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Miyamoto Yuriko : imagery and thematic development from Mazushiki hitobito no mure to Banshū Heiya Phillips, Susan Patricia 1979

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MIYAMOTO Y U R I K O : IMAGERY A N D T H E M A T I C D E V E L O P M E N T FROM MAZUSHIKI H ITOB ITO NO MURE T O B A N S H U HE IYA by SUSAN PATR IC IA PHILLIPS B . A . , Un ivers i ty of V i c tor ia , 1974 A THES IS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L FULF I L LMENT OF T H E REQU IREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF M A S T E R OF A R T S T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES Department of As ian Studies Un ivers i ty of B r i t i sh Columbia We accept this, thesis as conforming to the requ i red standard T H E UN IVERS ITY OF BRIT ISH COLUMB IA June,, 1979 in Susan Patricia Phi l l ips, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f * 2 » V * * ^s^vAvts** The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D E - 6 B P 7 5 - 5 1 I E ii A B S T R A C T Miyamoto Yu r i ko is general ly seen as belonging to the p r o -letarian l i terary movement which reached its height in Japan around 1930. B rought up amid the comforts and intellectual stimulation of a middle class backg round , Miyamoto actually began her writ ing career in 1916. She cont inued to write for thir ty-f ive years until her premature death in 1951. Her personal l i f e / and the novels which were born from it , passed through several stages of development. Her part ic ipation in the proletar ian l i terary movement was merely one of these stages. From the time of her f i rs t publ ished nove l , Miyamoto Yu r i ko was concerned with the pl ight of oppressed people within her own so -c ie ty . A s she matured, her attention became focused in turn on women's i ssues , working class s t ruggles a n d , f ina l ly , the problems f a c -ing the Japanese nation in the early post-war yea r s . Concern for the effect of the social environment on the qual ity of human l ife, and the concept of posit ive action to change that which restr ic ts human potentia l , were not features of Miyamoto Yur iko ' s novels which emerged solely through the stimulation of the proletarian l i terary movement in which she took part du r ing the middle years of her career . They were f ea -tures which appeared in her earl iest publ ished works and which c o n -t inued to be features years after the demise of the proletarian l i terary movement. The novels of Miyamoto Yu r i ko show consistency in their development, rather than a radical departure from the concerns of the years before her overt political commitment. iii T h r o u g h an analysis of imagery and thematic development in four novels from the most representat ive stages in her ca reer , one hopes that the restr ict ive label of "proletar ian wr i ter " will be recons idered , and that the scope and accomplishment of Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s novels will be seen in a new l ight . T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S Chapter Page INTRODUCT ION 1 One MAZUSHIKI H ITOB ITO NO MURE 18 Two N O B U K O 28 Three K O K K O K U 45 Four B A N S H U HE IYA 62 C O N C L U S I O N 80 N O T E S 86 B I B L I O G R A P H Y . 92 V A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S Many indiv iduals helped and encouraged me in the course of this thesis . I would especially like to thank my thesis adv i so r . D r . K inya T s u r u t a , of the Department of As ian Studies , Un ivers i ty of B r i t i sh Columbia, for his helpful suggest ions and many hours of stimulating d i scuss ion . I also appreciate the encouragement and careful reading given by D r . Paddy T s u r u m i , Department of H is to ry , Un ivers i ty of V i c to r i a . 1 I NTRODUCT ION Born on February 13, 1899 as Chujo Y u r i S-'J • Miyamoto Yu r i ko was the eldest daughter of Chujo Sei ichiro t j 3 ^ . and Chujo Yoshie t j s ^ . A f t e r graduat ion from Tokyo Imperial Un i ve rs i t y , her fa ther , Se i ichiro, became one of Japan's leading modern arch i tec ts . Her mother, Yosh ie , daughter of the famous moral ph i losopher , Nishimura Shigeki fi? ^ ffy , was hersel f a graduate of the ar istocrat ic Gakushuin school . A l though Y u r i k o was born in T o k y o , the f i rs t three years of her life were spent in Hokkaido where her father had been sent by the Department of Education as a part-time instructor in the Civ i l Engineer ing Department of Sapporo Agr i cu l tu ra l School . It was in T o k y o , however, that she f i rs t began her educat ion. A l though the family income was modest du r ing her early c h i l d -hood, especially dur ing the years that Yu r i ko ' s father was in England s tudy ing at Cambridge Un i ve rs i t y , Japan's v ic tory in the Russo-Japanese War and the stimulus it gave to the count ry ' s developing industr ial izat ion increased the demand for h ighly-tra ined archi tects and the Chujo family gradual ly attained upper middle class a f f l uence . 1 A f t e r graduat ing from elementary school , Yu r i ko entered what was later to become the g i r l s ' middle school attached to Ochanomizu Un i ve rs i t y . She d id well in her s tudies , part icu lar ly in Japanese l i terature and composit ion, but even at this early age she was somewhat unhappy with the restr ict ions imposed on her at this prest ig ious but conservat ive inst i tut ion. Her home environment was relatively l ibera l . Yu r i ko ' s mother was ve r y interested in l i terature, and as a ch i ld Y u r i k o was exposed to a great number of the Japanese 2 c lass ics . She also studied piano and had access to the books on European ar t and l i terature that her father had b rought home with him from Europe . By h igh school she was regular ly missing classes to go to the Ueno L ib ra ry where she read translations of To ls toy , Dos toyevsky , Poe, Wilde, Shake -speare, Chekov , G o r k y , T u r g e n e v , Romain Rolland and Nei tzsche. She also began reading Japanese writers such as Mushanokoji Saneatsu P^Jh'h&i- %)c% • Higuchi Ichiyo H _ 0 — %^ , Natsume Soseki H_B $rVo • a n d Nog*mi Yaeko l^ >_h . Reading was not the only act iv i ty to which she devoted her energ ies ; du r i ng this same per iod she also began to write. Wide-ranging l i terary d iscuss ions and art ist ic endeavors were encouraged at home, so it is small wonder that, hav ing been nour ished in this enl ightened atmosphere, she began to feel alienated by an authoritar ian school system. In the spr ing of 1916, Yu r i ko entered the Engl ish l i terature d e -partment of Japan Women's Un ivers i ty (Nihon Joshi Daigaku) l 2 ^ # * 3 - A J ^ . With the publication of her f i rs t novel Mazushiki hitobito  no mure L 3 A . 3 °)^- (A Group of Poor People) , however, she left school at the age of seventeen after only one term. The opportuni ty of embarking on a serious writ ing career , coupled with her sense of unease 2 with the environment at school , probably contr ibuted to this dec is ion. A n overn ight success , Mazushiki hitobito immediately received the a t ten -tion of establ ished l i terary people. She subsequent ly produced a series of other short nove ls , but they d id not achieve the acclaim of this f i rs t work. A l though Miyamoto Y u r i k o was b rought up with few if any material d iscomforts , the subject of her short novels and of her pos t -humously publ ished pract ice pieces is the pover ty-st r i cken l ives of the 3 lower c lasses , landless peasants and vanish ing race of A i n u . The material 3 on which these stories are based was not idealistic fantasy . T h e scene of Mazushiki hitobito was the Tohoku farming vil lage in which her paternal grandmother was the landowner, and at which Yu r i ko had spent her summers as a ch i l d . The story of the A i n u , Kaze ni notte ku ru  koropokkuru jg, ( " I^TiJfvS (Koropokkuru R id ing the Wind) , was the result of several months spent doing research in Hokkaido. The humanistic concerns of these stories can be a t t r ibuted , in par t , to the inf luence of the shirakabaha fe^fff^ (White B i r ch Group) which came into prominence after 1910 with Mushanokoji Saneatsu at its head, and to an offshoot of this g r o u p , seitosha ^ ^-^t (B lue S tock ings ) , a feminist l i terary c i rc le in which Nogami Yaeko was act ive . Yu r i ko was already familiar with both of these writers ' works . She was, however, inf luenced more by social cu r ren ts of the times than by the specif ic inf luence of any one wr i ter . The shirakaba g roup came into prominence after the Russo-Japanese War when it broke away from the gloomy realism of the Natural ist school . The humanism and optimistic self-affirmation of the shirakaba writers ref lected the posit ive attitude of the r is ing bourgeois ie , whose new economic power was a result of Japan's rapid industr ia l growth du r ing and H following the Russo-Japanese War. It was within this humanist cu r ren t that Yu r i ko spent the formative years of her chi ldhood and wrote her f i rs t publ ished works . In the fall of 1918, Yu r i ko accompanied her father to New Y o r k . When his work was f in ished and he had re turned to Japan , she stayed b e -h ind to study at Columbia Un ive rs i t y . The re she met A rak i Sh igeru ^ f%' ' a s c l l o l a r of ancient Persian languages fifteen years her senior . The following year they were marr ied. Yu r i ko re turned to Japan short ly thereafter because of her mother's i l lness, and A rak i 4 followed six months later. The process of this marriage - which lasted f ive years - and the d ivorce which followed became the subject of her second major work, Nobuko -f^  ^. , publ ished in completed form; in .1926. A t an early age , Yu r i ko had decided on writ ing as a career . Yet she gradual ly came to believe that the nature of her married life with A rak i was incompatible with this aim because of the restr ict ions this marriage imposed upon he r . In terms of l i terary output , these f ive married years are general ly considered to be one of her most unproduct ive per iods . Instead of wr i t ing , she became involved in var ious social movements, i n -c lud ing relief work for the Russian famine of 1922 and the Kanto ea r th -quake in 1923, but she remained as yet politically uncommitted. She also cont inued her reading of l i terature and phi losophy. T h r o u g h her assoc ia -tion with the writer Nogami Yaeko, Yu r i ko was introduced to the well-known scholar and translator of Russian l i terature, Yuasa Yoshiko ^ ^- . A f t e r her d ivorce from A r a k i , the two women began to live together, and cont inued to do so until Yu r i ko remarr ied. Nobuko was written dur ing the f i rs t part of this pe r iod . 1927 marked the tenth ann ive rsa ry of the Russian Revolut ion, and to celebrate the event , scholars and art ists from around the world were invited to the USSR . Yuasa Yoshiko decided to follow one of her teachers there and Yu r i ko went with her . Besides a growing interest in the Soviet Union and social ism, Yu r i ko .was also beg inn ing to feel d i s -satisfied with her own life and work. She took this as an opportuni ty to explore new d i rect ions . Her three-year sojourn in the Soviet Union was to great ly inf luence her future life and work. She began to make an i n -tensive s tudy of Soviet society.; to read not only the new socialist l i te ra -tu re , but also the Marxist c lass ics . Impressed with the vital ity of Soviet 5 society as it embarked on its f i rs t F ive-Year P lan, she was part icular ly moved by the role that women were encouraged to take in the bu i ld ing of the new wor ld . Equal r i gh t s , protection of motherhood and ch i ldhood, encouragement for women to join the workforce , and the role of the state in the education of its population were to become topics for her essays on women's issues . Dur ing these three years Yu r i ko and Yoshiko travel led extensively throughout the USSR , and in the sp r ing of 1929 they met the Chujo family in Europe where Yur i ko was to spend the next seven months v is i t ing major..European centers . The pover ty of Europe 's working c lass , the obvious social unres t on the eve of the great stock market c rash and the rise of European fasc ism, were features that hastened Yur iko ' s acceptance of socialism and her commitment to political ac t ion. Two additional events were to inf luence her s t rong ly . Short ly before her depar ture for the Soviet Un ion , the suicide of the famous wr i ter , Akutagawa Ryunosuke ^ )>) , sent waves of unrest throughout Japan's intel l igentsia. Just pr ior to her depar ture for Europe , Yu r i ko r e -ceived news of the suicide of her younger brother with whom she had been very c l o s e . 5 In these two deaths Yur i ko saw the impasse of modern intel-lectualism, and its defeat in the face of emerging historical c u r r e n t s . The solut ion, as she saw it, lay in political act ion. In a final letter to he r , Yur iko ' s brother had stated, "Feel no hatred towards a n y t h i n g . " But in response to this entreaty she wrote in her personal journal (Jihitsu Nempu On the one hand , this unforeseen death—symbol iz ing to me the bankruptcy of the age—and on the other hand , the new Soviet society ablaze and progress ing that I saw day and n ight , opened my eyes . I d i s -covered a meaning, a shape and a direct ion which I could link to the s t ruggle L.had prev ious ly been f i gh t -ing alone. In political act ion, I attained a completely d i f ferent perspect i ve . A s an ar t i s t , I will never 6 abandon my uncompromising stand toward the present g social system. I will never abandon my abil i ty to hate. She re turned to Japan in late 1930 with the aim of part ic ipat ing in the workers ' movement that was then at its he ight . By 1930, the proletar ian l i terary movement was also reach ing its peak, and NAPF (All Japan Federation of Proletarian A r t s ) 7 had just been organ ized . The depress ion following the stock market disaster of 1927 caused a sharp increase in unemployed workers in the urban centres and the spreading bankrup tcy of the farming populat ion. The inf luence of the Russian Revolution stimulated the growth of the peasant-worker move-ments. The proletar ian l i terary movement itself was also radical ized and fu r ther united by the periodic a r res t and detention of communists and act iv ists that occur red after 1928 under the Peace Preservat ion Law. The gradual swing of the proletarian l i terary movement from a broad united f ront movement into a h ighly political organizat ion under the d i rect control of Moscow and the then-outlawed Japanese Communist Par ty , was a s i t u -ation that must have seemed attract ive to Y u r i k o , who had just spent g three years absorb ing the Marxism of the Soviet Un ion . A f t e r joining NAPF in 1931, Yu r i ko began to devote hersel f to writ ing art ic les and essays int roduc ing the new Soviet society to Japan. She was elected to the standing committee of N A P F , and became the p e r -son responsible for the Women's Bureau of the Writer 's League. In October of 1931 NAPF was reorganized and became KOPF (Japan Proletarian 9 Cul tura l Federat ion) , and Yu r i ko was elected to the central committee as well as to the women's committee. In addi t ion , she became the editor for the newly-establ ished publ icat ion, Hataraku Fujin -< (Working Women). With all these act iv i t ies, her l i terary output remained relatively small. It was also about this time that she official ly became a 7 member of the illegal Communist Par ty , but this was not known until after the war. Dur ing her work in the movement, Yu r i ko came to know and in 1932 marr ied , Miyamoto Kenji H[?a • whose name she took, and by which name her works are now known. Yu r i ko was 33 years o l d , and her husband , Kenj i , was a young and bri l l iant 21-year-old intellectual recently graduated from the department of economics of Tokyo Imperial Un i ve rs i t y . Kenj i , along with Yu r i ko and Kobayashi Taki j i >\-^9p^.^~ , were central f igures in K O P F . With the Manchur ian Incident in the fall of 1931, and the count ry ' s growing preparat ions for war, the government found it necessary to suppress the domestic d iss ident movements which stood in its way. In March , 1932, another round-up of communists and act iv ists was underway , and life became increas ingly d i f f icul t for the people in the movement. In A p r i l , Yu r i ko was ar rested for the f i rs t time and detained for three months for her part ic ipation in the proletar ian l i terary movement. Kenji was forced to go u n d e r g r o u n d . The i r married life of two months was b rought to an abrupt end and was not re-establ ished for another thirteen yea rs . In September, on the eve of the collapse of the proletar ian movements Yu r i ko was arrested for the second time. Government suppress ion of the proletarian l i terary movement reached its height du r i ng this pe r iod , and the wave of ar rests was des igned to destroy the inf luence of the Communist Party which control led it. In 1933 Kobayashi Taki j i was ar rested and subsequent ly murdered by the pol ice. Miyamoto- Kenji was sentenced to life imprisonment under the Peace P r e -servation Law as a member of the illegal Communist Par ty . He remained in jail for the next twelve years until l iberated after the Pacific War ended . 8 Yu r i ko was imprisoned for a th i rd time in J anuary , 1933, but was released hours before her mother's death . The threat of impr i son -ment d id not abate in spite of her heart condit ion and the general ly d e -ter iorat ing state of her health resul t ing from her incarcerat ion. In September, 1935, Yu r i ko again spent seven months in p r i son , du r i ng which time her father d i ed . She was indicted for violations of the Peace Preservat ion Law and brought to t r ia l , but she received only a four-year suspended sentence. T h e reason for the suspended sentence is not c lear , but du r ing the course of her t r ia l , Yu r i ko was released on bail several times for health reasons, and was once even hospital ized for heart t rouble . Perhaps the dangerous state of her health inf luenced the court ' s decision to give her a suspended sentence and put her on probat ion. Y u r i k o ' s membership in the Communist Party was never d isc losed, by hersel f or by the small number of people in the movement who actually knew, and so she was able to avoid indefinite internment, unl ike her husband , whose membership was publ ic knowledge. To prevent publ ic opposit ion as the Sino-Japanese war got underway , the Min is t ry of Home Affairs. , imposed a censorsh ip on members of the popular f ront in 1937, and Miyamoto Yu r i ko was on the l ist . Subsequent l y , anyone who voiced opposit ion to internal policy was labelled a t ra i tor . Bu t , following the announcement of the Pacific War in 1941, freedom of speech was completely suspended , and Yu r i ko lost the r ight to publ ish unti l the end of the war in 1945. In December of 1941, she was again imprisoned a n d , du r i ng the following summer, the hottest in nearly seventy yea r s , she fell into a coma from extreme heat prost ra t ion . Given up for dead , she was sent to her bro ther ' s home where she slowly recovered . She temporari ly lost her eyesight and it remained impaired for more than a yea r . Her heart and l iver were 9 seriously damaged by her imprisonment a n d , until her death in 1951, she never completely regained her heal th. Under such extremely un f a vou r -able condi t ions, writ ing became dif f icult if not impossible. Between 1932 and 1945 there was a total of less than four years in which she was able to pub l i sh . Despite her t rava i ls , Yu r i ko never stopped wr i t ing . Her e x -periences in pr ison were recorded in the novels Senkyuhyaku sanjuninen  no haru — z~ — <D (The Spr ing of Nineteen T h i r t y -two) in 1933, and Kokkoku J?J ^ (Moment by Moment), publ ished posthumously . She also completed Koiwai no ikka 'h^ft^'O —]§<_ (The Koiwai Family) in 1934 and Ch ibusa ^ ] _^ (Breast) in 1935. One of her greatest areas of act iv i ty was essays and art icles on l i terary - cr i t i c ism, cu l ture and society, on writers and their works , and on women's i ssues . A l though Yur iko ' s actual l i terary output unavoidably decl ined du r ing these twelve yea r s , it p roved to be an intense per iod of study and experimentation in which she gathered her exper iences for the short f ive-year per iod after the war until her dea th . Yu r i ko d id f ind an outlet for her creat ive energies in the thousands of pages of letters sent to her imprisoned husband . A selection of these were publ ished in 1949-50 under the title Juninen no tegami -f- ^-"9 ^pifft, (Twelve Years of Le t te rs ) , cons idered by many cr i t ics to merit attention as l i terary works of some . . 10 value. Unl ike so many other writers who publ ic ly gave up their com-munist beliefs under p ressu re , or who ret i red from the scene in s i lence, Miyamoto Yu r i ko never completely succumbed to despa i r , nor d id she abandon her "uncompromising stand toward the present social s y s t em. " Dur ing these years she showed unf lagg ing optimism in the belief that 10 the storm would eventual ly pass . Her famous essay , Fuyu o kosu tsubomi 4^2Li§&'3 H (The Bud Which Surv i ves Winter) , written and publ ished in 1934, is symbolic of her stance until the end of the war. She bel ieved that like all winters , however severe , this one too would pass , sp r ing would come, and the bud which had been s tor ing its energies against the cold would send forth new shoots and blossom a g a i n . 