Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A strategy for the diversification of housing options and living arrangements for senior citizens in… Kamenz, Cherie Bernice 1991

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1991_A8 K35.pdf [ 6.17MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0100375.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0100375-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0100375-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0100375-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0100375-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0100375-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0100375-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0100375-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0100375.ris

Full Text

A STRATEGY FOR THE DIVERSIFICATION OF HOUSING OPTIONS AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SENIOR CITIZENS IN THE CITY OF TERRACE, BRITISH COLUMBIA BY CHERIE BERNICE KAMENZ B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1991 © Cherie Bernice Kamenz, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Community & Regional Planning Department of Graduate Studies  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date ' 7D A u g u s t 1QQ1 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT In 1986 there were nearly 2.7 m i l l i o n Canadians 65 years of age and over. During the next several decades, the number of e l d e r l y Canadians i s expected to continue to grow more quickly than any other age group. The growth of the e l d e r l y population, i n conjunction with t h e i r basic r i g h t to adequate, affordable housing, necessitates that planners recognize and attempt to s a t i s f y the unique housing needs and desires of e l d e r l y Canadians. In order for planners to appropriately meet the housing needs and desires of current and future cohorts of e l d e r l y persons, they must s t r i v e for the creation of a continuum of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements sui t a b l e for a diverse range of housing needs within each community. This t h e s i s provides a strategy f o r the creation of a continuum of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements f o r e l d e r l y persons i n a small c i t y : the City of Terrace i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia. The process i s divided into three phases: (1) an examination of a range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements encompassing independent, supported independent, and dependent l i v i n g , (2) a p r o f i l e of the C i t y of Terrace which w i l l i d e n t i f y the types and locations of e x i s t i n g housing and services for the e l d e r l y and c l a r i f y d i r e c t i o n s for future development, and (3) an analysis of the f i n a n c i a l costs and the l o c a t i o n a l requirements of the housing options and l i v i n g arrangements i n order to determine which options are best suited to the present and future housing needs of e l d e r l y Terrace residents. The findings of t h i s research indicate that there are a wide range of independent and dependent l i v i n g housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for e l d e r l y Terrace residents; however, there i s a lack of supported independent housing options for seniors. Consequently, there i s an emphasis on encouraging the development of supported independent housing options i n the f i r s t f i v e years of the ten year strategy. A r e l a t i v e l y small percentage of the t o t a l population of the Cit y of Terrace i s 65 years of age and over. Therefore, i n an attempt to o f f e r a range of housing options for a small seniors' population i n the City, many of the housing options that are recommended can be developed i n single family detached dwellings. The benefits of developing these options i n single family homes include the a b i l i t y to make more e f f i c i e n t use of uncrowded single family homes, the a b i l i t y to create and dissolve an option for a single household without a f f e c t i n g other households, and the a b i l i t y to create small scale developments of group l i v i n g arrangements i n e x i s t i n g single family homes and neighbourhoods. The creation of a vari e t y of options throughout the community on a smaller scale helps to ensure that there w i l l be a range of housing options encompassing independent, supported independent, and dependent options without r i s k i n g the v i a b i l i t y of these options because of the li m i t e d numbers of seniors i n the community. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . . . i i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i i CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 INTRODUCTION 2 Purpose and Methodology 12 CHAPTER 2: HOUSING OPTIONS AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE ELDERLY 19 INDEPENDENT LIVING 21 S ing le Family Detached Dwellings 21 Rental Apartments 24 Condominiums 25 Co-operat ive Housing 2 6 Non-Prof i t Sen iors ' Housing 28 Mobile Homes 29 SUPPORTED INDEPENDENT LIVING 3 2 Supported Independent L i v i ng i n the Community . . . 33 Accessory Apartments 34 In-law Suites 37 Homesharing 39 Garden Suites 42 Abbey f i e l d Concept Housing 4 5 Congregate Housing 47 DEPENDENT LIVING 51 Personal Care 52 Intermediate Care 52 Extended Care 53 The Future of Care f a c i l i t i e s 54 CHAPTER 3: PROFILE OF THE CITY OF TERRACE, BRITISH COLUMBIA. 57 CURRENT AND PROJECTED POPULATION OF THE CITY OF TERRACE 57 EXISTING HOUSING USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS 68 Condominiums 68 Non-Prof i t Sen iors ' Housing 71 Intermediate and Extended Care F a c i l i t i e s 73 i v EXISTING SERVICES USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS. . . 77 Support Services for those Living in the Community 77 OTHER SERVICES USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS . . . . 81 Health Care Services 81 Shops and Services 81 Access to Services 82 CHAPTER 4 : DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUUM OF HOUSING OPTIONS AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CITY OF TERRACE 84 FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS 86 Single Family Detached Dwellings 86 Rental Apartments / Condominiums 88 Co-operative Housing 90 Non-Profit Seniors' Housing 93 Accessory Apartment / In-law Suites 95 Homesharing 95 Garden Suites 96 Abbeyfield Concept Housing 97 Congregate Housing 99 Care f a c i l i t i e s 101 LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSING OPTIONS 102 Land Use Designation of Existing Housing Stock in Terrace 105 Land Resources of the c i t y of Terrace and Province I l l DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 115 Housing Options which are Immediately Feasible. . . 116 Housing Options which would be Feasible in the Mid-term 120 Housing Options which may be Feasible in the Distant Future 122 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CITY OF TERRACE 127 CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION 131 CONCLUSION 131 Areas for Further Research 13 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 13 7 v L I S T OF T A B L E S T A B L E 1 Growth i n the E l d e r l y Population i n Di f f e r e n t Settlement Types i n Canada, 1961 - 1986 5 T A B L E 2 Growth i n the Percentage of the E l d e r l y Population i n Different Settlement Types i n Canada, 1961 - 1986 5 T A B L E 3 1986 Population of the City of Terrace by Age and Sex 59 T A B L E 4 1986 Population of the C i t y of Terrace by Age, Male Population 60 T A B L E 5 1986 Population of the City of Terrace by Age, Female Population 60 T A B L E 6 1986 Population of the City of Terrace and Surrounding Area 61 T A B L E 7 Population of Local Health Area 88 Over 45 Years of Age 66 T A B L E 8 Housing Options Permitted i n the C i t y of Terrace by Zone 106 T A B L E 9 L i s t of Land Owned by the City of Terrace 112 v i L I S T O F F I G U R E S F I G U R E 1 Local Health Areas 88 and 92 63 F I G U R E 2 C i t y of Terrace Indicating Housing and Services Used by Seniors 67 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thank my husband Marvin for a l l h i s love, support and confidence i n me. I would also l i k e to thank h i s wonderful family f o r t h e i r love and support. I would also l i k e to acknowledge the seniors i n the Ci t y of Terrace. I t has been my pleasure to have the opportunity to meet and learn from these people. I t i s my hope that t h i s thesis w i l l play a part i n helping to improve the housing resources f o r seniors i n t h i s community. v i i i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Canada's e l d e r l y population i s growing at an unprecedented rate. The number of e l d e r l y Canadians, those persons 65 years of age and over, has increased from 2.4 m i l l i o n i n 1981 to nearly 2.7 m i l l i o n i n 1986.1 Population projections that are based on continued lower b i r t h r a t e s , increased mortality rates, p a r t i c u l a r l y among the e l d e r l y , and constant l e v e l s of migration, forecast a growth i n the e l d e r l y population over the next several decades unparalleled by any other age group i n Canada.2 Projections indicate that Canada's e l d e r l y population w i l l increase to 3.3 m i l l i o n by the year 2001.3 This rate of growth i s expected to continue and, i n f a c t , accelerate a f t e r the year 2006. The population of e l d e r l y Canadians aged 80 years and over has been growing even more quickly that has the population aged 65 and over. In f a c t , the e l d e r l y population i t s e l f i s aging. For example, i n 1981 B r i t i s h Columbians aged 80 and over represented !Leroy Stone and Hubert Frenken, Census 198 6 Focus on Canada  Catalogue 98-121 "Canada's Seniors" (Ottawa, Ontario: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, December 1988), p. 17. 2Frank T. Denton, Christine H. Feaver and Byron G. Spencer, "The Canadian Population and Labour Force: Retrospect and Prospect," Aging i n Canada: So c i a l Perspectives, ed. V i c t o r W. Marshall (Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1987), p. 26. 3Satya Brink, "Housing E l d e r l y People i n Canada: Working Towards a Continuum of Housing Choices Appropriate to Their Needs," Innovations i n Housing and L i v i n g Arrangements for  Seniors. ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. Blackie (Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia: Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, 1984), p. 2. 19.6 percent of B.C.'s population aged 65 and over. By 2001, they are expected to comprise 26.4 percent of the e l d e r l y population. 4 As well as growing i n absolute numbers, e l d e r l y Canadians w i l l be increasing as a percentage of Canada's t o t a l population. Canadians 65 years of age and older constituted 10.66 percent of the t o t a l Canadian population i n 1986,5 an increase from s l i g h t l y over 10 percent i n 1981. By the year 2001 the number of e l d e r l y Canadians i s expected to increase to 13 percent, and by 2031, when the ent i r e baby boom generation has reached retirement age, projections indicate nearly 25 percent of the Canadian population w i l l be 65 years of age and over. 6 Today, as i n the past, the majority of e l d e r l y Canadians l i v e i n large urban centres with a population of more than 100,000 persons: i n 1986, close to 1.5 m i l l i o n e l d e r l y Canadians, or almost one half of a l l Canadians over 65 years of age, l i v e d i n large urban centres. 7 S i m i l a r l y , i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1981 the majority of e l d e r l y persons, 84.4 percent, l i v e d i n urban centres, "Gloria Gutman, E l l e n Gee, Bell e Bojanowski and Darja Mottet, Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia. (Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia: Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, August 1986), p. 3. 5Stone and Frenken, p. 17. 6Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Housing Choices  for Older Canadians (Ottawa, Ontario: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, n.d.), p. 5. 7Gerald Hodge, The E l d e r l y i n Canada's Small Towns: Recent  Trends and Their Implications. Occasional Papers # 43, (The Centre f o r Human Settlements, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987,) p. 15. 3 with 43.7 percent l i v i n g i n large urban centres with a population of 500,000 or more persons. 8 As Table 1 indicates, however, there have been s h i f t s i n the locations i n which e l d e r l y Canadians have chosen to reside. The l a s t two decades have witnessed an increase i n the number of e l d e r l y Canadians who l i v e i n smaller urban centres, with a population of between 10,000 and 99,999 persons, and small towns, with a population of between 1,000 and 9,999 persons. Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 22. 4 Table 1 Growth i n the E l d e r l y Population i n Dif f e r e n t Settlement Types i n Canada, 1961 - 1986 Settlement Population over 65 years of age (000s) Type 1961 1971 1981 1986 Large Urban 594.3 799.2 1196.3 1459.9 Small Urban 195.5 287.0 361.8 389.1 Small Towns 177.8 234.6 285.5 279.1 Rural Farm 134.7 82.4 56.1 55.6 Rural Non-farm 288.7 340.9 461.6 516.8 Canada 1391.0 1744.1 2361.3 2700.5 Source: Gerald Hodge, The E l d e r l y i n Small Towns: Recent Trends and  Their Implications. Occasional Papers #43, (The Centre f o r Human Settlements, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Faculty of Graduate Studies, 1987), p. 15. Gerald Hodge, "The Seniors' Surge: Why Planners Should Care," Plan  Canada 30:4 (July 1990): 5-13, p. 6. Table 2 Growth i n the Percentage of the El d e r l y Population i n D i f f e r e n t Settlement Types i n Canada, 1961 - 1981 Settlement Percentage of population over 65 years Type 1961 1971 1981 1986 Large Urban 7.5 7.8 9.5 10.7 * Small Urban 7.1 7.8 10.2 11.65* Small Towns 8.8 9.4 12.5 13.5 * Rural Farm 6.5 5.8 5.4 6.2 Rural Non-farm 8.3 9.1 9.5 10.2 Canada 7.6 8.1 9.7 10.7 * These percentages are derived from the average of a breakdown of the urban population for 1986. Source: Hodge, The El d e r l y i n Small Towns, p. 15. Hodge, "The Seniors' Surge," p. 7. 5 In addition to the growth i n the absolute number of e l d e r l y persons i n small urban centres and small towns, Table 2 indicates that the percentage of e l d e r l y persons i n small towns and small urban centres i n Canada has also increased dramatically i n the l a s t two decades. In 1986, the percentage of the population i n small urban centres and small towns that was 65 years of age and over exceeded that of any other settlement type, as well as the national average i n 1981 and 1986.9 I t i s undeniable that the improved a v a i l a b i l i t y of housing and services intended f o r e l d e r l y persons has made the choice of staying i n or moving to small urban centres and small towns more appealing to the e l d e r l y . The growth of the e l d e r l y population w i l l place greater demands on e x i s t i n g accommodations for the e l d e r l y and w i l l necessitate the creation of a d d i t i o n a l housing stock intended for e l d e r l y persons. In order to create housing that w i l l be appropriate for current and future cohorts of e l d e r l y Canadians, planners of seniors' housing must consider s i x factors regarding the needs, demands and preferences of e l d e r l y persons. F i r s t , Canadians 65 years and over, regardless of t h e i r income, desire options i n housing. E l d e r l y Canadians can be c l a s s i f i e d by four income l e v e l groups: those who own t h e i r homes and have a good retirement income, those who are house r i c h but 9Two provinces, Newfoundland and B r i t i s h Columbia, do not conform to these trends. The reason for t h i s appears to be the large number of small, i s o l a t e d resource towns i n each of these provinces: these smaller resource towns t y p i c a l l y have younger working age populations. 6 income poor, those with low income and no c a p i t a l , and those who are poor and new Canadians who do not receive Canada Pension or Old Age Security. 1 0 I t i s estimated that one-third of a l l seniors are dependent almost t o t a l l y on government pension for income11, and therefore, l i v e at or just above the poverty l i n e . Further, "women are the most affected by low incomes, 40.5% of a l l women are i n the lowest retirement income group as compared with 24.8% of e l d e r l y men."12 I t i s e s s e n t i a l that planners recognize that each of these groups have d i s t i n c t housing needs and desires about how to l i v e that may be s a t i s f i e d by d i f f e r e n t housing options and l i v i n g arrangements. Second, present and future cohorts of e l d e r l y persons are expected to l i v e longer, healthier l i v e s due to improved health care, to be more highly educated, and to have a higher income, on average, than past cohorts of persons 65 years of age and over. 1 3 Moreover, e l d e r l y Canadians i n the future w i l l be more i n c l i n e d to have saved and planned for t h e i r retirement years and have preferences regarding accommodation and l i f e s t y l e . As such, future cohorts of seniors are l i k e l y to be i n a better p o s i t i o n to demand 1 0Val MacDonald, "Seniors' Housing: What Seniors Are Saying," SPARC News Community A f f a i r s In B r i t i s h Columbia. Winter 1988, p. 3. nHodge, "The Seniors' Surge," p. 8. 12Hodge, "The Seniors' Surge," p. 8. 1 3Margaret Picard, "Congregate Housing for Seniors: What Works and What Doesn't," SPARC News Community A f f a i r s In B r i t i s h  Columbia. Winter 1988, p. 2. 7 a greater v a r i e t y of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements and to make decisions regarding choices i n housing and l i f e s t y l e . Third, e l d e r l y Canadians are not a homogeneous group. Canadians 65 years of age and over, l i k e younger Canadians, d i f f e r i n p h ysical a b i l i t i e s , competency, and desires about how to l i v e . I t i s also e s s e n t i a l to recognize the growing number of e l d e r l y Canadians over 75 years of age and t h e i r increased demands on the community. Between 1991 and 2001, the number of seniors over the age of 75 years w i l l grow 50 percent f a s t e r than those aged 65-74 years, and the number of seniors over 85 years of age w i l l grow twice as f a s t as those between 65-74 years. 1 4 The eldest Canadians are more l i k e l y to require supportive and dependent l i v i n g housing options as well as some form of assistance i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . Therefore, i t i s imperative that there be a v a r i e t y of housing options and l i f e s t y l e choices to meet a wide range of housing needs and desires about how to l i v e . Fourth, i t i s the preference of most e l d e r l y Canadians to remain independent i n t h e i r home for as long as possible. Consequently, the National Seniors Housing Consultation recommended: The housing and service options available should enable us to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for ourselves i n our own homes and communities as long as possible. 1 5 14Hodge, "The Seniors' Surge," p. 6. 150ne Voice - The Canadian Seniors Network, 1989, p. 5. As quoted i n Ron Corbett, "Coming of Age: A P r o f i l e of the E l d e r l y i n A t l a n t i c Canada," i n Plan Canada 30:4 (July 1990), p. 15. 8 Many innovative housing options and l i v i n g arrangements would allow persons 65 and over to remain i n t h e i r home with the help of informal s o c i a l support networks that have been b u i l t up over the years with family and friends. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , some housing options and l i v i n g arrangements enable the e l d e r l y persons to remain at home with the addition of new household members, such as homesharers, who can provide economic, psychological and/or physical support. These informal support networks often enable an el d e r l y person to remain independent within the community, while a l l e v i a t i n g some of the need for formal support systems or i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. F i f t h , research suggests that most e l d e r l y Canadians view family as "an extremely important source of emotional, s o c i a l and p r a c t i c a l support" 1 6 and want to l i v e near t h e i r adult children. However, they would prefer not to l i v e with them. For example, a study conducted i n London, Ontario i n 1983 found that most respondents would l i v e elsewhere rather than with t h e i r children i f they could no longer l i v e alone. 1 7 F i n a l l y , a va r i e t y of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements helps to ensure f l e x i b i l i t y i n the housing system for the e l d e r l y . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of a range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements that o f f e r varied l e v e l s of independence and care, at 1 6Carolyn J . Rosenthal, "Aging and Intergenerational Relations i n Canada," Aging In Canada: So c i a l Perspectives, ed. Vi c t o r W. Marshall (Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1987), p. 311. 1 7Rosenthal, p. 316. 9 a v a r i e t y of cost l e v e l s , increases the l i k e l i h o o d that an e l d e r l y person w i l l be able to f i n d suitable, affordable housing. Further, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of a range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements allows housing choices to be r e a l choices, rather than choices by default. Together, these s i x factors i l l u s t r a t e that planners should incorporate into community plans and zoning bylaws the freedom to develop a range or continuum of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements f o r the e l d e r l y so that a l l e l d e r l y persons, regardless of income, w i l l have access to a va r i e t y of suitable, affordable accommodation within t h e i r community. This approach to housing the e l d e r l y emphasises the need to introduce housing options that w i l l address the void that e x i s t s i n many communities between the extremes of independent l i v i n g and residency i n a care f a c i l i t y . The provision of a range or continuum of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements would involve the introduction of a va r i e t y of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements from each of these categories: (1) independent l i v i n g , (2) supported independent l i v i n g , and (3) dependent l i v i n g . 1 8 Independent l i v i n g i s characterized by an e l d e r l y person or persons l i v i n g i n a single family dwelling, apartment, mobile home, condominium or other privat e dwelling. Independent l i v i n g may involve minimal support from family and friends for such tasks as maintenance of the home and yard or household chores. 1 8Satya Brink, p. 14-16. 10 Supported independent l i v i n g occurs i n many of the dwelling types where independent l i v i n g occurs; however, more extensive support services from family, friends or community services and/or s p e c i a l u n i t design, such as wheelchair access ramps, are required i n order for these e l d e r l y persons to remain independent. Supported independent l i v i n g also occurs i n congregate care f a c i l i t i e s or other seniors' oriented projects where on-site support services, such as prepared meals, emergency alarm systems, and s p e c i a l u n i t design f a c i l i t a t e semi-independent l i v i n g . Dependent l i v i n g i s defined as i n s t i t u t i o n a l care f o r persons i n need of extensive services and care. 11 Purpose and Methodology The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to develop and propose a plan for the creation of a continuum or range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for e l d e r l y persons within a given community: the C i t y of Terrace, B r i t i s h Columbia. Terrace i s a small, i s o l a t e d community i n northern B r i t i s h Columbia, 150 kilometres east of Prince Rupert. In 1986 the C i t y had a population of 10,532 persons, 505 of whom were 65 years of age or over. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the City of Terrace has many more services than i t s population could normally support because the Ci t y i s the service centre for many smaller communities i n north western B r i t i s h Columbia. Because of the unique location and population c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Terrace, several considerations must be taken into account. For example, Terrace, as a small, i s o l a t e d c i t y , has a lower than normal percentage of e l d e r l y persons i n the population due to the predominance of younger working age persons i n the community.19 Consequently, problems associated with providing a range of housing options for a r e l a t i v e l y small number of e l d e r l y persons i n the community must be addressed. In addition, the p r o b a b i l i t y and impact of e l d e r l y persons from smaller communities surrounding Terrace migrating to the C i t y must 19As noted e a r l i e r , i n 1986, persons 65 years of age and over accounted for 11.65 percent of the t o t a l population i n the average small urban centre i n Canada. However, the percentage of e l d e r l y persons i s much lower i n small, i s o l a t e d resource towns i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Newfoundland which t y p i c a l l y have younger working age populations. Such i s the case i n Terrace where, i n 1986, persons 65 years of age and over only comprised f i v e percent of the t o t a l population. 