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Multicultural, multiracial leadership camps McDowell, Anne Joan 1990

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MULTICULTURAL, MULTIRACIAL LEADERSHIP CAMPS by ANNE JOAN MCDOWELL B.A., York University, 1984 B.Ed., The University of Toronto, 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1990 (c) Anne Joan McDowell In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of JA/ILA/JSJ^ JMIQIU^ ~ ^tki^uC&^U The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ii Abstract Few qualitative and quantitative studies of multicultural, multiracial leadership programs, or simply MLPs, have been undertaken. This qualitative study is based upon a case study methodology. A comparison of one school board's MLP with similar MLPs offered by other local boards of education is offered. A description and analysis of contemporary Canadian social, cultural, political, and linguistic diversity establishes the context in which these programs are set. A number of different definitions of terms associated with multiculturalism are discussed. Multiculturalism is based upon five general principles: (1) the retention and development of cultures, (2) the sharing of cultures, (3) the development of positive, equitable, and participatory individual and intergroup relations, (4) the respect and observance of human rights and civil liberties, and, (5) equality and equity. Education programs, policies and actions, including MLPs, are based upon some or all of the principles of multiculturalism. The design and implementation of these programs is symbolic of the furtherevolution of multicultural education from a systemic approach within education to a specific curriculum strategy. Within the thesis, a number of conclusions are reached. First, the full implementation of equality and equity within the Canadian society requires greater emphasis; policies, programs and actions which are designed to realize approach this ideal are mandatory. Second, greater access to government reports and materials is required. Third, the area of MLPs requires further investigation and analysis. Four, MLPs are based upon theory and field based strategies designed to increase tolerance, understanding, and acceptance of minority groups. Five, many MLPs share certain commonalities, but are modified according to individual school iii board needs and resources. Six, among the board level MLPs considered, the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp was highly influencial in the design and implementation of local school board camps. Seven, the MLP of the Board being studied requires modification; a number of models of multicultural leadership camps are offered as possible choices. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT 11 LIST OF TABLES vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Vlll INTRODUCTION 1 Rationale and Statement of Problem Purpose of Study Chapter 1, OVERVIEW 6 Introduction Overview of Multiculturalism in Canada, Ontario and Board A Definition of Terms Multicultural/Multiracial Leadership Camps Conclusion Introduction Federal Multicultural Policies, Programs and Actions Since 1971 Multiculturalism in Ontario Canadian Attitudes Toward Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education Conclusion 3. EXPLORING ANALYSES, APPROACHES AND MODELS OF MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION 74 Introduction Ouellet Gibson McLeod Magisino Global Education and Multicultural Education Conclusion 4. THEORIES OF PREJUDICE AND STRATEGIES TO INCREASE LEVELS OF TOLERANCE TOWARD ETHNOCULTURAL GROUPS 98 Introduction Theories of Prejudice Strategies to Increase Levels of Tolerance 2. MULTICULTURALISM AND MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION IN CANADA 39 Conclusion 5. BOARD AS MULTICULTURAL POLICY 125 Introduction The Development of Board As Multicultural Policy Board Levels Multicultural Education Policies Conclusion 6. THE ORIGINS, DEVELOPMENT AND DESCRIPTION OF THE ONTARIO MULTICULTURAL, MULTIRACIAL LEADERSHIP CAMP 154 Introduction The Origins of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp Introduction to the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp Program Objectives Participant Selection Process Organization Program Evaluation Conclusion 7. BOARD AS MULTICULTURAL LEADERSHIP PROGRAM 184 Introduction The Origins of the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program Administration The Development of the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program Rationale Objectives Student Selection Staff Selection Facilitator Training Multicultural Leadership Organization and Program Evaluation Home-School and Community Activities Resulting From the Multicultural Leadership Program Conclusion 8. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SCHOOL BOARD LEVEL MULTICULTURAL LEADERSHIP PROGRAMS 220 Introduction Residential Multicultural Leadership Programs Conclusion 9. CONCLUSIONS 261 v i APPENDICES 1. The Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp Daily Schedule 268 2. The 1982 Board A Multicultural Leadership Program Schedule 274 3. Board A Multicultural Leadership Program Test Instruments 286 4. Board A Multicultural Leadership Program Follow Up Activities 1980-1989 293 5. Eastern Ontario Multiracial, Multicultural Leadership Programme Questionnaires 299 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 311 vii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. 1983 Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp: Principals' Responses to the Institutional Impact Questionnaire (Eight Specific Aspects of School Life) 175 2. 1983 Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp: Principals' Responses to the Institutional Impact Questionnaire (Overall School Environment) 176 3. Changes in the Program Structure of Board A's MLP 186 4. Attendance at Board A's Multicultural Leadership Camp 1980-1990 196 5. Models of Multicultural Leadership Programs 221 viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to extend my appreciation and thanks to members of my Thesis Committee. Dr. V.R. D'Oyley and Dr. J. Kehoe, and especially Dr. K.A. McLeod for his suggestions and guidance. I also extend my thanks to the Coordinator and staff members of the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program and members of Board A's Administration for sharing their knowledge and insights. A number of other individuals helped me to gather multicultural and multicultural leadership camp information and resources. Dr. Burke, Special Advisor on Race and Ethnic Relations, Ontario Ministry of Education and Mr. Bryant, Special Projects Coordinator, Ontario Ministry of Education, both willingly gave their time and shared their expertise in the area of multicultural leadership camps; their assistance is most gratefully received and acknowledged. Introduction 1 Rationale and Statement of the Problem Verne (1987) observed that, "... [BJefore becoming an education programme, multiculturalism was a fact".1 Since its founding by the Aboriginal people through the 1990s, Canada has been characterized by its multicultural, multilingual, multiracial, and multireligious nature.2 Through investigation of many statements defining and describing multiculturalism, its fundamental principles may be summarized.3 First, multiculturalism is based upon the observance and respect of human and civil rights. Second, multiculturalism includes equality. Third, multiculturalism is based upon the retention and development of cultures. Fourth, the sharing of cultures is to be promoted. Fifth, positive individual and intergroup relations based upon equitable and fair access and participation in society. All of these principals are fundamental aspects of multiculturalism. Education programs have been established upon Canada's sociocultural and political realities of multiculturalism. Many educators desire the the systemic permeation of principles of multiculturalism within Canadian society;4 in some cases, members of educational systems 'Keith A. McLeod," Multicultural Education Policies: A Critical Analysis," in Multicultural Education (V&ris. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 1987), 54. 2Report ofthe Standing Committee on Multiculturalism, by Gus Mitges, Chairman (Ottawa: House of Commons, 1987), 13. 3See House of Commons, Debates. October 1971,8546; Statues of Canada, 1988, C 93; Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education, "Multicultural Education in Canada: Future Needs and ." (Toronto: CCMIE Library, 1982), 2, photocopied. ^Keith A. McLeod," Multicultural Education: A Decade of Development," in Education have created, implemented and revised multicultural education policies and programs which may include some or all of the above mentioned tenets. One of these, which is an extracurricular program and, in some instances, either a component of a board level multicultural policy and/or an established curricula, is multicultural leadership camps. In this thesis, I will investigate multiculturalism within an international, national, provincial and local board contexts. Purpose of the Study The area of MLPs comprises one aspect of multiculturalism in which few qualitative and quantitative studies have been conducted.^  This dissertation is a qualitative analysis of an urban school board's multicultural leadership program. In adopting a qualitative approach, I considered at two factors. First, I investigated and reviewed the available information. Second, I studied possible methodological approaches which would be suitable based upon this information. Since 1971, multiculturalism has been promoted in Canada. Research in the area multiculturalism and its subsidiary components has been undertaken and has become more readily available since this time. In and Canadian Pluralism: Some Problems and Some Solutions, ed. Daniel Dortich ( Saskatchewan: Canadian Society for the Study of Education, 1981), 18-19. 5Mavis Burke," The Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp: A Residential Learning Experience," Multiculturalism 6, no. 1 (1982): 21-24; Inez Elliston and Trevour Ludski, "Guidelines for Training Students in Race Relations," in Intercultural Education: Programmes and Methods ed, R.J. Samuda. and S.L. Kong (Kingston, Ontario: Intercultural Social Sciences Publication, Inc., 1986), 247-59, Robert Harrison, Implementing Multiculturalism Through Leadership Camps," in Intercultural Education: Programmes and Methods ed, R.J. Samuda and S.L. Kong (Kingston, Ontario: Intercultural Social Sciences Publication, Inc., 1986), 235-45; Theo Megalokonomos, "Evaluation of Eastern Ontario Multiracial, Multicultural Leadership Programme' (Ottawa: Ottawa Board of Education, 1984). setting a context in which to place a specific program, abundant resources have been available. The records within the Board of Education I was to study, however, were minimal. Following Anisef s (1986) recommendation,^  I developed an "eclectic approach" and utilized numerous information sources. Through the available literature base, I developed a broad framework in which I would be able to set the Policy and multicultural leadership program, hereafter referred to as the MLP, of the Board being studied. I established a context in which to investigate and analyze these aspects of the Board in a variety of ways. First, I conducted interviews with individuals responsible for the development of Board As multicultural policy, or simply, the Policy; I also interviewed MLP administrators and participants from various local school boards. Second, I investigated and analyzed the existing primary and secondary literature base. I studied the records and handbook of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp, an evaluation of the Ottawa Board of Education Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp and the existing assessment records of the Board being studied. I also examined and analyzed local board of education multicultural leadership handbooks and multicultural policies. Third, I participated in Board As MLP planning meetings as well as the three Multicultural Leadership Camp sessions held during the 1989-1990 academic year. Through this diverse approach, I developed a broad context in which to set Board A's MLP and their Policy and to investigate various aspects of the program itself. fyPaul Ansief et al. Models and Methodologies Appropriate to the Study of Outcomes of Schooling in Ontario s Multicultural Society (Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Education, 1986), 107. 4 As minimal research of multicultural leadership programs exists, any study has the potential to enrich the available literature base. Given the available information, I reviewed a number of methodological approaches applicable to educational research and to this specific context. After considering the available data and literature base, I chose a case study as a viable methodological approach. Yin (1989) offers a "technical" definition of a case study and defines this methodology as, ... an empirical inquiry that: - investigates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context; when - the boundaries between the phenomenon and context are not clearly evident; and in which - multiple sources of evidence are used.7 First, this study is empirical as it investigates a real life contemporary policy. Board A's Policy and Multicultural Leadership Program. Second, an unclear relationship between the MLP's creation and its implementation exists. Third, I draw upon multiple sources of information. Through this multidisciplinary, multifaceted approach, a case study methodology provides the framework for this study. Case studies offer the opportunity to study one case intensively, however, any findings are limited in their ability to generalize beyond the specific program under study. Therefore, the findings and conclusions are limited to that of the Board of Education being studied. 7 Robert K. Yin, Case Study Research: Design and Methods rev. ed.. Applied Social Science Research Series (Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, 1989), 23. Multicultural leadership programs are, in some cases, policy, extracurricular activities, and an actual curriculum. In this investigation and analysis, I employed a multifaceted approach of the specific case of one school board. I utilized a variety of primary and secondary resources. Through the case study methodology, I offer an investigation of multicultural policies, programs and actions in Canada, Ontario and Board A. I investigate and analyze multicultural education and its affiliated concepts. I also offer a comparison of MLPs across a variety of school boards. Nevertheless the findings reached refer only to this Board. Chapter 1 Overview 6 Introduction To establish a contextual background for this dissertation, I investigate four areas in this chapter. First, I explore the historical background of official and non-official federal policies and actions toward ethnic, cultural and linguistic diversity in Canada. This exploration provides the background to current federal multicultural policies. Second, I investigate and analyze ethnocultural diversity of Ontario and in the Board of Education being studied. Together, these two elements provide a context in which to place local multicultural and multicultural education policies and practices. Third, I investigate and analyze definitions of multiculturalism and its subsidiary concepts which are offered from a variety of perspectives. This review of definitions establishes a common parlance for the purposes of this study. Fourth, I introduce the residential secondary school multicultural leadership camp of the Board being studied. Through these four components, I build the foundation for this dissertation. 7 Overview of Multiculturalism in Canada. Ontario and Board A Historical Background of Multiculturalism in Canada Since its founding by the first Canadians, the Aboriginal People, Canada has been multicultural, multiethinic, multiracial, and multilingual. Throughout the nation's history, the federal government has designed and implemented official and non-official policies and actions toward some of Canada's ethnic, cultural and racial groups. Objectives of these policies ranged from extermination, to assimilation, to tolerance. For example, Canadians were responsible for the extinction of the Beothuk, an Aboriginal group who lived in Newfoundland. Since the defeat of the French by the British in the 1700s, the central government has attempted to assimilate the French Canadian population. Prime Minister King practised discrimination when his government obstructed the immigration of Jews, Asiatic and "colored" persons to Canada.1 More recently, however, the federal government has supported increased tolerance, understanding and acceptance of cultural, ethnic, racial, and linguistic diversity. A number of legislative acts including the Bill of Human Rights(1960). the Official Languages Act (1969), the Canadian Constitution (1982), and the Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988) are examples of the Canadian government's commitment to the promotion of human rights and multiculturalism. 1 Report of the Standing Committee on Multiculturalism by Gus Mitges, Chairman (Ottawa: House of Commons. 1987), 13. 8 Demographic Diversity in Ontario and Board A Ontario A wide range of ethnocultural groups comprise Ontario's population. Current demographic data and immigration statistics offer insight into future patterns of this demographic reality. For example, in 1986, 49,630 individuals born in over twenty-dive different countries immigrated to Ontario. Of these immigrants, 40.45% or approximately 20,075 persons communicated in non-official languages.2 While these figures are based upon a single year, they are symbolic of the more recent patterns of immigration which, in turn, effect the ethnocultural composition of the province. Board A The population of the educational jurisdiction being studied is multilingual, multicultural, multiracial, and multireligious. Local data collected within the board catchment area substantiate this claim. For example, between 1971 and 1986, the percentage of persons who conduct their daily activities in non-official language mother tongues increased twenty point six percent to twenty-five point seven percent. Therefore, based upon 1986 data, approximately 26,570 persons in the Board conducted their daily lives in non-official language mother tongues. While order of ranking of non-official mother tongues varies from year 20ntario Ministry of Citizenship.Immigrant Landings to Ontario, January 1 to December 31.1986 (Toronto: Ethnocultural Data Base. Ontario Ministry of Citizenship, 1988), 1-2. 9 to year, the most common mother tongues are Greek, Chinese and Italian.3 Between 19S6 and 1989, the number of immigrant students enrolled in the Board's public school system increased three-fold, from 271 in 1986 to 976 in 1988.4 Finally, the most recent data regarding religious preference, which was collected in 1981, indicates that though the majority of persons were either Protestant (47.6%) or Catholic (26.5%). Other religious affiliations indicated included the Eastern Orthodox (10.0%) or the Eastern Non-Orthodox (4.8%).5 Those who indicated no religious affiliation totalled ten point three percent. Based upon this data, approximately one half of the total population were affiliated with Protestantism, one quarter were affiliated Catholicism and one quarter were affiliated with other religious groups.6 This data collected within the educational jurisdiction being studied are indicative of the multicultural, multilingual, multireligious character of the Board's population. Review Historically, the governments of Canada have adopted a variety of official and non-official polices and actions toward cultural, ethnic, linguistic, racial and religious diversity. Recently, the federal government has promoted the tolerance, understanding and acceptance of these national characteristics. This change in policies, programs and actions may be, in part, a result of the increasing ethnocultural I^nformation Systems Department, A Place Called (a..p.. n.p., 1989), 95-4Ibid., 59. 5lbid., 171. 6Ibid., i. 1 0 diversity which are exemplified in the demographic data collected in Ontario and the educational jurisdiction being studied. Definition of Terms Overview Experts in their respective fields, anthropologists, psychologists, sociologists, educators, and civil servants for example, offer unique interpretative definitions of identical words. Consequently, a lack of clarity regarding concepts associated with both multiculturalism and multicultural education exists.7 In the following investigation and analysis, I offer a series of definitions and explanations of terms utilized in this thesis. The terms I define include: multiculturalism and multicultural education, culture, human rights, equality, prejudice, discrimination, stereotype, ethnic group, and race. Multiculturalism Definitions of multiculturalism are offered through organizations and by individuals; each definition which is tendered relates a particular perspective and may emphasize a particular aspect. When the key elements of each definition are combined, a more comprehensive understanding of the multiculturalism results. 7Margaret A. Gibson," Approaches to Multicultural Education in the United States: Some Conceptions and Assumptions," Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 7, no. 3 (1976). 14. 1 1 Burnet (1985), an Ontarian educator and sociologist, defines Canadian multiculturalism. The term is used in at least 3 [sic] senses: to refer to a society that is characterized by ethnic and cultural heterogeneity, to refer to an ideal of equality and mutual respect among a population's ethnic or cultural groups; and to refer to a policy proclaimed by the federal government in 1971 and subsequently by a number of provinces.8 Burnet (1985) incorporates three fundamental aspects within her explanation. First, she acknowledges Canada's historical and contemporary social, cultural, economic and political realities. Second, she notes two of nation's ideals, namely equality and mutual respect. Third, Burnet refers to the federal multiculturalism policy statement of 1971 and to multicultural policies passed by the provinces of Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and, Saskatchewan.9 While Burnet (1985) accurately, but narrowly, defines Canadian multiculturalism, her reference to the ideals and underlying tenets of multiculturalism is minimal. A fuller explanation of the ideals and tenets of multiculturalism is offered by the membership of the Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education, hereafter referred to as the CCMIE. As a nationally representative organization, members of the CCMIE define and explain multiculturalism in the following manner. *The(knadianEncycJopedia(lAmon\aii. Hurtig Publishers, 1985), s.v. "Multiculturalism," by Jean Burnet. 9See Sandra Davis, "Multiculturalism in Canada," B.C. Music Educator, 29, no.3 (1986), 20-27. 12 Multiculturalism fosters a society and a Canadian identity in which people of all cultures are accepted. Multiculturalism promotes human and group relations in which ethnic, racial, religious and linguistic similarities and differences are valued and respected. The principles or tenets that are inherent in Multiculturalism are: 1) Equality of status of all cultural and ethnic groups within the framework of our officially bilingual country. 2) The freedom of all individuals and groups to the retention and development of their cultures as part of the Canadian identity. 3) Equality of access by all individuals and groups to employment and promotion, services and support. 4) A commitment to sharing our cultures within the mainstream of Canadian society. 5) An undertaking to participate in Canadian citizenship and the democratic process in terms of both rights and responsibilities. 6) A belief that individuals have the freedom to choose the particular cultural attributes they prefer within the framework of our democratic principles. 7) Respect for and observance of human rights and civil liberties as exemplified in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the common law, and human rights codes. Multiculturalism includes all Canadians and is for all Canadians^ 0 This detailed definition and its accompanying tenets provide a deeper level of understanding of the term and its implications which supplements Burnet's (1985) definition. Nonetheless, McLeod (1985) highlights another attribute of multiculturalism, namely its dynamic, evolutionary quality. 10Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education, "Multicultural Education in Canada: Future Needs and Possibilities, Draft Discussion Paper, 1982" [photocopy], p. 2, CCMIE Library, Toronto. 13 Multiculturalism is adynamic philosophy... [which] concentrates on the here and now, and on the existence of cultural pluralism and positive human and inter-group relations; however.it clearly implies that cultural diversity is also a positive ethic for the future. It does not establish a doctrinaire definition of cultural diversity, but leaves that, appropriately, to the interface between the present and the future. Thus, to reiterate, multiculturalism takes into account the possible cultural dynamics of the future as well as the present.11 This analysis supplements both Burnet's (1985) and the CCMIE's (1982) explanations of multiculturalism by contributing the evolutionary aspect to the concept. Finally, as this dissertation centers upon Ontario, the provincial governments policy of multiculturalism requires consideration. In 1977. Premier Davis publicly proclaimed Ontario's Race Relations Policy (1977). McLeod (1985) summarizes Ontario's multiculturalism policy. ... the commitment in Ontario to multiculturalism within a bilingual framework can be summed up as: a commitment to equality, anti-discrimination, and human rights; cultural retention and sharing; and access and participation. As stated by the Premier, these three key areas were directly related to three other commitments: Canadian identity, citizenship and individual choice.12 Ontario's multiculturalism policy bears a strong similarity to the CCMIE's definition and principles of multiculturalism. Each of these five definitions of multiculturalism overlap to a greater or lesser degree. Each also exhibits specific strengths. Combining the fundamental components of each definition together provides a more complete understanding of the term. Thus, multiculturalism refers to the developing Canadian social, cultural, economic, and political patterns and realities, to an evolving ideal, and to the tenets of: (a) human rights, 1 'Keith A. McLeod, "Multiculturalism and Ontario," in Two Hundred Years Living Together (Toronto: Ministry of Citizenship and Culture, 1985). 94. 12Ibid., 101-2. 1 4 equality, anti-discrimination, (b) cultural retention and sharing and, (c) access and participation. Multicultural Education In Canada, the writers of the Canada Act (1867) granted the responsibility for education to the individual provincial governments. Therefore, while the federal government passes national multicultural policies, the provincial policies and practices may not necessarily reflect those of the federal government; the provinces may or may not choose to respond federal multicultural initiatives in the form of multicultural education. Nonetheless, the Government of Ontario has responded positively to the federal multicultural policies and actions and has implemented multicultural education. The CCMIE offers a definition of Canadian multicultural education in their Draft Discussion Paper. Multicultural and Intercultural Education is an approach to schooling that reflects the historical, demographic, and cultural realities of Canada; its goal is full Canadian citizenship. As a philosophy or ethic, it is concerned with ensuring equality of educational opportunity and achievement and, ultimately, with creating an aware, complete human being with a global view of life; people who respect and promote cultural and linguistic diversity, human rights, social equality, and ethnic racial and religious tolerance. Pluralism and national cohesiveness, human rights and mutual respect are cornerstones of our free and democratic society.13 1 Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education, "Multicultural Education in Canada: Future Needs and Possibilities, Draft Discussion Paper, 1982" [photocopy], p. 2. CCMIE Library, Toronto. 15 This definition incorporates a number of fundamental aspects, some of which are reminiscent of the CCMIE's definition of multiculturalism. These include the following: (1) recognition of Canada's multicultural reality; (2) acknowledgement of the role of Canadian citizenship; (3) emphasis upon basic human rights and civil liberties, including equality; (4) an emphasis upon tolerance and respect of cultural, ethnic, racial, and linguistic diversity; and, (5) reference to a global awareness. (I will examine this aspect further in Chapter Three when I examine the link between global and multicultural education.) When combined together, these attributes of the CCMIE's definition create a comprehensive nationally based definition of multicultural education. As previously noted, education is a provincial responsibility and all provinces do not hold the same understanding. For example, d'Anglejan and De Koninck (n.d.) note that the government of Quebec has distanced itself from the federal policies of multiculturalism. This provincial government has created a new social policy which is panelled in their educational policies and practices. A prime objective of this social policy is to assist the converge of ethnic minorities within Quebec through the promotion of diversity within the rubric of French-Canadian culture and language. In turn, educators have adopted intercultural education, as distinct from multicultural education. Intercultural education is similar to the social policy of promotion of ethnic, racial, cultural, and linguistic diversity within the French-Canadian milieu. The intercultural education model, however, has been designed, but has not yet not fully implemented.14 As this dissertation focuses upon Ontario, I 14Alison d'Anglejan and Zita De Koninck," Educational Policy for a Culturally Plural Quebec," in Innovative Multicultural Teaching, ed. Stan Shapson and Vincent R. 1 6 respect d'Anglejan and De Konincks (n.d.) distinction between multicultural and intercultural education and will refer only to multicultural education as defined by the Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education. At this point, I wish to note that the Ontario Ministry of Education promotes linguistic diversity through the Ontario Heritage Languages Program (1977). Two other documents, namely, The Formative Years (1975) and Ontario Schools: Intermediate and Senior Divisions (1984, 1989) include several references to the goals of multicultural education as articulated my members of the CCMIE. The Ontario Ministry of Education first acknowledged multicultural education in The Formative Years (1975) which affects the primary school years. Stated objectives which are similar to the goals stated by the CCMIE include the following. The child in the Primary and Junior Divisions • i l l be given opportunities to: ... Begin to develop a personal value system within the context that reflects the priorities of a concerned society and at the same time recognizes the integrity of the individual - become aware of the values that Canadians regard as essential to the well-being and continuing development of Canadian society ~ namely, respect for the individual, concern for others, social responsibility, compassion, honesty, and the acceptance of work, thought, and leisure as valid pursuits for human beings;... Understand social relationships at a level appropriate to his or her stage of development... - develop self-respect, respect for the rights of others, and respect for the rule of law; D'Oyley (Toronto: Kegan and Woo, n.d), 9. 1 7 - appreciate the development of civilization through the ages and understand and respect customs, institutions, and the historical background of diverse social groups and communities; Acquire a reasoned knowledge of and pride in Canada - become familiar with the geography and culture of the community, the province, and the country; - develop an awareness of law and government, and of the rights and duties of Canadian citizens; - become familiar with the historical development of the community and, at appropriate levels, of the province and the country; - develop and retain a personal identity by becoming acquainted with the historical roots of the community and culture of his or her own origin and by developing a sense of continuity with the past; - begin to understand and appreciate the points of view of other ethnic and cultural groups other than his or her own.'5 Principles which underlie these goals and objectives include: (1) an approach to education which reflects the historical, demographic, and cultural realities of Canada; (2) the development of a sense of Canadian citizenship; (3) the development of an aware, complete human being with a global view of life;, (4) the promotion of respect for cultural and linguistic diversity, human rights, social equality, and ethnic racial and religious tolerance. These aspects are parallel to those proposed by the CCMIE in their definition of multicultural education. Again, it is important to note two aspects of multicultural education as specified within The Formative Years First, the notion of equality of achievement and equity is notably absent. Second, reference to racial diversity is notably absent. 15n,ntario Ministry of Education, TheFormative Years (Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Education, 1975), 20-23. 1 6 Subsequently, multicultural education formed a central aspect of Ontario Intermediate and Senior Divisions (1989) or simply OSIS (1989). For example, in OSIS (1989), the Ministry, ... requirels] the schools to help prepare all students to live in this multicultural multiracial society and in an increasingly interdependent world. It is essential that every individual, regardless of his/her colour, race, religion, age, or sex, have the right to equal educational opportunity and to personal dignity and respect... Programs in the Intermediate and Senior Divisions should build on the educational goals stated in The Formative Years. In fulfilling these goals, schools will provide educational programs and services that will assist and encourage students to: - develop and maintain confidence and a sense of self-worth: - develop and retain a personal identity by becoming acquainted with the historical roots of the community and culture of their origin and by developing a sense of continuity with the past; - begin to understand and appreciate the points of view of ethnic and cultural groups other than his or her own; - develop and understanding of such concepts as community, conflict, culture, and interdependence; - develop the skills and knowledge necessary to understand and deal with prejudice, discrimination, and other forms of racism; - learn the social skills and attitudes on which effective and responsible co-operation and participation depend. The goals of multiculturalism and the principles set out above should be integrates into the educational process. These objectives should permeate the schools curriculum, policies, teaching methods and materials, courses of study, and assessment and testing procedures, as well as the attitudes and expectations of its staff and their interaction with students, parents, and the community.16 OSIS (1987) omits the principle of equality of achievement, and reference to racial diversity. However, the implications for Ontario students of minority backgrounds who are affected by the absence of equality of achievement in this document and The Formative Years (1975) appear are manifested in a number of inequitable practices. •^ Ontario Ministry of Education, Ontario Schools: Intermediate and Senior Divisions (Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Education, 1989), 9. 1 9 These include streaming of some minority groups into vocational programs and underachievement of some members of these groups. To be fair, some policies and programs have been designed and implemented to address these inequitable practices. These include local school board multicultural policies and programs.17 Regardless of these limitations, OS IS (1989) includes references to similar principles stated in The Formative Years (1975) as well as in the Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education's definition of multicultural education. Based upon these similarities among The Formative YearsiW)), OSIS (1989), and the CCMIE's definition of multicultural education, the CCMIE's definition of multicultural education will be accepted as a standard definition in the context of this thesis. Culture Archaeologists, anthropologists, psychologists and other professionals articulate a variety of interpretations of culture. Drawing upon a variety of these perspectives, I offer the following investigation of culture. Recently, the concept of "culture" as applicable within the context of multiculturalism has acquired a renewed public interest. However, one of the first definitions dates from the 1800s when the archaeologist Sir Edmund Taylor offered one of the first definitions of this term. Taylor described culture in the following manner. 17See for example. Board A, Policy (n.p.: n.p., 1988), 18,28. 20 "... Taken in its wide ethnographic sense"... [culture is] "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of a society" 1 8 In his encompassing explanation, Taylor recognizes the importance of knowledge and custom which Cashmore (1987) expands upon in his definition of culture. Cashmore (1987) describes culture as a combination of, ... systems of meaning and custom that are blurred at the edges. Nor are they usually stable. As individuals come to terms with changing circumstances (such as new technology) so they change their ways and shared meanings change with them.19 Building upon Taylor's definition, Cashmore (1987) highlights the impact of changing institutional and social conditions. The resultant effects of change upon culture is that any specific culture, at any given time, is in a state of fluctuation and evolution. Later in his explanation, Cashmore (1987) also explores the relationship between culture and multicultural education and observes that. 18As quoted in E.E. Cashmore, ed. Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987), 65. Also see: R.J. Corsini, ed. Encyclopaedia of Psychology (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1984) s.v. "Culture," by R.J. Corsini; GM. Mitchell, ed. A New Dictionary of Sociology (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979), s.v. "Culture" by JJR. Fox; C. Seymour-Smith, ed. MacMillan Dictionary of Anthropology (London. The MacMillan Press, Ltd., 1986), 65-6. ,9E.E. Cashmore, Race and Ethnic Relations^. 21 the use of culture in this connotation [of multicultural education] is questionable since advanced technology is so readily identified with the First World, the west.... It might be better to talk of education for cultural diversity were it not so difficult to know how much diversity is desired and how much is desired in comparison with the traditional educational aims of literacy and numerate.20 In his explanation, the Cashmore addresses the two concerns. First, he acknowledges the concern with perceiving and presenting the culture of the West as being superior to other cultures. Second, the author articulates the concern regarding the degree of cultural diversity desired in the education system. Third, he queries the relationship between cultural diversity and the goals of basic literacy and numeracy. Both of these issues are implicit to many of the models of multicultural education proposed by many theoreticians. (See Chapter Three.) While the issues of degree of cultural diversity desired and the relationship between cultural diversity and basic goals of education remain unresolved, culture can be defined as a system of ways of being, meaning, and custom; these systems are unique to a specific group of persons and are in a constant state of evolution. Human Rights McLeod (1989) proposes that human rights and human rights education are fundamental aspects of multiculturalism and multicultural education in Canada. He supports his argument by noting that multicultural education has heightened awareness, sensitivity and observance of human rights, that human rights establish parameters 20lbid.. 66. 22 upon cultural diversity, and that multiculturalism implies the observance and respect of group or collective rights.21 Human rights are implicit components of multiculturalism and multicultural education. Therefore, I offer the following comparison of human rights supported by international organizations and by Canada's and Ontario's governments. Throughout history, people have attempted to define and to explain basic human rights. For example, The Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789) and the American Declaration of Independence (1776) are two documents which attempted to codify these rights. More recently, members of the United Nations wrote the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). This document refers to the international recognition of the basic human rights; these can be subdivided into the categories of equality, rights, and freedoms. All persons are to be entitled to be equal in terms of dignity and rights and before and under the law. All persons are to be entitled to the following rights, namely: to a nationality; to participate in the government of his or her own country; to own property; to an adequate standard of living; to education; to work; to rest and leisure; and, to participate the cultural life of his or her own community. All persons are entitled to the following freedoms : of thought, conscience and religion; of opinion and expression; of peaceful assembly and association; of life, liberty, happiness and security of the individual; of movement and residence; from bondage; from inhumane, degrading treatment; from 2 1 Keith A. McLeod," Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education in Canada: Human Rights and Human Rights Education, 1990'' [photocopy], p.p. 1-2, Faculty of Education, University of Toronto, Toronto. 23 discrimination. Finally, all persons have a duty to the community to ensure these rights and freedoms.22 A this point, it is important to note that the existence of this and other documents which delineate specific human rights does not necessarily lead to their respect and observance. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982) and the Ontario Human Rights Code (1961) include a number of human rights which are specified in the United Nations' Declaration. All three documents acknowledge (a) equality in dignity and rights, (b) freedom from discrimination; (c) the right to life, liberty and security of person; (d) equality before and under the law and, (e) the fundamental freedoms of freedom of the press, assembly, thought, conscience and religion, privacy in the home and in personal life.23 Moreover, other rights are enshrined in the Canadian Charter (1982). These include: (a) minority language educational rights; (b) the unique rights of Canada's Aboriginal people; and, (c) minimum rights which recognizes that both the federal and the provincial governments may add to constitutionally stated rights.24 At this point, it is important to observe that the aspect of race is implicit to the concept of discrimination as articulated by both the United Nations, by the Canadian Federal Government and by the Ontario Provincial Government. This element has been absent from definitions 22United Nations, "Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948," in Basic Documents on Human Rights 2nd. ed., ed. J. Brownlie (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980,21-27. 23See M. Stobart," The Council of Europe: Human Rights and Education," Multiculturalism 10, no. 1 (1986), 3. H. Starkey," Defining a Human Rights Curriculum," Multiculturalism,, 10, no. 1,8-9. 24See G. Howard, A Guide to the "Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms" (Windsor, Ontario: Community Law Program, Faculty of Law, University of Windsor, 1982). 24 which deal with aspects of human rights, namely, multiculturalism and multicultural education. Nevertheless, the basis of human rights has been laid in the precedents set in common and civil law, in international declarations, and in the Canadian sense of social justice. Furthermore, similarities exist among the rights acknowledged in the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) the Canadian Charter of Rights(19%2), and the Ontario Human Rights Cooe(l96l). As the right to equality has been extensively analyzed, it requires a separate investigation and analysis. Equality Ideally, equality is equity 25 This maxim maintains that the available resources ought to be allotted to ensure fairness, even if the allotment is unequal. Many analysts ignore this maxim and dissect the concept of equality into distinct categories. I propose that this type of analysis ignores the issue's central point, equity. Lessard (1987) subdivides and identifies three types of equality, namely: equality of access, equality of treatment and equality of outcome. He explains each of these categories. 25p.V. Baker and P. St. J. Langan," Maxims of Equity" chap, in Snell's Principles of Equality, 28th ed., (London: Sweet and Maxwell Ltd., 1982), 28. 25 Equality of opportunity or access to formal educational structures and services means that all individuals, regardless of sex, race, religion, or social class, should have equal opportunity of access to education. Equality of educational treatment or equality within education requires that schools offer programs and use teaching procedures which respond to the expectations, needs, and culture of diverse groups and be sufficiently flexible in structure of facilitate the learning of all individuals regardless of their intellectual, social, or cultural heritage .... The third meaning of equal educational opportunity focuses on equality of results of outcomes. This concept holds that school systems should compensate for the physical, intellectual, and socio-economic handicaps that individuals bring to their schooling. Compensation would ensure that everyone in the system gets what is needed to function, contribute, and compete in the adult world.26 While Lessard (1987) refers to equality in the context of education, his delineation among equality of opportunity, treatment and outcome is also applicable to wider cultural, racial, social, economic, political domains. Singh (1977) observes that equality of opportunity as articulated in government policies and practices was intended to lead to equality of outcome. He proposes that this premise is faulty.27 Perhaps in response to the realization that equality of opportunity does not lead to equality of outcome, equality rights were carefully specified within the Constitution of Canada.. (1982). While Section 15(1) refers to equality before and under the law without discrimination, 15(2) permits the existence of affirmative action programs which is contrary to the preceding 26Claude Lessard,: Equality and Inequity in Canadian Education," in Social Change and Education in Cknadaed, Rita Ghosh and Douglas Ray, (Toronto: Harcourt Brace and Jovanovich, 1987), 185. See Leslie Savage," Equality and Excellence in Educational Discourse: The Case of British Columbia," Policy Explorations 3. no. 3 (1988), 9-18. 2 7 Amar jit Singh," Multiculturalism, Equality, and Schooling in Contemporary Societies," The Morning Watch, 4, no. 3 (1977), 13. See Romulo Magisino," Students Rights in Canada: Nonsense on Stilts?" in Children s Rights; Legal and Educational Issues ed. Heather Berkeley etal.(Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1975), 89-107;Karen Mazurek,: Multiculturalism, Education and the Ideology of Meritocracy," in ed. Terry Wotherspoon (Toronto: Methuen, 1987), 141. 26 clause.28 Equality is a basic human right. Theoreticians have interpreted the concept in three ways, namely, equality of opportunity, equality of treatment and equality of outcome. Governments have legislated equality of opportunity and have attempted to provide groups which have experienced discrimination with programs to address inequitable practices. Equality, however, can only be legally assured in the form of equality of opportunity and equalization of opportunity. Prejudice One of the essential objectives inherent in multiculturalism and multicultural education is the countering of prejudice. It is essential to realize that prejudice can be either negative or positive. In the following definition, Woodland (1979), a sociologist, recognizes both negative and positive forms. [Prejudice is] ...an unfavourable or favourable attitude towards a group which may, or may not, lead to overt hostile (or friendly) action.... An even narrower definition restricts the term to an attitude which is not justified by reality 2^ While the connotation of prejudice is generally negative, it is important to be aware of both types of prejudice. In The Nature of Prejudice (1954), Gordon Allport, a social psychologist, investigates a number of definitions of prejudice and describes a number of its fundamental characteristics. First, he describes the relationship between prejudgments and prejudices. 28Howard, A Guide, 29-34. 29G.D. Mitchell ed., A New Dictionaryo/'Sociology, (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1979), s.v. "Prejudice," by D.J.A. Woodland. 27 According to Allport (1954), prejudgments become prejudices only when the latter remains unaltered when the individual is exposed to new information. Second, he notes that an individual or group may be prejudiced in favour or against another individual, group, or concept. Third, the author acknowledges prejudice's positive and negative manifestations. Fourth, Allport (1954) describes a behavioral hierarchy of manifestations of negative prejudice.30 Based upon his extensive research, Allport (1954) defines ethnic prejudice in the following manner. Ethnic prejudice is an antipathy based upon faulty and inflexible generalization. It may be felt or expressed. It may be directed toward a group as a whole . or toward an individual because he is a member of that group.31 Based on the negative context of prejudice, Allport (1954) observes the cognitive, behavioral, and affective components of prejudice and identifies both prejudice against an individual and a group. Drawing upon her work with elementary school children, Aboud (1988), a Canadian psychologist, offers the following definition of prejudice. Prejudice refers to an organizational predisposition to respond in an unfavourable manner toward people from an ethnic group because of their ethnic affiliation. Thus, in addition to making unfavourable or negative judgments, a person must possess two other features if he or she is to be called prejudiced. One is an underlying predisposition to feel negatively toward such people. Another is that the negativity be directed toward such persons because of their ethnic or racial group membership, and not only because of some individual attribute.32 30Gordon Allport. The Nature of Prejudice, 25th Anniversary Edition (Don Mills, Ontario: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1986), 6-9. 3 1 Ibid., 9. 32Francis Aboud, Children andPre/udiceWevr York: Basil Blackwell Inc., 1988), 4. 26 Aboud highlights the cognitive components of the phenomenon by clearly distinguishing the role of an individual's predisposition and of the practice of stereotyping. Through combining Allport's, Woodland's, and Aboud s definitions of prejudice, the following characteristics describe the phenomenon's essential characteristics: 1. Prejudice may be either positive or negative; 2. Either of these forms of prejudice are manifested in varying degrees; 3. Prejudice may be expressed toward another individual, group, or concept; 4. Both positive and negative prejudices are displayed in behavioral, cognitive, and affective domains; 5. Prejudice is based upon unjustifiable generalizations; and, 6. Prejudices evolve from prejudgments only when the former remains unaltered when the individual is exposed to new information. Unquestionably, prejudice is a complex phenomenon. Perhaps, this fact explains, in part, why it is difficult to design effective strategies to alter prejudiced beliefs. Nevertheless, prejudices may remain dormant and unmanifested. When an individual bases their behavior upon their prejudices, they become discrimination. This latter phenomenon also requires investigation. 29 Discrimination In the United Nations The Main Types and Causes of Discrimination (1949), discrimination is defined in the following manner. Discrimination includes any conduct based on a distinction made on grounds of natural or social categories, which have no relation either to individual capacities or merits, or to the concrete behavior of the individual person.33 This basic definition provides an initial understanding of the term, however, others define discrimination in a more detailed manner. In the following explanation, Richmond (1979), a sociologist, provides a basic understanding of the mechanisms and manifestations of discrimination. He defines discrimination as a. ... term is used ... to mean the use, by a superordinate group, of its superior power to impose customary or legal restrictions and deprivations upon a subordinate group in order to maintain a situation of privilege and inequality. Such discrimination may be exercised by men against women, by dominant political, national, or religious groups or by one socially defined racial group against another. It may involve a restriction of franchise, enforced residential segregation, differential access to educational or employment opportunities and the imposition of other customary and legal disabilities.34 Richmond's (1979) definition perpetuates the focuses upon negative emphasis exhibited in many definitions of prejudice, nevertheless, he offers a depth of understanding for the reader in a number of ways. First, he notes the roles of deprivation and of custom and legal 33United Nations, The Main Types and Causes of Discrimination, XIV, 3, no. 2 (1949) quoted in Gordon Allport, Prejudice, 52. 34G.D. Mitchell ed., Sociology, s.v." Discrimination," by Anthony H. Richmond, 56-7. 