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Psychological control as antecedent of life satisfaction in retirement Raber, Charlotte 1991

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PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTROL AS ANTECEDENT OF LIFE SATISFACTION IN RETIREMENT by CHARLOTTE RABER B.A., University of Manitoba, 1982 Diploma, Visually Impaired, University of British Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTERS OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Division of Family Sciences School of Family and Nutritional Sciences We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1991 © Charlotte Raber, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ii Abstract A review of literature on life satisfaction in retirement has revealed a number of factors which offer contradictory results. This thesis is an investigation of the relationship between psychological control and several predictors of life satisfaction in retirement, viz., perceptions of health, attitude towards retirement, planning for the future, leisure activity, perceptions, and expectations. Of special interest is the degree to which psychological control interacts with and, thus, moderates the impact of these predictors on life satisfaction. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a socio-economically homogeneous population of retired iron workers on pension plan in the Greater Vancouver area in British Columbia (n=190). The 85 respondents were all male. Pearson Correlation Coefficients and a two-way analysis of variance were used in the statistical analysis. The main findings are as follows: a) with the exception of perceptions and expectations, the correlations were positive and significant at the .05 level; b) in the analysis of variance the predicted interaction effects were not significant; c) a significant main effect at the .05 level on life satisfaction was found only for perceptions of health; d) the level of life satisfaction in retirement was independent of socio-economic status. The study results support the importance of psychological control in life satisfaction in retirement. iii Table of Contents Page Abstract 1 1 Table of Contents iii Acknowledgements v Chapter One Introduction 1 Cognitive Social Learning Theory of Control 4 Literature Review 8 Chapter Two Present Model 13 Method 16 Procedure 16 Subjects 17 Measurement 17 Life Satisfaction 17 Attitude Towards Retirement 18 Perceived Health 18 Planning for the Future 18 Perceptions 19 Level of expectations 19 Leisure Activity Level 19 Desired Control Measure 19 Data Analysis 20 Chapter Three Results 23 Subjects 23 Dependent and Independent Measures 24 Finding Related to Pearson Correlation Coefficients 28 Other Outcomes 29 Findings Related to Two-Way Analysis of Variance 30 Summary 35 Chapter Four Discussion 37 Perceived Psychological Control 37 Perceived Health Status 38 Attitude Towards Retirement 38 Planning for the Future 39 Leisure Activity 39 Perceptions and Expectations 40 Life Satisfaction in Retirement 41 Socioeconomic Status 41 Interaction and Main Effects 42 Limitations 42 References 45 Appendix A 49 Appendix B 67 Appendix C 68 Appendix D 69 V Acknowledgments I would like to thank the members of my thesis committee for their availability and assistance in this research. My appreciation goes to Dr. Roy Rodgers for his time and invaluable guidance as my research supervisor; to Dr. Jim White for his extensive consultative role in the methodological aspects of the study. My special thanks also go to the staff of the Vancouver Local Union No. 97: notably to Joanne Rae and Wayne Foot for their assistance and support in this research. In addition I would like to thank my family and friends for their support and encouragement throughout this project; I particularly thank my mother, Regina, my son Joshua, and my friend Barry for their patience, understanding and on-going practical support which have enabled me to pursue this endeavor. Chapter One Introduction As the average age of the Canadian population rises, the aged and the larger society have become interested in not only the fact of survival, but, in addition, the quality of survival. Canada has about 1 in 10 Canadians aged 65 and over. The meaning of age categories and the transition from one life stage to another are socially constructed. In many industrial societies, including Canada, old age is marked by a social institution called retirement (Marshall, 1987). Due to the increase in life span, a worker can now expect to spend an average of 19 years in retirement, and by the year 2000 that number will increase to 25 years (Portnoy, 1981). Retirement is a stage of life that has major impact on the individual, as adaptation to that stage requires great adjustments due to transition into new roles and changing life styles. Retirement clearly affects the way elderly people spend their time, the amount of their income, and interpersonal interaction. However, due to a number of negative cultural stereotypes, we are led to believe that retirement is a negative experience. For example, some in the medical community hold the opinion that retirement has a deteriorating effect on health (Portnoy, 1981). By equating old age with a litany of problems, the practitioners may contribute to the stigma associated with being old, thus bolstering negative stereotypes of old age (Connidis, 1987). The themes of successful aging can be found in many works of writers of gerontology (Birren and Schaie, 1985; Eisdorfer, 1983; Butt and Beiser, 1987). Research on satisfaction in all aspects of life among the elderly indicates that even in the face of declining income and health, satisfaction with life is high (Campbell, 1981; Mancini, 1981). It has been suggested that such 2 tendency is possibly due to lowered expectations and/or to positive evaluations of life (Flanagan, 1978; Butt and Beiser, 1987). Lowered expectations produce relatively satisfied evaluations of the current life situation (Campbell, Converse, & Rodgers, 1976). Campbell (1981) points to the inadequacy of explaining differences in life satisfaction based on economic circumstances. After reviewing major findings of national surveys the author states, "We find, in sum, that satisfaction has no relationship with income levels, and if we attempt to account for life satisfaction on the basis of economic satisfaction alone, we discover that we have left most of the differences between individuals unexplained, "(Campbell, 1981 p. 51). Research conducted in 1987 by Butt and Beiser across 30 nations found a notable homogeneity of satisfaction with life. The highest level of satisfaction was reported by the oldest group (50 and over). The authors speculate that this is due to the fact that the oldest group had experienced life, survived it, and now may be reflecting on and enjoying their status. They also don't have the same stresses that burden the younger groups. In most parts of the world, people felt that to survive is to flourish. The authors propose that since 80-90% of those over 65 reported themselves to be well and independent, it should be a sufficient antidote to North America's preoccupation with the problems of the elderly in a technological society. The authors propose "to understand aging, future studies must address the strength and competencies that people develop over a lifetime which they use to transform what might be a final phase of decline and renunciation into one of integrity and integration" (Butt and Beiser, p. 94, 1987). The concern of the present paper is with the individual's own evaluations of life as the point of reference rather than the conditions of one's life (Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin, 1961). In evaluating people's lives, not only satisfaction as a psychological experience tends to be forgotten, but also the quality of this experience may not be closely associated with the 3 external conditions of life. The assumptions are that the individual himself is the only proper judge of his well-being and, as Neugarten et al. (1961) have suggested, it is not appropriate to measure well being in old age by the same standards that apply to middle age — namely the level of activity and/or social involvement. Research conducted by these authors defines Life Satisfaction in old age as consisting of five components by which the individual ranks high on the continuum of psychological well-being to the extent that he/she: 1) takes pleasure from the round of activities that constitutes his/her everyday life; 2) regards his/her life as meaningful and accepts resolutely that which life has to offer; 3) feels that he/she has succeeded in achieving his/her major goals; 4) holds a positive image of self; and 5) maintains happy and optimistic attitudes and mood. In developing the rationale for this paper, the subjective approach to satisfaction with life seems to make greater theoretical sense in relation to the elderly population than the objective approach. The basic purpose of this paper is to answer the question, "What are the antecedents of satisfaction in retirement?". A new, and more aging relevant, conceptualization of psychological control proposed by Reid & Stirling (1989) spurred further investigation into the relationship between life satisfaction and perceived personal control. These authors proposed that the recognition of age related changes and the ability to respond to or act upon these changes provides the experience of psychological control. Similarly, failure to accommodate or assimilate to the experience of age related changes results in loss of control. It is proposed that individual differences in life satisfaction in retirement can be explained by the individual's sense of psychological control over his/her environment. 4 Cognitive Social Learning Theory of Control:  How Do Seniors Retain the Experience of Being in Control? Theory postulates that one of the primary motivations of individuals is to have influence over their environment. As early as the 1950's, White (1959) hypothesized independent ego energies in terms of a drive for effectance or effect upon the environment which leads to increased feelings of confidence, well-being, and mastery on the part of the individual involved. These energies are equipped with a drive towards effectance, which induces motivation to interact with the environment and to exert an effect upon it. Effectance motivation was proposed to produce a feeling of efficacy rather than striving towards goals or incentives. Each effort exerted by an individual has an effect upon the environment, which then feeds back into the experience of the organism. White's theory of effectance motivation asserts that the individual engages in continual interaction with the environment in order to experience the effect he or she will have on it. In the forties and fifties, Julian Rotter began research into the area of personal control. The concept of internal versus external control of reinforcement developed out of social learning theory (Rotter, 1954). Rotter theorized that the likelihood of a person engaging in a particular behavior was dependent on two variables: (1) the degree to which the person expected the behavior to bring about a certain result, and (2) the value attached to that result. Rotter argued that the higher the expectations and the more valued the outcome, the more likely it was that the person would act in a particular manner. The major determinants of a behavior potential in social learning theory are: expectancy, value of the reinforcement, and the psychological situation. In other words, the potential for a behavior to occur in a specific psychological situation is a 5 function of both the expectancy that the behavior will lead to a particular reinforcement in that situation and the value attached to that reinforcement (Rotter, 1975). As a personality variable the concept of perceived external control of reinforcement has been defined by Rotter as follows: "When a reinforcement is perceived by the subject as following some action of his own but not being entirely contingent upon his action, then, in our culture, it is typically perceived as the result of luck, chance, fate, as under control of powerful others, or as unpredictable because of the great complexity of the forces surrounding him" (1966, p. 1). Events perceived by the individuals as contingent upon their own behavior or their own consistent characteristics are termed by Rotter (1966) the internal control of reinforcement. Reconceptualization of psychological control by Reid and Stirling (1989) has cast new light on the concept of control and aging. As people grow older the learning experience continues and mental operations become more complex, thus better understanding the complexity of the world. The result is that not only do people recognize that they have more influence on some aspects of their world than on others, but they also recognize situations on which they have no influence. Knowing when not to respond is itself an action and acting upon the reality of the situation arms the person with considerable control (Reid and Stirling, 1989). Cognitive Social Learning Theory of Control not only conceptualizes control as the experience of acting