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The design of rural development : experiences from South China, 1949-1976 Ip, David Fu-Keung 1979

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THE DESIGN OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT: EXPERIENCES FROM SOUTH CHINA 1949-1976 by DAVID FU-KEUNG ..LP B . A . , The C h i n e s e - U n i v e r s i t y o f Hong Kong, 1969 M . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i , 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1979 ( c ) David Fu-keung I p , 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f AmH\i»poU&i ^ : > d c . o i < 6 - y T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2 0 7 5 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1W5 >E-6 B P 75-51 1 E i i ABSTRACT R u r a l Guangdong b e f o r e 1949 was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an e x p l o i t i v e system d e r i v e d from the a l l i a n c e o f w e a l t h and power among t h e l a n d -l o r d s , c l a n s , t h e r i c h and t h e g e n t r y . T h i s network o f e x p l o i t i v e r e l a t i o n s not o n l y c o n t r o l l e d t h e r e s o u r c e s - - ! ' . e . , l a n d , c r e d i t and m a r k e t s — w h i c h were most e s s e n t i a l t o t h e l i v e l i h o o d o f t h e p e a s a n t s , but a l s o c r e a t e d numerous b l o c k a g e s i n t h e system making i t i m p o s s i b l e t o have any i n p u t i n j e c t e d from t h e o u t s i d e t r i c k l e down. R u r a l development i n Guangdong a f t e r 1949 began w i t h t h e l a n d r e f o r m movement, but i t was o n l y when c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t t h r o u g h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o o p e r a t i v e s and r u r a l communes, such e x p l o i t i v e r e l a t i o n s were e r a d i c a t e d . A r u r a l development s t r a t e g y , however, d i d not emerge u n t i l a f t e r t h e f a t e f u l y e a r s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l c r i s i s and t h e S o v i e t p u l l - o u t . T h i s s t r a t e g y was aimed a t t h e development o f i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r both a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l development t h r o u g h c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n . I t p o s t u l a t e d t h a t o n l y when t h e i n f r a s t r u c t u r e f o r a g r i c u l t u r e was s t r e n g t h e n e d , c o u l d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n be i n c r e a s e d and funds and s u r p l u s f o r t h e development o f s u p p o r t i v e s t r u c t u r e , s u c h ;as r u r a l i n d u s t r i e s , h e a l t h c a r e and e d u c a t i o n i n t h e r u r a l system be g e n e r a t e d . And o n l y when such s u p p o r t i v e s t r u c t u r e was d e v e l o p e d and c o n s o l i d a t e d c o u l d new i n p u t s be c r e a t e d t o i n c r e a s e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n f u r t h e r I t was t h r o u g h such a s p i r a l p r o c e s s o f g e n e r a t i n g , r e i n v e s t i n g and r e t a i n i n g r u r a l s u r p l u s t h a t r u r a l development was implemented and r e a l i z e d . And i t was i n such a manner t h a t r u r a l development f u l -f i l l e d v a r i o u s o b j e c t i v e s to become an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f a s t r a t e g y f o r d e v e l o p m e n t . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v LIST OF TABLES i x LIST OF FIGURES x i LIST OF MAPS x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i i INTRODUCTION 1 A. Development T h e o r i e s i n S o c i o l o g y 2 B. S t u d i e s on C h i n e s e Development E x p e r i e n c e 9 NOTES 16 PART I - RURAL POVERTY IN SOUTH CHINA BEFORE LIBERATION . . . 21 C h a p t e r 1 . THE BASIS OF RURAL GUANGDONG BEFORE LIBERATION . . . 22 A. Some G e o g r a p h i c a l Background . . . 22 B. C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f Land 30 1 . C l a n Land and t h e Power o f C l a n s 35 NOTES 49 V C h a p t e r Page 2 . THE RURAL EXPLOITIVE SYSTEM 58 A. Land 58 1 . The Changing Tenancy System 58 2 . Rent 61 3 . The Burden o f Rent 66 B. C r e d i t 73 1 . R u r a l P o v e r t y 73 2 . C r e d i t S o c i e t y 76 3 . Loans and I n t e r e s t Rates 79 4 . Pawn Shops 83 5 . Money Lenders 85 6 . C r e d i t C o o p e r a t i v e s 86 C. M a r k e t s 88 1 . L o c a l i z e d M a r k e t s and Crop P r i c e s 88 NOTES 92 3 . RURAL POVERTY AND. RURAL UNDERDEVELOPMENT 98 A. P o v e r t y and Peasant E x p e d i e n c y 98 B. R u r a l Underdevelopment 102 NOTES 109 v i C h a p t e r Page PART II - RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MAKING 112 4 . THE EARLY EXPERIENCES OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT 113 A. Land Reform 113 B. The C o o p e r a t i v e s Movement 123 C. Emergence o f a R u r a l Development S t r a t e g y . . . . 128 NOTES 133 5 . THE CHANGING STRUCTURE OF RURAL COMMUNES 137 A. Problems o f E a r l y Communes 137 B. R e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e Communes 142 1 . S i z e and Ownership 142 2 . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t r u c t u r e 143 3 . The S u p p o r t i n g S t r u c t u r e 149 4 . Changes i n P r o d u c t i o n Team Management . . . . 152 NOTES 159 PART I I I - RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH CHINA 164 6 . RURAL COMMUNES AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN GUANGDONG 165 A. G r a i n P r o d u c t i o n 165 B. D e v e l o p i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l I n f r a s t r u c t u r e 173 1 . S o i l C o n s e r v a t i o n and Improvement 173 2 . Water C o n s e r v a t i o n and R u r a l E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n 177 v i i C h a p t e r Page 3 . F e r t i l i z a t i o n 191 4 . P l a n t B r e e d i n g 196 5 . R a t i o n a l C l o s e P l a n t i n g 202 6 . P l a n t P r o t e c t i o n 206 7. Tool Improvement and A g r i c u l t u r a l M e c h a n i z a t i o n 209 8 . F i e l d Management 215 NOTES 218 7. RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN GUANGDONG 232 A. S t a n d a r d o f L i v i n g 232 1 . G e n e r a t i n g S u r p l u s e s : R u r a l Income 232 2 . H e a l t h Care 246 3 . E d u c a t i o n 253 B. R u r a l I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n 260 1 . S e r v i n g A g r i c u l t u r a l M e c h a n i z a t i o n 260 2 . I n t e g r a t i n g R u r a l / U r b a n R e l a t i o n s 263 NOTES 269 8 . PROBLEMS OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT 278 A. R u r a l I n e q u a l i t i e s 278 1 . I n t r a - and Inter-Commune I n e q u a l i t i e s 278 v i i i C h a p t e r P a g e 2 . I n d i v i d u a l I n e q u a l i t i e s 279 3 . Towards an E g a l i t a r i a n R u r a l Economy . . . . 280 4 . U r b a n - R u r a l D i f f e r e n t i a l s 286 B. Problems o f A g r i c u l t u r a l M e c h a n i z a t i o n 290 NOTES 305 CONCLUSION 310 NOTES 324 APPENDIX 326 BIBLIOGRAPHY 333 C h i n e s e and Japanese M a t e r i a l s 351 i x LIST OF TABLES T a b l e Page 1 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cash Rent i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e / 63 2 . Cash Rent i n the D e l t a Reqion f o r I r r i g a t e d F i e l d s 64 3 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Rent i n G r a i n i n Monetary Terms i n Guangdong 66 4. Average Annual Income Groups i n Lona-yan dong V i l l a g e 7 2 5 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Annual Peasant F a m i l y Income i n Guangdong 7 4 6 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Indebtedness o f Peasant F a m i l i e s i n Guangdong 7 5 7. S i z e and Terms o f Loans o f C r e d i t S o c i e t i e s i n Guangdong 79 8 . P e a s a n t s ' Sources o f Loans i n Guangdong 80 9 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Sources o f Loans i n Guangdong . . . . 81 10. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Sources o f Loans i n Guangdong . . . . 81 11. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Sources o f C r o p - l o a n s i n Guangdong 83 12. I n t e r e s t Rates f o r Loans i n G r a i n , 1939-1946 . . . . . 91 13. Reasons f o r Peasants L e a v i n g V i l l a g e s i n Guangdong 102 14. R i c e Import i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e 1918-1927 167 15. Food G r a i n Y i e l d s i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e 168 16. Food G r a i n s Output i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e 168 17. R i c e Y i e l d s i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e 169 X T a b l e P a 9 e 18. R i c e Output i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e 169 19. R i c e Y i e l d s o f S e l e c t e d Communes i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e 171 2 0 . P r o d u c t i o n o f Garden T r a c t o r s a t X i n - h u i A g r i -c u l t u r a l M a c h i n e r y P l a n t 213 2 1 . Average R u r a l Income i n Guangdong Communes 234 2 2 . I n c r e a s e s i n P u r c h a s i n g P r i c e s o f V a r i o u s A g r i c u l t u r a l Produce 239 2 3 . I n c r e a s e d Output and Y i e l d s o f S u b s i d i a r y Crops i n Dong-guan 240 2 4 . Output o f S u b s i d i a r y Crops i n G u a n g - l i Commune . . . 241 2 5 . M o r t a l i t y and B i r t h Rates i n S e l e c t e d Communes i n Guangdong 252 2 6 . R e g u l a r E d u c a t i o n a t Hua-dong Commune 255 27. R e g u l a r E d u c a t i o n a t D a - l i Commune 256 2 8 . R u r a l I n d u s t r i e s i n Shun-de and Dong-guan C o u n t i e s 266 2 9 . R u r a l I n d u s t r i e s i n N a n - h a i , X i n - h u i and K a i - p i n g C o u n t i e s 267 x i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 . Bao-gia System i n T r a d i t i o n a l R u r a l C h i n a '44 . 2 . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S t r u c t u r e o f a P e o p l e ' s Commune (1958) 139 3.. R u r a l Commune O r g a n i z a t i o n A f t e r t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n (1968) 145 4 . Schema o f t h e Three Phases o f R u r a l I n d u s t r y I n t e g r a t i o n 265 5 . Model o f R u r a l Development i n a R u r a l Commune System , 314 x i i LIST OF MAPS Map Page 1 . S e l e c t e d Communes i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e 26 2 . He-shan H y d r o e l e c t r i c S t a t i o n i n K a i - p i n g County . . 182 3 . H y d r o e l e c t r i c S t a t i o n Network o f t h e J i n R i v e r . . . 183 x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s s t u d y o f r u r a l development i n South C h i n a , l i k e o t h e r s i m i l a r e f f o r t s , owes a g r e a t d e a l t o t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f many p e o p l e . T h i s s t u d y would not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e generous f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from t h e Canadian Commonwealth S c h o l a r s h i p Committee. My g r a t i t u d e extends t o M r s . Watson, e s p e c i a l l y t o Ms D . J . Roeser f o r her u n f a i l i n g h e l p . I have b e n e f i t t e d much from my committee members. P r o f e s s o r Graham E. Johnson has not o n l y been e x t r e m e l y s u p p o r t i v e , he a l s o has been a s o u r c e o f g u i d a n c e , encouragement and a d v i c e . P r o f e s s o r Edgar Wickberg has o f f e r e d me v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m s on many p o i n t s and a t v a r i o u s s t a g e o f t h i s s t u d y . P r o f e s s o r Helga Jacobson shared w i t h me her d e t a i l e d , i l l u m i n a t i n g s u g g e s t i o n s and comments, and P r o f e s s o r T i s s a Fernando a l s o p r o v i d e d s t i m u l a t i n g d i s c u s s i o n s . P r o f e s s o r T e r r y McGee a l s o made a v a i l a b l e t o me the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p r e s e n t and exchange i d e a s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h i s s t u d y a t t h e I n s t i t u t e o f A s i a n R e s e a r c h . In g a t h e r i n g t h e m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s s t u d y , I have been h e l p e d i n many ways by d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . Many o f my f r i e n d s opened t h e doors o f t h e i r minds and s h a r e d t h e i r knowledge, i n s i g h t s , and q u e s t i o n s on r u r a l development i n South China w i t h me. A l t h o u g h I c a n n o t x i v acknowledge a l l o f them here by name, I thank them h e a r t i l y . S e v e r a l persons were e s p e c i a l l y generous i n h e l p i n g me t o meet my r e s e a r c h n e e d s . M r . Davy Leung c o n t r i b u t e d much o f h i s t i m e and e f f o r t i n r e s c u i n g me from s t a r t i n g my r e s e a r c h i n Hong Kong i n t o t a l c h a o s . H i s i n v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e and i d e a s were more than once p l a c e d a t my d i s p o s a l . Ms. Yang L i - j u n o f X i n Wen Bao h e l p e d t o a r r a n g e my s h o r t t r i p t o C h i n a , and Mr. Ng Chun-bong, b e s i d e s always l e n d i n g a h e l p i n g hand whenever a s s i s t a n c e was n e e d e d , a l s o b r o u g h t me o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o meet and t a l k t o the p e o p l e he knew i n South C h i n a . The U n i v e r s i t y S e r v i c e s C e n t e r i n Hong Kong p r o v i d e d not o n l y a s t i m u l a t i n g work b a s e , a l l t h e p e o p l e t h e r e , e s p e c i a l l y M i s s S t e l l a Wong, and Mr. L i u , gave me a l s o a l l k i n d s o f needed h e l p and s u g g e s t i o n s , and most i m p o r t a n t , doses o f good humor w h i c h made a l o n g hot summer more than b e a r a b l e . I am g r a t e f u l t o many p e o p l e who, d u r i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f my r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g up t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , o f f e r e d me t h e i n d i s p e n -s a b l e f r i e n d s h i p , a f f e c t i o n , c o n c e r n and i n s p i r a t i o n . I e s p e c i a l l y acknowledge Tong Wu f o r h i s s h a r e o f i n p u t , but i t i s S h e i l a Meehan whom I am most i n d e b t e d t o . Her g r a c e , charm and h e r t o l e r a n c e o f me a r e j u s t as i m p o r t a n t as her e d i t o r i a l s u g g e s t i o n s . F i n a l l y , I want t o thank my f a m i l y , e s p e c i a l l y my mother and my b r o t h e r Kenneth whose p a t i e n c e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t r u s t had m o t i -v a t e d me t o overcome my own l i m i t a t i o n s i n e v e r y way. INTRODUCTION T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s a s p e c i f i c case s t u d y on r u r a l d e v e l o p -ment e x p e r i e n c e s i n C h i n a s i n c e 1949. The o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o examine the changes i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f r u r a l r e g i o n s i n South C h i n a f o c u s i n g on t h e P e a r l R i v e r d e l t a a r e a i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f Guangdong. These changes a r e i n t e r p r e t e d as a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i a l and p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f such r e l a t i o n s i s f i r s t examined i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e r u r a l s i t u a t i o n i n Guangdong b e f o r e 1949. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o c c u r r e d f o l l o w i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c and i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e p r o c e s s o f r u r a l d e v e l o p -ment i s next documented and a n a l y z e d under the framework o f r u r a l commune o r g a n i z a t i o n . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f r u r a l development as a s t r a t e g y f o r development w i l l then be d i s c u s s e d . The need f o r such a s t u d y i s j u s t i f i a b l e i n terms o f (a) t h e c u r r e n t d e b a t e s on and c r i t i c i s m s o f development t h e o r i e s i n s o c i o l o g y , and (b) the growing i n t e r e s t s i n and need f o r a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s o f C h i n a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t , i n p a r t i c u l a r r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t , e x p e r -i e n c e s . 1 2 A. Development T h e o r i e s i n S o c i o l o g y Development, as a s p i r a t i o n , i d e o l o g y and f i e l d o f s t u d y i n s o c i o l o g y , drew s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e end o f World War I I . The c h a n g i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y d e c o l o n i z a t i o n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f newly independent n a t i o n s , and the g r a d u a l emergence o f a " t h i r d w o r l d , " r a i s e d s e r i o u s and u r g e n t q u e s t i o n s about development. The s e a r c h f o r " f i r s t c a u s e s " o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e f i e l d o f economic development. The 1951 U n i t e d N a t i o n s Report p r e p a r e d by a group o f e x p e r t s headed by S i r A r t h u r Lewis b o t h s i g n a l l e d and s t i m u l a t e d much i n t e r e s t among e c o n o m i s t s i n the problems o f economic p r o g r e s s . ^ T h e n , d i f f e r e n t models and t h e o r i e s o f economic development were 2 3 4 5 o f f e r e d by Rostow, N u r s k e , R o s e n s t e i n - R o d a n , Hirschman and o t h e r s a l l t r y i n g t o p r o v i d e s a t i s f a c t o r y answers t o the problems o f economic development. W h i l e the e c o n o m i s t s were d e b a t i n g s t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s f o r underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s t o a c h i e v e economic g r o w t h , s o c i o -l o g i s t s began t o e x p l o r e the o b s t a c l e s t o development which l a y i n t h e s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n s o f underdeveloped s o c i e t i e s . B a s i c a l l y two approaches e v o l v e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e causes o f underdevelopment i n s o c i o l o g y . The f i r s t was t o r e g a r d t h e s o c i e t y o f underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s as more o r l e s s homogeneous, s t a g n a n t and t r a d i t i o n a l ; and t h e o t h e r emphasized i t s h e t e r o g e n e o u s , d u a l i s t i c o r p l u r a l i s t i c n a t u r e . 3 In the f i r s t a p p r o a c h , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y was d e p i c t e d as r e l a t i v e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l i n s o l v i n g t h e economic problems o f man's q u e s t f o r a s u p e r i o r e n v i r o n m e n t . Man's f a i l u r e t o do so m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n low l a b o u r e f f i c i e n c y ; f a c t o r i m m o b i l i t y ; l i m i t e d s p e c i a l i z -a t i o n i n o c c u p a t i o n s and i n t r a d e ; l a c k o f e n t r e p r e n e u r s h i p ; economic i g n o r a n c e ; l a c k o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m ; r i g i d , s t r a t i f i e d , o r c a s t e - l i k e s t r u c t u r e s ; and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e r e l i g i o u s and moral s c a l e s o f v a l u e s employed by i n s t i t u t i o n s o r s o c i e t i e s . These t h e o r i e s viewed u n d e r -development as an o r i g i n a l , g i v e n and s t a t i o n a r y s t a t e . I n s t e a d o f a s k i n g why and how underdevelopment came a b o u t , t h e y i n v e r t e d t h e problem t o ask why development had not o c c u r r e d . In t h e r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e f o r e , d i f f e r e n t s c h o l a r s s e t up l o n g l i s t s o f q u a l i t i e s , p r o p e n s i t i e s , m o t i v a t i o n s and i n c e n t i v e s t h a t , i n c o n t r a s t t o advanced c o u n t r i e s , a r e m i s s i n g i n t h e u n d e r -d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . T h e s e , t h e y s u g g e s t e d , s h o u l d be c r e a t e d as a b s o l u t e p r e c o n d i t i o n s o r p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r development. L i b e n s t e i n , f o r e x a m p l e , m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e r e were d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e s an und erdev el op ed c o u n t r y must a c q u i r e : Western ' m a r k e t ' i n c e n t i v e s , i . e . , a s t r o n g p r o f i t i n c e n t i v e ; a w i l l i n g n e s s t o a c c e p t e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l r i s k s ; an e a g e r n e s s t o be t r a i n e d f o r i n d u s t r i a l and ' d i r t y ' j o b s ; and an e a g e r n e s s t o engage i n and promote s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l p r o g r e s s t o overcome i t s i n e r t i a f o r economic development a c t i v i t i e s . These f a c t o r s would be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e maintenance o f e x i s t i n g economic p r i v i l e g e s , t h r o u g h t h e i n h i b i t i o n and c u r t a i l m e n t 4 o f p o t e n t i a l l y expanding economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; a g a i n s t t h e c o n -s e r v a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s o f both o r g a n i z e d and u n o r g a n i z e d l a b o u r ; a g a i n s t t h e r e s i s t a n c e t o new knowledge and i d e a s ; and a g a i n s t t h e i n c r e a s e s i n e s s e n t i a l l y n o n - p r o d u c t i v e c o n s p i c u o u s p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c o n s u m p t i o n . H o s e l i t z , i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , d e s c r i b e d advanced and backward c o u n t r i e s i n terms o f P a r s o n s ' p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s . ^ He a t t r i b u t e d t h e c a u s e s f o r a c o u n t r y b e i n g u n d e r d e v e l o p e d t o the p r e v a l e n c e o f p a r t i c u l a r i s m r a t h e r than u n i v e r s a l i s m ; the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f r e c r u i t -ment and reward by a s c r i p t i o n r a t h e r than by achievement thus d e n y i n g t h e achievement m o t i v a t i o n i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ; and t h e c h a r a c t e r i z -a t i o n o f s o c i a l r o l e s by f u n c t i o n a l d i f f u s e n e s s r a t h e r than by f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i f i c i t y . W h i l e H o s e l i t z ' s arguments suggest t h a t an end t o u n d e r d e v e l o p -ment would r e q u i r e c e r t a i n changes i n s o c i a l r o l e s and t h a t a t l e a s t some p a r t s a l t h o u g h not t h e whole s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l system must be c h a n g e d , a l l t h a t f o l l o w s from M c C l e l l a n d ' s a r g u m e n t s , i s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c h a n g i n g t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l s . For M c C l e l l e n d t h e prime mover o f s o c i a l and economic development i s e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l b e h a v i o u r , the ' N - A c h i e v e m e n t ' which i s the " a u t o n -omous f o r c e s w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s . " Rapid development i n advanced c o u n t r i e s i s t h i s due t o t h e development o f t h e e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l m o t i v a t i o n a l complex i n a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e w h i l e t h i s has o remained i n s h o r t s u p p l y among u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . Hagen, 5 f o l l o w i n g t h e same l i n e , has a somewhat w i d e r o u t l o o k however. He h o l d s the view t h a t backward c o u n t r i e s have c e r t a i n " u n f a v o u r a b l e " i n d i v i d u a l m o t i v a t i o n s such as h i g h n e e d - c o n f o r m i t y ; h i g h n e e d -dependency and h i g h n e e d - a f f i l i a t i o n . These s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d w i t h q h i g h N - A c h i e v e m e n t , h i g h need-dominance and h i g h need-autonomy." In t h e second a p p r o a c h , underdevelopment s o c i e t i e s a r e d e s c r i b e d as d i s i n t e g r a t e d , d u a l i s t i c s o c i e t i e s . There i s a " c a p i t a l i s t " and a n o n - c a p i t a l i s t s e c t o r ; o r an " e n c l a v e " and t h e " h i n t e r l a n d " ; o r a "modern" and a " t r a d i t i o n a l " s e c t o r J ° The two s e c t o r s a r e s e p a r a t e and r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t . The ' m o d e r n , 1 ' c a p i t a l i s t ' s e c t o r i s , a c c o r d i n g t o B o e k e , the p r o d u c t o f "an i m p o r t e d s o c i a l system o f h i g h c a p i t a l i s m " o r " p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e West i n t o t h e p r e c a p i t a l i s t i c a g r a r i a n s o c i e t i e s o f t h e E a s t . " ^ T h i s s e c t o r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o c h a n g e , i t s m a r k e t - o r i e n t e d or p r o f i t - m a x i m i z i n g b e h a v i o u r . The ' t r a d i t i o n a l ' s e c t o r , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s d i s t i n g -u i s h e d by a near absence o f p r o f i t s e e k i n g ; " l i m i t e d n e e d s " ; " c o n s c i o u s d i s l i k e o f i n v e s t i n g c a p i t a l " ; l a c k o f l a b o u r m o b i l i t y ; l a c k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e ; " f a t a l i s m and r e s i g n a t i o n " and h i g h a b s e n t e e i s m among r e g u l a r l a b o u r e r s . Unemployment, a l t h o u g h i t i s u s u a l l y d i s g u i s e d , i s w i d e s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t t h i s s e c t o r . The m a r g i n a l p r o d u c t o f l a b o u r i s z e r o , i f not n e g a t i v e , and income i s a t a s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l . M o r e o v e r , t h i s s e c t o r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h . Under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s , 6 t h e s e t h e o r i e s c o n t e n d , t h e v i c i o u s c i r c l e o f p o v e r t y can o n l y be broken by t h e " i n f u s i o n " o f c a p i t a l and t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from t h e West. T r a n s p l a n t e d Western c a p i t a l i s m , s u p p o r t e d by f u r t h e r t r a n s p l a n t a t i o n s o f c a p i t a l and a s s i s t a n c e , would g r a d u a l l y s u f f u s e 12 t h e p r e c a p i t a l i s t i c , i n d i g e n o u s s e c t o r . A f t e r a l m o s t t h r e e decades o f d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e weakness and s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e s e s o c i o l o g i c a l and economic models o f development have become more and more a p p a r e n t . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y , t h e t h e o r i e s t h a t urge underdeveloped s o c i e t i e s t o a s s i m u l a t e m o d e r n i z i n g t r a i t s u n t i l t h e y have a t t a i n e d the p r e s e n t s t a t e o f i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , c a p i t a l i s t i c s o c i e t i e s have been c r i t i c i z e d f o r p r e s e n t i n g a d e t e r m i n i s t i c and u n i l i n e a r v i e w o f development. Opponents c h a r g e t h a t t h e s e t h e o r i e s o f f e r an unsound c a u s a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f underdevelopment w i t h o u t any 13 s o c i a l o r h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . I d e o l o g i c a l l y , t h e y are a l s o accused o f i n d u c i n g r e s i g n a t i o n t o p o v e r t y among underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s and promoting t h e b e l i e f t h a t backwardness c o u l d be o v e r -come s p o n t a n e o u s l y t h u s d i s c o u r a g i n g a t t e m p t s t o d i a g n o s e t h e r o o t causes o f a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l and economic s t a t e and t o f o r m u l a t e 14 d e l i b e r a t e p l a n s f o r m o b i l i z i n g t h e p e o p l e . F r a n k , who f o r m u l a t e d h i s t h e o r y o f "development o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t , " was p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l o f t h e o r i e s which o m i t t e d t h e f a c t o r o f i n t e r -n a t i o n a l i m p e r i a l i s m and c a p i t a l i s m . In h i s t h e o r i e s , poor c o u n t r i e s do not l a c k r e s o u r c e s , t e c h n i c a l know-how, modern i n s t i t u t i o n s o r c u l t u r a l t r a i t s c o n d u c i v e t o d e v e l o p m e n t , but t h e y a r e b e i n g e x p l o i t e d 7 by a w o r l d - w i d e c a p i t a l i s t system and i t s p a r t i c u l a r a g e n t s , both f o r e i g n and d o m e s t i c . Development can o n l y t a k e p l a c e when an e x p l o i t e d c o u n t r y f r e e s i t s e l f from dependency on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l 15 c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m . The s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s a r e more a p p a r e n t i n M a r x i a n t e r m s : t h e y d i s r e g a r d p r o d u c t i o n and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and i g n o r e q u e s t i o n s about modes o f p r o d u c t i o n . I t i s q u i t e o b v i o u s now t h a t t h e r e a r e no g e n e r a l l y f a v o u r a b l e and u n f a v o u r a b l e b e h a v i o u r s , d e v e l o p m e n t - p r o m o t i n g o r - h a m p e r i n g i d e a s , c u s t o m s , i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t i e s and m o t i v a t i o n s . T h e i r r o l e , i m p a c t , and v a l u e depend on whether t h e y e x p r e s s a s o c i a l need i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n . I t i s indeed t h i s o b j e c t i v e s o c i a l need t h a t g i v e s r i s e o r p r i o r i t y t o t h e i d e a s and b e h a v i o u r s embodying i t . The c o n t e n t o f t h i s s o c i a l need i s , however, c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g and i s d e t e r m i n e d , i n t h e l a s t a n a l y s i s , by the m a t e r i a l l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f s o c i e t y , by s o c i a l e x i s t e n c e , w i t h i t s main c o n s t i t u e n t , the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . The p r i m a c y o f p r o d u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s o v e r o t h e r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s f o l l o w s , both l o g i c a l l y and h i s t o r i c a l l y , from the p r i m a c y o f t h e .most fundamental human and s o c i a l n e e d : p h y s i c a l s u b -s i s t e n c e . S o c i e t i e s may e x i s t w i t h o u t c e r t a i n i d e a s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , customs o r p r o p e n s i t i e s , but not w i t h o u t p r o d u c t i o n . I d e a s , customs and i n d i v i d u a l q u a l i t i e s o f members o f t h e s o c i e t i e s d o , however, d e v e l o p and change under the impact o f t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . E a r l i e r t h e o r i e s f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e t h a t " s o c i a l r o l e s " 8 do not m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n g e n e r a l terms but i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . R a t h e r than b e i n g independent v a r i a b l e s , they a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s e r e l a t i o n s . T h u s , i n s t e a d o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s o c i o l o g i c a l phenomena i s o l a t e d from t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n o r a m i c r o - a n a l y s i s o f the i n d i v i d u a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n s , t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n ( o w n e r s h i p r e l a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the means o f p r o -d u c t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n r e l a t i o n s , t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f " r o l e s " i n t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n ) must be a n a l y z e d . Such an a n a l y s i s would answer q u e s t i o n s about t h e r o l e o f s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s and p r o v i d e a means t o a c c e s s t h e i r f a v o u r a b l e o r u n f a v o u r a b l e i m p a c t . The i n a d e q u a c i e s i n t h e s e e a r l y t h e o r i e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t ^ a r e not o n l y seen i n t h e o r e t i c a l t e r m s . C h a l l e n g e s and c r i t i c i s m s o f them a r e a l s o brought about by t h e unhappy d i s c o v e r y o f t h e f a c t t h a t d e s p i t e a l m o s t t h r e e decades o f i n t e n s i v e development e f f o r t s and v a s t i n v e s t m e n t s i n many d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s , n a t i o n a l economic development s t i l l e l u d e s most. In the U n i t e d N a t i o n s ' 'Development Decade' o f t h e 1 9 6 0 s , a l t h o u g h poor c o u n t r i e s as a whole exceeded the growth t a r g e t , t h e y were g e n e r a l l y w r i t t e n o f f as a f a i l u r e . 