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Rethinking German language education : a hermeneutic approach Struch, Angelika 2007

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RETHINKING G E R M A N L A N G U A G E EDUCATION: A HERMENEUTIC APPROACH  by A n g e l i k a Struch  B.A., T h e University of Victoria, 1986 M.A., T h e University of British C o l u m b i a , 1994  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  ( G e r m a n i c Studies)  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A April 2 0 0 7  © A n g e l i k a Struch, 2007  Abstract T h i s dissertation a r g u e s that the educational value of G e r m a n l a n g u a g e study would be improved by a hermeneutic a p p r o a c h . L a n g u a g e e d u c a t o r s h a v e for s o m e time had difficulties forging a c o m m o n a p p r o a c h . In my view, l a n g u a g e p e d a g o g y s h o u l d concentrate on the transformation of the familiar by the unfamiliar, or the c h a n g e in self-understanding m a d e p o s s i b l e by the learning of a new l a n g u a g e . M y original contribution to this d i s c u s s i o n is to s h o w how the philosophy of Martin H e i d e g g e r c o u l d be usefully a p p l i e d . C h a p t e r O n e gives a n overview of contemporary l a n g u a g e education in terms of its recent d e v e l o p m e n t s . In my account, the recent cultural turn h a s led to a n i m p a s s e over the very c o n c e p t of culture. M y s u g g e s t i o n is that, in order to e d u c a t e students better to reach current g o a l s , a more productive a p p r o a c h would be to e n c o u r a g e the turn from o n e ' s o w n , familiar l a n g u a g e to another, unfamiliar o n e . G r e a t e r k n o w l e d g e of other l a n g u a g e s is a n important step on the way to greater k n o w l e d g e of the world. C h a p t e r T w o introduces my claim that H e i d e g g e r ' s h e r m e n e u t i c s specifically s h o u l d be applied to l a n g u a g e e d u c a t i o n . Of c o u r s e m a n y writers h a v e promoted H e i d e g g e r ' s importance for g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , but a n historical overview of his contributions reveals how the possibility of applying his work to G e r m a n l a n g u a g e education h a s e m e r g e d . C h a p t e r T h r e e d e v e l o p s a m o d e l of H e i d e g g e r ' s hermeneutic philosophy. T h e two main features of this m o d e l are authentic understanding a n d poetic  thinking. C h a p t e r F o u r e x p l o r e s the claim that a more hermeneutic m o d e l of t e a c h i n g a n d learning, e s p e c i a l l y if derived from H e i d e g g e r ' s reading of Plato, would lead to a crucially different understanding of l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g a n d learning. C h a p t e r Five contrasts three different first-year G e r m a n l a n g u a g e p r o g r a m s from the p e r s p e c t i v e s of authentic understanding a n d poetic thinking. T h e aim in this chapter is to r e c o m m e n d new w a y s of c o n c e i v i n g G e r m a n l a n g u a g e p r o g r a m s more generally. M y c o n c l u s i o n underlines the importance of l a n g u a g e study for posts e c o n d a r y education today.  IV  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iv  Acknowledgements  vi  Chapter I  Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  1  1.1  Foreign L a n g u a g e Study: Ideas, Ideals, Ideologies  2  1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6  P h i l o s o p h i e s of Education Intercultural A p p r o a c h e s within L a n g u a g e Study H e r m e n e u t i c s : A Historical O v e r v i e w U n d e r s t a n d i n g in L e a r n i n g : F r o m T h e o r y to P r a c t i c e T h e A p o r i a of an Intercultural H e r m e n e u t i c s  Chapter II 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.5  Chapter III 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3  Heidegger, Hermeneutics, Education  15 24 44 68 70  82  Heidegger as Philosopher and Teacher 83 Heidegger: The Controversy 88 H e i d e g g e r : T h e Critical R e c e p t i o n 96 L o g i c a l P o s i t i v i s m : H e i d e g g e r a n d Rudolf C a r n a p 100 H e i d e g g e r , Understanding and P h i l o s o p h i c a l H e r m e n e u t i c s . .105 H e i d e g g e r a n d Education 113 Historical C r i s e s within Education 115 T h e C r i s i s of Education within a History of B e i n g 120 T h e C r i s i s of Education a s Enframing 128 P r o b l e m s and Q u e s t i o n s within E d u c a t i o n 138 C o n c e p t i o n s of E d u c a t i o n 146 E d u c a t i o n Otherwise 152  Authentic Understanding and Poetic Thinking H e i d e g g e r ' s P h i l o s o p h y of Authentic U n d e r s t a n d i n g Falling into the Familiar F l e e i n g the Unfamiliar A c h i e v i n g Authentic Understanding „dichterisch wohnet der M e n s c h auf d i e s e r E r d e " U n d e r s t a n d i n g , Dwelling, T e a c h i n g , L e a r n i n g Authentic Understanding a s a P e d a g o g i c a l Sensibility P o e t i c Thinking a s a P e d a g o g i c a l Sensibility W o n d e r a s a H e r m e n e u t i c Receptivity  161 162 178 188 195 .201 215 217 .223 ...226  V  Chapter IV 4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3  Chapter V 5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.3  Principles and Practices in Language Education Authentic Understanding a s P e d a g o g i c a l P r a c t i c e T h o m s o n , H e i d e g g e r a n d Plato Anxiety a n d Authentic Understanding Anxiety a n d the L a n g u a g e L e a r n e r Intercultural L a n g u a g e P e d a g o g y : Definitions a n d Objectives Definitions in L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n D e f i c i e n c i e s of Theoretical Understanding D e f i c i e n c i e s of Hermeneutical U n d e r s t a n d i n g The Teacher H e i d e g g e r in the Lecture Hall L e a r n i n g , Thinking, Understanding T h e Return of the T e a c h e r  New Themes in Language Education A p p r o a c h e s to L a n g u a g e T e a c h i n g A p p r o a c h e s : T h r e e M o m e n t s in Learning Reproduction in Learning Disruption in Learning T h r e e P r o g r a m s in G e r m a n L a n g u a g e E d u c a t i o n P h i l o s o p h i e s a n d Objectives of L a n g u a g e Learning Materials in L a n g u a g e Learning A p p r o a c h e s and Materials in L a n g u a g e P r o g r a m s A N e w T h e m e for L a n g u a g e Study  Bibliography  228 228 230 239 243 248 248 254 .......264 271 271 274 281  288 288 291 293 302 305 308 318 322 339  346  vi  Acknowledgements T h i s dissertation w a s inspired in the first p l a c e by my students. F o r over fifteen y e a r s I have h a d the p l e a s u r e a n d privilege of t e a c h i n g s e v e r a l h u n d r e d students at various s t a g e s of learning G e r m a n . T h i s dissertation h a s b e e n written about a n d for t h e m . T h e next s t a g e of dissertation d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r r e d under the g u i d a n c e of my original supervisory committee, which c o n s i s t e d of Dr. J o e r g R o c h e , Dr. T h o m a s S a l u m e t s a n d Dr. Geoffrey W i n t h r o p - Y o u n g . I want to a c k n o w l e d g e them for their help in e n c o u r a g i n g this project. In the final s t a g e this dissertation h a s benefited from the support of my ultimate supervisory committee, c o m p r i s e d of Dr. Patricia Duff, Dr. M a r k e t a G o e t z - S t a n k i e w i c z , a n d Dr. G a b y Pailer. M y heartfelt thanks go to Dr. Duff for her stimulating, insightful t e a c h i n g . Dr. G o e t z - S t a n k i e w i c z h a s for a long time b e e n a role m o d e l for m e in every w a y . I especially a p p r e c i a t e Dr. P a i l e r ' s willingness to take on the challenging task of s u p e r v i s i n g the committee.  1  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  Chapter I  Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  T h e relationship b e t w e e n p e d a g o g y a n d h e r m e n e u t i c s , theories of learning a n d of understanding, is a n ancient o n e . Aristotle dealt with the g r a m m a t i c a l structure of statements in h u m a n s p e e c h in a work entitled Peri Hermeneias.  H e implied a n inherent relation b e t w e e n p e d a g o g y a n d  h e r m e n e u t i c s in his Nicomachean  Ethics when he o b s e r v e d that: " W e frequently  u s e the w o r d s learning a n d understanding s y n o n y m o u s l y . "  1  In this chapter I will  e x a m i n e the relationship b e t w e e n learning a n d understanding in its practical e x p r e s s i o n within a specific context: the role of understanding in the learning of another l a n g u a g e . T h i s chapter will b e g u i d e d by a three-part division of inquiry a n d a n a l y s i s . I will begin by reviewing briefly the shifts in p a r a d i g m that l a n g u a g e learning h a s u n d e r g o n e during the twentieth century, in order to arrive at a c o n t e m p o r a r y characterization of the discipline. In m y opinion, l a n g u a g e study today offers a n u n p r e c e d e n t e d opportunity for constructive contribution a s part of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n within the twenty-first century. It is m y p u r p o s e in this work to affirm a n d a d v a n c e that role through philosophical h e r m e n e u t i c s . T h e tradition of h e r m e n e u t i c s a l s o h a s a long, c o m p l e x history a n d the term is u s e d in m a n y s e n s e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , I will extend m y argument by attempting to arrive at a current conceptualization of h e r m e n e u t i c s . T h e chapter will c o n c l u d e  Aristotle, Nicomachean Press, 2000). 1  Ethics,  trans, a n d e d . R o g e r Crisp (New York: C a m b r i d g e University  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  2  by exploring the traditions of learning a n d understanding within the specific context of the language c l a s s r o o m .  1.1 Language Study: Ideas, Ideals, Ideologies L a n g u a g e study h a s u n d e r g o n e a n u m b e r of c h a n g e s in its long history a n d e a c h new a p p r o a c h h a s b r o a d e n e d our perspective through its particular contribution.  In my survey of this history, I will f o c u s upon the l a n g u a g e learning  context that is the subject of my dissertation: the foreign l a n g u a g e context. In a critical examination of the d e s i g n a t i o n s a s s i g n e d to learning contexts by acquisition r e s e a r c h e r s , David B l o c k defines the foreign l a n g u a g e context a s follows: T h e foreign context is the context of millions of primary s c h o o l , s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , university a n d further education students a r o u n d the world w h o rely on their time in c l a s s r o o m s to learn a l a n g u a g e that is not the typical l a n g u a g e of c o m m u n i c a t i o n in their c o m m u n i t y . 2  In his e x a m i n a t i o n , B l o c k e x p l a i n s h o w the "foreign l a n g u a g e context" is distinguished both from the " s e c o n d l a n g u a g e context" a n d the "naturalistic context."  3  T h e " s e c o n d l a n g u a g e context" s h a r e s the c l a s s r o o m setting of the  "foreign l a n g u a g e context," with the important distinction that the s e c o n d l a n g u a g e c l a s s r o o m is situated inside a community w h e r e the l a n g u a g e to be learned is s p o k e n , rather than outside. T h e "naturalistic context" distinguishes  D a v i d B l o c k , The Social Turn in Second U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s Ltd., 2 0 0 3 ) 4 8 .  2  3  Block 48-55.  Language  Acquisition  (Edinburgh: Edinburgh  3  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  itself from the foreign in that there is no formal c l a s s r o o m instruction a n d the l a n g u a g e being learned is s p o k e n in the surrounding community. In his examination of t h e s e designations, B l o c k a g r e e s that it is n e c e s s a r y to distinguish between learning contexts, but s h o w s how n o n e of the three contexts are fixed a n d s e p a r a t e e n o u g h to warrant s u c h distinct d e s i g n a t i o n s . B l o c k ' s major f o c u s is upon the u s e of " s e c o n d " in s e c o n d l a n g u a g e acquisition. H e points out the m a n y w a y s in which this designation d o e s not accurately represent the e x p e r i e n c e s of l a n g u a g e learners, in the first instance that of multi-linguals, w h o have learned three or more l a n g u a g e s in their lifetimes.  4  A c c o r d i n g to Block, foreign language contexts a l s o vary  i m m e n s e l y , d e p e n d i n g on s u c h factors a s the international e c o n o m i c position of the country in which a foreign l a n g u a g e is studied a n d various socio-historical factors related to the educational s y s t e m . Other important factors are the extent to which learners h a v e the opportunity to actually put their k n o w l e d g e of the target l a n g u a g e to u s e , a s well a s attitudes in g e n e r a l about f o r e i g n n e s s .  5  Block  a r g u e s that e a c h of the designations m i s r e p r e s e n t s , to s o m e extent, the learning contexts a n d e x p e r i e n c e s of m a n y individuals, a n d he follows R a m p t o n in his s u g g e s t i o n of s u c h terms a s "other" or "additional" a s being ultimately more appropriate.  4  B l o c k 33.  5  B l o c k 49.  6  Block 57.  6  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  4  In this dissertation, I will follow B l o c k by being judicious in my u s e of the designation "foreign" a n d refer to the formal c l a s s r o o m learning of "another" l a n g u a g e simply a s l a n g u a g e study. T h e l a n g u a g e c l a s s r o o m to which I a m referring is the p o s t - s e c o n d a r y c l a s s r o o m of c o l l e g e s a n d universities within North A m e r i c a . M y l a n g u a g e of reference will be G e r m a n . In the late nineteenth a n d early twentieth century, the m e t h o d s u s e d for the formal learning of a m o d e r n l a n g u a g e s u c h a s G e r m a n were m o d e l e d upon the study of ancient Latin a n d G r e e k . T h e c o n s e q u e n t "grammar-translation m e t h o d " of l a n g u a g e learning h a s s i n c e b e e n widely refuted for current language-learning p u r p o s e s , but it s h o u l d not be criticized for not doing what it h a d not set out to d o . It w a s never intended to p r o d u c e s p e a k e r s of the target l a n g u a g e a s s e s s e d against the ideal of a (usually highly educated) "native." Rather, its goal w a s to p r o d u c e learners w h o c o u l d read a n d write in the target l a n g u a g e by t e a c h i n g t h e m its rules a n d applications. L e s s o n s were grammatically s e q u e n c e d a n d errorless translations w e r e the e x p e c t e d standard from the outset. Little or no attempt w a s m a d e to actually c o m m u n i c a t e in the target l a n g u a g e , a n d instruction w a s given exclusively in the native l a n g u a g e : Little value w a s p l a c e d on using the l a n g u a g e in its s p o k e n form a n d limited travel a b r o a d , together with more restricted foreign trade than there is today, meant that there w a s no s o c i a l or e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e for l a n g u a g e proficiency to h a v e a c o m m u n i c a t i v e e l e m e n t . 7  During the S e c o n d W o r l d W a r a n d after, however, the n e c e s s i t y of fostering c o m m u n i c a t i o n between nations c h a n g e d the a p p r o a c h to l a n g u a g e S u z a n n e G r a h a m , Effective Language Learning: Positive Strategies Language Learning ( C l e v e d o n : Multilingual M a t t e r s , 1997) 1 1 .  7  for Advanced  Level  5  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  learning in a substantial w a y . In the United S t a t e s , for i n s t a n c e , large n u m b e r s of s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l n e e d e d to be trained in other l a n g u a g e s a n d e s p e c i a l l y in oral l a n g u a g e u s e , a n d the grammar-translation a p p r o a c h w a s thought to be inappropriate for t h e m . In addition, i n c r e a s e d travel, trade, scientific a n d cultural e x c h a n g e , a n d migration on a world s c a l e m a d e l a n g u a g e learning under the most varied c i r c u m s t a n c e s n e c e s s a r y . T o attain or approximate the oral proficiency of the "native" s p e a k e r b e c a m e the n e w ideal of most m o d e r n l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g a p p r o a c h e s a n d , although there h a s b e e n m u c h argument a n d d e b a t e within the field, this d e b a t e h a s usually f o c u s e d upon m e t h o d s . A l t h o u g h the ideal of the "native" s p e a k e r h a s b e e n c o n t e s t e d by m a n y writers, s o m e of w h o m I will mention in this historical survey, it still influences our thinking e v e n t o d a y .  8  In regard to the m e t h o d s u s e d to attain this ideal, they are in part a reflection of the prevailing view of learning at a given time. In the 1 9 5 0 ' s it w a s the b e h a v i o u r i s m of, a m o n g others, B . F . S k i n n e r , that w a s particularly influential. S k i n n e r ' s b e h a v i o u r i s m held that l a n g u a g e acquisition w a s a product 9  of habit formation. L a n g u a g e learning w a s thus v i e w e d a s a p r o c e s s of internalizing the habits of the target l a n g u a g e . T h i s w a s to be a c c o m p l i s h e d through the p e d a g o g i c a l practices of dialogue m e m o r i z a t i o n , imitation a n d pattern practice. Structures of the target l a n g u a g e w e r e carefully ordered a n d d i a l o g u e s w e r e repeated in a n attempt to d e v e l o p correct habits of s p e a k i n g .  H . H . S t e r n , Fundamental 1983) 1 0 3 .  8  9  Concepts  B . F . S k i n n e r , Verbal Behavior  of Language  Teaching  (Oxford: Oxford University P r e s s ,  [New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 5 7 ) .  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  6  Listening a n d s p e a k i n g skills n o w took p r e c e d e n c e o v e r the reading a n d writing skills of grammar-translation; however, attention w a s paid primarily to correct pronunciation rather than the independent production of l a n g u a g e . P r a c t i c e s e s s i o n s f o c u s e d upon aural-oral skills a n d frequently took p l a c e in s o - c a l l e d " l a n g u a g e laboratories"; c o n s e q u e n t l y , this a p p r o a c h to l a n g u a g e instruction c a m e to be known a s the audio-lingual m e t h o d .  10  B y the early 1 9 6 0 ' s N o a m C h o m s k y a n d his a d h e r e n t s were insisting that l a n g u a g e d e v e l o p m e n t w a s too c o m p l i c a t e d a p h e n o m e n o n to be e x p l a i n e d through the tenets of b e h a v i o u r i s m a l o n e .  11  Instead, C h o m s k y p r o p o s e d the  i d e a of a n innate, genetically p r o g r a m m e d mental structure which he called the " l a n g u a g e acquisition d e v i c e " ( L A D ) . F r o m this d e v e l o p e d what is c o m m o n l y known a m o n g s t linguists a s a transformational g r a m m a r : s e n t e n c e s are 'transformed' into other s e n t e n c e s by application to p h r a s e structure rules. S u c h a p r o c e s s w a s p r e s u m e d to be consistent with the innate ordering a n d p r o c e s s i n g m e c h a n i s m s that C h o m s k y p o s i t e d .  12  Transformational g r a m m a r g a v e a new slant to grammatical drills. L a n g u a g e t e a c h e r s using a transformational m o d e l believed that by t e a c h i n g a finite set of p h r a s e structure rules a n d e x p a n d i n g t h e m via the application of transformations, learners c o u l d understand a n d p r o d u c e new s e n t e n c e s . T h e s e newly c r e a t e d s e n t e n c e s would have b e e n neither p r o d u c e d nor understood h a d  P a t r i c i a A . R i c h a r d - A m a t o , Making (New York: L o n g m a n , 1988) 11. 1 0  1 1  1 2  It Happen:  Interaction  N o a m C h o m s k y , „A R e v i e w of B . F . S k i n n e r ' s Verbal G r a h a m 12.  in the Second  Behavior,"  Language  Language  Classroom  3 5 (1959) 2 6 - 5 8 .  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  they b e e n limited merely to repetitive imitation, a s h a d b e e n the c a s e with the behaviourist a p p r o a c h . B e c a u s e the s e n t e n c e recombining a n d other kinds of e x e r c i s e s c e n t e r e d on form, however, the resulting s e n t e n c e s were neither temporally ordered nor logically motivated; in other w o r d s , they were b a s e d on a n understanding of l a n g u a g e that w a s ahistorical a n d uncontextualized. T h e i r r e a s o n for being w a s to demonstrate the u s e of s o m e grammatical structure or other in a n effort to aid the d e v e l o p m e n t of linguistic proficiency. A p p r o a c h e s to l a n g u a g e learning that f o c u s e d on s u c h metalinguistic a n a l y s i s a n d understanding w e r e referred to a s cognitive a p p r o a c h e s . C h o m s k y ' s transformational g r a m m a r w a s u s e d to justify a n d perpetuate a f o c u s on structure a n d cognitive p r o c e s s e s in l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g . H o w e v e r , by the m i d - 1 9 7 0 ' s this a p p r o a c h w a s criticized by t h o s e w h o e m p h a s i z e d the s o c i a l a s p e c t s of l a n g u a g e ( H y m e s , 1970; W i l k i n s , 1976; W i d d o w s o n , 1978; Halliday, 1979). It w a s a r g u e d that the more a g r a m m a r s y s t e m c a n be related to m e a n i n g within s o c i a l contexts, the more insight will be g a i n e d into l a n g u a g e s y s t e m s . Out of this a p p r o a c h c a m e the i d e a of constructing a notionalfunctional syllabus a s the b a s i s for l a n g u a g e learning in the c l a s s r o o m (Wilkins, 1976). T h e notional-functional a p p r o a c h is c o n c e r n e d primarily with helping the learner meet specified c o m m u n i c a t i o n n e e d s . T h e s e n e e d s are o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d a set of notional categories which form the b a s i s for a s y l l a b u s : s e m a n t i c o - g r a m m a t i c a l categories (time, quantity, s p a c e , matter, c a s e , deixis), a n d categories of c o m m u n i c a t i v e function (modality, moral evaluation a n d  7  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  8  discipline, p e r s u a s i o n , argument, rational inquiry a n d exposition, p e r s o n a l emotions, emotional relations, interpersonal relations). Syllabi b a s e d on a notional a p p r o a c h often include s u c h topics or s p e e c h acts a s a c c e p t i n g or rejecting invitations, requesting information, a n d e x p r e s s i n g n e e d s or e m o t i o n s of various k i n d s .  13  Notional-functional a p p r o a c h e s b r o a d e n e d the c h a l l e n g e of the learner from attaining grammatical c o m p e t e n c e to what c a m e to be known a s c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e . T h e e m p h a s i s in c o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s is upon actual active  u s e of the language a s a technique for learning. E x a m p l e s of  s u c h active learning include role-play, simulations, g a m e s , problem-solving, a n d group work. Instead of s e n t e n c e recombining e x e r c i s e s c e n t e r e d on form, or content s u b d i v i d e d into serialized c a t e g o r i e s of functions, it b e c a m e crucially important for learners to u s e a n d e n g a g e with 'authentic' l a n g u a g e . C e n t r a l , however, is that through the m a n y verbal activities, learners are introduced to l a n g u a g e a s a form of s o c i a l interaction. T h i s n e w e m p h a s i s on the s o c i a l , interactive nature of l a n g u a g e c a n be s a i d to characterize c o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s a n d is attributable in part to e v e n t s occurring outside of the p e d a g o g i c a l s c i e n c e s , most particularly the substantial i n c r e a s e in the migration of people a r o u n d the world from the 1970's until today. Immigrants to new s o c i e t i e s h a d to be given a b a s i c level of c o m p e t e n c e to function within their newly a d o p t e d societies a s quickly a s p o s s i b l e . A s a result, a principal f o c u s of this a p p r o a c h is linguistic proficiency in  1 3  D. A. Wilkins, Notional Syllabuses (London: Oxford University, 1976) 92.