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An ethnography of the nuclear disarmament movement Wallace-Deering, Kathleen 1979

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AN ETHNOGRAPHY OF 8 THE NUCLEAR DISARMAMENT MOVEMENT by KATHLEEN WALLACE-DEERING B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 7 5 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y ) We- accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1 9 7 9 © Kathleen-, Wa'llace-Deering, 1 9 7 9 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e October 11. 1979 D E - 6 B P 7 5 - 5 1 I E i i A b s t r a c t T h i s t h e s i s i s an ethnography of the contemporary n u c l e a r disarmament movement. I t d e s c r i b e s some of the ways i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s symbolize, a r t i c u l a t e and a c t on t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t human s u r v i v a l i s s e r i o u s l y endangered by the e x i s t e n c e and p r o l i f e r a t i o n of n u c l e a r weapons. I l l u s t r a t i o n s are given of the manner i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s invoke the a u t h o r i t y of s c i e n t i f i c , m i l i t a r y and t e c h n i c a l " e x p e r t s " to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r c l aims of the imminence of c a t a s t r o p h e . A l s o d e p i c t e d i s the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p r a c t i c e of posing a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r humanity, the most b a s i c f o r m u l a t i o n s being: "disarmament or a n n i h i l a t i o n , " and " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n or c a t a s t r o p h e . " They i n s i s t t h a t humanity has an urgent choice t o make: to achieve n u c l e a r disarmament or f a c e a n n i h i l a t i o n . They warn t h a t a n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t i s i n e v i t a b l e u n l e s s steps are taken immediately t o prevent i t . Some p a r t i c i p a n t s b e l i e v e t h a t the steps necessary to a v e r t catastrophe i n v o l v e the complete t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g world order. In t h i s t h e s i s . I f o c u s on thosev Jwho b e l i e v e t h a t disarm-ament ahd"~humah s u r v i v a l demand a complete t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of / t h e / e x i s t i n g world order, and who have adopted a s t r a t e g y / based upon an i d e o l o g y of "nonviolence" to accomplish t h i s . Two events organized by p a r t i c i p a n t s are d e s c r i b e d which are p a r t of an o v e r a l l n o n v i o l e n t s t r a t e g y to achieve n u c l e a r disarmament and a transformed world. A case study i s made of the world view and approach t o n u c l e a r disarmament of a w e l l known proponent of "nonv i o l e n c e , " who had a great d e a l of input i n the p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z i n g of one of these events. My concerns and i n t e r e s t s as a new p a r t i c i p a n t i n the disarm--ament movement i n Vancouver, and more e s p e c i a l l y i n the T r i d e n t campaign, have t o a l a r g e degree informed which f a c e t s of the n u c l e a r disarmament movement are d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The T r i d e n t campaign i s an on-going s e r i e s of pro-t e s t a c t i v i t i e s o r ganized w i t h the goal of h a l t i n g the deploy-ment of the T r i d e n t submarine n u c l e a r weapons system, and the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the T r i d e n t base a t Bangor, Washington. I begin the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter by p r o v i d i n g an auto-b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch which i s intended t o "set 1 the scene" f o r the f o l l o w i n g ethnographic d e s c r i p t i o n of c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of the n u c l e a r disarmament movement. A b r i e f summary of each of the chapters i s provided, f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n of methodology. T h i s d i s c u s s i o n c o n s i d e r s : my purposes i n , • choosing t h i s t o p i c ; my. r o l e as both r e s e a r c h e r of, and new p a r t i c i p a n t i n , the movement; data c o l l e c t i o n procedures; and some of the c o g n i t i v e and e t h i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s which arose i n producing t h i s ethnography. The data c o l l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s which are the b a s i s f o r t h i s ethnographic d e s c r i p t i o n of the movement a r e : f i e l d w o r k ; taped i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s ; and the c o l l e c t i o n and examination of v a r i o u s kinds of w r i t t e n and a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s produced p r i m a r i l y by movement p a r t i -c i p a n t s i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Fieldwork experience was mostly w i t h Canadian and American p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the T r i d e n t campaign. i v The second chapter, e n t i t l e d " M i l l e n n i a l Dreams and Apoc a l y p t i c Nightmares," draws a t t e n t i o n to a few of the symbolic themes evident i n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' c a l l f o r a new and b e t t e r s o c i a l order, and t h e i r warning of imminent catastrophe. I observe t h a t f r e q u e n t l y p a r t i c i p a n t s draw upon Judaeo-C h r i s t i a n images, symbols, themes and values embedded i n the Western c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n t o express t h e i r l o n g i n g f o r a new world of u n i v e r s a l peace, j u s t i c e and p r o s p e r i t y , and a l s o t o express t h e i r t e r r o r of the cataclysmic destruc-t i o n of human c i v i l i z a t i o n . The t h i r d chapter, e n t i t l e d " M o b i l i z i n g f o r S u r v i v a l , " describes two events or "demonstrations" which took place atiithe time of the f i r s t United Nations S p e c i a l Session on Disarmament i n May 1 9 7 $ . The f i r s t was h e l d i n the v i c i n i t y of the Trident base. The climax of t h i s demonstration was a c a r e f u l l y . s t a g e d trespass a c t i o n onto the naval f a c i l i t y which r e s u l t e d i n the a r r e s t of 2 6 5 people. P a r t i c i p a n t s r e f e r r e d to t h e i r i l l e g a l entry of the base as an " a c t i o n of c i v i l disobedience." The second demonstration took place i n New York C i t y near the s i t e of the United Nations b u i l d -i n g s . Both events are viewed as attempts to symbolize, proclaim, and somehow b r i n g i n t o being a new world: a world without war. The f o u r t h chapter, e n t i t l e d "The Choice: Kingdom or Holocaust," i s a case study which examines the world view and approach t o nuclear disarmament of which Jim Douglass i s a w e l l known proponent. Douglass has had considerable V i n p u t i n the group process of p l a n n i n g and o r g a n i z i n g the T r i d e n t campaign. His most re c e n t book, L i g h t n i n g East to West, o u t l i n e s h i s v i s i o n of the s p i r i t a n d . s t r a t e g y of t h i s campaign. G r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the T r a p p i s t monk and w r i t e r , Thomas Merton, Douglass' approach t o n u c l e a r disarm-ament i n c o r p o r a t e s elements of C h r i s t i a n i t y a l o n g w i t h Gandhian p r i n c i p l e s of no n v i o l e n c e . In the c o n c l u d i n g chapter I b r i e f l y review some of the main themes d e p i c t e d i n the ethnography, and f i n i s h w i t h some p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n s . The appendix p r o v i d e s the t r i a l statements of three, persons who committed c i v i l d isobedience a t the T r i d e n t base in Bangor, Washington, r,-. e i r e ^ e - . •' - ; • . v i TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Acknowledgement v i i Chapter One I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter Two M i l l e n n i a l Dreams and A p o c a l y p t i c Nightmares 2 7 Chapter Three M o b i l i z i n g f o r S u r v i v a l 3 $ Chapter Four The Choice: Kingdom or Holocaust $4 Chapter F i v e C o n c l u s i o n 1 1 7 Footnotes 1 2 3 References C i t e d 1 3 3 Appendix T r i a l Statements 1 3 $ v i i Acknowledgement I am i n d e b t e d t o many persons i n the n u c l e a r disarm-ament movement who a s s i s t e d me w i t h my r e s e a r c h by p r o v i d i n g me w i t h m a t e r i a l s , by spending time i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s and i n t e r v i e w s , by s h a r i n g t h e i r experiences and understandings w i t h me, and by r e a d i n g and commenting on d r a f t s of my pro-p o s a l and t h e s i s . In p a r t i c u l a r , I would l i k e ; to thank J e f f Boerger, Jim Douglass, Susie Leonard, Irene M c A l l i s t e r , Mary Thomson and S h e i l a loung. To a l l of these persons I a l s o extend my thanks f o r t h e i r commitment and e f f o r t s towards a c h i e v i n g a b e t t e r world f o r a l l humanity. I am deeply g r a t e f u l t o my a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r E l v i Whittaker, f o r her i n s i g h t f u l comments and c r i t i c i s m s , her keen i n t e r e s t i n the moral dimensions of the anthro-p o l o g i c a l endeavour, her s t e a d f a s t encouragement, and her remarkable kindness. The w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s has been g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d by q u e s t i o n s and c r i t i c i s m s a r i s i n g i n s t i m u l a t i n g conversa-t i o n s w i t h f e l l o w students John Brown, Ruby Kalmakoff, and Bev Lee. I am g r a t e f u l to my f r i e n d Debbie Berto f o r her c h e e r f u l a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t y p i n g and her r e a d i n e s s t o l i s t e n . The completion of my M.A. degree was a s s i s t e d f i n a n c i a l l y by a Canada C o u n c i l S p e c i a l M.A. S c h o l a r s h i p and by a U n i v e r -s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Graduate F e l l o w s h i p . Chapter One I n t r o d u c t i o n And the t r a i n the t r a i n made of n o t h i n g but boxcars jammed w i t h t h r e e b i l l i o n people s t i l l stands i n the s t a t i o n t r e m b l i n g . Lawrence F e r l i n g h e t t i , "White on White" I was born i n Vancouver i n 1954, a c h i l d of the Cold War and the f i r s t decade a f t e r Hiroshima. L i k e o t h e r s of my ge n e r a t i o n , I was aware from an e a r l y age t h a t t h e r e was a danger of my f a m i l i a r world, and perhaps the whole world, being destroyed by "the Bomb." Memories from elementary s c h o o l years i n c l u d e the e e r i e w a i l of a i r r a i d s i r e n s b e i ng t e s t e d , and a neighbour b u i l d i n g an underground f a l l o u t s h e l t e r . In ahighhschool E n g l i s h course, we read John Hersey' frooksHir.oshima, which i n a m a t t e r - o f - f a c t s t y l e presented the accounts of s i x s u r v i v o r s of the atomic b l a s t which devasted t h a t c i t y on August 6, 194-5. We a l s o read John Wyndham's The C h r y s a l i d s , a f i c t i o n a l s t o r y about c o n f l i c t over g e n e t i c mutations a r i s i n g i n an i s o l a t e d community l o c a t e d i n New-foundland, c e n t u r i e s a f t e r a n u c l e a r war had destroyed most of human c i v i l i z a t i o n and l e f t vast areas of the world con-taminated by r a d i a t i o n . Phrases l i k e "countdown t o Armageddon and " n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t " were common i n the p l a y s and " s c i e n c e f i c t i o n " n o v e l s we read i n those y e a r s . 2 When I was 1 6 , I t r a v e l l e d w i t h students and t e a c h e r s from my hig h s c h o o l on a youth h o s t e l t o u r of Japan. One of the stops was at Hiroshima. We were met a t the t r a i n s t a t i o n by a s m a l l d e l e g a t i o n which presented our group w i t h a huge bouquet of f l o w e r s and welcomed us t o the " c i t y of peace." I remember t h a t my f r i e n d s and I were overwhelmed by a sense of g u i l t , even though we had not yet been born at the time o f the b l a s t , nor d i d we come fnom the country which had dropped the bomb. I don't t h i n k t h a t we were even aware t h a t the uranium i n the bomb had come from Canada. But we were very conscious of being North American and white and f e l t g u i l t y , somehow c o m p l i c i t i n t h a t a c t which had produced such h o r r i b l e s u f f e r i n g . On our f i r s t n i g h t at the Hiroshima youth h o s t e l , our to u r group was shown two f i l m s which d i s t u r b e d us deeply. The f i r s t was taken soon a f t e r the atomic b l a s t , and showed w i t h gruesome d e t a i l the immediate d e s t r u c t i o n , death and i n j u r y caused by the bomb. The second f i l m had been made 25 years a f t e r the f i r s t . I t was a documentary of the gradual death of a young woman who had been a baby a t the time of the b l a s t , and who was one of the many s u r v i v o r s t o develop cancer and other "atomic bomb" d i s e a s e s years l a t e r . The f i l m brought home to us the grim f a c t t h a t i n our own l i f e t i m e people were s t i l l d ying as a r e s u l t of a bomb dropped 25 years b e f o r e . We were a l l i n t e a r s , and one g i r l was h y s t e r i c a l and outraged a t our hosts f o r showing- us these f i l m s . 3 The next day we to u r e d the Hiroshima memorial museum..;. The permanent e x h i b i t a t the museum i s a c o l l e c t i o n of photo-graphs and a r t i f a c t s m e t h o d i c a l l y d i s p l a y e d as evidence of the e f f e c t s upon human beings and the p h y s i c a l environment of a uranium bomb, which produced an e x p l o s i v e f o r c e equiva-l e n t to 13 k i l o - t o n s of c o n v e n t i o n a l TNT e x p l o s i v e and a f i r e -b a l l which a t t a i n e d a maximum temperature o f s e v e r a l m i l l i o n degrees C e l s i u s . We saw the rock about which Sidney Lens s a i d y ears l a t e r , At Hiroshima t h e r e ' s a museum, and o u t s i d e t h a t museum t h e r e ' s a rock, on t h a t rock t h e r e ' s a shadow. That shadow i s a l l t h a t remains of the human being who stood t h e r e on August 6, 1945 when the n u c l e a r age began. In the most r e a l sense of the word, t h a t i s the choice before us. We s h a l l e i t h e r end war and the n u c l e a r arms race i n t h i s g e n e r a t i o n , or as c e r t a i n as we are here t o n i g h t we w i l l a l l be shadows on the rock. (197$:5) We v i s i t e d a smal l park behind the museum. There was an a r c h -way from which were hanging many lo n g streamers comprised of thousands of t i n y paper (origami) cranes made by Japanese highesc'ho.ol students i n memory of students who had p e r i s h e d i n the b l a s t . Some Japanese students came over t o t a l k t o us. I t was so easy t o t a l k . They were eager and so were we, to promise each other t h a t we would t r y , i n our own c o u n t r i e s and i n our own l i v e s , t o ensure t h a t never aga i n would human beings s u f f e r the f a t e of the atomic bomb victims.; of Hiroshima. In the ensuing y e a r s , the memory of t h a t t r i p and t h a t promise faded. But "the Bomb" was not the only t h r e a t t o humanity's continued e x i s t e n c e w i t h which we were presented i n our high-, s c h o o l y e a r s . A couple of t e a c h e r s t o l d us about Rachel 4 Carson's book S i l e n t Spring, which p r e d i c t e d e c o l o g i c a l d i s -a s t e r r e s u l t i n g from continued p o l l u t i o n of the environment; Paul E h r l i c h ' s The Population Bomb which warned of g l o b a l famine r e s u l t i n g from "the population e x p l o s i o n " ; and the Club of Rome's s t u d i e s which f o r e c a s t the c o l l a p s e of the i n d u s t r i a l world through d e p l e t i o n of the world's resources. We a l s o encountered Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, George Orwell's 19S4, and some of Ayn Rand's books — a l l of which provided a l t e r n a t e nightmare v e r s i o n s of dehumanized s o c i e t i e s of the f u t u r e . A l l these " s c i e n t i f i c " and " f i c t i o n a l " accounts were presented as p r o j e c t i o n s of what the authors saw as current trends i n our s o c i e t y . Woven i n t o our understanding of the world was the pos-s i b i l i t y of the end of the world through nuclear holocaust; or the e x t i n c t i o n of humanity through overpopulation, p o l l u -t i o n or exhaustion of the m a t e r i a l resources of the planet. A l s o p o s s i b l e was the e x t i n g u i s h i n g of the human s p i r i t through genetic or s o c i a l engineering. Thus our world view i n c l u d e d assumptions i n bas i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o the " n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e " which takes the world f o r granted and thereby assumes that what has proved v a l i d w i l l continue t o do so, and that the world w i l l go on as before (Schutz, 1970:&0). Our world view contained assumptions that the world would not, indeed could not, go on as before — i f the world continued along i n the same course, a p o s s i b l e , perhaps i n e v i t a b l e consequence would be s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n . 5 T h i s account o f a segment of my l i f e i s pr o v i d e d with E.H. C a r r ' s (1962) caveat t h a t h i s t o r y i s a c o n s t r u c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the past i n the eyes of the pr e s e n t . I provide the account f o r two purposes. F i r s t , t o gi v e the reader an i n d i c a t i o n of some of the understandings and experiences I b r i n g t o t h i s study, s i n c e these w i l l i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t the k i n d of ethnography I w r i t e . Second, and more im p o r t a n t l y , t o pr o v i d e the reader w i t h an i n d i c a t i o n of some of the ideas and experiences a v a i l a b l e t o a Canadian growing up i n an upper middle c l a s s suburb i n the 1 9 5 0 's and 1960's. These are the kin d s of ideas and experiences which c o n t r i b u t e to a world view which can render comprehensible, and even p l a u s i b l e , Jim Douglass' a s s e r t i o n t h a t : We have only a few seconds l e f t . Tens of thousands of thermonuclear m i s s i l e s p o i s e d around the globe provide the context of our age: an e s c h a t o l o g i c a l context, a f i n a l context, a time of u l t i m a t e s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r every human thought and a c t i o n because any of our a c t i o n s can c o n t r i b u t e t o a cha i n of events, t o a karmic c i r c l e , which w i l l end i n the end of humanity. Whether our end be by n u c l e a r war or the r e l a t e d dangers of g l o b a l famine, exhaustion of r e s o u r c e s , and the death of our environment, we have on l y a few seconds l e f t . ( c i r c a 1972 :1 ) I t i s my i n t e n t t h a t t h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l sketch w i l l " s e t the scene" f o r the f o l l o w i n g ethnography of a s o c i a l movement which has emerged i n recent decades i n response t o a p e r v a s i v e sense t h a t humanity i s on the b r i n k of n u c l e a r a n n i h i l a t i o n . Jim Douglass i s a well-known f i g u r e i n the movement, which w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as the " n u c l e a r disarmament movement." 6 T h i s ethnography of the contemporary n u c l e a r disarm-ament movement d e s c r i b e s some of the ways i n which p a r t i c i -pants symbolize, a r t i c u l a t e and a c t on t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t humanity i s l i v i n g i n the shadow of an imminent n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t -— an impending Doomsday. They a s s e r t t h a t human-i t y has an immediate choice to make: to proceed to disarm-ament, and the a d o p t i o n of c o n c i l i a t i o n as the way to s o l v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s , or f a c e a n n i h i l a t i o n . Using a v a r i e t y of means, i n c l u d i n g mass demonstrations and c i v i l d i s o bedience, they are t r y i n g t o a l e r t t h e i r f e l l o w c i t i z e n s t o the urgent r e a l i t y of the choice before them. They are a l s o t r y i n g t o put pressure on those i n p o s i t i o n s of power to h a l t the arms race and proceed to disarmament. There i s a wide range of o p i n i o n w i t h i n the movement as t o how disarmament can a c t u a l l y be accomplished, and the k i n d s of changes i n the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic order t h i s would r e q u i r e . ^ In t h i s t h e s i s I f o c u s on those who b e l i e v e t h a t disarmament and human s u r v i v a l demand a complete t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g world order, and who have adopted a s t r a t e g y based upon an i d e o l o g y of "nonviolenc e " to accomplish t h i s . I examine the world view and approach t o disarmament of Jim Douglass, a proponent of a s p i r i t u a l l y based i d e o l o g y of n o n v i o l e n c e , who charac-t e r i z e s the choice before humanity to be between "kingdom or h o l o c a u s t . " Douglass i s a founder of two groups i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z i n g a campaign of " n o n v i o l e n t r e s i s t a n c e " to the American T r i d e n t submarine n u c l e a r weapon system. Some 7 b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s campaign may s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o n t r i b u t e t o a v e r t i n g a n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t and a c h i e v i n g disarmament. The contemporary n u c l e a r disarmament movement i s com-p r i s e d of dozens of groups w i t h d i v e r s e o r i g i n s and h i s t o r i e s . . Included, f o r example, are p a c i f i s t C h r i s t i a n churches such as the Mennonites and S o c i e t y of F r i e n d s (Quakers), which have f o r c e n t u r i e s r e j e c t e d w a rfare. The r o o t s of the s p i r i t u a l l y e c l e c t i c F e l l o w s h i p §£ R e c o n c i l i a t i o n and the more s e c u l a r War R e s i s t e r s ' League can be l i n k e d t o the a c t i v i t i e s of Quakers working f o r peace and the establishment of a " c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r " s t a t u s around the time o f 2 World War I . Groups of women working f o r disarmament, such as the Women's I n t e r n a t i o n a l League f o r Peace and Freedom which was founded i n 1915, have t h e i r o r i g i n s i n the s t r u g g l e o f o r equal r i g h t s and decision-making power f o r women. The more rec e n t environmental or ecology movement has spawned numerous " a n t i - n u c l e a r " groups which are a c t i v e i n opposing both n u c l e a r power p l a n t s and n u c l e a r weapons. The cu r r e n t n o n v i o l e n t campaign t o prevent the deployment of Trident. -.~ v has a t t r a c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s from groups emerging from„these, and other, t r a d i t i o n s . The t r a d i t i o n which informs Douglass' approach t o d i s -armament, and t h a t of numerous other p a r t i c i p a n t s , i s a r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t amalgam of Gandhian nonviolence: and r a d i c a l C a t h o l i c i s m . T h i s t r a d i t i o n informed the a c t i v i t i e s of Douglass and a few hundred o t h e r s i n an e a r l i e r movement 6-opposing American involvement i n the Indochina war. Douglass, through h i s w r i t i n g s , was c o n s i d e r e d a spokesman of t h i s e a r l i e r movement, which was dubbed by the media the--*"Cath-o l i c L e f t . " Other well-known f i g u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s movement were D a n i e l and P h i l i p B e r r i g a n , Thomas Merton, and Dorothy Day (founder of the C a t h o l i c Worker movement).^ The c u r r e n t T r i d e n t campaign c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d , i n p a r t , an outgrowth of t h i s e a r l i e r movement. I t i s c l e a r t h a t Douglass, the B e r r i g a n s and many other members of the • " C a t h o l i c L e f t " view t h e i r present involvement i n the n u c l e a r disarmament movement as a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n from t h e i r a n t i - V i e t n a m war a c t i v i t i e s . They r e f e r t o l e s s o n s l e a r n e d i n t h i s e a r l i e r movement, and use s i m i l a r symbols and a c t i o n s i n t h e i r attempts to communicate t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t n u c l e a r weapons must be a b o l i s h e d . The world view and approach to disarmament of Douglass, as d e p i c t e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , afee p r o v i d e d as an example of the way i n which some p a r t i c i p a n t s symbolize, a r t i c u l a t e and a c t on t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t humanity's continued e x i s t e n c e i s t h r e a t e n e d by the t o t a l death of n u c l e a r i n c i n e r a t i o n . In t h i s f i r s t i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter I p r o v i d e a b r i e f summary of each of the chapters i n the t h e s i s , and then d i s -cuss the methodology of producing t h i s ethnography. The d i s c u s s i o n c o n s i d e r s some of the c o g n i t i v e and e t h i c a l problems which arose i n the course of r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g . 9 . In the second chapter, e n t i t l e d " M i l l e n n i a l Dreams and A p o c a l y p t i c Nightmares," I note there have been move-ments i n many s o c i e t i e s throughout h i s t o r y which have warned of some s o r t of imminent catastrophe, and c a l l e d f o r a new and b e t t e r s o c i a l order. In a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e v a r i o u s terms are used to r e f e r t o these phenomena, i n c l u d i n g " m i l l -e n a r i a n " or " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n " movements. I p r o v i d e some of the a s s e r t i o n s which n u c l e a r disarmament movement p a r t i c i p a n t s use to a r t i c u l a t e and j u s t i f y t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t a n u c l e a r catastrophe i s imminent, and t h a t a new s o c i a l order i s necessary. I a l s o p r o v i d e a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of some of the f e a t u r e s they hope t o be manifested i n the new world they are t r y i n g to r e a l i z e . I observe t h a t f r e q u e n t l y p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the n u c l e a r disarmament movement draw upon J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n images, symbols, themes and v a l u e s embedded i n the Western c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n t o express t h e i r l o n g i n g f o r a new world of u n i v e r s a l peace, j u s t i c e and p r o s p e r i t y , and a l s o to express t h e i r t e r r o r of the c a t a c l y s m i c d e s t r u c -t i o n of human c i v i l i z a t i o n . The t h i r d chapter, e n t i t l e d " M o b i l i z i n g f o r S u r v i v a l , " ^ d e s c r i b e s two events o r g a n i z e d by the movement, which took p l a c e a t the time of the f i r s t U n i t e d Nations S p e c i a l S e s s i o n on Disarmament i n May 197$. The f i r s t , which I attended, was h e l d i n the s t a t e of Washington, near and at the s i t e of a m i l i t a r y f a c i l i t y scheduled t o become a base f o r the T r i d e n t submarine. The climax of t h i s event was a c a r e f u l l y 10 staged t r e s p a s s a c t i o n onto the 'naval base which r e s u l t e d i n the a r r e s t of 265 people. Hundreds of s u p p o r t e r s , s o l d i e r s , p o l i c e and media r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were present to witness -:' the i l l e g a l e n t ry onto the base, which movement p a r t i c i p a n t s r e f e r r e d t o as "an a c t i o n of c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e . " The second event o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the same week i n New York C i t y near the s i t e of the U n i t e d Nations b u i l d i n g s . The climax of t h i s event was a dramatic enactment of a n u c l e a r a t t a c k , i n which an estimated 15,000 persons p a r t i c i p a t e d . Both events are i n t e r p r e t e d as r i t u a l o c c a s i o n s i n which through o r a t o r y , song, p r o c e s s i o n and group d r a m a t i z a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s a r t i c u l a t e d both t h e i r understanding of and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order, and t h e i r '•: conceptions of and commitment t o a b e t t e r s o c i a l o r d e r . The events are viewed as attempts t o symbolize, p r o c l a i m and somehow b r i n g i n t o being a new world: a world without war. The f o u r t h chapter, e n t i t l e d "The Choice: Kingdom or Holocaust," i s a case study which examines the world view and approach t o n u c l e a r disarmament of which Jim Douglass i s a well-known proponent. Douglass i s one of the founders of both the P a c i f i c L i f e Community and Ground Zero Centre f o r Nonviolent A c t i o n , two groups which have been prominent i n o r g a n i z i n g o p p o s i t i o n to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the T r i d e n t submarine base a t Bangor, Washington. .'Douglass has had c o n s i d e r a b l e input i n the group process of p l a n n i n g the 11 on-going s e r i e s of p r o t e s t a c t i v i t i e s r e f e r r e d . t o by p a r t i c i p a n t s as "the T r i d e n t campaign." His l a t e s t book, e n t i t l e d L i g h t n i n g East t o West,^1 o u t l i n e s h i s v i s i o n of the " s p i r i t and s t r a t e g y of the T r i d e n t campaign." T h i s v i s i o n employs as i t s c e n t r a l image the b i b l i c a l m i l l e n n i a l prophesy from Matthew 2 4 : 2 7 t h a t , "The coming of the Son of Man w i l l be l i k e l i g h t n i n g i n the east f l a s h i n g f a r i n t o the west." Douglass contends t h a t the choice before humanity i s a n n i h i l a t i o n by the l i g h t n i n g f i r e of n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t , or n o n v i o l e n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n by the l i g h t n i n g f i r e of a s p i r i t u a l f o r c e of -'Truth5' and Love which can u n i t e a l l of humanity i n a "kingdom of oneness." In the c o n c l u d i n g chapter I b r i e f l y review some of the main themes d e p i c t e d i n the ethnography. I f i n i s h by s h a r i n g some p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n s on the F e r l i n g h e t t i verse which i n t r o d u c e s t h i s p i e c e of work. The appendix p r o v i d e s the t r i a l statements of three persons who committed c i v i l d isobedience at the T r i d e n t base, by c l i m b i n g a fence and i l l e g a l l y t r e s p a s s i n g on the n a v a l f a c i l i t y . As i s u s u a l l y done at the T r i d e n t c i v i l ' d isobedience t r i a l s , defense lawyers were present merely i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y , and the defendants r e p r e s e n t e d themselves. These statements w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o s e v e r a l times t o i l l u s t a t e the manner i n which some p a r t i c i p a n t s symbolize and a r t i c u l a t e t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t humanity's e x i s t e n c e i s threatened by n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t . 12 Methodology The impetus f o r w r i t i n g an ethnography of the con-temporary n u c l e a r disarmament movement d e r i v e d l a r g e l y from my own p e r i p h e r a l r o l e i n the movement as a r a t h e r i g n o r a n t newcomer and a somewhat h e s i t a n t p a r t i c i p a n t . I t was my hope t h a t i n the process of r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g , I would de-•' velpp-. an understanding of the groups, the i d e a s , and the a c t i v i t i e s which c o n s t i t u t e the movement — an understand-i n g which would h e l p i n d e c i d i n g about the nature of my own f u t u r e involvement i n the movement. Simply s t a t e d , my i n t e n t was t o use my t h e s i s as a way of educating myself about, and coming t o terms w i t h , a movement f o r s o c i a l change i n which I was becoming i n v o l v e d . I t was a l s o my hope, of course, t h a t t h i s study would c o n t r i b u t e t o a r e a d e r ' s understanding, perhaps even a p p r e c i a t i o n , of the message and purpose of the n u c l e a r disarmament movement. 13 The f o l l o w i n g k i n d s of data c o l l e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s are the b a s i s of t h i s ethnographic d e s c r i p t i o n of the n u c l e a r disarmament movement: ( i ) f i e l d w o r k ( i i ) taped, i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s ( i i i ) the c o l l e c t i o n and examination of v a r i o u s k i n d s of w r i t t e n and a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s , produced p r i m a r i l y by movement p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . ( i ) f i e l d w o r k My e n t r y to the f i e l d w o r k context o c c u r r e d before I contemplated t h i s r e s e a r c h . In the s p r i n g of 1977, I attended a meeting at a f r i e n d ' s home t o view a s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n concerning the T r i d e n t submarine n u c l e a r weapon system. S h e l l e y and Jim Douglass, as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the P a c i f i c L i f e Community, gave the p r e s e n t a t i o n and responded to q u e s t i o n s . I t was the f i r s t time t h a t I had met people i n the Vancouver area who were a c t i v e l y working to stop the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of n u c l e a r weapons. I became i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r o t e s t a g a i n s t the T r i d e n t submarine '-\ base under c o n s t r u c t i o n i n Bangor, Washington, and t h a t summer attended a week-long " n o n v i o l e n t t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n " h e l d near the base. The purpose of the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n was t o prepare p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r , and f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r engagement i n 14 " n o n - v i o l e n t r e s i s t a n c e to Trident."