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The organization of microcore technology in the Canadian southern interior plateau Greaves, Sheila 1991

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THE ORGANIZATION OF MICROCORE TECHNOLOGY IN THE CANADIAN SOUTHERN INTERIOR PLATEAU By  SHEILA GREAVES B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1970 M.A., The University of Calgary, 1981 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and Sociology)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1991 ©Sheila Greaves, 1991  In presenting degree  this  at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  and study.  thesis for scholarly by  this  his  or  her  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  "j"*"  requirements that the  I further agree  purposes  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  Date  the  that  advanced  Library shall make it  by the  understood be  an  permission for extensive  granted  is  for  allowed  that without  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  ii ABSTRACT  The purpose of this research i s to construct and test a model of the organization of microcore technology, a standardized core technology, within the subsistence-settlement system of prehistoric, semi-sedentary huntergatherers. The study of technological organization involves investigation of why a society selects particular tool designs, and how i t structures the manufacture, use, maintenance and discard of tools and associated debitage across the landscape. The model tested here associates the use of microcore technology with a design for a maintainable and transportable tool assemblage which conserves l i t h i c material, and with a regional distribution focused on residential camps as the locus of microcore manufacture and microblade production and use. The model i s tested through a comparative case study of archaeological tools and debitage from microlithic and nonmicrolithic sites i n two upland valleys i n the British Columbia Southern Interior Plateau. Research hypotheses and corresponding test implications are evaluated with data and analyses relating to core reduction and tool production stages, to tool use, and to activity area patterning within the sites. Results of hypothesis testing indicate that the model only partially explains the role of this particular standardized core technology i n the study areas. Microcore technology i s found to be associated with high residential and logistical mobility; a transportable, expediently-used tool assemblage; and the conservation of a specific raw material i n one valley. Thus, this research proposes that microcore technology was a standardized technology which was variable i n design goals and distribution, even within the same geographically and ethnographically defined region.  iii T&PT.H car CQNTKNTB  ABSTRACT  ....ii  LIST OF TABLES  vi  LIST OF FIGURES  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  X  CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  1  CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH DESIGN T h e o r e t i c a l Framework The Organization o f L i t h i c Technology Definition Resource Procurement Strategies..... Technological Strategies Standardized Core Technology as an Organizational Strategy Introduction Design Goals o f Standardized Core Technology D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Standardized Core Technology Discussion Model o f the Organization o f Microcore Technology D e f i n i t i o n of Microcore Technology Goals o f the Model S a l i e n t Features o f the Model Technological Organization Goals D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Microcore Technology A p p l i c a t i o n o f the Model t o the Study Areas Research Hypotheses CHAPTER 3: THE STUDY AREAS Biophysical Environment Geographic Setting Paleoenvironmental S e t t i n g Fraser G l a c i a t i o n and Subsequent Deglaciation Holocene Climatic and vegetational Sequence Modern Environmental S e t t i n g Climate Drainage F l o r a l Resources Faunal Resources L i t h i c Resources C u l t u r a l Environment Synthesis o f P r e h i s t o r i c Subsistence-Settlement System.... Regional C u l t u r a l - H i s t o r i c a l Sequence L o c a l P r e h i s t o r i c Subsistence-Settlement Pattern Microcore Technology i n the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau Introduction Chronological and Geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n  8 11 11 12 15 22 22 25 31 33 35 35 36 37 38 39 42 43 48 48 50 50 53 58 58 ..58 60 66 70 ..72 72 72 78 86 86 86  iv Ethnic Affiliation and Microcore Technology Subsistence-Settlement Pattern and Microcore Technology The Use of Microblades Discussion Synthesis of Ethnographic subsistence-Settlement System Introduction Subsistence-Settlement System in the Study Areas Discussion  91 93 95 98 99 99 103 115  CHAPTER 4 : THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA BASE Artifact Descriptions Introduction Lithic Material Types Debitage Classification Non-microlithic Debitage Microlithic Debitage Tool Classification Formed Tools Expedient Tools Microlithic Tools Site Descriptions Introduction Upper Hat Creek Valley Microlithic Sites Non-microlithic Sites Highland Valley Microlithic Sites Non-microlithic Sites Summary of Site Data Base Discussion  122 122 124 124 125 125 128 131 131 134 134 134 139 141 148 150 151 155 158 159  CHAPTER 5: ANALYTICAL METHODS Debitage Analysis Non-microlithic Debitage Introduction Selection of Attributes Definition of Manufacturing Stages Results Microlithic Debitage Introduction Implications of Previous Research Experimental Replication Summary of Experimental Microblade Production Selection of Attributes Results Manufacturing Typology for Microoores Tool Analysis Introduction Attribute Selection and Recording Employable Unit Typology Results Activity Area Analysis  162 162 162 164 168 177 182 182 184 186 188 190 203 206 210 210 211 216 218 221  V  Introduction Method Description of Activity Areas Activity Area Clusters Discussion Settlement Types Method Results Discussion  221 225 228 228 243 247 247 247 254  CHAPTER 6: TEST OF MODEL Evaluation of Research Hypotheses Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 4 Conclusions  258 258 267 277 283 299  CHAPTER 7: SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION Summary Introduction Results of Hypothesis Testing Evaluation of Model Discussion  306 306 310 316 321  BIBLIOGRAPHY  329  .  APPENDIX I. PLANTS, MAMMALS AND BIRDS IN STUDY AREAS APPENDIX II. ACTIVITY AREAS IN STUDY SITES  348 354  vi LIST OF TABLES 1. Characteristics of biogeoclimatic zones in the study areas 62 2. Cultural-historical affiliation of Upper Hat Creek Valley sites...79 3. Cultural-historical affiliation of Highland Valley sites 82 4. Interior Salish subsistence technology Ill 5. Inferred ethnographic subsistence-settlement pattern in uplands.. 120 6. Site selection criteria 137 7. Summary data for the study sites 138 8. Artifact frequency counts across study sites 143 9. Artifact percentage counts across study sites 144 10. Frequency and percentage counts of lithic raw material type 145 11. Discriminating values for debitage classes on platform-remnant bearing flakes 175 12. Discriminating values for debitage classes on shatter 175 13. Frequencies of debitage assigned to manufacturing stages... 176 14. Percentages of debitage assigned to manufacturing stages 178 15. Mann-Whitney two-sample tests on debitage class percentages grouped by previous site classification 180 16. Mann-Whitney two-sample tests on manuacturing stages grouped by previous site classification 180 17. Attribute values of experimentally produced microblades in order of detachment from microcore 193 18. Measures of central tendency and dispersion for early stage of microblade production 194 19. Measures of central tendency and dispersion for late stage of microblade production 194 20. Mann-Whitney two-sample tests on attributes measured on experimental microblades grouped by stage 196 21. Experimental microblade attribute principal components analysis factor loadings 196 22. Classification of experimental microblades by clusters 201 23. Measures of central tendency and dispersion for two clusters of experimental microblades 201 24. Mann-Whitney two-sample tests on attributes measured on experimental microblades grouped by cluster 202 25. Classification probabilities for experimental microblade sample..202 26. Attributes and values recorded on Employable Units 213 27. Correlation of attribute values with motion 215 28. Correlation of attribute values with worked material 215 29. Employable Unit types 217 30. Frequency counts of Employable Unit types 219 31. Frequency counts of Employable Unit types, worked material types, and tool:EU ratio 220 32. Activity area descriptive data 229 33. Debitage data for activity area cluster analysis grouped by cluster 233 34. Tool data for activity area cluster analysis grouped by cluster..236 35. Mean proportion of activity area attributes grouped by Ward's cluster analysis 239 36. Mean size and artifact density of activity area clusters 240  vii 37. KrusJcal-Wallis tests on activity area attributes grouped by Ward's cluster analysis 240 38. Activity area measures used to discriminate among sites 244 39. Activity area cluster membership re-ordered by settlement cluster membership 248 40. Site characteristics re-ordered by settlement cluster membership 250 41. Settlement type frequencies in study sample 251 42. Summary of settlement types by biogeoclimatic zone 256 43. Frequency counts of residential camps, field camps and stations in study sample ..259 44. Frequency counts of settlement types in Upper Hat Creek Valley...259 45. Frequency counts of settlement types in Highland Valley 259 46. Frequency counts of residential camps and field camps in Upper Hat Creek Valley 262 47. Frequency counts of residential camps and field camps in Highland Valley 262 48. Comparison of archaeological subsistence-settlement pattern win inferred ethnographic subsistence-settlement pattern 264 49. Presence/absence of EU types on morphological tool types 268 50. Presence/absence of EU types on morphological types in microlithic sites 268 51. Presence/absence of EU types on morphological types in nonmicrolithic sites 268 52. Percentage counts of EU types on morphological tool types 270 53. Percentage counts of morphological tool types that are versatile.273 54. Chi-square test for significance of association between technological type and versatile tools 273 55. Percentage counts of the most frequent EU types 275 56. Frequency counts of activity area types 275 57. Chi-square test for significance of association between technological type and activity area type 275 58. Median of weight and size of complete formed tools 278 59. Mann-Whitney two-sample tests on weight 278 60. Mann-Whitney two-sample tests on size 278 61. Frequency counts of microlithic artifacts 280 62. Frequency and percentage counts of microcore types 282 63. Microblade/microcore ratio 284 64. Chi-square test for significance of association between technological type and reduction stage 286 65. Percentage counts of debitage types in manufacturing stages 286 66. Mann-Whitney two-sample tests on reduction stage 288 67. Mann-Whitney two-sample tests on reduction stage in Upper Hat Creek Valley sites 288 68. Mann-Whitney two-sample tests on reduction stage in Highland Valley sites 288 69. Percentage counts of debitage reduction stages in Upper Hat Creek Valley sites 289 70. Percentage counts of debitage reduction stages in Highland Valley sites 289 71. Summary of unstandardized core measurements 290  viii 72. Chi-square test for significance of association between technological type and flake tool type 292 73. Chi-square test for significance of association between technological type and flake tool type in Upper Hat Creek Valley sites 292 74. Chi-square test for significance of association between technological type and flake tool type in Highland valley sites..292 75. Chi-square test for significance of association between technological type and bifacial tool type 294 76. Chi-square test for significance of association between technological type and bifacial tool type in Upper Hat Creek Valley sites 294 77. Chi-square test for significance of association between technological type and bifacial tool type in Highland Valley sites 294 78. Chi-square test for significance of association between technological type and expedient tools 296 79. Percentage of bifacial thinning flakes in study sample 296 80. Percentage of bifacial thinning flakes in Upper Hat Creek Valley sites 298 81. Percentage of bifacial thinning flakes in Highland Valley sites..298 82. Percentage distribution of lithic types in microlithic artifacts.300 83. Percentage distribution of lithic types in a l l artifacts 300 84. Species names of plant resources in the study areas 349 85. Mammals with ranges overlapping the study areas 351 86. Birds of potential economic value with breeding ranges overlapping the study areas 352  LIST OP FIGURES 1. Location of study areas 49 2. Hat Creek Valley drainage system 59 3. Highland Valley drainage system ...61 4. Language groups in study areas 102 5. Non-microlithic debitage 126 6. Non-microlithic debitage 127 7. Microlithic debitage ...129 8. Formed tools 132 9. Expedient tools 133 10. Expedient and microlithic tools 135 11. Location of Upper Hat Creek Valley study sites 142 12. Location of Highland Valley study sites 152 13. Attributes measured on platform-remnant bearing flakes and shatter 166 14. Boxplot of maximum dimension by number of dorsal scars in Upper Hat Creek Valley pilot study sites 170 15. Boxplot of maximum dimension by number of dorsal scars in Highland Valley pilot study sites 171 16. Boxplot of maximum dimension by amount of cortex in Upper Hat Creek Valley pilot study sites 173 17. Boxplot of maximum dimension by amount of cortex in Highland Valley pilot study sites 174 18. Experimentally produced microblades and exhausted core 189 19. Attributes measured on experimental microblades 192 20. ward's cluster analysis of experimental microblades 200 21. Microcore attributes 207 22. Microcore typology 208 23. Employable unit on a microblade 212 24. Ward's cluster analysis of activity area attributes 232 25. Complete linkage cluster analysis of site attributes 249 26. Activity areas in Upper Hat Creek Valley microlithic sites: EeRilO; EeRj49; EeRj55 355 27. Activity areas in Upper Hat Creek Valley microlithic sites: EeRj56; EeRj62; EeRj60 356 28. Activity areas in Upper Hat Creek Valley non-microlithic sites: EeRj8; EeRj20; EeRj42 357 29. Activity areas in Upper Hat Creek Valley non-microlithic sites: EeRj64; EeRjlOO; EeRk52 358 30. Activity areas in Highland Valley microlithic sites: EcRg2AA; EcRg2CC; EcRg4C 359 31. Activity areas in Highland Valley microlithic sites: EdRglB; EcRg4J; EdRglA 360 32. Activity areas in Highland Valley non-microlithic sites: EcRg4A; EcRg4B; EcRg4D 361 33. Activity areas in Highland Valley non-microlithic sites: EcRg4E; EdRg5; EdRg6 362  X ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The successful completion of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n owes much t o the patience and generosity of f a c u l t y , s t a f f and f e l l o w students, who provided the help e s s e n t i a l f o r an out-of-town student. The members of my Advisory Committee, Dr. D.L. Pokotylo, Dr. R.G. Matson and Dr. A. Stryd, provided guidance, encouragement, and support throughout my program. I a l s o thank Dr. D. Aberle and Dr. M. Blake who provided valuable c r i t i q u e s while serving as interim committee members. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o Dr. Pokotylo, my research supervisor, whose research on microcore technology influenced the d i r e c t i o n of my own studies, and who provided me with an opportunity t o do f i e l d work i n the Plateau. Dr. Matson's pioneering research i n t o the m u l t i v a r i a t e analysis of archaeological data forms a s t a t i s t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h i s research. F i n a l l y , I thank Dr. J . Ryder, Dr. B. Hayden, Dr B. A l f r e d , and Dr. P. Smith, who served on my University Defence Cccmittee, and provided a d d i t i o n a l i n s i g h t s i n t h e i r areas of expertise. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, through the Graduate Fellowship program, as w e l l as the Government of B r i t i s h Columbia, provided f i n a n c i a l support. As w e l l , a S.S.H.R.C. grant t o Dr. Pokotylo and employment through the Museum o f Anthropology ensured a d d i t i o n a l funding. Research space was generously provided by Dr. P. Schledermann and M. Robinson, present d i r e c t o r , of the A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America. Alan Hoover and Shelley Reid of the Royal B r i t i s h Columbia Museum, Dr. Stryd of Areas Associates, Steve Lawhead and Dr. Pokotylo expedited the t r a n s f e r of a r t i f a c t s . Dr. K. McCullough, of the A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America, assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a r t i f a c t s i n Calgary. Dr. Pokotylo, Dr. Stryd, S y l v i a A l b r i g h t and Diana Alexander provided generous access t o unpublished data and interpretations. The majority of f i g u r e s were prepared by the l a t e Moira Irvine, and completed by Marilyn Croot. Photographic expertise was provided by Joyce Johnson and Tom Jack. Ann Stevenson contributed her e d i t o r i a l and computer expertise. I a l s o thank Alexander Mackie and Dr. Pokotylo f o r t h e i r experimental microblade production. F i n a l l y , preparation of the f i n a l product was g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d by Ross Goodwin and Dr. Schledermann of the A r c t i c I n s t i t u t e of North America. My appreciation a l s o goes t o Laura Finsten, Evelyn Legare, Karen McCullough, Peter Schledermann, Greg Schwann, Ann Stevenson, Mary Ann T i s d a l e , Wendy Walker, and Anne Underhill f o r advice, i n s p i r a t i o n , technical a i d , h o s p i t a l i t y , and, most of a l l , f o r friendship. I a l s o thank my " substitute mothers": L y l a Bernard, Nancy Benedict, Marleen S p i t t a l and, e s p e c i a l l y , the l a t e E l i z a b e t h "Grammy" Barry, who made my daughter Elizabeth's time away from home a happy experience. My husband Tom has p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a l l stages of t h i s research. He counted f l a k e s , commented on countless d r a f t s , helped with s t a t i s t i c a l problems, and s a c r i f i c e d evenings, weekends and holidays t o ensure t h a t I had the most important q u a l i t y of a l l - time. I thank him and my daughter E l i z a b e t h f o r always providing the love and encouragement which enabled me t o make i t through one more d r a f t . I dedicate t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t o the memory of the l a t e Moira I r v i n e , i n recognition of her substantial contribution t o student research p r o j e c t s c a r r i e d out throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. She provided me, and other graduate students a t the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, with l o g i s t i c a l expertise, t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s and, not l e a s t of a l l , a " f r i e n d l y ear".  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  The goal of this research is to examine the organization of microcore technology within the subsistence-settlement system of prehistoric huntergatherers. The study of technological organization involves investigation of why a society selects particular tool designs, and how i t structures the manufacture, use, maintenance, and discard of tools and tool manufacturing debris across the landscape. Tool design and distributional patterns reflect the organizational needs and constraints of a society's subsistencesettlement system, and its relationship to the biophysical environment. Although microcore technology is well represented throughout western North America, archaeologists s t i l l lack a testable model of the actual uses of microblades, the method and trajectory of manufacture, and the organization of microcore technology within regional subsistence-settlement systems. In this research, a model is constructed which deals with the technological, functional and spatial aspects of microcore technology in hunter-gatherer adaptations. A test of the model is carried out through a comparative case study of both tools and debitage from microlithic and non-microlithic sites from two areas in the British Columbia southern Interior Plateau. Microcore technology belongs to a subset of core technologies classified as standardized or prepared. Standardized core technologies are defined as the production of flakes or blades from a core with a platform prepared and regularly maintained by specific procedures. Until recently, the investigation of standardized core technologies was restricted to descriptions of the technological procedures involved and their place in  2  local cultvtral-historical sequences. However, a shift in focus to the organization of technology has directed investigation to other parameters associated with standardized core technologies in a variety of archaeological settings. Recently, researchers have associated the organization of standardized core technologies with a number of characteristics: a limited resource base (Torrence 1983; Johnson 1987a); a high level of time stress; (Torrence 1983); high residential mobility (Koldehoff 1987); a specialized function (Johnson 1987a); a range of functions (Clark 1987) and maximum cultural complexity (Morrow 1987). However, the research upon which these assumptions are based was carried out almost exclusively on sedentary, often complex societies. The limited amount of research which investigated residentially mobile hunter-gatherers has indicated that standardized core technology is associated with a need for specialized tools (Custer 1987) and the conservation of raw material (Parry and Kelly 1987). Although this recent research has laid the foundation for the formation of a general model of the organization of core technology among prehistoric groups, the bulk of i t was based on single site studies and a sampled artifact assemblage. In order to carry out further research in this direction, several issues relating specifically to mobile hunter-gatherer subsistence-settlement systems must be addressed: the actual use of the products of standardized core technology; the material implications of the organization of technology in relation to the complete lithic assemblage; and the regional distribution of standardized core technology. The distribution of microcore technology in the southern Interior Plateau of British Columbia has received l i t t l e analytical attention as to i t s  3 significance in prehistoric human adaptation. Most of the research on the significance of microcore technology in this region has focused on description of its technological attributes and its place within local cultural-historical sequences (Sanger 1967, 1968, 1970b; Donahue 1975, 1977; Wilmeth 1971, 1978). Although the dating of microlithic components, in both riverine and upland sites, i s variable, the trend i s to accept Sanger's (1967, 1969) original argument that microcore technology i s not significant after 3500 B.P. (Richards and Rousseau 1988; Hayden et al. 1987). Thus, microcore technology i s viewed as representative of a residentially mobile forager resource procurement strategy (Richards and Rousseau 1988; Hayden et al. 1987). However, initial investigations of the resource procurement strategy associated with microlithic components suggest that microcore technology i s present both at base camps and limited activity sites, and may represent features of a collector resource procurement strategy (Ludowicz 1983). This research project is based upon the proposition that the use of microcore technology i s an organizational response to constraints or problems offered by the biophysical environment. This investigation consists of a case study of microcore technology in an region known to have been inhabited protohistorically by seasonally sedentary hunter-gatherers. The two areas selected for study, Upper Hat Creek Valley and Highland valley, have a variety of seasonally available resources that were collected and processed during short-term occupations of residential camps and field camps. Previous archaeological and ethnographic research has shown that microcore technology i s present in both these valleys, and there are some appreciable differences and similarities in both in the resource base and  4  appreciable differences and similarities in both in the resource base and inferred prehistoric subsistence-settlement patterns. In order to determine the uses of microblades and the role played by microcore technology within the regional subsistence-settlement system, assemblages from microlithic and non-microlithic sites in both valleys are described, evaluated and compared. Few previous technological studies have attempted to document and explicate the f u l l range of lithic production strategies employed by any specific cultural group and to examine how lithic procurement, production, and maintenance activities were integrated into the subsistence-settlement systems. Clarification of the relationship between these parameters and standardized core technology will contribute to the formation of a general model about the relationship between core technologies in general and the cultures that used them. Chapter II presents the research design of this study. The theoretical framework i s based on the assumptions and definitions of cultural ecology, which assumes that lithic technology is a selected adaptation to biophysical environmental constraints. A method for elucidating the organizational properties of the society under study i s developed, following the recent approach of archaeologists who view technology as a system of strategies which i s organized to cope with problems posed by the environment and which has predictable material consequences both in the design of the tools and in their distribution. In this study, organization of technology refers to the interrelationships among chipped stone tool manufacturing, utilization, recycling and discarding activities in a prehistoric context. The archaeological implications of viewing microcore technology as one aspect of the technological organization, integrated with other parameters of the  5 role played by microcore technology in the adaptations of semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers i s developed, along with research hypotheses and corresponding test implications, to evaluate the validity of the model. Chapter III presents an overview of the biophysical and cultural environments of the study areas: Upper Hat Creek Valley and Highland Valley. The section on the biophysical environment includes a current interpretation of the paleoenvironment and a description of the modern environment, including climate, water sources, vegetation, fauna, and lithic resources. The cultural environment section provides a brief synopsis of the prehistoric culture-historical sequence in the southern Interior Plateau of British Columbia, followed by a description and interpretation of the archaeological data from the study areas in relation to the regional picture. The implications of previous research into microcore technology in this region are discussed and evaluated. The final cultural section provides an interpretation, compiled from ethnohistoric observations, reconstructions and recent ethnographic research, of the subsistence-settlement system of the aboriginal inhabitants of the southern Interior Plateau at the time of contact. The last section in the chapter presents an interpretation of the prehistoric subsistence-settlement system of the inhabitants of the valley during the last 4500 years. Chapter IV describes the data base. The first section presents the morphological artifact classification scheme. The second section discusses site selection criteria, and describes each site with particular reference to biophysical location and characteristics, size, assemblage contents, density, features, radiocarbon dates, cultural affiliation, and previous interpretations of site function in relation to local subsistence and  6  settlement patterns. Chapter V describes the development and application of the analytical methods used to investigate the nature and distribution of activities associated with microcore technology. In order to have a comparative data base on which to test the research hypotheses, the study sites are reclassified using the same criteria, by the following methods: analysis of debitage reduction stages, analysis of tool use, and analysis of activity area patterning. The first section deals with the methodology for deriving the relative importance of sequential manufacturing stages from selected attributes on non-microlithic debitage. The second section presents and discusses the methods and results of replicative experiments in microcore technology. The initial goal of this particular segment of the study is to develop a manufacturing stage typology for microblades and microcores. The third section presents the methodology for the use-wear analysis developed in this research, which attempts to determine the range of uses for each tool, and whether or not the tools were multi-purpose. The fourth section describes the methodology for the activity area analysis applied in this study. The final section integrates and interprets the results of the three analytical methods outlined in the previous chapter, in order to construct a settlement typology for the study sites. Chapter VI presents the methods used to determine the validity of the test implications for the three research hypotheses. Each hypothesis is evaluated and the implications for the model are discussed. The final chapter assesses the methodological and substantive results of the investigation. The research model of microcore technological organization i s summarized, evaluated, and modified using the results of the  7  hypothesis tests conducted in Chapter VI. The success of the major research methods i s evaluated/ and recommendations are made for the direction of future research in this region. Contributions are made toward a general model of the organizational roles of standardized core technology in huntergatherer subsistence-settlement systems.  8 CHAPTER II RESEARCH DESIGN  Theoretical Framework  The theoretical foundation of this research rests on the assumptions and definitions of cultural ecology, which i s the study of human beings and their relationships to their biophysical and social environments. Cultural ecologists assume that some of the variability in human behaviour i s caused by variability in the biophysical environment. Steward (1955) was one of the first to develop the theory of cultural ecology by partitioning the biophysical environment and culture into specific features to examine their interrelationships. He viewed the environment not simply as setting limits on cultural behaviour but rather as closely related to a l l aspects of culture. According to this view, the technology and economy of a society are most directly related to the environment, while social and political organization may be less directly related, and religion, rituals, arts and myths are relatively free of direct environmental influence. Evolutionary theory, with its concepts of adaptedness and adaptation, provides an underlying framework for ecological studies. According to the cultural ecological paradigm, adaptedness is best understood as the selection of a valid set of culturally transmitted solutions to basic ecological problems, such as the procurement of food and shelter in a given environment (Jochim 1981). Thus, adaptation i s viewed as the process of modifying these solutions, in response to changing environmental parameters or internally initiated processes (Kirch 1980). An adaptive strategy will  9 change in response to changes in the environment as well as to changes in the system itself (Kelly 1983). As a process, adaptation depends on a source of variability within each culture in order that responsive changes in behaviour may occur. In ecological terms, cultural evolution, in the sense of adaptedness to specific environments, i s defined as change resulting from the differential persistence of variability in human behaviour, in the context of environmental selection pressures (Kirch 1980). According to this theoretical base, culture is assumed to be the primary means of adaptation to both the biophysical and social environments. Culture consists of learned patterns of behaviour, motives and strategies for survival, which provide one means of adaptation (Jochim 1981). An evolutionary theory of adaptation should account for both continuity and change in human behaviour, and must generate rules to explain and predict behavioural changes within groups with specific characteristics under stated sets of conditions (Alland 1975). In order to study the process of change, archaeologists view culture as a system or a group of components or variables interrelated such that a change in one produces a change in a l l others, and the interrelationships among variables are as significant as the variables themselves (Jochim 1981). A systemic, adaptive paradigm of culture has been explicitly elaborated by Binford (1962), who adopted White's (1959) concept of culture as people's extrasomatic means of adaptation. Binford's (1962, 1964, 1968) theoretical contribution also included a focus on the definition and explication of variability and a recognition of the relevance of biophysical environmental variability. An important component of the cultural system is the economic subsystem, which includes information about the resources of a territory, and a  10 strategy for assigning a measure of the relative importance of each resource, as well as allocating and coordinating the level of effort directed toward the procurement and distribution of each resource (Clarke 1968). Variation in economic subsystems occurs primarily in the resource procurement strategies, or the manner in which resources are obtained, and in the mobility strategies, or the way in which groups position themselves across the landscape in order to procure resources. These land use strategies are related to the characteristics of both the biophysical resources and the preferences of the social group exploiting them. The technological component constitutes a major portion of the set of economic strategies selected by prehistoric hunter-gatherers, and may be more responsive to adaptive change in subsistence-settlement systems. In recent approaches to the interpretation of the remains of prehistoric economic subsystems, archaeologists have viewed technology as a strategy which is organized and has predictable material consequences (Nelson 1989). The procurement of raw material, and the design, production, and use of lithic tools may vary, depending upon the way in which technology is organized in any given group. Thus, tools used for the same purpose may assume different morphological forms and may be manufactured by different methods, and in different locations, according to how the society organizes its subsistence-settlement system. An understanding of how technology is organized i s crucial to determining how and why technological change occurs. In addition, Binford (1980, 1982) stressed the importance of a regional perspective in order to delineate and explicate the total range of variability present within the economic subsystem of any particular group. Lithic tools and debitage are assumed to be a remnant of the  11 economic subsystem concerned with the procurement/ processing/ and consumption of resources/ and constitute material evidence for the echnological organization of the economic subsystem. Lithic tools and debitage preserve well and retain physical indications of the techniques of reduction/ resharpening and refurbishing. Therefore/ a description and explication of the variation in design and distribution of lithic tools and debitage in a regional sample of archaeological sites may provide evidence of the differential manufacture/ use and discard of tools, and of the variation in the performance and spatial distribution of these tasks.  The Organization of Lithic Technology  Definition Technological organization i s defined as "the way in which a society designs its tools and arranges tool production/ use, and maintenance, so that the tools constitute an effective response to the problems faced by the society in its daily interactions with the environment" (Koldehoff 1987: 154). This view of technology as a system of strategies focuses the investigation of technological change on a set of cultural behaviours by which human groups adjust to changing biophysical and social environments (Binford 1979). Changing environmental parameters occur through space as well as time; for example, a group may change its technological organization from season to season as the resource procurement strategy changes from residential to logistical mobility.  12 Resource Procurement Strategies Recent research i n t o the technology o f hunter-gatherers has demonstrated that the two v a r i a b l e s most influencing the organization of technology are the group's m o b i l i t y and i t s resource procurement schedule (Binf r d 1978a, 1979,  1977,  1980; Jochim 1981; Torrence 1983). A u s e f u l device f o r  examining the economic s t r a t e g i e s o f hunter-gatherers i s Binford's (1980) model of resource procurement s t r a t e g i e s which focuses on these two v a r i a b l e s . According t o t h i s model, foragers use high r e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y i n order to be c l o s e t o resources which are procured d a i l y i n small amounts on an encounter b a s i s . Processing and consumption of resources occurs d a i l y , and food storage i s lacking or minimal. R e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y i s viewed as an organizational response t o a homogeneous b i o p h y s i c a l environment, and produces two archaeological s i t e types: base camps, c a l l e d r e s i d e n t i a l camps i n t h i s study, and resource a c q u i s i t i o n l o c a t i o n s (Binford 1980). A r e s i d e n t i a l camp i s defined as the locus o f most preparation, processing and consumption o f e d i b l e resources, as w e l l as manufacturing and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s (Binford 1980). V a r i a b i l i t y i n the contents of the r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s should r e f l e c t seasonal a c t i v i t i e s and duration o f occupation. Locations should have low archaeological v i s i b i l i t y due to the small amount of resources procured and the l i m i t e d amount of f i e l d processing. At the opposite end o f the continuum, i n t h i s model, are c o l l e c t o r s  who  procure and process food resources f o r storage, i n a d d i t i o n t o supplying d a i l y requirements. L o g i s t i c a l l y organized work p a r t i e s , which may  consist  of small groups of adults or family u n i t s , move to s p e c i f i c resources f o r a short period. Binford (1980) interpreted c o l l e c t i n g as an adaptive response to the problem posed by widely spaced and simultaneously a v a i l a b l e c r i t i c a l  13 resources. In addition, Binford (1983) suggested that storage i s a successful subsistence procurement strategy only i f the food resource is reliable and highly aggregated. As well as base, or residential, camps, collectors may occupy a variety of other sites, also known as specialpurpose sites: field camps or temporary residences for logistical task groups; resource acquisition and processing locations; stations where special-purpose task groups gather to collect information about future resources; and caches to provide temporary storage for resources in transit from locations to residential camps (Binford 1980). Seasonality and the nature of the specific resource being collected may affect the composition of the assemblages of a l l five site types. In addition, locations may contain evidence of the large-scale procurement and/or processing of resources, for example, roasting ovens. According to Binford's model, settlement systems which include a logistically organized component should be characterized by a high degree of variability among assemblages which i s related to special-purpose functions. However, site assemblages other than base camps should be internally consistent in structure and content, because occupation time i s very short and the activity is only a portion of a resource procurement strategy. Archaeological evidence indicates that the use of logistical strategies increased throughout the prehistoric occupation of North America (Kelly and Todd 1988). However, most ethnohistoric groups practised a subsistencesettlement strategy which involved a combination of residential and logistical mobility strategies. Residential and logistical variability are not opposing principles but organizational alternatives which may have been employed in different combinations in different settings. For example, a  14 group may have relied on stored resources for part of the year, and resorted to foraging for the remainder of the year. During the early historic period in the southern Interior Plateau, extended families occupied a winter base camp for several months, and relied on stored food and logistically organized hunting parties. In the spring the same group became residentially mobile, although logistically organized work parties continued to operate from field camps. Or, a group may have been residentially mobile but stored a portion of each season's resources near the residential camp. For example, the Tahltan combined residential moves with logistically-organized work parties, storing edible resources near summer villages, near early f a l l camps, and near f a l l and winter camps (Albright 1984). Recent analyses of site assemblages have focused on the problem of distinguishing between sites occupied primarily as residences and sites occupied for task-specific activities. Pokotylo (1978) identified residential and special-purpose sites in the southern Interior Plateau on the basis of tool assemblage content and debitage traits. Assemblages containing high frequencies and diversity of tool types are also characterized by high correlations of complete projectile points, projectile point tips, biface fragments, microblades and unifacially retouched flakes (Pokotylo 1978). The debitage results from a wide range of manufacturing activities. Pokotylo (1978) interpreted these sites as representative of intensive occupation involving a wide range of activities. Other assemblages containing only fragments of projectile points and bifaces are characterized by debitage primarily from the late stages of tool manufacture and maintenance. These were interpreted as limited activity or special purpose sites (Pokotylo 1978). Finally, Chatters (1987) compared archaeological  15 assemblages derived from residential camps, representative of a residentially mobile resource procurement strategy, with those derived from field camps, representative of a logistically mobile resource procurement strategy. Chatters (1987) found that residential camps are larger, contain a less diverse tool assemblage, and display less within-site type similarity of tools.  Technological strategies The technological strategies, or decisions related to which tools and techniques to use, provide additional solutions to problems of resource procurement. Choices made about how, when and where to direct procurement activities can have a major influence on the nature of the technology. Technological choices may be frequently understood by reference to their implications for procurement reliability and efficiency (Jochim 1981). In addition, particularly for collectors who must store at least a portion of the resources procured, reliable and efficient technology for processing is essential (Schalk 1977). An emphasis on pocurement reliability may be most adaptive in those contexts associated with significant spatial and seasonal variability, and with risk in the natural and social environments (Jochim 1981). The higher the risk, the more oriented toward security rather than efficiency the technological strategy may be (Torrence 1983). In addition, societies relying on stored resources limit the majority of their procurement and processing activities to a portion of the year, and will probably want to maximize returns by emphasizing reliable methods of procurement and processing.  