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  9  what are regarded a s universal, pragmatic n e e d s : requesting directions, ordering a m e a l , using the t e l e p h o n e , getting a job. C o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s m a y work well for the g o a l s they h a v e set out for t h e m s e l v e s , but t a s k - b a s e d , pragmatic notions of l a n g u a g e acquisition h a v e their limitations. T h e efforts of t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s are directed primarily at m a k i n g foreign l a n g u a g e more relevant to e v e r y d a y life, s o they e n d e a v o u r to e m p o w e r learners to u s e w o r d s in order to h a v e their practical n e e d s fulfilled. C o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s h a v e b e e n criticized, however, for valuing the e x c h a n g e of information over other p u r p o s e s a n d g o a l s . F o r e x a m p l e , D a v i d Block (2003) points out that the c o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h doesn't foster e n o u g h a c c u r a c y in l a n g u a g e learning. Instead, t e a c h e r s are interested mainly in having students talk, a n d direct activities in the c l a s s r o o m towards this goal. But a c c o r d i n g to C l a i r e K r a m s c h , a leading s c h o l a r in the field of l a n g u a g e pedagogy: O u r major t a s k is not... to find e v e r better w a y s of 'making students talk', but to understand in e v e r more sensitive w a y s why they talk the w a y they do, a n d why they remain s i l e n t . . . 1 4  K r a m s c h ' s call for a more "sensitive" understanding relates to additional important c o m p o n e n t s frequently m i s s i n g from c o m m u n i c a t i v e p e d a g o g i e s : the d i m e n s i o n s of critical questioning, attention to learner identities, a n d a w a r e n e s s of power relations within target l a n g u a g e c o m m u n i t i e s . B o n n y Norton, for e x a m p l e , insists that a "limitation of c o m m u n i c a t i v e l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s is that m a n y do not actively s e e k to e n g a g e the identities of l a n g u a g e learners in C l a i r e K r a m s c h , Context 1993) 2 4 5 .  1 4  and Culture  in Language  Teaching  (Oxford: Oxford University P r e s s ,  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  the l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g p r o c e s s . "  10  15  I will d e s c r i b e below the important role of  identity formation a s part of the broader educational a i m s of l a n g u a g e learning. C o m m u n i c a t i v e c o u r s e b o o k s are generally d e s i g n e d for learners of all countries a n d are b a s e d on a kind of immersion in the target language that i n c l u d e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of mimetic learning. L e a r n e r s are s u p p l i e d with e n o u g h "native" s p e e c h patterns a n d s o c i a l practices to e n a b l e them ostensibly to function appropriately within a n unfamiliar society a n d to e a s e their integration into that society. H o w e v e r , t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s do not generally e n c o u r a g e learners to question t h o s e practices or to try to understand their s o c i a l a n d historical contexts. F o r instance, practical, skill-oriented t a s k s s u c h a s ordering a m e a l , or a s k i n g for directions, do little to reveal the subtle, more intricate v a g a r i e s of s o c i a l contexts that m a k e s o c i a l interaction s o o p e n to interpretation - a n d contradiction. Indeed, following K r a m s c h ' s point, c o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s tend to overlook the potential for s p e a k e r s to be s i l e n c e d within l a n g u a g e c o m m u n i t i e s . P r o c e e d i n g from the standpoint of s o c i a l c o n s e n s u s , c o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s do not a d d r e s s the conflict, or e v e n the ever-present possibility for m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , that c a n arise from cultural diversity a n d difference.  16  B o n n y N o r t o n , Identity and Language Learning: (London: P e a r s o n Education, 2000) 139. 1 5  Gender,  Ethnicity  and Educational  Change  C l a i r e K r a m s c h a n d L i n d a v o n H o e n e , " T h e D i a l o g i c E m e r g e n c e of D i f f e r e n c e : F e m i n i s t E x p l o r a t i o n s in F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e L e a r n i n g a n d T e a c h i n g , " in Rethinking the Disciplines: Feminism in the Academy, D. S t a n t o n a n d A . S t e w a r t e d s . ( A n n A r b o r : U n i v e r s i t y of M i c h i g a n P r e s s , 1995) 1 3 .  1 6  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  11  T h r o u g h the u s e of authentic l a n g u a g e a s material from which to learn, a n d through s u c h activities a s role-play a n d simulations, c o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s offer a n opportunity to learners to h a v e the e x p e r i e n c e of c o m m u n i c a t i n g in another l a n g u a g e in the c l a s s r o o m . Still, the e x p e r i e n c e of the c l a s s r o o m c a n n e v e r be more than a simulated version of using the l a n g u a g e in the target culture. M o r e o v e r , the primary f o c u s in m a n y p r o g r a m s r e m a i n s on the learner a c c u r a c y that c o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s do not foster. A value of institutionalized learning is the criterion of m e a s u r a b l e s u c c e s s . E d u c a t i o n a l e x c e l l e n c e is often e q u a t e d with a c h i e v i n g higher levels of cognitive k n o w l e d g e a s m e a s u r e d by s t a n d a r d i z e d test s c o r e s . In the c a s e of l a n g u a g e proficiency, results m a y be too strongly affected by the testing m e t h o d . T h e y d o not reflect what a subject c a n do in the local settings of a culture a n d they certainly do not meet the d e m a n d s of creativity a n d spontaneity required by that setting. In this respect, c l a s s r o o m e x p e r i e n c e m a y misrepresent l a n g u a g e u s e in the real world a n d the learners m a y be ill-served by c o m m u n i c a t i v e approaches. T h e y are ill-served at a time w h e n the role of l a n g u a g e study for s o c i a l a n d political realities h a s a n u n p r e c e d e n t e d relevance. T h e twentieth-century revolution in c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , the rise a n d p e r v a s i v e n e s s of m a s s m e d i a , m a s s tourism, a n d m a s s migration, h a v e s e r v e d to bring more p e o p l e s a n d cultures into contact with e a c h other m o r e often than e v e r before. With the advent of global markets a n d global information t e c h n o l o g i e s h a s c o m e a c o r r e s p o n d i n g n e e d to c o m m u n i c a t e a c r o s s nations a n d cultures. In order to b e c o m e a n a w a r e  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  12  citizen of this global community, individuals b e g a n to n e e d a n understanding not only of their own culture but a l s o of other cultures in the world. C o n s e q u e n t l y , s u c c e s s f u l c o m m u n i c a t i o n a c r o s s cultures h a s c o m e to be s e e n a s a n e w ideal for l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g . T h i s goal required m u c h more c o m p r e h e n s i v e i d e a s about l a n g u a g e acquisition, about l a n g u a g e p e d a g o g y , a n d about culture than previous a p p r o a c h e s .  S o m e of t h e s e w e r e identified by H . H . Stern in  " L a n g u a g e T e a c h i n g a n d the Universities in the 1 9 8 0 ' s . "  17  Stern e n v i s i o n e d  p r o g r a m s of l a n g u a g e study a s s u m i n g a leadership role at the forefront of scholarly inquiry a n d r e s e a r c h . T o realize this role, however, he c l a i m e d that l a n g u a g e teaching a n d learning had to be v i e w e d a s more than a n "ancillary skill."  18  T h e study of l a n g u a g e s h a d to b e c o m e the study not of " l a n g u a g e  a l o n e or l a n g u a g e a n d literature, but a knowledge of l a n g u a g e in relation to society a n d c u l t u r e . "  19  T h e recognition that l a n g u a g e proficiency cannot be e q u a t e d with cultural proficiency w a s a n important first impetus for c h a n g e . U n d e r s t a n d i n g a n unfamiliar culture a n d m a k i n g oneself understood in that culture requires more than the acquisition of t e c h n i c a l , linguistic skills. A c c o r d i n g to Lothar B r e d e l l a : "we s h o u l d not c o n c e i v e of cultural c o m p e t e n c e a s a skill a n a l o g o u s to linguistic c o m p e t e n c e which allows us to d e c i d e which s e n t e n c e is correct a n d which  H . H . S t e r n , " L a n g u a g e T e a c h i n g a n d the U n i v e r s i t i e s in the 1 9 8 0 ' s , " Die (1981): 2 1 2 - 2 2 5 . 1 7  1 8  Stern 218.  1 9  Stern 219.  Unterrichtspraxis  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  s e n t e n c e is w r o n g .  1  F o r B r e d e l l a , it w a s not e n o u g h to h a v e a c o m m a n d of  g r a m m a r a n d v o c a b u l a r y a n d to be able to construct grammatically correct s e n t e n c e s . If l a n g u a g e study were to m a k e a g e n u i n e contribution to posts e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , the e m p h a s i s h a d to shift a w a y from the i d e a of l a n g u a g e learning a s merely skills training. A more e d u c a t e d a w a r e n e s s w a s n e e d e d to c o n s i d e r the complexities, contradictions, a n d t e n d e n c i e s towards both intercultural understanding a n d m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Extracting a l a n g u a g e from its cultural whole in order to concentrate the learners' m i n d s on it h a s b e e n relatively standard practice within l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g ; however, this practice, too, required r e a s s e s s m e n t . Culture is not a d e t a c h a b l e attribute of l a n g u a g e . T o treat l a n g u a g e a s independent of the cultures from which it derives is to disregard the nature of both, l a n g u a g e a n d culture. C u l t u r e s are largely c o n t a i n e d a n d constituted in l a n g u a g e . L a n g u a g e e m b o d i e s the v a l u e s a n d m e a n i n g s of a culture, informs p e o p l e ' s cultural identity a n d s h a p e s cultural artifacts a n d practices. It is not surprising, therefore that applied linguists, e s p e c i a l l y r e s e a r c h e r s in sociolinguistics a n d pragmatics, b e g a n working with v i e w s of l a n g u a g e implicitly c o n n e c t e d with v i e w s of culture, with s o c i a l interaction a n d e v e n with i s s u e s like identity formation a n d the ' s e l f :  L o t h a r B r e d e l l a , " T h e S i g n i f i c a n c e of Intercultural U n d e r s t a n d i n g in the F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e C l a s s r o o m , " The Notion of Intercultural Understanding in the Context of German as a Foreign Language, T h e o H a r d e n a n d A r n d Witte e d s . ( B e r n : P e t e r L a n g A G , 2 0 0 0 ) 1 4 6 . 2 0  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  14  " W e a d d n e w d i m e n s i o n s to our S e l v e s ; w e e x p a n d , through u s e of the l a n g u a g e , our repertory of p o s s i b l e identities a n d w a y s of being h u m a n . "  21  A p p r o a c h e s to l a n g u a g e study which understand proficiency a s cultural c o m p e t e n c y , that is, a s k n o w l e d g e of other a n d self, c a n be s e e n a s potentially transforming identity - not just grammatical patterns. B y contrast, a p p r o a c h e s committed to a view of l a n g u a g e proficiency a s linguistic proficiency, tend to evaluate their s u c c e s s by c o m p a r i s o n to the native s p e a k e r . Not only d o e s s u c h a c o m p a r i s o n undermine the c o n f i d e n c e of learner a n d t e a c h e r alike, it e q u a t e s cultural c o m p e t e n c y with linguistic c o m p e t e n c y , a n d contributes to the idea that l a n g u a g e learning is a form of skills training. T h i s is not to d i s m i s s the c o m m o n s e n s e r e l e v a n c e a n d u s e f u l n e s s of learning another l a n g u a g e a s a skill, but if l a n g u a g e learning were to a d d r e s s the broader a i m s of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , the long-standing, undisputed ideal of native s p e a k e r proficiency h a d to be r e - a s s e s s e d a n d w a s r e - a s s e s s e d by C l a i r e K r a m s c h ; T h e t e a c h i n g a n d learning of foreign l a n g u a g e s h a s traditionally b e e n divided over p e d a g o g i c a l m e t h o d s , a p p r o a c h e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s b a s e d on powerful but no l e s s controversial theories a n d m o d e l s of l a n g u a g e acquisition, but it h a s not put in question its o n e c o m m o n g o a l : the attainment of a r e c o g n i z a b l e standard of n a t i v e - s p e a k e r c o m p e t e n c e . Indeed, it h a s a s s u m e d that it is p o s s i b l e , e v e n desirable, for learners to r e a c h that s t a n d a r d . 22  J a y L. L e m k e , "Multiple t i m e s c a l e s in the s o c i a l e c o l o g y of l e a r n i n g , " Language Acquisition and Language Socialization. Ecological Perspectives, Claire Kramsch, ed. (London: Continuum, 2002) 84. 2 1  C l a i r e K r a m s c h , " R e d r a w i n g the B o u n d a r i e s of F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e S t u d y , " M . K r u e g e r a n d F . R y a n e d s . , Language and Content: Discipline-Based Approaches to Language Study (Lexington, M a s s . : D . C . Heath & C o , 1992).  2 2  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  15  T o stop striving for the unattainable ideal of the native s p e a k e r immediately frees up the time n e e d e d to pursue other g o a l s a n d activities. T h i s d o e s not m e a n , however, that a n e w a p p r o a c h c a n disregard the field's p a r a m e t e r s of reference. It is n e c e s s a r y , for instance, to identify the broader educational a i m s of which a new a p p r o a c h will form a part, to establish the theoretical foundations upon which it will s t a n d , a n d to d e v i s e the forms of mediation through w h i c h it will be structured. Of t h e s e considerations, the e d u c a t i o n a l value of l a n g u a g e learning within e d u c a t i o n a s a whole is the first a r e a of inquiry.  1.2 Philosophies of Education Not e v e r y o n e a g r e e s either on the nature of learning generally or the g o a l s of education specifically, a n d it is not my p u r p o s e here to provide a c o m p l e t e inventory of positions. M y intent rather is to p l a c e l a n g u a g e study within the broader contemporary d i s c u s s i o n . I'll begin with the a p p r o a c h to e d u c a t i o n which c o n s i s t s primarily of learning to s o l v e p r o b l e m s . In this instance, the actual content of p e d a g o g y h a s little inherent value but rather r e c e i v e s its value w h e n it is brought to bear upon the resolution of a specific i s s u e or situation. T h e f o c u s is on utility a n d in m a n y c a s e s this is explicated in terms of learning h o w to deal with the environment. S u c h a n a p p r o a c h to learning is usually referred to a s pragmatic or instrumentalist a n d finds its c o n c r e t e e x p r e s s i o n in the model of the m o d e r n s c i e n c e s a n d their e m p h a s i s on  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  16  m e t h o d . In the c a s e of l a n g u a g e study, this a p p r o a c h would align with a n a p p r o a c h to l a n g u a g e acquisition a s skills acquisition. T h e r e are, of c o u r s e , t h o s e a p p r o a c h e s which characterize learning from a more humanistic standpoint. T w o generally a c k n o w l e d g e d p e d a g o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e s form the b a s i s for the d i s c u s s i o n : cultural literacy a n d critical thinking. Both of t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s reflect particular historical d e v e l o p m e n t s . With regard first to the contemporary d i s c u s s i o n of cultural literacy, it h a s b e e n f o c u s e d primarily upon the book of the s a m e title, p u b l i s h e d in 1987 by the A m e r i c a n e d u c a t o r E . D . H i r s c h . A c c o r d i n g to H i r s c h : "the b a s i c goal of e d u c a t i o n in a h u m a n community is acculturation, the t r a n s m i s s i o n to children of the specific information s h a r e d by the adults of the group or  polis."  23  A d e c a d e later, this goal continued to be affirmed not only in the United S t a t e s , but in C a n a d a a s well. In The Educated  Mind, K i e r e n E g a n d e s c r i b e d  cultural socialization a s the "first i d e a " of e d u c a t i o n : "Central to any e d u c a t i o n a l s c h e m e is initiation of the y o u n g into the knowledge, skills, v a l u e s , a n d c o m m i t m e n t s c o m m o n to the adult m e m b e r s of the s o c i e t y . "  24  It w a s most  recently reiterated by P a u l S m e y e r s : "Liberal e d u c a t i o n is c o n c e r n e d with the initiation of the learner into forms of thought a n d understanding w h i c h are part of the cultural h e r i t a g e . "  E . D . H i r s c h , Cultural Mifflin, 1 9 8 7 ) xvii.  2 3  2 4  25  Literacy:  K i e r a n E g a n , The Educated  What Every American  Mind. How Cognitive  T h e U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1997)  Needs  to Know ( B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n  Tools Shape  Our Understanding  P a u l S m e y e r s , " T h e O r i g i n : E d u c a t i o n , P h i l o s o p h y , a n d a W o r k of Art," Heidegger, and Modernity, e d . M i c h a e l A . P e t e r s ( O x f o r d : R o w a n & Littlefield P u b l i s h e r s , Inc.,  2 5  (Chicago:  10. Education  2002) 8 8 .  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  17  E d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s s u c h a s those e x p r e s s e d a b o v e are b a s e d on the p r e m i s e that o n e cannot get along in o n e ' s s o c i a l , political a n d cultural world without first p o s s e s s i n g the c o n c e p t s that constitute literacy for that world. T h i s a p p r o a c h h a s hermeneutical support a s well. It w a s the view of Friedrich S c h l e i e r m a c h e r , the G e r m a n " F a t h e r of H e r m e n e u t i c s " that education s e r v e s a s the m e a n s by w h i c h the cultural traditions of a society or nation c o u l d be p a s s e d on to the next g e n e r a t i o n .  26  F o r S c h l e i e r m a c h e r , to be culturally literate m e a n s  to p o s s e s s the n e c e s s a r y information n e e d e d to function a n d preferably thrive within a given culture a n d to c o m m u n i c a t e effectively with other m e m b e r s of that culture. D e s p i t e the c o n s i d e r a b l e support that this a p p r o a c h enjoys, e d u c a t o r s h a v e not failed to recognize s o m e of its inherent contradictions. c o m p r e h e n s i v e work entitled Rethinking  University  Teaching,  In her  D i a n a Laurillard  refers to o n e of t h e s e contradictions a s "the paradox" of the teaching profession: " W e want all our students to learn the s a m e thing, yet we want e a c h to m a k e it their o w n . "  2 7  C l a i r e K r a m s c h a c k n o w l e d g e s the n e c e s s i t y of s u c h a program a n d  points out a "paradoxical d i l e m m a " of all p e d a g o g i c a l s y s t e m s w h i c h must "both s o c i a l i z e learners into the social order a n d give t h e m the m e a n s to c h a n g e that order."  28  F r i e d r i c h S c h l e i e r m a c h e r , Sammtliche Werke, Part 3 , v o l . 9, " Z u r P a d a g o g i k , " p. 4 0 ; cited in S h a u n G a l l a g h e r , Hermeneutics and Education ( A l b a n y : S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y of N e w Y o r k P r e s s , 1992) 2 1 3 . 2 6  D i a n a L a u r i l l a r d , Rethinking University Teaching. A Framework Educational Technology ( N e w Y o r k : R o u t l e d g e , 1993) 3.  2 7  2 8  K r a m s c h , Context  and Culture  in Language  Teaching,  236.  for the Effective  Use of  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  18  Certainly o n e of the most c o m p r e h e n s i v e critiques of the a p p r o a c h of cultural reproduction within education is that of Pierre B o u r d i e u a n d J e a n C l a u d e P a s s e r o n in their study of the F r e n c h educational s y s t e m , in Education,  Society  and Culture.  Reproduction  T h e c o n c l u s i o n s of B o u r d i e u a n d P a s s e r o n  are b a s e d on empirical studies which s h o w c o m p l e x interactions between certain s o c i a l factors (race, c l a s s , gender) a n d factors of educational s u c c e s s . C o n s i s t e n t with the cultural literacy a p p r o a c h , B o u r d i e u a n d P a s s e r o n identify the t r a n s m i s s i o n of cultural a n d s o c i a l structures a s the "essential function of education."  29  Indeed, for B o u r d i e u a n d P a s s e r o n , p e d a g o g i c action o p e r a t e s a s  the "chief instrument of the transubstantiation of power relations into legitimate authority."  30  H o w a society s e l e c t s , c l a s s i f i e s , transmits a n d e v a l u a t e s  e d u c a t i o n a l k n o w l e d g e reflects both the distribution of p o w e r a n d the principles of s o c i a l control within that society. In other w o r d s , the e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m transmits the constraints of the dominant s o c i a l order through the e d u c a t i o n a l experience. T h e educational theory of cultural literacy a s p r e s e n t e d by B o u r d i e u a n d P a s s e r o n l e a v e s little opportunity for c h a n g e within the e d u c a t i o n a l context. W h a t gets r e p r o d u c e d in e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e is the dominant culture. T h e s o c i a l order a n d its individual citizens are determined in a p r o c e s s that p r e c l u d e s a n y possibility of the self-creation or s o c i a l transformation that  P i e r r e B o u r d i e u a n d J e a n - C l a u d e P a s s e r o n , Reproduction t r a n s . R i c h a r d N i c e ( L o n d o n : S a g e , 1 9 7 7 ) xiii. 2 9  3 0  Bourdieu and P a s s e r o n 15.  in Education,  Society  and  Culture,  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  19  Laurillard a n d K r a m s c h claim a s a n e c e s s a r y a n d inevitable d i m e n s i o n of pedagogy. E d u c a t o r s like Laurillard a n d K r a m s c h , w h o dispute this strictly deterministic c o n c e p t i o n of p e d a g o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , usually e m p h a s i z e instead the acquisition of thinking skills, specifically, 'critical' thinking skills a s the goal of p e d a g o g y . In a p p r o a c h e s promoting critical thinking there is a clear e m p h a s i s on m e t h o d rather than content, a n d on the acquisition of transferable skills rather than the t r a n s m i s s i o n of information. Critical thinking c l a i m s to effect a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i s c o n n e c t i o n from ideological standpoints a n d thus to e s c a p e political or s o c i a l interests. T h r o u g h critical thinking, the legitimacy of a n y ideology m a y be c h a l l e n g e d , either on the b a s i s of its o w n s t a n d a r d s or a c c o r d i n g to s t a n d a r d s of an ostensibly neutral rationality. In Educating  Reason:  Rationality,  Critical  Thinking,  and  Education,  H a r v e y S i e g e l a r g u e s for the ideological neutrality of critical thinking. H e c o n c e i v e s of critical thinking a s a pure, instrumental rationality prior to a n d independent of any ideological c o m m i t m e n t or p r e j u d i c e .  