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Erwartung by Arnold Schoenberg : A new translation and proposed production Harder, Katherine Elizabeth 1979

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ERWARTUNG BY ARNOLD SCHOENBERG, A NEW TRANSLATION AND PROPOSED PRODUCTION  by  {CATHERINE ELIZABETH HARDER B.Mus., University o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR"~THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF MUSIC  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Music, University of B r i t i s h  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1979 ©  Katherine Elizabeth Harder, 1979,  Columbia)  In p r e s e n t i n g advanced  an the I  Library  this  degree shall  f u r t h e r agree  for  thesis  scholarly  in p a r t i a l  fuIfi"ment  o f the requirements f o r  at the U n i v e r s i t y  of British  Columbia,  make  it freely  that permission  purposes  this  written  thesis  for financial  of  University  Mus i c  of British  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  gain  A p r i l 25, 1979  Columbia  copying  of  and this  shall  that  copying  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my Department  is understood  permission.  Department The  It  f o r reference  for extensive  may be g r a n t e d  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  available  I agree  or  or publication  n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  ABSTRACT  Arnold Schoenberg's "monodrama i n one act," ERWARTUNG opus 17 (1909), was written during the composer's expressionist period (1908-1913).  compositional  ERWARTUNG (EXPECTATION) was Schoenberg's f i r s t  completed stage work; however, i t did not receive i t s stage premiere u n t i l 1924.  This monodrama i s an atonal work, a revolutionary s t y l e  of composition which Schoenberg created during the early twentieth century.  ERWARTUNG became the main generating  force which encour-  aged the composer's contemporaries to attempt to create new musical and dramatic compositional  styles.  In studying the importance of ERWARTUNG as an "expressionist music drama," i t was also necessary t o examine the expressionist movements i n art and l i t e r a t u r e .  These movements greatly influenced  Arnold Schoenberg's compositional  s t y l e , as can be seen i n the harmonic  and dramatic structure o f ERWARTUNG.  Their influence, s p e c i f i c a l l y  that of the expressionist l i t e r a r y movement, can also be seen i n the character study of the sole protagonist, "the Woman." Foremost i n this project was the writing of a singable English t r a n s l a t i o n f o r ERWARTUNG, (Appendix I.)  A proposed production  including stage d i r e c t i o n and l i g h t i n g , costume design, and p u b l i c i t y posters completed this study.  The production was designed for a  t y p i c a l proscenium stage, s p e c i f i c a l l y the Frederick Wood Theatre at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I II  III IV V VI  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  ERWARTUNG AS AN EXPRESSIONIST MUSIC DRAMA, AND ITS LINKS WITH PSYCHOLOGY AND THE EXPRESSIONIST MOVEMENTS IN ART AND LITERATURE  6  THE DRAMATIC AND HARMONIC STRUCTURE OF ERWARTUNG  /20  THE CHARACTER OF THE WOMAN  28  LIGHTING  34  PUBLICITY  40  BIBLIOGRAPHY  48  APPENDICES: I  II  XEROX COPY OF SCORE INCLUDING TRANSLATION AND KEY TO SYMBOLS USED IN STAGE DIRECTION  52  ACTING AREA GRID  100  LIGHTING GRID  101  IV  INSTRUMENT SCHEDULE  102  V  LIGHTING CUE SHEET  106  VI  COSTUME DESIGN  108  VII  LIGHTING'PLOT  -  CnPclS  LIGHTING SECTION.  "  W e i * ! Co)  III  VIII  iii  Co(|c^  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PLATE  PAGE  I  Woodcut of the cover o f the Blue Rider Almanac  II  Photographs o f galaxies as should be projected on the cyclorama  41-42  Posters  45-47  III  iv,  13  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I would l i k e to thank the following people who have been o f much assistance i n preparing this thesis: Prof. Donald Brown Mr. Jeffrey Holmes Mr. Ian Pratt Mrs. Mary Ann Quiring Prof. French Tickner Dr. Richard Wilcox  v  PICTURE CREDIT V a s i l y Kandinsky (1866-1944): Woodcut f o r cover o f Blue Rider Almanac. 1912.  From: Vergo, Peter.  E.P. Dutton, 1977.  vi  The Blue Rider.  New York:  CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION  Arnold Schoenberg was born September 13, 1874, i n Vienna. Although a self-taught musician, Schoenberg did not decide u n t i l he was sixteen years of age that music would be his l i f e ' s work. At this time he was introduced to Alexander von Zemlinsky from whom he received his only formal i n s t r u c t i o n , counterpoint. The two became good friends, and i n 1901 Schoenberg married Zemlinsky's s i s t e r , Mathilde. In  1903, already established as a prominent musician and  composer, Schoenberg began h i s long teaching career.  Among h i s f i r s t  students were Anton von Webern and Alban Berg, soon to become r e spected musicians themselves.  His teaching was carried on mainly i n  Vienna and B e r l i n u n t i l he moved to the United States i n 1933. S e t t l i n g i n C a l i f o r n i a , he continued to teach and compose, u n t i l his  death i n 1951. Afnold Schoenberg  (1874-1951) composed the one-act mono-  drama ERWARTUNG opus 17 i n a fury of i n s p i r a t i o n , completing the reduced version i n a t o t a l of seventeen days, August 17 to September 12, 1909, and the orchestral score by October 4, 1909. ERWARTUNG was Schoenberg's  f i r s t completed stage work.  He had  previously started but never completed the composition of an opera based on Gerhard Hauptmann's play Uiid Pippa Tarizt. 1  2. Anton Webern described the score of ERWARTUNG i n the f o l -  c lowing fashion; The score of the monodrama i s an unheard-of event. In i t , a l l t r a d i t i o n a l form i s broken with; something hew always follows according to the rapid change of expression. The same i s true of the instrumentation: an interrupted succession of sounds never before heard. There i s no measure of t h i s score which f a i l s to show a completely new sound picture....And so this music flows onward,...giving expres^ sion to the most hidden and s l i g h t e s t impulses of the emotions. The year 1909 was  a very p r o l i f i c one f o r Arnold Schoenberg.  In addition to completing DAS BUCH DER HANGENDEN GARTEN opus 15, a song cycle based on poems written by Stefan George, and the mono-' drama ERWARTUNG opus 17, he composed two instrumental works -THREE PIANO PIECES opus 11, and FIVE PIECES FOR ORCHESTRA opus 16, both written during the f i r s t eight months of  1909.  With ERWARTUNG Arnold Schoenberg reached the point stated in Style and Idea: he "discovered how  to construct larger forms  2 by following a text or a poem."  In ERWARTUNG, as well as his  subsequent works, Schoenberg did not attempt to impose any known form or forms on the l i b r e t t o . ERWARTUNG opus 17, often termed an expressionist music drama, i s about h a l f an hour i n length, and i s composed f o r female voice (soprano) and large orchestra.  The orchestra consists of  4,4,5,4;4,3,4,1; harp, celesta, percussion and s t r i n g s .  This work  i s an "atonal" work or "pantonal" one, as Schoenberg preferred i t to be c a l l e d .  He considered the term "atonal" to suggest the r e -  jection of past compositional s t y l e s .  1  Unlike "atonal-; " "pantonal"  expressed his b e l i e f that h i s work was not based on a rejection, but 1  Anton Webern, Schoenberg's Musik, pp.-45-46.  2  Arnold Schoenberg, Style and Idea, p.-217.  rather on the acceptance, extension,  and renovation  Century German t r a d i t i o n a l method of composition.  of* the Nineteenth ERWARTUNG, then,  includes revolutionary uses of consonance and dissonance as well as a complex structure of textual and musical symbolism, a l l of which w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l i n the following  chapters.  With this important aspect of Schoenberg's new tionary compositional  and revolu-  s t y l e came the new practiceoof "composer  collaborating with h i s l i b r e t t i s t . "  Schoenberg presented Marie  Pappenheim, his l i b r e t t i s t , the outline he wished her to follow i n writing the text of ERWARTUNG.  This collaboration between the com-  poser and l i b r e t t i s t shows the beginning of the tendency which led Schoenberg to write h i s own  l i b r e t t i for the subsequent operas  DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND opus 18 (1910-1913) and MOSES UND  AARON (1932),  of which only two acts were completed. It i s important to r e a l i z e that i n expressionist works such as ERWARTUNG and DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND, Schoenberg's main concern was  to make i t c l e a r l y understood that the characters were not so  much individuals as universal human types. ular, Schoenberg was  In ERWARTUNG i n p a r t i c -  interested only i n projecting a h y s t e r i c a l woman'  "stream of consciousness" i n word and music.  The general outline of  the score as well as i t s d e t a i l s were governed completely by the content of the  libretto.  The English t r a n s l a t i o n of ERWARTUNG included i n Appendix I i s my own,  completed i n December of 1978.  part, a l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n , expressing meaning of the German text.  It i s , f o r the most  as closely as possible the  My preoccupation  i n writing the trans-  4 lation was to convey the r e l e n t l e s s expressiveness o f the German poetry by means o f the English language, and to retain a l l the subtle and the r a d i c a l changes of mood o f the sole protagonist, "the Woman." Several attempts were made to bring about a production of ERWARTUNG, but i t was not accomplished u n t i l 1924.  Its stage  took place at the musical f e s t i v a l i n Prague on June 6, 1924, Alexander von Zemlinsky conducting. was  premiere with  The character o f "the Woman"  f i r s t created by Marie Gutheil-Schoeder; producer, Louis Laber.  The f i r s t American production o f ERWARTUNG td&k place on December 28, I960, i n Washington with Robert Craft conducting.  Helga Pilarczk  portrayed "the Woman;" the general manager o f the production was Bliss  Hebert. One must r e a l i z e that by the time ERWARTUNG f i n a l l y received  i t s f i r s t stage premiere i n 1924, expressionism was already losing significance as an a r t i s t i c movement i n central Europe.  Therefore,  in considering the h i s t o r i c a l importance o f ERWARTUNG, one must study the musical scene i n Germany i n 1909 when i t was written rather than in 1924 when i t was f i r s t produced. Wagnerian drama was, heedless to say, extremely i n Germany at the turn o f the century.  influential  Richard Strauss (1864-1949)  had recently emerged as an important composer.  Schoenberg's two  works f o r the stage, ERWARTUNG and DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND, coincide with the years i n which Richard Strauss turned from the highly dramatic expression of ELEKTRA to the more restrained and elegant style o f DER ROSENKAVALIER.  Claude Debussy's (1862-1918) impres-  s i o n i s t i c and symbolic approach tGocomposition  as seen i n his work  5 for the stage PELLEAS ET MELISANDE was s t i l l new.  Two other very  important and i n f l u e n c i a l composers were Pietro Mascagni (18631945)  and Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) o f the I t a l i a n v e r i s t i c school  which flourished i n Italy at the end of the nineteenth and beginning o f the twentieth centuries. The expressionist movement during the early twentieth century was most c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n the operas o f Arnold Schoenberg and his p u p i l , Alban Berg (1885-1935). Arnold Schoenberg's stage works, p a r t i c u l a r l y ERWARTUNG, were the main generating force which encouraged h i s  contemporaries  to attempt to create t o t a l l y new, fresh musical and dramatic s t y l e s of composition.  Without this v i t a l stimulus, the early operas o f  Kurt Weill (1900-1950) such as AUFSTIEG UND FALL DER STADT MAH0G0NNY and those o f Ernst Krenek (b.1900), whose ORPHEUS AND EURYDIKE c l e a r l y follows Schoenberg's compositional s t y l e , would not have been conceivable.  Paul Hindemith's (1895-1963) three one-act operas  were also strongly influenced by Schoenberg's works f o r the stage. Perhaps Schoenberg's strongest influence was on his contemporary Alban Berg whose opera WOZZECK i s considered the dramatic masterpiece of the Viennese school o f composers.  CHAPTER TOO EWARTUNG: AN EXPRESSIONIST MUSIC DRAMA, AND ITS LINKS WITH PSYCHOLOGY AND THE EXPRESSIONIST MOVEMENTS IN ART AND LITERATURE.  Expressionism, a term adopted from v i s u a l a r t s , applies to music written i n a subjective and introspective s t y l e .  Moreover,  musical expressionism describes works which s o l e l y express the composer's thoughts, feelings, and visions.  From the interplay of the  composer's imagination and knowledge o f compositional techniques, we learn to recognize his unique compositional s t y l e . Schoenberg'stated  Arnold S  that there i s only one overriding goal toward  which the a r t i s t s t r i v e s , that o f expressing one's s e l f . In Germany i n the years 1910 to 1925, a new burst of a c t i v i t y in the arts, including l i t e r a t u r e and drama, carried with i t a new set of attitudes which today i s referred to as expressionism.  