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The development and promotion of sharing between siblings : effects of parent behavior Tiedemann, Georgia Louise, 1990

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THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROMOTION OF SHARING BETWEEN SIBLINGS: EFFECTS OF PARENT BEHAVIOR By GEORGIA LOUISE TIEDEMANN B . S c , The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1978 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Psychology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST 1990 © Georgia L o u i s e Tiedemann, 1990 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P s y r h n i n g y The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date August 28, 1990  DE-6 (2/88) i i A b s t r a c t Toy s h a r i n g and s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n are major co n t e x t s f o r young c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p i n g s o c i a l s k i l l s . T h i s study examined the e f f e c t s of p a r e n t i n g on s h a r i n g between s i b l i n g s , and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a 5 - s e s s i o n p a r e n t i n g programme i n promoting s h a r i n g . F o r t y - e i g h t mothers wi t h two p r e s c h o o l e r s p a r t i c i p a t e d . Each f a m i l y was assessed b e f o r e and a f t e r the p a r e n t i n g programme and at a 6-week fol l o w - u p . The mother completed measures of her p a r e n t i n g approach and r e p o r t e d on her c h i l d r e n ' s behavior. The c h i l d r e n were i n t e r v i e w e d to o b t a i n c o g n i t i v e measures. I n t e r a c t i o n s of the mother and two c h i l d r e n were observed i n a l a b o r a t o r y playroom. F a t h e r s and preschool teachers a l s o r e p o r t e d on the c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r . Two p a r t s of the study used data c o l l e c t e d at the f i r s t assessment. F i r s t , m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses showed s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between mother behaviors and those of the c h i l d r e n , and between the two c h i l d r e n . Second, the immediate e f f e c t s of p a r e n t i n g on c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g were ex p l o r e d by manip u l a t i n g the mother's a c t i v i t i e s . C h i l d r e n e x h i b i t e d more a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g when the mother was f r e e to i n t e r a c t w i t h them than when she was busy with paperwork. The t h i r d p a r t of the study examined the e f f e c t s of two formats of a p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g programme on s i b l i n g s h a r i n g . F a m i l i e s were randomly a s s i g n e d to one of three c o n d i t i o n s : i n d i v i d u a l programme, group programme, or w a i t i n g - l i s t c o n t r o l . The programme p r o v i d e d parents with i n f o r m a t i o n i i i about the development of s h a r i n g and s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s and taught b e h a v i o r a l p a r e n t i n g techniques to use i n promoting the development of c h i l d s h a r i n g s k i l l s . P o s i t i v e e f f e c t s of the s h a r i n g programme on s i b l i n g s ' s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior were c l e a r l y demonstrated. These e f f e c t s were seen to g e n e r a l i z e a c r o s s informants and a c r o s s b e h a v i o r s , but not across informants and b e h a v i o r s combined. Treatment e f f e c t s were maintained over a follow-up p e r i o d . Although mothers demonstrated i n c r e a s e d knowledge of the content covered by the programme and r a t e d i t h i g h l y , they d i d not demonstrate or report s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h e i r own p a r e n t i n g approach on the o r i g i n a l measures. Mixed r e s u l t s were obtained concerning the two treatment formats. For o b s e r v a t i o n s of c h i l d behavior, only the i n d i v i d u a l format showed s u p e r i o r i t y over the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n . The two formats d i d not d i f f e r i n treatment e f f e c t s found on most q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures. Mothers' r e p o r t s of decreased behavior problems among younger c h i l d r e n and a few t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s from c h i l d i n t e r v i e w measures suggested s u p e r i o r i t y of the group format. O v e r a l l , t h i s study demonstrated both s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior of c h i l d r e n , and c o r r e l a t i o n a l and causal r e l a t i o n s h i p s between mother behavior and s i b l i n g s h a r i n g . A p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n was demonstrated to have p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g behaviors, and these e f f e c t s g e n e r a l i z e d over s i t u a t i o n s , behaviors and time. i v T able of Contents Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables v i i i Acknowledgement i x I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Parent t r a i n i n g 1 E a r l y s o c i a l development and the f a m i l y 6 S o c i a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g 12 Sharing as a key s o c i a l behavior 15 R e l a t e d r e s e a r c h : p r o s o c i a l development 17 R e l a t e d r e s e a r c h : moral development 29 Normative s t u d i e s of s h a r i n g 37 Development of s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s 41 Sharing i n t e r v e n t i o n s 48 Adapting s h a r i n g t r a i n i n g to the home 67 Sharing survey 71 Study and hypotheses 7 2 S h a r i n g programme outcome hypotheses 7 6 Method 79 S u b j e c t s 79 Design 84 Sharing programme 86 Parent s k i l l s 88 C h i l d s k i l l s 91 I n s t r u c t o r 94 Assessment procedures 94 V Measures 97 Screening 97 Demographic Data Form 97 V i n e l a n d Adaptive Behavior S c a l e s 98 C h i l d Behavior C h e c k l i s t 99 Maternal v a r i a b l e s 100 Treatment E v a l u a t i o n Inventory 101 S e l f - r e p o r t of S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n s 101 S o c i a l Avoidance and D i s t r e s s S c a l e 101 Observer r a t i n g s of s o c i a l s k i l l 102 Co-parenting Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 103 Treatment f i d e l i t y 103 Outcome measures 104 Overview 104 O b s e r v a t i o n a l coding system 106 Sharing Knowledge Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 109 P a r e n t i n g S t r a t e g i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 109 P a r e n t i n g Sense of Competence S c a l e 110 Sharing and S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 110 S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n Record 112 V i n e l a n d S o c i a l i z a t i o n S c a l e 112 C h i l d Behavior C h e c k l i s t 113 I n t e r v i e w i n g c h i l d r e n 113 Sharing Knowledge Interview 114 S i b l i n g R e l a t i o n s Interview 114 P r o s o c i a l Moral Judgement Interview 116 Consumer s a t i s f a c t i o n 117 v i C l i e n t S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 118 Parent's Consumer S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 118 C h i l d r e n ' s Consumer S a t i s f a c t i o n Interview 119 Summary of measures used 119 R e s u l t s 121 P r e l i m i n a r y analyses of o b s e r v a t i o n a l data 121 C o r r e l a t i o n a l study of i n t r a - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s 122 S e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s experiment 137 Sharing programme outcome * 142 Maternal v a r i a b l e s 142 General approach 143 Treatment f i d e l i t y 145 Ob s e r v a t i o n a l data 146 Maternal s e l f - r e p o r t 150 A d u l t r e p o r t of s h a r i n g and s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n 151 C h i l d i n t e r v i e w measures 162 Consumer s a t i s f a c t i o n 163 D i s c u s s i o n 165 C o r r e l a t i o n a l study of i n t r a - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior 165 S e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s experiment 169 Sharing programme outcome 172 Treatment f i d e l i t y 172 Ob s e r v a t i o n a l data 172 Maternal s e l f - r e p o r t 176 Ad u l t r e p o r t of s h a r i n g and s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n 178 v i i C h i l d i n t e r v i e w measures 181 Consumer s a t i s f a c t i o n 183 References 190 Appendices 230 Appendix A: Sharing Programme Overview 230 Appendix B: Demographic Data Form 231 Appendix C: S e l f - r e p o r t of S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n s 232 Appendix D: Observer Ratings of S o c i a l S k i l l 233 Appendix E: Treatment F i d e l i t y R a t i n g S c a l e 235 Appendix F: Sharing Knowledge Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 236 Appendix G: P a r e n t i n g S t r a t e g i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 241 Appendix H: Sharing and S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 245 Appendix I: S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n Record 250 Appendix J : C h i l d Interview Guide 251 Appendix K: Parent's Consumer S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 256 V l l l L i s t of Tables Table Page I Pre-treatment Sample D e s c r i p t i o n V a r i a b l e s 83 II S t r u c t u r e C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Canonical C o r r e l a t i o n s of Younger C h i l d w i t h Older C h i l d 126 II I S t r u c t u r e C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Canonical C o r r e l a t i o n s of Mother with Older C h i l d 130 IV S t r u c t u r e C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r Canonical C o r r e l a t i o n s of Mother with Younger C h i l d 135 V Means f o r S e t t i n g C o n d i t i o n s Experiment 139 VI A d j u s t e d Means of C h i l d r e n ' s Share P o s i t i v e Behavior 147 VII A d j u s t e d Means of Sharing and S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 152 VIII A d j u s t e d Means of M o d i f i e d Sharing and S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 155 IX A d j u s t e d Means of V i n e l a n d S o c i a l i z a t i o n S c a l e : T o t a l Score f o r Mother Report 158 X A d j u s t e d Means of C h i l d Behavior C h e c k l i s t T o t a l Behavior Problem Score 160 i x Acknowledgement T h i s p r o j e c t was made p o s s i b l e through the e f f o r t and t a l e n t of many people. I am g r a t e f u l f o r the u n f a i l i n g l y c h e e r f u l support and guidance of my a d v i s o r , C h a r l o t t e Johnston, and f o r the c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by my committee members, Lynn Alden and L a r r y Walker, and by my former a d v i s o r , Robert McMahon. For deeds above and beyond the c a l l of a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t ' s duty, I thank Kim Behrenz, Renee Patenaude, Sonia P i e t z s c h , T e r r y Ann Sander and Rosemary Toye. I a l s o thank my f e l l o w students, f r i e n d s and f a m i l y who s u s t a i n e d me with humour and encouragement throughout my s t u d i e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , Gerry and N i c h o l a s P r e f o n t a i n e have p a t i e n t l y endured my preo c c u p a t i o n with t h i s p r o j e c t f o r somewhat more than "about a year", and I am deeply indebted to them both. 1 P r o s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s are e s s e n t i a l f o r the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y u n i t to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y , and a l s o f o r the l a r g e r community, "which reaps from such behaviors s t a b i l i t y and communion r a t h e r than d i s r u p t i o n or v i o l e n c e " (Smith, 1983, p. 261). In the past two decades, a tremendous amount of r e s e a r c h has been conducted i n t o the development of p r o s o c i a l behavior i n c h i l d r e n , and e f f e c t i v e means of promoting t h i s development (Perry & Bussey, 1984; Radke-Yarrow, Zahn-Waxler, & Chapman, 1983; Staub, 1979). The development and promotion of th6 p r o s o c i a l behavior of s h a r i n g between young s i b l i n g s i s the focus of the present study. Information r e l e v a n t to s h a r i n g development and the p o t e n t i a l impact of a p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g programme on s i b l i n g s h a r i n g i s a v a i l a b l e from s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t bodies of l i t e r a t u r e . Research concerning the development and enhancement of s h a r i n g s k i l l s i s examined below, drawing on such areas as parent t r a i n i n g , s o c i a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g , and s o c i a l and moral development, as well as the l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g s k i l l s . P^x.eaL.Jrxalrilrig Behavioral parent t r a i n i n g programmes have proven to be u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g parents deal with a v a r i e t y of c h i l d -r e a r i n g problems. (For reviews of the l i t e r a t u r e , see Dangel & P o l s t e r , 1984a; Morel and, Schwebel, Beck, & W e l l s , 1982; O ' D e l l , 1985). Parent t r a i n i n g has p r i m a r i l y been focussed on reducing i n a p p r o p r i a t e c h i l d behaviors (e.g., noncompliance, aggression) that are noxious or d i s t r e s s i n g 2 to p a r ents (Emery, B i n k o f f , Houts, & C a r r , 1983; L u t z k e r , McGimsey, McRae, & Campbell, 1983; Sapon-Shevin, 1982). Aside from e f f o r t s to h e l p parents teach a d a p t i v e behaviors to handicapped c h i l d r e n (e.g., A r n o l d , S t u r g i s , & Forehand, 1977; Koegel, Glahn, & Nieminen, 1978), r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n to e m p i r i c a l work on the p a r e n t s ' s k i l l i n teaching and promoting s p e c i f i c a d a p t i v e , p o s i t i v e b ehaviors such as a s s e r t i v e n e s s , problem-solving and c o o p e r a t i v e play ( S u l z e r - A z a r o f f & P o l l a c k , 1982; Webster-S t r a t t o n , 1985b; Yule, 1976). The use of parent t r a i n i n g procedures to promote c h i l d r e n ' s s k i l l s i s congruent with Jason and Bogat's (1983) model of b e h a v i o r a l p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s . T h i s model p o s i t s f o u r areas of primary p r e v e n t i o n where b e h a v i o r a l technology may prove u s e f u l ; one of these areas i s the development of mental health-promoting, adaptive competencies i n a f f e c t i v e (e.g., emotional r e c o g n i t i o n ) , c o g n i t i v e (e.g., p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g ) , and b e h a v i o r a l (e.g., i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l ) m o d a l i t i e s . A recent APA task f o r c e on p r e v e n t i o n i d e n t i f i e d the t e a c h i n g of s o c i a l s k i l l s and the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the f a m i l y as elements c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the most s u c c e s s f u l p r e v e n t i o n e f f o r t s ( P r i c e , Cowen, L o r i o n , & Ramos-McKay, 1989). Although e m p i r i c a l work i n the area i s r e l a t i v e l y sparse, the need f o r p r e v e n t i v e , b e h a v i o r a l l y - b a s e d p a r e n t i n g guidance f o r normal and a t - r i s k f a m i l i e s has long been recognized (e.g., Guerney, 1969; R i s l e y , C l a r k , & 3 Ca t a l d o , 1976; Yule, 1976). I n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l pressures (e.g., r i s i n g d i v o r c e r a t e s , i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the work f o r c e , frequent moves) and lack of t r a d i t i o n a l support systems (e.g., extended f a m i l y , long-term f r i e n d s and neighbors) have tended to leave i n e x p e r i e n c e d parents f e e l i n g i s o l a t e d and unable to deal e f f e c t i v e l y with common c h i l d r e a r i n g problems ( C h r i s t o p h e r s e n , 1989; Matese, Shorr, & Jason, 1982; Schroeder, Gordon, & McConnell, 1987; Z i g l e r & Black, 1989). E p i d e m i o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s have found between 3 and 20% of c h i l d r e n i n the general p o p u l a t i o n to be i n need of p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r emotional or b e h a v i o r a l problems, and an estimated 10% of preschool-aged c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h Columbia are i d e n t i f i e d as having " s p e c i a l needs"; c l e a r l y , the t r a d i t i o n a l one-to-one p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y mode i s inadequate t o deal with a l l these c h i l d r e n (Dyson & Dyson, 1981; Finney & Edwards, 1989; Kirschenbaum, 1983; O l l e n d i c k & Winett, 1985; P e t e r s , 1988). I n t e r v e n t i o n s aimed at pr e v e n t i n g minor c h i l d h o o d problems from becoming major ones can be much more c o s t - e f f e c t i v e than treatment f o r r e f e r r e d d i s o r d e r s (Guerney, 1979; O l l e n d i c k & Winett, 1985; O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of Community & S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , 1989; P r i c e et a l . , 1989). Parent t r a i n i n g programmes o f f e r e d to "normal" and " a t - r i s k " f a m i l i e s may thus serve parents' needs f o r support and guidance as well as b u i l d i n g s p e c i f i c parent and c h i l d competencies which can promote healthy f u n c t i o n i n g and prevent the development of more s e r i o u s 4 problems ( C h r i s t o p h e r s e n , 1989; Forehand, Walley, & Furey, 1984; Gray & Wandersman, 1980; Kirschenbaum, 1983; O ' D e l l , 1985; O l l e n d i c k S Cerny, 1981; O n t a r i o M i n i s t r y of Community & S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , 1989). Although some pro g r e s s has been made, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the areas of s e l f - h e l p p a r e n t i n g books (McMahon 6> Forehand, 1980; Schroeder et a l . , 1987) and programmes designed to prevent c h i l d abuse (Rosenberg & Reppucci, 1985; Wolfe, 1984), p r e v e n t i o n - o r i e n t e d parent t r a i n i n g r e s e a r c h has lagged f a r behind r e s e a r c h i n t o programmes designed f o r r e f e r r e d f a m i l i e s ( C h r i s t o p h e r s e n , B a r r i s h , B a r r i s h , & C h r i s t o p h e r s e n , 1984; S u l z e r - A z a r o f f & P o l l a c k , 1982; Yule, 1976). For example, the most e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t techniques f o r teaching parents new p a r e n t i n g concepts and behaviors have been e x t e n s i v e l y explored w i t h c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d f a m i l i e s , but seldom with n o n - r e f e r r e d f a m i l i e s (Forehand et a l . , 1984; O ' D e l l , 1985; O l l e n d i c k & Cerny, 1981). W i t h i n the b e h a v i o r a l parent t r a i n i n g programmes t h a t e x i s t , the e t h i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of an overemphasis on a d u l t goals and the c o n t r o l of c h i l d r e n ' s u n d e s i r a b l e behaviors have not gone unrecognized (e.g., Gelfand & Hartman, 1984; Sapon-Shevin, 1982; Winett & Winkler, 1972). There i s some agreement that one of the major tasks of p a r e n t i n g should be a gradual t r a n s f e r of the locus of b e h a v i o r a l c o n t r o l from the parent to the c h i l d by t e a c h i n g adaptive s k i l l s , r a t h e r than continued a d u l t c o n t r o l over c h i l d behavior (Campbell, 1990; Copeland, 1982; Clewett, 1988; H a r t e r , 1982; Hartup, 5 1989). P a r t i a l l y i n response to these e t h i c a l i s s u e s , most parent t r a i n i n g programmes designed to reduce a v e r s i v e c h i l d behaviors a l s o teach parents general s t r a t e g i e s to i n c r e a s e d e s i r a b l e , a l t e r n a t i v e behaviors and to enhance p o s i t i v e p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s (e.g., Forehand & McMahon, 1981; P a t t e r s o n , Reid, Jones, & Conger, 1975). However, s e v e r a l authors have agreed that more e f f o r t i s needed i n d e v e l o p i n g c h i l d - c e n t r e d , s p e c i f i c s k i l l -t e a c h i n g approaches to parent t r a i n i n g (e.g., Dangel & P o l s t e r , 1984b; Emery et a l . , 1983; O l l e n d i c k & Winett, 1985; Shure, 1983). Such approaches would be more congruent with the view that treatment goals and procedures are e t h i c a l l y d e f e n s i b l e to the extent that they i n c r e a s e l i f e o p tions or " b e h a v i o r a l freedom" f o r those i n v o l v e d (Thoresen & Mahoney, 1974). As w e l l , R i s l e y et a l . (1976) have suggested that parents may p r e f e r more p o s i t i v e l y o r i e n t e d approaches: "We need to guard against d e v e l o p i n g advice which p r o v i d e s parents with q u i e t , d o c i l e k i d s , when what parents are l o o k i n g f o r are ways i n which the l i m i t e d time the f a m i l y has together can be more ple a s a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l members of the f a m i l y " (p. 52). Enhancing c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l competencies and other adaptive behaviors may be an e f f e c t i v e way to i n c r e a s e p o s i t i v e f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s (Webster-Stratton, 1985b; Wolfe, 1984). Thus, the emphasis would s h i f t from reducing g e n e r a l , negative i n t e r a c t i o n s to teaching s p e c i f i c , p o s i t i v e behaviors. In doing so, both e t h i c a l and p r e v e n t i o n i s s u e s would be addressed. 6 .Early social development an.&. the Lajmily The importance of s o c i a l development i n the preschool years should not be underestimated; not onl y i s i t h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a d u l t responses to the c h i l d , peer s o c i a l acceptance and o v e r a l l adjustment i n c h i l d h o o d , but e a r l y s o c i a l competence i s a c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n p r e d i c t i n g adjustment i n adulthood as well (Asher, 1983; Emery et a l . , 1983; Hops, F i n c h , & McConnell, 1985; Loeber, 1990; Michelson, Sugai, Wood, & Kazdin, 1983; P a t t e r s o n , 1990; Peters , 1988; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983; Rubin, 1983). Indeed, one recent review concluded that c h i l d h o o d " d i s t u r b a n c e s i n peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s have been shown to be one of the best p r e d i c t o r s of p s y c h i a t r i c , s o c i a l and other adjustment d i f f i c u l t i e s l a t e r i n l i f e " (Hops et a l . , 1985, p. 544). Conversely, c h i l d h o o d competence i n s o c i a l s k i l l s i s seen as a major p r o t e c t i v e f a c t o r i n the p r e v e n t i o n of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t u r b a n c e s and a s u b s t a n t i a l body of evidence suggests that the e a r l i e r i n c h i l d h o o d p r e v e n t i v e s o c i a l s k i l l s i n t e r v e n t i o n s are in t r o d u c e d , the g r e a t e r t h e i r chance of having a p o s i t i v e impact (Loeber, 1990; Pat t e r s o n , DeBaryshe, & Ramsey, 1989; Str a y h o r n & S t r a i n , 1986). Par e n t i n g would seem to be a l o g i c a l p l a c e t o begin b u i l d i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l s k i l l s , as the e a r l i e s t s o c i a l development i s shaped p r i m a r i l y i n and around the home ( H a l l , Lamb, & Perlm u t t e r , 1982; Staub, 1979). P a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s have been demonstrated on numerous components of 7 e a r l y s o c i a l development ( F i e l d , 1981; Loeber, 1990; Pa t t e r s o n , 1990; Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler, 1986; Staub, 1979), and measures of c h i l d r e n ' s general s o c i a l competence and a d a p t i v e behavior are r e l i a b l y r e l a t e d to p a r e n t i n g a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s (e.g., Baumrind, 1967; Hops et a l . , 1985; P e t t i t & Bates, 1989; Roberts, 1985; Turner & H a r r i s , 1984). Research has demonstrated p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s on such s p e c i f i c components of s o c i a l competence as s o c i a l r u l e knowlege (Johnson & M c G i l l i c u d d y - D e l i s i , 1983), problem-s o l v i n g s k i l l s (Kendall & F i s c h l e r , 1984) and a t t i t u d e s (Arap-Maritim, 1984); moral reasoning and behavior ( S a l t z s t e i n , 1976), and a l t r u i s t i c behaviors (Eisenberg-Berg & Mussen, 1977; Perry & Bussey, 1984; Peterson, Reaven, & Homer, 1984; Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler, 1986; Zahn-Waxler, Radke-Yarrow, & King, 1979). S p e c i f i c p a r e n t i n g behaviors have been l i n k e d (both c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l l y and l o n g i t u d i n a l l y ) not only to c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s with s i b l i n g s (Bryant & Crockenberg, 1980; Dunn 1983; Dunn & Kendrick, 1982b; Kendrick & Dunn, 1983), but a l s o to i n t e r a c t i o n s with u n r e l a t e d peers o u t s i d e the home (Hart, Ladd, & Burleson, 1990; Hops et a l . , 1985; MacDonald & Parke, 1984; M u l l i s , Smith, & Vol l m e r s , 1983). C h i l d r e n who engage i n more p o s i t i v e , s o c i a l l y - s k i l l e d i n t e r a c t i o n s tend to have parents who model warm, resp o n s i v e , p r o s o c i a l behavior (Bryant & Crockenberg, 1980; Hops et al.., 1985; Perry & Bussey, 1984; Staub, 1979; Zahn-Waxler et a l . , 1979), encourage p r o s o c i a l behavior and independent problem-solving i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n 8 ( C o r t e r , Abramovitch, & P e p l e r , 1983; C o r t e r , P e p l e r , & Abramovitch, 1982; Herman & Shantz, 1983; Melcher et a l . , 1988) and set and enforce c o n s i s t e n t l i m i t s f o r a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l behavior (Johnson & M c G i l l i c u d d y - D e l i s i , 1983; M u l l i s et a l . , 1983; Perry & Bussey, 1984, Staub, 1979; Zahn-Waxler et a l . , 1979). D e s p i t e the wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n which has been gathered to date concerning the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r e n t i n g and c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l development, t h e r e i s much r e s e a r c h to be done. Reviewers i n the area have noted that the f i e l d abounds wi t h c o r r e l a t i o n a l data l i n k i n g s e l f -r e p o r t s of p a r e n t i n g s t y l e to g l o b a l c a t e g o r i e s of c h i l d behavior (e.g., Grusec, 1982a; Maccoby, 1984; P a t t e r s o n , 1982; Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler, 1986). There i s a d e a r t h of s t u d i e s u s i n g o b s e r v a t i o n a l data, multimethod assessments, experimental c o n t r o l and m u l t i v a r i a t e approaches to explore the impact of p a t t e r n s of s p e c i f i c p a r e n t i n g behaviors on p a t t e r n s of c h i l d r e n ' s development of s p e c i f i c p r o s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s . Parents are not the only ones who i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l development; s i b l i n g s can play a major r o l e as w e l l . As s i b l i n g s o f t e n p r o v i d e the e a r l i e s t and most e x t e n s i v e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r peer i n t e r a c t i o n , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that s e v e r a l reviewers have concluded that s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n i s a major f a c t o r i n determining s o c i a l competence and shaping and m a i n t a i n i n g a v a r i e t y of a p p r o p r i a t e and u n d e s i r a b l e c h i l d behaviors ( C i c i r e l l i , 9 1976; Dunn, 1983; Hartup, 1976; Lamb & Sutton-Smith, 1982; Maccoby, 1984; P a t t e r s o n , 1986; Tsukada, 1979). Young c h i l d r e n have even served as e f f e c t i v e behavior m o d i f i e r s i n t r e a t i n g t h e i r s i b l i n g s (Cash & Evans, 1975; C o l l e t t i & H a r r i s , 1977; Lavigueur, 1976; M i l l e r & Cantwell, 1976; M i l l e r & M i l l e r , 1976; Schreibman, O ' N e i l l , & Koegel, 1983). Despite such documented s i b l i n g i n f l u e n c e s , only a handful of s t u d i e s have t a r g e t e d s i b l i n g c o n f l i c t or c o o p e r a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n f o r parent-implemented treatment i n c l i n i c -r e f e r r e d ( A l l i s o n & A l l i s o n , 1.971; Lavigeur, 1976; O'Leary, O'Leary, & Becker, 1967; Olson & Roberts, 1987) or normal f a m i l i e s ( L e i t e n b u r g , Burchard, Burchard, F u l l e r , & Lysaght, 1977). These s t u d i e s report encouraging r e s u l t s , both i n t r a i n i n g the parents and improving s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s ; again, however, the focus has mostly been on reducing general behaviors which are u n d e s i r a b l e to the parents, r a t h e r than t e a c h i n g s p e c i f i c p o s i t i v e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s k i l l s . R e c i p r o c a l i n f l u e n c e s extend beyond the s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p : there i s a growing body of l i t e r a t u r e concerning the r e c i p r o c a l nature of f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n , and the e f f e c t s that c h i l d r e n have on parents (e.g., B e l l & Harper, 1977; Emery et a l . , 1983; Maccoby & M a r t i n , 1983; P a t t e r s o n , 1982; Sameroff & S e i f e r , 1983). The a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of parents' i n t e r a c t i o n s with t h e i r c h i l d r e n may be a f f e c t e d d i r e c t l y by the c o n t i n g e n c i e s presented by the c h i l d d u r i n g s o c i a l exchanges (e.g., B e l l & Harper, 1977; P a t t e r s o n , 1982), or i n d i r e c t l y 10 by the cumulative e f f e c t s of c h i l d behavior on the parent's p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e (e.g., s t r e s s , d e p r e s s i o n , s e l f - e s t e e m ; Emery et a l . , 1983; P a t t e r s o n , 1982). For example, s i b l i n g c o n f l i c t has been shown to c o r r e l a t e w i t h r e p o r t s of c h i l d -r e l a t e d s t r e s s among mothers of h y p e r a c t i v e c h i l d r e n (Mash & Johnston, 1983). Par e n t a l s t r e s s or p s y c h o l o g i c a l maladjustment, i n turn, c o r r e l a t e s with i n a p p r o p r i a t e p e r c e p t i o n s and methods of d e a l i n g w i t h c h i l d behavior ( G r e i s t , Forehand, Wells, & McMahon, 1980; P a t t e r s o n , 1982; Ri c k a r d , Forehand, Wells, G r e i s t , & McMahon, 1981). Thus, the d i r e c t i o n of s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e i n a f a m i l y may not only be from parent to c h i l d , but from c h i l d to c h i l d and c h i l d to parent as w e l l . Improvements i n s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s would be expected t o exert an impact on the e n t i r e f a m i l y system. For example, Goldberg (1977) suggested that " f e e l i n g s of e f f i c a c y " are key mediators of the development of s o c i a l competence f o r parents and c h i l d r e n . The extent t o which each f a m i l y member p e r c e i v e s h i s or her a c t i o n s as e f f e c t i v e i n d e a l i n g with other f a m i l y members i s seen as both r e s u l t i n g from and f u r t h e r promoting competent s o c i a l behavior and p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A parent who was e f f e c t i n g some improvement i n s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s c o u l d thus be expected to a l s o be improving h i s or her sense of competence as a parent, the c h i l d r e n ' s f e e l i n g s of e f f i c a c y i n d e a l i n g w i t h each other, and the tone of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n g e n e r a l . I n t e r p e r s o n a l "feedback loop" mechanisms such as t h i s are o f t e n c i t e d i n support of e a r l y 11 i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r p a r e n t i n g and c h i l d d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n order to prevent d e v i a t i o n - a m p l i f y i n g feedback loops from g a i n i n g hold i n a f a m i l y at the expense of more p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n a l p a t t e r n s (Strayhorn S> S t r a i n , 1986). Although parent t r a i n i n g has been recommended as a u s e f u l way to promote c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l s k i l l development (C a r t l e d g e 6, M i l b u r n , 1980; Finney & Edwards, 1989; Michelson & Wood, 1980; Onta r i o M i n i s t r y of Community & S o c i a l S e r v i c e s , 1989; Wolfe, 1984), s o c i a l s k i l l s i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n have been administered almost e x c l u s i v e l y by teachers, c l i n i c i a n s , and rese a r c h e r s (Michelson & Wood, 1980; S u l z e r - A z a r o f f & P o l l a c k , 1982). However, three recent attempts to t r a i n parents to d e l i v e r Spivack, P i a t t , and Shure's (1976) s o c i a l problem s o l v i n g programme i l l u s t r a t e the p o t e n t i a l of t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n . M i r e a u l t and Royer (1983) present an anecdotal r e p o r t of a group approach with 10 r u r a l mothers of n o n - r e f e r r e d p r e s c h o o l e r s . They found no d i f f i c u l t i e s i n adapting the problem-solving c u r r i c u l u m to the p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g context, and note t h a t both they and the mothers observed p o s i t i v e changes i n the c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l development over the 8-week i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d . Shure (1983) r e p o r t e d a c o n t r o l l e d study i n v o l v i n g 40 black i n n e r - c i t y mothers of 4-year-olds, a l s o w i t h i n a group t r a i n i n g context. F o l l o w i n g the 3-month programme, t r a i n e d c h i l d r e n , compared to c o n t r o l s , had improved on both b e h a v i o r a l and c o g n i t i v e s o c i a l problem-s o l v i n g measures. T r a i n e d mothers were a l s o more l i k e l y to 12 use p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g d i a l o g u e s to help t h e i r c h i l d r e n r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s . A very b r i e f i n t e r v e n t i o n ( f o u r s e s s i o n s over an average 8-day pe r i o d ) was used by Olson and Roberts (1987) to t r e a t young s i b l i n g s r e f e r r e d f o r a g g r e s s i o n . C h i l d r e n were taught to i d e n t i f y and rehearse s o c i a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e a l t e r n a t i v e s to a g g r e s s i o n i n a c l i n i c s i t u a t i o n , and t h e i r mothers were i n s t r u c t e d to stop f i g h t s and d i s c u s s a l t e r n a t i v e behaviors at home between s e s s i o n s . Although a simple time-out procedure proved more e f f e c t i v e over t h i s short time p e r i o d , some p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s of the s o c i a l s k i l l s approach were found, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f a m i l i e s of higher socio-economic s t a t u s . The powerful e f f e c t s parents and s i b l i n g s have on c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l development, and the need f o r p r e v e n t i v e , s k i l 1 - o r i e n t e d parent t r a i n i n g programmes, h i g h l i g h t the p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y of parent t r a i n i n g programmes to encourage s o c i a l development i n the context of s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s k i l I s . JS-QC j a i _ j s j a \ l s..,Tjcalru,D3 The development of home-based programmes to promote s o c i a l competence and adaptive s k i l l s can be guided by r e s e a r c h i n t o s i m i l a r programmes i n out-of-home s e t t i n g s (e.g., daycares, s c h o o l s , c l i n i c s ) . These s o c i a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g programmes, although used p r i m a r i l y to t r e a t c h i l d r e n w i t h e x i s t i n g problems (Hops et a l . , 1985), have a l s o been used s u c c e s s f u l l y as p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s with normal or a t - r i s k c h i l d r e n ( F a c t o r & S c h i l m o e l l e r , 1983; 13 F i n k e l s t e i n , 1982; Jones & O f f o r d , 1989; O l l e n d i c k & Winett, 1985; Osberg, 1982; R i d l e y & Vaughn, 1982; Shure & Spivack, 1979; Vaughn & R i d l e y , 1983). A wide v a r i e t y of s o c i a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g programmes --s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l , and f o r va r i o u s t a r g e t behaviors --are a v a i l a b l e ( f o r reviews, see Ca r t l e g e & M i l b u r n , 1980; Durlak, 1985; Gresham, 1985; Hops et a l . , 1985; Meichenbaum, Bream, & Cohen, 1984; M i c h e l s o n & Wood, 1980; Odom & S t r a i n , 1984; S u l z e r - A z a r o f f & P o l l a c k , 1982). R e s u l t s of these programmes, although mixed, have g e n e r a l l y been encouraging. Some f a c t o r s have emerged which may d i s t i n g u i s h the more s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r v e n t i o n s . S p e c i f i c programmes tend to have b e t t e r outcomes than more ambitious, g l o b a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s (Gray & Wandersman, 1980; O l l e n d i c k & Winett, 1985; R i s l e y et a l . , 1976). P r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n and i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s e l e c t i o n of deve l o p m e n t a l l y - a p p r o p r i a t e t a r g e t behaviors are f r e q u e n t l y noted as key i n g r e d i e n t s of s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l s k i l l s programmes ( C a r t l e d g e & Milburn, 1980; Gresham & Lemanek, 1983; Hops et a l . , 1985; Michelson & Wood, 1980; O l l e n d i c k & Winett, 1985; Sapon-Shevin, 1980; S u l z e r - A z a r o f f & P o l l a c k , 1982). In a d d i t i o n to being more e f f e c t i v e compared to more general i n t e r v e n t i o n s , programmes of modest scope focussed on key s o c i a l behaviors may be more acc e p t a b l e from the parents' p o i n t of view (Baer, 1984; Gray & Wandersman, 1980; R i s l e y et a l . , 1976). They may a l s o be more congruent with evidence from the developmental l i t e r a t u r e that young c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l behaviors (e.g., 14 h e l p i n g , donating, s h a r i n g ) have d i f f e r e n t determinants and are not s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d , and thus need to be addressed i n d i v i d u a l l y (e.g., Bryant & Crockenberg, 1980; E i s e n b e r g , Cameron, & Tryon, 1984; Hibbard, Barton, Dorcey, & K l a m f l o t h , 1980). The g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and maintenance of b e h a v i o r a l changes e f f e c t e d by c h i l d s o c i a l s k i l l s programmes have f r e q u e n t l y been mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e as being i n need of improvement (e.g., C a r t l e d g e & M i l b u r n , 1980; Dumas, 1989; Hops et a l . , 1985). As t h i s weakness i s o f t e n blamed on the s h o r t d u r a t i o n , r i g i d i t y and a r t i f i c i a l context of the i n t e r v e n t i o n s , s e v e r a l authors have suggested t r a i n i n g parents to d e l i v e r s o c i a l s k i l l s programmes to young c h i l d r e n i n the home as a promising means of overcoming these problems (e.g., Durlak, 1985; Michelson & Wood, 1980; O l l e n d i c k & Winett, 1985; S u l z e r - A z a r o f f & P o l l a c k , 1982). C l e a r l y , m o d i f i c a t i o n s to e x i s t i n g programmes would have to be made, t a k i n g i n t o account the d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s behavior at home (e.g., A l s t o n , 1982) and v a r i a t i o n s i n p a r e n t a l s k i l l s and values (e.g., Grusec, Dix, & M i l l s , 1982; Quirk, Sexton, C i o t t o n e , Minami, & Wapner, 1984). However, the powerful i n f l u e n c e s of p a r e n t s and s i b l i n g s on s o c i a l development, the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of many s o c i a l s k i l l s programmes, and the need f o r more n a t u r a l i s t i c , l o n g - l a s t i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s suggest that the development of p a r e n t - a d m i n i s t e r e d s o c i a l s k i l l s programmes f o r young c h i l d r e n i s a promising avenue of e x p l o r a t i o n . 15 shar ing aS-__a_jjex-,5Q-c_ia 1 Behavior; Given the success of programmes t a r g e t e d at key s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s , and the p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y of home-based, parent-l e d i n t e r v e n t i o n s , s h a r i n g i n the context of s i b l i n g p l a y has been s e l e c t e d as the focus of the present study. Researchers i n the area have d e f i n e d s h a r i n g as " o c c u r r i n g i n s i t u a t i o n s where: a) an i n d i v i d u a l allows another to use t e m p o r a r i l y a t a n g i b l e o b j e c t which the former possesses ... or b) i n d i v i d u a l s simultaneously use a m a t e r i a l together, even though i t could be used a l o n e " (Barton, 1982, p. 5). In much of the resea r c h on p r o s o c i a l behavior, however, s h a r i n g i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y examined, and data which combine s h a r i n g w i t h other p r o s o c i a l behaviors such as donating or h e l p i n g are r e p o r t e d . Although such broad-band i n f o r m a t i o n may o f f e r l i t t l e s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g s h a r i n g i t s e l f , i t can be u s e f u l as an i n d i c a t o r of p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e s on s h a r i n g b e h a v i o r , and i s noted where s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on s h a r i n g i s u n a v a i l a b l e . As we s h a l l see, s h a r i n g has been found to be a key s o c i a l s k i l l i n the development of the young c h i l d , and i s the o b j e c t of some concern among par e n t s . B e h a v i o r a l l y - b a s e d programmes to encourage s h a r i n g have been implemented s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the preschool context, and may lend themselves w e l l to a home-based, parent-administered v e r s i o n . F i n a l l y , there i s evidence that parents p e r c e i v e a need f o r such a programme, and f i n d i t s procedures a c c e p t a b l e and l i k e l y to prove e f f e c t i v e . 16 Among young c h i l d r e n , s h a r i n g has r e p e a t e d l y been found to be a c r u c i a l s k i l l i n determining s o c i a l competence and acceptance. In a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g the determinants of s o c i a l acceptance among preschool-aged c h i l d r e n , Day, Fox, Shores, Lindeman, and Stowitschek (1983) found s h a r i n g t o be one of the few behaviors which r e l i a b l y e l i c i t e d p o s i t i v e responses from peers, and d i s t i n g u i s h e d c h i l d r e n whose involvement i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s frequent versus i n f r e q u e n t . S t r a i n (1985) has a l s o i d e n t i f i e d s h a r i n g as p r e d i c t i v e of higher s o c i a l s t a t u s among p r e s c h o o l e r s . Damon (1977), Shannon and Kafer (1984) and Youniss (1980) r e p o r t e d t h a t , by the age of 5 or 6, c h i l d r e n expect s h a r i n g to be a component of any f r i e n d s h i p . K i n d e r g a r t e n teachers a l s o expect c h i l d r e n to be abl e t o share, and t h i s behavior has been l i n k e d to academic as w e l l as s o c i a l success i n the k i n d e r g a r t e n context (McCormick & Kawate, 1982). Among s l i g h t l y o l d e r (primary school-aged) c h i l d r e n , s h a r i n g and c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y are major behaviors a s s o c i a t e d with p o s i t i v e peer s o c i o m e t r i c rankings (Dodge, 1983), and poor peer c o o p e r a t i o n i s ra t e d as one of the most d i s t u r b i n g , d i s l i k e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c h i l d can d i s p l a y ( S a f r a n & Safran, 1985). Most broad-band s o c i a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g programmes f o r pr e s c h o o l e r s emphasize p l a y entry and c o o p e r a t i o n s k i l l s , and many programmes i n c l u d e a u n i t on s h a r i n g (Dumas, 1989; Hops et a l . , 1985; LaGreca, 1983; Oden, 1980; Sapon-Shevin, 1980). 