31  Yet even Siegel  admits that r e a s o n is e m b e d d e d in particular traditions: . . . rationality cannot be taken simply a s a n abstract a n d g e n e r a l idea. It is e m b o d i e d in multiple evolving traditions, in which the b a s i c c o n n e c t i o n holds that i s s u e s are resolved by reference to r e a s o n s , t h e m s e l v e s defined by principles purporting to be impartial a n d u n i v e r s a l . 32  H a r v e y S i e g e l , Educating Routledge, 1988) 59-60.  3 1  3 2  Siegel 74-75.  Reason:  Rationality,  Cntical  Thinking,  and Education  (New York:  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  20  H e r e w e are confronted by a fundamental philosophical problem c o n c e r n i n g the nature of rationality. T h i s problem forms the b a s i s for hermeneutical reservations regarding the privileged status a c c o r d e d to critical thinking.  If rationality a l w a y s functions under the influence of particular  traditions, d o e s not s u c h influence limit the claim for objectivity in critical thinking? W e will c o n s i d e r this question a g a i n , a s well a s the question c o n c e r n i n g cultural reproduction, within the hermeneutical context depicted in the following section of this chapter. Cultural literacy a n d critical thinking are generally understood a s representing two differing a p p r o a c h e s to learning, e a c h determining h o w p e d a g o g i c a l p r o g r a m s will be carried out. T h e two a p p r o a c h e s a p p e a r to be in a g r e e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g the p u r p o s e of e d u c a t i o n ; that is, both aspire to prepare the learner to live in our m o d e r n , technologically oriented world - they just d i s a g r e e about h o w to d o it. With this a s our point of departure, w e will look at a further p a r a d i g m that incorporates both a p p r o a c h e s . In "Intercultural P e d a g o g y : F o u n d a t i o n s a n d Principles," M i c h e l e Borrelli o b s e r v e s that traditional p e d a g o g i c a l p a r a d i g m s valuing the ideal of a "cultural literacy" were d e v e l o p i n g s i d e by side with others promoting what he referred to a s a n "intercultural" paradigm of l i t e r a c y .  33  Borrelli maintains that, b e c a u s e the  c o n v e n t i o n a l "cultural literacy" a p p r o a c h e s are "nationally-oriented p e d a g o g i e s , "  M i c h e l e Borrelli, "Intercultural P e d a g o g y : F o u n d a t i o n s a n d P r i n c i p l e s , " Mediating Languages and Cultures: Towards an Intercultural Theory of Foreign Language Education ( C l e v e d o n : Multilingual M a t t e r s L t d . , 1990) 2 7 3 - 2 8 6 . 3 3  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  they are basically "racist-oriented  21  a n d therefore not consistent with the  m a n d a t e of all e d u c a t i o n : E d u c a t i o n strives for humanity in two different w a y s , o n e being a n individual act of liberation towards oneself, the other a s a collective act of liberation t o w a r d s the societal w h o l e . . . 3 5  A c c o r d i n g to Borrelli, what distinguishes the cultural educational p a r a d i g m from the intercultural a n d m a k e s the latter preferable, is its e m a n c i p a t o r y function for all of h u m a n k i n d . T h e educational theorist S h a u n G a l l a g h e r a g r e e s with Borrelli that the "ideal educational situation" is o n e w h i c h m a y be c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s "productive of self-understanding a n d responsibility a n d involving a n ethical d i m e n s i o n defined in terms of f r e e d o m or a u t o n o m y . "  36  T h e viewpoints of Borrelli a n d G a l l a g h e r are e c h o e d by those of M a n u e l a G u i l h e r m e : "our multicultural s o c i e t i e s are in great n e e d of citizens p r e p a r e d to interact a c r o s s cultures with the revitalization of the democratic society in mind."  37  T o e m p h a s i z e s u c h g o a l s m a y be s e e n a g a i n a s a reflection of the everincreasing globalization of e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l a n d political life.  It c a n be  attributed to the fact that most of the problems that c o n c e r n h u m a n k i n d call for s o m e form of intercultural c o o p e r a t i o n : the protection of the environment, the m a i n t e n a n c e of h u m a n health, the d e v e l o p m e n t of a world e c o n o m y a n d , of  3 4  Borrelli 2 8 1 .  3 5  Borrelli 2 8 2 .  3 6  Shaun Gallagher 259-260.  M a n u e l a G u i l h e r m e , Critical Citizens for an Intercultural World. Foreign as Cultural Politics ( C l e v e d o n : M u l t i l i n g u a l M a t t e r s L t d , 2 0 0 2 ) 1 6 7 . 3 7  Language  Education  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  22  c o u r s e , the accessibility of education.  It is e s p e c i a l l y true of the most  fundamental problem the world f a c e s , that of ensuring p e a c e : Increased contact with other cultures . . . m a k e s it imperative for us to m a k e a c o n c e r t e d effort to get along with a n d understand other people w h o are vastly different from o u r s e l v e s . T h e ability, through i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s a n d understanding, to coexist peacefully with people w h o d o not n e c e s s a r i l y s h a r e our b a c k g r o u n d s , beliefs, v a l u e s or life styles c a n not only benefit us in our own n e i g h b o r h o o d s but c a n a l s o be a d e c i s i v e factor in forestalling n u c l e a r a n n i h i l a t i o n s . 38  At times of threatening global c r i s e s on the o n e h a n d a n d shifting political b o u n d a r i e s o n the other, intercultural objectives of tolerance a n d understanding are b e c o m i n g more important every day - all of which brings us back to l a n g u a g e study a n d its role within this setting. H o w consistent are the objectives of l a n g u a g e study with t h o s e of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n ? A c c o r d i n g to C l a i r e K r a m s c h : "The n e w directions in the study of foreign l a n g u a g e s . . . stem from a desire to recapture the e s s e n t i a l r e l e v a n c e of foreign l a n g u a g e s a n d all a s p e c t s of foreign cultures to international p e a c e a n d understanding."  39  J o r g R o c h e identifies tolerance, e m p a t h y a n d understanding  a s "the u n c h a l l e n g e d a n d generic g o a l s of l a n g u a g e instruction."  40  T h i s is  affirmed by G e o r g e F. P e t e r s , w h o c l a i m s that "the g o a l s of racial a n d ethnic tolerance are inherent in what w e d o . "  41  T h e link of l a n g u a g e p e d a g o g y to the  L a r r y A . S a m o v a r a n d R i c h a r d E . P o r t e r , Intercultural W a d s w o r t h P u b . C o . , 1997) 1. 3 8  Communication:  A Reader  C l a i r e K r a m s c h , " N e w D i r e c t i o n s in the S t u d y of F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e s , " ADFL No.1 (Fall 1 9 8 9 ) 9. 3 9  4 0  J o r g R o c h e , Interkulturelle  Sprachdidaktik.  Eine Einfuhrung  4 1  G e o r g e F. P e t e r s , " D i l e m m a s of Diversity," ADFL  Bulletin,  (Belmont:  Bulletin,  Vol.21,  (Tubingen: Narr, 2001) 114. V o l . 2 5 , N o . 2 (Winter 1 9 9 4 ) : 5 .  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  23  c o n c e p t of a "global e d u c a t i o n " is affirmed by A z a d e S e y h a n in her assertion that "foreign l a n g u a g e study is central to a globally c o n c e i v e d international education."  42  G e r h a r d N e u n e r is c o n v i n c e d that l a n g u a g e e d u c a t o r s c a n do  m u c h to contribute to " a world free of power, s u p p r e s s i o n a n d violence w h e r e mutual understanding a n d living together in friendliness a n d p e a c e c a n be realized."  43  C o n v e n t i o n a l w i s d o m within the field holds that learning another l a n g u a g e constitutes a form of e m a n c i p a t i o n , a freeing of learners from the c o n f i n e s of their c u s t o m a r y w a y s of thinking a n d being. T h i s i d e a w a s confirmed by A l a n C . Frantz in a questionnaire on the value of l a n g u a g e s t u d y .  44  T h e questionnaire  w a s initially c o m p r i s e d of a list, in no particular order, of fifteen v a l u e s taken from recent b o o k s a n d articles published in the United S t a t e s on l a n g u a g e e d u c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to the over three hundred s c h o l a r s w h o r e s p o n d e d to the questionnaire, the primary value of l a n g u a g e study is that it "liberalizes o n e ' s e x p e r i e n c e (helps e x p a n d o n e ' s view of the w o r l d ) . "  45  T h e s e results w e r e more  recently affirmed by Lothar B r e d e l l a : " S u c h a c o n c e p t of l a n g u a g e implies that foreign l a n g u a g e learning is a n educational p r o c e s s : w e acquire a new world view in learning a n e w l a n g u a g e a n d b e c o m e a w a r e of the relativity of our o w n  A z a d e S e y h a n , " L a n g u a g e a n d Literary S t u d y a s C u l t u r a l C r i t i c i s m , " ADFL N o . 2 (Winter 1995) 9.  4 2  Bulletin,  Vol.26,  G e r h a r d N e u n e r , " S o c i o - c u l t u r a l Interim W o r l d s in F o r e i g n l a n g u a g e T e a c h i n g a n d L e a r n i n g . " Intercultural Competence, e d . M i c h a e l B y r a m ( S t r a s b o u r g : C o u n c i l of E u r o p e , 2 0 0 3 ) 5 7 .  4 3  A l a n C . F r a n t z , " S e v e n t e e n V a l u e s of F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e S t u d y , " ADFL (Fall 1 9 9 6 ) 4 4 - 4 9 .  4 4  4 5  Frantz 45.  Bulletin,  V o l . 2 8 , No.1  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  world v i e w . "  4b  24  T h e field of l a n g u a g e study thus affirms a n d e n d o r s e s the  e d u c a t i o n a l a i m s of a n intercultural, global a p p r o a c h to e d u c a t i o n : the individual's p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e m a n c i p a t i o n extrapolated to the s o c i a l whole.  1.3 Intercultural Approaches within Language Study T h e a b o v e points notwithstanding, neither intercultural p a r a d i g m s of e d u c a t i o n generally, nor t h o s e of l a n g u a g e education specifically, constitute a uniform set of theories or g o a l s . In the c a s e of l a n g u a g e study, this contrasts with previous a p p r o a c h e s which did h a v e a generally a g r e e d - u p o n a n d welldefined g o a l : native s p e a k e r proficiency.  But if the ideal of the fluent s p e a k e r  comfortable in most l a n g u a g e situations h a s b e e n c l e a r to l a n g u a g e learners, a c o r r e s p o n d i n g ideal is not s o c l e a r to culture learners. A r e learners culturally proficient, for instance, w h e n they act, voluntarily or u n c o n s c i o u s l y , in a w a y that m a k e s t h e m indistinguishable from m e m b e r s of the c o m m u n i t y ? S u c h a n ideal would be akin to that of native s p e a k e r proficiency, but d o e s that m a k e it either desirable or appropriate? Certainly, learning to s p e a k a l a n g u a g e without thinking about grammatical descriptions or v o c a b u l a r y lists is not the s a m e a s learning about a culture a n d practicing that culture without thinking. T h e lack of clearly identified a n d generally a c c e p t e d g o a l s distinguishes intercultural a p p r o a c h e s from previous o n e s . T h i s , in turn, contributes to a continuing d e b a t e over appropriate forms of mediation. In regard to the  Bredella 148.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  25  t r a n s m i s s i o n of culture, for e x a m p l e , it h a d generally b e e n a s s u m e d that l a n g u a g e learning w o u l d lead to s o m e kind of cultural learning automatically or incidentally. A s w a s noted previously, however, cultural c o m p e t e n c e is not a n automatic c o n s e q u e n c e of l a n g u a g e ability, s u c h that "the integration of culture a n d l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g remains a c h a l l e n g e . "  47  It is evidently p o s s i b l e to acquire  a l a n g u a g e through simulation, to learn the forms a n d w o r d s a n d play at s p e a k i n g it, but the p r e s e n c e of a s p e e c h community c a n invalidate that kind of k n o w l e d g e . T h e learning of a l a n g u a g e will likely result in s o m e form of culture learning, but s u c h learning will not be inevitable, let a l o n e useful or relevant. All of this is not to claim that previous a p p r o a c h e s have n e v e r undertaken the methodical t r a n s m i s s i o n of the cultures of other l a n g u a g e s . In the g r a m m a r translation m e t h o d , l a n g u a g e learning w a s regarded a s intimately c o n n e c t e d to culture; however, the c o n c e p t w a s understood very differently from today. T h e texts of the target l a n g u a g e w e r e s e l e c t e d in a c c o r d a n c e with a definition of 'high culture' that a s s e s s e d their status a s e x e m p l a r y a n d v a l u a b l e historical artifacts. T h e r e w a s a l s o the notion that literature, though not the only manifestation of culture, w a s linguistically the most important o n e  4 8  T h e audio-lingual method took a very different a p p r o a c h to culture. With the e m p h a s i s on g r a m m a r a n d pattern drills, the texts u s e d for instruction were neither literary nor historical, but highly didactic a n d artificial. Cultural  4 7  A l i c e O m a g g i o H a d l e y , Teaching  Language  in Context.  3  r d  E d . (Boston: Heinle & Heinle,  2001)346. T h e o H a r d e n , The Notion of Intercultural Understanding in the Context of German as a Foreign Language, T h e o H a r d e n a n d A r n d Witte e d s . (Bern: Peter L a n g A G , 2000) 10.  4 8  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  26  information w a s included, but derived implicitly from the context of highly contrived, e v e r y d a y s p e e c h acts. C o m m u n i c a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s e x t e n d e d the role of culture within l a n g u a g e learning b e y o n d mere contextual k n o w l e d g e a n d explicitly integrate cultural information within communicatively oriented textbooks. Within the G e r m a n context this form of inclusion o c c u r s under the rubric of " L a n d e s k u n d e " or "Kulturkunde". It is a n a l o g o u s to the "4-F A p p r o a c h " c h a r a c t e r i z e d by G a l l o w a y : folk d a n c e s , festivals, fairs, a n d f o o d .  4 9  T h i s a p p r o a c h c o n s i s t s primarily in the  depiction of straightforward historical or g e o g r a p h i c a l information a n d the description of typical events a n d activities. In the context of intercultural language t e a c h i n g , however, simply d e s c r i b i n g the various a n d sundry details of daily life in the unfamiliar culture is insufficient.  S u c h a description r e d u c e s the other culture to a compilation of  facts. M o r e o v e r , the s e p a r a t e treatment of culture implies that l a n g u a g e a n d culture exist independently. E v e n where the c o n c e p t of " L a n d e s k u n d e " h a s b e e n e x p a n d e d to include comparative studies b e t w e e n the target a n d native cultures, s u c h a n a p p r o a c h is insufficient. T h i s is b e c a u s e s u c h studies generally involve the "benign" c o m p a r i s o n of apparently similar p h e n o m e n a in the respective cultures. S u c h c o m p a r i s o n s tend simply to affirm the status quo  4 9  V i c k i G a l l o w a y , " A D e s i g n for the I m p r o v e m e n t of the T e a c h i n g of C u l t u r e in F o r e i g n  L a n g u a g e C l a s s r o o m s " A C T F L project p r o p o s a l , 1 9 8 5 ; c i t e d in O m a g g i o H a d l e y , 3 4 8 .  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  27  in both cultures, reducing inquiry to what T o d o r o v h a s d e n o u n c e d a s : "the paralyzing banality of positive feelings" (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) .  50  At this point we n e e d to r e c o n s i d e r the role of critical thinking. F o r if intercultural a p p r o a c h e s to p e d a g o g y are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by their emancipatory p u r p o s e , then, a c c o r d i n g to Borrelli, structured c o m p a r a t i v e study between cultures must incorporate t e c h n i q u e s that e n h a n c e critical reflection: "in order to minimalize cultural affirmation . . . w e n e e d a critical, self-reflecting intercultural approach."  51  T h u s , the intercultural a p p r o a c h to education puts h e a v y e m p h a s i s  on critical thinking. W e h a v e already e n c o u n t e r e d s o m e of the s h o r t c o m i n g s of critical thinking within theories of education generally. H o w are t h e s e s h o r t c o m i n g s a d d r e s s e d within the specific context of a n intercultural a p p r o a c h to l a n g u a g e learning? Critical thinking a s a m o d e l of reflection is usually aligned with the notion of getting a critical d i s t a n c e from those things that are being interrogated.  In  order to view cultural forms objectively, for e x a m p l e , w e must reflectively d i s t a n c e o u r s e l v e s from them in our a n a l y s i s . A s w a s noted in the previous reference to hermeneutical constraints, however, this distancing c a n never be a b s o l u t e or c o m p l e t e . In the c a s e of l a n g u a g e study, it might s e e m that w e actually h a v e a n a s p e c t of the a p p r o a c h that is i n d e e d implicit. L e a r n e r s are implicitly e n d o w e d with the required distance by virtue of their position outside of a n unfamiliar  "la banalisation paralysante d e s bons sentiments," Pierre Todorov, " L e C r o i s e m e n t d e s c u l t u r e s , " Communications, N o . 4 3 , 1 9 8 6 , 7. 5 0  5 1  Borrelli 2 8 5 .  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  28  culture. P r o p o n e n t s of the a p p r o a c h caution, however, that this is not a d e q u a t e . K r a m s c h , for e x a m p l e , insists that learners must be m o v e d to a position from w h i c h they c a n view not only the other unfamiliar culture but their own familiar culture a s well, from the outside, from a d i s t a n c e .  52  In other w o r d s , learners  s h o u l d e x p e r i e n c e their o w n culture a s s o m e t h i n g 'other' rather than a n e s s e n t i a l center or n o r m . A n y t h i n g l e s s would c o n d e m n learners to remaining firmly c e n t e r e d in their o w n culture, judging the other culture by native s t a n d a r d s , a n d e x p e r i e n c i n g the unfamiliar culture from little m o r e than a tourist's p e r s p e c t i v e . Ethnocentric v i e w s of what is natural a n d normal would be reinforced a n d nothing would hinder a retreat into the simplistic "cultural affirmation" of w h i c h Borrelli w a r n s . S u c h a d e c e n t e r i n g of learners from their o w n culture is certainly not s o m e t h i n g that h a p p e n s incidentally. Efforts must be directed at bringing the learner to this kind of e x p e r i e n c e . A generally a g r e e d - u p o n first step, o n e that s e e m s almost implicit to a n a p p r o a c h calling itself "/>7te/cultural," is to m o v e the learner outside  their own culture by m o v i n g them into the other culture, at least  initially, in that culture's own terms. In other w o r d s , the learner must attain an understanding of the attitudes, b e h a v i o u r s , artifacts a n d institutions of the p e o p l e in another culture, in terms of the culturally a g r e e d - u p o n m e a n i n g s w h i c h they e m b o d y for t h e m . In this way, a learner is e n d o w e d with m o r e than just a superficial, or outsider's familiarity with the p e o p l e of another culture. M o r e o v e r ,  K r a m s c h , Context  and Culture  in Language  Teaching,  210.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  29  it is only in this w a y that the nature of the intimate relationship between a l a n g u a g e a n d the culture it e m b o d i e s c a n be a p p r e c i a t e d .  53  T h e p r o c e s s of regarding a n d questioning o n e ' s own culture from without a n d participating in a n d e x p e r i e n c i n g the unfamiliar culture from within c h a r a c t e r i z e s most c o n t e m p o r a r y a p p r o a c h e s to intercultural l a n g u a g e study. T h e p r e v a l e n c e of this p r o c e s s h a s not, however, s e r v e d to s t a n d a r d i z e the plethora of m e t h o d s a n d t e c h n i q u e s that represent t h e m s e l v e s a s "intercultural." F o r t e a c h e r s of G e r m a n s e e k i n g to legitimate their m e t h o d s within an institutional setting, this selection h a s not b e e n helpful: T h e r e is no dearth of s u g g e s t e d a p p r o a c h e s for the t e a c h i n g of culture (e.g. Bernhardt a n d B e r m a n ; D e C a p u a a n d Wintergerst; G a l l o w a y ; Heusinkveld; Lange and Paige; Peters; Savignon and Sysoyev). H o w e v e r , p e d a g o g i c a l strategies are neither guided by c o m m o n theoretical constraints, nor by c o m m o n learning o b j e c t i v e s . . . 54  T h e question of the theoretical b a s i s upon which intercultural l a n g u a g e study might be g r o u n d e d at the institutional level is a n important o n e . T h e alignment with a "parent discipline" h a s significant bearing not only upon the m e a n s u s e d to realize particular a i m s , but a l s o upon c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of appropriate content a n d the mediation a n d presentation of that content. L a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g , insofar a s it h a s b e e n regarded a s the t e a c h i n g of g r a m m a r , syntax, phonology, etc. h a s traditionally l o o k e d to linguistics for its  5 3  K r a m s c h , Context  and Culture  in Language  Teaching,  233-234.  S c h u l z , L a l a n d e , D y k s t r a - P r u i m , Z i m m e r - L o e w , a n d J a m e s , "In P u r s u i t of C u l t u r a l C o m p e t e n c e in t h e G e r m a n L a n g u a g e C l a s s r o o m , " Die Unterrichtspraxis (2005): 1 7 7 . 5 4  No. 38.2,  30  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  theoretical a n d methodological grounding.  H o w e v e r , the interactions b e t w e e n  t e a c h i n g l a n g u a g e s a s a practical activity a n d the theoretical d e v e l o p m e n t s in the l a n g u a g e s c i e n c e s w e r e r e c o g n i z e d a s l e s s s i m p l e a n d straightforward than they h a d at first a p p e a r e d . A n u m b e r of s c h o l a r s c a m e to the c o n c l u s i o n that applied linguistics a s a mediating discipline b e t w e e n theoretical d e v e l o p m e n t s in the l a n g u a g e s c i e n c e s a n d the practice of language t e a c h i n g might lead to a more effective interaction. A few influential writers e x p r e s s e d this viewpoint, a s for e x a m p l e , Halliday, M c i n t o s h , a n d S t r e v e n s in The Linguistic Language  Teaching,  1964; W . F . M a c k e y , Language  a n d S . P . C o r d e r , Introducing  Applied  Linguistics^973.  Teaching  Sciences Analysis,  and 1965;  At the s a m e time this  group of s c h o l a r s w a r n e d that the role of applied linguistics, although important in s o m e specific a r e a s , w a s limited in others. F o r instance, B o u r d i e u a r g u e s that the linguist h a s only a n abstract notion of linguistic c o m p e t e n c e that d o e s not a d d r e s s real situations: "The linguist regards the conditions for the establishment of c o m m u n i c a t i o n a s already s e c u r e d , w h e r e a s , in real situations, that is the e s s e n t i a l q u e s t i o n . "  56  B o u r d i e u c l a i m s that the a p p r o a c h of the  linguist is c o m p r o m i s e d by the failure to take s u c h critical factors a s the prevailing political, e c o n o m i c a n d other s o c i a l realities into account. Increasing a w a r e n e s s of the s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s of l a n g u a g e h a s called for forms of a n a l y s i s able to a c c o u n t for socially specific u s e s of l a n g u a g e , for l a n g u a g e in action a s c o m m u n i c a t i o n . S o c i o - a n d psycholinguistics h a v e ,  Stern 247-9. Bourdieu and Passeron 648.