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A strategy for the diversification of housing options and living arrangements for senior citizens in… Kamenz, Cherie Bernice 1991

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A STRATEGY FOR THE DIVERSIFICATION OF HOUSING OPTIONS AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SENIOR CITIZENS IN THE CITY OF TERRACE, BRITISH COLUMBIA BY CHERIE BERNICE KAMENZ B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE  FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  School o f Community and R e g i o n a l  Planning  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y , 1991  ©  C h e r i e B e r n i c e Kamenz, 1991  In  presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  publication of  and study.  thesis for scholarly by  his  or  her  the  representatives.  may be It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  Department of  Graduate Studies  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6  (2/88)  '  7D A u g u s t  1QQ1  that the  I further agree  purposes  Community & R e g i o n a l  requirements  Planning  is  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission for extensive granted  by the  understood  that  be allowed without  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  In 1986 age  and  t h e r e were n e a r l y 2.7  over.  During  e l d e r l y Canadians any  o t h e r age  the  next  m i l l i o n Canadians  several  decades,  65 y e a r s of  the  number  of  i s expected t o c o n t i n u e t o grow more q u i c k l y than  group.  The  growth of the  elderly  population, i n  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e i r b a s i c r i g h t t o adequate, a f f o r d a b l e housing, necessitates  t h a t p l a n n e r s r e c o g n i z e and  attempt  to s a t i s f y  unique housing needs and d e s i r e s of e l d e r l y Canadians.  the  In o r d e r  f o r p l a n n e r s t o a p p r o p r i a t e l y meet the housing needs and d e s i r e s of c u r r e n t and f u t u r e c o h o r t s of e l d e r l y persons, they must s t r i v e f o r the  creation  of  a  continuum  of  housing  options  and  living  arrangements s u i t a b l e f o r a d i v e r s e range of housing needs w i t h i n each  community. This  thesis  provides  a  strategy  continuum of housing o p t i o n s and persons  i n a small c i t y :  Columbia.  The  process  living  for  the  creation  of  a  arrangements f o r e l d e r l y  the C i t y of T e r r a c e i n n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h i s divided  into  three  phases:  (1)  an  examination of a range of housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements encompassing living,  independent,  supported  independent,  and  (2) a p r o f i l e of the C i t y of T e r r a c e which w i l l  the t y p e s and  l o c a t i o n s of e x i s t i n g housing and  dependent identify  s e r v i c e s f o r the  e l d e r l y and c l a r i f y d i r e c t i o n s f o r f u t u r e development, and  (3) an  a n a l y s i s of t h e f i n a n c i a l c o s t s and the l o c a t i o n a l requirements of the housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements i n o r d e r t o which o p t i o n s are b e s t s u i t e d t o the p r e s e n t and  determine  f u t u r e housing  needs o f e l d e r l y T e r r a c e r e s i d e n t s . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e a wide range  o f independent  and dependent  living  housing  o p t i o n s and  l i v i n g arrangements f o r e l d e r l y T e r r a c e r e s i d e n t s ; however, t h e r e is  a l a c k o f supported  Consequently,  independent  housing  options f o r seniors.  t h e r e i s an emphasis on encouraging t h e development  of supported independent housing o p t i o n s i n t h e f i r s t f i v e y e a r s o f the t e n year s t r a t e g y . A r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l percentage o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e City  o f T e r r a c e i s 65 y e a r s o f age and over.  attempt  t o o f f e r a range  population  i n the City,  benefits  i n an  o f housing o p t i o n s f o r a s m a l l s e n i o r s ' many  recommended can be developed The  Therefore,  o f t h e housing  options  that are  i n s i n g l e f a m i l y detached d w e l l i n g s .  o f d e v e l o p i n g these o p t i o n s i n s i n g l e  i n c l u d e t h e a b i l i t y t o make more e f f i c i e n t  f a m i l y homes  use o f uncrowded s i n g l e  f a m i l y homes, t h e a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e and d i s s o l v e an o p t i o n f o r a single ability  household to  without  create  small  affecting scale  other  households,  developments  of  arrangements i n e x i s t i n g s i n g l e f a m i l y homes and  and t h e  group  living  neighbourhoods.  The c r e a t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f o p t i o n s throughout t h e community on a s m a l l e r s c a l e h e l p s t o ensure t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a range o f housing options  encompassing  independent,  supported  dependent o p t i o n s without r i s k i n g t h e v i a b i l i t y  independent,  of these options  because o f t h e l i m i t e d numbers o f s e n i o r s i n t h e community.  iii  and  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  . ..  i i  LIST OF TABLES  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  viii  CHAPTER 1:  INTRODUCTION  1  INTRODUCTION Purpose and Methodology CHAPTER 2: ELDERLY  2 12  HOUSING OPTIONS AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE 19  INDEPENDENT LIVING S i n g l e F a m i l y Detached Dwellings R e n t a l Apartments Condominiums C o - o p e r a t i v e Housing N o n - P r o f i t S e n i o r s ' Housing M o b i l e Homes  21 21 24 25 26 28 29  SUPPORTED INDEPENDENT LIVING Supported Independent L i v i n g i n the Community . . . A c c e s s o r y Apartments In-law S u i t e s Homesharing Garden S u i t e s Abbey f i e l d Concept Housing Congregate Housing  32 33 34 37 39 42 45 47  DEPENDENT LIVING P e r s o n a l Care Intermediate Care Extended Care The F u t u r e of Care f a c i l i t i e s  51 52 52 53 54  CHAPTER 3:  PROFILE OF THE CITY OF TERRACE, BRITISH COLUMBIA.  57  CURRENT AND PROJECTED POPULATION OF THE CITY OF TERRACE  57  EXISTING HOUSING USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS Condominiums N o n - P r o f i t S e n i o r s ' Housing Intermediate and Extended Care F a c i l i t i e s  68 68 71 73  iv  EXISTING SERVICES USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS. . . 77 Support Services f o r those L i v i n g i n the Community 77 OTHER SERVICES USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS . . . . Health Care Services Shops and Services Access to Services  81 81 81 82  CHAPTER 4 : DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUUM OF HOUSING OPTIONS AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE CITY OF TERRACE  84  FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS Single Family Detached Dwellings Rental Apartments / Condominiums Co-operative Housing Non-Profit Seniors' Housing Accessory Apartment / In-law Suites Homesharing Garden Suites Abbeyfield Concept Housing Congregate Housing Care f a c i l i t i e s  86 86 88 90 93 95 95 96 97 99 101  LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSING OPTIONS Land Use Designation of E x i s t i n g Housing Stock i n Terrace Land Resources of the c i t y of Terrace and Province  102 105 I l l  DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 115 Housing Options which are Immediately Feasible. . . 116 Housing Options which would be Feasible i n the Mid-term 120 Housing Options which may be Feasible i n the Distant Future 122 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE CITY OF TERRACE CHAPTER 5:  CONCLUSION  127 131  CONCLUSION Areas f o r Further Research  131 13 6  BIBLIOGRAPHY  13 7  v  LIST TABLE  OF  TABLES  1  Growth i n the E l d e r l y P o p u l a t i o n i n D i f f e r e n t Settlement Types i n Canada, 1961 - 1986 TABLE  2  Growth i n the Percentage of the E l d e r l y P o p u l a t i o n i n D i f f e r e n t Settlement Types i n Canada, 1961 - 1986 TABLE  P o p u l a t i o n of the C i t y of T e r r a c e by Age and Sex  59  P o p u l a t i o n of the C i t y of T e r r a c e by Age, Male P o p u l a t i o n  60  P o p u l a t i o n of the C i t y of T e r r a c e by Age, Female P o p u l a t i o n  60  P o p u l a t i o n of the C i t y of T e r r a c e and Surrounding Area  61  P o p u l a t i o n of L o c a l H e a l t h Area 88 Over 45 Years of Age  66  4  1986 TABLE  5  1986 TABLE  6  1986 TABLE  TABLE  7  8  Housing Options P e r m i t t e d i n the C i t y of T e r r a c e by Zone TABLE  5  3  1986 TABLE  5  106  9  L i s t of Land Owned by the C i t y of T e r r a c e  vi  112  LIST FIGURE  OF  FIGURES  1  L o c a l H e a l t h Areas 88 and 92 FIGURE  63  2  C i t y o f T e r r a c e I n d i c a t i n g Housing and S e r v i c e s Used by S e n i o r s  vii  67  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e t o thank my husband Marvin f o r a l l h i s l o v e , support and c o n f i d e n c e i n me. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank h i s wonderful f a m i l y f o r t h e i r l o v e and support. I would a l s o l i k e t o acknowledge t h e s e n i o r s i n t h e C i t y o f Terrace. I t has been my p l e a s u r e t o have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet and l e a r n from t h e s e people. I t i s my hope t h a t t h i s t h e s i s w i l l p l a y a p a r t i n h e l p i n g t o improve t h e housing r e s o u r c e s f o r s e n i o r s i n t h i s community.  viii  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  INTRODUCTION Canada's e l d e r l y rate.  population  i s growing  a t an  unprecedented  The number o f e l d e r l y Canadians, those persons 65 y e a r s of  age and over, has i n c r e a s e d from 2.4 m i l l i o n i n 1981 t o n e a r l y million  in  1986.  Population  1  projections  that  are  2.7  based  on  c o n t i n u e d lower b i r t h r a t e s , i n c r e a s e d m o r t a l i t y r a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e e l d e r l y , growth  i n the e l d e r l y  unparalleled indicate million  and c o n s t a n t l e v e l s  that by  by  any  population other  age  Canada's e l d e r l y  the year 2001.  3  of m i g r a t i o n ,  over t h e next  group  This rate  several  i n Canada.  population  will  of growth  forecast  2  a  decades  Projections  increase  to  3.3  i s expected t o  c o n t i n u e and, i n f a c t , a c c e l e r a t e a f t e r the y e a r 2006. The p o p u l a t i o n of e l d e r l y Canadians aged 80 y e a r s and over has been growing even more q u i c k l y t h a t has t h e p o p u l a t i o n aged 65 and over.  In  example,  fact,  i n 1981  the  elderly  population  B r i t i s h Columbians  itself  i s aging.  For  aged 80 and over r e p r e s e n t e d  L e r o y Stone and Hubert Frenken, Census 198 6 Focus on Canada Catalogue 98-121 "Canada's S e n i o r s " (Ottawa, O n t a r i o : M i n i s t e r of Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, December 1988), p. 17. !  Frank T. Denton, C h r i s t i n e H. Feaver and Byron G. Spencer, "The Canadian P o p u l a t i o n and Labour F o r c e : R e t r o s p e c t and P r o s p e c t , " Aging i n Canada: S o c i a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , ed. V i c t o r W. M a r s h a l l (Markham, O n t a r i o : F i t z h e n r y and W h i t e s i d e , 1987), p. 26. 2  S a t y a B r i n k , "Housing E l d e r l y People i n Canada: Working Towards a Continuum of Housing Choices A p p r o p r i a t e t o T h e i r Needs," I n n o v a t i o n s i n Housing and L i v i n g Arrangements f o r S e n i o r s . ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. B l a c k i e (Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia: Gerontology Research Centre, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1984), p. 2. 3  19.6 p e r c e n t o f B.C.'s p o p u l a t i o n aged 65 and over.  By 2001, they  are expected t o comprise 26.4 p e r c e n t of t h e e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n .  4  As w e l l as growing i n a b s o l u t e numbers, e l d e r l y Canadians w i l l be  increasing  as  a  percentage  of  Canada's  total  Canadians 65 y e a r s of age and o l d e r c o n s t i t u t e d the t o t a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n i n 1986, over 10 p e r c e n t i n 1981.  5  population.  10.66  p e r c e n t of  an i n c r e a s e from  By the year 2001  slightly  t h e number o f e l d e r l y  Canadians i s expected t o i n c r e a s e t o 13 p e r c e n t , and by 2031, when the  entire  baby  boom  generation  has  reached  retirement  age,  p r o j e c t i o n s i n d i c a t e n e a r l y 25 p e r c e n t o f the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be 65 y e a r s o f age and o v e r .  6  Today, as i n the p a s t , the m a j o r i t y of e l d e r l y Canadians in  large  urban  centres  with a population  o f more than  live  100,000  persons: i n 1986, c l o s e t o 1.5 m i l l i o n e l d e r l y Canadians, o r almost one  half  urban  o f a l l Canadians  centres.  7  over 65 y e a r s of age,  Similarly,  in  British  Columbia  lived in  i n large 1981  the  m a j o r i t y o f e l d e r l y persons, 84.4 p e r c e n t , l i v e d i n urban c e n t r e s ,  " G l o r i a Gutman, E l l e n Gee, B e l l e Bojanowski and D a r j a Mottet, F a c t Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia. (Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia: Gerontology Research Centre, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , August 1986), p. 3. 5  Stone and Frenken, p. 17.  Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , Housing Choices f o r O l d e r Canadians (Ottawa, O n t a r i o : Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , n.d.), p. 5. 6  G e r a l d Hodge, The E l d e r l y i n Canada's Small Towns: Recent Trends and T h e i r I m p l i c a t i o n s . O c c a s i o n a l Papers # 43, (The Centre f o r Human S e t t l e m e n t s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987,) p. 15. 7  3  w i t h 43.7 of  percent l i v i n g  i n l a r g e urban c e n t r e s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n  500,000 or more persons.  8  As T a b l e 1 i n d i c a t e s , however, t h e r e have been s h i f t s  i n the  l o c a t i o n s i n which e l d e r l y Canadians have chosen t o r e s i d e . last  two  elderly  decades  have  Canadians  who  witnessed live  in  an  increase  smaller  urban  i n the  number  centres,  with  The of a  p o p u l a t i o n of between 10,000 and 99,999 persons, and s m a l l towns, w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n of between 1,000  F a c t Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h 4  and 9,999 persons.  Columbia, p.  22.  Table 1 Growth i n t h e E l d e r l y P o p u l a t i o n i n D i f f e r e n t Settlement Types i n Canada, 1961 - 1986  Settlement Type  P o p u l a t i o n over 65 y e a r s o f age (000s) 1961 1971 1981 1986  Large Small Small Rural Rural  594.3 195.5 177.8 134.7 288.7  799.2 287.0 234.6 82.4 340.9  1196.3 361.8 285.5 56.1 461.6  1459.9 389.1 279.1 55.6 516.8  1391.0  1744.1  2361.3  2700.5  Urban Urban Towns Farm Non-farm  Canada  Source: G e r a l d Hodge, The E l d e r l y i n Small Towns: Recent Trends and T h e i r I m p l i c a t i o n s . O c c a s i o n a l Papers #43, (The Centre f o r Human S e t t l e m e n t s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Faculty of Graduate S t u d i e s , 1987), p. 15. G e r a l d Hodge, "The S e n i o r s ' Surge: Why P l a n n e r s Should Care," P l a n Canada 30:4 ( J u l y 1990): 5-13, p. 6. Table 2 Growth i n t h e Percentage o f t h e E l d e r l y P o p u l a t i o n i n D i f f e r e n t Settlement Types i n Canada, 1961 - 1981  Settlement Type Large Small Small Rural Rural Canada  Urban Urban Towns Farm Non-farm  Percentage o f p o p u l a t i o n over 65 y e a r s 1961 1971 1981 1986 7.5 7.1 8.8 6.5 8.3  7.8 7.8 9.4 5.8 9.1  9.5 10.2 12.5 5.4 9.5  7.6  8.1  9.7  10.7 * 11.65* 13.5 * 6.2 10.2 10.7  * These percentages are d e r i v e d from the average breakdown o f t h e urban p o p u l a t i o n f o r 1986. Source: Hodge, The E l d e r l y i n Small Towns, p. 15. Hodge, "The S e n i o r s ' Surge," p. 7.  5  of a  In a d d i t i o n t o the growth i n the a b s o l u t e number of persons i n s m a l l urban c e n t r e s and  elderly  s m a l l towns, T a b l e 2 i n d i c a t e s  t h a t t h e percentage of e l d e r l y persons i n s m a l l towns and  small  urban c e n t r e s i n Canada has a l s o i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y i n the l a s t two  decades.  In 1986,  urban c e n t r e s and  the percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n i n s m a l l  s m a l l towns t h a t was  65 y e a r s  of age  and  over  exceeded t h a t of any other s e t t l e m e n t type, as w e l l as the n a t i o n a l average  i n 1981  and  1986.  a v a i l a b i l i t y of housing  I t i s undeniable  9  that  the  improved  and s e r v i c e s intended f o r e l d e r l y persons  has made t h e c h o i c e of s t a y i n g i n or moving t o s m a l l urban c e n t r e s and s m a l l towns more a p p e a l i n g t o the  The demands  growth on  of  the  existing  elderly  elderly.  population  accommodations  for  will  the  n e c e s s i t a t e the c r e a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l housing elderly  persons.  In  order  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c u r r e n t and planners  of s e n i o r s ' housing  to  create  income,  Canadians  desire  options  65 in  elderly  have a good r e t i r e m e n t  and  that  f u t u r e c o h o r t s of e l d e r l y  will  will  be  Canadians,  must c o n s i d e r s i x f a c t o r s r e g a r d i n g  years  and  housing.  over,  persons. regardless  Elderly  income, those  who  of  Canadians  c l a s s i f i e d by f o u r income l e v e l groups: those who and  greater  s t o c k intended f o r  housing  the needs, demands and p r e f e r e n c e s of e l d e r l y First,  place  own  their can  be  t h e i r homes  are house r i c h  but  Two p r o v i n c e s , Newfoundland and B r i t i s h Columbia, do not conform t o these t r e n d s . The reason f o r t h i s appears t o be the l a r g e number of s m a l l , i s o l a t e d r e s o u r c e towns i n each of these p r o v i n c e s : these s m a l l e r r e s o u r c e towns t y p i c a l l y have younger working age p o p u l a t i o n s . 9  6  income poor, t h o s e w i t h low income and no c a p i t a l ,  and those who  are poor and new Canadians who do not r e c e i v e Canada Pension o r O l d Age S e c u r i t y . dependent  1 0  I t i s estimated that one-third of a l l seniors are  almost t o t a l l y  on government p e n s i o n f o r income , and 11  t h e r e f o r e , l i v e a t o r j u s t above the p o v e r t y l i n e .  F u r t h e r , "women  are t h e most a f f e c t e d by low incomes, 40.5% o f a l l women a r e i n t h e lowest r e t i r e m e n t income group as compared w i t h 24.8% o f e l d e r l y men."  I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t p l a n n e r s r e c o g n i z e t h a t each o f t h e s e  12  groups have d i s t i n c t housing needs and d e s i r e s about how t o l i v e that  may be s a t i s f i e d  by d i f f e r e n t  housing o p t i o n s  and  living  arrangements. Second,  p r e s e n t and f u t u r e  expected t o l i v e  longer,  cohorts of e l d e r l y  healthier  persons a r e  l i v e s due t o improved  health  c a r e , t o be more h i g h l y educated, and t o have a h i g h e r income, on average, than p a s t c o h o r t s o f persons 65 y e a r s o f age and o v e r .  13  Moreover, e l d e r l y Canadians i n t h e f u t u r e w i l l be more i n c l i n e d t o have  saved  and planned  for their  retirement  p r e f e r e n c e s r e g a r d i n g accommodation and l i f e s t y l e .  years  and have  As such, f u t u r e  c o h o r t s o f s e n i o r s a r e l i k e l y t o be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o demand  V a l MacDonald, " S e n i o r s ' Housing: What S e n i o r s A r e S a y i n g , " SPARC News Community A f f a i r s In B r i t i s h Columbia. Winter 1988, p. 3. 10  n  Hodge, "The S e n i o r s ' Surge," p. 8.  12  Hodge, "The S e n i o r s ' Surge," p. 8.  Margaret P i c a r d , "Congregate Housing f o r S e n i o r s : What Works and What Doesn't," SPARC News Community A f f a i r s In B r i t i s h Columbia. Winter 1988, p. 2. 13  7  a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements and t o make d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c h o i c e s i n housing Third,  elderly  Canadians  are  and  not  a  lifestyle.  homogeneous  group.  Canadians 65 y e a r s of age and over, l i k e younger Canadians, i n p h y s i c a l a b i l i t i e s , competency, and d e s i r e s about how It  i s also essential  to recognize  differ  to  the growing number of  live.  elderly  Canadians over 75 y e a r s of age and t h e i r i n c r e a s e d demands on  the  community.  the  Between 1991  and  2001,  the number of s e n i o r s over  age of 75 y e a r s w i l l grow 50 p e r c e n t f a s t e r than those aged 65-74 years,  and  the number of s e n i o r s over  85 y e a r s  t w i c e as f a s t as those between 65-74 y e a r s .  14  of age  will  The e l d e s t Canadians  are more l i k e l y t o r e q u i r e s u p p o r t i v e and dependent l i v i n g o p t i o n s as w e l l as some form of a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e i r d a i l y Therefore,  i t i s imperative  that there  be  grow  a variety  of  housing lives. housing  o p t i o n s and l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e s t o meet a wide range of housing needs and d e s i r e s about how Fourth, remain  i t i s the  independent  Consequently,  to  the  in  live. preference their  of most e l d e r l y  home  National  for  as  Seniors  long  Housing  Canadians as  possible.  Consultation  recommended: The housing and s e r v i c e o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e should enable us t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o u r s e l v e s i n our own homes and communities as long as p o s s i b l e . 1 5  14  Hodge, "The  S e n i o r s ' Surge," p.  6.  0ne V o i c e - The Canadian S e n i o r s Network, 1989, p. 5. As quoted i n Ron C o r b e t t , "Coming of Age: A P r o f i l e of the E l d e r l y i n A t l a n t i c Canada," i n P l a n Canada 30:4 ( J u l y 1990), p. 15. 15  8  to  Many i n n o v a t i v e housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements would a l l o w persons  65 and over  t o remain  i n their  home w i t h  the help of  i n f o r m a l s o c i a l support networks t h a t have been b u i l t up over t h e y e a r s w i t h f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . and  living  home  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , some housing o p t i o n s  arrangements enable t h e e l d e r l y  with  the addition  homesharers,  who  new  can p r o v i d e  p h y s i c a l support.  household  economic,  t o remain a t  members,  such  psychological  as  and/or  These i n f o r m a l support networks o f t e n enable an  e l d e r l y person t o remain alleviating  of  persons  some  independent  o f t h e need  w i t h i n t h e community, w h i l e  f o r formal  support  systems  or  i n s t i t u t i o n a l care. Fifth,  research  suggests  that  most  elderly  Canadians  view  f a m i l y as "an extremely important source o f emotional, s o c i a l and practical  support"  16  and want t o l i v e  near  their  adult  However, they would p r e f e r not t o l i v e w i t h them. study  conducted  i n London,  Ontario  i n 1983  children.  F o r example, a  found  that  most  respondents would l i v e elsewhere r a t h e r than w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n i f they c o u l d no l o n g e r l i v e a l o n e .  17  F i n a l l y , a v a r i e t y o f housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements h e l p s t o ensure f l e x i b i l i t y i n t h e housing system f o r t h e e l d e r l y . The  availability  of  a  range  of  housing  options  and  living  arrangements t h a t o f f e r v a r i e d l e v e l s o f independence and c a r e , a t  C a r o l y n J . Rosenthal, "Aging and I n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s i n Canada," Aging I n Canada: S o c i a l P e r s p e c t i v e s , ed. V i c t o r W. M a r s h a l l (Markham, O n t a r i o : F i t z h e n r y and Whiteside, 1987), p. 311. 16  17  R o s e n t h a l , p. 316. 9  a v a r i e t y o f c o s t l e v e l s , i n c r e a s e s t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t an e l d e r l y person w i l l be a b l e t o f i n d s u i t a b l e , a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g . the  availability  of  a  range  of  housing  options  Further,  and  living  arrangements a l l o w s housing c h o i c e s t o be r e a l c h o i c e s , r a t h e r than c h o i c e s by d e f a u l t . Together, t h e s e s i x f a c t o r s i l l u s t r a t e  that planners  should  i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o community p l a n s and zoning bylaws t h e freedom t o develop  a  range  arrangements  or  continuum  f o r the  elderly  o f housing so  that  options  and  a l l elderly  living  persons,  r e g a r d l e s s o f income, w i l l have access t o a v a r i e t y o f s u i t a b l e , a f f o r d a b l e accommodation w i t h i n t h e i r community. housing  the elderly  emphasises  t h e need  T h i s approach t o  t o introduce  housing  o p t i o n s t h a t w i l l address t h e v o i d t h a t e x i s t s i n many communities between t h e extremes o f independent l i v i n g and r e s i d e n c y i n a c a r e facility. The p r o v i s i o n o f a range o r continuum o f h o u s i n g o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements would i n v o l v e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a v a r i e t y o f housing  options  categories: living,  and  and  living  (1) independent (3)  dependent  arrangements living, living.  from  each  (2) supported independent 1 8  Independent  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an e l d e r l y person o r persons l i v i n g family  dwelling,  private dwelling.  apartment,  mobile  of these  home,  living  is  i n a single  condominium  or other  Independent l i v i n g may i n v o l v e minimal support  from f a m i l y and f r i e n d s f o r such t a s k s as maintenance o f t h e home and y a r d o r household chores. 18  S a t y a B r i n k , p. 14-16. 10  Supported independent types  where  independent  living  living  o c c u r s i n many of the d w e l l i n g  o c c u r s ; however, more e x t e n s i v e  support s e r v i c e s from f a m i l y , f r i e n d s o r community s e r v i c e s and/or s p e c i a l u n i t d e s i g n , such as w h e e l c h a i r access ramps, a r e r e q u i r e d in  order  Supported facilities  for  these  independent or  other  elderly living seniors'  persons also  to  occurs  oriented  remain in  independent.  congregate  projects  where  care  on-site  support s e r v i c e s , such as prepared meals, emergency alarm systems, and s p e c i a l u n i t d e s i g n f a c i l i t a t e semi-independent  living.  Dependent l i v i n g i s d e f i n e d as i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e f o r persons i n need o f e x t e n s i v e s e r v i c e s and c a r e .  11  Purpose  and  Methodology  The purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r the c r e a t i o n  of a continuum  l i v i n g arrangements the  i s t o develop and propose a p l a n o r range  f o r e l d e r l y persons w i t h i n a g i v e n community:  C i t y o f T e r r a c e , B r i t i s h Columbia. Terrace  Columbia,  i s a small,  isolated  community  o r over.  Significantly,  s e r v i c e s than City  the C i t y  i t s population could  i s the s e r v i c e  western  i n northern B r i t i s h  150 k i l o m e t r e s e a s t o f P r i n c e Rupert.  had a p o p u l a t i o n of 10,532 persons, 505 age  of housing o p t i o n s and  British  In 1986  the C i t y  of whom were 65 y e a r s of of T e r r a c e has  many more  n o r m a l l y support because  c e n t r e f o r many s m a l l e r communities  Columbia.  Because  of  the  unique  the  i n north  location  and  p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of T e r r a c e , s e v e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s must be taken i n t o account.  For example, T e r r a c e , as a s m a l l ,  isolated  c i t y , has a lower than normal percentage of e l d e r l y persons i n the p o p u l a t i o n due t o the predominance of younger working age in  the  community.  Consequently,  19  problems  persons  associated  with  p r o v i d i n g a range o f housing o p t i o n s f o r a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number of  elderly  addition,  persons the  in  the  probability  s m a l l e r communities  community and  impact  must of  be  addressed.  