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Requiem for peace Nickel, Lawrence Kenneth 2007

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REQUIEM FOR PEACE  *  by  LAWRENCE KENNETH  NICKEL  B . M u s . , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1977 B . E d , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Lethbridge, 1978 M . M u s . , Western W a s h i n g t o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1983  A T H E S I S IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR T H EDEGREE OF  DOCTOR OFMUSICAL  ARTS  in  THE FACULTY OFGRADUATE  STUDIES  (COMPOSITION)  T H E UNIVERSITY  O FBRITISH  COLUMBIA  A p r i l 2007 © L a w r e n c e K e n n e t h N i c k e l 2007  Abstract  Requiem for Peace is a large-scale musical composition in fifteen movements for chorus, chamber choir, symphonic orchestra and three soloists. This thesis honors the suffering civilians o f this world who have been caught in the crossfire between warring nations. Integrating poetry from various parts o f the world, i n twelve languages, it is an international call for forgiveness and reconciliation. The original vision for this composition is presented in the Introduction, followed by a discussion on influences and techniques which permeate my compositional process. The first part o f the document contains chapters on musical style, orchestration, text, form and overall structure. Subsequently, each o f the fifteen movements is given a brief summative description. The conclusion, which provides a personal aesthetic statement, is followed by the full orchestral score of Requiem for Peace.  ii  Table of Contents  Abstract  11  Table of Contents  111  List o f Figures  vi  Acknowledgements  vn  Introduction CHAPTER 1 - Influences and Musical Style • • • • • • • • • •  Eclecticism British Choral Tradition; Ecclesiastical Choral Experience Music of India and Jakarta Popular Music. Practical Music Teaching Experience Choral Clinician West Coast Mennonite Chamber Choir Text Orchestration Conclusion  CHAPTER II - Twelve Languages • • • •  10  War and Peace Selection o f Texts Audio Recording, Website, Pronunciation and Transliteration Variation in Rhetoric  CHAPTER III - Compositional Process •  3  13  Text and Melody  CHAPTER IV - Harmonic Language •  Integration o f Ecclesiastical Choral Style and Ethnic Styles  • • •  Orientalism Gypsy Scale Choice of Keys  in  15  C H A P T E R V - Orchestration • • •  18  Western Instruments and World Cultures Orchestration Representing Philosophical Themes Balance  C H A P T E R V I - Requiem Form • • • •  21  Overall Structure Approach to Form; study of the Requiem Dies lrae Process o f Elimination; Scope and Sequence  C H A P T E R V I I - Points of Interest Within Each Movement  :  25  •  Movement 1 - Entires in Unum - Programmatic Associations  •  25  •  Movement 2 - Requiem Aeternum - Death Toll as a Unifying Device - Form - Texture and Tension  27  •  Movement 3 - Long Black Arm - Motivic Development - Form  28  •  Movement 4 - Ani Shalom  30  - Form •  Movement 5 - Bahni Adam  30  •  Movement 6 - Kyrie Eleison - Melody ••  32  - Stylistic Influences •  Movement 7 - Betise de la Guerre  33  •  Movement 8 - Bing Chuh Siting  35  •  Movement 9 - Dvatsit Vosyem Shtikovich - Form - Melody  36  iv  •  Movement  10  - Recordare, Jesu Pie  37  - Harmony - Compositional  Approach  •  M o v e m e n t 1 1 - Hiroshima  Lacrimosa  •  M o v e m e n t 12 - Dulce et Decorum  40 42  - F o r m and Ideas  •  M o v e m e n t 13 - Kinder en van de Vrede  44  •  M o v e m e n t 14 - Reconciliation  44  •  M o v e m e n t 15 - Agnus Dei  :  47  - K e y Relationships - A C u l m i n a t i n g Statement Personal Reflections  47  Bibliography  48  A p p e n d i x - L y r i c s and Translations.  49  Requiem for Peace  56  Score  v  List of Figures  Figure 1. W u l i d a rifku speech pattern  13  F i g u r e 2. W u l i d a rifku m e l o d y  14  F i g u r e 3. W u l i d a rifku m e l o d y and h a r m o n y  14  Figure 4. L i s z t ' s h y b r i d "gypsy" scale  16  F i g u r e 5.  Bani Adam  F i g u r e 6. Ani  introduction  Shalom -  16  orchestral a c c o m p a n i m e n t  20  Figure 7. Requiem for Peace D y n a m i c Intensity G r a p h  23  Figure 8. S c o p e and Sequence Chart for Requiem for Peace  23  Figure 9. T r i a d s at the tritone interval  26  Figure 10. M o t i v i c augmentation in  Long Black Arm  Figure 1 1. Instrumental A c c o m p a n i m e n t -  29  Long Black Arm  Figure 12. T w o M e l o d i e s in Kyrie Eleison  29  32  F i g u r e 13.  Betise de la Guerre  Palindrome  34  F i g u r e 14.  Betise de la Guerre  ending  34  F i g u r e 15. E n n e a d i c S c a l e  38  F i g u r e 16. E n n e a d i c W a l t z for w o o d w i n d s ( m m . 9-18)  39  F i g u r e 17. F i g . 16 with an added v o c a l m e l o d y  39  F i g u r e 18. T w o ancient melodies in  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  40  F i g u r e 19. Dulce et Decorum M a r c h  41  Figure 20. Dulce et Decorum - the m o m e n t o f gas shell attack  42  F i g u r e 21.  Kinderen van de Vrede -  sample o f v o i c e leading  F i g u r e 22. suspensions in Reconciliation F i g u r e 23. Agnus Dei - sequential 7  l h  :  leap m o t i f  F i g u r e 24. Agnus Dei - cascading sequence - second theme  vi  43 44 45 45  Acknowledgements  I offer my enduring gratitude to my friends, relatives, teachers and colleagues for: friendship, good humor, help with research, finding poems, translations, transliterations, lending C D s , speech tutorials, typesetting, proofreading, music guidance, constructive criticism, artwork, promotion and inspiration. I thank T o m Dueck, Gwen N i c k e l , Antionette and Mijke Pdiemtulla for help with the Dutch language. I thank Sandy Tang, Wenwei Guan, Grace Chan, Yinan Song, Theresa W a i and Gloria Wan for help with the Mandarin language. I thank Gaku Ishimura, M i c h i k o Kato, K u n i Murai, Y u m i Nickel and Masako Ryan for help with the Japanese language. I thank Steven Castle, Ekaterina (Katya) Yurasovskaya and Ivan Tucakor for help with the Russian language. I thank Mark Macdonald, Jim Knight, Diane Vrieling and Alexandra Henrique for help with the French language. I thank Zohreh Bayatrizi, Tissaphern Mirfakrai and Farshid Samandari for help with the Farsi language. I thank E m i l y Varto, Bruce Pullan, Stephen Wright and D r . David Creese for help with the Latin language. I thank Dan Nickel, Anne Gadermann, Michael Muller and Peter Rohloff for help with the German language. I thank Dr. Ray Harris, Wendy Stuart, Rabbi Steinberg, Margaret Shurdom and Pnina Granirer for help with the Hebrew language. I thank Dr. Gordon N i c k e l , Dr. M a y a Y a z i g i , Farshid Samandari and Marg Rankin for help with the Arabic language. I thank Atanur Dogan for painting One Evening in Baghdad (cover).  vn  I thank N e i l Weisensel for orchestration advice. I thank Stephen Wright for historical insights and access to his personal C D collection. I thank Eileen Powers, D o n Harder and Howard D y c k for C B C Radio coverage. I thank B i l l Richardson for the Georgia Straight interview. I thank Ruth Froese for proof reading. I thank Tony Funk, Dr. Wes Janzen, James Fankhauser and John Washburn for choral tips. I thank Dr. Betty Suderman for assistance with the piano reduction. I thank Andrew Chan for instruction about the harp. I thank Roger Cole for advice about woodwinds. I thank Dr. Calvin D y c k for help with string techniques. I thank my wife, Edna for benevolent criticism, emotional and financial support. I thank composition teachers, Dr. Keith Hamel and Dr. Dorothy Chang, for helpful guidance. I thank vocal/choral expert, Bruce Pullan, for help with the overall project structure and for directing the premiere performance o f Requiem for  Peace.  I thank Dr. Stephen Chatman, my teacher and supervisor for his friendship, for sharing practical advice and for imparting his invaluable knowledge o f musical composition.  vm  Introduction  The Requiem Mass for the souls o f the departed has been set to music on a grand scale hundreds o f times since the early settings o f Dufay and Ockegem. It is intended to honor the deceased and give comfort to the living. I was drawn to the Requiem by its power to j o i n tragic events with eternal values, the eventual cognition o f which takes place only between life and death. The initial concept for this project was born shortly after my first lesson with my supervisor, Dr. Chatman, and a congenial visit with choral director, Bruce Pullan, during the fall of 2003. I had recently been commissioned to write two pieces, which would convey pacifist convictions, for the West Coast Mennonite Chamber Choir. During the time o f that compositional process, Benjamin Britten's War Requiem became a source o f inspiration for me. I observed the way the pacifist composer, Britten, took liberties with the Roman Catholic liturgy, while employing the poetry o f Wilfred Owen. The next summer my wife and I visited music minister Rupert Jeffcoat at Coventry Cathedral, the place where Britten's War Requiem had been premiered in 1962. Inside the bombed out shell o f that sanctuary were several monuments, expressions o f peace, from various countries. The experience affected me profoundly. A l l o f these factors weighed into my decision to write a special Requiem. Just as Wilfred Owen's poetry decries man's inhumanity to man, poets from every country have expressed the same anti-war sentiments through their poetry. Given the multi-cultural mosaic in Vancouver, and especially at the U B C School o f Music, I realized that a truly universal statement needed to include voices from other countries.  1  Requiem for Peace Farsi, Arabic,  is a u n i q u e  Requiem  in this regard.  Greek, M a n d a r i n , Japanese,  It i n c l u d e s  texts in  Hebrew,  French, Dutch, Russian, G e r m a n and English.  C o n t i n u i t y is p r o v i d e d b y the t r a d i t i o n a l L a t i n l i t u r g y , w h i c h r e c u r s t h r o u g h o u t  Remembrance,  regret, remorse,  repentance,  (rest); these are the t h e m e s that r u n t h r o u g h  for this  reconciliation, redemption,  Requiem for Peace.  world.  \  2  renewal,  the  work.  requiem  It is a m e s s a g e o f  hope  Chapter I Influences and Musical Style  The vision for Requiem for Peace extends beyond a fascination with abstract musical constructions. Striving to connect with the world around me, I find that tonality is an inescapable force and the most prevalent international musical common denominator.  Eclecticism I am an eclectic composer rooted in a conservative choral tradition and strongly influenced by several favorite choral composers; Felix Mendelssohn, Johannes Brahms, Maurice Ravel, Herbert Howells, C V . Stanford, Ildebrando Pizzetti, Randal Thompson, Vaughn Williams, Samuel Barber, Frank Martin, John Rutter, Paul Halley and James MacMillan (among others). Gene Peurling, a master at vocal jazz arrangements, has also been a key influence on my choral style.  British Choral Tradition; Ecclesiastical Choral Experience A comparison of C V . Stanford's Bead Quorum Via with Kyrie Eleison (mvt. 6), for example, demonstrates a proclivity for intuitive triadic tonality, long step-wise vocal lines, contrasting question and answer phrases between divisi men and women sections, paired imitation, "sweet-spot" vocal registrations, suspensions with resolutions and melissmas on pure vowels. A comparison of Peurling's London by Night with Dvatsit  3  Vosyem Shtikovich (mvt. 9) reveals a penchant for "stacked thirds" or jazzy, color-tone, triadic sonorities; 7ths 9ths, 13ths, etc. H y m n singing is a key component o f faith expression and worship in the Mennonite Church. M y mother coached me to negotiate the alto line while hymn singing in church each Sunday and our family often sang together around the dinner table. Each week I listened to the church choir present two or three church anthems such as Peter Lutkin's benediction, The Lord Bless You and Keep You. These were formative years, which propelled my choral writing instincts in a conservative, ecclesiastical and evocative direction. In tribute to my musical roots, Kinderen van de Vrede (mvt. 13) is set i n typical hymn/church anthem style. I've been singing in choirs since I was three years old: the Winnipeg Children's Choir, the Kodaikanal Chamber Singers, the U B C Singers, the U B C Chamber Singers, the Chrysalis Vocal Consort, the Valley Festival Singers, the Vancouver Cantata Singers, the West Coast Mennonite Chamber Choir and (currently) the Chor Leoni M e n ' s Choir. A s a result, I've been exposed to a constant array o f fine choral repertoire ranging from Bach's B Minor Mass to vocal jazz arrangements.  Music of India and Jakarta A s the son o f missionary parents, stationed in Hyderabad, India and Jakarta, Indonesia, I not only have been immersed in the indigenous music o f those countries but also have had many opportunities to play instruments, such as the sitar, santour (butterfly harp), saron (gamelan) and tablas (hand drums). I am especially attracted to the Carnatic . music o f South India. These influences (scales, rhythms, timbres, use o f the drone,  4  pentatonic sonorities, oriental ornamentation, etc.) proved to be useful in making an international statement in Requiem for Peace.  