16 Efficiency can be defined as the successful completion of a task in the shortest time possible, and can be measured in terms of time savings or labour savings (Jochim 1981). Time efficiency is particularly important when a resource is only available for brief periods of time. For example, roots and berries are at their best for only a few weeks each year. In addition, migratory resources, such as salmon and birds, are in a particular region for a limited time. Another context favouring the selection of time efficient technology is the restriction of conditions suitable for resource procurement or processing. For example, salmon can be dried for winter storage only during dry, windy weather. The second type of procurement cost is labour. Technology can be used to increase labour efficiency either by reducing the amount of individual exertion required or the number of workers (Jochim 1981). Tools can be made more durable, thus reducing the amount of time required to manufacture and/or repair them, or easier and faster methods of tool manufacture can be developed (Bleed 1986; Jochim 1981). The need to ensure access to reliable and efficient tools while maintaining a subsistence-settlement strategy based on high residential and/or logistical mobility may be resolved by technological strategies which solve the problem of the incongruence between sources of lithic raw material and the locations where tools must be used (Bamforth 1986; Binford 1979; Keeley 1982; Parry and Kelly 1987). Binford (1977, 1979) distinguished between two types of technological strategies: curated strategies which involve the planned manufacture, use, maintenance and recycling of tools, and expedient strategies which incorporate the situationally or unplanned manufacture, use and discard of tools. Nelson (1989) recently clarified this distinction by defining both curation and expediency as planned strategies,  17 and opportunism as unplanned or the result of inadequate anticipation. According to Nelson (1989), opportunistic designs correspond to the minimal tool capable of performing the required task; these tools have very l i t t l e impact on overall tool k i t design and will probably not occur at residential or field camps because the appropriate raw material for crurated or expedient tool types will be available there. Little effort i s invested in either design or manufacture. Nelson (1989) also suggested that the material implications of opportunistic designs are difficult, i f not impossible, to predict because they are produced by the needs of the moment, the condition of the tool kit and the type of raw material available. Microcore technology can not be considered an opportunistic design because of the requirements for suitable raw material, specific manufacturing tools, and a suitable manufacturing location and time. Thus, opportunistic designs will not be considered further in this study. Both curation and expediency depend upon anticipation of the conditions of future activities with respect to the availability of tools, raw materials and time (Nelson 1989). derated tools are probably characterized by a high level of investment in manufacture and maintenance, and a welldeveloped storage and caching strategy (Binford 1979). Expedient tools may exhibit very l i t t l e expenditure in manufacture, no investment in maintenance, and infrequent specialization (Binford (1979). In both these definitions, there is an untested assumption that only tools requiring a high level of energy or s k i l l will be curated, specialized tools, while those tools manufactured expediently will not be either curated or specialized. These assumptions should be tested on each archaeological assemblage under study to determine, i f possible, which tools are, in fact  18 "curated" for future use and which are used "expediently". Another dimension to curation which has not been explored in the archaeological literature is the preparation of various types of cores which are then carried on foraging or collecting trips, or from one residential base to another, in anticipation of the production of tools for future use. Nunamiut informants commonly referred to carrying prepared cores into the field; these were discoidal in shape and used to produce butchering flakes, which were later modified into scrapers. The exhausted core was also reworked into a scraper (Binford 1979). In addition, Western Desert aborigines prepared cores at quarry sites, and carried them to a residential camp for further reduction into flakes and hafted tools (Gould 1978). Again, an important factor in whether or not cores are curated may be the amount of preparation time involved; that is, standardized cores which require more effort and a higher s k i l l level may be more likely to be curated for future reduction than unstandardized cores. This study uses Nelson's definition of expediency because i t solves an apparent contradiction in the use of cores as being both curated (planned) and expedient (unplanned). The definition of curation is also expanded here to include cores as well as tools. Curation is the manufacture of tools in advance of use, or the preparation of cores in advance of flake or blade production and subsequent transport; both require a high level of energy input. The tools and cores are subsequently transported to the location of use or reduction. Curation may be employed in varying degrees with respect to spec f i c tools and tool kits depending on the conditions to which this strategy is a response. Curation can be used to solve the problem of incongruity between availability of tools or tool manufacturing materials,  19 and the location of tool using activities (Bamforth 1986; Binford 1979; Keeley 1982; Parry and Kelly 1987). Additionally, curation may solve the problem of coping with time stress, associated with the procurement of mobile resources or resources with short periods of availability (Ebert 1986: Torrence 1983). Expediency i s a technological strategy which involves the manufacture of tools, using a low level of energy input, at places where they will be used and discarded. Technological expediency may be dependent on knowledge of and access to adequate supplies of raw material, on enough time to produce the tools, or on a low level of mobility. The raw materials should be readily available or should have been previously transported and cached (Parry and Kelly 1987). The location should have been occupied for a fairly long time or regularly reoccupied, in order that use of the stored material takes place. In addition, there must be sufficient time available to manufacture tools (Torrence 1983). A sedentary community could have stockpiled raw material, and could have performed most daily tasks with expedientlyproduced flakes (Koldehoff 1987). Torrance's (1983) model explains in part the distinction between curated and expedient technology by suggesting that time stress is a major factor affecting technological organization. Those subsistence strategies which rely on a small number of relatively mobile, or seasonally limited resources, are characterized as "time-stressed", that is, the organization of time for the procurement and/or processing of these resources is critical for the success of this particular type of adaptation. In these situations, i f task efficiency is critical and i f a large number of specialized tools are more efficient, then standardized core technologies may have been used  20 to produce them. Other technological solutions to high tine stress may include the use of composite tools, a dependence on curated tools, and the manufacture of specialized tools from organic materials (Torrence 1983). In those subsistence strategies where the emphasis i s placed on relatively abundant resources, the need to be time efficient may less critical. Dependence on a greater range of subsistence resources, in association with more time available for procurement and processing, may be related to the manufacture and use of generalized tools, presumably, although not necessarily, from unstandardized cores. It i s important not to perceive curation and expediency as dichotomized systems, but as options that probably suit different conditions within a set of adaptive strategies. Curated and expedient plans can be interwoven. For example, cores may be prepared in advance of reduction, curated and reduced at another location in the seasonal round. The flakes or blades removed thus become expedient tools, manufactured, used and discarded at the same location. Alternately, flakes and blades may be hafted and the composite tools will be curated for future use. It i s important not to assume, without testing in the archaeological record, that expediently-produced tools will also be expediently-used and discarded tools. Binford (1972, 1973, 1977) predicted that, under conditions of low curation, sites used for different activities will have high interassemblage variability because most of the tools will be discarded at the sites where they were used. Under conditions of high curation, sites which are used for different purposes will probably manifest low inter-assemblage variability because most of the tools used there will be resharpened or recycled and taken to the next location. Of course, these predictions derive  21 from assumptions that the majority of curated artifacts are specialized tools, and that few tools are worn out at each site. Hayden (1987) pointed out that i f tools wear out or break then they will be left at the site where last used, regardless of the type of site; thus the proportion of tool types present in residential sites will s t i l l reflect the activities which occurred there. Special activity sites should s t i l l have distinctive assemblages because wide ranges of activities do not occur there. The effects of curation are probably negligible in sedentary village sites, but may be more pronounced in special activity sites (Hayden 1987). The majority of broken stone tools are probably not returned to the residential base camp site for repair; exceptions may be high investment and/or complex tools, such as hafted bifaces (Hayden 1976, 1987). In these cases, the broken stone fragments would have been discarded at the site of use. Other important factors influencing the disposal of tools may be: location of primary use; potential recycling value; complexity of repair; effort invested in original manufacture; fragility; size; and degree to which tool parts break into small pieces (Ammerman and Feldman 1974; Hayden 1987). Another material implication of technological expediency may be low investment in retouch, because expedient tools are made and used when and where the need occurs, and discarded when worn. Expediency has been associated primarily with the production and use of unretouched and marginally retouched flakes (Parry and Kelly 1987; Johnson 1987b). In addition, a high percentage of flakes should show evidence of use-wear (Johnson 1987b). Finally, cores in various stages of reduction should be located at residential sites where expedient tool production i s important (Nelson 1989).  22 Archaeologists have focused on two parameters which may reflect the technological organizational strategy of the group: the design of tools and the distribution of tools and debitage across the landscape (Nelson 1989). Lithic tools can be designed to emphasize reliability (Bleed 1986;  elly  1988), maintainability (Binford 1979; Bleed 1986; Kelly 1988; Shott 1986), transportability (Kelly 1988; Parry and Kelly 1987; Kelly and Todd 1988; Shott 1986), and conservation of raw material (Bamforth 1986). These may a l l have material implications for tool form, core form, reduction technique, and maintenance technique. In addition, the differential acquisition, transport, caching, and reduction of cobbles, as well as the manufacture, maintenance and use of tools may produce variable distributions of these sequential stages, both within individual sites and in the regional settlement pattern. The section below will discuss the technological organization of standardized core technology by hunter-gatherers, in relation to these technological goals and their archaeological implications.  Standardized Core Technology as an Orcranizational Strategy  Introduction Core technology i s defined as the production of flakes or blades for tools, and can be standardized or unstandardized (Johnson 1987a). Standardized cores are "those in which the platform i s formed and maintained by specific procedures, excluding the occasional edge grinding which is evident on some amorphous cores" (Johnson 1987a:2). Examples of standardized core technologies include large blade technology, microcore technology and bifacial technology. The use of standardized core technology increases the  23 amount of production time per artifact but ensures the production of a flake or blade of a predictable size and shape, and conserves raw material. In addition, some standardized core technologies, for example, those involved in the production of large blades and those based on the wedgeshaped microcore, are characterized as having an inflexible manufacturing trajectory. Once the preparation of the core platform and face i s complete, i t i s almost impossible to use the core for any other purpose, without major reworking. However, other standardized core technologies, particularly bifacial, are characterized by a very flexible manufacturing trajectory and a product which can be used as either a tool or a core (Kelly 1988). Unstandardized, or amorphous, core technology i s characterized by a complete lack of preforming or preparation, and a lack of intentional control over the form of the resultant flakes (Parry and Kelly 1987). Unstandardized core technology involves less production time, and no resharpening or rejuvenation time because i t is easier to produce a fresh flake with a sharp edge than to resharpen a dull flake. Standardized core technology has been associatedfaypotheticallywith a limited resource base (Torrence 193), a high level of time stress (Torrence 1983), high residential mobility (Koldehoff 1987; Johnson 1987b; Parry and Kelly 1987), a specialized function (Johnson 1987a; McNemey 1987) and maximum cultural complexity (Morrow 1987). Unstandardized core technology has been associated hypothetically with abundant raw material (Parry and Kelly 1987; Custer 1987), a diverse resource base (Torrence 1983), low residential mobility (Parry and Kelly 1987), high logistical mobility (Custer 1987), and a lack of time stress (Torrence 1983). Archaeologists tend to equate standardized core technology with the production of curated,  24  specialized tools, and unstandardized core technology with the production of expedient, generalized tools (Parry and Kelly 1987). Furthermore, until recently (cf. Parry and Kelly 1987), the use of standardized core technologies was associated almost exclusively with residentially based, often complex societies, while the use of unstandardized core technologies was associated with residentially mobile hunter-gatherers. McNerney (1987) associated standardized core technology with a sedentary subsistence-settlement system because the product i s expedient but standardized for a unique purpose. Placement of retouch on blades was examined and interpreted, according to Odell's (1981) criteria, as the result of light duty cutting and scraping. Morrow (1987) also examined sites occupied by a sedentary society, and suggested that standardized core technology i s associated with the predictable, constant needs for specialized tools. Koldehoff (1987) also proposed that the standardized core technologies located at the permanent residential sites investigated may have been the product of specialists. Clark (1987) proposed that large blade production i s efficient only when there is sufficient centralization in the economy to allow craft specialization, and also associated this particular technology with the conservation of high quality imported raw material. Johnson (1987a) stated that the majority of prepared core technologies produce a tool designed for a single, highly specialized purpose, and suggested that the main advantage of prepared core technology is not conservation of raw material, but the production of a large number of blanks of a predictable shape and size. Although Torrence (1983) did not specifically address the question of standardized core technology, she did suggest that a low stress subsistence strategy based on a large number of  25  relatively abundant resources should be associated with the use of generalized tools which require less manufacturing time. In order to understand the significance of the use of standardized core technology, we must consider the place of standardized tools in the overall organization of stone-based technology. The following is an examination of standardized core technology in relation to the goals of technological production, and the hypothetical archaeological implications of these goals for the strategies of tool design, production, use and discard patterns of tools and debitage, adapted from Nelson (1989).  Design Goals of Standardized Core Technology 1. Reliability Bleed (1986) defined a reliable design as one which always works when needed. Factors in the manufacture of a reliable design include standard replacement parts and a sturdy construction (Bleed 1986). Although reliable designs may reduce task performance time, there is a corresponding increase in manufacture and maintenance time, and in the amount of raw materials required (Nelson 1989). Reliable designs may be responses to situations where time i s limited; the resource location is unpredictable; and the procurement strategy is primarily logistical (Bleed 1986; Binford 1978a; Nelson 1989; Kuhn 1989). Reliable technology is probably almost exclusively associated with hunting, and does not appear to offer advantages for processing and tool manufacturing activities. The material implications of reliable designs include a predictable replacement part produced most economically by a standardized core technique, and the production of a sturdy haft with secure fittings (Shott  26 1984/ 1986). The discarded replacement parts should display similar use-wear patterns because the use of the tool does not change. In addition/ similar use-wear patterns should occur on different formal tool types in assemblages designed for reliability (Nelson 1989). Finally/ the occurrence of a higher percentage of complete tools and a lower percentage of retouched/ resharpened tools may indicate an emphasis on replacing tools before they wear out. 2. Maintainability A maintainable tool i s defined as one which functions under a variety of conditions and i s usable even i f broken (Bleed 1986). Maintainability i s probably the optimal design for generalized tasks which have continuous need but unpredictable schedules and generally low failure costs (Bleed 1986). Maintainable tools should be modular, so that broken parts can be easily removed and replaced (Bleed 1986). In addition, maintainable tools should be simpler, lighter and more portable than reliable ones (Nelson 1989). Acceding to this definition, maintainable designs can either be flexible or versatile (Bleed 1986). A flexible tool class can be used in a wide range of tasks (Shott 1986). A versatile tool i s a multi-purpose tool, used sequentially in different tasks (Shott 1986). For both flexible and versatile tools, time invested in manufacture i s made worthwhile by the advantage of always having a functioning tool. This advantage i s important where the timing and place of use cannot always be anticipated, but where exploitation of a range of resources and occurrence of a variety of activities i s anticipated (Nelson 1989). A second advantage of flexible and versatile designs i s the simplification of tool assemblages. If groups using high residential mobility as a subsistence strategy must maintain limited  27 tool inventories, they may use multi-purpose tools. It also seems likely that efficient use of processing time for handling stored resources is important, especially where resources are available for a limited time or spoil quickly. Maintainable modular tools, like reliable tools, also depend on replacement parts of a standard shape and size. However, whereas reliable tools are always used for the same purpose, maintainable tools are used for a series of different purposes. In order that replacement modules be of a standard size and shape to f i t into the haft, a method for producing these must be available, i.e. standardized core technology. In addition, a simple repair kit must be maintained because tool forms must be altered (Bleed 1986). In prehistoric lithic technologies, this kit might include bone and stone hammers, prepared cores, and resins (Bleed 1986). In addition, the bifacial or disc core is considered to be a flexible design (Binford  1979;  Morrow 1987; Parry and Kelly 1987; Kelly 1988) because a variety of flake forms, to be used as tools, can be produced. The core itself may be used throughout the reduction sequence in a variety of tasks (Kelly 1988). If maintainability is a factor in prehistoric tool kit design, then certain material implications can be searched for in archaeological assemblages. Since the form of the working edge or edges is changed in order that different tasks may be performed, or by the performance of different tasks, the various parts used in a flexible tool will display different patterns of wear. Thus, a flexible tool kit will contain tool classes which each display several different wear patterns. On the other hand, in a versatile tool kit, individual tools should display multiple working edges or surfaces with evidence of several different use-wear patterns (Nelson  28 1989). 3. Transportability Others have investigated the relationship between the type of core technology predominant in a society and the level of residential and logistical mobility. Chapman (1977), Koldehoff (1987), Parry and Kelly (1987), and Kelly and Todd (1988) asserted that there is a correlation between the vise of a standardized core technology and a highly mobile lifestyle. Using a range of North American examples primarily from permanent village sites, Parry and Kelly (1987) demonstrated a correlation between a decrease in residential mobility and a reduction in the use of standardized cores. They concluded that, as groups become more sedentary, emphasis in lithic technological organization changed to the expedient production of unretouched flakes, or to the use of unstandardized cores. Parry and Kelly (1987) suggested that the primary advantages of standardized core technology relate to its portability and conservation of raw material. Once there was no longer a need for these advantages in the technological organization, then the extra time spent manufacturing standardized cores was no longer justifiable, and groups stockpiled raw material to use in unstandardized core technology. However, Parry and Kelly (1987) and others restricted their investigation to the base camps of semi-sedentary groups and did not investigate the nature of the core technology used in special-purpose sites. Also, they were confusing the production of standardized tools with curation and the production of nonstandardized tools with expediency. Parry and Kelly (1987) also suggest that compared to expedient tool technology, standardized tool technology i s costly to use, manufacture, and maintain. Once a need for a mobile technology decreased, then expedient core technology may have  29 replaced prepared core technology. Although t h i s model r e f e r s p r i m a r i l y t o b i f a c e core technology and the production o f formed t o o l s , i t o f f e r s support f o r my e a r l i e r hypothesis r e l a t i n g the use of microcore technology t o high m o b i l i t y i n upland areas (Greaves 1986). According t o Nelson (1989), the key p r i n c i p l e of a transportable design i s that the t o o l k i t be made i n one l o c a t i o n and c a r r i e d t o the l o c a t i o n of use. I f m o b i l i t y a f f e c t s t o o l k i t design, then c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l implications may occur i n archaeological assemblages. To meet the constraints of mobility, a transportable t o o l k i t should contain only a few items, and be lightweight (Gould 1968; Ebert 1979; Lee 1979). In order t o maintain a small t o o l k i t , a group may conserve and maintain those items. I f a t o o l k i t has few items, some o f these t o o l s may be e i t h e r v e r s a t i l e o r f l e x i b l e , as discussed above. Although Nelson (1989) only considered v e r s a t i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o composite t o o l s , i t i s easy t o apply these concepts t o simple t o o l s which assume m u l t i p l e functions throughout t h e i r l i f e s p a n . Again, a v e r s a t i l e t o o l c l a s s w i l l d i s p l a y several d i f f e r e n t types of use-wear i n d i c a t i n g the number of tasks i n which i t i s used (Shott 1986). F l e x i b i l i t y i s defined as the range of tasks i n which a t o o l i s used, and a f l e x i b l e t o o l c l a s s can be i d e n t i f i e d by the number of unrelated tasks i n which i t i s used (Shott 1986). While Nelson (1989) suggested that large-blade technology i s not suited t o transport, other standardized core technologies are, e.g. b i f a c i a l o r microcore. 4. Conservation of Raw Material This i s the c l a s s i c explanation f o r the use of standardized core technology: the use of standardized t o o l s may allow h i g h l y mobile groups t o transport s u f f i c i e n t raw material from the source t o the l o c a t i o n of use so  30  that both anticipated and unanticipated needs can be met (Johnson 1987a). Standardized cores used to produce multipurpose tools may be common in the lithic technology of residentially mobile populations because of the need to transport raw materials from source to source. In addition, infrequent or new occupants of an area may continue to retain conservative technologies, even though raw material may be abundant, because of unfami liarity with the location of the resource (Kelly 1988). Hayden (1989) has also suggested that blade tools were adopted for woodworking and other tasks because edges could be resharpened repeatedly, resulting in a reduction of time spent in procurement of lithic resources, which may have been scarce or seasonally unavailable. Finally, use of standardized core technology may be confined to one particular raw material type, which has restricted access for a variety of reasons. Using ethnographic and archaeological data, some archaeologists proposed that the availability of suitable raw material i s the primary influence on tool k i t design (Gould and Sagger 1985), and that variability in core form, reduction technique, tool maintenance and recycling are responses to shortages of stone (Bamforth 1986). Custer (1987) suggested that the low incidence of standardized cores at a temporary logistical camp occupied by semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers i s due to the abundance of locally available raw material. However, he failed to note that the majority of tools at this camp are the product of standardized bifacial technology. Parry and Kelly (1987) and Clark (1987) also proposed that the use of bifacial tools i s a response to a shortage of raw material by highly mobile groups. Bamforth (1986) argued that maintenance and recycling are more closely related to availability of stone material than to settlement organization or time  31 limits on the activities for which the tools are used. However/ Nelson (1989) pointed out that technology i s part of an economic system, and tool use and recycling solves problems of adaptation that involve a variety of environmental and social constraints. People may carry/ maintain and reuse tools because the resource i s highly mobile or requires immediate processing, or because considerable energy has already been expended in the manufacture of the tool. Although Nelson suggests that lithic material is not a resource in the same sense that edible resources go through a natural cycle, its availability i s s t i l l constrained by seasonal factors, such as snow coverage or high elevations. Lithic resources can also be circumscribed to particular localities, or restricted in access by some groups. If the shortage of lithic raw material affects tool kit design, we would expect to find smaller core sizes, a higher percentage of bipolar cores, flake tools more aggressively utilized prior to discard, and a larger number of tools that were maintained and reused regularly (Bamforth 1986). In addition, when the majority of debitage derives from later reduction stages, then the resharpening of tools to extend their use l i f e i s indicated (Bamforth 1986).  Distribution of Standardized Pore Technology Another approach, although not explanatory in the same sense as the approaches outlined above, i s the investigation of the distribution of the various steps in the manufacturing trajectory, and use and discard patterns of the particular core technology under study. A salient feature of standardized core technology is the staging required: several different knapping procedures need to be carefully followed in a predetermined  32 sequence, in order to transform a chunk of lithic raw material into a suitable core and then into flakes or blades. Each stage can be considered a separate task or production episode (Kelly 1984; Clark 1987). A l l sequential tasks can be, but are not always, completed at one location. The potential for segmenting the production process either temporally or spatially has important implications for the organization of standardized core technologies. Regional studies of technological organization have investigated the distributional implications of technological planning in terms of classes of sites: base camps, residential camps, field camps, and stations (processing locations, extractive sites, and lookouts) (Binford 1977, 1978b, 1979, 1980; Raab, Cande and Stahl 1979; Custer 1987). Residential sites (base camps and residential camps) should provide the time to manufacture and repair tools. In a technological strategy based on curation, transportable tools should be made at base camps as well as residential camps (Binford 1979; Ebert 1986; Kelly 1988). Binford (1979), Torrence (1983) and Ebert (1986) also argued that transportable tools should be returned to the base camps to be maintained and recycled. However, Hayden (1987) suggested that only complex tools, such as hafted bifaces, will be returned for maintenance. In addition, standardized cores should be prepared for future reduction at residences. Expedient tool manufacture should also occur at residential camps i f the raw material i s available (Keeley 1982; Parry and Kelly 1987; Kelly 1988). At special-purpose sites (field camps, processing locations, extractive sites, and lookouts) very l i t t l e tool manufacture or maintenance may occur (Camilli 1983). Activities are probably focused on those tasks that can only be done efficiently or effectively at that particular location. Assemblages  33 at special-purpose sites may be indicative of a smaller range of activities than would be found at residences (Camilli 1983; Raab, Cande and Stahl 1979). Technological planning should focus on curated, transported tool kits. Nelson (1989) also suggested that when raw materials and time are available, and the location i s regularly reused, some expedient tool manufacture may occur. Debitage at special-purpose sites should derive primarily from resharpening and rejuvenation of worn and dull tools (Ebert 1986) and from segments of composite tools that break and are not salvaged (Raab, Cande and Stahl 1979; Hayden 1987). If the transported tool kit i s designed with sequential flexibility, the module that breaks may be different from one special activity site to the next (Nelson 1989). Thus the forms of tool fragments deposited in special activity sites may be highly variable among those sites as a class (Camilli 1983).  Discussion The results of recent research into the organizati n of standardized core technology have indicated that the traditional explanation of raw material conservation i s only one of several factors which may operate in favour of selecting this type of tool production. Other potential factors are which have yet to be adequately investigated include: a high level of residential mobility (Koldehoff 1987; Parry and Kelly 1987; Johnson 1987a, 1987b), a high level of time stress (Torrence 1983), a limited resource base (Torrence 1983; Johnson 1987a), and a specialized function (McNemey 1987). In addition, the role of any particular standardized core technology may change through time and/or space (Kelly and Todd 1988; Greaves 1986, 1987). Johnson  34  (1987a:11) has formulated a general statement about the use of standardized (prepared) and unstandardized (amorphous) core technologies, which can be considered as a model for further testing and refinement. Amorphous core technologies conserve tool production time and maintain a maximum number of trajectory options at the expense of raw material to derive a broad array of cutting edges and angles. They are ideal for subsistence systems based on diversified resources in an area where raw material is abundant. In areas where lithic resources are not common, more conservative technologies, usually bifacial, were used. However, the distinction between resource zone and non-resource zone is nullified at the transition from mobile to non-mobile settlement strategies. Sedentary societies were able to procure and store enough raw material to allow the use of amorphous core technologies. Sedentism and prepared core technologies are also coincident but the one major exception, the Paleoindian assemblages, points to the common underlying factor in these technologies. They are part of a technological system which is focused on one major activity with specific tool requirements. So the results of previous research appear to indicate that standardized core technologies are associated with a shortage of raw material and a specialized use in both sedentary and residentially mobile societies. However, the research on which this general statement is based has the following limitations. Investigation of archaeological data was confined, in most cases, to either a single site or a set of base camps within the same area (Custer 1987; Parry and Kelly 1987). in addition, analysis of assemblages was restricted to either the tools, or selected classes of debitage (Parry and Kelly 1987; Arnold 1987; Koldehoff 1987; Johnson 1987b). As well, very limited use-wear analysis was attempted to associate the actual tasks in which the products of standardized core technologies were used with other parameters of the design and distribution of these tools. Although there are significant differences among the various types of standardized core technologies, Johnson's (1987a) model also assumes that the same organizational role was fulfilled by a l l of them in hunter-gatherer  35  societies. Finally, with few exceptions (cf. Custer 1987; Kelly 1988) there has been very l i t t l e research directed toward explicating the role of standardized core technologies in residentially and logistically mobile hunting-gathering societies. To conclude, this model i s too simplistic because i t ignores the potential variability in the use of standardized core technologies through space as well as through time. The following section will present a model of a particular type of standardized core technology to serve as a test case for the assumptions discussed above.  Model of the Organization of Microcore Technology  Definition of Microcore Technology Microcore technology i s a specialized subset of standardized core technology that comprises the production and use of microblades for tools. A microcore i s a standardized core which displays evidence of a striking platform or of core edge preparation, as well as preparation of the fluted face, or ridges where microblades will be later detached. According to Sanger (1970b), the most useful criteria for the recognition of a microcore are evidence of successive removal of blades and evidence of deliberate core platform preparation. Microblades, as defined by Sanger (1970b), are small, long narrow parallel-sided flakes, with at least two linear dorsal ridges, and evidence of a prepared platform. Within a microcore technology, blades are detached from a carefully prepared core and are used to perform tasks with a minimum of further modification. Several types of microcores exist in northwestern North America (Sanger  36  1968), including wedge-shaped (Fladmark 1986a; Sanger 1970b), blocky with a wide keel (Sanger 1968), blocky with l i t t l e preparation of sides and keel (Sanger 1968), cube-like (Sanger 1968), and bifacial (Fladmark 1985). This research deals only with the wedge-shaped core with a narrow keel, originally defined by Sanger (1970b), and found throughout the Interior Plateau of North America. The wedge-shaped microcore i s not a flexible design because i t produces only one type of flake and cannot be used as a tool without sustaining damage which makes its further use as a core impossible, unless completely rejuvenated. The core itself has l i t t l e , i f any, potential for creating other tool forms, except perhaps as a form of crude heavy scraper or as a source of a few generalized flakes.  Goals of the Model The traditional models of microcore technology relate its use to: movements of Athapaskan speakers; the production of a specialized hafted tool; and a foraging subsistence-settlement system. These models have never been explicitly formulated and tested. As well, they do not account for the widespread geographical and chronological distribution of microcore technology, nor its apparent association with late prehistoric sites occupied by semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers utilizing a combination of foraging and collecting resource procurement strategies. A viable and testable model of the organization of microcore technology should account for its utility within a l l pertinent adaptive contexts. The primary goal of the model presented below is to explicate the role of microcore technology as an adaptive response used by residentially and logistically mobile hunter-gatherers. The model will predict how microcore  37  technology is organized in prehistoric foraging and collecting huntinggathering cultures, and will be multi-facetted in order that variability in adaptive technological responses may be incorporated and tested. The model will outline what microcore technology is designed to do within the system in terms of the technological goals discussed in the previous section, and will describe the predicted distribution of the manufacturing trajectory within the regional settlement system. In order to establish the significance of microcore technology, i t i s not enough to simply demonstrate the actual use or uses of microblades because the same tasks can be carried out successfully by other tools. The model must provide an explanation for why people selected this method for producing artifacts of this particular type.  Salient Features of the Model The model, which is elaborated on below, predicts that microcore technology i s an adaptive response to high residential mobility, a shortage of lithic raw material, and a need for a flexible and/or versatile tool assemblage. In addition, the model predicts that microblades, which are the end product of microcore technology, are both manufacture and used at residential camps, associated with both foraging and collecting resource procurement strategies. Thus, microcore technology can be understood as a useful technological strategy for societies which are primarily collectors as well as those which are primarily foragers. In addition, microcore technology i s not considered to be restricted to any one ethnic group.  38 Technological Organization Goals This section describes the predictions of the model in terms of what microcore technology is designed for, in relation to the technological organizational goals of the society using i t . The model posits that microcore technology was a method for producing and preserving a maintainable tool kit. Maintainable tools function under diverse conditions, and are most adaptive in a context of continuous need, unpredictable scheduling, and low risk (Bleed 1986). Maintainable designs can either be flexible or versatile (Bleed 1986). A flexible tool is one which can be used in a wide range of tasks (Shott 1986). A versatile tool is one which is multi-purpose, that is, used in more than one type of tasks. According to the model, microcore technology is designed to enhance maintainability by producing versatile and/or flexible tools and tool assemblages. The model also predicts that transportability i s a second major advantage of microcore technology. According to Nelson (1989), the key principle of a transportable design is that the tool k i t be made in one location and carried to the location of use. While Nelson (1989) suggested that large-blade technology i s not suited to transport, microcore technology is because specialized production tools are not required and the core i s small and light (Kelly 1984). In addition, only the core itself should be portable; the blades are expediently produced, used, and discarded. Microblades themselves are not practically portable except in the form of a core or in a haft. Detached microblades are extremely fragile, and highly susceptible to breakage and edge damage. Microblades may have been hafted into a composite tool and carried to other sites in the haft (Flenniken  39 1981). The third design goal derived from the model associates microcore technology with the conservation of lithic resources of a particular quality or type, by groups facing new territories or seasonally restricted access. Microcore technology represents an extremely efficient, systematic use of raw material. Microcores conserve raw material because they contain a large quantity of tool edge in relation to amount of raw material. Once the core is adequately shaped, each flake removed produces a usable blade; approximately 50 blades per core can be produced. In addition, each blade has a high ratio of useable edge to total amount of material (McNemey 1987; Hofman 1987; Sheets 1978; Morrow 1987; Clark 1987; Parry and Kelly 1987). Thus, microcore technology is particularly adaptive in an environment where high quality lithic resources are absent, at least seasonally, or scarce. In addition, infrequent or new occupants of an area may continue to retain conservative technologies, even though raw material may be abundant, because of unfamiliarity with the location of the resource (Kelly 1988). Finally, use of standardized technology may be confined to one particular aw material type, which has restricted access for a variety of reasons.  Distribution of Microcore Technology This section describes the predicted distribution of the manufacturing trajectory of microcore technology within the regional settlement pattern. A salient feature of blade technology i s the staging required - several different knapping procedures need to be carefully followed, and in their proper sequence, in order to transform a lump of raw material into a suitable core and then into blades. Each stage can be considered a separate  40 task or production episode. A l l sequential tasks can be produced at one location but need not be. However, i t i s remember to realize that microblades are best produced in batches, as core manufacture and blade removal both require a significant amount of preparation time and concentration on the task. It would have been disadvantageous to spend time setting up a core for microblade removal i f only one blade were removed. Thus, the possibility of dividing up the production process temporally or spatially has important implications for the potential organization of microlithic industries. According to the model, microcore technology in northwestern North America occurs as an organizational response to the high residential mobility associated with two types of resource procurement strategies: (1) primarily foraging, and (2) semi-sedentary, logistically organized collecting. Microcore technology associated with time periods or regions where foraging strategies predominated will be found in sites which can be identified as residential base camps, according to Binford's (1980) model. Thus, forager-occupied residential camps will be the locus of microcore preparation, reduction and discard, and also the locus of microblade production, use and discard. Microcore technology associated with semisedentary collecting groups will be a strategy utilized during seasons when the groups were s t i l l residentially mobile, collecting and processing bulk resources. Thus, collector-occupied residential camps will also be the locus of most manufacturing, utilization, and discard activities associated with microcore technology. In addition, the model also predicts that microcores may have been manufactured at seasonally-occupied base camps, for further reduction into blades during other seasons at residential camps.  41 The model associates the production and use of microblades with residential camps because the manufacture of microblades required time and concentration which was available at residential camps. Microcore technology should be associated with sites occupied by small family groups rather than special task groups where time is in short supply. At short-term residential camps, blade production has economic value because raw material may not be stockpiled, especially i f the location of the camp i s changed annually or is not predictable. In addition, i t is proposed that microblades were a multipurpose tool which would have been most useful in a residential camp where a larger variety of tasks were performed. The model postulates that microblades were used for a variety of tasks, related more to food processing, and tool and container manufacture than food procurement. These are tasks which were probably performed more commonly at residential camps than at field camps. In the case of semi -sedentary logistically-organized collectors, i t i s suggested that preparation of microcores, but not production of microblades, may have taken place at base camps, to take advantage of time available when procurement and processing of resources was not a major activity. At seasonally-occupied base camps, the probability that lithic resources were stockpiled in anticipation of time available for tool manufacture and repair very likely precludes the necessity for using a time-consuming technique like microcore technology to produce tools for immediate use. The model predicts that microcores were prepared in advance at residential sites, cached there or taken to the next residential camp. Microlithic debitage deposited in residential camps should consist of primarily nonviable microcores, plus microcore preparation and rejuvenation  42  flakes. The majority of microblades should have been produced and used at short-term residential camps. Microblades were probably produced in batches, and there may be only segments of the manufacturing trajectory present. A few worn microblades may be deposited at field camps or processing sites, i f they were originally fastened to a haft and discarded when no longer useful.  Application of the Model to the Study Areas In order to test the model of the organization of microlithic technology presented above, a region was selected which i s known to have been inhabited protohistorically by semi-sedentary, logistically organized huntergatherers. Within this region, the southern Interior Plateau of British Columbia, two study areas were chosen which contain large numbers of microlithic and non-microlithic sites. Between the areas, the edible resource base differs in variability and productivity, while lithic raw material varies in availability. Previous archaeological research in both areas indicates seasonal occupation, and a resource procurement strategy based on high residential mobility and collection of resources for winter storage. It i s unclear at the present time whether the microlithic sites pre-date or are contemporaneous with the non-microlithic sites. However, the environment and resource base are assumed to be similar. A major hypothesis derived from the model i s that microlithic sites in the study areas, two upland valleys, are associated with the inferred ethnographic subsistence-settlement pattern. The model predicts that microcore technology was not an essential feature of the technological organization at winter base camps in the major river valleys. The major advantages of this technology relate to its portability and conservation of  43  material/ which would not have been advantages in a sedentary camp. An exception to this prediction may have been the preparation of microcores during the winter months for further reduction at upland camps during the spring to f a l l months. Microlithic sites will be residential camps where families stayed for periods up to several weeks, while procuring seasonally available resources. Non-microlithic sites will be limited activity sites, either field camps where task groups stayed for a few days while procuring a specific resource/ or stations/ where a single task was carried out.  Research Hypotheses The research hypotheses are derived directly from the model and relate specifically to expectations regarding the characteristics of the lithic assemblages associated with microlithic and non-microlithic sites in the study areas, that is, in upland valleys. The hypotheses are designed to determine which factors relating to technological goals are operative in the subsistence-settlement system associated with microlithic assemblages in the study areas. Test implications derived from the hypotheses were reduced to be non-redundant.  