upon one's environment, having control is also considered as optimized when the results of one's acting upon one's environment coincides with the person's expectations (or appraisal) of the relative dominance of internal and external determinants of his/her situation. We refer to this coinciding as a balance. ... The experience of control, therefore, is constantly in terms of a perceived balance between his appraisal of internal and external forces 6 that coincides with his reactions to these forces." (Reid and Stirling, 1989, p. 239). As people age, physiological and social-psychological changes reduce the ability to influence their environment. The primary motivation to effectively interact with one's environment will contribute to the effort to overcome these forces or, in other words, people will find other ways by which they can be instrumental. Accommodating to these changes and/or incorporating them into purposeful, self-determined activities provides the experience of psychological control (Reid & Stirling, 1989). These authors suggest that the ability to stand back and be realistic about one's condition or, in other words, taking into consideration the internal and external factors one has to act upon, will facilitate such practices as planning, organizing, and problem solving. Review of a number of studies points to a relationship between personal control and psychological well-being among senior citizens (Levitt, Clark, & Rotton, 1987; Mancini, 1981; Norris & Murrel, 1984; Reid & Ziegler, 1980; Rodin, Bohm, & Wack, 1982]. Elderly persons consistently reported greater psychological adjustment when they had or were given greater personal control in their lives. Rodin et al. (1982) refer to a number of studies where the data gathered from institutionalized subjects indicates that greater feelings of control have positive impact on psychological well-being and physical health, and a diminished sense of control has undesirable consequences. Those who believe they have more control exhibit reduced stress. Furthermore, internal control orientation and satisfaction with life have been shown to be positively related, that is, perceived control over the circumstances of one's life emerged as a significant predictor of life satisfaction, independent of health level and monetary resources (Levitt et al. 1987; Reid and Ziegler, 1980; Mancini, 1981). However, a possible criticism in these studies is the implication that facilitating the process of maintaining a sense of control in an 7 institutionalized environment may be temporary and subject to erosion by other environmental influences as soon as the intervention is over. C. Bolton (1985), in his discussion on lifestyle management and promotion of educational efficacy, explores lifestyle behaviors and attitudes as essential ingredients in the achievement of enhanced well-being and greater sufficiency in later life. Bolton (1985) suggests that "wellness lifestyle" is an approach to life that assumes a proactive stance toward being in control of the way one lives. By being in control, the aging adult can explore the best avenues for a satisfactory life-style. The study conducted by Rodin et al. (1982) of an elderly population living in seniors housing confirms the importance of control for psychological and physiological well-being. The residents were relatively healthy and capable of independent living. Subjects were interviewed about their relations with family and friends, activities, their health, and their feelings of control over important life domains (finance, transportation). Analysis of the extensive background interviews included the independent measures of activity, participation, health, perceived control, and relations with family and peers. Life satisfaction as the dependent measure was determined through self report and interview settings. Perceived control and good family relations were significantly and directly related to life satisfaction. Health, activity, and peer relations were not significantly correlated with life satisfaction. However, feelings of control were strongly related to high levels of activity, to satisfactory peer relations, and were a significant predictor of health outcomes one year later. When the relationship between individual differences and the cognitive appraisals was assessed including psychological resources (self esteem, sense of mastery) and social resources (family, friends), it was found that individuals who had little perceived control over their environment were less likely to use problem-solving strategies in dealing with stressful 8 situations. Instead, they used emotion-management techniques (Rodin et al., 1982). Literature Review Analysis of life styles among the retired have usually paid little attention to the 5 or 6 decades which precede the later years (Tissue and Wells, 1971). Maddox (1968) noted that social and psychological concomitants of aging are often influenced by lifestyle patterns established earlier in the life cycle. Although some writers suggest that retirement is a disruptive life event, other research found great continuity in pre- to post-retirement experiences and attitudes (Streib and Schneider, 1971). Atchley (1977) theorized that, as individuals grow older, they are predisposed toward maintaining continuity in habits, associations, and preferences established in earlier years. That is, early experiences and life styles are maintained as much as possible. Atchley's (1977) theory may be criticized for implying that changes imposed by retirement will have negative consequences. Rosow (1963) in his general theory of adjustment to old age offers the following qualifications: Changes that eliminate previous negative aspects of life (frustrations, nervous burdens and the like) or add new positive features (satisfactions, sought opportunities, etc.) shall be regarded as contributing to good adjustment. For our purposes these changes represent net gains to the person. Conversely, stable patterns which intensify persistent frustrations or introduce new dissatisfactions contribute to poor adjustment (Rosow, 1963, p. 217). Continuity theory postulates that for many workers the occupational identity does not constitute the central role. Retirement has become more desirable as it brings with it the opportunities for 9 continuation of other roles and development of new leisure roles (Atchley, 1971, 1977; Palmore, 1981). Most of the early research on the effect of retirement on adjustment supported the hypothesis that loss of work role results in lower satisfaction (Hooker & Ventis, 1984). In support of continuity theory, further analysis of satisfaction in retirement revealed that it was not the loss of the work role itself, but lower income, poor health, and negative attitudes toward retirement that affected the level of satisfaction among the retired (Thompson, Streib, & Kosa, 1960). Beck (1982) studied happiness with life as an aspect of psychological well-being among retirees. The study included such control variables as health, income, education, occupation, race, and reason for retirement. Results indicated that the loss of work role does not have a significant effect on personal happiness. However, unexpected retirement (undesired) not only led to lower satisfaction with retirement, but also negatively affected life happiness. Kimmel, Price, & Walker (1978) found that pre-retirement feelings about retirement were equal to health as a significant predictor of retirement satisfaction. However, a person's perception of retirement as a voluntary decision was an important predictor of retirement satisfaction. Voluntary retirees tended to have higher occupational status, higher income, better health, and more family support for retirement. They tended to be more involved in post-retirement planning in terms of finances and activities. The above studies point to the significance of socioeconomic status in retirement satisfaction. Other research, however, found that, with the exception of health which is less subject to manipulation, income and the level of education did not lead to higher satisfaction in retirement (Holahan, 1981; Schnore, 1985). It can be argued that it is not the high SES that leads to voluntary retirement, but rather it is a higher order variable which has not been addressed in these studies — psychological control. Similarly, greater family support might be explained by perceptions of control, which were shown to have a 10 positive effect on interpersonal relations (Foote & Cottrell, 1955; North & Ulatowska, 1981; Rodin et al., 1982). Based on the analysis of control literature, it can be speculated that it is the perception of control that operates in these studies, constituting the resource that influences the expression of competence and coping and as such leads to higher satisfaction in retirement. Research indicates that one of the most distinguishing characteristics about older people with high life satisfaction is their future orientation. This group of retired persons not only has plans for the future but is identified with other people in activities and has intimate friendships (Birren, 1984). McPherson and Guppy (1979) examined the relationship between pre-retirement life style of adult men and the degree of planning for retirement. It was hypothesized that variables such as demographic background, social participation, and attitudes toward retirement have an impact on the degree of planning for retirement. The authors found that pre-retirement attitudes toward retirement were positively related to pre-retirement life style and the degree of planning for retirement. It seems appropriate to propose that these individuals, even though they don't have the control over the timing of retirement (mandatory retirement), have control over the conditions following retirement. The sense of control over the conditions in retirement will have an impact on attitudes towards and satisfaction in retirement. Thus, both pre-retirement feelings and the perception of retirement as a voluntary decision depend on the perception of being in control. Since positive attitude toward retirement and realistic planning for that stage in life is correlated with satisfaction in retirement, it is proposed that the perception of control will differentiate individuals who have positive attitude toward retirement and are engaged in planning for retirement from those who don't. In assessing competence among independently living adults over 65 years of age, it was 11 found that higher level of competence was associated with operating in a more demanding environment, higher number of activities (hobbies, interests, and recreation), and belonging to more organizations (North & Ulatowska, 1981). Based on these results it was suggested that the high level of competence enabled these adults to remain in or even create a complex, challenging setting (North & Ulatowska, 1981). These findings support the position of continuity theory in that the competence acquired earlier in life had an impact on the quality of retirement years. What we don't know is whether that level of competence was manifested in pre-retirement years or was it latent and as such did not express itself until so required? Or, is there another possible explanation — namely that a higher order variable facilitates the contribution of competence to the quality of retirement years? Study of intellectually gifted aging women found that, regardless of their occupational attainment (career woman, job holder, home maker), hobbies and activities reflecting recreational orientation became an important source of satisfaction in retirement. Additionally career women continued career related activities into retirement years and for job holders retirement meant freedom to pursue intellectual interests in the realm of hobbies and avocational pursuits not available in the work place (Holahan, 1981). For these women not only has change in status taken place but also the behavior changed as new activities were taken up or old interests pursued. Bridging past activities with new ones by maintaining a connection with past career, but no longer making it a focal point in one's life, indicates an adaptive response to the demands of new situation. This observation seems to fit well with Reid & Stirling's (1989) new theory of psychological control which suggests that individuals with greater sense of control are able to respond to changes by incorporating them into purposeful, self-determined activities. Moreover, the acquired competencies and early and mid-life experiences and interests may become more 12 salient in retirement and, as such, influence the decisions and leisure involvement in retirement. The sense of psychological control may play a significant role in the perceptions of, attitudes toward, and actual behaviors in retirement. Although the level of education and income may intuitively appear to be a contributor to satisfaction in retirement, the discrepancy in the results on the relationship between demographic variables and satisfaction in retirement, calls for a new approach to the measurement of this relationship. 