17 Sharing has been found to be one of the most common and e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s young c h i l d r e n use to mai n t a i n i n t e r a c t i o n a f t e r a c o n f l i c t ( Sackin & Thelen, 1984). In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence t h a t , among preschool-aged c h i l d r e n , s h a r i n g i s important as an " e n t r y " s t r a t e g y : a way f o r c h i l d r e n to i n i t i a t e s u c c e s s f u l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . A number of s t u d i e s have found s h a r i n g to be the most frequent type of entry s t r a t e g y used by young c h i l d r e n (Odom & S t r a i n , 1984; S t r a i n , 1984). The use of e f f e c t i v e e n t r y s t r a t e g i e s has, i n t u r n , proven to be a key element i n s o c i a l competence and acceptance among young c h i l d r e n (Dodge, 1983; Day et a l . , 1983; Michelson & Wood, 1980; Odom & S t r a i n , 1984). O v e r a l l , the l i t e r a t u r e on peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n c h i l d r e n suggests that s h a r i n g and coo p e r a t i o n s k i l l s are major c o n t r i b u t o r s to p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s and acceptance (LaGreca & Mesibov, 1979). JLel^LecL-Re^jaaicch: Jgnosocial Development F i n d i n g s from a number of d i f f e r e n t areas of resea r c h can be used to i l l u m i n a t e the normal development of sh a r i n g i n young c h i l d r e n . Much of the r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h comes from e f f o r t s by developmental s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s to i n v e s t i g a t e p r o s o c i a l or a l t r u i s t i c behavior i n l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g s . (For reviews, see Perry & Bussey, 1984; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). Some of the major t h e o r e t i c a l approaches and re s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w i l l be b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d here. Freud saw the development of p r o s o c i a l responses as part of the development of the superego, i n v o l v i n g the 18 r e s o l u t i o n of psychosexual c o n f l i c t s v i a i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the same-sex parent ( C a r t l e d g e & M i l b u r n , 1980). C h i l d r e n c o u l d l e a r n such b a s i c emotional s k i l l s as empathy, sharing r e l a t i o n s h i p s and h a n d l i n g j e a l o u s and angry f e e l i n g s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d i n t e r a c t i o n s with p a r e n t s , and then l e a r n to t r a n s f e r these s k i l l s t o peer r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g the latency p e r i o d . A l t r u i s m was viewed as a h i g h l y s u b l i m a t e d form of love toward a l l s o c i e t y ( E k s t e i n , 1978; S p e r l i n g , 1955). In an extension of the Freudian approach, E r i k s o n (1963) a l s o emphasized the c h i l d ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the parent as p r o v i d i n g the e a r l i e s t context f o r l e a r n i n g s o c i a l behaviors and a p p r o p r i a t e emotional responses, and the wider world of s i b l i n g s , peers and other a d u l t s as p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r developing more independent s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . The cognitive-developmental t h e o r i e s of Baldwin, Piaget and Mead o u t l i n e d the growing a b i l i t y of the c h i l d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e h i m / h e r s e l f from others,, and to take other people's p e r s p e c t i v e s (Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). Less e g o c e n t r i c , more o t h e r - c e n t r e d m o t i v a t i o n s f o r p r o s o c i a l acts were seen as developing out of r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s with peers ( P i a g e t , 1932). Piaget suggested that c h i l d r e n would not be a b l e to share u n t i l e gocentrism had d e c l i n e d and r o l e - t a k i n g a b i l i t y was c l e a r l y p r e s e n t , at about age 8 or 9 ( P i a g e t , 1967), although most recent r e s e a r c h (e.g., F l a v e l l , 1985; Hoffman, 1984a) has i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s occurs at a much e a r l i e r age. 19 Learning t h e o r i s t s have attempted to account f o r the development of p r o s o c i a l behavior i n a number of ways. B a s i c operant p r i n c i p l e s can be used to e x p l a i n gradual i n c r e a s e s i n p r o s o c i a l , and decreases i n a n t i s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s , through the reinforcements and punishments provided by parents and other s o c i a l i z i n g agents. Although many of these a c t s go unobserved, the power of p a r t i a l reinforcement schedules i n m a i n t a i n i n g behavior can e x p l a i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of o c c a s i o n a l p a r e n t a l i n t e r v e n t i o n (Skinner, 1953). Higher-order processes such as a f f e c t i v e c o n d i t i o n i n g , s e l f -reinforcement, o b s e r v a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g and v i c a r i o u s reinforcement have a l s o been used to e x p l a i n c h i l d r e n ' s spontaneous, unsupervised a l t r u i s t i c a cts (Aronfreed, 1968; H a r t e r , 1982; Perry & Bussey, 1984). Despite the widely v a r y i n g t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , i t i s c l e a r that most models share an emphasis on the importance of s o c i a l i z a t i o n ( p a r t i c u l a r l y through parent i n f l u e n c e s and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n with peers) f o r the development of p r o s o c i a l behavior i n young c h i l d r e n . Even s o c i o b i o l o g i s t s (e.g., B r o t h e r s , 1989; MacDonald, 1984; Moore, 1984) agree that a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l behavior i s not an i n n a t e a b i l i t y which emerges on i t s own, but an emerging s k i l l which i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by the s o c i a l context of the young c h i l d . C h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l behaviors r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n i n the 1960's and e a r l y 1970's, mainly i n the form of l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s of the s i t u a t i o n a l 20 determinants of donating and h e l p i n g ( f o r a review, see Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). More recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s tend to emphasize the u n d e r l y i n g competencies and s o c i a l i z a t i o n processes i n v o l v e d i n p r o s o c i a l development (Ha r t e r , 1982; Janssens, G e r r i s , & Janssen, 1989; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). " S h a r i n g " i n the context of s o c i a l development s t u d i e s o f t e n c o n s i s t s of donating r e c e n t l y - e a r n e d tokens, money or candies to an absent, unknown peer, i n a novel s i t u a t i o n with an u n f a m i l i a r adult i n charge (Barton, 1982; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). Thus, the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s of these i n v e s t i g a t i o n s to r e a l - w o r l d s h a r i n g behavior i n the context of peer play i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . For example, Hibbard et a l . (1980) found l a b o r a t o r y donating and f r e e operant classroom s h a r i n g to be u n c o r r e l a t e d i n 4- and 5-year-olds. N e v e r t h e l e s s , these l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s as well as n a t u r a l i s t i c r e s e a r c h i n t o s o c i a l development can suggest developmental p a t t e r n s and moderating v a r i a b l e s which might be of use i n d e v e l o p i n g s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . O b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s of i n f a n t s and t o d d l e r s reveal evidence of p r o s o c i a l responding at an e a r l y age. For example, very young c h i l d r e n can recognize some emotions, respond to a baby's c r y , help others and g i v e away pos s e s s i o n s , although i n an i n c o n s i s t e n t and u n p r e d i c t a b l e f a s h i o n (Hoffman, 1981; Rheingold, 1979; Rheingold, Hay, & West, 1976). Preschool-aged c h i l d r e n have been observed (mainly i n n u r s e r y school s e t t i n g s ) to d i s p l a y a wide v a r i e t y of p r o s o c i a l b ehaviors, as well as many e g o c e n t r i c , 21 s e l f i s h and a g g r e s s i v e behaviors (Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983; S t r a y e r , Wareing, & Rushton, 1979). Ob s e r v a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n over 4 years of age have been conducted mainly i n l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n s . S t u d i e s of c o o p e r a t i v e and c o m p e t i t i v e behaviors have y i e l d e d i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s , but t h e r e i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h at c o o p e r a t i o n may i n c r e a s e up to about school age, then decrease as competition i n c r e a s e s ( I a n o t t i , Cummings, Pierrehumbert, Zahn-Waxler, & M i l a n o , 1989, Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). S t u d i e s of h e l p i n g vary c o n s i d e r a b l y i n t h e i r r e s u l t s as w e l l , and tend to show e i t h e r no change or an i n c r e a s e with age. For donating, over h a l f the l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s show an i n c r e a s e with age throughout middle c h i l d h o o d , but no c o n s i s t e n t age tr e n d s have been found i n s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g a c t u a l peers r a t h e r than h y p o t h e t i c a l r e c i p i e n t s (Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). L o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s of p r o s o c i a l b e h a v i o r , although few i n number, have found moderate c o n s i s t e n c y over time. Radke-Yarrow, Zahn-Waxler, Cummings, Strope, and S e b r i s (1981) found evidence that measures of a l t r u i s m at 2 years of age can p r e d i c t a l t r u i s m at 7 years of age. Moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s between assessments of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y made at preschool age and 5 to 6 years l a t e r were a l s o reported by Baumrind ( d e s c r i b e d i n Mussen & Eisenberg-Berg, 1977). I a n o t t i et a l . (1989) d i d not f i n d s t a b i l i t y f o r the same behaviors between ages 2 and 5, but found that some behaviors at age 2 (e.g., responsiveness t o peers) p r e d i c t e d d i f f e r e n t behaviors at age 5 (e.g., a f f e c t i v e empathy). Over 22 a s h o r t e r term, the Blocks ( d e s c r i b e d i n Mussen & Eisenberg-Berg, 1977) found teacher r a t i n g s of p r o s o c i a l tendencies at age 4 to p r e d i c t g e n e r o s i t y on a donating t e s t at age 5. Given that the form and meaning of p r o s o c i a l behaviors are l i k e l y to change as the c h i l d develops, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that developmental s t u d i e s present so many c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s . T h i s makes f i n d i n g s of even moderate b e h a v i o r a l c o n s i s t e n c y over time p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g . Moderating v a r i a b l e s have a l s o been examined i n these s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n ' s a l t r u i s t i c behaviors. Few sex d i f f e r e n c e s have been found, but some p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s (e.g., emotional s t a b i l i t y , a f f i 1 i a t i v e n e s s , e x p r e s s i v e n e s s ) are r e l a t e d to a l t r u i s m (Block, 1971; Cook & S t i n g l e , 1974; Hampson, 1979; Hoffman, 1977; Underwood & Moore, 1982). P r o s o c i a l responding i s more l i k e l y toward a d i f f e r e n t - a g e d peer, and competitive and a g g r e s s i v e behavior are more l i k e l y toward a same-aged peer, p a r t i c u l a r l y a c l o s e f r i e n d (Berndt, 1981; Hartup, 1979; Whiting & Whiting, 1975). Both c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h and experimental s t u d i e s have i n d i c a t e d that p r o s o c i a l behavior and p o s i t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n c r e a s e when c h i l d r e n are p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the w e l f a r e of those around them (e.g., Bronfenbrenner, 1970; Kessen, 1975; Staub, 1970; Whiting & Whiting, 1975), although these general p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s do not always t r a n s l a t e i n t o i n c r e a s e d s h a r i n g ( S u b b o t s k i i , 1981). A d u l t s can e f f e c t i v e l y use both power a s s e r t i o n and i n d u c t i o n (reasoning) to f a c i l i t a t e e x p r e s s i o n 23 and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of p r o s o c i a l behaviors (Baumrind, 1973; B l a c k w e l l , Smith, Stewart, & Jennings, 1980; Henry, 1980; Hoffman, 1975; Staub, 1979), although e i t h e r technique used alone may have minimal or even n e g a t i v e r e s u l t s (e.g., B e r n s t e i n , 1975; Staub, 1971, 1975). G e n e r a l l y n u r t u r a n t behavior from a d u l t s seems to have l i t t l e impact on c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l behavior, although nurturance i n d i s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s does have some f a c i l i t a t i v e e f f e c t s (Bryant & Crockenberg, 1980; Hoffman, 1963; Staub, 1979; Zahn-Waxler et a l . , 1979). R e l a t i o n s h i p s between c l u s t e r s or s t y l e s of c h i l d r e a r i n g behaviors (such as a warm, responsive yet f i r m approach) and c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l behaviors have f r e q u e n t l y been demonstrated (Grusec, 1982b, Eisenberg-Berg & Mussen, 1977; Janssens et a l . , 1989; Kochanska, 1984; Maccoby, 1984; Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler, 1986). Both operant and c l a s s i c a l c o n d i t i o n i n g of p r o s o c i a l responses have been i n v e s t i g a t e d i n a number of l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s (e.g., Beaman, S t o f f e r , Woods, & S t o f f e r , 1983; M i d l a r s k y & Bryan, 1967; Smith, Gelfand, Hartmann, & Partlow, 1979). Although there are l a r g e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and somewhat i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s , c o n d i t i o n i n g e f f e c t s are g e n e r a l l y s t r o n g e s t when verbal e x p l a n a t i o n s of c o n t i n g e n c i e s are provided, and when s o c i a l r a t h e r than m a t e r i a l rewards are used (Perry & Bussey, 1984; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983; Staub, 1979). In f i e l d s t u d i e s , both a d u l t s and peers have s u c c e s s f u l l y employed contingent reinforcement to i n c r e a s e c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l behaviors 24 (e.g., Altman, 1971; Bergsgaard & Larsson, 1984; Schloss, 1982; Slaby & Crowley, 1977; Solomon & Wahler, 1973; S t r a i n , 1977). The use of operant c o n d i t i o n i n g by parents to promote t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l development has been suggested as a p r o m i s i n g avenue of study (Grusec, 1982a; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983), although an o v e r - r e l i a n c e on m a t e r i a l rewards i s l i k e l y to h i n d e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and should be avoided (Fabes, F u l t z , Eisenberg, May-Plumlee, & C h r i s t o p h e r , 1989). Modeling e f f e c t s on p r o s o c i a l behaviors have been s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l . Modeling g e n e r a l l y i n c r e a s e s donating i n l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s and p r o s o c i a l behavior i n a p p l i e d s e t t i n g s , but the r e s u l t s are f a r from uniform (Bryan, 1975; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983; Rushton, 1980; Staub, 1978; Yarrow, S c o t t , & Waxier, 1973). Modeling e f f e c t s can be enhanced by such v a r i a b l e s as environments promoting c o o p e r a t i o n , s i m i l a r i t y of the donor to the r e c i p i e n t , modeled behavior which i s r e i n f o r c e d and c o n s i s t e n t , a powerful or i n f l u e n t i a l model, and the o p p o r t u n i t y to p r a c t i c e or r o l e - p l a y the modeled behavior (Bryan, 1975; Grusec, 1971; Perry & Bussey, 1984). I n t e r v e n t i o n s based on the symbolic modeling provided by f i l m e d or t e l e v i s e d p r o s o c i a l a c t i v i t y have g e n e r a l l y produced p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r a l change i n young c h i l d r e n (e.g., Coates, Pusser, & Goodman, 1976; F r i e d r i c h - C o f e r , Huston-Stein, K i p n i s , Susman, & Clewett, 1979; K e l l e r 6. C a r l s o n , 1974; S p r a f k i n , L i e b e r t & Poulos, 1975). Although e f f e c t s are o f t e n moderated by such personal v a r i a b l e s as socio-economic 25 s t a t u s , s o c i a l i z a t i o n h i s t o r y and b a s e l i n e r a t e s of p r o s o c i a l behavior, the more s u c c e s s f u l f i l m e d i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g p r o s o c i a l behavior have used adjuncts such as r o l e - p l a y o p p o r t u n i t i e s , v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of modeled behavior, environments promoting c o o p e r a t i o n , and longer-term programmes ( H a l l et a l . , 1982; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983; Staub, 1979). An awareness of the v a r i a b l e s which i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l behavior can be h e l p f u l i n d e s i g n i n g parent t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The use of reinforcement, modeling, e f f e c t i v e verbal s t r a t e g i e s , and the p r o v i s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n about the normal development of p r o s o c i a l behavior to parents would seem p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e . A s u b s t a n t i a l body of r e s e a r c h has a l s o been conducted i n t o the s o c i a l - c o g n i t i v e c a p a c i t i e s which may u n d e r l i e p r o s o c i a l development, although there i s l e s s i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on u n d e r l y i n g processes than on p r o s o c i a l behaviors themselves (Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). It i s c l e a r t hat c h i l d r e n ' s awareness of the s o c i a l norms governing p r o s o c i a l responding i n c r e a s e s through the preschool and middle childhood years: accuracy at such tasks as d e f i n i n g a l t r u i s m or responding to s u b t l e s o c i a l cues f o r p r o s o c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n c r e a s e s with age ( P e a r l , 1979; Perry & Bussey, 1984; Youniss, 1980). Ve r b a l p r o s o c i a l responding can a l s o be improved by v a r i o u s t r a i n i n g or modeling i n t e r v e n t i o n s aimed at s o c i a l - c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s or even l e s s s o c i a l l y - r e l e v a n t c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s such as 26 p h y s i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e - t a k i n g (e.g., F r i e d r i c h & S t e i n , 1975; Kutnick & Brees, 1982; Roberts et a l . , 1974). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l - c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s and p r o s o c i a l behavior, however, i s not so c l e a r . P r o s o c i a l responding has been found to c o r r e l a t e w i t h some, but not a l l measures of general i n t e l l i g e n c e : p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s are p a r t i c u l a r l y common with measures i n v o l v i n g elements of i n t e r p e r s o n a l problem-solving a b i l i t y (Spivack & Shure, 1974). Empathy has long been presumed to be an important requirement f o r p r o s o c i a l behavior (e.g., Aronfreed, 1968; Bandura, 1977), yet there i s no c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between measures of empathy and p r o s o c i a l responding i n preschool-aged c h i l d r e n ( Eisenberg & M i l l e r , 1987; Feshbach & Kuchenbecker, 1974; Janssens et a l . , 1989; Marcus & Roke, 1980). S i m i l a r l y , although b e h a v i o r a l improvements from r o l e - t a k i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s have been noted (e.g., Chandler, 1973; Chandler, Greenspan, & Barenboim, 1974; Cole, 1982; DeMarsh & Adams, 1983; I a n o t t i , 1978; Staub, 1971), these may stem more from the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r guided i n t e r a c t i o n s with peers than from the c o g n i t i v e t r a i n i n g elements of the programme ( S t r a y e r , 1984). I n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n research on presumed s o c i a l - c o g n i t i v e s u b s t r a t e s f o r p r o s o c i a l behavior are l i k e l y due at l e a s t i n p a r t to d i f f i c u l t i e s i n measuring such c o n s t r u c t s i n young c h i l d r e n (Eisenberg & M i l l e r , 1987). In sum, although i t i s s t i l l unknown whether p a r t i c u l a r c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s are t i e d to p r o s o c i a l behavior, no s o c i a l - c o g n i t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s have had u n d e s i r a b l e 27 e f f e c t s , and e f f o r t s to enhance c h i l d r e n ' s awareness of s o c i a l norms and provide r o l e - t a k i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s c o u l d be p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l elements of a p r o s o c i a l - b e h a v i o r i n t e r v e n t i o n . The c o n f l i c t i n g evidence f o r s p e c i f i c l e v e l s of c o g n i t i v e s k i l l as p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r p r o s o c i a l behavior has l e d some authors to c a l l f o r a more f l e x i b l e r e d e f i n i t i o n of cognitive-developmental theory, to i n c l u d e the r o l e of a f f e c t , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of the involvement of d i f f e r e n t c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s at d i f f e r e n t ages f o r d i f f e r e n t behaviors (Hoffman, 1975; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983; Staub, 1979). For example, Perry and Bussey (1984) suggest that e f f o r t s to encourage i n t r i n s i c a t t r i b u t i o n s f o r p r o s o c i a l behavior would help to promote these behaviors with o l d e r c h i l d r e n , but would be too complex f o r younger c h i l d r e n , who would respond best to more e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s . I n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s have shown that encouraging s e l f - a t t r i b u t i o n f o r p r o s o c i a l behavior can indeed i n c r e a s e p r o s o c i a l responding i n elementary-school-aged c h i l d r e n (e.g., Grusec, Kuczynski, Rushton, & S i m u t i s , 1978; Jensen & Moore, 1977; M i l l e r , Brickman, & Bolen, 1975), but not i n younger c h i l d r e n (Grusec & Redler, 1980). T h i s more f l e x i b l e developmental approach has been r e f l e c t e d i n the general model which has emerged to d e s c r i b e the development of p r o s o c i a l b e h aviors. The e a r l i e s t i n f l u e n c e s are e x t e r n a l : parents and others encourage and shape these behaviors through v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n , modeling, 28 and reward or punishment. As the c h i l d ' s c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s become more s o p h i s t i c a t e d , i n f o r m a t i o n from these e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s i s a b s t r a c t e d , weighed and s y n t h e s i s e d , l e a d i n g to the development of personal norms and standards f o r p r o s o c i a l responding. T h i s process of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n leads the c h i l d to develop i n c r e a s i n g l y s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d p r o s o c i a l responses, with i n t e r n a l a t t r i b u t i o n s , e v a l u a t i o n s and a f f e c t i v e consequences as well as e x t e r n a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s shaping p r o s o c i a l behavior ( H a r t e r , 1982; Perry & Bussey, 1984; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983; Staub, 1979). Developmental1y-appropriate i n t e r v e n t i o n s can take advantage of the major i n f l u e n c e s on p r o s o c i a l development at any p a r t i c u l a r age: with preschool-aged c h i l d r e n , the most a p p r o p r i a t e programmes would appear to be those with an emphasis on s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and b e h a v i o r a l techniques, which b u i l d a b a s i s f o r the more c o g n i t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d s e l f - c o n t r o l techniques a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n . D e s p i t e the d i f f e r e n c e s between the behaviors s t u d i e d i n much of the p r o s o c i a l development l i t e r a t u r e (e.g., donating, h e l p i n g , cooperating) and s h a r i n g i n the context of p l a y , i t i s u s e f u l to know that these p r o s o c i a l behaviors do not, c o n t r a r y to i n i t i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , c o n s i s t e n t l y show a c l e a r , l i n e a r i n c r e a s e with age. F i n d i n g s that moderating v a r i a b l e s such as a d u l t behavior, s o c i a l i z a t i o n h i s t o r y and context exert a major i n f l u e n c e suggest that i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n v o l v i n g these v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be used to promote the development of adaptive p r o s o c i a l behavior. 29 Research from the f i e l d of moral development may a l s o have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r understanding the development of s h a r i n g ( f o r reviews, see B l a s i , 1980; Gibbs & S c h n e l l , 1985; K u r t i n e s & Gewirtz, 1984; Lickona, 1976; Rest, 1983; Staub, 1979). E m p i r i c a l attempts to t e s t moral development t h e o r i e s are made p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t by the l a c k of agreement on a d e f i n i t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e "moral" i s s u e s f o r young c h i l d r e n ( B l a s i , 1980; Eisenberg, 1982). I t i s perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g that r e s u l t s are f r e q u e n t l y i n c o n s i s t e n t , when re s e a r c h e r s d i f f e r so g r e a t l y i n t h e i r attempts to use "moral" content a p p r o p r i a t e to the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d . Recent work by Walker, de V r i e s , and Trevethan (1987) has begun to d e l i n e a t e the types of s i t u a t i o n s that c h i l d r e n themselves i d e n t i f y as posing moral dilemmas. T h e o r i s t s and r e s e a r c h e r s have t y p i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between the c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l components of moral development ( C l a r i z i o & McCoy, 1983; Gibbs 6> S c h n e l l , 1985; Perry & Bussey, 1984). A c l e a r t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral c o g n i t i o n , a f f e c t and a c t i o n has f r e q u e n t l y been l a c k i n g ; i n g e n e r a l , a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n has simply been assumed ( B l a s i , 1980). Numerous s t u d i e s , however, have f a i l e d to f i n d such a c o r r e l a t i o n ; not only are measures of c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l aspects of moral development g e n e r a l l y found to be u n r e l a t e d , but d i f f e r e n t measures w i t h i n these three areas are o f t e n found to be u n c o r r e l a t e d as well ( L i c k o n a , 30 1976; Staub, 1979; S u b b o t s k i i , 1983; Walker, 1989). A number of reviewers have noted that we are s t i l l f a r from understanding the f a c t o r s governing c o n s i s t e n c y , or the lack of i t , i n moral development ( B l a s i , 1983; Lickona, 1976; Perry & Bussey, 1984; Staub, 1979). Although both theory and e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s vary c o n s i d e r a b l y , depending on the component that r e c e i v e s the most emphasis, some attempts have been made to i n t e g r a t e these v a r y i n g emphases on c o g n i t i o n , behavior and a f f e c t . Gibbs and S c h n e l l (1985), f o r example, suggest that "both c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e sources of m o t i v a t i o n are u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d f o r the accomplishment of good and f a i r behavior i n the face of narrowly e g o i s t i c impulses ... there i s an i n e x t r i c a b l e interdependence between moral developmental and s o c i a l i z a t i o n approaches" (p. 1078). In the next s e c t i o n of t h i s review, some of the major c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the moral development l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be examined f o r i n f o r m a t i o n which may be r e l e v a n t to s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . The cognitive-developmental approach has tended to take the b a s i c stance that moral a c t i o n has a r a t i o n a l b a s i s , and i s mediated by c o g n i t i v e processes ( B l a s i , 1983; Gibbs & S c h n e l l , 1985). From t h i s p o i n t of view, moral reasoning or judgement i s one m a n i f e s t a t i o n of, and thus l i m i t e d by, the c u r r e n t l e v e l of general c o g n i t i v e development. The stage t h e o r i e s of Piaget (1932) and Kohlberg (1969) exemplify t h i s approach; both emphasize an i n v a r i a n t p r o g r e s s i o n through i n c r e a s i n g l y mature l e v e l s of reasoning^ f a c i l i t a t e d by 31 c o n f l i c t s between a c h i l d ' s c u r r e n t l e v e l and d i s c o n f i r m i n g events i n the environment. Although these t h e o r i e s have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e support, some d i f f i c u l t i e s have been r a i s e d . For example, a d i s c o n t i n u o u s , s t a g e l i k e p r o g r e s s i o n through the l e v e l s has not always been e v i d e n t , and the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i v e development and the a f f e c t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l expressions of moral development has o f t e n been u n c l e a r ( B l a s i , 1980; Gibbs & S c h n e l l , 1985; Hoffman, 1970; Janssens et a l . , 1989; K u r t i n e s & G r i e f , 1974; Lickona, 1976; Rest, 1983; Staub, 1979). Recent r e v i s i o n s to the Kohlberg system (Colby, Kohlberg, Gibbs, & Lieberman, 1983) have addressed e a r l i e r shortcomings, and strengthened evidence f o r t h i s model (Walker, 1986, 1989). Other i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the c o g n i t i v e approach to moral development have emphasized the growth of a t t r i b u t i o n and d i s c o u n t i n g s k i l l s ( E i s e n b e r g , 1982), v e r b a l c o n t r o l of behavior ( S u b b o t s k i i , 1983) and the development of personal goals or v a l u e s (Staub, 1979, 1984). A number of r e s e a r c h e r s have attempted to f a c i l i t a t e the p r o g r e s s i o n to more mature stages of moral reasoning, g e n e r a l l y by exposing c h i l d r e n to a s l i g h t l y higher l e v e l of reasoning than t h e i r own, and encouraging d i s c u s s i o n of moral i s s u e s and c o n f l i c t s . Although many authors report s i g n i f i c a n t advances as a r e s u l t of these methods (e.g., B l a t t & Kohlberg, 1971; E s l e t a , 1978; H i l l & E n z l e , 1979; Krogh, 1985; Rest, T u r i e l , & Kohlberg, 1969; Walker, 1982), others r e p o r t no such changes (e.g., Kupfersmid & Wonderly, 32 1982; Wilder, 1982), or demonstrate that p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s may be due more to compliance with adul t e x p e c t a t i o n s than a c t u a l advances i n moral reasoning l e v e l (e.g., Bandura & MacDonald, 1963; Cowan, Langer, Heavenrich, & Nathanson, 1969; Staub, 1979; T u r i e l , 1966). Although most of these i n t e r v e n t i o n s have been conducted by experimenters or teachers, one study (Bunzl et a l . , 1977) examined the e f f e c t s of parent t r a i n i n g on c h i l d r e n ' s moral development. C h i l d r e n whose low-income parents were randomly assi g n e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a 5-week course emphasizing communication, f a m i l y problem-solving s k i l l s and r o l e - t a k i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n , showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater advances on measures of moral m a t u r i t y at a 3-month followup than d i d matched c h i l d r e n whose parents d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the course. Thus, changes i n p a r e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s may be another means of promoting moral development i n c h i l d r e n . The r o l e of a f f e c t i n moral development has been h i g h l i g h t e d i n a number of d i f f e r e n t approaches. F r e u d i a n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c theory emphasizes the emergence of g u i l t around the age of 6 as the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e behind moral behavior ( H a l l et a l . , 1982). Although i t i s not c l e a r that i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the same-sex parent i s n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e d (Hoffman, 1971; Hoffman & S a l t z s t e i n , 1967; Santrock, 1975), some evidence supporting the importance of love-withdrawal p a r e n t i n g techniques i n the development of g u i l t i s congruent with the p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t r a d i t i o n (Hoffman, 1981; Hoffman & S a l t z t e i n , 1967; Zahn-Waxler et 33 a l . , 1979). Hoffman's s e l f - a t t r i b u t i o n theory (Hoffman, 1983), while r e c o g n i z i n g the importance of c o g n i t i v e development and l e a r n i n g e xperiences, a l s o emphasizes the primacy of a f f e c t i n the a c q u i s i t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n of moral standards. The c o r r e c t balance of power-assertion, l o v e -withdrawal and i n d u c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e techniques i s presumed to e l i c i t empathy and empathy-based g u i l t , which f a c i l i t a t e the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of moral standards and motivate f u t u r e moral behavior (Gibbs & S c h n e l l , 1985; Hoffman, 1983, 1984b). Other t h e o r i s t s have c i t e d more p o s i t i v e emotions as c r u c i a l f o r moral development. For example, Simpson (1976) emphasized the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the development of emotional s e c u r i t y and moral m a t u r i t y . The a f f e c t i v e content of p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s may thus serve to promote both emotional s e c u r i t y and i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e moral standards. More c o n s i s t e n t with most parent t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s , an emphasis on the b e h a v i o r a l aspects of moral development c h a r a c t e r i z e s s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s . Through e x p e r i e n c i n g and o b s e r v i n g moral a c t s and t h e i r consequences, c h i l d r e n g r a d u a l l y develop a personal s e t of r u l e s f o r judging or engaging i n moral behaviors (Bandura, 1977; Mischel & M i s c h e l , 1976; Staub, 1979). The c o g n i t i v e -developmental n o t i o n of a f i x e d p r o g r e s s i o n through q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t moral stages i s r e j e c t e d i n f a v o r of a more gradual shaping of moral conduct and thought by 34 environmental i n f l u e n c e s ( B l a s i , 1980; C l a r i z i o & McCoy, 1983). Although the moral development l i t e r a t u r e can p r o v i d e some i n d i c a t i o n of the way c h i l d r e n deal with the moral aspects of s h a r i n g , the bulk of moral development r e s e a r c h has been concerned with p r o h i b i t i o n - o r i e n t e d i s s u e s , r a t h e r than questions of p r o s o c i a l or a l t r u i s t i c behavior (Eisenberg, 1982; Mussen & Eisenberg-Berg, 1977; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). Eisen b e r g (1982) has attempted to f i l l t h i s gap with an e m p i r i c a l l y - b a s e d d e s c r i p t i o n of p r o s o c i a l moral reasoning development. Acco r d i n g to t h i s approach, the e a r l i e s t p r o s o c i a l reasoning has a h e d o n i s t i c , pragmatic o r i e n t a t i o n (e.g., "She'd h e l p the boy so he might help her l a t e r " ) . Preschool-aged c h i l d r e n g r a d u a l l y begin to employ "needs of o t h e r s " reasoning (e.g., "He'd share h i s food because the g i r l i s hungry") i n p r o s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s as w e l l , and add a p p r o v a l - o r i e n t e d reasoning (e.g., " I f she helped him, the boy would l i k e her more") during the e a r l y elementary school years. Although middle and l a t e r elementary-school-aged c h i l d r e n continue to apply much a p p r o v a l - o r i e n t e d reasoning, they tend to have a more ste r e o t y p e d "goodness and badness" o r i e n t a t i o n (e.g., " I t ' s n i c e to s h a r e " ) , and use empathic reasoning (e.g., "He'd help because he'd know how badly the other guy f e l t " ) as w e l l . By hi g h school age, c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l judgements have become more empathic, and a l s o c o n t a i n references to personal i n t e r n a l i z e d norms (e.g., "She'd f e e l a 35 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to g i v e to those i n need"). As more s o p h i s t i c a t e d types of p r o s o c i a l reasoning develop, use of the l e s s mature types g r a d u a l l y decreases, although e a r l i e r o r i e n t a t i o n s never disappear e n t i r e l y . E i s e n b e r g (1982) notes t h a t , although t h i s p r o g r e s s i o n i s s i m i l a r t o Kohlberg's, the development of p r o s o c i a l reasoning tends to be more advanced than that of p r o h i b i t i o n - o r i e n t e d reasoning, with p a r t i c u l a r types of reasoning (e.g., s t e r e o t y p e d judgements, empathic reasoning) emerging e a r l i e r with Eisenberg's than with Kohlberg's dilemmas. ( I t i s unknown, however, whether t h i s would h o l d t r u e with the r e v i s e d Kohlberg system; Colby et a l . , 1983). She suggests two p o s s i b l e reasons f o r the d i f f e r e n c e . F i r s t , parents tend t o use fewer a v e r s i v e or c o n t r o l l i n g techniques ( i . e . , p h y s i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s , v e r b a l p r o h i b i t i o n s , m o r a l i z i n g statements, suggestions) and more modelling and reassurance i n p u r e l y p r o s o c i a l as opposed to p r o h i b i t i o n -o r i e n t e d s i t u a t i o n s (Zahn-Waxler et a l . , 1979). Second, c h i l d r e n are l i k e l y to have experienced both s i d e s of p r o s o c i a l c o n f l i c t s (e.g., being both the g i v e r and the r e c i p i e n t of a i d ) , but are u s u a l l y only the r e c i p i e n t s of p r o h i b i t i o n s . Thus, the o p p o r t u n i t y to experience both s i d e s of a s i t u a t i o n , and a de-emphasis of a v e r s i v e and c o n t r o l l i n g techniques may well be u s e f u l f o r promoting more mature reasoning i n p r o s o c i a l s k i l l - t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . Damon (1977) has developed a taxonomy of 4- to 12-year-o l d c h i l d r e n ' s responses to d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e dilemmas 36 (e.g., d i v i d i n g candy rewards among c h i l d r e n who have made unequal c o n t r i b u t i o n s to a group t a s k ) . C h i l d r e n begin by j u s t i f y i n g s o l u t i o n s with p u r e l y h e d o n i s t i c and then a r b i t r a r y reasons, move on to concerns w i t h s t r i c t e q u a l i t y and then deservingness, and e v e n t u a l l y invoke compromise and the l a r g e r s o c i a l good as o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s . S i m i l a r to Eisenberg's (1982) approach, c h i l d r e n are seen as g r a d u a l l y developing more s o p h i s t i c a t e d concepts of f a i r n e s s , r a ther than f o l l o w i n g a stepwise p r o g r e s s i o n through d i s c o n t i n u o u s stages. Although t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a b i l i t y across s t u d i e s , the l i n k between p r o s o c i a l moral reasoning development and p r o s o c i a l behavior i s g e n e r a l l y a p o s i t i v e one (Eisenberg, 1982; Perry & Bussey, 1984), p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the two measures i n v o l v e a s i m i l a r p r o s o c i a l behavior (Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). Of 19 s t u d i e s reviewed by B l a s i (1980), 11 confirmed the r e l a t i o n s h i p between moral c o g n i t i o n and a l t r u i s m , 4 had negative r e s u l t s and 4 were mixed. The l a r g e amount of i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n p r o s o c i a l moral reasoning and behavior which can be found at any age may be due to d i f f e r e n c e s not only i n c o g n i t i v e development and experimental context, but p e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences (e.g., p a r e n t i n g techniques) as well ( C l a r i z i o & McCoy, 1983; Eisenberg, 1982; H a l l et a l . , 1982; S a l t z s t e i n , 1976; Selman, 1976). Both s p e c i f i c p a r e n t i n g techniques (such as modeling or reasoning) and complex p a t t e r n s of p a r e n t i n g (such as an a u t h o r i t a t i v e yet warm and responsive p a r e n t i n g s t y l e ) have been found to c o r r e l a t e with c h i l d r e n ' s l e v e l of moral development (e.g., Boyes & A l l e n , 1988; Eisenberg et a l . , 1983; H a l l et a l . , 1982; Hoffman, 1984b; Vermeulen, 1988). Normative Studies of Sharing O b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p i n g s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s g i v e us the most d i r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n about the emergence of s h a r i n g and coo p e r a t i v e p l a y . Such normative i n f o r m a t i o n can be used to o u t l i n e the t y p i c a l p a t t e r n of development of these s k i l l s . As long ago as 1787, Tiedemann noted t h a t p r e c u r s o r s to s h a r i n g , such as showing, g i v i n g and t a k i n g o b j e c t s develop i n the f i r s t year of l i f e (Rheingold, Hay, & West, 1976). These begin to be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o o c c a s i o n a l c o o r d i n a t e d episodes of p a r a l l e l and mutual play i n the second year (Bierman, 1982; Dontas, Maratos, F a f o u t i s , & K a r a n g e l i s , 1985; F i e l d , 1981; Grunebaum & Solomon, 1982; G u l l o , B e r s a n i , & C o n l i n , 1983; Hay & Murray, 1982; Howes, 1987). By the age of 2, c h i l d r e n are able to engage i n co o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s with parents and can o c c a s i o n a l l y take t u r n s . The concept of "mine" i s becoming e s t a b l i s h e d . Although peer play i s predominantly p a r a l l e l , watching and co o p e r a t i n g are a l s o present from time to time. Such s o c i a l c o n t a c t s are beginning to be pe e r - c e n t r e d as well as simply o b j e c t -centred (Caplan & Caplan, 1983; Grunebaum & Solomon, 1982; Hay, 1979; Levine, 1983). S t i l l , about h a l f of a l l interchanges among 1- and 2-year-olds c o n s i s t of 38 " a g g r e s s i v e " a c t s : u s u a l l y , t a k i n g a toy from the other c h i l d ( P a t t e r s o n , 1982). These frequent c o n f l i c t s can be seen as a means of l e a r n i n g to d i f f e r e n t i a t e s e l f from others and people from o b j e c t s , and developing some understanding of p r e d i c t a b l e , r e c i p r o c a l p a t t e r n s of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n (Conant & Ross, 1987). The t h i r d year of l i f e sees a t r u l y " s o c i a l " i n t e r e s t i n others developing as complementary, c o o r d i n a t e d s o c i a l exchanges between c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e i n frequency, d u r a t i o n and complexity (Grunebaum & Solomon, 1982; G u l l o et a l . , 1983; Howes, 1987). Spontaneous s h a r i n g and c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y are s t i l l r a r e , however. Although the c h i l d may share i f asked to ( g e n e r a l l y more a k i n to compliant than p r o s o c i a l behavior; Eisenberg et a l . , 1984), or o f f e r " g i f t s " of o b j e c t s , these are b r i e f and i s o l a t e d events, r e f l e c t i n g the c h i l d ' s s t i 1 1 - e g o c e n t r i c p e r s p e c t i v e and short a t t e n t i o n span (Bierman, 1982; Caplan & Caplan, 1983; F i e l d , 1981; Grunebaum & Solomon, 1982; G u l l o et a l . , 1983; L a i s h l e y , 1983; L e v i t t , Weber, C l a r k , & McDonnell, 1985; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). The concept of "mine" i s s t i l l g a i n i n g ground. Peer play among t o d d l e r s i s f r e q u e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by o b t a i n i n g and hoarding toys and e s t a b l i s h i n g t e r r i t o r i e s ; about 20% of i n t e r a c t i o n s among 2- to 3-year-olds can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as "a g g r e s s i v e " (Caplan & Caplan, 1983; Patt e r s o n , 1982). T h i s may be a necessary p r e c u r s o r to more o t h e r - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s : Levine (1983) found that t o d d l e r s who showed 39 c l e a r e r s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n by a c t i v e l y c l a i m i n g toys at the beginning of a play s e s s i o n a l s o engaged i n more complex p o s i t i v e peer i n t e r a c t i o n s once c l a i m i n g subsided. I t may be that experiences such as e s t a b l i s h i n g the d i f f e r e n c e between one's own and o t h e r s ' p o s s e s s i o n s , having one's own possessions returned a f t e r being l e n t out, and l e a r n i n g that there are "group" p o s s e s s i o n s (such as f a m i l y - or daycare-owned toys) that can be enjoyed but not e x c l u s i v e l y possessed, are necessary f o r the l a t e r development of s h a r i n g s k i l l s ( L a i s h l e y , 1983). A f t e r about 3 years of age, shared p l a y a c t i v i t i e s are the focus of most peer i n t e r a c t i o n s (Bierman, 1982; Howes, 1987). As peer play i n c r e a s e s i n importance, toy s h a r i n g and t r u l y c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y emerge. Mothers r e p o r t 3- and 4-year-olds to be much more s k i l l e d at s h a r i n g than are 2-year-olds (Campbell & Breaux, 1983), although these d i f f e r e n c e s are not always apparent i n more c o n t r o l l e d l a b o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s ( E i s e n b e r g , B a r t l e t t , & Haake, 1983). Sharing s k i l l s are by no means p e r f e c t e d , however; most d i s p u t e s between 3-year-olds s t i l l s t a r t over possessions (Caplan & Caplan, 1983; P a t t e r s o n , 1982). Many researchers have observed s h a r i n g to be a common part of the p r e s c h o o l e r ' s s o c i a l r e p e r t o i r e (Blackmon & Dembo, 1984; I a n o t t i , 1985; M u l l i s et a l . , 1983; Yarrow & Waxier, 1976). One o b s e r v a t i o n a l study i n a nursery school found s h a r i n g and c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y to be the most common type of s o c i a l i n i t i a t i o n among 3- and 4-year-olds ( S t r a i n , 40 1984). Another o b s e r v a t i o n a l study of 300 p r e s c h o o l e r s d i s t i n g u i s h e d between v a r i o u s v e r b a l and p h y s i c a l s h a r i n g component s k i l l s (Barton & Hart, 1980). Verbal s h a r i n g of a l l types (e.g., o f f e r s , acceptances, r e f u s a l s ) o c c u r r e d l e s s than 1% of the time, whereas p h y s i c a l s h a r i n g o c c u r r e d 14% of the time during f r e e p l a y s e s s i o n s . The most common type of p h y s i c a l sharing was the simultaneous use of a m a t e r i a l t o work on a common p r o j e c t . The growing s o c i a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of the preschool c h i l d i s r e f l e c t e d i n g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g s h a r i n g r a t e s : Eisenberg-Berg and Hand (1979), f o r i n s t a n c e , r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e w i t h age w i t h i n t h e i r 4- to 5-year-old sample. Although p r o s o c i a l behavior g r a d u a l l y gains prominence over c l e a r l y a n t i s o c i a l responses over the childhoo d years ( f o r example, c o e r c i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s comprise only about 10% of peer play i n the preadoles c e n t c h i l d , P a t t e r s o n , 1982), some more s e l f -s e r v i n g s o c i a l behaviors such as competition and dominance a l s o appear to i n c r e a s e (Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). The development of s h a r i n g s k i l l s among preschool-age c h i l d r e n i s by no means a simple, l i n e a r p r o g r e s s i o n . Not a l l r e s e a r c h e r s f i n d s i g n i f i c a n t age d i f f e r e n c e s i n s h a r i n g (e.g., E i s e n b e r g et a l . , 1983; M u l l i s et a l . , 1983). Sex d i f f e r e n c e s are not found c o n s i s t e n t l y e i t h e r (e.g., E i s e n b e r g & G i a l l a n z a , 1984; M u l l i s et a l . , 1983), but those that are found tend to e i t h e r show higher sharing r a t e s i n g i r l s (e.g., B i r c h & B i l l m a n , 1986; Eisenberg et a l . , 1983) or more s h a r i n g between same-sex than mixed-sex p a i r s (e.g., 41 Eisenberg-Berg & Hand, 1979). With regard to s o c i a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t s , although the l i t e r a t u r e on c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l and moral development i s s u g g e s t i v e , there have been no s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y examining the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r e n t i n g approaches and c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g development. The preschool years are c l e a r l y a c r u c i a