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The Four-story elevation in First Gothic architecture Cairnie, Patricia Elizabeth Anne 1979

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THE FOUR-STORY ELEVATION IN FIRST GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE by PATRICIA ELIZABETH ANNE CAIRNIE B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE:FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Fine Arts We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to -the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1979 (c) P a t r i c i a Elizabeth Anne Cairnie, 1979 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements f< an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree tha the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for-extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Klffj£ Avf? The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 ABSTRACT One of the p r i n c i p a l elements i n F i r s t Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e of northern France was the appearance of the four-story elevation as a means of achieving s p a c i a l expansion i n height. The p a r t i was characterized by a uniform scheme - main arcade, tribune, t r i f o r i u m and c l e r e s t o r y c o l l e c t e d i n a s i n g l e elevation - but was treated i n various ways with respect to i t s s t r u c t u r a l , s p a c i a l and decorative aspects. In the chevets of Noyon, Saint-Germer and Laon the four-story elevation was employed i n rapid suc-cession, i n c l o s e l y connected centers, based on common concerns; s t i l l , each stands as a s i n g u l a r l y experimental manifestation of the F i r s t Gothic desire for l o f t y volumes. While the four-story elevation has been discussed i n general arch-i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i e s of the period and i n monographic studies of the i n d i -v i d u a l monuments, i t has never been examined i n an independent context and as a c e n t r a l feature of F i r s t Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e . The r o l e of the four-story elevation i n the r e a l i z a t i o n and expression of F i r s t Gothic p r i n c i -ples remains to be c l a r i f i e d . The objective of t h i s paper i s to i n v e s t i - . gate the underlying p r i n c i p l e s i n the early stages of the p a r t i , by way of an examination of the chevets of Noyon, Saint-Germer and Laon. The sources for the general scheme of the four-story elevation i n F i r s t Gothic are found i n monuments of the Romanesque period. In the sec-ond stage of F i r s t Gothic the Romanesque thin-wall and thick-wall tech-niques were adopted and revised i n accordance with the newly f e l t concern for v e r t i c a l expansion. Hence, the widespread u t i l i z a t i o n of the scheme. However, the bases of the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d treatments of the four-story elevations i n the chevets of Noyon, Saint-Germer and Laon were not ruled by shared aesthetic considerations. In each structure the d i s p o s i t i o n of the s t o r i e s and the organization of the bays, the penetration of the i i i w all i n depth and the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the wall on i t s surface was deter-mined by long, l o c a l t r a d i t i o n s and contemporary, e x t r a - l o c a l influences. In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t i s possible to observe of the four-story elevation that the uniformity of the scheme was a response to F i r s t Gothic p r i n c i p l e s whereas the d i v e r s i t y of the treatment was the r e s u l t of region-a l v a r i a t i o n s . r i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract . i i L i s t of Tables v L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s v i Chapter I: The Four-Story Elevation and I t s Romanesque Sources . . 1 Chapter I I : The Chevet of Noyon 8 Chapter I I I : The Chevet of Saint-Germer . 20 Chapter IV: The Chevet of Laon 30 Chapter V: Conclusion 41 Table . 45 I l l u s t r a t i o n s 46 Bibliography 70 Appendix: The Question of Cambrai . . . . . . . 74 V LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Percentage of Height of Main Elements to Height of Elevation . . . . . 45 v i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1. Beauvais, Saint-Lucien. Sketch by van der Berghe 46 2. Tournai, Cathedral. Transverse section of nave. A f t e r Dehio and von Bezold 47 3. Tournai, Cathedral. Longitudinal section of nave. Af t e r Dehio and yon Bezold 48 4. Tournai, Cathedral. Nave 49 5. Noyon, Cathedral. Chevet .'r. 50 6. Noyon, Cathedral. Longitudinal s e c t i o n o f chevet. A f t e r C o l l i n 51 7. Noyon, Cathedral. Chevet. D e t a i l of tribunes and t r i f o r i u m 52 8. Noyon, Cathedral. Transverse section of chevet. After C o l l i n . 53 9. Noyon, Cathedral. Chevet 54^ 10. Noyon, Cathedral. Plan as executed to 1235. After Seymour . 55 11. Saint-Denis. Plan of chevet. A f t e r Violette-le-Duc . . . . . 55 12. Saint-Denis. Plan of crypt. A f t e r Crosby ' 56 13. Saint-Germain-des-Pres. Plan of chevet. A f t e r Barbier . . . . 57 14. S e n l i s , Cathedral. Reconstruction of elevation. After Moore 58 15. Saint-Germer. Longitudinal section of chevet. After Woillez 59 16. Saint-Germer. Chevet 60 17. Saint-Germer. Chevet. D e t a i l of the tribunes. Courtesy of I. Marc Pessin 61 18. Saint-Germer. Chevet. D e t a i l of upper s t o r i e s i n north s t r a i g h t bay. Courtesy of I. Marc Pessin 62 v i i 19. Saint-Germer. Chevet. D e t a i l of c l e r e s t o r y . Courtesy of I. Marc Pessin 62 20. Beauvais, Saint-Etienne. Nave 63 21. P a r i s , Cathedral. Nave 64 22. Laon, Cathedral. Longitudinal section. After Dehio and von Bezold 65 23. Laon, Cathedral. North transept with view into the crossing 66 24y. Laon, Cathedral. Transverse section. A f t e r Dehio and von Bezold . 67 25. Noyon, Cathedral. South transept 68 26. Reims, Saint-Remi. Chevet 69 27. Soissons, Cathedral. South transept 69 28. Cambrai, Cathedral. Plan by Boileux . . . . . 75 29. Cambrai, Cathedral. Sketch by van der Meulen 75 1 CHAPTER I THE FOUR-STORY ELEVATION AND ITS ROMANESQUE SOURCES In the c e n t r a l decades of the twelfth century, In the northern r e -gion of the Ile-de-France, the four-story elevation made i t s appearance as one of the p r i n c i p a l design features of F i r s t Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e . The f o c i of i t s development are to be found i n the chevets of the cathed-r a l at Noyon, the abbey church at Saint-Germer, and the cathedral at Laon. These structures rose at v i r t u a l l y simultaneous moments, i n c l o s e l y connected centers, and they shared common concerns; s t i l l , each stands as a highly i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and experimental r e a l i z a t i o n of the elevation of four s t o r i e s . The emergence of the four-story elevation i n t h i s northern school of F i r s t Gothic did not occur without forebears of preceding years i n neighboring areas. The constructional means of b u i l d i n g i n height were developed during the Romanesque period i n the thin-wall and thick-wall techniques, as at Notre-Dame at Jumieges and Saint-Etienne at Caen.^ The continental scheme of the four-story elevation was prepared i n the o 3 nave at Tournai^ and, perhaps, at Cambrai. While these monuments preced-ed the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the years 1150-1160, the incorporation of the four-stbry elevation at Noyon, Saint-Germer, and Laon represents a r a d i c a l l y new thesis, a new conception of v e r t i c a l space that was to characterize a school of the second stage of F i r s t Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e . The cathedral of Notre-Dame at Noyon, begun ca. 1145-1150, i s situated i n the heartland of the Oise River basin; ninety kilometers to the south-west i s the abbey church of Saint-Germer-de-Fly, begun ca. 1155-1160, and f o r t y - f i v e kilometers to the east i n the Aisne v a l l e y i s the cathedral of Notre-Dame at Laon, begun ca. 1157. From the early 1150's, ;then, 2 Picardy was a center of intense a r c h i t e c t u r a l a c t i v i t y where the desire to achieve the v e r t i c a l expansion of space was a r u l i n g consideration. The builders of t h i s school set out to increase the height of the i n -t e r i o r volumes, to devise new systems of support to r a i s e the height of the main bearing walls as well as to devise a new elevation and range of e f f e c t s to express the concern for height.^ The basis of such a thesis appears, on the one hand, somewhat removed from the concerns of the immediately preceding generation i n the ile-de-France;^ from the i n s i s t -ence upon an equality of space and structure, and from a f l u i d commun-i c a t i o n of l a t e r a l volumes which was so vigorously r e a l i z e d i n the chevet of Saint-Denis. On the other hand, the enlargement of space was fund-amental to both schools, and the move toward the v e r t i c a l expansion of space may be seen as a l o g i c a l , progressive extension of the h o r i z o n t a l expansion of the e a r l i e s t stage of F i r s t Gothic. I t was, nevertheless, to the monuments of the Romanesque period that these Picard b u i l d e r s of the second stage of F i r s t Gothic turned to solve t h e i r constructional prob-lems of b u i l d i n g i n height. The abbey church of Saint-Lucien at Beauvais ( f i g . 1), begun i n the c l o s i n g years of the eleventh century, has been i d e n t i f i e d as one of the Romanesque buildings that served as a model i n the formation of c e r t a i n designs of the 1150's and 1160's.^ It s chevet was constructed i n the t h i n -wall technique which permitted the erection of large expanses of t h i n mas-onry. The high walls were reinforced at regular i n t e r v a l s by a sequence of compound pi e r s and buttresses, as well as by the presence of groin vaults over the tribune g a l l e r y . Moreover, the thrust of the a e r i a l v a u l t s , at l e a s t i n the chevet i f not the nave, was counteracted-by a range of quadrant arches, aligned perpendicular to the main bearing walls q and contained beneath the tribune roofs. The incorporation of these quadrant arches meant that the roofs of the tribunes had to be r a i s e d high on the exterior wall which resulted i n a b l i n d zone oh the i n t e r i o r between the tribunes and clerestory.''" 0 The nave at Tournai, ca. 1110-1140, was yet another Romanesque st r u c -ture that apparently served as a prototype for the second generation of F i r s t Gothic buildings;"'"''" i t was the most immediate precursor of the thick-12 wall elevation of four s t o r i e s at Noyon. At the c l e r e s t o r y stage the main bearing walls at Tournai, which are more than one meter i n depth and 24 meters i n height, are penetrated lengthwise by an exterior passage ( f i g . 2). The two p a r a l l e l sections of the wall are linked by transverse b a r r e l s over the window embrasures and by continuous plates of masonry which create an:.internal chaining system throughout the e n t i r e section and which function, to some degree, as i n t e r n a l buttresses. In addition, for 13 the sake of s t a b i l i t y , a f a l s e bearing was admitted above the side a i s l e and groin-vaulting was incorporated over the tribune g a l l e r y to r e s t r a i n the high walls ( f i g . 2). The i n c l u s i o n of the tribune vaults make i t necessary for the headers of the tribune roofs to be raised w e l l above, to the s i l l of the c l e r e s t o r y . This resulted i n a zone of masonry on the i n -t e r i o r wall, as i n the thin-wall elevations, between the tribunes and c l e r e s t o r y . I t was distinguished at Tournai by a s e r i e s of arcuated aper-tures, marking the t h i r d story of the elevation ( f i g . 3). While the Romanesque techniques of the thin-wall and the t h i c k - w a l l elevations d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r dynamics, each constituted a means of b u i l d i n g to achieve t a l l e r volumes. I t was l e f t to b u i l d e r s i n the second stage of F i r s t Gothic to take these constructional techniques and r e v i s e them. At Saint-Germer, for example, the thin-wall system of Saint-Lucien at Beauvais, of t a l l , t h i n walls with quadrant arches, was adopted and c a r r i e d further by the heightening of the main bearing walls. The Norman th i c k - w a l l , " 4 however, was profoundly a l t e r e d at Noyon and Laon. The i n t e r n a l thicken-ings of masonry were no longer s u f f i c i e n t to sustain the equilibrium of these rib-vaulted vessels with t h e i r heightened walls and enlarged open-ings. In addition to the f a l s e bearing and the r i b - v a u l t i n g at the t r i b -une stage, buttressing walls of h o r i z o n t a l courses of masonry were incorp-orated beneath the lean-to roofs of the tribune to counter the thrust of the a e r i a l v a u l t s . These mur-boutants were necessary for the free ex-p l o i t a t i o n of the wall i n depth. The desire for height at Saint-Germer, Noyon and Laon dictated a tribune elevation," 1"^ regardless of whether thin-wall or t h i c k - w a l l . A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t led to the appearance of the four-story elevation. In the chevet at Saint-Germer-de-Fly the b l i n d zone of masonry on the i n t e r i o r w a l l , corresponding to the height of the tribune roofs on the e x t e r i o r , :. was penetrated by a s e r i e s of voided rectangles. Although these apertures served to aerate the roof-spaces, they were introduced p r i m a r i l y to r e l i e v e and decorate the surface of the wall between the tribune and clerestory.''""' They constituted a d i s t i n c t stage, the t h i r d story of the elevation or the l (\ t r i f o r i u m story, as i t w i l l henceforth be c a l l e d , and i t s very presence marked the t r a n s l a t i o n of the thin-wall elevation from three to four s t o r i e s . They also represented a major step toward the treatment of the thin-wall on i t s surface and the organization of the elevation into sep-arate s t o r i e s . The thick-wall elevation of four s t o r i e s had been given an expression immediately before the advent of F i r s t Gothic i n the nave at Tournai. Its i n t e r i o r elevation was ruled by massive e f f e c t s ( f i g . 