elderly  persons  In from  s u r r o u n d i n g T e r r a c e m i g r a t i n g t o the C i t y must  As noted e a r l i e r , i n 1986, persons 65 y e a r s of age and over accounted f o r 11.65 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n the average s m a l l urban c e n t r e i n Canada. However, the percentage of e l d e r l y persons i s much lower i n s m a l l , i s o l a t e d r e s o u r c e towns i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Newfoundland which t y p i c a l l y have younger working age p o p u l a t i o n s . Such i s the case i n T e r r a c e where, i n 1986, persons 65 y e a r s of age and over o n l y comprised f i v e p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . 19  12  be c o n s i d e r e d i n the c o n t e x t of p o p u l a t i o n f o r e c a s t i n g and p l a n n i n g f o r housing and s e r v i c e s f o r e l d e r l y persons i n T e r r a c e . The proposed p l a n f o r a continuum or range of housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements f o r e l d e r l y persons i n the C i t y of T e r r a c e will  incorporate  independent  and  some  dependent  housing o p t i o n s and  living  t h i s p l a n w i l l attempt  elements living  of  independent,  arrangements.  supported  The  range  of  arrangements t h a t w i l l be proposed  in  t o s a t i s f y a v a r i e t y of economic,  social,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and p h y s i c a l needs among the e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n i n the C i t y of T e r r a c e .  Finally,  the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p r o j e c t e d  growth of the e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the C i t y of T e r r a c e over the next plan. in  20 y e a r s w i l l  be c o n s i d e r e d i n the development of  Upon completion of t h i s t h e s i s , which w i l l be  nature,  the  City  of T e r r a c e and  this  prescriptive  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of  seniors'  housing groups w i t h i n the C i t y w i l l be a b l e t o use t h i s work as a s t r a t e g y f o r the implementation  of a continuum of housing f o r the  elderly. There are f o u r p o l i c y g o a l s which u n d e r l i e the purpose of t h i s work.  20  The f i r s t  i s t o improve the e x i s t i n g range and q u a l i t y of  housing f o r the e l d e r l y i n the C i t y of T e r r a c e .  T h i s p o l i c y would  require  meets  that  there  be  available  housing  that  or  exceeds  minimum standards and t h a t such housing be a v a i l a b l e i n a v a r i e t y  S a t y a B r i n k , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l Experience i n Housing the Very Old: P o l i c y I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Canada," Housing the Very Old, ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. B l a c k i e (Burnaby, B r i t i s h Columbia: Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Gerontology Research Centre, 1988), p. 214-219. 20  13  of  sizes,  costs  and d e s i g n s  to satisfy  a  range  o f needs and  desires. The  second p o l i c y g o a l i s t o reduce t h e r a t e o f unnecessary  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n among t h e e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n .  The purpose o f  t h i s p o l i c y g o a l i s t o p r o v i d e s u i t a b l e housing c h o i c e s t o e l d e r l y T e r r a c e r e s i d e n t s who chose i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e due t o t h e l a c k o f an  alternative  Ultimately,  at  the  time  the creation  of a  of  entrance  range  to  the  o f supported  facility. independent  housing o p t i o n s throughout t h e community would reduce unnecessary institutionalization  and open up e x i s t i n g  beds  in institutional  f a c i l i t i e s f o r those persons who w i l l r e q u i r e those s e r v i c e s i n t h e future. of  T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t i n l i g h t  t h e growing  population  o f persons  over  75 y e a r s o f age who  r e q u i r e a g r e a t e r degree o f c a r e i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l The  third  desired  and p o s s i b l e .  naturally policy.  policy  goal  i s t o encourage  In t h e p a s t  i n t h e community,  setting.  a g i n g i n p l a c e , when  aging  i n place  not as t h e r e s u l t  occurred  of a conscious  More r e c e n t l y , however, d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e concept  of a g i n g i n p l a c e has r e c o g n i z e d t h e importance o f encouraging and f a c i l i t a t i n g a g i n g i n p l a c e through a v a r i e t y o f support mechanisms for  independent  and  semi-independent  elderly  persons  i n the  community. T h i s p h i l o s o p h y i s acknowledged by E i l e e n Badiuk who b e l i e v e s the  concept  of aging  "reflects a belief  i n place  has two dimensions.  i n t h e v a l u e o f independence  14  The  first  and t h e r i g h t o f  s e n i o r s t o remain i n t h e i r own "concerned w i t h the elderly"  2 2  to  development  age and  homes."  specific  and  i n place.  The  of  options,  support  programs  the  and  services  wish t o age  i n place.  aging i n p l a c e r e q u i r e s the supply of a range of housing living  arrangements  enable and encourage h e a l t h y , a vital  a s s i s t i n g the  second dimension r e q u i r e s  which w i l l meet the needs of the e l d e r l y who Therefore,  second dimension i s  t a n g i b l e ways of  This  co-ordination  21  part  of  their  and  community-based  services  that  independent e l d e r l y persons t o remain  neighbourhood and  note, e l d e r l y persons should  not  feel  community.  As  compelled t o age  a  final  in  place  when doing so would prove t o be burdensome or they would p r e f e r t o r e s i d e i n another type of accommodation. The f o u r t h and f i n a l p o l i c y g o a l t h a t u n d e r l i e s t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t of p r o v i d i n g h o u s i n g - r e l a t e d  s e r v i c e s t o e l d e r l y persons  r e q u i r e them i n order t o c o n t i n u e l i v i n g independently. i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the success of aging focus  on the t o t a l needs of the  formal  community  support  such  The as  availability  can  ease  the  e l d e r l y persons who In order continuum  of  burden  of  wish t o age  t o develop a p l a n housing  options  living  independently  f o r the for  formation  Terrace  f o r many  36. 15  of a range  residents  E i l e e n Badiuk, " E x p l o r i n g the Option t o Age P l a n Canada. 30:4 J u l y 1990, p. 36. Badiuk, p.  home care  i n place.  2 1  22  of  meals-on-wheels,  emergency response systems, s p e c i a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and services  goal  i n p l a c e and r e q u i r e s a  individual.  services  This  who  who  i n Place,"  or are  in  c u r r e n t l y or w i l l i n the next 10 y e a r s be 65 y e a r s of age and over, a t h r e e stage method of a n a l y s i s w i l l be employed. a n a l y s i s w i l l form a chapter of the t h e s i s .  Each stage of  The f i r s t  stage w i l l  be an i n v e s t i g a t i o n , by way of l i t e r a t u r e review, of a wide v a r i e t y of  housing  Each  of  o p t i o n s and  the  housing  living options  arrangements f o r e l d e r l y  persons.  and  will  living  arrangements  examined w i t h i n the framework of independent, supported  be  independent  and dependent l i v i n g i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e a n a l y s i s i n the f o u r t h chapter.  The second stage of a n a l y s i s w i l l  i n v o l v e the f o r m a t i o n  of a p r o f i l e of the C i t y of T e r r a c e i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s c u r r e n t and f u t u r e housing needs f o r e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s i n the f o u r t h c h a p t e r . This  profile  will  i n c l u d e a study  of the  c u r r e n t and p r o j e c t e d  e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n of T e r r a c e over the next 20 y e a r s , a d e t a i l e d inventory  of e x i s t i n g  Terrace residents,  housing  and  an  and  services  intended  i n v e n t o r y of e x i s t i n g  for elderly  services  i n the  C i t y of T e r r a c e t h a t are not e x c l u s i v e l y intended f o r s e n i o r s , but are used by s e n i o r s . the  selection  of  a  The t h i r d suitable  stage of a n a l y s i s w i l l  mix  of  housing  options  result in and  living  arrangements t h a t w i l l meet s e n i o r s ' immediate and f u t u r e housing needs  in  analysis financial  Terrace. f o r the cost  Two  categories w i l l  suitability of  developing  of  the  the  form  housing housing  arrangement i n c l u d i n g the a v a i l a b i l i t y  the  boundary  options: option  of f e d e r a l and  (1)  or  of the  living  provincial  g r a n t s and s u b s i d i e s f o r each s e n i o r s ' housing o p t i o n , and (2) l o c a t i o n a l requirements such as the a b i l i t y t o l o c a t e built  purpose-  u n i t s i n p r o x i m i t y t o necessary s e r v i c e s and the a b i l i t y  16  to  locate  any  of  the  housing  e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l areas. can p l a y i n encouraging housing  options  options  or  living  arrangements  in  F i n a l l y , the r o l e the C i t y of T e r r a c e  and f a c i l i t a t i n g the development of d e s i r e d  and l i v i n g  arrangements w i t h i n t h e C i t y  considered.  17  will  be  CHAPTER 2 HOUSING OPTIONS AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE ELDERLY  Most  Canadian  communities  offer  independent  and  dependent  housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements f o r e l d e r l y members o f t h e community.  Few,  arrangements living.  however,  f o r seniors  Many  western  offer  that  housing  facilitate  industrialized  options  supported  nations,  or  living  independent  such  B r i t a i n , A u s t r a l i a and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America, o f f e r  as  Great  examples  of unique s u p p o r t i v e housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g  arrangements f o r  elderly  i n Canada.  persons  that  a r e not w i d e l y a v a i l a b l e  The  i n c l u s i o n o f t h e s e o p t i o n s would s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e t h e v a r i e t y o f housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements f o r supported independent l i v i n g  i n Canada.  In t h i s c h a p t e r a d i v e r s e range o f housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements each  housing  followed  by  f o r t h e e l d e r l y w i l l be examined. option an  or  living  analysis  of  arrangement  t h e advantages  A d e s c r i p t i o n of will  be p r o v i d e d ,  and disadvantages  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each housing o p t i o n o r l i v i n g arrangement, from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t , and, f i n a l l y , t h e p o t e n t i a l o f each o f t h e i n n o v a t i v e housing o p t i o n s i n Canadian communities i n the f u t u r e w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . housing  options  investigation  for  will  Canadian communities existing that  the  include  To ensure t h a t t h e f u l l spectrum o f elderly  options  will that  be already  examined,  this  exist  i n many  and o p t i o n s t h a t may be i n t e g r a t e d  into the  system o f housing f o r t h e e l d e r l y .  some o f t h e housing o p t i o n s t h a t w i l l  I t s h o u l d be noted be examined  in this  c h a p t e r a r e n o t e x c l u s i v e t o e l d e r l y persons: t h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  49  t r u e of t h e independent  l i v i n g options.  Finally,  i t i s important  t o r e a l i z e t h a t not a l l of these housing o p t i o n s would have t o be implemented  i n any  one  community  i n order  for  i t to  adequate continuum of housing o p t i o n s f o r i t s e l d e r l y  20  have  an  residents.  INDEPENDENT LIVING The m a j o r i t y o f e l d e r l y Canadians choose t o remain independent f o r as long as p o s s i b l e . Canadians  In 1981, an average o f 63 p e r c e n t o f a l l  65 y e a r s o f age and over l i v e d  independently i n t h e i r  homes: 71% o f those persons aged 65-69, 62% o f t h o s e 70-79, and 56% of those 80 and over.  1  In B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1986, 68 p e r c e n t o f  B r i t i s h Columbians 65 y e a r s o f age and over owned t h e i r home. When that  percentage  Columbians  aged  i s broken  down  65 t o 74  owned  B r i t i s h Columbians  further, their  72 p e r c e n t o f  British  home, and 61 p e r c e n t o f  aged 75 and over owned t h e i r home.  There a r e  2  a wide v a r i e t y o f accommodations t h a t f a c i l i t a t e independent l i v i n g f o r e l d e r l y persons. section are single condominiums,  The o p t i o n s which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s  f a m i l y detached d w e l l i n g s ,  co-operatives,  non-profit  rental  seniors'  apartments,  housing,  and  mobile homes.  Single Family Detached Dwellings In 1981, s i x t y p e r c e n t o f e l d e r l y Canadians l i v e d f a m i l y detached d w e l l i n g s . elderly British  3  Columbians,  Similarly,  i n single  i n 1986 t h e m a j o r i t y o f  56.2 p e r c e n t , l i v e d  i n single  family  •Brink, 1984, p. 3. Census Canada, 1986, The N a t i o n : P o p u l a t i o n and Dwelling; C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . D w e l l i n g s and Households: P a r t 1. Catalogue 93104, (Ottawa: M i n i s t r y o f Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada), 1987, T a b l e 11. 2  3  B r i n k , 1984, p. 3. 21  detached d w e l l i n g s .  4  The l i k e l i h o o d of an e l d e r l y person l i v i n g i n  a s i n g l e f a m i l y home, however, decreases w i t h age.  In 1981,  two-thirds  family  of  those  aged  55-59  lived  in  single  compared t o j u s t under o n e - h a l f of those aged 75 and o v e r . In  1981,  the m a j o r i t y of e l d e r l y  Canadian  about homes,  5  homeowners owned  t h e i r homes o u t r i g h t : 60% of those aged 65 t o 79 and 95% of those 80  y e a r s of age  and  over.  6  Of  those  Canadians  who  owned  their  homes o u t r i g h t , over 90 p e r c e n t of these homes were v a l u e d a t l e s s than $75,000.  7  The percentage of B r i t i s h Columbians aged 65 and over r e s i d i n g i n s i n g l e f a m i l y detached d w e l l i n g s a c t u a l l y decreased between 1971 and 1981  from 64.6  p e r c e n t t o 56.2  percent.  T h i s was  due i n p a r t  t o the growth i n the s t o c k of m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s between 1971  and  1981, and t h e " r e s u l t a n t i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the e l d e r l y t o choose t h i s type of accommodation."  4  8  I t i s l i k e l y that t h i s trend  F a c t Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  p.  49.  Norman K. B l a c k i e , "The Option of " S t a y i n g Put,"" Aging i n P l a c e : Housing A d a p t a t i o n s and Options f o r Remaining i n the Community ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. B l a c k i e , (Burnaby, British Columbia: Gerontology Research Centre, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 198 6,) p. 4. 5  6  F a c t Book on Aging i n Canada, 1983  i n B l a c k i e , 1986,  p.  4.  G o l d b l a t t , S y l v i a , "Current and Future L i v i n g Arrangements f o r Canada's S e n i o r s , " i n Housing Canada's Elderly. (Winnipeg: U n i v e r s i t y of Winnipeg I n s t i t u t e f o r Urban S t u d i e s ) , 1986. As quoted by Lynn Marie G u i l b a u l t i n Housing B r i t i s h Columbia's Small Town E l d e r l y , Master's T h e s i s , (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia), 1989, p. 22. 7  8  F a c t Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 22  p.  49.  has  continued  throughout  a v a i l a b i l i t y of multiple  The Advantages Dwellings  and  t h e 1980's  due t o t h e growth  i n the  dwellings.  Disadvantages  of  Single  Family  Detached  Homeownership o f f e r s e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s a v a r i e t y o f b e n e f i t s i n c l u d i n g t h e freedom t o a l t e r t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e home and d e s i g n the  outdoor  living  space  to suit  one's  i n d i v i d u a l taste, the  freedom t o engage i n an i n d i v i d u a l l i f e s t y l e ,  the security that  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g v a l u e o f a s i n g l e detached d w e l l i n g , a  greater  dwellings,  degree o f p r i v a c y  than  i s available i n multiple  unit  and e l i g i b i l i t y f o r a homeowners g r a n t .  There  a r e , however,  homeownership which  several  disadvantages  associated  may a f f e c t an e l d e r l y person's  with  decision to  remain i n o r purchase a s i n g l e f a m i l y detached d w e l l i n g .  These  disadvantages i n c l u d e t h e need t o m a i n t a i n upkeep o f t h e d w e l l i n g and  outside  property  which  may prove  t o be a burden  f o r some  e l d e r l y homeowners, t h e need t o f i n d persons w i l l i n g t o care f o r the  home  should  the e l d e r l y  homeowner(s)  wish  to travel for  extended p e r i o d s , t h e long-term f i n a n c i a l commitment i n v o l v e d w i t h homeownership, t h e c o s t o f p r o p e r t y  taxes t o homeowners, and t h e  c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e p a i r s and improvements t o t h e home.  9  'Government programs which h e l p t o ease the economic burden f o r homeowners w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o u r t h chapter. 23  Rental  Apartments  R e n t a l apartments a r e a v a i l a b l e i n a range o f s i z e s , i n c l u d i n g bachelor, levels.  one bedroom and two Further,  amenities,  such  bedroom s u i t e s ,  some apartment  as  a  swimming  complexes  pool  and  styles  offer  and  cost  a variety  security  of  parking f o r  residents. Apartment  buildings  with  less  than  five  storeys  were t h e  second most p o p u l a r d w e l l i n g type f o r s e n i o r s i n 1981 i n B r i t i s h Columbia:  22.3 p e r c e n t  accommodation. Columbians  o f e l d e r l y households chose t h i s type o f  Moreover, a f u r t h e r 10.9 p e r c e n t o f e l d e r l y B r i t i s h  lived  i n high r i s e  apartments  i n 1981.  In a d d i t i o n ,  " e l d e r l y women a r e more l i k e l y than e l d e r l y men t o l i v e i n m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r age group."  The Advantages and Disadvantages o f R e n t a l  10  Apartments  Residence i n a r e n t a l apartment o f f e r s an e l d e r l y t e n a n t many advantages i n c l u d i n g t h e freedom from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and maintenance from  of the u n i t  h a v i n g neighbours  having  friends  in  the  f o r repairs  o r grounds, t h e s e c u r i t y t h a t  i n close  proximity,  building,  the  comes  t h e convenience o f  possibility  of  social  a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e apartment complex, t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i v e i n or near t h e c i t y c e n t r e w i t h a c c e s s t o community s e r v i c e s , and t h e freedom t o be away f o r extended p e r i o d s on h o l i d a y w i t h o u t concern t h a t t h e i r absence w i l l be obvious because o f a l a p s e i n y a r d o r home c a r e . 'Fact Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 49. 24  Residence i n a r e n t a l apartment disadvantages. apartments  For  are  particularly  not  those  there  i s less  which  may  on  bother  there  dwelling,  rent  predictable a  privacy  neighbours, i t may needed,  example,  fixed  and  less  freedom be  an  which  may a  freedom due  be d i f f i c u l t  t h e r e may  i n c r e a s e s i n market  income,  neighbours  i s no  i s not, however, without i t s  to  give  feeling  of  the  renters,  insecurity,  t o engage i n proximity  activities of  those  t o get r e p a i r s done when they are  t o make s t r u c t u r a l  i n c r e a s e d danger  n e g l i g e n c e of o t h e r r e s i d e n t s ,  some  rental  and  of  changes fire  due  there i s a limited  outdoor space such as lawns, b a l c o n i e s and  to  the  to  the  amount of  gardens.  Condominiums In  1981,  8.3  p e r c e n t of the homes owned by household  aged 65 and over were condominiums. The  purchase  individual project  and  of a u n i t  co-ownership  facilities.  of  Condominiums  11  i n a condominium p r o j e c t  e x c l u s i v e ownership  of one  housing u n i t  a portion may  heads  be  of  the  created  offers  i n a housing  common space in  an  an  and  apartment,  townhouse, duplex or a s i n g l e f a m i l y b u i l d i n g which i s p a r t of a strata t i t l e project. There  are  B r i t i s h Columbia.  a  variety  of  "adult-oriented"  in  The age of the t e n a n t s i s r e s t r i c t e d t o those 45  and over by the condominium by-laws. bedroom p l u s den  condominiums  or two  These u n i t s tend t o be  bedroom s t y l e s ,  and  " F a c t Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 25  the p r o j e c t s p.  47.  one  often  f e a t u r e a number of a m e n i t i e s , maintenance.  good s e c u r i t y  and  common  outdoor  12  The Advantages and Disadvantages  of Condominiums  Condominium ownership p r o v i d e s the e l d e r l y person s e c u r i t y of tenure and the s e c u r i t y of owning p r o p e r t y , the o p p o r t u n i t y t o buy r a t h e r than homes may  r e n t a home i n an  area where l a n d or  be s c a r c e or expensive,  single  family  the o p p o r t u n i t y t o take p a r t i n  the management of the condominium p r o j e c t , and access t o s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s u s u a l l y o n l y found  in a rental project.  The disadvantages a s s o c i a t e d w i t h buying a condominium i n c l u d e the  absence  involved  of  with  improvements  privately group  outside  owned  land,  decision-making the  housing  the  problems  regarding  unit,  the  t h a t may  maintenance  necessity to  condominium r e g u l a t i o n s , and the o b l i g a t i o n s and  Co-operative  responsibilities  Housing  or she must buy  he  shares i n the c o - o p e r a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g  t o the v a l u e of t h e i r u n i t . the  may  undertake.  When an i n d i v i d u a l d e c i d e s t o l i v e i n c o - o p e r a t i v e housing,  of  and  follow  i n v o l v e d i n co-managing the p r o j e c t which some e l d e r l y persons not be w i l l i n g t o  be  co-operative  u n i t s and p r o p e r t y .  housing  The  i n d i v i d u a l then becomes a member  a s s o c i a t i o n which  owns the  housing  The r e n t t h a t i s p a i d by the tenant each month  M i c h a e l G e l l e r and A s s o c i a t e s L i m i t e d and Bob Burgess, Domain Management L i m i t e d , Development C o n t r o l s f o r S e n i o r s Housing, (Vancouver, November 1989), p. 14. 12  26  c o v e r s maintenance, taxes and other c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c o operative.  Members o f t h e co-op make d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e co-op  j o i n t l y and a r e c o l l e c t i v e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c a r e and upkeep o f the c o - o p e r a t i v e housing p r o p e r t y . There  a r e two t y p e s o f c o - o p e r a t i v e housing.  p r o f i t type co-op housing wherein g a i n on t h e i r  shares  The f i r s t i s  t h e members may make a c a p i t a l  i n the co-operative.  A person buys  shares  which a r e equal t o t h e market v a l u e o f t h e u n i t , which, upon s a l e of t h e u n i t , a r e s o l d a t market v a l u e when t h e person unit.  leaves the  The second type o f co-op housing i s known as a c o n t i n u i n g  n o t - f o r - p r o f i t c o - o p e r a t i v e . T h i s i s more p o p u l a r than p r o f i t type co-op housing because t h e u n i t s remain a f f o r d a b l e through t h e noni n f l a t i o n a r y nature o f t h e purchase the b u y - i n c o s t a t a minimum.  and s a l e o f shares which keep  In t h i s case t h e member buys shares  i n t o t h e co-op upon e n t r y , and when t h e member l e a v e s t h e co-op he or she s e l l s back t h e shares t o t h e co-op a t a p r i c e which i s kept as c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o t h e p r i c e which t h e shares were o r i g i n a l l y purchased.  The Advantages and Disadvantages Co-operative  housing  of Co-operative  offers  elderly  Housing  tenants  a variety  of  advantages i n c l u d i n g s e c u r i t y o f occupancy, r i g h t s and r e g u l a t o r y powers over t h e p r o j e c t through c o l l e c t i v e ownership, vote  on i n c r e a s e s i n monthly charges  as a member  the r i g h t t o  o f t h e co-op,  p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t i n f l a t i o n i n t h e case o f a c o n t i n u i n g n o t - f o r -  27  profit  co-op,  and  the  opportunity  as  a  group  to  provide  for  maintenance and improvements a t a s a v i n g . The disadvantages a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o - o p e r a t i v e housing are the d u a l f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s f o r members as i n d i v i d u a l t e n a n t s and as collective  owners, the n e c e s s i t y t o comply w i t h the r e g u l a t i o n s  e s t a b l i s h e d by the c o - o p e r a t i v e as a group, and the f e e which must be p a i d b e f o r e e n t r y i n t o a c o - o p e r a t i v e .  N o n - P r o f i t S e n i o r s ' Housing Non-profit profit  housing  B r i t i s h Columbia not  exceed  recently,  30  (Rental)  s e n i o r s ' housing society  i s owned and  or the p r o v i n c i a l  of  income.  a non-  government through  Housing Management Commission percent  managed by  (BCHMC).  S i n g l e persons  the  Rent  were,  may  until  expected t o occupy a b a c h e l o r s i z e d apartment and  one-  bedroom u n i t s were r e s e r v e d mostly f o r c o u p l e s . Tenants  must be  aged 55  or over  e l i g i b l e f o r housing managed by BCHMC.  in British Tenant  Columbia  to  be  selection for this  type of housing i s based upon housing need, and t h e r e i s no maximum income  stipulated.  housing,  In  order  to  the a p p l i c a n t must r e s i d e  done so f o r a t l e a s t two  be  accepted  in British  for this Columbia  years p r i o r to a p p l i c a t i o n .  p r o f i t p r o j e c t , e l i g i b i l i t y requirements may management of the p r o j e c t .  28  type and  of  have  In a non-  v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o the  The Advantages Apartments  and Disadvantages  of Seniors'  Oriented Rental  Some o f t h e advantages a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s i d e n c e i n n o n - p r o f i t s e n i o r s ' housing which i s s u b s i d i z e d by BCHMC a r e t h e s e c u r i t y t h a t rent w i l l  not exceed 30 p e r c e n t o f income,  t h e companionship and  s e c u r i t y t h a t comes from h a v i n g f r i e n d s o f one's own age i n t h e b u i l d i n g , and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n and c r a f t programs i n the b u i l d i n g . The  disadvantages  associated  s e n i o r s ' housing development r e n t a l apartment.  with  living  in a  non-profit  a r e s i m i l a r t o those o f l i v i n g i n any  There i s , however, one p a r t i c u l a r disadvantage  t o l i v i n g i n t h i s type o f housing: t h e s i z e o f t h e apartments likely  seem s m a l l t o persons coming  bedroom  will  from a house o r one o r two  apartment.  M o b i l e Homes In 1981, 5.5 p e r c e n t o f e l d e r l y B r i t i s h Columbians moveable d w e l l i n g s . Mobile  lived i n  13  homes a r e s e l f - c o n t a i n e d ,  one-level  units  that are  l o c a t e d on a "pad" o r p l o t o f l a n d i n a mobile home park o r on a p r i v a t e l y owned p i e c e o f p r o p e r t y . As such, mobile homes o f f e r t h e owner t h e freedom  t o choose  home, and t h e freedom addition,  13  the l o c a t i o n  of the s i t e  for their  t o move t h a t home i f they so d e s i r e .  mobile homes v a r y i n s i z e and i n t e r i o r  d e s i g n , making  F a c t Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 49. 29  In  them a p p e a l i n g t o persons w i t h a v a r i e t y o f space requirements and tastes.  The Advantages  and Disadvantages o f Mobile Homes  Some o f t h e advantages a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ownership o f a mobile home i n c l u d e t h e i r compact nature, t h e f a c t t h a t they r e q u i r e l e s s upkeep than c o n v e n t i o n a l homes, and freedom o f m o b i l i t y .  Moreover,  mobile homes o f f e r s e n i o r s an independent l i f e s t y l e i n a u n i t t h a t i s d e s i g n e d t o make e f f i c i e n t use o f t h e l i v i n g space a v a i l a b l e i n the u n i t .  M o b i l e homes a l s o f e a t u r e a lower purchase p r i c e than  c o n v e n t i o n a l housing. Corporation interest,  Further,  t h e Canada Mortgage and Housing  (CMHC) may p r o v i d e r e f i n a n c i n g  long term  loan  i f this  i n t h e form o f a low  i s desired,  mobile home i s l o c a t e d i n an approved park. Home R e g i s t r y  has been  i n place  which  providing that the S i n c e 1976 a Mobile  provides protection to  p u r c h a s e r s o f used mobile homes and ensures t h a t p r o p e r t y t a x e s have been p a i d . In terms o f disadvantages, i t i s important t h a t one buy t h e r i g h t s i z e mobile home f o r h i s o r h e r needs. s m a l l t h e t e n a n t s may f e e l cramped. buyer  realize  that,  unlike  I f the u n i t i s too  I t i s a l s o important t h a t t h e  o t h e r types  o f homes, mobile homes  d e p r e c i a t e i n v a l u e over time.  