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The diplomacy of developing states in international organizations : |b a comparison of the strategies… Ralph, Michael 1979

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THE DIPLOMACY OF DEVELOPING STATES IN INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:  A COMPARISON OF THE STRATEGIES USED  BY THE LDCs IN UNCTAD AND IN UNCLOS I I I  by MICHAEL B.Sc.  University  RALPH  o f The West I n d i e s ,  1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f P o l i t i c a l  Science)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1979 ( c ^ M i c h a e l Ralph, 1979  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Political  Science  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5 August,  1979  il ABSTRACT  T h i s study a n a l y s e s t h e types o f s t r a t e g i e s which c h a r a c t e r i s e the d i p l o m a t i c behaviour o f d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e s a t the U n i t e d N a t i o n s . The b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s o f these s t a t e s a r e observed w i t h i n the two s e l e c t e d m u l t i l a t e r a l c o n f e r e n c e environments, Conference  the U n i t e d Nations  on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the T h i r d U n i t e d  Nations Conference  on the Law o f the Sea (UNCLOS I I I ) .  These  institu-  t i o n s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b a r g a i n i n g about and d e b a t i n g i s s u e s r e l a t i n g to  many o f the v i t a l problems o f d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e s .  Thus, a f a i r l y  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e view o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s diplomacy  of developing  s t a t e s can be o b t a i n e d . Though the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h i s i n q u i r y i s on the d i p l o m a t i c b e h a v i o u r and methods o f t h e s e l e c t e d group o f s t a t e s , the success o r f a i l u r e o f t h e s t r a t e g i e s used i s beyond the scope o f t h i s The purpose  i s n o t to a s s e s s the impact  study.  o f the d i p l o m a t i c behaviour o f  d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e s on d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a t the U n i t e d N a t i o n s l e v e l , but r a t h e r to understand  the emergence o f the s t r a t e g i e s and the f a c t o r s  which support o r h i n d e r t h e i r u s e . To understand and  the mechanics o f the diplomacy  o f developing states  t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l and o t h e r f a c t o r s which a f f e c t  comparative requirements  them, the  method i s used i n t h e main p a r t s o f t h i s study. o f the comparative  The  method makes t h i s method a p t f o r  iii  examining  t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n UNCTAD and  UNCLOS I I I and how these a f f e c t both forums.  t h e s t r a t e g i e s which a r e used i n  The comparative method r e q u i r e s t h a t t h i n g s compared  be s i m i l a r enough to belong t o t h e same s p e c i e s but d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Commonalities  of the selected  institu-  t i o n s d e r i v e from t h e f a c t t h a t they both encompass the UN c o n f e r e n c e environment  i n which a p a r t i c u l a r s e t of a c t o r s conduct  diplomacy.  They a r e s e t a p a r t by t h e s i g n i f i c a n t  their  differences.in  t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , t h e i s s u e s they d e a l w i t h , and t h e f a c t o r s which a f f e c t group  f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n them.  The sources used f o r t h i s study a r e documentary and secondary materials.  The d a t a c o l l e c t e d from documentary sources a r e s u p p l e -  mented w i t h those from academic and t h e o r e t i c a l s o u r c e s .  In t h e  main p a r t s of t h e study t h e e m p i r i c a l d a t a a r e compared w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions.  The s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s a r e  n o t e d , f o l l o w i n g which t h e r e p e t i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s t r a t e g i e s of d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e diplomacy a r e o u t l i n e d . The i n q u i r y examines changes i n t h e n a t u r e of t h e g l o b a l and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i p l o m a t i c environment  which i n e v i t a b l y  impinge  on, and determine t h e t y p e s o f , s t r a t e g i e s and p r a c t i c e s t h a t e v o l v e . Other impermanent f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t d i p l o m a t i c methods and s t r a t e g i e s a r e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e a c t o r s and t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e i r b a r g a i n i n g s t r e n g t h o r l a c k of s t r e n g t h support o r h i n d e r t h e  iv  s t r a t e g i e s used.  The n a t u r e  diplomacy of d e v e l o p i n g Sea  of the i s s u e s l i k e w i s e a f f e c t s the  states.  F o r example, i n t h e Law o f t h e  Conference s e s s i o n s when t h e i s s u e s b e i n g debated a r e r e l a t e d  t o j u r i s d i c t i o n over ocean space, c o u n t r i e s which p o s s e s s common geographical  f e a t u r e s v e r y o f t e n share  norms should be e s t a b l i s h e d . c o u n t r i e s (having together  and  common p e r s p e c t i v e s on what  Thus developed and l e s s developed  common g e o g r a p h i c a l  t o cosponsor j o i n t p r o p o s a l s  f e a t u r e s ) f r e q u e n t l y group or j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  matters.  In UNCTAD c o u n t r i e s which share  common economic a t t r i b u t e s  c a p a b i l i t i e s l i k e w i s e o f t e n share  common p e r s p e c t i v e s on how  i s s u e s a f f e c t i n g t h e i r economic w e l l - b e i n g may be s o l v e d . of shares  I n terms  of economic a t t r i b u t e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s , t h e r e a r e wide  d i s p a r i t i e s between developed and l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s . v e r y o f t e n , l e a d s to c o n f l i c t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s of r e m e d i a l be pursued.  This  p o l i c i e s to  These f a c t o r s combined w i t h o t h e r s u n d e r l i e t h e  tendency f o r c o u n t r i e s i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g environment t o p o l a r i s e according  to t h e i r  share  of economic w e a l t h .  In t h i s l a t t e r  the predominant form o f group alignment f o l l o w s t h e p a t t e r n o f developed v e r s u s  l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s .  case  V  TABLE OF  CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  II  Page INTRODUCTION  1  Purpose and  Scope o f the  Definitions  and  Study  ..  ..  ..  ..  Abbreviations  THE DIPLOMATIC ENVIRONMENT: ANALYSIS OF SOME FEATURES OF  3  A COMPARATIVE THE SELECTED  INSTITUTIONS  7  The  Origin  and  Evolution  o f UNCTAD  The  O r i g i n and  Evolution  o f UNCLOS I I I  A Comparison o f Some Main Features The S e l e c t e d I n s t i t u t i o n s ..  III  DIPLOMATIC STRATEGIES OF  THE  GROUP OF  .7 ..  ..  17  of ..  77  .•  ..  25  ..  30  The S t r a t e g i e s Most C h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Group of 77 Diplomacy: A Comparison of T h e i r Use i n the Two I n s t i t u t i o n s  30  Choice of Forums  31  Group Formation and The  IV  2  Use  Other Group A c t i v i t i e s  of J o i n t Representation  ..  ..  ..  ..  35  •.  35  Promotion o f Group Cohesiveness  39  Pre-conference Preparation  39  Seizing  the  Initiative  ..  43  The  Use  of S k i l l e d R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  Use  of the  The  Use  45  Secretariat  o f Symbolic Speeches and  47 Rhetoric  ..  CONCLUSION Summary o f Some Main F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g the Diplomacy o f Less Developed S t a t e s  BIBLIOGRAPHY  50 54  ..  ..  54  60  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  Many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have a t t a i n e d f o r m a l l e g a l but are s t i l l  t r y i n g t o l e s s e n t h e i r economic  and p o l i t i c a l  independence, dependence  and by so d o i n g a c h i e v e a g r e a t e r measure of genuine independence. In t h i s quest f o r development, they a r e f o r c e d t o d e a l w i t h a growing number of i n t e r n a t i o n a l problems.  These i n c l u d e the i n c r e a s i n g  c o m p l e x i t i e s of i n t e r n a l t r a d e , f i n a n c e and other i s s u e s such as those r e l a t i n g to i n t e r n a t i o n a l maritime m a t t e r s .  I n o r d e r to f i n d  s a t i s f a c t o r y ways of r e s o l v i n g t h e s e problems, they seek an i n c r e a s e d r o l e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l decision-making.  At the U n i t e d N a t i o n s ,  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have f o r a l o n g time sought changes  i n the economic  i n s t i t u t i o n s where d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g mechanisms were not always conducive to t h e i r  interests.  f o r m a t i o n of the permanent of Trade and Development World  They were p a r t l y  s u c c e s s f u l w i t h the  machinery of the U n i t e d N a t i o n s Conference  (UNCTAD) which has become l a r g e l y  Third  oriented. In the area of t h e use of the oceans and d e l i m i t a t i o n of j u r i s -  d i c t i o n over ocean space, d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s seek t o i n f l u e n c e the f o r m a t i o n of the emerging regime, p a r t i c u l a r l y  those under  discussion  at t h e T h i r d U n i t e d N a t i o n s Law of t h e Sea Conference (UNCLOS I I I ) . T h e i r i n t e n t i o n i s to i n f l u e n c e the b a r g a i n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g machinery of UNCLOS I I I , so t h a t i t may of t h e i r p o l i c y  objectives.  become more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  2  T h i s study analyses  the s t r a t e g i e s t h a t d e v e l o p i n g  i n the m u l t i l a t e r a l c o n f e r e n c e s i n UNCTAD and UNCLOS I I I .  s t a t e s use In the  main p a r t s of t h i s study these s t r a t e g i e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d , t h e rationale underlying support o r h i n d e r  t h e i r use i s d i s c u s s e d  and t h e f a c t o r s that  t h e i r use a r e a n a l y s e d .  Purpose and Scope of t h e Study.  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f  t h i s study a r e t o examine and a n a l y s e t h e s t r a t e g i e s used t o pursue t h e issues normally negotiated  i n t h e two forums.  I n UNCTAD, t h e i s s u e s  are those r e l a t i n g t o t r a d e , a i d , monetary and developmental problems. In UNCLOS I I I , t h e i s s u e s a r e those r e l a t i n g t o j u r i s d i c t i o n and use o f ocean space. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c features contrast use  over  Another r e l a t e d aim i s t o examine t h e o f t h e two i n s t i t u t i o n s , and t o compare and  the f a c t o r s w i t h i n  them that e i t h e r enhance o r h i n d e r t h e  o f any s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s by t h e d e v e l o p i n g  states.  In r e l a t i o n to t h e s t r a t e g i e s used i n UNCTAD, t h e time p e r i o d t h a t t h i s study encompasses i s m a i n l y from i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1964 t o 1976.  On o c c a s i o n ,  recent  developments t o emphasize t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f some s t r a t e g i e s .  The  period  however, a few r e f e r e n c e s  have been made t o more  s e l e c t e d i n UNCLOS I I I i s mainly from 1973, when t h e  f i r s t UNCLOS I I I Conference was convened, t o 1976. Here again a few  references  a r e made t o more recent  developments f o r t h e sake  of emphasis. The  research  i s organized  around t h e f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c  questions.  3  (1)  Why  d i d d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s seek t o pursue  p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and i n t e r e s t s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l  their  organizational  forums r a t h e r than through o t h e r means? (2)  Why  d i d they pursue t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s i n some o r g a n i z a t i o n s  r a t h e r than i n o t h e r s ?  For example, why  d i d they not u t i l i z e  the  a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g economic o r g a n i z a t i o n s r a t h e r than a g i t a t e f o r the f o r m a t i o n of UNCTAD?  did  (3)  How  they  use?  (4)  How  d i d they pursue t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s ;  what  strategies  d i d they f o s t e r and m a i n t a i n a u n i f i e d p o s i t i o n  on  certain issues? The d a t a sources (1)  include:  U n i t e d N a t i o n s documents of a) r e l e v a n t G e n e r a l Assembly  meetings,  b) r e l e v a n t S e s s i o n s of UNCTAD and c) r e l e v a n t S e s s i o n s of UNCLOS I I I ; (2)  addresses of some p a r t i c i p a n t s o f these S e s s i o n s ;  (3)  l i t e r a t u r e on d i p l o m a t i c p r a c t i c e i n g e n e r a l and o t h e r  relevant material.  The sources l i s t e d  and t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n o f t h i s  D e f i n i t i o n s and A b b r e v i a t i o n s . or  l e s s developed  above comprise  the e m p i r i c a l  study.  The terms " d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s "  c o u n t r i e s (LDCs) as used i n t h i s study p e r t a i n s to  4  the newly  independent l a r g e l y n o n - i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  are a l s o u s u a l l y  states.  These  r e f e r r e d to as underdeveloped o r T h i r d World  These terms are used synonymously  i n t h i s study.  States.  For the most p a r t ,  s t a t e s which are r e f e r r e d t o by t h e s e names, are of the L a t i n Caribbean and A f r o - A s i a n  regions.  The word 'diplomacy' a l s o needs c l a r i f i c a t i o n . contemporary  writers  T r a d i t i o n a l and  have used i t i n a v a r i e t y of ways.  been used synonymously  American,  with negotiation  The word has  and f o r e i g n p o l i c y .  a l s o used t o r e f e r t o the ways i n which n e g o t i a t i o n s  It i s  are conducted:  In t h i s study 'diplomacy' i s used i n t h i s l a t t e r sense, and the p r o c e s s of diplomacy i s a n a l y s e d i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e environments selected  f o r t h i s study.  diplomacy.  Contemporary  The emphasis writers  i s therefore  such as Kaufmann and Wright have used  the word diplomacy i n a s i m i l a r sense. E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , Kaufmann d e f i n e s negotiation  on c o n f e r e n c e  By r e f e r e n c e  t o the Oxford  'diplomacy' as the p r o c e s s of  by which i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s a r e managed and the  methods used to a d j u s t  t h e s e relations."'"  