Popular Music During the early 1970's, while working towards a B . M u s . at U B C , I formed a folk-rock band (the Sound of Light), which performed in coffeehouses and clubs on the weekends. L i k e other music groups o f the "Woodstock" generation, we sang songs o f anti-war protest, peace and love. We wrote our own music in four-part harmony and frequently sang back-up vocals and jingles in local recording studios. I cannot avoid nor deny the impact o f popular music on my compositional style.  The Beatle's Sergeant Peppers Lonely Heart's Club Band was not only one of the seminal musical innovations o f the 2 0 century but also a profound influence. Paul th  McCartney and John Lennon, with the assistance o f George Martin, integrated an eclectic mix o f styles ranging from musique concrete to honky-tonk, jazz, folk, rock and the blues. Their message reflected and gave relevant direction to the culture and sentiments o f their generation. M i l e s Davis's Kind of Blue, a pivotal milestone in jazz, and Oscar Peterson's improvisations also shaped my musical tastes. Hearing the Pat Metheny Group perform Letter From Home and Still Life Talking was an epiphany for me. Metheny engages musicians from several different cultures, resulting in a kind o f complex world music montage. In retrospect, I realize that there are elements o f Betise de la Guerre (mvt. 7) analogous to those o f the Beatles' For the Benefit of Mr. Kite. The four-phrase question and answer structure o f the verses is comparable. Just as the Beatles create a  5  .  . carnival/circus atmosphere with swirling instrumental interludes o f musique conrete calliope music, Betise de la Guerre has sudden orchestral interludes o f chromatic flurries; which are meant to illustrate the stupidity of war (mm. 45-52, 62-70). These instrumental sections have programmatic functions and are loosely based on motivic material from the song. The swinging dotted figure melodies, featured in each song, are in minor keys. The augmented triads with dominant functions are used frequently as harmonic material. Just as the Beatle's For the Benefit of Mr. Kite changes meter unexpectedly from duple to triple time, Betise de la Guerre alternates between 4/4 and 5/4 time, resulting in an awkward march. The singing style o f both pieces is that o f declamatory sarcastic story telling. "In this way M r . K . w i l l challenge the world" corresponds with tongue-in-check statements in Betise de la Guerre such as "gigantic folly, armed with wind and lightening". Another use o f popular music is the use o f syncopated rhythmic patterns. Consider the driving offbeat pattern in Ani Shalom (mvt. 4 - emphasizing the " & " o f beat 2), a rhythm which has almost become a cliche in folk/rock music. Furthermore, the 7/8 meter in both Long Black Arm (mm. 44-50) and Batini Adam (mm. 92-99) was inspired by artists like David Brubeck, Pink F l o y d and Ravi Shankar.  Practical Music Teaching Experience Teaching music for twenty-four years at the Mennonite Educational Institute has had significant practical applications to the formation o f my style. I gained first hand experience with brass, woodwinds, strings and percussion instruments while.directing three concert bands, handbells, two jazz bands and four choirs. It quickly became  6  apparent that music needed to be challenging yet meaningful to the students and their audiences. The task o f selecting appropriate repertoire each year taught me much about musical expectations and results. Consequently, realistic and pragmatic considerations for performers and audiences have become endemic to my compositional technique/Since most choirs and orchestras have limited rehearsal time, I consciously avoid writing unidiomatic passages, such as vocal tritone leaps. M y mentor, Dr. Stephen Chatman, is well known for writing approachable music designed to convey meaningful content; he ' encouraged me to follow my instincts. I have found that a consideration o f the limitations of particular performers actually gives impetus and direction to the complex decisionmaking process o f music composition.  Choral Clinician During the past ten years, I've been active as a music festival clinician. The challenging experience has taught me much about approaching practical musical issues. During the four-day Manitoba Choral Association Choralfest, for example, I adjudicated nearly 90 choirs, which involved listening to a performance and then addressing problems with possible solutions (phrasing, intonation, rhythm, dynamics, approaches to pure vowels and diphthongs, blend, balance, etc).  West Coast Mennonite Chamber Choir M y experience as "composer in residence" with the West Coast Mennonite Chamber Choir has been a great influence. Founded in 1990 by Tony Funk, director, and me, the choir has recorded 13 C D s over the years, featuring eminent artists such as Edith  7  Wiens and Ben Heppner. I've been honored to have over 100 compositions and arrangements recorded by this fine choir. Tony, a James Fankhauser and A l i c e Parker protege, continually pushed me to improve my writing, rewrite piano accompaniments, fix awkward voice leading, etc. This experience has been invaluable in the learning of choral composition skills.  Text Requiem for Peace, like many o f my works, is driven by words or texts and their programmatic associations. The poems and liturgical texts stand alone as works o f art. Yet, they also suggest possible musical settings. It was my desire to do honor to the authors, to present their poetry as effectively as possible, and to enhance rather than obscure the words. Music has the power to illustrate unspoken (in-between) thoughts or ideas, possibly intended by the authors. For example, an appropriate prelude can prepare the listener for the upcoming text and a postlude can complete thoughts in a metaphysical way . 1  Orchestration The orchestration in this work reflects my experience o f listening to and studying the scores o f my favorite orchestrators: Peter Tchaikovsky, Igor Stravinsky, John Williams and James Horner (among others). In particular, the use o f percussion and the timbres created by the juxtapositions o f different instruments i n Horner's movie scores  This was a technique aptly demonstrated by Robert Schumann in his Dichterliebe song cycle and is an approach to text setting, which I have sought to emulate. 1  8  (i.e. Pelican's Brief "Garage Chase"), the power of horns and brass sections in William's movie scores (i.e. E.T., The Extra-Terrestrial;  "Adventure on Earth"), the simple clarity  of woodwinds in Tchaikovsky's ballet scores (i.e. Nutcracker Suite; Chinese Dance) and the driving rhythmic patterns in Stravinsky's ballet scores (i.e. Petrouchka; Danse Russe) are attractive to me.  Conclusion  My eclectic musical style is essentially the sum of all the above influences; ranging from hymn singing, a Christian world view and an affinity for ecclesiastic choral music, to the Beatles, jazz, "world music", living in India, years of teaching experience, commissions geared to specific strengths and limitations, twelve years of post secondary music education and the constructive guidance and encouragement of musical associates.  9  Chapter II Twelve Languages  War and Peace The two devastating global wars and conflicts throughout the ages have engendered an enormous outpouring o f poetry, giving expression both to the anguish o f war and the profound human yearning for peace. It is perhaps in this realm that the power o f music is most keenly felt; it gives a voice to emotions which are beyond words.  Selection of Texts I have acknowledged a long list o f colleagues, professors and friends who graciously assisted with the foreign languages: finding suitable pacifist texts, translating and transliterating. During this time o f study, my wife and I lived at Green College, a residence for graduate students. Each o f the Requiem for Peace languages was represented there. For example, Ekateriha Yurasovskaya was from Moscow and Dr. M a y a Y a z i g i was from Cairo. Selecting poems from the many options took nearly one year. This was a foundational step in the process o f composing Requiem for Peace. Since Latin is the textual thread o f continuity for Requiem for Peace, the same pure vowel approach was used in most transliterations (rather than the international phonetic alphabet).  Audio Recording, Website, Pronunciation and Transliteration After selecting an appropriate text, a person fluent in the specific language was  10  videotaped first reading the lyrics slowly and then at a normal pace. These digital recordings eventually wereposted on my Requiem for Peace web page at www.canuckcomposer.corn, so that performers could log in and listen to authentic pronunciation while studying transliterations in the score. Performers were encouraged to pencil in any changes, which might help them to pronounce the words more accurately. Director Bruce Pullan said that this didactic approach o f preparing a major work was unique in his experience. Most accomplished choirs are accustomed to singing i n English, Latin, French, German and Russian, since there is a vast repertoire o f standard choral works in these languages. Transliterations typically are not given in these languages. Mandarin, however, with its many diphthongs, is both a challenging language and quite difficult for the non-Chinese singer to pronounce. Therefore, the score stipulates that a Mandarin-speaking soloist sings the main role in Ring Chuh Shing (Bing Che Xing). Employing an "echo" technique i n this movement, choir members repeat phrases presented by the soloist in immediate succession. The result is more accurate pronunciation. Grace Chan assisted with a transliteration using the official P I N Y I N system.  Variation in Rhetoric The variation in rhetoric is deliberate and approaches the pacifist theme from contrasting and distinctive angles. For example, Bing Chuh Shing, Battle o f the A r m y Carts, tells a story in the third person. Dvatsit Vosyem Shtikovich, Twenty Eight Bayonets, is a personal lament. Other texts are more didactic, liturgical and almost  11  "preachy" in nature. In some settings music mitigates or softens the impact o f strong lyrics. For example, Recordare recounts the last judgment, a theme that might offend certain listeners. However, with free flowing gentle counterpoint and evocative orchestration I strive to deliver the message in a subtle way. I wish to engage rather than repel the listener even though the subject matter which permeates Requiem for Peace is far from controversial. . Please refer to the appendix (p. 49) for the complete list o f texts and their translations in sequential order.  12  C h a p t e r III C o m p o s i t i o n a l Process  Text and M e l o d y Melody is the obvious vehicle for text, the primary conveyor o f emotion and the fundamental linear component o f each movement in Requiem for Peace. . A s a teenager I wrote songs by improvising chord progressions on piano or guitar and then creating a melody which followed the harmonic structure. Finally I added words befitting the general sentiment o f the music. Unfortunately, using this procedure, there was often an unsatisfactory marriage between lyrics and music. Since 1980, I've learned to write songs in the reverse order - beginning with the text as a foundation. O n a background level, a poem can imply possible formal structures. O n a foreground level, a passage can suggest meter, rhythm, accents, phrasing, melodic shape, texture, color, dynamics and all the other elements o f music. Figure 1 demonstrates the process used to write a short phrase in BaniAdam (mm. 51-55), setting the words "Wulida Rifku yauma maulidi a' Isa". I began by listening repeatedly to Dr. M a y a Y a z i g i ' s recitation o f the poem and then writing out the rhythmic flow, accents and inflection o f her speech.  u  to WU - U - DA  r^L; «IF -  KU  J YAU -  J MA  J MAU -  ] U  -  J^J  J  Ol  A'  (THE  DAY TESUS  F i g . 1. Wulida rifku speech pattern  13  rxjI  -  WAS  SA mn)  I then devised a melody based on these speech patterns, emphasizing what I felt was the most important word i n the sentence; Isa (Jesus).  WU - LI - OA  IMF -.  YAU -  KtL  Mil  MAU -  LI -  OL  A'  SA.  I  Fig. 2. Wulida rifku melody This melody insinuates possible harmonic progressions and seems to flow most naturally in triple meter. B y repeating one. word (maulidi), transposing the melody to a more singable register and taking breathing into account I arrived at the following conclusion.  fe WU-U-OA  filF  HU  YAU MA MAU - L I - D l _ MAU-U-Dl  0*  7LA LJ titT  f  1  o  A' I  -  SA  S  r  •0-"  3  Fig. 3. Wulida rifku melody and harmony The compositional process o f Requiem for Peace, therefore, progressed from the declamatory shape o f spoken text, to melody , to choral harmonization with a basic piano 2  accompaniment and then to orchestration. Finally, the piano reduction o f the orchestration was written for the choral score.  Leos Janacek spent years studying Moravian folksong when he came upon the concept of "speech-melody". He studied the flow, accents and inflections o f the Czech language at various intensities o f emotion and applied his ideas to setting the indigenous language to his tonal music. A new language o f rhythm and phrasing was needed to accommodate a natural realistic declamatory style. Janacek believed that folk music "knows no atonality". 