- At t h a t time, terms which w i l l be l a t e r d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , such as "non-v i o l e n c e , " " c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e , " and " a f f i n i t y group" were u n f a m i l i a r to me. In Vancouver i n the f a l l of 1977 I began a t t e n d i n g weekly meetings of the P a c i f i c L i f e Community. At these meetings were d i s c u s s e d plans f o r an eight-month p r o j e c t of p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n t o culminate w i t h an " o c c u p a t i o n " of the T r i d e n t base on the eve of the United^Nations S p e c i a l S e s s i o n on Disarmament. I a l s o began attending.meetings of the newly formed Ad Hoc C o a l i t i o n f o r Disarmament, which was composed of approximately s i x t e e n groups i n the Vancouver a r e a . The C o a l i t i o n was formed f o r the purpose of c o o p e r a t i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s t o f o c u s p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n on the upcoming U.N. S p e c i a l . S e s s i o n on Disarmament, and t o put pressure on the Canadian government t o take a s t r o n g pro-disarmament p o s i t i o n at the S p e c i a l S e s s i o n . I was u n f a m i l i a r w i t h most of the groups r e p r e s e n t e d i n the Vancouver based C o a l i t i o n , and was s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d t h a t , u n l i k e the P a c i f i c L i f e Community, most of the people i n the other groups were middle-aged and e l d e r l y . Out of my own i n t e r e s t t o f i n d out about these other groups and t h e i r approach t o n u c l e a r disarmament, I v o l u n t e e r e d t o be the P a c i f i c L i f e Community r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to the Ad Hoc C o a l i t i o n f o r Disarmament. I t was a t t h i s e a r l y p o i n t of my involvement i n the n u c l e a r disarmament 1 5 movement th a t I decided to w r i t e some s o r t of ethnography of the movement f o r my M.A. t h e s i s . Over the next e i g h t months from October 1 9 7 7 t o May 1 9 7 8 , I p a r t i c i p a t e d as a "working" member of b o t h the P a c i f i c L i f e Community and the Ad Hoc C o a l i t i o n f o r Disarmament. I was a t the same time working on a t h e s i s p r o p o s a l . From February t o May of 1 9 7 $ , I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the work of o r g a n i z i n g , p u b l i c i z i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g t r a i n i n g workshop f o r the demonstration and c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n h e l d i n May 1 9 7 $ a t the T r i d e n t base. T h i s event i s d e s c r i b e d i n the t h i r d chapter of t h i s t h e s i s . . I attended the demonstration as a member of an a f f i n i t y group comprised mostly of young Mennonites, whom I had met when I.showed the P a c i f i c L i f e Community s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n concerning T r i d e n t t o t h e i r B i b l Study group. No one i n t h i s a f f i n i t y group engaged i n the c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n , but most of us p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the c a n d l e l i g h t v i g i l and were present t o witness the c i v i l d i s -obedience a c t i o n . I subsequently attended p a r t of the week-l o n g t r i a l of t r e s p a s s e r s h e l d i n S e a t t l e , Washington i n December of 1 9 7 $ . In December of 1 9 7 $ , I attended a n o n - v i o l e n t t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n a t Ground Zero Centre f o r Non-violent A c t i o n . Two of the f a c i l i t a t o r s a t the workshop were S h e l l e y and Jim Douglas who had l e f t the P a c i f i c L i f e Community house i n New West-minster, B r i t i s h Columbia to l i v e near the T r i d e n t base and 16 work as members of the Ground Zero c o l l e c t i v e . P a r t of the workshop time was spent h e l p i n g two persons, who wished t o do c i v i l d isobedience i n the near f u t u r e , prepare f o r t h e i r a c t i o n . I v o l u n t e e r e d t o become a support member of t h e i r a f f i n i t y group, which i n c l u d e d a C a t h o l i c p r i e s t , nun and campus m i n i s t e r , and a graduate student i n e v a n g e l i c a l t h e o l o g y . As a "support member," I a s s i s t e d i n p l a n n i n g the d e t a i l s of t h e i r a c t i o n , and i n w r i t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g a l e a f l e t t o personnel a t the T r i d e n t base which e x p l a i n e d the reasons f o r t h e i r a c t i o n . I p r o v i d e d moral and p h y s i c a l support when i t came time f o r them to climb the fence to enter the base. I a l s o was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n t a c t i n g the p r e s s and lawyers at the time of t h e i r a r r e s t , and was present f o r the subsequent appearances i n court f o r a r r a i g n -ment, t r i a l and s e n t e n c i n g proceedings. T h e i r t r i a l s t a t e -ments are the f i r s t two statements p r o v i d e d i n the appendix of t h i s ethnography. Throughout 1979, w h i l e w r i t i n g t h i s ethnography, I attended v a r i o u s meetings and workshops w i t h persons a s s o c -i a t e d w i t h Ground Zero. Many of those i n attendance were C h r i s t i a n s , e s p e c i a l l y C a t h o l i c s , whose f a i t h seemed to be ecumenical, and r a d i c a l i n p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n . To date the- most r e c e n t workshops I attended were i n August of 1979. The f i r s t concerned p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a l a r g e demonstration and c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n a t the T r i d e n t base, being planned f o r October 26% 1979. The second f e a t u r e d D a n i e l B e r r i g a n d i s c u s s i n g the s p i r i t u a l dimension of r e s i s t i n g 17 p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r n u c l e a r w a r f a r e . A l l these experiences which I have d e s c r i b e d have informed the w r i t i n g of t h i s ethnography, and have p r o v i d e d the m a t e r i a l f o r a process of what might be termed " r e t r o s p e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t -o b s e r v a t i o n . " A, summary of these experiences would, i n c l u d e attendance a t or p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n : (a) numerous p u b l i c a c t i v i t i e s or events i n the Vancouver ar e a , i n S e a t t l e and near the T r i d e n t base. These events i n c l u d e p u b l i c l e c t u r e s , b e n e f i t . c o n c e r t s , marches, demonstrations, v i g i l s , c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n s , and subsequent court appearances; (b) many o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p l a n n i n g meetings and p r e p a r a t o r y workshops which precede these events; (c) r e g u l a r meetings of a few groups; (d) . s e v e r a l s p e c i a l conference,? t o d i s c u s s movement goals and s t r a t e g i e s , or s p e c i f i c disarmament i s s u e s . Since the summer of 1977 I. have had o c c a s i o n to meet re p -r e s e n t a t i v e s of most of the disarmament groups i n the Vancouver area, however the g r e a t e r p a r t of my involvement has been w i t h Canadian and American p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the T r i d e n t campaign. ( i i ) i n t e r v i e w s In-depth, taped i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h t h r e e p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v i n g i n the Vancouver a r e a . The i n t e n t of the 18 i n t e r v i e w s was t o explore the f o l l o w i n g dimensions of t h e i r experiences and understandings: (a) how, when, why they became i n v o l v e d i n disarmament work, i d e n t i f y i n g i n f l u e n t i a l e xperiences, i d e a s , people; (b) what they are working a g a i n s t and what they are working f o r . I f they are working f o r a new world order, what are some of i t s f e a t u r e s ? (c) whether they are or have been i n v o l v e d i n other movements, " s t r u g g l e s , " or s o c i a l i s s u e s , and i f they see these as being r e l a t e d t o t h e i r work f o r disarmament; (d) t h e i r approach t o a c h i e v i n g disarmament. Interviewees were chosen on the b a s i s of r a p p o r t a l r e a d y developed i n the f i e l d w o r k c o n t e x t , . t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the movement i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y , n a t i o n a l l y and l o c a l l y , t h e i r deep commitment t o disarmament as evidenced by t h e i r e x t e n s i v e work i n the movement, and t h e i r a r t i c u l a t e n e s s . ( i i i ) examination of w r i t t e n and a u d i o - v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s S e v e r a l kinds of w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s produced i n Canada and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s were c o l l e c t e d and examined: (a) Pamphlets, brochures and n e w s l e t t e r s were gathered from v a r i o u s groups i n order t o g a i n an understanding of t h e i r h i s t o r y , aims, p r i n c i p l e s , g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l network. Many of these groups are a c t i v e i n the Vancouver a r e a , as w e l l as n a t i o n a l l y and i n t e r n a t i c n -,- ' . a l l y . The n e w s l e t t e r s are the primary means f o r many 1 9 of the groups t o communicate w i t h t h e i r members and sympathizers,: and are the r e p o s i t o r y of much of the " f o l k l o r e " of the movement. F o l l o w i n g R e i c h ( 1 9 7 5 ) , I use t h i s term t o r e f e r t o v e r b a l i z e d e x p r e s s i o n s ( o r a l or w r i t t e n ) of c o l l e c t i v e b e l i e f , which are repeated and shared by a l l members. T h i s term i n c l u d e s scraps o f i n f o r m a t i o n , rumour, g o s s i p and s t o r i e s everyone b e l i e v e s to be t r u e . R e i c h notes t h a t in: " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n 'move-ments," f o l k l o r e can operate i n the a c t u a l c r e a t i o n of an i d e o l o g y f o r change. I t a l s o " i s used t o e x p l a i n the movement t o adherents, t o . . j u s t i f y new forms of b e l i e f and a c t i o n , and to f o r t i f y the newly formed t e n e t s " (Reich, 1 9 7 5 : 2 4 3 ) . The w r i t t e n statements of a few movement p a r t i c i p a n t s were examined w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n given t o symbolic themes, and f o r m u l a t i o n s of "the problem" t o which they are responding i n t h e i r work f o r n u c l e a r disarmament and "the s o l u t i o n " they are t r y i n g t o b r i n g about. The s t a t e ments were i n the form of unpublished and p u b l i s h e d books a r t i c l e s , t r a n s c r i p t s of p u b l i c speeches, and t r a n s c r i p t s of speeches made i n c i v i l d i s obedience t r i a l s . S c h o l a r l y works were read which p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the h i s t o r y of the disarmament movement i n North America, and the o r i g i n s of a few of the groups a c t i v e l o c a l l y . These works i n c l u d e : A l l e n ( 1 9 7 3 ) , C h a t f i e l d ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 20 C o n l i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) , Meconis ( 1 9 7 7 ) , M o f f a t t ( 1 9 6 9 ) , R a n d a l l ( 1 9 6 4 ) , and W i t t n e r ( 1 9 6 9 ) . M o f f a t t ' s i s the only study I have found which i s s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned w i t h the h i s t o r y of the Canadian peace movement.: I have a l s o had o c c a s s i o n . t o view f i l m s , and s e v e r a l s l i d e and tape p r e s e n t a t i o n s used i n e f f o r t s t o org a n i z e popular o p p o s i t i o n t o the p r o d u c t i o n and deployment of n u c l e a r weapons. These m a t e r i a l s are intended t o convey an under-s t a n d i n g of the extreme urgency of a c h i e v i n g n u c l e a r disarmament,, and ways i n which people can act t o a v e r t n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t . 21 The ethnographic account of the contemporary n u c l e a r disarmament movement p r o v i d e d i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f l e c t s the understandings I have gained as both p a r t i c i p a n t i n , and re s e a r c h e r of, the movement. My concerns and i n t e r e s t s as a new p a r t i c i p a n t i n c o a l i t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver, and more e s p e c i a l l y i n the T r i d e n t campaign, have t o a l a r g e degree informed which f a c e t s of the movement I have focused on i n w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . W r i t i n g about a movement i n which I have been i n v o l v e d both as a new r e c r u i t and as a r e s e a r c h e r , has presented c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e and e t h i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , and has unavoidably shaped the account p r o v i d e d here. The cha l l e n g e has been t o w r i t e an ethnography of the movement which resonates t o the experiences and understandings of at l e a s t some members, and yet i s not t o t a l l y imprisoned w i t h i n t h e i r mental h o r i z o n s such t h a t i t resembles what Geertz ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 2 3 ) r e f e r s t o as "an ethnography of w i t c h c r a f t w r i t t e n by a w i t c h , " which would be unacceptable as an 7 a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l account. Xlfi has been observed t h a t the meaning and value of data generated i n the f i e l d w o r k process i s r e l a t e d t o the o.n-going, mutual n e g o t i a t i o n of r o l e s by the r e s e a r c h e r and the a c t o r s (Olesen & Whittaker, I 9 6 7 ) . My e n t r y t o the f i e l d -work context and my i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Jim Douglass o c c u r r e d i n the s p r i n g of 1 9 7 7 . I t was another f i v e or s i x months before I contemplated t r e a t i n g the n u c l e a r disarmament movement as a t h e s i s t o p i c , and more than a year before I asked Douglass f o r pe r m i s s i o n t o d i s c u s s i n my t h e s i s 22 L i g h t n i n g East t o West. He had o r i g i n a l l y . g i v e n me the manuscript to read and comment on, as an i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i -c i p a n t not as a student w r i t i n g a t h e s i s on the disarmament movement. Thus I i n i t i a l l y -met the a c t o r s p o r t r a y e d i n t h i s t h e s i s , not as an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h e r , but as an i g n o r a n t "newcomer," a sympathetic, but somewhat c r i t i c a l r e c r u i t . In t h i s i n i t i a l r o l e of newcomer, I had a wide l a t i t u d e t o ask some k i n d s of q u e s t i o n s which a p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r might ask. L i k e the p a r t i c i p a n t - o b s e r v e r , I was t r y i n g t o make sense of the a c t i o n s and u t t e r a n c e s of an u n f a m i l i a r group• of people, and t r y i n g t o d i s c e r n the " t a k e n - f o r -granteds:" or world view assumptions which underlay t h e i r a c t i o n s and u t t e r a n c e s . A l s o , l i k e the p a r t i c i p a n t i - o b s e r v e r I d i d not f e e l myself t o be, nor was I immediatly accepted a a f u l l p a r t i c i p a n t . However, u n l i k e a r e s e a r c h e r who adopts a t r a d i t i o n a l "detached" or " o b j e c t i v e " stance, i t was c l e a r from the s t a r t t h a t I agreed w i t h t h e i r commitment to n u c l e a r disarmament, though I was i g n o r a n t , u n c e r t a i n , even at times s k e p t i c a l of t h e i r approach to a c h i e v i n g i t . Thus my r o l e p r e c l u d e d fundamentally q u e s t i o n i n g the g o a l of n u c l e a r disarmament, and r e s t r i c t e d me t o questioning, the v a r i o u s approaches to a c c o m p l i s h i n g i t . In a movement which i s c o n s t a n t l y seeking new r e c r u i t s , I was welcomed w i t h none of the q u e s t i o n s or s u s p i c i o n which might have a r i s e n had I o r i g i n a l l y come to do r e s e a r c h . When I e v e n t u a l l y d i d announce my i n t e n t i o n to w r i t e an 2 3 ethnography of the n u c l e a r disarmament movement f o r my M.A. t h e s i s , the r a t i o n a l e was couched i n terms of i n f o r m -i n g myself about the movement so t h a t I c o u l d b e t t e r decide on the exact nature of my continued p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Many of the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h whom I spoke had undergraduate or •graduate degrees, and seemed to r e a d i l y c o n f e r l e g i t i m a c y to my t h e s i s e n t e r p r i s e . They seemed c o n f i d e n t t h a t I had no i n t e n t i o n of p u r p o s e f u l l y producing an account which c o u l d be d e t r i m e n t a l t o the movement. I was very conscious throughout the w r i t i n g phase, t h a t movement p a r t i c i p a n t s , e s p e c i a l l y those who had a s s i s t e d me w i t h my r e s e a r c h , would be r e a d i n g my account of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . Since I expected t h a t my involvement w i t h these people would continue a f t e r I had completed the t h e s i s , I was concerned t h a t I not o f f e n d them. Although I d i d not expect a l l of them to be i n complete agreement w i t h my c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s of v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the movement, I was h o p e f u l t h a t no one would have s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n s , or f e e l t h a t I had s e r i o u s l y m i s represented the movement. As a newcomer, I went through a s o c i a l i z a t i o n process of becoming ac q u a i n t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s , l e a r n i n g the jargon, and j o i n i n g i n the work of p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , p u b l i c i z i n g and s t a g i n g v a r i o u s events. In t h i s process, I experienced what a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s term as "going n a t i v e , " whereby one l o s e s a stance of c o g n i t i v e a p e r c e p t i o n , as the " n a t i v e ' s " c a t e g o r i e s of thought become one's own. I t has at times been very d i f f i c u l t ' - to m a i n t a i n a r e f l e c t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e oh the data. 24 One way of attempting to d i s t a n c e myself from the data has beeh'to -focus on c e r t a i n " m i l l e n a r i a n " f e a t u r e s of the n u c l e a r disarmament movement. T h i s has helped i n making more v i s i b l e some assumptions, which over time, I was coming t o adopt as my own "taken-for-granteds."'* However, i n s t r i v i n g t o r e g a i n a n a i v e , "Martian p o i n t of v&ew" so important to the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l endeavour, I was i n danger of v i o l a t i n g the understanding I had given to movement p a r t i c i p a n t s about my r e s e a r c h i n t e n t i o n s . In c o n v e r s a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r t i c i p a n t s , I gave the impression t h a t I was t a k i n g t h e i r concerns- "very s e r i o u s l y . I d i d not suggest to them t h a t I might r e f e r to a t h e o r e t i c a l framework or an i n t e r p r e t i v e metaphor which c o u l d imply t h a t they were p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n " j u s t another" movement of people c r y i n g t h a t the world i s coming to an end, or t h a t the kingdom :of heaven i s a t hand. A n t h r o p o l o g i s t E l v i Whittaker has observed t h a t seldom does the r e s e a r c h e r r e v e a l to actors, or ask t h e i r p e r m i s s i o n f o r , the k i n d of t h e o r e t i c a l or i n t e r p r e t i v e frame or set of a n a l o g i e s they i n t e n d to use. Seeking consent from a c t o r s i s u s u a l l y l i m i t e d t o the data c o l l e c t i o n phasetof r e s e a r c h . A c t o r s o f t e n assume t h a t t h e i r v e r s i o n i s being taken a t f a c e worth and s e r i o u s l y , and are concerned t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r "get her f a c t s s t r a i g h t . " I f they ever read the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e i r a c t i o n s and statements, one might expect them to f e e l betrayed or -.'insulted by an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which i n e x p l a i n i n g , s u b t l y b e l i t t l e s or " e x p l a i n s away," t h e i r deepest concerns. I have f e l t c o n s t r a i n e d t o a v o i d r e l y i n g h e a v i l y upon any t h e o r e t i c a l or i n t e r p r e t i v e frame, which though accepted and even expected w i t h i n the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l ambience, might be o b j e c t e d t o by a c t o r s who had cooperated w i t h my r e s e a r c h e n t e r p r i s e . T h i s has r e s u l t e d i n what some w i t h i n the d i s c i -p l i n e of anthropology might c o n s i d e r an e x c e s s i v e l y l i g h t -handed treatment of " m i l l e n a r i a n " f e a t u r e s . I have a l s o f e l t c o n s t r a i n e d t o s a t i s f y the i m p l i c i t e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t " t h e i r s t o r y w i l l be t o l d . " To do t h i s I have d i s p l a y e d what some might c o n s i d e r an i n o r d i n a t e number of quotes by persons many movement p a r t i c i p a n t s r e g a r d as " e x p e r t s . " Another problem d e r i v i n g from the ambiguity of my r o l e i s t h a t as a newcomer, I was granted a c c e s s t o both " f r o n t -stage" and "back-stage" a c t i v i t i e s and c o n v e r s a t i o n s , which a s t r a n g e r i n a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r o l e o f r e s e a r c h e r might not have been granted. I t has been my concern not to betray c o n f i d e n c e s or use i n f o r m a t i o n which over time was made a v a i l a b l e t o me as a f r i e n d or f e l l o w p a r t i c i p a n t , not as a student w r i t i n g an M.A. t h e s i s . A concern i n r e s e a r c h i n g a movement which i s working f o r r a d i c a l s o c i a l change has been t o a v o i d c o l l e c t i n g or p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n which i n any way co u l d be misused b y y p o l i c e or other agencies committed t o the maintenance of the e x i s t i n g o r d e r . My d e c i s i o n not to keep f i e l d notes of 26 the many meetings I attended had o r i g i n a l l y been made on the grounds t h a t they d i d not seem necessary f o r the k i n d of ethnography I intended. A l s o , due to . c o n t i n u a l l y f l u c -t u a t i n g attendance at,-meetings, i t would have been i m p r a c t i c a l and d i f f i c u l t t o o b t a i n consent a t every meeting without u s i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of meeting time t o e x p l a i n my r e s e a r c h concerns. The d e c i s i o n not to keep notes of meetings was : . l a t e r b o l s t e r e d by Cohen's (1976) a r t i c l e which warned a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s of the danger of t h e i r data being usurped f o r nonresearch purposes by government a g e n c i e s . A l s o s o b e r i n g was Meconis's (1977) account of how f a n c i f u l statements made i n a " C a t h o l i c L e f t " meeting wererrecorded i n a r e p o r t of the meeting which was l a t e r i n t e r c e p t e d by the F.B.I. These statements were p u r p o r t e d l y t w i s t e d t o serve as the b a s i s of f a b r i c a t e d c o n s p i r a c y charges a g a i n s t those a t t e n d i n g the meeting and other members of the " C a t h o l i c . •.. . L e f t . " 7 For these v a r i o u s reasons, much of the data presented i n t h i s t h e s i s comes from w r i t t e n sources a l r e a d y i n the p u b l i c domain, or from " f r o n t - s t a g e " events i n which a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s a n t i c i p a t e d the presence of " o b s e r v e r s , " i n c l u d -i n g the p r e s s and p o l i c e . From my p a r t i c i p a t i o n experiences and i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s , I gained a f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the movement which a s s i s t e d me i n s e l e c t i n g r e c u r r i n g themes i n the 'Front-stage" or p u b l i c domain. The t r i a l statements found i n the appendix d i s p l a y many of these r e c u r r i n g themes. They a l s o r e f l e c t the i d e o l o g y of t h a t segment of the move-ment" wi t h which I have become most f a m i l i a r . ' 27 Chapter Two M i l l e n n i a l Dreams and A p o c a l y p t i c Nightmares In t h i s t h e s i s I am examining some of the ways i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the n u c l e a r disarmament movement respond t o the p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t of imminent g l o b a l c a t a s t r o p h e . T h e i r response i n c l u d e s attempts t o a r t i c u l a t e and communicate the nature and. source of the t h r e a t , and to m a r s h a l l those f o r c e s which they b e l i e v e c o u l d a v e r t c a t a s t r o p h e . For many p a r t i c i p a n t s an e s s e n t i a l t h r u s t of t h e i r e f f o r t s t o a v e r t c a t a s t r o p h e i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n — the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , economic, moral, and some would add s p i r i t u a l , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g world order. They are endeavouring t o prevent the t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n of the e x i s t i n g world order by t r a n s -forming i t and c r e a t i n g a new and b e t t e r one. The most fundamental value they hope t o be manifested i n the new order i s t h a t a l l human beings are equal members of one human f a m i l y , and are d e s e r v i n g of lov e and r e s p e c t . They are opposed t o any i d e o l o g y or p r a c t i s e which assumes t h a t any person i s "expendable," or an "enemy" d e s e r v i n g t o be e l i m i n -a t e d . T h e i r moral order i s one which a f f i r m s the r i g h t of each human be i n g t o l i v e w i t h what they see as d i g n i t y , f r e e -dom, and a decent q u a l i t y of l i f e . They are seeking a p o l i -t i c a l order which w i l l be r e g u l a t e d by p r i n c i p l e s of p a r t i c i -p atory democracy and i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, and w i l l serve the i n t e r e s t s of a l l humanity, not the i n t e r e s t s of a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s , n a t i o n , race or sex. They are opposed t o any form of i m p e r i a l i s m , whether by c a p i t a l i s t , s o c i a l i s t or communist 28 s t a t e s . They e n v i s i o n a new economic order i n which i n e q u a l -i t i e s of wealth and consumption w i l l be reduced; the e x p l o i t -a t i o n of one sex, c l a s s , race or n a t i o n by another w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d ; and the e a r t h ' s r e s o u r c e s w i l l be u t i l i z e d not i n the p r o d u c t i o n of weapons,, but r a t h e r i n the f u l f i l l i n g of b a s i c human needs i n e c o l o g i c a l l y sound ways f o r the long-term b e n e f i t of a l l humanity. They are t r y i n g to c r e a t e a world i n which a l l humanity l i v e s f r e e from war, i n j u s t i c e and poverty. A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s have observed i n many s o c i e t i e s , contem-porary and past, attempts to r e a l i z e a new and p e r f e c t moral, p o l i t i c a l and economic or d e r . V a r i o u s terms have been used to r e f e r t o these phenomena,, i n c l u d i n g " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movement"-'-2 and " m i l l e n a r i a n movement." What i s common i n the use of these terms i s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the e x i s t i n g system, and d e l i b e r a t e , o r g a n i z e d attempts to b r i n g i n t o b e i n g a new way of l i f e , a new c u l t u r a l system. Burr i d g e suggests t h a t m i l l e n -a r i a n a c t i v i t i e s can be regarded as " n e w - c u l t u r e s - i n - t h e -making, or as attempts to make a new k i n d of s o c i e t y or moral, community"(1971: 9) • He notes t h a t these phenomena tend to occur when t h e r e i s a change i n a s o c i e t y ' s m a t e r i a l or moral environment,, whereby new powers are experienced which do not f i t w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l assumptions about the systematic o r d e r i n g of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of power, e s p e c i a l l y those seen as s i g n i -f i c a n t l y dangerous or b e n e f i c i a l . T h i s r e l a t e s t o Cohn's o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t two circumstances f a v o u r i n g the r i s e of m i l l e n a r i a n movements a r e : catastrophe or f e a r of catastrophe, 2 9 and the supposed d e f e c t i o n of a u t h o r i t y t r a d i t i o n a l l y respons-i b l e f o r r e g u l a t i n g r e l a t i o n s between s o c i e t y and the powers governing the cosmos (Cohn, 1 9 6 2 : 4 0 ) . These two circumstances are c e r t a i n l y evident i n the case of the n u c l e a r disarmament movement. The f e a r e d c a t a s -trophe i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as " n u c l e a r holocaust."'* T h i s term r e f e r s to the massive, perhaps even complete, d e s t r u c t i o n of human l i f e which they b e l i e v e would r e s u l t from the i n t e n t -i o n a l or a c c i d e n t a l t r i g g e r i n g of n u c l e a r weaponry. I t i s o f t e n s t a t e d t h a t t h i s t h r e a t to the ongoing e x i s t e n c e of humanity has a r i s e n because of " i r r e s p o n s i b l e , " "undemocratic," and some say even "in s a n e , " a c t i o n s of l e a d e r s i n s c i e n c e , government,: the m i l i t a r y and p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y . These men i n p o s i t i o n s of t r a d i t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y i n our s o c i e t y have d i s -covered the method of r e l e a s i n g the tremendous power contained i n the "atom," and have thereby unleashed what C a r l Jung r e f e r s to as "the d e v i l " of our epoch.^ In 1 9 4 5 the American S e c r e t a r y of War d e s c r i b e d the f i s s i o n bomb dropped on Hiroshima as not merely,a new weapon, "but as a r e v o l u t i o n a r y change i n the r e l a t i o n s of man and the u n i v e r s e " (Lens, 1 9 7 7 : 3 ' ) , . One of the prime t a s k s of par-t i c i p a n t s i n the n u c l e a r disarmament movement i s to a l e r t human beings to the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y change i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the u n i v e r s e — to t h e i r a l t e r e d m a t e r i a l and moral environment. In speeches, pamphlets and n e w s l e t t e r s , they f r e q u e n t l y repeat a quote a t t r i b u t e d to E i n s t e i n , t h a t "The unleashed power of the atom has changed 30 e v e r y t h i n g . Thus we are d r i f t i n g toward a catastrophe beyond conception." They a l s o o f t e n t e l l of the "doomsday c l o c k " set at nine minutes to midnight which i s featured on the cover of a p e r i o d i c a l e n t i t l e d B u l l e t i n of Atomic S c i e n t i s t s . Commenting on t h i s doomsday c l o c k , a movement p a r t i c i p a n t wrote i n a group n e w s l e t t e r , "The minute hand warns that we are already approaching the doomsday hour i n coming to terms w i t h our immense and growing c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - d e s t r u c t i o n " ( P a c i f i c L i f e Community/War Tax Resistance, 1978:5).. Besides v e s t i n g a u t h o r i t y i n the statements of atomic s c i e n t i s t s convinced of the urgent n e c e s s i t y of nuclear d i s -armament,: p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n c e to s i m i l a r s t a t e -ments made by r e t i r e d high-ranking m i l i t a r y o f f i c i a l s , such as Canadian General Burns (author of Defense i n the Nuclear Age), and Rear Admiral Gene La Rocque of the United S t a t e s Navy. The l a t t e r i s quoted i n an a r t i c l e (1978) d i s t r i b u t e d f o r f r e e by the disarmament group Promoting Enduring Peace-: Nuclear war i s a growing t h r e a t to a l l humanity. World War I I I w i t h nuclear weapons can, and almost c e r t a i n l y w i l l happen unless governments confront t h i s r e a l i t y . . . .. Many people b e l i e v e nuclear weapons w i l l never be used. But as someone who has been d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n U.S. nuclear planning, I can s t a t e that my country has plans and f o r c e s f o r a c t u a l l y f i g h t i n g n uclear war. . . .Nuclear war i s an i n t e g r a l part of American m i l i t a r y p o l i c y and y the- U.S. i s prepared to use nuclear weapons anywhere i n the world, r i g h t now i n many contingencies. La Rocque i s c u r r e n t l y d i r e c t o r of the American Center f o r Defense Information, a non-governmental research o r g a n i z a t i o n which i s a p r o j e c t of the Fund f o r Peace. 3 1 P a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o a c c o r d "expert", s t a t u s to American a e r o -space -'engineer Robert A l d r i d g e , who worked s i x t e e n y e a r s f o r the Lockheed c o r p o r a t i o n and was the head o f the advance r e -search and design team f o r the T r i d e n t m i s s i l e . A l d r i d g e r e -signed when he became convinced t h a t the T r i d e n t m i s s i l e was being designed f o r a n u c l e a r weapon system w i t h pre-emptive f i r s t - s t r i k e c a p a b i l i t y . ^ With h i s f a m i l y he helped form the C a l i f o r n i a arm of the P a c i f i c L i f e Community, which over the past few y e a r s has organized an on-going s e r i e s of demonstra-t i o n s and c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n s a t the Lockheed f a c i l i t y . He. has appeared s e v e r a l times as an "expert w i t n e s s " on b e h a l f of demonstrators a r r e s t e d at the T r i d e n t base at Bangor, Wash-i n g t o n . H i s w r i t i n g s analyze and condemn American development of f i r s t - s t r i k e n u c l e a r weapons systems, such as the T r i d e n t submarine,, the M i s s i l e - X , ahd the c r u i s e m i s s i l e , - and are c i r c u l a t e d w i d e l y by movement p a r t i c i p a n t s . In one such a r t i c l e , - he argues A l l of these weapons systems r e q u i r e d to launch a disarming f i r s t s t r i k e should be i n p l a c e by the mid - 1 9 $ 0's. I t i s u t t e r f o l l y -to r e s t our f u t u r e on the hope t h a t once the Pentagon has these weapons " ready f o r use, i t w i l l r e s i s t the temptation to use them i n a f i r s t s t r i k e - Furthermore,- a l l of our past experience i n d i c a t e s t h a t when the U n i t e d S t a t e s ach-i e v e s a new m i l i t a r y c a p a b i l i t y , - the S o v i e t Union seeks to match i t . With both superpowers a t a s t a n d o f f i n f i r s t - s t r i k e weaponry,, the s l i g h t e s t spark c o u l d t r i g g e r n u c l e a r cremation. We. may a l r e a d y be beyond the p o i n t of no r e t u r n , or t h e r e may s t i l l be hope. But any hope depends on an informed p u b l i c motivated to put the brakes to t h i s deadly momentum. At present we are moving r a p i d l y toward the outbreak of World War I I I , and i t c o u l d very y,:: ;.' w e l l be the war to end a l l wars, a l l peace, and a l l •; human l i f e on t h i s p l a n e t . ( 1 9 7$a : 4 ) 3 2 I t seems t h a t i n the eyes of disarmament movement p a r t i -c i p a n t s , La Rocque's and A l d r i d g e ' s e a r l i e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n h e l p i n g to p l a n and d e s i g n n u c l e a r weapons systems,- g i v e s g r e a t e r credence and a u t h o r i t y t o t h e i r statements warning of the t e r r i b l e consequences of d e v e l o p i n g those systems. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t i n j u s t i f y i n g t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t c a t a s t r o p h i s imminent, p a r t i c i p a n t s quote l i k e - m i n d e d people who have a u t h o r i t a t i v e s c i e n t i f i c , m i l i t a r y or t e c h n i c a l c r e d e n t i a l s a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i o n of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y and the very i n s t i t u t i o n s whose a c t i v i t i e s movement p a r t i c i p a n t s condemn. In t r y i n g to convince t h e i r f e l l o w c i t i z e n s t h a t the danger of n u c l e a r d i s a s t e r i s r e a l and present at a l l times, movement p a r t i c i p a n t s , c i t e i n s t a n c e s i n v o l v i n g American.nuclear weapons, i n which they c l a i m c atastrophe has almost o c c u r r e d . They a s s e r t t h a t t h e r e have been 125 a c c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g v e h i c l e s c a r r y i n g American n u c l e a r weapons, such as planes c r a s h i n g or submarines s i n k i n g ; 13 a c c i d e n t s i n v o l v i n g f a l s e a l e r t s , such as m i s r e a d i n g the radar screen; and e i g h t occa-s i o n s i n which the U n i t e d S t a t e s has s e r i o u s l y contemplated u s i n g n u c l e a r weapons.^ Movement p a r t i c i p a n t s argue t h a t the p r o b a b i l i t y of nuc-l e a r warfare i s i n c r e a s i n g due to r e c e n t q u a n t i t a t i v e and qualitative*.': changes i n n u c l e a r weaponry.. I n c r e a s i n g numbers of c o u n t r i e s , such as South Korea, P a k i s t a n and A r g e n t i n a are a c q u i r i n g the c a p a b i l i t y of making n u c l e a r weapons through the a c q u i s i t i o n of n u c l e a r power technology. An. example of t h i s phenomenon i s the development of an atomic bomb by I n d i a , 33 through the use of a n u c l e a r power r e a c t o r , s o l d t o i t by-Canada. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t as more c o u n t r i e s are a b l e to make n u c l e a r weapons, the l i k e l i h o o d of these weapons being used i n c r e a s e s . A statement r e f l e c t i n g t h i s b e l i e f i s one f r e q u e n t l y quoted i n pamphlets and speeches, and a t t r i b u t e d t o the Stockholm I n t e r n a t i o n a l Peace Research I n s t i t u t e . They p u r p o r t e d l y claimed i n the l a t e 1970's, "About 35 count-r i e s w i l l be ab l e to make atomic weapons w i t h i n nine years . . and n u c l e a r war w i l l become i n e v i t a b l e . " P a r t i c i p a n t s a l s o worry about i n c r e a s e d danger r e s u l t i n g from q u a l i t a t i v e p r o-gress i n n u c l e a r weapon technology as r e p r e s e n t e d by the f i r s t -s t r i k e c a p a b i l i t y o f the MIRV m i s s i l e s and by the neutron bomb. The l a t t e r , developed f o r the N.A.-T.O. a r s e n a l , i s cons i d e r e d a "mini-nuke" which breaches the f i r e b r e a k between c o n v e n t i o n a l warfare and n u c l e a r warfare. Movement p a r t i c i -pants are concerned t h a t m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g i s t s who might nor-m a l l y stop short of u s i n g r e g u l a r n u c l e a r weapons, mught be tempted t o t r y t o wage a " l i m i t e d n u c l e a r war" wit h such a weapon.•• Both these q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e developments are c i t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f appar-e n t l y s c i e n t i f i c p r e d i c t i o n s about the h i g h p r o b a b i l i t y o f a n u c l e a r d i s a s t e r by the year 1990 or 2000. Movement p a r t i c i p a n t s employ images based upon l i n e a r concepts of time and motion to express t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t the p r o b a b i l i t y o f n u c l e a r cataclysm i s s t e a d i l y increasing,, and tha t i f the t r e n d i s not reversed, i t w i l l , become i n e v i t a b l e . An example of t h i s k i n d of image i s Sidney Lens's warning, 34 We are headed at 100 m i l e s per hour a g a i n s t a stone w a l l and I know th a t i f you t u r n away from t h a t stone w a l l t h e r e are dangers,- but i f you keep going ahead you are certain, to be i n c i n e r a t e d . We have to end the arms r a c e . (Lens, 197$:7) P§-f,ticipants\.frequently use phrases, such as "time i s running out," and "we are approaching the p o i n t of no r e t u r n . " But they a l l express hope t h a t i t i s not yet too l a t e to t r y to change the course of events p r e s e n t l y l e a d i n g to d i s a s t e r . They c o n t i n u a l l y make and quote statements which i n s i s t t h a t human beings have a.-choice to make: to a l l o w the c a t a -strophe to happen or to prevent i t . Two statements f r e q u e n t l y quoted a r e : .'.from paragraph 129 of the F i n a l Document of the U n i t e d Nations S p e c i a l S e s s i o n on Disarmament \ Removing the t h r e a t of a world war — a n u c l e a r war — i s the most acute and urgent t a s k of the present day. Mankind i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a c h o i c e : we must h a l t the arms race and proceed to disarmament or f a ce a n n i h i l a t i o n . ' and from a spje'-ech to the U n i t e d Nations by John F. Kennedy who 'said, "Mankind must put an end to war or war w i l l put an end to mankind." The p o s i t i n g of t h i s k i n d of choice i m p l i e s assumptions t h a t catastrophe i s i n e v i t a b l e u n l e s s c e r t a i n steps are taken soon enough to prevent i t , and t h a t s u f f i c i e n t numbers of informed and a c t i v e persons c o u l d e x e r c i s e or invoke.the power necessary to prevent i t . The c h o i c e , a r t i -c u l a t e d i n p l a c a r d slogans and speeches, i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by v a r i o u s b i n a r y o p p o s i t e s : s u r v i v a l or a n n i h i l a t i o n ; t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n or c a t a s t r o p h e ; c o - e x i s t e n c e or non-existence; a world without war or no world; non-violence or non-existence; the kingdom or the h o l o c a u s t . 35 T h i s manner of posing a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r one's society-i s r e m i n i s c e n t of what Fromm terms "the language of p r o p h e t i c alternativism.-"•• He e x p l a i n s t h a t the B i b l i c a l prophets d i d not p r e d i c t a determined future,- but r a t h e r expressed what p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the f u t u r e they saw i n the present r e a l i t y . They showed the people the a l t e r n a t i v e s and warned them to change t h e i r ways, or to remain deaf and b l i n d , and s u f f e r . The a l t e r n a t i v e was always one of choosing p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n or s u f f e r i n g the c a t a s t r o p h i c consequences of t h e i r present way of l i f e . P r o p h e t i c language i s always the language of a l t e r -n a t i v e s , of c h o i c e , and of freedom, i t i s never t h a t of determinism, f o r b e t t e r or worse. The s h o r t e s t f o r m u l a t i o n of p r o p h e t i c a l t e r n a t i v i s m i s the verse i n Deuteronomy: 'I put before you today l i f e and death, and you choose l i f e . ' (Fromm, 1968:15) I t seems t h a t some p a r t i c i p a n t s b e l i e v e that the choice before t h e i r s o c i e t y , and a l l of humanity, i s to r e a l i z e the world without war and v i o l e n c e which i n the J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n i s a n t i c i p a t e d near or at the end of h i s t o r y , or to p e r i s h i n a f i n a l h o l o c a u s t . The name " P r o j e c t Ploughshares," chosen by the r e c e n t l y formed working group on Canadian m i l i -t a r y p o l i c y , a round sung by demonstrators a t the T r i d e n t 7 base, and a s l i d e i n the M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r S u r v i v a l s l i d e show 0 are a l l d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to the "end-times" v i s i o n found i n I s a i a h 2 and Micah 4, t h a t I t s h a l l come to pass i n the l a t t e r days . t h a t they s h a l l beat t h e i r swords i n t o ploughshares and t h e i r spears i n t o pruning f o r k s n a t i o n s s h a l l not l i f t - up t h e i r sword a g a i n s t n a t i o n n e i t h e r s h a l l they l e a r n war any more but they s h a l l s i t every man under h i s v i n e and f i g t r e e and none s h a l l make them a f r a i d . . 