.g., mm. 26-28, 34-37, 39, 53 and 55-56). Another o f Pears' strengths was the clarity o f his diction and his ability to communicate stories through song, abilities which made his performances o f the English song repertoire one o f his areas o f specialisation. " M a d Bess," as realised by Britten, allowed Pears ample opportunity to display his many strengths: vocal, textual and dramatic.  4.3.4  " M a n is for the W o m a n M a d e "  Most o f Purcell's secular songs realized by Britten were taken from the two books o f songs assembled by Playford (Orpheus Britannicus, Books I and II). The source for this strophic song, however, is unclear. Correspondence with the Britten-Pears Library at Aldeburugh suggests that Britten and Pears collected several anthologies and collections of Purcell songs by various publishers and editors. In the Preface to his Orpheus Britannicus series, Britten references the multi-volume complete works o f Purcell published by Novello, which he owned, so it is likely that " M a n is for the Woman made" was drawn from this collection as the source for this realisation. It is found in Volume X X , Dramatic Music Part II, o f the Novello collections, published in 1916. The  "incidental" song was written for insertion into the play The Mock Marriage (1695) by Thomas Scott, and was originally sung by the actress M i s s Cross (soprano) in A c t I V . The text is thought to be by Motteux, and was entitled "Rondelau." The world premiere of the Britten-Purcell realisation occurred on November 21, 1945 at Wigmore Hall in London, and was the final song in a group o f seven other new realisations being premiered that same evening. The radio broadcast premiere o f this song occurred over two years later on A p r i l 15, 1948 on the B B C Light Programme.  Consistent with the majority o f these realisations, the functional harmony and bass line again remain intact. Britten adds upper octaves to the left hand (mm. 13-17) and repeats this in the second verse (mm. 28-32). In verse three Britten adds lower octave bass line doublings (mm. 35- 43, 45, and 47-48) and omits Purcell's original bass line, opting for the octave above in the moving eighth notes in m. 33. Traditional block chords on offbeats, with tenuto accents, create rhythmic propulsion in the opening and subsequent ritornelli (mm. 1-4, 15-18, 28-31). Unlike many o f the other realisations which contain numerous editorial markings, this song contains comparatively few. The bass line is marked pesante (m. 1), and Britten employs slurs to ensure that vocal phrase endings move smoothly into the ensuing textual phrase (mm. 4-5, 8-9, 10-11, and 12-13). Britten's dynamic indications stress the need for soft playing so as not to cover the witty and humourous text o f the singer (mm. 6 , 1 1 , 20, 23, and 34), frequently calling for a diminuendo after a piano flourish (mm. 22, 24, 26, 32, 36, 38, and 40). Britten's other editorial accents include martello (mm. 43-4), occasional staccatti (e.g., mm. 5-7, 9, 10,  48 and 33-35) and the standard marcato (mm. 43-45 and 47-48). Unique to this realisation are several right hand fingerings (e.g., mm. 36, 38, 40, and 42).  Pears' editorial markings for the vocal line are also comparatively few, and tend to mirror the piano shadings throughout the song. He adds a portamento at the end o f each ritornello (mm. 4, 18, 33 and 46) and adds a slur at m. 34, requiring the singer to carry over the phrase without a breath, leading seamlessly into the final strophe. He marks the tempo as con spirito, which certainly honours the poet's intentions for this rowdy and humourous text.  This song shows the practicality o f the Britten-Pears performance team, for the song has obvious audience appeal. In several o f their recitals it was included as the finale to a long group o f more intensely musical, and in terms o f text and structure, potentially challenging songs for the audience. The song is joyous, and slightly risque with its mention o f "liquor" (m. 13), "wanton" maids (m. 37) and even a "slut" (m. 41). In the published edition, the original (Purcell) words "Queane, slut" were changed to "Princess" (mm. 41-42), yet in live recordings Pears can clearly be heard delivering the word "slut," to amused response.  51  The audience response to this rousing song, available on live  performance recordings, was invariably resounding. It showed the lighter side o f these often somewhat esoteric performers. The song was a vocal tour de force for Pears because o f its rapid text, which he acknowledged challenged his memory, as well as the full-voiced (ff) ending, climaxing on one o f his most powerful notes, G . Equally, i f not 4  51  8006-2.  