13 Chapter Two Present Model The review of the literature has revealed a number of factors which offer contradictory results in terms of their relationship with life satisfaction in retirement. In this paper it is suggested that these inconsistencies can be explained by interrelationships among the predictors of life satisfaction. Such interrelationships have not received much attention. In the present model of special interest is the higher order variable, viz., psychological control, and the degree to which this variable interacts with and, thus, moderates the impact of several predictors of life satisfaction. Steinkamp and Kelly (1987) found that leisure activity contributes significantly to life satisfaction for subjects under 65 years of age, but not for subjects over that age. The study conducted by Rodin et al. (1982) confirms the lack of direct relationship between level of activity and life satisfaction. The results found perceived control to be directly related to both activity level and life satisfaction. In the face of objective decline in such aspects of life as income and health, the satisfaction with all aspects of life among the elderly was found to be high as explained by lowered expectations and/or by very positive evaluations of life circumstances (Flanagan, 1978). Simons and West (1985) argue that uncontrollable and unavoidable changes, such as retirement, result in consequences that do not demand so much active coping behaviors as the ability to construct a positive and accepting definition of the new circumstances. This argument fits well with Reid and Stirling's (1989) theory of psychological control in that the experience of control is in terms of perceived balance between the individual's realistic appraisal of one's condition 14 and his/her reaction to it. It is proposed here that the development and maintenance of positive perceptions and realistic expectations over one's life span depends on the level of psychological control. In order to derive more specific predictions, Schnore's (1985) cognitive person variables, were adopted, viz., perceptions and expectations that determine behavior in interaction with the environment and were found to be an important predictor of well-being in retirement. It is the belief that there is a direct relationship between psychological control and the cognitive person variables. From a theoretical point of view it is argued that high levels of psychological control will differentiate individuals who plan for the future from those who do not. Since it is suggested that the critical variable influencing satisfaction in retirement is psychological control, then in the event that the individual may perceive his/her health status (when controlling for functional health) to be low, if that individual has high level of psychological control, he/she will still report high level of satisfaction in retirement. As involvement in leisure activities in retirement may lend some support for the continuity theory, it is suggested here that for many retirees the level of involvement in leisure activities stems from effective reappraisal of one's situation and abilities. Changes with age do not necessarily diminish the sense of personal control. Awareness of the external factors controlling one's activities may allow for even greater experience of control because, with experience, an individual knows what forces he/she has to act upon. Over time people learn how to respond to change and the more aware they are of the change the better they can respond to it (Reid and Stirling, 1989). The first objective in this study is to test the hypothesis that psychological control is 15 positively related to satisfaction in retirement and to demonstrate that psychological control is positively related to several predictors of life satisfaction in retirement, viz., perceptions of health, attitude towards retirement, planning for the future, leisure activity, perceptions, and expectations. To summarize the expected relationships between psychological control and predictors of satisfaction in retirement, the following propositions are offered: 1.1 The level of psychological control is positively related to perceptions of health status (when controlling for functional health). 1.2 The level of psychological control is positively related to attitude toward retirement. 1.3 The level of psychological control is positively related to planning for the future. 1.4 The level of psychological control is positively related to perceptions and expectations. 1.5 The level of psychological control is positively related to leisure activity. The second objective of the paper is to demonstrate that the interaction effect between psychological control and several predictors of life satisfaction determines the level of satisfaction in retirement. The following propositions summarize the expected relationships: 2.1 The interaction between the level of psychological control and perceptions of health status (when controlling for functional health) is positively related to satisfaction in retirement. 16 2.2 The interaction between the level of psychological control and the level of planning for the future is positively related to satisfaction in retirement. 2.3 The interaction between the level of psychological control and the attitude towards retirement is positively related to satisfaction in retirement. 2.4 The interaction between the level of psychological control and the level of leisure activity is positively related to satisfaction in retirement. Method Procedure A package containing covering letter, the Retirement Questionnaire (see Appendix A), and a stamped, self addressed envelope was mailed to a population with similar socioeconomic status. For this study a population was selected of retired iron workers on pension plan in the Greater Vancouver area of British Columbia. The union provided the mailing address for each recipient of the pension plan. The covering letter explained the purpose of the study and indicated participation was voluntary and the responses strictly confidential. To reassure the participants of the confidentiality and legitimacy of the project a letter from the union personnel office accompanied the questionnaire. Questionnaires were numbered and cross-referenced with addresses. Participants who did not respond received a second follow-up letter and a copy of the questionnaire. 17 Subjects Given the argument that satisfaction in retirement is independent of socioeconomic status, a homogeneous group of retired individuals was chosen with respect to occupation, income, and level of education, thus keeping the socioeconomic status constant. The participants were retired iron workers, totaling 190 recipients of the union pension plan in the Greater Vancouver area of British Columbia. Measurements The Retirement Questionnaire employed in this study was composed of a series of pencil and paper questionnaires. The first section of the questionnaire includes demographic data. Those used in this study are gender, age, and marital status. Socioeconomic status, specifically the occupation, is controlled by the sampling procedure. The second section of the questionnaire measures the dependent variable, life satisfaction, and the independent variables, attitude towards retirement, perceived health status, planning for the future, expectations and perceptions, and leisure activity. The third section of the questionnaire, the General Belief Survey, measures the critical variable, desired control measure. Life satisfaction. Neugarten, Havighurst, and Tobin (1961) derived a set of scales for rating life satisfaction specifically constructed for use with a general population of elderly adults. Life Satisfaction Index (Neugarten et al., 1961) has been used by other researchers studying the psychological well-being of older people (Longino and Kart, 1982; Steinkamp and Kelly, 1987). 18 The Life satisfaction for the present study was measured with six items adopted from Longino and Kart's (1982) factor analyzed modification of the Life Satisfaction Index (Neugarten et al., 1961). The six items load strongly on affirmation of life dimension. The standardized reliability coefficient of the six-item factor scale was .77. The participants were asked to indicate on a 5-point Likert scale whether they disagreed, were unsure of, or agreed with the items. An example of an item is, "As I grow older, things seem better than I thought they would be." Attitude toward retirement. The attitude toward retirement (Schnore, 1985) was measured by five items on a 6-point Likert scale, with l=completely agree, and 6=completely disagree. The correlation for the items was .73. High score indicates a positive attitude toward retirement. An example of an item is, "When a person retires, he has one foot in the grave." Perceived health status. Schnore (1985) used fourteen items to assess health status. The items were grouped into three aspects of health: general, functional, and psychosomatic. The internal consistency reliability for total health scale was .67. High scores indicated a positive evaluation of health. An example of an item in each group is: "How would you rate your health at the present time?", with scores ranging from l=not at all good to 6=very good; "Do you have trouble walking up and down the stairs?", with scores ranging from l=always to 6=never; "Do you worry about getting bad headaches?", with scores ranging from l=always to 6=never. Planning for the future. Planning for the future was measured by two items developed specifically for the study to tap the financial and activity components of planning. The subjects were asked to indicate on a 4-point scale ranging from 1 =completely true to 4=not true at all, their level of involvement in planning for retirement. The first item pertaining to financial planning is: "Before retirement I made specific plans and I regularly and systematically reviewed them for my financial affairs after retirement." The second item pertaining to activities 19 is: "Before retirement I made specific plans about the kinds of activities I wanted to participate in after I retired." Perceptions. Perceptions in general and perceptions of health and money (Schnore 1985) were measured by nine items. An example of a typical item is, "Too often people do not appreciate what they have." The scores were measured on a six point Likert scale ranging from l=completely agree to 6=completely disagree. High scores are associated with positive perceptions. The internal consistency reliability for the three sets of items was low (.28, .18, .35) and the scores for the items were not summed. Level of expectations. The nine item scale includes general expectations (E-G), expectations regarding health (E-H), and money (E-M). The participants in the study (Schnore 1985) indicated their agreement on a six point Likert scale ranging from l=completely agree to 6=completely disagree. High scores indicate a low level of expectations. An example of general expectations item is "I try to be satisfied with what I have." The internal consistency reliability for the three sets of items was low (.28, .13, .32). Schnore (1985) suggests that the low internal consistency can be a result of a small number of items in each set or because the items do not measure a common attribute or characteristic. Leisure activity level. Total leisure activity scale (Steinkamp and Kelly, 1987) is a comprehensive list of twenty-four social and solitary leisure activities. The participants were asked to rate on a scale of 4 to 1 the frequency with which they engaged in each activity. Subsets of items measured cultural, travel, sport/exercise, family, outdoor, social, community organizations, and home based activities. Cronbach's Alpha for the leisure activity scale was .80. Desired control measure. This scale in the form of a questionnaire was specifically designed to assess seniors' expectations of realizing desired outcomes (Reid and Stirling, 1981). 20 The 70 construct items (35 Desire items and 35 Expectancy items) were measured on a 5-point Likert scale. The Desire items range from 5=very desirable to l=very undesirable. The Expectancy items range from 5=strongly agree to 1=strongly disagree. The higher the score the higher the desire and expectancy. Cronbach's Alpha for the scale was consistently in the high 80's and low 90's. An example of an item is, "I have quite a bit of influence on the degree to which I can be involved in activities". For the purpose of this study the short form version was used, consisting of 32 items (16 Desire and 16 Expectancy items) tested empirically by Reid and Stirling (1981). Data Analysis Given propositions 1.1-1.5, the following hypotheses are tested: 1.1- 1 The score on the level of psychological control will be positively correlated to the score on 2 areas of perceptions of health (when controlling for functional health). 1.2- 1 The score on the level of psychological control will be positively correlated to the score on attitude towards retirement. 1.3- 1 The score on the level of psychological control will be positively correlated to the score on planning for the future. 1.4- 1 The score on the level of psychological control will be positively related to the score on perceptions and expectations (in general, of health, and money). 