1 7 As Wu and Ip commented, " P o v e r t y , e s p e c i a l l y r u r a l p o v e r t y , have worsened i n many c o u n t r i e s and even among t h o s e n a t i o n s which have made some p r o g r e s s . The r e s u l t s have not been w i t h o u t u n f o r e s e e n c o n s e q u e n c e s . F a v o u r a b l e a g g r e g a t e n a t i o n a l economic growth have not p r e v e n t e d t h e 9 i s s u e s o f r e g i o n a l i n e q u a l i t y , r u r a l p o v e r t y and growing d i s p a r i t i e s between groups w i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y t o become more p r o m i n e n t . In s p a t i a l t e r m s , t h e s p r e a d o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n seemed i l l u s o r y as t h e p r o c e s s e s o f p o l a r i z a t i o n and i n c r e a s i n g s p a t i a l i n e q u a l i t y become t h e dominant f e a t u r e s o f the n a t i o n a l s p a t i a l economy. S p a t i a l i n t e -g r a t i o n , t h e e x p e c t e d h a l l m a r k o f d e v e l o p m e n t , t u r n s out t o be an e l u s i v e g o a l . The gloomy c o n c l u s i o n on the l a c k o f development and the i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the i n d u s t r i a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l s t r a t e g i e s pursued a r e acknowledged even by t h o s e who have been t h e i r most a r d e n t p r o m o t e r s . " ^ In the m i d s t o f such a " c r i s i s " ^ i n d e v e l o p -ment s t r a t e g i e s , not o n l y a growing l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n g and r e -a s s e s s i n g t h e development s t r a t e g i e s o f the p a s t decades a r e becoming more e v i d e n t , an unprecedented i n t e r e s t i n an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y f o r development has a l s o been d i r e c t e d t o s t u d y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f China which s e e m i n g l y has a v o i d e d most o f the problems by a d o p t i n g an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h . B. S t u d i e s on C h i n e s e Development E x p e r i e n c e The s t u d i e s o f C h i n a ' s developmental e x p e r i e n c e s , however, were a l s o f i r m l y r o o t e d i n mainstream t h e o r i e s o f development s h a r i n g t h e same c o n c e r n ; t h e y e i t h e r e x p l a i n e d C h i n a ' s f a i l u r e t o modernize i n terms o f t h e absence o f c e r t a i n " m o d e r n i z i n g t r a i t s " o r p l a c e d 10 undue r e l i a n c e on i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms which had e x i s t e d i n C h i n a ' s h i s t o r y . They sought t o e x p l a i n C h i n a ' s m o d e r n i z a t i o n problems r a t h e r than p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e o f b a s i c t r e n d s . L e v y , f o r e x a m p l e , 20 a t t r i b u t e d C h i n a ' s i n a b i l i t y t o modernize t o her f a m i l y s y s t e m . E i s e n s t e i n l a t e r agreed t h a t i t was not o n l y f a m i l i s m , but a l s o t h e n a t u r e o f i n t e r n a l c o h e s i o n i n t h e f a m i l y and i t s l i n k w i t h o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s p h e r e s t h a t were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n h i b i t i n g C h i n a ' s 21 d e v e l o p m e n t , and her r e f o r m a t i v e and t r a n s f o r m a t i v e c a p a c i t y . C h i n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , suggested t h a t t h e problems o f C h i n a ' s backwardness were r o o t e d i n t h e absence o f t h o s e q u a l i t i e s w h i c h 22 Parsons d e s c r i b e d i n h i s p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s . I t was a l s o p o p u l a r f o r t h e s e t h e o r i e s o r s t u d i e s t o com-pare C h i n a ' s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h J a p a n ' s s u c c e s s f u l m o d e r n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n t o demonstrate how t r a d i t i o n a f f e c t s a n a t i o n ' s a b i l i t y t o respond t o c h a l l e n g e from w i t h o u t . In R e i s c h a u e r ' s v i e w , J a p a n ' s s u c c e s s was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t i t s f e u d a l i s m resembled t h a t o f E u r o p e ' s . Japan e n j o y e d a "good" k i n d o f f e u d a l i s m - - f e u d a l i s m r a t h e r than a b u r e a u c r a t i c e m p i r e . B e i n g d e -c e n t r a l i z e d , f e u d a l i s m more r e a d i l y a l l o w s m o d e r n i z i n g movements t o 23 grow than c o u n t r i e s i n which power i s v e r y c e n t r a l i z e d . J a c o b s 24 a t t r i b u t e d s i m i l a r r e a s o n s f o r C h i n a ' s slow development. Lockwood, however, viewed Japan as a case o f s u c c e s s f u l b a l a n c e between S t a t e and i n d i v i d u a l e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l a c t i v i t i e s ; w h i l e i n C h i n a , he a r g u e d , n t h e b a l a n c e was out o f l i n e and t h u s when development came, i t would be l e s s s u c c e s s f u l because i t i s l e s s a p a r t o f the w i s h e s o f t h e p e o p l e . A l l i n a l l , t h e impact o f i m p e r i a l i s m on C h i n a ' s economic development was i g n o r e d i n t h e s e e a r l y s t u d i e s . A l l e n and D o n n i t h o r n e ' s a c c o u n t has r e c e i v e d wide a c c e p t a n c e as a g e n e r a l t r e a t m e n t , but p r e d i c t a b l y i t f a i l s t o s t u d y t h e s c a l e and s o u r c e o f p r o f i t s removed from C h i n a . I t a l s o g i v e s no c o n v i n c i n g a n a l y s i s o f why t h e c o u n t r y o u t s i d e o f t h e t r e a t y p o r t s s h o u l d have been so b a c k w a r d , e x c e p t t o c i t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a c k w a r d n e s s . Other f a c t o r s such as forms o f p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p , r e l a t i o n s t o the means o f p r o d u c t i o n , and c l a s s s t r u g g l e a r e a l s o a b s e n t . The s o c i a l and economic development i n r u r a l a r e a s a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t o m i s s i o n . F e u e r w e r k e r ' s work was c l o s e t o t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e — h e s u g g e s t e d t h a t l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s h e l d back C h i n a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h a t t h e r e was a c o n n e c t i o n between t h e s t a t e o f peasant a g r i c u l t u r e and s l o w i n d u s t r i a l g r o w t h . Yet he f a i l e d t o see t h e e x p l o i t i v e system o f t e n a n c y as i m p o s i t i o n s on t h e 27 p e a s a n t r y and m e r e l y a c c e p t e d t h e s e as i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y " g i v e n . " P a r a l l e l t o t h e s e t h e o r i e s i s the pure economic approach t o C h i n a ' s economic development. H e r e , the economic system o f C h i n a i s o f t e n i s o l a t e d o r t r e a t e d as an independent element c o m p l e t e l y s e p a r a t e from the r e s t o f t h e s o c i a l s y s t e m , e s p e c i a l l y i t s p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The economic system o f C h i n a , i t s s t r u c t u r e , p o l i c y and changes are d i l i g e n t l y t r a c e d as an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e e v e n t u a l 12 28 s o c i a l i s t r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f C h i n a . Under t h i s a p p r o a c h , however, the economic system i s a l s o o f t e n viewed as an element i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m ; an u n d e r l y i n g ' c o n t r a d i c t i o n ' i s c i t e d between the two s u b s y s t e m s - - ' p o l i t i c a l n e e d s ' w i l l always d i s r u p t the f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e economic s y s t e m . In t h e s e t h e o r i e s , growth can be a c c e l e r a t e d o n l y when i n t e r f e r e n c e from the p o l i t i c a l s e c t o r i s kept t o a minimum. Wu's work on the economic system o f C h i n a i s a 29 prime example o f t h i s a p p r o a c h . Some o f the r e c e n t s t u d i e s o f C h i n a ' s economic development have i n h e r i t e d t h e same s h o r t c o m i n g s o f t h e s e e a r l y t h e o r i e s . E l v i n argued t h a t by t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the 1 8 8 0 s , t h e C h i n e s e c o u n t r y s i d e was becoming p r e d o m i n a n t l y a s o c i e t y o f equal i t y where t h e r e was no d i s -t i n c t s o c i a l l y dominant c l a s s . He suggested t h a t the cause f o r C h i n a ' s underdevelopment was s i m p l y the absence o f dynamic b r e a k -t h r o u g h i n t e c h n o l o g y i n which a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y per a c r e had reached i t s l i m i t s w i t h i n the framework o f t r a d i t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y t h u s condemning C h i n a t o i t s " h i g h - l e v e l e q u i l i b r i u m t r a p " e s p e c i a l l y i n view o f p o p u l a t i o n growth and added p r e s s u r e on l a n d and m i n e r a l on r e s o u r c e s . In s i m i l a r f a s h i o n , D e r n b e r g e r , a f t e r a b s o l v i n g f o r -e i g n e r s o f blame i n C h i n a ' s economic d e v e l o p m e n t , s u p p o r t s t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n and contends t h a t China was i n a d o m e s t i c t r a p presumably w i t h l i t t l e o r no economic s u r p l u s t o a p p l y t o development and t h a t escape c o u l d o n l y be t h r o u g h a t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t t h e C h i n e s e 13 government i t s e l f was the most o b v i o u s and g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e to 31 economic development. E x p r e s s i n g a s i m i l a r view t o E l v i n ' s , Meyers c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e poor who remained poor i n C h i n a had o n l y t h e i r own l a z i n e s s and "bad d e c i s i o n s " t o b l a m e , f o r t h e r u r a l economy was 32 a l a n d o f equal o p p o r t u n i t y / P e r k i n s ' o b s e r v a t i o n , however, i s c l o s e r t o D e r n b e r g e r ' s . He b e l i e v e s t h a t C h i n a had many ( a c q u i r e d ) c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t were i d e a l l y s u i t e d t o economic d e v e l o p m e n t , w h i c h , however, o c c u r r e d o n l y f i t f u l l y b e f o r e 1949 owing t o the i n e p t n e s s and t h e l a c k o f government w i l l i n g n e s s to improve g e n e r a l w e l f a r e . " ^ Other approaches b e g i n t o emerge, however. At f i r s t g l a n c e , B a l a z s ' t h e o r y does not seem t o d i f f e r much from what we have m e n t i o n e d . A c c o r d i n g t o h i m , the f a i l u r e o f C h i n e s e economic development d e s p i t e h i g h l y f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s was due t o t h e s t i f l i n g e f f e c t o f t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c s t a t e . On c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n , however, one d e t e c t s t h a t he i s c a l l i n g our a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p r i m a c y o f i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s i n h i b i t -i n g d e v e l o p m e n t , t o p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e s e were p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l r a t h e r than t e c h n o l o g i c a l , and above a l l , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c l a s s r e l a t i o n s and c l a s s s t r u c t u r e o f t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a i n p r e v e n t i n g economic 34 development. R i s k i n i n h i s s t u d y o f s u r p l u s and s t a g n a t i o n i n modern China s u g g e s t s t h a t the s t a g n a t i o n was l a r g e l y due t o the f a c t t h a t some c l a s s e s e x t r a c t e d l a r g e economic s u r p l u s e s from o t h e r s and d i s s i p a t e d most o f them. Of c o u r s e , the o f f i c i a l b u r e a u c r a c y p a r t i c i -pated i n i t , he o b s e r v e s , but h i s view i s d i r e c t e d more t o t h e c l a s s 14 s t r u c t u r e o f C h i n e s e s o c i e t y and l e s s t o t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s ' p o l i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n , more t o the d i s s o l u t e ways o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s e s and l e s s 35 t o t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e government. L i p p i t , i n a more a m b i t i o u s manner, a t t r i b u t e d t h e development o f underdevelopment i n C h i n a t o t h e d o m e s t i c c l a s s s t r u c t u r e and r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n and O r the i n t r u s i o n o f the West. M e a n w h i l e , a growing body o f l i t e r a t u r e i s devoted t o s t u d y -i n g t h e C h i n e s e development e x p e r i e n c e s a f t e r 1949. G r a y , G u r l e y and Robinson emphasize t h e " r a t i o n a l i t y " o f s o c i a l i s t economic and p o l i t i c a l p o l i c i e s and t h e u l t i m a t e t a r g e t o f t h e s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n — development f o r the masses and t h e c r e a t i o n o f a s o c i a l i s t "new 37 man." Wheelwright and M c F a r l a n e ' s t h e s i s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , emphasizes t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p o l i t i c a l economy i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f 38 C h i n e s e d e v e l o p m e n t ; G i t t i n g s r e f e r s t o h i s approach as t h e 39 " s o c i a l i s t a p p r o a c h . " Few s t u d i e s , however, have been done on C h i n a ' s s o c i a l i s t r u r a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The commune system and i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n have been c a r e f u l l y examined by v a r i o u s s c h o l a r s but few a t t e m p t s have been made t o r e l a t e r u r a l development under t h e commune system t o t h e b r o a d e r i s s u e o f development. In p a r t i c u l a r , how d i d t h e commune system b r i n g about r u r a l development? And c o u l d r u r a l development s e r v e as an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t e g y f o r development i n t h e m i d s t o f a growing c o n c e r n o v e r a more p r a c t i c a l and r a t i o n a l approach? A s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e i s s u e s and o t h e r r e l a t e d ones have g e n e r a l l y been 15 m i s s i n g i n most c u r r e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s on C h i n a . I t i s not t h e purpose o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t o o f f e r a l l t h e answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n t h e f i e l d o f d e v e l o p m e n t , nor does i t attempt t o o f f e r any s o l u t i o n t o t h e problems o f development. I t i s s i m p l y a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f how one c o u n t r y has f a c e d and coped w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s o f development. And i t i s hoped t h a t t h i s s t u d y may c o n t r i b u t e t o f i l l some o f the major gaps i n the f i e l d s o f development and C h i n a s t u d i e s . 16 INTRODUCTION NOTES 'See J . E . G o l d t h o r p e , The Sociology of the Third World (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 ) , pp. 146-47. W.W. Rostow, The Stages of Eoonomio Growth (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) . 3 See Ragnar N u r s k e , Problems of Capital Formation in Under-developed Countries ( N . Y . : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ) , C h a p t e r One. P . N , R o s e n s t e i n - R o d a n , "Problems o f I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n o f E a s t e r n and S o u t h - E a s t e r n Europe" i n A . N . Agarwala and S . P . S i n g h ( e d s . ) , The Economics of Underdevelopment ( N . Y . : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 3 ) . 5 A l b e r t H i r s c h m a n , The Strategy of Economic Development (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) . H. L e i b e n s t e i n , Economic Backwardness and Economic Growth ( N . Y . : John W i l e y , 1 9 6 0 ) . ^See B e r t F. H o s e l . i t z , " S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e and Economic G r o w t h , " Economia Internationale, 6 ( 3 ) , August 1953; "Economic Growth i n L a t i n A m e r i c a , " Contributions to the First International Conference in Economic History ( S t o c k h o l m : Mouton & C o . , 1 9 6 0 ) ; " R o l e o f I n c e n t i v e s i n I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , " International Social Science Journal, 1 6 ( 2 ) , 1964; Sociological Factors in Economic Development ( G l e n c o e : Free P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) . o David M c C l e l l a n d , The Achieving Society ( P r i n c e t o n : Van N o s t r a n d , 1 9 6 1 ) ; a l s o The Achievement Motive ( N . Y . : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y -C r o f t , 1 9 5 3 ) ; "A P s y c h o l o g i c a l Approach t o Economic D e v e l o p m e n t , " Economic Development and Cultural Change, 1 2 ( 3 ) , A p r i l 1964. 17 " E . E . Hagen, On the Theory of Social Change (Hotnewood: Dorsey P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) ; a l s o "The Theory o f Economic Development," Economic Development and Cultural Change, 6 ( 3 ) , A p r i l 1957; and The Economics of Development (Homewood: Dorsey P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) . ^ S e e John C H . F e i and Gustov R a n i s , Development of the Labour Surplus Economy: Theory and Policy (Homewood: R.D. I r w i n , 1 9 6 4 ) ; D.W. J o u r g e n s o n , "The Development o f a Dual Economy," Economic Journal, June 1961; a l s o G a b r i e l Almond and James Coleman, The Politics of Developing Areas ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 ) ; D a n i e l L e r n e r , The Passing of Traditional Society ( G l e n c o e : Free P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , C h a p t e r s 2 and 3 ; Benjamin H i g g i n s , "The ' D u a l i s t i c T h e o r y ' o f Under-d e v e l o p e d A r e a s , " Economic Development and Cultural Change, 4 ( 2 ) , J a n u a r y 1956, pp. 9 9 - 1 1 5 . . 1 1 J u l i u s Herman B o e k e , Economics and Economic Policy of Dual Societies ( M . Y . : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t , I n s t i t u t e o f P a c i f i c R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 5 3 ) , p. 4 0 . 1 2 S e e K e i t h G r i f f i n , "Underdevelopment i n Theory" i n C h a r l e s K. W i l b e r ( e d . ) , The Political Economy of Development and Underdevelopment ( M . Y . : Random House, 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 1 5 - 2 5 ; a l s o G e r a l d M. M e i e r ( e d . ) , Leading Issues in Development Economics ( N . Y . : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1976, 3 r d e d . ) . 1 3 See Henry B e r n s t e i n , " M o d e r n i z a t i o n Theory and t h e S o c i o -l o g i c a l Study o f Development," Journal of Development Studies, 7 ( 2 ) , 1971, pp. 141-160; Anke i M.M. H o o g v e l t , The Sociology of Developing Societies (London: M a c m i l l a n P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) ; Paul S t r e e t e n , "The L i m i t s o f Development R e s e a r c h , " World Development, 2 ( 1 0 / 1 2 ) , October/December 1974, pp. 11-34. ^ D a r c y R i b e i r o , The Americas and Civilization ( N . Y . : D u t t o n , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 2 2 - 2 3 . See A l s o Tamas S z e n t e s , Economic and Social Disintegration and Some Questions of Self-Help in the Developing Countries ( B u d a p e s t : C e n t e r f o r A f r o - A s i a n Research o f t h e Hungarian Academy o f S c i e n c e s , 1 9 6 7 ) ; Interpretations of Economic Underdevelop-ment ( B u d a p e s t : C e n t e r f o r A f r o - A s i a n Research o f t h e Hungarian Academy o f S c i e n c e s , 1968) and The Political Economy of Underdevelop-ment ( B u d a p e s t : Akademiai K i a d o , 1973). 15 Andre Gunder F r a n k , Capitalism and Underdevelopment %n Lat%n America ( N . Y . : M o n t h l y Review B o o k s , 1 9 6 6 ) ; a l s o "The Development o f U n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t , " Monthly Review, 1 8 ( 4 ) , September 1966, pp. 17-31 and 18 1 5 ( c o n t i n u e d ) " S o c i o l o g y o f Development and Underdevelopment o f S o c i o l o g y " r e p r i n t e d i n C o c k c r o f t , Frank and Johnson ( e d s . ) , Dependence and Underdevelopment ( N . Y . : Doubleday A n c h o r , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 3 2 1 - 3 9 8 . See Manning Nash ( e d . ) , Essays on Economic Development and Cultural Change in Honour of Bert F. Hoselitz ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 7 7 ) , e s p e c i a l l y the c h a p t e r by Gustav R a n i s , " D e v e l o p -ment Theory a t T h r e e - Q u a r t e r C e n t u r y , " pp. 2 5 5 - 2 5 6 . ^ M i c h a e l L i p t o n , Why Poor People Stay Poor, A Study of Urban Bias in World Development (London: Temple S m i t h , 1 9 7 7 ) , p. 15. See a l s o Thomas B a l a g h , " F a i l u r e i n t h e S t r a t e g y A g a i n s t P o v e r t y , " World Development, 6 ( 1 ) , 1978, pp. 2 9 5 - 3 0 4 ; C h a r l e s E l l i o t , Patterns of Poverty in the Third World (New Y o r k : P r a e g e r , 1 9 7 5 ) ; K e i t h G r i f f i n and A z i z u r Rahman Khan, " P o v e r t y i n t h e T h i r d W o r l d : U g l y F a c t s and Fancy M o d e l s , " World Development, 6 ( 3 ) , 1978, pp. 2 9 5 - 3 0 4 . 1 o Chung-tong Wu and David l p , " S t r u c t u r a l T r a n s f o r m a t i o n and S p a t i a l E q u i t y : E x p e r i e n c e from C h i n a " i n Norton G i n s b e r g and C . K . Leung ( e d s ) , ( f o r t h c o m i n g ) , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , Department o f Geography R e s e a r c h Paper S e r i e s , 1979. 1 9 Mahbub u l Haq, "The C r i s i s i n Development S t r a t e g i e s , " World Development, 1 ( 7 ) , J u l y , 1973, pp. 2 9 - 3 1 . R e p r i n t e d i n C h a r l e s K. W i l b e r ( e d . ) , The Political Economy of Development and Underdevelop-ment ( M . Y . : Random House, 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 3 6 7 - 3 7 2 . See a l s o Paul S t r e e t e n , "The L i m i t s o f Development R e s e a r c h , " World Development, 2 ( 1 0 / 1 2 ) , October/December 1974, pp. 11-34. 2 0 M a r i o n Levy J r . , " C o n t r a s t i n g F a c t o r s i n t h e M o d e r n i z a t i o n o f C h i n a and J a p a n , " Economic Development and Cultural Change, V o l . 2 , 1954, pp. 161-197. S i m i l a r l y , Ho a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c l a n system was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r C h i n a ' s f a i l u r e t o d e v e l o p a c a p i t a l i s t i c system and a c h i e v e economic development. See P i n g - t i Ho, Studies on the Population of China 1386-1953 ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 2 0 5 . 2 1 S . N . E i s e n s t a d t , " T r a d i t i o n , Change and M o d e r n i t y : R e f l e c t i o n s on t h e C h i n e s e E x p e r i e n c e " i n P i n g - t i Ho and Tang Tsou ( e d s . ) , China in .Crisis,. V o l . I , Book 2 ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) , pp. 753-774. 19 22 i i J i n Y a o - j i Chuan-tung yu xian-dai 4%^ ( T r a d i t i o n and M o d e r n i t y ) ( T a i p e i : S h u i - n i u c h u - b a n r s h e , 1 9 6 8 ) . 23 Edwin 0 . R e i s c h a u e r , A New Look at Modern History (Tokyo: P u b l i s h e r Unknown, 1 9 6 4 ) ; a l s o w i t h John F a i r b a n k , A History of East Asian Civilization, Vol. 2: The Modern Transformation ( B o s t o n : Houghton M i f f i n , 1 9 6 5 ) . 24 N. J a c o b s , The Origin of Modern Capitalism and Eastern Asia (Hong Kong: Hong Kong U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) . 25 W i l l i a m W i l t Lockwood, The Economic Development of China and Japan ( P r i n c e t o n : U n i v e r s i t y o f P r i n c e t o n P r e s s , 1 9 6 4 ) . 26 G . C . A l l e n and Audrey G. D o n n i t h o r n e , Western Enterprise in Far Eastern Economic Development: China and Japan (London: A l l e n and U n w i n , 1 9 5 4 ) . 27 A l b e r t F e u r w e r k e r , The Chinese Economy 1921-1949 (Ann A r b o r : C e n t e r f o r C h i n e s e S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , 1 9 6 8 ) . no For e x a m p l e , Audrey D o n n i t h o r n e , China's Economic System (London: A l l e n & U n w i n , 1967) . 1965) 2 9 Y u a n - l i Wu, The Economy of Communist China ( N . Y . : P r a e g e r , 30 Mark E l v i n , The Pattern of the Chinese Past ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973). See a l s o " S k i l l s and R e s o u r c e s i n L a t e T r a d i t i o n a l C h i n a " by the same a u t h o r i n Dwight H. P e r k i n s , ( e d . ) , China's Modern Economy in Historical Perspective ( S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975) . 31 Robert D e r n b e r g e r , "The Role o f F o r e i g n e r s i n C h i n a ' s Economic Development" i n Dwight P e r k i n s ( e d . ) , Ibid. Ramon M e y e r s , The Chinese Peasant Economy: Agricultural Development in Hopei and Chantung, 1890-1949 ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ) , p. 212. 20 "^Dwight P e r k i n s , " I n t r o d u c t i o n : The P e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e P a s t " i n P e r k i n s , op. cit. 34 E t i e n n e B a l a z s , Chinese Civilization and Bureaucracy (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972). 35 C a r l R i s k i n , " S u r p l u s and S t a g n a t i o n i n Modern C h i n a " i n P e r k i n s , ( e d . ) , op. cit. 36 V i c t o r L i p p i t , "Development o f Underdevelopment i n C h i n a , " Modern China, 4 ( 3 ) , J u l y 1978, pp. 2 8 4 - 3 2 3 . See a l s o Andre Gunder F r a n k , "Development o f Underdevelopment o r Underdevelopment o f Development i n C h i n a , " Modern China, 4 ( 3 ) , J u l y 1978, pp. 3 4 1 - 3 5 0 . 37 For e x a m p l e , J a c k G r a y , "The Economics o f Maoism" i n Henry B e r n s t e i n ( e d . ) , Underdevelopment and Development, The Third World Today (London: Penguin B o o k s , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 2 5 4 - 2 7 4 ; "The C h i n e s e M o d e l : Some C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f M a o i s t P o l i c i e s f o r S o c i a l Change and Economic Growth" i n A l e c Move and D.M. N u t i ( e d s . ) , Socialist Economics (London: Penguin B o o k s , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 4 9 1 - 5 1 0 ; "The Two Roads: A l t e r n -a t i v e S t r a t e g i e s o f S o c i a l Change and Economic Growth i n C h i n a " i n S t u a r t R. Schram ( e d . ) , Authority Participation and Cultural Change in China (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 109-158 and "Mao T s e - t u n g ' s S t r a t e g y f o r t h e C o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n o f C h i n e s e A g r i c u l t u r e : An Important Phase i n t h e Development o f Maoism" i n DeKant and W i l l i a m s ( e d s . ) , Sociology and Development (London: T a v i s t o c k , 1 9 7 4 ) , pp. 3 9 - 6 6 . John G u r l e y , " M a o i s t Economic Development: The New Man i n t h e New C h i n a " i n W i l b e r ( e d . ) , op. cit., pp. 3 0 7 - 3 1 9 ; " C a p i t a l i s t and M a o i s t Economic Development" i n Friedman and S e l d e n ( e d s . ) , America's Asia ( N . Y . : Pantheon P r e s s , 1971) ; Challengers to Capitalism (Sna F r a n c i s c o : San F r a n c i s c o Book C o . , 1 9 7 6 ) ; and China's Economy and the Maoist Strategy ( N . Y . : M o n t h l y Review B o o k s , 1976) . Joan R o b i n s o n , Economic Management in China (London: A n g l o -C h i n e s e E d u c a t i o n I n s t i t u t e , 1975). 38 W h e e l w r i g h t and M c F a r l a n e , The Chinese Road to Socialism ( N . Y . : M o n t h l y Review B o o k s , 1970) . John G i t t i n g s , How to Study China's Socialist Development ( S u s s e x : P u b l i s h e r Unknown, 1975). P A R T I RURAL POVERTY IN SOUTH CHINA BEFORE LIBERATION 21 22 P A R T I RURAL POVERTY IN SOUTH CHINA BEFORE LIBERATION CHAPTER 1 THE BASIS OF RURAL GUANGDONG BEFORE LIBERATION A. Some G e o g r a p h i c a l Background Guangdong P r o v i n c e i s t h e southernmost p r o v i n c e o f C h i n a . L y i n g between l o n g t i t u d e s 3 ° 5 0 ' and 2 5 ° 2 8 ' , and l a t i t u d e s 1 0 9 ° 4 5 ' and 1 0 7 ° 2 0 ' , Guangdong embraces a t o t a l a r e a o f more than 217, 000 square m e t e r s . 