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Erwartung by Arnold Schoenberg : A new translation and proposed production Harder, Katherine Elizabeth 1979

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ERWARTUNG BY ARNOLD SCHOENBERG, A NEW TRANSLATION AND PROPOSED PRODUCTION by {CATHERINE ELIZABETH HARDER B.Mus., University of British Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR"~THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Music, University of British Columbia) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1979 © Katherine Elizabeth Harder, 1979, In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u I f i " m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that copying o r pub l i ca t ion of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Mus i c The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date April 25, 1979 ABSTRACT Arnold Schoenberg's "monodrama in one act," ERWARTUNG opus 17 (1909), was written during the composer's expressionist compositional period (1908-1913). ERWARTUNG (EXPECTATION) was Schoenberg's f i r s t completed stage work; however, i t did not receive i t s stage premiere until 1924. This monodrama is an atonal work, a revolutionary style of composition which Schoenberg created during the early twentieth century. ERWARTUNG became the main generating force which encour-aged the composer's contemporaries to attempt to create new musical and dramatic compositional styles. In studying the importance of ERWARTUNG as an "expressionist music drama," i t was also necessary to examine the expressionist movements in art and literature. These movements greatly influenced Arnold Schoenberg's compositional style, as can be seen in the harmonic and dramatic structure of ERWARTUNG. Their influence, specifically that of the expressionist literary movement, can also be seen in the character study of the sole protagonist, "the Woman." Foremost in this project was the writing of a singable English translation for ERWARTUNG, (Appendix I.) A proposed production including stage direction and lighting, costume design, and publicity posters completed this study. The production was designed for a typical proscenium stage, specifically the Frederick Wood Theatre at the University of British Columbia. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 II ERWARTUNG AS AN EXPRESSIONIST MUSIC DRAMA, AND ITS 6 LINKS WITH PSYCHOLOGY AND THE EXPRESSIONIST MOVEMENTS IN ART AND LITERATURE III THE DRAMATIC AND HARMONIC STRUCTURE OF ERWARTUNG /20 IV THE CHARACTER OF THE WOMAN 28 V LIGHTING 34 VI PUBLICITY 40 BIBLIOGRAPHY 48 APPENDICES: I XEROX COPY OF SCORE INCLUDING TRANSLATION AND KEY TO 52 SYMBOLS USED IN STAGE DIRECTION II ACTING AREA GRID 100 III LIGHTING GRID 101 IV INSTRUMENT SCHEDULE 102 V LIGHTING CUE SHEET 106 VI COSTUME DESIGN 108 VII LIGHTING'PLOT - CnPclS C o ( | c ^ VIII LIGHTING SECTION. " Wei*! Co) i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PLATE PAGE I Woodcut of the cover of the Blue Rider Almanac 13 II Photographs of galaxies as should be projected 41-42 on the cyclorama III Posters 45-47 iv, ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank the following people who have been of much assistance in preparing this thesis: Prof. Donald Brown Mr. Jeffrey Holmes Mr. Ian Pratt Mrs. Mary Ann Quiring Prof. French Tickner Dr. Richard Wilcox v PICTURE CREDIT Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944): Woodcut for cover of Blue Rider  Almanac. 1912. From: Vergo, Peter. The Blue Rider. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1977. vi CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Arnold Schoenberg was born September 13, 1874, in Vienna. Although a self-taught musician, Schoenberg did not decide until he was sixteen years of age that music would be his l i f e ' s work. At this time he was introduced to Alexander von Zemlinsky from whom he received his only formal instruction, counterpoint. The two became good friends, and in 1901 Schoenberg married Zemlinsky's sister, Mathilde. In 1903, already established as a prominent musician and composer, Schoenberg began his long teaching career. Among his f i r s t students were Anton von Webern and Alban Berg, soon to become re-spected musicians themselves. His teaching was carried on mainly in Vienna and Berlin until he moved to the United States in 1933. Settling in California, he continued to teach and compose, until his death in 1951. Afnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) composed the one-act mono-drama ERWARTUNG opus 17 in a fury of inspiration, completing the reduced version in a total of seventeen days, August 17 to Sept-ember 12, 1909, and the orchestral score by October 4, 1909. ERWARTUNG was Schoenberg's f i r s t completed stage work. He had previously started but never completed the composition of an opera based on Gerhard Hauptmann's play Uiid Pippa Tarizt. 1 2. Anton Webern described the score of ERWARTUNG in the f o l -c lowing fashion; The score of the monodrama is an unheard-of event. In i t , a l l traditional form is broken with; something hew always follows according to the rapid change of expression. The same is true of the instrumentation: an interrupted succession of sounds never before heard. There is no measure of this score which f a i l s to show a completely new sound picture....And so this music flows onward,...giving expres- ^ sion to the most hidden and slightest impulses of the emotions. The year 1909 was a very p r o l i f i c one for Arnold Schoenberg. In addition to completing DAS BUCH DER HANGENDEN GARTEN opus 15, a song cycle based on poems written by Stefan George, and the mono-' drama ERWARTUNG opus 17, he composed two instrumental works --THREE PIANO PIECES opus 11, and FIVE PIECES FOR ORCHESTRA opus 16, both written during the f i r s t eight months of 1909. With ERWARTUNG Arnold Schoenberg reached the point stated in Style and Idea: he "discovered how to construct larger forms 2 by following a text or a poem." In ERWARTUNG, as well as his subsequent works, Schoenberg did not attempt to impose any known form or forms on the libretto. ERWARTUNG opus 17, often termed an expressionist music drama, is about half an hour in length, and is composed for female voice (soprano) and large orchestra. The orchestra consists of 4,4,5,4;4,3,4,1; harp, celesta, percussion and strings. This work is an "atonal" work or "pantonal" one, as Schoenberg preferred i t to be called. He considered the term "atonal" to suggest the re-jection of past compositional styles. Unlike "atonal-;1" "pantonal" expressed his belief that his work was not based on a rejection, but 1 Anton Webern, Schoenberg's Musik, pp.-45-46. 2 Arnold Schoenberg, Style and Idea, p.-217. rather on the acceptance, extension, and renovation of* the Nineteenth Century German traditional method of composition. ERWARTUNG, then, includes revolutionary uses of consonance and dissonance as well as a complex structure of textual and musical symbolism, a l l of which wi l l be discussed in detail in the following chapters. With this important aspect of Schoenberg's new and revolu-tionary compositional style came the new practiceoof "composer collaborating with his l i b r e t t i s t . " Schoenberg presented Marie Pappenheim, his l i b r e t t i s t , the outline he wished her to follow in writing the text of ERWARTUNG. This collaboration between the com-poser and l i b r e t t i s t shows the beginning of the tendency which led Schoenberg to write his own l i b r e t t i for the subsequent operas DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND opus 18 (1910-1913) and MOSES UND AARON (1932), of which only two acts were completed. It is important to realize that in expressionist works such as ERWARTUNG and DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND, Schoenberg's main concern was to make i t clearly understood that the characters were not so much individuals as universal human types. In ERWARTUNG in partic-ular, Schoenberg was interested only in projecting a hysterical woman' "stream of consciousness" in word and music. The general outline of the score as well as i t s details were governed completely by the content of the libretto. The English translation of ERWARTUNG included in Appendix I is my own, completed in December of 1978. It i s , for the most part, a l i t e r a l translation, expressing as closely as possible the meaning of the German text. My preoccupation in writing the trans-4 lation was to convey the relentless expressiveness of the German poetry by means of the English language, and to retain a l l the subtle and the radical changes of mood of the sole protagonist, "the Woman." Several attempts were made to bring about a production of ERWARTUNG, but i t was not accomplished until 1924. Its stage premiere took place at the musical festival in Prague on June 6, 1924, with Alexander von Zemlinsky conducting. The character of "the Woman" was f i r s t created by Marie Gutheil-Schoeder; producer, Louis Laber. The f i r s t American production of ERWARTUNG td&k place on December 28, I960, in Washington with Robert Craft conducting. Helga Pilarczk portrayed "the Woman;" the general manager of the production was Bliss Hebert. One must realize that by the time ERWARTUNG f i n a l l y received i t s f i r s t stage premiere in 1924, expressionism was already losing significance as an a r t i s t i c movement in central Europe. Therefore, in considering the historical importance of ERWARTUNG, one must study the musical scene in Germany in 1909 when i t was written rather than in 1924 when i t was f i r s t produced. Wagnerian drama was, heedless to say, extremely influential in Germany at the turn of the century. Richard Strauss (1864-1949) had recently emerged as an important composer. Schoenberg's two works for the stage, ERWARTUNG and DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND, coincide with the years in which Richard Strauss turned from the highly dramatic expression of ELEKTRA to the more restrained and elegant style of DER ROSENKAVALIER. Claude Debussy's (1862-1918) impres-sionistic and symbolic approach tGocomposition as seen in his work 5 for the stage PELLEAS ET MELISANDE was s t i l l new. Two other very important and influencial composers were Pietro Mascagni (1863-1945) and Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) of the Italian v e r i s t i c school which flourished in Italy at the end of the nineteenth and begin-ning of the twentieth centuries. The expressionist movement during the early twentieth century was most clearly reflected in the operas of Arnold Schoenberg and his pupil, Alban Berg (1885-1935). Arnold Schoenberg's stage works, particularly ERWARTUNG, were the main generating force which encouraged his contemporaries to attempt to create totally new, fresh musical and dramatic styles of composition. Without this v i t a l stimulus, the early operas of Kurt Weill (1900-1950) such as AUFSTIEG UND FALL DER STADT MAH0G0NNY and those of Ernst Krenek (b.1900), whose ORPHEUS AND EURYDIKE clearly follows Schoenberg's compositional style, would not have been conceivable. Paul Hindemith's (1895-1963) three one-act operas were also strongly influenced by Schoenberg's works for the stage. Perhaps Schoenberg's strongest influence was on his contemporary Alban Berg whose opera WOZZECK is considered the dramatic master-piece of the Viennese school of composers. CHAPTER TOO EWARTUNG: AN EXPRESSIONIST MUSIC DRAMA, AND ITS LINKS WITH PSYCHOLOGY AND THE EXPRESSIONIST MOVEMENTS IN ART AND LITERATURE. Expressionism, a term adopted from visual arts, applies to music written in a subjective and introspective style. Moreover, musical expressionism describes works which solely express the com-poser's thoughts, feelings, and visions. From the interplay of the composer's imagination and knowledge of compositional techniques, we learn to recognize his unique compositional style. Arnold S Schoenberg'stated that there is only one overriding goal toward which the artist strives, that of expressing one's self. In Germany in the years 1910 to 1925, a new burst of activity in the arts, including literature and drama, carried with i t a new set of attitudes which today i s referred to as expressionism. With expressionism came the eruptive breakup of conventional esthetics. A l l artists strived to create new, fresh standards and ideas on which to base their works. Schoenberg also stated that art is not derived from "can," but from "must." Musical expressionism, then, defied