4), by the prepon-derate s o l i d i t y of the main supports and the a p p l i c a t i o n of the engaged colonnettes at the t h i r d stage. Furthermore, i t was organized i n s t r i c t l y h o r i z o n t a l bands. At Noyon, and l a t e r at Laon, the thick-wall elevation of 5 four s t o r i e s as presented at Tournai was given a new p r i n c i p l e of express-ion, the treatment of the wall i n depth, i n laye r s . In the chevet at Noyon the thick-walls were strongly r e l i e v e d by a profusion of responds and mouldings, and by the incorporation of a b l i n d arcade at the t h i r d story, the t r i f o r i u m . This was followed at Laon by the penetration of an arcaded passage at the t r i f o r i u m story - a passage taken i n the thickness of the wal l . The elevation of four s t o r i e s , of multiple d i v i s i o n s c o l l e c t e d i n a single elevation, (whether treated on the surface of the wall or i n ;i t s depth) nece s s a r i l y , a d d i t i o n a l l y suggests an enlargement of the s c a l e . ^ ) NOTES •'•On the 'thin' and 'thick' wall techniques see J . Bony, "La technique normaride du mur epais a l'epoque romane," B u l l e t i n monumental, XCVIII, 1939, 153-188. The four-story elevation was introduced i n the Carolingian period at Essen and Werden; A. Verbeek, "Die Ottonische Bautengruppe zu Essen und Werden und die Viergeschossige Wandgliederung," Karolingische und Ottonische  Kunst (Forschungen zur Kunst und C h r i s t l i c h e Archaologie, 3), Wiesbaden, 1957, 150-158. I t was also suggested at Aix-la-Chapelle. The destroyed church of Saint-Donatien at Bruges may have employed the four-story elev-a t i o n as may have the narthex of Cluny I II i n Burgandy. The abbey churches of Tewkesbury and Pershore may also have incorporated such a scheme. This view was advanced by J . Bony "Tewkesbury et PershoreT deux elevations a quatre etages a l a f i n du X I e s i e c l e , " B u l l e t i n monumental, XCVI, 1937, 281-290. I t has recently been challenged by M. Thurlby, "Tewkesbury and Per-shore," paper delivered at the U n i v e r s i t i e s Art Association of Canada, Halifax, 1978. 3 See Appendix':' The Question of Cambrai. 4 R. Branner, /Gothic Architecture 1160-1180, and i t s Romanesque Sources," Studies i n Western Art, I I , Acts of the Twentieth International  Congress of the History of A r t , 1963, 94. 5 I b i d . , 92. ^The destruction of Saint-Lucien at Beauvais i n the nineteenth cen-tury s e r i o u s l y impedes any discussion of i t s f i l i a t i o n s i n terms of d e t a i l . A hypothetical reconstruction i s provided by E. G a l l , "Die Abteikirche Saint-Lucien b e i Beauvais," Wiener Jahrbuch fur Kunstgeschichte, XVII, 1926, 59-71, although the i n c l u s i o n of r i b vaults throughout i s suspect. The church has been studies most recently by S. Gardner, "New Light on Saint-Lucien i n Beauvais," Fourteenth International Congress on Medieval Studies, Kalamazoo, Michigan, May 3-6, 1979. 7Branner, 92-104. Bony, "La technique normande du mur epais," 154-156. The dating of the quadrant arches of Beauvais i s a matter of con-jecture: Gardner. "^As a system of abutment, quadrant arches appeared i n the nave of Durhamj although t h e i r date i s speculative. They were also incorporated at La T r i n i t e at Caen and Saint-Evremond at C r e i l though t h e i r presence at C r e i l from the outset i s questionable. They may have beenaadded i n the course of construction or a f t e r completion. See also Appendix: The Ques-ti o n of Cambrai. P. H e l i o t , "Les p a r t i e s romanes de l a cathedrale de Tournai," Revue beige d'archeologie et d ' h i s t o i r e de l ' a r t , XXV, 1937, 1-76. P. Rolland, "La cathedrale de Tournai et l e s courants architecturaux," Revue  beige d'archeologie et d ' h i s t o i r e de l ' a r t , VII, 1937, 229 -280. 12 Branner, 95, contends that the influence of the nave of Tournai i n the development of the four-story elevation i n F i r s t Gothic was n e g l i g i b l e . However, h i s argument focuses upon the r e l a t i o n s of the c l e r e s t o r y passage at Tournai rather than the general scheme of the four-story elevation. A f a l s e bearing was f i r s t admitted at the tribune stage of Saint-Etienne at Caen, begun ca. 1066; Bony, "La technique normande du mur epais,' 160-161. 14 The tribunes were required to counter the thrusts of the high v a u l t s . Their p o s i t i o n and r e l a t i v e height i n the elevation was, i n e f f e c t determined by the character of the main va u l t s . ^R. Branner, Gothic Architecture, New York, 1977, 25. "^The term ' t r i f o r i u m ' has been given various d e f i n i t i o n s i n the l i t -erature with varying degrees of exactitude. I t w i l l be used herein to designate the decorated stage of the i n t e r i o r elevation that corresponds to the height of the tribune roofs on the e x t e r i o r . This stage may take any one of three forms: a series of apertures, a b l i n d arcade or an arcaded passage. ^ I t was A. Choisy, H i s t o i r e de l ' a r c h i t e c t u r e , I I , P a r i s , 1899, 409, who f i r s t stated that the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n of the s t o r i e s tends to exaggerate i n the spectator's eyes, the scale of the elevation. 8 CHAPTER II THE CHEVET OF NOYON The construction of the chevet at Noyon proceeded i n a rather piece-meal fashion. Between ca. 1145-1150 the decision was made to commence the new cathedral and the f i r s t phase of work, comprising the nine peripheral chapels, was undertaken. The second phase, ca. 1155/1160-1165/1170, i n -cluded the ambulatory, the e x t e r i o r walls of the tribunes of the chevet and the bays beneath the eastern towers. I t also established the ground plan and elevation of the transept. The t h i r d phase, ca. 1170-1185, completed the chevet as w e l l as the transept and at l e a s t the westernmost bays of the 1 nave. In s p i t e of the successive stages of i t s execution and the lengthy span of f o r t y years from s t a r t to f i n i s h , the chevet i s uniform i n i t s design. There i s no evidence to suggest any change i n the scheme and there are only subtle v a r i a t i o n s i n the d e t a i l s - i n the p r o f i l e s , p i e r s , c a p i t -2 a l s and key sculpture - to i n d i c a t e the course of work. I t appears, there-fore, that the o r i g i n a l design of the chevet was conserved; i t s elevation of four s t o r i e s was formulated i n response to a set of conditions estab-l i s h e d ca. 1145. The scheme of the chevet i s of a marked s o l i d i t y and strength i n the structure, and of a firm p l a s t i c i t y i n the d e t a i l s ( f i g . 5). I t i s one that was dictated by the desire to b u i l d i n height and, concommitantly, by the necessity to employ a heavy foundation and superstructure i n conjunc-t i o n with a tribune elevation. The main bearing walls are close to one 3 meter i n thickness and the main piers are massive i n section. The walls are r e l i e v e d by a profusion of responds and mouldings, and by the a p p l i c -ation of en d e l i t colonnettes, shaft-rings and stringcourses. In h i s 9 comprehensive monograph, Charles Seymour Jr. attributes these plastic accents to the role of the chevet in housing the sanctuary'.^ While the dictates of ceremony may have affected the treatment of the elevation, the tendency toward plasticity was in accordance with the general development of the region, as Seymour later points out."' It was above a l l , however, the structural and, thereby, the spacial requisites of the four-story elev-ation that determined the particular disposition of the chevet, i t s charac-ter of solidity as well as plasticity. The main arcade of the chevet is powerful in the simplicity of i t s elements (fig. 6 ) . The slender monostyle columns are embellished only by their striking capitals of foliage and figurative motives. In the eastern-most bays of the chevet the piers are fifteenth century replacements and in the f i r s t bays they are compound in order to sustain the towers that origin-a l l y rose above them.*' The arches of the arcade, chamfered i n the profiles of the mouldings, are round in the straight bays and pointed in the hemicycle to compensate for the proximity of the supports and to bring their keys to the same crown as those in the straight bays. However, in the f i r s t bays of the chevet the arches carry a double r o l l , the interior s o f f i t has a chamfered edge and the exterior r o l l a torus and half-scotia. The elab-oration of the orders of these arches was perhaps determined by the orig-inal placement of the main altar in the f i r s t bays as Seymour suggests,^ but was more l i k e l y introduced to relate to the engaged columns of the compound piers in order to retain a visually integrated system. In contrast to the main arcade, the treatment of the tribune stage is of a highly plastic nature (fi g . 6 ) . The' large arched openings of the t r i b -unes are framed by heavily moulded archivolts and are supported by compact-8 ly grouped colonnettes (fig. 7). In the straight bays of the chevet there are two arches per bay separated by colonnettes and single openings in the hemicycle to compensate i n height for r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the width of the bay. While the r e p e t i t i o n of the responds and mouldings i n the tribunes creates 9 a decorative e f f e c t , the organization i n the i n d i v i d u a l bays of t r i p l e ordered arches corresponding to three engaged colonnettes shows a close r e l a t i o n s h i p between load and support. Furthermore, the design.was evident-l y i n keeping with the s t y l i s t i c trends of the region as i s indicated by the s i m i l a r arrangement of the tribune stage at the cathedral of S e n l i s . The tribune g a l l e r y i s covered by r i b vaults which meant that the tribune roofs had to be raised above the vaults to a r e l a t i v e l y high point on the e x t e r i o r walls ( f i g . 8). In the o r i g i n a l scheme, wa l l butt-resses were incorporated beneath the tribune roofs."^ They served to d i r e c t a portion of the thrust of the a e r i a l vaults over the tribunes to the ex-t e r n a l buttresses as well as to transfer the thrust to the load bearing p i e r s . The t h i r d stage of the elevation, corresponding to the zone of the o r i g i n a l wall buttresses, i s distinguished by a b l i n d t r i f o r i u m , a narrow arcade set d i r e c t l y against the main bearing walls ( f i g . 7). In the hemi-cycle the arcade i s composed of three t r e f o i l arches r e s t i n g on disen-gaged colonnettes although i t was a l t e r e d i n the a x i a l bay to one round arch between two pointed arches ( f i g . 9), which was e i t h e r an accentuating device or, more l i k e l y , a means of compensating f o r l i m i t a t i o n s i n width. The pattern of the arcade i s ambitious i n that i t represents the e a r l i e s t example of the t r e f o i l arch i n an i n t e r i o r elevation."'""'" However, the pres-ence of a b l i n d arcade at the t h i r d stage of a four-story elevation i s s i n -g u l a r l y anomalous; i t i s the only instance of an arcade without apertures and/or without a passageway marking the zone of the t r i f o r i u m . I t appears that t h i s t r i f o r i u m , serving no s t r u c t u r a l function, was simply inserted to decorate the wall surfaces between the tribune openings and the c l e r e s t o r y windows. The current windows of the c l e r e s t o r y are the product of renovations i n the eighteenth and restorations i n the nineteenth centuries ( f i g . 9). 7. In t h e i r o r i g i n a l state, according to a drawing by Baraban executed p r i o r 12 to the a l t e r a t i o n s , the windows were composed of p a i r s of lancets, sur-mounted by a pointed arch and tympanum. The separate s t o r i e s of the elevation are c l e a r l y defined and strongly stressed from the simple main arcade and r i c h l y a r t i c u l a t e d tribunes to the decorative stage of the t r i f o r i u m and the t a l l l i g h t s of the c l e r e s t o r y . The same c l a r i t y of d e f i n i t i o n i s found i n the organization of the v e r t i c a l bays ( f i g . 9). A regular rhythm of engaged colonnettes r i s e from the abaci of the monostyle p i e r s to the springing of the v a u l t s ; they are en d e l i t shafts retained at the j o i n t s by s h a f t - r i n g s . The s t r u c t u r a l r o l e of these colonnettes i s n e g l i g i b l e . The thrust of the high vaults i s l a r g e l y r e -ceived by the main supports and the tribune v a u l t s . However, the r o l e of the en d e l i t shafts i s c r i t i c a l since the correspondence of the t r i p l e grouping of colonnettes to the r i b s of the vaults v i s u a l l y r e i n f o r c e s the u n i f i c a t i o n of decorative and s t r u c t u r a l concerns. The i n s i s t e n c e upon shaft-rings c i r c l i n g the colonnettes r e i t e r a t e s the tendency toward p l a s t i c values ( f i g . 