P r i o r t o p u r c h a s i n g a mobile home,  one  soundness  must check  the s t r u c t u r a l  o f t h e mobile home and  ensure t h a t i t i s CSA approved, which may be done by c h e c k i n g i f there  i s a CSA s t i c k e r  located  on t h e door  o f t h e mobile home.  F i n a l l y , i t i s important t o be c a r e f u l i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a mobile 30  home park.  I t may h e l p t o t a l k t o some o f t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e  mobile home p a r k s .  A l s o , depending on t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e mobile  home  be s u b j e c t  park,  i t may  to s e l l  e s c a l a t e s and t h e owner d e c i d e s t o s e l l .  31  out i f t h e l a n d  value  SUPPORTED  The account living  INDEPENDENT  t r e n d towards supported  independent  l i v i n g may h e l p t o  f o r t h e i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f e l d e r l y alone.  lived  LIVING  alone.  Canadians  I n 1981, 26 p e r c e n t o f s e n i o r B r i t i s h F o r Canada  14  as a whole,  who a r e  Columbians  by 1986, 25 p e r c e n t o f  seniors l i v e d alone. In 1981, the m a j o r i t y o f e l d e r l y men, 75.3 p e r c e n t , l i v e d w i t h a spouse and/or never-married c h i l d r e n . of  age and over,  arrangement. such  64.4 p e r c e n t  lived  F o r e l d e r l y men 75 y e a r s i n this  type  of family  However, f o r o l d e r women, t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f l i v i n g i n  a family  setting  decreased  dramatically  with  age:  60.4  p e r c e n t o f those aged 65-74 and 32.5 p e r c e n t o f those aged 75 and over.  15  There has been a p a r a l l e l B r i t i s h Columbian  i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f e l d e r l y  women who l i v e a l o n e .  I n 1981,  31.5 p e r c e n t of  women aged 65-74 and 40.8 p e r c e n t o f women aged 75 and over alone.  The r i s e i n t h e number o f e l d e r l y women l i v i n g alone i s a  relatively Columbia,  new  phenomenon:  between  1961 and 1981 i n B r i t i s h  "the p r o p o r t i o n o f women aged 65 and over l i v i n g alone  i n c r e a s e d from and  lived  21.2 [percent] t o 35.2 [ p e r c e n t ] . "  16  Between 1981  1986 f o r Canada as a whole, t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f women over 85  14  F a c t Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  p. 43.  15  F a c t Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  p. 42.  16  F a c t Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  p. 42.  32  y e a r s o f age who l i v e d 28 p e r c e n t i n 1986.  alone i n c r e a s e d from 25 p e r c e n t i n 1981 t o  17  In 1981, 4.1 p e r c e n t o f e l d e r l y B r i t i s h Columbians l i v e d i n a "non-family"  household  made up o f a persons  occupying  d w e l l i n g but n o t c o n s t i t u t i n g a census f a m i l y .  a private  A census f a m i l y i s  d e f i n e d as "persons l i v i n g i n t h e same d w e l l i n g who have a husbandwife  relationship  relationship. " The  and/or  a  parent-never-married  18  increasing  numbers  of  elderly  persons,  particularly  females, who would otherwise l i v e alone h e l p s t o account rise  child  i n p o p u l a r i t y o f supported  independent  living  f o r the  alternatives.  The supported independent l i v i n g arrangements t h a t w i l l be examined i n t h i s s e c t i o n a r e supported independent a c c e s s o r y apartments,  in-law s u i t e s ,  l i v i n g i n t h e community,  homesharing, garden  A b b e y f i e l d concept housing, and congregate  Supported  Most elderly  Independent L i v i n g  housing.  i n t h e Community  communities  have  Home  r e s i d e n t s who  live  independently.  which a r e a v a i l a b l e  Support  Programs  available  to  Two o f t h e s e r v i c e s  i n most communities a r e meals-on-wheels and  handy-DART and p a r a - t r a n s i t t r a n s p o r t s e r v i c e s . for  suites,  t h e use o f these s e r v i c e s .  There i s a charge  There a r e a l s o some home support  s e r v i c e s which a r e p r o v i d e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government i n c l u d i n g household  c a r e , p e r s o n a l c a r e , and r e s p i t e s e r v i c e s .  17  Stone and Frenken,  p. 10.  18  F a c t Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h 33  Columbia,  p. 44.  In o r d e r t o  receive  these  services  an  individual  must  be  assessed  p r o v i n c i a l a s s e s s o r and deemed t o be i n need o f t h e s e r v i c e . a l s o a t t h i s time t h a t  It is  t h e a s s e s s o r would e s t a b l i s h how must t h e  i n d i v i d u a l would be a b l e t o pay f o r t h e s e r v i c e , which c o s t per v i s i t i n 1990.  by a  $6.00  F o r some i n d i v i d u a l s , t h e f e e would be indexed  t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s income.  These programs p r o v i d e a g r e a t d e a l o f  p h y s i c a l and emotional support t o a h e a l t h y , independent, e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l who i s i n need o f a l i m i t e d degree o f support  services  i n o r d e r t o remain independent i n t h e home.  Accessory An  Apartments  accessory  apartment,  sometimes r e f e r r e d  t o as a second  s u i t e o r basement s u i t e , i s an independent d w e l l i n g  u n i t within or  directly  i s created  attached  to a single  family family  home t h a t  converting a portion  of a single  home i n t o a s m a l l  c o n t a i n e d apartment.  A c c e s s o r y apartments a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d  by  selffrom  o t h e r l i v i n g arrangements which a l s o e x i s t i n a s i n g l e f a m i l y home by two f a c t o r s : t h e primary u n i t and t h e a c c e s s o r y apartment each have a s e p a r a t e e n t r y , and each u n i t has a d i s t i n c t which i n c l u d e s  living  space  a bathroom and a k i t c h e n .  In s p i t e o f e x i s t i n g zoning bylaws p r o h i b i t i n g them i n most Canadian communities, housing o p t i o n  a c c e s s o r y apartments have become a p o p u l a r  f o r Canadian homeowners o f a l l ages.  In f a c t , i t i s  e s t i m a t e d t h a t between 10 and 20 p e r c e n t o f s i n g l e f a m i l y detached  34  d w e l l i n g s i n urban North America c o n t a i n an a c c e s s o r y apartment.  19  An e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l may choose t o c o n v e r t p a r t o f h i s o r h e r home t o an a c c e s s o r y apartment and then l i v e e i t h e r i n t h e primary u n i t or move i n t o t h e a c c e s s o r y apartment. individual  may  choose  to reside  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the elderly  i n an a c c e s s o r y  apartment i n  another person's home.  The Advantages and Disadvantages o f A c c e s s o r y Apartments There a r e a number o f advantages t h a t a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an e l d e r l y person c o n v e r t i n g p a r t o f h i s o r h e r home t o an a c c e s s o r y apartment. accessory elderly  First,  the extra  apartment  homeowner  homeownership  would  and h e l p  such  as  income  increase  from  t h e monthly  to alleviate  property  the rental  taxes  income  of the of the  some o f t h e c o s t s o f and  home  improvements.  Second, t h e e l d e r l y homeowner may be a b l e t o arrange f o r h e l p from the  t e n a n t w i t h home and y a r d maintenance: t h e t e n a n t may do house  or y a r d work i n exchange f o r a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e c o s t o f r e n t .  This  type o f arrangement has been s t u d i e d by SPARC, t h e S o c i a l P l a n n i n g and Research C o u n c i l o f B r i t i s h District  o f North Vancouver  Columbia, which found t h a t i n t h e  20 p e r c e n t  o f t e n a n t s p r o v i d e d some  type o f s e r v i c e ,  such as outdoor maintenance  their landlord.  Some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  2 0  or p e t - s i t t i n g , t o living  C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department, "Secondary S u i t e s : The I s s u e s , " Q u a r t e r l y Review ( A p r i l 1987), p. 17, as quoted by L a u r i McKay and J a n e t Lee i n I l l e g a l S u i t e s : Issue and Response. March 1988, p. 1. 1 9  2 0  G e l l e r and A s s o c i a t e s , p. 16. 35  alone, such as f e e l i n g s o f l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n , may be eased by  contact with  the tenant.  F u r t h e r , t h e tenant  could  provide  u n o b t r u s i v e s e c u r i t y f o r t h e e l d e r l y homeowner: t h e tenant c o u l d check i n on t h e e l d e r l y homeowner on a r e g u l a r b a s i s t o ensure he or she i s w e l l .  Finally,  t h e primary  d w e l l i n g and t h e a c c e s s o r y  apartment a r e s e p a r a t e u n i t s , so t h e r e would be v i r t u a l l y no l o s s of p r i v a c y f o r e i t h e r p a r t y . Some  o f t h e advantages  e l d e r l y person  that  would  be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  an  l i v i n g i n an a c c e s s o r y apartment i n someone e l s e ' s  s i n g l e f a m i l y home a r e t h a t t h e e l d e r l y r e n t e r would be f r e e  from  responsibility  f o r home and y a r d maintenance, t h e e l d e r l y r e n t e r  would be l e s s  lonely  because  than  living  of regular contact with  alone  i n a house o r apartment  t h e homeowner, and t h e e l d e r l y  tenant would b e n e f i t from i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g o f s e c u r i t y i n case o f emergency t h a t accompanies  living  i n close proximity with  other  persons. Some o f t h e disadvantages t h a t accompany a c c e s s o r y apartments are t h e problems t h a t may a r i s e w i t h neighbours r e n t e r s i n t h e i r neighbourhood. the  relationship  who do not want  There i s a l s o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  between t h e homeowner and t h e tenant  w i l l not  develop i n t o a f r i e n d l y one where f r e q u e n t c o n t a c t i s d e s i r a b l e .  36  The P o t e n t i a l f o r Accessory  Apartments  A c c e s s o r y apartments a r e c u r r e n t l y i l l e g a l i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f Canadian  municipalities;  apartments Canada:  provide  affordable  nevertheless,  an important housing  existing  and necessary  f o r those  accessory  housing  persons  who  form i n  c o u l d not  otherwise f i n d a p p r o p r i a t e , a f f o r d a b l e r e n t a l accommodation i n t h e area i n which they choose t o l i v e . persons single  on f i x e d parent  illegal  incomes, such  families.  2 1  as e l d e r l y persons,  I t i s for this  u n i t s a r e not c l o s e d by c i v i c  complaints  reason  officials  s t u d e n t s and that  existing  unless there are  about t h e a c c e s s o r y apartment by neighbours.  Because o f t h e i l l e g a l existing  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of  accessory  nature o f a c c e s s o r y apartments, most  apartments  have  been  created  without  the  a p p r o v a l o f m u n i c i p a l b u i l d i n g i n s p e c t o r s . The i n c e p t i o n o f zoning bylaws s a n c t i o n i n g a c c e s s o r y  apartments as a housing  form would  a l l o w m u n i c i p a l government r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o e n f o r c e b u i l d i n g and s a f e t y codes as w e l l as l e v y taxes on t h e r e n t a l income o f owners of  homes t h a t c o n t a i n a c c e s s o r y apartments.  In-law S u i t e s In-law s u i t e s are very s i m i l a r t o a c c e s s o r y apartments i n t h a t t h e r e a r e two separate element  that  suites within a single  d i s t i n g u i s h e s an  in-law  suite  f a m i l y home. from  an  The  accessory  apartment i s t h a t t h e former i s intended t o p r o v i d e housing t o an elderly 2 1  relative  o f t h e owner o f a s i n g l e  L a u r i McKay and Janet Lee, p. 3. 37  f a m i l y home.  Unlike  a c c e s s o r y apartments, in-law s u i t e s a r e l e g a l i n many communities i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d i n g Burnaby, D e l t a , North Vancouver C i t y , North Vancouver D i s t r i c t , Vancouver.  P o r t Moody, Surrey, Vancouver and West  However, zoning bylaws s t i p u l a t e c e r t a i n  22  which must be met f o r t h e in-law  suite  t o remain  conditions  legal  occupancy o f t h e s u i t e by a r e l a t i v e , maximum u n i t  such as  s i z e and t h e  percentage o f space which may be taken by t h e u n i t , a d d i t i o n a l o f f s t r e e t p a r k i n g , compliance w i t h b u i l d i n g by-law standards, annual licensing,  and r e g i s t r a t i o n  o f a covenant  on t i t l e  stipulating  removal o f t h e s u i t e once t h e r e l a t i v e v a c a t e s t h e s u i t e .  The  Advantages and Disadvantages o f In-law The  main  advantage  o f t h e in-law  Suites  suite  i s the proximity  between t h e e l d e r l y r e l a t i v e and h i s o r h e r f a m i l y .  This proximity  o f f e r s t h e e l d e r l y person s e c u r i t y i n case o f emergency, or r e g u l a r  meals, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  2 3  occasional  housekeeping a s s i s t a n c e  and t h e  benefits  o f b e i n g c l o s e t o one's  family.  The  disadvantages a s s o c i a t e d  w i t h an in-law s u i t e i n c l u d e t h e  lack of privacy  which i s l i k e l y t o be i n v o l v e d  same house as one's f a m i l y ,  with l i v i n g i n the  and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  the e l d e r l y  r e l a t i v e may be c a l l e d upon t o do chores f o r t h e f a m i l y baby-sitting.  C-eller and A s s o c i a t e s , p. 17. 'Geller and A s s o c i a t e s , p. 16. 38  such as  Homesharing Homesharing homeowner  i s a living  opens  up  arrangement  h i s o r h e r home  that  i s formed when a  t o one o r more persons,  u n r e l a t e d t o him- o r h e r s e l f , who want t o share a d w e l l i n g  unit.  Each person has some p r i v a t e space and shares common a r e a s such as the  bathroom,  kitchen,  living  and  dining  rooms.  Because  homesharing r e q u i r e s t h e r e s i d e n t s t o c o - h a b i t a t e i n many areas o f the  home,  homesharers  must  be w i l l i n g  t o accept  some  loss of  p r i v a c y i n t h e s e common areas. There agreement:  a r e two methods self-initiated  by which  t o enter  and a g e n c y - a s s i s t e d  a  homesharing  homesharing.  The  most common form o f homesharing i s s e l f - i n i t i a t e d homesharing which develops from an i n f o r m a l , p r i v a t e arrangement t h a t i s n e g o t i a t e d by  non-relatives  who  choose  to live  together  i n one d w e l l i n g .  A g e n c y - a s s i s t e d homesharing, on t h e other hand, i n v o l v e s t h e use o f a  public  or non-profit  matching s e r v i c e ,  such as t h e Vancouver  Homesharers S o c i e t y , t o h e l p persons l o c a t e s u i t a b l e house mates. The agency a s s i s t s homeowners and homeseekers who a r e unable t o o r are  wary o f i n i t i a t i n g a homesharing arrangement p r i v a t e l y .  agency third  offers party  homesharers.  clients screen,  t h e convenience and s e c u r i t y interview,  and r e f e r e n c e  The  of having a  check  potential  There i s u s u a l l y a f e e f o r t h e s e r v i c e o f matching  clients. Homesharing arrangements characterized  that  should  not  be  confused  appear t o be s i m i l a r  by r e s i d e n t - o w n e r s h i p  with  to i t .  other  living  Homesharing i s  and a sense on t h e p a r t o f  residents  that  responsibility  they  are  participating  at  a  i n t h e management o f t h e house.  high  level  of  B o a r d i n g homes,  24  congregate housing, and A b b e y f i e l d homes a r e t h e r e f o r e not i n c l u d e d i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f homesharing because none o f t h e t e n a n t s own t h e d w e l l i n g and t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r no involvement on t h e p a r t o f t h e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e management o f t h e home.  25  The Advantages and Disadvantages o f Homesharing Homesharing i s c u r r e n t l y a l e g a l a l t e r n a t i v e by which t o share a home, a l t h o u g h i t does accessory  apartments  homeowner  t h e advantages  not o f f e r  would.  t h e degree o f p r i v a c y  Homesharing  o f economic  help  offers with  the  that  elderly  housing  costs,  p h y s i c a l h e l p w i t h t h e c a r e o f t h e home and y a r d , companionship and security  i n case o f emergency due t o t h e p r o x i m i t y o f t h e other  homesharer(s).  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , an e l d e r l y person may choose t o seek  a  arrangement  homesharing  receive  housing  at  a  i n someone  relatively  else's  low  cost  home and  i n order t o gain  some  companionship and s e c u r i t y through t h e homesharing arrangement. One o f t h e major d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f homesharing has proven t o be unreasonable e x p e c t a t i o n s about t h e homesharing arrangement.  For  example, t h e e l d e r l y homeowner may expect t h e t e n a n t t o p r o v i d e a Norman K. Blackie, "Alternative Housing and Living Arrangements f o r Independent L i v i n g , " J o u r n a l o f Housing f o r t h e E l d e r l y 1 (Spring/Summer 1983), p. 79. 24  Norman K. Blackie, "Shared Housing: Principles and P r a c t i c e s , " I n n o v a t i o n s i n Housing and L i v i n g Arrangements f o r S e n i o r s , ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. B l a c k i e (Burnaby: Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Gerontology Research Centre, 1984), p. 133. 25  40  g r e a t e r degree o f companionship, p e r s o n a l or h e a l t h c a r e than t h e tenant  i s willing  to provide.  Further,  homesharers may  not be  prepared f o r t h e l o s s of p r i v a c y they w i l l encounter, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n common areas o f the home. that  they  a r e not  F i n a l l y , homesharers may simply f i n d  compatible  once  they  begin  living  together.  Homesharing r e q u i r e s a g r e a t d e a l of commitment t o t h e arrangement by  both  parties;  therefore,  i t essential  that  they  both  have  s i m i l a r e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the arrangement p r i o r t o moving i n together.  The P o t e n t i a l f o r Homesharing The p o t e n t i a l  f o r homesharing would seem t o be g r e a t due t o  the h i g h numbers of e l d e r l y who  own  t h e i r own homes and the f a c t  t h a t such a g r e a t m a j o r i t y of these homes are uncrowded. quarters Canadians  of the s i n g l e are  two-  or  family  detached homes owned  three-bedroom  houses;  27  26  Three-  by  elderly  therefore,  the  p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s f o r a g r e a t number of these uncrowded homes t o be shared by o u t s i d e r s .  F u r t h e r , homesharing i s not p r o h i b i t e d  by  e x i s t i n g zoning bylaws i n Canadian m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . Homesharing, however, i s not f o r everyone.  The importance of  p r i v a c y i n c r e a s e s w i t h age, and the " l o s s of p r i v a c y brought on by  K e v i n J . E c k e r t and Mary Ittman Murrey, " A l t e r n a t i v e Modes of L i v i n g f o r t h e E l d e r l y , " E l d e r l y People and t h e Environment. Ed. I r w i n Altman, M. Powell Lawton and Joachim F. W o h l h i l l , (New York: Plenum P r e s s ) , p. 105. 26  27  F r a s e r , 1982, i n B l a c k i e , 1986, p. 4. 41  home-sharing may  be i t s g r e a t e s t l i a b i l i t y . "  c l i e n t s i n t e r e s t e d i n homesharing and advantages homesharing  and  disadvantages  i s the  proper  of  Proper s c r e e n i n g  2 8  a c l e a r explanation  homesharing  option  for that  ensure t h a t c l i e n t s are happy w i t h the  to  of  ensure  person  will  of the  that  help  to  arrangement.  Garden S u i t e s Garden  suites,  also  known  as  granny  flats,  PLUS  units  ( P o r t a b l e L i v i n g U n i t s f o r S e n i o r s ) , or ECHO housing u n i t s  (Elder  Cottage Housing Opportunity) , are s e l f - c o n t a i n e d , detached d w e l l i n g units  that  are  placed  i n the  rear  or  side  yard  of  an  existing  s i n g l e f a m i l y home f o r use by an e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l . Garden s u i t e s tend  to  be  located  on  the  property  of  r e l a t i v e s , u s u a l l y an a d u l t c h i l d of the designed t o ensure maximum p r i v a c y and  the  elderly  tenant's  e l d e r l y person, and  independence of the e l d e r l y  t e n a n t w h i l e p l a c i n g the e l d e r l y person i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y or her r e l a t i v e s . kitchen, l i v i n g  A garden s u i t e c o n t a i n s  opportunity  may  owner t o p l a c e  f a m i l y home which he  e x i s t f o r an  or t o an u n r e l a t e d Eckert  utilities  e l d e r l y person  a garden s u i t e on the  or she  owns and  rent  out  family.  and Murrey, p.  l o t of  a  the  single  their  family  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e r e are  zoning  f a m i l y house t o e i t h e r h i s or her a d u l t c h i l d r e n and  28  bedrooms, a  The garden s u i t e i s connected t o the  the  i s a property  single  or two  dwelling.  Ultimately, who  one  to his  room, and d i n i n g room, as w e l l as storage space and  laundry f a c i l i t i e s . of the primary  are  105. 42  ordinances live  i n some communities which a l l o w t h e p r o p e r t y owner t o  i n either  family  one o f t h e d w e l l i n g s on t h e p r o p e r t y ,  relationship  required.  (by blood,  adoption  although  o r marriage)  a  i s often  29  The Advantages and Disadvantages o f Garden S u i t e s Garden elderly  suites  occupant  offer  a variety  of the s u i t e  o f advantages  and t h e host  t o both t h e  family.  F i r s t , the  garden s u i t e f e a t u r e s a b a r r i e r - f r e e d e s i g n and a d a p t a b i l i t y o f t h e u n i t f o r those i n a wheelchair,  lower maintenance demands, s e c u r i t y  due t o p r o x i m i t y , q u i c k response from t h e h o s t f a m i l y i n t h e case of  emergency, a v a i l a b l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , p e r s o n a l and h e a l t h care,  home c a r e , and o c c a s i o n a l meal p r e p a r a t i o n i f necessary. The to  live  advantages a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r m i t t i n g t h e e l d e r l y  person  i n a garden s u i t e on p r o p e r t y he o r she owns i n c l u d e t h e  a b i l i t y t o remain i n f a m i l i a r surroundings, m a i n t a i n t i e s with o l d friends  and  independence children.  community as  services,  opposed  to living  However, someone  and on  maintain  a  the property  feeling of  of  one's  (perhaps t h e r e n t e r i n exchange f o r  lower rent) may have t o a i d t h e e l d e r l y person  i n maintenance o f  the primary home. Some  o f t h e disadvantages  include the smaller  living  associated  with  space o f t h e u n i t ,  garden  suites  and t h e p e r c e i v e d  P a t r i c k H. Hare and L i n d a E. H o l l i s , ECHO Housing: A Review of Zoning Issues and Other C o n s i d e r a t i o n s (Washington, D.C.: American A s s o c i a t i o n o f R e t i r e d Persons, 1983), p. 14. 2 9  43  l o s s o f independence and p r i v a c y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l i v i n g on an a d u l t c h i l d ' s property.  The P o t e n t i a l f o r Garden Garden elderly  suites  population  Suites  a r e intended t o s e r v e a s m a l l "that  community, w h i l e r e c e i v i n g family."  In  30  Association  wish  to live  sector  independently  some degree o f a s s i s t a n c e  1987, CMHC,  BCHMC  their  and t h e Manufactured  Home  sponsored t h e manufacture  are s t i l l  Columbia. suites  no t r u e  Zoning  anywhere  examples  o f a demonstration garden  o f garden  suites  However, i n British  o r d i n a n c e s p r e c l u d e t h e placement  except  perhaps  i n the  from  s u i t e which was e x h i b i t e d throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. there  of the  i n agricultural  o f garden  zones  "where a  second d w e l l i n g i s p e r m i t t e d w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f accommodating a farm l a b o u r e r . "  31  B e f o r e garden s u i t e s can be a v i a b l e housing o p t i o n f o r t h e e l d e r l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, s e v e r a l o b s t a c l e s must be surmounted including suites,  the administration  and t h e development  occupancy o f t h e u n i t s .  and c o s t  effectiveness  of regulations  which  o f garden  will  control  As w e l l , a system must be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t  would not a l l o w i n e r t i a t o slow the placement and removal o f garden suites.  I t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e e f f e c t o f garden s u i t e s on  D a v i d Spence, "Granny F l a t s : The O n t a r i o Demonstration," Aging i n P l a c e : Housing A d a p t a t i o n s and Options f o r Remaining i n the Community, ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. B l a c k i e (Burnaby: The Gerontology Research Centre, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1986), p. 38. 30  3 1  G e l l e r and A s s o c i a t e s , p. 18. 44  the  single  family  community  be  considered  associated with increased density, and  the  impact  on  property  Abbeyfield The  organization  are  dealt  with  p r i o r to  the  community.  Society  which p r o v i d e s  is  an  e l d e r l y persons whose p r e s e n t  impact  on  Abbeyfield  their  health  Society  are  and  international,  a supportive  lonely  unmet  problems  Concept Housing Abbeyfield  time and  that  i n c r e a s e d demand f o r s e r v i c e s ,  values  placement of such u n i t s i n the  so  living  environment  environment may  well-being.  charitable  The  negatively  members  l o c a l l y - b a s e d persons who  for  of  volunteer  the their  s e r v i c e s t o h e l p c r e a t e and manage housing t h a t meets an  need:  community-based  e l d e r l y persons who  housing  for  do not want t o l i v e  independent,  healthy  alone.  A b b e y f i e l d houses are the s i z e of l a r g e s i n g l e f a m i l y detached homes and, area. have  i d e a l l y , are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l  P r e f e r a b l y the new lived  house.  i n the  This  r e s i d e n t s of an A b b e y f i e l d  community  would  allow  before  these  moving  into  the  e l d e r l y persons  to  house would Abbeyfield remain  in  a  f a m i l i a r environment c l o s e t o o l d f r i e n d s and well-known s e r v i c e s . Occasionally, residents  of  however, this  the  Abbeyfield  link  between  house may  be  the  community  the  and  the  r e l a t i v e s of  the  residents. The housing p r o v i d e d is  by the A b b e y f i e l d S o c i e t y i s unique.  e s s e n t i a l l y agency-sponsored  Abbeyfield  shared  housing  in that  s o c i e t y purchases or b u i l d s a d w e l l i n g 45  a  u n i t , and  It  local then  interviews home.  i n t e r e s t e d persons  The l o c a l  society  t o determine  holds ultimate  management  of  the  who w i l l  live  i n the  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the  maintenance  and  home  and  housekeeping  services f o r the e l d e r l y residents.  arranges  for  In most cases, s i x t o e i g h t persons, u s u a l l y women, l i v e as a f a m i l y i n an A b b e y f i e l d  house.  The members o f t h e household  each  have t h e i r own b e d - s i t t i n g room, sometimes i n c l u d i n g a s i n k and minor c o o k i n g f a c i l i t i e s ,  and bathroom.  The b e d - s i t t i n g room i s  f u r n i s h e d by t h e r e s i d e n t w i t h h i s o r h e r own b e l o n g i n g s , and t h e elderly resident  i s responsible  f o r keeping t h i s area t i d y .  The  b e d - s i t t i n g rooms a r e l a r g e enough f o r t h e e l d e r l y person t o enjoy p r i v a t e moments o r e n t e r t a i n guests should they d e s i r e t o do so. The household members share t h e r e s t o f t h e l i v i n g meals t o g e t h e r .  A live-in  housemother p r e p a r e s  space and e a t a l l t h e meals,  m a i n t a i n s t h e common areas o f t h e home and p r o v i d e s s o c i a l support to the residents.  Each o f t h e r e s i d e n t ' s rooms has an intercom i n  i t t o c a l l t h e housemother should a i d be needed.  