1 1 The Pacific War ended in A u g u s t , 1945, with Japan's uncond i -tional su r r ende r , marking the beg inn ing of the final stage in Miyamoto Yur iko ' s ca reer . Those , like Miyamoto Kenj i , who had been imprisoned under the Peace Preservat ion Law, were set free and the censorsh ip im-posed on writers was l i f ted. She began writ ing immediately, and in a burs t of ene rgy , Banshu" heiya Jfe 7t) - ^ f f (The Banshu Plains) appeared in A u g u s t , 1946, and Fuchiso JiL^ D-^ - in September of the same yea r . She cont inued to part ic ipate actively in social movements. The liberal t rend which emerged di rect ly after the war encouraged widespread political i n -volvement. Peace, democratization of Japan, a new const i tut ion and equal r ights for women—all these Yu r i ko had advocated for yea rs . The pos t -war peace, d id not diminish her role as an outspoken social cr i t ic and p r o -moter of democratic r igh ts . Yu r i ko ' s works were general ly ignored before the war, both by mainstream c r i t i c s , and by cr i t ics of the left who cons idered her novels 12 pre-dat ing her involvement in NAPF to be petit-bourgeois in nature . From 1946 o n , however, her unf lagging resistance toward the government dur ing the 1930's and 1940's made her an instant heroine. It is not s u r -pr i s ing that her f i rs t novels Banshu heiya and Fuchiso received the f i rs t post-war Mainichi Cul tura l A w a r d . •A'-'.. 11 Miyamoto Yur iko ' s organizational activit ies included the Women's Democratic C l u b , the re-established Japanese Communist Par ty , the New Japanese L i terature Society, the Broadcast ing Committee, the Union of Wr i ters , the Cu l tu ra l Publ ish ing Committee, the Japan-Russia F r i endsh ip Associat ion and the Department of Education Social Education Committee. Unfor tunate ly , her already broken health could not take the f renz ied pace, and in early 1947, her blood pressure h igh and her eyesight badly d e -ter iora t ing , she ret i red from publ ic life to devote hersel f to writ ing once aga in . Futatsu no niwa o <0 Jfe (The Two Gardens ) was completed in January 1947, and Dohyo jfL-l^ (Roads ign ) , a novel in four parts that was to be her last , was written between October , 1947 and December, 1950, and completed just one month before her death . Dur ing this last stage, she wrote some two thousand pages of art icles on cu l tu re , society and women's i ssues . She was a pioneer in the f ield of women's problems, and her Watakushitachi no kensetsu ^ tLb <*) 3& §§L 11946) (Our Foundation) is now cons idered to be her most representat ive g roup of art ic les on the subject in the post-war pe r iod . On January 21, 1951, on the eve of her f i f ty-second b i r thday , Miyamoto Yu r i ko died suddenly of cerebro-spinal meningit is . Miyamoto Yur iko ' s life is general ly d iv ided into f ive dist inct per iods . These categor ies, dev ised by Honda S h u g o , the prominent Miyamoto scholar , have been widely accepted and used by subsequent 13 c r i t i c s . Miyamoto hersel f categor ized some of her early works , and the names of these categories are also u sed . For example, she cal led her 14 f i rs t per iod the "humanist apprent iceship p e r i o d , " which includes Mazushiki hitobito and others written dur ing the two years before her departure for the United States. Honda Shugo .calls the second per iod 12 dur ing which she res ided in Amer ica , married and d ivorced A rak i Sh ige ru , began l iv ing with Yuasa Yosh iko , and completed the writ ing of Nobuko, " the per iod in which Yu r i ko dest roys the ' fami ly ' , " whereas Miyamoto called it her "quagmire p e r i o d . " "Proletar ian wr i ter" is the name g iven to the th i rd per iod which includes the three years spent in the Soviet Un ion , her re turn to Japan, her membership in the Communist Par ty , and her marriage to Miyamoto Kenj i . Most cr i t ics see the following twelve years from 1934 to 1945 as another dist inct pe r iod . Honda Shugo has named it "the period when Yu r i ko destroys the ' s ta te ' . " T h e post-war years from 1945 to 1951 comprise the f i fth and final pe r iod , dubbed " A r i s e , S ing ing Vo i c e s ! " after the title of the f i rst publ ic speech Miyamoto gave following Japan's su r r ende r . The div is ion made between Mazushik i hitobito and Nobuko is just i f iable. A l though a closer look at these works reveals a number of similarit ies, the common areas which do exist indicate a general pattern throughout her ca reer , rather than character is t ics pecul iar only to her early pe r iod . More s ignif icant problems of interpretat ion ar ise when one tries to assess the following two per iods . The re can be no deny ing that her sojourn in the Soviet Union and her part ic ipat ion in the proletar ian writers ' movement inf luenced Y u r i k o , and that the twelve-year per iod from the dissolut ion of KOPF unti l the termination of the war were h i s to r i -cally s ignif icant years for he r . The re does not, however, appear to be suff ic ient l i terary evidence to warrant the div is ion of her works from 1927 to 1945 into two dist inct per iods . One cr i t ic has suggested that du r i ng the "proletar ian wr i ter" per iod when she wrote Ichiren no  h ipurore ta r i a tek i sakuhln —fe)4r 7°Q flp-fepb (A Series of An t i -Proletarian Novels) and Kokkoku , Miyamoto Yu r i ko merely d isplays an 13 intellectual unders tand ing of Marx ism, and that her wri t ing is sometimes dogmatic, but that it is not unti l the fourth per iod , when she wrote Koiwai no ikka and C h i b u s a , that she emerges as a true communist wr i ter . ^ Of the representat ive novels of these two per iods , it is Kokkoku which is the most ^ artistically successful work, exhibi t ing a far greater control over the subject matter than the other pieces. When viewed from the standpoint of her total art ist ic development, Kokkoku as a novel more clearly shows Miyamoto's transit ion from the early Nobuko period to her writ ing after the war. I feel that the novels written du r i ng the war years represent a minor d ig ress ion , rather than the mainjstream in which Miyamoto wrote. She shows her concern for the problems of the working class in such novels as Mazushiki hi tobito, Kokkoku and Banshu he iya , but the central character of these nove ls , as well as that of Nobuko, is not of working class o r ig ins , but rather a middle-class intellectual who al igns hersel f with the working c lass . In her novels of the post-war pe r iod , such as Fuch iso , Futatsu no niwa and Dohyo , Yu r i ko is also concerned with the politicization of a woman intellectual and not with the life of a specif ic character from the working c lass . These novels are fa i r ly au tob iograph i -ca l , and the model for the central characters is undoubtely Miyamoto h e r -self. In the novels of the wart-period^such as Ch ibusa and Koiwai no ikka, however, the main characters are actually members of the working class who are involved in the left-wing movement of the time, and they are based on the l ives of real people rather than on the life of the author h e r -self, but the character is t ic Miyamoto vital ity is miss ing. The use of working class characters and the proletar ian movement itself as the s u b -jects for the works of this period indicates the level of control exerc ised by the central committee of KOPF and Moscow over the art ist ic express ion 16 of its wr i ters . Once the war had ended , and Miyamoto was once again able to publ ish f ree ly , at a time when a r ig id movement was no longer;,in existence, she re turned to the type of characters that she had written about former ly . The type of character development in these lat ier novels clearly indicates that Miyamoto hersel f was more at ease with the f igure of the middle-class woman based on her own exper ience . Her depict ion of these f igures far surpasses her working class characters of the war per iod . The reasons for the div is ion of the 1927-45 per iod has more to do with the way in which the relat ionship between an author 's life and her work are viewed by the l i terary world at large than with the nature of Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s novels themselves. The re is a tendency in Japanese l i terary cr it ic ism in genera l , and Miyamoto Yu r i ko research in par t i cu lar , to place a disproport ionate weight on the autobiographical inf luences in an author 's works . When the autobiographical element is part icu lar ly s t rong , as is the case with Miyamoto Y u r i k o , this tendency becomes even more p ronounced . A n author 's personal life cannot help but inf luence her work, and this is t rue again of Miyamoto Y u r i k o , ..who was ve r y active in the major social movements of her time and who was in tu rn not left unchanged by them. The years 1933 and 1934 mark the transit ion from participation in a legal movement under p r e s su re , to an illegal movement in which part ic ipat ion was punished by censorsh ip , imprisonment or even death. These rest r ic t ions , or lack of them, did alter the course of her daily l i fe. A s biographical drama, the tr ibulat ions which she suf fered at the hands of the government are sensational and not without interest , but we are talking about Miyamoto Y u r i k o , the wr i ter , and not the pr ivate 15 ind iv idua l . When div is ions are made between di f ferent g roups of wr i t ings , at least some of the evidence for doing so should exist within the works themselves, or else they cannot be just i f ied. A s pointed out , some cr i t ics feel that the works of the 1927-33 per iod display a merely intellectual understanding. 'of Marx ism, and that not until later was Miyamoto able to absorb it adequately enough for it to become her real world view. But no evidence is g iven for her supposed dogmatism, nor is there any g iven for the communistic world view that she is supposed to have ach ieved . Kokkoku , which was written du r ing her so-called dogmatic pe r iod , d i s -plays an ease with political issues that is lost in some of the war-time novels which post-date it . T h e war years saw Miyamoto tu rn away from novels and more to essays on pol i t ics, society and l i terature in genera l . It is possible that these works show two separate t r ends , just i fy ing a div is ion between her writ ings before and after 1934. A s the scope of this thesis is limited to her novels rather than her essays , these are quest ions which will not be dealt with here . Miyamoto Yur i ko hersel f d iv ided her novels into d i f ferent g r o u p -ings , and subsequent cr i t ics have not cons idered it necessary to alter her dec is ion. Judg ing from the incidence with which she is quoted as an authori ty on her own novels , one is led .to. believe that Japanese cr i t ics have great faith in the abil i ty of writers to analyze their own creations with the requi red object iv i ty . More so than in the West, Japanese writers are also seen as personalit ies in their own r ight , and much publ ic i ty is g iven to their comings and go ings , so that the personal i ty and the p e r -sonal life of the author assume as much, if not more, charm and interest as the creat ive works which have made her famous. Writing is seen as inextr icably fused with autob iography , making a more impartial evaluation 16 of the art is t ic merits of the l i terature exceedingly d i f f i cu l t . Miyamoto Yu r i ko is general ly c lassif ied as a proletar ian wr i ter ; consequent ly , a considerable amount of importance is attached to her writ ing du r ing the years 1927-45—the period in which she establ ishes hersel f as a writer of this school . Japanese l i terary groups or ha , as they are known, tend to be exclus ive c l iques in which membership is determined more by personal allegiance to the g roup than by actual l i terary similarit ies. Miyamoto Yu r i ko d id play an important role in the Japanese proletarian l i terary movement. Bu t her involvement in it was not due to a radical depar ture politically or art ist ical ly from her earl ier non-political pe r iod . Her early chi ldhood was inf luenced by the environment of the so-called Meiji enlightenment in which she grew u p , and her formative years saw the beg inn ings of Ta isho democracy: these inf luences can be seen in her novels . Her movement towards the radical politics of the thirt ies and forties was a gradual p rocess , and .seen .w i th in the .context of her earl ier works , it was a fa i r ly smooth t rans i t ion. Miyamoto Yu r i ko neither made a sharp turn toward the proletar ian l i terary movement, nor d id she dr i f t away from it once it had fallen apart and d i sbanded . Her early l i terary development car r ied the seeds for fu ture points of contact with this move-ment, and while her writ ing was inf luenced by i t , her works show a c o n -sistent direct ion which chal lenges the label of "proletar ian wr i ter " as one which restr ic ts and diminishes the scope of her creat ive development. Th i s thesis will attempt to trace the development of Miyamoto Yur iko ' s wri t ing through four d i f ferent per iods of her l i fe. Mazushiki  hitobito has been chosen to represent the f i rs t per iod in this development, as it shows the f i r s t , if somewhat unsteady , steps that she took. Ana lys i s of a f i rs t novel can be ve r y informative as it reveals the skeleton—the 17 bones on which the later f lesh and muscle are at tached. Nobuko will be ••, dealt with as the work represent ing her second per iod , as it raises the question of women in society, their special role and the problems they e n -counter . Women's issues remain central to Miyamoto's novels thereaf ter , and her awareness of them draws her away from the idealism and v a g u e -ness of the prev ious per iod , and closer to the quest ion of class issues in the following per iod . The years 1927 to 1945 will be examined as one per iod , and Kokkoku will be used to i l lustrate how the issue of class s t ruggle was assimilated into her exist ing world view and the inf luence that it had on her wr i t ing . Banshu heiya is the result of years of pent-up emotions and creat ive energ ies , and it also indicates the direct ion which the remaining novels before her death will take. By looking at these representat ive works from four dist inct stages in her career , one hopes that a better unders tand ing of the scope and dimension of this writer 's work will be atta ined. Miyamoto Yur iko ' s novels are rarely analyzed from the s t a n d -point of p lot ,ccharacter izat ion or imagery. Rather , cr i t ic ism is general ly conf ined to debates concern ing the nature of her world view or ideological stance, but usual ly little ev idence from the text is presented to subs t an -tiate such arguments . Content cannot be determined by totally abs t rac t -ing it from the form which gives it express ion . S imi lar ly , a d iscuss ion of form and technique must eventual ly move toward a d iscuss ion of its mean-ing and s igni f icance. Th i s thesis will attempt to d iscuss the. most character ist ic elements which appear in these four nove ls , then turn to a more general d iscuss ion of their s ignif icance in terms of Miyamoto Yur iko ' s l i terary development and achievement. 18 Chapter One MAZUSHIKI H ITOB ITO NO MURE Mazushiki hitobito no mure, Miyamoto Yur iko ' s f i rs t publ ished work, appeared in 1916 when the author was seventeen years o l d . 1 Its success with the l i terary world of the time was due in part to the age of this unknown author who had , through connect ions, managed to p u b l i s h : it in Chuo k o r o n f ^ ^ i^Wfr . one of the main establ ished l i terary magazines of the day . The novel lacks sophistication and dep th , but in terms of Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s later l i terary development, it is an important work which reveals the foundation on which her later achievements are la id . T h e material for this short novel was based on the chi ldhood experiences of the author du r ing summer hol idays in the Tohoku region where her grandmother was the landowner in the v i l lage. T h e story r e -flects Miyamoto's growing awareness of the socio-economic inequalities of the sharecroppers of this v i l lage. A young g i r l , who refers to herse l f merely as "I" (watakushi -jfo, ) throughout the s tory , goes to her g r a n d -mother's vi l lage for the summer. A s she walks through the v i l lage, she comes across a g roup of ch i ldren left for the day by their parents while they work in the f ie lds . She watches them, made irr i table by hunge r , f ight over a few meagre potatoes which they cook for their meal. When she tries to say a few k ind words to them, she is rebuf fed and dr i ven away by a barrage of stones. Humil iated, she begins to look for the r ea -sons for their act ions, and decides that she must show them that she is their f r i end and not their foe. Consequent l y , she engages in a series of good deeds , g i v ing them what food , c lothing and small amounts of money 19 she is permitted to take from her grandmother 's home. But the sha re -c roppers do not respond favourab ly . They take advantage of he r , and when the crops are being harves ted , steal produce from the f ie lds . A g roup of women from a Chr is t ian chu r ch in a nearby town organize d i s -tr ibut ion of alms to the poor of the reg ion, but the small amount of money that they g ive creates even more problems, as families f ight over how it should be spent , and some turn to dr ink and even alcoholism. Dur ing a violent storm, the vil lage idiot, who has become an alcohol ic , d ies , and another sharec ropper , d r i ven to despair over his p l ight , com-mits su ic ide . Faced with this s i tuat ion, the heroine realizes that some-thing more fundamental than sympathy and good deeds must be done to alleviate the s i tuat ion. Young and inexper ienced, she doesn' t know what this should be , but resolves in the final lines of the novel to dedicate her life to f ind ing a means by which their l ives can be changed . The re is a pronounced sense of estrangement between the main character and the sharecroppers whose lives she obse rves . A f te r her encounter with J insuke 's ^&J#J ch i ldren she refers to hersel f as an " impudent i n t r u d e r , " and says that "compared to those who are in touch with real l i fe, how simplistic my feelings a re . How bloated with cowardice 2 and l u x u r y . " In the course of the novel the heroine becomes inc reas -ingly aware of why a r i f t exists between herself and the masses of the people, but the gap is never b r i d g e d . "I can never become one of them. I extend a bamboo pole from a c l i f f in an attempt to catch someone gone adr i f t , but I know that I am not t r y ing to save someone with whom I myself am d r i f t i ng . Despite feeling pity and sympathy , I cannot become 3 one of them. " The only thing that changes is the role the heroine feels she must adopt if things are to change : "Bu t what if I was to try and H float in the same stream?" In what way, then , does the heroine observe the life of the lower classes? The most consistent means used to introduce and d e -scr ibe the g roup of sharecroppers is animal imagery,. T h r o u g h its use , Miyamoto is able to display her unders tand ing of their poverty and the effects that it has on their l ives. But at the same time it also in tens i -fies the gap between the sharecroppers and the heroine, and suggests a certa in fear or loathing of their best ia l i ty . Animal imagery f i rst appears in the opening paragraph of the novel and is used repeatedly throughout the s to ry . Looking at the house of the sharecropper J insuke , the he ro -ine descr ibes it in the following way. " T h e r e were few windows, making it ve ry d a r k , and the inside of the house was so f i l thy that, rather than cal l ing i t a human dwe l l ing , I t was more appropriate to c a l l i t something's l a i r . "^ A s the protagonist is pursued by the stones of the ch i l d r en , she descr ibes them as "wild beas t s . " Zenbaka ^ „ ^ & , the vi l lage idiot, appears on the scene a little later, reek ing .o f the f ish he is c a r r y i n g . Like the stray dogs he is fond of , he has no f ixed home; he is often seen sitt ing on the grass p ick ing lice from their bodies . The house in which his family l ives is "l ittle better than a pig sty which had become a nest for lice and bedbugs the year ' r o u n d . " Zenbaka's only ch i ld is re ta rded , and his mother's appearance is l ikened to a baboon. In shor t , " there was not a soul in Zenbaka's family who had a human q u a l i t y . " 7 Encouraged to dr ink by the vi l lagers who recent ly acqu i red money from the Chr is t ian townswomen, Zenbaka eventual ly becomes an alcoholic and turns to begg ing for food and l iquor , degenerat ing into a " f igure more pitiful than a b e a s t . . . i f he had been born as a cat, he would probably 8 have been much happ i e r . " A t the end of the s to ry , Zenbaka wanders out into the raging storm,. The next day , in the swamp of a ne ighbour -ing v i l lage, his dead body is found , hugg ing a d o g , as lines of shr imp weave in and out of his tangled ha i r . Not all of the poor v i l lagers are descr ibed in such an unf la t ter -ing way. A n exception is Shin-san , whom the heroine admires because of his refusal to become bitter and cruel like his own mother, who does nothing but s lander and belittle him before the other v i l l agers . He is really the only sympathetic character in the nove l , almost tragic as he meets death by his own hands . However, Shin-san remains an e x -ception to the general way in which the characters are desc r i bed . Animal imagery reveals the stark and ugly reality that the heroine o b -serves , and it is this reality that stimulates her to quest ion the causes of such human debasement. In combination with the narrat ive of the s tory , animal imagery produces a cause and effect relat ionship with the environment. Th is c o n -cern with the effect of the environment on the qual ity of life remains a central issue throughout Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s novels , and al though not dealt with in>:great depth in Mazushiki hitobito, it nevertheless i l lustrates the budd ing social consciousness which later becomes one of the cha rac -terist ic aspects of her wr i t ing . T h e heroine of this novel points a cr it ical f i nge r , not only at the sharecroppers themselves for the type of life they l ive, but also at social condit ions which have caused them, and she begins to unders tand that it is "because the world is unjust—because g r ich and poor are on parallel l ines that cannot meet . . . . " Her analysis of the situation goes fu r ther than th is , however , attempting to affix historical causes to the s i tuat ion. My forbears were sett lers of K v i l lage. A t a d i s -tance of more than two hundred and f i f ty miles from the capi ta l , this hamlet su r rounded by mountains, was one of the poorer ones belonging to the vi l lages of the same Fukushima Prefecture . 