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  31  therefore, b e c o m e a n important extension of the linguistic disciplines to which l a n g u a g e p e d a g o g y turns. In the literature on l a n g u a g e p e d a g o g y of the previous d e c a d e are references to A u s t i n , S e a r l e , H y m e s a n d Halliday. In G e r m a n y it is the work of J u r g e n H a b e r m a s that h a s b e e n u s e d a s a theoretical b a s i s . W e will look at the contribution of H a b e r m a s in the following section on hermeneutics. In addition to the s o c i a l m e a n i n g s carried by the functions of l a n g u a g e , it h a s b e e n a r g u e d a b o v e that l a n g u a g e e m b o d i e s the v a l u e s , artifacts a n d institutions of a culture. In order to understand t h e s e culturally specific realizations of referential m e a n i n g , a form of a n a l y s i s is required that allows for a combination of socio-linguistics with cultural a n d intercultural a n a l y s i s . In other w o r d s , the e x p a n d e d m a n d a t e of foreign l a n g u a g e didactics d e m a n d s a n e x p a n s i o n of the field's horizons. T h e epistemologically-oriented s o c i a l s c i e n c e s to which it h a s traditionally turned n e e d to be s u p p l e m e n t e d by more interpretively-oriented disciplines adept at the a n a l y s i s a n d explication of culturally constituted m e a n i n g s .  57  H e r e w e h a v e the entry of h e r m e n e u t i c s a s a relevant discipline a n d in this regard, it h a s b e e n the hermeneutical a p p r o a c h of H a n s - G e o r g G a d a m e r , the contemporary " F a t h e r of H e r m e n e u t i c s , " which h a s s e r v e d a s the primary theoretical frame of reference. In his article "Identity or Alterity: A m e r i c a n G e r m a n i s t i k a n d H e r m e n e u t i c s , " H . - J . S c h u l z a c k n o w l e d g e s the "positive theoretical i m p u l s e s of G a d a m e r ' s h e r m e n e u t i c s for the practice a n d description  Stern 259.  32  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  of intercultural hermeneutics.  S c h u l z n e v e r t h e l e s s c l a i m s that G a d a m e r ' s  h e r m e n e u t i c s h a s "influenced the d e v e l o p m e n t of a theory of intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s primarily by negative e x a m p l e . "  59  A d i s c u s s i o n of G a d a m e r ' s  hermeneutical philosophy, its role in the s e a r c h for an intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s , a n d its a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s a s a point of departure for s u c h a h e r m e n e u t i c s , follows in the next section of this chapter. That contemporary l a n g u a g e study finds itself looking m u c h further afield than previously, derives primarily from its own efforts to redefine itself, but it is also a reflection in part of the ideological tenor of our time. T h e interest in critical theory, c o u p l e d with the intense attention of post-structuralist a n d postmodernist theories to l a n g u a g e , supports efforts to link up l a n g u a g e study to other fields of inquiry in the a c a d e m i c community. T h e s e efforts derive in turn from c h a n g e s in the perceptions a n d attitudes toward all disciplines or fields of study. In particular, the e x c l u s i v e validity of e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l forms of k n o w l e d g e is being q u e s t i o n e d a n d alternative explanations for m a n y p h e n o m e n a are being sought. T h e present intellectual ethos, thus, e n c o u r a g e s a n d supports the m o v e on the part of l a n g u a g e study to b r o a d e n its disciplinary b a s e . T h e e x p a n d e d m a n d a t e of l a n g u a g e study, its attempts to redefine itself a n d its efforts to s e e k n e w a l l i a n c e s within the intellectual community, b e a r witness to the vibrancy a n d d y n a m i s m of the field. Y e t despite the interest a n d  H . - J . S c h u l z , "Identity or Alterity: A m e r i c a n G e r m a n i s t i k a n d H e r m e n e u t i c s , " Challenges of Germanistik: Traditions and prospects of an academic discipline, e d . Eitel T i m m , ( M u n c h e n : l u d i c i u m , 1992) 9.  S 8  S c h u l z 9.  33  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  e n t h u s i a s m , despite the wide range of writings a n d scholarly sophistication of the r e s e a r c h , despite the recognition of s h a r e d p u r p o s e s a n d attempts at a c a d e m i c alliance-building, the innovative a d v a n c e s of the previous d e c a d e s only rarely found their w a y into the c l a s s r o o m . In 1993 K r a m s c h o b s e r v e d : G e r m a n l a n g u a g e study today still reflects a c o n c e r n with individual p e r f o r m a n c e a n d formal mastery of grammar, syntax a n d v o c a b u l a r y , a n d , despite rhetorical c l a i m s to the contrary, it ignores the dialogic, interactional a n d sociocultural d i m e n s i o n s of l a n g u a g e . . . 60  T h e r e are a n u m b e r of p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s why progressive theories w e r e not being i m p l e m e n t e d in practice. A first r e a s o n is that they a p p e a r s o daunting. A d v o c a t e s a n d theorists draw on a m u c h wider range of scholarly expertise than t h o s e in which l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r s h a v e e x p e r i e n c e , or to which they are usually e x p o s e d . Practical expertise h a s to catch up with theoretical sophistication. A s e c o n d r e a s o n is that teaching a n d learning practices in the c l a s s r o o m are at least in part a function of available materials. T h e s e tend to lag behind theoretical a d v a n c e s . Finally, the practicalities of l a n g u a g e learning cannot be understood apart from the institutional context of e d u c a t i o n generally. Institutional forms a n d prerogatives will determine p e d a g o g i c priorities a n d pragmatics. A c c o r d i n g to D i a n a Laurillard this a p p l i e s e s p e c i a l l y to posts e c o n d a r y institutions, w h e r e "the university o p e r a t e s a c o m p l e x s y s t e m of departments, curricula, t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s , support facilities, timetables, a s s e s s m e n t - all of which determine the possible w a y s in which students m a y  Claire K r a m s c h , " L a n g u a g e G a m e s ; Social Linguistic Perspectives on G e r m a n Studies," G S A C o n f e r e n c e , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , 12 O c t o b e r 1 9 9 7 . 6 0  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  learn."  bl  34  T h e g a p b e t w e e n theoretical a n d practical expertise, the availability of  materials, a n d institutionally i m p o s e d constraints are all r e a s o n s why progressive theories e m e r g i n g from r e s e a r c h were not influencing actual practice in the c l a s s r o o m . It is important to note, however, that the a b o v e - n o t e d h i n d r a n c e s to implementation are not specific to intercultural p e d a g o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e s . S u c h i m p e d i m e n t s are generally prevalent a n d s h a r e d to a greater or l e s s e r d e g r e e by all a p p r o a c h e s , past a n d present. In the c a s e of intercultural a p p r o a c h e s , however, the difficulties of implementation h a v e proven particularly intractable. B y the turn of the millennium t h e s e o b s t a c l e s w e r e e n g e n d e r i n g c l a i m s s u c h a s that m a d e by W a l k e r a n d N o d a : "in the study of l a n g u a g e , nothing h a s b e e n d i s c u s s e d more a n d with l e s s effect than the relationship b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a n d culture."  62  T h i s is consistent with L a n g e ' s observation a y e a r earlier that despite  a commitment of o v e r forty y e a r s duration to include culture in the l a n g u a g e curriculum, "culture still r e m a i n s a superficial a s p e c t of l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . "  63  A n d in 2002 C l a i r e K r a m s c h o b s e r v e d : " W h e t h e r it is called international, c r o s s -  6 1  Laurillard 2 .  G a l a l W a l k e r a n d M a r i N o d a , " R e m e m b e r i n g the F u t u r e : C o m p i l i n g K n o w l e d g e of A n o t h e r C u l t u r e " Reflecting on the Past to Shape the Future ( L i n c o l n , IL: N a t i o n a l T e x t b o o k C o m p a n y , 2 0 0 0 ) ; c i t e d in O m a g g i o H a d l e y , 3 4 6 . 6 2  D a l e L. L a n g e , " P l a n n i n g for a n d U s i n g the N e w N a t i o n a l C u l t u r e S t a n d a r d s , " F o r e i g n l a n g u a g e S t a n d a r d s : L i n k i n g R e s e a r c h , T h e o r i e s , a n d P r a c t i c e s ( L i n c o l n , IL: N a t i o n a l T e x t b o o k C o m p a n y , 2 0 0 0 ) ; c i t e d in O m a g g i o H a d l e y , 3 4 6 . 6 3  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  35  cultural, or intercultural, c o m m u n i c a t i o n between people of different l a n g u a g e a n d cultures h a s b e e n a n o b s e s s i o n of the last c e n t u r y . "  64  In N o v e m b e r of 2 0 0 4 , the five m e m b e r s of a Culture T a s k F o r c e , struck by the A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n of T e a c h e r s of G e r m a n , p r e s e n t e d their findings at the A C T F L / A A T G A n n u a l C o n f e r e n c e in C h i c a g o . T h e i r Report w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y published in their professional journal "Die Unterrichtspraxis"  with  the title: "In Pursuit of Cultural C o m p e t e n c e in the G e r m a n L a n g u a g e C l a s s r o o m : R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of the A A T G T a s k F o r c e on the T e a c h i n g of Culture."  65  T h e Report d e c l a r e d that the discipline w a s e x p e r i e n c i n g  c o n s i d e r a b l e difficulties in its attempt to integrate culture in l a n g u a g e learning. In their a c c o u n t of those difficulties, explicit reference w a s m a d e to all of the i m p e d i m e n t s noted a b o v e . It w a s confirmed, for i n s t a n c e , that t e a c h e r s are a n x i o u s that their skills a n d training are not a d e q u a t e to the requirements of the a p p r o a c h : "there is no e v i d e n c e of a t h e o r y - b a s e d practical preparation of teachers. . . ."  66  T h e Report a l s o cited c o n c e r n s regarding the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  of cultural content a n d the accessibility of suitable materials: "there is little commonality in which cultural topics are a d d r e s s e d in instructional materials a n d in how textbooks present c u l t u r e . "  67  Finally, it w a s confirmed that t e a c h e r s are  6 4  C l a i r e K r a m s c h , "In s e a r c h of the intercultural," Journal  of Sociolinguistics  6 5  S c h u l z , L a l a n d e , D y k s t r a - P r u i m , Z i m m e r - L o e w , a n d J a m e s , „ln P u r s u i t  6/2 (2002) 2 7 5 .  of C u l t u r a l C o m p e t e n c e in the G e r m a n L a n g u a g e C l a s s r o o m , " Die Unterrichtspraxis (2005): 1 7 2 - 1 8 1 .  No. 38.2,  6 6  S c h u l z , L a l a n d e , D y k s t r a - P r u i m , Z i m m e r - L o e w , a n d J a m e s , Die Unterrichtspraxis,  174.  6 7  S c h u l z , L a l a n d e , D y k s t r a - P r u i m , Z i m m e r - L o e w , a n d J a m e s , Die Unterrichtspraxis,  173.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  36  h a m p e r e d in their efforts by the d e m a n d s of an already o v e r c r o w d e d curriculum: "there certainly is not e n o u g h time. . . . "  68  T h e following citation taken from a  s u r v e y of students a n d included in the Report s u m s it up succinctly: (1) t e a c h i n g culture takes a w a y time from the real object of l a n g u a g e instruction, i.e., g r a m m a r ; (2) teaching culture in a foreign l a n g u a g e c l a s s d e v o l v e s into dilettantism, either b e c a u s e of time constraints or b e c a u s e t e a c h e r s lack expertise; (3) t e a c h i n g culture is a political i s s u e , . . . autocratically i m p o s e d on c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a n d s t u d e n t s . 69  It is interesting to note that, after d e c a d e s of r e s e a r c h a n d effort directed at d e v e l o p i n g a b a s i c framework of theory a n d practice, the T a s k F o r c e found this b a s i s still m i s s i n g : " T h e profession n e e d s to identify s o m e c o n c i s e , foundational a n d , of c o u r s e , realistic objectives a s well a s principled a p p r o a c h e s for the t e a c h i n g of cultural c o m p e t e n c e . "  70  B y the beginning of the twenty-first century, various attempts h a d b e e n m a d e within the G e r m a n context to a d d r e s s all of t h e s e i s s u e s . T o begin, n u m e r o u s attempts going b a c k a n u m b e r of y e a r s h a d b e e n m a d e to fundamentally define the m e a n i n g of intercultural learning within l a n g u a g e study: B a u s c h / C h r i s t / K r u m m (1994), D e F l o r i o - H a n s e n (1994), K n a p p , Rottger (1996), T h u r m a n n , (1995). Other i s s u e s belonging to this context h a d a l s o b e e n r e s e a r c h e d a n d d i s c u s s e d , for instance, the concretization of learning objectives, Knapp-Potthoff, (1997); a n e w c o n c e p t i o n for t e a c h i n g materials, Liedtke, (1999); s u g g e s t i o n s to aid in the practical realization of objectives,  6 8  S c h u l z , L a l a n d e , D y k s t r a - P r u i m , Z i m m e r - L o e w , a n d J a m e s , Die Unterrichtspraxis,  176.  6 9  S c h u l z , L a l a n d e , D y k s t r a - P r u i m , Z i m m e r - L o e w , a n d J a m e s , Die Unterrichtspraxis,  176.  7 0  Die Unterrichtspraxis,  174.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  Bundeszentrale  fur Politische  37  Bildung,  (1998); a n d the question of  understanding foreign cultures (Fremdverstehen): (1997), H u , ( 1 9 9 7 ) .  Bredella/Christ/Legutke,  71  Attempts h a v e a l s o b e e n m a d e within the North A m e r i c a n context to a d d r e s s t h e s e i s s u e s . F r a m e w o r k s for designing a cultural curriculum h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d by N o s t r a n d a n d Nostrand (1970, 1971), S e e l y e (1984, 1993) a n d Lafayette (1988); a framework for building cultural understanding h a s b e e n p r o p o s e d by G a l l o w a y (1984), Ortuho (1991) a n d H a r d e n a n d Witte (2000); W a l k e r a n d N o d a (2000) h a v e p r o p o s e d a n innovative a p p r o a c h to the teaching of l a n g u a g e a n d culture in an interrelated f a s h i o n .  72  Despite t h e s e m a n y  initiatives, the T a s k F o r c e insists that intercultural a p p r o a c h e s to l a n g u a g e learning h a v e yet to establish s o m e of their most b a s i c c o n c e p t s . T h e r e is a further impediment to implementation that the Report delineates a n d that h a s s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e for my dissertation: student attitudes to the inclusion of culture within l a n g u a g e study. T h e Report cites r e s e a r c h s h o w i n g that learners do not s h a r e the discipline's perspective on the importance of c u l t u r e .  73  C o n s e q u e n t l y , the T a s k F o r c e ' s s e c o n d  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n for the A A T G is a c o m p r e h e n s i v e a c c o u n t of the " m i s m a t c h of  A d e l h e i d H u , "Intercultural L e a r n i n g a n d its Difficult A s p e c t s - A n A n a l y s i s of the C r i t i c i s m in R e l a t i o n to a C o n t r o v e r s i a l C o n c e p t , " The Notion of Intercultural Understanding in the Context of German as a Foreign Language, T h e o H a r d e n and Arnd Witte e d s . (Bern: Peter L a n g A G , 2000) 80. 7 1  7 2  7 3  Omaggio Hadley 349-358. S c h u l z , L a l a n d e , D y k s t r a - P r u i m , Z i m m e r - L o e w , a n d J a m e s , Die Unterrichtspraxis,  176.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  38  student a n d t e a c h e r perceptions regarding the p l a c e of culture.  T h i s is  noteworthy b e c a u s e student disinterest a n d e v e n hostility h a s b e e n explicitly identified by H a d l e y a s o n e of the three b a s i c p r o b l e m s in the teaching of culture.  75  Both s o u r c e s m a k e reference to the generally narrow view of culture  taken by students. Student attitude to language a n d culture learning plays a n important role within my project.  I will offer a n explanation for the t e n d e n c y of  students to resist the integration of culture a n d offer a n a p p r o a c h that d r a w s on this resistance a s a s o u r c e of p e d a g o g i c a l benefit. B y w a y of s u m m a r i z i n g the Report, the m e m b e r s of the committee identify five specific i s s u e s in n e e d of professional c o n s e n s u s : Definitions, Contents, Objectives/Assessments, Approaches/Materials, Teacher Development.  76  F o r e a c h of t h e s e i s s u e s , the T a s k F o r c e h a s p o s e d a n u m b e r  of specific q u e s t i o n s that n e e d to be a d d r e s s e d . In C h a p t e r F o u r a n d C h a p t e r Five I will return to e a c h of t h e s e i s s u e s a n d questions, delineate them in detail, a n d offer the p e d a g o g i c a l implications of a different perspective. I a m undertaking this initiative b e c a u s e , despite all the difficulties, the Culture T a s k F o r c e h a s not a b a n d o n e d intercultural understanding a s a worthwhile objective of the discipline: "It s e e m s that e s p e c i a l l y during w a r times or times of  7 4  S c h u l z , L a l a n d e , D y k s t r a - P r u i m , Z i m m e r - L o e w , a n d J a m e s , Die Unterrichtspraxis,  C o r i n n e M a n t l e - B r o m l e y , " P r e p a r i n g S t u d e n t s for M e a n i n g f u l C u l t u r e L e a r n i n g , " Language Annals, 1 9 9 2 ) ; c i t e d in O m a g g i o H a d l e y , 3 4 7  7 5  7 6  S c h u l z , L a l a n d e , D y k s t r a - P r u i m , Z i m m e r - L o e w , a n d J a m e s , Die Unterrichtspraxis,  176. Foreign  176-178.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  39  international crisis w e are reminded that F L t e a c h e r s m a k e , or s h o u l d m a k e a n important contribution in d e v e l o p i n g cross-cultural u n d e r s t a n d i n g . " I believe that this commitment is s h a r e d by  most  77  m e m b e r s of the  discipline; however, it must be a c k n o w l e d g e d that not all l a n g u a g e e d u c a t o r s s h a r e this attitude.  For instance, by 1998 the preoccupation with the  intercultural h a d b e c o m e s o o b s e s s i v e that the linguists Willis E d m o n d s o n a n d J u l i a n e H o u s e q u e s t i o n e d its practical u s e f u l n e s s a n d d e e m e d it a superfluous c o n c e p t . In a m u c h cited a n d highly d e b a t e d article entitled "Intercultural L e a r n i n g : A superfluous C o n c e p t " they argue that l a n g u a g e learning is inherently intercultural a n d this new e m p h a s i s on the implicit educational g o a l s of tolerance a n d empathy, deflect our attention from the explicit linguistic g o a l s proper to the discipline. A c c o r d i n g to E d m o n d s o n a n d H o u s e , the discipline s h o u l d return to the c o n c e p t of c o m m u n i c a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e a s a w o r k a b l e objective for l a n g u a g e s t u d y .  78  I d i s a g r e e strongly with the view of E d m o n d s o n a n d H o u s e that the g o a l s of an intercultural a p p r o a c h are already inherent in the discipline, a n d h a v e already s h o w n h o w m u c h e v i d e n c e there is to the contrary; still, I c a n appreciate their frustration. T h e c o n c e p t of culture is a highly c o m p l e x a n d c o n t e s t e d i s s u e both in the real world a n d a s a theoretical construct. It r e m a i n s to be s e e n , for instance, if the notion of culture c a n s e r v e a s a positive transformative principle  7 7  S c h u l z , L a l a n d e , D y k s t r a - P r u i m , Z i m m e r - L o e w , a n d J a m e s , Die Unterrichtspraxis,  172.  W i l l i s E d m o n d s o n a n d J u l i a n e H o u s e , "Interkulturelles L e r n e n : e i n i i b e r f l u s s i g e r Begriff," Zeitschrift fur Fremdsprachenforschung 9/2 (1998): 161 - 1 8 1 . 7 8  40  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  within our political a n d national world order.  It a l s o remains to be s e e n h o w well  culture c a n s e r v e a s a n e w c o n c e p t u a l v a l u e within m o d e l s of p e d a g o g y a n d e d u c a t i o n . Within the discipline of l a n g u a g e study, the c h a l l e n g e s are not limited to the c o n t e n t i o u s n e s s a r o u n d culture. A s w e h a v e s e e n , the c o n c e p t of culture within l a n g u a g e study is inherently linked with that of understanding, itself a c o n c e p t a s highly c o m p l e x a s culture a n d almost a s highly c o n t e s t e d . In 1993, in Context  and Culture in Language  Teaching,  Claire Kramsch  put forth the claim that the n e w cultural g o a l s a n d v a l u e s in l a n g u a g e p e d a g o g y required a n e w a p p r o a c h to the role of understanding. S h e e x p l a i n e d that l a n g u a g e t e a c h i n g h a d a l w a y s b e e n predicated upon the i d e a that w e c a n understand o n e another if only we s h a r e the s a m e linguistic c o d e . It w a s a greater a w a r e n e s s of the role of culture particularly that h a d m a d e us a w a r e of the difficulties a n d limitations to a c h i e v i n g understanding. But e v e n at the optimistic outset of the interest in culture, K r a m s c h did not take understanding for granted. Instead, s h e regards understanding a s " a s m a l l miracle, brought about by a leap of f a i t h . "  79  In this s h e is supported by Friedrich S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ,  w h o o v e r 2 0 0 y e a r s a g o s a i d s o m e t h i n g similar about understanding: T h e more lax practice in the art (of interpretation) p r o c e e d s from the standpoint that understanding a r i s e s of itself... the more rigourous practice p r o c e e d s from the standpoint, that m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r i s e s of itself a n d that understanding must be d e s i r e d a n d sought at every point, (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) 80  7 9  K r a m s c h , Context  and Culture  in Language  Teaching,  2.  80  „ D i e l a x e r e P r a x i s in d e r K u n s t geht d a v o n a u s , d a B s i c h d a s V e r s t e h e n v o n s e l b s t e r g i b t . . . D i e s t r e n g e r e P r a x i s geht d a v o n a u s , daf3 s i c h d a s M i B v e r s t e h e n v o n s e l b s t ergibt u n d d a s V e r s t e h e n auf j e d e m P u n k t m u B gewollt u n d g e s u c h t w e r d e n . " F r i e d r i c h S c h l e i e r m a c h e r , Hermeneutik und Kritik ( F r a n k f u r t / M a i n : S u h r k a m p , 1993) 9 2 .  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  41  In addition to the support of S c h l e i e r m a c h e r , K r a m s c h h a s s o m e contemporary support for her claim that the field's quest for n e w g o a l s a n d a p p r o a c h e s n e e d s to be a d d r e s s e d from the perspective of a philosophy of understanding. In his article " T o w a r d a Cultural H e r m e n e u t i c s of the F o r e i g n l a n g u a g e C l a s s r o o m : N o t e s for a Critical a n d Political P e d a g o g y , " Jeff P e c k o b s e r v e s that l a n g u a g e a n d literature departments h a v e failed to utilize the productive critical potential of the l a n g u a g e c l a s s r o o m , a potential w h i c h P e c k c l a i m s derives from a reciprocal relation b e t w e e n the activity of learning a another l a n g u a g e a n d the activity of understanding: " L e a r n i n g a foreign l a n g u a g e b e c o m e s a p a r a d i g m for reflecting on the conditions of understanding, in short, on h o w o n e u n d e r s t a n d s at a l l . "  81  C o n s i d e r e d from within the larger educational context a third confirmation of the importance of understanding in the relation b e t w e e n learning a n d l a n g u a g e c o m e s from M a r i o n Crowhurst w h o a r g u e s in Language Across  the Curriculum  and  Learning  for the place of understanding over k n o w l e d g e a s the  c o n t e m p o r a r y currency of learning: F o r most of the century, e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n d o m i n a t e d by a n inadequate view of t e a c h i n g a n d learning. A c c o r d i n g to this traditional view, learning is a matter of k n o w l e d g e a n d skill acquisition... D e v e l o p m e n t s in cognitive p s y c h o l o g y h a v e led to a different view of t e a c h i n g a n d learning, o n e that e m p h a s i z e s understanding. . . 