Britten the Performer, Benjamin Britten and Peter Pears, B B C Worldwide Music, Ltd., B B C B  49 more dazzling, is the virtuosic piano writing, which grows more elaborate with each successive strophe, demanding rapid right hand scale work (mm. 36, 38, 40 and 42) and stride-chords for the final ritornello (mm. 43- 45) and concludes with the left hand thrusting down to the extreme low C o f the piano (m. 48) undoubtedly executed with a 1  soloist's elan.  4.4  Realisations f r o m  4.4.1  "A M o r n i n g  Harmonia Sacra  Hymn"  Britten was drawn to sacred and spiritually inspired texts throughout his career. Several of the Purcell vocal pieces Britten realised are drawn from the Harmonia  Sacra  collections (Books I and II) compiled by Playford. The first o f these sacred songs to be analysed is drawn from Harmonia Sacra Book I (pp. 7-8), entitled " A Morning H y m n , " with text by Dr. W i l l i a m Fuller, former Lord Bishop o f London. Britten and Pears gave this realisation its world premiere on Nov. 23, 1945 at the National Gallery in London, the day after another spiritually inspired work o f Britten's, The Holy Sonnets of John Donne, was premiered by the duo. The song made its broadcast premiere over twenty years later, on M a y 29, 1967 on the B B C , with V i o l a Tunnard instead o f Britten accompanying Pears.  Throughout Purcell's Harmonia Sacra compositions, there are striking similarities in compositional style and form between works such as "The Blessed V i r g i n ' s Expostulation," "Job's Curse," "Saul and the Witch o f Endor," and Britten's Canticles, five extended narrative songs based on sacred text. Britten was often able to illuminate  50 difficult poetic text with his sensitive piano accompaniments and realizations, and " A Morning H y m n " is no exception. It is through composed without ritornelli and melodically segmented and disjunct. The melody, although shaped to paint the text o f the song, is not easily grasped by most listeners on first hearing, unlike those melodies drawn from the Orpheus Britannicus collections.  Standard with the other realisations, Britten does not alter the bass line pitches with the exception o f m. 21 ( 3 beat), when he changes the root note from B b to F, creating a rd  second inversion chord, possibly to underscore the text and create a less stable framework ("misspent"). Britten was not limited, as Purcell was, with regard to the range o f the bass line, and makes full use o f the lower sonorities o f the piano when it serves his purpose, as seen in m. 13 when the bass line drops to a low D (an octave below Purcell's original) to support the tenor voice as it climbs to the highest note encountered thus far in the song. Britten doubles Purcell's bass at the lower octave at m. 19 which helps signal the start o f a new and somber section o f the song. He maintains the lower octave doublings as this section proceeds, not returning to Purcell's original octave until m. 25. Britten again doubles the lower octave in the three measures leading to the lilting 3-4 section, possibly to create more aural difference between the two sections. The bass line is left intact throughout the 3-4 section, but once the final four measures o f recitative begin, Britten again doubles the bass at the lower octave, to underscore the profundity o f the text.  Unlike many o f the other realisations, Britten frequently alters the original Purcell rhythm of the bass line in this song to underscore the chordal sonority, or to maintain momentum  in the extended recitative sections. In m. 3, for example, Purcell's bass line was a whole note D , which Britten changes to a double-dotted half note followed by an eighth, which has the effect o f propelling the line forward under the singer, so that horizontal momentum is not lost. Likewise in m. 5, Britten particulates the D and revoices the chord, thereby adding aural interest at a point o f relative melodic stasis in the voice part. Britten echoes the vocal line's momentum by altering the rhythm o f the bass again at m. 9. Where Purcell had a sustained whole note low D , Britten particulates the D after the first beat, again propelling the action forward. This device is again employed at m. 20, m. 22 , m. 27, and finally in m. 38, where Britten changes Purcell's bass rhythm from a static whole note to quarter-half-quarter, thrusting the listener and singer to the penultimate bar o f the song.  