22 Ear ly in the Meiji E r a , on this f ront ier which my grandfa ther devoted half his life to c lea r ing , a vil lage was founded by immigrants from the var ious p rov inces . People from both north and south were tempted by the sound of newly-cleared l and , a n d , dreaming of h a p p i -ness , they left their old homes and came here . How-eve r , not .on ly d id these miserable folk not achieve success as they had hoped , but they ended up s u f f e r -ing more hardsh ips than before . By that time they were gett ing o l d , had lost the courage to move to a n -other place, and had no choice but to end their l ives as sharecroppers in the town. T h u s , now as in the past , they were as poor as eve r . But this was not a l l , for recent ly , when K town, which was only a few miles away, became the junction of the Kanetsu L ine , there was considerable change and this vil lage was also great ly in f luenced. G r a d u -a l ly , an urban sense of competit iveness which had seeped into the hearts of the farmers was fused with the var ious character is t ics that they had d isp layed since ch i ldhood. Everyday life became more hu r r i ed and th ings were left undone. The situation in the vi l lage was definitely not a good one. The disharmony caused by the shift from a long-protected environment to a new one , made everyone feel ill at ease with extreme p o v e r t y . ^ The "u rban sense of competit iveness" of which the heroine speaks undoubtedly refers to the inroads industr ia l izat ion was making on the traditional l i festyle of the farmers . A n d it is implied that the modern era had intens i f ied, rather than a l lev iated, the d is t ress of the populat ion. Having known nothing but hunge r , J insuke 's eldest son cheats in the div is ion of potatoes for his younger brothers and a f ight ensues . Farmers are forever coming to the grandmother 's house ask ing for money and f a -vou r s , and their posture of obsequiousness barely hides their scheming and g r e e d . In spite of repeated favours from her , J insuke steals p r o -duce from the f ie lds , and in order to extract as much money as possible from the phi lanthropists from the town, the v i l lagers dress up in their f i lthiest clothes to look all the more miserable. It is c lear ly socio-economic condit ions that have caused this debased behav ior , and it is this which distresses the heroine. But the protagonist does not see hersel f as a blameless o b -se r ve r . Her initial response to the behavior of the f ight ing ch i ldren is d i sgus t , but when she reflects on her own act ions, she realizes that she has been wrong in her att itude and begins to feel that she must show them that she is in fact their sympathizer . For she , too, is the product of a long tradit ion which has despised the poor . "O f course , I don' t believe I had such stupid ideas as to make me consciously behave a r rogant l y . But it was f r ighten ing to think that because of long-standing convent ion, self-deprecation and humility were viewed as n o r m a l . " ^ None of the good deeds that she embarks on leads to a happy resu l t , but it is not until the women from the town appear that she realizes that her own methods have been wrong . Like the women, the heroine h e r -self has maintained a self-r ighteous att itude in g i v ing alms to the poor . "When I think about it, d idn ' t the greater part of the things that 1 had done until now just satisfy my own heart which was longing to be cha r i t -able to people? I gave them c lo th ing , money and food , and sympathized with them, but what meaning d id this have in terms of their whole life?"^^ Her solution to these problems is act ion. Th i s att itude does not just .appear in the final pages of the nove l , but is rather an import -ant feature of her character throughout . Her desire for action c o n -trasts sharply with the passiv i ty of the sharec roppers , epitomized by the suicide of Sh in-san, and their fatalistic acceptance of exist ing condi t ions. Miyamoto Yur iko ' s cr i t ic ism of the sharecroppers is implicit in their p o r -trayal as passive and i r responsib le ind iv idua ls . They show little interest in the education of their ch i l d ren , and give no encouragement to the young to try and break out of their bondage to the l and . The v i l lagers say that Shin-san's suicide is the result of bad karma from a former life which no one can prevent . In opposit ion to this is the f igure of the heroine who act ively tries to f ind solutions to problems, rev is ing her tactics after each new defeat. In the foreword to the nove l , the author states that "no matter how much I am laughed at or spoken ill of , there is nothing for me to 1 3 do but advance along my own path as long as 1 l i v e . " Later , seeing that her phi lanthropy has produced more problems than before , the heroine says , "...I am a person who does not know res ignat ion. To .'abandon 1 something and quiet ly re lax, and then to eventual ly forget about it is imposs ib l e . . . ! cannot keep calm and say , 'well, that 's just in the way the world i s ' . . . . " A g a i n , toward the end of the nove l , she repeats that all passive ideas are impossible for me. Whatever troubles I encounte r . . . I have to do something. Rather than wanting to d ie , I want to push myself fo rward . A n d until my mind shr ive ls up and grows du l l , and unti l there is no reason left for me to l ive , I want to su rv i ve to the best of my ab i l i ty . T h u s , no matter what happens , 1 cannot throw my life away like the women of long a g o . 1 5 A s t r ik ing feature of this work is the optimism which pervades i t , in contrast to the depress ing reality which is desc r i bed . None of the sharecroppers exude any optimism whatsoever, but it is present in the musings of the heroine and in the way in which the natural world is desc r ibed . The s u n , called tendo-sama -yhM,^ , appears several times throughout the novel a n d , in combination with the natural wor ld , which is descr ibed as lush and p lent i fu l , it evokes a sense of benevolence and wel l-being. It is to the sun that the heroine addresses her last sentimental ou tburs t , dedicat ing hersel f to a life of action in the final lines of the nove l . Ear ly in the s to ry , natural imagery is used to contrast the reality of the life a round her with what it could be . "I will qu ick ly fill up that d isgust ing gut ter which lies between them and myself , 16 and produce a beautiful flower g a r d e n . " Th i s image of a garden is r e -peated once more toward the end of the novel when, faced with defeat, the heroine imagines that they are r id icu l ing he r , ask ing her what has become of her f lowers. It is also in the final lines of the novel that the theme of love emerges. Th i s love theme is not really deve loped, but it bears mention-ing as it becomes an issue in Miyamoto's next major nove l , Nobuko. A f te r the deaths of Shin-san and Zenbaka, the heroine wonders : "If I had e n -veloped them in a really b ig love, had tr ied to lift them up with compas-s ion, maybe it would not have ended in Shin-san's death . Maybe it would not have ended in Zenbaka turn ing to d r i n k . . . . But I never really loved them. 1 don't know how to love y e t ! " 1 7 These words . re-flect the idealism of the heroine who believes that through ef for t , human love and k indness , the world and the nature of human relat ionships in it can change . Mazushiki hitobito is not the most art ist ical ly successful of Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s nove ls . The ideas and themes which are expressed within it are certainly commendable for an inexper ienced au thor , but there are flaws in its const ruc t ion . One of these is the absence of any detailed character development. A l though the main character ' s att itude and tactics change throughout the nove l , the heroine hersel f as a person does not really expand or grow. Her budd ing social consc iousness , her optimism and dis l ike of pass iv i t y , are all aspects of her character that are revealed in the opening pages of the nove l , and basical ly they do not change . The sharecroppers themselves, a l though possess ing indiv idual pecul iar i t ies , never develop into well-rounded characters e i ther . Rather , they are types that are kept at a safe distance from the heroine. The author bemoans the existence of the "d i sgus t ing gut te r " that lies between the lives of the 'haves' and the 'have-nots ' , but throughout the nove l , the lack of any human contact , verbal or otherwise, between the heroine and the sharecroppers only serves to intensify the r ift and sense of alienation which is a lready present . T h e div is ion of characters into g roups of 'them' and 'us ' is not an a rb i t ra ry action on the part of the author . It is an aspect of how Miyamoto sees humanity , and al though the nature and definit ion of 'them' and 'us ' changes throughout the course of her ca reer , this basic d iv is ion of the world into opposing black and white g roup ings remains intact. Th i s tendency is part icu lar ly noticeable in the stereotyped treatment of the Chr is t ian townswomen. Tens ions ar is ing from confrontat ions between contrast ing g roups can , when ski l fu l ly used as it is in some of her later works , produce tremendous vital i ty and d r i v e . There is vital i ty in Mazushiki hitobito but it emanates mainly from the posit ive att itude of the heroine. The other characters lack independence and do not attain full development. The descr ipt ion of the sharecroppers in terms of animals and bugs constitutes the closest thing approaching imagery in the nove l . The central themes of the novel are developed primari ly through the mus-ings and verbal statements of the main character rather than through an orchestrated complex of images, reveal ing lack of exper ience in handl ing form and technique. In spite of these weaknesses, Mazushiki hitobito, d isp lays a number of important character is t i cs . The attempt to give rudimentary explanations to exist ing social condit ions indicates a desire to unde rs t and , not just the manifestations of human behav ior , but also its causes . The use of characters from the lower stratum of society as material for the nove l , and the div is ion of characters into two or more opposing g roups or c lasses , shows an emerging social consciousness even at this early stage. The connection made between posit ive action and change , and the optimistic belief in humanity 's abi l i ty to alter its c o n d i -t ion, are themes which subsequent ly reappear in Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s novels . 28 Chapter Two N O B U K O Miyamoto Yu r i ko publ ished Nobuko in 1926, ten years after the appearance of Mazushiki h i tob i to . 1 The material for this novel was based on the personal exper iences of the author , and it documents the six years dur ing which she met, married and subsequent ly d ivorced her f i rs t h u s -b a n d , A rak i Sh ige ru . Nobuko, the heroine of this nove l , accompanies her father to New York where the story beg ins . Dur ing her father 's stay in New Y o r k , she meets T s u k u d a 4$ , a student of ancient Persian languages, who has been s tudy ing in the United States for fifteen yea rs . Dur ing an i n -f luenza epidemic that Nobuko and her father succumb to, she and T s u k u d a are drawn together. Upon her father 's re turn to Japan, Nobuko is left behind to s tudy . When the relat ionship with Tsukuda deve lops , they d e -cide to mar ry . Because of her mother's i l lness, Nobuko re turns to her parents ' home in Tokyo short ly after the marr iage, and Tsukuda. follows several months later. Her family, especial ly her mother, is outraged at such an unorthodox marriage to someone of a lower status a n d , in the months that follow, the family atmosphere is stra ined with tensions b e -tween mother and daughte r , and T s u k u d a and her family. F ina l ly , the young couple move out on their own. But as the days pass , Nobuko b e -comes dissat isf ied with her marriage and increas ingly f rus t ra ted by the fact that her l i terary product iv i ty has come to a s tandst i l l . A f t e r several years of sel f-searching and vaci l lat ion, Nobuko finally leaves T s u k u d a . It is at this point that the novel ends . 29 Nobuko; is a novel of sharp conf l icts and confrontat ions, at times border ing on despa i r , but ultimately hope and the will to action p reva i l . In contrast to the main character of Mazushiki hitobito, who directs her gaze outward to society at large, and to a g roup of u n d e r -pr iv i leged people whose pl ight she feels is unjust , the heroine of Nobuko directs her gaze inward to her own personal sphere . A n d rather than the emancipation :6f a class of people to whom she does not be long , here she is concerned with her own l iberation from people and situations which inhibit the growth she feels she is entit led to. Animal imagery in Mazushiki hitobito was used to i l lustrate the debasement of the sharec roppers . It is used once again in Nobuko, but this time its development throughout the novel shows Nobuko's own emotional deteriorat ion and dehumanization as the victim of an ill-fated marr iage. In the final pages of the nove l , it is also used to indicate the reb i r th of Nobuko's vital ity and optimism as she cuts her marital t ies. A f t e r Nobuko's arr iva l in New Y o r k , the confines of her hotel room are descr ibed as drab and monotonous. She compares Her life to that of a vegetable: "She too wanted to d i sca rd the neither hot nor 2 co ld , vegetable-l ike existence which had enclosed her unti l now. " In order to achieve th is , she marries Tsuku.da, incur r ing the wrath of her family. When he re turns to her family home, tensions bu i ld between mother and daughter and Nobuko compares hersel f to a threatened animal: "Human beings possess the same k ind of intuit ive sense about the a t -mosphere of the homes in which they live as animals do about the safety or approach of danger to their l a i r s , which they can smell out inst inc-3 t i ve l y . " T h e couple move out on their own, but Nobuko becomes d e -pressed about the monotony and mediocrity of their dai ly existence. 30 She feels lonely and wretched. T s u k u d a assures her that she will get used to i t , but Nobuko f inds the situation loathsome and compares it to the pl ight of domesticated animals: More than anyth ing else, this 'gett ing used to' some-i thing f r ightened Nobuko. That human beings would, in due time, get used to any environment, l ike domes-ticated beasts , was sad and t e r r i f y i ng . Would she too eventual ly become used to this life? T h e n , after many years had lapsed, interests and passions would d i s -appear , she would become a being that no longer knew if she resembled or not the person she had once de te r -mined to become, and her life would just e n d . 4 1 Nobuko's relat ionship with T s u k u d a deteriorates still f u r t he r , and she contemplates separat ion. But she is unable to take the decis ive s tep. One day , as she and the maid are ta lk ing , they d iscuss a sick f ish that is bul l ied by the other healthier ones. Nobuko remembers that a few n ights before , she had seen dogs chase and bite another dog that had just been hit by a ca r . The analogy made between Nobuko (or Tsukuda ) and the dogs and f ish is not altogether c lear , but perhaps it indicates a situation whereby l iv ing creatures become so c razed that they engage in behavior rare under normal condit ions.. . . .Short ly thereafter , Nobuko resolves to leave T s u k u d a , but in doing so she has two a l te rna -t i ves : to retreat to her former chi ldhood relat ionship with her parents where the future is stra ight and secure , or to make her own way into the future as an independent adu l t . Nobuko chooses the latter cou r se : "Nobuko bel ieved that she could not re turn to that which she had s t rugg led so to leave. However scar red it may be , even a snake cannot put on the skin that it d i scarded the year b e f o r e . " 5 Th is is a tu rn ing point in the nove l , and the animal imagery also ref lects the change . Images of wounding, imprisonment and deforma-tion give way to those express ing v i ta l i ty , movement and joy. The b i rds 31 and snake that Nobuko sees du r i ng a walk in the park with her f r i end Motoko i l lustrate this t r end . It was said that dur ing the earthquake the water fowl at this pond were hunted and eaten, but now it was f i l led with r ipp l ing waves that swayed in the g l i t ter ing rays of the s u n . Two ducks swam ene r -getical ly on the surface of the water. From time to time, they would rise up spir i tedly f lapping their wings sudden ly , showing their yellow webbed feet, and spray ing water everywhere . Th rough the spray of the water, a small snake could be seen rest ing idly for a moment. It was an innocent, sp i r i ted and beautiful scene.6 The b i rds in partial f l ight in this scene eventual ly become the b i rds who f ly away from their cages in the final sentences of the nove l . Nobuko meets T sukuda one last time before the final b reak . In the past , her resolution has always failed he r , but now she is s tead -fast and feels that her decision has been a just one: " A f ish cannot live where there is no water. But does anyone say that the f ish is therefore to b lame? " 7 When T s u k u d a realizes that Nobuko is determined to leave him, he frees a g roup of small b i rds from their cage , say ing that they have no need for the b i rds anymore. The b i rds are at f i rs t su rp r i sed by the open door of the cage, but gradual ly f ly into the f r ee -dom of the a i r . However, one of the b i rds is confused by the open spaces and flies back to its cage , whereupon Tsukuda mutters, "Even the b i rd has come b a c k . . . w h a t about you . " but Nobuko has already opened the door to her own cage. "She could no longer tolerate being 8 a domesticated b i r d . " The descr ipt ion of scenes and use of natural imagery in Nobuko shows the advances in character development over Mazushiki  hitobito. A t the same time, it points to Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s growing c o n -cern with the nature of environment and its effects upon the indiv idual psyche and human re lat ionships. Th i s imagery also demonstrates her systematic util ization of a more sophist icated form to express and broaden the scope of thematic elements. A s the relat ionship between T s u k u d a and Nobuko deve lops , em-phasis shif ts from the cramped confines of the hotel room to the banks of the Hudson River that the two f requent in their walks. Nobuko's world is g iven more scope, and the vastness and freerf lowing r iver is symbolic of the new direct ion in which she is t u r n i n g . Bu t the surface of the r iver itself is often "part ia l ly hazy " and " b l u r r ed a rosy h u e , " suggest ing that Nobuko's unders tand ing of the situation is not as clear as it should be . It is not until the final line of the novel that the haze d isappears , and she is able to see " v i v id l y and d i s t i n c t l y . . .each dark g needle of the p i n e s . " The day Nobuko re turns to Tokyo it is ra ining and the entrance to her home is dark and solemn, foreshadowing the stormy weather ahead in her relationship with her parents . A s the situation with her parents deter iorates, another image emerges, sharp ly contrast ing that of the Hudson R iver , and it indicates a shift in Nobuko's awareness: "Nobuko felt upset by the feeling that she was being hemmed in on both sides by firm and uny ie ld ing c l i f fs that her own strength could neither pull nor push a w a y . " 1 0 P rev ious ly , Nobuko and Tsukuda had been fair ly united against the opposit ion and pressures exerted by f r iends and family. But this image suggests that a r ift has been c rea ted , and that Nobuko is caught in the middle. The r ift is not mended when the two move out on their own. Nobuko complains that there are never any v is i tors to their home, and she and Tsukuda pass their days with few activit ies in common. They plant evergreens a round their house, which is sandwiched between other bu i ld ings in the crowded al leyway. Nobuko is pleased that the greenery attracts the neighborhood ch i l d r en , but the ch i ld ren irr i tate T s u k u d a who scares them away. Nobuko's hopes, symbolized by the f lu idi ty of the Hudson R i ve r , have been darkened by the life of the dark alley in which they l ive. It has become a dead-end road . T h u s , Nobuko talks to T sukuda about the possibi l i ty of s epa ra -t ion, but before a decision is made they go to a hot-spr ing resort for a hol iday. The natural beauty of the scenery impresses Nobuko, and she hopes that amid these more sympathetic su r round ings , the s ickness a f -f l ict ing their relat ionship will be healed. The two hike to a volcanic c ra te r , and the journey is h ighly symbolic of the course that their relat ionship has taken unti l now. Eve ry th ing appears to go well unti l they are hit by a violent storm, suggest ing the external pressures and problems that they have exper ienced in their everyday l ives . However, it becomes apparent that each one's purpose for going on the hike has been d i f f e r -ent , and they b icker over how they should cope with the change in the weather. They are l iterally not able to weather the storm, the pleasant atmosphere sours , the ' journey' is terminated, and the two go on their separate ways. Because T s u k u d a falls ill with tubercu los is , the final break is delayed once more. Dur ing his convalescence they v is i t an old f r iend of h i s . The meeting has a decisive inf luence on Nobuko. Sakabe 4SL$p> is a botanist and his explanation about the effect of the environment on the life of plants and animals enl ightens Nobuko on the nature of her own s i tuat ion. Sakabe shows Nobuko pictures of trees in Manchuria whose growth has been stunted and deformed by the seasonal winds that batter them. He also talks about the effect of the environment on the quality of l i fe. . . . c e r t a i n plants and animals are able to su r v i v e , but that depends on natural good condi t ions. It depends on the location. Just anywhere on the face of the earth does not seem to work. Some plants cannot exist except in zones at certa in nor thern lat i tudes. Some can't l ive except in the v ic in i ty of the equator . Of course , placing them art i f ic ial ly in a hot house and us ing other means does not mean that you can't keep them al ive . However, the trouble is that plants l iv ing in this manner do not bear f r u i t . . . . Human be ings , too, can exist without dy ing in a physiological sense in almost any environment. But if the soil isn ' t r igh t , they won't propagate . 