30 restrictions. Second, the author includes the concept of inequality. Third, Richmond cites examples of discrimination frequently found in many societies. Nonetheless, the reader ought to note that discriminatory behavior may be either positive or negative. (Affirmative action, a positive discriminatory behavior, is exercised by an individual or group who often seeks to provide a more equitable system. In this type of discriminatory behavior, a positive correlation ought exist among the practice of discrimination and the subjects behavior and/or abilities.) While other definitions of this concept are available,35 the two explanations I have quoted provide a clear understanding of negative discrimination. On this basis, we may conclude that negative discrimination occurs when a superordinate group exercises its position and power to impose customary and/or legal restrictions and deprivations on another less powerful group. No relationship between the victim's behavior and abilities exist; the fundamental purpose of discriminatory behavior is to maintain the status quo. Stereotype Sociologists, psychologists and anthropologists have all investigated and analyzed stereotyping.36 Drawing upon the available literature 35Marlene MacKie," Stereotypes, Prejudice and Discrimination," in Ethnicity and Ethnic Relations in Canada: A Book of Readings, 2nd. ed., ed. R.M. Bienvenue and J.E. Goldstein (Toronto: Butterworth and Co., 1985), 220; Seymour-Smith, Anthropology 231; RJ. Corsini, ed. Psychology, s.v. "Prejudice and Discrimination," by F.L. Denmark. 36See Gordon Allport, Prejudice, 191; G.D. Mitchell ed., Sociology, s.v.'Stereotyping," by G.D. Mitchell. 31 base, stereotyping can be defined as the process of establishing categories based upon a limited number of variables and exaggerated beliefs. Its principle function is to justify an individual's conduct in relationship to other individuals or to other groups who deemed to be members of a particular category. Lindgren (1984) ,a psychologist, notes that stereotyping assists people to complete their everyday tasks. He also notes that these categories of working stereotypes, enable people to predict, rightly or wrongly, how members of a given group will behave or react in a given situation. When used in a nonjudgmental sense, stereotype refers to any agreed-upon impression that members of one group have about members of other groups.37 While Lindgren emphasizes stereotyping more positive attributes through using the term " nonjudgmental" and the phrase "rightly or wrongly", the practice of stereotyping is inextricably linked to both positive and to negative prejudice. In her definition, Aboud notes this relationship and comments upon it. Stereotypes are rigid, overgeneralized beliefs about the attributes of ethnic groups whereas prejudice is a negative attitude. Thus one may have a stereotype about a group toward whom one is favourable. Moreover, two people may hold the same stereotype but one may be prejudiced and the other positive.38 In this definition, Aboud (1988) highlights the complex nature of stereotyping. She distinguishes between two persons holding the same stereotype and that while an individual may hold a negative prejudiced belief of one group, another person may hold a positive prejudiced belief of the same group. 37R.J. Corsini Psychology S.v. "Stereotyping," by H.C. Lindgren. 38Aboud, Children,'). 32 Drawing upon these definitions, stereotyping can be defined as the act of categorizing knowledge gathered either through personal experience and/or through second-hand information. These classifications are based upon irrational overgeneralizations. While these categories can serve a positive function, when an individual draws upon stereotypes unjust consequences for the victim of the stereotypical belief, for the group of which they are a member, and for the broader society can occur. Ethnic Group Similar to other terms discussed, experts form a variety of disciplines define the term "ethnic group". A psychologist, Gergen (1984) offers the following complex and detailed definition of the term. An ethnic group is usually considered to be a subculture within a larger society whose culture differs from it in important respects. The members of an ethnic group share, or are believed to share, a consciousness of their distinct identity as a group. This shared identity may be based on common religious beliefs, skin colour, national origin, or other criteria. Typically, although not necessarily, an ethnic group will share certain informal rules of conduct that differ from those of the culture more generally. Certain rights and duties are common to the membership. These patterns of interdependent behavior often distinguish members of an ethnic group from those falling within a social category. A social category is used to distinguish certain classes of people according to set of characteristics, as for instance the infant population.39 In his explanation, Gergen emphasizes a number of aspects central to the creation and maintenance of an ethnic group. First, he notes that 39R.J. Corsini, Psychology's. "Ethnic Group," by K.J. Gergen. 33 these groups are subcultures within society. Second, the author notes that members of an ethnic group share a consciousness of their unique identity. Third, Gergen notes that membership may be determined by either or both members of the group or members outside the group. Fourth, he lists criteria which can determine membership and the behaviors which set one group apart from another. Fifth, the author distinguishes between a social group and an ethnic group. (A social group is not interdependent, but shares a specific set of characteristics while an ethnic group is interdependent as well as sharing a set of characteristics.) Through his explanation, Gergen offers considerable insight into the concept of an ethnic group. Seymour-Smith, an anthropologist, contributes two further aspects which deepen an understanding of the term. After defining ethnic group in a manner similar to, but less detailed than Gergen, she makes the following statement. There must always be a we/they dichotomy to apply a concept of ethnicity. The features of labelling and contrast are dynamic, subject to contextual interpretation, and exist variously at different levels.40 Through her explanation, Seymour-Smith deepens the explanation of the term; she achieves this effect by emphasizing the idea of a division within society and the evolutionary nature of an ethnic group. This latter aspect is similar to the changing aspect of "culture". Combining both Gergen and Seymour-Smith's definitions of the term "ethnic group" together, a more complete understanding of the term is developed. Thus, an ethnic group may be considered to be a subculture 40Seymour-Smith, Anthropology,*?}. within a society. Members of the group share, or are believed to share, a group identity which is may be determined by a variety of criteria and is maintained through specific behaviors and privileges. Underpinning the groups existence is a distinction between group members and non-members and the constantly evolving nature of the group. Race As a common practice, many persons equate the terms "race" and "ethnic group". In fact, this practice is erroneous. As the author of the United Nation's Statement on Race(1972), Ashley Montague clarifies the appropriate use of "race" in relation to both the biological standpoint as well as in relation to ethnic groups. From the biological standpoint, the species Homo sapiens is made up of a number of populations, each one different from the others in the frequency of one or more genes. Such genes, responsible for the hereditary differences between men, are always few in number when compared to the whole genetic constitution of of man and to the vast number of genes common to all human beings regardless of the populations to which they belong. This means that the likenesses among men are far greater than the differences... National, religious, geographic, linguistic and cultural groups do not necessarily coincide with racial groups; and the cultural traits of such groups have no demonstrated connexion with racial traits. Because serious errors of this kind are habitually committed when the term "race" is used in popular parlance, it would be better when speaking of human races to drop the term " race" altogether and speak of ethnic groups.41 In the context of Canadian society in general and in reference to the goals of multiculturalism, Montague observes three aspects of race which require consideration. First, "race" is a biological concept based 4 1 Ashley Montague, Statement on Race, 3rd. ed., (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972), 7-9. 35 upon genetic composition. Second, similarities among mankind far outnumber dissimilarities. Third, the term "ethnic group" provides a more suitable and accurate a term than "race". Undoubtedly, the only accurate use of race is when it refers to the biological aspect. When one refers to a particular cultural or linguistic or religious group, for example, the appropriate term, as Montague (1972) proposes, is ethnic group, not racial group. Multicultural/Multiracial Leadership Camps Members of the CCMIE (1982) defined multiculturalism as an ideal that, ... promotes human and group relations in which ethnic, racial, religious and linguistic similarities and differences are valued and respected.42 As a consequence of multiculturalism, Canadian educators and civil servants have designed and implemented multicultural education. While multicultural education objectives are numerous, they are all based upon the three basic sets of principles of multiculturalism and multicultural education, namely, (a) human rights, equality, anti-discrimination, (b) cultural retention and sharing and, (c) access and participation.43 A strong similarity between these categories and multicultural leadership program objectives exists. Many multicultural leadership programs are based upon some or all of the following objectives. First, the 42Canadian Council for Multicultural and Intercultural Education, "Multicultural Education," 2. 43Keith A. McLeod, "Multiculturalism and Ontario," 101. 36 development of an awareness of Canada's cultural diversity. Second, the development of a sense of tolerance, understanding, and respect. Third, the development of self-awareness and self-insight. Fourth,the development of intra- and intercultural communication skills. Fifth, the development of problem-solving skills.44 Initiated in the Province of Ontario by the Ontario Ministry of Education in 1979 and designed for secondary school students, the Ontario Multiracial Multicultural Leadership Camp, or simply the OMMLC, serves as a prototype for local boards of education in Ontario and is based upon the following objectives. "As stated in the Ontario Ministry's Revised Manual, [1982] students would: - Discover, clarify and practice leadership skills by participating in exercises and activities designed to encourage co-operation, trust, team work, problem identification and solution, and conflict resolution. - Appreciate Canada's cultural diversity by interacting with -and sharing a part of their culture with - students in the programme. - Establish a framework for racial tolerance. - Identify the causes of prejudice and discrimination. - Determine processes to deal effectively with prejudice and discrimination 45 The Board being studied provides one example of a local educational jurisdiction whose students and staff participated in the 1978 OMMLC. Teachers within the Board modified the provincial model to meet the 44See Vancouver School Board, "Multicultural Leadership Camp," [photocopy], n.p., Race Relations Department, Vancouver School Board, Vancouver, 1989; Ann Samson, Carole Yellin and James Mercer, Graduate Race Relations A wareness and Community Experience: GRACE., draft copy, ed. Iris Brown and Ann Samson (Scarborough, Ontario : Scarborough Board of Education, 1987), 11. 450ntario Ministry of Education, Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp rev.ed.,; Mavis Burke, "Ontario Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp: A Residential Learning Experience." Multiculturalism, 6, no. 1, (1982), 22. 37 Board's own needs and resources 4 6 First introduced in the 1979-1980 academic year, few comprehensive quantitative or qualitative investigations of their MLP have been undertaken. Using case study methodology, this study will investigate Board A's MLP within the context of multicultural education as implemented in Ontario. The purposes of this study are five-fold. 1. To establish an understanding of the basic concepts and principles of multiculturalism 2. To analyze models of multicultural education 3. To investigate the Ontario Ministry of Education multicultural recommendations, guidelines and curriculum documents 4. To research the multicultural leadership camp of the Board being studied 5. To study characteristics of other multicultural leadership programs offered by other boards of education Conclusions While Canada has been multicultural since its original settlement by the the Aboriginal people, official and non-official policies, statements and actions designed to address the nation's cultural, ethnic, racial and linguistic diversity are based on a variety of approaches. Many of these approaches do offer respect for human and civil rights. Recently, however, multiculturalism has been adapted as a basis to engender respect and observance of these rights. In part, this movement has 46Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, tape recording, Toronto, 22 February 1990. 36 resulted from social, cultural, economic and political pressures. To establish a language to discuss multiculturalism and its auxiliary components, experts have created a diverse range of definitions, each which is based upon the authors own academic background. While each author offers distinct aspects, each explanation shares similarities with others of the same category. Together these definitions and explanations are the basis from which multicultural educators describe and define multiculturalism and its subsidiary components. To adapt multiculturalism into the domain of multicultural education, members of the Ontario Government and its subsidiary levels create and implement multicultural and multicultural education statements, policies and programs. Similarities among the objectives of these commitments exist. Many are based upon a number of auxiliary aspects, namely, equality, human rights, anti-discrimination, cultural retention and sharing and access and participation. As a number of educational guidelines and policies include these concepts, the creation and implementation of Ontario's Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp is evidence of the provincial government's commitment to both multiculturalism and to multicultural education. Since the piloting of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Program in 1978, local school boards have drawn upon the provincial prototype and modified it according to their own perceived needs and resources. Board A's MLP is an example of this process. Through investigating and analyzing this Board's camp and setting it into a broader context, I will provide a deeper understanding of multicultural education as implemented through multicultural leadership camps. 39 Chapter 2 Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education in Canada Introduction In this chapter, I explore three areas. First, I provide an overview of Canada's multicultural policies, programs, and actions implemented since Prime Minister Trudeau announced Canada's first multicultural policy statement in 1971, this overview illustrates how the federal government has responded to increased social, cultural, racial, and linguistic diversity. Second, I provide an outline of the key developments of multicultural and multicultural education policies programs and practices within Ontario; this outline establishes an understanding of multiculturalism within Ontario. Third, I review research which investigates and analyses Canadian's attitudes toward multiculturalism and its subsidiary concepts; this review creates an awareness of various racial, ethnic, cultural and linguistic groups' responses to the federal policy statement of 1971. Federal Multicultural Policies. Programs and Actions  Since 1971 Overview Canada's multicultural policies, programs, and actions have passed through three stages, namely (1) multiculturalism as life style, (2) multiculturalism as cultural and linguistic retention, and (3) multiculturalism as equality. In the following quotation, McLeod (1990), a recognized professional in the area of multiculturalism, describes the passage and explains the importance of each stage. 4 0 At first the emphasis was on life style: on opportunities to demonstrate cultural affinities. One result was that there was criticism that too much emphasis was being placed on' song and dance' and "lifestyle". Nevertheless, in this early period, and despite the criticisms, this kind of symbolic multiculturalism was very important in smoothing the way, and introducing Canadians to a positive view of pluralism. In the second phase, multiculturalism featured greater attention to culture as a "way of life". Much more attention was given to language retention and to other aspects of cultural retention and development including increasing the presence of the various cultures in mainstream institutions. There was also beginning to be an increasing number of questions as to whether all persons were being given equal opportunity. In the third phase, in the 1980s, multicultural policy has emphasized not only equality of opportunity but attention to equality of outcome and success. There has also been increasing attention to access and participation, and to structural barriers. Much of this has been summed up by the concerns for equity . l Based upon McLeod's observations, federal policies, programs, and actions were initially designed to emphasize the symbolic aspects of multiculturalism and, to a more limited extent, multiculturalisms linguistic aspects. More recently, civil servants have reviewed the existing multiculturalism structures and programs in light of contemporary social and political developments. Based upon their conclusions, they have designed the current legislation and activities in a manner which supports increased respect for and observance of human and civil rights. These rights have been interpreted as equality of opportunity, participation, treatment, and protection under the law within the economic, social, cultural and political domains of Canadian society.2 Two key multicultural policies, namely, the 1971 multicultural policy statement and the Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1989) exemplify these three types of multiculturalism. Drawing upon McLeod s framework, I investigate and analyze these policies and some of their affiliated programs. 1 Keith A. McLeod," Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education in Canada: Human Rights and Human Rights Education, 1990" [photocopy], pp. 3-4, Faculty of Education, University of Toronto, Toronto. 1 Statues of Canada C. 93; Constitution Act (1982). 41 The 1971 Policy Statement The Content of the Policy As announced by Prime Minister Trudeau, the 1971 multicultural policy was comprised of four foci. First, Canada was to have two official languages, but no official culture. Second, ethnocultural groups were to receive assistance in maintaining their cultural heritage. Third, creative exchanges among Canada's various ethnocultural groups were to be encouraged. Fourth, all immigrants were to be given the opportunity to acquire competency in one of Canada's two official languages.3 These goals and objectives were reflected in multicultural programs designed and implemented as an outcome of this policy statement. Resultant Programs Friesen (1985) lists and describes a number of programs which were implemented as one outcome of this policy statement.4 These include the following: the Cultural Development Program, the Ethnic Histories Program, and the Teaching of Official Languages Program. These programs are similar to those programs and policies McLeod describes as multiculturalism as a cultural and linguistic retention; because they emphasize the continuation of ethnic, cultural and racial groups' histories. As initial indicators of the direction of Canadian multiculturalism, these programs eased the acceptance of multiculturalism. As a group, these and similar programs began to grant a degree of dignity to the 3House of Commons, Debates, 8 October 1971,8546. 4 John W. Friesen, When Cultures Clash: Case Studies in Multiculturalism (Calgary: Detselig Enterprises Ltd., 1985). 2-3. 42 historical backgrounds of Canada's diverse populations. Nonetheless, they are benign when considering the more fundamental human and civil rights issues of equality and equity. Analyses of the Policy Burnet (19S4), a Canadian professor of sociology, McNeill (1988) and Samuda (1986) have analyzed and commented upon the federal government's 1971 multicultural policy statement.^  These authors note that while this policy left the central issue of equality and equity unaddressed, it attempted to realize a number of objectives. These include the following, namely: to respond to the pressures being exerted by European Canadians; to appease Canada's minority groups; to address concerns of the French Canadians, and perhaps most significantly, to maintain the status quo. Regardless of these analyses, the expectations raised by the announcement of the 1971 multicultural policy set an unintended dynamic in motion. McNeill (1988) comments that," [wlhat began, then, as a political ploy - the acknowledgement of cultural pluralism - has had the effect of fostering social change, and Official multiculturalism may be the basis for profound social change in Canada".6 These changes were manifested in subsequent public and government policies and activities. Equality Now /(1984) and the Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988) are two key examples. 5 Jean Burnet," The Policy of Multiculturalism Within a Bilingual Framework: A Stock-taking," Canadian Ethnic Studies 10. no. 2 (1978), 107-113; John MacNeil," Multicultural Futures: Education and Schooling," Multicultural Education Journal, 6, no. 2 (1988), 12-22; R.J. Samuda," The Canadian Brand of Multiculturalism. Social and Educational Implications," in Multicultural Education: The Interminable Debate, ed. Sohan Modgil etal. (London: Falmer Press, 1986), 101-108. 6 John MacNeil," Multicultural Futures," 13. 43 Equality Now! The Origins of the Report Equality Now! (1984) is a report submitted by the Special Committee on Visible Minorities in Canadian Society. Members of this Committee held public meetings across the country which were attended by representatives and individuals from many ethnic, cultural, racial, and linguistic groups. Based upon these hearings, members of the Committee created an extensive list of recommendations regarding the treatment of visible minority groups in Canada. These recommendations pertain to many spheres of life including employment, policy, justice, the media and education. Report Recommendations Generally, recommendations are similar to McLeod's designation of the three types of multiculturalism, namely, multiculturalism as attitude, multiculturalism as cultural and linguistic retention, and multiculturalism as equality of opportunity, outcome and success. I offer the following educational recommendations as examples of each of these three types of multiculturalism.7 One recommendation was based upon the observance of and respect for national and religious holy days. If the observance of these special days assumes the form of symbolic observance, for example through food, dance and dress, multiculturalism as attitude is realized through this pedagogical approach. On the other hand, if the investigation of belief and value systems underlying these special days is emphasized, multiculturalism as cultural and linguistic retention is 7 Report of the Special Committee on Visible Minorities in Canadian Society , by Bob Daudin, Chairman (Ottawa: House of Commons, 1984), 140-41. 44 promoted. A third recommendation refers to the examination of formal and hidden curriculum materials, assessment tests and testing procedures. When fully implemented, multiculturalism as equality of opportunity can be assured. At this point, I wish to highlight the fact that a recommendation can be interpreted in varying depths of meaning. In the context of contemporary social, political and cultural trends, it would appear that the deeper the meaning multiculturalism is given the more likely equality may be realized. Review Equality Nov! (1984) is comprised of a series of recommendations drawn, in part, from public input. While these recommendations affect many areas of Canadian society, as a whole they symbolize the superficial observance of multiculturalism as well as the more fundamental aspects of human rights and civil liberties. 45 The Canadian Multiculturalism Act( 1989) The Canadian Multiculturalism Act(\9iS) is a fundamental example of the federal government's response to the dynamics it set in motion in 1971 and to their increasing support of equality of status and opportunity. The Act is based upon the superficial as well as the more profound aspects of multiculturalism. A number of basic human rights, similar to those outlined in other federal policies and international agreements are incorporated into the Act First, equality is to be practised in a number of ways including: before and under the the law, though participation in society, through equal status within society, and, through equal economic opportunity. Second, all Canadians are entitled to freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, national or ethnic origin, and color. Third, all Canadians are entitled to freedom of thought, conscience, belief, and language. These three categories of human and civil rights form the underpinning of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988). At this point, it is important to note that many of these rights are enshrined in the Canadian Constitution (1982) and its accompanying Charter of Rights and Freedoms, however, the exploration of this piece of legislation lies beyond the parameters of this thesis. Review Since 1971, Canadian multiculturalism has gradually progressed through three stages of multiculturalism. This process has lead from the protection of minority rights to a wider global context of the protection of human and civil rights. Minority rights whether on the basis of culture, ethnicity, language and/or race are subsumed within the Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988). 46 Multiculturalism in Ontario Overview Under the Canada Act (1867), the provincial governments assume responsibility for education. While interaction between the federal and the provincial governments regarding multicultural education occurs, Itlhe Multiculturalism Directorate in Ottawa, which is the main agency for promoting educational aspects of the policy, is clearly handicapped .... It can organize conferences for educators; it can put together lists of resource people, and can gather all kinds of pedagogically suitable materials; but it has little to say in how and whether these should be used.8 On the basis of this legal relationship, the federal government can make multicultural resources available, but members of the individual provincial governments are responsible for their utilization. In a study of implementation of multicultural education policies at the local school board level, Anderson and Fullan (1984) observe an unpredictable relationship between higher and lower echelons of government and local policies. On the basis of their investigation and analysis of five local board multicultural policies, they note that, ... external government policies may be regarded as influencing (constraining, enabling, supporting, etc.) local policy choices and practices, without assuming a linear causal relationship (though such cause-effect relationships are encountered in some instances).9 8Stephan E. Anderson and Michael Fullan, Policy Implementation Issues About Multicultural Education at the SchoolBoardLevel (Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1984), 3. 9Tony Burton," Federal Multicultural Policy and Education in Canada," Educational Research Quarterly 6, no. 3 (1981), 3-4. On the basis of these two comments, we may conclude that the federal government makes multicultural resources available to provincial governments; the provincial governments may or may not use them. In addition, the provinces may create multicultural policies and programs, but the local boards of education may or may not emulate these examples. Regardless of the degree of cause-effect relationship, federal, provincial and local board multicultural and multicultural education initiatives are fundamental to the implementation of multiculturalism at increasingly more localized levels. Multiculturalism in Ontario Introduction Like the nation,10 Ontario is characterized by racial, ethnic, cultural, religious, and linguistic diversity.11 In Ontario, various pieces of legislation have been designed to protect first minority rights and then human rights. This legislation focused upon protection of minority rights from the 1700s to the late 1950s and upon human rights from 1960. The following survey outlines the history of this legislation from the 1700s to the present.12 10See Eva Krugly-Smolska, "Some Demographic Data on Ethnicity in Canada," Paper presented at Multiculturalism: Teaching and Learning, Vancouver, 28 May-1 June 1990; "Multicultural Ontario," Multicultural Ontario, 2, no. 2 (1989); Report of the Standing Committee on Multiculturalism, by Gus Mitges, Chairman (Ottawa: House of Commons, 1987). 11 Report of the Standing Committee on Multiculturalism, by Gus Mitges, Chairman (Ottawa: House of Commons, 1987); "Multicultural Ontario," Multicultural Ontario, 2, no. 2 (1988), 15; Constantine Passaris," Multiculturalism and Immigration: Charting New Directions for Canadian Public Policy," Multiculturalism, 11, no. 2 (1988), 9-17. 12See Keith A. McLeod," Multiculturalism and Ontario," in Two Hundred Years: Learning to Live Togetherdoronto. in Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Culture, 1985), 94-114. 46 Historical Overview 1770s-1960s Since its founding, Canada has been established upon the respect and observance of human rights. Many of the nation's first settlers came here to escape religious and political oppression in Western Europe. This tradition has been undermined by the practice of slavery and the denial of other human and civil liberties and rights.'3 While Lord Simcoe abolished slavery in 1793, little government legislation was passed to protect minority or human rights until the 1940s. In 1944, for example, the Racial Discrimination .4c/(1944), which prohibited expression of racial and religious discrimination in any notice sign or symbol, was passed. A rash of similar legislation was enacted during the late 1940s and the 1950s. These include The Fair Employment Practices Act (1951). the Female Employees Fair Renumeration Act (1951). the Fair Accommodation Practices Act (1954) and the amendment of the Labour Relations Act (1950).14 As a group, these acts protected rights in the context of minority rights, whether the minorities were racial, ethnic, cultural or gender. A number of causes precipitated the transition from the focus on minority rights to a focus on human rights. McLeod (1985) notes that the Depression had two effects on society in Ontario. First, members of the majority were humbled by their change in status as a result of the Stock Market Crash and the Great Depression. Second, as a result of the Depression, and I will add the aftermath and social changes precipitated by World War II, the boundaries between gender, ethnic, racial, cultural, and linguistic groups in Canada, with the possible exception of Quebec, became blurred. Third, during the late 1940s, the rest of the world began to recognize and to promote observation of human rights. The United Nations' ^Ibid, 97-98. l4Ibid. 4 9 Universal Declaration of Human Rights(1948) and the European Convention on Human Rights WW) are symbolic of this trend. These three factors affected the understanding of the basic human and civil rights and the context in which they were placed.15 In Ontario, the first sign of the transition from emphasis on minority rights to emphasis on human rights was the establishment of the Ontario's Anti-Discrimination Commission in 1958. Despite this title, the Commission was responsible for increasing the public's awareness of human rights in Ontario. In 1961, title of the Commission was changed to the Ontario Human Rights Commission. Simultaneously, the title of the legislation from the Racial Discrimination Act (1944) to the Ontario Rights Code (1961). The mandate of the Ontario Human Rights Commission was also expanded to include the administration of the Act and to increase public understanding of human rights.16 From these changes, the Commission's mandate and the legislation have broadened the context of human rights (For example, freedom from discrimination on the basis of age is now included) and increased the number of persons positively affected by human rights legislation. (For example. Civic employees now fall under the jurisdiction of the Ontario Human Rights Code, for example).17 These modifications are symbolic of the change of context from the protection of minority rights to the protection of human and civil rights. I^bid., 97-98. 16Ibid. 17Ibid„ 98. Multiculturalism and Human Rights 1970-1990 50 In i960, members of the Ontario government made a quantum leap in thinking from protection of minority rights to protection of human rights. Beginning in the 1970s, members of the government again began to expanded their understanding of human rights to include recognition of cultural, ethnic and racial pluralism. Like the transformation from the context of minority rights to human rights, the expansion of human rights to include in the concept of multiculturalism progressed through a number of stages. Predating the announcement of the federal multicultural policy, the provincial government formed Heritage Ontario (1971).18 This government organization invited members of ethnic, cultural, racial and linguistic groups to create a list of recommendations; this list would assist in the expansion of cultural programs and policies that would support the concept of multiculturalism throughout the province. The formation of the Ontario Advisory Council on Multiculturalism and Citizenship was one of the resultant effects of this process. The Council's mandate centered upon three areas. First, the Council was to provide advice regarding multiculturalism programs and policies. Second, it was to act as a liaison among the government and various ethnocultural organizations and communities. Third, this organization was to assist in the promotion of full participation in society.19 Working within this mandate, the Council formed subcommittees to investigate specific areas including: citizenship, education/language, and human rights and the needs of the Aboriginal people.20 Of an extensive list of of ideas which this 18Ibid.. 98. 19Ibid., 99. 2°Ibid. 51 body considered, four are especially relevant to the promotion of multicultural education in Ontario: 1. That mandatory teacher education which focused upon increasing multicultural awareness and sensitivity be created; 2. That the issue of local board of education reception and orientation of New Canadians and of the teaching of of official languages be studied; 3. That the government increase public awareness of third language education policies and practices; and, 4. That a multicultural policy be developed based upon cultural retention and development, the sharing of cultures, the development of increased sensitivity and awareness of cultural values, anti-discrimination, and the development of the Canadian identity, citizenship and full participation in society.21 Two principle outcomes resulted, at least in part, from the Advisory Council's work. First, the Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Culture was created in 1974; this Ministry included both a Multicultural Development Branch and a Citizenship Branch. Second, the creation of a provincial multicultural policy. As announced by Premier Davis in May 1977, the Ontario Multicultural Policy was based upon principles similar to those proposed by the Advisory Council on Multiculturalism. These tenets included: (1) equality of treatment, access and participation, (2) freedom to choose, retain and develop cultural attributes within the Canadian bilingual framework and (3) sharing of cultures.22 In Ontario, multiculturalism has increasingly assumed a race relations focus. This trend is evident in government reorganization, provincial policy and guidelines. For example, in 1979, the Race Relations Division within the Ontario 2 •ibid., 100. 22lbid., 101. 52 Human Rights Commission was created and the cabinet committee on race relations was established. While multiculturalism experienced a temporary resurgence in 1982 (the Ministry of Culture and Recreation was recast into the Ministry of Culture and Citizenship and the Citizenship Branch became the Multiculturalism and Citizenship Division) race relations again came to the forefront in 1983 This change is symbolized by the passage of the Ontario Race Relations Policy (1983) and the publication of the Provincial Advisory Committee on Race Relations' report The Development of a Policy on Race and Ethnocultural Equity (1987). While both of these documents emphasized equality, the concept was set in the context of race relations. All this points to the struggle between emphasis upon multiculturalism and emphasis on race relations is prevalent in Ontario. Throughout all of these movements however, human rights have assumed a high profile. McLeod describes Ontario's overall perspective of multiculturalism. Thus, the commitment in Ontario to multiculturalism within a bilingual framework can be summed up as: a commitment to equality, anti-discrimination, and human rights, cultural retention and sharing; and access and participation. As stated by the premier [Premier Davis], these three key areas were directly related to three other commitments: Canadian identity, citizenship, and individual choice.23 Provincial Education Initiatives While curriculum developments are evidence of the increasing role of multiculturalism within Ontario, similarly, these documents also illustrate increased attention to human and civil rights issues. I will consider a variety of language programs as well as two curriculum policy statements, namely The Formative Years (1975) and Ontario Schools Intermediate and Senior Divisions 23Ibid., 101-2. 53 (os/s)(m9). Language Programs Linguistic concerns are a central aspect of multiculturalism; therefore I will consider three separate language programs, namely, French language classes, English as a Second Language/Dialect.and the Ontario Heritage Languages Program. Each is designed to meet the linguistic concerns and needs of specific populations in Ontario. French language classes in Ontario. In Ontario, French is taught through two basic avenues. The first, French language instruction, is offered as a school subject to all students from Grade Four up to the Ontario Academic Credit level. (OAC replaced grade thirteen in Ontario.) The second, French immersion schools, are now offered from Kindergarten to the OAC level. As both programs attempt to increase students' levels of proficiency in French, both implement the aspect of multiculturalism within a bilingual framework.24 English as a Second Language/Dialect. This curriculum represents a response to the need of students who are deemed to need special assistance to increase their proficiency in English. Through increasing their ability to understand, read and write English, these programs are designed to assist students to experience academic success. Through taking three additional teaching qualification courses, teachers may become specialists in this area.25 24See John Edwards, "The Social and Political Context of Bilingual Education," in Multiculturalism in Canada: Social and Educational Implications, eds.. R.J. Samuda, J.W. Berry and M. Laferriere (Toronto: Allyn and Bacon Inc., 1984), 184-200. 25See Ontario Ministry of Education, English as a Second Language and English SkillsDevelopment Intermediateand'SeniorDivisionsiloronto: Ontario Ministry of Education, 1988). The Ontario Heritage Languages Program This program, initiated in 1977, provides for the teaching of nonofficial languages throughout Ontario. Local school boards are responsible for the curricular and administrative aspects of the program and the classes are to be held on Saturdays, after school or in the evenings.26 Based upon current statistics, the total enrollment for the 1988-1989 academic year, between 93, 000 and 96,000 students from junior kindergarten to grade eight attend classes offered in sixty eight different nonofficial languages in sixty-two school boards throughout Ontario.27 Through these three official provincial language programs, multiculturalism as cultural and linguistic retention is implemented within the context of the Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988). The Formative Years(l975) This curriculum policy, designed for grades one to six, was the first attempt made to address multiculturalism and multicultural education in Ontario. This document provides for multiculturalism as attitude, multiculturalism as a cultural and linguistic retention and multiculturalism as equality. Multiculturalism also is presented within the broader rubric of observance and respect for human rights and civil liberties. Multiculturalism as attitude and cultural and linguistic retention are incorporated in a number of goals. As an example, students in the Primary and Junior Divisions are to, become familiar with the historical development of the community and, at appropriate levels, of the province and the country; 26Keith A, McLeod," Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education," in Multiculturalism in Canada: Social and Educational Implications, eds. R.J. Samuda, J.W. Berry and M. Laferriere (Toronto: Allyn and Bacon Inc., 1984), 40. 27Anthony Succi, telephone conversation with author, Toronto, 9 May 1990. 55 develop and retain a personal identity by becoming acquainted with the historical roots of the community and culture of his or her origin and by developing a sense of continuity with the past; begin to understand and appreciate the points of view of ethnic and cultural groups other than his or her own.28 While these objectives support multiculturalism as attitude and cultural and linguistic retention, others seek to implement multiculturalism as observance and respect for human rights and civil liberties. For example, students in the Primary and Junior divisions ought to, begin to develop a personal value system within the context that reflects the priorities of a concerned society and at the same time recognizes the integrity of the individual... develop self-respect, respect for the rights of others, and respect for the rule of law .... develop an awareness of law and government, and of the rights and duties of Canadian citizens.29 As an first official attempt to implement multiculturalism in the education system, The Formative Years (1975) included tenets which were designed to achieve the acceptance of multiculturalism and to assist in implementing multiculturalism in a broad and deep a range as possible. Ontario Schools Intermediate and Senior Divisions (OSIS){ 1984,1989) The Ontario Ministry of Education continued to support the principles of multiculturalism through the adoption of OSIS'm 1984 and through the revision of this curriculum policy in 1989. (Both versions' statement of goals and 280ntario Ministry of Education, The Formative Years (Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Education, 1975). 23. 29Ibid„ 22. 56 multiculturalism section largely remained unaltered as a result of the revision.) Similar to The Formative Years (1975), the goals and multiculturalism section reflect the trends of multiculturalism as attitude , as cultural retention, and as equality of opportunity. For example, the following goals of education support these interpretations of multiculturalism. The Ministry of Education in Ontario strives to provide in all schools of the province equal opportunity for all.... The goals of education, therefore, consist of helping each student to.... develop a sense of personal responsibility in society at the local, national and international levels Awareness of personal responsibility in society grows out of knowledge and understanding of one s community, one s country, and the rest of the world. It is based upon an understanding of social order, a respect for the law and the rights of others, and a concern for the quality of life at home and abroad. develop esteem for the customs, cultures, and beliefs of a vide range of societal groups This goal is related to social concord and individuals enrichment. In Canada it includes regard for: a) Canada's native peoples; b) the English and French founding peoples; c) multiculturalism; d) national identity and unity.30 These two goals are based upon McLeod s (1989) three classifications of multiculturalism. Furthermore, the multiculturalism section devotes considerable attention to the interpretation of multiculturalism as it is to be implemented throughout the education system. For example, as well as referring to provincial multicultural and race relations policies and to supporting equality of opportunity, this section includes the following statements. 300ntario Ministry of Education, Ontario Schools: Intermediate and Senior Divisions rev. ed., (Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Education, 1989), 3. 5? The polices on multiculturalism and race relations officially adopted by the government of Ontario accept cultural and racial diversity as a significant characteristic of the province's social fabric and, accordingly, require the schools to help prepare all students to live in this multicultural and multiracial society and increasingly interdependent world. It is essential that every student, regardless of his/her colour, race, religion, age, or sex, have the right to equal educational opportunity and to personal dignity and respect.31 Through £57? (19S9) there is the opportunity to implement multiculturalism through a wide range of approaches. It is hoped that the celebration of the more superficial and symbolic aspects of multiculturalism do not overshadow the more central aspects of cultural and linguistic preservation and the observation and respect of human and civil rights. Nevertheless, basic principles of multiculturalism, as specified within Ontario's legislation, permeate #573" (1989) Together, the three provincial language policies (namely French instruction, English as a Second Language/Dialect, and Ontario Heritage Language Program), The Formative Years (1975) and Ontario Intermediate and Senior Divisions(1989) provide for the implementation of multiculturalism as attitude, as cultural and linguistic retention and as equality. The Development ofa Policy on Race and Ethnocultural Equity (1987) The Provincial Advisory Committee on Race Relations recently created a Report which focuses upon the creation of a board level multicultural, ethnic, and/or race relations policy. Equality forms the underpinning of this document. This Report provides a framework for local school boards to construct their own multiculturalism policies. Nine areas are addressed in this Report, namely: leadership, school and community relations, research, curriculum, staff 31 Ibid., 9. 56 development, support services, assessment and placement, racial harassment, and personnel policies and practices. Each section includes mission statements and area priorities; all of these areas ought to be similar to the basic principles of multiculturalism. While recommending action in all nine areas, the writers acknowledge the unique characteristics and needs of each board and therefore present the document as a guideline. As race relations advocates were dominant among the members of the Committee who wrote the document it represents a philosophical reorientation from that of multiculturalism to an anti-racist approach. McLeod (1990) criticizes two aspects of the Report. First, he notes the writer's unjust inequitable condemnation of multicultural education as it has been implemented. Second, he describes the misrepresentation of multiculturalism as race relations. The Report misleads he readers into faulting multiculturalism because some people had not sufficiently practised and implemented it... The selected information was misleading and the charges were inaccurate; the analysis in the Report some have stated was grossly superficial, inaccurate and biased... However, having established that multicultural educators were simple minded and misguided the Report's authors go on to point out that what true multicultural education is; it is anti-racist education. The net effect [of the Report upon board policies] could be seriously diminished or fractured support for pluralism if these divisions [between multicultural and race relations policies] continue and become more general.32 Supporting his argument by quoting from the Report itself, McLeod s observation of a shift from multicultural to race relations perspectives evident in the number of local school board policies.33 32Keith A. McLeod," Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education in Canada: Human Rights and Human Rights Education, 1990," [photocopy], pp. 9-11 (Toronto: Faculty of Education, University of Toronto, Toronto. 33See, for example. City of North York Board of Education, Race and Ethnic Relations Policy and Procedures (City of North York, [1984]); Metropolitan Toronto Separate School Board, Race and Ethnic Relations and Multicultural Policy: Guidelines and 59 Review of Ontario's Multicultural Education Initiatives The Government of Ontario is committed to multicultural education. This support is evident in a number of curriculum policies and programs, these include: the Ontario Heritage Languages Programme (1977), French immersion, English as a Second Language/Dialect, The Formative Years (1975), Ontario Intermediate and Senior Divisions (1984, 1989). These initiatives are supported by a bevy of curriculum support documents. All are similar to programs which promote multiculturalism as attitude, multiculturalism as cultural and linguistic retention, and multiculturalism as respect and observance of the right to equality. While The Development of a Policy on Race and Ethnocultural Equity (1987) may ultimately damage multiculturalism and multicultural education as it has been and can be implemented, this document is a strong statement in support of the creation of a more equitable educational system. Canadian Attitudes Toward Multiculturalism  and Multicultural Education Overview Contemporary events in major Canadian cities suggest that reduction and eradication prejudice and discrimination ought to be a chief concern within Canadian society. Confrontations with minority groups and local police forces and the pressing need for health services which address the concerns and respect the traditions of Canadian cultural, ethnic, racial and linguistic groups are just two Procedures condensed version, (Toronto, 1986);Toronto Board of Education, Race Relations Program: Phase //(Toronto, 1984). 60 examples.34 Within the educational domain, some minority group parents and educators observe that minority group children underachieve. These failure to realize a students' full capabilities is, in part, the effect of prejudiced beliefs and inequitable practices.35 Surveys and studies conducted since 1971 were designed to investigate Canadian attitudes regarding multiculturalism; they reveal a spectrum of views toward cultural, ethnic, racial, and linguistic diversity. These attitudes range from tolerance, acceptance and encouragement to rejection, prejudice and discrimination. National surveys have been conducted regarding views of and attitudes toward multiculturalism and toward federal multicultural policies and some reveal distinctions among the perspectives of many of Canada's ethnic, cultural, racial and linguistic groups. These groups may be categorized in the following manner, namely: the Aboriginal people, Francophone, later Europeans and Black/Asian populations.36 I offer the following investigation of the these perceptions. 34See, for example. Proceedings ofthe Symposium on Policing in Multicultural/Multiracial Urban Communities by eds., Don Winterton et al. (Ottawa: Multiculturalism Canada, 1984); Stanley Makuch," Appealing for Calm in a Stormy Debate," The Globe and Mail, 9 February 1989, A7; Linda Rosenbaum, "Unable to Tell the Doctor Where It Hurts," The Globe and Mail, 9 February 1989, A7; Geoffrey York, " RCMP Often Harass Indians, Chief Tells Manitoba Justice," The Globe and Mail 9 February 1989, A5. 35 See, for example, Dionne Brand and Kriantha Sri Bhaggiyadatta, Rivers Have Sources, Trees Have Roots: Speaking of Racism, (Toronto: Cross Cultural Communication Centre, 1986), 83-104; Vandra Masemann, "Multicultural Programs in Toronto School," Interchange. 9, no. 1 (1978-1979), 29-44. 36VincentR. D'Oyley," Beyond the English and French Realities in Canada: The Politics of Empowerment of Minorities," in Bilingual and Multicultural Education in Canada: Canadian Perspectives, eds. V.R. D'Oyley and S. Shapson (Clevendon, Great Britain: Colourways Press Ltd., 1984), 157. 61 National Attitudes Toward Multiculturalism Berry, Kalin and Taylor (1977) conducted a national survey of Canadians' attitudes toward multiculturalism.37 Based upon approved research methods, investigators made the following conclusions. First, Canadians were generally unknowing of the 1971 federal multicultural policy itself and of its purpose to promote supportive integration. Second, Canadians were supportive of symbolic multiculturalism i.e., food, drink, dance and costumes rather than actions which promoted linguistic diversity in society as a whole. Third, Canadians' attitudes toward multiculturalism were more positive than their actions. The researchers also observed a positive correlation between favorable attitudes toward ethnic diversity and the following variables, namely: socioeconomic status, ethnicity, ethnic population density, and economic and social security.38 While I propose that a similar study be conducted based on recent political, social, economic, cultural and linguistic developments, this national survey indicates that many Canadians endorse the symbolic aspects of multiculturalism while they do not support issues focusing on the central issues, namely human and civil rights. Minority Groups' Attitudes Toward Multiculturalism Metaphorically, D'Oyley (1984) describes Canadian society as a hand comprised of five fingers. Each finger, namely, Aboriginal, Anglophone, Francophone, later European, and African/Asian, represents a collectivity within 37J.W. Berry and R. Kalin, "We Look at One Another: Immigration and Ethnic Attitudes in the Context of Multiculturalism," TESL Talk, 10, no. 3, (1979), 37-38. 38Ibid., 37-39. 