1.5- 1 The score on the level of psychological control will be positively related to the score on the level of leisure activity. With respect to propositions 2.1-2.4, the following hypotheses were derived: 2.1-1 High score on psychological control and high score on perception on health status will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement 2.1-2 High score on psychological control and low score on perception of health status will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.1-3 Low score on psychological control and high score on perception of health status will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.1- 4 Low score on psychological control and low score on perception on health will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.2- 1 High score on psychological control and high score on planning for the future will be related to high score on satisfaction on retirement. 2.2-2 High score on psychological control and low score on planning for the future will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.2-3 Low score on psychological control and high score on planning for the future will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.2- 4 Low score on psychological control and low score on planning for the future will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.3- 1 High score on psychological control and high score on attitude toward retirement will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.3-2 High score on psychological control and low score on attitude toward retirement will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.3-3 Low score on psychological control and high score on attitude toward retirement will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.3- 4 Low score on psychological control and low score on attitude toward retirement will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.4- 1 High score on psychological control and high score on leisure activity level will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.4-2 High score on psychological control and low score on leisure activity level will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.4-3 Low score on psychological control and high score on leisure activity level will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. 2.4-4 Low score on psychological control and low score on leisure activity level will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. 23 Chapter Three Results The focus of this research is on psychological control and the degree to which psychological control interacts with and moderates the impact of several predictors of life satisfaction in retirement. The first objective of this study was to test for a correlation between psychological control and predictors of life satisfaction in retirement. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that the interaction effect between psychological control and predictors of life satisfaction in retirement is related to the level of satisfaction in retirement. The findings of the study will be presented in the following way: essential descriptive data, findings for each research question, followed by results in tabular form. Subjects The participants in the study were a sample representative of all retired iron workers, totaling 190 recipients of the union pension plan in the Greater Vancouver area in British Columbia. Of the 190 questionnaires delivered, 92 were returned. Of these, 7 were not completely answered, leaving 85 (all male) usable. However, of the usable questionnaires, 37 had missing data on one or more scales measuring the independent and dependent variables. Eighty-three (98.8%) of the 85 respondents indicated that they were retired and only 1.2% reported holding post retirement jobs. Respondents' ranged in age from 54 to 87 years, with a mean age of 67.9. Seventy percent of the respondents were married, 9.5% had never married, 8.3% were widowed, 7.1% were divorced/separated, and 4.8% were cohabitating. Approximately 45% of the respondents had annual family incomes (from all sources) between $10,000 and $20,000, 27.7% were in the 24 $21,000 to $30,000 bracket, 18.1% had annual family incomes between $31,000 and $40,000, 7.2% were in the $41,000 to $50,000 income bracket, the $51,000 to $60,000 and $61,000 to $70,000 income bracket accounted for 1.2% each. The proportion of the sample completing trade or other schooling was 47.6%. Thirty-six point nine per cent completed elementary school, 13.1% had high school graduation, and 2.4% had some university education. Dependent and Independent Measures The dependent variable, satisfaction in retirement (SATRET), was measured as a simple summative scale containing six items adopted from Longino and Kart's (1982) factor analysed modification of the Life Satisfaction Index (Neugarten et al., 1961). Internal consistency tests were conducted to confirm the scale's reliability for the respondents participating in the study. Cronbach's Alpha was used to test the internal consistency of the scale items measuring the dependent variable. The Cronbach's Alpha was .70 which is considered low. However, the Alpha reported by Longino and Kart (1982) in their research was .77 which approximates the value of Alpha obtained for the sample in the present study. The mean score for satisfaction in retirement for 76 valid cases was 19.72 with a standard deviation of 4.4, and a median of 19.5. Skewness was non-existent. The scale consists of 6 summative items with a possible low score of 1 and a high score of 5 for each item. Thus the lowest score for the scale is 6 and the highest is 30. The higher the score the more satisfied the individual is with life in retirement. For the present sample respondent's scores ranged from 12 to 29. The magnitude of the mean indicates that the respondents were slightly more satisfied with their life than the midpoint for this scale. The critical independent variable, psychological control (DESCON), was measured with Reid and Stirling's (1981) short form version (32 items) of the Desired Control Measure. The 25 scale was factor analysed to confirm the loading for the original scale and for two simple summative subscales items, the desire(DES) and the expectancy (EXP) scales. For the present sample internal consistency Cronbach's Alpha for DESCON was .83. Cronbach's Alpha for DES and EXP subscales were .87 and .74 respectively. Following Reid and Stirling (1981), to obtain the Desired Control score each Expectancy item was multiplied by the respective Desire item and the cross products were summed. For each item the possible low score was 1 and the high score was 5. Thus the lowest score for the scale is 16 and the highest score is 400. The higher the score the higher the level of psychological control. For the present sample respondents scores ranged from 140 to 354. The mean score for psychological control for 67 valid cases was 268, with a standard deviation of 46.9, a median of 268, and the skewness was marginal. The magnitude of the mean score indicates that the respondents reported a higher level of control over every day events than the midpoint for that scale. Perceived health status (PERHEA) was measured with Schnore's (1985) fourteen item summative scale grouped into three aspects of health: general (HG), functional (HF), and psychosomatic (HPS). This study is only interested in the psychological aspects of health, namely the perception of health and not the actual status of health. Therefore, functional health was deleted from the scale. Only the general and psychosomatic areas of health were used in the statistical analysis resulting in the perceptions of health scale (PERHGP). Cronbach's Alpha for PERHGP was .74. The scale consists of 9 summative items with a possible low score of 1 and a high score of 6 for each item. Thus, the lowest score for the scale was 9 and the highest was 54. The higher the score the more positive the perceptions regarding one's health status. For the present sample the range of scores was from 20 to 54. Mean score for perceptions of health (PERHGP) for 80 valid cases was 40.2 with a standard deviation of 7.8, a median of 42, and a 26 skewness of -.797. The magnitude of the mean suggests that the respondents had positive perceptions of health which was slightly higher than the midpoint for that scale. Attitude towards retirement (ATTRET) was measured with Schnore's (1985) five item summative scale. Cronbach's Alpha for this scale was only .58, while Schnore (1985) obtained a figure of .73. We can assume that the drop in Cronbach's Alpha from .73 to .58 for the present scale may be due to characteristics specific to our sample. Therefore, the scale may not be as reliable for the subjects involved in the present study. Mean score for attitude towards retirement for 82 valid cases was 23.3 with a standard deviation of 5, a median of 24 and the skewness was marginal. The scale consists of 5 items with a possible low score of 1 and a high score of 6 for each item. Thus, the lowest score for the scale is 5 and the highest is 30. The higher the score the more positive the attitude towards retirement. The range of scores for the present sample was from 12 to 30. The magnitude of the mean indicates that the respondents had generally speaking a positive attitude towards retirement which was slightly higher than the midpoint for that scale. The 2 item planning for the future (PLANF) summative scale was developed specifically for the study. Testing for internal consistency for the scale's items resulted in Cronbach's Alpha of .62. Mean score for planning for the future for 80 valid cases was 4.8 with a standard deviation of 1.9, a median of 5, and the skewness was non-existent. The 2 item scale has a possible low score of 1 and a high score of 4 for each item. Thus, the lowest score for the scale is 2 and the highest score is 8. The range of scores for the present sample was from 2 to 8. The higher the score the more involved the individual is in planning for retirement. The magnitude of the mean score suggests that in general the respondents had slightly higher involvement in planning regarding finance and activities for retirement than the midpoint for that scale. Schnore's measures of perceptions (PERCEP) and expectations (EXPECT) are both nine 27 item simple summative scales grouped into three aspects of items: general, health, and money. Factor analysis confirmed factor loadings for each set of items in PERCEPT and EXPECT scales. The internal consistency Cronbach's Alpha for the total PERCEPT scale was .45 and Cronbach's Alpha for the total EXPECT scale was .57. The 9 items in both scales have a possible low score of 1 and a high score of 6 for each item. The lowest score for each scale is 9 and the highest score is 54. The higher the score the more positive the perceptions and the lower the expectations. Mean score for perceptions for 79 valid cases was 29.9 with a standard deviation of 6.3, a median of 29, and a marginal skewness. The range of scores for the present sample was from 15 to 45. The magnitude of the mean score indicates that the respondents had lower score for perceptions than the midpoint for that scale suggesting that the retirees in this sample tend to have negative perceptions. Mean score for expectations for 77 valid cases was 29.6 with a standard deviation of 7.1, a median of 29, and a marginal skewness. The range of scores for the present sample was from 16 to 49. The magnitude of the mean score indicates that the respondents had lower scores for expectations than the midpoint for that scale suggesting that the retirees in this sample tend to have high expectations. Leisure activity (LEIACT) scale (Steinkamp & Kelly 1987) is a list of 24 leisure activities factor analysed with eight subsets of items measuring cultural, travel, sport/exercise, family, outdoor, social, community organizations, and home based activities. The internal consistency Cronbach Alpha for the present sample was .82. The items in the scale have a possible low score of 1 and a high score of 4. The highest summative score for the scale is 96 and the lowest summative score is 24. The higher the score the more frequent the engagement in leisure activities. In the present sample respondents scores ranged from 41 to 84. Mean score for leisure activity for 70 valid cases was 58.6 with a standard deviation of 8.1 and a median of 60. 