the laws of what had been accepted as beauty and brought forth new conceptions of melody, harmony, rhythm, tonality, and form. In ERWARTUNG and a l l his works to follow, Schoenberg was pre-occupied with the musical representation of the inner mind. He stated in an article: 6 7 Science aims at presenting i t s thoughts fu l l y and in a way that no question remains unanswered. Aft, on the con-trary, i s satisfied with a complex presentation from which the thought emerges unambiguously, but without being expres-sed directly. Thus, a back door is left open to let in im-agination (that i s as far as knowledge goes).3 In addition to the representation of the inner mind in music, the composer was also concerned with the problem of relationships between a r t i s t i c creation and freedom within that creation. Schoen-berg states in his theoretical work Harmonielehre that any harmonic progression is possible; however, there are certain conditions on which the use of specific dissonances depend. These relationships between freedom and a r t i s t i c creation comment on Schoenberg's sense of form. He had taken a revolutionary step over the limits of tonality into atonality, thus implying that the tonal functions of tonic and dominant no longer existed. ERWARTUNG as an atonal work is discussed in more detail in Chapter Three, "The Dramatic and Harmonic Structure of Erwartung." In dealing specifically with the libretto of ERWARTUNG we find i t to be a psychological study of the subconscious mind. It is a product of imagination and intellect and foreshadows the modern dramatic idioms that were to come. The idea of the mohodrama was Schoenberg's own. With the detailed knowledge of his requirements, Schoenberg asked Marie Pappenheim, a poet and medical student, to write him an opera-text. She produced what Schoenberg termed an "Angsttraum" or anxiety dream monodrama heavily influenced by the techniques of psychoanalysis. The sole protagonist is "the Woman," who wanders through a dark forest seeking her lover and ultimately 3 Josef Rufer, Aspekte der Neuen Musik, p.-53. 8 finds only his corpse. In the short time space of thirty minutes, the Woman goes through several states of mind experiencing feelings of love, hate, exaltation, depression, fear, horror, anguish, and distraction. Her subconscious states, as well as her hallucination, are revealed in quick succession. In this monodrama the audience is l e f t with the question, "Did the Woman k i l l her lover, or is ERWARTUNG a hallucination of her disordered mind?." This question was not of primary importance to Schoenberg. His main interest was in penetrating the Woman's subconscious and in unifying this visual aspect with the realization of the objectives in sound. The symbolism in ERWARTUNG is as much a form of expression as is i t s dissonant harmonic structure. According to Carl Gustav Jung, "A symbol is an indefinite expression with many meanings, pointing to something not easily defined and therefore not fully k n o w n.There are three symbols in particular that are repeat-edly expressed in the text of ERWARTUNG: f i r s t , the referral toe the "black object dancing" and to other shadows; second, the vision of "a hundred hands;" and third, the vision of "the garden." Carl, Jung, the world-renowned Swiss psychologist who has contributed immensely to our knowledge and understanding of the human mind, particularly in the f i e l d of the importance of symbol-ism as revealed in dreams, has theorized that "shadows" represent the hidden, repressed, and unfavorable aspects of the personality. For most people this negative aspect of the personality remains a part of the unconscious mind. Taking this theory and applying i t to the character of the Woman in ERWARTUNG, we can assume that 4 Carl Jung, The Collected Words of C.G. Jung, Vol. V,p. 124. 9 each time she sees shadows, we are actually looking at the dark ' or negative side of her personality. Our sole protagonist obviously realizes that the shadow does indeed exist; however, she does not succeed in coming to terms with i t . Understanding this, one can see the potential strengths of her realization of the negative side of her personality turn into a destructive power, resulting in the Woman1s dement i a. According to Carl Jung, the hallucinations involving vivid images are intimately connected with the psyche. The image of '"a hundred hands" seen by the Woman in ERWARTUNG represents, in very simple terms, the peculiarities of her. personality. The visions of "a hundred hands" reveal by their shapes and functioning i n t e l -l i g i b l e clues to the character of the Woman, in this case her pro-gressive state of dementia. Our protagonist's vision of the garden with i t s constant state of tranquility is somewhat more complex. Suffice i t to say that the garden represents contentment and happiness and, above a l l , protection and security from outside forces. This, of course, is a fantasy land, an il l u s i o n existing only in the mind of the pro-tagonist. This symbol, like a l l other symbols, is more than we can understand at f i r s t encounter. One does well to remember Carl Jung's words, "A symbol does not disguise; i t reveals in time.""' To understand f u l l y the expressionist movement in painting and how i t influenced Arnold Schoenberg, one must understand how the movement originated. The f i r s t signs of a nev; movement in ' painting in the twentieth century appeared in Paris in 1905. In 5 Carl Jung, The Symbolic Life, Vol. XVIII, p. 212. 10 that year, a group of young painters led by the artist Henri Matisse held an exhibition of paintings characterized by simplicity of design and the use of b r i l l i a n t colours. A shocked c r i t i c described the artists as "fauves" (wild beasts), hence the derivation of their name, the Fauves. The Fauves were influenced by the newly-discovered exotic arts which conveyed more personal forms of expression. Im-p l i c i t in the works of the Fauves and fundamental to expressionism is the philosophy that the a r t i s t s ' presentations should represent their own emotional reactions to the subject through bold colours and strong linear patterns and should be completely free of tradition. The Fauves helped contemporary artists open the door to the use of colour as an expressive end in i t s e l f , freeing colour of i t s tradition-al role as the description of the local tone of an object. Henri Matisse put the matter of expressionism clearly and concisely in the words: What I am after, above a l l , is expression....1 am unable to distinguish between the feeling I have for l i f e and my way of expressing it....The whole arrangement of my picture is expressive....everything plays a part. Composition is the art of arranging in a decorative manner the various elements at the painter's disposal for the expression of his feelings^...All that is not useful in the picture is detrimental. The Fauve movement, never a successful organization, was short-lived; however, i t s influence was almost immediately f e l t outside France, especially in the German schools of art in the early twentieth century. The element of immediate personal expres-sion strongly appealed to artists in Germany. Two fraternities of German artists organized into two individual societies--DIE BRUCKE 6 Robert Goldwater, Artists on Art, pp. 409-410. 11 (The Bridge), in Dresden, and DER BLAUE REITER (The Blue Rider), in Munich. These two fraternities symbolize that renewal of German art which occurred during the years immediately before World War I when German artists extended the techniques of the Fauvists. In German expressionism the artist's subjective feelings toward objec-tive reality and the realm of imagination were revealed. Their powerful canvasses were particularly expressive of intense human feeling. Arnold Schoenberg's most influential friend in the f i e l d of German art was Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944). Kandinsky and his companions founded, in 1909, an exhibiting society called the "Neue Kiinstler Vereinigung Munchen" (New Artist's Association of Munich) whose aims were to promote exhibitions, lectures, publication, and other related events in Germany and abroad. The most important art book to appear during that time was The Blue Rider Almanac, published by Reinhard Piper. The Almanac was i n i t i a l l y Kandinsky's idea, and his original aims for the art book were clearly stated in a letter to Paul Westheim, editor of the periodical Das Kuristblatt: ...to compile a book....in which the articles would be written exclusively by ar t i s t s . I dreamed of painters and musicians at the front rank. The harmful separation of one art from another, of Art from folk art of children's art from "ethnography," the stout walls which divided what were to my mind such closely related, even identical phe-nomena, in a word their synthetic r e l a t i o n s h i p s — a l l this gave me no peace. Today, i t may appear remarkable that for a long time I was able to find no collaborator, no resources, simply no support for such a project. The Blue Rider was f i r s t conceived as a yearbook, although only the f i r s t number actually was publicized. Horse and rider were 7 Peter Vergo, The Blue Rider, p. 5. 12 common motifs in the early paintings of Kandinsky. A l l his pre-liminary drawings for the cover of the Almanac include the figure of a rider with flying cloak, hence the origin of the book's name, The Blue Rider. The final design is reproduced on page 13. Specifically, Vasily Kandinsky, along with his collaborator Franz Marc, set the new standard for art that Kandinsky had form-ulated. Kandinsky explained i t in detail in his essay "Ubes das geistige in der Kunst.", His main concern in painting was the pre-sentation of the inner nature of things. Instead of making state-ments about the nature of things.in pictures, one was to feel that nature was speaking to the viewer through the pictures. In this way one would not be distracted by the outer appearance which hides and in some cases f a l s i f i e s the true meaning of nature. In 1912, Kandinsky wrote, "It has no significance whether the a r t i s t uses g a real or an abstract form. Both are inwardly equal." At the same time, Schoenberg, independent of Kandinsky, was led by his musical imagination in a similar direction. Schoenberg gave priority to the unconscious in the creative process. "If more things happen than one can think of, they must happen unconsciously." Both men rejected the rather vague notion of beauty as a standard of value of art. Rather, they preferred the notion of truthfulness in a l l phases of art. Arnold Schoenberg began to paint in 1907. Between 1908 and 1910, he painted in short bursts of creativity two-thirds of his ninety pictures, most of which are now in the hands of his heirs. To Schoenberg painting was not forced by a specific set of rules 8 Peter Vefgo, The Blue Rider, p. 9. 9 Josef Rufer, Aspekte der Neuen Musik, p. 52. i. V A S I L Y K A N D I N S K Y (1866- 1944): Woodcut for the cover of the 'Blue Rider Almanac'. igi2 14 but rather by his personal a r t i s t i c sensitivity. Painting.began to, in Schoenberg's words, "make music with colours and forms. In an essay t i t l e d Die Dilder, Kandinsky clearly states Schoenberg's exact philosophy of art: "Painting, for him, is the same as music, a way to express himself, to present feelings, thoughts, and other impressions."'''''" This is precisely what Kandinsky meant when he stated that the inner nature of things could be simply and immediately realized in music--in i t s tones, sounds, and rhythms. He demanded that the pic t o r i a l a r t i s t turn toward music and try to find the same means for his art. It i s important to remember that during the years when Schoenberg's painting activity reached i t s peak (1908-1910), he composed several atonal works including his f i r s t two works for the stage--the monodrama ERWARTUNG (1909) and DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND (1909-1913). Schoenberg called many of his paintings and drawings "visions" and used the same word to describe the musical detail and insight into the nature of the Woman in ERWARTUNG. Understanding this, one can clearly see the connection between expressionist art and the expressionist compositions Schoenberg wrote during the same period of time. We are not given a precise date as to when Kandinsky and Schoenberg f i r s t met; however, from their exchange of letters i t is believed to have been around the year 1906. Their relationship culminated five years later in Schoenberg's help with the almanac Per Blaue Reiter. He f i r s t presented an essay about song compo-sition called"The Relationship "to the Text,"one of the most import-10 Ibid.. p. 52. 