HYPOTHESIS 1; Microcore technology is associated with the inferred ethnographic subsistence-settlement pattern in the study areas. The inferred ethnographic subsistence-settlement pattern in the study areas can be described as a esidentially mobile collecting strategy. In Chapter III, ethnographic and archaeological data will be examined in order to provide a model of the way in which upland valleys were utilized during the ethnographic period. This model will include a description of the types  44  of settlements occupied and their location within the biogeoclimatic zones present in each valley. Hypothesis 1 will be tested by comparing the settlement types and associated biogeoclimatic zones of microlithic and nonmicrolithic sites with those predicted by the ethnographic model. Test Implications: 1. Microlithic sites will be residential camps, while non-microlithic sites will be special-purpose sites, either field camps or stations. 2. Microlithic sites will be located in the appropriate biogeoclimatic zones.  HYPOTHESIS 2: Micropore technology is designed to contribute toward a maintainable tool assemblage. Maintainable designs can be achieved by the production of either flexible or versatile tools and/or assemblages (Bleed 1986). A flexible tool is one which can be used in a wide range of tasks (Shott 1986), while a more flexible assemblage is one which contains the same or a smaller number of morphological tool types, but a larger number of actual uses, as a less flexible assemblage. A versatile tool is one which i s multi-purpose, that is, used in more than one type of tasks. The range of functions for both individual tool types and tool assemblages will be determined by use-wear analysis. A comparison of individual tool types and tool assemblages from microlithic and non-microlithic sites will be carried out in order to determine whether or not microcore technology produces a more maintainable tool and/or assemblage. Test Implications: 1. Microblades will be a more flexible tool than other tool types.  45  2. Tool assemblages at microlithic sites w i l l be more flexible than those at non-microlithic sites. 3. Microblades w i l l be a more versatile tool than other tool types. 4. Tool assemblages at microlithic sites w i l l be more versatile than those at non-microlithic sites.  HYPOTHESIS 3; Microcore technology i s designed to contribute toward a transportable tool assemblage. To meet the constraints of mobility, a transportable tool k i t must contain only a few items, and be lightweight (Gould 1968; Ebert 1979; Lee 1979). In order to maintain a small toolkit, a group must conserve and maintain those items. I f a toolkit has few items, some of these tools must be either versatile or flexible, as discussed above. Another important implication of an organizational strategy oriented toward transport of cores as well as tools i s that the majority of tasks w i l l be carried out by the use of expedient flake and cobble tools. A comparison of microlithic and non-microlithic assemblages w i l l be carried i n order to determine whether or not microcore technology i s associated with the production of transportable assemblages. Test Implications: 1. Complete formed tools i n microlithic sites w i l l be lighter and smaller than complete formed tools i n non-microlithic sites. 2. Evidence of microcore manufacture and rejuvenation w i l l not be found at a l l sites containing microblades. 3. Some microlithic sites w i l l contain microblades belonging to different stages of the production sequence.  46 4. Microcores found i n the study s i t e s w i l l not be v i a b l e . 5. M i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s w i l l have a very high micxoblade/microcore r a t i o .  HYPOTHESIS 4: Micropore technology i s associated with the conservation of l i t h i c raw m a t e r i a l . I f the shortage of l i t h i c raw m a t e r i a l i s a major design o f microcore technology, m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s should contain smaller unstandardized cores, f l a k e t o o l s more aggressively u t i l i z e d p r i o r t o discard, and the use of other conservative technologies, such as b i f a c i a l core technology. In addition, when the majority of debitage derives from l a t e r reduction stages, then the resharpening of t o o l s t o extend t h e i r use l i f e i s indicated (Bamforth 1986). F i n a l l y , i f microcore technology i s a method f o r conserving s p e c i f i c l i t h i c materials, then m i c r o l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s w i l l tend t o manufactured from those types. M i c r o l i t h i c and non-microlithic assemblages w i l l be compared i n order t o determine Whether o r microcore technology i s a strategy f o r conserving stone. Test Implications; 1. M i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s w i l l have a p r o p o r t i o n a l l y greater amount of l a t e stage debitage from resharpening than non-microlithic s i t e s . 2. Unstandardized cores i n m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s w i l l be smaller than unstandardized cores i n non-microlithic s i t e s . 3. M i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s w i l l contain a p r o p o r t i o n a l l y greater number o f f l a k e t o o l s which d i s p l a y evidence of m u l t i p l e uses than nonmicrolithic sites. 4. M i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s w i l l contain a p r o p o r t i o n a l l y greater number of b i faces, b i f a c e fragments and b i f a c i a l thinning flakes than non-  47  microlithic sites. 5. Microcores and microblades will be manufactured from raw materials which are more restricted in distribution in the study areas.  The goal of the research to be presented in the following chapters is to describe and explain the sources of assemblage variability between microlithic and non-microlithic sites. The following chapter describes the geographical characteristics of the region and places the study areas in archaeological and ethnographic context.  48 CHAPTER III THE STUDY AREAS  Biophysical Environment  Geographic Setting Upper Hat Creek Valley is situated east of the Fraser River on the transition zone between the Fraser and Thompson Plateaus (Figure 1) (Holland 1964). Oriented in a north-south direction, Upper Hat Creek Valley is approximately 24 kilometres long. The western boundary consists of the rounded peaks of the Clear Range, rising to a maximum of 2280 metres. The steep western slopes of the Clear Range drop down to the Fraser River, while the eastern slopes incline gradually down to the Upper Hat Creek Valley floor. High points in the Clear Range are Blustry Mountain at 2315 metres, and Cairn Peak at 2318 metres. The eastern margin of Upper Hat Creek Valley includes the western slopes of the Cornwall and Trachyte Hills, which mark the western margin of the Thompson Plateau. These hills are relatively low, up to approximately 2000 metres above sea level, and of more moderate relief. The valley floor slopes from an elevation of 840 metres in the north to approximately 1200 metres in the south. Highland Valley is situated in the Thompson Plateau (Figure 1) (Holland 1964). The valley trends northwest-southeast and is approximately 22 kilometres long. In contrast to Upper Hat Creek Valley, Highland Valley is narrower, with steeper valley walls. The Pimainus Hills mark the southern boundary at an elevation of 1800 metres. The highest peak in the mountain range to the north is South Forge Mountain at 1890 metres. Valley walls,  Figure 1. Location of study areas: I. Upper Hat Creek Valley; II. Highland Valley.  50 which reach a height of approximately 1900 metres, slope quite sharply to the floor which i s a gently rolling upland of low relief between 1200 and 1500 metres above sea level.  Paleoenvironmental Setting This section presents the most recent evidence relating to the final major glaciation and subsequent deglaciation in southern British Columbia. In addition, recent syntheses of Late Pleistocene and Holocene climatic and vegetational sequences are presented to indicate how the resource base in the study areas may have been affected.  Fraser Glaciation and Subsequent Deglaciation The final glacial period, the Fraser Glaciation, began approximately 25,000 B.P. as ice tongues proceeding east from the Coast Mountains coalesced into the Cordilleran ice sheet (Clague 1981; Armstrong et a l . 1965). Radiocarbon dates from localities in the Fraser valley lowlands and southeastern British Columbia indicate that much of southern British Columbia remained ice-free until after about 19,000 to 20,000 B.P. (Clague et a l . 1980; Fulton and Smith 1978). Subsequent buildup in area and depth of ice was probably very rapid, until the glacial climax slightly after 15,000 B.P. (Clague 1985). Ice covered a l l land surfaces east of the Fraser Valley, except perhaps the highest peaks of the Clear Range (Ryder 1976). There i s no detailed regional scheme of deglaciation, although i t is thought to have started in the Columbia Mountains and proceeded in a northwesterly direction (Fulton 1975). Retreat first occurred along the southern, eastern and western margins of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet,  51 approximately 13,000 B.P.,  and proceeded r a p i d l y . The i c e sheet thinned and  receded through downwasting, with uplands appearing f i r s t through the i c e cover and d i v i d i n g the i c e sheet i n t o a s e r i e s o f v a l l e y tongues i n response to l o c a l conditions (Clague 1981). The o l d e s t r e l i a b l e p o s t g l a c i a l radiocarbon date i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau i s 11,000+180 B.P.,  from the Arrow  Lakes (Clague 1981). Bog-bottom radiocarbon dates i n d i c a t e that, by 9500 to 10,000 B.P.,  the plateaus and v a l l e y s of the I n t e r i o r Plateau were  completely deglaciated, and a l l g l a c i a l lakes were drained (Clague 1981; Fulton 1969). During and immediately following deglaciation, and p r i o r t o the establishment of vegetation, rapid aggradation occurred i n r i v e r v a l l e y s and on lowlands (Clague 1981; Ryder 1971a, 1971b). Throughout the i n t e r i o r , f r e s h l y deglaciated d r i f t was eroded from the uplands and v a l l e y walls, and re-deposited a t lower elevations i n fans, deltas, and f l o o d p l a i n s  (Church  and Ryder 1972). Probably the majority of p o s t g l a c i a l deposits, except i n lake basins and a t the mouths of major r i v e r s , were l a i d down r a p i d l y within a few hundred years of deglaciation (Clague 1981). In addition, unvegetated surfaces were subject t o e o l i a n a c t i v i t y , and substantial amounts of loess were deposited i n protected areas (Clague 1981). As vegetation became established and slopes s t a b i l i z e d , sediment supply t o streams and r i v e r s decreased. The number of e x i s t i n g landforms completed 6000 years ago i n the southern I n t e r i o r Plateau indicate that the r a t e s of erosion and deposition have s i n c e been very small (Church and Ryder 1972). Modern drainage patterns were established i n the study areas during deglaciation. Hebda (1983) estimated that Upper Hat Creek v a l l e y was i c e f r e e a t approximately 13,000 B.P.,  although t h i s date may be too o l d due t o  52  contamination by "old carbon" from local coal deposits. During the final deglaciation/ the ice front retreated rapidly from Upper Hat Creek Valley, and stagnant ice deposits were rare. Meltwater may have originally drained south and east through Oregon Jack Creek or northward over the ice (Aylsworth 1975). In addition, Upper Hat Creek Valley has been subject to periodic landslides, in the form of slumps, debris flows and earthflows (Clague 1981). Hebda (1983) estimated that Highland Valley was probably ice-free at approximately the same time, or perhaps a thousand years later, as Upper Hat Creek Valley because both valleys are situated at a similar elevation. During the late phase of deglaciation, a tongue of ice apparently extended into the valley from the Thompson River Valley. As this ice retreated, icecontact glaciofluvial deposits and at least one block of stagnating ice were left behind (Hebda 1983). A brief examination of the basal sediments of drained McNaughton Lake provided a series of radiocarbon dates, with the earliest date of 9600+70 B.P. indicating that the lake was probably established shortly after deglaciation of the valley, between 10,000 and 11,000 B.P. (Clague 1988). However, determination of a subsequent chronology of sediment deposition within the lake may be impossible due to the possibility of at least some of the radiocarbon dates being affected by the ingestion of old carbon by living organisms (Clague 1988). In addition, some of the dated material i s wood transported from elsewhere in the valley and which i s very likely older that the enclosing lake sediments (Clague 1988). An analysis of sedimentary sequences from Big Divide Lake indicated that this lake was probably inundated during the entire postglacial period, and that this area of Highland Valley may have been ice-free for over 12,000  53 years (Hebda 1983). Since deglaciation/ the physical appearance of Highland valley has probably changed very l i t t l e , with the exception of alluvial deposits from streams and some mass-wasting along slopes (Hebda 1983).  Holocene Climatic and Vegetational Sequence Recent syntheses of Holocene climatic and vegetational changes in southern British Columbia are based primarily on data from the coast, Okanagan Valley, Lillooet area, Marion Lake, Yale and the lower Fraser Canyon (Alley 1976; Mathewes and Heusser 1981; Mathewes and Rouse 1975; King 1980; Mathews 1979; Desloges and Ryder 1990; Ryder and Thomson 1986). These are supplemented by data from paleoecological studies of cores from lakes in both Upper Hat Creek Valley and Highland Valley (Hebda 1979; Clague 1988). During late deglaciation, approximately 13,000 to 12,000 B.P., the climate was probably cool and continental, with pioneering aboreal species (Clague 1981; Mathewes 1973, 1985). Hebda (1982, 1983) interpreted upland vegetation during this time period as pioneering grassland, with grasses, sedges (Cyperaceae), and sagebrush (Artemesia). Following this initial cold period, there was a rapid transition to a cooler, moist climate, which asted from approximately 12,000 to 10,500 B.P. with a corresponding increase in mountain hemlock, balsam, spruce and western hemlock. The bulk of data relating to this time period derives from the coast, but investigation of several interior sites also indicates a corresponding cooler, moister climate there (Hebda 1982). Pollen diagrams from Finney Lake in Upper Hat Creek Valley show abundant aspen (Populus tremuloides) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) or western white pine  54 (Pinus monticttla). Hebda (1982) proposed that aspen may have formed a parkland with grasses and sage, or even closed forest stands in moister areas, and that pine forests probably occupied the upper slopes. Mathewes (1985) noted that there was a dramatic change in pollen diagrams from the period between 10,500 to 10,000 B.P., corresponding to a rise in summer temperatures associated with a decline in precipitation. The climate in most areas of southern British Columbia became as warm as, or warmer than, the modern climate. The dating of this xerothermic interval varies slightly between regions. Evidence collected from Marion Lake, indicating maximum temperatures and minimi mi precipitation between about 10,000 and 7500 B.P. (Mathewes and Heusser 1981) is supported by data from lakes in the Lillooet area, Fraser Canyon area, and Yale area (King 1980; Mathewes and Rouse 1975; Mathewes and Heusser 1981). Pollen samples taken from Kelowna Bog indicate a xerothermic interval in that area between approximately 8400 and 6600 B.P. (Alley 1976). Basing his interpretation on pollen diagrams from Finney Lake, in Upper Hat Creek Valley, and other interior sites, Hebda (1982) limited the dating of the xerothermic interval to between 10,000 and 8000 B.P. In addition, Hebda (1982, 1983) suggested that much of the southern Interior Plateau, below 1300 metres, was covered by sage-grasslands, while at higher elevations or in north facing, moister areas, forests were dominant. The following period, from 8000 to 4500 B.P. was moister, although s t i l l warmer than the present, and may have been characterized by forest expansion into intermediate and unstable grasslands (Hebda 1982, 1983). Hebda (1983) interpreted the vegetation as almost continuous grassland cover at lower to  55 mid-elevations in the southern Interior Plateau, with a transition to forest approximately 100 metres above the modern transition zone. However, this emphasis on such widespread grassland i s derived from a limited data base, and i s not widely supported in current interpretations (June Ryder, personal communication 1990). Lakes within the study areas may have been situated within grassland and perhaps rose to nearly modern levels, while development of poorly drained wetlands in these upland valleys during the latter half of the inteval is also implied (Hebda 1982, 1983). After approximately 6000 B.P., the climate became cooler and moister throughout southern British Columbia, with subsequent fluctuations corresponding to the three Neoglacial advances (Clague 1981; Alley 1976; Mathewes 1985). Three minor readvances occurred between approximately 6000 and 5000 B.P., between 3500 and 2000 B.P., and after 900 B.P., with a glacial maximum during the last few centuries (Desloges and Ryder 1990; Ryder and Thomson 1986). Although Hebda (1982) suggested that modem climatic conditions appeared approximately 4500 B.P. in the southern interior, Mathewes (1985) proposed that Hebda's data from Upper Hat Creek valley indicates a shift to moister conditions approximately 8000 B.P., with a second moisture increase about 4500 B.P. King's (1980) detailed work at two lakes near Lillooet as well as Hebda's work in Upper Hat Creek Valley demonstrate the marked variability in the timing of climatic changes in the British Columbia. Mathewes (1985) concluded that this mid-Holocene period can be viewed as transitional, both climatically and vegetatively, and clarification of intra-regional variation depends on further analysis of well-dated pollen and fossil sequences.  56 Hebda (1983) suggested that from 4500 B.P. to the present, the climate was perhaps initially cooler and moister, but gradually established a pattern similar to the modern dim te. From 4500 to 3000 B.P., the grassland areas shrunk, and forest areas descended to the valley floor. Between 3000 and 2000 B.P., extant vegetation boundaries and types became established, and lakes became established at modern levels. In addition, data from fossil pollen assemblages in the Okanagan Valley suggest that, during this latter phase, three moister intervals, tentatively correlated with the dated Neoglacial advances, were characterized by increases in birch (Betula), alder (Alnus) and hazel (Corylus) (Alley 1976). Although a tentative climatic sequence has been established for the study area, there has not been a study of the effects of climatic change on landform development or terrestrial sedimentation in the southern Interior Plateau. The probable response to glacial advance was an increase in fluvial discharge but other responses were also possible (J. Ryder, personal coanunication 1990). Any changes in the intensity and frequency of storms, and in moisture and temperature patterns may have also affected the intensity of surface erosion and resultant deposition of sediment (Ryder 1982). In addition, l i t t l e i s known about the paleohydrology of the FraserThompson basin following early fluvial degradation, while the magnitude of change in the fluvial regime and its effects on salmon-carrying capacity are unknown. Finally, in the semi-arid areas of the southern Interior Plateau, a minor decrease in precipitation or an increase in temperaturewould have produced marked changes in vegetation (Clague 1981). These changes would most likely have manifested themselves as altitudinal movements in vegetation boundaries, with grassland communities occurring at higher  57 elevations during warmer, drier periods (Clague 1981). Although there are no data relating directly to the sequence of change in species, and grazing or breeding patterns of fauna in either valley, there must have been significant change accompanying these climatic and vegetation shifts. Hebda (1983:251) suggested that the following may have occurred in the study area: 1. Now-extinct Late Pleistocene megafauna were present shortly after deglaciation, although there i s no evidence of these species. 2. Fauna adapted to open arid sage-grassland, and grassland (elk, bighorn sheep, antelope, and perhaps bison) were dominant in the early to midHolocene. These were replaced by modern fauna after 4500 B.P.. 3. Around 4500 B.P., more abundant waterfowl appeared in the marshy sloughs of the early to mid-Holocene. Mathews (1979) proposed that salmon would have established themselves in interior streams as soon as the ice had retreated, i.e. by 9500 to 10,000 B.P. throughout the Interior Plateau. In addition, hypothesized changes in vegetation, climate and hydrological systems ca. 5000-4000 B.P. may have reduced ungulate populations in the Canadian Plateau, wh le increasing the size and reliability of salmon runs (Kujit 1988). However, the impact of paleoenvironmental changes on the size and reliability of specific salmon runs is, as yet, unknown. The most recent archaeological data from both the Fraser and Columbia Plateaus indicate that those areas supporting large ungulate populations in the historic period were utilized more intensively after 4500 B.P. (Kujit 1988; Richards and Rousseau 1987).  58 Modern Environmental Setting Climate The most d i s t i n c t i v e c l i m a t i c feature of t h i s region i s the low annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n due t o the plateau's p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the "rainshadow" o f the Coast Mountains. The continental climate i s characterized by marked seasonal v a r i a t i o n : summers are u s u a l l y warm and dry/ while winters can be severe (Farley 1979). In addition/ a l t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b i l i t y i s r e a d i l y observable/ with higher elevations r e c e i v i n g more p r e c i p i t a t i o n . The l o c a l weather patterns o f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y and Highland V a l l e y r e f l e c t t h i s feature/ having c o o l e r wetter summers and longer winters with considerably more snowfall than the nearby major r i v e r v a l l e y s . In addition/ Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y i s situated i n a zone with a s l i g h t l y higher mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n / and a higher mean d a i l y winter temperature than Highland V a l l e y (Farley 1979).  Drainage The major drainage i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y i s provided by Hat Creek, which flows f o r approximately 4 0 kilometres down the v a l l e y f l o o r before entering the Bonaparte River/ a t r i b u t a r y of the Thompson River. A s e r i e s of seasonal and permanent t r i b u t a r i e s flow from both east and west v a l l e y walls i n t o Hat Creek (Figure 2). Although t r i b u t a r y flows have not y e t been studied i n d e t a i l , the p r e h i s t o r i c l o c a t i o n of these creeks was s i m i l a r to the modern s i t u a t i o n (Pokotylo 1978). Creek l e v e l s may vary considerably during the year, with a peak during May and June (Pokotylo 1978). Alternate water sources/ although a l k a l i n e / are provided by a s e r i e s of small lakes and sloughs on the western slopes south of Ambusten Creek/ and along the  Figure 2 . Hat Creek Valley drainage system.  60 western benchlands. Springs are present in the same general area, although the exact distribution is unknown (Pokotylo 1978). In contrast, the major drainage in Highland valley is provided through two lake systems (Figure 3). Prior to mine construction in the early 1970's, Big Divide Lake and Twentyfour Mile Lake drained west through Pukaist Creek into he Thompson River (Areas Associates 1983). Quiltanton Lake and Little Divide Lake drain east through Witches Brook and Guichon Creek to the Nicola River, a tributary of the Thompson River. Other water sources are not known at this time. A large wetland area, immediately downstream from Twentyf our Mile Lake, has been covered by recent mine construction (Brolly 1981). With the exception mentioned above, the drainage patterns have probably not altered within the last 8,900 years (Ryder 1971a).  Floral Resources According to the British Columbia biogeoclimatic zone distribution map (Krajina 1965), Upper Hat Creek valley spans four major biogeoclimatic zones: Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass, Interior Douglas Fir, Engelmann SpruceSubalpine Fir and Alpine Tundra. Highland Valley lies entirely within the Interior Douglas Fir zone (Areas Associates 1986). Table 1 provides salient climatic features of each zone. The following brief description of vegetational characteristics (Krajina 1965; Mathewes 1978; Mitchell and Green 1981; Alexander 1989) emphasizes potential food and non-food resources (Turner 1978, 1979). Appendix I provides Latin and common names for floral resources mentioned in the text.  62 Table l . Characteristics of biogeoclimatic zones in the study areas.  Elevation  Ponderosa PineBunchgrass  Interior Douglas Fir  Engelmann Spruce-SubAlpine F i r  Alpine Tundra  275-915 m  300-1525 m  1225-2290 m  >1830 m  4 to 9  1 to 4  Temperature (in Celsius): Mean annual 6 to 10 January mean -8 to -3  -4 to -1  -12 to -3  -18 to -7  -18 to -1  July mean  18 to 22  17 to 21  12 to 16  7 to 11  Maximum  38 to 44  36 to 43  32 to 37  21 to 28  Minimum  -41 to -21  --46 to -32  100-200  75-200  No. of frostfree days  Precipitation (in centimetres): Annual total 19 to 36 36 to 56 Annual snowfall  -56 to -34.5  -45 to -20  50-100  <25  41 to 183  70 to 280 531 to 1955  50 to 152  76 to 178  175 to 1016  snowfall as % of annual total 19 to 42  21 to 35  43 to 72  Driest month 0.7 to 1.5  1.3 to 2.8  1.5 to 6.6  2.3 to 12.2  Wettest month 2.9 to 5.1  5.1 to 8.9  6.4 to 25.4  7.6 to 36.2  Climate:  microthermal continental subhumid to humid  microthermal subalpine continental cold humid  alpine tundra (pseudoarctic)  continental: semi-arid to microthermal subhumid  72 to 74  Sources: Krajina 1965; TERA Environmental Resource Analyst Limited 1978  63  1. Ponderosa Pine-Bunchqrass Zone This is the driest and warmest zone in British Columbia/ favouring the development of steppe-like ocmmunities dominated by grasses/ xerophytic herbs and shrubs. Ponderosa pine is the climax tree species. Climax shrubs include Saskatoon berry/ sagebrush/ snowbrush, penstemon, squaw currant and wild rose. Climax herbs include balsamroot/ mariposa l i l y , wild thistle, spring beauty/ toadflax, yellowbell, alum root, long-flowered stoneseed, stoneseed, biscuit root and prickly-pear cactus. On the dry soils of wooded terraces and slopes, shrubs and associated herbs include kinnikinnick, snowbrush, common juniper, Rocky Mountain juniper, penstemon, soapberry, wild onion, toadflax and wild strawberry. Along water courses, vegetation includes western white birch, black hawthorn, silverberry, balsam poplar, trembling aspen, wild rose, willow, rye-grass, Oregon grape, oceanspray and Saskatoon berry. The shoots and stems of the various herbs are ready for collecting between March and May. The most abundant food resources include spring beauty and balsamroot, ready for harvesting in late May to early June. Most berry plants ripen during June, July and early August. 2. Interior Douglas Fir Zone Increased precipitation in this zone favours forest development and the formation of small lakes. The climax tree is Douglas f i r , while Ponderosa pine also grows well here. In the drier pinegrass subzone, shrubs and herbs include Rocky Mountain juniper, balsamroot, chocolate l i l y , stoneseed, wild carrot, Indian celery, penstemon, pipsissewa, rough-fruited fairy bells and tiger l i l y . In the wetter forest subzone, around lakes and along creeks, shrubs and herbs include common juniper, soapberry, dwarf blueberry,  64 grouseberry, Saskatoon berry/ kinnikinnick/ snowbrush/ r e d twinberry/ Oregon grape, penstemon/ s t i c k y currant/ w i l d rose, w i l d onion, toadflax, w i l d strawberry/ alum-root/ twinflower, black hawthorn, swamp gooseberry, northern black currant, dwarf w i l d rose, thimbleberry, silverweed, f a l s e Solomon's s e a l , star-flowered Solomon's s e a l and s t i n g i n g n e t t l e . I n the moister f o r e s t subzone, trees include Rocky mountain maple, western white b i r c h , balsam poplar, trembling aspen, western r e d cedar, subalpine f i r , Engelmann spruce, white spruce and willow. In the grassland subzone, the more important resources include black l i c h e n and lodgepole pine bark, ready f o r c o l l e c t i n g i n l a t e A p r i l and midMay. Other major shoots and roots (spring beauty and balsamroot) a r e a v a i l a b l e between l a t e March and June, while the majority o f b e r r i e s r i p e n between June and August. In the f o r e s t subzone, the more important resources are a v a i l a b l e between l a t e A p r i l and mid-May. Plants on the v a l l e y bottom include  Cottonwood  bark,  silverweed and cow parsnip, while those on the d r i e r slopes include f a l s e Solomon's s e a l , mariposa l i l y , nodding onion, balsamroot, Indian celery, b i s c u i t r o o t and blackcap. B e r r i e s are e s p e c i a l l y abundant i n June and e a r l y July, and c a t t a i l s and t u l e are a v a i l a b l e i n August. I n September and October, silverweed and Cottonwood mushrooms are ready f o r c o l l e c t i n g around the lakes. 3. Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine  F i r Zone  At elevations above 1200 metres, there i s a gradual t r a n s i t i o n t o t h i s f o r e s t zone. The climax trees are subalpine f i r and Engelmann spruce. Other trees occurring uncommonly include western white b i r c h , white pine, western red cedar, western hemlock and trembling aspen. Associated climax shrubs are  65  Sitka mountain ash, twin blueberry, oval-leafed blueberry and grouseberry. Climax herbs include bunchberry, twinflower and raspberry. In the drier areas, lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce occur along with raspberry, mountain bilberry, and grouseberry. In the moister areas, western red cedar is accompanied by swamp gooseberry, thimbleberry, willow, western skunk cabbage, false Solomon's seal, star-flowered Solomon's seal, Labrador tea, mountain valerian, timbergrass, red twinberry and sticky currant. One of the more abundant food plants i s spring beauty, ready in early to mid-June. Later in mid-August, the roots of avalanche l i l y , spring beauty and tiger l i l y are s t i l l available, primarily from rodent caches. Although berries are also available at this time, they are neither abundant nor reliable. In September, whitebark pine seeds and black lichen are ready. 4. Alpine Tundra Zone The Alpine Tundra zone occurs at elevations above 1800 metres, on several mountain peaks along the western margin of Upper Hat Creek Valley. Vegetation i s dominated by an abundance of low shrubs, grasses and sedge species. In addition, a few species of stunted trees appear, including white bark pine, alpine f i r , lodgepole pine and Engelmannn spruce. Shrubs include crowberries, Labrador tea, red twinberry, willow, Sitka mountain ash, twin blueberry, oval-leafed blueberry and grouseberry. Herbs include spring beauty, wild strawberry, yellow avalanche l i l y and mountain valerian. The earliest floral resource to appear in this zone i s spring beauty available in early June. Other major resources include avalanche l i l y , which is ready in July and August, and blueberries, which ripen in August.  66 Faunal Resources Upper Hat Creek valley and Highland valley both l i e within the Dry Forest biotic area of mammal distribution (Cowan and Guiget 1965) but local variation is marked. In addition, substantial changes to both the species present and size of populations have occurred within the last 200 years. Large populations of elk, bighorn sheep and mountain goat replaced deer along the lower Thompson River in the late 1700 's, but had disappeared by 1850, when the deer population again increased (Teit 1900). Upper Hat Creek Valley appears to provide a suitable habitat for elk (R.G. Matson, personal communication 1990). In addition, moose did not move into southern British Columbia until after 1920 (Cowan and Guiget 1965). Although mountain goat and bighorn sheep may have inhabited the study areas prior to contact, suitable habitats for these species are limited (Environment Canada 1974) and their populations were presumably small. The modern distribution of mammals in Upper Hat Creek Valley and Highland Valley i s probably representative of only the last 4500 years. Environment Canada (1974) identified several areas within Upper Hat Creek Valley with a potentially high capability for sustaining wintering populations of mule deer. Highland Valley has a moderate capability for the support of mule deer and moose, with south-facing slopes providing small areas of high capability (Areas Associates 1983). According to historic sources (Areas Associates 1983), an area near Little Divide Lake provided a wintering range for deer. Appendix I provides Latin and common names of potential mammal resources in both valleys, based on land capability studies and the location of contemporary breeding and migration routes (Banfield 1974; Cowan and Guiget 1965).  67 Contemporary studies of breeding and migration ranges which overlap the study area have identified seventeen freshwater fish species (Carle et a l . 1973). Only nine are of potential economic importance as subsistence resources: Dolly varden (Salvelinus malma); Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri); Mountain whitef ish (Posopium williamsoni); Cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki); longnose sucker (Catastomus catastomus); northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oreqonensis); peamouth chub (Mylocheilus caurinum); burbot or ling (Lota lota) and perhaps Bridgelip sucker (Catostomus oolumbianus). Hat Creek is the only stream in Upper Hat Creek valley that may have supported an anadromous fish population; other creeks are seasonal or subject to winter freeze-up. The larger lakes do not presently contain fish, and the capability of Upper Hat Creek valley to support anadromous fish species is uncertain (Pokotylo 1978). Spawning populations of pink, coho and Chinook salmon were observed in the Bonaparte River in the early 1970's, before dam construction reduced the size and extent of the run. Data on fish species available in Highland Valley are also ambiguous. Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) are now present in the major lakes as well as in Pukaist Creek and Witches Brook (Areas ssociates 1983). Rainbow and steelhead trout, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). and chinook salmon (O. tshawvtscha), spawn in the lower reaches of Guichon Creek and the Nicola River, while whitef ish, squawf ish, and ling are present in Mamit Lake and Guichon Creek. Brolly (1981) noted that these species may have been introduced by European ranchers, and asserted that native fish species were not available for aboriginal exploitation prior to 1900. However, Teit (1900:348) stated that the Thompson Indians stocked lakes themselves by transporting live trout between lakes, in addition, although the lack of  68 f i s h remains i n archaeological s i t e s may  i n d i c a t e an absence of f i s h  (Areas  Associates 1986), f i s h remains may have been d e l i b e r a t e l y removed from p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s a f t e r preparation of the f l e s h (Albright 1984). Information c o l l e c t e d from range maps (Godfrey 1986) habitat c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Guiget 1955,  1958)  and d e s c r i p t i o n s of  i n d i c a t e s that approximately  200  species of b i r d s have breeding ranges and/or migration routes which include Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y and Highland V a l l e y . A s e r i e s of small seasonal ponds along the western slopes of Hat Creek V a l l e y i n the Ponderosa PineBunchgrass zone provides areas of high c a p a b i l i t y f o r supporting waterfowl populations (Canada Department of Regional Economic Expansion 1970). There are a l s o s i m i l a r areas around Kamloops and near N i c o l a Lake (Areas Associates 1983,  1986). Although sources show the same number of b i r d  species p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n Highland V a l l e y , i n a c t u a l f a c t , there appear t o be fewer. The lakes, creeks and wet meadows of Highland V a l l e y support a moderate population of mallards, widgeon, bufflehead, common goldeneye, common loons and scaup, while upland areas support r u f f e d and blue grouse (Areas Associates 1983). However, b i r d s may have been more abundant i n the past, as a large area of wetlands was eliminated by the construction of a t a i l i n g s pond (Brolly 1981). Appendix I l i s t s L a t i n and common names of b i r d s with p o t e n t i a l economic value as subsistence resources (Godfrey 1986; Guiget 1955,  1958).  The f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the seasonal a v a i l a b i l i t y of faunal resources i s organized by biogeoclimatic zones (Alexander  1989;  Mathewes 1978). 1. Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass Zone The majority of resource species are concentrated along water courses and  69  forest margins: snowsnoe hare, beaver, squirrel, bear, deer, moose and elk. Migrating animals, such as deer, bighorn sheep, elk and moose, will be most numerous in the spring and late f a l l as they move between the river terraces and the higher Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir Zone. Freshwater fish species, particularly trout and whitef ish, are probably available in Hat Creek. Bird species include ruffed grouse, available a l l year, and blue grouse, available during spring and summer. In addition, the wetland subzone in Upper Hat Creek Valley provides a stopping place during spring and f a l l migration for numerous wetland birds. 2. Interior Douglas Fir Zone Resource species present in this zone include: deer, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, grizzly bear, black bear, yellow-bellied marmot, wolf, coyote, wolverine, weasel, snowsnoe hare, porcupine, red squirrel, northern flying squirrel, cougar, lynx, bobcat, red fox, marten, mink, fisher and short-tailed weasel. During the winter months, ungulates, such as deer, bighorn sheep and elk, and small game mammals, especially snowsnoe hare, are available along the treeline. In late March and early April, ungulates and small mammals are s t i l l present, although in poor condition. Later, in late April and mid-May, deer and other ungulates, along with grouse and small game mammals, are available at higher elevations in this zone. Ungulates and other mammals are most abundant and in prime condition in the f a l l months, as they migrate down the mountains from this zone to the Ponderosa PineBunchgrass zone in Upper Hat Creek Valley and to the major river terraces. In Highland Valley, the lakes environment provides wetland habitats for various species of birds. In addition, although available evidence is inconclusive, trout may have spawned in the inlet and outlet streams of the  70 lakes in mid-May. 3. Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine Fir Zone The resource species located in the Interior Douglas Fir zone are also present in this zone. In particular, areas of parkland attract deer for summer grazing. While mountain goats and most of the smaller mammals winter in this zone, the following mammals migrate to the lower-lying grasslands in Upper Hat Creek Valley and along the river terraces: deer, bighorn sheep, elk, moose, black bear, grizzly bear, wolf, coyote, wolverine, cougar, bobcat, lynx and marten (Environment Canada 1974). 4. Alpine Tundra Resource species found here include: deer, grizzly bear, black bear, wolf, coyote, wolverine and long-tailed weasel. In addition, small numbers of bighorn sheep, mountain goat and elk may have utilized the tundra in the past. With the exception of mountain goat, these species were probably present only during the summer months, because of the severe winters.  Lithic Resources Preliminary studies of lithic resources in Upper Hat Creek Valley have indicated that several types of lithic materials are present. The earliest data on lithic sources comes from Dawson (1894:212b), who noted a limestone conglomerate formation containing "pebbes of chert", ranging from the eastern end of Marble Canyon southward into the Trachyte Hills. Stryd (1973:189-190) mapped a "chert quarry" located near the confluence of Medicine Creek and Hat Creek, but did not describe its characteristics or distribution. During archaeological survey, Pokotylo (1978) collected more detailed data, and noted that secondary deposits of eroded and redeposited  71 nodules of chert and, t o a l e s s e r extent, b a s a l t are s p o r a d i c a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d i n g l a c i a l d r i f t throughout the survey areas. In p a r t i c u l a r , dense concentrations of b a s a l t occur along the eastern slopes above Medicine Creek, while chert i s more frequent t o the south. The b a s a l t category includes both coarse-grained and v i t r e o u s types, while chert and  chalcedony  are present i n a range of colours, o f t e n w i t h i n the same nodule. The only known source of b a s a l t i n the northern p o r t i o n of the Clear Range i s i n forested country a t the headwaters of Maiden Creek, a t the north end of the v a l l e y above Marble Canyon (Alexander 1989). According t o informants, knowledge of the l o c a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d because of the importance of b a s a l t as a trade item and as a raw material f o r t o o l manufacture. Informants d i d not state whether the b a s a l t was obtained during resource procurement t r i p s or whether s p e c i a l excursions were necessary. Hayden e t a l .  (1987) suggested that access t o l i t h i c sources i n Upper Hat  V a l l e y was d i f f e r e n t i a l l y r e s t r i c t e d f o r several thousand years by r e s i d e n t i a l groups l i v i n g along the Fraser River, but the evidence f o r t h i s hypothesis i s sparse. Family groups c o l l e c t i n g and hunting i n the uplands may have procured l o c a l i z e d l i t h i c resources as an embedded a c t i v i t y . Information on l i t h i c sources i n Highland V a l l e y i s not as d e t a i l e d . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of l i t h i c resources i s unknown, but good q u a l i t y v i t r e o u s l i t h i c resources are not present i n the v a l l e y (Areas Associates 1983). Some of the l e s s v i t r e o u s b a s a l t and q u a r t z i t e may derive from g l a c i a l deposits and v a l l e y stream beds (Areas Associates 1986). Sources f o r the c r y p t o c r y s t a l l i n e material have been i d e n t i f i e d near Ashcroft, approximately 30 kilometres away, on the Thompson River (Areas Associates 1986).  72 Cultural Environment  Synthesis of Prehistoric Subsistence-Settlement System Regional Cultural-Historical Sequence Sanger (1970a) based the first regional cultural-historical sequence on an assumption that the ethnographic pattern of dependence on stored salmon during the winter months extended back at least 7000 years. However, recent research indicates an apparent shift, approximately 4000 to 4500 B.P., from a highly mobile, primarily foraging system based on mammal hunting to a semi-sedentary, logistically organized collecting system dependent on stored resources, primarily salmon (Fladmark 1982; Richards and Rousseau 1987; Stryd 1971). The following synthesis describes the regional culturalhistorical sequence, initially proposed by Fladmark (1982) and expanded by Richards and Rousseau (1987) to incorporate evidence of local variability. 1. Early Prehistoric Period (pre-8000 B.P.) The only radiocarbon-dated site from this period in the southern Interior Plateau is Gore Creek near Kamloops. The site contains the post-cranial remains of an adult male dated at approximately 8250 B.P, and lacks associated artifacts or features. Results of stable carbon is tope analysis of the bone collagen indicate that the protein source of this individual was predaninantly terrestrial (Chisholm 1987). Other evidence of Early Prehistoric occupation is limited to undated surface finds of projectile points which are typologically similar to early points in other areas (Stryd and Rousseau 1988). The data are presently too sparse to reconstruct the Early Prehistoric subsistence-settlement system.  73 2. Middle P r e h i s t o r i c Period (8000 - ca. 4000/3500 The Middle P r e h i s t o r i c Period i s well-represented  B.P.)  a t a s e r i e s of  excavated s i t e s along the Thompson and Fraser River v a l l e y s and i n Highland V a l l e y . The l a t t e r p o r t i o n of the Middle P r e h i s t o r i c has been subdivided i n t o the Lehman Phase (6000/5500 - 4400 B.P.) 4000/3500 B.P.)  (Areas Associates 1986;  and the Lochnore Phase (5500 -  Stryd and Rousseau 1988).  