5). Above a l l , moreover, the en d e l i t shafts serve to punc-tuate the walls and to e s t a b l i s h a v e r t i c a l composition. The chevet reaches an o v e r - a l l height of 21.5 meters. The r e a l i z a t i o n of such height, however, i s only one aspect of the elevation; the suggestion of even greater height i s s t i l l another. The strong d e l i n e a t i o n of the v e r t i c a l bays and the d i v i s i o n of the multiple s t o r i e s suggest an enlarge-ment of the scale. Furthermore, the zone of the t r i f o r i u m serves as a scale-giving feature; i t i s d i s t i n c t i n i t s b l i n d and band-like composition and i s immediately i d e n t i f i a b l e as the narrowest stage of the elevation, of a height comparable to that of a man ( f i g . 6). By contrast, the openings of the main arcade, tribunes and c l e r e s t o r y are larger i n dimension and seem amplified i n v i s u a l e f f e c t . This play of v i s u a l e f f e c t , of i l l u s i o n , i s fundamental to the s p a c i a l thesis of the four-story elevation. I I t also appears that p r i n c i p l e s of geometry have been applied to the proportions of the formal elements of the elevation. The height of the main arcade i s equal to that of the tribune stage and t r i f o r i u m combined; t h i s r a t i o i s c l e a r l y marked by the proje c t i o n of the continuous s t r i n g -courses at the top of the main arcade and the s i l l of the c l e r e s t o r y ( f i g . 6). The height of the tribune stage i s equal to that of the c l e r e -story. 'Further, the height of the monostyle supports, including t h e i r bases and c a p i t a l s , i s equal to the width of the side a i s l e . While t h i s proportional arrangement of the s t o r i e s at Noyon has not been discussed i n 13 the l i t e r a t u r e , the implications are s i g n i f i c a n t . The proportional l i n k -age of the tribuneostage and the t r i f o r i u m impresses the semblance of a three-story elevation which represents a deliberate attempt to conserve, i n compositional terms, the old three-storied scheme. The chevet of Notre-Dame at Noyon might best be appraised as an innov-ati o n i n the second stage of F i r s t Gothic architecture. I t has, however, also been ascribed by some as a member of the school of Saint-Denis and, 14 therefore, as part of the s t y l e of the e a r l i e s t stage of Gothic. To categorize Noyon i n the o r b i t of the P a r i s i s , however, i s to se r i o u s l y un-derestimate the implications of i t s four-story elevation. The chevets of Saint-Denis"*"^ and Noyon, indeed, exhibit a s i m i l a r arrangement i n the layout of ".their ground plans; both have r a d i a t i n g chap-e l s of equal s i z e covered by f i v e branched v a u l t s , two rectangular chapels o f f the a i s l e s of the s t r a i g h t bays and monostyle columns f o r i n t e r i o r supports ( f i g s . 10 and 11). But at Noyon one finds a d i f f e r e n t treatment of the s t r u c t u r a l and s p a c i a l aspects; i t s chapels are deeper i n plan and separated by deeply penetrating buttresses; i t s ambulatory i s s i n g l e rather than double and the external p i e r s of the ambulatory are heavily r e l i e v e d , powerful masses rather than slender columns. In short, the scheme at Noyon i s one of s o l i d i t y and strength, and of compartmentalized volumes whereas the v i t a l p r i n c i p l e at Saint-Denis i s that of an equality of space and structure, and of a contiguity of volumes. Where these d i s t i n c t i o n s are raised i n the l i t e r a t u r e , they are usually interpreted as evidence of a r e t -16 rograde character at Noyon. While the chevet at Noyon may s u p e r f i c i a l l y appear as such, i t does not represent a d i r e c t or even a deli b e r a t e con-t r a d i c t i o n of the design at Saint-Denis. Instead, the impulse toward the ho r i z o n t a l enlargement of space as r e a l i z e d at Saint-Denis was superceded at Noyon by a move toward the v e r t i c a l enlargement of space. The heavy supporting elements i n the chevet at Noyon were quite simply d i c t a t e d by the desire f o r height. Since the main supports at Noyon were devised as a base for the sup-erstructure as well as an i n t e g r a l part of the elevation, i t seems l o g i c a l to turn the point of reference from the chevet at Saint-Denis to i t s crypt."' Although' t h i s crypt has seven r a d i a t i n g chapels and groin v a u l t s , i t s basic scheme and treatment i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to that of Noyon. The conr t'inuo.us buttresses between each chapel and the two windows i n each chapel, the si n g l e a i s l e and the compound pi e r s on the exterior of the a i s l e are repeated at Noyon ( f i g s . 10 and 12). But, more importantly, the compart-mentalized space of the chapels and the squat proportions of the ambulatory are also repeated at Noyon. The l i n e from Saint-Denis to Noyon did not pass uninterrupted. The 18 chevet of Saint-Germain-des-Pres, completed ca. 1163, displays a t t r i b u t e s of the crypt at Saint-Denis and more d e f i n i t e a f f i n i t i e s to the chevet at Noyon. In f a c t , the ground plans of Saint-Germain-des-Pres and Noyon are v i r t u a l l y interchangeable; both consist of three s t r a i g h t bays i n the chevet proper, four monostyle supports i n the hemicycle, a si n g l e a i s l e and f i v e r a d i a t i n g chapels ( f i g s . 10 and 13). Furthermore, the chapels and amb-ul a t o r i e s have the i d e n t i c a l v a ulting patterns and the same proportions of height to width. From the crypt at Saint-Denis to Saint-Germain-des-Pres and f i n a l l y to Noyon a fundamental kinship may be i d e n t i f i e d by the config-uration of c l e a r l y defined, add i t i v e volumes. However, i n the crypt of Saint-Denis, and l a t e r i n the chevet of Saint-Germain-des-Pres, t h i s config-uration was devised to permit the enlargement of space at the ground l e v e l whereas at Noyon i t was designed to permit the expansion of space i n the elevation. The s o l u t i o n offered at Saint-Denis was employed at Noyon, but to solve a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t problem. The closest thematic antecedent to the chevet of Noyon i s found out-19 side France, to the north, i n the nave of Tournai, ca. 1110-1140. These two structures reveal the kinship of a dedication to height based on a four-20 story scheme. However, the elevation of Noyon represents a profound departure from that of Tournai i n i t s organization of the i n d i v i d u a l s t o r i e s and i t s consideration of load and support. In contrast to Noyon, the treatment of the elevation at Tournai 21 appears, to paraphrase Seymour, almost to lack treatment. At the main arcade l e v e l , the huge round arches and heavy compound pi e r s take the form and structure of a viaduct; a powerful composition that i s even more accent-uated at the tribune stage. There, the spans of the arches have been en-larged and the number of t h e i r orders has been increased from three to four, 2 almost as i f the main arcade and tribune stage have been reversed ( f i g . 3). In turn, the piers have been thickened and a f a l s e bearing admitted to • strengthen the high walls ( f i g . 2). While the design at Noyon displays a c e r t a i n s o l i d i t y , the monostyle supports of i t s main arcade and the c l u s t -ered en d e l i t colonnettes of i t s upper stages reveal a d e s c r i p t i o n of thrust that i s not even suggested at Tournai. In part, t h i s i s the r e s u l t of the 23 dif f e r e n c e between non-vaulted and vaulted architectures but to a large degree the configuration at Tournai i s dictated by a strong t r a d i t i o n of f i r m monumentality rather than by a dedication to l i n e a r i t y . At the t h i r d stage of the nave at Tournai the surface of the wall i s penetrated by a double chamfered range of arches sprung from p i l a s t e r s t r i p s with engaged columns and the wall i s pierced by small apertures ( f i g . 4). The treatment of the t r i f o r i u m at Tournai and Noyon was p a r t i a l l y a res-ponse to decorative considerations. However, at Tournai the s e r i e s of arch-es framing the s i n g l e openings i s reminiscent of the form of window embras-ures, whereas at Noyon the band of t r e f o i l arches attached to the wall i s s i m i l a r to the pattern of the b l i n d dado arcade found i n i t s side a i s l e s . In the former, the t r i f o r i u m was inserted as a decorative motif but was treated as a p r a c t i c a l design feature whereas, i n the l a t t e r , the t r i f o r -ium was expressed s o l e l y as a decorative stage. The c l e r e s t o r y at Tournai i s distinguished on the i n t e r i o r by s i n g l e , t a l l l i g h t s set i n deep splays and on the exterior by a passage. In a l i k e manner to a loggia, the space of the passage penetrates the masonry l o n g i -tudinally: with a blank wall and windows to the i n t e r i o r and a detached portico of a l t e r n a t i n g piers and colonnettes to the e x t e r i o r , providing access to the upper, outer reaches of the structure ( f i g . 2). The presence of the exterior passage at Tournai r e f l e c t s a fundamentally d i f f e r e n t con-24 ception of the four-story elevation from that at Noyon. I t i s the con-cern f o r height rather than c i r c u l a t i o n that i s of c r i t i c a l importance at Noyon. F i n a l l y , the treatment of the four-story elevation i n the chevet of Noyon stands i n sharp contrast to that of Tournai with respect to the org-anization of space. While at Tournai the box-like c e l l s are construed i n s t r i c t l y h o r i z o n t a l arcuated openings, at Noyon the bays are separated i n t o v e r t i c a l units by the a p p l i c a t i o n of the en d e l i t shafts ( f i g s . 4 and 9). The difference of s p a c i a l configuration i s the r e s u l t of a d i f f e r e n c e i n thinking. In sum, i f the nave of Tournai exerted any influence upon Noyon, i t was by suggesting the basic p r i n c i p l e of b u i l d i n g i n height and the general scheme of the four-story elevation. 25 The cathedral of Senlis was begun no fewer than seven years a f t e r Noyon, ca. 1153, and the two are situated no more than s i x t y kilometers apart i n the Oise v a l l e y . Unfortunately, Senlis was d r a s t i c a l l y modified a f t e r a f i r e i n 1504 ?but, on the basis of a; reconstruction drawing ( f i g . 1. 14), one can see that the elevation of Senlis and Noyon were s t r i k i n g l y sim-i l a r i n the treatment of c e r t a i n design features and s t r u c t u r a l systems. The main arcade of the chevet at Senlis was o r i g i n a l l y composed of pointed arches of one order c a r r i e d on monostyle shafts, as at Noyon. A regular rhythm of clustered colonnettes rose to the springing of the vaults but, inccontrast to Noyon, were of regular coursing rather than en d e l i t . However, i t i s the uniform treatment of the tribune openings at Noyon and 2 6 Senlis that i s most noteworthy. In both, the sin g l e openings are defined by t r i p l e ordered arches supported on three compactly grouped colonnettes, showing a close c o r r e l a t i o n between the decorative and s t r u c t u r a l elements ( f i g s . 8 and 14). Further, i n both the tribune c e l l s are treated as separ-ate units of space which i s emphasized by the sharp p o s i t i o n i n g of the c o l -onnettes at r i g h t angles to the bay and by the domical configuration of the va u l t s . Above the tribune l e v e l , however, the s i m i l a r i t y between Senlis and Noyon ceases. Although wall buttresses were probably concealed beneath the tribune roofs at S e n l i s , the zone between the tribunes and c l e r e s t o r y remained undecorated. In the o r i g i n a l design, as opposed to the recon-s t r u c t i o n drawing ( f i g . 14), the stringcourses i n the spandrels of the t r i -bunes would have been lowered i n alignment with the c a p i t a l s of the ascending shafts, and the c l e r e s t o r y would have been shortened, which would have pre-sented an extensive zone of b l i n d masonry, a zone distinguished at Noyon by the t r i f o r i u m arcade. While the chevet at Noyon i s of a somewhat larger scale and l i g h t e r proportion, both convey a sense of v e r t i c a l i t y . The appearance of the four-story elevation at Noyon as opposed to the three-story e l e v a t i o n at Senlis was only a matter of taking one further step toward the v e r t i c a l enlargement of space through the incorporation of the t r i f o r i u m stage. A precise assessment of Noyon's p o s i t i o n i n the development of F i r s t Gothic architecture has been obscured by the preponderate shadows of con-temporary buildings i n the area around Paris and constructional p r i n c i p l e s of the e a r l i e s t stage of Gothic. The chevet has been characterized, most often, as a misinterpretation of the lightened mass at Saint-Denis. While the design at Noyon explo i t s c e r t a i n aspects of t h i s structure, i t s four-story elevation expresses a new syntax of v e r t i c a l compositions i n a P i c -ard s t y l e . By the treatment of the d i s t i n c t i v e stages, the r i b - v a u l t e d tribunes and the decorative t r i f o r i u m , by the organization of the struc-t u r a l systems, the en d e l i t shafts and w a l l buttresses, and, above a l l , by the concern f o r the expansion of volumes, the chevet of Noyon must be brought to the fore as a s t r i k i n g innovation i n F i r s t Gothic architecture. NOTES C. Seymour, J r . , Notre-Dame of Noyon i n the Twelfth Century. A Study i n the Early Development of Gothic Architecture, New York, 1968, 41-63. The chronology of the construction of the chevet outlined i n t h i s paper i s based upon the c a r e f u l and comprehensive research presented by Charles Seymour. 2 I b i d . , 55. 3 Ibid., 106. By d e f i n i t i o n , the thick-wall i s a meter or more i n thickness. 