12 be considered i n the context of population forecasting and planning for housing and services for e l d e r l y persons i n Terrace. The proposed plan for a continuum or range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for e l d e r l y persons i n the C i t y of Terrace w i l l incorporate some elements of independent, supported independent and dependent l i v i n g arrangements. The range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements that w i l l be proposed i n t h i s plan w i l l attempt to s a t i s f y a v a r i e t y of economic, s o c i a l , psychological and physical needs among the e l d e r l y population i n the C i t y of Terrace. F i n a l l y , the implications of the projected growth of the e l d e r l y population within the City of Terrace over the next 20 years w i l l be considered i n the development of t h i s plan. Upon completion of t h i s thesis, which w i l l be p r e s c r i p t i v e i n nature, the C i t y of Terrace and representatives of seniors' housing groups within the City w i l l be able to use t h i s work as a strategy f o r the implementation of a continuum of housing for the e l d e r l y . There are four p o l i c y goals which underlie the purpose of t h i s work.20 The f i r s t i s to improve the e x i s t i n g range and q u a l i t y of housing f o r the e l d e r l y i n the City of Terrace. This p o l i c y would require that there be available housing that meets or exceeds minimum standards and that such housing be a v a i l a b l e i n a v a r i e t y 2 0Satya Brink, "International Experience i n Housing the Very Old: P o l i c y Implications for Canada," Housing the Very Old, ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. Blackie (Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia: Simon Fraser University, Gerontology Research Centre, 1988), p. 214-219. 13 of s i z e s , costs and designs to s a t i s f y a range of needs and desires. The second p o l i c y goal i s to reduce the rate of unnecessary i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n among the e l d e r l y population. The purpose of t h i s p o l i c y goal i s to provide suitable housing choices to e l d e r l y Terrace residents who chose i n s t i t u t i o n a l care due to the lack of an a l t e r n a t i v e at the time of entrance to the f a c i l i t y . Ultimately, the creation of a range of supported independent housing options throughout the community would reduce unnecessary i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n and open up e x i s t i n g beds i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r those persons who w i l l require those services i n the future. This consideration becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y relevant i n l i g h t of the growing population of persons over 75 years of age who require a greater degree of care i n the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g . The t h i r d p o l i c y goal i s to encourage aging i n place, when desired and possible. In the past aging i n place occurred na t u r a l l y i n the community, not as the r e s u l t of a conscious p o l i c y . More recently, however, discussion r e l a t i n g to the concept of aging i n place has recognized the importance of encouraging and f a c i l i t a t i n g aging i n place through a vari e t y of support mechanisms for independent and semi-independent e l d e r l y persons i n the community. This philosophy i s acknowledged by Eileen Badiuk who believes the concept of aging i n place has two dimensions. The f i r s t " r e f l e c t s a b e l i e f i n the value of independence and the r i g h t of 14 seniors to remain i n t h e i r own homes."21 The second dimension i s "concerned with the s p e c i f i c and tangible ways of a s s i s t i n g the e l d e r l y " 2 2 to age i n place. This second dimension requires the development and co-ordination of support programs and services which w i l l meet the needs of the e l d e r l y who wish to age i n place. Therefore, aging i n place requires the supply of a range of housing options, l i v i n g arrangements and community-based services that enable and encourage healthy, independent e l d e r l y persons to remain a v i t a l part of t h e i r neighbourhood and community. As a f i n a l note, e l d e r l y persons should not f e e l compelled to age i n place when doing so would prove to be burdensome or they would prefer to reside i n another type of accommodation. The fourth and f i n a l p o l i c y goal that underlies t h i s thesis i s that of providing housing-related services to e l d e r l y persons who require them i n order to continue l i v i n g independently. This goal i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the success of aging i n place and requires a focus on the t o t a l needs of the i n d i v i d u a l . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of formal community support services such as meals-on-wheels, emergency response systems, s p e c i a l transportation and home care services can ease the burden of l i v i n g independently for many el d e r l y persons who wish to age i n place. In order to develop a plan for the formation of a range or continuum of housing options for Terrace residents who are 2 1 E i l e e n Badiuk, "Exploring the Option to Age i n Place," i n Plan Canada. 30:4 July 1990, p. 36. 2 2Badiuk, p. 36. 15 currently or w i l l i n the next 10 years be 65 years of age and over, a three stage method of analysis w i l l be employed. Each stage of analysis w i l l form a chapter of the t h e s i s . The f i r s t stage w i l l be an investigation, by way of l i t e r a t u r e review, of a wide var i e t y of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements f o r e l d e r l y persons. Each of the housing options and l i v i n g arrangements w i l l be examined within the framework of independent, supported independent and dependent l i v i n g i n order to f a c i l i t a t e analysis i n the fourth chapter. The second stage of analysis w i l l involve the formation of a p r o f i l e of the City of Terrace i n order to assess current and future housing needs for e l d e r l y residents i n the fourth chapter. This p r o f i l e w i l l include a study of the current and projected e l d e r l y population of Terrace over the next 20 years, a d e t a i l e d inventory of e x i s t i n g housing and services intended for e l d e r l y Terrace residents, and an inventory of e x i s t i n g services i n the C i t y of Terrace that are not exclusively intended for seniors, but are used by seniors. The t h i r d stage of analysis w i l l r e s u l t i n the s e l e c t i o n of a suitable mix of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements that w i l l meet seniors' immediate and future housing needs i n Terrace. Two categories w i l l form the boundary of analysis f o r the s u i t a b i l i t y of the housing options: (1) the f i n a n c i a l cost of developing the housing option or l i v i n g arrangement including the a v a i l a b i l i t y of federal and p r o v i n c i a l grants and subsidies for each seniors' housing option, and (2) l o c a t i o n a l requirements such as the a b i l i t y to locate purpose-b u i l t units i n proximity to necessary services and the a b i l i t y to 16 locate any of the housing options or l i v i n g arrangements i n e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l areas. F i n a l l y , the r o l e the C i t y of Terrace can play i n encouraging and f a c i l i t a t i n g the development of desired housing options and l i v i n g arrangements within the C i t y w i l l be considered. 17 CHAPTER 2 HOUSING OPTIONS AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE ELDERLY Most Canadian communities o f f e r independent and dependent housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for e l d e r l y members of the community. Few, however, o f f e r housing options or l i v i n g arrangements f o r seniors that f a c i l i t a t e supported independent l i v i n g . Many western i n d u s t r i a l i z e d nations, such as Great B r i t a i n , A u s t r a l i a and the United States of America, o f f e r examples of unique supportive housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for el d e r l y persons that are not widely avai l a b l e i n Canada. The in c l u s i o n of these options would s i g n i f i c a n t l y increase the va r i e t y of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for supported independent l i v i n g i n Canada. In t h i s chapter a diverse range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for the e l d e r l y w i l l be examined. A desc r i p t i o n of each housing option or l i v i n g arrangement w i l l be provided, followed by an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages associated with each housing option or l i v i n g arrangement, from the perspective of the e l d e r l y resident, and, f i n a l l y , the po t e n t i a l of each of the innovative housing options i n Canadian communities i n the future w i l l be considered. To ensure that the f u l l spectrum of housing options for the e l d e r l y w i l l be examined, t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l include options that already e x i s t i n many Canadian communities and options that may be integrated into the ex i s t i n g system of housing for the e l d e r l y . I t should be noted that some of the housing options that w i l l be examined i n t h i s chapter are not exclusive to e l d e r l y persons: t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y 49 true of the independent l i v i n g options. F i n a l l y , i t i s important to r e a l i z e that not a l l of these housing options would have to be implemented i n any one community i n order for i t to have an adequate continuum of housing options for i t s e l d e r l y residents. 20 INDEPENDENT LIVING The majority of e l d e r l y Canadians choose to remain independent for as long as possible. In 1981, an average of 63 percent of a l l Canadians 65 years of age and over l i v e d independently i n t h e i r homes: 71% of those persons aged 65-69, 62% of those 70-79, and 56% of those 80 and over. 1 In B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1986, 68 percent of B r i t i s h Columbians 65 years of age and over owned t h e i r home. When that percentage i s broken down further, 72 percent of B r i t i s h Columbians aged 65 to 74 owned t h e i r home, and 61 percent of B r i t i s h Columbians aged 75 and over owned t h e i r home.2 There are a wide v a r i e t y of accommodations that f a c i l i t a t e independent l i v i n g for e l d e r l y persons. The options which w i l l be discussed i n t h i s section are single family detached dwellings, r e n t a l apartments, condominiums, co-operatives, non-profit seniors' housing, and mobile homes. Single Family Detached Dwellings In 1981, s i x t y percent of e l d e r l y Canadians l i v e d i n single family detached dwellings. 3 S i m i l a r l y , i n 1986 the majority of e l d e r l y B r i t i s h Columbians, 56.2 percent, l i v e d i n single family •Brink, 1984, p. 3. 2Census Canada, 1986, The Nation: Population and Dwelling;  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Dwellings and Households: Part 1. Catalogue 93-104, (Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services Canada), 1987, Table 11. 3Brink, 1984, p. 3. 21 detached dwellings. 4 The l i k e l i h o o d of an e l d e r l y person l i v i n g i n a sing l e family home, however, decreases with age. In 1981, about two-thirds of those aged 55-59 l i v e d i n sing l e family homes, compared to j u s t under one-half of those aged 75 and over. 5 In 1981, the majority of e l d e r l y Canadian homeowners owned t h e i r homes outright: 60% of those aged 65 to 79 and 95% of those 80 years of age and over. 6 Of those Canadians who owned t h e i r homes outright, over 90 percent of these homes were valued at less than $75,000.7 The percentage of B r i t i s h Columbians aged 65 and over r e s i d i n g i n s i n g l e family detached dwellings a c t u a l l y decreased between 1971 and 1981 from 64.6 percent to 56.2 percent. This was due i n part to the growth i n the stock of multiple dwellings between 1971 and 1981, and the "resultant increased opportunities f o r the e l d e r l y to choose t h i s type of accommodation."8 I t i s l i k e l y that t h i s trend 4Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 49. 5Norman K. Blackie, "The Option of "Staying Put,"" Aging i n  Place: Housing Adaptations and Options for Remaining i n the  Community ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. Blackie, (Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia: Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, 198 6,) p. 4. 6Fact Book on Aging i n Canada, 1983 i n Blackie, 1986, p. 4. 7Goldblatt, S y l v i a , "Current and Future L i v i n g Arrangements for Canada's Seniors," i n Housing Canada's E l d e r l y . (Winnipeg: University of Winnipeg I n s t i t u t e for Urban Studies), 1986. As quoted by Lynn Marie Guilbault i n Housing B r i t i s h Columbia's Small  Town Eld e r l y , Master's Thesis, (Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia), 1989, p. 22. 8Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 49. 22 has continued throughout the 1980's due to the growth i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of multiple dwellings. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Single Family Detached Dwellings Homeownership o f f e r s e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s a v a r i e t y of benefits including the freedom to a l t e r the structure of the home and design the outdoor l i v i n g space to s u i t one's i n d i v i d u a l taste, the freedom to engage i n an i n d i v i d u a l l i f e s t y l e , the security that associated with the increasing value of a single detached dwelling, a greater degree of privacy than i s available i n multiple unit dwellings, and e l i g i b i l i t y for a homeowners grant. There are, however, several disadvantages associated with homeownership which may a f f e c t an e l d e r l y person's decision to remain i n or purchase a single family detached dwelling. These disadvantages include the need to maintain upkeep of the dwelling and outside property which may prove to be a burden for some el d e r l y homeowners, the need to f i n d persons w i l l i n g to care for the home should the e l d e r l y homeowner(s) wish to t r a v e l for extended periods, the long-term f i n a n c i a l commitment involved with homeownership, the cost of property taxes to homeowners, and the costs associated with repairs and improvements to the home.9 'Government programs which help to ease the economic burden for homeowners w i l l be discussed i n the fourth chapter. 23 R e n t a l Apartments Rental apartments are available i n a range of si z e s , including bachelor, one bedroom and two bedroom suites, s t y l e s and cost l e v e l s . Further, some apartment complexes o f f e r a v a r i e t y of amenities, such as a swimming pool and security parking for residents. Apartment buildings with less than f i v e storeys were the second most popular dwelling type for seniors i n 1981 i n B r i t i s h Columbia: 22.3 percent of e l d e r l y households chose t h i s type of accommodation. Moreover, a further 10.9 percent of e l d e r l y B r i t i s h Columbians l i v e d i n high r i s e apartments i n 1981. In addition, " e l d e r l y women are more l i k e l y than e l d e r l y men to l i v e i n multiple dwellings, regardless of t h e i r age group." 1 0 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Rental Apartments Residence i n a re n t a l apartment o f f e r s an e l d e r l y tenant many advantages including the freedom from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r repairs and maintenance of the unit or grounds, the security that comes from having neighbours i n close proximity, the convenience of having friends i n the building, the p o s s i b i l i t y of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s within the apartment complex, the opportunity to l i v e i n or near the c i t y centre with access to community services, and the freedom to be away for extended periods on holiday without concern that t h e i r absence w i l l be obvious because of a lapse i n yard or home care. 'Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 49. 24 Residence i n a r e n t a l apartment i s not, however, without i t s disadvantages. For example, rent increases i n market r e n t a l apartments are not predictable which may give some renters, p a r t i c u l a r l y those on a fi x e d income, a f e e l i n g of insecurity, there i s less privacy and less freedom to engage i n a c t i v i t i e s which may bother neighbours due to the proximity of those neighbours, i t may be d i f f i c u l t to get repairs done when they are needed, there i s no freedom to make s t r u c t u r a l changes to the dwelling, there may be an increased danger of f i r e due to the negligence of other residents, and there i s a l i m i t e d amount of outdoor space such as lawns, balconies and gardens. Condominiums In 1981, 8.3 percent of the homes owned by household heads aged 65 and over were condominiums.11 The purchase of a unit i n a condominium project o f f e r s an i n d i v i d u a l exclusive ownership of one housing unit i n a housing project and co-ownership of a portion of the common space and f a c i l i t i e s . Condominiums may be created i n an apartment, townhouse, duplex or a single family building which i s part of a s t r a t a t i t l e project. There are a v a r i e t y of "adult-oriented" condominiums i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The age of the tenants i s r e s t r i c t e d to those 45 and over by the condominium by-laws. These units tend to be one bedroom plus den or two bedroom s t y l e s , and the projects often "Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 47. 25 feature a number of amenities, good security and common outdoor maintenance. 1 2 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Condominiums Condominium ownership provides the e l d e r l y person security of tenure and the se c u r i t y of owning property, the opportunity to buy rather than rent a home i n an area where land or sing l e family homes may be scarce or expensive, the opportunity to take part i n the management of the condominium project, and access to services and f a c i l i t i e s usually only found i n a r e n t a l project. The disadvantages associated with buying a condominium include the absence of p r i v a t e l y owned land, the problems that may be involved with group decision-making regarding maintenance and improvements outside the housing unit, the necessity to follow condominium regulations, and the obligations and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s involved i n co-managing the project which some e l d e r l y persons may not be w i l l i n g to undertake. C o - o p e r a t i v e Housing When an i n d i v i d u a l decides to l i v e i n co-operative housing, he or she must buy shares i n the co-operative association, according to the value of t h e i r unit. The i n d i v i d u a l then becomes a member of the co-operative housing association which owns the housing units and property. The rent that i s paid by the tenant each month 1 2Michael G e l l e r and Associates Limited and Bob Burgess, Domain Management Limited, Development Controls for Seniors Housing, (Vancouver, November 1989), p. 14. 26 covers maintenance, taxes and other costs associated with the co-operative. Members of the co-op make decisions regarding the co-op j o i n t l y and are c o l l e c t i v e l y responsible for the care and upkeep of the co-operative housing property. There are two types of co-operative housing. The f i r s t i s p r o f i t type co-op housing wherein the members may make a c a p i t a l gain on t h e i r shares i n the co-operative. A person buys shares which are equal to the market value of the unit, which, upon sale of the unit, are sold at market value when the person leaves the uni t . The second type of co-op housing i s known as a continuing n o t - f o r - p r o f i t co-operative. This i s more popular than p r o f i t type co-op housing because the units remain affordable through the non-i n f l a t i o n a r y nature of the purchase and sale of shares which keep the buy-in cost at a minimum. In t h i s case the member buys shares into the co-op upon entry, and when the member leaves the co-op he or she s e l l s back the shares to the co-op at a p r i c e which i s kept as close as possible to the p r i c e which the shares were o r i g i n a l l y purchased. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Co-operative Housing Co-operative housing o f f e r s e l d e r l y tenants a va r i e t y of advantages including security of occupancy, r i g h t s and regulatory powers over the project through c o l l e c t i v e ownership, the r i g h t to vote on increases i n monthly charges as a member of the co-op, protection against i n f l a t i o n i n the case of a continuing not-for-27 p r o f i t co-op, and the opportunity as a group to provide for maintenance and improvements at a saving. The disadvantages associated with co-operative housing are the dual f i n a n c i a l obligations f o r members as i n d i v i d u a l tenants and as c o l l e c t i v e owners, the necessity to comply with the regulations established by the co-operative as a group, and the fee which must be paid before entry into a co-operative. Non-Profit Seniors' Housing (Rental) Non-profit seniors' housing i s owned and managed by a non-p r o f i t housing society or the p r o v i n c i a l government through the B r i t i s h Columbia Housing Management Commission (BCHMC). Rent may not exceed 3 0 percent of income. Single persons were, u n t i l recently, expected to occupy a bachelor sized apartment and one-bedroom units were reserved mostly for couples. Tenants must be aged 55 or over i n B r i t i s h Columbia to be e l i g i b l e for housing managed by BCHMC. Tenant s e l e c t i o n for t h i s type of housing i s based upon housing need, and there i s no maximum income s t i p u l a t e d . In order to be accepted for t h i s type of housing, the applicant must reside i n B r i t i s h Columbia and have done so f o r at l e a s t two years p r i o r to a p p l i c a t i o n . In a non-p r o f i t project, e l i g i b i l i t y requirements may vary according to the management of the project. 28 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Seniors' Oriented Rental Apartments Some of the advantages associated with residence i n non-profit seniors' housing which i s subsidized by BCHMC are the security that rent w i l l not exceed 30 percent of income, the companionship and security that comes from having friends of one's own age i n the building, and the p o s s i b i l i t y of recreation and c r a f t programs i n the bu i l d i n g . The disadvantages associated with l i v i n g i n a non-profit seniors' housing development are s i m i l a r to those of l i v i n g i n any re n t a l apartment. There i s , however, one p a r t i c u l a r disadvantage to l i v i n g i n t h i s type of housing: the s i z e of the apartments w i l l l i k e l y seem small to persons coming from a house or one or two bedroom apartment. M o b i l e Homes In 1981, 5.5 percent of e l d e r l y B r i t i s h Columbians l i v e d i n moveable dwellings. 1 3 Mobile homes are self-contained, one-level units that are located on a "pad" or p l o t of land i n a mobile home park or on a p r i v a t e l y owned piece of property. As such, mobile homes o f f e r the owner the freedom to choose the location of the s i t e f or t h e i r home, and the freedom to move that home i f they so desire. In addition, mobile homes vary i n s i z e and i n t e r i o r design, making 1 3Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 49. 29 them appealing to persons with a va r i e t y of space requirements and tastes. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Mobile Homes Some of the advantages associated with ownership of a mobile home include t h e i r compact nature, the f a c t that they require less upkeep than conventional homes, and freedom of mobility. Moreover, mobile homes o f f e r seniors an independent l i f e s t y l e i n a unit that i s designed to make e f f i c i e n t use of the l i v i n g space avai l a b l e i n the u n i t . Mobile homes also feature a lower purchase p r i c e than conventional housing. Further, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC) may provide refinancing i n the form of a low int e r e s t , long term loan i f t h i s i s desired, providing that the mobile home i s located i n an approved park. Since 1976 a Mobile Home Registry has been i n place which provides protection to purchasers of used mobile homes and ensures that property taxes have been paid. In terms of disadvantages, i t i s important that one buy the r i g h t s i z e mobile home for h i s or her needs. I f the un i t i s too small the tenants may f e e l cramped. I t i s also important that the buyer r e a l i z e that, unlike other types of homes, mobile homes depreciate i n value over time. P r i o r to purchasing a mobile home, one must check the s t r u c t u r a l soundness of the mobile home and ensure that i t i s CSA approved, which may be done by checking i f there i s a CSA s t i c k e r located on the door of the mobile home. F i n a l l y , i t i s important to be ca r e f u l i n the se l e c t i o n of a mobile 30 home park. I t may help to t a l k to some of the residents of the mobile home parks. Also, depending on the loc a t i o n of the mobile home park, i t may be subject to s e l l out i f the land value escalates and the owner decides to s e l l . 31 SUPPORTED INDEPENDENT L I V I N G The trend towards supported independent l i v i n g may help to account f o r the increasing numbers of e l d e r l y Canadians who are l i v i n g alone. In 1981, 26 percent of senior B r i t i s h Columbians l i v e d alone. 1 4 For Canada as a whole, by 1986, 25 percent of seniors l i v e d alone. In 1981, the majority of e l d e r l y men, 75.3 percent, l i v e d with a spouse and/or never-married children. For e l d e r l y men 75 years of age and over, 64.4 percent l i v e d i n t h i s type of family arrangement. However, for older women, the l i k e l i h o o d of l i v i n g i n such a family s e t t i n g decreased dramatically with age: 60.4 percent of those aged 65-74 and 32.5 percent of those aged 75 and over. 1 5 There has been a p a r a l l e l increase i n the number of e l d e r l y B r i t i s h Columbian women who l i v e alone. In 1981, 31.5 percent of women aged 65-74 and 40.8 percent of women aged 75 and over l i v e d alone. The r i s e i n the number of e l d e r l y women l i v i n g alone i s a r e l a t i v e l y new phenomenon: between 1961 and 1981 i n B r i t i s h Columbia, "the proportion of women aged 65 and over l i v i n g alone increased from 21.2 [percent] to 35.2 [percent]." 