2  14  Chapter IV Musical Languages  Integration of Ecclesiastical Choral Style and Ethnic Styles In attempting to represent various cultures, musical style and harmonic language became an issue from the beginning. I realized that my effort to create authentic sounding indigenous Chinese music (for example) would likely result in a pathetic parody. After some deliberation, I decided to integrate my western ecclesiastical choral style with musical idioms peculiar to the geographical region reflected in the text. A s a unifying element, four-part singing is the musical thread o f continuity binding together the various cultural representations o f the work. Both the University o f B . C . library collection of world folk music and foreign students' recordings o f music from their homelands were particularly beneficial.  Orientalism A n examination o f "Orientalism", a peculiar genre o f 19 Century western music, th  was helpful in solving my quandary o f style. Sometimes called exoticism or folklorism, "Orientalism" thrived on stylistic surrealistic quotations. For example, each o f the Russian "Mighty Handful" , plus many other western composers, wrote music designed 3  to evoke visions o f eastern cultures. Consider V e r d i ' s musical landscape painting o f the N i l e mAida  (1871). Ravel's and Rimsky-Korsakov's Scherazades,  Grieg's and  Tchaikovsky's Arabic Dances and Liszt's and Brahms' Hungarian Dances in addition to  Balakirev (Islamey: An Oriental Fantasy), C u i (The Mandarin's Son), RimskyKorsakov, Borodin (Polovetsian Dances) and Mussorgsky (Dance of the Persian Slaves) 3  15  Puccini's "Japanese" Madame Butterfly and Massenet's "East Indian" Le Roi de Lahore are a few more examples o f music which assimilate western and eastern characteristics.  Gypsy Scale Nomadic gypsies, who picked up cultural idioms as they traveled between Turkey and Spain, blurred geographical boundaries. Liszt's hybrid "gypsy scale' (Fig. 4), similar to the harmonic minor scale, includes a minor 2  n d  and an augmented 4 . There was no th  clear distinction between "style hungrois" and "style a la turk".  |*>  fa  IsEEEEEE  Fig. 4. Liszt's hybrid " g y p s y " scale in G Consider the way aspects o f this "gypsy" scale are used in the orchestral introduction to the Farsi/Arabic movement, Bani Adam, both melodically and as harmonic material with a fluctuating major and minor 3 , minor 2 rd  n d  and augmented 4 . th  j = 86 ~ «L.|,J * C m* f f-  trumpet Irons Fanfare  'wcxjdwimk  »  m  » — c  mf h.  n 'r'\- .  Fig. 5. Bani Adam introduction  16  Therefore, I found it useful to study "Orientalism" scores and to apply some o f the techniques to Requiem for Peace. Dorian and Phrygian modes, major, minor, whole tone, pentatonic, and even enneadic scales are used freely in text settings. Middle Eastern hexatonic scales, Chinese, Korean and Japanese pentatonic tonalities and Balinese Gamelan minimalism combine to form a rich soundscape. Chapter seven elaborates on these ideas (page 2 5 ) .  T h e Choice of K e y s Choice o f key for each movement was determined primarily by the melodies and vocal registers rather than by a grand scheme o f tonal relationships. I considered tessitura, vocal "sweet spot", flat ("warm") versus sharp ("bright") keys, and the level o f difficulty of intonation within a given key. M y actual experience as a choir director is that certain keys tend to tune better than others for choirs.  17  Chapter V Orchestration  Western Instruments and World Cultures Representing world cultures with western instruments posed another interesting dilemma. For example, incorporating Chinese instruments, such as the pipa or erhu (even though these instruments are readily available in Vancouver), would encourage the listener to expect other ethnic instrumentation as well. Fortunately, I was advised by my professors to write for the standard instrumentation o f a classical orchestra, which not only solved the dilemma but also may facilitate future performances o f the Requiem. The orchestration and musical ideas, however, do attempt to reflect some elements of various ethnic styles. For example, the Mandarin piece, Bing Chuh Shing, includes Chinese musical idioms such as pentatonic passages, drones and parallel open intervals, integrated with my conventional choral style. The augmented percussion section, harp, pizzicato strings, piccolo and double reed woodwinds emulate and evoke oriental timbres.  Orchestration Representing Philosophical Themes A n important aspect o f the orchestration is that each section o f the orchestra, brass, woodwinds, string and percussion, represents a general philosophical theme o f Requiem for Peace; unity in diversity - contrasting cultures being united in the goal towards reconciliation and peace. Therefore, each family o f instruments is featured individually and then in conjunction with the rest of the orchestra Betise de la Guerre illustrates a  18  good example o f a dynamic percussion section moment (m.79). Likewise, Requiem Aeternum begins with a woodwind prelude, BaniAdam opens with a brass fanfare and Hiroshima Lacrimosa opens with a rich string section introduction. During preludes, codas and other instrumental interludes, the orchestra assumes its own prominence and, in effect, comments on the text in a metaphysical way. For example, the extensive orchestral introduction to Bing Chuh Shing illustrates the approach o f the Imperial A r m y from a distance, gradually growing in intensity. Cascading pentatonic phrases in the woodwinds circulate around the steady brittle bamboo-sounding col legno beat in the strings. The harp aptly emulates the sound o f the gu zheng . The moment o f arrival coincides with the entrance o f the alto soloist who 4  sings the story in declamatory fashion and the orchestra immediately assumes an accompanying role.  Balance It is very possible for musical instruments to overwhelm voices. A small brass • section can easily drown out a large choir. Consequently, my approach to orchestrating this choral work was to use rhythm, color and texture to support the vocal line. Instruments rarely double the vocal lines. I wanted the beauty and power o f voices to remain clearly audible. Ani Shalom (mvt. 4) is a good example o f how the choir and orchestra play different yet complementary roles. Note how the voices carry the melody while the orchestra provides rhythm and harmony (Fig. 6).  4  The Chinese zither (gu zheng) is the ancestor to the Japanese koto.  19  All Moil'  41  C  m  vehemently  0. .# Chit-se  g i - b o r shi - n u - n i m  He 11'/// punish  («)"  .Aq.  «T#.._  vmt with a warrior's  Chit-se  .sharp arrows,  .....  c  ,  gi - bor shi - nu-nim;  with burning  coals of the broom  .  reem  tree.  t  3= 1  /  00  ....•....(ft...  0 0 •>  Fig. 6. ^4«/ Shalom - orchestral accompaniment  20  -•»-  Chapter VI Requiem Form  Overall Structure One can speak o f Requiem form on two basic levels: overall structure and individual movement design. The traditional Requiem structure can be imagined as a grand arch with the passionate Dies Irae in the middle. In general, the Requiem form is given shape, stress and release, by the liturgical texts, which vary widely in intensity. Secondly, within the large structure, each individual movement has its own shape, which relates to the particular text; theme and variations, strophic, ternary, rounded binary, aria da capo, through composed, etc. Using a standard technique o f song writing, opening material often reoccurs throughout each movement o f Requiem for Peace creating a sense o f unity and continuity. For example, the opening brass fanfare in Bani Adam reemerges in various configurations announcing new ideas (mm. 1, 5, 88, 107).  Approach to Form; Study of the Requiem I began nurturing my vision for a unique approach to the Requiem by committing to a daily discipline o f listening to a diverse range o f Mass settings: those o f Johannes Ockeghem, Pierre de la Rue, Orlandus Lassus, Amadeus Mozart, Guiseppi Verdi, Gabriel Faure, Maurice Durufle, L u i g i Cherubini, Herbert Howells, Frank Martin, Krysztof Penderecki, John Rutter and Ildebrando Pizzetti (among others). I compared choral styles, lyrical content and form. It is apparent that the Requiem form went through several transformations as it migrated from the cathedral to the concert stage during the  21  classical/romantic era. Composers seemingly felt more and more comfortable with neglecting or emphasizing, omitting or embellishing, various sections o f the original liturgy. A s previously mentioned, Benjamin Britten added secular poetry as I have.  Dies Irae For many composers, the Dies Irae became a centerpiece for dynamic expression, given the dramatic and controversial fire and brimstone text . Guiseppi Verdi's Dies 5  Irae, for example, is nearly half an hour long. Gabriel Faure and John Rutter, on the other hand, dropped the sequence altogether. I chose to include portions o f the Dies Irae i n  Recordare Jesu Pie (mvt. 10) and Hiroshima Lacrimosa (mvt. 11)  Process of Elimination: Scope and Sequence Constructing the larger form, first by building and then eliminating the list o f possibilities, was an extensive process since sustaining a listener's interest and focus for over an hour takes careful planning. The form o f the extended work resembles the plot o f a play. I eventually decided to use scope and sequence diagrams, which give ebb and flow, tension and release, to the overall Requiem for Peace form (see Fig. 7 and Fig. 8). The overall design addresses choice o f keys, tempo and metrical considerations, the juxtaposition o f languages and the duration o f each movement. The three a cappella movements (6, 9, 14) are strategically placed as moments o f quiet reflection. Dulce et Decorum (mvt. 12) reaches the climax, with a vehement denunciation o f misguided  M y term paper, Dies Irae, Bain or Blessing is available for perusal at www.canuckcomposer.com. 5  22  patriotism, three quarters of the way through Requiem for Peace. This is followed by three pieces o f resolution. Agnus Dei (mvt. 15) is the dramatic conclusive statement.  §i|f§  1  '2  iiBii H H lillllllll 111 —  Bill  a cappella  >  l  " 10  8Bli ill  12  JB 1111 14  a cappella  15  a cappella  F i g . 7 - Requiem for Peace Dynamic Intensity Graph  Title  Duration  Language  Keys  Tempo  Meter  1  Fratres in Unum  4:00  Latin  F-Am  60 Lento  6/8, 4/4  2  3:00  Latin  Am-C-E  40-70 Dirge  6/8, 4/4  3  Requiem Aeternum Long Black Arm  2:30  English  Am  140  4  Ahni Shalom  2:30  Hebrew  Em  156 Vivace  5  Bahni Odam  5:00  Kyrie Eleison  4:00  7  Betise de la Guerre Bing Chuh Shing Dvatsit Vosyem Shtikovich Recordare  3:00  Gm-CmFm Cm-DmEm Cm-Fm  86-100-120  6  Farsi and Arabic Latin and Greek. French  4/4, 7/8, 4/4, 4/4 4/4, 9/8, 4/4  4:30  Mandarin  2:30  8 9 10 11  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  64 Legato  3/4, 4/4 3/4, 3/4, 7/8,  Dm  56-112 March 94 March  4/4  Russian  Cm  64  4/4  3:30  Latin  60 Adagio  3/4  5:00  Japanese and Latin  E-Ab-GbDbm Em  60  4/4, 3/2, 4/4, 3/4  23  7/4, 5/8  • •  4:00  14  Dulce et Decorum Kindren van de Vrede Reconciliation  15  Agnus Dei  12 13  English  Cm  70-156-70  4/4  Eb  60  9/8  4:00  Dutch and German English  Cm  52-72  4/4  6:45  Latin  Bb-F-Bb  64-56-72  4/4, 3/4  and Latin 4:00  F i g . 8 - Scope and Sequence Chart for Requiem for Peace  Requiem for Peace form could possibly be understood as a liederkreis, a cycle o f songs based on one set o f poetry or theme (in this case - pacifism).  Song cycles are  notorious for being subdivided .1 invite choirs to perform selected movements from the 6  fifteen-song set i f their programming requirements are restricted. In addition, choral societies may sing selections with piano accompaniment alone. The comprehensive Requiem for Peace message, however, can be delivered only with a complete performance.  For example, vocal recitalists rarely perform the entire Franz Schubert's lied cycle Winterreise or the complete Robert Schumann Dichterliebe.  6  24  Chapter VII Points of Interest Within Each Movement  Thus far, I have addressed the musical language and organization o f Requiem for Peace in a general comprehensive way. Rather than scrutinize each movement in detail, I have chosen to devote this chapter to examples o f musical features or elements. Movements 1, 2 and 3, like an introductory paragraph, sum up the main thrust o f Requiem for Peace: a desire to dwell together in peace, grief for civilians caught in the crossfire o f clashing nations and a denunciation o f the warmongering political machinery. They are designed to build gradually from hope and joy to sorrow and grief and then to livid anger. The intensity chart (Fig. 7) illustrates the change o f emotion. Each movement segues into the next without pause.  MOVEMENT 1 Fratres in Unum (Brothers in Unity) is set to one o f the fifteen Psalms of Ascents , 7  which were sung by the Hebrew people thousands o f years ago, while they traveled (ascended) to Jerusalem three times a year for the great feasts. One person, like a cantor, would begin singing the Psalm and the other pilgrims would j o i n in or respond with the next line . Correspondingly, with this composition, men and women sections often sing 8  back and forth, antiphonally, to each other (mm. 9-56). I chose the Latin translation as a tribute to the traditional Requiem Mass and for the  Psalms 120-13, also know as Songs of Degrees or Pilgrim Psalms The phrase structure o f much Psalm poetry is ideally suited to antiphonal singing. E.g. "Give thanks to the L o r d for He is good - H i s love endures forever." Psalm 118 7  8  25  ease o f pure vowel singing. Accordingly, the opening statement is i n unison plainchant style (mm. 9-14). Latin is the textual thread o f continuity running through Requiem for  Peace.  