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The Four-story elevation in First Gothic architecture Cairnie, Patricia Elizabeth Anne 1979

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THE  FOUR-STORY ELEVATION IN FIRST GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE  by  PATRICIA ELIZABETH ANNE CAIRNIE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE:FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of F i n e  Arts  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to -the r e q u i r e d  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1979  (c) P a t r i c i a E l i z a b e t h Anne C a i r n i e , 1979  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements f<  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree tha the Library  shall make it freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission for-extensive  copying of this thesis  for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Klffj£  Avf?  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  ABSTRACT  One northern  of the p r i n c i p a l elements i n F i r s t G o t h i c France was  of achieving  a r c h i t e c t u r e of  the appearance of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n as a means  s p a c i a l expansion i n h e i g h t .  The  p a r t i was  a u n i f o r m scheme - main arcade, t r i b u n e , t r i f o r i u m and i n a s i n g l e e l e v a t i o n - but was s t r u c t u r a l , s p a c i a l and Saint-Germer and cession,  characterized  clerestory collected  t r e a t e d i n v a r i o u s ways w i t h r e s p e c t  decorative aspects.  by  to i t s  In the chevets of Noyon,  Laon the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n was  employed i n r a p i d  i n c l o s e l y connected c e n t e r s , based on common c o n c e r n s ;  each stands as a s i n g u l a r l y e x p e r i m e n t a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n  suc-  still,  of the F i r s t  Gothic  d e s i r e f o r l o f t y volumes. While the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n has i t e c t u r a l h i s t o r i e s of the p e r i o d and v i d u a l monuments, i t has  i n general  i n monographic s t u d i e s of the  architecture.  s t o r y e l e v a t i o n i n the r e a l i z a t i o n and p l e s remains to be c l a r i f i e d .  The  expression  The  r o l e of the  of F i r s t G o t h i c  ond  niques were adopted and f o r v e r t i c a l expansion.  princi-  of  scheme of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n i n  the Romanesque t h i n - w a l l and  In the  thick-wall  r e v i s e d i n accordance w i t h the newly f e l t  sec-  techconcern  Hence, the widespread u t i l i z a t i o n of the scheme.  However, the bases of the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d treatments of the s t o r y e l e v a t i o n s i n the chevets of Noyon, Saint-Germer and shared a e s t h e t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  of the s t o r i e s and  four-  Laon.  are found i n monuments of the Romanesque p e r i o d .  stage of F i r s t G o t h i c  r u l e d by  and  p r i n c i p l e s i n the e a r l y stages of the p a r t i , by way  sources f o r the g e n e r a l  F i r s t Gothic  indi-  o b j e c t i v e of t h i s paper i s to i n v e s t i - .  an examination of the chevets of Noyon, Saint-Germer and The  arch-  never been examined i n an independent c o n t e x t  as a c e n t r a l f e a t u r e of F i r s t G o t h i c  gate the u n d e r l y i n g  been d i s c u s s e d  four-  Laon were not  In each s t r u c t u r e the d i s p o s i t i o n  the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the bays, the p e n e t r a t i o n  of  the  iii  w a l l i n depth and the a r t i c u l a t i o n of the w a l l on i t s s u r f a c e was mined by l o n g , l o c a l t r a d i t i o n s and contemporary,  deter-  extra-local influences.  In the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to observe of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n t h a t the u n i f o r m i t y  of the scheme was  a response to F i r s t G o t h i c  p r i n c i p l e s whereas the d i v e r s i t y of the treatment was  the r e s u l t of r e g i o n -  al variations.  r  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract  .  i i  L i s t of T a b l e s  v  L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s Chapter I :  The F o u r - S t o r y E l e v a t i o n and I t s Romanesque Sources  Chapter I I :  The Chevet of Noyon  Chapter I I I : Chapter IV:  . .  1 8  The Chevet of Saint-Germer  .  The Chevet of Laon  Chapter V: Table  vi  20 30  Conclusion  41  .  45  Illustrations  46  Bibliography  70  Appendix:  The Q u e s t i o n of Cambrai  . . . . . . .  74  V  LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  Percentage of Height of Main Elements to Height of Elevation . . . . .  45  vi  LIST OF  Figure 1. Beauvais, 2.  3.  Saint-Lucien.  ILLUSTRATIONS  Sketch by van der Berghe  Tournai, Cathedral. Transverse Dehio and von B e z o l d  s e c t i o n o f nave.  After 47  T o u r n a i , C a t h e d r a l . L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n of nave. Dehio and yon Bezold  4.  Tournai, Cathedral.  5.  Noyon, C a t h e d r a l .  Chevet  6.  Noyon, C a t h e d r a l . Collin  L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n o f chevet.  Noyon, C a t h e d r a l . triforium  Chevet.  Noyon, C a t h e d r a l .  Transverse  7.  8.  46  After 48  Nave  49 .'r.  50 After 51  D e t a i l of t r i b u n e s and 52 s e c t i o n of chevet.  After  Collin.  53  9.  Noyon, C a t h e d r a l .  Chevet  54^  10.  Noyon, C a t h e d r a l . Seymour .  P l a n as executed  Saint-Denis.  P l a n of chevet.  12.  Saint-Denis.  P l a n of c r y p t .  13.  Saint-Germain-des-Pres.  14.  Senlis, Cathedral. Moore Saint-Germer.  After 55  11.  15.  