1 6 Between 1981 and 1986 for Canada as a whole, the proportion of women over 85 1 4Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 43. 1 5Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 42. 1 6Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 42. 32 years of age who l i v e d alone increased from 25 percent i n 1981 to 28 percent i n 1986.17 In 1981, 4.1 percent of e l d e r l y B r i t i s h Columbians l i v e d i n a "non-family" household made up of a persons occupying a private dwelling but not con s t i t u t i n g a census family. A census family i s defined as "persons l i v i n g i n the same dwelling who have a husband-wife r e l a t i o n s h i p and/or a parent-never-married c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p . " 1 8 The increasing numbers of e l d e r l y persons, p a r t i c u l a r l y females, who would otherwise l i v e alone helps to account for the r i s e i n popularity of supported independent l i v i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . The supported independent l i v i n g arrangements that w i l l be examined i n t h i s section are supported independent l i v i n g i n the community, accessory apartments, in-law suites, homesharing, garden suites, Abbeyfield concept housing, and congregate housing. Supported Independent L i v i n g i n the Community Most communities have Home Support Programs avail a b l e to e l d e r l y residents who l i v e independently. Two of the services which are ava i l a b l e i n most communities are meals-on-wheels and handy-DART and para-transit transport services. There i s a charge for the use of these services. There are also some home support services which are provided by the p r o v i n c i a l government including household care, personal care, and re s p i t e services. In order to 1 7Stone and Frenken, p. 10. 1 8Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 44. 33 receive these services an i n d i v i d u a l must be assessed by a p r o v i n c i a l assessor and deemed to be i n need of the service. I t i s also at t h i s time that the assessor would e s t a b l i s h how must the in d i v i d u a l would be able to pay for the service, which cost $6.00 per v i s i t i n 1990. For some ind i v i d u a l s , the fee would be indexed to the in d i v i d u a l ' s income. These programs provide a great deal of physical and emotional support to a healthy, independent, e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l who i s i n need of a limi t e d degree of support services i n order to remain independent i n the home. A c c e s s o r y Apartments An accessory apartment, sometimes referred to as a second su i t e or basement suite, i s an independent dwelling u n i t within or d i r e c t l y attached to a single family home that i s created by converting a portion of a single family home into a small s e l f -contained apartment. Accessory apartments are distinguished from other l i v i n g arrangements which also e x i s t i n a single family home by two fac t o r s : the primary unit and the accessory apartment each have a separate entry, and each unit has a d i s t i n c t l i v i n g space which includes a bathroom and a kitchen. In s p i t e of e x i s t i n g zoning bylaws p r o h i b i t i n g them i n most Canadian communities, accessory apartments have become a popular housing option for Canadian homeowners of a l l ages. In fa c t , i t i s estimated that between 10 and 20 percent of single family detached 34 dwellings i n urban North America contain an accessory apartment. 1 9 An e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l may choose to convert part of hi s or her home to an accessory apartment and then l i v e either i n the primary unit or move into the accessory apartment. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l may choose to reside i n an accessory apartment i n another person's home. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Accessory Apartments There are a number of advantages that are associated with an el d e r l y person converting part of hi s or her home to an accessory apartment. F i r s t , the extra income from the r e n t a l of the accessory apartment would increase the monthly income of the el d e r l y homeowner and help to a l l e v i a t e some of the costs of homeownership such as property taxes and home improvements. Second, the e l d e r l y homeowner may be able to arrange f o r help from the tenant with home and yard maintenance: the tenant may do house or yard work i n exchange for a reduction i n the cost of rent. This type of arrangement has been studied by SPARC, the So c i a l Planning and Research Council of B r i t i s h Columbia, which found that i n the D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver 20 percent of tenants provided some type of service, such as outdoor maintenance or p e t - s i t t i n g , to t h e i r landlord. 2 0 Some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with l i v i n g 1 9 C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department, "Secondary Suites: The Issues," Quarterly Review (A p r i l 1987), p. 17, as quoted by Lauri McKay and Janet Lee i n I l l e g a l Suites: Issue and Response. March 1988, p. 1. 2 0 G e l l e r and Associates, p. 16. 35 alone, such as feeli n g s of loneliness and i s o l a t i o n , may be eased by contact with the tenant. Further, the tenant could provide unobtrusive se c u r i t y for the e l d e r l y homeowner: the tenant could check i n on the e l d e r l y homeowner on a regular basis to ensure he or she i s well. F i n a l l y , the primary dwelling and the accessory apartment are separate units, so there would be v i r t u a l l y no loss of privacy f o r either party. Some of the advantages that would be associated with an el d e r l y person l i v i n g i n an accessory apartment i n someone else's sin g l e family home are that the e l d e r l y renter would be free from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for home and yard maintenance, the e l d e r l y renter would be les s lonely than l i v i n g alone i n a house or apartment because of regular contact with the homeowner, and the el d e r l y tenant would benefit from increased f e e l i n g of security i n case of emergency that accompanies l i v i n g i n close proximity with other persons. Some of the disadvantages that accompany accessory apartments are the problems that may ar i s e with neighbours who do not want renters i n t h e i r neighbourhood. There i s also the p o s s i b i l i t y that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the homeowner and the tenant w i l l not develop into a f r i e n d l y one where frequent contact i s desirable. 3 6 The P o t e n t i a l f o r Accessory Apartments Accessory apartments are currently i l l e g a l i n the majority of Canadian m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ; nevertheless, e x i s t i n g accessory apartments provide an important and necessary housing form i n Canada: affordable housing for those persons who could not otherwise f i n d appropriate, affordable r e n t a l accommodation i n the area i n which they choose to l i v e . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of persons on f i x e d incomes, such as e l d e r l y persons, students and single parent f a m i l i e s . 2 1 I t i s for t h i s reason that e x i s t i n g i l l e g a l units are not closed by c i v i c o f f i c i a l s unless there are complaints about the accessory apartment by neighbours. Because of the i l l e g a l nature of accessory apartments, most ex i s t i n g accessory apartments have been created without the approval of municipal building inspectors. The inception of zoning bylaws sanctioning accessory apartments as a housing form would allow municipal government representatives to enforce b u i l d i n g and safety codes as well as levy taxes on the r e n t a l income of owners of homes that contain accessory apartments. In-law Suites In-law suites are very s i m i l a r to accessory apartments i n that there are two separate suites within a single family home. The element that distinguishes an in-law suite from an accessory apartment i s that the former i s intended to provide housing to an el d e r l y r e l a t i v e of the owner of a single family home. Unlike 2 1Lauri McKay and Janet Lee, p. 3. 37 accessory apartments, in-law suites are l e g a l i n many communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia including Burnaby, Delta, North Vancouver City, North Vancouver D i s t r i c t , Port Moody, Surrey, Vancouver and West Vancouver. 2 2 However, zoning bylaws s t i p u l a t e c e r t a i n conditions which must be met for the in-law suite to remain l e g a l such as occupancy of the sui t e by a r e l a t i v e , maximum un i t s i z e and the percentage of space which may be taken by the unit, a d d i t i o n a l o f f -s t r e e t parking, compliance with building by-law standards, annual l i c e n s i n g , and r e g i s t r a t i o n of a covenant on t i t l e s t i p u l a t i n g removal of the suite once the r e l a t i v e vacates the s u i t e . 2 3 The Advantages and Disadvantages of In-law Suites The main advantage of the in-law suite i s the proximity between the e l d e r l y r e l a t i v e and his or her family. This proximity o f f e r s the e l d e r l y person security i n case of emergency, occasional or regular meals, transportation, housekeeping assistance and the benefits of being close to one's family. The disadvantages associated with an in-law suite include the lack of privacy which i s l i k e l y to be involved with l i v i n g i n the same house as one's family, and the p o s s i b i l i t y that the e l d e r l y r e l a t i v e may be c a l l e d upon to do chores for the family such as baby-sitting. C-eller and Associates, p. 17. 'Geller and Associates, p. 16. 38 Homesharing Homesharing i s a l i v i n g arrangement that i s formed when a homeowner opens up h i s or her home to one or more persons, unrelated to him- or herself, who want to share a dwelling unit. Each person has some private space and shares common areas such as the bathroom, kitchen, l i v i n g and dining rooms. Because homesharing requires the residents to co-habitate i n many areas of the home, homesharers must be w i l l i n g to accept some loss of privacy i n these common areas. There are two methods by which to enter a homesharing agreement: s e l f - i n i t i a t e d and agency-assisted homesharing. The most common form of homesharing i s s e l f - i n i t i a t e d homesharing which develops from an informal, private arrangement that i s negotiated by non-relatives who choose to l i v e together i n one dwelling. Agency-assisted homesharing, on the other hand, involves the use of a public or non-profit matching service, such as the Vancouver Homesharers Society, to help persons locate suitable house mates. The agency a s s i s t s homeowners and homeseekers who are unable to or are wary of i n i t i a t i n g a homesharing arrangement p r i v a t e l y . The agency o f f e r s c l i e n t s the convenience and security of having a t h i r d party screen, interview, and reference check p o t e n t i a l homesharers. There i s usually a fee for the service of matching c l i e n t s . Homesharing should not be confused with other l i v i n g arrangements that appear to be s i m i l a r to i t . Homesharing i s characterized by resident-ownership and a sense on the part of residents that they are p a r t i c i p a t i n g at a high l e v e l of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the management of the house. 2 4 Boarding homes, congregate housing, and Abbeyfield homes are therefore not included i n the category of homesharing because none of the tenants own the dwelling and there i s l i t t l e or no involvement on the part of the residents i n the management of the home.25 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Homesharing Homesharing i s currently a l e g a l a l t e r n a t i v e by which to share a home, although i t does not o f f e r the degree of privacy that accessory apartments would. Homesharing o f f e r s the e l d e r l y homeowner the advantages of economic help with housing costs, physical help with the care of the home and yard, companionship and security i n case of emergency due to the proximity of the other homesharer(s). A l t e r n a t i v e l y , an e l d e r l y person may choose to seek a homesharing arrangement i n someone else's home i n order to receive housing at a r e l a t i v e l y low cost and gain some companionship and security through the homesharing arrangement. One of the major disadvantages of homesharing has proven to be unreasonable expectations about the homesharing arrangement. For example, the e l d e r l y homeowner may expect the tenant to provide a 24Norman K. Blackie, "Alternative Housing and L i v i n g Arrangements for Independent L i v i n g , " Journal of Housing f o r the  El d e r l y 1 (Spring/Summer 1983), p. 79. 25Norman K. Blackie, "Shared Housing: P r i n c i p l e s and Pract i c e s , " Innovations i n Housing and L i v i n g Arrangements for  Seniors, ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. Blackie (Burnaby: Simon Fraser University, Gerontology Research Centre, 1984), p. 133. 40 greater degree of companionship, personal or health care than the tenant i s w i l l i n g to provide. Further, homesharers may not be prepared f o r the loss of privacy they w i l l encounter, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n common areas of the home. F i n a l l y , homesharers may simply f i n d that they are not compatible once they begin l i v i n g together. Homesharing requires a great deal of commitment to the arrangement by both p a r t i e s ; therefore, i t e s s e n t i a l that they both have s i m i l a r expectations regarding the arrangement p r i o r to moving i n together. The P o t e n t i a l f o r Homesharing The p o t e n t i a l for homesharing would seem to be great due to the high numbers of e l d e r l y who own t h e i r own homes and the fa c t that such a great majority of these homes are uncrowded.26 Three-quarters of the single family detached homes owned by e l d e r l y Canadians are two- or three-bedroom houses; 2 7 therefore, the p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s for a great number of these uncrowded homes to be shared by outsiders. Further, homesharing i s not prohibited by e x i s t i n g zoning bylaws i n Canadian m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Homesharing, however, i s not for everyone. The importance of privacy increases with age, and the "loss of privacy brought on by 2 6Kevin J . Eckert and Mary Ittman Murrey, "Alternative Modes of L i v i n g for the E l d e r l y , " E l d e r l y People and the Environment. Ed. Irwin Altman, M. Powell Lawton and Joachim F. Wohlhill, (New York: Plenum Press), p. 105. 2 7Fraser, 1982, i n Blackie, 1986, p. 4. 41 home-sharing may be i t s greatest l i a b i l i t y . " 2 8 Proper screening of c l i e n t s interested i n homesharing and a c l e a r explanation of the advantages and disadvantages of homesharing to ensure that homesharing i s the proper option for that person w i l l help to ensure that c l i e n t s are happy with the arrangement. Garden Suites Garden suites, also known as granny f l a t s , PLUS units (Portable L i v i n g Units for Seniors), or ECHO housing units (Elder Cottage Housing Opportunity) , are self-contained, detached dwelling units that are placed i n the rear or side yard of an e x i s t i n g sing l e family home for use by an e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l . Garden suites tend to be located on the property of the e l d e r l y tenant's r e l a t i v e s , usually an adult c h i l d of the e l d e r l y person, and are designed to ensure maximum privacy and independence of the e l d e r l y tenant while placing the e l d e r l y person i n close proximity to his or her r e l a t i v e s . A garden suite contains one or two bedrooms, a kitchen, l i v i n g room, and dining room, as well as storage space and laundry f a c i l i t i e s . The garden suite i s connected to the u t i l i t i e s of the primary dwelling. Ultimately, the opportunity may e x i s t for an e l d e r l y person who i s a property owner to place a garden s u i t e on the l o t of a s i n g l e family home which he or she owns and rent out the single family house to either h i s or her adult children and t h e i r family or to an unrelated family. In the United States, there are zoning 2 8Eckert and Murrey, p. 105. 42 ordinances i n some communities which allow the property owner to l i v e i n eithe r one of the dwellings on the property, although a family r e l a t i o n s h i p (by blood, adoption or marriage) i s often required. 2 9 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Garden Suites Garden suites o f f e r a va r i e t y of advantages to both the el d e r l y occupant of the suite and the host family. F i r s t , the garden suite features a b a r r i e r - f r e e design and ad a p t a b i l i t y of the unit for those i n a wheelchair, lower maintenance demands, security due to proximity, quick response from the host family i n the case of emergency, av a i l a b l e transportation, personal and health care, home care, and occasional meal preparation i f necessary. The advantages associated with permitting the e l d e r l y person to l i v e i n a garden suite on property he or she owns include the a b i l i t y to remain i n f a m i l i a r surroundings, maintain t i e s with old friends and community services, and maintain a f e e l i n g of independence as opposed to l i v i n g on the property of one's children. However, someone (perhaps the renter i n exchange for lower rent) may have to aid the e l d e r l y person i n maintenance of the primary home. Some of the disadvantages associated with garden suites include the smaller l i v i n g space of the unit, and the perceived 2 9Patrick H. Hare and Linda E. H o l l i s , ECHO Housing: A Review  of Zoning Issues and Other Considerations (Washington, D.C.: American Association of Retired Persons, 1983), p. 14. 43 loss of independence and privacy associated with l i v i n g on an adult c h i l d ' s property. The P o t e n t i a l f o r Garden Suites Garden suites are intended to serve a small sector of the el d e r l y population "that wish to l i v e independently i n the community, while receiving some degree of assistance from t h e i r family." 3 0 In 1987, CMHC, BCHMC and the Manufactured Home Association sponsored the manufacture of a demonstration garden suite which was exhibited throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. However, there are s t i l l no true examples of garden suites i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Zoning ordinances preclude the placement of garden suites anywhere except perhaps i n a g r i c u l t u r a l zones "where a second dwelling i s permitted with the intention of accommodating a farm labourer." 3 1 Before garden suites can be a viable housing option for the el d e r l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, several obstacles must be surmounted including the administration and cost effectiveness of garden suites, and the development of regulations which w i l l control occupancy of the units. As well, a system must be established that would not allow i n e r t i a to slow the placement and removal of garden su i t e s . I t i s also e s s e n t i a l that the e f f e c t of garden suites on 3 0David Spence, "Granny F l a t s : The Ontario Demonstration," Aging i n Place: Housing Adaptations and Options for Remaining i n  the Community, ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. Blackie (Burnaby: The Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, 1986), p. 38. 3 1 G e l l e r and Associates, p. 18. 44 the s i n g l e family community be considered so that problems associated with increased density, increased demand for services, and the impact on property values are dealt with p r i o r to the placement of such units i n the community. Abbeyfield Concept Housing The Abbeyfield Society i s an i n t e r n a t i o n a l , charitable organization which provides a supportive l i v i n g environment for lonely e l d e r l y persons whose present environment may negatively impact on t h e i r health and well-being. The members of the Abbeyfield Society are locally-based persons who volunteer t h e i r time and services to help create and manage housing that meets an unmet need: community-based housing for independent, healthy e l d e r l y persons who do not want to l i v e alone. Abbeyfield houses are the s i z e of large s i n g l e family detached homes and, i d e a l l y , are integrated into a single family r e s i d e n t i a l area. Preferably the new residents of an Abbeyfield house would have l i v e d i n the community before moving into the Abbeyfield house. This would allow these e l d e r l y persons to remain i n a f a m i l i a r environment close to old friends and well-known services. Occasionally, however, the l i n k between the community and the residents of t h i s Abbeyfield house may be the r e l a t i v e s of the residents. The housing provided by the Abbeyfield Society i s unique. I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y agency-sponsored shared housing i n that a l o c a l Abbeyfield society purchases or builds a dwelling unit, and then 45 interviews interested persons to determine who w i l l l i v e i n the home. The l o c a l society holds ultimate r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the maintenance and management of the home and arranges for housekeeping services for the e l d e r l y residents. In most cases, s i x to eight persons, usually women, l i v e as a family i n an Abbeyfield house. The members of the household each have t h e i r own bed - s i t t i n g room, sometimes including a sink and minor cooking f a c i l i t i e s , and bathroom. The be d - s i t t i n g room i s furnished by the resident with h i s or her own belongings, and the el d e r l y resident i s responsible for keeping t h i s area t i d y . The bed- s i t t i n g rooms are large enough for the e l d e r l y person to enjoy private moments or entertain guests should they desire to do so. The household members share the r e s t of the l i v i n g space and eat meals together. A l i v e - i n housemother prepares a l l the meals, maintains the common areas of the home and provides s o c i a l support to the residents. Each of the resident's rooms has an intercom i n i t to c a l l the housemother should aid be needed. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Abbeyfield Concept Housing Abbeyfield concept housing o f f e r s i t s residents a unique housing option where the residents have the benefits of both private l i v i n g space i n the bed-sitting rooms and communal space i n the common areas of the house. In addition, the residents have prepared meals, s o c i a l support, and help i n case of emergency with the a i d of the housemother. The disadvantages of Abbeyfield 46 concept housing include the problems associated with learning to l i v e with a number of other persons i n the same home. The P o t e n t i a l f o r Abbeyfield Housing Abbeyfield housing i s very popular i n B r i t i s h Columbia: the f i r s t Abbeyfield house was created i n Sidney on Vancouver Island i n May of 1987. By November of the same year the house had a waiting l i s t of 20 people f o r 9 spaces i n the home.32 There are now a number of Abbeyfield houses i n B r i t i s h Columbia including houses i n Oak Bay, a suburb of V i c t o r i a , Kelowna, and the recent a c q u i s i t i o n of a house fo r renovation by the l o c a l society i n Vancouver. The p o t e n t i a l for Abbeyfield housing i s dependent on the willingness of a community to create a l o c a l society and j o i n the national society, accumulate the necessary finances needed to b u i l d or buy a house, and gain a zoning amendment, i f necessary, for the s i t e . If l o c a l s o c i e t i e s are successful i n a t t a i n i n g f i n a n c i a l backing and zoning to allow for construction or possession of a house, they should not have any d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g residents from the l o c a l community who wish to l i v e i n an Abbeyfield home. Congregate Housing Congregate housing i s defined as a " r e s i d e n t i a l environment which incorporates shelter and services needed by f r a i l , but not i l l , e l d e r l y to maintain or return to a semi-independent l i f e s t y l e 3 2Jacquie Goodwin, St. Andrew's Abbeyfield Society, Sidney, B r i t i s h Columbia, Personal interview, 18 November 1987. 47 and to avoid premature i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n as they grow older." 3 3 Congregate housing combines aspects of independent l i v i n g and a sheltered environment. The resident usually l i v e s i n a s e l f -contained apartment with some cooking f a c i l i t i e s , and the housing project i s t y p i c a l l y patterned a f t e r a hotel rather than an i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t y . Congregate housing o f f e r s a v a r i e t y of services to the residents including at l e a s t one meal per day i n a common dining room, weekly housekeeping and linens. Other services which may be included are a c t i v i t i e s , preventative health care, transportation and counselling. Neither nursing care nor continuous s t a f f supervision of residents are offered i n a congregate housing project. In Canada, congregate housing i s usually located i n large, purpose-built f a c i l i t i e s ; however, i n smaller communities congregate housing could be located i n a large house i n a r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood. In t h i s case congregate housing would o f f e r a more l i m i t e d number of services such as meals, 24-hour security and housekeeping help to a group of f i v e to ten residents. Regardless of the s i z e of the project, congregate housing units should be situated so that the residents, even the f r a i l e l d e r l y , can remain an i n t e g r a l part of the community. Hence, i t should be located i n an area that i s not on the fringe of the community or 3 3 V i v i a n F. C a r l i n and Ruth Mansberg, If I Live to be 100 Congregate Housing for Later L i f e (New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1984), p. 4. 