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An investigation of intuitive thinking as it relates to the visual decision-making process Dyer, Marilyn Rose 1984

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AN INVESTIGATION OF INTUITIVE THINKING AS IT RELATES TO THE VISUAL DECISION-MAKING PROCESS by MARILYN ROSE DYER BFA. University of Calgary, 1973.. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Visual and Performing Arts "in Education We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1984 © Marilyn Rose Dyer, 1984, In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of VISUAL AND PERFORMING ARTS , The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 ABSTRACT This thesis advances the proposition that i n t u i t i v e thinking, although d i f f i c u l t to observe, explain or measure, can be the subject of investigation and i s amenable to analysis. The nature of i n t u i t i v e thinking i s reviewed, and i t s characteristics applied to an observable si t u a t i o n during a summer school course i n which the subjects and the instructor/researcher recorded t h e i r awareness of i n t u i t i v e thinking i n journal form while involved i n solving a variety of visual and creative problems. I t i s shown through the analysis of these evidences that four basic types of i n t u i t i v e thinking are used during the creative problem-solving process. Further analysis shows that thinkers are sensitive to a variety of external influences, which either i n h i b i t or f a c i l i t a t e i n t u i t i v e behaviour. The study concludes that i t i s useful for educators involved i n visual problem-solving a c t i v i t i e s to be cognizant of the physical and psychological factors that influence i n t u i t i v e thinking and that i t i s possible to cult i v a t e those h e u r i s t i c behaviours which f a c i l i t a t e this form of non-deliberate thinking. i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM 1 Introduction 1 Purpose of^the Study 3 Statement of the Problem 3 Defi n i t i o n of Terms 4 Design of the Study 6 Population 6 Time, Place, Conditions 6 Method of Data Gathering 6 Interpretation of Data 7 II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 9 Introduction 9 Int u i t i o n or I n t u i t i v e Thinking 9 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of In t u i t i o n 13 Characteristics of In t u i t i o n and Int u i t i v e Thinking 14 Intu i t i o n and Imagery 18 Int u i t i o n i n Children 20 The Need to Order I n t u i t i o n and Bring i t to Actualization 20 Int u i t i o n and the Education Environment 24 I n t i t i o n and Cr e a t i v i t y 26 Training of I n t u i t i v e Thinking 28 Training for V i s u a l i z a t i o n 39 Summary 41 III PROCEDURES AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMME 42 Introduction 42 The Setting 42 The Clients 43 i v . TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) CHAPTER PAGE Procedures 43 Pre-Tasks. 44 Task One: Preparation of Equipment K i t 44 Task Two: Search for Materials 45 Task Three: Search for Literature Related to I n t u i t i v e Thinking 45 Task Four: Pre-and Post-Task 46 Task Five: Becoming Aware of One's Own Thinking Process 46 Task Six: Preliminary Statements Recording the Participant's Thinking Process 47 Visual Projects 47 Visual Project #1: The Pouch 47 Visual Project #2: Natural Aesthetic Environment 48 Visual Project #3: Wood Sculpture 48 Visual Project #4: Fetish 49 Visual Project #5: Fabric Sculpture 50 Formal Instruction .. 50 Procedures i n Keeping the Journals 54 Class Sharing and Discussion 55 Work Space 56 Display Space 57 IV ANALYSIS OF THE OBSERVATIONS 58 Introduction 58 Characteristics of I n t u i t i v e Thinking as Defined by the Conduct of the Participants 58 Ways i n which I n t u i t i v e Thinking was Perceived by the Participants 62 Reflective Cognition or Incremental Thinking .... 62 Reflective I n t u i t i v e Thinking 66 Broad I n t u i t i v e or Occluded I n t u i t i v e Thinking... 71 Spontaneous I n t u i t i v e Thinking 75 V. TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) CHAPTER PAGE The Instructor/Researcher's Perception of the Ways i n which I n t u i t i v e Thinking was Manifested by the Participants i n th e i r Visual Work 78 Introduction 78 Preliminary Exercises 81 Visual Project #1: A Pouch Form Containing Five Natural Objects 84 Visual Project #2: A Natural, Aesthetic Environment 87 Visual Project #3: Wood Sculpture 90 The Project 91 Visual Project #4: The Fetish 93 Visual Project #5: Fabric Sculpture - An Unusual Canadian Commodity for Export 96 An Analysis of the Congruence, or Lack of Congruence between the Students' and Researcher's Perceptions of I n t u i t i v e Thinking, as Evidenced i n the Journals 99 An Analysis of the Changes i n In t u i t i v e Thinking and C r e a t i v i t y as Evidenced by the Pre-and Post-Toy Projects and the Results of the Torrance C r e a t i v i t y Tests.. 109 Summary 112 V SUMMARY: CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING ART EDUCATION .113 Summary of the Study 113 Conclusion and General Implications 114 Implications for Art Teachers 118 REFERENCES 120 v i . TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued) CHAPTER PAGE APPENDICES 122 Appendix A 122 Pre-course Tasks Form #1: To Record Preliminary Statements about the Thinking Process Appendix B 133 Visual Projects Appendix C 139 Summer Course Schedule Instructor Notes Appendix D 145 Participant's Letter of Permission to do Study Appendix E 147 Ide n t i f i c a t i o n of the Slides for the Study v i i . LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE I Rank-Ordered Pre- and Post-Test 108 Results of Torrance C i r c l e Test for C r e a t i v i t y v i i i . LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Four categories of intuitive thinking 59 2\ Summary of reflective cognitive or incremental 62 thinking ; 3. A sequence of increments during reflective 62 cognitive thinking; 4. Elements of incremental or reflective cognitive 63 thinking. 5. Visual description of participant example #4-15. 64 6. Reflective intuitive thinking 66 7. Reflective intuitive thinking. 67 8. Brainstorming during reflective intuitive thinking 67 9. Broad and intuitive occluded thinking 71 10. Broad intuitive or occluded thinking 72 11. A summary of spontaneous intuitive thinking 76 i x . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS When someone i n i t i a t e s a search, many others are involved; when something i s learned, many other things are affected. This has been proven true during the research and writing of my thesis. I am grateful to have had the opportunity to look anew not only at myself personally, but at the ideas that have been accumulating i n my head, asking to be tempered. I am indebted to the many friends, my children, family members, parents and loved ones who have encouraged, supported and given me affection during t h i s time of search and renewal. I am p a r t i c u l a r l y indebted to the u n f a i l i n g support and thoughtful guidance of my friend and adviser, Dr. Ronald MacGregor, to Dr. Stanley Blank for his valued contribution to the theory and study, and to Mr. Robert Steele for his i n s i g h t f u l comments about the manuscript. Also, to Renie Marshall who typed the manuscript and provided encouragement right to the end. X . KU MANO NUPYA KUTEMWA To know and to love 1. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Introduction In education, we focus on two basic types of behaviour; the deliberate, and the i n t u i t i v e . Both are accepted as existent, but because of t h e i r d i f f e r i n g natures, the deliberate has been well documented, while the i n t u i t i v e has not. This discrepancy i n documentation r e f l e c t s the unique nature of each behavioural strategy. The de l i b e r a t e , because i t i s based on deductive reasoning, can be described and discussed by ob-servers and by the i n d i v i d u a l involved i n the process i t s e l f . The goal i s often predictable and the steps toward i t i n t e n t i o n a l , even premeditated. Deliberate behaviour follows a l i n e a r mode of think-ing which takes place i n an orderly sequence. I n t u i t i v e behaviour, on the other hand, escapes observation because the process through which the formulation or so l u t i o n has been arriv e d at i s seldom evident to the one experiencing i t or to the v i g i l a n t observer. Hunches, leaps of understanding, answers from a "mysterious source" are d i f f i c u l t to observe, explain, describe or measure. Thus, documentation of i n t u i t i v e thinking or behaviour defies the s t a t i s t i c i a n or empirical researcher's need to record, measure and evaluate. Both of these behavioural strategies are evident i n the 2. classroom during problem-solving a c t i v i t i e s . However, while both are accepted as natural and necessary, the deliberate i s always more in evidence. Also, emphasis on the non-intuitive aspects of mathe-matics and science i n education encourages a focus on deliberate, a n a l y t i c a l , r a t i o n a l modes of thinking. I n t u i t i v e thinking, by contrast, i s obscure, unperceived, and usually unverbalized even by the person involved and therefore not i n evidence. Yet i n t u i t i v e thinking i s c r u c i a l to the creative process and i s therefore an essential focus for those involved i n the arts and s p e c i f i c a l l y art education. Recently, educators have been concerned to acknowledge the interdependence of the two behavioural modes, allowing that to develop one without the other i s to deny the person as a t o t a l entity and to l i m i t the h o l i s t i c operation of the mind. Although opinions d i f f e r on right and l e f t brain theory, the controversy has helped to point out the educational necessity of developing both modes of behaviour to t h e i r maximum, without designating one as a more appropriate strategy than the other. Indeed, i n t u i t i v e behaviour, although i t i s not e a s i l y accessible to the observer, seems to use many, i f not a l l the i n t e l -lectual operands characteristic of deliberate behaviour except that the i m p l i c i t nature of the i n t u i t i v e makes i t less e a s i l y communicated. More attention i n the past has been given to the creative product than to the i n t u i t i v e process which helps to give i t b i r t h . L i t t l e i s known about the i n t u i t i v e thinking which takes place during the conception, stages, phases, t r a n s i t i o n s , f a i l u r e s and revisions of the creative act. In f a c t , the relationship between i n t u i t i v e think-ing and visu a l problem solving i s b a s i c a l l y unexplored. For these 3. reasons, an investigation was undertaken of the nature and development of i n t u i t i v e behaviour during the visu a l decision-making process and results of that investigation were recorded and interpreted so that the nature and development of i n t u i t i v e behaviour might be more c l e a r l y understood. Purpose of the Study Statement of the Problem This study was designed to investigate the nature of i n t u i t i v e thinking as i t related to visu a l problem solving by address-ing the following questions: - what are the characteristics of i n t u i t i v e thinking? - how are these characteristics manifested i n behaviour? - i n which ways i s i n t u i t i v e thinking influenced (or affected) externally? - does i n t u i t i v e behaviour become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d ? - to what extent does i t defy i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n ? - can i n t u i t i v e thinking be described i n terms that make i t amenable to r e f i n i n g or sharpening through education? These questions were given s p e c i f i c focus by being addressed to teachers taking an i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y summer school course. The research questions were as follows: 1. What are the characteristics of i n t u i t i v e thinking as described by the conduct of members of a summer school class for ele-mentary teachers? 4. 2. In which ways i s i n t u i t i v e thinking perceived by these teachers to be manifested i n t h e i r behaviour during and outside of class, i n the course of work undertaken during the summer school? 3. In which ways i s i n t u i t i v e thinking perceived by the instructor/researcher to be manifested by the teachers, i n the course of visu a l work undertaken by the teachers during summer school? 4. What kinds of evidence i n records kept by the teachers and the instructor/researcher suggest that some methods of i n t u i t i v e thought are more efficacious than others i n promoting further thinking or achieving outcomes satisfactory to the teachers., or to the instructor? 5. To what extent i s there congruence between the research-er's perceptions of i n t u i t i v e thinking and those enunciated by the tea-chers? Definition of Terms In t u i t i o n , although defined i n various ways, i s for the purpose of th i s paper, an unpremeditated i n t e l l e c t u a l process through which one has the a b i l i t y to extrapolate, organize and synthesize i n -formation available to the subconscious because of past experience, thereby a r r i v i n g at a possible, but tentative formulation without rat i o n a l or deductive reasoning. I n t u i t i o n i s characterized as the a b i l i t y to make a mental leap i n a very short span of time, which i s seldom evident to the one experiencing i t or to the v i g i l a n t observer. I n t u i t i v e Thinking i s generally understood to comprise a method of ar r i v i n g at formulations or conclusions without being aware of going through a n a l y t i c a l and cognitive processes to reach them. In t h i s study, i t i s a description of mental a c t i v i t i e s by which 5. students say they arrive at a visua l decision. Behaviour means the observable and describable actions or a c t i v i t i e s of an in d i v i d u a l . In th i s study, behaviour i s the actions or manifestations of i n t u i t i v e and i n t e l l e c t u a l thinking during the visual decision-making process. External Elements are variables that have a presence independent of the influence of the actor. S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n th i s thesis, three external elements affecting i n t u i t i v e thinking are iden-t i f i e d : the conduct of the teacher; peer group response; environ-mental factors. Productive Thinking i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y using the most sensitive creative components available to an in d i v i d u a l . I t uses both cognitive and i n t u i t i v e strategies of thinking i n a way that produces a unique high l e v e l solution, rather than merely solving a problem. Problem-Solving— the task of working out some action that w i l l enable the existing s i t u a t i o n to be replaced by a more desirable sit u a t i o n . Analytical Thinking i s cognition that proceeds deliberately and e x p l i c i t l y , a step at a time. Thinking progresses with a ra t i o n a l basic awareness of a l l the information and operations needed. I t i s deductive and lin e a r . Subconscious — existing and operating beneath or beyond consciousness; the t o t a l i t y of mental processes of which the i n d i -vidual i s not aware. 6. Preconscious—antecedent to consciousness or to conscious action of some specified kind. Design of the Study Population Persons involved i n the study were fourteen teachers who had shown high performance levels both i n t h e i r classroom teaching and as summer school students at the University College of Cape Breton. Each was enrolled i n a new programme i n elementary education organized to provide a base for an "integrated creative arts programme" i n language, writing, l i t e r a t u r e , a r t , drama, and movement (University College of Cape Breton Calendar, 1982). Time, Place, Conditions The study took place at the University College of Cape Breton, Sydney, Nova Scotia, i n July 1983, for the duration of one month, with d a i l y sessions from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. Method of Data Gathering Data development and c o l l e c t i o n was effected by the compilation of written records wherein the focus was on introspection and r e f l e c t i o n . Each participant and the instructor, who was also the researcher, recorded i n a v i s u a l / l i t e r a r y diary t h e i r thoughts on i n t e l l e c t u a l and i n t u i t i v e thinking processes while planning and completing projects i n visu a l problem solving. Their discussions with peers and with the instructor about the resulting a c t i v i t y were recorded through d a i l y journal notation. 7. The instructor also used the journal/diary notation method to conduct a personal investigation into i n t u i t i v e thinking, by recording d a i l y any evidence of i n t u i t i v e behaviour observed during lesson planning and teacher/activity lessons. The instructor analyzed the class's visual art products to fi n d evidence of i n t u i t i v e thinking. These products were photo-graphed and descriptions written about them. Also, participants examined t h e i r own products through introspection and r e f l e c t i o n to try to discover which parts seemed to have been created i n t u i t i v e l y . Interpretation of Data (a) Notations on i n t u i t i v e thinking recorded i n instructor and participant journals were compared at the end of each unit of study to discover variations i n opinion about discovered or experi-enced i n t u i t i v e behaviour. These recorded notations were discussed c r i t i c a l l y . S i m i l a r i t i e s and divergencies were examined to see i f any patterns of i n t u i t i v e behaviour might be discovered. (b) The instructor's and participants' data on the visual analysis of the art product were compared to see to what extent t h e i r respective points of view about i n t u i t i v e behaviour converged or diverged. These products were examined to see whether characteristics might exist that could be called endemic to i n t u i t i v e behaviour. These were tabulated along with other s i g n i f i c a n t data which might bring c l a r i f i c a t i o n to the phenomenon of i n t u i t i v e behaviour. 8. Diary notations were scanned to see how closely the p a r t i c i -pants' i n t u i t i v e behaviour followed the instructor's expectations rather than t h e i r own i n t u i t i v e responses, and how and i f peer group pressure affected t h i s response. Results were analyzed to discover whether the i n t u i t i v e behaviour of members i n the class revealed commonalities, whether these commonalities persisted, or whether they became more divergent. In other words, the question could be asked, did the i n t u i t i v e behaviour become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d or did i t defy i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n ? 9. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction This chapter w i l l review some of the ways scholars have defined i n t u i t i o n or i n t u i t i v e thinking. Secondly, i t w i l l describe the characteristics of i n t u i t i o n . Thirdly, i t w i l l look at i n t u i t i o n and imagery; i n t u i t i o n i n children; the need to order i n t u i t i o n and bring i t to actualization. This chapter w i l l also examine i n t u i t i o n and the educational environment; c r e a t i v i t y ; problem solving. Lastly, i t w i l l look at imaging and i n t u i t i o n , the f a c i l i t a t o r s of i n t u i t i v e thinking, and the possible tra i n i n g of i n t u i t i v e thinking. I n t u i t i o n or I n t u i t i v e Thinking By i t s very nature, i n t u i t i o n defies succinct d e f i n i t i o n . There i s , however, some commonality found i n most statements which attempt to c l a r i f y t h i s non-specific form of thinking. As early as 350 B.C., A r i s t o t l e wrestled with the concept of i n t u i t i o n , basing much of his logic upon i t . He believed that cogni-t i v e l i n k s were "put together by i n t u i t i o n i n the proper order of connection and held together by memory." (Seidel, 1966, p.22). Descartes (1596-1650) called i n t u i t i o n a mysterious power and was convinced that i f man used this power of i n t u i t i o n he could not go wrong. He believed i n t u i t i o n to be conceived without a 10. "shadow of a doubt" and that i n t u i t i o n was "pure and attentive seeing" which the mind performed f r e e l y (Seidel, 1966, p.22). Descartes' view did not take into account that i n t u i t i o n can be misguided, or misinformed. One modern view, espoused by Fischbein (1979) states that "wrong i n t u i t i o n s may endanger the adequate use of correct knowledge" and "render d i f f i c u l t the acquisition of correct interpretations i n a given f i e l d " (p.33). Kant, i n the 17th century, foreshadowed the stance of modern philosophers by declaring i n t u i t i o n to be one of two facets of human learning. He said that "human knowledge arises through the jo i n t functioning of s e n s i b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t , or understanding; i t consists of a union of i n t u i t i o n (the product of s e n s i b i l i t y ) and concept (the product of understanding)....neither by i t s e l f can give us knowledge: 'Thoughts without content are empty',...'intuitions without concepts are b l i n d ' " (Kemp, 1968, p.16). In many ways, modern de f i n i t i o n s of i n t u i t i o n harken back to the early statements made by A r i s t o t l e , Descartes and Kant. For instance, Fischbein (1979) describes i n t u i t i o n as a "derived form of knowledge capable of transcending d i r e c t , empirically obtained informa-t i o n . " He says i t i s "immediate knowledge" represented by a "mental leap which cannot be completely j u s t i f i e d by l o g i c a l or factual argu-ments." According to Fischbein, i n t u i t i o n i s "global", a "compacted", "synthetic", "condensed" view which i s highly resistant to teaching influence (p.34). I t can "organize information, synthesize previously acquired experiences, select e f f i c i e n t attitudes, generalize v e r i -11. f i e d reactions and guesses, by extrapolation, beyond the facts at hand." (Fischbein 1979). Blank (1982) extended Fischbein's d e f i n i -t i o n to say that this subconscious process yields a product which "appears self-evident and which as a consequence i s available to, and i f allowed w i l l take action" (p.137). Bruner (1971) on the other hand, characterizes i n t u i t i o n (as opposed to an a l y t i c a l thinking) as a f i e l d of i n t e l l e c t u a l en-deavour which i s "less rigorous with respect to proof, more visua l or iconic, more oriented to the whole problem than to pa r t i c u l a r parts, less verbalized with respect to j u s t i f i c a t i o n and based upon a con-fidence i n one's a b i l i t y to operate with i n s u f f i c i e n t data" (p.82). Fischbein (1979) supports Bruner's (1971) statement that i n t u i t i o n i s iconic or a v i s u a l i z i n g process. He contends that i n -t u i t i o n shares essential features with the iconic forms of knowledge, enabling i t to translate information d i r e c t l y i n terms of p r a c t i c a l decisions and action. For example, each day people have to make decisions for survival—whether they have time to cross the road before the a r r i v a l of an approaching car; whether they can get through the automatic door before i t closes on them; whether they can catch the bottle of red dye before i t h i t s the counter; and, more dramatically, whether the trapeze a r t i s t ' s moment of departure from one swing w i l l allow connection with another. The a n a l y t i c a l thinking process by nature i s not rapid enough to meet these survival needs; however, through the process of i n t u i t i v e thinking, one can view the whole problem globall y , assess the s i t u a t i o n , and take immediate action. In a global s i t u a t i o n , Fischbein (1979) says that "perception, evaluation, decision-making, and effective behaviour are deeply con-nected," and that the "anticipation of the efforts and reactions" of the perceiver enable the perceiver to "cope correctly with the si t u a -t i o n . " The behavioural estimation i s based on previous experience. Fischbein c a l l s i n t u i t i o n a "mechanistic translation between the sym-bo l i c and the enactive" (p.36). He c l a r i f i e s further, stating that i n t u i t i o n represents the basic mechanisms for connecting knowledge with action. S t r i c t l y speaking, knowledge i s image; i.e. an internal subjective r e p l i c a t i o n of objective r e a l i t i e s (p.36). Fischbein (1979) contends that the difference between i n t u i t i v e and l o g i c a l , a n a l y t i c a l thinking i s that i n the i n t u i t i v e , the t r a n s i t i o n between sensory perception and action i s direct and i s immediately implicated, whereas the ana l y t i c a l thinking process i s a "l a s t i n g process"..."explicit," and "time consuming" which cannot be "effective i f a di r e c t , prompt, rapid form of adaptation i s required" (p.36). I n t u i t i o n , according to Hinsic and Campbell (1975) i s a "special method of perceiving and evaluating objective r e a l i t y , " which r e l i e s heavily on "unconscious memory traces of past and for-gotten experiences and judgements. In this way, a storehouse of unconscious wisdom which has been accumulated (in unconscious memory) in the past i s used i n the present" (p.412). English (1958) defines i n t u i t i o n as a judgement, meaning or idea that occurs to a person without any known process of cognition 13. or r e f l e c t i v e thinking'.' (p.276-77). English says that t h i s judge-ment i s often reached "as a result of many minimal clues and of aware-ness of the s i m i l a r i t y of the present instance to other experiences, though without awareness of the comparing or e x p l i c i t r e c a l l of the other experiences" (p.277). C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of I n t u i t i o n Fischbein (1979) c l a s s i f i e s three basic kinds of i n t u i t i o n and the i r function. They are: affirmatory; anticipatory; conclusive. Affirmatbry i n t u i t i o n s , according to Fischbein (1979) are divided into the categories of primary, secondary, operational-and content-orientated. Primary i n t u i t i o n s are interpretations or ex--planations of b e l i e f which develop from everyday experiences. They emerge independent of form instruction but are c u l t u r a l l y i n f l u e n c e d — thereby changing with the.belief structures of society. Secondary i n t u i t i o n s are those developed by formal schooling or systematic i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g . Intuitions which are for t h -coming therefore emerge from a different i n t e l l e c t u a l premise: primary i n t u i t i o n s w i l l be largely experiential, whereas secondary i n t u i t i o n s w i l l be more f a c t u a l l y based. Operational i n t u i t i o n s are i n t u i t i o n s which accompany the process of l o g i c a l cognition and are related to formal programs of l o g i c a l inference. These have to be accepted as v a l i d i n themselves. Content-oriented i n t u i t i o n s are explanations, interpretations and representations which relate our mental attitude to special s p a t i a l experiences and chance phenomena. For example, these i n t u i t i o n s deal with s p a t i a l problems which have to be solved with immediacy, i . e . a 14. batter has to decide i n a flash whether he can h i t the b a l l that i s com-ing toward him; or the person skipping has to know the moment to jump into the skipping rope. Anticipatory i n t u i t i o n s according to Fischbein (1979) are those preliminary global views which precede the a n a l y t i c a l l y developed solution to a problem. Through a global view one can see the problem in i t s t o t a l i t y and move rapidly to take an educated guess. Conclusive i n t u i t i o n , on the other hand, i s characterized by the a b i l i t y to "summarize i n a globally structured v i s i o n , the basic ideas of the solution to a problem previously elaborated" (p.34). Characteristics of In t u i t i o n and In t u i t i v e Thinking. Some characteristics of i n t u i t i o n or i n t u i t i v e thinking according to Fischbein (1979) are: Self-evidence - In t u i t i o n i s immediate knowledge; an i n t u i t i v e l y accepted truth i s self-evident and does not need e x p l i c i t proof. Coercive - As a consequence of th e i r i n t r i n s i c obvious-ness, i n t u i t i o n s exert re s t r a i r t on the processes of conjecture (guessing), explaining, and interpreting facts. Extrapolative capacity - In t u i t i o n transcends obtained information by rapidly estimating the outcome. The mental leap that occurs cannot be completely j u s t i f i e d by l o g i c a l or factual explanations. Globality - In t u i t i o n i s a synthetic view as opposed to an an a l y t i c a l one. It can be expressed by visua l symbolization because i t i s a consensed view. In t u i t i o n allows for a unique representation of the whole si t u a t i o n . High s t a b i l i t y - Intuitions often exhibit a high resistance to teaching influences and to formal experi-mentation. It i s not uncommon for the o r i g i n a l or primitive interpretations or i n t u i t i o n s to be held even after new information has been acquired. Wald (1975) adds two elements to Fischbein's l i s t of characteristics. They are: i n f r a l o g i c a l and ineffable. I n f r a l o g i c a l - I n t u i t i v e thinking operates below the l o g i c a l l e v e l , which i s subconscious or subliminal and the opposite of a n a l y t i c a l thinking. Being i n f r a l o g i c a l , i n t u i t i v e thinking does not follow e x p l i c i t steps which have been premeditated. According to Bruner (1963) i n t u i t i o n proceeds with ,manoeuvers based seemingly on an i m p l i c i t perception of the t o t a l problem. The thinker arrives at an answer, which may be right or wrong, with l i t t l e i f any aware-ness of the process by which he reached i t . He rarel y can provide an adequate account of how he obtained the answer, and he may be unaware of just what aspects of the problem sit u a t i o n he was responding to. (p.58) Research about the imagery resulting from the subliminal i n f r a l o g i c a l and transliminal states i s scarce. However, there are some studies which illuminate t h i s part of the study of i n t u i t i o n . The recent upsurge of interest i s , according to Khatena (1979) due to 16. work by Bugelski (1970) who contends that images are indirect r e a c t i -vations of e a r l i e r sensory or perceptual a c t i v i t y rather than mental mechanisms (p.318). These sensory perceptions are made available through the sub-conscious or as Rugg (1963, cited by Samuels and Samuels, 1975) c a l l s i t , the transliminal mind. He says that the transliminal mind i s a "dynamic antichamber" between the conscious and unconscious mind. He [feels] that the threshold between the conscious and uncon-scious i s the only part of the mind that i s free from censorship. Rugg believe[s] that the t r a n s l i m i n a l , the operating ground of c r e a t i v i t y , i s the area i d e n t i f i e d with Eastern meditation states, with l i g h t auto-hypnotic trances, with i n t u i t i o n and with hypnogogic states. The transliminal mind i s characterized by a state of relaxed readi-ness or relaxed concentration. (p.245) Ineffable - this i s the instantaneous and incomprehensible nature of i n t u i t i o n which makes i t d i f f i c u l t for one to characterize the process and describe i t to another. As Bruner stated, the i n t u i t i o n i s reached "instantaneously and subconsciously with l i t t l e awareness of the process or the i n f o r -mation drawn on, making i t d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y and characterize." It would seem that i n the i n t u i t i v e mode, the mind operates at a much higher speed than that of a n a l y t i c a l thinking. This occurs, according to Fischbein (1969) "by s h o r t - c i r c u i t i n g the premise" of the problem.