to 1235.  After Violette-le-Duc  . . . . .  A f t e r Crosby  Plan of chevet.  ' After Barbier  R e c o n s t r u c t i o n of e l e v a t i o n .  . . . .  56 57  After 58  L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n of chevet.  After  Woillez  59  16.  Saint-Germer.  17.  Saint-Germer. Chevet. of I . Marc P e s s i n  D e t a i l of the t r i b u n e s .  Saint-Germer. s t r a i g h t bay.  D e t a i l of upper s t o r i e s i n n o r t h of I . Marc P e s s i n  18.  55  Chevet  Chevet. Courtesy  60 Courtesy 61 62  vii  19.  Saint-Germer.  Chevet.  D e t a i l of c l e r e s t o r y .  Courtesy  I. Marc P e s s i n  62  20.  Beauvais, S a i n t - E t i e n n e .  21. 22.  P a r i s , Cathedral. Nave Laon, C a t h e d r a l . Longitudinal section. and von Bezold  23.  24 . y  Nave  63 64 A f t e r Dehio 65  Laon, C a t h e d r a l . crossing  North t r a n s e p t w i t h view i n t o the  Laon, C a t h e d r a l .  Transverse  von  Bezold  of  66 section.  A f t e r Dehio  .  and 67  25.  Noyon, C a t h e d r a l .  South t r a n s e p t  26.  Reims, Saint-Remi.  27.  Soissons,  28.  Cambrai, C a t h e d r a l .  P l a n by B o i l e u x  29.  Cambrai, C a t h e d r a l .  Sketch by van der Meulen  Cathedral.  68  Chevet  69  South t r a n s e p t  69 . . . . .  75 75  1  CHAPTER I  THE  FOUR-STORY ELEVATION AND  ITS ROMANESQUE SOURCES  In the c e n t r a l decades of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , In the n o r t h e r n r e g i o n of the I l e - d e - F r a n c e , the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n made i t s appearance as one of the p r i n c i p a l d e s i g n f e a t u r e s of F i r s t G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e . The  f o c i of i t s development a r e to be found  i n the chevets of the  r a l a t Noyon, the abbey church a t Saint-Germer, and Laon.  These s t r u c t u r e s r o s e a t v i r t u a l l y  connected  c e n t e r s , and  they shared  a h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and four  experimental  moments, i n c l o s e l y  still,  each stands  as  r e a l i z a t i o n of the e l e v a t i o n of  stories. The  emergence of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n i n t h i s n o r t h e r n  of F i r s t G o t h i c d i d not occur without neighboring areas. developed  The  school  f o r e b e a r s of p r e c e d i n g y e a r s i n  c o n s t r u c t i o n a l means of b u i l d i n g i n h e i g h t were  d u r i n g the Romanesque p e r i o d i n the t h i n - w a l l and t h i c k - w a l l  t e c h n i q u e s , as a t Notre-Dame a t Jumieges and The  the c a t h e d r a l a t  simultaneous  common concerns;  cathed-  S a i n t - E t i e n n e a t Caen.^  c o n t i n e n t a l scheme of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n was  i n the  3  o  nave a t T o u r n a i ^ and,  prepared  perhaps, a t Cambrai.  While these monuments p r e c e d -  ed the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the y e a r s 1150-1160, the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the f o u r s t b r y e l e v a t i o n a t Noyon, Saint-Germer, and Laon r e p r e s e n t s a r a d i c a l l y t h e s i s , a new  c o n c e p t i o n of v e r t i c a l space t h a t was  new  to c h a r a c t e r i z e a s c h o o l  of the second stage of F i r s t G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e . The  c a t h e d r a l of Notre-Dame a t Noyon, begun c a . 1145-1150, i s s i t u a t e d  i n the h e a r t l a n d of the O i s e R i v e r b a s i n ; n i n e t y k i l o m e t e r s to the west i s the abbey church of Saint-Germer-de-Fly,  south-  begun ca. 1155-1160, and  f o r t y - f i v e k i l o m e t e r s to the east i n the A i s n e v a l l e y i s the c a t h e d r a l of Notre-Dame a t Laon, begun c a . 1157.  From the e a r l y 1150's, ;then,  2 P i c a r d y was to a c h i e v e  a c e n t e r of i n t e n s e a r c h i t e c t u r a l a c t i v i t y where the d e s i r e the v e r t i c a l expansion  of space was  a ruling consideration.  The b u i l d e r s of t h i s s c h o o l s e t out to i n c r e a s e the h e i g h t of the i n t e r i o r volumes, to d e v i s e new  systems of support  to r a i s e the h e i g h t of  the main b e a r i n g w a l l s as w e l l as to d e v i s e a new e f f e c t s to express  the concern  for height.^  e l e v a t i o n and  range of  The b a s i s o f such a t h e s i s  appears, on the one hand, somewhat removed from the concerns o f immediately  preceding  g e n e r a t i o n i n the i l e - d e - F r a n c e ; ^ from the  ence upon an e q u a l i t y of space and  s t r u c t u r e , and  i c a t i o n of l a t e r a l volumes which was of S a i n t - D e n i s . amental to both  On  the  from a f l u i d  so v i g o r o u s l y r e a l i z e d  insist-  commun-  i n the  the o t h e r hand, the enlargement of space was  s c h o o l s , and  chevet  fund-  the move toward the v e r t i c a l expansion  of  space may  be seen as a l o g i c a l , p r o g r e s s i v e e x t e n s i o n of the h o r i z o n t a l  expansion  of the e a r l i e s t  stage of F i r s t G o t h i c .  I t was,  n e v e r t h e l e s s , to  the monuments of the Romanesque p e r i o d t h a t these P i c a r d b u i l d e r s of second stage of F i r s t G o t h i c  turned  the  to s o l v e t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n a l prob-  lems of b u i l d i n g i n h e i g h t . The abbey church of S a i n t - L u c i e n a t Beauvais ( f i g . 1 ) ,  begun i n the  c l o s i n g y e a r s of the e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y , has been i d e n t i f i e d as one Romanesque b u i l d i n g s t h a t served as a model i n the f o r m a t i o n of designs  of the 1150's and  1160's.^  w a l l technique which p e r m i t t e d onry.  