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Survey of the graduates in adult education (1960-1988) at the University of British Columbia Stuart-Stubbs, Megan 1990

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SURVEY OF THE GRADUATES IN ADULT EDUCATION (1960-1988) AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA By Megan Stuart-Stubbs B.A. (Sociology), University of British Columbia, May 1983 " A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA © Megan Stuart-Stubbs, December 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher- Education The University of British Columbia « Vancouver, Canada Date January 17, 1991 DE-6 (2/88) i i ABSTRACT Those who enter into graduate study bring with them a diverse array of needs and Lo interests. Graduate programmes are called upon to meet these needs and in endeavoring to so, K institutions providing training must look at the increasing diversity of the field. One way to do this is to determine what graduates of professional training do as practicing adult educators. This study was designed to answer some of the questions regarding the impact of a degree for men and women in adult education on their career paths, job mobility, income levels, and so on. In this study, current patterns in career development of adult educators and trends in the field of adult education were profiled by surveying 1960 through 1988 graduates of the Adult Education Programme at the University of British Columbia. The study examined occupational placement of graduates and the factors determining their mobility. As well, the relationship between training and work activities was explored. Further, graduates described their learning needs which were examined in terms of their work activities. The nature and degree of their participation in continuing professional education were examined. In addition, the reasons for initial enrollment in the programme were investigated. One of the major facets of the study was to discover the differences, if any, between men and women in many areas of career development. The following general research questions were pursued: 1) What reasons do graduates give for their participation in the adult education programme? 2) Do men and women share a similar education and occupation profile? 3) In what way has self-assessed occupational prestige changed over time? 4) Do graduates of the five Adult Education Programmes (Diploma, M.Ed., M.Sc., M.A., and Ed.D.) perform different occupational functions in their present work? 5) What factors influence occupational mobility? and 6) Are there relationships between present occupational activities, self-perceived quality of training in specified occupational activities and self-reported need to continue learning in these activities? Respondents (approximately half of all graduates) were typically female (59.2%), age 39 on graduation. She had worked four and a half years in adult education prior to entry in the i i i programme and was motivated to participate in the programme to increase her chances of professional advancement. She took less than three years to complete her degree and has held three jobs since graduation. She works full-time in a position where administration or management is the primary function and considers her opportunities for occupational mobility as average or high. She earns $46,000 per year (1988). In general, respondents cited reasons related to professional advancement as their motivation for participation in the programme. Women and men tended to be similar in their educational and occupational profile, which was unanticipated in examining previous research. However, a significant discrepancy was found in the annual income earned by women and men working in adult education positions. This discrepancy was not evident between men and women working outside of the field. Generally, self-assessed occupational prestige increased over time, though the biggest jump was seen in the period since graduation. Graduates of the five departmental programmes weighed similarly, though not identically, the amount of time spent in fourteen specified occupational activities. Very few occupational, educational, or demographic factors seemed to influence occupational mobility, except age at graduation. There seemed to be a weak relationship between occupational functions performed by graduates at the time of the survey, their assessment of the programme in preparing them to perform these functions, and the self-reported need to continue their education in these specified functions. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES vii LIST OF FIGURES ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 History and Background 1 Gender Issues in Graduate Study in Adult Education 2 Research Questions 3 Organization 3 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 4 Professional Adult Educators 4 Graduate Programmes: Form and Function 4 Motivation for Participation in Graduate Programmes 9 Characteristics of Graduate Students in Adult Education 10 Occupational Functions and Attributes 12 Learning Needs and Professional Participation in Continuing Education 14 Career Patterns 15 Occupational Prestige and Gender 15 Change in Gender Structure of Occupations 15 Occupational Prestige of Men and Women 17 Implications of Gender Distribution on University Level Professional Programmes 18 Summary 19 V Page CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 21 Rationale 21 Population and Sample 21 Instrumentation and Questionnaire Construction 22 Hypotheses 24 Definition of Terms 25 Procedure for Analysis 26 CHAPTER 4 : FINDINGS 27 Profile of the Graduates 27 Education 27 Participation 27 Programme Information 30 Type of Agency in Which Employed 34 Percentage Time Employed 38 Supervisory Duties 38 Annual Income from Employment 38 City or Town of Employment 40 Positions Held since Graduation and Occupational Mobility 40 Occupational Prestige 40 Job Activities Related to Adult Education 51 Academic Preparation 52 Learning Needs 56 Continuing Professional Education 56 Demographics 58 Hypotheses 58 Occupational Prestige 58 Occupational Prestige and Year of Graduation 61 Profile and Gender 64 Occupational Mobility 67 Reasons for Participation 70 Occupational Activities and Departmental Programme 70 vi Page Hypotheses (continued) Time Spent in Adult Education Activities 73 Occupational Activities and Training 75 Occupational Activities and Continuing Education 75 Training and Continuing Education 78 Respondents' Comments 78 CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION 86 Results 86 Profile of the Graduates 86 Hypotheses 90 Respondents' Comments 92 Summary 92 Recommendations 95 Comments Regarding the Study 95 Suggestions for Further Study 96 REFERENCES 98 APPENDICES 102 Appendix A. Questionnaire 102 Appendix B. Letter to Graduates (1) 106 Appendix C. Letter to Graduates (2) 107 Appendix D. Consent Form 108 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO. Page 1. Degrees Granted, Response to Questionnaires, and Gender Profile of Respondents 23 2. Profile of Other Degrees and Certificates Held By Respondents by Sex 28 3. Reasons Affecting Initial Decision to Participate in The Programme 29 4. Age at Graduation from Programme by Sex 31 5. Time Taken to Complete Adult Education Degree or Diploma by Sex 31 6. Academic Years Taken to Complete Programme by Year of Graduation and Degree Programme 32 7. Full or Part-time Participation in Programme by Degree by Sex 33 8. Years of Experience in Professional Adult Education Prior to Training 35 9. Type of Agency in Which Employed in Three Time Periods 37 10. Occupational Mobility by Sex and by Year of Graduation 44 11. Primary Job Responsibilities in Four Time Periods 46 12. Monthly Proportion of Time Spent in Specified Adult Education Activities 53 13. Adequacy of Training... 54 14. Rank Order of Adequacy of Training in Specified Occupational Activities by Degree Programme 55 15. Need to Continue Education by Those Currently Employed in Adult Education and by Those Employed Elsewhere 57 16. Monthly Time Spent in Specified Continuing Education Activities 57 17. Percentage of Male and Female Graduates and Respondents 60 18. Occupational Prestige by Period and T-Value between Periods 62 19. Occupational Prestige Level in Four Time Periods by Year of Graduation 63 20. Present Occupational Prestige Levels by Sex and by Year of Graduation 65 viii TABLE NO. Page 21. Occupational Prestige in Four Time Periods by Sex and by Those Currently Employed in Adult Education and Those Employed Elsewhere 66 22. Present Income by Sex and by Those Currently Employed in Adult Education and Those Currently Employed Elsewhere 68 23. Present Income of Respondents by Sex and by Year of Graduation 68 24. Distribution of Performance of Specified Adult Education Occupational Activities by Sex 69 25. Predictors of Occupational Mobility 71 26. Strength of Reasons for Participation by Sex and Significance between Sexes by Item 71 27. Average Monthly Time Spent in Specified Adult Education Occupational Activities by Degree Programme Ordered by Time Spent 72 28. Adequacy of Training in Specified Activities with Correlation of Total Percent Time Spent in an Average Month in Specified Adult Education Occupational Activities and in Activities Other than Those Specified 74 29. Correlation of Time Spent in an Average Month in Specified Adult Education Activities and Level of Adequacy of Training 76 30. Correlation of Time Spent in an Average Month in Specified Adult Education Occupational Activities and Degree of Need to Continue Learning in these Activities 77 31. Correlation of Level of Adequacy of Training and Need to Continue Learning in Specified Adult Education Occupational Activities 79 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE NO. Page 1. Type of Agency in Which Respondents Employed in Three Time Periods 36 2. Annual Income at the Time of the Survey for Those Employed in Adult Education and Those Employed Elsewhere 39 3. Location of Employment in Three Time Periods 41 4. Number of Positions Held Since Graduation by Year of Graduation 42 5. Opportunity for Occupational Mobility by Year of Graduation and by Sex 43 6. Occupational Prestige in Four Time Periods by Sex and By Those Currently Employed in Adult Education and Those Employed Elsewhere 48 7. Time Spent in Adult Education Activities in Three Time Periods 49 8. Number and Ratio of Male and Female Respondents by Year of Graduation 59 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to extend my gratitude to the faculty and staff of the Adult Education Programme at the University of British Columbia. In particular, I would like to thank my thesis committee, Tom Sork and John Collins for their encouragement and guidance in the production of this thesis. To Jim Thornton, who, as both my programme and thesis advisor, has supported my work from the outset, I extend special thanks. I would also like to thank my family for their support over the past four years. To "the grandmothers" who gave me many precious work hours, thank you. Finally, I would like to give credit and thanks to my husband, Nick Murphy, for his support, encouragement and computer expertise. Without his contributions I would never have become a potential respondent to further research on graduates of adult education at the University of British Columbia. 1 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION History and Background Adult education has its origins in social practice. Verner (1973) defined adult education as that "myriad of activities through which adults actively seek systematic education in answer to their persistent need for learning" (p. 5). In the last century, the nature of adult education has grown and changed, not only keeping pace with, but reflecting change in society. Apps (1986) outlined several ways in which the demographic, economic, political and social spheres will affect the progress of adult education toward the year 2000. Among these are the change in age structure of the population, migration patterns, the "shrinking globe," increased technology and the movement from an industrial to a service society. The emergence of both the notion of profession in the literature and among practitioners, and of professional training in adult education confirm its progress and increased prominence as a field and discipline. Those who enter into graduate study in adult education bring with them a diverse array of needs and interests. Graduate programmes are called upon to meet these needs and in endeavoring to do so, institutions providing this training must look at the increasing diversity of the field. One way to do this is to determine what graduates of professional training do as practicing adult educators. Little work of this type has been published. Noel and Parsons (1973) examined the relevance of graduate programme objectives to doctoral students in their professional roles. In 1974, an unpublished thesis by White, Survey of Graduates in Adult Education at the University of British Columbia, provided insights into the demographic, educational, and occupational profile of those who had graduated between the programme's inception and June of 1973. She examined how graduates felt about the adequacy of their degree programme (Ed.D., M.A., M.Sc. (Agriculture), M.Ed., or Diploma) and what they felt their continuing educational needs were. Among other things, she found that respondents to her study were predominantly married males, and the average age of the respondent was 39. They were mostly employed by government-associated agencies and had worked approximately five years 2 in the field before entering into graduate study. In the study reported here, these and other demographics were examined. It was proposed that the nature of the profile had changed since the work done by White (1974), signalling a change within the field of adult education itself. Further, this study was designed to answer some of the questions regarding the the impact of a graduate degree for men and women in adult education on their career paths, occupational mobility, income levels, and so on. In this study, current patterns in career development of adult educators and trends in the field of adult education were profiled. The study examined the occupational placement of graduates, past, present and anticipated, and the factors determining their mobility. As well, the relationship between training and work activities was explored. Further, graduates described their learning needs, which were examined in terms of their present work activities. The nature and degree of their participation in continuing professional education were also examined. In addition, the reasons for initial enrollment in the programme were investigated. Gender Issues in Graduate Study in Adult Education. The gender distribution described in White's profile parallels others done during the late 1960's and early 1970's. Houle and Buskey's (1966) study of recipients of doctoral degrees in adult education showed that males comprised 84% of those receiving these degrees. Several years later, Ingham et al. (1970) surveyed twenty-nine graduate programmes in adult education. They found that there were 1357 (72%) males participating in full or part-time masters or doctoral programmes as compared with 527 (28%) females. However, a later study done by Ingham and Hanks (1981) reported that in 1977, slightly over half of adult education graduate students enrolled in thirty-seven universities were female. Meisner, Parsons, and Ross (1979) reported a national (U.S.) female enrollment of 51.9%. It is evident today that the gender distribution is still changing. Greater numbers of women are entering adult education at the University of British Columbia and many of these seem to enter via the route of the health care professions. These changes alone in the profile of graduates herald changes in the field and discipline of adult education. 3 Research Questions The following general questions were examined in this study: 1. What reasons do graduates give for participation in the adult education programme? 2. Do men and women graduates share a similar education and occupation profile? 3. In what way has self-assessed occupational prestige changed over time? 4. Do graduates of the five adult education programmes perform different occupational functions in their present work. 5. What factors influence occupational mobility? 6. Are there relationships between quality of training in adult education and present occupational activities; self-assessed need for continuing education and present occupational activities and; between quality of training in adult education and self-assessed need for continuing education? Organization The study contains five chapters. The second chapter examines the literature surrounding many of the issues discussed in the study. The third chapter outlines the methods used in the study and also presents the hypotheses to be tested. The fourth chapter presents the findings in terms of distributions and hypotheses and also includes comments from respondents regarding their work and education. The final chapter presents a discussion of the data. Conclusions and recommendations for further research are also proposed. 4 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW There has been a great deal of discussion as to whether adult education can be given the status of "profession." Much of the literature suggests that adult education falls short of definitions that would easily describe professions such as law or medicine. Jarvis (1983), Thornton and Kavanagh (1986), Grabowski (1981) and Tyler (in Liveright 1964) each propose definitions that weigh tenets such as mastery, control, and sharing of knowledge and principles of operation differently. Though it is generally agreed that adult education cannot at present be classified as a profession using the definitions proposed by adult educators themselves, the use of the word in terms of adult education seems to be taken a priori. There seems to be general agreement, however, that adult education is undergoing a process of professionalization (Griffith in Smith et al. (1970, p.187) and Campbell (1977, p.59)). Jarvis (1983) described the process of professionalization as entailing three things: 1) the formation of a professional association, 2) a change in job title to reflect the change in occupational status, and 3) the development of a code of ethics (p.24). Suggestions regarding speeding of the professionalizing process have been made. Galbraith (1987) has suggested that certifying practitioners would maintain professional and competent practitioners as well as advance the profession. Professional Adult Educators  Graduate Programmes: Form and Function Graduate degree programmes in adult education were first initiated in 1930, and the first doctorate in the field was awarded in 1935 by Columbia University (Verner 1973). When the University of British Columbia initiated its programme in adult education in 1961, it was the first university in Canada and the fifteenth in North America to do so. Courses had been offered in adult education at University of British Columbia since 1957 and the first graduate in adult education completed his programme in 1960. In 1961, Coolie Verner was appointed 5 head and first full-time professor of a full-time professional Master's programme. By 1966 the programme was sufficiently established to allow a regularly offered programme of studies and since then the programme has grown to provide M.A., M.Ed., Ed.D., M.Sc.* (Agriculture) and Diploma degrees (Thornton 1973). Verner (1973) stated three basic roles that graduate study is designed to prepare its students for. These are: the administrative role, the instructional role, and the consultant role, the consultant role including the academic/research roles. Training for these roles, according to Verner (1978), should come through an integrated approach to the curriculum, one which emphasizes "basic principles that underlie practice rather than practice itself [thus ensuring] individuals are better equipped to design and manage adult learning in a variety of situations that may be encountered in any milieu" (p.12). It is on this foundation that the programme at the University of British Columbia was built. Yet a tension exists in the Programme between an orientation to advance the discipline through the building of a body of knowledge (as envisioned by Verner) and a market-driven orientation to provide graduates with professional competencies. In an early survey of the characteristics most desirable in an adult educator by Robinson (1962) it was found that adult educators should: 1. have the qualities of a leader and should be mature enough to be accepted by adults 2. possess initiative in programme development 3. understand adult psychology 4. understand group leadership and be able to work with groups 5. be competent teachers 6. be proficient in the use of communication media 7. understand community organization, community power structures, and community development 1 It should be noted that the M.Sc. programme was a joint venture between the Department of Adult Education and the Faculty of Agriculture. Course work for the M.Sc. (Agriculture) was divided between adult education and agricultural sciences. 