(p.233). This s h o r t - c i r c u i t i n g or condensation of the i n t e l l e c t u a l process makes observation and a r t i c u l a t i o n d i f f i c u l t . Bruner (1968) adds that i n t u i t i v e thinking rests on f a m i l i a r i t y with the domain of knowledge involved and with i t s structure, which makes i t possible for the thinker to leap about, skipping steps and employing short cuts i n a manner that requires a l a t e r rechecking of conclusions by mono-ana l y t i c a l means, whether deductive or inductive. (p.58) It i s important, i t appears, to recheck conclusions arrived at by i n t u i t i v e thinking as they may have been based on i n s u f f i c i e n t and incorrect information. This may be done by the a n a l y t i c a l mode of thinking as a confirmation of the i n f r a l o g i c a l and i n t u i t i v e mode. Sometimes, i t would seem, there i s an awareness of several small insights, p r i o r to the economic mental leap to i n t u i t i o n . We are not cognizant of what takes place or the point at which the leap happens, but there i s a decided mental gap between that moment.and the a r r i v a l of the answer. This gap i n the process remains a mystery to us, perhaps because i t i s buried i n the subconscious or pre-conscious beyond conscious awareness. Musicians, poets, a r t i s t s , mathematicians, and s c i e n t i s t s are usually able to record the result of t h i s mental or i n t u i t i v e leap rather than the process by which i t was reached. Many of t h e i r i n t u i t i o n s take the form of visu a l images. The appearance of v i s u a l imagery i n i n t u i t i v e thinking i s one of i t s distinguishing elements. Ferguson (1977) states that i t i s through t h i s a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e and present ideas non-verbally that humans have fixed the outlines and f i l l e d i n the d e t a i l s of our material surroundings...pyramids, cathedrals, and rockets exist not because of geometry, the theory of structures or thermo-dynamics but because they were f i r s t a picture -l i t e r a l l y a v i s i o n - i n the minds of those who b u i l t them (p.287). 18. This phenomenon of v i s u a l i z a t i o n has been reported by a r t i s t s , s c i e n t i s t s , composers, engineers and mathematicians. Michael Faraday's mathematical vi s u a l i z a t i o n s are a good example of an i n t u i t i v e scholar who, after having arrived at his many formulae by a kind of i n t u i t i o n , was unable to describe his thinking process verbally. He could, however, describe what Bruner (1971) c a l l s the iconic or vis u a l element of the i n t u i t i o n . Faraday stated that "he saw narrow tubes curving through space that rose up before him l i k e things" (Koestler 1964). In t u i t i o n and Imagery The imagery which comes during these transliminal and subliminal states often leads i n t u i t i v e l y to s i g n i f i c a n t new forms and solutions. Although some of the studies deal with after-imagery, e i d e t i c imagery, and memory imagery (Pavio, 1971; Richardson, 1969, cited by Khatena, 1979, p.318), others deal with the relationship between the rig h t hemisphere of the brain and the non-ordinary r e a l i t y of the creative person as manifested i n "hypnosis, v i s u a l imaging processes, psychedelic drugs, dreams, extra-sensory perception and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " (Khatena, 1979). Leonard and Lindauer (1973, cited by Khatena, p.319) researched aesthetic decisions, imagery arousal, and c r e a t i v i t y correlates. One finding was common to a l l studies. I t was that imagery came with the reduction of external s t i m u l i operating on an individual to a l e v e l that frees him 19. or her to attend to an inner world of stimulus events and allows the subject to experience imagination imagery (Richardson, 1969 cited by Khatena, 1979, p.319). It would seem that further study of imagery i s c r u c i a l to understanding what happens during the imagining aspect of the i n t u i t i v e thinking process. Khatena (1979, pp.318-319) categorizes several kinds of images which have been researched, some of which relate to imagery experienced during the i n t u i t i v e thinking process. 1. Hypnogogic imagery which comes i n the semi-dream state between sleep and wakefulness. 2. Perceptual i s o l a t i o n imagery. Imagery which occurs when external s t i m u l i are r a d i c a l l y reduced under controlled conditions. 3. Hallucinogenic drug imagery. Chemically induced images from such drugs as LSD, peyote, and mescaline. 4. Photic stimulation. Any r e l a t i v e l y slow rhythmic visual stimulation that induces a trancelike state or drowsiness that may, i n turn, f a c i l i t a t e image formation. 5. Pulse current imagery. Imagery induced by e l e c t r i c a l impulses externally applied to the temples to stimulate the appearance of imagery. 6. Non-drug induced hallucinations. Imagery such as that experienced by schizophrenics, mystics and shamans. 20. I n t u i t i o n i n Children According to Piaget (1960) children use i n t u i t i v e thinking as t h e i r main source of thinking from about age 4 to 7, before the process of operational thought i s evident. This i n t u i t i v e thought i s to use Wald's word, i n f r a l o g i c a l . It i s derived from the direct impressions that are h a l f - a r t i c u l a t e d global experiences of the c h i l d . These features of i n t u i t i o n are not only common to children, evident-l y , but chara c t e r i s t i c of a l l forms of i n t u i t i o n encountered by a l l age levels. Fischbein (1969) states that "intelligence does not abandon i t s i n t u i t i v e form when operations appear,"...."it continues to survive as a complementary form of thinking" (p.38). In f a c t , he adds, i n t u i t i o n functions as an effective form of cognition, i s better adapted to action than a n a l y t i c a l , discursive, time-consuming l o g i c a l knowledge (p.38). The Need to Order I n t u i t i o n and Bring i t to Actualization I n t u i t i v e thinking i s a necessary and essential part of a l l problem solving, but i n t u i t i o n , for the sake of i n t u i t i o n , i s not necessarily an effective mental process. Conversely i t i s necessary to use i n t u i t i o n to deepen and enrich the a n a l y t i c a l pro-cess. In fa c t , i t i s recognized that there i s a complementary relationship between i n t u i t i v e and an a l y t i c a l thinking. Arnheim (1983) states that The human species copes with the challenges of l i f e by means of two cognitive procedures - the i n t u i t i v e and the i n t e l l e c t u a l . I n t u i -t i o n i s the p r i n c i p a l domain of art but i t i s 21. not art's monopoly, nor i s i t alone s u f f i c i e n t for the needs of the a r t i s t . Art requires the collaboration of a l l the f a c u l t i e s of the mind, of which the i n t e l l e c t i s one of the most important. By no means i s art a l l i n t u i t i o n . But i t i s equally true that conversely, the sciences and other mainly i n t e l l e c t u a l pursuits r e l y heavily on i n t u i t i o n . The shaping of the i r theories, of models and systems, applies aesthetic c r i t e r i a and provides an emotional involvement not different from that of the a r t i s t . (P-10) In f a c t , Arnheim says "working i n art and science d i f f e r s mainly i n the r a t i o i n which i n t u i t i o n and i n t e l l e c t contribute to creative e f f o r t " (p. 10).. In t u i t i o n needs to be manifested or actualized i n a musical score, an object of a r t , a s c i e n t i f i c theory or a mathematical formu-l a t i o n or i t i s wasted. Bruner (1971) states that unexploited i n t u i t i o n that goes nowhere and does not deepen i t s e l f by further digging into the materials- be they human, l i t e r a r y , s c i e n t i f i c , mathematical, p o l i t i c a l - i s somehow not s u f f i c i e n t to bring the person to the f u l l use of his capa-c i t i e s . I n t u i t i o n i s an i n v i t a t i o n to go further-whether i n t u i t i v e l y or a n a l y t i c a l l y , (p.188) According to Fischbein (1979), "correct i n t u i t i v e i n t e r -pretations are able to stimulate productive mathematical thinking" (p.33). He does not fe e l i n the mathematical f i e l d that formal representations are " e f f i c i e n t " tools for dealing with non-standard problems. It seems, therefore, that Fischbein (1979) considers that i n t u i t i v e thinking constitutes an essential catalyst to the other modes of thinking, i n dealing with problems ranging from the most elementary everyday situations to the most complex s c i e n t i f i c problems. In t u i t i o n i s useful as an entry point to any problem solving situation no matter what d i s c i p l i n e or subject area. Also, as soon as the problem has been isolated and examined, there i s an i n i t i a l set of i n t u i t i v e responses to i t . These responses may relate to the amount of time i t may take to solve the problem; an assessment of the range of d i f f i c u l t y the problem presents; the f e e l -ing of relevance and correctness about the information that e x i s t s ; a hunch about the f i n a l solution. Bruner (1963) states that i n t u i t i o n by i t s e l f yields a tentative ordering of a body of knowledge that, while i t may generate a feeling that the ordering of facts i s s e l f -evident, aids p r i n c i p a l l y by giving us a basis for moving ahead i n our testing of r e a l i t y , (p.60). I t i s not known what constitutes a "good" i n t u i t e r and what the i n t u i t i v e transformation from the e x p l i c i t to the i m p l i c i t happens to be. Some scholars agree that a r i c h , developed back-ground i n experience and knowledge of the subject i s an important factor for good i n t u i t i o n . Instruments and experiments need to be developed for measuring the relationship between knowledge and correct i n t u i t i o n . Since these do not e x i s t , we have to r e l y on an individual's w i l l i n g -ness to communicate about his/her thinking process during problem solving. Accordingly we can have a tentative look into t h e i r mind as i t moves towards the solution. 23. The factors that seem to have an effect on i n t u i t i v e thinking are s t i l l open to conjecture. Some of these, however, have been isolated by Bruner (1971, pp.84-85) and can be discussed. To paraphrase Bruner, they are: i n t u i t i n g an entry point: being able to sense a possible way to get started on some aspect of the problem i s essential to getting involved with the problem. self-confidence: having the personal confidence to follow through on the task. This relates to two aspects of self-confidence: (a) the knowledge that one has the a b i l i t y to manage the problem-solving process, and (b) the confidence related to the individual's information and experience i n the subject area. r i s k - a b i l i t y : being prepared to r i s k the explora-t i o n of concepts that go beyond the bounds of the information and experience base. a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e : having the a b i l i t y to vis u a l i z e the means towards and the direction to a potential solution. The a b i l i t y to sense small clues and insights v i s u a l l y and interpret the global view. non-verbal factor: the a b i l i t y to work out a solution or discriminate throughout the process, 24. non-verbally—by v i s u a l i z i n g . perception of structure: the a b i l i t y to perceive the informal and often inexpressible structuring of the subject matter or the task at hand. a b i l i t y to select: the a b i l i t y to separate out the relevant information i n r e l a t i o n to the problem and the solution. I n t u i t i o n and the Education Environment In t u i t i v e thinking i s affected by the educational environment i n which i t i s used. Academic settings where only the a n a l y t i c a l mode of thinking i s acceptable, deny t h i s undisciplined kind of cognition. Many schools according to Bruner (1971) discourage fantasy, imagination, clever guessing, v i s u a l i z a t i o n , i n the interest of teaching, reading and drawing, writing and arithmetic. Great emphasis i s placed upon being able to say what one has on one's mind c l e a r l y and precisely the f i r s t time. The atmosphere emphasizes "intraverbal s k i l l s " — u s i n g words to talk about words that refer to s t i l l other words, (p.89) This emphasis on the highly verbal and the intraverbal s k i l l s as well as the deemphasis of creative thinking and v i s u a l i z a -tion appears to hamper i n t u i t i v e thinking. The a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e a problem form or concept requires the student to apply both creative and i n t u i t i v e thought processes. I f these processes have been inhi b i t e d i n the educa-t i o n a l environment, then the student's confidence, competence and mental development w i l l also be i n h i b i t e d . 25. Bruner reminds us that children arrive at school with this v i s u a l i z a t i o n s k i l l very much i n evidence. He states, "The child's graphic representational s k i l l s are highly diagrammatic i n nature"....and that i t i s very important to deepen and reinforce the early children's drawing as viable permissible modes of representation. He says that children must be helped to view thei r c h i l d i s h form of drawing as an early state of knowing, that i s neither "indecent nor irr e l e v a n t " , just representative of t h e i r stage of v i s u a l develop-ment (p.91). Bruner (1963) cautions that although i n t u i t i o n or i n t u i t i v e thinking i s considered "a valuable commodity" i n various d i s c i p l i n e s and one "which we should endeavour to foster i n students," i t requires a sensitive, extremely confident, i n t e l l i g e n t , informed teacher to pedagogically allow i t s development i n the classroom. Bruner (1963) states that along with any program for developing methods of c u l t i v a t i n g and measuring the occurrence of i n t u i t i v e thinking, there must go some p r a c t i c a l consideration of the classroom problems and the limitations on our capacity for encouraging such s k i l l s . This, too, i s research that should be given a l l possible support, (p.68) Bruner, although r a i s i n g questions about how we approach the encouragement of i n t u i t i v e thinking i s convinced that i t i s not only f r u i t f u l , but essential. It i s helpful to remember that the o r i g i n a l "proofs of Euler" did not define a n a l y t i c a l thinking as t o t a l l y rigorous, but as having a number of steps which were, according to Bruner (1971) 26. " l e f t quite i n t u i t i v e and, i n a rigorous, sense, untested and untest-able" (p.87). I n t u i t i o n and Cr e a t i v i t y I n t u i t i o n , l i k e c r e a t i v i t y , explores concepts and ideas through the subconscious before giving them conscious form. The process i s non-verbal and i s not e a s i l y articulated even i n retro-spect although certain a n a l y t i c a l steps which accompany the i n t u i t i v e i n any problem-solving a c t i v i t y are evident. Once there i s a f i n a l product, however, description i s possible. Taylor (1963) states that much of the creative process i s i n t u i t i v e i n nature, and that i t ent a i l s a work of the mind pr i o r to i t s ar i s i n g to the conscious level and cert a i n l y also p r i o r to i t s being i n expressible form. It i s most l i k e l y preconscious, non-verbal or pre-verbal, and i t may involve a large, sweeping, scanning, deep, diffused, free, and powerful action of almost the whole mind. (p.171) Both i n t u i t i v e thinking and c r e a t i v i t y are fostered i n an environment which allows f l e x i b i l i t y of thought and action; idea-ti o n a l and associational fluency; openness to experience; a b i l i t y to play with elements; i s not frightened by the unknown or the ambiguous; i s able to accept tentativeness and uncertainty; i s able to integrate opposites. Maslow (1962) says that people who have the above characteristics are " s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g " (p.17). The d i f f e r -ence between c r e a t i v i t y and i n t u i t i o n i s that c r e a t i v i t y may move to conclusion with intense concentration and manipulation of materials or ideas whereas i n t u i t i o n often leaps to conclusiveness without obviously moving through these stages of manipulation. This does 27. not mean that the stages have not been moved through, but that they are experienced with such r a p i d i t y that they appear as a gap or a mental leap. Like i n t u i t i o n , c r e a t i v i t y often experiences a sudden illumination which, as Rapp (1960) states, can "come a l o n e — i n the middle of the night, i n a subway, i n an airplane, any place" (p.165). How i t comes i s not the point, but rather that both the creative act and the phenomenon of i n t u i t i o n can be experienced as a flash of knowledge or a mental leap. Other s i m i l a r i t i e s exist between the i n t u i t i o n and c r e a t i v i t y . For instance, the information available to both c r e a t i v i t y and i n t u i t i o n i s often only the t i p of the iceberg; the remainder i s not known. In t u i t i v e thinking moves forward by using small clues from past experiences and incomplete segments of information, whereas c r e a t i v i t y makes use of a variety of sources as l i s t e d by Rapp (1960). The creative process can progress from information gleaned from casual chance remarks of friends at lunch, informal situations i n b u l l sessions, i n buzz sessions or i n a brainstorming session, (p. 165) Rapp adds that these informal sessions where ideas and concepts are tossed around, release the conscious sources of c r e a t i -v i t y allowing them to emerge and be eventually actualized. What-ever the informational source, c r e a t i v i t y and i n t u i t i o n advance to conclusion from an unknown and nearly concealed body of information. 28, Neither can advance sequentially because not a l l the givens are available. I n t u i t i v e thinking i s an essential part of the creative act i n that i t provides the f l e x i b l e kind of thinking needed to bring new forms and ideas together. Thoughts, ideas, c r e a t i v i t y or i n t u i t i v e thinking cannot flow from an individual unless, as Guilford (1977) states a l l blocks and b a r r i e r s , a l l i n h i b i t i o n s , emotional and i n t e l l e c t u a l , have been removed. I f one i s discouraged from playing with ideas, r e s t r i c t e d from thinking i n a s p e c i f i c way, and expected to learn i n a serious non-stimulating atmosphere, neither c r e a t i v i t y nor i n t u i t i o n w i l l emerge, (p.170) Training of I n t u i t i v e Thinking The t r a i n i n g of i n t u i t i v e thinking as an aid to everyday and formal problem solving and c r e a t i v i t y has been a common concern to educators for some time. In 1963, Bruner stated that i n t u i t i v e thinking, the tra i n i n g of hunches, i s a much-neglected and essential feature of productive thinking not only i n formal academic d i s c i p l i n e s but i n everyday l i f e . The shrewd guess, the f e r t i l e hypothesis, the courageous leap to a tentative conclusion—these are the most valuable coins i n the thinker at work, whatever his l i n e of work. (pp. 13-14) If t h i s neglected form of thinking i s as valuable as Bruner says, i t should be developed through the educational process. However, very l i t t l e i s known about the source of i n t u i t i o n or how i t might be trained i n the classroom. 29. Various points of view are held by scholars about teaching-thinking or i n t u i t i v e thinking per se i n the classroom. The positions examined here are by Kubie (1958) and another by Olton and Crutchfield (cited by McKim, 1972, p.28). Kubie (1967) states that thinking need not be taught because i t i s a natural process i n a l l people. Thinking processes actually are automatic, sw i f t , and spontaneous when allowed to proceed undisturbed by other influences. Therefore, what we need i s to be educated i n how not to interfere with the inherent capacity of the human mind to think, (p.104) Kubie, i n f a c t , does not say that thinking cannot be f a c i l i t a t e d or sharpened; he merely proposes that we should not get i n the way of the natural processes of thought that are available to us. He advocates an educational system which i s free of neurotic practices; r e p e t i t i o n ; parroting back; regurgitation. He suggests the need for educators to deal professionally with the thinking blocks that students have so that they may use t h e i r natural a b i l i t y to think spontaneously, s w i f t l y and automatically. Olton and Crutchfield (1969), on the other hand, show from th e i r study that thinking s k i l l s can be sharpened by the direct t r a i n -ing of thinking. They argue that programmes which systematically teach students how to think, are essential "at a l l levels and for a l l types of students" (cited by McKim, p.28). They state further that 30. an education without such instruction w i l l produce adults who are destined eventually to become crippled by t h e i r own obsolete patterns of thought and by knowledge that i s no longer relevant, to become confused and then over-whelmed by a vastly changed society i n which they w i l l no longer know how to pa r t i c i p a t e , (p.149) At f i r s t glance, Kubie, Olton and Crutchfield seem to state opposite points of view. However, Olton and Crutchfield's position advocating the direct training of thinking does not i n any way negate what Kubie says. Thinking depends on an educational climate which i s healthy, neuroses-free and one which allows and encourages the natural thinking processes which Kubie so ardently wants to protect. Unfortunately, children are not born into a neuroses-free society. Their thinking processes are well established by the time they enter the formal classroom. Their thinking patterns are influenced by t h e i r families' socio-economic backgrounds, thei r c u l t u r a l heritage, t h e i r sexual r o l e , t h e i r siblings .