With  expressionism came the eruptive breakup of conventional esthetics. A l l a r t i s t s s t r i v e d t o create new, fresh standards and ideas on which to base t h e i r works.  Schoenberg also stated that art i s not derived from  "can," but from "must."  Musical expressionism, then, defied the laws  of what had been accepted as beauty and brought forth new conceptions of melody, harmony, rhythm, t o n a l i t y , and form. In ERWARTUNG and a l l his works to follow, Schoenberg was preoccupied with the musical representation o f the inner mind. in an a r t i c l e :  6  He stated  7 Science aims at presenting i t s thoughts f u l l y and i n a way that no question remains unanswered. A f t , on the contrary, i s s a t i s f i e d with a complex presentation from which the thought emerges unambiguously, but without being expressed d i r e c t l y . Thus, a back door i s l e f t open to l e t i n imagination (that i s as f a r as knowledge goes).3 In addition to the representation of the inner mind i n music, the composer was also concerned with the problem of relationships between a r t i s t i c creation and freedom within that creation.  Schoen-  berg states i n h i s t h e o r e t i c a l work Harmonielehre that any harmonic progression i s possible; however, there are certain conditions on which the use of s p e c i f i c dissonances depend.  These relationships  between freedom and a r t i s t i c creation comment on Schoenberg's sense of form.  He had taken a revolutionary step over the l i m i t s o f  t o n a l i t y into atonality, thus implying that the tonal functions of tonic and dominant no longer existed.  ERWARTUNG as an atonal work  i s discussed i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter Three, "The Dramatic and Harmonic Structure of Erwartung." In dealing s p e c i f i c a l l y with the l i b r e t t o of ERWARTUNG we f i n d i t to be a psychological study o f the subconscious mind. It i s a product of imagination and i n t e l l e c t and foreshadows the modern dramatic idioms that were to come.  The idea of the mohodrama was  Schoenberg's own. With the detailed knowledge o f his requirements, Schoenberg asked Marie Pappenheim, a poet and medical student, to write him an opera-text. She produced what Schoenberg termed an "Angsttraum" or anxiety dream monodrama heavily influenced by the techniques o f psychoanalysis.  The sole protagonist i s "the Woman,"  who wanders through a dark forest seeking her lover and ultimately  3  Josef Rufer, Aspekte der Neuen Musik, p.-53.  8 finds only h i s corpse.  In the short time space o f t h i r t y minutes,  the Woman goes through several states o f mind experiencing feelings of love, hate, exaltation, depression, fear, horror, anguish, and distraction.  Her subconscious  states, as well as her h a l l u c i n a t i o n ,  are revealed i n quick succession.  In t h i s monodrama the  audience  i s l e f t with the question, "Did the Woman k i l l her lover, or i s ERWARTUNG a hallucination of her disordered mind?." was not o f primary importance to Schoenberg. was i n penetrating the Woman's subconscious  This question  His main interest and i n unifying t h i s  visual aspect with the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the objectives i n sound. The symbolism i n ERWARTUNG i s as much a form of expression as i s i t s dissonant harmonic structure. According t o Carl Gustav Jung, "A symbol i s an i n d e f i n i t e expression with many meanings, pointing t o something not e a s i l y defined and therefore not  fully  k n o w n . T h e r e are three symbols i n p a r t i c u l a r that are repeatedly expressed i n the text of ERWARTUNG: f i r s t , the r e f e r r a l toe the "black object dancing" and to other shadows; second, the v i s i o n of "a hundred hands;" and t h i r d , the v i s i o n of "the garden." Carl, Jung, the world-renowned Swiss psychologist who has contributed immensely to our knowledge and understanding o f the human mind, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d o f the importance o f symbolism as revealed i n dreams, has theorized that "shadows" represent the hidden, repressed, and unfavorable aspects of the personality. For most people this negative aspect o f the personality remains a part o f the unconscious  mind.  Taking t h i s theory and applying  i t to the character of the Woman i n ERWARTUNG, we can assume that  4  Carl Jung, The Collected Words o f C.G.  Jung, Vol. V,p. 124.  9 each time she sees shadows, we are a c t u a l l y looking at the dark ' or negative side of her personality.  Our sole protagonist  obviously  r e a l i z e s that the shadow does indeed e x i s t ; however, she does not succeed i n coming to terms with i t . Understanding t h i s , one can see the potential strengths  of her r e a l i z a t i o n of the negative side  of her personality turn into a destructive power, r e s u l t i n g i n the 1  Woman s dement i a. According to Carl Jung, the hallucinations involving v i v i d images are intimately connected with the psyche.  The image of '"a  hundred hands" seen by the Woman i n ERWARTUNG represents, simple terms, the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of her. personality.  i n very  The visions  of "a hundred hands" reveal by t h e i r shapes and functioning  intel-  l i g i b l e clues to the character o f the Woman, i n t h i s case her progressive state of dementia. Our protagonist's  v i s i o n o f the garden with i t s constant  state of t r a n q u i l i t y i s somewhat more complex. that the garden represents  Suffice i t to say  contentment and happiness and,  protection and security from outside forces.  above a l l ,  This, of course, i s  a fantasy land, an i l l u s i o n existing only i n the mind of the protagonist.  This symbol, l i k e a l l other symbols, i s more than we  can understand at f i r s t encounter.  One does well to remember Carl  Jung's words, "A symbol does not disguise; i t reveals i n time.""' To understand f u l l y the expressionist movement i n painting and how i t influenced Arnold Schoenberg, one must understand how the movement originated.  The f i r s t signs of a nev; movement i n '  painting i n the twentieth  century appeared i n Paris i n 1905.  5  Carl Jung, The Symbolic L i f e , Vol. XVIII, p. 212.  In  10 that year, a group of young painters led by the a r t i s t Henri Matisse held an exhibition of paintings characterized by s i m p l i c i t y of design and the use of b r i l l i a n t colours.  A shocked c r i t i c described  the a r t i s t s as "fauves" (wild beasts), hence the derivation of t h e i r name, the Fauves.  The Fauves were influenced by the newly-discovered  exotic arts which conveyed more personal forms of expression.  Im-  p l i c i t i n the works of the Fauves and fundamental to expressionism i s the philosophy that the a r t i s t s ' presentations should represent t h e i r own emotional reactions to the subject through bold colours and strong l i n e a r patterns and should be completely free of t r a d i t i o n . The Fauves helped contemporary a r t i s t s open the door to the use of colour as an expressive end i n i t s e l f , freeing colour of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l role as the description of the l o c a l tone of an object.  Henri  Matisse put the matter of expressionism c l e a r l y and concisely i n the words: What I am after, above a l l , i s expression....1 am unable to distinguish between the f e e l i n g I have f o r l i f e and my way of expressing it....The whole arrangement of my picture i s expressive....everything plays a part. Composition i s the art of arranging i n a decorative manner the various elements at the painter's disposal for the expression of his f e e l i n g s ^ . . . A l l that i s not useful i n the p i c t u r e i s detrimental. The Fauve movement, never a successful organization, was short-lived; however, i t s influence was  almost immediately  felt  outside France, especially i n the German schools of art i n the early twentieth century.  The element of immediate personal expres-  sion strongly appealed to a r t i s t s i n Germany.  Two  f r a t e r n i t i e s of  German a r t i s t s organized into two i n d i v i d u a l societies--DIE BRUCKE  6  Robert Goldwater, A r t i s t s on Art, pp. 409-410.  11 (The Bridge), i n Dresden, and DER BLAUE REITER (The Blue Rider), in Munich. art  These two f r a t e r n i t i e s symbolize that renewal of German  which occurred during the years immediately before World War I  when German a r t i s t s extended the techniques o f the Fauvists.  In  German expressionism the a r t i s t ' s subjective feelings toward objective r e a l i t y and the realm o f imagination were revealed.  Their  powerful canvasses were p a r t i c u l a r l y expressive of intense human feeling. Arnold Schoenberg's most i n f l u e n t i a l f r i e n d i n the f i e l d o f German a r t was V a s i l y Kandinsky (1866-1944).  Kandinsky and his  companions founded, i n 1909, an exhibiting society c a l l e d the "Neue Kiinstler Vereinigung Munchen" (New A r t i s t ' s Association o f Munich) whose aims were to promote exhibitions, lectures, p u b l i c a t i o n , and other related events i n Germany and abroad.  The most important  art book to appear during that time was The Blue Rider Almanac, published by Reinhard Piper.  The Almanac was i n i t i a l l y  Kandinsky's  idea, and h i s o r i g i n a l aims f o r the a r t book were c l e a r l y stated in a l e t t e r to Paul Westheim, e d i t o r o f the p e r i o d i c a l Das Kuristblatt: ...to compile a book....in which the a r t i c l e s would be written exclusively by a r t i s t s . I dreamed of painters and musicians at the front rank. The harmful separation of one art from another, o f Art from folk a r t of children's art from "ethnography," the stout walls which divided what were to my mind such closely related, even i d e n t i c a l phenomena, in a word t h e i r synthetic r e l a t i o n s h i p s — a l l t h i s gave me no peace. Today, i t may appear remarkable that f o r a long time I was able to find no collaborator, no resources, simply no support f o r such a project. The Blue Rider was f i r s t conceived as a yearbook, although only the f i r s t number actually was publicized.  7  Peter Vergo, The Blue Rider, p. 5.  Horse and r i d e r were  12 common motifs i n the early paintings of Kandinsky.  A l l h i s pre-  liminary drawings f o r the cover of the Almanac include the figure of a r i d e r with f l y i n g cloak, hence the o r i g i n of the book's name, The Blue Rider.  The f i n a l design i s reproduced on page 13.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , Vasily Kandinsky, along with h i s collaborator Franz Marc, set the new ulated.  standard f o r art that Kandinsky had form-  Kandinsky explained i t i n d e t a i l i n h i s essay "Ubes das  geistige i n der Kunst.", His main concern i n painting was sentation of the inner nature of things.  the pre-  Instead of making state-  ments about the nature of things.in pictures, one was  to f e e l that  nature was speaking to the viewer through the pictures.  In this  way one would not be distracted by the outer appearance which hides and i n some cases f a l s i f i e s the true meaning of nature.  In  1912,  Kandinsky wrote, " I t has no significance whether the a r t i s t uses g a real or an abstract form.  Both are inwardly equal."  At the same time, Schoenberg, independent of Kandinsky, was led by h i s musical imagination i n a s i m i l a r d i r e c t i o n . gave p r i o r i t y to the unconscious  Schoenberg  i n the creative process.  " I f more  things happen than one can think of, they must happen unconsciously." Both men  rejected the rather vague notion of beauty as a standard  of value of a r t .  Rather, they preferred the notion of truthfulness  in a l l phases of a r t . Arnold Schoenberg began to paint i n 1907.  Between 1908  and  1910, he painted i n short bursts of c r e a t i v i t y two-thirds o f h i s ninety pictures, most of which are now  i n the hands of his h e i r s .  To Schoenberg painting was not forced by a s p e c i f i c set o f rules 8  Peter Vefgo, The Blue Rider, p. 9.  9  Josef Rufer, Aspekte der Neuen Musik, p. 52.  i.  VASILY  KANDINSKY  (1866- 1944): Woodcut for the cover of the 'Blue Rider Almanac'. igi2  14 but rather by h i s personal a r t i s t i c s e n s i t i v i t y . to,  Painting.began  i n Schoenberg's words, "make music with colours and forms. In an essay t i t l e d Die Dilder, Kandinsky  c l e a r l y states  Schoenberg's exact philosophy o f a r t : "Painting, for him, i s the same as music, a way to express himself, to present feelings, thoughts, and other impressions."'''''"  This i s p r e c i s e l y what Kandinsky meant  when he stated that the inner nature o f things could be simply and immediately r e a l i z e d i n music--in i t s tones, sounds, and rhythms. He demanded that the p i c t o r i a l a r t i s t turn toward music and t r y to f i n d the same means f o r his a r t . It i s important to remember that during the years when Schoenberg's painting a c t i v i t y reached i t s peak (1908-1910), he composed several atonal works including h i s f i r s t two works for the stage--the monodrama ERWARTUNG (1909) and DIE GLUCKLICHE HAND (19091913).  