diplomacy, Kaufmann l a t e r d e f i n e s  With t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e  of  c o n f e r e n c e diplomacy as  That p a r t of the management of r e l a t i o n s between governments and of r e l a t i o n s between governments and i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t t a k e s place i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences. 2  1.  Johan Kaufmann, Conference Diplomacy p. 21.  2.  Ibid.  (Leyden: S i j t h o f f , 1968)  5  Quincy Wright uses t h e word 'diplomacy', i n v e r y much the same way, as a p r o c e s s .  Thus a c c o r d i n g to Wright, Diplomacy more than e i t h e r war or law, proceeds by a p r o c e s s o f a c t i o n and r e a c t i o n . Initial p l a n s , g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s and customary r u l e s are adapted and m o d i f i e d u n t i l at t h e end those r e l i e d upon by both p a r t i c i p a n t s have been r a d i c a l l y altered.3  The  'Group of 77' i s another term t h a t needs c l a r i f i c a t i o n  I t r e f e r s t o a group of d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e s which u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t their of  i n t e r e s t s j o i n t l y i n t h e two s e l e c t e d forums.  the Group can be t r a c e d t o t h e autumn s e s s i o n o f t h e 1963 U n i t e d  N a t i o n s G e n e r a l Assembly the  The emergence  Meeting.  At f i r s t  t h e Group comprised  75 c o u n t r i e s which co-sponsored a j o i n t d e c l a r a t i o n i n 1963  r e q u e s t i n g t h a t t h e f o r t h c o m i n g 1964 Geneva Conference on Trade and Development d e a l w i t h c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c  issues.  These  issues  i n c l u d e d i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , monetary i s s u e s and r e l a t e d such as t h e improvement of U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r these i s s u e s .  problems  arrangements  At t h e i n a u g u r a l meeting o f t h e  U n i t e d N a t i o n s Conference on Trade and Development t h e group had i n c r e a s e d t o 77.  3.  W r i t i n g about t h e group, Gosovic remarks  that,  Quincy W r i g h t , "The Role o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law i n Contemporary Diplomacy," Diplomacy i n a Changing World, ed., by S. D. K e r t e s z and M. A. F i t z s i m o n s (Notre Dame: U n i v e r s i t y o f Notre Dame P r e s s , 1959) p. 56.  6  The Group o f 77 was born as an ad hoc group of c o - s p o n s o r s . but soon e v o l v e d i n t o a permanent i n s t r u m e n t to s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a r t i c u l a t e the demands of the d e v e l o p i n g countries A A f t e r UNCTAD I, t h i s c o a l i t i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e s r e t a i n e d the name Group of  77.  The a b b r e v i a t i o n s UNCTAD and UNCLOS I I I are used r e s p e c t i v e l y r e f e r to the U n i t e d Nations the T h i r d U n i t e d Nations a b b r e v i a t i o n UN Nations.  Conference  Conference  on Trade and  on the Law  Development  o f the Sea.  i s used h e n c e f o r t h i n t h i s study  The  agencies  f o r the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Monetary Fund, IBRD, f o r the  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Development and the Economic and used, t h e f u l l  Social Council.  ECOSOC, f o r  In o t h e r cases where acronyms a r e  term o r name i s w r i t t e n when f i r s t  the accepted acronym i n parentheses.  mentioned f o l l o w e d by  T h e r e a f t e r , o n l y the acronym i s  used.  4.  and  to r e f e r to the U n i t e d  Other acronyms used to r e p r e s e n t the names of UN  i n c l u d e IMF,  to  B r a n i s l a v Gosovic, UNCTAD: C o n f l i c t and Compromise S i j t h o f f , 1972) p. 272.  (Leiden:  7  CHAPTER I I  THE  DIPLOMATIC ENVIRONMENT - A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SOME FEATURES OF  THE  SELECTED INSTITUTIONS The O r i g i n and E v o l u t i o n of UNCTAD  There are a number of f a c t o r s which l e d to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of UNCTAD i n 1964.  Two  of the most fundamental  were the p r o c e s s of  d e c o l o n i z a t i o n , which l e d t o a r a p i d growth i n themembership of the UN,  and the i n a d e q u a c i e s of the UN In  of  new  the l a t e f i f t i e s and e a r l y  members i n the UN  independence.  a g e n c i e s e x i s t i n g at t h a t s i x t i e s t h e r e was  a steady i n c r e a s e  as former c o l o n i a l t e r r i t o r i e s a c h i e v e d  T h i s development l e d t o the f o r m a t i o n of new  dominant m a j o r i t i e s on q u e s t i o n s such as the economic and underdevelopment o f the new  states.  of  and  political  h i g h c o s t of  goods, and inadequate b a r g a i n i n g s k i l l s  LDCs to n e g o t i a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h more developed T r a d i t i o n a l l y , n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h developed  these i s s u e s was  their  The problems of underdevelopment  i n c l u d e d d e c l i n i n g p r i c e s f o r primary commodities, manufactured  time.  and e x p e r t i s e countries.  c o u n t r i e s concerning  pursued m a i n l y through b i l a t e r a l c h a n n e l s , and at times  through i s s u e s p e c i f i c  i n t e r e s t groups of s t a t e s .  Developing  however, found t h a t these arrangements d i d not r e s u l t  countries,  i n many s o l u t i o n s  8  t h a t were s a t i s f a c t o r y to them.  They argued  t h a t though  the developed  c o u n t r i e s o f t e n expressed the w i l l i n g n e s s t o extend some f i n a n c i a l assistance  to them, i n most i n s t a n c e s  many s t r i n g e n t  b i l a t e r a l p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e d too  conditions.  Other problems t h a t f a c e d  them d e r i v e d  ments they had w i t h developed c o u n t r i e s .  from the t r a d i n g a r r a n g e -  Through these  arrangements,  developed c o u n t r i e s o f f e r e d access to p r e f e r e n t i a l markets and lower tariffs  to primary commodity p r o d u c e r s .  producers complained  However, the primary commodity  t h a t these arrangements ensured continuous  to developed c o u n t r i e s  a t the lowest p o s s i b l e p r i c e s and p r o v i d e d no  l a s t i n g b e n e f i t s to them.  They argued  t h a t these problems were  worsened by a sharp d e c l i n e i n the "terms o f trade",They supported the view  f o r example.  t h a t the p r i c e s o f primary commodities  d e c l i n i n g s h a r p l y , w h i l e the p r i c e s o f imported manufactured were c o n s i s t e n t l y i n c r e a s i n g . tendency  supplies  were goods  These f a c t o r s t o g e t h e r l e d to an i n c r e a s i n g  among d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s  to pursue  s o l u t i o n s to t h e i r  problems a t v a r i o u s o t h e r l e v e l s o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  B e s i d e s the  f o r m a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l and o t h e r s p e c i f i c i s s u e groups, d e v e l o p i n g countries  sought s o l u t i o n s a t the m u l t i l a t e r a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g forums  o f the UN. E a r l y UN m u l t i l a t e r a l p r o j e c t s d i d not, however, r e c e i v e the n e c e s s a r y support from a l l members o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  F o r example,  the f i r s t major UN a i d p r o j e c t f o r d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s ,  the S p e c i a l  Fund f o r Economic Development (SUNFED), had to be abandoned  because  9  o f a l a c k o f support e a r l y UN  from the more developed countries."'  f a i l u r e s such as these,  the d e v e l o p i n g  Despite  countries s t i l l  to the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r a s o l u t i o n to t h e i r problems.  T h i s commitment  to the i n s t i t u t i o n d e r i v e d from the f a i l u r e o f b i l a t e r a l ,  r e g i o n a l and  o t h e r arrangments, as w e l l as from the f a c t t h a t d e v e l o p i n g t h a t the i n s t i t u t i o n c o u l d h e l p them i n p u r s u i n g independence, j u s t as i t had legal  helped  looked  states  t h e i r quest  felt  f o r economic  them i n g a i n i n g c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  independence. As  the T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s a g i t a t e d f o r the reform o f  n a t i o n a l t r a d i n g and i n the UN  agencies  inter-  o t h e r economic arrangements, the need f o r change  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r economic m a t t e r s became i n c r e a s i n g l y  apparent. The UN system had to become more o r i e n t e d to the problems o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . Agencies such as IBRD, the IMF, ECOSOC and otherswere seen as the forums i n which these problems c o u l d be t a c k l e d . However, these i n s t i t u t i o n s became g i n c r e a s i n g l y u n a c c e p t a b l e to d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . These i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  from the p o i n t o f view of d e v e l o p i n g  i n the hands of the t i t a n s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i n a n c e and were viewed t h e r e f o r e as mere e x t e n s i o n s Attempts on the p a r t o f the d e v e l o p i n g  c o u n t r i e s , were trade.  They  o f "Wall Street!' diplomacy.  s t a t e s to i n i t i a t e major reforms  5.  John G. Hadwen and J . Kaufmann, How U n i t e d N a t i o n s Made (Leyden: S i j t h o f f , 1960) pp. 85-111.  Decisions  6,  See  3-4.  Gosovic,  UNCTAD: C o n f l i c t and  Compromise, pp.  Are  x  10  i n these i n s t i t u t i o n s  seemed f u t i l e .  F o r example,  c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r the r o l e of the G e n e r a l Agreement (GATT).  The d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s argued t h a t  there was  a major  on T a r i f f s and Trade  the system o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  trade as i t had become i n s t i t u t e d i n GATT, was b i a s e d i n favour o f the more developed c o u n t r i e s .  They c o n s i d e r e d i t u n f a i r t h a t the Agreement  s h o u l d be based on r e c i p r o c a l  t a r i f f s between a l l members.  They found t h i s  quid pro quo arrangement u n a c c e p t a b l e because i t v e s t e d a g r e a t e r amount of power i n the hands o f the b i g t r a d i n g n a t i o n s .  As f a r as d e v e l o p i n g  c o u n t r i e s were concerned, GATT produced too many i n j u r i o u s or i n e f f e c t i v e results.  They t h e r e f o r e i n c r e a s e d t h e i r a g i t a t i o n f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l  reform. The arguments o f d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s f o r a new  i n s t i t u t i o n i n the  f i e l d of t r a d e and development, and f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l changes elsewhere were opposed by the developed c o u n t r i e s . existing institutions  The l a t t e r argued t h a t the  l i k e GATT were q u i t e c a p a b l e o f d e a l i n g w i t h the  problems of f i n a n c e , t r a d e and development. the g l o b a l economic system was  While t h i s debate p r o g r e s s e d ,  changing and new problems were c o n s t a n t l y  b e i n g added to a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g ones.  Some new problems i n c l u d e d the adverse  e f f e c t s on the T h i r d World s t a t e s o f the growth o f t e c h n o l o g y i n the more developed c o u n t r i e s . c o u n t r i e s was  For example,  a major problem f o r d e v e l o p i n g  the c o m p e t i t i o n which t h e i r n a t u r a l products f a c e d from  s y n t h e t i c s and s u b s t i t u t e s .  These problems were f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e d by  s t o c k p i l i n g and s u r p l u s d i s p o s a l by the major i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s . a d d i t i o n , the primary commodity e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s f a c e d  regional  In  11  and  i n t e r n a l problems.  production  and  There was  marketing p o l i c i e s .  countries lacked  The was  And  worse y e t , many o f  o f primary  a g i t a t i o n by  r e i n f o r c e d by  as a means o f a v o i d i n g  T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s  and  other  follow-up  of the s i x t e e n t h s e s s i o n of the UN  a c t i o n i n the f i e l d new  introduced  i n t e r n a t i o n a l meetings and  movement.  and  Belgrade  developing identify development.  G e n e r a l Assembly i n  by  to seek s o l u t i o n s .  the The  non-aligned Cairo  Declara-  c o u n t r i e s p r o t e c t t h e i r common i n -  GATT as w e l l as c o o p e r a t e to s t r e n g t h e n The  the economic  p r e f e r a b l y i n 1963,  to d i s c u s s a l l " v i t a l  developing  countries.  aegis  questions"  r e l a t i n g to i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e , primary commodity t r a d e and r e l a t i o n s between developed and  and  p a r t i c i p a n t s came out s t r o n g l y i n  favour of h o l d i n g an i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic c o n f e r e n c e under the of the UN,  1963,  s t r e s s i n g the need f o r  countries held i n Cairo.  s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s o f the UN.  to  f i n a n c e and  conferences i n order  t i o n recommended t h a t d e v e l o p i n g  The  draft resolutions c a l l i n g for  were supported i n 1963  conference o f d e v e l o p i n g  terests within  two  o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade and  These p r o p o s a l s  the dependence  conferences h e l p e d  broad common i n t e r e s t s i n areas such as t r a d e ,  countries  the  f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l change  c o u n t r i e s to be more aware of w o r l d economic trends  the d e v e l o p i n g  these  commodities.  the r i s e of the n o n - a l i g n e d  Conference of 1961  At the end  their  the long-range s t r u c t u r a l requirements f o r  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of p r o d u c t i o n , on the export  a l a c k o f c o o r d i n a t i o n of  economic  These e f f o r t s  12  eventually on  l e d to the d e c i s i o n by t h e UN to convene  the UN Conference  Trade and Development i n e a r l y 1964. A t t h i s f i r s t  UNCTAD  c o n f e r e n c e the machinery and i n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements f o r a permanent o r g a n i z a t i o n complete w i t h s e c r e t a r i a t were d e v i s e d . between the proponents (the d e v e l o p i n g (the developed c o u n t r i e s ) was l o n g , compromises and s e t b a c k s .  countries)  tedious  The d e v e l o p i n g  new i n s t i t u t i o n .  and the opponents  and complex, i n v o l v i n g many  c o u n t r i e s managed to succeed  i n g e t t i n g UNCTAD e s t a b l i s h e d , o n l y by h o l d i n g getting a majority  The debate  a common p o s i t i o n and  d r a f t r e s o l u t i o n passed f o r the c r e a t i o n o f t h i s The new i n s t i t u t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d  T h i r d World group u n i t y and p r o v i d e d  a p a r t i a l success o f  an i n s t i t u t i o n a l forum i n which  new s t r a t e g i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h group r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o u l d be t r i e d and  tested. At UNCTAD I i n 1964, i t was unanimously agreed t h a t UNCTAD be  e s t a b l i s h e d as an organ o f t h e UN G e n e r a l Assembly. machinery o f UNCTAD e s t a b l i s h e d s h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s ,  The permanent included  d e l i b e r a t i v e organs and two main a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s .  