6 8. have experience in working with adults 9. have the ability to do public relations, promotional work, and organizational work 10. have competence in an academic area 11. have a course background in adult education 12. have a broad course background in the liberal arts 13. possess a Master's degree 14. have training and experience in educational administration 15. have an internship as part of his professional training 16. have occupational experience outside of school experience (Robinson, 1962, p. 244) Liveright (1964) suggested that because of the diversity of both the tasks of adult education and the institutions that provide training in adult education, it is unwise if not impossible to standardize graduate study. However, he suggested some basis should be established for study. First, however, the perimeters of the profession would have to be defined. Liveright felt that, through graduate study, adult educators should develop a sense of values, a broad philosophy for the entire field and that adult educators should move toward developing a code of ethics. Further, graduate study should provide individuals with a sense of commonality and purpose; inculcate a belief in adult education as a continuing career; provide individuals with an understanding of social needs and social role; accelerate research in the areas of adult learning, human behavior and interpersonal relationships and in learning situations and educational processes . Liveright listed some objectives that should be common to all graduate programmes. These include: competence to practice the profession; promotion of social understanding; development of personality characteristics; a zest for continued study and; enough competence to conduct or interpret research. Daniel and Rose's (1982) comparative study of adult education practitioners and professors examined the future knowledge and skills needed by adult educators. Although there was a general consensus between the two groups, practitioners ranked such things as 7 knowledge and skills in administrative matters and continuing education trends as having more priority in the work setting than did professors. The professors tended to rank principles, theories, and processes as having greater priority. Charters and Hilton (1978) identified the two major competencies needed by adult educators as 1) people skills and 2) the ability to "tight-rope" walk. By the latter, they meant the ability to cope, to become a buffer between groups and interests, and the need to be a risk-taker. In assessing what one needs to know to be an adult educator, a survey of full-time adult education administrators by Charters and Hilton found that a knowledge of the behavioral sciences and pedagogy (interestingly, not andragogy) were essential. In sum, they felt adult educators should have 1) certain personal characteristics 2) specific competencies and 3) an experimental background. According to Ingham and Hanks (1981), "the major responsibility of graduate programmes in adult education is to increase the quality of practice in the field" (p. 19). Further, in a survey they conducted, it was found that the greatest self-perceived failure of graduate departments in adult education was the inability to establish the superiority of university trained adult educators over those who were untrained. Jensen (cited in Noel and Parsons 1973) has suggested that "graduate programmes should prepare professional practitioners to deal with [the problems of everyday life] and provide leadership for the field. He believes that experience gained from coping with these everyday problems will lead to the formulation of general principles which provide a guide for the professional" (p. 45). The ability to perform research tasks may also help to guide the professional. Suggestions have been made that the role of practitioner has superseded the role of scholar (Boyd; Douglah and Moss, both cited in Noel and Parsons 1973). Students should be trained in research methodology, because ability to retrieve and evaluate research is a useful part of the decision making process engaged in by the practitioner. In one of the few follow-up studies of adult education graduates, Noel and Parsons (1973) studied the self-assessed relevance of departmental learning objectives to professional 8 responsibilities by doctoral graduates. Graduates ranked learning objectives with the highest relevance to their professional activities as follows: 1. Understanding of adult education as a process of social change 2. Facility in organization and administration 3. Understanding of learning and curriculum 4. Understanding of adults and society 5. Identifying and evaluating scholarly research 6. Ability to design and conduct research However, Noel and Parsons found that the professional responsibilities of the individual practitioner influenced the perceptions of degree of relevance for each objective. The Commission of Professors of Adult Education has addressed some of the issues discussed above in its outline of the nature and purpose of the Commission. The objectives of the Commission are: to provide a definition of adult education as a field of work; to develop a systematic theory of graduate education; to identify the elements that should be included in a curriculum of graduate study; to systematize existing knowledge; to improve methods of graduate education in adult education; and to develop and test methods of evaluating results of graduate study in adult education (Commission of Professors of Adult Education Membership Information, n.p.: n.d.) In their document "Standards for Graduate Programs in Adult Education," (n.p.: n.d.) the Commission outlines the content areas of master's and doctoral level programmes. At the master's level these include: an introduction to the fundamental nature, function and scope of adult education; adult learning and development; adult education programme processes - planning, delivery, and evaluation; historical, philosophical, and sociological foundations, and; an overview of educational research. This curriculum should be supplemented with instruction from other faculties to suit the needs and goals of the student. At the doctoral level, the curriculum should include: advanced study of adult learning (e.g. theory and research relating to specific issues); in-depth analysis of social, political, and economic forces that have shaped the historical and philosophical foundations of adult 9 education; study of leadership, including theories of administration and management; study of issues that impinge on policy formation and; advanced study of methods of inquiry, in order to conduct adult education research. The focus of the doctoral level programme should differ with the doctoral degree, e.g. Ph.D. or Ed.D. (Commission of Professors of Adult Education, "Standards for Graduate Programs in Adult Education," n.p.: n.d.). Motivation for Participation in Graduate Programmes Motivation for participation in adult learning activities has been explored extensively by numerous authors. The basis of much of this work is founded on the 1961 work by Houle (cited in Cross 1981). Houle developed a three-way typology to explain motivation for participation in educational activities. He categorized individuals as being motivated by one or a combination of anticipated outcomes. Individuals were: goal-oriented (those who anticipated a change in skill level or knowledge); activity-oriented (those who considered the activity its own reward); and learning-oriented (those who pursued learning for it's own sake.) Refinements to this early theoretical paradigm have been made and current research examines variables that predict motivation, predisposition for participation, and variables that impel persistence in or drop out from educational activities. Three approaches that might be applied to participation in graduate programmes are discussed by Cross (1981). These are Miller's Force-Field Analysis, Rubenson's Expectancy-Valence Paradigm and Boshier's Congruence Model. All three are theoretically derived from the work of Kurt Lewin and the idea of the individual's weighing of positive and negative factors in decision-making. Miller's model, the least developed of the three, suggests that participation is simply the result of such a process of decision-making. The expectancy aspect of Rubenson's Expectancy-Valence paradigm is two-fold: 1) The individual expects that he or she will find personal success in an educational activity and 2) that the success will have positive consequences. The valence aspect of the paradigm is, like Miller's model, the individual's weighing of the values of the consequences of participation. 10 The two, expectancy and valence are interconnected and simultaneously brought into consideration by the individual. Boshier's (1981) Congruence model of participation, as the name suggests, focuses on the congruence of the perception of self and other "persons and things" in the educational environment. These other persons and things include image of ideal self, other students, teachers and the institutional environment (bureaucratic requirements, course content and physical environment, etc.) Using the same model, the degree of incongruence for participants between these things will determine the likelihood of persistence or dropout. Boshier further suggests that there is a "dropout prone" personality. This individual suffers from low self-esteem (or incongruence between self and ideal self) and, as a result, "projects" negative attributes on other aspects of the educational environment. External variables, such as age and socio-economic status may also contribute to the incongruence. Boshier (1977) developed the Educational Participation Scale (EPS) to predict motivation for participation. An extension of Houle's three-way typology, Boshier's original scale of 48 reasons for participation is broken into 5 categories: Escape/Stimulation; Professional Advancement; Social Welfare; External Expectations; and Cognitive Interest, and further has been used in studies which explain persistence or dropout. A more recent Boshier scale divides activities in statistically derived clusters. (An amended version of this scale was part of the questionnaire used in the present study.) Shrivastava (1978) examined the motivation for participation of graduate students in adult education at the Ontario Institute of Studies in Education. He found that the most important reason indicated by students was "to gain knowledge and skill in adult education." The second most important reason was for "personal growth." Characteristics of Graduate Students in Adult Education and Adult Educators Meisner, Parsons and Ross (1979) examined various demographic characteristics of graduate students in adult education. They determined that, on a national (U.S.) basis, the 11 adult education graduate student was likely to be female (51.9%), married, white, have two siblings, and was likely to have grown up in a non-metropolitan area. She was likely to have a previous degree in education, and to have entered her programme with five years of experience in adult education. Her professional goal was to become an administrator and earn a annual salary of $15,000-20,000. She cited becoming a better informed person and personal enjoyment and enrichment as her main reasons for initial participation in a graduate programme. Meisner et al. indicate that the majority of students were 29-34 years old. White's 1974 study is the point of departure for the work reported in this study. Her study examined the profile of graduates from the first 13 years of the Adult Education Programme at University of British Columbia In summary, her findings revealed that graduates were predominantly married males with one or two dependents, whose age, on graduation, was 39. Respondents had spent five years in the field before returning to graduate study, and most had graduated between the years 1969-1973. Most students had made an average of one to two career moves since graduation and spent 25 out of 43 hours in a working week in activities specifically related to adult education. Typically, respondents were employed by a college or university in a large city and had an average annual income of $14,000. A 1978 study done at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (Shrivastava 1978) profiled graduate students in adult education at O.I.S.E. as typically being 36 years old, married with two children, and having some professional certification and previous experience in teaching as well as in administration. He/she had an income of $11,000 a year. The profile was further broken down by degree programme. Little work beyond that which has been cited above has been done to profile graduates of adult education programmes. The work done by White (1974) of University of British Columbia graduates has been outlined above, as has the work by Noel and Parsons (1973). A 1985 study done at the Adult Education Research Centre (Write On: Adult Education makes the Future) stated that of traceable alumni of the adult education programme at the University of 12 British Columbia (1974-84) nearly 20% of graduates worked in hospitals and another 20% in colleges. Others were employed variously in government agencies, "institutes" and universities. The nature of their work was diverse. Liveright (1964) suggested that graduate study in adult education should shift from predominantly catering to the needs of those in the midst of a career to training to meet the needs of those at the beginning of their period of employment. This expectation was reiterated by Houle (1964), who suggested that "graduate training programs would have to be designed on new bases, particularly with respect to providing direct experience and internships to students" (p. 80). Yet the continued trend of mid-career entry into graduate school in adult education at the University of British Columbia was documented by White (1974) and at The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education by Shrivastava (1978). Damon (1961) examined the careers of adult educators and the occupational profiles of teachers and administrators. He found that teachers in adult education at that time were most likely to be working part-time. Damon held that the greater amount of part-time work in adult education was a function of the fact that most of the teachers working at that time did so in either the public education system or in business by day and in adult education as an extra-curricular activity. Administrators in adult education however, tended to be employed full-time, with a large number having had some college or university level training in adult education. His duties included being responsible for various aspects of programme planning as well as financial and support staff management. Occupational Functions and Attributes Chamberlaine (1961) compiled a list of competencies of adult educators, the top 5 of which are presented in rank order below: An adult educator: 1. Believes that there is potential for growth in most people 2. Is imaginative in programme development 13 3. Can communicate effectively - speaks and writes well 4. Has an understanding of the conditions under which adults are most likely to learn 5. Is himself learning Aker (1963) listed 23 behavioral objectives of doctoral and graduate students. Most important of these were 1) the ability to evaluate for clarification and change of objectives and 2) the ability to evaluate for research analysis. In 1987, Boshier developed a model to classify adult educators according to role occupied, primacy of concern, and outcomes sought. In his article he explained how his model served to illustrate the way in which these factors influence both the processes and content of training (to be taken within the socio-economic context in which the training occurs.) The facets of the model include, in the dimension of role, planner and teacher; in the dimension of primacy of concern, primary and secondary concern and; in the dimension of outcome, technical competence, social responsibility, social change and social integration. Charters and Hilton's study (1978) of full-time administrators showed that job title and function were not related in all cases. Administrators defined themselves and their functions as managers, teachers, communicators, etc. They saw their major goal as extending service to wider publics. However, a large part of their day was taken up with "administrivia." Administrators cited "communicating" to a variety of publics and people as consuming a large portion of their time. Many said they had the privilege to claim that, unlike many occupations, "their job was their work and their work was their job": they enjoyed the work in which they were employed. They used such descriptive words for their ideal day as "challenging," "stimulating," and "exciting." White (1974) found that University of British Columbia adult education graduates spent the most time (in order): instructing adults, counselling adults, establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships, planning and developing educational programmes, and continuing their own education. They spent the least amount of time determining 14 community needs and producing mass media programmes. Learning Needs and Professional Participation in Continuing Education Verner (1973) defined the field of adult education as that "myriad of activities through which adults actively seek systematic education in answer to their persistent need for learning" (p.5). Continuing professional education is part of this field and though much is written on the participation of many professionals (including those in law, health care, applied sciences, education, insurance, etc.) in continuing professional education, little has been written about the participation of adult educators. Aker (1963) evaluated the degree of perceived need of graduate students and doctoral graduates for increasing professional competence in a number of professional behaviors. Of the 23 behaviors identified, both students and graduates felt that they required greater competence in all of the behaviors. Those skills requiring the greatest amount of improvement were ability to analyze scholarly research and evaluate for programme change. These are the same behaviors that Aker identified as being the most important skills required by adult educators (see p. 13). White's study (1973) showed that areas in which graduates required the greatest amount of continuing learning were planning and developing adult education programmes and determining community needs. These were also the areas in which graduates felt most adequately prepared by their programme. They felt least adequately prepared to recruit and supervise clerical and secretarial staff and instructors, but felt these were the areas, along with evaluating adult education programmes, in which they least needed to continue their education. As for actual participation in continuing education, White found that the average graduate spent 9.1 hours per week in continuing education activities, of which 4.2 hours were spent in continuing education activities directly related to professional continuing education. Of this 4.2 hours per week, most was spent in independent study and taking credit courses. 15 However, White does note that there were some inconsistencies in the reporting of this data and they should therefore be considered doubtful. Career Patterns An early study by Damon (1961) examined the occupational mobility of administrators in adult education. He found that those seeking advancement could find opportunities both within and outside of adult education. He also found that those who desired to move out of the adult education environment cited marginal status and evening work as major factors in their choice. White's study (1974) found that there was a tendency among her respondents to move out of work in public schools and volunteer agencies into work in colleges and universities. Further, she found that though many respondents were employed in adult education immediately after graduation, they had moved out of the field of adult education entirely since that time. Gender and Occupational Prestige The discussion of gender, occupation and prestige is multi-faceted. However, two issues will be discussed here. The first is the prestige given to an occupation. This has been linked to the distribution of men and women in an occupation (i.e. a predominantly male profession will hold more prestige than a predominantly female one.) The second issue relates to the prestige of the individual in a profession. England (1979) has connected the prestige conferred on an occupation with the esteem of those in the rated occupation (see below). It should be noted that no literature could be identified on self-assessed prestige Change in Gender Structure of Occupations Gross (1968) discussed occupational segregation and the increase in women's participation in the work force in the past century. He attributed this in part to the education 16 of women, in part to the advent of World War 2, but largely to the general growth of the economy and the labour force. In 1960 the ratio of male to female workers was 2 to 1. Gross looked at 300-400 occupations in the U.S. Census for every census year between 1900-1960. He found that male inclusion or exclusion in an occupation was the same or more segregative at present than in the early years of this century. However women's occupation groups seemed more flexible in change of gender ratio. When a group's gender distribution inverted (such as seems to be the case in adult education) there was no basic change in the ratio structure. "When women invade a male occupation they take it over, with the result that there is as much segregation as before, perhaps because the men leave or take better jobs" (Gross 1968, p.207). Gross contrasted this with the fact that if men entered a "female" occupation, women were less likely to leave. (One might hypothesize that the entry of men into an occupation increases that occupation's status.) Gross suggested that occupations may in fact be becoming less segregative, but that it is the fastest growing occupations that segregate the most. A recent study done by the Canadian Medical Colleges (Lipovenko 1988) described medicine as a field presently undergoing a gender shift. Women are being attracted and admitted to medical school in unprecedented numbers, and as the number of women in the profession increases, the greater the perception that medicine is not a desirable occupation for men. The trend is thus self-perpetuating and self-fulfilling. Further, it was suggested by the Assistant to the Dean at the University of Montreal Medical School that the "whole profession has less status than it (did)" (Lipovenko 1988). Whether this is a direct result of the gender shift is not explored. Jarvis (1985) provided statistics regarding the gender distribution of adult educators in the United Kingdom. He outlined the difference in gender of full- and part-time educators by citing several studies done in the United Kingdom that indicate that managers and higher status educators were predominantly male while the actual teaching in adult education was performed by predominantly part-time female employees. Damon (1961) cited the predominance of male administrators in his early study. Thornton and Kavanagh's (1986) 17 study of members of the Pacific Association of Continuing Education showed a gender segregation in terms of part-time and full-time employment (i.e. most part-time workers were female and full-time workers were male.) Occupational Prestige of Men and Women The work done by Guppy and Siltanen (1977) examined the prestige accorded to men and women in the same occupation. In asking respondents to rank