I t s chevet was  of  the  certain  c o n s t r u c t e d i n the  the e r e c t i o n of l a r g e expanses of t h i n  thinmas-  The h i g h w a l l s were r e i n f o r c e d a t r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s by a sequence  of compound p i e r s and b u t t r e s s e s , as w e l l as by v a u l t s over  the t r i b u n e g a l l e r y .  v a u l t s , a t l e a s t i n the chevet  the presence of g r o i n  Moreover, the t h r u s t of the  i f not  the nave, was  aerial  counteracted-by  a  range of quadrant a r c h e s , a l i g n e d p e r p e n d i c u l a r to the main b e a r i n g w a l l s and  c o n t a i n e d beneath the t r i b u n e r o o f s .  q  The  i n c o r p o r a t i o n of  these  quadrant arches meant t h a t the r o o f s of the  t r i b u n e s had  on the e x t e r i o r w a l l which r e s u l t e d i n a b l i n d zone oh the t r i b u n e s The  and  clerestory.''"  nave at T o u r n a i ,  ture that apparently First  to be  raised  high  the i n t e r i o r between  0  ca. 1110-1140, was  yet another Romanesque s t r u c -  s e r v e d as a p r o t o t y p e f o r the second g e n e r a t i o n  G o t h i c buildings;"'"''" i t was  the most immediate p r e c u r s o r  of  of the  thick-  12 w a l l e l e v a t i o n of f o u r s t o r i e s at Noyon. main b e a r i n g  walls  at T o u r n a i ,  24 meters i n h e i g h t , ( f i g . 2).  The  two  which are more than one  are p e n e t r a t e d l e n g t h w i s e by  p a r a l l e l sections  an:.internal c h a i n i n g  by  meter i n depth  l i n k e d by  a f a l s e bearing  and  incorporated  ( f i g . 2).  The  of the c l e r e s t o r y .  was  In a d d i t i o n , f o r  admitted above the  over the  tribune  I t was  t u r e s , marking the  t r i b u n e r o o f s to be  distinguished  at T o u r n a i by  t h i r d s t o r y of the e l e v a t i o n  First  I t was  left  tribunes  t h i n - w a l l and  the  the h e i g h t e n i n g  of the main b e a r i n g  walls.  adopted and The  thick-wall  second stage of  r e v i s e them.  Saint-Germer, f o r example, the t h i n - w a l l system of S a i n t - L u c i e n  by  aper-  a means of b u i l d i n g  to b u i l d e r s i n the  t h i n w a l l s w i t h quadrant a r c h e s , was  and  ( f i g . 3).  G o t h i c to take these c o n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques and  of t a l l ,  the i n -  a s e r i e s of a r c u a t e d  d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r dynamics, each c o n s t i t u t e d  to a c h i e v e t a l l e r volumes.  aisle  r a i s e d w e l l above, to  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a zone of masonry on  While the Romanesque techniques of the elevations  side  g a l l e r y to r e s t r a i n  t e r i o r w a l l , as i n the t h i n - w a l l e l e v a t i o n s , between the clerestory.  and  i n c l u s i o n of the t r i b u n e v a u l t s make i t  n e c e s s a r y f o r the headers of the the s i l l  transverse  system throughout the e n t i r e s e c t i o n  the sake of s t a b i l i t y ,  the h i g h w a l l s  and  continuous p l a t e s of masonry  which f u n c t i o n , to some degree, as i n t e r n a l b u t t r e s s e s . 13  g r o i n - v a u l t i n g was  the  an e x t e r i o r passage  of the w a l l are  b a r r e l s over the window embrasures and which c r e a t e  At the c l e r e s t o r y stage  At  at Beauvais,  carried further  Norman t h i c k - w a l l ,  "  however, was  p r o f o u n d l y a l t e r e d at Noyon and  ings of masonry were no  longer  sufficient  Laon.  The  une  In a d d i t i o n to the f a l s e b e a r i n g  stage, b u t t r e s s i n g walls  orated  beneath the l e a n - t o  the a e r i a l v a u l t s .  thicken-  to s u s t a i n the e q u i l i b r i u m  these r i b - v a u l t e d v e s s e l s w i t h t h e i r h e i g h t e n e d w a l l s ings.  internal  and  and  enlarged  open-  the r i b - v a u l t i n g at the  of h o r i z o n t a l courses of masonry were  r o o f s of the t r i b u n e  to counter the  These mur-boutants were n e c e s s a r y f o r the  of  tribincorp-  thrust free  of  ex-  p l o i t a t i o n of the w a l l i n depth. The  desire f o r height  at Saint-Germer, Noyon and  t r i b u n e elevation," "^ r e g a r d l e s s 1  Laon d i c t a t e d a  of whether t h i n - w a l l or t h i c k - w a l l .  A d d i t i o n a l l y , i t l e d to the appearance of the  four-story elevation.  the chevet at Saint-Germer-de-Fly the b l i n d zone of masonry on w a l l , c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the h e i g h t was  p e n e t r a t e d by  served to a e r a t e and  of the t r i b u n e r o o f s on  a s e r i e s of v o i d e d r e c t a n g l e s . the r o o f - s p a c e s ,  d e c o r a t e the s u r f a c e  They c o n s t i t u t e d a d i s t i n c t s t a g e , the  interior  the e x t e r i o r , :.  Although these a p e r t u r e s  they were i n t r o d u c e d  of the w a l l between the  the  In  p r i m a r i l y to r e l i e v e  t r i b u n e and clerestory.''""'  t h i r d s t o r y of the e l e v a t i o n or  the  l (\ t r i f o r i u m s t o r y , as i t w i l l h e n c e f o r t h be marked the stories.  t r a n s l a t i o n of the  called,  and  i t s v e r y presence  t h i n - w a l l e l e v a t i o n from t h r e e  They a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d a major step  t h i n - w a l l on i t s s u r f a c e  and  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  to  four  toward the treatment of  the  of the e l e v a t i o n i n t o sep-  arate s t o r i e s . The  t h i c k - w a l l e l e v a t i o n of f o u r s t o r i e s had  been g i v e n  an  expression  immediately b e f o r e the advent of F i r s t G o t h i c i n the nave at T o u r n a i . i n t e r i o r e l e v a t i o n was  r u l e d by massive e f f e c t s ( f i g . 