4 I b i d . , 106. 5 l b i d . , 117. 6 I b i d . , 108. 7 I b i d . , 108. g The d i s p o s i t i o n of the tribune, of paired arches not taken under a r e l i e v i n g arch, i s unusual i n the architecture of the twelfth century. I t i s found, however, i n the south transept of Soissons a f t e r 1177. 9 The profusion of responds and mouldings at the tribune stage of the chevet i s discussed by Paul Frankl as evidence of the tendency i n F i r s t Gothic toward heavy r e l i e f ; P. Frankl, Gothic Architecture, Harmondsworth, 1962, 37-39. "^These mur-boutants were replaced a f t e r a f i r e i n 1293 by f l y i n g buttresses; Seymour, 70. 1 1 I b i d . , 117. 12 Ibid ., f i g . 14. 13 Seymour commented that "the proportions of elements i n the elevation cannot altogether c o n s i s t e n t l y be interpreted as r e s u l t i n g from the a p p l i c -ation of predetermined mathematical canon." Ibid., 160. 14 Ibid., 112-116. E. Lambert, "L'abbatiale de Saint-Germer et l ' e c o l e de Saint-Denis," B u l l e t i n monumental, C, 1941, 47-63. 1 5 S . McK. Crosby, The Abbey of Saint-Denis, I, New Haven, 1942, 475-1122. Seymour, 114. ^S. McK. Crosby, "Crypt and Choir Plans at Saint-Denis," Gesta, V, 1966, 4-8. 18 The s i m i l a r i t i e s between the chevet of Noyon and that of Saint-Germain-des-Pres were f i r s t recognized by E. Lefevre-Pontalis, Congres  archeologique, P a r i s , 1919, 343-344. For the most recent discussion of Saint-Germain-des-Pres see: William Clark, "Spacial Innovations i n the Chevet of Saint-Germain-des-Pres," Gesta, XVII, 1978, 72. 19 The dates of the cathedral of Tournai have been the subject of much controversy. The problems have been outlined by H e l i o t , "Les parties rom-anes de l a cathedrale de Tournai," 3-76. 20 Rolland, " l a cathedrale de Tournai," 267-280, contends that the nave of Tournai had a d i r e c t influence upon Noyon; h i s arguments, however, are highly suspect as Seymour, 117, points out. H e l i o t , 69-76, observed that Tournai had an impact on Noyon as well as Cambrai and Laon. 21 Seymour, 117. 22 The main arcade and tribune stage at Saint-Etienne at Caen are equal i n height; H e l i o t , 22. 23 a l . The nave of Tournai was f i r s t f u l l y vaulted i n 1754; H e l i o t , 10, et 2 4 I b i d . , 21-43. Branner, "Gothic Architecture 1160-1180," 95-96. 25 M. Aubert, La cathedrale de S e n l i s , S e n l i s , 1910. Seymour, 117. CHAPTER I I I THE CHEVET OF SAINT-GERMER The abbey church of Saint-Germer-de-Fly has long been neglected and often misunderstood. U n t i l recently even i t s commencement date has been the subject of cautious inquiry and a varied range of theories.''" Because 2 of the absence of relevant documentary material, the archaeological data remains the only a v a i l a b l e index of the chronology of i t s construction. However, the presence of c e r t a i n archaic design features has conventionally been interpreted as evidence of a very early date within the framework of 3 the e a r l i e s t stage of F i r s t Gothic. In 1963, Robert Branner argued that " i f the d e t a i l s of Saint-Germer be read as archaic s u r v i v a l s rather than up-to-date expressions of a uniform and monolithic development, then i t i s possible that the church was begun a f t e r 1150 and even a f t e r 1155."^ In more recent years, on the basis of a comparative analysis of Saint-Germer, p a r t i c u l a r l y of i t s c a p i t a l s , Marc Pessin has confirmed a commencement date ca. 1155-1160. This f i r s t major campaign, f i n i s h e d i n the early 1170's, comprised the chevet, the transept and the three eastern bays of the nave as well as portions of the fourth. The second campaign, ca. 1175-1206, completed the nave and at le a s t the low-er regions of the west ensemble. ~* By i t s chronology alone, Saint-Germer must be considered i n the sphere of the second stage of F i r s t Gothic and the four-story elevation of the chevet, i n p a r t i c u l a r , may be characterized as an experimental r e a l i z a t i o n of the new desire for v e r t i c a l expansion i n the l o c a l s t y l e of the Beauvaisis. The main arcade of the chevet i s composed of pointed arches c a r r i e d on compound piers ( f i g . 15). The arches are heavily moulded and decorated by a chevron motif, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c feature of Anglo-Norman arc h i t e c t u r e . ^ The supports are quite i r r e g u l a r i n sequence since there are three d i f f e r -ent types of compound piers i n the chevet including the crossing p i e r s . In the hemicycle c l u s t e r s of three engaged shafts r i s e from the massive p l i n t h s of the piers to the springing of the vaults ( f i g . 16); they v i s u a l l y em-phasize the supporting function of the main bearing walls. Moreover, these shafts, of regular courses of masonry, punctuate the f l a t surfaces of the walls and accentuate the v e r t i c a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l bays. The tribune stage consists of two round arches per bay r e s t i n g on i paired colonnettes and taken under a round-headed r e l i e v i n g arch ( f i g s . 16, 17). The tympana are pierced by decorated o c u l i ^ carrying e i t h e r quatre-f o i l s or chevron motifs. However, i n the f i r s t bays of the chevet, the widest bays, the openings are increased to three and the c e n t r a l arch i s Q heightened, thus eliminating the f i e l d for an oculus ( f i g s . 15,18). The tribune stage i s treated i n several planes, from the prominent r e l i e v i n g arches with t h e i r decorative mouldings to the f l a t tympana with t h e i r void-ed o c u l i which, augmented by the moulded arches and paired colonnettes, tends to disguise the thinness of the walls. 9 The tribunes are covered by groin vaults and, above, a range of quad-rant arches are aligned l a t e r a l l y against the main bearing walls to s t a b i l -i z e the piers against the thrust of the vaults and p a r t i a l l y d i r e c t i t over the g a l l e r y on to the exterior buttresses. The incorporation of the groin vaults and the quadrant arches, both contained beneath the tribune roofs, meant that the roofs had to be raised high on the exterior walls ( f i g . 15). As at Noyon, th i s resulted i n a zone of masonry on the i n t e r i o r between the tribunes and c l e r e s t o r y which was pierced at Saint-Germer by a s e r i e s of simple rectangles positioned i n the v e r t i c a l axis of each bay ( f i g . 18). The introduction of t h i s t r i f o r i u m stage conforms p e r f e c t l y to the aesthetic of the thin-wall elevation; i t came from the need to r e l i e v e arid decorate the wall surfaces."""" While the apertures perform the function of aerating the tribune roofs, they were not necessitated by s t r u c t u r a l req-u i s i t e s ; they do not add to the height of the elevation, as i n the case of the tribune, nor are they taken i n the thickness of the w a l l as a passage. The apertures simply penetrate an otherwise b l i n d zone of masonry. Further-more, they mark a t h i r d story i n the elevation. The c l e r e s t o r y i s distinguished by a range of narrow windows, one per bay enclosed by a transverse arch r e s t i n g on small colonnettes ( f i g . 19). The windows are placed w e l l above the l e v e l of the upper c a p i t a l s , j u s t above the apex of the quadrant arches beneath the tribune roofs. More im-portantly and curiously, however, a continuous passage i s incorporated at the s i l l of the c l e r e s t o r y ( f i g s . 18,19). The very presence of a passage i s incongruous i n the context of the thin-wall and i s more i n keeping with the p r i n c i p l e of the Norman thi c k - w a l l . Yet the passage at Saint-Germer i s so narrow as to be unusable as a means of c i r c u l a t i o n . Further, i t i s com-posed of a ledge and c a r r i e d on brackets ( f i g . 18) rather than lodged i n the wall i n the orthodox Norman manner as at Saint-Etienne at Caen. While t h i s passage appears to have been introduced under the impact of the Norman thick-wall, i t was reconciled to the e f f e c t s of the thin-wall by the t r e a t -ment of the wall as a membrane stretched between the main supports."'""'" The four s t o r i e s at Saint-Germer are markedly d i s t i n c t i n design and are seemingly d e l i b e r a t e l y disparate i n r e l a t i o n one to the other. There i s d i s p a r i t y between the pointed arches of the main arcade and the round arches of the tribune, the t r i f o r i u m rectangle pierced i n the center of the bay and the c l e r e s t o r y passage projected between the supports ( f i g . 15). The coexistence of pointed and round arches i n a si n g l e elevation was not 12 unusual i n the mid-twelfth century; at Saint-Germer, however, the sharp difference i n the mouldings of the arches tends to further accentuate the differences of t h e i r forms. Moreover, the p o s i t i o n i n g of the t r i f o r i u m rectangle and the c l e r e s t o r y ledge at r i g h t angles to one another dramat-i c a l l y emphasizes the contrasting action of the v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l aspects. In sum, the four s t o r i e s do not seem to act i n unison and, as a r e s u l t , each story i s c l e a r l y defined as an independent component. Further the s t o r i e s are organized one above the other as superposed d i v i s i o n s of equal c l a r i t y which, i n the spectator's eyes, produces :the e f f e c t . o f an.en-larged scale. The massive v e r t i c a l s of the compound pi e r s and the continuous shafts i n the chevet of Saint-Germer strongly punctuate the t h i n walls, making the single bay the basic unit of the design ( f i g . 16). They are overlapped by a decorative stringcourse above the l e v e l of the main arcade and by shaft-rings i n l i n e with the abaci of the tribune colonnettes which p a r t i a l l y i n -terrupt the v e r t i c a l movement but provide a p l a s t i c e f f e c t ( f i g . 17). Between the supports the s t o r i e s are, i n part, arranged to accentuate the v e r t i c a l axis of the bay. From the apex of the main arcade to the oculus of the tribune, through to the t r i f o r i u m , there i s a continuity i n the r i s e of the v e r t i c a l aspect. Further, the very form of the t r i f o r i u m , that of a rectangle, r e i t e r a t e s the v e r t i c a l unit of the bay. At the c l e r e s t o r y , however, the v e r t i c a l emphasis i s thoroughly checked by the ledge running across the bays. While the chevet of Saint-Germer measures an o v e r - a l l height of approx imately nineteen meters, i t appears even higher as a r e s u l t of the slender 13 proportions of the i n t e r i o r volume. However, the s p a c i a l construct of the elevation i s established, above a l l , by the prominent c l u s t e r s of shaft r i s i n g from the base of the main arcade to the vault departures. They protrude into the c e n t r a l volume of the chevet and cut i t into narrow, ver-t i c a l s l i c e s . The chevet of Saint-Germer stands as a highly i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and ex-perimental manifestation of the four-story elevation i n the development of F i r s t Gothic architecture. The thematic o r i g i n s of the elevation may be 14 traced from Tournai and, perhaps, Cambrai to Noyon and Saint-Germer, where i t was dictated by the concern for height. However, the p a r t i c u l a r express-ion of the thin-wall elevation of four s t o r i e s at Saint-Germer i s of such a d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e as to represent a fundamentally new means of handling space, of moving v e r t i c a l l y . The basic scheme of t a l l , t h i n walls with compound p i e r s , groin-vault-ed tribunes and quadrant arches was f i r s t formulated i n the chevet of Saint-x 15 Lucien at Beauvais ( f i g . 1), begun ca. 1090. I t was adopted at Saint-Germer and s u b s t a n t i a l l y modified i n accordance with the p r i n c i p l e s of the second stage of F i r s t Gothic. The main bearing walls were heightened and the c e n t r a l v e s s e l was reduced i n width, which s h i f t e d the s p a c i a l concept 16 of the Beauvais formula toward an increasing emphasis upon v e r t i c a l i t y . S i m i l a r l y , the incorporation of the t r i f o r i u m stage between the tribune and the c l e r e s t o r y marked the t r a n s l a t i o n of the elevation from three to four s t o r i e s and, thereby, established an e n t i r e l y new range of v i s u a l e f f e c t s . Nevertheless, the framing of the bays by engaged shafts was i n concert with the developments i n the Beauvaisis as was the sculpturing of the t h i n walls by prominent mouldings and p l a s t i c accents. The p a r t i c u l a r d i s p o s i t i o n of the tribune stage, of two round openings taken under a r e l i e v i n g arch, was featured at Saint-Lucien and Saint-Etienne at Beauvais, C r e i l , Poissy, and-17 y others ( f i g . 20). Moreover, the form of a simple rectangle i n the t r i f o r -ium was perhaps determined by the Beauvaisis t r a d i t i o n of emphasizing the 18 v e r t i c a l unit of the bay. While the chevet of Saint-Germer modified and revised the scheme of Saint-Lucien at Beauvais, i t s elevation ultimately 19 retained a strong, l o c a l imprint. The chevet of Saint-Germer followed i n the l i n e of Noyon; i t was begun no more than ten years a f t e r Noyon and located only a few kilometers away. In both structures the four-story elevation was given an expression based on the F i r s t Gothic desire for the v e r t i c a l expansion of space. How-ever, the elevation at Saint-Germer represented a d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n struc-20 t u r a l l y and, thereby; v i s u a l l y from that of Noyon. The use of compound pi e r s at the main arcade of Saint-Germer determined a scheme of great strength and p l a s t i c i t y , one that i s far removed from the firm s i m p l i c i t y of Noyon where the supports are slender monostyle columns. Further, the clustered colonnettes, although of the same number as Noyon, are of regular courses of masonry, r i s i n g from the base of the main arcade to the vault departures ( f i g s . 