11 Ibid!., p. 52. 15 ant of a l l Schoenberg's t h e o r e t i c a l statements. In f a c s i m i l e , he wrote the song Herzgewachse@(for soprano, c e l e s t e , harmonium, and harp) on December 9, 1911, f o r the Almanac; and f i n a l l y , he c o n t r i b u t e d a reproduction of h i s s e l f - p o r t r a i t (1910). One can f i n d s t r ong t i e s between the e x p r e s s i o n i s t movement i n the l i t e r a r y w o rld, s p e c i f i c a l l y German e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama, and the e x p r e s s i o n i s t music drama due t o p a r a l l e l i n t e l l e c t u a l trends i n the a r t s g e n e r a l l y . L i t e r a r y expressionism, i n c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the e x p r e s s i o n i s t movements i n a r t and music, represented a r e v o l t against t r a d i t i o n a l nineteenth century l i t e r a r y s t y l e s , and f o r approximately f i f t e e n years from 1910 to 1924 dominated German l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . I t i s imperative t o understand that these years were a time o f great unrest i n Germany, a p e r i o d which i n c l u d e d the Great War. The nightmare o f anxiety caused by the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l unrest i n Germany i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century a f f e c t e d every p a r t o f the a r t i s t ' s l i f e i n a poignant and powerful way. The a r t i s t r e a l i z e d that the then current l i t e r a r y phase of the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h century, neo-romanticism, was not at a l l concerned w i t h the r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e and lacked i n t e r e s t i n the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l needs o f the time. The e x p r e s s i o n i s t movement q u i c k l y became the new v i s i o n , the new energy i n German l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y , assuming a l e a d i n g r o l e i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e o f the country. Hatred o f war, hope f o r a b e t t e r world, and concern f o r human l i f e became the three c e n t r a l ideas i n expressionism. With these ideas came the emphasis on i n n e r v i s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y the c r e a t i v e powers o f the w r i t e r . We f i n d the b i r t h o f a new, much more intense s u b j e c t i v i t y which d i d not h e s i t a t e t o 16 destroy the conventional picture of reality in order that "expression" could become the dominant aspect of literature. To understand clearly the relationship of German expressionist drama to the libretto of the monodrama ERWARTUNG, i t is necessary to discuss the formal features of expressionist drama. One of it s most striking features is i t s abstraction, i t s lack of concern with pro-jecting the il l u s i o n of reality on the state. Expressionism pro-duces constant stress created by preoccupation with deep images rather than with surface appearances. A l l unnecessary detail is eliminated, leaving one to deal only with the most important outlines and crucial situations in the actions and plots. Likewise, dramatics figures show no characteristic features. Rather, they represent important principles the author v/ishes to convey to the audience. Often characters are simply designated as Child, Wife, or the Woman. Expressionist writers, then,were not concerned with creating dramatic characters in their plays but were more concerned with representing man's eternal and transcendental values. One of the most outstanding formal elements found in expres-sionist drama was the dream. The great psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud opened the doors to the age of psychology at the beginning of the twentieth century with the publication of Interpretation of Dreams. This book was an introduction to the concept of the world of un-conscious experience. He attached particular importance to dreams as a point of departure from normal reality. The expressionist dramatist Arthur Strindberg (1849-1902), influenced by Freud, wrote of his characterizations in A Dream Play, "The characters s p l i t , 17 double, multiply, vanish, solidify, blur, c l a r i f y . But one conscious-ness reigns above them all--that of the dreamer; and before i t there are no secrets, no incongruities, no scruples, no laws. There is 12 neither judgement nor exoneration, but merely narration." In A Dream Play, Strindberg attempted to depict the disconnected but strangely logical quality of dreams. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1901) was another writer of crucial importance during this time. In his book Thus Spake Zarathustra, on which Richard Strauss later based his symphonic poem of the same t i t l e , Nietzsche dealt with the philosophy of man's self-awareness. Nietzsche, with his friend August Strindberg, emphasized the extreme, often pathological, psychological aspects of man. This change in concentration from surface human emotions to the deeper aspect of man's self-awareness gave the expressionist literary movements i t s keenest impetus. The real beginning of theatrical expressionism began with Oskar Kokoschka's play Murder HOpe Of Womankind (1907). Walter Sokel states, "In Kokoschka's play, the projection of psychic s i t -uations into symbolic images, an essential function of the sub-13 conscious mind, becomes action on the stage." With the elimination of r e a l i s t i c detail, the use of colour symbolism, and the sensual, carnal responses of the characters in this play and others, Kokoschka opened the doors to a whole new realm of literary expression. The s a t i r i s t and polemicist Karl Kraus, a personal friend of both Kokoschka and Schoenberg, started what is most-often referred to as the Wedekind wave in Vienna. Wedekind was the f i r s t author to 12 C.L. Dalstrom, Strindberg's Dramatic Expressionism, p. 177. 13 Walter Sokel, An Anthology of German Expressionist Drama, p. 17. 18 to deal w i t h subjects that were u n t i l t h i s time unmentionable— t o p i c s such as sex, mental i l l n e s s , e t c . In h i s own j o u r n a l Die  Fackel (founded i n 1899), Kraus s t r o n g l y condemned the abuses" o f the language o f the Viennese f e u i l l e t o n i s t e s ( s e r i a l i s t s ) . In the ded-i c a t i o n sent t o Kraus w i t h a copy o f h i s Harmonielehre (1911), Schoenberg s t a t e d , " I have l e a r n t more perhaps from you than one can l e a r n i f one i s t o remain independent."""'* , A f t e r the dream, the most important formal element i n the e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama was the monologue. The monologue served as the p r i n c i p a l v e h i c l e by which the l y r i c a l - d r a m a t i c p r o t a g o n i s t expressed the s u b j e c t i v e developments o f the i n n e r man. Another important aspect o f e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama was the f a c t t h a t i t s c e n t r a l focus was on one p r o t a g o n i s t . A l l other characters i n the drama revolved e n t i r e l y around t h i s one c e n t r a l f i g u r e . The le a d i n g a c t o r was u s u a l l y found i n an extreme s i t u a t i o n o r circumstance with which he o r she could not cope. The a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f the e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama was u s u a l l y found t o be a sequence o f scenes which followed each other i n r a p i d succession. These scenes were r a r e l y l i n k e d together i n an obvious, systemetic way. This s t r u c t u r e served t o heighten the dramatic impact o f the drama, p a r t i c u l a r l y the audience's awareness o f the u s u a l l y unhealthy circumstance or c r u c i a l s i t u a t i o n of i t s lone p r o t a g o n i s t . I t i s g e n e r a l l y an easy task t o i d e n t i f y the w r i t i n g s t y l e o f the e x p r e s s i o n i s t dramatist. He u s u a l l y employed f r e e verse i n which a l l sentences were t o the p o i n t , o m i t t i n g a l l n o n e s s e n t i a l 14 Frank F i e l d , K a r l Kraus and His Vienna, p. 25. 19 details from the actions and plots. One finds that even the longer sentence structures were broken into shorter units, characterized by missing particles. The page was characterized by the prolifefation of exclamation marks and dashes as well as the free use of both the verb and the dynamic metaphor. Images and symbols usually abstracted from common experience were frequently used ine-the expressionist literary style to express an inner world of meaning. One of the most characteristic features of expressionist drama was that the play never reached a specific conclusion but rather was open-ended, leaving the audience to imagine and draw whatever conclusions they chose. In comparing the libretto of the monodrama ERWARTUNG to the formal features of expressionist drama, i t is clear that Marie Pappenheim, with the close collaboration of Arnold Schoenberg, wrote an expressionist drama. Without desiring to be repetitive, suffice i t to say that the stress in ERWARTUNG (as in other expressionist music dramas) is on the theatrical aspect of the production, not on the esthetic worth of the text. The text served only as a means to an end, to provide innumerable musical pos s i b i l i t i e s to the composer. During the crucial early stage in the development of his mature twelve-tone style of composition, Schoenberg f e l t strongly that "expressionism" was the only medium in which he could success-fu l l y relate his feelings to the world. His expressionist compo-sitional period (1908-1913), interestingly enough, proved to be one of the most p r o l i f i c times of this extraordinary composer's l i f e . CHAPTER THREE THE DRAMATIC AND HARMONIC STRUCTURE OF ERWARTUNG ERWARTUNG is classified as a "monodrama in one act" and is divided into four scenes--the f i r s t of thirty measures' length; the second, of fifty-two measures; the third, of twenty-four measures; and the fourth and longest scene a total of 321 measures. Each scene is bracketed by the entrance and exit of the Woman, the sole protag-onist of the work. The three extremely short interludes might be termed "static music" consisting of pedal points, reiterated ostinato rhythmic figures, or sustained harmonies. A constant level of tension is maintained in the monodrama by avoiding resolution of the dissonant chord. ERWARTUNG is an outstanding example of sustained, free com-position. Dramatically speaking, with each new scene comes a more i n -cisive portrayal of the Woman's desperate circumstances. With each realization there also comes a new burst of colour in the orchestration. One i s constantly aware of the growing intensity and hysteria of the protagonist. This constantly-increasing tension becomes almost unbearable in measure 190, when the Woman, feeling the impact of the realization that her lover is truly dead, screams for help. It i s my opinion that, from this point on, the Woman loses a l l contact with reality, f a l l i n g deeper and deeper into her state of dementia. Looking yet more closely at the dramatic structure of ERWARTUNG, 20 we find six major climaxes and six predominantly l y r i c sections. The climaxes occur generally where the Woman receives a major shock. The l y r i c sections generally recall the Woman's past pleasures shared with her lover. A l l l y r i c sections immediately precede the six climactic sections. The six major climaxes are: Measures 1. 110-113 2. 154-155 3. 190-193 4. 348 5. 415-416 6. 