l time f o r d e v e l o p i n g s h a r i n g s k i l l s . A c c o r d i n g l y , most i n t e r v e n t i o n s designed to enhance s h a r i n g have t a r g e t e d t h i s age group (Barton, 1982). Most s o c i a l developmental i n f o r m a t i o n has been obtained through o b s e r v a t i o n s of c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s with same-age peers. The context of s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n i s a l s o important f o r the development of s h a r i n g and c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y . C o n s i d e r a b l e demands are p l a c e d on a c h i l d ' s s o c i a l s k i l l s when i n t e r a c t i n g with a d i f f e r e n t - a g e d c h i l d , l e a d i n g to enhanced l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , but a l s o the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t ( F i e l d , 1981; Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). In f a c t , c h i l d r e n report more c o n f l i c t with s i b l i n g s than w i t h any other important f i g u r e i n t h e i r l i v e s (Furman & Buhrmester, 1985), and r e p o r t s of f i g h t i n g and aggression dominate young c h i l d r e n ' s d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Dunn & Kendrick, 1982a). O b s e r v a t i o n a l s t u d i e s support t h i s p e r c e p t i o n : s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s are o f t e n r e p o r t e d as g e n e r a l l y a g o n i s t i c , a g g r e s s i v e and c o e r c i v e (Baskett & Johnson, 1982; Kendrick & Dunn, 1983; Mash & Johnston, 1983; Mash & Mercer, 1979; P a t t e r s o n , 42 1982). From the parents' p o i n t of view, s i b l i n g c o n f l i c t i s one of the more commonly reported sources of f a m i l y f r i c t i o n ( L e i t e n b e r g et a l . , 1977) and a p e r s i s t e n t p a r e n t i n g concern over time (Kanoy & Schroeder, 1985). About o n e - t h i r d of parents of young c h i l d r e n report problems with v e r b a l or p h y s i c a l f i g h t i n g between s i b l i n g s -- a much higher percentage than f o r f i g h t i n g with f r i e n d s (McMahon, Tiedemann, & C r o s s - C a l v e r t , 1986; Robinson, Eyberg, & Ross, 1980). Home ob s e r v a t i o n s a l s o show l e s s p r o s o c i a l behavior between s i b l i n g s than f r i e n d s (Abramovitch, C o r t e r , P e p l e r , & Stanhope, 1986). S i b l i n g c o n f l i c t has been ranked by parents as f o u r t h i n the top 22 c h i l d management problems (Dangel & P o l s t e r , 1984b), and i s the f o u r t h most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d problem on the 36-item Eyberg C h i l d Behavior Inventory (Robinson et a l . , 1980). It i s not s u r p r i s i n g , then, that parents p l a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e importance on the need f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n to develop c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y s k i l l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with s i b l i n g s (Bryant & Crockenberg, 1980). C h i l d r e n a l s o seem to sense t h i s need; i n one sample of f a m i l i e s seeking help with s i b l i n g c o n f l i c t , a l l of the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e to be a b l e to f i g h t l e s s and get along b e t t e r with t h e i r b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s ( L e i t e n b e r g et a l . , 1977). There i s some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t c h i l d r e n tend to a v o i d c o n f l i c t with t h e i r s i b l i n g s by a v o i d i n g i n t e r a c t i o n a l t o g e t h e r . G e n e r a l l y low i n t e r a c t i o n r a t e s and frequent independent p l a y have been observed i n l a b o r a t o r y s t u d i e s (Mash & Johnston, 1983; 43 Mash & Mercer, 1979) and i n i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s where s i b l i n g s are r e i n f o r c e d f o r not f i g h t i n g , but not f o r any a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s ( L e i t e n b e r g et a l . , 1977). A number of s t u d i e s have examined c o n f l i c t and c o o p e r a t i o n between s i b l i n g s , and from these we can c u l l an i d ea of the course of s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s over time. Although r e s u l t s are o f t e n a f f e c t e d by such mediating v a r i a b l e s as sex composition and p a r e n t i n g p r a c t i c e s , c e r t a i n trends c l e a r l y emerge. Although most a g o n i s t i c behavior i s d i r e c t e d from o l d e r to younger s i b l i n g s (Abramovitch, Pepl e r , & C o r t e r , 1982), younger s i b l i n g s show a marked i n c r e a s e i n a g g r e s s i v e behavior between 8 and 14 months of age (Dunn & Kendrick, 1981). Two-year-olds engage i n v i g o r o u s , u n r e s t r a i n e d c ompetition with s i b l i n g s , g e n e r a l l y over p o s s e s s i o n of a toy or a t t e n t i o n from a parent (Caplan & Caplan, 1983). They are a l s o beginning to recognize and l a b e l b a s i c f e e l i n g s t a t e s i n themselves and others, and l e a r n i n g to use these s k i l l s i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with s i b l i n g s (Dunn, Bretherton, & Munn, 1987). Parents r e p o r t t h a t s h a r i n g begins to be a major i s s u e f o r c h i l d r e n at about age 2, and continues to be so u n t i l about the age of 5 (McMahon et a l . , 1986). C h i l d r e n under 3 years of age are r e p o r t e d by t h e i r parents to have c o n s i d e r a b l y more d i f f i c u l t y with s h a r i n g than do c h i l d r e n over 3 (Campbell & Breaux, 1983). (These parent r e p o r t s do not d i s t i n g u i s h between s i b l i n g and other peer i n t e r a c t i o n s , but i t may s a f e l y be assumed that s i b l i n g 44 i n t e r a c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e to r a t i n g s ) . Emotional ambivalence towards s i b l i n g s c h a r a c t e r i z e s the 3- to 5-year-old; both s t r o n g resentment and great tenderness can be seen, o f t e n i n r a p i d s u c c e s s i o n (Caplan & Caplan, 1983; Grunebaum & Solomon, 1982). I n t e r a c t i o n s tend to be r e c i p r o c a l , with very s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s between the behaviors of young s i b l i n g s (Abramovitch et a l . , 1986). Caplan and Caplan (1983) note that " s i b l i n g r i v a l r y " at t h i s age o f t e n takes the form of ta k i n g , breaking or h i d i n g the s i b l i n g ' s t o y s , as w e l l as t a t t l i n g , t e a s i n g , f i g h t i n g , rough p l a y and s u l k i n g . Perhaps r e f l e c t i v e of the l a b i l i t y of s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s at t h i s age i s Abramovitch et a l . ' s (1986) f i n d i n g of l i t t l e s t a b i l i t y i n the i n t e r a c t i o n s of 2- to 6-y e a r - o l d s i b l i n g p a i r s throughout a 3-year study. The o l d e r s i b l i n g s i n t h i s sample d i r e c t e d more p r o s o c i a l and more a g o n i s t i c behavior toward the younger s i b l i n g than v i c e -v e r s a , and s i b l i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o s o c i a l behavior i n c r e a s e d over the preschool years, while d i f f e r e n c e s i n a g o n i s t i c behavior became l e s s pronounced. Besides the c o n s i s t e n t evidence of b e h a v i o r a l r e c i p r o c i t y between s i b l i n g s , an element of s t a b i l i t y was found i n same-sex (but not mixed-sex) dyads: the general a f f e c t i v e tone ( p r o p o r t i o n of p r o s o c i a l to a l l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s ) remained constant over the 3-year p e r i o d . Consistency i n a f f e c t i v e tone of the s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p was a l s o found ( r e g a r d l e s s of sex composition) by Dunn and Kendrick (1982a). C h i l d r e n who at age 3 had shown frequent f r i e n d l y and r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t 45 h o s t i l e behavior toward t h e i r younger s i b l i n g , were most l i k e l y to be d e s c r i b e d as s h a r i n g w i l l i n g l y and h a p p i l y with the s i b l i n g at age 6. The data on s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g the e a r l y elementary school years are somewhat c o n f l i c t i n g . An o b s e r v a t i o n a l study by Baskett and Johnson (1982) found no age e f f e c t s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n s between 4- to 8-year-old c h i l d r e n and t h e i r s i b l i n g s , on such general behavior c a t e g o r i e s as p l a y i n g or working together, a f f e c t i o n a t e or a g g r e s s i v e p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t , and requests to i n i t i a t e or stop behavior. Peterson et a l . (1984) a l s o found no age d i f f e r e n c e s i n parents' e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s h a r i n g between 3-to 12-year-old c h i l d r e n and t h e i r s i b l i n g s . On a parent-r e p o r t measure of behavior problems i n 2- t o 12-year-old c h i l d r e n , however, Robinson et a l . (1980) found v e r b a l f i g h t i n g with s i b l i n g s t o peak at age 6. An o b s e r v a t i o n a l study by Bryant and Crockenberg (1980) found that 7-year-old g i r l s i n i t i a t e d s h a r i n g and comforting approximately h a l f as o f t e n as t h e i r 10-year-old s i s t e r s ; however, the younger s i b l i n g s were a l s o somewhat l e s s l i k e l y t o r e f u s e s h a r i n g or help, or to d i s comfort t h e i r s i s t e r s . Minnett, V a n d e l l , and Santrock (1983) observed a s h i f t from dominant and t e a c h e r / l e a r n e r i n t e r a c t i o n s between 4- to 8-year-old s i b l i n g s , to a more j o y f u l working and p l a y i n g together among 7- to 12-year-olds. Stocker, Dunn, and Plomin (1988) r e c e n t l y r e p o r t e d that i n t h e i r sample of 3- to 10-year-46 o l d s , o l d e r ages of both the younger and the o l d e r s i b l i n g s were a s s o c i a t e d with more p o s i t i v e s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between age gap and q u a l i t y of s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n i s , s u r p r i s i n g l y , not a s t r o n g one i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . Although s t u d i e s of middle c h i l d h o o d i n d i c a t e that the i n t e r v a l between s i b l i n g s i s of c o n s i d e r a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e (Dunn, 1983), and o c c a s i o n a l r e p o r t s of more p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between widely-spaced s i b l i n g s at an e a r l i e r age are found (e.g., Minnett et a l . , 1983), most s t u d i e s of preschool-aged s i b l i n g s f i n d no e f f e c t of age spac i n g on p r o s o c i a l or a g o n i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n s (Abramovitch et a l . , 1986; Dunn, 1983; Dunn & Kendrick, 1982a). Data on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex composition and s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n are c o n f l i c t i n g . Some s t u d i e s f i n d more p r o s o c i a l behavior i n s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s from g i r l s and and more a g o n i s t i c behavior from boys (e.g., Abramovitch, C o r t e r , & Lando, 1979; Brody, Stonemari, MacKinnon, & MacKinnon, 1985; C i c i r e l l i , 1976). There i s a l s o evidence f o r more p r o s o c i a l and l e s s a g o n i s t i c behavior between both same-sex p a i r s (e.g., Dunn & Kendrick, 1982a; Whiting & Pope-Edwards, 1977) and mixed-sex p a i r s (e.g., Minnett et a l . , 1983). Other s t u d i e s f i n d few or no s e x - r e l a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s at a l l (e.g., Abramovitch et a l . , 1986; Lamb, 1978). An i n t e r e s t i n g argument i s made i n Dunn's (1983) review of the l i t e r a t u r e on e a r l y s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t , "while t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t i n g evidence over sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s behavior toward t h e i r s i b l i n g s ... d i f f e r e n t i a l 47 p a r e n t a l behavior i s c l o s e l y i m p l i c a t e d i n the d i f f e r e n c e s between same-sex and d i f f e r e n t - s e x p a i r s " (p. 803). O v e r a l l , a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of c o n f l i c t seems to c h a r a c t e r i z e s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . The great v a r i a b i l i t y between f a m i l i e s and evidence of w i t h i n - f a m i l y b e h a v i o r a l r e c i p r o c i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y of a f f e c t i v e tone over time, suggest that f a m i l y context v a r i a b l e s such as p a r e n t i n g behavior may have a moderating e f f e c t on s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . C e r t a i n p a r e n t i n g behaviors and s t y l e s appear to be a s s o c i a t e d with more p o s i t i v e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . A warm, responsive approach with an emphasis on d i s c u s s i n g , prompting, and r e i n f o r c i n g p r o s o c i a l behavior, c o n s i s t e n c y i n treatment of s i b l i n g s , and f i r m yet moderate c o n t r o l of a n t i s o c i a l behavior t y p i f i e s the c h i l d r e a r i n g approach which has p r e d i c t e d good s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s (e.g., Brody et al-. , 1986; Dunn & Munn, 1986; Hinde et a l . , 1985; P a t t e r s o n , 1986). The s p e c i f i c p a r e n t i n g techniques r e l a t e d to p o s i t i v e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s vary a c c o r d i n g to the ages of the c h i l d r e n i n v o l v e d ; f o r example, g r a d u a l l y d e c r e a s i n g l e v e l s of p a r e n t a l involvement or c o n t r o l are a s s o c i a t e d with good s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s throughout the e a r l y c h i l d h o o d years (e.g., Howe & Ross, 1988; Stocker et a l . , 1988). As most of the s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n l i t e r a t u r e i s c o r r e l a t i o n a l i n nature, however, the d i r e c t i o n a l i t y of e f f e c t s cannot be determined. In a d d i t i o n , there are no s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g 48 the r e l a t i o n s h i p between parent behavior and s h a r i n g between s i b l i n g s . Given the importance of s h a r i n g f o r young c h i l d r e n , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that a s u b s t a n t i a l body of r e s e a r c h e x i s t s concerning e f f o r t s to modify and enhance s h a r i n g among preschool-aged c h i l d r e n . The major c o n t r i b u t i o n s to t h i s l i t e r a t u r e are reviewed below, with a view to determining the most e f f e c t i v e and r e l e v a n t approaches f o r a p r e v e n t i v e , p a r e n t - l e d s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n f o r young s i b l i n g s . The e f f e c t s of p a r t i c u l a r toys and other environmental f a c t o r s on c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g and c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y have been s t u d i e d s i n c e the 1930's (e.g., Hulson, 1930; Parten, 1933; Van A l s t y n e , 1932). With remarkable c o n s i s t e n c y , l i s t s of toys most l i k e l y to be used c o o p e r a t i v e l y by young c h i l d r e n have i n c l u d e d : b l o c k s , small v e h i c l e s (e.g., toy t r u c k s , c a r s , t r a i n s ) , d o l l s and d o l l h o u s e equipment, housekeeping and k i t c h e n equipment, l a r g e toys or s t r u c t u r e s (e.g., see-saw, c l i m b i n g frame), and wagons (e.g., Q u i l i t i c h & R i s l e y , 1973; Stoneman, C a n t r e l l , & Hoover-Dempsey, 1983). F i n d i n g s from s t u d i e s of i s o l a t e p l a y and p o s s e s s i o n - r e l a t e d d i s p u t e s are a l s o h i g h l y c o n s i s t e n t : the o b j e c t s l e a s t l i k e l y to be shared and most l i k e l y t o be fought over tend to be f i n e -motor "m a n i p u l a t i v e s " or c o n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s such as t i n k e r toys, beads, p u z z l e s , and a r t s and c r a f t s s u p p l i e s (e.g., Barton & Hart, 1980; Beckman & Kohl, 1984; Hendrickson, Tremblay, S t r a i n , & Shores, 1981; Rubin, 1977). Ramsey (1986) suggests that o b j e c t s which f u n c t i o n as props i n f a n t a s y p l a y (e.g., d o l l s , d i s h e s ) or which can be e a s i l y used by more than one c h i l d (e.g., wagon, c l i m b i n g frame) are p a r t i c u l a r l y conducive to s h a r i n g , whereas o b j e c t s which must be accumulated to be used (e.g., beads, c r a f t m a t e r i a l s ) are not e a s i l y shared and i n c i t e c o n f l i c t . I n t r o d u c i n g a l i m i t e d number of h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e toys (Oden, Wheeler, & Herzberger, 1984; Ramsey, 1986), reducing the number of p r e v i o u s l y a v a i l a b l e toys (Getz & Berndt, 1982), and g i v i n g a c h i l d a toy as a personal p o s s e s s i o n (Eisenberg-Berg, Haake, Hand, & S a d a l l a , 1979; Tiedemann, C r o s s - C a l v e r t , Johnston, Palme, & McMahon, 1987) a l l tend to decrease s h a r i n g and i n c r e a s e c o n f l i c t . The presence or absence of a d u l t s i s a l s o an important environmental v a r i a b l e . A number of s t u d i e s of age-peers i n nursery school and l a b o r a t o r y s e t t i n g s have found that the presence of an a d u l t i s a s s o c i a t e d with i n c r e a s e s i n ag g r e s s i v e behavior, decreases i n c o o p e r a t i v e and p r o s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s , and depressed l e v e l s of peer i n t e r a c t i o n o v e r a l l ; the absence of an a d u l t produces the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t s (e.g., Besevegis & Lore, 1983; Brody, Stoneman, & Wheatley, 1984; F i e l d , 1979). S i m i l a r f i n d i n g s have been obtained f o r the e f f e c t of mother presence and absence on s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s i n both l a b o r a t o r y and home s t u d i e s (Abramovitch et a l . , 1979, 1980; C o r t e r et a l . , 1982, 1983; Lamb, 1978). Mothers' p e r c e p t i o n s are congruent w i t h these f i n d i n g s : 72% of mothers i n t e r v i e w e d by C o r t e r et a l . (1983) 50 r e p o r t e d that t h e i r c h i l d r e n got along b e t t e r i n t h e i r absence. A major confounding f a c t o r , however, c o n s t r a i n s the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these f i n d i n g s : the behavior of the a d u l t i n the " a d u l t p r e s e n t " c o n d i t i o n of these s t u d i e s . In a l l l a b o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the a d u l t i n q u e s t i o n was i n s t r u c t e d to not i n i t i a t e i n t e r a c t i o n s with the c h i l d r e n , but to keep busy with paperwork, respond b r i e f l y to any i n i t i a t i o n s from the c h i l d r e n , and g e n e r a l l y take a p a s s i v e , detached approach to the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s . In the home s e t t i n g s , mothers were t o l d t o go about t h e i r normal household r o u t i n e , p l a c i n g no p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . I t i s l i k e l y , then, that the behavior of the a d u l t s i n a l l cases c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as "busy", and not p a r t i c u l a r l y d i r e c t e d towards the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s . There i s some evidence that t h i s i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n . For example, T z e l e p i s , G i b l i n , and Agronow (1983) found that daycare workers who d i s p l a y e d a higher r a t e of a d u l t - i n i t i a t e d p o s i t i v e contacts with c h i l d r e n f a c i l i t a t e d peer c o n t a c t s w i t h i n newly-formed daycare groups to a g r e a t e r extent than d i d workers who i n i t i a t e d fewer c o n t a c t s . Barton, Olszewski, and Madsen (1979) found that toy s h a r i n g i n a preschool was f a c i l i t a t e d by the presence of an a d u l t who had implemented t r a i n i n g i n s h a r i n g s k i l l s and who continued to i n t e r a c t with the c h i l d r e n , but that s h a r i n g was i n h i b i t e d by the presence of n o n - i n t e r a c t i v e observers. Thus, th e r e i s evidence t h a t , 51 although the presence of an uni n v o l v e d a d u l t w i l l depress s h a r i n g and make c o n f l i c t more l i k e l y than the absence of an a d u l t , the presence of an i n v o l v e d a d u l t w i l l have p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . A few i n v e s t i g a t o r s have examined the e f f e c t s of b r i e f , o ne-session i n t e r v e n t i o n s on young c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g behavior. B l a c k w e l l et a l . (1980) found power a s s e r t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s (e.g., "Please share your p a i n t s with her") and i n d u c t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s (e.g., " I f you share your p a i n t s , she can have fun p a i n t i n g too") to be e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e at i n c r e a s i n g 4 - y e a r - o l d s ' s h a r i n g ( r e l a t i v e to a no-i n s t r u c t i o n c o n t r o l group) both immediately and at a 1-week g e n e r a l i z a t i o n t r i a l . More r e c e n t l y , B i r c h and B i l l m a n (1986) found that 3- to 5-year-old c h i l d r e n who had r e c e n t l y been the r e c i p i e n t s i n a s h a r i n g i n c i d e n t were more l i k e l y to share than were c h i l d r e n who had not had t h i s experience. They a l s o observed t h a t , although c h i l d r e n r a r e l y shared spontaneously, p e r s i s t e n t requests from another c h i l d were e f f e c t i v e i n e l i c i t i n g s h a r i n g . (The prominent r o l e of requests i n i n i t i a t i n g s h a r i n g has a l s o been noted by I a n n o t t i , 1981 and Jones, 1985.) Most i n t e r v e n t i o n s designed t o improve s h a r i n g s k i l l s i n young c h i l d r e n have taken the form of somewhat longer-term programmes, with b r i e f t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s spaced over s e v e r a l days or weeks (see Barton, 1982 & 1986, f o r reviews of s e v e r a l s h a r i n g programmes). Outcome data f o r the v a r i o u s types of s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s are examined below, i n c l u d i n g 52 programmes u s i n g : s t o r i e s and d i s c u s s i o n , modeling, s t r a t e g i c placement, peer t r a i n i n g , correspondence t r a i n i n g , p o s i t i v e p r a c t i c e , and b e h a v i o r a l t r a i n i n g packages. T r e p a n i e r and Romatowski (1982) d e s c r i b e d a 3-week programme i n which teachers read s t o r i e s i n v o l v i n g s h a r i n g -r e l a t e d i n c i d e n t s to low-sharing k i n d e r g a r t e n and Grade 1 students, and l e d subsequent d i s c u s s i o n s f o c u s s i n g on f e e l i n g s and problem-solving s t r a t e g i e s . Although there was some evidence of improvement ( r e l a t i v e to a c o n t r o l group) on v e r b a l measures r e l a t e d to s h a r i n g (e.g., responses to h y p o t h e t i c a l s h a r i n g problems), the changes were s m a l l , and there was no measure of a c t u a l s h a r i n g behavior. A Russian study (Yakobson & Pocherevina, 1982) a l s o r e p o r t e d verbal and b e h a v i o r a l improvements i n s h a r i n g among young c h i l d r e n f o l l o w i n g a s e r i e s of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d s t o r i e s , although f u l l d e t a i l s of the study are not a v a i l a b l e i n E n g l i s h . The use of s t o r i e s and d i s c u s s i o n to i n f l u e n c e s h a r i n g behavior thus remains a r e l a t i v e l y untested but promising technique. Modeling has been examined i n a number of d i f f e r e n t s t u d i e s and i n a v a r i e t y of forms. G e l l e r and S c h e i r e r (1978) used f i l m e d modeling to promote s h a r i n g among preschool c h i l d r e n . Although there were some immediate i n c r e a s e s i n s h a r i n g f o l l o w i n g the modeling p r e s e n t a t i o n s , improvements among disadvantaged, low-sharing c h i l d r e n d i d not g e n e r a l i z e to the r e g u l a r classroom, and m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d r e n maintained gains only when the p r e s e n t a t i o n contained an e x t e n s i v e audio component. Rogers-Warren, 53 Warren, and Baer (1977) found a l i v e a d u l t model to have no e f f e c t on c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g behavior. Jason and c o l l e a g u e s conducted two s t u d i e s of " s t r a t e g i c placement" (Jason, Robson, & L i p s h u t z , 1980; Jason, Soucy, & Ferone, 1980), i n which low-sharing c h i l d r e n were pl a c e d i n small groups with h i g h - s h a r i n g peer models f o r s e v e r a l p l a y s e s s i o n s . Although the low-sharers improved, they r e t u r n e d to b a s e l i n e l e v e l s when the s e s s i o n s were ended. Thus, although the informal modeling and prompting p r o v i d e d by s k i l l e d peers (Barton, 1982) may temp o r a r i l y boost t h e i r l e s s - s k i l l e d companions' performance, these do not appear s u f f i c i e n t t o produce durable changes i n s h a r i n g . Peer t r a i n i n g , a more s t r u c t u r e d v e r s i o n of s t r a t e g i c placement i n which h i g h - i n t e r a c t i n g peer confederates are t r a i n e d to i n i t i a t e s h a r i n g and other p r o s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s with l o w - i n t e r a c t i n g c h i l d r e n , has been e x t e n s i v e l y s t u d i e d with young handicapped c h i l d r e n ( p r i m a r i l y a u t i s t i c and mentally r e t a r d e d ) . R e s u l t s have been promising (e.g., Day, Powell, Dy-Lin, & Stowitschek, 1982; Hendrikson, S t r a i n , Tremblay, & Shores, 1982; Odom, Hoyson, Jamieson, & S t r a i n , 1985), but g e n e r a l i z a t i o n data are poor, and the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of peer t r a i n i n g to non-handicapped c h i l d r e n has not been t e s t e d . Correspondence t r a i n i n g uses modeling and reinforcement to teach c h i l d r e n to r e p o r t t h e i r s h a r i n g behavior a f t e r a play p e r i o d , and may i n c l u d e teaching c h i l d r e n to d e s c r i b e 54 t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s f o r s h a r i n g before a play p e r i o d as w e l l . Rogers-Warren and Baer (1976) and Rogers-Warren et a l . (1977) found correspondence t r a i n i n g to i n c r e a s e both v e r b a l r e p o r t s and a c t u a l s h a r i n g behavior, p a r t i c u l a r l y when c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d reinforcement f o r only accurate r e p o r t s of s h a r i n g . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n data, however, were weak. Barton, Madsen, and Olzsewski (1978) omitted the modeling component, and found correspondence t r a i n i n g t o have no e f f e c t on s h a r i n g behavior, thus s u g g e s t i n g that modelling may be the a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t i n t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n . D i r e c t b e h a v i o r a l 1y-based t r a i n i n g has been the most e x t e n s i v e l y researched approach to enhancing s h a r i n g s k i l l s i n young c h i l d r e n . A few s t u d i e s have used simple, one- or two-technique i n t e r v e n t i o n s t o modify s h a r i n g behavior. Barton and Osborne (1978), f o r example, t r a i n e d a k i n d e r g a r t e n teacher i n p o s i t i v e p r a c t i c e techniques f o r use with her low-sharing, h e a r i n g - i m p a i r e d students. R e q u i r i n g c h i l d r e n to p r a c t i s e a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g behavior contingent on i n a p p r o p r i a t e behavior produced s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s over b a s e l i n e s h a r i n g l e v e l s , which were g e n e r a l l y maintained i n t o the f o l l o w i n g school year. Although there were no maturational c o n t r o l s , an ABA withdrawal design d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g phase d i d demonstrate c o n t r o l over s h a r i n g behavior. Warren, Rogers-Warren, and Baer (1976) r e p o r t e d that food and p r a i s e rewards i n c r e a s e d the r a t e of c h i l d r e n ' s share o f f e r s , and Fox, Shores, Lindeman, and 55 S t r a i n (1986) found teacher prompts and p r a i s e to i n c r e a s e s h a r i n g i n l o w - i n t e r a c t i n g preschool c h i l d r e n . Most be h a v i o r a l 1y-based i n t e r v e n t i o n s , however, have taken the form of more complex treatment programmes. Two programmes i n p a r t i c u l a r dominate the s h a r i n g l i t e r a t u r e : "SCIPPY" (Day, Powell, & Stowitschek, 1980) and the Barton and Ascione-type programme (1979). "SCIPPY" ( S o c i a l Competence I n t e r v e n t i o n Package f o r Preschool Youngsters) was developed f o r teachers to use w i t h s o c i a l l y - i s o l a t e d handicapped c h i l d r e n , and combines s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s , prompting, modeling, p r a i s e and peer t r a i n i n g . Two other s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s (p l a y o r g a n i z i n g and a s s i s t i n g ) are taught i n a d d i t i o n to s h a r i n g , although s h a r i n g i s the most f r e q u e n t l y used behavior (Day et a l . 1982). The s t r u c t u r e d p l a y a c t i v i t i e s , which form the context f o r t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , i n v o l v e p r i m a r i l y h i g h -s h a r i n g toys such as wagons, b l o c k s , b a l l s and housekeeping equipment. H i g h - i n t e r a c t i n g "peer h e l p e r s " are taught to i n i t i a t e and extend play with l o w - i n t e r a c t i n g c h i l d r e n , and t e a c h e r s a l s o use v e r b a l and p h y s i c a l prompts, modeling and c o n t i n g e n t p r a i s e with t a r g e t c h i l d r e n d i r e c t l y . A 1983 review of SCIPPY r e s e a r c h (Day e t a l . ) r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e s i n s h a r i n g and other s o c i a l behaviors across a number of s t u d i e s . S e t t i n g and response g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , however, were poor, and no follow-up data were rep o r t e d . Although the SCIPPY programme has been used p r i m a r i l y w i t h handicapped p r e s c h o o l e r s , Day et a l . (1983) report that nine 56 of the l o w - i n t e r a c t i n g c h i l d r e n i n one study were non-handicapped, and responded well to the SCIPPY i n t e r v e n t i o n . D i r e c t s h a r i n g - t r a i n i n g programmes of the type d e s c r i b e d by Barton and Ascione (1979) have been used e x t e n s i v e l y to promote s h a r i n g among normal c h i l d r e n , as w e l l as w i t h handicapped p o p u l a t i o n s . The f i r s t i n t e r v e n t i o n of t h i s k i n d was reported by Cooke and A p o l l o n i i n 1976. Four c h i l d r e n , age 6 to 9, who had l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s and behavior problems, p a r t i c i p a t e d over an 8-week p e r i o d i n twenty-three 16-minute t r a i n i n g sessions'conducted by a r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t . Sharing was one of four p r o s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s taught, and was the second to be introduced (at the s i x t h t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n ) i n a m u l t i p l e - b a s e l i n e d e s i g n across responses. At the b e g i n n i n g of each t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , the a s s i s t a n t b r i e f l y reminded the c h i l d r e n of, and modeled the t a r g e t b e h a v i o r ( s ) and gave each c h i l d a basket of toys with h i s / h e r name on i t . The c h i l d r e n were then f r e e to p l a y , and the a s s i s t a n t modeled, prompted and p r a i s e d t a r g e t response(s) throughout the p l a y s e s s i o n . Immediately f o l l o w i n g each t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , t h r e e u n t r a i n e d classmates were brought i n t o the room and g i v e n t h e i r own toy baskets, and the a s s i s t a n t l e f t . A 16-minute f r e e - p l a y p e r i o d ( g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s e s s i o n ) ensued. Si x f u r t h e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s e s s i o n s took p l a c e across 4 weeks f o l l o w i n g the t e r m i n a t i o n of t r a i n i n g . S haring i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y over b a s e l i n e l e v e l s f o l l o w i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n of d i r e c t t r a i n i n g of t h i s 57 response, both f o r t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d s u b j e c t s . Treatment gains were maintained, a l b e i t at somewhat reduced l e v e l s , d u r i n g the post-treatment g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s e s s i o n s . (Sharing t r a i n i n g had no e f f e c t on the two l a t e r - t r a i n e d behaviors: p o s i t i v e p h y s i c a l contact and compliments). Thus, the Cooke and A p o l l o n i programme demonstrated the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a b e h a v i o r a l package treatment f o r s h a r i n g , not only i n the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , but across u n t r a i n e d s u b j e c t s , s e t t i n g s (absence of t r a i n e r ) and over a b r i e f follow-up p e r i o d . Peck, A p o l l o n i , Cooke, and Raver (1978) used a s i m i l a r "package" of modeling, prompts and reinforcement ( p r a i s e and hugs) to i n c r e a s e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and a p p r o p r i a t e toy p l a y i n t h r e e m e n t a l l y - r e t a r d e d p r e s c h o o l e r s . In t h i s study, however, normal peers served as models, and s h a r i n g was not coded s e p a r a t e l y . S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g of s h a r i n g , t a l k i n g and g e s t u r i n g , i n c r e a s e d a c r o s s the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d ( t e n , e l e v e n and twenty 4-minute s e s s i o n s f o r each s u b j e c t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , and to a somewhat l e s s e r degree duri n g 3-minute g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s e s s i o n s h e l d a f t e r each t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n without the t r a i n e r present. No f o l l o w - u p data were r e p o r t e d . Two subsequent s t u d i e s used packages s i m i l a r to Cooke and A p o l l o n i ' s (1976). Sato, Zunino, and Claerhout (1978) used i n s t r u c t i o n s , peer modeling, r e h e a r s a l and p r a i s e d u r i n g 5-minute a r t a c t i v i t i e s , to i n c r e a s e s h a r i n g , h e l p i n g and p r a i s i n g i n three 6- to 8-year-old o r t h o p e d i c a l l y -handicapped c h i l d r e n . Immediate i n c r e a s e s i n p r o s o c i a l 58 behavior were found f o r each of the s u b j e c t s , but t e r m i n a t i o n of treatment brought a r e t u r n to b a s e l i n e l e v e l s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the broad response d e f i n i t i o n used precludes examination of treatment e f f e c t s on s h a r i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r . Jason et a l . (1980) t r a i n e d s i x low-sharing students, age 6 to 10, by means of i n s t r u c t i o n s , modeling, behavior r e h e a r s a l , p r a i s e and feedback. Although s h a r i n g i n c r e a s e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y , data were un s t a b l e , and again gains were not maintained f o l l o w i n g t e r m i n a t i o n of t r a i n i n g . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that these two s t u d i e s used c o n s i d e r a b l y b r i e f e r i n t e r v e n t i o n s than t h e i r more s u c c e s s f u l predecessors, and d i d not i n c l u d e prompting as a treatment component. In 1979, Barton and Ascione p u b l i s h e d the r e s u l t s of an expanded v e r s i o n of the Cooke and A p o l l o n i (1976) programme, and t h i s has become the b a s i s of most subsequent s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s . T h i r t y - t w o p r e s c h o o l e r s , with no repo r t e d s h a r i n g or other problems, p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the study (eight as no-treatment c o n t r o l s ) . A f t e r s u p e r v i s i n g e i g h t b a s e l i n e f r e e - p l a y s e s s i o n s , undergraduate r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s conducted e i g h t 16-minute t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s with separate groups of f o u r c h i l d r e n , i n a small playroom equipped with s e v e r a l m u l t i p l e - p i e c e toys (e.g., b l o c k s , graduated c y l i n d e r s , a n i m a l s ) . D i f f e r e n t groups of c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n d i f f e r e n t s h a r i n g component s k i l l s . E i g h t c h i l d r e n were taught only v e r b a l s h a r i n g s k i l l s ( a p p r o p r i a t e i n v i t i n g , 59 r e q u e s t i n g and a c c e p t i n g ) , e i g h t were taught only p h y s i c a l s h a r i n g s k i l l s ( g i v i n g away or a l l o w i n g one's toys to be taken, a p p r o p r i a t e t a k i n g and j o i n t toy u s e ) , and e i g h t were taught both v e r b a l and p h y s i c a l s h a r i n g s k i l l s . At the begi n n i n g of each t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , the a s s i s t a n t p r o v i d e d the c h i l d r e n with a b r i e f r a t i o n a l e f o r the importance of s h a r i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n s on how to share (e.g., "We can share by asking someone e l s e to p l a y with a toy with u s " ) . The a s s i s t a n t then asked one c h i l d to model the behavior s e v e r a l times, and p r a i s e d a p p r o p r i a t e demonstrations. The other c h i l d r e n were then asked to b r i e f l y rehearse s h a r i n g with each other, and a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g was prompted and p r a i s e d . F o l l o w i n g a b r i e f review, a f r e e - p l a y p e r i o d (approximately 10 minutes) occupied the r e s t of the s e s s i o n . The a s s i s t a n t prompted and p r a i s e d s h a r i n g , to a maximum of four prompts and f o u r p r a i s e s per c h i l d . ( C o n t r o l c h i l d r e n were read a shor t s t o r y and engaged i n f r e e play i n the same s e t t i n g ) . Immediately f o l l o w i n g the f r e e - p l a y p e r i o d , each group of c h i l d r e n was taken t o a d i f f e r e n t room where another rese a r c h a s s i s t a n t s u p e r v i s e d a 12-minute a r t p e r i o d ( g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s e s s i o n ) . Although s e v e r a l s e t s of a r t m a t e r i a l s were a v a i l a b l e (e.g., crayons, magic markers, r u l e r s ) , the number of m a t e r i a l s i n a set was always one fewer than the number of c h i l d r e n present (e.g., three s c i s s o r s f o r four c h i l d r e n ) . F o l l o w i n g the t e r m i n a t i o n of t r a i n i n g , e i g h t f u r t h e r f r e e - p l a y and a r t s e s s i o n s were 60 conducted. F i v e f o l l o w - u p f r e e - p l a y and a r t s e s s i o n s took p l a c e 4 weeks a f t e r t r a i n i n g ended. B a s e l i n e data showed ve r b a l sharing to be an extremely r a r e occurence, and r e f u s a l s (noncompliance to a v e r b a l attempt to share) o c c u r r e d i n f r e q u e n t l y throughout the study. P h y s i c a l s h a r i n g occurred approximately 3 times more o f t e n with toys than w i t h a r t m a t e r i a l s . The treatment phase brought lar g e i n c r e a s e s i n v e r b a l s h a r i n g to the two groups d i r e c t l y t r a i n e d i n t h i s response, but only i n the t r a i n i n g s e t t i n g , and these gains were l o s t when treatment was terminated. P h y s i c a l s h a r i n g , i n c o n t r a s t , i n c r e a s e d i n a l l three treatment groups i n both the t r a i n i n g and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s e t t i n g s . F o l l o w i n g the t e r m i n a t i o n of treatment, a l l treatment groups continued to share p h y s i c a l l y more than c o n t r o l s . The group t r a i n e d i n p h y s i c a l s h a r i n g only, however, showed a s i g n i f i c a n t drop from treatment-phase l e v e l s . At follow-up, the three t r a i n e d groups were s t i l l p h y s i c a l l y s h a r i n g more than the c o n t r o l group. The "verbal s h a r i n g o n l y " and the "verbal and p h y s i c a l s h a r i n g " groups continued to maintain the h i g h e s t l e v e l s , s h a r i n g approximately 5 times more o f t e n than at the study's outset with the t o y s , and 4 times more o f t e n with the a r t m a t e r i a l s . The authors suggested that t r a i n i n g i n v e r b a l components of s h a r i n g taught c h i l d r e n to a p p r o p r i a t e l y set up and prompt sharing i n t e r a c t i o n s , making frequent p h y s i c a l s h a r i n g e a s i e r to e s t a b l i s h . 61 Thus, Barton and Ascione (1979) demonstrated the u t i l i t y of an e i g h t - s e s s i o n b e h a v i o r a l treatment package i n promoting s h a r i n g between normal preschool-aged c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when v e r b a l s h a r i n g s k i l l s are d i r e c t l y taught. A number of r e p l i c a t i o n s t u d i e s followed, i n v e s t i g a t i n g v a r i o u s aspects of the programme with normal p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . A l l found the Barton and Ascione (1979) i n t e r v e n t i o n to i n c r e a s e s h a r i n g rates over b a s e l i n e l e v e l s , and/or i n c o n t r a s t to c o n t r o l groups (Barton, 1981; Barton & B e v i r t , 1981; Barton et a l . , 1978; Barton et a l . , 1979; Fowler, 1979; Kohler & Fowler, 1985; P a r t i n g t o n , 1980). Fowler (1979) added a correspondence t r a i n i n g component, and c o n t r a s t e d immediate versus delayed reinforcement f o r a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g . Both reinforcement c o n d i t i o n s l e d to improvements, with delayed reinforcement showing some advantage. Kohler and Fowler (1985) s u c c e s s f u l l y added a p e e r - t r a i n i n g component to t r e a t one c h i l d who e x h i b i t e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y high r a t e s of share i n v i t a t i o n s d u r i n g d i r e c t t r a i n i n g ( r o v i n g from one group t o the next, making numerous o f f e r s and requests without w a i t i n g f o r a r e p l y ) . A component a n a l y s i s of the s h a r i n g programme was conducted by Barton (1981), with components added s e q u e n t i a l l y over s e v e r a l s e s s i o n s . I n s t r u c t i o n s , peer modelling and r e i n f o r c i n g the peer model showed minimal or no e f f e c t s on s h a r i n g r a t e s ; b e h a v i o r a l r e h e a r s a l with feedback and p r a i s e brought some i n c r e a s e s , and the a d d i t i o n of i n - s e s s i o n 62 prompts and p r a i s e each brought s u b s t a n t i a l improvements i n c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g . Barton et a l . (1978) compared t h i s d i r e c t s h a r i n g t r a i n i n g method to a more i n d i r e c t one: correspondence t r a i n i n g . The correspondence t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n f o l l o w e d that used by Rogers-Warren and Baer (1976), with the e x c e p t i o n that m o d e l l i n g was omitted, and c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d i n t e n t i o n s to share before p l a y i n g i n a d d i t i o n to g i v i n g a f t e r - p l a y s h a r i n g r e p o r t s . Correspondence t r a i n i n g i n t h i s study had no e f f e c t on s h a r i n g b e h a v i o r , * e i t h e r i n the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s or i n a concurrent g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s e t t i n g . D i r e c t s h a r i n g t r a i n i n g , however, brought s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s i n p h y s i c a l s h a r i n g i n the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s , and a c l e a r i n c r e a s e as well i n the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s e s s i o n s . These r e p l i c a t i o n s t u d i e s have made some assessments of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n : d u r i n g t r a i n i n g phases, improvements were shown to g e n e r a l i z e to a d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g (Barton et a l . , 1978), p a r t i c u l a r l y under delayed reinforcement c o n d i t i o n s (Fowler, 1979) or when an a d u l t s u p e r v i s o r was present (Barton et a l . , 1979). Barton and B e v i r t (1981) and Kohler and Fowler (1985) found u n t r a i n e d c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g to improve d u r i n g p l a y s e s s i o n s with t r a i n e d c h i l d r e n . Treatment gains were maintained (at somewhat reduced l e v e l s ) over a 5-day follow-up (Barton & B e v i r t , 1981), over a 10-day follow-up, but only when an a d u l t s u p e r v i s o r was present (Barton et a l . , 1979), and over a 3- to 4-week follow-up (Kohler & Fowler, 1985). 