Schoenberg c a l l e d many o f his paintings and drawings " v i s i o n s "  and used the same word to describe the musical d e t a i l and insight into the nature of the Woman i n ERWARTUNG. Understanding  t h i s , one  can c l e a r l y see the connection between expressionist a r t and the expressionist compositions Schoenberg wrote during the same period of  time. We are not given a precise date as to when Kandinsky and  Schoenberg f i r s t met; however, from t h e i r exchange o f l e t t e r s i t i s believed to have been around the year 1906. Their relationship culminated five years l a t e r i n Schoenberg's help with the almanac Per Blaue Reiter.  He f i r s t presented an essay about song compo-  s i t i o n called"The Relationship "to the Text,"one o f the most import-  10  Ibid.. p. 52.  11  Ibid!., p. 52.  15 ant o f a l l Schoenberg's t h e o r e t i c a l s t a t e m e n t s . wrote t h e song Herzgewachse@(for soprano, harp) on December 9, 1911,  he  c e l e s t e , harmonium, and  f o r t h e Almanac; and f i n a l l y , he c o n t r i b u t e d  a reproduction of h i s s e l f - p o r t r a i t One  In f a c s i m i l e ,  (1910).  can f i n d s t r o n g t i e s between the e x p r e s s i o n i s t movement  i n t h e l i t e r a r y w o r l d , s p e c i f i c a l l y German e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama, and the e x p r e s s i o n i s t music drama due t o p a r a l l e l i n t e l l e c t u a l t r e n d s i n the a r t s g e n e r a l l y .  L i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n i s m , i n c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the  e x p r e s s i o n i s t movements i n a r t and m u s i c , r e p r e s e n t e d a r e v o l t a g a i n s t t r a d i t i o n a l n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l i t e r a r y s t y l e s , and f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i f t e e n y e a r s from 1910  t o 1924  dominated German l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y .  I t i s imperative t o understand  t h a t t h e s e y e a r s were a time  o f g r e a t u n r e s t i n Germany, a p e r i o d which i n c l u d e d t h e Great The n i g h t m a r e o f a n x i e t y caused by t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l  War.  unrest  i n Germany i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y a f f e c t e d e v e r y p a r t o f t h e a r t i s t ' s l i f e i n a p o i g n a n t and p o w e r f u l way.  The  artist  realized  t h a t the t h e n c u r r e n t l i t e r a r y phase o f t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , neo-romanticism,  was  n o t a t a l l concerned w i t h the r e a l i t i e s o f  life  and l a c k e d i n t e r e s t i n the p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l needs o f the t i m e . The e x p r e s s i o n i s t movement q u i c k l y became t h e new  v i s i o n , the  new  energy i n German l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y , assuming a l e a d i n g r o l e i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e o f the country.  H a t r e d o f war, hope f o r a b e t t e r  w o r l d , and concern  f o r human l i f e became the t h r e e c e n t r a l i d e a s  i n expressionism.  With these i d e a s came the emphasis on i n n e r v i s i o n ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the c r e a t i v e powers o f the w r i t e r . o f a new,  We  f i n d the b i r t h  much more i n t e n s e s u b j e c t i v i t y which d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o  16 destroy the conventional picture of r e a l i t y i n order that "expression" could become the dominant aspect of l i t e r a t u r e . To understand c l e a r l y the relationship o f German expressionist drama to the l i b r e t t o of the monodrama ERWARTUNG, i t i s necessary to discuss the formal features of expressionist drama.  One of i t s most  s t r i k i n g features i s i t s abstraction, i t s lack of concern with projecting the i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y on the state.  Expressionism pro-  duces constant stress created by preoccupation with deep images rather than with surface appearances.  A l l unnecessary  detail i s  eliminated, leaving one t o deal only with the most important outlines and c r u c i a l situations i n the actions and p l o t s . figures show no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features.  Likewise, dramatics  Rather, they represent  important p r i n c i p l e s the author v/ishes t o convey to the audience. Often characters are simply designated as Child, Wife, or the Woman. Expressionist writers, then,were not concerned with creating dramatic characters i n t h e i r plays but were more concerned with representing man's eternal and transcendental values. One of the most outstanding formal elements found i n express i o n i s t drama was the dream.  The great psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud  opened the doors to the age of psychology at the beginning of the twentieth century with the publication of Interpretation of Dreams. This book was an introduction to the concept of the world of unconscious experience.  He attached p a r t i c u l a r importance  as a point o f departure from normal r e a l i t y .  to dreams  The expressionist  dramatist Arthur Strindberg (1849-1902), influenced by Freud, wrote of h i s characterizations i n A Dream Play, "The characters s p l i t ,  17 double, multiply, vanish, s o l i d i f y , b l u r , c l a r i f y .  But one  conscious-  ness reigns above them a l l - - t h a t of the dreamer; and before i t there are no secrets, no incongruities, no scruples, no laws.  There i s 12  neither judgement nor exoneration, but merely n a r r a t i o n . "  In  A Dream Play, Strindberg attempted to depict the disconnected but strangely l o g i c a l quality of dreams. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1901) was importance during this time.  another writer of c r u c i a l  In his book Thus Spake Zarathustra,  on which Richard Strauss l a t e r based h i s symphonic poem o f the same t i t l e , Nietzsche dealt with the philosophy of man's self-awareness. Nietzsche, with his friend August Strindberg, emphasized the extreme, often pathological, psychological aspects of man.  This change i n  concentration from surface human emotions to the deeper aspect of man's self-awareness keenest  gave the expressionist l i t e r a r y movements i t s  impetus. The r e a l beginning of t h e a t r i c a l expressionism began with  Oskar Kokoschka's play Murder HOpe Of Womankind (1907).  Walter  Sokel states, "In Kokoschka's play, the projection of psychic s i t uations into symbolic images, an essential function of the 13 conscious mind, becomes action on the stage."  sub-  With the elimination  of r e a l i s t i c d e t a i l , the use of colour symbolism, and the sensual, carnal responses of the characters i n this play and others, Kokoschka opened the doors to a whole new  realm of l i t e r a r y expression.  The s a t i r i s t and polemicist Karl Kraus, a personal friend of both Kokoschka and Schoenberg, started what i s most-often referred to as the Wedekind wave i n Vienna.  Wedekind was  the f i r s t  author  to 12 13  C.L. Dalstrom, Strindberg's Dramatic Expressionism, p. 177. Walter Sokel, An Anthology of German Expressionist Drama, p.  17.  18 to d e a l w i t h s u b j e c t s t h a t were u n t i l t h i s t i m e u n m e n t i o n a b l e — t o p i c s such as s e x , mental i l l n e s s , e t c . I n h i s own j o u r n a l D i e F a c k e l (founded i n 1899), Kraus s t r o n g l y condemned t h e abuses" o f t h e language o f t h e Viennese f e u i l l e t o n i s t e s  (serialists).  I n t h e ded-  i c a t i o n s e n t t o Kraus w i t h a copy o f h i s H a r m o n i e l e h r e ( 1 9 1 1 ) , Schoenberg s t a t e d , " I have l e a r n t more perhaps from y o u t h a n one can l e a r n i f one i s t o remain independent."""'* , A f t e r t h e dream, t h e most i m p o r t a n t f o r m a l element i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama was t h e monologue.  The monologue s e r v e d as t h e  p r i n c i p a l v e h i c l e by w h i c h t h e l y r i c a l - d r a m a t i c p r o t a g o n i s t e x p r e s s e d the  s u b j e c t i v e developments  o f t h e i n n e r man.  A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama was t h e f a c t t h a t i t s c e n t r a l f o c u s was on one p r o t a g o n i s t .  A l l other characters  i n t h e drama r e v o l v e d e n t i r e l y around t h i s one c e n t r a l f i g u r e .  The  l e a d i n g a c t o r was u s u a l l y found i n an extreme s i t u a t i o n o r c i r c u m s t a n c e w i t h which he o r she c o u l d n o t cope. The a c t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e e x p r e s s i o n i s t drama was u s u a l l y found t o be a sequence o f scenes which f o l l o w e d each o t h e r i n r a p i d succession.  These scenes were r a r e l y l i n k e d t o g e t h e r i n an o b v i o u s ,  s y s t e m e t i c way.  This s t r u c t u r e served t o heighten the dramatic  impact o f t h e drama, p a r t i c u l a r l y the a u d i e n c e ' s awareness o f t h e u s u a l l y unhealthy circumstance or c r u c i a l s i t u a t i o n o f i t s lone protagonist. I t i s g e n e r a l l y an easy t a s k t o i d e n t i f y t h e w r i t i n g of the expressionist dramatist.  style  He u s u a l l y employed f r e e v e r s e i n  w h i c h a l l s e n t e n c e s were t o t h e p o i n t , o m i t t i n g a l l n o n e s s e n t i a l  14  Frank F i e l d , K a r l Kraus and H i s V i e n n a , p. 25.  19 d e t a i l s from the actions and p l o t s .  One finds that even the  longer  sentence structures were broken into shorter units, characterized by missing p a r t i c l e s .  The page was characterized by the p r o l i f e f a t i o n  of exclamation marks and dashes as well as the free use o f both the verb and the dynamic metaphor.  Images and symbols usually abstracted  from common experience were frequently used ine-the expressionist l i t e r a r y s t y l e to express an inner world o f meaning. One of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features of expressionist drama was  that the play never reached a s p e c i f i c conclusion but  rather  was  open-ended, leaving the audience t o imagine and draw whatever  conclusions they chose. In comparing the l i b r e t t o of the monodrama ERWARTUNG t o the formal features of expressionist drama, i t i s clear that Marie Pappenheim, with the close collaboration of Arnold Schoenberg, wrote an expressionist drama.  Without desiring to be r e p e t i t i v e , s u f f i c e  i t to say that the stress i n ERWARTUNG (as i n other expressionist music dramas) i s on the t h e a t r i c a l aspect of the production, not on the esthetic worth of the text.  The text served only as a means  to an end, to provide innumerable musical p o s s i b i l i t i e s t o the composer.  During the c r u c i a l early stage i n the development of his  mature twelve-tone s t y l e of composition, Schoenberg f e l t strongly that "expressionism" was the only medium i n which he could f u l l y relate his feelings to the world.  success-  His expressionist compo-  s i t i o n a l period (1908-1913), i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, proved t o be one of the most p r o l i f i c times o f t h i s extraordinary composer's l i f e .  CHAPTER THREE THE DRAMATIC AND HARMONIC STRUCTURE OF ERWARTUNG  ERWARTUNG i s c l a s s i f i e d as a "monodrama i n one act" and i s divided into four scenes--the f i r s t o f t h i r t y measures' length; the second, o f fifty-two measures; the t h i r d , of twenty-four measures; and the fourth and longest scene a t o t a l of 321 measures.  Each scene  i s bracketed by the entrance and exit of the Woman, the sole protagonist of the work.  The three extremely short interludes might be  termed " s t a t i c music" consisting of pedal points, r e i t e r a t e d ostinato rhythmic figures, or sustained harmonies.  A constant  level of tension  i s maintained i n the monodrama by avoiding r e s o l u t i o n o f the dissonant chord.  ERWARTUNG i s an outstanding example o f sustained, free com-  position. Dramatically speaking, with each new scene comes a more i n c i s i v e portrayal of the Woman's desperate circumstances.  With each  r e a l i z a t i o n there also comes a new burst of colour i n the orchestration. One i s constantly aware of the growing i n t e n s i t y and h y s t e r i a of the protagonist.  This constantly-increasing tension becomes almost  unbearable i n measure 190, when the Woman, f e e l i n g the impact o f the r e a l i z a t i o n that her lover i s t r u l y dead, screams for help.  