Britten's editorial indications for the piano part also aid in the delivery and interpretation of this text. He makes frequent use o f slur or legato markings, showing the essential phrasing required to support the vocal line. For example, he places slurs over both m. 1 and again m. 2, corresponding to and supporting the two short textual clauses at the same points, and conversely, Britten marks a three bar slur over the extended clause i n mm. 3-6 ("Raised by thy goodness from the bed o f sleep"). Horizontal momentum is added by the piano with the editorial hairpin at m. 4, which is a point in the song where the singer might be aided by such a device. A s with other realisations, Britten is very careful to indicate crescendos when the voice ascends, to give full support to his singing colleague (mm. 6, 10, 12, 18, 19, 22, 27 and 39.). Britten calls for three different colour changes for the piano which closely underscore the text. A t m. 20, when the text suddenly pivots  from joy to lament, Britten denotes the section as "dark." Likewise, when the mood changes to lilting j o y again at m. 29, he indicates "lightly." A third indication, "sonorous," underscores the final intensely emotional and textual climax o f the song in the recitative section (m. 37). Accents in the piano part, which were abundant in some o f the other realisations analysed, are fairly limited in this song. He strengthens and supports the singer's F (m. 13) with a marcato accent, and aids in the descriptive 4  syncopated walking effect at m. 15 with another marcato accent. Britten adds weight to the text at mm. 27-29 ("When with such crimes they such repentance see;") by using tenuto accents for the bass line, a device he employs again at the weighty final recitative section under the words "die" (m. 37) and "to receive" (m. 39).  Counter-melody construction, a key feature in most o f Britten's realizations, prominently underscores and supports the text i n this song as well. The opening measure's slowly descending line sounds vaguely drowsy, as i f the character o f the shepherd is being drawn from sleep, foreshadowing the text o f m. 5. The open spacing o f a 10  th  between  the right and left hands (mm. 1-6) evokes a stark and isolated atmosphere which gives the song an immediately somber and intense quality. The voice is rarely doubled, which aids in the aural perception o f the shepherd's isolation and vulnerability. The gap o f the th  10 separating the right and left hand sonorities is momentarily suspended at m. 6 when the first moment o f rejoicing is mentioned in the text ("offer up this hymn") and the richness o f this new texture supports the voice's ascent and indicated crescendo. Momentum is increased at mm. 8-9 not only with the previously mentioned alteration to Purcell's bass line rhythm, but also by Britten's counter-melody construction. He lets the  53 voice ("May it be gracious") make the first melodic gesture, then mimics it a tone higher (m. 7 beats 2-3) before the voice continues the pattern on the fourth beat o f m. 9. The right hand 3 2  nd  note flourish with acciaccaturas (m. 12) drives the voice onward to  complete the sentence (" A n d do I live. . ."), and the feeling o f isolation returns (open spacing o f 10 m. 13) to underscore the text further. The pianist leads the voice into the th  "singing" (mm. 16-17) section with the two 16 notes ( A , B b ) (m. 16) and then joins the th  voice and helps maintain the momentum with a further 16 note flourish in m. 17. The th  sudden range drop o f the right hand o f the piano realisation (m. 20) reflects the emotional shift in text as the singer ponders a misspent life, and Britten adds no counter-melody construction, so the singer is plunged again into isolation, loneliness, and despair. The melody seems to hang sadly in mid-air, as i f Britten is giving the singer time to ponder his thoughts and words. The G (m. 26) helps to punctuate and underscore the end of the 1  phrase ("themselves"), and adds a sense o f foreboding, lest anyone follow in his footsteps. The addition o f the D (lowest note thus far) also underscores the theme of the 1  central idea o f the song on the word "repentance" (m. 28).  The 3-4 section's lilting melody is commenced by Britten's right hand in the piano, which the singer quickly echoes and develops (m. 28). The dotted eighth-sixteenth note rhythms are tossed between the voice, left hand and right hand (mm. 29-36). The final recitative (coda) section returns to the sonorous voiced lower right hand texture (seen before at m. 20), and the joyful mood from the previous section is eclipsed as doubts return to the singer; this is particularly reflected in the open 10 spacing o f the left hand th  cords (m. 39), which lead into the final cadence. The final cadence and question is  54 underscored with very l o w and slowly arpeggiated chords, as i f to give gravitas to the question, "who can die, so to receive his death?"  