-.and peer..group, , as well as t h e i r own natural a b i l i t i e s and temperament. What Kubie advocates i s admirable, but perhaps utopic. I t i s well-founded, but i d e a l i s t i c , and depends on such colossal s o c i a l change that i t would be d i f f i c u l t to achieve. I t i s , however, a stance which edu-cators must uphold as a desirable goal and i n every way s t r i v e toward the most psychologically healthy educational climate possible. I t would seem l i k e l y that i n t u i t i v e thinking would f l o u r i s h i n such a climate. Bruner (1971) states that methods of teaching i n t u i t i v e thinking are urgently required. He suggests that young students be 31. taught to approach an unfamiliar problem by the less rigorous techniques of i n t u i t i o n ; that students need to learn to "attend to and use the cues that are available" to them, make educated guesses and act on th e i r hunches (p.96). Bruner (1971) advocates the use and teaching of economic heu r i s t i c s which allow an individual to solve complex problems by the most e f f i c i e n t procedures. Since these heuris t i c s share many of the same characteristics of i n t u i t i v e thinking, and they are trainable, Bruner suggests that they may be the door through which i n t u i t i v e thinking can be encouraged. Bruner (1963) cautions us, however, that the actual teaching or tr a i n i n g of these h e u r i s t i c procedures used by i n t u i t i v e thinking could scuttle the very process we want to encourage, reducing i t to no more than one that i s l o g i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l . Bruner analogyzes that the h e u r i s t i c nature of i n t u i t i v e thinking i s l i k e a many-footed c a t e r p i l l a r which, although i t can walk, cannot describe how i t does i t . Bruner (1963), i n spite of th i s d i f f i c u l t y , outlines the following characteristics of h e u r i s t i c procedures which are supportive to i n t u i t i v e thinking. They are: the use of analogy, the appeal of symmetry, the examination of l i m i t i n g conditions, the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of the solution (p.64). The f i r s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , analogy, as defined by Webster (1979) implies that "certain resemblances imply further s i m i l a r i t y " (p.21). Analogy, then, i s characterized by the a b i l i t y to find 32. connections, relationships and s i m i l a r i t i e s between fact s , elements, and situations, which point to other similar relationships. This char a c t e r i s t i c i s used as a tool by the i n t u i t i o n process for connecting s i m i l a r f a c t s , situations, experiences and segments of information together, which w i l l possibly f a c i l i t a t e an i n t u i t i v e leap. It i s possible to t r a i n the mind to think analogously f i r s t by becoming aware of simple related situations and f i n a l l y by developing an a b i l i t y to make analogies i n much more complex c i r -cumstances. The tr a i n i n g of analogous thinking i n the long run frees the mind to think i n t u i t i v e l y . Analogous thinking used by the i n t u i t i v e process may be manifested i n the schools by unique a r t i s t i c , s c i e n t i f i c and expressive forms as well as i n s i g h t f u l mathematic and h i s t o r i c a l formulations. The result of th i s kind of teaching may, i n addition, f a c i l i t a t e decision making d i r e c t l y related to problem solving i n everyday l i f e . Bruner's second h e u r i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s the appeal to symmetry. This means that there i s a need to bring things together; to complete or balance them. The appeal to symmetry i s manifested i n i n t u i t i v e thinking when the mind searches f r e e l y for connections and other segments of the whole i n order to bring about a synthesis, an i n t u i t i o n . Bruner (1971), however, states that whereas i n t u i t i v e thinking does attempt to move toward symmetry or gestalt, i t must 33. to be f r u i t f u l , carry a "sense of incompleteness; the fee l i n g that there i s something more to be done" (p.86); and that there i s some-thing that has yet to come together. The "appeal to symmetry" i n i n t u i t i v e thinking can be encouraged educationally by timetabling for experimentation, explora-t i o n and divergent thinking. As w e l l , a teaching philosophy which fosters questioning, doubting the given, using hunches and educated risk-taking i n an attempt to bring something together or bring sym-metry to a number of concepts or ideas, may possibly advance i n t u i t i v e and creative thinking. This advance may manifest i t s e l f i n class-room behavior by a more integrated approach to teaching and learning because wider issues, as well as individual problems, w i l l be dealt with within a larger whole or as mentioned e a r l i e r , a global view. An integrated approach to teaching can be defined, d i s -cussed, planned for and learned about. Its method can be charted -and i t s manifestations are observable. This being so, i t would also seem, feasible that by trai n i n g teachers to use an integrated approach, we could ultimately encourage students and teachers to view a l l ideas, concepts and information as part of an integrated whole or at least bring this information as close to symmetry as possible through i n t u i t i v e thinking. The examination of l i m i t i n g conditions i s Bruner's t h i r d c haracteristic of h e u r i s t i c procedure available to i n t u i t i v e thinking. 34. Int u i t i v e thinking, as quoted e a r l i e r from Fischbein (1979) i s capable of transcending "direct empirically obtained information" (p.34) by moving beyond the facts at hand. I n t u i t i v e thinking, then, mentally explores, examines and pushes against the existing l i m i t i n g conditions so that i t can move beyond or transcend the information at hand i n order to generate other possible solutions. This moving beyond the facts at hand and examining l i m i t i n g conditions relates to de Bono's (1970) concept of l a t e r a l t h i n k i n g — a thinking process which can be used as an insight t o o l . De Bono suggests that new ideas come only through c o n f l i c t between old and new information. The l a t e r a l thinking process, l i k e i n t u i t i v e thinking and the h e u r i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of examining l i m i t i n g conditions, depends on a mental search and the agitation of available material i n order to turn up new ideas, concepts, and formulations. De Bono (1977) states that l a t e r a l thinking i s a "deliberate process" and i s "as de f i n i t e a way of using the mind as l o g i c a l thinking—but i n a very different way" (p.9). Fortunately, pro-cesses can be taught, and learned. This could mean that by train i n g teachers and students to think l a t e r a l l y , i n other.words, move side-ways rather than advance i n a linea r fashion during the thinking process, l i m i t i n g conditions could be explored and challenged, resulting i n more i n t u i t i o n s and creative illumination and thus generating new thought patterns and formations. Again, by train i n g the mind to break free of, as de Bono states, the "prisons of old ideas" (p.11) and by training i t to r i s k 35. the use of the h e u r i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c — t h a t of exploring l i m i t i n g conditions—we would also be trai n i n g the mind to think i n t u i t i v e l y . De Bono (1977) reminds us that any s k i l l i s d i f f i c u l t to learn without practice, and that the s k i l l s needed for l a t e r a l and i n t u i t i v e thinking are no d i f f e r e n t — t h e y need fostering, nurturing, application and practice. Lastly, the h e u r i s t i c characteristic of the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of the solution i s important to i n t u i t i o n . V i s u a l i z a t i o n or mental imagery i s e s s e n t i a l l y non-verbal and "non-symbolic", Guilford (1977), which according to Gowan (1979) occurs " i n consciousness not immedi-ately preceded by perceptual intake" (p.39). Although controversial, the functions of the right hemisphere, according to Guilford (1977) involve the use of imagery which i s es-se n t i a l to c r e a t i v i t y , i n t u i t i v e thinking, and problem solving. This imagery i s not, as stated before, necessarily r e s t r i c t e d to sp a t i a l relationships among physical objects. I t can take the form of diagrams, theories, and concepts which are visua l manifestations of a mental thought. McKim (1980) notes that "when abstract and concrete ideas are expressed i n graphic form or imagery, the abstract-to-concrete thinking strategy becomes v i s i b l e " (p.115). He adds that thei:....-J f i r s t attempts to bring this about seem to have sim i l a r q u a l i t i e s to the i n t u i t i v e thinking process. The cognition i s " f a s t , crude, wholistic and p a r a l l e l , while the second part of the cognition i s deliberate, attentive, detailed and sequential" (p.133). Once 36. again, we have the complementary relationship reinforced between the analytic and i n t u i t i v e modes of thinking. The v i s u a l i z a t i o n process helps to reduce to a code, the ideas and formations which the mind i s exploring. Imaging moves along with the cognitive process and occasionally jumps i n t u i t i v e l y to a solution before the mind i s aware that the segments of thought have made a connection. It i s not uncommon for individuals to exclaim that they "see" or they understand something so v i v i d l y that i t i s or seems to be manifested i n a visual image. Many cases can be cited which indicate that very elaborate images have been in t u i t e d by individuals who have been working on highly complex problems. Relaxation as a F a c i l i t a t o r of Imagery and I n t u i t i o n Gowan (1974) l i s t s the testimonies of men such as Archimedes, Newton, Faraday, Agassiz, Hilpecht, Poincare, Mendeleev, Kekule, Loewi, as people who have courted "the Muse", by relaxing the hold of the conscious mind on the problems, through various techniques such as sleep, reverie, t r a v e l , nature, bodily a c t i v i t y , or meditation, so that other parts of the psyche can take over. (p.416) Wallas (1926) c a l l s the second stage of preparation for c r e a t i v i t y , incubation. It would seem that during the incubation stage, a necessary condition of relaxation i s needed i n order to f a c i l i t a t e productive or i n t u i t i v e thinking. Gowan (1979) describes t h i s state of preparation or incuba-t i o n period analogously: 37. I f preparation sets up the mind as a radio receiver, and incubation clears away the s t a t i c and turns on the power, development may be likened to the fine tuning of the instrument so that what was a howl now becomes a clear and i n t e l l i g e n t signal, (p.416) Kekule (cited by Koestler, 1964) describes the v i v i d images which he experienced while searching for the synthesis of the benzene atom. It i s important to note that Kekule was searching for the answer. Kekule said: I turned my chair to the f i r e and dozed. Again the atoms were gambolling before my eyes. The smaller groups kept modestly i n the background. My mental eye, rendered more acute by visions of this kind, could now distinguish larger structures, of manifold conformation, long rows sometimes more closely f i t t e d together, a l l twining and twisting i n snake-like motion. But look! What was that! One of the snakes had seized hold of i t s own t a i l and the form whirled mockingly before my eyes. As i f by a f l a s h of lightning, I awoke, (p. 118) Gowan (1979) states that Kekule's non-verbal state of thinking happened because he was i n the presence of a non-categorical numinous archetype i n a non-ordinary state of reality...The numinous archetype presented i n hypnagogic dreams and creative reveries i s a non-categorical image, and i s hence capable of as many interpretations as there are percipients ...Each participant w i l l interpret the numinous archtype i d i o s y n c r a t i c a l l y , i n accordance with his l e v e l of development ( l i k e the seven b l i n d Indians who went to see the elephant). The archetype hence acts as a generating e n t i t y , which may produce a number of art forms or alphanumeric s c i e n t i f i c statements. Since the non-ordinary experience may occur i n many persons, the key concept of c r e a t i v i t y i s to possess the previously prepared matrix of verbal or mathematical analogy which w i l l catch the ephemeral v i s i o n and preserve i t i n concrete form. (pp.477-8) 38. It would seem then that the image i s generated through the presence of archetypal forms which come into a new juxtaposition during a relaxed state of consciousness. Similar to Kekule's statement, biographers Hunt and Draper (1964) recorded a non-verbal thinking experience or i n t u i t i o n which Nicola Tesla had while quoting poetry to a friend during a relaxing walk. The c l a r i t y of the imaging enabled Tesla to describe i t i n d e t a i l . An idea came to him l i k e a fl a s h of lightning and the solution to the problem of alternating current motors appeared before him as revelation. He stood as a man i n a trance, trying to explain his v i s i o n to his friend...The images which appeared before Tesla seemed as sharp and clear and as s o l i d as metal or stone. The p r i n c i p l e of the rotating magnetic f i e l d was clear to him. In that moment, a world revolution i n e l e c t r i c a l science was born. (p.33) I f what Gowan (1979) says i s true, Tesla could not have arrived at the theory of the rotating magnetic f i e l d without having f i r s t had a substantial knowledge base about the e l e c t r o - s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d . The new i n t u i t i o n or revelation did come to him when he was in a "non-ordinary state of reali t y " - b u t i t also came to him because he was i n the "presence of a non-categorical numinous archetype" or an enormous body of o r i g i n a l knowledge. Fischbein (1979) c l a r i f i e s t h i s further, saying that an image [or vision] i s not an i n t u i t i o n by i t s e l f . In order to be an i n t u i t i v e way of understanding, the image has to be included i n an active process. The role of the image-intuition i s therefore a double one: (1) to unify information and (2) to prepare, guide, and anticipate action (on the basis of that information), (p.40) 39. A v i s i o n or v i s u a l representation, to Fischbein, i s able to contribute e f f i c i e n t l y to an i n t u i t i v e understanding of something. However, i t does not stand on i t s own; i t must move on to action. As w e l l , concrete experience such as Tesla's indepth research into the e l e c t r o - s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d must support the image and the develop-ment of i n t u i t i o n . Training for V i s u a l i z a t i o n McKim (1981) presents a programme for t r a i n i n g v i s u a l i z a t i o n and visual thinking which includes preparation through relaxation and incubation, reducing sensory input, eliminating v i s u a l stereotyping; thinking ambidexterously; graphic ideation; idea sketching. These are only a few of the techniques and s k i l l s which he proposes. He develops the imaging process through the practice of graphic ideation as a tool for thinking i n t u i t i v e l y , productively and creatively. In other words, he i s t r a i n i n g the h e u r i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which i s important to both i n t u i t i v e thinking and problem s o l v i n g — t h a t of v i s u a l i z a t i o n . McKim (1980) states that individuals have lost self-confidence and the a b i l i t y to image-in because of a society that encourages individuals to see how they appear to others, a secondhand precept, rather than enabling and encouraging individuals to see things anew for themselves. This secondhand kind of seeing or thinking i s perhaps one of the greatest deterrents to i n t u i t i v e thinking because i t does not encourage people to r i s k , guess, leap, twist, turn, or as McKim says, think ambidexterously. 40. Gowan (1979) states that as well as learning to think f l e x i b l y , i t i s important to lessen the sensory input and to gentle the preconscious so that imagination and v i s u a l i z a t i o n can emerge. He notes that: Imagery appears to be bound i n the unconscious mind, ready to rush into consciousness whenever the perceptual flow i s s t i l l e d . , (p .419) . Through these modes of functioning, imaging and v i s u a l i z i n g , are able to develop t h e i r a b i l i t y to i n t u i t , imagine and see anew as individuals. This h e u r i s t i c character of i n t u i t i o n — v i s u a l i z a t i o n or imaging, therefore, allows people to economically state, and synthe-size thoughts and experiences of the mind. During the v i s u a l i z a t i o n process, only the essential elements are selected; others are eliminated. Bruner (1971) states that t h i s kind of s e l e c t i v i t y i s necessary for a l l problem solving, c r e a t i v i t y and i n t u i t i v e behaviour. Bruner writes: whether the person uses a h e u r i s t i c involving v i s u a l i z a t i o n or some other shorthand way of summarizing the connections inside a set of givens, he d r a s t i c a l l y reduces the range of things to which he attends. This narrowing of focus involves a kind of r i s k taking that requires not only a certain amount of conf i -dence, but also a kind of i m p l i c i t rule for ignoring certain information, again a r i s k y prescience about the nature of a solution or the kind of goal one i s looking for. ^(p.85) The l a t t e r part of Bruner's statement harkens back to Gowan's people things (1979) statement about people searching for a solution or a kind of goal (e.g. Kekule, Tesla) and then going through a variety of mental gymnastics to find i t . Gowan (1979, p.477) says, "Kekule went i n (to the cave of Aladdin) looking for a d o l l a r and came out with a d o l l a r . In other words, he knew what he was looking for and found i t . " He agrees with George Kelly's statement that one i s "constrained to experience events i n the way one anticipates them" (p.477). In other words, the solution or i n t u i t i o n i s dependent on a number of factors: the depth of understanding of subject matter, the l e v e l of mental consciousness, and the in t e n s i t y of the search for a solution or goal as well as the l e v e l of an individual's mental development and anticipation. The h e u r i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of v i s u a l i z a t i o n or imaging, according to McKim (1980) can be developed and taught i n the same way that we can teach thinking s k i l l s . Summary. This chapter has reviewed the de f i n i t i o n s and characteristics of i n t u i t i o n or i n t u i t i v e thinking and i t s relationship to c r e a t i v i t y , v i s u a l i z a t i o n , imagery, and problem solving. It has looked at i n t u i t i o n i n young children, i n t u i t i o n i n the education environment, and has reviewed some of the f a c i l i t a t o r s of i n t u i t i v e thinking. F i n a l l y the chapter has looked at ways of t r a i n i n g for v i s u a l i z a t i o n that could be applied to the classroom s i t u a t i o n . 42. CHAPTER I I I PROCEDURES AND DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMME Introduction The study took place at the University College of Cape Breton, Sydney, Nova Scotia, i n July 1983, for the duration of one month, with d a i l y sessions from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. The Setting The setting for t h i s study was a very large, double-sized classroom that had once been the l i b r a r y i n the Continuing Education wing of the University College of Cape Breton. One end of the room had large bright windows covered with drapery, and two blackboards covered most of the longest w a l l . There was only one small display board, which was near the blackboards. There were two doors i n the wall opposite the windows. The walls were l i g h t cream plaster, as were the t i l e s on the f l o o r , making the overall effect of the room rather neutral. There was no sink i n the room so students had to go across the h a l l when they needed water for t h e i r projects. Fifteen large, dark brown tables were available to the students, as were about t h i r t y chairs. The university had borrowed -about two dozen fold i n g , free-standing and lockable display boards at the request of the instructor. These were about 5' x 6' each and could be manoeuvered into half c i r c l e s , octagons, etc., to create different spaces for work, group discussion, relaxation, and display, etc. 43. The Clients Most of the subjects of the study were Cape Breton classroom teachers with several years of experience. There were two exceptions: one teacher taught i n Labrador and another i n New Brunswick. No one had had s p e c i a l i s t t r a i n i n g i n visual a r t s , and although three indicated t h e i r aptitude for being v i s u a l l y creative, most had a very low opinion of t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y . Three teachers were former students of the instructor from previous summer schools. A l l 14.. subjects had just completed a year of teaching, and some had taken continuing education courses throughout the winter and spring semesters. They were therefore t i r e d and rather f e a r f u l of not managing to meet the expectations of a summer session course. Several registrants cancelled t h e i r r e g i s t r a t i o n s , following the spring course, because they were over-extended and discouraged by a number of circumstances. The enrollment for the course was, therefore, lower than anticipated. During the f i r s t few days of the course, several teachers remained uncertain about whether they would continue to study throughout the summer. They did so, and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n level during the course was exceptionally high. Procedures The summer school programme on i n t u i t i v e thinking as related to visu a l problem solving was both theoretical and task oriented. The tasks can be categorized into general levels: 1) major visual projects, of which there were f i v e ; 2) short, time li m i t e d , three-dimensional tasks; 3) two-dimensional tasks, with a 44. time l i m i t ; 4) explorations without a time l i m i t ; 5) exercises that contributed to a l l of the above tasks; 6) theory that supported a l l the tasks; 7) discussion and description of the thinking involved i n visual problem solving; and 8) journal writing to record the thinking that accompanied most tasks. Pre-tasks The f i r s t week was b a s i c a l l y for orientation. The p a r t i c i -pants, being teachers, had just finished a school year and were weary. Some had come a long way; others had taken a spring session course that had l e f t them angry and discouraged. Some came with anxiety about the words " i n t u i t i o n " and "visual problem solving". Many f e l t they were a r t i s t i c a l l y inadequate, so feared what they would have to do i n class. The classroom was large and barren but was f u l l of possible personalized work spaces. The participants explored these possi-b i l i t i e s and t a i l o r e d the room to th e i r s p a t i a l needs, during the f i r s t few days. Before attending the f i r s t day's class, the students had been given a package of pre-tasks and preparatory work to do. These tasks were designed to acquaint the registrants with some of the terms they had to know for the course, to encourage an awareness of . the i r thinking processes, and to begin c o l l e c t i n g some of the materials and equipment needed for the visua l projects. Task One: Preparation of Equipment Kit The participants collected from home or purchased a number of 45. items that were l i s t e d i n the prepackage. These included (see Appendix A for l i s t ) p r a c t i c a l a r t i c l e s such as scissors, markers, brushes and staplers. I t was hoped that by c o l l e c t i n g items before class entry, the course could be launched e a r l i e r i n the f i r s t week. Also, the exercise of thinking out what was needed for the project was a way of a s s i s t i n g the participants to get themselves organized for a new experience. Task Two: Search for Materials The participants were asked to search for a variety of usable materials that could be used for the v i s u a l projects to be undertaken i n the course. Some were gleaned from home, while other material was scavenged from department store trash boxes. The material l i s t e d (see Appendix A for complete l i s t i n g ) included cardboard tubes, dowelling, scrap paper, photos, wire, grasses and p l a s t i c . One of the purposes of t h i s task was to help the participant become aware of the material p o s s i b i l i t i e s that e x i s t i n u n l i k e l y places. The task also encouraged the participants to contribute to a stock of unusual materials that would be shared by themselves and others. Task Three: Search for Literature Related to I n t u i t i v e Thinking The participants were directed to a number of books that dealt with c r e a t i v i t y , productive thinking, divergent thinking, l a t e r a l thinking and i n t u i t i v e thinking, so that they would be acquainted with some of the available l i t e r a t u r e . They were asked to write d e f i n i t i o n s for several terms that were pertinent to the study. They were encouraged to xerox a r t i c l e s 46. that could be added to a resource f i l e for everyone to use. Task Four: Pre- and Post-Task These two tasks were to be carried out before the participants had attended class and after the course was finished, so that the results would be free from peer or instructor influence. The task was to bui l d a toy that could be moved or had a moving part. I t was to f i t into a shoe box and be completed within a four-hour time constraint. The teachers were asked to record the awareness of th e i r thinking during the toy construction. The aesthetic nature of the project was not to be considered as important as the thinking that accompanied the problem solving process. Both the pre-task toy and the post-task toy were to be presented to the class and talked about, using graphic ideation to explain the mode of thinking used during t h e i r creation. Task Five: Becoming Aware of One's Own Thinking Process. The f i r s t part of th i s task asked the participants to think about the way they made simple decisions and solve everyday problems. It was es s e n t i a l l y an awareness exercise. They were also asked to r e c a l l certain problem-solving situations to see i f they could remember t h e i r thinking sequence. They were also to become aware of their usual thinking patterns - how they approached most problems that they thought about. The participants selected two of the four stated problems which they were to solve, then wrote out the thinking process they used. These were to be shared i n class and the solu-47. tions discussed, so that everyone had an opportunity to verbalize t h e i r thinking processes. Task Six: Preliminary Statements Recording the Participants' Thinking  Process-. This form, labelled Form #1, was designed to help the participants make clear statements about t h e i r thinking process. Each sentence i s only p a r t i a l l y formed so that the participant i s free to complete the rest of the statement. The form was to be attached as a summary to the journal entries for each major visual project and several smaller ones. Visual projects. Visual Project #1: The Pouch Using the basic materials, paper, p l a s t i c , wire, grass, twine, reeds, the participants were to construct a unique pouch form by weaving, braiding, looping, etc. the material, then prepare and package f i v e natural objects for depositing inside the pouch. Before attempting the pouch form, the participants were encouraged to explore the l i m i t a t i o n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the material; generate ideas; search for those that were compatible with the material; state the idea, both v i s u a l l y and i n w r i t i n g ; prepare the material and test the idea with the material; re-order ideas; think ambidexterously; synthesize; bring the form to con-clusion; evaluate the v i s u a l product aes t h e t i c a l l y . While planning t h i s and the other major projects, the participants were asked to record t h e i r thinking graphically and i n written form. They were encouraged to be aware of the l o g i c a l 48. sequences of thought, changes i n idea d i r e c t i o n , idea selection, small insights, i n t u i t i v e thinking ( s k i l l e d leaps of knowledge, guesses, hunches) and gestalts. They were to write out th e i r think-ing experiences as spontaneously as possible i n journal form. Visual Project #2: Natural Aesthetic Environment Using clay, wood, rock, moss, dried grasses, reeds, etc. plus a r e f l e c t i v e surface such as a mirror, the participants were asked to make an aesthetic environment that concentrated on using texture and contrast s i m i l a r to that found i n nature and i n the Japanese garden. They were asked to use mirrors as a r e f l e c t i v e piece, so that part of th e i r own environment and others would show the r e p e t i t i o n of shape and textured form. The mirrors were to be placed i n such a way as to be part of, rather than i n opposition to the natural form. The project was to be completed i n three phases: 1) the participants were to create t h e i r own individual environment as an aesthetic piece; 2) they were to j o i n t h e i r environment to the other environments so that there would be one combined f u l l flowing, aesthetic form; 3) they were to draw contour lines i n the sand plane around the large environment. Visual Project #3: Wood Sculpture The participants were to a l t e r three or more blocks of wood so that they would relate s p a t i a l l y and