4 ) , by  d e r a t e s o l i d i t y of the main s u p p o r t s and colonnettes  at the  h o r i z o n t a l bands.  the  the a p p l i c a t i o n of the  t h i r d stage.  Furthermore, i t was  At Noyon, and  l a t e r at Laon, the  Its  preponengaged  organized i n  strictly  thick-wall elevation  of  4  5 four  s t o r i e s as p r e s e n t e d a t T o u r n a i was g i v e n  a new p r i n c i p l e of e x p r e s s -  i o n , the treatment of the w a l l i n depth, i n l a y e r s .  In the chevet a t  Noyon the t h i c k - w a l l s were s t r o n g l y r e l i e v e d by a p r o f u s i o n  of responds and  mouldings, and by the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a b l i n d a r c a d e a t the t h i r d the  triforium.  T h i s was f o l l o w e d  a t Laon by the p e n e t r a t i o n  of an arcaded  passage a t the t r i f o r i u m s t o r y - a passage taken i n the t h i c k n e s s wall.  The e l e v a t i o n of f o u r  single elevation,  story,  of the  s t o r i e s , of m u l t i p l e d i v i s i o n s c o l l e c t e d i n a  (whether t r e a t e d on the s u r f a c e  of the w a l l or i n ; i t s  depth) n e c e s s a r i l y , a d d i t i o n a l l y suggests an enlargement of the s c a l e . ^  )  NOTES  •'•On the ' t h i n ' and ' t h i c k ' w a l l techniques see J . Bony, "La t e c h n i q u e normaride du mur e p a i s a l'epoque romane," B u l l e t i n monumental, XCVIII, 1939, 153-188. The f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n the C a r o l i n g i a n p e r i o d a t Essen and Werden; A. Verbeek, "Die O t t o n i s c h e Bautengruppe zu Essen und Werden und d i e V i e r g e s c h o s s i g e Wandgliederung," K a r o l i n g i s c h e und O t t o n i s c h e Kunst (Forschungen zur Kunst und C h r i s t l i c h e A r c h a o l o g i e , 3 ) , Wiesbaden, 1957, 150-158. I t was a l s o suggested a t A i x - l a - C h a p e l l e . The d e s t r o y e d church o f S a i n t - D o n a t i e n a t Bruges may have employed the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n as may have the n a r t h e x of Cluny I I I i n Burgandy. The abbey churches of Tewkesbury and P e r s h o r e may a l s o have i n c o r p o r a t e d such a scheme. This view was advanced by J . Bony "Tewkesbury e t PershoreT deux e l e v a t i o n s a quatre etages a l a f i n du X I s i e c l e , " B u l l e t i n monumental, XCVI, 1937, 281290. I t has r e c e n t l y been c h a l l e n g e d by M. T h u r l b y , "Tewkesbury and P e r shore," paper d e l i v e r e d a t the U n i v e r s i t i e s A r t A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada, H a l i f a x , 1978. e  3  See Appendix':'  The Q u e s t i o n of Cambrai.  4 R. Branner, /Gothic A r c h i t e c t u r e 1160-1180, and i t s Romanesque Sources," S t u d i e s i n Western A r t , I I , A c t s o f the T w e n t i e t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress o f the H i s t o r y o f A r t , 1963, 94. 5  I b i d . , 92.  ^The d e s t r u c t i o n of S a i n t - L u c i e n a t Beauvais i n the n i n e t e e n t h cent u r y s e r i o u s l y impedes any d i s c u s s i o n o f i t s f i l i a t i o n s i n terms o f d e t a i l . A h y p o t h e t i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s p r o v i d e d by E. G a l l , "Die A b t e i k i r c h e S a i n t - L u c i e n b e i B e a u v a i s , " Wiener Jahrbuch f u r K u n s t g e s c h i c h t e , XVII, 1926, 59-71, a l t h o u g h the i n c l u s i o n o f r i b v a u l t s throughout i s s u s p e c t . The church has been s t u d i e s most r e c e n t l y by S. Gardner, "New L i g h t on S a i n t L u c i e n i n B e a u v a i s , " F o u r t e e n t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress on M e d i e v a l S t u d i e s , Kalamazoo, M i c h i g a n , May 3-6, 1979. 7  Branner,  92-104.  Bony, "La t e c h n i q u e normande du mur e p a i s , " 154-156. The d a t i n g of the quadrant a r c h e s o f Beauvais i s a matter of conjecture: Gardner. "^As a system of abutment, quadrant arches appeared i n the nave o f Durhamj a l t h o u g h t h e i r date i s s p e c u l a t i v e . They were a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d a t L a T r i n i t e a t Caen and Saint-Evremond a t C r e i l though t h e i r presence a t C r e i l from the o u t s e t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . They may have beenaadded i n the c o u r s e of c o n s t r u c t i o n or a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n . See a l s o Appendix: The Quest i o n of Cambrai.  P. H e l i o t , "Les p a r t i e s romanes de l a c a t h e d r a l e de T o u r n a i , " Revue b e i g e d ' a r c h e o l o g i e e t d ' h i s t o i r e de l ' a r t , XXV, 1937, 1-76. P. R o l l a n d , "La c a t h e d r a l e de T o u r n a i e t l e s courants a r c h i t e c t u r a u x , " Revue b e i g e d ' a r c h e o l o g i e et d ' h i s t o i r e de l ' a r t , V I I , 1937, 229 -280. 12 Branner, 95, contends t h a t the i n f l u e n c e of the nave of T o u r n a i i n the development of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n i n F i r s t G o t h i c was n e g l i g i b l e . However, h i s argument f o c u s e s upon the r e l a t i o n s of the c l e r e s t o r y passage at T o u r n a i r a t h e r than the g e n e r a l scheme of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n . A f a l s e b e a r i n g was f i r s t admitted at the t r i b u n e stage of S a i n t E t i e n n e at Caen, begun c a . 1066; Bony, "La technique normande du mur epais,' 160-161. 14 The t r i b u n e s were r e q u i r e d to counter the t h r u s t s of the h i g h vaults. T h e i r p o s i t i o n and r e l a t i v e h e i g h t i n the e l e v a t i o n was, i n e f f e c t determined by the c h a r a c t e r of the main v a u l t s . ^R.  