48 i s o l a t e d from services that e l d e r l y persons use frequently such as banks and stores. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Congregate Housing The advantages associated with congregate housing include the benefits of private space i n an apartment, combined with a var i e t y of on-site services. The major disadvantage of congregate housing i s cost: congregate housing, i s one of the most expensive housing a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e i n Canada.34 The P o t e n t i a l for Congregate Housing As our e l d e r l y population increases and continues to grow older, the p o t e n t i a l for s e r v i c e - r i c h housing w i l l also increase. This i s a r e l a t i v e l y untapped housing form i n Canada that i s only now beginning to gain momentum (e.g., Hollyburn House i n West Vancouver and Parkwood Manor i n Coquitlam). While the majority of new congregate housing units are large scale projects with at least one hundred tenants, i n a smaller community i t would be advantageous to integrate smaller congregate care homes i n single family neighbourhoods. Smaller congregate housing would help to ensure that the residents do not have a complete range of services on-site and therefore must sometimes leave the project f o r errands or entertainment. Thus, there would be a continuing r e l a t i o n s h i p between the congregate housing residents and the r e s t of the ^The costs associated with congregate housing w i l l be discussed more f u l l y i n Chapter 4. 49 community so that the e l d e r l y residents of congregate housing would remain an i n t e g r a l and v i t a l part of the community. 50 DEPENDENT LIVING Contrary to popular b e l i e f , most e l d e r l y persons i n B r i t i s h Columbians do not l i v e i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . In 1981, only about 8 percent of e l d e r l y B r i t i s h Columbians were residents of " c o l l e c t i v e dwellings" which are "defined by S t a t i s t i c s Canada as including nursing, chronic care and old age homes; ho s p i t a l s ; r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s ; hotels, motels, t o u r i s t homes, YM/YWCAs, etc." 3 5 A l l care f a c i l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia are licensed by the Ministry of Health Continuing Care Di v i s i o n , whether they are subsidized or privately-owned, non-profit or public f a c i l i t i e s . The l i c e n s i n g requirements, which have been created i n the i n t e r e s t of patient care, s t i p u l a t e that " f a c i l i t i e s must comply with minimum room, space, s t a f f i n g , and management requirements as set out i n the Community Care F a c i l i t y Act and Adult Care Regulations." 3 6 The v a r i e t y of services which are offered at care f a c i l i t i e s include meals, housekeeping, linens and laundry, personal and nursing care, r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and transportation. The average of a resident i s over 80 years of age; however, i t i s important to r e a l i z e that eight percent of a l l care f a c i l i t y patients are under 65 years of age. 3 7 Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 42. 'Geller and Associates, p. 30. G e l l e r and Associates, p. 31. 51 Personal Care Personal care i s "the type of care required by persons of any age whose physical d i s a b i l i t i e s are such that t h e i r primary need i s for room and board, l i m i t e d lay supervision, assistance with some of the a c t i v i t i e s of d a i l y l i v i n g and a planned program of s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . 1 , 3 8 Personal care i s also available for persons with mild mental disorders who need room and board and li m i t e d non-professional supervision within a supportive environment. F a c i l i t i e s which provide t h i s type of care have been c a l l e d Rest Homes or Boarding Homes, but the Departments of Health and Human Resources r e f e r to them as Personal Care Homes. Intermediate Care Intermediate care f a c i l i t i e s provide a l l of the services avail a b l e under personal care, as well as d a i l y professional nursing supervision and, for some, p s y c h i a t r i c supervision. A professional supervisor, such as a graduate nurse, must be i n charge of resident care on a d a i l y , rather than 24-hour, basis. Residents i n an intermediate care f a c i l i t y must be ambulatory, that i s , the resident i s not bed-ridden, or be able to use a wheelchair independently. Intermediate care has a mandate to care for persons aged 19 years or over who require these services. 3 8Centre for Continuing Education, Housing Information for  those Approaching Retirement. 4th ed. (Vancouver: Centre for Continuing Education, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, September 1986), p. 8. 52 There are three l e v e l s of intermediate care. Intermediate Care I "recognizes the i n d i v i d u a l who requires moderate assistance with the a c t i v i t i e s of d a i l y l i v i n g and minimal professional care and/or supervision." 3 9 Intermediate Care II i s intended for the in d i v i d u a l who has more complex care needs and requires add i t i o n a l professional care and/or supervision. Intermediate Care III prim a r i l y recognizes the i n d i v i d u a l who exhibits severe behavioral disturbances on a continuing basis and who presents a s i g n i f i c a n t management problem. This l e v e l of care also recognizes the i n d i v i d u a l who has very heavy care requirements and therefore demands s i g n i f i c a n t s t a f f time to manage. As a r e s u l t , Intermediate Care III requires considerable supervision and/or assistance under the d i r e c t i o n of a health care professional. Extended Care Extended care f a c i l i t i e s are designed f o r persons with a severe chronic d i s a b i l i t y who require 24-hour a day professional nursing services and continuous medical supervision. In order to be e l i g i b l e f or t h i s type of care, the i n d i v i d u a l w i l l require regular and continuing medical supervision and professional nursing care beyond that ava i l a b l e i n an intermediate care f a c i l i t y . The i n d i v i d u a l may or may not be independently mobile. The i n d i v i d u a l would not require a l l the services ava i l a b l e i n an acute care h o s p i t a l . 39Jeremy Tate, Long Term Care F a c i l i t i e s : Overview and Trends. U.B.C. Presentation, October 29, 1987. 53 The Future of Care F a c i l i t i e s E f f o r t s to reduce the rate of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n among our el d e r l y population have been under way for several years i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Consequently, government p o l i c y r e s t r i c t e d the r e f e r r a l of new c l i e n t s at the personal care l e v e l to an exception basis only. As a r e s u l t , there w i l l not be any new subsidized Personal Care f a c i l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This p o l i c y was recently expanded to include c l i e n t s at the Intermediate Care I l e v e l as we l l . 4 0 The trend to the d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of the e l d e r l y must continue f o r three reasons. F i r s t , the cost of i n s t i t u t i o n a l care i s very high compared to other l i v i n g arrangements which provide services to those e l d e r l y who do not require f u l l - t i m e care. For example, while the cost of care i n an intermediate care f a c i l i t y i n Terrace i s $90 a day, the cost of housing i n a supported housing project would be $20 to $22 a day. 4 1 Second, the growing e l d e r l y population, p a r t i c u l a r l y those 75 years of age and over, w i l l demand a greater amount of i n s t i t u t i o n a l space i n the future. Third, the increasing a v a i l a b i l i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e l i v i n g arrangements f o r e l d e r l y persons w i l l appeal to many e l d e r l y persons who may now be using beds i n i n s t i t u t i o n s due to lack of suita b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s when they entered the i n s t i t u t i o n . In time, those i n d i v i d u a l s who currently reside i n care f a c i l i t i e s 4 0 G e l l e r and Associates, p. 31. 4 1"Housing Bid Made Today," Terrace Standard 28 February 1990, n.p. 54 throughout B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l have a l t e r n a t i v e l i v i n g arrangements that w i l l be better suited to t h e i r needs while r e l i e v i n g the e x i s t i n g demand for beds i n care f a c i l i t i e s . 55 CHAPTER 3 PROFILE OF THE CITY OF TERRACE, BRITISH COLUMBIA The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to develop a p r o f i l e of the Ci t y of Terrace i n order to prepare a strategy f o r housing for the el d e r l y i n the C i t y of Terrace. The information assembled i n t h i s chapter w i l l be divided into four sections: (1) the current and projected e l d e r l y population of the City of Terrace over the next 20 years, (2) a de t a i l e d inventory of e x i s t i n g housing intended for e l d e r l y Terrace residents, (3) an inventory of e x i s t i n g services intended for e l d e r l y Terrace residents, and (4) an inventory of ex i s t i n g services i n the City of Terrace that are used by seniors, but not exclusi v e l y intended for seniors. CURRENT AND PROJECTED POPULATION OP THE CITY OF TERRACE The C i t y of Terrace had a t o t a l population of 10,532 persons i n 1986.1 The population of Terrace has remained r e l a t i v e l y stable over the l a s t two decades ranging from a low of 9,991 persons i n 1971 to a high of 10,914 persons i n 1981. When the population l i v i n g outside of the incorporated area of Terrace but within the r u r a l and urban area surrounding the Ci t y i s considered, the population increased from 13,229 persons i n 1971 to an estimated 18,450 persons i n 1987.2 B r i t i s h Columbia 1986 Census. Terrace. New Aiyansh. Hazelton.  Prince Rupert. Smithers. Kitimat. Charlottes. Stewart. Houston, p. 1. 2 C i t y of Terrace, Terrace . . . As a Matter of Fact (Terrace, Terrace Planning and Economic Development Department, 1988) p. 5. 57 In 1986, there were 505 persons 65 years of age and over i n the C i t y of Terrace. These persons accounted f o r 4.8 percent of the t o t a l population of the Ci t y of Terrace. 3 The number of persons 65 years of age and over l i v i n g within the urban and r u r a l area was estimated to be 735 persons i n 1986, 4.2 percent of the population. 4 Terrace has a population of more than 10,000 persons; therefore, i t can be c l a s s i f i e d as a small urban centre. 5 However, the population age d i s t r i b u t i o n does not r e f l e c t that of other small c i t i e s i n Canada. When Terrace i s compared to other small c i t i e s i n Canada with populations between 10,000 and 29,999 persons, i t i s cl e a r that Terrace has a much lower percentage of el d e r l y persons i n i t s population than do other small Canadian c i t i e s . The average percentage of persons aged 65 and over i n small c i t i e s i s 11.4 percent while i n Terrace the percentage of residents who are 65 and over i s about h a l f the average, at 4.8 percent of the t o t a l population. S i m i l a r l y , the average percentage of persons 75 years of age and over i n small c i t i e s i n Canada i s 4.7 percent, while i n Terrace i t i s 2.5 percent. 6 The population age d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the C i t y of Terrace 3 B r i t i s h Columbia 1986 Census. p. 1. 4Taylor, p. 3 . 5A small urban centre i s defined by Gerald Hodge as being between 10,000 and 99,999 populaation i n The El d e r l y i n Small  Towns: Recent Trends and Their Implications. Human Settlement Issues, Occasional Papers No. 43 (Vancouver, The Centre For Human Settlements, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987) p. 15. "Tlodge, "The Seniors' Surge: Why Planners Should Care," p. 7. 58 a c t u a l l y r e f l e c t s that of a small, i s o l a t e d resource-based community rather than that of an average small c i t y i n s p i t e of the fa c t that the economy of Terrace has d i v e r s i f i e d to include primary, manufacturing, service, trade and public administration employment.7 Table 3 1986 Population of the City of Terrace By Age and Sex Total Population: 10,532 Age Number of Persons Percentage of Population 0 - 4 900 8.5 5 - 9 915 8.7 10 - 14 985 9.4 15 - 19 1, 060 10.1 20 - 24 870 8.3 25 - 34 1,860 17.7 35 - 44 1, 690 16.0 45 - 54 1,060 10.1 55 - 64 685 6.5 65 - 74 330 3.1 75 years and over 175 1.7 Persons i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g 77 .7 7Terrace . . . As a Matter of Fact, p. 9. 59 Table 4 1986 Population of the City of Terrace By Age, Male Population Total Population: 5,045 Age Number of Persons Percentage of Population 0 - 4 465 4.4 5 - 9 475 4.5 10 - 14 525 5.0 15 - 19 545 5.2 20 - 24 430 4.1 25 - 34 920 8.7 35 - 44 850 8.1 45 - 54 550 5.2 55 - 64 375 3.6 65 - 74 180 1.7 75 years and over 85 .8 Table 5 1986 Population of the Ci t y of Terrace By Age, Female Population Total Population: 5,140 Age Number of Persons Percentage of Population 0 - 4 435 4.1 5 - 9 440 4.2 10 - 14 460 4.4 15 - 19 515 4.9 20 - 24 440 4.2 25 - 34 940 8.9 35 - 44 840 8.0 45 - 54 510 4.8 55 - 64 310 2.9 65 - 74 150 1.4 75 years and over 90 .9 8 'British Columbia 1986 Census. p. 1. 60 Table 6 1986 Population of the Ci t y of Terrace and Surrounding Area Total Estimated Population: 17,380 Age Number of Persons Percentage of Population 0 - 4 1, 620 9.3 5 - 9 1,560 9.0 10 - 14 1,605 9.2 15 - 19 1,660 9.6 20 - 24 1,420 8.2 25 - 34 3,185 18.3 35 - 44 2,865 16.5 45 - 54 1,665 9.6 55 - 64 1,085 6.2 65 - 74 500 2.9 75 years and over 235 1.4 This data includes the City of Terrace, T h o r n h i l l , adjacent reserves and surrounding less developed areas based upon Skeena Health Unit s t a t i s t i c s . 9 The C i t y of Terrace i s the regional service centre for many smaller communities i n northwestern B r i t i s h Columbia. For that reason, the population within the entire region w i l l be considered to e s t a b l i s h demands that w i l l be made on Terrace by surrounding communities. In an attempt to provide accurate population projections f o r the Ci t y of Terrace and surrounding areas, information produced by the Central S t a t i s t i c s Bureau f o r the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be considered. The Central S t a t i s t i c s Bureau divides the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia into segments c a l l e d "small areas", which are Local Health 9Shelley Taylor, R.N. Discussion Paper Relating to Evolving  Needs of El d e r l y & Special Needs People i n the Terrace Service  Basin. 1989, p. 3. 61 Areas, f o r which population projections are then composed. Terrace i s located i n Local Health Area 88 which also includes outlying areas such as Cedarvale, Kitwanga, Hazelton, Stewart, and Th o r n h i l l , a suburb of Terrace (figure 1). I t should be noted that Local Health Area 88 surrounds Local Health Area 92. The l a t t e r includes many settlements i n the Nass Valley such as Aiyansh, Greenville, and Canyon City which t r e a t Terrace as a service centre and may also make use of the housing and services a v a i l a b l e to seniors i n Terrace. Consequently, the population projections which are calculated by the Central S t a t i s t i c s Bureau w i l l r e f l e c t a d d i t i o n a l demands that w i l l be made on the Ci t y of Terrace by seniors i n surrounding communities today and i n the future. 62 figure 1: Local Health Areas 88 and 92 63 B r i t i s h Columbia small area population projections produced by the Central S t a t i s t i c s Bureau are based upon the "Component/Cohort-Surv i v a l " population model i n conjunction with area s p e c i f i c assumptions chosen by the Central S t a t i s t i c s Bureau that deal with f e r t i l i t y , mortality and migration. The component/cohort-survival model requires that separate forecasts of f e r t i l i t y , mortality and migration are undertaken, then, with t h i s information and a base year age-specific estimate of population, a projection f o r any subsequent year i s made by promoting each age group i n the preceding year to the next highest age group, while at the same time taking into account the e f f e c t s of net migration, deaths and/or b i r t h s . 1 0 The assumptions which are made i n forecasting f e r t i l i t y , m ortality and migration are based on past conditions which are revised wherever possible to r e f l e c t p o t e n t i a l changes i n the future. As a r e s u l t , the population projections are not predictions of what w i l l be, but of what could be, given the r e a l i z a t i o n of the assumptions chosen by the forecaster. Some of the factors which could a f f e c t future population projections are economic development patterns, government p o l i c y , land use and zoning. 1 1 On the basis of the P.E.O.P.L.E. population projections, the t o t a l population for Local Health Area 88 i n 1991 i s estimated to be 26,531 persons. Of that number, i t i s estimated that 1,322 or 10P.E.O.P.L.E.: Population Extrapolation For Organizational  Planning With Less Error. Population Section, Central S t a t i s t i c s Bureau, Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations, Government of B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia: Queen's Printer, March 31, 1989), p. 1. "P.E.O.P.L.E.. p. 1. 64 5 percent of the t o t a l population of Local Health Area 88 are 65 years of age or over. 1 2 Table 7 indicates population projections for the p o t e n t i a l senior's population within Local Health Area 88 through to the year 2010. 12P.E.0.P.L.E. . n.p. 65 Table 7 Population of Local Health Area 88 Over 45 Years of Age Year 45-54 55-64 65-74 75-84 85-+ Total 65+ 1988 2,511 1, 608 749 283 81 1,113 1990 2,553 1, 609 872 319 82 1,273 1995 3,401 1, 964 1, 071 389 105 1, 565 2000 4,069 2,360 1,304 499 118 1,921 2005 4,527 3,031 1,475 618 151 2,244 2010 5,048 3,709 1,806 826 192 2,824 Source: P.E.O.P.L.E.f Central S t a t i s t i c s Bureau, 1989, n.p. 66 c W-_E1 to O 1 Twin Rivers Estates 2 The Willows 3 Tuck Avenue Apartments 4 Terraceview Lodge 5 TDCSS 6 Happy Gang Centre 7 Emerson Medical C l i n i c 8 The Medical C l i n i c 9 M i l l s Memorial Hospital 10 Pharmacies 11 Skeena Mall 12 Terrace Shopping Centre 13 Library 14 Recreation Centre 15 Northwest Community College f i g u r e 2: C i t y of Terrace Indicating Housing and Services Used by Seniors 67 EXISTING HOUSING USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS The v a r i e t y of housing ava i l a b l e to e l d e r l y Terrace residents includes s i x housing options which f a c i l i t a t e independent l i v i n g : s i n g l e family dwellings, mobile homes, r e n t a l apartments, condominiums, and non-profit senior's housing. There are three options f o r those seniors who desire a supported independent l i f e s t y l e : support services i n the community, including personal care i n the home, accessory apartments and in-law su i t e s . Those seniors who must l i v e i n a dependent l i v i n g arrangement reside i n an intermediate and extended care f a c i l i t y i n Terrace. What w i l l follow i s a catalogue and description of the housing options and l i v i n g arrangements that are currently a v a i l a b l e i n the C i t y of Terrace. However, the options of sing l e family dwellings, accessory apartments, mobile homes and r e n t a l apartments w i l l not be discussed. The range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for the e l d e r l y which are not available i n Terrace include a matching service to f a c i l i t a t e homesharing, garden suites, Abbeyfield concept housing, and congregate care housing. A l l of these options would f a c i l i t a t e a supported independent l i f e s t y l e . Condominiums Twin River Estates: Eventual t o t a l of 84 units Twin River Estates i s a condominium project for persons over 55 years of age; i t i s the only condominium project i n Terrace exclu s i v e l y intended for seniors. The idea was i n i t i a t e d by an 68 e l d e r l y gentleman who l i v e d i n a s i m i l a r condominium project i n Abbotsford, B r i t i s h Columbia. The Skeena Senior C i t i z e n s Housing Society, which i s a group of e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s i n the community, then launched and sponsored the plans for the condominium project. The property, located at the corner of Apsley and Lakelse (see figure 2), was acquired March 31, 1989 and construction began i n the summer of 1989. Financing was arranged from New Westminster Credit Union, and addit i o n a l funding was gained from BCHMC and the Skeena Senior C i t i z e n s Housing Society. The cost of the f i r s t phase was $1,400,000. The f i r s t phase, which included 30 units, was completed i n the f a l l of 1989. The second phase, which also included 30 units, was completed i n the f a l l of 1990. The t h i r d phase, comprised of 24 units, i s now under construction. The cost of units i n the f i r s t phase of the project were $50,500 f o r a standard unit (93 0 square feet) and $60,500 for a deluxe unit (1170 square feet) i n the summer of 1989. A $6000 deposit was required to secure a unit and a $2000 i n t e r e s t bearing loan which would be payable upon completion of the second phase was also required. I f a person was not s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r condominium, there was a buy-back arrangement which allowed one to receive a refund of the o r i g i n a l purchase p r i c e . Units i n the t h i r d phase are for sale now, although tenants w i l l not be able to move i n u n t i l they are completed. I t i s estimated that the cost of a unit i n Phase Three w i l l be about $10,000 higher than a comparable unit cost i n Phase One i n the summer of 1990. Presently, a standard unit (930 square feet) i n Phase Three w i l l cost $61,500 and a deluxe uni t (1170 square feet) w i l l cost $71,500. Residents of the condominium would be responsible for acquiring appliances, draperies, cable t e l e v i s i o n , telephones, and insurance on the contents of the unit . Further, residents are required to pay a monthly service fee to cover the costs of property taxes, e l e c t r i c i t y (heat and power), u t i l i t i e s (water, sewer and garbage pick-up), outside maintenance and snow removal, and insurance on the buildings. There are a v a r i e t y of features included i n the condominium including sound-deadening construction, a covered patio or balcony, carport space, a rear yard with space for a small vegetable garden, smoke detectors, an outside intercom, and access to a large multi-purpose b u i l d i n g f o r family gatherings, r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and storage. There are two major weaknesses r e l a t i n g to design and location of Twin River Estates. F i r s t , the en t i r e development, which i s composed of a number of buildings, i s two storeys high, with one unit stacked on another at ground l e v e l . The design of the structure i s l i k e l y to pose some problems i n the future. For example, the resident of the upper l e v e l must use s t a i r s to get to h i s or her unit: these s t a i r s are l i k e l y to become a problem as the residents age, or sooner i f an accident occurs which renders the resident incapable of using s t a i r s on a d a i l y basis (e.g. hip problems, a r t h r i t i s or wheelchair use). I t would have been preferable f o r the en t i r e project to be one storey high so that none of the residents would have to use s t a i r s or for the project to be at lea s t three storeys high so that an elevator could be i n s t a l l e d . Another option could have been to have part of the project i n the m u l t i - l e v e l apartment s t y l e design and part of the project as row houses. This would have given residents a greater option i n the s t y l e of condominium they wanted, as well as ensuring that a l l residents would have access to t h e i r home without requ i r i n g the use of s t a i r s . Second, Twin River Estates i s inappropriately located i n regard to access to services: the project i s at least f i v e blocks from shops and services which w i l l place residents who no longer drive i n the p o s i t i o n where they cannot access the services they require. O r i g i n a l l y bus service did not pass near the project, but t h i s problem has recently been remedied with the re-routing of a bus to pass by the development. Nevertheless, as the residents of the development age, i t i s l i k e l y that the new handyDART bus service w i l l become indispensible to the residents of t h i s project. Non-Profit Senior's Housing The Willows: Total of 38 units The Willows, located on Kalum Street (see figure 2) , are subsidized r e n t a l apartments for persons over the age of 55 years who require low-income housing. The apartment i s owned and managed by BCHMC. Consequently, rents are geared to income so that the residents w i l l pay no more than 30 percent of t h e i r income for rent. There are both bachelor and one-bedroom apartments i n the b u i l d i n g . The apartment building i s three storeys high and i s equipped with an elevator and several wheelchair access ramps which f a c i l i t a t e mobility for those who use wheelchairs or have some d i f f i c u l t y walking. There i s currently a waiting l i s t of 20 persons to get into the project. The Willows i s well located within one block of recreation f a c i l i t i e s and the l i b r a r y and within walking distance of many shops and services. Further, the residents have easy access to bus service with a bus stop immediately outside of the b u i l d i n g . The Tuck Avenue Apartments: Total of 18 units The Tuck Avenue Apartments on Tuck Avenue (see figure 2) are composed of 18 one storey row houses. The units were constructed s p e c i f i c a l l y for senior c i t i z e n s i n the early 1960's with the aid of government funding. There are four one-bedroom units and fourteen bachelor units . There i s also an area at the apartments which houses a l i b r a r y and games room. The rent charged for the units i s $125.00 for a bachelor suite and $150.00 for a one-bedroom su i t e . There i s currently a waiting l i s t to get into these apartments. The owner of the apartments i s the Terrace and D i s t r i c t C h r i s t i a n Council of S o c i a l Resources (TDCCSR) which has members from several of the churches i n the C i t y . The Terrace and D i s t r i c t C h r i s t i a n Council of Social Services also owns a receiving house and a teen home i n Terrace. Each of the three developments has a 72 chairman from TDCCSR who oversees the management of each development. 