62 the Canadian populations; all are composed of subgroups39 This metaphor provides a framework from which to investigate minority groups' responses to the federal policy of multiculturalism. It must be noted that a number of factors influence each ethnocultural group's perspective of multiculturalism. Each has subjective and objective interests which are based upon their values and aspirations. Each is basically concerned with the group's continuity, economic circumstances and status.40 As these factors effect their views on a multiplicity of issues, including multiculturalism, it is important to be cognizant of these when reviewing the various groups' viewpoints of multiculturalism. Aboriginal As Canada's founding peoples, the Aboriginal people are under the direct federal jurisdiction. As a group, they are affected by multicultural policies and initiatives in a limited and often superficial manner. Though there are exceptions, for example, the establishment of the Dene nation where the government has recognized their civil and human rights, the inequities and inequalities to which Canada's founding peoples have been subjected continue unabated. Therefore, to many Aboriginal groups, multiculturalism is a void policy which consists to a greater or lesser degree of the more exotic and symbolic aspects of multiculturalism.41 39VincentR. D'Oyley, "Empowerment of Minorities," 157. 40Raymond Breton," From a Different Perspective: French Canada and the Issue of Immigration and Multiculturalism, TESLTalk, 10, no. 3 (1979), 46-49. 4 'Vincent R. D'Oyley, "Empowerment of Minorities," 160. 63 French Canadian Generally, French Canadians perceive the policy of multiculturalism as as a way to erode French Canada's status by granting special status to other cultural, ethnic and linguistic groups.42 The preservation of the French language in Canada has been and continues to be the central issue for ail Francophones when they discuss multiculturalism and bilingualism. For example, an Acadian educator, Comeau (1979) notes the linguistic concern with the 1971 policy of multiculturalism within a bilingual framework. He states the following. Multiculturalism has not been seen by the Acadians as meaningful policy for the linguistic and cultural development of our people.... We cannot endorse, for the linguistic development of our people, a policy of bilingualism which has special considerations and safeguards for language, and at the same time endorse a policy which provides no special status for the development of the French language.43 Francophones have responded to the policy of multiculturalism by distancing themselves from the policy and by utilizing legislative channels as a means to enhance the development of French and French Canadian culture.4** As a response to these linguistic concerns, the Quebec legislature passed Bill 101 (1977) which declared French as the official language of the province and limited access of to education in English. More recently, the provincial government adopted a policy of cultural pluralism. Laperriere (1986) explains the origins of the policy of cultural pluralism and distinguishes between 42See Alison d'Anglejan and Zita De Koninck, "Educational Policy for a Culturally Plural Quebec," in Innovative Multicultural Teaching eds. S. Shapson and V.R. D'Oyley (Toronto, Kegan and Woo, n.d), 172-91; Raymond Breton, "French Canada." 55; Paul Comeau, Multiculturalism and Bilingualism at the Community Level," in Multiculturalism, Bilingualism and Canadian Institutions ed. Keith A. McLeod (Toronto: Guidance Centre, Faculty of Education, University of Toronto, 1979), 37-41. 43Ibid., 39-40. 64 multiculturalism and cultural pluralism. It [cultural pluralism! developed as a response to the pejorative labelling and ghettoization of minority cultures that mosaic multiculturalism. by placing the onus on ethnic minorities, tended to promote. By contrast, the new approach advocates a universal intercultural approach addressed equally to the ethnic majority which is confronted by new cultures and to the ethnic minorities themselves .... lilt is not enough to "protect" or "tolerate" minority cultures, there must be interaction with other cultures, including the mainstream culture.44 Laperriere draws a basic dichotomy between multicultural education which promotes isolation and intercultural education which is based upon the interaction among mainstream and minority cultural groups. Quebec's heritage language program (Programme d'enseignement des langues d'origine) is symbolic of the intercultural approach. Through the support of government policy and funding, minority language classes are offered. The public's reaction to this program has been varied. Ethnocultural communities acceptance is increasing while the mainstream public and teachers who are not involved with the program advocate that it will hasten a return to ethnocultural ghettos and an insufficient level of competency in French 45 The differing perspectives appear to reflect the motivation of the preservation of each respective group. As evident in these examples, the linguistic issue is central to the distrust and the rejection of multiculturalism by the Francophone population. Increasingly, the Francophone population is using the imposed policy of multiculturalism in a manner which accommodates the Federal legal obligations and simultaneously seeks to preserve their distinct society. 4 4 A. Laperriere, The Britishiiper/!e/?^(Montreal: Conseil scolaire de l'ile de Montreal, 1986); quoted in Alison d'Anglejan and Zita De Koninck, "Culturally Plural Quebec," 180. 45Alison d'Anglejan and Zita De Koninck, "Culturally Plural Quebec," 179. 65 Later Europeans Broadly speaking, this group of Canada's population share Francophones' suspicions and skepticism of the federal policy of multiculturalism. The Ukrainians in Canada's prairie provinces and elsewhere exemplify one later European group. As an Albertan of Ukrainian background, Lupul (1973) believes that the 1971 policy of multiculturalism serves two purposes. First, it perpetuates equity among English and French Canadians. Second, it provides a linguistically limited multicultural interpretation.46 (Based upon the Francophone perceptions previously discussed, Francophones might contest Lupuls interpretation.) These ethnocultural groups have assumed an increasingly proactive stance toward cultural and linguistic preservation. For example, Ukrainians have established their own ethnic-specific schools since their original immigration to Canada. The curricula of these types of schools is designed to promote and to enhance cultural and linguistic retention. In addition, the Ukrainians, and other later European groups pursue other supplementary programs and activities, community centers for example, which are intended to further these latter goals . Black/Asian D'Oyley advocates that many minority groups believe that the promises held out by federal and provincial governments, including the 1971 multicultural policy statement, are empty and void.47 He analyzes the 1971 federal multicultural 46M.R. Lupul, "Multiculturalism: Myth or Reality," n.p. July 1973; quoted in Jean Burnet, "The Policy of Multiculturalism Within a Bilingual Framework: An Interpretation," in Education of Immigrant Students: Issues and Answers, ed. Aaron Wolfgang (Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1975), 207-8. 47Vincent D'Oyley/'Empowerment of Minorities," 160. 66 policy statement and states the following. The constitutional, legal, and operational dynamic quality of the society remains substantially an officially bilingual-bicultural one with the multicultural refinements prone to a withdrawal of commitment. To each ethnic group, the equality, the expectation of attainment, and the majesty held out by the federal multicultural banners have not been matched by programmatic seriousness .... Many ethnic strands ... began to realize, too, how difficult is was to relate to, and work with, others most like themselves ethnically, and also that many majority race-managed institutions operated with very little caring for the survival of minority individuals from some particular strands. The negative pull of racism and discrimination still limits the growth of personal relationships and the struggle "to become" on the part of many individuals who seek access to the main bureaucracies.48 D'Oyley highlights two critical factors regarding the implementation of the 1971 multicultural policy statement. First, he notes that the 1971 multicultural policy has failed to meet the expectations it held out to minority groups. Second, he observes that the policy has failed to have a positive impact upon the reduction of racism and discrimination to which all minority groups, especially visible minority groups, are particularly susceptible. The outcome of these factors is that equality and equity for many of Canada's visible minority groups remains an unfulfilled myth. Review Majority and minority group Canadians hold a range of views of multiculturalism. While majority group Canadians generally support the superficial and symbolic aspects of multiculturalism (e.g., food, drink and dance), minority group Canadians seek equality, equity, linguistic preservation - in short observance and respect of human and civil rights. If these goals appear to be 48Ibid. 67 similar, why have minority interests failed to unite? Breton (1979) explores the reasons why this action has not been taken. While ethnocultural groups may share common general concerns, the specific aspects of their concerns and the methods which they adopt to meet these concerns varies considerably. As a result, the groups involved cannot agree upon a common base upon which they could build their actions.49 The central issues of the respect and observance of human and civil rights, and most importantly equality and equity, remain to be resolved. Attitudes Toward Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education Based upon the available research, I have categorized the responses to Canadian multiculturalism and multicultural education according to student and administrative views. I will consider each in turn. Students' Views Canadian students have experienced and continue to experience discrimination. For example, D'Oyley (1977), notes in his case studies of adolescents in Canada that may minority group students are subject to discriminatory behavior by their peers.5° Fisher and Echols' (1989) report on race relations in the Vancouver School Board illustrate that this trend continues.5' The effects of these inequities can be manifested in the underachievement of minority group students and of their streaming into vocational schools. Prejudice reduction strategies are 49Raymond Breton, "French Canada," 45-46. 5°"Parenting and a Few Adolescent Cases in Three Ethnic Groups," in The Impact of Multi-Ethnicity on Canadian Education, 2nd. ed., ed. V.R. D'Oyley (Toronto: Urban Alliance on Race Relations, 1977), 177-196. 5'Donald Fisher and Frank Echols, Evaluation Report on Vancouver School Board's Race Relations PolicyiVancouver: Vancouver School Board, 1989). necessary; the precedent for these type of social and educational policies, first set in the Canadian Bill of Rights (i960) has been reiterated in the passage of the Charter ofRightsi 1982) and the Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988). While evidence exists to the contrary,52 minority and majority group students generally appear to be more supportive of programs and policies which address the issues of discrimination and prejudice. Based upon research by Berry and Kalin (1979), Fisher and Echols (1989) and a school based survey conducted in Vancouver,53 the following conclusions can be drawn. 1. Prejudice and discrimination exist in the school system. 2. Minority students and some teachers are more aware of the existence of discrimination and racism than administrators, ESL/D parents, non-ESL/D parents and students. 3. Students are generally more tolerant than adults. 4. Students enjoy attending a school where a wide range of ethnic, cultural, racial and linguistic backgrounds are represented. 5. Students feel that the school ought to assume a more active role in assisting their peers in dealing with prejudice and discrimination and in supporting the expression of different cultures. 6. A positive correlation between the student's stage of development and their positive attitude toward multiculturalism exists. (This latter finding offers an indication that if an individual's level of development could be enhanced then they would become increasingly tolerant. While Kehoe 52R.A. Clifton and R. Perry, "Has Prejudice Increased in Winnipeg Schools? A Comparison of Bogardus Social Distance Scales in 1971 and 1981," Canadian Ethnic Studies 17, no. 3 (1985), 72-80. 53J.WE. Berry and R. Kalin, "Attitudes," 32-44; British Columbia Teachers' Federation Newsletter, (Vancouver), 11 (1986); Donald Fisher and Frank Echols, Evaluation Report. 6 9 (1984) pursues this aspect more fully 54 I explore this aspect further in Chapter 4) Based upon these findings, students support the implementation of the programs and policies to address the central issues of human rights and civil liberties. Nonetheless, not all persons involved in the education systems share similar perspectives.55 Administrators Based upon research by Fisher and Echols (1989) and Shapson and Day (1981) educational administrators often adapt one of two postures when dealing with multiculturalism and its auxiliary facets.56 First, contrary to existing evidence, administrators often deny that prejudice and discrimination exist. (A Toronto area multicultural administrator who is trying to increase awareness of these issues confirms that this practice exists in Toronto as well as Vancouver.) Second, administrators may recognize the positive aspects of multiculturalism and multicultural education, but they support only the more superficial and symbolic aspects of multiculturalism and multicultural education. Prejudice and discrimination are active in the school system. While students hold a positive perception of multiculturalism and its fundamental subsidiary concepts, educational administrators often either deny the need for multicultural (and human rights education) or acknowledge the need in a superficial manner. 54 Jack Kehoe, Achieving Cultural Diversity in Canadian Schools (Corn wall, Ontario: Vesta Publications. 1984). 55Elaine Day and Stan Shapson, "Multiculturalism: A Survey of School Districts in British Columbia, 1981" Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia; Donald Fisher and Frank Echols, Evaluation. 56Ibid. :Elaine Day and Stan Shapson, "Multiculturalism: A Survey of School Districts in British Columbia, 1981" Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia. 70 Review Prejudice and discrimination punctuate schooling. It also ought to be pointed out that these inequities are prevalent in wider social, political and economic structures. These issues are receiving some attention through local, provincial and national multicultural, ethnic and race relations policies. Nonetheless, the issue remains that discriminatory behavior must be eradicated. Achievement of this objective is possible through a restrucutring of social, political and economic power structures. Focusing on the restructuring of schools, Lieberman and Miller (1990) propose that four issues require attention, namely: (1) administration and teacher leadership, (2) content verses process, (3) balancing the needs of students and teachers, and, (4) a balance of action and reflection 57 As the authors propose that," [wlhat works in school restructuring may be relative and what matters is absolute and universal" ,58 they offer five guiding principles which ought to guide the restrucutring process. The first, principle is to rethink curricular and instructional patterns with the purpose to promote equality and equity. The second principle is to re-examine and reform the school structure. The third prinicple is to provide both a fertile learning environment for students and a professional and supportive environment for adults. The fourth principle os to recognize the need to establish partnerships and networks among professionals and the school and community. The fifth principle is to recognize the need to increase the quanitity and quality of parterships among the school, the parents, and the community .59 5 7Ann Lieberman and Lynne Miller, "Restructuring Schools: What Matters and What Works," Phi Delta Kappan, 71, no. 10 (1990), 761. 5«Ibid„ 764. 59lbid.,761. 71 Some of these principles are implemented in a number of ways. These include equal opportunity employment policies and practices and increasing the number of teaching candidates from minority cultural, ethnic, racial and linguistic groups. The first two principles which focus upon equality and equity and the restructuring of the school can also be realized through revising the composition of local school board administrations in a manner such that minority group representation is proportional to the demographic statistics of the school board catchment area. All of these strategies can also be modified and applied to other political, economic and social structures. McNeills (1988) observation indicates some of the hesitancy Canadians have regarding multiculturalism and the role of multicultural education. This is not to say that Canadians are convinced about multiculturalism, or that most Canadians feel they know what official multiculturalism means for our society, for making a living or for education and schooling. There is an intuitive sense in the country that a multicultural society can be a just, stable and enriching society. The challenge to Canadians now is to acquire the beliefs and social structures appropriate to a just and stable multicultural society.60 McNeill observes that an apparent tradition of support of social justice, human rights and equity exists in Canada, Based upon current research, however, a great deal remains to be done to increase the practice of these fundamental elements of multiculturalism. Lieberman and Miller offer some guidelines to realize the recreation of society. 60John McNeill, "Multicultural Futures," 14. 72 Conclusion Canada and Ontario are multicultural, multiethnic, multiracial and multilingual. Over time, the nation and this province have come to accept and promote this richness. Promotion of this diversity has assumed three forms, namely, multiculturalism as attitude, multiculturalism as cultural and linguistic retention, and multiculturalism as equality. On a national level, the stages of this transformation include: the initial 1971 federal policy statement, Equality Now! (1984), the Canadian Constitution (l%l)diad its Charter of Rights and Freedoms and, the Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988). Within the Province of Ontario, multiculturalism has been supported by the government as a whole and, in particular, by the Ministry of Education. While early legislation sought to remedy blatant injustices based upon prejudiced beliefs and discriminatory practices, more recently, legislation has been passed regarding both multiculturalism and race relations. This movement is also evident in Ontario's policy statements and documents. These changes are incorporated through many curriculum policies and various curriculum guidelines. Based upon this survey of federal and provincial policies and programs, the evolution of the ideology of multiculturalism from that of strictly attitude to included cultural and linguistic retention and equality continues. Federal and provincial multicultural policies and programs emphasize the facets of positive attitude and cultural and linguistic retention. Nonetheless, increased emphasis on and implementation of multiculturalism as equality and equity is required. This area requires especial consideration. Controversy exists among perspectives of equality and equity within the Canadian milieu. Multi-ethnic groups present their own interpretations. Majority Anglophones often give Canada a positive report of equality and equity. Many 73 multi-ethnic minority groups hold a contrasting perspective. Events indicate that prejudiced beliefs and discriminatory behaviors are common in many elements of Canadian society, including schooling. The actual truth can be clouded by interpretation and presentation of data pertaining to the realization of equity and equity in educational institutions and within society in general. Further quantitative and qualitative data of equality and equity as they are realized in Canadian educational institutions and in broader society is required. More importantly, the existing inequities ought be addressed through the restructuring of political, social and economic institutions in a manner that reflects the demographic composition of the locality, the province and the country. Equity and equality within Canadian society is an goal toward which many government officials, administrator, and members of the general public strive. When this goal is actually achieved and realized Canada may truly pride itself as a tolerant, just and democratic country. Chapter 3 Exploring Analyses, Approaches and Models of Multicultural Education Introduction In this chapter, I will analyze models of multicultural education proposed by Canadian and American educators. I will also refer to specific programs offered in Canada and in Ontario as they apply to these models. I conclude the chapter by examining the links between multicultural and global education. Through this analytical method I will develop a framework to study the Multicultural Policy and Multicultural Leadership Program of the Board being studied. Through their investigations, researchers have concluded that the objectives underlying various models range from isolation, to assimilation, to encouragement of multiculturalism and its auxiliary components. Researchers create models of multicultural education based upon their investigation and analysis of existing curricula and programs. At this point, I wish to highlight that, ... issues in multicultural education inevitably pose questions of purpose in the wider society and that different images of Canadian society demand different responses from the school system.1 In the context of Young's (1979) comment, it is important to note that not all theoretical models of multicultural education are applicable within the Canadian context and that, in some cases, a model or a set of models, or typology, offered by two different theoreticians can overlap to a •Jonathan C. Young," Education in a Multicultural Society: What Sort of Education? What Sort of Society?" Canadian Journal of Multicultural Education, 4, no. 3 (1979). 5. significant degree; Gibson's (1976) and Magisino s (1985) typologies are a case in point.2 To set the national and the Ontario provincial models of "multiculturalism within a bilingual framework" in a broader context, I will discuss the typologies set out by Ouellet (1989), Gibson (1979), McLeod (1984). Magisino (1985) and Bennett (1990). Ouellet Drawing upon his international research base. Ouellet (1989) briefly defines his four models of multicultural education. Each description centers upon the role of the state in dealing with ethnic diversity. After quoting Ouellet, I will refer to the multicultural policies of Canada and Ontario to set the nation and this province within Ouellet's typology. The monocultural option: the State has the responsibility to socialize all citizens to the "national culture" in which members of all ethnic groups must melt, abandoning their ethnic specificity. The multicultural option : The state has the responsibility of helping all ethnic groups to preserve their cultural heritage. The intercultural option : The State must take measures to enhance harmonious relations between the various ethnic groups by increasing the opportunities of exchange and collaboration between members of these groups. 2See Margaret A. Gibson," Approaches to Multicultural Education in the United States: Some Concepts and Assumptions," Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 7, no. 3 (1976). 7-18; Romulo Magisino," The Right to Multicultural Education: A Descriptive and Normative Analysis," Multiculturalism, 9. no. 1 (1985). 4-9; Romulo Magisino and Amarjit Singh. Toward Multicultural Education in Newfoundland and Labrador: Phase I: Survey ofMulticultural Education Policies, Practices and Conceptions (St. John's Newfoundland: Education Foundations, Faculty of Education, Memorial University, 1986). 7 6 The transcultural option : The State must encourage the members of the various ethnic groups to go beyond the boarders of their group and to face with creativity and dynamism the new challenges raised by the acceleration of change in the world economy3 In the contest of these four models, it is significant that equality is not mentioned as forming a significant component of any one. This is one shortcoming of Ouellet's typology. As all of the models may or may not include equality, this fact is highly dependent upon the manner in which a particular state implements their philosophy of ethnic, cultural, racial, and linguistic diversity. Regardless of the omission of equality in Ouellet's typology, Canadian multicultural policies and programs are principally embodied in the 1971 multiculturalism policy and the Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988). In reviewing these policies, (see Chapter Two) the federal government's responses to ethnic, cultural, racial, and linguistic diversity is similar to the multicultural and intercultural models. For example, in 1971, the first two points Trudeau articulated regarding multiculturalism supported both the preservation of Canadian cultural groups and creative exchanges among these groups.4 In 1988, both of these points were included in the Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988)5 Furthermore, equality underpins both of these policies as well as the Charter ofRightsi 1982). At the provincial level, Ontario's Premier Davis announced Ontario's Multicultural Policy in 1977. In his speech, Davis highlighted three central aspects of the government's Policy, namely, (1) equality, (2) 3Fernand Ouellet, "Education in a Pluralistic Society: Proposal for an Enrichment of Teachers' Training," Paper presented at "Education in Plural Societies: A Review of International Research and Practice in Intergroup Relations and Education, Vancouver, 11-14 December 1989. 4House of Commons, Debates 8 October 1971,8546. ^Statues of Canada 1988, C 93-7 7 access and participation, and (3) cultural retention and sharing 6 As the Policy supports cultural preservation and the sharing of cultures, these two tenets of this Policy are similar to Ouellet's multicultural, and intercultural models. Based upon this review of Canada's and Ontario's multicultural policies, both the federal and provincial policies are similar to the multicultural and intercultural models defined by Ouellet. Clarification of Ouellet's typology is required to determine where and to what degree equality underpins any or all of these models. Gibson Coming from the American experience, Gibson (1976) offers five approaches to multicultural education: (a) as the education of the culturally different, (b) as the education about cultural differences, (c) as the education for cultural pluralism, (d) bicultural education, and, (e) multicultural education as normal human experience. I will discuss each but I would like to note here that Gibson (1976) explains that the last approach assumes a wider scope than that of a school program.7 6Keith A, McLeod, "Multiculturalism and Ontario," in Two Hundred Years: Learning and Living Together, (Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Culture, 1985), 101. 7Margaret A. Gibson. "Approaches", 7. 7 6 A. Education of the Culturally Different Two objectives underlie this model. The first is to provide equal educational opportunity for culturally, ethnically and racially diverse students whose backgrounds are at variance with the dominant or mainstream culture. The second is to increase the levels of consistency between the student's home and school environments.8 In Ontario, three basic sets of mainstream cultures exist in various parts of the province, namely, Anglo-Celtic/Protestant, Anglo-Celtic/Roman Catholic, and Francophone/Roman Catholic. Depending upon the geographic area and individual school, one these cultures would be considered as the "mainstream" culture. Education of the culturally different programs fall into two classifications. The first category, which includes English as a Second Language/Dialect, Head Start, and remedial programs, hold a negative connotation because these programs set apart ethnically, culturally, and racially diverse students from the mainstream in a negative derogatory manner. These programs can lower students' self-esteem. The second category includes Ontario's Black Studies (1983)- This curriculum is designed for the intermediate and senior grades and focuses on the achievements and contributions of Blacks in Canada. As enrollment is open to all students, this program reduces the segregating aspect. In addition, participation in the course may result in heightened self-esteem of Black students and increased respect of Black culture and heritage by all participating students. *Ibid.. 7-8. Criticisms have been noted regarding the segregationist application of education of the culturally different. First, empirical evidence available does not unequivocally support the belief that this approach increases immigrant students' levels of achievement.9 Second, people's perceptions of difference can contribute to the further isolation of minority students. Third, language is perceived as the "problem". Attendance in special language classes has resulted in students falling behind in his or her education and being streamed into a vocational program.10 Fourth, the immigrant can suffer lower self-esteem in two ways. One, the student's level of self-esteem is decreased because other perceive difference as "deviance" which ought to be reduced and ultimately eliminated; this results in the degrading of the student and his or her cultural heritage. Two, the majority culture can blame the immigrant's failure within society upon the immigrant. Again, the individual looses of self-esteem.11 These three latter effects lead to the greatest loss to both the immigrant and to society - the loss of human potential. It appears then that education of the culturally different has both a negative and a positive program base. Based upon this analysis, it is the program and not the model which ought to be examined. 9Ibid.,8. 10VandraMasemann, "Multicultural Programs in Toronto Schools." Interchange, 9, no. 1(1978-1979). 32. 1 'Kogelia Adam-Moodley," Ethnicity and Education : Implications of Multiculturalism," chap, in Race Relations and Multicultural Education (Vancouver: Center for Curriculum and Instructional Studies, Faculty of Education, University of British Columbia, 1985), 15-20. 6 0 8. Education About Cultural Differences or Cultural Understanding Three purposes underlie education about cultural differences, namely: "to teach students to value cultural differences, to understand the meaning of the culture concept, and to accept others' right to be different".'2 Curricula which emphasize differences between cultures in any subject area, for example, mythology, are examples of the education about cultural differences model. Unfortunately, this type of program often focuses upon the more exotic cultural aspects, for example, food, dress and music. The emphasis on difference can precipitate the formation of stereotypes in program participants. '3 The more extreme or exotic the differences, the more likely negative affective, cognitive and behavioral outcomes will result. Two principle criticisms of this model are that the stress placed upon differences can precipitate categorization, stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination and inequity and that teachers can be cast in the role of cultural relativists.14 When teachers are cast in this role, they can make erroneous comments, criticisms, and judgments without being fully informed of a particular culture. This practice is incongruent with their role as professional educators. Nevertheless, some researchers have concluded that through programs and activities based upon l2Margaret A. Gibson, "Approaches," 9. 13Jean S. Phinney and Mary Jane Rotheram, "Children's Ethnic Socialization: Pluralism and Development (Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications, 1989), 277. 14Vandra Masemann, Multicultural Programs," 33. 6 1 studying differences, students can develop an awareness and understanding of ethnic, cultural, racial, and linguistic differences and increase their ability to recognize social justice and human rights issues. Consequently, racism and discrimination may decrease.15 C. Education for Cultural Pluralism Education as education for cultural pluralism is based upon the preservation, enhancement, and encouragement of cultural pluralism in society. Confusion among the various interpretations of cultural pluralism exist. First, it may be interpreted as a social ideal of equality to be striven toward. Second, it may be perceived as being synonymous with cultural diversity. Third, it has been understood as away to analyze social relationships as to distinguish pluralistic society from a homogeneous society. Fourth, it has been applied in the United States as a theory to describe and explain ethnic and racial grouping and assimilation. Gibson (1976) narrows the definition of cultural pluralism to refer to a structural formation which multicultural education ought to be designed to promote. These structures are to include schools, clubs and religious organizations.16 In Canada, numerous ethnocultural communities have survived and expanded with the support of these types of structural systems. Ethnic-specific schools and heritage language classes are examples of the type of organizations and programs which fit into the category of education for cultural pluralism. Ethnic-specific schools are based upon *5ibid..9. 16Ibid..ll. provindally approved curricula and other specially designed courses. Provincial policies and guidelines are adapted to the cultural, ethnic, racial, and religious background and concerns of the particular school population. Specially designed courses are based upon the ethnic, cultural, racial, linguistic, and religious traditions of the particular ethnocultural group. After school hours courses emphasizing the retention of these aspects of a particular group, for example, Ontario's Heritage Language Program, are another program upon which this model is based.17 D. Bicultural Education While this label appears particularly applicable within Anglophone and Francophone Canada, Gibson proposes that this model supports the development of the individual's ability to function in any two cultures - his or her own and the culture of the dominant group.18 On a collective basis, Canadian legal recognition of cultural diversity exists. On an individual basis, rather than on a collective basis, bicultural education respects this diversity. The Ontario Heritage Languages Programme and Quebec's Programme d'enseignement des Jangues dorigine are contemporary examples of bicultural education programs.'9 17See Keith A. McLeod, "Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education," in Multiculturalism in Canada: Social and Educational Perspectives, ed. R.J. Samuda, J.W. Berry and M. Laferriere, (Toronto: Allyn and Bacon Inc., 1984), 34-35. 18MargaretA.Gibson," Approaches," 13 19Margaret A. Gibson, "Approaches," 15; Alison d'Anglejan and Zita De Koninck, "Educational Policy for a Culturally Plural Quebec," in Innovative Multicultural Teaching eds. Stan Shapson and Vincent D'Oyley (Toronto: Kegan and Woo, n.d.), 177-9. £. Multicultural Education as Normal Human Experience 63 Goals of this model focus upon the development of competencies to perceive, understand, evaluate, believe and act in a multiplicity of ways. Multicultural education as normal human experience is based upon a number of purposes. First, each member of society ought to develop their ability to function appropriately in multiple cultural, ethnic, and racial environments. Second, ethnic groups themselves will be recognized as a gathering of similar ethnocultural subgroups. Third, intergroup contact and the creation of positive intergroup relationships will be developed, encouraged, and promoted. Fourth, a systemic permeation of multiculturalism throughout the entire social system will be a principle objective.20 Curricular examples comprising a practical foundation of this model include multicultural leadership camps and cooperative learning based upon ethnoculturally heterogeneous grouping. While these are important goals, the programs and actions typical of this model do not include equality of opportunity, treatment and outcome. Therefore. Masemann (1978-1979) proposes that this model constitutes " a highly unlikely solution" within the Canadian milieu.21 20Margaret A. Gibson. "Approaches," 15-16. 2 1 Vandra Masemann," Multicultural Programs," 42. McLeod 6 4 McLeod (1984), a Canadian professor of education, in analyzing Canadian developments, programs and practices has categorized attempts at multicultural education into three models: (a) ethnic-specific, (b) problem-oriented and (c) cultural/intercultural.22 A. Ethnic-Specific The principle characteristic which distinguishes the forms of multicultural education that McLeod includes in this category is the preservation and development of a culture and the group. Two purposes underlie programs symbolic of this model. First, they are designed to counteract assimilative influences. Second, they are created to increase and broaden an individual's awareness, understanding of, and participation in their own ethnocultural heritage.23 Ethnic-specific schools and heritage language/culture courses are the prime examples of ethnic-specific programs. As Hutterite, Mennonite and Ukrainian schools have been established in Alberta and Anglophone schools exist Quebec, Hebrew day schools are also prospering. Many ethnocultural groups in Ontario have also established their own ethnic-specific schools. In addition, the Ontario Provincial Government approved the Heritage Language Programme in 1977. Outcomes of ethnic-specific education include increasing an individual's personal sense of security and identity and the bridging of disparity between the culture of the home and community with that of 22Keith A, McLeod," Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education," 34-39. 23Ibid.. 34. the wider society.24 B. Problem-Oriented Problem-oriented programs are designed to address the real and perceived needs of specific ethnic, cultural, and racial groups 25 Through these programs the assimilation of minority groups and individuals is precipitated as the dominant language and culture replace that of the mother tongue and culture.26 English as a Second Language/Dialect curricula. Head Start, and anti-discrimination programs are key examples of this type of multicultural education. As anti-racist and anti-discrimination programs are often written to address race relations issues and incidents, these types of activities are more often reactive rather than proactive. They may also be characterized by being short-term and intermittent27 Nevertheless, the Scarborough's Graduate Race Relations Awareness and Community Experience: GJR.A.C£. focuses upon race relation issues, but is proactive and long term; this multicultural leadership program has been approved by the Ontario Ministry of Education as a half credit to be offered in the Scarborough Board of Education in the fall of 1990 2 8 24Ibid.. 35. 25lbid. 26Ibid. 27Ibid., 37. 2 8 Ann Samson, Carole Yellin and James Mercer, Peer Helping/Human Relations Graduate Race Relations A warenessand Community Experience: GJ?.A. CE, draft, eds. Iris Brown and Ann Samson (Scarborough, Ontario: Scarborough Board of Education. 1987). 11-15-While a negative ethos often surrounds problem-oriented multicultural education programs, Ontario's Black Studies (1983) which is based upon this approach, includes the objectives of increasing awareness and knowledge of the Black subgroups and of enhancing the self-esteem of the students.29 While the culture and language of ethnocultural groups can be negated through problem-oriented based policies, programs and actions, others include human rights issues and increasing the participants' self-esteem and cultural awareness. C. Cultural/Intercultural The cultural/intercultural model is based upon the premise of creating a systemic ethos of multicultural education throughout the education system.30 The central objectives of this approach are equity, equal access, and full participation in society. Other important objectives include increasing self-esteem, transcending one's own cultural barriers and developing cognitive and behavioral skills to function appropriately in more than one culture. McLeod notes several characteristics of this model. First, this approach is based upon the social, cultural and political realities of Canadian society. Second, the model is based upon equal access, status, participation, success and achievement among all Canadians. Third, it includes the concept of choice of lifestyles. Fourth, members of Canada's ethnocultural groups can develop a sense of ownership of the programs and can participate in building bridges among all of Canada's groups. Fifth, this model also includes the development of an individual's self-290ntario Ministry of Education, B/ackStudiesiToronio, 1983). 30Keith A. McLeod, "Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education," 37. esteem, empathy and awareness of the rights and cultures of others.31 A number of curricula are based upon this model. One curriculum is the bicultural/bilingual programs which are open to all students.32 A second example are programs designed upon multiculturalism throughout all curricula. A third example of this type of approach are curriculum which are based upon both similarities and differences among cultures. A final example of a cultural/intercultural program are multicultural leadership camps. McLeod also emphasizes the fact that cultural/intercultural programs are especially pragmatic in mixed ethnocultural areas.33 Of all the models McLeod investigates and analyzes, the objectives of the cultural/intercultural model are most similar to the goals of multiculturalism as stated in The Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988) and the Ontario polices on multiculturalism and race relations. Magisino Magisino (1985) developed a typology of six models of multicultural education. He labels his models in the following manner, namely, multicultural education as : A. education for an emergent society; B. education of the culturally different; C. education for cultural understanding; D. education for cultural accommodation; E. education for cultural preservation; and, F. education for multicultural adaptation of choice.34 These models are identical to those proposed by Magisino and 3 1 Ibid, 38. 32Ibid. 33Ibid. 34Romulo Magisino," A Descriptive and Normative Analysis," 4-9. Singh (1986) and are similar to some of these models echo those developed by Gibson (1976).35 I win discuss each of the six models in turn. A. Education for an Emergent Society Multicultural education for an emergent society advocates elimination of ethnic, cultural, racial and linguistic diversity and the amalgamation of all ethnocultural groups into a new unified society.36 A common expression used to describe this model is a "melting pot"; common parlance often associates this expression with the United States. The study of common superordinate values and norms, the promotion of national values, and, the examination of social issues and problems from the perspective of their effect of cultural diversity are types of programs upon which this model is based 3 7 B. Multicultural Education as Education of the Culturally Different This approach corresponds to Gibson's model of the same label. It's principle purpose is to equalize opportunity and outcome among both majority and minority group children. This goal is to be achieved through encouraging the minority group students to acquire the skills ^Margaret A. Gibson, "Approaches," 7-18; Romulo Magisino and Amarjit Singh, Toward Multicultural Education in Newfoundland and Labrador: Phase I: Survey of Multicultural Education Policies, Practices and CbnceptionsiSt. John's, Newfoundland, Educational Foundations, Faculty of Education, Memorial University. 1986). 70. 36Romulo Magisino," A Descriptive and Normative Analysis," 5. 37Ibid. 6 9 and knowledge held as being valuable by the host society. As cultural differences are seen to precipitate learning difficulties, equal opportunity and achievement are to be promoted though English as a Second Language/Dialect, Head Start and other remedial programs.38 C. Education for Cultural Understanding Two objectives form the basis of this model. First, students are to develop an understanding of similarities and differences among cultures. Second, social harmony in a diverse, equality-based society is to be engendered. Theme studies (a pedagogical approach implemented in primary grades where a certain universal topic or theme .e.g., water is studied across the curriculum) are an example of this type of approach. Through these types of units, students are encouraged to perceive, understand and respect similarities and differences. (It is important, however, if a teacher implements this approach, that the studies do not stress the exotic aspects which are often typical of food and other similar themes.) Exploration of a variety of cultural, ethnic, racial and religious heritages in social studies and history courses are approaches which are especially appropriate for intermediate and secondary school levels 3 9 Given current Canadian cultural, ethnic, racial and linguistic patterns and the federal and, in some cases provincial, support of this diversity, the goals the cultural understanding model of multiculturalism 38Ibid. 3*Ibid.. 6. 9 0 are similar to those endorsed by the federal and some provincial governments.40 D. Education for Cultural Accommodation The two principle objectives of this approach are to encourage cultural diversity in society and to develop equality of opportunity, outcome and success.41 These goals are to be realized through accommodating and incorporating culturally, ethnically, racially, and religiously different groups into a nation. In the Canadian context, this movement results in "hyphenated Canadians". Once these groups are formed, they may, if the members can secure adequate human and financial resources, become interest groups; these interest groups are then able to promote the goal of equitable distribution of goods and services.42 This approach is adopted to schooling through a variety of avenues including: heritage language and Native studies classes as well as ethnic-specific and community schools (where community representatives are responsible for the school's policies and programs).43 40Ibid. 4 1 Ibid. 42Ibid. 43Ibid. 9 1 E. Education for Cultural Preservation Multicultural education as education for cultural preservation seeks to preserve and enhance cultural and linguistic retention of a specific ethnocultural group, to socialize students into these traditions and to increase awareness of and pride in one's heritage.44 Ethnic-specific schools are a prime example of this model. This approach is very similar to McLeod s ethnic-specific model. Magisino points out that this approach encourages segregation on the one hand and also promotes political interaction. This interaction occurs to ensure the equitable distribution of goods and services. In addition, the author notes that broader societal goals are subordinated to those of the specific ethnocultural group.4' In the Canadian context, if these schools were typical of Canadian education, they would ultimately contradict the national basis of the Canadian nationalism. F. Education for Multicultural Adaptation This fifth model is designed to help individuals to be able to function effectively in two or more cultures in the society.46 Educational interventions which are examples of this model include immersion classes, courses taught in a non-official languages, multicultural extracurricular activities and employment of teachers and 44Ibid.,6 45lbid. 46Ibid.,7. 9 2 support staff from a variety of ethnocultural groups.47 The multicultural leadership paradigm is another example which is being implemented by the Ontario Provincial Government as well as by seven Metropolitan Toronto Boards of Education.48 Multicultural Education and Global Education Similar to the pattern observed in multicultural education, global education is confronted by a labyrinth of definitions, objectives and connotations.49 Bennett (1989) defines global education as an attempt to deal, "with world trends, developments, issues, change and the interrelatedness of all peoples. "50 Based upon her analysis of models of global and multicultural education, Bennett observes common threads shared by both multicultural and global education. First, both models are designed to combat prejudice and discrimination. Second, respect for human dignity and human rights are similar between global and multicultural education. Third, both types of education are based upon positive intergroup relations. Fourth, these two types of education include an awareness of cultural consciousness and national 47Ibid. 48The following Metropolitan Toronto Boards of Education implement at least one form of multicultural leadership program: Toronto Board of Education, the Borough of East York Board of Education, the City of North York Board of Education, the Scarborough Board of Education, the Metropolitan Toronto Separate School Board, the City of Etobicoke Board of Education, and the City of York Board of Education. 49Christine Bennett, "Strengthen in Multicultural and Global Perspectives in the Curriculum," Paper presented at Education in Plural Societies: A Review of International Research and Practice in Intergroup Relations and Education. Vancouver, 14-17 December 1989,1. 50lbid., 2. 93 consciousness. Fifth, both approaches are based upon the need to address real concerns that threaten our communities, our countries and the world.51 Drawing upon these similarities, Bennett (1990) integrates multicultural and global education together in one model. As she openly acknowledges the model's idealistic attributes^2 Bennett lists four core values which the global/multicultural approach is designed to achieve, namely: responsibility to a world community, reverence for the earth, acceptance and appreciation of cultural diversity, and respect for human dignity and human rights. She further subdivides these values into six goals. These include the following: to develop multiple historical perspectives, to strengthen cultural consciousness, to strengthen intercultural competence, to combat racism, prejudice and discrimination, to increase awareness of the "State of the Planet" and global dynamics and to build social action skills.53 Other researchers have explored specific implications of the blending of multicultural and global education. For example, Zachariah (1989) explores the curricular implications of the linkage between multicultural and global education Ouellet examines the role of intercultural and global education in teacher training. 50 I will briefly examine the implications of this blending as articulated by each respective author. Zachariah (1989) observes the importance of equitable treatment of minority groups in the curriculum. This practice sets the expectations for exploration of issues generally associated with global education. He 51 Ibid., 3. 52Ibid., 4. 53lbid., 5. 9 4 states that, There is a symbiotic relationship between the goal of promoting respect for persons from " visible minorities" in Canada (one of the goals of multicultural education) and reaching a greater understanding of the people of. for example, faraway Africa in their struggles to shape a more humane world in the face of harrowing problems (a goal of global education).54 Though the author skirts the issue of equality and equitable treatment of all persons beyond curricula, Zachariah's comments are similar to the goals supported by Bennett. These include the acceptance and appreciation of diversity and the observance of and respect for human rights.55 Ouellet (1989) presents the advantages of linking intercultural and global education in the context of both homogeneous and heterogeneous schools.56 I will explore the role of intercultural and global education in each situation. In homogeneous schools, teachers who introduce global education provide the opportunity for students to study the evolutionary nature of society. For example, students could become aware of the environmental interdependence of the globe. Students could also examine the role and patterns of immigration. This type of investigation could help students in two ways. First, they could become aware of and understand immigration from both developing and industrialized countries of the world.57 Second, examination of immigration could also prepare 5*Mathew Zachariah, "Linking Global Education with Multicultural Education," ATA Magazine, 69, no. 4 (1989), 49. 55lbid., 48. 56Fernand Ouellet, "Education in a Pluralistic Society," 21. 57lbid. students for other experiences which they can encounter later in life. In a school which is already ethnoculturally diverse, investigation of a number of areas would increase students' awareness and understanding of issues which their community, their province/state, nation and the globe are faced. Studies could help all students understand the demographic, ecological and social changes. Students could also develop a greater awareness cognizance and appreciation of the world economy and of international political, economic and relations.58 Ouellet's perspective is similar to Bennett's. Both share an appreciation of the symbiotic relationship between global and multicultural education. Both propose ways in which this relationship could be promoted, encouraged and would benefit students and teachers alike. Zachariah also contributes to this concept through his examination of linking global and multicultural education in the curriculum. This concept could also be advanced in other educational areas including extracurricular activities, policies and procedures. Through blending global and multicultural education together, another educational model is created which is based upon a number of objectives. First, students can be prepared to understand multiple perspectives. Second, students can become aware of the economic, ecological, political and social interdependence at the community, provincial/state, national, and international levels. Third, students can develop an awareness of writers the observance and respect of human rights and civil liberties in their community, province, and throughout the globe. Fourth, students can develop an awareness, appreciation and acceptance of ethnic, cultural, racial and linguistic diversity at local, national and international levels. The global/multicultural education model is a signpost for the further development of both global and multicultural education. Conclusions School systems implement a diverse range of multicultural programs which, in turn, form the foundations for a wide variety of models and typologies of multicultural education. As each theoretician offers their own set of models, each model has its own inherent purposes, assumptions and outcomes. Not all include respect and observance of human rights and civil liberties. Therefore, only a select few are compatible with Canadian social, cultural, and political realities. Masemann reinforces this aspect and comments that the long term outcomes of multicultural education, "seem to be closely associated with the fate of multiculturalism as a goal of Canadian social policy generally".59 Federal and provincial official and non-official policies, programs and actions favour and support multiculturalism and multicultural education at this time. With continued immigration to Canada and its resultant effects, multiculturalism and its subsidiary aspects ought to continue to to be in the forefront of Canadian society. The linking of multicultural and global education is an alternative which can assist in advancing the goals of both of these educational 59Vandra Masemann, "Multicultural Programs," 42. approaches. Multicultural and global educators, theoreticians, and politicians require continued support to be able to propose, formulate, and implement programs designed to address increasing ethnic, cultural, racial, and linguistic prejudiced beliefs and discriminatory policies, programs, and actions. 