two main  The main  d e l i b e r a t i v e organs a r e t h e t r i e n n i a l c o n f e r e n c e s and the Trade and Development Board. the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l  The main a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s a r e the O f f i c e o f and the S e c r e t a r i a t .  General Assembly r e s o l u t i o n 1995 (XIX)  o f December 1964,  s t i p u l a t e d t h a t the conferences be convened a t a venue s e t by the G e n e r a l Assembly a t l e a s t every three y e a r s .  The purpose o f these  conferences  i s to review and c o o r d i n a t e t r a d e p o l i c i e s ,  and implement new p r i n c i p l e s and p o l i c i e s . i n a u g u r a l Conference  to n e g o t i a t e  A c c o r d i n g l y , a f t e r the  o f UNCTAD I a t Geneva i n 1964, UNCTAD I I was  convened i n New D e l h i i n 1968, UNCTAD I I I i n Santiago i n 1972, UNCTAD IV i n N a i r o b i i n 1976, and r e c e n t l y UNCTAD V i n M a n i l a i n 1979. UNCTAD I emphasised development through t r a d e .  The S e c r e t a r y -  General a t t h a t time, Raul P r e b i s c h , p r e s e n t e d a r e p o r t to the Conference entitled called  "Toward a New Trade P o l i c y  f o r Development".  This report  f o r the r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f the e x i s t i n g r u l e s and conventions o f  i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e and f i n a n c e , so t h a t they may be more r e s p o n s i v e to g l o b a l needs, p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  to t h e needs o f development.^  In  accordance w i t h these views, new p r i n c i p l e s f o r commodity t r a d e were recommended.  C o n t r a r y to t h e l i b e r a l view o f economic thought  i n s i s t e d on equal treatment of UNCTAD  f o r e x p o r t e r s and i m p o r t e r s , t h e p r i n c i p l e s  p l a c e d the a c c e n t on t h e fundamental  developed and the l e s s developed n a t i o n s . New D e l h i c o n f e r e n c e s l a i d  which  i n e q u a l i t y between  The 1964 and 1968 Geneva and  the groundwork f o r f u t u r e commodity a r r a n g e -  ments to be based on s p e c i a l c l a u s e s a l l o w i n g f o r exemption from d u t i e s and o t h e r l e v i e s .  I n a d d i t i o n , a t these c o n f e r e n c e s ' t h e r e were  prolonged d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e problem  of s t a b i l i z i n g world p r i c e s o f  a g r i c u l t u r a l commodities,  so t h a t f l u c t u a t i o n s c o u l d s t a y w i t h i n  accepted l i m i t s .  fundamental  7.  Another  p r i n c i p l e o f UNCTAD was to guide  UNCTAD, "Towards a New Trade P o l i c y f o r Development": Report by the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l o f UNCTAD (E/Conf. 46/3, 1964).  14  the p r i c e s o f t r o p i c a l producers  t o "remunerative"  l e v e l s compared to  the p r i c e s they p a i d f o r i m p o r t s . A s u b j e c t o f major importance  at the d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f the second  UNCTAD conference a t New D e l h i i n 1968 was t h e need f o r the improvement o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l machinery o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e . conference,  After  this  the UNCTAD Board, t h e major p o l i c y - m a k i n g organ o f the  i n s t i t u t i o n met i n September 1969 to d i s c u s s some o f the s u g g e s t i o n s made a t the c o n f e r e n c e .  Some o f these s u g g e s t i o n s concerned  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l improvement. importance  the question  T h i s matter was c o n s i d e r e d o f g r e a t  and d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h .  I n o r d e r to l e s s e n the d u p l i c a t i o n  o f f u n c t i o n s between UNCTAD and GATT, the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l o f UNCTAD was  a u t h o r i s e d to " m a i n t a i n r e g u l a r c o n t a c t and c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the  D i r e c t o r - G e n e r a l o f GATT". two  institutions  I t was f e l t  t h a t t h i s step would h e l p the  to e x p l o r e f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f j o i n t  coordinated  g action.  Additionally  the Board  recommended t h a t the G e n e r a l  Assembly s h o u l d d e s i g n a t e UNCTAD as a " p a r t i c i p a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n " o f the UN Development Programme (UNDP).  The major o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s  d e c i s i o n was t o make UNCTAD more e f f e c t i v e i n t h e promotion  of technical  a i d to l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s . UNCTAD I I I , h e l d a t Santiago i n 1972 c o n t i n u e d d i s c u s s i o n s and n e g o t i a t i o n s o f the major i s s u e s r a i s e d a t the two p r e v i o u s  8.  conferences,  "Meeting o f t h e Trade and Development Board, September 1969", J o u r n a l o f World Trade Law 4 (January-February 1970), pp. 77-80.  15  i n a d d i t i o n t o other new agenda items.  By t h e end o f i t s f i r s t  three  c o n f e r e n c e s UNCTAD had s e v e r a l achievements t o i t s c r e d i t , but was still  f a r from changing t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic system  In t h e area o f commodities i t had n e g o t i a t e d Agreement s u c c e s s f u l l y and r e n e g o t i a t e d and  tin.  radically.  t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Cocoa  t h e agreements on sugar, wheat  I n r e l a t i o n t o t r a d e , UNCTAD had i n i t i a t e d a g e n e r a l i s e d  system of p r e f e r e n c e s .  T h i s system has now become p a r t o f t h e t a r i f f  s t r u c t u r e s of v i r t u a l l y a l l developed member c o u n t r i e s .  In addition,  i n r e l a t i o n t o a i d and f i n a n c e , i t helped t o secure agreement on  9 o b j e c t i v e s and a i d t a r g e t s from t h e developed The  countries.  f o u r t h c o n f e r e n c e , UNCTAD IV h e l d a t N a i r o b i i n 1976, was  convened i n t h e wake of t h e s i x t h and seventh s p e c i a l s e s s i o n s UN General Assembly.  These s e s s i o n s were h e l d  of t h e  i n 1974 and 1975. The  s i x t h s e s s i o n , which commenced i n 1974, was prompted by the o i l c r i s i s of 1973. At t h i s s e s s i o n , a Programme of A c t i o n f o r t h e establishment  o f a new I n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic Order was adopted.  programme was adopted by consensus d e s p i t e s t r o n g r e s e r v a t i o n s by  the United  S t a t e s , Japan and s e v e r a l members of t h e EEC.  Seventh S p e c i a l S e s s i o n ,  held  i n 1975, t h e U n i t e d  States  c o n c i l i a t o r y mood and put forward a number of p r o p o s a l s  9.  The  expressed  At t h e  adopted a more f o r t h e improve-  UNCTAD, New D i r e c t i o n s and New S t r a t e g i e s f o r Trade and Development: Report by t h e S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l of UNCTAD t o UNCTAD IV. (Geneva, TD/183/Rev. 1, 1976).  16  ment o f the t r a d i n g and f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n o f LDCs. were not o r g a n i z e d  These  sessions  to reach d e t a i l e d agreements on s p e c i f i c p o l i c y  measures, but r a t h e r t o suggest b r o a d g u i d e l i n e s f o r measures negotiated  subsequently.  As a r e s u l t , many o f the i s s u e s r a i s e d a t  the s p e c i a l s e s s i o n s were continued  a t UNCTAD IV.  For example, a t t h i s c o n f e r e n c e work continued commodity  i n the f i e l d of  r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e g u i d e l i n e s recommended a t t h e Seventh  Special Session.  Progress was made i n t h i s a r e a ,  e v e n t u a l l y accepted  an I n t e g r a t e d  proposed by t h e Group o f 77. IPC.  to be  These were  and t h e c o n f e r e n c e  Programme f o r Commodities  (IPC),  There were s i x main o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e  the c r e a t i o n of a s e r i e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l b u f f e r  s t o c k s , a system o f i n d e x a t i o n , a common fund m u l t i l a t e r a l long-term supply f l u c t u a t i o n s i n export  f o r f i n a n c i n g the s t o c k s ,  c o n t r a c t s , compensatory f i n a n c e  earnings,  the expansion o f p r o c e s s i n g and  d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n the l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s . made advances i n o t h e r p o l i c y a r e a s . programme to s t r e n g t h e n  against  UNCTAD IV  I t endorsed a wide-range  the t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y o f the developing  c o u n t r i e s and s e t out the m o d a l i t i e s  f o r the n e g o t i a t i o n o f a code  of conduct f o r the t r a n s f e r o f t e c h n o l o g y . In s p i t e o f a l i m i t e d measure o f p r o g r e s s  i n d e a l i n g w i t h the  i s s u e s and problems o f development, a l l UNCTAD conferences a r e  10.  UNCTAD, An I n t e g r a t e d Programme f o r Commodities TD/B/C.1/166) December 1964.  (Geneva,  17  c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a great d e a l o f f r u s t r a t i o n and o b s t a c l e s to agreement.  These drawbacks d e r i v e from a number o f complex and i n t e r -  related factors.  F o r example, though many r e s o l u t i o n s and programmes  of a c t i o n a r e proposed a t the c o n f e r e n c e s , o n l y a s m a l l percentage o f these stand any chance o f b e i n g implemented because  of their  recommendatory n a t u r e and the presence o f c o u n t e r p r o p o s a l s from d e l e g a t e s w i t h opposing views. the subsequent limited.  So f a r the success o f n e g o t i a t i o n s and  implementation o f the d e c i s i o n s o f these have been  Additionally,  though b o t h developed and l e s s  developed  c o u n t r i e s sometimes agree on what measures s h o u l d be taken to improve the i n t e r n a t i o n a l environment u s u a l l y deep disagreements  o f t r a d e and development, t h e r e a r e  between them about  the s u b s t a n t i v e measures  and s p e c i f i c s t e p s to be taken to ensure and promote p r o g r e s s .  The O r i g i n and E v o l u t i o n o f UNCLOS I I I The importance  o f the Law o f the Sea Conference  (UNCLOS I I I ) to  d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to many d i v e r s e f a c t o r s .  One  o f the m o t i v a t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g the p o l i c i e s . o f T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s i n UNCLOS I I I was the d e s i r e to seek l e g i t i m i z a t i o n  (from c r e d i b l e  international institutions) for their unilateral policies.  The i n c r e a s i n g  t r e n d o f u n i l a t e r a l i s m that preceded the UNCLOS I I I c o n f e r e n c e s caused s e r i o u s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l problems and a f f e c t e d the a b i l i t y o f c o u n t r i e s to p r o v i d e themselves w i t h v a l u a b l e sea r e s o u r c e s found  18  o f f their coasts.  F o r some d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , t h i s c r e a t e d a  s e r i o u s shortage of  food.  Among the u n i l a t e r a l c l a i m s to o f f shore  r i g h t s were c l a i m s of  3 m i l e s , 12 m i l e s , 30 m i l e s , 100 m i l e s , 150 m i l e s and  200  miles.  These c l a i m s c o n s t i t u t e d attempts to r e t a i n c o n t r o l over what were o f t e n h i g h l y c o n f l i c t i n g , o v e r l a p p i n g and c o n t r o v e r s i a l sea areas and  contiguous  zones.  i n an e a r l i e r p e r i o d , b e f o r e UN maritime 1945,  issues.  territorial  Most o f these c l a i m s had  started  mechanisms were e s t a b l i s h e d to d e a l w i t h  For example, f o l l o w i n g the "Truman P r o c l a m a t i o n "  through which the U n i t e d S t a t e s pursued  of  i t s unilateralism,  t h e r e were a number of s i m i l a r c l a i m s by o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . these were by d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  Most of  those i n L a t i n America.  One  of the major m o t i v a t i o n s behind  the c l a i m s o f T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s  was  the d e s i r e to i n c l u d e v a l u a b l e f i s h i n g grounds and  ocean r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l  submerged  boundaries.  The primary motive f o r the L a t i n American S t a t e s to i n c r e a s e t h e i r maritime j u r i s d i c t i o n appears to have been concern over a c t u a l and a n t i c i p a t e d foreign f i s h i n g of t h e i r c o a s t s . H What was  t r u e f o r the L a t i n American and  Caribbean  s t a t e s was  equally  t r u e f o r a number of o t h e r d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e s , such as the c o a s t a l Afro-Asian States.  Where the motive was  f i s h i n g r e s o u r c e s , . i t was  11.  not p r i m a r i l y to p r o t e c t  to p r o t e c t c l a i m s to i s l a n d  See B a r r y Buzan, Seabed P o l i t i c s , p. 11.  (New  territories  York: Praeger,  1976),  and  19  mineral o i l resources.  E x p l o i t a t i o n o f the l a s t s e t o f r e s o u r c e s  became i n c r e a s i n g l y more p l a u s i b l e and l e s s c o s t l y , e s p e c i a l l y the d i s c o v e r y o f new t e c h n o l o g i e s and t h e spread o f f o r e i g n from developed  with  investment  countries.  Encouraged by these developments, s t a t e s i n A s i a and A f r i c a like  those  claimants  i n L a t i n America  made i n c r e a s i n g o f f - s h o r e c l a i m s .  i n c l u d e d Cambodia, T h a i l a n d , and South Vietnam.  The  These  s t a t e s made e x t e n s i v e and o v e r l a p p i n g c l a i m s i n t o the G u l f o f Siam. South Korea, Japan, Taiwan and China made s i m i l a r c o n f l i c t i n g to l a r g e areas o f the Yellow  and East China  Seas.  Meanwhile i n  A f r i c a , Gabon added a 50 m i l e f i s h i n g zone to i t s 100 m i l e sea.  claims  territorial  L i k e w i s e , South Vietnam, I r a n , Morocco, Senegal and I c e l a n d 12  added f i s h i n g zones to t h e i r t e r r i t o r i a l seas.  A l l these  claims  o c c u r r e d b e f o r e o r d u r i n g the e a r l y stages o f UNCLOS I I I , which was convened i n 1973.  Before  t h e Law o f t h e Sea Conferences,  American C o u n c i l o f J u r i s t s  (IACJ), e s t a b l i s h e d as a p a r t o f the  O r g a n i z a t i o n o f American S t a t e s of t h e r i s i n g determining  the I n t e r -  (OAS), was o c c u p i e d w i t h the l e g a l i t y  tide of u n i l a t e r a l claims.  I t had a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n  the l e g i t i m a c y o f these c l a i m s because most o f the  L a t i n American s t a t e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l claims were members o f the OAS.  