36 The use of t h i s k i n d of imagery to d e s c r i b e the world they are t r y i n g to c r e a t e i s not r e s t r i c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s espous-i n g a Jewish or C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . F r e q u e n t l y statements are made suggesting t h a t "we are at a moment of t r u t h i n h i s t o r y , " or t h a t "we are at the c r o s s r o a d s " w i t h one road l e a d i n g to a New Age, a M i l l e n n i u m , a u t o p i a , t o t a l l i f e — and the other l e a d i n g t o Armageddon, Doomsday, a n n i h i l a t i o n , t o t a l death. For/example, the f o l l o w i n g statement by M a r t i n Luther King was read a t .a r e c e n t War R e s i s t e r s ' League Conference: I'm happy t o l i v e i n t h i s p e r i o d i n which we're going to have to grapple w i t h the problems t h a t men have been t r y i n g t o grapple w i t h through h i s t o r y but the demand d i d n ' t f o r c e them to do i t . S u r v i v a l demands t h a t we grapple w i t h them. Men f o r y e a r s now have been t a l k i n g about war and peace. But now,- no l o n g e r can they j u s t t a l k about i t . I t i s no l o n g e r a choice between v i o l e n c e and non-violence i n t h i s world. I t ' s a choice between non-violence and non-existence. Watson Thomson, a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the n u c l e a r disarmament movement i n Vancouver i n p r e v i o u s decades wrote: . . .. mankind needs and must make a new and d i f f e r e n t k i n d of r e v o l u t i o n , more r a d i c a l than any h i t h e r t o . For we are c o n f r o n t e d w i t h the supreme and u l t i m a t e c h o i c e : t o t a l death (most o b v i o u s l y i n the thermo-n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t ) or t o t a l l i f e . What do we mean by ' t o t a l l i f e ? ' We mean l i f e o r i e n t e d everywhere towards i n c l u s i v e n e s s , f u l f i l l m e n t , exuberant a f f i r m a t i o n s . (1966:164) I t seems t h a t many p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the n u c l e a r disarm-ament movement have d e r i v e d t h e i r hope and v i s i o n f o r a new w o r l d of u n i v e r s a l peace, j u s t i c e and p r o s p e r i t y from Judaeo-C h r i s t i a n themes and v a l u e s embedded i n t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a d i -t i o n . T h i s same t r a d i t i o n p r o v i d e s many of the symbols and m o t i f s used by p a r t i c i p a n t s t o express the p o s s i b i l i t y of the 37 end of the world. In the h i s t o r y of Western s o c i e t i e s t h e r e have been 'numerous o c c a s i o n s i n which groups have symbolized and a n t i c i p a t e d the r e a l i z a t i o n of m i l l e n n i a l or Utopian dreams, and f e a r e d the imminent m a t e r i a l i z a t i o n of a p o c a l y p t i c nightmares.^ The suggestion t h a t the contemporary n u c l e a r disarmament movement i s p l a y i n g out age-old symbolic themes does not exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they may be r i g h t i n t h e i r assessment of the present r e a l i t y and the c h o i c e before humanity.-P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the n u c l e a r disarmament movement are c o n t i n u a l l y c h a l l e n g i n g t h e i r f e l l o w c i t i z e n s ' assessment of the present world s i t u a t i o n and the f u t u r e . They argue t h a t those who b e l i e v e t h a t n u c l e a r weapons w i l l never be used are f o o l i n g themselves by t r u s t i n g i n s c i e n t i s t s , m i l i t a r i s t s and p o l i t i c i a n s who are t a l k i n g of peace while p r e p a r i n g f o r n u c l e a r war w i t h e x q u i s i t e - p r e c i s i o n . They a l s o d i s a g r e e with', those who b e l i e v e i t i s a l r e a d y too l a t e , t h a t humanity i s powerless to prevent a few from blowing up the world. In the f a c e of what they see as overwhelming odds, movement p a r t i c i p a n t s n e v e r t h e l e s s express hope t h a t disarm-ament and a new world order can be achieved, because they must be achieved f o r humanity's s u r v i v a l . 3 8 Chapter Three M o b i l i z i n g For S u r v i v a l T h i s chapter examines two events, l o o s e l y termed "demonstrations," which took p l a c e d u r i n g the week of May 2 1 -2 , 7 , 1 9 7 8 on opposite coasts of the Un i t e d S t a t e s of America. The f i r s t was h e l d at Bangor, Washington and the second was h e l d i n New York C i t y . In the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter, I b r i e f l y comment on data c o l l e c t i o n methods employed i n w r i t i n g t h i s account; I provide some background i n f o r m a t i o n concerning the groups which organized the events, and concern-i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the demonstration a t Bangor; and I o f f e r some s p e c u l a t i v e comments as to what these events were intended to accomplish and how they might be i n t e r p r e t e d . The l a s t two s e c t i o n s are d e s c r i p t i v e accounts of the two events. The statements made i n t h i s chapter concerning the demon-s t r a t i o n a t Bangor are d e r i v e d : from my own p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the event and p r e p a r a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s ; from other p a r t i c i p a n t s ' accounts, which were a v a i l a b l e to me i n c o n v e r s a t i o n s , l o c a l newspapers and groups' n e w s l e t t e r s ; from l i t e r a t u r e a d v e r t i -s i n g , e x p l a i n i n g and e v a l u a t i n g the event which was w r i t t e n and d i s t r i b u t e d by the o r g a n i z i n g c o a l i t i o n and i t s c o n s t i -tuent groups. As i n d i c a t e d i n the Methodology s e c t i o n of Chapter One, I had become p e r i p h e r a l l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the P a c i f i c L i f e Com-munity almost one year p r i o r t o the May 1 9 7 8 demonstration. During t h a t year I.- became i n c r e a s i n g l y i n c o r p o r a t e d into->. the 3 9 group as a working member. But I was never present f o r d i s -c u s s i o n s to p l a n or work out the l o g i s t i c s of the demonstra-t i o n . These u s u a l l y took p l a c e at v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s i n the s t a t e of Washington,- and i n c l u d e d persons from s e v e r a l groups which were c o l l e c t i v e l y o r g a n i z i n g the demonstration. In the months p r i o r to the demonstration, I took p a r t i n s e v e r a l workshops which had been designed by; the c o a l i t i o n o r g a n i z i n g the event to prepare people f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the demonstra-t i o n . My r o l e i n the l a s t few workshops changed from " t r a i n e e " t o an a s s i s t a n t " t r a i n e r . " During t h i s time I a l s o helped p u b l i c i z e the demonstration, and arranged s e v e r a l s m a l l meetings at which I showed the T r i d e n t s l i d e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and encouraged persons to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the upcoming demon-s t r a t i o n . One of these meetings was w i t h a b i b l e study gitvup of a l o c a l Mennonite church. Most of the members of t h i s group decided they would a t t e n d the demonstration, and -1 agreed to become p a r t of t h e i r a f f i n i t y group. At t h a t time I had not yet r e s o l v e d my own p o s i t i o n on whether c i v i l d isobedience was a s u i t a b l e means for-me to work f o r disarmament. The other persons i n my a f f i n i t y groups were a l s o not w i l l i n g to do c i v i l d i s o bedience, though they- d i d want t o support, through t h e i r presence, other demonstrators who chose to do c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e . We decided to p a r t i c i p a t e as a group i n the l e g a l r a l l y , , march, and c a n d l e l i g h t v i g i l , and to witness but not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n o f i l l e g a l l y t r e s p a s s i n g onto the base.-40 Statements made i n t h i s chapter concerning the New York demonstration are d e r i v e d from a few p a r t i c i p a n t s ' accounts, and from s l i d e s , photos and a tape r e c o r d i n g of the event. I d i d not a t t e n d the event. Iv. i n t e r v i e w e d Irene M c A l l i s t e r , a movement p a r t i c i p a n t who had attended i t fas a press r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e from the B r i t i s h Columbia branch of the Vo i c e of Women."'" M c A l l i s t e r showed me s l i d e s which she had taken, and k i n d l y p r o v i d e d me w i t h an e d i t e d tape r e c o r d i n g o f the event. E x c e r p t s of speeches and songs appearing i n t h i s chapter have been t r a n s c r i b e d from that tape.-. ,Newsletters and other p u b l i c a t i o n s of s e v e r a l disarmament groups were the source o f other p a r t i c i p a n t s ' accounts and p i c t u r e s of the event.. Both events were org a n i z e d by c o a l i t i o n s o f groups t r y i n g to f o c u s p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n on the U n i t e d Nations S p e c i a l ' S e s s i o n on Disarmament begi n n i n g the same week i n New York 3 C i t y . The S p e c i a l S e s s i o n was con s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t by-some p a r t i c i p a n t s because i t was the f i r s t time s i n c e the establishment o f the U n i t e d Nations and s i n c e the dawn of the n u c l e a r age, t h a t government l e a d e r s and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the 149 member c o u n t r i e s were assembling to d i s c u s s ways of b r i n g i n g about n u c l e a r disarmament, and an end to the "arms r a c e . " I t was the hope of many i n the movement that the S p e c i a l S e s s i o n would r a i s e p u b l i c awareness about the p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n of humanity. I t was a l s o hoped t h a t demonstrations of p u b l i c support f o r n u c l e a r disarmament 4 1 would put pressure on government o f f i c i a l s meeting at the S p e c i a l S e s s i o n t o take -concrete steps towards disarmament. The c o a l i t i o n which or g a n i z e d the event at Bangor was formed i n the f a l l o f 1 9 7 7 and was known simply as the May 2 2 n d C o a l i t i o n , i n d i c a t i n g the ad hoc nature of the organ-i z a t i o n . The c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , short—term, ad hoc c h a r a c t e r of the c o a l i t i o n seemed to enable persons from v a r i o u s groups to work t o g e t h e r i n s p i t e of u n d e r l y i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l or p o l i -t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The c o a l i t i o n i n c l u d e d P a c i f i c L i f e Com-munity,. Greenpeace, L i v e Without T r i d e n t , C r a b s h e l l A l l i a n c e , and other groups from B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington. Out-l i n i n g t h e i r goals'^ f o r the event i n a bo o k l e t e n t i t l e d The May 2 2 n d Handbook, the c o a l i t i o n s t a t e d : By mass demonstration and c e l e b r a t i o n on May 2 1 and c i v i l d i sobedience on May 2 2 , we seek t o : — c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o the U n i t e d Nations S p e c i a l S e s s i o n on Disarmament scheduled to convene May 2 3 , 1 9 7 8 i n New York C i t y . — s :6op the p r o d u c t i o n of the T r i d e n t Nuclear Submarine and-vcease p r e p a r a t i o n of any and a l l bases. —move the world's superpowers toward a t t a i n i n g t o t a l n u c l e a r disarmament. — a l e r t the people of North America to the r e a l and present danger of T r i d e n t and the arms r a c e . — f o l l o w through our c i v i l d i sobedience a c t i o n s to a r r e s t , c a u sing a moral c r i s i s on the base, and an economic c r i s i s i n the c o u r t s arid j a i l s . —empower c o n t i n u a l l y growing numbers of people t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n mass r e s i s t a n c e . The more permanent c o a l i t i o n which o r g a n i z e d the demon-s t r a t i o n on the east coast i s named the M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r S u r v i v a l , and i n c l u d e s more than 3 0 0 o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P r i m a r i l y an American network, the M o b i l i z a t i o n also,'has a f f i l i a t e d 42 groups and c o n t a c t s throughout the world. A War R e s i s t e r s ' League n e w s l e t t e r a s s e r t s t h a t the M o b i l i z a t i o n was formed i n the s p r i n g of 1977 l a r g e l y through the e f f o r t s of Sidney Lens and War R e s i s t e r s ' League chairwoman Norma Becker. A movement p a r t i c i p a n t wrote the f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of the M o b i l i z a t i o n : B r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r i n a l o o s e a l l i a n c e peace,- r e l i g i o u s , environmental, labour,- community a c t i o n and consumer groups, the M o b i l i z a t i o n has as i t s r a l l y i n g p o i n t a four-program p l a t f o r m : zero n u c l e a r weapons, ban nu-c l e a r power, stop the arms ra c e , and fund human needs.-(The Disarmament Times, 1978:3) At each of the two events, speakers made r e f e r e n c e t o the event o r g a n i z e d by the other, and i t was apparent t h a t the two c o a l i t i o n s were w e l l aware of the o t h e r ' s demonstra-t i o n p l a n s . P r i o r t o the demon s t r a t i on ,•• the May 22nd C o a l i -t i o n announced t h a t they had r e c e i v e d endorsement from the M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r S u r v i v a l . I t seemed as though the M o b i l i z a -t i o n was a n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l umbrella o r g a n i z a t i o n under which c o u l d f i t r e g i o n a l c o a l i t i o n s l i k e the May 22nd C o a l i t i o n . Elements of these events organized by the two c o a l i t i o n s may remind r e a d e r s of c i v i l r i g h t s and a n t i - V i e t n a m war demon-s t r a t i o n s i n the 1960's. The demonstrations of these p r e v i o u s movements o f t e n i n c l u d e d a p r o c e s s i o n of p l a c a r d - c a r r y i n g demonstrators, and a r a l l y where speakers reminded demonstra-t o r s of the i s s u e at hand, and s i n g e r s e n t e r t a i n e d or l e d ; demonstrators i n well-known songs. Sometimes the demonstra-t i o n s culminated w i t h some s o r t of c i v i l d i s obedience a c t i o n 43 such as a " d r a f t card burning" or a " s i t - i n " (an i l l e g a l o c c u p a t i o n of a government or corporate f a c i l i t y ) . I t seems t h a t some of the o r g a n i z e r s i n the May 22nd C o a l i t i o n and i n the M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r S u r v i v a l had taken p a r t i n these e a r l i e r demonstrations, as had some of the s i n g e r s and speakers, such as Pete Seeger and Dave D e l l i n g e r , and many of the p a r t i c i -p a n t s - Speakers at the Bangor and New York rallies-.made r e f e r e n c e s t o these e a r - l i e r " s t r u g g l e s " and suggested t h a t they are r e l a t e d t o the " s t r u g g l e " f o r n u c l e a r disarmament-A d i f f e r e n c e from these e a r l i e r demonstrations was the i n c r e a s e d p r e p a r a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the demonstration': at Bangor. In the demonstrations a g a i n s t the Vietnam War, a s m a l l proportiomtiof p a r t i c i p a n t s were t r a i n e d t o a c t as " m a r s h a l l s , " f o r crowd c o n t r o l . With the event organized by the May 22nd Coalition,•• some p a r t i c i p a n t s had t r a i n e d as "peacekeepers," but many more p a r t i c i p a n t s had attended day-long workshops t o prepare f o r the demonstration!.*, . At these workshops, r e f e r r e d t o as " n o n - v i o l e n t t r a i n i n g work-shops," p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d b r i e f i n s t r u c t i o n i n 1 " t h e h i s t o r y and g o a l s of the T r i d e n t campaign," i n the "theory of n o n - v i o l e n c e , " and i n the " s c e n a r i o " and " g u i d e l i n e s " f o r the demonstration scheduled f o r May 21: and May 22.> The i m p l i c i t purpose of p r e p a r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r the events seemed t o be to teach them a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour,, a p p a r e n t l y on the assumption t h a t c e r t a i n k i n d s of behaviour at the demonstration would be more e f f e c t i v e than, o t h e r s i n a c h i e v i n g the goals of the demonstration. 44 The f i r s t g u i d e l i n e e s t a b l i s h e d by the May 22nd C o a l i t i o n was the maintenance of n o n v i o l e n t d i s c i p l i n e , which they acknow-ledged was f o r some i n the c o a l i t i o n (such as Jim Douglass) a moral or s p i r i t u a l commitment, and f o r ot h e r s a pragmatic, t a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n . Nonviolent d i s c i p l i n e had been a guide-l i n e f o r a l l p r e v i o u s demonstrations and c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n s a t the T r i d e n t base or g a n i z e d by the P a c i f i c L i f e Community. In The May 22nd Handbook, which was d i s t r i b u t e d to p a r t i c i p a n t s a t the t r a i n i n g workshops, i t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t n o n v i o l e n t d i s c i p l i n e attempts t o educate and communicate wi t h people by a p p e a l i n g t o t h e i r c onsciences and showing under-s t a n d i n g of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s . I t c a l l s f o r a c t i o n based on the r e f u s a l t o do b o d i l y harm and the w i l l i n g -ness t o take p e r s o n a l r i s k s f o r what one b e l i e v e s to be r i g h t . There i s a fundamental r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the r e a l i z a t i o n of worthy goals cannot be separ-a t e d from the means used f o r t h e i r achievement. Using n o n v i o l e n c e , we seek t o b u i l d a s o c i e t y i n which people a r e n ' t f o r c e d , p h y s i c a l l y or me n t a l l y , t o do t h i n g s they don't want t o do. The r e a l causes of opp r e s s i o n which we hope t o remove are-the economic and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s which support i n j u s t i c e , not the i n d i v i d u a l human beings who are o f t e n trapped i n t o c a r r y i n g out the d e s t r u c t i v e purposes of these systems. As one " t r a i n e r " at the workshops put i t , "nonviolence i s moral j u - j i t s u . " P a r t i c i p a n t s were urged t o t r e a t p o l i c e , s o l d i e r s , base guards and neighbours — anyone whom they con-f r o n t e d i n the course of the demonstration — wit h a l l the r e s p e c t deserved by any human being, and t o r e f r a i n from any k i n d of p h y s i c a l or v e r b a l abuse. An emphasis was p l a c e d on deve l o p i n g r a p p o r t and d i a l o g u i n g w i t h these people, making i t c l e a r t h a t the demonstration was " a g a i n s t T r i d e n t and not 45 a g a i n s t them."^ I t seems t h a t demonstrators were being urged t o d i s t i n g u i s h between the e v i l o f the T r i d e n t weapon system, and the inhe r e n t human worth of the people b u i l d i n g and guard-i n g i t . I t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t a g o a l of the campaign was to t r y to win these people over t o the demonstrators' view-p o i n t t h a t T r i d e n t should not be b u i l t , and t h a t i t was more of a t h r e a t t o t h e i r l i v e s - a n d a l l of humanity than a source of s e c u r i t y f o r them and t h e i r n a t i o n . I t was a l s o made c l e a r t h a t these people — e s p e c i a l l y the p o l i c e , guards and s o l d i e r s — might respond w i t h h o s t i l i t y t o the demonstrators' presence and t h e i r message. I t was suggested, however, t h a t the demonstrators' power t o convince these people and the pub-l i c about the wrongness of T r i d e n t u l t i m a t e l y l a y i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e f u s e t o r e t u r n the h o s t i l i t y , and to s t e a d f a s t l y m a i n t a i n "the t r u t h about T r i d e n t " r e g a r d l e s s of the r i s k to themselves. A n t i c i p a t e d r i s k s i n c l u d e d : being a r r e s t e d and s e r v i n g j a i l terms; being s u b j e c t e d t o t e a r g a s and b e a t i n g s from guards; perhaps even being shot a t , as o c c u r r e d at a dem-o n s t r a t i o n at Kent S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y a few ye a r s e a r l i e r . A main component of the n o n v i o l e n t t r a i n i n g workshops was r o l e p l a y i n g problematic s i t u a t i o n s which demonstrators might face d u r i n g the event, and e v a l u a t i n g the emotions and responses evoked by the s i t u a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s chosen f o r the r o l e p l a y s were those g i v i n g people p r a c t i s e i n responding " n o n v i o l e n t l y " t o p r o v o c a t i o n or h o s t i l i t y from p o l i c e , s e c u r i t y guards, s o l d i e r s , "agents p r o v o c a t e u r s , " ^ other demonstrators or bystanders. 46 Workshop participants also roleplayed the c i v i l disobe-dience action scheduled as the climax of the two-day long demonstration. It seemed.that by c i v i l disobedience was meant an action which involved breaking a law in an action of obedience to a higher law, and thereby raising a moral issue. Voluntarily submitting to arrest and j a i l in a non-violent fashion were considered integral to c i v i l disobedience. In the case of the Bangor demonstration, the c i v i l disobedience action involved trespassing onto the naval base by climbing over a six-foot .ftigh^chainlink and barbed wire fence which separates the military f a c i l i t y from the public road. In trespassing onto the base, demonstrators would be breaking aV' federal trespass statute (Title 1$, U.S. Code, Section 1382), and would be liable for a sentence .offup.:-to six-months in j a i l , a fine of $500, or both. It was the Coalition's goal for trespassers to be arrested and go to t r i a l . In this way they would have a forum for arguing.the immorality and i l -legality of the Trident submarine as a " f i r s t - s t r i k e " weapon system, and as a ,>w;eapon which w i l l cause indiscriminate suffering among a c i v i l i a n population. Such weapons are con-demned by international law and treaties, such as the Hague Conventions, the International Tribunal at Nuremberg and the United Nations Charter. In the United States, internat-ional law i s supposed to be binding on domestic courts, such that treaties signed .by.> the federal government are part of the supreme law of the land. 47 I t was a p p a r e n t l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the demonstrators' w i l l i n g n e s s to spend time i n j a i l , t o . p r o t e s t the c o n s t r u c t i o n and deployment of n u c l e a r weapons would be a n . i n d i c a t i o n to base personnel and the p u b l i c of the s i n c e r i t y of t h e i r con-v i c t i o n s and would u n s e t t l e the consciences of these groups. They would a l s o be causing great expense to the government because of the c o s t s of j a i l i n g and b r i n g i n g to t r i a l hundreds of demonstrators. In the t r a i n i n g workshops a s t o r y was c i r -c u l a t i n g t h a t the j a i l and court c o s t s of a l a r g e c i v i l dis-r; obedience a c t i o n a t the Seabrook n u c l e a r power p l a n t s i t e had caused a f i s c a l c r i s i s f o r the New Hampshire government. The May 22nd C o a l i t i o n e x p l a i n e d t h a t i n t r e s p a s s i n g onto the base, demonstrators would be "opening up the premises f o r p r o d u c t i v e r a t h e r than d e s t r u c t i v e purposes.". By "pro-d u c t i v e purposes" was meant a c t i v i t i e s which demonstrators would view as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the w e l l - b e i n g of a l l humanity. These a c t i v i t i e s were sometimes symbolized d u r i n g p r e v i o u s e n t r i e s of the base by p l a n t i n g a vegetable garden or sowing g r a i n se.eds, which suggest a "swords i n t o ploughshares" v i s i o n . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of a "weapon system capable of k i l l i n g m i l l i o n s of humans i n order to p r o t e c t " n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s " was viewed as being 'destructive" and c o n t r a r y t o the i n t e r e s t s of a l l humanity. R e a l i s t i c a l l y the " r e c l a m a t i o n " of the base would on l y be symbolic and q u i t e b r i e f , i f accomplished at a l l . The many a c r e s of n a v a l base were guarded by a c i v i l i a n s e c u r -i t y f o r c e employed by Pan Am on the p e r i p h e r y , and by U n i t e d 48 5 S t a t e s Marines on the i n t e r i o r of the base. Demonstrators would attempt t o climb over the fence d i r e c t l y beside the main gate o f the base, i n f u l l view o f the guards' o f f i c e and the base a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u i l d i n g s , and then proceed a few hundred yards t o a slope r e f e r r e d t o as the "grassy k n o l l , " where they would .stop and wait t o be arrested.- I t was re c o g -n i z e d t h a t the base per s o n n e l , w e l l aware of the p l a n f o r a "n o n v i o l e n t c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n , " had s e v e r a l o p t i o n s . They c o u l d attempt t o p h y s i c a l l y prevent demonstrators from e n t e r i n g the base by the use of t e a r gas, c l u b s or other v i o l e n t means. They co u l d r e f r a i n from t a k i n g any a c t i o n a g a i n s t the t r e s p a s s e r s and wait f o r them t o t i r e o f the occupation 'and l e a v e . They c o u l d f o r c i b l y remove t r e s p a s s e r s without l a y i n g charges a g a i n s t them. They c o u l d a l l o w dem-o n s t r a t o r s t o enter the base and immediately a r r e s t them, et c e t e r a . Some of these d i f f e r e n t a n t i c i p a t e d responses p r o v i d e d the " s i t u a t i o n " f o r r o l e p l a y s i n the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . P a r t i c i p a n t s p r a c t i s e d coming t o quick group d e c i s i o n s about how t o respond t o the base's s t r a t e g y f o r d e a l i n g w i t h them. Anyone i n t e n d i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e i n or be present f o r the c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n was r e q u i r e d t o have p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a n o n v i o l e n t t r a i n i n g workshop and be a member of what was r e f e r r e d t o as an " a f f i n i t y group." An a f f i n i t y group c o n s i s t -ed of seven t o f i f t e e n persons o r g a n i z e d t o a c t as a u n i t d u r i n g the event. Members v o l u n t e e r e d f o r r o l e s they would take d u r i n g the demonstration. Those i n t e n d i n g t o p a r t i c i -pate i n the c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n of t r e s p a s s i n g onto 49 the base were r e f e r r e d t o as " c . d . - e r s . " For every c.d.-er i n an a f f i n i t y group, t h e r e was supposed t o be a t l e a s t one "support person."- The r o l e of the support persons was to pro-v i d e the c.d.-ers with.moral support and v a r i o u s k i n d s of p r a c -t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . They were t o h e l p c:.d. -ers climb the fence. They would phone lawyers and f a m i l i e s a f t e r the c.d.-ers were a r r e s t e d , they would care f o r c h i l d r e n , p l a n t s or pets i f the c.d.-ers were kept i n j a i l , - a n d would p i c k c.d.-ers up when r e l e a s e d . Every a f f i n i t y group was a l s o supposed t o have: a "medic" t o handle rudimentary f i r s t a i d , a "peace-keeper" t o be on the a l e r t f o r d i s r u p t i v e s i t u a t i o n s i n the v i c i n i t y of t h e i r a f f i n i t y group, and a "spokesperson" t o respond t o qu e s t i o n s from the media arid c o n s u l t w i t h spokes-persons from other a f f i n i t y groups. There w e r e - s e v e r a l reasons given f o r the a f f i n i t y group s t r u c t u r e of the event. The s t r u c t u r e was supposed t o pr o v i d e emotional and p r a c t i c a l support f o r persons r i s k i n g a r r e s t and j a i l i n the c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n . I t was a l s o sup-posed t o c o n t r i b u t e t o the maintenance of an o r d e r l y and p e a c e f u l demonstration, by making p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r one another. It":;.was*a,>-''t''ask>pf a l l a f f i n i t y group, members to make sure t h a t only those i n t h e i r a f f i n i t y group who had t r a i n e d t o do c i v i l d isobedience a c t u a l l y went over the fence.' They were t o prevent anyone from i m p u l s i v e l y doing c i v i l d i s -obedience who had not p r o p e r l y prepared f o r i t . A f f i n i t y group members were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the maintenance of non-v i o l e n t d i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n t h e i r group. I t was expected t h a t 50 the s t r u c t u r e would i n h i b i t the spread of h y s t e r i a and con-fu s i o n . which can e a s i l y occur when a crowd of i n d i v i d u a l s i s c o n f r o n t e d by a t h r e a t e n i n g s i t u a t i o n . T h i s k i n d of s t r u c t u r e would a l s o make i t e a s i e r f o r peacekeepers t o spot an agent provocateur o r ' r a b b l e r o u s e r . " The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the a f f i n i t y groups was supposed t o - f a c i l i t a t e communication among p a r t i c i p a n t s , . e s p e c i a l l y i n s i t u a t i o n s which r e q u i r e d - q u i c k d e c i s i o n s . D e c i s i o n s were t o be made by consensus w i t h i n a f f i n i t y groups, and then the spokespersons were t o c o n s u l t w i t h each other and come to a common d e c i s i o n . I t was e x p l a i n e d i n one group's n e w s l e t t e r t h a t i d e a l l y , the a f f i n i t y group s t r u c t u r e i s t o take the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and decision-making r e s p o n s i b i l i t y away from a. few l e a d e r s and disseminate i t , t o everyone. As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , one of the go a l s o f the May 22nd C o a l i t i o n was to "empower c o n t i n u a l l y growing numbers of people t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n mass r e s i s t a n c e . " They wanted to communicatee- to other persons i n t h e i r s o c i e t y and around the world, t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t m i l i t a r y , governmental and i n d u s t -r i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which engaged i n a process o f producing'-)"-' n u c l e a r weaponry must be r e s i s t e d , i f a n u c l e a r d i s a s t e r i s t o be a v e r t e d . For t h i s reason I would s p e c u l a t e t h a t i t was important t o them t h a t the mass media convey t h e i r message. But as Molotch and L e s t e r (1974:57) p o i n t out, access to the media by groups q u e s t i o n i n g b a s i c s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s i s l i m i t e d . Since they l a c k e d the funds t o buy a d v e r t i s i n g time f o r t e l e v i s i o n or r a d i o , or space i n newspapers, and 51 s i n c e they d i d not have the r e s o u r c e s or connections t o pro-duce r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n shows, t h e i r o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e might have been t o a t t r a c t media a t t e n t i o n by making themselves "newsworthy." . The demonstrations at New York may have been deemed "newsworthy" because i t assembled l a r g e numbers of people and f e a t u r e d " b i g names" l i k e Pete Seeger, D a n i e l E l l s b e r g and p h y s i -clra-n Helen C a l d i c o t t . The'. May 22nd C o a l i t i o n gained substan-t i a l media coverage of t h e i r event, perhaps because they made themselves "newsworthy" by assembling demonstrators " i n an i n a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e a t an i n a p p r o p r i a t e time1' (Molotch, 1974:57) i n o r g a n i z i n g a l a r g e t r e s p a s s a c t i o n . They a l s o gave the media s u f f i c i e n t advance n o t i c e t h a t a "newsworthy?' event was going t o take p l a c e , so t h a t the. media co u l d arrange f o r camera crews and r e p o r t e r s t o t r a v e l t o the l o c a t i o n which was o f f the beaten t r a c k of "newsworthy" events.^ However, a d i s p l a y of i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour t o get media coverage must be very c a r e f u l l y managed so t h a t news-makers and viewers do not simply respond t o the i n a p p r o p r i a t e -ness of t h e i r a c t i o n s , r a t h e r than the reasons f o r i t . I t seems reasonable t o spe c u l a t e t h a t the n o n v i o l e n t t r a i n i n g of p a r t i c i p a n t s and the a f f i n i t y group s t r u c t u r e may be ways of managing the i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of t h e ^ d i s p l a y so t h a t a "newsworthy event" i s accomplished, w i t h the onl y i n c i d e n t of i n a p p r o p r i a t e behaviour r e p o r t e d being t h a t which c l e a r l y r a i s e s the i s s u e the demonstrators are t r y i n g t o r a i s e . 52 I f newsmakers and viewers n o t i c e the p e a c e f u l n e s s , o r d e r l i n e s s , i n t e g r i t y and 'good c i t i z e n ' demeanour of the p r o t e s t o r s , . then i t might-be more d i f f i c u l t f o r them to d i s m i s s the message of the p r o t e s t o r s . I t might a l s o make them more sym-p a t h e t i c to the demonstrators i n the e v e n t u a l i t y of a u t h o r i -t i e s u s i n g v i o l e n t t a c t i c s a g a i n s t them. From the p e r s p e c t i v e of p a r t i c i p a n t s t r y i n g . t o . b r i n g about a new s o c i a l order through a k i n d of " n o n v i o l e n t r e v o l -u t i o n , " n o n v i o l e n t t r a i n i n g might .be a way of p r e p a r i n g people f o r p r o s e c u t i n g c o n f l i c t w i t h e x i s t i n g s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The demonstrations at Bangor and a t New York c o u l d be con-s i d e r e d p a r t of a s t r a t e g y of a c c o m p l i s h i n g s o c i a l change u s i n g t a c t i c s which undermine i n the minds of the p u b l i c the a u t h o r i t y and l e g i t i m a c y of c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h e i r p r a c t i c e s . The g o a l of such a s t r a t e g y i s t h a t e v e n t u a l l y a s i g n i f i c a n t p r o p o r t i o n of the p u b l i c w i l l j o i n i n mass non-cooperation w i t h these i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n a mass mob-i l i z a t i o n f o r a new s o c i e t y . T h i s s t r a t e g y as propounded by the Movement f o r a New S o c i e t y , the War R e s i s t e r s ' League and other groups, seems to be a f u r t h e r development i n the t r a d i t i o n of movements f o r " n o n v i o l e n t s o c i a l change", i n which Mahatma Gandhi and M a r t i n Luther King, J r . have been pro-7 minent f i g u r e s . . I t has been suggested.that Gandhi and King " b u i l t . s o c i a l movements around the i d e a of the power of s o c i a l l y o r g a n i z e d withdrawals of consent" (Pickus & Woito, 1970:149)• The events at the T r i d e n t base and a t New York C i t y are 53 o c c a s i o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o express or "demonstrate" i n v a r i o u s ways the withdrawal of t h e i r consent to the a c t i v i t i e s of governmental, m i l i t a r y and i n d u s t r i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s which are producing technology capable of a c c o m p l i s h i n g the death of human beings on a massive s c a l e . T h i s withdrawal of con-sent i s e x p l i c i t when demonstrators at the New York r a l l y chant a chorus of "No! No! No!" as a speaker shouts, I t ' s time to say "no" to a l l of t h a t . "No" to -n u c l e a r weapons. "No" t o c o n v e n t i o n a l weapons. "No" t o n u c l e a r power;*-!, "No" to the m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . And f i n a l l y "no" to the whole system of greed and power f o r power and p r o f i t t h a t i s b r i n g i n g these t h i n g s upon us. . . . and when demonstrators t r e s p a s s onto the T r i d e n t base s t a t i n g t h a t they are '-"reclaiming the premises f o r produc-t i v e r a t h e r than d e s t r u c t i v e purposes," and wait to be a r r e s t e d . In New York, demonstrators dramatize' t h e i r reason f o r withdrawing consent through a " d i e - i n , " which i s d e s c r i b e d by an announcer at the r a l l y as a "symbolic a c t i o n " which "may be f o r some a s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d e n v i s i o n i n g of c a t a s t r o p h e , f o r o t h ers a prayer, f o r o t h e r s a b e a r i n g w i t n e s s a g a i n s t human s u f f e r i n g by v i g i l i r g . .'" The catastrophe they are 8 e n v i s i o n i n g and d r a m a t i z i n g i s t h a t of a n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t . Speakers a t both the Bangor and New York r a l l i e s suggest v a r i o u s f a c t o r s which are l e a d i n g t o t h i s k i n d of c a t a s t r o p h e : l e a d e r s who have l o s t t h e i r i n s t i n c t f o r s u r v i v a l and c o u l d q be c o n s i d e r e d i n s a n e ; 7 l e a d e r s who p l a c e more value on power, p r o f i t and p r o p e r t y than on people; a s o c i a l order which u n j u s t l y g i v e s governments and c o r p o r a t i o n s the power of l i f e and death, and a l l o w s them to perpetuate crimes a g a i n s t 54 humanity; a . s o c i a l system d i s e a s e d by greed, by f e a r and o p p r e s s i o n , and by p a t r i a r c h y . In o r a t o r y and i n song, d e c l a r a t i o n s are made t h a t , "We must e l i m i n a t e every s i n g l e n u c l e a r weapon on e a r t h , " t h a t , "We a i n ' t gonna study war no more," and t h a t , "We are here today to say t h a t we want a s e n s i t i v e world,, a world t h a t cares about people." These two events are o c c a s i o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s to symbolize and communicate t h e i r conceptions of the nature and source of imminent c a t a s t r o p h e . They are a l s o o c c a s i o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t o t r y to m a r s h a l l f o r c e s which they b e l i e v e could a v e r t c a t a s t r o p h e . D o l g i n et a l . , ( 1 9 7 7 : 3 5 ) observe t h a t , "Within the symbolic p e r s p e c t i v e i t has been suggested t h a t r i t u a l s develop i n r e a c t i o n , and encapsulate a c u l t u r a l r e t o r t , t o s o c i a l l y menacing o b j e c t s and meanings." The demonstrations a t Bangor and New York c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a . " c u l t u r a l r e t o r t " t o what might be r e f e r r e d t o as the " n u c l e a r menace." They are e x p r e s s i o n s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h — and f o r some, a r e j e c t i o n of — the s o c i a l order which has c r e a t e d the menace. They are m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of commitment t o the r e a l i z a t i o n of a new and b e t t e r s o c i a l o rder. 55 The Events ( i ) Bangor, Washington On Sunday May 2 1 s t , 1 9 7 8 , s e v e r a l thousand people con-verged on a 2 0 - a c r e farm i n K i t s a p County, a short f e r r y t r i p a c r o s s the Puget Sound from S e a t t l e , Washington. The farm was l o c a t e d ar.couple of k i l o m e t e r s south of the main entrance gate to the U n i t e d S t a t e s Naval Torpedo S t a t i o n , Bangor Annex — commonly r e f e r r e d t o as the " T r i d e n t base", because i t was being equipped t o f u n c t i o n as home po r t f o r the T r i d e n t n u c l e a r submarines. K a r l Sturmanis of the Vancouver Greenpeace Foundation p r o v i d e d a d e s c r i p t i o n of the T r i d e n t submarine as an e x p l a n a t i o n of h i s own presence t h e r e : The reasons f o r my being at Bangor came c r a s h i n g back to mind. The T r i d e n t submarine, p r i d e of the U.S. navy. More than 5 5 0 f e e t l o n g , f o u r strjrey-s h i g h and weighing 1 8 , 7 0 0 tons, i t i s probably the s i n g l e most deadly weapon of war yet developed. I t s a r s e n a l i n c l u d e s 2 4 m i s s i l e s , each equipped w i t h 1 7 n u c l e a r warheads th a t can be independently t a r g e t e d . That i s 4 0 8 n u c l e a r bombs per submarine. A t o t a l of 2 9 subs are scheduled to be b u i l t ; the f i r s t s l a t e d t o a r r i v e a t Bangor around 1 9 8 1 . P r i c e : more than 2 . 