8 2  J e f f r e y P e c k , " T o w a r d a C u l t u r a l H e r m e n e u t i c s of the F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e C l a s s r o o m : N o t e s for a Critical a n d Political P e d a g o g y , " ADFL Bulletin, V o l . 2 3 , N o . 3 ( S p r i n g 1 9 9 2 ) , 1 3 . 8 1  M a r i o n C r o w h u r s t , Language B a c o n , 1 9 9 4 ) 4. 9 2  and Learning  Across  the Curriculum,  (Scarborough: Allyn &  42  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  E a c h in their own way, K r a m s c h , P e c k a n d Crowhurst, a d v a n c e the notion of a n explicit a n d reciprocal relation between l a n g u a g e learning, culture a n d understanding. U n d e r s t a n d i n g other cultures is certainly a highly desirable objective in l a n g u a g e learning a n d in the world, particularly w h e n the world a p p e a r s on the v e r g e of b e c o m i n g the 'global village' that M a r s h a l M c L u h a n p r o p h e c i z e d (1962). It a p p e a r s more recently, however, that h u m a n k i n d h a s not m a d e any substantial a d v a n c e s in the understanding of anything that is p e r c e i v e d a s other or unfamiliar. A l o n g with the positive expectations for a n enlightened world society a s regards the environment, p e a c e policy a n d international understanding, w e must a l s o a c k n o w l e d g e that the t e n d e n c i e s towards globalization are producing a n i n c r e a s e d a w a r e n e s s of the existing differences a n d potential for misunderstanding a n d a b u s e of power. In Orientalism  (1978) E d w a r d S a i d emphatically a s s e r t e d that w e cannot  understand others. It is S a i d ' s claim that the actual motive behind our desire to understand other cultures is to dominate t h e m . later in a work entitled The Differend.  Phrases  8 3  In the s a m e vein, ten y e a r s  in Dispute,  J e a n - F r a n c o i s Lyotard  portrays mediation between cultures a s an act of violence. A c c o r d i n g to Lyotard, a n y c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n two i n c o m m e n s u r a b l e cultures will inflict injustice on o n e of them a n d will be e x p e r i e n c e d a s a n act of v i o l e n c e .  84  T h e r e is doubt, too,  within l a n g u a g e education that the discipline c a n actually promote the  8 3  E d w a r d S a i d , Orientalism  8 4  J e a n - F r a n g o i s L y o t a r d , The Differend.  University P r e s s , 1988).  (New York: Pantheon, 1978). Phrases  in Dispute.  (Manchester: Manchester  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  43  d e v e l o p m e n t of cross-cultural sensitivity a n d understanding. E d u c a t o r s like D e b o r a h C a m e r o n h a v e e x p r e s s e d their lack of c o n f i d e n c e in the ability of the current c o m m u n i c a t i o n culture to truly bring about understanding a c r o s s cultural faultlines.  85  A n d i n d e e d , it h a s b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d , that there is little if any  empirical e v i d e n c e to support the c l a i m .  8 6  Despite the difficulties a n d c h a l l e n g e s , however, m e m b e r s of the discipline e x p r e s s commitment. E d u c a t o r s like A m i t a S e n G u p t a e x p r e s s e s her commitment a s a n obligation: "it s e e m s a s if the intercultural encounter is a n inevitable part of the G l o b a l Village, a n d therefore our duty a s e d u c a t o r s is to strive towards d e v e l o p i n g a suitable p e d a g o g y for this e x p e r i e n c e . "  87  In " T h e  Limits of U n d e r s t a n d i n g " T h e o H a r d e n p o s e s a n important question: T h e question is: is it truly p o s s i b l e to widen our understanding by elevating it to a higher level of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , by creating a n 'intercultural a w a r e n e s s ' , or are w e confined to our relative n a r r o w n e s s by the specific features which determine our s p e c i e s ? T h i s m a k e s it n e c e s s a r y to critically e x a m i n e - o n c e again - s o m e of the key c o n c e p t s of 'intercultural c o m m u n i c a t i o n ' , 'intercultural a w a r e n e s s ' , a n d 'intercultural understanding'. 88  W e h a v e , of c o u r s e , e n c o u n t e r e d the c o n c e p t of understanding at various points of our survey of l a n g u a g e learning, but confined thus far to playing a n  D e b o r a h C a m e r o n , Good S a g e , 2000). 8 5  8 6  to Talk?  Living  and Working  in a Communication  Culture  S c h u l z , L a l a n d e , D y k s t r a - P r u i m , Z i m m e r - L o e w , a n d J a m e s , Die Unterrichtspraxis  (London:  173.  A m i t a S e n G u p t a , " C h a n g i n g the F o c u s : A D i s c u s s i o n of the D y n a m i c s of the Intercultural E x p e r i e n c e , " Intercultural Experience and Education, Geof Aired, Mike Byram and Mike Fleming, e d s . ( C l e v e d o n : Multilingual M a t t e r s Ltd., 2 0 0 3 ) 1 7 1 . 8 7  T h e o H a r d e n , " T h e L i m i t s of U n d e r s t a n d i n g , " The Notion of Intercultural Understanding in the Context of German as a Foreign Language, T h e o H a r d e n and Arnd Witte e d s . (Bern: Peter L a n g A G , 2000) 104. 8 8  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  44  implicit role. Clearly, the role of culture in l a n g u a g e learning d e m a n d s a concomitant shift in our attention to understanding, the a c k n o w l e d g e d d o m a i n of hermeneutics.  1.4 Hermeneutics: A Historical Overview It is not yet a familiar term in the standard v o c a b u l a r y of p e d a g o g y , but h e r m e n e u t i c s already forms the theoretical b a s i s in n u m e r o u s a c a d e m i c contexts including philosophy, theology, law, literature, history, a n d the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . In my view, its c o n n e c t i o n to p e d a g o g y generally is in its m a n d a t e to e x a m i n e h u m a n understanding. Its link to l a n g u a g e p e d a g o g y specifically is in the proposition that h u m a n understanding is linguistic. But h e r m e n e u t i c s is not linguistics. H e r m e n e u t i c s h a s b e e n alternately defined a s a n art, a s c i e n c e , a methodology a n d a philosophy. T h i s ambiguity in regard to its designation c a p t u r e s a tension that h a s a n i m a t e d the hermeneutical enterprise s i n c e its inception in ancient G r e e k thought. T h e formulation of this tension b e g i n s in the etymological c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n the term h e r m e n e u t i c s a n d the figure of H e r m e s , the divine m e s s e n g e r of the g o d s a n d inventor of l a n g u a g e a n d s p e e c h . T h e s y m b o l i s m of this mythological origin aligns h e r m e n e u t i c s with s p e e c h a n d story, activities of h u m a n k i n d which are universal a n d distinguish us from other forms of life on the planet. But it is appropriate a s well b e c a u s e a n important c o n n e c t i o n m a y immediately be drawn b e t w e e n the ambiguity of the term a n d the a m b i g u o u s nature of this particular G r e e k g o d , w h o , a s well a s  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  45  being a translator a n d interpreter, w a s a l s o a thief (he stole A p o l l o ' s entire herd of cattle), a trickster (he m a d e them walk b a c k w a r d s to d i s g u i s e their tracks) a n d a liar (he d e n i e d the theft to Z e u s , until browbeaten into c o n f e s s i n g by A p o l l o ) . M o s t historical a c c o u n t s d o not begin with the mythological figure of H e r m e s a n d do not a d d r e s s the ambiguity of the mythological account. T h e y most frequently begin with Aristotle, p r o c e e d through the s a c r e d h e r m e n e u t i c s of Martin Luther a n d M a t h i a s F l a c i u s , a n d then g o to the humanist h e r m e n e u t i c s of J o h a n n e s C l e r i c u s a n d the legal hermeneutics of J o h a n n e s von F e l d e . Enlightenment thinkers s u c h a s Christian Wolff a n d J o h a n n C h l a d e n i u s relegated h e r m e n e u t i c s to the d o m a i n of logic a n d are frequently omitted; however, no historical a c c o u n t will fail to include the contribution of Friedrich S c h l e i e r m a c h e r in the early nineteenth century a s constituting a w a t e r s h e d in the d e v e l o p m e n t of h e r m e n e u t i c s .  89  S c h l e i e r m a c h e r m a r k s the e m e r g e n c e of h e r m e n e u t i c s a s a scholarly discipline promoting a n e p i s t e m o l o g y of "understanding." It w a s h e w h o first defined h e r m e n e u t i c s a s "the art of u n d e r s t a n d i n g " Hermeneutics  and Criticism.  90  in his c a n o n i c a l book  U p until the time of S c h l e i e r m a c h e r , hermeneutic  practice h a d c o n c e r n e d itself primarily with the interpretation of religious, judicial a n d ancient literary texts. S c h l e i e r m a c h e r continued this tradition by s y s t e m a t i z i n g t h o s e m e t h o d s of textual interpretation w h i c h h a d previously b e e n in u s e , but he c o m p l e m e n t e d t h e s e with a form of p s y c h o l o g i c a l interpretation  " K u r t M u e l l e r - V o l l m e r , The Hermeneutics 9 0  Reader,  „Die Kunst d e s V e r s t e h e n s " S c h l e i e r m a c h e r 75.  (New York: C o n t i n u u m , 1992) 1 - 5 .  46  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  which he c a l l e d "divinatory" or "divinatorisch"  (93).  S c h l e i e r m a c h e r realized that  understanding a text m e a n s more than just understanding the w o r d s . It is a writer's unique insight that is the r e a s o n a text exists in the first p l a c e a n d that renders e a c h of its constituent parts into a meaningful a n d unified w h o l e . W h a t most distinguishes S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s h e r m e n e u t i c s from the past a n d b e c o m e s a recurrent t h e m e in the future, in his e m p h a s i s on the linguistic d i m e n s i o n of understanding. S c h l e i e r m a c h e r c l a i m e d that "understanding" or " V e r s t e h e n " w a s a n a l o g o u s to s p e a k i n g , s i n c e both derive from the h u m a n "capacity for s p e e c h " or "Sprachfahigkeit." In a m o v e that anticipates S a u s s u r e ' s distinction b e t w e e n langue a n d parole,  Schleiermacher describes  understanding a s the c o a l e s c e n c e of the two levels that for him constitute h u m a n "Sprachfahigkeit": " S p r a c h e " a s the s y s t e m of " l a n g u a g e " in its totality; a n d " R e d e " a s the individual utterance or " s p e e c h " of a s p e a k e r (77). A c c o r d i n g l y , S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s interpretative m e t h o d o l o g y c o r r e s p o n d s to this c o n c e p t i o n of understanding by its division into two parts: g r a m m a t i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l . Indeed, S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s significance within the hermeneutic tradition is usually attributed to his m o v e of c o m p l e m e n t i n g g r a m m a t i c a l e x e g e s i s with p s y c h o l o g i c a l interpretation, with the understanding of a n "other" (i.e. the author). Deriving from this f o c u s upon the author, a n d upon " R e d e " a s the author's unique a n d distinctive u s e of the totality of " S p r a c h e , " the relationship b e t w e e n individuality a n d totality, the part a n d the w h o l e , b e c o m e central in S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s h e r m e n e u t i c s . Although a translator or reader c a n only e v e r begin with a part, it is a l w a y s this w h o l e that o n e is after.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  S c h l e i e r m a c h e r thus d e s c r i b e d the p r o c e s s of c o m i n g to understanding a s a n apparent part-whole-part m o v e m e n t that h a s c o m e to be known a s the hermeneutic circle: C o m p l e t e k n o w l e d g e a l w a y s involves a n apparent circle, s u c h that e a c h specific part c a n be understood only out of the g e n e r a l whole to which it b e l o n g s , a n d the reverse, (my translation) 91  S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s e m p h a s i s on the crucial c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n thinking a n d l a n g u a g e - "we cannot think without l a n g u a g e "  92  anticipates the "linguistic  turn" of the twentieth century. S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s legacy e n d u r e s , however, at least a s m u c h for the ambiguities with which he h a s left us, a s for his efforts to a c h i e v e correct understanding through the systematization of formal principles. F o r instance, S c h l e i e r m a c h e r d o e s not distinguish in his work b e t w e e n the c o n c e p t of "understanding" ("Verstehen") a n d that of "interpretation" ("Auslegung"), using the terms interchangeably. T h i s h a s resulted in a f u n d a m e n t a l ambiguity which is still with us today. M o r e significantly, although it w a s S c h l e i e r m a c h e r w h o realized that understanding a text m e a n s more than understanding the w o r d s , he failed to establish a philosophical-theoretical foundation to support his "divinatory" m o m e n t in understanding. H e refers to it a s "eine unmittelbare A u f f a s s u n g " or "an immediate c o m p r e h e n s i o n " of what is unique or individual in a n author by "transforming oneself" ("in d e n a n d e r n verwandeln") into the author (169). H e a c k n o w l e d g e s the differences in thinking that must inhere in two distinct 91  „ U b e r a l l ist d a s v o l l k o m m e n e W i s s e n in d i e s e m s c h e i n b a r e n K r e i s e , d a B j e d e s B e s o n d e r e nur a u s d e m A l l g e m e i n e n , d e s s e n T e i l e s ist, v e r s t a n d e n w e r d e n k a n n u n d u m g e k e h r t . " (95) 92  „wir k o n n e n nicht d e n k e n o h n e die S p r a c h e " ( 2 3 5 ) .  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  48  subjectivities, residing in two distinct historical periods; still, he c l a i m s that "in e a c h d e s i r e to understand the other is the a s s u m p t i o n that the difference b e t w e e n them is resolvable" (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) .  93  S c h l e i e r m a c h e r admits to  p r e s u m i n g "that e a c h individual p e r s o n carries a m i n i m u m of all other p e o p l e in t h e m " (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) ,  94  but d o e s not elaborate on just how he c o n c e i v e s of  this. In this regard S c h l e i e r m a c h e r distinguishes himself from his later admirer a n d biographer, the philologist a n d philosopher W i l h e l m Dilthey. Dilthey defined understanding a s "ein W i e d e r f i n d e n d e s ich im D u " or " a re-finding of the self in the other" a n d d e v o t e d his a c a d e m i c life to developing a n e p i s t e m o l o g y of understanding that would provide the methodological underpinnings for t h o s e disciplines c o n c e r n e d with h u m a n k i n d : the humanities (die Geisteswissenschaften).  95  Dilthey's r e s e a r c h w a s beginning just a s positivism w a s e m e r g i n g a s a single m e t h o d o l o g y of k n o w l e d g e . F o r his part, Dilthey a c c e p t e d the Kantian a n a l y s i s of valid k n o w l e d g e for the natural s c i e n c e s but maintained that the h u m a n s c i e n c e s , t h o s e dealing with historical a n d cultural p h e n o m e n a , constituted a n independent totality of their o w n , requiring their o w n methodology. A s a n o n - h u m a n s y s t e m , the natural world c o u l d be interpreted  "in j e d e m V e r s t e h e n w o l l e n e i n e s A n d e r n liegt s c h o n d i e V o r a u s s e t z u n g , da(3 d i e D i f f e r e n z a u f l o s b a r ist." (178)  9 3  9 4  " d a B j e d e r v o n j e d e m ein M i n i m u m in s i c h tragt" (170).  W i l h e l m Dilthey, Kritik der historischen B . G T e u b n e r , 1958) 1 9 1 . 9 5  Vernunft,  Gesammelte  SchriftenVW,  ( 1 9 2 1 ; Stuttgart:  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  49  a n d e x p l a i n e d in subject-object terms, but cultural objects must be r e s p e c t e d a s having a "fur uns" or "for u s " kind of character, a s existing in a distinctly h u m a n a s o p p o s e d to n o n - h u m a n s y s t e m .  9 6  Throughout his working life, Dilthey  returned a g a i n a n d a g a i n to a project that would remain unfinished, a n d that he called his Critique  of Historical  Reason  (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) .  T h i s critique w a s to  97  form the theoretical foundation of his a p p r o a c h a n d w a s g r o u n d e d upon two main presuppositions. T h e first is usually referred to a s the "Vico-principle" b e c a u s e it received its c l a s s i c a l formulation by G i a m b a t t i s t a V i c o in his New Science  of 1725. T h i s principle s u p p o s e s that w h a t e v e r the h u m a n mind h a s  c r e a t e d , the h u m a n mind c a n understand. Anything c r e a t e d by the h u m a n is, in principle at least, a c c e s s i b l e to s u c c e s s f u l interpretation s i n c e "the subject of k n o w l e d g e is h e r e at o n e with its object" (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) .  98  T h e s e c o n d of the two p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s is represented by the m u c h quoted statement I cited a b o v e : " U n d e r s t a n d i n g is a re-finding of the self in the other" ("Das V e r s t e h e n ist ein W i e d e r f i n d e n d e s ich im Du.") T h i s d o e s not m e a n that w e understand another p e r s o n by discovering h o w they are exactly like us. T h e presupposition here, rather, is that there are s o m e b a s i c h u m a n features w e all h a v e in c o m m o n a n d that t h e s e c o m m o n features m a k e a n y a n d all forms of h u m a n e x p r e s s i o n , a g a i n , in principle c o m p r e h e n s i b l e : " F o r everything in which  W i l h e l m Dilthey, Fragmente T e u b n e r , 1958) 3 1 3 . 9 6  9 7  98  Kritik der historischen  zur Poetik,  Gesammelte  Schriften  VI, ( 1 9 2 1 ; Stuttgart: B . G .  Vernunft.  " d a s S u b j e k t d e s W i s s e n s ist hier e i n s mit s e i n e m G e g e n s t a n d " (191).  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  50  the mind h a s objectified itself there is contained s o m e t h i n g held in c o m m o n by the I a n d the T h o u . " (my t r a n s l a t i o n )  99  Dilthey w a s interested in all the various  forms that h u m a n s o c i a l a n d cultural e x p r e s s i o n take, a n d referred to t h e m in their totality a s "objective mind" or "der objektive G e i s t " (155). A s a n instance of the objectivization of mind, however, o n e form of h u m a n e x p r e s s i o n is preeminent: linguistic e x p r e s s i o n . F o r Dilthey, it is most notably in l a n g u a g e that "objective m i n d " manifests itself externally. M o r e o v e r , linguistic e x p r e s s i o n s c o m b i n e the individual with the c o m m u n a l , they p r e - s u p p o s e the involvement of other subjectivities: B e c a u s e our mental life finds its fullest a n d most c o m p l e t e e x p r e s s i o n only through l a n g u a g e , explication finds completion a n d fullness only in the interpretation of the written testimonies of h u m a n life, (my translation) 100  Dilthey a p p e a r s to be following faithfully in the footsteps of S c h l e i e r m a c h e r w h e n he singles out " l a n g u a g e " ("Sprache") a s the preeminent form of h u m a n e x p r e s s i o n in which the totality of cultural p h e n o m e n a , or "objective mind" c o u l d be s u p p o s e d to reside. Dilthey's perspective d o e s , however, represent a radical shift of e m p h a s i s . W h e r e a s "understanding" w a s for S c h l e i e r m a c h e r a p r o c e s s a n a l o g o u s to " s p e a k i n g , " for Dilthey it is a p r o c e s s a n a l o g o u s to "breathing" a n d h a s its origin in the p r o c e s s of h u m a n living or " L e b e n . " A c t s of understanding are "lived" by us, they constitute our "lived " a l l e s , worin s i c h d e r G e i s t objektiviert hat, enthalt e i n d e m ich u n d d e m D u G e m e i n s a m e s in s i c h . " (208)  9 9  " D a n u n d a s g e i s t i g e L e b e n nur in d e r S p r a c h e s e i n e n v o l l s t a n d i g e n e r s c h o p f e n d e n u n d d a r u m e i n e objektive A u f f a s s u n g e r m o g l i c h e n d e n A u s d r u c k findet, s o v o l l e n d e t s i c h die A u s l e g u n g in d e r Interpretation d e r in d e r Schrift e n t h a l t e n e n R e s t e m e n s c h l i c h e n D a s e i n s . " (217) 1 0 0  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  51  e x p e r i e n c e " or "Erlebnis." B y inference to this p r o c e s s of living, Dilthey c l a i m e d that all "higher" ("hohere") or more c o m p l e x manifestations of understanding including t h o s e d e m a n d e d by the humanities - derived from the "elementary" ("elementaren") or c o m m o n acts of c o m p r e h e n s i o n that e n a b l e h u m a n b e i n g s to function in the world a n d to interact with o n e another e v e r y d a y (210). T h i s difference in the perspective of the two s c h o l a r s is reflected in their methodological a p p r o a c h e s . S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s methodology e m p h a s i z e s formal a n d technical strategies directed towards d e c i p h e r i n g grammatical constructions. L e x i c a l a i d s s u c h a s dictionaries, g r a m m a r s a n d reference b o o k s c o m p r i s e further tools for understanding. With respect to the author, S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s "divinatory" practices consist of c o n s i d e r i n g the biographical c i r c u m s t a n c e s of the author at the time of writing, the relationship between form a n d content, a n d the disentangling of "primary a n d s e c o n d a r y thoughts" ("Haupta n d N e b e n g e d a n k e n " (186-192). B y contrast, the primary strategies that Dilthey a s s i g n s his reader are t h o s e of "empathy, re-creating a n d re-living" ("hineinversetzen, n a c h b i l d e n , und n a c h e r l e b e n " (213-214). F r o m this perspective, the primary role of the reader is to r e - e x p e r i e n c e the purposive a n d imaginative impulse of the author - in other w o r d s , to undergo the purely experiential act of discovering " d a s ich im D u " or "the self in the other". A s a result of this a p p r o a c h , a n d in ironical contradiction to his intentions, Dilthey is s e e n a s having shifted the reception of cultural p h e n o m e n a in g e n e r a l , a n d the literary work of art in particular, into the highly subjective r e a l m s of e m p a t h y a n d intuition. T h e distinction b e t w e e n understanding a n d  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  52  interpretation, objectivity a n d subjectivity, w h i c h h a d b e e n merely a m b i g u o u s in S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s "linguistic" h e r m e n e u t i c s , is all but e r a s e d in Dilthey's "intuitive" h e r m e n e u t i c s .  101  In his later y e a r s , Dilthey c a m e to appreciate the importance of avoiding psychologistic r e a s o n i n g in his a n a l y s e s a n d pursuing rigorous methodological p r o c e d u r e instead. A l o n g with a n u m b e r of other p h i l o s o p h e r s , Dilthey benefited from the n e w " p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l " a p p r o a c h to thinking introduced by E d m u n d H u s s e r l . H u s s e r l w a s o c c u p i e d primarily by providing a s e c u r e philosophical grounding for m a t h e m a t i c s a n d logic. H e w a s a w a r e of the critical e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l function which notions like understanding a n d interpretation must fulfill in the actual work of the h u m a n scientist a n d humanist. His first major work, entitled Logical  Investigations,  w a s published in 1900-1901 a n d  m a r k e d a n e w beginning for hermeneutic theory. T h e Investigations  comprise  m u c h m o r e than a n exploration of logic or e v e n the logical syntax of l a n g u a g e . T h e y are a l s o c o n c e r n e d with the ontological conditions of meaningful d i s c o u r s e a n d the structure of t h o s e acts of c o n s c i o u s n e s s which m a k e it p o s s i b l e for our w o r d s "to point b e y o n d t h e m s e l v e s to things in the w o r l d . "  102  T h e significance of H u s s e r l ' s a p p r o a c h is that it is a i m e d at d i s c l o s i n g the c o m m o n ground for the possibility of m e a n i n g a n d understanding in both the verbal a n d non-verbal realms, the world of actions a s well a s l a n g u a g e . H u s s e r l  1 0 1  Mueller- Vollmer 27.  