S e v e r a l s e s s i o n s o f t h e IACJ were thus h e l d to  d i s c u s s these j u r i s d i c t i o n a l matters and to a v o i d an e s c a l a t i o n o f conflict. 12.  Progress  was slow, however.  I b i d . , p. 122 and p. 194.  Thus the new claims  20  remained  as a f o r m i d a b l e c h a l l e n g e to i n t e r n a t i o n a l  legal  jurisprudence. The l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s , e s p e c i a l l y those i n L a t i n were n a t u r a l l y concerned w i t h these developments,  especially  America, since  they were s e e k i n g means o f g a i n i n g l e g i t i m a c y f o r t h e i r c l a i m s .  They  therefore h e l d a s e r i e s o f m u l t i l a t e r a l r e g i o n a l conferences o u t s i d e the a u s p i c e s o f the UN f o r the purpose o f f o r g i n g common maritime practices.  F o l l o w i n g each c o n f e r e n c e there, were d e c l a r a t i o n s o f t h e i r  p o s i t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to the i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d .  These a c t i v i t i e s were  not seen as an end i n themselves but as a way o f i n f l u e n c i n g the c o d i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s a t the UN l e v e l .  These s t a t e s sought  to go to  the UN c o n f e r e n c e s w i t h as many r e g i o n a l m u l t i l a t e r a l arrangements as possible. Other f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g to developments i n marine technology and ocean a c t i v i t y made the a p p r o a c h i n g UN conferences o f c r i t i c a l importance  to a l l l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s .  particular  importance.  1)  Some o f these were o f  There were f i r s t o f a l l the s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g v a r i e t y and  i n t e n s i t y o f ocean a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g f i s h i n g and s h i p p i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Buzan, f o r example, notes t h a t t h e tonnage o f w o r l d s h i p p i n g had r i s e n steadily i n size, 1950 to 1958;  r e f l e c t i n g an annual i n c r e a s e o f 8 p e r c e n t  from  and the tonnage o f the w o r l d f i s h c a t c h e s c a l a t e d  13 from 21.1 m i l l i o n m e t r i c tons i n 1950 to 36.7 m e t r i c tons i n 1959.  13.  I b i d . , p. 34.  21  2) led  The development o f technology i n t h e developed  countries  to concern by LDCs about the e f f e c t s on them o f n a v a l  marine s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h  and new t e c h n o l o g i e s  research,  for d r i l l i n g offshore  oil. 3)  The developments t a k i n g p l a c e i n the UN c o n c e r n i n g  trade,  f i n a n c e and o t h e r developmental problems o f LDCs, and the f o r m a t i o n o f UNCTAD were r e f l e c t e d i n the Law o f the Sea n e g o t i a t i o n s . emergence o f t h e Group o f 77 s i g n a l l e d the e r a o f g r e a t e r o f T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s i n p r e s e n t i n g was  not l i m i t e d  UN m u l t i l a t e r a l 4)  j o i n t proposals.  The  cooperation This  trend  to economic forums such as UNCTAD b u t to a l l major forums.  Another development o f s i g n i f i c a n t importance to T h i r d  World c o u n t r i e s was t h e Pardo p r o p o s a l .  T h i s p r o p o s a l was made by  A r v i d Pardo, the UN Ambassador o f M a l t a ,  on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e and on  behalf of h i s country.  A t the August 1967 s e s s i o n o f the UN General  Assembly, he s t a t e d : In view o f the r a p i d p r o g r e s s i n t h e development o f new t e c h n o l o g i e s by the t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y advanced c o u n t r i e s , i t i s f e a r e d . . . t h a t t h e seabed and t h e ocean fLoor u n d e r l y i n g the Seas beyond p r e s e n t n a t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n w i l l become p r o g r e s s i v e l y and c o m p e t i t i v e l y s u b j e c t to n a t i o n a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n and use. This i s l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n the m i l i t a r i z a t i o n o f the a c c e s s i b l e ocean f l o o r through t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f f i x e d m i l i t a r y i n s t a l l a t i o n s and i n t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s o f immense p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t to the w o r l d , f o r the n a t i o n a l advantage o f t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y developed c o u n t r i e s .  14.  I b i d . , p. 67.  22  Pardo c o n c l u d e d w i t h a p r o p o s a l  t h a t the seabed and ocean  beyond n a t i o n a l j u r i s d i c t i o n be d e s i g n a t e d mankind", and f u r t h e r t h a t the resources a p p r o p r i a t i o n by p r o s p e c t i n g  states.  floor  as "a common h e r i t a g e o f  o f t h i s area be banned from  As an a l t e r n a t i v e , he proposed  t h a t the m a t e r i a l and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s  t h a t c o u l d be a c q u i r e d  the a r e a be used mainly to promote the development o f poor Further,  he suggested t h a t the area be r e s e r v e d  from  countries.  for peaceful  purposes  o n l y and t h a t an i n t e r n a t i o n a l agency be e s t a b l i s h e d to r e g u l a t e , supervise  and c o n t r o l a l l a c t i v i t i e s  An a n a l y s i s o f the p r o p o s a l In a d d i t i o n to o t h e r  i n the area.  made by Buzan i s worth examining.  e f f e c t s , he notes t h a t t h e p r o p o s a l  - gave an immense momentum to the i d e a o f a common h e r i t a g e o f mankind by l i n k i n g i t to the needs and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g countries; - also placed versus d e v e l o p i n g  the i s s u e s q u a r e l y  i n t h e context  o f developed  c o u n t r y i n t e r e s t s , and thereby e s t a b l i s h e d o r  g r e a t l y h e l p e d to e s t a b l i s h , alignment on the i s s u e t h a t might wise have evolved  other-  i n d i f f e r e n t o r a t l e a s t i n l e s s s t a r k forms;  - r a i s e d t h e v i s i o n o f a new type o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t would g i v e economic b e n e f i t s and p o l i t i c a l power to the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s as a means o f r e s t o r i n g the b a l a n c e between them and developed c o u n t r i e s and - r a i s e d a banner a g a i n s t  technological imperialism  o f b o t h the  23  economic and  the m i l i t a r y v a r i e t y around which the d e v e l o p i n g  countries could r a l l y with r e l a t i v e  ease.^  These f a c t o r s i n combination w i t h the o t h e r s mentioned  earlier  l e d to the major r o l e which T h i r d World c o u n t r i e s were to p l a y i n UNCLOS I I I , i n d i v i d u a l l y as w e l l as through the i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y o f the Group o f  77.  So f a r the UN has o r g a n i z e d t h r e e conferences on the Law Sea which have d e a l t p r o g r e s s i v e l y w i t h v a r i o u s ocean matters. F i r s t Conference was  h e l d i n 1958.  these d e a l t w i t h the t e r r i t o r i a l  I t adopted  sea and  of the The  four conventions:  the contiguous  zone, the h i g h  seas, f i s h i n g and the c o n s e r v a t i o n o f the l i v i n g r e s o u r c e s o f the h i g h seas and  the c o n t i n e n t a l s h e l f .  Second Conference o f 1960, t e r r i t o r i a l sea and  i n 1976  i n Caracas and 1977,  the  f a i l e d to d e f i n e the l i m i t s o f the  the f i s h i n g  The T h i r d UN Conference i n 1973,  T h i s conference as w e l l as  i n 1974,  zone.^ (UNCLOS I I I ) h e l d s e s s i o n s i n New  i n Geneva i n 1975,  York  t h r e e times i n New  and once more i n Geneva and New  York i n 1978.  15.  I b i d . , p.  16.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Second U n i t e d N a t i o n s Conference on The Law the Sea 1960 (New York, A/Conf. 62/WP 10, 1960).  The  68. of  York task  24  the conference s e t by convention Following  the G e n e r a l Assembly i n 1973  dealing with  a l l matters r e l a t i n g to the Law  an i n i t i a l s e s s i o n i n 1973  of proposals  debate and a f i r s t  1974  plethora  the main Committee in  used as a b a s i s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s  t e x t i n 1976  o f the r e s u l t s o f n e g o t i a t i o n s .  "informal  session i n  f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a convention.  of the conference r e v i s e d t h i s light  I n 1975  procedural  " s i n g l e n e g o t i a t i n g t e x t , " s e t t i n g out  t r e a t y language, p r o v i s i o n s to be most p o i n t s c o n s i d e r e d  substantive  attempt to reduce the  to manageable p r o p o r t i o n s .  Chairmen produced the f i r s t  of the Sea.""*"^  on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  matters, the conference devoted i t s f i r s t mostly to g e n e r a l  i s " t o adopt a  The  and a g a i n 1977  composite n e g o t i a t i n g t e x t " (ICNT).  The  on  officers  i n 1977,  i n the  t e x t i s known as  the  Current work i s based  on the ICNT. UNCLOS I I I has  t h r e e main committees.  on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l seabed regime and on g e n e r a l  aspects  o f the Law  machinery;  of the S ea;  marine environment, marine s c i e n t i f i c  The  First  Committee  focusses  the Second Committee  the T h i r d Committee on  r e s e a r c h and  the  the development  t r a n s f e r o f marine technology.  17.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , T h i r d U n i t e d Nations Conference on the Law the Sea V o l . I (New York, A/Conf. 62/1, 1973).  of  and  25 A Comparative A n a l y s i s o f Some Features o f the Selected  There a r e important  Institutions  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r o l e o f the Group o f 77  i n UNCLOS I I I and i n UNCTAD.  The n a t u r e o f each i n s t i t u t i o n  affects  the p a t t e r n o f group f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n i t and t h e p a t t e r n o f group f o r m a t i o n i n t u r n a f f e c t s the r o l e o f the Group o f 77. T h i r d World and developed  I n UNCLOS I I I ,  c o u n t r i e s have c o n f l i c t i n g views on i s s u e s  such as who s h o u l d e x p l o i t the "common h e r i t a g e " ( f o r example the m i n e r a l s on the deep seabed) and how the r e s o u r c e s s h o u l d be d i s t r i b u t e d . D e s p i t e these d i f f e r e n c e s i n o u t l o o k , both d e v e l o p i n g and developed c o u n t r i e s a r e sometimes drawn i n t o Common i n t e r e s t s and expected  the same a l l i a n c e s on o t h e r i s s u e s .  s o l u t i o n s i n t h i s l a t t e r case  common g e o g r a p h i c a l a t t r i b u t e s .  d e r i v e from  Thus r e f e r r i n g to the group o f  c o a s t a l s t a t e s , Johnson and Zacher remark, While d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e s a r e members o f t h i s group, developed c o u n t r i e s such as Canada, A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand and to an e x t e n t the U n i t e d S t a t e s f a l l into it.18 In c o n t r a s t to t h e above s i t u a t i o n ,  the r e l e v a n t economic a t t r i b u t e s  of s t a t e s i n UNCTAD serves to p o l a r i z e them i n t o d i s t i n c t groups o f developed  and l e s s developed  states.  Among these a t t r i b u t e s a r e type  o f i n d u s t r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d , commodities exported and type o f technology and  18.  l e v e l o f i n f r a s t r u c t u r a l development a t t a i n e d .  Since there i s  B. Johnson and M. Zacher, Canadian F o r e i g n P o l i c y and the Law o f the Sea (Vancouver: UBC P r e s s , 1977) p. x v i i .  26  more commonality among l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s i n r e l a t i o n to these a t t r i b u t e s , they share s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s , e x p e c t a t i o n s o f b e n e f i t s and o t h e r f a c t o r s f a v o u r a b l e to j o i n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . Thus the group s t r u c t u r e i n UNCTAD i s more r i g i d .  I n UNCLOS I I I i t i s much more  fluid,  and t h e r e f o r e s t a t e s tend to form d i f f e r e n t a l l i a n c e s depending on what i s s u e s a r e b e i n g n e g o t i a t e d a t a p a r t i c u l a r  time.  Other d i f f e r e n c e s i n the n a t u r e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s r e l a t e to t h e developments which p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e i r emergence and the amount o f autonomy they p o s s e s s .  F o r example, UNCTAD was founded  i n 1964 through  an agreement reached a t t h e 1964 Geneva UN Conference on Trade and Development.  UNCLOS I I I i n c o n t r a s t was one o f a s e r i e s o f Law o f t h e  Sea Conferences, f o l l o w i n g the 1958 and 1960 c o n f e r e n c e s . was  formed  i n an atmosphere o f North/South  T h i r d World  c o n f r o n t a t i o n and  a s s e r t i v e n e s s a g a i n s t both E a s t and West.  e v o l v e d out o f e a r l i e r conferences dominated nations.  UNCTAD  UNCLOS I I I  by a m a j o r i t y o f l a r g e r  T h i s l a t t e r p o i n t has s i g n i f i c a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g  the a t t i t u d e o f s t a t e s toward  t h e forums and t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to make  compromises. F o r m a l l y , t h e r e a r e s t r i c t mechanisms o f c o n t r o l o v e r UNCTAD. B e i n g an organ o f the UN General Assembly, i t i s supposed  to r e p o r t  a n n u a l l y to the General Assembly through the Economic and S o c i a l C o u n c i l (ECOSOC).  I t s S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l i s a p p o i n t e d by t h e UN and i t s  27  budget i s f i n a n c e d through  a p p r o p r i a t i o n s from t h e l a r g e UN budget.  D e s p i t e these attempts to c o n t r o l i t , UNCTAD possesses o f autonomy.  a great deal  T h i s i s a f a c t very w e l l documented by r e s e a r c h e r s  such  19 as Nye and G o s o v i c . ECOSOC.  In p r a c t i c e , UNCTAD works independently o f  I t has a c h i e v e d a g r e a t d e a l o f independence because i t has  i t s own s e c r e t a r i a t l o c a t e d i n Geneva away from the main c o n t r o l l i n g c e n t e r o f t h e UN i n New York.  In a d d i t i o n , separate  budgetary  p r o v i s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d where c o n t r i b u t i o n s c o u l d be made d i r e c t l y to the UNCTAD budget.  T h i s l a t t e r f a c t means a g r e a t d e a l i n terms o f  enhanced autonomy, more e f f i c i e n t  d a i l y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and g r e a t e r  f l e x i b i l i t y o f the i n s t i t u t i o n . In c o n t r a s t , UNCLOS I I I i s more o f an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e UN General Assembly.  There i s no S e c r e t a r i a t , S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l , s e p a r a t e budget,  o r any o f the o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l apparatuses  p r e s e n t i n UNCTAD.  Thus,  UNCLOS I I I i s merely a c o n f e r e n c e w r i t l a r g e w h i l e UNCTAD i s a permanent i n s t i t u t i o n e u p h e m i s t i c a l l y dubbed a c o n f e r e n c e .  