5 b i l l i o n d o l l a r s each. The U.S. a l r e a d y has the n u c l e a r c a p a b i l i t y t o de-s t r o y a l l of R u s s i a ' s urban and i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s 3 4 times over. So why spend $ 8 0 b i l l i o n on T r i d e n t ? I t appears t h a t the Pentagon has changed i t s t a c t i c s . A l i n e from an o l d school teamhcoach comes to mind: "The best defence i s a good o f f e n c e . " In other words the T r i d e n t m i s s i l e system has been designed as a f i r s t s t r i k e weapon: to home i n on 'hard' t a r g e t s such as underground m i s s i l e s i l o s . And so the weapons race continues to e s c a l a t e . . . . (Sturmanis, 197$.'iA6). L i k e Sturmanis, many people seem impressed by what they see as the enormous s i z e of the submarine, e s p e c i a l l y when they 56 learn that the submarine w i l l be navigating in a narrow strait used by fishing and pleasure craft, just south of Vancouver Island. They are also often awed by the recent technological development giving missiles the capability of directing warheads to numerous different targets, such that one submarine could launch missiles to destroy 40$ different c i t i e s . Sturmanis i s countering government statements that Trident i s necessary because of the "Soviet threaty"vbyr.noting t hat U the a US' S.;; A v ^  has sufficient nuclear weapons to destroy a l l of the Soviet Union's urban and industrial centres 34 times. Another figure frequently quoted by opponents to the "arms race" i s that the combined Soviet and American nuclear-arsenal i s sufficient to k i l l everyone on earth 20 times. The use of awesome figures i s a common way for movement participants to try to convince others of the terrible power of these weapons, and of the disastrous consequences of a continued "arms race." As a convoy of shuttle buses and vans transported people from ferry terminals to the farm, hundreds of others parked their cars along the sides of country roads and wandered down the farm's driveway to the large pasture which was to serve as r a l l y site and campground. Near the entrance to the pasture were lean-to shelters for f i r s t aid and informa-tion booths, and a large wooden stage which had been erected for the r a l l y . Along one side of the pasture was a line of portable toilets and further on, the flags of many nations 57 were f l y i n g on short p o l e s . F u r t h e r up the pasture, some people were p i t c h i n g t e n t s and teepees i n sma l l c l u s t e r s which were marked by cardboard s i g n s b e a r i n g words l i k e , "Rainbow, " I n f i n i t y , " "Baleuga," "Vancouver I s l a n d , " "Pine Tree People," "Satyagraha" (Gandhi's word f o r a s p i r i t u a l t r u t h - f o r c e ) , et c e t e r a . These words were the names which a f f i n i t y groups had chosen f o r themselves. The names sometimes r e f e r r e d t o the geographic area where the group members l i v e d , such as Vancouver I s l a n d . Other times they suggested a group's commonly shared s e n t i m e n t a l attachment t o e n t i t i e s i n Nature, such as pine t r e e s , rainbows and baleuga whales. O c c a s i o n a l l y the names suggested a commorily shared i d e o l o g i c a l commitment, such as "More With Less." There was a f e s t i v e atmosphere as people i n t r o d u c e d themselves — u s u a l l y a s k i n g where they had come from, t o which group they belonged and whether they were i n t e n d i n g t o do "g.d." the f o l l o w i n g day. F r i e n d s greeted each other w i t h s h r i e k s and hugs. E n t h u s i a s t i c comments were exchanged about the numbers of people a r r i v i n g f o r the r a l l y . In the e a r l y a f t e r n o o n , speakers, s i n g e r s and musicians assembled on the stage. Soon hundreds of people were gathered around the stage and were s i n g i n g songs l i k e "Oh Freedom," "We S h a l l Overcome," " A i n ' t Gonna Study War No More," and i l R o l l ©n R e s i s t a n c e R o l l On'. "-wLyrics iw.ene f r e q u e n t l y adapted to the theme of T r i d e n t and n u c l e a r disarmament. Sometimes 5$ l y r i c s t o the songs a r t i c u l a t e d the dream of a world without war and a f f i r m e d commitments to work r e l e n t l e s s l y f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h a t dream. Other'/times the l y r i c s made fun of government l e a d e r s who were "pro-nuke," t h a t i s , i n favour of T r i d e n t , n u c l e a r weapons, and n u c l e a r power p l a n t s . V a r i o u s speakers addressed the crowd reminding them of the purposes of the demonstration. The v a r i e t y ;b'f reasons given t o oppose/ T r i d e n t was an i n d i c a t i o n of the d i v e r s i t y of the groups encompassed by the C o a l i t i o n . Some of the reasons given were: to support the U n i t e d Nations S p e c i a l S e s s i o n on Disarmament which might be pre s s u r e d i n t o p o s i t i v e a c t i o n by a p u b l i c o u t c r y f o r n u c l e a r disarmament; t o save the E a r t h f o r humans, whales and a l l l i v i n g beings; t o p r e -vent another Hiroshima; t o r e s i s t p a t r i a r c h y which the speaker d e s c r i b e d as "£he s o c i a l i z e d consciousness i n a l l of us t h a t supports the v i o l e n c e of T r i d e n t and the v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t women and c h i l d r e n " ; to end poverty i n the U.S.A. and through-out the world by i n s i s t i n g t h a t the $400 b i l l i o n spent annual-l y on armaments be spent on meeting human needs; t o a c t on the b e l i e f t h a t the power of people a c t i n g t o g e t h e r can stop T r i d e n t and c r e a t e a p e a c e f u l and j u s t world. One speaker d e s c r i b e d T r i d e n t as the most deadly weapon i n v e n t e d which t h r e a t e n s the s u r v i v a l of humanity, and which i s symptomatic of "a s o c i e t y of f e a r and domination which needs t o be he a l e d and made whole." An i m p l i c i t theme a t the r a l l y , which has been evident throughout the campaign, was t h a t i n working t o stop the deployment of the T r i d e n t submarine weapon system, 59 p a r t i c i p a n t s were si m u l t a n e o u s l y h e l p i n g t o e l i m i n a t e a l l the e v i l and v i o l e n c e i n the worl d . " T r i d e n t " i s o c c a s i o n a l l y employed as an all-encompassing symbol of v i o l e n c e , such t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s sometimes t a l k about g e t t i n g r i d of the " T r i d e n t s ' w i t h i n themselves as w e l l as the " T r i d e n t s " i n t h e i r s o c i e t y . Robert A l d r i d g e (the aerospace engineer who was head o f the advance r e s e a r c h and design team f o r the T r i d e n t m i s s i l e before he r e s i g n e d h i s job w i t h Lockheed and helped form the C a l i f o r n i a arm of the P a c i f i c L i f e Community) has been quoted as saying, T r i d e n t symbolizes the malignancy t h a t i s consuming North America. I t i s a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of corporat e g l u t and Pentagon ambition. I t i s coming i n t o e x i s t e n c e because of our p e r s o n a l greed. I t s p h i l o s o p h y i s the non-ca r i n g t h a t causes poverty, crime and other s o c i a l s i c k n e s s e s . The s o u l of North America i s being destroyed At the end of the r a l l y , i n s t r u c t i o n s were given f o r people t o walk from the farm down the road t o the main gate of the n a v a l base, and then f u r t h e r on t o the p r o p e r t y r e f e r r e t o as "Ground Zero." A p o l i c e car was w a i t i n g on the road to l e a d o f f the lo n g column of people walking twelve-abreast down one s i d e of the road. Manyf more p o l i c e J®nrmot or c y c l e s and i n ca r s were w a i t i n g to d r i v e a l o n g s i d e demonstrators. Media people w i t h cameras, microphones and t a p e - r e c o r d e r s walked w i t h demonstrators or drove s l o w l y a l o n g s i d e the p r o c e s s i o n . At the fr o n t . oT the p r o c e s s i o n was the Un i t e d Nations f l a g , f o l l o w e d by a l i n e of women h o l d i n g a banner which read, "Women Working f o r Peace. Our R e s i s t a n c e Grows Strong." 6 0 Demonstrators were h o l d i n g f l a g s of many c o u n t r i e s , and p l a c a r d s and banners emblazoned w i t h slogans or names of t h e i r groups. Some of the p l a c a r d s and banners, such as "Voice of Women,"."Mennonites A g a i n s t T r i d e n t , " " K i t s a p p e r s say No t o T r i d e n t , " and "Womyn who lov e Womyn Aga i n s t T r i d e n t , " served t o i d e n t i f y v a r i o u s c o n t i n g e n t s of the demonstrators. They seemed t o be a b b r e v i a t e d messages s a y i n g "We are from the o r g a n i z a t i o n c a l l e d the Vo i c e of Women and we are opposed t o T r i d e n t , " "We are a group o f Mennonites opposed t o T r i d e n t , " "We are a group of r e s i d e n t s of K i t s a p County (the county i n which the base i s being b u i l t ) and we're opposed t o T r i d e n t , " or "We're a group of r a d i c a l f e m i n i s t s and we are opposed t o T r i d e n t . " Other slogans, such as "Help t o stop n u c l e a r war" and "Stop T r i d e n t " seemed t o be e x h o r t a t i o n s . "Bread not Bombs" and "Zukes not Nukes" i m p l i e d " L e t ' s make bread or food t o fe e d the hungry, not make bombs," and " L e t ' s grow zukes (zucchini vegetables) and not b u i l d nukes ( n u c l e a r bombs or nu c l e a r power p l a n t s ) . " These suggested "swords i n t o ploughshares" imagery. There were r e f e r e n c e s t o the U n i t e d Nations S p e c i a l S e s s i o n and p l e a s f o r government l e a d e r s meeting t h e r e t o agree on n u c l e a r disarmament "so t h a t our c h i l d r e n w i l l l i v e . " Some slogans suggested a C h r i s t i a n o r i e n t a t i o n . There were s e v e r a l p l a c a r d s r e a d i n g .' "RepenTrident" w i t h the "T" drawn l i k e a c r o s s . Another which quoted from the Gospel of Matthew, " B l e s s e d are the 61 Peacemakers.", One p l a c a r d proclaimed, "God's Arms Are Not Nuclear!" There was a sense of e x h i l e r a t i o n among the demonstrators. O c c a s i o n a l l y people s t a r t e d s i n g i n g and c l a p p i n g , or changing a slogan, arid l i k e a wave i t spread up and down the column. Excitement i n c r e a s e d as the p r o c e s s i o n drew c l o s e t o the main gate of the base. The demonstrators c o u l d see on the other s i d e of the barbed wire and c h a i n l i n k fence e n c l o s i n g the base, a few dozen uniformed men, s t a n d i n g s i l e n t and s t i l l , watching them. They were evenly spaced i n a l i n e which s t r e t c h e d a c r o s s the grassy expanse between the fence and the base b u i l d i n g s . The p r o c e s s i o n stopped and a few people approached the guards s t a n d i n g a t the gate and handed them a w r i t t e n statement on b e h a l f of the demonstrat-o r s . The statement probably r e i t e r a t e d the C o a l i t i o n ' s reasons f o r opposing T r i d e n t . The p r o c e s s i o n then continued, but w h i l e p a s s i n g the fence on e i t h e r s i d e of the main gate, many people c a r e f u l l y leaned t h e i r p l a c a r d s , l i k e wreaths, a g a i n s t the f e n c e . F u r t h e r down the road, the p r o c e s s i o n t u r n e d i n t o a d r i v e -way marked by the s i g n of "Ground Zero:Centre f o r N o n v i o l e n t Action.""'"^ The p r o p e r t y c o n s i s t e d of a s m a l l house and a few sheds on a acre l o t which had been c l e a r e d of most of the t r e e s , but had not been landscaped. As the l o t f i l l e d w i t h s e v e r a l thousand people, the p r o c e s s i o n d i s p e r s e d i n t o a crowd of persons m i l l i n g about, f i n d i n g p l a c e s t o s i t , or e x p l o r i n g the p r o p e r t y . When a few people climbed an 62 embankment a t the back of the l o t and proceeded down the other s i d e , t h e r e were shouts f o r them t o come back because they were approaching the base's p r o p e r t y l i n e and were near t o a h i g h s e c u r i t y ammunition storage area, perhaps housing some of the base's n u c l e a r weapons. In the shouts, t h e r e seemed to be a note of f e a r , perhaps d e r i v i n g from a sense t h a t the e x p l o r e r s might i n a d v e r t e n t l y s t a r t l e guards hidden behind t r e e s , and provoke a response from them which would somehow mar a w e l l - o r c h e s t r a t e d c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n the next day. Announcements were made t h a t the march was over and the people should proceed i n an o r d e r l y f a s h i o n back t o the farm. I f f t h e y were not s t a y i n g f o r the next day's c i v i l d i s obedience a c t i o n , they were i n s t r u c t e d t o go to v e h i c l e s which would take them out of the county. About h a l f of the people r e -turned t o the farm, t o cook supper?r over campstoves, eat' and v i s i t i n smal l groups, s c a t t e r e d over the damp p a s t u r e . Towards evening there were frequent announcements over the loudspeaker f o r meetings of people i n the v a r i o u s r o l e s f o r the c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n the next mmoEning: c.d.-ers, spokespersons, medics, support people, and peace-keepers. K a r l Sturmanis of the Vancouver Greenpeace Foundation a r r i v e d j u s t ,a)s darkness was c l o s i n g i n . He r e c a l l s , We parked our ca r s o f f the main road. As we stepped out we heard the sound of a l a r g e g a t h e r i n g — people s i n g i n g and c h e e r i n g a m i l e away, a c r o s s a wooded a r e a . The scene a t the Peterson farm where the main con-t i n g e n t of p r o t e s t e r s was camped was u n f o r g e t t a b l e . The f u l l moon t h a t had been p l a y i n g hide and seek w i t h clouds f i n a l l y had broken f r e e , r e f l e c t i n g b r i l l i a n t l y 6 3 in the starry night sky. In the distance, a cluster of small tents and a larger white teepee. The glow of the moon infused the landscape with a magical quality. People had linked their arms together to form a large circle by the teepee and were singing in a soft melodic tone. The effect was one of unbelievable tranquility, yet with a deep sense of strength. . . The circle dispersed; different a f f i n i t y groups going off to talk and prepare before the fence crossing the next morning. I found myself talking with;, the a f f i n -i t y group from Greenpeace Seattle. We joked about the upcoming arrests and sang songs about whales and peace. Underlining everything we were doing was the pervasive feeling that we were saving ourselves. We knew Trident was a threat to a l l our lives. CSturmanis, 197$:A6) When most people retired to the warmth of sleeping bags and tents to sleep, dozens of others walked, or were trans-ported by shuttle bus, down the road to the main gate area to maihtain what was termed "a candlelight v i g i l . " Huddled on the ground in the cold, damp night, people sat holding candles in their hands or with candles beside them on the ground. Sitting solemnly in small circles, many silently gazed at the flickering:;;; flame while others talked quietly with persons nearby. A few Catholic priests and nuns sitting together murmured l i t u r g i c a l prayers. Sturmanis remarked that a burning candle appeared to him that night "as a sign: a strong light of hope against the darkness of im-minent destruction"'''(l97$:A6). Periodically a small Asian gong was struck. Before midnight a television newsccKew arrived with floodlights, cameras and microphones, and remained a short while filming and recording. Although media coverage was considered valuable by participants, there was nevertheless a sense that their presence wasn't entirely appropriate at 6 4 t h i s solemn, contemplative g a t h e r i n g . O c c a s i o n a l l y a few guards would lea v e t h e i r s m a l l b u i l d i n g near the main gate and wander near the fence, where they would exchange c o r d i a l comments w i t h v i g i l e r s . . The v i g i l e r s had a change t o p r a c -t i s e t h e i r " n o n v i o l e n t p r i n c i p l e " of t r e a t i n g the guards "as persons," not as "the enemy," and the guards seemed w i l l i n g t o respond i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . 8 L a t e r i n the n i g h t some v i g i l e r s gathered i n a l a r g e c i r c l e and sang t o the accompaniment of g u i t a r s and f l u t e s . The volume and tempo of the music rose and f e l l as the dark hours passed. Sturmanis recounts t h a t around t h r e e o ' c l o c k t h e r e was a h a l f hour l u l l i n a c t i v i t y when . . . everyone was e i t h e r too exhausted or too c h i l l e d to s i n g or p l a y anymore. I t was j u s t a t t h a t moment t h a t I I thought something was going t o happen t h a t I heard a g u i t a r warming up. W i t h i n minutes people had u n c u r l e d and crawled out of t h e i r s l e e p i n g bags and were dancing enthus-i a s t i c a l l y on the road. We were a l l caught i n s i d e the harmony of the music. I t was simply a f e e l i n g of one^i ness w i t h everyone and e v e r y t h i n g around us. (197$:A6) A f t e r s u n r i s e v i g i l e r s began t o move about, r o l l i n g up s l e e p i n g bags and ground sheets, and shaking the s t i f f n e s s out of t h e i r limbs. They formed a l a r g e c i r c l e , and w i t h arms around each other, swayed as many sang a round which seemed t o a f f i r m the commonly-shared b e l i e f t h a t a l l human beings are members of one human f a m i l y , d e s e r v i n g of l o v e . They sang, "Love, l o v e , l o v e , l o v e / People we are made f o r l o v e . / Love each other as y o u r s e l f / For we are one." V i g i l e r s then l e f t the area a l o n g s i d e the base fence and cro s s e d over the road, l i n i n g themselves a l o n g the shoulder. 65 S e v e r a l dozen media people w i t h cameras and sound equipment, and green-uniformed s h e r i f . f s began a r r i v i n g . Base guards were assembling a g a i n on the grassy area i n s i d e the fence, but t h e r e were many more than on the preceeding day. Almost hidden by t r e e s a few hundred yards behind the Pan Am base guards, were s t a n d i n g s o l d i e r s , who were q u i c k l y i d e n t i f i e d by v i g i l e r s as "Marines." There was e x c i t e d spec-u l a t i o n as t o what the presence of the Marines might mean. Quiet excitement and t e n s i o n mounted to explode i n a cheer as v i g i l e r s saw a l o n g p r o c e s s i o n of demonstrators approaching. And then s i l e n c e a g a i n descended as v i g i l e r s , media, guards, and s o l d i e r s watched the p r o c e s s i o n of hundreds of people stop i n the area by the main gate, which had been occupied by the v i g i l e r s j u s t a sh o r t time b e f o r e . A f t e r a few very q u i e t minutes i n which everyone seemed mo t i o n l e s s , t h e r e was a s i g n a l , and dozens of people began to climb over the s i x - f o o t h i g h base fence w i t h the help of l a d d e r s and support people. Once over, they c l u s t e r e d i n a f f i n i t y groups and walked w i t h an a i r of j u b i l i a n c e up a grassy s l o p e , where they u n f u r l e d the U n i t e d Nations f l a g , and sat down. The guards and s o l d i e r s remained i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s u n t i l about 300 people had entered the base, and t h e r e d i d not appear to be any more c l i m b i n g over the f e n c e . The minutes passed as the crowd q u i e t l y waited -and watched.. Soon buses appeared from behind l a r g e b r i c k b u i l d i n g s on the base, and guards approached the s m a l l groups s i t t i n g on the "grassy k n o l l . " In some groups, the members h e l d hands and 6 6 f o l l o w e d behind guards t o the buses. In other groups, some of the members went limp and were dragged or c a r r i e d t o the buses. E v e n t u a l l y the grassy k n o l l was emptied of i t s o c c u p i e r s . The hundreds of demonstrators s t a n d i n g on the p u b l i c road o b s e r v i n g the d e p a r t i n g buses were l e f t t o s p e c u l a t e where the c.d.-ers were being taken: t o a base b u i l d i n g t o be i s s u e d a " b a r r i n g l e t t e r " and r e l e a s e d , t o a court house or j a i l i n one of the nearby c i t i e s ? Or would they be simply taken t o another gate on the f a r s i d e of the base t o be r e -leased? Those i n support r o l e s remained t o wait u n t i l they knew the f a t e of the c d . members of t h e i r a f f i n i t y group, w h i l e others l e f t f o r home. Hours l a t e r word came t h a t a l l but f i v e had been given " b a r r i n g l e t t e r s " which p r o h i b i t e d them from r e t u r n i n g t o the base, and had been r e l e a s e d w i t h -out charge i n a nearby c i t y . The f i v e had r e c e i v e d t h i s k i n d of b a r r i n g l e t t e r i n a p r e v i o u s demonstration, and so were a r r e s t e d f o r r e - e n t e r i n g the base, and were charged w i t h t r e s p a s s i n g . F o i l e d i n t h e i r attempt to be charged f o r t h e i r c i v i l d i sobedience a c t i o n , the r e s t o f the c.d.-ers r e t u r n e d t o the Peterson farm, and the next morning went over the fence a g a i n . T h i s time 2 6 5 people, i n c l u d i n g approximately 9 0 Canadians were taken t o c o u r t s i n nearby c i t i e s , were charged w i t h t r e s p a s s i n g , and were r e l e a s e d u n t i l the time of the t r i a l . Charges a g a i n s t many were subsequently dropped because of 67 inadequate a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e c o r d s of the a r r e s t at the base. In December 1 9 7 $ , 176 persons i n c l u d i n g 25 Canadians, were brought t o t r i a l i n what was r e p o r t e d t o be one of the l a r g e s t t r i a l s i n U n i t e d S t a t e s h i s t o r y . 68 ( i i ) New York C i t y A s e r i e s o f ev:ents i n New York C i t y o r g a n i z e d by the M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r S u r v i v a l began a few days a f t e r the r a l l y , march and c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n a t Bangor, Washington. These events i n c l u d e d : an I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l i g i o u s Convoc-a t i o n f o r S u r v i v a l on May 25 and 26; a march, r a l l y and • -2.d$e^ iri'Mk©n-May 27; an I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r Sur-v i v a l conference on May 28 and 29; and a ' s i t - i n " a t the Uni t e d S t a t e s M i s s i o n t o the Un i t e d N a t i ons on June 12 which r e s u l t e d i n the a r r e s t of 400 people. As wit h the a c t i v i t i e s a t Bangor, one of the main purposes of these events was to p u b l i c i z e and e n l i v e n the d i s c u s s i o n of the Uni t e d Nations S p e c i a l S e s s i o n on Disarmament convening i n New York. P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n some of the M o b i l i z a t i o n ' s events were persons from many c o u n t r i e s and disarmament groups. Repres-e n t a t i v e s from more than 200 non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s had come t o New York t o observe the S p e c i a l S e s s i o n , t o lobby diplomats, and to r e p o r t on the S p e c i a l S e s s i o n t o groups i n t h e i r home c o u n t r i e s . Present were Canadians from groups such as P r o j e c t Ploughshares, the Canadian C a t h o l i c Organ-i z a t i o n f o r Development and Peace, the Voice of Women and the Vancouver Ad Hoc C o a l i t i o n f o r Disarmament. F i v e hundred Japanese, many of whom were members of the Japanese Congress Agains t A. and H Bombs, had brought w i t h them a p e t i t i o n c a l l i n g f o r n u c l e a r disarmament which had p u r p o r t e d l y been 69 signed by 20 m i l l i o n Japanese, and weighed twelve t o n s . R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the World Peace C o u n c i l had a l s o brought a p e t i t i o n c a l l e d the "Stockholm Peace Appeal" which they claimed had been signed by 500 m i l l i o n people around the world. The p e t i t i o n s were presented t o the S p e c i a l S e s s i o n and p l a c e d i n the U n i t e d Nations v a u l t . The mayor of H i r o -shima brought w i t h him an e x h i b i t of photographs d e p i c t i n g the d e v a s t a t i o n of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The e x h i b i t was e n t i t l e d "Hiroshima and Nagasaki - A Photographic Record of an H i s t o r i c a l Event," and was d i s p l a y e d i n the main lobby of the General Assembly of the U n i t e d Nations d u r i n g the S p e c i a l S e s s i o n . (After.;"1 the S p e c i a l S e s s i o n t h i s same d i s p l a y was e x h i b i t e d i n Vancouver arid throughout Canada.) A l s o present were persons h i g h l y esteemed w i t h i n the d i s -armament movement. One of these was Rebecca S h e l l e y , a 93 year o l d member of the Women's I n t e r n a t i o n a l League f o r Peace and Freedom, who has been working f o r a world without war s i n c e World War I ( R a n d a l l , 1 9 6 4 : 2 1 8 ) . Another renowned woman i n attendance was Mairead C o r r i g a n who r e c e n t l y won a Nobel Peace P r i z e f o r her work i n I r e l a n d . In a speech before movement p a r t i c i p a n t s gathered i n New York, she ex-pressed sentiments shared by many i n the movement when she implored government o f f i c i a l s , Put down your arms. You're not p r o t e c t i n g us. Disarm. We are prepared t o take the f i r s t step to reach out the hand of f r i e n d s h i p . Don't dare take a l i f e t o p r o t e c t me. L i f e i s sacred; l e t no man r a i s e h i s hand a g a i n s t i t ! (Hoffman, 1 9 7 8 : 7 ) 70 Approximately f i f t e e n thousand people p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the M o b i l i z a t i o n ' s march, r a l l y and " d i e - i n " on Saturday, May 27. The march began at Bryant Park and wound i t s way •' through the s t r e e t s of New York towards the Dag Hammarskjold P l a z a by the U n i t e d Nations complex. Two members of the F e l l o w s h i p of R e c o n c i l i a t i o n (FOR) r e p o r t e d t h a t the march-er s were i n a f e s t i v e mood — " e x h i l e r a t e d by the sense of comradeship i n an important e x e r c i s e : t o w i t n e s s to l i f e a g a i n s t the f o r c e s of d e s t r u c t i o n . " They d e s c r i b e d "the •otix-ade;!.? parade": Huge c l o t h cranes, men on s t i l t s and i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t s from the Bread and Puppet Theater l e d the parade, f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l hundred Japanese, i n c l u d i n g y hibakusha (A-bomb s u r v i v o r s ) and chanting, drumming Buddhist monks. Banners proclaimed p a r t i c i p a t i o n from near and f a r . . . and from c o u n t l e s s causes: Women f o r R a c i a l and Economic E q u a l i t y , N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S o c i a l Workers, and the New England Whale S o c i e t y . (Two hundred and t h i r t y FOR members — i n d i v i d u a l s and groups from a c r o s s the country — walked behind a l a r g e FOR banner. Members of Quaker, Brethren and Mennonite groups mingled w i t h 'main-l i n e ' P r o t e s t a n t s and C a t h o l i c s . ) The garb ranged from l e v i s t o vestments, the c o i f f u r e s from bearded to b a l d . C h i l d r e n rode on the shoulders of t h e i r p arents; the e l d e r l y matched s t r i d e s w i t h t h e i r younger c o u n t e r p a r t s . . . . (Brown and Myers, 1978:9). At the p l a z a there was a l a r g e stage, around which were p l a c e d huge, photographs of Hiroshima a f t e r the bombing. For s e v e r a l hours the crowd l i s t e n e d to musicians, s i n g e r s and speakers. As a t the Bangor r a l l y , i n the speeches and songs were t r a n s m i t t e d elements of what a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s might term the " f o l k l o r e " of the movement. F o l l o w i n g R e i c h ' s d e f i n i t i o n , f o l k l o r e r e f e r s t o the " v e r b a l i z e d e x p r e s s i o n of c o l l e c t i v e b e l i e f " (1975:236), and i m p l i e s no p e j o r a t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n 71 concerning the f a c t u a l b a s i s of the b e l i e f s . R e i c h has observed t h a t i n r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movements, " f o l k l o r e i s used to e x p l a i n the movement to adherents, t o j u s t i f y new forms of b e l i e f and a c t i o n , and t o f o r t i f y the newly formed t e n e t s " (1975:243). In the f o l l o w i n g speeches and songs, movement p a r t i c i p a n t s were taught or reminded t h a t they must a c t to r e a l i z e a world without war and to prevent the n u c l e a r a n n i h -i l a t i o n of humanity. They were a l s o t o l d t h a t those i n p o s i -t i o n s of power must not be e n t r u s t e d w i t h matters which con-cern the l i f e and death of a l l humanity. Pete Seeger was i n t r o d u c e d as "one of the sweetest and st r o n g e s t v o i c e s f o r peace i n a l i v e a b l e world." 1 He was greeted w i t h e n t h u s i a s t i c applause, w h i s t l e s and shouts of a p p r o v a l . He was soon j o i n e d by many i n the crowd as he sang a song which expressed the l o n g i n g of many t h a t the f i r s t U n i t e d Nations S p e c i a l S e s s i o n on Disarmament would r e s u l t i n a t r e a t y which agreed on concrete steps t o d i s -armament and an end to war. Together they sang, La s t n i g h t I had the s t r a n g e s t dream I'd ever dreamed before I dreamed the world had a l l agreed to put an end t o war. I dreamed I saw a mighty room a l l f i l l e d w i t h women and men And the paper they were s i g n i n g s a i d they'd never f i g h t a g a i n . And when the paper a l l was signed a m i l l i o n c o p i e s made They a l l j o i n e d hands and bowed t h e i r heads and g r a t e f u l p r a y e r s were prayed. And the people i n the s t r e e t s below were dancing round and round And swords and guns and uniforms were s c a t t e r e d on the ground. 72 Helen C a l d i c o t t , an A u s t r a l i a n p h y s i c i a n c u r r e n t l y working a t the Boston C h i l d r e n ' s H o s p i t a l , addressed the crowd. While i n A u s t r a l i a , C a l d i c o t t had been a c t i v e i n the movement a g a i n s t French A-bomb t e s t s i n the P a c i f i c , and she was i n -strumental i n o r g a n i z i n g nation-wide p r o t e s t a g a i n s t uranium mining. Since moving to the U n i t e d S t a t e s , C a l d i c o t t has been educating and o r g a n i z i n g p h y s i c i a n s t o oppose n u c l e a r weapons, n u c l e a r power p l a n t s , and uranium mining. In an impassioned speech, C a l d i c o t t i n s i s t e d We have to e l i m i n a t e every s i n g l e n u c l e a r weapon on e a r t h . (Applause from crowd) There's more and more c o u n t r i e s buying n u c l e a r power p l a n t s . They can make atomic bombs because a n u c l e a r power p l a n t makes p l u t -onium, which i s the most dangerous element I, as a p e d i a t r i c i a n , have ever read about. I t only takes one m i l l i o n t h of a gram, an amount you can't even see, i f •you breathe i t i n t o your lungs t o give you lung cancers-One pound, i f you c o u l d put i t i n t o every person;Vs l u n g on e a r t h , one pound would be enough to k i l l every man, woman- and c h i l d on e a r t h w i t h a lung cancer. I t Only takes ten pounds t o make an atomic bomb. And every n u c l e a r r e a c t o r makes 500 pounds of i t every year. And i t has a h a l f - l i f e of 24,400 y e a r s . I t i s a c t i v e and dangerous f o r h a l f a m i l l i o n y e a r s . We, by the year 2020, w i l l have 30,000 tons of i t . Enough f o r a l o t of bombs. I n d i a made an atomic bomb when she bought her r e a c t o r from Canada. A r g e n t i n a , B r a z i l , South Korea, Taiwan are a l l b u i l d i n g n u c l e a r power r e a c t o r s . And you see, t h a t d e s t a b i l i z e s the balance of t e r r o r . The major powers have a balance of t e r r o r c a l l e d ^ by the Pentagon, M u t u a l l y Assured D e s t r u c t i o n . You n o t i c e what t h a t a b b r e v i a t e s t o : C a p i t a l M, C a p i t a l A, C a p i t a l D. (Applause) C a l d i c o t t i s a r g u i n g t h a t there i s a connection between the spread of n u c l e a r power technology and the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of n u c l e a r weapons. This cappar;enticonheetion\.'hafe'-contributed to the f o r m a t i o n of an u n p r e c e d e n t e d ' a l l i a n c e between environmental groups opposed to n u c l e a r power technology because of the environmental hazards i n t r y i n g t o dispose 7 3 of n u c l e a r waste, and disarmament groups opposed t o n u c l e a r weaponry. A slogan emerging from t h i s new a l l i a n c e i s "No Nukes," r e f e r r i n g t o both n u c l e a r power and n u c l e a r weapons. The M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r S u r v i v a l i n c l u d e s both i n i t s simply s t a t e d f o u r - p o i n t p l a t f o r m of "zero n u c l e a r weapons, ban n u c l e a r power, stop the arms race, and fund human needs." S i m i l a r l y i n Canada, the Voice of Women and the Canadian C o a l i t i o n f o r Nuclear R e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s working t o e l i m i n a t e both n u c l e a r power p l a n t s and n u c l e a r weapons. In Canada and the U.S.A. i t seems t h a t many, but not a l l disarmament move-ment p a r t i c i p a n t s are opposed t o the spread of n u c l e a r power technology. N e v e r t h e l e s s , some f e a r t h a t i t would h i n d e r t h e i r group's work f o r disarmament i f they came out p u b l i c l y a g a i n s t n u c l e a r power, because of widespread support f o r nuclear,/ power at the present time."'""'" They f e e l t h a t they should concentrate t h e i r e f f o r t s on c o n v i n c i n g the p u b l i c of the extreme urgency of a c h i e v i n g n u c l e a r disarmament. I t seems t h a t i n Japan and i n Communist b l o c k c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e are many more proponents of n u c l e a r disarmament, who are a l s o ardent supporters of n u c l e a r power. C a l d i c o t t then questioned the wisdom, moral i n t e g r i t y , even s a n i t y of those i n p o s i t i o n s of power whose a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s have l e d t o the b u i l d i n g of atomic bombs and and n u c l e a r power r e a c t o r s . She exclaimed, What has'- happened t o the s c i e n t i s t s and the p o l i t i c i a n s ? Why have they done t h i s t o our world?. I t i s not t h e i r — I t i s our world, j u s t as much as i t i s t h e i r world. Who t o l d them they c o u l d b u i l t atomic bombs? Who t o l d them they c o u l d b u i l d n u c l e a r r e a c t o r s ? 7 4 Who t o l d them they c o u l d put s a t t e l i t e s i n t o space w i t h n u c l e a r r e a c t o r s i n them, - a l l of which w i l l burn up i n the atmosphere and the r a d i a t i o n w i l l f a l l down -to g i ve our c h i l d r e n leukemia and cancer. We d i d n ' t t e l l them. Those p o l i t i c i a n s and they are i n the U.N. x and i n the Congress and i n R u s s i a and every country of the world, have l o s t t h e i r b a s i c , most p r i m i t i v e i n s t i n c t and t h a t i s f o r s u r v i v a l . I t i s s t r o n g e r than sex or a p p e t i t e . S u r v i v a l . They have l o s t touch w i t h i t . I f youuwere s i t t i n g on Mars ps y c h o a n a l y z i n g the l e a d e r s of the world you'd have to say t h a t they were insane. (Applause). And they should be l o c k e d up i n l u n a t i c asylums f o r the p r e v e n t i v e or f o r the p u b l i c h e a l t h of the c i t i z e n s of the world. (Applause and cheers) Our Prime M i n i s t e r from A u s t r a l i a , Malcolm F r a s e r , i s here a t the U n i t e d Nations t o provide disarmament. He. i s about to s e l l a l l the A u s t r a l i a n uranium on the open market, a l l of which can be used t o make atomic bombs. He i s a prime example of a h y p o c r i t i c a l , power-f u l , , s e l f i s h , greedy p o l i t i c i a n . . (Applause) Has any of those p o l i t i c i a n s ever seen a c h i l d d i e of leukemia? Have they ever seen a b e a u t i f u l 12 y e a r -o l d boy come i n t o a h o s p i t a l w i t h a few b r u i s e s . He has a blood p i c t u r e done. He's got leukemia. He's put i n . a room a l l by h i m s e l f . Nobody can see him u n l e s s they wear a gown and a mask. He's given poisonous drugs which make him f e e l s i c k . Everyone s m i l e s a t him to make him f e e l b e t t e r . He l i v e s i n a s t a t e of a b j e c t t e r r o r f o r two weeks t i l l one n i g h t i n the middle of the n i g h t , he d i e s b l e e d i n g from h i s mouth and h i s nose and h i s rectum i n t o the bed. Has any p o l i t i c i a n seen a c h i l d die? Have they supported h i s p a r ents i n t h e i r g r i e f ? As i s so o f t e n done by movement p a r t i c i p a n t s , C a l d i c o t t i s c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o those seen as the v i c t i m s of d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s taken by s c i e n t i s t s , ; m i l i t a r i s t s and p o l i t i c i a n s . She i s g r a p h i c a l l y d e s c r i b i n g the i n d i v i d u a l human s u f f e r i n g which i s c o n s i d e r e d to be the consequence of d e c i s i o n s made by those i n p o s i t i o n s of power. There i s an i m p l i c i t assump-t i o n t h a t those persons engaged i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h l i f e and death consequences f o r otherssare f a r removed from the human s u f f e r i n g they are supposedly c a u s i n g . A l s o i m p l i e d i s t h a t t h i s d i s t a n c e i s an important f a c t o r i n understanding how 75 these people can continue t o make d e c i s i o n s which cause the s u f f e r i n g of o t h e r s . C a l d i c o t t seems t o be s a y i n g t h a t i f they would only come fa c e t o f a c e w i t h the human beings-who are s u f f e r i n g as a r e s u l t of t h e i r d e c i s i o n s — f o r example,, a chiOid dying of leukemia, perhaps caused by i n c r e a s e d r a d i a t i o n i n the atmosphere — they would not so e a s i l y make those k i n d s of d e c i s i o n s . In demonstrations,' i n courtrooms, and i n c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n s , p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n t i n u a l l y t r y t o make the-"'victims'! more v i s i b l e . Sometimes they do t h i s by d i s p l a y i n g p i c t u r e s of the t e r r i b l e i n j u r i e s caused at Hiroshima,, or by a s k i n g Hiroshima s u r v i v o r s t o t a l k about t h e i r s u f f e r i n g . Other times they do t h i s by s p r i n k l i n g ashes (sometimes the ashes of cremated cancer p a t i e n t s ) , or p o u ring t h e i r own blood at p l a c e s , such as the Pentagon,' where d e c i s i o n s are made or technology i s b u i l t , which they b e l i e v e w i l l u l t i m a t e l y cause human s u f f e r i n g . Condemning a moral order which d e s i g n a t e s some persons as "expendable," C a l d i c o t t repeated the wid e l y shared c o n v i c -t i o n t h a t , Every l i f e i s v a l u a b l e . Every s i n g l e human l i f e . ( H (Applause) And we are t a l k i n g about every s i n g l e l i f e on e a r t h . We. are a m a g n i f i c e n t s p e c i e s . We are capable of such great l o v e , such c r e a t i v i t y , such a r t , such music. Yet we're so b r i l l i a n t we have l e a r n e d t o k i l l o u r s e l v e s a l l w i t h a pr e s s of a button,'- c o n t r o l l e d by a computer. We are the c u r a t o r s of a l l l i f e on e a r t h a t t h i s p o i n t i n time. We. are a t the t u r n i n g p o i n t of the human h i s t o r y . We, h o l d l i f e on e a r t h i n the palm of our hand. And u n l e s s we e l i m i n a t e every s i n g l e n u c l e a r weapon on e a r t h and every s i n g l e n u c l e a r power p l a n t , I p r e d i c t , t h a t we won't be here by the year 2000. T h i s i s the s t a r t . There have been r a l l i e s f o r disarmament time and a g a i n . T h i s has t o work. There i s no a l t e r n a t i v e . 