1 In 1937 t h e N a t i o n a l C h i n e s e Government e s t i m a t e d the p r o v i n c e had a p o p u l a t i o n o f 3 2 , 3 8 9 , 8 0 5 , an average d e n s i t y o f 1 4 8 . 5 0 p e r s o n s per square m i l e . The heavy p r e s s u r e o f t h e man-land r a t i o upon the l i v e l i h o o d o f Guangdong's p e o p l e i s o b v i o u s . Guangdong P r o v i n c e i s p a r t o f t r o p i c a l C h i n a . I t s l o n g wet summer extends from m i d - A p r i l to m i d - O c t o b e r and i n i t s h o t t e s t month, J u l y , t e m p e r a t u r e s average 28 t o 29 d e g r e e s C e l s i u s w i t h v e r y h i g h h u m i d i t y . W i n t e r i s n o r m a l l y s h o r t w i t h p l e a s a n t , d r y , c o o l w e a t h e r ; k i l l i n g f r o s t s a r e uncommon, and snow i s v i r t u a l l y unknown. Temperatures f a l l t o 9 o r 10 degrees C e l s i u s i n t h e c o o l e s t months 3 o f December and J a n u a r y . 23 Guangdong P r o v i n c e i s one o f t h e w e t t e s t i n C h i n a . P r e -c i p i t a t i o n i s p r i n c i p a l l y from t h e annual monsoon and o c c a s i o n a l typhoons from South C h i n a sea t o t h e s o u t h . The annual r a i n f a l l averages about 1 , 5 0 0 c e n t i m e t e r s ( o r 66 i n c h e s ) , more than 40 p e r c e n t 4 o f i t c o n c e n t r a t e d d u r i n g t h e summer months. Because o f t h e warm, m i l d c l i m a t e and t h e abundance o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n , Guangdong became one o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t r i c e - p r o d u c i n g r e g i o n s i n C h i n a . In f a c t , g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n t a k e s up f o u r - f i f t h s o f t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e , w h i l e f r e s h f r u i t s , s u g a r - c a n e , peanuts and o t h e r s 5 are t h e o t h e r major food o r economic c r o p s . T o p o g r a p h i c a l l y , Guangdong i s a mountainous p r o v i n c e a l o n g South C h i n a ' s c o a s t . About 33 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o v i n c e a r e m o u n t a i n s , 25 p e r c e n t a r e h i l l y r e g i o n s , 19 p e r c e n t a r e p l a t e a u and 23 p e r c e n t are p l a i n s . The h i l l y a r e a s and mountains a r e found m o s t l y i n t h e n o r t h , o r n o r t h - e a s t e r n and s o u t h - e a s t e r n as w e l l as t h e w e s t e r n r e g i o n s o f the p r o v i n c e . The p l a i n s spread from t h e d e l t a a r e a s o f P e a r l R i v e r , West R i v e r and E a s t R i v e r , w h i l e some can be found s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h the e a s t e r n r e g i o n near the end o f Han R i v e r . A c c o r d i n g t o the Liangguang G e o l o g i c a l Survey i n the 1 9 3 0 s , l e s s than a t h i r d o f the l a n d was c u l t i v a b l e and l e s s than a s i x t h o f the a r e a was under c u l t i v a t i o n . ^ That s u r v e y would s e t t h e c u l t i v a t e d a r e a o f t h e p r o v i n c e a t 17.7 p e r c e n t , which i s the average f o r C h i n a ' s r i c e - r e g i o n , as a g a i n s t 1 9 . 6 p e r c e n t f o r China as a w h o l e . A r e p o r t o f the M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Commerce i n t h e 1 9 3 0 s , however, .24 put the c u l t i v a t e d l a n d o f t h i s r e g i o n as low as 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l a r e a . ^ Guangdong P r o v i n c e f a l l i n t o f i v e g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s — t h e C e n t r a l , E a s t , N o r t h , West d i s t r i c t s and t h e Hainan i s l a n d . The c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t i s not o n l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t r i c e - p r o d u c i n g r e g i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e , i t i s a l s o t h e most d e v e l o p e d r e g i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y , i n Guangdong. Here an a r e a o f more than 1 4 , 0 0 0 s q . k i l o m e t e r s encompasses the r i c h d e l t a l a n d formed by t h e W e s t , N o r t h g and East R i v e r s . F l a t c u l t i v a b l e l a n d i s more abundant i n t h i s r e g i o n than anywhere e l s e i n t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e . The d e l t a a r e a c o v e r s 9 , 4 0 0 s q . k i l o m e t e r s , o f w h i c h t w o - t h i r d s a r e a l l u v i a l p l a i n s . 1 ^ The c e n t r a l d i s t r i c t i s a l s o s t r e w n w i t h numerous low h i l l s o f r e d sandstone e n v e l o p e d by p o d z o l i z e d red e a r t h , a r e d a c i d s o i l o f low n a t i v e f e r t i l i t y w i t h s t r o n g l y e x p r e s s e d h o r i z o n s o f e l u v i a t i o n and i l l u v i a t i o n o f c l a y s . Because o f t h e hot c l i m a t e and heavy r a i n , and because o f i n t e n s i v e f e r t i l i z a t i o n , however, the s o i l i s made t o p r o v i d e a m u l t i - c r o p a g r i c u l t u r a l economy, f o r i t s p o p u l a t i o n . In f a c t , t h e c u l t i v a t e d l a n d here i s 28 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l c u l t i v a t e d a r e a i n t h e p r o v i n c e . 1 1 M o r e o v e r , t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s i n d u s t r i e s , o n e - t h i r d o f i t s f o o d - c r o p s , a h a l f o f i t s s u g a r - c a n e and f o u r - f i f t h s o f the p r o v i n c e ' s s i l k cocoon a l l d e r i v e from t h i s d e l t a r e g i o n . I t i s a l s o t h e r e g i o n t h a t produces most o f Guangdong's f r e s h f r u i t s . 25 A t o t a l o f n i n e t y - f o u r c o u n t i e s c o m p r i s e d the p r o v i n c e i n 1 9 t h e 1930s. Our f o c u s w i l l be on the d e l t a r e g i o n and on i t s c o u n t i e s o f Nan-hai 0 $ » v £ ) , Pan-yu ) , Shun-de ("11*$-), Zhong-shan ( * A t ) , X i n - h u i ( * t ^ ) , Dong-guan ) and K a i - p i n g ( t ) . N a n - h a i was a l o n g , narrow c o u n t y c o v e r i n g an a r e a o f 1 , 2 6 3 . 7 5 s q . k i l o m e t e r s . R e l a t i v e l y f l a t e x c e p t f o r a h i l l y r e g i o n and t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t where t h e X i - C a o Mountain (iit»$- ^ ) 1 i e s , N a n - h a i ' s p o p u l a t i o n was 1 , 0 1 0 , 8 1 2 . G r a i n p r o d u c t i o n p r o v i d e the c o u n t y ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e , 45 t o 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d produces o v e r 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 picul o f r i c e a n n u a l l y . Twenty p e r c e n t o f the c o u n t y ' s f i e l d s e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e s o u t h e r n p a r t , grew m u l b e r r y w h i l e f r e s h f r u i t s such as l y c h e e s , l o n g n a n , yangtou and huangpi were grown i n 13 4 t o 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e o t h e r f i e l d s . P a n - y u , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by an abundance o f a l l u v i a l p l a i n s . H e r e , 70 p e r c e n t o f the c u l t i v a t e d l a n d were a l l u v i a l and t h e y were found m o s t l y i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t o f the c o u n t y r e f e r r e d t o as Sha-tian >7 ® (sandy f i e l d s ) . ^ Formed by sediments brought by the i n c e s s a n t r i v e r c u r r e n t and sea t i d e , t h e s e f i e l d s were sandy but e x c e e d i n g l y f e r t i l e ; w i t h p r o t e c t i o n and t h e p l a n t i n g 15 o f a c e r t a i n k i n d o f g r a s s , t h e y may be c o n v e r t e d i n t o c u l t i v a b l e f i e l d s w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s . Pan-yu had an a r e a o f 1 , 7 9 4 . 2 5 s q . k i l o -m e t e r s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l a r e a o f Guangdong 1 c P r o v i n c e . I t s p o p u l a t i o n was 828,114 i n 1930. A g a i n , t h i s was a major g r a i n p r o d u c i n g r e g i o n . E i g h t y p e r c e n t o f the l a n d were 27 r i c e f i e l d s and t h e y had produced 5 t o 6 m i l l i o n p i c u l o f g r a i n each y e a r . Other produce such as sweet p o t a t o e s , p e a n u t s , c a b b a g e , t e a and f r e s h f r u i t s , i n c l u d i n g l y c h e e s , o r a n g e s , l e m o n s , p l u m s , persimmons, mangoes, p o m e l o e s , p i n e a p p l e s , g u a v a s , and s u g a r - c a n e . Shun-de c o u n t y ' s i m p o r t a n c e l i e d i n i t s s i l k r a t h e r than r i c e p r o d u c t i o n . Surrounded by m o u n t a i n s , t h e c o u n t y had a f l a t i n t e r i o r o f a l l u v i a l p l a i n s . I t s a r e a entended some 751.75 sq • k i l o m e t e r s w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n numbering. 8 4 1 , 5 9 2 d u r i n g t h e 1 9 3 0 s . 1 7 These p l a i n s were c u l t i v a t e d under l o c a l system c a l l e d "sang-ji yu-tang" $z ( m u l b e r r y banks and f i s h p o n d s ) . H e r e , t h e p u d d l e s i n t h e a l l u v i a l f i e l d s were h o l l o w e d out to form ponds f o r f i s h e r i e s w h i l e t h e mud from t h e s e f i e l d s were p i l e d up t o form t o p s o i l f o r o t h e r f i e l d s on d r y l a n d f o r growing m u l b e r r i e s . S i l k p r o d u c t i o n i s i t s major e n t e r -p r i s e , but f i s h e r i e s , m u l b e r r i e s , and s u g a r - c a n e r e t a i n c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e . Z h o n g - s h a n , however, had remained an i m p o r t a n t r i c e r e g i o n with, t h e h i g h e s t g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e d u r i n g t h e 1930s 1 g ( 6 , 3 4 6 , 5 8 1 p i c u l a n n u a l l y ) . The county was 2 , 8 7 6 . 7 5 s q - k i l o m e t e r s i n a r e a and had a p o p u l a t i o n o f 1 , 1 6 8 , 1 2 0 . I t supplemented i t s r i c e p r o d u c t i o n w i t h p o t a t o e s , sweet p o t a t o e s , c a b b a g e , b e a n s , l y c h e e s , m u l b e r r i e s and o y s t e r - h a r v e s t i n g . X i n - h u i i s a c o u n t y o f a l l u v i a l p l a i n s , about 60 to 70 p e r c e n t o f i t s l a n d i s formed by a l l u v i u m . I t s p o p u l a t i o n o f 8 8 1 , 6 0 5 peopled an a r e a o f 1 , 9 2 2 . 2 5 s q . - k i l o m e t e r s i n t h e 1930s. G r a i n p r o d u c t i o n had 28 t o t a l l e d 4 t o 5 m i l l i o n p i c u l each y e a r i n a d d i t i o n t o c r o p s o f m u l -b e r r i e s , o r a n g e s , mandarin o r a n g e s , b a n a n a s , s u g a r - c a n e and 19 t o b a c c o . Dong-guan i s s i m i l a r . Of i t s 2 , 7 2 0 . 5 0 s q . k i l o m e t e r s o f l a n d , 20 p e r c e n t were mountains and 20 p e r c e n t were h i l l s . The b u l k o f t h e l a n d was a l l u v i a l p l a i n s . Dong-guan had a g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n o f about 7 m i l l i o n p i c u l per y e a r d u r i n g t h e 1930s and a s u g a r - r e f i n i n g i n d u s t r y c a p a b l e o f p r o d u c i n g 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 p i c u l o f r e f i n e d cane sugar a n n u a l l y from i t s own h a r v e s t s . Straw f o r mat p r o d u c t i o n was a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e c o u n t y ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l economy; each y e a r the h a r v e s t was about 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 p i c u l . F r e s h f r u i t s , such as l y c h e e s , b a n a n a s , l o n g n a n s , p e a r s , and o t h e r p r o d u c e , such as w h e a t , j u t e , 20 p o t a t o , and t o b a c c o , were grown here as w e l l . Of t h e c o u n t i e s mentioned perhaps K a i - p i n g had had most e m i g r a n t s o v e r s e a s . With a t o t a l a r e a o f 1 , 1 7 3 . 2 5 sq . k i l o m e t e r s and a p o p u l a t i o n o f 3 4 9 , 2 3 6 , K a i - p i n g ' s major c r o p remained g r a i n , w i t h an annual p r o d u c t i o n o f 1 m i l l i o n p i c u l , but i t s p r i n c i p a l 21 s o u r c e o f income had been o v e r s e a s r e m i t t a n c e . P o p u l a t i o n was h e a v i l y c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h i s d e l t a r e g i o n . In 1963 i t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y f o r t h i s 22 r e g i o n was 600 p e r s o n s per s q . k i l o m e t e r s o f l a n d . An e a r l i e r s u r v e y , however, p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e d e n s i t y c o u l d be as h i g h as 23 3 , 1 0 0 persons per square m i l e o f c r o p l a n d . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Shun-de had t h e h i g h e s t d e n s i t y - - ! , 1 2 0 p e r s o n s per square m i l e w h i l e 29 N a n - h a i f o l l o w e d w i t h a d e n s i t y o f 800 d u r i n g e a r l y 1940s. Dung-g u a n ' s d e n s i t y was e s t i m a t e d a t 4 6 4 , P a n - y u ' s a t 462 and Zhong-shan was a t 4 0 6 . A t 394 p e r s o n s per square m i l e , X i n - h u i had t h e l o w e s t 24 d e n s i t y among the c o u n t i e s we d i s c u s s e d . With such a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n and heavy d e n s i t y , the p r e s s u r e o f t h e man-land r a t i o i s r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t . L i a n g e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n 1 9 5 3 , f o r each person engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e t h e r e was o n l y 2 . 7 5 mu o f c u l t i v a t e d l a n d , a r a t e which was h i g h e r than o t h e r r r e g i o n s i n t h e 25 p r o v i n c e but i n i t s e l f was s t i l l meagre. E a r l i e r s t u d i e s , however, showed t h a t t h e number was even s m a l l e r . The Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-Jian r e p o r t e d t h a t i n Pan-yu t h e r e was 1 . 6 9 mu o f c r o p l a n d per c a p i t a . In Z h o n g - s h a n , t h e number was 1 . 7 9 ; w h i l e i n S h u n - d e , i t was 1 . 0 7 ; X i n - h u i , 1 . 3 0 ; K a i - p i n g , 0 . 9 9 ; N a n - h a i , 1 . 3 6 ; and Dong-27 g u a n , 7 . 5 2 . In t h e i r s t u d y o f L o n g - y a n - d o n g , L i n and Luo a l s o 28 showed t h a t l i t t l e l a n d was a v a i l a b l e per c a p i t a . Y a n g ' s r e s e a r c h on Nanching v i l l a g e i n the same c o u n t y (Pan-yu) i n d i c a t e d a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n . Only 1 . 0 8 mu o r about o n e - s i x t h o f an a c r e o f c r o p l a n d 29 was p o s s i b l e f o r each p e a s a n t . A l l t h e s e f i g u r e s were not v e r y f a r from Z h a n g ' s e s t i m a t e o f the g e n e r a l man-land r a t i o o f Guangdong--30 h i s f i n d i n g was 1 . 3 5 per c a p i t a . The p r e s s u r e o f t h e man-land r a t i o upon t h e l i v e s o f t h e r u r a l p e a s a n t s , o p e r a t e d t h r o u g h s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h o s e g o v e r n i n g t h e o w n e r s h i p and use o f l a n d . 30 B. C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f Land One o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r u r a l Guangdong b e f o r e 1949 was the o v e r w h e l m i n g l y l a r g e numbers o f t e n a n t f a r m e r s . In 1925 and 1926, both Lingnan U n i v e r s i t y and t h e C e n t r a l Guangdong Farmers' A s s o c i a t i o n agreed t h a t 85 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t s i n t h e p r o v i n c e were t e n a n t s . 1 The Canton Suburb Farmers' Union and the U n i v e r s i t y o f Guangdong e s t i m a t e d i n t h e i r s u r v e y s t h a t a t l e a s t 70 p e r c e n t o f 2 t h e p r o v i n c e ' s p e a s a n t s were t e n a n t s . In 1 9 3 0 , Zhong a l s o a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e n a n t s i n Guangdong was 46 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l 3 peasant p o p u l a t i o n w h i l e i n 1 9 3 4 - 1 9 3 5 , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r a t h e r c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f the n a t i o n a l i s t government, t h e t e n a n t f a r m e r s i n Guangdong was a t l e a s t 58 p e r c e n t o f the peasant 4 p o p u l a t i o n . R u r a l Guangdong, however, was a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a c o n s i d e r -a b l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a n d i n t h e hands o f a few. Sun r e p o r t e d i n 1933 i n h i s s t u d y o f the problems o f l a n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e , l a n d l o r d s who made up 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e peasant p o p u l a t i o n i n Guangdong and owned 53 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d i n t h e p r o v i n c e . R i c h p e a s a n t s r e p r e s e n t e d 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e peasant p o p u l a t i o n but had 13 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d , and m i d d l e p e a s a n t s , who c o n s t i t u t e d 20 p e r c e n t o f a l l p e a s a n t s , h e l d 15 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d . Poor p e a s a n t s made up the m a j o r i t y o f t h e peasant p o p u l a t i o n , t h a t i s , a t o t a l o f 74 5 p e r c e n t , y e t owned o n l y 19 p e r c e n t o f the l a n d . 31 In the d e l t a r e g i o n , t h e s i t u a t i o n o f l a n d c o n c e n t r a t i o n was s i m i l a r . The I n s t i t u t e o f A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e s a t Guangdong U n i v e r -s i t y a s s e s s e d t h a t i n 1921-22 i n Shun-de c o u n t y , 80 p e r c e n t o f the p e a s a n t s engaged i n f a r m i n g were t e n a n t s ; i n Dong-guan c o u n t y , t h e f i g u r e was 60 p e r c e n t . ^ The Farmers' A s s o c i a t i o n i n the d e l t a r e g i o n r e p o r t e d l a t e r i n 1925-26 t h a t i n Shun-de c o u n t y , t h e number o f t e n a n t s were 70 p e r c e n t o f the f a r m e r s ' p o p u l a t i o n . In Pan-yu d i s t r i c t , the p e r c e n t a g e remained as h i g h as 70 p e r c e n t w h i l e i n Dong-guan, 45 p e r c e n t o f t h e f a r m e r s were t e n a n t s . ^ In 1932, the C h i n e s e Economic Yearbook r e v e a l e d t h a t i n Pan-yu t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e n a n t s showed no s i g n o f d e c r e a s i n g and was s t i l l 70 p e r c e n t , w h i l e i n N a n - h a i t h e Q p r o p o r t i o n was a l s o 70 p e r c e n t and i n X i n - h u i , 65 p e r c e n t . The s u r v e y c a r r i e d out by t h e C u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e o f Zhong-shan U n i v e r s i t y i n 1934 c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t e n a n t s i n Shun-de a r e a was s t a y i n g here a t 7 6 . 9 2 p e r c e n t , w h i l e Zhong-shan d i s t r i c t had a s i m i l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 71.97 p e r c e n t . I t d i d r e p o r t , however, t h a t Q K a i - p i n g ' s p r o p o r t i o n o f t e n a n t s was o n l y 4 0 . 6 p e r c e n t . At t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l , Zhao, i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f C i - x i %-'•% v i l l a g e i n X i n - h u i , found a somewhat d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n 1927. He noted t h a t i n the v i l l a g e , l a n d l o r d s who l i v e d e x c l u s i v e l y on r e n t i n g out t h e i r l a n d c o n s t i t u t e d 25 p e r c e n t o f the v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n , w h i l e 17 p e r c e n t o f t h e f a r m e r s worked on t h e i r own l a n d w i t h o u t h a v i n g t o r e n t a d d i t i o n a l f i e l d s t o s u p p o r t t h e i r l i v i n g . Only about 18 p e r c e n t o f t h e t e n a n t s owned no l a n d a t a l l ; the r e s t had t h e i r own l a n d , no m a t t e r how l i t t l e , and t h e y used some k i n d o f t e n a n c y f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s . 1 ^ O b v i o u s l y , Zhao was e m p l o y i n g a d i f f e r e n t approach o f a n a l y s i s — a t e n a n t , o w n e r - t e n a n t , and owner-c u l t i v a t i o n a n a l y s i s r a t h e r than t h e more p o p u l a r approach i n terms o f a r i c h , m i d d l e , and poor p e a s a n t . A p r o b a b l y more a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e , however, can be o b t a i n e d from C h e n ' s s u r v e y o f t e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v i l l a g e s i n t h e Pan-yu d i s t r i c t i n 1 9 3 3 . 1 1 H e r e , t h e m a j o r i t y ( 4 4 . 7 p e r c e n t ) o f r u r a l p e a s a n t s were poor p e a s a n t s , t h o s e whose number o f c u l t i v a t e d mu f e l l below t h a t r e q u i r e d f o r s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y and had t o r e l y upon a wage income o r some income o f an a u x i l l i a r y n a t u r e . Only 16 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t s were m i d d l e p e a s a n t s . These l a n d h o l d i n g s were b a r e l y s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g and were n e i t h e r d i r e c t l y e x p l o i t e d b y , nor e x p l o i t i n g , o t h e r s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , 8 . 8 p e r c e n t were r i c h p e a s a n t s d e f i n e d as t h o s e who h i r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r e r s by t h e d a y , season o r y e a r d u r i n g busy t i m e s i n e x c e s s o f t h e l a b o u r r e q u i r e d by an average m i d d l e peasant f o r s e l f -s u p p o r t , o r t h o s e whose c u l t i v a t e d l a n d s u r p a s s e d the average l a n d used by m i d d l e p e a s a n t s f o r s e l f - s u p p o r t . L a n d l o r d s numbered 2 . 9 p e r c e n t w h i l e 6 . 9 p e r c e n t were a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r s who d i d not c u l t i v a t e any l a n d , e i t h e r own o r l e a s e d , but h i r e d t h e m s e l v e s o u t o r c u l t i v a t e d a p a t c h o f l a n d but s u p p o r t e d t h e m s e l v e s c h i e f l y by s e l l i n g . t h e i r l a b o u r power. 33 In a d d i t i o n , Chen a l s o found t h a t among p e a s a n t s , e x c l u d i n g l a n d l o r d s , r i c h p e a s a n t s , who made up 11.6 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t r y , owned 4 9 . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d s ; m i d d l e p e a s a n t s , who formed 2 0 . 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e v i l l a g e p e a s a n t s , owned 2 8 . 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d . The b u l k o f the peasant p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e s e v i l l a g e s , 5 8 . 5 12 p e r c e n t , were poor peasants who owned a mere 22.1 p e r c e n t o f a l l l a n d . And among t h e s e p e a s a n t s , 44 p e r c e n t o f t h e r i c h p e a s a n t s owned 5 t o 20 mu , w h i l e about 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e m i d d l e p e a s a n t s owned under 5 mu, and 6 0 . 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e poor p e a s a n t s owned no l a n d a t a l l . For t h e r i c h p e a s a n t s , t h e average number o f mu owned per f a m i l y was 1 1 . 3 3 . Among m i d d l e p e a s a n t s , t h e average was 3.57 mu, and poor p e a s a n t s had 13 t h e average o f o n l y 1 mu per f a m i l y . M o r e o v e r , i n terms o f t h e q u a l i t y o r t y p e s o f l a n d owned by t h e s e d i f f e r e n t p e a s a n t s , a c c o r d i n g t o C h e n , i n the Pan-yu r e g i o n , 6 1 . 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d owned by l a n d -l o r d s were i r r i g a t e d f i e l d s h i g h l y v a l u e d because o f the r e l a t i v e l y easy a v a i l a b i l i t y and a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f w a t e r . The same was t r u e f o r t h e r i c h p e a s a n t s - - 6 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r l a n d was o f t h e same t y p e . F i e l d s owned by m i d d l e p e a s a n t s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , were 5 3 . 6 p e r c e n t i r r i g a t e d and 4 6 . 4 p e r c e n t n o n - i r r i g a t e d o r d r y l a n d s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , 6 2 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d owned by poor p e a s a n t s f e l l i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f 14 d r y l a n d s , . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , Wu and Huang, i n t h e i r work on the Feng-huang ^ ' I L V i l l a g e i n t h e Pan-yu d i s t r i c t , p o i n t e d out t h a t i n the v i l l a g e , e x c e p t f o r seven f a m i l i e s who c o u l d be s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g w o r k i n g 34 on t h e i r own f i e l d s , t h e r e s t o f the peasant p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f s i x t y - n i n e t e n a n t f a m i l i e s and t w e n t y - f o u r f a m i l i e s who worked as 15 a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r s . In a n o t h e r v i l l a g e o f the same c o u n t y , Luo and L i n o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e l a n d o w n e r s h i p p a t t e r n conformed t o most e a r l y s t u d i e s . They found t h a t 52 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t s i n t h e 1 C v i l l a g e were t e n a n t s and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r s . Yang i n h i s much l a t e r s t u d y o f Nanching v i l l a g e o f t h e same d i s t r i c t , r e p o r t e d t h a t l a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n d i d not change much even i n 1945. He i n d i c a t e d t h a t 1 3 . 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e v i l l a g e were l a n d l o r d s and r i c h p e a s a n t s , t h e former r e f e r r i n g t o t h o s e who p o s s e s s e d o v e r 30 mu o r o p e r a t e d a farm o f o v e r 30 mu o f owned o r r e n t e d l a n d . The 3 0 . 5 p e r c e n t who were m i d d l e p e a s a n t s p o s s e s s e d 6 t o 20 mu o r o p e r a t e d a farm o f s i m i l a r s i z e . The l a r g e s t group was s t i l l poor p e a s a n t s , 4 3 . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n who owned a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 mu o r l e s s or were o p e r a t i n g a farm o f s i m i l a r s i z e . ^ There were b i g i n d i v i d u a l l a n d l o r d s i n Shun-de where f i f t e e n l a n d l o r d s owned o v e r 1 , 0 0 0 mu o f c u l t i v a t e d l a n d s e a c h , and i n P a n - y u , where a t l e a s t two t o t h r e e l a n d l o r d s each owned 5 , 0 0 0 to 1 0 , 0 0 0 mu o f c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d s and a n o t h e r t e n who each owned 1 , 0 0 0 t o 3 , 0 0 0 18 mu, p l a n t a t i o n economy was never p r e v a l e n t i n r u r a l Guangdong's d e l t a a r e a because l a r g e h o l d i n g s were broken i n t o s m a l l p a r c e l s t o be r e n t e d out and not farmed and managed i n b i g u n i t y . The s t a t i s t i c s p o i n t out some o f the b a s i c f a c t s about r u r a l Guangdong: l a n d o w n e r s h i p was c o n c e n t r a t e d among t h e upper groups 35 and l o w e r groups had l i t t l e o r no l a n d . These f i g u r e s , however, d i d not t e l l t h e whole s t o r y . For one t h i n g i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o g n i z e two t y p e s o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p : p r i v a t e and c o l l e c t i v e . And c o l l e c t i v e h o l d i n g s o f l a n d d i d p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n r u r a l l i f e i n Guangdong. 1 . C l a n Land and t h e Power o f C l a n s Those c h i e f c o r p o r a t i o n s h o l d i n g l a n d s w e r e , i n g e n e r a l , t e m p l e s , hui ^ ( a s s o c i a t i o n s , t h e government and c l a n s . Land which belonged t o temples was r e f e r r e d to as Si-miao-tian -M*!» (temple l a n d ) . Land owned by a s s o c i a t i o n s and o r g a n i z e d on t h e b a s i s o f o c c u p a t i o n , r e l i g i o n , neighbourhood and r e c r e a t i o n were c a l l e d hui-tian ® ( a s s o c i a t i o n l a n d ) ; t h o s e p o s s e s s e d by t h e government f o r the purpose o f s u b s i d i z i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g p u b l i c s c h o o l s were guan-di " ^ ( g o v e r n -ment l a n d ) o r xue-tian & ( e d u c a t i o n l a n d ) . Land owned by t h e s e p u b l i c b o d i e s and c h a r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s composed an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n o f Guangdong. A c c o r d i n g t o the N a t i o n a l Land Commission o f 1937, e d u c a t i o n l a n d i n Zhong-shan c o u n t y 19 was o n l y 0.1 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l c r o p l a n d . C h e n , i n h i s r e s e a r c h on problems o f a g r a r i a n Guangdong a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t temple l a n d i n Zhong-shan xian c o n s t i t u t e d o n l y 0 . 0 0 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l c u l t i v a t e d 20 l a n d s . Land owned by a s s o c i a t i o n s c o u l d more o f t e n be found i n t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n d i s t r i c t o f t h e p r o v i n c e . I t was v i r t u a l l y a b s e n t from t h e d e l t a a r e a . 36 The s i n g l e d o m i n a t i n g form o f c o l l e c t i v e o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d i n G u a n g d o n g , , t h e n , was c l a n l a n d . C l a n l a n d was o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as Zheng-chang-tian « , zu-ohang-tiani-$\*) o r most p o p u l a r l y , tai-gong-tian y*> ( a n c e s t o r ' s l a n d ) . In i t s i n i t i a l s t a g e , t h e s e l a n d s were o n l y s m a l l p o r t i o n s o f p r o p e r t i e s owned by r i c h c l a n s s e t a s i d e f o r t h e purpose o f g e n e r a t i n g income f o r s a c r i f i c i a l c e r e m o n i e s t o t h e a n c e s t o r s , upkeep o f a n c e s t o r a l h a l l s , and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s connected w i t h a n c e s t o r w o r s h i p . When the p r o p e r t i e s were d i v i d e d among c l a n members l a t e r , t h e s e l a n d s were e n t r u s t e d t o c e r t a i n members t o manage as c o l l e c t i v e p r o p e r t y f o r the purpose o f g e n e r a t i n g p r o f i t s . Through such p r o f i t s , more l a n d was accumulated and t h i s became t h e most i m p o r t a n t form o f c o l l e c t i v e ownership o f l a n d i n the p r o v i n c e . The Guangdong Nian-jian fk p o i n t e d out t h a t r o u g h l y about o n e -p i t h i r d o f t h e c u l t i v a t e d l a n d i n t h e p r o v i n c e was owned by c l a n s . Amano gave a s i m i l a r a c c o u n t o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l a n l a n d s i n Guangdong. He s t a t e d t h a t about 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o u n t i e s he 22 s u r v e y e d had 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r l a n d owned by c l a n s . In the d e l t a r e g i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Guangdong P r o v i n c e P e a s a n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n Survey i n 1 9 2 5 , 60 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d i n Nan-hai were c l a n l a n d ; and i n P a n - y u , 50 p e r c e n t were c l a n - o w n e d w h i l e i n S h u n - d e , t h e p r o p o r t i o n was 35 p e r c e n t . Dong-guan had a s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e , 20 p e r c e n t and Zhongr-shan had 21 p e r c e n t , but i n X i n - h u i 23 57 p e r c e n t o f the l a n d were owned by c l a n s . T h i s f i n d i n g was r e c o n f i r m e d by C h e n ' s l a t e r r e s e a r c h . Chen a s s e r t e d t h a t on t h e 37 a v e r a g e , i n P a n - y u , o n e - h a l f o f t h e c u l t i v a t e d l a n d belonged t o c l a n s . In the v i l l a g e s o f Nan-pu , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f c l a n l a n d i 24 was 70 p e r c e n t ; i n M e i - t i a n , i t was as h i g h as 75 p e r c e n t . Luo and L i n o b t a i n e d a s i m i l a r p i c t u r e i n t h e v i l l a g e o f Long-yan-dong o f P a n - y u . They r e p o r t e d t h a t out o f the 2 , 1 1 3 . 