It i s  my opinion that, from t h i s point on, the Woman loses a l l contact with r e a l i t y , f a l l i n g deeper and deeper into her state o f dementia. Looking yet more closely at the dramatic structure o f ERWARTUNG, 20  we f i n d s i x major climaxes and s i x predominantly l y r i c sections. The climaxes occur generally where the Woman receives a major shock. The  l y r i c sections generally r e c a l l the Woman's past pleasures  with her lover.  shared  A l l l y r i c sections immediately precede the s i x  climactic sections.  The s i x major climaxes are: Measures 1. 110-113 2. 154-155 3. 190-193 4. 348 5. 415-416 6. 424  The  climaxes are characterized by the u t i l i z a t i o n of the  f u l l orchestra as well as the use o f the character's extreme vocal range.  The climaxes are also characterized by extreme rhythmic  vitality.  I t i s o f interest to note that there i s a pause a f t e r  the second, t h i r d , and fourth climaxes,  i n each case representing  a complete change o f thought and mood o f the Woman. The  l y r i c sections are characterized by rather l i g h t e r  orchestration.  A prominent use o f the solo woodwind and s t r i n g  instruments becomes evident.  These sections are characterized by  much quieter dynamic l e v e l s , expressive  feelings, and generally  longer vocal lines which avoid wide skips. In looking at this work i n d e t a i l , one can c l e a r l y see the close coordination o f the music and stage action. are c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n the music.  Stage directions  In measure 104 the written stage  directions c a l l f o r a "Leichter Windstoss" or l i g h t breeze. The l i g h t breeze i s mirrored i n the music by the thirty-second note  22 figure i n the muted v i o l i n s and contrabasses.  S i m i l a r l y , the i n -  strumental passage i n measures 385-388 c l e a r l y indicated the appearance of dawn.  In this passage Schoenberg approaches pure impressionism  in h i s use of orchestral colour. In discussing the harmonic structure of ERWARTUNG as the most important work intthe development of Schoenberg's mature twelvetone style of composition, i t i s v i t a l to grasp the p r i n c i p l e that dissonance i s the primary means of the musical expression.  Dissonance  i s simply any musical sound that must be resolved by the use of a consonant chord or note, that i s , a musical sound that does not need a resolution.  The harmonic system, then, i s defined by the r e l a t i o n  of consonance to dissonance.  The secondary elements of musical  expression were thought to be tone colour, accent, form, and counterpoint.  Schoneberg considered a l l these elements of importance, not  definable as primary or secondary. In a l l h i s works Schoenberg termed the o s c i l l a t i o n between tension (dissonance) and resolution (consonance) the complete "emancipation of the dissonance." This "emancipation of the d i s sonance," foreshadowed by the nonfunctional harmonies o f Claude Debussy, was the i n i t i a l step taken i n the direction of the gradual process of the complete breakdown of t o n a l i t y .  This refusal of  resolution was the key to Schoenberg's s t y l e of composition i n h i s expressionist period (1908-1913).  For the f i r s t time i n Schoenberg's  works of t h i s period we see expression as an element of the t o t a l structure of the composition, a symbol of the new attitude which prevailed i n a l l arts during the early twentieth century.  Another interesting aspect o f ERWARTUNG i s the composer's use o f textual and rhythmic symbolism within the score.  One of  the most outstanding examples of rhythmic symbolism i s the symbol of the waltz which t r a d i t i o n a l l y denotes pleasure and gracefulness. The waltz rhythms are notated i n the score as eighth-note 9/8 time superimposed on 3/4 time.  t r i p l e t s of  Two clear examples of t h i s are  found i n measures 31-34 and measures 370-371.  In both instances the  musical indication i s "sehr zart" (very sweet).  An example of mus-  i c a l symbolism found i n ERWARTUNG i s the descending half-tone legato figure, a simple figure symbolizing s u f f e r i n g or supplication found in measure 297, " i n your drowsiness.... l i k e a name...."  Generally  speaking, highly broken textures or, i n other words, constant changes of tone colour, rhythms, etc., i n the music symbolize  "Angst" (anxiety)  Two words which are treated symbolically i n the music are "Nacht" (night) and "Mond" (moon). symbolically by the use of o s t i n a t i .  Both of these words are portrayed In measure 9 we f i n d a low-  pitched ostinato fluctuating between two notes which symbolizes the word Nacht; i n measure 22 we f i n d an ostinato which contains two notes a minor-third apart, symbolizing the word Mond. symbols i s purposely incomplete aware of this important,  This l i s t of  and i s only intended to make one  i f often-neglected, aspect of Schoenberg's  musical language. In Chapter Two I have already b r i e f l y alluded to the fact that ERWARTUNG i s an atonal work, i . e . , a work i n which the tonal functions of the tonic and dominant do not e x i s t .  Schoenberg, as  previously noted, objected to the term "atonal," p r e f e r r i n g the term  24 "pantonal."  I t i s important to r e a l i z e that Schoenberg's expression-  i s t works can be viewed as a suspension of the modal system.  Though  no longer tonal, the works s t i l l imply recognized p r i n c i p l e s of the tonal system such as i n d i v i d u a l harmonic progressions and tonal idioms. It would be b e n e f i c i a l to discuss the general aspects of the new world of sound and to apply them to the expressionist monodrama ERWARTUNG.  F i r s t , the dissolution o f tonal functions i s c l e a r l y  seen i n atonal works.  In ERWARTUNG there are few perfect t r i a d s that  could even suggest the tonal functions of the tonic and dominant. Certain chordal structures do, however, create momentary sources of s t a b i l i t y i n the work.  P r a c t i c a l l y a l l of the chords i n ERWARTUNG  encompass s i x notes generally consisting of two three-note o u t l i n i n g the seventh.  chords  This consistency helps to unify the harmonic  texture o f the monodrama.  The chords are characterized by aggregations  of fourths, f i f t h , and t r i t o n e s .  Clusters o f seconds are also common.  There i s a d e f i n i t e avoidance of octave doublings i n ERWARTUNG as well as i n a l l of Schoenberg's subsequent  J  eg-  compositions.  °  /V  P  i  V  Secondly, we f i n d the element of perpetual v a r i a t i o n i n the musical structure of Schoenberg's expressionist works.  Schoenberg  refused ctD use t r a d i t i o n a l compositional techniques such as thematic repetition and the transformation of motifs i n his expressionist works.  25 In a recent study t i t l e d "Studien zur Entwicklung des dodekaphonen Satzes b e i Arnold Schoenberg," (1972) Jan Maegaard goes further t o say that the athematic structure of ERWARTUNG i s a direct r e s u l t o f the "absolute equivalence" and "interchange of harmony and melody."  15  There seems to be a great deal o f disagreement over the issue, "Is ERWARTUNG athematic or not?."  Herbert Buchanan f o r example,  states i n h i s essay "A Key to Schoenberg's ERWARTUNG opus 17" that Schoenberg quoted a portion Of one o f h i s early songs i n D minor in ERWARTUNG (just before the end o f measure 401) . According to Buchanan, i t appears f i r s t i n the cel'los and i s repeated in i n version i n the bass c l a r i n e t and bassoons.  Other writers such as  George Perle state that Schoenberg's l a t e r twelve-tone technique is foreshadowed i n ERWARTUNG.  Robert Craft, on the other hand, does  not use the terms "athematic" and "atonal" at a l l .  He states that i n  ERWARTUNG there i s a constant motivic development, the p r i n c i p a l motif being A-B f l a t - A .  H.H. Stuckenschmidt refers to the three-  note motif D-F-C sharp. The atonal melody, independent of the harmony, follows i t s own laws and polyphic tension.  Melody i s the most important  element i n ERWARTUNG, constantly mirroring the Woman's extreme emotions.  H.H. Stuckenschmidt points out that ERWARTUNG can be compared  in form to a "pre-Wagnerian opera f i n a l e " or to a "scena and a r i a . " One point upon which a l l agree i s that the harmonic and melodic aspects o f Schoenberg's atonal works (including ERWARTUNG) should be treated as a combined unit.  A "symphonic bond" exists between the human  voice (melody) and the instrumental accompaniment  15  Charles Rosen, Arnold Schoenberg, p. 39.  that must not be  26 broken. Thirdly, one i s immediately aware of the new instrumental style used i n ERWARTUNG. chromaticism.  There i s increasingly bolder use of  With this we find a growing tendency f o r composers  to create harmonic and melodic forms for t h e i r own means o f expression.  Schoenberg's wealth of imagination brought to this score a  perpetual renewal, a constant inventiveness of idea and form. The entire force o f the large orchestra i s selifom used i n ERWARTUNG.  Small groups of solo instruments  chamber-music fashion.  are generally used i n  By t r e a t i n g the orchestra as a chamber  orchestra, Schoenberg created an inexhaustible source o f instrumental colour, u t i l i z i n g d i f f e r e n t instrumental combinations.  Charles Rosen  states, "This emancipation of tone colour was as s i g n i f i c a n t and as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the f i r s t decades o f the twentieth century as the 16 emancipation of dissonance."  Influenced by the techniques of  orchestration of Gustav Mahler, Schoenberg's innovative handling of the orchestra brought about important  changes i n orchestration which  influenced his contemporaries as well as modern-day composers. Closely related to the instrumental s t y l e are the revolutionary innovations i n texture found i n ERWARTUNG, s p e c i f i c a l l y , Schoenberg's use of rhythm and orchestral colour.  ERWARTUNG consists  of alternations of two kinds of rhythmic textures--sections o f continuously repeating figures known as o s t i n a t i and other sections of e i t h e r stable or continuously-changing  material.  These a l t e r n a t i n g  sections define the dramatic action of the monodrama. control the degree of tension relayed to the audience. 16  Charles Rosen, Arnold Schoenberg, p. 43.  They also  The wide range of orchestral colour so apparent i n ERWARTUNG i s created by the use o f several devices.  Flutter-tongue and such  special effects as sulpponticello (bowed near bridge), col legno (bowed with wood), harmonics, glissandi and fingered and bowed tremelos are often c a l l e d for i n the score. To produce the atmosphere Schoenberg wished to create i n the orchestra and on the stage, the uses of the proper sd/namics and tempo were e s s e n t i a l .  Dynamic markings ranging from f f f to  ppp f i l l each page of the score.  There are 111 tempo changes and  s i x t y - f i v e additional tempo controls such as accelerando and ritardano plus numerous tempo changes indicated by markings such as J = J .  .  One  can quickly r e a l i z e the d i f f i c u l t y f o r the performer i n r e l a t i n g to and connecting a l l of these tempo changes. These elements of the new sound were to guide Schoenberg towards the laws o f organization of new music, s p e c i f i c a l l y h i s twelve^tone compositional s t y l e .  His chief goal was to u t i l i z e the  t o t a l resources of chromaticism to construct a new and more expressive tonal system.  CHAPTER FOUR THE CHARACTER OF THE WOMAN  In order to create successfully a consistent character on stage, the actor must understand the motivation(s), the inner thoughts and the feelings of the character of "theWWoman" i n the monodrama ERWARTUNG opus 17. In the f i r s t scene of the monodrama we are introduced to a lone Woman who  contemplates entry into a dark and eerie forest.  From her f i r s t words one can c l e a r l y see the Woman suffers from great stress and  conflict.  "Shall I go here?  One  cannot see the way..." (P/VS  The reason she suffers from such tremendous anxiety i s not  p.3) im-  mediately known to the audience.  The Woman's great fear of her  surroundings  i n the words,  i s vivedly expressed  "How threatening the s t i l l n e s s i s . . . the moon i s f u l l of horror..." (p.6) Her unstable emotional state becomes very c l e a r i n the words, "I am alone i n the heavy shadows..." (p.6) In the second scene, we learn that the Woman has a c t u a l l y entered the forest.  I t i s very dark, and she finds h e r s e l f having to grope  with outstretched arms to guide her along the path.  In t h i s short scene  of fifty-two measures, i t becomes more and more apparent that the Woman suffers from psychopathic  illness.  28  She i s haunted by unseen presences.  29 anxiety quickly grows to h y s t e r i a , as she imagines the r i s i n g gentle breeze as a kind of negative force t r y i n g to suffocate In this scene she makes references  her.  also to a "garden," to which  I had alluded previously i n Chapter Two.  The turning point in the  understanding of the Woman's motivation for entering the forest alone i s found in her last words o f scene two. "Oh, oh, What i s i t ? A body... No,  only a tree trunk." (pp. 11-12)  In these words, the Woman hints that there has been a murder, a murder which, I suggest, she committed. In scene three, as we watch the woman approaching a c l e a r i n g deep i n the forest, we develop yet more insight into the nature of the Woman's psychopathic state.  