occupations of individuals described by occupational title and gender of incumbent (a third gender-unspecified group was the control group) they found a marginal statistically significant difference in average occupational prestige score for men over women. In 78% of occupations, men received a higher prestige score. Sex composition of occupation explained 50% of occupational prestige differences between males and females. Occupations with a high proportion of female workers were rated as having lower prestige than those with a high proportion of male workers. However, females in those same positions in "female" professions were accorded higher prestige than males. Powell and Jacobs (1984) looked at perceived prestige of male, female and no-gender incumbents in various occupations, and asked respondents to project income and education for the same. They found that the prestige accorded male and female incumbents in the same position differed enormously, and that the prestige gap between men and women was directly correlated with the sex composition of the occupation. Further, the prestige of sex-atypical incumbents (that is, a man in a "woman's job" or visa versa) was significantly lower than an incumbent in an "own-sex" position. This was true even after the effects of education and income were taken into consideration. England (1979) found that the percentage of women in an occupation made no significant contribution to its prestige and that the prestige that jobs carry is commensurate with the training required to perform the job and its complexity. In terms of distribution, she found that only in the top 5% of jobs were women under-represented. However, England took her study one 18 step further and linked sex differences with income and power. She found, like many others who have done income-attainment research, that the median income of females was 60% lower than that of men. In sum, she states: When interest focuses solely on occupational prestige, one finds a surprising lack of discrimination against women. On their face, these findings contradict notions of extreme sexism in the operating of the labor market. Yet the analysis has also suggested this sex equality of prestige to be rather vacuous. Although women have a very similar occupational prestige distribution to that of men, women's incomes are vastly lower than men's, and they seldom have the power to supervise or otherwise control a man's work. Sex equality of prestige is surprising in light of women's lesser income and power because, in general, there is a correlation between prestige, income and interpersonal power associated with an occupation (p.264). The issue of full-time and part-time work may ultimately contribute to the issue of prestige. Thornton and Kavanagh's (1986) study of local professional association members reported that of those employed full-time, 52.6% were men, whereas of those employed part-time, 83.6% were women. It could be conjectured that the discrepancy is even greater as part-time and informal workers would be less likely to join professional associations. Jarvis (1985) has reported similar distributions in studies from the United Kingdom. As percent-time worked will ultimately be linked to income and income perhaps linked to perception of occupational significance, one might conjecture that the number of part-time female workers in adult education will also have an effect on the degree of self-assessed occupational prestige. Implications of Gender Distribution on University Level Professional Programmes Gender issues in education are the topic of a large body of literature emanating from numerous fields and schools of thought. The sociological implications of gender and prestige 19 must be conjectured from previous work cited above. The social, educational and professional implications of gender distribution in adult education are multi-faceted. In discussing women and education in the professions, Brown (1987) cited Catherine MacKinnon as suggesting that in the study of law there are an increasing number of female graduates, though the curriculum is unchanged. Brown suggested that the implications of this are that "these young women are entering the practise of law without the theoretical perspective to examine law, without the analytical framework to evaluate the law, without the analysis to understand the historical role of the law in women's lives. In other words, with neither the understanding nor the values necessary to begin the complex task of challenging assumptions, formulating questions, establishing principles or even arriving at accurate conclusions as to whether the law ... could ever be humanized enough to work for women" (p. 58). In Brown's own profession of social work, the majority of the profession's work focuses around women and children, yet she contends the "welfare agenda" is male dominated. Her argument, in principle, is much like that presented by Thompson (1983). Brown's solution is to restructure graduate faculties to rectify the imbalance of women, natives and visible minorities in teaching and administrative positions. This conclusion is similar to suggestions presented in 1987 to the Departmental Review Committee of Adult Education at The University of British Columbia by a student group of the Programme. It was suggested that "with growing awareness of, and interest in, the much neglected areas of adult learning in the women's movement, the gender imbalance in the faculty urgently needs to be corrected so that student's research interests can receive more appropriate support" (P.2 of letter to members of Departmental Review Committee, Department of Administrative, Adult, and Higher Education, University of British Columbia, November 1987). Summary Various issues related to graduate programmes and students in adult education and to practicing adult educators have been presented in this chapter. The issue of change in the field 20 and discipline of adult education underlies much of what is discussed. Change is seen in the emergence and growth of the profession. Change is seen in the orientation in "training" adult educators, from instilling a mastery of skills and abilities, as suggested by Robinson in the early 60's, to an approach of equipping students and graduates with an understanding of social and educational issues. Changes over time can also be seen in the personal, educational, and career backgrounds of graduates and adult educators. Also discussed were the occupational and educational implications of a change in the ratio of men to women in the profession. The following chapters will explore some of these issues as they relate to the graduates of the adult education programmes at the University of British Columbia. 21 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY  Rationale In order to pursue some of the issues raised in the previous chapters, this study was undertaken to answer some of the questions that could be explored through examining a single and relatively small group of adult education graduates. These issues included professional, educational, and sociological considerations in the education and careers of adult educators. This chapter outlines the means used to compile data for the study, the hypotheses derived to answer the research questions presented in the first chapter, and the methods of analysis used for examining the data. Population and Sample Five hundred and forty-seven graduates in Adult Education from the University of British Columbia (1960-1988) were identified. This number included 26 graduates from the 1985 Diploma Programme held in Brazil, but excluded those from the 1986 Hong Kong Diploma Programme. For reasons of consistency in data interpretation, the graduates of off-shore Diploma Programmes are not included in this study. Of the 521 graduates of local programmes, 385 (approximately 74%) graduates were located and were mailed surveys. The primary sources of information for locating graduates were Adult Education Programme records and University of British Columbia Alumni Association records. Professors, staff and students were all helpful in tracing past graduates. Forwarded mail reached some of those who had moved from last known addresses. Of the 385 graduates polled, 192 (50%) responded by the end of August 1989. The original June 1989 mailing was perhaps ill-timed, and a follow-up mailing of 193 questionnaires in September 1989 improved the response, though only slightly to 223 (58.4% of all contacted graduates. See Table 1.) Findings should be considered in light of the fact that the sample group was self-22 selected, as all respondents were included in the study. Instrumentation and Questionnaire Construction The questionnaire was designed to answer the research questions posed in the first chapter, as well as to provide a profile of the graduates and their work experience since graduation. In part, questions from White's 1973 study were adapted and extended to facilitate this. One basic difference between White's questionnaire and the one used in the present study was to include demographic information in the body of the questionnaire. Another facet of the present study was to examine graduates' reasons for initial participation. This was loosely based on the categories developed by Boshier (1977). Although the data would not reveal whether these reasons either prompted or deterred participation in and/or graduation from the programme (as non-participants and those who never completed their programmes were never contacted), it was felt that this additional data might provide further insights into the nature of graduates of the adult education programme. Early in the formulation of the present study, ten adult education students at the University of British Columbia were asked to review and comment on the proposed questionnaire. Format, not content seemed to provoke the most discussion, though minor alterations in both were made for the pilot test. Seven graduates were contacted by mail for the pilot test and four questionnaires were returned completed. Since nothing on the questionnaire had provoked comment, no changes were made to the questionnaire after the pilot test. The original questionnaire package included: the questionnaire, a consent form, a letter of explanation, a return-addressed envelope, or in the case of local mail, a stamped return-addressed envelope. The second-mailing package was identical, except for the letter, and no postage was enclosed. (See Appendices A, B, C and D, pp. 102 - 108) for questionnaire, letters, and consent form.) Response, non-response and no contact made is detailed in Table 1. The quality of 23 Table 1: DEGREES GRANTED, RESPONSE TO QUESTIONNAIRES AND GENDER PROFILE OF RESPONDENTS / ADULT TOTAL NOT NO RETURNED QUESTIONNAIRES ED. DEGREES TRACE- RESPONSE DEGREE GRANTED ABLE - PACKAGE (U.B.C.) RETURNED GRANTED MEN WOMEN TOTAL N % N % N % Diploma 181 80 54 21 9.4 26 11.7 47 21.1 M.Ed. 215 60 62 34 15.2 59 26.5 93 41.7 M.Sc. 12 3 3 6 2.7 0 0.0 6 2.7 M.A. 108 17 33 17 7.6 41 18.4 58 26.0 Ed.D. 31 2 10, 13 5.8 6 2.7 19 8.5 TOTAL 547 162 162 91 40.8 132 59.2 223 100.0 24 response was surprising. Though many respondents chose to leave various parts of the questionnaire unanswered (analysis acknowledges differing response rates to individual sections of the questionnaire) many chose to reach beyond the bounds of the questionnaire and provide brief comments, notes and in several cases, pages and pages of letters. These comments are incorporated into the discussion of the data. Hypotheses The following hypotheses were derived to answer the research questions posed in the first chapter: Regarding issues surrounding occupational prestige: 1) Graduates will report that: occupational positions held immediately after graduation were more prestigious than positions held prior to entry into the programme; present occupational positions hold greater occupational prestige than positions held immediately after graduation and; anticipated occupational positions will hold still greater occupational prestige than positions held at present. 2) The self-assessed occupational prestige of graduates in the early years of the programme will be higher than that assessed by graduates in more recent years. This will be true in three time periods: immediately prior to entry into the programmes; immediately after graduation and; at present. Regarding men and women graduates: 3) Men and women graduates will differ in occupational prestige, income, and in time spent in performing fourteen specified adult education occupational activities. 4) Sex will be a greater predictor of occupational mobility of graduates than income or present occupational prestige. 5) Men and women graduates will differ in their initial reasons for participating in the programme. Regarding the adult education programmes: 25 6) Graduates of each of the five adult education programmes (Diploma, M.Ed., M.Sc.(Agriculture), M.A., Ed.D.) will differ in the mean time spent performing fourteen specified adult education occupational activities. Regarding occupational activities: 7) Graduates who spend a greater amount of their time performing other than fourteen specified adult education occupational activities will report poorer preparation in those activities. 8) Graduates who spend more time in fourteen specified adult education occupational activities will report better training at the University of British Columbia in those activities than those who spend less time performing these activities. 9) Graduates who spend more time in fourteen specified adult education occupational activities will report a greater need to continue learning in those activities than those who spend less time performing these activities. 10) Graduates who assess the quality of their preparation in adult education at the University of British Columbia highly will report a greater need to continue learning in fourteen specified adult education occupational activities than those who assess the quality of their preparation as poor.. Definition of Terms Graduates: Those who have been granted a degree or diploma in Adult Education at the University of British Columbia from 1960 to 1988. Adult Education Occupational Activities: A roster of fourteen defined activities that include instruction, planning and coordination of programmes, administration and research (See Appendix A, p. 104). Occupational Prestige: Self-assessed standing or estimation of value of an occupation. For the purposes of this study, prestige was self-assessed and reported by respondents in respect to their own jobs, on a low to high scale as represented by the values 1 to 10. 26 Occupational Mobility: The self-assessed movement between occupational positions or change of job title either with one or more employers. Quality of Adult Education Preparation: The self-assessed value of training in fourteen adult education occupational activities (See Appendix A, p. 104). Respondents rated the quality of their preparation as "excellent", "good", "fair", "poor" or "took no such training. Procedure for Analysis Hypotheses were explored using various analysis strategies. Means tests were used to examine the relationships between year of graduation and mean occupational prestige, sex and mean income, occupational prestige, occupational mobility and occupational activities, sex and mean strength of reason for participation and programme and mean time spent in specified occupational activities. The relationship between sex and reasons for participation was further examined with a discriminate analysis test, and the relationships between sex and present income and sex and occupational prestige were further tested with an analysis of variance (ANOVA). A t-test was used to analyze the between-period change in occupational prestige. To explore the relationship between occupational mobility and other surveyed variables, a multiple regression was performed Pearson Correlations were performed to examine the relationships between total percent time spent in adult education and perceived adequacy of preparation, occupational activities and perceived adequacy of preparation, occupational activities and learning need and perceived adequacy of training and, learning need. Chapter 4 will present the findings of these hypotheses, as well as a educational, occupational and demographic profile of the graduates and respondents' comments. 27 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS The first part of this chapter examines the educational, occupational and demographic profile of graduates of the Adult Education Programme at University of British Columbia, and is structured to coincide with the format of the questionnaire (see Appendix A, p. 104). The second part explores the hypotheses presented in Chapter 3. Lastly, there is a brief presentation of respondents' comments to the questionnaire. Profile of the Graduates Education Table 1 reports the educational distribution of graduates who responded to the survey: approximately 28.6% graduated from the M.A. programme, 42.1% from the M.Ed, programme, 2.8% from the M.Sc. programme, 8.5% from the Ed.D. programme and 24.6% from the Diploma Programme. The frequency of other degrees, diplomas and certificates granted to individuals both by the University of British Columbia and other institutions is shown in Table 2. Bachelor degrees in various arts, social sciences and humanities (107 or 50.7%) were the most common of "other degrees" held by graduates, followed by the multi-disciplinary category of "other diplomas, certificates and qualifications" (69 or 32.7%). The next most common groups of degrees were bachelor or similar degrees held in nursing (42 or 19.9%) and in science and applied science (41 or 19.4%). Most degrees were earned in Canada, the largest single group coming from the University of British Columbia. Participation Reasons for participation in the programme were examined and are documented in Table 3. The data presented in this table should not be confused with data portraying individual's decisions to participate or not, but rather reasons contributing to participation for 28 Table 2 PROFILE OF OTHER DEGREES AND CERTIFICATES HELD BY RESPONDENTS BY SEX OTHER DEGREES MEN WOMEN TOTAL N % N % N % Diploma, Certificate, 31 8.8 38 10.7 69 19.5 Qualification B.A., B.H.E., B.Com., 41 11.6 66 18.6 107 30.2 B.F.A., B.Mus., B.J., C.G.A., Ad.M. B.Ed., B.P.E. 23 6.5 15 4.2 38 10.7 B.N., B.Nur., B.S.N., 1 0.3 41 11.6 42 11.9 B.ScN., R.N., B.R.E. B.S. Eng., B.Tech., 18 5.1 23 6.5 41 11.6 B.Eng. M.A., M.S.W., L.L.B., 4* 1.1 7 2.0 11 3.1 M.B.A. M.Ed., M.P.E. 6 1.7 6 1.7 12 3.4 M.Sc.N. 0 0.0 2 0.6 2 0.6 Ph.D., Ed.D. 7 2.0 3 0.8 10 2.8 Other 7 2.0 15 4.2 22 6.2 TOTAL 138 39.0 216 61.0 354 100.0 29 Table 3 REASONS AFFECTING INITIAL DECISION TO PARTICIPATE IN THE PROGRAMME Decision Number Mean Standard Not Very Some A Deviation at all Little what Great Deal To Secure Professional 210 3.3 0.8 6.2 6.7 34.8 52.4 Advancement Increase my Competence in 204 3.2 0.9 99.3 8.8 28.4 53.4 My Job Avail Myself of Expanding 203 3.2 0.9 6.9 14.3 30.5 48.3 Job Opportunities Facilitate a Change in Career 207 2.9 1.1 0.0 10.6 27.5 44.4 Learn Just for the Sake of 203 2.8 1.0 17.7 12.3 41.4 28.1 Learning Give me Higher Status in my 198 2.7 1.0 18.7 18.2 36.4 26.8 Job Escape the Intellectual 197 2.4 1.1 28.9 18.3 30.5 22.3 Narrowness of my Occupation Increase my Income 198 2.3 1.0 26.8 28.3 30.8 14.1 Prepare for Service to the 195 2.3 1.0 27.2 26.2 30.8 15.9 Community Improve my Ability to Serve 197 2.2 1.0 36.9 31.5 28.4 13.2 Humankind Keep up with Competition 194 2.2 1.0 33.0 23.2 28.4 15.5 Improve my Ability to 196 2.1 1.0 35.7 23.5 27.0 13.8 Participate in Community Work Supplement a Narrow 194 2.1 1.0 35.1 24.7 26.8 13.4 Previous Education Become a More Effective 190 1.9 0.9 39.5 31.1 23.2 6.3 Citizen Keep Up with Others 189 1.8 0.8 47.6 28.0 20.6 3.7 Fulfill a Need for Personal 193 1.6 0.8 57.5 26.4 13.5 2.6 Associations and Friendships Participate in Group Activity 190 1.6 0.8 58.4 24.7 14.2 2.6 Maintain or Improve my 190 1.5 0.8 66.3 18.9 10.5 4.2 Social Position Comply with the Suggestions 192 1.3 0.7 73.4 17.2 6.3 3.1 of Someone Else Have a Few Hours Away 190 1.3 0.7 80.0 11.1 4.7 4.2 From Responsibilities Carry Out the 187 1.3 0.6 73.3 18.7 6.4 1.6 Recommendation of Some Authority  Scale: 1 = Not At All 2 = Very Little 3 = Somewhat 4 = A Great Deal 30 those who did participate. The most often cited reason (N=210) and the strongest motivator (x=3.333) for participation was the motivation "to secure professional advancement". Other strong motivators were increased job competence and expanding job opportunities. The weakest motivators were external: "to carry out the recommendations of some authority" and "to comply with the suggestions of someone else." Programme Information The age of students graduating from the programme ranged from 22 to 62 with the average age being 39. The mean age of male graduates was 38.6 (S.D. 8.4) and for women graduates was 39.7 (S.D. 8.8). Approximately 14% of all graduates were over the age of 50, and 12% were under the age of 30 (Table 4). As was outlined in the literature reviewed above, the data would suggest that the majority of graduates come to the graduate programme in adult education in mid-career. The time taken to complete one's degree or diploma range from less than one year to eight years (Table 5). Sixty-three percent took 3 years or less to complete their degree or diploma: approximately 22% took 3 years and 24% took 2 years, and the remainder took one year or less. Of those who took 6, 7, and 8 years to complete their programme (10.8%), some may have completed more than one degree in adult education in this time. Men took an average of 3.0 years (S.D. 1.9) to complete their degree or diploma and women 3.3 years (S.D. 1.6). By programme, female Ed.D. students took the longest on average to complete their degrees (4.5 years, S.D. 1.8 years) and male M.Sc. students the least amount of time (1.6 years, S.D. 0.5 years). In general, Ed.D. graduates took the longest to complete their degrees (4.3 years), followed by M.Ed (3.5 years) and M.A. graduates (3.0 years). Of the ongoing programmes, Diploma programme graduates took the least time to complete at 2.5 years (Table 6). Most respondents (45%) participated in the programme as part-time students, though 12.6% participated on both a full and part-time basis (Table 7). Female graduates were slightly less inclined to complete their degree solely as full-time students (37.1% as full-time, 47% as 31 Table 4 AGE AT GRADUATION FROM PROGRAMME BY SEX AGE MEN WOMEN TOTAL N % N % N % under25 3 1.4 2 0.9 5 2.3 25-30 13 6.0 20 9.3 33 15.3 30-35 21 9.7 25 11.6 46 21.3 35-40 19 8.8 29 13.4 48 22.2 40-45 14 6.5 21 9.8 35 16.3 45-50 6 2.8 13 6.0 19 8.8 50-55 7 3.3 13 6.0 20 9.3 55-60 4 1.8 4 1.8 8 3.6 over 60 0 0.0 2 0.9 2 0.9 TOTALS 87 40.3 129 59.7 216 100 AGE S.D. AGE S.D. AGE S.D. MEAN 38.6 8.4 39.7 8.8 39.1 9.0 Table 5 ACADEMIC YEARS TAKEN TO COMPLETE ADULT EDUCATION DEGREE OR DIPLOMA BY SEX YEARS MEN WOMEN TOTAL N % N % N % less than 1 3 1.4 0 0 3 1.4 1 17 8 17 8 34 16 2 19 8.9 32 15 51 23.9 3 17 8 29 13.6 46 21.6 4 9 4.2 14 6.6 23 10.8 5 10 4.7 23 10.8 33 15.5 6* 3 1.4 8 3.8 11 5.2 7* 4 1.9 3 1.4 7 3.3 8* 3 1.4 2 0.9 5 2.3 TOTALS 85 39.9 128 60.1 213 100 YEARS S.D. YEARS S.D. YEARS S.D. MEAN 3.0 1.9 3.3 1.6 3.2 1.8 * May refer to more than 1 degree 32 Table 6 ACADEMIC YEARS TAKEN TO COMPLETE PROGRAMME BY YEAR OF GRADUATION AND DEGREE PROGRAMME YEAR DIPLOMA M.Ed. M.Sc. M.A. Ed.D. 1960 - - - 2.0 -1961 - - - - -1962 - 2.0 - 2.0 -1963 - - - »6.0 -1964 - 5.0 - - -1965 1.0 3.0 - - -1966 - - 2.0 3.0 -1967 - 4.0 - 4.0 -1968 2.0 - 1.5 2.0 3.0 1969 - - 1.0 2.0 -1970 - 4.2 - 2.0 -1971 3.0 2.6 - 1.0 -1972 2.0 - 2.0 2.7 3.0 1973 1.8 4.0 - 3.0 -1974 1.0 4.5 - 2.0 4.0 1975 1.6 1.5 - - 4.0 1976 2.0 1.0 - 2.0 -1977 - 2.0 - 4.0 3.3 1978 - 3.7 - - -1979 3.0 2.7 - 3.6 -1980 2.0 2.3 - 4.5 *7.0 1981 1.5 3.7 - 2.2 *7.0 1982 2.7 3.8 - 3.5 2.0 1983 - 2.2 - - 2.0 1984 3.0 4.0 - 2.6 4.0 1985 5.0 4.0 - 2.2 3.0 1986 5.0 4.2 - 5.5 5.0 1987 2.5 4.2 - 3.2 5.0 1988 - 4.6 - 3.6 *6.0 MEAN ALL 2.5 3.5 1.6 3.0 4.3 YEARS S.D. 1.5 1.9 0.5 1.4 2.2 * May Be More Than One Degree 33 Table 7 FULL OR PART-TIME PARTICIPATION IN PROGRAMME BY DEGREE BY SEX Table 7a: Diploma Graduates FULL-TIME PART-TIME FULL & PART-TIME N % N % N % Men 6 28.6 15 71.4 0 0.0 Women 10 38.5 15 57.7 1 3.8 All Respondents 16 34.0 30 63.8 1 2.1 Table 7b: M.Ed. Graduates FULL-TIME PART-TIME FULL & PART-TIME N % N % N % Men 12 36.4 18 54.5 3 9.1 Women 16 27.1 34 57.6 9 15.3 All Respondents 28 30.4 52 56.5 12 13.0 Table 7c: M.Sc. Graduates FULL-TIME PART-TIME FULL & PART-TIME N % N % N % Men 5 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Women 0 - 0 - 0 All Respondents 5 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Table 7d: M.A. Graduates FULL-TIME PART-TIME FULL & PART-TIME N % N % N % Men 8 47.1 6 35.3 3 17.6 Women 17 42.5 13 32.5 10 25.0 All Respondents 25 43.9 19 33.3 13 22.8 Table 7e: Ed.D. Graduates FULL-TIME PART-TIME FULL & PART-TIME N % N % N % Men 7 58.3 1 8.3 4 33.3 Women 6 100.