9 6 Chapter 4 Theories of Prejudice and Strategies to Increase Levels of Tolerant Attitudes Toward Ethnocultural Groups Introduction In this chapter I will investigate theories of prejudice and research-based strategies designed to increase tolerance and acceptance of members of minority groups. Chester (1976) comments upon the fluctuating nature of theories of prejudice and of the variables which influence them. It is important to remember that theories change over time. They change as our knowledge changes, as our values change, and as our social structures change: they both reflect and help create the state of our science and our politics. What seemed reasonable and fashionable at one time may appear outrageous at another.1 Similar to the evolving nature of theories of prejudice, educators and psychologists design, implement, review, and revise strategies created to change attitudes toward minority groups. I offer the following review of a variety of theories of prejudice and a range of strategies or methods which are designed to increase tolerance, acceptance, and understanding of minority groups. 'Mark Chester, "Contemporary Theories of Racism," in Towards the Elimination of Racism ed. Phyllis Katz( Toronto: Pergamon Press Inc., 1976), 65. Theories of Prejudice A theory consists of a, system of ideas explaining something, especially one based on general principles independent of the facts.... [or a] collection of propositions to illustrate principles of a subject.2 Based upon this quotation, a theory is a principled framework from which researchers may base their studies and from which curriculum may be designed. Theories of prejudice often focus upon a singular aspect of the phenomenon, for example authoritarianism. They also have their own degree of completeness and their own weaknesses and strengths. Through combining these theories together a multiple causation perspective is created. Allport (1954) summarizes this approach in the following manner. There seems to be value in all of the ... approaches [to reduce prejudice], and some truth in virtually all of the resulting theories. It is not possible at the present time to reduce them into a single theory of human action. Nevertheless,... the principal points of view will fall into a clear perspective. There is no master key! Rather, what we have at our disposal is a ring of keys, each of which opens one gate of understanding.3 This theoretical approach provides a more complete understanding of dynamics underlying prejudice 4 Both Allport and Aboud (1988) share a common psychological background; both authors endeavor to objectively present a multiple causation perspective by drawing upon other academic disciplines. I combine these two sources together and refer to supplementary references. Through this investigative and analytical 2TheConcise Oxford'DictionaryotEnglish, 7th ed., (1986). s.v. "theory". 3Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice, 25th Anniversary Edition, (Don Mills, Ontario: Addison-Wesley Publishers Inc., 1986). 208. 4Ibid., 218. 1 0 0 approach, I will present a multiple causation perspective of the theories of prejudice. Allport's Theories of Prejudice Based upon his work of the Black and Jewish American experience, Allport reviews a number of possible causes of prejudice. He analyses these causes and categorizes them into the following classifications, namely: (1) historical, (2) sociocultural, (3) situational, (4) psychodynamic, (5) phenomenological, and (6) approach via stimulus object' 1. Historical Both the economic exploitation theory, of which Marxian exploitation theory forms a central component, and a purer historical events theory provide examples of the historical interpretation. * Economic exploitation of either a segment of the population or this population's resources provide the basis of the Marxian exploitation theory.7 Within the Canadian context, colonists supported the practice of Black slavery; later, early Canadian politicians and engineers relied upon the exploitation of Orientals during the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Nonetheless, this theory is faulted because of: its inherently simplicity, its inadequate explanation of unequal levels of prejudice among exploited peoples, and its inadequate explanation of the inferior social and psychological position of both 5lbid„ 207. *Ibid.. 204. 7Ibid„ 204. 1 0 1 lower class Whites and Blacks in the United States.8 The Marxian exploitation theory also fails to explain why social patterns continue for reasons other than those which initially set these patterns in motion 9 and why fluctuations in levels of prejudice occur when levels of competition remain constant.10 Within the historical interpretation of the causes of prejudice, Allport observes that history can provide a general social context in which prejudices may develop.! I For example, prejudice in the United States may in part be rooted in the historical practice of slavery. In Canada, prejudiced beliefs and discriminatory practices against Germans in Canada during World War II may have been based, in part, upon the historical impact of the German nation during World War I. It is important to note, however, that while historical events may provide a context in which prejudices and discriminatory behavior may develop, this explanation is insufficient as a singular cause of prejudice. 2. Sociocultural This theory is rooted in the academic disciplines of sociology and anthropology. The underlying premise of the sociocultural explanation is based upon the hypothesis that prejudice results from the influences of the entire social context. 8Ibid., 80. 'Arnold A. Rose," The Causes of Prejudice," in American Minorities: A Textbook in Readings in Intergroup Relations ed. M.L. Barron (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1962),80 10Ibid. 11 Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice, 209. 1 0 2 To buttress this theory, Allport establishes ten sociological "lavs" which effect an individual's formation of prejudice and which together reflect a multiple causation perspective. Where the social structure is marked by heterogeneity Where vertical mobility is permitted Where rapid social change is in progress Where there are ignorance and barriers to communication Where the size of the minority group is large or increasing Where direct competition and realistic threats exist Where exploitation sustains important interests in the community Where customs regulating aggression are favourable to bigotry Where traditional justifications for ethnocentrism are available Where neither assimilation nor cultural pluralism is favoured.12 Allport comments that these laws are not indisputable;13 however, as noted in the previous chapter, incidents of discrimination and bias in Canada and in its major cities lend support to many of Allport's laws. For example, many of Toronto's citizens express feelings prejudice and racism.14 Incidents of biased and discriminatory behavior also occur.'5 When comparing Allport's laws to the social, cultural, economic, and political situation in Toronto, certain similarities exist. First, Toronto is a city characterized by its heterogeneous composition.16 Second, vertical mobility is not only permitted, but encouraged through the 12Ibid.,206. 13Ibid. 14See, Frances Henry," The Dynamics of Racism in Toronto: summary of Main Results," Intercultural Education and Community Development^., Keith A. McLeod (Toronto: Guidance Center, Faculty of Education, University of Toronto, 1980), 99-100. '5See Vincent R. D'Oyley, "Parenting and A Few Adolescent Cases in Three Ethnic Groups," chap, in The Impact of Multi-Ethnicity on Canadian Education, 2nd. ed., (Toronto: Urban Alliance on Race Relations, 1977), 177-96; Dionne Brand and Krisantha Bhaggryadatta, Reviers Have Sources, Trees Have Roots: Speaking of Racism (Toronto: Cross Cultural Communication Centre, 1986). 160ntario Ministry of Citizenship and Culture, Mother Atlas Tongue of Metropolitan TorontavoLZ. 1981 (Toronto. 1981). 103 implementation of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto's equal opportunity laws, affirmative action policies and similar actions and recommendations.17 Third, rapid social change is taking place.18 Fourth, the size of the minority groups is increasing.19 Fifth, realistic threats exist.20 Nevertheless, in the cases of Toronto and of Ontario generally, it is important to consider that the Provincial Government and similar agencies no longer permit or tolerate incidents of bias, discrimination and racism. This fact was made clear in Premier Davis' 1977 proclamation of Ontario's Multiculturalism Policy and the Province's Race Relations Policy {VMS). The specific example of Toronto, however, highlights the multiple causation perspective and, more importantly, the need for actions and policies to address these beliefs and practices. 3. Situational The situational emphasis is grounded in the role of "current forces" as a fundamental cause of prejudice.21 Allport offers a number of examples of these forces. For example, he cites examples of: the influence of the current, and often 17City of North York Board of Education, Race and Ethnic Relations Policy and Procedures (City of North York: City of North York Board of Education, 119841), 9; Metropolitan Toronto Police Third'EmploymentEquity Reportiloronto: Metropolitan Toronto Police, 1989); Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, Equal Opportunity: A Strategy for the 90s (Toronto: The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto. 1989); Peel Board of Education. Multicultural/Race Relations Policy, draft (n.p.: Peel Board of Education, 1988), n.p.; Toronto Board of Education, Final Report of the Sub-Committee on Race Relations (Toronto: 1984), 19. 1 ^ Report ofthe Proceedings of the Symposium on Policing in Multicultural/Multiracial Urban Communities, eds. Don Winterton et al. (Ottawa: Ministry of State for Multiculturalism, 1984), 1. 19Ibid.; Constantino Passaris, "Multiculturalism and Immigration: Charting New Directions for Canadian Public Policy," Multiculturalism, 11, no. 2, (1988), 9-17; "Multicultural Ontario," Multiculturalism Ontario, 2, no. 2 (1989), 15 ^Report of the Proceedings, 1. 2 1 Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice, 208. inconsistent, teachings; the economic and employment circumstances; and, of the effect of contact upon and within individuals.22 Rose (1962) also acknowledges the role of propaganda both as influencing the underlying causes or perpetuating prejudice.23 As a compendium of a number of aspects including, but not limited to, economic, social and political conditions, the situational emphasis theory is itself based upon multiple causation. 4. Psychodynamic The psychoanalytic emphasis includes a variety of components, all of which involve some aspect of an individual's psychological make-up or internal character. Five general sub-classifications or phenomena namely, (i) the projection/displacement theory, (ii) the frustration-aggression theory, (iii) the symbolic theory and, (iv) the authoritarian personality theory of prejudice are part of Allport's psychoanalytic interpretation of prejudice. I will investigate each. i. the projection/displacement theory The projection/displacement theory is based upon the premise that an individual holds a certain concept, feeling, or idea which upsets the balance of his or her own self-image. To restore the balance and resolve the inner conflict, the individual ascribes the unacceptable attribute to another person or, in some cases, 22Ibid.,209. 23ArnoldRose," The Causes of Prejudice," 87. 105 a particular group.24 For example, if a person is lazy, he or she may disown this personal attribute and project it upon migrant workers or a recent immigrant group. ii. the frustration-aggression theory Allport describes two versions of this theory; each theory is based on a three step process. In the first theory, a person may be involved in an action of personal misconduct (step one); he or she feels guilty (step two); and, the individual displaces the guilt on a vulnerable or weak individual in an aggressive act (step three). In the second theory, a person may feel frustrated (step one); the person then transforms frustration into a feeling aggression (step two); and, the individual displaces this inappropriate feeling on a vulnerable or weaker person (step three).25 Prejudice, then is manifested in a form of aggression in which a person displaces their feelings upon another, often irrelevant individual or group. Scapegoating, is an example of this theory in practice. A number of criticisms have been raised against the frustration-aggression theory. Rose notes that this theory is inadequate because it inadequately explains why: (1) one frustration or type of frustration is not always the factor which determines a group's relationship with another group;( 2) frustration is not always expressed in an aggressive manner; and, (3) one victim is chosen over another.26 Allport also notes the theory's weaknesses; some of these criticisms are similar to those Rose presents. First, frustration does not precipitate aggressive action; for example, social, economic and political circumstances may deter aggression. 24Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice, 215-6. 25 Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice, 319. 26Arnold Rose." The Causes of Prejudice." 82-83. Second, aggression may not always be displaced on another person; it may be displaced upon an object or upon oneself. Third, displacement does not necessarily lead to the reduction of the feeling of frustration; despite the carrying out of an aggressive act.the initial frustration may remain. Fourth, the theory inadequately explains the choice of victim or the degree to which the hatred may be manifested; this relates to the hierarchy of discriminatory behavior Allport describes.27 Fifth, the victim or group subjected to the aggressive act may not necessarily be in an inferior or weak position; for example, a student may act aggressively to a teacher or person in the school administration. Sixth, the displacement theory inadequately explains the different levels in occurrence of aggression among low and high prejudiced persons. Last, the theory does not take into account the existence of real social conflict. For example, Blacks in South Africa are in a bitter internal conflict among the various subgroups as well as in conflict with the official government of South Africa.28 Despite the frustration/aggression theory's shortcomings, this theory is one piece of the puzzle of the causes of prejudice because frustration can on occasion lead to aggression which is expressed against a particular minority group. 3. the symbolic theory As an adjunct to the frustration/aggression theory, symbolic theories of prejudice attempt to provide an explanation of the choice and motive of the perpetrator of prejudice. The underpinnings of this theory are based upon a number of suppositions. First, an individual folds an ambivalent attitude toward an important object or person; this object is valued by the individual's peers and by 27Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice, 350. 28Ibid. 350-1. society. Second, to express this unfavorable attitude, the individual finds a psychologically equivalent object or person. On this basis, the placebo object becomes the subject or victim of the ambivalent attitude.29 Rose notes the weaknesses of this theory include its reliance upon inferential proof as evidence and researchers' neglect to subject the theory to reliable and valid testing.30 4. the authoritarian personality theory Adorno (1950) originally popularized this interpretation in The Authoritarian Personality. Two facets of the authoritarian theory of prejudice focus upon the influence of parents upon their children. First, certain child-rearing practices fail to permit the child's controlled expression of anger. Second, specific parental practices lower children's levels of self-esteem. Thus, these children project their anger toward ethnocultural groups or generalize their negative qualities on to other people.31 Aboud (1988) offers five criticisms of the authoritarian personality theory. These include: (1) an established relationship between authoritarian child-rearing practices and prejudice is found only among adolescent males;32 (2) low levels of self-esteem effects prejudice only among White adolescents;33 (3) individual differences in levels of prejudice among some segments of the White population is only partially explained; 3 4 (4) the choice of targets of prejudice remains unaddressed;35 and, (5) differences between the 29Arnold Rose, "The Causes of Prejudice," 83 3 0 Ibid.,86. 3'Frances Aboud, Children andPre/'udiceitiw York: Basil Blackwell Inc., 1988), 90-91. 32Ibid.. 99. 33Ibid. 34Ibid.. 102. "Ibid., 24. 1 0 6 prejudices of a child and those of an adult remain undifferentiated.36 While the authoritarian personality theory does contribute to an understanding of the causes of prejudice, this theory does not offer a complete explanation. 3. phenprnegpiogjcaJi The phenomenological cause of prejudice is based upon the individual's perception of the situation presently at hand. This, in turn is influenced by the person's understanding of his or her environment.37 When examining these two aspects, namely the present situation and the person's values, beliefs and morals, Allport neatly combines all of his research regarding theories of prejudice into one group. Again, multiple causation is one theory of prejudice which can encompass many separate theories and understandings regarding the causes of prejudice. 6. approach via stimulus object Through Allport refers to this aspect in his introduction to theories of prejudice,38 he focuses upon the aspect of earned reputation.39 Allport succinctly points out that the reputation in many cases is not earned, but is thrust gratuitously upon another individual or group.40 Only in very limited cases, therefore, is this theory a partially adequate explanation of the cause of prejudice. 36Ibid.. 34. 37Gordon Allport, The Nature of Prejudice, 216. 38Ibid.. 207. 39Ibid.. 217. 4°Ibid. 1 0 9 In summary, Allport and Rose advocate a multiple causation perspective. Many causes underlie prejudice including affective, cognitive, social, political, and economic. Aboud (1988, 1989, 1990) reviews some of these theories Allport addresses, but her most complete research is based upon a social-cognitive theory of prejudice. This theory also is based in a multiple causation perspective. Aboud s Theories of Prejudice Aboud's (1988, 1989, 1990) dissatisfaction with the prevailing theories of prejudice and her own research among young minority and majority group children provide the background for her presentation of a comprehensive explanation of the causes of prejudice. Using elements of previously proposed theories of prejudice, the theories Aboud presents can be subdivided into a three categories, namely: (1) the psychodynamic theory , (2) the social reflection theory, and (3) the social-cognitive theory 1. psychodynamic Referring to Adorno's seminal work in which he promoted the authoritarian causes of prejudice, Aboud (1988) simplifies this complex theory and presents prejudice as being rooted, in part, in the individual's ability to accept and control their own aggressive impulses. She presents the source of these impulses as being partially established in parental child-rearing practices.41 Previous discussion of the criticisms Aboud notes regarding the authoritarian theory need not be repeated at this point. •Frances Aboud, Children and Prejudice, 99. 1 1 0 2. social reflection Within the social reflection theory, Aboud presents two theoretical derivations. First, she states that after age seven, children develop an understanding and awareness of social structures, values, attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes. Second, she proposes that children also imitate and accept the social mores and understandings of significant others within their immediate environment.42 Through this explanation an individual's choice of target groups, the unequal levels of prejudice among different groups, and, the prevalence and continuation of prejudice as a function of time are addressed 4 3 3.soyial-gog.niUye Through her own research and through studying the research of others Aboud derives a social-cognitve theory of prejudice. She describes and assesses the social-cognitive developmental theory of prejudice. These theories predict qualitatively different types of prejudice at different ages as a result of changes in cognitive structure. My own view is that these structural changes predict non-gradual changes in the level of prejudice with age. Thus, prejudice may be regarded as an inevitable but not necessarily enduring because it is based on inevitable aspects of a young child's way of thinking which eventually disappear. Even though cognitive limitations determine the structure of attitudes.daily input from the environment presumably affects the content, i.e. about which ethnic groups one has an attitude.44 In the social-cognitive theory, Aboud perceives the underlying causes of prejudice 42Ibid, 18. 43Ibid„ 19-20. 44Ibid., 22. I l l as rooted in both individual's level of cognitive development and in the social structures in which the individual is engaged. Furthermore, she proposes that declines in levels of prejudice are possible as higher or more advanced stages of cognitive thinking develop. This transformation begins at approximately age seven when many children advance into the concrete operational stage of cognitive development. At this stage, children can perceive, think and understand from more than one perspective and are able to think in increasingly abstract terms. These abilities can assist in reducing levels of prejudiced Aboud acknowledges two shortcomings of the social-cognitive theory. First, this theory provides only a weak explanation of a child's early preferences. Second, it leaves the issue of the reduction of egocentrism and its effects, namely, children's increase in ability to perceive differences among individuals of the same ethnic group unaddressed.46 Other issues related to her cognitive theory can be raised. Aboud (1989) attributes continuation of intolerance in adults to social influence.47 Another reason she cites for continuation of prejudice is the individual's negative emotional reactions to the ethnic context.48 Again, multiple causation can provide an more inclusive theory of prejudice. In summary, Aboud observes both a critical distinction between the prejudices of a child from ages four to seven and from age seven onwards; she also distinguishes between the prejudices of minority and majority group children. Abouds results have lead her to conclude that once children reach the concrete operational stage of cognitive development profound changes in prejudices occur both among minority and majority group children. 45lbid., 23 46Ibid. 47Frances Aboud, "Children and Prejudice: Conceptual Issues," Paper presented at Education in Plural Societies: A Review of International Research and Practices in Intergroup Relations Vancouver, 14-17 December 1989,5. 48Ibid. 112 Review Given this broad range of theories of prejudice, a diverse range of influences exert their forces upon the formation of prejudice. The social milieu and its antecedents; the contemporary economic and political environment; and, an individual's psychological make-up and cognitive abilities together comprise a list of critical variables which closely linked to the creation and perpetuation of prejudice. Based upon research, multiple causation perspective provides a viable interpretation. Nevertheless, a call for yet more research to illuminate and synthesize antecedents of prejudice echoes throughout many writings. This review of theories of causes of prejudice, establishes the groundwork for a review of theory-based strategies designed to enhance a more tolerant attitude toward ethnic groups. It is to this area which I now turn. Strategies to Reduce Prejudice As observed in the preceding review, an abundance of theories of prejudice exists. Using these theories as a basis, researchers, educators and trainers have designed a variety of strategies or methods to increase tolerance, understanding, empathy and respect for others. Some of these strategies have been implemented, assessed, reviewed, and modified through theory and field research. Multicultural leadership programs are a case in point. The Ontario Ministry of Education's Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp, which served as a prototype for seven Metropolitan Toronto Boards of Education, is based upon a number of these theory and field based research strategies. A review of those employed in the Multicultural Leadership Program of Board A comprise the final section of this chapter. These strategies include: (1) information, (2) values education, (3) 113 empathy. (4) contact, and, (5) cooperative learning. I investigate each of these strategies, first, by linking the strategy to at least one theory of prejudice and , second, by presenting a basic understanding of the intervention and suggests guidelines for the implementation of the each method. 1. Information Based, in part, on the cognitive theory of prejudice, the informational approach relies upon specific curriculum materials to assist in developing students' knowledge of both specific minority groups and multicultural and multicultural education concepts. As the implementation of this approach is most effective with individuals with a low level of prejudice and are non-dogmatic,49 theoreticians suggest a number of guiding principles for the implementation of the information method. I have compiled these suggestions in the following list. 1. The relationship between the students and their teacher ought to be of the quality whereby students accept the teacher's and, it is hoped their peers, opinions 2. Students ought to be able to fairly and justly assess information presented 4 9 Jack Kehoe, Achieving Cultural Diversity in Canadian Schools (Cornwall, Ontario: Vesta Publications, 1984a), 33; Jack Kehoe," Achieving the Goals of Multicultural Education in the Classroom," in Multiculturalism in Canada: Social and Educational Perspectives eds. R.J. Samuda, J.W. Berry and M. Laferriere (Toronto: Allyn and Bacon Inc., 1984b), 143-5; MA. Ijaz, "Ethnic Attitude Change: A Multidimensional Approach," in Multiculturalism in Canada 129-31; Daniel McDougall, "The Reduction of Prejudice Through Education: Strategies for Action in Canada and Implications for Research," Canadian Ethnic Studies 17, no. 3 (1985), 82. 1 1 4 3- The teacher ought to express that their attitude toward minority groups is positive (The teacher serves as a role model and ought to express their opinions honestly and openly.) 4. Teachers ought to include psychological, sociological and moral education principles'0 5. Information ought to emphasize the positive attributes and achievements of the minority 6. Include family life and everyday occurrences 7. Stress minority groups' positive achievements.51 8. Emphasize both similarities and differences among cultures.52 9. Place information within a framework whereby ethnocultural group practices are presented in a subjective perspective.53 In the case where biased information characterizes curricular materials, a number of educators stress the importance of raising students' awareness of this quality .54 The positive effects of the implementation of the informational approach are highly dependent upon the qualities of the individuals and the variables I have complied. 51 Jack Kehoe, Achieving CulturalDiversity 33-40. 52While Kehoe( 1984a, 1984b) and Ijaz (1984) propose that similarities be emphasized and differences be the focus of a lesser degree of attention, Jean Phinney and Mary Jane Rotherham," Childrens Ethnic Socialization: Themes and Implications," chap, in Children'sEthnicSocialization:Pluralism and'Developmentfiiewbury Park, California: Sage Publications, 1989), 277 advocate inclusion and similar degree of emphasis be placed upon both similarities and differences. 53M.A. Ijaz, "Ethnic Attitude Change," 131. 54Daniel McDougall, "The Reduction of Prejudice," 6. 115 2. Values Education Both Kohlberg's and Piaget's cognitive development theories propose that an individual's cognitive understanding of justice and cooperative reciprocity exert a significant influence upon an individual's moral judgment.55 in part, these theories provide a theoretical justification of the moral, or values, education intervention. This strategy involves the individual in perceiving a specific action within a specific set of circumstances in a moral context. Kupcheno and Parsons (1989) outline six approaches to values education: namely, (1) inculcation, (2) moral development, (3) analysis, (4) values clarification, (5) action learning, and (6) emotional-rational.56 Of these six, moral development and values clarification are those most widely implemented in Board As Multicultural Leadership Program. Moral Development In developing a meta-analysis of fifty-five of moral education intervention research projects, Schlaefli, Rest and Thoma (1985) summarize previous reviews of moral education programs by Enright, Lapsley, and Levy (1983), Lawrence (1980), Leming (1981), Lockwood (1978) and Rest (1979). Based upon their research, Schlaefli, Rest and Thoma conclude that: (1) dilemma discussions are an effective pedagogical approach, (2) effect size may be influenced by exposure to.Kohlberg's theory of moral development, (3) a positive correlation between age and effect of 5555ian Kupchenko and Jim Parsons," Ways of Teaching Values: An Outline of Six Values Approaches," in Canada and Citizenship Education, ed. Keith A. McLeod (Toronto: Canadian Education Association/Association canadienne d'education, 1989), 113; Andre Schlaefli, James R. Rest and Stephen J. Thoma, "Does Moral Education Improve Moral Judgement? A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Strategies Using the Defining Issues Test,' Review of Educational Research, 55, no. 3 (1985), 346-7. 5*>Ian Kupchenko and Jim Parsons," Ways of Teaching Values," 107-36. 1 1 6 treatment may exist (external influences may exert a degree of influence upon this correlation), and , (4) that interventions are most effective when they last for a three week period or longer 5 7 In another analysis of approaches of values education, Kupchenko and Parsons note the positive effects of the moral discussion approach; they list several conditions which ought to be considered when activities based upon this approach are implemented. A teacher ought to: 1. be knowledgeable of the meaning of the student's moral judgements; 2. expose students to reasoning in the next stage of moral development; 3. use problems which present genuine moral conflicts and disagreement; 4. establish a supportive, open, non-judgmental atmosphere; 5. ensure that students can see one another; 6. employ effective listening techniques; 7. pose non-threatening questions; 8. encourage interaction among students; 9. develop students' group discussion skills; 10. encourage constructive discussion; and, 11. plan carefully, but be flexible and allow substantive digressions.58 When these conditions are met, the effectiveness of activities based upon moral discussions are increasingly effective. 57Andre Schlaefli, James R. Rest and Stephen J. Thoma, "Does Moral Education Improve Moral Judgement?", 346, 58Ian Kupchenko and Jim Parsons," Ways of Teaching Values," 114-7. 117 Values Clarification The underlying purpose of this approach, as the title implies, is to assist students to clarify their own values and to increase the level of congruency between a students values and their actions. Kupchenko and Parsons stipulate a number of conditions whereby the positive effects of the values clarification approach may be increased. First, a positive accepting relationship ought to exist among students themselves and among the students and the teachers. Second, students' responses ought to be accepted unconditionally. Third, probing questions which help stimulate students' thoughts about their values ought to be posed.'9 Values education is based upon Kohlberg's theory of moral development and Piaget's theory of cognitive development; a variety of approaches to values education which are based upon these theories have been researched. The Multicultural Leadership Camp includes two of these, namely, moral development and values education. Theory and field based testing lends support to the positive effects of these methods of increasing tolerance, accepting and understanding of the values and beliefs of persons from a variety of minority groups.60 3. Empathy Affective theories of prejudice provide support for the development of an individual's levels of prejudice. Theory-based research strategies which assist in developing an individual's sense of empathy include both case studies and role playing activities 59Ibid„ 124. 60See for example. Jack Kehoe and Todd Rogers, "The Effects of Principle Testing Discussions on Student Attitudes Toward Selected Groups Subject to Discrimination," Canadian Journal of Education, 3, no. 4 (1978), 73-80 115 Case Studies Although Kehoe (1984a, 1984c) classifies case studies under the informational approach,61 Board A's Multicultural Leadership Program Resource Book utilizes case studies as an empathetic strategy. Through the presentation and discussion of a number of curriculum materials including newspaper articles, local contemporary issues, film, videos, and literature, individuals develop a sense of identification with the person experiencing prejudice. Kehoe (1984a) suggests a number of guiding principles which can contribute to developing an individual's sense of empathy through the case study methodology.62 First, he notes that victims in the case study ought to be approximately the same age as the individuals examining the case. This age similarity increases the individual's ability to identify with the victim. Second, he proposes that the victim presented in the case study ought to behave in a strong, assertive manner as this avoids the individual's identification with the protagonist. Finally, the author advocates that the victim ought to be presented in a manner which helps the individual feel more amicable to the victim. Persons more readily identify with a victim they like. Roleplaying Roleplaying is grounded in affective, cognitive, theories of prejudice. Joyce and Weil (1986) explain the term roleplaying. 6 1 Jack Kehoe, A Handbook for Enhancing the Multicultural Climate of the School (Vancouver: Western Development Corporation, 1984c), 51; Jack Kehoe, Achieving Cultural Diversity 50-56. 62Jack Kehoe, A Handbook, 51. 1 1 9 In role playing, students explore human-relations problems by enacting problem situations and then discussing the enactments. Together, students can explore feelings, attitudes, values, and problem-solving strategies .... [A] problem is delineated .... Some students are role players and others observe. A person puts himself in the position of another person and then tries to interact with others who are also playing roles.63 Four independent variables, namely, (1) level of realism, (2) number of different roles enacted by one individual,64 (3) participant roleplaying as opposed to participant observation of the enactment,6' and, (4) the content and style of the discussion effect the results of this educational intervention.66 The more realistic the situation, the greater the number of roles played by one individual and the realistic and empathetic the discussion, the greater the level of positive effect. 4. Cooperative Learning Rooted in both social reflection and social cognitive theories of prejudice, cooperative learning groups individuals in small, heterogeneous, interdependent units for the purpose of achieving a common goal. A variety of cooperative learning strategies exist, including: Jigsaw, Jigsaw II, teams-games-tournaments (TGT), student teams-achievement divisions (STAD), small group teaching .and peer teaching. Field and theory-based research documents the positive effects of cooperative learning strategies upon a number of variables. These include: student achievement levels, classroom social relationships, ethnic attitudes, race 63Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil, Models of Teaching, 3rd. ed., (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., 1986), 241-42. 64Jack Kehoe, A Handbook, 86. ^Frances M. Culbertson,"Modification of an Emotionally Held Attitude Through Role Playing," Journal of Abnormal andSocialPsychology, 54 (1957), 230-33. 66Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil, Models of Teaching, 244. 120 relations, empathy, mutual concern, cross-ethnic friendships, and cross-ethnic respect and liking. Teachers also positively evaluate this pedagogical practice.67 Finally, the research attests to the positive effects regardless of subjects' ethnocultural background, gender and level of achievement.68 Implicit to cooperative learning, personal contact provides a partial explanation for the success of cooperative learning. This latter factor comprises the last strategy reviewed in the context of the multicultural leadership paradigm. 6. Personal Contact The personal contact strategy is predicated in social reflection and social cognitive theories of prejudice. Theory and field based based research provides evidence which attests to a positive correlation between personal contact and minority relations;69 this "contact hypothesis'" forms a central underpinning of multicultural leadership camps. Generally accepted conditions of contact which tend to enhance positive ethnic relations include the following. 67Daniel McDougall, "Co-operation and the Reduction of Prejudice," 3-6; Shlomo Sharan, "Cooperative Learning and Helping Behaviour in the Multi-Ethnic Classroom," in Children Helping Children, ed. Hugh Foot (n.p.: John Wiley and Sons, 1989), n.p.; Shlomo Sharan, "Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: Recent Methods and Effects on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations," Review of Educational Research, 50, no. 2 (1980), 241-71; Robert Slavin," Cooperative Learning," Review of Educational Research, 50. no, 2 (1980), 315-42; Russell H. Wiegel, Patricia L. Wiser and Stuart Cook," The Impact of Cooperative Learning Experiences on Cross-Ethnic Relations and Attitudes," Journal of Social Sciences 31. no. 1 (1975), 219-44; Suzanne Zeigler, "The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning for Increasing Cross-Ethnic Friendship. Some Additional Evidence," Human Organization, 40, no. 3 (1981), 264-68. 68Robert Slavin, "Cooperative Learning," 325. 69Daniel McDougall, "Co-operation and the Reduction of Prejudice," 3-6; Shlomo Sharan, "Cooperative Learning and Helping Behaviour in the Multi-Ethnic Classroom," n.p.; Shlomo Sharan, "Cooperative Learning in Small Groups," 241-71; Robert Slavin," Cooperative Learning," 315-42; Russell H. Wiegel, Patricia L. Wiser and Stuart Cook," The Impact of Cooperative Learning." 219-44; Suzanne Zeigler, "The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning," 264-68. 121 ... (a) when there is equal status contact between members of the various ethnic groups, (b) when the contact is between members of a majority group and higher status members of a minority group, (c) when an "authority" and/or social climate are in favor of and promote the intergroup contact, (d) when the contact is of an intimate rather than a casual nature, (e) when the ethnic intergroup contact is pleasant or rewarding, (f) when the members of both groups in the particular contact situation interact in functionally important activities or develop common or superordinate goals that are higher ranking in importance than the individual goals of each of the groups.70 Based upon this list, the conditions of contact require careful orchestration. Many studies are based upon the hypothesis that contact between members of different ethnocultural and racial groups positively effects participants' attitudes toward members of other minority groups.71 In addition, Clore et. al (1978) and Amir and Garti (1977) have conducted investigations of inter-ethnic attitudes in multicultural camp situations.72 I will consider the conclusions reached by both teams of researchers. In their study, Amir and Garti (1977) conducted a study of one hundred twelve year old Israeli girls from both Western and Middle Eastern backgrounds in a summer camp environment. Camp conditions bear a strong resemblance to those found in many multicultural leadership camps. In their discussion of their study, 7&Yehuda Amir." Contact Hypothesis in Ethnic Relations," Psychological Bulletin. 71. no. 5 (1969), 338. 71See, for example, Claire Sellitiz and Stuart Cook, "The Effects of Personal Contact on Intergroup Relations, Theory into Practice, 2 (1963). 158-65; Elka Steinkalk and Ronald Taft," The Effect of a Planned Intercultural Experience on the Attitudes and Behavior of Participants," International Journal of Intercultural Relations 3 (1979), 187-97; Suzanne Zeigler, "Adolescents' Inter-ethnic Friendships," Children 7 0^9 , no. 2 (1980), 22-24. 72Yehuda Amir and Chana Garti," Situational and Personal Influence on Attitude Change Following Ethnic Contact," International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1, no. 2 (1977), 58-77; Gerald Clore et al. "Interracial Attitudes and Behavior at a Summer Camp," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, no. 2 (1978), 107-16. 122 the authors conclude that: 1. Subjects transfer attitude changes resulting from direct participation to others indirectly involved and to others totally unrelated to camp activities 2. Attitude change is not related to authoritarianism 3- A ceiling effect among Westerners who had experienced previous contact with Middle Easterners is observed 4. Subjects' enjoyment of the experience relates directly to attitude change73 There are other critical factors which researchers feel influence the outcomes of Amir and Garti s study. The researchers listed the following variables, namely: egalitarian treatment, similarity in socioeconomic backgrounds, and the nature of the camp situation.74 Finally, at this point I wish to highlight that based upon their research, Amir and Garti observe that summer camp situations have invariably resulted in positive attitude change among participants even if participants initially hold positive attitudes.75 This facet requires further investigation especially in reference to school system based multicultural leadership programs. As suggested by these researchers, a number of other aspects ought to be studied in the context of interethnic, interracial, and, intercultural residential situations, namely: the generalization of positive attitudes among other members of the same minority group; the relationship between enjoyment of the experience and attitude change; and, previous contact with members of the same minority group.76 73Yehuda Amir and Chana Garti," Attitude Change Following Ethnic Contact," 70. 74Ibid.,71. 75lbid. 76Ibid„ 72. Again conducting research in a summer camp setting, Ciore et al. (197S) investigated the effects of intercultural contact in a series of week long summer camps. Participants were black and white children who were of equal status. Camp conditions were very similar to those to which Amir (1969, 1977) states have a positive effect on ethnocultural attitudes, namely: equal status, a climate which favours and promotes interpersonal contact, contact of a close personal nature, pleasant and/or rewarding contact, and, goals which require the contributions of all participants. Using reliable and valid methodology and statistically-based analysis, researchers drew two conclusions. First, although positive attitude changes were observed both among black and white children, only attitude change among females were significant.77 Second, a ceiling effect of positive interracial attitude characterized male subjects.78 (A ceiling effect occurs when the initial scores obtained from the pretests which were administered were so extreme that there is insufficient latitude remaining in the scales to attain a significant treatment effect in a pretest.) The research supports the hypothesis that under the optimal conditions personal contact can exert a positive effect upon an individual's attitudes and behavior toward minority groups. Contact engendered in the multicultural leadership camp paradigm parallels optimal conditions cited by Amir (1969, 1977) and implemented by Amir and Garti (1977) and Clore et. al. (1978). Based upon the findings of these researchers, the effects of participating in this type of residential experience are positive. 77Gerald Clore et. al.," Interracial Attitudes," 110. 78Ibid., 112. 124 Conclusion This chapter explored various theories of prejudice. A wide range of theoretical interpretations have been proposed; theoreticians modify these theories. Generally, these theories can be classified into the following categories, namely: historical, sociocultural, situational, psychological, and phenomenological. Drawing upon theory and field based research, a diverse range of approaches to increasing tolerance toward minorities exist. Studies indicate some strategies effect a greater change than others. The spectrum of strategies offered includes, informational, values education, empathy, cooperative education, and, contact strategies. Drawing upon conclusions reached by experts, a multidimensional approach provides the only certain response to the question of the most effective way to increase levels of tolerance, understanding and acceptance of members of minority groups. In summary, prejudice is precipitated by multiple causes. Multiple strategies to improve attitudes toward minority groups have been designed based upon these theories and upon field based research. In turn, these strategies are affected by multiple variables. Program designers acknowledge all theoretical possibilities and use a broad a range of methodologies as possible. Multicultural leadership programs are one example of the implementation of a compendium of strategies in a residential camp setting. In the next chapter, I offer an investigation of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp - the prototype of this multifaceted approach to attitude change. 125 Chapter 5 Board A's Multicultural Education Policy Introduction In this chapter I will investigate the development of Board A's multicultural policy and describe this policy. I will also make reference to other Board's multicultural, ethnic and race relations policies. Few urban municipalities and the Ontario Board of Education do not have multicultural policies. Nonetheless, over forty school boards out of the one hundred and twenty five have created policies which are concerned with either multiculturalism, ethnic and/ or race relations.1 The Development of a Policy on Race and Ethnocultural Equity (1987) provides a framework from which local boards may construct their policies. The role of the community in the development of board multicultural, ethnic and race relations policies is clearly described in this document. The Ministry encourages school boards to take affirmative steps  to ensure the active participation of racial and ethnocultural  minorities in the development of equitable educational policies  and practices.2 This is to be accomplished through, establishing mechanisms to ensure that racial and ethnocultural minority individuals and organizations are actively involved in the design, development, implementation and monitoring of the Board's anti-racist education policy. 3 •Keith A. McLeod," Multiculturalism and Multicultural Education in Canada: Human Rights and Human Rights Education, 1990 " [ photocopy], p. 12, Faculty of Education, University of Toronto, Toronto. Provincial Advisory Committee on Race Relations, The Development of a Policy on Race and Ethnocultural Equity (Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Education, 1987), 7. 3lbid., 8. 126 In a subsequent document, A Synopsis of Public Responses to the Report (n.d.), members of the Provincial Advisory Committee on Race and Ethnocultural Equity solicited input from the wider public regarding the original Report. Respondents included school boards, interest groups, schools teachers, principals, educators and other groups and individuals affected by the Report's recommendations.4 In A Synopsis of Public Responses to the Report(n.d), respondents supported the concept of collaboration among schools, community and parent groups in the development of school equity policies. Nevertheless, respondents also acknowledged difficulties in including a fair representation of minority groups and in obtaining the active participation of these groups5 Based upon these and other observations, 6 the community ought to play a critical role in the development of an equity policy within a school and within a board of education. The Development of Board A's Multicultural Policy Overview The documentation of development of the Policy is minimal. Carol Tator (19S3), a Past President of the Urban Alliance on Race Relations, observes the difficulty in tracing the development and adoption of a school board multicultural policy. ^A Synopsis of Public Responses to the ReportiToronto: Ontario Ministry of Education, n.d.), n.p. 5Ibid., n.p. 6Gordon Cressy, "Words into Action," in Words into Action: Race and Ethnic Relations in Large Urban SChoolBoards ed. Dalton Kehoe and Karen Todd-Loxinski (Toronto: Urban Studied Programme Division of Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, York University, 1983). 3. 127 To step back in time in order to retrace the steps which lead to the development and adoption of a race relations policy is to attempt to unravel many interwoven threads.7 Of many possible threads which could be explored, I investigate and analyze the following: (1) the involvement of Board administrators and staff and the community in the development of Board A's Policy, (2) the stages of the Policy's development, and (3) each stage's respective outcomes. I weave these threads together based upon personal interviews of individuals involved in the development of the MERR and the Policy statement itself. Community involvement, participation and ownership of a policy are key factors which influence a policy's success; in addition, the process of the development, implementation, and review of the policies are critical aspects of any policy. Therefore, I emphasize community participation in the process of the development of Board A's Policy. At this point, I highlight the fact that this recounting of the Policy's development is not a critique, but rather an account of how members of Board A presently view their Policy and achievements. The development of Board A's multicultural policy includes the following eight stages: (1) the informal local level beginning, (2) the creation and work of the Multicultural Committee, (3) the formation and work of the Ad Hoc Committee, (4) the recommendations made by Board A's Board of Trustees, (5) the establishment and work of the Policy Task Force, (6) the consultation process, (7) the validation process, and, (8) the formal approval of the Policy. I study each stage in turn on the basis 7Carole Tator, "Panel Presentation," in Owrdsinto Action: Race and Ethnic Relations in Large Urban School Boards ed. Dalton Kehoe and Karen Todd-Lozinski (Toronto: Urabn Studies Programme Division of Social Science, Faculty of Arts, York University, 1983,) 7. 126 of the three aspects specified namely: the participation of the community, the developmental stages of the MERR, and each stage's respective outcomes. Stage 1: The Initial Stage As we shall see, the Policy originated in a similar manner to their Multicultural Leadership Program - at a very localized level. During 1977-1978, a series of loosely-knit meetings were held which included Board A teachers and educational administrators, an educator with expertise in multicultural education from one other school board, and one community representative all participated in these meetings.8 Community representation was absent at this initial policy creation stage except for one person who was selected by a member of the administration and who was a parent of children who attended Board A schools. At this point, it is important to note that the Committees membership did not accurately reflect the multiethnic and multiracial composition of the school board catchment area's population, this trend remained throughout the various committees which were formed during the later stages of the policy development. There were several outcomes resulted from this informal stage. These include the following: the gathering of multicultural and multicultural education resources, a series of multicultural workshops for teachers, and a number of student forums.9 (These forums involved Board A students who participated in the Ontario Multiracial, Multicultural Leadership Camp.) The members of this impromptu group 8Board A Assistant Program Coordinator, interview by author, 1 February 1990. 