424 The climaxes are characterized by the ut i l i z a t i o n of the f u l l orchestra as well as the use of the character's extreme vocal range. The climaxes are also characterized by extreme rhythmic v i t a l i t y . It is of interest to note that there is a pause after the second, third, and fourth climaxes, in each case representing a complete change of thought and mood of the Woman. The l y r i c sections are characterized by rather lighter orchestration. A prominent use of the solo woodwind and string instruments becomes evident. These sections are characterized by much quieter dynamic levels, expressive feelings, and generally longer vocal lines which avoid wide skips. In looking at this work in detail, one can clearly see the close coordination of the music and stage action. Stage directions are clearly reflected in the music. In measure 104 the written stage directions c a l l for a "Leichter Windstoss" or light breeze. The light breeze i s mirrored in the music by the thirty-second note 22 figure in the muted violins and contrabasses. Similarly, the i n -strumental passage in measures 385-388 clearly indicated the appearance of dawn. In this passage Schoenberg approaches pure impressionism in his use of orchestral colour. In discussing the harmonic structure of ERWARTUNG as the most important work intthe development of Schoenberg's mature twelve-tone style of composition, i t is v i t a l to grasp the principle that dissonance is the primary means of the musical expression. Dissonance is simply any musical sound that must be resolved by the use of a consonant chord or note, that i s , a musical sound that does not need a resolution. The harmonic system, then, is defined by the relation of consonance to dissonance. The secondary elements of musical expression were thought to be tone colour, accent, form, and counter-point. Schoneberg considered a l l these elements of importance, not definable as primary or secondary. In a l l his works Schoenberg termed the oscillation between tension (dissonance) and resolution (consonance) the complete "emancipation of the dissonance." This "emancipation of the dis-sonance," foreshadowed by the nonfunctional harmonies of Claude Debussy, was the i n i t i a l step taken in the direction of the gradual process of the complete breakdown of tonality. This refusal of resolution was the key to Schoenberg's style of composition in his expressionist period (1908-1913). For the f i r s t time in Schoenberg's works of this period we see expression as an element of the total structure of the composition, a symbol of the new attitude which prevailed in a l l arts during the early twentieth century. Another interesting aspect of ERWARTUNG is the composer's use of textual and rhythmic symbolism within the score. One of the most outstanding examples of rhythmic symbolism is the symbol of the waltz which traditionally denotes pleasure and gracefulness. The waltz rhythms are notated in the score as eighth-note triplets of 9/8 time superimposed on 3/4 time. Two clear examples of this are found in measures 31-34 and measures 370-371. In both instances the musical indication is "sehr zart" (very sweet). An example of mus-ic a l symbolism found in ERWARTUNG is the descending half-tone legato figure, a simple figure symbolizing suffering or supplication found in measure 297, "in your drowsiness.... like a name...." Generally speaking, highly broken textures or, in other words, constant changes of tone colour, rhythms, etc., in the music symbolize "Angst" (anxiety) Two words which are treated symbolically in the music are "Nacht" (night) and "Mond" (moon). Both of these words are portrayed symbolically by the use of ostinati. In measure 9 we find a low-pitched ostinato fluctuating between two notes which symbolizes the word Nacht; in measure 22 we find an ostinato which contains two notes a minor-third apart, symbolizing the word Mond. This l i s t of symbols is purposely incomplete and is only intended to make one aware of this important, i f often-neglected, aspect of Schoenberg's musical language. In Chapter Two I have already br i e f l y alluded to the fact that ERWARTUNG is an atonal work, i.e., a work in which the tonal functions of the tonic and dominant do not exist. Schoenberg, as previously noted, objected to the term "atonal," preferring the term 24 "pantonal." It is important to realize that Schoenberg's expression-ist works can be viewed as a suspension of the modal system. Though no longer tonal, the works s t i l l imply recognized principles of the tonal system such as individual harmonic progressions and tonal idioms. It would be beneficial to discuss the general aspects of the new world of sound and to apply them to the expressionist mono-drama ERWARTUNG. First, the dissolution of tonal functions is clearly seen in atonal works. In ERWARTUNG there are few perfect triads that could even suggest the tonal functions of the tonic and dominant. Certain chordal structures do, however, create momentary sources of s t a b i l i t y in the work. Practically a l l of the chords in ERWARTUNG encompass six notes generally consisting of two three-note chords outlining the seventh. This consistency helps to unify the harmonic texture of the monodrama. The chords are characterized by aggregations of fourths, f i f t h , and tritones. Clusters of seconds are also common. There is a definite avoidance of octave doublings in ERWARTUNG as well as in a l l of Schoenberg's subsequent compositions. eg-J ° / V P i V Secondly, we find the element of perpetual variation in the musical structure of Schoenberg's expressionist works. Schoenberg refused ctD use traditional compositional techniques such as thematic repetition and the transformation of motifs in his expressionist works. 25 In a recent study t i t l e d "Studien zur Entwicklung des dodekaphonen Satzes bei Arnold Schoenberg," (1972) Jan Maegaard goes further to say that the athematic structure of ERWARTUNG is a direct result of the "absolute equivalence" and "interchange of harmony and melody."15 There seems to be a great deal of disagreement over the issue, "Is ERWARTUNG athematic or not?." Herbert Buchanan for example, states in his essay "A Key to Schoenberg's ERWARTUNG opus 17" that Schoenberg quoted a portion Of one of his early songs in D minor in ERWARTUNG (just before the end of measure 401) . According to Buchanan, i t appears f i r s t in the cel'los and is repeated in i n -version in the bass clarinet and bassoons. Other writers such as George Perle state that Schoenberg's later twelve-tone technique is foreshadowed in ERWARTUNG. Robert Craft, on the other hand, does not use the terms "athematic" and "atonal" at a l l . He states that in ERWARTUNG there is a constant motivic development, the principal motif being A-B flat-A. H.H. Stuckenschmidt refers to the three-note motif D-F-C sharp. The atonal melody, independent of the harmony, follows i t s own laws and polyphic tension. Melody is the most important element in ERWARTUNG, constantly mirroring the Woman's extreme emo-tions. H.H. Stuckenschmidt points out that ERWARTUNG can be compared in form to a "pre-Wagnerian opera finale" or to a "scena and aria." One point upon which a l l agree is that the harmonic and melodic aspects of Schoenberg's atonal works (including ERWARTUNG) should be treated as a combined unit. A "symphonic bond" exists between the human voice (melody) and the instrumental accompaniment that must not be 15 Charles Rosen, Arnold Schoenberg, p. 39. 26 broken. Thirdly, one is immediately aware of the new instrumental style used in ERWARTUNG. There is increasingly bolder use of chromaticism. With this we find a growing tendency for composers to create harmonic and melodic forms for their own means of expres-sion. Schoenberg's wealth of imagination brought to this score a perpetual renewal, a constant inventiveness of idea and form. The entire force of the large orchestra is selifom used in ERWARTUNG. Small groups of solo instruments are generally used in chamber-music fashion. By treating the orchestra as a chamber orchestra, Schoenberg created an inexhaustible source of instrumental colour, u t i l i z i n g different instrumental combinations. Charles Rosen states, "This emancipation of tone colour was as significant and as characteristic of the f i r s t decades of the twentieth century as the 16 emancipation of dissonance." Influenced by the techniques of orchestration of Gustav Mahler, Schoenberg's innovative handling of the orchestra brought about important changes in orchestration which influenced his contemporaries as well as modern-day composers. Closely related to the instrumental style are the revolution-ary innovations in texture found in ERWARTUNG, specifically, Schoenberg's use of rhythm and orchestral colour. ERWARTUNG consists of alternations of two kinds of rhythmic textures--sections of continuously repeating figures known as ostinati and other sections of either stable or continuously-changing material. These alternating sections define the dramatic action of the monodrama. They also control the degree of tension relayed to the audience. 16 Charles Rosen, Arnold Schoenberg, p. 43. The wide range of orchestral colour so apparent in ERWARTUNG is created by the use of several devices. Flutter-tongue and such special effects as sulpponticello (bowed near bridge), col legno (bowed with wood), harmonics, glissandi and fingered and bowed tremelos are often called for in the score. To produce the atmosphere Schoenberg wished to create in the orchestra and on the stage, the uses of the proper sd/namics and tempo were essential. Dynamic markings ranging from f f f to ppp f i l l each page of the score. There are 111 tempo changes and sixty-five additional tempo controls such as accelerando and ritardano plus numerous tempo changes indicated by markings such as J = J . . One can quickly realize the d i f f i c u l t y for the performer in relating to and connecting a l l of these tempo changes. These elements of the new sound were to guide Schoenberg towards the laws of organization of new music, specifically his twelve^tone compositional style. His chief goal was to u t i l i z e the total resources of chromaticism to construct a new and more expressive tonal system. CHAPTER FOUR THE CHARACTER OF THE WOMAN In order to create successfully a consistent character on stage, the actor must understand the motivation(s), the inner thoughts and the feelings of the character of "theWWoman" in the monodrama ERWARTUNG opus 17. In the f i r s t scene of the monodrama we are introduced to a lone Woman who contemplates entry into a dark and eerie forest. From her f i r s t words one can clearly see the Woman suffers from great stress and conflict. "Shall I go here? One cannot see the way..." (P/VS p.3) The reason she suffers from such tremendous anxiety i s not im-mediately known to the audience. The Woman's great fear of her surroundings is vivedly expressed in the words, "How threatening the stillness i s . . . the moon is f u l l of horror..." (p.6) Her unstable emotional state becomes very clear in the words, "I am alone in the heavy shadows..." (p.6) In the second scene, we learn that the Woman has actually en-tered the forest. It is very dark, and she finds herself having to grope with outstretched arms to guide her along the path. In this short scene of fifty-two measures, i t becomes more and more apparent that the Woman suffers from psychopathic il l n e s s . She is haunted by unseen presences. 28 29 anxiety quickly grows to hysteria, as she imagines the rising gentle breeze as a kind of negative force trying to suffocate her. In this scene she makes references also to a "garden," to which I had alluded previously in Chapter Two. The turning point in the understanding of the Woman's motivation for entering the forest alone is found in her last words of scene two. "Oh, oh, What is it? A body... No, only a tree trunk." (pp. 11-12) In these words, the Woman hints that there has been a murder, a murder which, I suggest, she committed. In scene three, as we watch the woman approaching a clearing deep in the forest, we develop yet more insight into the serious nature of the Woman's psychopathic state. Her hysteria progresses to a stage of dementia, partial loss of the control of her mind. Her hallucinations become more vivid. She imagines shadows of many descriptions including "a black object dances...a hundred hands," (pp.12-13). By free association, these shadows remind the Woman of her lover's shadow on the wall of the garden. Her moment of tender reflection is interrupted when she imagines the shadow crawl-ing. Her hallucinations are symbols which help us more clearly to understand the state of the Woman's subconscious mind. In scene four, by far the longest scene of this monodrama, we recognize that the path through the forest leads to a house. The Woman enters the scene, her hair dishevelled, and her dress torn. From the Woman's f i r s t words, we clearly see she has retreated into a 30 deep state of depression. "He cannot be found. On the whole, long way nothing v i s i b l e . . . and no sound..." (p. 16) We poignantly feel the Woman's despair, the burden weighing heavily on her heart. She imagines a bench beneath a grove of trees; how-ever, at closer range she sees the bench is in reality the dead body of her lover. With the Woman's one great, long cry for help (measure 190) we reach the main climax of the monodrama. This cry i s , interestingly enough, her only plea for help. At this point in the monodrama the Woman's mind "snaps" and hereafter the Woman becomes totally demented, never again re-entering the world of reality. The individual micro-worlds of her love, hate, and jealousy are developed at length. The Woman discloses in measures 284 and 285 that she has not seen her lover for three days. She also suggests for the f i r s t time in measures 295 to 300 that there was another woman involved. "Ah, now I remember... your sighs in your drowsiness... like a name... You tenderly kissed the question from my lips...