2 mu o f c u l t i v a t e d l a n d i n the v i l l a g e , e x c e p t f o r t h e 770.6 mu which were owned 25 p r i v a t e l y , t h e r e s t o f t h e 1 , 3 4 2 . 6 mu were a l l c l a n l a n d s . W h i l e t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s i n the n a t u r e o f c o l l e c t i v e and p r i v a t e o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d , t h e r e was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e system o f t e n a n c y or r e n t i n g t h e l a n d e x c e p t t h a t some c l a n s would make l a n d a v a i l a b l e t o t e n a n t s e x c l u s i v e l y from w i t h i n the c l a n — e i t h e r by r o t a t i o n (lun-zhong ) or by a p p o r t i o n m e n t {fen-geng ) - - w h i l e the c l a n would s e t as a k i n d o f j o i n t l a n d l o r d . A p p o r t i o n m e n t was the method employed i n P o - t s u n v i l l a g e . Yang found t h a t i n t h i s v i l l a g e about 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d were c l a n l a n d . For each d e s -cendant o f t h e c l a n , one was e n t i t l e d t o r e n t 1 . 5 mu o f l a n d from t h e c l a n a t an annual nominal f e e o f about 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e average y i e l d , o r 40 c a t t i e s o f unhusked r i c e per mu. Yang, however, remarked t h a t t h i s was an unusual c a s e ; o t h e r v i l l a g e s e n v i e d t h i s v i l l a g e as "an example o f good f o r t u n e bestowed by t h e d e p a r t e d a n c e s t o r s , w h i l e l a m e n t i n g t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e i r own c l a n from a l a c k o f low r e n t c l a n l a n d . " 2 6 When a c l a n had c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e l a n d , t h e f a m i l i e s i n t h e c l a n would o r g a n i z e t h e m s e l v e s i n t o s m a l l groups t o a p p l y f o r 38 t h e l e a s e o f c l a n l a n d , and the l a n d was n o r m a l l y l e a s e d t o t h e member groups i n r o t a t i o n . In some c a s e s under t h i s s y s t e m , the t e n a n t member whose t u r n n o r m a l l y r a n f o r about a y e a r , had t o pay n e i t h e r r e n t nor d e p o s i t f o r t h e c l a n l a n d . I n s t e a d , he would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e expenses o f a n c e s t o r w o r s h i p and t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f o o d s t u f f s 27 such as c h i c k e n , r i c e , pork and duck f o r t h e s e c e r e m o n i e s . In e i t h e r c a s e , be i t by a p p o r t i o n m e n t o r by r o t a t i o n , when t h e t e n a n t d i d not f u l f i l l h i s o b l i g a t i o n s o r pay h i s r e n t , r i g h t s t o c u l t i v a t e c l a n l a n d would be w i t h h e l d . T h i s was r e f e r r e d to as• ge-geng. ( e x p e l l e d from c u l t i v a t i o n ) . C l a n l a n d c o u l d a l s o , however, be l e a s e d to p e o p l e o u t s i d e the c l a n t h r o u g h b i d d i n g .{tou-keng i%H ) . H e r e , n o t i c e o f l e a s e - b i d d i n g was u s u a l l y announced e i t h e r t w i c e a y e a r ( i n the f i r s t o r e l e v e n t h month o f the l u n a r c a l e n d e r , o r t h e second o r e i g h t h month) o r .once a y e a r i n autumn. Under t h i s s y s t e m , advance r e n t was r e q u i r e d to pay e i t h e r i n f u l l or by two i n s t a l l m e n t s . In a d d i t i o n , a u s u a l 28 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e n t was r e q u i r e d f o r as a d e p o s i t . When c l a n o r p r i v a t e l a n d was l e a s e d out en bloc by b i d d i n g , t h e system o f bau-zhu t M ( l a n d c o n t r a c t i n g ) o r bau-dian L*i® ( t e n a n t c o n t r a c t i n g ) d e v e l o p e d i n t o a c o m p l i c a t e d system o f e x p l o i t a t i o n . T h i s system was e s p e c i a l l y p o p u l a r i n the Sha-gu i y t l a r e a o f the d e l t a , where f i e l d s o f a l l u v i u m were most f e r t i l e , and where f i e l d s were most e a s i l y c l a i m e d by i n f l u e n c i a l , r i c h c l a n s t h r o u g h f o r c e o r 29 power. 39 Because l a n d h e r e , sometimes as much as s e v e r a l thousands o r t e n s o f thousands o f mu, was l e a s e d en bloc a n d , as a r u l e , advance r e n t was r e q u i r e d t o be p a i d i n f u l l , i t was e v i d e n t t h a t o n l y r i c h merchants and p o w e r f u l g e n t r y c o u l d a f f o r d t o b i d and were c a p a b l e o f l e a s i n g t h e l a n d d i r e c t l y . I t was commonly known t h a t i n Dong-guan, l a n d owned by t h e c l a n o r g a n i z a t i o n M i n g - l u n Tang tfi&i was l e a s e d t o a s i n g l e powerful g e n t r y , Zhou T i e n - b a n g 1*18^f who a l s o was a com-p r a d o r , and had s e t up a bank and o t h e r b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e s . And i n Z h o n g - s h a n , l a n d owned by t h e X i n - y i i t % Temple, a n o t h e r c l a n o r g a n i z a t i o n d e s p i t e i t s name, was l e a s e d t o companies s e t up by t h e g e n t r y and r i c h merchants t o monopolize t h e l e a s i n g o f c l a n l a n d . The X i n g - y e - ^ ^ Company had c a p i t a l a s s e t s o f 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 yuan, w h i l e t h e 30 Q-ing-f;eri" ^ C o m p a n y was e q u a l l y p o w e r f u l . When l e a s e s had been s e c u r e d by merchants o r g e n t r y , o r t h e i r c o m p a n i e s , l a n d would f i r s t be e n c l o s e d a g a i n s t t i d e o r b a n d i t s , then r a t h e r be c u l t i v a t e d o r managed by t h e owners t h e m s e l v e s , would be s u b -l e a s e d i n s e p a r a t e h o l d i n g s — s o m e t i m e s d i r e c t l y t o t h e c u l t i v a t o r s , but more f r e q u e n t l y t o a s e r i e s o f t e r t i a r y l a n d l o r d s who were r e f e r r e d t o as fen-yi-nong %Mn&. ( p r o f i t - s h a r i n g p e a s a n t ) and da-keng-zaiKWty ( f i r s t - f a r m i n g p e r s o n ) . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e y c o u l d a l s o employ l a b o u r e r s , u s u a l l y t h e dan-min'\h ( e m i g r a n t s who were o f non-Han a n c e s t r y and l i v e d on b o a t s . N o r m a l l y , t h e y were w i l l i n g to work f o r v e r y low w a g e s ) , t o grow s u g a r - c a n e o r r i c e under a form o f c o n t r a c t w h i c h i n some r e s p e c t s resembled a l e a s e . In t h i s system 40 o f bau-qing tfi ( h a r v e s t c o n t r a c t ) t h e l a b o u r e r worked from t h e f i r s t month t i l l t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i n t h month o f t h e l u n a r c a l e n d e r and were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l work i n t h e f i e l d s e x c e p t h a r v e s t i n g . They would be p a i d 8 yuan per mu o r 24 yuan f o r each q u a r t e r y e a r when 31 f i e l d s were r e a d y t o be h a r v e s t e d . In t h i s p r o c e s s o f s u b - l e a s i n g a s e r i e s o f e x p l o i t a t i o n s o c c u r r e d . When l a n d was l e a s e d t o t h e f i r s t l a n d l o r d , t h e t e n u r e u s u a l l y extended o v e r a p e r i o d o f t e n y e a r s , and sometimes even f o r twenty t o t h i r t y y e a r s . When t h e s u b - l e a s i n g took p l a c e , however, t e n u r e s would o f t e n be s h o r t e n e d t o f i v e y e a r s o r l e s s , even t o a s i n g l e y e a r i n some c a s e s . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , a h i g h e r r e n t was charged a t a l m o s t e v e r y s t a g e o f s u b - l e a s i n g , and w i t h v i r t u a l l y e v e r y renewal o f t e n u r e , r e n t i n c r e a s e d . Chen e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n the d i s -t r i c t o f Z h o n g - s h a n , t h e r e were about 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 mu i n the Sha-gu a r e a and a t l e a s t 95 p e r c e n t o f them were under a s t a g e o f s u b l e a s e . At each s t a g e o f s u b - l e a s i n g , an a d d i t i o n a l r e n t o f 2 yuan per mu was common. I t was no s u r p r i s e i n t h e end t o see t h a t t h e amount c o l l e c t e d from the f i n a l t e n a n t was d o u b l e what t h e o r i g i n a l l a n d l o r d 32 r e c e i v e d . When common l a n d was r e n t e d i n . r o t a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r i g h t o f weak f a m i l i e s i n a c l a n appeared t o be r e l a t i v e l y s e c u r e , but when i t was managed c e n t r a l l y and e x p l o i t e d on a b u s i n e s s b a s i s , abuses a r o s e t o d e r o g a t e from the r i g h t s o f men remote from t h e l o c u s o f l i n e a g e power. C l a n h e a d s , c h i e f s and t r u s t e e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y 41 were s e l e c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f age and g e n e r a t i o n s t a t u s , were m e r e l y h o n o r a r y p o s i t i o n s . Real power was e x e r c i s e d by managers {li-shi t t "f ) , t r e a s u r e r s and a c c o u n t a n t s [li-shu . They were e l e c t e d t o t h e i r o f f i c e s sometimes by the v a r i o u s s u b - c l a n s , a n d , more o f t e n , by c l a n members a t l a r g e on t h e o c c a s i o n o f t h e i r common a n c e s t o r a l w o r s h i p . They were always from t h e s o - c a l l e d s t r o n g branches o f t h e c l a n , t h a t i s , t h o s e composed o f t h e l a r g e s t number o f f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s . The o f f i c e r s t h e m s e l v e s were supposed t o be " r i c h and r e l i a b l e " and " l e a r n e d and r a t i o n a l . " T h u s , p o s i t i o n s o f t e n went t o t h o s e who had passed t h e c i v i l e x a m i n a t i o n i n t h e i r e a r l y y e a r s , and t h o s e who had g r a d u a t e d from a c e r t a i n p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l , r e t i r e d b u r e a u c r a t s , a n d , o f c o u r s e , t h e r i c h . Tenure o f o f f i c e was n o r m a l l y one y e a r but an o f f i c e r c o u l d be r e a p p o i n t e d y e a r a f t e r y e a r - - e v e n a p p o i n t e d f o r l i v e o r as a h e r e d i t a r y p o s i t i o n i n some p l a c e s . The t o t a l income o f t h e l i n e a g e , c o n s i s t i n g l a r g e l y o f r e n t s from f i s h p o n d s , houses and l a n d s , and from i n t e r e s t on l o a n s , was c o n t r o l l e d by the l i n e a g e t r e a s u r e r o r a c c o u n t a n t who h e l d whatever remained a f t e r the payment o f t a x e s , . r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r expenses l i k e r e p a i r i n g temples and c l a n p r o p e r t i e s , and v a r i o u s s u b s i d i e s f o r l o c a l e d u c a t i o n and s c h o o l s . Most c l a n t r e a s u r e r s never p u b l i s h e d a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t . W h i l e t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f p e a s a n t s were i g n o r a n t o f what was g o i n g o n , t h e more p r o s p e r o u s peasant f a m i l i e s were o f t e n i n d i g n a n t , because t h o s e who c o n t r o l l e d t h e c l a n fund a l s o c o n t r o l l e d t h e means o f l e g a l r e d r e s s . 42 H e r e , an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n emerges: how d i d t h e c l a n s a r r i v e a t t h e i r powerful p o s i t i o n s i n r u r a l C h i n a ? To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , a b r i e f e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e power s t r u c t u r e o f t h e v i l l a g e communities i n r u r a l Guangdong i s n e c e s s a r y . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , C h i n a ' s b u r e a u c r a c y s e n t i t s o f f i c e r s no l o w e r than t h e c o u n t y s e a t . The c o u n t y m a g i s t r a t e was t h e immediate p o i n t o f c o n t a c t between t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n and the s c h o l a r l y a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e s y s t e m . In R e p u b l i c C h i n a , t h e f o r m a l p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e c o n s i s t e d o f t h e c e n t r a l government, t h e c o u n t y government, and t h e s u b - d i s t r i c t {Qu i l - ) o f f i c e s which were t h e o p e r a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s o f t h e c o u n t y government. The v i l l a g e s t o o d as a h i g h l y autonomous, s e l f - g o v e r n i n g u n i t . P o l i t i c a l o r d e r w i t h i n t h e c o u n t y f u n c t i o n e d c h i e f l y t h r o u g h i n f o r m a l l o c a l community l e a d e r s h i p , w i t h t h e c o u n t y government as the s u p e r v i s i n g a g e n t . T h e o r e t i c a l l y one c o u l d see why t h i s was so s t r u c t u r e d . Given the s t r o n g c l a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and d i a l e c t d i f f e r -e n c e s , s e l f - g o v e r n i n g was encouraged t o p r e v e n t c o n f l i c t s as w e l l as t o promote b u r e a u c r a t i c i m p a r t i a l i t y o f t h e c o u n t y government. In 1932, t h e N a t i o n a l i s t government r e v i v e d t h e c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y system o f bao-jia i n the name o f p r e p a r i n g f o r " d e m o c r a t i c c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r u l e " w h i l e a c t u a l l y u s i n g the system i n an e f f e c t t o combat t h e s p r e a d o f communism. Under t h i s s y s t e m , t e n f a m i l i e s formed a bao 4 * ; and t e n bao formed a jia f . S e v e r a l jia would then form a xiang ]i\ o r an 43 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v i l l a g e sometimes composed o f s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s . The xiang was s u b o r d i n a t e d t o the s u b d i s t r i c t o f f i c e o f e i t h e r the c o u n t y o r m u n i c i p a l government. To s e l e c t i t s l e a d e r s h i p , each f a m i l y s e n t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to e l e c t t h e head o f a bao--the bao-zhang ^-fe. - - a n d t h e heads o f jia and xiang--the jia-zhang and xiang-zhang %\%~ . (See F i g u r e 1) The bao-zhang was i n t h e o r y t o r e p o r t r e g u l a r l y to h i s s u p e r -i o r s a l l c a s e s o f " r o b b e r y , r e l i g i o u s h e r e s y , g a m b l i n g , r u n a w a y s , k i d n a p p i n g , c o u n t e r f e i t i n g , s a l e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f c o n t r a b a n d g o o d s , s w i n d l i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s , unknown and s u s p i c i o u s c h a r a c t e r s . " C o l l e c t i n g census d a t a and c h e c k i n g t r a n s i e n t r e s i d e n t s were h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a l s o . He was e x p e c t e d t o h e l p , as w e l l , i n t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f v a r i o u s t a x e s . In sum, he s t o o d between the government agents and the p e o p l e ; h i s d u t i e s were s e m i -o f f i c i a l and h i s p o s i t i o n t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f l o c a l government i n 33 C h i n a . 15 In r e a l i t y , however, v i l l a g e l i f e o p e r a t e d l a r g e l y t h r o u g h i t s own l o c a l power s t r u c t u r e and was but w e a k l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the system o f a u t h o r i t y . F i r s t o f a l l , the bao-zhang and jia-zhang were g e n e r a l l y u n t r a i n e d i n government a f f a i r s , and t h e y r e c e i v e d no r e n u m e r a t i o n f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s . In f a c t , when 5 0 . 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e males i n s o u t h C h i n a had no s c h o o l i n g and 49.1 p e r c e n t o f them had a t t e n d e d s c h o o l o n l y l o n g enough t o l e a r n t o read a common l e t t e r 34 (an average o f f o u r y e a r s ) , most o f t h e s e heads o f the bao and jia 44 P r o v i n c e H X i a n s e v e r a l Qu X i a n g J i a B a o 1 0 - 1 5 \ 1 0 0 - 1 0 0 0 i 1 0 I I 1 1 0 Hu Qu X i a n g Xian Chu g o v e r n -m e n t J i a B a o Gong-suo Jia-zhang Hu Bao-zhang S o u r c e : K a t o Y u z o # > « - $ M & =- , Chugoku-no Toahi Kaikaku-to Noson Shakai •T* i <>) A i * e i . d £ i *± ^ ( L a n d R e f o r m i n C h i n a a n d A g r a r i a n S o c i e t y ) , p . 7 0 . N o t e s : X i a n # . : c o u n t y C h u H : b u r e a u Qu & : d i s t r i c t G o n g - s u o 'A 1-<J : o f f i c e X i a n g 5*j> : a d m i n i s t r a t i v e z h a n g -ft. : h e a d v i l l a g e D 3 B a o \%. J i a ^ Hu Y : h o u s e h o l d F i g u r e 1 Bao-jia S y s t e m i n T r a d i t i o n a l R u r a l C h i n a 45 were presumably i l l i t e r a t e p e a s a n t s i n c a p a b l e o f r e a d i n g any e l a b o r a t e government documents. O b v i o u s l y t h e y r e c e i v e d l i t t l e r e s p e c t from the community, e s p e c i a l l y from t h e g e n t r y and t h e r i c h . Men o f power and w e a l t h i n the community shunned p o s t s a t such a low l e v e l . At t h e same t i m e , t o o , t h e bao-zhang's r o l e as t a x c o l l e c t o r s o f t e n made them hated f i g u r e s i n the v i l l a g e . As s e r v a n t s o f the b u r e a u c r a c y , . t h e y were l i a b l e t o i n c u r t h e d i s p l e a s u r e o f both t h e r u l e r and t h e r u l e d ; c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i r l e g i t i m a c y was v e r y p r e c a r i o u s and many o f them c o u l d not o r d i d not c a r r y o u t t h e i r d u t i e s . I t was under such c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t t h e c l a n d e v e l o p e d i t s s t r a t e g i c i m p o r t a n c e i n the v i l l a g e community. Not o n l y was the fundamental c l a n power d e r i v e d from an i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d a c c e p t a n c e o f the c l a n ' s a u t h o r i t y by t h e k i n s m e n , but a l s o many o f t h e kinsmen had t o depend on t h e c l a n f o r numerous s o c i a l and economic n e e d s . They h a d , t h e n , t h e l e g i t i m a c y t o m a i n t a i n peace and o r d e r i n the v i l l a g e and s e r v e d a l m o s t as a j u d i c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . C l a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e f e n c e , s e t t i n g up t h e i r own m i l i t i a u n i t , t h e min-tuan lV3 i n w h i c h t h e " s o l d i e r s " were equipped w i t h arms and were r e c r u i t e d on a m e r c e r n a r y b a s i s . They a l s o m a i n t a i n e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , c a r r i e d out p u b l i c p r o j e c t s such as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f r o a d s , d i k e s , w a t e r c h a n n e l s and c o n t r o l l e d common p r o p e r t i e s . The l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e c l a n was f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d by t h e government when t h e bao-jia system d i d not work e f f e c t i v e l y . C l a n o f f i c e r s were then a p p o i n t e d t o h a n d l e t h e t a x on c l a n l a n d as w e l l 46 as t o c o l l e c t t h e t a x f o r the p r o v i n c i a l government from t h e p r i v a t e f a m i l i e s i n t h e i r c l a n . Xue and Chen both p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i n many c a s e s when t h e p r o v i n c i a l government was c o n c e r n e d s o l e l y w i t h t h e revenues from t a x a t i o n , i t a c c e p t e d b i d s from e i t h e r t a x c o l l e c t i n g merchants o r c l a n s f o r a monopoly on t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t a x e s . Compan-i e s were t h e n o r g a n i z e d f o r t h i s monopoly. R e c e i p t s o f payment o f t a x e s p r e p a r e d by the xian o f f i c e s were f i r s t g i v e n t o t h e c l a n company or the merchant t o d i s t r i b u t e to the p e a s a n t s when t a x e s were c o l l e c t e d . Very o f t e n , however, t h e s e r e c e i p t s were never d i s t r i b u t e d and t h e a c t u a l sums c o l l e c t e d by t h e s e agents were s e v e r a l t i m e s , sometimes as much as t e n t i m e s , what the government r e c e i v e d . These t a x c o l l e c t i n g companies o r c l a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h u s became p a r t o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a p p a r a t u s and formed t h e b a s i s f o r an a l l i a n c e o f power among t h e r i c h m e r c h a n t s , t h e c l a n s , and the government a u t h o r i t y . Independent o r d i n a n c e s i s s u e d by t h e s e companies or c l a n o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a s s e s s and c o l l e c t t a x e s were not uncommon, nor were t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e i r own systems o f i n s p e c t i o n and enforcement o f 35 t h e i r a c t i o n s by u n i t s o f t h e i r own m i l i t i a . F u r t h e r m o r e , w h i l e the heads o f s u b - d i s t r i c t s and a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e v i l l a g e s as w e l l as t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e s were f o r t h e most p a r t recommended by t h e a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e powerful c l a n s , many o f t h e c l a n o f f i c e r s t h e m s e l v e s d i d become such heads c o n c u r r e n t l y . The.. Ming-lun-tang i n Dong-guan which we mentioned e a r l i e r was a good 47 example o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n l o o k e d upon as a " s e m i - o f f i c i a l " government by t h e p e a s a n t s , s i n c e t h e c l a n o f f i c e r s always had some p o s i t i o n s w i t h t h e government. As Kulp w r i t e s i n h i s s t u d y o f the Phoenix V i l l a g e i n t h e p r o v i n c e , " s p e a k i n g t h e o f f i c i a l language and a b l e to move among t h e o f f i c i a l s , " the s c h o l a r s and g e n t r y who u s u a l l y came from t h e powerful c l a n s formed " a w o r k i n g nexus between the v i l l a g e and t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d which t h e o r d i n a r y v i l l a g e r seldom comes i n t o 37 c o n t a c t . " U n d o u b t e d l y , t h e r e were o t h e r forms o f l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e v i l l a g e s . The headsmen and c o u n c i l s , as d e s c r i b e d by Wakeman and o t h e r s , however, had f a l l e n i n t o d i s a r r a y because o f i t s i n c r e a s i n g i n a b i l i t y t o a t t r a c t s u p p o r t from t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t i e s as w e l l as 38 from t h e c l a n a u t h o r i t y . L o c a l m i l i t i a below t h e c o u n t y l e v e l , b e i n g p o o r l y armed and l o o s e l y o r g a n i z e d , were a l s o l e f t l a r g e l y i n 39 t h e hands o f t h e l o c a l v i l l a g e r u l e . S e c r e t s o c i e t i e s and b a n d i t r y were i n e x i s t e n c e , but t h e y were more concerned w i t h e x t r a c t i n g p r o f i t s from p r o t e c t i o n r a c k e t s r a t h e r than i n v o l v i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n 40 any p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t . The o n l y o t h e r l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which had made a p o l i t i c a l impact i n r u r a l Guangdong was t h e peasant »/~* 41 a s s o c i a t i o n , nong-hui W * l . But how e f f e c t i v e was t h e peasant a s s o c i a t i o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e promise and t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e Guangdong r u r a l scene? H o f h e i n z p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i n c e r t a i n p a r t s o f Guangdong, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the West R i v e r s e c t i o n and on the E a s t e r n s e a c o a s t , t h e peasant a s s o c i a t i o n s s u c c e s s f u l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d about h a l f o f t h e r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t o i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n , r a i s e d s i z a b l e l o c a l f o r c e s , and f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d c o n t r o l l e d l o c a l g o v e r n -ment. In o t h e r p a r t s , most n o t a b l y i n t h e populuous d i s t r i c t s around the p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l and t h e d e l t a r e g i o n , t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s never c a p t u r e d more than 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t r y and remained 42 c o n s t a n t t h r e a t from i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l o p p o n e n t s . I t was under such s i t u a t i o n s the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f l a n d and the a l l i a n c e o f power and w e a l t h among t h e c l a n s , the r i c h and t h e g e n t r y , p r o v i d e d a b a s i s on which an e x p l o i t i v e system o r e x p l o i t i v e r e l a t i o n s network were b u i l t and d e v e l o p e d . 49 CHAPTER "1 NOTES A. Some G e o g r a p h i c a l Backgrounds ^The f i g u r e was quoted from China Yearbook 1938 c i t e d i n Kanton Nippon S h o k o k a i - i s h o . Kanton no Genjo i-*'LM (The P r e s e n t C o n d i t i o n o f Guang-dong)(Canton: /k * 3 £ ^  ^ f 4 " , 1 9 4 4 ) , p. 19. Other s o u r c e s , however, i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was a c t u a l l y no common agreement on the e x a c t a r e a o f Guangdong p r o v i n c e : Year Source A r e a 1932 Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-Jian (Guangdong Economic Yearbook) 1933 p. B - 4 - 6 1940 Guangdong Nian-Jian ^ i * . (Guangdong Y e a r b o o k ) , p. 82 1942 Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-Jian 1956 L i a n g R e n - c a i Guangdong Jing-ji Di-U ft. £ ;'"> (Economic Geography o f Guangdong), p. 1 . 1973 Wu Yu-wen , Guangdong Di-li Gai-feng % **< l « * (General Geography o f Guangdong), p. 1 . 214,038 s q . k i l o m e t e r s 221,307 s q . k i l o m e t e r s 2 1 8 , 6 0 0 s q . k i l o m e t e r s 218,615 s q . k i l o m e t e r s 230,000+ s q . k i l o m e t e r s 220,000+ s q . k i l o m e t e r s 2 The p o p u l a t i o n o f Guangdong i s a g a i n a m a t t e r o f o p i n i o n . The f i g u r e c i t e d was from Ibid., p. 3 5 . Other f i g u r e s g i v e n by o t h e r s o u r c e s a r e summarized i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : Year Source P o p u l a t i o n 1934 Guangdong Government 3 3 , 1 7 9 , 0 7 8 1934 The N a t i o n a l Government I n t e r n a l A f f a i r s 3 2 , 4 2 7 , 6 2 6 50 2 ( c o n t i n u e d ) Year Source P o p u l a t i o n 1935 Guangdong P r o v i n c e I n v e s t i g a t i o n Bureau c i t e d i n Ibid., p. 34 3 3 , 1 6 8 , 3 3 7 1951 C . K . Y n a g , A Chinese Village in Transition, p. 4 2 6 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 1956 L i a n g R e n - c a i , Ibid., p. 1 2 6 , 7 7 0 , 0 0 0 1973 Wu y u - w e n , Ibid. 4 2 , 8 0 0 , 0 0 0 Wu Yu-wen X , Guangdong Be-li Gai-fang % i -<*^1 General Geography o f Guangdong)(Canton: Guangdong Ren-min C h u - p a n - s h e , 1 9 7 3 ) , pp. 11-12. \ i a n g R e n - c a i , Guangdong Jing-ji Di-li % f M l 3 ) * < i ^ l (Economic Geography o f Guangdong)(Peking: Ke-xue C h u - p a n - s h e , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 3 . E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i s p u b l i s h e d by US J P R S , 1958. 5 S e e Zhongguo De-tu Ce + ( A t l a s o f C h i n a ) ( B e i j i n g : D e - t u c h u - p a n - s h e , 1 9 7 6 ) , p. 2 2 . See a l s o Wu, op. cit., p. 7 . ^Ibid. 7 C . K . Y a n g , A Chinese Village in Transition ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : MIT P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 4 . o George C r e s s e y , China's Geographic Foundations ( N . Y . : 1 9 3 4 ) , p. 3 5 4 . g L i a n g , op. cit., p. 5 3 . Ibid., p. 2.. However, t h e r e a r e o t h e r d i f f e r e n t f i g u r e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e a r e a o f t h e d e l t a r e g i o n : Year Source A r e a 1942 Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-jian, p. A-10 3 , 6 0 0 s q . k i l o m e t e r s 1959 Y a n g , op. cit., p. 4 2 , 8 9 0 s q . k i l o m e t e r s 1973 Wu, op. cit., p. 9 9 , 4 0 0 s q . k i l o m e t e r s 51 ''Kanto no genjo, p. 2 8 . 12 Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-Jian, 1941, p. A - 2 2 . A c c o r d i n g t o Kanto no Genjo, however, t h e r e were o n l y n i n e t y - f o u r c o u n t i e s i n Guangdong. See pp. 2 8 - 9 . ^3Ibid., p. A - 8 3 . See a l s o Zhuo Zheng-feng £ l ¥ ; " N a n - h a i X i a n D i a o - c h a Pao-gao" & t ( " R e p o r t on an i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n N a n - h a i C o u n t y " ) i n Guangdong Nang-ye Gai-feng Diao-oha Bao-gao Shu Xu-pidn xia-juan >%t%^. -i*]±#fc-*--ii//$&*£( R e s e a r c h R e p o r t on the General C o n d i t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n Guangdong, Book 2 , V o l . 2) (Guang-z h o u : Zhong-shan Da-Xue Nong-xue-yuan * f X % ft , 1 9 3 0 ) , pp. 123-132. T h i s a r t i c l e , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s i n t h e same v o l u m e , was a l s o t r a n s l a t e d i n Kanton-sho Noson Chosa Shiryo )\ $ to % *Wi **f ( R e f e r e n c e M a t e r i a l s on I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n Guangdong V i i 1 ages)(Guangzhou: Its?* , 1 9 4 3 ) , pp. 311-324. ^Ibid., p. A - 8 4 . See a l s o Zhou Zheng-feng % t. , " P a n - y u X i a n Nong-ye G a i - f e n g D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" £ t . * * X * * ) * ( R e p o r t on an I n v e s t i g a t i o n on A g r i c u l t u r e i n Pan-yu C o u n t y " ) i n Ibid., pp. 1 3 - 2 3 . Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n i n Ibid., pp. 215-228. ^ L i a n g Guang-shang ^ ^ * ) , "Dong-guan S h a - t i a n Nong-ye S h i - c h a Bao-gao" sr* % :%*lfk*h J£ ( " R e p o r t on a V i s i t t o S h a - t i e n i n Dong-guan C o u n t y " ) , i n Nong-sheng % T ( P e a s a n t V o i c e s ) , j o i n t i s s u e o f No. 179/180, December 1934, pp. 104-121. T r a n s l a t e d i n t o J a p a n e s e - i n Z a i Kanton Nippon S o - R y o j i k a n ( e d . ) , Ibid., pp. 3 9 5 - 4 0 8 . 1 g Zhou, op. ait., note 14. ^Guangdong Jing-ji Nmn-Jian, 1941, pp. A - 8 8 . See a l s o Zhou Z h e n g - f e n g , "Shun-de X i a n Nong-ye D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" ^ 5 * ( " R e p o r t on an I n v e s t i g a t i o n on A g r i c u l t u r e i n Shun-de C o u n t y " ) i n Zhong-shan Da-Xue Nong-xue-yuan ( e d . ) , op. cit., pp. 141-148. Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n i s i n Ibid., pp. 3 2 5 - 3 3 4 . I o Ibid., pp. A - 9 2 . See a l s o Zhou Z h e n g - f e n g , "Zhong-shan X i a n Nong-ye D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" -fo. H ( " R e p o r t on an I n v e s t i g a t i o n on A g r i c u l t u r e i n Zhong-shan County") i n Zhong-shan Da-Xue Nong-xue-yuan ( e d . ) , op. ait., pp. 141-148. Japanese t e x t i s i n Ibid., pp. 3 3 5 - 3 4 6 . 52 ^Ibid., pp. A - 9 6 . A l s o Chen Z e - l i n % , " X i n - h u i X i a n Nong-ye D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" *HtH ?'1 £ ( " R e p o r t on an I n v e s t i -g a t i o n i n X i n - h u i County") i n Zhong-shan Da-xue Nong-xue-yuan ( e d . ) , Guangdong Sheng Nong-ye Gai-feng Diao-cha Bao-gao-Shu % * WL'<^ iki^h-ZZ ( R e p o r t s on I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n A g r i c u l t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e ) ( G u a n g z h o u : Zhong-shan Da-xue N o n g - x u e - y u a n , 1 9 3 0 ) , pp. 271-290. 20lbid., pp. A - 9 9 . A l s o see Chen G a n - j i ?i ?f and Huang X i - c h o u 4 % *>k , "Dong-guan X i a n Nong-ye D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" % % - ( " R e p o r t on an I n v e s t i g a t i o n on A g r i c u l t u r e i n Dong-guan County") i n Zhong-shan Da-xue Nong-xue-yuan ( e d . ) , op. cit., Book 2 , pp. 149-160. Japanese t e x t i n Z a i Kanton Nippon So R y o j i k a n ( e d . ) , op. cit., pp. 3 7 9 - 3 9 4 . 21 Ibid., pp. A - 1 0 2 . A l s o , Zhou Z h e n g - f e n g , " K a i - p i n g X i a n Nong-ye G a i - f a n g D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" ( I S ) * * * - %"% ^ f i * | * ( " R e p o r t on an I n v e s t i g a t i o n i n the General A g r i c u l t u r a l C o n d i t i o n s i n K a i - p i n g C o u n t y " ) i n Zhong-shan Da-xue Nong-xue-yuan ( e d . ) , op. cit., V o l . 2 , Bk. 2 , pp. 4 8 - 5 5 . 22 L i a n g , op. cit., pp. 14 and 5 4 . 23 C i t e d i n Yang, op. cit., p. 4 . 24 Z a i Kanton Nippon S o - R y o j i k a n ( e d . ) , op. cit., pp. 2 9 - 3 0 . 25 L i a n g , op. cit., p. 2 3 . 26 Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-jian 1941, pp. B - 1 8 - 2 0 . 2'11bid. 2 8 L u o D a - f a n f ^ R & L i n Zuan-chun , "Guangdong Pan-yu Long-yan-dong N o n g - j i a J i n g - j i G a i - f a n g Y e n - j i u " k. % % »(!•. %. %. il 1% z*r ii ( " R e s e a r c h on the General Economic C o n d i t i o n s o f Peasant F a m i l i e s i n Long-yan-dong V i l l a g e , Pan-yu County") i n Z a i Kanton Nippon S o - R y o j i k a n ( e d . ) , op. cit., p . . 2 3 2 . C h i n e s e o r i g i n a l t e x t i s i n G u o - l i Zhong-shan Da-xue Nong-xue-yuan N o n g - l i n Yen j i u Wei-yuan hui l i l t + a - i ?L&.Mrfc't ( e d . ) , Nong-ye Jing-ji Zhuan kan <&\ lrz i"T? %• *) ( S p e c i a l I s s u e on A g r i c u l t u r a l E c o n o m i c s ) , No. 3 , 1937. 53 Y a n g , op. cit., pp. 1 5 - 1 6 . "^Zhang X i n - y i , zhongguo Nong-ye Gai-fang Gu-ji ^m%% c&3o'^ <-fr-rr (An E s t i m a t e o f C h i n a ' s Farms and C r o p s ) ( N a n j i n g : U n i v e r s i t y o f N a n k i n g , 1 9 3 2 ) . 54 B. C o n c e n t r a t i o n o f Land ^D.H. J e f f e r s o n Lamb , The Development of the Agrarian Movement and Agrarian Legislation in China ( S h a n g h a i : Commercial P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) , p. 4 0 . 2 Ibid. o Zhong X i n - y i V^^-, Tong-ji Yue-bao ( S t a t i s t i c a l M o n t h l y ) , 2 9 ( 6 ) , 1930. See a l s o Shen-bao Nian-jian f f & 4 / f £ . (Shen-bao Y e a r b o o k ) , 1934, pp. K - 3 4 . 4 J>-F i g u r e s were g i v e n by Zhong-yang Nong-ye Shi-yan-suo i ^  %$<*\. See Shen-bao Nian-jian, 1934, pp. K - 3 6 . ^Sun X i a o - c u n , " X i a n - d a i Zhong-guo T u - d i W e n - t i " -Vffli- *•&. I ' - H * ("Land Problems o f Modern C h i n a " ) , i n Jiao-yu lu Min-zhong * C\ ^ ( E d u c a t i o n and t h e P u b l i c ) , 8 ( 3 ) , November 1936. The s o u r c e has 12 p e r c e n t , but t h i s must be an e r r o r . ^Guangdong Nong-min Yun-dong *t ^ 3 . ( P e a s a n t Movements i n Guangdong)(Guangzhou: Zhong-hua Quan-guo J i - d u - j i a o X i e - j i n - h u i J i - d u -hua J i n g - j i G u a n - x i W e i - y u a n - h u i 4 ^ T ' f i s - K , « ' * >w<M-*^ 1 9 3 7 ) , p. 2 8 . 7Ibid., p. 27. 8 i-Zhong-guo Jing-ji Nian-j'ian >)• iS) ii ' f t - 4 ^ ( C h i n e s e Economic Yearbook) 1932, pp. G-236. 9 Shen-bao Nian-jian, 1 9 3 5 , pp. K - 2 8 . ^ Z h a o C h e n g - x i n ^ i - k i t , "Guangdong X i n - h u i C i - x i T u - d i F e n - p e i D i a o - c h a " / l i H T l M t l ^ n ^ t i ^ * ( " R e s e a r c h on Land D i s t r i b u t i o n i n C i - x i V i l l a g e o f X i n - h u i C o u n t y , Guangdong P r o v i n c e ) i n She-hui Xue-jie H't'Tf >f ( S o c i o l o g y W o r l d ) , V o l . 5 , 1929. E x c e r p t s c i t e d i n Feng H e - f a i t ( c o m p . ) , Zhong-guo Nong-eun Jing-ji Zi-liao 'f i*) =ftIi i% 3*$ ( R e f e r e n c e M a t e r i a l s on C h i n e s e V i l l a g e Economy)(Shanghai: L i -ming S h u - d i a n , 1 9 3 3 ) , pp. 9 3 6 - 9 5 1 . Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n i s i n Z a i Kanton Nippon So R y o j i k a n ( e d . ) , op. ait., pp. 4 5 7 - 4 7 6 . 55 Chen Han-seng i ^ - ^ V i , Agrarian Problems in Southernmost China ( S h a n g h a i : K e l l y & W a l s h , 1 9 3 6 ) , pp. 7 - 8 , a l s o p. 131. The book was a l s o p u b l i s h e d as Landlord and Peasant in China ( N . Y . : I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 3 6 ) . I t i s a l s o r e p r i n t e d i n 1973 by H y p e r i o n P r e s s , W e s t p o r t , C o n n e c t i c u t . ^ZIbid., p. 126, T a b l e 9 . 13 Ibid., p. 127, T a b l e 11. 0 . 8 7 mu i s t h e e x a c t average number o f l a n d owned by t e n a n t s per f a m i l y . ^Ibid., p. 131, T a b l e 2 1 . 1 5 Wu R u i - l u n & Huang E n - l i e n ^ t ^ h t » j - j u Feng-husng Cun D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" % >V-tt ?A * Sk.-\ ( " R e p o r t on an I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Old Phoenix V i l l a g e " ) i n Z a i Kanton Nippon So R y o j i k a n ( e d . ) , op. cit., p. 276. 1 c Luo and L i n , op. cit., p. 2 3 3 . ^ Y a n g , op. cit., p. 4 1 . 18 i 2_ i V i J . See Amano Motonosuke: ^ &1> , Shina Nogyo Kezai Ron * t i * , ' f t * £ (On C h i n a ' s A g r i c u l t u r a l Economy), V o l . 1 (Tokyo: K a i z o - s h a c v & k , 1 9 4 2 ) , pp. 175-176. ^9Ibid., p. 9 2 . 20 C h e n , op. cit., p. 2 5 . 21 Guangdong Nian-jian 1940, p. 5 5 . 22 Amano, op. cit., pp. 3 7 - 3 8 . 23 Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-jian 1941, pp. G-47-48. 24 C h e n , op. cit., p. 3 2 . 2 5 L u o and L i n , op. cit., pp. 229 and 232. 56 9fi Yang, op. cit., p. 4 8 . 27 Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-Jian 1941, pp. G-47-48. 28Ibid. See Dong-guan Xian-zhi $ IL ^" ( G a z e t t e e r o f Dong-guan C o u n t y ) , V o l . 9 9 , Sha-tian Zhi >'!r>a^ r ( H i s t o r y o f S h a - t i a n ) ( B e i j i n g : P u b l i s h e r Unknown, 1911). Al so Pan-yu-Xian Xu-Zhi f ( G a z e t t e e r o f Pan-vu County C o n t i n u e d ) , V o l . 12-Shi-ue Zhi ( H i s t o r y o f M a n u f a c t u r i n g ) ^ % £. ( B e i j i n g : P u b l i s h e r Unknown, 1911). Japanese t r a n s l a t i o n o f Dong-guan S h a - t i a n Zhi i s i n Zai Kanton Nippon So R y o j i n k a n ( e d . ) , op. cit., pp. 4 0 9 - 4 2 9 . 30 Feng H e - f a , op. cit., p. 9 2 8 . See a l s o Amano, op. cit., pp. 5 3 9 - 5 4 1 . 31 Amano, op. cit., p. 538. C h e n , op. cit., pp. 4 8 - 4 9 . See Kato Yuzo ^» ^ , Chugoku no Tochi Kaikaku to Noson Shakai ^\t\ <^i-t^;K% t %te H^r (Land Reform o f C h i n a and the A g r a r i a n S o c i e t y ) ( T o k y o : A s i a n Economic R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 7 2 ) , pp. 7 0 - 7 4 . 34 / John L. B u c k , Land Utilization in China ( N . Y . : The C o u n c i l on Economic and C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s , 1 9 5 6 ) , p. 373. 3 5 C h e n , op. cit., pp. 7 4 - 7 5 . See a l s o Xue Mu-qui & % ^ , Zhong-guo Nong-Cun Jing-ji Chang-Shi * WftH i\ (Common F a c t s o f C h i n e s e V i l l a g e Economy)(Shanghai: X i n - Z h i S h u - d i a n , 1 9 3 6 ) . 36 F e n g , op. cit., pp. 9 2 8 . A l s o Zhong-guo Jing-ji Nian-jian 1934, pp. G-236. 37 D.H. K u l p , Country Life in South China: The Sociology of Familism, Vol. 1, Phoenix Village, Kwangtung, China ( N . Y . : Paragon Book G a l l e r y , 1972, r e p r i n t e d ) . 38 F r e d e r i c k Wakeman, J r . and C a r o l y n G r a n t ( e d s . ) , Conflict and Control in Imperial China ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1975) . 57 For a d i s c u s s i o n on l o c a l m i l i t i a i n South C h i n a b e f o r e 1911, see P h i l i p A. Kuhn, Rebellion and Its Enemies in Late Imperial China ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970) . See a l s o , Khun, " L o c a l S e l f - g o v e r n m e n t Under the R e p u b l i c " i n Wakeman, J r . and G r a n t ( e d s . j , Ibid., pp. 2 8 7 - 2 9 5 . ^ u Y a n g , op. cit., p. ^ S e e Yamamoto. Hideo ^ £ n } xinai Chugoku Nomin Kakumei-no Genryu Kaiho-ni Okeru Nomin Undo t '3 & C\ lF y^ « i"t i*u - *t i - <t 5 & i x 3 ' i * (The O r i g i n o f Modern C h i n e s e Peasant Movement—The Peasant Movement i n K a i h o ) ( T o k y o : A s i a n Economic R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , 1 9 6 9 ) ; a l s o Hai-lu-feng Nong-min Yun-tung i W £ &iV>11# (The Peasant Move-ments i n H a i - l u - f e n g ) ( G u a n g z h o u : Guangdong Ren-min C h u - b a n - s h e , 1957) . See a l s o Roy H o f h e i n z , The Broken Wave, The Chinese Communist Peasant Movement 1922-1928 ( C a m b r i d g e , M a s s . : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1977). H o f h e i n z , Ibid., p. 125. CHAPTER 2 THE RURAL EXPLOITIVE SYSTEM A. Land 1 . The Changing Tenancy System 1 2 As p o i n t e d out by Huang, Chang et al. and F e u e r w e r k e r , as p a r t o f the p r o c e s s o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y c o n c e p t s i n r u r a l C h i n a , the system o f permanent t e n a n c y {yong-tian-ji ^-{*a^|), o r fen-zhi-ji as i t was b e t t e r known i n Guangdong, was b e g i n n i n g t o break down. Under t h i s s y s t e m , t h e l a n d l o r d had no r i g h t t o use o r abuse t h e l a n d , h i s o n l y r i g h t was t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f d e p o s i t s o r r e n t . Nor c o u l d he i n c r e a s e t h e r e n t o r t e r m i n a t e the t e n u r e o f t h e t e n a n t u n l e s s the t e n a n t f a i l e d t o pay t h e r e n t . The t e n a n t , t h e r e -f o r e , had t h e freedom t o s u b l e a s e h i s r e n t e d l a n d and renew h i s l e a s e i n d e f i n i t e l y so l o n g as he p a i d h i s r e n t d u i t i f u l l y . A s i m i l a r system o f t e n a n c y known as the kou-tou-ji , o r a l agreement s y s t e m , was a l s o f a d i n g i n Gungdong. H e r e , t h e p r o -s p e c t i v e t e n a n t , i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n l a n d t o f a r m , had to v i s i t the l a n d l o r d t o d i s c u s s t h e terms o f h i s t e n u r e p e r s o n a l l y . When t h e y came to an agreement on r e n t and o t h e r d e t a i l s , the l a n d would be l e a s e d t o t h e t e n a n t on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s o r a l agreement. U s u a l l y , 58 t h e term o f t e n u r e was l e f t open which meant t h a t t h e t e n a n t c o u l d work on the l e a s e d f i e l d s i n d e f i n i t e l y so l o n g as he p a i d the r e n t . I t a l s o meant, however, t h a t i f t h e t e n a n t owed any r e n t , t h e t e n u r e would be t e r m i n a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y . M o r e o v e r , t h e l a n d l o r d r e s e r v e d the r i g h t t o w i t h d r a w h i s l e a s e and i t was t h u s not uncommon t o f i n d t h a t t e n a n t s under t h i s system r e l u c t a n t t o a p p l y any type o f f e r t i l i z e r t o t h e i r f i e l d s because t h e y f e a r e d t h e l a n d l o r d would w i t h d r a w t h e l a n d , i f he knew t h e f i e l d s were f e r t i l i z e d . R e p l a c i n g t h e s e systems was a l e s s permanent system o f w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t s , qi-yue-ji ^1-^*0 H e r e , not o n l y t h e term o f the l e a s e was s p e c i f i e d , b u t o t h e r arrangements were a l s o made e x p l i c i t : r e n t must be p a i d on t i m e ; i f r e n t were p a i d i n t h e form o f g r a i n , t h e g r a i n had t o be o f good grade and had t o be d e l i v e r e d t o t h e home o f t h e l a n d l o r d ; f i e l d maintenance remained t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e t e n a n t ; when the t e n a n t f a i l e d to pay h i s r e n t , t h e f i e l d s c o u l d be t a k e n back and t h e l e a s e t e r m i n a t e d i m m e d i a t e l y . Other o b l i g a t i o n s were a l s o added: g i f t s f o r t h e l a n d l o r d f a m i l i e s were s t i p u l a t e d i n the form o f c h i c k e n , duck o r g r a i n and were e x p e c t e d a n n u a l l y . The w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t was s a f e l y i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e l a n d l o r d ; no copy o r r e c e i p t was i s s u e d t o t h e t e n a n t . The a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f t h e s e c o n t r a c t s prompted t e n a n t s t o f e r t i l i z e t h e i r f i e l d s o n l y t h e f i r s t two y e a r s . They f e a r e d t h e l a n d l o r d would no l o n g e r r e c o g n i z e t h e w r i t t e n c o n t r a c t and would e i t h e r t r y t o i n c r e a s e t h e r e n t o r t o t e r m i n a t e the c o n t r a c t , i f t h e i r g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n i n c r e a s e d . 60 Under t h i s s y s t e m , a l t h o u g h i t was common f o r l a n d l o r d s t o l e a s e t h e i r l a n d t o t e n a n t s f o r a p e r i o d o f f o u r t o f i v e y e a r s , v e r y o f t e n t h i s meant annual o r b i e n n i a l c o n t r a c t s . The N a t i o n a l Land Commission Survey o f 1935 p o i n t e d out t h a t i n Guangdong, t h e d u r a t i o n o f t e n u r e was not f i x e d i n 8 0 . 6 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e l e a s e s u s u a l l y s i g n i f y -i n g annual o r b i e n n i a l c o n t r a c t s . Only 8 . 5 6 p e r c e n t f e l l i n t o t h e c a t e g o r y o f a f i x e d t e n u r e o f f i v e t o t e n y e a r s , and t h e "permanent 5 t e n a n c y " dropped t o a low o f 1 . 6 8 p e r c e n t . A l t h o u g h i n 1930 t h e - L a n d Law c o n t a i n e d a p r o v i s i o n t h a t t h e t e n a n t had t h e r i g h t t o extend h i s l e a s e i n d e f i n i t e l y u n l e s s t h e l a n d l o r d took t h e l a n d back a t t h e e x p i r a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a c t and farmed i t h i m s e l f , no e f f o r t was made t o e n f o r c e t h e l a w . Hence, i n -s e c u r i t y o f t e n u r e u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t i n u e d t o be a p r o b l e m . The i n s e c u r i t y o f annual o r b i e n n i a l c o n t r a c t s , m o r e o v e r , put t h e p e a s a n t s a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s a d v a n t a g e and a l l o w e d t h e l a n d l o r d t o impose a d d i t i o n a l burdens i n t h e form o f l a n d d e p o s i t s ( a l l e g e d l y a g a i n s t r e n t d e f a u l t s ) and h i g h e r r e n t s , Chen found t h a t 3 4 . 2 p e r c e n t o f the p e a s a n t r y i n Guangdong were r e q u i r e d t o pay a d e p o s i t , but t h e 1934 C h i n e s e Economic Yearbook r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e number m i g h t be h i g h e r because o u t o f t h e t e n xian t h e y s u r v e y e d , seven o f them r e q u i r e d v a r i o u s forms o f d e p o s i t s from t e n a n t s . 7 In West Guangdong, t h e d e p o s i t ranged from 10 t o 15 yuan per. mu p l u s g i f t s i n the form o f p o u l t r y , b e e f , pork and w i n e , a l l o f w h i c h were t o be d e l i v e r e d when t h e l e a s e was drawn. In N o r t h Guangdong, t h e r a t e s ranged from 61 15 t o 30 yuan per mu. But i n terms o f t h e t o t a l h a r v e s t v a l u e , Amano s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n t h e P e a r l R i v e r d e l t a r e g i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , 70 p e r -o c e n t were demanded i n T a i - s h a n vJJ-» , A c c o r d i n g to t h e Guangdong Jing-ji Nien-jian (Guangdong Economic Yearbook) 1942, i n P a n - y u , d e p o s i t s were sometimes p a i d i n the form o f a "banquet f e e , " jiu-xi-jin i f t f t ^ 3 t o t h e l a n d l o r d , v i r t u a l l y a g i f t . T h i s " f e e " sometimes g amounted t o 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l r e n t . f In a d d i t i o n t o d e p o s i t s , t h e r e was a l s o a system o f advance r e n t , yu-zu ^ H * J i o r shang-qi-zu w h i c h r e q u i r e d t e n a n t s t o pay t h e i r r e n t i n a d v a n c e , e i t h e r b e f o r e h a r v e s t o r when t h e l e a s e was drawn. T h i s system was most p o p u l a r i n the d e l t a r e g i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n Dong-guan, Zhong-shan and N a n - h a i . The r e n t , amounting t o 20 t o 30 yuan per mu, was e x p e c t e d a t a s p e c i f i e d t i m e b e f o r e h a r v e s t . I f t h e t e n a n t f a i l e d t o do so when t h e c r o p s were ready t o be h a r v e s t e d , t h e l a n d l o r d had t h e r i g h t to send h i s own l a b o u r e r s to h a r v e s t and keep the t o t a l y i e l d . ^ A l t h o u g h the r e n t d e p o s i t system e x a c t e d a heavy t o l l , the t e n a n t s ' r e a l burden d e r i v e d from t h e r e n t system and i t s s t r u c t u r e . 2 . Rent Rents were p a i d g e n e r a l l y i n t h r e e forms under the t e n a n c y s y s t e m — c a s h , c r o p and share r e n t . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f n o n - i r r i g a t e d l a n d s f o r which a c a s h r e n t was demanded i n most c a s e s , r e n t payment i n g r a i n was t h e p r e v a l e n t p r a c t i c e i n Guangdong. An e s t i m a t e d 5 8 . 4 62 p e r c e n t o f t h e peasants i n the p r o v i n c e p a i d t h e i r r e n t i n g r a i n , w h i l e o n l y 2 3 . 9 p e r c e n t p a i d i n c a s h , and o n l y 17.7 p e r c e n t , under t h e system o f s h a r e r e n t . ^ Cash r e n t , however, was dominant where c r o p s o t h e r than r i c e were p l a n t e d . Even i n t h o s e r e g i o n s , when r i c e was p l a n t e d , t h e form o f payment was always i n g r a i n . In t h e d e l t a r e g i o n , t h e r e f o r e , cash r e n t was most w i d e s p r e a d i n Shun-de where the major c r o p s were m u l b e r r i e s and s i l k c o c o o n s ; i t was a l s o p o p u l a r i n a major p a r t o f Z h o n g - s h a n , h a l f o f X i n - h u i and N a n - h a i , w h i l e i n Pan-yu and K a i - p i n g , payment i n c r o p s o r g r a i n was always p r e f e r r e d . Rent payment was not a • s i m p l e m a t t e r . For one t h i n g , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f cash and g r a i n r e n t f o r the same l a n d under t h e same l e a s e was p r a c t i c a l l y unknown i n Guangdong p r o v i n c e . I t was q u i t e common, however, t h a t t h e l a n d l o r d was p a i d i n c a s h b u t t h e amount o f r e n t was f i x e d i n terms o f g r a i n , i . e . , the a c t u a l money payment was e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e v a l u e o f a f i x e d amount o f g r a i n , e s t i m a t e d a t t h e p r i c e p r e v a i l i n g a t t h e time o f h i g h e s t q u o t a t i o n , i n t h e s p r i n g . M o r e o v e r , a l t h o u g h t h e second o r t h i r d l a n d l o r d m i g h t pay a c a s h r e n t , t h e f i n a l t e n a n t o r c u l t i v a t o r always p a i d h i s r e n t i n g r a i n . I t i s easy t o u n d e r s t a n d why l a n d l o r d s p r e f e r r e d r e n t i n g r a i n . They w e r e , i n most c a s e s , s p e c u l a t o r s i n g r a i n t h e m s e l v e s . The m i d d l e - o r r i c h p e a s a n t s who had s u f f i c i e n t means and who c o u l d h a n d l e a c o m m e r c i a l i z e d c r o p p r e f e r r e d t o pay t h e i r r e n t w i t h a d e f i n i t e amount o f c a s h . Poor p e a s a n t s p a i d t h e i r r e n t i n g r a i n because t h e y seldom c o u l d r a i s e enough c a s h and had t o pay whatever t h e y h a r v e s t e d . 63 Cash r e n t was u s u a l l y f i x e d r e n t . In terms o f c a s h per mu, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a t i s t i c s o f Nong-qing Bao-gao 3 25 p e r c e n t o f the t e n a n t s i n Guangdong were p a y i n g f i v e t o t e n yuan per mu i n 1935, and a n o t h e r 25 p e r c e n t were p a y i n g t h e h i g h e s t amount t h e r e p o r t r e c o r d e d — o v e r t e n yuan (See T a b l e 1 ) . The h i g h e s t r e n t i n t h e p r o v i n c e averaged t o be 1 8 . 8 yuan per mu a n n u a l l y , w h i l e the average r e n t f o r one mu o f an o r d i n a r y f i e l d was about 6 . 7 yuan, t h e l a t t e r 12 f i g u r e b e i n g t h e h i g h e s t i n the n a t i o n a t t h a t t i m e . In f a c t , i n most c o u n t i e s i n t h e d e l t a a r e a , t h e r e n t f o r each mu o r good i r r i g a t e d f i e l d was always i n the range o f 17 t o 20 yuan (See T a b l e 2 ) . For t h e f e r t i l e i r r i g a t e d f i e l d s i n t h e Sha-gu r e g i o n s , r e n t s were even h i g h e r , 13 r a n g i n g from 20 t o 30 yuan per mu. TABLE 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Cash Rent i n Guangdong P r o v i n c e Ranges o f Rent Rent per mu 0.1-1 1 . 1 - 2 2 . 1 - 3 3 . 1 - 4 4 . 1 - 5 5 . 1T6 yuan % o f Tenants 6 . 8 11.4 6 . 8 6 . 8 11.4 6 . 8 Rent per mu 6 . 1 - 7 7 . 1 - 8 8 . 1 - 9 9 . 1 - 1 0 o v e r 10 yuan % o f t e n a n t s 2 . 3 1 3 . 6 2 . 3 6 . 8 2 5 . 0 S o u r c e : C i t e d i n Amano Motonosuke ^ViXj^H , Shina Nogyo Keizai-ron t i - L i $ S ( O n t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l Economy i n C h i n a ) , V o K 1 , p. 416. See a l s o Zhang B a i - y u ^ * & » ^ ) and Wang Y i n - y u a n >}-fiL Zhong-guo- Rong-dian Wen-ti ® %. i^-CI '(The Problem, o f Tenancy i n " C h i n a ) , p. 8 2 . TABLE 2 Cash Rent i n the D e l t a Region f o r I r r i g a t e d F i e l d s County Z h o n g - s h a n a n b Dong-guan N a n - h a i c Shun-de^ X i n - h u i e K a i - p i n g ^ P a n - y u 9 Rent per mu: Grade.-A 20 20 10-20 20 20-40 17-22 18 yuan Grade B 10-15 6 5-12 10+ - 15-16 yuan S o u r c e s : a Zhou Zheng-feng ^ 5 ? , "Zhong-shan X i a n Nong-ye D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" & t * M * ^ i n Guangdong Nong-ye Gai-feng Diao-cha Bao-gao-shu Xu-pian «t * f f l**i-*ft*£(R e s e a r C n Report on t h e General C o n d i t i o n o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n Guangdong, Book 2 ) , p.. 140. b Chen G a n - j i ^ & Huang Xi-chou-M% e ^ , "Dong-guan X i a n Nong-ye D i a o - cha Bao-gao" ^ • i f l t * * ^ in Ibid.} p. 151. c Zhou Z h e n g - f e n g , " N a n - h a i X i a n Nong-ye D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" fri&ibti^in iMci., p. 123. d , "Shun-de X i a n Nong-ye D i a o - c h a B a o - g a o " » t t f t * * i M " * » 9 * i n -#>*d., p. 134. e Chen Z e - l i n •?£ i f £ , " X i n - h u i X i a n Nong-ye D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" 4fr$H Mffl+th-t i n Guangdong-Sheng Nong-ye Gai-feng Diao-cha Bao-gao-shu '•Z>i\*\f$'hJz. 4 , p. 290. f Z h o u Z h e n g - f e n g , " K a i - p i n g X i a n Nong-ye G a i - f e n g D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" /*lf A't * ^ i n Guangdong Nong-ye Gai-feng Diao-cha Bao-gao-shu Xu-pian Xia-guan A $ J&it p. 5 1 . 9 , " P a n - y u X i a n Nong-ye G a i - f e n g D i a o - c h a Bao-gao" I b i d . , p. 14. 65 Rent i n g r a i n , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , may or may not be o f a f i x e d amount. When i t i s not a f i x e d t o t a l , the l a n d l o r d and t h e t e n a n t would d i v i d e t h e h a r v e s t a c c o r d i n g t o some d e f i n i t e p r o p o r t i o n under the s h a r e r e n t s y s t e m , fen-zu'Hl®. . Over t h e p r o v i n c e as a whole t h i s system was not commonplace, e s p e c i a l l y i n the d e l t a r e g i o n . Zhang and Wang r e p o r t e d t h a t about 73.7 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d l o r d s i n t h e p r o v i n c e took 40 t o 50 p e r c e n t o f the t e n a n t s ' h a r v e s t under the 14 system o f s h a r e r e n t , a l t h o u g h Chen found t h a t i s some o t h e r , 15 s p e c i f i c c a s e s , t h e l a n d l o r d took as much as 60 p e r c e n t . When t h e t e n a n t s p a i d t h e i r r e n t s i n f i x e d terms i n g r a i n , however, r e n t s were not much l o w e r . In h i s r e s e a r c h Amano found t h a t i n 1930 the p e a s a n t s i n Guangdong who p a i d t h e i r r e n t s i n g r a i n under the f i x e d system were a c t u a l l y p a y i n g about 5 9 . 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r h a r v e s t f o r a p i e c e o f f i r s t grade i r r i g a t e d f i e l d . For a second grade o f i r r i g a t e d f i e l d , the amount was j u s t as h i g h - - 5 9 . 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e annual h a r v e s t ; f o r the l o w e s t grade o f : i r r i g a t e d f i e l d s , i t was 1 fi s t i l l 5 0 . 7 p e r c e n t . In t h e d e l t a a r e a , Chen o b s e r v e d t h a t i n Pan-yu c o u n t y t e n a n t s o r d i n a r i l y p a i d about 55 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r h a r v e s t f o r r e n t but r a r e l y exceeded 60 p e r c e n t . In T a i - s h a n , t h e p e r c e n t a g e was around f i f t y . 1 7 In P a n - y u , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e Long-yan-dong v i l l a g e , t h e r a t e was 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l annual y i e l d r e g a r d l e s s 18 o f t h e grade o f t h e f i e l d . C o n v e r t i n g t h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s t o monetary t e r m s , Zhang and Wang found t h a t i n 1934 the m a j o r i t y o f t e n a n t s i n Guangdong p a i d 66 5 t o 10 yuan o f r e n t f o r one mu (See T a b l e 3 ) . They a l s o noted t h a t t h e h i g h e s t r a t e o f r e n t t e n a n t s were p a y i n g was 15 yuan, w h i l e the a v e r a g e was 7 . 5 yuan. When compared t o t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e r e n t o f 4 . 2 yuan per mu, r e n t s i n Guangdong were c l e a r l y t h e most e x p e n s i v e 19 i n C h i n a . T h i s c o i n c i d e s w i t h Amano's o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t p e a s a n t s i n Guangdong p a i d t h e h i g h e s t average r e n t i n 1934, o n l y Yun-nan P r o v i n c e 20 averaged t h e same. TABLE 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Rent i n G r a i n i n Monetary Terms i n Guangdong Range o f Rent Rent i n Cash 0 . 1 -1 • 1 . 1 - 2 2 . 1 - 3 2 . 1 - -4 ' 4 . 1 - 5 5 . 1 - 6 yuan/mu % o f Tenants 2 . 5 1 0 . 0 5 . 0 2 . 5 1 5 . 0 Rent i n Cash 6 . 1-7 7 . 1 - 8 8 . 1 - 9 9 . 1 - -10 Over 10 yuan/mu % o f Tenants 12. 5 1 0 . 0 17 .5 1 5 . 0 1 0 . 0 S o u r c e : Zhang B a i - y u & N a n g Y i n - y u a n >i-fi^ , Zhong-guo Nong-dian Wen-ti ^ffl&l® P'] -il (The Problem o f Tenancy i n C h i n a ) , p. 8 7 . 3 . The Burden o f Rent Not s u r p r i s i n g l y r e n t s i n Guangdong amounted to more than o n e -h a l f o f t h e t o t a l c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n . Tawney commented t h a t r e n t s were s a i d t o absorb a p p r o x i m a t e l y 55 t o 60 p e r c e n t o f the produce on s m a l l 67 farms i n G u a n g d o n g / 1 And a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e p o r t s u b m i t t e d by t h e I n s t i t u t e o f A g r i c u l t u r e o f t h e N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y o f Guangdong i n 1 9 2 5 , the c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n per mu o f sugar cane i n t h e Sha-gu a r e a 22 o f Pan-yu was as f o l l o w s : For the f i r s t y e a r : Rent H i r e d Labour S e e d l i n g s , 1 , 4 0 0 p i e c e s P e a n u t - c a k e f e r t i l i z e r , 150 c a t t i e s For t h e second y e a r : Rent H i r e d Labour P e a n u t - c a k e f e r t i l i z e r , 120 c a t t i e s The C h i n e s e N a t i o n a l E v a n g e l i c a l C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n e s t i m a t e d i n 1927 t h a t i n a t y p i c a l p o o r - p e a s a n t f a m i l y b u d g e t , r e n t was not o n l y t h e b i g g e s t expense i t e m i n terms o f c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n , i t was a l s o e s t i m a t e d t o be more than f a m i l y e x p e n s e s : Rent (8 yuan per mu, 10 mu b e i n g t h e minimum o f l a n d a f a m i l y needed f o r s u b s i s t e n c e ) 80 yuan F e r t i l i z e r 20 S e e d l i n g s 6 Maintenance o f Farm T o o l s 5 F a m i l y Expenses 60 T o t a l 171 yuan 7 1 . 0 yuan 6 . 0 5 . 6 8 . 2 5 17.0 yuan 5 . 0 6 . 