Programmatic Associations Fratres in Unum has many programmatic associations: 1) The text and simple diatonic melody extol the joys o f brotherhood, while the juxtaposition of major triads at the tri-tone interval (mm. 5-7, 27-30, 103-110) reveals the true dissonant state o f affairs (Fig. 9). 2) Singing about living in unity while the opposite is closer to the truth is an irony perpetuated subtly with disjunctive rhythms: lower strings in groups o f three and upper strings in groups o f four, while the choir line seemingly compromises between the two (mm. 17-26). 3) The text, " L i v i n g in harmony is like anointing oil, running down Aaron's beard", is illustrated with cascading whole tone passages in the orchestra (mm. 62-65). 4) Beginning in the keys of F major and A minor (m. 13), Fratres in Unum concludes with an a cappella passage in A major (in effect like a "happy ending" tierce picarde) with men and women singing together in full harmony (m. 107). mf  Fig. 9: Triads at the tritone interval The key o f A major is a ternary relative to the key o f F and functions as the dominant to the next key.  26  MOVEMENT 2 Requiem Aetemum (Rest Eternally): The woodwind introduction (mm. 1-12), in D major and still in triple meter, echoes melodic motives from Fratres in Unum (mm. 112) in contrapuntal fashion. Subsequently the pyramid o f fourths (mm. 15-16), in duple time, foreshadows the opening and closing despairing cry o f the third movement (mm. 1 4,73-76).  Death toll as a unifying device Note the ringing o f the bell. This death toll sounds throughout various movements of the Requiem (mvt. 2, 3, 5, 7, 12, 15) reminding the listener that, despite all the ranting about wartime atrocities, we are indeed honoring fallen civilians. This reoccurring bell also contributes towards musical continuity.  Form The theme and variation form o f this funeral dirge (beginning at bar 15) builds from quiet solemnity to livid anger through four repetitions (mm. 19, 27, 35, 43). In effect, sorrow turns to anger as one's attention is drawn to the reasons for such senseless death. The harmonic rhythm changes on the downbeat o f each bar, in keeping with such a plodding march.  Texture and Tension Beginning with the soprano soloist and pianissimo tremolo strings, the piece is augmented with voices and instruments. Voices gradually shift to higher, more intense,  27  tessituras as the instruments increase in dynamics and rate o f attack. The brass section enters boldly during the last four measures. The soloist concludes with a cry to G o d (Domine) on a high B over the double forte chorus. The G# i n the final dissonant chord is the leading tone to the next key and the movement proceeds directly into Long Black Arm (in A minor) without a break.  MOVEMENT 3 Long Black Arm: This piece pays homage to Wilfred Owen's seething condemnation o f the most terrifying weapons o f war. Its jarring rhythms, harsh dissonances, double forte dynamics and a ball-pin hammer clanking on an anvil enhance unpitched plosive utterances from the choir. This piece is designed to be the musical equivalent o f swearing .1 imagined a troop o f soldiers loading a cannon, taking aim and 9  firing and the overall form arose from this sequence o f events. A s with several other orchestrated movements in Requiem for Peace (mvts. 1,7,12,13), there is an a cappella section (mm. 54-62) between accompanied sections. With this isolated and bare expression, the text emerges momentarily in stark clarity before the orchestra reenters with added power.  M o t i v i c Development The opening instrumental motif (m. 5) is augmented three times by adding notes and altering the rhythmic configuration (Fig. 10). Eleven o f the twelve pitches are eventually included in the sequence. This "try and try again" idea is meant to portray  9  A s W . H . Auden said, "I have no gun but I can spit!"  28  soldiers in their effort to get an engine started. When these four fragments are conjoined in common time the result is a long chaotic chromatic pattern with down beats falling on different notes (Fig. 11 - mm. 15-22). Over this energetic and strident line the choir sings sustained notes with dynamics intended to represent the Doppler effect  10  o f a low flying  fighter plane. This procedure recurs twice (mm. 39,67) subdividing the song into sections. /  -  =-  b**^  Fig. 10 - Motivic augmentation in Long Black Arm  J  >•  ,  1—-=+=:,  i  >  —t -0  '-'  =" •»  Fig. 11 - Instrumental Accompaniment to section A o f Long Black Arm  F o r m of L o n g B l a c k A r m Introduction -  10  A (m. 5) -  plosive utterances and Doppler effect  B (m. 23) -  The first verse melody echoes between men and women.  A ' (m. 39) -  cry o f despair  Crescendoing to a sudden drop in pitch and then decrescendoing.  29  B ' (m. 45)  verse two transforms the melody into an unsettling 7/8 meter.  C (m. 54) -  a cappella  A " (m. 67) -  cry o f despair  Coda (m. 73)  reiterates the opening four bars with increased fervor at a perfect fifth higher. Finally the movement builds with tremolo strings and brass to an explosion o f sound (a parodied cannon blast) from the percussion section.  M  O  V  E  M  E  N  T  4  Ani Shalom (I A m a M a n o f Peace), another Psalm of Ascents, is a companion piece to Fratres in Unum.  Composed within the same month, one can hear similar  musical gestures such as whole tone passages (mm. 47, 50, 53), descending arpeggios (mm. 39, 38) and unison singing. The movement opens with unison strings, reminiscent of the previous movement. The sentiment o f the Hebrew text, "I am sick and tired o f living among people who want to fight all the time!", presented by the baritone soloist, suggests a somewhat  frustrated and disgusted approach. The succession o f augmented  ninth chords (mm. 43-47) and accented syncopations help to achieve the desired effect.  M  O  V  E  M  E  N  T  5  Bahni Adam (Children o f Adam), the poem by Sa'adi Shirazi, is displayed on a plaque outside the United Nations. This Arabic song is projected against the Jewish Psalm, Ahni Shalom,  with intentional irony. Both writers (representing nations that have  been at odds for millenniums) yearn for peace. Also included in this composition is a  30  poem by Ahmad Shawqi, a leading Egyptian man o f letters in the early 20th century, from a book called Great Events in the Nile Valley. The English translation is given in a book by Kenneth Cragg, entitled Jesus and the Muslim.  The word "ghazwa" or  "razwatun" (mm. 110-125) can be translated as military expedition, aggression or conquest. It is associated in M u s l i m lore with the military campaigns o f the Prophet Muhammad. The Bani Adam introduction evokes the Requiem Aeternum prelude, with woodwinds i n contrapuntal interplay on scales reflecting various "Persian" modes, particularly the octatonic scale. This was discussed on page 16. The oboes and bassoons are especially useful at representing the double reed shawms heard in the Middle East.  Form The through-composed form o f Bani Adam comprises three major sections, as dictated by the Farsi and Arabic poems. The opening brass fanfare recurs in various ways throughout the piece, announcing new segments (mm. 1, 5, 88, 107). The first section (mm. 13-39), sung by a soprano soloist, is in G minor, which becomes the dominant to the second section in C minor. The second section (mm. 52-89), a baritone/alto duet, becomes the dominant to the third section in F minor. A frenetic orchestral introduction (mm. 92-102) is a bridge to the third section sung by full chorus (mm. 103-128). This final section, the most intense o f the three, reiterates texts from the first and second sections.  31  MOVEMENT 6 Kyrie Eleison (Lord have mercy) is the first o f three a cappella movements, which are intended to give the entire work a sense o f space, moments o f pause and quiet reflection (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8 on page 23).  Melody This piece is built around K u h i M u r a i ' s diatonic melody, which can be observed in the sopranos, starting at bar 16. It serves as a pseudo cantus firmus to a new more active melody, which emerges from the tenors (Fig. 12). Kuni Murai's melody - t e — d =  0  *  -  ••••/ji  4  j  1  •  a  New more active meloi y »•  *  »  •=t±±  Fig. 12 - T w o Melodies in Kyrie Eleison  The more active melody reflects the verbose supplemental text. The traditional Kyrie Eleison has only three words; Kyrie Eleison, Christe Eleison. "Miserere nobis" is an expression for "have mercy on us". "Dona nobis pacem" (grant us peace) is an addition, which adds relevance to this particular pacifist setting o f the traditional liturgy. The form o f Kyrie Eleison is A , B , C , B , with each section encompassing fifteen measures. With its slow tempo, the piece is five minutes in duration. Note the expansive gestures (mm. 6-8 and 13-15), with sopranos and basses moving in opposite directions, a technique used in several movements. The Requiem begins with a similar contrapuntal idea (Fratres in Unum - mm. 1-5). A l s o , Betise de la  32  Guerre (mm. 1-6, 20-29, 42-43, 56-61, 82, 85-86), Bing Chuh Shing-mm.  42-43, 92-  93) and other movements utilize the same gesture.  Stylistic Influences The style o f Kyrie Eleison is a clear indication o f my admiration o f certain 2 0  th  century choral composition techniques present in the music o f Vaughan Williams, C V Stanford and Herbert Howells (discussed briefly on page 3): 1) melody based homophonic harmony, 2) question and answer phrasing and intuitive stepwise voice leading. Suspension and release (e.g. the soprano A b against the tenor G - mm. 3-4) is an effective way to convey pleading. The high point o f this movement (m. 27) occurs when women, in their upper register, sing a forte F major triad against the men's B 7 chord. In particular, the clash o f F natural against F# creates a poignant dissonance and a heart-felt cry.  MOVEMENT 7  Betise de la Guerre (the Stupidity o f War). Hugo's novel, Les Miserables, speaks of the power o f forgiveness. In contrast, Betise de la Guerre describes the stupidity and chaotic nature o f war. Penelope was the faithful wife o f Odysseus, who waited for him to return rather than marry any o f her handsome but badly behaved young suitors. I assume she is invoked here because she told the suitors that she would marry one of them when she had finished weaving a funeral shroud for her father-in-law. However, she didn't want to marry any o f them, so what she wove during the day, she unwound every night. In  33  classical literature her labor is a paradigm o f endless futility. It's interesting that she was weaving a shroud, a very appropriate allusion, given the theme o f Hugo's poem. Betise de la Guerre, sung by the men with "militaristic bravado", is perhaps the most cynical o f all the movements. "Servant without eyes; childish Penelope; cradle where newborn chaos rock". These thoughts signal ideas for a convoluted mixture o f style. For example, the mock reverential brass opening is followed by laughing chromatic passages o f pizzicato strings (mm. 7-12) in palindromic counterpoint (Fig. 13).  i \>s ¥  9  TO  9*.  L>~CJr  Fig. 13 - Betise de la Guerre Palindrome This passage leads into an awkward march in 7/4 meter (m. 15). A t bar 37, Victor Hugo's poem is interrupted with lyrics from the French National Anthem, which states, " M a y impure blood water our fields!" The orchestra intermittently breaks into a flurry o f chromatic activity (mm. 45, 62) and the piece suddenly ends in the key of F minor rather than the expected C minor (Fig. 14). A l l o f these disjunct characteristics are designed to add effect to the premise o f the title.  .A3  Cm  Fm  *  Fig. 14 - Betise de la Guerre ending  34  -  --  m  w  MOVEMENT 8 Bing Chuh Siting (March o f the A r m y Carts) suggested to me by several Mandarin classmates, is based on Dao Fu's amazing poem from 12 A D (Tang dynasty) . 11  The 27-bar orchestral introduction portrays an army marching from a distance and through the streets o f the village. The dynamics and rate o f attack increase as instruments are added to the texture. Cascading pentatonic phrases and arpeggios in the woodwinds and harp circulate around the brittle-sounding col legno beat in the strings. This intensity builds for 27 measures until the alto soloist enters and begins to tell the story. The orchestra immediately assumes a more accompanying/supporting role. There is a mixture o f happiness and sadness in this Dorian mode based, pentatonic and folkish tune. The experience o f seeing these young soldiers would evoke excitement and nationalist fervor but also concern, fear, sorrow and anger. The orchestral interludes with xylophone (mm. 36-37, 44-45, 55-58, 66-72) suggest a festive occasion. However, as the piece progresses and the story unfolds, the music becomes ever more pessimistic, harmonies more chromatic and dissonant (mm. 79-94) until it finally concludes with the ghosts o f fallen soldiers crying in the rain. The word "tyo" is Mandarin for the sound o f raindrops. While the choir repeats this word softly and percussively, descending pentatonic arpeggios with the harp and col legno strings help to achieve the desired onamonopia effect (mm. 92-102). The morbid conclusion is achieved with the soloist and choir singing an a cappella three-part canon based on the opening phrase o f the melody (mm. 109-116).  11  A n approach to the challenging Mandarin language is addressed on page 11. 