11 There are many suggest ions at the beginning of the novel that the relat ionship between Nobuko and T s u k u d a has the potential for fu ture d i s c o r d . Bu t it is not until the couple take up residence with her parents that a r ift begins to appear between them, and it fu r the r widens once they begin to l ive by themselves. The natural imagery traces the deteriorat ion and eventual breakdown of their re lat ionship. The i r incompatibil ity is shown part icu lar ly in the three scenes where T sukuda f r ightens away the neighborhood ch i ldren from the t rees , when he is adamant about cut t ing away the last of the roses even before they are f in i shed , and in a later 1 2 scene when he throws out a bowl of marimo that Sakabe has g iven Nobuko. The b i rds that he keeps in capt iv i ty are also symbolic of the eventual domestication of Nobuko that he des i res . Sakabe's d iscuss ion about the relationship between a suitable environment and growth and propagation is the key to unders tand ing the s ignif icance of both animal and natural imagery. L ike the stunted and deformed Manchurian t rees , Nobuko's deterioration into a domesticated beast has also been the result of an unsuitable environment. She speaks of marriage as a 'hybrid. ' echoing Sakabe's phrase about the 'artif icial 35 hot house' where l iv ing things are incapable of bear ing f ru i t . The scenes where they argue over the p lant ing , cutt ing or throwing away of plants i l lustrates, too, that their relat ionship itself is not g row ing , and that it is becoming stunted and deformed. What, then , is the artif icial environment that is inhibit ing the natural growth of these characters? Nobuko's percept ion of the life a round her is general ly descr ibed in terms of restr ict ion (semasa ) and growth (nobinobi ffiKftl<), hunger and fulf i l lment. As the characters of her name suggest , Nobuko's goal in life is to " g r o w , " " p r o g r e s s " or " advance . " She states that "she wanted to remove obstac les, to unt i r-13 ingly confront l i f e . . . . " Nobuko f i rs t becomes aware of this sense of restr ict ion when she is int roduced to a g roup of Japanese fore ign s t u -dents in New York whose company she f inds s tu l t i f y ing . "Somehow Nobuko d idn ' t fit into this narrow life and the uneasy (nobinobi shinai ^K^2N LttIN) mood of the room. Even though they were in the midst of a new environment and life s ty le , they saw nothing and heard . n o t h i n g . . . . " But her family was the obstacle to her personal growth which she had to break away from. Her chief motivation for accompanying her father to New York was to live the life that she des i r ed . Nobuko was the eldest daughter of the Saza house -ho ld . There was a tendency for her to be the o b -ject of her spir i ted mother Takeyo 's secret ambi -t ions. However, since she was the daughter of a middle-class family, there were restra ints which d id not permit her to rush headlong into the life that she des i r ed . For the past three years Nobuko was upset by the realization that her life had not yet b e g u n . . . . 1 5 A s her relat ionship with Tsukuda deve lops , Nobuko feels that marriage will enable her to break away from the control of her family, and that, at the same time, it will prov ide her with an environment 36 suitable to her growth as a woman and her development as an ar t i s t . 16 Instead of the "oppress i veness , narrowness and mediocrity" of married life that she sees around he r , Nobuko desires a f reer form of marr iage. In marr iage, however, Nobuko is not so easily released from the demands and pressures of her family. Her mother, who harboured hopes of her daughter becoming an establ ished writer and who had wanted her daughter to marry as h igh as possible on the social ladder , is appal led at Nobuko's. choice of a par tner . Dialogues between mother and daughter reveal Takeyo 's excessive conce rn—perhaps normal for the times—with Tsukuda ' s unknown but obviously humble b a c k g r o u n d , and his lack of a secure economic and social position within the social c lass she feels appropr iate to Nobuko's own b a c k g r o u n d . Nobuko begins to realize that even if he did possess a more amiable and open persona l i ty , which he does not, he would still be an unacceptable match for her in the eyes of her family and society at large. In her attempt to break away from her family, it was precisely these things which Nobuko had found interest ing and attract ive about him. If her family had been the only obstacle standing in the way of her growth and fulf i l lment, Nobuko ' s life should have changed once ~-she and T s u k u d a moved out on their own. But with each monotonous day , Nobuko begins to realize that marriage itself has begun to impose another set of restr ict ions on her . They had a house by themselves, T s u k u d a had found work, and for the most part their life had begun a c -cord ing to p lan , . . . b u t for Nobuko there was some-thing about this life that she couldn ' t get used t o . . . Nobuko d id not fit into the role of wife. It was d i f f i cu l t , if not impossible, to say in a word why it d idn ' t f i t . . . . But the one thing that she d id u n d e r -stand was the narrow scope in which her life revo lved . the heaviness and the painful lack of f lex ib i l i ty . A n d this was to be their life from now o n . . . . A f t e r embarking on a life for which she had had so many hopes, she was unaware that their life had closed in on them like a pasture fence. But before long , Nobuko could feel hersel f face to face with an ove rbea r ing , unshakable h u s b a n d . 1 7 Within the context of this narrow marital re lat ionship, the theme of starvation emerges. A t the beg inn ing of the nove l , Nobuko states that she wants to become a writer and write at least one good novel b e -fore she d ies . She proposes marriage to T s u k u d a on the condit ion that she be allowed to continue with her work. She makes T s u k u d a promise that they will have no ch i l d ren , for Nobuko feels that they would become an obstacle to her wr i t ing . However, she is unable to settle down to work amidst the turbulent emotional atmosphere of her married l i fe , and she f inds more and more that "the absence of the necessary art ist ic 18 atmosphere, like food itself, pained her deep l y . " A s T s u k u d a sl ips easily into the rut of middle-class marr iage, losing his desire for change , the theme of starvat ion appears with more f r equency . It is interest ing to note that the only occasion on which Nobuko is able to write again is when she is at her grandmother 's rura l home, far from both T s u k u d a and her parents . She speaks of her depar ture by train in terms of freedom and release from Tokyo ' s squalor . The " h y b r i d cal led marr iage" is the artif icial environment which is stunt ing Nobuko's g rowth , and in which she is unable to bear her art ist ic f ru i t s . A s one of her pr imary goals was to "remove obstacles" which prevented th is , she must therefore take the necessary steps which will free her from her marr iage. Nobuko 's tendency toward action rather than passiv i ty appears repeatedly as a theme throughout the nove l . Act ion and non-action are also seen in the contrast ing stances of the heroine and the sharecroppers 38 in Mazushiki hitobito, but it is never developed as much as it is in the novel Nobuko. In the earl ier work, it is only the heroine who shows any desire for posit ive act ion, and it remains merely another aspect which intensif ies the sense of alienation between the main character and those around he r . In Nobuko, T s u k u d a is an essential ly passive character and the conf l ict which develops between him and Nobuko, who is c o n -stantly stra in ing against its st i f l ing ef fects , delineates the incompatible personalit ies of these two c h a r a c t e r s „ Nobuko deals with the problem in a more complex manner, and because there are a number of other cha r a c -ters in the novel who exhibi t these two traits in va ry ing degrees , the sense of total alienation which pervades Mazushiki hitobito is not as severe in this nove l . T sukuda ' s pass iv i ty is revealed in a number of ways. One of the most s t r ik ing examples is his inabil ity to communicate verbal ly with anyone a round him. Nobuko is aware of this and reflects short ly after she meets him that " T s u k u d a was not ski l led at making conversa t ion . He 19 was a man who could not initiate topics on his o w n . " Short ly the re -a f ter , Nobuko tries to d iscuss with him the war that is about to e n d . She is fo r th r ight in her condemnation of i t , but T sukuda ' s comments in this section amount to little more than a series of b l anks . When inv i ted to go to the theatre with f r i ends , Nobuko asks his permiss ion, but he only gives her a noncommittal answer . The i r confrontat ion with Miss Pratt before they marry is another example of his inabil ity or refusal to take a clear s tand . Th i s tendency becomes even more pronounced when T s u k u d a and Nobuko move back to T o k y o . The re are several scenes where T s u k u d a is unwil l ing to participate in the family gather ing at tea time, and he is re fer red to as a " fore ign element." But the major confl ict occurs when Nobuko's parents suggest that he be adopted into their family as a means of assur ing a h igher status for them. Nobuko refuses to even consider the matter, for it represents to her the conservat ive concerns of the family system. But instead of refus ing the offer as Nobuko had assumed he would, T sukuda merely hedges with his classic noncommittal r ep l y , reveal ing his conservatism regard ing traditional family va lues . Life on their own, however, reveals an even more uncommunica-tive man. He seldom part ic ipates in any conversat ion and is descr ibed as c rack ing his knuckles as a s tandard response to Nobuko's entreat ies. He is also content with the status quo regard ing his work, and Nobuko is appalled by the fact that he is not interested in advanc ing his research from the level he had achieved in the past. T sukuda ' s att itude toward his work appears at that point in the novel where Nobuko hersel f becomes more and more concerned with the development of her own work as an ar t i s t . Her growing desire for art ist ic advancement contrasts with her husband 's contentment with th ings the way they a re . The same cont ras t -ing att itudes are apparent regard ing their re lat ionship. T s u k u d a refuses to admit that there is basical ly anyth ing wrong , whereas Nobuko demands a radical change in their l i ves . Up to this point in the nove l , there are only scenes of con f ron ta -tion ar is ing from the contrast ing active and passive characters of Nobuko and T s u k u d a . But with the appearance of Sakabe, we are shown another character who attempts to put his ideas into act ion. Nobuko descr ibes him in the following way: "If he spoke about deformed p lants , he i n -var iably reached a conclusion which somehow related this topic to c o n -temporary life in human society. It never ended in a microscopic repor t . 4 0 20 That is what made his stories vital and a t t rac t i ve . " In contrast to Sakabe is the f igure of the art is t who commits su ic ide . He is h ighly respected by Nobuko, and his death is a heavy blow to he r , for by com-mitting su ic ide , he has in effect re l inquished his responsibi l i ty to act . Nobuko, hersel f torn by internal s t ruggles and unable to reconcile her new awareness with her present s i tuat ion, comes to realize that she too will meet a similar impasse in her own life if she fails to take the neces -sary s teps . In the final section of the nove l , Nobuko begins to associate with a woman writer whose attitude is a s t r ik ing contrast to the art is t of the prev ious chapter whose life ended in su ic ide . To Nobuko she is a posit ive role model to follow, and Nobuko is impressed with her unt i r ing efforts to overcome the many problems that she has encountered in order to develop as a wr i ter . T h r o u g h this association Nobuko meets Motoko ^ 3f , a s ingle woman who makes her l iv ing by translat ing Russian l i terature, and is s t rongly attracted by this woman's obvious economic independence and intellectually stimulating l i festy le. Because these r e -lationships appear toward the end of the novel they are not ful ly deve loped, but they show for the f i rs t time in Miyamoto Yur iko ' s novels a sense of ease and a shared purpose in life between charac te rs . It is interest ing to note that real contact between Nobuko and other characters occurs only with those people who are s ingle , and who therefore stand outside the institution of marr iage. In spite of a number of advances in technical and thematic elements, there are certain areas in which Nobuko bears a close resemb-lance to Mazushiki hitobito. In the earl ier nove l , the main character assumes the posture of a benevolent sympathizer toward the group of poor 41 sharec roppers . She also expresses the belief that love and human g o o d -ness will eventual ly b r idge the gap between the members of these two opposing social c lasses . The heroine meets with defeat throughout the nove l , but this basic premise is never really cha l lenged, and in the final lines she reiterates the hope that love will b r ing them together. Th i s humanistic att i tude is also evident in Nobuko, part icular ly in the f i rs t two chapte rs . L ike the heroine of the earl ier nove l , Nobuko in effect becomes Tsukuda ' s sympathizer . Her initial attraction to him is not due so much to his personal attr ibutes as it is to his poor background and lower social status. Throughout the nove l , Nobuko attr ibutes his d a r k -ness , his pass iv i ty and lack of sel f-conf idence, to the fact that his fifteen years of s tudy in the Uni ted States were years of hardsh ip and pr i va t ion . She feels sor ry for him and is determined to help change his l i fe . The heroine of Mazushiki hitobito felt that love was what was l ack ing , but felt incapable of g i v ing it at that point in her l i fe. Nobuko also feels that love is what is lacking in Tsukuda ' s l i fe, but she feels that she is now ready to g ive i t . Before her marr iage, Nobuko states that : "I believe in something. — I think that love changes p e o p l e . . . . In other words , good people who are of a lower social status due to c ircumstances or whatever can be raised by the proper i n f l uence . . . . I never l ike rosy jco loured youths who are hea l thy , l ight-hearted and sociable. They are uninterest ing unless they are people who have exper ienced h a r d s h i p . . . . R ight now, Tsukuda ' s caser is one of being in an e n -vironment that is da rk . But I am hoping that he will get over it , and will eventual ly acquire a s t rong and lofty b r i g h t n e s s . " 2 1 But after a few unsuccessfu l years of marr iage, Nobuko begins to realize that love itself does not have the healing powers that she had prev ious ly hoped , and becomes aware that within marriage other solutions are necessary . "E i ther she would have to be reborn as a d i f ferent woman, or the common social ideas about sexual life would have to change in certa in 22 respects for her to remain :married without p rob lems . " In coming to this conc lus ion, Nobuko departs from the philosophical stance of the he ro -ine of Mazushiki hitobito. The systematic use of imagery to bui ld scenes and to develop characters and thematic elements in Nobuko reveals Miyamoto Yur iko ' s budd ing art ist ic matur i ty . However, the introspection and the inner d i a -logues of Mazushiki hitobito are not completely d iscarded here . A t times it tends to develop only Nobuko at the expense of the other charac ters . The internal debates of the heroine are at times repetit ive and make the novel unnecessar i ly long , and with the often heavy-handed use of imagery, slow down the momentum of the nove l . The names of some of the cha r a c -ters reveal a lack of subtlety in the imagery. Nobuko's name is der ived from the character nobiru j ^ K £ > which means to "grow" or to " e x p a n d , " and within the context of the novel it is s ignif icant but unobt rus i ve . The c h a r a c t e r i s e d for her mother's name, Takeyo &§fiX • indicates the author 's cr it ical att itude toward this woman's supposedly "ca lcu la t ing" behav ior . But the name that is the most g lar ing is that of T s u k u d a . Th i s character itself means merely "a cult ivated rice f i e l d , " but when r» is placed after it to make tsukudani ^jff i^ , a rather obvious but 23 cruel association is made. Tsukudan i is a type of pickle or confection eaten by poorer people with great quantit ies of r i ce . It is cooked and boiled down for a long time, is extremely sal ty , and black and gummy in appearance. The name is a rather bi t ter attack on Tsukuda ' s spir i tual pover t y , the smallness and shr ive l led nature of his life and goals , and the darkness of his personal i ty . Tsukudan i appears again in Banshu  heiya in a scene where the heroine Hiroko 2*33", watches the bedragg led 43 su rv i vo rs of the war eat their meagre lunches . Its use in Nobuko may not have been totally unconsc ious . Nobuko attempts to explain the unhappiness and d issa t i s fac -tions of the heroine in terms of social causes , tu rn ing specif ical ly to social institutions such as the family and marr iage. It is an attempt to universal ize the exper ience of the main character . Nobuko compareshher situation with that of her grandmother 's maid, Sawako *^b-§~ and Motoko. A l though a tenuous connection is made between Nobuko and other women, the novel never loses its h igh ly personal nature , stemming from Nobuko's strong sense of self and her desire for se l f-assert ion. Never the less , Miyamoto Yur iko ' s treatment of the story from the perspect ive of women's issues gives the novel great s t rength and vital ity and a universa l i ty not present in Mazushiki hitobito. A f t e r Nobuko, the author never loses s ight of the special role and dist inct iveness of women in Japanese society. Nobuko, however, is not the story of a typical Japanese woman. She comes from a middle-class background with relative economic stabi l i ty , is educated and h ighly motivated in terms of career and personal ach ieve -ment, and is therefore set somewhat apart from the majority of women at the time that it was wr i t ten. But seen in historical perspect i ve , the issues in this nove l , and the means by which they are reso lved , reflect an awareness which is definitely ahead of its time. No other woman writer of the mid - 1920's has attempted to expose the nature of marriage from the woman's point of v iew. Nobuko did not actually become popular until the end of the war, twenty years later, but today, after another th i r ty yea rs , the issues and their treatment remain as f resh and vital as eve r . Within an historical context , Nobuko's desire for action takes on an added s igni f icance. The action that she eventual ly engages i n—divorce—is a radical depar ture from the idealistic musings of the heroine of Mazushiki hi tobito. A f t e r the Meiji Restorat ion, marriage and the family gradual ly came to be seen as natural extensions of the emperor system, which demanded, at the pr ice of se l f-sacr i f ice, loyalty and obed i -ence. T h e signif icance of these institutions became even greater with the advance of Japan's industr ia l izat ion and efforts at national unity in preparat ion for the eventual imperialistic ventures which took place a few years a f terwards . Insubordination from members of the state family was not to be tolerated. Miyamoto Yu r i ko had always felt ill at ease with authori tar ian inst i tut ions, and had left school because of dissatisfact ion with an educational system whose aim for women students was that they become good wives and wise mothers (ryosai kenbo feUH^. Nobuko is a direct chal lenge to this subserv ient role for women a n d , a l though at this stage it is non-political in its overt express ion , it is h ighly , political in its implications in that it questions one of the ideological foundations on which the modern Japanese state res ted . The nature of the Japanese state was something that Miyamoto Yu r i ko was to become more acutely aware of in novels such as K o k k o k u , and was to cont inue to s t ruggle against for the rest of her career . 