1 0 2  E d m u n d H u s s e r l , Logical  P r e s s , 1976) 3.  Investigations  I, t r a n s . J . N . F i n d l a y ( N e w Y o r k : T h e H u m a n i t i e s  53  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  is c o n c e r n e d with the description of intentional acts, in other words, acts w h o s e m e a n i n g p r e s e n t s itself only in their actual p e r f o r m a n c e .  103  It is by virtue of  t h e s e a c t s in performance that there a r i s e s a world for us together with other h u m a n s with w h o m w e c a n c o m m u n i c a t e . A p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l study a n d description of t h e s e p e r f o r m a n c e s n e c e s s a r i l y involve the interpretation a n d explication of their implicit m e a n i n g - a m e a n i n g which is a l s o a c c e s s i b l e to other subjects. In the first of the Logical  Investigations  H u s s e r l offers a probing  description of meaning-constituting acts a s they o c c u r in us, a n d p r e s e n t s a n outline of a theory of m e a n i n g a n d understanding. T h i s theory is d e v e l o p e d from the structures of the subjective p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , but it is directed, at the s a m e time, toward establishing the g r o u n d s for a n intersubjective validity of m e a n i n g . H e n c e there is in H u s s e r l ' s p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l p r o c e d u r e itself a hermeneutic quality of a paradigmatic nature. Indeed, hermeneutic philosophy following H u s s e r l prided itself o n establishing the pre-scientific, ontological b a s i s for the h u m a n s c i e n c e s , although it would not h a v e s u c c e e d e d in this without the contribution of H u s s e r l ' s most f a m o u s student, Martin Heidegger. A quarter century after H u s s e r l published his c a n o n i c a l Investigations,  Logical  Martin H e i d e g g e r published his ground-breaking work entitled  Mueller-Vollmer 29.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  Sein und Zeit (1927), translated a s Being and Time ( 1 9 6 2 ) .  54  104  In S e c t i o n 7 of  Being and Time H e i d e g g e r d i s c u s s e s his notion of p h e n o m e n o n a n d of p h e n o m e n o l o g y . H e c h a r g e s p h e n o m e n o l o g y with the job of u n c o v e r i n g what is not immediately apparent, "something that lies h i d d e n " (BT59). Within the p a r a m e t e r s of the work, this m e a n s the methodical uncovering of the c o n c e a l e d structures of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e in the world. In other w o r d s , the p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l task set forth in Being and Time is fundamentally a hermeneutic o n e . S i n c e my dissertation specifically c o n c e r n s H e i d e g g e r ' s ontological h e r m e n e u t i c s , I shall explain here only t h o s e c o n c e p t s n e c e s s a r y to indicate the line of d e v e l o p m e n t b e t w e e n H e i d e g g e r ' s p r e d e c e s s o r s Dilthey a n d H u s s e r l a n d his s u c c e s s o r H a n s - G e o r g G a d a m e r . Like Dilthey, H e i d e g g e r e n g a g e d in a metacritique of K a n t ' s t r a n s c e n d e n t a l critiques. Unlike Dilthey, H e i d e g g e r went on to scrutinize the underlying body of a s s u m p t i o n s which the critiques s h a r e d a n d which formed the foundation for the w h o l e of the W e s t e r n philosophical tradition. In Being  and  Time, H e i d e g g e r no longer g r o u n d s his concept of understanding in the a u t o n o m o u s , thinking subject, the foundational category from which philosophy h a d b e e n operating s i n c e D e s c a r t e s . Instead, he g r o u n d s his concept of understanding in the f u n d a m e n t a l fact of our "In-der-Welt-sein," our " B e i n g - i n the-world." A c c o r d i n g to H e i d e g g e r , there is a certain primary, existential  1 0 4  M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r , Being  and Time, t r a n s . J o h n M a c q u a r r i e a n d E d w a r d R o b i n s o n ( N e w  York: Harper & R o w , 1962); quoted a s B T .  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  55  understanding that is constitutive of our very e x i s t e n c e in the world a n d which forms the b a s i s for the c o n c e p t of understanding a s a methodological category. F o r H e i d e g g e r , therefore, the subject a n d c o n c e r n of h e r m e n e u t i c s b e c o m e the d i s c l o s u r e of the b a s i c existential structures of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e . T h i s a p p r o a c h t a k e s H e i d e g g e r far b e y o n d Dilthey a n d builds on H u s s e r l . Dilthey interpreted the hermeneutic operations of humanist s c h o l a r s a s derivative from certain elementary acts of understanding found in e v e r y d a y life. H e i d e g g e r , in contrast, v i e w s all acts of understanding, from the elementary to the most c o m p l e x kind, a s springing from a primordial m o d e of understanding that is part of our very being in the world. At this point, therefore, H e i d e g g e r h a s h e r m e n e u t i c s taking up that p l a c e in traditional philosophy which h a d thus far b e e n o c c u p i e d by the Kantian critiques. A s far a s s p e e c h a n d l a n g u a g e are c o n c e r n e d , H e i d e g g e r maintains a distinction b e t w e e n the two a n d c l a i m s that the structures of understanding a n d interpreting are intimately c o n n e c t e d with " S p r a c h e " a n d e s p e c i a l l y " R e d e , l a n g u a g e a n d s p e e c h . W e shall s e e in C h a p t e r T h r e e that, for H e i d e g g e r , " R e d e " p o s s e s s e s a foundational quality all its o w n . " R e d e " is the ordering a n d structuring p o w e r that dwells in our understanding. Indeed, a s did his hermeneutical p r e d e c e s s o r s , H e i d e g g e r a r g u e s that understanding itself is of a linguistic nature, though not a s linguistics, but a s l a n g u a g e a n d its interpretation. Still, the s o - c a l l e d early H e i d e g g e r of  Being  and  Time  d o e s not provide anything  r e s e m b l i n g a detailed a c c o u n t of the linguisticality of understanding. H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d the relationship b e t w e e n "understanding" a n d " s p e e c h , " " V e r s t e h e n "  56  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  a n d " R e d e , " H e i d e g g e r p r o c e e d s to e x p o s e our t e n d e n c y to resist an authentic understanding of our e x i s t e n c e by hiding within "fallen s p e e c h " or " G e r e d e . " O n l y m a n y y e a r s later, after his s o - c a l l e d "ontological turn" did H e i d e g g e r return to the positive a s p e c t s of linguisticality, but then he no longer ventured to s p e a k on this topic with the kind of rigourous attention to detail that c h a r a c t e r i z e s his writing in Being and Time.  It w a s up to H e i d e g g e r ' s student, H a n s - G e o r g  G a d a m e r , to d e v e l o p more fully the notion of the linguisticality of understanding which H e i d e g g e r h a d s u g g e s t e d . F r o m a m o n g the m a n y eminent a n d distinguished students of H e i d e g g e r , H a n s - G e o r g G a d a m e r is arguably the most illustrious. W h e n G a d a m e r ' s Wahrheit  und Methode  (1960) translated a s Truth and Method  (1993)  105  was  p u b l i s h e d , however, he set the hermeneutic enterprise on a very different c o u r s e from that of his teacher. W h e r e a s H e i d e g g e r in Being and Time h a d f a s h i o n e d h e r m e n e u t i c s into a philosophical tool for uncovering the ontological structure of h u m a n e x i s t e n c e , G a d a m e r directed his philosophical h e r m e n e u t i c s towards the more traditional ground of the h u m a n s c i e n c e s a n d the i s s u e s which they f a c e d . T o a p p r e c i a t e his a p p r o a c h , a n d to distinguish it from H e i d e g g e r ' s , it m a y be helpful first to characterize his relationship to that tradition. Like his hermeneutical p r e d e c e s s o r s , G a d a m e r a s c r i b e s primary importance to the c o n c e p t of understanding. But in contrast to S c h l e i e r m a c h e r a n d Dilthey, w h o s e a p p r o a c h e s w e r e directed primarily at o v e r c o m i n g the historical d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n a n author a n d reader, G a d a m e r insists on the H a n s - G e o r g G a d a m e r , Truth and Method, t r a n s . J o e l W e i n s h e i m e r a n d D o n a l d G . M a r s h a l l (New York: Continuum Publishing C o , 1993); quoted a s T M . 1 0 5  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  57  historically determined nature of understanding itself. In this he is very m u c h the student of the philosopher of Being - and Time\  A c c o r d i n g to G a d a m e r , a n y  interpretations of the past are a s m u c h a creation of the interpreter's o w n time a n d p l a c e a s the object to be interpreted w a s of its own period in history. T h e interpreter, G a d a m e r c l a i m s , is a l w a y s guided in his understanding of the past by his own particular set of "Vorurteile" or "prejudices." M o r e o v e r , "prejudices" are not s o m e t h i n g negative which s h o u l d a n d c o u l d be o v e r c o m e in the s e a r c h for objective truths. O n the contrary, G a d a m e r maintains that prejudice is a n e c e s s a r y condition of all understanding ( T M 2 6 5 - 3 0 0 ) . F o r G a d a m e r , the p r o c e s s of understanding involves two different a s p e c t s : the o v e r c o m i n g of the s t r a n g e n e s s of the object or p h e n o m e n o n to be understood, a n d its transformation into s o m e t h i n g familiar. T h i s h a p p e n s w h e n the historical "horizon" of the object a n d that of the interpreter b e c o m e united or f u s e d . M o r e o v e r , understanding is only p o s s i b l e , a c c o r d i n g to G a d a m e r , b e c a u s e that which is to be understood a n d the p e r s o n involved in the act of understanding are not two alien entities that are isolated from e a c h other by a gulf of historical time. T h e y are both part of a n overarching historical a n d cultural continuum w h i c h G a d a m e r calls " W i r k u n g s g e s c h i c h t e , " translated a s "effective history." A c c o r d i n g to G a d a m e r , it is this historical-cultural continuum that is the ultimate producer of the prejudices that guide our understanding a n d b e c a u s e this is s o , it is t h e s e prejudices that s h o u l d be m a d e the object of hermeneutic reflection. T o e n g a g e in s u c h reflection, a n d to thus establish our o w n hermeneutic situation, is what G a d a m e r refers to a s the d e v e l o p m e n t of our  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  58  " w i r k u n g s g e s c h i c h t l i c h e s BewufBtsein," our "effective-historical c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " T h i s is a n explicit c o n s c i o u s n e s s of the effective historical continuum of which w e are a part ( T M 3 0 0 - 3 0 7 ) . F o r G a d a m e r , therefore, the very first task of understanding is that of self-critique: working out o n e ' s o w n prejudices s o that the subject matter to be understood c a n affirm its o w n validity in regard to t h e m . W h a t role d o e s G a d a m e r give l a n g u a g e in this d y n a m i c of hermeneutical selfreflection a n d f u s i o n ? T o the reader of G a d a m e r ' s Truth and Method  a n d m a n y of his other  studies, it is quite o b v i o u s that his c o n c e p t of the linguistic nature of understanding d e v i a t e s from that of his p r e d e c e s s o r s in s o m e b a s i c w a y s . F o r instance, G a d a m e r d o e s not clearly distinguish, a s did t h e s e others, b e t w e e n " S p r a c h e " a n d " R e d e , " " s p e e c h " a n d "language." Instead, he a p p l i e s the term " S p r a c h e " t o c o v e r a variety of m e a n i n g s . Y e t for G a d a m e r a s m u c h a s for his p r e d e c e s s o r s , the possibility for all understanding rests ultimately in h u m a n linguisticality. A c c o r d i n g to G a d a m e r , it is the particular function of l a n g u a g e to facilitate the fusion of the horizons of the interpreter a n d of the historical object or event, which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the act of understanding: " T h e linguisticality of u n d e r s t a n d i n g is the concretion  of historically  effected  consciousness."  (author's  e m p h a s i s , T M 3 8 9 ) . H o w is l a n g u a g e able to fulfill this hermeneutic function? " T h e e s s e n t i a l relation b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a n d understanding is s e e n primarily in the fact that the e s s e n c e of tradition is to exist in the m e d i u m of l a n g u a g e . . . " ( T M 3 8 9 ) . U n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d interpretation for G a d a m e r constitute the m o d e of being of all our cultural traditions. T h e s e traditions are n e c e s s a r i l y e m b e d d e d in  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  59  l a n g u a g e . It follows, therefore, that understanding a n d interpretation are e v e n t s in a n historical a n d cultural continuum that is basically linguistic. In other w o r d s , G a d a m e r c o n c e i v e s of l a n g u a g e a n d understanding a s a n historical-linguistic event which f u s e s the interpreter with his object. With regard to the concrete p r o c e d u r e s able to facilitate this fusion, G a d a m e r depicts t h e s e in terms of a dialogue, a p r o c e s s of question a n d a n s w e r that formulates understanding a s participation - participation in m e a n i n g , a tradition, a n d ultimately a c o n v e r s a t i o n . G a d a m e r resists the a p p r o a c h of the h u m a n s c i e n c e s that relies upon m e t h o d a n d privileges propositional logic: " L a n g u a g e is most itself not in propositions but in dialogue."  106  T h i s insight represents the epitomy of G a d a m e r ' s dialogic  conceptualization of understanding. M o r e recently, the hermeneutical tradition is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a tripartite division, which R o y J . H o w a r d h a s d e s c r i b e d a s its "three f a c e s . "  1 0 7  For such  c o n t e m p o r a r y hermeneutical s c h o l a r s a s E . D . H i r s c h , h e r m e n e u t i c s is primarily a theory of textual interpretation e m p l o y e d by the h u m a n a n d s o c i a l s c i e n c e s to guarantee the objectivity of their c o n c l u s i o n s .  108  With his e m p h a s i s on  methodological validity a n d rules of procedure, H i r s c h ' s c o n c e p t i o n of h e r m e n e u t i c s c a n be s e e n a s aligning most c l o s e l y with the empirical discipline  Hans-Georg Gadamer, "Grenzen der Sprache J . C . B . Mohr, 1992) 98. 1 0 6  (1985)," Gadamer Lesebuch (Tubingen:  Roy J . Howard, The Three Faces of Hermeneutics. An Introduction to Current Theories of Understanding (Berkeley: University of California Press, Ltd., 1982).  1 0 7  1 0 8  Howard 26-53.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  60  of linguistics a n d its attention to the formal a n d technical a s p e c t s of l a n g u a g e learning a n d u s e . It is precisely this f o c u s on objectivity through methodology which G a d a m e r disputes in Truth and Method.  A c c o r d i n g to H o w a r d , G a d a m e r  represents a s e c o n d , b a s i c orientation within h e r m e n e u t i c s which rejects its application a s a n empirical methodology.  Instead, hermeneutics is regarded a s  a linguistic-philosophical a p p r o a c h directed towards a c h i e v i n g a n understanding b e t w e e n individuals regarding our s h a r e d world. H o w a r d depicts G a d a m e r a s e m p l o y i n g h e r m e n e u t i c s to promote our understanding of cultural w a y s of knowing, a n d the production of k n o w l e d g e a s a n e x c h a n g e of w o r l d v i e w s .  109  As  I m e n t i o n e d , it is the philosophical h e r m e n e u t i c s of G a d a m e r especially, which h a v e b e e n useful for intercultural a p p r o a c h e s to l a n g u a g e learning. A third orientation within h e r m e n e u t i c s aligns with the critical d i m e n s i o n of foreign l a n g u a g e learning a n d is represented by J u r g e n H a b e r m a s . H a b e r m a s ' s o - c a l l e d "critical" a p p r o a c h to h e r m e n e u t i c s c h a l l e n g e s the idealistic a s s u m p t i o n s underlying both h e r m e n e u t i c s a s a method of textual criticism a n d h e r m e n e u t i c s a s a more f u n d a m e n t a l , philosophical c o n c e r n . G u i d e d by the d e m a n d for unrestricted c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d self-determination, H a b e r m a s h a s defined h e r m e n e u t i c s a s : "the art of understanding the m e a n i n g of linguistic c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d , in the c a s e of disrupted c o m m u n i c a t i o n , of making it understandable."  1 U M  Howard 121-134.  1 1 0  Howard 91-103.  110  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  61  Before looking at s o m e of the theoretical disputes a n d q u e s t i o n s that t h e s e hermeneutical orientations h a v e e n g e n d e r e d , I would like first to verify the essential relations between h e r m e n e u t i c s a n d l a n g u a g e p e d a g o g y a n d identify the nature of their c o n n e c t i o n . Certainly, the variety that H o w a r d depicts b e a r s witness to the a m o r p h o u s n e s s of the hermeneutical tradition; n e v e r t h e l e s s , all of t h e s e orientations identify understanding a n d interpretation, in their relationship to l a n g u a g e a n d text, a s the subject matter of hermeneutics. A s w e h a v e s e e n , textual interpretation constitutes the foundation of hermeneutical studies a n d is paradigmatic for understanding within hermeneutical thought.  E v e n the m o v e to  a more philosophical h e r m e n e u t i c s h a s not relinquished the primacy of l a n g u a g e for h u m a n understanding. H e r m e n e u t i c s is the tradition of the 'word' in understanding a n d a s s u c h m a y be c o n s i d e r e d intrinsically related to l a n g u a g e study. O n e of the most c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d s u s t a i n e d a r g u m e n t s for the "essential c o n n e c t i o n s " b e t w e e n h e r m e n e u t i c s a n d p e d a g o g y is that of S h a u n G a l l a g h e r in his work Hermeneutics  and Education.^  G a l l a g h e r depicts the  nature of t h e s e c o n n e c t i o n s a s follows: If education involves understanding a n d interpretation; if formal educational practice is g u i d e d by the u s e of texts a n d c o m m e n t a r y , reading a n d writing; if linguistic understanding a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n are essential to educational institutions; if educational e x p e r i e n c e is a temporal p r o c e s s involving fixed e x p r e s s i o n s of life a n d the t r a n s m i s s i o n or critique of traditions; if, in effect, education is a h u m a n enterprise, then h e r m e n e u t i c s , which c l a i m s all of t h e s e a s its subject matter, holds out  "' Shaun Gallagher, Hermeneutics and Education (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992).  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  62  the promise of providing a d e e p e r understanding of the educational process. 1 1 2  T h e s e n u m e r o u s affinities s e r v e to establish a c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n h e r m e n e u t i c s a n d p e d a g o g y . F o r G a l l a g h e r , however, it is not primarily their s h a r e d affinities that will yield d e e p e r insights, but rather the philosophical a n d theoretical i m p a s s e s that h e r m e n e u t i c s a n d p e d a g o g y s h a r e . T h e s e i m p a s s e s , or "aporia" a s G a l l a g h e r refers to t h e m , coincide with the three f a c e s of h e r m e n e u t i c s that H o w a r d d e s c r i b e s . T h e y merit our attention b e c a u s e G a l l a g h e r depicts all three of t h e m a s deriving from disputes with G a d a m e r ' s philosophical hermeneutics. A s w a s noted previously, G a d a m e r i a n hermeneutics s e r v e a s the dominant theoretical frame of reference in the d e v e l o p m e n t of a n intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s . A n d i n d e e d , t h e s e s a m e three aporia will e m e r g e again within the context of a n intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s . G a l l a g h e r d e s c r i b e s the first aporia a s deriving from the philosophical e n c o u n t e r of H a n s - G e o r g G a d a m e r with E . D . H i r s c h . A s w e recall from H o w a r d ' s depiction, Hirsch c o n c e p t u a l i z e s h e r m e n e u t i c s a s a methodology by m e a n s of which the h u m a n s c i e n c e s c a n attain objectively valid c o n c l u s i o n s . G i v e n the prejudicial nature of understanding a s G a d a m e r depicts it, it m a y be p o s s i b l e to a c h i e v e a form of intersubjective a g r e e m e n t regarding the interpretation of s o m e object or event, but the question remains whether that a g r e e m e n t m a k e s the interpretation correct? For hermeneutical theorists s u c h a s H i r s c h , reproducing 1 1 2  Gallagher 24.  the original m e a n i n g of a n object of interpretation  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  63  correctly, constitutes the legitimate goal of understanding. T o the extent that G a d a m e r d i s r e g a r d s this question of the objectivity a n d validity of a n interpretation, he h a s p r e c l u d e d the possibility of correct understanding. Hirsch is not a l o n e in his position. Indeed, this d e b a t e over objectivity a n d methodology is c o n s i d e r e d by m a n y to constitute the primary i m p a s s e within h e r m e n e u t i c s .  113  W e h a v e already s e e n h o w this i m p a s s e plays out  within the context of educational theory, for Hirsch a r g u e s that education must be b a s e d o n a similar reproductive activity. Later in this chapter, w e shall s e e h o w the general terms of this d e b a t e a r e repeated within the context of a n intercultural hermeneutics. F o r n o w w e will continue with G a l l a g h e r ' s s e c o n d a p o r i a w h i c h , a s in the c a s e of the first, w e h a v e already e n c o u n t e r e d within p e d a g o g y a n d which t a k e s G a d a m e r ' s hermeneutical philosophy a s its point of departure. T h i s s e c o n d i m p a s s e derives from the dispute b e t w e e n G a d a m e r a n d J u r g e n H a b e r m a s . A c c o r d i n g to H a b e r m a s , G a d a m e r ' s philosophical h e r m e n e u t i c s remains limited insofar a s it fails to take into a c c o u n t extralinguistic factors that distort l a n g u a g e a n d therefore distort conversation a n d understanding. F o r H a b e r m a s , a valid theoretical frame of reference must c o n s i d e r not only l a n g u a g e but a l s o s u c h factors a s e c o n o m i c e l e m e n t s of labour a n d c l a s s , scientific-technical progress a n d m o d e s of production, a n d  P a u l R i c o u e r , Hermeneutics P r e s s , 1981) 4 7 .  1 1 3  and the Human Sciences  (Cambridge: C a m b r i d g e University  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  64  s o c i a l a n d political p r o c e s s e s of d o m i n a t i o n .  