aesthetically to each other. They were to consider problems of interlocking form, interesting juxtaposition; structural or visua l dependency. The finished product was to show a high degree of craftsmanship, both i n the exe-49. cution of the form and the surface f i n i s h . The surface was to be sanded, buffed, o i l e d or some portion painted, carved or embellished through drawing. At least one section of the wood sculpture was to have colour, l i n e , pattern or texture as a visual focus. The participants were to examine and use a variety of tools that they would need to complete the sculpture so that t h e i r s k i l l and competence lev e l would be better developed. Before attempting to solve the problem, the participants explored t h e i r ideas i n clay, paper and wood, other than t h e i r blocks. They also completed several small two-and three-dimensional exercises that helped them to understand vis u a l relatedness. The participants were encouraged to i l l u s t r a t e t h e i r thinking graphically and t h e i r changes i n ideation before choosing one design to execute. Visual Project #4: Fetish The participants were given the choice of making a f e t i s h or creating a fabric sculpture. Those who chose the f e t i s h problem were to use a free range of material (twine, yarn, beads, f a b r i c , toothpicks, s h e l l s , feathers, wire, cardboard, wood, etc.) to make th e i r personal f e t i s h . This was to be a conglomerate form of something to which they were " i r r a t i o n a l l y devoted". The form was to have meaning to i t s creator. I t was to show s k i l l and craftsmanship i n i t s execution, and also be v i s u a l l y aesthetic. The participants were to consider shape, colour, texture, and s p a t i a l aspects of the form. Size was not to be a factor, but they were to be able to carry i t with them on a hike, so that i n i t s e l f was a l i m i t a t i o n . This project enabled the participants to examine t h e i r per-sonal preferences and the things i n l i f e that were most meaningful to 50. them. I t also gave the participants the opportunity to select the materials they wanted to work with and create a form that was very much th e i r own. Apart from the i n i t i a l discussions about the d e f i n i t i o n of " f e t i s h " , they had to i n t u i t every decision on th e i r own. Peer group influence was minimal, and instructor input was given when required or i n i t i a t e d by the student. Visual Project #5: Fabric Sculpture Those who chose the fabric sculpture project were to use stitchery and textured materials to make a soft sculptured f a b r i c form of some Canadian commodity (e.g. snow, clouds, gophers, g l a c i e r s , banks, pu f f s ) , which we usually do not think to package for export. The container had to be able to be carried i n two hands and had to relate v i s u a l l y to the contents. Formal Instruction During week one, the philosophy of the course was presented along with preliminary exercises that prepared the students for the visual problem-solving projects. The students arranged the room according to t h e i r preferred work space. Three special areas were also designated: one for rest and relaxation; one for group-sharing, graphic ideation as well as show-and-tell experiences; and one for lectures or theoretical presentations. Each of the last two designated areas had folding display space that was covered with white paper. While the participants or the instructor talked, they expressed t h e i r ideas graphically at the same time. This pattern of presentation was i n i t i a t e d on the f i r s t day that the students brought t h e i r pre-toys. D i f f i c u l t as i t was, the students came to appreci-ate the reasons for graphically supporting what they said. Many who were reluctant early i n the course used the area naturally toward the end of the course. The f i r s t Friday was used for a f i e l d t r i p . The class drove to Port Morien, a f i s h i n g v i l l a g e of some beauty. The v i l l a g e served as a focus for some awareness trai n i n g and experiences i n ambi-dexterous thinking. Both written and drawn responses were expected by the instructor i n answer to the problems given (see Appendix C) The f i e l d t r i p helped the class feel more comfortable with each other and enabled everyone to relate to a common experience. Many of the solutions i n t u i t e d by the students became helpful discussion points for the study of i n t u i t i v e thinking l a t e r i n the course. The instructor presented de f i n i t i o n s and an introduction to thinking. Divergent, convergent, a n a l y t i c a l , i n t u i t i v e , repro-ductive, productive. Discussion on c r e a t i v i t y , and problem solving also took place. During week one, journal writing was explored and some practice given i n writing up small thinking processes i n journal form. More theory was added d a i l y as the course progressed, but an i n t r o -duction to the concepts was necessary as a foundation for the p r a c t i -cal aspects of the course. The Torrance C i r c l e Test for C r e a t i v i t y was administered to the participants during the f i r s t and last week of the course i n order that an assessment of change could be made by the instructor/researcher. Short, two- and three-dimensional problem-solving situations were presented each day for practising the concepts of brainstorming, 52. v i s u a l thinking and graphic ideation. The f i r s t major visu a l project - the pouch - was given before the weekend so that the participants could think about i t and begin t h e i r explorations. Week two b u i l t on the theory and practice of the f i r s t week. There was further discourse on thinking; extending the early d i s -cussions, and focusing on divergent or l a t e r a l thinking; the r e l a t i o n -ship between thinking and c r e a t i v i t y ; Guilford's transfer theory; de Bono's.concept of bundle and named ideas; insight and i n t u i t i o n ; the awareness of cognitive processes especially the i n t u i t i v e . Several relaxation exercises were experienced and themes such as centering oneself, freeing up ideas, allowing newness, becoming f l e x i b l e thinkers, v i s u a l and auditory relaxation techniques. Also, theory about i n h i b i t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s of creative thinking and, therefore, i n t u i t i v e thinking was presented. There was a s p e c i f i c emphasis on the relationship between the t o t a l learning environment and creative i n t u i t i v e thinking. The participants solved a variety of small three-dimensional exercises, using tooth picks, s t i r s t i c k s , s t r i n g , natural s t i c k s , straws, etc. Brainstorming and v i s u a l thinking continued to be used, along with journal notations of the participants' thinking process. The second major visu a l project, the natural aesthetic environment, was presented early i n the week. Graphic ideation, brainstorming, and several preliminary exercises preceded the assign-ment. After the individual environments were completed, they were combined into a class environment surrounded by a sand garden that 53. was contoured with l i n e to reinforce the t o t a l environment. Shortly after the second project was i n i t i a t e d , the participants were given three equal-sized wood blocks to l i v e with for several days. The theory of visual integration was introduced to the class and, f i n a l l y , the t h i r d major p r o j e c t — a wood s c u l p t u r e — was given to the class. This project was to be worked on from the date given u n t i l the end of the course as a long-term exercise while the other small projects were being completed. During week three, the students began t h e i r work on either the f e t i s h or thei r f a b r i c sculpture projects. Notes from the jour-nals about incidents of i n t u i t i o n or insight were shared and discussed by the class. Participants made verbal presentations of a r t i c l e s about i n t u i t i o n , c r e a t i v i t y , and problem solving. Theory was expanded and related to the current problem-solving s i t u a t i o n . During week four, there were discussions about the implica-tions of the course and the experiences i n visua l and i n t u i t i v e thinking for the teacher i n the classroom. Projects were com-pleted; journals updated; discussion continued; and theory expended. The participants were given t h e i r second Torrance c i r c l e test for c r e a t i v i t y and were asked to begin t h e i r post-toy assignment, which was not to be done i n the classroom. These were presented to the rest of the class on the l a s t day, as a culminating a c t i v i t y . Reflection on the learning experience, sharing of individual creative pilgrimages, and personal and class evaluation were carried out graphically as well as i n written form. 54. The class i n v i t e d other summer school students to see a display of their v i s u a l products, and explained the thinking that accompanied them, during an Open House morning. Procedures for Keeping the Journals Both the participants and the instructor were to keep da i l y journals as a record of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s and thinking processes. These were to contain written and drawn work that reflected t h e i r cognitive processes. Each participant could organize t h e i r journal according to t h e i r own personal preference, but were given some guidance about i t s content, layout, and intention. Progoff's (1975) journal was used as an information source for the participants. The procedures for journal writing were: a) After being given a task or project, the participants were to record, step by step, the kind of thinking they did to approach the problem; t h e i r choice of material; t h e i r decision as to technique; how they entered the problem; i f they changed t h e i r ideas; how they arrived at conclusions, discarded ideas, experimented with new ones; how they i n t u i t e d the completion of the visual problem. Journal writing was to be accom-panied by graphic ideation—drawings that showed th e i r thinking progression, v i s u a l l y . P e r i o d i c a l l y the journal notations were shared i n class or were 55. reviewed by the instructor. Participants made verbal presentations of t h e i r thinking process at the end of each project. A summary of these was recorded on Form #1 (see Appendix A) b) The instructor/researcher also recorded her thinking about the course as i t progressed and her observa-tions of the participants' thinking and v i s u a l problem solving. The d a i l y notations reflected s i g n i f i c a n t participant behaviour. The instructor shared r e l a t i v e information with the participants during discussion and theory sessions. Class Sharing and Discussion A group involvement area was designed for s p e c i f i c reasons. The partitioned space where participants shared the i r creations and t h e i r thinking process was intimate, nearly c i r c u l a r , and surrounded by large, white, paper-covered display boards. A c i r c l e of chairs lined the curving space. During the course, the paper became covered with v i s u a l and written g r a f f i t i . The paper was not removed during the course, but was added to with small and large drawings, written notations, comments of significance to the thinking being done. Because there was a choice of writing materials, a variety of colour was used by the participants and the instructor, giving the recording area a r i c h visual appearance. The participants reacted p o s i t i v e l y to the space and several thought they would use a s i m i l a r idea i n t h e i r own classrooms. 56. By leaving the d a i l y notations on the paper, the space seemed less s t e r i l e and more i n v i t i n g for the participants. As the course went on, they added to the ideation wall on t h e i r own accord, enriching i t further. It-was not uncommon to see one person using the space to describe something v i s u a l l y to someone else, at other than the appointed discussion time. During the sharing sessions, the participants v i s u a l l y and verbally described t h e i r thinking processes and showed thei r creations to the instructor and other class members. This procedure allowed everyone to hear and see how others were thinking. Class discussion and instructor input followed these "show and t e l l " sessions. A l l verbalization was accompanied by graphic i l l u s t r a t i o n . Work Space The participants' work spaces varied. The instructor had arranged a U-shaped formation of tables facing the blackboard area. There, the teachers and the instructor engaged i n writing and problem-solving exercises, observations, demonstrations, and carried out the work on the given tasks and projects. Some participants designed t h e i r own preferred work spaces i n other parts of the room, as well as having a space i n the central formation. They were encouraged to move about to meet th e i r own s p a t i a l needs whenever they wanted to. An area for relaxation was created early i n the month. It seemed apparent that those who came long distances (some as far as' 75 miles) each morning, would need a place to rest. It was also realized that the participants needed a place to relax and allow t h e i r sub-conscious to take over while they mulled over an idea or problem. The participants each brought cushions and the t i l e f l o o r was covered so that there was a warm clean place to s i t or l i e down. Apart from about two occasions, however, no one vo l u n t a r i l y used the space. They seemed embarrassed about taking a rest time during formal class hours, even though some people appeared weary and tense at various times. Display Space The display space changed throughout the course. One long wall housed many of the displays, along with some tables that were set up against the wal l ; other tables sat as an island behind the "U" formation. Often the f l o o r space was used for displaying projects and for visual exercises, using large material for sp a t i a l manipulation. Occasionally, the h a l l housed displays or allowed a s p a t i a l overflow for class involvement. Participants on two occasions used the university cafeteria and the surrounding garden for a place to work or gather visual material. The course participants were encouraged to in v i t e other people into the classroom so that they had another oppor-tunity to a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r thinking processes to some one others: . than t h e i r peer group or instructor. Slides were shown i n a projection room near to the classroom. These were used for four different purposes: 1) as a meditative focus for relaxation; 2) as a f a c i l i t a t o r for imagery; 3) to i l l u s t r a t e images that could be used by the classroom teacher for extending think-ing through ideation, brainstorming, fantasy; 4) as samples of work that had been produced by students i n classes where i n t u i t i v e and creative thinking was encouraged. 58. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF THE OBSERVATIONS Introduction This chapter deals with 1) a description of the character-i s t i c s of i n t u i t i v e thinking as defined by the conduct of the participants; 2) an analysis of the way i n which i n t u i t i v e thinking was perceived by participants; 3) an analysis of the instructor's perception of the participants' i n t u i t i v e thinking, as evidenced in t h e i r v i s u a l work; 4) an analysis of the congruence, or lack of congruence, between the students' and researcher's perceptions of i n t u i t i v e thinking, as evidenced i n the journals; 5) evidence of some of the methods of i n t u i t i v e thinking that promote further thinking and achieve satisfactory r e s u l t s ; and 6) evidence of changes i n thinking and c r e a t i v i t y during the course. Numerous extracts from student journals are presented. Numbers accompanying these extracts refer to the i d e n t i t y of the student, and the occasion on which the behaviour was noted as present. For example, the notation 14-3 means that student #14 had indicated i n the journal a t h i r d instance of i n t u i t i v e thinking. Characteristics of I n t u i t i v e Thinking as  Defined by the Conduct of the Participants From journal data obtained from the participants, four cate-gories of i n t u i t i v e thinking were devised. These describe the charac-t e r i s t i c s of i n t u i t i v e thinking, as defined by the conduct of members of the summer school course. They are: r e f l e c t i v e cognitive or incre-59. mental, r e f l e c t i v e i n t u i t i v e , broad i n t u i t i v e , and spontaneous i n t u -i t i v e thinking. These are summarized i n Figure 1. REFLECTIVE COGNITIVE OR INCREMENTAL BROAD INTUITIVE OR OCCLUDED REFLECTIVE INTUITIVE SPONTANEOUS INTUITIVE Figure 1. Four categories of i n t u i t i v e thinking 60. a) Reflective cognitive or incremental thinking moves along gradually, without the element of surprise, toward an established ob-je c t i v e . Each small decision during the process advances the thinking incrementally. Unlike a n a l y t i c a l thinking, the r e f l e c t i v e cognitive dimension i s i n t u i t i v e and emotional rather than i n t e l l e c t u a l by nature. It moves i n an i r r e g u l a r , rather than linear pattern, changing direc-t i o n with the a r r i v a l of small insights or in t u i t e d entry points. One increment spurs another on u n t i l a solution i s arrived at which i s satisfactory to the problem- solver or i t i s necessary to come to closure because of a time allotment or a material l i m i t a t i o n . b) Reflective i n t u i t i v e thinking i s characterized by a sequence of brainstorming a c t i v i t i e s which generate and fre e l y associ-ate ideas without evaluating them, followed by an i n t u i t i v e leap or connection which arrives without seemingly passing through the incre-mental stages found i n other modes of thinking. c) Broad i n t u i t i v e thinking i s evidenced by several parts of the solution f i t t i n g into place i n such a way that there i s a broad i n t u i t i o n or c l a r i f i c a t i o n . This illumination comes i n a general sense rather than through a small intense i n t u i t i v e leap. The illumi n a t i o n , although s i g n i f i c a n t to the visua l decision-making pro-cess, i s occluded, that i s , having some l i g h t , but having more dark-ness than l i g h t . Therefore, i n spite of the illum i n a t i o n , some of the problem remains to be solved. d) Spontaneous i n t u i t i v e cognition i s an unpremeditated kind of thinking. It i s synthetic and seems to organize and process material that i s available to the subconscious through past experi-61. REFLECTIVE COGNITIVE OR INCREMENTAL 0 a b i l i t y to move i n an irreg u l a r manner incrementally o a b i l i t y to change entry point ° a b i l i t y to solve small portions of the problem at a time 0 a b i l i t y to come to closure at the end of each increment Figure 2. Summary of r e f l e c t i v e cognitive or incremental thinking Figure 3. A sequence of increments during r e f l e c t i v e cognitive thinking 62. ences and associations without the thinker being aware of where i t has come from. This sudden spontaneous i n t u i t i o n usually illuminates, with some int e n s i t y , one part of the problem. The i n t u i t i o n can, how-ever, serve to affirm, anticipate or conclude the problem at hand. In spontaneous i n t u i t i v e thinking, there i s no conscious incremental sequence leading to the solution, rather there i s a problem that needs a solution and a connection or synthesis i s arrived at with immediacy. Ways i n which In t u i t i v e Thinking was Perceived by the  Participants Reflective Cognition or Incremental Thinking Reflective cognition or incremental thinking was recorded by the participants i n such a way that they talk about cognition and elaborate on th e i r thinking process. Each small insight, synthesis, change of di r e c t i o n , subtle evaluation or deliberate cognition i s recorded. Characteristic of t h i s thinking process i s the way a single thought progresses, takes a jog, laterates, and moves ahead again i n an irreg u l a r manner. Each change of direc t i o n leads toward a small portion of the larger solution incrementally. General characteristics of r e f l e c t i v e cognitive thinking are summarized i n Figures 2 and 3. While involved i n incremental thinking, participants experience several entry points and closures during the decision-making process. When the entry point i s i n t u i t e d , thinking moves through an increment to a solution, then another entry point i s intuited and th i s progres-sion moves from increment to increment r e p e t i t i v e l y u n t i l closure, 63. s a t i s f a c t i o n or some l i m i t a t i o n (time, material) disallows further cognition. See Figure 4. entry point moving to closure increment solution Figure 4. Elements of incremental or r e f l e c t i v e cognitive thinking. For example, one participant records: When I changed the direc t i o n of my thinking with respect to the angles on my wooden blocks, I decided to reinforce i t more by angling block three as we l l . Block three i s not matching r e l a t i v e l y well because the other two have d e f i -n i t e curves. The relatedness of number three 64. i s only implied by i t s shape. Therefore, make a groove from small to wide as a continuation of the downward curve of block two. Because block two i s square..what about an angled notch? Perhaps an arrowhead gouge that continues i n an upward direc t i o n . Why have a symmetrical pointer? Make i t f l a t along one side. Why not t i p i t too? That leads the eye up better from block number three. Maybe carve a rounded notch or groove i n blocks one and two so that they lead v i s u a l l y to three. Time does not allow much more and this would be a convenient '.'break point": I t could always be continued i f necessary. Probably never w i l l be completed! \ (4T41) The same student records incremental thinking during another project: Trees won't stay. They're too big. Take off small section and t r y that down i n middle of moss. It works! Why not have the second larger tree mounted behind? When I make the wooden mount, I can make a hole and support the tree i n the hole with clay... (4-15) Intuited entry points: e.g. "Trees won't stay; too big; something has to be done." ' \ \ \ Increment: moving toward a solution, \ e.g. "Take off small section and t r y \ that down i n middle of moss." Closure: e.g. " I t works!" Figure 5. Visual description of participant example #4-15. 65. Other examples of incremental thinking from the journal are: Overnight I thought about the pattern and f e l t the red was too strong. I decided to use black instead (14-19) No, black i s not a colour, so I thought about reversing the above design and using a wide dark blue inside, with a fine red one. After trying t h i s with coloured construction paper, I was s a t i s f i e d that this i s what I'd use. (14-19) In this example, the student experienced two small insights: "the red was too strong," and the need to "reverse the above design," to bring visual s a t i s f a c t i o n . Each moved to another increment. S i m i l a r l y , other students wrote: F i r s t I took paper cups, glued them together, ran straws through the middle but the cups wouldn't r o l l . They would only go halfway round so I decided to put a straw through the middle. Then taking the middle straw, I r o l l e d i t with my hand and the two cups — r o l l i n g back and forth looked l i k e one.(2-1) After much deliberation, I thought of weaving my reeds through the bottom of the base. It would make the pouch stronger and help i t to stand. It worked! (13-14) ...I thought at f i r s t I would use wire and p l a s t i c but the p l a s t i c kept tearing. F i n a l l y I decided to use paper. I started braiding the paper through the wire and i t worked fine so I kept braiding...then I knew at that moment that my unique form would be a r e a l i t y . (ll-5a) In t h i s example, the f i r s t entry point did not prove to be satisfactory so the student had to abandon the direction for another one. The second increment was more successful and the project moved toward closure. In this case, the l i m i t a t i o n of the material (plastic) was the reason for the change of direct i o n . One student, after recording the cognitive r e f l e c t i v e process by which a visual decision was made, evaluated the results i n t u i t i v e l y . 66. The student recorded t h i s : When I was finished, I realized that the material could have been put together i n a more interesting way. I changed the r o l l s that were made of paper, to wood. I f e l t that my materials related more to wood than they did to paper. (7-5) It would seem that the small illuminations are the i n t u i t i v e entry point for the increments, which i n turn need further illumination so the student searches for s t i l l another in t u i t e d entry point and advances the solution. The increments may be abandoned, or be reversed, at any time, according to the perception of the thinker. Through the journal record, the students c l a r i f i e d the thinking process for themselves. Reflective I n t u i t i v e Thinking REFLECTIVE INTUITIVE ° a b i l i t y to fr e e l y associate random ideas ° a b i l i t y to v i s u a l i z e idea connections o a b i l i t y to delay closure for further exploration 0 a b i l i t y to arrive at a spontaneous conclusion Figure 6. Reflective i n t u i t i v e thinking 67. Reflective i n t u i t i v e thinking was evidenced when participants allowed themselves time to think f l e x i b l y , engage i n the new idea juxtapositions or forms, and delayed closure u n t i l a spontaneous association, connection or synthesis was made. Random ideation, examine other ideas LEAP! Figure 7. Reflective i n t u i t i v e thinking Brainstorming through graphic ideation aided t h i s exploration of possible solutions. A synthesis or i n t u i t i v e leap Figure 8. Brainstorming during r e f l e c t i v e i n t u i t i v e thinking. 68. One student records her use of f l e x i b l e thinking or brain-storming during r e f l e c t i v e i n t u i t i v e thinking: I scratched this idea after working for a time with the p l a s t i c and covered wire braids.... I doubled them, curved them, bent them, and s t i l l I wasn't happy with the r e s u l t s . More thinking! Then a new idea! I got copper wire, made a s p i r a l for the bottom of the pouch, and then continued to form the wire around a cylinder shape u n t i l I had the desired height. (14-7) In some cases, the participants learned from observing children brainstorm ideas and manipulate materials. Ultimately, t h e i r own ideas leapt to the fore. For example: ... I was having trouble coming up with an idea for the post-toy form. I gave the springs to my children and watched....They sprung them, r o l l e d them, c l a s s i f i e d them, compared t h e i r springiness, etc.... I got the idea of putting a ring on a long spring and getting i t from one end of the spring to the other, quickly...of shooting the springs...of releasing them quickly to see whose would go the furthest...of put-ting one spring inside the other. A l l these ideas were incorporated into the post-toy project. (13-18) A number of ideas came quickly, following the manipulation of materials and idea exchange. Another student described her thinking after cutting paper into segments: ... I f i n d that there are many ideas which seem to flow around i n my mind. I measure, c u r l , cut, r o l l , f o l d , and find that this i s not a problem...intuitive thoughts seem to follow, one after another.