35  I couldn't resist adding an Elggrian style episode (mm. 58-66) to this movement because, speaking o f imperialism, the Anglo-Chinese Opium Wars (1839-1860) surely represent a low point in the European history o f nationalistic exploitation. Reminiscent o f Pomp and Circumstance,  this section has a stately rhythm, brass chorale and long bowed  phrases in the strings. The passage, featuring four-part chorales o f women and then men, flows unobtrusively into the story.  MOVEMENT 9 Dvatsit Vosyem Shtikovich (Twenty-Eight Bayonet Wounds), the second a cappella movement, must be delivered with "full-bodied Cossack-style singing". This composition is deliberately crafted to have an affinity with Rachmaninov's Vespers Service, with rich six-part harmony and deep dark sounding sonorities.  Form The form, A , B (m. 8), C (m. 13), A ' (m. 24), B ' (m. 31), is much like a strophic anthem with a "bridge".  Melody In contrast to the soprano melodies in other movements, the altos sing the melody in several places (mm. 8-11, 22-23, 31-33), while the sopranos assume an accompanying role. Note the use o f descending sequences as melodic development in the soprano line . (mm. 5-7, mm. 13-20, 28-30) - one o f my favorite techniques.  36  Beginning in C minor, the song eventually modulates to the relative major Eb conclusion through the pivotal A b major triad (VI in C minor becomes I V in E b major through a deceptive cadence at the turn o f measure 31). The choir concludes with "the Russian soil loves droplets o f blood". Poet Anna Akmatova's husband died on the Russian front.  M O V E M E N T 10 Recordare, Jesu Pie, (Remember, Gentle Jesus), for women only and balancing the Betise de la Guerre movement for men, is the "golden mean" section of Requiem for Peace . I want to say, at this juncture, that we are all responsible for the problems o f international conflict. I believe that prejudices, hatred and conflict take root within the individual and grand scale war is the awful fruition. Recordare, from the ancient liturgy and a subsection o f the Dies Irae, talks about people being held accountable for their actions.  Harmony The harmonic language of Recordare is largely based on the nine note enneadic scale - one o f Messiaen's modes o f limited transposition . The sequence o f notes (T, S, 13  S, T, S, S, T, S, S) can be thought o f as three consecutive augmented triads, a semitone apart, and the scale has 4 possible transpositions (Fig. 15).  1 3  Occurring approximately two thirds o f the way through Requiem for Peace. Largely based on the enneadic scale but not bound to it. 37  transposition I  transposition 2  three augmented triads  b o s o  ?  (ii—  (missing F. A. Ci)  —-  s  S  o  T  (missing Fit, Bb, D)  d>  transposition 4  transposition 3 o o £ 0  I/Q—q:o—f  "$°  CO  ° (missing Ab, C. E)  (missing G, B, Eh)  F i g . 15 - Enneadic Scale  I found the enneadic scale to be useful in creating a mix o f whole tone and hexatonic ideas, providing for a harmonic compromise between pieces like Bani Adam (which features "Persian" hexatonic ideas) and Fratres in Unum (which features whole tone scales). The mystery o f the last judgment is enhanced by this exotic mode.  Compositional Approach M y approach to this movement is unique, contradicting my usual method o f beginning with a study o f the text. Instead, I began by writing a woodwind quintet waltz (Fig. 16) and exploring enneadic sonorities. Once the contrapuntal waltz was completed I devised a vocal line to accommodate the text and flow freely within the enneadic structure (Fig. 17). I moved the entire composition down one semitone for the singers. The profusion of accidentals and enharmonic spellings, required by transpositions o f the enneadic mode, adds to performance complexities. The instrumentalists readily manage these challenges. However, I felt that the vocal line needed to be more diatonic.  38  0  transposition # / 10  fizzzzggg??.  Oboe Clarinet in  i i  Ilor  ^  ZZ3sZ|ZZZZZZZf  V* Sir  transposition 2  i  *E:  =3  a::^=;^::;:  transposition 3  >..! !..:::•.::::. ::::.r??ra£gr"*  f r f I-  Z J ^ f f t ^  5?  4 Stffc  . .7  I*  ZEE  Fig. 16 - Enneadic Waltz for woodwinds (mm. 9-18) m f  I Alto Soo l|  /2  Li -ber scrip-tus pro -fe - re- tux, in quo to - rum con - ti-ne piano reduction —kf.....  leggiero  —[—w—  f- m  ft—,  ^  ' "rnujL————  ^  j d?  ^jP_W_  ^  U- J  ^ r—3  Z_.j_gr_  ;  J — ^  y  - d ,  1  i  j  N  I  -, •iff—  ZZ—'.  [Soprano Solo';5 ^ 1  [X]  1  jf.  _p_„  '--J  r1  • IP  1  Fig. 17 - the same 10 measures as F i g . 16 with an added vocal melody  39  1  I  M O V E M E N T 11 Hiroshima Lacrimosa, (Tears for Hiroshima), combines two ancient melodies; the Latin plainchant Dies Irae  and the Japanese Sakura (Fig. 18). "The day o f wrath  14  shall consume the world in ashes," i n this context, refers to the horrendous atomic bombing o f Hiroshima and not the "revengeful" God. The two melodies, constructed on Dorian mode pentatonic passages commonly found in Japanese folk music, are presented separately and then simultaneously at the climax of the piece (mm. 68-73).  ^ , I -  Di - cs  Rfi> *  *  di -  cs  .  il - la  *P=  |Wir:.: 0L.........0. Sol  - vet  sac  -  clum  a  -  iu  :  4  Nin - gen  rac  no  nin - gen  no  vo - no  -  in  —  ka -  fa  gi  -  m : J'Z J  vi - la  fl~sj -  li  :  Fig. 18 - T w o ancient melodies i n Hiroshima Lacrimosa  The harp, resembling the sound o f the Japanese Koto, is used extensively throughout this movement. The climax o f the piece occurs when the three soloists and full chorus unite in a heartfelt cry, "Tears for Hiroshima!" (mm. 74-82).  M O V E M E N T 12 Dulce et Decorum est pro Patria mori (it is sweet and proper to die for the Fatherland) is another Wilfred Owen poem, very similar in style and in its cynical intent  The Dies Irae is one o f only four sequences, which were retained when Catholic liturgy was reformed at the Council o f Trent (1545-1563). Because it smacks o f negative Medieval spirituality, it was decided that the Dies Irae should be omitted from the Requiem Mass liturgy at Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). The poem by Thomas o f Celano (13 century) is a personal meditation. Its vivid imagery and triadic meter text makes it ideal for musical settings. 1 4  th  40  to Long Black Arm.  These two movements are strategically placed in symmetrical  balance within the Requiem for Peace structure.  Form and Ideas The form and ideas o f this movement are dictated by the programmatic detail o f the text: introduction (refrain), A (mm. 10-18), refrain, A ' (mm. 24-31), B (mm. 32-58), C (a cappella mm. 60-66), A " (mm. 67-80), final refrain. Dissonant brass fanfares and double forte chorus block chords (vertical sonorities) introduce the story (mm. 1-9). Slow trudging march rhythms (mm. 10-31) depict tired and beaten soldiers (Fig. 19). 10  l^tl.  *.>  +-+>--m--*--*--0--*-**'***' Bent  *J - ,  o - v e r dou-ble like old beg-gars un-der sacks —_  J  -  -  -  k ilock kneed co ugh- ing _  A  >•  cough-ing  1 ike  hags we  >•  >>  L  Bent  .  o -ver dou-bl s like old beg-ga -s un-der sa cks  mf —  Bent  mf-  Bent  dou-bl '  -  = heg-ga T5  dou-ble  .  beg-gars  ed co  ugh-  cough-in s> >  >  A  like hags we. J*  sac ks  k nock kn eed  A  1^  krlock km  >. J -  sacks  =  knock kneed  Fig. 19 - Dulce et Decorum  *  ~ ~ *  1  coug i - i n g . cough-irin like hags we >• >-  . r  ?  i  —  cough-ing.. cough-ing like hags we  March  A sudden violent change o f tempo, dynamic percussion,.bursts o f brass, chromatic woodwind passages, ostinato figurations in the strings and pitched declamations from the choir depict the frantic moment of gas shell attack (Fig. 20).  41  PJ J= 156  enxumg panic  f Gas  quick  boys_  quick  boys_  f Gas  mf  ID  yell!  Gas  Gas..  quick boys  Gas  Gas_  quick boys  J = 156  i S  3  s  5  a  f  s  •JL-  5  ^ > ~  (G)  Fig. 20 - Dulce et Decorum - the moment o f gas shell attack The choir sings about the absolute horror o f seeing a friend suffocate during an a cappella section (mm. 59-67) and the movement ends, as it began, with a vehement denunciation o f misguided patriotic fervor.  MOVEMENT 13 Kinderen van de Vrede (Children o f Peace) applies "ointment to the wounds" in the style o f typical strophic hymn singing. Once again, my preference for divergent and convergent voice leading pervades the music (Fig. 21). Hymns such as J.S. Bach's harmonization o f Hassler's O Sacred Head Now Wounded have inspired me to write with this contrapuntal technique.  42  19  f  joyfully  Why  zine  duh  kin  du - ren  fiin_  duh  Frav  duh„  J—J.  Fig. 21 -Kinderen van de Vrede - sample o f voice leading (mm. 19-23)  This is the first movement in Requiem for Peace that is clearly set in a major key (Eb). This signals a possible positive conclusion to the issues presented thus far. Pacifism is a trademark of the Mennonite denomination and, appropriately, the opening refrain is set to the words o f Menno Simons . 15  The movement, therefore, begins in Dutch with an a cappella refrain by the three soloists. The soloists are employed i n various combinations throughout this piece: solos, duets and trios. The music continues in German (m. 26), which eventually became the mother tongue of the Mennonites. The text comes from a favorite Mennonite hymn, Wehrlos und Verlassen, which speaks about the comfort and strength G o d can give during times o f persecution and struggle. Kinderen van de Vrede concludes with an enthusiastic a cappella chorus rendition o f the opening refrain (mm. 84-93) and a six measure "amen". 9/8 time, like triple meter with a swing, is reminiscent o f many gospel style Mennonite hymns.  During the 16 -century, Menno Simons, a reformation leader like Luther, Z w i n g l i , Calvin, Grebel and M a n z was the Anabaptist founder o f the Mennonite denomination. 1 3  th  43  M O V E M E N T 14 Reconciliation, by Walt Whitman, is an effective Remembrance Day poem. " W o r d over a l l " begins this third a cappella movement. It should be evident to the listener that the Requiem for Peace is culminating with words o f promise and consolation and possible solutions to the problems o f hatred and war. In Whitman's story, the soldier (in the first person) approaches the coffin of the enemy he killed and, realizing that the man is "as divine as myself," kisses the dead white face. This poignant text calls for a very sensitive approach: pianissimo dynamics, clear diction and gentle undulating counterpoint. Dissonance, suspensions and releases to consonance were an effective way tb paint the words (Fig. 22). •yg  emincinte clearly  i ,. J  s-  di -vine as man  my  selfl  is  dead.  di-vine as my - self.  dead_  dead.  5rT is  dead.  Fig. 22 - suspensions in Reconciliation  M O V E M E N T 15 Agnus Dei (Lamb of God) begins with tolling of the bell and plainchant antiphonal statements. (Requiem for Peace began with these elements). The melodic theme (mm. 23-30), with its leap o f a 7th, is conducive for sequencing and forte unison singing. It is also an appropriate gesture to express a "unified" and conclusive proclamation (Fig. 23).  44  Ag  -  nus  p8J espress.  m  *  mf  i i  «T»  dim.  ____  joyfully, optotnisticaUy - with confidence  De  - i,  qui tol  u==d== Ag - is pec-ca-ta mun - di  ....*» -  nus De  ^ - i,  ^  n—n^R*• * J J * J -  qui  tol - lis pec ca - ta  r & F =  ( 2!jJ-i*Q_ i s~ W. ^ M T— f  - fJ^J^- ^  4V  T  J  T  r  -^aM  Fig. 23 - A g n u s D e i - sequential 7 leap motif - indicated with symbol * th  The second theme, a cascading melodic sequence, is introduced by the women at bar 40 (Fig. 24) and recurs toward the conclusion o f the movement (m. 92-104). |j] J == 72 92  legato  7pgLJJ Mi  -  se  J~2=±. Re  -  q u i - em  Ag  nus De  Fig. 24 -Agnus Dei - cascading sequence - second theme  A new verse o f text, set i n a style reminiscent o f the opening plainchant solo, is then presented by full choir and male soloist (mm. 45-58). This section gradually builds dynamically and culminates with a dramatic forte reiteration o f the opening 6-part homophonic statement (mm. 58-61).  45  K e y Relationships The Agnus Dei begins in B b major (mm. 1-16) and modulates to the key o f F major by measure 40. However, continuous modulation (with sequences o f 7ths) creates harmonic instability and key ambiguity. Finally, after a somewhat Mahleresque moment, with a tremendous crescendo and molto ritardando, the key o f F major is firmly established (m. 91). This is followed by a section o f receding anxieties while the first and second themes spin gently around each other over an F pedal bass (mm. 92-105). This (once again) becomes dominant to the concluding key o f B b major. The duality o f F and B b major is symbolic o f Fratres in Unum, brothers dwelling together: unity in diversity. The three soloists set up the passionate conclusion to Requiem for Peace (mm. 105-111), which concludes with tutti forces and a confident prayer, "Lamb o f God, grant us peace!"  