63 Thus, the immediate e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Barton and Ascione (1979) s h a r i n g programme was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n data were encouraging, but longer-term followup data were l a c k i n g . Bryant and Budd (1984) expanded the programme f u r t h e r to i n c l u d e more d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s t o c h i l d r e n and a f i n e r - g r a i n e d d e f i n i t i o n of s h a r i n g component s k i l l s . C h i l d r e n were given t r a i n i n g i n o f f e r s , r e q u e s t s , acceptances and a p p r o p r i a t e r e f u s a l s (e.g., "No, I j u s t got i t , but you can have i t i n a l i t t l e w h i l e " ) . Examples of i n a p p r o p r i a t e , non-sharing behaviors (e.g., grabbing, d i s r u p t i n g p l a y ) were a l s o given. Component s k i l l s and non-s h a r i n g behaviors were coded i n d i v i d u a l l y ( i . e . , o f f e r s , r equests, acceptances, r e f u s a l s , t a k i n g without asking, opposing p l a y , a g g r e s s i o n ) . S i x students i n a remedial preschool programme f o r c h i l d r e n with behavior problems ( f o u r a l s o had c o g n i t i v e , language and/or motor del a y s ) r e c e i v e d f o u r 10-minute s h a r i n g t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s from t h e i r r e g u l a r teacher. Two c h i l d r e n at a time were t r a i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: In the f i r s t s e s s i o n , the teacher d i s c u s s e d p o s i t i v e and negative examples of s h a r i n g , and modelled a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g w i t h one c h i l d , prompting and p r a i s i n g s h a r i n g , and i n v o l v i n g the other c h i l d by asking q u e s t i o n s about the behaviors being modeled. In the second s e s s i o n , the teacher b r i e f l y reviewed s h a r i n g concepts, modeled s h a r i n g with the second c h i l d , asked the two c h i l d r e n to p r a c t i c e s h a r i n g 64 together, and prompted and p r a i s e d a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g behavior. I n a p p r o p r i a t e behavior was handled by s t o p p i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n , t e l l i n g the c h i l d r e n that that i s not how to share, and prompting a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g behavior. The t h i r d and f o u r t h s e s s i o n s c o n s i s t e d of f u r t h e r behavior r e h e a r s a l , c o r r e c t i n g , prompting and p r a i s i n g . A f t e r each t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n , the c h i l d r e n were reminded to t a l k about and p r a c t i c e s h a r i n g w i t h a l l the other c h i l d r e n , and r e j o i n e d the r e s t of the c l a s s f o r a 20-minute f r e e p l a y s e s s i o n . The teacher and two classroom aides p r o v i d e d " c o r r e c t i o n , prompts and p r a i s e f o r s h a r i n g to a l l t r a i n e d c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h i s p l ay p e r i o d . Sharing behaviors i n c r e a s e d and n e g a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s decreased f o l l o w i n g t r a i n i n g . S p e c i f i c a l l y , Bryant and Budd (1984) found t h a t : t r a i n i n g i n c r e a s e d the frequency of a l l s h a r i n g component s k i l l s ; the p r o p o r t i o n of acceptances to requests and o f f e r s i n c r e a s e d with t r a i n i n g ; v e r b a l o p p o s i t i o n to p l a y decreased as a r e s u l t of treatment; d e s p i t e i n c r e a s e d teacher prompts during t r a i n i n g , most s h a r i n g was unprompted, and followed by teacher p r a i s e . In a d d i t i o n , c h i l d r e n were asked i n p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w s to d e s c r i b e what s h a r i n g i s , and how to get a toy from another c h i l d . Before t r a i n i n g , only one of the s i x c h i l d r e n was able to d e s c r i b e a c c u r a t e l y any component s h a r i n g s k i l l , and four o f f e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r o b t a i n i n g a toy. A f t e r t r a i n i n g , f i v e c h i l d r e n d e s c r i b e d at l e a s t one s h a r i n g 65 component s k i l l , and f i v e gave a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g y responses. No follow-up data were c o l l e c t e d . However, r e g u l a r classroom assessments i n c l u d e d the c h e c k l i s t item, "Is the c h i l d s e l f i s h i n h i s or her i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h others (e.g., r e f u s i n g to share t h i n g s or r e f u s i n g to p l a y with the other c h i l d r e n ) ? " , on which teachers rated c h i l d r e n on a 5-point s c a l e from 1 (very o f t e n s e l f i s h ) to 5 (not at a l l s e l f i s h ) . The c h i l d r e n ' s r a t i n g s averaged 2.9 be f o r e treatment, 3.6 a f t e r treatment, and 3.4 during the f o l l o w i n g year i n a d i f f e r e n t classroom. Without a no-treatment group t o c o n t r o l f o r maturation, of course, i t i s impossible to determine how much of t h i s change was due to age e f f e c t s . A f u r t h e r t r i a l of the expanded s h a r i n g programme was repor t e d by Benton-Gai11ard, Carden-Smith, and Budd (1983). Seven c h i l d r e n i n a remedial preschool classroom were gi v e n three t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s i n p a i r s or t r i a d s , and teacher prompts and p r a i s e d u r i n g three subsequent f r e e p l a y s e s s i o n s . S e l f - m o n i t o r i n g and s o c i a l reinforcement ( s i m i l a r to correspondence t r a i n i n g ) were then i n t r o d u c e d f o l l o w i n g f r e e p l a y s e s s i o n s to r e p l a c e immediate teacher a t t e n t i o n f o r sh a r i n g d u r i n g p l a y . C h i l d r e n were a l s o observed during recess ( g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s e s s i o n ) . Share o f f e r s , requests and acceptances i n c r e a s e d f o l l o w i n g t r a i n i n g , and r e f u s a l s decreased. These gains were maintained and i n c r e a s e d i n the s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g phase, and showed modest g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to recess p e r i o d s . The l a t e r 66 i n t r o d u c t i o n of programmed g e n e r a l i z a t i o n (a minimal a d a p t a t i o n of the t r a i n i n g package dur i n g r e c e s s ) enhanced s h a r i n g f u r t h e r . Sharing t r a i n i n g a l s o appeared to b r i n g more general p o s i t i v e changes t o peer i n t e r a c t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g decreased a g g r e s s i o n , t a k i n g without asking and opposing p l a y , and i n c r e a s e d c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y . In sum, d i r e c t t r a i n i n g of s h a r i n g s k i l l s v i a the Barton and Ascione (1979) type of programme and i t s l a t e r refinements shows c o n s i d e r a b l e promise. Teachers, teacher's aides and undergraduate a s s i s t a n t s have s u c c e s s f u l l y served as t r a i n e r s (e.g., Barton, 1981; Barton et a l . , 1979; B e n t o n - G a i l l a r d et a l . , 1983; Bryant & Budd, 1984), and post-treatment s h a r i n g r a t e s two to four times g r e a t e r than b a s e l i n e have been t y p i c a l (e.g., Barton, 1981, Barton & Ascione, 1979; Barton et a l . , 1978; Bryant & Budd, 1984). Some g e n e r a l i z a t i o n over s u b j e c t s , s e t t i n g s , behaviors and short follow-up p e r i o d s has been observed (e.g., Barton & B e v i r t , 1981; Barton et a l . , 1979; B e n t o n - G a i l l a r d et a l . , 1983; Fowler, 1979). However, g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and maintenance have not been d i r e c t l y assessed i n many s t u d i e s (e.g., Barton, 1981; Barton et a l . , 1978; Bryant & Budd, 1984; P a r t i n g t o n , 1980), and follow-ups beyond 4 weeks are n o n e x i s t e n t . In a d d i t i o n , most s t u d i e s examining the s h a r i n g t r a i n i n g package have used m u l t i p l e - b a s e l i n e and/or r e v e r s a l designs (e.g., Barton, 1981; Barton et a l . , 1978; Benton-G a i l l a r d et a l . , 1983; Jason et a l . , 1980). Although u s e f u l i n demonstrating experimental c o n t r o l over s h a r i n g 67 b e h a v i o r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with the small sample s i z e s d i c t a t e d by p r a c t i c a l concerns i n much c l i n i c a l r e s e a r c h (Kazdin, 1980), these designs do not permit follow-up comparisons of treatment e f f e c t s with normal, m a t u r a t i o n a l i n c r e a s e s i n s h a r i n g s k i l l s . Adapting Sharing T r a i n i n g to the Home The Barton and Ascione (1979) type of s h a r i n g programmme shows c o n s i d e r a b l e p o t e n t i a l f o r a d a p t a t i o n to the home context (Barton, 1982; S u l z e r - A z a r a f f & P o l l a c k , 1982). S u l z e r - A z a r o f f and P o l l a c k (1982)'note t h a t , from the parent's p o i n t of view, the s p e c i f i c , r e a d i l y d i s c r i m i n a b l e behavio r s i n v o l v e d would be easy to demonstrate to c h i l d r e n , r e c o g n i z e when they occurred, and r e i n f o r c e or c o r r e c t . From the c h i l d r e n ' s point of view, the p o s i t i v e , r e c i p r o c a l e f f e c t s of s h a r i n g would be l i k e l y to e l i c i t n a t u r a l reinforcement from s i b l i n g s and other playmates as well as the programmed reinforcement from parents (Barton, 1986; C a r t l e d g e & M i l b u r n , 1980; M a r h o l i n , S i e g e l & P h i l l i p s , 1976). C e r t a i n l y t h i s type of programme addresses concerns mentioned e a r l i e r r e garding the need f o r parent t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s that promote behaviors that are both d e s i r e d by parents and empowering and a d a p t i v e f o r c h i l d r e n (e.g., Emery et a l . , 1983; O l l e n d i c k & Winnett, 1985; Shure, 1983). The s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and b e h a v i o r a l approaches used i n the programme have been found to be e f f e c t i v e with young c h i l d r e n , both as general p a r e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s (e.g., Forehand et a l . , 1984; Kendall & F i s c h l e r , 1984; Perry & 68 Bussey, 1984) and i n s t r u c t u r e d parent t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s (e.g., Forehand & McMahon, 1981; L e i t e n b e r g et a l . , 1977; P a t t e r s o n , 1982; Shearer & L o f t i n , 1984). Mothers -- who s t i l l bear most of the p a r e n t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r young c h i l d r e n -- p l a c e a h i g h p r i o r i t y on the development of a f f e c t i o n a t e , cooperative i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n (Bryant & Crockenberg, 1980; Quirk et a l . , 1984) and f r e q u e n t l y i n t e r v e n e i n and d i r e c t t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s with s i b l i n g s and f r i e n d s (Kendrick & Dunn, 1983; Rose-Krasnor, 1987; Zahn-Waxler e f a l . , 1979). However, these i n t e r v e n t i o n s are not always e f f e c t i v e (Ladd & G o i t e r , 1988; Patterson, 1982; Rose-Krasnor, 1987): parents may have developmental1y i n a p p r o p r i a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , convey mixed messages or apply i n c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e , and r e l y more h e a v i l y on d i r e c t i o n and punishment than on antecedent or reinforcement s t r a t e g i e s (Campbell, 1990; Forehand et a l . , 1984; McMahon et a l ., 1986; Peterson et a l . , 1984; Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler, 1986). T r a i n i n g parents i n the use of s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and b e h a v i o r a l techniques to f o s t e r s h a r i n g between t h e i r c h i l d r e n could not only remedy some of these problems, but p o s s i b l y a l l e v i a t e some of the p a r e n t i n g s t r e s s i n v o l v e d i n d e a l i n g with a g o n i s t i c s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s (Mash & Johnston, 1983; Patterson, 1982). As Barton (1982, 1986) has noted, the s h a r i n g programme should be adapted to meet the needs of p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t s and s e t t i n g s , and thus would have to be a l t e r e d somewhat 69 from the c u r r e n t nursery-school o r i e n t e d format. Not a l l parents have t r a i n i n g and experience i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d development or knowlege of b a s i c b e h a v i o r a l techniques (Forehand et a l . , 1984; S u l z e r - A z a r o f f & P o l l a c k , . 1982). E x p e c t a t i o n s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l behavior can be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f o r the the home and school contexts ( A l s t o n , 1982; Quirk et a l . , 1984), and of course such important elements as s i b l i n g and parent r e l a t i o n s h i p s and p r i v a t e ownership of toys are unique to the home s i t u a t i o n . S p e c i f i c e x p e c t a t i o n s regarding s h a r i n g may a l s o Be more complex and v a r i a b l e i n the home than i n the nursery s c h o o l . Parental values show c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a b i l i t y : r u l e s and expe c t a t i o n s about s h a r i n g vary from one f a m i l y to the next, and may d i f f e r w i t h i n each f a m i l y a c c o r d i n g to the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n (Peterson et a l . , 1984; Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler, 1986; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). A home adaptat i o n of the s h a r i n g programme would thus have to i n c l u d e not only t r a i n i n g i n b a s i c s h a r i n g s k i l l s , but a l s o some element of f l e x i b i l i t y to allow f o r value d i f f e r e n c e s between f a m i l i e s . T h i s c o u l d be accomplished by f i r s t p r o v i d i n g parents with normative developmental i n f o r m a t i o n about s h a r i n g , and ensuring they have r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s l e v e l of sh a r i n g s k i l l s (Forehand et a l . , 1984; Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler, 1986). The parents and the i n s t r u c t o r c o u l d then c o l l a b o r a t e on c l a r i f y i n g the parents' own va l u e s r e g a r d i n g s h a r i n g , and de v e l o p i n g s p e c i f i c "house r u l e s " and s t r a t e g i e s to f o s t e r s h a r i n g behavior congruent 70 with p a r e n t a l g o a l s . Information about b a s i c p a r e n t i n g approaches which promote h e a l t h y c h i l d development i n general and p r o s o c i a l behavior i n p a r t i c u l a r (e.g., warm and responsive care, emphasis on p o s i t i v e behaviors and p r o a c t i v e techniques, f i r m and c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e ; Bryant & Crockenberg, 1980; Campbell, 1990; Forehand et a l . , 1984; Grusec & L y t t o n , 1988; P a t t e r s o n et a l . , 1989; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983) would both a i d parents i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h e i r " p a r e n t i n g p l a n s " and set the boundaries f o r v a r i a b i l i t y i n pa r e n t i n g approaches. T h i s process of c l a r i f y i n g values and developing p r o a c t i v e goals f o r parenting ( r a t h e r than simply r e a c t i n g to s i t u a t i o n s as they occur) i s f r e q u e n t l y mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e as a p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e approach f o r developing c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l behavior (e.g., Clewett, 1988; Holden, 1985; Peterson et a l . , 1984; Perry & Bussey, 1984; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983). Parents would then e x p l a i n and d i s c u s s f a m i l y v a l u e s , r u l e s and procedures concerning s h a r i n g with t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; such v e r b a l r a t i o n a l e s and d i s c u s s i o n s f o s t e r c l e a r , p r e d i c t a b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and enhanced s o c i a l behavior i n even very young c h i l d r e n (Davies, McMahon, F l e s s a t i , & Tiedemann, 1984; Dunn et a l . , 1987; Perry & Bussey, 1984; Zahn-Waxler et a l . , 1979). In a d d i t i o n to t r a i n i n g parents i n the b e h a v i o r a l techniques used i n the s h a r i n g programme (e.g., modelling, prompting, r e i n f o r c e m e n t ) , parents could a l s o be t r a i n e d to recognize and promote antecedent c o n d i t i o n s which enhance s h a r i n g between t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and reduce exposure to c o n d i t i o n s which i n h i b i t s h a r i n g . Such "environmental e n g i n e e r i n g " c o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e i n the home s e t t i n g , where parents have almost complete c o n t r o l over t h e i r young c h i l d r e n ' s environment (Holden, 1985; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983; Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler, 1986; Sapon-Shevin, 1982). sjiaxxng jsjiorey. As R i s l e y et a l . (1976) have pointed out, the f i r s t step i n d e v e l o p i n g a programme f o r d e a l i n g w i t h c h r o n i c , everyday c h i l d r e a r i n g problems should be to o b t a i n p a r e n t s ' p e r s p e c t i v e s on the problem, and to have parents evaluate the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the proposed i n t e r v e n t i o n . Designing i n t e r v e n t i o n to most a c c u r a t e l y meet f a m i l y needs maximizes the l i k e l i h o o d that p o t e n t i a l consumers of the programme w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n and b e n e f i t from i t (Kazdin, 1980; McMahon & Forehand, 1983). A c c o r d i n g l y , a study was conducted (McMahon et a l . , 1986; Tiedemann et a l . , 1987) i n which 40 p r i m a r i l y m i d d l e - c l a s s mothers of 3- to 6-year-old c h i l d r e n were asked to d e s c r i b e v a r i o u s aspects of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g behavior and t h e i r own e f f o r t s to encourage s h a r i n g , and to read and evaluate a d e s c r i p t i o n of a p a r e n t - l e d Barton and Ascione (1979) type s h a r i n g t r a i n i n g programme. Mothers i n d i c a t e d a moderate degree of concern over t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g behavior, and these problems were seen to peak at about 3 years of age. Sharing between s i b l i n g s was r a t e d as c o n s i d e r a b l y more probl e m a t i c than was 72 s h a r i n g between f r i e n d s . Mothers r e p o r t e d a much he a v i e r r e l i a n c e on r e a c t i v e than on p r e v e n t i v e s t r a t e g i e s t o promote s h a r i n g . The s h a r i n g programmme was rated q u i t e f a v o r a b l y . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t mothers are concerned about t h e i r young c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g with s i b l i n g s , that they may not be r e l y i n g s u f f i c i e n t l y on p r o a c t i v e and p o s i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s to promote s h a r i n g , and that they would be r e c e p t i v e to a programme which promotes the use of such s t r a t e g i e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , a study was designed to f u r t h e r c l a r i f y the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a m i l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s and the development of c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g s k i l l s , and to examine the e f f i c a c y of a p a r e n t - l e d programme to teach s h a r i n g s k i l l s to preschool-aged s i b l i n g s . The f i r s t p art of t h i s study was an e x p l o r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behaviors of mothers and c h i l d r e n . As we have seen throughout the review of the l i t e r a t u r e , l i t t l e i s known about how pa r e n t i n g b e h a v i o r s r e l a t e to c h i l d r e n ' s b e h a v i o r a l and c o g n i t i v e e x p r e s s i o n s of sh a r i n g s k i l l development, or about the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of young s i b l i n g s ' s h a r i n g development. In order to g a i n some understanding of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a "snapshot" approach to g a t h e r i n g f a m i l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n data was used (Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler, 1986), i n which a sample of the pa r e n t i n g behaviors of mothers and the 73 s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behaviors of young s i b l i n g s was observed and examined f o r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , mothers and t h e i r two young c h i l d r e n were observed i n a l a b o r a t o r y playroom context and t h e i r behaviors coded a c c o r d i n g to a s t a n d a r d o b s e r v a t i o n a l system. The c h i l d r e n were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d to c o l l e c t data i n d i c a t i v e of t h e i r c o g n i t i v e p r o s o c i a l development. A composite index of the mother's behavior was then c o r r e l a t e d with a composite of each of her c h i l d r e n ' s c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l s h a r i n g s k i l l , and the s h a r i n g development of the two s i b l i n g s was examined f o r i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l . I t was p r e d i c t e d that a l l three of these analyses would produce evidence of s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between parent and c h i l d , and c h i l d and c h i l d measures. The second part of the study proceeded beyond c o r r e l a t i o n a l data to examine the experimental m a n i p u l a t i o n of the mother's s i t u a t i o n , and i t s e f f e c t s on parent and c h i l d behavior. S p e c i f i c a l l y , mothers i n t e r a c t e d with t h e i r c h i l d r e n under two i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t s : "Mother Busy", i n which the mother was occupied with paperwork, and "Mother Free", i n which the mother was f r e e to i n t e r a c t with her c h i l d r e n as she wished. Data from t h i s p o r t i o n of the study examined p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s of a d u l t presence on c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l behavior, depending on whether or not the a d u l t i s a c t i v e l y engaged with the c h i l d r e n . It was p r e d i c t e d that c h i l d r e n would e x h i b i t more a p p r o p r i a t e 74 s h a r i n g behavior during the "Mother Free" than d u r i n g the "Mother Busy" c o n d i t i o n . Although the f i r s t two p o r t i o n s of the study were based on a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f sample of f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s , such " m i c r o s o c i a l " analyses can y i e l d important t h e o r e t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the immediate r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the behaviors of parents and s i b l i n g s ( P a t t e r s o n , 1982, 1986). Information gathered from such c o r r e l a t i o n a l and b r i e f experimental s t u d i e s can c o n t r i b u t e to our understanding of the c o n t i n g e n c i e s governing s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior and the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of parents and s i b l i n g s to the development of c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g s k i l l s . It i s a l s o important to demonstrate the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of t h i s k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n to the promotion of s h a r i n g s k i l l development by parents (Clarke-Stewart, 1988). A c c o r d i n g l y , the t h i r d p a r t of the study examined the e f f i c a c y of a programme to t r a i n parents to teach s h a r i n g s k i l l s to preschool-aged s i b l i n g s . As well as e x p l o r i n g the p o t e n t i a l of t h i s s p e c i f i c programme, t h i s p a r t of the study represents an attempt to i n t e g r a t e r e s e a r c h from the parent t r a i n i n g and s o c i a l s k i l l s development l i t e r a t u r e s i n an e m p i r i c a l primary p r e v e n t i o n context. The separate bodies of knowledge which c o n t r i b u t e to the programme have e x i s t e d f o r some time: the need f o r p r e v e n t i v e programmes f o r f a m i l i e s with young c h i l d r e n , the importance of s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s to s o c i a l development and f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g , the e f f i c a c y of b e h a v i o r a l parent t r a i n i n g programmes, and the procedures 75 used to enhance key s o c i a l s k i l l s such as s h a r i n g i n the nursery school context. Nevertheless, e m p i r i c a l v a l i d a t i o n of p r e v e n t i v e p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s to f a c i l i t a t e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n has been v i r t u a l l y n o n e x i s t e n t . As a l o g i c a l f i r s t step i n e v a l u a t i n g a new i n t e r v e n t i o n (Kazdin & Wilson, 1978; Rachman & Wilson, 1980; R i s l e y et a l . , 1976), the present study was designed to determine i f the e n t i r e package could, under optimal c o n d i t i o n s , b r i n g about d e s i r a b l e changes beyond those expected through maturation alone ( i . e . , i n c o n t r a s t to a no-treatment c o n t r o l group). In a d d i t i o n , the r e l a t i v e e f f i c a c y of two formats f o r p r e s e n t i n g the programme to parents was examined. One format f o l l o w s procedures t y p i c a l l y used by t h e r a p i s t s i n i n d i v i d u a l p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g , and the other employs a t y p i c a l group p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g format. A c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of r e s e a r c h has i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of these two formats f o r d e l i v e r i n g p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g programmes, p r i m a r i l y t o c l i n i c p o p u l a t i o n s ( f o r a review, see O ' D e l l , 1985). Several s t u d i e s have documented e q u i v a l e n t t h e r a p e u t i c e f f e c t i v e n e s s f o r the two formats ( O ' D e l l , 1985; Webster-Stratton, 1984a; Webster-S t r a t t o n , K o l p a c o f f & H o i l i n s w o r t h , 1988), and an advantage of group d e l i v e r y i n terms of i n c r e a s e d c o s t - e f f e c t i v e n e s s , p a r e n t - r a t e d a c c e p t a b i l i t y and convenience, and s o c i a l support and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e engendered by the group context (Gray & Wandersman, 1980; Rosenfarb & Hayes, 1984; Wyckoff, 76 1980). Other i n v e s t i g a t o r s have found s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l programmes, and have c i t e d the need f o r more i n t e n s i v e coaching f o r some parents to master new s k i l l s and i n c r e a s e d c l i e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n with more personal a t t e n t i o n (Eyberg & Matarazzo, 1980; McMahon 6. Forehand, 1983; Moreland et a l . , 1982). Although the suggestion i s f r e q u e n t l y made that the l e s s d y s f u n c t i o n a l the f a m i l y , the l e s s i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n the programme needs to p r o v i d e (Embry, 1984; O ' D e l l , 1985), e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r t h i s assumption i s s t i l l l a c k i n g . As O l l e n d i c k and Cerny (1981) p o i n t out, d i f f e r e n t types of parent t r a i n i n g may have e f f e c t s on d i f f e r e n t types of outcome measures, and questions about the absolute s u p e r i o r i t y of one format over another may be too g l o b a l to be u s e f u l . We need to examine the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p a r t i c u l a r p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g formats on a v a r i e t y of measures across d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s i f we are to g a i n a c l e a r e r understanding of t h i s i s s u e (Embry, 1984). In keeping with r e s u l t s from e a r l i e r s h a r i n g - t r a i n i n g programmes, i t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t , i n c o n t r a s t to a no-treatment c o n t r o l group, f a m i l i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s h a r i n g programme would d i s p l a y the f o l l o w i n g e f f e c t s : 1. Parents would demonstrate an i n c r e a s e i n knowledge about c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g and e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g s h a r i n g between s i b l i n g s . 77 2 . Parents would i n c r e a s e t h e i r use of p a r e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s taught i n the programme. 3. C h i l d r e n would demonstrate an i n c r e a s e d knowledge of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d concepts and s k i l l s . 4. C h i l d r e n would i n c r e a s e t h e i r use of a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g s k i l l s and decrease t h e i r use of i n a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behaviors. 5. The above e f f e c t s would be maintained ac r o s s time. Secondary p r e d i c t i o n s of a more e x p l o r a t o r y nature were tha t , i n c o n t r a s t to a no-treatment c o n t r o l group, f a m i l i e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s h a r i n g programme would d i s p l a y the f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n e f f e c t s : 1. Parents would report i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g s of competence as a parent. 2 . C h i l d r e n would p e r c e i v e the s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p as more p o s i t i v e . 3. C h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l behavior i n general would a l s o be p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t e d . 4. C h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g would improve i n contexts o u t s i d e the home and the s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . 5. C h i l d r e n ' s l e v e l of p r o s o c i a l moral reasoning would i n c r e a s e . As the l i t e r a t u r e on the i n d i v i d u a l versus group format q u e s t i o n i s so c o n f l i c t i n g , s e v e r a l competing hypotheses are p l a u s i b l e concerning the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the two formats. If the group format produces no s i g n i f i c a n t changes, t h i s would support the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l 78 t r a i n i n g i s necessary f o r t h i s type of po p u l a t i o n and problem. If the group format produces s i g n i f i c a n t changes but i s not as e f f e c t i v e as the i n d i v i d u a l format, t h i s would support the view t h a t , although the group format i s s u f f i c i e n t to have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t , there are a d d i t i o n a l b e n e f i t s to be d e r i v e d from more i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g , and d e c i s i o n s can be made on the b a s i s of d e s i r e d c o s t -e f f e c t i v e n e s s . If the group format surpasses the improvements found i n the i n d i v i d u a l format, t h i s would support the view that l e s s i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n t e r v e n t i o n s i n a s o c i a l context are the format of c h o i c e f o r t h i s type of p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n . F i n a l l y , mixed f i n d i n g s on the va r i o u s outcome measures would i n d i c a t e that the qu e s t i o n i s not one of g l o b a l s u p e r i o r i t y of one format over another, but that d e c i s i o n s as to the format of choice should be made on the b a s i s of the s p e c i f i c outcomes judged to be most important. 79 Method Subjects In research such as the present study where a new i n t e r v e n t i o n i s being e v a l u a t e d , i t i s important to maximize the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t any e f f e c t s of the i n t e r v e n t i o n w i l l be d e t e c t e d . One way of accomplishing t h i s i s to minimize the v a r i a n c e due to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s by using a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous sample. Secondly, treatment e f f e c t i v e n e s s can be maximized by s e l e c t i n g a sample on the b a s i s of s u b j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i k e l y t o be a s s o c i a t e d with p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n , completion of, and responsiveness to the i n t e r v e n t i o n (Furman & Drabman, 1981; Hermalin & W e i r i c h , 1983; Kazdin & Wilson, 1978). If the i n t e r v e n t i o n proves e f f e c t i v e with these s u b j e c t s , f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h can then examine g e n e r a l i z a b i 1 i t y to other, l e s s i d e a l samples. T h i s s t r a t e g y of beginning r e s e a r c h on a new i n t e r v e n t i o n w i t h a sample s e l e c t e d to be maximally r e s p o n s i v e , was used i n d e f i n i n g the present s u b j e c t p o o l . F o r t y - e i g h t f a m i l i e s were r e c r u i t e d by means of n o t i c e s i n the community. The n o t i c e s o f f e r e d mothers whose young c h i l d r e n have d i f f i c u l t y s h a r i n g , the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a parent education programme d e a l i n g with s i b l i n g s h a r i n g problems. A t o t a l of 171 e n q u i r i e s were r e c e i v e d , of which 17 were from persons c a l l i n g on behalf of a community agency or p a r e n t i n g group, 10 were from the p r e s s , and 144 from p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s . 80 In order to ensure a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous s u b j e c t p o o l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n was l i m i t e d to married women w i t h at l e a s t a Grade 10 education, and socioeconomic s t a t u s (SES) of s e m i s k i l l e d worker or above on the H o l l i n g s h e a d Four-F a c t o r Index ( H o l l i n g s h e a d , 1975). Although i t would be d e s i r a b l e f o r both parents t o p a r t i c i p a t e , p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s have l e d to only mothers being the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n most p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g outcome s t u d i e s ( F i r e s t o n e , K e l l y , & F i k e , 1980; Horton, 1984). Outcome f i n d i n g s with f a t h e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n have not been found to d i f f e r from mother-only r e s u l t s (Adesso & L i p s o n , 1981; F i r e s t o n e et a l . , 1980; M a r t i n , 1977). C o n f i n i n g t h i s i n i t i a l sample to married women ensured g r o s s l y s i m i l a r f a m i l y composition and avoided the p r a c t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s s i n g l e mothers face i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n parent-t r a i n i n g r e s e a r c h ( C l a r k & Baker, 1983; F i r e s t o n e & W i t t , 1982; Oltmanns, B r o d e r i c k & O'Leary, 1977). S i m i l a r l y , low SES, f i n a n c i a l s t r e s s and lower l e v e l s of educa t i o n have been a s s o c i a t e d with a lower l i k e l i h o o d of a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and a high e r l i k e l i h o o d of dropping out of parent t r a i n i n g ( C l a r k & Baker, 1983; F i r e s t o n e & Wi t t , 1982; McMahon, Forehand, G r i e s t , & Wells, 1981; Packard, Horn, Ialongo, & Greenberg, 1987). I n c l u d i n g a minimum ed u c a t i o n a l l e v e l a l s o i n c r e a s e d the l i k e l i h o o d that p a r t i c i p a n t s would be a b l e to comprehend l e c t u r e and w r i t t e n i n f o r m a t i o n and to complete w r i t t e n homework assignments. 81 E f f o r t was a l s o made to ensure that the c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study formed a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous group. The sample was r e s t r i c t e d to f a m i l i e s with two c h i l d r e n between the ages of 2 years 6 months and 6 years 11 months i n c l u s i v e , l i v i n g i n the home f u l l - t i m e , with no o l d e r c h i l d r e n . A roughly e q u i v a l e n t l e v e l of s o c i a l and educational experience among the c h i l d r e n was a t t a i n e d by r e q u i r i n g a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g c h i l d r e n to have had some form of ongoing group experience (e.g., group l e s s o n s , p r e s c h o o l , k i n d e r g a r t e n ) . As the c u r r e n t programme was designed as a p r e v e n t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n was a l s o l i m i t e d to those c h i l d r e n who, a s i d e from p a r e n t - r e p o r t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n , were developing normally and not e x p e r i e n c i n g any major problems or d i s r u p t i o n s . Parent r e p o r t s of problems such as family c r i s e s , s e r i o u s i l l n e s s , or a c h i l d being under p s y c h i a t r i c care would be examples of e x c l u s i o n a r y c r i t e r i a , as would extreme scores on the s c r e e n i n g measures d i s c u s s e d below. Although mothers were not p a i d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , they were o f f e r e d compensation f o r t r a v e l expenses, a copy of a videotape of t h e i r c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g i n the l a b and " s h a r i n g diplomas" f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n , on completion of the study. R e s u l t s of the r e s e a r c h w i l l be sent to a l l s u b j e c t s who i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n r e c e i v i n g them. Of the 144 p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , 78 who d i d not f i t the i n c l u s i o n c r i t e r i a were screened out i n a b r i e f telephone i n t e r v i e w and o f f e r e d r e f e r r a l s to other 82 programmes or agencies. Most of these 78 were excluded as s i n g l e parents or because t h e i r c h i l d r e n were not i n the s e l e c t e d age range. Another 11 mothers f i t the c r i t e r i a but d e c l i n e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study at t h i s p o i n t . The remaining 55 mothers attended an i n t r o d u c t o r y i n t e r v i e w ( d e s c r i b e d below) i n which d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e study was pro v i d e d and s c r e e n i n g measures ( d e s c r i b e d below) were administered. A t e n t a t i v e appointment f o r the pre-treatment assessment was made at t h i s i n t e r v i e w , and confirmed when the sc r e e n i n g measures had been scored and mothers had made a f i n a l d e c i s i o n about p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. At t h i s stage four mothers d e c l i n e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n and one f a m i l y was screened out and r e f e r r e d elsewhere because of extreme l e v e l s of c h i l d behavior problems. Of the remaining 50 p a r t i c i p a n t s , the f i r s t to a t t e n d the pre-treatment assessment was s e l e c t e d as a p i l o t s u b j e c t , and data f o r t h i s f a m i l y are not reported. One mother completed the pre-treatment assessment, was assign e d to the group programme c o n d i t i o n , and dropped out of the study f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t Sharing Programme s e s s i o n (she was 9 months pregnant with her t h i r d c h i l d at t h i s p o i n t ) . Thus 48 f a m i l i e s completed the study (nine v i s i t s each). Of these, 7 had a fami l y composition of o l d e r boy and younger g i r l , 14 had an o l d e r g i r l and younger boy, 14 had two boys and 13 had two g i r l s . Table I prese n t s d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s sample. A wide range of SES was represented, from s e m i s k i l l e d worker l e v e l to p r o f e s s i o n a l s , 83 Table I P J C f i i J l r j e j L t m e i i ^ ^ V a r i a b l e Sample mean S.D. H o i l i n g s h e a d SES l e v e l 1.6 .8 Mother's age ( i n years) 36.4 3.7 S o c i a l Avoidance and D i s t r e s s Scale 6.4 6.0 S e l f - r e p o r t of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n • 22.7 17.8 Treatment E v a l u a t i o n Inventory 93.0 8.4 Co-parenting Scale 30.2 5.9 S o c i a l s k i l l r a t i n g of mother 50.4 6.7 Younger c h i l d ' s age ( i n months) 38.0 7.3 Older c h i l d ' s age ( i n months) 64.1 10.0 V i n e l a n d Survey Scale f o r younger c h i l d 109.5 10.9 V i n e l a n d Survey Scale f o r o l d e r c h i l d 103.5 11.1 C h i l d Behavior C h e c k l i s t raw problem score f o r younger c h i l d 28.53 16.0 C h i l d Behavior C h e c k l i s t raw problem score f o r o l d e r c h i l d 27.38 21.6 84 with the mean SES score f a l l i n g i n the middle to upper-middle c l a s s range, (small b u s i n e s s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and t e c h n i c a l ) . C h i l d r e n ' s ages ranged from 2 years 6 months to 6 years 10 months, and mother's ages ranged from 29 to 46. Ranges and means of s c o r e s on the s c r e e n i n g and maternal v a r i a b l e s f o r which norms are a v a i l a b l e were t y p i c a l of n o n r e f e r r e d samples. C h i l d r e n ' s b a s e l i n e s h a r i n g behavior, as r e p o r t e d by a d u l t s , was t y p i c a l of c h i l d r e n i n t h i s age range. Mean scores on a d u l t - r e p o r t measures ( d e s c r i b e d below) i n d i c a t e d that although s i b l i n g s shared a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n s l i g h t l y more than h a l f t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s , they had "somewhat of a problem" w i t h s h a r i n g and experienced s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d c o n f l i c t s s e v e r a l times weekly. Design One goal of t h i s study was to i n v e s t i g a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g programme d i r e c t e d at improving s i b l i n g s h a r i n g , and to determine the most e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t format f o r the d e l i v e r y of t h i s programme. To t h i s end, a treatment-comparison with wait-l i s t c o n t r o l design was employed. F a m i l i e s were randomly as s i g n e d to one of three c o n d i t i o n s , with b l o c k i n g f o r f a m i l y composition: 16 f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e d immediate i n d i v i d u a l treatment (INDIV), 16 f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e d immediate group treatment (GROUP) and 16 f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e d treatment a f t e r the follow-up assessments were completed (WAIT). To assure e q u i v a l e n t times between assessments f o r each c o n d i t i o n , randomization was be conducted w i t h i n 3-family 85 b l o c k s . For example, of three f a m i l i e s with an o l d e r boy and younger g i r l e n t e r i n g the study at approximately the same time, one was assigned to INDIV, one to GROUP, and one to WAIT. Pre-treatment, post-treatment and follow-up assessments were conducted with these three f a m i l i e s at approximately the same times. Assignment to c o n d i t i o n took p l a c e immediately f o l l o w i n g the pre-treatment assessment of the t h r e e f a m i l i e s . Assessments were made of each t r i o of f a m i l i e s on the f o l l o w i n g o c c a s i o n s : f o l l o w i n g i n t a k e procedures and immediately preceding the INDIV and GROUP f a m i l i e s beginning the s h a r i n g programme (PRE), w i t h i n a week f o l l o w i n g the l a s t programme s e s s i o n f o r the INDIV f a m i l y (POST), and at a follow-up appointment s i x weeks a f t e r the POST assessment (FU). W a i t l i s t f a m i l i e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s h a r i n g programme of t h e i r choice a f t e r the FU assessments were completed, and t h e i r responses t o the treatment are not' re p o r t e d i n t h i s study. Another goal of t h i s study was to c l a r i f y the s o c i a l i z a t i o n processes w i t h i n the f a m i l y r e l a t e d to the development of c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g . Using i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d from a l l 48 f a m i l i e s at the PRE assessment ( p r i o r to assignment to c o n d i t i o n ) , two s t u d i e s were conducted to explore the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the behavior of mothers and s i b l i n g s , and c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g . F i r s t , a c o r r e l a t i o n a l study i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between spontaneous 86 p a r e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s and c h i l d s h a r i n g behavior, and between the two s i b l i n g s ' s h aring behavior. The second study was a l s o conducted d u r i n g the l a b o r a t o r y o b s e r v a t i o n s . A w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s experiment explo r e d the s t r a t e g i e s mothers use to i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n ' s s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n , and c h i l d r e n ' s immediate responses to s p e c i f i c aspects of t h e i r mothers' behavior. Mothers i n t e r a c t e d with t h e i r c h i l d r e n under two d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t s , and changes i n both maternal and c h i l d behavior were i n v e s t i g a t e d . These ma n i p u l a t i o n s provided i n f o r m a t i o n about the s t r a t e g i e s mothers use to i n f l u e n c e t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s behavior i n d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s , and allowed causal i n f e r e n c e s to be made concerning the impact of the mother's behavior on the c h i l d r e n ' s behavior. The present programmes were adapted from the p r o t o c o l developed by Bryant and Budd (1984). T h e i r s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n represents the most d e t a i l e d r e v i s i o n of Barton and Ascione's 1979 programme, p r o v i d i n g c h i l d r e n with s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g i n component s k i l l s of s h a r i n g , d e t a i l e d r a t i o n a l e s and i n s t r u c t i o n s , and i n f o r m a t i o n about i n a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d b ehavior. The p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g format used to teach parents to d e l i v e r the s h a r i n g package to the c h i l d r e n uses procedures that have been e x t e n s i v e l y researched and v a l i d a t e d on f a m i l i e s w i t h young c h i l d r e n (Forehand & McMahon, 1981; O ' D e l l , 1985). 