6 For 10 mu o f medium-low grade l a n d , annual g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n would not be more than 27 picul, w h i l e t h e market p r i c e f o r each picul o f g r a i n was o n l y 6 yuan. The annual income o f t h e poor peasant f a m i l y was t h u s o n l y 162 yuan. In o t h e r w o r d s , the f a m i l y was 9 yuan s h o r t o f 23 s u b s i s t e n c e . For a poor peasant f a m i l y who c o u l d not a f f o r d to r e n t as much as 10 mu o f f i e l d s o f average g r a d e , s u b s i s t e n c e became more d i f f i c u l t . An a r t i c l e i n Zhong-guo Nong-min i3) %. Z\ ( C h i n e s e P e a s a n t s ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t a t y p i c a l poor peasant f a m i l y c o u l d be a t l e a s t 72 yuan s h o r t o f s u b s i s t e n c e a n n u a l l y because o f the h i g h r e n t which a c c o u n t e d f o r 50 p e r c e n t o f h i s income from t h e g r a i n 24 p r o d u c t i o n : E x p e n s e s : Rent 45 yuan S e e d l i n g s F e r t i l i z e r s 6 30 Farm T o o l s Maintenance F e e d i n g f o r D r a f t A n i m a l s F a m i l y Expenses 2 3 80 T o t a l 166 yuan Income: 15 p i c u l o f g r a i n a t 6 yuan each 90 yuan Supplementary income from g r a s s - c u t t i n g 4 T o t a l 94 yuan 69 S t a t i s t i c s from the n a t i o n a l i s t government i n 1932 a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was common t h a t the poor peasant were u n a b l e t o make ends meet. In a s u r v e y o f expenses o f r u r a l p e a s a n t s i n Guangdong p r o v i n c e , i t showed t h a t f o r t e n a n t s who had l e s s than 5 25 mu o f f i e l d s t o work on were 42 yuan s h o r t o f s u b s i s t e n c e a n n u a l l y , w h i l e t e n a n t s who c o u l d a f f o r d t o have 5 t o 10 mu t o farm c o u l d make a s m a l l m a r g i n o f s u r p l u s . Luo and L i n , i n t h e i r s t u d y o f the Long-yan-dong i n P a n - y u , drew a s i m i l a r p i c t u r e . They found t h a t o f t h e p e a s a n t s ' c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n about 5 7 . 3 p e r c e n t went f o r r e n t , w h i l e l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y 1 7 . 3 p e r c e n t and f e r t i l i z e r took up o n l y 1 8 . 5 p e r c e n t . In t h e Old Phoenix V i l l a g e o f the same d i s t r i c t , Wu and Hunag noted t h a t w h i l e r e n t payment d i d not go up t o h a l f o f t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n , i t 27 n e v e r t h e l e s s absorbed t h e l a r g e s t s h a r e o f t h e c o s t - - 3 1 . 7 p e r c e n t . I f the e s t i m a t e s mentioned above a l l seem a b i t too s i m p l i s t i c , Yang gave t h e most d e t a i l e d a p p r o x i m a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n , consumption and income o f d i f f e r e n t peasant c l a s s e s i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f Nan-28 c h i n g v i l l a g e i n P a n - y u . He f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e d i f f e r e n t expenses i n v o l v e d i n the p r o d u c t i o n o f g r a i n : T a x e s : main t a x 50 c a t t i e s = 7.1% o f y i e l d (unhusked r i c e ) l o c a l government 35 5 . 0 ' c r o p p r o t e c t i o n ' 5 0.7 f e e R e n t : 1 mu o f medium 300 4 3 . 0 grade 70 F e r t i l i z e r : 20 c a t t i e s o f human e x c r e t a o r 50 c a t t i e s o f soya cakes 40 5.7 S e e d s : 10 1 . 4 Adding up a l l t h e s e i t e m s , t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c t i o n f o r one mu o f r i c e l a n d owned and farmed by t h e peasant h i m s e l f was about 20 p e r c e n t o f the y i e l d ; but f o r one mu o f r i c e l a n d r e n t e d from o t h e r s but farmed by the peasant h i m s e l f , t h e c o s t was 51 p e r c e n t . And t h i s e x c l u d e d expenses i n v o l v e d i n h i r i n g l a b o u r e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e , and r e p l a c e m e n t o f farm t o o l s and o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s i t e m s . Yang f u r t h e r p o s t u l a t e d t h a t a v e r a g i n g heavy consumption d u r i n g busy and s l a c k p e r i o d s , t h e food needs f o r an a d u l t male were about 365 c a t t i e s (485 pounds) o f r i c e a y e a r . When a v e r a g i n g t h e d i f f e r -ences between sex and a g e , each p e r s o n was e s t i m a t e d t o be equal t o 0 . 7 5 o f an a d u l t male i n h i s p r i m e . T h u s , the food consumption o f an average f a m i l y o f 4 . 8 persons would be t h a t o f 3 . 6 p e r s o n s ; and the minimum need f o r an average peasant f a m i l y y e a r l y would be about 1 ,314 c a t t i e s o f husked r i c e f o r f o o d . Adding 30 p e r c e n t o f t h i s amount f o r o t h e r n e c e s s i t i e s , t h e t o t a l minimum need would than be 29 2.141 c a t t i e s o f husked r i c e . Assuming t h a t a poor peasant f a m i l y n o r m a l l y c u l t i v a t e d about 6 mu o f l a n d o f which he owned 20 p e r c e n t and r e n t e d t h e r e s t , he would have about 2 , 3 1 8 c a t t i e s o f unhusked r i c e o r 1 ,507 c a t t i e s 71 o f husked r i c e (100 c a t t i e s o f unhusked r i c e was e s t i m a t e d t o equal about 65 c a t t i e s o f husked r i c e ) , 672 c a t t i e s from h i s own l a n d and 1 , 6 4 6 c a t t i e s o f unhusked r i c e from h i s r e n t e d l a n d . A g a i n s t t h e 30 minimum n e e d , h i s t o t a l y i e l d was about 30 p e r c e n t s h o r t o f s u b -s i s t e n c e , even b e f o r e he s e t a s i d e any r e i n v e s t m e n t c a p i t a l f o r the c r o p s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r . In t h e c a s e o f a m i d d l e p e a s a n t , a c c o r d i n g t o Y a n g , h i s p o s i t i o n was a l s o r a t h e r p r e c a r i o u s . He noted t h a t t h e m i d d l e peasant o p e r a t e d a farm o f 10 mu i n w h i c h 30 p e r c e n t was h i s own l a n d and t h e r e m a i n i n g r e n t e d from o t h e r s , h i s t o t a l n e t y i e l d would be 1 , 6 0 8 c a t t i e s from h i s own l a n d and 2 , 4 0 0 c a t t i e s from the r e n t e d l a n d a f t e r d e d u c t i n g r e n t and p r o d u c t i o n c o s t . H i s t o t a l g r o s s y i e l d o f 4 , 0 8 0 c a t t i e s o f unhusked r i c e , o r 2 , 6 5 2 c a t t i e s o f husked r i c e , when 31 compared t o t h e 2,141 c a t t i e s minimum consumption f o r a f a m i l y , seemed on t h e s u r f a c e t o g i v e t h e m i d d l e peasant a margin o f s a v i n g s t o s p a r e . However, s i n c e t h e m i d d l e peasant u s u a l l y employed some h i r e d hands and a p a r t o f t h e net income had t o be put a s i d e f o r r e i n v e s t m e n t i n t h e n e x t y e a r ' s c r o p s , h i s m a r g i n o f s a f e t y even f o r normal l i v i n g was p r e c a r i o u s . In monetary t e r m s , Luo and L i n p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t h e L o n g - y a n -dong V i l l a g e o f t h e same c o u n t y , l i f e was not easy f o r t h e l o w e r s t r a t a o f t h e p e a s a n t r y . They found t h a t 71.1 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t s i n the v i l l a g e had an average annual income o f l e s s than 150 yuan 72 ( T a b l e 4 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o F e n g ' s c a l c u l a t i o n t h e b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t 32 f o r a peasant f a m i l y ' s s u b s i s t e n c e was 150 yuan, and t h u s an o v e r -whelming m a j o r i t y o f t h e v i l l a g e was beneath p o v e r t y l i n e . TABLE 4 Average Annual Income Groups i n Long-yan-dong V i l l a g e Income Range Over One Year Yuan Under 100 100-200 200-300 3 0 0 -400 400 500 500-1 , 0 0 0 Over 1 , 0 0 0 T o t a l P e r c e n t 2 4 . 4 2 7 . 5 1 9 . 2 1 2 . 6 6 . 3 8 . 4 •1 .6 Average F a m i l y -Income 3 1 . 9 9 0 . 3 119.9 168.1 2 3 1 . 8 3 6 9 . 3 6 6 7 . 6 1 3 2 . 6 Average I n d i v i d -ual Income 9 . 9 2 2 . 6 2 9 . 0 31.1 3 5 . 3 5 2 . 8 8 0 . 9 2 9 . 2 S o u r c e : Luo and L i n , op. cit., p. 2 4 5 , T a b l e 14. A l t h o u g h t h e s i t u a t i o n i n t h e Old Phoenix V i l l a g e , w h i c h Wu and Huang s u r v e y e d , was not as g r i m as t h e c a s e we j u s t d i s c u s s e d , Wu and Huang n e v e r t h e l e s s found t h a t 34 p e r c e n t o f the f a m i l i e s t h e y i n t e r -viewed was 14.73 yuan s h o r t o f making ends m e e t , w h i l e 38 p e r c e n t had a 7 4 . 3 3 yuan margin o f s u r p l u s . A l t h o u g h t h e l a t t e r had a s u r p l u s , t h e i r p o s i t i o n was p r e c a r i o u s i f t h e r e s h o u l d be e x p e n d i t u r e s 73 f o r an annual o c c a s i o n l i k e i l l n e s s , m a r r i a g e , o r d e a t h , i f t h e r e were too many mouths t o f e e d i n t h e f a m i l y ; o r i f t h e r e were a 33 p a r t i a l c r o p l o s s from damage by storm o r i l l - t i m e d r a i n s . B. C r e d i t 1 . R u r a l P o v e r t y When a c o n s i d e r a b l e s e c t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t r y had t o l i v e on minimum s u b s i s t e n c e w i t h a p r e c a r i o u s margin o f s a f e t y , and t h e m a j o r -i t y c o u l d not make enough income from t h e farm a l o n e to p r o v i d e even bare s u b s i s t e n c e f o r the f a m i l y because o f t h e heavy burden o f h i g h r e n t , r u r a l p o v e r t y w a s , not s u r p r i s i n g l y , the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Guangdong v i l l a g e s . In f a c t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e Land Commission i n 1937, about 40 p e r c e n t o f the peasant f a m i l i e s i n Guangdong, t h e i r annual income was under 200 yuan (see T a b l e 5 ) ; and i t was not u n -r e a s o n a b l e t o a c c e p t 200 yuan as the c u t t i n g l i n e f o r minimum s u b -s i s t e n c e . 1 In an e a r l i e r s u r v e y by t h e Land Commission a l s o found t h a t 5 2 . 0 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e peasant f a m i l i e s i n the p r o v i n c e were unable t o make ends meet ( T a b l e 6 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o B u c k ' s e s t i m a t e , 52 p e r c e n t o f the peasant f a m i l i e s i n South China were i n d e b t , and 2 t h e average amount o f debt was about 8 2 . 6 6 yuan. The Zhong-yang Non-ye Shi-yan-Suo's "% %. fff e s t i m a t e s o f peasant f a m i l y 3 i n d e b t e d n e s s ran to 60 p e r c e n t . TABLE 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Annual Peasant F a m i l y Income i n Guangdong Income Range Income 0-•25 2 5 . 4 9 . 9 5 0 - 7 4 . 9 7 5 - 9 9 . 9 100-149.9 150- 1 9 9 . 9 200--249.9 yuan F a m i l i e s 0 06 0 . 7 0 2 . 4 8 4 . 9 8 12.56 16. 60 16 61 % Income 350 2 9 9 . 9 3 0 0 - 3 4 9 . 9 3 5 0 - 3 9 9 . 9 4 0 0 - 4 9 9 . 9 500+ yuan F a m i l i e s 13 56 9 . 8 2 6.47 7 . 9 6 8.17 % S o u r c e : Amano, op. cit., V o l . 2 , p. 206. 75 TABLE 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Indebtedness o f Peasant F a m i l i e s i n Guangdong S u r p l u s B a l a n c e d In Debt No I n f o r m a t i o n 34.57 13.32 5 2 . 0 8 0 . 0 3 p e r c e n t S o u r c e : Amano, op. cit.j Vol . 2 , p. 207 The c r u s h i n g burden o f i n d e b t e d n e s s and i t s p e r v a s i v e n e s s i n t h e p r o v i n c e c o u l d be f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d by a s u r v e y c a r r i e d out by t h e Zhong-shan C u l t u r a l and E d u c a t i o n I n s t i t u t e and Lingnan U n i v e r s i t y i n 1933. Of t h e 1 , 2 0 9 f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d , not o n l y were 5 8 . 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e poor peasant f a m i l i e s i n Pan-yu d i s t r i c t i n d e b t , but among t h e m i d d l e p e a s a n t s 5 2 . 8 p e r c e n t were i n c a p a b l e o f making ends meet w i t h o u t b o r r o w i n g from d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . ^ Chen a l s o found t h a t i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s i x t y - s e v e n v i l l a g e s i n Pan-yu c o u n t y , 50 o f them had s e v e n t y o r more p e r c e n t o f t h e i r peasant f a m i l i e s i n d e b t . S p e c i f i c -a l l y , he p o i n t e d out t h a t e i g h t e e n o f them had 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e peasant f a m i l i e s i n d e b t , w h i l e , s i x t e e n o f them had 80 p e r c e n t , n i n e 5 had 70 p e r c e n t , and f i v e had 60 p e r c e n t . In Shun-de c o u n t y , t h e p i c t u r e was s i m i l a r — a b o u t 70 p e r c e n t o f t h e peasant households had t o l i v e on borrowed means; i t was t y p i c a l as w e l l as a l l t h e d i s t r i c t s i n t h e P e a r l R i v e r d e l t a . C h e n ' s s t a t i s t i c s , however, o f t e n where l o w e r 76 than what t h e y r e a l l y s h o u l d be because o f p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g i n d e b t e d n e s s . 2 . C r e d i t S o c i e t y With such w i d e s p r e a d p o v e r t y , i t was not uncommon t o see t h a t most poor p e a s a n t s had t o r e s o r t t o l o a n s t o s u b s i s t . W h i l e Buck noted t h a t i n Guangdong, 6 3 . 6 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t s ' l o a n s had been i n c u r r e d t o meet household consumption r a t h e r than p r o d u c t i o n u s a g e s , 7 Yang was more s p e c i f i c i n p o i n t i n g out t h a t i n h i s s t u d y , t h e poor p e a s a n t s i n Nanching V i l l a g e g e n e r a l l y borrowed t o meet i m m e d i a t e , p r e s s i n g n e e d s - - s u c h as p a y i n g r e n t , b u y i n g f o o d , seeds o r f e r t i l i z e r to keep the f a m i l y o r the farm g o i n g - - w h i l e the m i d d l e p e a s a n t s commonly borrowed t o meet c r i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s o f f a m i l y l i f e such as m a r r i a g e , P f u n e r a l , b i r t h d a y and c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e b i r t h o f c h i l d . There were d i f f e r e n t c h a n n e l s f o r b o r r o w i n g — d e p e n d i n g on t h e s i z e o f the s i z e o f t h e l o a n as w e l l as t h e c r e d i t s t a n d i n g o f t h e d e b t o r . For s m a l l e r sums and f o r p e r s o n s who had good c r e d i t s t a n d i n g among f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s , t h e most p o p u l a r method was t o o r g a n i z e a c r e d i t s o c i e t y commonly c a l l e d qi-hui o r zuo-hui . The emergence o f t h i s t y p e o f c r e d i t s o c i e t y d a t e s back to t h e Tang d y n a s t y . I t s p e r s i s t e n c e and i t s p o p u l a r i t y were a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s e v e r e s h o r t a g e o f c a p i t a l as w e l l as t h e p e a s a n t s ' d e s p e r a t e need. 77 In t h i s , groups o f p e o p l e p a i d sums o f money a t r e g u l a r i n t e r -v a l s , t h e c o l l e c t i o n b e i n g p l a c e d a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f i n d i v i d u a l members i n t u r n . There were many v a r i a t i o n s o f t h i s t y p e o f c r e d i t s o c i e t y i n Guangdong and i n o t h e r p a r t s o f C h i n a as w e l l - - t h e yao-hui 44^t" , 9 f o r e x a m p l e , s u b s t i t u t e d g r a m f o r money. In any c a s e , t h e o p e r a t i n g p r i n c i p l e was e s s e n t i a l l y s i m i l a r . F e i gave the b e s t summary o f how i t o p e r a t e d : 1 ^ T h i s s o c i e t y i s a s o r t o f s a v i n g s y s t e m , i n t o which each member pays a c e r t a i n amount a t c e r t a i n i n t e r v a l s and from which he i s p a i d a c e r t a i n sum on a s p e c i f i e d d a t e . The s i z e o f t h e pay-ment t o be made by each p a r t i c i p a n t and the time a t which he w i l l be p a i d a r e p r e a r r a n g e d . Anyone i n need o f money may o r g a n i z e a s o c i e t y by e n l i s t i n g t e n o t h e r members. Each w i l l pay a p r e d e t e r m i n e d sum o f the one hundred d o l l a r s which t h e o r g a n i z e r r e c e i v e s . . . . T h e r e a f t e r , t h e s o c i e t y meets e v e r y s i x m o n t h s , u s u a l l y i n March and September, a t which time one member r e c e i v e s one hundred d o l l a r s and t h e r e s t make t h e i r payments. Members o t h e r than t h e o r g a n i z e r pay sums d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o t h e o r d e r i n which t h e y a r e p a i d , so t h a t , i n e f f e c t , t h e f i r s t f i v e a r e p a y i n g i n t e r e s t f o r l o a n s t h e y have r e c e i v e d , w h i l e the l a s t f i v e a r e r e c e i v i n g i n t e r e s t f o r money t h e y have d e p o s i t e d . The o r g a n i z e r , on the. o t h e r h a n d , r e -pays j u s t one hundred, d o l l a r s d u r i n g t h e f i v e - y e a r l i f e o f t h e s o c i e t y and has thus s e c u r e d a l o a n w i t h o u t i n t e r e s t . But he i s o b l i g e d t o o f f e r a f e a s t a t each meeting and has t h e r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y o f c o l l e c t i n g t h e money. F u r t h e r m o r e , i n c a s e o f d e f a u l t by any o f t h e s u b s c r i b e r s , he i s h e l d a c c o u n t a b l e . The f u n c t i o n s o f t h i s system depends on the i n v a r i a b l e d i s c h a r g e o f t h e i r o b l i g a t i o n s by t h e s u b s c r i b e r s , and t h i s i s s e c u r e d o n l y by e x i s t i n g t i e s o f f r i e n d s h i p and k i n s h i p . To i l l u s t r a t e how t h i s worked o u t , we can t a k e a l o o k a t t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e : 78 Time o f M e e t i n g 1 s t 2nd 3rd 4 t h 5th 6 t h 7 t h 8 t h 9 t h 10th 11th T o t a l O r g a n i z e r 0 18 16 14 12 10 10 8 6 4 2 100 Member 1 18 0 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 180 2 16 16 0 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 160 3 14 14 14 0 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 140 4 12 12 12 12 0 12 12 12 12 12 12 120 5 10 10 10 10 10 0 10 10 10 10 10 100 6 10 10 10 10 10 10 0 10 10 10 ' 1 0 100 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 0 8 8 8 80 8 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 6 6 60 9 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 4 40 10 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 20 R e c e i v e 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 In t h i s c a s e , member one who r e c e i v e d h i s hundred d o l l a r s a t t h e meeting f o l l o w e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l one was a c t u a l l y p a y i n g 180 d o l l a r s w h i l e member t e n who e v e n t u a l l y would r e c e i v e h i s share o f money was p a y i n g o n l y twenty d o l l a r s t o t a l , t h e e i g h t y d o l l a r s net p r o f i t he would r e c e i v e a t t h e end would be h i s share o f i n t e r e s t f o r t h e money he p a i d o u t . A qi-hui r a r e l y exceeded a 100 yuan amount and t h e term o f t h e s o c i e t y n o r m a l l y ran f o r under f i v e y e a r s ( T a b l e 7 ) . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , a person o f good c r e d i t s t a n d i n g c o u l d o r g a n i z e o r b e l o n g t o s e v e r a l s o -c i e t i e s and o b t a i n a s i z a b l e l o a n by c o m b i n i n g t h e proceeds from the 79 d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s , but when t h e r e was a g e n e r a l s h o r t a g e o f c a p i t a l , one c o u l d not e a s i l y f i n d many members t o o r g a n i z e o r j o i n a s o c i e t y , When t h i s f a i l e d , one had t o go t o o t h e r s o u r c e s f o r l o a n s . TABLE 7 S i z e and Terms o f Loans o f C r e d i t S o c i e t i e s i n Guangdong Amount o f Loan Under 100 100-200 200-400 400-600 600+ yuan 51.1% 22.9% 17.1% 2.8% 5.7% Term Under 5 5-10 Over 10 y e a r s 5 3 . 9 % 30.8% 15.3% S o u r c e : Nong-qing. Bao-gao fc^**."* , 2 ( 1 ) , November 1934. C i t e d i n Amano, op. ait., V o l . 2 , p. 2 9 6 . 3 . Loans and I n t e r e s t Rates Buck p o i n t e d out t h a t i n g e n e r a l most p e a s a n t s i n Guangdong went t o t h e i r f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s when t h e y were i n need o f a l o a n ( T a b l e 8 ) . Presumably by u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f c a t e g o r i e s and d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a f o r d e f i n i n g c a t e g o r i e s , t h e s t a t i s t i c s o f Nong-qing Bao-gao i n d i c a t e d t h a t peasants i n t h e p r o v i n c e , assumed t o be o t h e r 80 than f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s , o b t a i n e d t h e i r l o a n s m o s t l y from l a n d -l o r d s , pawnshops, and merchants ( T a b l e 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o the Shen-bao Nian-jian, however, i t was t h e r i c h p e a s a n t s who p r o v i d e d most o f t h e l o a n s t o needy peasants ( T a b l e 1 0 ) . These r e p o r t s seem, t o be c o n f u s i n g , but we can i n f e r t h a t a peasant i n need o f a l o a n went f i r s t t o h i s f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s ; but s i n c e t h e r e was a g e n e r a l s h o r t a g e o f c a p i t a l , he would o f t e n have t o seek h e l p t h r o u g h o t h e r c r e d i t c h a n n e l s . TABLE 8 P e a s a n t s ' Sources o f Loans i n Guangdong Channels o f C r e d i t Tung-x i a n g F r i e n d R e T a t i v e Merchant Pawnshop S t o r e P e r c e n t a g e 3 . 3 3 5 4 . 0 0 4 . 5 0 0 . 3 3 14.67 Channels o f C r e d i t L a n d l o r d Neighbour Nearby V i l l a g e Others P e r c e n t a g e 4 . 0 0 4 . 1 7 5 . 0 0 3 . 6 7 aTung-xiang i*ltff r e f e r s t o persons from t h e same v i l l a g e . S o u r c e : John L. B u c k , Land Utilization in China, Statistics, 1937. 81 TABLE 9 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Sources o f Loans i n Guangdong Channels o f C r e d i t L o c a l Bank Co-op Pawn Shop Bank S t o r e L a n d l o r d R i c h Peasant Merchant P e r c e n -age 5 . 5 0 . 3 1 8 . 4 3 . 2 1 3 . 2 2 6 . 9 1 2 . 4 20.1 S o u r c e : Nong-qing Bao-gao, 2 ( 1 1 ) , November 1934. C i t e d i n Amano, op. cit., V o l . 2 , p. 227. When l o a n s were extended from s o u r c e s o t h e r than f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s , i n t e r e s t r a t e s were g e n e r a l l y u s u r i o u s . T h i s c e r t a i n l y was a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e h i g h r i s k o f d e f a u l t and t h e absence o f a l t e r n a t i v e l e n d i n g f a c i l i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a t i s t i c s o f Nong-quing Bao-gao TABLE 10 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Sources o f Loans i n Guangdong Channels o f C r e d i t Co-op F r i e n d / R e l a t i v e Land-l o r d R i c h Peasant Merchant L o c a l Bank Others P e r c e n t . . tage • 0 . 6 1 0 . 2 5 . 8 5 2 . 9 1 6 . 6 5 . 7 8 . 2 S o u r c e : Shen-bao Nian-jian ^ k - t ^ ' S - (Shen-bao Y e a r b o o k ) , V o l . 2 , 1934, p. 726. 82 o f 1934, t h e b u l k o f t h e p e a s a n t s ' l o a n s i n Guangdong p r o v i n c e , 4 8 . 2 p e r c e n t , had an annual i n t e r e s t r a t e o f 20 t o 30 p e r c e n t imposed on them w h i l e a n o t h e r 3 0 . 4 p e r c e n t had a h i g h e r i n t e r e s t r a t e o f 30 t o 40 p e r c e n t a n n u a l l y . 1 1 In the P e a r l R i v e r d e l t a r e g i o n , Luo and L i n ' s s t u d y o f Long-yan-dong v i l l a g e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e normal i n t e r e s t r a t e f o r l o a n s was 20 p e r c e n t per month, but i t was not uncommon t o 12 f i n d numerous c a s e s where peasants were p a y i n g 40 t o 50 p e r c e n t . Yang r e v e a l e d t h a t even i n 1948 t h e i n t e r e s t r a t e f o r l o a n s i n Nanching v i l l a g e was n o r m a l l y 20 p e r c e n t f o r s i x months and 40 p e r -c e n t per a n n u m . ^ M o r e o v e r , most o f t h e l o a n s o b t a i n e d from t h e s e s o u r c e s would r e q u i r e some k i n d o f s e c u r i t y , m o r t g a g e , o r a t l e a s t a g u a r a n t o r ; even though most o f t h e s e l o a n s were s h o r t - t e r m l o a n s o f s i x t o t w e l v e months. The Nong-qing Bao-Gao p o i n t e d out t h a t 51.1 p e r c e n t o f t h e l o a n s i n Kuangtung p r o v i n c e was mortgage c r e d i t ; 2 1 . 6 p e r c e n t was g u a r a n t o r c r e d i t , w h i l e p e r s o n a l c r e d i t a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 2 7 . 3 14 p e r c e n t . The Land Commission i n 1937 i n d i c a t e d a s i m i l a r s t a t i s -t i c a l p i c t u r e : 47 p e r c e n t o f t h e l o a n s c o n t r a c t e d i n t h e p r o v i n c e r e q u i r e d a mortgage o f l a n d , 2 2 . 7 p e r c e n t r e q u i r e d a mortgage o f p r o p e r t y l i k e h o u s e s , and 11.3 p e r c e n t r e q u i r e d some k i n d o f p e r s o n a l items such as j e w e l l e r y , e t c . f o r s e c u r i t y w h i l e p e r s o n a l c r e d i t o n l y 15 a c c o u n t e d f o r 19 p e r c e n t . The terms o f t h e s e l o a n s were n o r m a l l y s h o r t : 53 p e r c e n t o f t h e l o a n s i n t h e p r o v i n c e was extended f o r s i x 1 g t o t w e l v e m o n t h s , and 15.7 p e r c e n t was under s i x months. 83 L o a n s , however, were not o n l y l i m i t e d t o c a s h . Loan on c r o p s were a l s o common. The s t a t i s t i c s o f a s u r v e y o f 49 xian i n Kuangtung p r o v i n c e r e p o r t e d t h a t 52 p e r c e n t o f t h e peasant f a m i l i e s was i n debt under c r o p - l o a n s , 1 7 and more than 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e s e l o a n s were o b t a i n e d from r i c h p e a s a n t s . ( T a b l e 11) TABLE 11 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Sources o f C r o p - l o a n s i n Guangdong Channel o f F r i e n d / R i c h C r e d i t R e l a t i v e L a n d l o r d Peasant Merchants Others P e r c e n t a g e 1 5 . 4 11.1 5 0 . 4 1 . 5 4 7 .7 S o u r c e : Nong-qing Bao-gao, 2 ( 4 ) , A p r i l 1934. C i t e d i n Amano, op. cit.} V o l . 2 , p. 2 6 3 . The u s u a l i n t e r e s t charged on a l o a n i n g r a i n was 30 p e r c e n t f o r s i x 18 m o n t h s , a c c o r d i n g t o C h e n ' s e s t i m a t i o n . However, i n many c a s e s a much h i g h e r r a t e would r e s u l t because o f t h e l e n d e r ' s m a n i p u l a t i o n o f p r i c e and w e i g h t . 4 . Pawn Shops For the poor peasants w i t h o u t a good c r e d i t s t a n d i n g , t h e most common c h a n n e l s o f c r e d i t were t h e pawn shop and a temporary t r a n s -f e r e n c e o f t h e i r own l a n d , i f t h e y had a n y . There were t h r e e t y p e s 84 of pawnshops, t h e dang % , an and ya 3 o f f e r i n g d i f f e r e n t time p e r i o d s o r l i m i t s f o r redeeming t h e pawns. The dang u s u a l l y was s e t up w i t h a l a r g e c a p i t a l and t h e r e f o r e s e t up a l o n g e r t i m e p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s s i n c e t h e y c o u l d a f f o r d t o s u s t a i n a l o n g e r rhythm o f c a p i t a l c i r c u l a t i o n . However, t h e y u s u a l l y engaged i n pawns o f h i g h v a l u e and q u a l i t y , i tems which were l o c a t e d m o s t l y i n the c i t i e s . The an and ya f i x e d terms a t two y e a r s and one y e a r r e s p e c -t i v e l y , but t h e r e was a l s o a t y p e o f ya known as xiao-ya +*f which s e t i t s redemption p e r i o d a t o n l y t h r e e months. A l l o f t h e s e pawn shops c o n d u c t e d b u s i n e s s by g r e a t l y u n d e r -a s s e s s i n g t h e v a l u e o f the pawns. A t t h e same time t h e y a l s o c h a r g e d e x h o r b i t a n t i n t e r e s t r a t e s . Yang o b s e r v e d t h a t . i n 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 4 9 , i n a nearby v i l l a g e o f N a n c h i n g , a r a t e o f 20 p e r c e n t f o r e v e r y t h r e e m o n t h s , o r 80 p e r c e n t per annum, was c h a r g e d . And t h i s , when 19 compared t o t h o s e i n o t h e r r e g i o n s , was r e l a t i v e l y l o w . Chen s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f ya was s p r e a d i n g o v e r t h e e n t i r e p r o v i n c e . Most o f t h e customers o f ya were t h e l e a s t w e l l - t o - d o p e a s a n t s . The m a j o r i t y o f a r t i c l e s pawned proved t o be l i v i n g n e c e s s i t i e s such as c l o t h i n g , c o t t o n q u i l t s , and a g r i c u l t u r a l implements such as h o e s , r a k e s , harrows and p l o u g h s . T h i s was i n d i c a t i v e o f the meagre r e s o u r c e s 20 t h e peasant f a m i l i e s had. When a peasant t e m p o r a r i l y t r a n s f e r r e d h i s l a n d i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a l o a n , i t was c a l l e d dian-tian A® . Here t h e c r e d i t o r c o u l d 85 farm the l a n d h i m s e l f o r c o u l d r e n t i t out i n s t e a d o f c h a r g i n g i n t e r e s t , but t h e deed remained i n t h e hands o f t h e d e b t o r and t h e d e b t o r kept t h e l e g a l o w n e r s h i p . Many f a m i l i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o Y a n g , i n t h e v i l l a g e o f Nanching h a d , mortgaged t h e i r l a n d t h i s way and Chen found t h a t i n the t e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v i l l a g e s he s u r v e y e d i n t h e d i s t r i c t o f P a n - y u , t h e p e a s a n t s had mortgaged and s o l d 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r l a n d a r e a w i t h i n 21 f i v e y e a r s . 5 . Money Lenders S t i l l more c o m p l i c a t e d were t h e u s u r y p r a c t i c e s o f t h e p r o -f e s s i o n a l money l e n d e r s . There were many v a r i a t i o n s o f cash u s u r y i n Guangdong. " J i u - c h u S h i - s a n G u i " i-<& + r e f e r s t o t h e p r a c t i c e where t h e b o r r o w e r , i f he asked f o r a l o a n o f one yuan, would e x p e c t t o r e c e i v e o n l y 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e l o a n b u t , a f t e r one month, would have t o pay back t h e sum t o t a l o f 1 .13 yuan. " T a n g - f a n g - 1 i " t^%*'i on t h e o t h e r h a n d , demanded a monthly i n t e r e s t o f 25 p e r c e n t w h i c h was compounded e v e r y s i x months. " T o u - q i a n " meant t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f an annual i n t e r e s t o f 9 to 11 yuan f o r a 10 yuan l o a n . In t h e P e a r l R i v e r d e l t a t h e most w i d e l y p r a c t i c e d h i g h - i n t e r e s t l o a n , gao-li-dai 3 was " B u - q i a o - 1 i " . H e r e , i f one borrowed one yuan, he would be e x p e c t e d t o pay a d a i l y i n t e r e s t r a t e o f 10 p e r c e n t and 22 had up t o f i v e days t o pay back h i s l o a n w i t h i n t e r e s t . 86 6 . C r e d i t C o o p e r a t i v e s I t w a s , t h e r e f o r e , not easy f o r poor p e a s a n t s w i t h u n f a v o u r a b l e c r e d i t s t a n d i n g s t o improve t h e i r s i t u a t i o n by b o r r o w i n g . T h i s d i f f i -c u l t y was augmented by the l a c k o f a l t e r n a t i v e c r e d i t c h a n n e l s t h a t c o u l d o f f e r l o a n s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y low i n t e r e s t . T a b l e s 10 and 11 show t h a t o n l y a v e r y s m a l l p o r t i o n ( 0 . 3 and 0 . 