(p.33) In measures 331 to 333 she clearly states that the other woman was the cause of the divergence in relationship. "Oh but how you love her, those white arms... how hard you kissed them..." (p.36) Her hatred turns to repulsion, a state in which she actually abuses and indeed kicks the dead body of her lover. Almost instantly her act of rejection and repulsion turns to utter loneliness and despair (measures 349-351). 31 "For me there is no room." (p.38) -In the remaining pages of the monodrama, she senses that dawn i s rapidly approaching and that light w i l l come for a l l but her. At the very close of the work her mind withdraws again into the night where she finds her lover alive one again. "Oh, are you there... I sought you..." (p.47) ERWARTUNG ends the same way i t began...that i s , with a search for peace. It i s unclear how much of the action in ERWARTUNG is rea l i s -t i c and how much of this nightmarish vision is symbolic. It is a question each one must answer for oneself... did the Woman in fact murder her lover, or merely wish i t upon him? We are faced with the question, "What happened to the Woman after the monodrama?" An audience is left without a comfortable f i n a l i t y . This i s , interest-ingly enough, one of the main characteristics of modern art and thought of Schoenberg's time. We must remember that Schoenberg did not concern himself with an answer but only with the Woman's sub-conscious thought patterns within the time lapse of the monodrama. It i s possible to look at the Woman's whole nightmare as a symbolic representation of a psychoanalyist's dealings with a patient. Several writers have expanded this idea, suggesting that ERWARTUNG is a Freudian music drama and that a l l the Woman's experiences are symbolic of her "true personality." I, too, sug-gest that to look at ERWARTUNG in su*6li a fa§Ki5ii is certainly plausible; however, any relationship between Freudian theories and 32 the monodrama ERWARTUNG are purely coincidental. Arnold Schoenberg and Sigmund Freud certainly must have heard of each other; however, there was definitely no formal friendship established between these two men. In delving more deeply into the character of the Woman, one cannot help but consider her background and whether i t had an effect on her current unstable state of mind as we find her at the very outset of the monodrama. We know that Schoenberg wrote ERWARTUNG during a period of great unrest in Germany. The Franco-Prussian War had been waged some years earlier, and the country was now experi-encing the uneasiness preceding the approaching Great War. It would be logical to assume that the Woman had experienced hardship or traumatic shock, possibly the loss of a loved one or loved ones in war. Since this is a l l only hypothetical, we may conclude that because of something in the Woman's past she has become unable to deal successfully with her own emotions. Her reactions to stress and conflict are, at the very least, immature, as seen in her phy-sica l symptoms, her psychopathic il l n e s s , her hallucination, her hysteria, and her final dementia. We have learned from the libretto of ERWARTUNG that this "murder of passion," as I have termed i t , was the result of "another woman" coming between our protagonist and her lover. This brings up the question, "What caused the d i f f i c u l t i e s to arise between her and her lover?" I cannot help but suggest that the Woman may have had sexual d i f f i c u l t i e s with her lover. Some inadequacy on her part to f u l f i l l his sexual needs may have caused him to look elsewhere to satisfy his desires. The Woman was not able to deal rationally 33 with this, and her failure culminated in the murder of her lover. This brings me to my last and perhaps most important question, "What was the major drive or goal of the Woman in ERWARTUNG?" If one wishes to discuss the subject only superficially, the ansvrer would simply be "to find her lover." I suggest a deeper meaning: the Woman searching for absolution of the terrible burden of her guilt! This destroying guilt not only included the brutal murder of her lover but also a l l of her own deep-set inadequacies as a woman. CHAPTER FIVE LIGHTING The main objective in designing the lighting for my pro-duction of ERWARTUNG was to use light as "scenery." With the exception of four scrims which are painted to depict the forest, the stage is bare. In the twentieth century, the use of light as scenery has become a popular way to illuminate a production. Among the many reasons for this procedure is the increased use of theatre designs other than the traditional proscenium stage. In other theatre forms such as thrust and arena stages, light plays a more intense role in the production's total visual effectl The recent techniques of film have had an enormous impact on the theatre with the use of film projections as well as a number of other special cinematic effects. Another basic reason for the growing popularity of the use of light as scenery is simply, the visual spectacle, the new and enchanting combination of light and sound which the audience can experience. The result of a l l these influences on stage lighting is obviously great, and is leading to the formation of new attitudes regarding the use of stage lighting as an element of scene design. The twentieth century and i t s s c i e n t i f i c achievements have refined the role of stage lighting, allowing i t to gain stature as a v i t a l com-munication factor in the theatre. In a letter Schoenberg wrote to Ernst Legal, the Intendant of 34 35 the Kroll-Oper in Berlin, dated April 14, 1930, the composer gave detailed directions for the performance of ERWARTUNG.. In ERWARTUNG, these are the greatest problems: I. It is necessary always to see the woman in the forest, in order to understand her fear of i t , for the whole piece can be understood as a night-mare. But, for that very reason, i t must be a real forest, and not just an "abstract" one! That kind of abstraction is gruesome, but not frightening. II. In composing, I left hardly any time for the three scene-changes, so that they must happen on an "open" stage. III. On top of that, the background becomes important only in the final (fourth) scene; then the fore-ground must be empty, and everything that could impede the view must be removed. I decided to heed the composer's f i r s t and second wishes but not the third. As anyone knowledgeable of modem theatre knows, the most familiar way. to produce light as scenery i s , of course, projected scenery. After consultation, I have chosen to use in this production two Pani 4000 watt HMI scenic projectors to project on the cyclorama during the f i r s t three scenes of this monodrama, pictures of galaxies such as found on pages 40 and 41. This Strand Century projector is the most powerful scenic projector available, producing up to 58,000 lumens. It is built to use 7-1/8" X 7-1/8" slides, and when using a 220mm f/2.8 lens, i t creates an image of 18.5 feet at a distance of 25 feet. This creates the perfect size and illumination (148 F.C.) for this production of ERWARTUNG, designed for the Frederick Wood Theatre at the University of British Columbia. One of my basic preoccupations in the lighting of ERWARTUNG 17 Josef Rufer, The Works of Arnold Schoenberg, p. 36 was that the audience should always be aware o f the "expression-i s t " character of the work, not only i n the a u r a l but i n the v i s u a l aspect o f the p r o d u c t i o n . The l i g h t i n g i s to accompany the music c o n t i n u a l l y as i t expresses what i s happening on the stage. The music must always dominate; the stage l i g h t i n g must be subordinate to i t . To create s u c c e s s f u l l y t h i s aspect o f su b o r d i n a t i o n o f l i g h t to sound on stage, I decided t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y v i v i d splashes o f co l o u r were t o appear on stage w i t h each scene change, the f i n a l change t a k i n g place at the opening o f scene f o u r when the pro-j e c t i o n s o f g a l a x i e s fade from the background and reappear as an ab s t r a c t colour p a t t e r n on the f l o o r o f the stage where the Woman i s standing. These continuous a p p l i c a t i o n s of stronger colours on -stage symbolize the r e a c t i o n t o the co n s t a n t l y deeper probing o f the Woman's subconscious mind. To accomplish t h i s , I a p p l i e d a s i m p l i -f i e d v e r s i o n o f the Rosenthal method o f l i g h t i n g , o r what i s other-wise known as the "jewel theory," s p e c i f i c a l l y i n scene f o u r , the longest scene o f the monodrama. The "jewel theory" i s simply the i l l u m i n a t i o n o f the acgor from every p o s s i b l e angle. (See diagram below.) I used two b a s i c c o l o u r patterns to symbolize the Woman's 37 tender reflective moments during scene four, and I used the combination of the following gels: light amber (#2), and double pale gold (#52-52), steel blue (#17), medium amber (#4), and golden amber (#34). To symbolize her fear, anxiety, and later hysteria, I chose the com-bination: light blue (#18), steel blue (#17), steel tint (#67), magenta (#13), and white light (0). The patterns which are created on the stage floor are indicated in the diagrams below. A l l combinations used in the previous three scenes are simplified versions of these two gel combinations with the addition of a tur-quoise gel (#62) which, in combination with amber gels, produces a green t i n t . The use of this turquoise gel helps to create the eerie atmosphere of a foreboding evergreen forest. The expressionist character of the monodrama lends i t s e l f to the creation of many special effects. Most important in this production are the silhouettes, created by hanging a transparency made of loosely woven muslin cloth closely behind the scrims. When this transparency is illuminated from directly behind, the actor standing directly in front of the transparency w i l l appear as a silhouette to the audience. Instead of having the actress leave the stage after each scene, I have directed that she retreat behind the scrim, allowing this silhouette effect to symbolize the passage 38 of time between each scene. The "shadow" effects as well as what I term the "staring eyes" effect are important. Both take place between measures 94-114 of the score. The shadow effect is created by placing appropriate gobos (small, thin plates of metal, most commonly aluminum, out of which different patterns or designs can be excised) in the pattern 223 lighting instruments in the second FOH. When this effect is generated correctly, allowing the shadows slowly to creep upstage, i t may be most striking from the audience point of view. The "staring eyes" effect is created by hanging pairs of Christmas tree lights (yellow) behind the scrims. To the audience these flashing lights symbolize the piercing eyes of the unseen beasts the Woman imagines on page 14 in the universal Edition score of ERWARTUNG. A successful special effect is the "dawn" lighting which is used in the last pages of ERWARTUNG. It is produced by using six-foot striplights equipped with red gels situated behind a ground row in front of the cyclorama. Two 8-inch Lekos equipped with yellow gels locateM on the extreme right and left sides of the cyclorama add a great streak of yellow just above the red haze. The rest of the cyclorama appears black. This is caused by the black Hansen cloth scrim hanging directly downstage of the two scenic projectors. The "star" effect used in scene four is produced by pattern 123 lighting instruments equipped with perforated aluminum templets, (Gestetner plates work very well.) The lighting instruments, when focused on the cyclorama, create tiny bright spots which are seen 39 downstage of the black Hansen cloth scrim. One of the oldest and s t i l l most effective special effects is the use of the follow spot to serve as a special focus on the actor as she enters and exits the stage. In this production, the follow spot is located on the bridge of the theatre and is used to illuminate the Woman's face as she f i r s t enters area six in scene one and fi n a l l y leaves area six at the end of scene four. The lighting in this production, then, is a l l symbolic in nature and serves to enhance both the poetic and musical content of the score. The stage lighting represents an important part of my understanding of the depth and scope of the work. The costume design and particularly i t s colour also have an effect on the stage lighting. In this case, the costume design (Appendix VI) i s a combination of two popular 1952 dress patterns. The fabric chosen for the dress i s a Dundune hemp made of one hundred per cent polyester. I purposely chose beige as the colour for the fabric because of the f l e x i b i l i t y i t allows to the stage lighting. 