9Ibid. 129 also influenced the Board to endorse the creation of a formal committee which would be responsible for investigating the area of local board multicultural policies further. As a result, the Board administration endorsed the creation of a Multicultural Committee in 1978. Stage 2: The Multicultural Committee An initial Multicultural Committee composed of key individuals from the original group, including the one community representative, was officially sanctioned by the Board's Administrative Committee in 1982. The Multicultural Committee's official mandate was to focus upon the development of a multicultural policy specifically within the area of community programs and curricula. The Committee also had a principle goal; they were to determine and to describe what multiculturalism meant to Board A. To achieve this goal. Committee members continued to probe multicultural and multicultural education research and resources. Committee members also consulted with the Board of Education for City of North York and the Toronto Board of Education as both these boards had previously established their own multicultural policies. Toronto had developed a multicultural thrust since 1973 and a specific Race Relations Policy in 1978; the City of North York Board of Education approved their Race and Ethnic Relations Policy and Procedures in 1984. The process of gathering and consulting continued until in early 1983. At this time.the Multiculturalism Committee formulated a series of recommendations regarding a community program and curricula which had a multicultural focus. They compiled into a report and contributed two further recommendations in their submission. First, they said a 130 formal systemic board multicultural policy ought to be created. Second, (a closely related recommendation which reflected the advice of the City of North York and Toronto), they proposed that the Director of Education was to act as head of any further policy committees. Through assuming this role, the Director was to serve two basic purposes; namely, the Director would bring prestige to the concept of a multicultural, race and ethnic relations policy and symbolize the Board's commitment to multiculturalism. Both of these recommendations were implemented in subsequent stages.10 The next step was the establishment of the actual Board subcommittee which they referred to as the Ad Hoc Committee. Stage 3: The Ad Hoc Committee Eight individuals comprised the Ad Hoc Committee. These included three staff and administrators, the single community representative, the Director (who acted as chairman), an outside consultant from Metropolitan Toronto Race Relations, a teacher of English as a Second Language/Dialect, a Board A elementary school principal, the Assistant Program Coordinator and the coordinator of the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program (who was also a social science teacher).11 Again, members were selected on the basis of their experience and expertise in the area of multiculturalism. Again, it is important to note that representation from various multiethnic and multiracial groups and their constituent subgroups was minimal. Hence, concerns of these groups were more likely to remain unaddressed in this formative stage of 10Ibid. 1 1 Ibid. 131 the Policy's development. The Ad Hoc Committee acted in three areas. First, members continued to gather of multicultural resources. Second, they continued to increase awareness of multicultural education within the Board. Third, they created and submitted recommendations regarding the formation of a Multicultural Policy Task Force; this Task Force was to draft the Board's Policy.12 In this Report, the Ad Hoc Committee strongly suggested: (1) that expertise in multiculturalism ought to be a key requirement for committee membership, (2) that a limited membership ought to include three principle groups, namely, trustees and supervisory officials, staff and students, and, the community, and (3) that the Director of Education ought to be the committee chairperson, and (4) the policy statement and the administrative procedures ought to distinctly separated within the Policy itself.13 It is noteworthy that the criteria regarding community representation were not clarified within these recommendations. When considering the area of community representation, I highlight the fact that expertise in the area of multiculturalism was an important criteria for committee membership. This factor might have had a considerable impact upon the participation of members of the community's multiethnic and multiracial groups. While this factor merits consideration, minimal records severely limit the investigation of this aspect of community representation. 12Ibid. 13Ibid. 132 The Committee's mandate focused upon the development of a series of recommendations pertaining to the creation of a multicultural policy for the Board.14 These included two central characteristics. First, the development, implementation, monitoring, and review of their Policy ought to be a cyclical process; this characteristic is very similar to the cyclical process cited in the introductory section of The Development of a Policy on Race andEthnoculturalEquity (1987). 13 Second, there ought to be a statement of commitment to the Policy by members of the Board.*4 Finally, writers submitted a report to the Board of Trustees in late 1984. Stage 4: The Recommendations of the Board of Trustees After reviewing and discussing the Report compiled by the Ad Hoc Committee in detail, the Board of Trustees formally adopted the series of recommendations in January 1985. Basically, these recommendations provided the guidelines for the composition of the Multicultural, Ethnic and Race Relations Task Force and established the Task Force's mandate. The Task Force was to be based upon the concept of a working committee. This working committee approach is based upon the active involvement and participation of experts is the areas of multicultural, ethnic, and race relations. Within the Policy itself, the following criteria for membership in the Task Force were noted. That the Task Force have a membership of fifteen (15) people selected by the Chairman from the following constituencies: 3.1 Trustees & Supervisory Officials 3.2 Staff and Students 3.3 Community 14Board A Policy (n.p.: Board A, 1988), 9. 133 That the Community participants (33 above) be selected according to the following criteria: 4.1 they be persons known to be familiar with the issues reflective of multicultural/ethnic and race relations concerns 4.2 they represent expertise rather than interest groups That the Task Force establish mechanisms and processes involved in consulting with the various groups and individuals affected by the Policy.'5 The Director of Education was to be Chairman of the Task Force.16 Again, the actual criteria regarding ethnic and racial composition of the Committee was unaddressed. Regardless of this omission, the Board of Trustees official endorsement of the Ad Hoc Committee's recommendations allowed the establishment of the Multicultural Task Force. The Task Force began its work in 1985. Stage 5: The Multicultural Task Force Generally, the membership of the Task Force represented the model proposed by the Ad Hoc Committee and given approval by the Board of Trustees. As the Director of Education served as the Chairperson of the Task Force, representation of trustees and supervisory officials included the following individuals: the Director's Administrative Assistant, the Superintendent of Education, the Assistant Director of Community Services, and two trustees. Staff and student Task Force membership included five teachers. Teachers were experts in English as a Second I^bid., 10. 16Ibid. 134 Language/Dialect, an elementary school principal, the coordinator of the Board's Multicultural Leadership Program and one teacher who actively participated in the MLP. Two of these teachers, the expert in English as a Second Language/Dialect and the teacher who participated in the MLP, were members of visible minority groups. Students did not participate because of the time required to attend Task Force meetings which would interfere with their academic responsibilities. Therefore, the MLP coordinator, as one of the participating teachers acted as a center for the exchange of information between the Task Force and the students. Community membership included the same community member who had been involved since the beginning stage. In addition, two other community representatives began as members, both of which were representatives of two of the school board's catchment area's multiethnic groups, were involved initially; due, in part, to the time required and changing personal circumstances, they subsequently retired their positions on the Task Force.17 Again, community representation was limited to a single individual. Finally, three consultants, Dr. Karen Mock, an Educational Psychologist/ Consultant, Ms. Sylvia Searles, a member of the Multicultural and Race Relations Division of the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, and Ms. Ruth Rozenberg, a Race Relations Consultant with the Ontario Human Rights Commission, provided the remaining element of the Task Force.18 The final composition of the Task Force, therefore, concurred with the guidelines suggested and approved with the noted omissions of student and multiethnic system and community participation. Based upon the 17Board A Program Assistant, interview by author, 1 February 1990. 18Idem, Policy, n.p. 135 composition of the Task Force, the restructuring society within the Board to reflect many of the concerns of multiethnic groups and their constituent subgroups could remain unaddressed. Once the Task Force was created, its members began to fulfil their mandate. They identified of key issues, held further consultations with other boards of education and created subcommittees to study specific issues. Through compiling and sharing all their information, Task Force members created at least six policy drafts.19 This fact highlights the multiple revisions of this Policy based upon further information gathered before the final draft was completed. In March 1987, the members of the Multicultural Task Force presented their latest draft for Board approval. The Board unanimously passed this draft the following month.20 Stage 6 : The Consultation Process Following the unanimous approval of the draft policy, members of the Multicultural Task Force met individuals and groups affected by the policy. These included: other trustees, supervisory officials, principals, teaching federations, support and custodial staffs, intermediate and secondary student councils.21 A public meeting for the purpose of soliciting community perceptions and suggestions to the policy was also held. Given the availability of space and time, attendance was by invitation only. These 19Ibid. 20Idem, Policy. \\. 2'Ibid., 12. 13& were sent to executives of community organizations, parent associations, community groups which were involved in the teaching of heritage languages, community support services and religious centers.22 Albeit that attendance was limited and preselected, this meeting provides a positive indication of active community participation. Over one hundred members of the community attended.23 This vetting process offered the opportunity for concerned community members to discuss, to provide additional input, and to develop a sense of policy ownership. Task Force members solicited information at this meeting and indicated that written responses regarding the draft were welcome.24 These meetings and the responses to the Draft Policy which were gathered precipitated the rewriting of the Draft for the purpose of accounting for new information gleaned during this consultative process.25 Stage 7 : The Validation Process After the series of consultations were completed, members of the Task Force revised the Draft Policy. This rewriting allowed the accommodation of the information received during the consultation process. Once this process was complete, the Draft was published in two sections: (1) the Policy statement itself, and (2) the Policy's Administrative Procedures. Members of the Task Force met with supervisory officials and school staffs to discuss the newly revised form. The Task Force, intent upon reaching all school staff members, arranged 22Board A Program Assistant, interview by author, 1 February 1990. 23lbid. 24Ibid. 25Ibid. 137 for copies of the policy statement to be available to each individual. In addition, a limited number of policy administrative procedures were made available to each school; more copies of these procedures were available upon request. Following the circulation of these documents, two Task Force members met with each of the twenty-four school staffs within the Board to discuss the draft policy.26 Through this approach, Task Force members, with the assistance of school staffs, simplified terminology, eliminated unnecessary jargon and further clarified the language. During this validation process, Task Force members also met with any system organization or group who wished to be involved in this stage.27 Finally, a second public meeting was held for the purpose of community validation of the Draft Policy. Utilizing some of the suggestions made by these various groups, members of the Task Force revised this formal Draft Policy. A final meeting which included administrative personnel, was convened at a resort hotel located outside of Toronto. Board A's Supervisors of Program and Staff Development, Student and Community Services, Personnel and Employee Relations, and Planning and Supervision discussed and placed the finishing touches on the latest Draft Policy. Of particular interest to these participants were the administrative procedures stated within the policy. The weekend meeting ended with the agreement of the final form of the policy among the administrators. After this meeting, the Task Force forwarded the Final Draft Policy to the Educational Committee of the Board for 26Ibid. 27Ibid. Idem, Policy, \ l 135 approval.28 Stage 8 : Policy Approval At the Board meeting held in April 1988, the Board A Educational Committee presented the last Draft Policy for approval at an official Board meeting. Members of the Board of Education, Trustees and community representatives who were attendance granted formal unanimous approval of the the Board A Policy 2 9 Review Similar to the proposal within The Development of a Policy of Race and Ethnocultural Equity (1987), Board A solicited limited community input in the creation of their Policy. The process included experts in the area of multiculturalism, ethnic and race relations both from other governmental agencies and from other boards of education. In addition, administrators, trustees and staff participated in the development of the Policy. Again, it is important to emphasize the fact that multiethnic and multiracial representation in the committees and during the validation process was limited. Regardless of the degree of involvement in Policy development, the degree of community awareness and ownership largely determines the success or failure of a policy. One study which could assist in determining the community and system awareness and ownership of the 28Ibid„ 14. 29lbid. 139 Board A multicultural policy is the replication of Fisher and Echols' (1989) study, Evaluation Report on the Vancouver School Boards Race Relations Policy(1%%) which was an assessment and evaluation of the Vancouver School Board's Race Relations Policy (1982).30 Board Level Multicultural Education Policies Overview Lawson and Woodcock (1987) propose that educational policy is a subset of social policy; both are designed to, "promote the interests of the society as a whole and to protect the welfare of individuals within the society".31 Keeping these two perceptions in mind, the precedent for anti-discrimination in education was most likely set in the United Nations' Study on Discrimination in Education (1957). Although the Ontario Ministry of Education is bound by broader policies and statements of international bodies and the Canadian Federal Government, the Ontario Ministry of Education does not have a multicultural, ethnic and race relations policy. Nevertheless, as an outcome of internal and external forces many boards of education have created, implemented and reviewed their own multicultural, ethnic and/or race relations policies. Cressy (1983). a Past President of the United Way and an individual experienced in the area of multicultural, ethnic and race relations, points out that these types of policies are the foundations for action to 30Frank Echols and Donald Fisher, Evaluation of the Vancouver School Board's Race Relations Policy^ancouver: Vancouver School Board, 1989). 3 'Robert F. Lawson and Roger R. Woodcock." Policy and Policy Actors in Canadian Educatuion," in Social Change and Education in Canada, ed. Rita Ghosh and Douglas Ray (Don Mills, Ontario, Harcourt Brace and Jovanovich Canada, Inc., 1987), 33. 140 respond to increasing cultural, ethnic and racial heterogeneity.32 Anderson and Fullan (1984), completed a comparative study of school board level multicultural, ethnic and/or race relations policies. They concluded that multicultural policies share three general attributes, namely: (1) they overlap with other internal and external policies; (2) they are given a variety of labels; and (3) they evolve.33 Overlapping may take the form of referring to previously established internal policies or reports, hiring policies for example, and/or to external policies or documents, the Ontario Human Rights Code(196Q) for example. The authors distinguish between multicultural and race relations policies. Multicultural policies tend to focus on cultural diversity, emphasize the education system's response and adjustment to needs and concerns of both new and established Canadians. On the other hand, race relations are based upon the increase in racial diversity in the school community rather than issues resulting from the status of immigrant families and emerge subsequent to multicultural policies.34 Anderson and Fullan clarify the differences between multicultural and race relations policies in the following manner. Race relations policies are distinguished from multicultural policies mainly by their increased emphasis on the management of racial incidents, human relations and extra-curricular programs in the schools, and by their lack of attention to heritage languages, ESL provisions and community relations. The line between multiculturalism and race relations is none to clear.35 32Idem,'Words into Action ", 1. 33Stephen E. Anderson and Michael Fullan, Policy Implementation Issues for Multicultural Education at the School Board LereAloronXo. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1984), 16-17. 34Ibid. 35Ibid„ 17. 141 In addition, the authors note that multicultural policies often precede race relations policies. They also point out that in their sample, policies developed since 1980 tend to combine the two types.36 The Policy of the Board being studied is an example of the latter type McLeod (1989) has investigated board level multicultural, ethnic and race relations policies in Ontario summarizes his findings. The policies tend to cover much the same aspects despite their variety of nomenclature:.... They usually include: an explicit statement of support for multiculturalism and multicultural education; a statement on the importance of leadership by the trustees and school administrators; a commitment to revising and revamping the curricula so that pluralism is reflected in the programs and the resources used; a statement committing the school jurisdiction to using fair and appropriate means of assessment and placement of students in various programs and streams; a commitment to providing for staff development and to fair and just personnel policies and practices; there is almost inevitably a section on developing positive school-community relations; and there is usually some kind of statement or commitment to counter discrimination, racism, or racial and ethnocultural harassment. The recent report for the Ontario Ministry of Education indicates that the Boards that adopt policies that concentrate on dealing with racial harassment are also the Boards that are less likely to plan for ameliorative programs. It would seem that the less strident the vocabulary, the more positive the approach. The most committed boards do not leave the implementation of the policy to chance but rather include implementation guidelines and a commitment to providing the human and financial resources needed to fulfil the policy.37 In the following investigation and analysis, I will describe the multicultural, ethnic and race relations policy, hereafter abbreviated to MERR, of the Board being studied and compare it to the criteria described by McLeod (1989). I divide this segment into sections, namely, statement of philosophy, statement of policy, and other aspects. 3&Ibid. 3?Idem "Human Rights", 12. 142 Statement of Philosophy The multicultural policy of the Board being investigated includes statements regarding support for multiculturalism and multicultural education, countering of discrimination and prejudice and leadership by school administrators and trustees. First, in the introduction to the Policy, the Chairman of the Board being studied expresses his support for multiculturalism. Our commitment to Multiculturalism as away of life means that we not only accept cultural diversity but cherish it as a positive feature of our community. In [Board A]... we are committed to providing and maintaining an environment which helps all those served by [Board A]... school system to achieve their full potential in physical, intellectual, emotional, social, cultural and moral development.38 The statement "way of life" is striking. McLeod (1989) refers to this concept in terms of linguistic and cultural retention. The Chairman goes beyond this and makes overtures to the issue of equality of opportunity. While the Director of Education refers to discrimination and prejudice,39 the Superintendent of Student and Community Services explicitly addresses these issues through the following statement. The Board developed its [Policy] ...to show its commitment to treat students, staff, trustees and members of the community of all ethnic and racial backgrounds equally and without discrimination, and not to tolerate any expression of racial or ethnic bias in any form. The Policy has implications for every one of us. It not only ensures our personal rights as trustees and employees of the Board against discrimination on the basis of race and ethnicity, but also challenges us to take into consideration the same concerns in our delivery of services to the students in our schools and community. What goes on in our schools 38Idem, Policy, n.p. 39Ibid„ n.p. must truly reflect tolerance and respect for all races and cultures.40 143 While expressing one theme, tolerance and respect for all, he places this theme on three levels namely, the staff, the students and the broader community. In addition, he also acknowledges the importance of both individual and collective rights; the basic building blocks of human rights from which all are derived are present. A question ought to be raised regarding the actual implementation of equality and equity in society. For example, data regarding the streaming of specific racial, ethnic and cultural groups into specific areas of study has been and continues to be practiced in some educational jurisdictions. This fact highlights the need for further implementation of equality and equity within the educational system. In the following excerpt, the Superintendent of Student and Community Services indirectly refers to leadership responsibilities of trustees and employees. The Policy has implications for every one of us. It not only ensures our personal rights as trustees and employees for the Board against discrimination on the basis of race and ethnicity, but it also challenges us to take into consideration the same concerns in our delivery of services to the students in our schools and to the community. What goes on in our schools must truly reflect tolerance and respect for all races and cultures.41 While this statement of leadership challenges trustees and employees to provide leadership in the area of race and ethnic relations, specific leadership roles are delegated to specific individuals within the Policy's administrative procedures. These persons are involved at all levels of the 40Ibid.,n.p. 4 1 Ibid, n.p. 144 Board's education system from student to the Director of Education. For example, principals are to support student councils in the intermediate and senior schools to implement peer counselling for victims and aggressors involved in incidents of expressed bias and discrimination. Multicultural leadership program graduates are to fulfil part of the counselling role.42 Nevertheless, what is equally striking is that in both statements, issues associated with race and racism are clearly dealt with as part of multiculturalism. This perspective is reiterated in the Ontario Ministry of Education s A Synopsis of Public Responses to the Report (n.d.) in which respondents indicated that, " ' multicultural education' and anti-racist education' are not mutually exclusive and should be bound together and treated similarly....".43 In conclusion, through the Policy's introductory comments and outlined procedures, three characteristics, namely: multiculturalism and multicultural education, the countering of bias and discrimination; and, the role of leadership among many of those affected by the education system are supported. Equally important is the inclusion of race relations under the rubric of multiculturalism. Statement of Policy McLeod (1989) outlines five areas which are often considered in multicultural, ethnic and race relations policies. These include: curriculum, assessment and placement, staffing, school-community 42Ibid,4l. 4 3 Idem, A Synopisis of Public Responses to the Report 72. 145 relations and incidents of bias and discrimination.44 I will examine these each of these five areas in the context of Board A s Policy. Curriculum Curriculum, including both programs and resource materials, ought to reflect Canada's ethnocultural diversity. Therefore, the type of programs offered and the accurate depiction of Canada's ethnocultural groups in the resources used are critical considerations. As specified in the Board A MERR, programs include co-curricular, instructional and hidden activities.4' All are be examined to ensure that they reflect Canadian society and adequate funding and resources are to be made available for specific programs 4 6 These include English as a Second Language/Dialect, Heritage Language, adult education and the multicultural leadership programs.47 Through this multifaceted approach, programs are to reflect the Canada's ethnic, cultural, racial and linguistic diversity. In the Policy, specific expectations are stated regarding elimination of bias and discrimination in resources. These include the following; . The Board expects that all learning materials, either currently in use or produced for purchase by the Board, will be examined for racial, ethnic or religious bias according to Board criteria developed from such documents as the Human Rights Code and the Ontario Ministry of Education Race Relations model. 44Idem, "HumanRights". 12. 45ldem, Policy, 19. 46Ibid. 47Ibid„ 36-37, 39. 146 The Board expects that any learning materials found, after review, to be contrary to Board criteria will be allowed for use only after clear identification and with appropriate support materials and staff training for effective use. The Board expects that concerns or objections raised by staff students, parent/guardians or members of the community regarding the use of learning materials will be responded to sensitively and effectively.48 While staff development and community involvement provide one avenue for dealing effectively with bias and discrimination, other paths to which the Policy refers include purchasing patterns, withdrawal of materials and working in conjunction with teacher-librarians and audio-visual personnel.49 Based upon the emphasis which the Policy writers placed upon curriculum, it appears that the review and creation of curriculum which accurately represents Canada's ethnocultural groups is a high priority within the Board's Policy. Assessment and Placement Through the Policy, members of Board A clearly support appropriate and equitable assessment and placement practices. This support is evident in the following sections of the Policy. The Board expects that all assessment procedures and placement practices are administered without bias and/or discrimination of any kind, and that the instruments employed are selected and administered in such away that they are valid indicators, as far as possible, of each student's ability and achievement. 48Ibid„ 20. 49Ibid., 33. 147 The Board expects staff to base expectations of students and both formal and informal evaluation procedures on observed growth and verifiable achievements. Staff will guard against the possibility of basing expectations for achievement on prejudices and stereotypes.50 Not only does the Policy include these statements, but the Superintendent of Planning and Operations is responsible for the collection and analysis of data regarding assessment and placement patterns.'1 Prominent members of the Multicultural Anti-Racist Education Network support this type of data collection to investigate the equitable nature of assessment and placement of students from Canada's ethnic, cultural, racial and linguistic groups.52 Staffing Both staff development and the practices of hiring and promotion fall under the general heading of staffing; I will deal with each aspect in turn as specified in the Policy of the Board being investigated. In the Board A MERR, staff development encompasses both in-service and other professional growth activities. Examples include professional development day activities, staff and/or student exchanges, and professional growth through formal education.53 There are two principle goals of this development. First, staff and administrators are to increase their awareness and their ability to implement the Policy effectively and efficiently. Second, all staff of all backgrounds are 50lbid„ 18. 5'Ibid., 28. 52Multicultural and Anti-Racist Education Meeting, attended by author, Board of Education for the City of York, 28 February 1990. 53ldem, Policy, 49-50. 148 encouraged to obtain the qualifications required to advance into positions of additional responsibility. While staff development includes a variety of experiences, all staff at all levels and of all ethnocultural backgrounds are encouraged to participate. Employment policies may assume one of several forms, affirmative action, equal opportunity, and equitable opportunity. While other board multicultural, ethnic and race relations policies may specifically focus on affirmative action employment, (the Metropolitan School Board, for example) equal employment opportunity policies, (the City of North York and the Peel Boards of Education for example), Board A describes the philosophy and commitment to staffing practices as one of equity.'4 The Board commits itself to pursuing a process aimed at achieving employment equity for all personnel to ensure that all job applicants and employees have a fair chance in the workplace. It is achieved when no person is denied employment opportunities or benefits for reasons unrelated to ability. The Board recognizes that the achievement of employment equity requires a consultative process with all components of the school system and with the various levels of government." It is noteworthy that employment equity is to be realized through a consultative process; consultations are to include both various levels of government and #//constituent elements of the school system. While minimal reference is made to the levels of government within the Policy, the components of the school system include: students, staff, trustees, parents, guardians, visitors on Board premises and anyone participating 54City of North York Board of Education, Race and Ethnic Relations Policy and Procedures (City of North York: City of North York Board of Education, [1984]), 9; W. Kent, Multicultural and Race Relations Policy and Plan, Paper presented at Regularly Scheduled Peel Board of Education Meeting, Mississauga, Ontario, 23 February 1988; Metropolitan Toronto Separate School Board, Race and Ethnic Relations and Multicultural Policy: Guidelines and Procedures, condensed edition (Toronto: Metropolitan Toronto Separate School Board, 1984), 7. "idem, Policy,24. 149 in Board activities. This process is to be advanced through a variety of methods. These include data collection, the creation of appropriate guidelines for interviewing and advancement, needs assessment of ethnocultural minority groups and encouragement of all staff to increase their skill level and knowledge base.56 This section is distinct from others contained within the Policy as an objectively verifiable goal is specified. Both professional development and hiring and promotion procedures are harmoniously dovetailed within Board A's MERR. The realization of both of these goals can be verified in an objectively verifiable manner. As a great deal of human, material and financial resources are committed to attaining these goals, it would appear that staffing is another high priority area. Incidents of Bias and Discrimination In the following excerpt, the writers of the multicultural, ethnic and race relations policy of the Board outline the Board's philosophy regarding incidents of bias and discrimination. No person or group has the right to promote discrimination or restrict the right of any individual to gain maximum physical, mental or emotional well being. Incidents involving physical, psychological, or verbal abuse of nature impinge upon individual human rights and will not be tolerated in our school system. Such incidents include racial, religious, or ethnic slurs, name calling, insults, avoidance or exclusion, racial, religious or ethnic jokes, teasing, graffiti, threats and physical abuse or violence. 56j.bid, 24, 52-53. 150 The Board also recognizes that such incidents involve aggressors and victims and possibly bystanders. Sensitivity and support must be provided to the victims, with consequences to the aggressors and counselling to the aggressor and bystanders where possible. The intent is to prevent recurrence of such incidents.57 The fundamental aspect of this statement is the clear support of human rights and liberties. It is important, however, to also note that specific acts and the intent of these acts are described and the procedures for dealing with the incidents are also set out. The emphasis which this area receives highlights the Board administrators concern with such acts. In addition, specific strategies were to be described in subsequent publications.58 School-Community Relations In the multicultural, ethnic and race relations policy of the Board being studied, the importance of positive school-community relations is clearly outlined in the following example. The Board is committed to developing a strong partnership with the parents/guardians, students of all ages and residents of [the Board]... as well as with other public institutions also engaged in education. By working together, the school and community demonstrate a commitment to building the quality of life opportunities for all students, young people and adults alike.59 This objective is to be achieved through a number of avenues including: liaisoning with government agencies, board of education and community representatives; developing and maintaining upgrading and 57Ibid, 21. 58Ibid„ 40. 59Ibid„ 22. 151 first language classes, providing translation and interpretation services; supporting Heritage Language classes; integrating parent and community resources in the education process; enlisting volunteers from all ethnocultural backgrounds; and, providing principals with appropriate avenues to communicate effectively and meaningfully with parents of all ethnic, cultural, racial and linguistic backgrounds.60 (The graduates of the Multicultural Leadership Program have also successfully enhanced relationships between the schools and the community through their active participation in civic celebrations and other follow up activities which have emanated from the MLP.61) Through the implementation of this multifaceted approach, which was one thread of the creation of the Board A Policy, it is hoped that the goal of positive and harmonious school-community relations will be furthered and that the achievement of all students will be enhanced. Review Similar to McLeod s (1989) observation Of other board level multicultural, ethnic and race relations policies, the Policy of the Board being studied is comprised of a number of central parts, namely philosophical statements of support and specific aspects of policy. It appears that on the whole, both racial harassment and ameliorative programs receive a balanced proportion of emphasis. For example, the Board's position regarding incidents of bias and discrimination is emphatic while at the same time, Heritage Language, English as a Second 60Ibid„ 47. 6,BoardAMLPFiles. 152 Language/ Dialect, adult education and formal, hidden instructional and co-curricular activities also receive considerable attention. In terms of vocabulary, the Board's position on human rights is clear. Within this section, the Policy writers emphasized the need to prevent recurrence of such incidents. In addition, the Policy includes a number of references to the building of positive school-community relations. Central administrative and local school based support of staff efforts to improve their skill level and knowledge base as effective educators is also addressed. Finally, members of Board A is committed to the Board's MERR. The Policy includes a clear set of implementation guidelines. In addition, the writers also note the need for further guidelines which deal with specific areas. Most importantly, the Policy commits the Board to providing the required human and financial resources to realize the Policy. This commitment is evident in statements regarding Board responsibility. The Board is responsible to: Second or hire an adequate number of qualified personnel who will be deployed by the Director to co-ordinate, co-operate with the appropriate Superintendents and assist in the implementation of the Policy and Procedures.... Provide budget and resources to ensure effective communication, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the ... Policy.62 The multicultural ethnic and race relations policy of the Board being studied is similar to the characteristics outlined by McLeod (1989) and Anderson and Fullan (1984). The commitment to human, philosophical, financial and resource is present. It is now a case of implementation, evaluation and review. 62Idem, Policy.iyib. 153 Conclusion Board A's Policy began as a localized movement and resulted in the creation of an official Board policy. During the course of its creation, all who could be effected by the Policy namely publicly elected officials, administrators, staff, and the community were invited to contribute their perspectives and suggestions. Members of the formal education system and selected members of the community both were given the opportunity to develop a sense of ownership of the Policy . The approved MERR was designed to provide systemic multiculturalism and multicultural education. In many ways it shares similarities outlined by policy and multicultural researchers. These include the Policy's philosophical statements, its constituent elements, and the commitment to implement the document. As the MERR has been implemented for two years, the sense of public and system ownership and the degree to which components of the Policy have been implemented require investigation. The methodology and objectives of this type of research ought to include a complete investigation of the realization of equality and equity within the Board's school system. 1 5 4 Chapter 6 The Origins, Development and Description of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Program Introduction In this chapter, I will investigate and analyze the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp, henceforth refereed to as the OMMLC. As a curriculium designed for secondary school students, it is important to note that the OMMLC is symbolic of the transformation of multiculturalism as a systemic ethos into multiculturalism as a specific curriculum. In order to provide a context to investigate and to analyze this camp, I will refer to the available literature on the subject of student multicultural camps. The Multicultural Leadership Program, or simply the MLP, of the Board being studied used the Ontario program as a model; Board A program writers, however, adapted key aspects to meet their own needs and resources. Therefore, an understanding and review of the provincial program or camp is an important aspect to be considered. The research conducted by Berry, Kalin and Taylor (1977), Berry and Kalin (1979), Bibby (1987), and Aboud (1988) lead to the conclusion that there is a need to enhance peoples attitudes toward minority groups and multicultural objectives.1 D'Oyley s (1977) and ThornhiU's (1984) research and observation among students in Toronto and Kalin s (1979) research among Thunder Bay students reinforce the importance of the need to develop positive attitudes toward cultural diversity among 1 J.W. Berry, R. Kalin and D. Taylor, Multiculturalism and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada, (Ottawa: Ministry of Supply and Services, 1977); J.W. Berry andR. Kalin, "We Look at One Another: Immigration and Ethnic Attitudes in Canada," TESL Talk, 10, no. 3 (1979), 32-44; Reginald W. Bibby, "Biiingualism and Multiculturalism: A National Reading," in Ethnic Canada: Identities and Inequities ed., Leo Driedger (Toronto: Copp Clarke Pitman Ltd., 1987), 163; Janet Rosenstock and Dennis Adair," The Visible Minority in the Multicultural Society," in Multiculturalism, Biiingualism and Canadian Institutions ed. Keith A. McLeod (Toronto: Guidance Centre, Faculty of Education. University of Toronto, 1979), 69-79. the nation's youth.2 In addition, the Canadian Multiculturalism Act the Ontario Multicultural Policy (1977), the Ontario Race Relations Policy (1983). The Formative Years (1975). OSIS (l%4,1989), The Development of a Policy on Race and Ethnocultural'Equity(1987), and A Synopsis ofPuhlicResponses(l%i) also endorse the enhancement of positive relations among Canada's ethnocultural groups. Multicultural leadership programs are one curriculum strategy designed to achieve a number of educational objectives related to these tenets, acts, and guidelines. For example, through participating in the OMMLC students are to develop an appreciation of Canada's cultural diversity, a framework for racial tolerance, an understanding of the causes of prejudice and discrimination, and processes to effectively deal with incidents of bias and discrimination.3 The Origins of the Ontario Multicultural-Multiracial Leadership Camo Both in Canada and the United States, researchers have investigated multicultural leadership programs.4 The development and implementation of these programs emanates from the political endorsement of basic principals of multiculturalism, namely, equality, cultural retention and sharing, and access and participation. From these tenets, the need to promote social harmony, mutual 2VincentR. D'Oyley, "Parenting and a Few Adolescent Cases in Three Ethnic Groups," in The Impact of Multi-Ethnicity on Canadian Education, 2nd. ed., (Toronto: Urban Alliance on Race Relations, 1977), 177-96; Esmeralda Thornhill, "Cultural Minorities in the School," Multiculturalism 7, no. 3 (1984), 15-16. 3Mavis Burke, A Residential Learning Experience," Multiculturalism 6, no. 1 (1982), 22. 4Mavis Burke," The Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp: A Residential Learning Experience," Multiculturalism 6, no. 1 (1982), 21-24; Yehuda Amir and Chana Garti," Situational and Personal Influence in Attitude Change Following Ethnic Contact," International Journal of Intercultural Relations 1, no. 2 (1977), 58-77; Gerald Clore et. al.," Interracial Attitudes and Behavior at Summer Camp," Journal of Personality and Psychology, 36. no. 2 (1978), 107-16. tolerance, respect and understanding for all persons of all ethnocultural groups is derived. Within Ontario, guidance counsellors in the Toronto Board of Education initiated the Ontario multicultural leadership camp .5 They saw the need to provide a residential program for high school students which would assist them to develop positive attitudes toward ethnocultural diversity, to examine multicultural and multiracial issues, and to improve race relations within the participants' schools. Informally, the counsellors presented their concept to selected groups of students for their reactions and suggestions. Students supported the concept. Drawing upon their own extracurricular experiences, however, students proposed that, as opposed to including just students, a combined student teacher team from each school should participate in the experience. Students hoped that the teacher involvement would provide the needed support for school based follow up activities. As a result of the student's input, counsellors integrated the concept of a student teacher team into the written proposal they submitted to the Multicultural Committee of the Ontario Ministry of Education in 1977. This Committee and Mr. Thomas Wells, Minister of Education, approved, in principle, the proposal for a secondary school multicultural leadership program. Nevertheless, Wells cited limited time and space availability at the Ontario Student Leadership Centre, the suggested site, as barriers to implementing the program in the 1977-1978 academic year. Undeterred, the guidance counsellors planned and piloted the first Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp at the Toronto Island School in the fall of 1977. While the responses from the teacher and student participants who had 5Dr. Mavis Burke, Special Advisor on Race and Ethnic Relations, Ontario Ministry of Education, interview by author, tape recording, Toronto, 6 March 1990. participated in this inaugural camp were positive, teacher facilitators and program organizers raised a number of critical concerns. First, they stated that there needed to be greater program preplanning. Second, organizers noted the need for further staff training which, they hoped, would create a stronger sense of program ownership among teacher facilitators. Other central issues raised by both teacher facilitators, program writers and board administrators included teacher release time, student selection criteria, the division of local board, and Ministry responsibilities. (Concerns related to this latter domain pertain to the Ministry's long term material, financial, and organizational support of the program.) As a group, the teachers and students feared that the Ministry would shift these responsibilities to the local boards of education and gradually withdraw their support from the OMMLC. These concerns were allayed when the Ministry assumed responsibility for program costs and preplanning. Furthermore, the Ministry also integrated multicultural, multiracial leadership into all of the other student leadership programs offered at the Ontario Student Leadership Centre. Introduction to the Ontario  Multicultural. Multiracial Leadership Camp The idea that it is possible to promote social harmony using field and theory based research strategies underpin multicultural leadership camps. In order to provide a context for an analysis and a comparison of the program offered by the board being investigated, which was adapted from the provincial model, I will review the fundamental elements of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp for secondary school students. Program Objectives 156 Ontario's Camp focuses upon the development of leadership skills in student participants. The 1978 Ontario program was based upon the following objectives and outcomes. The objectives of the program were to provide participants with the following: - opportunities to get to know members of their peer group better through inter-racial dialogues and shared experience of residential life; - increased communication skills in relating to peer groups and others; - conditions necessary to develop positive image of self and greater sensitivity to others; - concepts that suggest the value of co-operation in goal setting and problem-solving; The intended outcomes of the program were: - acceptance of racial and cultural diversity by individual participants; - development of bonds of trust that would make it possible for dialogue to be continued in school situations; - sensitivity to race-related issues and awareness of approaches that could contribute to problem-solving in the actual school context; - supportive networks across schools and across school jurisdictions.6 As Burke (1982) noted, however, in 1982 the Ministry model was redesigned to place increased emphasis upon race relations. As stated in the Ontario Ministry's Revised Manual [1982], students would: - Discover, clarify and practice leadership skills by participating in exercises and activities designed to encourage co-operation, trust, team work, problem identification and solution, and conflict resolution. - Appreciate Canada's cultural diversity by interacting with — and snaring a part of their culture with — students in the programme. - Establish a framework for racial tolerance. - Identify the causes of prejudice and discrimination - Determine processes to deal effectively with prejudice and 6Mavis Burke," The Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp," 22. discrimination.7 159 The 1982 statement leaves no doubt that the causes of prejudice and discrimination and how to deal effectively with prejudice and discrimination were included within the development of leadership skills. In the 1981 parent/guardian information form and in the general information form for school representatives, the expectation is set that, "... each school group will identify ways in which the program learning may be of practical use in their individual school situations".8 In an interview, Burke stressed the importance that was place on this aspect of the program.9 Selection Process Initially, the students and staff from the Toronto School Board were invited to participate in the program. After the OMMLC was piloted, the scope was expanded to enable students and teachers from across Ontario to become involved.10 Participants from rural and urban areas and from monocultural and pluralistic areas now could meet, share information and experiences and develop an awareness of multiculturalism on a broad basis. Thus, rural students, who are sometimes from a more monocultural background, have the opportunity to become acquainted with and to understand issues which urban multiethnic, multicultural, multiracial, multilingual students presently face. These experiences will affect the rural students as individuals and, in the future, their communities.11 7Ibid., 23. ^Ontario Ministry of Education, Ontario Student Leadership Centre Multicultural, MultiracialLeadership Program(Toronto, 1981), n.p.. 9Burke, interview by author. Tape recording, Toronto, 6 March 1990. 10Hugh Bryant, interview by author, Toronto, 5 March 1990. "Ibid. 1 6 0 Student selection processes are left to the staff of individual schools. A key criterion for student and staff selection is leadership qualities. Other student selection criteria considered are based upon the school group as a whole. As a group, fair cultural, ethnic, racial and linguistic representation and equal gender participation are to be considered. A total of ten students and one teacher are chosen in each of the ten schools which participate in the program.12 Organization Two organizational areas require consideration, namely staff and students. The Camp staff is subdivided into permanent site staff, which includes the Course Director, the Program Coordinator, the Senior Facilitator/Counsellor, and Facilitators. The participating schools select the Teacher Counsellors to represent their school and to participate in the Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp. With the guidance of the Senior Facilitator/ Counsellor, the facilitators and the teacher counsellors actually deliver the program to the students. Given the large number of student participants, usually about sixty, the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp is organized by breaking the whole group, or community, into subgroups, or families of ten students each. This grouping is based upon a heterogeneous mix of schools and cultural and racial backgrounds. A facilitator and a teacher counsellor are assigned to each family. A third system of grouping which is utilized during the camp is recreational groups; these groups are based upon student interest.13 The camp is held for a five day period, Monday to Friday, and is usually held 120ntario Ministry of Education, Ontario Student Leadership Centre Multicultural, MultiracialLeadership Program (Toronto, 1981), n.p.. 13Ibid., n.p.. in late September or early October at the Ontario Student Leadership Centre. Located on Lake Couchiching, near Orillia, Ontario, the Centre is comprised of a series of permanent buildings and extensive grounds. The surroundings and the organizational structure provide a near-ideal setting where participants are not easily distracted by school, home or other obligations or responsibilities. Program Overview The OMMLC activities are based upon the following theory and field based strategies, namely. (1) teaching about prejudice, (2) moral development, (3) appeals to consistency, (4) empathy, (5) contact, and, (6) cooperative learning. While the following review briefly describes each, the reader is also referred to Chapter Four for more detailed information. First, teaching about prejudice is based upon the sharing of facts regarding a specific concept, prejudice for example, or a specific ethnocultural group, Black Jamaican, for example.14 Discussion of the concept or group is important, but even then some researchers conclude that this strategy is one of the least effective in changing attitudes.1' Second, moral education is based upon Kohlberg's (1979, 1984) theory of 1 4 Jack Kehoe, Achieving Cultural Diversity in the Classroom (Cornwall, Ontario: Vesta Publications, 1984), 50-51. 15Philip I. Freedman, Margaret Gotte and Gregory Holtz, "In Support of Direct Teaching to Counter Stereotypes," Phi Delta Kappan, 62, no. 6 (1981), 456; Jack Kehoe, Achieving Cultural Diversity, 33; Jack Kehoe," Achieving the Goals of Multicultural Education in the Classroom," in Multiculturalism in Canada: Social and Educational Perspectives eds. R.J. Samuda, J.W. Berry and M. Laferriere (Toronto: Allyn and Bacon Inc., 1984), 143; M.A. Ijaz," Ethnic Attitude Change: A Multidimensional Approach," in Multiculturalism in Canada: Social and Educational Perspectives eds. R.J. Samuda, J.W. Berry and M. Laferriere (Toronto: Allyn and Bacon Inc., 1984), 130. 