A C u l m i n a t i n g Statement Agnus Dei was introduced to the Mass by Pope Sergius (687-701). John the Baptist, upon seeing Christ at the Jordan River, proclaimed, "Behold, the Lamb of G o d ! " (John 1:36) I once considered ending Requiem for Peace with Fratres in Unum; however, I was persuaded to end with the most powerful statement possible. In my view, the Agnus Dei is the culminating point o f any Mass, the most optimistic statement o f the entire work.  46  Personal Reflections  . It wasn't intellectual curiosity that drew me into the music field. I loved music long before I knew anything about the functional mechanics o f the art - yet it was at university where musical structures and theoretical principles became apparent to me, the tools o f trade for most composers. Therefore, I strive to find an effective balance between technical composition procedures and actual musical results. The craft must serve the art. It's been a long thrilling journey, this music education, and I trust it w i l l never end. What a great joy to return to my alma mater and sit on the other side o f the desk for a while - usually the oldest person in the class. I am so thankful to have been afforded the opportunity to write a thesis that has immediate practical applications. When the head o f the U B C choral department, Bruce Pullan, offered to direct and produce the yet-unwritten Requiem for Peace, I realized the suitability to focus on Vancouver's multicultural mosaic, so evident at the U B C School o f Music. Requiem for Peace is therefore driven by a multi-lingual libretto. I see the music as a means to an end and not an end in itself. Nelson Mandela's release from prison in 1990 sent a tidal wave of optimism through our cynical, post-idealistic world. The experience o f the South African people in their struggle against apartheid is proof that evil structures can be challenged and overcome. The revolution was largely driven by the fundamental principles of the dignity o f man and the Judeo-Christian ideal o f the equality o f all before G o d ; a dramatic illustration that many o f civilization's oldest beliefs are still the most potent revolutionary ideas in the world today. This is the message o f hope presented in Requiem for Peace.  4 7  Bibliography  Bernard, Jonathan. The music ofEdgard Varese. N e w Haven: Yale University Press, 1987.  Chase, Robert. Dies irae: a guide to requiem music. Lanham, M d . : Scarecrow Press, 2003 Cooke, Mervyn. Britten, War Requiem. N e w York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Cragg, Kenneth. Jesus and the Muslim: an exploration. London: A l l e n and Unwin, 1985. Daverio, John Joseph. German Lieder in the nineteenth century. London, England: Prentice Hall International, 1996.  Fuller, Sarah, ed., The European Musical Heritage, 800 -1750. N e w York: Knopf, 1987. H i l l , Peter. The Messiaen Companion. London: Faber and Faber, 1995. Jacquette, Dale. Schopenhauer, philosophy and the arts. N e w York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.  Minear, Paul Sevier. Death set to music: masterworks by Bach, Brahms, Penderecki, Berstein. Atlanta, Ga.: John K n o x Press, 1987.  Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth-century music: a history of musical style in modern Europe and America. N e w York: Norton, c 1991. Platinga, Leon. Romantic music: A history of musical style in nineteenth-century Europe. N e w Y o r k : Norton, 1984.  Robertson, Alec. Requiem: music of mourning and consolation. London: Cassell, 1967. Said, Edward W . Orientalism. London: Penguin, 2003.  T i l l , Nicholas. Mozart and the Enlightenment: truth, virtue and beauty in Mozart's operas. London: Faber and Faber, 1992. .  Womack, Kenneth. Reading the Beatles: cultural studies, literary criticism, and the Fab Four. Albany: State University of N e w Y o r k Press, 2006.  48  Appendix  L y r i c s and Translations  49  Requiem for Peace 1) Fratres in U n u m - ( P s a l m  Brothers in Unity  133)  David (circa 1000 B.C.) Latin translation Q u a m iucundum  H o w p l e a s a n t it is  habitare fratres in u n u m  w h e n b r o t h e r s live t o g e t h e r in unity  E c c e q u a m b o n u m et q u a m d e c o r u m  B e h o l d , h o w g o o d a n d h o n o r a b l e it is  habitare fratres in u n u m ,  w h e n b r o t h e r s live t o g e t h e r in unity!  S i c u t u n g u e n t u m o p t i m u m in c a p i t e q u o d  It is like p r e c i o u s oil p o u r e d o n t h e h e a d ,  d e s c e n d i t in b a r b a m ,  running d o w n o n the beard,  barbam A a r o n quod descendit  running d o w n on A a r o n ' s beard,  super o r a vestimenti eius  d o w n u p o n the c o l l a r of his r o b e s .  Sicut ros H e r m o n qui descendit  It is like the d e w of H e r m o n , w h i c h falls  in m o n t e m S i o n  on Mount Zion.  Q u o n i a m illic m a n d a v i t D o m i n u s  F o r t h e r e the L o r d h a s b e s t o w e d  benedictionem  His blessing,  et v i t a m u s q u e in s a e c u l u m .  e v e n life f o r e v e r m o r e .  2) R e q u i e m A e t e r n a m  Rest Eternally  R e q u i e m aeternam d o n a eis, Domine.  E t e r n a l rest g i v e unto t h e m , O L o r d ,  Et lux p e r p e t u a l u c e a t e i s .  a n d let p e r p e t u a l light s h i n e u p o n t h e m  3) L o n g B l a c k A r m  Wilfred Owen (1893-1918) British B e slowly lifted u p , t h o u l o n g b l a c k a r m ,  But w h e n thy s p e l l b e c a s t  Great g u n towering toward H e a v e n ,  complete and whole,  a b o u t to c u r s e . . .  May G o d curse thee, a n d cut thee from our soul!  R e a c h at that a r r o g a n c e , w h i c h n e e d s thy h a r m , A n d b e a t it d o w n b e f o r e the s i n s g r o w w o r s e . . . 4) A h n i S h a l o m - ( P s a l m  I A m a Man of P e a c e  120)  David (circa 1000 B.C.) Hebrew 1. A S o n g of A s c e n t s . (N> In my distress I called unto the L O R D ,  . J.JiT--l, iN"n? — l » ^1^3 ^ - ^ N .n\zn yiu>!?n : T P # ngvyn .'typJ n ^ D — nrn n ,  ,r  n  ni  ri  and He answered me. 2. O L O R D , deliver my soul from lying lips, from a  1  deceitful tongue. 3. What shall be given unto thee, and what shall be d o n e more unto thee, thou deceitful tongue? 4.  •~vw ^nN-rjy STUDV ;-yi)n "rni-o  n  Sharp arrows of the mighty, with coals of b r o o m .  5. W o e is m e , that I sojourn with M e s h e c h , that I dwell beside the tents of Kedar! 6. M y soul hath full long had her dwelling with him that hateth p e a c e . 7. I a m all p e a c e ; but when I speak, they are for war.  50  5) Bani A d a m  Children of A d a m  - Sa'adi Shirazi (1213-1293) Persian C h i l d r e n of A d a m a r e m e m b e r s of o n e b o d y W h o a r e c r e a t e d f r o m the s a m e o r i g i n ; If o n e m e m b e r is in p a i n ,  jljS  .ijLdJ  lj  U  the other m e m b e r s c a n n o t b e at p e a c e .  j, Ur-, j£j  B a n i A d a m - part 2  K i n d n e s s , chivalry, g u i d a n c e a n d humility w e r e b o r n the d a y J e s u s w a s b o r n . His c o m i n g brightened the world, H i s light i l l u m i n e d it. L i k e t h e light of d a w n flowing t h r o u g h t h e u n i v e r s e -  Ahmad Shawqi (1870-1932) Egyptian/Arabic  s o d i d the s i g n of J e s u s (the M e s s i a h ) flow. H e filled t h e w o r l d with light, m a k i n g t h e e a r t h s h i n e with its b r i g h t n e s s . N o threat, n o t y r a n n y , n o r e v e n g e , no sword, no raids, no b l o o d s h e d (did H e u s e in H i s call to t h e n e w faith.)  6) K y r i e E l e i s o n  Lord, have Mercy  Lar/n a n d Greek liturgy Kyrie, miserere nobis  Lord, have mercy on us  Kyrie, d o n a nobis p a c e m  L o r d , grant u s p e a c e  Kyrie eleison D o n a n o b i s p a2J cem  V  -lie  Lord, have mercy  jV  Grant us p e a c e  Christe eleison Exaudi orationem  Christ, h a v e m e r c y meam  Hear my prayer  D o n a nobis p a c e m  Grant us peace  7) Betise de la Guerre Wcfor Hugo (1802-1885)  7) T h e Stupidity of War  Ouvriere s a n s yeux, P e n e l o p e imbecile,  S e r v a n t without e y e s , c h i l d i s h P e n e l o p e ,  B e r c e u s e d u c h a o s o u le n e a n t o s c i l l e ,  Cradle where newborn C h a o s rocks,  G u e r r e , 6 guerre,  W a r , o h war,  o c c u p e e au choc des escadrons,  w h o b u s i e s h e r s e l f with t h e c l a s h of t r o o p s ,  51  T o u t e p l e i n e d u bruit furieux d e s c l a i r o n s ,  F i l l e d with the f u r i o u s b l a s t s of t r u m p e t s ,  6 b u v e u s e d e s a n g , q u i , f a r o u c h e , fletrie,  O h drinker of b l o o d , w h o - f i e r c e , s h r i v e l e d ,  H i d e u s e , entraine I'homme  hideous - drags m a n along  e n cette i v r o g n e r i e ,  in h e r d r u n k e n n e s s ;  ( N t i e e o u le d e s t i n s e d e f o r m e ,  ( H i d d e n w h e r e fate is d i s f i g u r e d ,  o u D i e u fuit,  where G o d flees,  O u flotte u n e clarte  O r where reasoning hovers,  p l u s noire q u e la nuit)  d a r k e r t h a n the night)  Folle i m m e n s e ,  G i g a n t i c folly,  d e vent et d e f o u d r e s a r m e e ,  a r m e d with w i n d a n d lightning,  A quoi sers-tu, geante,  W h a t u s e are y o u , M o n s t e r ?  a quoi sers-tu, f u m e e ,  W h a t u s e are y o u , S m o k y O n e ?  S i tes e c r o u l e m e n t s r e c o n s t r u i s e n t le m a i ,  W h a t if y o u r d e s t r u c t i o n r e c o n s t r u c t s evil,  S i p o u r le b e s t i a l tu c h a s s e s I'animal,  W h a t if in y o u r b l o o d lust, y o u s e e k t h e a n i m a l in u s all  S i tu n e s a i s , d a n s l ' o m b r e  W h a t if y o u d o n ' t k n o w , within t h e s h a d o w s  o u ton h a s a r d s e v a u t r e ,  w h e r e y o u r opportunity g r o v e l s ,  Defaire un e m p e r e u r  H o w to b r i n g d o w n a n e m p e r o r  q u e p o u r e n faire u n a u t r e ?  without c r e a t i n g a n o t h e r ?  8) B i n g C h u h S h i n g  B a l l a d of the A r m y Cart  ^JMT  (trans. David Lunde)  Dao Fu (circa 12 AD) Mandarin  W a g o n s rattling a n d b a n g i n g , h o r s e s n e i g h i n g a n d s n o r t i n g , T h e c o n s c r i p t s m a r c h i n g , e a c h with b o w a n d a r r o w s at his hip, F a t h e r s a n d m o t h e r s , w i v e s a n d c h i l d r e n , r u n n i n g to s e e t h e m off— S o m u c h dust kicked up y o u can't s e e Xian-yang Bridge! A n d the f a m i l i e s pulling at their c l o t h e s , s t a m p i n g feet in a n g e r , blocking the w a y and w e e p i n g -  •/Ait/ft^  T h e s o u n d of their wailing r i s e s straight u p to a s s a u l t h e a v e n . . . T h e frontier p o s t s run with b l o o d e n o u g h to fill a n o c e a n , a n d the w a r - l o v i n g E m p e r o r ' s d r e a m s of c o n q u e s t h a v e still not e n d e d . H a v e n ' t y o u h e a r d , sir, In o u r l a n d of H a n , t h r o u g h o u t t h e two h u n d r e d p r e f e c t u r e s e a s t of the m o u n t a i n s , t h e r e a r e t h o u s a n d s of little h a m l e t s ; g r o w i n g n o t h i n g but t h o r n s A n d e v e n w h e r e there is a s t u r d y wife to h a n d l e h o e a n d p l o u g h , t h e p o o r c r o p s g r o w r a g g e d l y in h a p h a z a r d fields. It's e v e n w o r s e for the m e n of Q i n ; t h e y ' r e s u c h g o o d fighters t h e y ' r e d r i v e n f r o m battle to battle like d o g s or c h i c k e n s . . . . Truly, it is a n evil thing t o b e a r a s o n t h e s e d a y s , it is m u c h better to h a v e d a u g h t e r s ; at least y o u c a n m a r r y a d a u g h t e r to t h e n e i g h b o r , but a s o n is b o r n only to d i e , h i s b o d y lost in the wild g r a s s . . . H a s m y lord s e e n the s h o r e s of t h e " K o k o n o r ? T h e white b o n e s lie t h e r e in drifts, u n c o l l e c t e d . N e w ghosts complain a n d old ghosts weep,  & Will's*  U n d e r t h e l o w e r i n g s k y their v o i c e s c r y out in the rain.  52  9) Dvatsit V o s y e m Shtikovich Anna Akhmatova (1889-1966) Russian  Twenty Eight B a y o n e t s  He 6i>iBaTb Te6e B M B M X , Co cHery He B c r a T b .  You  a r e n o l o n g e r a m o n g the living,  You  cannot rise from the s n o w .  flBaflliaTb  Twenty-eight  BOCeMb n i T b l K O B b l X  OrHecTpejibHbix n a T b . TopbRyio o6HOByrnKy Zfpyry niHJia H . J I I O S H T , JIKD6HT KpoBymicy PyccKaa 3eMJifl.  10) R e c o r d a r e Latin liturgy (from the Recordare, Tuba Mirum and Liber Scriptus)  bayonets,  F i v e bullets. A bitter n e w s h r o u d for m y b e l o v e d I s e w e d . T h e R u s s i a n earth l o v e s , loves d r o p l e t s of b l o o d .  Remember K  T h e written b o o k s h a l l b e b r o u g h t ,  L i b e r s c r i p t u s proferetur, In q u o t o t u m continetur,  in w h i c h all is c o n t a i n e d ,  Cum  W h e n mankind arises  resurget creatura,  to r e n d e r a c c o u n t b e f o r e t h e J u d g e .  Judicanti responsura. R e c o r d a r e , J e s u pie,  .  R e m e m b e r , gentle J e s u s ,  Q u o d s u m c a u s a tuae viae;  that I a m the r e a s o n for y o u r t i m e o n e a r t h ;  N e m e p e r d a s ilia d i e .  D o not c a s t m e out o n that d a y .  Redemisti crucem passus;  You  Q u a e r e n s m e , sedisti, l a s s u s .  S e e k i n g m e , y o u s a n k d o w n wearily.  T a n t u s l a b o r n o n sit c a s s u s .  L e t not s u c h travail b e in v a i n .  11. H i r o s h i m a L a c r i m o s a Toge Sankichi (1917- 1953) Japanese  Tears for H i r o s h i m a  s a v e d m e by enduring the c r o s s ; N  T h a t f l a s h o f light! H o w c o u l d I e v e r forget! In a m o m e n t , thirty t h o u s a n d p e o p l e v a n i s h e d ! B r i n g b a c k the  fathers  Bring back the  mothers  Bring b a c k the old p e o p l e Bring b a c k the children Bring m e back Bring b a c k the h u m a n b e i n g s I o n c e knew. For a s long a s there are h u m a n b e i n g s , a w o r l d of h u m a n b e i n g s , bring back p e a c e , (unbroken  peace).  D i e s Irae, d i e s ilia  T h e d a y of w r a t h  S o l v e t s a e c l u m in favilla  s h a l l c o n s u m e t h e w o r l d in a s h e s  L a c r i m o s a d i e s ilia  T h a t d a y is o n e of w e e p i n g  Lacrimosa, Hiroshima  T e a r s for H i r o s h i m a .  