40 CHAPTER SIX PUBLICITY P u b l i c i t y i s an e s s e n t i a l part o f any p u b l i c p r o d u c t i o n . Two b a s i c media used t o p u b l i c i z e upcoming events i n g a i n i n g p u b l i c exposure are, o f course, r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n . These media, p a r t i c u l a r l y the t e l e v i s i o n broadcasting system, are very c o s t l y and ge n e r a l l y too expensive f o r low-budget productions. Therefore, the p u b l i c i t y p o s t e r remains the most economical means f o r a production t o gain needed p u b l i c exposure. The more o r i g i n a l and eye-catching the p o s t e r the greater the chance people w i l l read i t and, i n t u r n , attend the p r o d u c t i o n . In designing a p o s t e r f o r ERWARTUNG, my f i r s t o b j e c t i v e was to determine which were the most important elements i n the mono-drama and to inc o r p o r a t e them, s y m b o l i c a l l y , i n t o the p o s t e r . I chose three symbols t o appear i n the p o s t e r : the f o r e s t , a s k u l l , and a broken, red rose. The Woman's changes o f l o c a t i o n i n the f o r e s t i n the four scenes o f ERWARTUNG symbolize her continuously changing s t a t e o f mind. Throughout the monodrama, the Woman f a l l s deeper and deeper i n t o a demented s t a t e , c o n s i s t i n g o f a multitude o f tempor a r i l y obscured thoughts, impressions, and images. The s k u l l represents not only the death o f her l o v e r , but the death o f her productive mind. The broken, red rose represents the "murder o f pas s i o n . " As I s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n Chapter Hour, I b e l i e v e the 4 2 43 Woman, drawn by her own dementia, revisits the scene of the murder she herself committed. My second objective was to design an "expressionistic" poster u t i l i z i n g the three symbols, the forest, the skull, and the rose. To accomplish this, I chose to use photography. With the permission of the University of British Columbia Faculty of Dentistry, I was allowed to photograph a skull. I used a 32 ASA (American Standards Association) Kodak film which enabled me to enlarge the print without producing unpleasant grain. The forest scene was taken on the University of British Columbia endowment lands using 400 ASA Kodak film. The 400 ASA Kodak film creates an opposite effect to the 32 ASA film by causing the coarseness of the granular structure to become visible when enlarging the picture. I chose to develop these two films on a matt surface, high contrast paper, specifically 8x10 Kodak RC2 (resin-coated) paper. I chose this paper purposely to increase the contrast of the print to the point where half-tones disappear, emphasizing only the essential pattern of the picture. In the development of the background of the poster, the forest scene, I used a process called "solarization." Solarization is the partial reversing of the image on print or film. This special effect is produced by the action of light on the partially developed material. Prints solarized during the developmental process appear almost completely reversed. That is to say, the print appears to have black highlights and white shadows. The best results are achieved by using rather high-contrast subjects such as those I have used. 44 The print of the skull and of the red rose were later applied with masking tape on to the forest scene. The lettering, done with Letraset, was the fina l step in producing the poster. The poster was once again photographed and appears on the following page. An additional poster done in the same manner is also included. These posters can, of course, be reproduced in any desired size. The additional poster found on page 47 was designed by my dear friend and art i s t Mrs. Mary Ann Quiring. The original was done in water colours, specifically, Symphonic 30-17 B r i l l i a n t Water Colours for Artists (made in U.S.A.). The black background was produced by using a free flowing black ink called Osmirodid. The final poster was sprayed by a Grumbacher product called Tussilm, which simply protects the water colours from smudging should i t be subject to moisture. One can easily appreciate that this poster too is hightly symbolic, as indicated by the artist's preoccupation with the state of the Woman's inner consciousness. In summary, Schoenberg's ERWARTUNG opus 17 is an expressionist music drama. Each aspect of this work as discussed in this paper forms an integral part of an understanding of the opera as a whole. The reader, be he an observer or participant in a future production of ERWARTUNG, w i l l hopefully have gained a fu l l e r appreciation of this most intriguing work. 45 46 47 E R W A R T U N Q • B Y A . SCHOLNblRG 48 BIBLIOGRAPHY Apel , W i l l i . Harvard D i c t i o n a r y o f Music. Second e d i t i o n , Cambridge: The Belknap P r e s s , 1969. Armitage, Merle. Schoenberg. New York: Books f o r L i b r a r i e s P r e ss, 1971. Bellman, W i l l a r d . L i g h t i n g the Stage A r t and P r a c t i c e . Second e d i t i o n , New York: Chandler P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1967. C r a f t , Robert, r e c o r d notes f o r "The Music o f Arnold Schoenberg," V o l . 1. Columbia Records, 1963. Crawford, John. The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Text and Music i n the  Vocal Works of Arnold Schoenberg. d i s s e r t a t i o n , Cambridge: The Belknap Press, 1963. Dalstrom, C.L. Schoenberg's Dramatic Expressionism. New York: AnnArbor, 1930. F i e l d , Frank. The Last Days Of Mankind: K a r l Kraus and  His Vienna. New York: MacMillan, 1967. Furness, R.S. Expressionism. London: Methuen and Company Li m i t e d , 1973. Goldwater, Robert. A r t i s t s on A r t . New York: Pantheon Books L i m i t e d , 1945. Grout, Donald. A Short H i s t o r y o f Opera. Second e d i t i o n , New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1965. Jung, C a r l . The C o l l e c t e d Works of C.G. Jung. V o l s . 5 § 18, Second e d i t i o n , London: Routledge § Kegen P a u l , Ltd 1., 1967. L e i b o w i t z , Rene. Schoenberg arid His School. New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1949. MacDonald, Malcolm. Schoenberg. London: J.M. Dent § Sons L t d . , 1976. M a c h l i s , Joseph. The Enjoyment o f Music. New York: W.W. Norton § Company Inc., 1963. Payne, Anthony. Schoenberg. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; E l y House, 1968. 49 P e r l e , George. S e r i a l Composition and A t o n a l i t y . Fourth e d i t i o n , Los Angeles: U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1977. P i l l i n , B o r i s . Some Aspects of Counterpoint i n S e l e c t e d  Works of Arnold Schoenberg. Los Angeles: Western I n t e r n a t i o n a l Music, Inc., 1971. Reich, W i l l i . Schoenberg, A C r i t i c a l Biography. New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. R i c h i e , J.M. German E x p r e s s i o n i s t Drama. Boston: Twayne P u b l i s h e r s , 1976. Rosen, Charles. Arnold Schoenberg. New York: The V i k i n g P r ess, 1975. Rosenfeld, P a u l . Musical P o r t r a i t s . London: Kegan P a u l , Trench, Trubner $ Company, L t d . , 1922. Rosenthal, Jean. The Magic o f L i g h t . New York: Theatre A r t Books, 1972. Rufer, J o s e f . Aspekte der Neuen Musik. K a s s e l : B e r n e r e i t e r -V e r l a g K a s s e l , 1968. !-•-- . The Works of Arnold Schoenberg. London: Faber § Faber, 1962. R u s s e l l , Douglas. Stage Costume Design: Theory Technique  and S t y l e . New York: Appleton Century C r o f t s , 1973. Samuel, Richard. Expressionism i n German L i f e , L i t e r a t u r e , and the Theatre (1910-1924). Cambridge: W. H e f f e r $ Sons L t d . , 1939. Schoenberg, Arnold. S t y l e and Idea. E d i t e d by Leonard S t e i n , London: Faber § Faber, 1975. S p i l l m a n , Ronald. Darkroom Techniques. England: Fountain P r e s s , 1974. S t e i n , Erwin. Orpheus i n New Guises. London: C. T i n l i n g and Company L t d . , 1953. S o k e l , Walter. An Anthology o f German E x p r e s s i o n i s t Drama. New York: Doubleday, 1963. Stuckenschmidt, H.H. Arnold Schoenberg. Hassocks, Sussex: The D i t c h l i n g P r ess, 1959. 50 Tansey, Richard. Art Through the Ages. Sixth edition, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1975. Vergo, Peter. The Blue Rider. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1977. Webern, Anton. Schoenberg's Musik. Munich, 1912. 51 P e r i o d i c a l s Herbert Buchanan, "A Key to Schoenberg's ERWARTUNG, Opus 17", Journa l of the American M i i s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , XX (1967), 434-449. Alan Lessem, "Schonberg and the C r i s i s o f Expressionism", Music and L e t t e r s , LV (1974)-, 429-436. H.H. Stuckenschmidt, "Kandinsky und Schonberg", Melos, XXXI (1964), 209-211. K a r l Worner, "Arnold Schoenberg and the Theatre", Musical  Q u a r t e r l y , XLVIII (1962), 444-460. 52 DO NOT COPY LEAVES 52-98; PREVIOUSLY COPY-RIGHTED MATERIAL A . S C H O E N B E R G E R W A R T U N G ( M o n o d r a m ) op. 1? Dichtung von M A R I E P A P P E N H E I M K l a v i e r a u s z u g (E. Steuermann) LTD U N I V E R S A L E D I T I O N 5 3 Besetzung des Orchesters 1 kleine Flote 3 groBe FlOten (3. auch 2. kleine) 3 Oboen 1 Englisch Horn (auch 4. Oboe) 1 D-K!arinette 1 Klarinette in B 2 Klarinetten in A 1 Ba6-Klarinette,in B 3 Fagotte • 1 Kontrafagott Pauken, Becken, groBe Trommel, kleine Trommel, Tamtam, Ratschen, Triangel, Glockenspiel, Xylophon. 4 HOrner in F 3 Trompeten in B 4 Posaunen 1 BaB-Tuba 1 Harfe 1 Celesta I. Geige (wenigstens 16) II. Geige (wenigstens 14) Bratschen (10—12) Violoncell (10—12) Kontrabasse (8—10) U . E . 5 3 6 2 Auffiihrungsrecht vorbehalten. Droiit d'execution reserves. E R W A R T U N G (Monodram) Dichtung von Marie Pappenheim Arnold Schoenberg Op. 17 I. Szene A m R a n d e e i n e s W a l d e s . M o n d h e l l e S t r a f i e n u n d F e l d e r ; d e r W a l d h o c h u n d d u n k e ' l . N u r d i e e r s t e n S t a m m e u n d d e r A n f a n g d e s b r e i t e n W e g e s n o c h h e l l . E i n e F r a u k o m m t ; z a r t . w e i f i g e k l e i d e t ; t e i l w e i s e e n t b l ' a t -t e r t e r o t e R o s e n a m K l e i d . S c h m u c k . 1 + is M t «x#n.n<j • M o e ^ i f i r l«jW-4 -Hx * iW« «* **y °f * * * * * T 0 " ^ ft. vena* -H* &»*«.• Gesang mafiige J us) ^ h«*tgt,'l'Y **» •** '« »f — u Klavier F r a u (zogernd) Hler_ hin-ein?... 1 3 1 Man sleht den Weg nloht. O u c a h o o t - t e a ••*>«. <•*». j • 1 'if; I f I f Hi schim-mern... rf O b . sehr zart Wie sll too s i bern die Stam me wle Blr - ken!... % _= 1 1 I pppsehr leicht PP H" bedentet Haoptstimme, N* Nebenstimme. Die Gesangsstimme ist (we tin nichts gegenteiliges angegeben ist) immer HAxrptstimme. C o p y - r i ^ t 1 9 2 2 b y U n i v e r s a l E d i t i o n U n i v e r s a l E d i t i o n N r . 