Branner, G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e , New  York, 1977,  25.  "^The term ' t r i f o r i u m ' has been g i v e n v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of e x a c t i t u d e . I t w i l l be used h e r e i n to d e s i g n a t e the decorated stage of the i n t e r i o r e l e v a t i o n t h a t corresponds to the h e i g h t of the t r i b u n e r o o f s on the e x t e r i o r . T h i s stage may take any one of t h r e e forms: a s e r i e s of a p e r t u r e s , a b l i n d arcade or an arcaded passage. ^ I t was A. Choisy, H i s t o i r e de l ' a r c h i t e c t u r e , I I , P a r i s , 1899, 409, who f i r s t s t a t e d t h a t the m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f the s t o r i e s tends to exaggerate i n the s p e c t a t o r ' s eyes, the s c a l e of the e l e v a t i o n .  8  CHAPTER I I  THE  The  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the chevet a t Noyon proceeded i n a r a t h e r  meal f a s h i o n . new  Between c a . 1145-1150 the d e c i s i o n was  c a t h e d r a l and  c h a p e l s , was cluded  the f i r s t phase of work, comprising  undertaken.  The  piece-  made to commence the the n i n e  peripheral  second phase, c a . 1155/1160-1165/1170, i n -  the ambulatory, the e x t e r i o r w a l l s of the t r i b u n e s of the chevet  the bays beneath the e a s t e r n and  CHEVET OF NOYON  towers.  e l e v a t i o n of the t r a n s e p t .  The  and  I t a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d the ground p l a n t h i r d phase, ca. 1170-1185, completed  the chevet as w e l l as the t r a n s e p t and  at l e a s t the westernmost bays of  the  1 nave. In s p i t e of the s u c c e s s i v e span of f o r t y years design.  There i s no  stages  of i t s e x e c u t i o n  from s t a r t to f i n i s h ,  and  the  the chevet i s uniform  evidence to suggest any  lengthy in its  change i n the scheme and  there  are only s u b t l e v a r i a t i o n s i n the d e t a i l s - i n the p r o f i l e s , p i e r s , c a p i t -  2 a l s and  key  s c u l p t u r e - to i n d i c a t e the course of work.  I t appears,  f o r e , t h a t the o r i g i n a l d e s i g n  of the chevet was  of f o u r s t o r i e s was  i n response to a s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s  l i s h e d ca. The  scheme of the chevet i s of a marked s o l i d i t y and of a f i r m p l a s t i c i t y  d i c t a t e d by  i n the d e t a i l s  the d e s i r e to b u i l d  i n height  the n e c e s s i t y to employ a heavy f o u n d a t i o n t i o n with  conserved; i t s e l e v a t i o n estab-  1145.  s t r u c t u r e , and t h a t was  formulated  there-  a tribune elevation.  The  and  strength  ( f i g . 5). and,  It is  i n the one  concommitantly,  superstructure  by  i n conjunc-  main b e a r i n g w a l l s are c l o s e to  one  3 meter i n t h i c k n e s s are r e l i e v e d by  and  the main p i e r s are massive i n s e c t i o n .  a p r o f u s i o n of responds and mouldings, and  a t i o n of en d e l i t  colonnettes,  s h a f t - r i n g s and  by  stringcourses.  The  walls  the a p p l i c In h i s  9 comprehensive monograph, Charles Seymour J r . attributes these p l a s t i c accents to the r o l e of the chevet i n housing the sanctuary'.^  While the  dictates of ceremony may have affected the treatment of the elevation, the tendency toward p l a s t i c i t y was i n accordance with the general development of  the region, as Seymour l a t e r points out."'  It was above a l l , however,  the structural and, thereby, the spacial requisites of the four-story elevation that determined the p a r t i c u l a r d i s p o s i t i o n of the chevet, i t s character of s o l i d i t y as well as p l a s t i c i t y . The main arcade of the chevet i s powerful i n the s i m p l i c i t y of i t s elements  (fig. 6).  The slender monostyle columns are embellished only by  their s t r i k i n g c a p i t a l s of f o l i a g e and f i g u r a t i v e motives.  In the eastern-  most bays of the chevet the piers are f i f t e e n t h century replacements and i n the f i r s t bays they are compound i n order to sustain the towers that o r i g i n a l l y rose above them.*' The arches of the arcade, chamfered i n the p r o f i l e s of  the mouldings, are round i n the straight bays and pointed i n the hemicycle  to compensate for the proximity of the supports and to bring their keys to the same crown as those i n the straight bays. of  However, i n the f i r s t bays  the chevet the arches carry a double r o l l , the i n t e r i o r s o f f i t has a  chamfered edge and the exterior r o l l a torus and h a l f - s c o t i a .  The elab-  oration of the orders of these arches was perhaps determined by the o r i g i n a l placement of the main a l t a r i n the f i r s t bays as Seymour suggests,^ but was more l i k e l y introduced to r e l a t e to the engaged columns of the compound piers i n order to r e t a i n a v i s u a l l y integrated  system.  In contrast to the main arcade, the treatment of the tribune stage i s of a highly p l a s t i c nature ( f i g . 6 ) .  The' large arched openings of the t r i b -  unes are framed by heavily moulded archivolts and are supported by compact-  8 l y grouped colonnettes ( f i g . 7).  In the straight bays of the chevet there  are two arches per bay separated by colonnettes and single openings i n the  h e m i c y c l e to compensate i n h e i g h t  f o r r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the w i d t h of the  While the r e p e t i t i o n of the responds and mouldings i n the t r i b u n e s  bay.  creates  9 a decorative e f f e c t , ordered  the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the i n d i v i d u a l bays of  arches corresponding  to t h r e e engaged c o l o n n e t t e s  r e l a t i o n s h i p between l o a d and l y i n keeping w i t h  support.  