76 C a l d i c o t t ' s c o n c l u d i n g statement e l i c i t e d l o n g applause, w h i s t l e s and shouts of agreement. D a n i e l E l l s b e r g , who achieved fame d u r i n g the Vietnam war f o r making p u b l i c c l a s s i f i e d documents which became known as the "Pentagon papers," was scheduled to speak at the r a l l y , but was not p r e s e n t . The e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n f o r h i s absence was t h a t he was appearing i n court f o r a c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n a t a Colorado f a c t o r y which produced t r i g g e r s f o r 12 n u c l e a r bombs. Dave D e l l i n g e r spoke i n h i s p l a c e . D e l l i n g e r was i n t r o d u c e d as, . . . someone whose name i s h i s t o r y . H i s name i s h i s t o r y and h i s name i s c u r r e n t events. He's a p a c i f i s t and an anti-war a c t i v i s t and a c i v i l r i g h t s a c t i v i s t whom you a l l know.. Defendant i n the Chicago Conspiracy t r i a l i n ' 6 9 , a c t i v e i n the J u l y 4 t h C o a l i t i o n , ' the People's A l l i a n c e , and now produces Seven Days, an independent '$ news magazine i n New York, most of you I'm sure have heard about i t . . ... I In h i s speech, D e l l i n g e r c a l l e d out . . Who says the people don't care anymore? t h a t they're a p a t h e t i c and g r a s p i n g f o r p u r e l y p e r s o n a l s o l u t i o n s l e a v i n g the s t a t u s quo i n t a c t ? Here's the answer today. And we're g i v i n g the Pentagon and the press and the people who wish we were dead, we're g i v i n g them answers a l l over the p l a c e at Rocky F l a t s , B arnwell, Seabrook, T r i d e n t i n Washington (Applause) and some o f us are going t o be back on June 1 2 t h to s i t - i n a t the U n i t e d S t a t e s M i s s i o n . . .. and some of us are going to be at Seabrook on the 2 4 t h of June t o give them s t i l l another answer. (Cheering and applause) Rocky F l a t s , 1 Barnwell, and Seabrook are a l l American s i t e s s o f l a r g e a n t i - n u c l e a r demonstrations and c i v i l d i s -obedience a c t i o n s i n recent y e a r s . Rocky F l a t s , 16 m i l e s northwest of Denver was begun..in : 1 9 5 1 and i s the s i t e f o r producing a l l of the plutonium t r i g g e r s f o r the. American n u c l e a r a r s e n a l . A c c o r d i n g t o a P a c i f i c L i f e Community 77 n e w s l e t t e r (June 1 9 7 $ ) , the p l a n t r e g u l a r l y a l l o w s emissions of low l e v e l i o n i z i n g r a d i a t i o n i n t o the atmosphere, and has been the s i t e of many a c c i d e n t s which have r e s u l t e d i n the permanent r a d i o a c t i v e contamination o f 1 1 , 0 0 0 a c r e s . Radio-a c t i v e wastes from Rocky F l a t s p u r p o r t e d l y have found t h e i r way i n t o streams, and i n one r e p o r t e d case contaminated the water supply of a Denver suburb. Barnwell i s the s i t e of a nu c l e a r waste p l a n t i n South C a r o l i n a . On A p r i l 3 0 , 197$ 2 , 0 0 0 persons c a l l i n g themselves "a human p e t i t i o n " demon-s t r a t e d t here and 280 people were a r r e s t e d . ' Seabrook, New Hampshire i s the c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e of a n u c l e a r power p l a n t . S e v e r a l very l a r g e c i v i l d i s obedience a c t i o n s t h e r e have become a model f o r s i m i l a r demonstrations throughout North America. "Seabrook" has become the t o p i c of f i l m s , v i d e o -tapes, and b o o k l e t s i n the "anti-nuke" movement. D e l l i n g e r continued, You know t h a t s i n c e World War I I the r e have been 6 , 0 0 0 meetings by the government t o t a l k about d i s -armament. S i d Lens f i g u r e d t h a t out. And you know t h a t the end r e s u l t of t h a t i s the g r e a t e s t e s c a l a t i o n of d e s t r u c t i v e power i n human h i s t o r y . . . I t ' s time f o r the American people to do what we d i d i n the Vietnam war, and t h a t i s t o take the q u e s t i o n of l i f e and death away from the governments and the hypo-c r i t e s and the m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s . (Applause and cheering) I t ' s time t o say th a t the power i s here i n the s t r e e t s not over there where they're meeting a g a i n . (Applause) I t ' s time t o say t h a t the experts are the people who l i v e and s u f f e r and bl e e d and s t r u g g l e , not the people who are the s o - c a l l e d experts who brought us the war i n Indochina,i-iwho brought us Watergate, who brought us the C.I.A., who brought us C h i l e , the l i s t goes on and on. . . I t ' s time now t o say No t o a l l of t h a t . No t o nu c l e a r weapons. No to c o n v e n t i o n a l weapons. No to n u c l e a r power. No t o the m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s and f i n a l l y No t o the whole system of greed and power. . . th a t i s b r i n g i n g these t h i n g s upon us. 73 D e l l i n g e r paused f o r a few moments as the crowd applauded and shouted "no! no! no! no! . . . " and then continued w i t h h i s speech. The speakers f o l l o w i n g D e l l i n g e r were two men who were D e l l i n g e r ' s k i n d of expert: people who had " s u f f e r e d and ' • b l e d . " The f i r s t , named Masuto H i g a s a k i , was an 6*3 y e a r - o l d s u r v i v o r of the Hiroshima bombing, whose w i f e and c h i l d had d i e d i n the b l a s t . The second, named Ron Kov i c , was a para-p a l e g i c Vietnam war ve t e r a n , and author of Born on the Fourth of J u l y . A d d r e s s i n g the crowd through an i n t e r p r e t e r , H i g a s a k i v i v i d l y d e s c r i b e d the human s u f f e r i n g r e s u l t i n g from the/.atomic bombing which he experienced and observed a l l around him. Kovic , completely p a r a l y z e d from the waist down, spoke from h i s w h e e l c h a i r . He began h i s speech by c r y i n g out slowly, i n a powerful and emotional v o i c e , Auschwitz Hiroshima Nagasaki Vietnam crimes.-' a g a i n s t humanity v i c t i m i z a t i o n of the peoples of the world "Auschwitz" and "Hiroshima" i n the most l i t e r a l sense are the p l a c e names of two human s e t t l e m e n t s . However c e r t a i n events which o c c u r r e d i n these p l a c e s more than t h r e e decades ago have rendered the names h i g h l y emotive and charged w i t h meaning. These names have become symbols of " h o l o c a u s t , " and are r e p e a t e d l y evoked by movement p a r t i c i p a n t s d e d i c a t e d t o p r e v e n t i n g a " n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t . " These e a r l i e r " h o l o c a u s t s " are r e f e r r e d t o over and over a g a i n at demonstrations, c i v i l d i sobedience a c t i o n s and t r i a l s . Geertz has observed t h a t 79 symbols have a double a s p e c t : they are models of r e a l i t y and models f o r r e a l i t y . In t h i s way, "they give meaning, t h a t i s , o b j e c t i v e c onceptual form, t o s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y both by shaping themselves to." i t and by shaping i t to themselves" (Geertzj 1973:93). The names "Auschwitz" and "Hiroshima" are now used t o encapsulate and summon an a r r a y of understandings, images, emotions and moral judgements about the i n t e n t i o n a l k i l l i n g of tens of thousands of human beings which oc c u r r e d i n these p l a c e s d u r i n g the l a s t world war. They are a l s o employed by movement p a r t i c i p a n t s to express the concept t h a t i n the present r e a l i t y are o p e r a t i v e the same processes which l e d to the v i c t i m i z a t i o n of many thousands of people at these two p l a c e s , and which may a g a i n 13 l e a d t o the v i c t i m i z a t i o n of m i l l i o n s , perhaps b i l l i o n s , more. Robert Jay L i f t o n has s a i d , "What Hiroshima does convey t o us — indeed p r e s s upon us — i s the r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i t a c t u a l l y happened and the i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t i t co u l d happen a g a i n " (1967:13) • Auschwitz and the Nazi program of genocide h o l d a s i m i l a r t e r r o r . For persons such as Kovic and D e l l i n g e r , who were i n v o l v e d i n the movement opposing American involvement i n the war i n Indochina, "Vietnam" i s a l s o a h i g h l y emotive symbol laden w i t h moral judgements about the use of American s o l d i e r s and technology t o k i l l persons i n that%p.lape. With h i s compelling v o i c e , Kovic d e c l a r e d , Masuto H i g a s a k i and I stand before you today symbols of l i v i n g death symbols of crimes committed a g a i n s t humanity 80 We are here today t o solemnly commit o u r s e l v e s i n f r o n t of the whole wor l d t o peace, and an end t o crimes a g a i n s t humanity. (Applause) We are angry and r i g h t e o u s and j u s t i n our commitment today. For the l a s t t e n years I've been s i t t i n g i n t h i s wheel c h a i r p a r a l y z e d from the waist down. For the l a s t 25 years v i c t i m s of Auschwitz, Hiroshima and Nagasaki have s u f f e r e d a l s o We are here today t o say t h a t we want a s e n s i t i v e w o r l d . A world t h a t cares about people. We are here today t o not only say t h a t we are f o r peace, but b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , we are here today t o h o l d the l e a d e r s of t h i s country accountable. (Applause and cheers) We are here t o d a y — We are here today t o t e l l P r e s i d e n t Jimmy C a r t e r and Andy Young t h a t i f they don't give us our human r i g h t s , i f they don't put people and human l i f e before p r o f i t , then we are going t o f i l l the s t r e e t s and u n i v e r s i t i e s of t h i s country once a g a i n . We are going t o commit o u r s e l v e s t o peace today, and i f they don't t h i n k about peace, i f they don't l i s t e n t o the v o i c e t h a t i s c r y i n g throughout t h i s country, i f they don't l i s t e n t o us then we are going t o f i l l the j a i l s , we're going t o p i c k e t and march i n thousands Kovic was drowned out by w h i s t l e s , cheers and applause. Today as a whole n a t i o n , we b,egin a new movement, a new era i n t h i s country. We are going t o shake the foundations;.-' of t h i s system u n t i l they hear our human c r y . ( C l a p p i n g and cheering) Peace. Peace. Peace. Peace. . . The crowd a l s o began t o shout out "Peace. Peace. Peace. . ." As they continued to shout, Kovic c a l l e d Let them hear i t i n Washington. Let them hear i t a l l over the world. In Auschwitz. In Nagasaki. Louder! Louder! Louder! Kovic reached out from h i s whe e l c h a i r and embraced H i g a s a k i as the crowd continued t o c l a p and shout "Peace! Peace! Peace!" Over the tumultous shouts an announcement c o u l d be heard;-"Now the d i e - i n . Now the d i e — i n w i l l begin as soon as the s i r e n s sounds." 81 I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the " d i e - i n " had been given e a r l i e r i n the r a l l y . D e s c r i b i n g the " d i e - i n " as a. "symbolic a c t i o n , " the announcer had e x p l a i n e d , . . . I want t o say t h a t t h e r e are many l e v e l s of experience i n t h i s a c t i o n . I t may be f o r some a s t r a i g h t forward e n v i s i o n i n g of c a t a s t r o p h e ; f o r o t h e r s a prayer; f o r o t h e rs a b e a r i n g witness a g a i n s t human s u f f e r i n g by v i g i l i n g . T h i s experience may arouse f e e l i n g s which i n c r e a s e our own sense of urgency and d e d i c a t i o n . . . The a i r r a i d s i r e n w a i l e d f o r n i n e t y seconds, as thousands st a n d i n g i n the p l a z a s l o w l y f e l l and l a y l i f e l e s s , sprawled on the ground. Two p a r t i c i p a n t s d e s c r i b e d t h e i r experience, . . . Thousands of persons — many of them wearing tags d e c l a r i n g them to be 'nuclear v i c t i m s ' — sank to the ground. They remained i n a prone p o s i t i o n w h i l e o t h e r s stood v i g i l . An a w e - i n s p i r i n g s i l e n c e f e l l over the huge crowd, punctuated i n a moving c o u n t e r p o i n t by the q u i e t c h a n t i n g and slow, rhythmic drum beat of the Buddhist monks. The sounding of a chime brought the 'victims'' t o t h e i r f e e t ; they and the s i l e n t v i g i l e r s i n t e r l a c e d hands. Pete Seeger s t i r r e d us i n t o song and the renewed a f f i r m a t i o n t h a t "I A i n ' t Gonna Study War No More." (Brown & Myers, 1978 :10 ) The statement by the announcer concerning the r'Vsymbolic a c t i o n " of the " d i e - i n " i s s i m i l a r t o a n t h r o p o l o g i s t Edmund Leach's o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t , "symbolic behaviour not o n l y ..'-says' something, i t a l s o arouses emotions and consequently 'does' something" ( 1 9 6 7 : 7 8 ) . Undoubtedly i t was the hope of the " d i e - i n " o r g a n i z e r s t h a t the emotions aroused d u r i n g the experience would s u s t a i n and r e a f f i r m p a r t i c i p a n t s ' d e t e r -mination to do a l l i n t h e i r power to prevent a n u c l e a r h o l o -c a u s t . The " d i e - i n " and more e s p e c i a l l y , the c i v i l disobey dience a c t i o n a t Bangor, may be examples of what Ge r l a c h (1970) terms " b r i d g e - b u r n i n g a c t s . " By t h i s , G e r l a c h means 82 a c t i o n s i n the context of a s o c i a l movement which i n c r e a s e the a c t o r s ' commitment to new a t t i t u d e s , t o a new i d e n t i t y , and..-to a new sense of themselves i n r e l a t i o n t o the e s t a b l i s h e d order. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to see i f sub-sequent to the Bangor c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n and the New York "d i e - i n , " the a c t i v i t i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s d i s p l a y e d a deepened commitment t o a c h i e v i n g disarmament and a new world order. One i n d i c a t i o n of a deepened commitment might be i f , subsequent t o being granted a suspended j a i l sentence, p a r t i -c i p a n t s i n the c i v i l d i s obedience a c t i o n broke the c o n d i t i o n s of t h e i r p r o b a t i o n by r e - e n t e r i n g the T r i d e n t base. The cost of such an a c t i o n would be automatic i n c a r c e r a t i o n t o serve the o r i g i n a l 4 5-day sentence, as w e l l as an a d d i t i o n a l t r e s -pass charge, b e a r i n g a p o s s i b l e maximum sentence of s i x months i n j a i l and a $ 5 0 0 f i n e . The next major c i v i l i d i s o b e d i e n c e a c t i o n f o l l o w i n g May 2 2 n d , 1 9 7 $ i s being planned f o r October 1 9 7 9 , and w i l l be the most obvious o p p o r t u n i t y f o r people t o break p r o b a t i o n . Up t o the present time, t h e r e have been s e v e r a l s m a l l group c i v i l d i s obedience a c t i o n s a t the T r i d e n t base s i n c e May 2 2 n d , 1 9 7 $ , and some of these have i n v o l v e d persons b r e a k i n g p r o b a t i o n . A f t e r s e r v i n g 4 5 days i n j a i l f o r the f i r s t c i v i l d i sobedience a c t i o n , they appeared i n court f o r t r i a l and se n t e n c i n g f o r the second a c t i o n . A 15 statement made i n court by one of these defendants > : d o e s suggest t h a t the experience has deepened h i s commitment t o continue r e s i s t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s , ' o c f those i n s t i t u t i o n s which 83 prepare f o r the d e s t r u c t i o n of human l i f e . He d e c l a r e d , . . . I want t h i s Court t o know t h a t I do not stand before i t p e n i t e n t , but triumphant! To remind i t of the u l t i m a t e f u t i l i t y of punishment f o r those who choose to a f f i r m nonviolence and l i f e . I cannot be d e t e r r e d by any sentence of the F e d e r a l Court. Place me i n j a i l and I grow s t r o n g from the support of a community of f r i e n d s from around the world. Place me i n j a i l and my commitment t o nonviolence i s renewed by my rea d i n g s and r e f l e c t i o n s . Place me i n j a i l and I f i n d my a c t i o n s a f f i r m e d by the l i v e s and s a c r i f i c e s of a l l who haye gone before me t o such p l a c e s f o r a f f i r m i n g l i f e — f o r l i v i n g peace. How can we be punished — or d e t e r r e d — who b e l i e v e t h a t the power of t h i s Court, based on v i o l e n c e and u l t i m a t e l y s u p p o r t i n g t h a t u l t i m a t e p r o f a n i t y towards human l i f e : T r i d e n t and n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t , i s i t s e l f powerless over a l l but our most p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . The Court, I hope, must sense the i r o n y of f i n d i n g i t s e l f l i m i t e d t o p u n i s h i n g us by a means t h a t puts our l i v e s , our v a l u e s , i n such a dramatic and pro f o u n d l y a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e as j a i l . Know, Judge, t h a t each time you pl a c e one of us i n j a i l , no matter f o r how long , a hundred of us come out. l i t , remains t o be seen how many other p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n of May 197$ share t h i s person's strengthened r e s o l v e t o work r e l e n t l e s s l y t o prevent a n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t . 84 Chapter Four The Choice: Kingdom or Holocaust P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the n u c l e a r disarmament movement are attempting to prevent an imminent catastrophe of n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t and to c r e a t e a new s o c i a l o rder. They contend t h a t catastrophe i s i n e v i t a b l e u n l e s s enough people choose to prevent i t , and a c t soon enough i n the r i g h t ways. However, the q u e s t i o n s "how many i s enough people?" "how soon i s soon enough?" and "what are the r i g h t ways?" e l i c i t d i f f e r e n t , seldom p r e c i s e responses. U n d e r l y i n g these responses are assumptions about the nature o f : the cosmos, "good" and " e v i l , " d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of power, human beings, the s o c i a l order and s o c i a l change. These assumptions, which can be c o n s i d e r e d world view assumptions,^ i n f o r m the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s a n a l y s i s of the causes of imminent catastrophe, and t h e i r choice of s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s i n endeavouring to prevent i t and a t the same time r e a l i z e a new world. Controversy i n the movement, and e s p e c i a l l y i n c o a l i t i o n s , o f t e n erupts i n d i s c u s s i o n s of a n a l y s i s , s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s , but seldom i s time taken t o a r t i c u l a t e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n u n d e r l y i n g assumptions which f r e q u e n t l y seem to be the b a s i s of the c o n t r o v e r s y . In t h i s chapter I examine the approach to disarmament advocated by Jim Douglass, and the u n d e r l y i n g world view assumptions which inform h i s approach. Douglass c o u l d be l a b e l l e d as a C a t h o l i c t h e o l o g i a n , as a proponent of Gandhian nonviolence and of feminism, as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the American 85 " C a t h o l i c L e f t " r e s i s t a n c e t o the war i n Indochina, and as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the c u r r e n t campaign a g a i n s t the con-s t r u c t i o n and deployment of the T r i d e n t submarine. He i s a r a t h e r c o n t r o v e r s i a l f i g u r e among movement p a r t i c i p a n t s not i n v o l v e d i n the T r i d e n t campaign because of h i s i n s i s t -ence t h a t n o n v i o l e n t d i r e c t a c t i o n and c i v i l d isobedience must be the " c u t t i n g edge" of work f o r peace and a new world. W i t h i n the T r i d e n t campaign, he a l s o i s somewhat c o n t r o v e r s i a l because of h i s emphasis on a s p i r i t u a l b a s i s f o r n o n v i o l e n t a c t i o n . In h i s l a t e s t book L i g h t n i n g East to West, Douglass o u t l i n e s h i s v i s i o n of "the s p i r i t and s t r a t e g y of the T r i d e n t campaign" — a campaign i n which he and h i s wif e S h e l l e y have had a great d e a l of i n p u t . In t h i s book, Douglass a r t i c u l a t e s what he p e r c e i v e s t o be7the nature and source of imminent catastrophe, and he o u t l i n e s h i s b a s i s f o r hope t h a t human beings c o u l d e x e r c i s e or invoke the power necessary t o a v e r t catastrophe, and at the same time t r a n s f o r m the e x i s t i n g order. I t i s necessary t o emphasize t h a t many p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the T r i d e n t campaign do not share Douglass' v i s i o n , as he r e a d i l y admits (1978:Ch.5:20), and t h a t he i s not viewed by h i m s e l f or others i n the campaign as t h e i r l e a d e r , t h e i r o r g a n i z e r , or t h e i r spokesman. Such a view would be c o n s i d -ered h i g h l y o b j e c t i o n a b l e , and p o s s i b l y s e x i s t , because i t c o n t r a d i c t s p r i n c i p l e s of. e q u a l i t y , concensus d e c i s i o n -making and shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y which Douglass and others 86 v a l u e . Many p a r t i c i p a n t s , i n c l u d i n g Douglass, c a l l themselves " f e m i n i s t s , " and a great d e a l of a t t e n t i o n i s giv e n t o a v o i d -i n g t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s of male l e a d e r s h i p or domination i n group d i s c u s s i o n s and decision-making. N e v e r t h e l e s s , through h i s w r i t i n g s , h i s p u b l i c speaking engagements, h i s p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s , and the example of h i s own l i f e , Douglass has achieved a r e p u t a t i o n throughout North America. He has i n s p i r e d or ch a l l e n g e d persons to commit themselves t o p r e v e n t i n g a f i n a l h o l o c a u s t by " s t o p p i n g the world of v i o l e n c e which makes T r i d e n t p o s s i b l e , and be-g i n n i n g a new one." The f i n a l chapter of L i g h t n i n g East t o  West i s e n t i t l e d " I n v i t a t i o n . " I t seems t h a t most of Douglass' w r i t i n g s i s s u e an i n v i t a t i o n t o s t r u g g l e and s u f f e r f o r a new world of peace and j u s t i c e through engagement i n a process he c a l l s " r e s i s t a n c e and contemplation." Douglass d i s p l a y s some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a m i l l e n a r i a n movement prophet, who " e x t e r n a l i z e s and a r t i c u l a t e s what i t i s th a t others can as yet only f e e l , s t r i v e towards and imagine but cannot put i n t o words or t r a n s l a t e i n t o a c t i o n . . ." (Burr i d g e , 1971:155), and who . . . s p e c i f i c a l l y attempts t o i n i t i a t e , both i n him-s e l f as w e l l as i n oth e r s , a process of moral regener-a t i o n . Both he and h i s audience are caughtbbetween opposed c o n d i t i o n s of being. But whereas the prophet has t r a v e l l e d some way a l o n g the road toward s y n t h e s i s , and i n h i m s e l f r e p r e s e n t s i t , h i s audience has to be persuaded i n t o t a k i n g the same path. (Bu r r i d g e , 1971 i62) I t i s not my i n t e n t to l a b e l or focus on Jim Douglass 2 as the prophet of the T r i d e n t campaign, l e t alone the whole n u c l e a r disarmament movement. I merely wish t o p o i n t $ 7 out t h a t i n a r t i c u l a t i n g a choice between p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n or cat a s t r o p h e , Douglass i s employing the 3 "language of p r o p h e t i c a l t e r n a t i v i s m ; A l s o , i n c a l l i n g people t o a new way of l i f e i n a manner which o f t e n s t r i k e s a r e s p o n s i v e chord, Douglass i s d i s p l a y i n g q u a l i t i e s a s s o c -i a t e d w i t h a p r o p h e t - f i g u r e . Befofee proceeding w i t h a d i s c u s s i o n of Douglass' approach t o n u c l e a r disarmament, as a r t i c u l a t e d i n L i g h t n i n g East t o  West, I w i l l p r ovide some b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n concerning i d e a s , persons and experiences which have been i n f l u e n t i a l i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of h i s world view and h i s approach t o n u c l e a r disarmament. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n comes p r i m a r i l y from two sources: Douglass' own account i n L i g h t n i n g E a s t to West,^-and a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n by C h a r l e s Meconis ( 1 9 7 7 ) , e n t i t l e d " R e l i g i o n and R a d i c a l i s m : The American ' C a t h o l i c L e f t " as a S o c i a l Movement, 1 9 6 1 - 1 9 7 5 . " 5 88 Dorothy Day, Thomas Merton and the " C a t h o l i c L e f t " Douglass was born i n the l a t e 1 9 3 0 's. He spent h i s ch i l d h o o d i n Hedley, B r i t i s h Columbia, a smal l mining town i n the Kootenays. Because of the American c i t i z e n s h i p of h i s parents, h'e i s abl e t o c l a i m dual c i t i z e n s h i p i n both c o u n t r i e s . He has spent most of h i s a d u l t years i n the Un i t e d States,'oblut has p e r i o d i c a l l y r e t u r n e d t o h i s home i n Hedley, where he has w r i t t e n numerous a r t i c l e s and s e v e r a l books con the t o p i c of " n o n v i o l e n t r e s i s t a n c e . " In L i g h t n i n g  East to West he w r i t e s My world over the past t en ye a r s has r e a l l y been two worlds, a world of r e s i s t a n c e and a world of contempla^-t i o n . The two worlds e x i s t on opposite s i d e s of a bor-der, d i v i d i n g the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, the two c o u n t r i e s i n which I am a c i t i z e n . On the U.S. s i d e of the border, my l i f e has been one of r e s i s t a n c e — r e s i s t a n c e t o the war i n Indochina, to the g l o b a l p o l i c i e s the war expresses, and t o a deeper s p i r i t of death i n America. . . The other world I have known, on the Cana'dian s i d e o f the border, has been a world of contemplation. I have always r e t u r n e d t o my o r i g i n a l home i n Canada i n order to w r i t e — or more e x a c t l y , t o work through q u e s t i o n s of e v i l , v i o l e n c e , and nonviolence which have opened to t r u t h only through a s u s t a i n e d p e r i o d of s t r u g g l e , and of w r i t i n g through the stages of the s t r u g g l e . ( 1 9 7 8:Ch . 4 : 1 3 ) Douglass r e c a l l s t h a t he f i r s t became concerned about n u c l e a r disarmament more than twenty years ago w h i l e he was a student at the U n i v e r s i t y of Santa C l a r a . The end of the world, nonviolence, and the C a t h o l i c T»' Worker were a l l i n t r o d u c e d t o me one morning i n the s p r i n g of 1957 i n a freshman E n g l i s h c l a s s . . . . our p r o f e s s o r passed out an a r t i c l e about a group of people i n New York C i t y who had r e f u s e d t o take s h e l t e r d u r i n g a compulsory c i v i l defense d r i l l . I n s t e a d of going un-derground, these people, 29 of them as I r e c a l l , went i n t o C e n t r a l Park where they awaited a r r e s t f o r being 89 i n the open. They s a i d t h a t to go i n t o a s h e l t e r , assuming a hydrogen bomb was about t o explode overhead was not only f u t i l e but immoral: i t was to say yes t o the s i n and crime of p r e p a r i n g f o r n u c l e a r war. B e t t e r to go t o j a i l , and they d i d . (Douglass, 1 9 7#:Ch.l : 7 ) A l l the students i n the c l a s s , i n c l u d i n g Douglass, argued a g a i n s t t h e i r p r o f e s s o r ' s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t these people were r i g h t i n t h e i r d isobedience t o the s t a t e . Douglass continued t.odbrood over these people's d i s t u r b i n g a c t i o n , and f i n a l l y came t o b e l i e v e t h a t "the r e f u s a l t o go underground had been sane, moral and C h r i s t i a n " (Meconis, 1 9 7 7 : 1 5 ) . In. changing h i s mind on t h i s i s s u e , Douglass d e s c r i b e s "a sudden burning awareness of a two-sides r e a l i t y : That humanity i n the n u c l e a r age was l i v i n g a t the end of time, and t h a t a l i f e based on conscience was a r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y " (Douglass, 1 9 7$:Ch.l:S). Douglass l e a r n e d t h a t the people who had r e f u s e d t o go underground i n c l u d e d Dorothy Day and some members of the Cath-o l i c Worker community. Day had founded the C a t h o l i c Worker movement i n New York C i t y i n 1 9 3 3 , a l o n g w i t h Peter Maurin, a Frenchman and a former C h r i s t i a n B r o t h e r . Meconis e x p l a i n s t h a t the movement espouses a form of C h r i s t i a n Utopian commun-ism and p a c i f i s m , and t h a t i t i s orthodox i n terms of d o c t r i n e and p i e t y , but r a d i c a l i n i t s s o c i a l and p o l i t i c i a l views ( 1 9 7 7 : 1 2 ) . The movement has e s t a b l i s h e d throughout the U n i t e d S t a t e s numerous houses of h o s p i t a l i t y , where the homeless r e c e i v e f r e e food, s h e l t e r and c l o t h i n g . I t a l s o p u b l i s h e s a monthly newspaper, e n t i t l e d the C a t h o l i c Worker, which f o r decades has f e a t u r e d writ.er.s i n f l u e n c e d by a r a d i c a l s t r a i n o f 90 French C a t h o l i c i s m embracing nonviolence a l o n g w i t h some form of communitarian l i f e s t y l e (Meconis, 1977:274)• Douglass began t o read the C a t h o l i c Worker and to w r i t e on the q u e s t i o n of n u c l e a r war, which he p e r c e i v e d as a major ch a l l e n g e t o the C h r i s t i a n f a i t h . Meconis w r i t e s t h a t by 1961 he was a r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r t o the C a t h o l i c Worker. R e f l e c t i n g on the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the C a t h o l i c Worker move-ment i n h i s l i f e , Douglass r e l a t e s That f i r s t encounter w i t h Dorothy Day and the C a t h o l i c Worker put me i n l i v i n g contact w i t h a > t r a d i t o n whose r i c h n e s s has deepened f o r me over the ye a r s — the t r a — " d i t i o n of f a i t h and s u f f e r i n g l o v e , vat the center of the Church and extending through c e n t u r i e s of martyrs ("witnesses") t o the c r o s s of C h r i s t . As I began r e a d -i n g the C a t h o l i c Worker, I r e c o g n i z e d a community l i v i n g out the Gospel, whose p r o f e s s i o n s of nonviolence r e p r e -sented the l i f e of C h r i s t i n the America of the 5 0 's: a l i f e o f v o l u n t a r y poverty i n s e r v i c e t o the i n v o l u n -t a r i l y d e s t i t u t e , a l i f e of f o l l o w i n g Providence, of p r a c t i c i n g the works of mercy, of r e s i s t i n g a warfare s t a t e w i t h n o n v i o l e n t • c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e ; a l i f e and way corresponding t o Jesus' c r o s s . My i n t r o d u c t i o n t o nonv i o l e n c e , through the C a t h o l i c Worker, was t h e r e f o r e an experience embodied in>\a community of f a i t h , w i t h i n the g l o b a l context of an impending n u c l e a r end of time. (Douglass, 197S:Ch.l:9) In 196l Douglass read i n the C a t h o l i c Worker one of Thomas Merton's e a r l i e s t p u b l i s h e d statements on the i s s u e of n u c l e a r war. Merton was a T r a p p i s t monk i n a contempla-t i v e C a t h o l i c order i n L o u i s v i l l e , Kentucky. He wrote numer-ous essays, and more than two dozen books of prose and po e t r y on t o p i c s of prayer and m e d i t a t i o n , E a s t e r n and Western p h i l o -sophy and mysticism, and contemporary moral and p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s . He d i e d i n Bangkok i n 1968 w h i l e on a "journey t o the E a s t " which brought him i n t o c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h E a s t e r n 91 s p i r i t u a l masters. Meconis contends that Merton f a m i l i a r i z e d American C a t h o l i c s w i t h two Gandhian concepts: nonviolence and r e s i s t a n c e , and that Merton saw Gandhi as an important source f o r a renewed C h r i s t i a n i t y (1977:27) . Merton's i n f l u e n c e on Douglass was profound. Dorothy Day and the C a t h o l i c Worker had introduced me to nonviolence i n a community of f a i t h . Tom Merton, i n h i s intense essays on war, peace and nonviolence, . . showed the contemplative dimension of nonviolence, t h a t dimension of inner u n i t y whirch made deep sense of the f a c t that a Hindu, Gandhi, could be the greatest modern example of the way of C h r i s t , the way of s u f f e r i n g love to the point of death and tr a n s f o r m a t i o n . (Douglass, 1978:Ch.l:9) In the ensuing years, Douglass corresponded and met w i t h Merton u n t i l the l a t t e r ' s death i n 1968. Merton's l i f e and w r i t i n g s continue t o be a source of i n s i g h t and i n s p i r a t i o n f o r Douglass. Douglass subsequently became i n v o l v e d i n a movement of "nonviolent r e s i s t a n c e " w i t h other persons who were g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by Merton, and deeply challenged by h i s e a r l y w r i t i n g s on the iss u e of nuclear war. Two of these were Jim Forest ( p r e s e n t l y the coordinator of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Fellowship of R e c o n c i l i a t i o n ) and Father D a n i e l B e r r i g a n . Forest was a recent convert to C a t h o l i c i s m and was working on the e d i t o r i a l s t a f f of the C a t h o l i c Worker when Merton's "The Root of War i s Fear" appeared f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n t h e i r October 1961 i s s u e . In that a r t i c l e , Merton declared, The duty of the C h r i s t i a n i n t h i s c r i s i s i s to s t r i v e w i t h a l l h i s power and i n t e l l i g e n c e , w i t h h i s f a i t h , h i s hope i n C h r i s t and love f o r God and man, to do.^the one task which God has imposed upon us i n the world t o -day. That task i s to work f o r the t o t a l a b o l i t i o n of war. (Forest, 1978:14) 92 F o r e s t e x p l a i n s t h a t Merton was a r g u i n g t h a t , '• There can be no q u e s t i o n t h a t u n l e s s war i s a b o l i s h e d , the world w i l l remain c o n s t a n t l y i n a s t a t e of madness and d e s t r u c t i o n i n which, because of the immense d e s t r u c -t i v e power of modern weapons, the danger of catastrophe w i l l be imminent and probable a t every moment everywhere. ( 1 9 7 8 : 1 4 ) B e r r i g a n r e c a l l s t h a t soon a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of t h a t a r t i c l e , he resumed correspondence w i t h Merton a f t e r a l a p s e of a decade. I wrote him s a y i n g t h a t I found i t i m p o s s i b l e t o l i v e alone w i t h what he was say i n g and w i t h i n g a week th e r e was a l e t t e r back "Come on down and w e ' l l t a l k about i t . " And we'started a l l over. (Meconis, 1 9 7 7 : 1 4 ) Douglass t r a v e l l e d to Rome t o study t h e o l o g y and observe w i t h keen i n t e r e s t the great Ecumenical C o u n c i l i n Rome, u s u a l l y c a l l e d " V a t i c a n I I , " which convened i n 1 9 6 2 . In the summer of 1 9 6 4 , an o f f i c i a l w i t h the F e l l o w s h i p of R e c o n c i l -i a t i o n who hoped t o i n s t i g a t e a C a t h o l i c wing o f h i s organ-i z a t i o n , arranged f o r Douglass, Jim F o r e s t and D a n i e l B e r r i g a n to a t t e n d a peace conference i n Prague. While t r a v e l l i n g together, t o the conference, the thr e e decided t o s t a r t the C a t h o l i c Peace F e l l o w h i p , t o supplement the work of the C a t h o l i c Worker's e s t a b l i s h e d peace w i t n e s s . F o r e s t e x p l a i n s , . . . t h e r e was an obvious need f o r much more t o be done i n p r o v i d i n g support f o r C a t h o l i c c o n s c i e n t i o u s o b j e c t o r s and d r a f t r e s i s t e r s , and i n encouraging non-v i o l e n t d i r e c t a c t i o n t o impede our s o c i e t y ' s more murderous i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . . America's involvement i n Vietnam was much more i n view i n the French press than i n our own. . . . (Meconis, 1977:28) The t h r e e r e t u r n e d t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n the f a l l of 1 9 6 4 and r e c e i v e d help from Merton, P h i l B e r r i g a n and Gordon Zahn (a C a t h o l i c p a c i f i s t and s o c i o l o g i s t who wrote e x t e n s i v e l y 9 3 on the Nazi program of genocide) i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the C a t h o l i c Peace F e l l o w s h i p . They a l l watched w i t h deepening dread the war i n Vietnam, a war of which few Americans were yet aware. A few years l a t e r Douglass, F o r e s t , D a n i e l and P h i l i p B e r r i g a n and•tmany others i n a l o o s e l y o r g a n i z e d network dubbed by the media the " C a t h o l i c L e f t , " were appearing i n court f o r t h e i r w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d a c t i v i t i e s p r o t e s t i n g t h a t war. Meconis d e s c r i b e s Douglass as e x e m p l i f y i n g the second of two types of " a g i t a t o r s " i n the " C a t h o l i c L e f t . " The f i r s t type, of which he c i t e s P h i l B e r r i g a n as an example, was " r e s t l e s s , dynamic, l i k e l y t o a c t w i t h dramatic gesture, a b l e to i n f e c t o t h e r s and make them d i s s a t i s f i e d and r e s t l e s s . . ." The second type was . . . the calm, q u i e t , d i g n i f i e d person capable of s a y i n g very c a u s t i c , i n c i s i v e t h i n g s t h a t get under people's s k i n s and f o r c e them t o view t h i n g s i n a new l i g h t . D a n i e l B e r r i g a n , Thomas Merton and Jim Douglass would be prime examples of t h i s type. (Meconis, 1 9 7 7 : 2 9 8 ) Douglass' a r t i c l e s and books were read w i d e l y i n t h i s new s o c i a l movement, and Meconis s t a t e s t h a t h i s w r i t i n g s a r t i -c u l a t e d the i d e o l o g y of nonviolence of the " C a t h o l i c L e f t . " He r e p o r t s t h a t one p a r t i c i p a n t commented concerning Douglass' f i r s t book The N o n v i o l e n t Cross, " . . . , a t l a s t we've got some l i t e r a t u r e t h a t s o r t of r e v e r b e r a t e s to our whole a c t i o n community," and another s a i d t h a t the same book&had become h i s B i b l e (Meconis, 1 9 7 7 : 1 4 0 ) . In h i s f a s c i n a t i n g study of the American " C a t h o l i c L e f t , " Meconis r e p o r t s t h a t t h i s movement c o n s i s t e d of approximately 2 3 0 core members''7 who engaged i n rou g h l y 6 0 " a c t i o n s " to 94 p r o t e s t American involvement i n the war i n S.outhea.st A s i a i n the 1 9 6 0's and e a r l y 1970's. 