28 Skewness was non-existent. The magnitude of the mean score suggests that the respondents engaged more frequently in leisure activities than the midpoint for that scale. To summarize for the subjects in this research the following characteristics were evident: life satisfaction in retirement was reasonably high, as was psychological control. The respondents perceived their health as good and their attitude towards retirement was positive. Planning for retirement with regard to finances and activities was relatively high as was the frequency of engaging in leisure activities. Contrary to the expectations of this investigation, the subjects indicated rather negative perceptions and fairly high expectations. Findings Related to Pearson Correlation Coefficients To test the relatedness of psychological control and five independent variables — perceptions of health, attitude towards retirement, planning for the future, expectations and perceptions — Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated (see Appendix C). With the exception of perceptions and expectations, the correlations were found to be positive and significant at the .05 level. Hypothesis 1.1-1. The first hypothesis stated that the score on the level of psychological control will be positively correlated to the score on two areas of perceptions of health. As predicted there was a linear, positive correlation between psychological control and perceptions of health (r=.23, p<.05). The correlation suggests that retirees characterised by higher degree of psychological control have more positive perception of their health status. Hypothesis 1.2-1. The second hypothesis stated that the score on the level of psychological control will be positively correlated to the score on attitude towards retirement. Support was found for a positive, linear relationship between psychological control and attitude towards retirement (r=.24, p<.05). The correlation indicates that retirees characterized by higher 29 degree of psychological control have more positive attitude towards retirement. Hypothesis 1.3-1. The third hypothesis stated that the score on the level of psychological control will be positively correlated to the score on planning for the future. The correlation for psychological control and planning for the future was (r=.27, p<.05). The correlation suggests that those respondents who feel in control of their lives were involved in financial and activity planning before retirement. Hypothesis 1.4-1. The fourth hypothesis stated that the score on the level of psychological control will be positively correlated to the score on perceptions and expectations (in general, of health, and of money). The predicted correlation was not supported. No correlation was found between perceptions and psychological control (r=.00, p>.05) and there was no significant correlation between expectations and psychological control (r=-.04, p>.05). The correlations suggest that psychological control has none or at most marginal relation with perceptions and expectations. Hypothesis 1.5-1. The fifth hypothesis stated that the score on the level of psychological control will be positively correlated to the score on leisure activity. Support was found for a positive, linear relationship between psychological control and leisure activity (r=.28, p<.05). It was suggested that the sense of personal control among retirees facilitates the effective reappraisal of one's situation and abilities. As such the individual need not decrease his/her level of involvement in leisure activities but rather respond to change with age and adapt leisure activities accordingly. The correlation suggests that respondents who feel in control over their lives are involved in greater number of activities. 30 Other Outcomes The data offer further support for the thesis that psychological control is related to life satisfaction. A positive, linear correlation was found between the two variables (r=.23, p<.05) (See Appendix C). In a number of studies senior citizens reported greater life satisfaction when they had greater personal control in their lives (Levitt et al. 1987; Mancini, 1981; Norris & Murrel, 1984; Reid & Ziegler, 1980). Rodin et al. (1982) found direct relationship between psychological control and life satisfaction among the seniors. Findings Related to Two-Way Analysis of Variance To test the hypothesis that psychological control interacts with and, thus, moderates the impact of several predictors of life satisfaction in retirement, two-way analysis of variance was calculated for each group of hypotheses. The design was 2 x 2 analysis of variance with two independent variables as between subjects factors and satisfaction in retirement as the dependent variable. If we discover that a given pair of variables has a significant interaction level, then we can conclude that there is a joint effect of the two variables on the dependent variable. This means that the effect of an independent variable by itself is not the same as when it is taken in combination with the levels of another independent variable. Such a finding would support our hypothesis that the interaction effect between psychological control and the predictors of life satisfaction determines the level of satisfaction in retirement. If on the other hand we do not find a significant interaction, then we may conclude that the effect of either independent variable on the dependent variable is independent of the other. The importance of a significant main effect of either one of the variables on the dependent 31 variable is that it is a formal test of significant difference between the means for the levels of that independent variable. For example, the F value of 23,150(1, 57) at the .05 level for an independent variable indicates a significant effect for the levels of that variable on the dependent variable which is unlikely to have had occurred by chance. Specifically, with respect to the following hypotheses the theory would receive its strongest support by a confirmation of the first hypothesis in each series (2.x-1), since this hypothesis posits the interaction effect. Tables showing the results for the analysis of variance (Table 1 to Table 4) are shown in Appendix D. Hypothesis 2.1-1 through 2.1-4. To review the hypotheses: High score on psychological control and high score on perception of health status will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. High score on psychological control and low score on perceptions of health status will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. Low score on psychological control and high score on perceptions of health will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. Low score on psychological control and low score on perceptions of health will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. Appendix D. Table 1 presents results from the two-way analysis of variance. The F value associated with psychological control and perceptions of health interaction on satisfaction in retirement is not statistically significant, F(l,57)=.096, p=.758. There is clearly no interaction between the two variables. Individual testing for each factor showed a significant main effect for perceptions of health on satisfaction in retirement, F(l,57)=23.150, p=.000, but no main effect for 32 psychological control on satisfaction in retirement, F(l,57)=.001, p=.976. However, it will be recalled that for the Pearson Correlation Coefficient there was a moderate significant correlation between psychological control and life satisfaction when psychological control was not divided at its median into only two levels of high and low. When variables used in a statistical procedure are continuous and the relationship between them is linear, the results are more likely to be significant than when these variables are categorical. Examination of cell means for the subsequent analysis allows us to evalute whether the direction of an effect predicted by the hypothesis exists even if the differences between the means are not statistically significant. With a larger sample size the differences between the means could be statistically significant. The value of the median was used to determine the high and low levels for each factor. Scores below the median fell into the low category and scores above the median fell into the high category. Total sample mean satisfaction in retirement was 19.59. The mean of satisfaction in retirement was found to be larger for high level of PERHGP factor (22.14) than for low level of PERHGP factor (17.20) which indicates that respondents who perceive their health as good are more satisfied with their life than those who perceive their health to be poor. However, the value of the F ratio for the interaction effect and psychological control main effect is very small (less than 1.0) and not significant. Therefore, the cell means are not significantly different enough to make it probable that a larger sample size might produce significant outcomes. Hypothesis 2.2-1 through 2.2-4. Again, reviewing the hypotheses: High score on psychological control and high score on planning for the future will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. High score on psychological control and low score on planning for the future will 33 be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. Low score on psychological control and high score on planning for the future will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. Low score on psychological control and low score on planning for the future will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. Appendix D, Table 2 presents results from the two-way analysis of variance. There appears to be no significant interaction effect between psychological control and planning for the future on satisfaction in retirement, F(l,59)=2.939, p=.092. There were no main effects found for planning for the future on satisfaction in retirement, F(l,59)=.305, p=.583, and no main effects for psychological control on satisfaction in retirement, F(l,59)=.067, p=796. Total sample mean for satisfaction in retirement was 19.78. High level DESCON and PLANF resulted in a mean satisfaction of 21.12. High level DESCON and low level PLANF resulted in a mean satisfaction of 18.82. Low level DESCON and PLANF resulted in a mean of 20.11. Low level DESCON and high level PLANF resulted in a mean satisfaction of 18.25. Thus, only the direction predicted by hypothesis 2.2-1 and 2.2-4 received some support. It can be speculated that given a larger sample size, the F value for the interaction effect might be significant. Nevertheless, we are faced with weak support for this set of hypotheses. Hypothesis 2.3-1 through 2.3-4. Once more reviewing the hypotheses: High score on psychological control and high score on attitude toward retirement will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. High score on psychological control and low score on attitude toward retirement will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. Low score on psychological control and high score on attitude toward retirement 34 will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. Low score on psychological control and low score on attitude toward retirement will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. Two-way analysis of variance in Appendix D, Table 3 indicates no significant interaction effect between psychological control and attitude towards retirement on satisfaction in retirement, F(l,61)=1.639, p=.206. There was no significant main effect found for attitude towards retirement on satisfaction in retirement, F(l,61)=2.581, p=.114, and no significant main effect was found for psychological control on satisfaction in retirement, F( 1,61)=.128, p=.722. The total population satisfaction in retirement mean was 19.69. Examination of cell means revealed a similar pattern to previous analysis of cell means. The mean satisfaction was found to be greater for high level of DESCON (M=20.03) than for low level (M= 19.26). The mean satisfaction was greater for high level of ATTRET (M=20.63) than for low level (M= 18.70). Though our hypotheses have not been supported, the examination of cell means suggests the individual effect of either one independent variable on satisfaction in retirement was greater for the higher level of each variable. Hypothesis 2.4-1 through 2.4-4. Recalling this set of hypotheses: High score on psychological control and high score on leisure activity level will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. High score on psychological control and low score on leisure activity level will be related to high score on satisfaction in retirement. Low score on psychological control and high score on leisure activity level will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. 35 Low score on psychological control and low score on leisure activity will be related to low score on satisfaction in retirement. Two-way analysis of variance in Table 4 indicates no interaction between psychological control and leisure activity, F(l,53)=.265, p=609. There were no main effects on satisfaction in retirement for leisure activity, F(l,53)=.428, p=.516, and no main effects for psychological control, F(l,53)=.002, p=.968. Summary (see Summary Table on p. 36) In summary, the results of the above tests indicate that, with the exception of perceptions and expectations, the hypotheses predicting a positive relationship between psychological control and predictors of life satisfaction received support. Perceived health status, attitude towards retirement, planning for the future, leisure activity, and life satisfaction were found to be significantly related to psychological control. No significant relationship was found between psychological control and perceptions and expectations. In the analysis of variance none of the predicted interaction effects were significant. A significant main effect was found only for perceptions of health — that is, retirees who perceived their health as good were more satisfied with their life. 36 Summary Table Hypothesis and Other Outcomes Findings Conclusions 1.1- 1 Psychological control A Perceptions of health r=.23 p=.036 supported 1.2- 1 Psychological control Attitude towards retirement r=.24 p=.027 supported 1.3- 1 Psychological control —> Planning for the future r=.27 p=.015 supported 1.4- 1 Psychological control —» Perceptions Psychological control Expectations 1.5- 1 Psychological control Leisure activity Other outcome: Psychological control Life satisfaction 2.1-1 through 2.1-4 Psychological control x perceptions of health interaction and main effects on life satisfaction in retirement 2.2-1 through 2.2-4 Psychological control x planning for the future interaction and main effects on life satisfaction in retirement 2.3-1 through 2.3-4 Psychological control x attitude towards retirement interaction and main effects on life satisfaction in retirement 2.4-1 through 2.4-4 Psychological control x leisure activity interaction and main effects on life satisfaction in retirement r_.00p-.478 not supported r=-.04 p=. 