serious  Her h y s t e r i a progresses  to a stage of dementia, p a r t i a l loss o f the control of her mind. Her hallucinations become more v i v i d .  She imagines shadows o f  many descriptions including "a black object dances...a hundred hands," (pp.12-13).  By free association, these shadows remind the Woman  of her lover's shadow on the wall o f the garden.  Her moment o f  tender r e f l e c t i o n i s interrupted when she imagines the shadow crawling.  Her hallucinations are symbols which help us more c l e a r l y  to understand the state o f the Woman's subconscious mind. In scene four, by f a r the longest scene o f t h i s monodrama, we recognize that the path through the forest leads to a house. The Woman enters the scene, her h a i r dishevelled, and her dress torn. From the Woman's f i r s t words, we c l e a r l y see she has retreated into a  30 deep state of depression. "He cannot be found. On the whole, long way nothing and no sound..." (p. 16)  visible...  We poignantly f e e l the Woman's despair, the burden weighing heavily on her heart.  She imagines a bench beneath a grove of trees; how-  ever, at closer range she sees the bench i s i n r e a l i t y the dead body of her lover.  With the Woman's one great, long cry for help  (measure 190) we reach the main climax of the monodrama. cry i s , i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, her only plea f o r help.  This  At this  point i n the monodrama the Woman's mind "snaps" and hereafter the Woman becomes t o t a l l y demented, never again re-entering the world of r e a l i t y .  The i n d i v i d u a l micro-worlds of her love, hate, and  jealousy are developed at length.  The Woman discloses i n measures  284 and 285 that she has not seen her lover for three days.  She  also suggests for the f i r s t time i n measures 295 to 300 that there was  another woman involved. "Ah, now I remember... your sighs i n your drowsiness... l i k e a name... You tenderly kissed the question from my  lips...(p.33)  In measures 331 to 333 she c l e a r l y states that the other woman was the cause of the divergence  in relationship.  "Oh but how you love her, those white arms... how hard you kissed them..." (p.36) Her hatred turns to repulsion, a state i n which she a c t u a l l y abuses and indeed kicks the dead body of her lover.  Almost i n s t a n t l y her  act of r e j e c t i o n and repulsion turns to utter loneliness and (measures 349-351).  despair  31 "For me there i s no room." (p.38) In the remaining pages of the monodrama, she senses that dawn i s rapidly approaching and that l i g h t w i l l come f o r a l l but her. At the very close o f the work her mind withdraws again into the night where she finds her lover a l i v e one again. "Oh, are you there... I sought you..." (p.47) ERWARTUNG ends the same way i t began...that  i s , with a search f o r  peace. It i s unclear how much o f the action i n ERWARTUNG i s r e a l i s t i c and how much o f t h i s nightmarish v i s i o n i s symbolic.  It is a  question each one must answer f o r oneself... did the Woman i n fact murder her lover, or merely wish i t upon him?  We are faced with the  question, "What happened to the Woman a f t e r the monodrama?" An audience i s l e f t without a comfortable f i n a l i t y .  This i s , i n t e r e s t -  ingly enough, one o f the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f modern art and thought of Schoenberg's time.  We must remember that Schoenberg d i d  not concern himself with an answer but only with the Woman's subconscious thought patterns within the time lapse o f the monodrama. It i s possible t o look at the Woman's whole nightmare as a symbolic representation o f a psychoanalyist's dealings with a patient.  Several writers have expanded t h i s idea, suggesting  that ERWARTUNG i s a Freudian music drama and that a l l the Woman's experiences are symbolic of her "true personality." I, too, suggest that to look at ERWARTUNG i n su*6li a fa§Ki5ii i s c e r t a i n l y plausible; however, any relationship between Freudian theories and  32 the monodrama ERWARTUNG are purely coincidental. Arnold Schoenberg and Sigmund Freud certainly must have heard of each other; however, there was d e f i n i t e l y no formal friendship established between these two men. In delving more deeply i n t o the character o f the Woman, one cannot help but consider her background and whether i t had an e f f e c t on her current unstable state of mind as we f i n d her at the very outset of the monodrama.  We know that Schoenberg wrote ERWARTUNG  during a period o f great unrest i n Germany.  The Franco-Prussian War  had been waged some years e a r l i e r , and the country was now experiencing the uneasiness  preceding the approaching Great War.  It would  be l o g i c a l to assume that the Woman had experienced hardship or traumatic shock, possibly the loss o f a loved one or loved ones i n war.  Since t h i s i s a l l only hypothetical, we may conclude that  because o f something in the Woman's past she has become unable to deal successfully with her own emotions.  Her reactions to stress  and c o n f l i c t are, at the very least, immature, as seen i n her phys i c a l symptoms, her psychopathic  i l l n e s s , her h a l l u c i n a t i o n , her  h y s t e r i a , and her f i n a l dementia. We have learned from the l i b r e t t o of ERWARTUNG that this "murder of passion," as I have termed i t , was the result of "another woman" coming between our protagonist and her lover.  This brings  up the question, "What caused the d i f f i c u l t i e s to arise between her and her lover?"  I cannot help but suggest that the Woman may have  had sexual d i f f i c u l t i e s with her lover.  Some inadequacy on her part  to f u l f i l l h i s sexual needs may have caused him to look elsewhere to s a t i s f y h i s desires.  The Woman was not able to deal r a t i o n a l l y  33 with t h i s , and her f a i l u r e culminated  i n the murder of her lover.  This brings me to my l a s t and perhaps most important  question,  "What was the major drive or goal o f the Woman i n ERWARTUNG?"  I f one  wishes to discuss the subject only s u p e r f i c i a l l y , the ansvrer would simply be "to f i n d her lover."  I suggest a deeper meaning: the  Woman searching for absolution o f the t e r r i b l e burden of her g u i l t ! This destroying g u i l t not only included the brutal murder of her lover but also a l l of her own deep-set inadequacies  as a woman.  CHAPTER FIVE LIGHTING  The main objective i n designing the l i g h t i n g f o r my production of ERWARTUNG was to use l i g h t as "scenery."  With the  exception of four scrims which are painted to depict the forest, the stage i s bare.  In the twentieth century, the use of l i g h t as  scenery has become a popular way  to illuminate a production.  Among  the many reasons f o r this procedure i s the increased use of theatre designs other than the t r a d i t i o n a l proscenium stage.  In other  theatre forms such as thrust and arena stages, l i g h t plays a more intense role i n the production's t o t a l visual e f f e c t l  The recent  techniques of f i l m have had an enormous impact on the theatre with the use of f i l m projections as well as a number of other special cinematic e f f e c t s .  Another basic reason f o r the growing popularity  of the use of l i g h t as scenery i s simply, the v i s u a l spectacle, the new  and enchanting combination of l i g h t and sound which the audience  can experience.  The result of a l l these influences on stage l i g h t i n g  i s obviously great, and i s leading to the formation of new  attitudes  regarding the use of stage l i g h t i n g as an element of scene design. The twentieth century and i t s s c i e n t i f i c achievements have refined the role of stage l i g h t i n g , allowing i t to gain stature as a v i t a l communication factor i n the theatre. In a l e t t e r Schoenberg wrote to Ernst Legal, the Intendant of 34  35 the Kroll-Oper i n B e r l i n , dated A p r i l 14, 1930,  the composer gave  detailed directions for the performance o f ERWARTUNG.. In ERWARTUNG, these are the greatest problems: I.  II.  III.  It i s necessary always to see the woman i n the forest, i n order to understand her fear o f i t , for the whole piece can be understood as a nightmare. But, for that very reason, i t must be a real forest, and not just an "abstract" one! That kind of abstraction i s gruesome, but not frightening. In composing, I l e f t hardly any time f o r the three scene-changes, so that they must happen on an "open" stage. On top o f that, the background becomes important only i n the f i n a l (fourth) scene; then the foreground must be empty, and everything that could impede the view must be removed.  I decided to heed the composer's f i r s t and second wishes but not the third.  As anyone knowledgeable o f modem theatre knows, the most  f a m i l i a r way. to produce l i g h t as scenery i s , o f course, projected scenery.  A f t e r consultation, I have chosen to use i n this production  two Pani 4000 watt HMI scenic projectors to project on the cyclorama during the f i r s t three scenes o f this monodrama, pictures o f galaxies such as found on pages 40 and 41.  This Strand Century projector i s  the most powerful scenic projector available, producing up to 58,000 lumens.  I t i s b u i l t to use 7-1/8" X 7-1/8" s l i d e s , and when using a  220mm f/2.8 lens, i t creates an image o f 18.5 feet at a distance o f 25 feet.  This creates the perfect size and i l l u m i n a t i o n (148 F.C.)  for this production o f ERWARTUNG, designed  f o r the Frederick Wood  Theatre at the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia. One o f my basic preoccupations  17  i n the l i g h t i n g of ERWARTUNG  Josef Rufer, The Works o f Arnold Schoenberg, p.  36 was  t h a t t h e audience s h o u l d always be aware o f the  "expression-  i s t " c h a r a c t e r o f the work, n o t o n l y i n t h e a u r a l b u t i n t h e v i s u a l aspect o f the p r o d u c t i o n . c o n t i n u a l l y as i t expresses  The l i g h t i n g i s t o accompany t h e music what i s happening on t h e s t a g e .  The  music must always dominate; t h e stage l i g h t i n g must be s u b o r d i n a t e to i t . To c r e a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y t h i s aspect o f s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f l i g h t t o sound on s t a g e , I d e c i d e d t h a t i n c r e a s i n g l y v i v i d s p l a s h e s o f c o l o u r were t o appear on s t a g e w i t h each scene change, t h e f i n a l change t a k i n g p l a c e a t t h e opening o f scene f o u r when t h e  pro-  j e c t i o n s o f g a l a x i e s fade from t h e background and r e a p p e a r as an a b s t r a c t c o l o u r p a t t e r n on t h e f l o o r o f the stage where t h e Woman i s standing.  These continuous  stage s y m b o l i z e  a p p l i c a t i o n s o f s t r o n g e r c o l o u r s on -  t h e r e a c t i o n t o t h e c o n s t a n t l y deeper p r o b i n g o f t h e  Woman's s u b c o n s c i o u s  mind.  To a c c o m p l i s h  f i e d v e r s i o n o f the R o s e n t h a l  this, I applied a simpli-  method o f l i g h t i n g , o r what i s o t h e r -  w i s e known as t h e " j e w e l t h e o r y , " s p e c i f i c a l l y i n scene f o u r , t h e l o n g e s t scene o f the monodrama.  The " j e w e l t h e o r y " i s s i m p l y t h e  i l l u m i n a t i o n o f the a c g o r from every p o s s i b l e a n g l e .  (See  diagram  below.)  I used two b a s i c c o l o u r p a t t e r n s t o s y m b o l i z e  t h e Woman's  37 tender r e f l e c t i v e moments during scene four, and I used the combination of the following gels:  l i g h t amber (#2), and double pale gold (#52-  52), s t e e l blue (#17), medium amber (#4), and golden amber (#34).  To  symbolize her fear, anxiety, and l a t e r h y s t e r i a , I chose the combination:  l i g h t blue (#18), s t e e l blue (#17), s t e e l t i n t (#67),  magenta (#13), and white l i g h t (0).  The patterns which are created  on the stage f l o o r are indicated i n the diagrams below.  A l l combinations used i n the previous three scenes are s i m p l i f i e d versions o f these two gel combinations with the addition of a turquoise gel (#62) which, i n combination with amber gels, produces a green t i n t .  The use o f this turquoise gel helps to create the  eerie atmosphere o f a foreboding evergreen forest. The expressionist character o f the monodrama lends i t s e l f to the creation of many s p e c i a l e f f e c t s .  Most important i n this  production are the silhouettes, created by hanging a transparency made of loosely woven muslin c l o t h closely behind the scrims.  When  this transparency i s illuminated from d i r e c t l y behind, the actor standing d i r e c t l y i n front of the transparency w i l l appear as a silhouette to the audience.  