87 An i n d i v i d u a l p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g programme to enhance s i b l i n g s h a r i n g was developed, c o n s i s t i n g of two i n f o r m a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s and three a c t i v e s k i l l - l e a r n i n g s e s s i o n s f o r i n d i v i d u a l mothers and t h e i r two young c h i l d r e n (Appendix A). F a m i l i e s i n the INDIV c o n d i t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s programme. F a m i l i e s i n the GROUP c o n d i t i o n covered the same m a t e r i a l and r e c e i v e d a l l the same handouts: only the format of treatment (small group s e s s i o n s , with separate c h i l d c a r e o f f e r e d f o r the c h i l d r e n ) d i f f e r e d . Mothers i n both c o n d i t i o n s r e c e i v e d " b a s i c developmental and b e h a v i o r a l p a r e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i n the f i r s t two se s s i o n s through l e c t u r e , d i s c u s s i o n , r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l , and i n s t r u c t o r m o d e l l i n g . INDIV f a m i l i e s then r e c e i v e d three s e s s i o n s of d i r e c t b e h a v i o r a l t r a i n i n g i n c h i l d and ad u l t s k i l l s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s , with mothers r e c e i v i n g immediate feedback on t h e i r approach to tea c h i n g s h a r i n g s k i l l s to t h e i r c h i l d r e n , weekly m o n i t o r i n g of homework progress and problem-solving a s s i s t a n c e from the i n s t r u c t o r . The GROUP f a m i l i e s continued f o r three more s e s s i o n s with the i n s t r u c t o r p r e s e n t i n g the sha r i n g programme by means of l e c t u r e , group d i s c u s s i o n , reading m a t e r i a l , and modelling, but without the i n d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r a l r e h e a r s a l with i n s t r u c t o r and c h i l d r e n , immediate feedback, and d e t a i l e d m o n itoring of homework assignments used i n the INDIV c o n d i t i o n . In essence, the GROUP c o n d i t i o n most c l o s e l y resembles a t y p i c a l , community-based "parent-education" programme, 88 whereas the INDIV c o n d i t i o n adheres most c l o s e l y to the t y p i c a l i n d i v i d u a l - t h e r a p y approach to parent t r a i n i n g . A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n f o l l o w s of how the o r i g i n a l s h a r i n g programme, designed f o r use by nursery school teachers, was adapted to the p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g format to deal with s h a r i n g between s i b l i n g s . J£ar_en.t S k i l l s E a r l i e r r e s e a r c h e v a l u a t i n g s h a r i n g programmes has t y p i c a l l y used teachers or r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s to implement t r a i n i n g with c h i l d r e n . I t i s assumed that these i n d i v i d u a l s have t r a i n i n g i n c h i l d development and b e h a v i o r a l / s o c i a l l e a r n i n g techniques, as well as e s t a b l i s h e d , standard expectations f o r c h i l d r e n ' s behavior i n the classroom. As parents i n the community w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y have t h i s background, the f i r s t s e s s i o n i n both formats was designed to provide i n f o r m a t i o n on the development of s h a r i n g and s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n young c h i l d r e n , and i n t r o d u c e a problem-solving, s k i l l - t e a c h i n g model of p a r e n t i n g . Parents were a l s o a s s i s t e d i n a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s p r o s o c i a l development and i n e s t a b l i s h i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y - a p p r o p r i a t e expectations and r u l e s f o r s i b l i n g s h a r i n g . With these b a s i c elements i n p l a c e , the mothers i n both formats were i n t r o d u c e d i n the second s e s s i o n to the main par e n t i n g techniques used i n the s h a r i n g programme: antecedent s t r a t e g i e s , p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and r a t i o n a l e s to c h i l d r e n , modeling, prompting, and reinforcement. Each 89 technique was d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l , and modelled by the i n s t r u c t o r . T r a i n i n g parents to c r e a t e a " p r o - s h a r i n g " atmosphere i n the home through the use of such antecedent s t r a t e g i e s as environmental change, use of toys known to f a c i l i t a t e s h a r i n g , and the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d books and games, has not been an e x p l i c i t component of most previous s h a r i n g packages. However, such techniques have been shown i n d i v i d u a l l y to enhance s h a r i n g -r e l a t e d behaviors, are common i n preschool programmes, and may help parents to take a p r o a c t i v e approach to d e a l i n g with s h a r i n g problems (e.g., Barton, 1986; Peterson et a l . , 1984; Radke-Yarrow & Zahn-Waxler, 1986; Ramsey, 1986). R a t i o n a l e s , i n f o r m a t i o n and peer and adult m o d e l l i n g were used to introduce s h a r i n g concepts and s k i l l s to c h i l d r e n . Mothers were a l s o t r a i n e d to use puppet modeling. T h i s technique was recommended by Barton (1986) to help b r i d g e the gap between a d u l t and peer models, and the SCIPPY programme (Day et a l . , 1980) has a l s o made ex t e n s i v e use of puppet models. In accordance with the r e s u l t s of Barton's 1981 component a n a l y s i s , however, the primary emphasis i n the programme was on the more powerful techniques of b e h a v i o r a l rehearsal with c h i l d r e n ( i n t r o d u c e d i n the t h i r d s e s s i o n ) , prompts and reinforcement. F o l l o w i n g the f i r s t two i n f o r m a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s , the remaining three s e s s i o n s focussed on apply i n g the p a r e n t i n g s k i l l s to teaching c h i l d r e n the component s k i l l s of s h a r i n g . Mothers i n both c o n d i t i o n s d i s c u s s e d each of the c h i l d 90 s k i l l s i n d e t a i l and were g i v e n handouts on the s k i l l . The i n s t r u c t o r demonstrated how mothers could i n t r o d u c e the s k i l l to t h e i r c h i l d r e n and encourage i t s use. In a d d i t i o n , i n the INDIV s e s s i o n s , mothers were coached i n the use of the p a r e n t i n g techniques, u n t i l they f e l t comfortable and appeared competent i n t h e i r use. They were a l s o given i n d i v i d u a l coaching and feedback as they i n t r o d u c e d each s h a r i n g component s k i l l to t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and attempted to promote s h a r i n g i n the l a b o r a t o r y . Home p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s were d i s c u s s e d at e a c h r s e s s i o n and the i n s t r u c t o r a s s i s t e d with problem-solving and developing the parent and c h i l d s k i l l s . Most of the techniques taught to mothers i n t h i s programme emphasize i n c r e a s i n g d e s i r a b l e behavior, t h a t i s , a p p r o p r i a t e toy s h a r i n g . As the goal of the programme i s to promote t h i s p r o s o c i a l s k i l l , the emphasis on behavior-i n c r e a s i n g techniques i s not s u r p r i s i n g . However, i t was f e l t t h a t i n a p p r o p r i a t e c h i l d behavior a l s o needed to be addressed. Previous s h a r i n g s t u d i e s have t y p i c a l l y not emphasized behavior r e d u c t i o n techniques, and only b r i e f l y mention that they were used when necessary to deal w i t h d i s p u t e s , aggression, and other i n a p p r o p r i a t e behavior (e.g., Barton & Osborne, 1978; Bryant & Budd, 1984). The common responses to i n a p p r o p r i a t e behavior i n s h a r i n g t r a i n i n g p r o t o c o l s i n c l u d e prompting appropriate s h a r i n g behavior, r e q u i r i n g p o s i t i v e p r a c t i c e of a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g behavior, b r i e f p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g n e g o t i a t i o n , and imposing 91 s o l u t i o n s to d i s p u t e s (e.g., Barton, 1981; Fox et a l . , 1986; Peck et a l . , 1978). V a r i e t i e s of timeout (contingent o b s e r v a t i o n , q u i e t room) have a l s o been used f o r more s e r i o u s misbehavior (Barton & Osborne, 1978; B e n t o n - G a i l l a r d et a l . , 1983; Bryant & Budd, 1984). Again, the l e v e l of t r a i n i n g i n e f f e c t i v e c h i l d management techniques possessed by teachers and r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s cannot be assumed i n a general parent p o p u l a t i o n . For t h i s reason, e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n i n techniques f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s problem-solving and imposing e f f e c t i v e d i s c i p l i n e was i n c l u d e d i n the present programme. C o n s i s t e n t with the p r e v e n t i v e emphasis on p r o a c t i v e , p o s i t i v e approaches, techniques f o r d e c r e a s i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e behavior were i n t r o d u c e d towards the end of the programme and presented as ways to deal with u n d e s i r a b l e behaviors which p e r s i s t a f t e r e f f e c t i v e s t r a t e g i e s f o r i n c r e a s i n g d e s i r a b l e behaviors are i n p l a c e . Complete t r a i n i n g i n these s p e c i f i c procedures was o b v i o u s l y beyond the scope of the present programme. Instead, mothers were int r o d u c e d to b a s i c concepts and procedures f o r d e a l i n g with i n a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior, and p r o v i d e d with resources f o r f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e . GhLiAJSkills The present programme covered the c h i l d behaviors d e a l t with i n the Bryant and Budd (1984) s h a r i n g programme, and c o n s i s t e n t with a t r e n d i n the l i t e r a t u r e , f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and extended the range of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d 92 s k i l l s addressed. Each s k i l l was i n t r o d u c e d to the c h i l d r e n with an extended d i s c u s s i o n of i t s importance and u t i l i t y , and both a p p r o p r i a t e and i n a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a t i o n s of the s k i l l were presented. T h i s e f f o r t to p r o v i d e c h i l d r e n with a thorough understanding of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behaviors and t h e i r consequences i s designed to promote g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , and to a v o i d the problems seen i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s of c h i l d r e n i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y d i s p l a y i n g t r a i n e d s h a r i n g behaviors (Barton, 1986; Bryant & Budd, 1984; Kohler & Fowler, 1985). Thus, a f l e x i b l e , problem-solving approach was i n t e g r a t e d with s o c i a l l e a r n i n g and b e h a v i o r a l techniques f o r t e a c h i n g and i n c r e a s i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e use of each s h a r i n g component behavior. In a d d i t i o n , working with only two c h i l d r e n at a time r a t h e r than numerous c h i l d r e n i n a classroom makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r mothers to f o l l o w the frequent recommendation (e.g., Barton, 1982; Barton, 1986; Bryant & Budd, 1984) that teaching of s h a r i n g s k i l l s be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and r e s p o n s i v e to p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d r e n ' s s t r e n g t h s , d e f i c i t s and l e a r n i n g p a t t e r n s . Although a l l s k i l l s were presented to a l l f a m i l i e s , the amount of time and e f f o r t spent d e a l i n g with any one s k i l l i n the INDIV c o n d i t i o n was dependent on the needs and progress of the i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y . In the GROUP format t h e r e was much l e s s f l e x i b i l i t y and the progress of i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s was l e s s apparent to the i n s t r u c t o r . The key entry behaviors of I n v i t i n g ( " o f f e r i n g " i n previous programmes) and Requesting were the f i r s t to be 93 introduced, as i n previous p r o t o c o l s . U n l i k e p r e v i o u s l y , however, two t o p o g r a p h i c a l l y and f u n c t i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t components of " a c c e p t i n g " were presented s e p a r a t e l y : Granting Requests and A c c e p t i n g I n v i t a t i o n s . Issues and behaviors r e l a t e d to these s k i l l s were each d e a l t with i n d e t a i l . The many d i f f e r e n t ways to share and p l a y together with a toy once an i n v i t a t i o n or a request has been accepted (Making Sharing Work), were a l s o covered i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l than i n previous p r o t o c o l s , emphasizing f l e x i b l e alternative-means t h i n k i n g and ways to i n c r e a s e the d u r a t i o n , v a r i e t y , and frequency of s h a r i n g p l a y episodes. Appropriate R e f u s a l s were presented i n much the same way as i n the Bryant and Budd (1984) programme, with an emphasis on keeping R e f u s a l s p o l i t e and p r o v i d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . The r e c i p r o c a l behaviors i n v o l v e d i n Handling Refusals have not been d e a l t with i n previous programmes. In t h i s programme, the many options a c h i l d can pursue f o l l o w i n g a r e f u s a l , and the d i s t i n c t i o n between a p p r o p r i a t e and i n a p p r o p r i a t e responses were o u t l i n e d . A f i n a l u n i t on Problem-Solving methods was i n c l u d e d to provide c h i l d r e n w i t h s t r a t e g i e s f o r handling anger and developing c o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s to d i s p u t e s . A d i s c u s s i o n of p a r e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e was a l s o i n c l u d e d to g i v e c h i l d r e n a sense of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y on occasions when the mother chooses to int e r v e n e i n c o n f l i c t s . In previous s t u d i e s , standard expectations f o r the consequences of c o n f l i c t have already been e s t a b l i s h e d i n 94 the nursery school context and thus have not been i n c l u d e d i n the sharing t r a i n i n g programme. Instru.c_toj: The author, a d o c t o r a l candidate i n c l i n i c a l psychology with s e v e r a l years of experience i n parent t r a i n i n g and c l i n i c a l work with young c h i l d r e n , served as the i n s t r u c t o r f o r a l l f a m i l i e s . An i n i t i a l v i s i t to the l a b o r a t o r y was scheduled to o b t a i n w r i t t e n consent, s c r e e n i n g data arid maternal measures, and to i n t r o d u c e c h i l d r e n to the l a b o r a t o r y playroom. C h i l d behavior was not recorded at t h i s s e s s i o n . However, t h i s v i s i t served to f a m i l i a r i z e c h i l d r e n with the playroom and to reduce r e a c t i v i t y to the o b s e r v a t i o n a l s e t t i n g during the PRE v i s i t . T h i s s e s s i o n l a s t e d approximately 60 minutes, with the a s s o c i a t e d take-home q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t a k i n g an a d d i t i o n a l 45 to 60 minutes. At each of PRE, POST, and FU, each mother was asked to b r i n g her two c h i l d r e n i n t o the l a b o r a t o r y . At these v i s i t s , mothers completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures, the c h i l d r e n were intervi e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y to o b t a i n the c h i l d - r e p o r t measures, and the mother and c h i l d r e n were vi d e o t a p e d i n the l a b o r a t o r y playroom f o r l a t e r o b s e r v a t i o n a l coding. The videotaped i n t e r a c t i o n s were scheduled at the end of the s e s s i o n , when the c h i l d r e n had had a chance to become accustomed to the s e t t i n g . These s e s s i o n s l a s t e d 95 approximately 60 minutes, with the a s s o c i a t e d take-home q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t a k i n g an a d d i t i o n a l 60 minutes. Twenty minutes of i n t e r a c t i o n were videotaped at each assessment f o r each f a m i l y . The mother and c h i l d r e n were alone i n the playroom, wi t h the video equipment concealed behind a one-way m i r r o r . The mother was informed t h a t these i n t e r a c t i o n s were to be videotaped and had an o p p o r t u n i t y to view the o b s e r v a t i o n g a l l e r y . The c h i l d r e n were informed that t h e i r play was of i n t e r e s t to the experimenter and would be observed d u r i n g t h e i r v i s i t s to'the l a b , and i t was l e f t to the mother to deci d e whether to inform them of the s p e c i f i c s of the one-way m i r r o r . Most mothers p r e f e r r e d to wait u n t i l the end of the FU v i s i t and take the c h i l d r e n on a tour of the o b s e r v a t i o n g a l l e r y at that p o i n t . For h a l f of the videotaped i n t e r a c t i o n (10 minutes), the mother was giv e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to complete, and asked to concentrate on these and use her usual s t r a t e g i e s to encourage the c h i l d r e n not to bother her (BUSY c o n d i t i o n ) . For the other 10 minutes, she was unoccupied and asked to make h e r s e l f at home and do as she wished (FREE c o n d i t i o n ) . Order of these two c o n d i t i o n s was randomly assigned w i t h i n p a i r s of f a m i l i e s , so t h a t 24 f a m i l i e s had the FREE c o n d i t i o n f i r s t f o r a l l three of t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s , and 24 f a m i l i e s had the BUSY c o n d i t i o n f i r s t . For the purposes of the w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s s e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s experiment, the FREE versus BUSY c o n d i t i o n s at PRE were examined f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n mother and c h i l d b e havior. The e n t i r e 20 minutes was 96 combined at PRE f o r the c o r r e l a t i o n a l study, and a l s o at PRE, POST and FU to assess the outcome of the s h a r i n g programme. The l a b o r a t o r y playroom used i n t h i s study was f u r n i s h e d to resemble a l i v i n g room, with two small couches, end t a b l e s and lamps, bookshelves, c h a i r s and a t a b l e , and a (one-way) m i r r o r on one w a l l . A standard, l i m i t e d s e l e c t i o n of age-appropriate toys (e.g., b l o c k s , d o l l s , crayons and c o l o r i n g books) was a v a i l a b l e at each assessment s e s s i o n . These toys were s e l e c t e d with the a i d o f " a p i l o t study to determine the type and number of toys needed to e l i c i t t y p i c a l l e v e l s of p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s . Although, i d e a l l y , one might p r e f e r to make such unobtrusive o b s e r v a t i o n s i n the home, the l a b o r a t o r y s i t u a t i o n can a l s o p rovide u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n about f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s . A number of s t u d i e s have demonstrated s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n s between c l i n i c and home o b s e r v a t i o n s , and found that s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s such as the amount of s t r u c t u r e imposed on the s i t u a t i o n or the presence or absence of s i b l i n g s , have a much g r e a t e r impact on observed behavior than whether the f a m i l y i s at home or out of the home (e.g., Kniskern, Robinson, & M i t c h e l l , 1983; Webster-Stratton, 1985; Zangwill & Kniskern, 1982). Presumably, the l e s s a r t i f i c i a l the s i t u a t i o n , the more l i k e l y one i s to observe t y p i c a l behavior, and i n some ways having c h i l d r e n come to a l a b o r a t o r y playroom where the o b s e r v a t i o n a l process i s 97 u n o b t r u s i v e may be l e s s r e a c t i v e than having observers i n the home (Kazdin, 1981; Mash, 1984; Mash & T e r d a l , 1982). I t i s c e r t a i n l y a more c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n that can remain constant across time and f a m i l i e s , and more p r a c t i c a l i n terms of u s i n g video equipment and a d e t a i l e d coding system (Asher & Hymel, 1981; Hartmann & Wood, 1982; Kent & F o s t e r , 1977; Reid, 1985). A l l measures were administered and scored by re s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t s who were b l i n d to f a m i l y c o n d i t i o n . Some of the measures were f i l l e d out at home f o r the convenience of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Home-completed Screening and Maternal measures were g i v e n to the mother to f i l l out a f t e r the i n i t i a l v i s i t ; measures a s s o c i a t e d with the PRE, POST and FU v i s i t s were d e l i v e r e d i n advance of the s e s s i o n , and mothers were asked to b r i n g the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n with them. For a l l measures completed at home, the importance of f i l l i n g out q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p r i v a t e l y and independently was d i s c u s s e d with the p a r t i c i p a n t s , and s t r e s s e d i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s i n c l u d e d with each q u e s t i o n n a i r e package. Rsms3.nl Jig Demo.graphic„ Data Form. Mothers who volunteered were asked to complete a 9-item Demographic Data Form (Appendix B) and a b r i e f i n t e r v i e w . As well as meeting the b a s i c c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n the study (ages of c h i l d r e n , l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , e t c . ) , p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s must a l s o have i n d i c a t e d : 98 1. Concern about t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g behavior and a d e s i r e to improve t h e i r own and t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s h a n d l i n g of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s . 2. No other major f a m i l y concerns which would be l i k e l y to i n t e r f e r e w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the programme (e.g., h e a l t h problem, imminent move, severe m a r i t a l c o n f l i c t ) . 3. Intent to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l a s p e c t s of the programme, and consent as i n d i c a t e d by s i g n i n g a subject consent form. 4. W i l l i n g n e s s to be randomly a s s i g n e d to e i t h e r the INDIV, GROUP, or WAIT c o n d i t i o n . 5. Consent f o r a d d i t i o n a l informants (e.g., f a t h e r , t eachers) to be approached f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n assessment. 6. S u f f i c i e n t f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e comfortably i n the programme. 1±RGIand_Ada.ptive B-^ avi_Q-C_.JS..CLa 1 es. P r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s who met a l l e l i g i b i l i t y c r i t e r i a and i n d i c a t e d t h e i r consent were asked to complete two measures of c h i l d b ehavior. The f i r s t measure, the V i n e l a n d Adaptive Behavior Scales ( V i n e l a n d ) assesses l i f e s p a n development i n four broad domains: communication, d a i l y l i v i n g s k i l l s , s o c i a l i z a t i o n and motor s k i l l s (Sparrow, B a l l a , & C i c c h e t t i , 1984). The "Adaptive Behavior Composite" i s a summary score expressed i n standard score format, and designed to r e f l e c t the c h i l d ' s o v e r a l l l e v e l of performance of s k i l l s r e q u i r e d i n the home, school and community (Sparrow et a l . , 1984). In t h i s study, s c o r e s f o r both s i b l i n g s had to f a l l w i t h i n two 99 standard d e v i a t i o n s of the mean, i n an e f f o r t to ensure that the c h i l d r e n c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as "normally developing." The V i n e l a n d was developed and s t a n d a r d i z e d f o l l o w i n g accepted procedures (Campbell, 1985), and r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the Composite score have been hi g h (Holden, 1984). V a l i d i t y data i n c l u d e f i n d i n g s t h a t : mean raw scores i n c r e a s e with age f o r a l l behavior domains, low to moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t with measures of i n t e l l i g e n c e , and moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s e x i s t with the V i n e l a n d S o c i a l M a t u r i t y Scale ( D o l l , 1965), the predecessor to the c u r r e n t measure ( B r i t t o n & Eaves, 1986; Campbell, 1985; Holden, 1984; Sparrow & C i c c h e t t i , 1985). Child. Behavior C h e c k l i s t . The second c h i l d behavior s c r e e n i n g measure was the C h i l d Behavior C h e c k l i s t (CBCL; Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983), a q u e s t i o n n a i r e designed to re c o r d the b e h a v i o r a l problems of c h i l d r e n as reported by t h e i r parents. One CBCL f o r each c h i l d was completed by the mother. The T o t a l Behavior Problem Score i s expressed as a normalized j£,-score, r e f l e c t i n g the c h i l d ' s l e v e l of problematic behavior r e l a t i v e to c h i l d r e n of the same age and sex. For i n c l u s i o n i n the study, both c h i l d r e n had to be at or below the 90th p e r c e n t i l e on t h i s measure, the recommended c u t o f f f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g "normal" from "behavior-problem" c h i l d r e n (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983). R e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the CBCL f o r the normative samples were adequately high (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983; 100 Achenbach, Edelbrock, & Howell, 1987). C o n s i d e r a b l e evidence has accumulated i n support of the v a l i d i t y and u t i l i t y of t h i s s c a l e , i n c l u d i n g f i n d i n g s that CBCL s c o r e s show moderate to h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s with other measures of c h i l d behavior problems, and can d i s c r i m i n a t e between c l i n i c and n o n c l i n i c samples (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983; Achenbach et a l . , 1987; McMahon, 1984; Mooney, 1984). The CBCL i s g e n e r a l l y regarded as one of the most e x t e n s i v e l y researched and u s e f u l p a r e n t - r e p o r t measures of c h i l d behavior problems (McMahon, 1984; Mooney, 1984; O l l e n d i c k & Cerny, 1981; W e l l s , 1981). MjLterna.1.. V a r i a b l e s , Although s c r e e n i n g procedures were designed to reduce s u b j e c t v a r i a b i l i t y and assignment to groups was random, i t i s p o s s i b l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y with the r e l a t i v e l y small sample s i z e , that groups may s t i l l have d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on p o t e n t i a l l y important v a r i a b l e s . I t i s p l a u s i b l e to expect that response to the programme could be a f f e c t e d by such maternal f a c t o r s as SES, l e v e l of s o c i a l s k i l l and support, and pre-treatment e v a l u a t i o n of the programme (Fleischman, Home, & Arthur, 1983; P r i n z & M i l l e r , 1986; W e l l s , 1981). These more d i s t a l measures were assessed at the i n i t i a l v i s i t , and examined f o r group equivalence b e f o r e analyses of the more proximal outcome measures were conducted ( S c a r r , 1985). The mothers' r e p o r t e d l e v e l of SES was assessed through the Demographic Data Form and i n t e r v i e w d i s c u s s e d 101 above. Treatment e v a l u a t i o n and s o c i a l context v a r i a b l e s were assessed through the measures d e s c r i b e d below. JCrfiAtmsnt,,, Eya 1 uailQJl-Jjlv.en.tQry. Pre-treatment e v a l u a t i o n of the programme was assessed by the Treatment E v a l u a t i o n Inventory (TEI; Kazdin, 1980). This measure prese n t s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the programme from the p o i n t of view of a t y p i c a l f a m i l y , and asks the respondent to r a t e the programme on f i f t e e n 7-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s , i n d i c a t i n g the perce i v e d e f f i c a c y and a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the i n t e r v e n t i o n , with higher scores r e f l e c t i n g g r e a t e r a c c e p t a b i l i t y . The TEI i s c u r r e n t l y the most widely used and e x t e n s i v e l y researched measure of consumer a c c e p t a b i l i t y f o r p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g programmes (McMahon & Forehand, 1983). •S„eJJLrxe.port of SJlQJAl-JJlLsx. a c t La ns • The mother's l e v e l of s o c i a l contact was assessed by a b r i e f q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the S e l f - r e p o r t of S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n s (Appendix C; Cappe & Alden, 1986), on which the s u b j e c t i n d i c a t e s the number of times she has r e c e n t l y engaged i n each of 10 s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s (e.g., phoning a f r i e n d , s o c i a l i z i n g with co-workers). No psychometric data are a v a i l a b l e on t h i s measure, other than the f i n d i n g t h a t i t was s e n s i t i v e to change i n research on an i n t e r v e n t i o n designed to i n c r e a s e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n (Cappe & Alden, 1986). In t h i s study, the t o t a l Frequency score was used as a measure of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . £ojg±a.jJ°Ly^lclance ani,_^iusJfc,r.es,,s_JSj;aJ.e. The S o c i a l Avoidance and D i s t r e s s S c a l e (SADS; Watson & F r i e n d , 1969) 102 was used to assess general l e v e l of comfort/discomfort i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s s e l f - r e p o r t measure r e q u i r e s the respondent to make t r u e - f a l s e c h o i c e s on 28 items r e f l e c t i n g the tendency to be uncomfortable i n or a v o i d a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s . The SADS i s one of the most widely used q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r a s s e s s i n g general s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g , and one of the few that i s supported by a s u b s t a n t i a l body of r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y r e s e a r c h (Arkowitz, 1981; Hersen & B e l l a c k , 1977; Watson & F r i e n d , 1969). Observer Ratings. An o b s e r v a t i o n a l measure of each mother's general l e v e l of s o c i a l s k i l l was obtained. F i v e -minute videotapes of each mother's i n t e r a c t i o n with the experimenter d u r i n g an i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w were r a t e d by two t r a i n e d observers on seven dimensions, u s i n g 5-point L i k e r t -type s c a l e s . Scores across the seven dimensions and two r a t e r s were summed to o b t a i n an o v e r a l l measure r e f l e c t i n g s o c i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n and s k i l l f u l n e s s (Appendix D). Although g l o b a l r a t i n g s are n e c e s s a r i l y s u b j e c t i v e , the two r a t e r s ' s c ores were r e l a t e d (x = .28, p. < .05) and not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t (j? > .05). The dimensions (e.g., anxious-calm, f r i e n d l y - h o s t i l e ) were drawn from the numerous r a t i n g systems of molar aspects of s o c i a l s k i l l i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and r e p r e s e n t the aspects most commonly assessed (Arkowitz, 1981; B e l l a c k & Morrison, 1982; Curran 6. Wessberg, 1981; Hersen & B e l l a c k , 1977). Global r a t i n g s of s o c i a l performance have been shown to have adequate psychometric p r o p e r t i e s and good v a l i d i t y when known groups are 103 c o n t r a s t e d (Arkowitz, 1981; Bryant, Trower, Yardley, U r b i e t a , & Letemendia, 1976; Curran et a l . , 1980; Trower, 1980). Global r a t i n g s are a l s o seen as p r e f e r a b l e to more molecular behavior measures when the measure of i n t e r e s t i s the s u b j e c t ' s o v e r a l l l e v e l of s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g (Arkowitz, 1981; B e l l a c k & Morrison, 1982; Curran & Wessberg, 1981). Co-Parenting Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The f i n a l maternal measure assessed a s p e c i f i c aspect of the mother's s o c i a l context: the degree to which she p e r c e i v e d her spouse as a s u p p o r t i v e , competent co-parent. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence to suggest a r e l a t i o n s h i p between m a r i t a l i n t e r a c t i o n ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the c o - p a r e n t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p ) and both p a r e n t i n g behavior and c h i l d deviance (e.g., Snyder, K l e i n , Gdowski, F a u l s t i c h & LaCombe, 1988; Wells, 1981), and the mother's co-parenting r e l a t i o n s h i p with her spouse c o u l d p o s s i b l y a f f e c t parent and c h i l d responsiveness to a parent-t r a i n i n g programme (Horton, 1984). The Spouse Support subscale of the Cleminshaw-Guidubaldi Parent S a t i s f a c t i o n Scale ( G u i d u b a l d i & Cleminshaw, 1985) was used to assess co-p a r e n t i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s i s a 10-item q u e s t i o n n a i r e using 4-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s , and has been shown to possess s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r n a l r e l i a b i l i t y and p r e l i m i n a r y evidence of v a l i d i t y (Guidubaldi & Cleminshaw, 1985; Mouton & Tuma, 1988). In order to draw sound c o n c l u s i o n s from a treatment outcome study, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to ensure that the treatment 104 has i n f a c t been implemented as planned (Kazdin, 1980, 1986; Kendall & Koehler, 1985; P r i n z & M i l l e r , 1986). To t h i s end, a number of i n d i c e s of treatment f i d e l i t y were assessed. The progress check completed at each INDIV s e s s i o n a l s o recorded homework assignments completed and c h i l d r e n ' s and parent's mastery of each programme step. In a d d i t i o n , one s e s s i o n f o r each INDIV f a m i l y and one GROUP s e s s i o n was randomly s e l e c t e d and audiotaped. An independent observer r a t e d each s e c t i o n of the s e s s i o n (e.g., Homework Review, I n s t r u c t o r Demonstration of S k i l l ) on a 5-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e a c c o r d i n g to how c l o s e l y the s e s s i o n f o l l o w e d the a p p r o p r i a t e s e s s i o n plan,and the mean f o r each s e s s i o n was c a l c u l a t e d (Appendix E ) . A second r a t e r a l s o r a t e d 10 randomly-selected s e s s i o n s , and a c o r r e l a t i o n was computed between the two r a t e r s ' scores to eval u a t e i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y . Outcome Measures Overview. In t h e i r review of outcome e v a l u a t i o n i n c h i l d behavior therapy, Kendall and Koehler (1985) observed that "the c o n c l u s i o n of most d i s c u s s i o n s of the a p p r o p r i a t e dependent v a r i a b l e s ... i s t h a t , s i n c e change i s mu l t i d i m e n s i o n a l , m u l t i p l e measures should be employed" (p. 108). The source of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r outcome measures i s one important dimension; parents, c h i l d r e n , t e a c h e r s , and independent observers can a l l provide v a l u a b l e p e r s p e c t i v e s from which to view behavior change (Atkeson & Forehand, 1978; O l l e n d i c k & Hersen, 1984). S i m i l a r l y , d i f f e r e n t types 105 of measures (e.g., g l o b a l r a t i n g s , i n t e r v i e w s , c h e c k l i s t s , o b s e r v a t i o n a l systems) have unique advantages, disadvantages, and types of i n f o r m a t i o n to o f f e r (Kazdin, 1980; Kendall & Koehler, 1985; Michelson et a l . , 1981). F i n a l l y , outcome measures can be seen as v a r y i n g i n the behavior or c o n s t r u c t assessed. Although a primary goal of outcome e v a l u a t i o n i s to assess changes i n the t a r g e t behavior, assessment of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of treatment e f f e c t s i s a l s o important. Forehand and Atkeson (1977) o u t l i n e d the types of g e n e r a l i t y which are of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n parent t r a i n i n g r e s e a r c h : s e t t i n g g e n e r a l i t y , temporal g e n e r a l i t y , s i b l i n g g e n e r a l i t y , and b e h a v i o r a l g e n e r a l i t y . The outcome measures o u t l i n e d below were s e l e c t e d i n an e f f o r t to represent a v a r i e t y of i n f o r m a t i o n sources, types of measures, and s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l i z e d e f f e c t s . Q u a n t i t y , however, i s no guarantee of q u a l i t y . Measures must a l s o be p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y sound and provide u s e f u l , i n t e r p r e t a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n ( G o l d f r i e d & Linehan, 1977; O l l e n d i c k & Hersen, 1984). Therefore, the outcome assessment i n the present study attempted to employ measures with a s o l i d r e s e a r c h base. Where e x i s t i n g measures were not a v a i l a b l e , attempts were made to adapt elements of e s t a b l i s h e d measures or to c o n s t r u c t new measures a c c o r d i n g to recommended procedures. Data f o r each of these measures was c o l l e c t e d at PRE, POST and FU, and scored by a s s i s t a n t s b l i n d to c o n d i t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g types of outcome measures were employed: 106 1. O b s e r v a t i o n a l coding system: observer records of c h i l d and mother behavior, i n c l u d i n g s h a r i n g responses, r e l a t e d p r o s o c i a l and a g o n i s t i c behavior, and g l o b a l r a t i n g s . 2. Maternal s e l f - r e p o r t measures: q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a s s e s s i n g knowledge of the concepts taught i n the programme, pa r e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s used i n the home, and sense of s e l f -e f f i c a c y as a parent. 3. A d u l t - r e p o r t measures of c h i l d b e h a v i o r : r e p o r t s from s e v e r a l informants i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g s , a s s e s s i n g s p e c i f i c s h a r i n g and s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n b e h a v i o r s and general s o c i a l development, and a m a t e r n a l - r e p o r t measure of behavior problems. 4. S t r u c t u r e d c h i l d i n t e r v i e w measures: assessments of the c h i l d ' s knowledge of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d concepts and s k i l l s , p e r c e p t i o n of the s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , and l e v e l of p r o s o c i a l moral understanding. O b s e r v a t i o n a l coding system. B e h a v i o r a l coding of the i n t e r a c t i o n s videotaped i n the l a b playroom was conducted using a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of the p a r t i a l - i n t e r v a l system used by Bryant and Budd (1984). Occurrences of c h i l d and mother behaviors were recorded i n 10-second i n t e r v a l s ; each behavior could be recorded only once per i n t e r v a l . Four c a t e g o r i e s of c h i l d behavior to s i b l i n g were coded s e p a r a t e l y f o r each c h i l d : P o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior such as asking p o l i t e l y or mutual toy p l a y ("Share P o s i t i v e " ) , negative s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior such as 107 demanding or grabbing an o b j e c t ("Share N e g a t i v e " ) , non-s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e behavior such as t a l k i n g or hugging ("Other P o s i t i v e " ) , and n o n - s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d negative behavior such as c r i t i c i z i n g or h i t t i n g ("Other N e g a t i v e " ) . The same four behaviors are coded f o r the mother: Share P o s i t i v e (e.g., a t t e n d i n g to or m o d e l l i n g s h a r i n g b e h a v i o r ) , Share Negative (e.g., c r i t i c i s m or power a s s e r t i o n r e l a t e d to c h i l d s h a r i n g b e h a v i o r ) , Other P o s i t i v e (e.g., t a l k or touch u n r e l a t e d to toy s h a r i n g ) , and Other Negative (e.g., s c o l d i n g or demands u n r e l a t e d to s h a r i n g ) . Most behavior d e s c r i p t i o n s subsumed under these c a t e g o r i e s were taken d i r e c t l y from Bryant and Budd's (1984) coding system, and a d d i t i o n a l d e s c r i p t o r s were adapted from systems used by Abramovitch et a l . (1982) i n t h e i r r e s e a r c h on s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s and by Barton and Ascione (1979) i n t h e i r s h a r i n g research. Scores f o r each behavior are expressed i n terms of the percentage of i n t e r v a l s i n which i t occurs. G l o b a l r a t i n g s were a l s o added to t h i s coding system on an e x p l o r a t o r y b a s i s . A f t e r each 5-minute segment, the observer considered the behavior each person (mother and two c h i l d r e n ) had d i r e c t e d toward each other person and r a t e d i t on a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e f o r two dimensions: A f f e c t i v e Tone (warm versus h o s t i l e ) and Dominance/Activity Level ( a c t i v e versus p a s s i v e ) . These s c a l e s r e f l e c t the most commonly re p o r t e d dimensions of i n t e r p e r s o n a l behavior i n general and p a r e n t - c h i l d i n t e r a c t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r (Grusec & L y t t o n , 1988; K i e s l e r , 1983; Wiggins, 1982), and are i n c l u d e d i n an 108 e f f o r t to assess q u a l i t a t i v e aspects of each person's s o c i a l behavior (Barton & Ascione, 1984; Kazdin, 1980). Observer r a t i n g s of f a m i l y i n t e r a c t i o n s have been found to possess adequate psychometric p r o p e r t i e s and to add unique and u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n to o b s e r v a t i o n a l codes (Grusec & L y t t o n , 1988; Weinrott, Reid, Bauske, & Brummett, 1981). Observers f o r t h i s study were t r a i n e d to a predetermined r e l i a b i l i t y c r i t e r i o n ( c o r r e l a t i o n of at l e a s t JC=.80; Gelfand & Hartmann, 1984) b e f o r e coding videotaped i n t e r a c t i o n s f o r the study. In order to guard against observer d r i f t , r e g u l a r p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s were h e l d (Hartmann & Wood, 1982; Kazdin, 1981). Coding videotaped r a t h e r than l i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s a l s o permits the o b s e r v a t i o n of s e s s i o n s and f a m i l i e s i n n o n - c h r o n o l o g i c a l order, which helps to minimize d r i f t e f f e c t s (Kent & F o s t e r , 1977). I n t e r o b s e r v e r r e l i a b i l i t y was assessed by having a second observer code a randomly s e l e c t e d 5-minute p o r t i o n of each f a m i l y ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s at each assessment poin t (PRE, POST, FU). T h i s random-check method p r e c l u d e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of the primary observer being aware of the o b s e r v a t i o n s f o r which r e l i a b i l i t y i s being c a l c u l a t e d , thus enhancing the accuracy of r e l i a b i l i t y assessment (Kazdin, 1981; Kent & F o s t e r , 1977). Agreement was c a l c u l a t e d by comparing the t o t a l score (the i n f o r m a t i o n used i n outcome analy s e s ) f o r each behavior i n the records of the primary and secondary observers f o r the 5-minute segment (Gelfand & Hartmann, 1984; Kent & F o s t e r , 1977). 109 Sh&X±n.&„.R&Q5L.l£&<3e Que^,JLJJ?imAiJLg. In order to assess the mother's v e r b a l understanding of d i d a c t i c m a t e r i a l presented i n the programme, a 25-item Sharing Knowledge Q u e s t i o n n a i r e using both m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e and short-answer q u e s t i o n s was developed, with higher scores i n d i c a t i n g g r e a t e r knowledge (Appendix F ) . Items r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of m a t e r i a l taught i n the course were drawn from the Knowledge of B e h a v i o r a l P r i n c i p l e s as A p p l i e d to C h i l d r e n t e s t ( O ' D e l l , T a r l e r -B e n l o l o , & F l y n n , 1979), the S o c i a l L e a r n i n g C r i t e r i o n Tests (Forehand & McMahon, 1981), and items generated from the s h a r i n g programme manual. Although t h i s measure was developed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the present study, measures of t h i s type have i n the past proven s e n s i t i v e to d i d a c t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n (McMahon, Forehand, & G r i e s t , 1981). P a r e n t i n g S t r a t e g i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The v a r i e t y of p a r e n t i n g techniques used was assessed by means of a P a r e n t i n g S t r a t e g i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (PSQ; Appendix G). Adapted from a s e l f - r e p o r t measure of p a r e n t i n g techniques f o r c h i l d compliance (McMahon, Cross C a l v e r t , Davies, & F l e s s a t i , 1986), the PSQ l i s t s 33 s p e c i f i c p a r e n t i n g techniques, c o v e r i n g a broad range of p r o a c t i v e , r e a c t i v e , p o s i t i v e and negative s t r a t e g i e s , i n c l u d i n g a l l techniques taught i n the s h a r i n g programme. The parent i s asked to i n d i c a t e whether they have used each technique i n the past month, y i e l d i n g an o v e r a l l t o t a l of the number of techniques used. 110 £ax-erxtjjig..._^mae_.Qt CQ^^lgncje_Sca.Le. As well as t r a i n i n g parents i n s p e c i f i c c h i l d management techniques, an u n d e r l y i n g goal of most p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g programmes i s to enhance p a r e n t s ' f e e l i n g s of s e l f - e f f i c a c y : the p e r c e p t i o n that they can and do perform well i n t h e i r r o l e as parents (Gray & Wandersman, 1980; O l l e n d i c k & Cerny, 1981; Reid, 1985). In order to determine i f the present programme made a d i f f e r e n c e i n mothers' s e l f - e s t e e m as p a r e n t s , the Parenting Sense of Competence s c a l e (PSOC; Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978) was completed. T h i s s c a l e r e q u i r e s parents to r a t e 17 statements concerning s e l f - e f f i c a c y and s a t i s f a c t i o n with p a r e n t i n g , on a s i x - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e . The items are summed to y i e l d a t o t a l s c o r e , with higher s c o r e s i n d i c a t i n g a more p o s i t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the p a r e n t i n g r o l e . Research with the PSOC has demonstrated adequate r e l i a b i l i t y and produced some evidence of v a l i d i t y , i n c l u d i n g t h e o r e t i c a l l y - e x p e c t e d c o r r e l a t i o n s with measures of general s e l f - e s t e e m , l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n , and parent and c h i l d behavior, and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between parents of c l i n i c - r e f e r r e d and n o n c l i n i c c h i l d r e n (Cutrona & Troutman, 1986; Gibaud-Wallston & Wandersman, 1978; Johnston & Mash, 1989). Sharing and S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (SSIQ; Appendix H) was developed to assess a d u l t p e r c e p t i o n s of s i b l i n g s h a r i n g behavior. F o l l o w i n g C a r t l e d g e and Milburn's (1980) and M i c h e l s o n , F o s t e r and R i t c h e y ' s (1981) I l l recommendations f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a d u l t - r e p o r t measures of p a r t i c u l a r c h i l d s o c i a l s k i l l s , most of the 54 items use 7-p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s on which the respondent r a t e s s p e c i f i c s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behaviors f o r frequency or i n t e n s i t y . An e a r l i e r v e r s i o n of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e (McMahon et a l . , 1986; Tiedemann et a l . , 1987) demonstrated s u f f i c i e n t v a r i a b i l i t y of responses to j u s t i f y use of the items and anchor-point d e s c r i p t o r s i n f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and a moderate c o r r e l a t i o n between a summary score f o r s i b l i n g s h a r i n g problems and the mother's d e s i r e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a programme designed to t r e a t s i b l i n g s h a r i n g problems. The t o t a l s c o r e i s a summary measure of s i b l i n g s h a r i n g problems r e p o r t e d , with higher scores i n d i c a t i n g more problems. In an e f f o r t to gather i n f o r m a t i o n from a v a r i e t y of sources and s i t u a t i o n s , the SSIQ was completed by the mother, d e s c r i b i n g her p e r c e p t i o n s of s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the SSIQ was a l s o given to one other a d u l t who r e g u l a r l y observed the s i b l i n g s together (e.g., f a t h e r , nanny), and a modified v e r s i o n was given to one a d u l t who r e g u l a r l y observed the younger c h i l d apart from the s i b l i n g and i n t e r a c t i n g with other c h i l d r e n (e.g., daycare worker, t e a c h e r ) , and one such a d u l t who r e g u l a r l y observed the o l d e r c h i l d apart from the s i b l i n g . Information from a v a r i e t y of sources and s e t t i n g s helped to e v a l u a t e the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of treatment e f f e c t s , and the s o c i a l 112 v a l i d i t y of such e f f e c t s from the p o i n t of view of important f i g u r e s i n the c h i l d ' s l i f e . S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n Record. In an e f f o r t to supplement the l a b o r a t o r y o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h more a e c o l o g i c a l l y - v a l i d measure of behavior i n the home, mothers were asked to complete the S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n Record (SIR; Appendix I ) . For each of 5 days, mothers chose, i n advance, an hour when they knew t h e i r c h i l d r e n would be together. They were asked to u n o b t r u s i v e l y attend to t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s d u r i n g that hour. At the end of the hour, they r a t e d the c h i l d r e n on three L i k e r t - t y p e 5-point s c a l e s , a c c o r d i n g to how much time the c h i l d r e n chose to spend together, whether they had any s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s , and the general tone of the i n t e r a c t i o n . Scores were summed over days and s c a l e s t o y i e l d a t o t a l s c o r e , w i t h lower scores i n d i c a t i n g more frequent and p o s i t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n s . Although t h i s measure was designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s study, p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h with s i m i l a r measures has demonstrated that mothers can p r o v i d e r e l i a b l e o b s e r v a t i o n a l data on s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e n ' s behaviors i n the home (e.g.. Chamberlain & Reid, 1987; Zahn-Waxler et a l . , 1979). Yin.e-Laji&„..S^ . i f changes i n s h a r i n g behavior occured, i t would be u s e f u l to know i f changes i n other s o c i a l s k i l l s ( b e h a v i o r a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ) o c c u r r e d as well (Forehand & Atkeson, 1977). General s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g (as r e p o r t e d by a d u l t s ) was asse s s e d by the S o c i a l i z a t i o n s c a l e of the V i n e l a n d (Sparrow et a l . , 1984). Items on t h i s 113 s c a l e cover a v a r i e t y of s o c i a l s k i l l areas, such as p l a y , s o c i a l communication, f o l l o w i n g r u l e s , and manners. The raw t o t a l S o c i a l i z a t i o n score was used as the outcome measure, with h i g h e r scores i n d i c a t i n g more advanced s o c i a l development. Adequate r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s and evidence of s e v e r a l types of v a l i d i t y have been r e p o r t e d f o r t h i s s c a l e (Campbell, 1985; Holden, 1984; Sparrow, 1984; Sparrow & C i c c h e t t i , 1985). Reports of both c h i l d r e n ' s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g on t h i s measure were obtained from the mother and the three a d d i t i o n a l informants d e s c r i b e d i n the preceding s e c t i o n . C h i l d Behavior C h e c k l i s t - The f i n a l a d u l t - r e p o r t measure that was used to assess b e h a v i o r a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n i s the CBCL, d e s c r i b e d above. If improvements i n s i b l i n g s h a r i n g occurred, i t would u s e f u l to know i f other behavior problems change as w e l l . To t h i s end, mothers were asked to complete the CBCL, and raw t o t a l b ehavior problem scores were used as the outcome measure. Scores on the CBCL have proven s e n s i t i v e to p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g treatment e f f e c t s (Webster-Stratton, 1984). I.TLiSX^±£Mlhg.