53  12) Dulce et Decorum Wilfred Owen (1893-1918) British B e n t d o u b l e , like o l d b e g g a r s u n d e r s a c k s , K n o c k - k n e e d , c o u g h i n g like h a g s , w e c u r s e d t h r o u g h s l u d g e , Till o n t h e h a u n t i n g f l a r e s w e t u r n e d o u r b a c k s , A n d t o w a r d s o u r distant rest b e g a n to t r u d g e . M e n m a r c h e d a s l e e p , m a n y lost their b o o t s , But l i m p e d o n , b l o o d - s h o d . A l l w e n t l a m e , all blind; D r u n k with f a t i g u e ; d e a f e v e n to t h e h o o t s of g a s - s h e l l s d r o p p i n g softly b e h i n d . G a s ! G A S ! Q u i c k , b o y s ! ~ A n e c s t a s y of f u m b l i n g Fitting t h e c l u m s y h e l m e t s just in time, But s o m e o n e still w a s yelling o u t a n d s t u m b l i n g A n d f l o u n d ' r i n g like a m a n in fire o r l i m e . D i m t h r o u g h t h e misty p a n e s a n d thick g r e e n light, A s under a green s e a , I s a w him drowning. In all m y d r e a m s b e f o r e m y h e l p l e s s sight H e p l u n g e s at m e , guttering, c h o k i n g , d r o w n i n g . If in s o m e s m o t h e r i n g d r e a m s , y o u t o o c o u l d p a c e b e h i n d the w a g o n that w e flung h i m i n , a n d w a t c h t h e w h i t e e y e s writhing in h i s f a c e . . . M y f r i e n d , y o u w o u l d not tell with s u c h h i g h z e s t T o c h i l d r e n a r d e n t for s o m e d e s p e r a t e glory, T h e o l d L i e : D u l c e et d e c o r u m e s t P r o patria m o r i . (It is s w e e t a n d h o n o r a b l e to d i e for t h e father-land)  the Children of Peace  13) de Kinderen van de Vrede Menno Simons (1496-1561) Dutch Wij zijn d e k i n d e r e n v a n d e V r e d e  W e a r e t h e c h i l d r e n of p e a c e  d i e h u n z w a a r d e n tot p l o e g s c h a r e n  w h o h a v e b e a t e n their s w o r d s into p l o w s h a r e s  e n s p e r e n tot s i k k e l s h e b b e n  a n d their s p e a r s into p r u n i n g h o o k s ,  gemaakt  en k e n n e n g e e n oorlog meer.  a n d know war n o more  Wehrlos und verlassen  Lonely and Defenseless  Carl Rohl (1810-1883)  German W h e n I'm l o n e l y a n d d e f e n s e l e s s  Wehrlos und verlassen sehnt sich oft m e i n H e r z n a c h stiller R u h  m y h e a r t l o n g s f o r rest a n d p e a c e  d o c h D u d e k k e s t mit d e m Fittich  T h e n y o u s p r e a d Y o u r w i n g s of c a r i n g  Deiner Liebe sanft mich z u  with Y o u r l o v e Y o u c o v e r m e  U n t e r D e i n e m s a n f t e n Fittich  U n d e r Your gentle wing  Find'ich Frieden, Trost u n d R u h  I find p e a c e , s o l a c e a n d rest  d e n n D u schirmest mich s o freundlich  F o r Y o u s h i e l d m e s o kindly  schutzest mich und deckst mich z u  Protect m e a n d c o n s o l e m e  S e l i g sind die' w e l c h e trauen d e m Gott  B l e s s e d a r e t h e y w h o trust in G o d  54  14) Reconciliation Walt Whitman (1819- 1892) American W o r d o v e r all, beautiful a s the s k y , B e a u t i f u l that w a r a n d all its d e e d s of c a r n a g e m u s t in t i m e b e utterly lost, T h a t t h e h a n d s of t h e s i s t e r s , D e a t h a n d Night i n c e s s a n t l y softly w a s h a g a i n , a n d e v e r a g a i n , this s o i l e d w o r l d ; F o r m y e n e m y is d e a d , a m a n divine a s m y s e l f is d e a d , I look w h e r e h e l i e s w h i t e - f a c e d a n d still in the coffin I d r a w n e a r , b e n d d o w n a n d t o u c h lightly with m y lips the white f a c e in t h e coffin  O L a m b of G o d  15) Agnus Dei Latin liturgy and the Vulgate Bible S c i o e n i m q u o d R e d e m p t o r m e u s vivit;  F o r I k n o w that m y R e d e e m e r l i v e s ;  Agnus Dei, Princeps Pacis.  L a m b of G o d , P r i n c e of P e a c e .  Agnus Dei,  O L a m b of G o d ,  qui tollis p e c c a t a m u n d i  W h o t a k e s a w a y t h e s i n s of t h e w o r l d ,  Dona eis requiem  G r a n t t h e m rest,  Requiem sempiternam.  E t e r n a l rest.  Miserere nobis, D e u s  Have mercy on us, O G o d .  Miserere mei, D e u s  Have mercy o n me, O G o d .  Si dixerimus q u o n i a m p e c c a t u m non h a b e -  If w e c l a i m to b e without s i n ,  m u s ipsi n o s s e d u c i m u s et Veritas in n o b i s  w e d e c e i v e o u r s e l v e s a n d the truth is not  non est  in u s .  S i c o n f i t e a m u r p e c c a t a n o s t r a fidelis est et  If w e c o n f e s s o u r s i n s , H e is faithful a n d  Justus ut remittat n o b i s p e c c a t a  just a n d will f o r g i v e u s o u r s i n s  et e m u n d e t n o s a b . o m n i iniquitate  a n d purify u s f r o m all u n r i g h t e o u s n e s s .  et i p s e e s t propitiatio p r o p e c c a t i s  H e is the a t o n i n g s a c r i f i c e for o u r s i n s ,  N o n pro nostris a u t e m tantum  not o n l y for o u r s  s e d e t i a m p r o totius m u n d i  but a l s o for t h e s i n s of the w h o l e w o r l d .  A g n u s Dei, Christe J e s u ,  O L a m b of G o d , C h r i s t J e s u s ,  Princeps Pacis  P r i n c e of P e a c e ,  D o n a nobis P a c e m  Grant us P e a c e .  55  Requiem for Peace Orchestral Score Instrumentation  2 2 2 2  Flutes - ( 2 Flute/Piccolo) Oboes Clarinets in B b Bassoons nd  2 Horns in F 2 Trumpets in C 2 Trombones Timpani Percussion 1 -  Bass Drum, W i n d Chimes, Suspended Cymbal, Tam Tarn, Congas, Finger Cymbals, snare sticks  Percussion 2 -  Suspended Cymbal, Snare Drum, Bass Drum, Tambourine, Wind Chimes, Glockenspiel, Claves  Percussion 3 -  Tubular Bells, Glockenspiel, Xylophone, Vibraphone, Wheel D r u m (Anvil), Triangle, Finger Cymbals, Bass Drum  Harp Violins I, II Violas Cellos Double Basses  56  1. Fratres in Unum Lento J = 82  2 Fu l tes 2 Oboes 2 Clarinets in Bb  Trumpet in C 2 Trombones Tm i pani Bass Drum Wn i d Chm i es Sus. Cymbal Glockenspiel jj Harp  Choir  Violin I Violin II Viola Violoncello  J^J  1  Lary Nci kel  Fratres in Unum  Fratres in Unum  Fratres in Unum  Fratres in Unum  Fratres in Unum  Fratres in Unum  Fratres in U n u m  Fratres in Unum  Fratres in Unum oil running clown Aaron's beard  Fratres in Unum  Fratres in Unum  Fratres in U n u m  2. Requiem Aeternam Larry Nickel  Requiem Aetemum  Requiem Aetemum  Requiem Aeternum  Requiem Aeternum  Requiem Aeternum  Hn.  C Tpt.  Tbn.  Timp.  «f-=jsr Gym.  S. D.  r~n s~nrnnrm mi mf  if  T u b . B.  Hp.  Solo  Vln. I  V l n . II  1=  Vc.  Db.  3. Long Black Arm  Wilfred Owen (1893-1918)  Larry Nickel  • J = 140 anger, i n d i g n a t i o n a n d s a r c a s m  Piccolo Flute 2 Flute 1 Oboes Clarinets in Bb  Horns in F  yi ! ,„_4.. r  "  Trumpet in C J  Tm i pani Wheel Drum Sus. Cymbal Tatn Tarn Snare Drum Bass Drum Tubua l r Bells Soprano Alto Tenor Bass Violin I Violin II Viola Violoncello Doube l Bass  i '"n i  V  f  Long Black  Arm  Long Black Arm  Ob.  Cl.  Bsn.  Hn.  CTpt.  Timp.  J  i  J' i  i  J  i  J-  *  i  J  i  J  i  J  i  J  i  iJ  i  J  i  J  *  J  *, j  i  Cyrt  r r rr r r r i r r r r (planesflyingpost -nwriietuO  Vln. II  Via.  Vc.  Db.  r r .r r r r r rr—r—r—r r r r r  Long Black Arm  Long Black Arm  Long Black Arm  Ob.  Cl.  C Tpt. Tbn. Tiinp. Anv. Cym. S. D.  Vln.  I  Vln.  II  Via.  Db. 84  Long Black Arm  Long Black Arm  Long Black Arm  Long Black Arm  89  Long Black A r m accel.  4. Ani Shalom I am a Person of Peace  Larry Nickel J = 156 Marcato Violin I  Violin II  Viola  Violoncello  Double Bass  Ob.  Cl.  Bsn.  Hn.  C Tpt.  Cyin.  Glock.  Hp.  Vln. II  Via.  Db.  Ani Shalom  Ani Shalom  Ani Shalom  Vln.  II  Ani Shalom  yi-ten le-cha mah Y o si— f la-cha la  shown  rah-mi  -yah.  95  Ani Shalom  Chit-se Vln. I Vln. II  Vc. Db.  J  QJJJJJI  J  J  J  J  J  gi bor :  shi -nu-nim_  Chit-se  gi  - bor  shi - n u - n i m _  Teem  Ani Shalom  Ani Shalom  Ani Shalom  Ani Shalom  Ani Shalom  Ani Shalom  Ani Shalom  103  5. Bani Adam Children of Adam  Saa' di Shirazi (circa 1233) Ahmad Shawqi (circa 1920)  Larry Nickel J = 86  Flute I 2 Oboes 2 Clarinets in B\>  » * w— T  -^f-—c  L v  solo  I  2 Trumpets in C  / *  5  ^  v  1  11  l~-  r?-*—r-^.  u£fi_r|—  — g  2.  H  _J  ^  v  [ f  P  c  c  •>  2 Trombones  / J = 86  if  Contrabass f  104  i  /  -"if i-»»-*f  I,ft:  —  r r-" u L i»  =  =  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Pice.  Fl.  1  CTpI.  Tbn.  Timp.  Conga  irtrm-l mf  ,n i  f at  n  mf  r—D  lap with fingers Tainb.  II - M  mp  finger cymbals F. C y m Tri.  Vln.  II  73  JL -P  mp  mf  H  Z = = — P  mp  n  , i — ]  H  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  • Pice.  Fl. I  w  CTpt. f Tbn.  Tiinp.  Conga  UJU  f  m  Tainb. mf ;  mp  »ni:  r ur r mp  F. Cym Tri.  J  1  /  Hp.< 9 V  =  Vln. I  115  mf  ^ r u° r r .r  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Pice.  Fl. 1  Ob.  mf  C Tpt.  Tbn.  Timp.  (sim.) »—>>-|g—1»-  Conga  Tamb. F. Cym Tri.  rrn rrj] I  J J- :MUI soprano soloist I  la wa - i  jail  Choir <  Vln.  I  Women|  f  -  dun  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  La in -ti - ka- mun, la m l - sa - truin, la raz -wa-tun  . la  raz - wa - tun  . .• , la di - ma.  Bani Adam  124  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  Bani Adam  6. Kyrie Eleison Larry Nickel canatus firmus by Kuni Murai J = 64-70  plainchant style  P  —===  jmf  jmp  Ky  Ky-ri - e  Mi  re  -  re  re  -  re  nip  — - t r  (Ky Ky - ri-e  Ky  mp  Ky - ri -e_  mp  no - bis_  mf  mf  3mm  - Do-na no-bis  Pa-  Mi  no - bis,  jmf  =—mp 70 cem  Mi  -  se  mf  Ky - r i - e  re  -  re  no - bis,  Ky-ri-  Piano<  poco rit  129  a tempo  ^  only sopranos add the "s"  Kyrie Eleison  A 16  =—p-  mf  i  E - le-i-son  Ky  Ky  ^-m  e  1  1  Do. -  9  •  —W  nem m e - a m , Ex-au-di —•.—p—  o - r a - ti - o trip  nem me-am  Ky  E - le-i-son, Ex-au-di mf -  ~ l "I "I  E - le-i-son  Ex-au-di  o - r a - t i - o - n e m m e - a m _ D o - na_ y mf c ^ - * - * ^  J  r n  o-ra-ti-o-nem  n  7  bis  Pa - cem,  Pa  - cem,  Do  -  na  no  -  bis  »  B  rail.  -  Pa- cem_  no  %—  -  bis  P a - cem,  bis _  bis  •  Pa - cem, -  •*  "T^—  n  r — f H1— =  =  =  Pa - cem,  cem  Pa - cem, /  -  fp=.  na  no  -  bis  cem,  Pa- cem_  w  &±  f~T"  5  —u--  Do-na  no-bis  1—* Pa-cem  1  J.  <^  e  *  5=  1 |  *  Ky  -  L-o ri  mf  Do-na  no-bis  Pa-cem  Pa - cem rail  A  o  mf J -  Pa - cem  «  Pa -  r' V  •' U Do -  j = 70  Ky  m  Pa  ^  mf  ^  XTtr'r r •  me- am_  — . _  23  no  1  P 7 t_f-  T  r  mf  f,  ~ l "I "I Ky  Do  Us  m  jmf  E x - a u - di o - r a - ti - o p— mp  na,  9  i  _mfZ  mp-  mf  f  A  r  J  A  Zg_3?  J = 70  J_  p  Or  i —p  B  y..  IF—jm-  |*~~  130  _J  1  Kyrie Eleison  32  mp  >mp  i  E  -  le  -  i - son  Ex  mf  >mp  -  au - di o - r a  o-nemme-am  mp  ~  P E  - ti -  -  le  i - son  Ex  -  hJ  h  au - di o - r a  - ti -  o-nemme-am  mp  r  J '.  C J LT g  N '  -trl  h  ' ' Q  '  mp  It Ky  -  ^  ri  e  E  1J  -  UJ*  -  „ |  le -  40  f f ff  ^  mf  son  f  4  4  « — ,  au - di o - ra  1  - ti -  •4o-nem  I  1  i i  mm*  J  J 1  f (2  mp  4-  Ex  »  F  r  -  J J  J  o r /  i  !  -8  « -  i—-»—1  l  *•  r  *  *  f  F- F P F £ r r  J i  t  '  r  Tempo primo  JE Do  no  -  bis  Pa  Ky  Ky  mp  Do  -  na  no  mf  -  bis  Ky  Pa  P  m  Ky.  np—  =5 Do  -  na  no  -  bis  Pa  Ex-au - di o-ra - ti - o  mp  mf iS>  nem me-am,  Ex-au - di o-ra - t i -  mp  eW4  st-Do  - • na  no  -  bis  Pa  cem  Ky  Ky  Tempo primo  r  r  ^ j.  r  r  u j A  r 131  r  r  rn  Kyrie Eleison  47  „/  T  -—1  =  rJ*  m m — * l * —» •m- -» E  3  -  le - i - son  -» <• •» Ex - au - di  1 1n—I— = ^=* -at- + o  -  0  -&  -m  ra - ti - o - nem  me- am_  bis  r  T——^~  L r cJ"  f  t  r  i  ' f L i 'f t > f f  ^ T J f 52  TO/  -  Pa  -  cem,  Pa  Do  -  5 Pa  na  bis  3E -  cem,  Pa  cem_  Do  -  na  no  -  bis  Pa (Pa  Pa  -  cem,  Pa  Do - na  no-bis  Pa - cem  Pa - cem  mf  o Pa  Pa  0  .„.,-  -  cem,  4  Do - na  no-bis  A  Pa - cem  4  132  Pa  cem  Ht. y  r  cem)  7. Betise de la Guerre -  Victor Hugo (1802-1885)  Larry Nickel J = 56 solemn fanfare - tongue in cheek  Piccolo  2 Oboes  2 Clarinets in Bl>  2 Bassoons  2 Horns in F  2 Trumpets in C  Violin  Violin I  Violoncello  Double Bass  15  the Stupidity o f War  J = 112 Mock March  Betise de la Guerre  Betise de la Guerre  Betise de la Guerre  Betise de la Guerre  137  Betise de la Guerre  Betise de la Guerre  Betise de la Guerre  Pice.  Ob.  Hn.  CTpt.  Tbn.  Timp.  B.  S . D.  i  J  D.  -H  J  i  J  -U-  J-i  h J  nj—I—l  J  l a  i  .rjj .rjj  T u b . B.  Bar.  si  Vln.  Via.  Db.  II  tu  ne  sais,  dans T o m - b r e  ou  ton  h a - sard  se  vau  - tre  J  i  J  Betise de la Guerre  Betise de la Guerre  146  Betise de la Guerre  8. B i n g C h u h Shing Dao Fu (Tang Dynasty cira 12 AD) J=  94 oriental march  March of the Battle Carts  Larry Nickel  imagine the Emperor's army - 2,000years ago - marching over the distant hill - towards the village  Piccolo Flute 2 Oboes 2 Clarinets in B> ! 2 Bassoons  a distant fanfare solo  2 Trumpets in C 2 Trombones Tm i pani Cymbasl Tarn tain  finger cymbals tarn lam j  (let it ring) ^  mp  Snare Drum Wn i d Chm i es Xyo l phone J  Harp  Violin I Violin II  Violoncello Doube l Bass  L;T  [I  mf  r_  Bing Chun Shing  Bing Chuh Shing  Bing Chuh Shing  Bing Chuh Shing  152  Bing Chuh Shing  Bin]ig Chuh Shing  Bing Chuh Shing  Ob. Cl.  C Tpt. Tbn. Timp. Cym.  }•?  S. D.  to splash  }  11  ( Jr 1 »  Hp.  J>7  } y  %-4  ,  1  *  /  j? dolce, so.stemito  Pi  r'O  S h i n g j e n k u n g j i e n guh j a i y o w  1  1  1  1  1  1  Chuhlinlin  Vln. I Vln. II Via. Vc. Db.  mf  . _ > r.  r1  mah shyow shyow Shing jen kungjien guh  *  Bing Chuh Shing  Bing Chuh Shing  r  f  Hp.  