The Advantages and Disadvantages Abbeyfield housing  option  concept where  of Abbeyfield  housing  offers  the residents  Concept  Housing  i t s residents  have  a  the benefits  unique  o f both  p r i v a t e l i v i n g space i n t h e b e d - s i t t i n g rooms and communal space i n the common areas o f t h e house. prepared meals, the  In a d d i t i o n ,  the residents  have  s o c i a l support, and h e l p i n case o f emergency w i t h  a i d o f t h e housemother.  The disadvantages  46  of  Abbeyfield  concept housing i n c l u d e the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  learning to  l i v e w i t h a number of other persons i n the same home.  The  P o t e n t i a l f o r A b b e y f i e l d Housing A b b e y f i e l d housing i s very popular  f i r s t A b b e y f i e l d house was May  of 1987.  list  of  20  i n B r i t i s h Columbia:  the  c r e a t e d i n Sidney on Vancouver I s l a n d i n  By November of the same year the house had a w a i t i n g people  f o r 9 spaces  i n the  home.  32  There are  now  a  number of A b b e y f i e l d houses i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n c l u d i n g houses i n Oak  Bay,  a suburb of V i c t o r i a , Kelowna, and the r e c e n t a c q u i s i t i o n  of a house f o r r e n o v a t i o n  by the l o c a l s o c i e t y i n Vancouver.  The  p o t e n t i a l f o r A b b e y f i e l d housing i s dependent on the w i l l i n g n e s s of a  community  to  create  a  local  society  and  join  the  national  s o c i e t y , accumulate the necessary f i n a n c e s needed t o b u i l d or a house, and If  local  g a i n a zoning  s o c i e t i e s are  amendment, i f necessary, f o r the  successful in attaining f i n a n c i a l  buy  site.  backing  and zoning t o a l l o w f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n or p o s s e s s i o n of a house, they should not have any d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g r e s i d e n t s from the community who  local  wish t o l i v e i n an A b b e y f i e l d home.  Congregate Housing Congregate housing i s d e f i n e d which i n c o r p o r a t e s ill,  s h e l t e r and  e l d e r l y to maintain  as a " r e s i d e n t i a l  s e r v i c e s needed by  environment  frail,  or r e t u r n t o a semi-independent  J a c q u i e Goodwin, S t . Andrew's A b b e y f i e l d S o c i e t y , B r i t i s h Columbia, P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 18 November 1987. 32  47  but  not  lifestyle  Sidney,  and  t o a v o i d premature i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n as they grow o l d e r . "  Congregate housing combines a s p e c t s of sheltered  environment.  contained  apartment w i t h some cooking f a c i l i t i e s ,  project  is  typically  institutional  The  independent  resident  patterned  facility.  usually  after  a  living  lives  hotel  in  and  a  the  rather  and  housing than  s e r v i c e s t o the r e s i d e n t s i n c l u d i n g a t l e a s t one meal per day  which may  be  transportation continuous  included and  staff  are  activities,  counselling.  an  supervision  of  health  nursing  residents  of  in a  Other s e r v i c e s  preventative  Neither  a  self-  Congregate housing o f f e r s a v a r i e t y  common d i n i n g room, weekly housekeeping and l i n e n s .  33  are  care,  care  offered  nor in  a  congregate housing p r o j e c t . In  Canada, congregate housing  purpose-built congregate  facilities;  housing  could  r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhood. offer  i s usually  however, be  in  located  in  located  smaller a  large  in  large,  communities house  in  a  In t h i s case congregate housing would  a more l i m i t e d number of  services  such as  meals,  24-hour  s e c u r i t y and housekeeping h e l p t o a group of f i v e t o t e n r e s i d e n t s . R e g a r d l e s s of  the  s i z e of  the  project,  congregate housing  units  s h o u l d be s i t u a t e d so t h a t the r e s i d e n t s , even the f r a i l e l d e r l y , can remain an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the community. located  i n an area t h a t  i s not  on the  Hence, i t s h o u l d  f r i n g e of the  community  V i v i a n F. C a r l i n and Ruth Mansberg, I f I L i v e t o be Congregate Housing f o r L a t e r L i f e (New York: P u b l i s h i n g Company, Inc., 1984), p. 4. 3 3  48  be or  100 Parker  i s o l a t e d from s e r v i c e s t h a t e l d e r l y persons use f r e q u e n t l y such as banks and  stores.  The Advantages  and Disadvantages of Congregate  Housing  The advantages a s s o c i a t e d w i t h congregate housing i n c l u d e the b e n e f i t s o f p r i v a t e space i n an apartment, combined w i t h a v a r i e t y of o n - s i t e s e r v i c e s .  The major disadvantage of congregate housing  i s c o s t : congregate housing, i s one o f the most expensive housing a l t e r n a t i v e s a v a i l a b l e i n Canada.  The P o t e n t i a l f o r Congregate As  our  elderly  34  Housing  population  increases  and  c o n t i n u e s t o grow  o l d e r , the p o t e n t i a l f o r s e r v i c e - r i c h housing w i l l a l s o  increase.  T h i s i s a r e l a t i v e l y untapped housing form i n Canada t h a t i s o n l y now  beginning to gain  momentum  (e.g., H o l l y b u r n House  Vancouver and Parkwood Manor i n C o q u i t l a m ) .  i n West  While the m a j o r i t y of  new congregate housing u n i t s are l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s w i t h a t l e a s t one  hundred  advantageous  tenants,  in  a  smaller  community  it  would  be  t o i n t e g r a t e s m a l l e r congregate c a r e homes i n s i n g l e  f a m i l y neighbourhoods.  S m a l l e r congregate housing would h e l p t o  ensure t h a t the r e s i d e n t s do not have a complete range of s e r v i c e s o n - s i t e and t h e r e f o r e must sometimes l e a v e the p r o j e c t f o r e r r a n d s or  entertainment.  between  the  Thus, t h e r e would be a c o n t i n u i n g  congregate  housing  residents  ^The costs associated with d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y i n Chapter 4. 49  and  congregate  the  relationship rest  housing  of  the  will  be  community so t h a t t h e e l d e r l y r e s i d e n t s o f congregate housing would remain an i n t e g r a l and v i t a l p a r t of the community.  50  DEPENDENT  LIVING  Contrary  to popular  Columbians do  not  live  belief,  most e l d e r l y persons i n B r i t i s h  in institutions.  In  1981,  only  about  8  p e r c e n t of e l d e r l y B r i t i s h Columbians were r e s i d e n t s of " c o l l e c t i v e d w e l l i n g s " which are nursing,  chronic  " d e f i n e d by  care  and  old  i n s t i t u t i o n s ; h o t e l s , motels, All Ministry  care f a c i l i t i e s of  subsidized  Health or  patient  Continuing  out  in  the  Regulations." facilities personal  transportation.  3 5  Care  Division,  n o n - p r o f i t or  whether public  they  the are  facilities.  that  "facilities  must  comply  Care  Facility  Act  and  with  as s e t  Adult  Care  The v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s which are o f f e r e d a t c a r e  include and  religious  s t a f f i n g , and management requirements  Community 36  hospitals;  which have been c r e a t e d i n the i n t e r e s t  stipulate  minimum room, space,  homes;  t o u r i s t homes, YM/YWCAs, e t c . "  privately-owned,  care,  age  Canada as i n c l u d i n g  i n B r i t i s h Columbia are l i c e n s e d by  The l i c e n s i n g requirements, of  Statistics  meals,  nursing  housekeeping,  care,  linens  recreational  and  laundry,  activities  The average of a r e s i d e n t i s over 80 y e a r s of  and age;  however, i t i s important t o r e a l i z e t h a t e i g h t p e r c e n t of a l l c a r e f a c i l i t y p a t i e n t s are under 65 years of age.  F a c t Book on Aging  37  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p.  'Geller and A s s o c i a t e s , p.  30.  G e l l e r and A s s o c i a t e s , p.  31. 51  42.  P e r s o n a l Care P e r s o n a l c a r e i s "the type o f c a r e r e q u i r e d by persons o f any age whose p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s a r e such t h a t t h e i r primary need i s f o r room and board,  l i m i t e d l a y s u p e r v i s i o n , a s s i s t a n c e w i t h some  of t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f d a i l y l i v i n g and a planned program o f s o c i a l and  recreational  activities.  Personal care  1 , 3 8  i s also  available  f o r persons w i t h m i l d mental d i s o r d e r s who need room and board and limited  non-professional  environment.  supervision  within  a  supportive  F a c i l i t i e s which p r o v i d e t h i s type o f c a r e have been  c a l l e d Rest Homes o r Boarding Homes, but t h e Departments o f H e a l t h and Human Resources r e f e r t o them as P e r s o n a l Care Homes.  Intermediate  Care  Intermediate available nursing  under  facilities  personal  care,  provide  as w e l l  a l l of the services as d a i l y  s u p e r v i s i o n and, f o r some, p s y c h i a t r i c  professional charge  care  s u p e r v i s o r , such  as a graduate  o f r e s i d e n t c a r e on a d a i l y ,  supervision.  nurse,  r a t h e r than  professional A  must  be i n  24-hour,  basis.  R e s i d e n t s i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r e f a c i l i t y must be ambulatory,  that  i s , t h e r e s i d e n t i s not bed-ridden, o r be a b l e t o use a w h e e l c h a i r independently.  Intermediate c a r e has a mandate t o c a r e f o r persons  aged 19 y e a r s o r over who r e q u i r e these  services.  C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g Education, Housing I n f o r m a t i o n f o r those Approaching Retirement. 4 t h ed. (Vancouver: Centre f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, September 1986), p. 8. 38  52  There a r e t h r e e  levels  of intermediate care.  Intermediate  Care I " r e c o g n i z e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l who r e q u i r e s moderate a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f d a i l y l i v i n g and minimal p r o f e s s i o n a l care and/or s u p e r v i s i o n . "  3 9  Intermediate  Care I I i s intended  f o r the  i n d i v i d u a l who has more complex care needs and r e q u i r e s a d d i t i o n a l professional  care  and/or  supervision.  Intermediate  Care I I I  p r i m a r i l y r e c o g n i z e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l who e x h i b i t s severe b e h a v i o r a l d i s t u r b a n c e s on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s and who p r e s e n t s a s i g n i f i c a n t management  problem.  individual  who  demands  This  has very  significant  Intermediate  Care  level  heavy  staff  care  time  I I I requires  of  care  also  recognizes  requirements  to  manage.  considerable  the  and t h e r e f o r e As  a  result,  s u p e r v i s i o n and/or  a s s i s t a n c e under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a h e a l t h c a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l .  Extended Care Extended severe  care  facilities  a r e designed  f o r persons  a  c h r o n i c d i s a b i l i t y who r e q u i r e 24-hour a day p r o f e s s i o n a l  n u r s i n g s e r v i c e s and continuous medical s u p e r v i s i o n . be  with  eligible  for this  type  o f care,  the i n d i v i d u a l  In order t o will  require  r e g u l a r and c o n t i n u i n g medical s u p e r v i s i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l n u r s i n g c a r e beyond t h a t a v a i l a b l e i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r e f a c i l i t y . i n d i v i d u a l may o r may not be independently mobile. would  not r e q u i r e a l l t h e s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e  The  The i n d i v i d u a l  i n an acute  care  hospital.  Jeremy Tate, Long Term Care F a c i l i t i e s : Overview and Trends. U.B.C. P r e s e n t a t i o n , October 29, 1987. 39  53  The F u t u r e o f Care F a c i l i t i e s E f f o r t s t o reduce t h e r a t e o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n among our e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n have been under way f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Consequently,  of new c l i e n t s only. Care  government p o l i c y r e s t r i c t e d t h e r e f e r r a l  a t the personal care l e v e l  As a r e s u l t , t h e r e w i l l not be any new s u b s i d i z e d P e r s o n a l facilities  in British  Columbia.  expanded t o i n c l u d e c l i e n t s well.  t o an e x c e p t i o n b a s i s  This policy  a t t h e Intermediate  was r e c e n t l y  Care I l e v e l as  4 0  The  t r e n d t o t h e d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e e l d e r l y must  c o n t i n u e f o r t h r e e reasons.  F i r s t , t h e c o s t o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l care  i s v e r y h i g h compared t o o t h e r l i v i n g arrangements which p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o those e l d e r l y who do not r e q u i r e f u l l - t i m e c a r e .  For  example, w h i l e t h e c o s t o f c a r e i n an i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r e f a c i l i t y i n T e r r a c e i s $90 a day, t h e c o s t o f housing p r o j e c t would be $20 t o $22 a day. population, demand  particularly  a greater  Third,  the  arrangements persons  those  41  i n a supported  housing  Second, t h e growing  elderly  75 y e a r s  o f age and over,  amount o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l  space  increasing  availability  of  f o r elderly  persons  appeal  will  i n the future.  alternative t o many  living elderly  who may now be u s i n g beds i n i n s t i t u t i o n s due t o l a c k o f  s u i t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s when they entered t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . those  will  individuals  who  currently  reside  in  4 0  G e l l e r and A s s o c i a t e s , p. 31.  41  "Housing B i d Made Today," T e r r a c e Standard  n.p. 54  care  I n time, facilities  28 February 1990,  throughout arrangements  British that  Columbia  will  be  will  better  have  suited  alternative to their  r e l i e v i n g t h e e x i s t i n g demand f o r beds i n c a r e  55  needs  facilities.  living while  CHAPTER 3 PROFILE OF THE C I T Y OF TERRACE, B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  The  purpose o f t h i s chapter  i s t o develop  a p r o f i l e of the  C i t y o f T e r r a c e i n order t o prepare a s t r a t e g y f o r housing f o r t h e e l d e r l y i n the C i t y of Terrace. chapter w i l l  be d i v i d e d i n t o  The i n f o r m a t i o n assembled i n t h i s  f o u r s e c t i o n s : (1) t h e c u r r e n t and  p r o j e c t e d e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e over t h e next 20 y e a r s , (2) a d e t a i l e d i n v e n t o r y o f e x i s t i n g housing intended f o r e l d e r l y T e r r a c e r e s i d e n t s , (3) an i n v e n t o r y o f e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s intended  for elderly  T e r r a c e r e s i d e n t s , and (4) an i n v e n t o r y o f  e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s i n t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e t h a t a r e used by s e n i o r s , but n o t e x c l u s i v e l y  intended f o r s e n i o r s .  CURRENT AND PROJECTED POPULATION OP THE CITY OF TERRACE  The i n 1986.  C i t y o f T e r r a c e had a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 10,532 1  persons  The p o p u l a t i o n o f T e r r a c e has remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e  over t h e l a s t two decades r a n g i n g from a low o f 9,991 persons i n 1971  t o a high  o f 10,914 persons  i n 1981.  When t h e p o p u l a t i o n  l i v i n g o u t s i d e o f t h e i n c o r p o r a t e d area o f T e r r a c e but w i t h i n t h e rural  and urban  area  surrounding  the C i t y  p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d from 13,229 persons 18,450 persons  i n 1987.  i s considered, the  i n 1971 t o an estimated  2  B r i t i s h Columbia 1986 Census. T e r r a c e . New Aiyansh. H a z e l t o n . P r i n c e Rupert. Smithers. K i t i m a t . C h a r l o t t e s . Stewart. Houston, p. 1. C i t y o f T e r r a c e , T e r r a c e . . . As a Matter o f F a c t (Terrace, T e r r a c e P l a n n i n g and Economic Development Department, 1988) p. 5. 2  57  In 1986, t h e r e were 505 persons the C i t y o f T e r r a c e .  These persons  the  of the C i t y  total  persons  population  65 y e a r s o f age and over i n accounted  f o r 4.8 p e r c e n t o f  of Terrace.  The number o f  3  65 y e a r s o f age and over l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e urban and r u r a l  area was e s t i m a t e d t o be 735 persons population.  i n 1986, 4.2 p e r c e n t o f t h e  4  Terrace  10,000  persons;  t h e r e f o r e , i t can be c l a s s i f i e d as a s m a l l urban c e n t r e .  However,  the  has  population  small c i t i e s cities persons, elderly cities.  a  population  o f more  age d i s t r i b u t i o n  i n Canada.  i n Canada  with  than  does n o t r e f l e c t t h a t o f other  When T e r r a c e i s compared t o o t h e r populations  between  10,000  i t i s c l e a r t h a t T e r r a c e has a much lower persons  i n i t s p o p u l a t i o n than  The average percentage  small c i t i e s  p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n .  do o t h e r  o f persons  i s 11.4 percent w h i l e  r e s i d e n t s who a r e 65 and over  of persons  aged  i s about h a l f  population  and 29,999  percentage o f small  Canadian  65 and over i n  t h e average,  S i m i l a r l y , the average  75 y e a r s o f age and over  small  i n T e r r a c e t h e percentage o f  i n small c i t i e s  4.7 p e r c e n t , w h i l e i n T e r r a c e i t i s 2.5 p e r c e n t . The  5  age d i s t r i b u t i o n  B r i t i s h Columbia 1986 Census. p. 1.  4  T a y l o r , p. 3 .  percentage  i n Canada i s  6  i n the City  3  a t 4.8  of  Terrace  A s m a l l urban c e n t r e i s d e f i n e d by G e r a l d Hodge as being between 10,000 and 99,999 p o p u l a a t i o n i n The E l d e r l y i n Small Towns: Recent Trends and T h e i r I m p l i c a t i o n s . Human Settlement I s s u e s , O c c a s i o n a l Papers No. 43 (Vancouver, The Centre F o r Human Settlements, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1987) p. 15. 5  "Tlodge, "The S e n i o r s ' Surge: Why Planners Should Care," p. 7. 58  actually  reflects  that  of  a  small,  isolated  resource-based  community r a t h e r than t h a t o f an average s m a l l c i t y i n s p i t e o f t h e fact  that  primary,  t h e economy  manufacturing,  employment.  of Terrace  has  diversified  to  include  s e r v i c e , t r a d e and p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  7  Table 3 1986 P o p u l a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e By Age and Sex T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n : 10,532 Age 0 5 10 15 20 25 35 45 55 65 75  Number o f Persons 4 9 - 14 - 19 - 24 - 34 44 - 54 - 64 74 y e a r s and over  --  Persons i n an institutional setting  7  Terrace  Percentage o f P o p u l a t i o n  900 915 985 1, 060 870 1,860 1, 690 1,060 685 330 175  8.5 8.7 9.4 10.1 8.3 17.7 16.0 10.1 6.5 3.1 1.7  77  .7  . . . As a Matter  o f F a c t , p. 9. 59  Table 4 1986  P o p u l a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e By Age, Male P o p u l a t i o n  T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n : 5,045 Age 0 5 10 15 20 25 35 45 55 65 75  Number o f Persons 4 9 14 19 24 34 44 54 - 64 74 y e a r s and over  465 475 525 545 430 920 850 550 375 180 85  -  -  Percentage o f P o p u l a t i o n 4.4 4.5 5.0 5.2 4.1 8.7 8.1 5.2 3.6 1.7 .8  Table 5 1986  P o p u l a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e By Age, Female P o p u l a t i o n  T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n : 5,140 Age 0 5 10 15 20 25 35 45 55 65 75  Number o f Persons 4 9 14 19 24 34 44 54 64 74 y e a r s and over  -  ' B r i t i s h Columbia  435 440 460 515 440 940 840 510 310 150 90  Percentage o f P o p u l a t i o n 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.9 4.2 8.9 8.0 4.8 2.9 1.4 .9  1986 Census. p. 1. 60  8  Table 6 1986  P o p u l a t i o n o f t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e and Surrounding  Area  T o t a l Estimated P o p u l a t i o n : 17,380 Age 0 5 10 15 20 25 35 45 55 65 75  Number o f Persons 4 9 14 19 24 34 44 54 64 74 y e a r s and over  Percentage  1, 620 1,560 1,605 1,660 1,420 3,185 2,865 1,665 1,085 500 235  -  of Population  9.3 9.0 9.2 9.6 8.2 18.3 16.5 9.6 6.2 2.9 1.4  T h i s data i n c l u d e s t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e , T h o r n h i l l , adjacent r e s e r v e s and s u r r o u n d i n g l e s s developed areas based upon Skeena Health Unit s t a t i s t i c s . 9  The smaller  C i t y o f T e r r a c e i s t h e r e g i o n a l s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r many communities  i n northwestern  British  Columbia.  For that  reason, t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e e n t i r e r e g i o n w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d t o e s t a b l i s h demands t h a t w i l l be made on T e r r a c e by surrounding communities. projections information  In  an  attempt  f o r the City produced  of  to  provide  Terrace  and  accurate  population  surrounding  by t h e C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s  Bureau  areas, for  the  Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . The C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s Bureau d i v i d e s t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n t o segments c a l l e d " s m a l l areas", which a r e L o c a l H e a l t h  S h e l l e y T a y l o r , R.N. D i s c u s s i o n Paper R e l a t i n g t o E v o l v i n g Needs o f E l d e r l y & S p e c i a l Needs People i n t h e T e r r a c e S e r v i c e B a s i n . 1989, p. 3. 9  61  Areas, f o r which p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s a r e then composed. is  located  areas  i n Local Health  such  as  Area 88 which a l s o  Cedarvale,  Kitwanga,  T h o r n h i l l , a suburb o f T e r r a c e Local Health includes  Hazelton,  ( f i g u r e 1).  settlements  outlying  Stewart,  and  I t should be noted t h a t  Area 88 surrounds L o c a l H e a l t h  many  includes  Terrace  Area 92.  i n t h e Nass V a l l e y  such  The l a t t e r as Aiyansh,  G r e e n v i l l e , and Canyon C i t y which t r e a t T e r r a c e as a s e r v i c e c e n t r e and  may a l s o make use o f t h e housing  seniors i n Terrace. are  calculated  additional  and s e r v i c e s  available to  Consequently, the p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s which  by t h e C e n t r a l  demands t h a t w i l l  Statistics  Bureau  will  reflect  be made on t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e  s e n i o r s i n s u r r o u n d i n g communities today and i n t h e f u t u r e .  62  by  f i g u r e 1: L o c a l H e a l t h Areas 88 and 92  63  B r i t i s h Columbia s m a l l area p o p u l a t i o n p r o j e c t i o n s produced by the C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s Bureau are based upon the "Component/CohortSurvival"  population  model  i n conjunction  with  area  specific  assumptions chosen by t h e C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s Bureau t h a t d e a l w i t h f e r t i l i t y , m o r t a l i t y and m i g r a t i o n .  The component/cohort-survival  model r e q u i r e s t h a t separate f o r e c a s t s o f f e r t i l i t y , migration  m o r t a l i t y and  a r e undertaken, then, w i t h t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n and  a base year a g e - s p e c i f i c e s t i m a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n , a p r o j e c t i o n f o r any subsequent year i s made by promoting each age group i n t h e p r e c e d i n g year t o t h e next h i g h e s t age group, w h i l e a t t h e same time t a k i n g i n t o account t h e e f f e c t s o f n e t m i g r a t i o n , deaths and/or b i r t h s . 1 0  The  assumptions  mortality  which  and m i g r a t i o n  revised  wherever  future.  As  predictions  a r e based  possible  a  result,  o f what  a r e made  will  i n forecasting  on p a s t  to reflect  conditions  potential  the population be, but o f what  fertility, which a r e  changes  projections could  f a c t o r s which c o u l d  economic zoning.  development  affect  patterns,  future population government  a r e not  be, g i v e n t h e  r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e assumptions chosen by t h e f o r e c a s t e r . the  i n the  Some o f  projections are  policy,  land  use and  11  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e P.E.O.P.L.E. p o p u l a t i o n t o t a l population  projections, the  f o r L o c a l H e a l t h Area 88 i n 1991 i s e s t i m a t e d t o  be 26,531 persons.  Of t h a t number, i t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 1,322 o r  P.E.O.P.L.E.: P o p u l a t i o n E x t r a p o l a t i o n F o r O r g a n i z a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g With Less E r r o r . P o p u l a t i o n S e c t i o n , C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s Bureau, M i n i s t r y o f Finance and Corporate R e l a t i o n s , Government o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia: Queen's P r i n t e r , March 31, 1989), p. 1. 10  "P.E.O.P.L.E.. p. 1. 64  5 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of L o c a l H e a l t h Area 88 a r e 65 y e a r s o f age o r o v e r .  12  Table 7 i n d i c a t e s population p r o j e c t i o n s  f o r the p o t e n t i a l s e n i o r ' s p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n L o c a l H e a l t h Area 88 through t o t h e year 2010.  12  P.E.0.P.L.E. . n.p. 65  Table 7 P o p u l a t i o n o f L o c a l H e a l t h Area 88 Over 45 Years o f Age Year  45-54  55-64  65-74  75-84  85-+  1988  2,511  1, 608  749  283  81  1,113  1990  2,553  1, 609  872  319  82  1,273  1995  3,401  1, 964  1, 071  389  105  1, 565  2000  4,069  2,360  1,304  499  118  1,921  2005  4,527  3,031  1,475  618  151  2,244  2010  5,048  3,709  1,806  826  192  2,824  Source: P.E.O.P.L.E.  f  C e n t r a l S t a t i s t i c s Bureau,  66  T o t a l 65+  1989, n.p.  O  c  W-  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  _E1  to  Twin R i v e r s E s t a t e s The Willows Tuck Avenue Apartments Terraceview Lodge TDCSS Happy Gang Centre Emerson M e d i c a l C l i n i c The M e d i c a l C l i n i c M i l l s Memorial H o s p i t a l Pharmacies Skeena M a l l T e r r a c e Shopping Centre Library R e c r e a t i o n Centre Northwest Community College  f i g u r e 2: C i t y of T e r r a c e I n d i c a t i n g Housing and S e r v i c e s Used by 67  Seniors  EXISTING HOUSING USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS The v a r i e t y of housing a v a i l a b l e t o e l d e r l y T e r r a c e r e s i d e n t s i n c l u d e s s i x housing o p t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e independent single  family  dwellings,  condominiums, and options  for  lifestyle:  homes,  rental  n o n - p r o f i t s e n i o r ' s housing.  those  support  mobile  seniors  who  desire  a  s e n i o r s who  personal  in-law s u i t e s .  Those  must l i v e i n a dependent l i v i n g arrangement r e s i d e i n  f o l l o w i s a c a t a l o g u e and  i n Terrace.  d e s c r i p t i o n of the housing  arrangements t h a t are c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e  Terrace.  three  independent  s e r v i c e s i n the community, i n c l u d i n g  an i n t e r m e d i a t e and extended c a r e f a c i l i t y  living  apartments,  There are  supported  c a r e i n the home, a c c e s s o r y apartments and  living:  However,  the  options  of  single  What w i l l options  and  i n the C i t y  family  of  dwellings,  a c c e s s o r y apartments, mobile homes and r e n t a l apartments w i l l  not  be d i s c u s s e d . The range of housing o p t i o n s and elderly  which  service  to  are  not  facilitate  available  l i v i n g arrangements f o r the  i n Terrace  homesharing,  garden  concept housing, and congregate c a r e housing. would f a c i l i t a t e a supported  include a  independent  suites,  matching  Abbeyfield  A l l of these o p t i o n s  lifestyle.  Condominiums Twin R i v e r E s t a t e s : Eventual t o t a l of 84 u n i t s Twin R i v e r E s t a t e s i s a condominium p r o j e c t f o r persons 55  years  of age;  exclusively  i t i s the  intended  over  o n l y condominium p r o j e c t i n T e r r a c e  for seniors. 68  The  i d e a was  initiated  by  an  elderly  gentleman who l i v e d  i n a s i m i l a r condominium p r o j e c t i n  A b b o t s f o r d , B r i t i s h Columbia.  The Skeena S e n i o r  C i t i z e n s Housing  S o c i e t y , which i s a group o f e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e community, then launched and sponsored t h e p l a n s f o r t h e condominium p r o j e c t . The p r o p e r t y ,  l o c a t e d a t t h e corner o f A p s l e y and L a k e l s e (see  f i g u r e 2 ) , was a c q u i r e d the  summer o f 1989.  March 31, 1989 and c o n s t r u c t i o n began i n  Financing  was arranged from New Westminster  C r e d i t Union, and a d d i t i o n a l funding was gained from BCHMC and t h e Skeena S e n i o r  C i t i z e n s Housing  phase was $1,400,000.  