5 3 6 2 . R e n e w e d C o p y r i g h t 1 9 5 0 b y E d u a r d S t e u e r m a n n © T R W " * - " * ™ * ' |CftT«S"}-'Ne ttAW)eR.. ( v e r t i e f t z u B o d e n s c n a u e n d ) poco rail. ± if oh_ un - ser Gar - ten. H r . , _ V c l . Die Blu - men fur ihn sind si - cher ver-fliefiend "CLtt 2. s*f* b . I . welkt. F l . H~ H P I 'J: Uppity If ify P I ^ f l l If f ^ J - J Id n4 j n4 j J J j : m PPl rascher J = 76 ( i n p l b t z l i c h e r A n g s t ) ( h u r c h t i n d e n W a l d , b e k l o m r a e n ) Iuh furch te mich... was fiirschwe-re Luft herausschlagt.. a. l^ikieu .. vjkaA- Saltan, air Ii OuA twe. .. H" H r f . i i i F g # . P o s . m . D . \ V #71 B K b . B B S — 7 ' 1st v H^+ttxHs.loototout-.s/" $ 7 V ^ ^ rit molto rit. ( r i n g t d i e H a n d e , s i e h t z u r i i c k ) > i* ?r \ nji ^ ^ ^ ^ ft Wie ein Sturm grau - en-voll ru - hig und 4eer... i t t a * j L tare • • U . E . 5 3 6 2 . A-berhierists we-niff-stenshell.. tier Mond war fru "her KO hell £]viel langsamer (J = so) P ( s i e h t h i n a u f ) Oua* r clou* .IrtteKjcci^dwoH^ ( k a u e r t n i ^ d e r . l a u s c h t , s i e h t i r g- d  ii-Fli r ll... ft** heft it i* a U*Ue- -bfi^A-... »WQGI\— w u torlier So "bri^ UA-. • molto rit sehr rasch ( a u f f a h r e n d ) (rt**l*. a / -me-runff... _ bei dir. der Mond_ 1st in der Dam ng  •tie. MJ»or\- i<> i«. "*^«- -Wi lujrt v 3F * A ^ 7 K b . U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 57 6 h e f t i g ( J . 9 6 ) J— -. 5 S w i e d e r l a n g s a m e r — ab(«pt Mrtn U.S. ftWr\-to Hj. bist du willst ihn nicht su feig H" T r p . A chen?... 11 So still) doch hiur * 7 fc-l^b-fP 1 A A F l V c l . K b . K b A c l . a m S l e g J S l r i t - . - - - - . . - l a n g s a m ^ ^ { w e n d e t s i c h g f - g ^ n d e n W a l d ) abrupt 4urm t>. S . U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 59 g U . S z e n e CT i e f s t e s D u n k e l , b r e i t e r W e g , h o h e . , d i c h t e B i i u m e . S i e t a s t e t v o r w a r t s ) | wieder etwas langsainer 153 wieder viel rascher , , , . _, x ° ( b u c k t s i c h , e r e i f t rait d e n H a n d e n , a u f s c h r e i e n d ) , j n o c h h i n t e r d e r S z e n e ; i . . . i , K _ . U.S. ofOwCdlf ) 5lou3l v wa lk <Ut> **** ow**. J«J.»itK K * ~ A « , i c / e * ~ u D.V«cWot Ist dasnochder Weg?.. Hier ist es e Xs -4«.t sktt+ke uiaij?-- H«fe'(t is pirn* - lj > esoress. Was? laii los!... 1 K F 3 •bubble. •*« control (*uut% ( z i t t e r n d auf> v e r s u c h t i h r e H a n d z u b e t r a c h t e n ) / P o s . ( w i l d , g r e i f t s i c h i n s G e s i c h t ) a6 Ein - ge-klemmt?.. Nein ist was ge -'kro - chen... Und hier / T s c h l i g t m i t d e n H a n d e n u r n s i c h ) ' r U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 60 45 C ^ e h t w e i t e r , n u t v o r y e s t r e c k t e n A r m e n ) wieder ruhig  J = so fliefiende J (sehr ruhig) Es war a ft* so still Sc. J[i "hin-ter den Mau-ern des Gar tens.. Kei-ne Sensen mehE.kein Ru-nfc loom &yWi><*^t<y(k4{,.. no CiJ-U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 61 10 Hq| rit. J = 56 langsamer J 1 pj) subilo_ 6 0 rit. etwas drangend J= 69 ( t r a u r i g ) .  3 langsamer J = 54 , „ , , , , ( s t e h e n b l e i b e n d ) f a r - b e n — Co - loufS-k; A - b e r d u - T r p . in. D. b i s t n i c h t g e - k o m - m e n . . . . nc -ver. d.dL e » * f t - — W e r w e i n t WI.O er.C* n klagend &£\ ' 1P H r . ( n i f e n d j s e h r l e i s e , a n g s U i c h ) K b . ( w i e d e r etwas langsamer l a u s c h e n d j ( h o r c h t ( w a r t e t ) ( l a u t e r ) ( . s i i ^ n a r u - a < 1 ( X ; ^ a - b e r d a s w a r d o e h . . da?.. M l . - | — ^ 1 1 s t h i e r " j e - m u n d ? 1 s t h i e r j e - m a n d ? N i c h t s . . P Pos. (ic?Ar rasch) PPP^j = 5 TO U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 1 6 2 75 rascher werdend von J= 60 bis J= so CT'GSC Jetzt rauscht es o - ben- « s s n h i > i i r t . _^ _ v o n A s t . i / n n ( v o l ] E n t s e t z e n s e i t w a r t s It rustl '3 e  c liig _ it qsU J.ki •Stip   "zu Ast.. Es f l i i c h t e n d ) ( S c h r e i e i n e s N a c h t v o g e l s ) a K.WJM- * • » » « & » U * ( t o b e n d f J - 8 4 U . E . 5 3 6 2 . J) = 8 4 etwas drangend U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 65 1 4 A iaM-^u^u^iut, v ie l rascher J = 7 6 ( L e i c h t e r W i n d s t o B (Sie sieht w i e d e r hinj A - bend 1st es so lang . 3 - ber derSchat-ten krlecht doch!.. 1 nicht rascher, aber heftiger im Ausdruck (Laut des Schauderns) quel - lend.. wte an Stie - len **^X^— (Jii^ -sf" S|'lA '^ Wie es glotzt... Hsu3 i t . Srt».(SS • • • Kein No Tier,_ lie - ber Gott, keln Tier... -ok^i deaf—i <Sat*, , w t*ast. U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 66 • p ° c o r i t J = 8 4 . ich ha - be sol - che Angst.. Lieb - ster, mein Lieb - ster, hilf Siir . _ I ka*. - - 4ta.r •• LDV - tt t t - \ov - e<JU , help «« 1 5 4^* PPP '3i 3 - - 5 ppstacc. IT Ve rwan d I u n g <"•• S J " ' ' * M i \ f »r p i r f r u s ^ 'PP staec. immer stacc. I —*—•—v# " •—» etwas beschleunigend etwas verlangsamend, aber doch f l ieBend J = 72 U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 6 7 16 I V S z e n e ( M o n d b e s c h i e n e n e , b r e i t e S t r a f i e , r e c h t s a u s d e m W a l d e k o m m e n d . W i e s e n u n d F e l d e r ( g e l b e u n d g r i i n e S t r e i f e n a b w e c h s e l n d j . E t w a s n a c h l i n k s v e r l i e r t s i c h d i e S t r a f i e w i e d e r i m D u n k e l h o h e r B a u m g r u p p e n . E r s t g " a n z l i n k s s i e h t m a n d i e S t r a f i e f r e i l i e g e n . D o r t m i i n d e t a u c h e i n W e g , d e r v o n e i n e m H a u s e h e r u n t e r f u h r t . I n d i e s e m a l l e F e n s t e r m i t d u n k l e n L a d e n g e s c h l o s s e n . E i n B a l k o n a u s w e i f i e m S t e i n . D i e F r a u k o m m t l a n g s a m , e r s c h o p f t . D a s G e w a n d i s t z e r i s s e n , d i e H a a r e v e r w i r r t . B l u t i g e R i s s e a n G e s i c h t u n d H a n d e n . ) T F v e p a t K r \ o u > l o u t s + o a h o u s e -125 i ( u t n s c h a u e n d ) ruhig, aber flieBend J = 6 9 Istauchnicht da... Auf der gan-zen,lan-gen Stra - Be nithtsLe-ben-di - ges... und kein . Laut... C i g . B r . F l . Die wei tenblassenFel-der iind oh-ne A - tern, wie er-stor-ben., kein Halm po-W ~ CittoLi- ert i r taH.- , as. '<Q dOaHL. .no Stock-noch etwas langsamer J = 50 look I'K dutefto*. of roooi ( s i e h t d i e S t r a f i e e n t l a n e r ) i — - ^ _ VVV • 3. riihH sich „ _ „ , F l . Noch im - mer die F l a g . tadt.. und die-ser fah a l -le PP ¥ H 5 1 185 PPP kei-neWbl- ke, nicht der Flii-gel-schat-ten ei -tiesNacht - vo-gels am Him - mel. V. E . 5 3 6 2 . 6 8 ( S i e b l e i b t s e h w a n k e n d s t e h e n ) rascher J.ss Ij^Sie h a t s i c h b i s i n d i e N a h e d e r B a u m g r u p p e n ( l i n k s ) g t s c h l e p p t , u n t e r d e n e n e s v o i l -<* *T€«S U « l « wKviK i t ta <<««>( a u k ril. s t a n d i g d u n k e l i s t ) J = 5 4 Viel ruhiger t 4Ap r ( m i i d e , u n e n t r i c h l o s s r n ; s c h n s i i c h t i ^ ) Ei-neBank.. ichmuB aus-i-uhn.. A-ber so wieder rascher J r eo ( S i e k o m m t u n t e r d i e B a t o n s , s t i i t l t rait d e m F u t f a n e t w a s ) nuui ran u e m r u u an etwa.i>v * ( M i t d e m FU£J t a s t e n d , Nein, KA das ist nicht derSchattentier Ban! F r . ion ihjvmcht ge das ist ic t rS tt  tierBank! Gg- j lung hub h nlu -sehn. •&<• c ION* ^ V c l . — i l l 7 r i P i B . K 1 . w R | mm U . E . 5 3 6 2 . -6-9-e r s c h r o c k e n ) t*jNfit ©v^y, l<«tt^. ( B e u g t s i c h n i e d e r , h u r c h t ) ( S i e t a s t e t h i n u n t e r ) 8 t^ o oat e»( 4k« aKoelouas ,vV>'-H^ Maoihli^t-( S i e t r i t t a u s d e m S c h a t t e n i n s M o n d l i c h t ) seJir aufgeregt, aber pp ( V e r s u c h t m i t entaeLz-Esglanzt rot... Ach, mei-ne Han-de sindwund ge-ris-sen... Nein, es istnochnaii, es ist von do K r . rot.  D- looks red.. , iil i: M i ,^ - a/a. b l o o d y aAd. Soft • d rt. it is still H fe -ftmHOifc. . 1 0 4 l i c h e r Anstrengung d e n G e g e n s t a n d h e r v o f z u z e r r e n ) •V'^i'oa urntoat ~h> tscaftg h o o V c o n s t a r t s i u» *Cd»ux».^* (V+o p.*. s«chok Ich kann nicht Kb.'v (Biickt sich^mjt farchtbarem Schrei) I\A« -V> W w (05. tei-ii' (Sit sinkt nieder) 70 langsam(»!a/%: J= 60) p. ( E r h e b t s i c h h a l b , a o d a B i h x G e s i c h t d e n B a u m e n z u g e w e n d e t i s t . V e r w i r r t ) (sieht unverwandt hin) JUL 5 das istderschreckU-che Kopf... das Ge-spensl... wenn es nur end-Uch verschwande... wie das Im M l Wuld... Used* Etn Baumschatten. .ein la-cher-li-cherZweig... a. ri-oiic-a-lo*s Weh...C*L Der Mond Ist tuk-kisch... U . E 5 3 6 2 . 71 20 poco rit. etwas langsamer ( m i t a u s g e s t r e c k t e n F i n g e r n h i n w e i s e n d , f l i i s t e r n d ) . weil er blut-leer ist... malt er ro - tesBlut... A-ber eswirtlgleichzerflie - £en... Nioht hin-sehn...Nichtdrauf ach"tun... Es zer-geht si-cher... DoA-t look iW.. Do »>ot- *A>kd it-.- «# Mf- j (Flag.g/u*., PP l r . i ffliss. ( S i e w e n d e t s i c h m i t g e z w u n g e n e r . . U n b e w e g l i c h k e i t ) ( F a s t i a u c h z e n d ) „ , R u h e a b , g e g e n d i e S t r a f i e z n ) . „ _ . » _ - + • [ » ! ( » M t W ) s ; W « * . w i t i X . ^ \ » u ( S c h w e ( S i e w e n d e t s i c h j a h u r n , a b e r n i c h t v o l l s t a n d i g ) [ g e n , F r . Ichwill fort... ichmuCihn fin-den... Esmufischonspalsein.M» , Es ist nichtmelir t^ to JC-Swujoe-ol. K.V... x-^ s oA«Wvi \ a * s . . - % lo««/ wie das imWald.. r i t . . langsam ' J». 112 _ ( S i e h a t s i c h w e i t e r g e w e n d e t , e r b l i c k t p l o t z l i c h w i e d e r d e n G e g e n s t a n d ) ^•3 F r . da... Ich wufi - te.. Es ist noch X*. - * U. E. 5362. 7 2 Xk H*. «<a*v. o f c o l l a r s * S ^ i - J * e / e w . <$,c>fa-( i h r O b e r k o r p e r f a l l t n a c h v o r n , s i e s c h e i n t z u s a m m e n z u s i n k e n , 21 a b « r s i e k n e c h t m i t g - e s e n k t e m H a u p t b i s h i n , t a s t e t ^ ( S i e b e u g l s i c h g a n z z u r S e i t e , a l s w o l l t e s i e i h m i n s G e s i c h t s e h e n ) 7,3 pppi K«.^ «rf,b«1w<jro»»p(€hiY»i'>«*>etwas zuriickhaltend J = 100 ( E n t s e t z t , b e u g t s i c h g a n z ) ( a t e m l o s ) -t>i4«Hil«5S PP U E . 5 3 6 2 . 74 J - 84 sofort im Tempo (m'dpige J ) z u m H a u s e h i a a u f j 195 23 (schaut look back Um Got - tes - wil-Tlen ra8ch!... hort mich denn no OAC nie-mand ?... hedr me.?... etwas langsaraer ^u.***,* ^  ^ •*«• - /^""^  K*'""1 (onn verzweifelt um sicE) Izuruck unter die B a u m e ; ' ~ ; + 205 Pi rit.. -molto_riL. = 6 6 f l iefiend J = so (zartlich, e indr ingl ich) F r . h K' nJn-ser Zimnler i; tot sein... ich lie be dead... X. Ii - be dic so... you. SO IUIUX--' ra ist halb -O u r civA^be^ +iov0*«^ i E . H . ppzart J T j U E . 5 3 6 2 . 75 24 langsamer J = 50 rit. . . . . X ^ J * Y *p H" hell... Al - les war - let.. — ' J n J J ) ^ p nJ> 1 Die Blu - men duf-ten "so ¥ J . . stark... ™ i Was soil ich tun , dafi er auf-wacl Was soil ich nur tun ' ht?... "L langsamer J = 58 ( S i e g r e i f t i n s D u n k e l h i n e i n , , f a f l t s e i n e H a n d ) ( S i e z i e h t d i e H a n d a n s i c h , k u f i t s i e ; s c h i i c h t e r n , s c h m e i c h e l n d ) ( z u s a m m e n z u c k e n d , f r a g e n d ) 76 Oje+ofroue)! r,,i -p«rh Kan4 o « lap J = 9 2 lebhaft (nicht zu rasche J ) ( a u s b r e c h e n d j ^ , d teg poco rit maBig J = so (wesentlich langsamer) \jl k J p H f . "Ipf• Hi iff- in iiff- a ( f ^ - f — — ^ V — : M— :  *^ mir? DieSon - negliiht a j/1 - »/ • W 'IB . uf uns... dei-ne ] - " y—r^yj—T* ian - de lie-g — : ! Y.— jnauf mir... dei - ne Fr. Pas. B.Tb. 26 breit J [2301 niolto r i t . . ^ C ^ , a ? b o r f ? r°**~) S i e h m i c h d o c h a n , L i e b s t e r . • • ' « r ' l e h l i e - g e ' n e - b e n d i r S o s i e h So look-1 f-1 t ' ' ' ounkinaUi . l o o k a-V- h langsam ° ( s i e h t i h n a n , e r w a c h e n d ) J1- 8 0 ( s e h r t r a u r i g j m i c h d o c h a n Kl.i m A h , Gg. am Steg w i e S t a r r . . . w i e l u r c h - t e r - l i c h d e i - n e A n - g e n ' s i n d . . . hoo dncA - ^ ul-l^ eoW- a/«- y o u ' eyts-K l . Simp I I 5 pp Pos. m. U. ' sehr langsam J . 5 0 J = 6 0 etwas weniger langsam_ P w a r s t F r . •! w -d r e i T a - g e  d u n i c h t b e i m i r . . •*W ^ 5 H0" W > ( c . nrt W u w t t . M . - iSrj^-J- ' A - b e r h e u - t e . . 3A- ^ - «**•)••• i *kflr,.Ki, s o a h . s i - N c h e r . . Su . e e . I j - • wieder langsamer (J = J) % -J. = 40 , , i - f = , r i t . 27 schau - te undwar. - tePfe. Fr. der A-bend war so voll Frie - "den... Ich  tfTe . U-bef die Gar - ten-mail - er dir ent-ge Over ^ * r ^ d e j ^ ^ X w«M a +P w t A gen.. so nie - drig ist sie.. U . E . 