the s t y l i s t i c  trends  triple  shows a c l o s e  Furthermore, the design.was  evident-  of the r e g i o n as i s i n d i c a t e d by  the s i m i l a r arrangement of the t r i b u n e stage at the c a t h e d r a l of S e n l i s . The  t r i b u n e g a l l e r y i s covered by  t r i b u n e r o o f s had  to be  r i b v a u l t s which meant t h a t  r a i s e d above the v a u l t s to a r e l a t i v e l y  p o i n t on the e x t e r i o r w a l l s  ( f i g . 8).  the  high  In the o r i g i n a l scheme, w a l l b u t t -  r e s s e s were i n c o r p o r a t e d beneath the t r i b u n e r o o f s . " ^  They served  to  direct  a p o r t i o n of the t h r u s t of the a e r i a l v a u l t s over the t r i b u n e s to the ternal buttresses  as w e l l as to t r a n s f e r the t h r u s t to the l o a d  ex-  bearing  piers. The  t h i r d stage of the e l e v a t i o n , c o r r e s p o n d i n g  to the zone of  o r i g i n a l w a l l b u t t r e s s e s , i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a b l i n d arcade s e t d i r e c t l y a g a i n s t the main b e a r i n g w a l l s  t r i f o r i u m , a narrow  ( f i g . 7).  In the hemi-  c y c l e the arcade i s composed of t h r e e t r e f o i l arches r e s t i n g on gaged c o l o n n e t t e s arch between two  a l t h o u g h i t was pointed  d e v i c e o r , more l i k e l y , The  a l t e r e d i n the a x i a l bay  arches ( f i g . 9), which was  the  disen-  to one  e i t h e r an  round  accentuating  a means of compensating f o r l i m i t a t i o n s i n w i d t h .  p a t t e r n of the arcade i s ambitious i n t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s  example of the t r e f o i l a r c h i n an i n t e r i o r elevation."'""'"  the  earliest  However, the  pres-  ence of a b l i n d arcade at the t h i r d stage of a f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n i s s i n g u l a r l y anomalous; i t i s the only i n s t a n c e of an arcade w i t h o u t  apertures  and/or without a passageway marking the zone of the t r i f o r i u m .  I t appears  that t h i s t r i f o r i u m , s e r v i n g no  i n s e r t e d to  decorate  s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n , was  simply  the w a l l s u r f a c e s between the t r i b u n e openings and  the c l e r e s t o r y  windows. The  c u r r e n t windows of the c l e r e s t o r y a r e the product  of  renovations 7.  i n the e i g h t e e n t h and r e s t o r a t i o n s i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s ( f i g . 9 ) . In t h e i r o r i g i n a l s t a t e , a c c o r d i n g  to a drawing by Baraban executed  prior  12 to the a l t e r a t i o n s ,  the windows were composed o f p a i r s of l a n c e t s , s u r -  mounted by a p o i n t e d a r c h and The  separate  tympanum.  s t o r i e s of the e l e v a t i o n a r e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and  s t r e s s e d from the simple main arcade and d e c o r a t i v e stage of the t r i f o r i u m and The  t r i b u n e s to  i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the v e r t i c a l  A r e g u l a r rhythm of engaged c o l o n n e t t e s r i s e from the a b a c i  of the monostyle p i e r s to the s p r i n g i n g o f the v a u l t s ; they a r e en s h a f t s r e t a i n e d at the j o i n t s by s h a f t - r i n g s .  The  delit  s t r u c t u r a l r o l e of  these  colonnettes i s n e g l i g i b l e .  The  t h r u s t of the h i g h v a u l t s i s l a r g e l y r e -  c e i v e d by the main supports  and  the t r i b u n e v a u l t s .  the en d e l i t grouping  shafts i s c r i t i c a l  However, the r o l e of  s i n c e the correspondence of the  triple  of c o l o n n e t t e s to the r i b s of the v a u l t s v i s u a l l y r e i n f o r c e s the  u n i f i c a t i o n of d e c o r a t i v e and  s t r u c t u r a l concerns.  The  i n s i s t e n c e upon  s h a f t - r i n g s c i r c l i n g the c o l o n n e t t e s r e i t e r a t e s the tendency toward values  ( f i g . 5).  Above a l l , moreover, the en d e l i t  t u a t e the w a l l s and The  chevet  to e s t a b l i s h a v e r t i c a l  reaches  composition.  an o v e r - a l l h e i g h t of 21.5  of even g r e a t e r h e i g h t i s s t i l l v e r t i c a l bays and ment of the s c a l e .  another.  meters.  The  realization suggestion  s t r o n g d e l i n e a t i o n of  the d i v i s i o n of the m u l t i p l e s t o r i e s suggest  an  the  enlarge-  Furthermore, the zone of the t r i f o r i u m s e r v e s as a  scale-giving feature; i t i s d i s t i n c t i s immediately  The  plastic  s h a f t s s e r v e to punc-  of such h e i g h t , however, i s o n l y one a s p e c t of the e l e v a t i o n ; the  and  the  the t a l l l i g h t s of the c l e r e s t o r y .  same c l a r i t y of d e f i n i t i o n i s found  bays ( f i g . 9 ) .  richly articulated  strongly  i n i t s b l i n d and b a n d - l i k e  composition  i d e n t i f i a b l e as the narrowest stage of the e l e v a t i o n , of  a height  comparable to t h a t of a man ( f i g . 6 ) . By c o n t r a s t ,  the openings  of the main arcade, t r i b u n e s and c l e r e s t o r y a r e l a r g e r i n dimension and seem a m p l i f i e d  i n visual effect.  This play of v i s u a l e f f e c t , of i l l u s i o n ,  i s fundamental to the s p a c i a l t h e s i s o f the f o u r - s t o r y  elevation.  I  I t a l s o appears t h a t p r i n c i p l e s of geometry have been a p p l i e d proportions  of t h e f o r m a l elements o f the e l e v a t i o n .  The h e i g h t  to the  o f the  main arcade i s equal to t h a t o f the t r i b u n e stage and t r i f o r i u m combined; t h i s r a t i o i s c l e a r l y marked by the p r o j e c t i o n o f the c o n t i n u o u s s t r i n g c o u r s e s a t the top of the main arcade and the s i l l (fig.  6 ) . The h e i g h t  story.  