The f i r s t  Society.  of the f i r s t  phase, which i n c l u d e d  was completed i n t h e f a l l o f 1989. included  The c o s t  30 u n i t s ,  The second phase, which a l s o  30 u n i t s , was completed i n t h e f a l l o f 1990.  The t h i r d  phase, comprised o f 24 u n i t s , i s now under c o n s t r u c t i o n . The  cost  of units  $50,500 f o r a standard deluxe u n i t  i n the f i r s t unit  phase o f t h e p r o j e c t  (93 0 square f e e t )  (1170 square f e e t )  were  and $60,500 f o r a  i n t h e summer o f 1989.  A $6000  d e p o s i t was r e q u i r e d t o secure a u n i t and a $2000 i n t e r e s t b e a r i n g l o a n which would be payable upon completion o f t h e second phase was also  required.  If a  person  was  not  satisfied  with  their  condominium, t h e r e was a buy-back arrangement which allowed one t o receive a refund Units will  o f t h e o r i g i n a l purchase p r i c e .  i n t h e t h i r d phase a r e f o r s a l e now, although t e n a n t s  n o t be a b l e  estimated  that  $10,000 h i g h e r summer o f 1990.  t o move  the cost than  in until  of a unit  they  a r e completed.  i n Phase Three w i l l  a comparable u n i t c o s t  Presently,  a standard  unit  Itis be about  i n Phase One i n t h e (930 square f e e t ) i n  Phase Three w i l l c o s t $61,500 and a deluxe u n i t  (1170  square f e e t )  w i l l c o s t $71,500. Residents  of  the  condominium  would  be  responsible  for  a c q u i r i n g a p p l i a n c e s , d r a p e r i e s , c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n , telephones,  and  insurance  are  on  the  required  to  pay  property  taxes,  contents a  of the  monthly  electricity  unit.  service (heat  Further,  fee  and  to  cover  power),  the  costs  utilities  sewer and garbage p i c k - u p ) , o u t s i d e maintenance and and  residents  of  (water,  snow removal,  i n s u r a n c e on the b u i l d i n g s . There are a v a r i e t y of f e a t u r e s i n c l u d e d i n the  condominium  i n c l u d i n g sound-deadening c o n s t r u c t i o n , a covered p a t i o or balcony, c a r p o r t space, a r e a r yard with space f o r a s m a l l v e g e t a b l e garden, smoke d e t e c t o r s , an o u t s i d e intercom, and access t o a l a r g e m u l t i purpose b u i l d i n g f o r f a m i l y g a t h e r i n g s , r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and storage. There are two major weaknesses r e l a t i n g t o d e s i g n and of Twin R i v e r  Estates.  First,  the  e n t i r e development, which i s  composed of a number of b u i l d i n g s , i s two unit  stacked  structure  on  another  is likely  to  at pose  ground  location  storeys high, with  level.  some problems  The  design  i n the  of  future.  one the For  example, the r e s i d e n t of the upper l e v e l must use s t a i r s t o get t o h i s or her u n i t : these s t a i r s are l i k e l y t o become a problem as the r e s i d e n t s age, resident  or sooner i f an a c c i d e n t occurs which renders  incapable  problems, preferable  arthritis f o r the  of or  using  stairs  wheelchair  on  a  daily  use).  e n t i r e p r o j e c t t o be  one  It  basis would  (e.g. have  storey high  the hip been  so t h a t  none o f t h e r e s i d e n t s would have t o use s t a i r s o r f o r t h e p r o j e c t to  be a t l e a s t  installed.  three  storeys  Another o p t i o n  high  could  so t h a t  an e l e v a t o r  have been t o have p a r t  p r o j e c t i n t h e m u l t i - l e v e l apartment s t y l e d e s i g n p r o j e c t as row houses.  c o u l d be of the  and p a r t o f t h e  T h i s would have g i v e n r e s i d e n t s a g r e a t e r  o p t i o n i n the s t y l e o f condominium they wanted, as w e l l as e n s u r i n g that  a l l residents  would  have  access  to their  home  without  r e q u i r i n g t h e use o f s t a i r s . Second, regard  Twin  River  Estates  i s inappropriately  located i n  t o access t o s e r v i c e s : the p r o j e c t i s a t l e a s t f i v e  blocks  from shops and s e r v i c e s which w i l l p l a c e r e s i d e n t s who no longer d r i v e i n t h e p o s i t i o n where they cannot access t h e s e r v i c e s they require.  O r i g i n a l l y bus s e r v i c e d i d not pass near t h e p r o j e c t , but  t h i s problem has r e c e n t l y been remedied w i t h t h e r e - r o u t i n g o f a bus t o pass by t h e development. the  development  Nevertheless,  age, i t i s l i k e l y  that  as t h e r e s i d e n t s o f  t h e new handyDART bus  s e r v i c e w i l l become i n d i s p e n s i b l e t o the r e s i d e n t s o f t h i s p r o j e c t .  Non-Profit The  Senior's  Housing  Willows: T o t a l o f 38 u n i t s The  Willows,  located  on Kalum  Street  (see f i g u r e  2) , a r e  s u b s i d i z e d r e n t a l apartments f o r persons over t h e age o f 55 y e a r s who r e q u i r e low-income housing.  The apartment i s owned and managed  by  a r e geared t o income so t h a t t h e  BCHMC.  residents rent.  Consequently, r e n t s will  pay no more than  There a r e both b a c h e l o r  30 percent  of t h e i r  income f o r  and one-bedroom apartments i n t h e  building.  The  apartment  building  i s three  storeys  high  and  is  equipped w i t h an e l e v a t o r and s e v e r a l w h e e l c h a i r a c c e s s ramps which facilitate  mobility  difficulty  walking.  persons t o get The  There  i n t o the  and  the  shops and s e r v i c e s . s e r v i c e w i t h a bus  is  use  wheelchairs  currently  waiting  have some list  of  located  library  and  Further,  within within  one  b l o c k of  specifically  walking  distance  of  many  the r e s i d e n t s have easy a c c e s s t o  stop immediately o u t s i d e  of the  storey  row  houses.  funding.  There  bachelor u n i t s .  which houses a l i b r a r y  are  units  The  u n i t s were  four  games room.  one-bedroom  The  rent  are  constructed aid  units  There i s a l s o an area a t the  and  bus  building.  f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s i n the e a r l y 1960's w i t h the  government  20  recreation  Tuck Avenue Apartments on Tuck Avenue (see f i g u r e 2)  composed of 18 one  fourteen  a  or  project.  Tuck Avenue Apartments: T o t a l of 18 The  of  those who  Willows i s w e l l  facilities  The  for  and  apartments  charged f o r  the  u n i t s i s $125.00 f o r a b a c h e l o r s u i t e and $150.00 f o r a one-bedroom suite.  There  is  currently  a  waiting  list  to  get  into  these  apartments. The  owner  of  Christian Council  the  apartments  is  of S o c i a l Resources  the  and  of S o c i a l S e r v i c e s  a t e e n home i n T e r r a c e .  and  (TDCCSR) which has  from s e v e r a l of the churches i n the C i t y . C h r i s t i a n Council  Terrace  The T e r r a c e and  District members District  a l s o owns a r e c e i v i n g house  Each of the t h r e e developments has  72  a  chairman  from  development.  TDCCSR  oversees  the  management  of  each  13  The t e n a n t s apartments  who  a t t h e apartments a p p r e c i a t e t h e f a c t t h a t the  a r e a l l one  predominance  of bachelor  level.  However,  suites  and,  like  they  do  not  like  the  t h e r e s i d e n t s a t the  Willows, would l i k e t o see more one-bedroom u n i t s b u i l t f o r s e n i o r s i n the f u t u r e . One o f t h e major weaknesses of the Tuck Avenue Apartments i s location.  This  p r o j e c t i s located eleven  c e n t r e of t h e C i t y .  As a r e s u l t ,  blocks  north  of the  the apartments a r e not w i t h i n  w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f shops and s e r v i c e s .  There i s , however, a bus  stop a d j a c e n t t o t h e apartments which the t e n a n t s who do not d r i v e may  use t o g e t t o shops and s e r v i c e s i n the c e n t r e o f t h e C i t y .  Again, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t handyDART w i l l be used by t h e r e s i d e n t s of t h i s apartment  Intermediate  Terraceview  complex.  and E x t e n d e d C a r e  Lodge: T o t a l of 75 beds  Terraceview  Lodge, l o c a t e d a t 4103 Sparks S t r e e t (see f i g u r e  2) , i s an i n t e r m e d i a t e and extended c a r e f a c i l i t y which i s operated under t h e C o n t i n u i n g Care D i v i s i o n o f the M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h .  The  Lodge i s managed by the T e r r a c e H e a l t h Care S o c i e t y , a n o n - p r o f i t society Terrace.  that  a l s o owns and  manages M i l l s  Memorial  Hospital i n  The Lodge, which i s s i t u a t e d on a s i x a c r e l o t on a bench  C l i f f Best, Chairman of t h e Tuck Avenue Apartments, Telephone C o n v e r s a t i o n , 24 J u l y , 1990. 1 3  73  o v e r l o o k i n g downtown T e r r a c e and t h e v a l l e y beyond, opened i n 1984 w i t h an i n i t i a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 56 i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r e r e s i d e n t s . The Lodge  was  expanded  i n 1989 t o i n c l u d e  20 extended  care  beds.  Today, t h e r e a r e 75 e l d e r l y o r d i s a b l e d r e s i d e n t s i n t h e f a c i l i t y , 20 o f whom r e q u i r e extended care s e r v i c e s . residents  i s 89 y e a r s ,  from 32 t o 98 y e a r s .  although  The average age o f t h e  t h e ages o f t h e r e s i d e n t s range  Currently, the f a c i l i t y  i s running  at f u l l  occupancy and t h e r e i s a w a i t i n g l i s t o f 8 persons. There including  are a  variety  physician  of s e r v i c e s  services,  available  pharmaceutical  a t t h e Lodge  services,  24-hour  n u r s i n g c a r e s e r v i c e s , laundry and housekeeping s e r v i c e s , v o l u n t e e r and  pastoral  care  services,  limit  of  services.  S e r v i c e s which a r e not a v a i l a b l e a t t h e Lodge a r e acute  rehabilitative Family  treatment, therapy,  meetings,  with  limited  (to a  trust  medical  and  services  $175.00),  care  accounts,  banking  acute  psychiatric  day c a r e ,  treatment,  extensive  and p h y s i o t h e r a p y  services.  the r e s i d e n t s ' f a m i l i e s ,  monthly b a s i s " t o ensure t h a t t h e r e i d e a s and express  l a b and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  concerns  i s an o p p o r t u n i t y  o f mutual i n t e r e s t . "  s e r v i c e s w i t h i n t h e Lodge t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e community  including  one r e s p i t e  are held  care  1 4  t o share  There a r e a l s o  t o members o f t h e  room, w i t h  p r o v i d e s r e s i d e n t i a l care f o r a b r i e f ,  on a  one bed, which  temporary p e r i o d , such as  when t h e normal c a r e g i v e r goes on v a c a t i o n , equipment use, such as , t h e use o f t h e Century r a i s e persons 14  b a t h i n g t u b which has a h y d r a u l i c l i f t t o  i n t o and out o f t h e t u b .  Terraceview  Lodge I n f o r m a t i o n a l Booklet, n.d., n.p. 74  Finally,  t h e r e i s a R e s i d e n t s ' C o n s u l t a t i o n Committee which  c o n s i s t s o f members appointed  by t h e Board o f t h e T e r r a c e  Care S o c i e t y and t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e Lodge. intended  " t o a c t as  administrative  staff  a  liaison  group  of the f a c i l i t y  Health  The committee i s  between  t h e Board, t h e  and t h e r e s i d e n t s , f o r t h e  purposes o f d i s c u s s i n g matters o f an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e nature which may r e q u i r e a t t e n t i o n . The involved  administrative  who  staff  of  Lodge  incorporate s e r v i c e s t o the e l d e r l y  are also  and d i s a b l e d a t  I t i s estimated t h a t t h e r e a r e 15 r e s i d e n t s i n t h e Lodge  1 6  would  n o t be  there  i f there  a l t e r n a t i v e t o meet t h e i r needs. are under way t o develop site  Terraceview  i n t h e development o f a "community-based model o f care  which w i l l large."  1 1 1 5  as t h e Lodge.  were  a  supportive  housing  In p u r s u i t o f t h i s g o a l , p l a n s  a s h e l t e r e d housing  complex on t h e same  T h i s development would i n c l u d e 40 s h e l t e r e d  housing  u n i t s which would range from one bedroom t o f o u r bedroom  units.  The p l a n i s c u r r e n t l y being c o n s i d e r e d by t h e P r o v i n c i a l  government f o r f u n d i n g a p p r o v a l . Terraceview City.  17  Lodge i s t h r e e k i l o m e t r e s  from t h e core  of the  The r e s i d e n t s have l i m i t e d access t o a van and d r i v e r which  i s used f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  There i s a l s o a bus stop v e r y c l o s e t o  15  Terraceview  Lodge I n f o r m a t i o n a l B o o k l e t .  16  Terraceview  Lodge I n f o r m a t i o n a l B o o k l e t .  Michael L e i s i n g e r , Chief Executive O f f i c e r , Care S o c i e t y , P e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , 9 J u l y , 1990. 17  Lutz A s s o c i a t e s , T e r r a c e H e a l t h Housing Program. 21 March, 1990. 75  Care  Terrace  Society  Health  Supportive  the Lodge, which may a l l e v i a t e the problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h such a d i s t a n c e use  from t h e C i t y c e n t r e  public transportation.  f o r those r e s i d e n t s who  I d e a l l y , the Lodge would have  l o c a t e d c l o s e enough t o s e r v i c e s and shopping i n the C i t y t h a t r e s i d e n t s c o u l d walk. fact  that  being can been  centre  However, the a c c e s s t o buses and the  t h e weather would p r e c l u d e  many of t h e r e s i d e n t s  w a l k i n g t o s e r v i c e s i n the w i n t e r months may  help  from  t o l e s s e n the  sense of i s o l a t i o n t h a t r e s i d e n t s may e x p e r i e n c e a t the Lodge.  76  EXISTING SERVICES USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS Support S e r v i c e s f o r those L i v i n g i n the Community Terrace  and D i s t r i c t Community S e r v i c e s  Society  T e r r a c e and D i s t r i c t Community S e r v i c e s S o c i e t y (TDCSS), which began i n 1974 w i t h t h e h e l p o f a L o c a l Improvement P r o j e c t  grant,  o f f e r s s o c i a l and h e a l t h programs f o r r e s i d e n t s o f a l l ages w i t h i n the  Skeena H e a l t h  Street  Unit d i s t r i c t .  Located  at City Hall,  3215 Eby  (see f i g u r e 2) , a wide range o f programs a r e o f f e r e d by  TDCSS i n c l u d i n g Northwest A l c o h o l  and Drug C o u n s e l l i n g  Service,  Mother's Time O f f , S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s t o C h i l d r e n , t h e Youth Worker Program,  t h e Choices  Program which  o f f e r s s e r v i c e s t o mentally  handicapped c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s , and T e r r a c e Home Support S e r v i c e s . T e r r a c e Home Support S e r v i c e s i s t h e program which i s o f most value  t o e l d e r l y and handicapped T e r r a c e  receive  any o f t h e s e r v i c e s  Services,  a  prospective  provided  client  must  D i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of Health come  into  require.  their  home  At t h i s  and e v a l u a t e  time  residents. by T e r r a c e  call  I n order t o Home  Support  the Continuing  Care  t o arrange f o r an a s s e s s o r t o the l e v e l  the assessor  would  of s e r v i c e  also  they  consider the  p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t ' s income and decide how much t h e c l i e n t would be charged f o r t h e s e r v i c e s they r e q u i r e from Home Support S e r v i c e s . There a r e a v a r i e t y o f programs o f f e r e d w i t h i n T e r r a c e Home Support S e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g household care, p e r s o n a l a s s i s t a n c e , and adult r e s p i t e care. coming  into  Household care i n v o l v e s a home support  the c l i e n t ' s  home  on a  household chores such as c l e a n i n g , 77  regular  laundry,  basis  and  worker doing  meal p r e p a r a t i o n and  shopping f o r t h e c l i e n t who i s unable t o do so h i s - o r h e r s e l f . P e r s o n a l a s s i s t a n c e i s p r o v i d e d f o r c l i e n t s who r e q u i r e h e l p w i t h such a c t i v i t i e s as b a t h i n g , shaving, d r e s s i n g , t r a n s f e r r i n g  into  and out o f bed o r i n t o a w h e e l c h a i r each day, p u t t i n g on o r d e a l i n g w i t h a p r o s t h e s i s , and/or p l a n n i n g and p r e p a r i n g s p e c i a l d i e t s .  As  a guide, a c l i e n t r e q u i r i n g p e r s o n a l a s s i s t a n c e would r e q u i r e no more than  20 hours  p e r month o f c a r e .  intended t o p r o v i d e temporary  Adult respite  care i s  r e l i e f f o r t h e primary c a r e g i v e r o f  an e l d e r l y o r handicapped person.  In t h i s case an employee o f Home  Support S e r v i c e s would go i n t o t h e c l i e n t ' s home f o r two o r t h r e e hours a c o u p l e o f times a week t o g i v e t h e primary c a r e g i v e r time off.  The number o f times a c l i e n t may be v i s i t e d range from once  a week t o once o r t w i c e d a i l y .  About 100 persons, 80 o f whom a r e  e l d e r l y , a r e s e r v i c e d by these programs.  Meals-on-Wheels Meals-on-wheels  i s c a r r i e d out on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s , and meals  are d e l i v e r e d on Monday, Wednesday and Thursday.  The c l i e n t may  choose t o have s e v e r a l meals d e l i v e r e d a t one time so t h a t he o r she w i l l  have a prepared meal every day.  The meals,  which  cost  $3.00 each, a r e prepared a t t h e Terraceview Lodge and c o n s i s t o f soup, s a l a d , a main course and d e s s e r t .  handyDART HandyDART  i s door  t o door  transportation 78  f o r p h y s i c a l l y or  m e n t a l l y d i s a b l e d persons who bus  service.  are unable t o use  Terrace recently  acquired  the  a handyDART v e h i c l e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s commenced on J u l y 3, 1990. a v a i l a b l e Monday t o F r i d a y from 8:45 from 10:00  a.m.  t o 4:00  p.m.  The  a.m.  conventional  t o 5:50  The  p.m.  and  service i s  and  Saturday  c o s t of the s e r v i c e i s $1.00  per  ride. Any person who to  wants t o use the handyDART s e r v i c e i s r e q u e s t e d  register, free  person wishes  to  of  charge,  use  the  f o r the  service  he  service. or  she  Then, when  that  must telephone  the  d i s p a t c h o f f i c e ahead of time, p r e f e r a b l y g i v i n g one day's n o t i c e , t o have the handyDART v e h i c l e p i c k them up. handyDART s e r v i c e , trips, one  one  may  When booking f o r the  choose t o book only  once f o r  such as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o work or r e g u l a r appointments, or  may  choose t o book each time t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  occasional t r i p s .  i s required  t o t r a v e l w i t h an e s c o r t , t h a t person may space p e r m i t t i n g ,  The  by p a y i n g r e g u l a r  Happy Gang Centre f o r  September  13th,  1990,  Kalum  Street  (see  chooses  fare.  1 8  Seniors  is  a  i n d i v i d u a l s i n the community. 3226  I f one  t r a v e l on the handyDART  The Happy Gang Centre, which c e l e b r a t e d on  for  I f an a t t e n d a n t i s r e q u i r e d t o h e l p someone make  a t r i p , t h a t a t t e n d a n t would t r a v e l f r e e of charge.  bus,  regular  figure  meeting  The  i t s tenth  place  for  anniversary  many  elderly  Centre i s c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d  2) .  The  Happy  Gang  Centre  BC T r a n s i t Pamphlet, T e r r a c e handyDART: Door-to-door f o r d i s a b l e d people,, n.d. 18  79  at was  rides  initiated,  built,  Pensioners'  and  i s now  O r g a n i z a t i o n Branch #73, T e r r a c e  which The Happy Gang Centre Terrace.  r u n by B r i t i s h  Columbia B.C.  i s l o c a t e d i s owned  19  O l d Age  The l a n d on  by t h e C i t y o f  I t i s estimated t h a t t h e r e a r e over 200 members o f t h i s  o r g a n i z a t i o n , some o f whom a r e over 90 y e a r s o f age. A variety  of a c t i v i t i e s  c r i b b a g e , bingo, councellor week.  take  c a r p e t bowling  place at the centre i n c l u d i n g  and e x e r c i s e c l a s s e s .  i s available to discuss a variety  A seniors'  o f matters once a  A lunch i n c l u d i n g soup, sandwiches and d e s e r t i s a v a i l a b l e ,  f o r a nominal f e e , from Monday t o F r i d a y .  On t h e f i r s t Saturday o f  each month a pancake b r e a k f a s t , prepared by t h e men, i s o f f e r e d f o r a nominal f e e as w e l l . a  dinner  or  entertainment  pot-luck  The Happy Gang Centre a l s o o f f e r s s e n i o r s supper  followed  by  dancing  or  other  once a month.  B r i t i s h Columbia O l d Age P e n s i o n e r s ' O r g a n i z a t i o n Branch #73, T e r r a c e , Happy Gang News, V o l . 3 # 2, March 1990. 1 9  80  OTHER SERVICES USED BY ELDERLY TERRACE RESIDENTS Health Care S e r v i c e s  There are t h r e e pharmacies i n T e r r a c e  (see f i g u r e 2), one o f  which o f f e r s an e x t e n s i v e range o f a i d s and d e v i c e s make l i f e e a s i e r f o r handicapped o r e l d e r l y persons. opticians, doctors  one p h y s i o t h e r a p i s t ,  nine  dentists,  of the o f f i c e s  within  There are two and  seventeen  (seven o f whom a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e Emerson M e d i c a l  and s i x o f whom are l o c a t e d a t The M e d i c a l C l i n i c , All  intended t o  three  o f these  blocks  of  medical  one  Clinic  see f i g u r e 2 ) .  professionals are located  another  i n the c i t y  centre.  O c c a s i o n a l l y , s p e c i a l i s t s come t o T e r r a c e t o meet w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s who  have p a r t i c u l a r medical problems.  M i l l s Memorial H o s p i t a l i s  l o c a t e d a t 4720 Haugland i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area south o f Highway 16 (see f i g u r e 2 ) ; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s not w i t h i n w a l k i n g d i s t a n c e o f the c i t y c e n t r e f o r most e l d e r l y  individuals.  Shops and S e r v i c e s  The m a j o r i t y o f shops and s e r v i c e s i n T e r r a c e are l o c a t e d i n a t h r e e b l o c k long by f o u r b l o c k wide c o r r i d o r which i s bounded by Eby  S t r e e t t o t h e west, Kalum S t r e e t t o t h e e a s t , Park Avenue t o  the n o r t h and G r e i g Avenue t o t h e south.  W i t h i n t h i s area t h e r e  are two shopping m a l l s (the Skeena M a l l which i s an indoor m a l l and T e r r a c e Shopping Centre which i s not t e c h n i c a l l y an indoor m a l l but has access t o a l l t h e s t o r e s from i n s i d e the f a c i l i t y , 2) , a l a r g e number o f i n d i v i d u a l multitude  o f goods  and s e r v i c e s , 81  see f i g u r e  s t o r e s and shops which o f f e r a s i x banks,  a wide v a r i e t y o f  restaurants  and  coffee  shops,  a  two-cinema  movie  theatre,  a  community l i b r a r y and community r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s  including  a  community  pool,  skating  rink,  tennis  courses f o r a v a r i e t y of  courts  and  a  range  of  interests.  Access to Services There are a number of bus r o u t e s and the handyDART s e r v i c e i n Terrace  and  the  neighbouring  community  of  Thornhill  convene a t the Skeena M a l l i n the c e n t r e of town. cab  service  in  Terrace.  There  are  sidewalks  that a l l  There i s a l s o throughout  the  downtown a r e a ; although some are i n need of r e p a i r i n order t o be safe  for  elderly  difficulties. to  individuals  who  may  have  u n f o r t u n a t e l y , one  elevator  insurmountable town. elderly  walking  l a r g e department s t o r e i n the  T e r r a c e Shopping Centre, Woolworth's, i s two an  and  The m a j o r i t y of s t o r e s and s e r v i c e s are a c c e s s i b l e  wheelchairs;  have  sight  or  escalator:  only  l e v e l s and  stairs  which  does not are  an  o b s t a c l e t o many e l d e r l y and handicapped persons i n  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the C i t y of T e r r a c e i s v e r y s u p p o r t i v e of i t s and  handicapped  population  and  f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r m o b i l i t y i n the C i t y .  82  makes  every  attempt  to  CHAPTER 4 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUUM OF HOUSING OPTIONS AND L I V I N G ARRANGEMENTS FOR THE C I T Y OF TERRACE  In the l a s t c h a p t e r an i n v e n t o r y of e x i s t i n g housing o p t i o n s , l i v i n g arrangements and s e r v i c e s intended f o r s e n i o r s i n the C i t y of T e r r a c e was compiled. only i d e n t i f i e s  T h i s r e s e a r c h s e r v e s double duty: i t not  i f and where housing o p t i o n s and  services  exist,  but i t a l s o h e l p s t o a s c e r t a i n what a d d i t i o n s t o the housing s t o c k in  T e r r a c e would  options  be  to elderly  necessary t o o f f e r Terrace residents.  a full For  range  of  example,  housing  seniors  in  T e r r a c e have a wide range of independent l i v i n g housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements t o choose from, i n c l u d i n g r e n t a l and  seniors'  apartments and condominiums, and a dependent l i v i n g housing o p t i o n at T e r r a c e v i e w Lodge; however, t h e r e i s very l i t t l e t o supported independent l i v i n g i n the C i t y of T e r r a c e . while t h i s housing  study w i l l  o p t i o n s and  i n v e s t i g a t e the f e a s i b i l i t y living  arrangements  examined  facilitate  Consequently, of a l l of the i n the  chapter, i t i s c l e a r t h a t emphasis must be p l a c e d on and encouraging the development of a range of supported  second  facilitating independent  housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangments f o r s e n i o r s i n the C i t y of Terrace. In  this  chapter,  each  of  the  independent,  supported  independent, and dependent housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements examined i n the second chapter w i l l be a n a l y s e d t o determine f e a s i b i l i t y i n the C i t y of T e r r a c e . based  on  two  factors:  the  T h i s f e a s i b i l i t y study w i l l be  financial  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and  l o c a t i o n a l requirements of each housing o p t i o n . advantages  and  disadvantages  of  u  their  each  housing  the  In a d d i t i o n , the o p t i o n and  living  arrangement t o t h e r e s i d e n t and the community, p r e v i o u s l y examined i n t h e second chapter, w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d . mix o f h o u s i n g o p t i o n s and l i v i n g will  be  proposed  feasibility,  and  ranked,  seniors i n the C i t y .  arrangements f o r t h e community  i n terms  so as t o f a c i l i t a t e  Ultimately, a suitable  of  immediate  t h e development  or  future  o f housing f o r  In a d d i t i o n , the r o l e t h e C i t y of T e r r a c e can  p l a y i n encouraging and f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e development o f a range of housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements f o r s e n i o r s throughout the community w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . At t h i s time, i t i s important t o note the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s work. for  The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o y i e l d a community-wide  t h e development  of  a  range  o f housing o p t i o n s  arrangements i n t h e C i t y of T e r r a c e . which  housing  options  and  feasible  immediately and  examined  herein.  living  i n the  These f a c t o r s  and  require that  living  The f i n d i n g s w i l l recommend arrangements  future  based  would  upon  be  the  most  factors  are not, however, s u f f i c i e n t t o  e s t a b l i s h whether or not a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t would be t h a t would  plan  a p r o j e c t market  survey and  feasible:  development  s t r a t e g y be undertaken once an o p t i o n was s e l e c t e d f o r development so  as t o e s t a b l i s h the f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h a t p r o j e c t .  85  FINANCIAL  CONSIDERATIONS  P r e d i c a b l y , t h e c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n t h e development o f each o f the  housing  options  and l i v i n g  arrangements  second chapter w i l l v a r y w i d e l y .  identified  i n the  Because i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o  p r e d i c t t h e exact c o s t o f a p a r t i c u l a r o p t i o n b e f o r e a development plan f o r a p r o j e c t i s created, the f i n a n c i a l  investment r e q u i r e d  f o r many o f these o p t i o n s w i l l be based upon p r e v i o u s developments and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y housing  o f government funding f o r p a r t i c u l a r types o f  o p t i o n s and l i v i n g  arrangements.  S i n g l e Family Detached Dwellings The m a j o r i t y o f e l d e r l y Canadians l i v e i n , and own o u t r i g h t , s i n g l e f a m i l y homes.  