1 6 2 moral development. Often using a specific case study of discriminatory behavior, discussion of the moral aspects of the incident forms the underpinning of this theoretical approach. Through raising participants' awareness of higher levels of moral reasoning and challenging the adequacy of their reasoning processes, it is hoped that students will use this awareness and insight, apply them to their own moral reasoning processes, and advance to the next level of moral development. Generally, research has found this pedagogical practice to be effective.16 Third, appeals to consistency is based upon the dissonance equilibrium theory. This theory is based upon the premise that when new knowledge is introduced, the previous balance of knowledge and beliefs is upset. The individual seeks to restore the balance through the accommodation of new knowledge and through an adjustment in values and beliefs.16 Fourth, the empathy approach, which often uses role playing or simulation, is based upon the objective of increasing the student's ability to relate to situations through personal understanding and feelings; the objective of these types of activities is to increase students' levels of empathy and understanding of what it is like to be the victim of discriminatory behavior.17 Research supports the effectiveness of this technique;18 Culbertson (1957) even suggests that the more roles an individual assumes, the greater the treatment effect.19 Fifth, the contact theory and research of interracial, interethnic, intercultural contact indicates that when specific conditions are provided, individuals in contact are more likely to develop positive attitudes toward each 16Jack Kehoe, Achieving Cultural Diversity, 119-20. 17Ibid., 90. 18John Kehoe, Achieving CulturalDiversity, 93-94. '^ Frances Culbertson, "Modification of An Emotionally Held Attitude Through Role Playing," Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology,^ (1957), 232-3-163 other.20 Research supports the generalization of these attitudes toward other members of the same ethnic or racial groups.21 Amir (1969) provides a list of the recommended conditions. Some of the favourable conditions which tend to reduce prejudice are: (a) when there is equal status contact between members of various ethnic groups, (b) when the contact is between members of a majority group and higher status members of a minority group, (c) when an "authority" and/or the social climate are in favour of and promote intergroup contact, (d) when the contact is of an intimate rather than a casual nature, (e) when the ethnic intergroup contact is pleasant or rewarding, (f )m when the members of both groups in the particular contact situation interact in functionally important activities or develop common goals or superordinate goals that are higher ranking in importance than the individual goals of each of the groups.22 Amir and Garti (1977) and Clore et al. (1978) have implemented this strategy at a residential camp similar to that of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp.23 Based upon their findings, both teams of researchers conclude that this type of environment or strategy can be quite effective in developing positive attitudes toward ethnocultural groups.24 It is important to note that cooperative learning and contact are interdependent and interrelated strategies; effective cooperative learning experiences are based upon effective contact conditions and interaction. 20Yehuda Amir," The Contact Hypothesis in Ethnic Relations," Psychological Bulletin. 71, no. 5 2 1 Yehuda Amir and Chana Garti," Situational and Personal Influence on Attitude Change Following Ethnic Contact," International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 1, no. 2 (1977), 70. 2 2 Yehuda Amir." The Contact Hypothesis in Ethnic Relations," 338. 23Yehuda Amir and Chana Garti," Situational and Personal Influence on Attitude Change Following Ethnic Contact," 58-77; Gerald Clore et al., "Interracial Attitudes and Behavior at a Summer Camp," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, no. 2,107-16. 24Yehuda Amir and Chana Garti," Situational and Personal Influence on Attitude Change Following Ethnic Contact," 72; Gerald Clore et al., "Interracial Attitudes and Behavior at a Summer Camp,", 113; Sixth, cooperative education involves heterogeneous or multiracial, multiethnic groupings and full participation of all group members to achieve a specific goal.25 Jigsaw I and II are examples of this pedagogical approach 2 6 In addition to increasing positive attitudes toward other ethnic or racial or minority groups, researchers also conclude that this strategy is also effective in increasing levels of achievement27 Each of these theory and field based strategies, namely, (1) teaching about prejudice, (2) moral development, (3) appeals to consistency, (4) empathy, (5) cooperative learning, and (6) contact are implemented in the Ontario model. At this point, I wish to highlight the fact that these approaches are combined within an intensive program; therefore it is difficult to determine the effects of any individual activity upon the participants. I will provide specific examples of how each pedagogical practice is implemented into the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp activities, (see Appendix 1 : The 1982 Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp (Daily Schedules.)) 2 5 J . Myers and M. Taylor, "Co-operative Techniques in the Classroom," Multiculturalism, 6. no. 3 (1983), 7-10; Shlomo Sharan, "Cooperative Learning and Helping Behavior in the Multi-Ethnic Classroom," in Children Helping Children, ed. Hugh Foot, Michelle Morgan and Rosalyn Shute (n.p.: John Wiley and Sons, 1989), n.p. 2 6 E. Aronson et.al. The Jigsaw Classroom, (Beverley Hills: Sage Publications, 1978). 27Shlomo Sharan, "Cooperative Learning in Small Groups: Recent Methods and Effects on Achievement, Attitudes, and Ethnic Relations," Review of Educational Research, 50, no. 2 (1980), 241-71: R. Slavin, "Cooperative Learning." Review of Educational Research, 50, no. 2 (1980), 333-36. Camp Activities Using Theory and Field Based Research Strategies Teaching About Prejudice The first activities based upon teaching of prejudice were implemented the second day of the camp. (Monday, the first day was principally devoted to group building activities and becoming acquainted with the site itself.) On Tuesday, the group leader(s) introduce and offer definitions of the concepts of prejudice, discrimination, and stereotyping.28 Facilitators and teacher counsellors are provided with definitions of each. As there are no instructions provided to guide the group leaders in this activity, it is difficult to determine how the information would be shared and if there is a discussion of the concepts as recommended by researchers. On Wednesday, case studies of discriminatory behavior are discussed. Case studies, one would think, would logically follow the definitions discussed on Tuesday after the definitions are discussed; this revised order would provide the opportunity for students to apply the definitions in a specific context. Moral Development The Values Auction is an example of a moral education approach 2 9 The stated objectives, namely, to develop insight into the students' own values and to develop an understanding of why other students' opinions are different or similar to their own, encourage students to reexamine their own values and value systems. In the Values Auction, a large group of ten to fifteen students brainstorm a list of 280ntario Ministry of Education, Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Seminar, (Toronto. 1982), 45-50. 29Ibid.. 57-60. ten to twelve items they would liked to see changed in their community or society as a whole. At this stage, students' awareness of other's values and their justification begins. After the list is completed, the group leader breaks the large group into smaller groups of three or four students each. The group leader assigns each small group with a letter of the alphabet and gives each group five hundred points with which the group can bid. Each of these smaller groups then holds a pre-auction meeting to discuss the ranking of the items. At this point, students are placed in the position of having to defend and justify their own values and their priority ordering. Limited to a total of five hundred points, the group must determine how many they wish to allot per item. After this process is complete, the group leader holds the auction. Bids increase by increments of ten points and the group must concur before they place their bid. The auctioneer is advised to offer each item randomly to avoid the unloading of points on the final item. After the auction has concluded, the auctioneer reads back to the whole group the items which solicited the highest bids. The critical component of the activity is the discussion held following the auction. Controversies are examined and an investigation of what the groups are able to do in their own communities in relation to the values concludes the activity. Appeals to Consistency A case study can have the same effect as a moral education strategy while raising students' levels of empathy. "The Flamingo Motel" is one example of a case study which was implemented at the 19S2 OMMLC.30 The case is based upon a man's, Fred Hardwick's, experience with discrimination when he tries to rent a 30Ibid, 81-91. room at a motel for the night. He is accompanied by his wife who is waiting outside the motel in a car. The motel owner tells Mr. Hardwick that there are no rooms available even through the "vacancy" sign is lit. Mr. Hardwick becomes suspicious of the owner and calls the police. The police officers response is to support the motel owner saying that he doesn't have to rent a room against his own wishes. Mr. Hardwick justifies his position stating that if he has not done anything wrong, the motel owner is obliged to rent him a room. The police agree to send a squad car to the motel. Upon hearing this news, the owner explains that he has experienced trouble in the past when white people bring Indians to his motel and have wild parties. The motel owner had assumed that Mrs. Hardwick was a person of Aboriginal heritage. The group leader focuses the discussion upon whether or not the motel manager ought to have the right to deny access to the Hardwicks. In the discussion of this case study,the leader leads the group through four tests, namely, (1) the Role Exchange Test, in which the student empathizes with any of the individuals involved in the case, (2) the New Cases Test, in which the student applies the principles of this case to a different situation, (3) the Universalization Test in which the student imagines the consequences if everyone behaved in a similar manner, and (4) the Submission Test in which the student determines how the principle, denial of access, is an example of a moral general principle, the right to dignity and respectful treatment. In this and similar case studies, a bridge among moral development, appeals to consistency, and empathy exists. Empathy A role play is one of a number of strategies which can increase empathy through the participants assuming the role(s) of an individual(s) in a specific context. Discussion of case studies and literature, as well as role playing activities, "Ambassadors Game" for example, are common techniques implemented in Ontario's Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp.31 After introducing the concept of role playing, families are divided into two groups of equal size. As members of one group are to role play Canadian diplomats, members of the second group role play ambassadors from five fictitious countries. Each of these ambassadors have culture-specific verbal and nonverbal behaviors. After a five minute preparation period, a coffee party among the diplomats and the ambassadors begins and continues for five to ten minutes. During this time, ambassadors exhibit there specific ways of verbal and nonverbal communication. Videotaping of the activity is recommended; follow up discussion focuses upon five areas. The debriefing includes discussion of: (1) the feelings of the Canadian diplomats and their responses to the ambassadors; (2) the changes in behavior of the Canadian diplomats and the effects of the diplomats changed behaviors; (3) the impact of an individual's culture-specific view and practices upon their perceptions of another individual's culture; (4) the difficulties encountered in intercultural communication; and, (5) the implications of intercultural communication in terms of both teacher and student responsibilities. Through this discussion process, it is hoped that the student's empathy for all parties involved in an intercultural situation will be increased. 3 •ibid., 31-34. 169 Cooperative Education As the family grouping process ensures a heterogeneous mixing of the students on the basis of school, gender, and ethnocultural background, cooperative education is the basis of the activity, "The Human Machine".32 This activity involves all ten family group members pooling their intellectual and physical skills to create a functioning human machine. Effective listening, respect for all group members, and the sharing of ideas are key ingredients which ensure successful accomplishment of the task and the attainment of the underlying objective -cooperation. While this activity is dissimilar in structure to Jigsaw I and II, it provides a challenging yet enjoyable approach to group problem solving - a skill the students will need when they return to their schools to design and implement multicultural, multiracial activities. Contact Amir (1969) reviewed studies conducted by researchers who investigated the effects of contact in specific situations and under specific conditions. Many of these studies were conducted in integrated housing projects and others were conducted during students exchanges. In some studies, subjects were of both high and low status. Based upon his review, Amir (1969) notes that, ... if most studies appear to prove that contact between ethnic groups reduces prejudice, it does not necessarily follow that these results are typical for real social situations. Intergroup contact under the [experimental] conditions studied, is unfortunately quite rare in actual life, and even when it occurs, it generally produces only casual interactions actions rather than intimate acquaintances.33 32Ibid., n.p.. 33Yehuda Amir," Contact Hypothesis," 337. The Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp is an experimental type of environment. Camp staff create near ideal conditions for contact to occur. I will compare research regarding preferred conditions for positive outcomes from intergroup contact with those typical of the Ontario program. 1) Equal status contact «Equal status contact among all students and staff regardless of gender, school, and ethnocultural background is an underlying ethos of the camp. Program writers base the selection criteria and chose the organizational structures and the activities to encourage equal status among program participants.34 In addition, choice of camp staff, especially the teachers, facilitate this type of contact. As criteria for staff selection and data regarding participating teachers' ethnocultural backgrounds is unavailable, I cannot determine the frequency in which this condition is realized. 2) The educational system and the social climate are "authorities" in favour of and promoting the intergroup contact. Both the Ministry of Education, school authorities, and the social milieu of the camp encourage and promote intergroup contact at the Camp. The Ministry shows its approval and promotes the camp through financial and organizational support. The schools select the student and staff participants and, it is hoped, assist with school activities resulting from the participant's involvement in the OMMLC. Through program objectives, activities, and family grouping, the program 340ntario Ministry of Education, Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Seminar, 24,40,68,94. 1 7 1 designers, organizers, and staff participants attempt to create the ethos which promotes contact, tolerance, understanding and empathy. In these three ways, namely, program objectives, activities and grouping, intergroup contact is facilitated. 3) Close personal as opposed to casual contact. Staff organize family, and it is hoped (the gender factor notwithstanding) heterogeneous cabin groupings to provide for close personal contact. Activities involve the sharing of personal values, beliefs and attitudes in an accepting environment. This type of intimate contact permeates the entire five day program. 4) Intergroup contact is pleasant or rewarding The need for pleasant intergroup contact is acknowledged by camp staff and teachers. As trained professionals, teachers also participate in professional development before the camp is held. During these sessions, the teachers are trained in facilitator skills, active listening and group dynamics. When they implement these techniques, contact should be both pleasant and rewarding. 5. Ethnocultural group members interact in important activities or develop common goals or superordinate goals that are higher ranking in importance than the individual's goals. Students participate in a wide range of activities in which cooperation is essential to realize the objectives of the task. These objectives are common to each family's members and among all families. In the case of a community activity, the same situation is repeated on a larger scale. Individual ethnocultural group goals, family or cabin group goals have no place at the camp. If staff note the emergence of this type of competition, they are to challenge these goals. Unquestionably, the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp is a model situation for intergroup contact to occur. In this unique environment, many recommended conditions can be and are implemented to the fullest degree possible. These conditions, which are based on field and experimental research situations, include some of the following characteristics, namely that there is: equal status, close personal contact, pleasant or rewarding contact, and goals which require the active participation of all group members and are held as important by these individuals. In conclusion, the activities of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp are based upon theory and field based research which have investigated strategies designed to promote acceptance, understanding, empathizing and respect of ethnocultural minorities. Cognitive, affective, and behavioral theories form the base of all camp activities. As some of these theory based strategies have been proven to be effective in an often carefully controlled environment, the degree of effectiveness in a less strictly controlled camp situation is one area investigated in A Study of Impact on Students and Schools As an independent study commissioned by the Ministry of Education, the project investigated all leadership programs offered at the Ontario Student Leadership Centre. The chapter regarding the OMMLC that is of central interest in the context of this thesis. Evaluation 173 Evaluations of the effects of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp have assumed two forms. First, there is an annual evaluation. Second, a formal independent study of all the student leadership programs offered at the Ontario Student Leadership Centre, including the 1982 OMMLC was carried out in the mid-1980s. Both aspects of evaluation require investigation. I will begin with the annual evaluation and conclude this section with the formal independent study of the Ontario Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp. Annual Evaluation While program organizers require teachers to participate in Course evaluation on request,3' it is unclear how often these evaluations are actually conducted. Nevertheless, a student self evaluation the "Goals for Personal Development Inventory" is one of the concluding camp activities.36 As a way of review, one of the specified objectives of the 1982 OMMLC was to assist students to. Discover, clarify and practice leadership skills by participating in exercises and activities designed to encourage cooperation, trust, team work, problem identification and solution, and conflict resolution.37 Program designers created the "Goals for Personal Development Inventory" to aid students in assessing their goals of specific leadership skills related to this "Ibid., 4. 36Ibid„ n.p. 37Mavis Burke, "The Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp: A Residential Learning Experience," Multiculturalism, 6, no. 1 (1982), 22. 1 7 4 objective. These areas include: social relationships, problem solving, facing and accepting emotional situations, emotional expressiveness and morale building, observation and communication skills. This instrument allows students to critically examine their level of skill development in each of these area and to note specific skills where they are weak and where their skills are overdeveloped. Additional space is provided in each category for the student to add their own personal skills. Once the student has competed the form, s/he is asked to reread the list and to circle three or four specific skills or activities they wish to improve upon. This questionnaire is consistent with the objective of enhancement of leadership skills. The insights students can gain and the act of committing oneself to identifying specific skills they wish to improve are a positive steps. While the annual evaluation process may be carried out by teachers, it might assist if they were to consider two revisions to this annual evaluation procedure. First,( if this is not already carried out) the teacher evaluation ought to be carried out annually at the post course meetings. The instrument ought to include a diverse range of variables which effect the camp experience and which reflect the stated program objectives. Second, in regard to the student self evaluation, according to the 1982 program, students make a private commitment to skills they wish to improve. If this activity were revised to enable students to make a public school group commitment to the specific skills individuals which to improve upon, the student's level of commitment could be increased. In addition, the sharing of this information within the school group could help make his or her peers aware of each member's personal goals. With this knowledge, peers could assist each other to address their weaknesses during their follow up at their own schools. At this time, the annual evaluative process requires further study. Data from the 1978 student evaluation of the OMMLC, both at the end of camp and in a follow up meeting three months later, reveals that students found the experience to 1 7 5 be positive and enriching.38 In 1982, Dr. Burke, the program administrator, concluded her article on the OMMLC by reflecting upon the program's success. It can be demonstrated by these and other developments ... [the creation of local board of education MMLCs ], which cannot be demonstrated in this presentation, that the Ontario Ministry of Education residential student leadership program has succeeded in generating practical activity in prejudice reduction in these [participating] Ontario school jurisdictions. Research evidence indicative of measurable results remains to be obtained.39 While acknowledging the success of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp, Burke recognized the need for further investigation. This research was commissioned by the Ministry and was conducted by an independent team who investigated all Ontario Student Leadership Centre programs. Researchers compiled their findings in The Study of Impact on Students and Schools The Impact on Students and Schools. a Special Report This report is based upon qualitative and quantitative studies of all student leadership programs offered at the Ontario Student Leadership Centre, including the Ontario Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp. The research of the OMMLC program is comprised of three categories: (1) a questionnaire, " The Principals' Institutional Impact Questionnaire", which reflects the participating school principals' impressions of the impact of student and staff participation in the camp upon aspects of school life; (b) a questionnaire student participants completed after attending the 1983 OMMLC which was designed to investigate students' expectations, perceptions and responses to the camp experience; and, (c) a series of seven quantitative questionnaires which were given to two groups of students. The first 38Ibid. 39Ibid„ 23. group, the experimental group, participated in the 1983 OMMLC and the second group, the "control" group, did not participate in the same OMMLC. These tests were given both before and after the program. (This methodology is called a pre-test/post-test control group design.) I will investigate each of the three categories in turn. 1. The Principals' Institutional Questionnaire Nine principals responded to this questionnaire which was designed on a Likert scale format. (This design permitted principals to indicate which of five degrees or levels the participation of staff and students at the OMMLC affected the school as opposed to forcing the principals to make absolute "yes" or "no" responses.) Aspects of school life studied included: music events, fund raising, school clubs, special events, curricular design, curricular teaching and multiculturalism. The results among each category vary; music events, sports, clubs and multiculturalism were the areas most positively affected while curricular design and teaching were the least positively affected. Seventy-eight percent of principals found the school environment improved as a result of school involvement in the 1983 Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp. (See Tables I and II.) 177 TABLE I 1983 ONTARIO MULTICULTURAL LEADERSHIP CAMP: THE PRINCIPALS'RESPONSES TO INSTITUTIONAL IMPACT QUESTIONNAIRE (EIGHT SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF SCHOOL LIFE) Sports Events N x Music Events N X Fund-Raising N X School Clubs N X Special Events N X Curricular Design N X Curricular Teaching N X Multicultural N X Missing 1 (11 X) M U X ) 1 (11X) 1 (1IX) 1 (I1X) 2 (22 X) 1 (11 X) 1 (11%) Can't Say - 1 (MX) - - - 2 (22X) 3 (33 X) -Negative Impact - - - - 1 (1IX) No Impact 1 (1IX) 3 (33X) 4 (44%) - 1 (11X) 4 (44X) 1 (11%) -Minimal Positive Impact 2 (22%) 1 (MX) 2 (22X) 4 (44X) 4 (44X) 1 (11%) 1 (11%) 2 (22X) Moderate Positive Impact 4 (44%) 3 (33X) - 2 (22X) 3 (33X) - 3 (33 X) 4 (44X) Major Positive Impact 1 (1IX) 1 (11 X) 2 (22X) 2 (22X) - - - 1 (11%) Total 9 (100%) 9 (100X) 9 (100X) 9 (10OX) 9 (I0OX) 9 (100%) 9 (100%) 9 (100%) N=9 1 7 8 TABLE II 1983 ONTARIO MULTICULTURAL LEADERSHIP CAMP: PRINCIPALS' RESPONSES TO INSTITUTIONAL IMPACT QUESTIONNAIRE (OVERALL SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT) Has school environment been enriched by the OSLC? U %_ Yes 7 78% No 1 11% Missing 1 JLJJL 9 100% Has the OSLC has a positive, measurable impact on school? bj % Yes 7 78% No 2 12JL Total 9 100% Based upon the responses in Tables One and Two, the majority of principals perceived a notable improvement in their school's atmosphere. These improvements were due, in part, to the participation of their students and staff in the 1983 OMMLC. The results regarding specific aspects of school life which principals felt were affected by staff and student participation in the OMMLC indicate that the more superficial and symbolic aspects of multiculturalism, sports and special events for example, were given the highest ratings of improvement, while the more central aspects of school life, curricular design and teaching for example, were given the lowest ratings of improvement. This data supports the hypothesis that multiculturalism is still perceived as a matter of attitude rather than as cultural and linguistic retention and equality. 1 7 9 2. Students' Qualitative Questionnaire As the one qualitative measure, this instrument was utilized to reflect students' expectations and perceptions of the Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp and to solicit responses regarding their participation. A copy of the instrument was not included in The Study of Impact on Students and Schools Report writers included excerpts from these questionnaires. Reactions to the camp experience cover a wide range from positive to disappointed. One positive response is found in a final journal entry made by Renee, a student of upper middle class French-Canadian background. ' this moment will never come back. I will never be sixteen again. I will never go through high school again. All the things I am living will never repeat themselves but I wish to keep this treasure of knowledge and sensitivity [developed in part through her participation in the [OMMLC] for the rest of my life 4 0 Renee's comments exhibit how she felt deeply affected by her involvement in the camp. Not only were the effects of participation immediate, but Renee hoped to retain her new awareness and knowledge on a long term basis. 4 0 A Study ol'Impact on Studentsand'Schools (n.p.: n.p.. n.d.), n.p. 3. Students' Quantitative Evaluation 160 The research team implemented a rather complex quantitative examination of the effects of the participation in the 1983 OMMLC upon student participants. I offer the following explanation of the researchers' methodology; this explanation will provide the background necessary to understand how the researchers are able to justify their conclusions as being valid and reliable. As schools selected their 1983 Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp student participants, investigators matched these individuals with similar students who were not attending the camp. The researchers then gave the same six quantitative instruments to both groups of students both before and after the OMMLC was held. The seven instruments measured the following variables: 1) sense of effectiveness 2) personal and social responsibilities 3) feelings of inadequacy 4) authoritarian/democratic leadership style 5) leadership behaviors (common and multicultural) 6) organizational participation, and 7) leadership behaviors ( major responsibilities and group president or captain).41 These tests were all scored and used to calculate the differences of averages among all four sets of scores (i.e., (1) control group pre-test, (2) control group post-test. (3) experimental group pre-test, and, (4) experimental group post-test; each set for all seven instruments). Analysis also was designed to determined if any differences were significant (i.e. not due to chance). 4'Ibid, n.p. 1 6 1 Data and statistical analysis supports the conclusion that participation in the camp had a positive and significant effect upon student participants. Referring to these quantitative measures, the investigators conclude the following. The students selected to attend the OMMLC appeared to have somewhat higher leadership potential than the control group students with which they were matched according to teachers' ratings, although there were not major attitudinal or behavioural differences between the two groups. Major differences emerged at the time of the post-test, on both attitudinal and behavioural scales. Experimental students increased significantly in their endorsement of the effectiveness of organized groups on social policy, their overall attitudines [sic.] towards personal and social responsibility, endorsement of democratic leadership styles, and self-confidence in social situations. Similarly, the experimental group students reported a higher frequency in those leadership behaviours related to multiracial/multicultural activities. They also reported participating at a significantly higher rate in organizations than did control group students, at the level of project responsibility, group leadership and total activities.42 This quantitative data provides additional support for both the principals' perceptions and student participants' qualitative information regarding the positive outcomes of the OMMLC. The independent research report A Study of the Impact on Students and Schools uses both qualitative and quantitative measures to investigate the effects of participation in the 1983 Ontario Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp upon both students and their schools. Soliciting anecdotal responses from both principals and students as well as the reactions and suggestions of teachers who participated in the 1983 OMMLC would further enrich and could lend greater support to the researchers' conclusions. 42Ibid., VII-1 In conclusion, the evaluation process of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp are indicative of the positive outcomes in terms of both participating schools and students. In terms of data collection and evaluation, I wish to raise a number of questions. First, how often do teacher and student evaluations occur? Second, what is done with the data which is collected? Third, what are the long term effects of student and of staff participation in the camp? Fourth, do the effects of student and staff participation vary between gender? Fifth, do effects vary among student and staff participants of various racial, ethnic, cultural, and linguistic groups? Sixth, do results vary between students and staff drawn from rural and urban areas? Seventh, does the new knowledge and awareness the teacher may glean from participation carried over into the classroom? If so, in what ways? Finally, why are the evaluations of the Ontario Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp not more widely available to the general public? All of these questions require consideration. Conclusion The Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp is an example of the transformation of multiculturalism from a systemic ethos, a principle which underlies federal, provincial, and local policies, programs, and actions, into an actual curriculum. This curricula originated through the efforts of concerned guidance counsellors. These individuals saw a social and educational need; they designed and piloted a program to meet these needs. The Ministry of Education endorsed and supported this program during its formative stages and continue to support the program today. The program itself is based upon a number of educational objectives which promote multicultural tenets contained in federal, provincial and local school board 183 documents. Theory and field based research strategies are designed to achieve these objectives through increasing participants' levels of tolerance, understanding, and, acceptance of minority groups. Increasingly, the emphasis of this curricula center upon racial issues; nevertheless, it is noteworthy that these issues are subsumed under the rubric of multiculturalism. While some key questions remain unaddressed in the evaluations of the OMMLC, the results of these evaluations support the positive effects of student and staff participation in the program. It would appear that both schools and students are enriched by the experience. Indeed, the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp has been so successful that the Ministry expanded and modified the program in 19S8 to implement a Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp for grade seven students.43 (While this action is commendable, given the increasing diversity of Ontario's population, the Ministry might also consider the possibility of a cultural, ethnic, racial, and/or, language specific camp which focuses on multicultural, multiracial issues. The Ministry has already set this precedent in the Student COuncil Leadership Camps it offers for French-speaking schools. 4 4) Moreover, a number of local boards of education have followed the Ministry's lead and suggestions to create their own their multicultural leadership programs. For example, seven Metropolitan Toronto Boards of Education have modified the provincial prototype according to their own unique needs and resources and have implemented the resultant MLPs. One of these board is the board which is investigated. I will examine their own Multicultural Leadership Program in the next chapter. 43Burke, interview by author, Tape recording, Toronto, 6 March 1990. 440ntario Ministry of Education, Ontario Ministry of Education, Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp, (Toronto, 1981), n.p. 1 6 4 Chapter 7 Board A's Multicultural Leadership Program Introduction As noted in the preceding chapter, the Multicultural Leadership Program, or simply MLP, of the Board being studied was, in part, the resultant effect of teacher and student participation in the Ontario Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp. In this chapter, I investigate the origins, development, and key components of the Multicultural Leadership Program of this Board. These key components include the following: rationale, objectives, student selection, staff selection, staff (or facilitator) training, MLP organization and program, evaluation, and home school activities resulting from the multicultural leadership programs. Through this investigation and analysis, a greater understanding of a school board level multicultural leadership program will be developed. The Origins of the Board A  Multicultural Leadership Program The creation and implementation of Board A's MLP principally resulted from the participation of a team of two teachers and ten students from Board A in the 1978 Ontario Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp.1 Upon their return to their schools, teachers, peers and parents noted the growth in student participants; one of the chief characteristics which received comment was the increase in 'Board A, MLPFiies, (n.p.: n.p., n.d.), n.p. 185 student participants' ability to work effectively and cooperatively in groups.2 Undoubtedly, staff and student participation in the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp had a noteworthy effect upon the students. While one of the participating teachers left to teach in Alberta, the remaining one enlisted the assistance of another teacher, the present Coordinator, to promote the concept of a board level multicultural leadership program. (While the Coordinator has never been able to attend the OMMLC, he is one of the program's strongest advocates.) Together, these two teachers solicited the support of the Assistant Program Advisor who promoted the concept of a Board multicultural leadership program within the Board. The positive central support led the two teachers to adapt the five day Ontario Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp to a two and one-half day model, to create a formal proposal, and to present their proposal to the Board Administrative Committee for approval. This Committee approved the camp proposal in the fall of 1979 and the first camp was implemented in February 1980. ( This administrative support of the MLP is acknowledged in the Board A Multicultural Ethnic and Race Relations Policy.) In early February, thirty students and seven teachers representing all Board A's high schools participated in this initial MLP held at the Board's outdoor education center.3 The origins and implementation of the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program are similar to that of the Ontario Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp. While Toronto Board of Education teachers perceived a need, created and implemented the OMMLC, Board A teachers participated in the original model, saw a need, modified the provincial prototype, and implemented the resultant program. Both the Ontario and the Board A multicultural leadership camps are examples of 2Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, Toronto, 12 February 1990. 3Ibid. the importance of local teacher and administrative support to the creation, acceptance and implementation of this type of program. Administration As stated in the Board A Policy (1988), the Multicultural Leadership Program is to receive the support of the Board's Superintendent of Program and Staff Development and Superintendent of Student and Community Services. These individuals hold the following responsibilities, namely to, expand the support base for the Multicultural Leadership Programme at the school level (Secondary and Intermediate) and provide sufficient budget allocations to permit more broadly-based student and staff participation, evaluation and ongoing modifications as required.4 As well as receiving central administrative support, the local school principals and student governments are to support and assist MLP graduates within their school. For example, as stated within the Policy, the school principals given the following responsibility. Student government, in the intermediate and senior schools, will be encouraged by the principal to institute peer counselling, with trained Multicultural Leadership Programme graduates, for victims and aggressors in racial, ethnic or religious incidents in co-operation with appropriate staff assistance and to provide leadership in developing positive intercultural and race relations.' While the MLP Coordinator notes that the central administration and schools do support the Program,6 the information available suggests that the Coordinator and 4Board A, Policy, (n.p.: Board A, 1988), 39. 5lbid. 6Board A, MLP Files, n.p.. the participating teachers sustain the MLP on an annual basis. 1 6 7 The Development of the Board A MLP Overview The Board A MLP has undergone considerable modification since its first piloting in 1980. A number of factors, each which exerted their own influence, precipitated these changes. First, the staff participants and the MLP Coordinator adapted the OMMLC over a period of Board camps from 1979 to 1982; this modification process affected both the time framework and the choice of activities to be implemented in the program. Second formal writing processes have affected the actual MLP Handbook . In 1982 , an administratively supported writing team created a Board A MLP Handbook . Based upon the experience staff participants and the MLP Coordinator gathered as a result of the implementation of the 1982 Handbook , a second administratively supported writing team rewrote Sessions II and III in 1985. (I wish to point out that these latter revisions are still in draft form.) Third, participating staff and the MLP Coordinator modify each camp session based upon the student participants' needs and abilities and the facilitator's unique abilities and training. These modifications occur at both the camp preplanning sessions and during on-site planning and may alter the activities included in a specific MLP session and the order in which these activities are implemented.8 ( For a complete description of MLP changes see Table III - Program Stricture of Board A's MLP.) 7Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, Toronto, 12 February 1990. 8Ibid. 1 6 6 Table III Changes in the Program Structure of Board A's MLP Year Program Guide 1979/80 Modified OMMLC 1980/81 Further Modifications of OMMLC Modifications - adapt five day program to a two and one weekend - selection of specific activities from 1978 OMMLC - rewriting of moral dilemmas and case studies - one 5-day session (implemented for 2 different MLPs) 1981/82 July '82 Modified 1980-1981 Program - change in time schedule from one 5-day session to three sessions (Session I - residential weekend; Session II - one day intersession; Session III -residential weekend) - first edition of the Board A MLP Handbook written 1982/83 1983/84 1984/85 Board A MLP Handbook Board A MLP Handbook Board A MLP Handbook modifications limited to preplanning and on-site planning modifications limited to preplanning and on-site planning modifications limited to preplanning and on-site planning July '85 1985/86 Board A MLP Handbook (Session I) and revised draft of Sessions II & III - rewriting and draft of new Sessions II and III - use summer rewriting of Sessions II and III - activities and order of activities changed increased emphasis on group problem-solving skills 1986/87 Use 1985-1986 MLP (Old Session I rewrite of Sessions II & III modifications limited to preplanning and on-site planning 1987/88 1988/89 1989/90 Use 1985-1986 Program Use 1985-1986 Program Use 1985-1986 Program - modifications limited to preplanning and on-site planning - modifications limited to preplanning and on-site planning - modifications limited to preplanning and on-site planning 1 8 9 The Adaptions of the Board A Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Program The most fundamental and lasting modifications made from the 197S OMMLC to the Board A MLP are the time schedule and the staff and student selection criteria. I will explore each 9 As noted in the previous chapter, the OMMLC is a five day intensive program. Based upon the Board's available resources in the 1979-1980 academic year, this program format was changed to a one weekend session. The participating staff and students were dissatisfied with this first MLP. In a post program debriefing, facilitators discussed the possibility of extending the program; they agreed to adopt a five day intensive session similar to that of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp during the 1980-1981 academic year. In 1980-1981, the Board A MLP adapted the five day format and was implemented twice with two different groups. In an interview, the Coordinator observed that the students reached a saturation point part way through the camp and that they would have benefited from a break to integrate and to develop their new skills and knowledge. Furthermore, the Coordinator notes that this scheduling tested the limits of his abilities as Coordinator and of the teachers as facilitators.10 Based upon these observations, the Coordinator and the facilitators again modified the program, this time to a three session format. This scheduling, which became the final form of the Board A MLP, is based upon the following plan, namely: one residential weekend held in the fall at the Board's outdoor education center, or simply Session I; a one day intersession held in December at the Board offices or at 9Board A, MLP Files n.p.. 10Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording/Toronto, 12 February 1990. 1 9 0 a Board A high school, or simply Session II; and, a second residential weekend held in the late winter at the same outdoor center, or simply Session III. After repeated implementation of this model, the MLP Coordinator and staff facilitators have observed that this structure permits students to accommodate and practice their new skills and knowledge.11 In summary, the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program originated with the staff and student participation in the 1978 OMMLC. The program has continued to receive support from both the central administration and from the MLP staff and students. While the actual program was as modification of the 1978 Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp, annual modifications are also introduced at preplanning and on-site planning meets. All revisions are made based upon the available resources, upon observations of camp by the MLP staff, upon the perceived needs of the participants, and upon student feedback. Rationale The rationale of the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program is based upon four aspects, namely: (1) Canada's sociocultural realities, (2) the 1971 federal multicultural policy, (3) the perceived role of the school in society,12 and (4) the concept that we are responsible for our behaviour and that we can change. Citing evidence of growing discriminatory behavior, the authors propose that, "the official federal policy [of multiculturalism ] and this climate of intolerance demonstrate a need for a plan of action".13 Their proposed plan of action, the Multicultural Leadership Program, implements Kehoe s (1979) perception of the 1 1 Ibid. 12Board A, MLP Handbook, (n.p.: Board A. 1982), 2. 13Ibid. 1 9 1 educational system's social responsibility, namely that, ' it is clearly within the mandate of the schools to challenge beliefs which are inconsistent with the facts. It is also within the mandate of the school to challenge practices which are unfair.'4 Acknowledging the social and political realities and the education system's responsibility, the Handbook authors raise the following three questions: - How can we combat prejudice and encourage co-operation and positive feelings toward other groups? - How can we promote communication and group problem-solving skills? - How can we turn knowledge and awareness into positive action?15 Through extensive research of the available literature base, the authors describe a number of field and theory based pedagogical practices which provide answers to these questions. These practices or strategies include: information, case study, self- insight, empathy, similarities, good news, behaviour modification, personal contact, going public, role play and simulation, moral development, and working with minorities.16 As the authors of the Handbook predicate the MLP's rationale upon social, political and psychological beliefs and realities and as the program objectives ought to correlate with this rationale, I will now investigate the stated objectives of the Multicultural Leadership Camp. 14John Kehoe, Ethnic Prejudice and the Role of the School, (Vancouver: n.p., 1979), 3 quoted in Board A, MLP Handbook, n.p.. 15Board A, MLP Handbook, 3. 16Ibid„ 13-17. Objectives 192 The educational objectives of Board A's MLP Handbook reflect Canada's sociocultural realities, federal and provincial multicultural policies, as well as Ontario's educational policies. They are also similar to the goals of the Board's Multicultural Policy and the stated MLP rationale. While the MLP objectives are broken down according to the particular session, the Handbook writers list the following overall program objectives. The general aim of this programme is to develop in the participants personal and interpersonal skills which will lead them to promote inter-racial acceptance and understanding in their school and community. The students will increase in: - self-awareness, and self-concept - communication and problem-solving skills - trust and empathy - positive attitude toward people of different cultural backgrounds - awareness of cultural groups, and of individuals as a complex network - acceptance of similarities and differences of others with regard to culture and world-view - ability to identify school and community problems - involvement in school and/or community activities, using their new skills and perspectives.17 The program writers based these objectives upon the secondary school population; therefore, it is important to note that these stated objectives are similar to the educational goals and the multiculturalism section stated within #57$" (1989). As the similarities are more clearly visible in the accompanying explanations within OSISI have included these explanations as they are applicable to the goals of Board A's Multicultural Leadership Program. 17Ibid., 8. 193 The goals of education ... consist of helping each student to: 1. develop a responsiveness to the dynamic processes of learning ... The dynamic aspect of these processes derives from their source in may instinctive human activities, their application to real-life experiences, and their systematic interrelation with the curriculum. 2. develop resourcefulness, adaptability, and creativity in learning and living .... These attributes apply to ... the ability to deal effectively with challenge and change. 3. acquire the basic knowledge and skills needed to comprehend and express ideas through words, numbers, and other symbols Such knowledge and skills will assist the learner in applying rational and intuitive processes to the identification and solution of problems by: a) using language aptly as a means of communication and an an instrument of thought; b) reading, listening, and viewing with comprehension and insight;... 5 . gain satisfaction from participating and from sharing the participation of others in various forms of artistic expression .... Artistic expression involves the clarification and restructuring of personal perception and experience. It is found in ...drama... as well as in other areas of the curriculum where both the expressive and receptive capabilities of the learner are being developed. 6. develop a feeling of self-worth Self-worth is affected by internal and external influences. Internally, it is fostered by realistic self-appraisal, confidence and conviction .... Externally, it is reinforced by encouragement... [and] respect.... 7 . develop an understanding of the role of the individual within the family and the role of the family within society .... 1 9 4 8. acquire skills that contribute to self-reliance in solving practical problems in everyday life These skills relate to ... the appropriate use of community agencies and services... 9. develop a sense of personal responsibility in society at the local, national, and international levels Awareness of personal responsibility in society grows out of knowledge and understanding of one's community, one's country, and the rest of the world. It is based on an understanding of social order, a respect for the law and the rights of others, and a concern for the quality of life at home and abroad. 10. develop esteem for the customs, cultures, and beliefs of a wide variety of societal groups This goal is related to social concord and individual enrichment. In Canada it includes regard for: a) the Native peoples; b) the English and French founding peoples; c) multiculturalism; d) national identity and unity.18 Though these explanations are extensive, a number of parallels between the Board A MLP objectives and the goals as stated within OS IS (1989) can be observed. First, the students are to develop increased sense of self-awareness, and self-concept. Second, students are to increase their ability to communicate effectively. Third, students are to develop problem-solving skills. Fourth, students are to develop a increased sense of trust and empathy and a positive attitude toward members of Canada's ethnic, cultural, linguistic, and racial groups. Fifth, students are to increase their awareness of society as well as the roles of individuals within it. Sixth, students are to begin to assume a social responsibility and to become involved in their own communities. It is important to note that OSISil%9) goals include the l80ntario Ministry of Education, Ontario Schools; Intermediate and Senior Divisions (Grades 7-12/OAC: Program and Diploma Requirements, 19$9lrev.ed., (Toronto, 1989), 3. 195 development of an understanding of Canada's social order (Goal Nine). Perhaps through understanding the existing social order and the inequities within it, students will be better prepared to address these inequities while respecting the law. While these similarities in goals exist, the multiculturalism section within OSIS (1989) is also pertinent to the MLP objectives and rationale. Within this particular section, the following statement is made. The policies on multiculturalism and race relations officially adopted by the government of Ontario accept cultural and racial diversity as a significant characteristic of the province s social fabric and, accordingly, require the schools to help prepare all students to live in this multicultural and multiracial society and in an increasingly interdependent world.19 The references to provincial policies, the goals of acceptance of diversity and the role of the school in helping to prepare to participate in Canadian society are parallel to the references made within the MLP Handbook. Based upon this investigation and analysis of the goals and multiculturalism section within #573* (1989) and the rationale and the objectives of the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program specific similarities exist. Next, I will discuss methods by which these objectives are to be realized through other aspects of the Multicultural Leadership Program. Student Selection There are two basic categories for the student selection criteria. First, students are considered upon individual skills, knowledge and attitudes. Second, the group of individuals who are selected to represent an individual school are chosen 19Ibid., 9. 