'Further,  of the c l e r e s t o r y  of the t r i b u n e stage i s equal to t h a t of the c l e r e -  the h e i g h t  of the monostyle s u p p o r t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r  bases and c a p i t a l s , i s equal to the w i d t h of the s i d e a i s l e .  While t h i s  p r o p o r t i o n a l arrangement of the s t o r i e s a t Noyon has n o t been d i s c u s s e d i n 13 the l i t e r a t u r e , age  the i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t .  of the t r i b u n e o s t a g e  three-story  The  a d e l i b e r a t e attempt to conserve, i n  terms, the o l d t h r e e - s t o r i e d scheme.  chevet o f Notre-Dame a t Noyon might b e s t be a p p r a i s e d  a t i o n i n the second stage o f F i r s t G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e . a l s o been a s c r i b e d by some as a member o f the s c h o o l  therefore,  link-  and the t r i f o r i u m impresses the semblance of a  e l e v a t i o n which r e p r e s e n t s  compositional  The p r o p o r t i o n a l  as an i n n o v -  I t has, however,  o f S a i n t - D e n i s and, 14  as p a r t of the s t y l e of the e a r l i e s t stage of G o t h i c .  To  c a t e g o r i z e Noyon i n the o r b i t of the P a r i s i s , however, i s to s e r i o u s l y und e r e s t i m a t e the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f i t s f o u r - s t o r y The  chevets of Saint-Denis"*"^  elevation.  and Noyon, indeed, e x h i b i t a s i m i l a r  arrangement i n the l a y o u t of ".their ground p l a n s ; both have r a d i a t i n g chape l s of equal s i z e covered by f i v e branched v a u l t s , two r e c t a n g u l a r  chapels  o f f the a i s l e s o f the s t r a i g h t bays and monostyle columns f o r i n t e r i o r supports ( f i g s . 10 and 1 1 ) . But a t Noyon one f i n d s a d i f f e r e n t treatment  of the s t r u c t u r a l and s p a c i a l a s p e c t s ; i t s c h a p e l s are deeper i n p l a n and s e p a r a t e d by deeply p e n e t r a t i n g b u t t r e s s e s ; i t s ambulatory i s s i n g l e r a t h e r than double  and the e x t e r n a l p i e r s of the ambulatory are h e a v i l y r e l i e v e d ,  powerful masses r a t h e r than s l e n d e r columns.  I n s h o r t , the scheme a t Noyon  i s one of s o l i d i t y and s t r e n g t h , and of compartmentalized  volumes whereas  the v i t a l p r i n c i p l e a t S a i n t - D e n i s i s t h a t of an e q u a l i t y of space and s t r u c t u r e , and of a c o n t i g u i t y of volumes. r a i s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e ,  Where these d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e  they a r e u s u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence  of a r e t -  16 rograde  c h a r a c t e r a t Noyon.  appear as such,  While the chevet a t Noyon may  superficially  i t does n o t r e p r e s e n t a d i r e c t or even a d e l i b e r a t e con-  t r a d i c t i o n of the d e s i g n a t S a i n t - D e n i s .  I n s t e a d , the impulse  toward the  h o r i z o n t a l enlargement of space as r e a l i z e d a t S a i n t - D e n i s was  superceded  at Noyon by a move toward the v e r t i c a l enlargement of space. s u p p o r t i n g elements i n the chevet  The heavy  a t Noyon were q u i t e simply d i c t a t e d by  the d e s i r e f o r h e i g h t . Since the main supports a t Noyon were d e v i s e d as a base f o r the supe r s t r u c t u r e as w e l l as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the e l e v a t i o n , i t seems to t u r n the p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e from the chevet Although'  t h i s c r y p t has seven r a d i a t i n g  b a s i c scheme and treatment  logical  a t S a i n t - D e n i s to i t s crypt."'  chapels and g r o i n v a u l t s , i t s  i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to t h a t of Noyon.  The conr  t'inuo.us b u t t r e s s e s between each c h a p e l and the two windows i n each c h a p e l , the s i n g l e a i s l e and the compound p i e r s on the e x t e r i o r of the a i s l e a r e repeated  a t Noyon ( f i g s . 10 and 12).  mentalized  But, more i m p o r t a n t l y , the compart-  space of the chapels and the squat p r o p o r t i o n s of the ambulatory  are a l s o repeated a t Noyon. The l i n e from S a i n t - D e n i s to Noyon d i d not pass u n i n t e r r u p t e d .  The  18 chevet  of Saint-Germain-des-Pres,  completed c a . 1163, d i s p l a y s a t t r i b u t e s  of the c r y p t a t S a i n t - D e n i s and more d e f i n i t e a f f i n i t i e s  to the chevet a t  Noyon.  In f a c t , the ground p l a n s of Saint-Germain-des-Pres  and Noyon a r e  v i r t u a l l y i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e ; both c o n s i s t of t h r e e s t r a i g h t bays i n the p r o p e r , f o u r monostyle r a d i a t i n g chapels  supports i n the h e m i c y c l e , a s i n g l e a i s l e and  (figs.  10 and 13).  Furthermore,  chevet five  the c h a p e l s and amb-  u l a t o r i e s have the i d e n t i c a l v a u l t i n g p a t t e r n s and the same p r o p o r t i o n s o f h e i g h t to w i d t h . and f i n a l l y  From the c r y p t a t S a i n t - D e n i s to  to Noyon a fundamental  k i n s h i p may  u r a t i o n of c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , a d d i t i v e volumes.  Saint-Germain-des-Pres  be i d e n t i f i e d by the  However, i n the c r y p t of  S a i n t - D e n i s , and l a t e r i n the chevet of Saint-Germain-des-Pres, u r a t i o n was  d e v i s e d to permit the enlargement  whereas a t Noyon i t was elevation.  