'Many were i n t e l l e c t u a l s who were marginal to the l a b o u r f o r c e . A c t i v e or former C a t h o l i c nuns, p r i e s t s , b r o t h e r s , and seminarians comprised 3 1 $ of core members. The/, term " a c t i o n s " was used by p a r t i c i p a n t s t o r e f e r t o f e l o n i o u s a c t s of n o n v i o l e n t c i v i l d i s obedience a g a i n s t government, m i l i t a r y or corporate f a c i l i t i e s . Most f r e q u e n t l y t h i s meant a sma l l group of people — an' '-'action community ' s - — r :-raiding^ a l o c a l d r a f t board and d e f a c i n g , d e s t r o y i n g or removing hundreds of f i l e s necessary f o r the d r a f t i n g of s o l d i e r s to Vietnam, and then " s t a n d i n g by" u n t i l p o l i c e came to a r r e s t them. They u s u a l l y defended themselves i n dramatic t r i a l s i n which they t r i e d t o prove the i l l e g a l i t y and immorality of American involvement i n t h a t war. In terms of t a c t i c s — s m a l l group, n o n v i o l e n t , c i v i l d i sobedience .£ a c t i o n s — they d i f f e r e d both from the mass demonstrations t y p i c a l of the l a r g e r anti-war "Movement"' and from the anonymous bombings by groups l i k e the "Weatherman" f a c t i o n of the Students f o r a Democratic S o c i e t y (SDS). Speaking about the " C a t h o l i c L e f t ' s " o r i g i n s i n the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, Meconis s t a t e s . . . i t s e a r l y members were v i r t u a l l y a l l C a t h o l i c s , i t s e a r l y l e a d e r s were mostly members of the i n s t i -t u t i o n ' s c l e r g y , i t s e a r l y development was made p o s s i b l e by change o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n 7 and even i t s r a d i c a l views were i n i t i a l l y formed through contact w i t h l i b e r a l and r a d i c a l thought w i t h i n the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h . T h e movement's e a r l y "stand-by" a c t i o n s were r e p l e t e w i t h e x p l i c i t l y r e l i g i o u s symbol-ism such as the use of blood and f i r e as p u r i f y i n g agents, the i n v o c a t i o n of God through prayer d u r i n g r a i d s and i n the courtroom and the acceptance of s u f f e r i n g (imprisonment) as a way to s a l v a t i o n . -( 1 9 7 7 : 3 6 6 ) 95 N e a r l y a l l members used the a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d by the "New L e f t " t o make sense of American m i l i t a r y involvement i n Indochina. But' p r i o r to 1 9 6 9 , they r e l i e d upon Merton, Gandhi a n d d - t h e i r experiences w i t h nonviolence i n the c i v i l r i g h t s movement to f a s h i o n t h e i r response t o t h a t involvement. Meconis maintains t h a t , U n t i l the summer of 1969 the great m a j o r i t y of the move-ment's members adhered t o and were motivated by s e v e r a l a r t i c l e s of the C a t h o l i c form of the J u d a e o - C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n , the most important of which were the p r o p h e t i c o b l i g a t i o n t o denounce i n j u s t i c e and a i d the poor, and the s a l v i f i c nature of v o l u n t a r y s u f f e r i n g . (1977 : 3 6 6 ) However, i n 1969 r e c r u i t m e n t p a t t e r n s changed such t h a t there were i n c r e a s i n g numbers of n o n - C a t h o l i c core members. By 1 9 7 3 , kG'fo of a l l core members (th a t i s , those who had committed f e l o n i o u s a c t s of n o n v i o l e n t c i v i l d i sobedience, whether or not they were i n d i c t e d ) were n o n - C a t h o l i c s . With the i n c r e a s e i n n o n - C a t h o l i c members, t h e r e were a t the same time t r e n d s towards s e c u l a r i z a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d m i l i t a n c y . There was g r e a t e r concern expressed about the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of nonvio-1.. • l e n c e as a s t r a t e g y and l e s s w i l l i n g n e s s t o "stand-by" f o r a r r e s t and accept imprisonment. Thus, Meconis l o c a t e s the o r i g i n s of the " C a t h o l i c L e f t " w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n of the Roman C a t h o l i c Church, but he t r a c e s the movement's i n c r e a s i n g a l i e n a t i o n from t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n and from t r a d i t i o n a l "con-s c i e n t i o u s " Gandhian nonviolence as expounded by Merton, Douglass and o t h e r s . Meconis r e p o r t s t h a t a f t e r the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the " C a t h o l i c L e f t " as a s o c i a l movement i n 1 9 7 3 , most members continued t o work f o r s o c i a l change. However, the form and 96 content of t h e i r a c t i v i s m v a r i e d tremendously. In i d e o l o g i c a l terms.he noted people going i n thr e e d i s t i n c t , but not mutually e x c l u s i v e d i r e c t i o n s : Feminism, Marxism, and community based n o n v i o l e n t r e s i s t a n c e . The l a s t d i r e c t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a r e -t u r n t o a s p i r i t u a l l y - o r i e n t e d i d e o l o g y of no n v i o l e n c e , of which Douglass was a proponent. While Jim and S h e l l e y Douglass began experimenting w i t h community based n o n v i o l e n t r e s i s t a n c e t o n u c l e a r weapons — e s p e c i a l l y ^ • T r i d e n t — w i t h i n the context of P a c i f i c L i f e Community on the west coast of North America, L i z M c A l i s t e r ~ and P h i l B e r r i g a n began engaging i n a s i m i l a r p r o c e s s w i t h i n the context o f the Jonah House community on the east c o a s t . Since the end of American m i l i t a r y involvement i n Vietnam i n 1 9 7 5 , the Jonah House community has focused on the n u c l e a r weapons race i n t h e i r n o n v i o l e n t c i v i l d i s obedience a c t i o n s , which have i n c l u d e d "blood-pouring's" ahdxl'-die-in,' s,:". a t the Pentagon, and symbolic "grave d i g - i n ' s " at the White House. Meconis ( w r i t i n g before the founding of Ground Zero) suggested t h a t these communities o f r e s i s t a n c e — P a c i f i c L i f e Community, Jonah House and the Community f o r C r e a t i v e Nonviolence"'""'" — were the most d i r e c t descendants of the " a c t i o n communities" of the " C a t h o l i c L e f t " ( 1 9 7 7 : 2 6 3 ) . He suggested t h a t they . . . re p r e s e n t an attempt t o r e v e r s e the s h i f t toward a more s e c u l a r , pragmatic s t r a t e g y of s o c i a l change, and r e t u r n to the r e l i g i o u s , n o n v i o l e n t s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s (such as stand-by c i v i l d i s obedience of the e a r l y " C a t h o l i c L e f t " ) i n a way t h a t i n c o r p o r a t e s the l e s s o n s l e a r n e d the hard way i n t h a t movement. ( 1 9 7 7 : 3 5 6 ) -97 The l e s s o n s concerned the problems of sexism, e l i t i s m , , a n d f o c u s i n g too much on e f f e c t i v e n e s s and too l i t t l e on the i n n e r dimension of n o n v i o l e n c e . In a 1975 i n t e r v i e w w i t h Meconis, Douglass;, commented on " e f f e c t i v e n e s s " : . . . i t i s a p e c u l i a r l y Western problem, and i s one t h a t we as Americans and Canadians have a t e r r i b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n overcoming. From the standpoint of non-v i o l e n c e , or a r e l i g i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e , i t ' s a f a l s e i s s u e . We.'jsimply have t o concentrate on the t r u t h f u l n e s s of the means . . . and the r e s t w i l l take care of i t s e l f . . I'm not sure how w e l l we've understood i t i n terms of the community you're i n t e r v i e w i n g ( " C a t h o l i c L e f t " ) , because we t r i e d i n a l o t of ways to e s c a l a t e the r e s i s t -ance to correspond to the war — which f a l l s q u i t e eas-i l y i n t o the t r a p of " e f f e c t i v e n e s s . " (Meconis, 1977:357) In L i g h t n i n g East t o West Douglass w r i t e s of these l e s s o n s l e a r n e d from involvement i n t h i s community of n o n v i o l e n t r e s i s t -ance to the war i n Indochina. In p a r t i c u l a r , he draws upon experiences-?; surrounding a n o n v i o l e n t 1 c i v i l d isobedience " a c t i o n " i n which he p a r t i c i p a t e d as a member of " c a t h o l i c ( s i c ) A c t i o n of Hawaii." (He had moved to Hawaii i n 1971 a f t e r completing the book R e s i s t a n c e and Contemplation: The  Way of L i b e r a t i o n — The Y i n and Yang of the N o n v i o l e n t L i f e . ) T h i s group conducted a campaign a g a i n s t the Hickam A i r Base which was the center of p l a n n i n g f o r the Indochina war. Douglass a s s e r t s t h a t the " a c t i o n " i n which he p a r t i c i p a t e d d u r i n g the 1972 Lenten season was very s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the community, because they were a b l e to "break through the p u b l i c s i l e n c e of Hawaii's m i l i t a r i s m d u r i n g the most i n t e n s e bombing of Indochina" ( 1 9 7$:Ch.l:l/+). The " a c t i o n " i n v o l v e d Jim Douglass and Jim A l b e r t i n i " m i r a c u l o u s l y " g a i n i n g e n t r y to the e l e c t r o n i c warfare wing of the Hickam base, and p o u r i n g t h e i r b l o o d on top s e c r e t f i l e s 98 c o n t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on L a o t i a n bombing s i t e s . They were i n d i c t e d f o r c o n s p i r a c y and d e s t r u c t i o n of government property, 1 charges b e a r i n g a maximum p e n a l t y of 15 years imprisonment and a $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 f i n e . Witnesses at t h e i r t r i a l i n c l u d e d Father D a n i e l B e r r i g a n and experts on i n t e r n a t i o n a l law and a n t i -p e r s o n n e l / weapons.. The defendants a c t e d as t h e i r own a t t o r -neys, but two former p r o s e c u t o r s a t the Nuremberg War Crimes T r i b u n a l (Mary Kaufman and Benjamin Ferencz) worked w i t h them as c o - c o n s u l . Douglas r e p o r t s , . . . Hundreds of s p e c t a t o r s heard what Nuremberg lawyer Mary Kaufman c a l l e d the most s t a r t i n g testimony ever g i v e n i n a U.S. courtroom on the war i n Indochina... I t i n c l u d e d the sworn testimony of a former A i r Force sergeant who s a i d t h a t w h i l e he was s t a t i o n e d a t Hickam A i r Base he had witnessed the d e l i b e r a t e t a r -g e t i n g of a L a o t i a n h o s p i t a l f o r o b l i t e r a t i o n bombing, as w e l l as the t a r g e t i n g of numerous other c i v i l i a n o b j e c t i v e s . Our t r i a l was giv e n h e a d l i n e media cover-age i n Honolulu f o r the week i t was i n progress, i n s p i t e of Hawaii's m i l i t a r i s m . The symposium l e d by our w i t n e s s e s at the U n i v e r s i t y of Hawaii, i n an au d i t o r i u m packed every n i g h t , r e c e i v e d an audience response whose i n t e n s i t y Dan B e r r i g a n s a i d he would never for g e t . ( 1 9 7$:Ch.2 : 1 6 ) . As happened i n the e a r l i e r t r i a l s of d r a f t board r a i d e r s and i n the subsequent t r i a l s of T r i d e n t p r o t e s t e r s , the court i g n o r e d t h e i r arguments t h a t the " a c t i o n " was j u s t i -f i e d because i t had been done i n order t o "draw a t t e n t i o n to and h i n d e r an enormous crime a g a i n s t l i f e , d e f i n e d c l e a r l y by i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r e a t i e s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o v the U.S. con-s t i t u t i o n " (Douglass, 1978:.G,h.2:12). But because the m i l i t a r y r e f u s e d t o r e l e a s e the b l o o d - s t a i n e d f i l e s f o r examination as evidence, charges were reduced t o a misdemeanour. They were found g u i l t y and were sentenced to a year's p r o b a t i o n and f i n e d $500 which they r e f u s e d t o pay. 9 9 Jim Douglass t r a v e l l e d t o Copenhagen where he presented some of the f i n e money to Indochinese v i c t i m s of American bombing, at an I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission of I n q u i r y i n t o U n i t e d S t a t e s War Crimes i n Indochina. He met a young L a o t i a n woman named Nang Oun Kham. She had been s e v e r e l y i n j u r e d ' d u r i n g an American bombing r a i d on the very same day t h a t Douglass and A l b e r t i n i had poured t h e i r blood on the f i l e s of L a o t i a n bombing s i t e s . Douglass i n t e r p r e t e d t h e i r meeting as a " s y n c h r o n i s t i c " event — t h a t i s , a meaningful c o i n c i d e n c e i n time which serves as a v i s i b l e s i g n of; the ."unity of - God, humanity and the u n i v e r s e . R e l a t i n g t h i s i n c i d e n t i n L i g h t n i n g East t o West, Douglass s a i d of Nang Oun Kham, " . . . she remains deeply present, a presence of the kingdom of oneness which i s the world i n i t s innermost R e a l i t y " ( 1 9 7 8 : C h . 3 : S ) • Douglass suggests t h a t t h i s " s y n c h r o n i s t i c " event i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e s p o n s i v e n e s s of God t o a c t i o n s of. t r u t h and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . In 1 9 7 3 , Jim and S h e l l e y Douglass r e t u r n e d from Hawaii to B r i t i s h Columbia. L i v i n g once a g a i n i n Hedley, he began to s t r u g g l e w i t h the c e n t r a l problem to be presented i n L i g h t n i n g E ast to West: "the q u e s t i o n of humanity's n o n v i o l e n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n our end-time, when th e r e i s l i t t l e time l e f t f o r the r a d i c a l changes needed i n s p i r i t and s o c i e t y f o r the w o r l d t o be preserved" ( 1 9 7 8 : C h . 4 : 1 4 ) • In p a r t i c u l a r , he r e f l e c t e d on experiences surrounding the "Hickam a c t i o n , " b e l i e v i n g t h a t , Inn t h a t year, i n the Lenten campaign at .... Hickam a'ndi in/*;the" t r i a l and non-cooperation w i t h the sentence, 100 they had ex p l o r e d and experienced what Gandhi termed " e x p e r i -ments i n t r u t h . " I t was d u r i n g t h i s process of r e f l e c t i v e s t r u g g l e and w r i t i n g t h a t Douglass heard " t h a t the most d e s t r u c t i v e weapons system i n h i s t o r y , the U.S. T r i d e n t submarine, was i n the beginning process of being based j u s t south of our B.C./Washington s t a t e border, a short space from Hedley on the road map" (1978:Ch.4:21). He attempted t o r e -l a t e what he cou l d l e a r n from the "experiment i n t r u t h " r e p r e -sented by the Hickam campaign, t o the threat- t o humanity r e p r e -sented by T r i d e n t . The r e s u l t s of these e f f o r t s toward a 'contemplative v i s i o n " have t o some degree been manifested i n the P a c i f i c L i f e Community e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1975, and i n Ground Zero Centre f o r Nonviolent A c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1977* L i g h t n i n g East t o West i s an e x p o s i t i o n of t h i s v i s i o n . 101 World View Assumptions In the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n were d i s c u s s e d some of the persons, i d e a s and experiences which have been i n f l u e n t i a l i n the f o r m u l a t i o n of Douglass' approach t o n u c l e a r disarma-ment. Hi s approach c o u l d be encapsulated i n the a s s e r t i o n , "A l i v e d f a i t h w i l l stop the Bomb" (197$:Ch.5:6). By f a i t h Douglass means, "a commitment to the world's t r a n s f o r m a t i o n through God t o a kingdom of peace and j u s t i c e . " U n d e r l y i n g t h i s approach are p a r t i c u l a r world view assumptions. In summarizing a few of these assumptions, one can begin w i t h the m e t a p h y s i c a l assumption of the e x i s t e n c e of a cosmic, s p i r i t u a l f o r c e . Douglass d e s c r i b e s t h i s f o r c e w r i t i n g , "I b e l i e v e t h e r e i s a l o v i n g , c a r i n g w i l l a t the center of r e a l -i t y which i s as o b j e c t i v e and concrete as a p h y s i c a l law" (197$:Ch.1:3)• He symbolizes, p e r c e i v e s and engages t h i s f o r c e or " w i l l " from a C h r i s t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e which p l a c e s primacy on "nonviolence" as a b a s i s f o r m o r a l i t y , ontology and epistemology, and which can accomodate i n s i g h t s i n t o " nonviolence" from other s p i r i t u a l tradition's-.*.. Merton was an exponent of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n i t y . T h i s w i l l , v a r i o u s l y termed "God," " T r u t h - f o r c e , " " L o v e - f o r c e , " " L i f e - f o r c e , " "Satyagraha," i s b e l i e v e d -to be a c c e s s i b l e t o human beings who, l i k e the Hindu Gandhi, f o l l o w the "way of C h r i s t , " "the way of n o n v i o l e n c e , " "the way of s u f f e r i n g l o v e to the p o i n t of death and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . " The C a t h o l i c Worker community demonstrates some of the 102 p r a c t i c e s i n v o l v e d i n f o l l o w i n g "the way": "A l i f e of volun-t a r y poverty i n s e r v i c e to the i n v o l u n t a r i l y d e s t i t u t e , a l i f e of f o l l o w i n g Providence, of p r a c t i c i n g the works of mercy, of r e s i s t i n g a warfare s t a t e w i t h nonviolent c i v i l disobedience" (Douglass, 197$:Ch.l :9)• This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of "the way of C h r i s t " i s , according to Meconis, common to a C a t h o l i c form of the Judaeo-Christian t r a d i t i o n which emphasizes a prophetic o b l i g a t i o n to denounce 4 i n j u s t i c e and a i d the poor, and an acceptance of v o l u n t a r y s u f f e r i n g as the way to s a l v a t i o n . I t i s assumed th a t i n f o l l o w i n g "the way of C h r i s t " as summarized by the two commandments: love God w i t h a l l your heart, mind and s t r e n g t h , and love others as y o u r s e l f , persons can experience prime r e a l i t y , which i s u n i t y w i t h God and a l l other human beings. This u n i t y i s manifested i n meaningful coincidences of events which have no causal r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one;another— a phenomenon termed by Jung " s y n c h r o n i c i t y . I t i s assumed th a t human beings should confront " e v i l s " of i n j u s t i c e , oppression, poverty and v i o l e n c e , and act to t r a n s -form the s o c i a l order f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of j u s t i c e and ., peace (which are considered m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of the oneness of God and humanity at the "centre of r e a l i t y . " ) . But i n attempt-i n g t h i s , they should not focus on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of p a r t i -c u l a r s t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s f o r the overthrow of e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s or power e l i t e s , but r a t h e r they should focus on the " t r u t h f u l n e s s of the means" or the "nonviolence of the means." A paradox i n t h i s approach to s o c i a l change i s the assumption that persons can be most e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g 103 a more p e r f e c t s o c i a l order by adopting a s t r a t e g y based not on " e f f e c t i v e n e s s " but on " f a i t h . " T h i s s t r a t e g y based on " f a i t h " i n v o l v e s a " r e n u n c i a t i o n of the f r u i t s of a c t i o n , i n simple obedience t o God's w i l l , a l o v i n g , u n i f y i n g w i l l which i n a world of i n j u s t i c e took one i n e v i t a b l y t o one's c r o s s " (Douglass, 1 9 7$:Ch.l : 1 0 ). Taken s e r i o u s l y i s Merton's warning a g a i n s t l o o k i n g f o r r e s u l t s i n one's, work f o r peace and j u s t i c e . He cautioned, " A l l the good t h a t you w i l l do, w i l l not come from you, but from the f a c t t h a t you have allowed y o u r s e l f , i n the obedience of f a i t h t o be used by God's love-" ( F o r e s t , 1 9 7 $ : 1 $ ) . T h i s i s r e m i n i s c e n t of what Weber terms, "the a c t i v e a s c e t i c i s m t h a t i s a God-willed a c t i o n of the devout who are God's t o o l s " (Weber, 1 9 7 3 : 3 2 5 ) . T h i s " a c t i v e a s c e t i c i s m " i s balanced by a mysticism which through s i l e n t prayer and contemplation seeks an " i n n e r unity'," t h a t i s , a s t a t e i n which the person undergoes a change of hear t , a metanoia experience, whereby they are s u f f i c i e n t l y humbled as t o surrender themself t o be used by God's l o v e . I t i s t h i s k i n d of i n n e r change as a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r accom-p l i s h i n g s o c i a l change t o which Dan B e r r i g a n was r e f e r r i n g when he s a i d , "We cannot induce change u n t i l we have under-gone change" (Meconis, 1 9 7 7 : 3 2 1 ) . S i m i l a r l y Douglass w r i t e s , "the world can and w i l l be transformed only and e x a c t l y to the extent t h a t I undergo t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n myself" ( 1 9 7 $ : C h . 3 : 1 2 ) . He draws upon concepts from.Merton, Jung, quantum p h y s i c s and r e l a t i v i t y t h e o r y t o support h i s argument t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l can. change the e x t e r n a l s o c i a l world by 1 0 4 undergoing change i n themself, such t h a t they become an instrument of God's t r a n s f o r m i n g l o v e . He notes t h a t Merton and Gandhi r e j e c t e d nonviolence as merely a p o l i t i c a l t a c t i c and emphasized the s p i r i t u a l dimension of n o n v i o l e n c e . He concurs w i t h Merton's d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t , "nonviolence i n deed was n o t h i n g more than a l i v i n g out of a nonviolence of the h e a r t , an i n n e r u n i t y a l r e a d y experienced i n p r a y e r " ( 1 9 7 8 : C h . l : 9 ) « Douglass c h a r a c t e r i z e s the process he advocates f o r t r a n s f o r m i n g the world as one of " r e s i s t a n c e and contem-p l a t i o n " which seems to correspond to Merton's d u a l concepts of "nonviolence i n deed" and "nonviolence of the h e a r t , " and to B e r r i g a n ' s concepts of " i n d u c i n g change" and "undergoing change." The assumption t h a t human beings have some r e s p o n s i b l i t y f o r t r a n s f o r m i n g the world, f o r b r i n g i n g about "the kingdom" or "heaven on e a r t h , " c o n t r a s t s w i t h the more popular C h r i s t -i a n approach to the M i l l e n n i u m , which assumes t h a t God alone, through the r e t u r n i n g C h r i s t , w i l l f i n a l l y b r i n g j u s t i c e and peace t o the world. The f a i t h f u l can simply watch and wait f o r the "Second Coming" when God w i l l a b r u p t l y s t r i k e an,, end to h i s t o r y and inaugurate the r e i g n of heaven on e a r t h . Both approaches are based on f a i t h i n a God, " . . . who w i l l f i n a l l y t r a n s f o r m the world as we know i t , f i l l e d w i t h v i o l e n c e and s u f f e r i n g , i n t o a new heaven and new e a r t h where lo v e and t r u t h w i l l r e i g n i n people's h e a r t s and be embodied i n a g l o b a l communityV"(Douglass, 1 9 7 $ : C h . 5 : 2 1 ) . However, the former 105 approach which Douglass has" adopted, emphasizes the r o l e o f the f a i t h f u l i n d i v i d u a l and community i n s u r r e n d e r i n g them-s e l v e s t o be instruments of "God's t r a n s f o r m i n g l o v e , " and i n working f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of "the kingdom" i n t h e i r contemporary s o c i a l world. 106 L i g h t n i n g East to West In L i g h t n i n g East to West Douglass p o i n t s to s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l trends i n the contemporary world as evidence that humanity e x i s t s i n the shadow of imminent catastrophe. These trends i n world population growth, p o l l u t i o n , resource deple-t i o n , and the worldwide p r o l i f e r a t i o n of nuclear technology, are the b a s i s f o r h i s contention t h a t humanity e x i s t s i n an "end-time." By "end-time" he means "a time i n which the p o l i -t i c a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s of the world make i t pro-bable that the human race w i l l soon ceast to e x i s t " (197$: Ch.l:4). He concurs w i t h U Thant's i n s i s t e n c e that the only species s u s t a i n i n g choice open to humanity i s a g l o b a l p a r t n e r -ship "to curb the arms race, to improve the human environment, to defuse the population e x p l o s i o n , and to supply the r e q u i r e d momentum to development e f f o r t s " (197$:Ch.2:2). However, p e r c e i v i n g the deeper causes of the world's imminent end in';our time t o be humanly and t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y heightened forms of v i o l e n c e , Douglass argues t h a t a commitment to nonviolence i s e s s e n t i a l to b r i n g about t h i s new g l o b a l p a r t n e r s h i p or world community. Douglass suggests that " l i g h t n i n g east to west" can be adopted as the image of our end-time. He contends t h a t i t captures the essence of the choice before humanity: to be consumed by the l i g h t n i n g f i r e of nuclear holocaust, or t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a process of nonviolent t r a n s f o r m a t i o n by the l i g h t n i n g f i r e of a s p i r i t u a l f o r c e of t r u t h and love which 107 can u n i t e a l l of humanity i n a "kingdom of oneness" — a "kingdom of R e a l i t y . " As mentioned i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n , t h i s image i s d e r i v e d from the b i b l i c a l m i l l e n n i a l prophesy from Matthew 24:27 t h a t , "The coming of the Son of Man w i l l be l i k e l i g h t n i n g i n the east f l a s h i n g f a r i n t o the west." Douglass bases h i s hope t h a t humanity can a v o i d h o l o c a u s t and experience the Kingdom, on a b e l i e f t h a t t h e r e i s a s p i r -i t u a l equation corresponding t o E i n s t e i n ' s p h y s i c a l equation E=mc^, which i f d i s c o v e r e d and experimented w i t h s e r i o u s l y enough, c o u l d r e l e a s e s u f f i c i e n t s p i r i t u a l energy t o u n i t e a l l of humanity i n a f o r c e of l o v e and t r u t h . J u s t as E i n s t e i n p o i n t e d out the p o s s i b i l i t y of a p r e v i o u s l y i n c o n -c e i v a b l e p h y s i c a l energy contained i n any p a r t i c l e o f matter, so, ciiaims Douglass, d i d C a r l Jung suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y of a tremendous s p i r i t u a l or p s y c h i c energy w i t h i n human beings. Douglass r e f e r s to Jung's suggestion of the p o s s i b i l i t y of an u l t i m a t e agreement between p s y c h i c and p h y s i c a l forms of energy as the b a s i s f o r h i s argument t h a t t h e r e i s a p s y c h i c or s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y f o r change i n humankind equal i n energy to the p h y s i c a l r e a l i t y of a n u c l e a r e x p l o s i o n . He suggests as an hy p o t h e s i s t h a t j u s t as " E i n s t e i n d i s c o v e r e d a law of p h y s i c a l change: the way to convert a s i n g l e p a r t i c l e of matter i n t o enormous p h y s i c a l energy," so th e r e must be "an e q u a l l y i n c r e d i b l e and undiscovered law of s p i r i t u a l change, whereby a s i n g l e person or smal l community of persons c o u l d be converted i n t o an enormous s p i r i t u a l energy capable of tr a n s f o r m i n g a s o c i e t y and a world" (197$:Ch.l :6). 10$ '.a Douglass contends t h a t Jesus C h r i s t and Mahatma Gandhi had d i s c o v e r e d and were experimenting w i t h such a law. I t i s a law about which Gandhi s a i d , When the p r a c t i s e of the law becomes u n i v e r s a l , God w i l l r e i g n on e a r t h as God does i n Heaven. E a r t h and Heaven are i n us. We know the e a r t h , and we are s t r a n g e r s t o the Heaven w i t h i n us. (Douglass, 197$: Ch . 2 : 3 2 ) Douglass suggests t h a t i n t h e i r experiments w i t h t h i s law, Jesus and Gandhi were becoming channels f o r the r e l e a s e of an o b j e c t i v e f o r c e of t r u t h and l o v e which e x i s t s a t the centre of r e a l i t y , and were thereby t r a n s f o r m i n g the s o c i e t y around them. Douglass argues t h a t . . . every l i v i n g person i s capable, through a p a r t i -c u l a r process, of c r e a t i n g the c o n d i t i o n s f o r the ex-p r e s s i o n of an o b j e c t i v e l o v e - f o r c e i n h i s t o r y , a power of R e a l i t y beyond any of us, which can r a i s e humankind from the g l o b a l death of our time. (197$:Ch .2:9) The process i s t h a t undergone by Gandhi as he became a " s a t y a g r a h i , " by Jesus as he became the C h r i s t —• a process which Douglass contends c r e a t e d the conditmonscof s p i r i t u a l -p o l i t i c a l e x p l o s i o n s a c r o s s the world through the d e l i b e r a t e g i v i n g of t h e i r l i v e s whuilie c o n f r o n t i n g e v i l . The process 'is one of prayer and s e r v i c e e x e m p l i f i e d by the two commandments, "l o v e God... l o v e your neighbour." I t r e q u i r e s . . . a form of being i n prayer i n which the person;; becomes ever-more-one w i t h R e a l i t y i n an i n n e r whole-ness . . . a form of being through s e r v i c e i n which the person becomes ever-more-one w i t h R e a l i t y i n a communal wholeness. (Douglass, 197$:Ch .2:30) Through/, t h i s process of " p u r i f i c a t i o n , " the i n d i v i d u a l i s remembering or r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g i n consciousness and a c t i o n 109 the u n i t y of a l l l i f e . Douglass suggests that an i n d i v i d u a l i s not l i k e l y to s u s t a i n the d i s c i p l i n e of t h i s process of prayer and s e r v i c e without the encouragement and challenge of others who are s i m i l a r l y attempting to l i v e t h i s process. Thus he places' an emphasis on the i n d i v i d u a l as a member of a "community of s a t y a g r a h i s . " As they begin to l i v e the prayer of Jesus: "Thy w i l l , not my w i l l be done" i n confront-i n g e v i l , and h o l d i n g f a s t to the t r u t h of the u n i t y of a l l l i f e , so they are c r e a t i n g the c o n d i t i o n s f o r r e l e a s i n g a transforming " l o v e - t r u t h - l i f e " f o r c e i n t h e i r world. He suggests as an analogy, the p u r i f i c a t i o n of uranium f o r use i n an atomic bomb, whereby the uranium "remains matter but edges c l o s e r and c l o s e r to the c r i t i c a l mass at which point i t s e a r t h - s h a t t e r i n g energy w i l l suddenly and overwhelmingly take over" (1978:Ch.2:29). So can the l i v e s of a community of satyagrahis be p u r i f i e d through a process of prayer and s e r v i c e at a c r i t i c a l depth of " u l t i m a t e s a c r i f i c e , " at which point a s e l f - a c t i n g t r u t h - f o r c e might take over and f i l l the horizon w i t h a l i g h t n i n g s p i r i t . He uses the image of the hydrogen bomb (which r e l e a s e s a s e l f -a c t i n g energy and heat from a p u r i f i e d core substance t o create a f i r e b a l l i n which b i l l i o n s of hydrogen atoms are fused i n t o combinations of a new substance: helium) to suggest th a t human beings a c t i n g i n the r i g h t ways might r e l e a s e an equivalent s p i r i t u a l energy.:JThey could create Va f o r c e of t r u t h and love powerful enough to fuse b i l l i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l psyches i n t o a g l o b a l r e a l i z a t i o n of e s s e n t i a l oneness" (Ch.2:3.i;).;; 110 Douglass acknowledges t h a t , The experience of such a s p i r i t u a l f o r c e of f u s i o n i s unimagineable, and the mere 5ihypothesizing of i t , as i n t h i s essay, as a p s y c h i c a n d . h i s t o r i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y w i l l go beyond any but the most w i l l i n g suspension of d i s -b e l i e f . But I see no demonstrable reason?: why the same psyche which, when turne d outward, was a b l e to cr e a t e the c o n d i t i o n s f o r a s e l f - a c t i n g f o r c e of over 100 m i l l i o n degrees of heat, thus r e a l i z i n g an i n c o n c e i v -a b l e thermonuclear f u s i o n , cannot some day t u r n s u f f i -c i e n t l y inward to c r e a t e the c o n d i t i o n s f o r an i n c o n c e i v -a b l e (but n a t u r e - b a l a n c i n g ) f u s i o n i n i t s own p s y c h i c r e a l i t y . (Ch.2:31) I l l The T r i d e n t Campaign Douglass views the T r i d e n t campaign as an "experiment i n t r u t h " — an experiment i n the law of s p i r i t u a l change, the e x i s t e n c e of which he has hypot h e s i z e d . He c a l l s i t , "a communal experiment i n f a i t h and hope which can he l p open up a new world or confirm the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of our o l d one's d e s t r o y i n g i t s e l f " ( 1 9 7$:Ch.5 : 6 ). Given the h i g h p r i o r i t y of T r i d e n t i n the Pentagon's m i l i t a r y s t r a t e g y , i t was f e l t t h a t i f T r i d e n t c o u l d be stopped through a campaign of n o n v i o l e n t r e s i s t a n c e , then any d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e c o u l d be turned around, perhaps even the n u c l e a r age i t s e l f . He suggests t h a t , " i f a community can experiment deeply enough i n a n o n v i o l e n t l i f e - f o r c e , the power of the Pentagon w i l l crumble" ( 1 9 7$:Ch.5 : 3 ) . Douglass d e s c r i b e s T r i d e n t as "the end of the world," because the f l e e t of n u c l e a r submarines w i l l possess s u f f i c i e n t n u c l e a r c a p a b i l i t y t o destr o y a l l human l i f e on e a r t h . Each submarine has 24 m i s s i l e s , and each m i s s i l e i s equipped w i t h 1.77 independently t a r g e t t e d warheads. The e x p l o s i v e f o r c e of each warhead i s f i v e times t h a t o f the b l a s t which deva-s t a t e d Hiroshima. Thus, he a s s e r t s , one T r i d e n t submarine i s e q u i v a l e n t to 2 , 0 4 0 Hiroshimas. A f l e e t o f 3 0 submarines i s planned. To grasp the d e s t r u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l of T r i d e n t , Douglass suggests, Begin w i t h a m e d i t a t i o n : To understand T r i d e n t say the word "Hiroshima." R e f l e c t on i t s meaning f o r one second. Say and understand "Hiroshima" a g a i n . And aga i n . And a g a i n . 2 , 0 4 0 times. Assuming you're a b l e to understand Hiroshima i n one second, y o u ' l l be ab l e 1 1 2 t o understand T r i d e n t i n 3 4 minutes. That's one T r i d e n t submarine. To understand the d e s t r u c t i v e power of the whole T r i d e n t f l e e t , i t would take you 1 7 hours d e v o t i n g one second to each Hiroshima. ( 1 9 7 $ : C h . 