45 Chapter Three K O K K O K U Kokkoku is a novelette which clearly reveals Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s depar ture from the humanistic concerns of her earl ier two w o r k s . 1 For the f i rs t time she turns to overt ly political i ssues , us ing the proletarian movement and the police state as her material. Temporar i ly sett ing aside the problems of women in the family system and marr iage, Miyamoto d i rects her attention to the broader issues of the working class which has been d e -pr i ved of its basic r i gh ts . Her earl ier two works also deal with social inequal it ies, but they are viewed from the standpoint of the indiv idual p r o -tagonist . In Kokkoku , the situation of the central character is descr ibed within the context of a .whole class of oppressed people, and the central concern becomes the s t ruggle for physical surv iva l rather than the prev ious humanistic demands for emotional fulf i l lment. The story of Kokkoku is based on the exper iences of the author du r ing the spr ing of 1932 when she was imprisoned for three months w i th -out formal charge or t r ia l . Except for the movement from pr ison cell to interrogation room there is little physical act ion, but events are dramatized through conversat ions between the protagonist and other inmates, and her debates with the thought-control police. Th ree specif ic features of this work will be d i s cussed ; imagery, character development, and the theme of posit ive act ion. The central image of the novel is that of the pr ison itself, and it is a round it that eve ry th ing else is cen te red . The pr ison setting d e -termines the nature of character izat ion. The world is systematically 46 div ided into three opposing groups of people: p r i soners , their jailers and a th i rd group made up of v i s i to rs . The pr ison becomes a symbol of society and the Japanese state, a microcosm in which the nature of human social existence is ana lyzed . What is the nature of life within the pr ison and what are the di f ferences between the three g roups of people? The sord id l iv ing c o n d i -tions of the pr isoners are emphasized in the opening pages of the nove l . Twenty men are crowded into two ce l ls ; accommodation for the women is little bet ter . Bad sanitation is i l lustrated by the way inmates are g iven their food : " A t noon, a servant put the lunches and bowls of plain water down in the hallway near the outside of the matt ing. The muddy shoes of 2 the pr ison guards were less than two feet away . " There is no pr ivacy in the cells and little d igni ty allowed them even in the toi lets: " T h e pr ison toilet had no door . A r o u n d the corner from the sink was a three-foot square concrete room at the end of which a c louded square mirror was h u n g . Th i s was so that the gua rds could observe those rel ieving them-3 se l ves . " The inmates are not allowed to s i ng , nor do they have any f r ee -dom of movement, but the gua rds remove them from their cel ls at will and have total control over their physical act iv i t ies . Weeks pass , and because of the lack of bathing facil it ies the pr isoners become infested with l ice. My skin had become conspicuously d i r t y . Its luster was gone, and white flakes came off when I rubbed my arms. Lice wriggled out . I began to unders tand the unique way that lice i tched. S tar t led , I'd look at my underc loth ing and would catch fifteen of them, inc luding baby lice that looked like t iny red sp ide r s . Th i s was the state of t h i ngs . 4 1 The situation of specif ic characters reveals not only their i n -div idual p l ight , but also the div is ion of all characters into three dist inct g r o u p s . The f i rs t g roup of pr isoners is int roduced as "p i ck-pockets . 47 shop-l i f ters , people who had jumped restaurant b i l l s , swindlers and ex to r -t i o n i s t s . " 5 The women's cell is composed of "a prost i tute , an abort ionis t , g three older women and a go-between" in addit ion to a madwoman. The protagonist , who is also part of this g r o u p , refers to these people as "the cornerstone of the w o r l d . " 7 There a re , however, several other characters whose treatment in the pr ison is descr ibed in detai l . Imano f^ > , one of the few characters named, is a member of the proletarian movement. A f te r a cold which turns into tonsi l i t is , he is g iven no medical treatment. He is in ter rogated, then beaten.. As a resul t , the infection moves into the inner ear and his condit ion becomes ser ious, but the authorit ies vacil late over what to do. He is f inally taken to a hospital where his condit ion deteriorates due to inept treatment follow-ing his operat ion. In a post-scr ipt we are told that his life is saved only after he undergoes another operation at a d i f ferent hospi ta l . A young un ivers i ty student who is d runk is b rought to the pr ison du r ing the n ight . The police interrogate him also, and the sounds of the beating and the student 's cr ies for mercy can be heard from the other ce l ls . Unable to endure it any longer , the student f inally vomits on the man who is abus ing him. Later , a young woman, who .is a s t r iker in the cu r r en t subway dispute is ar rested as she leaves for work one morn ing. She is told that the police will soon question her , but is instead detained for several days and finally released only when her father comes for he r . Near the end of the story she disappears and her father comes to ask the police as to her whereabouts. Subsequent ly , another woman worker from the national railways union is b rought i n . She is a r res ted at her home dur ing the n ight and is badly beaten by the police in the process . A walking stick is forced down her throat to make her cough up some paper that she has swallowed, and her mouth and face are cut so badly that she cannot eat. The protagonist , who refers to hersel f merely as "mysel f " (jibun faj} ), is apparent ly a writer involved in the proletarian movement. She is detained for three months without trial and it is only later in the story that she learns the reason for her a r res t—wr i t ing illegal art ic les denouncing the state. Th rough interrogat ion, the thought-control police t ry to glean information about other members of the movement and to f ind out her own role within it . In the process her health deter iorates. It becomes clear at the beg inn ing of Kokkoku that these c h a r a c -ters are no ord inary cr iminals . They have not been ar res ted for commit-ing petty crimes as was the f i rs t g roup in t roduced . They a re , ra ther , indiv iduals from the working c lass , intellectuals involved in the worker 's movement who denounce the present society . o r iworke rs part ic ipat ing in militant str ikes to improve their pay and working condi t ions. They are political pr i soners who pose a threat to the exist ing power s t ruc tu re , and as such comprise a homogeneous g roup who suf fer the same inhuman t reat -ment in the p r i son . The i r l iv ing condit ions show them to be without r ights or power—even their r ight to life itself is repeatedly threatened. Those responsible for the ill-treatment of the pr i soners are the guards and thought-control pol ice, who have the power to beat the inmates and deny them food and medical attent ion. They ultimately decide who will be set f ree . In contrast to the relative powerlessness of the inmates, the pr ison authorit ies possess weapons with which they maintain their cont ro l . A t the beg inn ing of the nove l , the protagonist is sent to an interrogation room where she notices several towels used for tor ture . Later , she is 49 threatened with a bamboo cane . These suggest later scenes of actual physica l abuse . The working condit ions of the police are comfortable com-pared to those of the p r i soners . Depending on rank , some of the policemen sport go ld bra id on their uniforms while others wear cheap p in-str iped suits with meticulously creased t rousers . Unl ike the heroine, who must wear rough straw sandals , the police change into s l ippers in their work a rea , sit on attract ive cush ions , smoke cigarettes and sip tea. Others-have gold f i l l ings and use si lver c igarette cases . The i r sense of h ierarchy and c o n -cern with outward appearances contrast with the working class characters who do not exhibi t marked physical d i f fe rences . The gua rds and police who run the pr ison system are meant to represent the ru l ing class to whom the workers are opposed and against whose power they s t rugg le . in addit ion to these two g r o u p s , there is one more which oc -cupies a middle posi t ion. Th i s g roup of characters makes only sporadic appearances , but its role is consistent and suggests another aspect of soc ie ty . represented in the p r i son . The g roup is composed of four c h a r a c -ters and the f i r s t to appear is the protagonist 's maid Yiasu • She comes to the pr ison to ask that she be allowed to quit her post to re turn to her rural home where her father is a wealthy farmer. Her reason is parental p ressure because of the recent events involv ing her mistress, the nar ra tor . The protagonist unders tands the fear of her maid left alone in the house under police surve i l lance, but she also feels that, under p r e s su re , g "she just d idn ' t have any real pe r seve rence . " When Imano's condit ion becomes crit ical a doctor is cal led i n . His decision to move the patient is made with hesitat ion, and the protagonist g senses "an attitude^df c lear ly avoiding respons ib i l i t y . " He is obviously t ry ing not to displease the author i t ies . The father of the woman involved in the subway dispute comes to the pr ison to get he r . He is a small businessman and has the air of a traditional Japanese. A f te r his daughter ' s d isappearance, he re turns to the pr ison to talk to the pol ice. It becomes evident that he has unwitt ingly caused his daughter ' s disappearance by spy ing on her activit ies for them. The mother of the protagonist makes two appearances . She is worried about the state of her daughter ' s heal th, and suggests that she g ive the police the information they are seeking so that she too can be r e -leased. The protagonist re turns to her cell and reflects that "many middle class families were being destroyed in many ways. A n d out of this the enemy was able to shrewdly gain the advantage for t h e m s e l v e s . " ^ Dur ing the second v is i t , her mother is warned that she is being used as a spy by the thought-control pol ice. These four characters belong to neither of the two groups of people represented in the p r i son , bu t they have ties with each. They are por t rayed as being weak and easily manipulated by those in power who take advantage of their family ties with the p r i soners . It is parental p ressure which causes the maid to desert the protagonist in a time of need . It is also the desire to avoid official censure which causes the doctor to downplay the ser iousness of Imano's condi t ion , and the heroine's mother becomes a "pawn" of the police to aid in her daughter ' s su r r ende r . These four characters represent ing the middle c lass are not as clearly a l igned as the other two g r o u p s . Because they are d i v i ded , they are easy prey for the g roup which holds power, and are used to cause div is ions among the p r i soners . Many times throughout the novel the protagonist voices her hatred for the family system. The association made between family and 51 the pol ice, and in a broader sense the state itself, reveals a change of ideological position over the conclusions drawn in Nobuko. In Kokkoku Miyamoto Y u r i k o comes to believe that the family system is merely a p l i -able tool that can be used to c a r r y out the ideological des igns of the ru l ing c lass . T h r o u g h the descr ipt ion of l iv ing condit ions in the pr ison and the subsequent div is ion of all characters into three g r o u p s , Miyamoto makes a statement on the nature of society in genera l . Us ing the pr ison as a set t ing, she is able to reduce existence to its bare essentials to show so -ciety as she perceives it . Th i s society is composed of three dist inct and opposing c lasses : the working class which is denied its r ight to s t ruggle for. a more equitable society, the ru l ing class which uses its power to prevent any movement from below which would threaten its cont inued c o n -t ro l , a n d , last ly , the unstable middle class which co-operates with those in power. The aims of these g roups are descr ibed as being fundamental ly opposed , suggest ing that the nature of existence is class conf l ict and class s t rugg le . Except for the protagonist who narrates the s to ry , no one character emerges as a major hero ( ine ) . The characters ' ex is tence, the re -fore , has meaning only in terms of their relat ionship to the larger g roup in which they be long . A s a resu l t , indiv idual personal i ty and p s y c h o -logical development in Kokkoku play a ve ry small role. In Nobuko, Miyamoto Y u r i k o was concerned with the s t ruggles of the indiv idual to achieve emotional and intellectual fulf i l lment, but the working class cha r a c -ters in Kokkoku are placed in a situation where their col lective physical surv iva l is threatened, and where personal i ty and emotional fulfi l lment have little bear ing on their abil ity to live through another day . 52 Charac ter development takes another form: instead of emphasis on the i n -dividual as in Miyamoto's earl ier works , the main concern becomes the s tudy of a broader class character and the important thing determining the nature of existence is allegience to one's social c l ass . In Mazushiki hi tobito, animal imagery was used in character d e -velopment to show the debasement of the sharecroppers l iv ing in an u n -sympathetic environment. It also intensif ied the sense of estrangement between the heroine and these people, and suggested an unconscious d i s -t rust of them. In Nobuko animal imagery detailed the emotional state of the protagonist . A s the type of animal imagery became more sympathetic as the heroine developed posit ive relat ionships with other charac te rs , there was a partial weakening of the former sense of estrangement. Similar animal imagery does not exist in K o k k o k u , and its absence indicates a s i g -nif icant change in Miyamoto Yur iko ' s view of humanity , part icu lar ly her view of the working c lass . Scenes depict ing degradation and dehumaniza-tion are actually more prevalent in K o k k o k u , but the fact that they are developed in ways other than animal imagery suggests that the author no longer feels separated from the oppressed classes that she is desc r i b ing , and that she no longer sees them as best ia l . The protagonist is crowded into the same d i r ty cell as the other inmates and is addressed in the same way as they a re . The re is antagonism toward the police and middle class characters who are used as their sp ies , but it is not present in the a t t i -tude of the heroine toward her cellmates. Charac ters are developed through conversat ional exchanges , which reveal the characters ' c lass stance, and their collective class character rather than their indiv idual personal i ty . In Mazushiki hitobito and Nobuko passiv i ty and posit ive action were used to contrast the 53 att itude of the charac ters , and in Kokkoku the same theme is developed f u r the r . The four middle class characters are descr ibed as basical ly pass ive . The protagonist 's maid, Y a s u , bends under p ressure from the police and her family and is descr ibed as lacking "pe r seve rence . " The doctor who examines Imano is ill at ease. He suspends his professional judgement and complies with the pr ison authorit ies in order to avoid jeopardizing his own posi t ion. Despite the unfa ir treatment of his daughte r , the father of the s t r ik ing subway worker lacks the fort i tude to demand an explanation from the pol ice. His fear of author i ty makes him serv i le . On seeing his at t i tude, the protagonist laments: "why d idn ' t he confront them head on and ask them direct ly what they had done with his daughter ! Why d idn ' t he hur l himself at them in p r o t e s t ? " 1 1 Her own mother and sister display a similar at t i tude, for they are unwil l ing to incur the displeasure of the authorit ies who are responsible for her deter iorat ing heal th. "It was true that they were worried about me, but because they d idn ' t stand clearly on my side and could hot take heart in a decis ive way by act ively 12 taking advantage of a rare oppor tun i t y , it was a hopeless s i tuat ion . " The authorit ies use the indecision and passiv i ty of these middle c lass characters to betray the working c lass , and the protagonist condemns them as t ra i tors . The gua rds and thought-control police are not descr ibed as being part icu lar ly pass ive , but they are descr ibed as being insecure in their position of power. The interrogation off icers are ne rvous—the i r hands shake, they smoke fur ious ly and swallow stomach p i l l s . The i r pa ins -taking preparat ions to control the May Day celebrations reveal a fear of the potential power of the working c lass . Al l their ef forts are concen -trated in attempts to smash or contain the growing organization of the 54 working c lass . The i r self-confidence is der i ved from their symbols of power: their uni forms, weapons of tor ture , and military might, r e p r e -sented by the planes that periodical ly appear in the s to ry . The debates between the protagonist and the thought-control pol ice, however , show that they are also ideologically insecure . Dur ing conversat ions , she r e -peatedly points out the irrat ional ity of their arguments . When, for e x -ample, they deny medical treatment for Imano, she says : "You constant ly go on and on about 'family harmony' and 'affection between parent and ch i l d ' . But you couldn ' t ignore an inner ear infection before your ve ry 13 eyes . You couldn ' t murder the head of a family in p r i son , could you? " In another inc ident , she is cr i t i c ized for the content of her wr i t ing . Shimizu / j | • o n e of the in ter rogators , states his case as follows: "For example, even if that was the t ru th there are things in life whose real nature should not be shown to people. Don't you think so? For example, the actual relationship between husband and wife is self-ev ident , but no one performs it publ ic ly now do they? Eh? It's uncomfortable to speak the t r u th , isn't it? That ' s what I mean. " " Fo r whom is it uncomfortable?" II II 14 A t f i rs t the protagonist does not unders tand why she is being interrogated by the pol ice, but she gradual ly comes to the conclusion that: "In the beginning it was undoubtedly to demonstrate to me the ostensible s t rength of Japan's developing police network. But the actual result was that I became a witness to their anxiety and f r u s t r a t i o n . " 1 5 The authorit ies ' position of power can only be maintained by successful ly forc ing the pr isoners to give in to their demands, either by verbal p ressure or by physical b ru ta l i t y . But throughout Kokkoku most of the inmates stand united against the demands of the author i t ies , and it is this att itude of steadfastness which becomes one of the most important 55 aspects of their class charac ter . In spite of his weakened condi t ion , Imano continues to s t rugg le , and his posit ive att itude is revealed in his will to su r v i ve . When the mocking sounds of the 'salvation' army are heard outside the walls of the p r i son , one of the waitresses d isplays her contempt by c l ick ing her tongue at them and complaining of the noise. Later , another g roup of inmates descr ibes how they banded together at another pr ison to counteract the ill treatment they were subjected to. Miyamoto Yu r i ko does not, however, merely exhibi t b l ind faith in the potential of the working c lass—she is also conscious of their weaknesses. Th i s is revealed in her portrayal of the subway worker . When the protagonist learns of her disappearance from her father 's home, she reflects that: A s I l istened to the conversat ion beside me, I d idn ' t think that she would immediately d ie . Neverthe less , 1 d idn ' t believe that she would take refuge at the home of f r iends who were reliable du r ing the s t r ike , and that she would decide to embark on a new l i fe, never to re turn to her home aga in . She wasn't that type of woman. 