6 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y ) o f c a s h l o a n s i n r u r a l Guangdong was o b t a i n e d from c o o p e r a t i v e s , w h i l e t h e need f o r low i n t e r e s t l o a n s was o b v i o u s l y much g r e a t e r . Even when t h e r e were c r e d i t c o o p e r a t i v e s , needy p e a s a n t s d i d not have easy a c c e s s t o them due t o t h e o f t e n l o n g and c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e d u r e s o f a p p l y i n g f o r and o b t a i n i n g a l o a n . In o r d e r t o a p p l y f o r a l o a n from t h e c r e d i t c o o p e r a t i v e s s e t up by t h e government f o r t h e purpose o f r e v i t a l i z i n g t h e v i l l a g e economy, t h e a p p l i c a n t would f i r s t have t o f i l l i n an e l a b o r a t e p e t i t i o n form w h i c h had t o be p r o c e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e b u r e a u c r a c y h i e r a r c h y b e f o r e an a c t u a l g r a n t was made. The o f f i c i a l s o f t h e l o c a l c o o p e r a t i v e , a c t i n g upon t h e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e i r members, had t o f i l l out a n o t h e r s e t o f forms t o hand t o t h e c o o p e r a t i v e ' s d i r e c t o r , who i n t u r n would have t o submit i t t o t h e d i r e c t o r o f t h e d i s t r i c t . A f t e r d e l i b e r a t i o n , t h e l a t t e r s i g n e d a f u r t h e r p e t i t i o n which would be p l a c e d b e f o r e the Committee o f C o o p e r a t i v e s o f t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government. T h i s committee c o l l e c t e d a l l p e t i t i o n s and n e g o t i a t e d w i t h t h e P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l Banks f o r l o a n s . These 87 banks had been e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government w i t h funds from t h e P r o v i n c i a l T r e a s u r y , funds which had been d e r i v e d from s u r -t a x e s on l a n d and o t h e r forms o f s i m i l a r a s s e s s m e n t s . From t h e P r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l B a n k s , s p e c i a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s were s e n t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e l o a n s i t u a t i o n and o n l y a f t e r the bank had s a t i s f i e d i t -s e l f as t o t h e soundness o f t h e s e c u r i t y , was t h e l o a n g r a n t e d through t h e same c h a n n e l s as t h e a p p l i c a n t was made. The whole p r o c e s s from t h e i n i t i a l p e t i t i o n t o t h e f i n a l g r a n t would t a k e a t l e a s t t h r e e months and v e r y o f t e n h a l f a y e a r . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e were r e g u l a t i o n s which l i m i t e d a c o o p e r a t i v e member t o a l o a n o f not more than 15 yuan a t a t i m e . T h i s was o b v i o u s l y too s m a l l t o a l l o w f o r any improvement i n farm methods. M o r e o v e r , i n o r d e r t o l o w e r the r i s k s o f d e f a u l t s , t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s i n t r o d u c e d a system o f c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l o a n s . F a i l u r e t o meet a payment meant a burden on a l l o t h e r members. Even when l o a n s were g r a n t e d , t h e y were supposed t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o e x p e n d i t u r e s on a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n such as s e e d s , f e r t i l i z e r , and o t h e r a g r i c u l -t u r a l i m p l e m e n t s , thus t h e y were o f l i t t l e v a l u e t o most poor peasant who m o s t l y needed l o a n s f o r d a i l y n e c e s s i t i e s . With a l l t h e s e r e s t r i c t i o n s , t h e advantages c o o p e r a t i v e s might have t o o f f e r c o u l d e a s i l y be o f f s e t . A c o n c r e t e advantage was o n l y t o be found i n t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l y l o w e r i n t e r e s t r a t e o f f e r e d t o members: a l i t t l e l e s s than 20 p e r c e n t per annum w h i l e t h e p r e v a i l i n g r u r a l i n t e r e s t r a t e was o v e r 30 t o 40 p e r c e n t . 88 T h i s a d v a n t a g e , however, was not n e c e s s a r i l y shared by t h e poor and needy p e a s a n t s . In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e s e c o o p e r a t i v e s were p r i m a r i l y t h e work o f the v i l l a g e g e n t r y . With a system o f c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e f a u l t s , t h e management o f t h e c o o p e r a t i v e v e r y o f t e n r e j e c t e d memberships from poor p e a s a n t s who had few p o s s e s s i o n s and a poor c r e d i t s t a n d i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t was not unusual t o f i n d t h a t members were m i d d l e p e a s a n t s o r s m a l l l a n d l o r d s who had t h e b a s i c r e s o u r c e s o f p r o d u c t i o n and t h a t the membership o f c o o p e r a t i v e 23 was g e n e r a l l y s m a l l i n number. And n e e d l e s s t o s a y , when t h e 24 m a j o r i t y o f t h e peasant p o p u l a t i o n as i l l i t e r a t e , not o n l y was i t easy f o r t h e g e n t r y t o c o n t r o l t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s f o r t h e i r own purposes but t h i s a l s o d e v e l o p e d a n o t h e r a l l i a n c e o f power, w e a l t h , and p r e s t i g e among t h e g e n t r y , l a n d l o r d s , and r i c h p e a s a n t s . With easy a c c e s s t o t h e s e c h a n n e l s o f c r e d i t , t h e y c o u l d b o t h s e c u r e l o a n s t o a v o i d payment o f b u s i n e s s t a x e s and s u b - l o a n t o t h e poor i n o r d e r t o 25 e x t o r t u s u r i o u s i n t e r e s t . C. M a r k e t s 1 . L o c a l i z e d M a r k e t s and Crop P r i c e s In o r d e r t o meet c a s h o b l i g a t i o n s such as r e n t , t a x e s , and many b a s i c n e c e s s i t i e s , p e a s a n t s depended a g r e a t deal upon t h e s a l e o f h i s c r o p s . A g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e had been t o s e l l q u a l i t y produce w h i l e t h e i n f e r i o r was m o s t l y consumed a t home. 1 The p r o s p e r i t y o f 89 the p e a s a n t s depended upon t h e margin between c o s t s and p r i c e , a n d , more i m p o r t a n t , the c h a r a c t e r o f t h e m a r k e t i n g s y s t e m . The m a r k e t i n g s i t u a t i o n d i d not r e l i e v e any o f t h e burdens o f t h e poor p e a s a n t s . In most c a s e s t h e peasant had no c h o i c e but to s e l l i n t h e l o c a l m a r k e t . Other than i n a few l i m i t e d a r e a s , t h e peasant was kept from more d i s t a n t markets not o n l y by i n a d e q u a t e and thus c o s t l y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , but a l s o by an i n f o r m a t i o n b a r r i e r . The u s u a l means o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were c a r t s , wheelbarrows o f a s i z e which a l m o s t made them c a r t s p u l l e d by men, and. t h e s h o u l d e r s o f human b e i n g s . Buck i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i r t e e n l o c a l i t i e s i n t h e Guangdong and F u j i a n a r e a s and found t h a t p e a s a n t s i n t h e s e d i s t r i c t s s o l d 62 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r produce a t t h e l o c a l market t o w n s , 24 p e r c e n t a t xian towns and 4 p e r c e n t i n t h e same v i l l a g e i n which t h e y were grown. Only 10 p e r c e n t were s o l d i n d i s t a n t m a r k e t s . Buck a l s o o b s e r v e d t h a t 75 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t s were u s i n g t h e i r own energy r a t h e r than a n i m a l s t o c a r r y t h e i r produce t o t h e m a r k e t s ; w a t e r t r a n s p o r t v i a 3 man-operated j u n k s was a l s o p o p u l a r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a m u l t i t u d e o f l i t t l e , l o c a l i z e d markets e x i s t e d / i n which p r i c e s f l u c t u a t e d v i o l e n t l y w i t h e v e r y change i n l o c a l s u p p l y . The UN R e l i e f and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n noted i n t h e i r w e e k l y r e p o r t on Guangdong i n 1946 t h a t " i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o o b s e r v e t h e wide spread o f r i c e p r i c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . . . . One i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i s o f c o u r s e t h e . d e p l o r a b l e l a c k o f t r a n s p o r t 90 and communications which tends t o d i v i d e t h e c o u n t r y i n t o s e m i - w a t e r -t i g h t s e p a r a t e economic u n i t s . T h i s and t h e r e l a t i o n o f s u p p l y t o 4 demand a r e o f c o u r s e c h i e f i n f l u e n c e s . " In t h e P e a r l R i v e r d e l t a r e g i o n , one would f i n d i n N a n - h a i , t h e p r i c e per p i c u l i n 1946 was CN$ 5 1 , 2 0 0 ( C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l c u r r e n c y ) , w h i l e i n P a n - y u , t h e p r i c e was CN$ 41 , 0 0 0 . R a t h e r than c a r r y h i s produce t o t h e l o c a l m a r k e t , the peasant c o u l d s e l l i t t o t h e middlemen who o f t e n came t o t h e v i l l a g e . Buck noted t h a t i n Guangdong and F u j i a n , 94 p e r c e n t o f t h e produce not s o l d a t t h e l o c a l markets was purchased by m i d d l e m e n , w h e r e a s , 2 p e r c e n t was 5 purchased by l o c a l consumers and 4 p e r c e n t by l o c a l p e a s a n t s . The peasant w a s , however, i n a weak p o s i t i o n t o d r i v e a b a r g a i n . L a c k i n g r e s e r v e s o f g r a i n and money and h a v i n g t o meet debt payments, he would o f t e n have t o s e l l h i s produce i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h a r v e s t when t h e market p r i c e was f a l l i n g . Or because t h e peasant had borrowed money b e f o r e t h e h a r v e s t by p l e d g i n g h i s p r o s p e c t i v e c r o p o r s o l d i t o u t -r i g h t a t a g r e a t d i s c o u n t b e f o r e i t was c u t , he c o u l d not even get a f a i r p r i c e f o r h i s c r o p . He was a l s o i g n o r a n t o f t h e p r i c e s r u l i n g i n o t h e r d i s t r i c t s . O b l i g e d t o s e l l t o buyers i n h i s immediate n e i g h b o u r h o o d , he was thus easy p r e y f o r l o c a l g u i l d s , which had f i x e d p r i c e s and f o r b i d d e n o v e r - b i d d i n g among t h e m s e l v e s t o e n s u r e maximized p r o f i t s . S t o r a g e o f produce was an a d d i t i o n a l e x p e n s e ; l o s s e s c o u l d o c c u r t h r o u g h i n s e c t s , r o d e n t s , dampness, f i r e and t h e f t . T h i s h e l p e d 91 t o a c c o u n t f o r h i g h e r g r a i n p r i c e s s e v e r a l months a f t e r h a r v e s t , a t i m e when p e a s a n t s ' g r a i n r e s o u r c e s were a t t h e i r l o w e s t . The s m a l l peasants o f Guangdong, s u b j e c t t o s l o w t u r n o v e r , h i g h r e n t , and l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s , were o f t e n not a b l e t o s u r v i v e t h e i n t e r v a l between sowing and h a r v e s t i n g w i t h o u t b o r r o w i n g g r a i n a t a much h i g h e r p r i c e than t h e y had been p a i d f o r i t . W h i l e t h e s e p e a s a n t s a l r e a d y had t o pay h i g h i n t e r e s t r a t e s f o r t h e i r l o a n s i n g r a i n , t h e y were f a c e d w i t h s t i l l h i g h e r i n c r e a s e s i n t h e , i n t e r e s t r a t e from a g e n e r a l 28 p e r c e n t monthly i n 1938 t o 3 9 : p e r c e n t per month i n 1946 f o r a t h r e e month l o a n . For a s i x month l o a n , t h e r a t e r o s e even h i g h e r , i n c r e a s i n g from 42 p e r c e n t t o 63 p e r c e n t monthly d u r i n g t h e y e a r s between 1939-1946 ( T a b l e 1 2 ) . TABLE 12 I n t e r e s t Rates f o r Loans i n G r a i n , 1939-1946 Year 3 Month Loan 6 Month Loan Year 3 Month Loan 6 Month Loan 1.938 28 42 1943 31 511 1939 27 42 1944 38 63 1940 26 41 1945 35 59 1941 25 41 1946 39 63 1942 26 41 - -S o u r c e : Zhong-hua Min-guo Tong-ji Nian-jian 't& ® (The S t a t i s t i c s Yearbook o f t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a ) , 1947, pp. 9 3 -9 4 . 92 CHAPTER 2 NOTES A. L a n d : The Changing Tenancy System Huang Y i n - s e n g , Chang H s i - c h a n g et al., "Change i n Land Owner-s h i p and t h e Fate o f Permanent Tenancy" i n Agrarian China: Selected Source Materials from Chinese Authors (London: A l l e n & U n w i n , 1 9 3 9 ) , pp. 2 5 - 2 6 . A l b e r t F e u e r w e u r k e r , The Chinese Economy 1912-1949 (Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , C e n t e r f o r C h i n e s e S t u d i e s , M i c h i g a n Papers i n C h i n e s e S t u d i e s , No. 1 , 1 9 6 8 ) . See a l s o Zhong-guo Jing-ji Nien-jian 1934, pp. G-236. 3 Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-jian 1942, pp. G-46. 4 Ibid.. See a l s o F e n g , op. cit., p. 9 3 2 . 5 Amano, op. cit., p. 3 4 5 ; see a l s o pp. 4 7 8 - 5 2 0 . 6 Chen Zheng-mo ^ , Zhong-guo Ge-sheng Di-zu "t >3 (Land Rents i n t h e C o u n t i e s o f C h i n a ) ( S h a n g h a i : Commercial P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 ) , p. 6 1 . ~^Zhong-guo Jing-ji Nian-jian 1934, pp. G - 4 9 - 5 0 . o Amano, op. cit., p. 426. 9 Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-jian 1942, pp. G-48. ^ C h e n H a n - s e n g , op. cit., p. 132. ^ A m a n o , op. cit., p. 3 5 6 ; a l s o p. 357: a c c o r d i n g t o t h e N a t i o n a l Land Commission R e p o r t , i n Guangdong p r o v i n c e , 1 5 . 3 4 p e r c e n t o f peasants p a i d cash r e n t , 8 4 . 6 0 p e r c e n t p a i d r e n t i n g r a i n and o n l y 0 . 0 3 p e r c e n t was under share r e n t s y s t e m . Buck, , i n h i s Land Utilization in China, s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n South C h i n a was: Cash r e n t , 3 9 . 1 4 p e r c e n t ; i n g r a i n , 6 0 . 4 3 p e r c e n t and s h a r e r e n t , 0 . 4 3 p e r c e n t . C i t e d i n Amano, Ibid., p. 3 5 9 . 93 Shina Nogyo Kiso Tokei Shiryo: Ni * ? r & * & * ^ *£ i*\ • *-( B a s i c R e f e r e n c e M a t e r i a l s on C h i n e s e A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s , V o l . 2 ) , (Tokyo: To-a K e n k y u - s h o , 1 9 4 4 ) , p. 143. 13 Zhong-guo Jing-ji Nian-jian 1934, pp. G-235. ^ Z h a n g B a i - y u ^ - ^ 1 ^ & Wang Y i n - y u a n - ; i ft , Zhong-guo Nong-dian Wen-ti 1-# f-11* (The Problem o f Tenancy i n C h i n a ) ( S h a n g h a i : Commercial P r e s s , 1 9 4 6 ) , p. 9 0 . 15 Chen H a n - s e n g , op. cit., pp. 56--S8. 1 c Amano, op. cit., p. 447. ^ C h e n H a n - s e n g , op. cit., pp. 6 0 - 6 1 . 18 Luo and L i n , op. cit., p. 2 4 3 . 19 Zhang & Wang, op. cit., p. 87. 20 Amano, op. cit., p. 4 5 0 . 21 R . H . Tawney, Land and Labour in China ( B o s t o n : Beacon P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 6 6 . 22 Chen H a n - s e n g , op. cit., p. 6 3 . 23 F e n g , op. cit., p. 9 4 3 . See a l s o Guangdong Nong-min Yun-dong, p. 70. 24 Zhong-guo Nong-min ^ h g & f t ( C h i n e s e P e a s a n t s ) , 1926. 25 F e n g , op. cit., p. 2 3 5 . For t e n a n t s who had more than 10 mu o f l a n d t o f a r m , the b a l a n c e was: Income P r o d u c t i o n C o s t Other Expenses Rent S u r p l u s 1782 368 561 632 241 yuan For t e n a n t s who had 5-10 mu: Income P r o d u c t i o n C o s t Other Expenses Rent S u r p l u s 945 174 333 352 86 yuan 94 2 5 ( c o n t i n u e d ) However, by c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n , we f e e l t h a t t h e s u r p l u s e s might be a r e s u l t o f o v e r - e s t i m a t i n g the a c t u a l income r e c e i v e d by t h e p e a s a n t s I f we a c c e p t t h e e s t i m a t e t h a t f o r 10 mu o f medium-low grade l a n d , t h e annual g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n would be no more than 27 p i c u l and t h a t t h e average p r i c e f o r g r a i n per p i c u l a t t h e market was 6 yuan, t h e s u r p l u s e s a r e o b v i o u s l y g r o s s l y e x a g g e r a t e d , even i f we have doubled t h e income assuming t h a t t h e y c o u l d a f f o r d t o r e n t h i g h - g r a d e l a n d f o r t h e i r f a r m i n g . Luo and L i n , op. ait., p. 241. Wu and Hunag, op. d t . 3 pp. 2 6 1 - 2 6 2 . Y a n g , op. d t . 3 pp. 5 4 - 5 8 . The source, has 2,141 c a t t i e s but t h i s must be i n c o r r e c t . T h i r t y p e r c e n t added t o 1 ,314 c a t t i e s s h o u l d be 1 , 7 0 8 . 2 c a t t i e s . 30 A g a i n , t h e p e r c e n t a g e s h o u l d be 11.77 p e r c e n t . 31 The c o r r e c t f i g u r e s h o u l d be about 5 5 . 2 p e r c e n t . However, we c o u l d a l s o assume t h a t the h i g h e r income peasant f a m i l i e s had a l a r g e r s i z e o f 5 . 2 persons r a t h e r than 4 . 8 based on Wu and Huang's o b s e r v a t i o n i n t h e Old Phoenix V i l l a g e i n the same c o u n t y . See Wu and Huang, op. dt.3 p. 262. 3 2 F e n g H e - f a >3>*-t£ , Nong-oun She-hui-xue Da-gang % ^ M ^ ' ^ K ^ ( P r i n c i p l e s o f Rural S o c i o l o g y ) ( S h a n g h a i : Commercial P r e s s , 1942). Wu and Huang, op. d t . 3 p. 267. 95 B. C r e d i t 'The Zhong-guo Nong-min a r t i c l e and t h e C h i n e s e N a t i o n a l E v a n g e l i c a l C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n ' s e s t i m a t e both were about 170 yuan i n 1926-1927.. (See e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n on r u r a l p o v e r t y . ) A c c o u n t i n g f o r i n f l a t i o n and p r i c e i n c r e a s e s , t h u s , i t would be r e a s o n a b l e t o a c c e p t 200 yuan as t h e amount n e c e s s a r y t o m a i n t a i n s u b s i s t e n c e i n 1937. Amano, op. cit., V o l . 2 , p. 210. ^Ibid. 4 See Chen H a n - s e n g , op. ait., p. 133. 5Ibid., p. 8 8 . 6Ibid., p . 8 9 . 7 Amano, op. ait., V o l . 2 , p. 2 2 3 . g Y a n g , op. cit., p . 6 8 . g See Amano, op. cit., V o l . 2 , pp. 2 9 3 - 3 0 8 . A l s o Yang Xi-meng 4f toi , Zhong-guo He-hui Zhi Yen-jiu *f 13 •<- H% (A Study on C r e d i t S o c i e t i e s i n C h i n a ) ( B e i j i n g : Commercial P r e s s , 1 9 3 4 ) . See a l s o s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n s , Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-jian 1942, pp. G-120. ^ F e i H s i a o - t u n g , Eavthbound China ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 4 5 ) , pp. 120-121. ^ A m a n o , op. cit., V o l . 2 , p. 250. See a l s o Shina Nogyo Kiso Tokei Shiryo: Ni, p. 152. 12 Luo and L i n , op. ait., p. 2 4 5 . 13 Y a n g , op. cit., p. 70. 14 Amano, op. cit., V o l . 2 , p. 237. 96 }SIbid., p. 247. UIbid., p. 2 6 3 . 1 7 C h e n , op. ait., p. 8 9 . I o y a n g , op. ait., p. 70. 1 9 S e e C h e n , op. cti., p. 9 0 . T a b l e o f i n t e r e s t r a t e s on l o a n s i n g r a i n . 20Ibid., p. 9 3 . 21 Y a n g , op. ait., pp. 70-71 . 99 See Guangdong Jing-ji Nian-jian 1942, pp. G-120. A l s o Amano, op. ait., V o l . 2 , pp. 2 5 8 - 2 5 9 ; Feng H e - f a , op. ait., p. 9 3 3 ; Yan Zheng-p i n g /& et at. ( e d s . ) , Zhong-guo Jin-dai Jing-ji-shi Tong-ji Zi-liu Xuan-ji <t $1 ± <l5 i ^ st ; 0 * r & ( S e l e c t e d Volume o f R e f e r e n c e M a t e r i a l s on Modern C h i n e s e Economic H i s t o r y S t a t i s t i c s ) ( B e i j i n g : Ke-xue C h u - b a n - s h e , 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 3 4 0 - 3 4 1 , 3 5 0 - 3 5 3 . 2 3 L u o Zheng-gang % £ t $ , "Zhong-guo Nong-cun He-zuo Yun-dong Di Z i - s h u L u - x i a n " *t \% & ^ ii> ^ ft* J*f& (The L i n e o f S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e C o o p e r a t i v e Movement i n C h i n e s e V i l l a g e s ) , Xin-Zhong-hua 4 f r t ^ (New C h i n a ) , 5 ( 1 3 ) , J u l y 1 0 , 1937. 24 See B u c k , op. ait., p. 373. A l s o Wu and Hunang, op. ait., p. 278 p o i n t e d out t h a t i n t h e v i l l a g e o f Old P h o e n i x , o n l y 11 t o 12 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n were l i t e r a t e . Wong L i - j e n , "The E x p e r i e n c e s o f a D i s t r i c t D i r e c t o r o f Co-o p e r a t i v e s " i n Agrarian China: Selected Source Materials from Chinese Authors (London: A l l e n & U n w i n , 1 9 3 9 ) , p. 216. C. M a r k e t s Tawney, op. ait., p. 5 4 . 2 B u c k , op. cit., p. 354. 3 Ibid., p. 3 5 3 . 4 U n i t e d N a t i o n s R e l i e f and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Kwangtung Weekly Report ( C a n t o n : UN R e l i e f and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Admin t r a t i o n O f f i c e , 1 9 4 6 ) , Nos. 1 - 4 , p. 6 . B u c k , op. cit., pp. 3 4 8 - 3 4 9 . CHAPTER 3 RURAL POVERTY AND RURAL UNDERDEVELOPMENT A. P o v e r t y and Peasant E x p e d i e n c y Faced w i t h problems o f l a n d , c r e d i t , m a r k e t i n g and many o t h e r s , t h e margin o f s u r v i v a l f o r most poor p e a s a n t s i n Guangdong was i n any event q u i t e n a r r o w ; and o b v i o u s l y t h e y had t o , t o t h e b e s t o f t h e i r a b i l i t y , m a n i p u l a t e t h e s o c i a l and economic environment t o cope w i t h the p e r v a d i n g p o v e r t y . D i f f e r e n t e x p e d i e n t measures were adopted by t h e needy p e a s a n t s . The c r e d i t s o c i e t i e s o r g a n i z e d by t h e p e a s a n t s among t h e i r peers and r e l a t i v e s , a l t h o u g h t h e y c o u l d not s o l v e t h e c o r e o f t h e i r problems o f c r e d i t , was one o f such m e a s u r e s . The emergence o f t h e peasant a s s o c i a t i o n s i n d i s t r i c t s o u t s i d e o f t h e d e l t a a r e a , a l t h o u g h i t c o u l d not a l t e r t h e e x p l o i t i v e r e l a t i o n s between t h e p e a s a n t s and the c l a n / l a n d l o r d s , was a n o t h e r r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e i r e x p e d i e n c y . The most common a c t i v i t i e s most poor peasants engaged i n t o cope w i t h t h e problem o f s u b s i s t e n c e w e r e , however, s u b s i d i a r y a c t i v -i t i e s , both a g r i c u l t u r a l and n o n - a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n which s u p p l e m e n t a r y income c o u l d be d e r i v e d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t a t i s t i c s o f Nong-qing Bao-gao, 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t s . i n Guangdong engaged i n s i l k cocoon r a i s i n g ; 11.4 p e r c e n t i n f i s h f a r m i n g ; 3 . 5 p e r c e n t i n bee-98 99 k e e p i n g ; 9 . 3 p e r c e n t i n s p i n n i n g and weaving c l o t h ; 5 . 2 p e r c e n t i n b r i c k - m a k i n g ( w i t h mud); 9.1 p e r c e n t i n b a s k e t r y , h a t - w e a v i n g and s a n d a l - m a k i n g ( w i t h s t r a w s ) ; 16.7 p e r c e n t h i r e d t h e m s e l v e s out as c a s u a l l a b o r e r s ; 4 1 . 9 p e r c e n t c u t g r a s s from h i l l s i d e s t o s e l l f o r f u e l ; 1 3 . 6 p e r c e n t peddled p a r t - t i m e ; and 4 . 9 p e r c e n t d i d p a r t - t i m e c a r p e n t e r w o r k , w h i l e 3 . 6 p e r c e n t s e w e d . 1 Nong-qing Bao-gao n o t e d , however, t h a t most o f t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s were w a n i n g , e s p e c i a l l y s p i n n i n g and w e a v i n g , cocoon r a i s i n g , f i s h -f a r m i n g , b r i c k - m a k i n g and h i r i n g o u t . The o n l y e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s were g r a s s - c u t t i n g and p e d d l i n g , b o t h o f w h i c h r e q u i r e d v e r y l i t t l e c a p i t a l o r s k i l l . Even t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s d i d not g e n e r a t e l a r g e i n c o m e s : the p e d d l i n g b u s i n e s s was o f t e n not v e r y g o o d , and c u t t i n g g r a s s was l i m i t e d by g e o g r a p h i c b o u n d a r i e s (one c o u l d not c u t g r a s s t h a t was w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s of n e i g h b o u r i n g v i l l a g e s ) , t h e a v a i l -a b i l i t y o f h i l l y l a n d , and t h e amount o f g r a s s t h a t c o u l d be c u t . At t h e same t i m e t h a t f a r m i n g a l o n e would not p r o v i d e a l i v e l i h o o d and o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s were not a v a i l a b l e o r c o u l d not p r o v i d e adequate supplementary i n c o m e , c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t t h e n e e d i e s t o f t h e p e a s a n t . Thus t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e poor peasants o f f e r e d l i t t l e hope f o r improvement, t h e y c o u l d seldom r i s e above t h e s e economic r e s t r i c t i o n s . The number o f t e n a n t s had been i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y s i n c e 1911, an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e i r d e t e r i o r a t i n g p o s i t i o n . I n 1911, 52 p e r c e n t o f t h e p e a s a n t s i n Guangdong p r o v i n c e were t e n a n t s , but by 1921 t h e p e r c e n t a g e had 100 3 r e a c h e d 57 p e r c e n t and i t was 58 p e r c e n t i n 1933. Chen observed t h a t i n t h e d e l t a r e g i o n among t h e t e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e v i l l a g e s he had i n v e s t i g a t e d from 1928 t o 1 9 3 3 , t h e number o f poor peasant f a m i l i e s r o s e from 286 h o u s e h o l d s to 326 h o u s e h o l d s ; l a n d l e s s l a b o u r e r f a m i l i e s i n c r e a s e d from 83 t o 100 h o u s e h o l d s . In 1928, 58 p e r c e n t o f t h e poor peasant f a m i l i e s owned no l a n d ; by 1933 t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f l a n d l e s s poor peasant f a m i l i e s was 6 0 . 4 p e r c e n t . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e y were 4 l o s i n g an average o f 4 . 4 - p e r c e n t o f t h e i r l a n d each y e a r . Even f o r t h o s e who c o u l d keep t h e i r economic p o s i t i o n s , i t was d i f f i c u l t t o c l i m b h i g h e r on t h e " a g r i c u l t u r a l l a d d e r . " Hunag e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n 1937 t h e average s u r p l u s f o r each mu o f f i e l d i n Guangdong was about 6 . 5 3 yuan w h i l e the average l a n d p r i c e was 72 yuan per mu. In o t h e r w o r d s , i t would t a k e an average o f 11 .03 " p u r c h a s e y e a r " f o r a peasant 5 t o a c q u i r e a mu o f l a n d . I t was a common phenomenon then t o see p e a s a n t s whose l i f e was b l e a k r e s o r t t o e m i g r a t i o n from t h e i r v i l l a g e s f o r both s e a s o n a l and l o n g - t e r m p e r i o d s . The s t a t i s t i c s o f Nong-qing Bao-gao r e v e a l e d t h a t i n 1934, 71.7 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o u n t i e s i n Guangdong had p e a s a n t s l e a v i n g t h e i r v i l l a g e s . Among t h e s e , 8 3 , 8 3 0 peasant f a m i l i e s (about 3 . 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l peasant p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e c o u n t i e s w i t h l e a v i n g p e a s a n t s ) l e f t t h e i r v i l l a g e s as a f a m i l y w h i l e 261,252 peasant f a m i l i e s (about 1 0 . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e peasant p o p u l a t i o n i n c o u n t i e s w i t h l e a v i n g p e a s a n t s ) had t h e i r c h i l d r e n l e a v i n g t h e i r v i l l a g e s . Of a l l t h e p e a s a n t s who l e f t t h e i r v i l l a g e s , 4 5 . 6 p e r c e n t 101 were t e n a n t s and 22.1 p e r c e n t were l a b o u r e r s . L o o k i n g more c l o s e l y , 6 7 . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e peasants who l e f t t h e i r v i l l a g e s had l e s s than 5 mu o f l a n d , and 2 6 . 8 p e r c e n t who had l e s s than 10 mu (but more than 5 mu) J T h i r t y - s i x p o i n t n i n e p e r c e n t o f them came from f a m i l y s i z e of f i v e t o s i x persons w h i l e 3 5 . 5 p e r c e n t o f them were from f a m i l i e s o w i t h t h r e e t o f o u r p e o p l e . For t h o s e who l e f t t h e i r v i l l a g e s as a f a m i l y , 5 0 . 9 p e r c e n t q went t o t h e c i t y t o f i n d j o b s . A n e a r l y equal amount ( 5 2 . 4 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e y o u n g s t e r s who l e f t t h e i r f a m i l i e s i n t h e v i l l a g e s a l s o went to the c i t y f o r o t h e r j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 1 ^ Among t h e v a r i o u s ' r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r l e a v i n g t h e i r v i l l a g e s , 2 3 . 7 p e r c e n t c l a i m e d t h a t t h e y l e f t because o f p o v e r t y ; i t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o make a l i v i n g i n t h e i r v i l l a g e s (See T a b l e 1 3 ) . In a more d e t a i l e d geo-g r a p h i c a l breakdown, Chen s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n t h e E a s t e r n p a r t o f G u a n g d o n g - - i n M e i - x i a n and J i a o - 1 i n g - % X - - t h e annual e m i g r a t i o n r a t e , e x c l u d i n g t h o s e who went o v e r s e a s , had i n c r e a s e d by 35 p e r c e n t i n 1933; i n t h e Southwestern p a r t - - s u c h as Mao-ming ^ 0ft and X i n - y i i ' h i - - t h e r a t e was i n c r e a s e d by about 30 p e r c e n t ; w h i l e i n t h e m i d d l e d e l t a r e g i o n c o v e r i n g S h u n - d e , P a n - y u , Zhong-shan and T a i - s h a n , t h e r a t e i n c r e a s e d by 20 p e r c e n t . And i n t h e s e c a s e s , most peasants l e f t t o become c o o l i e s , p e d d l e r s o r s o l d i e r s . 1 1 102 TABLE 13 Reasons f o r Peasants L e a v i n g V i l l a g e s i n Guangdong B a n k r u p t c y o f V i l l a g e Economy I n s u f f i c i e n t C u l t i v a t e d F i e l d s Too D e n s e l y P o p u l a t e d D i f f i c u l t y i n R u r a l C r e d i t F l o o d s Droughts 6 . 3 2.1 4 . 9 4 . 2 4 . 9 4 . 2 i B a n d i t s Other N a t u r a l D i s a s t e r s Heavy Taxes P o v e r t y and T o i 1 s High Rents Bad H a r v e s t 9.1 2 . 8 2 3 . 7 8 . 4 1 . 4 5 . 6 Low P r i c e s f o r tP r o d u c e Waning A u x i l i a r y O c c u p a t i o n s To A t t e n d School B u s i n e s s . . . o r . , 0 t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s Others 3 . 5 4.9 0 . 7 2.1 11 .2 S o u r c e : Non-qing Bao-gao, 4 ( 7 ) , 1934, p. 173; a l s o i n Shina Nogyo Kiso Tokei Shiryo: Ni, p. 178. B. R u r a l Underdevelopment The r u r a l s i t u a t i o n i n Guangdong d e s c r i b e d i n t h e f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n s , t o some s c h o l a r s , was n o t h i n g but temporary r u r a l d e p r e s s i o n . In t h e i r v i e w , t h e p r e - 1 i b e r a t i o n r u r a l economy was an i n t e n s e l y c o m p e t i t i v e economy o f i n d i v i d u a l f r e e h o l d e r s ; t h e r e was c o n s t a n t m o b i l i t y , both upward and downward. 