Instead o f having the actress leave  the stage a f t e r each scene, I have directed that she retreat behind the scrim, allowing this silhouette e f f e c t to symbolize the passage  38 of time between each scene. The "shadow" effects as well as what I term the "staring eyes" e f f e c t are important. 94-114 o f the score.  Both take place between measures  The shadow e f f e c t i s created by placing  appropriate gobos (small, thin plates o f metal, most commonly aluminum, out of which d i f f e r e n t patterns or designs can be excised) in the pattern 223 l i g h t i n g instruments i n the second FOH. When this e f f e c t i s generated correctly, allowing the shadows slowly to creep upstage, i t may be most s t r i k i n g from the audience point of view.  The "staring eyes" effect i s created by hanging pairs  of Christmas tree lights (yellow) behind the scrims.  To the  audience these flashing lights symbolize the p i e r c i n g eyes of the unseen beasts the Woman imagines on page 14 i n the universal Edition score o f ERWARTUNG. A successful special e f f e c t i s the "dawn" l i g h t i n g which i s used i n the l a s t pages o f ERWARTUNG.  I t i s produced by using s i x -  foot s t r i p l i g h t s equipped with red gels situated behind a ground row i n front of the cyclorama.  Two 8-inch Lekos equipped with yellow  gels locateM on the extreme right and l e f t sides o f the cyclorama add a great streak o f yellow just above the red haze. the cyclorama appears black.  The rest of  This i s caused by the black Hansen cloth  scrim hanging d i r e c t l y downstage of the two scenic projectors. The " s t a r " e f f e c t used i n scene four i s produced by pattern 123 l i g h t i n g instruments equipped with perforated aluminum templets, (Gestetner plates work very well.)  The l i g h t i n g instruments, when  focused on the cyclorama, create tiny bright spots which are seen  39  downstage o f the black Hansen cloth scrim. One o f the oldest and s t i l l most e f f e c t i v e special  effects  i s the use of the follow spot to serve as a special focus on the actor as she enters and exits the stage.  In this production, the  follow spot i s located on the bridge of the theatre and i s used to illuminate the Woman's face as she f i r s t enters area s i x i n scene one and f i n a l l y  leaves area s i x at the end o f scene four.  The l i g h t i n g i n this production, then, i s a l l symbolic i n nature and serves to enhance both the poetic and musical content of the score.  The stage l i g h t i n g represents an important part of  my understanding o f the depth and scope o f the work. The costume design and p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s colour also have an e f f e c t on the stage l i g h t i n g . (Appendix VI) i s a combination  In t h i s case, the costume design  of two popular 1952 dress patterns.  The f a b r i c chosen for the dress i s a Dundune hemp made o f one hundred per cent polyester.  I purposely chose beige as the colour  for the f a b r i c because o f the f l e x i b i l i t y i t allows to the stage lighting.  40  CHAPTER S I X PUBLICITY  P u b l i c i t y i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f any p u b l i c p r o d u c t i o n . Two  b a s i c media used t o p u b l i c i z e upcoming events  i n gaining  p u b l i c exposure a r e , o f c o u r s e , r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n .  These media,  p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g system, a r e v e r y c o s t l y and g e n e r a l l y too expensive  f o r low-budget p r o d u c t i o n s .  p u b l i c i t y p o s t e r remains t h e most economical to  g a i n needed p u b l i c exposure.  Therefore, the  means f o r a p r o d u c t i o n  The more o r i g i n a l and e y e - c a t c h i n g  the p o s t e r the g r e a t e r the chance p e o p l e w i l l r e a d i t and, i n t u r n , a t t e n d the p r o d u c t i o n . In  d e s i g n i n g a p o s t e r f o r ERWARTUNG, my f i r s t o b j e c t i v e was  to determine which were t h e most i m p o r t a n t elements i n t h e monodrama and t o i n c o r p o r a t e them, s y m b o l i c a l l y , i n t o the p o s t e r .  I  chose t h r e e symbols t o appear i n the p o s t e r : t h e f o r e s t , a s k u l l , and a b r o k e n , r e d r o s e .  The Woman's changes o f l o c a t i o n i n t h e f o r e s t  i n t h e f o u r scenes o f ERWARTUNG s y m b o l i z e h e r c o n t i n u o u s l y c h a n g i n g s t a t e o f mind.  Throughout t h e monodrama, the Woman f a l l s  deeper  and deeper i n t o a demented s t a t e , c o n s i s t i n g o f a m u l t i t u d e o f t e m p o r a r i l y obscured  t h o u g h t s , i m p r e s s i o n s , and images.  The s k u l l  r e p r e s e n t s n o t o n l y the death o f h e r l o v e r , b u t t h e death o f her p r o d u c t i v e mind. passion."  The b r o k e n , r e d r o s e r e p r e s e n t s t h e "murder o f  As I s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y i n Chapter Hour, I b e l i e v e t h e  42  43 Woman, drawn by her own dementia, r e v i s i t s the scene of the murder she h e r s e l f committed. My second objective was to design an " e x p r e s s i o n i s t i c " poster u t i l i z i n g the three symbols, the forest, the s k u l l , and the rose.  To accomplish t h i s , I chose to use photography.  With the  permission of the University o f B r i t i s h Columbia Faculty of Dentistry, I was allowed to photograph a s k u l l .  I used a 32 ASA (American  Standards Association) Kodak f i l m which enabled me to enlarge the p r i n t without producing unpleasant grain.  The forest scene was taken  on the University of B r i t i s h Columbia endowment lands using 400 ASA Kodak f i l m .  The 400 ASA Kodak f i l m creates an opposite e f f e c t to the  32 ASA f i l m by causing the coarseness of the granular structure to become v i s i b l e when enlarging the p i c t u r e .  I chose to develop these  two films on a matt surface, high contrast paper, s p e c i f i c a l l y 8x10 Kodak RC2  (resin-coated) paper.  I chose t h i s paper purposely  to increase the contrast of the p r i n t to the point where half-tones disappear, emphasizing only the essential pattern of the picture. In the development of the background of the poster, the forest scene, I used a process c a l l e d " s o l a r i z a t i o n . " S o l a r i z a t i o n i s the p a r t i a l reversing of the image on p r i n t or f i l m .  This  special e f f e c t i s produced by the action of light on the p a r t i a l l y developed material.  Prints s o l a r i z e d during the developmental  process appear almost completely reversed.  That i s to say, the  print appears to have black highlights and white shadows.  The best  results are achieved by using rather high-contrast subjects such as those I have used.  44 The p r i n t of the s k u l l and o f the red rose were l a t e r applied with masking tape on to the forest scene.  The l e t t e r i n g , done with  Letraset, was the f i n a l step i n producing the poster. was  The poster  once again photographed and appears on the following page. An  additional poster done i n the same manner i s also included.  These  posters can, o f course, be reproduced i n any desired s i z e . The additional poster found on page 47 was designed by my dear friend and a r t i s t Mrs. Mary Ann Quiring.  The o r i g i n a l was  done i n water colours, s p e c i f i c a l l y , Symphonic 30-17 B r i l l i a n t Water Colours for A r t i s t s (made i n U.S.A.).  The black background  was produced by using a free flowing black ink c a l l e d Osmirodid.  The  f i n a l poster was sprayed by a Grumbacher product c a l l e d Tussilm, which simply protects the water colours from smudging should i t be subject to moisture.  One can e a s i l y appreciate that this poster  too i s hightly symbolic, as indicated by the a r t i s t ' s preoccupation with the state o f the Woman's inner consciousness. In summary, Schoenberg's ERWARTUNG opus 17 i s an expressionist music drama.  Each aspect of t h i s work as discussed i n this paper  forms an integral part o f an understanding of the opera as a whole. The reader, be he an observer or p a r t i c i p a n t i n a future production of ERWARTUNG, w i l l hopefully have gained a f u l l e r appreciation of this most i n t r i g u i n g work.  45  46  47  E R W A R T U N Q •  BY  A.  SCHOLNblRG  48 BIBLIOGRAPHY  A p e l , W i l l i . H a r v a r d D i c t i o n a r y o f M u s i c . Second Cambridge: The Belknap P r e s s , 1969. A r m i t a g e , M e r l e . Schoenberg. P r e s s , 1971.  edition,  New Y o r k : Books f o r L i b r a r i e s  Bellman, W i l l a r d . L i g h t i n g t h e Stage A r t and P r a c t i c e . Second e d i t i o n , New Y o r k : C h a n d l e r P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1967. C r a f t , R o b e r t , r e c o r d n o t e s f o r "The M u s i c o f Arnold Schoenberg," V o l . 1. Columbia Records, 1963. C r a w f o r d , John. The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f Text and M u s i c i n t h e V o c a l Works o f A r n o l d Schoenberg. dissertation, Cambridge: The Belknap P r e s s , 1963. D a l s t r o m , C.L. Schoenberg's York: AnnArbor, 1930.  Dramatic E x p r e s s i o n i s m .  New  F i e l d , Frank. The L a s t Days Of Mankind: K a r l Kraus and H i s V i e n n a . New York: M a c M i l l a n , 1967. F u r n e s s , R.S. Limited,  E x p r e s s i o n i s m . London: Methuen and Company 1973.  G o l d w a t e r , R o b e r t . A r t i s t s on A r t . Books L i m i t e d , 1945.  New York:  G r o u t , Donald. A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f Opera. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ,  Pantheon  Second 1965.  edition,  J u n g , C a r l . The C o l l e c t e d Works o f C.G. Jung. V o l s . 5 § 18, Second e d i t i o n , London: Routledge § Kegen P a u l , L t d . , 1967. 1  L e i b o w i t z , Rene. Schoenberg arid H i s S c h o o l . Da Capo P r e s s , I n c . , 1949. MacDonald, Malcolm. 1976.  Schoenberg.  M a c h l i s , Joseph. The Enjoyment § Company I n c . , 1963. Payne, Anthony. Schoenberg. E l y House, 1968.  London: J.M.  o f Music.  New  York:  Dent § Sons L t d . ,  New Y o r k : W.W.  Norton  London: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ;  49 P e r l e , George. S e r i a l C o m p o s i t i o n and A t o n a l i t y . F o u r t h e d i t i o n , Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1977. P i l l i n , B o r i s . Some A s p e c t s o f C o u n t e r p o i n t i n S e l e c t e d Works o f A r n o l d Schoenberg. Los A n g e l e s : Western I n t e r n a t i o n a l M u s i c , I n c . , 1971. Reich, W i l l i . Schoenberg, A C r i t i c a l B i o g r a p h y . P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. R i c h i e , J.M. German E x p r e s s i o n i s t Drama. P u b l i s h e r s , 1976. Rosen, C h a r l e s . A r n o l d Schoenberg. P r e s s , 1975.  Viking  London: Kegan P a u l , T r e n c h ,  R o s e n t h a l , J e a n . The Magic o f L i g h t . A r t Books, 1972.  New Y o r k : T h e a t r e  R u f e r , J o s e f . Aspekte der Neuen Musik. V e r l a g K a s s e l , 1968. !-•--  York:  B o s t o n : Twayne  New Y o r k : The  Rosenfeld, Paul. Musical P o r t r a i t s . Trubner $ Company, L t d . , 1922.  New  Kassel: Bernereiter-  . The Works o f A r n o l d Schoenberg. Faber, 1962.  London: Faber §  R u s s e l l , Douglas. Stage Costume D e s i g n : Theory Technique and S t y l e . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n C e n t u r y C r o f t s , 1973. Samuel, R i c h a r d . E x p r e s s i o n i s m i n German L i f e , L i t e r a t u r e , and t h e T h e a t r e (1910-1924). Cambridge: W. H e f f e r $ Sons L t d . , 1939. Schoenberg, A r n o l d . S t y l e and I d e a . London: Faber § Faber, 1975. S p i l l m a n , Ronald. P r e s s , 1974.  E d i t e d by Leonard S t e i n ,  Darkroom T e c h n i q u e s .  S t e i n , E r w i n . Orpheus i n New Company L t d . , 1953.  Guises.  England: Fountain  London: C. T i n l i n g and  S o k e l , W a l t e r . An A n t h o l o g y o f German E x p r e s s i o n i s t Drama. New Y o r k : Doubleday, 1963. S t u c k e n s c h m i d t , H.H. A r n o l d Schoenberg. The D i t c h l i n g P r e s s , 1959.  H a s s o c k s , Sussex:  50 Tansey, Richard. Art Through the Ages. Sixth e d i t i o n , New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1975. Vergo, Peter. Webern, Anton.  The Blue Rider.  New York: E.P. Dutton, 1977.  Schoenberg's Musik.  Munich,  1912.  51 Periodicals  H e r b e r t Buchanan, "A Key t o Schoenberg's ERWARTUNG, Opus 17", J o u r n a l o f t h e American M i i s i c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , XX (1967), 434-449. A l a n Lessem, "Schonberg and t h e C r i s i s o f E x p r e s s i o n i s m " , Music and L e t t e r s , LV (1974)-, 429-436. H.H.  Stuckenschmidt, "Kandinsky und Schonberg", XXXI (1964), 209-211.  Melos,  K a r l Worner, " A r n o l d Schoenberg and t h e T h e a t r e " , M u s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , X L V I I I (1962), 444-460.  DO NOT COPY LEAVES 52-98; PREVIOUSLY COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL  52  A .  