The UNCTAD  S e c r e t a r i a t s e r v e s as a r e s e a r c h arm f o r the l e s s developed  countries,  thus h e l p i n g them to p l a n common s t r a t e g i e s and d r a f t p r o p o s a l s and resolutions.  I n UNCLOS I I I t h e r e a r e no such a i d s .  No s p e c i a l  s e r v i c e s a r e p r o v i d e d to the same e x t e n t as i n UNCTAD and t h e r e i s no s i n g l e source o f e x p e r t i s e and s k i l l s  that developing countries can  r e l y on. 19.  See, f o r example, Gosovic, UNCTAD: C o n f l i c t and Compromise, p . 185; and J . Nye, "UNCTAD: Poor Nations P r e s s u r e Group", Anatomy o f I n f l u e n c e , ed., by Cox & Jacobson (New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973) pp. 334-369.  28  Functions of the I n s t i t u t i o n s .  Both bodies s e r v e as p u b l i c  f o r b a r g a i n i n g and f o r m u l a t i n g agreements o r c o n v e n t i o n s . these a r e s u b j e c t t o r a t i f i c a t i o n by member c o u n t r i e s .  forums  Most o f  I n terms o f  p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s f o r members such as t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f data on t h e s u b j e c t o f the c o n f e r e n c e s , UNCTAD i s i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to do t h i s (through i t s S e c r e t a r i a t ) than i s UNCLOS I I I . UN General Assembly R e s o l u t i o n 1955 (XXV) empowers UNCTAD to i n i t i a t e a c t i o n , where a p p r o p r i a t e , i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e competent organs o f t h e UN f o r t h e n e g o t i a t i o n and a d o p t i o n o f the m u l t i l a t e r a l l e g a l instruments i n the f i e l d of t r a d e . l i m i t e d success i n n e g o t i a t i o n s . and  So f a r , UNCTAD has had some  The 1966 and 1967 Cocoa Agreements  t h e 1968 sugar agreements a r e two o f a s e r i e s o f commodity  agree-  ments n e g o t i a t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y . UNCLOS I I I debates p r o p o s a l s c o n c e r n i n g Law o f t h e Sea i s s u e s . The main o b j e c t i v e i s t o f o r m u l a t e a g e n e r a l Law o f the Sea c o n v e n t i o n through consensus.  As s t a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , the t a s k s e t  by t h e G e n e r a l Assembly i n 19 73 was f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s to "adopt a c o n v e n t i o n d e a l i n g w i t h a l l matters r e l a t i n g to t h e Law o f the Sea". The process o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , as s e t o u t i n t h e r u l e s o f procedure o f t h e c o n f e r e n c e , p r o v i d e s f o r d e f e r r a l o f votes on s u b s t a n t i v e q u e s t i o n s to p e r m i t e f f o r t s t o r e s o l v e d i f f e r e n c e s .  I t calls  for a  " c o o l i n g - o f f " p e r i o d p r i o r to any v o t e on a s u b s t a n t i v e matter, d u r i n g which t h e P r e s i d e n t o r Chairman o f the s e s s i o n would seek  29  "to f a c i l i t a t e the achievement o f g e n e r a l agreement" on the p o i n t or points of i s s u e .  I f no  f u r t h e r agreement i s reached  a f u r t h e r deferment i s d e c i d e d on,  and  unless  t h e r e would f i r s t have to be a  d e t e r m i n a t i o n by the same m a j o r i t y as i s r e q u i r e d by s u b s t a n t i v e decisions,  " t h a t a l l e f f o r t s at r e a c h i n g a g e n e r a l agreement have  been exhausted".  Only  then can a vote on a s u b s t a n t i v e i s s u e take  20 place. being  20.  In UNCTAD s i m i l a r mechanisms f o r s e e k i n g consensus a r e instituted.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , Rules o f Procedure f o r the T h i r d U n i t e d Nations Law o f the Sea Conference. (New York, A/Conf. 62/2 1973).  30  CHAPTER I I I DIPLOMATIC STRATEGIES OF THE  GROUP OF  77  The S t r a t e g i e s Most C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Group o f 77 Diplomacy. Comparison o f t h e i r Use i n the Two I n s t i t u t i o n s  The s t r a t e g i e s o f the l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s i n the Group o f are  77  c r u c i a l to an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r p a t t e r n o f d i p l o m a t i c b e h a v i o u r .  J u s t as important a r e the reasons u n d e r l y i n g the p r e f e r e n c e o f these c o u n t r i e s f o r p u r s u i n g t h e i r p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s i n the two  selected  r a t h e r than through o t h e r e x i s t i n g means o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . a n a l y s i s o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d around to  these two broad g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . 1)  Why  forums,  The  s p e c i f i c questions p e r t a i n i n g These q u e s t i o n s a r e :  i n g e n e r a l d i d d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s seek to pursue  their  p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s and i n t e r e s t s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l forums r a t h e r than through o t h e r means? 2)  Why  d i d they pursue  r a t h e r than i n o t h e r s ?  these o b j e c t i v e s i n some o r g a n i z a t i o n s  For example, why  d i d they not u t i l i z e  the a l r e a d y  e x i s t i n g economic o r g a n i z a t i o n s r a t h e r than a g i t a t e f o r the f o r m a t i o n of  UNCTAD? 3)  they  How  d i d they pursue  their objectives;  what s t r a t e g i e s d i d  How  d i d they f o s t e r and m a i n t a i n a u n i f i e d p o s i t i o n  use? 4)  on  certain issues? The answers to the f i r s t forums.  two  q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e to the c h o i c e o f  LDCs chose the forums they saw most l i k e l y  to promote  their  31  policy objectives.  The  answers to the  r e l a t e to s t r a t e g i e s such as activities,  the  t h i r d and  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r use  questions  f o r m a t i o n o f groups, p r e - c o n f e r e n c e  the use o f the S e c r e t a r i a t , the use  making o f symbolic speeches.  fourth  o f r h e t o r i c and  These s t r a t e g i e s and  are e l a b o r a t e d  the  some f a c t o r s  below.  Choice o f Forums The  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s issue derives  UNCTAD and  UNCLOS I I I were p r e f e r r e d  bargaining  environments which e x i s t e d .  s t a t e d i n Chapter I I , there a l r e a d y d e a l i n g w i t h developmental, trade GATT, the bilateral,  IMF,  ECOSOC and  r e g i o n a l and  These means by  others.  focussed  case o f UNCTAD, as  and  monetary i s s u e s .  These  included  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e were u n i l a t e r a l , o f the  UN.  prove very v i a b l e to  the  problems.  outside  For example, i n  i n Chapter I I (pp.  r e g i o n a l means of b a r g a i n i n g  o n l y on a s m a l l number o f s p e c i f i c  A d d i t i o n a l l y , e a r l y UN  and  e x i s t e d economic i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r  themselves, however, d i d not  u n i l a t e r a l , b i l a t e r a l and scope and  In the  o t h e r means o f b a r g a i n i n g  reasons d i s c u s s e d  fact that  to o t h e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  LDCs f o r p u r s u i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a d d i t i o n to the  from the  i n s t i t u t i o n s were not o r i e n t e d  7-17) were l i m i t e d i n issues. towards  dealing  w i t h T h i r d World concerns i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y manner because o f such f a c t o r s as t h e i r normative o r i e n t a t i o n s , t h e i r membership  structure,  32  t h e i r v o t i n g mechanisms and For i n s t a n c e , r u l e s and  operations  other  r u l e s of p r o c e d u r e .  the normative and  p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n s on which th  o f GATT, ECOSOC and  o t h e r e a r l y UN  institutions  are based, are those d e r i v i n g from c l a s s i c a l l i b e r a l economic thought. The  f o u n d i n g members o f GATT, f o r example, h e l d  p r e s c r i p t i o n s should basis.  Thus the  developing  apply  that r u l e s and  to a l l members on an e q u a l and  o f the  fact  i n t e r e s t s o f the LDCs.  f o r every t a r i f f  r u l e s o f the  of those i n GATT.  IMF  and  the  favour  the  Under the r u l e s of GATT, f o r example, the LDCs  were committed to o f f e r developed c o u n t r i e s  The  and  that many o f  p o l i c i e s t h a t b e n e f i t t e d the developed c o u n t r i e s d i d not  concession  reciprocal  r u l e s and p o l i c i e s were a p p l i e d to developed  countries a l i k e regardless  policy  reduction  an e q u i v a l e n t  they r e c e i v e d  tariff  from the  o t h e r economic i n s t i t u t i o n s were  supportive  These i n s t i t u t i o n s were a l l committed to  " l i b e r a l i z a t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a d e " and were "system  latter.  the  preserving  21 r a t h e r t h a n system c h a l l e n g i n g o r r e f o r m i n g . "  LDCs thus f e l t  growing sense o f f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h these r u l e s and  the  systems t h a t m a i n t a i n e d them, ranging  institutional  They t h e r e f o r e a g i t a t e d f o r wide  reforms. However, the membership s t r u c t u r e and  21.  a  Susan Strange, "IMF, Monetary Managers" ed., Cox and Jacobson, p. 263.  v o t i n g mechanisms o f thes  Anatomy o f  Influence  33  early institutions, decision-making.  limited  the LDCs from having  any d i r e c t  impact on  As l a t e as 1958, o n l y a s m a l l number o f LDCs were  members o f the UN and i t s a g e n c i e s . the t r e n d f o r e x e c u t i v e  This, among o t h e r  f a c t o r s , l e d to  and o t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e posts o f UN a g e n c i e s  to be f i l l e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f developed c o u n t r i e s .  Power and  i n f l u e n c e i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g forums o f these i n s t i t u t i o n s were i n the hands o f the i n d u s t r i a l l y advanced c o u n t r i e s who were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g them i n the f i r s t members o f the i n s t i t u t i o n s , procedure l i m i t e d mechanisms.  their  place.  L a t e r , when LDCs became  the v o t i n g s t r u c t u r e s and r u l e s o f  ability  to change b a s i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l  F o r example, i n the IMF and World Bank v o t i n g power was  weighted a c c o r d i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n .  to a member's quota o f f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to Since  the LDCs c o n t r i b u t e d very  little  finances,  t h e i r v o t i n g power remained m i n i m a l . Efforts  by LDCs aimed a t reforms  the developed c o u n t r i e s .  met w i t h s t r o n g r e s i s t a n c e from  One reason f o r t h i s , was the f a c t  developed c o u n t r i e s b e n e f i t e d from t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s t h e r e f o r e had more f a i t h i n the e x i s t i n g uncoordinated  and sometimes c o n f l i c t i n g  by  Despite  the LDCs.  this resistance  c o u n t r i e s the LDCs c o n t i n u e d more u n i f i e d  they c o o r d i n a t e d  system  t h a t the  as they were, and  than i n t h e o f t e n  formulae f o r change suggested to  change by some developed  to advocate f o r r e f o r m s . their efforts  p r e v i o u s l y , and were e v e n t u a l l y i n s t r u m e n t a l  As they became  to a g r e a t e r e x t e n t i n the f o r m a t i o n o f  than  34  UNCTAD, a new i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t r a d e and developmental i s s u e s . Because of t h e i r involvement i n the f o r m a t i o n  o f UNCTAD's i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e ,  the mechanisms were such t h a t LDCs c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n b a r g a i n i n g and n e g o t i a t i o n s a t the h i g h e s t  levels.  They t h e r e f o r e ensured t h a t t h e  p r i o r i t i e s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n were d i r e c t e d towards seeking  solutions  for  the developmental problems t h a t most s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d them.  The  combination and i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f a l l these f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to  the p r e f e r e n c e  by LDCs to pursue t h e i r p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s i n UNCTAD.  In t h e case o f Law of the Sea i s s u e s , LDCs g r a v i t a t e d towards the UN forum, because a p a r t it  could help  from i t s o t h e r  in  The  Gradually  the LDCs saw the  f o r u s i n g t h e i r u n i t y and the s t r a t e g i e s they p e r f e c t e d  the economic f i e l d  bargaining  that  them to g a i n l e g i t i m i z a t i o n f o r u n i l a t e r a l and r e g i o n a l  p o l i c i e s pursued o u t s i d e o f the UN. opportunity  a t t r a c t i o n s they f e l t  to i n f l u e n c e the f o r m a t i o n  o f the new r u l e s f o r  and n e g o t i a t i o n , t h a t were c o n s t a n t l y e v o l v i n g i n UNCLOS.  Group o f 77's p r e - c o n f e r e n c e meetings p r i o r to UNCLOS I I I were  used to emphasize the l i n k a g e s between Law o f the Sea i s s u e s and Trade and Developmental i s s u e s .  The need f o r the maintenance o f Group  u n i t y i n both UNCTAD and UNCLOS I I I was r e p e a t e d l y  emphasised.  These m a t t e r s , f o r example, were of primary concern a t the Group o f 77's  22.  22 "Second M i n i s t e r i a l Meeting" a t Lima i n November 1971.  The  See UNCTAD, D e c l a r a t i o n o f P r i n c i p l e s o f A c t i o n Programme o f Lima, by the Group of .77. (TD/143, 1971).  35  i n t e r r e l a t i o n o f these f a c t o r s u n d e r l i e the commitment o f LDCs to pursue  t h e i r p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s through the UN Law o f the Sea  conference s e s s i o n s .  Group Formation and Other Group A c t i v i t i e s I n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences l i k e UNCTAD and UNCLOS I I I have become c h a r a c t e r i s e d by v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t and n e g o t i a t i n g groups o f c o u n t r i e s . The  group o f c o u n t r i e s which has almost become a permanent  by i t s e l f  i s the group o f LDCs, o r the Group o f 77.  t a t i o n by the LDCs f a c i l i t a t e s  institution  Group r e p r e s e n -  t h e use o f s e v e r a l group  strategies  which h e l p to maximise the impact o f these c o u n t r i e s i n the b a r g a i n i n g environment.  Thus whenever p o s s i b l e a t these m u l t i l a t e r a l  the LDCs use j o i n t  conferences,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and seek to promote group  cohesiveness and impact.  I n o r d e r to a c h i e v e these o b j e c t i v e s  they  use such s t r a t e g i e s as p r e - c o n f e r e n c e p r e p a r a t i o n , s e i z i n g the i n i t i a t i v e and u s i n g as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e group those members most knowledgeable,  s k i l l e d , and i n t e r e s t e d i n the i s s u e s on the agenda.  