6 and 15); they e s t a b l i s h a unity of texture and a strong continuity i n the punctuation of the walls as opposed to the detachable q u a l i t y of the colonnettes en d e l i t at Noyon. At both Saint-Germer and Noyon the t r i f o r i u m stage was introduced p r i m a r i l y to f u l f i l l the need to r e l i e v e the i n t e r i o r w all corresponding to the height of the tribune roofs. However, the presence of quadrant arches at Saint-Germer, aligned at approximately a f o r t y degree angle against the main bearing walls, forced a r e l a t i v e l y t a l l e r zone of masonry between the tribune and the c l e r e s t o r y than did the mur-boutants at Noyon, placed at 21 approximately a t h i r t y degree angle ( f i g s . 8 and 15). In turn, the seri e s of rectangles at the t r i f o r i u m of Saint-Germer were pierced i n the t h i n walls as simple apertures, giving the elevation a prominent zone of dark s l o t s . The b l i n d arcade at Noyon, on the other hand, was linked i n a hor-i z o n t a l band between the bays and was attached to the w a l l , providing a narrow zone of running r e l i e f ( f i g . 7). In one sense, the d i s p o s i t i o n of the arcade may be related to the p r i n c i p l e of the thin-wall technique and the treatment of the wall on i t s surface. However; i t i s reminiscent i n form to a passage arcade and its colonnettes are detached from the wall, which is at least suggestive of the final expression of the thick-wall, of the wall treated in depth. The elevation of Saint-Germer bears l i t t l e relation to Noyon beyond the general correspondence of four stories collected in a single scheme. The opinion that Noyon was a direct source of influence appears unfounded. The use of the thin-wall technique, of compound piers, and groin-vaulted tribunes, and the particular treatment of the walls at Saint-Germer came 22 from a profoundly different foyer than that of Noyon. The relative pos-itions of Saint-Germer and Noyon in the second stage of First Gothic might simply be characterized as simultaneous but independent developments. In subsequent years, the chevet of Saint-Germer probably exercised an influence upon the chevet of Notre-Dame at Paris, begun ca. 1163. The thin-wall elevation of four stories appears to have passed directly from Saint-Germer to Paris where i t was substantially modified. The chevet at Paris 23 measures a colossal height of approximately thirty-two meters, a fu l l thirteen meters higher than Saint-Germer. The thin walls are supported by monostyle columns which permit the free flow of space into the lateral vol-umes of the double side aisles to both physically and visually Tighten the mass of the structure. In contrast to Saint-Germer, the bays are not delin-eated by the strong verticals of the compound piers and continuous shafts, and the walls are not relieved by plastic characteristics but rather they are construed as mural surfaces (figs. 16 and 21). At the tribune stage, in particular, the walls appear to be nothing more than a thin membrane without structural value. In the original design, however, the wall surfaces on the interior, corresponding to the height of the quadrant arches beneath the tribune roofs on the exterior, were penetrated by a series of oculi (fig. 21). These openings marked the third story in the elevation but did not accentuate i t s scale; they created, by v i r t u e of t h e i r round form, a tumbling momentum, one that traversed the l o n g i t u d i n a l axis of the i n t e r i o r . The treatment of the t h i r d story at Paris was undoubtedly based on the design of Saint-Germer, though i t was transposed as a serie s of o c u l i rather than rectangles. In th i s respect, alone, Paris was heavily indebted to the advances made i n the chevet of Saint-Germer. A d d i t i o n a l l y , the scheme of the thin-wall elevation of four s t o r i e s , common to both structures, was employed i n the chevet of Paris to inaugurate the co l o s s a l phase of l o f t y i n t e r i o r volumes.^ NOTES The commencement of the construction of Saint-Germer was suggested as having ocurred between 1130 and 1150 by E. Lefevre-Pontalis, "Etude sur l a date de l ' e g l i s e de Saint-Germer," Bibliotheque de 1'ecole des chartres, XLVI, 1885, 478. A commencement date for the chevet ca. 1145 was proposed by E. G a l l , Die gotische Baukunst i n Frankreich und Deutschland, L e i p z i g , 1925, 150-159. This was held by R. de Lasteyrie, L'architecture r e l i g i e u s e  en France a l'epoque gothique, I, P a r i s , 1929, 17. F i n a l l y , P. H e l i o t , "Remarques sur l'abbatiale de Saint-Germer et sur les blocs de facade du X I I e s i e c l e , " B u l l e t i n monumental, CXIV, 1956, 112, suggested a commence-ment date ca. 1150. The a v a i l a b l e documents are discussed by A. Besnard, L ' e g l i s e de  Saint-Germer-de-Fly (Oise) et sa Sainte-Chapelle, P a r i s , 1913, 84. 3 H e l i o t , "Remarques sur l'abbatiale de Saint-Germer," 114. The d i s -p o s i t i o n of round arches and the incorporation of groin vaults at the t r i b -une stage have been regarded, above a l l , as archaic design features. 4Branner, "Gothic Architecture 1160-1180," 102. 5I.M. Pessin, "The Twelfth Century Abbey Church of Saint-Germer-de-Fly and Its P o s i t i o n i n the Development of F i r s t Gothic Arc h i t e c t u r e , " Gesta, XVII, 1978, 71. H e l i o t , "Remarques sur l' a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer," 84. 7The incorporation of o c u l i i n the tympana of the tribunes i s found at Saint Etienne at Caen. I t was l a t e r featured i n the nave of Noyon and the chevet of Chars. Q This arrangement was common i n Anglo-Norman arch i t e c t u r e ; see H e l i o t , "Remarques sur l'abbatiale de Saint-Germer," 84. Q The tribunes were p a r t i a l l y renovated i n the seventeenth century and the groin vaults were probably restored at t h i s time; I b i d . , 82. "^The t r i f o r i u m openings were walled up i n the seventeenth century, apparently to further s t a b i l i z e the structure; Ibid., 83. I L . 7 1 Pessin, 71. 12 It occured at Poissy, Sens and the nave of Noyon among others. 1 3 S e e Table 1. 14 See Appendix: The Question of Cambrai ^ T h e ultimate antecedent of the thin-wall i s found at Jumieges; see Bony, "La technique normande du mur epais," 154-156. On Saint-Lucien at Beauvais see above, 2-3. 16 See Table 1. H e l i o t , "Remarques sur l'a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer," 84-85. 18 Pessin, 71. The form of the t r i f o r i u m , of simple rectangles, prob-ably came from Normandy (Boscherville) or the Pas-de-Calais ( L i l l e r s ) . 19 Ibid. H e l i o t , "Remarques sur l'a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer," 113, also recognized the strong influence of Saint-Lucien at Beauvais upon the elev-ation of Saint-Germer. 20 Lambert, "L'abbatiale de Saint-Germer," 54-63, contends that Saint-Germer was heavily influenced by the chevet of Noyon. His arguments are appropriately, a l b e i t b r i e f l y , countered by H e l i o t , "Remarques sur l'abbat-i a l e de Saint-Germer," 113. 21 The t r i f o r i u m of Noyon scarcely r i s e s above the crown of the tribune v a u l t s . 22 Seymour, 176. 23 In the nineteenth century archaeologists excavated the foundations of the cathedral at Paris and discovered that the footings were over nine met-ers i n depth. (By comparison the footings of the chevet at Noyon are f i v e meters i n depth; Ibid., 106.) Such ample footings at Paris were obviously prepared from the s t a r t to support extremely t a l l walls; W. Stoddard, Art  and Architecture i n Medieval France, New York, 1972, 137-138. 24 In the thirteenth century the c l e r e s t o r y windows of the e n t i r e cath-edral at Paris were enlarged and the series of o c u l i above the spandrels of the tribunes were removed. In the nineteenth century V i o l l e t - l e - D u c r e s t -ored the i n t e r i o r bays adjacent to the crossing to t h e i r o r i g i n a l dispos-i t i o n but only i n an approximate fashion. A reconstruction of the '-original state of Paris and a discussion of the changes up to the nineteenth century i s provided by M. Aubert, Notre-Dame de P a r i s , sa place dans l ' h i s t o i r e de 1'architecture du X I I e au XIV s i e c l e , P a r i s , 1920. 25 Seymour, 163. 2 6 The scheme of Notre-Dame at Paris influenced a great number of struc-tures i n the l a s t t h i r d of the twelfth century, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the diocese of P a r i s . Its tribune g a l l e r y was reproduced at Mantes, Beaumont-sur-Oise, Saint-Leu-d'Esserent and Moret. However, i t was not u n t i l the 1190's, at Bourges that the l o n g i t u d i n a l s p a c i a l implications of the chevet at Paris were developed further. CHAPTER IV THE CHEVET OF LAON In the l a t e 1150's the f i r s t b u i l d i n g campaign of the cathedral of Laon was undertaken by Bishop Gautier de Montagne"^ and comprised the chevet as well as the transept. The second campaign, ca. 1178, included the two east-ern bays of the nave, the paired towers of the transept and the crossing tower. A t h i r d campaign, ca. 1190-1215, completed the nave and the west front. The o r i g i n a l chevet of Laon, however, was s h o r t l i v e d . I t was re-2 placed i n 1205 by the present greatly lengthened, flat-ended structure. Nevertheless, the system of construction and elevation of the f i r s t cam-paign i s s t i l l preserved i n three bays on the east side of the transept. It i s evident that from the outset the master of Laon had f i r m possession of the thick-wall elevation of four s t o r i e s , i t s s t r u c t u r a l demands and v i s -ual p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The main arcade of t h i s f i r s t campaign i s composed of a uniform series 3 of monostyle columns with c y l i n d r i c a l bases and abaci supporting pointed arches ( f i g . 22). The use of the monostyle column, no doubt i n h e r i t e d from Saint-Denis and Noyon, allows a marked economy i n the mass of the structure and fosters a free flow of space into the l a t e r a l volumes of the side a i s l e s . The tribune stage consists of two round arches i n each bay separated by a slender colonnette and taken under a round-headed r e l i e v i n g arch ( f i g s . 22,23). The extensive tympana remain undecorated but the arches carry, i n the same manner as those of the main arcade, a s i n g l e r o l l between two chamfers. 4 The vast tribunes, i n which the deeply penetrating piers reveal a f a l s e bearing, are covered by r i b vaults ( f i g . 24). Above, i s o l a t e d w a l l buttresses, s i t t i n g behind and at r i g h t angles to the p i e r s , r e s i s t the thrust at the points of impact and d i r e c t i t onto the external•buttress-es."' The lean-to roofs of the tribunes are c a r r i e d , as at Noyon, above the t r i a n g u l a r wall buttresses where t h e i r upper slopes describe a t h i r t y degree angle from the h o r i z o n t a l . This resulted i n a r e l a t i v e l y narrow zone on the i n t e r i o r w a l l at the t h i r d story of the elevation, a zone thick i n s e c t i o n . ( f i g . 24). I t was r e l i e v e d at Laon by a true t r i f o r i u m passage. The t r i f o r i u m opens onto the i n t e r i o r by an arcade of three round arches per bay r e s t i n g on small colonnettes ( f i g s . 22, 23). The passage-way i s pierced l o n g i t u d i n a l l y i n the thickness of the wall with continuous plates of masonry l i n k i n g the inner and outer walls ( f i g . 24). This chain-ing system forms the f l o o r i n g and c e i l i n g of the passage and also functions as an i n t e r n a l buttressing r e s t r a i n t . The t r i f o r i u m passage provides a means of c i r c u l a t i o n but, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , represents a new expression of the thick-wall on a large scale, of the wall treated i n depth, i n layers. Here, for the f i r s t time i n a four-story elevation the wall i s reduced to a voided section, y i e l d i n g an added space i n the elevation. The c l e r e s t o r y i s distinguished by one window per bay, framed by a round arch c a r r i e d on coursed colonnettes ( f i g . 22). The elevation of the transept bays at Laon i s characterized, i n the same manner as the o r i g i n a l chevet, by a rigorous order i n treatment and, i n f a c t , a s k e l e t a l economy i n construction. The units of the bays are well defined by c l u s t e r s of en d e l i t colonnettes r e g u l a r l y r i s i n g from the abaci of the monostyle p i e r s to the vault departures ( f i g . 22). 7 S i m i l a r l y , the l i m i t s of the s t o r i e s are c l e a r l y marked by decorated stringcourses, running continuously along the surface of the w a l l , d i v i d i n g one story from an-other ( f i g s . 22,23). The f o u r - s t o r i e d elevation i s , therefore, expressed within the context of a t i g h t l y woven g r i d of v e r t i c a l s and h o r i z o n t a l s . Between the piers the thick-wall i s r e l i e v e d at every story and i s reduced to a scheme of superimposed arcades and apertures, and of prominent mould-ings. At the t r i f o r i u m stage, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the w a l l i s hollowed out and, i n e f f e c t , re-doubled, the decorative arcade and the s o l i d wall behind con-s t i t u t i n g two p a r a l l e l layers ( f i g . 