--Qh.il&L$Xl. The d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from young c h i l d r e n by means of d i r e c t i n t e r v i e w are well documented (Damon, 1977; Kendall & Koehler, 1985; Michelson et a l . , 1981; Palmer, 1983). Nev e r t h e l e s s , even very young c h i l d r e n can express t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , b e l i e f s and knowledge about s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s and problems when given the r i g h t o p p o r t u n i t y (Asher & 114 Hymel, 1981; Cartledge & M i l b u r n , 1980; Damon, 1977; Evans & Nelson, 1977; Koch, 1960; O l l e n d i c k & Hersen, 1984). F o l l o w i n g Damon's (1977) and Koch's (1960) recommendations f o r o b t a i n i n g the c h i l d ' s p o i n t of view i n a s t a n d a r d i z e d yet f l e x i b l e manner, a s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w was developed to assess knowledge about s h a r i n g , p e r c e p t i o n of the s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p , and development of p r o s o c i a l moral judgement (Appendix J ) . A s s i s t a n t s were t r a i n e d to score d i r e c t l y from the recorded i n t e r v i e w p r o t o c o l s . Interjudge r e l i a b i l i t y was assessed by randomly s e l e c t i n g one p r o t o c o l f o r each f a m i l y to be scored by a second a s s i s t a n t . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were c a l c u l a t e d on the t o t a l s c o r e f o r each measure. •S.ka.cliig_-En,Qj!tledq^-JjateJLView. Both d i r e c t q u e s t i o n i n g and h y p o t h e t i c a l dilemmas were used i n the p o r t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w developed to assess c h i l d r e n ' s v e r b a l understanding of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d concepts taught i n the curr e n t programme, and responses to s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d problems. Items and s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a were drawn from Bryant and Budd's (1984) b r i e f s h a r i n g i n t e r v i e w and the Preschool I n t e r p e r s o n a l Problem-Solving S c a l e (Shure & Spivack, 1974), and expressed i n terms of the percentage of a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d ideas produced by the c h i l d . jSjLMjjQ,cx_Relations intj£rjyjLejH. A p o r t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w was developed to e l i c i t c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s i n p a r t i c u l a r and the q u a l i t y of the s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i n g e n e r a l . The a t t i t u d e s , f e e l i n g s , and "reinforcement v a l u e " 115 c h i l d r e n have f o r each other can be important determinants of t h e i r s o c i a l behavior (Evans & Nelson, 1977), and are a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g as measures of the s o c i a l v a l i d i t y of t h i s programme from the c h i l d r e n ' s p o i n t of view. The f i r s t p a r t of t h i s s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of 15 d i r e c t q u e s t i o n s , drawn from i n t e r v i e w s developed to assess young c h i l d r e n ' s s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Dunn, 1984; Koch, 1960) and from b e h a v i o r s addressed by the c u r r e n t programme. Responses i n t h i s s e c t i o n were r a t e d according to the p r o p o r t i o n of p o s i t i v e to negative comments made. The second part used a s o c i o m e t r i c r a t i n g approach to e l i c i t the c h i l d ' s opinions about the s i b l i n g and the s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . Despite previous concerns regarding the use of s o c i o m e t r i c techniques with young c h i l d r e n (Hymel, 1983), recent i n v e s t i g a t i o n s with procedures developed p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r preschool-aged c h i l d r e n have had encouraging r e s u l t s . Sharing, c o o p e r a t i v e play, f i g h t i n g , and d i s r u p t i n g p lay are the behaviors on which p r e s c h o o l e r s make the most r e l i a b l e judgements, and f o r which p r e s c h o o l e r s ' judgements correspond most c l o s e l y to a d u l t r e p o r t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s (Ladd & Mars, 1986; Wasik, 1987). The s o c i o m e t r i c r a t i n g procedure used by Ladd and Mars (1986) formed the b a s i s of t h i s s e c t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w . In t h i s procedure, each c h i l d r a t e s the s i b l i n g on s i x behaviors, a c c o r d i n g to whether the behavior occurs "a l o t " , "sometimes" or "not much." Each behavior i s presented with a v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n and a set of l i n e drawings r e p r e s e n t i n g 116 each of the three p o i n t s on the r a t i n g s c a l e . The c h i l d p o i n t s to the drawing most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s i b l i n g ' s behavior. The items i n c l u d e behaviors which are a g g r e s s i v e , p r o s o c i a l , and n o n s o c i a l . F i v e a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s concerning s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behaviors and the s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p (e.g., " f i g h t over t o y s " , "have fun p l a y i n g together") were presented using the same format. Each item was scored on a 3-point s c a l e a c c o r d i n g to the c h i l d ' s r a t i n g . The t o t a l score f o r the s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t e r v i e w was c a l c u l a t e d by adding the s c o r e s f o r each item (with s c o r i n g reversed f o r n e g a t i v e items) to i n d i c a t e the o v e r a l l o p i n i o n expressed about the s i b l i n g . j e x a & i l c j L A L ^ A p o r t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e any changes i n the c e n t r a l o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s of t h e i r s o c i a l knowledge as a r e s u l t of t h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n (Damon, 1977). Although there was a d i s c u s s i o n and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g component to the programme, the emphasis f o r c h i l d r e n t h i s age i s c l e a r l y on the b e h a v i o r a l s k i l l - l e a r n i n g aspects of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . Changes i n the l e v e l of moral reasoning were thus examined as evidence of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , to determine whether the p r i m a r i l y b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i s a l s o i n f l u e n c i n g c h i l d r e n ' s moral c o g n i t i o n . P o r t i o n s of the P r o s o c i a l Moral Judgement Interview (Eisenberg-Berg & Hand, 1979) were used to assess each c h i l d ' s l e v e l of p r o s o c i a l moral re a s o n i n g . T h i s measure r e q u i r e s the c h i l d to make d e c i s i o n s about whether or not a 117 p r o t a g o n i s t should engage i n some p r o s o c i a l behavior (e.g., s h a r i n g , h e l p i n g ) , i n the context of i l l u s t r a t e d dilemmas. The c h i l d i s asked to e x p l a i n the reason f o r the d e c i s i o n , and these e x p l a n a t i o n s are coded according to e m p i r i c a l l y -d e r i v e d l e v e l s of p r o s o c i a l moral judgement. A composite scor e f o r the measure was c a l c u l a t e d over the dilemmas, i n d i c a t i n g the o v e r a l l reasoning l e v e l , and the number of dilemmas f o r which the c h i l d chose the p r o s o c i a l response was recorded as well ( E i s e n b e r g , Lennon, & Roth, 1983). T h i s measure has been s u c c e s s f u l l y used with c h i l d r e n as young as 3 years of age (Eisenberg, Lundy, S h e l l , & Roth, 1985), and i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y i s g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y ( E isenberg et a l . , 1983; Eisenberg et a l . , 1985; E i s e n b e r g -Berg & Hand, 1979). Some evidence of v a l i d i t y has accumulated, i n c l u d i n g moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s with the Kohlberg moral judgement i n t e r v i e w (Eisenberg et a l . , 1983), expected a g e - r e l a t e d changes (Eisenberg, 1982; Rest, 1983), and moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s with p r o s o c i a l behavior, i n c l u d i n g s h a r i n g (Eisenberg, 1982; Eisenberg, Pasternack, Cameron, & Tryon, 1984; Eisenberg-Berg & Hand, 1979; Perry & Bussey, 1984). The c l i e n t ' s s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of treatment has r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n recent years, as one means of e v a l u a t i n g the s o c i a l v a l i d i t y of b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s ( B o r n s t e i n , Kazdin, & Mclntyre, 1985; G a r f i e l d , 1983; Kazdin, 1977). Reviewers of the c h i l d 118 treatment l i t e r a t u r e have recommended that consumer s a t i s f a c t i o n measures become an i n t e g r a l p a r t of every t h e r a p i s t ' s assessment b a t t e r y ( B o r n s t e i n et a l . , 1985; McMahon & Forehand, 1983). A c c o r d i n g l y , three measures were administered to the two treatment groups to assess t h e i r views of the programme and i t s e f f e c t s . C l i e n t S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The C l i e n t S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (CSQ; Larsen, A t t k i s s o n , Hargreaves, & Nguyen, 1979) c o n s i s t s of e i g h t items on which respondents r a t e aspects of general s a t i s f a c t i o n (e.g., "To what extent has our programme met your needs") on a 4-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e , with h i g h e r scores i n d i c a t i n g more s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s measure has been found to possess adequate psychometric p r o p e r t i e s ( B o r n s t e i n & R y c h t a r i k , 1983; Larsen et a l . , 1979), and has been recommended as the instrument of choice f o r a s s e s s i n g g l o b a l s a t i s f a c t i o n with b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s ( B o r n s t e i n & R y c h t a r i k , 1983; Lebow, 1982). As well as at the POST and FU assessments, the CSQ was administered at every second s e s s i o n throughout the programme, to t r a c k changes i n s a t i s f a c t i o n as the programme progressed ( B o r n s t e i n & R y c h t a r i k , 1983; Larsen et a l . , 1979). P a x j i r i t s . ^ . Four major aspects of treatment e v a l u a t i o n have been emphasized i n the consumer s a t i s f a c t i o n l i t e r a t u r e : e v a l u a t i o n of treatment outcome, s a t i s f a c t i o n with the t h e r a p i s t , e v a l u a t i o n of the content of the programme, and e v a l u a t i o n 119 of the format of the programme ( B o r n s t e i n et a l . , 1985; McMahon & Forehand, 1983). For t h i s study, a q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix K) was adapted from one used by Forehand and McMahon (1981) to eval u a t e t h e i r parent t r a i n i n g programme (a s l i g h t l y a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n was given to GROUP mothers, r e f l e c t i n g the programme they experienced). T h i s measure used 7-point L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e s on which the respondent r a t e d the usefulness and d i f f i c u l t y , as well as s a t i s f a c t i o n with v a r i o u s aspects of the programme. A t o t a l s c o r e summarized o v e r a l l degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n , with h i g h e r scores i n d i c a t i n g more s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s measure was completed at home at POST and FU by INDIV and GROUP mothers. .CJiLliir-snVs Consume_r_.^ _at i s f a c t i o n Int.ej:-V.i.ew. Attempts to d i r e c t l y measure c h i l d r e n ' s s u b j e c t i v e responses to treatment have been r e p e a t e d l y recommended but are n o t a b l y l a c k i n g i n most outcome s t u d i e s ( B o r n s t e i n et a l . , 1985; G a r f i e l d , 1983; McMahon & Forehand, 1983). Such an attempt was made i n the present study, i n the form of qu e s t i o n s embedded i n the C h i l d Interview f o r c h i l d r e n i n the INDIV and GROUP c o n d i t i o n s at the POST and FU assessments. These concerned s p e c i f i c aspects of the programme as we l l as o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n of p o s i t i v e to neg a t i v e comments formed the summary score f o r t h i s measure. jSjAmma_r;X--^  The f o l l o w i n g s c r e e n i n g and maternal measures were c o l l e c t e d at the i n i t i a l v i s i t : Demographic Data Form, Subject Consent Form, V i n e l a n d Adaptive Behavior S c a l e s , 1 2 0 C h i l d Behavior C h e c k l i s t , Treatment E v a l u a t i o n Inventory, S e l f - r e p o r t of S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n , S o c i a l Avoidance and D i s t r e s s S c a l e , Observer r a t i n g s of s o c i a l s k i l l , Co-pa r e n t i n g Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The f o l l o w i n g outcome and consumer s a t i s f a c t i o n measures were c o l l e c t e d at PRE, POST, and FU: Videotaped i n t e r a c t i o n s (mother and two c h i l d r e n ) , Sharing Knowledge Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (mother), P a r e n t i n g S t r a t e g i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (mother), Parenting Sense of Competence (mother), Sharing and S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (mother and thr e e a d d i t i o n a l i nformants), S i b l i n g I n t e r a c t i o n Record, V i n e l a n d S o c i a l i z a t i o n Scale (mother and three a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a n t s ) , C h i l d Behavior C h e c k l i s t (mother), Sharing Knowledge Interview (two c h i l d r e n ) , S i b l i n g R e l a t i o n s Interview (two c h i l d r e n ) , P r o s o c i a l Moral Judgement Interview (two c h i l d r e n ) , Consumer S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (INDIV and GROUP mothers), Parents' Consumer S a t i s f a c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (INDIV and GROUP mothers), C h i l d r e n ' s Consumer S a t i s f a c t i o n Interview (INDIV and GROUP ch i 1 d r e n ) . I n d i c e s of treatment f i d e l i t y were c o l l e c t e d throughout the study. 121 Re s u l t s O b s e r v a t i o n a l data f o r each person were examined f o r response c a t e g o r i e s found to be i n f r e q u e n t , u n r e l i a b l e , or h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d . Only one category presented a problem i n t h i s regard: "Other Negative" was found to be rare f o r mothers and both c h i l d r e n ; at each of the 3 s e s s i o n s , 10 or fewer i n d i v i d u a l s d i s p l a y e d i t more than twice. T h i s category was combined with "Share Negative," and the new category renamed "Negative." A l l - f u r t h e r analyses of o b s e r v a t i o n a l data were conducted on t h i s reduced data s e t . Global r a t i n g s were a l s o examined, and with the exception of c o r r e l a t i o n s r e f l e c t i n g b e h a v i o r a l r e c i p r o c i t y (e.g., a f f e c t r a t i n g s f o r mother to o l d e r c h i l d and f o r o l d e r c h i l d to mother) these were not h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d , and were l e f t i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l form. E.§JXabiil.ty..„_Qi_Jlfea.s.u.r.eJs For the o b s e r v a t i o n a l coding system, Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d between t o t a l s cores from the primary and r e l i a b i l i t y observers f o r each behavior at each assessment s e s s i o n . These c o r r e l a t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y moderate to str o n g and s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . For Share P o s i t i v e , the mean c o r r e l a t i o n s at PRE, POST, and FU were .92, .93, and .93, r e s p e c t i v e l y . For Other P o s i t i v e , the mean c o r r e l a t i o n s at PRE, POST, and FU were .68, .75, and .74. For Negative, the mean c o r r e l a t i o n s at PRE, POST, and FU were .56, .69, and .85. Spearman c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d between the observers' g l o b a l r a t i n g s at each assessment s e s s i o n . These more s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s were not as r e l i a b l e as the behavior codes, but a l l were s i g n i f i c a n t at p < .05. For A f f e c t , the mean c o r r e l a t i o n s at PRE, POST, and FU were .52, .55, and .60, r e s p e c t i v e l y . For Dominance, the mean c o r r e l a t i o n s at PRE, POST, and FU were .45, .48, and .46. Pearson, Spearman, or Cramer's V c o r r e l a t i o n s (depending on the type of data i n v o l v e d ) were c a l c u l a t e d between r a t e r s on the audiotaped c h i l d i n t e r v i e w s c a l e s . These were g e n e r a l l y high (ranging from .66 to 1.0) and s i g n i f i c a n t at p. < .05. A Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n was conducted between r a t e r s on t o t a l s cores f o r the Treatment F i d e l i t y s c a l e . I n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y was high (x = .84, p < .01). As absolute scores are i n t e r p r e t e d on t h i s measure, a paired-sample i - t e s t was conducted. T h i s r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the primary and the r e l i a b i l i t y r a t e r . £orre la t iona l Study__o_f I nt r .ari-ajpilX--E^aii-9-n_sJp,i-P .s .of In order to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r e n t i n g behaviors and c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior, and between the s h a r i n g behavior of s i b l i n g s , three canonical c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y ses were conducted. These explored the r e l a t i o n s h i p s at PRE between maternal behaviors and the older c h i l d ' s s h a r i n g , maternal b e h a v i o r s and the younger 123 c h i l d ' s s h a r i n g , and the s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behaviors of the two c h i l d r e n . C h i l d r e n ' s s c o r e s from the P r o s o c i a l Moral Judgement Interview and Sharing Knowledge Interview ( c o g n i t i v e i n d i c e s of s h a r i n g development) were a l s o to have been entered i n t o the analyses. However, the number of younger c h i l d r e n who d i d not complete these i n t e r v i e w s (n = 28) reduced the s u b j e c t s - t o - v a r i a b l e s r a t i o f o r these analyses to below an a cceptable l e v e l (5 or l e s s ) , and i t was decided to conduct the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s on data c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n s only. E n t e r i n g only the b e h a v i o r a l coding data i n t o the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s produced an adequate s u b j e c t s - t o -v a r i a b l e s r a t i o of 16, whereas i n c l u d i n g g l o b a l r a t i n g s as well produced a s u b j e c t s - t o - v a r i a b l e s r a t i o of 7. Given the unique but l e s s r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n added by the g l o b a l r a t i n g s , i t was d e c i d e d to examine can o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n s both with and without these r a t i n g s , and to t r e a t r e s u l t s from the analyses i n c l u d i n g g l o b a l r a t i n g s with c o n s i d e r a b l e c a u t i o n . A p r e l i m i n a r y i n s p e c t i o n of each b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n matrix (younger c h i l d with o l d e r c h i l d , mother wi t h o l d e r c h i l d , mother wi t h younger c h i l d , both with and without g l o b a l r a t i n g s ) r e v e a l e d that s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s were s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d f o r each a n a l y s i s ( i . e . , g r e a t e r than M a r a s c u i l o & L e v i ' s 1983 recommended minimum of j r = .40). T h i s evidence of meaningful r e l a t i o n s h i p s between i n d i v i d u a l 124 v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e d that a c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o u l d y i e l d i n t e r p r e t a b l e r e s u l t s . For each c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n , f a m i l y w i s e e r r o r was set at .05. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two s e t s of v a r i a b l e s i n each c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was t e s t e d by use of Wilk's lambda c r i t e r i o n , and the f ' s r e p o r t e d are approximate. F o l l o w i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l t e s t , the d i m e n s i o n a l i t y of the s o l u t i o n was considered. In order to be i n t e r p r e t e d , each a d d i t i o n a l p a i r of c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e s was r e q u i r e d to reach s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , to have an eigenvalue g r e a t e r than 1 with no s u b s t a n t i a l change from the eigenvalue preceding i t , to account f o r g r e a t e r than 30% of the v a r i a n c e accounted f o r by a l l c a n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n s , and to provide i n t e r p r e t a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the c o n t r i b u t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s to the m u l t i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p f o l l o w e d o v e r a l l t e s t s where a p p r o p r i a t e . S t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the c o r r e l a t i o n s between o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s and canonical v a r i a t e s , were used i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the v a r i a t e s (Marascuilo & L e v i n , 1983). V a r i a b l e s with c o e f f i c i e n t s of .0 to .3 were c o n s i d e r e d to be u n r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e , those with c o e f f i c i e n t s from .3 to .6 were c o n s i d e r e d to be moderately r e l a t e d , and those with c o e f f i c i e n t s from .6 to 1.0 were c o n s i d e r e d to be s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d . Because canonical v a r i a t e s may be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d but g e n e r a l l y u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h e i r domains, the amounts of v a r i a n c e 125 e x t r a c t e d by each canonical v a r i a t e from i t s own domain was a l s o examined. Co n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d a c r o s s domains provided an estimate of the o v e r a l l s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between domains. -Correlations of Younger C h i l d with Older c h i l d Table II presents the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s r e s u l t i n g from these analyses. Behaviors• The f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was conducted on the behaviors of the younger c h i l d and the o l d e r c h i l d . The o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , £(9, 102) = 358.24, p < .0001. The f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n (x - .998) was the only i n t e r p r e t a b l e one, with an eigenvalue of 321.62, accounting f o r 97.4% of the v a r i a b i l i t y of a l l the c a n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n s . I n s p e c t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h i n the younger c h i l d domain i n d i c a t e d that Share P o s i t i v e was most s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e , and Other P o s i t i v e and Negative were u n r e l a t e d . S t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h i n the o l d e r c h i l d domain f o l l o w e d the same p a t t e r n , with Share P o s i t i v e most s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e and Other P o s i t i v e and Negative u n r e l a t e d . These s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s suggest that the f i r s t v a r i a t e f o r each c h i l d should be l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e Sharing with S i b l i n g . C o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a n c e each c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e e x t r a c t e d from i t s own domain, the v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e Sharing with S i b l i n g by Younger captured 33.7% of the v a r i a n c e i n younger c h i l d v a r i a b l e s , and the v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e Sharing with S i b l i n g by Older 126 T a b l e I I S t r u c t u r e C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n s o f Y o u n g e r ,CM.ljcl.,_.wi„tJi. OldjsjLJZhild V a r i a b l e B e h a v i o r s B e h a v i o r s and g l o b a l r a t i n g s Y o u n g e r C h i l d S h a r e P o s i t i v e .997 .997 O t h e r P o s i t i v e -.03 -.04 N e g a t i v e .11 .10 A f f e c t t o s i b l i n g .01 D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y t o s i b l i n g .12 A f f e c t t o mother -.29 D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y t o mother -.22 O l d e r C h i l d S h a r e P o s i t i v e .997 .997 O t h e r P o s i t i v e .04 .03 N e g a t i v e .19 .18 A f f e c t t o s i b l i n g -.35 D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y t o s i b l i n g -.41 A f f e c t t o mother -.11 D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y t o mother .09 127 captured 34.3% of the v a r i a n c e i n o l d e r c h i l d v a r i a b l e s . As expected, gi v e n the l a r g e c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n , when c o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d across domains, the v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e Sharing with S i b l i n g by Younger ex p l a i n e d 34.2% of the v a r i a n c e i n o l d e r c h i l d v a r i a b l e s , and the v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e Sharing w i t h S i b l i n g by Older e x p l a i n e d 33.5% of the v a r i a n c e i n younger c h i l d v a r i a b l e s . leMvijars..^^ Another c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was conducted on the behaviors and g l o b a l r a t i n g s of the younger c h i l d and the o l d e r c h i l d . The o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , JT(49, 177) = 29.77, j> < .0001. Only the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was i n t e r p r e t a b l e (x = .999), with an eigenvalue of 452.08, accounting f o r 95.9% of the v a r i a b i l i t y of a l l the c a n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n s . I n s p e c t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e w i t h i n the younger c h i l d domain i n d i c a t e d that Share P o s i t i v e was again most s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e , and Other P o s i t i v e and Negative were u n r e l a t e d . Global r a t i n g s of the younger c h i l d ' s A f f e c t and Dominance/Activity to the mother were a l s o u n r e l a t e d . F i n a l l y , g l o b a l r a t i n g s of the younger c h i l d ' s A f f e c t and Dominance/Activity to the o l d e r c h i l d were u n r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e . (The reader should bear i n mind t h a t lower g l o b a l r a t i n g s r e f l e c t more f r i e n d l y , warm behavior f o r the A f f e c t dimension and more a c t i v e , c o n t r o l l i n g behavior f o r the 128 Affect/Dominance dimension). Again, these s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s suggest that the f i r s t v a r i a t e f o r the younger c h i l d should be l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e Sharing with S i b l i n g by Younger. The s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h i n the o l d e r c h i l d domain f o l l o w e d a somewhat s i m i l a r p a t t e r n , with Share P o s i t i v e most s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e and Other P o s i t i v e and Negative u n r e l a t e d . G l o b a l r a t i n g s of the o l d e r c h i l d ' s A f f e c t and Dominance/Activity to the younger c h i l d showed moderate n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the v a r i a t e , and g l o b a l r a t i n g s of the o l d e r c h i l d ' s A f f e c t and Dominance/Activity to the mother were u n r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e . These s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s suggest that the f i r s t v a r i a t e f o r the o l d e r c h i l d might be l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e A c t i v i t y w i t h S i b l i n g by Older, as i t i n c l u d e d general f r i e n d l y and a c t i v e behavior towards the s i b l i n g as well as s p e c i f i c s h a r i n g behavior. C o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a n c e each c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e e x t r a c t e d from i t s own domain, the v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e Sharing with S i b l i n g by Younger captured 16.5% of the v a r i a n c e i n younger c h i l d v a r i a b l e s , and the v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e A c t i v i t y with S i b l i n g by Older captured 19.1% of the v a r i a n c e i n o l d e r c h i l d v a r i a b l e s . C o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a n c e e x t r a c t e d across domains, the v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e Sharing w i t h S i b l i n g by Younger e x p l a i n e d 16.5% of the v a r i a n c e i n o l d e r c h i l d v a r i a b l e s , and the v a r i a t e 129 l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e A c t i v i t y with S i b l i n g by Older e x p l a i n e d 19.0% of the v a r i a n c e i n younger c h i l d v a r i a b l e s . In sum, c o r r e l a t i o n s between the two s i b l i n g s , with and without g l o b a l r a t i n g s , i n d i c a t e d a near-symmetrical r e l a t i o n s h i p based p r i m a r i l y on p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g behavior. Cor c e.1 a t i ons of—Mot her with. „Q,1, de r chiXd Table III presents the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s r e s u l t i n g from these analyses. B^.avijpxs.. The next c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was conducted on the behaviors of the mother and the o l d e r c h i l d . The o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , J?(9, 102) = 8.61, js < .0001. The f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n (x = .74) was the only i n t e r p r e t a b l e one, with an eigenvalue of 1.19, accounting f o r 60.81% of the v a r i a b i l i t y of a l l the ca n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n s . I n s p e c t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h i n the mother domain i n d i c a t e d t h a t Share P o s i t i v e was s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e . Other P o s i t i v e had a strong n egative r e l a t i o n s h i p to the v a r i a t e and Negative was u n r e l a t e d . S t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h i n the ol d e r c h i l d domain f o l l o w e d the same p a t t e r n , w i t h Share P o s i t i v e most s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e , Other P o s i t i v e moderately n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d , and Negative u n r e l a t e d . These s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s suggest that the f i r s t v a r i a t e f o r both the mother and the o l d e r c h i l d might be l a b e l l e d E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing (given the ne g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n of Other P o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r ) . 130 T a b l e I I I F i r s t C a n o n i c a l P a i r S e c o n d C a n o n i c a l P a i r V a r i a b l e B e h a v i o r s B e h a v i o r s and B e h a v i o r s and g l o b a l r a t i n g s g l o b a l r a t i n g s M o t h e r S h a r e P o s i t i v e .73 O t h e r P o s i t i v e -.73 N e g a t i v e -.11 A f f e c t t o o l d e r c h i l d D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y t o o l d e r c h i l d A f f e c t t o y o u n g e r c h i l d D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y t o y o u n g e r c h i l d O l d e r C h i l d S h a r e P o s i t i v e .90 O t h e r P o s i t i v e -.46 N e g a t i v e .004 A f f e c t t o s i b l i n g D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y t o s i b l i n g A f f e c t t o mother D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y t o mother .35 .27 - .09 -.93 -.45 -.43 .01 31 24 18 27 10 90 ,75 46 .85 03 , 20 43 10 37 92 .17 18 19 26 20 20 131 C o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a n c e each c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e e x t r a c t e d from i t s own domain and across domains, the v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing by Mother e x p l a i n e d 36.1% of the v a r i a n c e i n mother v a r i a b l e s and 18.4% of the v a r i a n c e i n o l d e r c h i l d v a r i a b l e s . The v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing by Older e x p l a i n e d 33.9% of the v a r i a n c e i n o l d e r c h i l d v a r i a b l e s and 19.6% of the v a r i a n c e i n mother v a r i a b l e s . J^.aJ£JPCS.._and__3^ . Another c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was conducted on the behaviors and g l o b a l r a t i n g s of the mother and the o l d e r c h i l d . The o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , j?(49, 177) = 4.24, £ < .0001. The f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n (jc = .89), had an eigenvalue of 3.97, accounting f o r 49.9% of the v a r i a b i l i t y of a l l the c a n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n s . The second c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n a l s o met c r i t e r i a f o r e x t r a c t i o n (J: = .85), with an eigenvalue of 2.60, accounting f o r 32.68% of the v a r i a b i l i t y of a l l the c a n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n s . I n s p e c t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e w i t h i n the mother domain i n d i c a t e d that the g l o b a l r a t i n g of A f f e c t to the o l d e r c h i l d was most s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e , and Dominance/Activity to the o l d e r c h i l d , A f f e c t to the younger c h i l d , and Share P o s i t i v e were a l s o moderately c o r r e l a t e d . Global r a t i n g s of Dominance/Activity to the younger c h i l d , and Other P o s i t i v e and Negative behaviors were u n r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e . These 132 s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s suggest that the f i r s t v a r i a t e f o r the mother be l a b e l l e d F r i e n d l y Involvement by Mother. I n s p e c t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e w i t h i n the o l d e r c h i l d domain i n d i c a t e d that g l o b a l r a t i n g s of the o l d e r c h i l d ' s A f f e c t and D ominance/Activity to the mother were s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e . Share P o s i t i v e was a l s o moderately c o r r e l a t e d . Other P o s i t i v e and Negative behaviors, and g l o b a l r a t i n g s of A f f e c t and Dominance/Activity to the younger c h i l d were u n r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e . These s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s suggest that the f i r s t v a r i a t e f o r the o l d e r c h i l d be l a b e l l e d F r i e n d l y A c t i v i t y to Mother. I n s p e c t i o n of s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the second c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e w i t h i n the mother domain i n d i c a t e d t h a t the Other P o s i t i v e behavior was s t r o n g l y n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e , and Share P o s i t i v e behavior and g l o b a l r a t i n g s of Dominance/Activity to the o l d e r c h i l d and to the younger c h i l d were a l s o moderately c o r r e l a t e d . Global r a t i n g s of A f f e c t to the younger c h i l d and to the o l d e r c h i l d and Negative behaviors were u n r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e . These s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s suggest that the second v a r i a t e f o r the mother be l a b e l l e d P a s s i v e E x c l u s i v e Sharing, because of the n e g a t i v e weight f o r n o n - s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e behavior. I n s p e c t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the second c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e w i t h i n the o l d e r c h i l d domain i n d i c a t e d that Share P o s i t i v e behavior was most s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to 133 the v a r i a t e . None of the other behaviors was c o r r e l a t e d , nor were g l o b a l r a t i n g s of A f f e c t and Dominance/Activity to the younger c h i l d or to the mother. These s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s suggest that the second f o r the o l d e r c h i l d be l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e Sharing. C o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a n c e each c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e e x t r a c t e d from i t s own domain and acr o s s domains, the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d F r i e n d l y Involvement by Mother expl a i n e d 20.9% of the v a r i a n c e i n mother v a r i a b l e s and 16.7% of the v a r i a n c e i n o l d e r c h i l d v a r i a b l e s . The f i r s t c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d F r i e n d l y A c t i v i t y to Mother by Older e x p l a i n e d 23.4% of the v a r i a n c e i n o l d e r c h i l d v a r i a b l e s and 18.7% of the va r i a n c e i n mother v a r i a b l e s . The second c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d P a s s i v e E x c l u s i v e Sharing by Mother e x p l a i n e d 18.7% of the v a r i a n c e i n mother v a r i a b l e s and 13.5% of the v a r i a n c e i n o l d e r c h i l d v a r i a b l e s . The second c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e Sharing by Older e x p l a i n e d 15.7% of the v a r i a n c e i n o l d e r c h i l d v a r i a b l e s and 11.3% of the v a r i a n c e i n mother v a r i a b l e s . In sum, c o r r e l a t i o n s between the mother and o l d e r c h i l d , both w i t h and without the g l o b a l r a t i n g s , i n d i c a t e d r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p o s i t i v e behaviors of the mother and c h i l d . When only b e h a v i o r a l measures are ins p e c t e d , a r e l a t i o n s h i p dominated by P o s i t i v e Sharing emerges. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , when the g l o b a l r a t i n g s are added, the p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g dimension i s r e t a i n e d and a second 134 r e l a t i o n s h i p c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f r i e n d l y , i n v o l v e d behavior a l s o emerges. g-Q.rx5lal.lQns ot Mother wilh^Younger .cjbild. Table IV p r e s e n t s the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s r e s u l t i n g from these a n a l y s e s . Behaviors. The next can o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was conducted on the b e h a v i o r s of the mother and the younger c h i l d . The o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , JT(9, 102) = 7.60, p < .0001. The f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n (jr. = .75) was the o n l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e one, with an eigenvalue of 1.30, a ccounting f o r 72.13% of the v a r i a b i l i t y of a l l the c a n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n s . I n s p e c t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h i n the mother domain i n d i c a t e d that Share P o s i t i v e was s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e . Other P o s i t i v e had a s t r o n g n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the v a r i a t e and Negative was u n r e l a t e d . S t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s w i t h i n the younger c h i l d domain f o l l o w e d the same p a t t e r n , with Share P o s i t i v e most s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e , Other P o s i t i v e moderately n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d , and Negative u n r e l a t e d . These s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s suggest that the f i r s t v a r i a t e f o r both the mother and the younger c h i l d might be l a b e l l e d E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing. C o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a n c e each c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e e x t r a c t e d from i t s own domain and across domains, the v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing by Mother exp l a i n e d 36.1% of the v a r i a n c e i n mother v a r i a b l e s and 20.4% of the v a r i a n c e i n younger c h i l d v a r i a b l e s . The 135 T a b l e IV Lounge iLjSkild V a r i a b l e B e h a v i o r s B e h a v i o r s and g l o b a l r a t i n g s M o t h e r S h a r e P o s i t i v e .68 .58 O t h e r P o s i t i v e -.79 -.57 N e g a t i v e -.03 -.01 A f f e c t t o -.19 o l d e r c h i l d D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y .33 t o o l d e r c h i l d A f f e c t t o -.26 y o u n g e r c h i l d D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y .36 t o y o u n g e r c h i l d Y o unger C h i l d S h a r e P o s i t i v e .92 .89 O t h e r P o s i t i v e -.47 -.42 N e g a t i v e .14 .08 A f f e c t t o s i b l i n g -.10 D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y t o s i b l i n g -.14 A f f e c t t o mother -.18 D o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y t o mother .11 136 v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing by Younger C h i l d e x p l a i n e d 35.9% of the v a r i a n c e i n younger c h i l d v a r i a b l e s and 20.3% of the v a r i a n c e i n mother v a r i a b l e s . Behaviors and g l o b a l r a t i n g s . A f i n a l c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was conducted on the behaviors and g l o b a l r a t i n g s of the mother and the younger c h i l d . The o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , J?(49, 177) = 4.01, JS < .0001. Only the f i r s t c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was i n t e r p r e t a b l e (x = .89), with an eigenvalue of 3.69, a c counting f o r 51.5% of the v a r i a b i l i t y of a l l the c a n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n s . I n s p e c t i o n of s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e w i t h i n the mother domain i n d i c a t e d that Share P o s i t i v e behavior was moderately c o r r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e and Other P o s i t i v e behavior was moderately n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d . Global r a t i n g s of Dominance/Activity to the o l d e r c h i l d and to the younger c h i l d were a l s o moderately c o r r e l a t e d . G l o b a l r a t i n g s of A f f e c t to the younger c h i l d and to the o l d e r c h i l d and Negative behaviors were u n r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e . These s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s suggest that the v a r i a t e f o r the mother be l a b e l l e d P a s sive E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing. I n s p e c t i o n of the s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e w i t h i n the younger c h i l d domain i n d i c a t e d that Share P o s i t i v e behavior was most s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d to the v a r i a t e . Other P o s i t i v e showed a moderate negative c o r r e l a t i o n . Negative behavior was u n c o r r e l a t e d , as were 137 g l o b a l r a t i n g s of A f f e c t and Dominance/Activity to the o l d e r c h i l d and to the mother. These s t r u c t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t s suggest that the v a r i a t e f o r the younger c h i l d be l a b e l l e d E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing. C o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i a n c e each c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e e x t r a c t e d from i t s own domain and ac r o s s domains, the c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d P a s s i v e E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing by Mother ex p l a i n e d 14.3% of the v a r i a n c e i n mother v a r i a b l e s and 11.3% of the v a r i a n c e i n younger c h i l d v a r i a b l e s . The c a n o n i c a l v a r i a t e l a b e l l e d E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing by Younger C h i l d e x p l a i n e d 14.8% of the vari a n c e i n younger c h i l d v a r i a b l e s and 11.6% of the v a r i a n c e i n mother v a r i a b l e s . In sum, c o r r e l a t i o n s between the mother and younger c h i l d , both with and without the g l o b a l r a t i n g s , i n d i c a t e d r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behaviors of the mother and c h i l d . The second r e l a t i o n s h i p r e f l e c t i n g more g l o b a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n t e r a c t i o n d i d not emerge i n data from the mother and younger c h i l d ' s i n t e r a c t i o n . O v e r a l l , p o s i t i v e b ehaviors, p a r t i c u l a r l y those r e l a t e d to s h a r i n g , accounted f o r most of the s t r o n g r e c i p r o c i t y found a c r o s s f a m i l y members d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n . .S^_£iRa_Cj^^ I n i t i a l analyses i n d i c a t e d no e f f e c t of order of s e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s (FREE f i r s t v.s BUSY f i r s t ) on mother be h a v i o r s , c h i l d behaviors, or g l o b a l r a t i n g s (JQ > .05). 