114  H a b e r m a s p r o p o s e s , therefore,  that G a d a m e r ' s p r o c e s s of hermeneutical reflection s h o u l d be s u p p l e m e n t e d with a kind of s u p r a - h e r m e n e u t i c a l critique of ideology a b l e to e x p o s e the extralinguistic, built-in distortions operative in understanding. F o r his part, G a d a m e r objects to any c o n c e p t i o n of critical reflection that c l a i m s a privileged ideological neutrality.  In r e s p o n s e to his critics, ( H a b e r m a s  especially), w h o a c c u s e G a d a m e r of failing to r e c o g n i z e the power of reflection, G a d a m e r states: M y objection is that the critique of ideology o v e r e s t i m a t e s the c o m p e t e n c e of reflection a n d r e a s o n . Inasmuch a s it s e e k s to penetrate the m a s k e d interests which infect public opinion, it implies its o w n f r e e d o m from a n y ideology; a n d that m e a n s in turn that it e n t h r o n e s its o w n n o r m s a n d ideals a s self-evident a n d a b s o l u t e . 115  A s in the c a s e of the first aporia, w e h a v e s e e n this particular i m p a s s e reflected within the educational context. It c o n c e r n s the question about the c a p a c i t y of reflection to reveal a n d counter structures of p o w e r a n d authority within e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s a n d institutions. Within the hermeneutical context, it is a question of the extent to which various authority or power structures are n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r o d u c e d within traditions of understanding, a n d the extent to w h i c h t h e s e traditions c a n be transformed through the hermeneutical e x p e r i e n c e . If H a b e r m a s is right, then the G a d a m e r i a n p r o c e s s of  J u r g e n H a b e r m a s , " A R e v i e w of G a d a m e r ' s 'Truth a n d M e t h o d ' , " Understanding and Social Inquiry, e d . F r e d R. D a l m a y r a n d T h o m a s A . M c C a r t h y (Notre D a m e : U n i v e r s i t y of N o t r e D a m e P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) 3 6 0 - 3 6 1 ; c i t e d in G a l l a g h e r , p. 1 7 . 1 1 4  1 1 5  H a n s - G e o r g G a d a m e r , " R e p l y to m y C r i t i c s , " t r a n s . G e o r g e H . L e i n e r , c i t e d in G a l l a g h e r p.18.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  65  hermeneutical reflection h a s run into o n e of its limitations, a limitation that will b e e n c o u n t e r e d a g a i n in the s e a r c h for a n intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s . W h e r e a s G a l l a g h e r depicts the first aporia a s the d e b a t e of H i r s c h with G a d a m e r over objective reproduction, a n d the s e c o n d aporia a s the d e b a t e of H a b e r m a s with G a d a m e r o v e r transformation a n d limitation, the third i m p a s s e or a p o r i a involves the d e b a t e of G a d a m e r with the F r e n c h deconstructionist p h i l o s o p h e r J a c q u e s Derrida. T h e w a y Derrida s e e s it, G a d a m e r ' s c o n c e p t i o n of h e r m e n e u t i c s a s the s e a r c h for s o m e s e n s e of truth, m e a n i n g or c o n s e n s u s b a s e d on a m o d e l of c o n v e r s a t i o n or dialogue, reflects a trust in c o m m u n i c a t i o n that is ill-founded. Indeed, Derrida starts out resembling H a b e r m a s in his c l a i m that G a d a m e r is too trusting in dialogue a n d that distorted c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e m a n d s s u s p i c i o n . But w h e r e a s H a b e r m a s still posits the possibility of e x p o s i n g distortive forces, a n d thus of attaining to s o m e s e n s e of truth, Derrida insists that there is no e s c a p e from t h e s e forces, a n d that the w h o l e m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n c e p t of truth requires deconstruction. Ironically e n o u g h , this latter claim derives originally from the s e l f - s a m e thinker w h o inspired G a d a m e r ' s a p p r o a c h : Martin H e i d e g g e r . D a v i d C o u z e n s H o y points out this ironic dichotomy in his article entitled " H e i d e g g e r a n d the hermeneutic turn": T w o thinkers in the s e c o n d half of the twentieth century w h o s e work would not have b e e n p o s s i b l e without H e i d e g g e r ' s a c c o u n t of understanding in Being and Time are H a n s - G e o r g G a d a m e r a n d J a c q u e s Derrida. Y e t the hermeneutic theory d e v e l o p e d by G a d a m e r a n d the deconstructive m o v e m e n t fathered by Derrida take the H e i d e g g e r i a n a c c o u n t in different a n d apparently o p p o s e d d i r e c t i o n s . 116  D a v i d C o u z e n s H o y , " H e i d e g g e r a n d the h e r m e n e u t i c turn," The Cambridge Companion Heidegger, C h a r l e s G u i g n o n , e d . (Cambridge: C a m b r i d g e University P r e s s , 1993) 188.  1 1 6  to  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  66  In contrast to the G a d a m e r i a n m o v e to recover a n d reconstruct m e a n i n g through c o n s e n s u s b a s e d on dialogue, Derridean deconstruction p r o c e e d s by questioning this faith in the unity of m e a n i n g a n d the primacy of c o n v e r s a t i o n . In light of this d e b a t e , w e f a c e the question a s to whether understanding s h o u l d be reconstructive or deconstructive in intent. G a l l a g h e r p o s e s this question in terms of R i c o e u r ' s distinction b e t w e e n a "hermeneutics of trust" a n d a " h e r m e n e u t i c s of s u s p i c i o n " a n d depicts this third aporia a s that of c o n v e r s a t i o n being caught b e t w e e n trust ( G a d a m e r ) a n d s u s p i c i o n ( D e r r i d a ) .  117  A s c o u l d be e x p e c t e d , the hermeneutical aporia of c o n v e r s a t i o n is reiterated within the context of education. If it is in the nature of e d u c a t i o n to involve m o r e than the reproduction of k n o w l e d g e ; that is, if education must a l w a y s involve s o m e form of transformative activity, a s K r a m s c h , Laurillard a n d the critical educational theorists would insist, must that transformation n e c e s s a r i l y involve a s u s p i c i o n of all c o n v e r s a t i o n ? G a l l a g h e r is e s p e c i a l l y c o n c e r n e d with the p e d a g o g i c a l implications of this a p o r i a , b e c a u s e the conceptualization of education a s the "conversation of m a n k i n d " s e r v e s a s a w i d e s p r e a d ideal a n d m o d e l for p e d a g o g y .  1 1 8  It certainly qualifies a s the  prevailing c o n c e p t a n d m o d e l within a n intercultural a p p r o a c h to p e d a g o g y , making the aporia of conversation a particularly relevant a n d c o m p e l l i n g c o n c e r n within a n intercultural a p p r o a c h to hermeneutics. A n a s p e c t of this aporia which  1 1 7  Gallagher 21.  1 1 8  Gallagher 22.  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  67  l a n g u a g e p e d a g o g y reveals a s particularly significant is the role of the word in the world. If w e c h a r a c t e r i z e h e r m e n e u t i c s a s the study of h u m a n understanding, a n d this understanding is s e e n a s essentially l a n g u a g e - b a s e d , then a n a c c o m p a n y i n g claim must be that our understanding of the word constitutes our understanding of the world. A n d indeed nothing l e s s than this h a s b e e n c l a i m e d by J a c q u e s Derrida in his p r o n o u n c e m e n t "il n'y a p a s de hors-texte" or " T h e r e is nothing outside the t e x t . "  119  T h e r e are only texts, a n d o n e text c a n refer only to  another text. F o r his part, G a d a m e r a l s o c l a i m s " S e i n , dal3 v e r s t a n d e n w e r d e n k a n n , ist S p r a c h e " or " B e i n g that c a n be understood is l a n g u a g e " ( T M 4 7 4 ) . If this hermeneutical s t a n c e d o e s not s a y that "there are only texts," it d o e s s e e m to imply that everything, not excluding "being" itself, is textual, that is, in l a n g u a g e a n d available to be read. Insofar a s the world h a s significance for the h u m a n b e i n g , the world is a text which calls for interpretation. T h e question a r i s e s , of c o u r s e , whether this m o d e l of the word a s a n a l o g o u s to our understanding of the world is a l w a y s appropriate. B y b a s i n g its m o d e l of understanding upon l a n g u a g e , h e r m e n e u t i c s r e d u c e s all forms of understanding to o n e - linguistic. F r o m this perspective understanding, whether it is understanding a p e r s o n or a n event, the natural world or the cultural o n e , is a l w a y s a n e x e r c i s e in l a n g u a g e . In h e r m e n e u t i c s a s a methodology for textual interpretation, l a n g u a g e is properly the subject matter. E v e n in its manifestation a s a philosophy of understanding generally, l a n g u a g e justifiably plays a central  J a c q u e s D e r r i d a , Of Grammatology, Hopkins University P r e s s , 1976) 158. 1 1 9  trans. Gayatri Chakravorty S p i v a k (Baltimore: J o h n s  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  68  role; however, I believe it seriously diminishes the potency of the tradition if it r e m a i n s the e x c l u s i v e f o c u s of philosophical hermeneutics. After all - a n d here w e h a v e a first indication of the nature of their reciprocal relation - h a v e the n e w directions in l a n g u a g e study not d e v e l o p e d specifically out of the realization that linguistic proficiency is not e n o u g h to e n s u r e understanding?  That  understanding the 'other' involves m o r e than understanding his or her linguistic c o d e ? L a n g u a g e study h a s s h o w n us that it is insufficient to turn to l a n g u a g e to solve all hermeneutical p r o b l e m s , all p r o b l e m s of understanding. S o w h e r e d o e s that leave the relationship b e t w e e n h e r m e n e u t i c s a n d p e d a g o g y a n d the stated p u r p o s e of my dissertation?  1.5 Understanding in Learning: From Theory to Practice A s stated at the outset, my p u r p o s e in this dissertation is to promote the role of l a n g u a g e study within a g e n e r a l education for the twenty-first century. M y intention is to e n g a g e philosophical h e r m e n e u t i c s in the s e r v i c e of this effort. With this relation a s my point of departure, I will p r o c e e d o n the b a s i s of the two propositions that follow. First, it will be my guiding f o c u s in this effort to regard the learning of l a n g u a g e s a s a n educational v a l u e . B y this I m e a n that my a p p r o a c h to the discipline will h a v e little in c o m m o n with utilitarian a p p r o a c h e s that confine l a n g u a g e study to the acquisition of a skill. W h e n language learning is c o n s i d e r e d part of a general e d u c a t i o n , there is m u c h more to it than the m e r e acquisition of skills. L a n g u a g e learners fulfilling program requirements in a n  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  69  institutional setting may rarely or e v e n never require a n additional l a n g u a g e , either for c a r e e r or travel p u r p o s e s . M o r e o v e r , if their learning e x p e r i e n c e c o n s i s t s of nothing more than the technical formalities of a l a n g u a g e , what will they be left with after they've forgotten h o w to decline a n adjective or conjugate a v e r b ? Linguistic proficiency s h o u l d remain a n immediate a n d concrete goal of l a n g u a g e p e d a g o g y , but it is for broader, more enduring c o m p e t e n c i e s that the discipline must ultimately e d u c a t e . Of c o u r s e , w e cannot h o p e for u n e q u i v o c a l a g r e e m e n t a s to what t h e s e might be. T h e new directions in l a n g u a g e study are consistent, however, with what I e s t a b l i s h e d previously a s two of the fundamental v a l u e s a n d objectives of education today: self-understanding a n d a n explicit a w a r e n e s s of o n e ' s own identity a s a culturally a n d socially-defined individual. T h i s is the m a n d a t e for contemporary l a n g u a g e study from which I will p r o c e e d . S e c o n d , aligning the objectives of l a n g u a g e learning with t h o s e of e d u c a t i o n generally m e a n s bringing t h e s e objectives to realization within a n institutional context. S u c h a context n e c e s s a r i l y implies theoretical a n d methodological considerations. Contributing to t h e s e is my d e s i g n a t e d role for h e r m e n e u t i c s . A s w e h a v e s e e n , attempts to establish a theoretical b a s e for l a n g u a g e study have already b e e n far-reaching, confined neither to the traditional linguistic s c i e n c e s nor to the traditionally e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l o n e s . A s w e h a v e a l s o s e e n , the new a p p r o a c h e s in l a n g u a g e study involve a new conceptualization of understanding, a n d in this regard, theoretical inquiry c a n rightly turn to the closely allied a n d well-established discipline of h e r m e n e u t i c s .  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  70  But what of the v e x e d q u e s t i o n s a n d s e e m i n g l y i n c o m m e n s u r a b l e theoretical i m p a s s e s with which the tradition g r a p p l e s ? It is b e y o n d the parameters of my dissertation to attempt to resolve t h e s e disputes; rather, it is my intention to p u r s u e other possibilities a n d directions within the tradition that I believe remain u n d e r d e v e l o p e d . In the m a n n e r of a n introduction to t h e s e possibilities, however, I will r e s p o n d to the question of the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the textual p a r a d i g m within h e r m e n e u t i c s . I will then t r a n s p o s e G a l l a g h e r ' s three hermeneutical aporia into the terms of a n intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s a n d c o n c l u d e the chapter by identifying the other p o s s i b l e directions that the tradition offers.  1.6 The Aporia of an Intercultural Hermeneutics B e g i n n i n g with the hermeneutic e m p h a s i s upon l a n g u a g e within understanding, I would argue that this e m p h a s i s is a distortion of the tradition. It o b s c u r e s what h a s a l w a y s distinguished h e r m e n e u t i c s from other forms of philosophy: its foundation a n d grounding in the actual activity of h u m a n living. F o r e x a m p l e , S c h l e i e r m a c h e r is known for having s y s t e m a t i z e d the m e t h o d s of g r a m m a t i c a l interpretation that h a d b e e n the mainstay of hermeneutical practice, but his real significance resides in his having c o m p l e m e n t e d this traditional grammatical e x e g e s i s with p s y c h o l o g i c a l interpretation, with the understanding of another h u m a n being, the writer. S c h l e i e r m a c h e r realized that understanding a text m e a n s more than just understanding the w o r d s . His h e r m e n e u t i c s v i e w e d a text a s the e x p r e s s i o n of a writer's individual e x p e r i e n c e a n d insight. T h i s  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  71  combination of insight a n d e x p e r i e n c e is the r e a s o n why a text exists in the first p l a c e a n d it is this which renders a text into a meaningful, c o m p r e h e n s i b l e unit. Dilthey believed that it is in l a n g u a g e that the h u m a n spirit finds its most c o m p l e t e a n d objectively c o m p r e h e n s i b l e e x p r e s s i o n , but l a n g u a g e d o e s not m a k e s e n s e , is literally m e a n i n g l e s s , apart from the all-important factor of " E r l e b n i s , " of actual "lived e x p e r i e n c e . " M o r e o v e r , understanding w a s for him a p r o c e s s that h a d its origin in the daily activities of h u m a n living. B y inference to this p r o c e s s of living, Dilthey c l a i m e d that all c o m p l e x manifestations of understanding derived from the c o m m o n acts of c o m p r e h e n s i o n that e n a b l e h u m a n b e i n g s to function in the world a n d to interact with o n e another every day. H e i d e g g e r referred to l a n g u a g e a s " d a s H a u s d e s S e i n s " or "the h o u s e of Being,"  1 2 0  but if e x p e r i e n c e is not really meaningful until it h a s found a h o m e in  l a n g u a g e , e x p e r i e n c e is a l s o the r e a s o n for the e x i s t e n c e of l a n g u a g e . St. J o h n p r o c l a i m e d that w h e n all things b e g a n , the word already w a s , but H e i d e g g e r would counter that for all things to begin, there h a d to be e x i s t e n c e already. H e i d e g g e r ' s h e r m e n e u t i c s in Being and Time are firmly g r o u n d e d in the existential world of e v e r y d a y h u m a n e x p e r i e n c e . H e p a y s careful attention to the m o d e s in which h u m a n beings exist a n d the m a n n e r in which things are actually e n c o u n t e r e d in the world.  M a r t i n H e i d e g g e r , "Brief u b e r d e n H u m a n i s m u s , " Wegmarken ( 1 9 4 7 ; F r a n k f u r t / M a i n : Vittorio K l o s t e r m a n n V e r l a g , 1967) 1 4 5 . 1 2 0  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  72  A s w e h a v e s e e n , G a d a m e r relies heavily on the work of H e i d e g g e r , or, m o r e properly, his particular interpretation of H e i d e g g e r ' s work. A s G a d a m e r s e e s it, it w a s H e i d e g g e r ' s radical breakthrough to reveal the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e a n d world. A c c o r d i n g to G a d a m e r , language is the w a y in which w e , a s h u m a n s , e x p e r i e n c e what w e call reality. It is the w a y in which reality exists for us. But if our encounter with the reality of the world is a l w a y s through l a n g u a g e , G a d a m e r n e v e r t h e l e s s insists that it is "something that the thing itself d o e s a n d which thought 'suffers'. T h i s activity of the thing itself is the real speculative m o v e m e n t that t a k e s hold of the s p e a k e r " ( T M 4 7 4 ) . M o r e o v e r , clarifying the relation between understanding a n d practice is a n important task in G a d a m e r ' s hermeneutics, a n d his idea that application is implicit in all understanding plays a central role. I would argue that a textual paradigm of understanding constitutes a distortion of the hermeneutical tradition. All of this notwithstanding, more attention is presently being paid to the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l a n d linguistic d i m e n s i o n of h e r m e n e u t i c s , than to the ontological a n d existential. I a g r e e with H e i d e g g e r that h u m a n understanding is e x p r e s s e d first a n d foremost in a v e r a g e , e v e r y d a y practices; in what people do, not just in what they s a y . M o r e o v e r , I wish to e x p a n d upon this with a specific proposition: namely, that hermeneutical practice d o e s not follow H e i d e g g e r sufficiently in f o c u s i n g upon ontology rather than epistemology; that is, in viewing understanding primarily a s a m o d e of being rather than a m o d e of k n o w i n g . T h e r e f o r e , a direction within h e r m e n e u t i c s I intend to pursue is a hermeneutics that reasserts the r e l e v a n c e of H e i d e g g e r  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  73  a n d his e m p h a s i s on the c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n self-understanding a n d daily human existence. Of c o u r s e , H e i d e g g e r is only o n e in a long line of thinkers w h o f o u n d e d his philosophy directly on our living a s w e e x p e r i e n c e it; however, a m o n g t h o s e p h i l o s o p h e r s w h o m a y be d e s i g n a t e d a s hermeneutical, H e i d e g g e r is different. I mentioned that historical a c c o u n t s of hermeneutical p h i l o s o p h e r s a n d philosophy almost a l w a y s begin with Friedrich S c h l e i e r m a c h e r . H e w a s the o n e to provide a systematic theory of understanding a n d attempted to work out a g e n e r a l discipline to e m b r a c e the various s p e c i a l i z e d b r a n c h e s of h e r m e n e u t i c s existing at his time. It w a s , therefore, both e a s y a n d legitimate for almost e v e r y o n e - H e i d e g g e r is the exception - to take S c h l e i e r m a c h e r a s a b e n c h mark of hermeneutical theory. S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s textual h e r m e n e u t i c s b e c a m e the m e a s u r e of all hermeneutical theory a n d the text itself b e c a m e the p a r a d i g m of hermeneutics. W h a t H e i d e g g e r understood a n d others didn't is that S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s m o v e from specific to general theory within a textual h e r m e n e u t i c s is radically different from the later m o v e to a more universal, philosophical h e r m e n e u t i c s w h e r e not all understanding is r e d u c e d to textual understanding. Of c o u r s e , insofar a s the p r o c e s s of learning is c o n c e r n e d , w e cannot fail to a c k n o w l e d g e that textual interpretation d o e s take p l a c e in learning. Still, it is equally o b v i o u s that this is not how all learning t a k e s p l a c e . Indeed, s i n c e o n e must learn h o w to read a n d understand written texts, a certain priority must be given to a kind of learning other than learning by textual understanding. T o my  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  74  m i n d , both the learning p r o c e s s generally, a n d the learning of another l a n g u a g e specifically, c a n benefit by retrieving the existential d i m e n s i o n of understanding which H e i d e g g e r put forth a n d which h a s b e e n o b s c u r e d by textualism. A s w e h a v e s e e n , however, it is not the h e r m e n e u t i c s of Martin H e i d e g g e r but t h o s e of this student H a n s - G e o r g G a d a m e r that h a v e s e r v e d a s the primary point of departure in the s e a r c h for a n intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s . A s w e h a v e a l s o s e e n , his h a s not a l w a y s b e e n d e e m e d the most fruitful or productive a p p r o a c h . T h e claim by the A m e r i c a n G e r m a n i s t H . - J . S c h u l z that G a d a m e r ' s h e r m e n e u t i c s m a y not be the most appropriate, w a s prefigured by the G e r m a n G e r m a n i s t A l o i s W i e r l a c h e r in a n article entitled "With Foreign E y e s or: F o r e i g n n e s s a s Fermentation. T h o u g h t s on the Foundation of a n Intercultural H e r m e n e u t i c s of G e r m a n Literature" (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) .  121  P u b l i s h e d in 1990, this  work h a s s i n c e a s s u m e d almost c a n o n i c a l status within the field. Within the frame of reference of a n intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s , it is primarily G a d a m e r ' s c o n c e p t of a "fusion" which is troubling to W i e r l a c h e r . W i e r l a c h e r c l a i m s that in G a d a m e r ' s description of the unity of the o n e a n d the other which c o m e s about in the hermeneutic "fusion of horizons," the dissolution of the o n e in the other is s u g g e s t e d : But the s u c c e s s of historical understanding resides in the unity of the o n e a n d the other p r o d u c e d through a fusion of h o r i z o n s that c o m e s dubiously c l o s e to the dissolution of the o n e in the other, (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) 122  A l o i s W i e r l a c h e r , "Mit f r e m d e n A u g e n o d e r : F r e m d h e i t a l s F e r m e n t . U b e r l e g u n g e n z u r B e g r u n d u n g e i n e r interkulturellen H e r m e n e u t i k d e u t s c h e r Literatur." Hermeneutik der Fremde, Dietrich K r u s c h e & A l o i s W i e r l a c h e r , e d s . ( M u n c h e n : l u d i c i u m 1 9 9 0 ) . 1 2 1  122 " A b e r d a s G e l i n g e n g e s c h i c h t l i c h e n V e r s t e h e n s b e s t e h t letztlich in d e r H e r s t e l l u n g e i n e r h o r i z o n t v e r s c h m e l z e n d e n " E i n h e i t " d e s E i n e n u n d A n d e r e n , d i e d e r A u f l o s u n g d e s A n d e r e n im E i n e n b e d e n k l i c h n a h e k o m m t . " (58)  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  75  A c c o r d i n g to W i e r l a c h e r , this hermeneutic merging of subject a n d object is a form of appropriation, o n e of the other, a n d therefore s h o u l d not be the m o d e l for intercultural t e a c h i n g or the description of intercultural reception. Instead, it r e s e m b l e s the despotic attitude of the nineteenth century "that imperially liquidates cultural f o r e i g n n e s s " (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) .  