S  C  H  O  E  N  B  E  ERWARTUNG (Monodram) op. 1? Dichtung von MARIE PAPPENHEIM  Klavierauszug (E. Steuermann)  LTD  U N I V E R S A L  E D I T I O N  R  G  53  Besetzung des Orchesters 1 kleine Flote  4 HOrner in F  3 groBe FlOten  3 Trompeten in B  (3. auch 2. kleine)  4 Posaunen  3 Oboen  1 BaB-Tuba  1 Englisch Horn  1 Harfe  (auch 4. Oboe)  1 Celesta  1 D-K!arinette  I. Geige (wenigstens 16)  1 Klarinette in B  II. Geige (wenigstens 14)  2 Klarinetten in A  Bratschen (10—12)  1 Ba6-Klarinette,in B  Violoncell (10—12)  3 Fagotte  Kontrabasse (8—10)  • 1 Kontrafagott Pauken, Becken, groBe Trommel, kleine Trommel, Tamtam, Ratschen, Triangel, Glockenspiel, Xylophon.  U.  E.  5362  ERWARTUNG (Monodram)  Auffiihrungsrecht vorbehalten. Droiit d'execution reserves.  Dichtung von Marie Pappenheim  Arnold Schoenberg Op. 17  I. S z e n e S t a m m e terte  A  m R a n d e  u n dd e r A n f a n g  r o t e  R o s e n  a m  eines  W a l d e s .  d e s b r e i t e n  K l e i d .  M o n d h e l l e  W e g e s  S c h m u c k .  1 +  n o c h  S t r a f i e n  h e l l .  F r a u  is M t «x#n.n<j •  ft. vena*  mafiige J us)  E i n e  u n d  d e r  k o m m t ;  M o e ^ i f i r  W a l d h o c h  z a r t .  w e i f i  u n d  d u n k e ' l .  gekleidet;  l«jW-4 -Hx * i W «  N u r d i e  t e i l w e i s e  e r s t e n entbl'at-  **y °f * * * * *  «*  T "^ 0  -H* &»*«.•  ^ «* 'l'Y **» •** h  F e l d e r ;  '« »f —  tgt,  u  Gesang  Klavier  F r a u  (zogernd)  Hler_  hin-ein?...  Man sleht den Weg O u  cahoot-  nloht.  t e a  ••*>«. <•*».j •  131  1  'if; I f  I f Hi  Wie sll too si  bern die Stam  schim-mern...  me  %  11  _=  I  PP  pppsehr leicht H" bedentet H a o p t s t i m m e , N* N e b e n s t i m m e .  C o p y - r i ^ t Renewed  1 9 2 2 b y U n i v e r s a l  Copyright  D i e G e s a n g s s t i m m e ist (we tin  E d i t i o n  1950 b y E d u a r d  wle Blr - ken!...  rf Ob. sehr zart  Universal  Edition  nichts gegenteiliges  N r .  angegeben  ist)  i m m e r HAxrptstimme.  5362.  Steuermann  ©  TRW"* "*™*' -  }  |CftT«S"-'Ne  ttAW)eR..  (vertieft  zu  B o d e n  scnauend)  poco rail.  un -  oh_  ser Gar - ten.  ±  Die  Blu - men  fur ihn  ifsind  si - cher  ver-  Hr. , _ V c l .  fliefiend "CLtt 2. s*f*  b.I.  welkt. Fl.  H~  HP I  'J: Uppity If ify P I ^ f l l If f ^ J - J  Id n4 j n4 j J J j PPl  :  m  rascher J = 76 (in  (hurcht  plbtzlicher Angst)  Iuh  in den W a l d ,  beklomraen)  te mich... was fiirschwe-re Luft a. ^likieu .. vjkaA- Saltan, air  furch  Hrf.  herausschlagt.. Ii OuA twe. ..  H"  iii #71  F g # .  B Pos.m.D.\  7 Kb.  B  B  S  V  —  ' 1  st  v  $  7  H^+ttxHs.loototout-.s/"  rit  molto rit.  (ringt d i e H a n d e , sieht z u r i i c k )  V ^ ^ Wie  > i*  ?r  \  ji  n ^ ^  grau - en-voll  ein Sturm  ru - hig itt  U . E .  5362.  ^  ^  und  4eer...  a*jL  ft  tare • •  Oua* r clou* .IrtteKjcci^dwoH^  £]viel langsamer (J = so)  (sieht  (kauert  hinauf)  n i ^ d e r . lauscht, sieht  P A-berhierists A-berhier ists we-niff-stenshell.. we-nig-stenshell.. ft** heft it  i*  a  U*Ue-  der tier Mond  -bfi^A-...  »WQGI\—  war frii-Flier fru "her wu  torlier  KO  hell hell...  So  "bri^UA-. •  sehr rasch  molto rit (auffahrend)  _  bei  der Mond_ •tie. MJ»or\-  dir.  1st in der i<> i«. "*^«-  (rt**l*.  Dam-me-rung. -me-runff... -Wi lujrt  v  3F  *  ^ 7 Kb. U. E .  5362.  A  a/  57 6  -. 5 S  heftig (J.96)  wieder —  J— feig  bist du  willst ihn nicht su  chen?...  ab(«pt  langsamer  Mrtn  U.S.  ftWr\-to  So still) doch hiur  11  H" Trp.A  * A  7 Fl  fc-l^b-fP  A  1 KbAcl.am  Vcl.Kb.  JSlrit  - .  ^ ^ { w e n d e t  sich  gf-g^n  d e n W a l d )  -  -  .  .  -langsam  abrupt 4urm t>. S .  U.  E .  5362.  Sleg  Hj.  59 g  U . S z e n e CT wieder etwas langsainer iefstes  ,  , , jnoch  U.S. o f O w C d l f )  , . _, hinter der  5lou3l  v  Dunkel, breiter W e g ,  x Szene;  hohe., d i c h t e B i i u m e . S i e  tastet vorwarts)  |  153 wieder viel rascher  °  ( b u c k t s i c h , e r e i f t rait d e n i . . . i ,  Handen, aufschreiend) K _ .  **** ow**. J«J.»itK  w a l k <Ut>  K*~A« , ic/e*~u  D.V«cWot Ist dasnochder Weg?.. Xs -4«.t sktt+ke uiaij?--  >  1 •bubble. (zitternd  auf>  •*«  versucht  Hier ist es e H«fe'(t is pirn* -  Was?  laii los!...  lj  esoress.  KF3  /Po . s  control (*uut%  ihre  Hand  zu  betrachten)  (wild, greift  sich  ins  Gesicht)  a6 Ein - ge-klemmt?.. Nein  /  Tschligt  ist was ge -'kro - chen...  mit  den  Handen  U.  E .  urn  sich)  5362.  '  r  Und hier  60  J=  45  C^eht w e i t e r , n u t v o r y e s t r e c k t e n  (sehr  wieder ruhig  Es war a  ft*  so Sc.  still  "hin-ter den Mau-ern des Gar  so  fliefiende J  Armen)  tens..  ruhig)  Kei-ne Sensen mehE.kein Ru-  nfc loom &yWi><*^t<y(k4{,.. no CiJ-  J[i  U.  E.  5362.  61 10  Hq| rit. J = 56 langsamer J 1  rit.  60  pj) subilo_  etwas drangend J= 69 (traurig)  .  ,  langsamer J = 54 „  ,  ,  ,  ,  (stehen  bleibend)  3 far  -  A  b e n —  -  b e r  d u  bist  nicht  n c -ver.  Co - loufS- Trp.  k;  g e - k o m  d.dL  -  men....  e»*ft  -  W e r  in. D.  Kb.  Hr.  w e i n t  WI.O er.C* n klagend &£\  —  P  1  (wieder  (nifendj sehr  leise,  etwas langsamer  angsUich)  (wartet)  (lauter)  lauschendj  (  h  o  r  c  h  naru-  ( . s i i ^  t  a  <  1  (  X  ; ^  da?.. 1st M l . - | —  ^  h i e r  " j e - m u n d ?  1st  h i e r  j e - m a n d ?  N i c h t s . .  a - b e r das w a r  1  P  (ic?Ar rasch) PPP^j  Pos.  =5 TO U.  E .  5362.  doeh..  '  1  62  75  rascher werdend von J= 60 bis J= so Jetzt rauscht es  It  fliichtend)  o  - ben-  n (vol]  schliigt_  snhi>iirt.  it  (Schrei (tobendf  eines  Nachtvogels) J -  84  seitwarts  CT'GSC « s es  rustl '3  Entsetzen  J.ki •Stip _^  _  qsU  a  K.WJM- * • » » «  &»U*  v o n A s t . i"zu / n von Ast  Ast..  Es  U.  E .  5362.  J) =  84  etwas drangend  U.  E .  5362.  65 14  v i e l rascher J = 7 6  A iaM-^u^u^iut, (LeichterWindstoB  A - bend 1st es so  ( S i e sieht w i e d e r h i n j  lang .  - ber derSchat-ten krlecht  3  1  nicht rascher, aber heftiger i m Ausdruck  quel -  Kein No  lend..  wte an  Stie  -  **^X^— (Jii^-sf"  Tier,_  lie -ok^i  len  S|'lA^'  ber Gott, keln deaf—i <Sat*, , w  U. E .  5362.  ( L a u t des  Wie Hsu3  Schauderns)  es glotzt... i t . Srt».(SS • • •  Tier... t*ast.  doch!..  66 •  ich . _ I  ha - be  p°  c o  r  sol - che Angst.. Lieb -  ka*. -  -  15  J = 84.  it  4ta.r •• LDV -  ster, mein tt  Lieb -  t t - \ov  ster,  -  e<JU ,  hilf help  Siir ««  4^* PPP  '3i  3 -  -  5  IT Ve rwan d I u n g  'PP staec.  I  ppstacc.  <"•• " ' ' * SJ  M i  \  f »r p i  immer stacc.  —*—•—v# " • — » etwas beschleunigend  etwas verlangsamend, aber doch flieBend J = 72  U.  E .  5362.  r  f r u s ^  67 16  IV Szene  ( M o n d b eschienene, breite Strafie, rechts abwechselndj. Etwas siehtman Fenster G e w a n d  die Strafie  mit dunklen ist  TFve  L a d e n  zerissen, die p a t K  r\ou>  125  i  nach  links  verliert  freiliegen. Dort  aus d e m W a l d e sich  geschlossen. E i n Haare  l o u t s  +o  auch  W i e s e n  i m Dunkel  ein W e g , d e r von  Balkon  einem  aus weifiem Stein. Die  verwirrt. Blutige a  k o m m e n d .  die Strafie w i e d e r  miindet  Risse  an  Gesicht  u n d  u n d  F e l d e r (gelbe  hoher Hause Frau  u n d  Baumgruppen. herunterfuhrt.  kommt  langsam,  griine  Streifen  Erst  g"anz  In  diesem  erschopft.  links alle Das  Handen.)  house-  ruhig, aber flieBend J = 6 9  (utnschauend)  Istauchnicht  . Laut...  da...  Die wei  Auf der gan-zen,lan-gen Stra - Be  tenblassenFel-der iind oh-ne A - tern, CittoLi-  po-W ~  Cig.Br.Fl.  ert  irtaH.- ,  nithtsLe-ben-di - ges... und kein  wie er-stor-ben., kein Halm .no Stock-  as. '<Q dOaHL.  noch etwas langsamer J = 50  look I'K dutefto*. of roooi (sieht  die Strafie  entlaner)  VV  V  riihH sich  „ _  „,  i — -  ^ _  •  3.  Noch im - mer  1  die  tadt..  H5  Flii-gel-schat-ten ei -tiesNacht - vo-gels am  E .  le -  PPP  185  V.  fah al  PP¥  Flag.  Fl.  k e i - n e W b l - ke, nicht der  und die-ser  5362.  Him - mel.  68 (Sie  bleibt  sehwankend  stehen)  rascher J.ss Ij^Sie h a t s i c h b i s i n  die Nahe  der B a u m g r u p p e n  (links) gtschleppt, unter denen  es  voil-  J=54 <* *T€«S U « l « wKviK i t ta <<««>( a u k standig  dunkel  Viel ruhiger  ril.  ist)  (miide, unentrichlossrn; schnsiichti^)  4Ap  t  r  Ei-neBank..  ichmuB  A-ber so  aus-i-uhn..  wieder rascher J r eo (Sie  kommt  unter  die  Batons,  stiitlt  rait  dem  Futf an r uu  nuuiranu e m  etwas)  an etwa.i>v  (Mit  dem  *  FU£J  tastend,  Fr.  lung  Nein,  ion ihnlucht ihjvmcht ge hub ioh ge-sehn. •&<• c ION* ^  Vcl.  A  das das  ist ist nicht nichtderSchattentier derSchatten tierBank! Ban! Gg- j  —  mm B.K1.  iP i  K  7  U. E.  r  w  5362.  R  |  ill  -6-9t * j N f i t ©v^y, erschrocken)  (Beugt  l<«tt^.  sich nieder, hurcht)  (Sie  tastet  t^o oat e»( 4k« aKoelouas ,vV>'-H^ Maoihli^t-  8 (Sie  tritt a u s d e mSchatten  hinunter)  (Versucht  ins Mondlicht)  seJir aufgeregt, aber pp  m i t entaeLz-  Kr.  Esglanzt rot.. rot... D- looks r e d . .  Ach, Ach, mei-ne Han-de Haiilde sindwund ge-ri: ge-ris-sen... Mi ,^  - a/a. b l o o d y  aAd. Soft •  Nein,  es istnochnaii, it is still  do es ist von vondort. H fe -ftmHOifc.  . 104 licher  Anstrengung  •V'^i'oa  urntoat  d e n Gegenstand  hervofzuzerren)  ~h> tscaftg h o o V c o n s t a r t s  i u » *Cd»ux».^* (V+o p.*. s«chok  Ich kann  nicht  Kb.'v (Biickt sich^mjt farchtbarem S c h r e i )  I\A« -V> W w (05. ( S i t sinkt nieder)  tei-ii'  70  langsam(»!a/%: J= 60) p.  (Erhebt  sich  halb,  aodaB  ihx Gesicht  den  Baumen  zugewendet  ist. V e r w i r r t )  (sieht unverwandt hin)  JUL  5  das istderschreckU-che Kopf...  das Ge-spensl...  wenn es nur end-Uch verschwande...  wie das Im  Ml Wuld... Used*  Etn Baumschatten.  .ein a.  la-cher-li-cherZweig... ri-oiic-a-lo*s Weh...C*L  U. E  5362.  Der  Mond Ist tuk-kisch...  71 poco rit.  20  etwas langsamer (mit  weil  er blut-leer ist...  malt er  ro -  Nioht hin-sehn...Nichtdrauf ach"tun... Es  DoA-t look iW.. Do »>ot-  *A>kd  ausgestreckten  zer-geht  it-.-  Fingern  tesBlut...  hinweisend, fliisternd)  .  A-ber eswirtlgleichzerflie  -  £en...  si-cher...  «# Mf- j  (Flag.g/u*.,  PP  (Sie wendet sich m i t gezwungener Ruhe ab, gegen die Strafie z n )  ,  ffliss.  i  lr.  .  (Sie wendet sich j a hurn, aber nicht vollstandig)  „  _.»_-+•  . [ » ! ( » M t W  )  .  ( S c h w e [gen, Unbeweglichkeit) s;W«*  (Fast iauchzend) „ . w i t i X.^\»u  Fr.  Ichwill fort... t^to  wie das imWald..  ichmuCihn fin-den... E s m u f i s c h o n s p a l s e i n . M » JC-Swujoe-ol. K.V... x-^s oA«Wvi \ a * s .  , Es ist nichtmelir  . - %  lo««/  langsam  rit. . _  '  J».  112  (Sie hat sich weiter gewendet, erblickt plotzlich wieder d e n  Gegenstand)  ^•3 Fr.  da...  Es ist noch  Ich wufi - te..  X*. -  U. E. 5362.  *  7 2 Xk  H * . «<a*v. o f  collars*  S^i-J* e / e w  (ihr Oberkorper fallt nach vorn, sie scheint ab«r sie k n e c h t mit g-esenktem H a u p t bis  (Sie  beugl  sich ganz  zur  Seite, als  wollte  sie i h m  ins Gesicht  sehen)  .  ,c  <$ >fa-  zusammenzusinken, hin, tastet^  21  7,3  pppi  K«.^«rf,b«w<jro»»p(€hiY»i'>«*>etwas 1  (Entsetzt, beugt  U E .  sich ganz)  5362.  PP  zuriickhaltend J = ( a t e m l o s ) -t>i4«Hil«5S  100  74 J - 84  sofort im Tempo (m'dpige zum  H a u s e  23  J)  195  hiaaufj  Um Got - tes  -  wil-Tlen  ra8ch!...  hort  (schaut  look back  mich denn no  etwas langsaraer verzweifelt u m sicE)  ^u.***,*  ^  ^ •*«•  1  -  Izuruck unter d i e B a u m e ;  ^/""^ K*'"" '  ~ ;  OAC  nie-mand ?... hedr me.?...  (onn  +  fliefiend J = so  205  Fr.  Pi tot  be  rit.. -molto_riL. sein... ich  dead... X.  lie  Ii  (zartlich, eindringlich) =  6 6  - be dich h K' so...  you. SO  IUIUX--'  nJn-ser Jn-ser Zimnler Zimraer i; ist halb Our civA^be^ +iov0*«^ i E.H.  ppzart  JTj  U  E . 5362.  75 24  langsamer J = 50 rit.  .  .  .  . X  ^ J *  Y  hell...  *p H"  Al - les  ™i  war - let..  Was soil ich  tun  — ' J n J  J)  Die Blu - men  ^  ¥  p nJ> 1  duf-ten "so  Was soil ich nur tun,,  .  J  .  stark...  dafi 'er er  auf-wacht?... auf-wacl  "L  langsamer J = 58 (Sie  greift ins Dunkel  faflt s e i n e  H a n d )  (Sie  zieht die H a n d  schiichtern,  hinein,, (zusammenzuckend,  fragend)  a n sich, kufit sie  schmeichelnd)  ;  76  J = 9 2  Oje+ofroue)! r , , i  - p « r h Kan4 o « l a p  lebhaft (nicht zu rasche J ) (ausbrechendj^  ,  d  teg  maBig J = so (wesentlich langsamer) poco rit  Fr.  \jl  k  JpHf .  ( f ^ - f — — ^ V — : *^ mir?  DieSon  "Ipf• M—:  -  negliiht Pas. B.Tb.  Hi  j/1 - »/ •  uf uns... a  iff- "  W 'IB . ian dei-ne ]  in iiff- a y—r^yj—T* -  de  lie-g jnauf  — :  !  mir... dei  Y.—  - ne  26  [2301 niolto r i t . .  breit J  S i e h  m i c h  d o c h  a n ,  L i e b  ster.  leh  l i e -  g e  C  ^  ' ne - b e n  ^  ,  a  ?  d i r  ? r°**~)  So  sieh  So  ••'«r'  look-  1  f-  1  t  b o r f  '  '  o u n k i n a U i . l o o k a-V- h  '  langsam  ° J-  (sieht i h n a n , e r w a c h e n d )  m i c h  d o c h  a n  w i e  A h ,  1  Starr...  w i e  l u r c h  -  t e r - l i c h  hoo dncA - ^ul-l^  Gg. am Steg  Kl.i  (sehr  8 0  d e i - n e  A n -  eoW-  traurigj  gen'sind...  a/«- you' eytsKl.  Simp  II  5  m  pp  J=  Pos. m. U.  'sehr langsam J . Fr.  d r e i  T a  •*W  ^  5  - iSrj^-J-  g e 0  H"  '  60  etwas w e n i g e r l a n g s a m _  50  P  w a r s t  •! d u nicht  W > ( c . nrt  W  w-  b e i uwtt.  A - b e r 3A-  m i r . . M .  i  h e u ^  -  te.. «**•)•••  *kflr,.Ki,  so a h .  