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 All Respondents 13 72.2 1 5.6 4 22.2 Table 7f: All Graduates FULL-TIME PART-TIME FULL & PART-TIME N % N % N % Men 38 43.2 40 45.5 10 11.4 Women 49 37.4 62 47.3 20 15.3 All Respondents 87 39.7 102 46.6 30 13.7 34 part-time, and 15.2% as both part and full-time students), though roughly the same number of male graduates participated as part-time students as those who participated as full-time students (41.8% full-time, 44% part-time and 8.8% both part and full-time.) Those in the Diploma and M.Ed, programmes were more likely to complete their programmes on a part-time basis, while those in the M.A. and Ed.D. programmes on a full-time basis. Those in the M.Sc. programme all completed their degrees on a full-time basis. Experience in adult education prior to entering the programme ranged from no experience to 24 years of experience (Table 8). Over 30% of respondents had no experience in adult education prior to training, while 90% had less than 12 years. The average number of years of prior adult education experience was 4.6 (S.D. 5.2). Several comments from respondents indicated they were unsure whether various work activities "counted", and therefore it might be assumed that a greater number of respondents, while not working in "adult education jobs", were performing what they felt were adult education occupational activities in their job. This is supported by further data that shows that though approximately 44% said they were not working in adult education in their last job prior to training, only 20% said they spent no time performing adult education activities in that position. Type of Agency in which Employed Figure 1 shows the distribution of place of employment before and immediately after graduation and at the time of the survey. The greatest number of respondents (N=55) spent some period of time before entering the programme in the public school system. Immediately after graduation, the greatest single number of graduates were employed by regional or community colleges (N=56). At the time of the survey, the greatest number (N=43) of graduates appeared to be employed by agencies other than those specified, though many fell in this category because they were retired. Thirty respondents were self-employed, an increase of 19 over the period immediately after graduation. The biggest shift into or away from a type of agency was out of an agency and into self-employment (a shift of 200%) (Table 9). 35 Table 8 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN PROFESSIONAL ADULT EDUCATION PRIOR TO TRAINING YEARS OF EXPERIENCE N PERCENT None 62 30.0 lto5 80 38.9 6 to 10 40 19.4 11 to 15 13 6.4 16 to 20 10 4.9 More than 20 1 0.4 TOTAL 206 100.0 YEARS S.D. MEAN 4.6 5.2 36 Figure 1 TYPE OF AGENCY IN WHICH RESPONDENTS EMPLOYED IN THREE TIME PERIODS Mass media or communications LJ 2 Library, museum etc. IjT ^ 2 Correctional institution Community group Social service agency Vocational or technical Voluntary agency Professional association Extension service Industry or commerce Health agency Public school Government agency University Self employed Regional or community college Other 11 II >ij M 6 I' "i" "!' " i " i 1 j "i r " "'f"~-f'"|'•' • | '• "j • "j' ••••|—— *'••»<|.. j . j . | * . | | | | 0 10 20 30 40 50 Respondents 60 37 Table 9 TYPE OF AGENCY IN WHICH EMPLOYED IN THREE TIME PERIODS BEFORE ENTRY INTO PROGRAMME AFTER GRAD-UATION AT PRESENT PERCENT CHANGE* N CHANGE* Public school 55 34 18 -67.3 -37 Other 15 16 43 +186.7 +28 Self employed 10 11 30 +200.0 +20 Health agency 33 24 15 -54.5 -18 Vocational or technical 18 21 6 -66.7 -12 Industry or commerce 18 12 13 -27.8 -5 University 26 36 21 -19.2 -5 Voluntary agency 3 9 7 +133.3 +4 Regional or community college 39 56 35 -10.3 -4 Community group 7 5 4 -42.9 -3 Social service agency 8 10 5 -37.5 -3 Mass media or communications 4 4 2 -50.0 -2 Extension service 9 14 7 -22.2 -2 Government agency 18 24 20 +11.1 +2 Library, museum etc. 2 0 2 0.0 0 Correctional institution 2 2 2 0.0 0 Professional association 7 9 7 0.0 0 * Change between "Before Entry Into Programme" and "At Present" 38 Percentage Time Employed The mean percent time employed for individuals for the periods preceding training, immediately following graduation and at present were 89.8%, 92.0% and 85.2% respectively. In these same periods, 82.9%, 85.4% and 77.8% of graduates were working 100% time. (The drop in percent for the latter period may be explained by large number of retired graduates.) Of respondents, 2.9% were unemployed prior to training, 2.0% after graduation, and at the time of the survey 8.5% specified they were unemployed. Again, the large shift may be due to increased numbers of retired graduates. Part-time employment (1-99% time) for the three periods was 14.4% prior to training, 12.5% after graduation and 13.6% at present. Of those who said they were currently working part-time, half said they aspired to work full-time. Supervisory Duties Supervision was one of the most often identified non-adult education job activities. Before graduation respondents supervised an average of 18.82 people (S.D. 59.2), after graduation 25.4 (S.D. 59.2) and at present 66.1 (S.D. 421.9), though 51.5% supervise less than 4 people. Annual Income from Employment As with the above questions, respondents were asked to report their income for the periods prior to training, immediately after training, and at present. As was often pointed out in the comments, the retrospective aspect of this question was fruitless, as both the year of entry into and graduation from the programme as well as inflation had to be taken into account. However, the trend in income for the group was positive. For the present period (1989), annual incomes ranged from nil to $150,000, with a mean of $46,000 (S.D. $23,400.) Twenty-six percent of respondents chose not to answer this question. Figure 2 shows respondents' incomes at the time of the survey by income group. The present average annual income for men was $51,722 (S.D. $22,500) and for women 39 Figure 2 ANNUAL INCOME AT THE TIME OF THE SURVEY FOR THOSE EMPLOYED IN ADULT EDUCATION AND THOSE EMPLOYED ELSEWHERE s i n Q o I-H i n o CN i n CM O CD i n CO o i n • > * o i n i n i n s i n N£> i n o 00 i n 00 o ON i n ON ON ON 2 o 2 o 2 Q ,2 2 Q Q £ \ o I-H CN a CO i n IN So ON NO ON 01 > o Annual Income in Thousands of Dollars • Respondents Employed In Adult Education At The Time Of The Survey (N=104) • Respondents Employed Elsewhere At The Time Of The Survey (N=52) 40 was $41,630 (S.D.$23,200). If respondents were currently employed in adult education, the average for men rose to $52,243 (S.D. $14,939) and lowered for women to $38,365 (S.D. $18,033). For those currently employed outside of adult education, the mean annual income was $55,230 (S.D. $27,290). For men in this group the mean was $56,538 (S.D. 26,701) and for women $53,923 (S.D. $28,277). City or Town of Employment o As Figure 3 shows, the largest group of graduates have worked or work in the Vancouver and surrounding municipalities. It would appear that the majority of respondents returned to their original place of work. No mass migration to or from the Greater Vancouver area was evident. Positions Held since Graduation and Perceived Occupational Mobility The average number of positions held with one or more employers since graduation was 2.9 (S.D. 3.6). Year of graduation would effect the possibility for number of job changes, however examining the number of jobs held by graduates over time, the number appears relatively static (Figure 4).2 Seventy-nine percent of respondents felt their opportunities for occupational mobility were high or average. Figure 5 shows the mean perceived opportunity for occupational mobility by sex and by year of graduation. Men and women seem to generally agree on the opportunity for occupational mobility (as one would expect as they are operating under the same economic conditions and with similar educational backgrounds) though more recent female graduates perceived themselves as more occupationally mobile (Table 10). Occupational Prestige Occupational prestige was examined for four time periods. Like the above questions on 2 The large mean number of positions held shown for the years 1960 and 1962 can in part be explained by the fact that for each of these graduating years, only one graduate responded to the survey. The means represent only one individual. 41 Figure 3 LOCATION OF EMPLOYMENT IN THREE TIME PERIODS ! § Before Entry Into Programme (N=187) • After Graduation (N=187) • At The Time Of The Survey (N=183) Figure 4 42 NUMBER OF POSITIONS HELD SINCE GRADUATION BY YEAR OF GRADUATION rH C N C O V O V O V O _ O v O v O v O v O v ' - ' C N c O ' ^ i n v p i N o o o v O r H f N N N N N N N K N N C O C O O O 0 0 0 0 O v O v in vo I N oo 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ^ ^ ^ ^ Year of Graduation 43 Figure 5 OPPORTUN ITY FOR O C C U P A T I O N A L MOBILITY BY Y E A R OF G R A D U A T I O N A N D BY SEX H I G H 1.0 A V E R A G E 2.0 c .-a M ct-g L O W 3.0 N O N E 4.0 i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — i — r ON cj\ Cf\ OA C3\ C3\ ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON Year of Graduation Men Women 44 Table 10 OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY BY SEX AND BY YEAR OF GRADUATION YEAR OF MEN WOMEN GRADUATION N MEAN SD N MEAN SD 1962 1 2.0 0.0 - - -1963 1 2.0 0.0 - - -1964 1 4.0 0.0 - - -1965 1 4.0 0.0 1 0.0 0.0 1966 3 1.6 0.5 1 3.0 0.0 1967 2 2.5 2.1 - - -1968 3 2.0 0.0 1 4.0 0.0 1969 1 2.0 0.0 2 1.0 1.4 1970 4 1.0 0.8 3 1.6 1.1 1971 6 1.6 1.2 1 0.0 0.0 1972 3 2.0 0.0 6 1.8 1.1 1973 2 2.0 0.0 7 1.7 0.4 1974 4 2.0 0.0 6 2.3 1.2 1975 3 2.6 1.5 7 1.7 0.9 1976 2 2.5 0.7 3 1.3 0.5 1977 6 2.1 1.1 1 1.0 0.0 1978 - - - 4 2.5 1.5 1979 3 2.0 1.0 9 1.5 0.7 1980 6 2.1 0.7 6 2.0 0.8 1981 4 1.0 0.8 11 1.7 1.0 1982 7 2.0 0.5 10 1.8 0.7 1983 2 2.0 0.0 5 1.6 0.5 1984 8 1.6 0.5 10 1.6 0.8 1985 3 1.0 0.0 7 1.4 0.7 1986 2 2.0 0.0 7 1.2 0.4 1987 5 1.8 0.8 5 1.6 0.8 1988 1 2.0 0.0 13 1.8 0.6 MEAN ALL 1.9 0.8 1.7 0.8 YEARS Note: Mean is mean of number of job/career moves with one or more employers. 45 percent time employed, number supervised, annual income and place of work, the first two periods, before training and immediately after graduation, do not represent the same time period for all students. For the periods prior to training , immediately after training and at present, respondents were asked whether or not their work was in adult education, the prime responsibilities of the job, the prestige they ascribed to the job and the percent time spent in adult education activities in that position. Only the first three of these questions were asked of respondents regarding their professional aspirations (see Appendix A, p. 103). Period 1-. Last Position Prior to Adult Education Training. Prior to training in adult education, approximately half of respondents to this question were employed in a position they deemed to be "adult education". One half of respondents said they were employed in adult education, but only one quarter of these spent 100% of their work time performing adult education activities. Likewise, 22.6% of respondents reported spending no time whatsoever in adult education activities. The mean time spent in adult education activities for the group was 44.4%, with a standard deviation of 40.7%. Nearly half of respondents worked as teachers prior to their programme (Table 11). Approximately half of these taught in classrooms in public schools, the other half taught adults in a variety of settings. (These categories have been derived through evaluation of respondent's comments throughout their questionnaire. Otherwise, those who stated that their primary responsibility was "instructor", "instruction", "trainer" or "training" were assumed to be teachers of adults. "Teacher" and "teaching" were assumed to indicate classroom/public school teaching, and unless otherwise specified, they were put in this category.) The mean occupational prestige level for this period was 6.4 (on a low to high scale of 1 to 10) with a S.D. of 1.9. For the group, the mean occupational prestige rating for men was 6.7 (S.D. 1.8) and for women 6.3 (S.D. 2.0). When examining the rating for only those who specified their current position as being in adult education, the mean for the group was 6.3 , for men 6.4 46 Table 11 PRIMARY JOB RESPONSIBILITIES IN FOUR TIME PERIODS TIME PERIOD RESPONSIBILITY LAST FIRST CURRENT PROFESSIONAL POSITION POSITION POSITION ASPIRATIONS PRIOR TO AFTER TRAINING TRAINING N % N % N % N % Administration / 21 10.9 34 17.1 54 26.6 43 30.2 Management Agriculture 2 1.0 4 2.0 3 1.4 1 0.7 Business / Commerce 2 1.0 0 0.0 1 0.4 1 0.7 Clerical 3 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 Consulting 1 0.5 3 1.5 15 7.3 15 10.5 Programme 18 9.3 18 9.0 10 4.9 5 3.5 Coordination Counselling 9 4.6 8 4.0 4 1.9 2 1.4 Curriculum 3 1.5 5 2.5 1 0.4 0 0.0 Development Programme Harming / 11 5.7 14 7.0 11 5.4 12 8.4 Development Evaluating Programme 0 0.0 0 0.0 4 1.9 2 1.4 Financial / Budget 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.4 0 0.0 Nursing 6 3.1 4 2.0 2 0.9 1 0.7 Research 2 1.0 9 4.5 6 2.9 8 5.6 Retirement 0 0.0 0 0.0 27 13.3 6 4.2 Sales/ Promotion 3 1.5 1 0.5 6 2.9 3 2.1 Self-Employed 1 0.5 1 0.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 Training or Teaching 51 26.5 55 27.7 36 17.7 24 16.9 Adults Teaching Public School 47 24.4 26 13.1 11 5.4 6 4.2 Other 12 6.2 15 7.5 9 4.4 12 8.4 Student 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 0.9 1 0.7 TOTAL 192 100.0 198 100.0 203 100.0 142 100.0 Note: Where "instructor" or "training" was entered by the respondent, it was assumed that this referred to the instruction or training of adults. The term "teaching" was assumed to refer to the teaching of children, unless otherwise specified. 47 and for women 6.3. For those not currently employed in adult education, the mean score was 6.8, for men 6.8, and for women 5.7 (Figure 6). Twenty-one and a half percent of respondents did not answer this question. Figure 7 shows the time spent in adult education activities prior to training, Approximately 25% of graduates spent all of their work time performing tasks they deemed to be adult education occupational activities. A similar number (22.6%) spent no time at all in adult education activities. The remaining graduates tended to spend less than half their time performing these activities. Period 2 - First Position After Training. After graduation, the percentage of those respondents employed in adult education jumped to 67.9% (an increase of 17.7%), and those who spent 100% of their time performing adult education functions grew to 42% from 25.6% (though 50% spent more than 75% of their time in these activities.) The average time spent in adult education activities for the group was 60.3% (S.D. 40%). The largest single group of respondents indicated that their primary responsibility in this period was teaching adults. The significant drop in the number of those teaching children can be seen in Table 11. An increase was evident in the number of those who were employed in jobs in which administration or management was their primary function. (Where 2 or more responsibilities were indicated by the respondent, only the first indicated, and assumed greatest time consumer, was documented.) The mean occupational prestige level for this period was 7 (on a scale of 1 to 10) with a S.D. of 1.7. For the group, the mean occupational prestige rating for men was 7.0 (S.D. 1.5) and for women 7.0 (S.D. 1.8). When examining the rating for those who specified their current position as being in adult education, the mean for the group was 7.0, for men 6.8 and for women 7.0. For those not currently employed in adult education, the group mean was 7.2, for men 7.5 and for women 6.8 (Figure 6). Twenty-one percent of respondents did not answer this question. In this period, 42% of graduates spent 100% of their work time performing adult education occupational activities, while 11.9% spent no time in these activities (Figure 7). 48 Figure 6 O C C U P A T I O N A L PRESTIGE IN POUR TIME PERIODS BY SEX A N D BY THOSE CURRENTLY EMPLOYED IN A D U L T EDUCAT ION A N D THOSE EMPLOYED ELSEWHERE Before Entry Into Programme After Graduation A t The Time Of The Survey Aspired Positions Men Employed in Adult Education [HI Men Employed Elsewhere |~| Women Employed in Adult Education |^ Women Employed Elsewhere 49 Figure 7 TIME SPENT IN ADULT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES IN THREE TIME PERIODS 91% to 100% Percentage Of Time Spent HI Before Entry Into Programme r~| After Graduation | At The Time Of The Survey 50 Most of the remaining graduates spent less than 50% of their time in adult education activities. Period 3 z Current Position. At present, 66.8% of respondents to this question, a slight decrease from the previous period, were employed in jobs they considered "adult education", though only 33.9%, another decrease, spent their entire work time performing adult education functions. The mean percent time spent in adult education activities was 56.3% with a standard deviation of 39.9%. The largest single group was employed in positions in which management and administration were the primary functions (Table 11). Previously discussed data would suggest these jobs are not in traditional adult education agencies (see p. 34). The mean occupational prestige level for this period was 8 (on a scale of 1 to 10) with a S.D. of 1.6.. For the group, the mean occupational prestige rating for men was 7.7 and for women 8.2. When examining the rating for those who specified their current position as being in adult education, the mean for the group was 8.1, for men 7.7 and for women 8.0. For those not currently employed in adult education the group mean was 7.9, for men 7.6 and for women 8.2 (Figure 6). Twenty-six percent of respondents did not answer this question. For those working less than 100% time in their current job, the mean occupational prestige for this period was 7.5 (S.D. 1.6), slightly less than for those working full-time. Women comprised of 64.3% of those working less than full time. In this period, there was a decrease in the number of graduates spending 100% of their work time performing adult education activities (to 34.5%), and a slight increase in the number spending no time in these activities (to 12.7%). The remainder of graduates tended to spend less than 50% of their work time performing adult education occupational activities (Figure 7). Period 4 - Professional Aspirations. Of the 70.9% who answered this question, 72.2% aspired to work in adult education. Of those currently not working in adult education (N=63), 27% aspired to move to jobs in adult education, 44.4% did not, and 28.6% did not answer the question. The majority of respondents desired to move to or remain in positions of administration 51 or management. The second largest group wished to move to or remain in positions in which teaching adults was the primary responsibility (Table 11). The mean occupational prestige level for this period was 8.4 (on a scale of 1 to 10) with a S.D. of 1.5. For the group, the mean occupational prestige rating for men was 8.3 and for women 8.4. When examining the rating for those who specified their current position as being in adult education, the mean for the group was 8.5, and almost identical for men and women at 8.4 and 8.6 respectively. For those not currently working in adult education, the group mean was 8.1, for men 8.0 and for women 8.1 (Figure 6). Forty-one percent of respondents did not answer this question. The poor response to this question might in part be explained by the number of respondents who are either currently or will soon be retired and assign no prestige to this status. General response to the question of occupational prestige was poor. Comments from two respondents perhaps in part explain: This notion of prestige is pretty foreign to my understanding of my work and I have a hard time contributing to research that