(5-7) Another example of ideation or brainstorming before i n t u i t i v e thinking begins with an external stimulus, music, then through the free association of ideas and words, leaps to the idea of a new form: 69. Music playing - rhythm - beat - bongos -xylophone - what about a canophone - canophonus extraordinarius. (5-12) In t h i s case, the student f r e e l y associated ideas which explored the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of musical instruments and variations of sound before deciding how she would v i s u a l l y a l t e r the t i n can. The can was a given material for a visual task to be solved i n a limited time. In her journal, a participant(#8) understates (according to the instructor's perception) a brainstorming sequence which took place during the f i r s t week of the summer school course, which the class was making decisions about spaces for work and relaxation. During a d i s -cussion period, the class examined ten to twelve suggestions for f i n d -ing a comfortable f l o o r covering upon which people could rest or relax during problem-solving sessions. The discussion seemed to have come to an impasse when, suddenly, participant #8 shouted, "I've got i t ! We can use gymn mats to cover the cold t i l e f l o o r - and they're free and available right here at the univ e r s i t y ! " In her journal, she states: I was happy to be able to make the suggestion to use mats from the gymn to cover the t i l e f l o o r . (8-1) It would seem that the brainstorming time with the t o t a l group f a c i l i t a t e d her i n t u i t i v e leap. Others responded p o s i t i v e l y about a decision that seemed very obvious after the connection was made. By brainstorming ideas, one student i n t u i t e d fourteen possible ideas for his post toy. Lack of materials, time and an aesthetic sense caused him to eliminate many of the ideas before he selected a game that he called "elbow hockey". Many of the int u i t e d ideas were humourous-70. l y endowed. They varied i n t h e i r complexity and th e i r o r i g i n a l i t y , but each, i f they were actualized, would have f u l f i l l e d the stated v i s u a l problem, to make a unique toy. He records these statements i n his journal: Spring: Danglies Coaster Snark shooter Water drive: Water-powered tipper Musical: Overtone investigating monochord Note game "Marimba" Board games: Coloured marble game Multi-puzzle Frustration game "Innovation" Other: D § D mobile Mouth race Elbow hockey Variation on stone/paper/scissors (4-31) In a l l examples, the students recorded deliberation, manipula-tion of ideas or materials and change before an i n t u i t i o n or solution was actualized. There seemed to be various i n t e n s i t i e s of "aha!" but in each case, there was at least one change of di r e c t i o n , a new idea, a solution, or the v i s u a l i z a t i o n of a new form. In some cases, the i n t u i t i v e leap was very s i g n i f i c a n t . In others, i t was a f a c i l i t a t o r for another sequence of brainstorming a c t i v i t y . 71. Broad I n t u i t i v e or Occluded I n t u i t i v e Thinking BROAD INTUITIVE OR OCCLUDED o a b i l i t y to bring several elements of the problem together i n a broad illumination o a b i l i t y to see part of the solution c l e a r l y o a b i l i t y to continue searching for the occluded part of the solution Figure 9. Broad and i n t u i t i v e occluded thinking The broad i n t u i t i v e mode i s evidenced by several things f i t t i n g into place i n such a way that there i s a broad insight or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Illumination comes i n a general sense rather than a small bright spot as i s found i n spontaneous i n t u i t i v e thinking. The illumination i s occluded, having some l i g h t , but more darkness than l i g h t . 72. In other words, there i s more to be solved even though some illumina-t i o n i s evident. Broad i n t u i t i v e could be visualized i n this way: Figure 10. Broad i n t u i t i v e or occluded thinking visualized,. One. student records t h i s cognitive experience: When I changed the direc t i o n of my thinking, I came up with a new idea and new materials... Almost immediately I decided I would use p l a s t i c and covered wire and braid...these two together i n strips...then manipulate the braids into a pouch form...I manipulated the braided materials and didn't seem to have much success. I think and plan again...came up with... copper wire and p l a s t i c s t r i p s but not braided...I f i n a l l y succeeded. (14-7/8) Several aspects of the problem f i t t e d into place after the student changed her thinking d i r e c t i o n . . This i n t u i t e d need for change f a c i l i t a t e d the new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . With the illumination came new ideas so that a new form could emerge. This did not come to f r u i t i o n without more searching and manipulation. 73. I set out my blocks on the table and as I did my housework, I went back to them'time and time again.'— f e l t t h i s was more sa t i s f y i n g than ponder-ing oyer them for a long time. I went to bed... determined that I had reached closure...I had a dream about them. I woke up...and th i s form was very strong: ( v i s u a l ) . So I decided to...(12-16/17) ... I abandoned the short wires and decided on long lengths...not enough wire...use reeds! also...I f e l t that these two materials would be compatible but maybe not as easy to work with as...wire. At this point I was not c o n f i -dent that my pouch would be free standing upon completion. (6-5) This student experienced illumination about the use of materials for her visu a l project, but the illumination l e f t some portion of the problem unresolved or occluded. Even though the new materials were more compatible, her sense of pouch form as a free stand-ing form was ambivalent. One student (#12) struggled with the possible materials she might use for the f e t i s h project. She explained her dilemma and f e e l -ings to the instructor. Broad illumination resulted so she was able to continue her art form. She wanted her family to be the theme for the f e t i s h , but could not seem to i n t u i t an entry point. She recorded: I t e l l the instructor my feelings and my dilemma. I am an empty vessel...a v i r g i n brain...and how our family's l i v e l i h o o d depends on wood. The instructor then suggested I use wooden pieces, dowels, different sizes for each member of the family...now ideas begin to form. I think I can do i t . . . (12-30) Another indicates how a change of dire c t i o n and therefore a new focal point i n her thinking f a c i l i t a t e d illumination: 74. When I changed the dir e c t i o n of my thinking, I devoted more attention to the lines i n my visual environment. I Was then able to work with more confidence and therefore come up with a different arrangement that was pleasing to me for the garden. (6-106) In one case, the student experienced a broad illumination which directed her to take immediate action but then l e f t her to solve other unresolved areas i n her wood sculpture. The second block resolved i t s e l f e a s i l y . The block of wood looked l i k e t h i s [ v i s u a l ] . I saw that there was a loose cone inside the main block. I l i k e d the idea of removing i t immediately, so I grabbed the scissors to pry the wood pieces apart...then the next problem...how to smooth out the centre c i r c l e ? (1-8/10) The journals contained some short statements written by students that also a r t i c u l a t e broad i n t u i t i o n . These often led to a variety of visual decisions. Why l i m i t i t ? [the f e t i s h form]. Why not combine both so that the f e t i s h can be worn around my neck...waist... over/under the shoulder? (4-26) The simple statement, "Why l i m i t i t ? " (4-26) i s es s e n t i a l l y an illumination or a broad i n t u i t i o n . Up to the point of illumination the student was experiencing limitations i n thinking and solving the visual problem, then the student experienced a change i n his thinking and t h i s shed l i g h t on the problem. More remained to be solved but the i n t u i t i v e thought was the breakthrough which enabled him to move on to a solution. The same student recorded: 75. But why use the blocks f l a t i n a pyramid shape when I could t i l t one on i t s edge to support the other two? This i s a new juxtaposition which would require visu a l backup...however, i t must r e l a t e , so... (4-34) The student's broad i n t u i t i o n sheds l i g h t on the problem, but does not necessarily bring closure i n the sense of a solution. The i n t u i t i o n solves a major portion of the problem by providing an occluded v i s i o n of i t . Spontaneous I n t u i t i v e The spontaneous i n t u i t i v e mode i s the most direct kind of thinking. I t , l i k e the occluded mode, r e l i e s on an emotional, i n t u i t i v e response rather than the i n t e l l e c t u a l , but i t d i f f e r s because i t i s characterized by an element of spontaneity. During spontaneous, i n t u i t i v e thinking, a solution i s arrived at by a sudden fl a s h of i n t u i t i o n without the thinker knowing where i t came from. The sudden flash illuminates a small part of the problem that could lead to a f i n a l solution or just a portion of i t . In spontaneous, i n t u i t i v e thinking, there i s no incremental sequence leading up to the solution; rather there i s a problem which needs a solution, and the illumination of the solution i s arrived at in s t a n t l y and spontaneously. General characteristics of spontaneous i n t u i t i v e thinking are summarized i n Figure 11. 76. SPONTANEOUS INTUITIVE a b i l i t y to look at the problem globally a b i l i t y to synthesize information quickly and move d i r e c t l y to a solution a b i l i t y to arrive at a solution i n s t a n t l y and spontaneously without r e a l i z i n g where i t came from Figure 11. A summary of spontaneous i n t u i t i v e thinking One example, recorded by a participant, states that the process for t h i s project "pretty much came to me f u l l y formed, with only the d e t a i l s to figure out..." (4-33a). The phenomenon of instant form i s d i f f i c u l t for the p a r t i c i -77. pant to explain. I t happens instantaneously and with conviction. Others record si m i l a r cognitive experiences, leaving the participant surprised and unable to explain what happened except after the fact. I just had an idea that took off on i t s own and l e f t me to manipulate the materials. There was l i t t l e conscious thought involved-- i t just seemed to go with the flow. For that matter, so did the f i r s t project. (4-5) They use a variety of words and phrases to describe t h e i r spontaneous i n t u i t i v e experience. Bingo! 1*11 s t r i p the wire and use the bare copper to weave through the two ends. (5-10) When I saw the material, I knew right away the concept I had visu a l i z e d i n my mind would com-plement the material. (5-30) Given a t i n can as visu a l material... I thought, I ' l l make a view finder. No apparent thought came before t h i s decision. I t was out of the blue. (8-8) One participant understated (according to the instructor's perception) a spontaneous i n t u i t i v e moment: Asked the teacher for help. She said.."Maybe you should sta r t again"...I accidentally dropped the copper wire on the f l o o r . I saw a new cy l i n d e r - l i k e form of...wire c o i l . [Others responded around her too, at the same time]... A new idea for the project...How to hold the form together? I ' l l weave reeds into i t . (9-6) Another participant recorded t h i s spontaneous experience: On Thursday night, while completing another assignment dealing with related shapes, I suddenly saw an idea I had sketched, which I thought could be done with these blocks. (10-27) Other journal entries which describe spontaneous i n t u i t i o n are: ...these two o r i g i n a l shapes came to me immediately when I was asked to change my block as the problem stated.. (11-13) 78. ...I knew right away that the ...carton would be my main material. (.14-1) ...I recognized immediately, even i n t h i s rushed situ a t i o n that... (5-26) ...No apparent thoughts came before this decision. It was out of the blue. (8-8) ...At supper i t came to me - just l i k e that. (9-9) ...immediately the propspect of...appeared almost naturally. (10-1) ...then i t began to take shape. I could see the f e t i s h i n front of me. (1-22) In each case, the i n t u i t i o n was arrived at unexpectedly. Although the student was aware that a solution had to be found, i t was not necessarily that aspect alone that the participant focused on. Often, while involved i n another a c t i v i t y , washing dishes (13-18), walking, manipulating art materials (10-27), trying- to solve another visu a l problem, the f l a s h or i n t u i t i o n arrived "suddenly," "out of the blue," or with "no apparent thought." The Instructor/Researcher's Perception of the Ways  in which I n t u i t i v e Thinking was Manifested by the  Participants i n t h e i r Visual Work. Introduction It i s important to note that the participants i n the university summer course were generalist teachers who had no art t r a i n i n g . Some indicated an ease with creative ventures, but most expressed anxiety about doing anything v i s u a l . They said they were not a r t i s t i c , but would l i k e to develop t h e i r a b i l i t y to think and teach creatively so that they might f a c i l i t a t e t h i s kind of thinking i n t h e i r students. 79. The participants were, for the most part, w i l l i n g to learn and explore the techniques and visua l problems presented to them. Because they lacked experience i n visua l problem solving and exhibited a high anxiety level at the beginning of the summer school course, due to fatigue, personal or employment problems, a negative reaction to a spring session course, etc., i t was necessary to provide opportunities for relaxation and encouragement at the beginning of each day's session. This was p a r t i c u l a r l y true during the f i r s t three days when external influences were s t i l l very high. As a r e s u l t , the instructor/researcher used the f i r s t two days to talk about the participants' personal space--both psychologi-cal and preferred work space--as well as encouraging the group to discuss and share the thinking process they used while preparing a toy that they had created at home before attending the university course. The participants used graphic ideation to describe the thinking process that they used to make t h e i r toy. This served three purposes: 1) the participants became better acquainted with each other; 2) they verbalized, for the f i r s t time, how they had intu i t e d t h e i r v i s u a l solution; and 3) i t allowed the instructor/researcher to l i s t e n to, and get i n touch with the level of thinking and ideation used by each participant at that time. After sharing and discussing the small thinking tasks that had been given before the course started, the instructor introduced 80. some of the vocabulary and techniques that would aid understanding and communication during the month. Also the instructor described the kind of study and work format that would exist for the next four weeks. Knowing what was expected seemed to lessen the participants' level of anxiety somewhat. It should be noted that the instructor used music, breathing exercises, relaxation d r i l l s , v i s u a l i z a t i o n , mind-freeing games, humour, t a c t i l e objects, s l i d e s , discussion, writing and n o - f a i l v i s u a l problems to relax and to introduce the participants gradually to the positive learning environment for the month. In addition, a l l class members, during the f i r s t week, participated i n a f i e l d t r i p to Port Morien, a f i s h i n g port of beauty and visual interest. There, they engaged i n a visual search, renamed common objects, completed sentences metaphorically, i n t u i t e d new juxtapositions, extended imagery imagina-t i v e l y and f a n c i f u l l y . Again, the experience introduced concepts that would benefit the participants' divergent and i n t u i t i v e thinking for th e i r major projects. For the remainder of the month, the participants were involved i n a sequence of preliminary visual exercises that introduced and had a relationship to the f i v e projects they were to solve v i s u a l l y . These exercises were for the purpose of examining new idea juxta-positions; exploring a variety of material; developing divergent thinking; and developing an awareness of i n t u i t i v e thought. Most participants approached t h e i r v i s u a l problems with readiness but some were inhibited by past experiences, th e i r perceived 81. lack of s k i l l or t h e i r minimal awareness of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s provided by the exercise. S t i l l others were influenced by t h e i r own attitude or temperament, peer group or family pressure, t h e i r thinking patterns, t h e i r preferred work space, and the instructor's inferences. Preliminary Exercises Each day the participants were involved i n a series of exercises which preceded and related to the f i v e major v i s u a l projects. Before being introduced to the major project, the participants explored materials, techniques, ideas, and new juxtapositions that related to that project. They found out what the limitations and p o s s i b i l i t i e s for each material were, and tested out th e i r new ideas. They were, therefore, less anxious when faced with the major project. The participants were able to use this information to i n t u i t t h e i r choice of material and the technique that they would use to solve t h e i r v i s u a l problem. One participant recorded that she was beginning to understand why i t was so important to become very f a m i l i a r with the materials before attempting to work with them i n a formal way. The blocks of wood are a good example...I examined them [their characteristics] c l o s e l y . . . r e a l l y concentrating on them...suddenly...1 had reached the [intuited] entry point for my new project. (10-16) Another expressed the importance of being able to experiment and t r y new forms, l i n e s , shapes, colours, and ideas i n a "no f a i l " s i t u a t i o n . Others articulated t h e i r need to be "freer i n t h e i r think-ing," to " r i s k , " "not come to closure too quickly," and to "test out new ideas." One participant expressed a desire to "forget things she had done before" and be completely o r i g i n a l . S t i l l another wrote 82. that she had always, been p o s i t i v e l y reinforced for having her work finished f i r s t i n early schooling, so the exercises helped her to show, and explore, and v i s u a l i z e more ideas. She also claimed not to be a "doodler" so she appreciated, but f e l t anxious about the graphic idea-t i o n exercises she was encouraged to do i n preparation for the other projects. She wrote: ...and I was anxious to f i n i s h and didn't allow my mind to wander and see other possi-b i l i t i e s . . . ! plunged ahead. (8-15) and also: I was very concerned about trying to show an image on the paper. I don't draw and I'm not a doodler so to present a diagram was a big undertaking...however, I survived and...shared with the group. (8-15) When engaged i n idea exploration and changing juxtapositions of form, the participants used r e l a b e l l i n g , metamorphosis, idea exten-sions and such l i t e r a r y techniques as simile and metaphor. For example, during the f i e l d t r i p to Port Morien, they recorded the following phrases, which were the result of i n t u i t i n g new associations and relationships. Some recorded examples are: the boats stood waiting for t h e i r masters to take them to sea the boats are l i k e young teenagers who resent being t i e d down the water was l i k e a desert at midday yet, beneath the a r i d surface, so f u l l of l i f e the rocks, laying scattered as though tossed by a careless demi-god, thrust t h e i r strong arms out of 83. the placid waters. Some other written forms that were int u i t e d as a resul t of exploring new juxtapositions, were: lobster trap: catchums; boat: business-partner; boats: water-riders; buoy: baby-sitter; anchors: water-brakes; houses [on the embankment]: guards; f i s h crates: ocean sepulchre; odor: living/dying; rocks: earth f r u i t ; seaweed : waterhair; rocks: beach seats; truck t i r e s : rubber donuts. Many of the a c t i v i t i e s , although purposeful, were p l a y - l i k e and, for that reason, humourous. Others posed a small problem to be solved. For example, the participants were asked to create a visua l ice-cream sundae, using a variety of materials within a time l i m i t and given construct. Coloured paper was used instead of ice-cream. The products exhibited a high level of c r e a t i v i t y and visua l problem-solving a b i l i t y . This was done i n pairs and with the exception of one p a i r , there was laughter and positive feedback. One pair of participants recorded these suggestions for the sundae toppings: the flavours we selected were spaghetti and meat sauce, and v a n i l l a crackers interlaced with v a n i l l a i c i n g . (4-45) This thinking process gave many opportunities for c r e a t i v i t y and i n t u i t i v e behaviour to be manifested. The participants, through being involved with v i s u a l problem solving situations, became aware of the int u i t e d entry point through which they could attack the task at hand. They also i n t u i t e d the 84. s u i t a b i l i t y of a material, the technique to be used, and the need to change t h e i r thinking, as well as the appropriate moment of closure. At the beginning of the course, because participants lacked awareness, many entry points were ignored. However, when the participants became interested i n what triggered th e i r illuminations, or i n t u i t i o n s , they became aware of the i n i t i a l i n t u i t i o n - the entry into the problem. Participant #10 recorded this i n the relevant journal notation: I have experienced many times during the course what Bruner describes as the int u i t e d entry point; that f i r s t ray of l i g h t towards an idea for a project. Actually we experience t h i s many times throughout the day when solving house-hold problems, without knowing i t . (10-19a) Visual Project #1. A Pouch Form Containing Five Natural Objects Most of the participants chose the substance and technique they would use for t h e i r pouch, after experimenting with a variety of collected materials. They then used the material and the technique to actualize a form that they had visualized or graphically explored. In some cases the visua l i z e d form was not compatible with the chosen material or technique and therefore a change of dir e c t i o n was necessary. Most participants had to a l t e r t h e i r o r i g i n a l idea either by changing the material or accepting a form that had not been o r i g i n a l l y planned. Participant #14 recorded t h i s : My f i r s t thoughts were about the materials I would use and how I would put them together. Almost immediately I decided I would use p l a s t i c and covered wire braided together i n s t r i p s , then manipulated into a pouch form. (14-8) 85. Like many others, she "scratched the idea" after trying i t because i t did not work out. She then explored other p o s s i b i l i t i e s : More thinking! New idea! I got copper wire, made a s p i r a l for the bottom of the pouch, then continued to form the wire around the cylinder u n t i l I had the desired height... This became complicated. I took i t apart several times, pondered over i t and t r i e d i t again. I f i n a l l y figured out that because the strands of copper wire were going around i n a s p i r a l , the problem regard-ing the weaving could not be overcome...so I proceeded [in spite of this] to complete my pouch. (14-8) At each stage of visual problem solving, participant #14 had to i n t u i t what was wrong, decide what to do, and correct the si t u a t i o n . Sometimes the illumination only came after a struggle. Many p a r t i -cipants recorded a challenging time as they attempted to make the material, the technique and the form compatible. Participant #5 recorded these changes of idea while choosing the most suitable material and method. Each choice was intuited and elimination advanced some part of the decision-making process: I am unhappy with the rope (too bright) and the twine (too stringy). I decide to change the design of the rope ( i t i s twisted: 3 strands)... weave the braids...too thick...use grass to weave into the braids...too t h i n . . . (5-9) Participant #5 makes several aesthetic decisions by v i s u a l i z i n g i n her mind how certain materials or forms w i l l look. She discards and moves on from one to another u n t i l she i s s a t i s f i e d with the visual decision. One participant recorded how she and others wrestled with t h e i r visual thinking i n order to arrive at a satisfactory pouch form: 86. Today each person described i n d e t a i l how and why they chose t h e i r materials and the d i f f i c u l t i e s they encountered while working with these materials ... I had been so confident of my materials i n the beginning and when I f i n a l l y came to the point where I could mold them together, I had great d i f f i c u l t y reaching closure. As a matter of fa c t , i t was the wee small hours of the morning when i t a l l came together. (10-4a) She, l i k e others, experienced i n t u i t i o n during the thinking process especially when faced with a problem which had to be overcome. She recorded one of these moments of illumination: As I held the jute braid and manipulated i t i n various ways, I f e l t that i f I made a d i s c , .with each braid, and sewed them together with a fi n e r grade of jute, something different might happen. It did! The more I pulled the discs together, the more interesting the form. (10-5) Manipulation seemed to have been the key to the discovery of the disc shape. Without t h i s form of material brainstorming, the participant might not have i n t u i t e d the new form—a conglomerate of small discs pulled together into a pouch. Some participants record small i n t u i t i o n s that enabled them to move ahead incrementally i n t h e i r problem-solving. One participant recorded "a bright idea" that enabled her to make the shape i n what-ever way she wished. By lengthening the wires and securing them with two guide wires, her cradle-shaped pouch was "more s t r u c t u r a l l y s o l i d and easier to work with." She also i n t u i t e d the need to use masking tape as a "rough bracing to keep the wires apart." Another re a l i z e d the need to keep the braids separated, so she used clothespins. Participants had to i n t u i t t h e i r points of closure, that i s , how to f i n i s h the f i n a l form. They faced the problem of f i n i s h i n g o f f 87. the ends of braids etc., reinforcing the form so i t remained stable, completing the top or opening to the pouch, so. that the natural objects could be housed safely, and providing a l i n i n g or inner surface, i f necessary. Participant #3 wrote: Because I f e l t that i t didn't look finished, I looped a piece of reed inside the top and bottom of the pouch. Then, after many thoughts and ideas, I decided that a clear plastic...would be good for inside the pouch. Visual Project if2. - A Natural, Aesthetic Environment. This project was accomplished i n three phases: 1) by preparing an individual environment, 2) by combining individual gardens into one visual environment, 3) by adding line-contoured sand plane around the environment. The participants manipulated a number of natural materials that were collected from the woods, the seashore, the lake front, and the r i v e r s i d e . Some of these were: rock, moss, d r i f t wood, s h e l l s , sand, shale, grass. No colour was to be introduced so they focused on texture, shape, tonal value, and visual relationships. The only man-made element allowed i n the project was a r e f l e c t i v e material. Everyone i n the class used mirrors. They made a variety of v i s u a l decisions about thei r placement while constructing t h e i r own environ-ment, but these had to be changed i n many cases when the individual gardens were combined as one interacting environment. 