16 The att i tude of the protagonist harmonizes with the majority of the pr isoners a n d , at the same time, her defiance is even more p ronounced . Several times she demands food and medical attention for sick inmates and is successful in obtaining them. Her att itude toward the police and the middle class characters who betray her is one of absolute contempt. Her form of speech shows no traces of respect for author i ty , and she addresses them in the same way as she does the other charac te rs . Her sense of ou t -rage against society is best revealed in her confrontat ions with the middle class charac ters . A s the doctor walks out of Imano's cell she stops him by shouting " cho t to ! " (wait a m i n u t e ! ) . 1 7 For a woman of the time to address a man of some standing in such a fashion is unusua l , but 56 cons ider ing that she is also a p r i soner , her tone of voice shows amazing defiance and contempt for author i t y . Later , when she d iscovers that her mother is being used as a s p y , she reacts in the following way. "Word by word , I spoke as if s t rangl ing the power which was us ing my mother 1 o as a pawn. ' l-have-not-given-any-money! ' . " Character izat ion in Kokkoku reveals many changes from Miyamoto Yuriko'-'s. earl ier works . Opposit ion and confl ict between groups of cha rac -ters was present in both Mazushiki hitobito and Nobuko, bu t in these works it was the central character who stood alone against an unjust wor ld . In the f i rs t nove l , the heroine tr ied to show her sympathy for the pl ight of the oppressed sharec roppers , but her descr ipt ion of them in terms of animal imagery and passiv i ty suggested a somewhat cr i t ical att itude toward them. A l though these att itudes begin to change near the end of Nobuko, they are still p resent . The oppressed class in K o k k o k u , however, is descr ibed in a d i f ferent l ight . Most of the emphasis is placed on the day-to-day situation of the protagonist , butcher indiv idual pl ight is not shown to be s ignif icant ly d i f ferent from the other inmates. It is the f i rs t time that one of Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s characters shows a consistent identif ication with the working c lass . In contrast to the sharecroppers of Mazushiki hi tobito, these characters are also united against society. A s a c lass , their character leans in the direct ion of posit ive action and change . The belief in human goodness can be seen throughout all Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s nove ls . Even in her earl ier works , there is an almost instinctual rejection of obstacles and rest r i c t ions . A s she becomes more overt ly political in her orientation dur ing the per iod in which Kokkoku was wr i t ten, these beliefs are transformed into the convict ion that human 57 reason will not tolerate oppression for long , and that those who are v i c -tims of injustice will col lectively s t ruggle for change . The belief in human goodness is also related to the sense of compassion which exists in her works . In Mazushiki hitobito the heroine shows compassion for the sharec roppers , and in Nobuko, the same sen t i -ment is apparent in Nobuko's att itude toward the depr ived background of her husband . Compassion is revealed in Kokkoku through the protagonist'.s demands for food and medical attention for her fellow inmates. T h e i n -mates themselves show their concern for human digni ty when they lie awake in-suspense on the n ight that Imano's condit ion reaches its c r i s i s . Yet the concern for human digni ty suggests other changes in K o k k o k u . In M iya -moto Yu r i ko ' s unders tand ing of the nature of class conf l ict lies the aware-ness that men, as well as women, are society 's victims and that social contradict ions cannot be resolved solely on the basis of sex. A t the same time, however, women's special place in society continues to be acknowledged. A s the title sugges ts , Kokkoku (Moment by Moment) relies on the use of documentary realism rather than imagery and descr ipt ion to d e -velop its major themes. The pr ison which g ives this work un i t y , without which it would lose its ef fect iveness, is the only metaphor which is d e -ve loped. For the rest , the facts are left to speak for themselves. C h a r a c -ters are rarely named, but where they do appear , the names of real places and people are used . Imano Dair iki ^ f^ .7v/ ] was an actual poet in the proletarian l i terary movement, as was Kurahara Korehito j^J^, • whose name is mentioned b r i e f l y . The name Miyamoto also appears in conversat ion and is meant to refer to the author 's husband Miyamoto Kenji ^ 3 ^ § f § ^ • Few present-day readers would be familiar with the names of these people, and their use indicates the weakness of fictional 58 elements in this work. Th i s points to other weaknesses in character izat ion in K o k k o k u . Charac ters are presented as s tereotypes. Th i s in itself does not neces -sari ly constitute a negative element, since many writers use stereotypes to effect ively i l lustrate t ruths about society. Readily recognizable, s tereo-types can eliminate the necessity for bu lky descr ipt ive passages and serve as a type of l i terary shor thand . But successful stereotypes presuppose a homogeneous world view on the part of readers , which all readers of Kokkoku do not necessar i ly ho ld . The success of these characters is determined by the readers ' unders tand ing and acceptance of Marxist ideo-logy , which div ides the world into three opposing classes and which d e -fines the working class as the only true revolut ionary class capable of r is ing up and c rush ing the bourgeois state which oppresses them. When the reader be l ieves , too, that class s t ruggle is the essence of human e x i s -tence, the characters in Kokkoku will possess a s ignif icance which t r a n -scends the restr ict ions of the novel itself. But when this is not the case , the character '^ life does not go beyond political rhetor ic . The problem of accept ing the political views expressed in Kokkoku suggests yet another s ignif icant aspect of this work—who was the novel written fo r , and what are its aims? Kokkoku was written in 1933 but it was not publ ished until March 1951, just two months after Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s death. It was written du r ing the short per iod when Miyamoto was act ively involved in the proletarian l i terary movement just pr ior to KOPF ' s dissolution in February of the following yea r . Before we turn to a specif ic discussion of Kokkoku 's position in the l i terature of the proletar ian movement, it is necessary to br ie f ly outline the general policies on art and l i terature set forth by NAPF and K O P F . 59 NAPF was establ ished in 1928 in response to the government crackdown against the Communist Party earl ier that yea r , and was an attempt to form a united l i terary f ront from the many spl intered political 19 factions within the proletarian l i terary movement. A f t e r its formation, strong Marxist-Leninist tendencies, emphasizing the class nature of l i te ra -ture and the need to promote proletarian art for the sake of class s t rugg le , emerged, and these tendencies were subsequent ly fu r the r s t rengthened with the next round of a r res ts of Communists in 1929-1:930 and the c r a c k -down following the Manchur ian Incident in 1931. The illegal Communist Party could no longer openly continue its mass agitat ion-propaganda work, and as government harassment of act iv ists increased, the need to conso l i -date the var ious independent g roups in NAPF under s t rong central c o n -trol a rose , resul t ing in ;the formation of KOPF in 1931. Hencefor th , cultural c i rc les were organized as auxi l iary organs of the Communist Party 20 and their role was to broaden Party inf luence within the proletar iat . To this e n d , political ideology was to take precedence over art ist ic c o n -c e rns , and the funct ion of the revolut ionary writer was to d iscard the former indiv idual ist ic perspect ives and turn instead to issues which would 21 show the advance of h istory through the process of class s t rugg le . The l i terary movement came . increas ingly under the control of Communist Party po l icy , which was in turn inf luenced by Moscow: government r e -pression served; merely to intensify this t r end . Miyamoto Kenji. p layed a major role in the movement emphasizing polit ics over a r t . Yet after his a r res t and that of other leading members, Kobayashi Takij i and Miyamoto Yu r i ko came to represent the orthodox political faction against which the membership began to rebel short ly before the final collapse of the prole-22 tarian l i terary movement. 6 0 It is d i f f icul t to state for certa in the actual extent of Party inf luence on the type of form and content which exists in K o k k o k u . A few tentative conclusions can be d rawn . A reading of this novel shows that it was intended for an audience involved in movements descr ibed in the s tory . The author has taken for granted that the reader will a l ready know the personal background of the protagonist , Imano, Kurahara and Miyamoto.etc..;, r i n ; addit ion to unders tand ing the details of the st r ikes and broader issues which appear . T h u s , the present day reader without the necessary background is forced to fill in the gaps with his or her imagina-t ion. The lack of support ing imagery to elucidate issues within the c o n -fines of the novel indicate a weakening of art ist ic technique at this point in Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s career . These elements tend to date the nove l , which lacks the universa l i ty to make it completely palatable for many readers today. Background descr ipt ion to the str ikes and s t ruggles in Kokkoku does ex is t , but it is presented through the verbal asides of the protagonist . These asides are sometimes lengthy passages which d i s rup t the story and slow down the momentum of the nar ra t i ve . In Mazushiki hitobito and Nobuko, the author attempted to affix historical and social explanations to human behav ior . It is this same element which reappears in Kokkoku , a l though its effect is d i f fe rent . The protagonist , who is c lear ly ident i f i -able as the author herse l f , is t ry ing to "educate" the reader . D idac t i -cism in Miyamoto Yur iko ' s novels is almost always present , but in Kokkoku it reaches an extreme level . The inf luence of Party policy in the l i terary movement is obv ious , making the didact ic element the weakest s t ructura l element in the nove l . 61 When analyzed from a pure ly intellectual perspec t i ve , s t ructura l shortcomings can indeed be found in K o k k o k u . The re remains, however, much that is good . Despite a didacticism which threatens to alienate the present-day reader , Kokkoku is still h ighly readable because of the way in which Miyamoto Yu r i ko has used the pr ison as the main un i fy ing metaphor. The absence of similar techniques in later works of the same per iod dea l -ing with issues of class s t ruggle is one reason why these works do not come a l ive . The bruta l i ty and indignit ies suf fered within the pr ison give the theme of class s t ruggle a sense of u rgency and credib i l i ty not a l to -gether present in her later stor ies. It is also an appropr ia te and natural vehicle in which to d iv ide the world into antagonist ic c lasses . Moreover , within a setting where humanity 's fundamental nature is s t r ipped to bare essentials in its s t ruggle for su r v i v a l , stereotypes do not necessar i ly deteriorate into cardboard f igures without dep th . They are neither more nor less than humanity exposed . The subject matter of Kokkoku also indicates an attempt by Miyamoto Y u r i k o to broaden the scope of her l i terary conce rns , and to deal with issues affect ing more than the pl ight of the isolated ind iv idua l . The tendency to move toward ever more universal subjects can be seen in all the three works dealt with so f a r . In Banshu he iya , which marks the beginning of her final l i terary phase, the concerns of the prev ious three periods merge to produce a unique novel combining the humanistic feminist concerns of the Nobuko per iod with the s t ruggles of the working class to rise from the ashes of the state which has co l lapsed. 62 Chapter Four B A N S H U HE IYA Banshu heiya was the f i rs t novel written by Miyamoto Yu r i ko after the end of the Pacific W a r . 1 Dur ing the twelve years after 1933, Miyamoto's art ist ic and personal life was d i s rupted by per iodic a r res t , censorsh ip and ill heal th. It is small wonder that her l i terary output b e -came sporadic and that she turned instead to writ ing essays and let ters . But with Banshu heiya, creat ive energies held in check for so long were once again g iven an outlet for express ion . In spite of her gradual polit icization du r ing the 1930's and her movement away from the humanistic concerns expressed in Nobuko, M i ya -moto was ultimately not able to reject the val idity of that novel 's central concern with women's i ssues . In Banshu he iya , they emerge once again in somewhat altered form. Her re turn to the feminist concerns of the Nobuko per iod does not mean that her exper iences dur ing the war years had caused her to d iscard the political and historical perspect ives found in Kokkoku . In Banshu heiya the themes of the prev ious two per iods merge, creat ing a balance and wholeness which d id not exist in either of the earl ier two works . The str ident class stance of Kokkoku is tempered with a greater emphasis on indiv idual characters and women's i ssues , and the use of imagery to develop thematic elements ref lects a greater sens i -t iv ity for technical conce rns . Banshu heiya begins with the announcement of Japan's uncond i -tional su r render on A u g u s t 15, 1945. Hiroko 2^33" * t n e heroine, is s tay -ing in Fukushima at the home and: ;family of her younger b ro the r , evacuated there dur ing the final bombing of T o k y o . Her husband , Jukichi Q 63 has been detained as a political pr isoner in Abash i r i Prison for the past twelve years under the Peace Preservat ion Law. With the war's end . and the possibi l i ty of Juk ich i ' s release, Hiroko decides to go to the town where the pr ison is to wait for him. In the in terva l , however, she receives news that Juk ich i ' s younger brother Naoji Jtyfc , has d isappeared in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, and she decides instead to go to Yamaguchi P re fec -ture to be with her mother-in-law. In October she learns that the O c c u -pation Forces plan to free political p r i sone rs , and she re turns to T o k y o to await her husband ' s homecoming. The novel ends du r i ng this final journey . Imagery in Banshu heiya general ly progresses from d a r k e n e s s to l ight , silence to sound and para lys is to movement. In the p rocess , the att itudes of the var ious characters are contrasted and deve loped. U n -like K o k k o k u , where characters are from the outset d iv ided into opposing groups which display f ixed att itudes throughout the nove l , Banshu heiya shows change and development in its charac te rs . A l though some characters do possess posit ive at t r ibutes from the beg inn ing , the overall tendency in the novel is for charac ters , regardless of b a c k g r o u n d , to start with passive tendencies and then move in the direct ion of act ion. Within this general movement there is var iat ion—imagery f luctuates between darkness and l ight , silence and sound , para lys is and movement until the final pages of the novel when l ight , sound and movement f inal ly emerge as the dominant mood. Banshu heiya begins with a scene of s tunned silence follow-ing the announcement of Japan's unconditional su r r ende r . A t that moment Hiroko was alarmed at the desolation of her su r round ings . The air bu rned in the intense heat of the A u g u s t noon, and the f ields and mountains were enveloped in the endless heat. But in the vi l lage there was not a sound . Not even the sound of c o u g h -i n g . Hiroko sensed this with her whole be i ng . From noon until one o'clock on A u g u s t 15th, an enormous 64 page of h istory was turned without a sound as the whole nation held back their hushed v o i c e s . 2 Th i s absence of sound is later viewed cr i t ical ly by Hiroko when she recalls her bro ther ' s att itude toward the war. ' " Fo r people like me who ultimately do not have the power to do any th ing , it 's better to listen in silence to what they tell u s . 1 — a s the war p rog ressed , this side of Yuk io ' s (4f ) temperament became s t r o n g e r . " But it is not only Hiroko's brother who has succumbed to s i lence. The train which takes her to Tokyo en route to her mother-in-law's is packed with people, but they show no interest in their, ne ighbours and no one ta lks . In contrast , the Ayusawas ^ , with whom she s tays , d isplay a rare v i ta l i ty , and in the evening Hiroko hears the sound of geta and bicyc le bells as people make their way to a summer fest iva l . It is stated that it has been a long time since she has heard these once normal city sounds . The passengers in the next train bound for Hiroshima are c o n -siderably more l ively and verbal than on the prev ious t r ip , but when the train is unable to go f u r the r , Hiroko 's car falls into silence aga in . She can hear the sound of Korean voices laughing and talking from the next ca r , and above this floats a woman's voice s inging the song of A r i r a n . It is a song symbolizing Korean oppress ion and defeat, but the lines " c ross ing the hil ls of A r i r a n " suggest cont inued s t ruggle in the face of adve rs i t y . Hiroko notices changes in Tsuyako ~ > ^ ^ - , the wife of the missing b ro the r . She is sullen and quiet , bu t her voice has a bi t ter edge to it when she talks to the maid and her mother-in-law: " Instead of the k ind of warmth which would entice the heart of the person being ca l led, her voice rang with a forced h a r d n e s s . " 5 When Hiroko leaves for a few days to enquire about the missing brother ' s whereabouts. 65 Tsuyako doesn' t even come to say good-bye. Gradua l l y , however, as the days pass and life re turns to normal, T suyako also changes and softens, so that by the time Juk ich i ' s release is announced , she is able to c o n g r a t u -late Hiroko on her happ iness . On the re turn tr ip to T o k y o , the train passes many vi l lages hit by f loods : "Not a sound could be hea rd . The deserted scene f looded by an expanse of muddy water spoke of the extent of the inhabitant 's de-g s p a i r . " Th roughou t Banshu heiya this same sense of despair pervades all the scenes depict ing silence where characters have temporari ly given in to defeat and are too weary to struggle against it. But each new silence is eventual ly b r o k e n : by the sounds of ch i ldren at p lay , by the s ing ing of Koreans , or by indiv iduals themselves as they become able to face the future with br ighte r hopes. By the end of the nove l , the travel lers talk unabashedly among themselves, Koreans re turn ing to their homeland whistle and s i ng , and the g r ind ing noise from the wheels of the horse-drawn carts hitt ing the ruts in the road create a sense of rhythm and harmony which did not exist in the opening pages of the s to ry . Images depict ing l ight and darkness are used in a similar way to develop the numerous characters which appear . The opening scene of Banshu heiya is set in the even ing , and Yuk io and his wife Sae ; ] w t ^ debate whether to turn on the electr ic l ights now that the end of the war has come. Yuk io is hesitant and decides that it is safer to keep them off . Bu t , later, when they finally turn them o n , "the br ightness after so long 7 made the worn corners of the house come alive a g a i n . . . . " Yuk io ' s initial hesitation is later contrasted to the way the Ayusawas decide to br ighten their home. A l though the following quotation is long , it effect ively i l lus -trates the contrast ing att i tudes of the two separate families, and reflects Hiroko's cr it ical att itude toward her brother and his wife. When it became possible to br ighten the l ights at the house where Hiroko was l iv ing with her younger b ro the r , Yuk io , the man of the house , slowly b rought out only as many white ceramic l ight shades from the closet as were necessary . S§t;.e wiped them off , then Yuk io took them and replaced the old ones. The blackout shades were half-tossed by the side of the packing boxes in the storage room. A n d that was i t . The shades in the Ayusawa 's l iv ing room had not been dealt with in such a fash ion . Shades which had been made to obst ruct the l ight were remodelled by husband and wife, and changed to g ive off l ight . It was a tr ivial th ing , but Hiroko who had seen every possible thing in her su r round ings do nothing but change , either unconsciously or mechanically through external fo rces , found it re f resh ing that the Ayusawas , seeing, the coming changes , had decided g on their own plans and created their own l ight shades. There is yet another movement from darkness to l ight which occurs du r ing Hiroko 's journey by train to her mother-in-law's. The dark carr iage in which Hiroko sits is contrasted to the b r igh tness and vital ity of the next car where Koreans.a.re laughing and s i n g i n g : " T h e r e was an inexpress ib le feeling for the r ichness; of life in their joyful spir i t g which f i l led the d a r k n e s s . " Her mother-in-law's home is dark and gloomy, but when she leaves at last for T o k y o , Hiroko notes a small b r igh t window in a door that had not been there before , and the l ight suggests new hope in their l i ves . Dur ing the re turn journey , the train is forced to stop.. It is dark and raining and there is more evidence of f lood ing . A s they leave Himeiji, however , the weather c lears and warm autumn sunshine continues until the novel 's e n d . The final scene of the Banshu Plains bathed in sunl ight and echoing the cheerfu l songs and advanc ing footsteps of the many travel lers produces the lasting sense of hope and optimism. In Kokkoku , characters were from the start d iv ided into three conf l ict ing g r o u p s . A l though they were descr ibed and developed within the confines of the g roup in which they were members, their character and att itudes never changed . Those who were passive remained so until the e n d , and with the exception of the subway worker , the inmates r e -mained firm under pressure and their sense of commitment was never shaken . The characters in Banshu he iya , however, are descr ibed in a d i f ferent l ight . Before and du r i ng the war the working class d id not ri.se.. up en masse to c rush the militarist state, and part of the r espons i -bi l i ty for the events of the ensuing years lay with their inabil ity to mobilize effective res istance. Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s realization of this can be seen in the character izat ion in Banshu he iya . She becomes aware that weakness and hesitation exist in all human be ings—even in the working class on whom she had prev ious ly placed all her hopes for the overthrow of the state. Her cr it ic ism of their weakness i s , however , res t ra ined , for she realizes the pr ice they have pa id , and is still able to port ray humanity as capable of s t rength and determination to eventual ly change that which is b a d . Characters in Banshu heiya f luctuate between silence and sound and darkness and l ight , but they ultimately move in the d i r e c -tion of the fu ture and change , symbolized by l ight and sound . Imagery which contrasts the state of para lys is and movement is yet another way in which characters are deve loped. The Tohoku vi l lage on the day of Japan's su r render is descr ibed in the following way. "From noon until evening on the 15th, and even when it gradual ly became night the para lyzed sti l lness of the whole vil lage did not c h a n g e . " 1 0 Paralysis cont inues for two or three days , and then by degrees people begin to move. A n example of this is the family at whose house Hiroko takes a ba th . 68 When she went on the evening of the 15th the loin-clothed f igures of J insuke (SJty) ) and his son had sat a round the summer hearth where the stumps were bu rn ing low, and his wife Otome {hh*> ) wore just a sk i r t after the ba th . The i r heads had hung down in fat igues But lately, the appearance of the three of them had changed . Somehow since then they had become a ler t ; they moved with ag i l i ty , and when night came, father and son would pull their heavy wagon into the darknews of the cedar t r e e s . 1 1 When Hiroko makes her preparat ions to leave, even her brother and sister-in-law show signs of s t i r r ing themselves, but it is the ch i ldren whose b e -havior shows the greatest change . Dur ing the war, all play had to cease the minute the s irens blew. Now peace had given them whole days of u n -in ter rupted enjoyment. Hiroko descr ibes the train she rides to Tokyo as a " rout t ra in " because it is f i l led with demobilized soldiers in retreat , and its passengers are in a state of shock after the events of the past few days . But when she t ransfers in Tokyo and heads toward Hiroshima, gradual changes occur . It had only been three days , but this train which had just passed through the capital and was heading along the Tokka ido road was not a rout t ra in . The aftermath of A u g u s t 15th had reached the second stage and the travel lers appeared to be mov ing. They were not a b a n -doning their homes, making off with anyth ing that could be taken. They were people who had tasks to perform at the journey 's e n d , depending on the new condit ions in Japan. Tha t was the f e e l i n g . 1 2 Neverthe less , when Hiroko a r r i ves at her mother-in-law's, the vil lage still shows s igns of inertia and para lys i s . No movement of people or vehicles can be seen on the road, and no one comes to greet her at the door . Dur ing the ensuing f lood, people begin to move aga in , but it is du r i ng Hiroko's final journey back to Tokyo that the b iggest change occu r s . Up to this point in the novel movement is only sporadic a n d , indeed , on the f i r s t stretch of the journey , the train moves only in f i ts and starts 69 because of damaged rail l ines. H i roko, with her weak legs and her com-panion almost b l ind with glaucoma, limp along through the evening rain toward the next town where a train is wait ing. Gradua l l y , "they overcame each succeeding obstacle and headed for T o k y o , gett ing nearer step by „ 13 s t ep . " P rev ious ly , it was indiv iduals who occasionally showed s igns of movement and act ion, but by the end of Banshu heiya everyone is on the move, advanc ing on the capita l : " T h e horse-drawn car ts creaked along the stra ight line of the national highway and moved in the direct ion of 14 their des t i na t i on . . . A l l of Japan was moving like t h i s . " A n interest ing aspect of this set of images is the change in character development from the prev ious nove ls . The tendency toward posit ive action in central characters is well-developed in Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s novels as far back as Mazushiki hi tobito, but only the heroine, who is s u r -rounded by a wall of pass iv i t y , attempts to change . Nobuko, too, s truggles alone against the emotional and intellectual inertia of T s u k u d a , a l though near the end of this work we are shown a few more examples of active people who take responsibi l i ty for their l ives in the characters of Sakabe, Sawako and Motoko. In Kokkoku the number of act ive characters increases, but they are restr ic ted to members of the working c lass . The other two groups of characters are hostile and thwart the workers ' attempts at act ion. In the course of these three novels the number of characters s t rugg l ing for change increases, but only involves limited groups of people. In Banshu he iya , however, in spite of initial setbacks and per iodic confus ion , all characters are eventual ly por t rayed in terms of movement. Th i s deve lop -ment shows a gradual broadening of the scope of Miyamoto Yur iko ' s world view. By the end of the war, she has come to realize that all people. 70 regardless of class b a c k g r o u n d , have the potential for change , and that all people bear the responsibi l i ty for b r ing ing forth this change . A s in her prev ious novels , Miyamoto Yu r i ko attempts to show human behavior in terms of its relat ionship to the social environment, and Banshu heiya marks a h igh point in this development. For the f i r s t time, historical events are used as central issues in the nove l , and are an integral part of its internal s t ruc tu re . Charac ters are por t rayed within an historical context , and are forced to react and come to terms with the major events and calamities of the times. In Nobuko, events such as the F i r s t World War and the Kanto earthquake are mentioned, but they do not have any direct inf luence on the main characters ' l ives. They are used instead merely to show the passage of time. Banshu he iya , on the other hand , is s t ruc tu red around Hiroko's journeys throughout the coun t r y . The trains and roads on which she travels are themselves symbolic. They suggest that it is no temporary phenomenon that we are obse r v i ng , but life itself, and the inevitable movement of h i s to ry . Roads symbolize the past and future courses of h i s to ry . Dur ing her travels to her mother-in-law's in the west of Japan, 'Hiroko observes the nation coming to terms with the path on which they have travel led so f a r . Dur ing her re turn journey to Tokyo she sees the changes that occur as they advance along another road leading out of the present and into the fu tu re . The Japanese nation watches si lently as an "enormous page of 15 history t u r n s . " Hiroko descr ibes the unconditional su r render as "the 16 moment that h istory c o n v u l s e d . " What convu lsed was the course or " r o a d " that Japan had chosen until the day of the Potsdam Declarat ion. The bruta l i ty and power of the militarist state is also descr ibed in K o k k o k u , and the protagonist repeatedly tries to expose the basic irrat ional ity of its ideological premises. In Banshu heiya an irrational state gone mad has been smashed—ironica l ly , not by a united working class,,;as' the heroine of Kokkoku had hoped , but by Japan's enemies. A s the novel begins on the day of Japan's su r r ende r , the past is revealed through a series of f lashbacks by the central charac te r : " Fo r the past fourteen yea r s , Japan's Peace Preservat ion Law had even imported the Nazi pr ison system, and one wasn't even allowed to b r ea the . " She descr ibes this per iod as a "heavy we ight . " Before her depar ture from Tokyo she recalls her v is i ts to the pr ison to see her h u s b a n d , and the door and walls of the pr ison bu i ld ing symbolize the extent of police power over their l ives. The heavy revolv ing door was opened slowly from the ins ide. The size of the door was several times the height of a human, and when she stood waiting by the small window, Hiroko 's body felt powerless and as short as the weeds which grew at the base of the h igh wall. It was not only the wall's height which was unusua l , for unless the revolv ing door was opened from the i n -s ide , even if she fell in a swoon against it , it was such that from the outside Hiroko 's s t rength could not move it an i n c h . 1 8 When Hiroko a r r i ves at her mother-in-law's in Yamaguchi P re -fec ture , she surveys the changes in the town and recalls how they have been b rought about . From that time, the Japanese war which had b rought about the invasion of Manchuria and Ch ina , had spread more and more, and life began to change remarkably . Because of cont ro ls , bus iness became d i f f i cu l t . The vi l lage was situated on a large r iver with f ie lds s t rung out here and there between the low mountain peaks and woods, and was d iv ided into upper and lower sections as it was ca l led . Fur thermore , it had become a town and was incorporated with Tawara which faced the sea two miles away. It d idn ' t change from vil lage to town by expansion through the prev ious form of rural deve lop -ment, but the f ields and rice paddies had been turned into a town merely for military object ives. Then a new military road had penetrated the f ive mile stretch between Tokuyama C i ty and the newly-constructed town. The road 72 was to be used exclus ive ly by military t r u c k s . . . T h e b u s , t ruck and Datsuri traff ic which rushed over the narrow highway day and n ight shook the loose joists of Juk ich i ' s poor house from morning until late at n ight . From the second storey you could see trains ful l of soldiers waiting for a long time on the train t r acks , and women from the town's Women's Committee served the soldiers tea and rice ba l ls . The heart of this new military town was an enormous arsenal which mobilized the young men and women of the ne ighbor ing v i l lages. A t a se^ t time in the morning and even ing , the road before Juk ich i ' s house became fi l led with these people r id ing bicyc les from their v i l l ages . . . . ^ In this way the rura l economy of the vil lage was dest royed and warped to meet the needs of the new military economy. Juk ich i ' s home town is not the only place where such changes occu r . Th roughout the novel Hiroko sees other vi l lages in the same si tuat ion, inc luding the vi l lage in Fukushima where she f i r s t s tays . But from the day of Japan's su r r ende r , all but the ruins of these military installations van i sh , and like the i n -habi tants , they are descr ibed in terms of silence and para l ys i s : "Unt i l yes te rday , military t rucks and motor bikes had dashed along the needlessly wide road . But today, not one passed b y . The road was white and dus t y , 20 silent and d e s e r t e d . . . . " The inf luence of the past on the present is not completely halted with the s ign ing of the peace t reaty . Towns like Juk ich i ' s whose economy has been buil.t :in recent years around military needs face total collapse once the war has ended . Industr ies cease to ex is t , the youth that was mobilized to work in them go back to their v i l lages, and the towns become known as goke no machi ^.^_°) S>j (widows' towns) . Since the c o n s t r u c -tion of military roads was done with little thought for the ecological balance of the su r round ing te r ra in , the road in towns like Juk ich i ' s destroys the natural drainage of the soil caus ing severe f looding when the autumn rains come. Dur ing her stay with her mother-in-law, Hiroko helps them f ight 73 the flood waters; when she makes her final journey to Tokyo she sees other towns which have suf fered a similar fate. One of the most far-reaching effects of the recent past is that it has created roads on which the vi l lages' sons and husbands who went to war will never r e tu rn . Within these past and present movements of h istory symbolized by the roads , the characters of Banshu heiya act out their l i ves . A n d it is within this context that the contrast ing imagery of silence and sound , darkness and l ight , and para lys is and movement should be v iewed. The cause and effect process of h istory does not stop with scenes of past and present ru ins and des t ruc t ion , but moves steadily out of these and into the fu tu re . Th i s movement begins to appear after the flood and it is descr ibed in terms of natural imagery. The f i r s t instance occurs when Hiroko views the gutted ruins of the a rsena l . Since the 15th of A u g u s t , the f igures of people who had tr iumphed in greed in these var ious boxes had d i s ap -peared . Now where Hiroko walked, those with windows were left boarded u p , and some bu i ld ings still with signs had become empty. Possibly because of the pelt ing rain of four or f ive days before , or maybe because they had become like that dur ing the air bombardment, on the s ide -walk in f ront a stand of sycamore trees were uprooted and toppled over for several b locks . The foliage of the fallen sycamores was luxur iant with green leaves even though they were soiled by m u d . 2 1 The theme of new life budd ing for th from the scene of de s t ru c -tion is repeated short ly afterwards as Hiroko looks at Nuiko 's jfg^^-s ister 's room: " A r o u n d Sawako's (^>b-3- ) desk there was an elegance like a dandelion blooming from a pile of ru ins . It was small and innocent, but the perfect ion of this pur i ty moved one who had just passed desolaz tion as far as the eye could see. It rev ived one's faith in l iv ing th ings . " " 1 Hiroko and the other characters look toward bui ld ing a new fu tu re , but it is on the ruins of the past that this must be accompl ished. Th i s historical perspect ive is c learly stated in another descr ipt ion of Sawako's room. "Today is born from yes te rday , tomorrow breaks away 23 from today and then continues o n . . . . 1 1 Indeed, the final descr ipt ion of the Banshu Plains fu r ther develops this theme. The fall sunshine turned the Banshu mountains, the f i e lds , small hamlets and their trees a golden colour in the breeze . The horse-drawn carts rumbled along the stra ight line of the national highway in the d i r e c -tion of their dest inat ion. The noise from the ruts harmonized strangely with the cheer fu lness of the young people, and it b lended with the many feel ings that were overf lowing in Hiroko's heart . Advanc ing along the national highway in this way was something that would not happen twice in a lifetime. The hedges of the small hamlets they were now pass ing , the ru ins of the large factories rusted red and standing in the distance of the Akash i pine f o r e s t . . . A l l of Japan was moving on like th is . Hiroko felt it k e e n l y . 2 4 The movement of history in Banshu heiya shows interest ing d e -velopments from Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s earl ier works . A s far back as Mazu- shiki hitobito there was an attempt to place characters in a social sett ing to explain the nature of their behav ior . Th i s tendency can be seen later in Nobuko and K o k k o k u . A l though the protagonist of Kokkoku does state 25 that "h is tory inevitably advances , " we are not shown this process w i th -in the novel as c lear ly and as effect ively as it appears in Banshu he iya . Miyamoto Yu r i ko has not merely stopped at a descr ipt ion of how the past affects the present human condi t ion , but goes on to show how the fu ture is and can be born from the ru ins of the present . To express this theme, she does not rely on the b lunt verbal statements of the central charac ter , but successfu l ly incorporates this theme into the overall s t ruc ture of the novel by us ing both natural imagery and the symbol of the road. 75 Descr ipt ions of the natural world were also features of her earl ier works , but they were not integrated with other thematic elements. In Kokkoku , for example, there are numerous scenes where the protagonist looks at the s k y , flowers and trees from the windows of her squal id ce l l , but they do not go beyond contrast and irony and are not connected to the role of the working class in the historical p rocess . Perhaps the reason for her success in Banshu heiya was the exper ience Miyamoto gained du r ing the Kokkoku pe r iod . She had always been concerned with the relat ionship between the indiv idual and society but her thoughts on the subject d id not really become c lar i f ied unti l she was in t roduced to and accepted social ism. It took, however, several years of experimentation before she was able to evolve a style capable of adequately express ing her more complex view of humanity and its role in the progress of h i s to ry . The theme of love reappears in Banshu heiya and through it the heroine Hiroko is deve loped. The protagonist 's movements parallel those of the other characters a n d , like K o k k o k u , there is no dist inct ion made between her and the people she desc r ibes . It is th rough her re lat ion-ship with her husband Jukichi and other women characters that Hiroko'-s; personal i ty and her view of the world emerge, sett ing her somewhat apart from the other characters and from the stance of the heroine of Nobuko. Hiroko 's relat ionship with her husband Jukichi reveals i n -terest ing changes over the type of male-female relat ionships found in Nobuko. In this earl ier nove l , the heroine saw love as being the p r e r e -quisite for a relat ionship enabl ing both part ies the opportuni ty for emotional and intellectual growth , but with time she comes to the realization that neither of these are possible within the exist ing marriage system. Marr iage becomes incompatible with her career as a wr i ter . In Banshu he iya , Hiroko 76 does not see hersel f as a free indiv idual as Nobuko d i d , but is ve r y c o n -scious of her role as Juk ich i ' s wife. It is this considerat ion which initial ly prompts her to go to her mother-in-law's after receiv ing the news of the missing b ro the r . It is also Juk ich i ' s release from pr ison that makes her leave Yamaguchi for Tokyo aga in . The i r relationship is a par tnersh ip and she compares it to a sh ip : " T h e days and nights were not like the ocean waves that moved aimlessly back and f o r t h , bu t , like an advanc ing sh ip , they saw the move-26 ment of h istory and the passage of time which could not be repea ted . " The connection she makes between their relationship and history ref lects other changes in Miyamoto Yur iko ' s awareness, for it also implies a type of political pa r tne rsh ip . Nobuko felt that only by being alone could she realize her true potential , but Hiroko has moved in another d i rec t ion . She bel ieves that women alone are not complete, and for her Jukichi is an inseparable part of her l i fe. It became obvious to her when she thought back over the past ten years or so. It was impossible for Hiroko to think of her own life du r ing that time without J u k i c h i . . . For example, seven years ago Hiroko was indicted because of her part ic ipat ion in the proletarian l i terary movement. She was sentenced to three years impr ison -ment and a f ive-year suspended sentence. A t that time Hiroko had cont inued to emphasize the class nature of l i terature. Dur ing the preparat ions for her t r ia l , Juk ich i read thoroughly the documents related to it, and within the restr ict ions of let ters, he wrote several times cr i t i c iz ing the material accord ing, to whether she had heroical ly defended reason or where she had com-promised too much. She learned a lesson from that. For H i roko, these compromises were minimal, but where Jukichi was conce rned , they were the. extreme limit of what could be tolerated in his wife H i r o k o . 