1 3 The tenants at the apartments appreciate the f a c t that the apartments are a l l one l e v e l . However, they do not l i k e the predominance of bachelor suites and, l i k e the residents at the Willows, would l i k e to see more one-bedroom units b u i l t for seniors i n the future. One of the major weaknesses of the Tuck Avenue Apartments i s loc a t i o n . This project i s located eleven blocks north of the centre of the C i t y . As a r e s u l t , the apartments are not within walking distance of shops and services. There i s , however, a bus stop adjacent to the apartments which the tenants who do not drive may use to get to shops and services i n the centre of the Cit y . Again, i t i s l i k e l y that handyDART w i l l be used by the residents of t h i s apartment complex. Intermediate and Extended Care Terraceview Lodge: Total of 75 beds Terraceview Lodge, located at 4103 Sparks Street (see figure 2) , i s an intermediate and extended care f a c i l i t y which i s operated under the Continuing Care D i v i s i o n of the Ministry of Health. The Lodge i s managed by the Terrace Health Care Society, a non-profit society that also owns and manages M i l l s Memorial Hospital i n Terrace. The Lodge, which i s situated on a s i x acre l o t on a bench 1 3 C l i f f Best, Chairman of the Tuck Avenue Apartments, Telephone Conversation, 24 July, 1990. 73 overlooking downtown Terrace and the v a l l e y beyond, opened i n 1984 with an i n i t i a l population of 56 intermediate care residents. The Lodge was expanded i n 1989 to include 20 extended care beds. Today, there are 75 e l d e r l y or disabled residents i n the f a c i l i t y , 20 of whom require extended care services. The average age of the residents i s 89 years, although the ages of the residents range from 32 to 98 years. Currently, the f a c i l i t y i s running at f u l l occupancy and there i s a waiting l i s t of 8 persons. There are a va r i e t y of services a v a i l a b l e at the Lodge including physician services, pharmaceutical services, 24-hour nursing care services, laundry and housekeeping services, volunteer and pastoral care services, banking services (to a l i m i t of $175.00), t r u s t accounts, and li m i t e d lab and transportation services. Services which are not availa b l e at the Lodge are acute care medical treatment, acute p s y c h i a t r i c treatment, extensive r e h a b i l i t a t i v e therapy, day care, and physiotherapy services. Family meetings, with the residents' fa m i l i e s , are held on a monthly basis "to ensure that there i s an opportunity to share ideas and express concerns of mutual i n t e r e s t . " 1 4 There are also services within the Lodge that are avail a b l e to members of the community including one respi t e care room, with one bed, which provides r e s i d e n t i a l care for a b r i e f , temporary period, such as when the normal caregiver goes on vacation, equipment use, such as , the use of the Century bathing tub which has a hydraulic l i f t to r a i s e persons into and out of the tub. 1 4Terraceview Lodge Informational Booklet, n.d., n.p. 74 F i n a l l y , there i s a Residents' Consultation Committee which consists of members appointed by the Board of the Terrace Health Care Society and the residents of the Lodge. The committee i s intended "to act as a l i a i s o n group between the Board, the administrative s t a f f of the f a c i l i t y and the residents, for the purposes of discussing matters of an administrative nature which may require attention. 1 1 1 5 The administrative s t a f f of Terraceview Lodge are also involved i n the development of a "community-based model of care which w i l l incorporate services to the e l d e r l y and disabled at large." 1 6 I t i s estimated that there are 15 residents i n the Lodge who would not be there i f there were a supportive housing a l t e r n a t i v e to meet t h e i r needs. In pursuit of t h i s goal, plans are under way to develop a sheltered housing complex on the same s i t e as the Lodge. This development would include 40 sheltered housing units which would range from one bedroom to four bedroom units. The plan i s currently being considered by the P r o v i n c i a l government for funding approval. 1 7 Terraceview Lodge i s three kilometres from the core of the Cit y . The residents have lim i t e d access to a van and dri v e r which i s used f o r transportation. There i s also a bus stop very close to 1 5Terraceview Lodge Informational Booklet. 1 6Terraceview Lodge Informational Booklet. 1 7Michael Leisinger, Chief Executive O f f i c e r , Terrace Health Care Society, Personal interview, 9 July, 1990. Lutz Associates, Terrace Health Care Society Supportive  Housing Program. 21 March, 1990. 75 the Lodge, which may a l l e v i a t e the problems associated with being such a distance from the City centre for those residents who can use public transportation. Ideally, the Lodge would have been located close enough to services and shopping i n the C i t y centre that residents could walk. However, the access to buses and the fac t that the weather would preclude many of the residents from walking to services i n the winter months may help to lessen the sense of i s o l a t i o n that residents may experience at the Lodge. 76 EXISTING SERVICES USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS Support Services fo r those L i v i ng i n the Community Terrace and D i s t r i c t Community Services Society Terrace and D i s t r i c t Community Services Society (TDCSS), which began i n 1974 with the help of a Local Improvement Project grant, o f f e r s s o c i a l and health programs for residents of a l l ages within the Skeena Health Unit d i s t r i c t . Located at C i t y H a l l , 3215 Eby Street (see figur e 2) , a wide range of programs are offered by TDCSS including Northwest Alcohol and Drug Counselling Service, Mother's Time Off, Special Services to Children, the Youth Worker Program, the Choices Program which o f f e r s services to mentally handicapped childr e n and adults, and Terrace Home Support Services. Terrace Home Support Services i s the program which i s of most value to e l d e r l y and handicapped Terrace residents. In order to receive any of the services provided by Terrace Home Support Services, a prospective c l i e n t must c a l l the Continuing Care D i v i s i o n of the Ministry of Health to arrange for an assessor to come into t h e i r home and evaluate the l e v e l of service they require. At t h i s time the assessor would also consider the po t e n t i a l c l i e n t ' s income and decide how much the c l i e n t would be charged f o r the services they require from Home Support Services. There are a va r i e t y of programs offered within Terrace Home Support Services including household care, personal assistance, and adult r e s p i t e care. Household care involves a home support worker coming into the c l i e n t ' s home on a regular basis and doing household chores such as cleaning, laundry, meal preparation and 77 shopping f o r the c l i e n t who i s unable to do so h i s - or hers e l f . Personal assistance i s provided for c l i e n t s who require help with such a c t i v i t i e s as bathing, shaving, dressing, t r a n s f e r r i n g into and out of bed or into a wheelchair each day, putting on or dealing with a prosthesis, and/or planning and preparing s p e c i a l d i e t s . As a guide, a c l i e n t requiring personal assistance would require no more than 20 hours per month of care. Adult r e s p i t e care i s intended to provide temporary r e l i e f f or the primary caregiver of an e l d e r l y or handicapped person. In t h i s case an employee of Home Support Services would go into the c l i e n t ' s home f o r two or three hours a couple of times a week to give the primary caregiver time o f f . The number of times a c l i e n t may be v i s i t e d range from once a week to once or twice d a i l y . About 100 persons, 80 of whom are eld e r l y , are serviced by these programs. Meals-on-Wheels Meals-on-wheels i s c a r r i e d out on a volunteer basis, and meals are delivered on Monday, Wednesday and Thursday. The c l i e n t may choose to have several meals delivered at one time so that he or she w i l l have a prepared meal every day. The meals, which cost $3.00 each, are prepared at the Terraceview Lodge and consist of soup, salad, a main course and dessert. handyDART HandyDART i s door to door transportation f o r p h y s i c a l l y or 78 mentally disabled persons who are unable to use the conventional bus service. Terrace recently acquired a handyDART vehicle and transportation services commenced on July 3, 1990. The service i s a v a i l a b l e Monday to Friday from 8:45 a.m. to 5:50 p.m. and Saturday from 10:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. The cost of the service i s $1.00 per r i d e . Any person who wants to use the handyDART service i s requested to r e g i s t e r , free of charge, for the service. Then, when that person wishes to use the service he or she must telephone the dispatch o f f i c e ahead of time, preferably giving one day's notice, to have the handyDART vehicle pick them up. When booking f o r the handyDART service, one may choose to book only once fo r regular t r i p s , such as transportation to work or regular appointments, or one may choose to book each time transportation i s required for occasional t r i p s . I f an attendant i s required to help someone make a t r i p , that attendant would t r a v e l free of charge. If one chooses to t r a v e l with an escort, that person may t r a v e l on the handyDART bus, space permitting, by paying regular fare. 1 8 The Happy Gang Centre for Seniors The Happy Gang Centre, which celebrated i t s tenth anniversary on September 13th, 1990, i s a meeting place f o r many e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s i n the community. The Centre i s c e n t r a l l y located at 3226 Kalum Street (see figure 2) . The Happy Gang Centre was 18BC Transit Pamphlet, Terrace handyDART: Door-to-door rides  for disabled people,, n.d. 79 i n i t i a t e d , b u i l t , and i s now run by B r i t i s h Columbia Old Age Pensioners' Organization Branch #73, Terrace B.C.19 The land on which The Happy Gang Centre i s located i s owned by the C i t y of Terrace. I t i s estimated that there are over 200 members of t h i s organization, some of whom are over 90 years of age. A v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s take place at the centre including cribbage, bingo, carpet bowling and exercise classes. A seniors' councellor i s av a i l a b l e to discuss a v a r i e t y of matters once a week. A lunch including soup, sandwiches and desert i s available, for a nominal fee, from Monday to Friday. On the f i r s t Saturday of each month a pancake breakfast, prepared by the men, i s offered for a nominal fee as well. The Happy Gang Centre also o f f e r s seniors a dinner or pot-luck supper followed by dancing or other entertainment once a month. 1 9 B r i t i s h Columbia Old Age Pensioners' Organization Branch #73, Terrace, Happy Gang News, Vol. 3 # 2, March 1990. 80 OTHER SERVICES USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS H e a l t h Care S e r v i c e s There are three pharmacies i n Terrace (see figure 2), one of which o f f e r s an extensive range of aids and devices intended to make l i f e easier for handicapped or el d e r l y persons. There are two opticians, one physiotherapist, nine dentists, and seventeen doctors (seven of whom are located at the Emerson Medical C l i n i c and s i x of whom are located at The Medical C l i n i c , see figure 2). A l l of the o f f i c e s of these medical professionals are located within three blocks of one another i n the c i t y centre. Occasionally, s p e c i a l i s t s come to Terrace to meet with i n d i v i d u a l s who have p a r t i c u l a r medical problems. M i l l s Memorial Hospital i s located at 4720 Haugland i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area south of Highway 16 (see fig u r e 2); therefore, i t i s not within walking distance of the c i t y centre f o r most e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s . Shops and S e r v i c e s The majority of shops and services i n Terrace are located i n a three block long by four block wide corridor which i s bounded by Eby Street to the west, Kalum Street to the east, Park Avenue to the north and Greig Avenue to the south. Within t h i s area there are two shopping malls (the Skeena Mall which i s an indoor mall and Terrace Shopping Centre which i s not t e c h n i c a l l y an indoor mall but has access to a l l the stores from inside the f a c i l i t y , see figure 2) , a large number of in d i v i d u a l stores and shops which o f f e r a multitude of goods and services, s i x banks, a wide v a r i e t y of 81 restaurants and coffee shops, a two-cinema movie theatre, a community l i b r a r y and community recre a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s including a pool, skating rink, tennis courts and a range of community courses f o r a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t s . Access to Services There are a number of bus routes and the handyDART service i n Terrace and the neighbouring community of T h o r n h i l l that a l l convene at the Skeena Mall i n the centre of town. There i s also cab service i n Terrace. There are sidewalks throughout the downtown area; although some are i n need of repair i n order to be safe f o r e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s who may have sight and walking d i f f i c u l t i e s . The majority of stores and services are accessible to wheelchairs; unfortunately, one large department store i n the Terrace Shopping Centre, Woolworth's, i s two l e v e l s and does not have an elevator or escalator: only s t a i r s which are an insurmountable obstacle to many e l d e r l y and handicapped persons i n town. Nevertheless, the City of Terrace i s very supportive of i t s e l d e r l y and handicapped population and makes every attempt to f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r mobility i n the Ci t y . 82 CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUUM OF HOUSING OPTIONS AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CITY OF TERRACE In the l a s t chapter an inventory of e x i s t i n g housing options, l i v i n g arrangements and services intended for seniors i n the C i t y of Terrace was compiled. This research serves double duty: i t not only i d e n t i f i e s i f and where housing options and services e x i s t , but i t also helps to ascertain what additions to the housing stock i n Terrace would be necessary to o f f e r a f u l l range of housing options to e l d e r l y Terrace residents. For example, seniors i n Terrace have a wide range of independent l i v i n g housing options and l i v i n g arrangements to choose from, including r e n t a l and seniors' apartments and condominiums, and a dependent l i v i n g housing option at Terraceview Lodge; however, there i s very l i t t l e to f a c i l i t a t e supported independent l i v i n g i n the C i t y of Terrace. Consequently, while t h i s study w i l l investigate the f e a s i b i l i t y of a l l of the housing options and l i v i n g arrangements examined i n the second chapter, i t i s cl e a r that emphasis must be placed on f a c i l i t a t i n g and encouraging the development of a range of supported independent housing options and l i v i n g arrangments for seniors i n the C i t y of Terrace. In t h i s chapter, each of the independent, supported independent, and dependent housing options and l i v i n g arrangements examined i n the second chapter w i l l be analysed to determine t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y i n the City of Terrace. This f e a s i b i l i t y study w i l l be based on two factors: the f i n a n c i a l considerations and the l o c a t i o n a l requirements of each housing option. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of each housing option and l i v i n g u arrangement to the resident and the community, previously examined i n the second chapter, w i l l be considered. Ultimately, a suitable mix of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements f o r the community w i l l be proposed and ranked, i n terms of immediate or future f e a s i b i l i t y , so as to f a c i l i t a t e the development of housing for seniors i n the Cit y . In addition, the r o l e the C i t y of Terrace can play i n encouraging and f a c i l i t a t i n g the development of a range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements f o r seniors throughout the community w i l l be discussed. At t h i s time, i t i s important to note the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s work. The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to y i e l d a community-wide plan for the development of a range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements i n the City of Terrace. The findings w i l l recommend which housing options and l i v i n g arrangements would be most f e a s i b l e immediately and i n the future based upon the factors examined herein. These factors are not, however, s u f f i c i e n t to e s t a b l i s h whether or not a p a r t i c u l a r project would be f e a s i b l e : that would require that a project market survey and development strategy be undertaken once an option was selected for development so as to e s t a b l i s h the f e a s i b i l i t y of that project. 85 FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS Predicably, the costs involved i n the development of each of the housing options and l i v i n g arrangements i d e n t i f i e d i n the second chapter w i l l vary widely. Because i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to predict the exact cost of a p a r t i c u l a r option before a development plan for a project i s created, the f i n a n c i a l investment required for many of these options w i l l be based upon previous developments and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of government funding for p a r t i c u l a r types of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements. S i n g l e F a m i l y Detached D w e l l i n g s The majority of e l d e r l y Canadians l i v e i n , and own outright, sing l e family homes. Although t h i s information i s not avail a b l e for seniors i n the Ci t y of Terrace, i t i s l i k e l y that the majority of e l d e r l y Terrace residents also l i v e i n and own single family homes. This information can be gleaned from the f a c t that the majority of households i n Terrace, regardless of age, l i v e i n single detached homes: 2,335 of 3,175 units. Further, the majority of the population own t h e i r accommodation: 68.7 percent of private dwellings are owned and 31.3 percent rented. 1 If the purchase of a new home i n the Ci t y of Terrrace were considered today, one could expect to pay an average p r i c e of $110,000.2 'Terrace . . . As A Matter of Fact, p. 6. I t should be noted that i t i s not stated whether these numbers were taken from the 1981 or 1986 Census. 2 C i t y of Terrace, 20 Year Overview: 1970 - 1990. n.d. 86 Regardless of whether or not an e l d e r l y homeowner has paid o f f h i s or her mortgage, there are addi t i o n a l costs involved i n homeownership including property taxes, maintenance and repair costs. These costs can become a burden to an e l d e r l y homeowner who r e l i e s s o l e l y on h i s or her retirement income. There are two government sponsored programs that can ease the economic burden of homeownership f o r the e l d e r l y . The f i r s t i s a province-wide program i n B r i t i s h Columbia c a l l e d the P r o p e r t y Tax D e f e r r a l Program which i s avail a b l e to q u a l i f y i n g persons for whom property taxes are a f i n a n c i a l burden. This program allows persons 65 years of age and over, widows, widowers and handicapped persons who q u a l i f y for the Guaranteed Annual Income f o r the Needy (GAIN) and are homeowners l i v i n g on the property to defer net property taxes. The d e f e r r a l can be renewed on an annual basis. Upon the death of the homeowner or the sale of the house and property, the deferred taxes and i n t e r e s t must be paid to the p r o v i n c i a l government. The second program, offered by the Federal Government, i s the R e s i d e n t i a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A s s i s t a n c e Program (RRAP) which i s intended to help to a l l e v i a t e some of the costs associated with repairs or improvements to a home. RRAP i s of great benefit to those e l d e r l y persons who wish to remain independent i n t h e i r own home, but f i n d that i t i s i n need of s t r u c t u r a l repairs and/or improvements or modifications to improve the s u i t a b i l i t y and comfort of the home to meet the changing needs of the e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l . 87 RRAP provides up to $10,000 to q u a l i f y i n g homeowners i n the form of a market i n t e r e s t loan to make improvements or repairs to the home. RRAP i s also a v a i l a b l e to homeowners who must modify the dwelling to meet the needs of a disabled person, regardless of the loca t i o n of the home and whether or not other repairs are necessary. A portion of the loan may be forgivable depending upon the applicant's income, and re c i p i e n t s of the program may q u a l i f y f o r assistance of up to $6500, depending upon t h e i r income, i f they require home repairs or they require adaptations to the home due to a d i s a b i l i t y . " F u l l y 90% of the loans made under t h i s program have been forgiven." 3 R e n t a l apartments / Condominiums A l l condominium projects and the majority of apartment projects are b u i l t without government subsidization; the rents charged f o r the units i n these developments are based on development and operating costs and r e f l e c t what the l o c a l market i s w i l l i n g to pay for that type of accommodation. Based upon a survey of re n t a l market units i n Terrace by CMHC i n October of 1990, including both apartments and row houses, there was a vacancy rate of 0.6 percent i n the City of Terrace. This follows a trend which began i n A p r i l of 1989. The vacancy rate for apartments alone was 0.8 percent i n October of 1990. On the basis of t h i s survey, the re n t a l market constitutes about 35 percent of the t o t a l housing units i n Terrace. The r e n t a l market i s comprised 3Health and Welfare Canada, 1982, i n Blackie, 1986, p. 5. 88 of 628 p r i v a t e l y i n i t i a t e d units includes about 52 percent of the re n t a l units i n the Terrace market. 4 The average rent was $332 for a bachelor apartment, $395 fo r a one bedroom apartment, $426 for a two bedroom apartment, and $521 f o r an apartment with three bedrooms or more i n Terrace i n October of 1990.5 In 1989, BCHMC launched the B.C. Rental Supply Program with the intention of increasing the supply of market r e n t a l accommodation i n low vacancy areas throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. The program i s designed to reduce in t e r e s t costs, over a f i v e year period, on projects that are selected through a competitive proposal c a l l . Each proposal i s evaluated on the basis of "ten factors including, design, location, rent structure, r e n t a l tenure, and subsidy cost." 6 Preference i s given to projects f o r families and senior c i t i z e n s . Some e l d e r l y renters may be able to take advantage of a p r o v i n c i a l program c a l l e d Shelter Aid f o r E l d e r l y Renters (SAFER). This program provides d i r e c t cash assistance to persons 60 years of age and over who meet the following four conditions: (1) they rent 4The survey universe includes a l l r e n t a l units located i n structures of four units or more including apartment structure and townhouses, housing converted into apartments, fourplexes, fiveplexes, sixplexes, apartments over stores or other commercial establishments. The survey does not include sin g l e family detached homes, duplexes, t r i p l e x e s , mobile homes or i n d i v i d u a l r e n t a l units i n condominium projects. Source: CMHC Rental Market Survey Report:  Terrace F a l l 1990. NHA 6190, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1990. 5CMHC, CMHC: Rental Market Survey Report - Terrace - F a l l 1990, (Vancouver: CMHC, BC and Yukon Regional O f f i c e , October 1990), p. 7. 6 B r i t i s h Columbia Housing Management Commission, 1989 Annual  Report. p. 6. 