374 r=.28 p=.016 supported r=.23 p=.036 supported Interaction F(l,57)=.096 p=.758 not supported Psychological control main effect F(l,57)=.001 p=.976 not supported Health main effects F(l,57)=23.150 p-.OOO supported Interaction F(l,59)=2.938 p=.092 not supported Psychological control main effect F(l,59)=.067 p=796 not supported Planning main effects F(l,59)=.035 p=.583 not supported Interaction F(l,61)=1.639 p=.206 not supported Psychological control main effect F(l,61)=.128 p=.722 not supported Attitude main effects F(l,61)=2.581 p=.114 not supported Interaction F(l,53)= 1.2659 p=.609 not supported Psychological control main effect F(l,53)=.002 p=.968 not supported Leisure activity main effect F(l,53)=.428 p=.516 not supported 37 Chapter Four Discussion This study attempted to determine whether the inconsistent results in previous research on the effects of health, attitude towards retirement, planning for the future, perceptions, expectations, and leisure activity on satisfaction in retirement (Birren, 1984; Campbell, 1981; Kimmel et al. 1978; Thompson et al. 1960) could be explained by the relationship between psychological control and the variables affecting satisfaction in retirement. Perceived Psychological Control The first objective in this study was to see if perceived psychological control among retirees might explain some variables which are predictive of life satisfaction. These variables were perceived health status, attitude towards retirement, planning for the future, leisure activity, perceptions, and expectations. With the exception of perceptions and expectations, the correlations were positive, moderately strong, and significant at the .05 level. With the exception of the reports by Rodin et al. (1982) and Schnore (1985) that feelings of control are associated with health and levels of activity, most previous research examined the direct relationship between psychological control and life satisfaction. With the exception of perceptions and expectations, this study contributes to research in confirming as well as adding new information regarding the relationship between psychological control and the predictors of life satisfaction in retirement. Reid & Stirling's (1989) measure of psychological control adds credibility to the findings through its relevance to aging phenomena. "To have control is to act upon or in light of the variety of forces both within and without the person that would otherwise determine the person's condition" (Reid and Stirling 1989, p. 233). In other words, it is the personal capacity 38 to respond or act upon age related changes, whether physiological or social, that provides the experience of control. Let us examine each of these findings for their implication. Perceived Health Status The positive correlation found between perceived health status and psychological control is not surprising. The ability to successfully accommodate to and accept the physiological and sensory-motor changes gives the person a sense of personal control over these losses. Recognizing and accepting that changes in some aspects of health are inevitable with the aging process brings the health issue into perspective and the individual may view himself as relatively healthy because he acts in accordance with his physical abilities. Attitude Towards Retirement The results for attitude towards retirement in the present study are interpreted as reflecting the earlier proposed possibility that, when a job is not central to one's self concept, retirement is seen as an opportunity to grow outside of the psychological and financial security of one's job. A number of retirees hold post-retirement jobs.1 If that is the case, then the potential for a systematic bias in these findings may not be entirely ruled out. Provided that retirement was voluntary, the attitude of workers may be different from non-workers. A comparison between workers and retirees of the same iron workers union with respect to pre-retirement and post-retirement attitude may further reveal whether psychological control differentiates individuals who have positive attitude from those who don't. A positive result would confirm earlier 1 Personal communication between the author and the union business manager prior to data collection. 39 research (Maddox, 1968; Streib and Schneider, 1971) and the theoretical ideas of the continuity theory (Atchley, 1977), as well as offer additional support to this study's predicted significance of psychological control in life satisfaction in retirement. Planning for the Future It was predicted in this present study that the perception of control will differentiate individuals who are engaged in the future financial and activity planning from those who don't. The positive correlation found between planning for the future and psychological control offers support for this proposition. The rationale for this prediction related to earlier findings that one of the most distinguishing characteristics about older people with high life satisfaction is their future orientation (Birren 1984). This finding also confirms Reid and Stirling's (1989) theoretical suggestion that the aspect of psychological control, namely the ability to be realistic about one's condition, will facilitate such practices as planning, organizing, and problem solving. Guided by the concept of psychological control, it seems appropriate to suggest that planning for retirement reflects the ability to be effectively instrumental. In other words, having an influence over a major change in one's life such as retirement gives the individual a sense of control. Leisure Activity Previous research demonstrated that activity level was directly related to feelings of control (Rodin et al., 1982). The positive correlation between leisure activity and psychological control found in the present study offers confirmation of those findings. In light of the reconceptualization of control and its relevance to aging phenomena, it makes sense to suggest that the respondents who are engaged in a number of activities responded to changes with age and 40 adapted leisure activity according to their interests and abilities. Additionally, leisure correlated positively with planning for the future (see Appendix C) which indicates that planning may actually facilitate involvement in activities which were planned for before retirement. Perceptions and Expectations Life satisfaction was suggested to be high among the elderly population due to positive perceptions and lowered expectations (Butt and Beiser, 1987; Flanagan, 1978). The argument that the development and maintenance of accurate perceptions and lowered expectations over one's life span depends on the level of psychological control did not receive the expected support. No significant correlation was found between psychological control and perceptions and expectations. Nor did this investigation confirm earlier research findings in regard to life satisfaction and perceptions and expectations where the two emerged as a significant predictor of satisfaction with standard of living as an aspect of life satisfaction (Schnore 1985). This research found a marginal, non-significant negative correlation between perceptions and life satisfaction (r=-.l 1, p>.05) and no correlation was found for expectations and life satisfaction. Several factors may account for these findings. First, in light of the conflicting results between this work and earlier research, the values relating to perceptions and expectations in general, of health, and money may be different for the specific group under study. As such the scale may have biases affecting the retirees in the present sample. Second, assuming that the measures of perceptions and expectations are valid and reliable, it may be that the reasoning used to establish the link between psychological control and perceptions and expectations, that is, the development and maintenance of positive perceptions and realistic expectations depends on the level of psychological control, is faulty. Even though it makes sense conceptually, the relationship between psychological control and perceptions and expectations may not be linear. 41 Life Satisfaction in Retirement The positive correlation found between psychological control and life satisfaction in retirement (see Appendix C) lends further support to the findings of Levitt et al. (1987), Mancini (1981), Reid and Ziegler (1980), and Rodin et al. (1982), where perceived control over the circumstances of one's life emerged as either a significant predictor of life satisfaction or was directly related to life satisfaction. In light of past research and the present inquiry, the proposition that individual differences in life satisfaction in retirement can be explained by the individual's sense of psychological control has received the expected support. Socioeconomic Status Review of previous research offered contradictory results on the effects of socioeconomic status on life satisfaction in retirement. Earlier studies indicated that lower income affected the level of satisfaction in retirement (Kimmel et al., 1978; Thompson et al., 1960). More recent studies showed that, even in the face of declining income, life satisfaction in retirement was high (Campbell, 1981; Holahan, 1981; Mancini, 1981; Schnore, 1985). These results support the more recent findings. The strength of this research lies in the fact that the population under study was homogeneous with respect to occupation, income, and level of education. Life satisfaction for the present sample correlated positively with psychological control. This result and the reported annual family income between $10,000 to $20,000 and $21,000 to $30,000 for 73.7% of the sample confirms the theoretical argument raised in this study that given a high level of psychological control, life satisfaction is independent of socioeconomic status. 42 Interaction and Main Effects The second objective in this study was to see whether the inconsistent results with respect to several predictors of life satisfaction may be explained by the interaction effects between psychological control and the predictors of life satisfaction. There were no significant results with respect to the hypothesis predicting interaction effects and the only significant main effect on life satisfaction was found for perceptions of health. Despite the fact that the analysis of variance tests failed to yield significant results, the importance of psychological control in life satisfaction in retirement should not be ignored. Even though the analysis of variance did not offer support for the theoretical predictions, examination of cell means points to a trend for individual effects of the independent variables on life satisfaction in retirement. Thus, for the higher level of psychological control and for the higher level of the predictors of life satisfaction, the mean life satisfaction is slightly greater. Limitations Statistically, the greatest limitation of this study was the response rate. As the sample size is not as critical for correlations, it does offer a possible explanation for non-significant findings in the analysis of variance. Despite initial sampling of 190 retirees, only 85 comprised the final sample size, resulting in small and unequal cell sizes in the analysis of variance. In addition, a related limitation is that the response rate makes this sample non-random which limits the information of how the error is distributed and how it influences the statistical findings. The sampling frame of this study included the entire population and as such the findings are associated with the retired iron workers in Greater Vancouver area. It can only be speculated 43 that the results found for this group may be true of other groups of retired iron workers. A further limitation is related to a potential for a systematic bias. It will be recalled that preliminary discussion with the union management suggests that some retired iron workers hold post-retirement jobs. Since all of the respondents (45% of the total distributed questionnaires) indicated no post-retirement jobs, it is not known whether those who did not respond may have heldjobsornot. Low reliability of some of the scales presents another limitation in the final results of this research. An additional limitation is that of incomplete response. It will be recalled that 37 questionnaires had missing data on one or more scales measuring the independent and dependent variables. Incomplete responses were deleted from the analysis. The critical variable, psychological control, had unfortunately 18 cases with missing items. Such a drop in the number of valid cases from 85 to 67 may have seriously affected the analysis of variance results. Due to the nature of a mail out questionnaire, there is very little or no control over its completion. The agreement with the union precluded the researcher from any direct contact with the respondents. Nonetheless, the findings in this study hold promise for directions for future research. The consistent, positive correlation with respect to psychological control, the predictors of life satisfaction and life satisfaction itself, with the exception of perceptions and expectations, suggests that psychological control plays a significant role in life satisfaction in retirement. Future research may take into consideration a larger sample size. The use of more reliable instruments would add strength to the outcomes. To secure a larger return and to reduce statistical deficiencies, techniques such as follow-up questionnaires, offering money or other incentives, and learning of the characteristics of the nonrespondents may be of benefit. A 44 comparison study between workers and retirees from one socioeconomic group would take this investigation one step further. It may add useful information with respect to the differences associated with the pre- and post-retirement attitudes, perceptions, expectations, and behaviors. And, it may shed some light on whether psychological control explains the differences between and within the two groups. 