Preliminary analyses indicated that the differences between these two phases r e l a t e p r i m a r i l y to the l i t h i c technological industry (Areas Associates 1986); whether the ultimate cause i s f u n c t i o n a l , chronological or ethnic, as Stryd and Rousseau (1988) have proposed, i s s t i l l unknown. Archaeological data from t e s t excavations indicated that the occupations were short-term, with no evidence f o r semi-permanent dwellings or food storage. Richards and Rousseau (1988) speculated that the absence of pithouses and storage p i t s constitutes evidence f o r a foraging strategy during the Lehman Phase. On the other hand, Hayden et a l . (1987) have suggested that a pithouse excavated a t Keatley Creek may  date to the Lehman  Phase, implying that the b a s i c s o c i a l organization of the winter v i l l a g e  was  already established during the Middle P r e h i s t o r i c period. As w e l l , winter settlements may  have consisted of e i t h e r brush houses or mat  lodges,  as  t h e i r use i s documented, although infrequently, during the ethnohistoric period (Teit 1909). As w e l l , food storage was not l i m i t e d t o the locus of the winter v i l l a g e . T e i t (1900, 1909), and Dawson (1891) noted that  storage  caches consisted of p i t s or above-ground platforms, o f t e n located a t the processing s i t e or some distance from the winter v i l l a g e . In addition, the Mount C u r r i e L i l l o o e t and Chase Shuswap used elevated box caches f o r longterm storage a t f i s h i n g stations, and underground caches f o r foods which  74 were susceptible to frost damage, consumed later in the year, or reserved for a food shortage. Therefore, the absence of semi-subterranean houses and storage pits does not, in itself, constitute clear evidence for a foraging strategy. The majority of the stone tools were manufactured from fine-grained basalt (Stryd and Rousseau 1988). The subsistence-settlement pattern is characterized by a reliance on portable dwellings, and a fairly generalized subsistence economy, with salmon slowly beconiing more important during the latter half of this period (Fladmark 1982). Analyses of faunal material from one site demonstrated that the major food resources were small mammals, ungulates and fresh-water shellfish (Areas Associates 1983, 1986; Richards and Rousseau 1988). However, stable carbon isotope analysis of human burials dated to the latter part of Middle Prehistoric indicated that, while terrestrial mammals provided the bulk of dietary protein, consumption of marine resources, i.e. salmon, increased to approximately 40% (Chisolm 1987). Although the results from these two sets of analyses appear to be contradictory, they may be indicative of local variability in the consumption of salmon. Salmon utilization declined away from the major river valleys (Chisholm 1987). As well, taphonomic processes may have resulted in the differential preservation of terrestrial and marine bone, or the underor over-representation of subsistence species. The majority of Middle Prehistoric sites are located within the major river valleys. This characteristic may be due to more intensive surveys within these areas, or a lack of chronologically diagnostic artifacts in upland sites. Alternately, utilization of upland areas may not have been widespread until intensive storage practices associated with population  75 expansion necessitated the more extensive exploitation of additional resource zones (Greaves 1986). The prevailing view of the chronological significance of microcore technology places i t within this period (Fladmark 1986; Hayden et a l 1987). Drynoch i s the oldest radio-carbon dated Middle Period site in the interior of British Columbia. It was occupied approximately 7500 years ago, and contains one microblade. Lehman is one of the better known Middle Period sites, and contains a large collection of microblades and cores. Unfortunately/ the stratigraphy i s complex and the dating has been questioned by several researchers (Pokotylo 1978; Fladmark 1986). According to Richards and Rousseau (1988:40), the Lehman Phase lacks microcore technology, based on excavations at Oregon Jack Creek and Rattlesnake H i l l sites in the Thompson River Valley, and the Lehman site in the Fraser River Valley. This lack of agreement with previously published reports i s puzzling, as Sanger (1966) states that in Zone II at the Tifthman site, with a single date of about 6600 B.P., microblades constitute nearly 50% of the assemblage. Securely-dated single component sites from this period are rare and microblades are commonly found in association with large projectile points, assumed to be at least 4500 years old. However, a pre-pithouse component, associated with Lehman Phase projectile points, containing microblades has been located recently at Keatley Creek (Hayden et al. 1987) 3. Late Prehistoric Period (ca. 4000/ 500 - 200 B.P.) The ethnographic pattern of semi-sedentism and reliance upon winter storage of salmon and other resources appears to derive from the beginning of the Late Prehistoric period. This period i s characterized by the extensive occupation of winter pithouses, associated with storage pits, use  76 of a wide range of l i t h i c resources, and a l o g i s t i c a l subsistence system focused on salmon. Nonetheless, preliminary archaeological data i n d i c a t e that v a r i a t i o n i n subsistence-settlement  p r a c t i c e s occurred w i t h i n the Late  period. Pokotylo and Froese (1983) suggested that intensive root processing began approximately 2250 B.P.  and became l e s s common a f t e r 1200 B.P.  As  w e l l , the r e s u l t s of Langemann's (1987) study of faunal material from the L i l l o o e t area indicated that salmon use increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y from approximately 1800 1982; may  to 1200 B.P.,  Hayden e t a l . 1986;  and then decreased. Other studies (Fladmark  Richards and Rousseau 1987)  have been a population increase between 1800  indicated that there  and 1200 B.P.  i n the  mid-  Fraser region. There i s a l s o a corresponding increase i n the number of Late P r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s i n upland areas and along the Thompson River V a l l e y (Pokotylo and Froese 1983;  Areas Associates 1983,  1986;  Richards and  Rousseau 1987; Alexander and Matson 1987). L i t h i c technology i n the Late P r e h i s t o r i c a l s o appears to d i f f e r considerably from that of the Middle P r e h i s t o r i c (Areas Associates Stryd and Rousseau 1988). A wider range of l i t h i c raw materials  1986;  was  u t i l i z e d , with assemblages composed of up t o 20% e x o t i c materials. Richards and Rousseau (1987) proposed that the Late P r e h i s t o r i c period should be subdivided i n t o three c u l t u r a l horizons, based on changes i n p r o j e c t i l e point morphology, bone and a n t l e r technology, a r c h i t e c t u r a l features, b u r i a l customs, and regional exchange networks. The Shuswap Horizon (4000/3500 B.P.  - 2400 B.P.)  i s characterized by large housepits,  lanceolate or t r i a n g u l a r spear and a t l a t l points, r e l a t i v e l y simple l i t h i c technology based on the use of l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e raw materials, a w e l l developed, p r i m a r i l y u t i l i t a r i a n , bone and a n t l e r industry, and b u r i a l s  77 within habitations. Although the relative importance of individual species is not yet known, subsistence activities were apparently focused on the hunting of large and small terrestrial mammals and birds, the collecting of fresh water mussels, and the fishing of salmon and other fresh water species. There i s no direct archaeological evidence for plant collecting although i t undoubtedly occurred. Shuswap components have not yet been indisputably identified in upland localities, and subsistence activities may have been focused on the exploitation of resources in major river valleys, close to main seasonal base amps (Richards and Rousseau 1987). Although Hayden et al. (1987:22) suggested that sometime during the Shuswap or the following Plateau Horizon, large socioeconomic coresidential corporate groups established ownership of and controlled access to edible and lithic resources, there is, as yet, very l i t t l e archaeological evidence to support this hypothesis. The Plateau Horizon (2400 - 1200 B.P.) i s characterized by smaller housepits, bilaterally barbed, corner-notched or basally-notched atlatl and arrow points, an increase in the quality of chipped stone tool technology with a reliance on high quality, often exotic, raw material, an elaboration of the bone and antler industry, an increase in trade with the coast, and frequent cremation (Richards and Rousseau 1987). The most significant change in subsistence practices i s a focus on the intensive exploitation of upland root resources (Pokotylo and Froese 1983). The Kamloops Horizon (1200 - 200 B.P.) i s characterized by housepits which are highly variable in size, Kamloops side-notched and multi-notched arrow points, an increase in the quality and importance of both ground stone tool technology and bone and antler technology, flexed burials in shallow  78 pits, occasionally acxxinpanied by ornamental objects, and an increase in inter-regional trade. Subsistence focused on salmon and a continued reliance on upland root resources. Until recently, microcore technology was considered to be absent from Late Period sites. However, the majority of identified sites are located in major river valleys, representing only a portion of the subsistencesettlement pattern. In addition, archaeologists have frequently considered microlithic artifacts associated with housepits and Late period projectile points to be indicative of a mixed assemblage (Donahue 1975; Sanger 1967; Fladmark 1976). Until further research clarifies the chronological extent of microcore technology, its presence in Late Period sites should not be interpreted a priori as intrusive.  Local Prehistoric Subsistence-Settlement Pattern 1. Upper Hat Creek Valley A series of four surveys located 223 sites on the valley floor, lower slopes and one headwaters area, interpreted as indicative of substantial occupation throughout the last 7000 years (Pokotylo 1978; Beirne and Pokotylo 1979). However, Pokotylo's tentative estimate of site antiquity was based entirely on comparative artifact morphology. In particular, microcore technology was inferred to be diagnostic of only Middle Prehistoric sites. As well, a detailed comparison of projectile points with well-dated points from other contexts has not yet been done. Although recent surveys in the Cornwall Hills and along the upper reaches of Oregon Jack have located sites containing evidence of microcore technology, these sites have not yet been dated by independent means (Rousseau and Gargett 1987; Rousseau 1989).  79 Table 2 l i s t s those s i t e s which are dated by radiocarbon or by p r o j e c t i l e point typology. A l l are a t t r i b u t e d t o the Late P r e h i s t o r i c period. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f i t s with the paleoenvironmental data, suggesting that Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y exploited u n t i l the modern environment was w e l l established. On the other hand, we may be unable t o accurately i d e n t i f y s i t e s dating t o the Middle or E a r l y P r e h i s t o r i c periods because of s i t e v i s i b i l i t y or a lack of chronologically d i a g n o s t i c artifacts.  Table 2. C u l t u r a l - h i s t o r i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y s i t e s . Middle P r e h i s t o r i c Lehman  Lochnore  Late P r e h i s t o r i c Shuswap  Plateau EeRj71* EeRj46* EeRj55a* EeRjlOl* EeRJ93* EeRk42* EeRk43* EeRj20 EeRJc52 EeRjlOO EGRJ42  Kamloops EeRj64 EeRj8 EeRj55d* EeRjl* EeRj53*  *dated by radiocarbon Pokotylo's (1978) d e t a i l e d analysis of f o r t y - f o u r s i t e s confirmed h i s hypothesis t h a t Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y was an important p a r t of the regional subsistence-settlement system. R e l a t i v e t o the i n t e n s i t y of occupation a t f a l l salmon procurement s i t e s and winter housepit s i t e s , a l l s i t e s i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y appear t o represent short term occupations. Two  site  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , one based on a manufacturing stage typology of debitage and one based on a technological t o o l typology, were produced by c l u s t e r  80 a n a l y s i s and multidimensional s c a l i n g o f 44 surface assemblages. Each assemblage was assigned t o one o f f i v e debitage groups and one o f f i v e t o o l groups. Pokotylo(1978) concluded that, although membership o f the f i v e debitage groups d i f f e r e d from that o f the f i v e t o o l groups, s i t e occupation and use patterns tended t o coincide. The f o l l o w i n g s i t e typology was constructed u t i l i z i n g a combination o f assemblage and environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (Pokotylo 1978:327-329): (1) hunting camps (limited a c t i v i t y s i t e s ) where hunting and butchering tasks) were c a r r i e d out: optimal overview; debitage derived from l a t e stage t o o l f i n i s h i n g and p o s s i b l e t o o l maintenance; t o o l s c o n s i s t i n g o f fragments of p r o j e c t i l e points and b i f a c e s representing hunting and butchering activities. (2) hunting camps ( l o c a l base camps f o r e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s ) where various other maintenance and e x t r a c t i v e tasks were c a r r i e d out: optimal overview; debitage derived from the e n t i r e range o f reduction steps, r e s u l t i n g from the manufacture and rejuvenation o f hunting and butchering t o o l s ; t o o l s c o n s i s t i n g o f fragments o f p r o j e c t i l e points and b i f a c e s . (3) small plant-gathering/processing s i t e s (limited a c t i v i t y s i t e s ) : low frequency and d i v e r s i t y o f expediently made t o o l s ; c u l t u r a l depressions interpreted as root r o a s t i n g ovens; small surface area. (4) plant-gathering/processing s i t e s ( l o c a l base camps f o r e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s ) where other maintenance and e x t r a c t i v e tasks were a l s o c a r r i e d out: debitage derived from a wide range o f manufacturing step; high frequency and v a r i e t y o f t o o l types; c u l t u r a l depressions interpreted as root r o a s t i n g ovens; large surface area. Although d i r e c t evidence o f s i t e seasonality i s absent, Pokotylo used  81 modern environmental data t o suggest that the v a l l e y was occupied during the l a t e spring, summer and f a l l , f o r the procurement and processing o f roots f o r storage, and the hunting and butchering o f ungulates. A l a t e r study (Pokotylo and Froese 1983) o f c u l t u r a l depressions i n f e r r e d to be cooking p i t s provided information on the nature o f p r e h i s t o r i c root processing a c t i v i t i e s i n Upper Hat Creek v a l l e y . The morphology o f p r e h i s t o r i c cooking p i t s appears t o be s i m i l a r t o those described f o r the ethnohistoric period, except f o r two notable d i f f e r e n c e s : apparent reuse and a much greater b a s i n s i z e i n some p i t s . Three types o f base processing camps were distinguished: (l) s i t e s with only c u l t u r a l depressions; (2) s i t e s with small c u l t u r a l depressions, interpreted as single-use cooking p i t s , associated with l i t h i c scatters r e f l e c t i n g e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s ; and (3) s i t e s with l a r g e r c u l t u r a l depressions, interpreted as multiple-use cooking p i t s , associated with l i t h i c scatters produced by maintenance a c t i v i t i e s . Radiocarbon dates suggest a c o r r e l a t i o n between p i t s i z e , incidence o f reuse and chronology. The largest p i t s with m u l t i p l e basins date between 2250 and 1000 B.P., a period previously hypothesized as being characterized by population growth, and i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f salmon e x p l o i t a t i o n and storage, i n major winter v i l l a g e s i t e s i n the Fraser River v a l l e y (Stryd 1971, 1974). The apparent contemporaneity o f the i n t e n s i f i e d c o l l e c t i o n and storage o f both r o o t resources and salmon i n d i c a t e that p r e h i s t o r i c subsistence-settlement patterns i n Upper Hat Creek v a l l e y may have been s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the ethnohistoric period (Pokotylo and Froese 1983).  82 2. Hicrhland Valley Two surveys located 54 sites in the Lake Zone area, immediately adjacent to the valley-bottom lakes (Brolly 1981; Areas Associates 1983, 1986). Table 3 lists those sites dated by radiocarbon or projectile point morphology. Again, absence of Early Prehistoric period sites may be attributed to lack of site visibility. However, agreement of these data with those from Upper Hat Creek Valley suggest that small population size made the early regular exploitation of upland areas unnecessary.  Table 3. Cultural-historical affiliation of Highland Valley sites. Middle Prehistoric Lehman EdRg2* EcRgiB* EcRg2BB  Lochnore EcRglB* EcRg4C EcRg2-II EcRglA-II EdRg2-III*  Late Prehistoric Shuswap  Plateau EcRg4B EdRgiB* EcRg4H EcRglO EdRgS  Kamloops EcRglB* EdRglC EcRg4F EdRgS EdRg2 EcRg3-I EcRg6  *dated by radiocarbon Highland Valley was apparently intermittently occupied throughout the last 6000 years for the hunting and butchering of ungulates and waterfowl, and for fishing (Areas Associates 1986). However, restriction of the survey to the lake-shore area, as well as excavation subject to time and budgetary constraints, may mean that additional sites remain to be discovered. Therefore, the extent of prehistoric use of the valley may well be significantly under-estimated. Arnoud Stryd (personal communication 1990) commented that the resource base in Highland Valley during the Middle Prehistoric was probably more  83 diverse than in previous times, with reference specifically to ungulate populations. The lakeshore location of Middle period Lehman Phase sites indicates a reliance on upland lake fishing, although waterfowl and aquatic mammals may also have been hunted (Stryd and Rousseau 1988). Lithic and faunal remains at the largest site, EdRg2, are indicative of food processing and camp maintenance activities (Areas Associates 1986). Investigators applied an intuitive site typology, adapted from Binford (1980) which incorporates the following site types (Areas Associates 1983:26-27): (1) residential camp: a base settlement from which work parties forage or leave on longer procurement trips; also the location where most processing, manufacturing and maintenance activities occurred; will contain archaeological evidence for food preparation and consumption, as well as tool production and/or rejuvenation. (2) field camp: a temporary operational centre where a task group sleeps, eats and maintains itself while away from the residential camp; will consist of a variety of types (fishing, hunting, etc.). (3) station: combines Binford's (1980) location where extractive tasks are carried out, station where special-purpose groups gather to collect information, and cache where resources are stored. Interpretation of site assemblages was based on the following assumptions: archaeological assemblages from residential camps will contain a greater quantity and variety of debris because of the larger number and variety of activities performed there; and archeological assemblages from field camps and stations will be smaller, more homogeneous, more task specific, and seldom multi-component (except large fishing stations) (Areas  84 Associates 1983:27). Assignment of each assemblage t o a s i t e type was  based  on the number, v a r i e t y , and types of a c t i v i t i e s represented; the s i z e and composition of the i n f e r r e d r e s i d e n t i a l or task group; and the i n f e r r e d length o f occupation. These data were derived from s i t e l o c a t i o n ; s i t e s i z e ; and the quantity, v a r i e t y and d i s t r i b u t i o n of faunal remains, t o o l s , debitage, charcoal, f i r e - a l t e r e d rock, and features (Areas Associates 1983:27). During the Lochnore Phase, several small r e s i d e n t i a l base camps, f i e l d camps, and a s t a t i o n were located i n Highland v a l l e y . The largest, EcRglB, was the locus of a s e r i e s of occupations during which resources obtained by hunting and fowling were processed and l i t h i c t o o l s were manufactured (Areas Associates 1986). As already discussed above, the major d i f f e r e n c e between the Lehman and Lochnore Phases appears t o be technological and p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d t o the morphology of l i t h i c t o o l s . Further research i s required t o investigate the c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s technological v a r i a b i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y because the Lochnore Phase may be d i r e c t l y ancestral t o the Plateau Pithouse T r a d i t i o n (Stryd and Rousseau 1988). The majority of s i t e s located i n Highland v a l l e y have been assigned t o a new archaeological construct, the Quiltanton Complex, formulated t o account for the presence of m i c r o l i t h i c assemblages i n Highland V a l l e y , and other upland areas (Areas Associates 1986; Lawhead and Stryd 1985). On the b a s i s of a r t i f a c t cross-dating, geological dating and three radiocarbon dates, the Quiltanton Complex was p r o v i s i o n a l l y dated a t approximately 2,100 B.P.,  to  1,000  but may extend back t o 4,500 B.P. or forward i n t o the next millennium  (Areas Associates 1986). However, only two s i t e s (EcRg2AA and EdRglB) have been dated by radiocarbon t o the Late P r e h i s t o r i c period. I f the majority of  85 these s i t e s date t o the Middle P r e h i s t o r i c period, then a s i g n i f i c a n t decrease i n u t i l i z a t i o n of the v a l l e y i s indicated. Diagnostic t r a i t s c o n s i s t o f a well-developed m i c r o l i t h i c industry, use of poor q u a l i t y b a s a l t s and l i t h i c raw material other than b a s a l t , a high frequency of t o o l s used as gravers, and a high incidence of m u l t i p l e t o o l s . The t h i r t y s i t e s assigned t o the Quiltanton Complex represent the most i n t e n s i v e p r e h i s t o r i c use o f the Highland V a l l e y . S i t e types include four r e s i d e n t i a l camps, twelve f i e l d camps, nine l i t h i c reduction and/or t o o l production stations, and f i v e o f unknown function (Areas Associates 1986). Limited faunal remains and residue a n a l y s i s indicated that subsistence a c t i v i t i e s included the procurement and processing of ungulates and plants (Areas Associates 1986). The Quiltanton Complex s i t e s were probably inhabited by s i n g l e family groups on a seasonal b a s i s . As i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y , there are no s i t e s c l e a r l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the Shuswap Phase. F i v e of the s i t e s a t t r i b u t e d t o the Plateau Horizon are characterized by small assemblages, and i d e n t i f i e d as f i e l d camps, or l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y s i t e s . The s i x t h i s interpreted as a r e s i d e n t i a l camp, but several occupations may have added t o the s i z e and complexity of the l i t h i c s c a t t e r . During the Plateau Horizon, Highland V a l l e y was probably occupied by smal hunting p a r t i e s from one of the major r i v e r v a l l e y s (Areas Associates 1983,  1986).  P r e h i s t o r i c u t i l i z a t i o n of Highland V a l l e y continued i n t o the Kamloops Horizon. The s i x s i t e s are small and i d e n t i f i e d as hunting camps and  field  camps. Again, the v a l l e y was probably used by small hunting p a r t i e s from the major r i v e r v a l l e y s (Areas Associates 1983,  1986).  86 Micropore Technology i n the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau Introduction The following comprises an overview o f recent research i n t o the c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f m i c r o l i t h i c assemblages i n the southern I n t e r i o r Plateau. I n i t i a l interpretations focused on t h e i r importance as chronological i n d i c a t o r s , that i s , as technological markers o f the e a r l i e s t cultures i n the  area (Borden 1952; Sanger 1967). Associated with t h i s emphasis was an  attempt t o t r a c e the technology involved from i t s o r i g i n s , presumably i n A s i a , where microcore technology i s dated several m i l l e n i a e a r l i e r (Borden 1952; MacNeish 1963). The second major i n t e r p r e t a t i o n focused on an a s s o c i a t i o n between microcore technology and ethnic group a f f i l i a t i o n , o r more s p e c i f i c a l l y , the southern spread of Athapaskan-speaking groups (Sanger 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970a, 1970b; Donahue 1975; Areas Associates 1983, 1986). The t h i r d major i n t e r p r e t a t i o n proposed that microcore technology was f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c and that m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s were used f o r a unique task or s e t o f r e l a t e d tasks (Pokotylo 1978; Fladmark 1986a, 1986b; Sanger 1968).  Chronological and Geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n 1. The Lochnore-Nesikep L o c a l i t y Sanger considered the Plateau Microblade T r a d i t i o n , t e n t a t i v e l y radiocabon-dated between 5,600 and 6,600 B.P. a t the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y , t o be a t the peak o f popularity between 7,000 and 3,500 B.P., i n components interpreted as p r e - p i t house v i l l a g e occupations. Sanger suggested that, a f t e r 3,500 B.P. microblades became increasingly scarce, and were absent from the t o o l inventory by 2,000 B.P., when house p i t v i l l a g e s appeared.  87 Sanger (1968:114) o r i g i n a l l y defined the Plateau Microblade T r a d i t i o n as being characterized by the following: 1. Microblade cores u t i l i z i n g a weathered surface f o r a s t r i k i n g platform which i s u s u a l l y modified only a t the core edge. M u l t i p l e blow s t r i k i n g platform preparation i s scarce, and core rejuvenation t a b l e t s are not known. 2. Microblades are u s u a l l y removed from only one end of the core. 3. Core r o t a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n more than one s t r i k i n g platform, i s very unusual. 4. F l u t e d surfaces commonly contract to a wedge-shaped k e e l . 5. The technique of preparing the f l u t e d surfaces i s c u r r e n t l y unknown, but the apparent absence of ridge flakes may be very important i n t h i s respect. Later d e s c r i p t i o n s (Sanger 1970b) d i d not include the weathered s t r i k i n g platform. In a d d i t i o n , other researchers (cf. Ludowicz 1983)  noted that they  d i d not observe t h i s a t t r i b u t e during recent examinations of the LochnoreNesikep microcores. Sanger (1967, 1969,  1970a) depended h e a v i l y on the presence or absence of  microcore technology to define successive stages i n the f i r s t c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i c a l model of I n t e r i o r Plateau prehistory. The data base derived from extensive excavations a t seven major s i t e s , mostly house p i t v i l l a g e s , i n the Lochnore-Nesikep l o c a l i t y of the middle Fraser River v a l l e y . Interpretation of the s t r a t i g r a p h i c a l l y complex s i t e s was d i f f i c u l t , and Sanger based h i s chronological scheme on g e o l o g i c a l context, s t r a t i g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n , judgemental estimates of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of formal v a r i a t i o n i n adjacent assemblages, amount of p a t i n a t i o n on l i t h i c t o o l s , a r t i f a c t typology and radiocarbon dates selected to agree with other estimates of age. 2. Chronology of Microcore Technology i n Other Areas of the Plateau Other researchers continued t o use Sanger's o r i g i n a l chronological model to cross-date assemblages from other regions. In several cases.  88 archaeologists ignored Sanger's assertion that microcore technology p e r s i s t s u n t i l 2,000 B.P. i n favour o f an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that excluded microcore technology from housepit s i t e s altogether (Donahue 1977, Fladmark 1976), i . e . a f t e r 4,000 t o 4,500 B.P. In addition, researchers o f t e n used Sanger's model t o substantiate t h e i r own claims o f mixed components a t s i t e s where m i c r o l i t h i c components are associated with housepits o r l a t e radiocarbon dates (e.g. Donahue 1975). On the b a s i s o f excavations conducted a t housepit s i t e s i n the L i l l o o e t area on the Fraser River, s t r y d (1972, 1973) suggested that microcore technology disappeared i n t h i s area a l i t t l e e a r l i e r , approximately 3,000 B.P. However, the L i l l o o e t area deposits were a l s o extensively disturbed. There are forty-one used and retouched microblades i n three s i t e s i n the sample, but the prepared core platforms which would provide conclusive evidence o f microcore technology are absent (Stryd 1972, 1973). Fladmark (1982) suggested that an acceptable date f o r the termination o f microcore technology i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau i s approximately 4,000 t o 5,000 B.P.,  and i s compatible with a s i m i l a r date f o r other regions. This  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s supported by recent data from the Keatley Creek s i t e , near the Fraser River, where microblades were located i n association with Lehman Phase p r o j e c t i l e points i n pre-pithouse deposits (Hayden e t a l . 1987). In addition, several s i t e s dated t o the l a s t 5,000 years do not contain m i c r o l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s : these include Punchaw Lake i n the Central I n t e r i o r (Fladmark 1976, 1982); T e z l i i n the northern I n t e r i o r (Donahue 1977); Deer Park Phase s i t e s along the Arrow Lakes (Turnbull 1977) and Rattlesnake H i l l i n the Thompson River v a l l e y (Lawhead and Stryd 1985). However, these are e i t h e r pithouse v i l l a g e s o r s i t e s with evidence o f long-term occupation.  89 Cn the other hand/ there are a number of s i t e s containing m i c r o l i t h i c components with more recent dates and d i s s i m i l a r context. In some cases, m i c r o l i t h i c components appear t o be c l e a r l y associated with radiocarbon dated p i t house deposits. At NatalXuz Lake i n the Central I n t e r i o r / microblades and a microcore are associated with a small hearth/ dated a t about 2/000 B.P.  (Borden 1952; Donahue 1975). At T e z l i , a m i c r o l i t h i c  component i s associated with housepits and three radiocarbon dates ranging from approximately 190 t o 3850 B.P.  (Donahue 1975). A t the uikatcho s i t e ,  microblades appear t o be associated with a p r o t o - h i s t o r i c p i t house assemblage (Donahue 1973). Microblades a t the Punchaw Lake s i t e are apparently dispersed throughout several occupations/ and were i n i t i a l l y associated with radiocarbon dates of approximately 600 and 2500 B.P. (Fladmark 1976; He "liner 1977). However/ a f t e r recent re-examination of the assemblage/ Fladmark (1986a) concluded that there i s no m i c r o l i t h i c component a t Punchaw Lake. At Anahim Lake t o the south/ several m i c r o l i t h i c assemblages are associated with radiocarbon dates between approximately 1,800  and 120  B.P.  from housepit assemblages (Wilmeth 1978). Wilmeth (1978) suggested that the majority o f associations are probably the r e s u l t of post-depositional disturbance, but d i d accept a date of 1,600  t o 2,000 B.P. f o r microcore  technology i n t h i s area. Fladmark (1986a) suggested t h a t a l a t e persistence of microcore technology around the Anahim Lake area, and perhaps as f a r north as Natalkuz seemed reasonable i n view of the evidence, and noted that i t may be associated with the use of deposits of a high q u a l i t y raw material i n t h i s area. In addition, radiocarbon dates ranging from 1,250  B.P. t o 1,180  B.P.  are  90 associated with a "pure" microblade component a t the Dantikto s i t e on the nearby Dean River (Wilmeth 1971:2). At two housepit s i t e s near Williams Lake, radiocarbon dates between 1/800  and 1,100  B.P. are associated with  several microblades (Whitlam 1976). F i n a l l y , a t Marron Lake i n the Okanagan v a l l e y , Grabert (1974) located a substantial m i c r o l i t h i c assemblage dated a t 2,500 B.P. i n a housepit a t a s i t e interpreted as an upland hunting and stone working s t a t i o n . 3. Microcore Technology i n Upland Areas As discussed above, the presence of microcore technology i n s i t e s along the major r i v e r v a l l e y s i s o f t e n used, with varying degrees of r e l i a b i l i t y , as a chronological i n d i c a t o r . But the frequent absence of microcore technology a t housepit s i t e s does not a p r i o r i r u l e out i t s presence a t Late Period s i t e s i n upland v a l l e y s where the organization of resource procurement s t r a t e g i e s and the a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out d i f f e r e d from those i n the major r i v e r v a l l e y s . Now there i s evidence that microcore technology may be l a t e r , a t l e a s t i n the study areas. A l l s i t e s , including m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s , located t o date i n the two v a l l e y s are shallow, and appear t o be f a i r l y r e c e n t l y deposited. Twenty-two s i t e s i n the Highland v a l l e y contain microblades i n a s s o c i a t i o n with l i t h i c scatters and a possible short-term dwelling, a t EcRg2AA. This s i t e i s a l s o well-dated by radiocarbon a t 1120 t o 1900 B.P.  (Areas  Associates 1983, 1986). In addition, i n Upper Hat Creek v a l l e y , a t l e a s t sixteen s i t e s are known t o contain m i c r o l i t i c assemblages. Microblades are associated with Kamloops points i n several l i t h i c scatters and may  be  associated with a radiocarbon date of approximately 2000 B.P. from a m u l t i component r o a s t i n g p i t (David Pokotylo, personal communication 1984).  91 Non-microlithic s i t e s i n these upland v a l l e y s may not always be l a t e r o r e a r l i e r i n time than m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s ; they may simply represent f u n c t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n a synchronic subsistence-settlement system. A t the present time, we cannot assume that m i c r o l i t h i c assemblages i n upland area have the same chronological s i g n i f i c a n c e as those i n other areas o f the plateau, p a r t i c u l a r l y the major r i v e r v a l l e y s .  Ethnic A f f i l i a t i o n and Microcore Technology Research i n t o the ethnic a f f i l i a t i o n s o f microcore technology has been ongoing f o r several decades. Borden (1952) was the f i r s t t o l i n k e a r l y n u c r o l i t h i c - b e a r i n g cultures a t the Natalkuz Lake s i t e with repeated migrations by Athapaskans. Both Donahue (1975) and Dumond (1969) rejected Borden's hypothesis on l e x i c o s t a t i s t i c a l and chronological grounds. Later, Wilmeth (1971, 1978) attempted t o i d e n t i f y the archaeological remains o f Athapaskan speakers a t Anahim Lake, but was unable t o c l e a r l y i s o l a t e a p r e h i s t o r i c Athapaskan component. Following Borden's lead, Donahue's (1975) research a t the Ulkatcho and T e z l i s i t e s was an attempt t o investigate the prehistory o f Athapaskanspeaking people i n the northern i n t e r i o r plateau. Microblades and microcores occur a t both s i t e s , but have been mixed with f a l l e n roof m a t e r i a l . Donahue (1975) f a i l e d t o detect Athapaskan-speakers  archaeologically, but continued  to defend the hypothesis that the southern migration o f Athapaskans was a progressive move that occurred over several m i l l e n n i a i n the northern i n t e r i o r plateau. Although he maintained that the use o f microcore technology d i d not p e r s i s t past 4,500 B.P., Donahue (1975) continued t o imply a r e l a t i o n s h i p between m i c r o l i t h i c assemblages and Athapaskans.  92 Further progress i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n was made by Matson (Matson 1985; Matson e t a l . 1980; Magne and Matson 1980, 1985) a t Eagle Lake. Matson developed and applied the p a r a l l e l d i r e c t h i s t o r i c approach i n two areas with s i m i l a r environments but occupied by d i f f e r e n t ethnic groups. The h i s t o r i c Lulua Phase, dated a t approximately 1877 A.D., and the p r e h i s t o r i c Eagle Lake Phase e x h i b i t some o f the v a r i a b i l i t y predicted i n dwelling shape and p r o j e c t i l e point types f o r Athapaskan s i t e s (Matson 1985). Magne ( i n Magne and Matson 1985) a l s o suggested that the large number o f m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s i n upland areas adjacent t o the Thompson River V a l l e y may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o Athapaskan speakers. Stryd and Lawhead ( i n Areas Associates 1986; Lawhead and Stryd 1985) formulated a new archaeological construct t o account f o r the presence o f m i c r o l i t h i c assemblages i n Highland V a l l e y , and other upland areas, the Quiltanton Complex, defined e a r l i e r . Stryd and Lawhead suggested that the most parsimonious explanation i s ethnic group a f f i l i a t i o n , because s i t e assemblages assigned t o the Quiltanton Complex appear t o be contemporaneous with, but d i f f e r e n t from the Kamloops and Highland Phases. That i s , the Quiltanton Complex i s the archaeological manifestation o f Athapaskaspeakers adapted t o a montane-forest-small lake environment provided by Highland V a l l e y , Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y and s i m i l a r areas near Kelowna and Kamloops. However, s i t e s c l e a r l y a f f i l i a t e d with Athapaskan speakers i n other areas do not have microblades (e.g. Wyatt 1972). I n addition, there i s no evidence of other Athapaskan t r a i t s , such as those discovered by Matson (Matson e t a l 1980)  i n the C h i l o o t i n , o r Workman (1978) i n the Yukon. Furthermore, the  nature o f the other t r a i t s associated with the Quiltanton complex suggests  93 that f a c t o r s such as raw material a v a i l a b i l i t y and conservation, and m o b i l i t y may be s i g n i f i c a n t . Before we accept Stryd's ethnic explanation, we should formulate and t e s t other p l a u s i b l e hypotheses t o account f o r the presence of microcore technology i n upland areas.  Subsistence-Settlement Pattern and Microcore  Technology  Pokotylo (1978) analyzed forty-four surface assemblages from Upper Hat Creek v a l l e y , sixteen of which contain microblades. Separate c l u s t e r analyses performed on a manufacturing stage typology of debitage and a technological t o o l typology produced two s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on t o o l types included m i c r o l i t h i c assemblages i n three c l u s t e r s : (1) an uninterpretable m i c r o l i t h i c group; (2) a group interpreted as intensive occupations with wide ranging a c t i v i t i e s ; and (3) a group interpreted as b r i e f task s p e c i f i c occupations. The s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on debitage types a l s o included m i c r o l i t h i c assemblages i n three c l u s t e r s : (1) a group interpreted as a wide range of manufacturing steps, with emphasis on the e a r l y and l a t e stages; (2) a group interpreted as a wide range of manufacturing steps, with emphasis on the middle stages; and (3) a group interpreted as the e a r l y stages of manufacturing. The membership of the t o o l groups d i f f e r e d from that of the debitage groups. None of the m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s exhibited any interpretable patterning with b i o p h y s i c a l v a r i a b l e s , although t h i s r e s u l t may r e l a t e t o a data c o l l e c t i o n problem rather than random patterning (David Pokotylo, personal orarmmication 1984). Pokotylo (1978) noted that there i s a mutually exclusive d i s t r i b u t i o n of s i t e s with microblades and s i t e s with formed unifaces, and suggested a dichotomy between c u t t i n g and scraping t o o l use. Pokotylo's preliminary  94 r e s u l t s do i n d i c a t e that m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s i n the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y  may  have served an exclusive purpose but a d d i t i o n a l data and analyses are needed t o t e s t t h i s hypothesis. An a n a l y s i s of the technological a t t r i b u t e s of t o o l s and debitage i n Highland V a l l e y s i t e s produced the following i n t u i t i v e s i t e typology: r e s i d e n t i a l camps; f i e l d camps; t o o l production s t a t i o n s ; l i t h i c s t a t i o n s ; u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t a t i o n s ; drop/discards; Associates  1983,  reduction  and unknown (Areas  1986). Microblades appear i n a l l s i t e types except  u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d stations and drop/discards.  This study d i d not i n d i c a t e a  d i f f e r e n t purpose f o r m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s ; however, other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common t o these s i t e s include the use of poor q u a l i t y b a s a l t and materials other than basalt, the presence of numerous graving  lithic  implements,  and a higher percentage of "multiple t o o l s " , presumably i d e n t i f i e d by presence of d i f f e r e n t types of use-wear. Further analysis may  the  demonstrate  that these i n i t i a l differences represent not only v a r i a t i o n i n s i t e use  but  a l s o i n the l e v e l of m o b i l i t y of the s i t e occupants (Greaves 1987). Ludowicz's (1983) research was  the f i r s t attempt to quantify and  explain  the v a r i a b i l i t y between m i c r o l i t h i c and non-microlithic assemblages i n a formal model. The research method was  a comparison of v a r i a b i l i t y  associated  with m i c r o l i t h i c assemblages from a major r i v e r i n e area, the LochnoreNesikep l o c a l i t y , and an upland area, the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . Applying Binford's  (1979) model of the technological organization of t o o l s , Ludowicz  derived a settlement strategy which was  then compared to that of the  h i s t o r i c I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . Only the t o o l s were a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s , and v a r i a b l e s were chosen which r e f l e c t e d the r e l a t i v e amount of time involved i n t o o l manufacture and use, or the i n t e n s i t y of s i t e occupation. Riverine  95 m i c r o l i t h i c assemblages are characterized by a higher percentage o f formed t o o l s , which represent a greater i n i t i a l expenditure o f energy, and upland assemblages contain a higher percentage o f expediently-produced, o r f l a k e , t o o l s (Ludowicz 1983). In addition, microcore preparation and rejuvenation f l a k e s c o n s t i t u t e a larger percentage o f upland assemblages, and  may  i n d i c a t e that microblade manufacture and microcore rejuvenation were more common a c t i v i t i e s i n upland v a l l e y s than i n r i v e r i n e s i t e s  (Ludowicz  1983:158). However, the sample from Lochnore-Nesikep may not have been representative. F i n a l l y , Ludowicz (1983) suggested that microcore technology, because i t i s present a t s i t e s i d e n t i f i e d as base camps, may represent features of a c o l l e c t o r resource procurement strategy i n place before the i n f e r r e d s h i f t t o a semi-sedentary c o l l e c t i n g system. Although the dating o f m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s i s not secure, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seems reasonable, i n view o f the probable need f o r a t l e a s t l i m i t e d food storage as a response t o the marked seasonal climate, already discussed above.  The Use o f Microblades The a c t u a l use o f microblades i n r e l a t i o n t o subsistence p r a c t i c e s has been p r i m a r i l y the object o f informed speculation rather than methodological research. Sanger (1968) suggested that microblades were used as hafted engraving t o o l s . Fladmark (1986) proposed that they were s i d e - s l o t t e d as barbs i n p r o j e c t i l e shafts, and were used p r i m a r i l y i n hunting a c t i v i t i e s . In addition, Purvis (1971) suggested that microblades were used t o cut vegetal materials used i n the manufacture o f baskets. Arnoud Stryd (personal cqrimmication 1984) a l s o proposed that microblades may have been used f o r the procurement and/or processing of waterfowl.  F i n a l l y , Pokotylo (1978)  96 suggested t h a t ndcroblades served as a c u t t i n g t o o l o f some type. However, to date, these hypotheses have not been tested, nor i s there any c l e a r evidence f o r hafted microblades i n the southern I n t e r i o r Plateau. However, a t l e a s t one, and p o s s i b l y two, end hafted quartz microblades have been located a t the Hoko River s i t e i n Washington, i n a s s o c i a t i o n with sixteen unhafted quartz microblades but no microcores (Croes 1989, personal communication 1990). Although a systematic study o f use-wear patterns on microblades from a r e g i o n a l sample has not yet been published, experimental studies using blade t o o l s (Semenov 1964; Yerkes 1983)  indicate the s u i t a b i l i t y o f blade t o o l s  f o r the manufacture o f bone, a n t l e r and s h e l l items. Examination o f experimentally-produced m i c r o l i t h s used t o s l i c e f i s h , and archaeological m i c r o l i t h s (not microblades) from the Hoko River s i t e i n Washington revealed no v i s i b l e use-wear patterns on e i t h e r group (Flenniken 1981). Thus, Flenniken (1981) proposed that the archaeological m i c r o l i t h s were hafted i n d i v i d u a l l y i n t o wooden handles and used as f i s h knives. Since women now process a l l f i s h and, i n the recent past, c o l l e c t e d and processed materials used t o create h a f t s and bindings, Flenniken suggested that, p r e h i s t o r i c a l l y , women manufactured and curated these composite knives. This hypothesis i s p l a u s i b l e i n view of the manufacture and c u r a t i o n o f hide scraping t o o l s reported by Tahltan women (Albright 1984). In both cases, the t o o l i s a composite, technologically simple t o o l , used i n a s i n g l e l o c a t i o n f o r a s p e c i a l purpose. I n order t o extend the analogy t o the manufacture and use o f microblades, we must f i r s t invesigate t h e i r f u n c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the archaeological s e t t i n g . We should a l s o remember that microcore technology i s a more complex technology and may have been the work  97 of p a r t i a l l y - s p e c i a l i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s . As w e l l , Pokotylo and Hanks (1989) have recorded the exclusive manufacture o f composite, curated "women's" t o o l s by males among the Mountain Dene o f the Mackenzie Paver V a l l e y . The major attempt t o determine the function o r functions o f microblades i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau derived from Stryd and Lawhead's work i n the Highland V a l l e y (Loy 1983, 1986). The f i r s t analysis was conducted on residue present on a s i n g l e microblade; Loy (1983:258) concluded that " i t derived from scraping wet leather, perhaps i n the f i r s t preparative stages of tanning". My i n t u i t i v e impression o f t h i s r e s u l t i s that microblades are too  small i n working area t o be used as a scraping t o o l (also see A l b r i g h t  (1984) f o r a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a hide scraper). Results o f the second residue a n a l y s i s indicated that microblades were used f o r working both f l o r a l and faunal material (Loy 1986). Loy analyzed twenty-two microblades: s i x display no residue and are c l a s s i f i e d as unused, while the remaining seventeen d i s p l a y residues i d e n t i f i e d as e i t h e r p l a n t o r mammal. Of the blades associated with mammals, eight were used as knives, three as bone scrapers, and one as a bone engraver. According t o Loy (1986), a l l used microblades analyzed (16) i n the second study were e i t h e r s i d e - o r end-hafted, but a discussion o f the evidence used t o i n f e r h a f t i n g was not provided. However, Ley's published work on residue analysis i n t h i s region lacks s u f f i c i e n t methodological d e t a i l f o r successful r e p l i c a t i o n by others, and should be c i t e d with caution. Further residue analysis applying the beter documented methods now a v a i l a b l e (e.g. Gurfinkel and F r a n k l i n 1988) would be u s e f u l a d d i t i o n t o studies o f microblade function. In addition, Stryd and Lawhead (Areas Associates 1983) suggested that preliminary examination o f wear patterns on some microblades from Highland  98 V a l l e y supported Sanger's (1968) hypothesis that microblades were used p r i m a r i l y f o r working organic materials such as bone, wood, o r a n t l e r . Again, there i s no discussion o f the wear patterns o r t h e i r implications f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the uses o f microblades.  