Although t h i s  information  i s not a v a i l a b l e  for seniors i n the C i t y of Terrace, i t i s l i k e l y that the majority of e l d e r l y T e r r a c e homes. majority  This  residents also l i v e  information  o f households  can be gleaned  i n Terrace,  i n and own s i n g l e f a m i l y from t h e f a c t  regardless  s i n g l e detached homes: 2,335 o f 3,175 u n i t s .  that the  o f age, l i v e i n  Further, the majority  of t h e p o p u l a t i o n own t h e i r accommodation: 68.7 p e r c e n t o f p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g s a r e owned and 31.3 p e r c e n t  rented.  1  I f t h e purchase o f  a new home i n t h e C i t y o f T e r r r a c e were c o n s i d e r e d today, one c o u l d expect t o pay an average p r i c e o f $110,000.  2  'Terrace . . . As A Matter o f F a c t , p. 6. I t should be noted t h a t i t i s not s t a t e d whether these numbers were taken from t h e 1981 o r 1986 Census. 2  C i t y of Terrace,  20 Year Overview: 1970 - 1990. n.d. 86  R e g a r d l e s s o f whether or not an e l d e r l y homeowner has p a i d o f f his  or  her  mortgage,  homeownership  including  there  are  property  additional taxes,  costs  involved  maintenance  and  in  repair  costs.  These c o s t s can become a burden t o an e l d e r l y homeowner who  relies  solely  on h i s or her r e t i r e m e n t  income.  There are two  government sponsored programs t h a t can ease the economic burden of homeownership program  f o r the  in British  elderly.  Columbia  The  called  first the  is a  Property  province-wide Tax  Deferral  P r o g r a m which i s a v a i l a b l e t o q u a l i f y i n g persons f o r whom p r o p e r t y taxes a r e a f i n a n c i a l burden. of  age  and  over,  widows,  T h i s program a l l o w s persons 65 y e a r s  widowers  and  handicapped persons  who  q u a l i f y f o r t h e Guaranteed Annual Income f o r t h e Needy (GAIN) and are homeowners l i v i n g on the p r o p e r t y t o d e f e r net p r o p e r t y t a x e s . The d e f e r r a l can be renewed on an annual b a s i s .  Upon t h e death of  the homeowner or t h e s a l e of the house and p r o p e r t y , t h e d e f e r r e d taxes and i n t e r e s t must be p a i d t o the p r o v i n c i a l  government.  The second program, o f f e r e d by the F e d e r a l Government, Residential  Rehabilitation  Assistance  intended t o h e l p t o a l l e v i a t e  Program  (RRAP)  i s the  which  some o f the c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d  r e p a i r s or improvements t o a home.  improvements comfort  or  that  i t i s i n need of s t r u c t u r a l  modifications  to  improve  the  o f t h e home t o meet the changing needs  individual.  87  with  RRAP i s of g r e a t b e n e f i t t o  those e l d e r l y persons who wish t o remain independent i n t h e i r home, but f i n d  is  repairs  and/or  suitability of the  own  and  elderly  RRAP p r o v i d e s up t o $10,000 t o q u a l i f y i n g homeowners i n t h e form o f a market i n t e r e s t loan t o make improvements o r r e p a i r s t o the home.  RRAP i s a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o homeowners who must modify t h e  d w e l l i n g t o meet t h e needs o f a d i s a b l e d person, r e g a r d l e s s location  o f t h e home  necessary.  and whether  o r not o t h e r  of the  repairs are  A p o r t i o n o f t h e loan may be f o r g i v a b l e depending upon  the a p p l i c a n t ' s  income, and r e c i p i e n t s o f t h e program may q u a l i f y  f o r a s s i s t a n c e o f up t o $6500, depending upon t h e i r income, i f they r e q u i r e home r e p a i r s o r they r e q u i r e a d a p t a t i o n s t o t h e home due t o a disability.  " F u l l y 90% o f t h e loans made under t h i s program have  been f o r g i v e n . "  3  R e n t a l a p a r t m e n t s / Condominiums  All  condominium  projects  projects  are b u i l t  without  charged  f o r the units  development and o p e r a t i n g  and  the majority  government  i n these  of  subsidization;  developments  apartment the rents  a r e based  on  c o s t s and r e f l e c t what t h e l o c a l market  i s w i l l i n g t o pay f o r t h a t type o f accommodation. Based upon a survey o f r e n t a l market u n i t s i n T e r r a c e by CMHC i n October o f 1990, i n c l u d i n g both apartments and row houses, t h e r e was  a vacancy r a t e o f 0.6 p e r c e n t  i n the C i t y of Terrace.  f o l l o w s a t r e n d which began i n A p r i l o f 1989.  This  The vacancy r a t e f o r  apartments alone was 0.8 p e r c e n t i n October o f 1990. On t h e b a s i s of t h i s survey, t h e r e n t a l market c o n s t i t u t e s about 35 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l housing u n i t s i n T e r r a c e . 3  The r e n t a l market i s comprised  H e a l t h and Welfare Canada, 1982, i n B l a c k i e , 88  1986, p. 5.  of 628 p r i v a t e l y i n i t i a t e d u n i t s i n c l u d e s about 52 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e n t a l u n i t s i n the T e r r a c e market.  4  The average r e n t was $332 f o r  a b a c h e l o r apartment, $395 f o r a one bedroom apartment, $426 f o r a two  bedroom  apartment,  and $521 f o r an apartment  bedrooms o r more i n T e r r a c e i n October o f 1990. In 1989, the  intention  accommodation The program period,  with  three  5  BCHMC launched t h e B.C. R e n t a l Supply Program w i t h of  increasing  i n low vacancy  the  supply  of  market  areas throughout B r i t i s h  rental Columbia.  i s d e s i g n e d t o reduce i n t e r e s t c o s t s , over a f i v e year  on p r o j e c t s  proposal c a l l .  that  are selected  through  a competitive  Each p r o p o s a l i s e v a l u a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f " t e n  f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g , d e s i g n , l o c a t i o n , r e n t s t r u c t u r e , r e n t a l tenure, and s u b s i d y c o s t . " and s e n i o r  Preference i s given t o projects f o r f a m i l i e s  6  citizens.  Some e l d e r l y  renters  may be a b l e  t o take  advantage  p r o v i n c i a l program c a l l e d S h e l t e r A i d f o r E l d e r l y Renters  of a  (SAFER).  T h i s program p r o v i d e s d i r e c t cash a s s i s t a n c e t o persons 60 y e a r s o f age and over who meet the f o l l o w i n g f o u r c o n d i t i o n s : (1) they r e n t The survey u n i v e r s e i n c l u d e s a l l r e n t a l u n i t s l o c a t e d i n s t r u c t u r e s o f f o u r u n i t s o r more i n c l u d i n g apartment s t r u c t u r e and townhouses, housing converted into apartments, fourplexes, f i v e p l e x e s , s i x p l e x e s , apartments over s t o r e s o r o t h e r commercial e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . The survey does not i n c l u d e s i n g l e f a m i l y detached homes, duplexes, t r i p l e x e s , mobile homes o r i n d i v i d u a l r e n t a l u n i t s i n condominium p r o j e c t s . Source: CMHC R e n t a l Market Survey Report: T e r r a c e F a l l 1990. NHA 6190, B r i t i s h Columbia, 1990. 4  CMHC, CMHC: R e n t a l Market Survey Report - T e r r a c e - F a l l 1990, (Vancouver: CMHC, BC and Yukon R e g i o n a l O f f i c e , October 1990), p. 7. 5  B r i t i s h Columbia Housing Management Commission, Report. p. 6. 6  89  1989 Annual  their  accommodation,  total  income  (2) they pay more than 30 p e r c e n t  f o r rent,  (3) they  a r e 65  or older  of t h e i r  and  receive  Canadian O l d Age S e c u r i t y , o r they a r e 60 t o 64 and meet r e s i d e n c y requirements f o r Canadian O l d Age S e c u r i t y , Spouse's Allowance o r Widowed  (Extended)  Spouse's  Allowance,  and  (4)  either  the  a p p l i c a n t o r t h e spouse have r e s i d e d i n Canada f o r t e n years and have been B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e n t s f o r one year immediately p r i o r t o a p p l i c a t i o n f o r SAFER. which exceeds 3 0 percent  SAFER w i l l pay a percentage o f t h e r e n t of t o t a l  income w i t h  the allowable  rent  l e v e l s f o r SAFER being $520 p e r month f o r a s i n g l e person, $575 per month p e r couple, and $885 per month d i v i d e d by t h e t o t a l number o f adult sharers  Co-operative  The  f o r those who share r e n t a l accommodation.  Housing  costs  involved  p r o f i t co-operatives Housing Program  i n the c r e a t i o n  o f f e r e d by CMHC.  mortgage.  capital  of continuing  not-for-  may be m i t i g a t e d by t h e F e d e r a l C o - o p e r a t i v e  under t h e program may o b t a i n project  7  costs,  Co-operatives  loans  through  which a r e approved  f o r up t o 100 percent an  The mortgages a r e obtained  NHA-insured  of the  index-linked  through p r i v a t e l e n d e r s and  have a planned repayment d u r a t i o n o f 30 o r , i n s p e c i a l cases,  35  years. The i n d e x - l i n k e d mortgage i s an i n n o v a t i v e f i n a n c i n g technique which i s intended  t o encourage t h e development o f c o s t - e f f e c t i v e  P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y o f S o c i a l S e r v i c e s and Housing, SAFER: S h e l t e r A i d For E l d e r l y Renters . Pamphlet, ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , June 1989). 7  90  co-operative  housing.  The  i n d e x - l i n k e d mortgage f e a t u r e s  payments which are designed t o be lower than those of fixed  rate  borrowers equal  equal  payment mortgages and  i n the  payment  e a r l y stages of  mortgages,  the  wherein  initial  traditional  thus more a f f o r d a b l e loan  the  period.  payments  Traditional are  the  throughout the l o a n p e r i o d , are designed t o ensure t h a t the realizes  both  the  desired  "real"  rate  of  return  to  - the  same lender  rate  of  r e t u r n the l e n d e r wants a f t e r i n f l a t i o n - and the expected r a t e of inflation The  that w i l l  occur over the  period  of the  mortgage  loan.  borrower's income, however, i s lower a t the b e g i n n i n g of  loan  period  than  borrower does not present  income.  i t would  be  have f u t u r e Therefore,  in  the  later  inflation  years  the  because  the  r e f l e c t e d i n h i s or  her  the i n i t i a l payments r e q u i r e a  percentage of the borrowers income e a r l y i n the  higher  loan period.  f a c t , the l o a n payments a c t u a l l y become more a f f o r d a b l e as the  In loan  progresses. Index-linked  mortgages d i f f e r because the i n t e r e s t r a t e s  are  based on a f i x e d " r e a l " r a t e of r e t u r n p l u s a v a r i a b l e r a t e which i s adjusted occurred of  p e r i o d i c a l l y according  i n the p r e c e d i n g  inflation  t h a t has  year.  t o the i n f l a t i o n t h a t a c t u a l l y  As a r e s u l t , the a n t i c i p a t e d r a t e  been b u i l t  i n t o the  r a t e of  i n t e r e s t on  a  f i x e d r a t e e q u a l payment mortgage i s not r e f l e c t e d i n the i n t e r e s t r a t e of an i n d e x - l i n k e d mortgage u n t i l t h a t i n f l a t i o n has a c t u a l l y occurred.  Hence, borrowers u s i n g  have lower payments a t the b e g i n i n g payments,  reflecting  inflation  the  i n d e x - l i n k e d mortgage w i l l  of the l o a n p e r i o d and  increases 91  as  they  occur,  higher in  the  l a t e r stages of the l o a n when they too have incomes which r e f l e c t i n f l a t i o n increases. In a d d i t i o n , i n d e x - l i n k e d mortgages have a s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n by which payments i n c r e a s e each year by two p e r c e n t l e s s than n a t i o n a l r a t e of i n f l a t i o n .  The  two  the  percent d i f f e r e n c e provides  some room f o r i n c r e a s i n g o p e r a t i n g expenses, so as t o keep the r e n t from r i s i n g above those i n o t h e r b u i l d i n g s . Rent  Supplement  assistance, is  provided  provincial  governments,  available  households  i n co-operatives p a r t i c i p a t i n g  by  for  30  both  federal  percent  in this  and  of  the  program.  In  8  o r d e r t o q u a l i f y f o r Rent Supplement a s s i s t a n c e , "a household  must  be unable  more  t o o b t a i n s u i t a b l e accommodation without  than 30 per cent of the household participating  spending  income on h o u s i n g . "  9  Each co-op  i n t h i s program "must p r o v i d e a minimum of 15  per  cent of i t s u n i t s t o households r e c e i v i n g t h i s s u b s i d y . "  10  provinces,  half  Supplement  assistance  in  of any  the co-op  municipal waiting l i s t s . own  list.  households must  be  who  r e c e i v e Rent  selected  from  In most  provincial  or  The r e s t can be chosen from the co-op's  F i n a l l y , c o - o p e r a t i v e s a s s i s t e d under t h i s program must  have a t l e a s t f i v e p e r c e n t of t h e i r u n i t s designed f o r occupancy by Rent supplement a s s i s t a n c e i s designed t o reduce s h e l t e r c o s t s t o as low as 25 p e r c e n t of household income. I t i s available to low-income households who cannot o b t a i n s u i t a b l e accommodations without spending more than 30 percent of t h e i r household income on housing. 8  Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , I n f o r m a t i o n : F e d e r a l C o - o p e r a t i v e Housing Program. Pamphlet, (Ottawa, Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , NHA/LNH 5901-6 09/86), n.p. 9  '"information: F e d e r a l C o - o p e r a t i v e Housing Program, 92  n.p.  people w i t h p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s , u n l e s s so.  i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l t o do  11  Non-Profit Both apartments,  S e n i o r s ' Housing public  and  non-profit  multiple  townhouses and row houses,  included i n t h i s category.  units,  intended  including  f o r seniors are  In October 1990, t h e r e were 79 p u b l i c  housing u n i t s i n t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e .  T h i r t y eight of these u n i t s  are l o c a t e d i n t h e Willows which a r e s u b s i d i z e d r e n t a l apartments f o r persons over 55 y e a r s o f age who r e q u i r e There were no v a c a n c i e s time o f t h i s s u r v e y .  12  low-income housing.  i n any o f t h e p u b l i c housing u n i t s a t t h e In terms o f n o n - p r o f i t housing f o r s e n i o r s ,  there  a r e 18 u n i t s i n t h e Tuck Avenue Apartments.  there  are a t o t a l  o f 56 s u b s i d i z e d  Consequently,  housing u n i t s f o r s e n i o r s i n  Terrace. Lynn G u i l b a u l t , i n her t h e s i s Housing; B r i t i s h Columbia's Small Town  Elderly,  presented  a  i n d i c a t o r which i s intended housing  non-profit t o help would  seniors'  housing  needs  determine how many u n i t s o f  non-profit  seniors'  be  required  in a  specific  community.  T h i s i n d i c a t o r was "developed by d e t e r m i n i n g t h e number  of s e n i o r s ' u n i t s t h a t e x i s t e d p e r 100 s e n i o r s i n B.C. i n 1988.  "information:  1113  F e d e r a l C o - o p e r a t i v e Housing Program, n.p.  CMHC: R e n t a l Market Survey Report - T e r r a c e  12  - F a l l 1990. p.  1. Lynn M. G u i l b a u l t , E l d e r l y , Masters T h e s i s , Columbia, 1989), p. 95. 13  Housing B r i t i s h Columbia's (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y 93  Small Town of B r i t i s h  The  fact  that  about  10 percent  o f these u n i t s were occupied  c o u p l e s was taken i n t o account.  Based on t h e s e c a l c u l a t i o n s , t h e  r e s u l t i n g needs i n d i c a t o r f o r n o n - p r o f i t percent.  by  s e n i o r s ' housing i s 6.8  T h i s means t h a t on average i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1988,  there  were 6.8 u n i t s o f n o n - p r o f i t  every  one hundred  seniors.  s e n i o r s ' housing  i n B.C.  for  I t i s n o t c l e a r , however, why t h e  number o f s e n i o r s ' u n i t s t h a t e x i s t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1988 would be t h e i d e a l today. Assuming housing u n i t s  that  this  for seniors  indicator  o f t h e need  i s accurate,  f o r non-profit  and t h a t t h e r e  a r e 2,988  persons i n the L o c a l H e a l t h Area which encompasses T e r r a c e who a r e 55  y e a r s o f age and over, t h e r e  would need t o be 206 n o n - p r o f i t  housing u n i t s f o r s e n i o r s i n T e r r a c e and the s u r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n t o accommodate a l l o f these persons.  Under  Management  the  Current  Program,  BCHMC t o a s s i s t  Social  non-profit  Housing  groups may r e c e i v e  t h e development  p r o f i t housing p r o j e c t s .  Program  and o p e r a t i n g  and  Property  funding  from  expenses o f non-  BCHMC c r e a t e s and manages s o c i a l housing  throughout B r i t i s h Columbia f o r those households who cannot a f f o r d to  pay more  than  30 percent  o f household  income  f o r shelter.  P r o j e c t s are s e l e c t e d f o r development from a province-wide p r o p o s a l call  from n o n - p r o f i t  s o c i e t i e s , p u b l i c agencies and c o - o p e r a t i v e  associations. Once a p r o j e c t  i s selected  f o r development, BCHMC  provides  s u b s i d i e s f o r s o c i e t i e s who sponsor these p r o j e c t s t o make up t h e 94  d i f f e r e n c e between break even r e n t and r e n t s p a i d by the t e n a n t s . BCHMC  also  provides  guidance  for  day-to-day  issues  for  the  Program  for  s o c i e t i e s r u n n i n g the p r o j e c t s . In  1989,  BCHMC  s e n i o r s ' housing.  introduced  the  Matching  Grant  T h i s program p r o v i d e s s t a r t - u p g r a n t s of up t o  $20,000 t o n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t i e s t o develop u n s u b s i d i z e d housing f o r seniors.  Accessory  apartments / In-law S u i t e s  The c o s t of c r e a t i n g an a c c e s s o r y apartment or in-law s u i t e i s determined  primarily  converted  prior  apartments and  to  by the c o n d i t i o n of the area t h a t i s t o the  conversion.  The  majority  of  accessory  in-law s u i t e s are c r e a t e d i n the basement of a  storey single family dwelling.  be  In t h i s case, t h e r e i s v e r y  two  little  change t o the s t r u c t u r e of the home, save f o r the a d d i t i o n of w a l l s t o c r e a t e rooms i n the a c c e s s o r y apartment and a door t o  separate  the two u n i t s .  The c o s t of the c o n v e r s i o n w i l l a l s o v a r y depending  on  not  whether  or  bathroom  or  kitchen  facilities  exist  in  the  a c c e s s o r y apartment p r i o r t o the c o n v e r s i o n . The  homeowner  may  be  able  p r o v i n c i a l government under the  pay  to  receive  a  Rental Conversion  f o r the c o s t of the c o n v e r s i o n .  back w i t h some of the r e n t a l income.  Homesharing  95  The  loan  from  Loan Program  the to  l o a n would then be p a i d  The f i n a n c i a l c o s t t o the homeowner o f s h a r i n g one's home i s minimal.  The homeowner would be r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e some p r i v a t e  l i v i n g space, which c o u l d be as s m a l l as one bedroom.  There a r e no  r e g u l a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g the homeowner t o p r o v i d e o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g for  the homesharer.  As a r e s u l t ,  there i s very l i t t l e ,  i f any,  c o s t i n v o l v e d i n homesharing.  Garden s u i t e s Based upon r e s e a r c h done by M i c h a e l Lazarowich and B r i a n Haley in  Waterloo,  Ontario  i n the  early  1980s,  a  1982  CMHC  report  i n d i c a t e s t h a t the c a p i t a l c o s t o f a garden s u i t e o f approximately 500 t o 700 bedroom  square f e e t w i t h a l i v i n g room, bathroom, k i t c h e n  would  dollars.  have  been  between  $18,000  and  $20,000  in  and 1982  1 4  A G a l l u p Canada telephone survey undertaken i n 1989  surveyed  780 p o t e n t i a l garden s u i t e occupants, aged  60 y e a r s o r over,  1,182  Respondents were asked  p o t e n t i a l h o s t s , under the age o f 60.  and  what they thought they c o u l d a f f o r d t o pay t o purchase or r e n t a garden  suite.  The  findings  suggest  that  a  minority  of  the  respondents c o u l d a f f o r d t o purchase a garden s u i t e based on the c o s t s proposed i n 1982:  30 p e r c e n t of respondents f e l t they c o u l d  a f f o r d t o pay up t o $20,000 towards the purchase p r i c e of a garden suite,  and  an a d d i t i o n a l  10 p e r c e n t f e l t  they c o u l d  afford  over  M i c h a e l Lazarowich, and B r i a n W. Haley, Granny F l a t s : T h e i r P r a c t i c a l i t y and Implementation. (Waterloo, O n t a r i o : School of Urban and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of Waterloo, A p r i l , 1982), n.p. ( e x e c u t i v e summary) 14  96  $20,000.  Significantly,  38 p e r c e n t o f respondents were n o t sure  what they c o u l d a f f o r d t o pay and 22 p e r c e n t c o u l d a f f o r d t o pay nothing. In  15  terms  indicated afford  of rental  that  o f a garden  suite,  t h e m a j o r i t y o f respondents,  up t o $400 towards t h e r e n t .  r e n t a l p r i c e was between $201 and $300.  the Gallup 64 p e r c e n t ,  However, t h e most  survey could quoted  16  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e Township o f Langley i n t h e Lower Mainland  amended t h e i r  zoning bylaws t o permit garden  some zones; however, t h e r e a r e c u r r e n t l y no garden Township  o f Langley  because  potential  suites i n the  residents  and/or  f a m i l i e s found them t o be t o o expensive t o a c q u i r e .  A b b e y f i e l d Concept  suites i n  their  17  Housing  A b b e y f i e l d houses may be e i t h e r p u r p o s e - b u i l t o r c r e a t e d i n an existing living  home which  arrangement.  i s converted  to facilitate  the Abbeyfield  A b b e y f i e l d houses a r e i n t e n d e d f o r l o n e l y ,  e l d e r l y persons; consequently, t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f communal space  i n t h e home such as t h e l i v i n g room, d i n i n g room, sun room  and games room.  CMHC Research D i v i s i o n , Submitted by G a l l u p Canada, I n c . , Garden S u i t e s Demonstration - N a t i o n a l Survey - Volume I : D e t a i l e d F i n d i n g s . (Ottawa, Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , A p r i l 24, 1989), p. 53. 15  16  Garden S u i t e s Demonstration,  p. 54.  "Telephone c a l l , P l a n n i n g Department, Township o f Langley, 21 February, 1991. 97  The  elderly  tenants  o f an A b b e y f i e l d  house  pay r e n t  on a  monthly b a s i s t o t h e l o c a l A b b e y f i e l d S o c i e t y who owns and manages the house. home  The r e n t a l expenses i n v o l v e d i n l i v i n g i n an A b b e y f i e l d  include  maintaining  not only  the cost  of b u i l d i n g  or renovating  and  t h e home, but a l s o t h e c o s t o f t h e housemother who i s  h i r e d and p a i d by t h e S o c i e t y . In  order  developing incurred  to give  some  idea  i n b u i l d i n g S t . Andrew's A b b e y f i e l d  1987 and has nine  costs  involved i n  a p u r p o s e - b u i l t A b b e y f i e l d home, t h e development  Vancouver I s l a n d w i l l be p r o v i d e d . of  o f t h e expenses  o f t h e home  costs  Home i n Sidney on  T h i s home opened i n t h e s p r i n g  r e s i d e n t s and a housemother.  amounted t o $381,131.  After  The c a p i t a l 35 y e a r s , t h e  mortgage w i l l be p a i d by t h e r e n t charged t o t h e r e s i d e n t s and t h e S o c i e t y w i l l then own both t h e land and t h e b u i l d i n g . The  sources  o f funding  which  were  available  to the St.  Andrew's A b b e y f i e l d Home were: S t . Andrew's - some o f which r a i s e d by debentures and o t h e r s by g i f t s , P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y from B.C. L o t t e r y The A n g l i c a n Foundation The P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h  Mortgage, secured TOTAL FUNDS  by BCHMC  $25,000 10,000 10,000 30.000 $75,000 $300.000 $375.000  98  The monthly total  operating  c o s t s o f S t . Andrew's A b b e y f i e l d  Home  $3972 and a r e d i v i d e d e q u a l l y among t h e r e s i d e n t s so t h a t  each pays a monthly r e n t o f $438. P r o v i n c i a l funding  18  form BCHMC may be a v a i l a b l e t o l o c a l non-  p o r f i t A b b e y f i e l d s o c i e t i e s f o r the s t a r t up o f the p r o j e c t through the M a t c h i n g G r a n t P r o g r a m and f o r t h e development and maintenance  c o s t s through t h e N o n - P r o f i t H o u s i n g P r o g r a m .  I t i s important t o  note t h a t t h e c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c r e a t i n g an A b b e y f i e l d home would undoubtedly be lower i f t h e home were c r e a t e d i n an e x i s t i n g larger  single  family  dwelling.  The lower  costs  involved i n  c o n v e r s i o n would enable the l o c a l s o c i e t y t o charge a lower r e n t t o the r e s i d e n t s , t h e r e b y opening up t h i s o p t i o n t o e l d e r l y persons i n a range o f income l e v e l s .  Congregate  housing  Congregate  housing  usually  consists  of  self-contained  apartments p l u s a v a r i e t y o f o n - s i t e s e r v i c e s such a meals, housekeeping expensive  housing  development programs  and l i n e n s . options  Congregate available  weekly  housing i s one o f t h e most to  seniors  due  to  high  and o p e r a t i n g c o s t s and t h e absence o f any government  t o fund t h e development  o f congregate  housing.  As a  r e s u l t , t h e r e n t i s t y p i c a l l y two and a h a l f t o t h r e e times h i g h e r  C h a r l o t t e C. Murray, "The Small Congregate Home," i n Housing the Very Old, ed. G l o r i a M. Gutman and Norman K. B l a c k i e , (Burnaby, The Gerontology Research Centre, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1988), p. 102-104. 18  99  than  i t would be  f o r a comparable u n i t  building in a similar location. In the  t o 142  units.  r e n t a l accommodation.  138  The  bachelor  and  one  and  two  of these p r o j e c t s o f f e r  one  become i n v o l v e d  Lodge i n Burnaby,  bedroom u n i t s , t o a h i g h of $1620-  House i n West Vancouver, which has  66  bedroom u n i t s .  second type of  basis.  majority  The r e n t s , based on s i n g l e occupancy, range  3000 per month i n H o l l y b u r n bachelor,  residential  1 9  of $800-1600 per month i n Canada Way  which has  A  older  Lower Mainland, congregate housing p r o j e c t s range i n  s i z e from 32  from a low  i n an  congregate housing r e q u i r e s  the  i n e q u i t y p a r t i c i p a t i o n on a m o d i f i e d  residents life  lease  These congregate housing p r o j e c t s r e q u i r e a s i z a b l e e n t r y  fee p l u s monthly f e e s  t o cover o p e r a t i n g  costs  and  one  meal  per  day. . For example, Concord Home i n White Rock r e q u i r e s an e n t r y  fee  of $30,000 t o 50,000 depending on the u n i t p l u s $300 t o 500 monthly to  cover  percent  operating  expenses and  one  meal per  of t h a t e n t r y fee i s r e f u n d a b l e  The  Provincial  Government  is  day.  Eighty-five  when the r e s i d e n t  currently  leaves.  considering  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of programs t o encourage the development of a f f o r d a b l e congregate housing. costs  associated  reduced  by  I am information  with  encouraging  accommodation,  19  In  the  absence of  congregate non-profit  "particularly  care  government housing  groups t o  funding,  projects  offer this  i f they c o n t r o l a s i t e ,  can  the  may  be  type  of  achieve  indebted t o M i c h a e l G e l l e r and A s s o c i a t e s f o r the of congregate housing t h a t i s used i n t h i s s e c t i o n . 100  economies through shared s e r v i c e s w i t h e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s prepared t o p r o v i d e v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e s . "  Care  and  are  20  facilities There  are  facilities  in  facilities  are  privately-owned, British  non-profit  Columbia.  subsidized  under  The the  vast  and  public  majority  Provincial  Long  care  of  care  Term  Care  Program. In  British  intermediate  Columbia,  care  in  an  residents  institution  coverage as h o s p i t a l p a t i e n t s .  The  requiring  are  personal  eligible  for  the  same  r e s i d e n t s are charged a u s e r ' s  f e e on a per diem b a s i s ; t h i s fee v a r i e s somewhat depending on facility  but  residents  who  is  in  are  the  in  range  receipt  of of  or  $20.00  per  day.  federal  old  age  For  the  those  security  and  guaranteed income supplement payments the per diem fee i s indexed t o t h e i r income. and  may  or may  individual  T h i s coverage does not i n c l u d e room d i f f e r e n t i a l  not  i n c l u d e homemaker s e r v i c e s , depending upon the  facility.  The  provincial  government  charge as w e l l as a comforts allowance f o r those who it.  'Geller and  Associates,  p.  26. 