1 The r e l a t i o n s between c l a n / l a n d l o r d s and peasant t e n a n t s were o f a p a t r o n - c l i e n t b o n d , 103 p r o v i d i n g t h e p e a s a n t s t h e r i g h t t o s u b s i s t e n c e and a "fundamental 2 s o c i a l m o r a l i t y " o f t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e peasant s o c i e t y . In t h i s v i e w , t h e p r i m a r y l o y a l t i e s o f p e a s a n t s were t o t h e f a m i l y because f a m i l y endeavours p r o v i d e d t h e p r i n c i p a l means f o r s u b s i s t e n c e a n d , where p o s s i b l e , s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y . N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e meagre r e s o u r c e s o f t h e c o n j u g a l k i n s h i p group u s u a l l y l i m i t e d t h e range o f f a m i l y s o c i a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l peasant household i t s e l f . Beyond such f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , p e a s a n t s sought s o c i a l s e c u r i t y i n t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r v i l l a g e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e companions whom t h e y r e s p e c t e d as d e f e n d e r s o f communal s o l i d a r i t y . The p a t r o n - c l i e n t mode a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t beyond the immediate f a m i l y , the common cause o f a f a m i l y and neighbourhood w e l f a r e o f t e n encouraged m a r g i n a l but m e a n i n g f u l mutual a s s i s t a n c e and p r o t e c t i o n t o t e n a n t s o f common b l o o d and r e s i d e n t i a l t i e s . T h u s , peasants t r a d i t i o n a l l y l o o k e d t o r e s p e c t e d and r e l i a b l e l e a d e r s among t h e i r own t i e s t o p r o t e c t them from b a n d i t s o r i n j u s t i c e s ; t o c a r r y on r e -d i s t r i b u t i v e p r o c e s s e s such as t h e r o t a t i o n o f r e n t e d l a n d among k i n s m e n ; and t o m a i n t a i n a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s on a community-wide b a s i s . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e c l a n / l a n d l o r d was e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e a measure o f s u b s i s t e n c e c r i s i s i n s u r a n c e f o r t h e p e a s a n t s i n exchange f o r t h e i r work; and as a s e l f - p e r c e i v e d l o c a l p a t r o n , t h e c l a n / l a n d l o r d was a l s o assumed t o p e r f o r m . a h o s t o f b r o k e r a g e s e r v i c e s f o r t h e i r t e n a n t s v i s - a - v i s t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . 104 To view t h e r u r a l s i t u a t i o n i n p r e - 1 i b e r a t e d Guangdong i n t h e s e terms i s b a s i c a l l y t o view t h e s o c i e t y i n an i n t e g r a t i o n i s t a p p r o a c h . Both r u r a l p o v e r t y and t h e l a n d l o r d - p e a s a n t r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d o n l y as g i v e n s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s . The t e n a n t s o r p e a s a n t s were assumed t o a c c e p t t h e exchange o f s e r v i c e s w i t h l a n d l o r d s as b e n e f i t s bestowed by t h e p a t r o n s , a l t h o u g h t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s i m p l y deemed an unequal one. The c o n f l i c t s o v e r such exchanges were never r e c o g n i z e d as f o r c e s which can produce c h a n g i n g s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s ; nor t h e e x p l o i t i v e n a t u r e o f such exchanges was c o n s i d e r e d an i m p o r t a n t element i n t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . 3 H e r e , t h i s c l a s s model and a n a l y s i s not o n l y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p e a s a n t r y was a v i c t i m o f o p p r e s s i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n , but a l s o t h a t under t h i s network o f e x p l o i t i v e r e l a t i o n s a s e t o f o b s t a c l e s had e v o l v e d i n t h e c h a n g i n g s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s t o become s t u m b l i n g b l o c k s t o r u r a l development. Our e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t under such system o f r u r a l e x p l o i t a t i o n , w i t h a c l a s s s t r u c t u r e which a l l o w e d such e x p l o i t a t i o n b e i n g p r o t e c t e d by t h e government, not o n l y a s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f s u r p l u s e s was e x t r a c t e d by t h e l a n d l o r d s , t h e r i c h , t h e g e n t r y , money l e n d e r s and o t h e r s from t h e p e a s a n t s , more i m p o r t a n t i s t h a t by t h i s c o n t i n u i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n , t h e p e a s a n t s were, l e f t d r a i n e d and d e s t i t u t e , w i t h o u t t h e means t o u n t r a c k t h e m s e l v e s from p o v e r t y and were ground down t o i m p o t e n c y . A l l elements o f t h i s s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n — i t s v a l u e s , s o c i a l 105 r e l a t i o n s and i n s t i t u t i o n s — d i s c o u r a g e d r u r a l development. In terms o f l a n d , t h e s m a l l n e s s and f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f i n d i v i d -u a l farms under such e x p l o i t i v e system posed s e r i o u s problems f o r r u r a l development. Zheng e s t i m a t e d t h a t i n Guangdong, 3 4 . 6 p e r c e n t o f the peasant f a m i l i e s were w o r k i n g on farms under 5 mu, w h i l e 2 7 . 5 p e r c e n t worked on farms o f 5 t o 10 mu. The Land C o m m i s s i o n ' s s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n was more s e r i o u s : 5 1 . 2 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e peasant h o u s e h o l d s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o p e r a t e d farms o f under 5 mu3 5 3 6 . 1 9 p e r c e n t had farms o f 5 t o 10 mu. B u c k ' s e s t i m a t e t h a t 17.42 mu c o n s t i t u t e d t h e normal s i z e o f a farm i n Guangdong was o b v i o u s l y e x a g g e r a t e d . ^ The s i z e o f t h e h o l d i n g s , however, d i d not t e l l t h e whole s t o r y . We a l s o have t o note t h a t most o f t h e s e minute h o l d i n g s were o f t e n not grouped o r l i n k e d t o g e t h e r . R a t h e r , t h e y were s c a t t e r e d and d i v i d e d . The Land Commission r e v e a l e d t h a t i n t h e i r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f 14,513 h o u s e h o l d s , i r r i g a t e d l a n d was d i v i d e d i n t o an average p i e c e iqiu**-) o f 1 . 3 5 3 mu w h i l e the n o n - i r r i g a t e d f i e l d s were d i v i d e d i n t o p i e c e s o f 1 .489 muJ Buck a l s o found t h a t i n t h e farms he i n v e s t i g a t e d i n Guangdong, 70 p e r c e n t o f them were d i v i d e d i n t o o n e , t o g f i v e p i e c e s , w h i l e 22 p e r c e n t were d i v i d e d i n t o s i x t o t e n p i e c e s . M o r e o v e r , he o b s e r v e d t h a t the average d i s t a n c e between t h e f i e l d s and t h e p e a s a n t s ' homes was 0.77 k i l o m e t e r , w h i l e t h e f a r t h e s t 9 d i s t a n c e was 1 . 5 k i l o m e t e r . 106 The p r e v a l e n c e o f minute l a n d h o l d i n g s had n e c e s s i t a t e d s p e c i a l methods o f c u l t i v a t i o n i n o r d e r t o make them y i e l d a l i v e l i h o o d . These methods i n v o l v e d much d e t a i l e d v i g i l a n c e and heavy p h y s i c a l l a b o u r ; they were h a b i t s formed and e x p e r i e n c e a c c u m u l a t e d o v e r l o n g c e n t u r i e s and i n g e n u i t y which had been r a r e l y s u r p a s s e d i n w r i n g i n g produce from t h e meager l a n d . They a l s o c o u l d be seen as a v e n e r a b l e t r a d i t i o n r a i s e d t o t h e d i g n i t y o f a r t , a t r i u m p h o f i n d i v i d u a l s k i l l unaided by o r g a n i z e d knowledge, y e t i t was a l s o an a g r i c u l t u r e w h i c h c o u l d be a p t l y d e s c r i b e d as a k i n d o f g a r d e n i n g . T h e i r p r i m a r y c o n c e r n has been not p r o g r e s s , but s t a b i l i t y ; not t o s e c u r e the maximum r e t u r n f o r t h e minimum e f f o r t , but t o d i s t r i b u t e l i m i t e d and unexpand-i n g r e s o u r c e s among the l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e number o f human b e i n g s . In economic t e r m s , w i t h such f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f l a n d , " s u r p l u s " l a b o u r was c r e a t e d i n t h e sense t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e peasant p o p u l a t i o n were l i m i t e d t o t i n y h o l d i n g s i n a g r i c u l t u r e and t o t h e i n f o r m a l urban s e c t o r , low o u t p u t and i n e f f i c i e n c y r e s u l t e d . 1 ^ At t h e same t i m e , i n t e n s e i n e q u a l i t y o f w e a l t h and r e s o u r c e s c r e a t e d and p e r p e t u a t e d by e x p l o i t i v e r e l a t i o n s d i s c o u r a g e d t h e s a v i n g p o t e n t i a l o f t h e s o c i e t y : t h e poor were too poor to save and t h e r i c h l a c k e d the i n c e n t i v e s t o do s o . M o r e o v e r , t h e l i m i t e d s a v i n g o f t h e r i c h was l a r g e l y o f f s e t by l a c k o f s a v i n g among t h e p o o r : t h e r i c h bought the l a n d o f t h e poor and made l o a n s t o them, e n a b l i n g t h e poor t e m p o r a r i l y t o spend more than t h e i r c u r r e n t income. As l o n g as t h e 107 r i c h , a t t r a c t e d by h i g h i n t e r e s t and t h e i n c o m e , s t a t u s , and s e c u r i t y o f owning l a n d , used t h e i r s u r p l u s income t o make t r a n s f e r payments o f t h i s k i n d , n a t i o n a l s a v i n g would be d i s c o u r a g e d , f o r , w i t h few e x c e p t i o n s , o n l y t h o s e who needed funds f o r emergency consumption would borrow o r g i v e up t h e i r l a n d . The tendency toward i n c r e a s e d t e n a n c y was a l s o i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y i n i m i c a l t o i n c r e a s e d s a v i n g and i n v e s t m e n t , because t h e t e n a n t was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r most o f t h e i n v e s t m e n t and had l i t t l e i n c e n t i v e , o r s i m p l y c o u l d not a f f o r d , t o permanently improve l a n d t h a t was not h i s and t h a t was under c o n s t a n t i n s e c u r i t y d e r i v i n g from t h e short=term l a n d t e n u r e . In development t e r m s , such e x p l o i t i v e network can be d e s c r i b e d as an i n t e r a c t i n g s e r i e s o f c o n t r o l mechanisms m a i n t a i n i n g t h e p r i v i l e g e o f a m i n o r i t y s e t o f e l i t e s and p e r p e t u a t i n g t h e mass m i s e r y w i t h i n n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r y , i . e . , some form o f " i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i z a t i o n . " Numerous b l o c k a g e s t h u s , w e r e b u i l t i n t h e economic system not o n l y t o p r e v e n t t h e b e n e f i t s o f economic s u r p l u s e s g e n e r a t e d by t h e p e a s n a t s ' t o spread w i d e l y among t h e m s e l v e s , the e x t r a c t i v e n a t u r e o f such e x p l o i t i v e system i n t h e r u r a l s e c t o r a l s o made t h e g o a l s o f d e v e l o p -m e n t — q u a n t i t a t i v e ones such as i n c o m e , p r o d u c t i v i t y , o u t p u t , l i t e r a c y r a t e s , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , and so o n , and q u a l i t a t i v e ones such as l i f e - s u s t e n a n c e , s e c u r i t y , freedom from s e r v i t u d e , e t c . - - i m p o s s i b l e . No m a t t e r how much i n p u t was pumped i n t o t h e r u r a l s e c t o r , once i t reached and f i l t e r e d t h r o u g h the e x p l o i t i v e n e t w o r k s , t h e r e was l i t t l e l e f t t o t r i c k l e down. A l t h o u g h t h e p e a s a n t s i n i t i a t e d s e l f - r e l i a n t 108 s u b s i s t e n c e e f f o r t s independent o f and even i n s p i t e o f , t h e a g r a r i a n e l i t e , and t h e y t r i e d t o a v o i d permanent dependency, peasant w e l f a r e was c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e i r c a p a c i t y to a c q u i r e l a n d , t o o l s and t h e s k i l l s needed t o p r o c u r e an a l t e r n a t i v e means o f s u s t e n a n c e . The h e a r t o f t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f r u r a l u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t , t h u s , would l i e i n t h e e x p l o i t i v e c l a s s s t r u c t u r e o f r u r a l s o c i e t y and t h e means f o r i t s c o n t i n u a l r e p r o d u c t i o n . E l i m i n a t i o n o f t h e e x p l o i t i v e r e l a t i o n s i n t h e r u r a l s y s t e m , t h e r e f o r e , seems t o be t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a s t r a t e g y o f r u r a l development i n Guangdong. 1 0 9 C H A P T E R 3 N O T E S A . P o v e r t y a n d P e a s a n t E x p e d i e n c y S e e Shina Nogyo Kiso Tokei Shivyo: Ni, p . 1 5 8 . 2Ibid., p p . 1 5 9 - 1 6 0 . S e e a l s o A m a n o , op. cit., pp. 7 2 8 - 7 2 9 . We a l s o h a v e t o n o t e t h a t f i s h f a r m i n g w a s n o t a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e p o o r b e c a u s e f i s h p o n d s w e r e m o s t l y o w n e d b y c l a n s , a n d t h e y w e r e u s u a l l y r e n t e d o u t t o t h e h i g h e s t b i d d e r , b i d d i n g b e i n g h e l d o n c e a y e a r . B e c a u s e o f t h e i n v e s t m e n t i n v o l v e d i n r e n t , i n t h e f i s h ' s e e d l i n g s ' a n d i n t h e l a b o u r o f c o l l e c t i n g g o o d g r a s s a n d c u t t i n g i t u p f o r f e e d i n g , o n l y t h e r i c h p e a s a n t s c o u l d e n g a g e i n t h i s b u s i n e s s . S i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n a p p l i e d t o t h e s i l k c o c o o n b u s i n e s s b e c a u s e l a n d w a s r e q u i r e d t o g r o w m u l b e r r i e s a n d l a b o u r e r s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o p i c k t h e l e a v e s f o r f e e d i n g , t h e b u r d e n w a s t o o h e a v y f o r o r d i n a r y p e a s a n t s e s p e c i a l l y w h e n p r i c e s o f s i l k a n d c o c o o n s d r o p p e d d r a s t i c a l l y a f t e r t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d i m p o r t a t i o n o f a r t i f i c i a l s i l k m a t e r i a l s f r o m J a p a n . E v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r f a r m l a b o u r w a s l i m i t e d b e c a u s e o n l y r i c h p e a s a n t s a n d a p o r t i o n o f m i d d l e p e a s a n t c o u l d a f f o r d t o h i r e a n y s i z a b l e a m o u n t o f h e l p . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e w a s t h e c o m p e t i t i o n f r o m t h e m i g r a t o r y b o a t p e o p l e w h o w o r k e d f o r l o w e r w a g e s t h a n n a t i v e l a b o u r e r s . S e e Y a n g , op. cit., p p . 6 3 -6 8 . o S t a t i s t i c s o r i g i n a l l y f r o m Nong-qing Bao-gao, 3 ( 4 ) , A p r i l 1 9 3 5 ; c i t e d i n A m a n o , op. cit., p . 2 5 9 . 4 C h e n , op. cit., p . 9 5 . A l s o A m a n o , op. cit.. p . 2 6 0 . c S e e A m a n o , op. cit., p . 4 5 5 . Y a n g a l s o c o m m e n t e d , " a t t h e t i m e o f o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , o n e mu o f m e d i u m - g r a d e i r r i g a t e d l a n d i n N a n - c h i n g w a s w o r t h a b o u t 4 , 0 0 0 c a t t i e s o f u n h u s k e d r i c e , o r t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f a b o u t s i x y e a r s o f a v e r a g e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e l a n d . T h i s w a s a b o u t 2 0 p e r c e n t h i g h e r t h a n t h e n a t i o n a l a v e r a g e o f l a n d p r i c e e s t i m a t e d b y t h e C h i n e s e L a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n I n v e s t i g a t i o n S u r v e y I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e how a p o o r p e a s a n t w h o c o u l d h a r d l y e s c a p e s i n k i n g i n t o d e b t f r o m y e a r t o y e a r c o u l d a c c u m u l a t e 1 6 , 0 0 0 t o 2 0 , 0 0 0 c a t t i e s o f u n h u s k e d r i c e t o b u y f o u r o r f i v e mow o f l a n d f e r t i l e 5 ( c o n t i n u e d ) enough t o m a i n t a i n s u b s i s t e n c e f o r an average f a m i l y . A t t h e wage l e v e l o f 1948, i t would have t a k e n a l a n d l e s s farm l a b o u r e r f o u r y e a r s ' pay t o buy one mow o f l a n d , o r s i x t e e n t o twenty y e a r s t o buy h i m s e l f a s m a l l farm o f f o u r t o f i v e mow o f medium-grade i r r i g a t e d l a n d i f he d i d not spend any p a r t o f h i s pay d u r i n g a l l t h a t p e r i o d o f t i m e - - h a r d l y p o s s i b l e c o n s i d e r i n g h i s p e r s o n a l needs and f a m i l y o b l i g a t i o n s . C o n d i t i o n s here c e r t a i n l y bore out F e i ' s a s s e r t i o n t h a t i t took more than one g e n e r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r y , f r u g a l i t y , and l u c k f o r a peasant t o r i s e above p o v e r t y . " See Y a n g , op. cit., p. 125. Shina Nogyo Kiso Tokei Shiryo Ni, p. 172. Ibid., pp. 174-175. 'ibid., p. 173. lIbid., p. 176. ]Ibid., p. 177. C h e n , op. cit., p. 111. I l l B. R u r a l Underdevelopment ' F o r e x a m p l e , see M e y e r s , op. cit. 2 J . C . S c o t t , "The E r o s i o n o f P a t r o n - C l i e n t Bonds and S o c i a l change i n R u r a l South A s i a , " Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, 3 2 ( 1 ) , 1972, pp. 7-17. See a l s o Ralph T h a x t o n , "The World Turned Downside Up: Three Orders o f Meanings i n t h e P e a s a n t s ' T r a d i t i o n a l P o l i t i c a l W o r l d , " Modern China, 3 ( 2 ) , A p r i l 1977, pp. 185-227 f o r a thorough c r i t i q u e o f t h e p a t r o n - c l i e n t m o d e l . 3 The c l a s s model here i s one which p r o j e c t s t h e s o c i e t y i n terms o f s u p e r i o r i t y and i n f e r i o r i t y i n t h e minds o f some p e o p l e . See W.F. W e r t h e i m , Evolution and Revolution: The Rising Wave of Emanci-pation (London: Penguin B o o k s , 1 9 7 4 ) , p. 9 9 . 4 Z h e n g , op. cit.. A l s o c i t e d i n Amano, op. cit., p . 194. STbid., p. 196. ^ B u c k , op. cit., c i t e d i n Amano, Ibid., p. 189. 7Ibid., pp. 210-211. 8Ibid. ^ Ibid. ^ K e i t h G r i f f i n , Land Concentration and Rural Poverty (London: M a c m i l l a n P r e s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 5 ; a l s o C h a p t e r 5 . ^ F o r a d i s c u s s i o n on " i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l i z a t i o n , " see R o d o l f o S t a v e n h a g e n , "Seven F a l l a c i e s about L a t i n A m e r i c a " i n James P e t r a s and M. Z e i t l i n ( e d s . ) , Latin America: Reform or Revolution? ( N . Y . " Fawcett B o o k s , 1 9 6 8 ) , p. 18. See a l s o Dennis G o u l e t , The Cruel Choice, A New Concept in the Theory of Development ( C h i c a g o : Antheneum B o o k s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 3 0 . P A R T I I RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MAKING 112 P A R T I I RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE MAKING CHAPTER 4 THE EARLY EXPERIENCES OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT A. Land Reform Mao advanced h i s t h e s i s o f "New Democracy" as e a r l y as 1940' C h i n a ' s backwardness was a t t r i b u t a b l e as a ' s e m i - f e u d a l ' and ' s e m i -c o l o n i a l ' p a s t marked by i n t e r n a l o p p r e s s i o n and f o r e i g n e x p l o i t a t i o n . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e P e o p l e ' s R e p u b l i c o f f i c i a l l y came i n t o b e i n g i n 1949, i t was t h e r e f o r e , o n l y n a t u r a l f o r t h e government t o p r o c l a i m t h e b a s i c t e n e t s o f t h i s "New Democracy." These i n c l u d e d o p p o s i t i o n t o f o r e i g n d o m i n a t i o n , but t h e emphasis was on d o i n g away w i t h i n t e r n a l " f e u d a l f o r c e s " by implementing t h e Land Reform Law (LRL) i n 1950 t o a b o l i s h the f e u d a l e x p l o i t a t i o n system o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p by t h e l a n d l o r d c l a s s , and i n t r o d u c i n g a system o f peasant ownership i n o r d e r t o " s e t f r e e the r u r a l p r o d u c t i o n f o r c e s , d e v e l o p a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , and pave a new path f o r New C h i n a ' s i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . " 1 The c o n t e n t s o f t h e LRL were p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h t h e ways and means o f t r a n s f e r r i n g l a n d o w n e r s h i p from l a n d l o r d s t o poor 113 114 p e a s a n t s . Committed t o e x p r o p r i a t i o n from t h e ventiev l a n d l o r d c l a s s i t n o n e t h e l e s s sought o n l y t o c o n f i s c a t e t h e i r surplus l a n d , d r a f t a n i m a l s , farm i m p l e m e n t s , g r a i n and houses i n t h e v i l l a g e s (not i n t o w n ) - - o n l y t h o s e items d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . Other p r o p e r t y , such as money and j e w e l r y , would remain i n t a c t . A l l l a n d and o t h e r means o f p r o d u c t i o n which had been thus c o n f i s c a t e d ' were t o be t a k e n o v e r by t h e xiang ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e v i l l a g e ) P e a s a n t s ' A s s o c i a t i o n f o r " u n i f i e d , e q u i t a b l e , and r a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n " (tung-yi gong-ping he-li fen-pei i t - ft ^ ) t o p e a s a n t s under t h e 2 p r i n c i p l e o f " a l l o t t i n g the l a n d t o i t s p r e s e n t t i l l e r . " The LRL o f 1 9 5 0 , however, was d i f f e r e n t from the Land Reform O u t l i n e ( O u t l i n e Land Law-OLL) p u b l i s h e d by t h e P a r t y i n 1 9 4 7 . 3 R a t h e r than f o r c i b l y t a k i n g a l l l a n d , d r a f t a n i m a l s , and farm i m p l e -ments i n a v i l l a g e and d i v i d e i t up among a l l p e a s a n t s equally, LRL was d e s i g n e d t o keep t h e p r o c e s s o f l a n d t r a n s f e r t o t h e minimum d i s t u r b a n c e o f e x i s t i n g farm u n i t s and t o p r e s e r v e a r i c h peasant economy. The l a n d t r a n s f e r o r r e d i s t r i b u t i v e mechanism o f LRL was d e s i g n e d f o r " f l a t t e n i n g t h e top and n a r r o w i n g t h e base" so t h a t t h e m i d d l e rank o f t h e r u r a l c l a s s would e x p a n d , t h u s p r o v i d i n g i n c e n t i v e f o r a l l p e a s a n t s t o work hard and c a r r y out c o o p e r a t i o n toward t h e development o f r u r a l p r o d u c t i o n . A l t h o u g h r i c h p e a s a n t s were s u b j e c t t o i d e o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e s and t h e i r s u r p l u s l a n d was t o be " r e q u i s i t i o n -ed" i n p a r t o r i n w h o l e , t h e i r l a n d h o l d i n g s w e r e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f l a r g e amounts o f l a n d r e n t e d out by r i c h p e a s a n t s , g e n e r a l l y l e f t i n t a c t (See A r t i c l e 6 o f L R L ) . H e r e , t h e p r o h i b i t i o n on r e n t i n g 115 out l a n d r e c e i v e d i n r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n was a l s o removed. In r e d i s t r i b u t i n g l a n d , t h e LRL a l s o made t h e f o l l o w i n g . . 4 p r o v i s i o n s : (a) t h e h o l d i n g s o f m i d d l e p e a s a n t s , which were g e n e r a l l y a l i t t l e above a v e r a g e , were t o remain i n t a c t ; (b) t h e poor peasant r e c e i v i n g a p o r t i o n o f r e d i s t r i b u t e d l a n d added t o h i s o r i g i n a l h o l d i n g s would then have a h o l d i n g t o t a l i n g " s l i g h t l y and s u i t a b l y " more than t h a t a l l o t t e d t o t h e l a n d l e s s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r s ; (c) under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s , a poor f a m i l y o f one o r two a b l e - b o d i e d members might be g i v e n an a b o v e - a v e r a g e s h a r e ; (d) r u r a l a r t i s a n s whose main o c c u p a t i o n s were not s u f f i c -i e n t f o r a f u l l maintenance o f l i f e were g i v e n a b e l o w -average s h a r e ; (e) t h e s m a l l l e s s o r s were p e r m i t t e d t o h o l d more l a n d i n o r d e r t o e n a b l e them t o r e n t i t o u t . Because t h e LRL, d e s p i t e i t s r a d i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , aimed o n l y a t e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e p r i n c i p l e o f peasant o w n e r s h i p o f l a n d and not a t e q u a l i z i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l a n d o w n e r s h i p , numerous r u r a l problems p e r s i s t e d . 116 The immediate e f f e c t o f l i b e r a l i z i n g t h e l a n d r e f o r m p o l i c y by t o l e r a t i n g r i c h peasants and r e j e c t i n g e g a l i t a r i a n r e d i s t r i b u t i o n was t h e n a r r o w i n g o f t h e scope o f r e d i s t r i b u t i o n t h r o u g h r e s t r i c t e d e x p r o p r i a t i o n . S p a r i n g r i c h p e a s a n t s from e x p r o p r i a t i o n would reduce what Mao termed t h e " s c o p e o f a t t a c k " from the o r i g i n a l 8 t o 10 p e r c e n t t o about 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n r u r a l v i l l a g e s . Thus the l a n d r e d i s t r i b u t i o n program o f 1950-1952 on t h e average i n -5 v o l v e d o n l y 43 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l c u l t i v a t e d l a n d . And a c c o r d i n g t o Wong's c a l c u l a t i o n , t h e r e c i p i e n t s i n Guangdong p r o v i n c e were each e n t i t l e d t o o n l y 1 . 4 mu o f l a n d from t h e average d i s t r i b u t a b l e l a n d pool d e r i v e d from t h e c o n f i s c a t e d and r e q u i s i t i o n e d l a n d s o f l a n d -l o r d s and r i c h p e a s a n t s . In a r e p o r t on t h r e e v i l l a g e s i n Zhong-shan c o u n t y a f t e r l a n d r e f o r m was i n t r o d u c e d , t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n Team o f t h e Land Reform Committee o f Guangdong p r o v i n c e found t h a t l a n d -h o l d i n g s were s t i l l fragmented and s c a t t e r e d . I t was p o i n t e d out t h a t a t l e a s t 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e peasant, f a m i l i e s i n t h e s e v i l l a g e s had l e s s than 5 mu o f l a n d ; and a t l e a s t 37 p e r c e n t o f t h e f a m i l i e s who had l e s s than 5 mu were t h e poor p e a s a n t s . ' 7 The scope o f r e d i s t r i b u t i o n was even more l i m i t e d when o t h e r means o f p r o d u c t i o n , such as d r a f t a n i m a l s and farm i m p l e m e n t s , a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . In Guangdong p r o v i n c e , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e P e a r l R i v e r d e l t a r e g i o n , because l a n d l o r d s were n o r m a l l y rentiers not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d o r engaged i n farm w o r k , d r a f t a n i m a l s were g e n e r a l l y not kept by them, and thus not a v a i l a b l e f o r r e d i s t r i b u t i o n . 117 a t t h e same t i m e , because t h e LRL r u l e d t h a t o n l y e x c e s s land was t o be r e q u i s i t i o n e d from r i c h p e a s a n t s , t h e i r farm equipments and a n i m a l s remained a b s o l u t e l y i n t a c t . New l a n d owners thus f a c e d a s h o r t a g e o f c r u c i a l c a p i t a l items f o r t h e i r farms o f which t h e s h o r t a g e o f farm equipment and d r a f t a n i m a l s was most s e r i o u s . The r e p o r t on the t h r e e v i l l a g e s i n Zhong-shan r e v e a l e d t h a t a t l e a s t o n e - t h i r d o f t h e peasant f a m i l i e s i n t h e t h r e e v i l l a g e s s u f f e r e d from i n s u f f i c i e n t means o f p r o d u c t i o n . Most o f them c o u l d not a f f o r d t o buy a n i m a l s o r e q u i p m e n t , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e i r l a n d h o l d i n g s were meager. N i n e t y -e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e peasant f a m i l i e s who had o n l y two o r l e s s mu o f o l a n d had no d r a f t a n i m a l s . When f a c e d w i t h such a s h o r t a g e . , t h e peasant f a m i l i e s would have t o e i t h e r borrow such means from f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s , o r n e i g h b o u r s i n exchange f o r manual l a b o u r , t h e y c o u l d h i r e l a b o u r e r s and r e n t equipment o r a n i m a l s t o work on t h e i r l a n d . I f t h e y c o u l d not a f f o r d e i t h e r means, t h e y c o u l d r e l y o n l y on p r i m i t i v e t o o l s and t h e i r bare hands. B o r r o w i n g t o o l s o r a n i m a l s from f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s seemed t o be t h e e a s i e s t s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m . Very o f t e n , however, one had t o put i n as much as t h r e e o r f o u r hours o f manual work i n r e t u r n f o r the use o f t h e d r a f t a n i m a l s f o r an h o u r . One a l s o had t o w a i t f o r t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f such equipment and a n i m a l s - - t h e y c o u l d o n l y be l e n t out a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f t h e owners. As f o r c o n t r a c t i n g l a b o u r e r s t o c u l t i v a t e t h e f i e l d s , one would have to pay a s t i f f p r i c e - - i t would c o s t 40 t o 50 c a t t i e s o f husked r i c e t o have a h i r e d 118 hand farm one mu o f l a n d . T h i s means t h a t i f one had o n l y 5 mu o f 9 l a n d , o n e - f i f t h o f t h e y i e l d would have t o go t o pay l a b o u r c o s t . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i f one d e c i d e d t o work on h i s l a n d w i t h h i s hands and h o e s , i t would t a k e f o u r t i m e s as much e f f o r t o r t i m e , not t o mention t h e b a c k - b r e a k i n g p a i n , t o f i n i s h whatever a d r a f t animal c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h i n a s h o r t t i m e . T h i s a l s o e n t a i l s d e l a y i n g o f t h e t i m e f o r p l a n t i n g , a d e c i s i v e f a c t o r i n y i e l d i n g good h a r v e s t o r n o t . Most i m p o r t a n t , however, i s t h a t w i t h o u t t h e h e l p o f d r a f t a n i m a l s t o t u r n o v e r t h e s o i l d u r i n g t h e s l a c k season i n w i n t e r t h e coming h a r v e s t would c e r t a i n l y be down a t l e a s t two p e r c e n t . 1 ^ Manpower had a l s o become a problem a f t e r t h e LRL. Because l a n d was r e d i s t r i b u t e d on a per c a p i t a b a s i s , many f a m i l i e s w i t h s m a l l c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d more l a n d than t h e y c o u l d manage, w h i l e f a m i l i e s w i t h o l d e r c h i l d r e n o f t e n had more l a b o u r power than c o u l d be used e f f e c t i v e l y . And t h e r e were f a m i l i e s o f widows and widowers w i t h o u t s u f f i c i e n t l a b o u r t o manage t h e i r l a n d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h o s e who l a c k e d t h e adequate l a n d o r l a b o u r as w e l l as the s k i l l and knowledge ( i n Z h o n g - s h a n ' s t h r e e v i l l a g e s , about 10 p e r c e n t o f t h e poor peasant f a m i l i e s d i d not have t h e n e c e s s a r y s k i l l f o r f a r m i n g : t h e y were e i t h e r widows who d i d not have any e x p e r i e n c e i n h a n d l i n g d r a f t animal i n f a r m i n g o r f a r m e r s whose o c c u p a t i o n s b e f o r e t h e l a n d r e f o r m were n o n - a g r