Discussion The preceding discussion o f recent research i n t o microcore technology the Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau indicates that the Plateau Microblade T r a d i t i o n d i d disappear by 4,000 B.P. i n most areas o f the southern I n t e r i o r Plateau. However, well-dated components, p a r t i c u l a r l y from the upland v a l l e y s but a l s o from other areas, s i g n i f y that microcore technology may have p e r s i s t e d w e l l i n t o the pithouse period o f p r e h i s t o r i c occupation. The chronological range and geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n o f microcore technology are too great t o be i d e n t i f i e d with any one ethnic group. As w e l l , t h e i r occurrence i n large numbers i n upland assemblages and r e s u l t s o f residue a n a l y s i s may  indicate  that they were not always used as fish-knives (Flenniken 1981; Loy 1986). In the major r i v e r v a l l e y s , microblades appear t o be e i t h e r absent from p i t house v i l l a g e s i t e s , o r e a r l i e r i n time (Hayden e t a l . 1987; Sanger 1970; Stryd 73). In upland v a l l e y s , microblades appear t o be associated with both i n t e n s i v e l y occupied and l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y settlements. Pokotylo (1978) has pointed out an apparent dichotomy between the occurrence o f microcore technology and t o o l  used as scrapers, as w e l l as the apparent lack o f  a s s o c i a t i o n between microcore technology and b i o p h y s i c a l environmental patterning. In Highland V a l l e y a t l e a s t , microcore technology appears t o be associated with archaeological indicators o f high r e s i d e n t i a l and/or l o g i s t i c a l mobility, and conservation of raw material: poor q u a l i t y raw  99 material, and m u l t i p l e use t o o l s (Greaves 1986, 1987). Researchers working i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau have proposed an a s s o c i a t i o n between microcore technology and the forager resource procurement strategy (Donahue 1977; Ludowicz 1983; Hayden e t a l . 1987), a v a i l a b i l i t y of high q u a l i t y raw m a t e r i a l (Fladmark 1985), f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i f i c i t y  (Pokotylo 1978)  and ethnic group a f f i l i a t i o n (Donahue 1977; Areas Associates 1983, 1986). A d d i t i o n a l explanations f o r the use of microcore technology include a high l e v e l of r e s i d e n t i a l and l o g i s t i c a l m o b i l i t y (Greaves 1986) and a shortage of high q u a l i t y raw m a t e r i a l (Greaves 1987). However, t o date, none of the p o t e n t i a l models presented above have been e x p l i c i t l y formulated and tested l o c a l l y , o r a t a regional l e v e l . In order t o explore further the p o s s i b l e organizational r o l e of microcore technology i n upland v a l l e y s of the southern I n t e r i o r Plateau, the following s e c t i o n examines the ethnographic evidence f o r use of upland v a l l e y s . The goal of t h i s section i s t o demonstrate a need f o r , and an opportunity t o use microcore technology during the p o r t i o n of the regional subsistencesettlement pattern located i n upland v a l l e y s .  Synthesis of Ethnographic Subsistence-Settlement System Introduction Upper Hat Creek v a l l e y was p a r t of the t e r r i t o r y of two bands: the Spences Bridge band of the upper Thompson Indians claimed most of the v a l l e y while the Bonaparte band of the Shuswap Indians claimed the lower p a r t of Hat Creek, passing through Marble Canyon t o P a v i l i o n , a t the northern end (Teit 1900, 1909). T e i t ' s (1900:170) statement on the Spences Bridge band i s the most e x p l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n of the use of Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y by  100 a b o r i g i n a l groups: "Their hunting grounds extend back f o r t h i r t y or f o r t y miles on each s i d e of the Thompson River, and include the upper h a l f of Hat Creek". The Shuswap " t r i b e " claimed the e n t i r e Hat Creek V a l l e y (Dawson 1891:5).  In a d d i t i o n t o these two groups, Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y may have  been u t i l i z e d by groups with adjoining t e r r i t o r i e s : the Idllooet-speaking L i l l o o e t band, the Shuswap-speaking Bonaparte band, and the Thompsonspeaking Upper Fraser band (Teit 1900). Information on h i s t o r i c a b o r i g i n a l occupation of Highland V a l l e y i s l e s s c l e a r . In a map that demarcates Shuswap t e r r i t o r y , Highland V a l l e y f a l l s w i t h i n Athapaskan-speaking  N i c o l a t e r r i t o r y (Teit 1909). However,  the  N i c o l a band of the Upper Thompson Indians claimed hunting grounds extending 50 t o 70 kilometres back from the N i c o l a River between Spences Bridge and N i c o l a Lake; t h i s area included Highland V a l l e y (Teit 1900). In addition, the Spences Bridge band of the Upper Thompson Indians resided along the Thompson River from Spences Bridge t o Ashcroft, and used hunting grounds again extending 50 t o 70 kilometres on e i t h e r s i d e of the r i v e r , and including Highland V a l l e y (Teit 1900). Informants from present-day v i l l a g e s along the Thompson River above Spences Bridge s t i l l u t i l i z e food resources from the v a l l e y on an annual basis, and claim more extensive use i n the past before the d i s r u p t i o n caused by mining a c t i v i t i e s (Sylvia A l b r i g h t , personal cxxnnunication 1989). F i n a l l y , Dawson (1891) provided several Shuswap place names f o r l o c a l i t i e s w i t h i n Highland V a l l e y , i n d i c a t i n g that some Shuswap bands were f a m i l i a r with t h i s area. Stryd and Lawhead (Areas Associates 1983) suggested that native groups infrequently v i s i t e d Highland V a l l e y , as there i s no a r c h i v a l record of a b o r i g i n a l a c t i v i t i e s such as hunting, f i s h i n g , p l a n t c o l l e c t i n g or fowling  101 (Kennedy 1983). But i n 1886, the Tnornpson-speaking Piminos of the Cook's Ferry band p e t i t i o n e d f o r reserve lands i n the v a l l e y , s t a t i n g that they were already l i v i n g i n the v a l l e y during the summer months, while the l i v e s t o c k grazed i n the meadows. A f t e r 1889, the Piminos harvested swamp hay i n the summer f o r horses and c a t t l e , and resided on four reserves i n the v a l l e y a l l winter. In addition, elders from present-day native oomrmrnities along the east bank of the Thompson River, north of Spences Bridge, stated that they r e c a l l annual moves to Highland V a l l e y f o r hunting, berry c o l l e c t i n g and ranching; t h i s pattern apparently continues t o a l i m i t e d extent today, despite the d i s r u p t i o n caused by mining a c t i v i t i e s  (Sylvia  A l b r i g h t , personal communication 1989). Although root resources are evidently not a v a i l a b l e i n Highland V a l l e y a t the present time, v a r i a t i o n i n climate and vegetation probably produced a more diverse resource base i n the past (Arnoud Stryd, personal cxsriminication 1990). Taking i n t o account these data, Highland V a l l e y may have been a more i n t e g r a l p a r t of the annual subsistence-settlement system i n the p r e h i s t o r i c past, f o r both spring and f a l l resource procurement a c t i v i t i e s . Apart from the now-extinct N i c o l a Indians (Boas 1895), the Thompson and Shuswap Indians were the most probable p r o t o h i s t o r i c occupants of both Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y and Highland V a l l e y (Figure 4). The following generalized account of subsistence and settlement patterns i n the study area t r e a t s the two groups together. In addition, information r e l a t i n g to the neighbouring Salish-speaking L i l l o o e t and the Athapaskan-speaking C h i l c o t i n i s included because these groups exploited a s i m i l a r b i o p h y s i c a l environment i n an analogous manner.  102  Figure 4. Language groups i n study areas.  103 Ethnographic sources provide l i m i t e d information on the nature of subsistence patterns during the spring and summer, the primary season of occupation o f upland areas. Most of the " t r i b e l i v e d i n the mountains during the greater p a r t of the year, moving about from one root-digging or deerhunting ground t o another, according to the harvest-time of c e r t a i n roots and b e r r i e s , or as the deer changed t h e i r feeding-grounds  during the  seasons" (Teit 1900:230). Although large population aggregates are known f o r unusually r i c h resource areas such as Botanie v a l l e y (Teit 1900), the extended family group, or several such groups, was probably the t y p i c a l work group (Dawson 1891). An examination of e a r l y ethnographic sources (Boas 1890; Dawson 1891; H i l l - T o u t 1899,  1905,  1978; T e i t 1900,  1906,  1909), which  are based on d i r e c t informant observation of subsistence-settlement p r a c t i c e s , provides limited information on a b o r i g i n a l use of upland areas. These descriptions are supplemented by reconstructions of e a r l y p r a c t i c e s and observations of modern resource c o l l e c t i o n and processing methods i n the I n t e r i o r Plateau (Turner 1978,  1979; Kennedy and Bouchard 1978; Alexander  1989; Burnard 1987; Bouchard and Kennedy 1975a, 1975b, 1979).  Subsistence-Settlement  System i n the Study Areas  Several sources (Boas 1890; Dawson 1891; H i l l - T o u t 1899; Palmer 1975a, 1975b; T e i t 1900,  1909)  emphasized the dependence of the Thompson and  Shuswap people on a diverse resource base. As o u t l i n e d above, the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the b i o p h y s i c a l environment i n the study area i s habitat zonation or d i v i s i o n of the environment i n t o a l t i t u d i n a l l y placed zones defined on the b a s i s of f l o r a l and faunal resources, a v a i l a b l e a t d i f f e r e n t times of the year. The c u l t u r a l response to t h i s zonation was the formation  104 of work p a r t i e s and resident groups of varying s i z e s and composition, and the use o f both l o g i s t i c a l and r e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y i n order t o c o l l e c t , store and consume resources a t the optimum time. This strategy a l s o ensured that i f one resource f a i l e d , other resources could be added as needed o r exploited more i n t e n s i v e l y . In November, hunting p a r t i e s moved i n t o the I n t e r i o r Douglas Forest zone t o procure deer, the most important faunal resource, as they migrated during the r u t t i n g season from the higher mountains t o wintering grounds i n the lower h i l l s . Bow and arrows were the p r i n c i p a l hunting method, although deer-fences, c o r r a l s , surrounds, large nets and snares were a l s o very common (Teit 1900). Hunting grounds were used by f a m i l i e s from several v i l l a g e s , although the deer fences were owned and maintained by i n d i v i d u a l s  (Ray  1942). Methods f o r capturing other mammals included spring-traps, snares, spears, nets, and dogs, wherever there was deep snow i n the mountains, men on snowshoes used dogs t o run down deer and elk, which were e i t h e r shot or clubbed t o death. Generally, hunting p a r t i e s consisted of several  men,  although l a r g e r groups might cooperate f o r a deer o r e l k d r i v e . The presence of women a t hunting camps i s indicated by the erection of temporary hut f o r pubescent g i r l s near the hunting lodge (Teit 1900). Hunting lodges of heavy poles covered with s t i c k s and bark spread with fir-branches were constructed i n sheltered v a l l e y s , c l o s e t o good hunting areas. Occasionally, these lodges would be permanent, with earth banked up t o one metre high around the perimeter. Often, lodges would be re-occupied, e s p e c i a l l y i f located near deer fences or topography s u i t a b l e f o r deer d r i v e s . Another type of hunting lodge was the '•brush-house'',  constructed of  a l i g h t pole framework covered with branches, and used only once i n winter  105 or e a r l y spring. In a d d i t i o n t o the e x t r a c t i v e tasks associated with the procurement and processing of deer meat/ a c t i v i t i e s a t hunting camps a l s o included the i n i t i a l steps of dressing skins f o r clothing/ which would be completed l a t e r a t the winter camp (Teit 1909). The storage l o c a t i o n of f a l l hunting products i s not known; i t i s assumed that a l l skins and meat were transported t o the s i t e of the winter v i l l a g e . In December/ the people moved to winter pithouses, c l u s t e r e d i n v i l l a g e s located along sheltered/ south f a c i n g terraces near sources of f r e s h water and wood, i n major r i v e r v a l l e y s . During t h i s period, stored subsistence resources/ p r i m a r i l y salmon, roots and b e r r i e s , provided the major food supply. In a d d i t i o n , to supplement the stored food, groups of males continued t o hunt deer and e l k i n wintering grounds which included Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y (Teit 1900; Alexander 1989)  and perhaps Highland V a l l e y . Ice  f i s h i n g f o r whitef i s h may a l s o have been an important winter a c t i v i t y i n Highland V a l l e y . By l a t e March or A p r i l , f a m i l i e s had l e f t the winter houses and were spread throughout the lower elevations i n the uplands, i n the I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r zone and the Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass zone. F i s h i n g i n lakes and r i v e r s a t various elevations was the major subsistence a c t i v i t y , supplemented by hunting and p l a n t gathering (Teit 1900). Camps constructed a t f i s h i n g areas v a r i e d i n s i z e from a few to as many as 100 dwellings, each containing a family (Teit 1900). A c t i v i t i e s conducted a t f i s h i n g camps concentrated on the procurement, processing, and consumption of f r e s h f i s h , although a few p l a n t resources may a l s o have been a v a i l a b l e a t t h i s time. The growing season began i n l a t e A p r i l , and much l a t e r a t higher elevations. C o l l e c t i o n and processing of various p l a n t resources continued  106 through summer u n t i l the f i r s t snowfall (Turner 1978). The f i r s t p l a n t s a v a i l a b l e grew i n the Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass  zone and were dug as e a r l y  as l a t e A p r i l . Groups o f women using digging s t i c k s and baskets (Teit 1900) procured roots, which were threaded on bark o r grass s t r i n g s and e i t h e r hung up t o dry o r baked i n earth ovens f o r winter storage (Teit 1900). S l i g h t l y l a t e r , various types o f b e r r i e s became a v a i l a b l e i n the Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass  zone and the Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r zone  (Turner 1978). In June, the e a r l i e s t v a r i e t i e s of s e r v i c e b e r r i e s were ready, and by J u l y , various species were r i p e n i n g a t higher elevations. F i n a l l y , during the f a l l months, bog-cranberries, high-bush cranberries, w i l d rose hips, and crowberries were c o l l e c t e d . In addition, black t r e e l i c h e n was c o l l e c t e d throughout the summer months. B e r r i e s were eaten fresh, but a t l e a s t h a l f o f the harvest was processed and d r i e d f o r winter consumption (Turner 1978). Service-berries, soapberries, w i l d c h e r r i e s , huckleberries, raspberries, brambleberries, and rose-pips were d r i e d by being t h i n l y spread upon mats exposed t o the sun, o r baked i n cakes, b o i l e d i n baskets, and f i n a l l y spread onto a layer of f r e s h pine-needles o r gras , to dry i n the sun (Teit 1909, 1906). Cambium was another important p l a n t resource gathered during May and June from upland areas i n the Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass  zone, the I n t e r i o r  Douglas F i r zone and the Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r zone. Two species were commonly c o l l e c t e d by i n t e r i o r groups: lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine (Palmer 1975b). Pine cambium was a t i t s prime f o r harvesting f o r only a few weeks, from mid-May t o mid-June. The bark was removed f i r s t , and the cambium was scraped o f f i n long s t r i p s , with a n t l e r o r bone scrapers. Pine cambium was u s u a l l y eaten fresh, but some groups a l s o d r i e d i t f o r future  107 use (Turner 1978). Alexander (1989) suggested that b i r d populations i n the upland areas were never very large, and there are few references t o b i r d s i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e . Species were c o l l e c t e d as much f o r t h e i r feathers as f o r the meat (Kennedy and Bouchard 1978). various species o f b i r d s were a v a i l a b l e i n every zone, a t d i f f e r e n t times o f the year, and i t i s probable that these species were taken on an encounter b a s i s during ungulate hunts o r searches for  plants. Both v a l l e y s provide wetland habitats where l i m i t e d numbers of  wetland b i r d s were a v a i l a b l e during spring and f a l l migrations. Birds were snared o r chased with bow and arrow (Teit 1900, 1909). Slow-moving species l i k e ptarmigan could have been simply grabbed by hand. Although i n d i v i d u a l s fished during the f i r s t run o f spring salmon i n July, other a c t i v i t i e s ( i . e . , plant c o l l e c t i o n and hunting) took precedence at t h i s time, and intensive f i s h i n g d i d not take place u n t i l August or early September (Bouchard and Kennedy 1975a). From mid-August t o mid-September, everyone l i v e d a t the salmon f i s h i n g stations along the major r i v e r s . Dried salmon and other f i s h were taken to winter v i l l a g e s i t e s , where they were u s u a l l y placed i n t o an elevated box cache (Kennedy and Bouchard 1978), or i n t o a l i n e d underground cache (Teit 1906). Another subsistence a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d out i n l a t e summer or e a r l y f a l l  was  the c o l l e c t i o n and storage o f nuts. I t i s not known how the problem o f the simultaneous a v a i l a b i l i t y of salmon and nut resources was solved, because the involvement o f women was c r u c i a l . The preferred method o f gathering nuts was t o extract them from the caches of s q u i r r e l s , and t h i s could have been accomplished a f t e r the salmon processing was completed  (Alexander 1989). The  Shuswap and Thompson preferred ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) o r the more  108 important white-bark pine (Pinus albicaulus) n u t l e t s , the l a t t e r o f which were a v a i l a b l e a t higher elevations a t t h i s time. Groups o f women, camping f o r s e v e r a l days (Dawson 1891), c o l l e c t e d , cooked o r roasted the n u t l e t s , mixed them with b e r r i e s and stored them. The women a l s o secured roots and seeds i n the f a l l by robbing the nests o f sguirrelsand mice (Teit 1900). During October, the people cached salmon caught during the previous months and went t o the mountains t o hunt (Teit 1909, 1900). Several hunters and t h e i r f a m i l i e s moved i n t o the uplands where they established temporary hunting camps. Hunting continued u n t i l s u f f i c i e n t meat was prepared f o r winter storage (Bouchard and Kennedy 1979). I n addition, women remaining a t the winter v i l l a g e may have continued t o c o l l e c t lower elevation foods (Alexander 1989). The hunting and trapping o f game - p r i m a r i l y deer, marten, mink, f i s h e r , beaver, fox, and lynx - continued i n t o November. Several types o f caches were used t o store food. The most common type among the Thompson bands was the c i r c u l a r c e l l a r f o r f i s h and other food (Teit 1909). The box-cache was a l s o used extensively, e s p e c i a l l y i n wooded areas where i t was placed e i t h e r i n trees o r on platforms. According t o T e i t (1900), the Thompson stored salmon i n such elevated caches f o r s e v e r a l years, always ensuring an emergency supply. The L i l l o o e t (Bouchard and Kennedy 1975a), and probably the other groups as w e l l , constructed two types of underground caches: one kind, made very c a r e f u l l y and l i n e d with bark, was intended t o store food undisturbed u n t i l the f o l l o w i n g spring; the other was l e s s c a r e f u l l y made, and situated close t o the house f o r foods used throughout the winter (Teit 1906; Kennedy and Bouchard 1978). The l o c a t i o n o f caches i n upland areas appears t o depend on the distance  109 from the resource procurement location to the winter village. For example, Alexander and Matson (1987) have located over 300 cache pits in the parkland zone of the Potato Mountain Range in the central Interior Plateau. In Upper Hat Creek Valley and Highland Valley, no cache pits have yet been located (Pokotylo 1978; Areas Associates 1983, 1986). Resources collected in these two valleys were probably stored at the winter villages, located within a day's travel along the Fraser or Thompson Rivers. Temporary summer dwellings were located at hunting and fishing areas, and temporary camps were also associated with root-baking ovens near rootgathering grounds (Dawson 1891). These camps consisted of wood-frame lodges covered with mats, branches, bark or skins (Dawson 1891; Teit 1900, 1906). At locations where large numbers of people gathered annually for a short time, such as fishing camps and extensive root-gathering grounds, more substantial dwellings with log foundations were constructed (Teit 1900, 1909). Remains of this type of lodge have been seen at high elevations in the Pavilion and Fountain Valleys, and along the terraces of the east bank of the Fraser River (Kennedy and Bouchard 1978). Men hunted and trapped, while women were responsible for the gathering and preparation of roots, berries, and other foods (Teit 1900; Dawson 1891). Although females processed a l l plant resources, males helped to con truct the earth ovens used to bake roots for winter storage (Dawson 1891). In addition to these processing activities, the manufacture and repair of tools and utensils probably occurred at summer and f a l l camps. The Shuswap "used at least 37 species of plants for technological purposes, including the making of tools, weapons, dwellings, canoes, fibres and cords, dyes, baskets, fire, smoke, and sounds" (Palmer 1975b:35). There  110 would have been an optimal time f o r the procurement and processing o f each p l a n t species required, although preparation o f the f i n a l product may have been delayed u n t i l the winter months. For example, from September t o October, the Mount Currie L i l l o o e t gathered the Indian hemp p l a n t (Apocynun cannabinum) from which f i s h i n g l i n e s and nets are made (Bouchard and Kennedy 1975b). Sedge (Scirpus acutus), an important mat-maJcLng material, was gathered i n l a t e summer and e a r l y f a l l , while bark from the western white b i r c h (Betula papvrifera), used f o r making baskets and canoes, was c o l l e c t e d most e a s i l y i n l a t e spring and e a r l y summer (Turner 1979). Both males and females p a r t i c i p a t e d i n these a c t i v i t i e s , depending on the amount o f work involved and who would use the f i n a l product. Turner (1979:34) states that "as a general r u l e , the men were involved with the harvesting and construction o f wood, as w e l l as o f larger sheets o f bark f o r canoes. The women were u s u a l l y responsible f o r c o l l e c t i n g and preparing fibrous p l a n t materials.... and roots f o r making baskets, mats, and c l o t h i n g . However, i f the f i b r e s were t o be used as f i s h i n g l i n e and net, o r i n some way involved with f i s h i n g , hunting, o r woodworking, the men might gather and process i t as w e l l . " Subsistence technology among the three I n t e r i o r S a l i s h groups was p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l (Teit 1900), with most o f the t o o l s and u t e n s i l s being made o f stone, bone, wood, bark, skins, matting o r basketry (Table 4 ) . Although i r o n was introduced i n the mid-1700's, i t was r a r e u n t i l 1810, when i t gradually began t o replace a l l other materials (Teit 1909). Iron f l a k e r s , scrapers, knives, digging s t i c k s , and p r o j e c t i l e points were i n common usage when T e i t made h i s ethnographic observations; however, a n t l e r was s t i l l preferred f o r working stone, and bone awls and needles were s t i l l i n use (Teit 1900, 1909). A wide v a r i e t y o f l i t h i c materials was used f o r p r o j e c t i l e points, clubs, axe-heads, c h i s e l s , adzes, knives, p e s t l e s , hammers, arrow-smoothers, whetstones, f i l e s , mortars, a n v i l s , and s k i n -  ill Table 4. I n t e r i o r S a l i s h subsistence technology. Item  Material  Use ( A c t i v i t y and Worked Material)  Knife  gritstone beaverteeth  cut & work jade and serpentine cut & work jade and serpentine cut arrowshaft smoothers cut and carve wood carve,incise wood & stone cut and carve wood cut,carve a n t l e r & bone cut roots cut bark cut grass cut f a t from meat s l i c e f l e s h f o r drying s l i c e salmon f o r drying cut f i s h p o l i s h s t e a t i t e pipes scrape skins scrape f a t o f f f l e s h scrape s k i n f o r moccasins scrape cambium from bark s p l i t boulders t r i m edges o f s p l i t boulder remove flakes from edge d r i v e i n wedge, c h i s e l , stake prepare f i n a l shape o f boulder  chipped stone  o o m  •>  Pipe p o l i s h e r Scraper  Hand-hammer  Flaker Wedge Mallet Club,axe-head Adze Drill Incisor Sharpener Pounder Chisel Shovel Frame Needle Awl  slate equisetum stone sharp stone bone bone,horn pebble ground stone antler elk-antler, hardwood, bone wood stone jade,serpentine hafted t o wood stone bone gritstone,sand equisetum sharp s t i c k stone antler bone,horn,stone wood bent s t i c k s poles t i e d together wood,bone,horn bone  cut down trees d r i v e i n l i g h t stake,peg d r i v e i n l i g h t stake, peg construct canoes d r i l l holes i n wood decorate wood sharpen and p o l i s h bone sharpen and p o l i s h bone beat s k i n u n t i l s o f t beat s k i n u n t i l s o f t cut down trees scrape h a i r o f f s k i n remove snow support s k i n over f i r e t o smoke s t r e t c h skins f o r drying sew skins sew skins s p l i t roots f o r baskets sew baskets strengthen basket rims  Table 4, continued. Item  Material  Use ( A c t i v i t y and Worked Material)  Case Bag Pin Thread  antler skin thorn willow bark,deer sinew, buckskin wood  store needles,awls store sewing materials sew skins  Root-digger o *>  Board o Netting s t i c k Scraper Digging s t i c k Scoop  1  1  •>  • wood •  wood wood hard wood wood  1 Separator Pestle Basket Basket,lid Basket,small Basket,conical Basket, f l a t  horn, wood wood mat, bark, roots mat,bark,roots mat,bark,roots mat,bark,roots mat,bark,roots  Basket,oval Basket Basket Pot Grinding stone  bark bark bark stone stone  Vessel  stone bark bark wood, horn, bone wood,antler wood wood wood bark deer paunch bladder salmon s k i n bark,grass  Cup Spoon Stirrer Tongs Fire d r i l l Long s t i c k Slowmatch Bag Bag Bag String  sew skins d i g roots cut bark s t r i n g s cut roods and bulrushes shred and clean bark f i b r e cut s k i n f o r bags weaving bark thread nets d i g hole f o r winter house d i g hole f o r winter house c o l l e c t blueberries make wooden spoons make horn,bone spoons make wooden s t i r r e r s , t o n g s separate bark from t r e e mash b e r r i e s f o r drying cook food, heat l i q u i d store food,clothing store sewing t o o l s transport store tobacco store b a i t store f i s h i n g t a c k l e store food cooking b e r r i e s soaking skins store paint,ochre grind meat,berries grind tobacco store o i l hold fish,meat,roots drink eat food s t i r l i q u i d food l i f t hot stone produce f i r e gather firewood carry f i r e store animal f a t store animal marrow store salmon o i l thread roots  113 Table 4, continued. Item  Material  Use ( A c t i v i t y and Worked Material)  BOW Arrow Arrowhead Arrowshaft smoother Quiver  wood,sinew, bark wood stone (basalt)  hunt hunt hunt  sandstone tanned hide, sagebrush wood stone bark, wood and horn wood,stone bone,bark stone wood bark,wood  prepare arrows  Spear Spear p o i n t Bagnet Club Hook & l i n e Sinker Trap canoe  carry arrows hunt, f i s h hunt catch f i s h k i l l fish catch f i s h catch salmon catch t r o u t transportation,fishing  Sources: Bay 1942; T e i t 1900, 1906, 1909; Dawson 1891; Turner 1979  114 scrapers. E l k , caribou and deer a n t l e r was used t o make wood c h i s e l s , stone f l a k e r s , wedges, t o o l handles, and scrapers. Bone, wood, and horn needles and awls were used f o r sewing s k i n c l o t h i n g with bark, sinew o r s k i n thread. Birch-bark and spruce-bark were used t o make baskets f o r storage and p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n , while cedar and spruce roots were woven i n t o baskets f o r cooking, storage and p l a n t c o l l e c t i o n . Mats f o r f l o o r and w a l l coverings, bags and place mats were woven of t u l e , bulrushes, and bark. Netting f o r hunting was constructed from bark or hemp, using wooden n e t t i n g s t i c k s . Cedar, yellow pine, and Cottonwood were used f o r dugout or bark canoes, although several bands d i d not have access t o s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l and traded f o r canoes (Teit 1900). F i n a l l y , snowshoes were constructed of mountain maple, yew and deerhide, while tumplines used f o r carrying family possessions, meat, and baskets of roots and b e r r i e s were constructed of buckskin (Teit 1900). Males were responsible f o r working i n stone, bone, and wood, while females prepared skins, matting, and basketry (Teit 1900). The e a r l y ethnographers d i d not record e i t h e r the manufacture or the use of microblades. We should note that T e i t , Boas and others r e s t r i c t e d most of t h e i r observations t o l i f e i n the winter pithouse v i l l a g e s , where microcore technology may have disappeared by 3,500 B.P. In addition, most of the stone t o o l s had already been replaced by metal equivalents. Microblades would have been s u i t a b l e as analogues f o r several of the t o o l s l i s t e d i n Table 7: k n i f e , scraper, d r i l l , i n c i s o r or awl, used on wood,antler, bone, roots, bark, grasses, f a t , f l e s h and skins.  115 Discussion  The subsistence-settlement system described above has been compiled from observed and reconstructed data from the l a t e nineteenth century and therefore i t s a n t i q u i t y i s unknown, i n addition, both Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y and Highland V a l l e y were probably u t i l i z e d during only a p o r t i o n o f the annual subsistence-settlement c y c l e throughout the p r e h i s t o r i c period. As w e l l , the subsistence-settlement pattern varied considerably throughout the centuries. For example, there i s evidence i n both v a l l e y s o f a hiatus i n occupation during the Shuswap Horizon. In addition, occupation during the Middle P r e h i s t o r i c period was s u b s t a n t i a l l y more widespread i n Highland V a l l e y , while e x p l o i t a t i o n o f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y was more intensive during the Plateau Horizon. F i n a l l y , the use o f microcore technology was not observed by e a r l y ethnographers and there i s no d i r e c t analogue f o r i t s replacement w i t h i n o r before the h i s t o r i c period. Paleoenvironmental data from the southern I n t e r i o r Plateau i n d i c a t e that extensive grasslands may have already boon i n place i n upland areas by approximately 10,000 B.P. Archaeological data on the E a r l y P r e h i s t o r i c period i n other areas o f the I n t e r i o r Plateau suggest that subsistence was based on the hunting o f large ungulates (Fladmark 1982). Although there i s , as yet, no archaeological evidence o f p r e h i s t o r i c occupation o f upland areas during the E a r l y P r e h i s t o r i c period, small groups o f hunters may have u t i l i z e d these areas. Ethnographic information presented above indicates that hunting i n the uplands was c a r r i e d out i n the f a l l by e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups o f males, accompanied by a few women t o process the game. Hunting technology a t t h i s time included spears, probably traps,  116 snares, and nets, and perhaps the use of group f a c i l i t i e s such as surrounds, fences, and c o r r a l s . S i t e s would have included small r e s i d e n t i a l or f i e l d camps, k i l l and processing s i t e s and lookout s t a t i o n s . There i s some archaeological evidence f o r the increasing (or beginning) use of upland areas during the Middle P r e h i s t o r i c period, as warmer temperatures r a i s e d a l p i n e t r e e - l i n e s and reduced the amount of permanent snow. In Highland V a l l e y , a t l e a s t , the resource base was probably more diverse a t t h i s time, since a larger area of open grassland would have produced a corresponding increase i n the ungulate population  (Arnoud Stryd,  personal onwrnmication 1990). Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y contains no s i t e s c l e a r l y a t t r i b u t e d to t h i s period, and i t may  be that e d i b l e resources,  p a r t i c u l a r l y roots, were not well-established. I f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y were exploited f o r the same resources as during the ethnohistoric period, small, mobile family groups would have u t i l i z e d the v a l l e y from summer t o f a l l , as ungulates moved i n t o summer grazing areas, and roots ripened. Ethnographic information on the use of upland areas pertains only to e x p l o i t a t i o n of resources by s p e c i a l i z e d task groups on a large scale f o r winter storage. However, taking i n t o account the highly seasonal climate, i t  s probable that small scale storage was necessary f o r  a successful adaptation to t h i s region. Although i n the ethnohistoric period, roots were c o l l e c t e d and prepared f o r storage during spring and summer months, R. G. Matson (personal communication 1989)  suggested that,  p r i o r t o the large-scale use of salmon which commenced sometime a f t e r 4500 B.P.,  roots may  have been exploited p r i m a r i l y during the f a l l . Although  ethnographic information r e l a t i n g t o the e x p l o i t a t i o n of root resources i s sparse, s i t e s would have remained small and consisted of small r e s i d e n t i a l  117 base camps, small resource procurement s i t e s and lookout s t a t i o n s f o r hunting. The l a t t e r two would probably be archaeologically i n v i s i b l e . Small hunting p a r t i e s would have consisted p r i m a r i l y of males, and would have transported the game back t o the r e s i d e n t i a l base camp f o r processing. In addition, females would have c o l l e c t e d and processed the bulk of the f l o r a l resources, e i t h e r a t the small r e s i d e n t i a l camps, or near the procurement sites. Highland V a l l e y contains a t l e a s t eight s i t e s c l e a r l y a t t r i b u t e d t o the Middle P r e h i s t o r i c period. As discussed above, archaeological data from the Lochnore Phase s i t e s indicate an occasional, seasonal use of the v a l l e y f o r the hunting of ungulates, r a b b i t and beaver. As w e l l , the lakeshore l o c a t i o n of these s i t e s may  indicate the harvesting of waterfowl and freshwater  molluscs. T h i s probably occurred during the spring and f a l l months, by mobile family groups occupying small seasonal base camps, i n a s s o c i a t i o n with hunting camps and lookout stations. The number and s i z e of well-dated Late P r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s i n both v a l l e y s i n d i c a t e that the most extensive use of these upland areas occurred during t h i s period. I t seems l i k e l y that the Late P r e h i s t o r i c pattern was, f o r the most p a r t , s i m i l a r t o that reconstructed f o r the ethnographic period. Paleoenvironmental data indicate t h a t the environment during the Late P r e h i s t o r i c assumed modern c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , with a few short, colder, wetter periods. The presence of pithouses and storage p i t s i n the major r i v e r v a l l e y s c l e a r l y indicate a semi-sedentary settlement pattern and a c o l l e c t i n g subsistence system. A f t e r the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of salmon resources, then perhaps i t was a l s o necessary t o i n t e n s i v e l y c o l l e c t and process more upland resources f o r storage i n order t o l a s t out the winter.  118 Thus, there should be larger and, possibly, more s i t e s i n the uplands i n the Late P r e h i s t o r i c period. According t o currently a v a i l a b l e data, p r e h i s t o r i c occupation o f Upper Hat Creek v a l l e y was underway by a t l e a s t 2400 B.P.,  and continued  throughout the Late P r e h i s t o r i c period. Pokotylo (1978) i n f e r r e d that the major use o f the v a l l e y was f o r spring p l a n t gathering a c t i v i t i e s , and f o r f a l l hunting a c t i v i t i e s . However, the presence of a housepit s i t e a t the northern end o f the v a l l e y indicates a winter occupation f o r a t l e a s t one season. Waterfowl would have been a v a i l a b l e a l s o i n the f a l l , and  lithic  material was a v a i l a b l e whenever there was no snow cover. Archaeological data i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of root resources began approximately 2000 B.P.,  and continued t o the h i s t o r i c period although apparently i n smaller  q u a n t i t i e s . Although ethnographic sources (Teit 1900,  1906,  1909; Dawson  1891) described r o o t gathering as being p r i m a r i l y conducted by small p a r t i e s of women, i t i s more probable that the intensive c o l l e c t i o n and processing implied by the presence of large cooking p i t s dated t o the Plateau Horizon was c a r r i e d out by large family groups, occupying f a i r l y large seasonal base camps, associated with processing s i t e s . At the same time, small hunting camps were occupied p r i m a r i l y by males. During the ensuing Kamloops Period, processing of root resources f o r storage decreased i n i n t e n s i t y ; therefore, the base camps and processing s i t e s should be smaller. Hunting probably continued i n the same manner. In Highland v a l l e y , the major resources were deer, f i s h and waterfowl, i n d i c a t i n g that the major use of the v a l l e y was during the f a l l months. Highland V a l l e y s i t e s represent p r i m a r i l y f a l l occupations, with a few spring, summer and winter s i t e s (Areas Associates 1983). Unlike the  119 s i t u a t i o n i n Upper Hat Creek v a l l e y , there i s no archaeological evidence to i n d i c a t e that i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of edible resources occurred during the Late P r e h i s t o r i c period, nor any evidence of a winter residence. However, i t i s s t i l l probable that groups using the Highland V a l l e y during the Late P r e h i s t o r i c period were p r i m a r i l y c o l l e c t o r s , focusing on resources t o be processed, transported and stored close t o winter pithouse v i l l a g e s w i t h i n the major r i v e r v a l l e y s . Thus, we can p r e d i c t that seasonal r e s i d e n t i a l base camps w i l l be larger, and perhaps more numerous, and that hunting camps and other s p e c i a l purpose s i t e s w i l l be both more common and show evidence of sequential use. Table 5 demonstrates the i n f e r r e d ethnographic subsistence-settlement pattern i n these two upland v a l l e y s throughout the year. The most noticeable c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the high l e v e l of both r e s i d e n t i a l and l o g i s t i c a l mobility selected f o r the e f f i c i e n t e x p l o i t a t i o n of a l t i t u d i n a l l y - z o n e d and seasonally r e s t r i c t e d resources. In addition, a wide range of resources were procured, and consumed or processed f o r winter storage. Therefore, a need for e i t h e r a wide range of f u n c t i o n a l l y s p e c i f i c t o o l s o r a smaller number of multi-purpose t o o l s i s demonstrated. F i n a l l y , high q u a l i t y l i t h i c  raw  material i s l i m i t e d i n a v a i l a b i l i t y only i n Highland V a l l e y , although access to c e r t a i n cherts o r highly vitreous basalts may have been r e s t r i c t e d i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y . Chapter two presented contemporary archaeological theory dealing with the organizational r o l e of l i t h i c technology and derived a t e s t a b l e model f o r the organizational r o l e of microcore technology i n the subsistencesettlement system of semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers. The present chapter re-examined archaeological and ethnographic data from the Southern I n t e r i o r  Table 5. Inferred ethnographic subsistence-settlement pattern i n uplands. Month  Zone  Resource  Group  OctoberNovember-  IDF  ungulates  males,  FC  IDF  ungulates ungulates  families males males, families males  P P FC P P  >«!KKI«'  Decembere a r l y March  IDF  ungulates,fish small mammals ungulates  males  P  males  P  plants, ungulates plants,ungulates small mammals plants, ungulates  females, families females, males females, families  FC P P  f ish,ungulates plants,waterfowl plants, ungulates plants, ungulates  families  FC  maintenance  females, males families  PR P RC P PR P PR  p l a n t processing, butchering maintenance butchering, p l a n t processing p l a n t processing, butchering  P PR RC P FC P P PR  p l a n t processing plant processing maintenance plant processing maintenance p l a n t processing butchering, p l a n t processing  RC P PR P P  maintenance butchering, p l a n t processing plant processing butchering  IDF  FFB6 IDF IDF ESSF  June-mid July  AT  plants, ungulates  females, males  IDF  berries,spruce roots,plants berries, plants roots  females  AT  plants, ungulates  males, females  ESSF  plants, ungulates  families  IDF AT  plants ungulates  females families  PPBG ESSF  MidAugustSeptember  maintenance, hide preparation butchering butchering maintenance butchering butchering  ungulates  IDF  Mid-Maye a r l y June  Activities  AT  IDF Late MarchApril  Site  AT: Alpine Tundra ESSF: Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r IDF: I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r PPBG: Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass  families families  P  butchering, fishing butchering maintenance butchering plant processing, butchering p l a n t processing, butchering  FC: f i e l d camp P: procurement s i t e PR: processing s i t e RC: r e s i d e n t i a l camp  121 Plateau i n order t o provide a model of the way  i n which people  manufacturing  and using m i c r o l i t h i c t o o l s may have organized t h e i r annual subsistencesettlement system i n upland v a l l e y s . The assumption i s made here that the i n f e r r e d ethnographic subsistence-settlement pattern presented i n Table 5 i s s i m i l a r t o that followed by p r e h i s t o r i c peoples using upland v a l l e y s during the Kamloops and Plateau Horizons. The following chapters w i l l t e s t the research p r o p o s i t i o n advanced here that the c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of microcore technology i s functional, that i s , r e l a t e d not only t o the purpose of the t o o l i t s e l f , but a l s o t o i t s organizational r o l e w i t h i n the subsistence-settlement system. The following chapter describes the data base used t o t e s t the model of the organizational r o l e of microcore presented i n Chapter I I .  