101  pays  the  user  cannot a f f o r d  LOCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HOUSING OPTIONS  The  s e l e c t i o n o f a s i t e f o r s e n i o r s ' housing  i s c r i t i c a l to  the success o f t h e p r o j e c t and t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e s e n i o r s who call  i t home.  sites  In order t o f a c i l i t a t e the s e l e c t i o n of acceptable  f o r seniors'  housing,  particularly  complexes, two s o u r c e s , Paul Neibanck's Markoff  i n h i s 1970 t h e s i s e n t i t l e d  Elderly  f o r Housing,  Walking  work, as s i t e d by Anthony  The L o c a t i o n a l Needs o f t h e  and J i m Wilson's  article  "Assessing the  Environment o f t h e E l d e r l y " must be c o n s i d e r e d .  Paul Niebanck attempted between  p u r p o s e - b u i l t housing  a seniors'  housing  t o discover the ' c r i t i c a l distance' site  and a v a r i e t y  f a c i l i t i e s which a r e used by e l d e r l y persons.  o f s e r v i c e s and  A c r i t i c a l distance  i s t h a t d i s t a n c e which a s e n i o r c i t i z e n "would be w i l l i n g t o t r a v e l [by f o o t ] b e f o r e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s expressed."  The r e s u l t s a r e  21  as f o l l o w s : SERVICE OR FACILITY  CRITICAL DISTANCE  Bus Stop Bank News-Cigar S t o r e Grocery S t o r e Drug S t o r e Restaurant House o f Worship C l i n i c or Hospital Library Movie T h e a t r e S o c i a l Centre  1 - 2 Blocks 2 Blocks 2 Blocks 2 - 3 Blocks 3 Blocks 2 - 4 Blocks 2 - 4 Blocks 2 - 4 Blocks 8 Blocks 8 Blocks Indeterminable  22  Anthony Markoff, The L o c a t i o n a l Needs o f t h e E l d e r l y f o r Housing. Masters T h e s i s , (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, May 1972), p. 32. 21  P a u l Niebanck, The E l d e r l y i n O l d e r Urban Areas. ( I n s t i t u t e Environmental S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , 1965) , p. As quoted by Markoff, p. 33. 22  for 64.  102  Niebanck's work a l s o emphasises a c o r r e l a t i o n between c r i t i c a l distance  and  the  frequency  s e r v i c e s which are used  of  use  regularly,  of  a  service  or  facility:  such as the g r o c e r y s t o r e or  bank, must be l o c a t e d w i t h i n a few b l o c k s of the s e n i o r s ' housing site  or  the  seniors  dissatisfaction.  begin  to  express  a  high  degree  On the o t h e r hand, s e r v i c e s which are used  f r e q u e n t l y , such as the l i b r a r y or movie t h e a t r e , can be further  from  the  seniors'  housing  site  with  a  lesser  of less  located  degree  of  dissatifaction. More r e c e n t l y , James Wilson undertook a study, " A s s e s s i n g the Walking  Environment  environments desires  and  of  of  the  the  elderly  capacities  of  Elderly", were  elderly  wherein  assessed  in  residents.  2 3  the  relation The  walking to  findings  the of  t h i s r e s e a r c h suggest t h a t the long-time r u l e of thumb t h a t housing intended  f o r s e n i o r s should be  w i t h i n s i x b l o c k s of c e n t r e s of  activity  s h o u l d be  a g o a l of two  yards) ,  24  Further,  r e p l a c e d by the  r e s e a r c h suggests  that  blocks  (about  200  the  presence  of  a t t r a c t i v e d e s t i n a t i o n s w i t h i n walking d i s t a n c e of the home a f f e c t s the walking a c t i v i t y of s e n i o r s .  In o t h e r words, s e n i o r s are more  s t i m u l a t e d t p walk i f t h e r e are " p l a c e s t o go t o " such as  inviting  community c e n t r e s and shopping areas, r a t h e r than simply going f o r a walk i n b l a n d s u r r o u n d i n g s .  Finally,  i t i s c l e a r that anything  i n the p h y s i c a l l a y o u t of the surroundings, i n c l u d i n g the absence  James Wilson, " A s s e s s i n g the Walking Environment E l d e r l y , " i n P l a n Canada 21/4, 1982, p. 117-121. 23  24  W i l s o n , p.  121. 103  of  the  of sidewalks inhibits  or crosswalks,  c a r e f r e e walking  or grades s t e e p e r than  and  seniors  order  to establish  housing  to  areas.  suitable  i n Terrace,  percent,  d e t r a c t s from s e n i o r s ' a b i l i t y  take p a r t i n a c t i v i t i e s i n those  In  five  locations for purpose-built  i t i s essential  to  determine where  s e r v i c e s used by s e n i o r s are c u r r e n t l y l o c a t e d .  As d i s c u s s e d i n  the t h i r d chapter, the v a s t m a j o r i t y of s e r v i c e s are l o c a t e d w i t h i n a  three  block  long  by  four block  wide c o r r i d o r  bounded by  Eby  S t r e e t t o the west, Kalum S t r e e t t o the e a s t , Park Avenue t o the n o r t h and G r e i g Avenue t o the  south.  Based upon the r e s e a r c h done by Niebanck and t h a t any  congregate  housing should be l o c a t e d w i t h i n the core downtown area  examine i f and  t o s i x b l o c k s of t h a t a r e a . where any  building  s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s type of housing.  such  as  i t is  preferable  or w i t h i n two  p u r p o s e - b u i l t housing  Wilson,  I t i s now  locations exist  apartments  or  important  to  t h a t would  be  In order t o do t h a t , the zoning  of the C i t y of T e r r a c e and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of vacant l o t s owned by the C i t y of T e r r a c e or the Crown w i l l be examined.  104  L a n d Use D e s i g n a t i o n o f E x i s t i n g  Housing Stock i n Terrace  The Zoning By-law f o r t h e C i t y of T e r r a c e has n i n e residential development. the  zones and a commercial zone which p e r m i t r e s i d e n t i a l A t t h e p r e s e n t time, each r e s i d e n t i a l  development  o f a number  arrangements f o r t h e e l d e r l y 5  indicates  currently  different  which  zone p e r m i t s  o f t h e housing o p t i o n s listed  housing o p t i o n s  p e r m i t t e d i n each zone.  105  and  living  i n the second c h a p t e r .  Table  and  living  arrangements  are  Table 8 Housing Options P e r m i t t e d i n t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e by Zone  R e s i d e n t i a l Zones  R2  R3  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  R e n t a l apartments  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Condominiums  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Co-operatives  X  X  X  X  X  X  N o n - P r o f i t Housing  X  X  X  X  X  X  M o b i l e homes  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  A b b e y f i e l d houses  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Congregate  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  S i n g l e f a m i l y homes Accessory  Rl/Al X  apartments  In-law s u i t e s  Homesharing  X  LDR  LDSR  MDR  MHDR  HDR c :  Garden s u i t e s  Care  housing  facilities The  R l Single  restrictive  Family  R e s i d e n t i a l Zone  of the r e s i d e n t i a l  zones.  X  (Rl) i s t h e most  The o n l y r e s i d e n t i a l use  p e r m i t t e d i n t h e R l zone i s s i n g l e o r one f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s which are d e f i n e d i n t h e Zoning By-law as "a detached b u i l d i n g c o n s i s t i n g of one d w e l l i n g u n i t as h e r e i n d e f i n e d , and o c c u p i e d o r intended t o be  occupied  as t h e permanent home o r r e s i d e n c e o f one f a m i l y . "  The term " f a m i l y " i s not d e f i n e d .  Rather, t h e term " d w e l l i n g u n i t "  City of Terrace, Zoning By-law No. Amendments), ( C i t y o f T e r r a c e , 1965), p. 2. 2 5  106  25  401  -  1965  (And  i s used t o c o n t r o l t h e use o f t h e b u i l d i n g . identified  i n t h e Zoning  intended f o r t h e domestic a  single  housekeeping  sanitary  facilities."  By-law as "two o r more rooms used o r use o f one o r more i n d i v i d u a l s l i v i n g as  unit,  with  For  2 6  cooking,  this  unit  would  be  r e s i d e n t i a l zone i n T e r r a c e .  living,  reason,  i n v o l v e s two o r more u n r e l a t e d persons housekeeping  A dwelling unit i s  s l e e p i n g and  homesharing  which  l i v i n g t o g e t h e r as a s i n g l e  permitted  i n this  and  every  other  I t should be noted t h a t t h e r e i s no  r e s t r i c t i o n i n t h e Zoning By-law t o t h e number o f persons t h a t may live  together  as a s i n g l e  housekeeping  unit,  nor i s t h e r e any  r e f e r e n c e t o o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g r e g u l a t i o n s f o r homesharing.  The R2 S i n g l e and Two Family R e s i d e n t i a l Zone (R2) permits one and two f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s and l o d g i n g houses.  Two f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s  are d e f i n e d i n t h e Zoning By-law as "a b u i l d i n g d i v i d e d i n t o two d w e l l i n g u n i t s . . . each o f which i s occupied o r intended t o be occupied  as t h e permanent  Although  the d e f i n i t i o n  permit  duplexes,  apartments  on  o f one f a m i l y . "  o f two f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s  i t also  certain  home o r r e s i d e n c e  lots  permits because  the this  27  i s intended t o  creation  of  definition  accessory allows  two  d w e l l i n g u n i t s i n one b u i l d i n g , p r o v i d e d t h a t f l o o r area, s i t e area and  site  frontage  r e g u l a t i o n s a r e met.  Zoning By-law, p. 2. Zoning By-law, p. 2. Zoning By-law, p. 10. 107  28  Further,  there  a r e no  s t i p u l a t i o n s anywhere i n t h e Zoning By-law which p r o h i b i t a c c e s s o r y apartments o r second s u i t e s . T h i s zone a l s o p e r m i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l uses i n c l u d i n g h o s p i t a l , s a n a t o r i a and c o n v a l e s c e n t  homes, wherein persons may r e c o v e r  h e a l t h and s t r e n g t h f o l l o w i n g an i l l n e s s o r weakness. included  "Group  arrangements,  The  The C i t y has  T e r r a c e v i e w Lodge and a v a r i e t y o f group homes i n t h i s  definition.  together  their  usually  homes  consist  involving  of  five  small  group  living  to ten residents  living  i n a s i n g l e f a m i l y home."  29  precedent t h a t has been s e t i n a l l o w i n g  t h i s and other  group homes i n  zones throughout t h e C i t y which p e r m i t h o s p i t a l s ,  s a n a t o r i a and c o n v a l e s c e n t  homes has some b e a r i n g on t h e a b i l i t y t o  l o c a t e an A b b e y f i e l d home o r s m a l l congregate housing i n t h e same zones without  amendments t o t h e zoning.  These two o p t i o n s a r e  s i m i l a r t o group homes i n t h a t they would a l s o i n v o l v e f i v e t o t e n residents reason,  living i t will  congregate  houses  together be  in a  assumed  would  single  that  Abbeyfield  be p e r m i t t e d  h o s p i t a l s , s a n a t o r i a and convalescent  The  R3 M u l t i - f a m i l y D w e l l i n g  family  home. houses  i n any zone  For t h i s and  that  small  permits  homes.  Zone (R3) allows  two  family dwellings,  and  h o s p i t a l s , s a n a t o r i a and convalescent  one f a m i l y and  apartment houses, row houses, condominiums, homes.  exceed 40 f e e t o r two s t o r e y s a r e not p e r m i t t e d  B u i l d i n g s which i n t h i s zone.  As  a r e s u l t , every housing o p t i o n and l i v i n g arrangement f o r s e n i o r s 2 9  G e l l e r and A s s o c i a t e s ,  p. 22. 108  w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f garden s u i t e s and new mobile  home parks i s  p e r m i t t e d i n an R3 zone.  The Low D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Zone  (LDR)  (25 PPA - persons p e r  acre) p e r m i t s s i n g l e and two f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s , m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g s including  apartments  convalescent  homes.  and row houses,  hospitals,  s a n a t o r i a and  The r e g u l a t i o n s s e t out i n t h i s  section  s t i p u l a t e t h a t no b u i l d i n g i n t h i s zone may exceed t h r e e s t o r e y s i n height. parks,  With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f garden s u i t e s and new mobile home a l l o f t h e o t h e r housing  o p t i o n s and l i v i n g  arrangements  would be p e r m i t t e d i n t h i s zone.  The  Low  Density  Suburban  R e s i d e n t i a l Zone  (LDSR)  (25  PPA)  p e r m i t s t h e same uses as t h e Low D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Zone, except t h a t t h e r e g u l a t i o n s d i f f e r i n some r e s p e c t s from t h e l a t t e r zone. S i m i l a r t o t h e Low D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Zone, no b u i l d i n g i n t h e Low Density height.  Suburban  R e s i d e n t i a l Zone may  exceed  three  storeys i n  Every housing o p t i o n and l i v i n g arrangment except  garden  s u i t e s and new mobile home parks would be p e r m i t t e d i n t h i s zone. Currently,  there  i s no  land  i n Terrace  that  i s zoned  LDSR;  t h e r e f o r e , any person(s) who d e s i r e d t h i s zoning would have t o have the propery  rezoned.  The Medium D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Zone (MDR)  (40 PPA) a l l o w s a l l  the uses mentioned i n t h e Low D e n s i t y R e s i d e n t i a l Zone except t h a t the r e g u l a t i o n s again d i f f e r  i n some r e s p e c t s from t h e p r e v i o u s 109  zones, Every  and  there  housing  i s no  option  restriction  for  seniors  on  except  mobile home parks would be p e r m i t t e d  The  Medium  High  Density  the  height  garden  in this  Residential  p e r m i t s the same uses as the LDR,  of  buildings.  suites  and  zone.  Zone  LDSR and MDR  (MHDR)  (80  new  on the h e i g h t  of any  PPA)  zones, although the  r e g u l a t i o n s d i f f e r i n some r e s p e c t s from the other zones. no r e s t r i c t i o n  new  buildings.  There i s  Garden s u i t e s  and  mobile home parks are the o n l y housing o p t i o n s f o r s e n i o r s t h a t  are not p e r m i t t e d  The  same  in this  High Density  uses  as  the  zone.  R e s i d e n t i a l Zone (HDR)  previous  zones  except  (200  that  PPA)  permits  the  "the  density  of  h o r i z o n t a l m u l t i p l e d w e l l i n g b u i l d i n g s s h a l l not exceed 80 PPA."  30  Once again, t h e r e i s no r e s t r i c t i o n on the h e i g h t of the b u i l d i n g . Every  housing  option  garden s u i t e s and  and  new  seniors  except  mobile home parks would be p e r m i t t e d  i n the  high density r e s i d e n t i a l  The  Al  Rural  must  be  dwelling  i s permitted  f a m i l y houses and  a  arrangement  for  zone.  Zone  property  living  (Al)  minimum on  one  requires of  five rural  that acres.  land  homesharing are p e r m i t t e d  Zoning By-law, p. 2 6.  the  site  One  holding. in this  area  of  a  single  family  Only  single  zone.  In a d d i t i o n t o these r e s i d e n t i a l zones, the C i t y of also  allows  the  C o m m e r c i a l Zone  following residential (CI): bachelor u n i t s ,  uses  one,  in  two  the  and  Terrace  CI  Central  t h r e e bedroom  u n i t s which may  not be l o c a t e d below any commercially used premises  and  not  must  structure.  be 1 , 3 1  "located  This  zone  below  would  the  permit  second the  storey  of  development  any of  a  congregate c a r e f a c i l i t y , apartments or condominiums, p r o v i d e d t h a t the f i r s t f l o o r was  s o l e l y f o r commercial uses and the r e s i d e n t i a l  s e c t i o n of t h e b u i l d i n g was  no more than 200  p e r c e n t of the  area  used f o r commercial purposes i n the b u i l d i n g .  Land R e s o u r c e s o f C i t y  o f T e r r a c e and  There are a number of s i t e s  Province  throughout  the  City  of  Terrace  which are c u r r e n t l y owned by the C i t y of T e r r a c e , the P r o v i n c e , and private  individuals.  There  is a  great  deal  of  potential  o b t a i n i n g p r o p e r t y from the C i t y of T e r r a c e or the P r o v i n c e donation,  through  l e a s e agreements or purchase agreement a t below market  v a l u e i n o r d e r t o b u i l d s e n i o r s ' housing complexes i n the  31  for  Zoninq  By-law, p.  14. Ill  City.  The C i t y o f T e r r a c e p r e s e n t l y h o l d s t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r c e l s o f land,  shown on t h e M u n i c i p a l P r o p e r t i e s Map a t t h e back o f t h i s  work: Table 9 L i s t o f Land Owned by t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e  Address  Zone  S i t e Frontage  S i t e Width  4733 H a l l i w e l l Lot 15 Rowland Lot 4 Rowland Lot 1 McConnell 3705 Thomas  Rl Rl Rl Rl Rl  75.00 62.23 63.98 60.00 105.48  122.18 131.23 126.98 132.87 836.93  Lot 6 Olson 4620 Davis  R2 R2  209.00 153.10  297.00 287.20  4803 Twedle Lot 3 Kalum Lot 4 Kalum Lot 5 Kalum Lot 6 Kalum Lot 19 H a z e l Lot 20 H a z e l Lot 21 H a z e l Lot 16 Olson Lot 17 Olson  Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al Al  660.00 330.00 330.00 330.00 330.00 330.00 330.00 330.00 209.00 209.00  1316.83 1327.30 1331.23 1332.54 1332.01 1287.92 1287.79 1287.66 626.60 627.00  Lot Lot  PI PI  133.60 209.05  626.60 626.60  Ml Ml Ml Ml  33.00 33.00 626.50 211.69  100.00 100.00 330.14 661.70  14 Olson 15 Olson  4457 4459 2801 4632  Greig Greig Evergreen Haugland  The  most  suitable  properties  for  purpose-built  seniors  housing such as an apartment b u i l d i n g s o r c o - o p e r a t i v e s a r e l o t s 14-17 l o c a t e d on Olson Avenue. These l o t s may be used or  combined t o f a c i l i t a t e  a l a r g e development. 112  individually  Moreover,  these  p r o p e r t i e s are  located within three  blocks  of shops and  and would be w e l l s u i t e d t o s e n i o r s ' housing. are  located  adjacent  to  R2  and  R3  zoning  of the  l o t s t o R3  would not  s u r r o u n d i n g p r o p e r t i e s , and may  less  suitable  for  have  Therefore,  single  zoning  be l e s s d i f f i c u l t than i f the  types  of  of lots  dwellings.  l o t s owned by the C i t y of T e r r a c e  many  and  changing the  c o n t r a d i c t w i t h the  were surrounded by R l s i n g l e f a m i l y Many of the other  Further, these l o t s  zones which  m u l t i - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s on the p r o p e r t i e s .  services  seniors'  housing  would  because  be the  i n d i v i d u a l l o t s would be too s m a l l f o r l a r g e s c a l e development or because the  l o t s are  l o c a t e d too  f a r from the downtown c o r r i d o r .  However, other p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r these l o t s i n c l u d e t h e i r use  for  s m a l l congregate housing d w e l l i n g s or A b b e y f i e l d houses i f the  lots  are  located  within  other  single  family  p o s s i b l e f o r the p r o p e r t y  l o c a t e d a t 4 620  l o c a t e d w i t h i n two  of downtown and  blocks  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e owned  by  seniors'  the  two  Provicial  housing.  promising.  are  The  first,  of  these  that  l o c a t e d a t Park and  this  The  l o t would not  be  i s c u r r e n t l y zoned  would  be are  i n the  be  R2.  City,  suitable  for  particularly  Kenney, i s adjacent  about t h r e e  second p i e c e of p r o p e r t y  would  Davis which i s s u i t a b l y  properties  e x i s t i n g apartment complexes and  c i t y centre.  This  a number of p r o p e r t i e s  government,  Two  homes.  blocks  from  i s on Highway 16.  to the  While  s u i t a b l e f o r s e n i o r s ' housing, i t c o u l d  be  p a r t of a land-swapping d e a l w i t h a developer f o r a more s u i t a b l e piece land  of p r o p e r t y . on  which  large  Other p r o p e r t i e s developments 113  may  are be  l a r g e vacant p i e c e s built;  however,  of  these  p r o p e r t i e s a r e n o t a c c e s s i b l e t o shops and s e r v i c e s a t t h e p r e s e n t time. In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e  a r e numerous p r i v a t e l y - o w n e d l o t s  within  the C i t y , many o f which a r e l o c a t e d w i t h i n o r near t h e commercial core of the C i t y .  T h i s a c c e s s i b i l i t y f a c t o r would h e l p t o make t h e  housing more a t t r a c t i v e and u s e f u l t o s e n i o r s The  i n t h e community.  p r i v a t e l y owned land may be purchased w i t h t h e a i d o f g r a n t s  from BCHMC o r CMHC.  114  DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS  The most n o t a b l e f i n d i n g o f t h i s chapter i s t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of  t h e housing  identified  options  and  living  i n t h e second chapter  arrangements  are permitted  f o r seniors  i n one o r more o f  the e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l zones i n t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e . alone  g r e a t l y improves t h e immediate f e a s i b i l i t y  options.  F u r t h e r , t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f vacant  This fact  o f many o f t h e l a n d throughout  the C i t y t h a t i s owned by t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e o r t h e P r o v i n c e which could  be  acquired  through  purchase  or  lease  agreements.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , many o f these l a n d h o l d i n g s would o n l y be a c c e s s i b l e to  s e r v i c e s by t r a n s i t  Alternatively,  there  f o r those  persons  are several p r i v a t e l y  who  no l o n g e r  owned s i t e s  drive.  that are  l o c a t e d v e r y c l o s e t o o r w i t h i n t h e commercial c e n t r e o f t h e C i t y . Second, t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y  o f government sponsored programs t o  fund t h e development and maintenance o f l a r g e s c a l e p r o j e c t s and s u b s i d i z e low-income households h e l p s t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e c r e a t i o n o f a wide range o f housing o p t i o n s f o r s e n i o r s .  I t i s imperative that  these f i n a n c i n g o p t i o n s a r e a c t i v e l y sought i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e the development o f n o n - p r o f i t s e n i o r s ' housing,  rental'apartments  and c o - o p e r a t i v e s i n T e r r a c e . Finally,  population  projections f o r the Local  which encompasses and i n c l u d e s t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e the e l d e r l y p o p u l a t i o n , those persons over i n c r e a s e by approximately  Area  indicate that  65 y e a r s o f age, w i l l  652 persons d u r i n g t h e next decade. These  p r o j e c t i o n s must be c o n s i d e r e d housing  Health  i n t h e t i m i n g and s c a l e o f f u t u r e  p r o j e c t s f o r seniors i n Terrace. 115  On t h e b a s i s o f these f i n d i n g s , recommendations w i l l be made as  t o which  housing  options  and  living  arrangements  would  be  f e a s i b l e immediately ( i n t h e next two y e a r s ) , i n t h e mid-term (the next two t o f i v e y e a r s ) , and i n t h e d i s t a n t f u t u r e to ten years).  (the next f i v e  These recommendations a r e intended as a guide f o r  f u t u r e development o f s e n i o r s ' housing i n t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e .  Housing O p t i o n s which a r e Immediately F e a s i b l e : Homesharing A c c e s s o r y Apartments In-law S u i t e s Non-Profit Seniors' Housing M o b i l e Homes  The o p t i o n s which have been s e l e c t e d f o r immediate f e a s i b i l i t y presently exist in-law s u i t e s , profit  i n some form (homesharing, a c c e s s o r y apartments, and mobile homes) o r a r e needed immediately (non-  seniors'  housing) based on t h e p o p u l a t i o n  of seniors i n  T e r r a c e and w a i t i n g l i s t s t h a t e x i s t a t t h i s time.  1.  Homesharing  Homesharing arrangement  has  the p o t e n t i a l  f o r seniors  of  i n the C i t y  being  a  of Terrace  viable  living  because o f t h e  predominance o f s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s i n t h e C i t y and t h e f a c t that  i t i s currently  Terrace. It  Further,  permitted  i n every  residential  t h e r e a r e minimal f i n a n c i a l  costs  zone i n  involved.  i s t h e r e f o r e recommended t h a t homesharing be immediately  considered  as a v i a b l e  persons, i n T e r r a c e .  housing  option  f o r seniors,  and younger  The i n c e p t i o n o f a formal homesharing o p t i o n 116  through  a n o n - p r o f i t matching agency i n the C i t y would p r o v i d e an  important  supported  Moreover,  it  would  homesharing and security  independent l i v i n g provide  an  option i n t h i s  alternative  p r o v i d e e l d e r l y persons  of having  a third  to  community.  self-initiated  w i t h the convenience  p a r t y s c r e e n and  introduce  and  potential  homesharers. The  first  step  community would be homesharing  and  assuming t h e r e  i n formally introducing t h i s t o i n c r e a s e the  establish  interest  i s interest  c o u l d be s e t up i n the new I n f o r m a t i o n Access  level  in this  in  option to  of awareness r e g a r d i n g this  option.  The  Second,  o p t i o n , a homesharing agency  Community V o l u n t e e r Bureau and  Centre.  the  Seniors  homesharing agency c o u l d f i n a n c e  the c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r v i e w i n g , r e f e r e n c e c h e c k i n g and matching c l i e n t s by c h a r g i n g a fee f o r matching c l i e n t s .  Recommendations on  how t o proceed w i t h the agency c o u l d be o b t a i n e d from the Vancouver Homesharers S o c i e t y .  2.  A c c e s s o r y apartments / In-law S u i t e s The  Terrace,  predominance of s i n g l e combined  with  a c c e s s o r y apartments and make  these  Accessory  apartments  residential (Rural).  housing  zone  fact  except  that  the  in-law s u i t e s  options and  family dwellings  Rl  suites  (Single  By-law  City  feasible are  family  in  permitted dwellings)  of  permits  i n many r e s i d e n t i a l  immediately  in-law  Zoning  i n the  zones  Terrace. in  every  and  Al  A c c e s s o r y apartments and in-law s u i t e s can be b u i l t w i t h  a minimum of d i s r u p t i o n t o the primary 117  u n i t i n two  s t o r e y homes.  For  persons i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n v e r t i n g  accessory  unit  establishing  or  cost  in-law  suite,  i s the condition  part  of t h e i r  home i n t o an  the determining o f t h e area  factor  in  t o be c o n v e r t e d  p r i o r t o conversion.  3. N o n - P r o f i t  S e n i o r s ' Housing  Non-profit  s e n i o r s ' housing i s p e r m i t t e d  i n every r e s i d e n t i a l  zone except R l ( S i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s ) , R2 ( S i n g l e and two f a m i l y dwellings) within  and A l ( R u r a l ) .  the City that  There a r e a number o f vacant p r o p e r t i e s  would  be s u i t a b l e f o r n o n - p r o f i t  seniors'  housing, a l t h o u g h a r e z o n i n g would be r e q u i r e d f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f these p r o p e r t i e s . The  economic  feasibility  apartment i s i n c r e a s e d  o f a second  non-profit  g r e a t l y by t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f BCHMC  f o r n o n - p r o f i t housing f o r low-income s e n i o r s . the  waiting  lists  a t both  Apartments t h a t t h e s e n i o r s type o f accommodation. has  voiced  i t s desire  seniors'  t h e Willows  loans  I t i s c l e a r from  and t h e Tuck  Avenue  i n t h i s communty d e s i r e more o f t h i s  Further, the e l d e r l y population of Terrace on a number o f o c c a s i o n s  t o see a second  s e n i o r s ' apartment complex l i k e t h e Willows. Persons aged 55 and over would be e l i g i b l e f o r n o n - p r o f i t and p u b l i c s u b s i d i z e d housing f o r s e n i o r s . aged 55 y e a r s and over i n T e r r a c e ,  The p o p u l a t i o n  not i n c l u d i n g those persons i n  an i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t y , i n 1986 was 1,190 persons. non-profit Guilbault  s e n i o r s ' housing  o f persons  Based on t h e  needs i n d i c a t o r e s t a b l i s h e d  i n her t h e s i s , there  should 118  by Lynn  be 6.8 u n i t s o f n o n - p r o f i t  housing f o r every 100 s e n i o r s i n B.C. of  1,190 i s 81 u n i t s .  32  Consequently,  6.8 p e r c e n t  There a r e c u r r e n t l y 56 u n i t s o f n o n - p r o f i t  and p u b l i c housing f o r s e n i o r s i n T e r r a c e .  As a r e s u l t ,  i n order  t o meet t h i s needs i n d i c a t o r T e r r a c e should have an a d d i t i o n a l 25 u n i t s o f n o n - p r o f i t s e n i o r s housing i n t h e C i t y based on t h e 1986 p o p u l a t i o n o f persons 55 y e a r s o f age and over. persons  The p o p u l a t i o n o f  55 y e a r s o f age and over has i n c r e a s e d s i n c e t h a t  time;  therefore, i t i s l i k e l y that t h i s i s a very conservative estimate of need i n 1991.  4.  M o b i l e homes M o b i l e homes, which o f f e r e l d e r l y persons independent  i n a compact environment, courts i n Terrace. non-conforming permit  living  are currently permitted i n three t r a i l e r  A t t h e p r e s e n t time, these t r a i l e r c o u r t s a r e  uses: t h e r e a r e no zones i n t h e C i t y which e x p r e s s l y  the existence of t r a i l e r  courts.  t r a i l e r c o u r t s i s not allowed i n any zone.  The c r e a t i o n Consequently,  o f new anyone  choosing t h i s o p t i o n would have t o purchase a mobile home which i s a l r e a d y i n a t r a i l e r c o u r t o r wait f o r a pad t o become a v a i l a b l e i n order t o l i v e i n a mobile home w i t h i n t h e C i t y .  