88. During the process of joining the gardens together, the participants moved t h e i r environments around u n t i l they found an edge that related v i s u a l l y to t h e i r own. There was much discussion and decision making during this phase. Members of the class intuited decisions that affected others and they therefore had to defend t h e i r v a l i d i t y to t h e i r classmates. Participants also had to i n t u i t the point at which the new visual arrangement reached visual s a t i s f a c t i o n . Through formal and informal discussions, the class developed a c r i t e r i o n with which to assess this f i n a l form. One participant recorded her i n t u i t e d response to her i n i t i a l decisions: ...less i s more. I realized that I had been trying to f i l l up this surface—use a l l the materials, which was giving a cluttered effect ... (12-9) She then gathered more information that would help her to i n t u i t her next visual decision: I went to the books on Japanese gardens and looked at the pictures. . Gardens had always meant flowers to me. This was a new concept. (12-9a) Likewise, participant #9, after brainstorming ideas and looking for new ideas, recorded that: . . . i t was l i k e a weight l i f t e d and my problem solved. I knew where I was going and what I wanted. Like the garden, I became calm within myself... (9-13) 89. This i n t u i t i v e experience brought an occluded solution so that further thinking could take place. Again-#12 noted that drawing out the gardens helped her to delay closure and actually get to know the materials better. The "end result wasn't that important to me but working through the ideas was very s a t i s f y i n g . " The next part of her i n t u i t i v e thinking was recorded i n th i s way: I decided to keep the driftwood and not switch to a rock. I f e l t that the wood might be a b i t more challenging because of the slant, but I didn't need to take the easy way out...I could see which of the objects I wanted to keep i n and where I wanted them to be... (12-9) Participant #12 recorded her s a t i s f a c t i o n with her f i n a l visual decision: I was pleased with the outcome i n d i v i d u a l l y , but even more so when i t was related to others on the display table. I f e l t proud to be part of such a project. (12-9c) Some participants recorded that they had to remind themselves to slow down t h e i r thinking process i n order to explore other ideas. One writes i n her journal: "Go slowly, go slowly - I want to race ahead - draw each attempt." Another writes how she had to "begin again and change everything but the small green plants." One p a r t i -cipant i n t u i t e d her treatment of the driftwood:.. " I t s beautiful lines should not be covered up and I must find some way to anchor i t since my rocks and moss keep f a l l i n g o f f . " Participant #1 gives evidence of i n t u i t i v e thinking following a need for changing the sp a t i a l relationship of the elements i n the 90. garden. She records t h i s : When I changed the rocks'. .'.I l i k e d the three rocks closer together rather than scattered over the garden... (11-7) This i n t u i t e d s p a t i a l response was based on an emerging sense of s p a t i a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s which could have come from class discussion, the manipulation of actual material during formal presentations, and from looking at, and talk i n g about the philosophy behind the Japanese garden. One participant indicated that i n order to select her two visual elements, she had to do a great deal of thinking about rock relationships and object relationships before she could come to closure. She records: Too many elements make i t seem cluttered, so I f i n a l l y decided rocks and moss plus some sand would be the only materials I'd use...After this we (the group) drew lines on the paper garden and we began to r e a l i z e that we should follow the contour of the shape so that the l i n e would reinforce the shape. We could then see what was needed around the gardens so we drew contour lines around each garden shape, i n the sand... I was r e a l l y pleased and surprised. (3-5b,5c) Each illumination moved the thinking along u n t i l some portion of the solution was formed or u n t i l aesthetic s a t i s f a c t i o n was achieved. Visual Proj ect #3. Wood Sculpture Introduction Before s t a r t i n g on the wood project, the participants ex-plored vis u a l relatedness, using paper and clay. The clay blocks 91. were used to simulate the visua l problem to be solved with wood. The class also " l i v e d with the blocks", for most of the week to develop an awareness of t h e i r physical ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s . From th i s exercise, the participants knew where the structural problems and p o s s i b i l i t i e s were before a l t e r i n g them. The class expressed t h e i r ideas graphically through visu a l brainstorming sessions. They then began to a l t e r the form. Many of the participants feared using the tools that were necessary to com-plete the project. One session was used to introduce the too l s , to explain how they could aid the project, and to develop the s k i l l l e v e l needed to accomplish t h i s task. This lowered the students' anxiety level considerably. The Project After deciding on a plan for the wood sculpture, the students chose tools that would enable them to accomplish the form. Each decision was i n t u i t e d , either through an elimination process after v i s u a l i z a t i o n or while manoeuvering the actual blocks. In some cases, another form, the clay shapes, or an associated idea triggered the idea. Participant #10 writes: ...while completing another assignment dealing with related shapes, I suddenly saw one idea that I had sketched, which I thought could be . done with the blocks. I worked with the clay blocks f i r s t and the shapes very e a s i l y formed ...I found i t d i f f i c u l t to v i s u a l i z e at th i s point how I would cut the blocks but i t was an entry point into the idea...I was very clumsy with the saw. The ch i s e l and hammer were more comfortable for me to use...The other two blocks were cut with the band saw...this was not a 92. problem...The real problem occurred when I t r i e d to ch i s e l out the centre of the t h i r d block to f i t over the rounded form of the other. (10-26/28) The technical s k i l l s needed to execute the design were con-siderable. When certain tools were not compatible to the participant or t h e i r s k i l l l evel did not match the task, another tool had to be chosen. In t u i t i v e thinking took place both i n the v i s u a l i z a t i o n process and i n the a b i l i t y to see the relationship between the tools and the proposed form. One student records two flashes of illumina-t i o n that extended her i n i t i a l ideas. She records that while I was discarding the wood scraps, I thought one of the pieces could be arranged at different angles on the form to make the shape more aest h e t i c a l l y pleasing... (10-28a) Also, she writes: ...as I looked at i t , I could v i s u a l i z e where s l i g h t bands of colour would pick up the contour lines i n the wood. I l i k e d what happened and f e l t s a t i s f i e d with just t h i s amount of embellish-ment. (10-28b) In the l a s t case, she i n t u i t i v e l y considered the possible ways she could embellish the blocks; then she decided to repeat the curve of the wood grain with coloured str i p e s . In the f i r s t example, she sees a new p o s s i b i l i t y for something she had considered a scrap. Her i n t u i t i v e thinking contributed two important elements to the wood sculpture—embellishment and a more v e r s a t i l e , related form. Many students used r e f l e c t i o n to consider the i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s , While r e f l e c t i n g , they would think about the ways they could cut out, 93. trim down, t r y new juxtapositions with the form, or add embellishments. This thinking often led to an i n t u i t i o n that moved the solution closer. One participant records this r e f l e c t i v e process i n her thinking: I was s t i l l thinking and looking -looking and thinking. I f e l t I could add to the aesthetic i n t r i c a c y of my design by changing my measurements and adding a b i t of design. Why? Because i f i t could be cut - why would i t have to have sharp edges? Why not smooth, yet related to each other? (5-25) The same student, when at an impasse because the tool would not cut the shape she had designed, was able to i n t u i t that the plan could not be accomplished and that i t would have to be changed again. She re-designed her wooden sculpture several times before the form, technique and tool l i m i t a t i o n s became compatible. Visual Proj ect #4 - The Fetish (anything to which one i s i r r a t i o n -a l l y devoted). A major task for participants i n th i s project was to define the word f e t i s h for themselves. Without an understanding of the f e t i s h concept, they were not able to decide on a theme or the appropriate materials to execute i t . The f e t i s h , because i t was to be a personal statement, had to be dealt with on an individual basis through introspection and self - a n a l y s i s . Many participants, s u r p r i s i n g l y , chose t h e i r family as the thing to which they were i r r a t i o n a l l y devoted. Others selected nature, children and r e l i g i o n , or a combination of both, as th e i r theme. After much discussion, brainstorming, instructor explanation, the participants began to narrow down th e i r ideas. 94. Having decided on a f e t i s h , the students then had to i n t u i t what material would actualize t h e i r ideas. One participant wrote i n her journal: The f i r s t thing I thought about was how the family loved the outdoors...I went to the beach, then to the woods. When I saw the collected material, I knew the f e t i s h would have quite a l o t of nature pertaining to it...eventually I was able to arrange the symbols of each family member on a separate dowel1 and used the natural material related to that person. (11-10) One participant indicated that he was i r r a t i o n a l l y devoted to a material^—metal and p l a s t i c rings! So when he heard the problem, he decided immediately that whatever he made should be made with metal rings. In other words, the illumination directed the participant to a certain basic v i s u a l form that was within the l i m i t a t i o n and possi-b i l i t y of the material he enjoyed using. After working on several ideas, he int u i t e d the need to combine two of them for aesthetic value. He then embellished the f i n a l form with coloured wool and feathers. The participant, after i n t u i t i n g his entry point, moved cognitively through a short brainstorming session, then leapt to another part of the solution which i n turn generated more decisions that had to be thought out incrementally and i n t u i t i v e l y . He recorded evidence of t h i s thinking i n his journal: Sketch time for ideas! Rings y i e l d two pr a c t i c a l construction techniques - chains (or belts) and "plates". Being " f l a t " , d i s k - l i k e objects, they do not lend themselves to three-dimensional objects without external influences, but they can be used none the less (4-30/30a) 95. During a small cognitive sequence, he i l l u s t r a t e d some int u i t e d decision-making: ...two rows of square-shaped sections -yuck! Four i s too much. Try some other ideas...maybe three "chains". One looks good, two triangle shaped--^fairly good, and three together are fussy...idea...put on a "one-row" chain at the top, then i t can be a belt or belt ornament, a neck band, etc... I can hang something from it...aha...why not have two short pieces or make a loop with the long one...this adds to the options...and to add to the visual e f f e c t — a repeated pattern of rings and feathers that i s thrust out at right angles to the main piece...to both contrast and r e i n -force... add two more... that's overdoing i t . . . why feathers? They are independently supported by central spine yet billowy, a nice textural contrast to the metal rings. (4-30/30a) Participant #4, l i k e others, proceeded incrementally but experienced small occluded illuminations that had to be tested out v i s u a l l y , p r a c t i c a l l y , and aesthetically before progressing. The decisions were based on an awareness of form, material, embellishment, contrast and texture. At least two of the participants made decisions i n t u i t i v e l y by associating the material symbolically with the person to be ex-pressed i n th e i r f e t i s h . One wrote t h i s record of her thinking process: My husband l i k e s wood i n i t s natural state so I ' l l use no varnish or paint. Wire denotes strength - t r y winding i t around the dowel... don't hide too much of the wood. Now the leather...tied knots...not pleasing to me. Now what?...Yes, loop i t ! Five loops for the family members...how add a n a i l to hold things i n place...like his caring for the family. (12-30a) 96. During t h i s project there i s l i t t l e evidence that the participants experienced a spontaneous i n t u i t i o n which presented the solution i n toto. Their records show that most thinking took-place incrementally, with a few occluded i n t u i t i o n s during the v i s u a l decision-making process, which led them on to further thinking and f i n a l l y a conclusion. Visual Project #5. Fabric Sculpture- An Unusual Canadian Commodity  for Export Several participants chose to do a f a b r i c sculpture rather than a f e t i s h . They found the f e t i s h concept d i f f i c u l t to grasp and some others related more to stitchery, colour, f a b r i c , and sewing. The participants undertook a search for ideas and materials i n a s i m i l a r way to that expressed i n the last project. There was a general exploration of ideas and available materials that eventually alluded to a d i r e c t i o n or an entry point for the project. Participants #10 and #8 indicated that t h e i r choice of project was based on the fact that the f e t i s h idea had no meaning for them and that they enjoyed working with f a m i l i a r materials and tools such as f a b r i c , scissors, needles. One, however, considered making a f e t i s h out of many different fabrics so that she could combine the : two projects. Canadian commodities such as beaver teeth, Bras d'Or lake waves, f i r e and clouds were among the themes selected for f a b r i c a r t i -culation. Brainstorming and r e f l e c t i o n about the things Canadians take for granted i n t h e i r environment were part of the decision-making process. 97. process. One participant used a variety of "what i f " and "why not" statements to encourage her thinking process. She records these statements of f l e x i b l e thinking: What i f I made a sample package of waves... small, medium, large, muddy, i c y , gentle, angry, frozen? Why not export unpolluted Bras d'Or lake waves to polluted areas of the world?... Once I got started, the ideas just came popping into my head...however, I don't have enough time to complete a l l these ideas so I ' l l select a few... (10-29,31,32) The brainstorming technique and attention to v i s u a l i z i n g and fantasy enabled the participant to survey a much larger v i s t a . She opened up so many p o s s i b i l i t i e s that she was unable to actualize them and had to i n t u i t i v e l y select those that would complement each other v i s u a l l y . These she executed i n both f a b r i c sculpture and crochet and they were enclosed inside a large wave-shaped folder. In other words, not only did she i n t u i t the idea for the wave project, but she had to think about i t s form, content and material execution. Small i n t u i t i v e leaps led to further thinking before illumination came again. One participant records a sequence of thinking that was influenced by a number of external c r i t e r i a . Also, her i n t u i t i o n s were often abandoned due to time lim i t a t i o n s or lack of suitable material. These changes i n the thinking process caused her to explore other ideas. F i r s t l y , she thought about exporting Canadian "trees, leaves, bugs, bees, ...feet...good idea! What about toes? Transport 98. toes inside a big foot..." However, she. could, not f i n d suitable material so she eliminated these p o s s i b i l i t i e s . She then thought of a "cloud as a c a r r i e r . . . i n s i d e t h i s cloud I could transport r a i n , h a i l , a rainbow..." Then her mother said something about "clouds with s i l v e r l i n i n g s " . . . She responded to this idea p o s i t i v e l y and set about planning for a cloud with a s i l v e r l i n i n g inside a cloud with a s i l v e r l i n i n g . . . a continuum of happiness. She could find no way to v i s u a l i z e closure so she changed her thinking again. She f i n a l l y arrived at transporting a variety of s i l v e r l i n i n g s inside a big cloud shape. While sewing her project, she imagined another idea and sequence of events, which she recorded i n her journal: This i s turning out to be more d i f f i c u l t than I thought. Not d i f f i c u l t - time consuming. Perhaps I could have done something that would take less time. How about no time! My mind actually began to think of something that I wouldn't have to work on. Imagine that! Aha! Imagine—imagination—an imaginary suitcase to carry everyone's imagination! I could v i s u a l i z e a l i t t l e drama featuring my carrying an imaginary suitcase, which could be described v i v i d l y but not seen. Logically, this could not be assessed properly...Oh w e l l , back to the cloud! (5-33) It should be noted that although the participant was working on and thinking about the actualization of the f a b r i c sculpture, she was able to overlay this a c t i v i t y with another cognitive sequence, much l i k e a day dream. She fantasized a drama that could take place for the presentation of her f a b r i c sculpture. This she actually did for the class before showing them her cloud sculpture. I t would seem that the awareness of her cognition had grown s u f f i c i e n t l y that she could state 99. with c l a r i t y what she actually thought. Ah Analysis of the Congruence, or Lack of Congruence, between the Students'- and Researcher's Perceptions of  I n t u i t i v e Thinking, as Evidenced i n the Journals. Participants recorded t h e i r thinking processes i n journal form, but also f i l l e d out a prepared form for each major project. In addition, the instructor/researcher recorded her perception of the participants' i n t u i t i v e thinking process while they solved t h e i r visual problems. Because some of the v i s u a l thinking took place at the participants' homes, that i s , outside of class time, t h i s record i s not always as complete as that of the participants. In other cases, however, i t i s more detailed because the instructor's l e v e l of awareness by the end of the session was more developed. The journal notations of the participants varied i n the amount of d e t a i l presented, t h e i r l e v e l of focus or awareness of the thinking process, and t h e i r l e v e l of a r t i c u l a t i o n as well as the seem-ing motivation to scrutinize i n t u i t i v e thinking i n depth. For example, one participant's entry about her i n t u i t i o n shows a lack of awareness for what happened as well as an i n a b i l i t y to express that experience i n depth or i n d e t a i l . Her entry understates what was perceived by the instructor and other class members to be an i n t u i t i v e moment. Participant's journal entry: ...we discussed having a quiet corner i n which to relax and think and I was happy to be able to make a suggestion to use mats from the gymn to cover the t i l e f l o o r . (8-1) 100. Instructor's journal entry: ...for about twenty minutes the group brain-stormed ideas about a relaxation centre i n the room where participants could r e s t , dream, think, sleep, during the creative problem solving process. Covering the cold t i l e f l o o r posed the greatest problem. Scatter rugs, an old rug from some-one's home, heavy blankets, foam mats, were a l l suggested but were dismissed as being unavailable or too expensive to purchase. Most classmembers made suggestions during the discussion. Sharon, (#8), however, had participated very l i t t l e u n t i l she suddenly i n t u i t e d a solution which she pre-sented i n a very animated way. Her face l i t up and she said: "Let's use the gymn mats that are available right here at the university! They are clean, warm, mobile, and can be procured and returned e a s i l y . " Participant #8 had taken i n the information during the d i s -cussion and synthesized i t . The result was an i n t u i t i v e l e a p — a solu-tion to the problem at hand. She records the incident as a helpful suggestion, without r e a l i z i n g that i n t u i t i v e thinking had taken place. Only after v i s u a l l y graphing the thinking sequence could she recognize an i n t u i t i v e leap after a brainstorming session. S i m i l a r l y , participant #9 recorded an i n t u i t i o n i n an understated notation. She recorded i t i n two places, one much skimpier i n content than the other. This i s the most detailed and articulated of the two: Participant's journal entry: While examining the wire, I dropped the c o i l on the floor...a new shape began to form. It looked l i k e a slinky....my new form or shape was much more interesting and s o l i d . At least now I knew what to do. I began to r e a l i z e what the assignment was...my pouch does look very natural and my two 101 materials (wire and natural reeds) make: a nice pattern. Instructor's contrasting journal entry: Pat's wire pouch form i s causing her d i f f i c u l t y . She seems pleased to be experimenting with new material (wire) but has not been able to deal with the l i m i t a t i o n of the basic form she has started. She asked me what she might t r y to solve the problem. After some discussion, she realized ( i n t u i t i o n ) that the wire r i b s are too far apart so most weaving materials would have d i f f i c u l t y covering the large spaces. I suggested that she could add more wire ribs or revamp the form i n a new way. She doesn't seem too happy about the prospect of change. However, she plays with the shiny c o i l of wire she's holding i n her hand, stretching i t one way and another. Then she accidentally dropped i t on the f l o o r . A l l at once, she and the other participants see a new p o s s i b i l i t y ( i n t u i t i o n ) - a long tubular c o i l with a d i s t i n c t new shape. Several respond: "That's i t ! The c o i l can be the form for the pouch." Several participants bring tape to secure the form at each end, then they t r y to weave i n different materials: (intuited choice of material) e.g. p l a s t i c straws, wire, green reeds. There i s great excitement about the thinking that has taken place. One participant was aware of the subtleties i n his thinking process and constantly recorded these i n careful d e t a i l . His a b i l i t y to generate ideas and scrutinize the thinking that accompanied t h e i r execution was highly developed. He was aware of many of the subtle-t i e s within his thinking process, including i n t u i t i o n s of varying magnitude. In one unit he tested f i f t e e n ideas that he had explored for his post-toy. He recorded other instances of brainstorming before i n t u i t i n g the f i n a l form. In other case, he i n t u i t e d a f i n a l form and then moved incrementally toward i t . In a l l cases, the participant's 102. journal records thinking sequences i n much more d e t a i l than those of the instructor/researcher. This was due to the amount of time and enormity of the task of documenting the participant's p r o l i f i c and complex thinking process as well as others i n the class. For example, the participant records t h i s sequence of thinking: Today i s a think-tank type day. I ' l l use steel wool and r e - o i l the blocks; then star t doodling, thinking, etc. for my f e t i s h form. Several ideas came immediately for the f e t i s h - a l i n e a r , b e I t - l i k e or strap-like form of metal rings, connected somehow [visual of a long row of rings] or an assembly of rings set up i n a shape [visual of a cluster of 13 rings] would be interesting to look at. Not useful, but that was not a requirment. Doodle time again! Could make the linear form with two colour yarns (or more), and t a s s l e - l i k e objects. [Visual] but that has been done before (shades of Indian head-dress, neckbands and belts!) Explore with rings. The rings f i t best as a hexagram. Why not exploit this? [Visual of three rings forming a triangular shape] It i s more natural and stronger than [visual of four rings forming a square]. Math says - three points are always co-planar; i t may or may not be true. It w i l l be rough enough to do anyway. What about a big triangle? Simply interlinked with l i t t l e ones. Experiment with triangle form. There are only 19 rings here so... How to fasten? Must interweave green!...Why not integrate the belt band (strap/do-flicky with the triangle?) [Visual of triangle and band joined] The idea had separate strength. "What i f " we combined them? Would they have any such strength together? Experiment-Hnake several "ring rows" and put them side by side to experi-ment. . .to explore options...belt-like (head band, neck band, etc.) can be done by looping [triangle 103. visual] d i f f e r e n t l y , but the total, length must be great enough. Measure out a s t r i p of twelve, and calculate about. I5 inches per ring. Twenty-seven rings needed (one at top, 26 added)... looks good...take a couple of seconds to analyse...kind of p l a i n though ...Had an interesting idea while getting ready to leave for class...my o r i g i n a l sketch had tassels of yarn (or whatever) held l i k e so [visual of a wool tassle dangling from a piece of wool]. These are attached to the bel t . Idea! Why yarn? Why not my multi-coloured feathers? F i r s t thing to do - check i t out. What does i t look l i k e ? When i t proves eminently satisfactory, fasten i t on. (4-41) The participant used a variety of thinking during his vis u a l decision-making process. In addition to his incremental and r e f l e c t i v e i n t u i t i v e thinking, t h i s participant used deliberate or analytic thinking to support his i n t u i t i v e behaviour. For example, "the t o t a l length must be great enough. Measure out a s t r i p of twelve and calculate...take a couple of seconds to analyse." Once having established that the length was correct, he then focused on the need for embellishment, that i s , some additional adorn-ment for his f e t i s h . He then i n t u i t e d the material and form that he would use conclusively. Concerning the same thought sequence, the instructor/ researcher recorded that participant #4 was "obviously going through a number of cognitive gyrations since he was moving things about, trying different forms - elongations, t r i a n g l e s , squares, c i r c l e s . He seemed highly agitated. A l l at once, he sat down and began to attach the small rings together. It seemed as though his brainstorming 104. session had given b i r t h to [intuited] a solution because a form emerged." When the participants described t h e i r intuited changes, they used phrases such as "I knew right away;" "the answer i s quite clear;" "I get the feeling i t needs something else;" "another idea came to me immediately;" "I saw the material and knew...it would;" " f i n a l l y i t came to me;" "ho apparent thoughts came before." The instructor/ researcher used sim i l a r phrases that were clothed i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r -ent language. However, both the participants and the instructor/ researcher i d e n t i f i e d and recorded si m i l a r examples of i n t u i t i v e thought. For example, when describing s i m i l a r i n t u i t i v e thoughts, the instructor/researcher recorded phrases such as "the participant realized i n t u i t i v e l y that the material was not compatible f o r . . . , " or that "#— seemed to change direc t i o n suddenly, and abandoned the o r i g i n a l idea, revamping the form completely," or that "after much drawing, t a l k i n g , playing around with the material, the participant f i n a l l y seemed to see [ i n t u i t ] the d i r e c t i o n that was needed." Another time she recorded: "Today #3 seemed to go ahead i n f i t s and s t a r t s . She would work away arranging the natural forms for several minutes, then clear the t o t a l surface and begin again. She did t h i s several times. She had to i n t u i t the need to change and f i n d an alternate way to place the forms i n a new juxtaposition." In t h e i r journals, the participants also i d e n t i f i e d moments when they f e l t t h e i r v i s u a l form had come together aes t h e t i c a l l y . 