technology  122 CHAPTER XV THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA BASE  This chapter describes the archaeological data base vised i n the following a n a l y t i c a l chapter: the l i t h i c a r t i f a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, and the study s i t e s . The nature o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r data base provides information on both technological behaviour, represented by the material by-products o f t o o l use, manufacture and discard, and settlement behaviour, as indicated by the environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the m i c r o l i t h i c and non-microlithic s i t e s selected f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A p i l o t study was completed i n order t o investigate and s e l e c t the most e f f i c i e n t and u s e f u l methods o f data measurement and a n a l y s i s . Following the analysis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f preliminary r e s u l t s , the number o f a t t r i b u t e s and some o f the values recorded were changed. During the following discussion o f the d e s c r i p t i v e data, a b r i e f reference i s made, when appropriate,  t o the methods and  r e s u l t s o f the p i l o t study, t o j u s t i f y any changes. The f i r s t section provides d e f i n i t i o n s of the a r t i f a c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used, while the second section describes the s i t e s e l e c t i o n process and provides pertinent b i o p h y s i c a l and archaeological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Artifact  Descriptions  Introduction According t o the t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h i s research,  stone t o o l  technology i s viewed as a strategy selected by a population t o f u l f i l l needs d e r i v i n g from the procurement, transport, processing and storage o f  123 resources. The p a r t i c u l a r subsistence strategy chosen w i l l be a primary determinant o f settlement types and locations (Jochim 1981). I f the settlement strategy comprises the d i f f e r e n t i a l use o f locations f o r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , then the e n t i r e range o f behaviour involving stone t o o l s w i l l probably not be represented a t a l l s i t e locations w i t h i n the regional settlement round. The v a r i a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s conducted a t each s i t e w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n v a r i a b i l i t y i n the kind and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the debris produced across s i t e locations. Thus, i f technological behaviour i s responsive t o the kind o f subsistence strategy selected, then v a r i a b i l i t y i n the manufacture, use, maintenance and discard o f t o o l s , as evidenced i n the archaeological record, w i l l r e f l e c t the o v e r a l l subsistence-settlement strategy o f the population under study. The data base i n t h i s study was chosen f o r i t s p o t e n t i a l t o r e f l e c t v a r i a b i l i t y i n both the manufacture and maintenance o f t o o l s , and i n the use and d i s c a r d o f t o o l s . The data base consists of the flaked l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s which c o n s t i t u t e the dominant, and often the only, c l a s s of material remains found i n s i t e s from the study area. The morphological a r t i f a c t typology i s a modification o f one developed and used s u c c e s s f u l l y by David Pokotylo (1978). The goals associated with t h i s p a r t i c u l a r typology are: (1) t o i d e n t i f y and document the processes of manufacturing, maintenance and rejuvenation of t o o l s ; (2) t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a b i l i t y i n t o o l manufacturing and core preparation s t r a t e g i e s ; and (3) t o i d e n t i f y and document v a r i a b i l i t y i n t o o l use. The a r t i f a c t s are divided i n t o two categories: (1) debitage, o r by-products o f t o o l manufacture, resharpening, and rejuvenation; and (2) t o o l s , o r any a r t i f a c t e x h i b i t i n g evidence of use by i n t e n t i o n a l retouch o r use wear.  124 L i t h i c M a t e r i a l Types The type o f stone selected i s an important p a r t of the t e c h n o l o g i c a l strategy of any group and can provide information on d i f f e r e n t i a l s e l e c t i o n and use of l i t h i c raw material i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y f o r p a r t i c u l a r t o o l s and t o o l manufacturing processes. The p i l o t study used a l i s t of l i t h i c material types developed from the Upper Hat Creek Archaeological Project: v i t r e o u s basalt, non-vitreous basalt, chert, chalcedony, obsidian, cherty a r g i l l i t e , g u a r t z i t e , lowgrade v o l c a n i c , s t e a t i t e , quartz c r y s t a l , and cobble of undetermined l i t h i c type. I t was d i f f i c u l t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between chert and chalcedony, which o f t e n occur together i n the same a r t i f a c t . In addition, the majority of a r t i f a c t s were e i t h e r b a s a l t or chert, with only a few or no examles of the other raw m a t e r i a l types. Accordingly, f o r the remainder of the study, the following l i t h i c material type categories were used: v i t r e o u s basalt, non-vitreous basalt, chert and/or chalcedony, and other.  Debitage C l a s s i f i c a t i o n L i t h i c debitage i s defined as the unmodified  (by use or i n t e n t i o n a l  retouch) waste products of t o o l manufacture, resharpening, and rejuvenation. Debitage includes nodules of raw material, cores and core fragments, b i f a c i a l preforms, flakes and f l a k e shatter, block shatter, and microblades. I t i s o f t e n assumed t h a t l i t h i c debitage, as an immediate byproduct, i s deposited a t the locus of production, and not removed from the s i t e f o r further use (Pokotylo 1978). One of the goals of t h i s research i s t o t e s t t h i s assumption, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect t o microcore technology. The major goal i n adopting t h i s debitage typology i s t o provide mutually  exclusive categories which w i l l provide information on nianufacrturing, resharpening and rejuvenation processes which may  vary between s i t e s . Each  a r t i f a c t type i s described below and i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 5, 6 and  Non-microlithic Debitage (Figures 5 and  7.  6)  1. Nodule r e f e r s t o a chunk of l i t h i c raw material, with cortex  still  i n t a c t , and no evidence of f l a k e removal (Figure 5a). 2. Core r e f e r s t o a piece of l i t h i c raw material from which some flakes have been removed. Some cortex may present  remain and negative f l a k e scars are  (Figure 5b).  3. Platform-remnant bearing f l a k e i s defined by the presence of a p o r t i o n of an i n t a c t s t r i k i n g platform  (Figure 6a).  4. B i f a c i a l thinning f l a k e has an extensively facetted, steeply angled, l i p p e d s t r i k i n g platform (Crabtree 1972)  and a curved side view (Figure 6b).  5. Flake shatter e x h i b i t s a t l e a s t one f l a k e margin, and a v i s i b l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the dorsal and v e n t r a l surfaces (Figure 6c). 6. Block shatter lacks an obvious f l a k e margin, or dorsal and v e n t r a l surfaces (Figure 6d). 7. B i p o l a r f l a k e displays two s t r i k i n g platforms a t opposing ends of the f l a k e ' s long a x i s (Figure 6e). 8. Preform i s a b i f a c i a l l y flaked blank e x h i b i t i n g a regular o u t l i n e , but not f i n i s h e d i n t o a recognizable t o o l c l a s s (Figure 6 f ) .  M i c r o l i t h i c Debitage (Figure 7) 1. Microcore has been prepared f o r the purpose of microblade removal. Defining a t t r i b u t e s are the presence of a s e r i e s of p a r a l l e l f l a k e scars  126  Figure 5. Non-micxolithic debitage: a-nodule; b-core.  Figure 6. Non-micxolithic debitage: a-platform-rannant bearing flake; b-bifacial tiiinning flake; c-flake shatter; d-block shatter; e-bipolar flake; f-preform.  along the d i s t a l end, and a prepared s t r i k i n g platform perpendicular to the f l a k e scars. Microcores can be placed i n one of several stages, depending on whether or not the core has been prepared, u t i l i z e d or discarded immediately p r i o r t o i t s f i n a l handling (Figure 7a). 2. Microcore fragment i s the d i s t a l p o r t i o n of a microcore, o r the f l u t i n g surface, defined by the presence of p a r a l l e l f l a k e scars and a platform perpendicular t o the scars (Figure 7b). 3. Microcore preparation f l a k e i s defined by the presence of a s e r i e s (two or more) of p a r a l l e l f l a k e scars and the remnants of a perpendicular s t r i k i n g platform (F gure 7c). 4. Microcore rejuvenation f l a k e e x h i b i t s portions of a s e r i e s of p a r a l l e l f l a k e scars and a deeply lipped s t r i k i n g platform (Figure 7d). 5. Microblade i s a narrow f l a k e with long p a r a l l e l f l a k e margins, a prepared platform perpendicular t o the bulb of percussion, and a t r i a n g u l a r or prismatic cross-section (Figure 7e). 6. Microblade proximal fragment i s the proximal p o r t i o n of a microblade with the s t r i k i n g platform (Figure 7 f ) . 7. Microblade medial fragment i s the medial p o r t i o n of a microblade lacking both s t r i k i n g platform and d i s t a l termination (Figure 7g). 8. Microblade d i s t a l fragment i s the d i s t a l p o r t i o n of a microblade lacking the s t r i k i n g platform (Figure 7h).  Tool C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A t o o l i s defined as a l i t h i c a r t i f a c t which has been modified by i n t e n t i o n a l retouch or by use-wear. I t i s assumed that formed, or p r e c i s e l y shaped, t o o l s required a s u b s t a n t i a l e f f o r t i n terms of time and s k i l l ,  and  129  F i g u r e 7. M i c r o l i t h i c d e b i t a g e : a - m i c r o o o r e ; b - m i c x o c o r e f r a g m e n t ; c-microcore p r e p a r a t i o n f l a k e ; d-microcore r e j u v e n a t i o n f l a k e ; e-microblade; f-microblade proximal fragment; g-microblade medial fragment; h-microblade d i s t a l fragment.  p o s s i b l y s p e c i f i c raw materials as w e l l . I n addition, formed t o o l s , because of the c o n t r o l exerted over o u t l i n e and s i z e , are more l i k e l y t o have been hafted. Thus, formed t o o l s were probably curated more o f t e n than expediently-manufactured f l a k e t o o l s (Pokotylo 1978; Hayden 1981). The following t o o l classes r e f l e c t the technological features o f both formed and expediently-manufactured t o o l s . Each t o o l type was c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s of two observable a t t r i b u t e s : b a s i c shape, and/or the presence o f retouch o r u t i l i z a t i o n scars. The c r i t e r i o n f o r c l a s s i f y i n g each formed t o o l was i t s b a s i c o u t l i n e shape, while the c r i t e r i o n selected a r b i t r a r i l y f o r c l a s s i f y i n g an expedient t o o l was the presence o f a t l e a s t one modified section with continuous s c a r r i n g f o r a minimum distance o f 2 mm, o r two contiguous negative f l a k e scars. Assignment t o a b a s i c shape category i m p l i c i t l y recognizes the amount o f energy expended during manufacture. For example, on the surface o f a b i f a c e , the m o d i f i c a t i o n i s extensive, e n t a i l i n g a larger amount o f energy expenditure than on a modified f l a k e , where the m o d i f i c a t i o n i s marginal. Although several o f the t o o l categories have t r a d i t i o n a l l a b e l s that imply function, i n t h i s study they r e f e r only t o the b a s i c o u t l i n e shape. A l l a r t i f a c t s were examined under low magnification (X10) i n order t o determine the presence o r absence o f modification o r retouch scars. No attempt was made t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between scar patterns r e s u l t i n g from manufacturing retouch and use retouch because, i n many cases, i t i s not p o s s i b l e without the use o f high-power magnification (Knudson 1983; Keeley 1980). The presence o f e i t h e r type o f modification was considered s u f f i c i e n t t o c l a s s i f y an a r t i f a c t as a t o o l . Tool types are described below, and i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figures 8, 9 and 10.  131 Formed Tools (Figure 8) 1. Uniface was i n i t i a l l y defined by Sanger (1970a: 76) as having " w e l l defined o u t l i n e s , r e f l e c t i n g , presumably, deliberate shaping". The u n i f a c i a l modification extends over a t l e a s t one-third o f the edge (Figure 8a). 2. Graver i s characterized by a u n i f a c i a l l y o r b i f a c i a l l y retouched spur or p r o j e c t i o n , although the r e s t o f the a r t i f a c t may be v a r i a b l e i n o u t l i n e (Figure 8b). 3. B i f a c e i s a symmetrical t o o l b i f a c i a l l y flaked over the e n t i r e surface. Tips are e i t h e r pointed o r rounded, and there i s no evidence o f h a f t i n g (Figure 8 c ) . 4. B i f a c e end fragment i s a proximal o r d i s t a l p o r t i o n o f a b i f a c e i n c l u d i n g the t i p (Figure 8d). 5. B i f a c e medial fragment i s the body p o r t i o n o f a b i f a c e and lacks a t i p (Figure 8e). 6. P r o j e c t i l e point i s symmetrical and b i f a c i a l l y flaked over the e n t i r e surface, with a sharply-pointed d i s t a l t i p and a base modified f o r h a f t i n g by notching, stemming o r thinning (Figure 8 f ) . 7. P r o j e c t i l e point fragment i s a p o r t i o n o f a p r o j e c t i l e point and has a p o r t i o n o f the base, and perhaps the body (Figure 8g).  Expedient Tools (Figures 9 and 10) 1. Modified cobble e x h i b i t s a t l e a s t one area o f continuous modification, u s u a l l y a crushed surface (Figure 9 ) . 2. Modified f l a k e i s a f l a k e (of any type defined above) having one o r more modified areas e x h i b i t i n g continuous retouch f o r more than 2 mm, o r more than two contiguous negative f l a k e scars. M o d i f i c a t i o n i s r e s t r i c t e d t o  132  Figure 8. Formed tools: a-uniface; b-graver; c-biface; d-biface end fragment; e-biface medial fragment; f-projectile point; g-projectile point fragment.  Figure 9. Expedient t o o l s : modified cobble.  134 w i t h i n one t h i r d o f the f l a k e margins (Figure 10a).  M i c r o l i t h i c Tools (Figure 10) 1. Modified microblade e x h i b i t s a t l e a s t one area o f continuous modification (Figure 10b). 2. Modified microblade proximal fragment e x h i b i t s a t l e a s t one area o f continuous modification (Figure 10c). 3. Modified microblade medial fragment e x h i b i t s a t l e a s t one area o f continuous modification (Figure lOd). 4. Modified microlade d i s t a l fragment e x h i b i t s a t l e a s t one area o f continuous modification (Figure lOe). 5. Modified microcore preparation f l a k e e x h i b i t s a t l e a s t one area of continuous modification (Figure l O f ) . 6. Modified microcore rejuvenation f l a k e e x h i b i t s a t l e a s t one area of continuous modification (Figure lOg).  The next s e c t i o n reports on the s i t e s e l e c t i o n process and describes the b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s / sampling strategies/ a r t i f a c t inventories, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f the data by s i t e investigators.  S i t e Descriptions  Introduction This s e c t i o n describes the twenty-four s i t e s selected f o r study from the Upper Hat Creek and Highland v a l l e y s . A l l s i t e s were c l a s s i f i e d as s i n g l e component by the o r i g i n a l investigators (Areas Associates 1983, 1986;  135  Figure 10. Expedient and microlithic tools: a-modified flake; b-modified microblade; c-modified microblade proximal fragment; d-modified microblade medial fragment; e-modified microblade distal fragment;f-modified microcore preparation flake; g-modified microcore rejuvenation flake.  Pokotylo and Beirne 1978; B e i m e and Pokotylo 1979; Beirne 1979a, 1979b; Pokotylo e t a l . 1983). i n order t o t e s t the model proposed i n chapter I I , an equal number (6) of m i c r o l i t h i c and non-microlithic s i t e s from each upland v a l l e y are selected i n order t o reduce b i a s r e l a t e d t o v a r i a b l e sample s i z e . I t i s assumed that both the m i c r o l i t h i c and non-microlithic assemblages precede the introduction of metal t o the study area, and that the nonm i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s were occupied by semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers using a subsistence-settlement strategy s i m i l a r t o that described ethnographically. The e n t i r e flaked l i t h i c c o l l e c t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r each s i t e i s analyzed, except i n the cases of two very large m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s , EeRilO and EeRj55, which are sampled by s e l e c t i o n of those excavation u n i t s which contain the highest percentage of m i c r o l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s . The sampling strategy i s judgmental, i n that the following s i t e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a were used wherever possible: a range of biogeoclimatic zones; a range of s i t e areas and a r t i f a c t d e n s i t i e s ; independent dating by radiocarbon; and s i t e excavation as w e l l as surface c o l l e c t i o n . A r t i f a c t d e n s i t i e s f o r p a r t i a l l y c o l l e c t e d Highland v a l l e y s i t e s are taken from estimates calculated by area investigators. Each m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e contains a minimum of two m i c r o l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s , and each non-microlithic s i t e (except EcRg4A) i s dated by the presence of p r o j e c t i l e points t o e i t h e r the Kamloops Horizon or the Plateau Horizon. Table 6 provides d e t a i l s on s i t e s e l e c t i o n criteria. Table 7 provides summary data f o r the study s i t e s : s i t e type, i n f e r r e d s i t e function, and a r t i f a c t frequencies, broken down i n t o t o o l s and debitage. The majority of Upper Hat Creek s i t e s selected f o r t h i s study were not p r e v i o u s l y c l a s s i f i e d i n t o functional s i t e types; the exceptions are  137 Table 6. S i t e s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a . Site  Biogeoclimatic Zone  Radiocarbon Date B.P.  CulturalHistorical Association  Site Area M  Artifact Density M  352 84 104 892 1448 416  3.99 5.71 40.70 3.62 2.25 1.94  88 244 2242 372 160 160  5.52 1.14 2.62 0.92 1.02 0.90  Quiltanton  125  73.49  840  Quiltanton Quiltanton Quiltanton Quiltanton Quiltanton  850 150 220 190 60  7.94 3.62 6.00 15.15 34.50  3 29 24 45 57  90 150 200 120 2000 150  2.91 8.26 2.67 3.00 0.06 45.00  2  2  Microlithic Artifacts  Upper Hat Creek v a l l e y M i c r o l i t h i c S i t e s EeRilO+* EeRj49+* EeRJ55+* EeRj56+ EeRJ60+ EeRj62+  iDF(gr) iDF(gr) PPBG iDF(gr) PPBG iDF(gr)  1220+70  Plateau  99 92 58 8 15 16  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y Non-microlithic S i t e s EeRj8+ EeRj20+ EeRj42+ EeRj64+ EeRjlOO+ EeRk52+  XDF(gr) iDP(gr) iDF(gr) iDF(gr) IDF(gr) ESSF  Kamloops Plateau Plateau Kamloops Plateau Plateau  Highland V a l l e y M i c r o l i t h i c S i t e s EcRg2AA+* IDF(gr) EcRg2CC* EcRg4C+ EcRg4 J EdRglA* EdRglB+*  IDF(gr) IDF(gr) IDF (gr) IDF(gr) iDF(gr)  1490+150 1920+210 1120+170  140+80  Highland V a l l e y Non-microlithic S i t e s EcRg4A+* EcRg4B+ EcRg4D EcRg4E EdRgS* EdRg6+*  rDF(gr) TDF(gr) iDF(gr) IDF(gr) TDF(gr) iDF(gr)  Plateau Kamloops Plateau Kamloops Kamloops  +: complete o r block surface c o l l e c t i o n *: excavation ESSF: Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r IDF(gr): I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r (grassland) PPBG: Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass  Table 7. Summary data f o r the study s i t e s . Site Type  Site  Previous Classification  Debitage Total  Tool Total  Artifact Total  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y M i c r o l i t h i c S i t e s EeRilO EeRj49 EeRj55 EeRj56 EeRj60 EeRj62  LS LS LSR LS LS LS  camp s i t e camp s i t e intensive occupation intensive occupation intensive occupation  1292 447 4164 3206 3252 756  1386 480 4208 3232 3303 805  9 8 105 22 14 14  477 272 5759 321 149 130  486 280 5864 343 163 144  576 18 37 18 27 73  3632 273 476 51 170 755  4208 291 513 69 197 828  33 23 3 1 8 14  197 210 32 18 105 887  230 233 35 19 113 901  94 33 44 26 51 49  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y Non-microlithic S i t e s EeRj8 EeRj20 EeRj42 EeRj64 EeRjlOO EeRk52  LS LS LS LS LS LSR  limited a c t i v i t y limited a c t i v i t y intensive occupation intensive occupation limited a c t i v i t y  Highland V a l l e y M i c r o l i t h i c S i t e s EcRg2AA EcRg2CC EcRg4C EcRg4J EdRglA EdRglB  LSP LS LS LS LS LS  r e s i d e n t i a l camp r e s i d e n t i a l camp r e s i d e n t i a l camp f i e l d camp f i e l d camp f i e l d camp  Highland V a l l e y Non-microlithic s i t e s EcRg4A EcRg4B EcRg4D EcRg4E EdRgS EdRg6  LS: LSP: LSR: LSH:  lithic lithic lithic lithic  LS LSH LS LS LSH LS  f i e l d camp r e s i d e n t i a l camp f i e l d camp/station? station r e s i d e n t i a l camp f i e l d camp  scatter s c a t t e r with post moulds s c a t t e r with roasting p i t s c a t t e r with hearth  139 EeRilO and EeRj55, both interpreted as camp s i t e s (Beirne 1979a, 1979b). However, some Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y s i t e assemblages were previously interpreted as r e s u l t i n g from e i t h e r intensive occupation, o r l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y , based on t o o l and debitage a n a l y s i s , and s i t e l o c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S p e c i f i c d e t a i l s on a n a l y t i c a l methods and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s were provided i n Chapter I I I . These interpretations are provided i n Table 7, and elaborated on i n the following s i t e descriptions. Two s i t e s , EeRj49 and EeRjlOO, not previously analyzed are indicated by a dashed l i n e . Terms used t o designate s i t e function f o r Highland V a l l e y s i t e s are those adapted from Binford (1980) by Stryd and Lawhead (Areas Associates 1983), and w i l l be b r i e f l y re-defined below. A r e s i d e n t i a l camp i s the base where most manufacturing,  processing, and maintenance a c t i v i t i e s occur, and where  the group r e s i d e s during prolonged c o l l e c t i n g t r i p s . A f i e l d camp i s the temporary residence and work l o c a t i o n o f a smaller l o g i s t i c a l group. A s t a t i o n i s a place where resources are procured and perhaps processed, a place where task groups stay while gathering information on resource a v a i l a b i l i t y , o r a place where resources are temporarily stored. S i t e d e s c r i p t i o n s are compiled from p r o j e c t reports (Pokotylo and Beirne 1978; Beirne and Pokotylo 1979; Beirne 1979a; Beirne 1979b; Areas Associates 1983,  1986; Pokotylo e t a l . 1983), graduate theses (Pokotylo 1978; Ludowicz  1983; Magne 1985), and B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Archaeological S i t e Report Forms.  Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y The s i t e assemblages analyzed i n t h i s study were c o l l e c t e d during two p r o j e c t s : the Upper Hat Creek Archaeological Project, run from 1976 t o 1979,  and the Hat Creek Archaeological Project, 1982. The f i r s t p r o j e c t was an assessment o f the c u l t u r a l heritage resource base i n the v a l l e y , p r i o r t o the proposed construction o f a thermal e l e c t r i c development. Only the grassland v a l l e y bottom and forested lower slopes were included i n a s t r a t i f i e d random sampling scheme, because o f budget and time constraints, and t o comply with the project terms o f reference. Sampling u n i t s consisted of 400 m quadrats, i n d i v i d u a l l y assigned t o the grassland o r f o r e s t s t r a t a . The sampling f r a c t i o n was 7.78 %. S i t e s were a r b i t r a r i l y defined as a concentration o f l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s equal t o o r more than s i x items i n a 2 m by 2 m area. A l l s i t e s encountered were completely surface-collected i n a 2 m g r i d o r sampled by transects. Only those s i t e s which were completely surface-collected were selected f o r t h i s study. Other data c o l l e c t e d included the contemporary plant coninunity, the topography, drainage patternwater source, extent o f overview of the surrounding area from the s i t e , and ease o f access t o the s i t e . During the second phase of t h i s project, selected s i t e s were excavated i n a judgmental sampling scheme. The second p r o j e c t was intended t o provide a d d i t i o n a l data on the Middle P r e h i s t o r i c period i n upland v a l l e y s through the excavation o f selected m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s . A secondary objective was t o provide i n i t i a l information on the nature and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f archaeological s i t e s i n the a l p i n e and subalpine zones by a survey conducted along the banks o f an unnamed t r i b u t a r y o f Anderson Creek, from the headwaters a t the d i v i d e , t o a l o c a t i o n upstream o f i t s junction with Anderson Creek. A l l f l a t and gently s l o p i n g t e r r a i n w i t h i n 50 t o 200 metres o f the stream was surveyed, and a l l s i t e s located were completely surface c o l l e c t e d with a 2 m g r i d system. C u l t u r a l depressions within s i t e s were t e s t - p i t t e d , and any organic material  was c o l l e c t e d f o r radiocarbon dating. Data on the contemporary p l a n t cormninity, the topography/ drainage pattern-water source/ overview and s i t e access were a l s o c o l l e c t e d . The f o l l o w i n g sections provide descriptions of the b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s / archaeological assemblages/ and previous interpretations of t e p r e h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e of the study s i t e s . S i t e l o c a t i o n s are provided i n Figure 11. Tabulations of a r t i f a c t s and raw material types are provided i n Tables 8, 9 and  10.  Microlithic Sites 1. EeRilO This i s a large s i t e with a low-density surface scatter, situated on the north bank of an unnamed t r i b u t a r y to Medicine Creek. S i t e access i s easy i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , and a good overview spans 180 degrees/ from northwest t o south. In 1977/  a surface c o l l e c t i o n located one hundred and  seventy  a r t i f a c t s . In 1978, ten 2 m u n i t s were randomly selected f o r excavation/ and y i e l d e d 2402 a r t i f a c t s . No features or f l o r a l remains were found/ and faunal remains are l i m i t e d t o 5 fragments of land-snail from one excavation u n i t . Diagnostic a r t i f a c t s include a lanceolate p r o j e c t i l e point and formed gravers thought t o represent the Middle P r e h i s t o r i c period. However, s i m i l a r p r o j e c t i l e points have a l s o been found i n more recent assemblages, and the gravers may be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Late P r e h i s t o r i c period. Beirne (1979a) interpreted the s i t e as a camp s i t e , with a c t i v i t y areas f o r t o o l manufacture and waste disposal. In a d d i t i o n to the surface c o l l e c t i o n , u n i t s 1 and 5, containing 88% of the m i c r o l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s , were selected f o r t h i s study. The study sample includes 94 t o o l s and 1292 pieces of debitage.  Figure 11. L o c a t i o n o f Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y study s i t e s .  >r*r^r* o Q r. r> n r^ f»rara r* t* r*rar*raran r» wodUMao SITE  = S  X »  1°°° •sot  X  3? 39 X  33 X  S  3  tog  a, » »- o n Sf  3  3  ?  3  X X X X  —  —  S o S t i i ;  NODULE COSE  Ul I * O — K) C* *• ^4 — ~^ — ro «n <» » in — or .  PLATFORM-REMNANT BEARING FLAKE A  U O I I S B  » n j  o*  BIFACIAL THINKING FLAKE FLAKE SHATTER  ro ro lo— \J LD — — fo  BLOCK SHATTER BIPOLAR FLAKE PREFORM MICROCORE MICROCORE FRAGMENT MICROCDRE PREPARATION FLAKE MICROCORE REJUVENATION FLAKE MICROBLADE MICROBLADE PROXIMAL FRAGMENT MICROBLADE MEDIAL FRAGMENT MICROBLADE DISTAL FRAGMENT UNIFACE GRAVER  > W *» «• *> — co,  ro — • ro  BIFACE BIFACE END FRAGMENT BIFACE MEDIAL FRAGMENT PROJECTILE POINT PROJECTILE POINT FRAGMENT  • ro —'— " * 0 • < • * • ro (r* • 0 t/» C T »0 > W —. I > l/i/l> ~ >Q > lo MODIFIED FLAKE  u  cn  MODIFIED COBBLE  MODIFIED MICROBLADE  IO ~ CJ  u>  ro  MODIFIED MICROBLADE PROXIMAL FRAGMENT  m j*. fo » J  at  MODIFIED MICROBLADE MEDIAL FRAGMENT  ro —  o  MODIFIED MICROBLADE DISTAL FRAGMENT MODIFIED MICROCORE PREPARATION FLAKE MODIFIED MICROCORE REJUVENATION FLAKE TOTAL  •SS4TS Aptr+s sscaoB s^urico Abtrarfeai -pBjx+jtf  '8 STQ^l  Table 9. A r t i f a c t percentage counts across study s i t e s .  TVIQl  Hill  IIIIH l l U l i  3xvn HOiiVNjAnna 3ua:ou3iw aiiiiaoM  3  ixni N O i i r m i i M 3HO:OU3IH aimoOH  3  1  iHjworuj tvisia 3on«o«iw amman u u w a r m - m o w 3aniau3iw asuioow  3  ixiNsmi IKWIXOUJ 3on.oMtw aiumow  3 32 3  3  5 5 2 5S  2  311103 0 JHIODW  3  3 33333 23.1323  nruoiuioaw  3  3  33332  3aniaii3iM tnuiaoH  SS32§2  33 55 2 2332  ixiNnvnnaiH m i n  3 55 2 3  33  5 5  3  23 3 235  l3.ni  «mo  3  13»ii«n  33 I 5 3=3  3333  U H N 3 T K I UHiiow. l o r u o n N * loniaiiiw l i n i «oiii«unn» i»o::in:-  2-=-322  233232  55 1  3  3  3  5  5  33  n  3  fl«0il<4 j r n i troji  o a' d o 3  3  nmiMiHiiTmiii  m n :NI»TH IKT««I» n . o n n j 1103 linacK  l  5  5  33 3 3  12=11= 331133 321333 l i s s i  mm  K.UTM$«:OU MU1H1 i m i  23  3i32335  l i r t i x o i u m i i M I«O30>::M  UUnTtDi 3W030H3IM  23  2  3  x t)nOT»i m a m l o t n o . J m =33333  nm  33  323 333 55 333  3  2  3  323 2  5  III  uticmiiijiroiu  lilill  33223  35 52 35  333535 S5II3S532323 22  S1IIII  3 255  §3  mm 3  23  3  5  2  2 3  3  null III!!! Illlll  Table 10. Frequency and percentage counts of l i t h i c raw material type. Site  Vitreous Basalt Fr.  EeRilO EeRj49 EeRj55 EeRj56 EeRj60 EeRj62  Pet.  Non-Vitreous Chert and/or Basalt Chalcedony Fr.  Pet.  Fr.  Pet.  Other Fr.  Total  Pet.  Fr.  Pet.  808 127 201 165 302 195  58.3 26.5 4.7 5.1 9.1 24.2  177 41 2948 2983 2057 541  12.8 8.5 70.1 92.3 62.3 67.2  395 283 1055 81 937 68  28.5 58.9 25.1 2.5 28.4 8.4  6 29 4 3 7 1  0.4 6.1 0.1 0.1 2.1 0.2  1386 480 4208 3232 3303 805  100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0  EeRj8 70 EeRj20 41 EeRj42 1152 EeRj64 52 EeRjlOO 39 EeRk52 66  14.4 14.7 19.6 15.2 23.9 45.8  396 195 2883 67 110 75  81.5 69.6 49.2 19.5 67.5 52.1  0 42 1820 223 14 3  0.0 15.0 31.0 65.0 8.6 2.1  20 2 9 1 0 0  4.1 7.0 2.0 0.3 0.0 0.0  486 280 5864 343 163 144  100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0  EcRg2AA 2188 EcRg2CC 46 EcRg4C 21 EcRg4J 29 EdRglA 146 EdRglB 712  51.9 15.8 4.1 42.0 74.1 85.9  1477 233 483 36 38 105  35.1 80.1 94.2 52.2 19.3 12.7  285 6 8 2 12 10  6.8 2.1 1.6 2.9 6.1 1.2  258 6 1 2 1 1  6.2 2.0 0.1 2.9 0.5 0.2  4208 291 513 69 197 828  100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0  EcRg4A EcRg4B EcRg4D EcRg4E EdRg5 EdRg6  37.8 18.4 2.8 31.6 0.0 62.9  130 179 34 12 111 332  56.5 76.8 97.2 63.1 98.2 34.9  3 7 0 0 2 1  1.3 3.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 1.1  10 4 0 1 0 1  4.4 1.8 0.0 5.3 0.0 1.1  230 233 35 19 113 901  100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0  87 43 1 6 0 567  146 2. EeRi49 T h i s small l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s located on a small saddle and ridge, 6 metres from an unnamed creek, s i t e access i s easy i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , and overview spans 360 degrees. In 1977,  the  two 2 m u n i t s were excavated i n  a r b i t r a r y 10 cm l e v e l s . A l l microblades were located i n a s i l t layer, i n d i c a t i n g deposit on by runoff from above the s i t e . In 1982,  an a d d i t i o n a l  two 2 m u n i t s were excavated, i n a r b i t r a r y 5 cm l e v e l s , and again,  the  m i c r o l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s were located i n s i l t . The t o o l assemblage was uninterpretable, and the debitage derived from the e a r l y steps i n the reduction sequence (Pokotylo 1978). The l i t h i c assemblage under study here o r i g i n a t e s from the 4 excavation u n i t s and the surface c o l l e c t i o n , consists of 33 t o o l s and 447 pieces of  and  debitage.  3. EeRi55 This s i t e i s a l i t h i c s c a t t e r associated with a c u l t u r a l  depression  i d e n t i f i e d as the remains of a multi-component root-roasting oven (Beirne 1979b:49). I t i s located on a gentle slope i n Houth Meadow, a t the north  end  of the v a l l e y , with easy access from the east. Overview from the s i t e i s good from northwest t o southeast. Fresh water i s located i n a t r i b u t a r y t o Hat Creek, 150 metres to the south. A surface c o l l e c t i o n located one hundred and s i x t y - e i g h t a r t i f a c t s . The s i t e was excavated i n 1977  and 1978,  i n three  areas designated on the b a s i s of surface features. Area B, where the surface c o l l e c t e d a r t i f a c t s were located, contained over 98% of the t o t a l number (8947) o f a r t i f a c t s c o l l e c t e d . The root-roasting ovens are dated to approximately 1220 years B.P.  Two p r o j e c t i l e points located i n Area B are  chronologically diagnostic of the Plateau Beirne  Horizon.  (1979b) interpreted Area B as a camp-site, probably associated  with the repeated use o f the earth-ovens f o r r o a s t i n g roots and meat, and delineates a c t i v i t y areas used f o r waste d i s p o s a l and resource processing on the b a s i s o f a r t i f a c t d e n s i t i e s and ethnographic analogy. Analysis o f the surface c o l l e c t i o n indicated that the t o o l s were p r i m a r i l y expedient, representative o f a limited term occupation, and that the debitage derived from a broad range o f reduction a c t i v i t i e s encompassing the majority o f b a s i c manufacturing steps (Pokotylo 1978). Unit 3B, which contains 95% o f the m i c r o l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s , and twelve fragments o f u n i d e n t i f i a b l e bone, was selected as the sample f o r t h i s study, i n a d d i t i o n t o the surface c o l l e c t i o n . The study sample includes 44 t o o l s and 4164 pieces o f debitage. 4. EeRi56 This large l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s located on a l i g h t l y forested r o l l i n g p l a i n i n Houth Meadow, with easy access from a l l d i r e c t i o n s . Overview from the s i t e i s c l e a r only t o the southeast. Distance t o f r e s h water i s 100 metres. E a r l i e r a n a l y s i s indicated that the assemblage was characterized by a high average t o o l frequency and d i v e r s i t y i n d i c a t i v e o f a more intensive occupation and a wide range o f a c t i v i t i e s , and the majority o f manufacturing steps were represented  (Pokotylo 1978). The a r t i f a c t assemblage from the  surface c o l l e c t i o n includes 26 t o o l s and 3206 pieces o f debitage. 5. EeRi60 This s i t e i s a large surface l i t h i c s c a t t e r located i n a high open area, near Lloyd Creek i n Houth Meadow. Access t o the s i t e i s easy from a l l d i r e c t i o n s , and the overview from the s i t e spans 360 degrees. Distance t o f r e s h water i s l e s s than 100 metres. Analysis o f t o o l s and debitage indicated again an intensive occupation with a wide range o f a c t i v i t i e s (Pokotylo 1978). The assemblage studied here comprises the surface  148 c o l l e c t i o n and contains 51 t o o l s and 3252 pieces o f debitage. 6. EeRi62 T h i s s i t e i s a smaller l i t h i c surface scatter, located on a r o l l i n g p l a i n and r i d g e i n Houth Meadow, adjacent t o an unnamed creek. Again, access t o the s i t e i s easy i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , but the overview i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the south. Distance t o f r e s h water i s approximately 20 metres. Pokotylo's (1978) a n a l y s i s indicated an intensive occupation, with a wide range o f l i t h i c manufacturing stages performed a t the s i t e . The materials studied here include 49 t o o l s and 756 pieces o f debitage from the surface c o l l e c t i o n .  Non-microlithic S i t e s 1. EeRj8 This l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s located i n a more h e a v i l y treed area, on a gentle slope 250 metres west o f Hat Creek. Access t o the s i t e i s easy i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , and the overview spans 360 degrees. The s i t e assemblage included t o o l s suggestive o f a b r i e f s i t e occupation and debitage from a wide range of manufacturing steps (Pokotylo 1978). The  surface c o l l e c t i o n studied here  includes 9 t o o l s and 477 pieces o f debitage. 2. EeRi20 This l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s located on a r o l l i n g p l a i n , adjacent t o Finney Creek t o the east. S i t e access i s easy i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , but overview i s r e s t r i c t e d t o the south. Previous a n a l y s i s indicated that the s i t e assemblage included expediently-mamifactured  t o o l s from a l i m i t e d term  occupation, and debitage from a wide range o f reduction a c t i v i t i e s (Pokotylo 1978). The surface c o l l e c t i o n includes 8 t o o l s and 272 pieces o f debitage.  149 3. EeRi42 This i s a very large l i t h i c surface scatter, located on a bench t o the north o f Anderson Creek. Access t o the s i t e i s easy from the west, and overview spans 240 degrees, form east t o west. Distance t o f r e s h water i s 25 metres. According t o e a r l i e r analysis, the assemblage contained t o o l s from an intensive occupation with a wide range of a c t i v i t i e s , and debitage from a wide range o f manufacturing steps (Pokotylo 1978). The assemblage includes 105 t o o l s and 5759 pieces o f debitage from the surface c o l l e c t i o n . 4. EeRi64 This l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s situated on an open grassland bench immediately west o f Hat Creek. S i t e access i s good from the north and south, with a 120 degree overview i n the same d i r e c t i o n s . The s i t e assemblage contained t o o l s used i n a wide range o f intensive a c t i v i t i e s , and debitage i n d i c a t i v e o f a wide range o f manufacturing steps with emphasis on the l a t e r reduction stages (Pokotylo 1978). The assemblage studied here includes 22 t o o l s and 321 pieces o f debitage from the surface c o l l e c t i o n . 5. EeRilOO This s i t e i s located on gently r o l l i n g open grassland, adjacent t o an unnamed creek. Access t o the s i t e and overview from the s i t e are very easy i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s . Distance t o fresh water i s l e s s than 10 metres. There i s no previous d e t a i l e d analysis o f the s i t e assemblage, which includes 14 t o o l s and 149 pieces of debitage from a surface c o l l e c t i o n . 6. EeRk52 T h i s s i t e i s located i n the sub-alpine zone i n a low saddle i n the headwaters area o f Anderson Creek, i n the Clear Range. S i t e access i s easy i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , and overview from the s i t e spans 180 degrees, from west  t o east. Distance t o f r e s h water i s more than 100 metres. The s i t e i s a l i t h i c surface s c a t t e r , associated with a c u l t u r a l depression i d e n t i f i e d as a root-roasting oven. Shovel t e s t i n g of four lm u n i t s revealed a very shallow subsurface deposit of 5 t o 15cm  i n depth. Preliminary a n a l y s i s  suggested that the s i t e assemblage, l i k e a s e r i e s of others i n the a l p i n e zone, i s characterized by an expedient technology, and probably dates to the Late P r e h i s t o r i c period (Pokotylo e t a l . 1983). The small area and l i m i t e d v a r i e t y i n the assemblage are i n d i c a t i v e of a l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y /  occupation  s i t e used on a seasonal b a s i s . The assemblage studied here includes 14 t o o l s and 130 pieces of debitage from both the surface c o l l e c t i o n and two t e s t pits.  Highland V a l l e y The s i t e assemblages analyzed i n t h i s study were c o l l e c t e d by Areas Associates i n 1982  and 1985,  as part of a contract with Ocminco L t d . t o  record and investigate c u l t u r a l heritage resources before proposed expansion of the copper mine. Archaeological survey was r e s t r i c t e d t o the Lake Zone adjacent t o the two major lake systems, within the grassland p o r t i o n of I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r biogeoclimatic zone. A l l s i t e s located are situated along the northwest margins o f the three major lakes. An  initial  reconnaissance of the area located twenty-one p r e h i s t o r i c s i t e s , which were separated by s t e r i l e areas of a t l e a s t 100 metres i n width and extended, i n some cases, over 10,000 sq metres (Brolly 1981). A f t e r reviewing the l o c a l ethnographic and archaeological l i t e r a t u r e , and contemporary hunter-gatherer theory, Stryd and Lawhead (Areas Associates 1983)  proposed that p r e h i s t o r i c  s i t e s i n Highland v a l l e y were more l i k e l y t o be small, oval or c i r c u l a r  151 c l u s t e r s o f a r t i f a c t s r e f l e c t i n g short-term use by small groups o f people. Therefore, during the major i n v e s t i g a t i o n (Areas Associates 1983, 1986), the c r i t e r i o n f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g s i t e boundaries was changed t o an a r t i f a c t density o f 2 per square metre, o r 4 per square metre i f c l u s t e r s were contiguous o r overlapped. S i t e s were re-examined, re-mapped as f i f t y - f o u r smaller s i t e s , and tested i n the following manner. An a r b i t r a r y 1 x 1 m g r i d was placed over the s i t e surface, and the 1 m u n i t s were systematically sampled according t o the following scheme: large s i t e s were sampled a t a r a t e o f 1% o r every 10th u n i t , and small s i t e s were sampled a t a r a t e o f 4% o r every 5th u n i t . The ground surface o f each u n i t selected was cleared by removal o f the surface vegetation and l i t t e r mat. Each 1 m u n i t selected f o r clearance i s defined as a Surface Exposure Unit (SEU). I n a d d i t i o n , a s i n g l e t e s t p i t was excavated i n t o the centre o f every f i f t h SEU, o r every 50 m. Selected s i t e s were investigated more i n t e n s i v e l y by e i t h e r block surface exposure o r excavation, and a r t i f a c t c o l l e c t i o n . Other data recorded included modem vegetation cover and drainage pattern. A r t i f a c t s analyzed i n t h i s study include the t o t a l sample f o r each s i t e , from surface c o l l e c t i o n s , SEU program, t e s t p i t s , and block excavations. Figure 12 provides l o c a t i o n s o f the study s i t e s . Tabulations o f a r t i f a c t s and raw m a t e r i a l types are provided i n Tables 11, 12 and 13.  Microlithic Sites 1. EcRg2AA This l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s located 105 metres south o f Quiltanton Lake, on a large t e r r a c e . A r t i f a c t s were located i n t h i r t e e SEU's cleared a t 5 m i n t e r v a l s , and f i f t y - s i x u n i t s o f an extensive block excavation program.  0  L  0.5 _J  1.0km I  Features located during excavation include twenty-six post moulds that are interpreted as the remains of a s p r i n g - f a l l h a b i t a t i o n stnxcsture, a p o s s i b l e rock alignment which may be a w a l l , a p i t , and a f i r e - a l t e r e d rock s c a t t e r . Several pieces of f i r e - a l t e r e d rock and three deer phalanges were a l s o located. Three radiocarbon dates obtained from post moulds i n d i c a t e that the s i t e was re-occupied several times w i t h i n the l a s t 800 years; however, other data may 1983)  i n d i c a t e a s i n g l e occupation. The i n v e s t i g a t o r s (Areas Associates  interpreted the s i t e as a r e s i d e n t i a l camp where a v a r i e t y of  maintenance tasks took place, including l i t h i c t o o l production, hide working, and food preparation. The assemblage studied here includes 576 t o o l s and 3632 pieces of debitage. 2. ECPXT2QC This very large s i t e i s situated 2 metres above Quiltanton Lake on a large lake-edge f l a t l a r g e l y denuded of vegetation by recent a c t i v i t i e s . Eight c u l t u r a l SEU's and two excavation u n i t s , located a t 10 m i n t e r v a l s , contained a r t i f a c t s . According to s i t e investigators (Areas Associates 1983), the s i t e probably c o n s i s t s of two small a c t i v i t y areas, a t o o l production area and a medium-sized r e s i d e n t i a l camp. The assemblage included i n t h i s study c o n s i s t s of 18 t o o l s and 273 pieces of debitage. 3. EcPxr4C This s i t e i s a large l i t h i c scatter located approximately 50 metres from Quiltanton Lake i n a saddle between two k n o l l s . Investigation included a complete surface c o l l e c t i o n of one hundred and one u n i t s , and the clearance of four SEU's placed a t 10 m i n t e r v a l s . The s i t e was interpreted as a r e s i d e n t i a l camp, with a wide range of t o o l s and debitage representing a v a r i e t y of maintenance a c t i v i t i e s (Areas Associates 1983). The assemblage  154 included i n t h i s study contains 37 t o o l s and 476 pieces o f debitage. 4. EcRa4J This l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s situated on a large, poorly-drained f l a t along the shore o f Quiltanton Lake. A r t i f a c t s were located i n t h i r t e e n SEU's placed a t 5 m i n t e r v a l s . In a d d i t i o n t o l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s , a fragment of u n i d e n t i f i a b l e calcined bone was located. The investigators suggested that the s i t e was a t o o l production s t a t i o n and p o s s i b l e f i e l d camp, where a c t i v i t i e s such as the manufacture o f wood, a n t l e r , bone and l i t h i c t o o l s occurred  (Areas  Associates 1983). The assemblage under study here includes 18 t o o l s and 51 pieces o f debitage. 5. EdPxrlA This l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s located between Twenty-four-Mile Lake and B i g Divide Lake, 25 metres from an unnamed creek connecting the two lakes. A r t i f a c t s were located i n s i x SEU's placed a t 10 m i n t e r v a l s , i n one 50 cm by 50 cm t e s t p i t w i t h i n the most productive SEU and i n seven 1 m excavation u n i t s placed w i t h i n a v i s u a l l y defined a r t i f a c t c l u s t e r . The s i t e was interpreted as a moderate-sized campsite where a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s occurred, i n c l u d i n g plant processing, implement t o o l i n g , organic t o o l manufacture and l i t h i c t o o l production (Areas Associates 1986). The assemblage studied here includes 27 t o o l s and 170 pieces o f debitage. 6. EdRglB This small l i t h i c scater i s s i t u a t e d approximately  50 metres north o f  Big Divide Lake, on an open grassy f l a t . During the i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , two SEU's located a t 10 m i n t e r v a l s were exposed, and one 50 by 50 cm t e s t p i t i n the most productive SEU, and four 1 by 1 m t e s t p i t s i n the v i c i n i t y of the same SEU were excavated. Later, twenty-four 1 m excavation u n i t s were  155 judgmentally placed within the same area. The investigators interpreted the s i t e as a f i e l d camp where a v a r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s occurred, i n c l u d i n g food processing and a l l stages of l i t h i c t o o l production (Areas Associates 1986). The assemblage studied here includes 73 t o o l s and 755 pieces of debitage.  