J J  JJ  j. 9-  = IN  Alio  Ku  mf  shung j e h shuhn  cahn yuen  J -I J' -I ft J J.  Ku  shung j e h shuhn  cahn yuen  shyow_  z=f  ^ shyow. | Men |  Ku  Vln. I  Vln. II  Via.  Vc.  shung j e h shuhn  cahn yuen  shyow.  Pyen  ting  lyu shyeh  Bing Chuh Shing  Pice.  Ob.  & C Tpt. Tbn.  Timp. i  Cym. ll | J  i  JJT^J  •i J33|J  J-  i y  J - L  Xyl.  Hp. /—-~ '0  Alto  Vln. II  Via. Vc.  Db.  r  • "3  *  -  y  ^  | Soloist |  f.  ~  Chun  bo-wen  m  "I  ,  Han jya shan dohng ar bai jo che i n tsun  Bing Chuh Shing  Tbn.  Cym.  S. D.  Xyl.  Hp.  Vln. II  Via.  Vc.  Db.  Jung  yo  j y e n fu  bah  cho  -  Ii  huh  Jung  yo  j y e n fu  bah  cho  -  li  huh  shung  shung  lohng  lohng  Bing Chuh Shing  Ob. Cl. Bsn. |'  C Tpt.  Jl.*—tr—  — - '  mf ih t  J-  —n—i—n i  = =  mf —  .:  Tbn. Timp. Cym. IIIS. D.  J  J  J  J  ,.1 J  J  J  J  ,  |J  J  J  J  . , J  J  J  J  ,  II J  Hp.  Vln. II Via. Vc. Db.  J  mni$ sis si.ij.jRi m sjisnt sm SUSJHJII  Xyl.  Vln. I  J  Kwung fu chn i g bn i g nai ku a j hn  pe-chu bu-yi chun ii - chi  Kwung fu chn i g bn i g nai ku - a j hn  pe-chu bu-yi chiin ii - chi  s.  J  -/  Bing Chuh Shing  Bing Chuh Shing  N T >p Ob. >  P  Cl.  , —  CTpt.  Tiirip.  Hp.  Shinggway  Gu lai pai  gu  Gu lai pai  gu  Gu  lai  SU Gu  lai  fahn  yuen  jyo  gway  ku  u - ren sho. u u  pai gu  -  -  ren  u  -  ying  yu-shuh  shung tyo  tyo_  T y e n y i n g y u shuh  cre.sc,  sho.  T y e n y i n g y u shuh  cresc. i  T y e n y i n g y u shuh  r e n sho.  crc.sc. _  >J i J pai gu  Tyen  shung  tyo  tyo__  f  shung  tyo_  y, > dim.  shung  tyo  y >j T I dim.  >j  shung tyo  tyo  d  j  w  i  t  v  o  _  p  ren s h o _ T y e n y i n g y u shuh  Vln. II  Via  Vc.  165  tyo_  Bing Chuh Shing  166  Bing Chuh Shing  fol  Ob. Cl.  CTpt. Tbn. Timp. Cym. S. D. Hp.  Alto  o Vln. I mf  Vln. II  h >  r  JJ1 J  LJ  —  ^  n  ii i  . J J  i  J J J r -  mf  Via Vc.  i  •  • i  -t-  k- r  J X 1 Jy^  i i  mf  q—f rrfu" .7 1, 1 1  1  r r v — r -Ur r ^ \  arco —*-——  ———  M  \  L  -  -fn—h-ciN—^ - n arco  Db.  i  l  f  f  r  f — L ^ T 167  i i  Bing Chuh Shing  Chwin bu-tyen  c h i n g hai  Bing Chuh Shing  169  Bing Chuh Shing  9. Dvatsit Vosyem Shtikovich Twenty Eight Bayonets  Anna Akmatova (1889-1966) J — 64  mf  full bodied Russian  -  style  singing  :  #• Nyeh  bi - vat  tib-  yeh_  Nyeh bi -  Nyeh  bi - vat  tib-  yeh_  Nyeh bi -  vat  Nyeh  bi - vat  tib-  yeh_  Nveh bi -  val_  mf  Larry Nickel  r  vat  tib-yeh  veh z h i h - vikh  tib- yeh  zhih-  vikh  zhih-  vikh_  tib-  zhih -  vikh_  zhih-  vikh  -  i_i  yeh_  mf «>  Nyeh  bi - vat  tib-  yeh_  Nyeh bi -  tib-yeh  . (You are no longer among the  mu  J = 64 rehearsal only |  Pianos  vat  0  zhih  poco nt.  -mf  So  nyeh vstat  mm  syeh - gu  =—mp  So  snyeh - gu  So  snyeh - gu_  mf  nyeh vstat  vstat  0 nyeh vstat  So  '  i  snyeh  -  —  So  snyeh  F  gu_  snyeh - gu  So  nyeh  vstat  —  LJ f  snyeh - gu  u  0^ nyeh  nyeh  vstalv.  vstat_  So  r  f  w  snyeh - gu  nyeh  vstah..  snyeh - gu  nyeh  vstah..  =—flip  m  gu_  ( T o « cannot rise from  Pno.  f  mf  -  vstat  m  mp  X • nyeh vstat  mp  U nyeh  mf  gu  So  ~  m  nyeh  So Snyeh  n u  r  m  snyeh - gu  w  m  J—J  So  zhih-vikh  living)  U  LJ  vikh  So snyeh-  nyeh vstat  So  the snow)  J—l  i --J—J J.  171  f~7  fl:  A  Dvatsit Vosyem Shtikovich a tempo  poco rit.  mf  Dvat-sit  Dvat-sit V o s y e m shti -  V o - syem shti - k o - v i k h  ko vikh  Dvatsit  O g - nye- stryel- nikh  vo-syem shti-ko-vich ahh..  Dvat sit  O g - nye- stryel- nihk  _mf  mm  (ahh)..  pyat_  vo- syem shti- ko- vich  ahh...  O g - nye- stryel - nihk  pyahh..  ~f  —  m  P  EE (ahh)..  O g - nye- stryel - nihk  (twenty-eight bayonette wounds)  a tempo  Pno.  (five gunshot wounds)  ^3=  WE  E E  l n  §5  pyahh..  n ri j  J  mr f  "  mi  1  r  r  r  f  J = 72 75  mf l Gor - k u - y u  ob  -  no - vush-ku_  f  Dru - gu  i  f  PS  e  shi -  la - ya  Gor  shi -  la  Gor  -  ku-yu  ob  -  no-  ob  -  no  vush-ku_  m  3  A. Gor - k u - y u  ob  -  no - vush-ku_  Dru - gu  - ya  ku-yu  -  vush-ku  mf f  ==~mf , T. mp ..  ,  •  =^  ->9 ob  J = 72  -  H  no - vush- ku_  f ^ o  shi  -  _  <>  — * i — *  >  la - ya_  —  f ^' — ^ —  Gor  -  4  Pno. -  r  172  '  ku - yu_  (a bitter new shroud, I sewed for my husband)  « — P — * — * — »  s a  ^  5  •r^——  »  1  1  1  Dvatsit Vosyem Shtikovich molto rit.  19  mp  Dru  shi  -  la  I  3  1  ya_  BE ~m Dru  -  gu_  Shi I  -  la  Dvat-sit  ya_  —-—*—-v-—»  vo-syem shti-ko-vich  r  ,  Og-nye-strye-nihk  pyat  _ mp  3-  shi  •  -  la  -  ya_  -3 B.  J _ J  E E shi  la  -  .E  ya_  Pno.  J = 64  24  mp  Nyeh  bi - vat  tib-  yeh-  Nyeh bi -  vat  tib-yell  mp  veh zhih-  vikh_  = /  m  =£3 Nyeh  bi - vat  tib-  yeh__  f  B  Nyeh bi -  vat_  tib-  yeh_  zhih -  vikh_  zhih-  vikh_  vat_  tib-  yeh_  zhih -  vikh_  zhih-  mm  ,  m  p  tib - yeh  p—y Nyeh bi -  mf  =  vikh  So snyeh-  f  S i tib -  yeh  Nyeh bi -  vat  tib- yeh  zhih  vikh  zhih- vikh  So Snyeh  J = 64  i J  L_r cJ-  j) A —M—  Pno.  173  A  n  n  n.  mm  Dvatsit Vosyem Shtikovich poco ht.  mf  28  mp  1 So snyeh - gunyeh vstat  -  So  syeh - gu  nyeh_  vstat  nyeh  mf  So snyeh -  ~  nyeh vstat  So snyeh-gunyeh  mp  =  So snyeh - gu  ZZZ^==—  . nyeh vstat  So snyeh - gunyeh vstat  mf  vstat  :==—  mm m gu_  . nyeh  vstat_  vstah..  •  L y u - bit  —  gu_  So snyeh-gunyeh  . nyeh vstat  Lyu  bit  Lyu  bit  =  P-  vstah...  L y u - bit  ——mp  mf  So snyeh -  Dvat- sit V o - syem  -  So snyeh-gunyeh  mp  vstat  P  So snyeh-gunyeh  vstah..  ahh..  E@EE# Pno. : k  -f  rr  ff  O g - n y e - s t r y e l - nikh  pyat_  p—r—£=f-  T"  J i~2 J  r=  J2  shti - ko- vikh  Ru-ska-ya  z i m - lya  P &3E Kro  -  vush- ku  f=  Kro  -  Lyu- bit  L  * m  vush  ku  -  Lyu  -  bit  Ru - ska - ya zim  4  — ^  % Lyu- bit  Lyu  -  ^  bit  Ru - ska - ya zim  — -  lya_  f  m  Ru - ska - ya zim  lya_  (the Russian soil loves - loves droplets of blood)  Pno.  r. ' Lf r  r  i  j  15 J  T"  174  4-^  s  ^ 1 <> J  10. Recordare, Jesu Pie Larry  Nickel  Recordare  Recordare  Recordare  Recordare  Q u a e - rens me,  se - dis - ti,  Quae-  rens  me,  se - d i s - t i ,  Q u a e rens me  se-dis-ti  Q u a e rens  me  se-dis-ti  las  Recordare  Recordare  Recordare  Recordare  Recordare  11. Hiroshima Lacrimosa Tears for Hiroshima  Sankichi Toge (1917-1953)  Larry  Nickel  2 Flutes  2 Oboes  2 C l a r i n e t s Bb  2 Bassoons  2 Horns in F  2 Trumpets in C  Vibraphone ) «J  •  "  o-  \  P< mf  m  Project the sound throughout  £~h_1  ~  - i (j  Harp<  =g>  Baritone Solo  Violoncello  Contrabass  r~f'  9*  _i 1  I , 1  [ |,J bJ *  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  A  187  -  no  .  seng  ko-u  - ga  wa  -  su -  re  e.  \  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  &  wa  -  su  -  re  -  e  -  yo  -  ka.  188  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  197  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  Hiroshima Lacrimosa  199  12. Dulce et Decorum Wilfred Owen (1893-1918) J = 70  Larry Nickel  2 Flutes 2 Oboes 2 Clarinets B> !  2 Horns in F 2 Trumpets in C 2 Trombones Tm i pani l  JL  Bass Drum II-  7  J>  (soft mallets)  Sus. Cymbal  Zf  Snare Drum Ca l ves  J—L  Chm i es  Choir  Violin I Violin II Viola  11*1 •  ft~t  IB  -ii-  Violoncello Contrabass ~-f  200  V  W"  <r  "»-  Dulce et Decorum  Cl.  Hn.  CTpt.  Tbn.  Timp.  Cym.  S. D.  mp Chim.  mf  mf  enunciate  Bent  Choir  Bent  Vln. II  Via.  Vc.  Cb.  mm  mm  o - ver d o u - b l e like o l d beg-gars  •  dou-ble  beg-gars  un-dersacks  sacks  Dulce et Decorum  Dulce et Decorum  Dulce et Decorum  Dulce et Decorum  Dulce et Decorum  CTpt.  Timp  B. D.  Cym.  Chim.  Choir  206  Dulce et Decorum  «—tyrr4  39  =  M  Ob.  ^  ;,'  -  •4,  »  JjjJ  Jgg>J  C L  r  A  | (  i  y—J—^—  harmon nn  yJ  ^  —  ^  r^Tn r T ^ ,  -JXLj—JXU-  I  I  r  "'f  *  s  C  r >-  |^  r  J  Tr  =  J ^ J  Bsn.  i  J  » J  2  3  T'n  P  =  ^  ^  =v  ^  = T^  >  Jb  t W ) A W c / .  > J"t  C Tpt.  >r  ?  =hr^ "  >  ^ ^ l "  T^Tj  Tbn.  Timp.  V  "  :  r  II  |^  ^J  | J.  II  Cym. „ II  1  -  X  ,i  J  , C  K  ff  J  j  -J K  j  ..i  j  J.  snare  J _  J_J iLk  -  Chim. ye  mj  |  "  "  =  —  J> J J>  J  .!  .1  .# ^ J"^rJ •  sticks  J_J  J  .1  i  J  r  r  J  j  J • J  ff— — u  c l u m  -s  y  h e l  ff c l u m  -  s  yh e l  -  j u s t >  m e t s  f  r  — I — = i n  t i m e  b u t  r*  11 r s o m e - o n e  i  -m e t s  Vln. I  Vln.  J  =  r""H——*  Choir  js  ff  II  207  r*  r w a s  !  y e l  -  F  l i n g o u t  i>  ?  r  r  a n d  hJ=i  r  r s t u m -  ^= b l i n g  Dulce et Decorum  c  Tpt.  Tbn. Timp  Cym  Chim  Choir  Vln. I Vln. II  208  Dulce et Decorum  Dulce et Decorum  Dulce et Decorum  212  Dulce et Decorum  213  Dulce et Decorum  Dulce et Decorum  215  13. Kindered van de Vrede Menno Sm i ons (1496-1561)  Larry Nickel  J. = 60  I Trio I  (this is a transliiteration) -  brightly  /  (* = b a c k o f t h ie . throat - with a guttural "h")  Soprano Alto Baritone Why  zine  duh  kin  -  d u - ren  fun  duh  Fray  -  duh  dee  hu - en  zwar  -  den.  tot  p l o e c h * - shar - en  J.-J •  rt  1  ^-^^^^^  speer-en  tot  k,  sick-les  1  ^  =j~j  *=>—. f' r "  i ^ r • ? is y  •  heb - ben h u h * - r naakl  en  ken - nen  train*  J M — * — *  or - loch  meer  »  ™  en  ken - nen  i>ain  J  -1J-^  J  1  UkLT r—or  -  loeh  meer  1  speer-en  tot  sick-les  heb - ben h u h * - maakt  :  •  en  .,lr)l»  m  ken - nen  Choir  Vln.  I  Vln. II  216  m  gain*  m  or - loch  meer  k—,  en  i  1  ken - nen  gain  or  -  loch  ,  „  meer_  Kinderen van de Vrede  Kinderen van de Vrede  218  Kinderen van de Vrede  Kinderen van de Vrede  Kinderen van de Vrede  Kinderen van de Vrede  Kinderen van de Vrede  Kinderen van de Vrede  225  14. Reconciliation Walt Whitman (1819-1892)  J  Larry Nickel  = 52  beau  -  ti - ful  as the  sky_  Beau-ti-ful that  war,  and all  its deeds of  car-  nage,  must in  J j K m  beau  beau  -  -  •ftr beau  ti - ful  as the  sky_  ti - ful  as the  sky_  Beau-ti-ful that  war,  war,  F r CJ -  ti - ful  as the  and all  war,  226  S I  J—m*  its deeds of  car-  nage,  must in  and all its deeds of  car-  nage,  must in  ~  sky-  a>  and all its deeds of  a  car-  »•  nage,  must in  Reconciliation  16  EE  m  sis  -  ters  in-ces-sant-ly soft - ly  -  ters, Death  and Night  Death  and Night  wash_  in - ces-sant - ly soft - ly  3  3N sis  in-ces-sant-ly soft-ly  >  wah..  Wash_  in - ces-sant - ly soft - ly  i>- F L r j g in-ces-sant-ly soft-ly  wash,.  and  e- ver  a-  3  Death  r  r  r-  and Night  wash_  F  227  a. -  gain_  and  e- ver a -  Reconciliation  B  20  , i  wash  a- again  and  ,• •  i — I I  I  e-ver a  gain_ this  soiled  , . . |  ^  J = 72 P  ,  m  world  For my  „  e - ne-my  is  3  gain  _  dead_  mp  J1 1  J. wash  i  and  a - gain  in - ces-sant - ly soft-ly  e-ver a  gain_ this  wash_  soiled  this  soiled  world  my  e - ne  world  1=  r  soft - ly  gain  wash  this  soiled  • world.  J = 72  ojy u j l  ji3  rr  -»T^ ^  enunciate c/earlv  25  }\ J- > a  man  3EE5 my.  is  dead.  for my e-ne- my  is  dead.  mp  for my e-ne- my  my e- ne  my e- ne  -my.  -my.  m  228  "hi 1 is  dead  man  - ah  7  1  a  di-vine as m y -  self  is  di-vine as my - self  is  ,,rn  u  -_  J' *  man  dead  a  17 «  *! p di-vine as my - self  P  is  pe  ^J.—^  a  in •  d  r—3  man  di-vine as my - self  r—3-  J-  J. ^  iJ J  r  p r r r  is  Reconciliation 31  PP  mp  pp  8 dead_  is  dead-  white- faced  -pp  EE  and  mp  ' r ^-  still  in  ~  pp  still  in  the  =E dead-  is  white- faced  dead-  PR  and  r-—3  ^t^h^bzzttJ.  s E E dead-  I  look where he  PP  dead-  •I  _  the  li J  lies_  3-  look where he  lies_  rubato  mp  57  mf  -3 —  I  cof- fin-  draw  CJ—r  near  and  mp  ~3  cof- fin_  I  = Z  1  draw  near  touch  light-ly  with my  lips  light-ly  with my  light-ly  with my  lips  light-ly  with my  mf  and  touch  mf  I draw  near  bend  r>,  mp  f  m  fe  r  E I  E E  draw  near...  •4  down  (1  draw  near)  bend  down  r  229  down_  bend  down_  i  J-  h  bend  r  U  J J  U  E S r—*—c_r  c_r  Reconciliation a tempo  42  D  mp  lips  the  white face  in  mp  w  the  cof-  espress.  fin_  Ooo..  mp  lips  the  white face  in  mp  the  cof-  fin_  Ooo..  =—OTp  mp  cof  -  fin_  Ooo..  -mp 5 cof  -  fin_  a tempo  J = 68  Word  mp —  o- ver all  Word  o-ver a l L  o-ver a l l  Word  o-ver all  beau  o-ver a l l  Word  o-ver a l l  beau  ^  Word  mp  Ooo...  -p  ,  beau  -  ti -  ful  as the  -  ti - ful  as the  -  ti - ful  as the  mf  =====  mp  Word  J = 68  230  Reconciliation poco rit.  53  Co  ?  ^-^J  t>  *  n ^ i — i — i — u l — J — £ — — = — J —  s  i  U uuJ—i  sky_  beau-ti -ful that war  and all it's deeds of  sky_  beau-ti -ful that war  and all it's deeds of  and all it's deeds of  car- nage  k  otf  war  Jwar  U,  ^<rfnr  :  _h g l s—2—  must in  time  be ut - ter - ly  car- nage  must in  time  be ut - ter - ly  car- nage  must in  time  be ut - ter - ly  3=  5  sky_  ::  J * * and all it's deeds of  car- nage  J. _h JE*  231  «L  f f ff r  15. Agnus Dei Larry Nickel  J = 64  2 Oboes Clarinet in B?irh—=— 2 Ba: Horn in F 2 Trumpets in C 2 Trombones Tm i pani  p-=.mf  Bass Drum '• I Cymbasl Chm i es Glock.  II 11  4  4  -  J  J-  -  mf  -  (lubiilar bells)  f  Soprano  Sci-o e-nm i quod Re demp tor me-us vi- vit  Cho  Violin I Violin II Viola  Contrabass 232  Agnus Dei  Agnus Dei  Agnus Dei  Agnus Dei  238  Agnus Dei  Agnus Dei  Agnus Dei  242  Agnus Dei  Agnus Dei  Agnus Dei  Agnus Dei  


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