s i  -  N  Su.ee.  c h e r . . I j - •  wieder langsamer (J = J) % -  J. =  40  ,  ,  rit.  27  i - f = ,  Fr.  der  A-bend war  so  voll Frie  U-bef die Gar - ten-mail - er dir Over  ^ * r ^ d e j ^ ^  X  w«M  - "den...  ent-ge a  +P w t A  U . E . 5 3 6 2 .  Ich schau - te  gen..  undwar undwar. -  so nie -  tetfTe.. tePfe.  drig ist sie..  fliefiender J = so E  - ben noch  E-veft«ou  Hauch  i  N  im  do\ _ ne np dei  Wald..._  +1^  auf mei-ner  -ft,  fitim mp Stim _- me  r«t  Wan -  WKCI —  ge...  dei  U. E . 5362.  -  ne  «n so  nflh nah  So  oloM. "to  Hand  ;in "mei-nem "mpi.npm Ohr, Ohr - 1m an ~ j  auf  «"*Kfr'-  hiei - nein  a  l  *  80 langsamer J = 63  29  noch langsamer J = 60  me bog sich doch e- ben nocn nocli un-ter mei-nen KUs  Mund  TO ait* *  pp  WJT^ 1  £lT>  < j £  V  i  1 l  J  C ^'f—'  1 <j  'J  ^  mpespr"  •  fa  in Blut  Cel.PPP  ftp  lip  'p-.  tropft  noch  jetzt  J  ^  J  ^ 3  mit  T  Vour  (Sie  beugt  sich  BluL  "blood*  tief  iiber  ist i+  noch le - ben Ml « - litft.  lei -"sum -'semSchlag  dig..  ihn)  Pespr. U. E .  5362.  •  —  3  i i  Dein  »  ^  I  3 0  noch langsamer J 4 0  richtet  M c h halb  auf)  Q i e b k o s e n d ) ^  (In  d e r  Fr.  Al-lesLicht kam ja ausdei-nen Au  rtm€»b*/ la*fi*ti>f.St"**]&*dly Erinnerung  kiili  -  iir- «oh\jLinHfil .ln.u'pnn ichdich ich Hiph an-sah... «n Jwnh mirschwindel-te,wenn Nun  gen...  r  klSS h i m  |270|  liichelnd, geheimniiivori, ziirtlich)  Ich mich an dir zu  To  U.  K.  5362.  82  ininier noch langsam J = 54  31  (Sie sieht ihn unverwandt an.' Nach einer Pause pliitzlich, verwundert)  pp espr. ~<r>-  l> selt  -  sam  ^ist are  dein yew  Au  -  ge.  Wo  *F -  hin  u-n.  n  Cel.  275 Etwas bewegter J-. J = 60 sehaust '  du?  vioi««+(v (heftiger)  Srt-up  took areuxd dutcttrr. o-f Csieht sich um.. nach dem Balkon)  U. E. 5362.  in:  1-3— (wieder  zuriick. die H a n d  an  d e r  Stirn)  280  (Gesang noch immer ruhig, also etwas schleppendj  7  plotzlich viel langsamer J  1  (immer  (angestrengt  vertiefter)  i n der E r i n n e r u n g  ;  8S  suchend)  wieder rascher J- = 60 (immer  und plotzlichbezwangst du dich...  klarer  werdend)  Und drei  285  Ta -  ge warst du nichtbei mir... da»p you "'^ • 1,4  steigernd kei-ne Zeit... so a*a KB -H'fvMi...  oft  ^c&T**  hast du kei-ne kei-neZeit Zeit ge-habt in die-sen letz-ten letz-tenMo-na-ten Mo-na-ten... MKL tiaw. KanL no •h'wt. 4ar m m HKatf tot- t u m r h — . . .  of-hir. — —  U E. 5362.  wonutA>  84  Br. H r f . C e l . X y l .  U  E.  5362.  .85 langsamer J .= 76  H  B.Kl.Fg.  etwas breiter J at>r«p1- H e a d  4t*r«  S-K.  (in rasender  Angst)  = 72  (bewegte  J)  ,86 (aufschreiend, w i e sich a n k l a m m e r a d ) Sc-Mcu*'  .  Nein,.  ein - zig  nein...  Ge "Ua •  On-  no...  i  35  molto rit. -  315  .  3E i  A  langsamer J = so  *  nochlangsamer J = 56 (zitternd)  4^  FY.  r  schwankt... Swcup ...  ich X  kann Catv  -  nicht not  se -  hen..  '> M — — <  1  y  =—  1  ^ mich <x"t  y J  d ooch  1  —  P P >  :  u.  r*^^™^! rit'.I n  Y—'—r  p p p _ ^ ^ ^ P P P  •> ^ # i r  r  —  —*•/  Q  Schau.  a?  k  V verrimetta ~  mafiige a). (J = too) took* i"o •/*.€. o f i < < £ * < o < \ ' » f * * n « u < * ,  pespr.  Hr.  -Hi  U. E. 5362.  1  ^  F l  r-il  87  Sehr rasch J. = eo  36 [325  (rast  plotzlich)  Wo ist  ^J^jj*  Dusiehst wie-der  v  wieder sehr lebhaft  , Rasch J=J  (hohnisch)  molto rit..  _ die wei-Ben Ar  sie denn  -  * V d u  sie  V.  E.  rot  5362.  WBU.  <J.=56  88  und  U. E .  5362.  ich war-  89  - te-te...  ^  Ich will sie  k  s z  4f  tfS  S.L  Wo ist sie  an den Wei-Ben Ar-men  hin -  her -  lau-fen als du im Blut 4o  -  OA  schlei-fen  you. Vis  lagst?... m  r,wfc*<*»y  />/>5»E. H . -  U. E. 5362.  -bloe^t,?..  -9 039  S e h r mafiig  i  (Schluchzt auf)  lapu am*  *  fliefiendeJU  olto rit.  -p***  I  Adagio)  J=  ion  nicht ein Rial Idie •Kt not e-ve  Oh!  OKI  S.Gg.  H"Br.  ppsehr zaftespress.  J  Gna <  -  i g f f e z  fl It.  de, mit , -b  Sir btrt  ster dit ,  -  ben die  v  'i'rv  if-  T ~=  J  zu  w y  ==~^.—-r~~\  = 92  ,  ^  (sinkt n i e d e r ,  ^ fen... ar¥*s- .  » w PPP  ppsehr zart  y  J  aiir your  •  = H §  r  ^ weinend)  J = 104  etwas fliefiender  360 •WcK  ich  dich  I  ka\lt  ge -  habt  , h a d '  -for c  (in Traumerei  s i ° u . o f h i « Quae.  . bab'...  Al - len  • ' . *f0u,-•• IT. H . — " 1  fflr  J3J  U. E. 5362.  4  versinkend)  m  Din - gen fer - ne  91  40 | l A -1 k  (1 1 ^Mr* i  leb  -  J  I  4= le icl  you....  fr emd  k * » l e - <fOa*- ,  =_  VV  =  _  -  ^ - .  \e  nichts  als  r  Since. - * k t € r s t +IIAC.- v/OU. - t o d t -  noch etwas langsamer J  -  r~  ' " H» B» w • R* seit du zumer-stenMaimei-neHandnahmst... Hog. ^ — r r d  TfiQl  - "\—1 ^ Icl  i wuB  w  die-ses gan-ze Jahr ^ i s -  v  1  al  ' dich...  •  1, —vr - Ie n  I...  rit. .  _ 365  .  my  so warm..  Kaivd- J L .  ^  1  6 0  " ^  ^  zngenid  rit. 3*  Fr.  lie fru4ier"lieb4e ich je-man-aen nie niefrii-her"lieb4e ie-man-aen so...  Dein Lii - cheln  und dein  *P1  ill /W>  -5—X 8  sehrlangsame J. , * °  U m  (Stille und  " Schluchzen)  U. E .  Re - den...  5362.  PP  ichhat-tedich so  I  92 Softly 3iic*i<&ly t  (leise,  sich  41  aufrichtend)  PPPP, '/J  .  Mein  Lie  Hy  -  loy -  ^  ber...  mein  ein  ""^  Of...  WTf^tt  5 ~F=N  H > i  -  noch etwas langsamer . J  wah-rend ich vorSehn-sucht ver-ging... •orSehn-sueht ver-ging... loK'ilg M>( b°4y &i.<y.eA wi'N. yen/m  Du  J,  ieb-Iin < zi - ger LiebTing... hast du sie ral gge-kiiflt?... 1^ ^ - lov/(a** you-fwo ofk*. khtid?-••  or,  - rit. ,  ja... y«...  L  I  ^  J  ,  hast du nast du Have you  lachelstschmerzlich  ^i--  sehr sehr  IB  motto esyr.  noch etwas langsamer (J) = 6o) (stiller,  ge -- iiebt? Iiebt? ge  Sag Sag  fr  nicht: nicr  \ielIeichthastduauchge-liUen..vielleichtriefdeinHerznachihr:. perkajJs youhajt S n ^ f A a U o - fsrkof* your Kearf callft*-roj^fKer .  3_ f  ^ i ^ ^ f r  sie sie  fapforiMfy (flehendj  warm)  U E. 5362.  93  ruhige V i e r t e l ( J . 60)  42  lich...  - ber dein Mit leid mach-te mich gliick you* Cowvrpa* - W r*Ms me Nap  16  Co«.i  ich  glaub  te,  war i m OlLickWas ^frf*"vt+4. r  3  (StiUe.; D a m m e r u n g i m O s t e n , tief a m H i m m e ] W o U c e n , v o n s c h w a c h e m durchleuchtet, gelblich schimmernd wie Kerzeniicht)  Soft-^ car #ce K i 6  Schein  Hj" T S.Gg.  (Sie  1  stent "  auf)  • Fl"  VPf-  PPP  J*  66  ruhig flieftende J  (ruhig, fast freundlich I ohne Leidenschaft) Fr.  Lieb  ster,  Lieb - ster,  der  Mor  kommt...  gen  Ob.  ^  H"  H" Fl.  U . K .  5 3 6 2 .  Was soil  ich "ul  — m p / t o esp/T  94  (J.J) rit.  molto rit.  Fr.  al - le  und  du warst..  oil  ^ D U J ? — ...  Hn  Far -  ben der Welt  Co - lourt o( •**  bra-chen  world.  we*4  aus dei - neu Au  mutated.  iV\  e^oi  seAr warm  QPJSehr langsam (J = 42)  J.J  Fr. f* B  neve.  -  e n  — "  —  sehr ruhig rf  •boeK  CUrciHtj I L S . C .  ft-  Das TV*.  Licht wird fiir al le kom \>oyt — k,-,U — co~t -&>/ a l l  f  95  !  - breiter A 72  Mor-gen tiennt uiis...im  merderMor•HA  E H  '  OiKed  w »  -  gen-. So schwer. kiiCt du zum Ab-schied ">9i--- SoSo rShp^li) you. feegi4iWQzrt-iwj •  11-/.  J££  etwas langsamer  J = 46  Ifflfliefiender  J.  P# V Wie-derein e-wi-gerTag des War-tens... oh du \v - wachst janichtmehr... A> — ^x>>~efrcv^l ^x^| c4 UalVi'*^ ... oU. ^ow. bho will no  Fg.Bkl  U.E. 5362.  : li+aywj  1  *>f  ^  z  97  )  46  Sehr langsam J. = 36 (J- ios 1  Es istdunkel... deinKufi 14- is d o / k - ...  wie ein  you., I M C  f,l(  e  a  Flam - men - zei - chen -fwr>  -  In meinerNacht...  ej^bf  l&nj rn^k+...J9.\f!:  Si I S Hrf. (ev. SV.a bassa)  n Fr. mel-ne Lip ..m~(..—...fipit  penbren - nen .ft<g...ft..-..Maint  nnH leu'ch lnimh und  -_  *<in ten..  "Wi^ dir~  " . ani_ ent-ge a * « t a/t- bcclcoft.r^  7 7 'V  Hp  tf>  f  Ifjprlf ^ j r U. E . 5362.  JLTfg.f  98  Sehr langsam (i mafiig)  F igen... to you....  SlouMf w a l k U.S.  47  ($oc*.  a^iewt)  Waldheim-Eberle.  Wien  VII.  99  KEY  TO SYMBOLS USED  IN STAGING  DS  Downstage  US  Upstage  SL  Stage  left  SR  Stage  right  USC  Upstage  centre  101 APPENDIX  I I I  102 APPENDIX IV INSTRUMENT  SCHEDULE  Numaee  CAroP  NOTES  &rs tooo w.  /  ARe*. 1 WASH  ECT loco W.  lf  X  tt  SffcCiAl W26AA WASH  II  4  s to  7 8  11  «l  M  A . JH-AStt  "  II  [T  ll  !•  It  .  . ... -  - „  ft  1*  r,  l«  to  It  If  i\  fl  H  1  It  Af?£A 3 WASH  AReA  I WASK  • 1  ••  1'  11  II  «  i\  n  osR &:*ifA  •1  SPECIAL Afee&A W>SK  I*  >•  AU- LEKOS £q>copp£o i«J>rH S*mTTeRS * .  11  •••  i'  34  47  >T  U  .......  o  5o  4  5")  .H  . « .  o  53  /7  54  SI  n '&  n  SS  17  to  II  llo  ii  \  FifZSr P'P^  L  tt. o  ti  3  A  o  M  i  £901 ip to rrw 4o6t>  o  AfeA..3> WASH DSi_ Scfti rr>  •'  BTu 5bo  '1  u*SH AtfEA 5" WASH  ALU F6tSi*»Ei-S  3 n  20  17  2/  A££A  3  4  A  if  if  • 1  1'  It  II  u  U  7  it  'l  •\  •1  •(  II  8  II  A£efc  U VJIVSH  .t  ii  ii  «. 7.5n  •i  II  5.3  ^ 3  II  "  4  2C  i'  o  17  103  0£U  U9CATfo»J  IO  Pi«Sr Pipe El£CTRicJ ii  a  n  IX  u  II  •I  ii  ii  ft  it  II  H <4 e>  n  .A.  n 18  20 XI  n i  i Z  3  5  r /  0  I I /  Z  3  u  t  ii  •  n  1'  I1  II  it  M  h  II  l>  i"  3o  o  3i  3  53  >7  34  kz  3?  o  3i»  3  31  o  38  , n SPeci^L AREA A Sise UtMTifJi.  £s»X  „  ,i  3E£XVJO Pipe H  II  II  ii  •i  Ii  II  II  if  Az  <rZ  /8  /<f  /8  14  /8  1*  &Z  /t  /8  /5  H  US«? ScC,rv\  L£PT *1 8coH SrwS£ Rl<£.HT TStRo Pipe..  fvRfeAl  S I D E  eex iopo w.  51  sz  tl  is. 8  ELforrRiCll II  IB . <B  »i  II  8" L£KO  */o 4/  ioc>ov>). II  K  t." L£KO  ux.  II  fl  t," P££5n €L  2?.  51  **  K  II  o  II  8 L E K O  II  28  f  i  f  z  II  l|  l>  « II  n  i  2  •1  M  L £ F T  z  & T L SOOW..  uiswr  Age*, "7 WASH  ii  <1  S R K J M . ,VREA A cowr4  Din>rt\£fc  1  tz  '3.  O  9  <i>"'«=> WITH «f  6»VA)C WITH T  104  UJtATiOM  Hitne&l  H  5  THIRP II  (. L£KO  L  k  II  7  H  II  li  II  lo  II  It  tl  Ii  1  4." L£Ko  II  L, 1  8  S P E C I A L A#EA A B * C K  £&F  i» II  i«  I,  Ii  n  (0  13  '!  M  u&^TV/Jfi  it  rVeK T  SACK  Ufenroife  4  \o  II  n  •1  n  IZ  tf-  1  cz  1  o  1  II  II  6ri_ Seoio.  o  1  !•  o  1  It  i,  o  1  it  If  It  ii  o  1  Ii  1  •1  "  o  1  II  If  ll  it  o  1  tl  it  o  1  II  II  o  1  II  »  o  1  ll ll  to  •i  ll  i  ISOA/CL.  ll  3.  Ii  4  II  6" L£K  •i  »•  H  II  <l  it  H 0  '1  I 0-t<l-5TVmA-5  T<6d. UOfTS  z  i50tO.  <i if  *  looovO. it  1 '  WiTH I O  tOfTH l|  &AA*<i  •  " tl  £A*tiwiTVl9  n  It  •Sfta^ A«eA A B*c*  MOTES  18  H  It  1  TSOui.  M  i<  i  8  t  9  2-  3  it  ^ S>«:  t  ecu  S0014.  a  Feuf?nt PiPe  2.  S  BTL  II  II  ii  i  H  AteAi 4 WASH  Af3£A-  ?  3  LAMP  tc  8  I  PIPC  Pu«PoS£  z  >  z  U  Z-  1  1  I  f  ..  -  &<VM& toiru 2-  l(= Pbss<8i-6 GAAIG.  .  .  .  .  l-IO  .  .  I F Pto-vsiBt-a  105  LOCATToisf  Z  •Repose  LAMP  6£u  otnvigg  SMAU- P b u ^ x J SftrT  fe5  H PAH*  HCCO  Urtr Steele.  O C UweU. StPlrW  NOTES  106 APPENDIX V  LIGHTING  MEASURE  CUE  SHEET  CUE 1  Accompanist l i g h t s on  2  House out  3  Dimmers 5,6,14,15,19,57,66 i n . F o l l o w s p o t on b r i d g e f o c u s s e d on a c t r e s s USC above a r e a 6. As a c t r e s s e n t e r s a r e a 6 dimmers 23,24, and 33 a r e s l o w l y b r o u g h t up.  4  Dimmer 66 out when a c t r e s s r e a c h e s o f a r e a 6.  15  5  Dimmers  22  6  Dimmer  26 o u t .  Dimmer  32  7  Dimmer  27 o u t .  Dimmers  35  8  Dimmers 8,21,22,23,24,26,33 o u t . Dimmers 20,45,46,54 i n .  43  9  Dimmers  13,20 o u t .  Dimmers  49,50,56 i n .  46  10  Dimmers  49,50 o u t .  Dimmers  51,55 i n .  71  11  Dimmer  51 o u t .  76  12  Dimmer  81  13  Dimmers 45,46,49,50,52,53,54,56,60 s l o w l y f a d e o u t . Dimmer 16 i n .  87  14  Dimmer 16 o u t . Dimmers 12,32,35,36,37, 39,40 i n . As a c t r e s s e n t e r s a r e a 7 dimmers 35,36,40 s l o w l y f a d e o u t .  94  15  Dimmers 61,62 i n , i n c r e a s i n g to measure 114.  105  16  Dimmers  32,37,39 o u t .  106  17  Dimmers  63,64,65 i n .  1  (or o r c h e s t r a )  §  conductor's  middle  21,22,26 i n .  55 o u t .  Dimmer Dimmers  27 i n . 8,13,26 i n .  49 in.50,52,53,60 i n .  in intensity  Dimmers  30,31,38 i n .  107  MEASURE  CUE  114  18  Dimmers 61,62,63,64,65,out. Dimmers 7,35,36,40 i n . As a c t r e s s a r r i v e s b e h i n d u p s t a g e r i g h t s c r i m , dimmers 12,30, 31,35,36,38,40 f a d e o u t .  122  19  Dimmers 5,6,7.out. 32,37,39„in.  20  As a c t r e s s a r r i v e s at s p e c i a l dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 i n  146  21  Dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 o u t . 29,43,44,48,59 i n .  151  22  Dimmers  9,21,22,27 i n .  154  23  Dimmers  9,21,22,27 o u t .  169  24  Dimmers  9 , 21 , 22 , 25 , 27 i n .  173  25  Dimmers  9 , 21 , 22 , 25 , 2 7 o u t .  190  26  Dimmers  45,46,54 i n .  197  27  Dimmers Dimmers  11,29,43,44,45,46,48,54,59 o u t . 10,28,41,42,47,58 i n .  273  28  Dimmers Dimmers  10,28,41,42,47,58 o u t . 11,29^43,44,48,59 i n .  349  29  Dimmers Dimmers  11,29,43,44,48,59 o u t . 10,28,41,42,47,58 i n .  383  30  Dimmer 1 s l o w l y f a d e o u t . Dimmers 2,3,4.in,  4003  31  Dimmers 24,34,43,44,66 i n . Dimmers 10,28,41,42,47,58 s l o w l y f a d e out as a c t r e s s s t e p s u p s t a g e o f s p e c i a l a r e a A.  32  As a c t r e s s s t e p s dimmers  426  Dimmers  1,12,17,18,  area  A,  Dimmers  11,  s  :  upstage  of area 6  24,34,43,44 s l o w l y  33  Blackout  34  House up t o FULL  fade out.  108 APPENDIX VI  


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