123  It is W i e r l a c h e r ' s contention,  in a n y c a s e , that the possibility of s u c c e s s f u l l y attaining s u c h a fusion h a s b e e n overestimated a n d he cites s u c h r e s p e c t e d G e r m a n thinkers a s G o e t h e a n d L e s s i n g to support his argument. A n abiding t h e m e for W i e r l a c h e r in this article is the relationship b e t w e e n a n understanding of "the foreign" a n d self-understanding. H e s p e a k s of the "interdependent d e v e l o p m e n t of self a n d o t h e r "  124  a n d regards "understanding  "the foreign" a s a m o d e of understanding the self (my t r a n s l a t i o n s ) . "  125  In terms  w e h a v e already e n c o u n t e r e d during our look at l a n g u a g e study, he s p e a k s of the power of "the foreign" to help us s e e our native culture differently, to get " a n e w view of what is o n e ' s own (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) . "  126  H e e v e n s u p p l i e s us with  s o m e t h i n g of a m o d e l for how this might h a p p e n , w h e n he c l a i m s that in the e n c o u n t e r with the foreign "the willing reader c o m e s up against their own  "die kulturell F r e m d e s i m p e r i a l i s t i s c h liquidiert" (58). " I n t e r d e p e n d e n z v o n S e l b s t - u n d F r e m d e n t f a l t u n g " (65). " F r e m d v e r s t e h e n a l s M o d u s d e s S e l b s t v e r s t e h e n " (66). " e i n e n e u e S i c h t auf d a s E i g e n e " (66).  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  76  c o n c e p t s , habits, a n d behaviour patterns" (my t r a n s l a t i o n ) .  127  In this, however,  he a p p e a r s to be reverting to a G a d a m e r i a n d y n a m i c s i n c e t h e s e " c o n c e p t s , habits a n d b e h a v i o u r patterns" m a y be understood a s the implicit pre-judgments that s h a p e understanding a n d w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g to G a d a m e r , it is the function of hermeneutic reflection to m a k e explicit. M o r e o v e r , W i e r l a c h e r r e c o m m e n d s the notion of " S p i e l " or "play" a s it is d e v e l o p e d by G a d a m e r in Truth and  Method  (TM101-110) a s an appropriate m e a n s of facilitating this sight "with foreign e y e s " or "mit f r e m d e n A u g e n " (68).  Finally, although W i e r l a c h e r s i n g l e s out the  a p p r o a c h of Helmuth P l e s s n e r a n d his notion of " b e c o m i n g c l o s e from a distance"  128  a s appropriate for intercultural understanding, W i e r l a c h e r ' s  depiction of s u c h understanding is a g a i n characteristically G a d a m e r i a n : " W h e r e this w a y of s e e i n g c a n penetrate through to its own historical conditions, a n d c a n work out a n appropriate methodology, a c o m m u n i t y of s h a r e d understanding will be p o s s i b l e . . . " (my t r a n s l a t i o n s ) .  129  W h e t h e r or not W i e r l a c h e r ' s references to a " S e h w e i s e " or "way of s e e i n g " a n d to "geschichtlichen B e d i n g u n g e n " or "historical conditions" could be c o n s i d e r e d characteristically G a d a m e r i a n is d e b a t a b l e ; however, his i m a g e of understanding a s a " V e r s t a n d i g u n g s g e m e i n s c h a f t " or a "community of s h a r e d understanding" p l a c e s understanding under the obligation of c o n s e n s u s a n d that  "sto(3t d e r s i c h e i n l a s s e n d e L e s e r auf s e i n e e i g e n e n K o n z e p t e , G e w o h n h e i t e n u n d V e r h a l t e n s m o d e l l e " (67). 1 2 7  1 2 8  " V e r t r a u t w e r d e n in d e r D i s t a n z " (68).  " F a l l s d i e s e S e h w e i s e z u d e n g e s c h i c h t l i c h e n B e d i n g u n g e n ihrer s e l b s t d u r c h d r i n g t u n d e i n e e n t s p r e c h e n d e M e t h o d o l o g i e erarbeitet w e r d e n k a n n , wird e i n e V e r s t a n d i g u n g s g e m e i n s c h a f t m o g l i c h . . . " (68). 1 2 9  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  77  m a k e s his image distinctly G a d a m e r i a n . Despite W i e r l a c h e r ' s explicit rejection of G a d a m e r i a n h e r m e n e u t i c s , they provide the implicit frame of reference for his a c c o u n t . A n d yet, if the a b o v e quotation verifies the c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n the two thinkers, it a l s o attests to what divides them a n d , i n d e e d , to what aligns W i e r l a c h e r with H i r s c h a n d the question of objectivity in hermeneutics. In the a b o v e quote, a n d throughout the article, W i e r l a c h e r is c o n c e r n e d to find a methodology a b l e to give e x p r e s s i o n to the "way of s e e i n g " that he c o n s i d e r s appropriate for intercultural understanding. W i e r l a c h e r ' s s e a r c h for a methodology is consistent with his rejection of G a d a m e r ' s c o n c e p t of understanding a s a p r o c e s s of fusion. I s e e this a s consistent b e c a u s e it is a characteristic feature of m e t h o d s to strive to preserve the a u t o n o m y of the entities they h a v e isolated, a n d W i e r l a c h e r is very c o n c e r n e d to h a v e the a u t o n o m y of the foreign subject matter p r e s e r v e d . It is, of c o u r s e , a n o p e n question a s to whether s u c h a n isolated a n d atomic condition c a n be a c h i e v e d ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , W i e r l a c h e r ' s formulation of the intercultural e x c h a n g e in terms of a subject-object encounter, a n d his turn to m e t h o d to bridge the g a p that inheres in s u c h a formulation, aligns W i e r l a c h e r with H o w a r d ' s methodological "face" of h e r m e n e u t i c s a n d G a l l a g h e r ' s i m p a s s e involving the legitimacy of a n interpretation in terms of correct reproduction. A n a s p e c t of W i e r l a c h e r ' s formulation that r e m a i n s operative within the field is his claim that the e n c o u n t e r with "the foreign" facilitates a greater understanding of self. I a g r e e with W i e r l a c h e r ; i n d e e d , I a m p r o c e e d i n g from the proposition that self-understanding is a value a n d goal of education a n d that the  78  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  study of another l a n g u a g e h a s a unique capacity to e n h a n c e self-understanding b e c a u s e of the experiential role of what is "foreign" or unfamiliar to the learner. H . - J . S c h u l z cites W i e r l a c h e r ' s article a n d a c k n o w l e d g e s W i e r l a c h e r ' s critique of G a d a m e r i a n h e r m e n e u t i c s in his o w n critique of G a d a m e r . With regard to that critique, S c h u l z s e e m s to s h o w a greater a w a r e n e s s of the implicit p r e s e n c e of G a d a m e r ' s m o d e l of h e r m e n e u t i c s in the d e v e l o p m e n t of a n intercultural m o d e l of reception a n d a greater appreciation of its positive implications. S c h u l z r e c o g n i z e s , for instance, that r e g a r d l e s s of its historical context, G a d a m e r ' s e m p h a s i s on "application" within understanding foregrounds current c o n c e r n s with respect to a particular subject matter, m a k e s that subject matter relevant, a n d works against the establishment of a fixed or c l o s e d interpretation. Still, S c h u l z r e c o g n i z e s the negative implications a s well. A c c o r d i n g to S c h u l z , o n e shortcoming of G a d a m e r i a n h e r m e n e u t i c s for the d e v e l o p m e n t of a theory of intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s , is that G a d a m e r ' s a n a l y s i s of the hermeneutic p r o c e s s unfolds within o n e living tradition, rather than b e t w e e n traditions: " G a d a m e r ' s s y s t e m of h e r m e n e u t i c s is 'mono-lingual' in nature a n d therefore understanding is fundamentally not at risk" (10).  Although  s h o w i n g o b v i o u s disregard of S c h l e i e r m a c h e r ' s warning about the ubiquity of m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , S c h u l z n e v e r t h e l e s s h a s a valid point. H e g o e s on to m a k e the claim that this constitutes a limitation of G a d a m e r ' s hermeneutic m o d e l . T o support his argument, S c h u l z turns to a figure w e h a v e already e n c o u n t e r e d in regard to the limitations of G a d a m e r i a n h e r m e n e u t i c s , J u r g e n H a b e r m a s .  79  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  In our previous encounter with H a b e r m a s , he w a s depicted a s representing the social-critical "face" of h e r m e n e u t i c s . In other w o r d s , it is not s o m u c h understanding a s the impairment of understanding which is crucial for H a b e r m a s . S c h u l z affirms this representation w h e n he depicts H a b e r m a s a s f o c u s i n g primarily on t h o s e i n s t a n c e s w h e r e understanding is " b l o c k e d " (10).  As  support, S c h u l z cites H a b e r m a s ' r e s p o n s e to G a d a m e r ' s claim of the universality of hermeneutical c o n s c i o u s n e s s : "The hermeneutic c o n s c i o u s n e s s is incomplete a s long a s it h a s not incorporated the limits of hermeneutic understanding" (10).  F o r H a b e r m a s , the i s s u e of limits revolves a r o u n d a  problem w e h a v e already e n c o u n t e r e d in its p e d a g o g i c a l g u i s e : the capacity of hermeneutical reflection to free individuals from the c o n s e n s u a l i z i n g p r e s s u r e s of a tradition a n d e n a b l e t h e m to c h a n g e that tradition. H a b e r m a s criticizes G a d a m e r ' s privileging of a n authoritative historical c o n s e n s u s a s a given c o n s e n s u s a n d insists that it t a k e s the e x p e r i e n c e of the limits of hermeneutical understanding to confront tradition critically. F o r S c h u l z the limits of hermeneutical reflection are crucial for an intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s b e c a u s e it is precisely t h o s e limits which constitute the point of departure for "recipients" of a n unfamiliar culture: H e r e . . . the recipient d o e s not a c h i e v e the limits of hermeneutic understanding a s the result of extensive reflection but begins [author's e m p h a s i s ] with a n e x p e r i e n c e of t h e s e limits a n d w o r k s " b a c k w a r d s " from it. S h e s t a n d s outside the tradition w h o s e concretization the text is, s h e s t a n d s within her own hermeneutic universe, o n e alien to the text. (11) B y w a y of a n elaboration S c h u l z d e s c r i b e s how "on the o n e h a n d " the intercultural recipient s t a n d s over against the object of understanding a s o n e  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  80  with neither history nor authority, s i n c e the recipient d o e s not s h a r e in the "effective-historical c o n s c i o u s n e s s " that authorizes the text. In this c a s e , the object simply d i s a p p e a r s into "non-negotiable cultural difference" (11). " O n the other h a n d , " S c h u l z continues his depiction, the recipient d o e s h a v e a c c e s s to pre-structures of understanding to appropriate the text, it is just that t h e s e are the pre-structures of another cultural tradition. In this instance, the object is "authorized" in a m a n n e r that deprives it of its o t h e r n e s s . S c h u l z c o n c l u d e s that for a n intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s to take p l a c e under the authority of a n y notion of c o n s e n s u s w o u l d r e d u c e o t h e r n e s s to the status of a " r e m o v a b l e impediment" (12). But what then, he a s k s , "is the nature of authority in the limit-experience with which a n intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s m a y b e g i n ? " (12). A c c o r d i n g to S c h u l z , the p r o c e s s of understanding within the context of a n intercultural h e r m e n e u t i c s m a y well be d e s c r i b e d in what he refers to a s " G a d a m e r ' s H e i d e g g e r i a n terminology"; specifically: "the u n r e s o l v e d simultaneity of e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l a n d ontological h e r m e n e u t i c s " (11). Unfortunately he d o e s not e x p a n d on this c o n c l u s i o n a n d i n d e e d admits: "I know of no c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d theoretically well-founded m o d e of explaining a n d describing s u c h p r o c e s s e s . . . " (12). In other w o r d s , S c h u l z is not very optimistic that this p r o c e s s c a n be e x p r e s s e d methodologically. W h a t he d o e s give us is the formulation of the p r o c e s s in terms of a dialogue: " O b v i o u s l y , the intercultural hermeneutic p r o c e s s , if it is a s u s t a i n e d o n e , is a c o m p l e x dialog b e t w e e n ontological a n d e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l r e s p o n s e s " (12).  I Hermeneutics and Pedagogy  81  W e h a v e , of c o u r s e , e n c o u n t e r e d s u c h a formulation before. It c o i n c i d e s with G a l l a g h e r ' s third aporia of " c o n v e r s a t i o n " a n d the question of whether w e s h o u l d pursue a "hermeneutics of trust" or a "hermeneutics of s u s p i c i o n " where dialogue is c o n c e r n e d . T h i s is not a question that S c h u l z e x p l o r e s . W h e n he refers, however, to G a d a m e r ' s terminology of ontological a n d epistemological h e r m e n e u t i c s a s being " H e i d e g g e r i a n , " w e e n d up with o n e a n d the s a m e figure at the n e x u s of the i m p a s s e , Martin H e i d e g g e r . It is time to take a c l o s e r look at this figure w h o s e thinking h a s s o diversely inspired hermeneutical thought a n d with w h o m , I believe, the contribution of the hermeneutical tradition for l a n g u a g e learning r e s i d e s .  II H e i d e g g e r , H e r m e n e u t i c s , E d u c a t i o n  Chapter II  82  Heidegger, Hermeneutics, Education  T h i s dissertation brings together two intellectual disciplines w h o s e relation w a s o n c e thought o b v i o u s by the a n c i e n t s , but w h o s e connection is more t e n u o u s today: p e d a g o g y a n d h e r m e n e u t i c s . It is my thesis that l a n g u a g e study, aligned with philosophical hermeneutics, h a s a constructive role to play in educating for critical self-understanding in the twenty-first century. T h i s dissertation will e x a m i n e a n d d e v e l o p o n e form this alignment might take a n d the implications for l a n g u a g e study within p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . W e s a w in C h a p t e r O n e that the project of c o m b i n i n g l a n g u a g e p e d a g o g y a n d philosophical h e r m e n e u t i c s is but o n e e x a m p l e of m a n y efforts to relate l a n g u a g e study to other fields of inquiry in the a c a d e m i c curriculum. M o r e o v e r , it is c l e a r from the overview of t h e s e two disciplines that mine is only o n e of m a n y attempts to c o n n e c t h e r m e n e u t i c s a n d language p e d a g o g y . W h a t m a k e s my effort distinctive is my specific attention to the philosophical h e r m e n e u t i c s of Martin H e i d e g g e r . That s u c h a n alignment s h o u l d be distinctive calls for s o m e explanation on my part. W h y h a s Martin H e i d e g g e r not figured in s u c h a d i s c u s s i o n before? Indeed, why h a s the reception of his work only recently included e d u c a t i o n ? F r o m a m o n g the greatest thinkers within the hermeneutic tradition, Martin H e i d e g g e r is arguably the most prominent.  R e f e r e n c e s to his  work are regularly p r e f a c e d with a c c o l a d e s . Y e t H e i d e g g e r r e c e i v e s no more than p a s s i n g mention in the scholarly r e s e a r c h on h e r m e n e u t i c s a n d p e d a g o g y . W h y is the work of a s great a thinker a s H e i d e g g e r only beginning to attract  II H e i d e g g e r , H e r m e n e u t i c s , E d u c a t i o n  83  attention within e d u c a t i o n ? M y intention in this chapter is to a c c o u n t for the selection of Martin H e i d e g g e r a s a n appropriate thinker for this undertaking.  2.1 Heidegger as Philosopher and Teacher T h e work of Martin H e i d e g g e r h a s b e e n attributed by David C o u z e n s H o y with creating " a revolution in the history of thought."  1  In his early writings a n d in  his major work Being and Time, H e i d e g g e r d e v e l o p e d a unique a n d c o n c e p t u a l l y rich a p p r o a c h to understanding that intersected all a r e a s of philosophy a n d h a d a n e n o r m o u s influence on c o n t e m p o r a r y thought. J e a n - P a u l Sartre, S i m o n e d e B e a u v o i r , M a u r i c e M e r l e a u - P o n t y , a n d E m m a n u e l L e v i n a s w e r e a m o n g m a n y F r e n c h thinkers w h o derived c o n c e p t s a n d a r g u m e n t s from H e i d e g g e r . Sartre is the most well-known of this group a n d is usually attributed with d e v e l o p i n g H e i d e g g e r ' s i d e a s into the body of thought known a s Existentialism. Sartre a n d existentialist thinking d o m i n a t e d F r e n c h intellectual life. A s h e grew older, Sartre grew m o r e politically active, w h e r e a s H e i d e g g e r e m p h a s i z e d the primacy of l a n g u a g e . F r o m early in his c a r e e r , J a c q u e s Derrida d o u b t e d that he c o u l d write anything that h a d not already b e e n thought by H e i d e g g e r .  2  F r o m the 1960's  until his death in 2 0 0 4 , Derrida consistently w o r k e d c l o s e l y with c o n c e p t s from H e i d e g g e r . It might e v e n b e fruitful to c o n s i d e r Derrida's Monolingualism,  or the  D a v i d C o u z e n s H o y , " H e i d e g g e r a n d t h e h e r m e n e u t i c turn," The Cambridge Companion Heidegger, C h a r l e s G u i g n o n , e d . (Cambridge: C a m b r i d g e University P r e s s , 1993) 1 7 0 . 1  H u b e r t L. D r e y f u s , Being-in-the-World. A Commentary Division I ( C a m b r i d g e : M I T P r e s s , 1991) 9.  2  on Heidegger's  'Being and  Time',  to  II H e i d e g g e r , H e r m e n e u t i c s , E d u c a t i o n  Prosthesis  of the Origin,  84  for its u s e of arguments from H e i d e g g e r to material  useful for language p e d a g o g y .  3  Pierre B o u r d i e u wrote that in philosophy  H e i d e g g e r w a s his "first love" a n d he a c k n o w l e d g e d a debt to H e i d e g g e r for his own important c o n c e p t of the s o c i a l f i e l d .  J u r g e n H a b e r m a s a l s o b e g a n his  4  work under H e i d e g g e r ' s influence a n d although he later d i s t a n c e d himself, H a b e r m a s judged Being  and Time to be "probably the most profound turning  point in G e r m a n philosophy s i n c e H e g e l . "  5  M a n y c o m m e n t a t o r s credit H e i d e g g e r with influencing n u m e r o u s disciplines in addition to philosophy. Hubert L. Dreyfus, P r o f e s s o r of P h i l o s o p h y at the University of California, B e r k e l e y , a n d author of a definitive c o m m e n t a r y on Division I of Being  and Time, e m p h a s i z e s the everyday, practical implications  of H e i d e g g e r ' s work: " W h e r e v e r people understand t h e m s e l v e s a n d their work in a n atomistic, formal, subjective, or objective way, H e i d e g g e r ' s thought h a s e n a b l e d them to recognize appropriate alternative practices a n d w a y s of understanding...."  6  In his a c c o u n t of the attendance at a n international  c o n f e r e n c e held at B e r k e l e y in honour of H e i d e g g e r , Dreyfus o b s e r v e d that not only p h i l o s o p h e r s but a l s o "doctors, n u r s e s , psychotherapists, theologians, m a n a g e m e n t consultants, lawyers, a n d c o m p u t e r scientists took part in a  J a c q u e s D e r r i d a , Monolingualism, or the Prosthesis (Stanford: Stanford University P r e s s , 1998). D r e y f u s 9.  3  5  J i i r g e n H a b e r m a s , "Work and W e l t a n s c h a u u n g : T h e Heidegger Controversy from a G e r m a n  P e r s p e c t i v e , " in The New Conservatism:  Cultural Criticism and the Historians  ( C a m b r i d g e : MIT P r e s s , 1 9 9 0 ) ; c i t e d in D r e y f u s , 9. 6  of the Origin, t r a n s . P a t r i c k M e n s a h  D r e y f u s 8.  Debate  II H e i d e g g e r , H e r m e n e u t i c s , E d u c a t i o n  85  d i s c u s s i o n of the w a y H e i d e g g e r ' s thought h a d affected their work."  In addition  7  to the broad application of his work generally, H e i d e g g e r ' s philosophy h a s b e c o m e increasingly r e c o g n i z e d a n d applied within education specifically. F o r instance, he w a s included in the 2001 Education.  edition of Fifty Modern  Thinkers  of  M i c h a e l Bonnett, S e n i o r Lecturer in P h i l o s o p h y of E d u c a t i o n at  H o m e r t o n C o l l e g e , C a m b r i d g e , contributed the chapter on H e i d e g g e r a n d wrote: " . . . b e c a u s e of the profundity of his insights into the h u m a n condition a n d into the nature of learning, thinking a n d understanding, the field of education is o n e in which his i d e a s h a v e the potential to m a k e a huge i m p a c t . . . " Y e t this impact is 8  really just beginning to be felt. J u s t o n e e x a m p l e of this impact is a n anthology on H e i d e g g e r a n d e d u c a t i o n p u b l i s h e d in 2001  a n d entitled Heidegger,  Education  and  Modernity.  9  In this anthology edited by M i c h a e l P e t e r s , twelve international s c h o l a r s explain the significance of H e i d e g g e r ' s work for e d u c a t i o n a l thought.  It is still o n e of  only a very few works in education devoted to H e i d e g g e r . In addition to the broad application of his work generally, a n d his r e l e v a n c e for education specifically, there is o n e more r e a s o n why H e i d e g g e r b e l o n g s in a consideration of h e r m e n e u t i c s a n d p e d a g o g y : he w a s by all a c c o u n t s a n outstanding t e a c h e r . In his book entitled The Young  D r e y f u s 9. J o y A . P a l m e r , e d . Fifty Modern York: Routledge, 2001) 24.  Heidegger.  7  9  Thinkers  M i c h a e l P e t e r s , e d . , Heidegger, P u b l i s h e r s , Inc., 2 0 0 2 ) 4 .  Education,  9  on Education.  and Modernity  From Piaget  to the Present  (New  ( L a n h a m : R o w m a n & Littlefield  II H e i d e g g e r , H e r m e n e u t i c s , E d u c a t i o n  Rumor  of the Hidden  86  King, J o h n v a n B u r e n d e s c r i b e s H e i d e g g e r a s nothing l e s s  than a t e a c h i n g p h e n o m e n o n : T h r o u g h his t e a c h i n g , the c o m m e r c e in transcripts of his c o u r s e s , a n d the indirect d i s s e m i n a t i o n of his i d e a s , H e i d e g g e r h e l p e d to s h a p e a whole generation of s c h o l a r s w h o went o n to dominate the G e r m a n intellectual s c e n e for d e c a d e s . . . G a d a m e r ' s hermeneutics, A r e n d t ' s practical philosophy, B e c k e r ' s mathematical theory, Rudolf B u l t m a n n ' s existential theology, H a b e r m a s ' critical theory, a n d more recently J o h n C a p u t o ' s "radical h e r m e n e u t i c s . " 10  V a n B u r e n ' s depiction of H e i d e g g e r is supported by H a n n a h Arendt w h o wrote that Martin H e i d e g g e r ' s reputation a s a t e a c h e r during the early 1 9 2 0 ' s traveled throughout G e r m a n y "like the rumor of the hidden k i n g . "  11  The  hermeneutical philosopher H a n s - G e o r g G a d a m e r , p e r h a p s H e i d e g g e r ' s most well-known student in a c a d e m i c philosophy, h a d the following to s a y about his f a m o u s teacher: It w a s remarkable: the p e r s o n a l attention to a n d a w a r e n e s s of the student w h i c h w e s a w particularly in H e i d e g g e r . . . H e i d e g g e r , during h i s early y e a r s prior to Being and Time, the y e a r s of the growth of his thought, w a s truly a m a z i n g , e v e n fantastic, in his interaction with s t u d e n t s . 12  H