5 : 2 ) Douglass makes an analogy between the N a z i ' s " f i n a l s o l u t i o n " undertaken at e x t e r m i n a t i o n camps l i k e Auschwitz, and the n u c l e a r " f i n a l s o l u t i o n " r e p r e s e n t e d by T r i d e n t . T h i s s o r t of analogy i s f r e q u e n t l y made by defendants a t T r i d e n t c i v i l d isobedience t r i a l s . ^ - I t i s argued t h a t both " s o l u t i o n s " depend upon the p o p u l a t i o n ' s massive s i l e n c e , acceptance and c o m p l i c i t y , as t h e i r governments i s s u e propa-ganda and prepare f o r genocide. Douglass charges t h a t those l i v i n g i n the P a c i f i c Northwest ' l i v e a l o n g s i d e the steady p r e p a r a t i o n f o r n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t as unseeing as were the onlookers of Nazi\[genocide'. ;<iHe contends . . . the a c t of n u c l e a r war can't be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the s p e c i f i c commands and p u l l i n g of l e v e r s which w i l l launch the m i s s i l e s . That would be l i k e i d e n t i f y i n g the genocide of the Jews wi t h the s p e c i f i c a c t i o n of t u r n i n g on the gas i n the e x t e r m i n a t i o n camps. The a c t of genocide, whether i n N a z i Germany or i n n u c l e a r war, begins much sooner than the f i n a l t u r n i n g of l e v e r s . The a c t of n u c l e a r war has two major s t e p s : the b u i l d i n g of i n c o n c e i v a b l e weapons systems; the i n d o c -t r i n a t i o n of an a l r e a d y a p a t h e t i c c i t i z e n r y . Those two steps are o c c u r r i n g now. The technology of f i r s t -s t r i k e weapons i s proceeding q u i c k l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . At the same time, a propaganda war a g a i n s t "the S o v i e t t h r e a t , " j u s t i f y i n g our f i r s t - s t r i k e m i s s i l e s , i s being g i v e n very l i t t l e r e b u t t a l . Once the f i r s t - s t r i k e technology p r o t e c t e d by propaganda has reached a c e r t a i n momentum, n u c l e a r war w i l l be i n e v i t a b l e no matter what anyone does — i n the same sense t h a t people had no power to stop t h e i r being murdered once they were st a n d i n g naked i n gas chambers. Nuclear war, l i k e the e a r l i e r genocide, can only be stopped when the technology f o r i t i s being b u i l t . The b u i l d i n g of t h a t technology, and the l i e s s u s t a i n i n g i t , comprise the very a c t of n u c l e a r war. The m i s s i l e launch completes i t i n h o r r o r . ( 1 9 7 $ a : 2 ) 113 Douglass c a l l s f o r c i v i l d isobedience a t the T r i d e n t base i n s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g numbers i n order to o b s t r u c t c o n s t r u c -t i o n of the base, t o break through p u b l i c apathy and s i l e n c e , and to c h a l l e n g e . t h e c r i m i n a l assumptions upon which T r i d e n t i s b e i n g b u i l t , . He b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s necessary "to a c t on conscience and i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, and stop the weapons w i t h our bodies and s p i r i t s b efore the weapons stop a l l l i f e on e a r t h " (197$:Ch.5:9). I t i s h i s hope t h a t i f the c i v i l d i s -obedience a c t i o n s are f i r m l y grounded i n a s p i r i t of nonvio^. l e n c e , they w i l l l e a d to a moral c r i s i s a t the base and i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , and e v e n t u a l l y to a p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s . Douglass argues t h a t the Pentagon and a l l other v i o l e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s are based on an i l l u s i o n which denies the funda-mental u n i t y of a l l human beings. He i n s i s t s t h a t no one " b e l i e v e s i n " T r i d e n t . I t i s being b u i l t out of f e a r , p r o f i t , and p a s s i v e c o o p e r a t i o n . I t i s being b u i l t out of a sense of no a l t e r n a t i v e and a sense of s e p a r a t i o n from the u n i t y of a l l l i f e . He b e l i e v e s that;"everyone f e e l s at the deepest l e v e l something of our l i v i n g u n i t y . An experiment i n l i f e -f o r c e i s meant to touch t h a t l e v e l i n everyone" (1978:Ch.5:20). Encounters and c o n f l i c t s w i t h T r i d e n t ' s b u i l d e r s and defenders, i f c a r r i e d out with g e n t l e n e s s , h u m i l i t y and a l o v e which absorbs v i o l e n c e , should c o n t r i b u t e to "a r e a l i z a t i o n of one-ness i n the world." Douglass summarizes h i s v i s i o n of the s p i r i t and s t r a t e g y of the T r i d e n t campaign: "a l i f e - f o r c e of l o v i n g r e s i s t a n c e toward a m o r a l / p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s , " i n the f o l l o w i n g manner, 114 T r i d e n t w i t h i t s thousands of Hiroshimas i s the end of the world. The T r i d e n t campaign i s meant to r e - d i s c o v e r a new world, one world, the only world remaining. The campaign can be seen as both s p i r i t and body: Seeking f i r s t the kingdom of a deepening, widening community — i n and through t a c t i c s of n o n v i o l e n t d i r e c t a c t i o n . Renouncing any f i x a t i o n on the f r u i t s of a c t i o n — w h i l e t r y i n g to choose a c t i o n s which i n themselves c a r r y the seeds of a moral and p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s . Discovering',, : l i f e — through r e s i s t a n c e . (197$:Ch.5:20) Douglass seems ab l e to accomodate the paradox i n h i s approach of "renouncing any f i x a t i o n on the f r u i t s of a c t i o n " w h i l e at the same time " t r y i n g to choose a c t i o n s which i n <~ themselves c a r r y the seeds of a moral and p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s . " N e v e r t h e l e s s t h i s tension> between not u s i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s •< as the main c r i t e r i o n f o r choosing t a c t i c s , but, s t i l l t r y i n g to choose t a c t i c s which l e a d towards the g o a l s of the cam-paign, may g i v e r i s e t o i n c r e a s i n g / d i s c u s s i o n and . c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h i n the campaign. The T r i d e n t campaign c u r r e n t l y seems to encompass persons on both ends of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s - f a i t h continuum. Many p a r t i c i p a n t s do not b e l i e v e i n a cosmic s p i r i t u a l f o r c e of t r u t h and l o v e whose power can be evoked t o stop T r i d e n t . T h e i r approach to choosing t a c t i c s i s much more pragmatic and more c l e a r l y based on e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Some of these view 'nonviolence simply as a p o l i t i c a l t a c t i c which i s most e f f e c t i v e at t h i s stage of the campaign. I t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t i n the f u t u r e they might decide t h a t i t i s no longer the most e f f e c t i v e t a c t i c . On the other end of the continuum are a s m a l l number of C h r i s t i a n s , p r i m a r i l y from an e v a n g e l i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . They view prayer as t h e i r most e f f e c t i v e weapon a g a i n s t T r i d e n t , and e x p l a i n t h e i r p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n the T r i d e n t campaign i n terms of t r y i n g to d i s p l a y 115 a f a i t h f u l " w itness to the s i n f u l n e s s of T r i d e n t . They seem to h o l d l i t t l e hope t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l con-t r i b u t e t o stopping; T r i d e n t from .being deployed or used. Many others from a more ecumenical C h r i s t i a n o r i e n t a t i o n seem to r e c o g n i z e and accept as a c o n t i n u i n g problem the t e n s i o n between e f f e c t i v e n e s s and f a i t h i n choosing t a c t i c s . They seem to share, i n v a r y i n g degrees, Douglass' hope t h a t a l i v e d f a i t h w i l l stop the Bomb. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t w i t h L i g h t n i n g East, to West, Douglass may once a g a i n f i r e the h e a r t s and a r t i c u l a t e the i d e o l o g y of a segment of a l a r g e r s o c i a l movement d e d i c a t e d to r e s i s t i n g P r e p a r a t i o n s ; f o r war. A decade ago, Douglass' book The Non- v i o l e n t Cross was a source of i n s i g h t and i n s p i r a t i o n f o r a segment of those p r o t e s t i n g American involvement i n the Indochina war. Meconis (1977) suggested t h a t Douglass' w r i t i n g s a r t i c u l a t e d the i d e o l o g y of t h a t segment of the anti-war movement r e f e r r e d to by the media as the " C a t h o l i c L e f t . " I t seems t h a t w i t h i n the contemporary n u c l e a r disarm-ament movement, there i s d e v e l o p i n g a l o o s e l y o r g a n i z e d network of C h r i s t i a n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada which i n c o r p o r a t e s members of the e a r l i e r " C a t h o l i c L e f t " movement, as w e l l as other C h r i s t i a n s w i t h backgrounds r a n g i n g from e v a n g e l i c a l P r o t e s t a n t to Roman C a t h o l i c . Included'.in t h i s network are P h i l B e r r i g a n and L i z M c A l i s t e r ' s Jonah House community i n B a l t i m o r e , D a n i e l B e r r i g a n ' s community i n New York, the Sojourners community i n Washington, D.C. (which 116 produces Sojourners, a p u b l i c a t i o n from a r a d i c a l C h r i s t i a n p e r s p e c t i v e d i s t r i b u t e d w i d e l y throughout Canada and the U n i t e d States,;.,), the Bartamaeus Community i n C a l i f o r n i a , persons a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the T r i d e n t campaign at Bangor, and many.,others.. I n c r e a s i n g numbers of persons i n v o l v e d i n t h i s network are engaging i n c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e a c t i o n s at the Pentagon, and a t other f a c i l i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the 16 p r o d u c t i o n and deployment of n u c l e a r weapons. <It remains too be seen i f t h i s network w i l l continue to grow and become an i n c r e a s i n g l y v i s i b l e component of the l a r g e r n u c l e a r disarmament movement. 117 Chapter F i v e C o n c l u s i o n T h i s ethnography has d e s c r i b e d some of the ways i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the contemporary n u c l e a r disarmament movement a r t i c u l a t e , symbolize and a c t on t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t humanity i s on the b r i n k of n u c l e a r a n n i h i l a t i o n . I l l u s t r a t i o n s have been given of the manner i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s invoke the a u t h o r i t y of s c i e n t i f i c , m i l i t a r y and t e c h n i c a l " e x p e r t s " to s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r c l aims of the imminence of c a t a s t r o p h e . A l s o d e p i c t e d has been the p r a c t i c e of p o s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r humanity, the most b a s i c f o r m u l a t i o n s being: s u r v i v a l or a n n i h i l a t i o n , and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n or c a t a s t r o p h e . They m a i n t a i n t h a t humanity has an urgent choice t o make: to achieve n u c l e a r disarmament immediately or f a c e e x t i n c t i o n . They warn t h a t a n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t i s i n e v i t a b l e , u n l e s s c e r t a i n steps are taken to prevent i t , but t h a t i t never-t h e l e s s can be prevented i f s u f f i c i e n t numbers of persons a c t soon enough i n the r i g h t ways. W i t h i n the disarmament movement there i s d i v e r s i t y of o p i n i o n on q u e s t i o n s of how many people would be s u f f i c i -c i e n t t o prevent catastrophe, and what the r i g h t ways are f o r them to a c t . D i f f e r e n c e s i n choice of s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s d e r i v e i n p a r t from d i f f e r e n c e s i n a n a l y s i s of the u l t i m a t e causes of imminent catastrophe, and from d i f f e r e n c e s i n f o r m u l a t i o n s of the a l t e r n a t i v e s to c a t a s -trophe . 11$ In much of t h i s t h e s i s I have d e s c r i b e d those f o r whom "nonviolence" i s a moral or s p i r i t u a l commitment. T h i s con-d i t i o n s t h e i r c h o ice of s t r a t e g y and t a c t i c s . They view n u c l e a r weapons as a l o g i c a l consequence of the i n d i v i d u a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l v i o l e n c e which they c o n s i d e r endemic t o the p r e v a i l i n g moral, p o l i t i c a l and economic order. An e s s e n t i a l t h r u s t of t h e i r e f f o r t s -to "avertscatastrophe i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n on the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l l e v e l . They are endeavouring t o prevent the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the e x i s t i n g world by t r a n s f o r m i n g i t and c r e a t i n g a new and b e t t e r one. The most fundamental value they hope t o be manifested i n the p r a c t i c e s of transformed i n d i v i d u a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i s t h a t a l l human beings are equal members of one human f a m i l y , and deserve t o be t r e a t e d w i t h l o v e and r e s p e c t . B i b l i c a l m i l l e n n i a l and a p o c a l y p t i c imagery, which per-vades the Western c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , i s employed by both C h r i s t i a n s and n o n - C h r i s t i a n s i n t h e i r attempts t o d e p i c t the a l t e r n a t i v e s s . b f v t h e c a t a c l y s m i c d e s t r u c t i o n of human c i v i l i z a t i o n , or the emergence of a new age, a new world order based upon the r e c o g n i t i o n of the brotherhood and s i s t e r h o o d of humanity. C l o s e l y examined has been one f o r m u l a t i o n of the choice before humanity, which e x p l i c i t l y employs t h i s s o r t of b i b l i c a l imagery. The choice of "kingdom or h o l o c a u s t , " as a r t i c u l a t e d by Jim Douglass, encapsulates an approach t o n u c l e a r disarmament which i n c o r -porates elements of C h r i s t i a n i t y a l o n g w i t h Gandhian non-v i o l e n c e i n i t s s t r a t e g y f o r s o c i a l change, and f o r t r a n s -f o r m a t i o n on an i n d i v i d u a l and g l o b a l l e v e l . 119 Two events have been d e s c r i b e d i n which p a r t i c i p a n t s demonstrated t h e i r l a c k of support f o r governmental, i n d u s -t r i a l and m i l i t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s engaged i n p r a c t i c e s which they b e l i e v e w i l l r e s u l t i n the v i c t i m i z a t i o n of human beings on an unprecedented s c a l e . In speeches, songs, group drama-t i z a t i o n , and c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e , p a r t i c i p a n t s expressed both t h e i r commitment t o the p r e s e r v a t i o n of human l i f e , and the withdrawal of t h e i r - consent t o i n s t i t u t i o n s which are p r e p a r i n g f o r n u c l e a r war. I m p l i c i t i n o r g a n i z i n g these events seemed t o be the assumption t h a t human beings can e x e r c i s e or invoke the power t o prevent g l o b a l c a tastrophe, by c o l l e c t i v e l y withdrawing t h e i r consent to c e r t a i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s which they b e l i e v e w i l l , ' i f continued, r e s u l t i n a n u c l e a r d i s a s t e r . \ 120 Before s e t t i n g a s i d e t h i s p i e c e of work, I f e e l I must go back t o the beginning, back t o F e r l i n g h e t t i ' s verse .-from "White on White" which i n t r o d u c e d t h i s ethnography: And the t r a i n the t r a i n made of n o t h i n g but boxcars jammed w i t h t h r e e (now s i x ) b i l l i o n people s t i l l stands i n the s t a t i o n t r e m b l i n g . T h i s simple verse evokes images of holo c a u s t which emerged from the l a s t world war, which haunt the minds and t r o u b l e the h e a r t s of many persons i n the world today. Somehow F e r l i n g h e t t i renders c o n c e i v a b l e and r e a l a tragedy whose enormity and e v i l a re, i n the mundane r e a l i t y of everyday l i f e , too overwhelming t o even contemplate, l e t alone b e l i e v e . We a l l know about and are sickened by the e v i l o f Auschwitz and the other Nazi e x t e r m i n a t i o n camps. No need t o d e s c r i b e Auschwitz, the two "death camps about t h r e e m i l e s a p a r t , the guard towers, the hi g h barbwire fences charged w i t h thousands of v o l t s , the ba r r a c k s , the gas chambers, the fur n a c e s burning day and n i g h t . The e v i l - s m e l l i n g smoke. The g l a r e i n the n i g h t sky v i s i b l e f o r m i l e s . The ramp where the l o n g f r e i g h t t r a i n s a r r i v e d , the " t r a n s p o r t s " jammed w i t h p r i s o n e r s , men, women, c h i l d r e n , from a l l p a r t s of Europe. (Merton, 1971:152) We know t h a t t h i s process of e x t e r m i n a t i o n r e q u i r e d the ac-t i v e c o o p e r a t i o n and p a s s i v e acceptance of many, many people, and t h a t few i f any of these were insane, were d i a b o l i c a l monsters. Indeed the people who b u i l t the camps, who ran the camps, and more e s p e c i a l l y , the people who knew the camps e x i s t e d and remained s i l e n t — these people were probably not very d i f f e r e n t from o u r s e l v e s , not more 'or l e s s "sane" than o u r s e l v e s , not more or l e s s " e v i l " than o u r s e l v e s . 121 The awful l e s s o n we have been taught from Auschwitz and the Naz i program of e x t e r m i n a t i o n i s the c a p a c i t y of o r d i n a r y humane beings t o engage i n , r a t i o n a l i z e and accept, a c t s of unspeakable c r u e l t y , e s p e c i a l l y when these are s a n c t i o n e d by a u t h o r i t y . We know t h a t " g i v e n the r i g h t s i t u a t i o n and another H i t l e r , p l a c e s l i k e Auschwitz can be set up, put i n t o a c t i o n , kept running smoothly, w i t h thousands of people system-a t i c a l l y s t a r v e d , beaten, gassed, and whole c r e m a t o r i e s going f u l l blast'J (Merton, 1971:159). We a l l know about t h e 1 d e s t r u c t i o n o f the c i t y o f Hiroshima which o c c u r r e d when an atomic bomb was dropped on t h a t c i t y on August 6, 1945. We know t h a t t h i s bomb, s m a l l by today's standards, c r e a t e d a f i r e b a l l 1$,000 f e e t a c r o s s which had a temperature a t the centre of 100 m i l l i o n degrees. That 70,000 persons were k i l l e d i n s t a n t l y or w i t h i n a few hours. That thousands more d i e d i n the f o l l o w i n g months and years from atomic bomb d i s e a s e s . And t h a t c h i l d r e n born i n the f i r s t and second g e n e r a t i o n s a f t e r the bombing have severe g e n e t i c d e f e c t s and are dying a t a young age. from leukemia and cancer. We know t h a t t h e r e are s c a t t e r e d around the •. world n u c l e a r bombs e q u i v a l e n t t o more than one m i l l i o n Hiroshimas, enough t o k i l l everyone on e a r t h w i t h i n a few hours. We know, and y e t who. can b e l i e v e t h i s ? Who can b e l i e v e t h a t a l l of humanity might i n the near f u t u r e be v i c t i m s of h o l o c a u s t , as were those s y s t e m a t i c a l l y murdered a t Auschwitz? 122 Who can b e l i e v e t h a t m i l l i o n s , perhaps b i l l i o n s , of persons might s u f f e r the f a t e of the v i c t i m s of Hiroshima? I confess t h a t much of the time I do not b e l i e v e t h i s . But i n the moments t h a t I do, i n the moment t h a t these p o s s i b i l i t i e s become not merely words, but become deeply r e a l — i n those moments I f e e l i m p e l l e d t o step out of the comfortable r o u t i n e of my everyday l i f e t o climb a fence, to go t o j a i l , t o somehow c r y out " t h i s must not happen!" I suspect t h a t a key to understanding the n u c l e a r disarmament movement i s to understand the power of these recent experiences of holoc a u s t i n m o t i v a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o a c t to prevent another h o l o c a u s t , a f i n a l h o l o c a u s t . 123 FOOTNOTES Chapter One I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 . David Aberle ( 1 9 6 6 : 3 1 5 - 3 3 3 ) suggests an i n t e r e s t i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r s o c i a l movements, based upon reference to two dimensions: the dimension of the locus of change sought, and the dimension of the amount of change sought. For f u t u r e study, i t would be ..usefulst6 employ t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme i n exam-i n i n g the range of d i v e r s i t y w i t h i n the nuclear disarm-ament movement. 2 . See C o n l i n ( 1 9 6 8 ) and C h a t f i e l d ( 1 9 7 3 ) f o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the o r i g i n s of these groups. 3 . See Randall's ( 1 9 6 4 ) biography of Emily Greene Balch, who was one of the founders of the Women's I n t e r n a t i o n a l League f o r Peace and Freedom and a Nobel Peace P r i z e winner. Randall's study discusses the o r i g i n s of the League. 4 . Meconis's (1977) d o c t o r a l dissertatiomo'rithe " C a t h o l i c L e f t " w i l l be discussed i n Chapter Four of t h i s ethno-graphy. I t i s scheduled t o be published i n l a t e 1979 •by Seabury Press i n the United S t a t e s , under the t i t l e , With Clumsy Grace: The American C a t h o l i c L e f t , 1 9 6 1 - 1 9 7 5 . 5 . An a r t i c l e by Sidney Lens ( 1 9 7 $ ) l i s t e d i n the b i b l i o -graphy c o i n c i d e n t a l l y bears the same t i t l e . 6 . I quoted from L i g h t n i n g East to West, w i t h the Author's permission when i t was s t i l l i n the form of an unpub-l i s h e d manuscript. Page references r e f e r to t h i s manu-s c r i p t . I t has r e c e n t l y been accepted f o r p u b l i c a t i o n by Sunburst of P o r t l a n d , Oregon, and should be a v a i l a b l e i n 1980. 7 . This a r t i c l e by Geertz i s i n s i g h t f u l and a d e l i g h t t o read. For an i n t e r e s t i n g - d i s c u s s i o n of s i m i l a r i s s u e s , see E l v i Whittaker's ( 1 9 7 $ ) a r t i c l e , "The Ethnography of James Agee: The Moral and E x i s t e n t i a l A c c o u n t a b i l i t y of Knowledge." Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthro-pology 1 9 7 8 : 1 5 ( 4 ) $. Whittaker presented these ideas on d i s j u n c t u r e s of c o l l e c -t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data i n a paper read at the symposium of E t h i c a l Issues i n F i e l d Work: Observations and C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s from Medical Anthropology, at the Annual Meetings of the S o c i e t y f o r A p p l i e d Anthropology, P h i l a d e l p h i a , March 1 7 , 1 9 7 9 -124 9- My understanding of t h i s i n c i d e n t i s t h a t someone at the meeting h a l f - j o k i n g l y suggested t h a t they should place" ;a high government o f f i c i a l under c i t i z e n ' s a r r e s t and b r i n g him to t r i a l f o r war crimes i n Indochina. Someone e l s e commented t h a t the only person who they c o u l d get near to would be Henry K i s s i n g e r , because w i t h a l l h i s g i r l f r i e n d s he probably wouldn't have bodyguards around a l l the time. The ideaci f o r such an a c t i o n was q u i k k l y d i s m i s s e d because i t c l e a r l y would c o n t r a -d i c t the group's n o n v i o l e n t p r i n c i p l e s . On the b a s i s of a w r i t t e n account of the meeting made by one of the persons present, those a t t e n d i n g the meeting and o t h e r s were l a t e r charged w i t h c o n s p i r i n g to kidnap a h i g h government o f f i c i a l , and K i s s i n g e r ' s name was mentioned as the t a r g e t of such an attempt. These charges c a r r i e d the p o s s i b l e sent.ence of l i f e imprisonment. In the ensuing t r i a l , i t , obecame apparent t h a t the c o n s p i r a c y charges were f a b r i c a t e d , and they were a l l a c q u i t t e d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the a r r e s t s < ' a n d t r i a l s were a heavy blow to the movement. Chapter Two M i l l e n n i a l Dreams and A p o c a l y p t i c Nightmares 1. Anthony F.C. Wallace (1956:265) coined the term " r e v i t a l -i z a t i o n movement".to cover a wide range of phenomena, commonly r e f e r r e d t o by l a b e l s such as "reform movement," "uto p i a n community," " n a t i v i s t i c movement," "messianic movement," et c e t e r a . He d e f i n e d " r e v i t a l i z a t i o n movement" as a d e l i b e r a t e o r g a n i z e d conscious e f f o r t by members of a s o c i e t y t o c o n s t r u c t a more s a t i s f y i n g c u l t u r e . R e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s thus, from a c u l t u r a l standpoint, a s p e c i a l k i n d of c u l t u r e change phenomenon: the persons i n v o l v e d i n the process of r e v i t a l i z a t i o n must p e r c e i v e t h e i r c u l t u r e , or some major areas of i t , as a system (whether a c c u r a t e l y or n o t ) ; they must " f e e l t h a t t h i s c u l t u r a l system i s un-s a t i s f a c t o r y ; and they must innovate not merely d i s c r e t e items, but a new c u l t u r a l system, s p e c i f y i n g new r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l as, i n some cases, new t r a i t s . 2. Kenelm Burr i d g e uses the term " m i l l e n a r i a n movement" to cover a s i m i l a r l y wide range of c u l t u r e change phenomena, as Wallace proposed f o r h i s term " ' ' ^ d e v i t a l i z -a t i o n movement." Burri d g e (1971:13) suggested t h a t , 125 . . . m i l l e n a r i a n movements i n v o l v e the a d o p t i o n of new assumptions, a new redemptive process, a new p o l i t i c o - e c o n o m i c framework, a new mode of measuring the man, a new i n t e g r i t y , a new community: :>; i n s h o r t , a new man. A p r e c o n d i t i o n of t h i s regen-e r a t i o n i s a d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the c u r r e n t system. 3. The d e f i n i t i o n of " h o l o c a u s t " i n the American C o l l e g e D i c t i o n a r y i s "great or wholesale d e s t r u c t i o n of l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y by f i r e . " 4 . The f o l l o w i n g quote by Jung appeared i n the Canadian C o a l i t i o n f o r Nuclear R e s p o n s i b i l i t y n e w s l e t t e r (March, 1 9 7 9 , 3 ( 3 ) : 4 ) , under the t i t l e "In the Hands of Man." The d e v i l nowadays i s something q u i t e f r i g h t f u l ! I f you look a t our s i t u a t i o n , you j u s t cannot see where i t w i l l end. Things w i l l go on l i k e t h i s as i f by •1 •'. f o r c e . A l l the d i v i n e powers i n c r e a t i o n are g r a d u a l l y being p l a c e d i n man's hands. Through n u c l e a r f i s s i o n something tremendous has happened: tremendous power has been given t o man. When Oppenheimer saw the f i r s t t e s t of an atomic bomb, the words of the Bhagavad G i t a f l a s h e d i n t o h i s mind: " B r i g h t e r than a thousand suns." The f o r c e s t h a t h o l d the world t o g e t h e r have got i n t o the hands of man, so t h a t he even has the i d e a of making an a r t i f i c i a l sun. God's powers have passed i n t o our hands, our f a l l i b l e human hands. The conse-quences are i n c o n c e i v a b l e . The powers themselves are not .-r.otevil; . but i n the hands of man, they are an a p p a l l i n g danger — i n e v i l hands. Who says t h a t the e v i l i n the world we l i v e i n , t h a t i s r i g h t i n f r o n t of us, i s not r e a l ! E v i l i s t e r r i b l y r e a l , f o r each and every i n d i v i d u a l . 5 . For an i n - d e p t h examination of T r i d e n t ' s f i r s t - s t r i k e c a p a b i l i t y , see Robert A l d r i d g e ' s ( 1 9 7 $ ) The Counterforce  Syndrome, a v a i l a b l e from the T r a n s n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , 1901 Q S t r e e t N.W., Washington, D.C. 2 0 0 0 9 . 6 . Sidney Lens's (1977) book The Day Before Doomsday docu-ments many of these i n c i d e n t s . Lens i s c o n s i d e r e d an expert by many i n the movement. He i s f r e q u e n t l y f e a t u r e d as a guest speaker a t conferences and p u b l i c l e c t u r e s throughout Nb:rth America, and h i s w r i t i n g s are o f t e n recommended. 7 . The l y r i c s to t h i s song a r e : "And everyone neath t h e i r v i n e and f i g t r e e , s h a l l l i v e i n peace and u n a f r a i d . / And i n t o ploughshares beat t h e i r swords, n a t i o n s s h a l l make war no more." 126 $. "The L a s t S l i d e Show" was produced f o r the M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r S u r v i v a l by Packard Manse i n 1977- S l i d e #12$ shows the I s a i a h W a l l monument a c r o s s the s t r e e t from the Uni t e d Nations complex i n New York C i t y . The monument reads, "They s h a l l beat t h e i r swords i n t o ploughshares. And t h e i r spears i n t o pruning hooks. Nation s h a l l not l i f t up sword a g a i n s t n a t i o n . N e i t h e r s h a l l they l e a r n war any more." The s l i d e show was bought by the C o a l i t i o n f o r World Disarmament i n Vancouver on the recommendation of P r o j e c t Ploughshares, and i S shown f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes. 9 . Clouse (1977) and Cohn ( 1 9 6 2 ) mention some examples. Chapter Three M o b i l i z i n g For S u r v i v a l 1 . I t was the B.C. Voice of Women who f i r s t a l e r t e d the p u b l i c i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o the dangers of T r i d e n t , and r a i s e d the i s s u e i n the B . C . • L e g i s l a t u r e and i n the Canadiari^Parliament. For an account of the e a r l y h i s t o r y of the T r i d e n t campaign, see R o b e r t ' A l d r i d g e ' s a r t i c l e i n The Nation (February 1 , 1 9 7 5 ) . 2 . Very o c c a s i o n a l l y , a few words i n the taped speeches were m u f f l e d , so I was compelled t o make an i n t e l l i g e n t guess as t o what was being s a i d . I f e e l f a i r l y c o n f i d e n t t h a t the speaker's intended meaning has not been v i o l a t e d . 3 . In Vancouver i n the f a l l o f 1 9 7 7 , more than a dozen groups agreed t o form an ad hoc c o a l i t i o n t o focus p u b l i c atten-r:--t i o n on the S p e c i a l S e s s i o n , and to put pressure on the Canadian government. A f t e r the f i r s t S p e c i a l S e s s i o n i n May 1 9 7 $ , the ad hoc c o a l i t i o n c o n s t i t u t e d i t s e l f as a more permanent o r g a n i z a t i o n , c a l l e d the C o a l i t i o n f o r World Disarmament. I t s a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the Second S p e c i a l S e s s i o n on Disarmament scheduled f o r 1 9 $ 2 . 4. I t was suspected t h a t government i n t e l l i g e n c e agencies, such as the F.B.I, or the C.I.A. might p l a n t an under-cover agent who, posing as a demonstrator, would t r y to provoke v i o l e n c e between guards and demonstrators, i n order t o d i s r u p t the demonstration and d i s c r e d i t the p e a c e f u l image of the demonstrators. 5 . I t was rumoured t h a t the Marines i n h i g h s e c u r i t y areas guarding n u c l e a r weapons had orders $.0 shoot t o k i l l u n a uthorized i n t r u d e r s . 6 . For a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n concerning "the geography of news," as i t r e l a t e s t o g a t h e r i n g and producing news 127 f o r American network t e l e v i s i o n , see Edward E p s t e i n ' s ( 1 9 7 4 ) "News from Nowhere." 7 - c For a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of "nonviolence" as a s t r a t e g y f o r s o c i a l change and disarmament, see Pickus and Woito's ( 1 9 7 0 ) annotated b i b l i o g r a p h y , pp. 148 - 1 6 4 ; George Lakey's ( 1 9 7 2 ) "Manifesto f o r a Nonviolent R e v o l u t i o n " ; and p u b l i c a t i o n s by the Movement f o r a New S o c i e t y ( a v a i l a b l e from: M.N.S., Network S e r v i c e C o l l e c t i v e , 4722 Baltimore Ave., P h i l a d e l p h i a , PA 1 9 1 4 3 ) . 8?, The " d i e - i n " was re-enacted l a t e r t h a t summer i n demon-s t r a t i o n s i n Vancouver and i n jjapan on August 6 , 1 9 7 8 . I t has become a common symbolic a c t i o n i n demonstrations f o r n u c l e a r disarmament throughout North America. 9 . Thomas Merton ( 1 9 7 1 : 1 6 0 - 6 2 ) , i n h i s essay "A Devout M e d i t a t i o n i n Memory of A d o l f Eichmann," t u r n s t h i s image on i t s head and suggests t h a t i t i s the very s a n i t y of the a r c h i t e c t s o f the arms race which i s to be f e a r e d . E x c e r p t s o f t h i s essay were d i s t r i b u t e d to workers at the T r i d e n t base a t Bangor by p a r t i c i p a n t s at Ground Zero, who l e a f l e t the base every week as base personnel a r r i v e f o r work. In t h i s essay Merton s t a t e s , One o f the most d i s t u r b i n g f a c t s t h a t came out i n the Eichmann t r i a l was th a t a p s y c h i a t r i s t examined him and pronounced him p e r f e c t l y sane. I do not doubt i t a t a l l , and t h a t i s p r e c i s e l y why I f i n d i t d i s t u r b i n g . . . . . . We r e l y on the sane people o f the world to pre -serve i t from barbarism, madness, d e s t r u c t i o n . And now i t begins to dawn on us th a t i t i s p r e c i s e l y the sane ones who are the most dangerous. I t i s the sane ones, the well-adapted ones, who can without qualms and without nausea aim the m i s s i l e s and press the buttons t h a t w i l l i n i t i a t e the great f e s t i v a l o f d e s t r u c t i o n t h a t they, the sane ones, have prepared. What makes us so- sure, a f t e r a l l , t h a t the danger comes from a p s y c h o t i c g e t t i n g i n t o a p o s i t i o n t o f i r e the f i r s t shot i n a n u c l e a r war? P s y c h o t i c s w i l l be suspect. The sane ones w i l l keep them f a r from the button. No one suspects the sane, and the sane ones w i l l have p e r f e c t l y good reasons, l o g i c a l , w e l l - a d j u s t e d reasons, f o r f i r i n g the shot. They w i l l be obeying sane orders t h a t have come sanely down the chai n of command. And because o f t h e i r s a n i t y they w i l l have no qualms a t a l l . When the m i s s i l e s take o f f , then, i t w i l l be no mistake. . . . Those who have i n v e n t e d and developed atomic bombs, thermonuclear bombs, m i s s i l e s ; who have planned the s t r a t e g y of the next war; who have e v a l u a t e d the v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f u s i n g b a c t e r i a l and chemical 12$ agents: these are not the crazy people, they are the sane people. The ones who c o o l i y estimate how many m i l l i o n s of v i c t i m s can be c o n s i d e r e d expendable i n a n u c l e a r war, I presume they do a l l r i g h t w i t h the Rorschach i n k b l o t s too. On the other hand, you w i l l probably f i n d t h a t the p a c i f i s t s and the ban-the-bomb people are, q u i t e s e r i o u s l y , j u s t as we read i n Time, a l i t t l e c r a z y . . . . perhaps we must say t h a t i n a s o c i e t y l i k e ours the worst i n s a n i t y i s t o be t o t a l l y without a n x i e t y , t o t a l l y "sane." -.3.03. -ffihe.ihterest.ingfd§finitidn of " s a n i t y " i s t h a t proposed, by D a n i e l B e r r i g a n at a Ground Zero workshop i n August 1 9 7 9 « He suggested t h a t " s a n i t y " c o u l d be d e f i n e d as " c o n s i s t e n t , compassionate a c t i v i t y on b e h a l f o f l i f e . " 1 0 . The l o c a t i o n of Ground Zero i s s i g n i f i c a n t because the l a n d shares 300 f e e t o f common fence w i t h the T r i d e n t base. The p i e c e of pr o p e r t y was purchased with; dona-t i o n s i n December of 1977 by a c o l l e c t i v e of people, and i s i n c o r p o r a t e d as a l a n d t r u s t . I t s s t a t e d purposes i n Ground Zero n e w s l e t t e r V o l . l " . No.l (February 1979) a r e : 1 . to e s t a b l i s h a Center f o r Nonviolent A c t i o n which seeks the goal o f a world f r e e from n u c l e a r d e s t r u c -t i o n and un j u s t d i v i s i o n s i n humanity; 2 . to h o l d the l a n d on which the Center i s l o c a t e d i n an env i r o n m e n t a l l y s e n s i t i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e manner; 3 . to develop at the Center f o r No n v i o l e n t A c t i o n s p e c i f i c means toward a n u c l e a r - f r e e w o r l d based on the p r i n c i p l e o f t r u t h i n thought, word and a c t i o n , the p r i n c i p l e of u n i t y of a l l beings, and the p r i n c i p l e of t r a n s f o r m i n g l o v e i n r e s i s t a n c e to war and i n j u s t i c e ; 4- to explore a t the Center s t r a t e g i e s and t a c t i c s f o r n o n v i o l e n t campaigns i n c o r p o r a t i n g the end-means v i s i o n ; 5. to use the Center as a t r a i n i n g s i t e f o r p a r t i -c i p a n t s i n n o n v i o l e n t a c t i o n ; 6. to encourage and f o s t e r at the Center a c o n t i n u a l r e f l e c t i o n on, and deepening i n , nonviolence as a way of l i f e . 1 1 . The n u c l e a r power a c c i d e n t at the Three M i l e I s l a n d f a c i l -i t y i n H a r r i s b u r g , Pennsylvania i n the s p r i n g o f 1 9 7 9 , c o i n c i d i n g w i t h the r e l e a s e o f "The China Syndrome" (a f e a t u r e l e n g t h movie s t a r r i n g Jane Fonda which p o r t r a y s the dangers of n u c l e a r power), may have s u b s t a n t i a l l y reduced p u b l i c confidence i n the n u c l e a r power i n d u s t r y and thereby made an " a n t i - n u c l e a r power" p o s i t i o n l e s s c o n t r o v e r s i a l t ' f o r disarmament groups to adopt. 129 1 2 . In the 1979 War R e s i s t e r s League Peace Calendar, D e l l i n g e r i s d e s c r i b e d as a " m i l i t a n t n o n v i o l e n t o r g a n i z e r who served two p r i s o n terms f o r World War I I d r a f t r e s i s t a n c e ; an o r g a n i z e r of the M o b i l i z a t i o n f o r S u r v i v a l c o a l i t i o n c u r r e n t l y , and of the antiwar c o a l i t i o n s o f the Vietnam p e r i o d . " 1 3 - For examples of how these symbols are used to express t h i s concept, see the thr e e t r i a l statements found i n the appendix o f t h i s t h e s i s . 14* One wonders why the bombing of Hiroshima r e c e i v e s more a t t e n t i o n and evokes more o f an emotional response than does the World War I I bombing o f London, Dresden or Tokyo. A l l are examples of the human c a p a c i t y or i n c l i n -a t i o n t o i n f l i c t mass death and d e s t r u c t i o n upon other humans. However L i f t o n suggests t h a t t h e r e i s something more i n v o l v e d w i t h Hiroshima (and her n e g l e c t e d h i s t o r i c a l s i s t e r , Nagasaki), and th a t i s "a dimension of t o t a l i t y , a sense of u l t i m a t e a n n i h i l a t i o n — of c i t i e s , n a t i o n s , the world" ( 1 9 6 7 : 1 3 ) . T h i s sense of the p o s s i b i l i t y of u l t i m a t e a n n i h i l a t i o n was not p o s s i b l e w i t h the blo c k b u s t e r s or the f i r e bombs which destroyed other c i t i e s . The development o f the atomic bomb has brought w i t h i t new dimensions of thought about l i f e and death. I t has shaken confidence i n the i m m o r t a l i t y of the human s p e c i e s , and i n i n d i v i d u a l i m m o r t a l i t y through the c o n t i n u i t y of one's c h i l d r e n , one's s o c i e t y , one's s p e c i e s . 1 £ . For the complete t r i a l statement, t u r n to the appendix i n t h i s t h e s i s : W i l l i a m S t a l d e r , "Statement made i n ] Court." March 2 9 , 1 9 7 9 . Chapter Four The Choice: Kingdom or Holocaust 1 . Geertz ( 1 9 7 3 : 8 9 ) d e f i n e s world view as "the p i c t u r e they have o f the way t h i n g s i n sheer a c t u a l i t y are, t h e i r most comprehensive i d e a s of order." S i r e ( 1 9 7 6 : 1 7 ) s t a t e s , "A world view i s a set of presuppos-i t i o n s (or assumptions) which we h o l d ( c o n s c i o u s l y or sub c o n s c i o u s l y ) about the make-up of our world." He suggests t h a t a world view i n c l u d e s b a s i c answers t o each of the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : What i s prime r e a l i t y , t h a t i s , the r e a l l y r e a l ? Who i s man? What happens-at death? What i s the b a s i s o f m o r a l i t y ? What i s the meaning of human h i s t o r y ? Who or what ( i f anything) i s i n charge o f t h i s world? 1 3 0 2 . Burridge ( 1 9 7 1 : 1 2 ) suggests t h a t other terms synonymous w i t h prophet a r e : ' l e a d e r , prime mover, s t a r or c e n t r a l p e r s o n a l i t y . ' 3 . For a d i s c u s s i o n of .the language of p r o p h e t i c a l t e r n a -t i v i s m , see the l a t t e r p a r t of Chapter Two i n t h i s t h e s i s . 4 . Douglass k i n d l y granted me p e r m i s s i o n to quoterfrom L i g h t n i n g East to West when i t was s t i l l i n the form of anuunpublished manuscript. Page r e f e r e n c e s i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r to the manuscript. I t has j u s t r e c e n t l y been accepted f o r p u b l i c a t i o n by Sunburst of P o r t l a n d , Oregon, and should be : a v a i l a b l e i n 1 9 $ 0 . 5 . T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n has been accepted f o r p u b l i c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s by Seabury, and w i l l be p u b l i s h e d under the t i t l e : With Clumsy Grace: The American  C a t h o l i c L e f t , 1 9 6 1 - 1 9 7 5 -Meconis became'.involved w i t h the C a t h o l i c L e f t i n 1 9 6 $ a f t e r h e a r i n g a t a l k by F r . D a n i e l B e r r i g a n at S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y . H i s most i n t e n s e involvement began i n 1 9 7 1 v He s t a t e s as one of h i s reasons f o r w r i t i n g about the C a t h o l i c L e f t : a d e s i r e to preserve the h i s t o r y of the C a t h o l i c L e f t , and to present i t s f a i l i n g s so t h a t o t h e r s may a v o i d them i n the f u t u r e . Meconis c u r r e n t l y l i v e s i n S e a t t l e , Washington, and works as the d i r e c t o r of the S e a t t l e Ecumenical R e l i g i o u s A c t i o n C o u n c i l . On May 2 2 , 1 9 7 $ , he was a r r e s t e d f o r t r e s p a s s i n g on the T r i d e n t base at Bangor, Washington, w h i l e p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n which i s d e s c r i b e d i n the t h i r d chapter o f t h i s t h e s i s . 