uses that concept. I do not aspire to prestige, just to do my best and encourage others to do their best. An adult educator's prestige should reflect his/her behavior and performance as a facilitator in the learning setting. Tob Activities Related to Adult Education The greatest number of hours worked in an average week was 80, with the mean number of hours for the group being 40.6 (S.D. 15.3). For those who considered their current work to be in adult education, the average number of hours worked in the week was 41 (S.D. 13.9). For those not currently employed in adult education, the average number of hours was 40 (S.D. 17.5). Graduates were asked to specify the approximate percentage of time spent in an 52 average month performing various adult education activities. Table 12 shows the percent of respondents who spent some time in the specified activities, the mean percent time spent in a month (and the standard deviation.) Of those surveyed, 73.1% spent some time performing at least one of these activities. The mean percent time spent in these activities was 69.2% (S.D. 35.0%). Forty-seven percent of respondents specified various non-adult education work activities that they performed in an average month and approximately 70% of these reported spending more than 75% of their work time in non-adult education activities. Of the non-adult education activities specified, 12.5% of respondents spent an average of 22.5% of their time in administrative activities not specified in the roster of adult education activities. Supervision of staff consumed 11.3% of the time for 11.6% of respondents. Other respondent-specified activities included going to meetings, attending to financial matters and clerical/secretarial work. Academic Preparation Graduates were asked to rate their academic preparation by the programme in the fourteen specified adult education activities . The values set were "excellent" (1), "good" (2), "fair" (3), "poor" (4), "took no such training" (5) (See Table 13). Graduates rated their overall training in adult education at the University of British Columbia as fair (x=3.1) and felt best prepared by their programme to evaluate adult education programmes (x=2.13) and to develop and prepare adult education materials (x=2.13). They felt least prepared in the areas of recruiting and supervising instructors (x=4.15) and consulting (x=3.95) (Table 13). Table 14 shows the ranking of perceived adequacy of training in specified occupational activities by degree programme. Those in the M.Ed., M.Sc, and M.A. programmes felt best prepared to plan and develop adult education programmes. Those in the Diploma programme felt best prepared to instruct groups of adults and those in the Ed.D. programme felt best prepared to plan and conduct research studies, though both groups felt planning and developing 53 Table 12 MONTHLY PROPORTION OF TIME SPENT IN SPECIFIED ADULT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES ACTIVITY MEAN S.D. N % % * RESPONSE Planning and Developing Adult Education 16.5 15.0 111 49.8 Materials Developing Instructional Materials 11.1 11.8 92 41.3 Evaluating Adult Education Programmes 9.3 12.1 78 34.9 Determining Community Needs for Adult 6.0 3.8 62 27.9 Education Programmes Instructing Groups of Adults 23.3 26.1 103 46.2 Establishing and Maintaining Professional 6.7 5.3 95 42.6 Contacts Giving Speeches and Presentations 6.4 6.8 97 43.5 Producing Mass Media Programs for Adults 5.0 5.4 14 6.3 Publicizing and Promoting Adult Education 6.2 7.5 57 25.3 Programs Counselling Adults 11.1 15.0 84 37.6 Recruiting and Supervising Instructors 8.7 6.6 50 22.4 Preparing and Present Administrative 10.0 11.3 95 43.6 Reports Planning and Conducting Research Studies 10.6 14.0 52 23.3 Consulting 10.8 12.0 73 32.7 This figure represents the mean percent of time spent by individuals who indicated that they performed this function in their present work (N). Those who do not perform this function are excluded from the calculation. 54 Table 13 ADEQUACY OF TRAINING ACTIVITY MEAN SD Planning and Developing Adult Education Materials 2.13 0.94 Developing Instructional Materials 2.73 1.13 Evaluating Adult Education Programmes 2.13 0.87 Determining Community Needs for Adult Education Programmes 2.58 1.06 Instructing Groups of Adults 2.44 1.08 Establishing and Maintaining Professional Contacts 3.23 1.19 Giving Speeches and Presentations 3.24 1.18 Producing Mass Media Programs for Adults 3.79 1.14 Publicizing and Promoting Adult Education Programmes 3.38 1.14 Counselling Adults 3.79 1.27 Recruiting and Supervising Instructors 4.15 1.11 Administrative Reports 3.95 1.25 Planning and Conducting Research Studies 2.77 1.30 Consulting 3.95 1.24 OVERALL RATING 3.14 0.69 Scale: l=Excellent 2=Good 3=Fair 4=Poor 5=Took no such training 55 Table 14 R A N K ORDER OF A D E Q U A C Y OF TRAINING IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONAL ACTIVITIES BY DEGREE PROGRAMME R A N K ORDER DIPLOMA ACTIVITY M.Ed. ACTIVITY M.A. ACTIVITY M.Sc. ACTIVITY Ed. D. ACTIVITY Instructing groups of adults Planning and developing adult education programmes Planning and developing adult education programmes Planning and developing adult education programmes Planning and conducting research studies Planning and developing adult education programmes Evaluating adult education programmes Instructing groups of adults Evaluating adult education programmes Planning and developing adult education programmes Evaluating adult education programmes Developing instructional materials Determining community needs for adult education programmes Determining community needs for adult education programmes Evaluating adult education programmes Instructing groups Determining of adults community needs for adult education programmes Developing instructional materials Developing instructional materials Planning and conducting research studies Determining community needs for adult education programmes Developing instructional materials Determining community needs for adult education programmes Evaluating adult education programmes Instructing groups of adults 56 adult education programmes to be the activities they were next best prepared to perform. Learning Needs Respondents were asked to identify those areas, which had previously been identified as adult education activities, in which they felt they needed to continue their education in terms of their present position. The numbers in Table 15 illustrate the mean level assigned to self-perceived need to continue education by activity and its standard deviation, for those currently employed in adult education and for those currently employed elsewhere. In general, the group felt their most considerable educational needs were in the areas of evaluating adult education programmes and developing instructional materials. Further education in recruiting and supervising instructors and producing mass media programs for adults were least regarded as needs. However, in all cases, the mean for the group was between "moderate" and "very little" need for continuing education in all fourteen areas. When the group was narrowed to those who identify themselves as currently employed in adult education, evaluating adult education programmes again was the skill in which most respondents needed further education, and recruiting and supervising and producing mass media programmes for adults were the least. Instructing adults emerged as one of the skills least requiring further professional education. This is interesting because, as shown, this activity is ranked among the three most time consuming by all graduates except those graduating from the M.Sc. programme. However, these data are also consistent with previous data indicating a trend in the group to jobs involving administration and management. Continuing Professional Education Respondents were asked to estimate the number of hours they spent in an average month in various continuing professional education activities. Table 16 shows the response rate, the mean for those responding in each activity and the standard deviation. The greatest number of 57 Table 15 TO CONTINUE EDUCATION BY THOSE CURRENTLY EMPLOYED IN ADULT EDUCATION AND BY THOSE CURRENTLY EMPLOYED ELSEWHERE EMPLOYED EMPLOYED IN A.E. ELSEWHERE ACTIVITY MEAN S.D. MEAN S.D Planning and Developing Adult Education 2.5 0.8 3.0 1.1 Materials Developing Instructional Materials 2.5 0.8 2.9 1.1 Evaluating Adult Education Programmes 2.2 1.0 3.1 1.0 Determining Community Needs for Adult 2.5 0.9 3.2 1.0 Education Programs Instructing Groups of Adults 2.8 0.8 2.8 1.1 Establishing and Maintaining Professional 2.5 0.9 3.0 1.0 Contacts Giving Speeches and Presentations 2.6 0.9 2.7 1.0 Producing Mass Media Programmes for 2.8 1.0 3.2 1.0 Adults Publicizing and Promoting Adult Education 2.8 1.0 3.2 1.0 Programmes Counselling Adults 2.7 1.0 3.0 1.0 Recruiting and Supervising Instructors 2.8 1.0 3.2 1.0 Administrative Reports 2.7 1.0 2.9 1.0 Planning and Conducting Research Studies 2.5 1.0 2.9 1.1 Consulting 2.5 1.0 2.9 1.1 FOR ALL ACTIVITIES 2.6 0.6 2.8 0.9 Scale: 1 = Considerable 2 = Moderate 3 = Very Little 4 = None Table 16 MONTHLY TIME SPENT IN SPECIFIC PROFESSIONAL CONTINUING EDUCATION ACTIVITIES ACTIVITY MEAN * SD N % RESPONSE Self-directed Reading 16.0 15.1 180 80.7 Attending Conferences or Meetings 10.5 11.5 153 68.6 Taking Credit Courses 18.7 23.9 23 10.3 Independent Study Projects 16.4 19.8 92 41.2 Other Learning Activities Related in 20.0 24.3 61 27.3 Work * For each activity, the mean is calculated only for those who spent time in this activity. Those who did not spend any time in this activity were not included in the calculations. 58 individuals (80.7%) spent an average of 16 hours per month in self-directed reading. Only 10.3% of respondents were furthering their education through credit courses. Almost 70% said they spent approximately 10 hours a month attending meetings or conferences which in some way contributed to their professional continuing education. In areas not specifically related to work, 61% of respondents said they spent some time continuing their education. The mean time spent in continuing education for the group (N=136) was 14.98 hours per month, with a standard deviation of 15.16. Demographics Of the respondents, 59.2% were female and 40.8% were male. Figure 8 documents the ratio of male and female respondents to the survey, by year of graduation. However, to accurately examine the change in the gender profile, Table 17 shows the percent of male and female graduates by year of graduation as ascertained through Alumni Association records. From the programme's inception until 1964, all graduates from the programme were male. This profile has changed over time. As can be seen in Table 17, there has been a reasonably steady increase in the number of female graduates in the programme, and in 1988, the final graduating year documented in this report, only 21.7% of graduates were male. Seventy-three percent of respondents indicated they were married or cohabiting at the time the survey was done and 57.4% had one or more dependents on entry to the programme. Hypotheses In this section, the hypotheses introduced in the third chapter will be analyzed. Occupational Prestige It was hypothesized that graduates would report that the occupational position held immediately after graduation held greater occupational prestige than the position held prior to entry into the programme; their position at the time of the survey held greater occupational 59 Figure 8 NUMBER AND RATIO OF MALE AND FEMALE RESPONDENTS BY YEAR OF GRADUATION 14-12-10 S 8 ' •o c Ol OH RATIO \ Men • Women Mil fN CO Year of Graduation 60 Table 17 PERCENTAGE OF MALE AND FEMALE GRADUATES AND RESPONDENTS YEAR OF GRADUATES RESPONDENTS GRADUATION . MEN WOMEN MEN WOMEN PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT PERCENT 1960 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 1962 100.0 0.0 - -1963 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 1964 100.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 1965 80.0 20.0 66.7 33.3 1966 75.0 25.0 75.0 25.0 1967 66.7 33.3 100.0 0.0 1968 63.7 36.3 57.1 42.9 1969 53.8 46.2 33.3 66.7 1970 45.8 54.2 57.1 42.9 1971 69.5 30.5 87.5 12.5 1972 44.5 55.0 40.0 60.0 1973 40.7 59.3 20.0 80.0 1974 34.4 65.6 40.0 60.0 1975 30.7 69.3 27.2 72.8 1976 62.5 37.5 40.0 60.0 1977 47.0 53.0 85.7 14.3 1978 57.1 42.9 0.0 100.0 1979 21.7 78.3 23.0 77.0 1980 39.4 60.6 50.0 50.0 1981 31.8 68.2 26.6 73.4 1982 40.5 59.5 41.1 58.9 1983 34.4 65.6 28.5 71.5 1984 29.2 70.8 44.4 55.6 1985 31.5 68.5 30.0 70.0 1986 37.5 62.5 22.2 77.8 1987 57.1 42.9 50.0 50.0 1988 21.7 78.3 12.5 87.5 61 prestige than the position held immediately after graduation and; anticipated positions would hold still greater occupational prestige than the position held at the time of the survey. The hypothesis proved correct in that the mean occupational prestige score for the group increased with each time period (from 6.4 to 7.0 to 8.0 to 8.4). The greatest increase in occupational prestige did not occur between the periods before and after graduation, as was expected in assessing prior research (White 1974). Rather the greatest increase took place between the first job held immediately after graduation and the present. This may be accounted for simply by the greater amount of time in this period. The time span of each of these periods would vary with the individual, but as a large number of respondents to this study graduated in the early years of the programme, the period between graduation and the present may represent as many as 28 years. Table 18 shows the t-value between periods. All were significant at the .001 level, though the large t-value for the period between graduation and the present underscored the increase in occupational prestige for this period. Occupational Prestige and Year of Graduation It was hypothesized that the level of occupational prestige of graduates would be higher for those graduating in the early years of the programme than for those in more recent graduating classes. The hypothesis was examined by period. Last Position Before Training: The mean occupational prestige score for the group (N=175) for this period was 6.49, with a minimum occupational prestige rating of 1 and a maximum of 8. No steady increase or decrease over time in occupational prestige is noted for this period. The correlation of occupational prestige score and graduating year (1960 and 1988) was -.0446, P=.279 (Table 19), and the negative trend was non-significant. First position after training: Though the mean score for the group increased slightly to 7.08 (N=176, minimum score=2, maximum=10), again no trend was seen in the scores over time. For the years 1960 to 1988, the correlation was .0225, P=.383 (Table 19). Present position: The mean score for the group increased to 8.00 (N=164, minimum 62 Table 18 O C C U P A T I O N A L P R E S T I G E B Y P E R I O D A N D T - V A L U E B E T W E E N P E R I O D S P E R I O D N M E A N J T E T T - V A L U E SIGT Last Position Prior To 175 6.49 1.9 Training First Position After Training 176 7.08 1.7 Current Position 164 8.00 1.6 Professional Aspirations 131 8.41 1.5 -3.63 0.000 -6.35 0.000 -3.70 0.000 63 Table 19 OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE LEVEL IN FOUR TIME PERIODS BY YEAR OF GRADUATION TIME PERIOD YEAR OF LAST POSITION FIRST POSITION CURRENT PROFESSIONAL GRADU- PRIOR TO AFTER TRAINING POSITION ASPIRATIONS ATION TRAINING MEAN SD MEAN SD MEAN SD MEAN SD 1960 1.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 6.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 1962 6.0 0.0 7.0 2.8 7.5 0.7 7.0 0.0 1963 8.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 1964 5.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 - -1965 7.5 3.5 7.0 1.4 10.0 0.0 - -1966 8.0 1.4 7.5 0.5 8.0 1.0 7.5 0.7 1967 8.0 0.0 8.0 0.0 7.0 0.0 - -1968 5.6 0.8 5.2 0.8 6.3 3.7 7.6 1.5 1969 8.0 1.4 8.5 0.7 7.0 1.4 8.0 0.0 1970 7.5 0.5 7.7 0.5 8.2 0.5 8.0 1.0 1971 6.5 1.0 6.2 2.2 6.5 0.7 8.0 0.0 1972 7.3 1.2 6.4 1.8 8.3 0.7 6.6 3.3 1973 6.2 2.1 7.5 1.7 8.3 1.3 8.2 2.4 1974 5.7 2.5 7.8 1.2 7.2 2.2 7.6 1.5 1975 6.2 3.4 7.0 2.6 7.1 3.4 9.4 0.8 1976 7.0 3.4 8.2 1.2 8.3 1.5 8.0 0.0 1977 7.3 1.7 7.5 1.5 8.0 1.7 7.7 2.0 1978 6.5 2.1 7.5 0.7 9.0 0.0 9.0 0.0 1979 6.0 2.1 8.0 1.5 8.9 1.0 8.8 1.0 1980 6.9 1.5 6.4 1.6 7.7 1.1 7.5 2.6 1981 6.1 1.9 6.3 2.1 8.1 1.4 8.4 0.9 1982 7.4 1.5 7.4 1.4 8.1 1.5 8.7 1.0 1983 6.6 0.8 6.6 0.5 7.2 1.5 8.0 1.0 1984 5.8 2.1 6.8 2.1 8.4 1.1 9.1 0.9 1985 6.5 1.3 7.1 1.2 8.7 0.8 9.1 0.6 1986 5.6 1.5 7.5 1.7 8.7 0.8 9.0 1.0 1987 6.7 1.5 7.3 2.0 7.8 1.6 8.8 1.0 1988 6.1 2.1 6.6 1.7 7.3 1.5 8.0 0.9 MEAN 6.5 1.9 7.1 1.7 8.0 1.6 8.4 1.5 ALL YEARS CORRELA -.0446 .0225 .2124 .2629 -TION P .279 .383 .077 .001 Scale: 1 = Low Occupational Prestige 10 = High Occupational Prestige 64 score=3, maximum=10). No consistent trend occurred over the years 1960-1988 (Table 19), though a general increase in occupational prestige was evident (R=.2124, P=.077). Aspired positions: The mean score for the group in this period was 8.41 (N=131) with a minimum and maximum score of 5 and 10 respectively. In a correlation test of graduation year with aspired occupational prestige, there was a correlation of .2124, P=.001 (Table 19). There was a slight decrease in the scores of more recent graduates, though this might be explained by the decrease in desired occupational prestige (responsibility, etc.) of those nearing retirement. In general, the support for the hypothesis proved weak. Though trends were found in the occupational prestige assessed for present and anticipated positions, they could be explained by other phenomena. This will be explored in the following chapter. Profile and Gender It was hypothesized that a difference would exist between men and women in their occupational prestige, income, and time spent in 14 specified occupational activities. In evaluating the differences in occupational prestige scores of men and women, except in eight of the twenty-eight years included in this study, the mean present occupational prestige score for women was higher than that for men (where both sexes were represented in a year's calculation (Table 20). In examining all graduating years, the difference for men and women in this period was 7.7 versus 8.2, respectively. All other periods (i.e. prior to training, first position after training, and aspired positions) were held almost identically by men and women (Table 21). The hypothesis was further analyzed by examining the gender/prestige relationship by period and by sphere of employment (i.e. employed in adult education-employed elsewhere). The mean occupational prestige score for each of these cells is illustrated in Table 21. Though a two-by-two analysis was made to test for significance between groups in each period, the only significant difference identified was between men and women, regardless of sphere of employment. Women held their position at the time of the survey to be more 65 Table 20 PRESENT OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE LEVELS BY SEX AND BY YEAR OF GRADUATION YEAR OF GROUP MEN WOMEN GRAD MEAN SD MEAN SD MEAN SD 1960 6.0 0.0 6.0 0.0 - -1962 7.5 0.7 7.5 0.7 - -1963 10.0 0.0 10.0 0.0 - -1964 3.