89 t h e i r accommodation, (2) they pay more than 30 percent of t h e i r t o t a l income f o r rent, (3) they are 65 or older and receive Canadian Old Age Security, or they are 60 to 64 and meet residency requirements f o r Canadian Old Age Security, Spouse's Allowance or Widowed (Extended) Spouse's Allowance, and (4) either the applicant or the spouse have resided i n Canada f o r ten years and have been B r i t i s h Columbia residents f o r one year immediately p r i o r to a p p l i c a t i o n for SAFER. SAFER w i l l pay a percentage of the rent which exceeds 3 0 percent of t o t a l income with the allowable rent l e v e l s for SAFER being $520 per month for a singl e person, $575 per month per couple, and $885 per month divided by the t o t a l number of adult sharers f o r those who share r e n t a l accommodation.7 C o - o p e r a t i v e Housing The costs involved i n the creation of continuing not-for-p r o f i t co-operatives may be mitigated by the F e d e r a l C o - o p e r a t i v e Housing Program offered by CMHC. Co-operatives which are approved under the program may obtain loans for up to 100 percent of the project c a p i t a l costs, through an NHA-insured index-linked mortgage. The mortgages are obtained through private lenders and have a planned repayment duration of 30 or, i n s p e c i a l cases, 35 years. The index-linked mortgage i s an innovative financing technique which i s intended to encourage the development of c o s t - e f f e c t i v e 7Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of So c i a l Services and Housing, SAFER: Shelter Aid For E l d e r l y Renters. Pamphlet, ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer, June 1989). 90 co-operative housing. The index-linked mortgage features i n i t i a l payments which are designed to be lower than those of t r a d i t i o n a l f i x e d rate equal payment mortgages and thus more affordable to borrowers i n the early stages of the loan period. T r a d i t i o n a l equal payment mortgages, wherein the payments are the same throughout the loan period, are designed to ensure that the lender r e a l i z e s both the desired " r e a l " rate of return - the rate of return the lender wants a f t e r i n f l a t i o n - and the expected rate of i n f l a t i o n that w i l l occur over the period of the mortgage loan. The borrower's income, however, i s lower at the beginning of the loan period than i t would be i n the l a t e r years because the borrower does not have future i n f l a t i o n r e f l e c t e d i n h i s or her present income. Therefore, the i n i t i a l payments require a higher percentage of the borrowers income early i n the loan period. In f a c t , the loan payments a c t u a l l y become more affordable as the loan progresses. Index-linked mortgages d i f f e r because the i n t e r e s t rates are based on a f i x e d " r e a l " rate of return plus a variable rate which i s adjusted p e r i o d i c a l l y according to the i n f l a t i o n that a c t u a l l y occurred i n the preceding year. As a r e s u l t , the anticipated rate of i n f l a t i o n that has been b u i l t into the rate of i n t e r e s t on a fi x e d rate equal payment mortgage i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the i n t e r e s t rate of an index-linked mortgage u n t i l that i n f l a t i o n has a c t u a l l y occurred. Hence, borrowers using the index-linked mortgage w i l l have lower payments at the begining of the loan period and higher payments, r e f l e c t i n g i n f l a t i o n increases as they occur, i n the 91 l a t e r stages of the loan when they too have incomes which r e f l e c t i n f l a t i o n increases. In addition, index-linked mortgages have a s p e c i a l provision by which payments increase each year by two percent less than the national rate of i n f l a t i o n . The two percent difference provides some room fo r increasing operating expenses, so as to keep the rent from r i s i n g above those i n other buildings. Rent Supplement a s s i s t a n c e , provided by both federal and p r o v i n c i a l governments, i s avai l a b l e for 30 percent of the households i n co-operatives p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s program.8 In order to q u a l i f y for Rent Supplement assistance, "a household must be unable to obtain suitable accommodation without spending more than 30 per cent of the household income on housing." 9 Each co-op p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s program "must provide a minimum of 15 per cent of i t s units to households receiving t h i s subsidy." 1 0 In most provinces, h a l f of the households who receive Rent Supplement assistance i n any co-op must be selected from p r o v i n c i a l or municipal waiting l i s t s . The r e s t can be chosen from the co-op's own l i s t . F i n a l l y , co-operatives assisted under t h i s program must have at l e a s t f i v e percent of t h e i r units designed f o r occupancy by 8Rent supplement assistance i s designed to reduce shelter costs to as low as 25 percent of household income. I t i s a v a i l a b l e to low-income households who cannot obtain su i t a b l e accommodations without spending more than 30 percent of t h e i r household income on housing. 9Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Information: Federal  Co-operative Housing Program. Pamphlet, (Ottawa, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, NHA/LNH 5901-6 09/86), n.p. '"information: Federal Co-operative Housing Program, n.p. 92 people with physical d i s a b i l i t i e s , unless i t i s impractical to do so. 1 1 Non-Profit Seniors' Housing Both public and non-profit multiple units, including apartments, townhouses and row houses, intended f o r seniors are included i n t h i s category. In October 1990, there were 79 public housing units i n the C i t y of Terrace. T h i r t y eight of these units are located i n the Willows which are subsidized r e n t a l apartments for persons over 55 years of age who require low-income housing. There were no vacancies i n any of the public housing units at the time of t h i s survey. 1 2 In terms of non-profit housing f o r seniors, there are 18 units i n the Tuck Avenue Apartments. Consequently, there are a t o t a l of 56 subsidized housing units f o r seniors i n Terrace. Lynn Guilbault, i n her thesis Housing; B r i t i s h Columbia's Small  Town El d e r l y , presented a non-profit seniors' housing needs indicator which i s intended to help determine how many units of non-profit seniors' housing would be required i n a s p e c i f i c community. This indicator was "developed by determining the number of seniors' units that existed per 100 seniors i n B.C. i n 1988.1113 "information: Federal Co-operative Housing Program, n.p. 12CMHC: Rental Market Survey Report - Terrace - F a l l 1990. p. 1. 1 3Lynn M. Guilbault, Housing B r i t i s h Columbia's Small Town  Elde r l y , Masters Thesis, (Vancouver: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989), p. 95. 93 The f a c t that about 10 percent of these units were occupied by couples was taken into account. Based on these c a l c u l a t i o n s , the r e s u l t i n g needs indicator for non-profit seniors' housing i s 6.8 percent. This means that on average i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1988, there were 6.8 units of non-profit seniors' housing i n B.C. for every one hundred seniors. I t i s not clear, however, why the number of seniors' units that existed i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1988 would be the i d e a l today. Assuming that t h i s indicator of the need f o r non-profit housing units for seniors i s accurate, and that there are 2,988 persons i n the Local Health Area which encompasses Terrace who are 55 years of age and over, there would need to be 206 non-profit housing units f o r seniors i n Terrace and the surrounding region to accommodate a l l of these persons. Under the Cu r r e n t S o c i a l Housing Program and P r o p e r t y Management Program, non-profit groups may receive funding from BCHMC to a s s i s t the development and operating expenses of non-p r o f i t housing projects. BCHMC creates and manages s o c i a l housing throughout B r i t i s h Columbia for those households who cannot a f f o r d to pay more than 30 percent of household income f o r shelter. Projects are selected for development from a province-wide proposal c a l l from non-profit s o c i e t i e s , public agencies and co-operative associations. Once a project i s selected for development, BCHMC provides subsidies for s o c i e t i e s who sponsor these projects to make up the 94 difference between break even rent and rents paid by the tenants. BCHMC also provides guidance for day-to-day issues for the s o c i e t i e s running the projects. In 1989, BCHMC introduced the Matching Grant Program for seniors' housing. This program provides start-up grants of up to $20,000 to non-profit s o c i e t i e s to develop unsubsidized housing for seniors. A c c e s s o r y apartments / In-law S u i t e s The cost of creating an accessory apartment or in-law suite i s determined p r i m a r i l y by the condition of the area that i s to be converted p r i o r to the conversion. The majority of accessory apartments and in-law suites are created i n the basement of a two storey s i n g l e family dwelling. In t h i s case, there i s very l i t t l e change to the structure of the home, save for the addition of walls to create rooms i n the accessory apartment and a door to separate the two u n i t s . The cost of the conversion w i l l also vary depending on whether or not bathroom or kitchen f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t i n the accessory apartment p r i o r to the conversion. The homeowner may be able to receive a loan from the p r o v i n c i a l government under the R e n t a l C o n v e r s i o n Loan Program to pay f o r the cost of the conversion. The loan would then be paid back with some of the r e n t a l income. Homesharing 95 The f i n a n c i a l cost to the homeowner of sharing one's home i s minimal. The homeowner would be required to provide some private l i v i n g space, which could be as small as one bedroom. There are no regulations r e q u i r i n g the homeowner to provide o f f - s t r e e t parking for the homesharer. As a r e s u l t , there i s very l i t t l e , i f any, cost involved i n homesharing. Garden suites Based upon research done by Michael Lazarowich and Brian Haley i n Waterloo, Ontario i n the early 1980s, a 1982 CMHC report indicates that the c a p i t a l cost of a garden suite of approximately 500 to 700 square feet with a l i v i n g room, bathroom, kitchen and bedroom would have been between $18,000 and $20,000 i n 1982 d o l l a r s . 1 4 A Gallup Canada telephone survey undertaken i n 1989 surveyed 780 p o t e n t i a l garden suite occupants, aged 60 years or over, and 1,182 p o t e n t i a l hosts, under the age of 60. Respondents were asked what they thought they could a f f o r d to pay to purchase or rent a garden s u i t e . The findings suggest that a minority of the respondents could a f f o r d to purchase a garden s u i t e based on the costs proposed i n 1982: 30 percent of respondents f e l t they could a f f o r d to pay up to $20,000 towards the purchase p r i c e of a garden su i t e , and an a d d i t i o n a l 10 percent f e l t they could a f f o r d over 1 4Michael Lazarowich, and Brian W. Haley, Granny F l a t s : Their  P r a c t i c a l i t y and Implementation. (Waterloo, Ontario: School of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Waterloo, A p r i l , 1982), n.p. (executive summary) 96 $20,000. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , 38 percent of respondents were not sure what they could a f f o r d to pay and 22 percent could a f f o r d to pay nothing. 1 5 In terms of r e n t a l of a garden suite, the Gallup survey indicated that the majority of respondents, 64 percent, could af f o r d up to $400 towards the rent. However, the most quoted r e n t a l p r i c e was between $201 and $300.16 I t should be noted that the Township of Langley i n the Lower Mainland amended t h e i r zoning bylaws to permit garden suites i n some zones; however, there are currently no garden suites i n the Township of Langley because p o t e n t i a l residents and/or t h e i r f a m i l i e s found them to be too expensive to acquire. 1 7 Abbeyfield Concept Housing Abbeyfield houses may be either purpose-built or created i n an ex i s t i n g home which i s converted to f a c i l i t a t e the Abbeyfield l i v i n g arrangement. Abbeyfield houses are intended f o r lonely, e l d e r l y persons; consequently, there i s a great deal of communal space i n the home such as the l i v i n g room, dining room, sun room and games room. 15CMHC Research D i v i s i o n , Submitted by Gallup Canada, Inc., Garden Suites Demonstration - National Survey - Volume I: Detailed  Findings. (Ottawa, Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, A p r i l 24, 1989), p. 53. 1 6Garden Suites Demonstration, p. 54. "Telephone c a l l , Planning Department, Township of Langley, 21 February, 1991. 97 The e l d e r l y tenants of an Abbeyfield house pay rent on a monthly basis to the l o c a l Abbeyfield Society who owns and manages the house. The r e n t a l expenses involved i n l i v i n g i n an Abbeyfield home include not only the cost of building or renovating and maintaining the home, but also the cost of the housemother who i s hired and paid by the Society. In order to give some idea of the expenses involved i n developing a purpose-built Abbeyfield home, the development costs incurred i n bui l d i n g St. Andrew's Abbeyfield Home i n Sidney on Vancouver Island w i l l be provided. This home opened i n the spring of 1987 and has nine residents and a housemother. The c a p i t a l costs of the home amounted to $381,131. A f t e r 35 years, the mortgage w i l l be paid by the rent charged to the residents and the Society w i l l then own both the land and the bui l d i n g . The sources of funding which were av a i l a b l e to the St. Andrew's Abbeyfield Home were: St. Andrew's - some of which raised by debentures and others by g i f t s , $25,000 P r o v i n c i a l Secretary from B.C. Lottery 10,000 The Anglican Foundation 10,000 The P r o v i n c i a l Ministry of Health 30.000 $75,000 Mortgage, secured by BCHMC $300.000 TOTAL FUNDS $375.000 98 The monthly operating costs of St. Andrew's Abbeyfield Home t o t a l $3972 and are divided equally among the residents so that each pays a monthly rent of $438.18 P r o v i n c i a l funding form BCHMC may be ava i l a b l e to l o c a l non-p o r f i t Abbeyfield s o c i e t i e s for the s t a r t up of the project through the Matching Grant Program and for the development and maintenance costs through the N o n - P r o f i t Housing Program. I t i s important to note that the costs associated with creating an Abbeyfield home would undoubtedly be lower i f the home were created i n an e x i s t i n g larger s i n g l e family dwelling. The lower costs involved i n conversion would enable the l o c a l society to charge a lower rent to the residents, thereby opening up t h i s option to e l d e r l y persons i n a range of income l e v e l s . Congregate housing Congregate housing usually consists of self-contained apartments plus a va r i e t y of on-site services such a meals, weekly housekeeping and linens. Congregate housing i s one of the most expensive housing options available to seniors due to high development and operating costs and the absence of any government programs to fund the development of congregate housing. As a r e s u l t , the rent i s t y p i c a l l y two and a half to three times higher 1 8Charlotte C. Murray, "The Small Congregate Home," i n Housing  the Very Old, ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. Blackie, (Burnaby, The Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, 1988), p. 102-104. 99 than i t would be f o r a comparable unit i n an older r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g i n a s i m i l a r l o c a t i o n . 1 9 In the Lower Mainland, congregate housing projects range i n s i z e from 32 to 142 u n i t s . The majority of these projects o f f e r r e n t a l accommodation. The rents, based on s i n g l e occupancy, range from a low of $800-1600 per month i n Canada Way Lodge i n Burnaby, which has 138 bachelor and one bedroom units, to a high of $1620-3000 per month i n Hollyburn House i n West Vancouver, which has 66 bachelor, one and two bedroom units. A second type of congregate housing requires the residents become involved i n equity p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a modified l i f e lease basis. These congregate housing projects require a s i z a b l e entry fee plus monthly fees to cover operating costs and one meal per day. . For example, Concord Home i n White Rock requires an entry fee of $30,000 to 50,000 depending on the unit plus $300 to 500 monthly to cover operating expenses and one meal per day. Eighty-five percent of that entry fee i s refundable when the resident leaves. The P r o v i n c i a l Government i s currently considering the introduction of programs to encourage the development of affordable congregate housing. In the absence of government funding, the costs associated with congregate care housing projects may be reduced by encouraging non-profit groups to o f f e r t h i s type of accommodation, " p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they control a s i t e , can achieve 1 9I am indebted to Michael G e l l e r and Associates for the information of congregate housing that i s used i n t h i s section. 100 economies through shared services with e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s and are prepared to provide volunteer services. " 2 0 Care f a c i l i t i e s There are privately-owned, non-profit and public care f a c i l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The vast majority of care f a c i l i t i e s are subsidized under the P r o v i n c i a l Long Term Care Program. In B r i t i s h Columbia, residents requiring personal or intermediate care i n an i n s t i t u t i o n are e l i g i b l e f o r the same coverage as h o s p i t a l patients. The residents are charged a user's fee on a per diem basis; t h i s fee varies somewhat depending on the f a c i l i t y but i s i n the range of $20.00 per day. For those residents who are i n receipt of federal old age security and guaranteed income supplement payments the per diem fee i s indexed to t h e i r income. This coverage does not include room d i f f e r e n t i a l and may or may not include homemaker services, depending upon the i n d i v i d u a l f a c i l i t y . The p r o v i n c i a l government pays the user charge as well as a comforts allowance for those who cannot afford i t . 'Geller and Associates, p. 26. 101 LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSING OPTIONS The s e l e c t i o n of a s i t e f or seniors' housing i s c r i t i c a l to the success of the project and the s a t i s f a c t i o n of the seniors who c a l l i t home. In order to f a c i l i t a t e the s e l e c t i o n of acceptable s i t e s f o r seniors' housing, p a r t i c u l a r l y purpose-built housing complexes, two sources, Paul Neibanck's work, as s i t e d by Anthony Markoff i n h i s 1970 thesis e n t i t l e d The Locational Needs of the Eld e r l y f o r Housing, and Jim Wilson's a r t i c l e "Assessing the Walking Environment of the E l d e r l y " must be considered. Paul Niebanck attempted to discover the ' c r i t i c a l distance' between a seniors' housing s i t e and a va r i e t y of services and f a c i l i t i e s which are used by e l d e r l y persons. A c r i t i c a l distance i s that distance which a senior c i t i z e n "would be w i l l i n g to t r a v e l [by foot] before d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s expressed." 2 1 The r e s u l t s are as follows: SERVICE OR FACILITY CRITICAL DISTANCE Bus Stop 1 - 2 Blocks Bank 2 Blocks News-Cigar Store 2 Blocks Grocery Store 2 - 3 Blocks Drug Store 3 Blocks Restaurant 2 - 4 Blocks House of Worship 2 - 4 Blocks C l i n i c or Hospital 2 - 4 Blocks Library 8 Blocks Movie Theatre 8 Blocks S o c i a l Centre Indeterminable 2 2 2 1Anthony Markoff, The Locational Needs of the El d e r l y f or  Housing. Masters Thesis, (Vancouver: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, May 1972), p. 32. 2 2Paul Niebanck, The El d e r l y i n Older Urban Areas. (Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Pennsylvania, 1965) , p. 64. As quoted by Markoff, p. 33. 102 Niebanck's work also emphasises a c o r r e l a t i o n between c r i t i c a l distance and the frequency of use of a service or f a c i l i t y : services which are used regularly, such as the grocery store or bank, must be located within a few blocks of the seniors' housing s i t e or the seniors begin to express a high degree of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . On the other hand, services which are used less frequently, such as the l i b r a r y or movie theatre, can be located further from the seniors' housing s i t e with a lesser degree of d i s s a t i f a c t i o n . More recently, James Wilson undertook a study, "Assessing the Walking Environment of the El d e r l y " , wherein the walking environments of the e l d e r l y were assessed i n r e l a t i o n to the desires and ca p a c i t i e s of e l d e r l y residents. 2 3 The findings of t h i s research suggest that the long-time r u l e of thumb that housing intended f o r seniors should be within s i x blocks of centres of a c t i v i t y should be replaced by a goal of two blocks (about 200 yards) , 2 4 Further, the research suggests that the presence of a t t r a c t i v e destinations within walking distance of the home a f f e c t s the walking a c t i v i t y of seniors. In other words, seniors are more stimulated tp walk i f there are "places to go to" such as i n v i t i n g community centres and shopping areas, rather than simply going for a walk i n bland surroundings. F i n a l l y , i t i s cl e a r that anything i n the physical layout of the surroundings, including the absence 23James Wilson, "Assessing the Walking Environment of the E l d e r l y , " i n Plan Canada 21/4, 1982, p. 117-121. 2 4Wilson, p. 121. 103 of sidewalks or crosswalks, or grades steeper than f i v e percent, i n h i b i t s carefree walking and detracts from seniors' a b i l i t y to take part i n a c t i v i t i e s i n those areas. In order to e s t a b l i s h suitable locations for purpose-built seniors housing i n Terrace, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to determine where services used by seniors are currently located. As discussed i n the t h i r d chapter, the vast majority of services are located within a three block long by four block wide corridor bounded by Eby Street to the west, Kalum Street to the east, Park Avenue to the north and Greig Avenue to the south. Based upon the research done by Niebanck and Wilson, i t i s preferable that any purpose-built housing such as apartments or congregate housing should be located within the core downtown area or within two to s i x blocks of that area. I t i s now important to examine i f and where any building locations e x i s t that would be sui t a b l e f o r t h i s type of housing. In order to do that, the zoning of the C i t y of Terrace and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of vacant l o t s owned by the C i t y of Terrace or the Crown w i l l be examined. 104 Land Use D e s i g n a t i o n of E x i s t i n g Housing Stock i n T e r r a c e The Zoning By-law for the City of Terrace has nine d i f f e r e n t r e s i d e n t i a l zones and a commercial zone which permit r e s i d e n t i a l development. At the present time, each r e s i d e n t i a l zone permits the development of a number of the housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for the e l d e r l y l i s t e d i n the second chapter. Table 5 indicates which housing options and l i v i n g arrangements are currently permitted i n each zone. 105 Table 8 Housing Options Permitted i n the Ci t y of Terrace by Zone Residential Zones Rl/A l R2 R3 LDR LDSR MDR MHDR HDR c: Single family homes X X X X X X X X Accessory apartments X X X X X X X In-law suites X X X X X X X Rental apartments X X X X X X X Condominiums X X X X X X X Co-operatives X X X X X X Non-Profit Housing X X X X X X Mobile homes X X Homesharing X X X X X X X X Garden suites Abbeyfield houses X X X X X X X Congregate housing X X X X X X X X Care f a c i l i t i e s X X X X X X X The R l Single Family Residential Zone (Rl) i s the most r e s t r i c t i v e of the r e s i d e n t i a l zones. The only r e s i d e n t i a l use permitted i n the Rl zone i s single or one family dwellings which are defined i n the Zoning By-law as "a detached b u i l d i n g consisting of one dwelling unit as herein defined, and occupied or intended to be occupied as the permanent home or residence of one family." 2 5 The term "family" i s not defined. Rather, the term "dwelling u n i t " 2 5 C i t y of Terrace, Zoning By-law No. 401 - 1965 (And Amendments), (City of Terrace, 1965), p. 2. 106 i s used to control the use of the building. A dwelling unit i s i d e n t i f i e d i n the Zoning By-law as "two or more rooms used or intended f o r the domestic use of one or more i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g as a singl e housekeeping unit, with cooking, l i v i n g , sleeping and sanitary f a c i l i t i e s . " 2 6 For t h i s reason, homesharing which involves two or more unrelated persons l i v i n g together as a single housekeeping unit would be permitted i n t h i s and every other r e s i d e n t i a l zone i n Terrace. I t should be noted that there i s no r e s t r i c t i o n i n the Zoning By-law to the number of persons that may l i v e together as a single housekeeping unit, nor i s there any reference to o f f - s t r e e t parking regulations for homesharing. The R2 Single and Two Family Residential Zone (R2) permits one and two family dwellings and lodging houses. Two family dwellings are defined i n the Zoning By-law as "a building divided into two dwelling units . . . each of which i s occupied or intended to be occupied as the permanent home or residence of one family." 