Pears' impeccable diction was surely a great aid in the presentation o f the text o f these more oblique song texts from the Harmonia Sacra collections. Without clear enunciation the listener would have difficulty comprehending either the intent or message o f the song, no matter how beautiful the vocalism and its supporting realisation. Pears' ability to communicate text and create colour and nuance in the lower octave o f his voice (an uncommon tenor characteristic) was ideally suited to this song's vocal requirements, as the song sits in a very low tessitura. The general hushed mood o f the song was also one of Pears' strengths, and when he was joined by Britten at the piano, the effects they created with intensely soft dynamics were riveting.  4.4.2.  "Evening  Hymn"  The last song to be analysed is Britten's realisation o f Purcell's "Evening H y m n " which was premiered by Britten and Pears on Oct. 19,1944, at St. Matthew's Church in Northampton. The Purcell version can be found in Book I (pp. 1-3) o f Playford's Harmonia Sacra and is entitled " A n Evening H y m n " with text by Dr. W i l l i a m Fuller. Purcell was renowned for his ground bass songs, and this song follows that form, as is indicated by Purcell ("On a Ground") in the title of the piece. Additionally Purcell, in a rare instance o f tempo indictations, wrote the word "slow" over the first measure.  55 Britten was drawn to the ground bass form throughout his compositional life, with prominent examples being the Purcell songs "Music for a W h i l e " and " D i d o ' s Lament," as well as the " Y o u n g People's Guide to the Orchestra" (also known as "Variations on a Theme by Henry Purcell"). His fascination with the form was even incorporated into his original compositions such as the "Sea Interludes" from Peter Grimes. The realisation o f "Evening H y m n " is a masterpiece o f basic ground bass (variation) form and construction, the foundation o f the song o f course being supplied by Purcell's bass and melody. The song is transformed under Britten's hand from one o f simplicity and beauty to one o f complexity and subtle nuance.  The ground bass theme is heard a total o f twenty-two times during the song, and Britten treats it differently each time. Following the consistency o f format with his other Purcell realisations, Britten adheres strictly to the given bass line, altering only the octave in which the pitches are sounded, doublings, and a slight alteration to the rhythm in one bar. He doubles Purcell's original bass line an octave lower, to support the first vocal climax of the song at the fifth repetition o f the five-bar ground bass (mm. 21-25), and repeats the same octave doubling two statements later (mm. 31-36). A s the piece finally modulates to the dominant key o f D major, Britten again doubles the bass and keeps this doubling for the duration o f the dominant key statements (mm. 43-53) before returning to the tonic (G) and Purcell's original bass line (m. 54). A n upper octave doubling is used for one five-measure statement (mm. 85-89), and this treatment supports a countermelody right hand texture created by Britten. Lower octave doublings are again added (mm. 89-93) to strengthen the vocal climax o f the "Hallelujah" section. To support an eight-voiced  56 chordal texture, Britten doubles the Purcell bass one final time (mm. 99-103). The song concludes with the only two direct alterations to Purcell's bass line. Britten omits Purcell's voicing o f the bass line (mm. 109-114), opting instead for a single-voiced lower octave rendering o f the line and the addition o f the final bass note (m. 114), and he alters the bass rhythm o f the penultimate bar o f the song (m. 113) to anticipate the tonic resolution and creates momentary octaves between left and right hand and voice.  Britten rarely alters the underlying harmonic structure in his Purcell realisations, and only at moments when the figures might be potentially ambiguous does he take those liberties. In this song, he finds that opportunity for ambiguity almost immediately. Purcell indicates no figures in the song, including the opening ground theme. Britten realises the opening five bar ground thus: I - V - v i - i i i - IV - V . O n the first repetition o f the 6  6  ground (mm. 6-11) he changes the harmonic structure, and although it is not a radical change, the subtle underlying effect is palpable and imbues the text with a peaceful rather than somber inflection. H e alters the progression to read: I - V - i i i 6  6 / 5  - IV - V - ii - V. 6  As he progresses through the next two repetitions of the ground, he continues to enrich the harmonic structure creating increasingly more seventh chords on the third beat o f the bars (mm. 12, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19) as he first does in m. 7. This device further enhances the Purcellian vocal line which is already enriched at these same points with written appoggiaturas (mm. 17-20).  