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 - -1965 10.0 0.0 - - 10.0 0.0 1966 8.0 1.0 7.5 0.7 9.0 0.0 1967 7.0 0.0 7.0 0.0 - -1968 6.3 3.7 6.3 3.7 - -1969 7.0 1.4 6.0 0.0 8.0 0.0 1970 8.2 0.5 8.3 0.5 8.0 0.0 1971 6.5 0.7 6.5 0.7 - -1972 8.3 0.7 8.0 0.0 8.5 0.8 1973 8.3 1.3 9.0 0.0 8.2 1.4 1974 7.2 2.2 5.6 2.3 8.5 1.2 1975 7.1 3.4 8.0 1.4 6.7 4.2 1976 8.3 1.5 8.0 0.0 8.5 2.1 1977 8.0 1.7 7.8 1.9 9.0 0.0 1978 9.0 0.0 - - 9.0 0.0 1979 8.9 1.0 8.6 1.5 9.0 0.0 1980 7.7 1.1 7.8 0.4 7.6 1.6 1981 8.1 1.4 7.0 1.4 8.4 1.3 1982 8.1 1.5 8.0 1.8 8.2 1.3 1983 7.2 1.5 7.0 1.4 7.5 2.1 1984 8.4 1.1 7.8 0.6 8.8 1.3 1985 8.7 0.8 9.0 0.0 8.6 1.1 1986 8.7 0.8 9.5 0.7 8.5 0.8 1987 7.8 1.6 8.4 1.4 7.2 2.2 1988 7.3 1.5 8.0 0.0 7.2 1.6 FOR 8.0 1.6 7.7 1.6 8.2 1.5 ALL YEARS Scale: l=Low Occupational Prestige 10=High Occupational Prestige 66 Table 21 OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE IN FOUR TIME PERIODS BY SEX AND BY THOSE CURRENTLY EMPLOYED IN ADULT EDUCATION AND THOSE EMPLOYED ELSEWHERE LAST POSITION FIRST POSITION CURRENT PROFESSIONAL PRIOR TO AFTER POSITION ASPIRATIONS TRAINING TRAINING M F M F M F M F Those Currently 6.4 5.9 6.8 7.0 7.7 8.1 8.4 8.6 Employed in Adult Education Those Currently 6.8 5.7 7.5 6.8 7.6 8.2 8.0 8.1 Employed Elsewhere Those Currently 6.7 6.3 7.0 7.0 * 7.7 * 8.2 8.3 8.4 Employed in Adult Education and Elsewhere * Significance between men and women = .048 67 prestigious than men at the .04 level. In terms of income, men working in adult education earned more than women. For all graduates, the mean income for men was $51,722 (S.D. $22,500), while women earned significantly less (F=.006) at $41,630 (S.D. $23,200) (Table 22). The disparity becomes greater when the incomes of those currently employed in adult education positions were examined. Men in this category earned a mean of $52,243 per year (S.D. $14,939) while women earned $38365 (S.D. $18,033). This disparity between income levels was not evident for those currently employed in other occupations, though men earned slightly more. For those currently employed elsewhere, men earned a mean of $56,538 (S.D. $26,701) while and women earned $53,923 (S.D. $28,777). Women employed outside of adult education earned more on average than men employed in adult education. Table 23 shows the present mean income of respondents by sex and year of graduation. In only four graduating classes where both sexes were represented, did the average incomes of women exceed those of men. In two of these cases (1975 and 1980) the standard deviation from the mean is especially large. There does not seem to be any consistent drift toward or away from pay equity for those graduating from more recent classes. In terms of time spent by men and women in specified occupational activities, though men and women spent roughly the same amount of time performing these activities, twice as many women as men actually performed the activities (See Table 24). The first and second greatest time consumers for men and women were the same: instructing and planning and developing adult education programmes; however the third most often reported time consumers were: for men, preparing administrative reports and, for women, counselling. In sum, the hypothesis was proven correct in that differences did exist between men and women respondents in these areas. These will be explored in the concluding chapter. Occupational Mobility It was hypothesized that that the sex of the respondent would be a greater predictor of 68 Table 22 PRESENT INCOME BY SEX AND BY THOSE CURRENTLY EMPLOYED IN ADULT EDUCATION AND BY THOSE CURRENTLY EMPLOYED ELSEWHERE MEN WOMEN MEAN S.D. MEAN S.D. Those Currently Employed in $ 52,243 $14,939 $38,365 $18,033 Adult Education Those Not Currently $56,538 $26,701 $53,923 $28,777 Employed in Adult Education Both $51,722 $22,500 $41,630, $23,200 Table 23 PRESENT MEAN INCOME OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX AND BY YEAR OF GRADUATION YEAR OF GRAD N MEN MEAN IN 1000s SD N WOMEN MEAN IN 1000s SD 1962 1 47.0 0.0 - - -1963 1 65.0 0.0 - - -1964 - - - - - -1965 1 34.0 0.0 - - -1966 3 64.6 16.1 - - -1967 1 30.0 0.0 - - -1968 4 50.7 33.2 - - -1969 1 45.0 0.0 2 7.0 9.8 1970 4 69.2 40.6 1 70.0 0.0 1971 6 39.5 36.7 1 0.0 0.0 1972 3 34.3 21.3 5 46.8 14.8 1973 1 50.0 0.0 3 36.6 15.2 1974 3 60.3 36.9 5 28.4 23.8 1975 2 57.5 10.6 2 78.5 51.6 1976 - - - 2 55.0 7.0 1977 6 56.0 7.8 1 53.0 0.0 1978 - - - 3 41.6 23.6 1979 3 76.6 41.9 7 53.0 25.2 1980 5 51.0 6.9 4 65.7 59.7 1981 3 53.3 10.6 8 46.7 18.4 1982 6 54.5 13.3 6 41.8 16.7 1983 2 56.0 9.8 3 52.6 12.6 1984 7 42.4 16.7 10 32.1 14.3 1985 3 54.6 9.6 5 44.8 7.9 1986 1 40.0 0.0 7 36.7 22.3 1987 4 40.5 21.3 5 32.6 13.9 1988 1 60.0 0.0 12 36.0 13.9 FOR ALL 72 51.7 22.5 92 41.6 23.2 YEARS 69 Table 24 DISTRIBUTION OF PERFORMANCE OF SPECIFIED ADULT EDUCATION OCCUPATIONAL ACTIVITIES BY SEX MEN WOMEN TOTAL RESPONSE ACTIVITY % OF % OF % OF RESPON- MEAN RESPON- MEAN RESPON-DENTS HRS.. SD DENTS HRS.. SD DENTS Planning and Developing 18.8 13.2 10.4 37.6 15.2 16.9 56.5 Adult Education Programs Developing Instructional 15.2 9.9 10.9 32.7 9.3 11.9 47.9 Materials Evaluating Adult 15.2 10.0 15.6 29.5 5.8 8.2 44.8 Education Programmes Determining Community 12.1 5.1 4.6 28.2 3.7 4.0 40.3 Needs For Adult Education Programmes Instructing Groups of 16.5 23.3 27.8 33.6 20.5 24.9 50.2 Adults Establishing and 14.3 7.0 6.8 32.7 5.6 4.6 47.0 Maintaining Professional Contacts Giving Speeches and 16.1 4.8 4.8 34.9 5.7 7.4 51.1 Presentations Producing Mass Media 6.2 1.1 1.8 20.1 1.2 3.7 26.4 Programmes Publicizing and Promoting 10.3 3.9 3.4 25.5 4.6 7.9 35.8 Adult Education Programs Counselling Adults 13.9 8.8 9.8 30.9 9.6 16 44.8 Recruiting and Supervising 8.5 5.1 5.3 23.7 6.4 7.2 32.2 Instructors Preparing and Presenting 17.4 10.7 11.2 30.4 7.8 11 47.9 Administrative Reports Planning and Conducting 13.0 11.0 13.7 22.8 4.5 11.0 35.8 Research Consulting 13.9 7.4 5.8 26.0 9.6 13.8 39.9 70 his or her occupational mobility than income or present occupational prestige. These and eighteen other surveyed variables were tested . This hypothesis was rejected. In a multiple regression analysis of the above , age at graduation was the only variable to meet an acceptable level of significance (t=.002, Table 25). Years since graduation and level of present occupational prestige had t-values of .1004 and .1750 respectively. Reasons for Participation It was hypothesized that men and women would differ in their initial decisions for participating in the programme. Though the top five reasons given by men and women were the same, they were ranked differently by each group. Men gave "to increase competence in my job" as the foremost reason for their participation, while women ranked this third. Women stated "to avail myself of expanding job opportunities" as their foremost reason for considering participation in the programme, while men ranked this third. "Securing professional advancement"(ranked 2nd), "facilitating a change in career" (ranked 4th) and "learning just for the sake of learning "(ranked 5th) were ranked identically by men and women. "Facilitating a change in career" and "availing myself of expanding job opportunities" were the only reasons weighed significantly differently by women and men (Table 26): women stated that these reasons were somewhat of a factor in their decision, men stated they were very little of a factor. All other correlations were not significant at the .10 level. The hypothesis was rejected on this basis. Occupational Activities and Departmental Programme It was hypothesized that graduates of each of the five adult education programmes would differ in the time spent performing fourteen specified adult education occupational activities. Table 27 shows the rank order of time spent in fourteen occupational activities by degree programme. No group ranked these occupational activities identically, though the similarity between occupational functions performed by the M.Ed, and Diploma graduates was apparent. The limited amount of time spent in any of these function by M.Sc. graduates was 71 Table 25 PREDICTORS OF OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY VARIABLES BETA T SIG. OF T Age at Graduation -0.291413 -.3077 0.0027 Present Annual Income 0.113515 1.184 0.2390 Sex 0.007588 0.079 0.9368 Present Occupational Prestige 0.128849 1.366 0.1750 Table 26 STRENGTH OF REASONS FOR PARTICIPATION BY SEX AND SIGNIFICANCE BETWEEN SEXES BY ITEM DECISION MEN WOMEN SIGNIFI-MEAN MEAN CANCE Avail Myself of Expanding Job Opportunities 3.0 3.3 0.004 Facilitate a Change in Career 2.8 3.1 0.034 Carry Out the Recommendation of Some 1.4 1.2 0.111 Authority Increase my Competence in My Job 3.3 3.1 0.126 Improve my Ability to Participate in 2.1 2.2 0.133 Community Work Improve my Ability to Serve Humankind 2.2 2.3 0.160 To Secure Professional Advancement 3.2 3.3 0.241 Give me Higher Status in my Job 2.5 2.7 0.244 Participate in Group Activity 1.6 1.5 0.300 Supplement a Narrow Previous Education 2.2 2.1 0.400 Comply with the Suggestions of Someone Else 1.4 1.3 0.430 Maintain or Improve my Social Position 1.5 1.4 0.460 Fulfill a Need for Personal Associations and 1.6 1.5 0.490 Friendships Keep Up with Others 1.7 1.8 0.535 Increase my Income 2.2 2.3 0.656 Prepare for Service to the Community 2.4 2.2 0.657 Keep up with Competition 2.2 2.2 0.663 Learn Just for the Sake of Learning 2.8 2.8 0.676 Have a Few Hours Away From 1.3 1.3 0.785 Responsibilities Become a More Effective Citizen 2.0 1.9 0.799 Escape the Intellectual Narrowness of my 2.4 2.4 0.997 Occupation Scale: 1 = Not At All 2 = Very Little 3 = Somewhat 4 = A Great Deal 72 Table 27 AVERAGE MONTHLY TIME SPENT IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONAL ACTIVITIES BY DEGREE PROGRAMME ORDERED BY TIME SPENT DIPLOMA M.ED. M.SC. M.A. ED.D. COMBINED ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY ACTIVITY 5 (33.0%) 5 (25.6%) 14 (12.5%) 1 (17.4%) 1 (18.2%) 5 (23.3%) 10 (16.3%) 1 (18.2%) 1 (11.6%) 5 (16.2%) 3 (16.3%) 1 (16.5%) 2 (13.1%) 2 (12.6%) 2 (10.0%) 14 (14.1%) 5 (15.5%) 10 (11.5%) 1 (11.8%) 10 (11.4%) 10 (8.3%) 13 (14.0%) 14 (12.8%) 2 (11.1%) 12 (11.3%) 13 (10.4%) 11 (5.0%) 12 (11.2%) 12 (11.6%) 14 (10.8%) 14 (10.0%) 11 (9.7%) 12 (5.0%) 3 (10.9%) 13 (9.0%) 13 (10.6%) 11 (9.5%) 3 (8.4%) 13 (4.0%) 9 (8.7%) 10 (7.3%) 12 (10.0%) 13 (9.0%) 14 (8.3%) 5 (4.0%) 8 (8.6%) 6 (5.8%) 3 (9.3%) 7 (8.5%) 12 (8.2%) 3 (4.0%) 11 (8.3%) 2 (5.7%) 11 (8.7%) 6 (8.1%) 4 (7.3%) 7 (3.6%) 2 (8.2%) 11 (5.6%) 6 (6.7%) 3 (7.3%) 7 (6.3%) 4 (3.3%) 6 (7.6%) 7 (4.7%) 7 (6.4%) 4 (5.8%) 9 (6.1%) 6 (3.0%) 10 (7.3%) 4 (4.6%) 9 (6.2%) 9 (5.1%) 6 (5.5%) 9 (1.3%) 7 (5.6%) 9 (4.1%) 4 (6.0%) 8 (1.0%) 8 (4.6%) 8 (1.0%) 4 (5.5%) 8 (1.0%) 8 (5.0%) KEY TO ACTIVITIES 1 Planning and Developing Adult Education Materials 2 Developing Instructional Materials 3 Evaluating Adult Education Programmes 4 Determining Community Needs for Adult Education Programmes 5 Instructing Groups of Adults 6 Establishing and Maintaining Professional Contacts 7 Giving Speeches and Presentations 8 Producing Mass Media Programmes for Adults 9 Publicizing and Promoting Adult Education Programmes 10 Counselling Adults 11 Recruiting and Supervising Instructors 12 Administrative Reports 13 Planning and Conducting Research Studies 14 Consulting 73 evident, though the number of M.Sc. graduates in any of these calculations was no more than four, and therefore may skew the data. The activity with the highest mean hours spent, (and the second highest response rate) instructing groups of adults, was also the function most often performed by those with Diploma and M.Ed. degrees in adult education. It was the second most often performed function by those with M.A. degrees, after planning and developing adult education programmes, and third most often performed by those with Ed.D. degrees. For this latter group, instructing adults followed planning and developing adult education programmes and evaluating adult education programmes, respectively. Except for those with M.A. degrees, producing mass media programmes for adults occupied the least amount of time for respondents. (In the case of the M.A., group for this activity, the mean of 8.6 hours per month had a standard deviation of 8.0, N=5.) This hypothesis was accepted on the grounds that no two groups showed identical work activity profiles. However, the similarities are noted above. Time Spent in Adult Education Activities It was hypothesized that those graduates who spent a greater part of their time performing other than specified adult education activities would report poorer preparation in those specified adult education activities. The hypothesis was rejected. Though a correlation of a total adequacy of preparation score and the total amount of time spent in either adult education or other occupational activities showed a significant p-score in both cases (Table 28). The results were counter-intuitive. It appeared that those who spent less time in adult education activities in fact perceived their training to be better than those who spent more time working in these activities. Further, the correlation between time spent in adult education occupational activities and adequacy of training was much stronger for those who spent less time performing these activities in their work than for those who spent a greater amount of time performing 74 Table 28 ADEQUACY OF TRAINING IN SPECIFIED ACTIVITIES WITH CORRELATION OF TOTAL PERCENT TIME SPENT IN AN AVERAGE MONTH IN SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONAL ADULT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES AND IN ACTIVITIES OTHER THAN THOSE SPECIFIED ADEQUACY OF TRAINING IN ADULT ED. ACTIVITIES OTHER ACTIVITIES ACTIVITY CORRELATION P CORRELATION P Planning and Developing Adult -0.1897 *0.007 0.1660 *0.044 Education Materials Developing Instructional -0.0359 0.321 -0.0779 0.211 Materials Evaluating Adult Education -0.0788 0.154 -0.0351 0.359 Programmes Determining Community Needs 0.1153 0.068 -0.1402 0.076 for Adult Education Programmes Instructing Groups of Adults -0.1727 0.172 0.0190 0.423 Establishing and Maintaining -0.0709 0.072 0.0434 0.329 Professional Contacts Giving Speeches and 0.0425 0.292 -0.1583 *0.053 Presentations Producing Mass Media 0.0833 *0.009 -0.2677 *0.003 Programmes for Adults Publicizing and Promoting Adult 0.1243 *0.056 -0.1514 0.062 Education Programmes Counselling Adults 0.1621 *0.018 -0.1786 *0.033 Recruiting and Supervising 0.2243 *0.002 -0.2450 *0.006 Instructors Administrative Reports 0.2081 *0.003 -0.3572 *0.000 Planning and Conducting 0.0435 0.286 -0.0314 0.373 Research Studies Consulting 0.2134 *0.003 -0.3359 *0.000 COMBINED ACTIVITIES 0.1239 0.053 -0.2375 *0.006 * Indicates significance at the .05 level. 75 these activities (r=.23; p<.01 vs. r=.12; p>.05). Perceived adequacy of certain activities were significantly correlated for both groups. These included: planning and developing adult education programmes; producing mass media programmes for adults; counselling adults; recruiting and supervising instructors; preparing and presenting administrative reports and; consulting. There was also a significant correlation for those who spent a large part of their time performing adult education tasks with publicizing and promoting adult education programmes and for those who spent less time in adult education activities with giving speeches and presentations. Occupational Activities and Training It was hypothesized that graduates who spent a greater amount of their work time in specified adult education occupational activities would report better preparation in those activities during their training at the University of British Columbia. This was tested by correlating each work activity (hours per month) score with the value of the score for academic preparation. Table 29 shows the correlation and the p-score of each of these correlations. In only one case did the predicted direction of the hypothesis and an acceptable level of significance coincide (r=-0.2562, p=<.01). This was in the area of counselling adults. This came as somewhat of a surprise, as this area is dealt with little in the programme's curriculum. On this basis, the hypothesis was rejected. Occupational Activities and Continuing Education It was hypothesized that the more time graduates spent in specified adult education activities, the more graduates felt they needed to continue learning in these activities. Table 30 shows the correlation and p-score for these activities. Again counselling adults emerged as an area in which both the direction and significance were as hypothesized (r=-0.2430, p=.01). Determining community needs for adult education programmes was another area in which respondents who performed this function felt the need for growth (r=-0.3190, p=<.01). 76 Table 29 CORRELATION OF TIME SPENT IN AVERAGE MONTH IN SPECIFIED ADULT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES AND LEVEL OF ADEQUACY OF TRAINING ACTIVITY CORRELATION SIGNIFICANCE Planning and Developing Adult Education Programmes 0.0200 0.418 Developing Instructional Materials -0.1113 0.147 Evaluating Adult Education Programmes -0.1553 0.087 Determining Community Needs For Adult Education 0.1057 0.209 Programmes Instructing Groups of Adults 0.0128 0.449 Establishing and Maintaining Professional Contacts -0.0616 0.279 Giving Speeches and Presentations -0.0582 0.287 Producing Mass Media Programmes 0.0000 0.500 Publicizing and Promoting Adult Education Programmes 0.0066 0.481 Counselling Adults -0.2562 *0.009 Recruiting and Supervising Instructors 0.1550 0.149 Preparing and Presenting Administrative Reports -0.0771 0.230 Planning and Conducting Research -0.0202 0.443 Consulting -0.1001 0.201 FOR ALL ACTIVITIES 0.1175 0.071 * Indicates significance at the .05 level. Note: Negative correlations are consistent with hypothesized direction of correlation. 77 Table 30 CORRELATION OF TIME SPENT IN AVERAGE MONTH IN SPECIFIED ADULT EDUCATION ACTIVITIES AND DEGREE OF NEED TO CONTINUE LEARNING IN THESE ACTIVITIES ACTIVITY CORRELATION SIGNIFICANCE Planning and Developing Adult Education Programmes -0.0373 0.358 Developing Instructional Materials 0.0656 0.279 Evaluating Adult Education Programmes -0.1279 0.144 Determining Community Needs For Adult Education -0.3190 *0.009 Programmes Instructing Groups of Adults -0.0311 0.384 Establishing and Maintaining Professional Contacts 0.0323 0.385 Giving Speeches and Presentations 0.0225 0.415 Producing Mass Media Programmes 0.2366 0.230 Publicizing and Promoting Adult Education Programmes 0.1570 0.131 Counselling Adults -0.2430 *0.018 Recruiting and Supervising Instructors 0.1646 0.143 Preparing and Presenting Administrative Reports 0.0174 0.436 Planning and Conducting Research -0.1469 0.154 Consulting 0.2709 0.012 FOR ALL ACTIVITIES 0.2120 * 0.001 * Indicates significance at the .05 level. Note: Negative correlations are consistent with hypothesized direction of correlation. 78 Most interesting was the relationship found in Activity 14, consulting, in which a counter-intuitive relationship was found at significant level, indicating that the more time individuals spent in consulting, the less they felt the need to continue learning in this area. This may be due to the variable nature of consulting, or perhaps that individuals tend to become consultants in subject areas they know best. The overall strength of correlation between the fourteen areas of occupational activity with learning needs was weak, and on that basis the hypothesis was rejected. Training and Continuing Education It was hypothesized that there was a relationship between graduates' training in various specified occupational activities and the need to continue learning in these areas. It was hypothesized, based on previous research (White 1974), that the better the training in various activities, the greater would be the need to continue learning in these areas. Table 31 shows, by activity, the correlations and p-scores for the above. This hypothesis showed the strongest overall correlation of the last three hypotheses. As White suggested, the tendency toward continuing learning among respondents was evident (actual participation was dealt with elsewhere in the present research) but was significant at the .05 level in only four cases. A strong relationship between preparation and learning need was found again in counselling adults, as well as in developing instructional materials, establishing and maintaining professional contacts and in supervising instructors. These activities, save developing instructional materials, are marginal to the programme's curriculum, and though a positive trend in the correlations did exist, the hypothesis was rejected. Respondents' Comments Some of the most interesting information about the nature of graduates from of programme came not out of the prescribed questions given on the questionnaire, but in comments, notes and letters from respondents. These were both laudatory and condemning. Some gave 79 Table 31 CORRELATION OF LEVEL OF ADEQUACY OF TRAINING AND NEED TO CONTINUE LEARNING IN SPECIFIED ADULT EDUCATION OCCUPATIONAL ACTIVITIES ACTIVITY CORRELATION SIGNIFICANCE Planning and Developing Adult Education Programmes 0.0776 0.155 Developing Instructional Materials 0.1972 *0.004 Evaluating Adult Education Programmes -0.0393 0.304 Determining Community Needs For Adult Education 0.0026 0.486 Programmes Instructing Groups of Adults 0.0892 0.119 Establishing and Maintaining Professional Contacts 0.1881 *0.006 Giving Speeches and Presentations 0.0250 0.370 Producing Mass Media Programmes 0.0319 0.340 Publicizing and Promoting Adult Education Programmes 0.0366 0.317 Counselling Adults 0.2314 *0.001 Recruiting and Supervising Instructors 0.1660 *0.015 Preparing and Presenting Administrative Reports 0.1002 0.094 Planning and Conducting Research -0.0525 0.245 Consulting 0.0262 0.365 FOR ALL ACTIVITIES 0.8560 0.150 * Indicates significance at the .05 level. Note: Positive correlations are consistent with hypothesized direction of correlation. 80 insights into the nature of working conditions of adult educators, such as the comment from a graduate now employed by federal agency overseas. ...I'd love to take some credit courses, for example, but I'm under curfew every night and likely to be shot if I so much as venture out of the gate.... (Instructor, M.A., 1984) Much of the commentary on the questionnaires regarded the form or format of the questionnaire. Exclamation points and question marks, and even a few obscenities pointed out problems with both layout and conceptualizations of the study. Several comments were offered on the presentation of the questionnaire, most all of them good: "...It was a pleasure to fill out..." One graduate complained that "this form was not constructed for older adults", and it became evident as the questionnaires began to return, that the work of retired people, and of volunteers had been neglected in the scope of the study. Regarding the conceptualization of the study: ...my orientation to the profession is less toward the practice side, and more toward the development of theory that supports practice and toward research. Because of this I tend to "speak a different language" of adult ed than the one appropriate to your research and reflected in your questionnaire. (Student, M.A., 1988) ...I have real problems with the conceptualization of this study...This seems to be assuming that [the University of British Columbia] programme is about 'banking knowledge' and instrumental goals.... (Student, M.A., 1988) The majority of lengthy comments documented how useful graduates have found their education in adult education in "the real world". Some were critical, verging on bitter: ...My Master's degree prepared me not at all to deal with the realities- no one teaching 81 in the program has any real world experience (or didn't then (1976))... No way to evaluate success, no way to pass on what is needed. (Director, Continuing Education, M.A., 1976) ...the A.E. faculty has had no contact with the public school and college adult education professionals during the 20 years I was active (1966-86) and that is too bad.... (Homemaker, Diploma, 1975) My training from B.C. Tel was far more practical than that from U.B.C. (Marketing Analyst, Diploma, 1985) ...more attention needs to be given to the BUSINESS aspects about training/ad ed - we need to learn more about the world of salesmanship. (Programme Planner, M. Ed., 1987) One respondent lamented the lack of growth as a profession: ...In adult education circles and among those who hire adult education administrators, A.E. training is not considered essential (or even desirable)...thus as a profession which requires specific training, I don't think we are further ahead than we were in 1966 - and that is sad.... (Homemaker, Diploma, 1975) Some graduates conveyed both satisfaction and disenchantment with the programme; The best thing I learned was to be a totally self-directed learner, since no one had any expertise in my areas of interest. I both resent and appreciate that reality. (Director, Continuing Education, M.A., 1976) 82 ...There seemed to be a strange conflict between the principles and practices expounded and those practiced. Consequently, although it was stimulating and broadening and consequently enjoyable it was also extraordinarily frustrating - riddled with conven-tional and traditional practices. (Retired, Diploma, 1971) Graduates commented on the scope of their education: While I don't remember a whole lot of the actual course-work, I really valued the opportunity those years gave me and to have stimulating conversations outside the classroom. (Training Officer, M.Ed., 1981) Some of the benefits of graduate study for me were much more general; analysis, problem-solving and the stimulus to creative innovation as a result of interaction with my fellow students and exceptional faculty....Traditional liberal arts and development of intellectual competence as much as practical knowledge and skills in