2 7 Although the d e f i n i t i o n of two family dwellings i s intended to permit duplexes, i t also permits the creation of accessory apartments on c e r t a i n l o t s because t h i s d e f i n i t i o n allows two dwelling units i n one building, provided that f l o o r area, s i t e area and s i t e frontage regulations are met.28 Further, there are no Zoning By-law, p. 2. Zoning By-law, p. 2. Zoning By-law, p. 10. 107 s t i p u l a t i o n s anywhere i n the Zoning By-law which p r o h i b i t accessory apartments or second suites. This zone also permits i n s t i t u t i o n a l uses including h o s p i t a l , sanatoria and convalescent homes, wherein persons may recover t h e i r health and strength following an i l l n e s s or weakness. The City has included Terraceview Lodge and a vari e t y of group homes i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . "Group homes consist of small group l i v i n g arrangements, usually involving f i v e to ten residents l i v i n g together i n a single family home."29 The precedent that has been set i n allowing group homes i n t h i s and other zones throughout the City which permit hospitals, sanatoria and convalescent homes has some bearing on the a b i l i t y to locate an Abbeyfield home or small congregate housing i n the same zones without amendments to the zoning. These two options are si m i l a r to group homes i n that they would also involve f i v e to ten residents l i v i n g together i n a single family home. For t h i s reason, i t w i l l be assumed that Abbeyfield houses and small congregate houses would be permitted i n any zone that permits hospitals, sanatoria and convalescent homes. The R3 Multi-family Dwelling Zone (R3) allows one family and two family dwellings, apartment houses, row houses, condominiums, and hos p i t a l s , sanatoria and convalescent homes. Buildings which exceed 40 feet or two storeys are not permitted i n t h i s zone. As a r e s u l t , every housing option and l i v i n g arrangement for seniors 2 9 G e l l e r and Associates, p. 22. 108 with the exception of garden suites and new mobile home parks i s permitted i n an R3 zone. The Low D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Zone (LDR) (25 PPA - persons per acre) permits sing l e and two family dwellings, multiple dwellings including apartments and row houses, hospitals, sanatoria and convalescent homes. The regulations set out i n t h i s section s t i p u l a t e that no bui l d i n g i n t h i s zone may exceed three storeys i n height. With the exception of garden suites and new mobile home parks, a l l of the other housing options and l i v i n g arrangements would be permitted i n t h i s zone. The Low D e n s i t y Suburban R e s i d e n t i a l Zone (LDSR) (25 PPA) permits the same uses as the Low Density Residential Zone, except that the regulations d i f f e r i n some respects from the l a t t e r zone. Similar to the Low Density Residential Zone, no building i n the Low Density Suburban Residential Zone may exceed three storeys i n height. Every housing option and l i v i n g arrangment except garden suites and new mobile home parks would be permitted i n t h i s zone. Currently, there i s no land i n Terrace that i s zoned LDSR; therefore, any person(s) who desired t h i s zoning would have to have the propery rezoned. The Medium D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Zone (MDR) (40 PPA) allows a l l the uses mentioned i n the Low Density Residential Zone except that the regulations again d i f f e r i n some respects from the previous 109 zones, and there i s no r e s t r i c t i o n on the height of buildings. Every housing option for seniors except garden suites and new mobile home parks would be permitted i n t h i s zone. The Medium High D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Zone (MHDR) (80 PPA) permits the same uses as the LDR, LDSR and MDR zones, although the regulations d i f f e r i n some respects from the other zones. There i s no r e s t r i c t i o n on the height of any buildings. Garden suites and new mobile home parks are the only housing options f o r seniors that are not permitted i n t h i s zone. The High D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Zone (HDR) (200 PPA) permits the same uses as the previous zones except that "the density of horizontal multiple dwelling buildings s h a l l not exceed 80 PPA."30 Once again, there i s no r e s t r i c t i o n on the height of the building. Every housing option and l i v i n g arrangement for seniors except garden suites and new mobile home parks would be permitted i n the high density r e s i d e n t i a l zone. The A l R u r a l Zone (Al) requires that the s i t e area of a property must be a minimum of f i v e acres. One s i n g l e family dwelling i s permitted on one r u r a l land holding. Only single family houses and homesharing are permitted i n t h i s zone. Zoning By-law, p. 2 6. In addition to these r e s i d e n t i a l zones, the C i t y of Terrace also allows the following r e s i d e n t i a l uses i n the CI C e n t r a l Commercial Zone (CI): bachelor units, one, two and three bedroom units which may not be located below any commercially used premises and must be not "located below the second storey of any structure. 1 , 3 1 This zone would permit the development of a congregate care f a c i l i t y , apartments or condominiums, provided that the f i r s t f l o o r was s o l e l y f o r commercial uses and the r e s i d e n t i a l section of the building was no more than 200 percent of the area used for commercial purposes i n the building. Land Resources o f C i t y of T e r r a c e and P r o v i n c e There are a number of s i t e s throughout the City of Terrace which are currently owned by the C i t y of Terrace, the Province, and private i n d i v i d u a l s . There i s a great deal of p o t e n t i a l for obtaining property from the City of Terrace or the Province through donation, lease agreements or purchase agreement at below market value i n order to b u i l d seniors' housing complexes i n the C i t y . 3 1Zoninq By-law, p. 14. I l l The C i t y of Terrace presently holds the following parcels of land, shown on the Municipal Properties Map at the back of t h i s work: Table 9 L i s t of Land Owned by the C i t y of Terrace Address Zone Si t e Frontage S i t e Width 4733 H a l l i w e l l Rl 75.00 122.18 Lot 15 Rowland Rl 62.23 131.23 Lot 4 Rowland Rl 63.98 126.98 Lot 1 McConnell Rl 60.00 132.87 3705 Thomas Rl 105.48 836.93 Lot 6 Olson R2 209.00 297.00 4620 Davis R2 153.10 287.20 4803 Twedle A l 660.00 1316.83 Lot 3 Kalum Al 330.00 1327.30 Lot 4 Kalum Al 330.00 1331.23 Lot 5 Kalum Al 330.00 1332.54 Lot 6 Kalum Al 330.00 1332.01 Lot 19 Hazel A l 330.00 1287.92 Lot 20 Hazel A l 330.00 1287.79 Lot 21 Hazel A l 330.00 1287.66 Lot 16 Olson A l 209.00 626.60 Lot 17 Olson A l 209.00 627.00 Lot 14 Olson PI 133.60 626.60 Lot 15 Olson PI 209.05 626.60 4457 Greig Ml 33.00 100.00 4459 Greig Ml 33.00 100.00 2801 Evergreen Ml 626.50 330.14 4632 Haugland Ml 211.69 661.70 The most suitable properties for purpose-built seniors housing such as an apartment buildings or co-operatives are l o t s 14-17 located on Olson Avenue. These l o t s may be used i n d i v i d u a l l y or combined to f a c i l i t a t e a large development. Moreover, these 112 properties are located within three blocks of shops and services and would be well suited to seniors' housing. Further, these l o t s are located adjacent to R2 and R3 zones which have singl e and multi-family dwellings on the properties. Therefore, changing the zoning of the l o t s to R3 would not contradict with the zoning of surrounding properties, and may be less d i f f i c u l t than i f the l o t s were surrounded by Rl single family dwellings. Many of the other l o t s owned by the C i t y of Terrace would be less s u i t a b l e f o r many types of seniors' housing because the i n d i v i d u a l l o t s would be too small for large scale development or because the l o t s are located too f a r from the downtown corridor. However, other p o s s i b i l i t i e s for these l o t s include t h e i r use for small congregate housing dwellings or Abbeyfield houses i f the l o t s are located within other single family homes. This would be possible f o r the property located at 4 620 Davis which i s s u i t a b l y located within two blocks of downtown and i s currently zoned R2. In addition, there are a number of properties i n the City, owned by the P r o v i c i a l government, that would be s u i t a b l e for seniors' housing. Two of these properties are p a r t i c u l a r l y promising. The f i r s t , located at Park and Kenney, i s adjacent to two e x i s t i n g apartment complexes and about three blocks from the c i t y centre. The second piece of property i s on Highway 16. While t h i s l o t would not be suitable for seniors' housing, i t could be part of a land-swapping deal with a developer f o r a more suitable piece of property. Other properties are large vacant pieces of land on which large developments may be b u i l t ; however, these 113 properties are not accessible to shops and services at the present time. In addition, there are numerous privately-owned l o t s within the City, many of which are located within or near the commercial core of the Ci t y . This a c c e s s i b i l i t y factor would help to make the housing more a t t r a c t i v e and useful to seniors i n the community. The p r i v a t e l y owned land may be purchased with the aid of grants from BCHMC or CMHC. 114 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS The most notable f i n d i n g of t h i s chapter i s that the majority of the housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for seniors i d e n t i f i e d i n the second chapter are permitted i n one or more of the e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l zones i n the Ci t y of Terrace. This f a c t alone greatly improves the immediate f e a s i b i l i t y of many of the options. Further, there i s a great deal of vacant land throughout the C i t y that i s owned by the City of Terrace or the Province which could be acquired through purchase or lease agreements. Unfortunately, many of these land holdings would only be accessible to services by t r a n s i t f or those persons who no longer drive. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , there are several p r i v a t e l y owned s i t e s that are located very close to or within the commercial centre of the City . Second, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of government sponsored programs to fund the development and maintenance of large scale projects and subsidize low-income households helps to f a c i l i t a t e the creation of a wide range of housing options for seniors. I t i s imperative that these financing options are a c t i v e l y sought i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the development of non-profit seniors' housing, rental'apartments and co-operatives i n Terrace. F i n a l l y , population projections for the Local Health Area which encompasses and includes the City of Terrace indicate that the e l d e r l y population, those persons over 65 years of age, w i l l increase by approximately 652 persons during the next decade. These projections must be considered i n the timing and scale of future housing projects for seniors i n Terrace. 115 On the basis of these findings, recommendations w i l l be made as to which housing options and l i v i n g arrangements would be fe a s i b l e immediately (in the next two years), i n the mid-term (the next two to f i v e years), and i n the distant future (the next f i v e to ten years). These recommendations are intended as a guide for future development of seniors' housing i n the Ci t y of Terrace. Housing Options which are Immediately F e a s i b l e : Homesharing A c c e s s o r y Apartments In-law S u i t e s N o n - P r o f i t S e n i o r s ' Housing M o b i l e Homes The options which have been selected for immediate f e a s i b i l i t y presently e x i s t i n some form (homesharing, accessory apartments, in-law suites, and mobile homes) or are needed immediately (non-p r o f i t seniors' housing) based on the population of seniors i n Terrace and waiting l i s t s that e x i s t at t h i s time. 1. Homesharing Homesharing has the pot e n t i a l of being a v i a b l e l i v i n g arrangement f o r seniors i n the Ci t y of Terrace because of the predominance of single family dwellings i n the Ci t y and the fac t that i t i s currently permitted i n every r e s i d e n t i a l zone i n Terrace. Further, there are minimal f i n a n c i a l costs involved. I t i s therefore recommended that homesharing be immediately considered as a via b l e housing option for seniors, and younger persons, i n Terrace. The inception of a formal homesharing option 116 through a non-profit matching agency i n the C i t y would provide an important supported independent l i v i n g option i n t h i s community. Moreover, i t would provide an a l t e r n a t i v e to s e l f - i n i t i a t e d homesharing and provide e l d e r l y persons with the convenience and security of having a t h i r d party screen and introduce p o t e n t i a l homesharers. The f i r s t step i n formally introducing t h i s option to the community would be to increase the l e v e l of awareness regarding homesharing and e s t a b l i s h i n t e r e s t i n t h i s option. Second, assuming there i s i n t e r e s t i n t h i s option, a homesharing agency could be set up i n the new Community Volunteer Bureau and Seniors Information Access Centre. The homesharing agency could finance the costs involved i n interviewing, reference checking and matching c l i e n t s by charging a fee for matching c l i e n t s . Recommendations on how to proceed with the agency could be obtained from the Vancouver Homesharers Society. 2. Accessory apartments / In-law Suites The predominance of single family dwellings i n the C i t y of Terrace, combined with f a c t that the Zoning By-law permits accessory apartments and in-law suites i n many r e s i d e n t i a l zones make these housing options immediately f e a s i b l e i n Terrace. Accessory apartments and in-law suites are permitted i n every r e s i d e n t i a l zone except Rl (Single family dwellings) and A l (Rural). Accessory apartments and in-law suites can be b u i l t with a minimum of disruption to the primary unit i n two storey homes. 117 For persons interested i n converting part of t h e i r home into an accessory u n i t or in-law suite, the determining factor i n est a b l i s h i n g cost i s the condition of the area to be converted p r i o r to conversion. 3. Non-Profit Seniors' Housing Non-profit seniors' housing i s permitted i n every r e s i d e n t i a l zone except Rl (Single family dwellings), R2 (Single and two family dwellings) and A l (Rural). There are a number of vacant properties within the Ci t y that would be suitable for non-profit seniors' housing, although a rezoning would be required f o r the majority of these properties. The economic f e a s i b i l i t y of a second non-profit seniors' apartment i s increased greatly by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of BCHMC loans for non-profit housing for low-income seniors. I t i s clea r from the waiting l i s t s at both the Willows and the Tuck Avenue Apartments that the seniors i n t h i s communty desire more of t h i s type of accommodation. Further, the e l d e r l y population of Terrace has voiced i t s desire on a number of occasions to see a second seniors' apartment complex l i k e the Willows. Persons aged 55 and over would be e l i g i b l e f or non-profit and public subsidized housing for seniors. The population of persons aged 55 years and over i n Terrace, not including those persons i n an i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t y , i n 1986 was 1,190 persons. Based on the non-profit seniors' housing needs indicator established by Lynn Guilbault i n her thesis, there should be 6.8 units of non-profit 118 housing f o r every 100 seniors i n B.C.32 Consequently, 6.8 percent of 1,190 i s 81 uni t s . There are currently 56 units of non-profit and public housing for seniors i n Terrace. As a r e s u l t , i n order to meet t h i s needs indicator Terrace should have an add i t i o n a l 25 units of non-profit seniors housing i n the Ci t y based on the 1986 population of persons 55 years of age and over. The population of persons 55 years of age and over has increased since that time; therefore, i t i s l i k e l y that t h i s i s a very conservative estimate of need i n 1991. 4. Mobile homes Mobile homes, which o f f e r e l d e r l y persons independent l i v i n g i n a compact environment, are currently permitted i n three t r a i l e r courts i n Terrace. At the present time, these t r a i l e r courts are non-conforming uses: there are no zones i n the Ci t y which expressly permit the existence of t r a i l e r courts. The creation of new t r a i l e r courts i s not allowed i n any zone. Consequently, anyone choosing t h i s option would have to purchase a mobile home which i s already i n a t r a i l e r court or wait for a pad to become ava i l a b l e i n order to l i v e i n a mobile home within the City . Guilbault, p. 95. 119 Housing Options which would be F e a s i b l e i n the Mid-term: R e n t a l Apartments C o - o p e r a t i v e Housing A b b e y f i e l d Concept Housing Two of these housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for seniors (co-operatives and Abbeyfield houses) w i l l require a great deal of planning and development on the part of non-profit s o c i e t i e s to bring about t h e i r inception. I t i s l i k e l y that i t w i l l take some time to create these s o c i e t i e s i n Terrace and enable them to seek financing options from the d i f f e r e n t government m i n i s t r i e s . In the case of re n t a l apartments, i t i s a matter of having a developer bring f o r t h t h i s option and seek financing that may be av a i l a b l e from BCHMC. R e n t a l Apartments The C i t y of Terrace currently has a very low apartment vacancy rate of 0.8 percent. 3 3 As a r e s u l t , i t i s l i k e l y that the Ci t y of Terrace would q u a l i f y f or the new B.C. Rental Supply Program offered by BCHMC to encourage the creation of new re n t a l apartments i n low vacancy areas. The creation of new re n t a l apartments i n the Ci t y of Terrace would benefit a l l age groups and would o f f e r seniors the opportunity to l i v e i n a complex that i s not s t r i c t l y f o r seniors. 33CMHC, Rental Market Survey Report: Terrace. F a l l 1990. NHA 6190, ( B r i t i s h Columbia: Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, 1990), p. 4. 120 Co-operative Housing Terrace does not have a co-operative project of any kind. I t i s l i k e l y that a n o t - f o r - p r o f i t co-operative which encompasses a wide range of households, including families and seniors, would be the most successful because of the predominance of younger families i n Terrace. Such a project could o f f e r seniors the option of l i v i n g i n a complex with younger persons and children. In addition, i t would benefit both independent seniors and families who cannot a f f o r d to purchase a home, but who want security of tenure and input i n decisions made about where they l i v e . CMHC funding for the development and maintenance of the co-op i s a v a i l a b l e to projects selected for subsidies. Suitable locations for co-operatives i n Terrace should again be accessible to shops and services, as well as schools and recre a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f or the families i n the development. Abbeyfield Concept Housing Abbeyfield houses must be owned and operated by a l o c a l non-p r o f i t Abbeyfield society. Abbeyfield housing would add to the re n t a l stock i n the City of Terrace by providing r e n t a l housing to el d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s who would desire the communal l i f e s t y l e offered by the Abbeyfield society. Funding for Abbeyfield houses may be avai l a b l e from BCHMC through the Non-Profit Housing Program. Ideally, Abbeyfield houses are integrated into e x i s t i n g single family neighbourhoods. There are a vari e t y of zoning options for the C i t y of Terrace to permit Abbeyfield homes. I t i s possible 121 that an Abbeyfield house could be defined a "single housekeeping u n i t " and therefore be permitted i n every zone without an amendment to the zoning. In t h i s case, Abbeyfield houses may be permitted as a group home i n every zone except Rl (Single family dwellings) and A l (Rural) without any change to the current Zoning Bylaw. The a b i l i t y to create an Abbeyfield house or other type of small congregate house i n many zones i n the City of Terrace without amending the zoning bylaw greatly increases the v i a b i l i t y of such a housing option: the project could be b u i l t without the r i s k of public disapproval of the project at the public hearing. Housing Options which may be F e a s i b l e i n the D i s t a n t F u t u r e : Condomin iums Garden S u i t e s Congregate Housing Care f a c i l i t i e s Each of these housing options are not f e a s i b l e for some time for d i f f e r e n t reasons. Additional condominiums and care f a c i l i t i e s w i l l not be necessary i n Terrace for a number of years because the ex i s t i n g projects are s u f f i c i e n t to s a t i s f y future demand. There are s t i l l a large number of units unsold at Twin River Estates, the condominium development for seniors, and the proposed supportive housing project adjacent to Terraceview Lodge w i l l free up a number of beds at the Lodge currently used by those residents who had no choice but to l i v e there at the time. Garden suites w i l l not be f e a s i b l e for a number of years because of f i n a n c i a l , l e g a l and l o g i s t i c a l b a r r i e r s to t h e i r development. Large congregate care f a c i l i t i e s w i l l not be f e a s i b l e 122 f o r some time because of the expense involved i n development and maintenance. Further, the costs to the residents which have been charged i n other developments of t h i s kind make t h i s option too expensive for most e l d e r l y Terrace residents at t h i s time. 1. Condominiums Terrace has one large condominium project, Twin River Estates, which i s intended exclusively for seniors. Currently, there are s t i l l u n its f o r sale i n Phase Two. The t h i r d phase of the project, which w i l l be comprised of 24 units, i s currently under construction. There are a t o t a l of 84 units i n t h i s project. I t i s u n l i k e l y that the seniors' population i n Terrace could support another condominium development. In 1981, 8.3 percent of seniors l i v e d i n condominiums i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 3 4 In 1986 the seniors' population i n Terrace, those 65 years of age and over, amounted to 505 persons. Consequently, 8.3 percent of that number would be 42 u n i t s . Even i f the seniors'population i n Terrace and the surrounding area for 1986 i s considered, there were 735 seniors 65 years of age and over. 3 5 Of those 735 seniors, 8.3 percent of that number would demand 61 condominium units i n Terrace. Therefore, even i f the increase i n the appeal of condominiums during the l a s t decade i n considered, i t i s u n l i k e l y that the seniors' population alone could support more condominium development i n the immediate future. ^Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 47. 3 5Taylor, p. 3. 123 2. Garden Suites There are a number of l e g a l , f i n a n c i a l and l o g i s t i c a l problems which make i t impossible to recommend the garden suite housing option at t h i s time. F i r s t , the le g a l problems associated with s e t t i n g up a garden suite program and regulating occupancy by a municipality or housing authority i s questionable. 3 6 Second, the costs associated with purchasing or renting a garden s u i t e may be pr o h i b i t i v e to many f a m i l i e s . As shown e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, the purchase p r i c e that people were w i l l i n g to pay i n 1989 was the pri c e that would have been viable i n 1982 d o l l a r s . The cost has undoubtedly increased since 1982. The fac t that the Township of Langley, which permits garden suites i n a g r i c u l t u r a l zones, does not have any garden suites due to t h e i r cost i s an i n d i c a t i o n of some of the f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with the concept. F i n a l l y , garden suites are not permitted i n any zone i n the City of Terrace. Accessory uses i n r e s i d e n t i a l zones are c l e a r l y stated i n the Zoning By-law. Accessory uses which are permitted are buildings, structures or uses accessory to and located on the same s i t e with the main building or use. An accessory b u i l d i n g i s defined as "a subordinate detached building appurtenant to a main bui l d i n g or main use and located on the same s i t e , the purpose of which i s to provide better and more convenient enjoyment of the main building or main use." 3 7 CMHC, Granny F l a t s : Their P r a c t i c a l i t y and Implementation. (Ottawa: CMHC, A p r i l 1982), p. 85. 3 7Zoning By-law, p. 2 . 124 In addition, i t has been recommended that the i n s t a l l a t i o n of garden suites be li m i t e d to l o t s of 6,500 square feet or more or r u r a l zones i n order to preserve privacy i n the primary dwelling and garden s u i t e and to ensure open space f o r each u n i t . 3 8 As such, garden suites would only be via b l e on large l o t s of land i n r u r a l areas. Consequently, the resident of the garden s u i t e would have to r e l y on friends or r e l a t i v e s to have access to shops and services, unless the resident could s t i l l d rive. For these reasons, garden suites are not a fe a s i b l e housing option for seniors at t h i s time. I t may be possible f or BCHMC to consider taking on the ownership of a f l e e t of garden suites which could then be rented to el d e r l y persons or t h e i r families i n order to regulate occupoancy and the removal of the units once they were no longer needed. This would, of course, be dependent on a number of mu n i c i p a l i t i e s amending t h e i r zoning to allow for the units, and upon the f i n a n c i a l v i a b i l i t y of such a project. 