105. They described these i n t u i t e d , aesthetic decisions i n this way: "This shape I l i k e ! " "...finished my blocks to my l i k i n g ; " "I added a l i t t l e more yellow, which did the job;" "I came up with a different arrangement that was pleasing to me;" "the change i n my idea did the t r i c k , i t worked!" " i t seemed an obvious solution;" "I am pleased with my e f f o r t s . . . I'am f i n a l l y f i n i s h e d . . . i t looks quite good;" " I f I cut i t off s l i g h t l y , i t may work...I did, and I am pleased with the f i n a l r e s u l t . " The instructor, on the other hand, recorded t h i s example of i n t u i t e d conclusiveness: The participant looked at the clay shape for a time then said to her neighbour: "I think [ i n t u i t ] that I'm finished. I rather l i k e i t . " She had assessed i t v i s u a l l y and decided that nothing had to be changed, so she decided to share her conclusion with someone else. According to her level of aesthetic decision-making, she had reached closure. Although the participant's and instructor's records were congruent i n that they i d e n t i f i e d a moment of conclusiveness, the language used by the participant did not always describe i t as an i n t u i t i v e thought. Methods of I n t u i t i v e Thought that Promoted  Further Thinking of Achieved Outcomes Satisfactory to the Participant and/or.the Instructor as E v i - denced by the Journal Records. In the journals, spontaneous i n t u i t i v e thinking, because i t was characterized by a cognitive leap that "comes from nowhere" and reached closure "without any doubt," did not encourage further 106. thinking. The participants who recorded t h i s kind of thinking, reached conclusiveness quickly and accepted the i n t u i t i v e form without question. In some cases, the f i n a l form was not as v i s u a l l y integrated as i t could have been i f the participant had "worried over i t " a l i t t l e more, or tossed i t back to the drawing board to be challenged further. In other cases, i n t u i t i o n was based on inadequate or incorrect i n f o r -mation or i t conformed to the ineffectiveness of the idea or the material. For example, one participant, when given a common t i n can, decided immediately that she would make i t into a milk pitcher. Her spontaneous response was not based on a s e n s i t i v i t y to the material or to any aesthetic decision. Her mind leapt from a simple t i n can to an ordinary milk jug with a spout. In other words, because her think-ing was convergent, no new ideas were generated. Another parti c i p a n t , when confronted with the same problem, recorded that she immediately "thought to make a viewer. No apparent thoughts came before this decision." Because the idea "came out of the blue," spontaneously, the participant did not question or think about i t further. She proceeded to execute the idea i n spite of the limited impact of her visua l decision. Participant #12 records t h i s cognitive sequence: As I spun i t , I got the feeling that i t needed something to spin i n i t - a small b a l l ! Aha! I added a red b a l l which worked f a i r l y w e l l . . . and had added appeal for a c h i l d . (12-37) 107. The participant's decision to accept her illumination without further inquiry was, i n this case, very successful. I t not only enhanced her form v i s u a l l y but added another moving part to the toy. Both function and form benefited from the spontaneous i n t u i t i o n . On the other hand, the participants who used incremental and r e f l e c t i v e i n t u i t i v e thinking continued t h e i r thinking beyond t h e i r small i n t u i t i o n s that they experienced. One student recorded: ...I saw where the wood should be painted. Wonderful! Next problem...What should I colour i t with...Paint? Marker? (9-17) She then continues her visua l decision-making: I ' l l t r y a marker. Another problem! My red marker runs. Oh no! What a disaster! I'm so disappointed. Should have thought and thought before I acted. I'm too impulsive. I am beginning to d i s l i k e t h i s wood project. I wish we were working i n groups...I'11 have to sand i t o f f . (9-17) Some of the decisions taken did not always work for participants so they then had to solve the problems they created. In this case, the i n i t i a l i n t u i t i o n was correct, but the participant had d i f f i c u l t y with i t s execution. Thinking did continue, however, after the i n t u i t i o n . Another student recorded the thinking sequence that followed her r e f l e c t i v e i n t u i t i v e thinking: Through brainstorming...we came up with many interesting ideas...it was the f i r s t time that I could see the advantage of brainstorming. I have decided, for the fabric project, to export Canadian beaver teeth, beaver t a i l s and 108 Table I RANK-ORDERED PRE-AND POST-TEST RESULTS TORRANCE CIRCLE TEST FOR CREATIVITY OF TEACHER PRE TEST RANK POST TEST RANK FINDLAY 1 1 MUNROE 2 12 NICHOLSON 2 4 GOUTHRO 4 2 FORBES 5 5 MACDONALD, S. 6 9 LEDREW 7 3 JONES 7 6 MACDONALD, A.L. 7 13 MACKINNON 10 10 MACLEOD 11 7 MACINNIS 12 !4 COLUMBUS 13 11 MCPHEE - 8 109. perhaps, beaver hair. ..I think I have too many-ideas.. .maybe I ' l l just make one of them...an insight...I could export beaver teeth inside a beaver t a i l , instead of beaver...that was never done before! (9-16,18) It should be noted i n t h i s sequence that the r e f l e c t i v e -i n t u i t i v e thinking was followed by occluded i n t u i t i v e thinking. The new illumination set the d i r e c t i o n for the actual project. Following t h i s i l l u m i n a t i o n , the participant moved incrementally through the selection of material for the t a i l and teeth, the shapes and s i z e , the choice of texture, and colour to be used. Checked out the texture of a beaver's t a i l ...looked at a picture i n a book...wooden teeth would be fun, different...unique... (9-18) Many recorded that the brainstorming as part of the r e f l e c t i v e - i n t u i t i v e method was advantageous to t h e i r thinking process. It provided multiple ideas from which others were generated, thus moving the thinking progressively onward. An Analysis of the Changes i n I n t u i t i v e Thinking and  C r e a t i v i t y as Evidenced by the Pre- and Post-Toy Projects  and the Results of the Torrance C r e a t i v i t y Tests. In order to record and measure that change did, i n f a c t , take place during the course on i n t u i t i v e thinking, the researcher used two evaluation tools: pre- and post-visual tasks as well as the pre- and post-Torrance C i r c l e Tests for C r e a t i v i t y (TCTC). Results of the TCTC, along with ranking of each student, are shown i n Table I. The Pre-Toy Task The pre-toy task was given three weeks before the teachers arrived i n the summer school class, so that they would have an opportu-110. n i t y to solve one visual problem before t h e i r thinking was influenced by new experience, theory, t h e i r peer group or instructor. The participants were given a suggested time l i m i t and were asked to use materials that were available to them at home. The same task was given again the la s t week of class, as a post-toy project. The same c r i t e r i a applied to the post-toy project that had applied to the pre-toy. Both toys were brought to class and shared with others. The p a r t i c i p a n t s 1 thinking and the pre-toy product were discussed early i n the f i r s t week of class, whereas the post-toy was presented to the class and the instructor as a culminating a c t i v i t y on the la s t morning of the'course. The instructor and the participants noted several observable changes between the pre- and post-toy products. For example, most of the toy ideas had changed categorically between pre- and post-toy tasks. In other words, they had made a post-toy that was not from the same idea category as the pre-toy. Analysis showed that a l l but two participants changed categories for t h e i r pre- and post-toys. For example, one of the two people who made wheeled trucks for t h e i r pre-toy, constructed an elaborate wooden bi r d that walked along flapping i t s feet, while the other carved a wooden creature that carried a wooden man with a hat. The creators of the two pre-toys that required only passive involvement, constructed post-toys that needed active p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Ten of the fourteen pre-toys could be categorized as being t r a d i t i o n a l ideas (e.g. truck, puppet, game) whereas only s i x of the post-toy ideas could be categorized i n th i s 111. way. These included a spring toy, elbow hockey, a unique creature and ri d e r . Most of the participants changed the sp a t i a l dimension of t h e i r pre- and post-toys. Only one made two-dimensional toys for both pre- and post-toy tasks. In one case, a participant used the same basic idea for both tasks, but extended the two-dimensional pre-task toy into a three-dimensional toy for her post-task. Also noted was the change i n the level of s k i l l and c r a f t s -manship. The s k i l l level for the post-toy was observably higher than that of the pre-toy for a l l but four of the visual products. For these, the participants' s k i l l l evel remained consistently high or, in one case, consistently low. The participants displayed i n t h e i r post-toys a high degree of s k i l l change. It i s also interesting to note that eleven of the fourteen participants chose wood as the material for t h e i r post-toy as compared to two who used wood for t h e i r pre-toy. Most participants indicated i n t h e i r journal that they now f e l t comfortable and interested i n work-ing with wood, whereas e a r l i e r i n the course, they considered i t an anxiety-causing medium. In other words, t h e i r experience i n working on the wood sculpture had developed a s k i l l l evel that enabled them to make a choice that they would not have made before taking the course. Results of the pre- and post-Torrance C i r c l e Tests for Cre a t i v i t y showed that a l l participants except two had s i g n i f i c a n t l y increased t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y during the summer school course. The scores, for the Torrance C i r c l e Tests for C r e a t i v i t y are based on four 112. separate c r i t e r i a : fluency, f l e x i b i l i t y , elaboration and o r i g i n a l i t y . Fluency means the number of ideas generated by the i n d i v i d u a l ; f l e x i -b i l i t y , the number of different idea categories used; elaboration, the amount of embellishment or d e t a i l that has been added; o r i g i n a l i t y , the uniqueness of the idea. Summary The characteristics of i n t u i t i v e thinking evidenced by the participants' thinking behaviour f i t t e d four basic cognitive cate-gories: cognitive r e f l e c t i v e or incremental; r e f l e c t i v e i n t u t i t i v e ; broad or occluded i n t u i t i v e ; and spontaneous i n t u i t i v e . These forms of i n t u i t i v e thinking and t h e i r combinations were used and described by the participants during t h e i r visual problem solving processes. Some kind of i n t u i t i v e thinking promoted more divergent thinking than others. The students' awareness of t h e i r thinking process appeared to increase during the month and they learned to use techniques to f a c i l i t a t e i n t u i t i v e or productive thinking. There appeared to be observable change i n the participants' thinking, i n t h e i r visual products and, therefore, i n t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y . 113. CHAPTER V SUMMARY: CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING ART EDUCATION Summary of the Study This study was undertaken to discover and describe characteristics of i n t u i t i v e thinking as manifested by fourteen p a r t i -cipants i n a summer school class i n visua l problem solving. . The participants were classroom teachers selected for t h e i r competence as pra c t i t i o n e r s . Participants kept journals i n which they recorded t h e i r thoughts as they undertook f i v e projects over the summer term. The course instructor, who was also the researcher, kept a journal i n which evidences'of i n t u i t i v e thinking by the teachers were noted. Further evidences of i n t u i t i v e thinking were supplied by the Torrance C i r c l e Test for C r e a t i v i t y (TCTC), administered as a pre- and post-test to a l l fourteen course participants. Results showed that i n t u i t i v e thinking could be manifested i n at least four ways. These were: r e f l e c t i v e cognitive or incre-mental; r e f l e c t i v e i n t u i t i v e ; broad i n t u i t i v e ; and spontaneous i n t u i t i v e . Journal items contributed by the participants, and instances from the instructor/research's notebook, were assigned to whichever one of these four categories was appropriate. Projects were photo-114. graphed and used as referents against which notes were checked. Differences i n pre- and post-scores on the Torrance C i r c l e Test for C r e a t i v i t y were also noted. Conclusions and General Implications Responses made by the teachers who participated i n th i s study, and the comments they recorded i n th e i r journals while the study was under way, contain p o t e n t i a l l y useful implications for the structure and character of exercises i n i n t u i t i v e thinking i n the art classroom. It i s apparent that: 1. People need time to think about and ponder a given problem. They have to explore and examine facets of the problem l e i s u r e l y , allowing i t to s i t i n the subconscious u n t i l i t i s consciously retrieved for solution. Therefore, educators need to schedule time for relaxed cogitation to allow for exploration, questioning and the examination of a l l aspects of the problem. They should p o s i t i v e l y reinforce exploration, guessing and questioning rather than : ^ arr i v i n g at an instant answer. 2. People need to use mind-freeing techniques, such as brainstorming, r e l a b e l l i n g , statement reversal, and to ask: What i f ? Why not? to encourage divergent and i n t u i t i v e thinking. Students should be trained to ideate randomly, v i s u a l i z e , brainstorm, think l a t e r a l l y , fantasize and create tension between ideas so that new juxtapositions can be formed. 3. People need to make a practice of relaxing t h e i r minds and bodies so that they can benefit from subliminal thinking and v i s u a l i z a -115. t i o n . It i s important for students to learn how to relax by using images, sounds and forms, meditatively; to use deep breathing exer-cises; to image sequentially i n order to centre and focus thinking. 4. People need to immerse themselves deeply i n a problem; search for information; expect new associations to form; direct attention to p a r t i c u l a r facets of the whole. Educators should teach students to use basic research s k i l l s so that v i t a l information can be c a r e f u l l y collected, selected and scrutinized; to develop a range of techniques and thinking s k i l l s that can be used as vehicles through which to solve the problem; to set aside time for thinking about the problem at hand. 5. People need to have t h e i r ideas responded to by others. Interaction encourages more thinking and decision making. The instructor should allow time for groups of students to share, discuss and brainstorm ideas. Students should be encouraged to challenge and extend one another's ideas. They should learn to c l a r i f y ideas by discussion, interaction and graphic ideation. 6. People need varying amounts of time to integrate the informa-t i o n they have taken i n . Problems should be presented for solution at a pace compatible with the students' c a p a b i l i t i e s and interest. Time should be a l l o t t e d for the integration of ideas and information related to the problem. Closure should be delayed u n t i l the preconscious has dealt with the idea as f u l l y as possible or u n t i l new relationships or associations are formed i n t u i t i v e l y . 7. People need to image while problem solving, thinking, creating. Students should practise imaging exercises under the instructor's 116. di r e c t i o n and then on th e i r own. They need to draw th e i r visualized imagery (graphically ideate); talk about what they have seen; use body movement to describe what has been imaged so that they can i n t u i t a solution. 8. People need to group random or p a r t i c u l a r ideas together so that new associations have the potential to form. The instructor should encourage students to place old ideas i n a variety of new juxta-positions; test out clusters of ideas together; move ideas around randomly to spark new ones so that problems can be solved creatively and i n t u i t i v e behaviour fostered. 9. People need to overcome blocks to th e i r thinking. The instructor should help the student to i d e n t i f y the block, talk about i t , image i t and graphically express i t . The student should practise working with the block i n a small problem, then use i t i n more complex situations u n t i l i t i s no longer i n h i b i t i n g . 10. People need to overcome t h e i r anxieties about t o o l s , techniques and materials before they can think creatively or i n t u i -t i v e l y . Students need therefore to examine, talk about and practise using a variety of tools under expert supervision. They should also talk about t h e i r fears, anxieties and negative associations with past experiences. Opportunity should be given for the student to practise with one tool u n t i l a comfort level has been reached before moving on to another. The instructor should give students a variety of problem-solving situations which challenge them to use different tools and techniques. 117. 11. People need to be p o s i t i v e l y reinforced so that they feel free to think divergently. Instructors should therefore make a concerted e f f o r t to foster a positive relaxed attitude i n the classroom enabling students to fe e l at ease, to ta l k about t h e i r problems, think-ing processes, ideas, and possible solutions. The instructor should phrase c r i t i c a l comments p o s i t i v e l y rather than judgementally, and encourage novel ideas, thinking and imagery. 12. The environment needs to be conducive to learning. Therefore students should be given the opportunity to work and create i n a preferred work space, with sound, colour, objects, and positive interacting class-mates that are compatible to them. 13. In order to think divergently, people need to delay closure for maximum idea exploration. Students therefore need to question and revamp existing ideas; consider more than one solution; brainstorm new ideas and solutions before moving to a conclusion. 14. Projects need to be compatible with people's interests and a b i l i t i e s . It i s important that students are allowed some degree of choice for themes and projects undertaken and the materials, media and techniques used. At the same time, they should be encouraged to approach and solve less f a m i l i a r problems so that they can extend t h e i r creative thinking experience. 15. The instructor needs to be a catalyst, a support person and an enabler. They therefore have to encourage change, r i s k taking and guessing during problem solving; allow t r i a l and error as part of 118. the learning continuum; keep the thinking going and discuss what could be t r i e d . Implications for Art Teachers This study has i d e n t i f i e d a number of general educational and human needs that have implications for teaching art. These i d e n t i f i e d needs have to be met before productive or creative thinking can be evidenced. The study would indicate that art teachers and educators need to a l l o t or programme i n time for mental and physical relaxation, experimentation, the manipulation of ideas and materials, as well as to encourage research, graphic ideation, v i s u a l i z a t i o n and cognitive l a t e r a t i o n , i f effective v i s u a l problem solving i s to occur. The study implied that i n t u i t i v e behaviour was most evident when the teacher's attitude fostered a p o s i t i v e , non-threatening, anxiety-free learning environment. It would seem, therefore, that these socio-psychological orientations are important for the art teacher to be aware of when planning for and teaching art i n the classroom, so that the students' productive thinking behaviour i s encouraged. Students i n t h i s kind of environment should be free to choose t h e i r personal space, l i s t e n to sound that i s compatible with t h e i r creative a c t i v i t y , and to work with those who are positive and i n t e r a c t i v e . These abstract concepts and implications from the study can only become a r e a l i t y i f they are implemented at the classroom l e v e l . Educators and curriculum writers therefore have to include these 119. concepts i n art programmes and art c u r r i c u l a . Time f o r , and the encouragement of the kinds of orientations that bring about creative or productive thinking have to be written into plans, programmes and timetables. Students need to know that relaxed, exploratory think-ing behaviour i s not only acceptable but expected and encouraged. It i s recognized that t h i s point of view appears to run counter to current e f f i c i e n c y models of education, but the d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between a deliberate programme of relaxed a c t i v i t i e s that enhance thinking behaviour and a si t u a t i o n characterized by aimless-ness. Art teachers have to define or re-define t h e i r roles i n such a way that they become positive catalysts or enablers of productive thinking and trainers of the kinds of thinking behaviour that manifests i t s e l f i n i n t u i t i v e and creative thought. 120. REFERENCES Arnheim, R. Perceiving, thinking, forming. Art Education, 1983, 36, (2), 9-11. Blank, S.S. The challenge: encouraging creative thinking and problem  solving i n the gi f t e d . San Diego: San Diego Unified School D i s t r i c t , 1982. Bruner, J.S. The process of education. New York: Random House, 1963. Bruner, J.S. The relevance of education. New York: Norton and Co., 1971. Bugelski, B.R. Words and things are images. American Psychologist, 1970, 1002-1012. de Bono, E. Lateral thinking: a textbook of c r e a t i v i t y . Markham: Penguin Books Canada Ltd., 1977. English, H.B. A comprehensive dictionary of psychological and psycho- ana l y t i c a l terms. New York: David McKay Co. Inc., 1958. Ferguson, E.D. The mind's eye: non-verbal thought i n technology. Science, 1977, 197, (4309), 827-836. Fischbein, E. In t u i t i o n and mathematical education: theoretical  issues i n mathematical education. Unpublished paper, The Ohio State University, 1979. Gowan, J.C. The production of c r e a t i v i t y through right hemisphere imagery. Journal of Creative Behavior, 1979, 1_3, (1), 39-43. Gowan, J.C, Demos, CD. £ Torrance, E.P. (Eds.) C r e a t i v i t y : i t s educational implications. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1967. Gowan, J.C, Khatena, J . § Torrance, E.P. (Eds.) Educating the ablest: a book of readings on the education of gi f t e d children. (2nd ed.) F.E. Peacock Publishers Inc., 1979. Guilford, J.S. Way beyond the IQ. Buffalo: Creative Education Foundation, 1977. Hinsic, L.E. £ Campbell, R.J. Psychiatric dictionary..(4th ed.) New York: Oxford University Press, 1970. 121. Kemp, J. The philosophy of Kant. London: Oxford University Press, 1968. Khatena, J . Major directions i n c r e a t i v i t y research. In J.C. Gowan § E.P. Torrance (Eds.), Educating the ablest, a book of readings  on the education of gi f t e d children. (2nd ed.). F.E. Peacock Publishers, Inc., 1979. Koestler, A. The act of creation. New York: Macmillan, 1964. Kubie, L. Neurotic d i s t o r t i o n of the creative process. Toronto: The Noonday Press, 1967. Maslow, A.H. Toward a psychology of being. Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1962. McKim, R.H. Experiences i n visua l thinking. (2nd ed.) Monterey: Brooks/Cole Publ.Co., 1980. Olton, R. § Crutchfield, R. Developing the s k i l l s of productive thinking. In P. Mussen, J . Larger § M. Covington (Eds.), New  directions i n developmental psychology. Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1969. Piaget, J . The d e f i n i t i o n of stages of development. In J . Tanner and B. Inhelder (Eds.), Discussions on c h i l d development. New York: International University Press, 1960, 116-135. Progoff, I. At a journal workshop: the basic text and guide for using the intensive journal process. New York: Dialogue House Library, 1975. Rapp, M.A. The brainstorming attitude. School Arts. 1960, 59, 5-8. Rugg, H. Imagination. New York: Harper § Row, 1963. Samuels, M. § Samuels, W. Seeing with the mind's eye. New York: Random House, 1975. Seidel, G. The c r i s i s of c r e a t i v i t y . London: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1966. Taylor, C.W. Clues to creative teaching: the creative process and education. Instructor. 1963,'73, 4-5. Wald, H. Introduction to d i a l e c t i c a l l o g i c . Amsterdam: Gruner, 1975. Wallas, G. The art of thought. London: Watts, 1926. APPENDIX A Pre-course Tasks Form #1: To Record Preliminary Statements about the Thinking Process 123. APPENDIX A UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF CAPE BRETON Education 499: The In t u i t i v e Process; Implications for Teaching It i s the intent of the course that we grow i n awareness of ourselves as teachers and as whole individuals who wish to develop our own i n t u i t i v e thinking a b i l i t y so that we can encourage others to think creatively i n the classroom. In order to do th i s we w i l l t a l k about and experience methods which enable, rather than i n h i b i t creative thought; we w i l l solve some visual problems using a variety of material; we w i l l explore some of the l i t e r a t u r e written about i n t u i t i v e thinking as i t i s related to expression and c r e a t i v i t y . Before the class convenes i n July, I would l i k e you to complete several tasks i n preparation for the course. The f i r s t two tasks have to do with c o l l e c t i n g materials and equipment for the visual projects you w i l l complete during the course; the t h i r d task w i l l help you become acquainted with some of the terms you w i l l need to know; while the la s t two tasks relate to thinking something through on your own. Marilyn Dyer 124, APPENDIX A (contd.) TASK ONE: PREPARE AN EQUIPMENT KIT Begin c o l l e c t i n g now: - scissors - bond fast glue or the equivalent - stapler (not the t i n y kind) and staples - a set of non-toxic coloured markers, large nib - 2 large nibbed black f e l t markers; bevelled nib - 2 large nibbed black f e l t markers; pointed nib *-. hammer *-. p l i e r s ; wire cutters and p l a i n blunt and pointed * wood rasps; round f l a t , curving *- e l e c t r i c d r i l l with several b i t s *- e l e c t r i c sander: can be the kind that i s attached to the e l e c t r i c d r i l l - sand paper, a selection of course and fine Note: *Please locate, bring and share when needed. Please do not buy these for the course. I'm sure these are available i n the community. - p l a s t i c safety glasses - face masks for saw dust - 1" hardware brush - |" hardware brush - any small brushes you already have (e.g. water colour) - linoleum knife or xacto knife - r u l e r - other tools and equipment that you fe e l are useful Marilyn Dyer 125. APPENDIX A (contd.) TASK TWO: SEARCH FOR MATERIALS We w i l l be doing several visual projects during the course. Each needs a variety of material which cannot be ordered or purchased from a shop. Some material might be found at home, but others can be hunted for among the packing materials thrown out by K-Mart, Woolco, etc. What you c o l l e c t w i l l supplement the art material that the University College of Cape Breton w i l l purchase for the course. There may be a lab fee for the purchased materials. Please begin c o l l e c t i n g now to share with the class and for use with your own projects: - cardboard tubes, any size (from T.P. tubes to curtain containers) - pieces of dowelling, any length or circumference - pieces of planking, any length or size (e.g. 2" x 4", 2" x 2", 4" x 4") - old photographs - magazines, printed or xerox materials, advertisements, computer forms, etc. - small partly-used cans of bright-coloured enamel - f o i l (coloured, s i l v e r , gold) from candy or cigarettes Please f l a t t e n c a r e f u l l y - reeds, long grasses; t i e i n bundles - pieces of textured or coloured c l o t h , s t r i n g , b i t s of lace ;or .