the technical sense... my personal belief is that it is possible (and very desirable) to combine these opportunities for comprehensive development. (Associate Dean, M.A. 1966) My participation in the M.Ed programme in A.E. was mainly an exercise in A.E. and its chief benefit to me was personal satisfaction. (Homemaker, M.Ed. 1979) One graduate mentioned the lack of communication with department: The communication with the A.E. dept. with graduates is NIL. I am able to support A.E. Research Projects but nobody had asked for financial assistance. Is the A.E. Dept still open? (Technical Assistant, M.A. 1984) 83 The greatest amount of correspondence was laudatory. Several graduates remembered and praised various past and present members of the faculty. Regarding Coolie Verner: Coolie Verner understood education better than anyone else I've ever met! And he could  teach. (Homemaker, Diploma, 1975) I found my training at U.B.C. to have been very special, very effective. Coolie Verner was a special kind of man. (Chief Executive of a Ministry, M.Sc, 1968) My response to your item on evaluation seems lukewarm; in reality, I received almost exactly what I had hoped for. The academic year gave me a chance to work on the projects which interested me most, to meet faculty and students with similar interests but varied backgrounds and to smarten up some sloppy habits of thinking and expression under Coolie Verner's stern tutelage. (Retired, M.A. 1975) Most of the comments were more general in nature: Although I can give you no 'career' statistics I can assure you that the effort of obtaining the degree (M.Ed.) was worth every penny and every hour. (Homemaker, M.Ed., 1979) ...the most flexible, supportive educational program I've been in.... One of the strengths of the AE programme was/is the wide range of experience and needs of participants -which meant that none of the lecturers could get too dogmatic about the right way and the only way to do things.... It was not the methodology I... assimilated that was most helpful, but the attitudes toward adults and learning needs... best served (as I was) by the philosophy, rather than the mechanics. (Missionary, M.Ed. 1975) 84 The course content and skills of the program provided many opportunities for career advancement and credentializing because of their broad application. (Consultant, M.A., 1970) The programme was a great confidence builder. I really enjoyed it... I would not have had the career I had without the programme. (Coordinator, M.A., 1968) I feel very strongly that my AE training has prepared me extremely well to be of service to the community - probably more important than even career development. (Sales, M.Ed., 1970) From those with special interests: The course clarified for me my teaching of 'young adults', (but not yet adults in society.) Made me a more understanding teacher. (Retired, M.Ed., 1967) Although I am not working due to [disability], I am involved on a volunteer basis with a number of groups...the A.E. background is an asset for these activities. (M.Ed., 1978) I found the experience of studying most stimulating mentally and helped my ability to encourage young adults to learn. It made such a difference in my life and confidence -1 would encourage older people to do the same if they feel inclined to. (Retired, M.Ed., 1973) Finally, a comment regarding the process of writing this type of thesis: Now I find myself writing to you, as my respondents wrote to me, in similar terms. They were so glad to have any recognition of what they had gone through in resuming studies and any inquiries as to their feeling on the subject.... The experience was very 85 touching, and it became sort of a well to which I kept returning when I was tempted to give up on my thesis. (Retired, M.A., 1975) 86 CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION  Results In this chapter, the data presented in the previous chapter will be examined. The research questions will be addressed, and recommendations for further research will be made. Profile of the Graduates A Thumbnail Sketch: In 1974, White summarized the qualities possessed by the respondents to her 1973 study of the graduates of adult education programmes at the University of British Columbia in the following way. He was a married male, aged 39 on graduation, living in British Columbia at the time of the survey. He had worked in adult education for five years prior to entering into graduate study in adult education, and possessed a bachelor's degree. He had changed jobs 1-2 times since graduation, and currently held the title of Programme Director or Teacher. He worked 25 hours a week in activities directly related to adult education and 18 hour a week in unrelated activities. He was employed by a university or community college, and earned an annual income of $14,000. This profile is similar in nature to Shrivasta's 1978 study at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, in which he found graduate students to be 36 years old with some previous professional certification and work experience. The students in his study were motivated to participate in their adult education graduate programme to "gain knowledge and skill in adult education." A similar thumbnail sketch of respondents to the current study would suggest several changes to the demographic makeup of the group. The typical 1989 respondent was a married female, aged 39 at the time of graduation from the programme. She lived in British Columbia. She worked for four and a half years in adult education prior to entering into graduate study, giving as her motivation to continue her education as "to seek professional advancement," and was most likely to possess an bachelor's degree in arts, social sciences or humanities from the University of British Columbia. It took her less than three years to complete her degree on a 87 part-time basis. She has held three jobs since graduation and at the time of the survey held a full-time position in which management or administration was the primary function. She perceived her opportunity for occupational mobility as average or high. She worked a 40 hour week and almost 70% of her time was spent in adult education activities. She was employed in an agency other than the 17 agencies specified in the questionnaire. Her annual income from employment was $46,000. As can be seen, the biggest changes in the profile of respondents since 1973 were in the gender distribution of respondents, the type of agency in which respondents were employed, the nature of their work, and not surprisingly, their income. (Some of the items mentioned above were not included in White's study, so comparisons cannot be made.) Male and Female Respondents : One of the major research questions of this study, and the only one that has not been answered succinctly by data presented previously, was the question of difference in educational and occupational profile between men and women. This will be addressed here. Of the graduates responding to the questionnaire, almost equal numbers of men and women with diplomas were represented (9.4% and 11.7% of all respondents, respectively.) Twice as many women as men respondents held M.Ed, degrees (26.5% and 15.2% of respondents). All graduates (and 2.7% of respondents) of the M.Sc. programme were male. More than twice as many females (18.4%) as males (7.6%) from the M.A. programme responded. The reverse was true for those with Ed.D. degrees (5.8% response for men and 2.7% for women.) In general, the response rate to the questionnaire was better for women (59.2% of all respondents.) Of other degrees held by respondents, only one category of degree was remarkable in its distribution between men and women. Of all respondents, 19.4% were women who held a bachelor's degree in nursing. This is in contrast to the .05% of male respondents with this type of degree. (Other graduates may also have degrees in the health professions that would have been covered under the bachelor of science category.) This degree was also the third most often reported type of degree held by all respondents, after bachelors of arts, social sciences and 88 humanities and the catch-all category of diploma, certificates and qualifications. It is interesting to note that there is a change of 54.5% away from employment in health agencies since the period prior to entry into the programme. The educational background of this large group of primarily female graduates, the change in career that, as this research suggests, is facilitated by pursuit of an adult education degree, and the resulting impact on the adult education programme, would make for interesting further research. The reasons given for participation by men and women respondents were similar. "Facilitating a change in career" and "availing myself of expanding job opportunities" were the only reasons that men and women weighed significantly differently. Women were inclined to feel these reasons were somewhat of a factor in their initial decision to participate, while men considered these of little importance. Men and women showed a similar profile in both their age at graduation and the number of years taken to complete their programme. Women were slightly more inclined to work on their degrees part-time than men, though female respondents were twice as likely as male respondents to work on their degree on a combined full-time and part-time basis. Men and women respondents generally agreed on their opportunities for occupational mobility, and in fact seem to be equally mobile. An average of 3 moves were made since graduation by men [S.D. 2.7] and 2.9 [S.D. 4.1] by women. Almost twice as many women (43.1%) as men (23.6%) said their current position was in adult education. Of those who specified that their current positions were not in adult education, the numbers of men and women were almost the same at 16% each. When the actual job activities performed by respondents were examined, it was found that women working in adult education spend roughly the same time performing specified adult education activities as men. The exceptions to this were planning and conducting research studies and evaluating adult education programmes. Men were more than twice as likely to perform the former task, and just under twice as likely to perform the latter. The current sex composition of the profession suggested by this research seems to have 89 little impact on the occupational prestige of incumbents working in adult education. This is contrary to the suggestion made by Powell and Jacobs (1984) that men in professions predominantly occupied by women would hold lower occupational prestige than their female counterparts. In their current jobs, women working in positions they deemed to be adult education did in fact perceive themselves to hold more occupational prestige than men in the profession, though this difference between the occupational prestige scores was less than five percent. However, this same group of men earned almost $14,000 per year more than women in the profession. This disparity was not seen in the group of respondents who were employed in fields other than adult education, though men in this group earned slightly more than women (approximately $56,500 and $54,000 respectively). What has been found in this study about the differences between men and women as regards occupational prestige has been very similar to the findings of England presented in Chapter 2. In England's (1979) work, though men and women were accorded similar levels of occupational prestige, the median income of females was vastly lower than that of males. (It should be emphasized, unlike in England's research, that in this research, prestige was not accorded by others but rather self-assessed.) In general, the lack of distinction between the profile of men and women was unanticipated. Though much of the research on these issues (done mostly in the late 1970's) suggested greater differences between the sexes would be evident, it is clear that this was not in fact the case. Men and women shared similar educational backgrounds, and their reasons for entering into graduate study in adult education were for the most part the same. Their work activity profiles were similar, and they seemed to perceive the work they did as being of equal value. However, the fact that twice as many female as male respondents are working in adult education, and that their median income is $14,000 per annum less than their male counterparts would suggest that inequity in the profession does exist. Though it would seem that adult education is a predominantly female profession, findings suggest adult educators work in organizations dominated by men. 90 Hypotheses The following is a review of the hypotheses. The first hypothesis dealt with change in occupational prestige over time. It was found that there was a significant increase in occupational prestige between the periods before entry to programme and immediately after graduation, immediately after graduation and the present, and the present and the future. The greatest increase in occupational prestige occurred between the period immediately after graduation and the present. This was contrary to White's 1974 findings, in which occupational prestige for the period between "immediately after graduation" and the time of the survey (1973) was the only period that did not show a significant increase in occupational prestige. This may be due to the fact that in her study, only 13 years could have passed between graduation and the present, whereas in the current research as many as 28 years could have passed. Hence, there is the possibility that more change in occupational prestige could have occurred. When examining whether more recent graduating classes perceived their jobs as holding more prestige than earlier graduating classes, it was found that only in their current and aspired positions did more recent graduates feel their jobs more prestigious than their counterparts from earlier years. This trend, however, was very weak and may be explained by the fact that graduates from earlier classes are now approaching retirement or are retired and are looking forward to less responsibility. This explanation assumes that a connection exists between responsibility and occupational prestige . Differences between men and women in occupational prestige, income and job activities were explored. These have been dealt with in the previous section (see p. 87). It was hypothesized that the sex of respondent would be the greatest predictor of occupational mobility. This hypothesis was unsupported. Instead, age at graduation was the only significant (P<.05) predictor of occupational mobility. White (1974) tested a similar hypothesis and found nine variables to account for occupational mobility. Some of these were in the present equation. She did not test sex as a predictor, and age at graduation did not prove 91 significant. She found instead that years since graduation was the greatest predictor. (Years since graduation in the present research had a t-score of .10, and was the second greatest predictor.) Differences between men and women in their reasons for initial participation in graduate study in adult education were examined. Though men and women were similar in the reasons they gave for participation, women said "facilitating a change in career" and "availing myself of expanding job opportunities" were "somewhat of a factor" in their decision. Men said these reasons were of very little importance in their decision to participate in the programme. The similarities between the work profiles of respondents in each of the five Adult Education programmes were also examined. In the early years of the programme, White (1974) found no significant differences between the work performed by graduates of the M.A., M.Sc, and Diploma programmes. The current research showed similarities between all groups, but mostly strongly between the Diploma and M.Ed, respondents. These graduates were most likely to spend their work time instructing groups of adults. M.A. and Ed.D. graduates were most likely to spent their work time planning and developing adult education programmes, and M.Sc. graduates were most likely to work in consulting. The relationship between time spent in adult education activities and adequacy of preparation were tested in two of the hypotheses. It was found that those who spent more of their work time performing other than adult education activities (most of this group would be those who are not currently working in adult education) perceived the quality of their preparation in adult education activities to be better than those who spent most of their work time performing these activities. However, the amount of time one spent performing each specified adult education activity did not seem to have an impact on the perceived quality of training in that activity. The relationship between time spent in adult education activities and need to continue learning in these activities was tested. Again, in an item by item analysis of activities, only 92 two significant correlations were found in the list of fourteen. In general, there seemed to be a very weak relationship between activities and learning need. The final hypothesis looked at the relationship between adequacy of training in specified adult education activities and need to continue learning in these activities. Once again the relationship was weak, though 4 out of 14 items proved to be significantly correlated. Respondents' Comments The comments received along with the questionnaire did not provide any information that could be calculated into the present research. What the comments did provide was an unplanned augmentation to the study, and a reminder that individuals with numerous political, social, educational, and experiential perspectives were behind the impersonal mask of the questionnaire. In responding in such a manner, respondents unknowingly pointed to the restrictions of the mail-in/questionnaire formula. Their comments serve to remind the reader of the incalculable variables and numerous limitations of this type of research. Summary Research questions presented in the first chapter have been answered in the data in the previous and present chapters. These are briefly summarized below: 1) What reasons do graduates give for their participation in the adult education programme? Respondents tended to site reasons related to professional advancement as their motivation for participation in the programme. Professional advancement, increased job competence and expanding job opportunities were the strongest motivators. External motivators proved weakest. Response to this question was remarkably easily categorized, and in line with the previous factoral analysis of Boshier's Education Participation Scale. 2) Do men and women graduates share a similar education and occupation profile? Though the combination of factors that might provide insights into the differences between men and women are numerous, the most important differences in terms of answering the 93 questions posed in this study were tested. Men and women shared a similar education profile. They were almost evenly distributed in the type of other degrees they held, except in one area. Almost 20% of all respondents had a degree in nursing, and all but one of these respondents were female. In terms of their adult education degree, almost identical numbers of men and women held Diplomas. Almost twice as many women as men held M.A. or M.Ed, degrees, twice as many men as women held Ed.D. degrees, and all M.Sc. degree were held by men. Men and women were similar in the reasons they gave for initial participation in the programme, age at graduation, the number of years taken to complete their degree, perceived opportunities for occupational mobility, and number of job moves. Twice as many women as men said that their current job was in adult education. They spent roughly the same amount of time performing specified adult education occupational activities, though men were almost twice as likely to plan and conduct research studies and evaluate adult education programmes. For those working in adult education, men earned almost $14,000 a year more than their female counterparts, while for those employed in other professions, men earned only $2,500 a year more. Women, on the other hand, perceived their current jobs to be more prestigious than did men. 3) In what way, if any, has self-assessed occupational prestige changed over time? There seems to be a significant change and steady increase in the occupational prestige of the individual over time, though the attainment of a degree in adult education does not seem to affect this increase in occupational prestige to the same degree as the simple passage of time. As for differences in occupational prestige between graduating classes, very little change can be seen over time, and the slight increase that can be found may be explained by retirement. 4) Do graduates of the five Adult Education Programmes perform different occupational functions in their present work. It was found that graduates of the different programmes spent different amounts of time performing specified occupational functions, though similarities in time spent in these activities existed between the Diploma and M.Ed, groups. Diploma and M.Ed. graduates spent the greatest amount of their time instructing adults, while the M.A. and 94 Ed.D. groups spent most of their time planning and developing adult education programmes. M.Sc. graduates spent very little time performing any of the specified adult education activities. 5) What factors influence occupational mobility? It seemed that very few factors could be isolated as having any relationship at all with occupational mobility. In the analysis of the relationship between occupational mobility and twenty-one other surveyed variables, only age at graduation was identified as having a strong relationship. It is unlikely that one's age is linked to one's occupational mobility, but rather that the amount of job experience, either in the field, or outside of it, that one has accumulated prior to entry into the programme in combination with the marketability of the graduate degree result in increased suitability for occupational mobility. 