2 7 The type of emotional and intellectual co-operation that Nobuko had been hoping for in her marriage is not the only issue here . Rather , the shar ing of ideologies also becomes one of the prerequis i tes for a lasting 77 re lat ionship. It is this type of love which has allowed the continuation of Hiroko and Juk ich i ' s relationship despite twelve years of persecut ion and war. A s Juk ich i ' s wife, Hiroko is also concerned for the well-being of his mother and sister-in-law. The role of daughter , wife and daughter- in-law had represented , for the heroine of the earl ier novel Nobuko, the petty concerns for social position and secur i t y . She had fought to remove these obstacles from her l i fe. Miyamoto Yu r i ko has not, however, neces -sari ly weakened!her stance in Banshu heiya toward the family system that she once a b h o r r e d . Th rough her greater unders tand ing of the common pl ight of women under the dual restr ict ions of social class and sex, she is able to feel compassion for all women and for the burdens they have had to bear . The war has depr ived thousands of Japanese women like Hiroko of their husbands and sons. Bu t Hiroko cons iders hersel f fortunate b e -cause she has known all along where her husband was, whether he was dead or a l ive , and was even permitted to see him occasional ly . She is also eventual ly reunited with h im, whereas many other women had to face the future alone. Hiroko cr i t ic izes her sister-in-law's coldness toward her husband ' s family, and yet at the same time she unders tands the reasons for her behav ior . " T h e Japanese are b a n k r u p t . " Th i s short phrase heard from fore igners penetrated her ears and stopped at her h e a r t . . . The misfortune of hav ing lost Naoji, who was the center of their l i ves , had caused even the will to overflow with gr ie f d isappear from the l ives of these women alone. Th i s is what misfortune i s , Hiroko 2 g thought . Th i s is how emotions are made bank rup t . It is not just the physical ru ins caused by the war that women have had to contend with, but also with the emotional scars that remain. 78 Hiroko feels that women have had to bear the greatest burden du r ing the war years in d isc ip l in ing themselves to ensure the surv iva l of their families. Once the war was ove r , they had to continue their efforts to raise their ch i ldren and rebui ld the count ry without the aid of their men who have been maimed and k i l l ed . The i r d isc ipl ine and perseverence are what have enabled them to surv i ve these di f f icul t y ea r s , but at the same time it has made them hard a n d , l ike T s u y a k o , lacking in tenderness . " Bu t where was the real b i t terness of the war to be found in people's l i v e s ? . . . It was found in the daily silent ru ins of the tens of thousands of 29 'widows' towns' created throughout J apan . " Hiroko does not exhibi t the same k ind of antagonism toward the family and marriage that the heroines of the prev ious novels d i d . Hiroko does cr i t ic ize the traditional form of marr iage, which creates tensions between mother and daughter-in-law, and a calculat ing att itude on the part of the b r i de . She also lashes out at the former militarist state for the phys i ca l , economic and emotional destruct ion it has caused , but she feels love and compassion for the women and indiv iduals who have suf fered under these bu rdens . There in lies the di f ference between the heroines of Nobuko and K o k k o k u . It is not all social s t ruc tures per se that Hiroko d is l ikes , but the irrational ones that c rush and distort people. In contrast to the conclusions drawn in Nobuko, she feels that relat ionships within the family and marriage are both necessary and des i rab le . In Banshu he iya , the state does not attain the powerful position that it d id in K o k k o k u . Th i s suggests a softening of Miyamoto Yur iko ' s prev ious ly st r ident class s tand . A l though crit ic ism of the military does ex is t , the prev ious black and white div is ions between sharp ly opposed classes found in Kokkoku are not as prominent. Because the former state 79 had been des t royed , Miyamoto Yu r i ko may have felt that one of the main causes of class confl ict had been eliminated at that point in time. In Kokkoku , the heroine imagines a fu ture where the working class has gained control of the state as they had in the Soviet Un ion , and it r e -flects her political idealism at the time. But the fact that the militarist r e -gime has d isappeared in Banshu heiya i l lustrates in concrete terms the belief that social systems are in fact not eternal f i x tu res , and that society can be changed if people accept the responsibi l i ty to do so. Hiroko is the dominant character in Banshu heiya who controls our unders tand ing of the events in the nove l , and it is th rough her that the presence of the author is felt . The author ' s identif ication with the heroines of her novels is most pronounced in Kokkoku . Th i s is related to the element of didacticism d iscussed in the prev ious chapter . In Banshu he iya , didacticism does not intrude to the same extent ; a balance is establ ished between the realistic portrayal of present society and the optimism which moves the story in the direct ion of the fu tu re . It is not only the hero ine, but all the novel 's characters who are part of this move-ment, p roduc ing a social and historical scope found only in germinal form in her earl ier works . The posit ive spir i t that Hiroko and the other characters show to overcome historical obstacles and to create lasting social change reveals Miyamoto Yur iko ' s faith in human growth and l iberat ion, and her belief in the ultimate progress of h i s to ry . 80 C O N C L U S I O N Miyamoto Yur iko ' s novels show both a consistency and deve lop -ment of form and content throughout the more than th i r ty years of her career . The subject matter of the four novels dealt with in this thesis concerns the pl ight of oppressed people, but the nature and definit ion of this changes with each of her l i terary per iods . In Mazushiki hi tobito, the unhappy l ives of rural sharecroppers const i tuted the central focus of the nove l . With Nobuko, the emphasis shif ts to the personal sphere of the author as she analyzes the situation of women within the restr ict ions of family and marr iage. Kokkoku cont inues with the theme of people in confl ict with society, but this time Miyamoto Y u r i k o looks at the urban proletariat s t rugg l ing against police repress ion . T h e scope of the subject matter in this novel is considerably broader tha t Nobuko, and it ref lects a conscious attempt to universal ize the indiv idual exper ience in terms of the whole social and political system. A l though social contradict ions are descr ibed in both Mazushiki hitobito and Nobuko, the anger of the p r o -tagonists is d i rected against indiv iduals such as the Chr i s t i an townswomen, Tsukuda and Nobuko's mother. In this respect Kokkoku represents an interest ing transit ion period in Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s l i terary development. Not only does the size of the g roup of oppressed people increase c o n -s iderab ly , but in addit ion the heroine's anger is pr imari ly d i rected toward social and political s t ruc tures rather than indiv iduals who represent them. T h e heroine 's contempt for those who co-operate with her enemies is not altogether absent , however, and is obvious in the author 's treatment of the middle class charac ters . With Banshu heiya the above process reaches completion. The people whose pl ight is descr ibed broadens to encompass 81 the whole Japanese nat ion. It is not just the working c lass , but all c lasses who have suf fered because of the destruct ion b rought by war. For the f i rs t time, too, there is an absence of overt antagonism toward ind iv idua ls , even though their stance may be c r i t i c i zed . From the beg inn ing of her writ ing career , Miyamoto Yu r i ko was concerned with the effect of environment on the qual ity of human l i fe. She looked for the causes of negative behavior in the exist ing social s t r u c -ture rather than in the indiv idual persona l i ty . Even in her f i rs t nove l , characters are shown in confl ict with society, and they are forced to e n -gage in some k ind of act iv i ty to alter their s i tuat ion. In Mazushiki hitobito and Nobuko, the heroines only unders tand the process of change in terms of their own indiv idual act ions, and it is not unti l Kokkoku that the c o n -cept of collective s t ruggle through action emerges. In Banshu he iya , c o l -lective action also merges with the; theme of collective respons ib i l i ty , r e -f lect ing the gradual broadening of the scope of Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s social consciousness and historical perspect i ve . The. hero ines of these four novels consistent ly identify with those characters who reject pass iv i ty and who st ruggle for change . In the f i rs t two novels it is pr imari ly the heroine hersel f who is the active character , suggest ing that the optimistic view of humanity that would later become one of Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s dominant features is not yet fu l ly d e -ve loped. A g a i n , it is Kokkoku which prov ides the transit ion between Mazushiki hitobito and Nobuko, and the later Banshu he iya . For the f i rs t time the protagonist is not alone in her s t rugg les , but is part of a larger group of characters who f ight for change . A f te r the war, Miyamoto was able to view humanity as potentially act ive , and her belief in its capacity for growth and change is t ru ly amazing when one remembers that this 82 att itude emerges at the time of Japan's su r r ende r . What made it possible for her to avoid the sense of defeat and nihilism which was widespread after the war was her abil i ty to combine her desire for inner growth with her commitment to political action and participation in social change . The sense of vital ity in Miyamoto Yur iko ' s novels emanates from the heroine 's commitment to action which can be found even in her earl ier non-political works . Her novels port ray humanity as rejecting obstacles to its growth and advancement, and her characters energetical ly break the fetters that b ind them, whether they be the family, marr iage, the state, or destruct ion and despa i r . The heroines of her novels refuse to admit defeat in the face of advers i ty and they possess the unf lagg ing optimism that a better world is poss ib le . Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s works do not just dwell on the negative aspects of present society, but like Banshu heiya they move toward an ideal f u tu r e . It is within this movement, and the defiant stance of the protagonists against injust ice, that the sense of vital ity emerges. The heroine of Mazushiki hitobito believes that love is lacking in the wor ld , and Nobuko, too, believes at f i r s t that love can change people. But she eventual ly realizes that love is not enough , and that the nature of male-female relat ionships within marriage must be fundamentally changed before happiness can ex is t . The s t ruggle of the characters ; in Kokkoku to change the social s t ruc ture itself can be seen as a natural p r o -gress ion from the desires of the heroine of the prev ious nove l . But love as a theme does not reappear until Banshu he iya , where Miyamoto Y u r i k o connects love with political commitment in the relat ionship between Hiroko and J u k i c h i , and in a broader sense with the relat ionship between the heroine and other women charac te rs . It is through the development of the theme of love in Banshu heiya that Miyamoto Yu r i ko is able to 83 successful ly place her characters within both a personal and an historical perspect ive . Of the four novels dealt with in this thes is , Nobuko and Banshu  heiya are the most art ist ical ly successful works . It is in these two novels that one f inds the conscious use of imagery and sty l ist ic devices to d e -velop thematic elements, creat ing a sense of depth and warmth. These novels appear following per iods of experimentat ion. Mazushiki hitobito was Miyamoto's f i r s t publ ished work, and although its themes can be found throughout the novels of the later per iods , it is ev ident that she was not yet in complete command of l i terary techniques. With Nobuko, the humanist concerns of the Mazushiki hitobito per iod f ind f ru i t ion , for Miyamoto was able to d iscover a suitable vehicle to express her ideas. Th i s vehicle took the form of women's issues , a topic in which she was able to analyze both the problems of inner growth and se l f-express ion, and the contradict ions which ar ise when they come into confl ict with the goals of the family and marriage system. The issues of the Kokkoku per iod are a natural deve lop -ment from Nobuko as they allowed more scope for an expose of con t rad i c -tions on a larger scale. L ike Mazushiki h i tob i to , Kokkoku was written dur ing a h igh ly experimental pe r iod . There is also evidence that the control exerted by the Centra l Committee of KOPF d id not allow for the type of creat ive freedom which perhaps could have produced new and more vital forms of proletar ian l i te ra ture—perhaps a l i terature capable of address ing itself to t ru ly popular issues . T h e success of Banshu heiya suggests that Miyamoto Yu r i ko was ultimately more at ease with novels dealing with contradict ions in terms of the personal center . Her pos t -war nove ls , without except ion, focus on a protagonist who is modelled on the author herse l f . 84 Miyamoto Yu r i ko ' s novels do not deteriorate into the gloomy self-centered prob ings of the "I" novel (shi-shosetsu ^ ' M i i L . ). Her sense of social change within h i s to ry , and her belief in social r e spons i -bi l i ty and political commitment raise the stature of her characters from isolated indiv iduals to universa l modern hero ines. Her re turn to feminist issues in the post-war per iod reveals the lasting effects of the enl ightened humanist environment in which she grew u p , even as her belief in the need for a more radical social revolution continues to make its presence fe l t . By looking at social and political contradict ions within the framework of feminist i ssues , Miyamoto Yu r i ko was able to create a unique popular l i terature with a signif icance which oversteps the boundar ies imposed by cul tural d i f ferences and time. 85 N O T E S 86 N O T E S Introduction ^Odagiri Hideo, Kindai nihon no sakkatachi ( Tokyo : Hosei daigaku shuppansha k y o k u , 1973), p. 547. 2 — Nakamura Tomoko, Miyamoto Yu r i ko (Tokyo : Chikuma i^hobo, 1973, p. 20. 3 _ See Miyamoto Yu r i ko senshu for early works . Miyamoto Yu r i ko  senshu , I, ( T o k y o : Shin nihon shuppansha , 1968). 4 George T . Shea, Leftwing L i terature in Japan (Tokyo : Hosei U n i -vers i ty P ress , 1964), p. 31. 5 A s he stated in his suicide note, Akutagawa's reason for suicide was a vague feel ing of unease about the f u tu r e : feel ings aggravated by his own deter iorat ing emotional state. Yu r i ko ' s b ro the r , Hideo ^ ^ was still a student at the time of his death, but it is suggested in Futatsu no  niwa that this sensit ive and int rover ted young man was deeply d i s tu rbed at the increasing radicalization and polarization of society, and like Akutagawa, was overcome by intense feel ings of unease about the fu tu re . Miyamoto Y u r i k o , J ih i tsu nempu, as quoted in Nakamura Tomoko, Miyamoto Y u r i k o , p. 114. Th i s and all subsequent quotations are my own translat ions. 7 N A P F is abbrev iated from the Esperanto translation Nippona Proleta Ar t i s ta Federacio of Zennihon musansha gei jutsu renmei - ^ n * - A BH as cited in G . T . Shea, Lef twing, p. 200. M g Nakamura, Miyamoto, p. 144. 9 KOPF is abbrev iated from the Esperanto translation Federacio de Proletaj Kultur-oranizoj Japanaj of Nihon puroretar ia bunka renmei B ^ T D l ^ ' J T i t t S . ' C'ted °* T* S h e a' L e f t w i n 9 * P- 2 0 5 ' 1 0 Notab l e among these cr i t ics are Nakamura JTomoko and Honda Shugo . See Nakamura, Miyamoto, p. 242, and Honda Shugo, c Senji sengo no  senko-sha tachi ( Tokyo : Keiso shobo, 1971). 11 Nakamura, Miyamoto, p. 170. 12 See Honda, Senji sengo, p p . 134-140, and_Kurahara Korehi to , Kobayashi Taki j i to Miyamoto Yu r i ko (Tokyo : T o f u s h a , 1966), p. 121. 13 See the f i rs t section of Honda's Senji sengo dealing with Miyamoto Yu r i ko and her works for a d iscuss ion of th is . Miyamoto, J ih i t su , as quoted in Watanabe, Sumiko, " K a i s e t s u , " ". Nobuko ( T o k y o : K5"dansha, 1972), p. 437. 1 5 B o t h Watanabe in " K a i s e t s u , " Nobuko, p. 438, and Honda , Senji sengo, p. 37, feel that, until K o k k o k u , Miyamoto Yu r i ko had not internal ized Marxist ideology. i fi See Chapters 9 and 10 of Part Two of G . T . Shea, Leftwing for a detailed d i scuss ion . Chapter One 1MJyamoto Yu r i ko senshu, I, p p . 3-78. 2 I b i d . , pp . 13-14. 3 l b i d . , P- 57. 4 l b i d . , P- 57. 5 l b i d . , P- 6. 6 l b i d . , P- 21. 7 l b i d . , P- 21. 8 l b i d . , P- 62. g * l b i d . . P-14. 10. . . . I b id . , P- 4. " i b i d . . P- 14. 1 2 . , . . I b id . , P- 77. 1 3 . . . . I b id . , P- 6. 14. . . . I b id . , P- 58. 15 . . . . I b id . , P- 76. 16., I b id . , P- 14. 1 7 l b i d . , P- 77. Chapter Two ^Miyamoto Yu r i ko senshu, II, p p . 3-303. 2 l b i d . , p. 34. 88 3 l b i d . , P. 116. 4 l b i d . , P- 146. 5 l b i d . , P- 272. 6 I b i d . , P- 278. 7 l b i d . , P- 297. 8 l b i d . , PP . 302 g Ib id . , P-303. 10 . . . . I b id . , PP . 116 " i b i d . . P- 257. 12., . Man mo & ba l l . Its. rar i ty and beauty lend themselves to poetic connotat ions. Nobuko and Sakabe are both sensit ive to the beauty of nature and l iv ing th ings , and thus , T sukuda ' s actions are especial ly repugnant . T3.. . . I b id . , P- 156. 14. . . , I b id . , P- 11. 15 . . . . I b id . , P. 34. 16 . . . . I b id . , PP . 58-59. 17 . . . . I b id . , P- 135. 1 8 l b i d . , P- 146. 19.. . . I b id . , P. 15. 2 0 . . . . I b id . , P- 162 21 . . . . I b id . , P- 82. 22 Ib id . , P-234. 23 The following interpretat ion of Tsukuda ' s name was k ind ly suggested by my thesis superv i so r . D r . K inya Tsu ru ta of the Univers i ty of Br i t i sh Columbia, Department of As ian Studies . Chapter Th ree 1Miyamoto Yu r i ko senshu. III, p p . 33-83. 2. I b id . , p. 37. 89 3 l b i d . , P- 38. 4 l b i d . , P- 51. 5 l b i d . , P- 35 6 l b i d . , P- 52. 7 l b i d . , P- 36. 8 l b i d . , P- 39. g Ib id . , P-48. 1 0 l b i d . , P- 73. " i b i d . . P- 78. 12 . . . . I b id . , PP . :71-72. 1 3 l b i d . , P. 48. " i b i d . . P- 62. 1 5 l b i d . , P- 57. 16.. . . I b id . , P- 78. 17 . . . . I b id . , P- 48. 18 . . . . I b id . , P- 81. Shea, Le f tw ing, p . 200. A lso see Chapters 9 and 10 of Section Two of this book for a detailed d iscuss ion of NAPF and KOPF ' s organiza-tional and theoretical development. 20 Senshu, III, p. 210. 21 Ib id*, p. 237. 2 2Shea,.Leftwing. p. 267» Chapter Four ^Miyamoto Yu r i ko senshu, IV, p p . 3-136. 2 l b i d . , p. 10. l 3 l b i d . , p. 11. u Nym Wales and Kim San , Song of A r i r an (San F ranc i sco : Ramparts Press , 1941). See p. 56 for an Engl ish translation of the text of this song . A l so " P ro logue , " p p . 57-61 for a d iscuss ion of the s ignif icance that this song has held for Koreans for more than three hundred yea r s . 5 S e n s h u , IV, p. 60. 6 l b i d . , p. 116. 7 l b i d . , p. 16. 8 l b i d . , p. 32. 9 l b i d . , p. 46. 1 0 l b i d . , p. 11. " i b i d . , p p . 18-19. 1 2 l b i d . , p p . 39-40. 1 3 l b i d . , p. 120. U l b i d . , p. 136. 1 5 l b i d . , p. 10. 1 6 l b i d . , p. 10. 1 7 l b i d . , p. 12. 1 8 « b i d . , p p . 34-35. 1 9 l b i d . , p. 56. 20., . , I b id . , p. 15. 2 1 l b i d . , p. 86. 2 2 l b i d . , p p . 88-89. 2 3 l b i d . , p. 88. 2 4 l b i d . , p. 136. 2 5 S e n s h u , III, p. 66. 2 6 S e n s h u , IV, p. 100. 2 7 l b i d . , p p . 123-124. 2 8 l b i d . , p. 54. 2 9 l b i d . , p. 60. B IBL IOGRAPHY BIBLIOGRAPHY Honda Shugo • Sen.ji sengo no senkosha t a c h i % f & * f c J f r J k t- 5 (War Time and Postwar Progressives). Tokyo: Keiso shobo f j b , 1971. Kurahara Korehito ^Jfc tt.A. • Kobayashi T a k i j i to Miyamoto Yuriko >K £fc.5frjL^ k 3- (Kobayashi T a k i j i and Miyamoto Yuriko) .Tokyo: Tofusha , 1966. ^ Miyamoto Yuriko senshu 1§ ^ § ^ 3-31.3fe (Selected Works of Miyamoto Yuriko). Ed. Todai Shunichi. 12 Vols. 2nd ed. Tokyo: Shin nihon shuppansha &r B^fhJT&^fet » 1968. Nakamura Tomoko I 3 #J % 5- • Miyamoto Yuriko § ^ 3- . Tokyo: Chikuma shobo SftJ^^Jjjj , 1973. Odagiri Hideo >h£B#J ^ y t i . • Kindai nihon no sakkatachi ItLiX Bjh-t) Iffc.T-^ (Modern Japanese Writers). Tokyo: Hosei daigaku shuppan kyoku ^ 2PLA^ Shea, George T. Leftwing Literature i n Japan.. Tokyo: Hosei University Press, 1964. ~~ Wales, Nym and San Kim. Song of Ariran. San Francisco: Ramparts Press, 1941. Watanabe Sumiko ?!tiZL p-fif^- . "Kaisetsu" ^Pf^t (Commentary;) Nobuko ffi f . Tokyo: Kodansha t f t s k ^ L , 1972. 

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