138 A c c o r d i n g l y , f u r t h e r analyses were conducted c o l l a p s i n g over the two o r d e r s . Means f o r the s e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s experiment are p resented i n Table V. The e f f e c t of the d i f f e r e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to the mother on her behavior during the two, 10-minute videotaped o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s at PRE was examined by H o t e l l i n g ' s ±-t e s t , w i t h FREE versus BUSY as the w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r and Share P o s i t i v e , Other P o s i t i v e , and Negative behaviors as the dependent v a r i a b l e s . The o v e r a l l t e s t r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between s e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , E ( 3 , 44) = 60.98, £ < .0001. U n i v a r i a t e follow-up t e s t s were conducted f o r the i n d i v i d u a l mother behaviors. The t e s t f o r Share P o s i t i v e (J* [1, 46] = 63.84, j? < .0001) i n d i c a t e d that mothers d i s p l a y e d t h i s b e h a v i o r i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r v a l s during FREE than d u r i n g BUSY. The t e s t f o r Other P o s i t i v e ' ( J ? [1, 46] = 48.29, £ < .0001) a l s o i n d i c a t e d that mothers d i s p l a y e d t h i s behavior i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g FREE than d u r i n g BUSY. The t e s t f o r Negative (J? [1, 46] = 3.94, £ = .053) approached s i g n i f i c a n c e , s u g g e s t i n g that t h i s behavior may have occ u r r e d i n more i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g FREE than dur i n g BUSY. The e f f e c t of the d i f f e r e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s to the mother on g l o b a l r a t i n g s of her i n t e r a c t i o n s with her c h i l d r e n was examined by H o t e l l i n g ' s J t - t e s t . The o v e r a l l t e s t r e v e a l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between s e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , E ( 4 , 45) = 31.50, p < .0001. 139 Table V Mjeanjg fox.. Setting Conditions Exp_e.rJjae.n_t V a r i a b l e Mother Free Mother Busy Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mother Share P o s i t i v e 58. 6 46.0 5.1 7.5 Other P o s i t i v e 29.6 15.1 14.0 10.0 Negative 2.3 3.9 1.3 3.3 A f f e c t to 2.2 .6 3.5 1.6 ol d e r c h i l d D o minance/activity 2.7 1.1 4.6 1.9 to o l d e r c h i l d A f f e c t to 2.2 .5 3.7 1.5 younger c h i l d D o minance/activity 2.5 1.0 4.7 2.0 to younger c h i l d Older C h i l d Share P o s i t i v e 35.7 30.6 25.1 24.3 Other P o s i t i v e 1.2 2.1 7.2 9.7 Negative 2.7 5.7 3.9 5.6 A f f e c t to 4.3 2.1 4.2 1.9 s i b l i n g D o m inance/activity 3.6 1.5 3.4 • 1.8 to s i b l i n g A f f e c t to 2.4 1.0 3.7 1.7 mother Dominance/activity 2.5 1.2 3.5 1.6 to mother Younger C h i l d Share P o s i t i v e 34.8 29.6 25.2 24. 6 Other P o s i t i v e 1.7 2.9 6.6 9.0 Negative 2.9 7.7 3.2 4.6 A f f e c t to 4.3 2.0 4.0 2.0 s i b l i n g D o minance/activity 4.3 1.8 3.8 1.7 to s i b l i n g A f f e c t to 2.8 1.5 4.0 2.0 mother Dominance/activity 2.5 1.0 3.5 1.4 to mother 140 U n i v a r i a t e follow-up t e s t s were conducted f o r the i n d i v i d u a l g l o b a l r a t i n g s . The t e s t f o r A f f e c t to the o l d e r c h i l d (j? [1, 46] = 31.53, p < .0001) i n d i c a t e d that mothers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r i e n d l y to t h i s c h i l d d u r i n g FREE than d u r i n g BUSY. The t e s t f o r A f f e c t t o the younger c h i l d (JT [1/ 46] = 46.66, s < .0001) i n d i c a t e d t h a t mothers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r i e n d l y to t h i s c h i l d d u r i n g FREE than durin g BUSY. The t e s t f o r Dominance/Activity to the o l d e r c h i l d (£ [1, 46] = 47.85, p < .0001) i n d i c a t e d that mothers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a c t i v e toward t h i s c h i l d d u r i n g FREE than d u r i n g BUSY. The t e s t f o r Dominance/Activity to the younger c h i l d (JT [1, 46] = 56.04, j> < .0001) i n d i c a t e d that mothers were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a c t i v e toward t h i s c h i l d d u r i n g FREE than d u r i n g BUSY. In sum, the mother was observed to d i r e c t l e s s behavior o v e r a l l towards her c h i l d r e n d u r i n g BUSY than d u r i n g FREE, and those i n t e r a c t i o n s she d i d have with her c h i l d r e n were ra t e d as more n e g a t i v e and p a s s i v e than those she had during FREE. The e f f e c t of the d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s on c h i l d behavior was examined by a 2x2 MANOVA with w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s of S e t t i n g C o n d i t i o n and C h i l d Age (Younger vs. O l d e r ) . S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were found f o r both S e t t i n g C o n d i t i o n (F_ [3, 44] = 7.95, p < .0001) and Age (F [3, 44] = 4.27, p < .01). The S e t t i n g C o n d i t i o n by Age i n t e r a c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t , p > .05. 141 U n i v a r i a t e follow-up t e s t s were conducted f o r the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d b e h aviors. The t e s t f o r Share P o s i t i v e (F_ [1, 46] = 5.73, s = .02) i n d i c a t e d that c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y e d t h i s b e h a v i o r i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r v a l s during FREE than d u r i n g BUSY. The t e s t f o r Other P o s i t i v e (JT [1, 46] = 20.50, s < .0001) i n d i c a t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y e d t h i s b ehavior i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r v a l s d u r i n g BUSY than d u r i n g FREE. The t e s t f o r Negative was not s i g n i f i c a n t , 2 > .05. U n i v a r i a t e follow-up t e s t s examining Age d i f f e r e n c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r Share P o s i t i v e or Negative, 2 > .05. The Age e f f e c t f o r Other P o s i t i v e approached s i g n i f i c a n c e ( f [1, 46] = 3.26, p = .078), suggesting that o l d e r c h i l d r e n may have d i s p l a y e d t h i s behavior more than younger c h i l d r e n . The e f f e c t of the d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g c o n d i t i o n s on g l o b a l r a t i n g s of the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s with t h e i r mother and each other was examined by a 2x2 MANOVA with w i t h i n - s u b j e c t f a c t o r s of S e t t i n g C o n d i t i o n and C h i l d Age (Younger vs. O l d e r ) . S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were found f o r both S e t t i n g C o n d i t i o n ( J [4, 43] = 12.95, 2 < .0001) and Age (JT [4, 43] = 3.31, p < .02). The S e t t i n g C o n d i t i o n by Age i n t e r a c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t , 2 > -05. U n i v a r i a t e follow-up t e s t s were conducted to examine the e f f e c t of S e t t i n g C o n d i t i o n on the i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s . The t e s t s f o r A f f e c t and Dominance/Activity to the s i b l i n g were not s i g n i f i c a n t , p > .05. The t e s t f o r A f f e c t to the 142 mother (£ [1, 46] = 26.04, p < .0001) i n d i c a t e d that c h i l d r e n were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r i e n d l y to t h e i r mother d u r i n g FREE than during BUSY. The t e s t f o r Dominance/Activity to the mother (JT [1, 46] = 33.01, jo < .0001) i n d i c a t e d that c h i l d r e n were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a c t i v e toward t h e i r mother d u r i n g BUSY than d u r i n g FREE. U n i v a r i a t e follow-up t e s t s examining Age d i f f e r e n c e s i n g l o b a l r a t i n g s were not s i g n i f i c a n t f o r A f f e c t to s i b l i n g or Dominance/Activity to mother, p > .05. The Age e f f e c t f o r A f f e c t to mother (j? [1, 46] = 4.22, j? < .05), i n d i c a t e d that younger c h i l d r e n (M = 3.41) were l e s s f r i e n d l y to t h e i r mother than were o l d e r c h i l d r e n (M = 3.03). The Age e f f e c t f o r Dominance/Activity to s i b l i n g (JT [1, 46] = 4.43, JQ < .05), i n d i c a t e d that o l d e r c h i l d r e n (M = 3.53) were more a c t i v e towards t h e i r s i b l i n g than were younger c h i l d r e n (U = 4.04). In sum, the e f f e c t of the mother's BUSY c o n d i t i o n on the c h i l d r e n was to reduce the occurrence of p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g between s i b l i n g s , i n c r e a s e t h e i r p o s i t i v e non-s h a r i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s , and i n c r e a s e the r a t e d h o s t i l i t y and d o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y of t h e i r a c t i o n s towards t h e i r mother. J!!fiLt_ejrjial..J^ To a s sess group equivalence at PRE, (INDIV vs. GROUP vs. WAIT), u n i v a r i a t e ANOVAs were conducted using the f o l l o w i n g maternal measures as dependent v a r i a b l e s : SES, 143 TEI, S e l f - r e p o r t of S o c i a l I n t e r a c t i o n s , SADS, Co-parenting Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and observer r a t i n g of s o c i a l s k i l l . No s i g n i f i c a n t between-group d i f f e r e n c e s were found on any of these v a r i a b l e s , p > .05. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s are r e p o r t e d f o r the i n d i c e s of treatment f i d e l i t y and consumer s a t i s f a c t i o n . The e f f e c t s of the s h a r i n g programme on the primary outcome measures were g e n e r a l l y explored s e p a r a t e l y f o r mothers and c h i l d r e n through the use of repeated-measures analyses of covariance (ANCOVA). The PRE score f o r each measure was used as i t s c o v a r i a t e . I n troducing a c o v a r i a t e to remove some of the w i t h i n - g r o u p v a r i a b i l i t y p r o v i d e s both g r e a t e r power f o r the a n a l y s i s and p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t b i a s from the not a t y p i c a l problem of "annoyingly l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s among p r e t e s t means i n randomized d e s i g n s " (Huitema, 1980). T e s t s of homogeneity of within-group r e g r e s s i o n slopes were conducted f o r a l l analyses i n v o l v i n g a c o v a r i a t e , and i n the i n t e r e s t of b r e v i t y only v i o l a t i o n s of t h i s assumption (p < .05) a r e reported. As homogeneity of within-group v a r i a n c e s i s extremely robust to v i o l a t i o n s with equal or near-equal sample s i z e s , t h i s assumption was only t e s t e d when s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t sample s i z e s were i n v o l v e d . No v i o l a t i o n s o c c u r r e d f o r these t e s t s (p > .05). There was one between-groups f a c t o r of C o n d i t i o n (INDIV vs. GROUP vs. WAIT) f o r a l l a n a l y s e s , and one repeated-measures f a c t o r of Time (POST vs. PU). An a d d i t i o n a l w i t h i n -144 s u b j e c t f a c t o r of Age (YOUNG vs. OLD s i b l i n g ) was examined where a p p r o p r i a t e . As each repeated-measures f a c t o r had only two l e v e l s and a m u l t i v a r i a t e approach to the repeated-measures d e s i g n was used, the assumption of homogeneity of c o v a r i a n c e was not an i s s u e (Keppel, 1982; Tabachnik & F i d e l l , 1983). Means repo r t e d and used f o r follow-up comparisons i n analyses reaching s i g n i f i c a n c e are adjusted f o r the e f f e c t of the PRE c o v a r i a t e . E r r o r terms used i n follow-up comparisons are adjusted f o r the c o v a r i a t e and pooled i n t e s t s i n v o l v i n g a w i t h i n - s u b j e c t s f a c t o r , f o l l o w i n g procedures suggested by Keppel (1982) and Winer (1971). In an i n i t i a l study such as the present one where a prime concern i s to d e t e c t any e f f e c t s a new treatment may have, the i s s u e of power or s e n s i t i v i t y of these analyses becomes an important one. In such a case, one may be w i l l i n g to i n c r e a s e the experiment-wise r i s k of Type I e r r o r s by making s e v e r a l planned comparisons u s i n g an uncorrected alpha l e v e l , i n order to decrease the p r o b a b i l i t y of making Type II e r r o r s (Hopkins, 1973; Keppel, 1982). One approach to the c o n f l i c t between guarding a g a i n s t Type I arid Type II e r r o r s i n such a s i t u a t i o n i s to l i m i t the number of analyses by choosing a p r i o r i c e r t a i n c o n c e p t u a l l y important comparisons whose r e s u l t s w i l l guide the remaining analyses (Keppel, 1982). In the present study, the outcome of u n i v a r i a t e analyses of the primary s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d measures (observed Share P o s i t i v e behavior f o r the mother and 145 c h i l d r e n , mothers' l e v e l of knowledge about s h a r i n g and r e l a t e d p a r e n t i n g i s s u e s as measured by the Sharing Knowledge Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and parent r e p o r t s of c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior on the SSIQ and SIR) guided the a n a l y s i s of secondary and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n measures. To c o n t r o l f o r e r r o r r a t e i n these secondary analyses, measures were analysed u s i n g MANCOVA f o r groups of r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s where p o s s i b l e . S i g n i f i c a n t o v e r a l l s t a t i s t i c s were fo l l o w e d by u n i v a r i a t e repeated-measures a n a l y s i s of covariance (ANCOVA), and follow-up comparisons where a p p r o p r i a t e . In ge n e r a l , r e s u l t s with p > .05 are r e p o r t e d as n o n s i g n i f i c a n t , although t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g trends meeting l e s s s t r i n g e n t c r i t e r i a are presented as suggestive f i n d i n g s . Treatment F i d e l i t y Audiotapes of 22 se s s i o n s were r a t e d f o r f i d e l i t y to the treatment manual. The mean r a t i n g per s e s s i o n (on a 1 to 5 s c a l e ) was 4.25, with a range of 3 to 5. A i - t e s t i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between f i d e l i t y r a t i n g s f o r INDIV and GROUP. The i n s t r u c t o r ' s progress check f o r each INDIV s e s s i o n was examined f o r the percentage of homework assignments completed and percentage of parent and c h i l d s k i l l s p r e v i o u s l y taught that were demonstrated d u r i n g each s e s s i o n . INDIV Mothers completed 76% of assigned homework, and i n s p e c t i o n of the records i n d i c a t e d t h a t the 24% of homework that was not completed was almost e x c l u s i v e l y 146 w r i t t e n records, as opposed to behavioral assignments ( i . e . , mothers v e r b a l l y r e p o r t e d d e t a i l s of t h e i r use of the parent and c h i l d s k i l l s but d i d not s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e c o r d t h i s ) . During p r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s i n the l a b o r a t o r y , 98% of p r e v i o u s l y - t a u g h t s k i l l s were demonstrated by mothers and c h i l d r e n . Records of s e s s i o n s missed i n d i c a t e d that no INDIV f a m i l i e s missed s e s s i o n s , and three GROUP mothers missed s e s s i o n s ; one missed one s e s s i o n , another missed two, and a t h i r d missed t h r e e . Share P o s i t i v e f o r the mother, r e f l e c t i n g the p a r e n t i n g behaviors taught i n the programme, was analysed by 3 x 2 ANCOVA ( C o n d i t i o n x Time). Although means f o r INDIV and GROUP (M = 31.2 and 32.3, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were g r e a t e r than that f o r WAIT (M = 24.1), the main e f f e c t f o r C o n d i t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t (p = .13). E f f e c t s f o r Time and C o n d i t i o n x Time were a l s o n o n s i g n i f i c a n t . A c c o r d i n g l y , the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n b e h a v i o r s of Other P o s i t i v e and Negative were not examined f o r mothers. A 3 x 2 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Age x Time) ANCOVA was conducted on Share P o s i t i v e f o r the two c h i l d r e n , the response category r e p r e s e n t i n g the focus of the programme. Means f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s are presented i n Table VI. The main e f f e c t f o r C o n d i t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , J_(2, 44) = 3.73, p = .03, as was the i n t e r a c t i o n of Time x Age, J f ( l , 45) = 4.72, P = .03. No other e f f e c t s reached s i g n i f i c a n c e . Newman-Keuls Table VI Miu^ JLe.d...M^ ajr^ ^ Post-treatment Follow-up Marginal C o n d i t i o n Mean S.D. Mean S.D. Mean Younger C h i l d I n d i v i d u a l 34.9 26.5 45.5 25:0 40.2 Group 29.5 23.3 30.7 26.9 30.1 W a i t l i s t 24.6 20.9 16.2 10.3 20.4 Marginal 29.7 30.8 Older C h i l d I n d i v i d u a l 34.3 25.9 45.2 25.0 39.8 Group 29.7 23.0 31.7 29.1 30.7 W a i t l i s t 24.6 20.9 18.7 9.0 21.7 Marginal 29.5 31.9 148 t e s t s f o r d i f f e r e n c e s among C o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t e d that INDIV c h i l d r e n (M = 40.0) engaged i n Share P o s i t i v e behavior i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i n t e r v a l s than WAIT c h i l d r e n (M = 21.0), jg(3, 45) = 4.07, p < -05. The mean f o r GROUP c h i l d r e n (M = 30.4) was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from e i t h e r of the other two group means. The Time x Age i n t e r a c t i o n was exp l o r e d by t e s t s of simple main e f f e c t s . Time was found to have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r Older c h i l d r e n (£[1, 94] = 32.99, JD < .001), i n d i c a t i n g that these c h i l d r e n engaged i n more Share P o s i t i v e behavior at FU than at POST. A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n was found f o r the Younger c h i l d r e n simple main e f f e c t , F ( l , 94) = 7.22, p < .01. Simple main e f f e c t s t e s t s f o r Age rev e a l e d no d i f f e r e n c e i n Share P o s i t i v e between the Older and Younger c h i l d r e n at POST, and s i g n i f i c a n t l y more of t h i s behavior at FU among Older c h i l d r e n than among Younger c h i l d r e n , £(1, 94) = 7.35, p < .01. Thus, the Time x Age i n t e r a c t i o n i s due to the Older c h i l d ' s g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n Share P o s i t i v e from POST to FU. As s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s were found f o r Share P o s i t i v e , the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n behaviors of Other P o s i t i v e and Negative were examined f o r the c h i l d r e n . A 3 x 2 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Age x Time) MANCOVA was conducted on these two behaviors. No s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s were found. G l o b a l r a t i n g s of the mother's i n t e r p e r s o n a l behavior were assessed by a 3 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Time) MANCOVA on r a t e d A f f e c t and Dominance/Activity. None of the e f f e c t s i n t h i s a n a l y s i s reached s i g n i f i c a n c e . 149 Global r a t i n g s of the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r p e r s o n a l behavior were assessed by a 3 x 2 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Age x Time) MANCOVA on r a t e d A f f e c t and Dominance/Activity. There was a v i o l a t i o n of homogeneity of r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s f o r Dominance/Activity of the younger c h i l d towards the o l d e r at FU ( f [ 2 , 42] = 5.36, p = .008), so t h i s e f f e c t must be i n t e r p r e t e d with c a u t i o n , although the ANCOVA model can withstand v i o l a t i o n of t h i s assumption and s t i l l y i e l d Type I e r r o r r a t e s c l o s e to nominal ( G l a s s , Peckham, & Sanders, 1972). The only s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t i n the m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s was f o r Age, J_*(4, 37) = 3.64, p = .01. Followup u n i v a r i a t e analyses examined the Age e f f e c t f o r each of the g l o b a l r a t i n g s . The Age e f f e c t f o r A f f e c t to s i b l i n g (J?[l, 40] = 12.83, p = .001) i n d i c a t e d that younger c h i l d r e n (JM = 3.2) were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r i e n d l y towards t h e i r s i b l i n g than were o l d e r c h i l d r e n (M = 4.1). The Age e f f e c t f o r A f f e c t to mother (Jf[l, 40] = 4.10, p = .05) i n d i c a t e d that o l d e r c h i l d r e n (JM = 3.2) were ra t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more f r i e n d l y towards t h e i r mother than were younger c h i l d r e n (M = 4.1). The Age e f f e c t f o r Dominance/Activity to s i b l i n g ( F [ l , 40] = 1.40, p = .03) i n d i c a t e d that younger c h i l d r e n (JM = 2.8) were r a t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a c t i v e towards t h e i r s i b l i n g than were o l d e r c h i l d r e n (M = 3 .4) . The Age e f f e c t f o r Dominance/Activity to mother (Jf[l, 40] = 9.56, p = .004) i n d i c a t e d that o l d e r c h i l d r e n (JM = 2.8) were r a t e d as 150 s i g n i f i c a n t l y more a c t i v e towards t h e i r mother than were younger c h i l d r e n (M = 3.8). In sum, analyses of the s h a r i n g programme e f f e c t s on observed behaviors d i d not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r mothers or f o r the GROUP c h i l d r e n , but were apparent f o r INDIV c h i l d r e n . These c h i l d r e n shared s i g n i f i c a n t l y more as a r e s u l t of the programme. B e h a v i o r a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to negative and non-sharing behaviors was not evide n t . General age and time e f f e c t s i n d i c a t i n g developmental changes were found as wel1. Ma.t-grjQa_l SelJLdRepprt The Sharing Knowledge Q u e s t i o n n a i r e m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e s e c t i o n (maximum score of 15) was examined by 3 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Time) ANCOVA. Only the main e f f e c t f o r C o n d i t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , (JT[2, 44] = 9.55, p < .0001). Newman-Keuls t e s t s i n d i c a t e d that GROUP mothers (M = 14.2) demonstrated gr e a t e r knowledge than d i d WAIT mothers (M = 12.0), (jg[3, 45] = 5.87, JQ < .01). INDIV mothers (M = 13.7) a l s o demonstrated g r e a t e r knowledge than d i d WAIT mothers (g[2, 45] = 4.71, p < .01), and INDIV and GROUP d i d not d i f f e r . As 15 mothers d i d not answer the short-answer p o r t i o n of the Sharing Knowledge Ques t i o n n a i r e , only the m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e p o r t i o n was analysed. (The t o t a l s c o r e [ m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e plus short-answer] f o r the 33 mothers who d i d complete the e n t i r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a l s o examined by ANCOVA, and y i e l d e d the same p a t t e r n of r e s u l t s ) . 151 A 3 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Time) MANCOVA was conducted on the two g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s e l f - r e p o r t measures of p a r e n t i n g (PSQ and PSOC). The m u l t i v a r i a t e e f f e c t f o r Time was s i g n i f i c a n t (£[3, 43] = 5.53, p = .003), and the e f f e c t f o r C o n d i t i o n approached s i g n i f i c a n c e (Z[4, 86] = 2.27, p = .068). No other s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s were found. In followup analyses, the PSQ was t e s t e d by 3 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Time) ANCOVA. None of the e f f e c t s i n t h i s t e s t reached s i g n i f i c a n c e . The PSOC was t e s t e d by 3 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Time) ANCOVA. The main e f f e c t f o r C o n d i t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t (J?[2, 43] = 3.63, p = .035), and although the means f o r INDIV and GROUP (M = 68.4 and 68.0, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) were l a r g e r than the mean f o r WAIT (M = 62.5), Newman-Keuls t e s t s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . The main e f f e c t f o r Time was s i g n i f i c a n t , J f(l, 45) = 16.29, p < .0001), i n d i c a t i n g that a l l mothers repo r t e d g r e a t e r f e e l i n g s of p a r e n t i n g competence at FU (M = 67.96) than at POST (M = 64.58). In sum, treatment e f f e c t s were evident on a measure of mothers' knowledge about s h a r i n g and s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but d i d not reach s i g n i f i c a n c e on measures of p a r e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s or p a r e n t i n g sense of competence. M a l t . . ^ p o x L - ^ ^ s i _ a » : i n g . . and S i b l i n g Interact ion The SSIQ summary scores from the mother and f a t h e r (or other in-home informant) were analysed by a 3 x 2 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Time x Informant) ANCOVA. Means f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s are presented i n Table V I I . The e f f e c t f o r 152 Table VII ±L§L. (collapsLed over par_ej_tj. C o n d i t i o n I n d i v i d u a l Group W a i t l i s t Post-treatment Mean S.D. 57.5 13.5 59.0 14.0 66.2 11.9 Fol1ow-up Mean S.D. 47.0* 13.6 50.3 14.5 67.6 11.3 i 153 C o n d i t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , £ ( 2 , 43] = 14.86, p < .0001), as was the e f f e c t f o r Time, JT(1, 44] = 25.18, j? < .0001). These e f f e c t s were m o d i f i e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t C o n d i t i o n x Time i n t e r a c t i o n ( £ [ 1 , 44] = 9.17, p < .0001), so t e s t s of simple main e f f e c t s were conducted on these f a c t o r s . No other e f f e c t s reached s i g n i f i c a n c e . The t e s t of simple main e f f e c t s f o r Time f o r INDIV f a m i l i e s was s i g n i f i c a n t ( £ [1 , 93] = 21.74, p < .001), i n d i c a t i n g r e p o r t s of more p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior at FU than at POST. (Lower scores i n d i c a t e more p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g b e h a v i o r . ) The simple e f f e c t f o r Time f o r GROUP f a m i l i e s showed a s i m i l a r r e s u l t ( £ [ 1 , 93] = 14.77, p < .001), i n d i c a t i n g r e p o r t s of more p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior at FU than at POST. The simple e f f e c t f o r Time f o r WAIT f a m i l i e s was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Looking now at simple e f f e c t s f o r C o n d i t i o n , a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was found at POST, £ ( 2 , 134) = 9.37, p < .001). Newman-Keuls t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t WAIT f a m i l i e s r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior than d i d INDIV f a m i l i e s , _q(3, 45) = 3.74, p < .05). WAIT f a m i l i e s a l s o reported l e s s p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g than d i d GROUP f a m i l i e s , jg(2, 45) = 3.09, p < .05). INDIV and GROUP f a m i l i e s d i d not d i f f e r . At FU, a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r C o n d i t i o n was a l s o found, £ ( 2 , 134) = 53.43, p < .001). Newman-Keuls t e s t s again i n d i c a t e d that WAIT f a m i l i e s r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g -r e l a t e d b ehavior than d i d INDIV f a m i l i e s , a(3, 45) = 6.29, p < .01). WAIT f a m i l i e s a l s o r e p o r t e d l e s s p o s i t i v e s h aring 154 than d i d GROUP f a m i l i e s , _q(2, 45) = 5.27, p < .01). INDIV and GROUP f a m i l i e s d i d not d i f f e r . Thus, the C o n d i t i o n x Time i n t e r a c t i o n r epresents an i n c r e a s e over time i n reported p o s i t i v e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n f o r INDIV and GROUP f a m i l i e s , but not f o r WAIT f a m i l i e s , who r e t a i n e d t h e i r o v e r a l l lower l e v e l ( a d j u s t e d f o r PRE score) from POST to FU. The m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of the SSIQ f o r the two out-of-home informants was analysed by a 3 x 2 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Time x Informant) ANCOVA. Means f o r t h i s • a n a l y s i s are presented i n Table V I I I . The e f f e c t f o r C o n d i t i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , £(2, 44] = 29.83, p < .0001), as was the e f f e c t f o r Time, F ( l , 45] = 6.89, p = .012). These e f f e c t s were mod i f i e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t C o n d i t i o n x Time i n t e r a c t i o n (£[1, 45] = 5.67, p = .006), so t e s t s of simple main e f f e c t s were conducted on these f a c t o r s . No other e f f e c t s reached s i g n i f i c a n c e . The t e s t of simple main e f f e c t s f o r Time f o r INDIV f a m i l i e s was s i g n i f i c a n t (£[1, 93] = 10.32, p < .01), i n d i c a t i n g r e p o r t s of more p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior at FU than at POST. (Lower scores i n d i c a t e more p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g behavior.) The simple e f f e c t f o r Time f o r GROUP f a m i l i e s showed.a s i m i l a r r e s u l t (£[1, 93] = 5.68, p < .025), i n d i c a t i n g r e p o r t s of more p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior at FU than at POST. The simple e f f e c t f o r Time f o r WAIT f a m i l i e s was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Looking now at simple e f f e c t s f o r C o n d i t i o n , no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was found at POST. At FU, a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r C o n d i t i o n was found, 155 Table V I I I AdJJAs.-t.e£l--Me^ riJS-.-ot MoALti&A. sharing and SJJbJJLijtg., Interacts on Post-treatment Follow-up C o n d i t i o n I n d i v i d u a l Group W a i t l i s t Mean S.D. 44.7 11.7 43.8 14.0 57.1 15.9 Mean S.D. 36.1- 13.7 37.5 14.0 59.9 13.4 156 J?(2, 138) = 83.19, p < .001). Newman-Keuls t e s t s i n d i c a t e d that informants f o r WAIT f a m i l i e s r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior than d i d those f o r INDIV f a m i l i e s , a(3, 45) = 7.23, p < .01). Informants f o r WAIT f a m i l i e s a l s o r e p o r t e d l e s s p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g than d i d those f o r GROUP f a m i l i e s , g(2, 45) = 6.80, p < .01). INDIV and GROUP f a m i l i e s d i d not d i f f e r . Thus, the C o n d i t i o n x Time i n t e r a c t i o n represents an i n c r e a s e from POST to FU i n p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g f o r INDIV and GROUP c h i l d r e n but not f o r WAIT c h i l d r e n , and the r e s u l t a n t s i g n i f i c a n t treatment e f f e c t at FU but not at POST. The f i n a l a d u l t - r e p o r t measure of c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g behavior was the SIR 5-day s h a r i n g r e p o r t . A 3 x 2 ANCOVA ( C o n d i t i o n x Time) produced a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r C o n d i t i o n , JT(2, 44) = 10.97, p < .0001). No other e f f e c t s were s i g n i f i c a n t . Newman-Keuls t e s t s i n d i c a t e d a lower l e v e l of p o s i t i v e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n i n the d a i l y r e p o r t s of WAIT mothers (M = 42.95) than i n those of GROUP mothers (U = 30.20), _q(3, 45) = 4.37, p < .01). WAIT mothers a l s o r e p o r t e d fewer d a i l y p o s i t i v e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s than d i d INDIV mothers (M = 30.60), g.(2, 45) = 5.88, p < .01). INDIV and GROUP mothers' r e p o r t s d i d not d i f f e r . As s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found on r e p o r t s of c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior from a l l informants, r e p o r t s of c h i l d r e n ' s general s o c i a l behavior were examined as g e n e r a l i z a t i o n measures ( V i n e l a n d S o c i a l i z a t i o n S c a l e f o r a l l informants and CBCL f o r mother o n l y ) . 157 The mother's scores f o r the V i n e l a n d and CBCL were t e s t e d by 3 x 2 x 2 MANCOVA ( C o n d i t i o n x Age x Time). The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s f o r C o n d i t i o n (Z[4, 84] = 14.65, p < .0001) and f o r Age (£[2, 41] = 148.61, p < .0001). These e f f e c t s were mo d i f i e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t C o n d i t i o n x Age i n t e r a c t i o n , Z(4, 84) = 5.08, p = .001). A s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r Time was a l s o obtained, Z(2, 43) = 5.48, p = .008) . The mother's V i n e l a n d s c o r e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d by 3 x 2 x 2 ANCOVA ( C o n d i t i o n x Age x Time). Means f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s are presented i n Table IX. The e f f e c t f o r Time was not s i g n i f i c a n t . S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were found f o r C o n d i t i o n (F[2, 42] = 89.20, p < .0001) and f o r Age ( J _ [ l , 42] = 303.13, p < .0001). These e f f e c t s were modified by a s i g n i f i c a n t C o n d i t i o n x Age i n t e r a c t i o n , j_(2, 42) = 4.31, p = .02). T h i s a n a l y s i s should be i n t e r p r e t e d with c a u t i o n , as he t e r o g e n e i t y of r e g r e s s i o n s l o p e s was found at POST f o r the younger c h i l d ' s V i n e l a n d s c o r e , J?(2, 42) = 9.89, p < .0001). T e s t s of simple main e f f e c t s f o r INDIV f a m i l i e s i n d i c a t e d that o l d e r c h i l d r e n were seen as more advanced i n s o c i a l development than were younger c h i l d r e n , J?(l, 93) = 10.82, p < .01). Older c h i l d r e n i n GROUP f a m i l i e s were a l s o seen as more s o c i a l l y advanced than were younger c h i l d r e n , J _ ( l , 93) = 11.93, p < .01). The same h e l d true f o r WAIT f a m i l i e s , where o l d e r c h i l d r e n were a l s o seen as more s o c i a l l y advanced than were younger c h i l d r e n , J?(l, 93) = 16.36, p < .001). C o n s i d e r i n g simple main e f f e c t s f o r 158 Table IX MJUSifi&Jfte^^ tor Mffitbjer__R.eport C o n d i t i o n I n d i v i d u a l Group W a i t l i s t O l d er C h i l d Mean S.D. 217.0 17.0 221.3 12.8 153.2 25.2 Younger C h i l d Mean S.D. 181.6 91.8 184.1 16.8 109.7 19.7 159 C o n d i t i o n , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n younger c h i l d r e n ' s scores was re v e a l e d , E(2, 170) = 122.57, p < .001). Newman-Keuls t e s t s i n d i c a t e d that GROUP c h i l d r e n were seen as more s o c i a l l y advanced than were WAIT c h i l d r e n , s(3, 44) = 19.47, p < .01). INDIV c h i l d r e n were a l s o seen as more s o c i a l l y advanced than were WAIT c h i l d r e n , a(2, 44) = 18.81, p < .01). GROUP and INDIV c h i l d r e n d i d not d i f f e r . The t e s t of simple main e f f e c t s f o r C o n d i t i o n f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n a l s o i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r e s , Jf(2, 170) = 99.75, p < .001). Newman-Keuls t e s t s i n d i c a t e d that GROUP c h i l d r e n were seen as more s o c i a l l y advanced than were WAIT c h i l d r e n , jg(3, 44) = 17.81, p < .01). INDIV c h i l d r e n were a l s o seen as more s o c i a l l y advanced than were WAIT c h i l d r e n , g(2, 44) = 16.69, p < .01). GROUP and INDIV c h i l d r e n d i d not d i f f e r . Thus, the C o n d i t i o n x Age i n t e r a c t i o n appears to be due to the low V i n e l a n d score f o r younger WAIT c h i l d r e n , even though WAIT c h i l d r e n over a l l and younger c h i l d r e n over a l l had r e l a t i v e l y low sc o r e s . The mother's CBCL scores were i n v e s t i g a t e d by 3 x 2 x 2 ANCOVA ( C o n d i t i o n x Age x Time). Means f o r t h i s a n a l y s i s are presented i n Table X. A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t was found f o r Time (J?[l, 44] = 11.15, p = .002), i n d i c a t i n g that mothers re p o r t e d fewer behavior problems o v e r a l l at FU (U = 16.4) than at POST (M = 19.88). A s i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t was found f o r C o n d i t i o n (F[2, 42] = 16.41, p < .0001). T h i s e f f e c t was m o d i f i e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t C o n d i t i o n x Age i n t e r a c t i o n , J_(2, 42) = 5.92, p = .005). T e s t s of simple 160 Table X Adjusted Means of C h i l d Behavior C h e c k l i s t T o t a l Behavior .-Score Older C o n d i t i o n Mean I n d i v i d u a l Post-treatment 13.1 Followup 10.8 Marginal 12.0 Group Post-treatment 16.3 Followup 10.7 Marginal 13.5 W a i t l i s t Post-treatment 25.8 Followup 27.3 Marginal 26.6 C h i l d Younger C h i l d S.D. Mean S.D. 14.9 20.6 19.0 15.8 14.5 14.2 17 . 6 14.4 13.5 9.0 10.5 8.2 8.2 10.8 10.1 29.9 14.8 12.6 26.6 10.7 28.3 161 main e f f e c t s f o r INDIV, GROUP and WAIT f a m i l i e s r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between younger and o l d e r c h i l d r e n i n r e p o r t e d behavior problems. C o n s i d e r i n g simple main e f f e c t s f o r C o n d i t i o n , a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n younger c h i l d r e n ' s scores was re v e a l e d , Jf(2, 183) = 68.91, p < .001). Newman-Keuls t e s t s i n d i c a t e d that mothers of GROUP c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d fewer behavior problems than d i d mothers of WAIT c h i l d r e n , _j(3, 44) = 7.03, p < .01). INDIV c h i l d r e n were a l s o seen as l e s s problematic than were WAIT c h i l d r e n , g(2, 44) = 4.83, p < .01). Fewer problems were a l s o r e p o r t e d f o r GROUP c h i l d r e n than f o r INDIV c h i l d r e n , g(2, 44) = 3.60, p < .05. The t e s t of simple main e f f e c t s f o r C o n d i t i o n f o r ol d e r c h i l d r e n a l s o i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n sc o r e s , JT(2, 183) = 63.72, p < .001). Newman-Keuls t e s t s i n d i c a t e d fewer behavior problems among INDIV c h i l d r e n than among WAIT c h i l d r e n , g.(3, 44) = 7.03, p < .01). GROUP c h i l d r e n were a l s o seen as l e s s problematic than were WAIT c h i l d r e n , g(2, 44) = 6.28, p < .01. GROUP and INDIV c h i l d r e n d i d not d i f f e r . Thus, the C o n d i t i o n x Age i n t e r a c t i o n r e f l e c t s the d i f f e r e n t o r d e r i n g of scores by C o n d i t i o n f o r the d i f f e r e n t ages of c h i l d r e n . Whereas scores f o r o l d e r GROUP and INDIV c h i l d r e n were s i m i l a r , s c o r e s f o r younger GROUP c h i l d r e n r e f l e c t e d r e p o r t s of fewer behavior problems than scores f o r younger INDIV c h i l d r e n . Scores f o r both ages of WAIT c h i l d r e n r e f l e c t e d c o n s i s t e n t l y more problems than i n the other two c o n d i t i o n s . 162 Analyses of V i n e l a n d s c o r e s from the other three informants d i d not rev e a l any s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . In sum, mothers, f a t h e r s and out-of-home informants r e p o r t e d higher l e v e l s of p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior f o r INDIV and GROUP c h i l d r e n than f o r WAIT c h i l d r e n . Mothers were the only informants t o r e p o r t g e n e r a l i z e d treatment e f f e c t s of in c r e a s e d l e v e l s of s o c i a l s k i l l and decreased l e v e l s of behavior problems. .CMLd.._.Illfci^ These measures were c l a s s e d as secondary and i t had been a n t i c i p a t e d that they would be s u b j e c t e d to a MANOVA to c o n t r o l f o r e r r o r . However, because many c h i l d r e n completed only p o r t i o n s of the C h i l d Interview, these measures were analysed s e p a r a t e l y r a t h e r than entered i n t o a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s , which would have f u r t h e r reduced the JN a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s . Thus, r e s u l t s of these analyses must be i n t e r p r e t e d c o n s e r v a t i v e l y . Summary scores from the Sharing Knowledge Interview were analysed by a 3 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Time) ANCOVA s e p a r a t e l y f o r each age of c h i l d . For the younger c h i l d r e n , although the mean percentage of a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g ideas produced by GROUP c h i l d r e n (M = 79.8) was l a r g e r than that from INDIV (M = 62 .4) or WAIT c h i l d r e n (M = 65.5), n e i t h e r t h i s e f f e c t or any other reached s i g n i f i c a n c e . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among the o l d e r c h i l d r e n e i t h e r . 163 Analyses f o r the S i b l i n g R e l a t i o n s h i p Interview a l s o r e v e a l e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r C o n d i t i o n or Time. Analyses f o r the P r o s o c i a l Moral Development t o t a l score a l s o r e v e a l e d no d i f f e r e n c e s f o r C o n d i t i o n or Time. Non-parametric t e s t s on the number of dilemmas f o r which c h i l d r e n chose the p r o s o c i a l response r e v e a l e d no d i f f e r e n c e by C o n d i t i o n o v e r a l l . Friedman t e s t s were conducted on each C o n d i t i o n s e p a r a t e l y to examine changes over Time. The t e s t f o r young GROUP c h i l d r e n only approached s i g n i f i c a n c e , c h i -s quared ( 2 , 14) = 4 . . 9 6 , p = . 0 8 , s u g g e s t i n g that t h e i r s c o r e d i f f e r e d from PRE (M = 0 . 6 7 ) to POST (U = 1 . 1 3 ) and FU (JM = 1 . 0 ) . CSQ s c o r e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d by a 2 x 4 ANCOVA ( C o n d i t i o n x Time). The only s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was f o r C o n d i t i o n , J ? ( l , 26) = 4 . 4 6 , p = . 0 4 . T h i s i n d i c a t e d that the programme was r a t e d more p o s i t i v e l y by INDIV mothers (M = 2 8 . 2 8 ) than by GROUP mothers (M = 2 5 . 5 2 ) . PCSQ scores were i n v e s t i g a t e d by a 2 x 2 ANCOVA ( C o n d i t i o n x Time). The e f f e c t f o r C o n d i t i o n approached s i g n i f i c a n c e , JT (1 , 30) = 2 . 9 1 , p = . 0 9 9 . T h i s suggested that the programme may have been r a t e d more p o s i t i v e l y by INDIV mothers (JM = 3 7 9 . 9 ) than by GROUP mothers (JM = 3 5 8 . 7 ) . Although the TEI i s t y p i c a l l y only used as a pre-treatment measure of a c c e p t a b i l i t y , TEI sco r e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d on an e x p l o r a t o r y b a s i s by a 2 x 2 ANCOVA ( C o n d i t i o n x Time). The only s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t was f o r 164 Time, JT(1, 30) = 4.41, p = .04. T h i s i n d i c a t e d that the sha r i n g programme was r a t e d as more a c c e p t a b l e at FU (M = 96.56) than at POST (M = 94.62). Consumer S a t i s f a c t i o n Interview s c o r e s were analysed by 2 x 2 ANCOVAs ( C o n d i t i o n x Time) s e p a r a t e l y f o r o l d e r and younger c h i l d r e n . For o l d e r c h i l d r e n , only the C o n d i t i o n x Time i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t approached s i g n i f i c a n c e , JT(1, 21) = 3.94, p = .06. T e s t s of simple main e f f e c t s r e v e a l e d no d i f f e r e n c e s between POST and FU, and no d i f f e r e n c e s by C o n d i t i o n at POST. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e by C o n d i t i o n was found at FU, f ( l , 23) = 5.18, p = .03, su g g e s t i n g a higher percentage of p o s i t i v e comments about the programme from GROUP c h i l d r e n (M = 93.0) than from INDIV c h i l d r e n (M = 72.1) . 