6 . Meconis e x p l a i n s t h a t the C o u n c i l ' s aims were reform and renewal of the Church, and i t s message was a new " s o c i a l g o s p e l , " u r g i n g C a t h o l i c s to become more i n v o l v e d " i n the world" on b e h a l f of t h e i r f e l l o w humans. Pope John's 1 9 6 3 e n c y c l i c a l Pacem i n T e r r i s c a l l e d Roman C a t h o l i c s to work f o r s o c i a l j u s t i c e and peace. Some C a t h o l i c s i n t e r p r e t e d two statements i n the e n c y c l i c a l as a c a l l to p a c i f i s m and c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e . Many American C a t h o l i c s responded to the e n c y c l i c a l by i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r involvement i n l i b e r a l programs of s o c i a l reform i n t r o -duced by P r e s i d e n t Kennedy, and i n " s o c i a l j u s t i c e " i s s u e s , e s p e c i a l l y the c i v i l r i g h t s movement. Witness-i n g f i r s t - h a n d the extent of poverty and r a c i s m i n t h e i r own country was f r e q u e n t l y a shocking and d i s i l l u s i o n i n g e xperience. F o l l o w i n g Pope John's death, t h i s d i s i l l u -sionment broadened to i n c l u d e the Church i t s e l f , when C a t h o l i c l i b e r a l s were confronted by s t r o n g conserva-t i v e r e a c t i o n to t h e i r involvement i n " s o c i a l j u s t i c e " and "peace" i s s u e s . 131 7 . Meconis e x p l a i n e d t h a t h i s l i s t o f 232 core members and 60 a c t i o n s was completed s o l e l y from p u b l i c documents and i s t h e r e f o r e incomplete. He d i d t h i s so as not t o pla c e anyone i n l e g a l jeopardy. He s t a t e s ^ t h a t , • The c r i t e r i o n f o r f u l l or 'core membership' employed here was the movement's own, namely, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some form of ' s e r i o u s ' (e.g. f e l o n i o u s ) nonvio-l e n t direct--. ' a c t i o n ' to p r o t e s t the war i n Indo-c h i n a . In some i n s t a n c e s , such as the matter of r e f u s i n g to t e s t i f y b efore grand j u r i e s , an equiva-^ l e n t r i s k was cons i d e r e d s u f f i c i e n t . ( 1 9 7 7 : 3 7 5 ) 8. D a n i e l B e r r i g a n transformed the t r a n s c r i p t o f one such t r i a l i n t o the s c r i p t f o r a p l a y and f e a t u r e l e n g t h movie t i t l e d The T r i a l of the C a t o n s v i l l e Nine,which were shown widely, i n North America i n the e a r l y 1970's. 9 . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l change t o which Meconis i s r e f e r r i n g i s the l i b e r a l i z a t i o n which o c c u r r e d under Pope John XXXII and the Second V a t i c a n C o u n c i l . 1 0 . Many e a r l y members of the C a t h o l i c L e f t were w e l l acquainted w i t h the l i b e r a l and r a d i c a l thought o f French C a t h o l i c i s m as a r e s u l t of a t t e n d i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r education run by R e l i g i o u s Orders headquartered i n Europe. A l s o the American C a t h o l i c publication^. Common-weal had f o r decades f e a t u r e d w r i t e r s o f the l i b e r a l s c h o o l , w h i l e the C a t h o l i c Worker had f e a t u r e d the r a d i c a l s c h o o l . Meconis c l a r i f i e s t h a t , By ' l i b e r a l ' i s meant t h a t s c h o o l of French C a t h o l i c theology t h a t c a l l e d f o r d i a l o g u e and involvement w i t h "[>. "the world," r a t h e r than condemnation and withdrawal, as the way to s a l v a t i o n . T h i s movement was e x e m p l i f i e d by such French t h e o l o g i a n s as C a r d i n a l Suhard, T e i l h a r d de Chardin, Henri P e r r i n , Emmanuel Mournier and Yves Congar. I t s concrete form of ex p r e s s i o n was the p r i e s t - w o r k e r movement of the F o r t i e s and e a r l y F i f t i e s i n France. By ' r a d i c a l ' i s meant t h a t s t r a i n i n French C a t h o l i c i s m t h a t embracedppaclfi.sm or nonviolence a l o n g w i t h some form o f communitarian l i f e s t y l e . Peter Maurin, co-founder of the C a t h o l i c Worker Movement, which i n f l u e n c e d so many e a r l y mem-bers o f the C a t h o l i c L e f t , and Pere Regamey, a Dominican pri#.st and f o l l o w e r of Gandhi, were among the most i n f l u e n t i a l advocates of t h i s r a d i c a l i s m . ( 1 9 7 7 : 2 7 4 ) -1 1 . 'The Community' foroCreaitivefNohvioIeheebwasDfounded; by EtieGuinana'in-v-WashingtM^rrD*0?. MeeonisewritesC, ,, .•""•'-( J *>Whiles i:t^s^Imemteer.s'-..also",l'rehgaged i n c o n f r o n t a t i o n s with'the government," I n c l u d i n g the dumping o f con-c r e t e to block an entrance to the Pentagon, CCNV put more emphasis on o f f e r i n g a v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s to the poor of Washington's ghettos, o p e r a t i n g a , 132 soup k i t c h e n , f r e e h e a l t h c l i n i c , p r e - t r i a l and halfway houses f o r c o n v i c t s , as w e l l as p u b l i s h i n g a q u a r t e r l y magazine on " C a t h o l i c p a c i f i s m " c a l l e d G a m a l i e l . (Meconis, 1 9 7 7 : 2 6 3 ) ' By 1 9 7 5 , the community numbered' f o r t y f u l l - t i m e members l i v i n g i n e i g h t r e s i d e n c e s . 1 2 . Mary Kaufman has t e s t i f i e d on b e h a l f of defendants i n s e v e r a l t r i a l s of T r i d e n t p r o t e s t e r s . Most r e c e n t l y , on August 6 , 1 9 7 9 , she t e s t i f i e d i n S e a t t l e at the t r i a l of ten Canadian p r o t e s t e r s . She argued t h a t T r i d e n t was i l l e g a l under i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, and that the defendants were j u s t i f i e d i n brea k i n g the law i n order t o a v o i d the g r e a t e r harm o f a n u c l e a r war. In an unprecedented statement Judge Takasugi commended the defendants f o r t h e i r commitment to save human l i f e , and t o l d them not t o be discouraged by the v e r d i c t . He s a i d t h a t he was " f r u s t r a t e d " and "uncomfortable" t h a t he was not f r e e t o r u l e on the l a r g e r i s s u e s surrounding the case. He s a i d he had no choice but to f i n d the defendants g u i l t y o f t r e s p a s s , and gave them a suspended j a i l sentence, w i t h one year p r o b a t i o n on c o n d i t i o n o f the performance o f 100 hours of community s e r v i c e work. 1 3 « For Jung's most complete statement on " s y n c h r o n i c i t y , " Douglass d i r e c t s the reader t o the essay, " S y n c h r o n i c i t y : An A c a u s a l Connecting P r i n c i p l e , " i n The S t r u c t u r e and  Dynamics o f the Psyche, V o l . £ of The C o l l e c t e d Works ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s : 1 9 6 9 ) , pp. 4 1 7 - 5 3 1 . 1 4 . For a d i s c u s s i o n o f some of the d i f f e r e n t C h r i s t i a n t h e o r i e s about the Millennium, see Robert G. Clouse's (1977); TherMeaningr.of J-t he''Millennium: Four Views. 1 5 . For example, see the t r i a l statements i n the appendix of t h i s t h e s i s . 1 6 . I would suggest t h a t the t r i a l statements found i n the appendix were made by persons who cou l d be con s i d e r e d p a r t of t h i s i n f o r m a l network. 133 REFERENCES CITED A b e r l e , David F. 1966 "A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S o c i a l Movements." Pp. 3 1 5 - 3 3 i n D.F. A b e r l e , The Peyote R e l i g i o n Among the Navajo. Chicago: A l d i n e A l d r i d g e , Robert 1975 "Puget Sound: M i s s i l e T a r g e t . " The Nation February 1 , 1975 197$ The Counterforce Syndrome. Washington: The Trans-n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e 197$a " F i r s t S t r i k e : The Pentagon's Secret S t r a t e g y . " Promoting Enduring Peace No. 329 ( r e p r i n t e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n from The P r o g r e s s i v e ) A l l e n , R i c h a r d 1973 The S o c i a l P a s s i o n : R e l i g i o n and S o c i a l Reform i n Canada 1914 - 1 9 2 $ . 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Ph.D d i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Merton, Thomas 1 9 7 1 "Auschwitz: A Family Camp." Pp. 1 5 0 - 5 9 i n Thomas Merton On Peace. New York: The M c C a l l P u b l i s h i n g Company 1 9 7 1 "A Devout M e d i t a t i o n i n Memory of A d o l f Eichmann." Pp. 1 6 0 - 6 2 i n Thomas Merton On Peace. New York: The M c C a l l P u b l i s h i n g Company 136 M o f f a t t , Gary 1969 H i s t o r y of the Canadian•Peace Movement U n t i l 1 9 6 9 . St. C a t h e r i n e ' s : Grape Vine Press Molotch, Harvey and M a r i l y n L e s t e r 1974 " A c c i d e n t s , Scandals, and Routines: Resources f o r in s u r g e n t methodology." Pp. 5 3 - 6 5 i n Gaye Tuchman (ed.), The TV E s t a b l i s h m e n t : Programming f o r Power and P r o f i t . Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Olesen, V i r g i n i a L. and E l v i ¥. 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The Hague: Martinus N i j h o f f S i r e , James W. 1976 The Universe Next Door: A B a s i c World View C a t a l o g . Downers Grove: I n t e r v a r s i t y Press Sturmanis, K a r l 1978 "Candles A g a i n s t the Nuclear Darkness." The Vancouver Sun May 3 0 , 1978 Page A6 Thomson, Watson 1966 Turning Into Tomorrow. New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y 137 Wallace, Anthony F.C. 1956 " R e v i t a l i z a t i o n Movements." American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 58(2): 264-81 War R e s i s t e r s League 1979 Peace Calendar. Volume 24 Weber, Max 1973 " R e l i g i o u s R e j e c t i o n s of the World and T h e i r Directions." Pp. 323-58 i n H.H. Gerth and C.W. M i l l s ( e d s . ) , From Max Weber: Essays i n S o c i o l o g y . New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press Whittaker, E l v i 1978 "The Ethnography of James Agee: The Moral and E x i s t e n t i a l A c c o u n t a b i l i t y of Knowledge." Canadian Review of S o c i o l o g y and Anthropology 15(4) forthcoming 1979 "The S o c i a l C o n s t r u c t i o n of E t h i c a l I s s u e s : Troubles And E p i s t e m o l o g i c a l D i s j u n c t u r e s . " Paper read a t the symposium of E t h i c a l Issues i n F i e l d Work: Obser-v a t i o n s and C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s from M e d i c a l Anthro-pology, a t the Annual Meetings o f the S o c i e t y f o r A p p l i e d Anthropology, P h i l a d e l p h i a , Vi, March 17, 1979 W i t t n e r , Lawrence S. 1969 Rebels Again s t War: The American Peace Movement 1941 - I960. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press 1 3 8 Appendix T r i a l Statements The f o l l o w i n g t h r e e t r i a l statements were made by persons charged w i t h t r e s p a s s i n g on the T r i d e n t submarine base a t Bangor, Washington. In i l l e g a l l y e n t e r i n g the n a v a l f a c i l i t y , they broke Stfede-ral t r e s p a s s s t a t u t e ( T i t l e 1 8 , U.S. Code, S e c t i o n 1 3 8 2 ) and were l i a b l e f o r a sentence of up to s i x months i n j a i l and/or a f i n e of $500. A l l t h r e e r e f e r r e d t o t h e i r t r e s p a s s a c t i o n as an a c t i o n of c i v i l d i s o b e d i e n c e . The t h r e e r e p r e s e n t e d themselves at. t h e i r t r i a l s . The f i r s t two, Boerger and Leonard, t r e s p a s s e d t o g e t h e r on December 2 8 , 1 9 7 8 . They chose t h a t date because of i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the C h r i s t i a n l i t u r g i c a l c a l e n d a r . I t i s remembered as the day t h a t Herod ordered the s l a u g h t e r of a l l male c h i l d r e n under the age of two i n Bethlehem. (The Jonah House Community i n Baltimore o f t e n chooses t h i s day f o r an a c t i o n of c i v i l d isobedience at the Pentagon.) In the l e a f -l e t e x p l a i n i n g t h e i r c i v i l d isobedience a c t i o n t o base person-n e l , Boerger and Leonard i n c l u d e d a poem w r i t t e n by D a n i e l B e r r i g a n t o mourn the "massacre of tne h o l y i n n o c e n t s , " r1-e n t i t l e d "May The Future Be B e t t e r Because The Present I s R e s i s t e d . " They were sentenced t o a 4 5 day suspended j a i l sentence w i t h t h r e e years p r o b a t i o n . The t h i r d t r i a l statement was made by W i l l i a m S t a l d e r , who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the l a r g e c i v i l d i s obedience a c t i o n on May 2 2 , 1 9 7 8 d e s c r i b e d i n the t h i r d chapter of t h i s t h e s i s . L i k e the others who were found g u i l t y f o r t h a t a c t i o n , S t a l d e r 1 3 9 r e c e i v e d a 4 5 day suspended j a i l sentence, and th r e e years p r o b a t i o n . On January 2 9 , 1 9 7 9 S t a l d e r and'Lutheran m i n i s t e r Reverend John Nelson broke the c o n d i t i o n of t h e i r - p r o b a t i o n by r e - e n t e r i n g the T r i d e n t base. They were immediately i n c a r c e r a t e d t o serve the o r i g i n a l suspended 4 5 day sentence. The t r i a l statement i n t h i s appendix was made at S t a l d e r ' s t r i a l f o r the second t r e s p a s s charge. L i k e Nelson, he was sentenced t o an a d d i t i o n a l 4 5 day j a i l sentence. At the time of t h e i r r e l e a s e from the second j a i l term, they were met at the j a i l by what one newspaper account r e f e r r e d to as "one of the l a r g e s t g a t h e r i n g s of c l e r g y i n S e a t t l e ' s h i s t o r y . " R e p r esenting the church h i e r a r c h y were a Roman C a t h o l i c Archbishop, a Lutheran bishop, a U n i t e d Methodist bishop, and an executive of the U n i t e d P r e s b y t e r i a n Church. Along w i t h 2 0 0 other c l e r g y and l a y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , they accom-panied S t a l d e r and Nelson on a p r o c e s s i o n from the j a i l through the s t r e e t s of downtown S e a t t l e t o a nearby church f o r a " t h a n k s g i v i n g s e r v i c e . " 1 4 0 Statement made i n court by J e f f Boerger on February 1 2 , 1 9 7 9 -S e a t t l e , Washington. I would l i k e t o begin w i t h a poem from Michiko Ogino who was 1 0 y e a r s o l d at the time of the Hiroshima bombing. T h i s statement of the misfortu n e of one f a m i l y r e p r e s e n t s i n micro-cosm what the T r i d e n t submarine base i s p r e p a r i n g t o do to m i l l i o n s and m i l l i o n s of o t h e r s : Under a f a l l e n house my s i s t e r was madly c r y i n g . The beam would not move a b i t . Even a s o l d i e r had gone, s a y i n g "Nothing can be done! Nothing can be done!" I n o t i c e d a person coming l i k e an arrow: L i k e a woman i t looked. She's naked; she's d i s c o l o u r e d . "Why! Mamma!" Now I f e l t f r e e from danger. Our neighbor t r i e d w i t h a l l h i s might, But the beam would not move a b i t . "You must give up! Nothing can help i t . " So s a y i n g , he too went away p i t y i n g us. The flame f l a r e d up! Mamma's fa c e went ashy p a l e ; Mamma looked down a t my s i s t e r , S i s t e r ' s s m a l l eyes looked.upofrom^under. Mamma's eyes f o l l o w e d the beam, She f i t her r i g h t shoulder t o the beam: "Yo-heave-ho, Yo-heave-ho®" She endeavoured w i t h might and main. "Crack! Crack! Crack!" Free d i d l e g s of my s i s t e r become, But down d i d mamma drop Never t o get up. Mamma was bombed at noon When g e t t i n g egg-plants i n the f i e l d , Short, r e d , and c r i s p - h e r h a i r stood, Tender and r e d her s k i n was a l l over. Peeled o f f was the s k i n over her shoulder That once l i f t e d the beam o f f my s i s t e r . Constant blood was s p u r t i n g From the sore f l e s h appearing. Soon — Mamma began t o s t r u g g l e With p a i n and agony, With p a i n and agony. She l e f t the world f o r Heaven t h a t very evening. 1 4 1 We see many p a r a l l e l s between T r i d e n t and the death camps of Nazi Germany. You cannot i d e n t i f y the h o l o c a u s t w i t h the f i n a l a c t of g a s s i n g Jews or pushing the button to r e l e a s e the m i s s i l e s . Holocaust begins much sooner. I t begins w i t h f a l s e propaganda and c i t i z e n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the l i e s and b u i l d s from there-. A l b e r t Speer, the c h i e f a r c h i t e c t f o r the T h i r d Reich, expressed t h i s w e l l when he s a i d , "Things t h a t were u n p a l a t a b l e to us i n 1 9 3 5 became a c c e p t a b l e and even normal by 1 9 4 2 , because we,, too had become so much a p a r t of the problem." What Speer means i s something l i k e t h i s . The Jews were not immediately exterminated when the N a z i s took o f f i c e ; t h e i r death came, by degrees. F i r s t the Aryan c l a u s e b a r r e d them from a l l c i v i l s e r v i c e , then t h e i r shops were boycotted and sometimes destroyed, then they wore y e l l o w s t a r s and were segregated i n t o ghettos, then came the "work" camps, and f i n a l l y the death camps — the l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n of the i d e o l o g y of the "master r a c e . " T h i s was made p o s s i b l e as c i t i z e n s a l l over Europe d i g e s t e d swallow a f t e r swallow of the propaganda. When the " f i n a l s o l u t i o n " t o the Jewish problem began to be c a r r i e d out, very few r a i s e d any s o r t of p r o t e s t . There was too much f e a r : f e a r of l o s i n g jobs, p r i v i l e g e s , even l i v e s . B e t t e r be q u i e t . B e t t e r not ask •questions. The Fuhrer i s r e s p o n s i b l e — We're j u s t doing our duty and obeying the s t a t e , being f a i t h f u l c i t i z e n s . T h i s i s e x a c t l y what has been and i s now happening i n North America. We f i r s t b e l i e v e d the propaganda t h a t there ever was such a t h i n g s as a j u s t use of a n u c l e a r weapon. Having b e l i e v e d t h a t l i e , vitrwasiieasier. tbi-believe T' Tand.to support the next: t h a t only by b u i l d i n g more and b e t t e r n u c l e a r weapons co u l d we m a i n t a i n "peace" and a "balance of t e r r o r . " We b e l i e v e d t h i s l i e f o r so l o n g t h a t when i n e a r l y 1 9 7 4 , James S c h l e s i n g e r p u b l i c a l l y announced our " c o u n t e r f o r c e " or f i r s t s t r i k e n u c l e a r p o l i c y , h a r d l y anyone b a t t e d an eye at the " f i n a l s o l u t i o n to the Russian problem." And t h e r e i s another f r i g h t e n i n g p a r a l l e l w i t h Nazi Germany — (besides a t o t a l and u n c o n d i t i o n a l obedience to the s t a t e and i t s aims and g o a l s ) , another t h i n g t h a t made the N a z i h o l o c a u s t p o s s i b l e was the f a c t t h a t the vast major-i t y of German c i t i z e n s , Europeans, A l l i e s , and even the Jews themselves r e f u s e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t the mass murders were a c t u a l l y t a k i n g p l a c e . How e l s e c o u l d the Jews go p a s s i v e l y to the s l a u g h t e r by the thousands except t h a t they d i d not r e a l l y ble'lUeve the Germans would do such a t h i n g ? And of the few people who c o u l d b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s was t r u l y happening, very few chose to show compassion, r e s i s t or come to the a i d of the s u f f e r i n g v i c t i m s . The only purpose of a n u c l e a r weapon i s the mass murder of m i l l i o n s of men, women, and c h i l d r e n — an a c t r e c o g n i z e d the world over as the most unspeakable c r i m i n a l a t r o c i t y when the t r u t h of the Nazi camps became known. W i l l we merely b u i l d and b u i l d and b u i l d and s t o c k p i l e and s t o c k p i l e and s t o c k -p i l e and never, never use our n u c l e a r weapons? Can we b e l i e v e t h a t l i e ? ! I t has never been t r u e i n the history-of the human race t h a t we have b u i l t weapons which we merely 142 stored and d i d not use. W i l l our n a t i o n be any d i f f e r e n t ? And i f we do use our weapons, A d o l f ' H i t l e r and the T h i r d Reich w i l l look l i k e small town, punk hoodlums compared w i t h the k i n d of holocaust we are i n grave danger of unleashing. And that i s why I am here before you today, your Honor. I t has not been an easy d e c i s i o n f o r me to make — to break the law. Having been i n Europe and having v i s i t e d some of the scenes of the Nazi crimes, having read many f i r s t hand accounts I had to ask myself, "Would I have hidden Jews i n my own home?" I hope I would have s a i d , "Yes." But the t e c h n o l o g i c a l concentration camp, the nuclear weapon, does : not a l l o w me t o hide anyone. And t h a t i s why I'm-.* here today: to t r y to stop Trident before i t i s b u i l t . B e l i e v e me, you honor, i f I r e a l l y b e l i e v e d that I could do t h i s through l e g a l channels, I c e r t a i n l y would. But I no longer have any f a i t h i n our "democratic" process. As Susie has already t o l d you,Eisenhower saw c l e a r l y that our weapons system takes food o f f the p l a t e of the poor and yet h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n worked on the hydrogen bomb and stepped up m i l i t a r y spending; John Kennedy s a i d , "Man must put an end to war or war w i l l put an end to mankind" and proceeded to get us i n t o the•Cuban m i s s i l e c r i s i s , the Vietnam War and more nuclear weapons; Johnson got us f i r m l y entrenched i n Vietnam and a f t e r saying t h a t he was s e r i o u s about l i m i t i n g n uclear weapons took f o u r years t o get a s i n g l e meeting together w i t h the Russians — nothing came out of those meetings except more nuclear weapons; Nixon s a i d he wanted "peace w i t h honor" and we got "peace" without honor and a f i r s t s t r i k e nuclear weapons p o l i c y under h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; Ford continued the t r a d i t i o n , and then Carter s a i d he wanted "zero nuclear weapons" and d r a s t i c cutbacks i n m i l i t a r y spending. Now we have the highest m i l i t a r y budget i n human h i s t o r y and the approval of the most l e t h a l weapons systems i n h i s t o r y — Trident^ c r u i s e missiles,:, the MX,aarid neutron bombs. So, I don't have f a i t h i n t h i s democratic process. But more than t h a t , the people who make a l l the c r u c i a l d e c i s i o n s about what k i n d of weapons w i l l be made, where they w i l l be placed, and when they w i l l be used are not e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s at a l l ! They are Pentagon o f f i c i a l s and we have a b s o l u t e l y no say i n anything they dp. We've had no say throughout t h i s whole arms race. That''s why I'm here i n court — to t r y and b r i n g about law and j u s t i c e i n t h i s land and not merely law and order. For the fence around Trident has no more r i g h t to be defended by a court of law than the barbed wire fence around Auschwitz or Dachau or Buohenwald or T r e b l i n k a or any of the other death camps. The defense r e s t s , your honor. 143 Statement made i n court by Susie Leonard on February 12, 1979 S e a t t l e , Washington. Your Honor, the d e c i s i o n t o go over the fence a t the T r i d e n t base was not an easy one. I have always r e s p e c t e d law, but even more so, I r e s p e c t the moral b a s i s t h a t l e g a l law i s founded upon. As you a l r e a d y know, law should not be c o n s i d e r e d m o r a l l y n e u t r a l . There are many p o i n t s where law and m o r a l i t y i n t e r s e c t . One of the most important purposes and i n t e n t i o n s of law i s t o uphold and p r o t e c t b a s i c human v a l u e s . The most funda-mental of a l l human value s i s the r i g h t to l i f e . T r i d e n t t h r e a t e n s the most b a s i c value of l i f e — both i n i n t e n t , as w e l l as when i t i s used. As P r e s i d e n t Eisenhower s a i d : "Every gun t h a t i s made, every warship launched, every r o c k e t f i r e d s i g n i f i e s , i n the f i n a l sense t h e f t from those f k l o hunger and are not f e d , and those who are not c l o t h e d . " T r i d e n t i s a l s o i n v i o l a t i o n of the Nuremberg p r i n c i p l e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y under the s e c t i o n s e n t i t l e d "Crimes Again s t Peace and Humanity." I t i s my b e l i e f and understanding t h a t T r i d e n t i s a crime a g a i n s t peace because of i t s f i r s t - s t r i k e c a p a b i l -i t i e s . We are p r e p a r i n g to wage a war of a g g r e s s i o n . I p a r t i c u l a r l y c a l l your a t t e n t i o n to the expert witn'ess account of Robert A<l!dridge, a former T r i d e n t M i s s i l e System designer who t e s t i f i e d a t the December 26-29 T r i d e n t t r i a l , s a y i n g t h a t T r i d e n t d i d have f i r s t - s t r i k e c a p a b i l i t i e s and thus was i n v i o l a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. But even i f T r i d e n t d i d not have f i r s t - s t r i k e c a p a b i l i t y , I would s t i l l be a g a i n s t i t . I t i s a crime a g a i n s t humanity. That each T r i d e n t sub c a r r i e s 24 m i s s i l e s each having 17 r e -e n t r y r o c k e t s capable of being i n d i v i d u a l l y t a r g e t e d , and a c a p a c i t y t o d e s t r o y hundreds of thousands of people l i v i n g i n 408 d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s or t a r g e t s , i s a crime. T r u l y , w i t h each b l a s t b e i ng 5 Jimes more powerful than the bomb that• destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki, i t w i l l make the past seem pa l e i n comparison. Our t r u s t i n the T r i d e n t M i s s i l e System i s l i k e an i d o l a t o r y . I oppose T r i d e n t because i t s e x i s t e n c e says t h a t we put our t r u s t i n the power to t h r e a t e n and b l a c k m a i l others — to 1 compel them t o do what we want them t o do. I w i l l not accept v i o l e n c e as the u l t i m a t e way to r e s o l v e c o n f l i c t s . No matter how h i g h the i d e a l s , or good the i n t e n t i o n s , the damage caused by the use of such a p o w e r f u l l y d e s t r u c t i v e system i s too h i g h a p r i c e t o pay. As Pope Pi u s XII s a i d : "When the damage caused i s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e to the v a l u e s we are seeking t o safeguard, i t i s b e t t e r to s u f f e r i n j u s t i c e than t o defend o u r s e l v e s . " What i t i s wrong to do, i t i s a l s o wrong to i n t e n d to do. There are a l r e a d y too many weapons — enough t o complete-l y d e s t r o y the world 12 times over. I t i s insane t o b e l i e v e t h a t one more a d d i t i o n a l system (such as T r i d e n t ) w i l l a c t as 1 4 4 a d e t e r r e n t . When do we say w i t h our a c t i o n s as w e l l as our v o i c e s , "Enough i s Enough"? Recent h i s t o r y shows us t h a t the arms r a c e , d e s p i t e t a l k s t o disarm, has not only continued, but newer and more a c c u r a t e weapons have been developed on both s i d e s . H i s t o r y shows us t h a t whatever weapons man has conceived of he has b u i l t , and whatever weapons he has b u i l t , he.-.N has used. I am a f r a i d t h a t we have l e a r n e d n o t h i n g from h i s t o r y . Unless we make . some very r a d i c a l changes soon I f e e l t h a t we w i l l be doomed to repeat our past mistakes. A few years ago I read an a r t i c l e by a newspaper r e p o r t e r r e f e r r i n g to Dachauv., He must have thought t h a t some of h i s readers wouldn't know what Dachau-••• was, because i n paran-t h e s i s he had t o e x p l a i n i t . Are our memories so s h o r t t h a t we would have f o r g o t t e n what happened to 6 m i l l i o n Jews and the other m i l l i o n s who were exterminated i n the death damps? U n f o r t u n a t e l y , I see a ' l o t of p a r a l l e l s between the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r war, the b u i l d i n g of death camps i n Germany, and the T r i d e n t m i s s i l e system j u s t o u t s i d e S e a t t l e . What must the neighbors and workers have thought as they b u i l t the ovens — t h a t they would never be used? No! I t h i n k t h a t they were l i k e a b l e and reasonable people w i t h good h e a r t s , but t h a t they were u n w i l l i n g t o r e a l l y d e a l w i t h what they were b u i l d i n g and how i t would be used. They d i d n ' t want to know. Was t h e i r ignorance b l i s s ? To r e f u s e t o h e l p c a r r y through H i t l e r ' s schemes i n v o l v e d great r i s k s and conse-quences. I'm sure t h a t most people thought t h a t the r i s k s were too great and so they allowed the e x t e r m i n a t i o n of the "enemy" (even though they were o f t e n neighbors and a c q u a i n t -ances) t o be c a r r i e d out. I s the T r i d e n t M i s s i l e System much d i f f e r e n t from the death camps? The only major d i f f e r e n c e t h a t I can see i s t h a t T r i d e n t i s awesomely even more d e s t r u c t i v e than the death camps and i s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e r i n w h o m i t wipes out. I t w i l l make the death'scamps seem l i k e c h i l d ' s p l a y i n comparison. Your Honor, I r e f u s e to remain s i l e n t , or to l e t barbed w i r e s stop me, w h i l e I see such an o p p r e s s i v e weapons b e i n g b u i l t . Yes, I climbed over the fence at the T r i d e n t base. Why d i d I commit c i v i l disobedience? W e l l , Your Honor, u n f o r t u n -a t e l y sometimes t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s between m o r a l i t y and law. I b e l i e v e t h a t I was a c t i n g on moral c o n v i c t i o n — a c o n v i c t i o n c t h a t says t h a t people and the p r o t e c t i o n of human l i f e are more important than p r o p e r t y laws. I b e l i e v e t h a t • w h i l e law must be r e s p e c t e d i t i s l i m i t e d to p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e s and s i t u a t i o n s whereas, moral r u l e s are without boundaries, and t h a t moral laws have a h i g h e r l e v e l of o b l i g a t i o n than l e g a l law. As a C h r i s t i a n I have- chosen to take Jesus' two great commandments, which are u n i v e r s a l moral laws, as my guide. I t i s w r i t t e n i n Matthew 22: 37-39: "You s h a l l l o v e the L o r d your God w i t h a l l your h e a r t , s o u l , and mind and you s h a l l . 145 l o v e your neighbor as y o u r s e l f . " I t doesn't j u s t say Americans — i t i n c l u d e s everyone, even the Russians. Thus, Your Honor, I can not c a l l myself a C h r i s t i a n u n l e s s through both my words and a c t i o n s , I seek t o uphold the b a s i c human value of l i f e , even i f i t means t h a t I must t r a n s g r e s s man-made laws. 1 4 6 Statement made i n court by W i l l i a m S t a l d e r on March 2 9 , 1 9 7 9 S e a t t l e , Washington. Your Honor, I hope to make c l e a r that my a c t i o n of Jan-uary 2 9 was not one of defiance of the law or of t h i s Court. Rather, r e e n t e r i n g the Bangor Submarine Base was based, on my understanding of the law's c o m p l i c i t y i n supporting the develop-ment and deployment of the Trident M i s s i l e System. Further, my a c t i o n was based on my t e c h n i c a l understanding of t h i s system as a f i r s t - s t r i k e weapon: a f r i g h t e n i n g piece of e v i -dence t h a t , q u i e t l y and w i t h l i t t l e p u b l i c debate, our govern-ment i s i n i t i a t i n g a d r a s t i c s h i f t i n nuclear s t r a t e g y away from the defensive o p o l i c y of deterrence t o an aggressive p o l i c y of s u r p r i s e a t t a c k or f i r s t s t r i k e . This c a p a b i l i t y i s a t h r e a t to our own n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y , to g l o b a l peace, and to the l i v e s and h e a l t h of f u t u r e generations. Rather than r e i t e r a t e a l l the arguments that have been presented before t h i s Court and others.Co.v.erthe past s e v e r a l years, I would ask that the testimony from CR 78-155V and CR 78-394M be entered i n t o the record as evidence regarding my s t a t e of mind l e a d i n g to my r e e n t r y i n t o the Naval Base. These past days i n King County J a i l , r e s u l t i n g from our a c t i o n s of May 2 2 - 2 3 and our subsequent a c t i o n of January 2 9 , have been a time of study, r e f l e c t i o n , and p r e p a r a t i o n . I t h i n k i t appropriate to share w i t h you and w i t h my f r i e n d s some of the f r u i t s of that time i n j a i l . Judge, you and I are " c i t i z e n s " of two d i f f e r e n t worlds: the " r u l e of law" on one hand and the " l i f e of f a i t h " on the other. I t i s good at t h i s time and here i n t h i s Court to consider these two worlds. You, and by extension the whole j u d i c i a l system, rep r e -sent t h i s " r u l e of law," that i s , the reasonable process of law as an a b i d i n g and cohesive f o r c e f o r the good of the whole community. Such a process d e r i v e s i t s mandate, i n i t s d a i l y l i f e , from the a b i l i t y of the State to enforce such d e c i s i o n s as are made by the courts through an i m p l i e d and inherent t h r e a t of v i o l e n c e . I t i s not my purpose here to question t h i s framework i n regard t o i t s u t i l i t y , though my 4 5 days already spent w i t h • men upon whom the law has been made manifest, i s a source of grave doubt regarding the f a i r a p p l i c a t i o n of such laws. The " l i f e of f a i t h , " and here I speak d i r e c t l y of a C h r i s t i a n f a i t h that i s rooted i n b i b l i c a l t r a d i t i o n , looks to power other than v i o l e n c e as the b a s i s f o r r i g h t r e l a t i o n -ship and i n t e g r a l l i v i n g among a l l members of the community. I t should be e q u a l l y c l e a r t h a t t h i s f a i t h community i s nour-ished i n r e s i s t i n g the premise that v i o l e n c e i s an appropriate means of s o l v i n g c o n f l i c t between i n d i v i d u a l s or among n a t i o n -s t a t e s . 147 Judge, we are here presented w i t h a masquerade of e v i l : Trident and the nuclear arms race, which has played havoc w i t h a l l our e t h i c a l concepts. That t h i s e v i l i s being made to appear as reasonable, to be a b a s i s f o r human s e c u r i t y , and to become a model of governance among nations i s a cause of profound concern f o r the C h r i s t i a n community. I t con-f i r m s the fundamental wickedness of e v i l . There are moments i n the human community when the f o r c e of the demonic so threatens to destroy the f a b r i c of s o c i e t y , indeed seeks t o destroy i n a mindless way the l i v e s of m i l l i o n s of people, t h a t the very substance of our f a i t h demands an a c t i v e prayer that s t r i k e s at the root of ev i l , c i . a n d by neces-s i t y , at the root of law. Nazi Germany and the holocaust which consumed s i x m i l l i o n Jews was not an i s o l a t e d i n c i d e n t ; i t cannot be set aside as an act of an i r r a t i o n a l d i c t a t o r . Rather i t was a l o g i c a l extension of n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s e s t a b l i s h e d by the German government of that p e r i o d and r u t h l e s s l y c a r r i e d out by mem-bers of i t s j u d i c i a l , p o l i c e , and m i l i t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s . Judge, I submit before t h i s Court that a m i s s i l e system de-signed t o destroy hundreds of m i l l i o n s of l i v e s , e s t a b l i s h e d by n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s of our American government, and supported by the j u d i c i a l , p o l i c e and m i l i t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s of our gov-ernment i s , i n susbstance, no d i f f e r e n t from the ovens of Nazi Germany. We are c r e a t i n g the instruments f o r another more deadly F i n a l S o l u t i o n . My past, your Honor, has been a s i l e n t witness t o e v i l deeds. I have l i v e d q u i e t l y and walked w i t h averted eyes i n the midst of a s o c i e t y that has e s t a b l i s h e d a p o l i c y of g l o b a l d e s t r u c t i o n ass ai me'a-n&^qf.Ttprova'diffg-vse^urlty.lYouri.Honor, I have l i v e d mutely, as have so many others, i n the presence of ari i n s a n i t y . A b i b l i c a l f a i t h c a l l s us t o speak c l e a r l y — sanely — to those i n s t i t u t i o n s that seek to destroy human l i f e through p o l i t i c a l w i l l or economic p o l i c i e s . This B i b l i c a l f a i t h a l s o demands a r a d i c a l d i s a s s o c i a t i o n from these i n s t i t u t i o n s . This d i s a s s o c i a t i o n does not a l l o w noninvolvemeht. People r e s p o n s i b l e t o such a l i f e of -faith w i l l f i n d themselves more i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d i n the a c t i o n s and p o l i c i e s of such i n s t i t u t i o n s . Resistance i s not a w i t h -drawal, but an a c t i v e dialogue w i t h the very heart of e v i l . I t i s h e r e i n t h a t the " r u l e of law" l a c k s the w i l l t o r e s i s t or enter i n t o dialogue w i t h t h i s e v i l . The i n s t i t u t i o n s which provide a framework f o r the law of the State to e x i s t , most obviously the p o l i c e and penal i n s t i t u t i o n s , themselves depend on the s t r u c t u r a l and systematic a p p l i c a t i o n of v i o l e n c e i n the r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the State i t s e l f and among the l a r g e r community of n a t i o n - s t a t e s . We cannot, and do not, expect such a l e g a l system to undermine i t s own source of strength by a t t a c k i n g the very premise of those i n s t i t u t i o n s . In a statement made before Judge McGovern a week ago, Reverend Nelson made reference to presenting h i s case and these i s s u e s before a "higher Court." His a l l u s i o n to a higher Court i s very important; those w i t h i n the r e l i g i o u s community at l e a s t (and c e r t a i n l y the metaphor i s v a l i d f o r 148 many who take courage from other sources) must c o n s t a n t l y keep the i s s u e of obedience t o a c r e a t e d order g r e a t e r than the r u l e of law and v i o l e n c e present before t h i s Court. .I want t h i s Court to know t h a t I do not stand before i t p e n i -t e n t but triumphant! To remind i t of the u l t i m a t e f u t i l i t y of punishment f o r those who choose t o a f f i r m nonviolence and l i f e . I cannot be d e t e r r e d by any sentence of the F e d e r a l Court. Place me i n j a i l and I grow s t r o n g from the support of a community of f r i e n d s from around the world. P l a c e me i n j a i l and my commitment to nonviolence i s renewed by my rea d i n g s and r e f l e c t i o n s . Place me i n j a i l and I f i n d my a c t i o n s a f f i r m e d by the l i v e s and s a c r i f i c e s of a l l who have gone before me t o such p l a c e s f o r a f f i r m i n g l i f e — f o r l i v i n g peace. How can we be punished —- or d e t e r r e d — who b e l i e v e t h a t the power of t h i s Court, based on v i o l e n c e and u l t i m a t e l y s u p p o r t i n g t h a t u l t i m a t e p r o f a n i t y towards human l i f e : T r i d e n t and n u c l e a r h o l o c a u s t , i s i t s e l f powerless over a l l but our most p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n . The Court, I hope, must sense the i r o n y of f i n d i n g i t s e l f l i m i t e d t o p u n i s h i n g us by a means t h a t puts our l i v e s , our va l u e s , i n sue hi .a dramatic and pro f o u n d l y a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e as j a i l . Know, Judge, t h a t each time you p l a c e one of us i n j a i l , no matter f o r how l o n g , a hundred of us come out. The Cr e a t o r i s a b l e t o r a i s e from the very ro c k s not an army, but a com-munity of people f a i t h f u l to the v i s i o n t h a t we are a l l c a l l e d to be peacemakers. I d i d not come here seeking j u s t i c e , or ex p e c t i n g i t . I t i s not something t h a t you can give or w i t h h o l d . I t i s my b e l i e f t h a t my l i f e , l i v e d f a i t h f u l l y t o the b i b l i c a l c a l l to a l o v e of the c r e a t e d order which does not a l l o w f o r i t s wanton d e s t r u c t i o n , i s i t s e l f a s i g n of the C r e a t o r ' s j u s t i c e towards us a l l . 

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