G u i l b a u l t , p. 95. 119  H o u s i n g O p t i o n s which would be F e a s i b l e  i n t h e Mid-term:  R e n t a l Apartments Co-operative Housing A b b e y f i e l d Concept Housing  Two  o f t h e s e housing o p t i o n s  and l i v i n g  arrangements f o r  s e n i o r s ( c o - o p e r a t i v e s and A b b e y f i e l d houses) w i l l r e q u i r e a g r e a t deal  of planning  and development  s o c i e t i e s t o b r i n g about t h e i r  on t h e p a r t  inception.  of  non-profit  It i s likely  that i t  w i l l t a k e some time t o c r e a t e t h e s e s o c i e t i e s i n T e r r a c e and enable them  t o seek  ministries.  financing  options  from  the d i f f e r e n t  government  I n t h e case o f r e n t a l apartments, i t i s a matter o f  h a v i n g a d e v e l o p e r b r i n g f o r t h t h i s o p t i o n and seek f i n a n c i n g t h a t may  be a v a i l a b l e from BCHMC.  Rental  Apartments  The C i t y o f T e r r a c e c u r r e n t l y has a v e r y low apartment vacancy r a t e o f 0.8 p e r c e n t . Terrace  would  As a r e s u l t ,  33  qualify  i t i s l i k e l y that the City of  f o r t h e new B.C. R e n t a l  Supply  Program  o f f e r e d by BCHMC t o encourage the c r e a t i o n o f new r e n t a l apartments i n low vacancy a r e a s . City  of Terrace  The c r e a t i o n o f new r e n t a l apartments i n t h e  would  benefit  a l l age groups  and would  offer  s e n i o r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i v e i n a complex t h a t i s n o t s t r i c t l y for  seniors.  CMHC, R e n t a l Market Survey Report: T e r r a c e . F a l l 1990. NHA 6190, ( B r i t i s h Columbia: Canada Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , 1990), p. 4. 33  120  C o - o p e r a t i v e Housing T e r r a c e does n o t have a c o - o p e r a t i v e is  likely  p r o j e c t o f any k i n d .  that a n o t - f o r - p r o f i t co-operative  It  which encompasses a  wide range o f households, i n c l u d i n g f a m i l i e s and s e n i o r s , would be the most s u c c e s s f u l because o f the predominance o f younger f a m i l i e s in  Terrace.  living  Such  in a  addition,  a project  complex  with  could  o f f e r seniors  younger  persons  the option of  and c h i l d r e n .  i t would b e n e f i t both independent s e n i o r s  In  and f a m i l i e s  who cannot a f f o r d t o purchase a home, but who want s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e and i n p u t  i n d e c i s i o n s made about where they  live.  CMHC f u n d i n g f o r t h e development and maintenance o f t h e co-op is  available  to projects  locations f o r co-operatives to  shops  and  services,  selected  f o r subsidies.  Suitable  i n T e r r a c e should a g a i n be a c c e s s i b l e as w e l l  as  schools  and  recreational  f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e f a m i l i e s i n t h e development.  Abbeyfield  Concept Housing  Abbeyfield profit  houses must be owned and operated by a l o c a l  Abbeyfield  r e n t a l stock  society.  Abbeyfield  non-  housing would add t o t h e  i n t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e by p r o v i d i n g r e n t a l housing t o  e l d e r l y i n d i v i d u a l s who would d e s i r e the communal l i f e s t y l e o f f e r e d by t h e A b b e y f i e l d  society.  Funding f o r A b b e y f i e l d  a v a i l a b l e from BCHMC through t h e N o n - P r o f i t  houses may be  Housing Program.  I d e a l l y , A b b e y f i e l d houses a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o e x i s t i n g s i n g l e f a m i l y neighbourhoods. the  There a r e a v a r i e t y o f zoning o p t i o n s f o r  C i t y o f T e r r a c e t o permit A b b e y f i e l d 121  homes.  I t i s possible  t h a t an A b b e y f i e l d house c o u l d be d e f i n e d a " s i n g l e  housekeeping  u n i t " and t h e r e f o r e be p e r m i t t e d i n every zone without an amendment t o t h e zoning.  In t h i s case, A b b e y f i e l d houses may be p e r m i t t e d as  a group home i n every zone except R l ( S i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s ) and Al  (Rural) without any change t o t h e c u r r e n t Zoning Bylaw.  ability  t o c r e a t e an A b b e y f i e l d house  congregate  house  i n many zones  or other  i n the City  type  The  of small  of Terrace  without  amending t h e zoning bylaw g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e s t h e v i a b i l i t y o f such a housing o p t i o n : t h e p r o j e c t c o u l d be b u i l t without t h e r i s k o f p u b l i c d i s a p p r o v a l of the p r o j e c t a t the p u b l i c hearing.  Housing  O p t i o n s w h i c h may be F e a s i b l e  i n the Distant  Future:  Condomin iums Garden S u i t e s Congregate Housing Care f a c i l i t i e s  Each o f t h e s e housing o p t i o n s a r e not f e a s i b l e f o r some time f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons.  A d d i t i o n a l condominiums and c a r e f a c i l i t i e s  w i l l not be n e c e s s a r y i n T e r r a c e f o r a number o f y e a r s because t h e e x i s t i n g p r o j e c t s a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o s a t i s f y f u t u r e demand. are  There  s t i l l a l a r g e number of u n i t s u n s o l d a t Twin R i v e r E s t a t e s , t h e  condominium development f o r s e n i o r s ,  and t h e proposed s u p p o r t i v e  housing p r o j e c t a d j a c e n t t o Terraceview Lodge w i l l f r e e up a number of  beds a t t h e Lodge c u r r e n t l y used by those r e s i d e n t s who had no  c h o i c e but t o l i v e t h e r e a t t h e time. Garden because  of  development.  suites  will  financial,  not be f e a s i b l e legal  and  f o r a number  logistical  barriers  of years to  their  Large congregate c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w i l l not be f e a s i b l e 122  f o r some time because of t h e expense i n v o l v e d maintenance. charged  Further,  i n other  i n development and  t h e c o s t s t o the r e s i d e n t s which have been  developments of t h i s k i n d make t h i s  expensive f o r most e l d e r l y T e r r a c e  option  too  r e s i d e n t s a t t h i s time.  1. Condominiums T e r r a c e has one l a r g e condominium p r o j e c t , Twin R i v e r E s t a t e s , which i s intended  exclusively f o r seniors.  s t i l l u n i t s f o r s a l e i n Phase Two. which  will  be  construction.  comprised  of  Currently,  The t h i r d phase of t h e p r o j e c t , 24  units,  is  currently  support another condominium lived  development.  i n condominiums  seniors' population  would be 42 u n i t s .  Even i f t h e s e n i o r s ' p o p u l a t i o n  would  35  demand  61  i f the  increase  during  last  decade  i n considered,  seniors'  population  alone  o f t h a t number i n Terrace  units  i n the appeal  could  of  support  more  ^ F a c t Book on Aging i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 47. T a y l o r , p. 3. 123  in  and  of  Terrace.  condominiums  i t i s u n l i k e l y that  development i n the immediate f u t u r e .  35  over,  t h e r e were 735 s e n i o r s  condominium  even  of  In 1986 the  Of those 735 s e n i o r s , 8.3 percent  Therefore, the  34  those 65 y e a r s o f age and  Consequently, 8.3 p e r c e n t  65 y e a r s o f age and o v e r .  could  In 1981, 8.3 p e r c e n t  the s u r r o u n d i n g area f o r 1986 i s c o n s i d e r e d ,  number  i n Terrace  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  i n Terrace,  amounted t o 505 persons.  that  under  There are a t o t a l o f 84 u n i t s i n t h i s p r o j e c t .  I t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t the s e n i o r s ' p o p u l a t i o n  seniors  there are  the  condominium  2. Garden  Suites  There a r e a number o f l e g a l , f i n a n c i a l and l o g i s t i c a l problems which  make i t i m p o s s i b l e  option  a t t h i s time.  setting  t o recommend t h e garden  First,  t h e l e g a l problems  up a garden s u i t e program  m u n i c i p a l i t y o r housing a u t h o r i t y  s u i t e housing  associated  with  and r e g u l a t i n g occupancy  by a  i s questionable.  36  Second, t h e  c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p u r c h a s i n g o r r e n t i n g a garden s u i t e may be p r o h i b i t i v e t o many f a m i l i e s .  As shown e a r l i e r  i n t h i s chapter,  the purchase p r i c e t h a t people were w i l l i n g t o pay i n 1989 was t h e p r i c e t h a t would have been v i a b l e i n 1982 d o l l a r s . undoubtedly i n c r e a s e d  s i n c e 1982.  The c o s t has  The f a c t t h a t t h e Township o f  Langley, which p e r m i t s garden s u i t e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l zones, not have any garden s u i t e s due t o t h e i r c o s t some o f t h e f i n a n c i a l  difficulties  associated  does  i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f w i t h t h e concept.  F i n a l l y , garden s u i t e s a r e not p e r m i t t e d i n any zone i n t h e C i t y o f Terrace. the  A c c e s s o r y uses i n r e s i d e n t i a l zones a r e c l e a r l y s t a t e d i n  Zoning  By-law.  Accessory  uses  which  are permitted are  b u i l d i n g s , s t r u c t u r e s o r uses a c c e s s o r y t o and l o c a t e d on t h e same site  w i t h t h e main  b u i l d i n g o r use.  An a c c e s s o r y b u i l d i n g i s  d e f i n e d as "a s u b o r d i n a t e detached b u i l d i n g appurtenant t o a main b u i l d i n g o r main use and l o c a t e d on t h e same s i t e , t h e purpose o f which i s t o p r o v i d e b e t t e r and more c o n v e n i e n t enjoyment o f t h e main b u i l d i n g o r main use." 37  CMHC, Granny F l a t s : T h e i r P r a c t i c a l i t y (Ottawa: CMHC, A p r i l 1982), p. 85. 37  Z o n i n g By-law, p. 2 . 124  and Implementation.  In a d d i t i o n , i t has been recommended t h a t the i n s t a l l a t i o n o f garden s u i t e s be l i m i t e d t o l o t s o f 6,500 square f e e t o r more o r rural and  zones i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e p r i v a c y i n t h e primary d w e l l i n g  garden  suite  and t o ensure  open space  f o r each  unit.  3 8  As  such, garden s u i t e s would o n l y be v i a b l e on l a r g e l o t s o f l a n d i n r u r a l areas.  Consequently, the r e s i d e n t o f the garden s u i t e would  have t o r e l y on f r i e n d s o r r e l a t i v e s t o have a c c e s s t o shops and services, reasons,  unless garden  the resident suites  could  still  a r e not a f e a s i b l e  drive. housing  F o r these option f o r  s e n i o r s a t t h i s time. It  may be p o s s i b l e  f o r BCHMC  t o consider  taking  on t h e  ownership o f a f l e e t o f garden s u i t e s which c o u l d then be r e n t e d t o e l d e r l y persons o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n o r d e r t o r e g u l a t e  occupoancy  and the removal o f the u n i t s once they were no l o n g e r needed. would,  o f course,  amending  their  be dependent  zoning  t o allow  on a number  This  of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s  f o r the units,  and upon t h e  f i n a n c i a l v i a b i l i t y o f such a p r o j e c t .  3 . Congregate  Housing  Congregate housing i s n o t f e a s i b l e i n the near f u t u r e because of the c o s t i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g such a f a c i l i t y . The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a BCHMC program t o encourage the development o f affordable problem.  congregate c a r e housing would  A second way t o c r e a t e congregate housing i n t h e near  f u t u r e would 3 8  a l l e v i a t e much o f t h i s  be t o i n i t i a t e a s m a l l e r congregate housing o p t i o n ,  G e l l e r and A s s o c i a t e s , 18. 125  which c o u l d be l o c a t e d i n a l a r g e s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g and would include  such  housekeeping.  services  as  24-hour  security,  meals  and  weekly  The c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n p u r c h a s i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e  p r o p e r t y and home and keeping a s m a l l e r s t a f f o f one o r two persons would be c o n s i d e r a b l y lower than would be i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g , m a i n t a i n i n g and s t a f f i n g a l a r g e congregate  housing complex i n t h e  commercial core o f t h e C i t y . C u r r e n t l y , zoning i n t h e C i t y would permit congregate i n a v a r i e t y o f zones throughout the  proposed  housing  T e r r a c e depending on t h e s i z e o f  p r o j e c t and t h e type  o f s e r v i c e s which  would  be  located within the p r o j e c t .  Care  facilities The C i t y o f T e r r a c e has one c a r e f a c i l i t y , Terraceview  which has a t o t a l develop  o f 75 r e s i d e n t s .  Lodge,  There a r e p l a n s underway t o  s u p p o r t i v e housing a d j a c e n t t o t h e Lodge.  I t i s expected  t h a t some o f t h e r e s i d e n t s c u r r e n t l y i n t h e Lodge w i l l  be a b l e t o  move t o t h e s u p p o r t i v e housing, thereby f r e e i n g up a number o f t h e beds i n t h e Lodge.  T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e should not be a need f o r an  a d d i t i o n a l c a r e f a c i l i t y f o r a number o f y e a r s .  126  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR  THE  C I T Y OF  TERRACE  The C i t y of T e r r a c e can p l a y an important r o l e i n encouraging the development of many housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements f o r seniors range  throughout  of  housing  throughout play  an  Terrace. options  the C i t y .  active  and  City  c u r r e n t l y permits  living  arrangements  i n r e g u l a t i n g the  occurs  i n s i n g l e and  number  of  two  type  and  including  residential can  in-law  zones.  establish  a  group  and  are  living  home  City  any  in  zones  n o n - p r o f i t groups,  and  and  provide  such  as  accessory  multi-family  or n o n - p r o f i t group  allowing  e x p r e s s l y permit  that  Currently, a  arrangements  profit  wide  seniors  development  zones.  i n two  a  choose t o  c a r e homes, and  legal  At t h i s time,  recommended t h a t the profit  suites  group  of  family r e s i d e n t i a l  A b b e y f i e l d housing and s m a l l congregate apartments  for  However, the C i t y of T e r r a c e may  role  options  The  them.  It  is  group homes f o r both a definition  of  group  homes, i n zones t h a t c u r r e n t l y permit them i n order t o c l a r i f y t h a t they  are permitted.  F u r t h e r , the  C i t y may  choose t o make t h i s  zoning more r e s t r i c t i v e i n nature so as t o r e g u l a t e the d e n s i t y of group homes i n T e r r a c e so t h a t they do not become c o n c e n t r a t e d i n s p e c i f i c neighbourhoods. The C i t y may prohibiting  a l s o choose t o t a c k l e the i s s u e of l e g a l i z i n g or  accessory  zones throughout  the  apartments City.  At  and this  in-law time  suites  such  in  specific  u n i t s are  legal  because t h e r e i s n o t h i n g i n the Zoning By-law which p r o h i b i t s them. However, accessory  the  regulations in  the  apartments or in-law  Zoning  s u i t e s as 127  By-law  do  not  address  such.  These u n i t s are  l e g a l simply because two f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s a r e p e r m i t t e d zones. units  Consequently, unless  they  i n these  t h e C i t y has no c h o i c e but t o permit  violate  regulations stipulating  these  minimum  site  area, s i t e f r o n t a g e and f l o o r a r e a . There consider City.  are  several  factors  which  the  City  would  i f i t chose t o l e g a l i z e o r p r o h i b i t these  have  to  u n i t s i n the  F i r s t , t h e C i t y would have t o e s t a b l i s h whether o r not t h e  current  zoning  problem  t o t h e r e s i d e n t s i n these  receives  a l l o w i n g a c c e s s o r y u n i t s and i n - l a w s u i t e s  complaints  about these  zones  ( i . e . whether  units).  the  Second, t h e C i t y  have t o d e c i d e whether  or not a c c e s s o r y u n i t s and in-law  would  distinct  be  seen  requirements  as  and  two  regulations.  housing Third,  options the  d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the two and permit  City  with may  are a City would suites  different choose  to  in-law s u i t e s p r o v i d i n g  s t r i c t r e g u l a t i o n s on the development a r e f o l l o w e d and the in-law s u i t e i s removed once i t i s no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d .  39  Fourth, t h e C i t y  would have t o c o n s i d e r which r e s i d e n t i a l zones would be best s u i t e d t o a c c e s s o r y apartments or in-law s u i t e s .  Finally,  t h e i s s u e of  o f f - s t r e e t p a r k i n g would have t o be c o n s i d e r e d . The e x i s t i n g Zoning By-law f o r the C i t y of T e r r a c e i s not as r e s t r i c t i v e as those i n o t h e r m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Consequently,  a wide  variety  of i n n o v a t i v e housing  options f o r  e l d e r l y persons a r e p e r m i t t e d i n T e r r a c e t h a t would not be allowed i n o t h e r communities without it  amending t h e zoning.  In t h e f u t u r e ,  i s hoped t h a t the C i t y of T e r r a c e w i l l c o n t i n u e t o f a c i l i t a t e 3 9  G e l l e r and A s s o c i a t e s , p. 16-17. 128  the  development  of  seniors'  housing  in this  i n n o v a t i v e zoning and p l a n n i n g t e c h n i q u e s .  129  community  through  CHAPTER  5  CONCLUSION  CONCLUSION  Seniors have  the  right  community. housing  i n every to  Canadian community, be  affordable,  i t l a r g e or s m a l l ,  s u i t a b l e accommodation  their  To t h a t end, s e n i o r s should have access t o a range of  in their  community  encompassing  independent,  independent and dependent l i v i n g arrangements. a  in  range o f housing  options  and  living  supported  The development of  arrangements  f o r seniors  w i t h i n a s m a l l community such as the C i t y of T e r r a c e poses unique challenges  f o r planners  of  s e n i o r s ' housing.  f e a s i b i l i t y o f a range of housing for  seniors  i s a f f e c t e d not  In T e r r a c e ,  o p t i o n s and l i v i n g  only  by  locational  the  arrangements  and  financial  f a c t o r s , but a l s o by p o p u l a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s which are a t y p i c a l f o r a small  city.  The p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n i n T e r r a c e , wherein the p o p u l a t i o n i s n o t i c e a b l y skewed t o t h e younger working-age groups, r a t h e r than reflecting  other  resource-based resource-based  small  cities,  communities  mirrors  in British  that  of  Columbia:  many  isolated  small,  isolated  communities tend t o have a r e l a t i v e l y low percentage  of s e n i o r s i n t h e i r t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n .  Any attempt t o p l a n a range  of housing o p t i o n s f o r s e n i o r s i n these communities poses d i f f e r e n t types o f p l a n n i n g problems than would a r i s e i n l a r g e c i t i e s .  Two  of t h e f a c t o r s which must be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f f u t u r e s e n i o r s ' housing developments i n s m a l l e r communities a r e the s c a l e and t i m i n g of development As  proposals.  i n a l l communities,  developments  must  be  a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e f o r the p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e r e g i o n . 131  i  built  t o the  However, i n  s m a l l e r communities w i t h low numbers o f s e n i o r s , i t becomes more of a c h a l l e n g e t o c r e a t e s m a l l s c a l e developments t h a t w i l l  reflect  the p o p u l a t i o n demands i n the r e g i o n , be c o s t - e f f e c t i v e and employ economies of s c a l e . housing  options  essential  that  Moreover, i f the g o a l i s t o develop a range of  and  living  there  arrangements  in a  community,  are not t o o many u n i t s of one  i t is  particular  o p t i o n on t h e market which would p r e c l u d e t h e development of other housing o p t i o n s i n the f u t u r e . The importance of s c a l e i s i l l u s t r a t e d  i n T e r r a c e , where 84  condominium u n i t s e x c l u s i v e l y f o r s e n i o r s were c r e a t e d a t one s i t e , Twin R i v e r E s t a t e s , w i t h i n one and a h a l f y e a r s .  The l a r g e s c a l e  of  a total  Twin  River  Estates  i n a community  t h a t has  of  550  s e n i o r s means t h a t up t o 2 0 percent of the s e n i o r s i n T e r r a c e  live  i n t h i s one development. The second f a c t o r which must be c o n s i d e r e d i n the c r e a t i o n o f s e n i o r s ' housing i n s m a l l e r communities i s the t i m i n g o f p a r t i c u l a r proposals. government  Because T e r r a c e has l i m i t e d access t o r e s o u r c e s such as funding,  seniors'  housing  groups  must  work  co-  o p e r a t i v e l y t o make e f f e c t i v e use o f government and l o c a l r e s o u r c e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e t o encourage and s u b s i d i z e new housing and l i v i n g arrangements f o r s e n i o r s .  options  There a r e a number of groups  i n t h e C i t y such as the T e r r a c e H e a l t h Care S o c i e t y , the S e n i o r s ' A d v i s o r y Committee which r e p o r t s t o T e r r a c e C i t y C o u n c i l , and the s e n i o r s a t t h e Happy Gang Centre who housing.  a r e concerned about s e n i o r s '  These d i f f e r e n t lobby groups must be aware o f what other  groups i n the C i t y are doing and, i d e a l l y , work t o g e t h e r  whenever  p o s s i b l e t o lobby f o r funding from v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f government and encourage t h e development o f new housing A  second  aspect  related  to  options i n the C i t y .  timing,  particularly  when  a d d r e s s i n g concerns r e l a t i n g t o t h e development o f l a r g e p r o p o s a l s , i s the a b i l i t y support  o f t h e c u r r e n t and f u t u r e s e n i o r s ' p o p u l a t i o n s t o  such p r o j e c t s .  options,  such  One s o l u t i o n may be t o c o n s i d e r  as c o - o p e r a t i v e s ,  which  housing  i n t e g r a t e households o f  d i f f e r e n t age groups i n order t o a l l e v i a t e some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s associated  with  small  elderly  populations  and t h e v i a b i l i t y o f  larger p r o j e c t s i n small c i t i e s . In an attempt t o r e s o l v e some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s c a l e and t i m i n g i n b u i l d i n g developments which s u i t t h e needs o f a s m a l l e r value  of single  community.  community,  family  i t i s essential  dwellings  Many o f t h e housing  t o recognize the  f o r s e n i o r s ' housing  options  and l i v i n g  i n the  arrangements  t h a t were recommended f o r t h e C i t y o f T e r r a c e make use o f s i n g l e family  dwellings.  independent  living  Further, options  the such  development as  of  homesharing,  supported accessory  apartments and in-law s u i t e s i n s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s would h e l p to  b r i d g e t h e gap t h a t e x i s t s  i n most s m a l l communities between  independent and dependent l i v i n g Supported  independent  options.  living  options  in  single  family  d w e l l i n g s would be w e l l s u i t e d t o s m a l l c i t i e s such as T e r r a c e f o r four  reasons.  First,  these  options  are created  by  individual  households and t h e r e f o r e , u n l i k e m u l t i p l e u n i t p r o j e c t s , a r e not dependent  on  a  particular  number 133  of  persons  or  households  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e housing o p t i o n i n o r d e r t o make i t f e a s i b l e . Second, t h e s e dissolved persons  o p t i o n s can be c r e a t e d when they  when they  outside  participating  a r e d e s i r e d and  a r e no l o n g e r needed without  of that  particular  i n t h e same type  household  o f housing  a f f e c t i n g any  who  may  also  arrangement.  be  Third,  these o p t i o n s can be c r e a t e d w i t h a minimum f i n a n c i a l commitment and  no  dependence  option.  Finally,  on government these  agencies  where s i n g l e  finance the  o p t i o n s can make more e f f e c t i v e  uncrowded homes owned by e l d e r l y persons Terrace  to help  f a m i l y homes  use o f  i n communities such as  f a r outweigh  other  types of  housing i n t h e community. Two o t h e r supported l i v i n g o p t i o n s which would be w e l l s u i t e d t o s m a l l communities such as T e r r a c e a r e s m a l l congregate and  A b b e y f i e l d housing.  p r o v i d e housing  to five  family dwelling.  meals and housekeeping, the high  o f these  o p t i o n s a r e intended t o  to ten elderly  persons  within a  single  S m a l l e r congregate houses and A b b e y f i e l d housing  would be a b l e t o o f f e r  without  Both  housing  many o f t h e s e r v i c e s ,  such  as s e c u r i t y ,  found i n l a r g e r congregate housing p r o j e c t s  number  of u n i t s  that  are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of  congregate housing p r o j e c t s i n l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . Each  of these  supportive  living  options  would  make  more  e f f e c t i v e and i n t e n s i v e use o f t h e e x i s t i n g s i n g l e f a m i l y housing s t o c k i n s m a l l e r communities. help  to  balance  increasing  Consequently, demand  with  a f f o r d a b l e u n i t s i n s i n g l e f a m i l y areas.  these options could existing  of  Moreover, t h e s e housing  o p t i o n s can be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e e x i s t i n g neighbourhood 134  supply  i n a non-  o b t r u s i v e manner i f proper  c a r e i s taken  in their  establishment.  T h i s would h e l p t o ensure t h a t s e n i o r s remain a v i t a l p a r t of the community. The  ability  to  introduce  seniors i n a small c i t y community and they  reach  a  range  of  housing  i s c r u c i a l t o keeping  options  for  r e s i d e n t s i n such a  a t t r a c t i n g r e s i d e n t s from s m a l l e r communities once  retirement  age.  It  i s essential  that  small  cities  attempt t o o f f e r i n n o v a t i v e housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements t o s e n i o r s t h a t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e independent, supported and dependent l i f e s t y l e s f e e l compelled housing who  and  independent,  i n order t o ensure t h a t s e n i o r s w i l l  to relocate to larger c i t i e s  s e r v i c e s they d e s i r e .  The key  i n order t o f i n d  not the  i s t o keep the s e n i o r s  are i n s m a l l c i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the n o r t h , from moving t o  l a r g e r communities i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia where s e n i o r s have a wider v a r i e t y of housing o p t i o n s and l i v i n g arrangements a t t h e i r disposal.  The  ability  t o c r e a t e a v a r i e t y of o p t i o n s  throughout  the community on a s m a l l e r s c a l e h e l p s t o ensure t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a  range  of  housing  options  encompassing  independent,  supported  independent, and dependent o p t i o n s without r i s k i n g the v i a b i l i t y of these  options  because of  the  limited  community.  135  numbers of  seniors  in  the  Areas f o r F u r t h e r Research There a r e s e v e r a l areas f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h which a r i s e out of  t h e work completed i n t h i s t h e s i s .  First,  there i s a lack of  m a t e r i a l c o n c e r n i n g g e n e r a l t r e n d s i n housing and s e r v i c e s i n s m a l l cities.  T h i s r e s e a r c h c o u l d be s i m i l a r t o t h e examination  of the  e l d e r l y i n s m a l l towns undertaken by G e r a l d Hodge i n The E l d e r l y i n Small  Towns:  Recent  Trends  and T h e i r  Implications.  Second,  r e s e a r c h c o u l d be undertaken r e g a r d i n g t h e degree t o which s m a l l c i t i e s r e c e i v e f u n d i n g from BCHMC and CMHC and whether they r e c e i v e t h e i r share o f f u n d i n g . of  T h i s r e s e a r c h c o u l d i n c l u d e an examination  whether d i f f e r e n t types o f housing  cities  as compared w i t h  terms o f r e s e a r c h  options are b u i l t  large metropolitan  into the d i f f e r e n t  housing  areas. options  i n small  Finally, i n and l i v i n g  arrangements examined i n t h i s t h e s i s , more e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h i n t o the success o f congregate housing  136  i n Canada c o u l d be conducted.  BIBLIOGRAPHY A b b e y f i e l d S o c i e t y . Review o f 1986. P o t t e r s Bar: The A b b e y f i e l d S o c i e t y , n.d. . The L i g h t s a r e Green: The Report o f t h e A b b e y f i e l d S o c i e t y ' s Commission on Growth. 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