The Use o f J o i n t R e p r e s e n t a t i o n In UNCTAD the LDCs seek t o work through  the Group o f 77 to  d e v i s e a common p o s i t i o n p e r t a i n i n g to the i s s u e s on the agenda i n o r d e r to c o n f r o n t and b a r g a i n w i t h o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h p o s i t i o n s opposed to t h e i r s .  U l t i m a t e l y t h e i r o b j e c t i v e i s to p r o v i d e the  t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i r demands i n t o agreed i n t e r n a t i o n a l  policy  36  through t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e l o b b y i n g . of j o i n t representation and  to the extent  use o f the s t r a t e g y  t h a t i t has been used i n UNCTAD  UNCLOS I I I , i s a r e l a t i v e l y new phenomenon a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l  conferences. at  The c o n c e r t e d  The presence o f a c o a l i t i o n as l a r g e as t h e Group o f 77  these c o n f e r e n c e s was a g r a d u a l  development.  P r e v i o u s l y , because  of t h e l a c k o f u n i t y among t h e r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d number o f d e v e l o p i n g countries a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l conferences,  the developed c o u n t r i e s  the e x i s t i n g system to t h e i r advantage. t h e i r dominance and i n f l u e n c e , by u s i n g developing  c o u n t r i e s one a g a i n s t  These c o u n t r i e s  system such as the d e c o l o n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s ,  c o n t a c t o f T h i r d World s t a t e s w i t h  maintained  t h e i r . r e s o u r c e s to p l a y o f f  the other.  i n t o the UN system, the n o n - a l i g n e d  used  Changes i n the g l o b a l the i n f l u x o f new n a t i o n s ,  conferences and the i n c r e a s i n g each o t h e r l e d to the c o n s i s t e n t use  o f c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n by LDCs. The  p o l a r i z a t i o n o f UNCTAD i n t o groups f o r e l e c t o r a l purposes  reinforced this trend.  The members o f UNCTAD a r e d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r  l i s t s o f s t a t e s f o r e l e c t o r a l purposes. D.  The A l i s t  contains  American r e g i o n .  These a r e l i s t s A, B. C and  l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s mainly o f t h e L a t i n  The B l i s t  contains  developed s t a t e s such as B r i t a i n ,  the US, Canada, the EEC c o u n t r i e s , the N o r d i c s The  C list  contains  Malawi and o t h e r s  and t h e N e t h e r l a n d s .  l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s such as Burma, Malaya,  i n the Afro-Asian  regions.  The D l i s t  contains  c o u n t r i e s i n the s o c i a l i s t b l o c k such as t h e USSR, A l b a n i a and o t h e r s .  37  The  countries  the A and  C  i n the Group o f 77 a r e  the l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s  lists.  In UNCLOS I I I , the LDCs seek to use representation  i n order  j o i n t proposals.  the s t r a t e g y of  joint  to promote t h e i r p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s  They do  through  t h i s e s p e c i a l l y when the i n t e r e s t s of  groups of s t a t e s are opposed to t h e i r s .  t h e i r ranks and specific issues.  j o i n other On  groups except when b a r g a i n i n g  i s s u e s where the i n t e r e s t s and  are s i m i l a r to those o f developed and  other  o f t e n j o i n these groups i n d r a f t i n g and  goals  co-sponsoring j o i n t  at the 1974  Authority.  77. Committee  developed s t a t e s  management of deep seabed  There were a l s o c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s on  the r e l a t e d  powers of the proposed I n t e r n a t i o n a l Ocean  Most developed s t a t e s f a v o u r e d the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f  n o n - l i v i n g resources other  objectives  Caracas S e s s i o n of the F i r s t  emerged i n the area o f the c o n t r o l and  i s s u e of the scope and  proposals.  those of developed s t a t e s the LDCs  i n UNCLOS I I I , c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s between LDCs and  resources.  of LDCs  groups of s t a t e s , LDCs  t h e i r i n t e r e s t s j o i n t l y through the Group o f  For i n s t a n c e ,  split  on c e r t a i n  However, where there i s a c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t between the of a l a r g e number of LDCs and  of the seabed by  private interests.  They were t h e r e f o r e opposed to a  LDCs on  the  transnational enterprises  i n t e r n a t i o n a l regime t h a t might l i m i t or s e v e r e l y r e g u l a t e to the deep seabed.  other  T h i s s t r a t e g y i s however, l e s s  e f f e c t i v e i n UNCLOS, because o f the tendency of the LDCs to  represent  in  the o t h e r hand f a v o u r e d a  and  strong their  strong  access  38  i n t e r n a t i o n a l Seabed A u t h o r i t y which had the power to secure e x c l u s i v e c o n t r o l over  the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f l i v i n g and n o n - l i v i n g  23 resources.  A t t h i s s e s s i o n , the Group o f 77 s u b m i t t e d  a joint  seabed p r o p o s a l o f LDCs (on t h e power o f a proposed seabed a u t h o r i t y ) , which s t i p u l a t e d g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f access  to deep seabed  24 resources.  The use o f the s t r a t e g y o f j o i n t  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n by the  Group o f 77 was e v i d e n t i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s a t UNCLOS I I I , where there was  a commonality o f i n t e r e s t s among LDCs. T h i s s t r a t e g y i s by f a r one o f the most important  s t r a t e g i e s used by the Group o f 77.  I t enables  the s o l i d a r i t y o f LDCs and f a c i l i t a t e s analysed here.  o f the  t h e Group to f o s t e r  the use o f the o t h e r s t r a t e g i e s  Group u n i t y i s e s p e c i a l l y d i f f i c u l t a t times  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f the Group o f 77.  Unlike  because  other  s m a l l e r groups o f the p a s t , which c o a l e s c e d around a l i m i t e d number o f common t r a i t s ,  the Group o f 77 r e f l e c t s a l a r g e amalgam o f s t a t e s  of v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f economic r e s o u r c e s , v a s t p o l i t i c a l , g e o g r a p h i c a l and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . t h a t s u s t a i n group cohesiveness  ideological,  The s o l i d i f y i n g f a c t o r s  i n c l u d e the shared  i n t e r e s t among  members i n moving out o f t h e i r p e r i p h e r a l p o s i t i o n i n the w o r l d economy, and a common e x p e c t a t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d b e n e f i t s . 23.  U n i t e d N a t i o n s , O f f i c i a l Records: T h i r d UN Conference o f the Law o f the Sea (A/Conf. 62/C.1/L.3, 1974).  24  See, U n i t e d N a t i o n s , C o n d i t i o n s o f E x p l o i t a t i o n o f the Deep Seabed. Prepared by t h e Group o f 77 (A/Conf. 62/C.l/L.7,1964) .  39  Promotion  o f Group  Cohesiveness  The LDCs seek t o promote group cohesiveness by p r e - c o n f e r e n c e group and i n t r a - g r o u p meetings,  by f o r g i n g consensus  among members f o r  group p o l i c i e s , by i s s u i n g j o i n t d e c l a r a t i o n s and by peer group appeals to members o f t h e importance  of maintaining their unity.  Group  cohesiveness i s promoted as a means o f m a i n t a i n i n g u n i t y , j o i n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and g r e a t e r b a r g a i n i n g power.  S p e c i f i c s t r a t e g i e s and  s u p p o r t i n g techniques used to m a i n t a i n group u n i t y a r e d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r below.  Pre-conference P r e p a r a t i o n The Group o f 77 uses p r e - c o n f e r e n c e meetings,  a t group and  v a r i o u s sub-group l e v e l s , as a p r e l u d e to conference n e g o t i a t i o n s . T h i s i s done i n o r d e r to i r o n o u t c o n f l i c t s o f i n t e r e s t among group members, to e n l i g h t e n members about  the t e c h n i c a l i t i e s o f agenda items,  and g e n e r a l l y to keep members informed and committed to b r o a d e r group goals.  A d d i t i o n a l l y o t h e r techniques a r e used a t these meetings t o f o r g e  and m a i n t a i n group u n i t y .  These i n c l u d e e f f o r t s by group l e a d e r s to  d e v i s e programmes and p r o p o s a l s which promise many group members as p o s s i b l e and e f f o r t s  the maximum b e n e f i t s  to m a i n t a i n peer p r e s s u r e on  d i s s a t i s f i e d members to encourage them to support group p o s i t i o n s . a broader l e v e l , consensus  to as  At  group l e a d e r s work c o n t i n u o u s l y to promote g e n e r a l  among members f o r the acceptance o f new p r i n c i p l e s and r u l e s  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l economic r e l a t i o n s .  A d d i t i o n a l l y , i n o r d e r to harmonize  40  o b j e c t i v e s and p o l i c i e s w i t h o t h e r s u p p o r t i v e groups such as the nona l i g n e d movement and the members o f the group based i n New York, r e g u l a r i n t r a - g r o u p meetings a r e convened. In attempts to minimise c o n f l i c t  among members o f t h e group, a t  times " t r a d e o f f s " o r b a r t e r i n g between members becomes n e c e s s a r y . "Trade o f f s " u s u a l l y c e n t e r around agreements support the p o s i t i o n s of sub-groups  by the l a r g e r group to  i n exchange  l a t t e r f o r b r o a d e r Group o f 77 p r o p o s a l s . 77's p r o p o s a l f o r an I n t e g r a t e d Program  for full  support by the  F o r i n s t a n c e the Group o f  f o r Commodities  (discussed i n  g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter I I ) , generated some i n t r a - g r o u p  conflict.  There were disagreements between L a t i n American and o t h e r c o u n t r i e s on t h i s i s s u e .  F o r example,  Columbia, B r a z i l ,  and o t h e r L a t i n  American c o u n t r i e s were not e n t i r e l y c o n v i n c e d o f the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f the common fund f o r f i n a n c i n g commodities h i s t o r i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s e d by s t r u c t u r a l over p r o d u c t i o n . . . . Columbia had not opposed the r e s o l u t i o n , on the u n d e r s t a n d i n g that / l a t e r j . . . i t would be p o s s i b l e to argue the case f o r e x c l u d i n g c o f f e e from the l i s t . 2 5 Other LDCs who s t o o d to l o s e i n some s p e c i f i c a r e a through the implement a t i o n o f the IPC were promised compensation a g a i n s t l o s s e s , by the Group o f 77.  Another a r e a i n which the s u p p o r t was g a i n e d from  d i s s a t i s f i e d members was i n the case o f the Group's G e n e r a l i s e d System o f P r e f e r e n c e s (GSP).  25.  proposal of a  The Group a g a i n promised  See UNCTAD, Report o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s Conference on Trade and Development on i t s F o u r t h S e s s i o n (Geneva, TD/217), 1976) pp. 98-99.  41  s i m i l a r compensation to' p o t e n t i a l l o s e r s i n t h i s In UNCLOS I I I , the Group o f 77 found  case.  this strategy of forging  consensus by a r r a n g i n g " t r a d e o f f s " d i f f i c u l t  to pursue.  This i s  mainly because of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n o b j e c t i v e s of LDCs d e r i v i n g t h e i r d i s t i n c t i o n s i n geographical features.  When group i n t e r e s t s  not i n t h e i r favour, some LDCs tend to l e a v e the group and co-sponsor  r e s o l u t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s t a t e s which possess  geographical features.  are  seem to  a similarity  of  S i n c e the i s s u e s n e g o t i a t e d i n UNCLOS I I I do  not always l e n d themselves to the system of b a r t e r i n g developed UNCTAD, the Group of 77 o f t e n found u n i t e d much more  from  their efforts  in  to keep the group  difficult.  Besides p r o v i d i n g the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p u r s u i n g s t r a t e g i e s  like  b a r t e r i n g o r a r r a n g i n g compensation f o r d i s s a t i s f i e d members, p r e conference  meetings p r o v i d e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the Group o f 77 to make  i t s members more informed  of the s p e c i f i c s o f agenda items.  a v a i l a b l e from the UNCTAD S e c r e t a r i a t and disseminated  o t h e r sources i s  and d i s c u s s e d and sometimes used w i t h  Secretariat staff  Data  to d r a f t j o i n t p r o p o s a l s .  the a i d of  the  LDCs f r e q u e n t l y produce  d e c l a r a t i o n s a f t e r these meetings d e l i n e a t i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n s on s p e c i f i c agenda items o f the approaching  Conference.  For example,  d e c l a r a t i o n s and programmes o f a c t i o n were produced a f t e r the Group o f 77's  26.  pre-conference  Ibid.  meetings h e l d at A l g i e r s i n 1967  i n preparation  42  f o r UNCTAD I I ;  a t Lima i n 1971 i n p r e p a r a t i o n  M a n i l a i n 1976, i n p r e p a r a t i o n  f o r UNCTAD I I I ;  at  f o r UNCTAD IV, and a t Arusha i n 1979 i n  27 preparation  f o r UNCTAD V.  Besides d i s c u s s i n g i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g to UNCTAD a t these meetings, the LDCs d i s c u s s In o r d e r  the agenda items o f approaching Law o f t h e Sea s e s s i o n s .  to p u b l i c i s e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s r e l a t i n g to these i s s u e s , the  LDCs use the same technique they use i n r e l a t i o n to UNCTAD i s s u e s .  They  produce d e c l a r a t i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s d e l i n e a t i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , o b j e c t i v e s and proposed s o l u t i o n s ,  F o r example, a t the p r e - c o n f e r e n c e  meeting a t Lima i n November 1971, b e s i d e s the LDCs d i s c u s s e d o f t h e deep seabed.  d i s c u s s i n g UNCTAD i s s u e s ,  Law o f the Sea i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g to the e x p l o i t a t i o n This was p a r t o f t h e i r p r e - c o n f e r e n c e a c t i v i t i e s f o r  the approaching January 1972 s e s s i o n o f the Seabed Committee. Seabed Committee was t h e UN p r e p a r a t o r y  body f o r UNCLOS I I I .  The One o f the  documents produced a t the 1971 Lima meeting o f the Group o f 77 emphasized the Group's commitment to h e l p i n g 28 t h e i r marine r e s o u r c e s .  Discussions  c o a s t a l s t a t e s to p r o t e c t  o f Law o f t h e Sea i s s u e s  a l s o take p l a c e a t sub-group l e v e l s o f the Group o f 77.  Sub-group  meetings h e l d by LDCs p r i o r to UNCLOS I I I i n c l u d e the meeting o f the C e n t r a l American and C a r i b b e a n s t a t e s h e l d i n June 1972,  t h e Law  o f t h e Sea Seminar o f A f r i c a n S t a t e s a l s o h e l d i n June 1972 and the OAU Heads o f S t a t e meeting o f June 1973. meetings aimed a t i n f o r m i n g 27. 28.  