Non-microlithic S i t e s 1. EcRj4A This small l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s situated approximately  75 metres from the  shore of Lake Quiltanton. Investigation included a systematic SEU t e s t and a block surface exposure of a p o r t i o n of the s i t e with the highest a r t i f a c t density. One fragment of deer s k u l l (possibly recent) was  located along with  four hundred and n i n e t y - f i v e pieces of f i r e - a l t e r e d rock i n a dispersed fashion with no d i s c e r n i b l e hearth. The s i t e assemblage includes p r i m a r i l y expedient t o o l s representing a wide range of maintenance and manufacturing a c t i v i t i e s , and debitage from the l a t e r stages of t o o l manufacture and f i n i s h i n g . The investigators interpreted the s i t e as a small b r i e f l y occupied f i e l d camp Where l i t h i c t o o l s were f i n i s h e d and organic materials were worked (Areas Associates 1983). The assemblage c o n s i s t s o f 33 t o o l s and 197 pieces of debitage from forty-two SEU's. 2. ECPXT4B This l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s situated on a large f l a t approximately  80 metres  from Quiltanton Lake. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n consisted of an exposure of eight SEU's a t 5 m i n t e r v a l s , and a continuous block exposure i n the area with the highest a r t i f a c t density. A small m i c r o l i t h i c component was  located i n the  southwest corner of the s i t e ; however, the investigators considered i t t o be the r e s u l t of a second, l a t e r occupation of the s i t e and i t i s not included  156 i n the present study. Exposed a r t i f a c t s were c l u s t e r e d around two hearths, and a quantity o f f i r e - a l t e r e d rock was noted and weighed. The s i t e assemblage includes t o o l s i n f e r r e d t o represent a v a r i e t y o f maintenance a c t i v i t i e s and debitage from the f i n a l stages o f t o o l production and f i n i s h i n g . The s i t e was interpreted as a small r e s i d e n t i a l camp (Areas Associates 1983). The assemblage includes 23 t o o l s and 210 pieces o f debitage from thirty-two SEU's. 3. EcRgJD This l a r g e l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s located a t the base o f a moderate slope, 60 metres northwest o f Quiltanton Lake. Investigation consisted o f the exposure of twelve SEU's placed a t 5 m i n t e r v a l s . Low a r t i f a c t density indicates a b r i e f occupation. The investigators interpreted the s i t e as a small t r a n s i t o r y camp o r task s t a t i o n where l i t h i c , and p o s s i b l y organic, t o o l s were f i n i s h e d (Areas Associates 1983). The assemblage under study here consists o f 3 t o o l s and 32 pieces o f debitage from ten SEU's. 4. EcPxr4E This very small l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s located approximately 35 metres from Quiltanton Lake. Investigation consisted o f the exposure o f s i x SEU's located 5 m apart. A small u n i d e n t i f i a b l e mammal bone fragment was located near the centre o f the a r t i f a c t c l u s t e r . The s i t e assemblage includes expedient t o o l s and debitage from the f i n a l stages of t o o l manufacture. The s i t e was interpreted as a small b r i e f l y - o c c u p i e d campsite o r task s t a t i o n of s i m i l a r age t o EcRg4D. EcRg4D and EcRg4E may be small c l u s t e r s of the same s i t e (Areas Associates 1983). The assemblage includes 1 t o o l and 18 pieces of  debitage.  157 5. EdRoS This large l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s located on a l a c u s t r i n e t e r r a c e 60 metres from the northeast end of Twenty-four M i l e Lake. Because the s i t e i s so large (2000 square metres), the i n v e s t i g a t i o n consisted of a systematic inspection of the e n t i r e s i t e i n order t o locate a l l material/ and a l i m i t e d SEU and t e s t program. Within an area of 250 m , 2  eighteen SEU's were placed  at 5 m i n t e r v a l s / and a s i n g l e t e s t p i t was excavated w i t h i n each SEU containing c u l t u r a l material ( f i v e ) . A r t i f a c t s diagnostic o f the Kamloops Phase include the b a s a l fragment of a Kamloops p r o j e c t i l e point/ and a small t r i a n g u l a r p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t with a p o s s i b l e u n i l a t e r a l s i d e notch. The s i t e assemblage contains t o o l s u t i l i z e d i n a v a r i e t y of t o o l production and maintenance tasks and debitage i n d i c a t i v e of the intermediate and f i n a l stages o f t o o l manufacture. One small u n i d e n t i f i a b l e fragment of calcined bone and two pieces of f i r e - a l t e r e d rock were recovered/ and two small hearths were a l s o noted. The s i t e was interpreted as a b r i e f l y occupied r e s i d e n t i a l camp (Areas Associates 1983). The assemblage c o n s i s t s of 8 t o o l s and 105 pieces of debitage. 6. EdRcr6 This small dense l i t h i c s c a t t e r i s located on the same t e r r a c e as EdRgS at the northeast end of Twenty-four M i l e Lake. S i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n consisted of the excavation of twenty-nine SEU's placed a t 5 m i n t e r v a l s , and the excavation of twenty-five contiguous 1 m u n i t s w i t h i n the area of highest a r t i f a c t density. Two small fragments of bone were located: one burnt fragment of an u n i d e n t i f i a b l e species and one f i s h bone fragment/ p o s s i b l y recent. A small rock hearth was located along the southern edge of the excavated c l u s t e r / along with fragments of f i r e - a l t e r e d rock i n smaller  158 c l u s t e r s . The s i t e assemblage i s characterized by p r i m a r i l y expedient t o o l s probably used i n t o o l production and maintenance tasks, and debitage r e s u l t i n g from the intermediate and f i n a l stages o f t o o l reduction. The investigators interpreted the s i t e as a small l o g i s t i c a l camp and stone t o o l production s t a t i o n (Areas Associates 1983). The assemblage includes 14 t o o l s and 887 pieces o f debitage from 26 SEU's.  Summary o f S i t e Data Base The preceding section provides a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f the b i o p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , archaeological assemblages, and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the p r e h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the s i t e s selected f o r the study. A v a r i e t y o f biogeoclimatic zones are included i n the Upper Hat Creek v a l l e y sample, while only one zone was a v a i l a b l e f o r study i n Highland V a l l e y . S i t e s from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y are located i n the I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r , Ponderosa Pine-Bunchgrass  and Engelmann Spruce-Subalpine F i r zones, while those from  Highland V a l l e y are a l l situated i n the I n t e r i o r Douglas F i r zone, around the three major lakes on the v a l l e y f l o o r . Major c u l t u r a l - h i s t o r i c a l associations include the Plateau Horizon (2400 t o 1200 B.P.), and the Kamloops Horizon (1200 t o 200 B.P.); a t t h i s time, the majority o f m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s are not c l e a r l y associated with e i t h e r o f these constructs. Only one m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e i n the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y sample i s dated by radiocarbon; t h i s i s EeRjSS, a t t r i b u t e d t o the Plateau Horizon. Two m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s i n the Highland V a l l e y sample are radiocarbon-dated: EcRg2AA, dated t o both the Plateau and Kamloops horizons, but a t t r i b u t e d by the o r i g i n a l researchers t o the Quiltanton Complex, and EdRglB, dated t o the Kamloops Horizon, but a l s o a t t r i b u t e d t o the Quiltanton Complex (Areas  Associates 1983, 1986). Due t o the s i t e s e l e c t i o n process, the majority o f non-microlithic s i t e s a r e associated with e i t h e r the Plateau Horizon o r Kamloops Horizon. A t o t a l o f twenty-four l i t h i c scatter s i t e s were selected, with an equal number located i n each v a l l e y . M i c r o l i t h i c and non-microlithic s i t e s  fall  i n t o three s i t e function categories: r e s i d e n t i a l camps, f i e l d camps and s t a t i o n s . The t o t a l number o f a r t i f a c t s ranges from 69 t o 4208 f o r the microlithic  s i t e s , and from 19 t o 5864 f o r the non-microlithic s i t e s .  Estimated s i t e areas range from 60 t o 1448 square metres f o r the m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s , and from 88 t o 2242 square metres f o r the non-microlithic s i t e s . A r t i f a c t d e n s i t i e s range from 1.94 t o 73.49 per square metre f o r m i c r o l i t h i c s i t e s , and from 0.06 t o 45.00 per square metre f o r non-microlithic s i t e s . The minimum and maximum numbers o f m i c r o l i t h i c a r t i f a c t s a r e 3 and 840, respectively.  Discussion  The l i t h i c a n a l y s i s was completed e n t i r e l y by the author, and r e s u l t s are i n t e r n a l l y consistent. Some discrepancies between a r t i f a c t counts provided i n t h i s study and those provided by the o r i g i n a l investigators are t o be expected. Only chipped stone a r t i f a c t s were included; ground stone, bone and a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s , and h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s were not. According t o a r t i f a c t forms provided by the Royal B r i t i s h Columbia Museum, a r t i f a c t s are missing from several o f the Highland V a l l e y s i t e s . In addition, a l l assemblages were r e - c l a s s i f i e d , and the c r i t e r i a used f o r t h i s study may not agree with those of previous researchers. For example, the a r t i f a c t typology used f o r the  160 Highland V a l l e y assemblages (Areas Associates 1983, 1986)  includes f i v e  types o f f l a k e s with s t r i k i n g platforms, while t h i s study contains only three types of f l a k e s with platforms; none of these are d i r e c t l y equivalent, according t o d e f i n i t i o n s provided. Several problems arose during the s i t e s e l e c t i o n process: the sampling of biogeoclimatic zones i s incomplete f o r both v a l l e y s ; only a very small number o f s i t e s are radiocarbon-dated; the majority of s i t e s were surface c o l l e c t e d and not excavated; and the surface c o l l e c t i o n o f several of the s i t e s from Highland V a l l e y was systematically sampled, based on a small sampling f r a c t i o n . In addition, the c r i t e r i a used t o define s i t e boundaries created, as the researchers predicted (Areas Associates 1983), c l u s t e r s of small s i t e s which may be a c t i v i t y areas w i t h i n a s i n g l e settlement. The mean area of the Highland V a l l e y s i t e sample, 358.8 sq m, i s smaller than that of the Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y s i t e sample, 546.8 sq m. However, a t t h i s e a r l y stage o f archaeological research, i t i s impossible t o determine whether the s i t e area i s a consequence of the a b o r i g i n a l settlement p a t t e r n or of the archaeological research method. Therefore, the representativeness of the data, p a r t i c u l a r l y from Highland V a l l e y s i t e s , i s not known a t t h i s time. I n s p i t e of the shortcomings mentioned above, t h i s i s the f i r s t i n v e s t i g a t i o n of microcore technology t o focus on a comparison of both t o o l s and debitage from a s e r i e s of s i t e s i n two separate geographic areas within the Canadian Southern I n t e r i o r Plateau. The strength of the study l i e s i n the large sample a v a i l a b l e f o r a n a l y s i s : twenty-four s i t e s , from two upland v a l l e y s , with a t o t a l a r t i f a c t sample of 28,331 t o o l s and debitage. In addition, the data from both v a l l e y s were c o l l e c t e d i n a compatible manner, i . e . complete b i o p h y s i c a l information, and s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t c o l l e c t i o n and  recording techniques. The follcrwing chapter describes the development and a p p l i c a t i o n of a n a l y t i c a l methods used on the data base.  162 CHAPTER V ANALYTICAL METHODS AND RESULTS  T h i s chapter describes the development and a p p l i c a t i o n of the three a n a l y t i c a l methods used i n t h i s study t o investigate the nature and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s associated with m i c r o l i t h i c technology: debitage a n a l y s i s , t o o l a n a l y s i s , and a c t i v i t y area a n a l y s i s . These analyses were c a r r i e d out i n order t o r e - c l a s s i f y the function of the study s i t e s using equivalent c r i t e r i a , and i n order t o provide the data required f o r t e s t i n g the research hypotheses presented i n Chapter I I . To j u s t i f y any changes made, the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n of a n a l y t i c a l methods r e f e r s b r i e f l y , when appropriate, t o the methods and r e s u l t s of the p i l o t study.  Debitage Analysis  Non-Microlithic Debitage Introduction The manufacture of chipped stone t o o l s i s a subtractive technology and therefore, the r e s u l t a n t debitage d i s p l a y s oombinations of a t t r i b u t e s which c o n s t i t u t e evidence of the e n t i r e manufacturing, resharpening and rejuvenation sequence. The manufacture and maintenance of stone t o o l s generally produces a large amount of waste material, o r debitage, and u s u a l l y occurs adjacent t o or c l o s e by l i v i n g areas (Carr 1984). In addition, l i t h i c debitage i s deposited and e i t h e r l e f t a t the place of t o o l manufacture or maintenance, or discarded w i t h i n a metre or two of the workplace (Spurling and Hayden 1984). Therefore, an a n a l y s i s of l i t h i c  163 debitage can provide an accurate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the nature o f a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g the manufacture and rejuvenation o f l i t h i c t o o l s a t the s i t e , even though the t o o l s themselves may no longer be present. In addition, ethnographic and ethnoarchaeological studies i n d i c a t e t h a t the e n t i r e range o f a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v i n g t o o l manufacture, use and rejuvenation may not be present a t every s i t e occupied during the annual subsistence-settlement c y c l e (Binford 1980). R e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s , e i t h e r base camps o r r e s i d e n t i a l camps, should contain debitage from a l l stages o f manufacture, resharpening, and rejuvenation, while s p e c i a l purpose s i t e s ( f i e l d camps and stations) should contain debitage from only one o r two o f these stages (Binford 1980; C a m i l l i 1983; Pokotylo 1978; Raab e t a l . 1979). Therefore, d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among these various stages involving chipped stone t o o l s i s i n t e g r a l t o d i s t i n g u i s h i n g among the various types o f s i t e s occupied by any one p r e h i s t o r i c a b o r i g i n a l group. The goal o f manufacturing stage a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study i s t o c a l c u l a t e the r e l a t i v e importance o f sequential manufacturing stages i n each s i t e . The conclusions are relevant only f o r the s i t e s analyzed i n t h i s study because the method i s p r i m a r i l y  comparative.  Non-inicrolithic debitage i s defined as the waste o r n o n - u t i l i z e d products that r e s u l t from the manufacture, rejuvenation, and resharpening o f f l a k e blanks and formed t o o l s . Although the majority o f current experimental research i s confined t o the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n o f b i f a c e reduction stages (Magne 1985; Magne and Pokotylo 1981; Newcomer and Sieveking 1980; Raab e t a l . 1979; Morrow 1984; McAnany 1989), the non-microlithic debitage i n t h i s study probably a l s o r e s u l t s from the manufacture o f other formed t o o l s such as unifaces and gravers. In addition, although the stages o f rejuvenation and resharpening are included i n the d e f i n i t i o n , the parameters f o r these stages  164 have not been q u a n t i f i e d by experimental research. Pokotylo s (1978:250) r e s u l t s suggested that "the technological processes 1  involved i n the manufacture o f chert stone t o o l s are q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from and/or more subtle than those surrounding the production o f b a s a l t t o o l s " . However, Magne's (1985) study found no s u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s based on the a t t r i b u t e s selected f o r a n a l y s i s . Therefore, u n t i l f u r t h e r research c l a r i f i e s t h i s problem, t h i s study t r e a t s b a s a l t and chert debitage as a s i n g l e sample f o r the purpose of d e r i v i n g manufacturing stages.  S e l e c t i o n of A t t r i b u t e s Quantitative a t t r i b u t e s have been used t o i n d i c a t e progression i n manufacturing stage on platform-remnant bearing f l a k e s (Pokotylo 1978; Magne and Pokotylo 1981; Magne 1985;  Raab et a l . 1979; McAnany 1989). Pokotylo  (1978) used multivariate s t a t i s t i c a l techniques on archaeological data to reduce a l i s t o f 19 v a r i a b l e s to 5 independent v a r i a b l e s r e f l e c t i n g reduction stages: weight, v e n t r a l f l a k i n g angle, d o r s a l scar count, s t r i k i n g platform width, and bulb of applied force. In a l a t e r study o f experimentally produced core-reduction and blank-reduction debitage, Magne and Pokotylo (1981) concluded that four a t t r i b u t e s contribute the greatest amount of non-redundant information on reduction stages f o r platform-remnant bearing f l a k e s : weight, dorsal scar count, platform scar count, and  cortex  cover. Magne (1985) l a t e r determined that weight does not contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of reduction stages, but excluded flakes l e s s than 5 mm  i n length, as w e l l as f l a k e s considered s u i t a b l e f o r further  reduction as blanks from the a n a l y s i s . Several studies have found that, as  165 manufacturing progresses, the s i z e , measured as weight and/or maximum dimension, o f f l a x e s produced decreases (Pokotylo 1978; Magne 1985; Raab e t a l . 1979; Newcomer and Sieveking 1980). Consequently, t h i s study uses maximum dimension as a measure o f s i z e , because t h i s measurement does not require s p e c i a l i z e d equipment and involves l e s s data c o l l e c t i o n time per a r t i f a c t than recording weight. The presence o f b i f a c i a l thinning f l a k e s constitutes r e l i a b l e evidence o f the manufacture o r resharpening o f bifaces, although a strategy f o r c a l c u l a t i n g sequential manufacturing stages f o r b i f a c i a l thinning flakes has not y e t been developed (Magne 1985). Magne and Pokotylo (1981) suggested that b i f a c i a l thinning flakes derive from the l a t e r stages o f b i f a c e manufacture, a f t e r core reduction, and during the l a t e r stages o f blank reduction. I n addition, Magne (1985) found that b i p o l a r flakes derive from the e a r l y stages o f core reduction. Although the s e t o f a t t r i b u t e s measured on platform-remnant bearing flakes i s a l s o measured on b i f a c i a l thinning f l a k e s and b i p o l a r f l a k e s , manufacturing stages are not calculated f o r these two a r t i f a c t classes. Flake shatter and block shatter, by d e f i n i t i o n , lack s t r i k i n g platforms. However, Magne and Pokotylo (1981) found that both the s i z e , measured by weight and maximum dimension, and the amount of cortex present decrease throughout the manufacturing sequence. The f i n a l l i s t o f a t t r i b u t e s recorded f o r non-microlithic debitage i s given below, with a d e f i n i t i o n o f each a t t r i b u t e and procedures f o r i t s measurement. Figure 13 provides a diagram o f a t t r i b u t e s selected f o r platform-remnant bearing flakes, f l a k e shatter and block shatter. A. Maximum dimension i s measured i n millimetres by comparing each f l a k e  166  0. STRIKING PLATFORM SURFACE  VENTRAL SIDE  E. STRIKING PLATFORM WIDTH  LONGITUDINAL CROSS-SECTION  C. DORSAL FLAKE SCARS  DORSAL SIDE  Figure 13. Attributes measured on platform-remnant bearing flakes and shatter.  167 with a set of c i r c l e s pre-measured by i n t e r v a l s of 1.0 m i l l i m e t r e s and taking the corresponding measurement from the smallest c i r c l e which would contain the e n t i r e f l a k e . B. Cortex cover i s the amount of cortex, or natural raw material surface, remaining on the f l a k e ' s d o r s a l surface, measured i n 25% increments,  from 0%  t o 100%. The amount of cortex cover decreases throughout the reduction process. C. Dorsal scar count i s the t o t a l number of scars on the f l a k e ' s d o r s a l surface, except those a t t r i b u t e d to platform preparation. A l a r g e r number of d o r s a l f l a k e scars i n d i c a t e s increased preparation of the core face, a l a t e r step i n the manufacturing sequence. D. S t r i k i n g platform preparation r e f e r s t o the type of platform preparation f o r each f l a k e , p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t i n g to evidence f o r the number of previous f l a k e removals i n d i c a t i n g advanced reduction stages. Values f o r t h i s a t t r i b u t e are, i n random order: - p a r t i a l l y removed, preparation u n i d e n t i f i a b l e - s i n g l e f a c e t platform -multiple f a c e t platform -cortex-covered platform -cortex and s i n g l e - f a c e t platform -cortex and multiple-facet platform -ground/polished  platform  E. S t r i k i n g platform width i s the maximum d o r s a l - v e n t r a l measurement i n millimetres, perpendicular to the s t r i k i n g platform width. S t r i k i n g platform width should decrease throughout the manufacturing sequence.  168 D e f i n i t i o n o f Mairufacturinq Stages Mthough some archaeologists (e.g. C a m i l l i 1983; Pokotylo 1978; S u l l i v a n 1987) have examined a t t r i b u t e patterning a t the s i t e l e v e l i n order t o determine the nature o f manufacturing and rejuvenation processes, another method a l s o used s u c c e s s f u l l y assigns each piece o f debitage t o a s p e c i f i c manufacturing stage (Magne and Pokotylo 1981; Magne 1985; Hayden and Hutchings 1989). During analysis o f the p i l o t study data, both methods were used, and b e t t e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among the s i t e s was achieved with the second method. Even though a c e r t a i n percentage o f f l a k e s and shatter w i l l undoubtedly be assigned t o an incorrect category, the main goal t o be achieved i s the determination o f the r e l a t i v e importance o f sequential manufacturing stages, as demonstrated by the debitage deposited a t the s i t e . This study uses the d e f i n i t i o n o f manufacturing stages provided i n Magne and Pokotylo (1981). Three major a c t i v i t i e s are involved i n the production of a b i f a c e : l . core reduction t o produce f l a k e blanks; 2. f l a k e blank reduction t o produ e the f i n a l b i f a c e , and 3. resharpening and use breakage. Core reduction produces e a r l y stage f l a k e and block shatter and e a r l y stage platform-remnant  bearing f l a k e s . Late core and e a r l y blank reduction  produces middle and l a t e stage platform-remnant  bearing f l a k e s . Late blank  reduction produces l a t e stage f l a k e and block shatter, and b i f a c i a l thinning flakes. Following Magne (1985) and Pokotylo (Magne and Pokotylo 1981), v a r i a b i l i t y i n the a t t r i b u t e s defined above i s used t o assign platformremnant bearing f l a k e s and shatter t o sequential manufacturing stages. Magne and Pokotylo (1981) determined that three stages o f platform-remnant  bearing  f l a k e reduction can be c l a s s i f i e d with an accuracy r a t e o f 74.32% using a  169 combination o f four a t t r i b u t e s : weight, d o r s a l scar count, platform scar count, and cortex cover. Only one o f these a t t r i b u t e s has mutually exclusive values f o r each reduction stage: weight. Magne's (1985) l a t e r study determined that e i t h e r o f two a t t r i b u t e s , d o r s a l scar count o r platform scar count, can be used t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e platform-remnant bearing f l a k e s i n t o manufacturing stages. This study uses dorsal scar count because the p i l o t study indicated that approximately 38% o f the sample o f platform remnant bearing f l a k e s are missing a p o r t i o n o f the s t r i k i n g platform and i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o determine the number o f platform scars. During a n a l y s i s o f the p i l o t study data, an attempt was made t o determine the corresponding values of maximum dimension f o r each manufacturing stage. Boxplots o f the maximum dimension o f platform-remnant bearing flakes arranged by the number o f d o r s a l scars were produced separately f o r each s i t e (Figures 14 and 15). Flake s i z e s are p l o t t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y when the sample s i z e f a l l s below four. There i s a weakly defined r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two a t t r i b u t e s , with maximum dimension o f t e n showing larger median and maximum values when the number o f d o r s a l scars equals o r exceeds three. This r e s u l t supports Magne's (1985) conclusion that s i z e , measured e i t h e r by weight o r maximum dimension, i s not a u s e f u l discriminating v a r i a b l e . Magne and Pokotylo (1981) a l s o found that e a r l y and l a t e shatter can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the b a s i s o f s i z e , measured here by maximm dimension, and the amount o f cortex present. Two stages o f f l a k e and block shatter reduction were c l a s s i f i e d with an accuracy r a t e o f 97.5% using two a t t r i b u t e s : weight and cortex cover. Magne's (1985) l a t e r study indicated that the presence o f cortex on the dorsal face o f f l a k e and block shatter i s associated with the e a r l y stage o f core reduction. Therefore, t h i s study  170  o  CO  co  EeRj49  g 2 o or Ld co  2  I  23  Z  20  40  60  MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  80  |  100  - -co  to o CO CO  EeRj56  2  | cr  - -CD-  LU  m 2 Z  20  cn cr  < >3 u to  -  |  40  60  80  100  40  60  80  100  MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  -L_  -I <  CO  EeRj8  cc o a  - -DO-  o cr LU  cn  5  z  20  MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  to o to  <  EeR]64  to  § 2 O  cr LU  CD  1  1  20  40  60  MAXIMUM 0IMENSION (mm)  80  |  100  Figure 14. Boxplot of m a v i m i w i dimension by number of dorsal scars in Upper Hat Creek Valley pilot study sites.  CO  o co  EcRg2CC § 2 u. o cr  LU  co  -  -o -CD-  — •• 20  cn  o  40 60 80 MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  _l 100  - -co-  CO  <  CO  EcRg4C  cr  § 2 o cr  co  — •• • 20  40  60  80  MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  CO  _l 100  CJ CO  EcRg4D  cr o o u. o cr  LU CO  2 ZJ  co cr < >3 CJ CO  20  40 60 80 MAXIMUM 0IMENSI0N (mm)  20  40 60 80 MAXIMUM 0IMENSI0N (mm)  100  - -CL>  _) < CO  EdRg5  cr o o u. o cr  LU GO  2 Z  _!  100  Figure 15. Boxplot of maximum dimension by number o f dorsal scars Highland Valley p i l o t study s i t e s .  172 uses the presence o f cortex as the discriminating v a r i a b l e between the e a r l y and l a t e stages o f shatter production. Again, the r e l i a b i l i t y o f maximum dimension as a stage discriminator was explored during the p i l o t study using boxplots o f maximum dimension on f l a k e and block shatter arranged by the presence/absence  o f cortex, f o r each s i t e (Figures 16 and 17). Although the  majority o f pieces o f debitage i n a l l s i z e categories do not d i s p l a y any cortex, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two a t t r i b u t e s appears t o be stronger than between maximum dimension and d o r s a l s c a r r i n g . I n a l l s i t e s  except  those l a c k i n g shatter without cortex, the median and maximum values o f maximum dimension are larger f o r cases with cortex than f o r those without cortex. Although the s i z e o f the overlap i n t h i s sample indicates i t s lack of r e l i a b i l i t y a t t h i s time, i t appears as though maximum dimension may be a more u s e f u l discriminator f o r shatter than f o r platform-remnant  bearing  f l a k e s . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y should be investigated i n further experimental work. F i n a l l y , Magne (1985) ascertained that b i p o l a r f l a k e s r e s u l t from the e a r l y stages o f core reduction, and that b i f a c i a l thinning f l a k e s r e s u l t rem the l a t e r stages o f blank reduction. Therefore, these two debitage types are counted and grouped with the appropriate stages without further discrimination. Tables 11 and 12 provide the discriminating values f o r three stages o f platform-remnant  bearing f l a k e reduction and two stages o f f l a k e and block  shatter reduction. Each a r t i f a c t i n these three classes i s assigned, according t o the discriminating values, t o one manufacturing stage. The frequencies o f debitage assigned t o sequential manufacturing stages by the methods described above are given i n Table 13. These counts a l s o include  173  WITH CORTEX  -  —  [  EeRj49 WITHOUT CORTEX  _L  20  40 60 80 MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  20  40 60 80 MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  100  WITH CORTEX  EeRj 56 WITHOUT CORTEX  WITH CORTEX  - - r n — \ -  WITHOUT CORTEX  --CD-  _J 100  EeRj 8  20  WITH CORTEX  J_ 40 60 80 MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  100  T3  EeRj 64 WITHOUT CORTEX  .** *** •  20  40  60  80  100  MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  Figure 16. Boxplot of m a y " * ™ ™ dimension by amount of cortex i n Upper Hat Creek Valley pilot study sites.  174  WITH CORTEX  EcRg2CC WITHOUT CORTEX  --LD20  40  60  80  100  80  100  80  100  MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  WITH CORTEX  - -CD-  WITHOUT CORTEX  --0J  EcRg4C  20  40  60  MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  WITH CORTEX  EcRg4D WITHOUT CORTEX  --o 20  40  60  MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  WITH CORTEX  EdRg5 WITHOUT CORTEX  20  40  60  MAXIMUM DIMENSION (mm)  80  _l 100  Figure 17. Boxplot o f maximum dimension by amount o f cortex i n Highland V a l l e y p i l o t study s i t e s .  Table 11. Discriminating values f o r debitage classes on platform-remnant bearing f l a k e s . Manufacturing stage  Attribute  Early  Middle  0-1  Dorsal Scar Count  2  Late > 3  Table 12. Discriminating values f o r debitage classes on shatter. Attribute  Cortex  Manufacturing Stage Early  Late  present  absent  Table 13. Frequencies o f debitage assigned t o manufacturing stages.  Site  E a r l y Core Reduction Stage  Late Core/ E a r l y Blank Reduction Stage  Late Blank Reduction Stage  Early Shatter  Middle PRB  Late FRB  BTF  Early PRB  Late Shatter  Total  EeRilO EeRj49 EeRj55 EeRj56 EeRj60 EeRj62  18 23 177 115 185 31  7 3 57 15 3 3  111 2 148 51 45 13  295 76 412 759 245 129  0 22 12 4 6 2  782 235 3299 2254 2730 563  1213 361 4105 3198 3214 741  EeRj 8 EeRj20 EeRj42 EeRj64 EeRj100 EeRk52  43 3 139 29 5 4  3 1 17 2 1 1  7 8 138 4 3 6  30 32 785 54 23 29  0 3 14 0 1 5  393 224 4656 227 113 85  476 271 5749 316 146 130  EcRg2AA EcRg2CC EcRg4C EcRg4J EdRglA EdRglB  175 10 9 2 4 5  15 2 3 0 1 3  124 8 3 4 9 33  603 70 81 13 45 140  3 10 0 0 2 2  2103 169 366 21 70 522  3023 269 462 40 131 705  10 1 0 1 0 50  1 3 0 1 0 2  15 23 0 5 0 24  56 48 8 3 26 147  0 4 0 0 4 0  115 129 24 8 75 662  197 208 32 18 105 885  EcRg4A EcRg4B EcRg4D EcRg4E EdRg5 EdRg6  PRB: Platform-remnant bearing f l a k e BTF: B i f a c i a l thinning f l a k e  177 b i p o l a r f l a k e s and b i f a c i a l thinning f l a k e s .  Results In order t o enable d i r e c t comparisons among s i t e s , and t o provide a s u i t a b l e data base f o r l a t e r multivariate techniques, the frequency counts of debitage c l a s s e s are converted t o percentage data and re-arranged according t o the s i t e function c l a s s i f i c a t i o n made by the o r i g i n a l s i t e investigators, presented i n Chapter IV (Table 14). With s p e c i f i c reference t o assemblages from Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y described as representative o f an intensive occupation, Pokotylo (1978) a l s o r e f e r r e d t o them as l o c a l base camps f o r e x t r a c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s . For comparative purposes therefore, these s i t e s , p l u s the two s i t e s previously c l a s s i f i e d as camp s i t e s , are grouped with Highland V a l l e y r e s i d e n t i a l camps. The second group o f s i t e s contains Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y s i t e s previously interpreted as l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y s i t e s , e i t h e r f o r hunting o r p l a n t procurement, grouped with what should be a s i m i l a r s e t o f s i t e s previously interpreted as f i e l d camps from Highland V a l l e y (Pokotylo 1978; Areas Associates 1983, 1986). The f i r s t group o f intensive occupations/residential camps contains debitage from a broad range o f manufacturing steps, with the exception o f EcRg4D and EdRgS. These two s i t e s were sampled and s i t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s based p a r t i a l l y on estimated s i t e s i z e . In addition, t h i s group o f s i t e s contains, on the average, a higher proportion o f debitage from the e a r l i e s t stages o f core reduction than do the second group o f s i t e s , l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y / f i e l d camps. The one s i t e i d e n t i f i e d as a s t a t i o n , EcRg4E, contains the highest combined percentage o f e a r l y and middle debitage, i n d i c a t i n g a technological strategy focused on core reduction and e a r l y blank reduction.  178 Table 14. Percentages o f debitage assigned t o manufacturing stages.  Site  E a r l y Core Reduction Stage  Late Core/ E a r l y Blank Reduction stage  Late Blank Reduction Stage  Early Shatter  Middle PRB  Late PRB  BTF  Late Shatter  Total  2.4 1.6 .4 1.8 1.3 4.1 2.9 .6 11.1 .0  13.6 23.7 7.6 17.4 17.1 19.9 26.0 17.5 23.1 24.8  .2 .1 .2 .3 .0 .1 3.7 .0 1.9 3.8  81.1 70.5 85.9 75.9 71.8 69.6 63.0 59.9 62.0 71.4  100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0  Early PRB  intensive occupation/residential EeRj42 EeRj56 EeRj60 EeRj62 EeRj64 EcRgZAA EcRg2CC EcRg4C EcRg4B EdRgS  2.4 3.6 5.8 4.2 9.2 5.8 3.7 21.4 .5 .0  .3 .5 .1 .4 .6 .5 .7 .6 1.4 .0  camps  l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y / f i e l d camp 1.5 9.0 1.1 4.3 3.1 5.0 3.1 .7 5.0 .0 5.6  .6 .6 .3 1.4 .8 .0 .9 .4 .5 .0 .2  9.2 1.5 2.9 3.6 4.6 10.0 6.9 4.7 7.6 .0 2.7  24.3 6.3 11.8 10.0 22.3 32.5 34.4 19.9 28.4 33.3 16.6  .0 .0 1.1 .3 3.8 .0 1.5 .3 .0 .0 .0  64.4 82.6 82.8 80.4 65.4 52.5 53.2 74.0 58.5 66.7 74.9  100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0  EcRg4E  5.5  5.5  27.8  16.7  .0  44.5  100.0  no previous  classification  EeRj49 EeRj100  6.4 3.4  .6 2.1  21.1 15.8  6.1 .7  71.1 77.3  100.0 100.0  EeRilO EeRj 8 EeRj20 EeRj55 EeRk52 EcRg4J EdRglA EdRglB EcRg4A EcRg4D EdRg6 station  .8 .7  PRB: Platform-remnant bearing f l a k e BTF: B i f a c i a l thinning f l a k e  179 The only s i t e with previously unanalyzed debitage, EeRjlOO, i s very s i m i l a r i n both frequency and percentage of s t a g e - c l a s s i f i e d debitage t o EeRk52, c l a s s i f i e d as a l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y s i t e . Mthough the majority of s i t e s i n Upper Hat Creek V a l l e y do not have a previously assigned s i t e type, the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e importance of manufacturing stages present agrees with those presented by other researchers (Chapter TV). The s i n g l e exception i s EeRj 49, e a r l i e r presented as a s i t e with emphasis on the e a r l y manufacturing stages; t h i s analysis includes a r t i f a c t s not a v a i l a b l e t o the o r i g i n a l researcher. In order t o determine whether the percentage of debitage classes assigned to manufacturing can be used t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e among the f u n c t i o n a l s i t e classes, a s e r i e s of Mann-Whitney t e s t s was applied t o the percentage data presented i n Table 14, a f t e r stations (1 s i t e ) and p r e v i o u s l y unanalyzed s i t e s (2 s i t e s ) were deleted from the sample. None of the debitage classes discriminates among the s i t e classes a t the pre-selected s t a t i s t i c a l l e v e l of 0.05, although middle stage platform-remnant bearing f l a k e s produce a Mann-Whitney s t a t i s t i c which i s nearly s i g n i f i c a n t (Table 15). The best discriminators i n terms of debitage classes are: e a r l y stage shatter, middle stage platform-remnant bearing flakes, and b i f a c i a l thinning f l a k e s ; each of these derives from a d i f f e r e n t manufacturing stage. The worst discriminators are: e a r l y stage platform-remnant bearing flakes, l a t e stage platformremnant bearing flakes, and l a t e stage shatter, again each from a d i f f e r e n t manufacturing stage. A second s e r i e s of Mann-Whitney t e s t s was run on the three generalized manufacturing stages themselves, a f t e r combining the debitage classes assigned t o each stage i n Table 14. Again, the r e s u l t s are not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  180 Table 15. Mann-Whitney two-sample t e s t s on debitage c l a s s percentages grouped by previous s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Debitage Class  Rank Sum Site2 Sitel  E a r l y shatter E a r l y PRB Middle PRB Late PRB BTF Late Shatter  120.5 109.5 84.0 101.5 122.5 116.0  110.5 121.5 147.0 129.5 108.5 115.0  Mann-Whitney Statistic 65.5 54.5 29.0 46.5 67.5 61.0  Probability  0.459 0.972 0.067 0.549 0.364 0.673  PRB: Platform-remnant bearing f l a k e BTF: B i f a c i a l thinning f l a k e S i t e l : R e s i d e n t i a l camp/intensive occupation S i t e 2 : F i e l d camp/limited a c t i v i t y  Table 16. Mann-Whitney two-sample t e s t s on manufacturing grouped by previous s i t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  stages  Manufacturing Stage  Rank Sum Sitel Site2  Mann-Whitney Statistic  Probability  E a r l y core reduction Late core/early blank reduction Late blank reduction  115.5  115.5  60.5  0.698  94.0 122.0  137.0 109.0  39.0 67.0  0.260 0.398  S i t e l : R e s i d e n t i a l camp/intensive occupation Site2: F i e l d camp/limited a c t i v i t y  181 s i g n i f i c a n t , although the p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s associated with the respective Mann-Whitney s t a t i s t i c s are much lower, i n d i c a t i n g a b e t t e r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between settlement types when debitage i s placed i n t o three p r e v i o u s l y manufacturing stages rather than s i x debitage c l a s s e s (Table 16). In r e l a t i o n t o manufacturing stages, the p r o b a b i l i t y that the s i t e s represent samples drawn from d i f f e r e n t populations i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y lower than the p r o b a b i l i t y associated with the worst discriminators i n debitage classes. In f a c t , the p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s associated with the three manufacturing approximates  stages  the median values between p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l s f o r the best and  worst discriminators. In view of t h i s r e s u l t , and i n order t o incorporate a l l debitage data, further analyses using debitage p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o manufacturing stages w i l l use the three generalized manufacturing  stages  devised by Magne (1985). Generally, these r e s u l t s support Binford's (1980) model that r e s i d e n t i a l camps w i l l contain debitage from a wide range of manufacturing stages, while s t a t i o n s w i l l contain debitage from a more limited range of manufacturing stages. In addition, these r e s u l t s support Chatter's (1987) model which p r e d i c t s d i f f e r e n c e s i n emphasis on reduction stages between r e s i d e n t i a l camps and f i e l d camps. However, there are some exceptions: f o r example, EcRg4B, c l a s s i f i e d as a r e s i d e n t i a l camp, contains l e s s than 2% e a r l y stage debitage, and EdRgS, a l s o a r e s i d e n t i a l camp contains no e a r l y stage debitage. The l a t t e r r e s u l t may be due t o s i t e sampling, as already discussed. According t o Binford's (1980) model, f i e l d camps and stations should contain debitage from only one or two stages o f t o o l manufacture, rejuvenation and resharpening. The r e s u l t s provided i n Table 14 indicate that t h i s p r e d i c t i o n i s not supported. In f a c t , the v a r i a b i l i t y i n  182 proportions o f i n d i v i d u a l manufacturing stages between settlement types i s considerably more subtle than Binford's (1980) and Chatters' (1987) models of assemblage structure p r e d i c t . F i n a l l y , the v a r i a t i o n i n emphasis on reduction stages, as evidenced i n t h i s study, r e l a t e s p r i m a r i l y t o the l a t e core/early blank reduction stage and t o the l a t e blank reduction stage. S i t e s interpreted as intensive occupations o r r e s i d e n t i a l camps contain a higher percentage o f debitage from the l a t e blank reduction stage, while s i t e s interpreted as l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y o r f i e l d camps contain a higher percentage of debris from the l a t e core/early blank reduction stage. This r e s u l t may  i n d i c a t e a greater emphasis i n r e s i d e n t i a l camps on f i n a l t o o l  f i n i s h i n g , t o o l maintenance and rejuvenation.  M i c r o l i t h i c Debitage Introduction A s a l i e n t feature of microcore technology i s the staging reguired: several d i f f e r e n t flintknapping procedures must be followed i n a predetermined order. Each stage of microcore preparation and reduction can considered a separate task, t o be completed i n one l o c a t i o n o r i n several. Thus, the way i n which the various stages are divided up s p a t i a l l y and temporally has important implications f o r the p o t e n t i a l organization of microcore technology. One important feature of the model being tested i n t h i s research associates the preparation of microcores with an emphasis on the use of curated technology. Under these conditions, i t i s l i k e l y that microcores were prepared a t spring and summer residence camps. Archaeological i n d i c a t i o n s of microcore preparation should of unsuccessfully prepared  183 micxocores and microcore fragments, microblades from the e a r l i e s t stages o f r i d g e preparation, and microcore preparation f l a k e s . A second feature o f the model associates the production, use and discard o f microblades with spring and summer residence camps. Archaeological evidence o f t h i s type o f technological  organization would consist o f the presence o f microcore  rejuvenation f l a k e s , and both used and unused microblades from a complete range o f production stages i n r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s . There i s , as yet, no conclusive evidence f o r hafted microblades i n the southern I n t e r i o r Plateau. Although Loy (1986) interpreted several o f the Highland v a l l e y microblades as being hafted, he d i d not discuss the evidence f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and the microblades i n question do not d i s p l a y the same type o f wear patterns. I f some microblades were selected f o r h a f t i n g i n t o a curated, composite t o o l , then a l e s s complete microblade production sequence would be present a t the locus o f t o o l manufacture, c o n s i s t i n g o f only those blades unsuitable f o r h a f t i n g because o f i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f s i z e and shape (Hofrnan 1987). I n addition, broken blades removed from the composite t o o l might be located a t the s i t e where l a s t used. Current research (Kelly 1984) indicates that microblade manufacture can only be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from b i f a c e manufacture a t the f i n a l product stage. That i s , i f microblades, microcore preparation f l a k e s , microcore rejuvenation f l a k e s o r microcores are not present, i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o determine from an examination o f f l a k e s and shatter whether o r not a microcore was prepared o r microblades manufactured a t an archaeological s i t e . Therefore, the analyses which follow are confined e n t i r e l y t o an examination o f microcores and microblades from recent experimental r e p l i c a t i o n and archaeological s i t e s .  184 Implications of Previous Research The only a v a i l a b l e report (Kelly 1984)  of experimental inicroblade  manufacture describes an attempt t o discriminate between i n t e n t i o n a l l y and f o r t u i t o u s l y produced microblades, and the r e s u l t a n t debitage. K e l l y ' s study has important implications f o r t h i s research because the technique o f microblade manufacture used i s s i m i l a r t o that suggested f o r the archaeological specimens f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia I n t e r i o r Plateau (Sanger 1970b), i n that platform preparation i s minimal and f l a k e s or nodules are used as blanks. K e l l y (1984) reported on the experimental r e p l i c a t i o n of both microblades and b i f a c e s beginning with s e l e c t i o n o f raw material, heat treatment, blank reduction and ending with core exhaustion or t o o l breakage. Raw material was a l o c a l l y a v a i l a b l e variegated chalcedony, and t o o l s consisted of b a s a l t hammerstones f o r percussion f l a k i n g , and copper tipped pressure f l a k e r s . I n d i r e c t percussion with a v i s e and a n v i l was not as successful as the pressure or d i r e c t free-hand percussion  techniques,  because of the small s i z e of the core. Debitage was not c o l l e c t e d u n t i l the experiment was  finished.  