The distinguishing feature o f the sixth variant (mm. 26-30) is a series o f 9-8 suspensions which create more tension and complexity as the song approaches the modulatory  57 section. To heighten the move to a new key area, Britten has the right hand move for the first time in contrary motion (upward) away from the supporting ground bass (mm. 31 34). Additionally Britten introduces a C# (m. 31), which anticipates the C# in Purcell's vocal line. There is ambiguity as to where the song is modulating through variants six and seven, and the phrases are extended by one bar (by Purcell) at these points. There is a pull towards B major as well as B minor and also a hint at the most obvious choice, the dominant key o f D major, but these options are all blurred until m. 43 when the dominant key emerges as the new tonal centre.  Britten allows these brief tonicizations to be heard and carried out by Purcell's voice line, and he keeps the realisation fairly sparse and plain during this moment o f the piece, adding only a descending melodic line o f half-note thirds, a tenth above the bass line (mm. 37-43). Although seemingly a simple counter-melody structure, this pattern is then reworked several times throughout the dominant-key section. Britten first delays the upper voice in the right hand melody by one beat, still doubling the bass at a tenth. A t this moment o f the song, the voice and its text (mm. 43-47) are i n a state o f "rest" and stasis with repeated sustained AtTs. Britten lets the piano create a gently rocking motion and continues the horizontal momentum o f the song. He marks this section as piu espress. and also indicates frequent hairpin decrescendi to maintain dynamic shaping.  In the tenth variant Britten foreshadows the pedal tone (D) dominant pivot (mm. 48-50) heard in the vocal line (mm. 50-53) and also alters the counter melody, maintaining momentum through a sense o f syncopation and melodic descent in the right hand.  58 The eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth variants make use o f unexpected accents. In the first two o f these variants Britten accents the third beat (instead o f the regular downbeat), and in the thirteenth variant (mm. 64-68) the strong marcato accents fall on the second beat accompanied by rolled chords and downward leaps o f a seventh. The effect is mildly disorienting in terms o f bar lines and metric expectation, creating a momentary feeling o f 2-4 time. The voice is momentarily silent in preparation for the second (textual) part o f the song (the "Hallelujah") which keeps the same ground bass.  A s has been shown in many o f Britten's other Purcell song realisations, his countermelody construction is often derived from the vocal line, yet he often anticipates the vocal line, and seemingly lets the right hand melody inform and inspire the vocal line. He demonstrates this compositional trait again when leading into the dotted rhythms o f the "Hallelujah" section (starting in m. 69), which the voice quickly echoes and subsequently develops into florid melismas (mm. 70-71 and 72-78). The voice and right hand o f the piano part frequently dove-tail each other, then continue in contrary motion (mm. 71-72 and 76) or in 3rds (m. 77). The rather consistent contrapuntal rhythm o f the counterpoint melody (right hand) o f the fourteenth and fifteenth variants is made more rhythmically complex by Britten for the sixteenth (m. 79) and the seventeenth (m. 84) variants by having the counter-melody enter on off-beats (m. 80) and continue in syncopated rhythms under the regular rhythm o f the voice line. This creates an incredible feeling o f tension and excitement underscoring the jubilant text.  59 Leading to this musical climax, Britten introduces one o f his signature clashing semitone dissonances he so favoured i n his original song compositions: the counter melody F# o f the right hand (piano) clashing with the Ft) o f the voice part. This entire Hallelujah section is a steady crescendo to m. 91 and the vocal line's apex o f pitch and dynamics. After this point there is a gradual tapering o f dynamics to the hushed (ppp) final note o f the song. Britten reinforces this crashing climax by adding right and left hand octave doublings (mm. 85-91) and slowly enriching the chordal voicing o f the realised chords. Notice how, at the seventeenth variant (m. 84), Britten incorporates the added third o f the chord in the right hand, then in the eighteenth variant (m. 91) he uses an added third in the bass texture for the first time in the song, creating a feeling o f great density, thickness and sonority under the high lying voice line.  