165 Summary and D i s c u s s i o n T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n s d e t a i l i n g the r e s u l t s of the d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the study and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . A c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n c o n s i d e r s the e n t i r e study and d i s c u s s e s l i m i t a t i o n s and d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . I n t r a - f a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s of S h a r i n g - r e l a t e d Behaviors Scores from the o b s e r v a t i o n a l data and g l o b a l r a t i n g s obtained at PRE were examined by c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n between the two s i b l i n g s and between the-mother and each of the c h i l d r e n . O v e r a l l t e s t s of i n t r a - f a m i l y b e h a v i o r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , with and without g l o b a l r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , supported the hypothesis of s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between a l l three p a i r s (mother with each c h i l d , and the two s i b l i n g s w i t h each o t h e r ) . In gene r a l , one c a n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n was s u f f i c i e n t to d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a m i l y members du r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n . In every case, evidence of b e h a v i o r a l r e c i p r o c i t y was seen, with p o s i t i v e behavior i n one person c o r r e l a t i n g with p o s i t i v e behavior i n the other. Between the two c h i l d r e n , v a r i a t e s l a b e l l e d P o s i t i v e Sharing w i t h S i b l i n g accounted f o r most of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e h a v i o r a l measures. These v a r i a t e s a l s o accounted f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n (about a t h i r d ) of the varia n c e i n both each c h i l d ' s own and the s i b l i n g ' s behavior. When gl o b a l r a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n was added, a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s was found, with P o s i t i v e Sharing with S i b l i n g 166 d e s c r i b i n g most of the r e l a t i o n s h i p f o r the younger c h i l d , and a more general P o s i t i v e A c t i v i t y with S i b l i n g d e s c r i b i n g the o l d e r c h i l d ' s v a r i a t e . These v a r i a t e s e x p l a i n e d somewhat l e s s (about a s i x t h ) of the v a r i a n c e i n both each c h i l d ' s own and the s i b l i n g ' s b ehavior. Between the mother and the o l d e r c h i l d , v a r i a t e s l a b e l l e d E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing accounted f o r most of the r e l a t i o n s h i p on b e h a v i o r a l measures. These v a r i a t e s a l s o accounted f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n (about a t h i r d ) of the v a r i a n c e i n the mother and o l d e r c h i l d ' s own behavior, and about a f i f t h of the v a r i a n c e of the other person. When g l o b a l r a t i n g s were added, two orthogonal c a n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n s appeared to d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p . The f i r s t , a ccounting f o r about h a l f of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n v o l v e d F r i e n d l y A c t i v i t y to Mother by the o l d e r c h i l d and F r i e n d l y Involvement by the mother, and appeared to d e s c r i b e p o s i t i v e r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n s of a general nature. These v a r i a t e s accounted f o r about a f i f t h of the v a r i a n c e i n both the person's own and the other person's behavior. The second c a n o n i c a l f u n c t i o n appeared to r e f l e c t more s p e c i f i c s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d i n t e r a c t i o n s , and d e s c r i b e d about a t h i r d of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the mother and o l d e r c h i l d ' s behavior. The v a r i a t e f o r the mother i n v o l v e d P a s sive E x c l u s i v e Sharing, and the v a r i a t e f o r the c h i l d i n v o l v e d P o s i t i v e Sharing. These v a r i a t e s e x p l a i n e d about a s i x t h of each person's own behavior and somewhat l e s s of the other person's. 167 Between the mother and the younger c h i l d , v a r i a t e s l a b e l l e d E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing again accounted f o r most of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between b e h a v i o r a l measures. These v a r i a t e s a l s o accounted f o r about a t h i r d of the v a r i a n c e i n the mother and younger c h i l d ' s own behavior, and about a f i f t h of the va r i a n c e of the other person. When g l o b a l r a t i n g s were added, E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing by the younger c h i l d s t i l l made the g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the c o r r e l a t i o n , and the mother's v a r i a t e was Passive E x c l u s i v e P o s i t i v e Sharing. These v a r i a t e s accounted f o r about a seventh of both the person's own and the other person's behavior. The r e s u l t s of t h i s p a r t of the study confirmed the hypothesis of i n t r a - f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior; i n d i c a t i n g s t r o n g r e c i p r o c i t y between f a m i l y members f o r p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behaviors. P a r t i c u l a r l y f o r s i b l i n g s , s h a ring behavior i n t h i s context demonstrated a near symmetrical r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two c h i l d r e n . These r e s u l t s are congruent w i t h f i n d i n g s i n previous r e s e a r c h of very strong c o r r e l a t i o n s between the behavior of s i b l i n g s (e.g., Abramovitch et a l . , 1986). It i s important to note that the b e h a v i o r a l coding system d i d permit these b e h a v i o r s to vary independently between s i b l i n g s . Mutual toy p l a y would, of course, have been s c o r e d as Share P o s i t i v e f o r both c h i l d r e n . However, many other p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g behaviors that could be performed by only one c h i l d were a l s o s c o r a b l e under t h i s 168 category (e.g., v e r b a l or nonverbal i n d i c a t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t e a s k i n g , i n v i t i n g , a c c e p t i n g , g i v i n g , r e f u s a l s , d i s c u s s i n g t u r n - t a k i n g , s h a r i n g problem r e s o l u t i o n , e t c . ) . These l a t t e r behaviors have been found to be t y p i c a l of c h i l d r e n i n t h i s age range i n previous r e s e a r c h (e.g., Barton & B e v i r t , 1981; Barton & Ascione, 1979; Kohler & Fowler, 1985), and were r e p o r t e d by coders i n the present study to be t y p i c a l of t h i s sample as w e l l . The strong r e c i p r o c i t y between mothers' p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g behaviors and those of the c h i l d r e n was s i m i l a r l y judged to be not a t t r i b u t a b l e to coding a r t i f a c t or method v a r i a n c e . Share P o s i t i v e f o r the c h i l d r e n was only s c o r a b l e f o r s h a r i n g behaviors d i r e c t e d towards the s i b l i n g , and behaviors s c o r a b l e as Share P o s i t i v e f o r the mother (such as prompting, o f f e r i n g , and problem-solving) could be independent of c h i l d Share P o s i t i v e b e h aviors. Although we are thus reasonably assured that the s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s across f a m i l y members' p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g behaviors are not merely an a r t i f a c t of the coding system, f u t u r e r e v i s i o n s of the coding system that d i s t i n g u i s h between n e c e s s a r i l y dependent mutual s h a r i n g and other, more independent, i n d i c e s of p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g behavior w i l l a i d i n c l a r i f y i n g t h i s matter. The very heavy l o a d i n g f o r p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behaviors on most of the v a r i a t e s suggests that i n t h i s context, the simple b i v a r i a t e c o r r e l a t i o n s between behaviors would perhaps have s u f f i c e d f o r d e s c r i b i n g i n t r a - f a m i l y 169 b e h a v i o r a l r e c i p r o c i t y . Although c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from analyses i n v o l v i n g g l o b a l r a t i n g s must be considered t e n t a t i v e , i t i s i n t r i g u i n g to see the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o s i t i v e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s ( r e c a l l t h a t Share P o s i t i v e f o r c h i l d r e n was only scored f o r s h a r i n g with the s i b l i n g , not with the mother) and f r i e n d l y , n o n d i r e c t i v e involvement by the mother. The second part of the study examined s i m i l a r questions of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n f a m i l i e s , i n an experimental framework p e r m i t t i n g causal i n f e r e n c e s to be drawn. During the 10 minutes when the mother was BUSY, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that she d i s p l a y e d fewer behaviors of any kin d and was r a t e d as l e s s a c t i v e towards her c h i l d r e n than when she was FREE to i n t e r a c t with them. The i n t e r a c t i o n s mothers d i d have with t h e i r c h i l d r e n d u r i n g BUSY were r a t e d i n the n e u t r a l to f a i r l y h o s t i l e range, whereas i n t e r a c t i o n s d u r i n g FREE were ra t e d as f a i r l y f r i e n d l y . These t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s from the g l o b a l r a t i n g s data suggest a rather n e g a t i v e approach to par e n t i n g d u r i n g the BUSY s e s s i o n , although t h i s was not r e f l e c t e d i n the s p e c i f i c behaviors of the b e h a v i o r a l coding system. The e f f e c t of the mother's BUSY c o n d i t i o n on the c h i l d r e n ' s behavior was to reduce the occurrence of p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g between the s i b l i n g s (from about a t h i r d of i n t e r v a l s at FREE to about one-quarter of i n t e r v a l s at 170 BUSY). In c o n t r a s t , p o s i t i v e non-sharing i n t e r a c t i o n s between the s i b l i n g s i n c r e a s e d during BUSY. Th i s d i f f e r e n c e can be e x p l a i n e d as r e f l e c t i n g the tendency of c h i l d r e n to play independent of each other when the mother was BUSY. During these p e r i o d s of independent p l a y , v e r b a l i n t e r a c t i o n s between s i b l i n g s , when they occurred, were coded as Other P o s i t i v e . G l o b a l r a t i n g s of the s i b l i n g ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s with each other during the two c o n d i t i o n s d i d not d i f f e r , but s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r r a t i n g s of the c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i o n s toward.their mother. During BUSY, c h i l d r e n were r a t e d as somewhat h o s t i l e toward t h e i r mother, whereas du r i n g FREE the r a t i n g s were i n the somewhat f r i e n d l y to n e u t r a l range. C h i l d r e n were a l s o r a t e d as more a c t i v e toward t h e i r mother during BUSY. Thus, the mother's a v a i l a b i l i t y a f f e c t e d both the c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s with each other and with t h e i r mother, i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n . Having the mother f r e e to i n t e r a c t appears to promote p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g between s i b l i n g s . In c o n t r a s t , the mother being occupied r e s u l t s i n more independent a c t i v i t y and non-sharing i n t e r a c t i o n between s i b l i n g s , p o s s i b l e i n c r e a s e d c h i l d h o s t i l e a c t i v i t y towards the mother, and i n c r e a s e d h o s t i l e a f f e c t by the mother towards the c h i l d r e n . These f i n d i n g s are congruent with frequent anecdotal r e p o r t s from mothers that c h i l d r e n seem to "act up the minute the phone r i n g s . " These r e s u l t s are a l s o congruent with p r e v i o u s e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of contextual v a r i a b l e s i n the home. In one such i n v e s t i g a t i o n , 171 Sanders, Dadds, and Bor (1989) found that i n f o r m a t i o n about s e t t i n g events i n the home added to the p r e d i c t i v e power of be h a v i o r a l v a r i a b l e s : f o r example, mother engaging i n household chores was a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of c h i l d complaining. One c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n of the present r e s u l t s i s that s t u d i e s of the e f f e c t s of the presence of a d u l t s on c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s should c o n t r o l f o r and re p o r t the a c t i v i t i e s of the a d u l t . For example, p r e v i o u s l y c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s of the e f f e c t of a d u l t presence on c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s may r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n mothers being busy or f r e e d u r i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n (e.g., Barton et a l . , 1979; C o r t e r et a l . , 1982; T z e l e p i s et a l . , 1983). Previous s t u d i e s have found that the presence of the mother (as opposed to her absence) decreased p o s i t i v e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n and i n c r e a s e d n e g a t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n (e.g., Abramovitch et a l . , 1979, 1980; Cor t e r et a l . , 1982, 1983; Lamb, 1978). These s t u d i e s may have been examining a s i t u a t i o n p a r a l l e l to the BUSY c o n d i t i o n i n the present study, as the mothers had been i n s t r u c t e d to concentrate on paperwork or to go about t h e i r normal household r o u t i n e during the o b s e r v a t i o n s . R e s u l t s of the c u r r e n t study are thus congruent with p r e v i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n f i n d i n g the presence of a BUSY mother to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h decreased l e v e l s of p o s i t i v e s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n , although an i n c r e a s e i n negative i n t e r a c t i o n was not found. The next step i n c l a r i f y i n g t h i s i s s u e would be to examine the r e l a t i v e 172 e f f e c t s of the three c o n d i t i o n s of Mother Free, Mother Busy and Mother Absent on s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n i n one study. On a more a p p l i e d l e v e l , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of the most e f f e c t i v e p a r e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s f o r d e a l i n g with the p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the "Mother Busy" s i t u a t i o n would be a u s e f u l a d d i t i o n to the parent t r a i n i n g 1 i t e r a t u r e . jsJiaxiiig---PJC.Qg r .ajiiroe__jp.u.t .come Ratings of programme s e s s i o n s i n d i c a t e d that the treatment was implemented as planned i n both the INDIV and GROUP c o n d i t i o n s . Mothers and c h i l d r e n i n the INDIV c o n d i t i o n were able to demonstrate mastery of s k i l l s i n the l a b o r a t o r y and mothers r e p o r t e d that they and the c h i l d r e n used the s k i l l s at home. Mothers were r e l u c t a n t to keep w r i t t e n r e c o r d s , however. T h i s was not s u r p r i s i n g , given the context of a p r e v e n t i v e parent-education programme r a t h e r than a therapy, where the importance of record-keeping may be more apparent. Missed s e s s i o n s were i n f r e q u e n t , but the three f a m i l i e s who d i d miss s e s s i o n s were a l l i n GROUP. T h i s r a i s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i l u t i o n of treatment e f f e c t s f o r t h i s c o n d i t i o n , although the mothers who missed s e s s i o n s d i d r e c e i v e the a s s o c i a t e d w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s . OJP.sexvLa.-t i onj_L JD&i a The o b s e r v a t i o n a l coding system proved to be s u f f i c i e n t l y r e l i a b l e to be of use. Global r a t i n g s were much l e s s so, making t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n q u e s t i o n a b l e . The task of a c h i e v i n g i n t e r r a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y on n e c e s s a r i l y s u b j e c t i v e g l o b a l impressions i s always a d i f f i c u l t one, p a r t i c u l a r l y with a new coding system. Although moderate c o r r e l a t i o n s between r a t e r s were obtained, f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s to t h i s p a r t of the coding system w i l l be necessary i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . One p o s s i b l e r e v i s i o n i n v o l v e s r e f i n i n g the g l o b a l r a t i n g dimensions f u r t h e r , beyond the two-dimensional approach used i n the present study. For example, observers r e p o r t e d that they had the most d i f f i c u l t y d e c i d i n g on a r a t i n g f o r the Activity/Dominance dimension, and the confounding of a c t i v i t y l e v e l and dominance may a l s o e x p l a i n some of the unusual r e s u l t s i n v o l v i n g t h i s dimension. For example, a s i g n i f i c a n t age e f f e c t i n d i c a t e d that younger c h i l d r e n were rat e d as more active/dominant towards t h e i r s i b l i n g than were the o l d e r c h i l d r e n . T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t to p r e v i o u s l i t e r a t u r e on s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s , where o l d e r c h i l d r e n are t y p i c a l l y found to be more dominant than the younger s i b l i n g (e.g., Abramovitch et a l . , 1982; Dunn & Kendrick, 1981; Kendrick & Dunn, 1983). A f i n e r - g r a i n e d system u s i n g separate r a t i n g s f o r a c t i v i t y l e v e l and dominance toward the other person might r e f l e c t the i n t e r a c t i o n more r e a l i s t i c a l l y . O b s e r v a t i o n a l data f o r the mothers d i d not r e v e a l any more than a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d f o r s h a r i n g programme e f f e c t s , i n e i t h e r b e h a v i o r a l records or g l o b a l r a t i n g s . Thus, these data d i d not p r o v i d e support f o r the outcome hypothesis concerning an observed i n c r e a s e i n the p a r e n t i n g 174 s t r a t e g i e s t a u g h t i n t h e programme. T h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o p r e v i o u s s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s i n v o l v i n g p r e s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , where o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a have r e v e a l e d i n c r e a s e s i n t r a i n e d b e h a v i o r s ( e . g . , B r y a n t & Budd, 1984). However, t h e s e d a t a have t y p i c a l l y been c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g r a t h e r t h a n a f t e r t h e t r a i n i n g p e r i o d , and i n u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d p r e s c h o o l s where t h e t e a c h e r s a r e l i k e l y t o be a c c u s t o m e d t o b e i n g o b s e r v e d and t h u s l e s s r e a c t i v e t h a n t h e m o t h e r s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . Among c h i l d r e n , p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g b e h a v i o r was d i s p l a y e d by t h o s e i n t h e INDIV c o n d i t i o n i n a b o u t t w i c e as many i n t e r v a l s as by t h o s e i n t h e WAIT c o n d i t i o n . GROUP c h i l d r e n f e l l a b o u t h a l f w a y between, and d i d n o t d i f f e r f r o m e i t h e r o f t h e o t h e r two c o n d i t i o n s . An e f f e c t f o r t i m e i n d i c a t e d a g e n e r a l t e n d e n c y f o r p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g i n a l l c o n d i t i o n s t o i n c r e a s e f r o m POST t o FU, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n . No o t h e r b e h a v i o r a l changes were f o u n d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n , a l t h o u g h age d i f f e r e n c e s i n a f f e c t and d o m i n a n c e / a c t i v i t y r a t i n g s were n o t e d . S i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s were t h u s o b s e r v e d i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g b e h a v i o r o f INDIV c h i l d r e n , b u t improvements among c h i l d r e n i n GROUP were l e s s i m p r e s s i v e and n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e WAIT c o n d i t i o n . No changes were s e e n i n t h e u s e of i n a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r s , a l t h o u g h a low b a s e r a t e may have made changes d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e c t . Thus, m i x e d s u p p o r t was p r o v i d e d f o r t h e outcome h y p o t h e s i s 175 of an observed i n c r e a s e i n c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g s k i l l s and a decrease i n i n a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d b e h a v i o r s . The s i z e of the INDIV as. WAIT d i f f e r e n c e f o r c h i l d r e n ' s p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g behavior i s t y p i c a l of treatment e f f e c t s found i n pre v i o u s s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s (e.g., Barton, 1981; Bryant & Budd, 1984). T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y impressive g i v e n that e f f e c t s of pre v i o u s i n t e r v e n t i o n s have t y p i c a l l y been demonstrated using m u l t i p l e - b a s e l i n e designs without a ma t u r a t i o n a l c o n t r o l group, and have o f t e n weakened over followup p e r i o d s s h o r t e r than that used i n the present study (e.g., Barton & B e v i r t , 1981, Barton et a l . , 1979; Kohler 6. Fowler, 1985). Thus, the e f f e c t s of t h i s p a r e n t - l e d s h a r i n g programme appear e q u i v a l e n t , i f not s u p e r i o r , to previous programmes conducted by s t a f f i n school or daycare s e t t i n g s . It i s r a t h e r p u z z l i n g t h a t , although the programme was d e l i v e r e d through the mother, b e h a v i o r a l changes were observed only f o r the c h i l d r e n . One p o s s i b l e and o p t i m i s t i c explanantion concerns the r e a c t i v i t y of l a b o r a t o r y o b s e r v a t i o n s . Perhaps the c h i l d r e n were l e s s r e a c t i v e than the mothers t o the videotape o b s e r v a t i o n s i t u a t i o n , and were thus the p a r t i c i p a n t s d i s p l a y i n g the more t y p i c a l behavior. According to t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n , one would hypothesize that the mothers' behavior i n the home had changed i n the INDIV f a m i l i e s but the mothers were not d i s p l a y i n g these changes i n the o b s e r v a t i o n s i t u a t i o n , e i t h e r because they were too s e l f - c o n s c i o u s to use the new s t r a t e g i e s or because a l l 176 mothers were a b l e to "look good" f o r t h i s b r i e f p e r i o d , and we may have been w i t n e s s i n g g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the c h i l d r e n ' s behavior across s i t u a t i o n s (home to l a b ) . A l t e r n a t e l y , i f mothers' behaviors observed i n the l a b o r a t o r y were t y p i c a l , t h i s may i n d i c a t e that s u b t l e changes i n behavior, not d e t e c t e d by the r a t h e r molar codes i n t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n system, were i n f l u e n c i n g the c h i l d r e n . It i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t , by having the mothers busy with paperwork and e s s e n t i a l l y i g n o r i n g the c h i l d r e n f o r h a l f of the o b s e r v a t i o n s e s s i o n , the time over which.observations of mothers' i n t e r a c t i o n s with t h e i r c h i l d r e n were made was reduced below the l e v e l where group d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be d e t e c t e d . Maternal S e l f - R e p o r t Mothers i n both treatment c o n d i t i o n s demonstrated g r e a t e r knowledge of i n f o r m a t i o n covered i n the s h a r i n g programme than d i d mothers who had not yet p a r t i c i p a t e d , thus s u p p o r t i n g the outcome hypothesis p r e d i c t i n g an i n c r e a s e i n knowledge of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s i n d i c a t e s not only that mothers i n the programme r e t a i n e d what they were taught, but that mothers i n general may not have a c q u i r e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from other sources. An i n c r e a s e i n knowledge of i n f o r m a t i o n taught i n t h i s programme i s c o n s i s t e n t with f i n d i n g s from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h that mothers do r e t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n a parent t r a i n i n g context (e.g., McMahon et a l . , 1981). 177 The other two m a t e r n a l - r e p o r t measures showed l e s s of a treatment e f f e c t . Reports of the number of p a r e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s used d i d not d i f f e r between c o n d i t i o n s , and only a weak trend towards i n c r e a s e d p a r e n t i n g s e l f - e f f i c a c y f o r GROUP and INDIV mothers was noted. These data thus f a i l e d to support the p r e d i c t e d , although e x p l o r a t o r y , changes i n general measures of p a r e n t i n g . Again, i t i s u n c l e a r why, given the d i f f e r e n c e s r e p o r t e d f o r c h i l d r e n , that group d i f f e r e n c e s on these measures are not apparent f o r mothers. It i s p o s s i b l e t h a t these measures were too g l o b a l to d e t e c t changes i n p a r e n t i n g r e l a t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to managing s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s . Most previous work with these measures has been conducted i n normative s t u d i e s , or the measures have been used d e s c r i p t i v e l y i n c l i n i c samples (e.g, Cutrona & Troutman, 1986; McMahon et a l . , 1986). Thus, t h e i r u t i l i t y as outcome measures of p a r e n t i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s with n o n c l i n i c samples remains to be demonstrated. T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y was explored by a n a l y s i n g a s u b s c a l e of the SSIQ, on which parents r e p o r t e d the use of s p e c i f i c p a r e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s taught i n the s h a r i n g programme (lower scores i n d i c a t e m o r e r e p o r t e d use of the t e c h n i q u e s ) . The r e s u l t s of a 3 x 2 x 2 ( C o n d i t i o n x Time x Parent) ANCOVA i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r C o n d i t i o n , JT(2, 39) = 8.12, £ - .001, and no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r parent. Newman-Keuls t e s t s i n d i c a t e d that GROUP parents (M = 20.56) rep o r t e d more use of the p a r e n t i n g techniques than d i d WAIT parents (M = 24.96), g(3, 44) = 4.78, p < .01. INDIV parents 178 (M = 21.43) a l s o reported more use of these techniques than d i d WAIT paren t s , g(2, 44) = 3.84, p < .01. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of these s e l f - r e p o r t s of par e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s more s p e c i f i c to s h a r i n g and s i b l i n g - r e l a t e d i s s u e s thus i n d i c a t e d a treatment e f f e c t f o r both formats, i n c o n t r a s t to r e s u l t s from the o b s e r v a t i o n a l data. Mothers and f a t h e r s a l s o reported s i m i l a r l e v e l s of use of the pa r e n t i n g techniques taught i n the programme. This would suggest that mothers were p a s s i n g on in f o r m a t i o n gained from the programme and that f a t h e r s were making use of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . On the q u e s t i o n n a i r e measure r e f l e c t i n g s h a r i n g and s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n at home, c h i l d r e n i n both treatment c o n d i t i o n s were reported to d i s p l a y more p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g -r e l a t e d behavior than d i d WAIT c h i l d r e n . Moreover, r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g behavior f o r c h i l d r e n i n the treatment c o n d i t i o n s i n c r e a s e d from post-treatment to the follow-up v i s i t , and t h i s was not the case f o r WAIT c h i l d r e n . It was i n t e r e s t i n g to note, given the lack of d i r e c t f a t h e r involvement i n the programme, that there was no d i f f e r e n c e found between mother and f a t h e r r e p o r t s . T h i s s i m i l a r i t y again suggests that mothers and f a t h e r s i n t h i s sample were congruent, not only i n t h e i r p a r e n t i n g approaches, but a l s o i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n and the e f f e c t s of the programme. 179 Mothers a l s o r a t e d samples of t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r a c t i o n s over a 5-day p e r i o d . R e s u l t s from t h i s somewhat more b e h a v i o r a l 1y-based measure again i n d i c a t e d more p o s i t i v e s i b l i n g s h a r i n g i n both treatment c o n d i t i o n s than i n WAIT. It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that t h i s more e c o l o g i c a l l y v a l i d measure of behavior i n the home, as opposed to the l a b o r a t o r y o b s e r v a t i o n s , demonstrated improvements f o r both INDIV and GROUP c h i l d r e n . As expected, general s o c i a l behavior as reported by the mother r e v e a l e d age d i f f e r e n c e s on the developmental measure. More imp o r t a n t l y , d i f f e r e n c e s by c o n d i t i o n were report e d , again with both treatment c o n d i t i o n s showing more advanced l e v e l s of s k i l l than WAIT. These d i f f e r e n c e s appeared to be due to a reported a c c e l e r a t i o n of s o c i a l development among INDIV and GROUP c h i l d r e n rather than any d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s w i t h i n the WAIT c o n d i t i o n . I n a p p r o p r i a t e behavior was a l s o reported by mothers to occur more f r e q u e n t l y among WAIT c h i l d r e n than among c h i l d r e n i n e i t h e r treatment c o n d i t i o n . For younger c h i l d r e n , mothers i n the GROUP c o n d i t i o n r e p o r t e d fewer behavior problems than d i d INDIV mothers. In c o n t r a s t to measures more s p e c i f i c to s h a r i n g behavior, f a t h e r s ' r e p o r t s of general s o c i a l behavior d i d not show treatment e f f e c t s . Mothers, then, p e r c e i v e d both s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l i z e d e f f e c t s of the s h a r i n g programme, su p p o r t i n g e x p l o r a t o r y outcome hypotheses of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of treatment e f f e c t s across behaviors and across s i t u a t i o n s . Fathers p e r c e i v e d 180 s p e c i f i c s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d e f f e c t s o n l y , thus supporting the hypothesis of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n across s i t u a t i o n s (with f a t h e r s as well as wit h mothers) but not g e n e r a l i z a t i o n across behaviors. Reports by informants from out of the home a l s o r e v e a l e d d i f f e r e n c e s across c o n d i t i o n s . Reports from informants f o r WAIT c h i l d r e n i n d i c a t e d l e s s p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior than f o r c h i l d r e n i n the treatment c o n d i t i o n s , and t h i s d i d not change from POST to FU. These informants i n d i c a t e d that sharing behavior f o r c h i l d r e n i n both treatment c o n d i t i o n s improved from POST to FU. Reports from the informants f o r the two s i b l i n g s d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r , again h i g h l i g h t i n g the symmetry of s i b l i n g s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior. Analyses on the measure of general s o c i a l behavior from other informants, however, i n d i c a t e d that the treatment e f f e c t s r e p o r t e d by these informants were not seen to have g e n e r a l i z e d to other s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . The f i n d i n g that mothers but not other informants p e r c e i v e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of treatment e f f e c t s to broader c l a s s e s of behavior has two l i k e l y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . T h i s may r e f l e c t r e a l advances i n these behaviors when c h i l d r e n are with t h e i r mother, and i n d i c a t e t h a t , as the person p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementing the sh a r i n g programme, she i s e i t h e r a c t i n g as a d i s c r i m i n a t i v e stimulus f o r improved behavior or using her new p a r e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s on other c h i l d b e h a viors. A l t e r n a t e l y , the d i f f e r e n c e may 181 merely be a halo e f f e c t whereby the mother i s p a r t i c u l a r l y encouraged by improvements i n her c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g and s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s and her p e r c e p t i o n , r a t h e r than a c t u a l c h i l d b ehavior, i s what changes i n the treatment groups. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , these a l t e r n a t e e x p l a n a t i o n s cannot be untangled w i t h i n the design of the present study. The present g e n e r a l i z a t i o n r e s u l t s are congruent with f i n d i n g s from previous s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n across behaviors and s i t u a t i o n s (e.g., Barton & Ascione, 1979; Benton-Gai11ard et al.,.1983, Day et a l , 1983). Prev i o u s t e s t s of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , however, have not extended beyond the t r a i n i n g s e t t i n g and peer group (e.g., playmates at preschool) or examined i n f o r m a t i o n from other informants. Thus, f i n d i n g s i n the present study of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n to s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n as p e r c e i v e d by f a t h e r s , peer i n t e r a c t i o n as p e r c e i v e d by other informants, and broad c l a s s e s of s o c i a l behavior as p e r c e i v e d by the mother a l l represent new phenomena i n the s h a r i n g t r a i n i n g 1 i t e r a t u r e . Cj)ii_d,JLnl.e.oy.ew MjgajLUxe.s Although most o l d e r c h i l d r e n and many younger c h i l d r e n completed the c h i l d i n t e r v i e w , no treatment e f f e c t s beyond weak trends were found on these measures. I t appears that e i t h e r the programme d i d not induce immediate c o g n i t i v e changes i n the c h i l d r e n , or the measures a v a i l a b l e are not s u f f i c i e n t l y s e n s i t i v e to r e f l e c t these changes. C o n s i s t e n t with p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h (Damon, 1977; K e n d a l l & Koehler, 182 1985; Michelson et a l . , 1981; Palmer, 1983), the d i f f i c u l t y of o b t a i n i n g t h i s k i n d of i n f o r m a t i o n was again demonstrated i n t h i s study. A s u b s t a n t i a l number of the c h i l d r e n d i d not complete the i n t e r v i e w , and the i n t e r v i e w f o r those who d i d complete i t c o n s i s t e d of a small number of items f o r each measure. The use of shortened v e r s i o n s of e x i s t i n g i n t e r v i e w p r o t o c o l s developed to measure s p e c i f i c aspects of c o g n i t i v e development may have reduced t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the context of the c u r r e n t wide-ranging i n t e r v i e w . Attempting to i n v e s t i g a t e a s i n g l e c o n s t r u c t thoroughly r a t h e r than s e v e r a l c o n s t r u c t s b r i e f l y would be one p o s s i b l e s t r a t e g y f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s . Previous r e s e a r c h on c o g n i t i v e changes r e s u l t i n g from a b e h a v i o r a l l y - b a s e d s h a r i n g programme (Bryant & Budd, 1984), d e s c r i b e d improvements i n mean sco r e s , but the small number of s u b j e c t s and the lack of a c o n t r o l group makes t h i s r e s u l t d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t . More c o g n i t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s ( T r e p a n i e r & Romatowski, 1982; Yakobson & Pocherevina, 1982) have reported small changes on i n t e r v i e w measures, but the r e l a t i o n s h i p of these c o g n i t i v e changes to b e h a v i o r a l change i s u n c l e a r . The gap between c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l i n d i c e s , apparent i n t h i s and previous s h a r i n g r e s e a r c h , a l s o appears i n c o g n i t i v e l y - b a s e d i n t e r v e n t i o n s d i r e c t e d at more general p r o s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t s . Changes have been found on v e r b a l measures of moral development and s o c i a l s k i l l s as a r e s u l t of c o g n i t i v e l y -o r i e n t e d parent i n t e r v e n t i o n s (e.g., Bunzl et a l . , 1977; 183 M i r e a u l t S. Royer, 1983; Shure, 1983), but a g a i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o g n i t i v e and behavior changes i s i n c o n s i s t e n t . The meaning of these d i s c r e p a n c i e s w i l l not e a s i l y be r e s o l v e d , as normative s t u d i e s of c o g n i t i v e and b e h a v i o r a l i n d i c e s of p r o s o c i a l and moral development a l s o p r o v i d e i n c o n s i s t e n t data on the nature of the c o g n i t i o n -behavior l i n k (Grusec, 1982b; Maccoby, 1984; Radke-Yarrow et a l . , 1983; Staub, 1979). In any case, hypothesized g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of treatment e f f e c t s to knowledge of s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d concepts, p r o s o c i a l moral development, and p e r c e p t i o n s of the s i b l i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p were not supported i n the present i n v e s t i g a t i o n . It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to c o n t r a s t a b e h a v i o r a l l y - b a s e d s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n such as the c u r r e n t programme with a more c o g n i t i v e l y based s h a r i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n to examine r e l a t i v e e f f e c t s on b e h a v i o r a l and c o g n i t i v e measures. However, p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h would suggest that a somewhat o l d e r sample of c h i l d r e n might be necessary to demonstrate maximum b e n e f i t from a c o g n i t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n (Grusec & Redler, 1980). Consumer gat±&.lacJt.iQ-n Mothers who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s h a r i n g programme r a t e d i t p o s i t i v e l y , and there were i n d i c a t i o n s that p e r c e p t i o n s of the programme improved over time and were more p o s i t i v e f o r the i n d i v i d u a l format. A weak trend suggested that c h i l d r e n i n GROUP may have d e s c r i b e d the programme and i t s e f f e c t s more p o s i t i v e l y than INDIV c h i l d r e n . T h i s could be 184 p o s s i b l y be due to the group c h i l d care experiences many of the c h i l d r e n had, or due to a l e s s s t r u c t u r e d approach to the programme at home by mothers i n GROUP. Sharing Programme O v e r a l l P o s i t i v e e f f e c t s of the s h a r i n g programme on r e p o r t s of s i b l i n g s ' s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior were c l e a r l y demonstrated, although these e f f e c t s were not evident i n the l a b o r a t o r y observations f o r GROUP c h i l d r e n . These e f f e c t s were seen to g e n e r a l i z e across informants and across r e p o r t e d behaviors, but not across observed behaviors or informants and reported behaviors combined. Treatment e f f e c t s were maintained over a follow-up p e r i o d . As well as reaching s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , these e f f e c t s were a l s o of reasonable s i z e . The INDIV v_s. WAIT d i f f e r e n c e i n c h i l d r e n ' s observed p o s i t i v e s h a r i n g behavior, f o r example, represented a d i f f e r e n c e of approximately .75 of a standard d e v i a t i o n , and the t y p i c a l treatment e f f e c t s i z e on q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures was .75 to 1.5 of a standard d e v i a t i o n . These d i f f e r e n c e s are a l s o judged to have c l i n i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Observed p o s i t i v e s h aring i n INDIV c h i l d r e n occurred i n almost twice the number of i n t e r v a l s as f o r WAIT c h i l d r e n , and d i f f e r e n c e s on q u e s t i o n n a i r e measures t y p i c a l l y r e f l e c t e d a s h i f t of approximately one s c a l e p o i n t f o r a l l items. As w e l l , consumer s a t i s f a c t i o n r e p o r ts from mothers i n d i c a t e d that they l i k e d the programme and saw i t as having p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s . 185 Although mothers demonstrated i n c r e a s e d knowledge of the content covered by the programme and r a t e d i t h i g h l y , they d i d not demonstrate or r e p o r t s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n t h e i r own p a r e n t i n g approach on the o r i g i n a l measures. As the programme was conducted p r i m a r i l y through the mother and e f f e c t s on the c h i l d r e n were demonstrated, i t appears more reasonable to conclude that maternal measures d i d not adequately capture changes r e l a t e d to the programme than that changes d i d not occur. C o n s i s t e n t with t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , e x p l o r a t i o n of a s u b s c a l e of the P a r e n t i n g S t r a t e g i e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e v e a l e d treatment e f f e c t s f o r both c o n d i t i o n s on more s p e c i f i c r e p o r t s of p a r e n t i n g techniques covered i n the programme, and suggested mother-to-father g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . F u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n of t h i s i s s u e would i n v o l v e d e v e l o p i n g and t e s t i n g assessment procedures more s e n s i t i v e to p a r e n t i n g change i n a n o n - c l i n i c p o p u l a t i o n . It i s p o s s i b l e , of course, that the s i g n i f i c a n t t r e a t m e n t - r e l a t e d changes r e p o r t e d by the mother o v e r a l l i n c h i l d behavior r e f l e c t e d only more p o s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s of the c h i l d r a t h e r than a c t u a l b e h a v i o r a l change, or even a p o s i t i v e response set designed to p l e a s e the experimenter. E f f o r t s made du r i n g the programme to s t a n d a r d i z e i n t e r a c t i o n s with the mothers and downplay the outcome assessment aspects of the study, and the c o n f i r m a t i o n of the mother's r e p o r t s by the behavior of INDIV c h i l d r e n observed i n the l a b o r a t o r y and by r e p o r t s from informants not 186 i n v o l v e d i n the study make these e x p l a n a t i o n s l e s s p i a u s i b l e . T h i s study p r o v i d e d mixed i n f o r m a t i o n on the question of treatment format d i f f e r e n c e s . On an o b s e r v a t i o n a l measure of c h i l d behavior, the INDIV format was the only one to show s u p e r i o r i t y over WAIT. INDIV was a l s o r a t e d more h i g h l y on some consumer s a t i s f a c t i o n measures. In c o n t r a s t , mothers' r e p o r t s of decreased behavior problems among younger c h i l d r e n and a few n o n s i g n i f i c a n t trends from c h i l d i n t e r v i e w measures suggest s u p e r i o r i t y of the GROUP format. However, the two formats d i d not d i f f e r i n treatment e f f e c t s found on measures of parent knowledge or p a r e n t i n g s t r a t e g i e s used, q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p o r t s of c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g and s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n from s e v e r a l informants, mothers' r e p o r t s of enhanced general c h i l d s o c i a l behavior, and some measures of consumer s a t i s f a c t i o n . Thus, i f o b j e c t i v e b e h a v i o r a l data are the important index of change, the INDIV format would be the format of choice f o r t h i s programme. If r e p o r t s from f a m i l y members and others who know the c h i l d are considered s u f f i c i e n t evidence of treatment e f f e c t i v e n e s s , the l e s s t h e r a p i s t - i n t e n s i v e and e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e GROUP format would be recommended. An e x p l o r a t i o n of programme components necessary to o b t a i n behavioral 1y-based changes i n the group programme appears to be warranted, perhaps by i n c o r p o r a t i n g some elements of b e h a v i o r a l r e h e a r s a l or homework t r a c k i n g i n t o the group format. 187 These r e s u l t s can only be g e n e r a l i z e d over a r e s t r i c t e d p o p u l a t i o n , g i v e n the n o n - c l i n i c , i n t a c t , p r i m a r i l y middle-c l a s s v o l u n t e e r f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study. Although the l i m i t s put on t h i s sample were designed t o make i t maximally resp o n s i v e to t h i s type of i n t e r v e n t i o n , i t should be noted that a normal range w i t h i n these l i m i t s was represented. For example, f a m i l i e s ranged i n SES from s e m i s k i l l e d worker to p r o f e s s i o n a l , s c r e e n i n g and maternal measures were t y p i c a l of normative samples, and c h i l d r e n ' s C B C L scores covered the f u l l range up t o . t h e 90th p e r c e n t i l e c u t o f f . Mean b a s e l i n e r e p o r t s of c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g behavior and s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n i n d i c a t e d a moderate l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y , and the c o n t r o l group's l e v e l of p o s i t i v e behavior i n l a b o r a t o r y observations (21% of i n t e r v a l s ) was s i m i l a r to that found i n normative s t u d i e s of s i b l i n g s ' c o o p e r a t i v e p l a y (e.g., 18% i n Mash & Mercer, 1979). Thus, although extremely d i s t r e s s e d and s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s were excluded from t h i s sample, i t otherwise appears to be reasonably r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of i n t a c t , n o n - c l i n i c f a m i l i e s . It i s l i k e l y that treatment e f f e c t s found i n t h i s study could s a f e l y be g e n e r a l i z e d to t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . However, i t would be necessary to demonstrate treatment e f f e c t s on d i f f e r e n t samples before assuming that these f i n d i n g s are g e n e r a l i z a b l e to a wider p o p u l a t i o n . Given the l a r g e number of e n q u i r i e s about the s h a r i n g programme from s i n g l e mothers, t h i s would be a l o g i c a l next p o p u l a t i o n with which to t e s t t h i s programme. Although t h e r e was i n d i r e c t 188 evidence that f a t h e r s were b e n e f i t t i n g from i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the sha r i n g programme, i t i s unclear what r o l e they played i n producing treatment e f f e c t s i n the c h i l d r e n . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o expl o r e the e f f e c t s of extending the present programme to d i r e c t l y i n c l u d e f a t h e r s . D i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s f o r the GROUP and INDIV formats may a l s o not be g e n e r a l i z a b l e to other p o p u l a t i o n s . D i f f e r e n t types of parents have been found to respond d i f f e r e n t i a l l y to programme elements t y p i c a l of group or i n d i v i d u a l treatment: Knapp and Deluty (1989) found lower SES mothers to be more responsive to modelling and r o l e p l a y i n g than to d i s c u s s i o n and reading, whereas middle SES mothers showed no such d i f f e r e n c e . Further e f f o r t s are needed to c l a r i f y whether the INDIV versus GROUP d i f f e r e n c e s found i n t h i s study are t y p i c a l of other p o p u l a t i o n s of parents. F u r t h e r steps i n e v a l u a t i o n could i n v o l v e d i s m a n t l i n g the programme to i d e n t i f y e s s e n t i a l components, d e c r e a s i n g t h e r a p i s t involvement i n favour of w r i t t e n or videotaped i n f o r m a t i o n , t e s t i n g the programme on a sample r e f e r r e d f o r d i f f i c u l t i e s with s i b l i n g i n t e r a c t i o n , comparing i t to an a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n , and t r a c k i n g programme e f f e c t s over a longer follow-up p e r i o d . As many mothers noted i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s that the w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s and books a v a i l a b l e f o r loan had been p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l , i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to evaluate a minimal-contact b i b l i o t h e r a p y v e r s i o n of the programme. 189 In c o n c l u s i o n , t h i s study demonstrated both strong r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s h a r i n g - r e l a t e d behavior of young s i b l i n g s , and c o r r e l a t i o n a l and causal r e l a t i o n s h i p s between mother behavior and s i b l i n g s h a r i n g . A p a r e n t - t r a i n i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n was demonstrated to have p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on c h i l d r e n ' s s h a r i n g b e h a v i o r s , and these e f f e c t s g e n e r a l i z e d over s i t u a t i o n s , behaviors and time. 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