5 3 6 2 . fliefiender J = so do\ _ np fitim _ mp «n nflh ;in "mpi.npm Ohr E - ben noch im Wald..._ E-veft«ou i N +1^  -ft, r«t dei - e Stim - e so a  a  " ei-ne  O r, - 1m -WKCI — So oloM. "to ~ j « " * K f r ' - a l * Hauch auf mei-ner Wan - ge... dei - ne Hand auf hiei - nein U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 8 0 langsamer J = 63 nocn un-ter me noch langsamer J = 60 29 Mund bog sich doch e- ben li i-nen KUs TO ait* pp WJT^ £ lT> V i 1 l J 1 * C ^'f—' Cel.PPP 1 < j £ 'J mpespr" <j ^ J ^ J ^ T » • — ^ 3 3 • fa ftp lip ' p - . in Blut tropft noch jetzt mit lei -"sum -' e Schlag i i noch Dein BluL Vour "blood* ist le - ben i+ Ml « - litft. dig.. ( S i e b e u g t s i c h t i e f i i b e r i h n ) Pespr. U . E . 5 3 6 2 . I 3 0 noch langsamer J 4 0 r i c h t e t M c h h a l b a u f ) Q i e b k o s e n d ) ^ ( I n d e r iir- «oh\jLrinHfil .ln.u'pnn ich Hiph «n Jwnh Fr. Al-lesLicht kam ja ausdei-nen Au - gen... mirschwi del-te,wen  ichdich an-sah... Nun rtm€»b*/ la*fi*ti>f.St"**]&*dly |270| E r i n n e r u n g l i i c h e l n d , g e h e i m n i i i v o r i , z i i r t l i c h ) klSS him kiili Ich mich an dir zu To U . K . 5 3 6 2 . 82 ininier noch langsam J = 54 (Sie sieht ihn unverwandt an.' Nach einer Pause pliitzlich, verwundert) 31 pp espr. ~<r>-l> *F in: selt - sam i^st dein Au - ge. are yew u-n. n Cel. Wo - hin 275 Etwas bewegter J-. J = 60 vioi««+(v (heftiger) sehaust ' du? Srt-up took areuxd dutcttrr. o-f Csieht sich um.. nach dem Balkon) U. E. 5362. 1-3— ( w i e d e r z u r i i c k . d i e H a n d a n d e r S t i r n ) 280 (Gesang noch immer ruhig, also etwas schleppendj ( i m m e r v e r t i e f t e r ) 7 plotzlich viel langsamer J1 ( a n g e s t r e n g t i n d e r E r i n n e r u n g s u c h e n d ) ; 8S wieder rascher J- = 60 ( i m m e r k l a r e r w e r d e n d ) 285 und plotzlichbezwangst du dich... Und drei Ta - ge warst du nichtbei mir... da»p you " ' ^ 1 , 4 • kei-ne Zeit... so oft hast du kei-neZeit ge-habt in die-sen letz-tenMo-na-ten steigernd ^ c & T * * wonutA>  l tz-ten - a-ten... a*a KB -H'fvMi... of-hir. — — MKL tiaw. KanL no •h'wt. 4ar m m HKatf tot- t u m r h — . . . U E. 5362. 84 B r . H r f . C e l . X y l . U E . 5 3 6 2 . .85 langsamer J .= 76 H B.Kl.Fg. etwas breiter J = 7 2 (bewegte J) at>r«p1- H e a d 4t*r« S - K . ( i n r a s e n d e r A n g s t ) ,86 (aufschreiend, wie sich anklammerad) Sc-Mcu*' . . 315 molto rit. -3 5 i Nein,. nein... no... ein - zig Ge -O n - "Ua • i A 3E langsamer J = so 4 ^ nochlangsamer J = 56 (zitternd) * schwankt... ich kann nicht Swcup ... X Catv - n o t se - hen.. Schau. r r ^ d 1 mich ooch — <x"t • > ^ # i r : —*•/ ' > M — — < Y—'—r 1 y p p p _ ^ ^ ^ P P P =— y J 1 — P P > u. Q rit-r*^ ™^^ ! k V verrimetta ~ mafiige a). (J = too) FY. '.I n a? pespr. took* i"o •/*.€. o f i < , < £ * < o < \ ' » f * * n « u < * H r .  r - i l 1 ^ F l -Hi U. E. 5362. 8 7 36 [325 ( r a s t p l o t z l i c h ) Sehr rasch J. = eo Dusiehst wie-der ^J^jj* Wo ist sie denn molto rit.. v wieder sehr lebhaft <J.=56 , Rasch J=J ( h o h n i s c h ) _ die wei-Ben Ar -* V d u sie rot WBU. V. E . 5 3 6 2 . 8 8 und ich war-U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 89 - te-te... ^ k s z 4ftfS S.L Wo ist sie hin - lau-fen als du im Blut lagst?... 4o OA you. Vis m -bloe^t,?.. Ich will sie an den Wei-Ben Ar-men her - - schlei-fen r , w f c * < * » y />/>5»E. H . -U. E. 5362. -9 0-i Sehr mafi ig lapu am* -p*** 39 (Schluchzt auf) * olto r i t . fliefiendeJU Adagio) J = ion I Rial I Oh! OKI H"Br. nicht ein not e-ve die •Kt S.Gg. ppsehr zaftespress. flJ It. Gna - - de, m < i g f f e z , -it Sir b btrt ster - - ben vzu dit , die 'i'rv J ^ • aiir - fen... your ar¥*s- . T if- w y ~= ==~^.—-r~~\ ppsehr zart » w = H PPP J = 92 , ^ ^ y r § (sinkt nieder, weinend) 360 •WcK s i ° u . o f h i « Quae. J = 104 etwas fliefiender ( in T r a u m e r e i v e r s i n k e n d ) m ich dich ge - habt . bab'... I k a \ l t , h a d ' - f o r • ' . 1 *f0u,-•• c IT. H . — " f f l r J3J 4 Al - len Din - gen fer - ne U. E. 5362. 91 40 (1 i k | . _ 365 rit. . VV = _ - _ -1 l A -1 I J 1, • 1 v -"\—1 r~ ^Mr* 4= leb - le icl I . . . al —vr - Ie n fr emd Icl ^  ^ i wuB - . \e nichts als ' ' " w H» B» w • R* r dich... die-ses gan-ze Jahr seit du zumer-stenMaimei-neHandnahmst... y o u . . . . ^ i s - k * » l e - <fOa*- , Since. -*kt € r s t +IIAC.- v/OU. - t o d t - m y Kaivd- J L . Hog. ^ — r r d 1 ^ " ^ ^ so warm.. zngenid TfiQl noch etwas langsamer J = 6 0 niefrii-her"lieb4e ich ie-man-aen so... 3* rit. F r . l  fru4i j Dein Lii - cheln und dein Re - den... ichhat-tedich so I * P 1 i l l -5—X sehr8langsame J. , * U m " ° (St i l le u n d Schluchzen) /W> PP U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 92 Softly t 3iic*i<&ly ( l e i s e , s i c h a u f r i c h t e n d ) 41 PPPP, '/J . I L J, -hast du sie ral g< Mein Lie - ber... mein ein H y loy - Of... ""^ or, ieb-Iin zi - ger Li T g... ge-kiiflt?... 1^  ^ - lov- /(a** you-fwo ofk*. khtid?-•• noch etwas langsamer fapforiMfy ( f l e h e n d j ^ - rit. , . W T f ^ t t J ^ J , ^ i ^ ^ f r fr •orSehn-sueht ver-ging... nast du sie sehr ge - iiebt? Sag nicr wah-rend ich vorSehn-sucht ver-ging... loK'ilg M>( b°4y &i.<y.eA wi'N. yen/m hast du Have you sie sehr ge - Iiebt? Sag nicht: ja... y«... Du lachelstschmerzlich 5 ~ F = N H > i ^ i - -\ielIeichthastduauchge-liUen..vielleichtriefdeinHerznachihr:. perkajJs youhajt Sn^fAaUo- fsrkof* your Kearf callft*-roj^ fKer . 3_ IB f motto esyr. noch etwas langsamer (J) = 6o) ( s t i l l e r , w a r m ) U E. 5362. 93 42 ruhige V ie r te l ( J . 60) - ber dein Mit - leid mach-te mich gliick you* Cowvrpa* - W r*Ms - me Nap te, war r im OlLick-lich... ich glaub Was f^rf*"vt+4. 1 6 C o « . i 3 ( S t i U e . ; D a m m e r u n g i m O s t e n , t i e f a m H i m m e ] W o U c e n , v o n s c h w a c h e m S c h e i n d u r c h l e u c h t e t , g e l b l i c h s c h i m m e r n d w i e K e r z e n i i c h t ) Soft-^ car Hj" T K i 6 #ce S.Gg. ( S i e s t e n t a u f ) 1 " • F l " VPf-F r . PPP J * 66 ruhig flieftende J (ruhig, fast freundlich I ohne Leidenschaft) Lieb O b . ster, H" Lieb - ster, der Mor gen kommt... Was soil ich "ul ^ H" —mp/to esp/T F l . U . K . 5 3 6 2 . 94 (J.J) rit. molto rit. Fr. du warst.. ^ D U J ? — ... und al - le Far - ben der Welt oil Hn Co - lourt o( •** world. seAr warm bra-chen aus dei - neu Au we*4 mutated. iV\ e^oi QPJSehr langsam (J = 42) J . J Fr. f * - neve. •boeK CUrciHtj ILS.C. B e n — sehr ruhig — " r f ft-Das Licht wird fiir al - le kom -T V * . \>oyt — k,-,U — co~t -&>/ a l l f 95 ! - breiter A 72 Mor-gen tiennt uiis...im E H ' 11-/. J££ merderMor- - gen-. So schwer. kiiCt du zum Ab-schied •HA OiKed w » - ">9i--- So So rShp^li) you. feegi4iWQzrt-iwj • etwas langsamer J = 46 I f f l f l i e f i e n d e r J . P# V : 1 Wie-derein e-wi-gerTag des War-tens... oh du \v - wachst janichtmehr... li+aywj *>f ^ z A> — ^x>>~efrcv^l x^^ | c4 UalVi'*^ ... oU. o^w. bho will no Fg.Bkl U.E. 5362. 97 ) 46 Sehr langsam J. = 36 (J1- ios Es istdunkel... deinKufi wie ein Flam - men - zei - chen In meinerNacht... 14- is d o / k - ... you., I M C f,l(e a -fwr> - e j ^ b f l&nj rn^k+...J9.\f!: S i I S Hrf. (ev. SV.a bassa) n Fr. nnH lnimh _ *<in "Wi^ ani_ mel-ne Lip - penbren - nen ..m~(. .—...fipit . f t < g . . . f t . . - . . M a i n t u d leu'c  - te .. dir~ " . ent-ge a*«t a/t- bcclcoft.r^ 7 7 'V Hp t f > f Ifjprlf ^ j r JLTfg.f U . E . 5 3 6 2 . 98 Sehr langsam (i mafiig) 47 F igen... to you.... SlouMf walk U.S. ($oc*. a ^ i e w t ) W a l d h e i m - E b e r l e . W i e n V I I . 99 KEY TO SYMBOLS USED IN STAGING DS Downstage US Upstage SL Stage l e f t SR Stage r i g h t USC Upstage centre 101 A P P E N D I X I I I 102 APPENDIX IV INSTRUMENT SCHEDULE Numaee CAroP NOTES / &rs tooo w. o £901 ip to rrw 4o6t> M o A i X l f ARe*. 1 WASH ECT l o c o W. tt. o * . AU- LEKOS £q>copp£o i«J>rH S*mTTeRS 3 t i SffcCiAl W26AA WASH t t 34 47 4 II «l > T s 11 M A . JH-AStt . . ... - - „ U ....... to " II ft o 5 o 7 [T l l 1* I t 4 5") 8 !• It Af?£A 3 WASH .H . « . 1 r, l« o 5 3 to It If AReA I WASK • 1 /7 5 4 i\ f l H •• SI 1' 11 n 11 n II « osR &:*ifA ••• '& i\ • 1 SPECIAL Afee&A W>SK i ' n S S I* II llo >• i i AfeA..3> WASH • ' 17 t o \ L 3 if FifZSr P'P^ '1 1' DSi_ Scfti rr> A££A u*SH AtfEA 5" WASH BTu 5bo . t 3 n 17 20 2/ ALU F6tSi*»Ei-S 4 i f It I I i i «. 7.5-A • 1 II A£efc U VJIVSH i i n 5.3 u U II • i ^ 7 it ' l 3 8 •\ •1 " 4 2C •( I I II i ' o 17 103 U9CATfo»J 0 £ U Din>rt\£fc IO a n Pi«Sr Pipe El£CTRicJ ii SR K J M . ,VREA A cowr4 u i s w r & T L SOOW.. •1 z o 2 8 2?. IX u II Age*, "7 WASH « ux. 3o H •I ii M II o 3i <4 i i ft II f e> it II r 3 53 .A. n 0 / t u >7 34 „ n ii n ii kz 3? 18 l | i i t I I o 3i» <1 • n 3 31 20 1' I 1 M o 38 X I h II ** II 5 1 n i z i Z l> 8K L E K O f l K l> i" L £ F T II SPeci^ L AREA A Sise UtMTifJi. II £ s » X ioc>ov>). II , i »i , n IB Az */o 4/ . <B <rZ i 2 II 3E£XVJO Pipe H /8 /8 /<f 14 3 II ii • i /8 1* f Ii II II &Z /t 5 II if US«? ScC,rv\ H /8 /5 I I / Z 8" L£KO II t," P££5n €L t." L£KO L£PT *1 8coH SrwS£ Rl<£.HT TStRo Pipe.. E L f o r r R i C -ll fvRfeAl S I D E t l eex iopo w. 51 sz t z is. 8 '3. <i>"'«=> WITH «f 3 II 1 O 9 6»VA )C WITH T 104 Hitne&l UJtATiOM Pu«PoS£ LAMP ecu t MOTES H 5 L (. L£KO k T H I R P P I P C II II AteAi 4 WASH S P E C I A L A#EA A B * C K a B T L S 0 0 1 4 . £ & F TSOui. it 3 n 13 8 (0 '! £A*tiwiTVl9 WiTH I O 7 H II Af3£A- ^ S>«: u & ^ T V / J f i M 18 8 tc It n &AA*<i tOfTH l| ? lo li II II It •Sfta^ A«eA A B*c* it • II 4 n \o •1 tl Ii II rVeK T S A C K Ufenroife I I n I Z .. -1 4." L£Ko II " tf- 1 &<VM& toiru 2-I i i II t l II cz 1 i 2. Feuf?nt PiPe i» If 6ri_ Seoio. it o o 1 1 l(= Pbss<8i-6 GAAIG . l - I O 3 II i« It !• o 1 H Ii I, It i , o 1 S t M H i i o 1 L, Ii 1 •1 " o 1 1 II If l l i t o 1 . . . . . . 8 ll l l t l it o 1 9 i< It II II o 1 to • i ll II » o 1 i 2- ll •i »• I S O A / C L . i50tO. <i z z I F Pto-vsiBt-a 3. Ii H II i f > z 4 I I <l it * U Z-i 6" L£K 0 H looovO. 1 1 I 1 0-t<l-5TVmA-5 T<6d. UOfTS '1 it '1 I f 105 LOCATToisf •Repose LAMP 6£u otnvigg NOTES Z H SMAU- P b u ^ x J S f t r T PAH* H C C O Urtr Steele. O C UweU. StPlrW fe5 106 APPENDIX V LIGHTING CUE SHEET CUE 1 Accompanist (or o r c h e s t r a ) § conductor's l i g h t s on 2 House out 3 Dimmers 5,6,14,15,19,57,66 i n . Follow spot on bridge focussed on a c t r e s s USC above area 6. As a c t r e s s enters area 6 dimmers 23,24, and 33 are slowly brought up. 4 Dimmer 66 out when a c t r e s s reaches middle of area 6. 5 Dimmers 21,22,26 i n . 6 Dimmer 26 out. Dimmer 27 i n . 7 Dimmer 27 out. Dimmers 8,13,26 i n . 8 Dimmers 8,21,22,23,24,26,33 out. Dimmers 20,45,46,54 i n . 43 9 Dimmers 13,20 out. Dimmers 49,50,56 i n . 46 10 Dimmers 49,50 out. Dimmers 51,55 i n . 71 11 Dimmer 51 out. Dimmer 4 9 i n . -76 12 Dimmer 55 out. Dimmers 50,52,53,60 i n . 81 13 Dimmers 45,46,49,50,52,53,54,56,60 slowly fade out. Dimmer 16 i n . 87 14 Dimmer 16 out. Dimmers 12,32,35,36,37, 39,40 i n . As a c t r e s s enters area 7 dimmers 35,36,40 slowly fade out. 94 15 Dimmers 61,62 i n , i n c r e a s i n g i n i n t e n s i t y to measure 114. 105 16 Dimmers 32,37,39 out. Dimmers 30,31,38 i n . 106 17 Dimmers 63,64,65 i n . MEASURE 1 15 22 32 35 107 MEASURE CUE 114 18 Dimmers 61,62,63,64,65,out. Dimmers 7,35,36,40 i n . As a c t r e s s a r r i v e s behind upstage r i g h t scrim, dimmers 12,30, 31,35,36,38,40 fade out. 122 19 Dimmers 5,6,7.out. Dimmers 1,12,17,18, 32,37,39„in. 20 As a c t r e s s a r r i v e s at s p e c i a l area A, dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 i n 146 21 Dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 out. Dimmers 11, 29,43,44,48,59 i n . 151 22 Dimmers 9,21,22,27 i n . 154 23 Dimmers 9,21,22,27 out. 169 24 Dimmers 9 , 21 , 22 , 25 , 27 s i n . 173 25 Dimmers 9 , 21 , 22 , 25 , 27 :out. 190 26 Dimmers 45,46,54 i n . 197 27 Dimmers 11,29,43,44,45,46,48,54,59 out. Dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 i n . 273 28 Dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 out. Dimmers 11,29^43,44,48,59 i n . 349 29 Dimmers 11,29,43,44,48,59 out. Dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 i n . 383 30 Dimmer 1 slowly fade out. Dimmers 2,3,4.in, 4003 31 Dimmers 24,34,43,44,66 i n . Dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 slowly fade out as a c t r e s s steps upstage of s p e c i a l area A. 32 As a c t r e s s steps upstage of area 6 dimmers 24,34,43,44 slowly fade out. 426 33 Blackout 34 House up to FULL 108 APPENDIX VI 

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