3. Congregate Housing Congregate housing i s not f e a s i b l e i n the near future because of the cost involved i n developing and maintaining such a f a c i l i t y . The introduction of a BCHMC program to encourage the development of affordable congregate care housing would a l l e v i a t e much of t h i s problem. A second way to create congregate housing i n the near future would be to i n i t i a t e a smaller congregate housing option, 3 8 G e l l e r and Associates, 18. 125 which could be located i n a large single family dwelling and would include such services as 24-hour security, meals and weekly housekeeping. The costs involved i n purchasing and maintaining the property and home and keeping a smaller s t a f f of one or two persons would be considerably lower than would be involved i n developing, maintaining and s t a f f i n g a large congregate housing complex i n the commercial core of the Ci t y . Currently, zoning i n the City would permit congregate housing i n a v a r i e t y of zones throughout Terrace depending on the s i z e of the proposed project and the type of services which would be located within the project. Care f a c i l i t i e s The C i t y of Terrace has one care f a c i l i t y , Terraceview Lodge, which has a t o t a l of 75 residents. There are plans underway to develop supportive housing adjacent to the Lodge. I t i s expected that some of the residents currently i n the Lodge w i l l be able to move to the supportive housing, thereby freeing up a number of the beds i n the Lodge. Therefore, there should not be a need for an addi t i o n a l care f a c i l i t y f or a number of years. 126 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CITY OF TERRACE The C i t y of Terrace can play an important r o l e i n encouraging the development of many housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for seniors throughout Terrace. The City currently permits a wide range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements f o r seniors throughout the C i t y . However, the C i t y of Terrace may choose to play an active r o l e i n regulating the type of development that occurs i n sing l e and two family r e s i d e n t i a l zones. Currently, a number of options including group l i v i n g arrangements such as Abbeyfield housing and small congregate care homes, and accessory apartments and in-law suites are l e g a l i n two and multi-family r e s i d e n t i a l zones. At t h i s time, any p r o f i t or non-profit group can e s t a b l i s h a group home i n zones allowing them. I t i s recommended that the City expressly permit group homes for both p r o f i t and non-profit groups, and provide a d e f i n i t i o n of group homes, i n zones that currently permit them i n order to c l a r i f y that they are permitted. Further, the City may choose to make t h i s zoning more r e s t r i c t i v e i n nature so as to regulate the density of group homes i n Terrace so that they do not become concentrated i n s p e c i f i c neighbourhoods. The C i t y may also choose to tackle the issue of l e g a l i z i n g or p r o h i b i t i n g accessory apartments and in-law suites i n s p e c i f i c zones throughout the City. At t h i s time such units are l e g a l because there i s nothing i n the Zoning By-law which p r o h i b i t s them. However, the regulations i n the Zoning By-law do not address accessory apartments or in-law suites as such. These units are 127 l e g a l simply because two family dwellings are permitted i n these zones. Consequently, the City has no choice but to permit these units unless they v i o l a t e regulations s t i p u l a t i n g minimum s i t e area, s i t e frontage and f l o o r area. There are several factors which the C i t y would have to consider i f i t chose to l e g a l i z e or p r o h i b i t these units i n the City . F i r s t , the City would have to e s t a b l i s h whether or not the current zoning allowing accessory units and in-law suites are a problem to the residents i n these zones ( i . e . whether the C i t y receives complaints about these u n i t s ) . Second, the C i t y would have to decide whether or not accessory units and in-law suites would be seen as two d i s t i n c t housing options with d i f f e r e n t requirements and regulations. Third, the C i t y may choose to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two and permit in-law suites providing s t r i c t regulations on the development are followed and the in-law s u i t e i s removed once i t i s no longer required. 3 9 Fourth, the C i t y would have to consider which r e s i d e n t i a l zones would be best suited to accessory apartments or in-law su i t e s . F i n a l l y , the issue of o f f - s t r e e t parking would have to be considered. The e x i s t i n g Zoning By-law for the City of Terrace i s not as r e s t r i c t i v e as those i n other m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Consequently, a wide var i e t y of innovative housing options for e l d e r l y persons are permitted i n Terrace that would not be allowed i n other communities without amending the zoning. In the future, i t i s hoped that the City of Terrace w i l l continue to f a c i l i t a t e 3 9 G e l l e r and Associates, p. 16-17. 128 the development of seniors' housing i n t h i s community through innovative zoning and planning techniques. 129 C H A P T E R 5 C O N C L U S I O N C O N C L U S I O N Seniors i n every Canadian community, be i t large or small, have the r i g h t to affordable, suitable accommodation i n t h e i r community. To that end, seniors should have access to a range of housing i n t h e i r community encompassing independent, supported independent and dependent l i v i n g arrangements. The development of a range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for seniors within a small community such as the City of Terrace poses unique challenges f o r planners of seniors' housing. In Terrace, the f e a s i b i l i t y of a range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for seniors i s affected not only by l o c a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l factors, but also by population conditions which are a t y p i c a l for a small c i t y . The population d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Terrace, wherein the population i s noticeably skewed to the younger working-age groups, rather than r e f l e c t i n g other small c i t i e s , mirrors that of many is o l a t e d resource-based communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia: small, i s o l a t e d resource-based communities tend to have a r e l a t i v e l y low percentage of seniors i n t h e i r t o t a l population. Any attempt to plan a range of housing options for seniors i n these communities poses d i f f e r e n t types of planning problems than would a r i s e i n large c i t i e s . Two of the factors which must be considered i n the creation of future seniors' housing developments i n smaller communities are the scale and timing of development proposals. As i n a l l communities, developments must be b u i l t to the i appropriate scale for the population i n the region. However, i n 131 smaller communities with low numbers of seniors, i t becomes more of a challenge to create small scale developments that w i l l r e f l e c t the population demands i n the region, be c o s t - e f f e c t i v e and employ economies of scale. Moreover, i f the goal i s to develop a range of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements i n a community, i t i s e s s e n t i a l that there are not too many units of one p a r t i c u l a r option on the market which would preclude the development of other housing options i n the future. The importance of scale i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Terrace, where 84 condominium units exclusively for seniors were created at one s i t e , Twin River Estates, within one and a half years. The large scale of Twin River Estates i n a community that has a t o t a l of 550 seniors means that up to 2 0 percent of the seniors i n Terrace l i v e i n t h i s one development. The second factor which must be considered i n the creation of seniors' housing i n smaller communities i s the timing of p a r t i c u l a r proposals. Because Terrace has lim i t e d access to resources such as government funding, seniors' housing groups must work co-operatively to make e f f e c t i v e use of government and l o c a l resources that are av a i l a b l e to encourage and subsidize new housing options and l i v i n g arrangements for seniors. There are a number of groups i n the C i t y such as the Terrace Health Care Society, the Seniors' Advisory Committee which reports to Terrace City Council, and the seniors at the Happy Gang Centre who are concerned about seniors' housing. These d i f f e r e n t lobby groups must be aware of what other groups i n the C i t y are doing and, i d e a l l y , work together whenever possible to lobby for funding from various l e v e l s of government and encourage the development of new housing options i n the City . A second aspect related to timing, p a r t i c u l a r l y when addressing concerns r e l a t i n g to the development of large proposals, i s the a b i l i t y of the current and future seniors' populations to support such projects. One solution may be to consider housing options, such as co-operatives, which integrate households of d i f f e r e n t age groups i n order to a l l e v i a t e some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with small e l d e r l y populations and the v i a b i l i t y of larger projects i n small c i t i e s . In an attempt to resolve some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s associated with the scale and timing i n building developments which s u i t the needs of a smaller community, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to recognize the value of single family dwellings for seniors' housing i n the community. Many of the housing options and l i v i n g arrangements that were recommended for the City of Terrace make use of single family dwellings. Further, the development of supported independent l i v i n g options such as homesharing, accessory apartments and in-law suites i n single family dwellings would help to bridge the gap that e x i s t s i n most small communities between independent and dependent l i v i n g options. Supported independent l i v i n g options i n single family dwellings would be well suited to small c i t i e s such as Terrace for four reasons. F i r s t , these options are created by i n d i v i d u a l households and therefore, unlike multiple uni t projects, are not dependent on a p a r t i c u l a r number of persons or households 133 p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the housing option i n order to make i t f e a s i b l e . Second, these options can be created when they are desired and dissolved when they are no longer needed without a f f e c t i n g any persons outside of that p a r t i c u l a r household who may also be p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the same type of housing arrangement. Third, these options can be created with a minimum f i n a n c i a l commitment and no dependence on government agencies to help finance the option. F i n a l l y , these options can make more e f f e c t i v e use of uncrowded homes owned by e l d e r l y persons i n communities such as Terrace where single family homes far outweigh other types of housing i n the community. Two other supported l i v i n g options which would be well suited to small communities such as Terrace are small congregate housing and Abbeyfield housing. Both of these options are intended to provide housing to f i v e to ten e l d e r l y persons within a single family dwelling. Smaller congregate houses and Abbeyfield housing would be able to o f f e r many of the services, such as security, meals and housekeeping, found i n larger congregate housing projects without the high number of units that are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of congregate housing projects i n large metropolitan areas. Each of these supportive l i v i n g options would make more e f f e c t i v e and intensive use of the e x i s t i n g single family housing stock i n smaller communities. Consequently, these options could help to balance increasing demand with e x i s t i n g supply of affordable units i n single family areas. Moreover, these housing options can be integrated into the e x i s t i n g neighbourhood i n a non-134 obtrusive manner i f proper care i s taken i n t h e i r establishment. This would help to ensure that seniors remain a v i t a l part of the community. The a b i l i t y to introduce a range of housing options for seniors i n a small c i t y i s c r u c i a l to keeping residents i n such a community and a t t r a c t i n g residents from smaller communities once they reach retirement age. I t i s e s s e n t i a l that small c i t i e s attempt to o f f e r innovative housing options and l i v i n g arrangements to seniors that w i l l f a c i l i t a t e independent, supported independent, and dependent l i f e s t y l e s i n order to ensure that seniors w i l l not f e e l compelled to relocate to larger c i t i e s i n order to f i n d the housing and services they desire. The key i s to keep the seniors who are i n small c i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the north, from moving to larger communities i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia where seniors have a wider v a r i e t y of housing options and l i v i n g arrangements at t h e i r disposal. The a b i l i t y to create a v a r i e t y of options throughout the community on a smaller scale helps to ensure that there w i l l be a range of housing options encompassing independent, supported independent, and dependent options without r i s k i n g the v i a b i l i t y of these options because of the li m i t e d numbers of seniors i n the community. 135 Areas fo r Further Research There are several areas for further research which a r i s e out of the work completed i n t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t , there i s a lack of material concerning general trends i n housing and services i n small c i t i e s . This research could be s i m i l a r to the examination of the el d e r l y i n small towns undertaken by Gerald Hodge i n The El d e r l y i n Small Towns: Recent Trends and Their Implications. Second, research could be undertaken regarding the degree to which small c i t i e s receive funding from BCHMC and CMHC and whether they receive t h e i r share of funding. This research could include an examination of whether d i f f e r e n t types of housing options are b u i l t i n small c i t i e s as compared with large metropolitan areas. F i n a l l y , i n terms of research into the d i f f e r e n t housing options and l i v i n g arrangements examined i n t h i s t h esis, more extensive research into the success of congregate housing i n Canada could be conducted. 136 BIBLIOGRAPHY Abbeyfield Society. Review of 1986. Potters Bar: The Abbeyfield Society, n.d. . The Lights are Green: The Report of the Abbeyfield Society's Commission on Growth. Potters Bar: The Abbeyfield Society, March 1979. Aging i n Place: Housing Adaptations and Options for Remaining i n  the Community. Ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. Blackie. Burnaby, B.C.: The Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, 1986. Best, C l i f f . Chairman, Tuck Avenue Apartments. Telephone interview. 24 July 1990. Blackie, Norman K. "Shared Housing: P r i n c i p l e s and Practices." Innovations i n Housing and L i v i n g Arrangements f o r Seniors. Ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. Blackie. Burnaby: The Gerontology Research Centre, 1984. 133-152. . "Alternative Housing and L i v i n g Arrangements f o r Independent L i v i n g . " Journal of Housing for the El d e r l y . 1 (Spring/Summer 1983): 77-83. Blackie, Norman K. , Jack Edelstein, Pamela Scott Matthews, and Robert Timmons. Alte r n a t i v e Housing and L i v i n g Arrangements  for Independent L i v i n g . Michigan: National P o l i c y Center on Housing and L i v i n g Arrangements for Older Americans, College of Architecture and Urban Planning I n s t i t u t e of Gerontology, University of Michigan, 1982(7). Brink, Satya. "Housing E l d e r l y People i n Canada: Working Towards a Continuum of Housing Choices Appropriate to Their Needs." Innovations i n Housing and L i v i n g Arrangements for Seniors. Ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. Blackie. Burnaby: The Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, 1984. 1-23. B.C. Tr a n s i t . Terrace handyDART: Door-to-door rides for disabled  people. Pamphlet. 1990. B r i t i s h Columbia 1986 - Census. Terrace. New Aivansh. Hazelton.  Prince Rupert. Smithers. Kitimat. Charlottes. Stewart,  Houston. V i t o r i a : 1986. B r i t i s h Columbia Housing Management Commission. 1989 Annual  Report. Burnaby: B r i t i s h Columbia Housing Management Commission, 1989. 137 Burgess, L i z . (Coordinator, Vancouver Homesharers Society.) Personal interview. 14 A p r i l 1988. Canada Census 1986. Families: Part 1. Table 7 and Table 8. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, November 1987. The Nation: Population and Dwelling C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Dwellings and Households: Part 1. Catalogue 93-104. Table 11. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1987. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. The Federal Co-operative  Housing Program. October, 1986. • Garden Suites: A New Housing Option f o r E l d e r l y Canadians? [Ottawa: CMHC], June, 1987. . Garden Suites Demonstration - National Survey - (Volume i : Detailed Findings. Submitted by Gallup Canada, Inc., A p r i l 24, 1989. Granny F l a t s : Their P r a c t i c a l i t y and Implementation. Submitted by Michael Lazarowich and Brian W. Haley, University of Waterloo, A p r i l , 1982. . Housing Choices for Older Canadians. [Ottawa: CMHC], n.d. Information: Federal Co-operative Housing Program. September, 1986. . CMHC: Rental Market Survey Report - Terrace - October 1990. Vancouver: CMHC, BC and Yukon Regional O f f i c e , October 1990. Carl i n , V i v ian F. and Ruth Mansberg. I f I Live to be 100 . . .  Congregate Housing for Later L i f e . New York: Parker Publishing Company, Inc., 1984. Centre for Continuing Education. Housing Information for those  Approaching Retirement. 4th Edi t i o n . Vancouver: Centre for Continuing Education, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, September 1986. Cit y of Terrace. Crown Property Map. Overlay 12.75.P/2. n.d. . Municipal Properties Map. Overlay 23.3.76.P. n.d. . Terrace . . . As A Matter of Fact. Terrace Planning and Economic Development Department, 1988. • Zoning Bv-law No. 401 - 1965 (And Amendments) . C i t y of Terrace, 1965. . Zoning Map. Plan 28.7.77., 29 January, 1991. 138 . 20 Year Overview 1970 - 1990. n.d. Community Planning f o r an Aging Society. Ed. M. Powell Lawton, Robert J . Newcomer, and Thomas 0. Byerts. New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1976. Congregate Housing for Older People: A Solution f o r the 1980s. Ed. Robert D. C h e l l i s , James F. Seagle, J r . , and Barbara Mackey Seagle. Lexington, Massachusetts and Toronto: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath and Company, 1982. Corke, Susan, Gregory S. Romanick, Michael Lazarowich, and Joan Simon. Granny F l a t s : A Housing Option for the E l d e r l y . Report No. 13. Winnipeg: I n s t i t u t e of Urban Studies, University of Winnipeg, 1986. Day-Lower, Dennis. Shared housing for Older People: A Planning  Manual f o r Group Residences. Philadelphia: Shared Housing Resource Center, Inc., 1983. Eckert, J . Kevin and Mary Ittman Murrey. "Alternative Modes of L i v i n g for the E l d e r l y . " E l d e r l y People and the Environment. Ed. Irwin Altman, M. Powell Lawton and Joachim F. Wohlhill. New York: Plenum Press, 1984. 95-128. Gellen, Martin. Accessory Apartments i n Single-Family Housing. New Jersey: The Center for Urban Pol i c y Research, 1985. Gelwicks, Louis E. , and Robert J . Newcomer. Planning Housing  Environments for the E l d e r l y . Washington, D.C: National Council on the Aging, Inc., 1974. Gel l e r , Michael and Associates, and Bob Burgess. Development  Controls for Seniors Housing. Prepared for Greater Vancouver Regional D i s t r i c t , November 1989. Goldblatt, S y l v i a , Farley Cates and John P h i l l i p s . Housing  Canada's Seniors. Report No. 14. Winnipeg: I n s t i t u t e of Urban Studies, University of Winnipeg, 1986. Goldenberg, Leon. Housing for the E l d e r l y : New Trends i n Europe. New York and London: Garland STPM Press, 1981. Goodwin, Jacquie. Member of St. Andrew's Abbeyfield Housing Society, Sidney, B.C. Personal interview. 18 November 1987. Guilbault, Lynn M. Housing B r i t i s h Columbia's Small Town El d e r l y . Master's Thesis. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1989. Gutman, G l o r i a M. , E l l e n M. Gee, Bell e C. Bojanowki, and Darja Mottet. Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Burnaby: The 139 Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, August 1986. Gutman, G l o r i a M. Report of February 2. 1989 S i t e V i s i t to  Terraceview Lodge. Terrace. B.C.. Burnaby: The Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, 1989. Gutowski, Michael, and Tracey F e i l d . The Graving of Suburbia. Washington, D.C.: The Urban I n s t i t u t e , May 1979. The Happy Gang Centre. Happy Gang News. Vol. 3, No. 2. Terrace, B.C., March 1990. . Hare, Patrick H., and Linda E. H o l l i s . ECHO Housing: A Review of  Zoning Issues and Other Considerations. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Retired Persons, 1983. Hodge, Gerald. The E l d e r l y In Canada's Small Towns: Recent Trends  and Their Implications. Vancouver: The Centre for Human Settlements, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987. Hodge, Gerald. Seniors i n Small Town B r i t i s h Columbia:  Demographic Tendencies and Trends. 1961 to 1986. Vancouver: Centre for Human Settlements, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, January, 1991. Hoglund, J . David. Housing for the E l d e r l y : Privacy and  Independence i n Environments for the Aging. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc., 1985. "Housing Bid Made Today." Terrace Standard 28 February 1990, n.p. Housing f o r a Maturing Population. The Urban Land I n s t i t u t e . Washington: The Urban Land I n s t i t u t e , 1983. Housing the Very Old. Ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. Blackie. Burnaby: The Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, 1988. The Land Tax Deferment Program. Pamphlet. B r i t i s h Columbia: Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations, 1990. Leisinger, Michael. Terrace Health Care Society C.E.O. Personal interview. 9 July, 1990. Lutz Associates. Terrace Health Care Society: Supportive Housing  Program. March 21, 1990. Markoff, Anthony Wayne. The Locational Needs of the E l d e r l y For  Housing. Master's Thesis. The University of B r i t i s h 140 Columbia, 1972. McKay, Lauri and Janet Lee. I l l e g a l Suites: Issue and Response. Paper Presented to The Canadian Association of Planning Students Conference. Montreal, Quebec, March 1988. Murray, Charlotte C. "The Small Congregate Home." Housing the  Very Old. Ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. Blackie. Burnaby: The Gerontology Research Centre, Simon Fraser University, 1988. Peace, Sheila. ""Small Group" Housing i n the Community, Part I I : Variations on Sheltered Housing." Aging International. Summer 1981, 8(2), 16-20. P.E.O.P.L.E.: Population Extrapolation f o r Organizational  Planning with Less Error. V i c t o r i a : Population Section, Central S t a t i s t i c s Bureau, Ministry of Finance and Corporate Relations, 1989. Plan Canada: Planning for an Aging Society. Journal of the Canadian I n s t i t u t e of Planners. 30:4 (July 1990). Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Soc i a l Services and Housing. SAFER: Shelter Aid for E l d e r l y Renters. V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r #84858, 1990. Rosenthal, Carolyn J . "Aging and Intergenerational Relations i n Canada." Aging i n Canada: So c i a l Perspectives. Ed. V i c t o r W. Marshall. Markham, Ontario: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1987. 311-342. Schreter, Carol A. "Advantages and Disadvantages of Shared Housing." Journal of Housing for the El d e r l y . 3 (Fall/Winter 1985): 121-138. Soci a l Planning and Research Council of B.C. SPARC NEWS Community  A f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Seniors' Housing. Vol. 5 No. 2. Vancouver: S o c i a l Planning and Research Council of B.C., Winter 1988. Stewart, Betty. Terrace Home Support Services, Terrace and D i s t r i c t Community Services Society. Personal interview. 9 July, 1990. Stone, Leroy and Hubert Franken. Census 1986. Focus on Canada:  Canada's Seniors. Catalogue 98-121. Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada, December 1988. Streib, Gordon F. , W. Edward Fo l t s , and Mary Anne Hilke r . Old  Homes—New Families: Shared L i v i n g for the E l d e r l y . New York: 141 Columbia University Press, 1984. Sutherland, Geniene. Administrative Assistant - Residential Care, Terraceview Lodge. Personal interview. 4 A p r i l 1990. Tate, Jeremy. Long Term Care F a c i l i t i e s : Overview and Trends. U.B.C. Presentation, 29 October, 1987. Taylor, Shelley A. Discussion Paper Relating to Evolving Needs of  E l d e r l y & Special Needs People i n the Terrace Service Basin. 1989. . Supportive Housing Needs For Terrace and Area: A Preliminary Review and Concept Proposal. February 1990. Terraceview Lodge Informational Booklet. Terraceview Lodge, n.d. Township of Langley, Planning Department. Telephone conversation. 21 February 1991. Wilson, James W. "Assessing the Walking Environment of the E l d e r l y . " Plan Canada. 21/4, (1982): 117-121. 142 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0100375/manifest

Comment

Related Items