45 References Adams, D. (1971). Correlates of satisfaction among the elderly. Gerontologist, 11, 64-68. Atchley, R. C. (1971). Retirement and leisure participation: Continuity or crisis? The Gerontologist, 11,13-17. Atchley, R. C. (1977). The social forces in later life (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84,191-215. Beck, S. H. (1982). Adjustment to and satisfaction with retirement. Journal of Gerontology, 37, 616-624. Birren, J. E. (1984). The aging process. In H. Denies (Ed.), Retirement preparation (pp. 1-5). Lexington, MA & Toronto: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath and Company. Birren, J. E., & Schaie, K. W. (Eds.). (1985). Handbook of the psychology of aging (2nd ed.). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Bolton, C. (1985). Life style management proactions and educational efficacy. Educational Gerontology, 11, 181-190. Butt, D. S., & Beiser, M. (1987). Successful aging: A theme for international psychology. Psychology and Aging, 2, 87-94. Campbell, A. (1981). The sense of well-being in America, recent patterns and trends. New York: McGraw Hill. Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., & Rogers, W. L. (1976). The quality of American life; Perceptions, evaluations and satisfactions. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Connidis, I. (1987). Life in older age: The view from the top. In V. W. Marshall (Ed.), Aging in Canada: Social perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 451-472). Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside. Eisdorfer, C. (1983). Conceptual models of aging. American Psychologist, 38,197-202. Flanagan, J. C. (1978). A research approach to improving our quality of life. American Psychologist, 33,138-147. Flanagan, J. C. (1980). Quality of life. In L. A. Bond & J. C. Rosen (Eds.), Competence and coping during adulthood (pp. 244-248). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England. 46 Foote, N. N., & Cottrell, L. S. (1955). Identity and interpersonal competence. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. George, L. K., Okan, M. A., & Landerman, R. (1985). Age as a moderator of the determinants of life satisfaction. Research on Aging, 7, 209-233. Gibson, D. M. (1986). Interaction and well-being in old age: Is it quality or quantity that counts? InternationalJournal of Aging and Human Development, 24, 29-39. Gladwin, T. (1967). Social competence and clinical practice. Psychiatry, 30, 30-43. Holahan, C. K. (1981). Life time achievement patterns, retirement and life satisfaction of gifted aged women. Journal of Gerontology, 36, 741-749. Hooker, K., & Ventis, D. G. (1984). Work ethics, daily activities, and retirement satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 39,478-483. Kimmel, D. C , Price, K. F., & Walker, J. W. (1978). Retirement choice and retirement satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 33, 575-585. Larson, R. (1978). Thirty years of research on the well-being of older Americans. Journal of Gerontology, 33, 109-125. Lawton, M. P. (1975). Competence, environmental press, and the adaptation of older people. In P. G. Windley, T. O. Byerts, & F. G. Ernst (Eds.), Theory development in environmental aging. Manhattan, KS: Gerontological Society. Levenson, H. (1973). Multidimensional locus of control in psychiatric patients. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 41, 397-404. Levenson, H., & Miller, J. (1976). Multidimensional locus of control in socio-political activists of conservative and liberal ideologies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 199-208. Levitt, M. J., Clark, N. C , Rotton, J., & Finley, G. E. (1987). Social support, perceived control, and well-being: A study of environmentally stressed population. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 25, 247-257. Longino, C. F., & Kart, C. S. (1982). Explicating activity theory: A formal replication. Journal of Gerontology, 37,713-722. Mancini, J. A. (1981). Effects of health and income on control orientation and life satisfaction among aged public housing residents. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 12, 215-219. 47 Maddox, G. (1968). Persistence of life style among the elderly: A longitudinal study of patterns of social activity in relation to life satisfaction. In B. Neugarten (Ed.), Middle age and aging (pp. 473-486). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Marshall, V. W. (1987). Introduction: Social perspectives on aging. In V. W. Marshall (Ed.), Aging in Canada: Social perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 1-7). Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside. McPherson, B., & Guppy, N. (1979). Pre-retirement life style and the degree of planning for retirement. Journal of Gerontology, 34, 254-263. Neugarten, B. L., Havighurst R., & Tobin, S. (1961). The measurement of life satisfaction. Journal of Gerontology, 16, 134-143. North, A. J., & Ulatowska, H. K. (1981). Competence in independently living adults: Assessment and correlates. Journal of Gerontology, 36, 576-582. Norris, F. M., & Murrel, S. A. (1984). Protective function of resources related to life events, global stress, and depression in older adults. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 25, 424-437. Palmore, E. (1981). Social patterns in normal aging. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Portnoy, V. A. (1981). The natural history of retirement - mainly good news. Journal of the American Medical Association, 245,1752-1754. Reid, D. W., & Ziegler, M. (1980). Validity and stability of a new desired control measure pertaining to the psychological adjustment of the elderly. Journal of Gerontology, 35, 315-402. Reid, D. W., & Stirling, G. (1989). Cognitive social learning theory of control and aging, participatory control and the well-being of elderly persons. In P. S. Fry (Ed.), Psychological perspectives of helplessness and control in the elderly (pp. 217-256). North Holland: Elsevier Science Publishers B. V. Rodin, I., Bohm, L., & Wack, J. (1982). Control, coping, and aging: Models for research and intervention. Applied Social Psychology Annual, 3, 153-180. Rosow, I. (1963). Adjustment of the normal aged. In R. H. Williams, C. Tibbitts, & W. Donahue (Eds.), Processes of aging, Vol. 2. (pp. 195-223). New York: Atherton Press. Rotter, J. B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80,(1, Whole No. 609). 48 Rotter, J. B. (1975). Some problems and misconceptions related to the construct of internal versus external control of reinforcement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 56-67. Schnore, M. M. (1985). Retirement: Bane or blessing? Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfred Laurier University Press. Simons, R. L., & West, G. E. (1985). Life changes, coping resources, and health among the elderly. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 20,173-189. Steinkamp, M. W., & Kelly, J. R. (1987). Social integration, leisure activity and life satisfaction in older adults: Activity theory revisited. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 25, 293-307. Streib, G., & Schneider, C. (1971). Retirement in American society. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Thompson, W. E., Streib, G. F., & Kosa, J. (1960). The effect of retirement on personal adjustment: A panel analysis. Journal Of Gerontology, 15, 165-169. Tissue, T., & Wells, L. (1971). Antecedent life styles and old age. Psychological Reports, 29, 1100. White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66,297-333. 50 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL OF FAMILY AND NUTRITIONAL SCIENCES 2205 EAST MALL VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1W5 Dear Participant I am a graduate student in Family Studies at UBC. As part of my masters degree I am undertaking a study on life satisfaction in retirement. Due to the increase in life span, a worker can now expect to spend an average of 19 years in retirement and by the year 2000 that number will increase to 25 years. In this particular study I am interested in your responses to what contributes to your level of satisfaction in retirement. Your participation in the study will further aid in the knowledge of life quality in retirement. All information obtained in this study will be held in strictest confidence and will be used in statistical form only. You are not asked to give your name anywhere on the questionnaire. Access to completed questionnaires will be restricted to myself and my three-member research committee. You are under no obligation to complete the enclosed questionnaire and you are free to refuse to answer any or all of the questions. Completion and return of this questionnaire constitutes your permission for me to use the data. I do hope though that you will find it of interest and decide to participate. A stamped addressed envelope is enclosed for returning the completed questionnaire. If 52 SATISFACTION IN RETIREMENT QUESTIONNAIRE This questionnaire has to do with your attitudes, perceptions and feelings toward aspects of your life that best reflect your sense of satisfaction in retirement. You are free to refuse to answer any or all of the following questions. All information will be held in strictest confidence. Our experience indicates that it will take up to 45 min. to complete all questions. Please answer the questions in the order presented as completely and accurately as possible. Upon completion please return the questionnaire to me in the enclosed stamped, addressed envelope. Thank you very much for your kind assistance. Yours truly Charlotte Raber 53 PARTI GENERAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1. Please indicate your sex by circling the appropriate number (1) male (2) female 2. Please state your age in years. years old. 3. What is your current marital status. Please circle the appropriate number. 1. never married 4. divorced/separated 2. married 5. widowed 3. cohabiting 4. Please circle the number that indicates your level of education. 1. completion of elementary school 2. high school graduation 3. trade or other schooling 4. university (no degree) 5. university (degree obtained) 5. Are you presently employed, (l)yes. (2) no. 6. If so could you describe your present job 7. Please circle the number that best reflects your present annual income from all sources (before taxes) 1. $10,000 - 20,000 2. $21,000-30,000 3. $31,000 - 40,000 4. $41,000-50,000 5. $51,000 - 60,000 6. $61,000-70,000 7. $71,000 - 80,000 8. over $80,000 54 PART II Please read each of the statements on the next few pages carefully and indicate your degree of agreement or disagreement by circling the response that best reflects how you feel. LIFE SATISFACTION QUESTIONS. Please circle one response that is closest to how you feel about yourself and your life. Use the following scale as your guide: strongly agree (SA), agree (A), not sure (NS), disagree (D), strongly disagree (SD). 8. Most of the things I do are boring and monotonous. SA A NS D SD 9. This is the dreariest time of my life. SA A NS D SD 10. As I grow older, things seem better than I thought they would be. SA A NS D SD 11. I am just as happy as when I was younger. SA A NS D SD 12. These are the best years of my life. SA A NS D SD 13. I have gotten more of the breaks in life than most of the people I know. SA A NS D SD 55 ATTITUDE TOWARDS RETIREMENT QUESTIONS. The following set of statements can be used to describe your attitude toward retirement. Circle one number below each statement that best describes your agreement. 