M o v i n g into the nineteenth variant, Britten again anticipates Purcell's dominant (D) vocal pedal point (mm. 95-97) by introducing C# into the chordal realisation in the previous measure (m. 94) which was not indicated in Purcell's figures. Both to support the upper voice leaps (mm. 99-103) and to create more aural diversity for the twentieth variant, Britten realises the harmony with rolled full-textured, eight-voiced chords i n the left and right hands, with forte and subsequent diminuendi for each bar. A s the general dynamic of the song continues to taper, Britten gradually reduces the fullness o f the chordal texture and starts to open the distance o f the spacing between left and right hands until, by the final variant o f the ground bass (mm. 109- 114), the parts are frequently three or more octaves apart, giving the feeling o f stillness supporting the general feeling o f evening quietude.  60  This song was very well suited to the specialized gifts o f Pears. Although the song at first glance seems easily within the technical resources o f many tenors, the reality is that the song's tessitura lies quite high, and the singer who is not comfortable singing at reduced dynamic levels in the upper passaggio w i l l fatigue rapidly and be unable to surmount the slowly building dynamic and range climax o f the song. Additionally, i f the tenor's voice becomes over-weighted in order to achieve the full-voiced climax (m. 91), he w i l l be unable to successfully execute a steady diminuendo to the end, finishing with the highly effective un fil di voce ippp) as indicated by Pears. The haunting pianissimo singing o f Pears was given ample opportunity to be displayed in this realisation.  Pears aids future generations o f singers with his editorial indications. The general atmosphere o f the song he marks as dolce and commences at the dynamic of p. He indicates a crescendo for the first ascent into the upper voice (mm. 22-23), which is supported and anticipated by Britten one measure earlier in the piano part. Pears marks the sequence o f descending fifths (mm. 25-27) sost. so that the singer is not tempted to attack aggressively the first appearance o f a larger intervallic leap, and further connects them with slurs. For the singer to maintain the legato through the modulatory section, Pears indicates a long legato phrase (mm. 31-37), possibly hoping that future singers w i l l attempt this long phrase i n one breath.  He includes tenuto marks over the words "can there" (m. 37) to encourage the singer to emphasize the question at that point. Pears marks the vocal pedal point At; (V o f V ) at m.  61 42 as sonoro, possibly trying to encourage the tenor to use as much warmth and richness as he can muster at that l o w note o f his range. Showing his knowledge o f the energy required for a male to sing in the passaggio area, he indicates a hairpin crescendo in mm. 51-52 so the tenor does not come to a vocal mishap in an attempt to sing softly.  In the second "Hallelujah" section o f the song, Pears indicates that the tempo should not slow, although he requests that it start softly (cominciando pp ma con moto), and that the rhythmic vitality not sag (sempre ritmico). The dynamic shaping o f this section is well marked, and he indicates a gradual crescendo for each successive repetition o f the ground bass, until the vocal climax is achieved iff) at m. 91 before reversing the process and gradually decaying the volume o f sound until his justly famous intensely controlled ppp is reached in the final measure o f the song.  62  5  Conclusion  Purcell's compositions inspired Britten to explore the intense synergy between music and language. These song realisations, while being true to the spirit o f Purcell, were informed by practical contemporary performance considerations and adapted to exploit the strengths o f both Britten and Pears. In these works we have a fascinating recorded musical document o f the interpretations o f a collaborative performance duo, which more often than not is lost after performance.  These hybrid creations utilize aspects o f both early and contemporary musical idioms by Purcell and Britten, encapsulating a musical sound unique to the mid 20 -century, and in th  so doing bridge some 300 years o f vocal technique through the skill and nature o f Pears' voice. Blending these three musical talents together, we have a document o f inspiration and collaboration that makes real the symbols on the page.  63  Bibliography Blyth, A l a n . Remembering  Britten. London: Hutchinson, 1981.  