24). The lightening of the w a l l mass, by the penetration of spacious voids and the v a r i a t i o n i n planes, necessar-i l y c l a r i f i e s the component parts of the elevation. The v i s u a l e f f e c t of the eastern bays of the transept creates an equal-i t y between the v e r t i c a l r i s e and the l o n g i t u d i n a l flow of space, which i s enriched by the hollowing out of the w a l l . Because of the slender propor-tions of the main vessel the i n t e r i o r volume appears canalized between the t a l l walls which are approximately twenty-four meters i n height. I t i s further s l i c e d into narrow v e r t i c a l units by the c l u s t e r of en d e l i t c o l -onnettes and i s also cut into h o r i z o n t a l rows by the stringcourses leading from one bay to the next. Simultaneously, the i n t e r i o r volume thoroughly penetrates the l a t e r a l c e l l s of the side a i s l e , tribune g a l l e r y and t r i f o r -ium passage, and f i n a l l y permeates the c l e r e s t o r y windows. I t becomes a system of s p a c i a l volumes juxtaposed one against the other and, i n the elev-ation, superposed one above the other. Moreover, each bay i s subdivided from bottom to top i n the r a t i o 1:2:3:1. The s i n g l e opening of the main arcade i s simply r e i t e r a t e d by the s i n g l e l i g h t of the c l e r e s t o r y . This graduated reduction i n the areas of the voids as w e l l as the s o l i d s tends to suggest a diminishing perspective. The f i r s t campaign of Laon embodies a c l a r i t y and order and a qual-i t y of strength i n f u l l command of i t s resources. By the e f f e c t of a close correspondence between r i b s and shafts and, more importantly, by the ex-, p l o i t a t i o n of the wall i n depth, the scheme was drawn to i t s l o g i c a l . conclusion whereby the murality of a structure and i t s v i s u a l e f f e c t s l o s t importance. In the o r i g i n a l chevet of Laon and the transept bays the con-cept of skeletonization was f i n a l l y given a d i s t i n c t i v e Picard expression. The f i r s t master of Laon was undoubtedly heavily influenced by the chevet of Noyon, "^ completed sh o r t l y before the commencement of h i s prog-ram and located only twenty kilometers away. He adopted the t h i c k - w a l l elevation of four s t o r i e s with a s i m i l a r d i s p o s i t i o n of component parts i n the same proportions."'""'" However, his was not a passive r e p e t i t i o n of the design of Noyon but a powerful c l a r i f i c a t i o n and extension of the fundamen-12 t a l p r i n c i p l e s of that design. The composition of the main arcade at Laon, of monostyle columns and 13 pointed arches, was drawn from Noyon but was s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d i n that the columns were enlarged i n mass, giving a firmer base to the elevation. Sim-i l a r l y , the system of colonnettes en d e l i t , descending from the high v a u l t s 14 to the monostyle columns, was also derived from Noyon. However, the clustered colonnettes were increased in- number from the three of Noyon to f i v e , r e l a t e d i n number to the r i b s of the v a u l t s , which more exactly un-derlined the organization of load and support and more c l e a r l y punctuated the v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s of the wall ( f i g s . 6 and 22). These changes r e s u l t -ed i n a strengthening i n the d e l i n e a t i o n of the bays and generally d i s -tinguished the treatment of Laon from that of Noyon. At the tribune stage of Laon the presence of round arches i s somewhat regressive i n contrast to the pointed arches of N o y o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the addition of a r e l i e v i n g arch i s evidence of stringent s t r u c t u r a l concerns and planar r e l i e f , the arch seemingly carving out the s o l i d tympanum ( f i g . 23). The form of paired arches, though pointed, taken under a r e l i e v i n g arch at the tribune stage was to be featured i n the transept and nave at 16 Noyon, i n the chevet of Saint-Remi at Reims, Notre-Dame-en-Vaux at Chalons-sur-Marne, Montierender and Mouzon. It Is, however, at the t r i f o r i u m stage of Laon that the a c t i o n of a s s i m i l a t i n g and then superseding the experiments of Noyon i s most dram-a t i c a l l y apparent. In the need to r e l i e v e the thick-wall above the aper-tures of the tribunes an arcade was applied to the surface of the wall at Noyon.(fig. 8). This was c a r r i e d one step further at Laon. A passage was pierced i n the l o n g i t u d i n a l section of the wall with a blank wall on one side and an arcade (of a comparable d i s p o s i t i o n to that of Noyon) opening onto the i n t e r i o r on the other ( f i g . 24). In sharp contrast to Noyon, therefore, the thick-wall was divided into two p a r a l l e l layers and the thrust of the v a u l t s was absorbed by the p i e r s , the continuous plates of masonry j o i n i n g the inner and outer walls, and by the triangular buttress walls. Moreover, the t r i f o r i u m was distinguished as an a d d i t i o n a l space between the tribunes and the c l e r e s t o r y , providing further r e l i e f to the elements of the elevation. By opening the t r i f o r i u m Laon moved beyond the s o l i d conception of the wall s t i l l evident at Noyon to e s t a b l i s h the thick-wall as a l o n g i t u d i n a l l y voided section ( f i g s . 8 and 24). At the c l e r e s t o r y of Laon the influence of Noyon i s l o s t . The story i s proportionately considerably t a l l e r than that at Noyon and the s i n g l e window i n each bay, though s t i l l enclosed<within the c e l l of the vault, more suc c e s s f u l l y l i g h t s the i n t e r i o r and crowns the elevation than the pair at Noyon. When the elevation of the f i r s t campaign at Laon i s reduced to i t s component parts i t i s possible to discern the strong impact of Noyon. If the elevation i s considered i n i t s t o t a l i t y , however, one can observe j u s t how f a r the solutions of Laon d i f f e r from those of Noyon. In both the s p a c i a l r e q u i s i t e s dictated the need for heavy supporting elements. In the chevet of Noyon the walls have been voided by vast openings at the main arcade and tribune stage but the l o c a l i z a t i o n of thrust i s emphasized by the profusion of responds and mouldings ( f i g . 5); At Laon, by comparison, the v i s u a l e f f e c t of the mass i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y lightened and at the t r i f o r -ium stage, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the sense of the wall fades i n favor of the screen of arches and colonnettes boldly standing f o r t h from the face of the wall ( f i g . 23). Where the chevet of Noyon remained a scheme of s o l i d i t y and p l a s t i c i t y , Laon reached toward a system of firm l u c i d i t y . The system of the thick-wall penetrated by passages was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 18 of Norman and Anglo-Norman architecture. At Saint-Etienne at Caen and ~ 19 l a t e r at Cerisy-la-Foret a passage was taken at the base of the c l e r e -story and opened onto the i n t e r i o r of the nave by a portico of t a l l arches. While the p r i n c i p l e of the thick^wall treated i n depth was prepared i n these structures, i t was expressed i n the context of the Romanesque three-s t o r i e d elevation with the passage at the c l e r e s t o r y p r i m a r i l y as a means 20 of c i r c u l a t i o n . I t was l e f t to the b u i l d e r s i n the second stage of F i r s t 21 Gothic to d i s s o c i a t e the passage from the c l e r e s t o r y , to appreciate i t as an independent feature. In the chevet of Noyon the form of an arcade, with-out the actual passage, was f i r s t introduced at the t r i f o r i u m stage. At Laon, i n what may be seen as the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of the in s i s t e n c e upon the accentuation of the separate s t o r i e s of the elevation and the reduction i n the mass of the wa l l , the true t r i f o r i u m passage was at l a s t incorpor-22 ated i n a four-story elevation. The f i r s t campaign of Laon may be seen to stand at the summit of the second stage of F i r s t Gothic and to set the stage for the developments of 23 the succeeding generation. The use of the thick-wall elevation of four-s t o r i e s was based upon a complete a s s i m i l a t i o n of the F i r s t Gothic drive toward height; moreover, the expression of the elevation by a prominent g r i d of responds and stringcourses and the penetration of the t r i f o r i u m passage was evidence of a great c l a r i f i c a t i o n . By the treatment of the wall i n depth, Laon marked the tendency toward the lightening and hollow-ing out of the s t r u c t u r a l l i m i t s . I t was to be a major concern of the 1170's and 1180's. The point, however, was f i r s t made at Laon and i t s e f f e c t was immediate and widespread. In the transept of Noyon, (ca. 1165-1170) the scheme of Laon was 2 5 followed by the i n c l u s i o n of an arcaded t r i f o r i u m passage, despite i t s p o s i t i o n immediately above the f i r s t story of the elevation ( f i g . 25). I t was ca r r i e d much further, however, by the c o l l e c t i o n of two glazed passages at the upper l e v e l s . There the f a b r i c of the wall was reorganized and reduced to such an extraordinary degree as to be t r u l y a skeleton. In the chevet of Saint-Remi at Reims (begun ca.M170) and l a t e r i n the chevet of Notre-Dame-en-Vaux at Chalons-sur-Marne (ca. 1185) the f o u r - s t o r -26 ied elevation of Laon was continued, complete with monostyle pi e r s at the main arcade, paired openings at the tribune stage and an arcaded t r i f o r i u m passage ( f i g . 26). In contrast to Laon, however, the structure was greatly lightened and the clerestory windows were m u l t i p l i e d , three to a bay at Reims and two or three at Chalons-sur-Marne. Furthermore, the arcade of the t r i f o r i u m , of three units of two arches rather than a row of i d e n t i c a l arches, was linked to the cl e r e s t o r y by slender shafts which were rai s e d from the s i l l of the t r i f o r i u m to frame the windows. The upper s t o r i e s , therefore, were construed i n a much more complex fashion than those at Laon. They created, i n e f f e c t , an integrated unit within the bay which was f a r from the d i s t i n c t i v e bands of Laon. The introduction of t r i p l e t s and the linkage of the t r i f o r i u m and cl e r e s t o r y might be associated with the chevet 27 of Arras (ca. 1171-1174), another structure that conserved the general scheme of Laon but tended toward more audacious e f f e c t s . 28 At Valenciennes (begun ca. 1171) and again at Montierender the thick-wall elevation of four.stories was also employed with the triforium and clerestory firmly distinguished but was characterized by an ornate del-icacy that goes beyond the regularity of Laon. 29 In the south transept of Soissons (after 1177) a lightness and lucid-ity was achieved in visual effect by the superposition of apertures and ar-cades, and by the slenderness of the piers (fig. 27). However, by the sharp differentiation between the piers and the stories with their multiple div-isions and by the incorporation of stringcourses, a horizontal continuity was established within prominent verticals which was perhaps drawn from the surface pattern and, thereby, the spacial aspect of the chevet of Laon. The influence of Laon was certainly prodigious and pervasive. It even 30 extended to the cathedral of Chartres, by way "of Saint-Vincent at Laon and possibly Orbais where the arcaded triforium passage was incorporated in a three-storied elevation. Nevertheless, by the 1170's the experiments on the hollowed out wall had been superseded by the expression of the diaphan-ous wall, of superposed passages- and the remois passage, which, together with the play of the linked triforium and clerestory and the popularity of triplets, responded to a new set of structural and spacial concerns. The ful l force of the first campaign of Laon was to be long felt, however, in the handling of the wall in depth. NOTES A commencement date of 1157 has been suggested on the basis of a b u l l of Alexander I I I ; L. Broche, La cathedrale de Laon, P a r i s , 1930, 163-164. A date of ca. 1160 was prefered by E. Lambert, " l a cathedrale de Laon," Gazette des beaux-arts, 1926, 362 and by H. Adenauer, Die Kathedrale von Laon, Dfisseldorf, 1934, 30. This date has more recently been held by R. King, "Laon Cathedral: the Second Campaign of Construction," Journal of  the Society of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , XXI, 1972, 228, and by P. H e l i o t , "Le chevet de l a cathedrale de Laon, ses antecedents frangais et ses s u i t e s , Gazette des beaux-arts, LXXX, 1972, 193. 2 The reasons for the demolition of the o r i g i n a l chevet of Laon are unknown; Lambert, "La cathedrale de Laon," 362. 3 In the course of h i s excavations, M. Boeswilwald discovered four c o l -umns of the o r i g i n a l chevet incorporated i n the thirteenth century struc-ture; Adenauer, 18. 4 I b i d . , 21. "'in the thirteenth century, f l y i n g buttresses were added to the e n t i r e cathedral. They were not necessitated by any inadequacy on the part of the mur-boutants but rather were added to modernize the cathedral i n accordance with the new High Gothic aesthetic. I b i d . , 12. For t h i s system of chaining see Choisy, 297-300. 7 I t appears, on the basis of the research by Adenauer and the evid-ence of the transept bays, that the en d e l i t colonnettes of the f i r s t cam-paign were of a uniform pattern rather than a l t e r n a t i n g , as i n the nave, from three to f i v e . g The prolongment of the stringcourses across the engaged colonnettes at each story i s unusual. I t does recur, however, at Chartres. 