14. It is better not to think about retirement. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 15. When a person retires, he has one foot in the grave. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 16. One should retire as late as possible. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 17. Retirement means the end of one's usefulness. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 18. Retirement leaves a gap in a person's life that can't be filled by other activities. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 56 HEALTH STATUS QUESTIONS. Think about your health. Circle the number on the scale below each statement that best describes how you perceive your health. 19. How would you rate your health at present time? Not at all good 1 3 3 4 5 6 Very good 20. How is your health today compared to how it was last year? Not at all good 1 3 3 4 5 6 Very good 21. Would you say that your health is better, about the same, or worse than most people of your age? Not at all good 1 3 3 4 5 6 Very good Whether or not you do them, do you think you would have trouble physically doing any of the following tasks? 22. Driving a car through a city. Always 1 3 3 4 5 6 Never 23. Planting and keeping up a lawn or garden. Always 1 3 3 4 5 6 Never 24. Taking a train or airplane trip for half a day or longer. Always 1 3 3 4 5 6 Never 25. Walking up and down stairs. Always 1 3 3 4 5 6 Never Participating in some active sports, such as bowling, golf or some other sport. Always 1 3 3 4 5 6 Never Do you worry about getting bad headaches? Always 1 3 3 4 5 Do pains in your heart or chest make you afraid? Always 1 3 3 4 5 Are you afraid of having an asthma attack? Always 1 3 3 4 5 Do stomach upsets worry you? Always 1 3 3 4 5 I wake up rested and refreshed in the morning. Always 1 3 3 4 5 I have trouble in getting to sleep or staying asleep. Always 1 3 3 4 5 Never 6 Never Never Never Never 6 Never 58 PLANNING FOR RETIREMENT QUESTIONS. 33. Before retirement I made specific plans and I regularly and systematically reviewed them for my financial affairs after retirement. Completely true 4 3 2 1 Not true at all 34. Before retirement I made specific plans about the kinds of activities I wanted to participate in after I retired. Completely true 4 3 2 1 Not true at all QUESTIONS REFLECTING PERCEPTIONS (general, health and money). For the following set of questions circle the number that indicates your level of agreement. 35. Too often people do not appreciate what they have. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 36. The "good old days" were not as good as is often claimed. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 37. On the whole, I am better off than most others my age. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 38. My health is better than I expected it to be. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 39. My state of health allows me to do everything I want to do. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 59 40. Many old people complain about their health too much. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 41. I am better off financially than others my age. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 42. Many old people are quite poor. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 43. I could live well on less money than I have now. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree QUESTIONS REFLECTING EXPECTATIONS (general, health and money) Use the same pattern as for the above questions for the ones to follow. 44. I try to be satisfied with what I have. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 45. I try not to think about things I won't be able to get. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 46. Even in old age, people expect too much. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 47. Poor health is to be expected as one grows older. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 48. Even when health is not too good, one can still enjoy life. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree When one retires, one's health is apt to decline. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 Money is not important to me. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 Many good things in life are free. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 A lot of money often leads to problems. Completely agree 1 2 3 4 5 6 Completely disagree 6 Completely disagree 6 Completely disagree 6 Completely disagree 61 Finally, we would like to know a few things about your leisure — what do you do when you can choose your activity. About how often do you engage in the following activities? Circle One 53. Reading for pleasure a lot sometimes seldom never 54. Going for walks a lot sometimes seldom never 55. Gardening or raising plants a lot sometimes seldom never 56. Watching television a lot sometimes seldom never 57. Swimming a lot sometimes seldom never 58. Golf, tennis, or other sport a lot sometimes seldom never 59. Fishing or hunting a lot sometimes seldom never 60. Boating a lot a lot sometimes seldom never 61. Camping a lot sometimes seldom never 62. Hobbies at home a lot a lot sometimes seldom never 63. Community clubs or organizations a lot sometimes seldom never 64. Entertaining at home a lot sometimes seldom never 65. Eating out a lot sometimes seldom never 66. Socializing with friends and family a lot sometimes seldom never 67. Fixing or building things at home a lot sometimes seldom never 68. Participation in music, drama, dance or art groups a lot sometimes seldom never 69. Going to concerts, plays or exhibits a lot sometimes seldom never 70. Talking on the telephone a lot sometimes seldom never 71. Just talking with others at home a lot sometimes seldom never 72. Religious activity (worship, etc.) a lot sometimes seldom never 73. Going on family outings such as picnics or drives a lot sometimes seldom never 74. Automobile trips a lot sometimes seldom never 75. Other travel (vacations, etc.) a lot sometimes seldom never 76. Going to parties or dances a lot sometimes seldom never 62 PART III GENERAL BELIEF SURVEY The purpose of this section of the questionnaire is to determine your attitudes and beliefs on a variety of matters pertaining to every day living. There are two parts. The first part asks you to rate how desirable different events are to you. The second part asks you to rate the degree to which you agree or disagree with various statements. Parti: Desire of Outcomes There are many activities or events which happen to ourselves in everyday living. Some of these events are more important or desirable to you than are others. Listed below are statements mentioning some of these activities or events. Would you please rate the extent to which each event described is important or not important to you. We emphasize that we are concerned here with the importance to you, not to others. 78. How desirable is it to you that people ask you for your advice and suggestions? very very desirable desirable undecided undesirable undesirable 5 4 3 2 1 79. How important it is to you that you maintain your health? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 80. Is being able to get along with people you meet important to you? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 81. Is being able to arrange for outings important to you? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 82. Is being able to contact your family whenever you wish desirable to you? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 83. How important is being able to spend your time doing whatever you want? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 84. How important is it that you do the chores yourself without any help? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 85. Is having your friends and family visit when you invite them important to you? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 86. How desirable it is to you that you can be active whenever you wish? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 87. How important it is that you find people who are interested in hearing what you have to say? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 88. How desirable it is to you to get away from the house (or home)? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 89. How desirable to you is having your family visit you? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 90. How desirable it is to you to be able to help others?. Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 91. How important it is to you that you can have your friends over whenever you want? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable 92. Is keeping in contact with interesting ideas desirable to you? 93. Is being able to find privacy important to you? Very desirable 5 4 3 2 1 Very undesirable Part II: Beliefs and Attitudes. The following are statements which may describe either yourself or the beliefs you have. Would you please respond to each statement by designating on the scale given with each item the degree to which you agree with the item. Once again, we emphasize that we are interested in your own opinion, not your judgement of what others think. 94. People tend to ignore my advice and suggestions. strongly strongly agree agree undecided disagree disagree 1 2 3 4 5 95. Maintaining my level of health strongly depends on my own efforts. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 *5 Strongly disagree 96. It is difficult for me to get to know people. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree 97. I can usually arrange to go on outings that I am interested in. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree 98. The situation in which I live prevents me from contacting my family as much as I wish. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree 65 99. I spend my time usually doing what I want. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree 100. Although it is sometimes strenuous, I try to do the chores by myself. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree 101. I find that if I ask my family (or friends) to visit me, they come. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree 102. I have quite a bit of influence on the degree to which I can be involved in activities. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree 103. I can rarely find people who will listen closely to me. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree 104. My getting away from the house (or home) generally depends on someone making the decisions. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree 105. Visits from my family (or friends) seem to be due to their own decisions, and not my influence. Strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly disagree Appendix B 67 Follow-up Letter February 21, 1991 A "FRIENDLY REMINDER" To: Members of Local 97 on Pension. A short while ago we sent you a questionnaire concerning life satisfaction in retirement. Several dozen have been completed and returned but many more still are needed to enable us to conduct the study. If you have already completed and returned your form, we thank you for your time and effort. If you have misplaced the questionnaire call Local 97 and we will see that you get another copy and a chance to participate. Your prompt response will be greatly appreciated by us and Ms. Raber. Yours fraternally, JOANNE RAE. Office Manager. Appendix C 68 Correlation Matrix NDESCON PERHGP ATTRET PLANF PERCEP EXPECT SATRET LEIACT NDESCON .23* .24* .27* .01 -.04 .23* .28* PERHGP .26* .09 .03 .03 .58* .19 ATTRET .01 .18 .17 .16 .24* PLANF .08 -.02 .14 .22* PERCEP .32* -.11 .02 EXPECT .02 .05 SATRET .37* LEIACT Note: *p < .05 NDESCON = psychological control PERHGP = perceptions of health ATTRET = attitude towards retirement PLANF = planning for the future PERCEP = perceptions EXPECT = expectations SATRET = life satisfaction LEIACT = leisure activity level 69 i Appendix D Two-Way Analysis of Variance Table 1 Psychological Control (FDESCON) X Perceptions of Health (FPERGHP)  Interaction and Main Effects on Satisfaction in Retirement (SATRET) SATRET Measure Mean Sqs F Ratio FDESCON X FPERHGP 1.438 (1,57)=.096 FDESCON .013 (1,57)=.001 FPERHGP 345.872 (1,57)=23.150* Note. *p<.05 Table 2 Psychological Control (FDESCON) X Planning for the Future (FPLANF) Interaction and Main Effects on Satisfaction in Retirement (SATRET) SATRET Measure Mean Sqs F Ratio FDESCON X FPLANF 57.900 (1,59)=2.938 FDESCON 1.330 (1, 59)=.067 FPLANF 6.019 (1, 59)=.305 Note. None of the above F values were significant 71 Table 3 Psychological Control (FDESCON) X Attitude Towards Retirement(FATTRET)  Interaction and Main Effects on Satisfaction in Retirement(SATRET) SATRET Measure Mean Sqs F Ratio FDESCON XFATTRET 32.304 (1,61)=1.639 FDESCON 2.513 (1,61)=. 128 FATTRET 50.870 (1,61)=2.581 Note. None of the above values were significant 72 Table 4 Psychological Control (FDESCON) X Leisure Activity (FLEIACT)  Interaction and Main Effects on Satisfaction in Retirement (SATRET) SATRET Measure Mean Sqs F Ratio FDESCON X FLEIACT 5.445 (1,53)=.265 FDESCON .033 (1,53)=.002 FLEIACT 8.792 (1,53)=.428 Note. None of the above F values were significant 

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