Britten the Performer. B B C Worldwide Music, Ltd., B B C B 8006-2, 1999. Compact disc. Britten, Benjamin. "Talking about M u s i c , " interview by John A m i s , B B C sound machines. Britten-Pears Library, The Red House, Aldeburgh, undated tape. Burden, Michael. Purcell Remembered. London: Faber and Faber, 1995. Carpenter, Humphrey. Benjamin Britten: A Biography.  London: Faber and Faber, 1992.  deBeer, E . S., ed. The Diary of John Evelyn. 6 volumes. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1955. Evans, Peter. The Music of Benjamin Britten.  London: J . M . Dent and Sons Ltd, 1989.  Garcia, Manuel. Trade complet de Vart du chant. Geneva: M i n k o f f Editeur, 1847. . Hints on Singing. Translated by Beata Garcia. London: E . Ascherberg and Company, 1894. Headington, Christopher. Britten: the composer as contemporary. Tanner, 1981. . Peter Pears - A Biography.  London: Butler and  London: Faber and Faber, 1992.  Holman, Peter. - Henry Purcell - Oxford Studies o f Composers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Hoist, Imogen, ed. Henry Purcell 1659-1695 Essays on His Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959. Johnson, Graham. Britten, Voice and Piano-Lectures on the Vocal Music of Benjamin Britten. London: The Guildhall School o f Music and Drama; Aldershot Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2003. Jones, E . H . . The Performance of English Song, 1610-1670. N e w Y o r k and London: Garland Publishing Inc., 1989. Kennedy, Michael. Britten. The Master Musicians Series. London: J . M . Dent and Sons, Ltd., 1981.  64 Kildea, Paul. Selling Britten; Music and the Market Place. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. McNaught, William. "London Concerts: Purcell-Britten," Musical Times, Vol. 87, No. 1236, (1946): 60. Miller, Richard. Training Tenor Voices. Belmont, C A : Schirmer Books, 1993. Mitchell, Donald and Hans Keller, editors. Benjamin Britten: a Commentary on his works from a group of specialists.  Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Inc.,  1972.  Mitchell, Donald, ed. Letters from a Life: The Selected Letters and Diaries of Benjamin  Britten: 1913-1976, Volume Two, 1939-1945. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004. My Song Resounds, Jon Vickers, C B C , PSCD 2024, 2001. Compact disc. North, Roger. Roger North on Music. Ed. J. Wilson, London, Novello and Company, 1959. Oliver, Michael. Benjamin Britten. London: Phaidon Press Limited, 1996. Pepys, Samuel. Letters and the Second Diary of Samuel Pepys. Ed. R. G. Howarth,  London, J. M . Dent, 1932. Potter, John. Vocal Authority; singing, style and ideology. Cambridge: Cambridge  University Press, 1998. Program notes, Peter Grimes. London: Sadlers Wells, 1945. Purcell, Henry. Harmonia Sacra Book I. London: Henry Playford, 1716. Purcell, Henry. Harmonia Sacra Book II. London: Henry Playford, 1726. Purcell, Henry. Orpheus Britannicus: Five Songs, Ed. Benjamin Britten and Peter Pears. London: Boosey and Hawkes, 1960. Purcell, Henry. Orpheus Britannicus: Seven Songs, Ed. Benjamin Britten and Peter Pears. London: Boosey and Hawkes, 1947. Purcell, Henry. Orpheus Britannicus: Six Songs, Ed. Benjamin Britten and Peter Pears. London: Boosey and Hawkes, 1948. Purcell, Henry. Orpheus Britannicus:  The First Book, A Facsimile  Edition. New York: Broude Brothers, 1965.  of the 1698 London  65  Purcell, Henry. Orpheus Britannicus: The Second Book, A Facsimile of the 1702 London Edition. N e w Y o r k : Broude Brothers, 1965. Reed, Philip, ed. The Travel Diaries of Peter Pears 1936-1978. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press; Aldeburgh: The Britten-Pears Library, 1995. Roseberry, Eric. "Britten's Purcell Realizations and Folksong Arrangements," (Spring 1961): 7. Rupprecht, Philip. Britten's Musical Language.  Cambridge: University Press, 2001.  Sherman, Bernard. Inside Early Music: Conversations University Press, 1977. Spink, Ian. English Song: Dowland to Purcell Stuart, Charles. "Britten "The Eclectic"  Tempo 57  with Performers.  Oxford: Oxford  London: B . T . Batsford, L t d , 1974.  Music Survey, n.s. (1949-1952): 247-250.  Swanson, Christopher Landon. "The Voice of the New Renaissance: The Premiere Performances of Peter Pears. " D . M . Treatise, Florida State University, 2004. Truscott, Harold. "Hearing Britten's Style in the Purcellian Accompaniments." Music Survey, V o l u m e 1, Number 4 (1948): 120-121. White, Eric Walter. Benjamin Britten: 1983.  His Life and Operas. London: Faber and Faber,  


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