6) Is there a relationship between quality of training in adult education and present occupational activities; self-assessed need for continuing education and present occupational activities and; quality of training in adult education and self-assessed need for continuing education? In general, the relationship among these three aspects of the question was weak. The strongest correlation could be found between the adequacy of training in specified adult education activities and the need to continue learning in these activities. However, three of the activities in which the correlation was strongest; counselling adults, establishing and maintaining professional contacts and supervising instructors, were activities in which most respondents felt they had poor or non-existent training. That these correlated strongly with little or no need for continued learning suggests that, though a case can be made for a relationship between these variables, in fact these activities which are currently peripheral to the curriculum are also little needed in the work setting. 95 Recommendations Comments Regarding the Study This study was, in part, a replication of the previous study done by White (1974) of graduates of the University of British Columbia adult education programme. It was also an extension of her work and has served to update and add to her work on the trends in the careers, education and background of graduates of the programme. In as much as this contributes to a historical perspective of one graduate programme at one university, this study can be used as a foundation for future investigation by students and the Department alike. It is also hoped that this work can contribute to like studies of other programmes at other universities. With this in mind, the following will provide some suggestions for replication in terms of mechanics and in terms of improved scope of the study. Methodology: The questionnaire was first mailed in early summer, with a follow-up letter in September. The timing was, in hindsight, poor, as this coincided with both vacation time and the September "start-up" of numerous programmes. The Questionnaire: Numerous comments were provided by respondents, in the margins of the questionnaire and in attached notes, regarding the implementation of the questionnaire. Repeatedly, respondents augmented lists with reasons for participation and job activities and needs that pertained to their own lives and careers. It would have been useful to provide space for this commentary, and have been able to systematically clarify the way graduates perceive their professional lives as graduates of an adult educator programme. One of the most often criticized sections of the questionnaire asked respondents to break-down the time that they spent in an average month in specified activities. Not only did respondents find this difficult to estimate, but those who were able to, in at least 50% of cases, were unable to ensure that percentages added up to 100%, though the section specified it should. Future investigators would be well advised to avoid mathematical calculations. Another of the sections that elicited comment was on income in three periods. Though many respondents chose to ignore this question, many more did respond, but wondered, quite 96 correctly, how comparisons could be made between groups and individuals as the time frame for each individual would be different. Inflation and international currency conversions compounded this problem. Though the income issue was central to this study, retrospective information on income for each respondent was not usable and data on income for the periods prior to entry into the programme and immediately after graduation were discarded. Limitations: Several limitations to the study should be pointed out. First, the retrospective nature of this study may confound the results. It has been suggested that perceptions of past events are typically perceived in an increasingly glowing light with the passage of time. Secondly, the drawbacks of varying interpretation by individual respondents of questionnaires are to be considered interpretation of the data. Thirdly, those who have more extreme (for better or worse) opinions are more likely to respond to a questionnaire that asks for interpretation of past experiences. If this were true, the sample may not accurately reflect the population of graduates of the Adult Education Programme at the University of British Columbia. Lastly, the conclusions derived from this study should not be generalized to graduates of other academic programmes in adult education. Though this work will contribute to the literature and the understanding of professional programmes in adult education and their graduates, no claim can be made that these data represent anyone beyond those respondents who have participated in these programmes at the University of British Columbia. > Suggestions for further study Because the current study surveyed graduates of the programme back to 1960, it should have been recognized at the outset of the study that many graduates would, at the time of contact, be on the verge of retirement or retired. From attached comments, it was clear that many respondents Dthought that their contribution would no longer be valid since they were out of the work-force, 2) perceived their "work-life" to be over and 3) thought retirement carried no prestige. Perhaps the programmatic nature of this study reinforced some of these perceptions and made it difficult for respondents to see how they "fit in." Further research 97 might explore the lives of retired adult educators and whether they themselves have bought into the concepts of lifelong learning and the blended education/work/leisure life plan. It would also be useful to explore the extent of volunteer work among these and all respondents. It was clear from examination of individual questionnaires that some respondents perceived non-paying work as carrying no prestige. This study did not endeavor to examine all aspects of the curriculum or programme mandate, nor was the questionnaire designed to suggest that academic preparation in adult education consisted only of those skills included in the questionnaire. Critical thinking skills, an understanding of the social and historical context of adult education as well as economic, philosophical, psychological and political forces are all important aspects of the graduate programme. This study examined generic skills performed by many (though certainly not all) adult educators in a variety of work setting and did not broach the professional application of these skills. Future researchers may find it useful to explore some of these issues. More complex, and more interesting, would be to examine these issues as an extension to the findings reported in this study. A broader picture of graduate study and professional work in adult education would be a most desirable result. 98 REFERENCES Adult Education Resource Centre, University of British Columbia (1985). Write On: Adult Education Makes the Future Aker, George (1963) Criteria for Evaluating Graduate Study in Adult Education^ Chicago: Center for Continuing Education, University of Chicago Apps, Jerold (1986) Prospects for and challenges to the professionalization of adult and continuing education toward the year 2000, Proceedings of the 1986 Annual Conference of the Commission of Professors of Adult Education, October 20-22, 1986, Hollywood, Florida Boshier, Roger (1987). Conceptual Framework for Analyzing the Training of Trainers and Adult Educators (n.p.: n.d.) Boshier, Roger (1977). Motivational Orientations Re-visited: Life-Span Motives and the Education Participation Scale, Adult Education 17 (2) 89-115 Boshier, Roger (1973). Educational Participation and Dropout: A Theoretical Model, Adult Education 13 (4) 255-282 Brown, Rosemary (1987). Proceedings of the National Forum on Post Secondary Education, Oct.25-28, 1987, National Forum Secretariat, The Institute for Research on Public Policy Campbell, D.D. (1977) Adult Education as a Field of Study and Practice: Strategies for Development Vancouver: Centre for Continuing Education Chamberlaine, Martin, (1961). The Competencies of Adult Educators, Adult Education, 11(2) 78-83 Charters, Alexander and Ronald Hilton (1978). Who We Are: What Some Educators Say About Their Characteristics, Competencies and Roles, International Journal of University Adult Education 17(1) 39-59 Commission of Professors of Adult Education Membership Information (n.p.: n.d.) Commission of Professors of Adult Education, Membership Standards for Graduate Programmes in Adult Education (n.p.: n.d.) 99 Cross, Patricia (1981). Adults as Learners, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Damon, Thomas F (1961). Careers in Adult Education, Adult Education 12(1) 3-7 Daniel, Richard and Harold Rose (1982). Comparative Study of Adult Education Practitioners and Professors on Future Knowledge and Skills Needed by Adult Educators, Adult Education 32 (2) 75-87 Departmental Review Committee, Letter from the Students of Adult Education, Department of Administrative, Adult, and Higher Education, University of British Columbia. November 1987 England, Paula (1979). Women and Occupational Prestige: A Case of Vacuous Sex Equality, Signs 5(2)252-265 Galbraith, Michael (1987). Certification Would Advance Professional Practice, Lifelong Learning (11) 15-18 Gross, Edward (1968). Plus Ca Change...? The Sexual Structure of Occupations over Time, Social Problems, 8(2) 198-208 Grabowski, Stanley , "Continuing Education in the Professions" in Grabowski, Stanley et al (1981). Preparing Educators of Adults, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Guppy, L.N, and J.L. Siltanen (1977). A Comparison of the Allocation of Male and Female Occupational Prestige, Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 14(3) 320-330 Houle, Cyril (1964) "The Emergence of Graduate Study in Adult Education", Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging Field of University Study, G. Jensen, A. Liveright and W. Hallenback, Ed., Adult Education Association of the U.S.A. Houle, Cyril and John H. Buskey (1966) The Doctorate in Adult Education 1935-65, Adult Education, (16) 131-168 Ingham, Roy, B.G. Munro and Romeo Massey (1970). A Survey of Graduate Programs in Adult Education in the United States and Canada, The Florida State University Department of Adult Education Ingham, Roy and Gardner Hanks, "Graduate Degree Programs for Professional Adult Educators" in Grabowski, Stanley et al (1981). Preparing Educators of Adults, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 100 Jarvis, Peter (1983). Professional Education, London: Croom Helm Jarvis, Peter (1985). The Sociology of Adult and Continuing Education, London: Croom Helm Lipovenko, Dorothy "Association of Canadian Medical Colleges..." Globe and Mail, June 13, 1988 page A3 Liveright, A.A. (1964) "The Nature and Aims of Adult Education as a Field of Graduate Study" in Adult Education by Jensen, Gale, A.A. Liveright, and Wilbur Hallenback, Ed., Adult Education Association of the U.S.A. Meisner, Robert, Jerry Parsons and Norma Ross (1979) Adult Education Graduate Students, Lifelong Learning: The Adult Years, 2(7), 18-19 Noel, James and Jerry Parsons (1973). Doctoral Graduates Evaluate the Relevance of Departmental Learning Objectives to the Professional Responsibilities, Adult Education, (24) 43-54 PowelLBrian and Jerry Jacobs (1984). Gender Differences in the Evaluation of Prestige, The Sociological Quarterly, (25) 173-190 Robinson, C O . (1962). Criteria for the Education of Adult Educators, Adult Education 21(4) 243-245 Shrivastava, Om (1978). Graduate Adult Education Students, International Journal of University Adult Education 17 (3) 36-41 Smith, Robert H. et al, (ed.)(1970) Handbook of Adult Education, New York: Macmillan Publishing Company Thompson, Jane (1983). Learning Liberation: Women's Response to Men's Education, Beckenham: Croom Helm Thornton, James (1973) "Graduate Programs and Graduates" Pioneering a Profession: Graduate Study in Adult Education at the University of British Columbia, 1961-1972. Adult Education Research Centre 101 Thornton, James E. and Richard Kavanagh (1986) "The Professional Adult Educator: A Profile Developed from B.C.'s Adult Education Associations" in Jindra Kulich (ed.). Adult Educators and their Associations in British Columbia, PACE Papers 2, Pacific Association for Continuing Education. Verner, Coolie (1973) "Origin and Form of Graduate Study" Pioneering a Profession: Graduate Study in Adult Education at the University of British Columbia, 1961-1972, Adult Education Research Centre Verner, Coolie (1978) "Some Reflections on Graduate Professional Education in Adult Education", The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, (8) 39-48 White, Judith (1974). A Survey of the Graduates in Adult Education at the University of British Columbia (Master's Dissertation, University of British Columbia) 102 APPENDICES Appendix A Education: Which of the following degrees have you received in adult education at U.B.C? DECREE YEAR GRADUATED M.A.D M.Ed.D M.Sc.D Ed.D.D Diploma • What other degrees or certificates do you hold? DECKEB YEAR GRADUATEDtNSTTTUTION How did each of the following affect your initial decision to participate in the programme? (Check all which apply.) NOT VERY SOME- A GREAT AT ALL UTILE WHAT DEAL To increase my income • • • • To escape the intellectual narrowness of my occupation • • • • To fulfill a need for personal associations and friendships • • • • To participate in group activity • • • • To have a few hours away from responsibilities • • • • To secure professional advancement • • • • To increase my competence in my job • • • • To give me higher status in my job • • • • To keep up with competition • • • • To supplement a narrow previous education • • • • To keep up with others • • • • To prepare for service to the community • • • • To become a more effective citizen • • • • To improve my ability to participate in community work • • D • To improve my ability to serve humankind • • • • To carry out the recommendation of some authority • • • • To comply with the suggestions of someone else • • • • To maintain or improve my social position • • • • To facilitate a change in career • • • • To avail myself of expanding job opportunities • • • • To learn just for the sake of learning • • O • Age at graduation from UBC Adult Education Programme years Academic years taken to complete that degree/diploma years Did you participate in the programme as a Full-time student • Part-time student • Years of experience in professional adult education activities prior to training years Type of agency in which you were/are employed, before graduation, in your first position after graduation and at present. (Check all that apply.) AT AT BEPORE AFTER PRESENT BEFORE AFTER PRESENT Public school • • • Industry or commerce • • • Vocational or technical • • • Government agency • • • Regional or community college • • • Mass media or communications • • • University • • • Community group • • • Library, museum etc • • • Labour union • • • Correctional institution • • • Professional association • • • Health agency • • • Self-employed • • • Social service agency • • • Other • • • Voluntary agency • • • Extension service • • • 103 Please provide answers to these questions for the periods before and immediately after graduation and at present. BEPORB AFTER AT PRESENT Percentage of time you were/are employed % % % Number of people you supervised) before, after training and now? Personal annual income from employment $ $ $_ City/town in which you were/are employed If you are currently working part-time, do you aspire to work full time? Y B S D N O D NOT WORKING PART-TIME • How many positions, either with a single employer or with various employers, have you held since graduation POSITIONS How do you feel your opportunities for job mobility are? HIGH • AVERAGE • LOW • NONE • T H E FOLLOWING SECTION DEALS WITH YOUR PERCEPTIONS OF YOUR OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE. THERE ARE FOUR TIME PERIODS TO CONSIDER:-The numbers below represent a prestige scale for occupations where 1 (one) represents the least prestige and 10 (ten) represents the most. Indicate where on the scale you would place the position you identifiy by circling the appropriate number 1) Your last work prior 2) Your first work after 3) Your current work 4) Your professional to adult education training in adult aspirations training education Was this work in Adult Educa- Was this work in Adult Educa- Is this work in Adult Educa- Is this work in Adult Educa-tion? YES • NO • tion? YES • NO • tion? YES • NO • tion? YES • NO • What was the primary respon-sibility of this position? What was the primary respon-sibility of this position? What is the primary respon-sibility of this position? What will the primary respon-sibility of this position be? 10 9 8 7 10 9 8 7 10 9 8 n 10 9 8 n / 6 5 4 / 6 5 4 Q / 6 5 4 o / 6 5 4 Q o 2 1 O 2 1 o 2 1 5 2 1 What percentage of time did you typically spend in specific adult education activities in What percentage of time did you typically spend in specific adult education activities in What percentage of time do you typically spend in specific adult education activities in this position? % this position? % this position? % 104 T H E FOLLOWING SECTION DEALS WITH THE PERCENTAGE OF TIME THAT YOU SPEND IN VARIOUS JOB ACTIVITIES RELATED TO ADULT EDUCATION Total number of hours typically worked in a week. hrs. Please specify the approximate percentage of time spent in an average month in these adult education activities. Planning and developing adult education programmes % Developing instructional materials % Evaluating adult education programmes % Determining community needs for adult education programmes % Instructing groups of adults % Establishing and maintaining professional contacts % Giving speeches/presentations % Producing mass media programmes for adults % Publicizing and promoting adult education programmes % Counselling adults % Recruiting and supervising instructors •. % Preparing and presenting administrative reports % Planning and conducting research studies % Consulting % Others (Please specify) % % % Total time spent on adult education activities % Which non-adult education professional activities (such as supervising clerical staff) consume the greatest amount of your time? % % % Total time spent on non adult education activities ' % TOTAL SHOULD EQUAL 100% T H E FOLLOWING SECTION DEALS WITH THE ADEQUACY OF YOUR ACADEMIC TRAINING IN ADULT EDUCATION AT U.B.C. How good was your education at U.B.C. in preparing you to perform the following? - TOOK N O SUCH EXCELLENT GOOD FAIR POOR TRAINING • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Determining community needs for adult education programmes • • • • • • • • • • Establishing and maintaining professional contacts • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Publicizing and promoting adult education programmes • • • • • • • • a • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 105 T H E FOLLOWING SECTION DEALS WITH YOUR LEARNING NEEDS IN TERMS OF YOUR PRESENT POSITION. Please indicate the extent of your needs to continue your education by checking the appropriate box C O N S I D R R A B L R M O T J H R A T R V R R Y M T T I . R N O N E Planning and developing adult education programmes • • • o Developing instructional materials a • • a Evaluating adult education programmes • • • • Determining community needs for adult education programmes • • • • • • • • Establishing and maintaining professional contacts • • • • Giving speeches/presentations • • • • Producing mass media programmes for adults • • • • Publicizing and promoting adult education programmes • • • • Counselling adults • • • • Recruiting and supervising instructors • • • • Preparing and presenting administrative reports • • • • Planning and conducting research studies • • • • Consulting • • • T H E FOLLOWING SECTION DEALS WITH YOUR PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING EDUCATION ACTIVITIES. Please estimate the number of hours you typically spend in an average month in each of the following continuing professional education activities: Self directed reading hrs. Attending conferences or meetings hrs. Taking credit courses hrs. Working on independent study projects hrs. Other learning activities specifically related to your work (please specify) hrs. hrs. Approximately how many hours per month do you spend continuing your education in areas not specifically related to your work? hrs Gender MALE • FEMALE • Marital status MARRIED/COHABITINGD SINGLE • WIDOWED • DIVORCED • Number of dependents on entry to programme THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION. Please return this survey and the consent form to: Megan Stuart-Stubbs Adult Education Programme 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. CANADA V6T1L2 106 Appendix B T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A Adult Education Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. Canada V 6 T 1L2 June 20, 1989 Dear Graduate of Adult Education; There has been l i t t l e research done on the career paths of professional adult educators, and even less done on the career paths of graduates of professional adult education programs. As part of my thesis investigation, I need your assistance in compiling a profile of graduates of the adult education programmes at U.B.C. I wish to identify your job ac t i v i t i e s , learning needs, and educational ac t i v i t i e s , as well as obtain your opinions about your present work activities and various aspects of your academic preparation in adult education at U.B.C. The attached questionnaire takes approximately 20 minutes to complete. Your identity w i l l be kept confidential, and to that end I ask that you return the attached.consent form, which w i l l be removed from the body of the questionnaire upon receipt by me. A return envelope, has been included for your convenience. Return of the questionnaire by July 21, 1989 would be most helpful. Thank you for your cooperation and assistance in my study. If you have any questions regarding either the questionnaire or the results of the study, please feel to contact me by leaving a message at the Department' Yours sincerely,. ' . Megan Stuart-Stubbs Adult Education Research Centre 108 Appendix D CONSENT FORM I understand that the completion of t h i s questionnaire constitutes permission to use the data i t provides. Signed Name (print) Address . As t h i s document w i l l be separated from the data, the department would appreciate the following information about you to update t h e i r f i l e s : Job T i t l e Place of Work Thank you. Please return t h i s form with your questionnaire i n the envelope provided. 

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