According t o K e l l y (1984), the most s u i t a b l e core blanks were blocky f l a k e s with one semi-flat, s l i g h t l y concave surface f o r the platform. In addition, the core had a r e l a t i v e l y f l a t surface perpendicular t o that selected f o r the platform and was a t l e a s t 3cm long. Minimal platform preparation ensured a platform angle of s l i g h t l y l e s s than 90-degrees which f a c i l i t a t e s the contact between the f l a k e r and core. On f l a k e s without  this  n a t u r a l platform, platform preparation consisted o f the removal of small f l a k e s transverse t o the edge where microblades were subsequently  detached,  or l a t e r a l l y across the platform surface. The platform edge was ground t o  185 strengthen i t and t o remove any overhang. The next step i n microcore manufacture was the preparation o f a face by the removal o f "primary" microblades which l e f t longitudinal ridges t o guide l a t e r microblade detachment. K e l l y (1984:43) described the sequence o f microblade removal and microcore rejuvenation: The microblades were detached by e i t h e r d i r e c t free-hand percussion o r pressure. For each technique/ the core was held i n a leather-covered hand and the percussor o r pressure t o o l was held i n the opposite hand. The point of contact was a t the juncture o f the a r r i s and the platform/ o r between the two a r r i s e s . The former p o s i t i o n produced microblades that are t r i a n g u l a r i n cross-section whereas the l a t t e r p o s i t i o n produced microblades with a trapezoidal cross-section. S i x percussion and s i x pressure microblade cores were experimentally manufactured r e s u l t i n g i n 85-90 microblades from each... .After a s e r i e s of microblades was removed from one face, the edge was abraded and microblade production continued. In some cases, i t was necessary t o prepare a clean platform surface by removing m u l t i p l e small f l a k e s , as previously described. I f the knapper encountered too many flaws on the face or platform/ a new face o r platform was prepared wherever a clean surface was a v a i l a b l e . This process continued u n t i l e i t h e r the core was too small o r too flawed t o allow f u r t h e r reduction. Both the microcores and microblades produced by the pressure technique are indistinguishable from those produced by d i r e c t free-hand percussion. In addition, the r e p l i c a t i o n o f both microcore and b i f a c i a l core  technology  produced b i f a c i a l thinning flakes and primary blades. Although K e l l y ' s research objective was not the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f manufacturing stages within microcore technology/ she observed that primary blades, which are detached a f t e r platform preparation i n order t o provide a f l u t e d face f o r i n t e n t i o n a l microblade removal, are l i n e a r flakes with some cortex cover and a s i n g l e l o n g i t u d i n a l d o r s a l a r r i s . The e a r l y stage o f microblade removal apparently produces shorter, narrower blades with shorter, more numerous dorsal scars than the l a t e r stages o f microblade removal.  186 Experimental R e p l i c a t i o n The f o l l o w i n g section describes the r e s u l t s o f an a d d i t i o n a l attempt t o r e p l i c a t e microblade production by knapper Alexander Mackie, who was coached by Professor David Pokotylo a t the Laboratory o f Archaeology, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i n 1987. The raw material was obsidian from Glass Buttes, Oregon, and the t o o l s consisted o f a cobble hammer stone, an a n t l e r hammer, a wooden v i s e , and an a n t l e r punch. Three microcores were prepared but only one s u c c e s s f u l l y produced microblades. The knapper's comments were recorded, and a l l debitage, i n c l u d i n g microblades, was c o l l e c t e d i n bags l a b e l l e d with the corresponding number and stage: 1. S e l e c t i o n o f Core Blank The knapper selected a round o r ovoid cortex-covered cobble which could be s p l i t i n t o two s i m i l a r l y - s i z e d pieces, each with an i n t e r i o r cortex-free surface t o serve as a platform. 2. Platform Preparation The knapper used a hard hammer t o roughen the surface o f the platform with abrasion. 3. Preparation o f Ridges The desired r e s u l t o f t h i s step was the production o f s e v e r a l long, s t r a i g h t , p a r a l l e l ridges on the face o f the core which would guide future microblade removal. This produced several b l a d e - l i k e f l a k e s which are the equivalent o f K e l l y ' s (1984) primary blades, discussed above. T h i s step appears t o be the most d i f f i c u l t t o complete s u c c e s s f u l l y and on Core #2, discarded a f t e r t h i s step, the knapper f a i l e d t o produce the necessary number and q u a l i t y o f r i d g e s . The knapper switched t o the a n t l e r hammer i n order t o detach several primary blades. Between blows, the hammer was used  187 to roughen the platform edge, and remove any overhang. The knapper oonmented t h a t the  d e a l platform i s situated a t a 90-degree angle t o the f l u t e d face,  and that a b i f a c i a l technique was used t o remove primary blades. 4 . Microblade Removal For t h i s step, the knapper placed the prepared microcore i n t o a v i s e , and switched t o use o f an a n t l e r punch with hammer stone. Platform roughening was continued between punches. The knapper placed the punch d i r e c t l y over a r i d g e and attempted t o remove a blade with a d i r e c t right-angle push. On Core #1, the knapper switched t o the i n d i r e c t punch method a f t e r removal o f the f i r s t blade created an undesirable set o f ridges; however, the punch was placed too f a r from the platform edge and the f l a k e detached was too wide and removed most o f the guiding ridges. Core #3, Which had three guiding ridges, s l i p p e d i n the v i c e and a hinge f l a k e was detached. Core rejuvenation, described below, was c a r r i e d out on both cores before further microblade removal was attempted. The knapper s u c c e s s f u l l y removed nineteen microblades,  i n four separate steps, from Core #3 a f t e r the f i r s t  rejuvenation. A f t e r each group o f microblades was removed, the platform edge was roughened with the cobble hammer stone. 5. Microcore  Rejuvenation  The knapper attempted rejuvenation on Core #1 a f t e r removal o f one microblae, and on Core #3 a f t e r an unsuccessful attempt t o remove the f i r s t microblade, discussed above, and a f t e r the f i r s t nineteen blades were removed. The goal o f rejuvenation i n both cases was t o r e - e s t a b l i s h the p a r a l l e l guiding ridges which are e s s e n t i a l f o r successful microblade production. Frequently, the ridges were too f a r apart t o produce microblades, and the knapper attempted t o create a d d i t i o n a l ridges. Another  188 frequent problem was the appearance of an overhang on the platform edge a f t e r the removal of e i t h e r primary blades or microblades. Removal o f t h i s overhang o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n the removal of one or more guiding r i d g e s . F i n a l l y , the knapper noted that i f the o r i g i n a l platform was uneven, consistent removal o f evenly-sized blades was d i f f i c u l t . Rejuvenation  of  Core #1 ended when removal of a large hinge f l a k e reduced the platform t o an unworkable length. Rejuvenation of Core #3 produced a workable f l u t e d face, and two microblades were removed. Again, the guiding ridges were too f a r apart, and the platform collapsed. Once more, the knapper rejuvenated  the  ridges and detached two more microblades. The ridges were again removed. Further rejuvenation was required, and one a d d i t i o n a l microblade was produced. According t o the knapper, the f i n a l attempt to rejuvenate the ridges f a i l e d because e i t h e r too much force was used, the punch was  placed  too f a r back on the platform, or the platform angle was not q u i t e 90degrees. The twenty-four s u c c e s s f u l l y produced microblades  from Core #3,  and  the exhausted core are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 18.  Summary of Experimental Microblade  Production  Microcore preparation consists of a s e r i e s of procedures r e q u i r i n g a high l e v e l of knapping s k i l l , a v a r i e t y of t o o l s , and a high l e v e l of concentration. Errors are not easy t o correct, and f a i l u r e t o produce the c r i t i c a l number of r i d g e scars of the desired length and distance apart r e s u l t s i n a b a s i c a l l y unusable piece of raw m a t e r i a l . The most important features on a cobble t o be reduced i n t o a microcore are: a smooth i n t e r i o r surface f r e e of impurities, and a minimum o v e r a l l s i z e of 5 t o 6 cm.  The  c r i t i c a l features produced by knapping on a successful microcore are: a t  189  Figure 18. Experimentally produced microblades and exhausted core.  190 l e a s t four o r f i v e s t r a i g h t , p a r a l l e l ridges running almost the e n t i r e length o f the d i s t a l face, and a platform s t r i k i n g angle o f approximately 90 degrees. Consistent problems included too great a distance between the guiding ridges, too much force placed on the punch, too much distance between the punch t i p and the platform edge, and a f a i l u r e t o maintain the platform s t r i k i n g angle a t 90 degrees. A u s e f u l a d d i t i o n t o t h i s s e t o f experimental r e p l i c a t i o n s would be t o vary the raw m a t e r i a l types and t o vary the blade production  techniques.  Only i n d i r e c t percussion was used by Alexander Mackie,. whereas K e l l y ' s (1984) most successful methods were d i r e c t pressure and free-hand percussion.  Selection of Attributes K e l l y (1984) described two generalized manufacturing stages i n microblade production, separated by platform rejuvenation. Primary microblades, o r those detached during r i d g e preparation, d i s p l a y remnants o f cortex and a s i n g l e d o r s a l scar. I n addition, as mentioned above, K e l l y (1984) suggested that e a r l y stage microblades are shorter, and narrower, with more dorsal o r r i d g e scars than l a t e stage microblades. Sanger (1968) proposed that microblade length w i l l not change, but that width w i l l decrease throughout the reduction sequence. As w e l l , he suggested that the v e n t r a l s t r i k i n g platform angle w i l l probably not a l t e r , and that a l l s t r i k i n g platforms w i l l be ground. Other studies o f microcore technology i n d i c a t e that s t r i k i n g platform width i s greater i n microblades produced during the e a r l y stages o f core reduction (Hofman 1987). Based on the studies o f microcore technology mentioned above, the  191 following a t t r i b u t e s were selected f o r measurement: blade length (A), blae width (B), blade thickness (C), number of r i d g e scars (D), v e n t r a l s t r i k i n g platform angle (E), amount o f cortex (F), number of platform preparation scars (6), and s t r i k i n g platform width (H) (see Figure 19). The blade length, blade width, blade thickness and s t r i k i n g platform width were measured i n m i l l i m e t r e s . The s t r i k i n g platform was examined f o r evidence of grinding and the number of scars counted. The number o f r i d g e scars were counted on each microblade. v e n t r a l s t r i k i n g platform angle was measured i n f i v e degree i n t e r v a l s , i n the same way that t h i s angle was measured on platform-remnant bearing f l a k e s . The amount o f cortex present was measured i n 25% increments from 0% t o 100%. The experimental r e p l i c a t i o n described above produced  twenty-four  complete microblades, i n two stages, e a r l y and l a t e , separated by platform rejuvenation. The e a r l y stage i s defined as the production of a l l microblades up t o the f i r s t attempt a t microcore rejuvenation; the l a t e stage i s defined as the production o f a l l microblades a f t e r the rejuvenation. Table 17 provides measurements f o r a l l a t t r i b u t e s on each microblade. There i s no cortex present i n e i t h e r the experimental sample or the archaeological sample, and t h i s a t t r i b u t e was deleted from further a n a l y s i s . In addition, no evidence of grinding on the s t r i k i n g p l a t f o r  was  noted and only the number of platform scars was retained as a measure of this attribute. In order t o determine i f the values f o r these seven a t t r i b u t e s d i f f e r , i n the predicted manner, between the two stages, measures of c e n t r a l tendency and dispersion were calculated separately f o r each a t t r i b u t e : minimum, maximum, median, mean and standard deviation. Tables 18 and 19  Figure 19. A t t r i b u t e s measured on experimentally produced microblades.  193 Table 17. A t t r i b u t e values o f experimentally produced microblades i n order o f detachment from microcore. Stage  Order  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 l 1 1 l l 1 l l 1 1 2 2 2 2 2  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24  Length (Mm)  Width (Mm)  Thickness (Mm)  Number of Ridge Scars  21.5 28.8 30.0 31.6 35.5 29.0 23.5 23.8 34.9 35.0 31.0 36.6 29.5 35.0 32.7 36.2 30.0 34.1 31.5 34.0 36.0 36.5 36.4 27.8  4.2 10.1 9.0 8.9 9.7 8.8 6.0 5.4 8.8 9.9 8.8 9.6 11.5 9.6 10.4 7.9 7.4 10.5 6.4 9.9 10.9 12.3 13.4 6.6  1.0 2.5 3.0 2.9 3.0 1.6 1.5 2.0 2.1 3.0 3.1 4.4 3.5 2.3 2.2 2.5 2.0 2.0 1.6 3.0 2.6 4.0 3.0 2.0  2 3 3 4 6 3 3 2 4 3 1 4 1 3 3 4 3 2 2 4 6 4 3 2  Number Platform Platform Width of Angle Platform (Degrees) (Mm) Scars  1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 3 1 1 2 1  90 90 90 75 85 85 85 85 90 85 85 80 85 85 85 80 85 85 90 90 90 80 85 85  0.9 1.0 0.8 1.6 1.2 1.3 1.7 1.0 1.6 2.3 1.8 2.2 1.6 1.5 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 1.2 1.7 1.4 2.4 1.6 2.0  194 Table 18. Measures o f c e n t r a l tendency and d i s p e r s i o n f o r e a r l y stage o f microblade production (N=19). Attribute  Length (Mm) Width (Mm) Thickness (Mm) Number o f Ridge Scars Number o f Platform Scars Platform Angle (Degrees) Platform Width (Mm)  Minimum  21.5 4.2 1.0 1.0 1.0 75.0 0.8  Maximum  Median  Mean  Standard Deviation  36.6 11.5 4.4 6.0 2.0 90.0 2.3  31.5 8.9 2.3 3.0 1.0 85.0 1.5  31.1 8.6 2.4 2.9 1.4  4.4 1.9 0.8 1.2 0.5  1.5  0.5  Table 19. Measures o f c e n t r a l tendency and d i s p e r s i o n f o r l a t e stage o f microblade production (N=5). Attribute  Length (Mm) Width (Mm) Thickness (Mm) N mber o f Ridge Scars Number o f Platform Scars Platform Angle (Degrees) Platform Width (Mm)  Minimum  27.8 6.6 2.0 2.0 1.0 80.0 1.4  Maximum  Median  Mean  Standard Deviation  36.5 13.4 4.0 6.0 3.0 90.0 2.4  36.0 10.9 3.0 4.0 1.0 85.0 1.7  34.1 10.6 2.9 3.8 1.6  3.7 2.6 0.7 1.5 0.9  1.8  0.4  195 provide these s t a t i s t i c s f o r the e a r l y and l a t e stages of microblade production. Examination o f these tables indicates that microblade length, width, and thickness are greater i n the l a t e stage of production, as K e l l y (1984), Hofrnan (1987) and Arnold (1987) p r e d i c t . In addition, the s t r i k i n g platform angle does not d i f f e r greatly, as predicted by Sanger (1968). However, two a t t r i b u t e s , number of r i d g e scars and platform width, do not vary i n the manner predicted by K e l l y (1984) and Hofrnan (1987); both display greater values i n the l a t e r stage. Thus, an examination o f these d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s indicates that there are between-stage differences i n only some of the selected a t t r i b u t e s . In order t o determine i f the microblades i n the two production stages are derived from s i m i l a r or d i f f e r e n t populations, the empirical v a l i d i t y of the two groups (stages) i s tested by applying a s e r i e s of Mann-Whitney twosample t e s t s on the raw data matrix provided i n Table 17. T h i s nonparametric t e s t examines two samples t o determine i f t h e i r respective populations have d i f f e r e n t population d i s t r i b u t i o n s , by ranking the scores on each a t t r i b u t e i n a composite d i s t r i b u t i o n including both groups. Then, the U - s t a t i s t i c i s c a l c u l a t e d , based on the rank sum which has a corresponding p r o b a b i l i t y , f o r each a t t r i b u t e (Thomas 1976; Downie and Heath 1974). A p r i o r s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of 0.05  i s selected. Table 20 provides the ranked sums, U - s t a t i s t i c  and p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l f o r each a t t r i b u t e i n the experimental sample. None of the a t t r i b u t e s are s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05  l e v e l of p r o b a b i l i t y , although  the value f o r blade width i s 0.055, very close t o the pre-selected s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . Professor R.G. Matson (personal ccmnunication  1990)  suggested that t h i s r e s u l t be checked by hand because the SYSTAT program used t o analyze the data uses approximations, instead of tables, which r e l y  196 Table 20. Mann-Whitney two-sample t e s t s on a t t r i b u t e s measured on experimental microblades grouped by stage. Attribute  Rank Sum Early Late  Length Width Thickness Number o f Ridge Scars Number o f Platform Scars Platform Angle Platform Width  217.00 210.50 220.50 220.50 232.50 233.00 216.00  Mann-Whitney Statistic  83.00 89.50 79.50 79.50 67.50 67.00 84.00  27.00 20.50 30.50 30.50 42.50 43.00 26.00  Probability  0.145 0.055 0.224 0.208 0.675 0.723 0.124  Table 21. Experimental microblade a t t r i b u t e p r i n c i p a l components analysis f a c t o r loadings. Attribute  Factor 1  Factor 2  Factor 3  Factor 4  Length Width Thickness Number o f Ridge Scars Number o f Platform Scars Platform Angle Platform Width  (0.884) (0.838) (0.819) 0.486 0.520 -0.437 (0.640)  0.243 0.087 -0.120 (0.567) 0.372 (0.656) -0.479  -0.078 0.103 -0.120 -0.551 (0.562) 0.398 0.358  0.048 0.410 0.264 -0.243 0.459 0.396 -0.113  Percent o f t o t a l variance explained  46.586  17.504  13.390  9.707  NOTE: Bracketed () values indicate s i g n i f i c a n t loadings discussed i n t e x t .  197 on r e l a t i v e l y equal sample s i z e s . The hand-calculated U - s t a t i s t i c i s 20.0, which i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t a p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l o f 0.05. Thus, the r e s u l t s o f t h i s t e s t i n d i c a t e that blade width i s the only a t t r i b u t e measured which d i f f e r e n t i a t e among the two stages o f microblade production. Although the Mann-Whitney t e s t s i n d i c a t e that only one o f the a t t r i b u t e s , d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y between the two stages, there i s s t i l l a p o s s i b i l i t y that a combination o f a t t r i b u t e s may d i s t i n g u i s h between the stages. Thus a s e r i e s o f m u l t i v a r i a t e t e s t s i s conducted on the experimental microblade data: p r i n c i p a l components analysis, multiple discriminant a n a l y s i s and cluster analysis. The f i r s t step i n the multivariate analysis i s the s e l e c t i o n o f an a t t r i b u t e set which provides the greatest amount o f technological information about the microblade sample and contains the l e a s t amount o f redundant information.  P r i n c i p a l components analysis i s used i n  archaeological data analysis t o determine i f a r t i f a c t s , a t t r i b u t e s o r s i t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s covary, and the extent o f t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n with one another (Sherman 1988). P r i n c i p a l components analysis defines underlying patterns of v a r i a t i o n common t o the group o f variables being considered (Shennan 1988). In t h i s study, p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s (Wilkinson 1988) i s applied t o the data matrix given i n Table 17, t o determine the nature o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the a t t r i b u t e s selected t o measure microblade manufacturing stages, and t o reduce the set o f a t t r i b u t e s t o a smaller number f o r further c l u s t e r i n g and multiple discriminant a n a l y s i s . The analysis o f seven microblade a t t r i b u t e s r e s u l t s i n a 4-factor s o l u t i o n (Table 21). Factor 1, which accounts f o r 46.586% o f the sample variance, has four highly-loading a t t r i b u t e s : blade length, width, thickness and s t r i k i n g  198 platform width. These a t t r i b u t e s a l l increase with production stage, and r e l a t e t o the o v e r a l l dimensions of the microblades. The second f a c t o r accounts f o r 17.504% of variance and i s dctninated by number of r i d g e scars and s t r i k i n g platform angle. These two a t t r i b u t e s are c r i t i c a l t o the successful production of microblades, and were, therefore, under t i g h t c o n t r o l with l i t t l e v a r i a b i l i t y being d e s i r a b l e . Factor 3 i s a s p e c i f i c f a c t o r p r i m a r i l y defined by a s i n g l e a t t r i b u t e - number of platform scars and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o 13.39% of the variance. Again, t h i s a t t r i b u t e was c o n t r o l l e d by the knapper as he c o n t i n u a l l y roughened the platform. Factor 4 contains no h i g h l y loading a t t r i b u t e s , and contributes t o 9.707% o f the variance. The r e s u l t s of the p r i n c i p a l components a n a l y s i s provide the c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g those a t t r i b u t e s to be used i n f u r t h e r m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s : length, width, thickness and platform depth, the h i g h l y loading a t t r i b u t e s from Factor 1. The second step i n t h i s a n a l y s i s i s a c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s of the a t t r i b u t e s recorded f o r the experimental sample. C l u s t e r a n a l y s i s has been used most s u c c e s s f u l l y i n archaeological data a n a l y s i s to group e i t h e r cases (Q-mode analysis) o r a t t r i b u t e s (R-mode analysis) together based on s i m i l a r i t i e s among the m u l t i v a r i a t e data sets (Matson and True 1974; Pokotylo  1978;  Greaves 1982: Magne 1985). The c l u s t e r i n g , or group formation, i s performed on a matrix o f s i m i l a r i t i e s or distances between the objects being studied. This study uses the Euclidean distance measure, the one most commonly used with i n t e r v a l or r a t i o l e v e l data. Ward's e r r o r sum of squares method i s used on a standardized data matrix of the four a t t r i b u t e s previously selected a f t e r f a c t o r a n a l y s i s (length, width, thickness and platform depth) to produce the groups (Matson and True 1974). The best s o l u t i o n i s a  two-  199 c l u s t e r grouping a t the f a i r l y high s i m i l a r i t y l e v e l o f 2.864 (Figure 20), shown along the r i g h t margin. Numbers along the l e f t margin o f the diagram i n d i c a t e the stage o f production (l=early, 2=late), and the order o f detachment from the core, i n brackets. Each c l u s t e r contains microblades from both stages (Table 22). Cluster 1 contains 7 microblades from the f i r s t h a l f o f the e a r l y stage, 2 microblades from near the end o f the second h a l f o f the e a r l y stage, and the  final  microblade produced i n the l a t e stage. Two o f these l a t t e r three are the f i r s t and l a s t microblades t o be produced a f t e r micxocore rejuvenation. C l u s t e r 2 contains 3 microblades from the f i r s t h a l f o f the e a r l y stage, 8 microblades from the second h a l f o f the f i r s t stage, and 4 microblades from the middle part o f the l a t e stage. Table 23 provides measures o f c e n t r a l tendency and dispersion f o r the four microblade a t t r i b u t e s used i n the c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s . Cluster 2 microblades are longer, wider, t h i c k e r , and have a wider s t r i k i n g platform than c l u s t e r 1 microblades. Mann-Whitney twosample t e s t s are conducted on the four a t t r i b u t e s t o see i f the differences between the two c l u s t e r s are s i g n i f i c a n t . Table 24 provides the r e s u l t s , and a l l a t t r i b u t e s have a s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l o f l e s s than 0.05,  indicating  s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences between the c l u s t e r s . I f the experimental sample s i z e , both microcores and microblades, had been larger, these f i g u r e s could have used as discriminating values from determination of production stage on archaeological assemblages. Examination o f the composition o f the c l u s t e r s a l s o provides some preliminary indications about how microcore rejuvenation may a f f e c t microblade a t t r i b u t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those r e l a t i n g t o s i z e . The microblades produced i n the f i r s t h a l f o f the e a r l y stage are smaller than those  200  1(1)  0.0  |  1(8) 1(7) 2(24) 1(19) 1(17) 1(6) 1(2) 1(3) 1(16) 1(5) 2(21) 1(14) 1(9) 2(23) 1(18) 1(15) 1(10) 1(11) 1(4) 2(20) 1(13) 2(22) 1(12)  F i g u r e 20. Ward's c l u s t e r a n a l y s i s o f experimental microblades.  10.000  201 Table 22. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f experimental microblades by c l u s t e r s (N=24). Stage  Cluster 1  Cluster 2  Early  8 (42.11%) 1 (20.0%)  11 (57.89%) 4 (80.0%)  Late  Table 23. Measures o f c e n t r a l tendency and dispersion f o r two c l u s t e r s o f experimental microblades (N=24). Attribute  Length  Cluster  (Mm)  Width (Mm) Thickness  (Mm)  Platform Width (Mm)  1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2  Minimum Maximum  21.5 29.5 4.2 7.9 1.0 2.0 0.8 1.0  31.5 36.6 10.1 13.4 3.0 4.4 2.0 2.4  Mean  27.3 34.3 7.1 10.1 1.9 2.9 1.2 1.7  Standard Deviation 3.5 2.2 1.9 1.4 0.6 0.7 0.4 0.4  202 Table 24. Mann-Whitney two-sample t e s t s on a t t r i b u t e s measured on experimental microblades grouped by c l u s t e r . Rank Sum Cluster 1 Cluster 2  Attribute  49.00 60.00 60.00 69.50  Length Width Thickness Platform Width  251.00 240.00 240.00 230.50  U Statistic 4.0 15.00 15.00 24.50  Probability  o.oo  0.02 0.02 0.01  Table 25. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o b a b i l i t i e s f o r experimental microblade sample (N=24). Stage  Early Late  Stage Early  Late  73.7% 20.0%  26.3% 80.0%  203 produced i n the second h a l f o f the e a r l y stage. However, the l a s t microblade to be produced before microcore rejuvenation and the f i r s t microblade t o be produced a f t e r microcore rejuvenation are small, and resemble those produced at the beginning o f microcore reduction. The other three blades produced a f t e r successful microcore rejuvenation are large, and resemble those produced before rejuvenation. The f i n a l stage i n the multivariate analyses i s m u l t i p l e discriminant a n a l y s i s , used t o c l a s s i f y cases i n t o groups (dependent c a t e g o r i c a l variables) on the base o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n selected a t t r i b u t e s (independent metric variables) (Wilkinson 1988). Discriminant a n a l y s i s derives a l i n e a r combination o f the metric measurements f o r two or more v a r i a b l e s that best discriminates among the previously defined groups. This study applies the simultaneous method f o r computing the discriminant function, i n which a l l the independent v a r i a b l e s are considered concurrently (Wilkinson 1988). The raw data matrix s p e c i f i e s a grouping v a r i a b l e , stage, and the four discriminating v a r i a b l e s selected by f a c t o r a n a l y s i s : length, thickness, width, and platform width. Table 25 provides the r e s u l t s . Seventy-three per cent o f the e a r l y stage microblades and eighty percent o f the l a t e stage microblades are c l a s s i f i e d c o r r e c t l y , figures w e l l above the f i f t y percent p r i o r p r o b a b i l i t y o f accurate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Results Although these r e s u l t s indicate that microblades from the f i r s t h a l f of the e a r l y stage are d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from those i n the second h a l f o f the e a r l y stage, there i s no c l e a r c l u s t e r i n g o f e a r l y stage microblades and l a t e stage microblades. T h i s preliminary experimental research does indicate  204 seme d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among blades r e s u l t i n g from e a r l y and l a t e stages of production. The a t t r i b u t e s that appear t o vary i n the most p r e d i c t a b l e manner are: length, width, thickness and platform width, a l l r e l a t e d to o v e r a l l s i z e . However, as discussed above, microcore platform rejuvenation appears t o have s u b s t a n t i a l e f f e c t s on the v a r i a b i l i t y i n these a t t r i b u t e s . Microblades produced immediately before and a f t e r are the same s i z e as those produced i n the f i r s t h a l f of the e a r l y stage of production. As w e l l , these r e s u l t s do not conform t o the usual expectations f o r l i t h i c reduction, where the products of l a t e stage reduction tend t o be smaller than those from the e a r l y stage of reduction. This i s probably due t o the unique o u t l i n e shape of the wedge-shaped microcore, which i s deeper i n the middle than a t the d i s t a l end where blades would be removed i n the e a r l y stage. Although number of r i d g e scars, number of platform scars and v e n t r a l platform f l a k i n g angle a l s o vary, the v a r i a b i l i t y i s not d i r e c t and may a l s o be r e l a t e d to platform and f l u t i n g face rejuvenation. As the knapper commented, c o n t r o l over number of r i d g e scars and platform angle i s c r u c i a l f o r the successful production of microblades. The knapper attempted to maintain a f l a k i n g angle of 90degrees, and sets of two p a r a l l e l ridge scars. In addition, the s t r i k i n g platform was c o n t i n u a l l y roughened between blows, ensuring a minimal number of platform scars on each successful blade. These preliminary r e s u l t s are promising i n that i t may be p o s s i b l e to discriminate between stages of microblade removal before and a f t e r platform and f l u t i n g face rejuvenation. As w e l l , the high l e v e l of c o v a r i a t i o n of length, width and thickness of microblades  indicates that i t may be possible  to use only one of these a t t r i b u t e s , i n a d d i t i o n to s t r i k i n g platform width, as successful stage discriminators. However, these r e s u l t s are based on  205 a n a l y s i s of the products of the reduction o f a s i n g l e microcore by a r e l a t i v e l y inexperienced knapper. In addition, the e f f e c t s of raw m a t e r i a l type and the technique of microblade removal on v a r i a b i l i t y of the a t t r i b u t e s are unknown. The former i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y important f a c t o r f o r t h i s study, because the archaeological samples are composed o f b a s a l t and chert, and the experimental sample i s obsidian. As w e l l , other technological goals, such as production of microblades f o r h a f t i n g (Kelly 1984, Flenniken 1981) production f o r time e f f i c i e n c y (Arnold 1987), production f o r conservation of raw material (Arnold 1987), and production f o r trade (Hofrnan 1987) may have an e f f e c t on microblade a t t r i b u t e s . Although the researchers c i t e d above have hypothesized about the m a t e r i a l implications of v a r i a t i o n i n these technological goals, t o date no experimental r e p l i c a t i o n has been c a r r i e d out t o evaluate these hypotheses. A d d i t i o n a l r e p l i c a t i v e experiments, u t i l i z i n g the several manufacturing techniques described above and c a r r i e d out on various raw material types, and with d i f f e r e n t technological goals, are e s s e n t i a l t o the future construction of a manufacturing stage sequence f o r m i c r o l i t h i c technology. Although the intent of t h i s section was t o develop a manufacturing stage typology f o r microblades, the experimental r e p l i c a t i v e data are i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r the determination of a r e l i a b l e typology. Therefore, the archaeological sample of microblades i s not p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o manufacturing stages f o r the s i t e function p o r t i o n of the data a n a l y s i s . In addition, as already discussed, debitage from microcore preparation i s indistinguishable from debitage r e s u l t i n g from b i f a c i a l core preparation. However, some f l a k e s contain remnants of the f l u t i n g face, and these can be c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r microcore rejuvenation flakes o r microcore preparation f l a k e s (Areas  206 Associates 1983). Therefore, the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f m i c r o l i t h i c debitage f o r t h i s study i s confined t o the following: unused microblades, unused microcore preparation f l a k e s , and unused microcore rejuvenation f l a k e s . In a d d i t i o n , the experimental data are considered i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r the determination o f the presence o r absence of a complete  manufacturing  sequence.  Manufacturing Typology f o r Microcores This typology i s p r i m a r i l y judgmental and i s included here as a f i r s t step i n the experimental reproduction of a microcore reduction t r a j e c t o r y . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s based on consideration of several a t t r i b u t e s of microblades, discussed above, and comments by the knapper. Mthough the experimental r e p l i c a t i o n produced three microcores, the f i r s t two were shattered by attempts a t r i d g e scar preparation and were not analyzed. The t h i r d i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 17. In order t o produce microblades s u c c e s s f u l l y , the s t r i k i n g platform angle must approximate 90-degrees,  the  r i d g e scars must be s t r a i g h t , p a r a l l e l , and extend t o the base of the core, and the top of the core must be a t l e a s t 3 cm long and 2 cm wide (Kelly 1984). A schematic diagram o f a s u c c e s s f u l l y prepared microcore i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 21. During a n a l y s i s of the archaeological sample, each microcore and microcore fragment was measured, drawn t o scale, and described i n terms of platform angle, number of r i d g e scars, and maximum dimensions. In addition, the condition of the basal edge was noted, i n order t o assess whether the core had been placed i n a v i s e o r other type of holding device. The following stage typology was produced  (see Figure 22):  PROXIMAL END  STRIK PLATF ANGLf  DISTAL END  Figure 21. Microcore a t t r i b u t e s .  a  Figure 22. Microcore typology.  b  209 1. Blank (Figure  22-a)  This i s the f i r s t step of microcore preparation. The b a s i c o u t l i n e i s wedge-shaped and the s t r i k i n g platform i s present, although the s t r i k i n g platform angle i s not 90-degrees, and there are no r i d g e scars. Cortex remains on the d i s t a l end, t o be removed during f l u t i n g face preparation. There are no retouch scars on the basal edge, which may be cortex. 2. Reject (Figure  22-b)  This stage r e f e r s t o a microcore that has not been prepared s u c c e s s f u l l y for  microblade production. The b a s i c o u t l i n e s t i l l i s wedge-shaped. The  d i s t a l end lacks ridge scars, and i s often marred by large hinge scars. Although the platform may  s t i l l be a s u f f i c i e n t s i z e , removal of the hinge  scar and successful establishment of guiding ridges would reduce the platform too much. The basal edge has a few small step or feather scars. 3. V i a b l e (Figure  22-c)  A v i a b l e microcore r e t a i n s a s t r i k i n g platform angle of approximately 90degrees, a s u i t a b l e set of guiding ridge scars, and a s t r i k i n g platform of s u i t a b l e dimensions. The e n t i r e basal edge i s covered with step scars. 4.  Exhausted (Figure  22-d)  An exhausted microcore e x h i b i t s a t l e a s t the remnants of s u c c e s s f u l l y placed guiding ridges, a s t r i k i n g platform angle that i s considerably l e s s than 90-degrees, and a s t r i k i n g platform that would be too small i f the s t r i k i n g platform angle were corrected. The basal edge i s severely scarred, polished or crushed.  210 Tool Analysis  Introduction A major f a c t o r i n determining the type o f archaeological s i t e i s the a c t u a l function o f the t o o l s used a t the s i t e , and the range o f uses i n r e l a t i o n t o the number o f morphological types. Mthough some morphological t o o l types d i s p l a y a strong c o r r e l a t i o n with a p a r t i c u l a r use o r combination of uses, the majority o f types were probably used i n a v a r i e t y o f tasks (Vaughan 1985). Therefore, a more complete i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out a t each s i t e should be based on the r e s u l t s o f use-wear a n a l y s i s , i n conjunction with other types o f archaeological evidence. Binford's (1980) model predicted that r e s i d e n t i a l camps w i l l be the locus of the greatest number o f a c t i v i t i e s involving t o o l s ; f i e l d camps w i l l be used f o r a smaller number o f a c t i v i t i e s ; and stations w i l l contain the most l i m i t e d range o f a c t i v i t i e s . Chatters (1987) predicted that r e s i d e n t i a l camps w i l l contain a more diverse assemblage than f i e l d camps, that i s , a wider v a r i e t y o f morphological t o o l types f u l f i l l i n g a large number o f tasks. F i e l d camps should contain a smaller number o f morphological t o o l types used f o r a v a r i e t y o f tasks because o f the constraints placed on t o o l k i t s i z e by high m o b i l i t y . In order t o incorporate these p r e d i c t i o n s i n t o the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among the various s i t e types, which i s the ultimate goal of t h i s chapter, i t i s necessary t o determine f o r each s i t e the range and r e l a t i v e amounts o f a c t i v i t i e s performed with t o o l s and the proportion o f t o o l s which are s p e c i a l i z e d o r multi-purpose. The goal o f the t o o l analysis i n t h i s study i s determination o f the range of uses associated with the various t o o l types found i n the study s i t e s . In  211 order t o accomplish t h i s , t h i s study uses the Employable u n i t (ED) concept as developed by Knudson (1983) i n which each separate modified p o r t i o n of a t o o l i s coded i n d i v i d u a l l y . Knudson (1983:10) defined the ED as that implement segment or p o r t i o n (continuous edge o r projection) deemed appropriate f o r use i n performing a s p e c i f i c task, e.g. c u t t i n g , scraping, perforating, d r i l l i n g , chopping. The u n i t i s i d e n t i f i e d by deliberate retouch and/or post-production u t i l i z a t i o n modification, and i t s boundaries are defined subject t o the analyst's own conception of "habitual use". This approach enables the determination of the f u l l range of uses f o r each t o o l , and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of those t o o l s which were used f o r more than one purpose. No d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made between i n t e n t i o n a l retouch and u t i l i z a t i o n modification. In order t o be included, modification must be continuous f o r a minimum distance of 2 mm or two negative f l a k e scars. Figure 23 i l l u s t r a t e s an Employable Unit on a microblade.  A t t r i b u t e S e l e c t i o n and Recording Vaues f o r each a t t r i b u t e are derived from experimental r e p l i c a t i o n (Odell 1981; O d e l l and Odell-Vereecken 1980) which has p a r t i c u l a r relevance f o r t h i s study because l o c a l Cache Creek b a s a l t was used t o make the t o o l s . In a d d i t i o n , these studies reported a success r a t e o f approximately 70% f o r a c t i v i t y and 61% t o 68% f o r worked material, using low-power magnification (X10). A t t r i b u t e s were selected f o r t h e i r usefulness i n i n d i c a t i n g the motion used (e.g. scraping, cutting) and the nature of the worked material (e.g. s o f t , medium, hard). Table 26 provides the a t t r i b u t e s selected and values recorded f o r modification patterns which might be expected t o occur on the t o o l s analyzed. In a d d i t i o n t o the a t t r i b u t e s l i s t e d , two other a t t r i b u t e s were i n i t i a l l y recorded: extent of modification and thickness of the EU measured 2 mm  Figure 23. Employable u n i t on a microblade.  213 Table 26. A t t r i b u t e s and values recorded on Employable Units. Attribute  Value  P o s i t i o n of EU  Surface T i p / d i s t a l end Edge Base/proximal end Notch Uhifacial Bifacial Around t i p Oblique Perpendicular to edge P a r a l l e l t o edge P a r a l l e l t o long a x i s Perpendicular t o long a x i s Multidirectional Unknown Feather scars Hinge and step scars Striations Polish Crushing/pitting Snapping P o l i s h and feather scars Feather scars on one side, hinge and step scars on opposite s i d e Small ( v i s i b l e with hand lens X 0) Large ( v i s i b l e t o naked eye) Small and large Not applicable Acute (less than 45 degrees) Obtuse (more than 90 degrees) Steep (between 45 and 90 degrees) Not applicable  Placement o f modification D i r e c t i o n o f modification  Type of modification  S i z e of scars  Angle o f EU  214 from the t o o l edge. During the analysis o f the p i l o t study data, these a t t r i b u t e s were found t o be redundant f o r determining the function o f the ED, and were deleted from the remainder o f the study. The surfaces and edges o f a l l microblades, microblade fragments, and formed t o o l s were examined under low-power magnification (X10). A l l debitage which displayed some i n d i c a t i o n o f post-production modification, v i s i b l e without magnification, was examined under low-power magnification. Each modified segment o f the a r t i f a c t was coded separately. For example, a f l a k e with two modified edges and a modified t i p would be coded as having 3 ED's. M o d i f i c a t i o n was coded separately f o r each ED even i f the wear patterns were identical. Once each modified a r t i f a c t was coded, the ED's were assigned t o a category i n c l u d i n g motion and worked material, depending on the values o f the relevant a t t r i b u t e s . B a s i c a l l y , t h i s decision-making process followed the same sequence o f steps f o r each ED. F i r s t , the type o f motion used i n the a c t i v i t y was determined. This was done by considering: p o s i t i o n o f ED, placement o f modification, d i r e c t i o n o f modification, and angle o f ED. Table 27 provides a c o r r e l a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e values with motion (Odell 1981; Odell and Odell-Vereecken 1980). As an example, i f an ED on a f l a k e was coded as: p o s i t i o n o f ED placement o f modification d i r e c t i o n o f modification angle o f ED  edge bifacial oblique acute  then the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the motion used would be c u t t i n g . Second, the type o f m a t e r i a l worked by the a r t i f a c t was determined. The hardness o f the worked material i s a major f a c t o r i n analysis o f use-wear (Vaughan 1985). Experimental t e s t s involving stone t o o l s have demonstrated that v a r i a t i o n i n hardness o f the d i f f e r e n t worked materials i s correlated  215 Table 27. C o r r e l a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e values with notion. Attribute  Value  Motion  P o s i t i o n o f ED  Surface T i p / d i s t a l end Edge Base/proximal end Notch Dnifacial Bifacial Around t i p Oblique Perpendicular t o edge P a r a l l e l t o edge P a r a l l e l t o long axis Perpendicular t o long axis Multidirectional Unknown Acute Obtuse Steep Not applicable  Hammer Grave/bore/wedge Cut/scrape Cut/scrape/wedge Cut/scrape Scrape/hammer Cut Grave/bore/wedge Cut Scrape/cut/hammer Cut Grave/bore Grave/bore Grave/bore  Placement o f modification Direction of modification  Angle o f ED  Cut/grave/bore Scrape/wedge/chop Scrape Hammer  Table 28. C o r r e l a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e values with worked material. Attribute  Value  Worked M a t e r i a l  Type o f modification S i z e o f scars  Feather s c a r s / s t r i a t i o n s / p o l i s h  Soft  Type o f modification S i z e o f scars  Feather scars  Type o f modification S i z e o f scars  Hinge and step s c a r s / s t r i a t i o n s  Type o f modification Size o f scars  Hinge and step scars  Small/small/not applicable Soft-medium  Large Hard-medium  Small/large  Large  Hard  216 with v a r i a t i o n i n the s i z e and shape of the r e s u l t a n t scars (Tringham e t a l . 1974; O d e l l 1981; Odell and Odell-VereecXen 1980). The following categories of hardness are based on George O d e l l s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s (Odell 1981; O d e l l 1  and Odell-Vereecken 1980:101): s o f t : animal products such as meat, s k i n and f a t ; s o f t vegetal substances such as tubers, rhizomes, s t a l k s and leaves; soft-medium: s o f t woods, p a r t i c u l a r l y coniferous, and f i r m p l i a b l e substances such as f r e s h s t a l k s ; hard-medium: hard woods, soaked a n t l e r and f r e s h bone; hard: bone i n any state, dry a n t l e r , dry wood, carcass. A t t r i b u t e s considered f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the hardness of the worked material include type o f modification and s i z e of scars. Table 28 provides a c o r r e l a t i o n of a t t r i b u t e values with worked material. The coded values f o r these a t t r i b u t e s f o r every EO were examined and interpreted according t o Tables 30 and 31, and the EU was assigned t o the appropriate category. For example, an EU coded as: type o f m o d i f i c a t i o n s i z e o f scars  feather scars large  was interpreted as having been used on soft-medium worked material.  Employable Unit Typology The EU types were established by combining the two categories described above, motion and worked material. There are sixteen mutually exclusive types present i n the t o t a l study sample (Table 29). T h i s typology i s independent of t o o l morphology. In order t o c a l c u l a t e the number of s i n g l e purpose and multi-purpose t o o l s , the f u n c t i o n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r each EU i s determined. Those t o o l s with more than one function, that i s , more than one EU type, are designated as multi-purpose t o o l s . A t o o l with more than one EU, but a l l of the same type, i s c l a s s i f i e d as a single-purpose t o o l .  217 Table 29. Employable Unit  types.  EU Number  Motion  Worked M a t e r i a l  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  Grave/bore Grave/bore Grave/bore Scrape Cut Cut Cut Cut Scrape Scrape Scrape Wedge Hammer Grave/bore Chop Chop  Soft-medium Soft Hard-medium Soft-medium Soft-medium Hard Hard-medium Soft soft Hard-medium Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard Hard-medium  218 Table 30 provides frequency counts of the number o f each ED type present i n the study s i t e s . These f i g u r e s w i l l not mat