A l l o f these  LDCs o f agenda items a t f o r t h c o m i n g  See UNCTAD, Conference Documents (TD/180, v o l s . I-IV,1973); (TD/217, 1976) and (TD/236, 1979). See, A. Oda, The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law o f Ocean Development. ( L e i d e n : S i j t h o f f , 1 9 7 2 ) pp. 362-364, and Buzan, Seabed P o l i t i c s , p. 185.  43  conference s e s s i o n s and attempts These meetings a l l produced the common p o s i t i o n s adopted  to f o r g e common p o l i c i e s among them.  declarations or resolutions  concerning  by the LDCs i n r e l a t i o n to agenda items.  Other p r e - c o n f e r e n c e p r e p a r a t i o n s o f t h e Group o f 77  include  attempts  by group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to co-opt and persuade o t h e r groups o f s t a t e s to support  the p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e "77" o r to j o i n t h e group i n  co-sponsoring s p e c i f i c d r a f t proposals.  Taken t o g e t h e r a l l the  a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e group d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s u b - s e c t i o n h e l p to promote group cohesiveness  and r e i n f o r c e group u n i t y .  S e i z i n g the I n i t i a t i v e The LDCs seek to s e i z e the i n i t i a t i v e a t c o n f e r e n c e s ,  especially  when they have p r e v i o u s l y worked out a comprehensive p r o p o s a l t h a t i s mutually b e n e f i c i a l  to a m a j o r i t y o f the members i n t h e group.  In  o r d e r to focus a t t e n t i o n on these p r o p o s a l s and to ensure maximum d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s , they s t r i v e e a r l y i n t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s to a t t r a c t and m a i n t a i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f as many p a r t i c i pants as p o s s i b l e . At UNCTAD L f o r example, i n o r d e r to focus a t t e n t i o n on t h e nature o f the proposed  economic i n s t i t u t i o n e n v i s a g e d by LDCs, Burma, Ghana,  I n d o n e s i a , N i g e r i a and S y r i a p r e s e n t e d a d r a f t  r e s o l u t i o n on t h e  type o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l machinery t h a t LDCs f a v o u r e d . a c c o r d i n g to one o b s e r v e r ,  This d r a f t  44  l e d to n e g o t i a t i o n on the nature o f the i n s t i t u t i o n and g r a d u a l l y s h i f t e d the focus on t h i s q u e s t i o n , making i t the most important i s s u e on the agenda.29 The v a r i o u s d e c l a r a t i o n s produced  a t t h e p r e - c o n f e r e n c e meetings o f  the Group o f 77 a r e c i r c u l a t e d , e i t h e r b e f o r e the s t a r t o f t h e conference o r i n i t s e a r l y s t a g e s .  T h i s s e r v e s to draw a t t e n t i o n to  LDCs o b j e c t i v e s and t h e r e f o r e r e i n f o r c e s the a b i l i t y o f group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to s e i z e the i n i t i a t i v e . the " C h a r t e r o f A l g i e r s " produced  Thus a t UNCTAD I I o f 1968,  a t the 1967 p r e - c o n f e r e n c e f o r t h i s purpose.  meeting  of  the Group o f 77, was c i r c u l a t e d  Similarly,  at  UNCTAD I I I o f 1972, the same technique was used i n t h e case o f the  " D e c l a r a t i o n and Programme o f A c t i o n " o f the 1971 Lima p r e - c o n f e r e n c e meeting.  A t UNCTAD V o f 1976, t h e r e was the "Manila D e c l a r a t i o n o f  Programme o f A c t i o n " o f the M a n i l a 1976 p r e - c o n f e r e n c e meeting, UNCTAD V o f 1979, t h e r e was t h e "Arusha S e l f - R e l i a n c e " produced  and a t  Programme f o r C o l l e c t i v e  a t the Arusha p r e - c o n f e r e n c e meeting  o f 1979.  In UNCLOS I I I , the same techniques a r e used by the LDCs t o s e i z e the i n i t i a t i v e .  The LDCs f o l l o w up any impact  p r e - c o n f e r e n c e d e c l a r a t i o n s by t r y i n g to  to be f i r s t  to submit  t h e g e n e r a l conference o r i t s p r e p a r a t o r y committees.  example, a t t h e 1973 Caracas s e s s i o n o f t h e F i r s t  29.  gained  from proposals  For  Seabed Committee,  Gosovic, UNCTAD: C o n f l i c t and Compromise, pp. 38-39.  45  the Jamaican d e l e g a t i o n sought to p r e s e n t a s e p a r a t e the Group of 77 q u i c k l y p r e s e n t e d tive proposal.  The  a more c o o r d i n a t e d and  representa-  The  Group o f 77's  proposal  "dominated  Agreement on i t marked a b i g s t e p forward  LDCs, s i n c e i t gave the Group o f 77 "the i n i t i a t i v e " i n the ceedings.  The  Group's p r o p o s a l gained  t h i r d s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and was L a t e r i n the p r o c e e d i n g s ,  was  r  The  Use o f S k i l l e d  forward  proposals and  though, the U n i t e d S t a t e s  (US)  d r a f t presented  shortly draft  the b e s t q u a l i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n o r d e r  group p o s i t i o n s competently and p e r s u a s i v e l y and  to  to d r a f t  t h a t (as f a r as p o s s i b l e ) i n c l u d e s the mutual b e n e f i t s  i n t e r e s t s o f a l l members i n the group.  the i n s t i t u t i o n s , s k i l l and  issue.  disagreed  Representatives  Among the more competent  i n d i v i d u a l s are those on the Board o f UNCTAD o r those with  two-  „ 30 77.  The LDCs use put  pro-  as the b a s i s o f n e g o t i a t i o n .  o r i e n t e d towards the g e n e r a l arguments i n the  , • „ by the Group o f  f o r the  the b a c k i n g of more than  accepted  w i t h some paragraphs i n the t e x t , the US afterwards  but  Group's s t r a t e g y caused the Jamaican p r o p o s a l  to be r e l e g a t e d to o b s c u r i t y . the p r o c e e d i n g s " .  proposal,  from c o u n t r i e s  e x p e r t i s e i n r e l a t i o n to a p a r t i c u l a r  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , o f the Group are o f t e n from "one  c o u n t r i e s w i t h i n the Group ( f o r example, B r a z i l , 30.  Buzan, Seabed P o l i t i c s ,  pp.  31.  Robert L. R o t h s t e i n , G l o b a l B a r g a i n i n g . U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979) p. 4.  o f the  India, Iran),"  key 31  224-225. (New  Jersey: Princeton  46  though d e l e g a t e s from l e s s p o w e r f u l o r Tanzania  c o u n t r i e s , f o r example Jamaica  a l s o get o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g the Group.  In b a r g a i n i n g i n the two  forums, the Group o f 77 choose  d i f f e r e n t spokesmen a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r knowledge and r e s p e c t to the agenda i t e m b e i n g d i s c u s s e d . Gosovic,  competence w i t h  In r e f e r e n c e to t h i s p o i n t  f o r example, s t a t e s t h a t i n UNCTAD, Ceylon has always been i n the f o r e f r o n t on matters o f f i n a n c i n g . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s t h a t much more important i f r e l a t e d to a c o u n t r y ' s s p e c i f i c economic i n t e r e s t . . . C h i l e , B r a z i l , I n d i a and the UAR are prominent on s h i p p i n g , A f g h a n i s t a n and B o l i v i a on l a n d l o c k e d c o u n t r i e s , ^ A r g e n t i n a and Uruguay on temperate zone p r o d u c t s .  A t Group meetings and o f r o t a t i n g chairmanships.  sub-group meetings, the LDCs use a system At each s e s s i o n o f these meetings a  d e l e g a t e from a d i f f e r e n t country c h a i r s the meetings.  I n cases where  a d e l e g a t e i s nominated a t random to c h a i r a meeting p e r t a i n i n g to an i s s u e o u t s i d e of h i s competence, he performs the d u t i e s of chairman f o r the more g e n e r a l p a r t o f the p r o c e e d i n g s .  A f t e r t h i s stage o f  meeting, he d e l e g a t e s the Chairmanship to a s u b s t i t u t e Chairman i s s p e c i a l l y q u a l i f i e d i n the t o p i c on the agenda. chairman u s u a l l y has  The s u b s t i t u t e  g r e a t e r competence i n answering q u e s t i o n s  e x p l a i n i n g the c o m p l e x i t i e s o f the i s s u e i n q u e s t i o n .  32.  Gosovic,  UNCTAD, C o n f l i c t and  Compromise, p.  who  277.  and  the  47  An  example o f the use of the more s k i l l e d  UNCLOS I I I , i s the use by  representatives  the LDCs of L a t i n American d e l e g a t e s  as  spokesmen on i s s u e s r e l a t i n g to the e x p l o i t a t i o n of the seabed. delegates  are  chosen  particular issue.  because of t h e i r knowledge and  Likewise,  A f r i c a n and  i n t e r e s t and  locked  Asian representatives  Use  from t h e i r own  landlocked  of  the  states.  knowledge of these members i n the problems o f  states derive  These  interest i n this  Group s e r v e as spokesmen on i s s u e p e r t a i n i n g to l a n d l o c k e d The  in  geographical  land-  position.  o f the S e c r e t a r i a t In s u p p o r t o f the  group s t r a t e g i e s d i s c u s s e d  maximise the use o f the UNCTAD S e c r e t a r i a t . particularly proposals  They use  to a i d them i n d e v i s i n g e f f e c t i v e and  The  i s s u e i s very  t e c h n i c a l or complicated.  comprehensive  i n the  a i d o f the S e c r e t a r i a t i s e s p e c i a l l y c r u c i a l when the In these  group o f t e n l a c k the e x p e r t i s e ,  a b l e to the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o f the S e c r e t a r i a t . n e g o t i a t i n g process,  instances, time and  S e c r e t a r i a t o f f i c i a l s are best a b l e  S e c r e t a r i a t exposes them to the s t a t i s t i c s  and  data  avail-  A d d i t i o n a l l y , i n the  LDCs o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n t h e i r sphere o f competence.  these.  S e c r e t a r i a t help  t h a t promise the maximum b e n e f i t s to as many group members  as p o s s i b l e .  countries  above, the LDCs  other  to defend  T h e i r job at  the  data r e l e v a n t  Furthermore, they are o f t e n more aware i n advance of  the  to  '•48 •  opposing s t a t e s ' p o s i t i o n s on p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e s . s t a f f have proven v e r y  r e l i a b l e i n formulating  Secretariat  sound p r o p o s a l s (on  behalf  o f the LDCs), grounded i n hard s t a t i s t i c a l and other  data.  In reference  Rothstein  empirical  t o t h e use o f the S e c r e t a r i a t s t a f f by the LDCs,  s t a t e s , f o r example, t h a t the s t a f f p l a y s the c e n t r a l r o l e i n d e v i s i n g a programme t h a t promises as many b e n e f i t s as p o s s i b l e t o as many c o u n t r i e s as p o s s i b l e . Only t h e s t a f f has the l e g i t i m a c y and t h e expert i s e t o perform t h i s f u n c t i o n — t o p r o v i d e the common p o l i c i e s t h a t t h e u n i f i e d Group w i l l promote. Given t h e l i m i t e d e x p e r t i s e w i t h i n many d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s governments (and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n the d e l e g a t e s assigned t o UNCTAD), s t a f f p e r c e p t i o n s of what the Group of 77 ought to seek and s t a f f d e c i s i o n s on how t o package a s e t of demands a r e v e r y c r i t i c a l . 3 3  The  Group o f 77 m a i n t a i n s constant,  c o n t a c t w i t h the S e c r e t a r i a t  of UNCTAD and makes use o f s e c r e t a r i a t s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s n o t only for assistance i n d r a f t i n g proposals meetings.  but f o r convening p r e - c o n f e r e n c e  The s t a f f proves v e r y u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g  the venue f o r t h e  Group's p r e - c o n f e r e n c e meetings, and i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s at these meetings.  The l a t t e r i n c l u d e p r o v i d i n g  documents, r e s e a r c h e s and  e v a l u a t i v e r e p o r t s on t h e p r o g r e s s of t h e programmes and n e g o t i a t i o n s i n UNCTAD. In a d d i t i o n , the LDCs use t h e s e c r e t a r i a t s t a f f as the i n i t i a t o r s of a c t i o n and as m e d i a t o r s .  33.  R. L. R o t h s t e i n ,  I n t h e i r r o l e as i n i t i a t o r s , t h e s t a f f  Global Bargaining,  p. 198.  49  g i v e prominence and mediators, delegates.  to LDCs p r o p o s a l s .  In t h e i r r o l e  the s t a f f are more adept a t r e s o l v i n g deadlocks  g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r the Group o f 77.  statements  with s p e c i f i c  o f s t a f f papers a t Conferences,  The  goals o f the Group o f 77, sometimes d e l i b e r a t e l y and  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the Group o f t e n use  p r o p o s a l s couched i n the language used by p r o p o s a l s an a i r of r e l e v a n c e and Generals  other  o f t e n correspond  o t h e r times because o f s i m i l a r p e r s p e c t i v e s on t r a d e and The  with  as  As i n i t i a t o r s the s e c r e t a r i a t s t a f f i s most u s e f u l i n  d e l i n e a t i n g broad opening  credibility  at  development.  t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to submit the s t a f f .  credibility.  The  This gives  such  Secretary-  o f UNCTAD have been most e f f e c t i v e as i n i t i a t o r s o f LDCs  proposals.  Thus i n an a n a l y s i s of the r o l e o f the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l i n  UNCTAD, Nye  ( i n r e f e r e n c e to Raul P r e b i s c h , the f i r s t  Secretary-General  o f UNCTAD), makes the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n ,  '•"  .  P r e b i s c h a c h i e v e d h i s e f f e c t by c a t a l y z i n g an i n c h o a t e s e t o f ideas p r e v a l e n t among l e s s developed c o u n t r i e s , i n t o a c l e a r d o c t r i n e and then t i r e l e s s l y r e p e a t i n g i t i n f l u e n t , moving speeches t h a t r e f l e c t e d h i s honesty and c o n v i c t i o n . . . . F o r the 1964 c o n f e r e n c e , P r e b i s c h ' s p e r s o n a l a n a l y t i c a l r e p o r t proved to be almost the o n l y one c o n s t a n t l y r e f e r r e d to and used as a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n by the d e l e g a t e s . ^ 4  LDCs appeal  to the s e c r e t a r i a t s t a f f to a c t as mediators  b r o k e r s when t h e r e i s an impasse o r deadlock r o l e as brokers and mediators  34.  Nye, ed.,  i n negotiations.  s e c r e t a r i a t o f f i c i a l s may  chair  and In  their  the  "UNCTAD: Poor N a t i o n s P r e s s u r e Group", Anatomy of I n f l u e n c e , Cox and Jacobson, p. 350.  50  meetings o f s m a l l c o n t a c t groups formed t o work out compromises between t h e LDCs and o t h e r  states.  The s t r a t e g y of maximizing the use o f t h e S e c r e t a r i a t  i s more  a p p l i c a b l e i n UNCTAD than i n UNCLOS I I I , because o f t h e Group o f 77's c l o s e n e s s t o the UNCTAD S e c r e t a r i a t . S e c r e t a r i a t , and t h e Group  I n UNCLOS I I I t h e r e i s no  i s f a r l e s s c l o s e t o the U n i t e d N a t i o n s  S e c r e t a r i a t which i s t h e g e n e r a l o r g a n i z i n g body o f UNCLOS I I I .  The Use o f Symbolic Speeches.and- R h e t o r i c The LDCs seek t o use d r a m a t i c and m o r a l i s t i c speeches i n o r d e r to focus a t t e n t i o n on t h e i r problems and t h e i r p r o p o s a l s f o r remedial a c t i o n .  