9 See Table 1. "^"The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Laon and Noyon can be traced chronolog-i c a l l y , almost bay for bay. One has the impression that the two a r c h i t e c t s v i s i t e d one another and discussed each successive step." These apt observ-ations were noted by Frank!, 44. 1 : LSee Table 1. 12 The basic work on the s t y l i s t i c "sources of Laon i s Lambert, "La cathedral de laon," 361-384. His main theses are unshaken by Adenauer. However, Lambert tends to focus upon the o r i g i n s of the towers of Laon rather than the elevation of the o r i g i n a l chevet and he l a r g e l y omits the r e l a t i o n s h i p to Noyon. 13 Seymour, 118. Ibi d . 39 "'"^ The presence of round arches at the tribune stage of an elevation i n the 1160's was not unusual. 16 Seymour, 138. ^In the eighteenth century, the c l e r e s t o r y windows of Noyon were en-larged and the median jambs removed, producing an arrangement s i m i l a r to that of Laon; Ibi d . 114. 18 Bony, "La technique normande du mur epais," 153-188. 19 The apse of Cerisy-la-Foret was begun at the end of the eleventh cen-tury or the s t a r t of the twelfth. 20 In the nave at Tournai the thick-wall elevation of four s t o r i e s was also designed with a passage. However, i t s influence upon Laon was probably n e g l i g i b l e since the passage was incorporated on the exterior at the c l e r e -story l e v e l ; Branner, "Gothic Architecture 1160-1180," 95-97. 21 In the abbey churches of Tewkesbury and Pershore a t r i f o r i u m passage was perhaps incorporated i n a four s t o r i e d elevation but c e r t a i n l y with-i n a Romanesque context; Bony, "Tewkesbury et de Pershore," 503-504. 22 The t r i f o r i u m passage may have been given an e a r l i e r expression i n the school of F i r s t Gothic at Saint-Vincent at Laon. The elevation of Saint-Vincent was c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to Laon Cathedral but i t s date has remain-ed a matter of much speculation. E. Lambert, "L'ancienne abbaye de Saint-Vincent de Laon," Comptes rendus des'seances de l'academie des i n s c r i p t i o n s  et b e l l e s - l e t t r e s , 1939, 137, proposed a date ca." 1174-1205. J . Bony, "The Resistance to Chartres i n Early Thirteenth Century Architecture," Journal  of the B r i t i s h Archaeological Association, XX-XXI, 1957-1958, 41, suggested a commencement date ca. 1180. 23 H. F o c i l l o n , The Art of the West i n the Middle Ages, I I , Gothic Art, translated by D. King, edited and introduced by J . Bony, New York, 1969, 18. 24 Branner, "Gothic Architecture 1160-1180," 103. See also P. H e l i o t , "Les oeuvres ca p i t a l e s du gothique francais p r i m i t i f , " Wallraf-Richartz- Jahrbuch, XX, 1958, 98-99. 2 5Seymour, 127-129. 26 The r e l a t i o n s between Laon and Reims have most recently been d i s -cussed by A. Prache, Saint-Remi de Reims, 1'oeuvre de P i e r r e de C e l l e et  sa place dans 1'architecture gothique, Paris,.1978, 95-96. 27 See J . Bony i n H e l i o t , "Les oeuvres c a p i t a l e s , " 98-99. The design may have been in s p i r e d by such a work as the gate house at Bury Saint-Edmund ' s. 2 8 M. Aubert, "A propos du choeur de Montier-en-Der," Congres archeol-ogique, CXIII, 1955, 277-281. C.F. Barnes, J r . , "The Twelfth Century Transept of Soissons: The Missing Source for Chartres?" Journal of the Society of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , XXVIII, 1969, 9-25. ) See note 22. CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In h i s Art of the West, Henri F o c i l l o n observed of the buildings d i s -tinguished by f o u r - s t o r i e d elevations that "the uniformity of the scheme was fundamental, despite the v a r i e t y of the treatment."''" Indeed, at Noyon, Saint-Germer and Laon there i s a basic homogeneity inasmuch as each con-serves a scheme of separate s t o r i e s - main arcade, tribunes, t r i f o r i u m and clerestory - superposed i n a s i n g l e elevation. F o c i l l o n might have added that the commonality as well as the uniformity of the scheme i n the second stage of F i r s t Gothic was a function of the desire to achieve the v e r t i c a l expansion of space. In the chevets of Noyon, Saint-Germer and Laon the concern for v e r t i c -a l expansion may be i d e n t i f i e d as the underlying p r i n c i p l e of expression. It may be seen, furthermore, as a l o g i c a l extension of the focus of the e a r l i e s t stage of F i r s t Gothic, that of Saint-Denis and i t s immediate following, where the h o r i z o n t a l expansion of space was f u l l y explored. The move toward height, however, meant the s a c r i f i c e of width. The thin-wall and the thick-wall techniques were adopted and revised from Romanesque models i n answer to the constructional problems of b u i l d i n g i n height, of r a i s i n g and s t a b i l i z i n g the main bearing walls. They dictated heavy found-ations and superstructures, and, concomitantly, required a tribune elev- ' ation. The f o u r - s t o r i e d elevation was almost a foregone conclusion. The t r i f o r i u m was introduced p r i m a r i l y i n response to decorative considerations, to r e l i e v e the zone of wall on the i n t e r i o r corresponding to the height of the tribune roofs on the e x t e r i o r ; i t s r o l e i n v i s u a l e f f e c t s , moreover, was absolute i n terms of accentuating the concern for height. The four-story elevation did not require a generous scale; i t was reduced to an exceedingly small scale i n the l a t e twelfth and early t h i r t e e n t h centuries at Chars and Montierender. The very expression of the four-story elevation of multiple d i v i s i o n s , n e c e s s a r i l y suggest an enlargement of the scale. Once the s t r u c t u r a l and s p a c i a l r e q u i s i t e s of b u i l d i n g i n height were set, then, i n F o c i l l o n ' s terms, the general scheme of the four-story elevation i n the second stage of F i r s t Gothic was fundamental. However, the p a r t i c u l a r treatment of the four-story elevation at Noyon Saint-Germer and Laon was ruled by no s i n g l e center but rather responded to a v a r i e t y of regional t r a d i t i o n s and influences. I t was d i c t a t e d by no f i x e d , necessary r e l a t i o n s and was characterized by a wide d i v e r s i t y of s t r u c t u r a l , s p a c i a l and decorative aspects. In t h i s way, the chevets of Noyon, Saint-Germer and Laon must be appreciated as highly i n d i v i d u a l i z e d but simultaneous r e a l i z a t i o n s of the F i r s t Gothic desire for height; more-over, each may be i d e n t i f i e d as an experimental and progressive expression of a regional s t y l e . The chevet of Noyon i s distinguished by a s o l i d i t y and strength i n structure and a r i c h p l a s t i c i t y i n d e t a i l . I t i s far removed from the d e l -icacy and lightness of Saint-Denis and the r o l e of the chevet of Saint-Denis i n r e l a t i o n to the elevation of Noyon appears somewhat less than has conventionally been considered. The influence of the nave of Tournai seems more tenable i n terms of the thematic o r i g i n s of the thick-wall elevation of four s t o r i e s although i t was a general one i n that there are profound differences between non-vaulted and vaulted architectures. The treatment of the wall i n depth at Noyon by the profusion of responds and mouldings was consistent with the general development i n the region and was i n l i n e with the cathedral of S e n l i s . However, the incorporation of the t r i f o r i u m at Noyon and the sharp delineation of the bays by the en d e l i t colonnettes represent fundamentally new advances i n space and v i s u a l e f f e c t s , advances 43 that were to be further developed i n a s e r i e s of buildings i n Picardy. In the chevet of Saint-Germer the play of l o c a l s t y l i s t i c sources i s s t r i k i n g l y apparent. The basic scheme and, i n part, the p a r t i c u l a r t r e a t -ment of the elevation i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to Saint-Lucien at Beauvais. How-ever, by the heightening of the i n t e r i o r volumes and the framing of the bays, by the introduction of the t r i f o r i u m and, thereby, the- incorporation of a four-story elevation, the Beauvais formula was s u b s t a n t i a l l y revised i n accordance with the p r i n c i p l e s of the second stage of F i r s t Gothic. In contrast to the chevet of Noyon, where the basis of i t s expression i s the Picard thick-wall, the treatment of the four-story elevation at Saint-Germer i s l a r g e l y symptomatic of the Beauvaisis and of the thin-wall. In the chevet of Laon, the use of the thick-wall elevation of four s t o r i e s may w e l l be a t t r i b u t e d to the immediate influence of Noyon. The punctuation of the bays by en d e l i t colonnettes and the separation of the s t o r i e s by stringcourses may also be traced to Noyon. However, by the i n -corporation of the arcaded t r i f o r i u m passage, Laon moved beyond Noyon toward the hollowing out of the wall and the lightening of the v i s u a l e f f e c t of the mass. The p r i n c i p l e of penetrating the thick-wall by passages was based i n Norman and Anglo-Norman t r a d i t i o n s . However, i t was introduced i n a new context at Laon and was given a d i s t i n c t i v e Picard expression that was to be lon g l i v e d . In l i g h t of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the four-story elevation i n the chevets of Noyon, Saint-Germer and Laon, F o c i l l o n ' s o r i g i n a l observation might be amended to read: while the uniformity of the scheme was dictated by F i r s t Gothic p r i n c i p l e s , the d i v e r s i t y of the treatment was determined by regional v a r i a t i o n s . I t was, above a l l , the d i v e r s i t y of the express-ions, the m u l t i p l i c i t y of the t r a d i t i o n s and influences i n the second stage of F i r s t Gothic that marked i t as an age. of experimentation. 44 N O T E S Focillon, 15. 45 TABLE 1 PERCENTAGE OF HEIGHT OF MAIN ELEMENTS TO HEIGHT OF ELEVATION Main aisles Tribunes Triforium Clerestory Height of main vaults (meters) Width of main vessel (meters) Ratio Noyon, chevet 36% 26% 10% 27% 21.50 10.50 1:2.05 Saint-Germer 41 24 11* 23 19 9.10 1:2.08 Laon 36 23 10 30 24 12 1:2 Cambrai 35 10 1:3.5 Saint-Lucien, Beauvais 20 11 1:1.8 Tournai, nave 29 30 12 31 24 9 1:2.6 Senlis 45 29 25 18 9.20 1:1.95 Paris 34 28 14* 23 32 14 1:2.28 Saint-Remi, Reims 34 30 11 24 25 14.75 1:1.69 Soissons, south arm 32 27 12 23 23 10.50 1:2.19 Note: Sources for figures: C. Seymour Jr., Notre-Dame of Noyon in the Twelfth Century, 160; I.M. Pessin, measurements of Saint-Germer; personal measurements of scaled drawings from G. Dehio and G. von Bezold, Die Kirchliche Baukunst des Abendlandes, l-V. * Based on the height of the aperture. F i g . 1. Beauvais, Saint-Lucien. Sketch by van der Berghe. 47 F i g . 2. Tournai, Cathedral. Transverse section of nave. 48 F i g . 3 . T o u r n a i , C a t h e d r a l . L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n of nave. F i g . 4. Tournai, Cathedral. Nave. 5. Noyon, Cathedral. Chevet. 51 52 F i g . 8. Noyon, Cathedral. Transverse section of chevet. 54 F i g . 9. Noyon, Cathedral. Chevet. 55 F i g . 10. Noyon, Cathedral. Plan as executed to 1235. +—H 1 1 5 M. F i g . 11. Saint-Denis. Plan of chevet. 56 Fig. 12. Saint-Denis. Plan of crypt. I—i—i—i—i I I I I I I l O M . F i g . 13. Saint-Germain-des-Pres. Plan of chevet. 58 Fig. 14. Senlis, Cathedral. Reconstruction of elevation. 59 F i g . 15. Saint-Germer. Longitudinal section of chevet. F i g . 16. Saint-Germer. Chevet. F i g . 17. Saint-Germer. Chevet. D e t a i l of tribunes. 62 F i g . 19. Saint-Germer. Chevet. D e t a i l of cle r e s t o r y . F i g . 20. Beauvais, Saint-Etienne. Nave. F i g . 21. P a r i s , Cathedral. Nave. F i g . 22. Laon, Cathedral. Longitudinal section. F i g . 23. Laon, Cathedral. North transept with view into crossing. F i g . 24. Laon, Cathedral. Transverse section. 25. Noyon, Cathedral. South transept. BIBLIOGRAPHY Acland, J.H. Medieval Structure: The Gothic Vault. Toronto, 1972. Adenauer, H. Die Kathedrale von Laon. Dusseldorf, 1934. Anfray, M. L'architecture normande, son influence dans le nord de la France aux XI e et Xlie siecles. Paris, 1939. Aubert, M. Monographie de la cathedrale de Senlis. Senlis, 1910. Aubert, M. Notre-Dame de Paris, sa place dans 1'histoire de 1'architecture du XII e au XlVe siecle. Paris, 1920 Aubert, M. "A propos du choeur de Montier-en-Der." Congres archeologique, CXIII, 1955, 277-281. Barnes, C.F., Jr. "The Twelfth Century Transept of Soissons: The Missing Source for Chartres?" Journal of the Society of Architectural Histor- ians, XXVIII, 1969, 9-25. Besnard, A. L'eglise de Saint-Germer-de-Fly (Oise) et sa Sainte-Chapelle. Paris, 1913. Bony, J. "Tewkesbury et Pershore: deux elevations a. quatre etages a la fin du XI e siecle." Bulletin monumental, XCVI, 1937, 281-290. Bony, J. "La technique normande du mur epais a l'epoque romane." Bulletin  monumental, XCVIII, 1939, 153-188. Bony, J. "French Influences on the Origins of English Gothic Architecture." Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, XII, 1949, 1-15. Bony, J. "The Resistance to Chartres in Early Thirteenth-Century Architec-ture." Journal of the British Archaeological Association, XX-XXI, 1957-1958, 35-52. Bony, J. "Origines des piles gothiques anglaises a futs en delit." Gedenkschrift Ernst Gall. Berlin, 1965, 95-122. ' Bony, J. French Cathedrals. London, 1967. Branner, R. "Paris and the Origins of Rayonnant Gothic Architecture Down to 1240." Art Bulletin, XLIX, 1962, 39-52. Branner, R. "Gothic Architecture 1160-1180, and its Romanesque Sources." Studies in Western Art. I. Acts of the Twentieth International Congress of the History of Art. Princeton, 1963, 92-104. Branner, R. "The Transept of Cambrai Cathedral." Gedenkschrift Ernst Gall. Berlin, 1965, 69-87. Branner, R. Gothic Architecture. New York, 1977. Broche, L. La cathedrale de Laon. P a r i s , 1930. Choisy, A. H i s t o i r e de 1'architecture. I. Pa r i s , 1899. Clark, W. "Spacial Innovations i n the Chevet of Saint-Germain-des-Pres." Gesta, XVII, 1978, 72. Conant, K.J. " E d i f i c e s marquants dans l 1ambiance de P i e r r e l e Venerable et Pi e r r e Abelard." Collogue Pierre-Abelard - P i e r r e l e Venerable. P a r i s , 1975, 727-729. Crosby, S.McK. The Abbey of Saint-Denis. I. New Haven, 1942. Crosby, S.McR. "Abbot Suger's Saint-Denis, the New Gothic." Studies i n West-ern Art. I. Acts of the Twentieth International Congress of the History of Art. Princeton, 1963, 85-91. Crosby, S.McK. "Crypt and Choir Plans at Saint-Denis." Gesta, V, 1966, 4-8. Dehio, G. and Bezold, G. von. Die K i r c h l l c h e Baukunst des Abendlandes.'. I-V. Hildesheim, 1969. Devligher, L. "Het Koor van.de romaanse Sint-Donaaskerk te Brugge." B u l l e t i n de l a commission royale des monuments et des s i t e s , XIV, 1963, 309-325. Enlar t , C. Manuel d'archeologie francaise^ a r c h i t e c t u r e r e l i g i e u s e . P a r i s , 1920. Fitchen, J. The Construction of Gothic Cathedrals. A Study of Medieval  Vault Erection. Oxford, 1967 F o c i l l o n , H. The Art of the West i n the Middle Ages, i l . Gothic Art. Trans-lated by D. King, edited and introduced by J . Bony, New York, 1969. Frankl, P. The Gothic. L i t e r a r y Sources and Interpretations Through Eight  Centuries. Princeton, 1960. Frankl, P. Gothic Architecture. Harmondsworth, 1962. G a l l , E. "Die Abteikirche Saint-Lucien b e i Beauvais." Wiener Jahrbuch fur Kunstgeschichte, XVIII, 1926, 59-72. G a l l , E. Die gotische Baukunst i n Frankreich und Deutschland. I. Braunsch-weig, 1955. Grodecki, L. "Les vit r a u x du X l i e s i e c l e . d e Saint-Germer-de-Fly." M i s c e l l - anea Pro Arte ( F e s t s c h r i f t fur Hermann S c h n i t z l e r ) , 1965, 149-157. Grodecki, L. Gothic Architecture. New York, 1977. Hel i o t , P. Les eg l i s e s du moyen age dans l e Pas-de-Calais. I I . Arras, 1951-1953. " Hel i o t , P. "Les anciennes cathedrales d'Arras," B u l l e t i n de l a commission  royale des monuments et des s i t e s , IV, 1953, 1-109. 72 H e l i o t , P. "La nef et l e clocher de l'ancienne cathedrale de Cambrai." Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch, XVIII, 1956, 91-110. H e l i o t , P. "Les p a r t i e s romanes de l a cathedrale de Tournai: problemes de date et de f i l i a t i o n . " Revue beige d'archeologie et d ' h i s t o i r e de l ' a r t , XXv, 1956, 1-76. H e l i o t , P. "Remarques sur Saint-Germer-de-Fly et sur l e s blocs de facade du X I I e s i e c l e . " B u l l e t i n monumental, CXIV, 1956, 81-114. H e l i o t , P. "Les oeuvres c a p i t a l e s du gothique francais p r i m i t i f et 1'in-fluence de 1'architecture "anglais." Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch, XX, 1958, 85-114. H e l i o t , P. "La d i v e r s i t e de 1'architecture gothique a ses debuts en France." Gazette des beaux-arts, XLIX, 1967, 269-306. H e l i o t , P. "Le chevet de l a cathedrale de Laon, ses antecedents fra n c a i s et ses s u i t e s . Gazette des beaux-arts, LXXX, 1972, 193-214. Henriet, J . "Recherches sur l e s premiers arcs-boutants un j a l o n : Saint-Martin d'Etamps." B u l l e t i n monumental, CXXXVI, 1978, 309-323. Jalabert, D. Notre-Dame de P a r i s . P a r i s , 1963. King, R. "Laon Cathedral: The Second Campaign of Construction." Journal  of the Society of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , XXI, 1972, 228. King, T.. The Study Book of Medieval Gothic Architecture and Art. I l l . Lon-don, 1868. Lambert, E. "La cathedrale de Laon." Gazette des beaux-arts, XIII, 1926, 361-384. Lambert, E. "L'ancienne abbayede Saint-Vincent de Laon."' Comptes-rendus des seances de 1'academie des i n s c r i p t i o n s et b e l l e s - l e t t r e s , 1939, 124-138. Lambert, E. "L'abbatiale de Saint-Germer et l' e c o l e de Saint-Denis." B u l l e t i n monumental, C, 1941, 47-63. Lambert, E. Etudes medievales. P a r i s , 1956. Lasteyrie, R. de. L'architecture r e l i g i e u s e en France a l'epoque gothique. I. P a r i s , 1929". Lefevre-Pontalis, E. "Etude sur l a date de l ' e g l i s e de Saint-Germer." Bib-liotheque de l ' e c o l e des chartes, XLVI, 1885, 478-495. Lefevre-Pontalis, E. "Les influences normandes au X I e et au X I I e s i e c l e dans l e nord de l a France." B u l l e t i n monumental, LXX, 1906, 3-37. Moore, C.H. Development and Character of Gothic Architecture. London, 1890. Panofsk-y, E. Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism. New York, 1957. Pessin, T.M. "The Twelfth Century Abbey Church of Saint-Germer-de-Fly and Its P o s i t i o n i n the Development of F i r s t Gothic A r c h i t e c t u r e . " Gesta, XVII, 1978, 71. Porter, A.K. Medieval Architecture, i t s Origins and Development. I - I I . New York, 1909. Prache, A. "Les arcs-boutants au X I I e s i e c l e . " Gesta, XV, 1976, 31-42. Prache, A. Saint-Remi de Reims, l'oeuvre de P i e r r e de C e l l e et sa place dans 1'architecture gothique. P a r i s , 1978. Rolland, P. "Chronologie de l a cathedrale de Tournai." Revue beige d'arch- eologie et d ' h i s t o i r e de l ' a r t , IV, 1934, 103-139. Rolland, P. "La cathedrale de Tournai et l e s courants architecturaux." Revue beige d'archeologie et d ' h i s t o i r e de l ' a r t , VII, 1937, 229-280. Rolland, P. "La technique normande du mur evide et 1'architecture seal-:: diene." Revue beige d'archeologie et d ' h i s t o i r e de l ' a r t , X, 1940, 169-188. Serbat, L. "Quelques e g l i s e s anciennement de t r u i t e s du nord de l a France." B u l l e t i n monumental, LXXXVIII, 1929, 365-435. Seymour, C. J r . Notre-Dame of Noyon i n the Twelfth Century. A Study i n  the Early Development of Gothic Architecture. New York, 1968. Simson, 0. von. The Gothic Cathedral: Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order. Princeton, 1974. Stoddard, W.S. Art and Architecture i n Medieval France. New York, 1972. Temko, A. Notre-Dame of P a r i s . New York, 1955. Verbeek, A. "Die Ottonische Bautengruppe zu Essen und Werden und die V i e r -geschossige Wandgliederung." Karolingische und Ottonische Kunst (Forschungen zur Kunst und C h r i s t l i c h e Arch'aologie, 3) . Wiesbaden, 1957, 150-158" V i o l l e t - l e - D u c , E. Dictionnalre raisonne de 1'architecture francaise du X I e au XVI e s i e c l e . I-X. P a r i s , 1854-1868. Warichez, J . La cathedrale de Tournai. Bruxelles, 1934. APPENDIX THE QUESTION OF CAMBRAI The nave of the destroyed cathedral at Cambrai''" may w e l l have been one 2 of the f i r s t four-story elevations of F i r s t Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e . However, the a v a i l a b l e documentary and archeological evidence i s parsimonious and, as a r e s u l t , the chronology of i t s construction cannot be f i r m l y established and the d i s p o s i t i o n of i t s i n t e r n a l elevation cannot be determined with cer-tai n t y . In the year 1148 the eleventh century cathedral at Cambrai was devastat-3 ed by f i r e and i t has been generally accepted that the r e b u i l d i n g of the nave was begun sho r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . 4 I t was completed ca. 1182^ but the course of construction did not pass uninterrupted since the western tower collapsed i n 1161.^ The progress of the nave to t h i s date i s uncertain, as i s the extent of the damage. However, the ground plan of the cathedral by the municipal a r c h i t e c t Boileux^ shows a widening of the a i s l e s and an a l -t e r a t i o n i n the responds east of the f i f t h bay ( f i g . 28) which suggests a Q bold change i n the design, one that was perhaps i n i t i a t e d a f t e r 1161. It i s l i k e l y , therefore, that the nave was the r e s u l t of two construction cam-paigns: the f i r s t , begun ca. 1148/1150, may have comprised the lay-out of the four'westernmost bays; and a f t e r 1161, the second campaign might have completed the nave according to an enlarged plan as well as a revised elev-ation. While the construction period of the nave at Cambrai must necessar-i l y have taken place between 1148/1150-1182, i t s f i n a l design may date to 1161. No i n t e r i o r views of Cambrai have been found. Nonetheless, on the basis of the ground plan by Boileux as w e l l as an external drawing of the south side of the cathedral by van der Meulen ( f i g . 29) and an a e r i a l 75 photograph of the north side of a model of Cambrai, now destroyed, x u i t i s possible to i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n component features of the nave. The nave reached an o v e r - a l l height of approximately t h i r t y - f i v e met-ers."''"'" It may be deduced from the ground plan by Boileux that the main bearing walls were less than one meter i n depth ( f i g . 28). Further, the main arcade was composed of a regular s e r i e s of compound piers with s i x -teen shafts carrying four-part v a u l t s . The drawing by van der Meulen and the photograph of the model suggest a steeply pitched tribune roof which i s 12 i n d i c a t i v e of the existence of quadrant arches ( f i g . 29). In view of the extreme height of the nave and the thinness of the walls, an a d d i t i o n a l abutment system of t h i s type would have been required to r e s t r a i n the aer-i a l v a u l t s . The nave at Cambrai seems to have been, by a l l accounts, dedicated to the conquest of height. I t u t i l i z e d the Norman Romanesque technique of the thin-wall; the basic scheme of t a l l , t h i n walls with compound piers and, probably, quadrant arches - perhaps d i r e c t l y derived from Saint-Lucien at 13 Beauvais and c e r t a i n l y i n l i n e with Saint-Germer and P a r i s . In the same manner as Saint-Germer and Noyon, the nave of Cambrai might also have em-ployed an elevation of four s t o r i e s . However, the treatment of the elev-ation on the i n t e r i o r , of the zone of masonry corresponding to the height of the tribune roofs on the e x t e r i o r i s , to-date, unknown. whether i t s elevation was composed of three or four s t o r i e s , the nave at Cambrai may be characterized i n the second stage of F i r s t Gothic arch-i t e c t u r e by the evidence of i t s need to achieve the v e r t i c a l enlargement of space. However, a precise assessment of i t s p o s i t i o n therein, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to Saint-Germer and P a r i s , i s highly problematic. I f i t i s assumed, on the one hand, that the nave dates to ca. 1148/1150 then i t s impact upon Saint-Germer i s tenable with respect to the concept of b u i l d i n g i n height; t h i s argument i s supported by the presence of compound p i e r s and four-part vaults at Gambrai, features that were i n concert with the architecture of the 1140's and 1150's and were incorporated at Saint-Germer. On the other hand, the c o l o s s a l height of Cambrai i s compar-14 able only to that at P a r i s , begun ca. 1163, and i f , i n f a c t , the nave dates a f t e r ca. 1161 i t s sphere of influence l i e s outside the p r i n c i p a l focus of the f o u r - s t o r i e d elevation i n F i r s t Gothic. Despite repeated i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the o r i g i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n of the i n -t e r n a l elevation of the nave at Cambrai and the chronology of i t s construc-t i o n remain unanswered, and perhaps unanswerable. I t i s a n t i c i p a t e d that the current research i n France by Jacques Thibaut w i l l lead to a recasting of the e n t i r e question of Cambrai and i t s r o l e i n the development of F i r s t Gothic architecture. v NOTES "'"The cathedral was completely demolished during the French Revolution. 2 P. Heliot, "La nef et le clocher de l'ancienne cathedrale de Cambrai," Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch, XVIII, 1956, 91-110, assumes that the nave at Cambrai had an elevation of four stories, as does Branner, "Gothic Arch-itecture 1160-1180," 92-104. This assumption was also held by L. Serbat, "Quelques eglises anciennement detruite du nord de la France," Bulletin  monumental, LXXXVIII, 1929, 402. 3 Heliot, "L'ancienne cathedrale de cambrai," 91. His source is the Chronique by Sigebert of Gembloux. 4 Ibid. See also R. Branner, "The Transept of Cambrai Cathedral," Gedenkschrift Ernst Gall, Berlin, 1965, 69. ^Heliot, "L'ancienne cathedrale de Cambrai," 92. A slightly earlier terminus date, ca. 1180, is given by Branner without any explanation. Heliot, "L'ancienne cathedrale de Cambrai," 92. 7 The plan has been dated ca. 1800. It was lithographed by Engelmann and first reproduced by A. LeGlay, Recherches sur l'eglise metropolitaine  de Cambrai, Paris, 1825. g Branner, "Gothic Architecture 1160-1180," 102. 9 This possibility was suggested by Heliot, L'ancienne cathedrale de Cambrai," 96. "^The model of Cambrai, ca. 1695, was placed in the Berlin Arsenal by the Prussians in 1815 and was destroyed in 1945. Ibid., 95.: "'""'"The height of the nave is given on the basis of an eighteenth century document conserved in the archives of the Nord; Branner, "The Transept of Cambrai," 81. 12 In the van der Meulen drawing the extrados of the quadrant arches appear to be represented, projecting above the roofs of the tribunes; see fig. 29. However, such an arrangement is unprecedented in First Gothic architecture and the drawing itself is imprecise on other accounts. 13 See above, 2-3. 1 4See Table 1. 

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