1 9 6 upon the basis of the catchment areas ethic, cultural and racial composition. This distinction is made clear in the following list of selection criteria listed in the Handbook; within the same section, the program writers also specify the process by which student participants are to be selected. The student group selected from any one school to participate in the programme should meet as many of the following criteria as possible: - have an equal number of boys and girls - span the ages of 15 to 17 years, inclusive - reflect the school community with as wide a background as possible - be composed of students with leadership potential in the community, school, or peer group (This does not imply academic excellence, level of study, or popularity with the peer group - be composed of students with some of the following characteristics: - willingness to participate in the programme - responsibility, and ability to work with others - social consciousness - self-motivation - self-awareness, sensitivity, empathy - creativity - interest in school and community. The participating teachers contacted other staff in the school by mailbox note, and in person. Staff were asked to recommend a list of students who they felt met some or many of the criteria listed above. These students were invited to a meeting at which the basic outline of the programme was explained, and letters to parents were distributed. Those students who showed interest became the group from which the final selection was made.20 These criteria are in harmony with the rationale and objectives of the program for a number of reasons. First, willingness to participate is essential if the goals of this voluntary program are to be realized. Second, equitable representation of the school community reinforces the multicultural principles which underlie the camp. Third, student participants need to develop leadership skills to be able to 20BoardA, MLP Handbook,!. implement school and community activities. These leadership skills can include the following abilities which are specified in the Handbook, namely: responsibility, creativity, social consciousness, self-motivation, self-awareness, sensitivity, empathy, the ability to work with others, and, an interest in the school and its community. The criteria for student selection provide a basis from which students can realize the personal growth, and from which the stated program objectives may be realized. Nonetheless, the Coordinator and the facilitators of the 1989-1990 MLP are concerned about the student selection process.21 First, the level of student participation fluctuates; this factor is highly dependent upon staff facilitator recruitment and upon students' personal priorities. (See Table IV regarding student and staff participation since 1980.) Second, the students selected for the 1989-1990 MLP were less willing to take risks and were more apt to superimpose school behaviour and expectations within the camp setting. Although the suggestion has been made by the MLP Coordinator and by MLP facilitators that this selection process be revised, this issue requires further exploration. It is true that the student selection criteria buttress the rationale and objectives of the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program. As this process is currently implemented, however, revisions of the student selection criteria, the school staffs' knowledge of the MLP objectives and selection criteria, and the selection process itself are required. 21Board A MLP Staff Meeting, attended by author, 23 February 1990. 196 Table IV Attendance at Board A's Multicultural Leadership Program 1980-1990 Student Participants High School Academic Year 80- 81- 82- 83- 84- ss - 86- 87- 88- 89-81 82* 83 84 85 87 88 89 90 High School 1 10 15 17 14 4 6 7 10 NA 8 High School 2 6 0 0 11 11 0 7 11 NA 8 High School 3 14 8 8 3 8 10 10 0 NA 0 Total 30 23 25 28 23 16 24 21 NA 16 Staff Participants High School Academic Year 80-81 81-82 » 82-83 83-84 84-85 85-86 86-87 87-88 88-89 89-90 High School 1 1 NA NA 5 NA 3 NA 4 NA 2 High School 2 3 NA NA 3 NA 0 NA 0 NA 1 High School 3 3 NA NA 3 NA 4 NA 2 NA 0 Total 7 7 4 11 7 16 4 6 NA 3 * Data based upon one camp of the two held in this academic year. Complete data for this year is incomplete 1 9 9 Staff Selection Previous MLP facilitators from both the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp and the Board A's Multicultural Leadership Program have recommended staff for the MLP of the Board being studied. In many ways, however, the MLP staff is self-selecting. In its entirety, the Program requires a commitment of approximately one hundred and fourteen hours of intense volunteer uncompensated time. For many potential staff participants personal and other professional commitments prohibit their involvement with the MLP. As illustrated in Table IV, the program's Coordinator has experienced increasing difficulty in providing for sufficient staff participation form each of the three high schools within the Board. Nevertheless, Handbook writers list the following MLP staff selection criteria. The teachers chosen should reflect as many of the following characteristics as possible: - appreciation for the purpose of the programme - good rapport with students - some experience in developing working groups in the school or community - ability to work with others - social consciousness, self motivation, self-awareness, sensitivity, empathy - willingness to participate in this programme - interest in the development of future activities in this area Preferably, one woman and one man teacher should represent each school. Of the total of 6 facilitators, 3 should be experienced, so that in Family groups an experienced facilitator can be paired with an inexperienced facilitator. The most important selection criterion is the teacher's willingness to participate in the programme. By staff discussion, the participants for a given programme are chosen.22 22Board A, MLP Handbook, 14. 200 It would be beneficial to know whether it is the school staff or the Coordinator with the assistance of the experienced MLP staff who choose the MLP staff for a given year. Nonetheless, two aspects of the teacher selection are important. First, the willingness to participate in the entire Program i.e. all three sessions is vital. Staff participation throughout the whole MLP ensures bonding between staff and students and provides for continuity in the Program leaders. Second, the pairing of experienced with less experienced facilitators allows the new facilitator to observe the more experienced facilitator and to develop a sense of program ownership.23 Not all facilitators, however, are unfamiliar with the Board A MLP. Multicultural Leadership Program graduates have served as facilitators in the 1989-1990 MLP. As these particular students who were chosen exhibit the appropriate qualities and have participated the program themselves, these student facilitators were paired with the more experienced teacher facilitators during the first and second sessions and were paired together during the third session. The implications and effects of MLP graduates as facilitators have yet to be fully explored by the MLP staff. Unquestionably, the facilitators chosen ought to be committed to the MLP as well as possessing some of the specified qualities. As the Board A MLP Coordinator has experienced difficulty in ensuring sufficient staff participation this year, he was forced to rely upon student facilitators. Part of this apparent lack of staff support and involvement centers upon the late confirmation of the dates of the two residential weekends at the Board's outdoor education center. In the late winter of this year, the MLP Coordinator again expressed the effects of this late confirmation process upon staff facilitator availability to the Board's Multicultural Department 23Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989. 201 and to the head of the outdoor education center.24 Ideally, if the dates for the two weekends were known before the end of the preceding school year, the Coordinator believes that staff would be better able to make a firm commitment to the MLP.2' At this time, the effects of this latest attempt to receive this early acknowledgement of the scheduled weekends are unknown. Nevertheless, it is important to consider the base of staff participation. A more broadly based amount of staff participation across the Board would achieve a number of goals. First, the level of awareness of the MLP would increase. Second, the number and variety of school based and community based activities resulting from participation in the MLP could increase. Third, the number of teachers who would have the knowledge to implement multicultural theory and field based strategies in their classrooms would increase. Facilitator Training Facilitator training follows three paths. First, within budget constraints, Board A periodically utilizes the services of professional facilitators for special facilitator workshops. Second, prior to each of the residential sessions, the Coordinator of the MLP meets with fellow facilitators to review and discuss the program. During these meetings activities which have been difficult to implement in previous MLPs are given special emphasis. The objectives of these first two types of training sessions include increasing the facilitators' familiarity with the actual program and increasing their facilitating skills. The third type of training is based upon on-site pairing and mentoring by more experienced facilitators; these opportunities provide the less experienced facilitators with additional training and 24Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 23 February 1990. 25ibid. 202 assistance. Based upon available Board A records, I will investigate each of the three types of training Professional Training With the support of the Board A administration, MLP Coordinator has sought out the assistance of both multicultural, multiracial educators and facilitator trainers. As each type of training is a separate entity, each requires investigation. The multicultural multiracial experts share their knowledge of effective multicultural education pedagogical practices and appropriate evaluation methods. For example, Dr. MA. Ijaz offered presentations dealing with the changing of racial attitudes to MLP staff in 1981 and again in 1988. In addition, Dr. J. Kehoe acquainted MLP staff with appropriate testing instruments and testing procedures for their Multicultural Leadership Camp in 1980-1981 and assisted the MLP staff in assessing the effects of the 1980-1981 MLP. These periodic specialized training sessions supplement the MLP staff's general awareness and knowledge of multicultural and multiracial education. On the other hand, the professional facilitator trainers develop the MLP staffs' skills to strengthen the students' abilities to initiate plans and actions and to carry them through in a responsible independent manner. These skills which are developed in MLP staff are at variance with one of the teacher's roles - the endowment of wisdom to students. The MLP Coordinator sees the distinction between facilitator and teaching skills as critical 2 6 A number of professional facilitator trainers have given trainings to various MLP staffs. For example, Mr.Butcher a professional Gestalt facilitator trainer, Mr. Thorsteinson, of the 26Board A Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989. personnel consulting firm Thorsteinson, Douglas and Young and others have both offered the MLP staff workshops which focus upon facilitator skill development. 2 7 (As a key trainer of Board A's MLP facilitators, Butcher was involved with the initiation and planning of the Ontario Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp, was a staff member of the Ontario Human Rights Commission, and offered numerous all day sessions and a facilitator training weekend for Board A MLP facilitators. During Board A's MLP Session II held in May 19S1 he also participated as facilitator and acted as role model for both the MLP Coordinator and other MLP facilitators.28) Regardless of Butcher's role, all of the facilitator trainers are similar in their experience of being graduates of the Gestalt Institute and of having practical experience in counselling and facilitating. Professional training for MLP staff assumes two forms. First, MLP staff participate in multicultural education training sessions. Second, and more frequently, the MLP staff participate in facilitator skill workshops. Generally, both type of training are offered infrequently and the Gestalt influence within the facilitator skill workshops is dominant. These two observations invite two questions. First, why is training so infrequent? Second, why are other schools of counselling psychology not included in the facilitator skill training sessions? These queries require investigation. Pre-Residential Training In addition to the professional training, the MLP Coordinator convenes and chairs pre-residential MLP staff meetings the week prior to Sessions I and III. During these informal gatherings, the camp staff consider the logistics of the MLP 27Board A, MLP Files, n.p.. 28Board A Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989. (i.e. securing materials) and discuss program organization and activities specific to the upcoming session.29 As a fundamental participant in these meetings, the Coordinator draws upon his extensive theoretical and practical knowledge. This includes: his training in clinical psychology; his knowledge of the facilitator skills (which was developed in part through his writing of the Handbook's facilitator guidelines); his experience working with socially dysfunctional students; his practical facilitator training experience; and, his participation in all of the Board's MLPs.30 Given this academic and practical experience, the MLP Coordinator solicits facilitator concerns and offers suggestions to assist MLP facilitators to perform their functions with greater skill. On-Site Experience The "trial by fire" experience of facilitating any MLP sessions serves as a fundamental practical training experience for both the experienced and less experienced facilitators. Throughout all three sessions, MLP facilitators develop practical experience which they may be able to apply in subsequent activities, sessions, and camps. (Data regarding the number of facilitators who are repeatedly involved in the MLP and the number of camps in which they participated is incomplete. Nevertheless, in the 1989-1990 Multicultural Leadership Program, one facilitator has been involved in one other MLP, a second facilitator has been involved in at least five other MLPs, and the Coordinator has been involved in all Board A MLPs.31) In fact, the MLP Coordinator observes that his skills, knowledge 29Board A, MLP Files n.p.. 30Ibid.; Board A Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989. 3 1 Board A Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989; Board A, MLP Files, n .p.. and awareness continues to increase even though he has been involved in the program for over a decade.33 The Coordinator notes that the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program relies heavily upon dedicated effective MLP staff who often participate over a series of years.32 Though the individuals' levels of knowledge and facilitator experience increases as a result of this fact. Other areas of training, especially the frequency and the type of training require investigation. MLP Organization and Program Overview The program's Coordinator emphasizes two aspects of the program.33 First, the MLP program is based upon the desired outcomes or objectives. Second, the activities selected to achieve these objectives serve as the program's blueprint. Therefore, while the writers separate the program into sessions and suggest a number of specific activities and their order, there is a great deal of flexibility on-site. Indeed, the MLP Coordinator believes as this flexibility permits accommodation of students' abilities and needs is one of the program's outstanding strengths.34 While the writers list the general goals of the entire Multicultural Leadership Program, they also detail the objectives specific to the three sessions. (For a complete list of activities, and their stated objectives of all three sessions, see Appendix 2 - The 1982 Board A Multicultural Leadership Program Schedule.) Regardless of these more minute distinctions, the MLP objectives are to be realized through theory and field researched based activities. 32Board A Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989. 33Ibid. 34Ibid. 206 Organization The organization of the Multicultural Leadership Program of the Board being studied is less complex than that of the Ontario Multicultural Multiracial Leadership Camp. I consider the staff organization, student organization, and overall program organization. Staff Organization Including the program Coordinator, the MLP staff are drawn from the teaching staffs of three high schools within Board A. As previously noted, facilitators are paired according to level of experience with the program. Personal choice and preference is also taken into consideration. As the Coordinator is also a member of the outdoor education staff, there is no need for additional outdoor education staff, except the cook, to be on duty during the two residential weekends.35 Student Organization As previously noted, ten students from each of the Board's three secondary schools are chosen to participate in the MLP. On the way to the outdoor education center, the staff meet and discuss student groups. Factors which are considered in grouping students into three groups include students' gender, school, personality, and, cultural, ethnic, and racial background. The ideal is to place students into a 35Ibid. 207 heterogeneous, balanced group of ten.36 This strategy is similar to the grouping proposed in cooperative learning. Nonetheless, the composition of these groups often change from session to session because of students who drop out, but, more commonly because of the need to change the groupings based upon observations gathered by facilitators during the previous session(s). Program Organization The camp is held over three sessions. Session I is one weekend long and is held at the Board A outdoor education center, usually in October. Session II is a one day session held on Board property, usually in December. Session III is also a weekend, again held at the Board's outdoor education center, usually in late February or early March.37 Located north-west of Toronto and south of the town of Cookstown, the Board's outdoor education center is comprised of a series of permanent buildings. On the extensive grounds, a diverse range of natural environments can be found.38 An on-site hobby farm allows urban students to experience feeding cattle, to observe beehives, and, to eat the honey produced; the Centers honey has won first prize at Ontario's Royal Winter Fair!39 Similar to the Ontario Leadership Centre, the residential camp location permits participants to concentrate upon the camp experience and not to be distracted by usual school or personal obligations, and/ or responsibilities. 36Board A, MLPFiles, n.p.. 37Board A, MLPFiles n.p.. 38Ibid. S^ Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989. 206 Program The Handbook's statement of rationale lists the fourteen of different attitude change strategies which Handbook writers have investigated.40 While the program uses a selection of these more effective pedagogical approaches, these strategies are supplemented by the cooperative education approach. Therefore, the strategies implemented at the MLP include the following: information, case study, self- insight, empathy, similarities, personal contact, going public, role play and simulation, and, moral development. Each respective method is implemented throughout each MLP session. As noted in Chapter Four, separately these pedagogical practices have been found to increase empathy and reduce prejudice and discriminatory behaviour: the level of effectiveness of these activities as implemented through the MLP has been evaluated formally and informally. The one formal evaluation was conducted under the guidance of Kehoe; this evaluation was completed before the formal writing of the Handbook in 1982 4 1 In addition, the MLP Coordinator and staff informally assesses the program annually. This type of evaluation usually assumes the form of a debriefing session which is combined with pre-session planning meetings. 4 2 I offer the following investigation and analysis of the evaluation of the MLP to highlight the validity and reliability of these procedures and to study the effects of program participation upon student participants. 40Board A, MLP Handbook, 4-7. 4 1 Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989. 42Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989. 209 Evaluation Overview Generally, facilitators affiliated with the MLP understand the importance of both quantitative and qualitative evaluation. While many MLP staff are opposed to evaluation during the camp as they feel it interferes with the MLP process and its effects, they are less opposed to evaluation after the final session.43 Given that MLP staff are full time teachers and the number of hours they already devote to the program, they are reluctant to increase an already heavy workload. As a result, evaluation has been limited. One formal evaluation of the MLP was completed in 1980-1981 before the formal writing of the Board Multicultural Leadership Program Handbook. Formal Evaluation As previously noted, the only formal complete evaluation of the MLP was conducted in 1980-1981 with the assistance of Dr. Jack Kehoe. In this assessment, the MLP staff and Coordinator administered three measurement instruments which measured empathy, self-assessment, and opinion of self and others. (For copies of these instruments see Appendix 3 - Board A Multicultural Leadership Program Test Instruments.) Two central issues emerge when considering these test instruments. First, the reliability and validity measures for the tests, namely, empathy, opinion of self and others and self-assessment, are missing from the MLP Files. While the MLP Coordinator remembers aspects of this data without accurately recorded 43Board A MLP Staff Meeting, attended by author, Toronto, 23 February 1990. 210 information, it is impossible to determine the validity of the tests, (i.e., if the tests actually measure what they are purported to be measuring ) and the reliability of the tests (i.e. if the tests were designed to produce similar results if the tests were re-administered to another similar group at the same time in relation to participation in the MLP). These two factors, namely reliability and validity are essential to any test assessment procedure. Second, the information provided by the participants on the test instruments does not include the variables of gender or ethnocultural background. These independent variables, (i.e., a trait or characteristic that might affect the outcome of the treatment upon a subject) are significant factors which can effect the outcomes of attitude change. Depending upon the outcomes of these tests, when considering these variables, it might be appropriate to consider implementing a broader range of MLPs. (For example, a specific group of students may benefit from a program designed to meet their specific abilities and needs. This factor was instrumental in the implementation of the Toronto Board of Education's MLP for English as a Second Language/Dialect students.44 ) These two areas require attention by the those who administer the Board A MLP. Despite these two shortcomings, it is important to explore the results of the three tests, namely empathy, opinion of self and others and self-assessment, completed by MLP student participants before Session I and after Session III of the 19801-1981 MLP and the empathy measures administered in 1985 The results of the 1980-1981 assessment indicate that all measures but empathy were significantly improved between the week prior to the first session and the week after the third session.45 Based upon these outcomes, the Coordinator 44Margaret Wells. "Toronto ESL Camp," Paper presented at Multicultural and Anti-Racist Education Network Meeting, City of York, Ontario, 28 February 1990. 45Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989. 211 and writing staff increased the amount of empathy-centered activities in their writing of the formal version of the Multicultural Leadership Program Handbook in 1985.46 In 1985-1986 a pre-test post-test empathy measure, which used the same instrument as the 1980-1981 MLP, was administered to validate the increased number of empathy activities included in the formal Handbook. As this data remained in raw form until January of 1990 and data analysis has not yet been conducted, effects of changes made by the Handbook writers remain to be evaluated.47 A number of questions regarding the evaluation process emerge. First, what happened to the recorded results of the 1980-1981 assessment? Second, why were relevant independent variables not recorded on the measurement instruments? Third, why are the 1985 empathy tests left unanalysed? Fourth, why has a comprehensive formal assessment of the current MLP not been conducted? Fifth, what, if any, are the effects of participating in the MLP upon teacher participants? For example, is there a transfer of knowledge and skills which are developed through participating in the MLP to classroom and school practices. The area of formal program evaluation is one of the areas of the entire MLP which merits careful consideration by the MLP Coordinator and by the Board's administration. Informal Evaluation The more common evaluative practice of the Board A MLP is of an informal nature. On-site by facilitators.parents, siblings, principals, teachers, and peers often note changes they observe in Multicultural Leadership Program participants. 46Ibid. 47Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 12 February 1990. Generally, outcomes of this type of assessment are positive. Students are more empathetic, more able to effectively deal with racially and ethnically motivated incidents and are more involved in school and community activities. Researchers can justifiably criticize the scarcity of formal quantitative evaluation procedures. Nevertheless, the MLP Coordinator and some facilitators propose that a true indicator of program success in the follow up activities in which MLP graduates participate.48 Home-School and Community Activities  Resulting from the MLP Overview Since 1980, the MLP files include records of a number of activities emanating from the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program. All the related events have not been recorded, however, the MLP Files provide an indication of the student participants' impact within the Board's schools and community. Using the existing records, I have created a list of these events using three classifications, namely program based (e.g., reunions), school based ( e.g., New Canadian buddy systems), and community based activities (e.g., involvement in civic activities). 4 9 (See Appendix 4 - Board A MLP Follow Up Activities 1980-1989 ). I offer the following investigation of activities which fall under these three classifications. 48Ibid. 49Board A, MLP Files, n.p. 213 Program Based Activities Program based activities recorded indicate a prevalence of social activities as opposed to program oriented activities. These activities include what may be a pattern of annual picnics for MLP graduates and staff. Other social activities recorded include visiting Canada's Wonderland and a potluck dinner. The underlying purpose of these programs is to have the MLP participants from the three board secondary schools meet together informally. Program based activities which correlate with the MLP objectives include the attendance of the MLP graduates at two local theatrical presentations. In 1985. MLP graduates viewed Anansi and Coovah! She Changed Me into a Spiderman. an enactment of a Caribbean folk tale and in 1986, the MLP graduates attended Skin , a play about apartheid. While the social type of activities aid in supporting group cohesion,, the program based activities further the MLPs objectives. School-Based Activities In an interview, the MLP Coordinator stated that participating schools benefit from participation in the MLP in four general ways. First, the school can experience an increased level of social harmony. Second, there can be a defusing of racial tensions. Third, MLP graduates can act as role models of broadly held social values. Fourth, MLP graduates can offer personal leadership to peers and to school groups.5° Social harmony in board schools has been increased through the implementation of New Canadian buddy systems and in international nights, for 5°Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 12 February 1990. example. MLP graduates have assumed an active role in defusing racial tensions. One particular incident was witnessed by the principal of a board school and by MLP Coordinator. A MLP student participant successfully intervened and defused a racial incident in the school's cafeteria before it escalated into a physical confrontation.5' As role models for students, Multicultural Leadership Program graduates are active in school government. In one year, for example, seven out of of nine students within a school's Student Council were MLP graduates.52 While the existence of a cause-effect relationship between MLP participation and school student leadership is unclear in this particular instance, this positive correlation appears within the data discussed in Chapter Six regarding the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp. The MLP graduates made a noteworthy contribution to the Board's curriculum in 1981-1982.53 i n cooperation with a grade six teacher, the MLP student participants planned and implemented a unique multicultural awareness program. This two-part program was based upon the objective of increasing the class' awareness of the cultural diversity of the community. During the first meeting, a "get-acquainted" session, the MLP graduates visited the classroom and became familiar with students' interests and concerns. Based upon the student observations and the teachers suggestions, the MLP graduates phoned proprietors of to request permission of proprietors of local ethnocultural businesses and places of interest. The students then planned an itinerary and prepared questions for the students; these questions were designed to assist the grade six students to develop a deeper cultural awareness, appreciation and understanding of their community. In 5'Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989. 52Board A, MLP Files, n.p. 53Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, 14 November 1989. the second session, the MLP graduates took students on the bus to visit local restaurants, bakeries, and stores. According to all accounts, the experience qualified as a resounding success for the grade six students, their teacher and the MLP graduates. Unfortunately, despite all participants' enthusiasm, the increase in students' ethnocultural awareness, and, the promotion of this curriculum unit to other staffs at school staff meetings attended by the MLP Coordinator and graduates, this experience has not continued to be implemented. A critical question to be considered is why such a successful program was not replicated. This lack of replication serves to demonstrates the importance of student initiative and of the need for bureaucratic support and involvement if continuity is to be achieved. Nonetheless, this program was successfully adapted by an MLP graduate for an independent local day care center and serves as one example of community based follow up activities.54 Graduates of the Board A Multicultural Leadership Program have had a positive impact upon educational institutions. Generally, they have increased the level of social harmony, defused racial tensions, and acted as role models through establishing clubs, increasing their level of participation in school governments, clubs and activities. Their enthusiasm and involvement extend beyond the school to the community. Community Based Activities MLP graduates are involved in a number of community based activities including conferences and seminars as well as civic celebrations." While many examples are cited within the MLP records, the following are especially noteworthy 5«Ibid. 55Board A, MLP Files, n.p. 216 as they are outstanding examples of how individuals who participate in the Board's Multicultural Leadership Program affect the broader community as volunteers and as participants. Conferences and Seminars In October 1982, the MLP Coordinator, with the assistance of Multicultural Leadership Program graduates, prepared a submission to the House of Commons Special Committee on Visible Minorities. They participated in the Ontario Multicultural Association conferences in Hamilton and Ottawa. At this latter conference, held in 1989, in addition to planning and facilitating a session about the Board's MLP, they assisted in developing recommendations regarding the participation of youth in the Ontario Multicultural Association and participated in the initiation of a youth branch of this organization. In addition, MLP graduates have participated in numerous seminars and presentations. These include: "Consultation With Youth" a conference sponsored by the Advisory Council on Multiculturalism and Citizenship in January 1983, "Black Youth - Letting Us Lead the Way" sponsored by the Toronto Board of Education in June 1985, "A Dialogue on the Achieving Community" sponsored by the West Indian Social and Cultural Society in February 1987, and, " A Morning With A Difference" a guidance conference sponsored by the Faculty of Education at the University of Toronto in May 1987 . Outcomes of the MLP graduates participation in these conferences have not been recorded. Civic Involvement Since 1985, MLP graduates have acted as hosts and hostesses in the local 217 government's annual civic celebration. In the first year of their involvement, the Mayor's office expressed the local government's appreciation of the MLP graduates' involvement in a letter to the Director of Education. In this letter, the Chairman made the following statement. There students were co-operative, helpful and gracious in their response to those who attended our celebration. Many people commented positively on their ability to accept responsibility and take initiative where needed. Their participation was an asset to ...[ our civic celebration].... Their participation was most significant and their inspiration is greatfully [sic] acknowledged.56 This example in particular is evidence that the MLP objective of, "involvement in ... civic activities using their new skills and perspectives "57 Review The MLP graduates have positively affected their schools, their local community and the wider community. Through their involvement in these activities, the MLP graduates have realized many of the program's objectives. The schools benefit in visible ways through school activities, through increased social harmony and through more positive interpersonal interaction. The local community benefits in the concrete terms of assistance in civic celebrations as well as in terms of promotion of tolerance and understanding of ethnocultural diversity. The wider community also benefits. At the same time, the youth experience with real issues provides avenues for the MLP graduates to affect positive contributions to Ontario s institutions, organizations and society. 5$Board A, MLP Files, n.p. 5?Board A, MLP Handbook, 8. Conclusions 218 The Board A Multicultural Leadership Program has a number of strengths. The rationale is based upon the objectives stated in federal multicultural policies, provincial multicultural, multiracial and educational policies and the Board's Multicultural Policy; each facet of the Board's MLP is interrelated and interdependent with the stated policies and goals. Strategies which are implemented in the MLP are supported in theory and field based research. Some facilitator training is offered. Extensive three stage planning permits modifications to be made based upon student needs and facilitator expertise. The program, school and community based activities originating from the Multicultural Leadership Program provide some indication of the positive impact participation in the MLP has upon student participants. The limited evaluation of the MLP provides another indication of the realization of the program objectives as implemented through this curriculum. Nevertheless, based upon the information available, several questions ought to be raised. First, why are MLP staff not given greater support when they voluntarily choose to assist the Board in educating their youth? Second, why is teacher participation not more broadly based? Third, why is the allotment for student participants frequently below the total number possible? Fourth, Why were the statistical results of the 1981-1982 evaluation not kept? Fifth, why were the results of the 1985 empathy measure not analyzed? Sixth, why has the MLP Handbook rewrite completed in 1985 remained in a draft form? Seventh, why has the Boards administration not required and supported a formal reliable and valid assessment of a curriculum which has been based upon a revised outline and which has been implemented for the past ten years? Eighth, why were the instruments designed in a manner that did not include relevant independent variables? Ninth, why was the MLP graduate organized activity which involved other students in the Board not supported and was not implemented again? The Board A Multicultural Leadership Camp appears to be a positive and enriching experience, both for students and for their schools. This fact does not preclude the need for the Board A administration to consider the questions raised regarding their Multicultural Leadership Program. 220 Chapter 8 A Comparative Analysis of Multicultural Leadership Programs Introduction In this chapter I will provide an overview of multicultural leadership programs, hereafter referred to as MLPs, offered by other boards of education; I will also compare the fundamental aspects of board level residential MLPs. Through this investigation, analysis, and comparison I will place Board A's Multicultural Leadership Program in a broader context. Local boards of education implement a variety of student multicultural leadership program structures. In my reading of program handbooks and through interviews with board administrators affiliated with these programs, I have observed two general patterns. First, the more common form of MLP structure is a system whereby a board of education offers both one day conferences and residential multicultural leadership training program(s). Both the North York and Etobicoke Boards of Education are examples of this approach;1 data indicates that this approach involves a larger number of participants.2 Second, some boards principally focus upon residential student multicultural leadership programs. The Toronto Board of Education as well as the Board being studied are examples of this 'North York Board of Education, Working Towards Equality: Multiracial, Multicultural Student Leadership Conference (North York, Ontario; North York Board of Education, 1989); North York Board of Education, CHIMO: Conference in Multiculturalism and Race Relations (North York, Ontario: North York Board of Education, 1988); Mr. Randy Atkins, Program Advisor for Race and Ethnic Relations Etobicoke Board of Education, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990. 2Ibid; Chet Singh, "North York CHIMO Conference," Paper presented at Multicultural and Anti-Racist Network Meeting, City of York, Ontario, 28 February 1990. 2 2 1 latter type of program.3 While the number of participants varies among various boards, generally, this singular approach involves fever participants than boards which also offer conferences and workshops for staff, students and employees.4 Based upon the available information, the more diverse the board's approach to multicultural leadership training, the greater the number of participants and the greater the level of systemic implementation of extracurricular multicultural activities. As I am focusing upon multicultural leadership camps, I offer the following comparison of a number of common or fundamental aspects of these programs. Residential Multicultural Leadership Programs Models of Local Board of Education Multicultural Leadership Programs As Burke, one of the principal organizers and promoters of the Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camp (or simply the OMMLC) notes, the creation and implementation of school board level multicultural leadership camps was one objective of the provincial paradigm.5 Many residential student multicultural leadership programs were initiated in the late 1970s or early 1980s using the OMMLC as a model. By 1983 all Metropolitan Toronto school boards had begun to implement their own MLPs.6 Individual board curriculum designers 3Tim McCaskell, Multiracial, Multicultural Residential Camp for Secondary School Students rev. ed., (Toronto: Offer of the Advisor on Race Relations, Toronto Board of Education, 1988). 4Linda Frederiksen et al.." Multicultural Leadership Training Camps: Programs and Prospects," (Etobicoke, Ontario: Etobicoke Board of Education, 1982), 2. 5Mavis Burke," The Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Camps: A Residential Learning Experience," Multiculturalism 6, no. 1 (1982), 22. 6Linda Frederiksen etal.," Multicultural Leadership Training Camps," 2-3. 222 modified the provincial paradigm according to the, "perceived needs, expertise of personnel, development of additional or different specific objectives, conditions dictated by the physical facilities available, and time constraints".7 As a result of these influences, some variation among board level multicultural leadership camps exists. Based upon these variations among types of multicultural leadership camps, I have constructed the following set of models or typology of MLPs. Local program writers design and implement MLPs on either a single tier or a double tier model.8 Each system can be expanded. (See Table V - Models of Multicultural Leadership Programs.) Generally, single tier models of which Board A is an example, are based on the implementation of one residential multicultural leadership program for a specific grade level. (Model One - Single Tier Residential MLPs.) Two tier MLPs are based upon the implementation of two separate MLPs based upon grade level. (Model Three - Two Tier Residential MLPs.) Single tier models can be expanded on the same grade level (Model Two - Single Tier Diversified MLPs). The single tier residential MLPs have been combined with a conference, seminar or workshop format. (Model Four - One Tier Residential MLP and Multicultural/Multiracial Conference Program). Finally, two tier residential MLPs have been combined with a conference, seminar or workshop format. (Model Five -Two Tier Residential MLPs and Multicultural/Multiracial Conference Program.) 7Ibid„ 2. 8Board A, Multicultural Leadership Camp HandbooMn.p.: Board A, 1982); Tim McCaskell, Multiracial, Multicultural Residential Camp for Secondary School Students, North York Board of Education, Working Towards Equality; North York Board of Education, CHIMO, Scarborough Board of Education, Scarborough Multicultural Interschool Leadership Experience: S.M.I.LF., draft (Scarborough, Ontario: Scarborough Board of Education, 1987); Ann Samson, Carole Yellin and James Mercer, Peer Helping/Human Relations Graduate Race Relations Training and Community Experience: GRACE droit, eds. Iris Brown and Ann Samson (Scarborough, Ontario: Scarborough Board of Education, 1989); Margaret Wells, "Toronto ESL Camp," Paper presented at Multicultural and Anti-Racist Network Meeting, City of York, Ontario, 28 February 1990; TABLE V MODELS OF MULTICULTURAL LEADERSHIP PROGRAMS 223 a) Model One Single Tier Residential MLPs (e.g., East York Board of Education) Name of Program Grades 10-11 Multicultural Leadership Program b) Model Two Single Tier Diversified Residential MLPs (e.g., Toronto Board of Education) Program A Program B Grades 10-11 Multicultural/Multiracial Multicultural/Multiracial Residential Camp for Secondary Residential Camp for Secondary School Students School Students -E.S.L. c) Model Three Two Tier Residential MLPs (e.g. Scarborough Board of Education) Grade Level Name of Program Grade 7 Scarborouah Multicultural Interschool Leadership Experience: S.M.I.L.E. Grades 10-11 G.R.A.CE, Graduate Race Relations Awareness and Community Exoerience 224 d) Model Four One Tier Residential MLP and Multicultural/Multiracial Conference Program (e.g. City of North York Board of Education) Name of Program Wprking Toward? Equality; CHIMOS: Multiracial. Multicultural Student Conference on Multiracial.  Leadership Conference Multicultural Student (Residential MLP) Leadership Conference (Seminars/Workshops) Grade Level(s) Grades 10-11 Multiple levels Including intermediate and secondary school levels, teaching and non-teaching staffs e) Model Five Two-Tier Residential MLP & Multicultural/Multiracial Conference Program (e.g., Etobicoke Board of Education) Name of Program Middle School Secondary School Intermediate & Secondary Residential Residential Student Council Multicultural Multicultural Multicultural Multiracial Seminars Multiracial Multiracial Student Student Leadership Leadership Program Program Grade Grade 7 Grades 10-11 Grades 7- Ontario Academic Level(s) Credit level (revised Grade Administration 225 All metropolitan Toronto Boards of Education implement multicultural leadership programs; nevertheless, the type and degree of administrative support for these programs varies among the respective educational jurisdictions. In examining the place and type of support for MLPs within specific board level multicultural, ethnic, and race relations policies, three aspects require investigation: (1) the place of multicultural leadership programs in the policy; (2) persons responsible for administrative support; and, (3) the type of support to be provided. First, a policy may or may not directly refer to the boards multicultural leadership camp. The Etobicoke Board of Education, which has a broadly based model of multicultural leadership camps, does not include specific reference to the MLPs in their Race and Ethnic Relations Policy (n.d.).9 In contrast, the Board being studied, which has a narrowly based MLP, includes two references to their MLP within their Policy.10 On the other hand, the North York Board of Education which implements both residential and conference MLPs does not include specific reference to these programs within their Race and Ethnic Relations Policy and Procedures } * The Toronto Board of Education implements two types of residential MLPs and includes specific references to their MLPs in the Race Relations Program-Phase II. 1 2 Finally, the Scarborough Board of Education implements a two tiered residential program, and of which , GJR.A.CE. is to be offered as a half credit in E^tobicoke Board of Education, Race and Ethnic Relations PolicyiEtobicoks. Ontario: Etobicoke Board of Education, n.d.). 10Board A, Policy, (n.p.: Board A, 1988), 39,41. 1 'North York Board of Education, Race and Ethnic Relations Policy and Procedures, (North York: North York Board of Education, [19841). 12Toronto Board of Education, Race Relations Program: Phase II (Toronto: Toronto Board of Education, 1984), 39. September of 1990. These programs are mentioned within the Board's Race Relations, Ethnic Relations and Multicultural Policy (1988). 1 3 Based upon these examples, it is difficult to determine the correlation between the number and types of MLPs and their inclusion in policy statements exists. Further research of the correlation between the implementation of MLPs and their inclusion in policy statements is required. Second, one of two approaches are assumed in terms of persons held responsible for the support of the multicultural leadership programs. One, board committees or departments are held responsible as a unit for the MLP. The Scarborough Board of Education's Race Relations, Ethnic Relations, and Multicultural Policy (1988) is based upon this style of support.14 Two, a board policy may name a specific administrators, usually two persons, to be responsible for the board's multicultural leadership program. Both Board A's MERR and the Toronto Board of Education Race Relations Policy: Phase II (1984) are grounded in this approach.1' Third, when a multicultural leadership program is mentioned within a board level policy, support for the program may be in terms of expansion of the program or in terms of organizational and follow up support. For example, the Board A Policy and the Scarborough Board of Education's Race Relations, Ethnic Relations and'MulticulturalPolicy (1988) include specific mention of the strengthening and expansion of multicultural leadership programs at the school level.16 On the other hand, the Toronto Board of Education's Race Relations Policy: Phase II (1984) ^Scarborough Board of Education, Race Relations, Ethnic Relations and Multicultural Policy (Scarborough, Ontario: Scarborough Board of Education, 1988), 25. 14Ibid. •'Board A, Policy, 39; Toronto Board of Education, Race Relations Program: Phase II, 5. 16Board A, Policy, 39; Scarborough Board of Education, Race Relations, Ethnic Relations and Multicultural Policy, 25. 227 emphasizes the organizational and follow up aspects of their MLP programs.17 (The support for Scarborough's GR.A.CE (1987) has been expanded beyond the board level to the Ontario Ministry of Education; in the fall of 1990, the GRACE (1987) will be offered as a half credit.1S) In terms of board administrative support for multicultural leadership programs, these programs may or may not be referred to within multicultural policies. If references are made, they generally assign specific individuals, a committee or a group to be responsible for the board's multicultural leadership program(s). This support may be found in terms of either program expansion or administrative and follow up support. Among the school board's multicultural policies which include reference to their multicultural leadership programs, the type of support and the responsibilities delineated are influenced by available human and material resources. Perhaps this factor, more than any other determines the correlation between implementation and support for multicultural leadership programs and the inclusion of these camps in policy statements. The Multicultural Leadership Programs Overview In this section, I investigate several aspects of secondary school multicultural leadership programs. Each interdependent aspect combines with the others to provide a general understanding of MLPs. This investigation and analysis establishes a broad context in which Board A's MLP is placed. 17Toronto Board of Education, Race Relations Program; Phase II, 3. 1 8 Ann Samson, Carole Yellin and James Mercer, Peer Helping/Human Relations Graduate Race Relations Training and Community Experience: GJt.A.CE, 7. Program Sta* stares Multicultural leadership programs are based upon two time structures. The first model is based upon an intensive program consisting of a four or five day residential camp; the Toronto Board of Education curriculum writers have adopted this approach.19 The second model is based upon a model whereby participants are involved in a residential program which is combined with one or a number of one-day intersessions. Both Scarborough's GRA.C.E and the Board being studied have adopted this structure.20 Board A and Scarborough have created their own variations. Board A's MLP is based upon two weekend sessions and a one day intersession between the two weekends; Scarborough's G.R.A.C.E. program is based upon an intensive five day session and a series of four one day workshops offered after the camp. It is important to consider that the amount and type of human and material resources available can exert a crucial influence on the model which curriculum writers adopt.21 Objectives Objectives provide the framework of a curriculum. In Equality Now! (1984), the authors suggested the following objectives for multicultural leadership programs. 1 ^ Tim McCaskell, Multiracial, Multicultural Residential Gamp for Secondary School Students. 20Board A, Multicultural Leadership Program Handbook, Ann Samson, Carole Yellin and James Mercer, Peer Helping/Human Relations Graduate Race Relations Training and Community Experience: GRACE.. 8. 2 1 Linda Frederiksen eta!.," Multicultural Leadership Training Camps," 2. 229 To have students become more aware of the realities of multicultural schools and society. To develop skills in communication and problem-solving which may lead to building of self-confidence and group cooperation. To develop trust and empathy for other students. To achieve a sense of multicultural harmony and understanding through a positive emphasis on similarities in belief systems, customs and personal experiences. To introduce self-insight through moral awareness development and through appeals to empathy gained by role reversal and personal experience sharing. To learn problem-identification and problem-solving skills which can be utilized in the students;s school and community environments. To help students identify the leadership role they can play. To build teams in schools and a supportive network system.22 While acknowledging these objectives, Harrison (1986), who has examined a number of multicultural leadership camps, states that MLP objectives ought: to be designed to meet the needs of the student population; to take into the local social milieu; and, to be attainable given the board's human and financial resources.23 In essence, Harrison proposes that MLP objectives be designed specifically for the board in which the program will be implemented. Similarities and differences in objectives can be seem when comparing Scarborough's GJf.A.CE. and Board A's MLP. For example, the program objectives of Scarborough's GRACE, and Board A's Multicultural Leadership Program both include leadership objectives. However, Board A's Multicultural Leadership 11 Report of the Special Committee on Visible Minorities in Canadian Society, by Bob Daudlin, Chairman (Ottawa, House of Commons, 1984), 121-2. 