I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s s t r a t e g y serves t o c o n t r i b u t e t o  group c o h e s i v e n e s s by p r o v i d i n g a common r a l l y i n g p o i n t f o r LDCs. Thus, throughout the c o n f e r e n c e s some o f t h e statements c o n t a i n e d i n these m o r a l i s t i c speeches serve as a common r e f e r e n c e p o i n t and a broad framework a g a i n s t which s p e c i f i c i s s u e s c o u l d be v i s u a l i z e d . Common themes emphasized  i n these speeches i n c l u d e t h e emphasis on t h e  need f o r a "new i n t e r n a t i o n a l Economic Development  Order"; an " i n t e r n a t i o n a l  Strategy", f o r the " c o l l e c t i v e  s e l f - r e l i a n c e of developing  c o u n t r i e s " and t h e need f o r t h e ocean and deep  seabed r e s o u r c e s to  be regarded as " t h e common h e r i t a g e o f mankind".  35.  35  This  strategy  See, UNCTAD Documents (E/Conf. 46/3, 1964); TD/183/Rev. 1, (TD/217, 1976), and (TD/236) and T h i r d U n i t e d N a t i o n s Conference on t h e Law of t h e Sea, documents (A/Conf. 62/23,1974); (A/Conf. 62/C. 1/L. 7) and (A/Conf. 62/C.2/L.36).  51  i s common i n the p r e - c o n f e r e n c e  p e r i o d but i s a l s o used on an ad  hoc b a s i s , sometimes i n f r u s t r a t i o n when group o b j e c t i v e s and p r o p o s a l s a r e r e p e a t e d l y opposed by o t h e r s and when t h e r e i s danger o f l o s i n g group  support.  At UNCLOS I I I , t h i s s t r a t e g y i s common e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e opening and  c l o s i n g stages o f t h e s e s s i o n s .  i n Chapter  I I ) , i d e n t i f i e d symbolic  f o r LDCs.  The "Pardo P r o p o s a l " ( d i s c u s s e d goals and a common r a l l y i n g p o i n t  G e n e r a l l y , the d e c l a r a t i o n s made a t t h e p r e - c o n f e r e n c e  meetings a r e examples o f attempts by the LDCs to p u b l i c i s e p o s i t i o n s and g a i n the widest  p o s s i b l e support  their  f o r these.  In g e n e r a l , most s t r a t e g i e s used by t h e LDCs a r e c a r e f u l l y planned.  Some o f these however, though c a r e f u l l y planned  i n some  i n s t a n c e s , a r e used on an ad hoc b a s i s i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s .  For  example, i n a d d i t i o n to p u b l i c i s i n g LDCs p r e f e r e n c e s by moving speeches and  appeals,  symbolic  speeches a r e used when t h e r e i s a stalemate i n  the b a r g a i n i n g p r o c e s s .  T h i s s t r a t e g y i s a l s o used as a means of  g e n e r a t i n g peer group p r e s s u r e on d i s s a t i s f i e d members. s t r a t e g i e s such as s e i z i n g the i n i t i a t i v e , and  Other  using s k i l l e d representatives  o t h e r s a n a l y s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e l i k e w i s e sometimes used without  p r i o r planning.  D e s p i t e t h i s f a c t , however, they a r e used i n most  i n s t a n c e s f o r t h e achievement o f s p e c i f i c goals planned  b e f o r e hand.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , the s t r a t e g i e s such as p r e - c o n f e r e n c e and  the use o f t h e UNCTAD S e c r e t a r i a t were i n i t i a l l y  preparation  chosen and  r e t a i n e d because they a r e e s s e n t i a l t o the o p e r a t i o n o f t h e Group of  77  as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the l a r g e number o f LDCs w i t h i n i t .  Without a knowledge o f t h e p o s s i b l e c o n f l i c t members o r without  the opportunity  o f i n t e r e s t s among  to i n f o r m members o f t h e comp-  l e x i t i e s o f t e c h n i c a l agenda items, group r e p r e s e n t a t i o n would be virtually  impossible.  These f a c t o r s along w i t h t h e o t h e r s  above make these two s t r a t e g i e s among t h e most important, for maintaining  group u n i t y and c o h e s i v e n e s s .  discussed especially  53  CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION SUMMARY OF MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING  THE  DIPLOMACY OF DEVELOPING STATES  Conference diplomacy, as d e f i n e d i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s study, i s the p r o c e s s by which n e g o t i a t i o n i s pursued  within  c o n f e r e n c e s , and the methods by which the r e l a t i o n s between s t a t e s are adjusted.  T h i s study has f o c u s s e d on the d i p l o m a t i c behaviour  of d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e s i n the Group o f 77, w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to the s e l e c t e d forums, UNCTAD and UNCLOS I I I , and the i s s u e s n e g o t i a t e d i n them.  The m u l t i l a t e r a l diplomacy of l e s s  developed  c o u n t r i e s i s a n a l y s e d w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on the s t r a t e g i e s c h a r a c t e r i s e t h e i r behaviour i n the c o n f e r e n c e  that  environment.  M u l t i l a t e r a l c o n f e r e n c e diplomacy has been an unprecedented e s s e n t i a l development environment New  to changes i n the g l o b a l environment,  and the p r i o r i t y of the i s s u e s i n these  f e r e n c e diplomacy.  These new  the UN  environments.  norms i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s and the i n c r e a s i n g  of the m u l t i l a t e r a l c o n f e r e n c e f a c i l i t a t e  and  importance  the development  of con-  r u l e s were p r e c i p i t a t e d by changes i n  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l system such as the sharp d e c l i n e i n the number of c o l o n i a l t e r r i t o r i e s and consequently an i n c r e a s e i n the number of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y independent c o u n t r i e s .  However, the c o n t i n u i n g  54  economic and p o l i t i c a l dependence o f t h e newly independent c o u n t r i e s aggravated t h e i r  low l e v e l s u b s i s t e n c e and generated a number of  problems which t h r e a t e n e d t h e i r v e r y e x i s t e n c e . s o l u t i o n s to t h e s e problems were d i f f i c u l t  LDCs found  and sometimes i m p o s s i b l e  to pursue o n l y through u n i l a t e r a l , b i l a t e r a l , r e g i o n a l and limited  means o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g o u t s i d e the UN system.  and o t h e r reasons mentioned  and  other  For these  e a r l i e r i n t h i s study ( i n the a n a l y s i s  i n Chapter I I ) , they d i s p l a y e d an i n c r e a s i n g tendency UN  that  i t s a g e n c i e s to p u b l i c i s e t h e i r problems and  to r e l y on  seek  the  solutions  to t h e s e . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l system at the UN u n f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e LDCs.  l e v e l was,  however, sometimes  Thus i n the case of t r a d e and  economic matters they a g i t a t e d f o r a new  institution.  related  As a  result,  UNCTAD, an i n s t i t u t i o n more sympathetic t o T h i r d World problems  was  formed. At sought  c o n f e r e n c e s e s s i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h Law  to use the s t r a t e g i e s they developed and p e r f e c t e d i n UNCTAD.  The environment different group  of the Sea i s s u e s LDCs  i n Law  strategies  context.  and n a t u r e of t h e i s s u e s were,however, somewhat o f the Sea i n s t i t u t i o n s . ( p r a c t i s e d i n UNCTAD)  T h i s made the use of the  far less effective  In UNCLOS I I I , f o r i n s t a n c e , LDC  in this  s t a t e s and developed  states  o f t e n became members of the same group when b a r g a i n i n g and s e e k i n g to r e s o l v e some i s s u e s .  Yet when b a r g a i n i n g on o t h e r i s s u e s , t h e y were  55  i n opposing groups.  Despite  become i n v o l v e d i n Law not  the a d d i t i o n a l number of LDCs which  of the Sea n e g o t i a t i o n s ,  group f o r m a t i o n  always f o l l o w the p a t t e r n of develped v e r s u s d e v e l o p i n g  as i n UNCTAD.  In UNCLOS I I I , there was  the tendency f o r  countries  countries  to i d e n t i f y w i t h o t h e r s which shared common g e o g r a p h i c a l r e l a t e d to the g e o g r a p h i c a l  did  features,  when the  i s s u e was  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s they  shared.  For example, i n r e l a t i o n to the d e l i m i t a t i o n of n a t i o n a l  maritime j u r i s d i c t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s , c o a s t a l s t a t e s f a v o u r wide bound a r i e s extending as f a r as p o s s i b l e out hand l a n d l o c k e d  s t a t e s favour  i n t o the ocean.  On  Thus, i n r e g a r d  to t h i s and  i s s u e s the p o s i t i o n s of c o a s t a l developed and o f t e n opposed to those of l a n d l o c k e d r e l a t i o n to i s s u e s l e s s r e l e v a n t of s t a t e s and more r e l e v a n t formation  try  other  developing  countries.  resources related  countries  to the g e o g r a p h i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  to economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  t h a t group  of a l l i a n c e s makes attempts by  i n UNCTAD.  the Group of 77  to  to m a i n t a i n group u n i t y on a l l i s s u e s i n UNCLOS I I I , v i r t u a l l y  impossible. In c o n t r a s t  to the Law  of the  Sea  i n s t i t u t i o n a l system,  i n s t i t u t i o n a l system of UNCTAD emerged at one of what has  are  Thus i t i s m a i n l y i n  i n UNCLOS I I I tends to be s i m i l a r to the p a t t e r n  This f l e x i b i l i t y  other  narrower b o u n d a r i e s f o r c o a s t a l s t a t e s  because they .hope f o r as l a r g e a share as p o s s i b l e of the of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l s e a s .  the  o f the h i g h  the  points  become l a r g e l y known as the North/South debate.  56  The debate s t a r t e d d u r i n g the 1950's and reached a h i g h p o i n t d u r i n g the 1960's w i t h the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of UNCTAD.  I t continued i n the  1970's r e a c h i n g o t h e r h i g h p o i n t s such as d u r i n g the 1972-73 Arab o i l embargo and the 1974 and 1975  S i x t h and Seventh S p e c i a l  S e s s i o n s of the UN G e n e r a l Assembly. by arguments,  T h i s debate was  c o n f r o n t a t i o n and moving,  characterised  impassioned speeches  denouncing the systems u n d e r l y i n g the g l o b a l economic o r d e r , and emphasising the need f o r reforms and r a d i c a l changes.  Many of these  appeals emanated from forums such as the n o n - a l i g n e d c o n f e r e n c e s and from a n a l y s e s by T h i r d World s c h o l a r s . was  Raul P r e b i s c h , who  UNCTAD.  One of these s c h o l a r s  l a t e r became the f i r s t  These f a c t o r s combined  Secretary General of  encouraged LDCs to i d e n t i f y w i t h  each o t h e r and to group t o g e t h e r to pursue common s t r a t e g i e s i n UNCTAD.  The i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e of UNCTAD and some of i t s r u l e s of  procedure encouraged the f o r m a t i o n o f groups a l i g n e d a l o n g l i n e s of 36 developed v e r s u s d e v e l o p i n g s t a t e s .  These f a c t o r s made j o i n t  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and group s t r a t e g i e s much more conducive to i t s d e l i b e r a t i v e environment. A f i n a l comment may  be made of LDCs s t r a t e g i e s .  a r e not l i k e l y to be permanent  o r unchangeable.  These  F o r example,  of t h e main f a c o r s which l e d to t h e i r use as s t a t e d a t the  36.  See pp. 36-37.  strategies some  57  b e g i n n i n g of t h i s chapter, teristics  were changes i n the n a t u r e and c h a r a c -  o f t h e g l o b a l and UN environments, the p r i o r i t y o f i s s u e s  and  the n a t u r e of a c t o r s i n t h e s e .  and  other  With f u r t h e r changes i n these  determining f a c t o r s , adaptations  i n LDCs s t r a t e g i e s c a n be e x p e c t e d .  and f u r t h e r  Recent trends  the f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d become i n s t r u m e n t a l  modifications  i n d i c a t e some o f  i n f u t u r e changes i n  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Group o f 77, and i n the s t r a t e g i e s used by LDCs.  F o r example, the growing power o f OPEC s t a t e s , has caused  serious sporadic  c o n f l i c t s among s t a t e s i n the Group of 77.  c o n f l i c t s usually center bargaining  around how the OPEC s t a t e s use t h e i r  s t r e n g t h and t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  o f OPEC to keep the i s s u e  of o i l o f f the agenda o f UNCTAD C o n f e r e n c e s . pursuing  their  OPEC s t a t e s i n s i s t on  " o i l diplomacy" l a r g e l y o u t s i d e o f the UN system.  This meets w i t h the d i s a p p r o v a l which stand  o f many LDC s t a t e s , e s p e c i a l l y those  to l o s e much by OPEC's diplomacy.  between OPEC s t a t e s and o t h e r  developing  The disagreements  s t a t e s c a n l e a d to s e r i o u s  c o n f l i c t s and d i s u n i t y , which i n t u r n may t h r e a t e n existence  These  of t h e Group.  A t the most r e c e n t  the very  c o n f e r e n c e o f UNCTAD,  h e l d at M a n i l a from May to June 1979, the matter of the i n c l u s i o n of o i l n e g o t i a t i o n s this occasion and  on the agenda of the c o n f e r e n c e a r o s e .  On  there was an a l t e r c a t i o n between L a t i n American s t a t e s  OPEC s t a t e s about t h i s m a t t e r .  The OPEC s t a t e s m a i n t a i n e d  t h e i r o b j e c t i o n to keeping the s u b j e c t o f o i l on the agenda of the  58  conference.  L a t i n American and o t h e r  s e v e r e l y a f f e c t e d by r i s i n g matter m e r i t e d was  T h i r d World s t a t e s which a r e  f u e l c o s t s f e l t t h a t such a c r u c i a l  d i s c u s s i o n a t t h e Conference.  unresolved,  The matter however,  thus i t was not i n c l u d e d on the agenda.  Another disagreement s i m i l a r i n some aspects arose a t UNCTAD V.  A rift  the developed s t a t e s . preference  to the l a t t e r  developed between Group o f 77 s t a t e s and  The developed s t a t e s i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g  f o r d i s c u s s i n g i s s u e s such as p r o t e c t i o n i s m  i n GATT.  I f these c o n f l i c t s p e r s i s t o r i n c r e a s e i n magnitude, they a r e likely  to a f f e c t f u r t h e r changes i n t h e diplomacy o f LDCs. For  example, i f t h e r e i s no agreement on the forum i n which i s s u e s p r o t e c t i o n i s m o r o i l may be d i s c u s s e d , the e n t i r e process LDCs.  there c o u l d be a breakdown o f  o f n e g o t i a t i o n between developed c o u n t r i e s and  On the o t h e r hand, i f the i s s u e s a r e n e g o t i a t e d  the d i p l o m a t i c behaviour o f LDCs as a n a l y s e d persist  longer.  like  i n UNCTAD,  i n t h i s study, may  I f i s s u e s such as p r o t e c t i o n i s m a r e d i s c u s s e d i n  GATT o r elsewhere, the p a t t e r n o f LDCs behaviour and the s t r a t e g i e s they use w i l l most l i k e l y be m o d i f i e d institutional  environment.  to s u i t  the change o f  59  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  United Nations P u b l i c a t i o n s U n i t e d N a t i o n s Conference on Trade and Development.. Report of t h e P r e p a r a t o r y Committee of t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s Conference on Trade and Development. 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