• trim, feathers, beads, buttons. - bamboo s t i c k s , straws, toothpicks, s t i r - s t i c k s , etc. - pieces of wires, any length (copper, p l a s t i c , stovepipe) - r a f f i a - pieces of cardboard from packing material, p l a i n , corrugated, interesting shapes - any coloured or textured packing material - small boxes or containers of firm construction - large, t h i n , p l i a b l e p l a s t i c bags (e.g. dry cleaner bags) - please bring any other things of a simi l a r nature from home that you think w i l l be useful. Marilyn Dyer 126. APPENDIX A (contd.) TASK THREE: SEARCH FOR LITERATURE RELATED TO INTUITIVE THINKING OR INTUITION Do a l i b r a r y search for books and a r t i c l e s about c r e a t i v i t y ; productive thinking; divergent thinking; l a t e r a l thinking and i n t u i t i v e thinking. Some suggested books are: Vernon, P.E. (Ed.) Cre a t i v i t y. Hammondsworth, Eng.: Penguin Education Psychology Readings, 1976. Arnheim, R. VisualThinking. Berkley: Univ. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1969. de Bono, E. Pr a c t i c a l Thinking. Hammondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd., 1971. de Bono, E. Lateral Thinking. Hammondsworth: Penguing Books Ltd.,1971. Aschner, M.J. and C. Bish. Productive Thinking i n Education. New York: National Education Association, 1965. Bruner, J.S. The Process of Education. Vintage Books 1963. Write a d e f i n i t i o n for each of the following terms: Resource books and a r t i c l e s w i l l be available for your perusal during July, and Robert McKim's book Experience i n Visual Thinking has been ordered as a text for the course. It i s a book that integrates the pr a c t i c a l with the theory i n a way that makes i t useful as a teacher resource. During July we w i l l b u i l d a resource f i l e for everyone to use. I f you come across a chapter i n a book or an a r t i c l e which you think w i l l be useful, please xerox a copy for the f i l e . It would f a c i l i t a t e the co l l e c t i o n process. Marilyn Dyer c r e a t i v i t y thinking divergent thinking productive thinking l a t e r a l thinking i n t u i t i o n or i n t u i t i v e thinking 127-. APPENDIX A (contd.) TASK FOUR: PRE AND POST TASK ASSIGNMENT: COMPLETE A VISUAL PROJECT Using materials found at home, make a toy that can be moved or has a moving part. I t should be able to f i t into a shoe box. Bring the completed project to class on July 4th along with a written statement about the thinking process you used to arrive at the toy you made. Note: When you are making your toy, please do not discuss or get input from anyone about your creation. I t i s most important that the idea and the concept of the toy be e n t i r e l y your own. Trust your own decision-making. Do not spend more than 4 hours on the creation of your toy unless you feel you need more time to complete your project for your own s a t i s f a c t i o n . When you write the comments about your thinking process, use phrases which are personal since you are the one who actually had the experi-ence, e.g. before I could I had to Trace the sequence of thought .from your f i r s t flounderings for ideas and materials, through the steps of decision-making, to the point where i t came together as a product. Please use the attached form as a guide to your comments and notations about your creative process. The a r t i s t i c nature of the project i s not as important as the thinking process which you use to accomplish the task. Marilyn Dyer 128'. APPENDIX A (contd.) UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF CAPE BRETON EDU.C. 499: INTUITIVE THINKING: ITS IMPLICATION FOR THE CLASSROOM. NAME STUDENT NO: FORM #1 PROJECT # DATE: NAME OF PROJECT: MATERIALS USED: INTENTION OR OBJECTIVE: PRELIMINARY STATEMENTS RECORDING YOUR THINKING PROCESS Please complete the following statements then write your own more detailed journal* entries about your thinking process on other paper which you w i l l attach to this form when the project i s completed. These preliminary statements w i l l help you get your journal writing started and w i l l guarantee that everyone i n the class i n i t i a l l y comments on the same aspects of th e i r thinking process. I f you need more room than what has been provided, please copy the statements onto another piece of paper and proceed from there. - When I heard or read the problem, I - When I saw the material, I 129. APPENDIX A (contd.) - When I cut or changed the (paper, wood, etc.) I - When the instructor said ........ .. . ... . . . . ., I - When I did/didn't understand, I - When I changed the direc t i o n of my thinking, I - When I changed my visual form, I 130. APPENDIX A (contd.) When you said/didn't say............... I When .............said/or responded to my visua l form, I - When the new form came together, I *By journal w r i t i n g , I mean a series of sequential statements which t e l l the thinking process and feelings you experienced while you solved your visual problems. Marilyn Dyer 131, APPENDIX A (contd.) TASK FIVE: BECOME AWARE OF YOUR OWN THINKING PROCESS. Begin thinking about the way you make simple decisions and solve everyday problems. Think about your approach to the problem and how you is o l a t e what the problem i s i n the f i r s t place (e.g. deciding what you w i l l have for supper; how you w i l l get from A to B i n the car; what you w i l l do when the t i r e goes f l a t . ) When you have solved a simple problem, see whether you can remember how you did i t . Were there any moments of insight; a breakthrough that you didn't expect; an answer that came from "nowhere"? Did you approach the problem the same way that you approach a l l your problem solving? Can you think of any other way to solve the same problem? Think about i t . Try i t . ASSIGNMENT: (a) Write down two everyday problems such as the.ones given above. They should be actual situations which you have to solve. Do not choose any that are too complex. Write down how you w i l l solve them. This assignment i s to help you become aware of your thinking process. (b) Here are two given problems for you to solve by yourself. Read them car e f u l l y . Sketch out the si t u a t i o n using words and imagery (visual thinking), then write down i n a f a i r amount of d e t a i l how you accomplish the solution. No explanation need be over 250 words. PROBLEM ONE: You have to go across a completely empty room without walking or touching the f l o o r with any part of your body, to get your wrist watch which has been l e f t on the window s i l l . You w i l l return to the door through which you entered. Unfortunately, the painters have already painted the f i r s t four feet of f l o o r under the windows so you cannot get near the s i l l where you see your watch. The only things available to you i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n are: 2 short planks one metre long; 3 ordinary-sized b r i c k s ; 1 coat hanger PROBLEM TWO: You have to remove and suspend a number of items which are s i t t i n g on the flo o r so that a new carpet can be layed. There i s one hook i n the l i n t e l of the door frame from which they can hang. These items are: 1 empty p l a s t i c yogurt container with l i d 1 pair of scissors 1 piece of st r i n g 1' long 2 eggs 2 paper c l i p s 1 rubber sealer ring 132. APPENDIX A (contd.) PROBLEM: You have to make an ice cream sundae using three flavours of topping which are not to touch each other. You have an oblong container, two scoops of ice cream, three toppings and one wafer to work with. Have fun! PROBLEM: You are expecting a telephone c a l l from your boss at a pre-arranged time at one of the several pay phones with a s p e c i f i c number at the bus depot. There i s a complication i n that you have also said that you would phone some v i t a l information to a c l i e n t at about the same time. You know that you have a small amount of f l e x i b i l i t y i n your time schedule, but you also know that i t i s imperative that you do not t i e up the phone for which your boss has the number i n case he t r i e s to get you when you are using i t . You know also, that you must make the other phone c a l l to your c l i e n t , or miss an important opportunity. No one else i s using the other phones. How w i l l you solve your problem? Marilyn Dyer \ APPENDIX B Visual Projects 1371. APPENDIX B. UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF CAPE BRETON EDUC. 499: THE INTUITIVE PROCESS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING VISUAL PROJECT #1. MATERIAL BASE: PAPER, PLASTIC, WIRE, TWINE, REED. cartridge, white or brown Kraft paper, nice paper, newsprint, th i n p l a s t i c bags, tag board, p l i e r s , wire cutters, scissors, glue, stapler and staples, sewing thread, large needles, lacing. VISUAL PROBLEM: 1. Using weaving, braiding, looping, etc., make a unique form which can s i t by i t s e l f and has a space inside i t . ( e . g . pouch). Use any combina-ti o n of the materials l i s t e d above. Then prepare and package f i v e natural objects for depositing inside the space. Procedure: explore the limitations and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the material free-wheel with ideas searching for those that are compatible to both the material and yourself (e.g. brainstorm; idea sketch; think v i s u a l l y ) state the intention of your idea v i s u a l l y and i n writing - prepare the material; organize equipment - manipulate the material; test the idea with the material re-order ideas;think ambidexterously ( l o g i c a l l y and i n t u i t i v e l y ) - synthesize bring the form to conclusion evaluate a e s t h e t i c a l l y assess the v i s u a l product Resource: The New Basketry by Ed. Rosbach 2. Journal Notations (visual and written) Record the thinking process that you use while planning and creating your creation or new form. Approach the writing from inside yourself as the one experiencing the thinking and the doing. Be aware of the l o g i c a l sequences of thought, changes of idea d i r e c t i o n , idea selection, small insights, i n t u i t i v e thinking ( s k i l l e d leaps of knowledge, guesses, hunches) and gestalts. Write and draw out your thinking experience as spontaneously as possible. Form #1 w i l l help get you started. Marilyn Dyer 135. APPENDIX B (contd.) UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF CAPE BRETON EDUC. 499:- THE INTUITIVE PROCESS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING VISUAL PROJECT #2. MATERIAL BASE: CLAY, NATURAL MATERIALS clay (terra cotta, tan); wood, rock, moss, dried grasses, reeds etc., mirrors VISUAL PROBLEM: 1. Using some or a l l of the above materials, make an aesthetic environment which concentrates on creating texture and contrast s i m i l a r to that found i n nature and i n the Japanese garden. Add mirrors to your environment so that i t becomes a r e f l e c t i v e piece showing the r e p e t i t i o n of shape and textured form. The mirrors should be incor-porated i n such a way as to be part of, rather than i n opposition to the natural form. Procedure: - explore the lim i t a t i o n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the material - free-wheel with ideas searching for those that are compatible to both the material and yourself (e.g. brainstorm; idea sketch; think v i s u a l l y ) - state the intention of your idea v i s u a l l y and i n writing - prepare the material; organize equipment - manipulate the material; test the idea with the material - re-order ideas; think ambidexterously ( l o g i c a l l y and i n t u i t i v e l y ) - synthesize - bring the form to conclusion - evaluate a e s t h e t i c a l l y - assess the vis u a l product Resource: 2. Journal Notations (visual and written) Record the thinking process that you use while planning and creating your creation or new form. Approach the writing from inside yourself as the one experiencing the thinking and the doing. Be aware of the l o g i c a l sequences of thought, changes of idea d i r e c t i o n , idea selection, small insights, i n t u i t i v e thinking ( s k i l l e d leaps of knowledge, guesses, hunches) and gestalts. Write and draw out your thinking experience as spontaneously as possible. Form #1 w i l l help get you started. 136. APPENDIX B (contd.) UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF CAPE BRETON EDUC. 499: THE INTUITIVE PROCESS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING VISUAL PROJECT #3. MATERIAL BASE: WOOD pieces of dowelling and portions of planking, glue, sander, d r i l l , sandpaper, saw, hammer, wood carving tools, clamps, p l a s t i c safety glasses, face mask VISUAL PROBLEM: 1. A l t e r three or more pieces of wood so that they relate s p a t i a l l y to each other i n an aesthetic way.(e.g. interlocking; interesting juxtaposition; constructual or visual dependency; as sections of a larger form). The finished surface should show that you have taken care to get the most out of the material, and have used good c r a f t s -manship. It can be sanded, buffed, o i l e d , painted, carved, drawn on, etc. At least one section of the wood sculpture should have colour, l i n e , pattern or texture as a focus for the sculpture. Procedure: - explore the limitations and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the material - free-wheel with ideas searching for those that are compatible to both the material and yourself (e.g. brainstorm; idea sketch; think '.' . vi s u a l l y ) state the intention of your idea v i s u a l l y and i n writing - prepare the material; organize equipment - manipulate the material; test the idea with the material - re-order ideas; think ambidexterously ( l o g i c a l l y and i n t u i t i v e l y ) - synthesize - bring the form to conclusion evaluate a e s t h e t i c a l l y assess the visual product Resource: 2. Journal Notations (visual and written) Record the thinking process that you use while planning and creating your creation or new form. Approach the writing from inside yourself as the one experiencing the thinking and the doing. Be aware of the l o g i c a l sequences of thought, changes of idea d i r e c t i o n , idea selection, small insights, i n t u i t i v e thinking ( s k i l l e d leaps of knowledge, guesses, hunches) and gestalts. Write and draw out your thinking experience as spontaneously as possible. Form #1 w i l l help get you started. Marilyn Dyer 137: . APPENDIX B (contd.) UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF CAPE BRETON EDUC. 499: THE INTUITIVE PROCESS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING VISUAL PROJECT #4 MATERIAL BASE: CARDBOARD, METAL, FOUND OBJECTS cardboard pieces (corrugated or f l a t ) , tubes, boxes, s t r i n g , wire, feathers, straws, toothpicks, cl o t h , twine, yarn, beads, c l o t h , etc. VISUAL PROBLEM: 1. Make a personal * f e t i s h using any of the above materials. The f e t i s h should be a conglomerate form showing s k i l l and craftsmanship. It should be one which you can relate to aesthetically.and emotionally because of i t s shape, colour, texture, etc. Size i s not a l i m i t a t i o n but you should be able to carry i t with you when you go on a hike. The f e t i s h should be a highly personal expression of yourself. * f e t i s h - anything to which one i s i r r a t i o n a l l y devoted! Procedure: - explore the l i m i t a t i o n s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the material - free-wheel with ideas searching for those that are compatible to both the material and yourself (e.g. brainstorm; idea sketch; think v i s u a l l y ) state the intention of your idea v i s u a l l y and i n writing prepare the material; organize equipment manipulate the material; test the idea with the material - re-order ideas; think ambidexterously ( l o g i c a l l y and i n t u i t i v e l y ) - synthesize - bring the form to conclusion evaluate a e s t h e t i c a l l y - assess the visu a l product Resource: 2. Journal Notations (visual and written) Record the thinking process that you use while planning and creating your creation or new form.. Approach the writingfrom inside yourself as the one experiencing the thinking and the doing. Be aware of the l o g i c a l sequences of thought, changes of idea d i r e c t i o n , idea selection, small insights, i n t u i t i v e thinking ( s k i l l e d leaps of knowledge, guesses, hunches) and gestalts. Write and draw out your thinking experience as spontaneously as possible. Form #1 w i l l help get you started. Marilyn Dyer 138. APPENDIX B (contd.) UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF CAPE BRETON EDUC. 499: THE INTUITIVE PROCESS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING VISUAL PROJECT # 5 MATERIAL BASE: FABRIC clot h , yarn, thread, trims, cardboard form VISUAL PROBLEM: 1. Use stitchery and textured materials to make a soft sculptured fabric form of some obvious Canadian commodity (e.g. people, water, clouds, snow, etc.) which we would not usually think to package or box for export. The package should be able to be carried i n two hands and must relate v i s u a l l y i n some way to that which i t contains. It can be an open or closed construction. Procedure: - explore the limitations and p o s s i b i l i t i e s of the material free-wheel with ideas searching for those that are compatible to both the material and yourself (e.g. brainstorm; idea sketch; think v i s u a l l y ) state the intention of your idea v i s u a l l y and i n writing - prepare the material; organize equipment - manipulate the material; test the idea with the material - re-order ideas; think ambidexterously ( l o g i c a l l y and i n t u i t i v e l y ) synthesize bring the form to conclusion evaluate a e s t h e t i c a l l y - assess the vis u a l product Resource: 2. Journal Notations (visual and written) Record the thinking process that you use while planning and creating your creation or new form. Approach the writing from inside yourself as the one experiencing the thinking and the doing. Be aware of the l o g i c a l sequences of thought, changes of idea d i r e c t i o n , idea selection, small in s i g h t s , i n t u i t i v e thinking ( s k i l l e d leaps of knowledge, guesses, hunches) and gestalts. Write and draw out your thinking experience as spontaneously as possible. Form #1 w i l l help get you started. APPENDIX C Summer Course Schedule Instructor Notes APPENDIX C. 140; EDUC. 499: INTUITIVE THINKING: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING Instructor: Marilyn Dyer July, 1983 University College of Cape Breton June 27-30 Pre-course assignment - visua l project and written statement of awareness Week I: July 4-8 - Presentation of philosophy of the course. - Definitions of thinking - divergent/convergent - reproductive/productive - i n t u i t i v e c r e a t i v i t y problem solving - Torrance Test of Cr e a t i v i t y - c i r c l e s - Relaxation exercises; l e f t / r i g h t brain theory - Visual projects - 2 dimensional exercises ( l i n e s , shapes, colours, textures) - brainstorming; vis u a l thinking; verbalization - Journal writing - purpose of; suggestions for methods; relationship to problem solving and c r e a t i v i t y - For presentation - overheads, charts showing charac-t e r i s t i c s of various modes of thinking; t h e i r cross-over characteristics - sample journal notations (visual and written) e.g. Connan Doyle; Proghof f; McKim. Week I I : July 11-15 - Further discourse on thinking - especially productive; divergent; l a t e r a l - relationship to c r e a t i v i t y - use of information - transfer theory (Guilford) - insight and i n t u i t i o n .'• *- awareness of cognitive processes, especially i n t u i t i v e thinking 141. APPENDIX C (contd.) - Relaxation exercises - getting i n touch; i n tune with s e l f . Freeing up; becoming f l e x i b l e thinkers; allowing newness; controlling and developing fantasy, imagery, ideas; over-coming blocks - Theory about i n h i b i t o r s / f a c i l i t a t o r s of creative thinking and therefore i n t u i t i v e - Discussion about i n h i b i t o r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s i n the course environment - V i s u a l projects: ° small three-dimensional exercises (toothpicks, s t i r s t i c k s , s t r i n g , s t i c k s , straws) o brainstorming and vi s u a l thinking ° journal notations on thinking process Visual Project #1. Visual Project #2. Week II I : J u l y 18-22 - I n t u i t i v e thinking - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; l i t e r a t u r e on i t - development of; i n h i b i t o r s / f a c i l i t a t o r s - examples of (during cognition) - Journal sharing - from Projects #1 and #2 Visual Project #3 Visual Project #4 Week IV: July 25-29 - Implications for classroom - creative thinking; divergent/ l a t e r a l / i n t u i t i v e - method of teaching - expectations i f used - relationship to language expression; movement; music; problem solving generally 142. APPENDIX C (contd.) - response to material - (personal v i s u a l statements (emergence of imagery-sources Visual Project #5 - Toy (same as pre-assignment) A look at visu a l problem solving Projects and Journals - discussion, sharing and evaluation - photographs of work (diaries and projects) 143. APPENDIX C (contd.) EDUC.499: INTUITIVE THINKING: IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING Instructor: Marilyn Dyer July, 1983. University College of Cape Breton Ambidexterous Thinking: Using the integrated mind: to f a c i l i t a t e c r e a t i v i t y and i n t u i t i v e thinking - How can I solve this? Are there alternate ways? - What i f I.... ? - What i s the implication of the poem, story, material beyond the obvious? - Why have I accepted the solution I did? - Did I consider whether the answer was rig h t or wrong? - What influenced my decision? - peers? - past experience? - could not see any other way? - instructor? - Is the opposite also true? e.g. birds eat seeds; seeds eat birds - Many simple rhymes and stories can be used as catalysts for moving beyond the obvious. A well-known rhyme can be memorized and parroted back without the implication of the message ever having been examined. When ambidexterous thinking i s used (LB + RB), the rhyme becomes a pivot point around which new experiences and creative thought can grow. For instance, a t i n can i s so common that we hardly give i t a thought. We know i t i s a container for food, o i l , j u i c e , and many other sub-stances, but i t i s i n i t s e l f a geometric metallic form with an inner space, unique texture and temperature, o We could look at the t i n can as - a r o l l e r - a round edge - a continuous metal idea - a place to l i v e - a vehicle o We could ask i t about what i t experienced between the earth and the can. o We could ponder what i t would feel l i k e to be caught i n a fixed form without being able to change. ° We could ask, what i f . . . . t h e t i n container could change shape? ° We could design a form which i s a container but not a t r a d i t i o n a l shape 144. APPENDIX C (contd.) Exercises completed i n written and visua l form by the participants during the Port Morien f i e l d t r i p . Students were asked to: look for and draw s i x things that were round and had different colours look through a space and then draw what they saw fin d and draw f i v e things that were beside each other look for and draw something that had pattern - write down and scramble into new words the names of at least three f i s h i n g boats do a rubbing of something that was textured complete the given sentences metamorphically f i n d , record and draw three things that were made from natural f i b r e - make a l i s t of common things found i n the f i s h i n g v i l l a g e ; re-name them find a t a l l pole, mast, etc. Draw something u n l i k e l y hanging from i t stretch out a boat so that i t looked f l e x i b l e draw a p i l e of rocks and cover them with unique patterns 145, APPENDIX D Participant's Letter of Permission to do the Study. 146. APPENDIX D. Dear Participant: I am pleased that you have elected to take the summer course 499: I n t u i t i v e Thinking: Its Implications For Teaching, and that you have been recognized by the college as one of Cape Breton's creative and resourceful teachers. This course i s designed to take teachers through a month of intensive work i n i n t u i t i v e thinking while solving vis u a l problems. As part of my graduate work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I would l i k e to investigate the nature of i n t u i t i v e thinking as i t i s reflected i n the course. Any course such as this requires evaluation and response. Therefore, as part of my graduate work, and as a means of evaluation, I would l i k e to use the projects you do, and the written notations about your think-ing process to observe the changes i n i n t u i t i v e thinking which may result from the course. As a participant, t h i s w i l l not change or add to the work required i n the course. However, I would l i k e to ask your permission to use your course projects and journals as a basis of my investigation. You may, of course, choose not to have your projects used i n th i s evaluation and you may withdraw your permission at any time during the course. Such p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l have no influence on your course grade. I f you consent to your project being used i n th i s evaluation, please mark the appropriate box, sign and date the form, before returning i t to me. I give Marilyn Dyer permission YES to use my projects and journal for her graduate study i n i n t u i t i v e thinking. NO Name: Date: APPENDIX E Id e n t i f i c a t i o n of the Slides for the Study 148. APPENDIX E. IDENTIFICATION OF SLIDES S i • e l ^ 1. Preferred work space 26. Preliminary 50. Fetish 2. Graphic ideation exercise 51. Fetish 3. Presenting 27. Sand contour 52. Fetish 4. Presenting l i n e 53. Fetish 5. Presenting 28. Wood sculpture 54. Fetish 6. Solving v i s u a l 29. Wood sculpture 55. Fetish problems 30. Wood sculpture 56. Fetish 7. Working with 31. Wood sculpture 57. Fabric sculpture peers 32. Wood sculpture 58. Fabric : sculpture 8. Preliminary tasks 33. Wood sculpture 59. Fabric : sculpture 9. Pouch 34. Wood sculpture 60. Fabric : sculpture 10. Pouch 35. Wood sculpture 61. Fabric sculpture 11. Pouch 36. Wood sculpture 62. Pre and post toy 12. Pouch 37. Wood sculpture 63. Pre and post toy 13. Pouch 38. Wood sculpture 64. Pre and post toy 14. Pouch 39. Wood sculpture 65. Pre and post toy 15. Pouch 40. Wood sculpture 66. Pre and post toy 16. Pouch 41. Oi l i n g blocks 67. Pre and post toy 17. Pouch 42. Embellishment of 68. Pre and post toy 18. Pouch blocks 69. Pre and post toy 19. Pouch 43. Embellishment of 70. Pre and post toy 20. Pouch blocks 71. Pre and post toy 21. Natural environment 44. Embellishment of 72. Pre -and post toy 22. Natural environment blocks 73. Pre and post toy 23. Natural environment 45. Fetish 74. Pre and post toy 24. Natural environment 46. Fetish 75. Pre and post toy 25. Natural environment 47. Fetish 76. Pre and post toy 48. Fetish 49. Fetish FOR FURTHER INFORMATION ON THE SLIDES LISTED ON LEAF 148f CONTACT SPECIAL COLLECTIONS DIVISION, LIBRARY, 1956 MAIN MALL, UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, VANCOUVER, B.C., CANADA V6T 1Y3. 

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