2^Robert Harrison, "Implementing Multiculturalism Through Leadership Camps," in Multicultural Education Programs and Methods, eds. R.J. Samuda and S.L. Kong (Kingston, Ontario: Intercultural Social Sciences Publication, Inc., 1986), 237. 230 Program objectives and strategies stress increasing students' , " ... awareness of cultural groups, and of individuals as a complex network [and] acceptance of similarities and differences of others with regard to culture and world view".24 On the other hand, Scarborough's GRA.CE. objectives and strategies focus upon race relations and racism. Stated objectives of GRA.CE. increasing students' abilities in a number of area including the following. To address the issues of stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination and individual and institutional racism.... To explore the criteria for attitude change in a race relations context... To enable students to identify and initiate a school project to promote change and enhance race relations.... To enable students to learn an effective model for handling racial incidents and conflict... To explore race relations in a community context... To explore race relations in a global context25 As the Scarborough program emphasizes on race relations, the GRACE. curriculum writers subdivide race relations in terms of both a community and a global context26 Therefore, G.R.A.C.E is an implemented example of the linking of multicultural education within a global context and is reminiscent of Bennett's (1989) and Ouellet's (1989) ideal of the bridging between of multicultural and global education.27 As examples of multicultural leadership programs, both Scarborough's and Board A's MLPs include the objectives of the development of leadership skills. 24Board A, Multicultural Leadership Camp Handbook, 8. 2 5Ann Samson, Carole Yellin and James Mercer, Peer Helping/Human Relations Graduate Race Relations Training and Community Experience: GRA.CE, 71. 26Ibid„ 11. 27Christine Bennett, "Strengthening Multicultural and Global Perspectives in the Curriculum," Paper presented at IAIE Conference, Vancouver, B.C., 14-17 December 1989; Fernand Ouelett," Education in a Pluralistic Society: Proposal for an Enriched Teachers' Training, Paper presented at IAIE Conference, Vancouver, B.C., 14-17 December 1989. Nevertheless, variations among stated program objectives exist. Some emphasize race relations while others focus on cultural similarities and differences. These emphases can be attributed, in part, to the expertise of the personnel and to the development of objectives specific to the individual board.28 Regardless of these variations, the development of leadership skills continues to form a central and similar focus of all multicultural leadership camps. Student Selection If we compare student selection criteria of the multicultural leadership programs of Board A, Eastern Ontario, Etobicoke, and Toronto, the comparison leads to the conclusion that selection criteria are highly similar. Teachers usually nominate students based upon: equal gender representation; registration in grades ten and/or eleven; ethnocultural representation on the basis of school composition; and, latent or proven leadership qualities. Academic excellence is not usually considered unless the teachers recommending the students feel that they would be unable to keep up with their studies 2 9 When comparing the annual number of student participants in a board's secondary multicultural leadership program, considerable variation exists. On the basis of the 1990 secondary school MLPs alone, one hundred and twenty students of a combined grade nine and ten enrollment of two thousand four hundred and eighty participated in the Etobicoke Board of Education's secondary school 1990 three MLPs. Therefore, approximately thirty students out of one thousand students 28LindaFrederiksen et al.," Multicultural Leadership Training Camps," 2. 29Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990; Vancouver School Board, The Race Relations and Multicultural Leadership Camp: A Handbook (Vancouver: Vancouver School Board,1984), 5; quoted in Robert Harrison, "Implementing Multiculturalism Through Leadership Camps," 239. have the opportunity to participate in this Board's MLPs.30 In the City of North York Board of Education, however, sixty students of a total of nine thousand eight hundred and fifty one grade ten and eleven students participated in the Board's secondary school MLP. Therefore, six students out of one thousand have the opportunity to participate in North York's secondary school MLP.31 On the other hand, twenty-six students of a combined grade nine and ten enrollment of one thousand nine hundred and ninety-seven participated in Board A's 1990 MLP 3 2 In Board A approximately fifteen out of one thousand students have the opportunity to participate in Board A's MLP - approximately one half of that of Etobicoke and over twice that of North York. (See Table VI- 1990 Grade Nine and Ten Enrollment and Number of Student Participants in 1990 Secondary School MLPs.) This comparison is somewhat misleading as both Etobicoke and North York offer alternative forms of multicultural leadership training. The North York Board of Education offers CHIMOs and the Etobicoke Board of Education offers a middle school multicultural leadership program. Nonetheless, this information and the figures referring to participation in secondary school MLPs yield some indication of the participation rates in the multicultural leadership programs within these three boards of education. While the criteria for student selection are similar, the number of participants among the Metropolitan Toronto Board of Educations' secondary school multicultural leadership camps varies across the individual boards. In part, the reason for the variation is directly influenced by the number of camps held within any school board on an annual basis. Further investigation of other factors which influence the number of student participants in these programs could assist in 30Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990. 3'North York Board of Education Information Services, telephone conversation with author, City of North York, 24 April 1990. 32Board A, MLP Files, n.p.: n.p., n.d.). determining how participation rates could be increased. 233 Table VI 1990 Grade Nine and Ten Enrollment and Number of Student Participants in 1990 Secondary School MLPs Board Enrollment Total Number of MLP No. of MLP Grade 10 Grade 11 Enrollment Participants participants Grades 10 & per 1,000 11 students Board A 1023 974 1997 30 15 Etobicoke 1873 2020 3893 120 30 North York 3991 5860 9851 60 6 Staff Participation Similarities can be observed when comparing the City of North York Board of Education staff selection criteria with those of Board A. Both boards refer to a number of personal qualities. First, participating staff ought to have developed a number of personal qualities including: self-awareness, sensitivity, empathy, creativity, self-motivation, social consciousness. Second, participating staff ought to have developed a number of professional skills and interests including: leadership potential, interest in school and community, responsible, ability to work with others. Third, both boards also list selection criteria which can be labelled 234 effective teacher qualities. These include some or all of the following: appreciation of the purposes of the program, good rapport with students, experience or willingness to develop working groups in the school or community , an interest in the development of future multicultural activities, and willingness to work with students and staff in the implementation of these activities. Most important in the selection criteria is a staff member's willingness to participate in the program.33 While Board A, Etobicoke, and City of North York all recommend that six staff participate in their respective secondary school MLPs,34 in terms of numbers of staff participants, it is difficult to accurately assess the quality of broadly based MLP staff participation within a school board. For example, some of the Board A staff have attended a previous Board A MLP(s) The Board A MLP Coordinator has attended all Board A MLPs, one 1989-1990 participant had participated in five other MLPs and a third staff member had participated in one previous MLP 3 ' On the other hand, in Etobicoke, most if not all MLP staff who participate in their high school MLP have not be involved at a previous camp.36 Based upon the examples of Board A and the Etobicoke Board of Education, while staff selection criteria share a number of similarities across school boards, variation occurs among the frequency of repeat facilitators. Generally, student multicultural leadership camps use teachers in the role of facilitators. This approach to facilitation of MLPs serves as an example of positive role modelling. Role modelling is also an element of peer counseling.37 Some I 33Board A. MLP Handbook, 14; North York Board of Education, Working Towards Equality,*). 34Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990; Board A, MLP Handbook, 14; North York Board of Education, Working Towards Equality, 5. "Board A MLP Files, n p. 36Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990. 37Cheryl Gougeon, "Guidelines for Special Issues Training Sessions in Secondary School Peer Counseling Program," Canadian Journal of Counselling, 23. no. 1 (1989), 120. will examine positive role modelling in reference to Board A's and to the Etobicoke Board of Education's secondary school level multicultural leadership programs. It is important to observe that both the Etobicoke Board of Education and Board A use graduate MLP students in the capacity of facilitator or assistant facilitator, albeit for different reasons and in different facilitator pairing patterns. In the case of Etobicoke, this system is a component of their entire multicultural leadership training schema. In this school board, positive role modelling results from pairing MLP graduates, who completed the secondary school course prior to their assumption of a MLP leader, with teachers who are familiar with the program as presented on paper, but have never actually participated in the program. In this way, MLP graduates are role models for new facilitators. In addition, MLP graduates also serve as peer role models for participating MLP students in the secondary school MLPs. In this way, MLP graduate-facilitators bridge the gap between adults and students and serve as positive role models for MLP student participants.38 The Etobicoke Board of Education now issues certificates to MLP graduates who participate in a specific number of hours of MLP leadership. Based upon the avail;bale information, this certification is unique to Etobicoke.39 In 1989-1990, the Board A Coordinator included two outstanding MLP students who had previously participated in the program as student facilitators. After considering the knowledge, skills, and personalities of two MLP graduates and after discussing the concept with the MLP staff members and the MLP graduates, the MLP coordinator paired an experienced MLP facilitator with a MLP graduate student in the Session I and paired two student facilitators together in Session III.40 While 38Ibid. 39Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990. 40BoardA,MLPFiles,n.p. 236 this practice may become integral to their program, this approach was utilized in the 1989-1990 MLP in part, because of lack of adequate teaching staff participation.41 Regardless, these graduates did serve as role models for student participants during the Board A's 1989-1990 MLP. Through the contrasting pairing patterns of Etobicoke and of Board A, a similar program design, that of MLP graduates as peer models was implemented in accordance with the needs, ideas and resources of each school board. Staff Training While the staff training at all boards emphasize the practical implementation of the program, (i.e. how activities are to be implemented), the duration of the training varies. Board A and the Etobicoke Board of Education offer one full day of facilitator training. In contrast to these two schedules, the longest facilitator training program is offered by the City of North York Board of Education where the staff receive a minimum of three and a half days of training.42 Based on the two criteria of duration and content of facilitator training, staff trainings are be very similar in terms of content, but the duration of these trainings vary among the boards. Just as crucial as the length of the training, however, is the quality of training which is offered. Unfortunately, as the information regarding the quality of training at the Boards other than Board A is minimal, it is impossible to further compare Board A's facilitator training with that of other boards. 4 1 Board A, MLP Coordinator, discussion with author, Toronto, 10 October 1989. 42LindaFrederiksen etal.," Multicultural Leadership Training Camps," 3-MLP Organization and Program 2 3 7 Similarities among the organization and activities of various secondary school multicultural leadership programs exist. I will investigate both of these aspects. In terms of organization, the students participate in activities on the basis of the entire group and subgroups. The entire group is labelled as a community or a clan and the subgroups are often called families.43 An analysis of various multicultural leadership handbooks leads to the conclusion that through a variety of activities many of the theory-based research strategies are employed in many of the camps. The major strategies the MLP activities share in common include the informational approach, moral education, empathy, cooperative education, and contact. (See Chapter Four). While some activities are based on a single method (and different camps may use different materials), other activities are based on combining two of these strategies. In addition, the multicultural leadership program writers adapt activities to meet the board's resources and expertise. For example, the curriculum writers of Scarborough's G.RA.CE and Board A's multicultural leadership programs both include the informational approach, but each program utilizes different materials; Board A uses the film "You're Not Listening" within the informational approach,44 while Scarborough implements the informational approach in the GRACE program through speakers who discuss global issues 4 5 Both activities are based upon the informational approach, but both use different materials. 43Board A, MLP Coordinator, discussion with author, Toronto, 10 October 1989. 44Board A, MLP Handbook 1-32. 4 5Ann Samson, Carole Yellin and James Mercer, Peer Helping/Human Relations Graduate Race Relations Training and Community Experience: GRACE., 108-9. A case of the adoption of an activity is found in the City of York's MLP. The writers of this curriculum adapted the popular "get acquainted" activity, the Name Whip in the following manner.46 Instead of associating the first letter of the individual's first name with something the individual likes which begins with the same letter,(i.e." My name is Hal and I like hamburgers." the City of York Name Whip associates a person s first name with a cultural aspect of which the individual is proud (i.e. My name is Hai and I am proud of haiku."). Both the original and revised activity result in the sharing of personal information, however, this adoption aligns the activity with the overall multicultural leadership programs' objectives. "Partner Interviews" is an example of an activity in which two strategies, namely, empathy and contact are combined.47 As the objective of "Partner Interviews" is paired and group bonding, this activity involves the sharing of personal information between two individuals. After interviewing each other, the each partner introduces his or her partner to the group. As an activity common to many multicultural leadership camps, this activity encourages the exchange of personal information and develops of a sense of empathy and develops an understanding of cultural similarities and differences. Based on an analysis of the multicultural leadership camp handbooks of Board A, the City of York, Scarborough, and, Toronto, all include in their programs the informational, moral education, empathy, cooperative education and contact strategies. As this similarity forms the base for MLPs, activities are often modified to meet the needs and resources of the board; to meet the collective and/or individual characteristics of the board; and, to take into account the skills, abilities 46City of York, Multicultural Leadership Camp, (City of York, Board of Education for the City of York, n.d), n.p. 47Board A, MLP Handbook 1-32. 239 and needs of participating staff and students. Activities may also be based upon a combination of two strategies proven effective at increasing participants' levels of tolerance, understanding and acceptance of minority groups. Multicultural leadership programs are similar in choice of theory and field based researched strategies,, but are also different in the ways these strategies are implemented in MLP activities. Follow Up Activities Three general categories of follow up activities emanate from many secondary school multicultural leadership programs: namely: (1) program based, (2) school based, and (3) community based. Based upon available information, I will investigate and provide examples of each of these three types of follow up MLP activities. Program based activities include both social reunions and group meetings to discuss school based multicultural activities. The social activities frequently assume the form of shared meals and group outings. School based meetings generally focus upon the implementation of school based "action plans" for multicultural, multiracial activities which are included as a part of the residential camp experience. Community based activities include MLP participants' involvement in local and in the case of Board A, provincial and national activities.48 48Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990; Ann Samson, Carole Yellin and James Mercer, Peer Helping/Human Relations Graduate Race Relations Training and Community Experience: GRA.CE, 9; Board A, MLP Files, n.p.. 240 1. Program based activities. As program based activities include both social and program centered activities, I consider the origins and provide examples of each type. Social activities can originate spontaneously or can be organized by program administrators.49 For example, in the Board being studied, social activities provide the opportunity to renew interschool MLP participant contact in a relaxed atmosphere. Within Board A, social activities include trips to Canada's Wonderland and MLP picnics.5° 2. School based follow up activities In many cases, the planning of school based activities originates as a component of the final day(s) of multicultural leadership camps of the residential secondary school MLPs.51 Through brainstorming with their fellow students from their school, the participants begin to plan possible school based activities or action plans. During these planning sessions participants become acquainted with potential administrative and social barriers they may encounter during the implementation of their plans. The Etobicoke MLP is distinct from many other multicultural leadership programs because the final days of the camp include a seminar which focuses upon the administrative and attitudinal barriers graduates may face upon their reentry into their schools. 52 Scarborough's GRACE, also 49LindaFrederiksen etal.," Multicultural Leadership Training Camps," 3; Board A, MLP Files, n.p.. 50lbid. 51 Board A, MLP Handbook, III-5; Ann Samson, Carole Yellin and James Mercer, Peer Helping/Human Relations Graduate Race Relations Training and Community Experience: G.RA.CE20-21. 52Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990. includes a series of follow up sessions in which these plans, their implementation, the problems being encountered by students during the implementation stage, and brainstorming and problem-solving opportunities for these problems to these school plans are included.53 This approach provides a comprehensive system of support for MLP student and teacher participants. Its level of success will be determined during the program's implementation in the 1990-1991 school year. Regardless of the outcomes of GRACE , this issue of support for MLP student participants requires special consideration because this phase of the program is critical to the attainment of a principle objective - to implement school and/or community based activities. Depending upon the specific board of education, graduates are provided with different support in implementing their action plans. For example, the Toronto Board of Education employs one administrator and an assistant who administer their two multicultural leadership camps and act as a resource person for the MLP graduates and staff participants. In this capacity, these administrators contact the participating schools to determine the progress and needs of the graduates' action plan(s)54 The Etobicoke Board of Education has also adopted a similar administrative support system for their multicultural leadership programs.55 However, the Board A graduates receive little central administrative support.56 Instead, these graduates rely upon the staff facilitators, who are also full time teachers, to act as resource persons. (Teachers from each school are chosen to participate in the MLP; therefore in-school support, under the conditions specified, is available in their individual high schools.) Under these conditions, the 5 3Ann Samson, Carole Yellin and James Mercer, Peer Helping/Human Relations Graduate Race Relations Training and Community Experience: GRA. CE, 12-15. 54Tim McCaskell, telephone conversation with author, 28 March 1990. 55Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990. 56Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, 12 February 1990. 242 facilitators' time and energy to support MLP graduates' plans are limited. As previously noted, a more formalized and extensive method of assisting in the implementation of school based action plans exists in Scarborough. When compared with other follow up activity support, it appears that Scarborough's G.R.A.C.E model might be worth consideration by other school board MLP administrators within other educational jurisdictions. As previously noted, at MLP graduates initiate their own school based follow up activities. A composite list of these includes: New Canadian Buddy systems, peer tutoring of ESL students, and, school based fund raising. Other influences in the school include Caravan-style multicultural school days, the inclusion of different types of music at school dances, and, an increased awareness of racism.57 Both Atkins, the Etobicoke MLP coordinator and the Board A MLP Coordinator have received positive comments from peers, parents/guardians, teachers, and community representatives regarding the success of the various school action plans which have been implemented in many of the schools within their boards.58 3. Community based follow up activities The community follow-up activities designed by MLP graduates that I have been able to document include fund raising for local charities and volunteering to work with local community organizations. For example, Etobicoke MLP graduates do volunteer work with the Ernestines, a local social services organization:59 Board A 57Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990; Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, Toronto, 12 February 1990; Board A, MLP Files, n.p.; Tim McCaskell, telephone conversation with author, 28 March 1990. 58Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990; Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Tape recording, Toronto, 12 February 1990. 59Randy Atkins, telephone conversation with author, Toronto, 2 April 1990. MLP graduates participate on an annual basis in their board's civic celebrations and their education week.60 While documentation of peer work was minimal in many schools and school boards, records include frequent references to multicultural leadership graduates' involvement in a diverse range of community based activities which result from MLP participation. Why the implementation of peer programs, an important aspect of school based MLP follow up activities, has been left with minimal documentation is an area which requires investigation. Assessment of MLPs An assessment of all student leadership programs offered at the Ontario Student Leadership Centre has been conducted by an independent assessment commissioned by the Ontario Ministry of Education. 6 1 In order to see Board A attempts at evaluation and assessment in an equitable and comparative context, I will compare the assessments undertaken by the Board being studied to other Boards who have also evaluated their own multicultural leadership programs. Many MLPs include both qualitative and quantitative assessment strategies. Based on the available MLP assessments, namely, The Evaluation of Eastern Ontario Multiracial, Multicultural Leadership Programme (1984) and Board As evaluations, assessors have focused upon qualitative assessment methodologies.62 After briefly exploring the aspects of methodology to provide a context for assessment procedures, I will investigate the assessment methods and outcomes of the multicultural leadership programs offered by Eastern Ontario and Board A. 60Board A, MLP Files, n.p.. ^ A Study of Impact on Students and Schools (n.p.: n.p., 1984). 62Board A, MLP Files, n.p.; Theo Megalokonomos, Evaluation of Eastern Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership ProgrammeiOttawei: Ottawa Board of Education, 1984). 244 Methodological Underpinnings Purposes of educational research Educational research and program evaluation are based upon a particular purpose.63 In assessing multicultural leadership programs, researchers study two aspects of the camps. First, MLP evaluation may investigate the effects of the program upon its participants. Second, it can indicate program strengths and weaknesses; outcomes of the evaluation can provide direction when curriculum writers are reviewing and are considering revising any curriculum including multicultural leadership camps. Types and Methods of Evaluation Three aspects require examination when undertaking an assessment of a program; (1) type of evaluation e.g., formative or summative; (2) pretests and post-tests; and. (3) control groups. I will briefly explore each in the context of multicultural leadership programs. Formative and summative evaluation. Evaluation of a curriculum can be formative, i.e. during the implementation phase of a program, or summative. i.e. after the program has been completed. While the Etobicoke Board of Education uses both types, 6 4 the summative evaluation is more common among MLP assessments. 6Reference books in the area of educational research which are recommended by Dr. Harold Ratzlaff, Head of Graduate Research at the University of British Columbia include: W.R. Borg and M.D. Gall, Educational Research: An Introduction4th ed. (New York: Longman Press, 1983); William Wiersma, Research Methods in Education: An Introduction, 4th. ed., (Toronto: Allyn and Bacon, Inc., 1986). ^Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990. Pre-tests and Post-tests. Whether the research is formative or summative, a pre-test/post-test method is preferable. Pre-testing (s) establishes a baseline, a post-test(s) indicates any changes which can be the effect of the treatment. Post-tests ought to be repeated at several regular intervals after the treatment to determine the long term or longitudinal effects of the treatment. Some multicultural leadership camp assessments, Board A and the Eastern Ontario camps for example, include both pre-test(s) and post-tests(s). Experimental and Control Groups. Ideally, a research project ought to include both an experimental group, comprised of individuals who participate in or receives the treatment and and a control group, second group of persons who participate in the testing, but not the treatment. A control group ought to be similar in composition to the experimental group. Variables often considered in MLP assessments include: ethnocultural background, age, gender, educational level, and an experimental group. While the control group does not participate in the treatment process, its members take the pre-test(s) and post-test(s). Investigators compare the test results of the control group to those of the experimental group. This type of research methodology creates baseline from which post-test results of both groups may be compared and establishes the similarities and differences between the control and experimental groups both before and after the treatment process has been conducted. This comparison indicates the degree the participation in treatment affected members of the experimental group. While the use of a control group increases the reliability of the testing process, this methodology leads to an increased financial and time commitment of a research project. As a result of these increased resource needs, assessments of multicultural leadership programs often do not use a control group. 246 Testing Instruments Overview of testing instruments. Two aspects of measurement instruments require investigation. First, instruments ought to be valid and reliable. Second, the instruments may be either qualitative or quantitative. I will consider each of these facets. Validity and reliability of testing instruments. Test instruments used within the evaluation process ought to be valid (i.e. they ought to actually measure what they are reputed to be measuring) and reliable (i.e. when tests are repeatedly used under conditions and with groups which are similar, tests results will be similar). Standardized tests are examples of valid and reliable tests. As many measuring instruments used in the assessments of multicultural leadership camps do not include measures of their reliability and validity, the data gathered through utilization of these instruments can be misleading. Qualitative and quantitative test instruments. Test instruments can be either quantitative or qualitative. In broad terms, qualitative testing usually involves written responses; an example of this type of question in the context of multicultural leadership camps is "Describe your own feelings about the MLP." Quantitative instruments are based on numerical responses. An example of this type of question would be rate the following MLP aspects on a scale from one to five (five is high and one is low): food, accommodation, facilitators, and activities. While both quantitative and qualitative tests are used in MLP assessments, the latter predominate. 247 Qualities of multicultural leadership camp evaluations. Boards have sufficient human and financial resources to conduct limited program evaluations. Based upon the board's resources and priorities, their assessments of multicultural leadership programs have the following characteristics. First, MLP evaluations study program expectations and the attainment of program objectives. Second given these purposes of evaluation, summative evaluation is the more common type of MLP assessment. Third, multicultural leadership program evaluations may or may not use a pre-test post-test format. Fourth, given the increase costs and time involved, most often, board level MLP evaluations do not use a control group. Fifth, the board level officials, who often create their own instruments, do not necessarily determine the tests' levels of reliability and validity. Therefore the data gathered through these instruments may be misleading. Sixth, instruments used to study multicultural leadership programs often combine both qualitative and quantitative measures together within one instrument. As documentation of board multicultural leadership program assessments is minimal, I will investigate the evaluations of the multicultural leadership camps undertaken by Board A and Eastern Ontario MLPs. The Eastern Ontario Multiracial. Multicultural Leadership Camp Overview. In Evaluation of Eastern Ontario Multiracial, Multicultural Leadership Programme, Megalokonomos (1984) researches Eastern Ontario's four day intensive secondary school program. To establish a context in which to place the evaluation and the outcomes of the evaluation, it is important to develop an awareness of what is involved in the Programme. In his Report, Megalokonomos describes the camp which was held at Ottawa University's Camp Petit Poisson Blanc in Quebec. 246 Thirty-eight students from four Boards of Education (Frontenac, Ottawa, Renfrew, and Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry) had been selected to participate in this four day camp which was organized by the TESL Association of Ottawa and the Boards of Education for Eastern Ontario mentioned above. The purpose of this camp was to help grade eleven students develop leadership skills within a "framework for racial tolerance" and awareness of issues related to prejudice and discrimination. Students were expected to extend their learning to their schools by initiating one or more activities as well as the overall programme and provide suggestions for future camps.65 Based upon the information Megalokonomos provides, this program is similar to the secondary school multicultural leadership programs offered by Board A, and the Etobicoke, the City of York, and Toronto Boards of Education. Research Methodology. This summative evaluation employs a pre-test/post-test method. Both pre-test and post-test instruments included a series of qualitative measures into which quantitative questions were inserted. Questionnaire A was given the first day of the camp, and the second, Questionnaire B, which is similar, but not identical to the first, was administered the last day of the camp ( see Appendix 4 - Eastern Ontario Multiracial, Multicultural Leadership Programme Questionnaires ). The responses of thirty-eight students (ages fourteen to twenty-one) and the eight facilitators who participated in the camp comprise the raw data. While Megalokonomos (1984) includes copies of the instruments in the Report, he does not refer to either the validity or reliability of the instruments which were used. Thus, the data and the conclusions may be subject to question. Data analysis was based upon these two groupings i.e., students and teachers. As the number of participants when broken into subgroups or cells on the basis of a particular variable (i.e., gender or ethnocultural background) is insufficient to provide 65Theo Magalokonomos, Evaluation of Eastern Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Programme!, Ottawa: Ottawa Board of Education, 1984), 1, Report 84-11 reliable results, Megalokonomos did not complete this type of statistical analysis. The stated purposes of the evaluation were to describe student and staff evaluations and to provide constructive criticism of the Camp. (While a control group was not involved, the post-test questionnaire could have been slightly modified to make the questions relevant for control group students and staff. If this evaluation process is repeated, this could be one possible modification which might be made to increase the reliability of the assessment process.) Contents of the Report. The Report investigates both student participants' (a total of thirty-eight) and teacher participants' (a total of eight) responses to participating in the Programme. These participants were asked to respond to three areas of the Programme, namely: ... what were their expectations of the camp, how were these expectations met, what skills did they learn or improve at the camp, what aspects of their schools needed improvement and what they could do to improve them. The second and third sections include staff members' responses to the same questions followed by program and activity ratings.66 As this Report examines both student and staff responses, and because data includes the results of pre-tests and post-test, I will consider this document in detail. The purpose of this investigation and analysis is to offer a model which other MLP administrators might which to consider when undertaking an evaluation of their own multicultural leadership programs. Student Participant Responses Generally, student pre-test results indicated of a total of thirty-eight 66Ibid., 18. students, nine held negative expectations of the Programme; students' positive expectations included developing: new knowledge about prejudice and discrimination; an interest in new cultures; and, leadership skills. Negative expectations centered upon apprehension and boredom. Post-test results indicated that all but one student reported positive attitudes toward the Programme. Skills the students' felt they developed included: the ability to meet, communicate, and work more effectively with others, the ability to talk effectively in group situations; and, the ability to act as an effective leader.67 In the testing, students indicated that although a positive staff student rapport existed within the camp setting, increased the interaction among students and among students and staff within the school environments was needed. Students also indicated the need to address prejudiced beliefs and discriminatory behavior and practices. Suggestions students made to address these two issues included the formation of cultural, racial, ethnic and linguistic clubs and student leadership clubs.68 While participants indicated a need for a wider variety of program activities if the weather was unsuited for specific activities,69 generally, student participants indicated that the Programme was a positive experience.70 Students rated cooperative education activities most highly.71 However, testing results also indicated that students often experienced difficulties in perceiving and understanding the relationship between specific activities and the objectives of the camp.72 For example, an activity, Desert Island, in which students are given the 67Ibid„ 3-4. 68Ibid„ 4-5. 69Ibid., 10. 7°Ibid„ 6. 71Ibid.,7-9. 72Ibid., task of creating a small community among a group of people accidentally marooned on a desert island, required a greater degree of discussion, specifically relating to the Programmes objectives.73 Megalokonomos suggests that this problem might be addressed with increased teacher facilitator familiarity with the Programme's objectives and activities and with teachers highlighting the relationship between objectives and specific activities to the students 7 4 Based upon the available information, student participants' expectations of the Programme were met and they developed new knowledge, skills, and one hopes, attitudes toward cultural, ethnic, racial and linguistic diversity. The information the student participants shared also illustrates the need to review and revise some of the Multiracial, Multicultural Leadership Programme activities. Teacher Participants' Responses On the whole, the eight teacher participants, or facilitators, gave a positive evaluation of the Programme75 Areas researched by Megalokonomos in terms of facilitators' responses focused upon those areas investigated among student participants, namely: (1) program expectations, (2) skills they developed and/or improved through their participation, and, (3) aspects of school life which needed modification and ways these modifications could be implemented.76 As I will investigate all three aspects, it is important to note that based upon the available literature, this investigation of staff responses carried out by the author is unique to the Eastern Ontario Camp. 73Ibid. 74Ibid. 75Theo Magalokonomos, Evaluation of Eastern Ontario Multicultural, Multiracial Leadership Programme, 18. 76Ibid„ 3. 252 In terms of program expectations, facilitators hoped: to learn skills which were transferable to classrooms; to increase their own awareness of prejudice and discriminatory behaviors; to deepen their knowledge of human relations; and, to develop a unique program which would increase teachers' and students' awareness of prejudice, discrimination, racism, cross cultural communication and to develop school initiatives in these areas.77 In terms of facilitators' expectations, I wish to highlight the fact that teachers specifically mentioned developing skills which they could utilize in an English as a Second Language classroom. 7 8 This response indicates that some support for the belief that multiculturalism can be perceived as being appropriate for "others". Nonetheless, I wish to point out that the transfer of skills beyond the camp itself can lead to the increased implementation of appropriate pedagogical practices in culturally, racially and ethnically diverse classrooms and schools. This transfer of skills and of knowledge can enhance the systemic permeation of multiculturalism and its subsidiary components in broader contexts. Post-test responses indicated that facilitators developed : leadership skills; broadly based pedagogical skills which were applicable within the school setting; the ability to communicate effectively with strangers, and, the ability to recognize discriminatory behaviors. In terms of facilitator concerns in their own schools, respondents indicated that while they became more aware of the need for institutional change, the information and skill training needed to implement these changes was lacking.79 Again, based upon participant responses, program modification is needed. 77Ibid. 78Ibid„ 5. 79Ibid. Megalokonomos research has a two limitations. First, the instruments used do not include reliability and validity ratings. Second, as testing was limited to an experimental group, a comparison among participants and non-participants is not possible. Nonetheless, Megalokonomos' study has a number of strengths. First, he uses a pre-test/post-test method. Second, the data reflect a number of aspects of the program, namely expectations, objectives and content. Third, he makes a number of constructive suggestions based upon staff and student responses. It is hoped that these suggestions have been or will be considered when the Eastern Ontario Multiracial, Multicultural, Leadership Programme is revised. On the basis of student and staff participant responses, Megalokonomos (1984) draws a number of conclusions. First, he notes that the program was successful in developing leadership skills and that the program implementation was satisfactory. Second, the author concludes that motivation and student staff rapport were established during the four day MLP and that students and staff may transfer their learning to the school environment. Third, Megalokonomos notes that teacher participation in school follow up activities would be beneficial to ensure the success of these projects. Fourth, he notes that awareness of multicultural and multiracial issues among students and staff was heightened as a result of participation.80 As one of the purposes of the evaluation is to provide constructive suggestions for improvement of the camp, Megalokonomos (1984) includes a number of recommendations within his Report. Suggestions include the following. First, an improved method of student selection which would provide for a better multicultural representation and increase the effect of the camp. Second, a wider choice of indoor and outdoor activities is recommended. Third, when an inside 80Ibid.,l8-l9. activity is lengthy and requires high levels of participant involvement they ought to be alternated with more physically demanding activities; perhaps this modification would increase the effectiveness of both these discussions and activities. Fourth, greater teacher awareness and understanding of the program activities is need. This knowledge could assist staff in implementing the activities in a more effective manner. Fifth, a variety of groupings beyond family groupings offers greater variety and a greater degree of intercultural communication and cooperation.81 The suggestions to which Megalokonomos refers offer constructive criticism which if addressed could increase the efficacy of the Eastern Ontario Multiracial, Multicultural Leadership Camp. I contacted the Ottawa Board of Education regarding the results of Megalokonomos' Report, but the administrators in student programs and research were unable to determine what, if any revisions had been carried out.82 Board A's Multicultural Leadership Program As I have referred to the internal assessment of Board A's Multicultural Leadership Program in Chapter Seven, I will review elements which will set Board A's assessment into a broader context. The Board being studied has adopted a complex Multicultural Leadership Program assessment process. While relying upon summative evaluation, the MLP staff offer informal formative assessments of the program during meetings held before Sessions I and III and during on-site staff meetings. I offer the following study of the formal summative assessment procedures conducted in 1980-1981 and 81Ibid„ 18-19. 820ttawa Board of Education, Research Department and Student Services Department, telephone conversation with author, Toronto-Ottawa, 16 May 1990. 255 in 1985. The 1980-1981 summative assessment Purpose of the 1980-1981 assessment. The purpose of this first formal assessment was to investigate the effects of the program upon the student participants and to yield information which would assist in any program revisions before the official writing of the MLP Handbook. The research methodology. This summative evaluation was conducted with the assistance of Kehoe. Research methodology was based upon pre-test/post-test format and a control group format was not included. The experimental group completed a total of three tests, namely, self-assessment, opinion of self and others, and empathy, in both the pre-test and post-test sessions. All three measures are based on a quantitative format. The documentation regarding the data analysis is minimal; the reliability and validity coefficients of the tests were calculated at the time, but records do not provide these figures.83 In addition, the assessment also included a student MLP questionnaire which emphasized qualitative questions although five quantitative questions were also included. Outcomes of the 1980-1981 MLP assessment. Based upon this assessment process, the Coordinator noted that all measures except empathy were significantly improved. As a result, the MLP Handbook writers included a greater proportion of empathy based activities in their writing of the formal MLP Handbook in 1982 8 4 83Board A MLP Coordinator, interview by author, Toronto, 19 February 1990. 8«Ibid. 256 Discussion of the 1980-1981 MLP assessment. The evaluation had a number of limitations. The main criticism is the lack documentation. In addition, there were no formal assessments completed by the MLP staff. Nonetheless, the assessment does exhibit a number of strengths. First, a pre-test/post-test format was implemented. Second, both qualitative and quantitative assessments were used. Third, the statistical analysis originally included validity and reliability ratings for each of the three tests. Fourth, the outcomes of the assessment process led to changes in the program which, it was hoped would increase participants' empathy levels in subsequent camps. While the investigators used could have designed the evaluation process using more appropriate methodology, writers considered the outcomes of this evaluation process when revising their program for their Handbook The 1985 Board A Multicultural Leadership Camp Assessment Unfortunately, the documentation and analysis of the 1985 assessment is less that that of the 1980-1981 assessment. In essence, the coordinator with the assistance of the 1985 MLP staff re-administered the original empathy test to the 1985-1986 MLP student participants both before the first session and after the second session. The results have not been tabulated or analyzed.85 Discussion of the Board A MLP Assessments The assessments of the Board A MLP exhibit a number of weaknesses. First, only one complete formal evaluation and one partial evaluation have been 85lbid. undertaken since the camp was implemented in 1980. Second, the paucity of documentation of both the formal and informal assessments limits the ability to determine the effects of the camp; this minimal documentation hinders any program revision processes. Third, the assessments to date have been limited to student participants' and their teachers' responses. Formal teacher participants' responses have not been included. However, the information available suggests that the MLP does achieve some of its stated objectives, namely, increasing students' self-awareness, self-concept, empathy, and awareness of others. Other secondary school residential multicultural leadership camps have been evaluated. 8 6 As both the Eastern Ontario and Board A's MLPs share the common roots of the Ontario Multiracial Multicultural Leadership Camp and both have been evaluated formally, a number of conclusions can be drawn. First, both of these assessments used pre-test and post-test methods. Second, both camps did not use a control group; this factor reduces the reliability of the findings. Third, both camp evaluations used a combination of qualitative and quantitative instruments with the emphasis upon the former. Fourth, conclusions reached by both teams of researchers support the hypothesis that participation in MLPs do have a positive effect upon participants and provide evidence which program revisions may be undertaken. Nonetheless, further evaluations of these and other MLPs can be strengthened if the researchers consider the Etobicoke Board of Education evaluation model. The Etobicoke Board of Education multicultural leadership camp administrators are creating a data base using pre-test and post-test results from 86See for example, Charles S. Ungerleider, "Multicultural and Race Relations Exchange and Leadership Training: An Evaluation," Multiculturalism, 14, no.l (1990), n.p.. their middle school and secondary school multicultural leadership programs.87 Their model offers a number of positive aspects. Basically, the MLP administrators are using a pre-test/post-test method, but the outcomes are being compiled in a computer. As the camps are implemented and testing is conducted for several years in a row-, a longitudinal study of their programs will be possible. The data being collected for this study also includes references to gender, first language, ethnocultural background and other personal information. The strength of the longitudinal study is that the variables of language, gender and ethnocultural background can be considered and statistically analyzed as the data base grows. Information gathered could determine the effects on specific populations. In turn, this information may validate programs similar to Toronto's ESL multicultural leadership program or may support the need for a race or ethnic specific camp. Unfortunately, while no data analysis has been undertaken by Etobicoke at this time, when considering future evaluation plans, other boards may benefit from Etobicoke's example. Conclusion The purpose of this chapter is to provide a broader framework in which I compare a number of residential secondary school multicultural leadership programs. To accomplish this task, I considered a number of areas common to MLPs including the following: structure, objectives, student selection and participation, facilitator participation and training, methodologies, follow-up activities, and assessment. As Board A's MLP is the focus of this dissertation, I offer the following 87Randy Atkins, interview by author, Etobicoke, Ontario, 9 March 1990. analysis which will place this program in a broader context. Board A's residential secondary school MLP is similar to other residential secondary school multicultural leadership programs. Generally, these programs share the same objectives, teacher and participant selection criteria, and facilitator training sessions. Activities implemented in various MLPs are based upon the implementation of theory-based research. Often, camp participants plan and implement program and school based multicultural activities subsequent to their completion of the program. In many ways, however, Board A's MLP exhibits areas of uniqueness. Board A implements a one-tier, as opposed to a more diverse approach to student multicultural leadership training. While the program of the Board being studied is based upon a three session format, many other camps are based on an intensive four or five day plan. As other multicultural leadership programs are implemented several times throughout the year, Board A's MLP is offered once per year. While fewer student and staff participate in their program, the opportunity for students to attend the program is greater in the Board being studied than some boards, for example, the City of North York, and lesser than others, the Etobicoke Board of Education, for example. The Board A Multicultural Leadership Camp has just begun to use student facilitators while other MLPs, Scarborough's G.&A.CF. for example, may not use this resource and at least one board, the Etobicoke Board of Education, have created a broader base multicultural leadership training which includes MLP graduates as facilitators. In terms of MLP content unlike some other boards, Board A has maintained emphasis upon multiculturalism as opposed to race relations education. While similar program and school based activities often result from the actions of MLP graduates with the assistance of their facilitators, Board A graduates carry their follow-up activities into the local and the wider community. Thus, while sharing many similar aspects with other secondary school residential 2 6 0 multicultural leadership programs. Board A's MLP is distinct in a variety of ways. 261 Chapter 9 Conclusions Within the parameters of this thesis, multiculturalism and multicultural education provide the focus of this investigation. Beginning with the concept of a case of one board of education's multicultural policy and their multicultural leadership program, the path through a labyrinth is undertaken. This path assumes a number of stages. The investigation, analysis and comparison of terminology associated with multiculturalism establishes a variety of perspectives of each term. Individuals drawn from a wide range of disciplines each contribute their own particular interpretations of each term. Yet, a similar overall awareness of each term exists. Through using multiple sources of information, a generally accepted system of tenets of multiculturalism evolves. These may be summarized as follows. 1. Cultural retention and mutual acceptance and respect of cultural diversity on the basis of equality of status; 2. Positive human and group relations in terms of Canada's ethnic, racial, cultural, linguistic diversity; 3. Development of equitable and fair access and participation in society; 4. Sharing of cultures within the national identity and within the country's mainstream institutions, and; 5. The practice and observance of human rights and civil liberties. When combined with teacher and, in some cases, administrative commitment and enthnusiasm, various derivatives of these principles can provide the foundatio