The  config-  this  config-  of space a t the ground  level  designed to permit the expansion of space i n the  s o l u t i o n o f f e r e d a t S a i n t - D e n i s was  employed a t Noyon, but  to s o l v e a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t problem. The  c l o s e s t thematic antecedent  to the chevet of Noyon i s found  s i d e France, to the n o r t h , i n the nave of T o u r n a i , ca. 1110-1140. two  s t r u c t u r e s r e v e a l the k i n s h i p of a d e d i c a t i o n to h e i g h t based  19  outThese  on a f o u r -  20 s t o r y scheme.  However, the e l e v a t i o n of Noyon r e p r e s e n t s a profound  d e p a r t u r e from t h a t of T o u r n a i i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l and i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of l o a d and  stories  support.  In c o n t r a s t to Noyon, the treatment of the e l e v a t i o n a t T o u r n a i 21 appears,  to paraphrase  arcade l e v e l ,  Seymour,  the huge round  almost  to l a c k treatment.  At the main  arches and heavy compound p i e r s take the form  and s t r u c t u r e of a v i a d u c t ; a p o w e r f u l c o m p o s i t i o n t h a t i s even more a c c e n t uated at the t r i b u n e s t a g e .  There,  the spans of the arches have been en-  l a r g e d and the number of t h e i r o r d e r s has been i n c r e a s e d from t h r e e to f o u r , 2 almost as i f the main arcade and  t r i b u n e stage have been r e v e r s e d ( f i g .  In t u r n , the p i e r s have been t h i c k e n e d and a f a l s e b e a r i n g admitted s t r e n g t h e n the h i g h w a l l s ( f i g . 2 ) .  While  to  3). •  the d e s i g n a t Noyon d i s p l a y s a  certain solidity,  the monostyle supports of i t s main arcade and  ered en d e l i t c o l o n n e t t e s t h a t i s not  the  clust-  of i t s upper stages r e v e a l a d e s c r i p t i o n of  even suggested a t T o u r n a i .  thrust  In p a r t , t h i s i s the r e s u l t of  the  23 d i f f e r e n c e between n o n - v a u l t e d and v a u l t e d degree the c o n f i g u r a t i o n a t T o u r n a i  architectures  i s d i c t a t e d by a s t r o n g  f i r m monumentality r a t h e r than by a d e d i c a t i o n to At the t h i r d stage of the nave at T o u r n a i penetrated  by  to a  tradition  ponse to d e c o r a t i v e  considerations.  and  linearity.  small apertures  Noyon was  ( f i g . 4).  the s e r i e s of  to the w a l l i s  s i m i l a r to the p a t t e r n of the b l i n d dado arcade found i n i t s s i d e  t r e a t e d as a p r a c t i c a l d e s i g n  i n s e r t e d as a d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f  f e a t u r e whereas, i n the l a t t e r ,  expressed s o l e l y as a d e c o r a t i v e c l e r e s t o r y at T o u r n a i  on the e x t e r i o r by  the  a passage.  was trifor-  p o r t i c o of a l t e r n a t i n g p i e r s and  colonnettes  like  a detached  to the e x t e r i o r , p r o v i d i n g  reaches of the s t r u c t u r e  of the e x t e r i o r passage at T o u r n a i  In a  the masonry l o n g i -  w i t h a b l a n k w a l l and windows to the i n t e r i o r and  ( f i g . 2).  The  presence  r e f l e c t s a fundamentally d i f f e r e n t con24  c e p t i o n of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n from t h a t at Noyon. cern f o r height  but  stage.  manner to a l o g g i a , the space of the passage p e n e t r a t e s  a c c e s s to the upper, outer  aisles.  i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d on the i n t e r i o r by s i n g l e ,  t a l l l i g h t s s e t i n deep s p l a y s and  tudinally:  arch-  of the form of window embras-  u r e s , whereas a t Noyon the band of t r e f o i l arches a t t a c h e d  In the former, the t r i f o r i u m was  strips  p a r t i a l l y a res-  However, at T o u r n a i  es framing the s i n g l e openings i s r e m i n i s c e n t  The  of  the s u r f a c e of the w a l l i s  the w a l l i s p i e r c e d by  treatment of the t r i f o r i u m at T o u r n a i  ium was  large  a double chamfered range of arches sprung from p i l a s t e r  w i t h engaged columns and The  but  I t i s the  con-  r a t h e r than c i r c u l a t i o n t h a t i s of c r i t i c a l importance at  Noyon. F i n a l l y , the treatment of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n i n the chevet of  Noyon stands i n sharp c o n t r a s t to t h a t of T o u r n a i a n i z a t i o n of space.  While a t T o u r n a i  s t r i c t l y h o r i z o n t a l arcuated  with respect  the b o x - l i k e c e l l s a r e construed  in  openings, a t Noyon the bays a r e separated  v e r t i c a l u n i t s by the a p p l i c a t i o n of the en d e l i t s h a f t s The  to the o r g -  into  ( f i g s . 4 and 9 ) .  d i f f e r e n c e of s p a c i a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s the r e s u l t of a d i f f e r e n c e i n  thinking. In sum, i f the nave of T o u r n a i was by s u g g e s t i n g  exerted  any i n f l u e n c e upon Noyon, i t  the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e of b u i l d i n g i n h e i g h t  and the g e n e r a l  scheme of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n . 25 The  c a t h e d r a l of S e n l i s  was begun no fewer than seven y e a r s a f t e r  Noyon, c a . 1153, and the two a r e s i t u a t e d no more than s i x t y apart  i n the O i s e v a l l e y .  Unfortunately,  kilometers  S e n l i s was d r a s t i c a l l y  modified  a f t e r a f i r e i n 1504 but, on the b a s i s of a; r e c o n s t r u c t i o n drawing ?  ( f i g . 1.  14),  one can see t h a t the e l e v a t i o n of S e n l i s and Noyon were s t r i k i n g l y  ilar  i n the treatment of c e r t a i n d e s i g n The  pointed  f e a t u r e s and s t r u c t u r a l systems.  main arcade of the chevet a t S e n l i s was o r i g i n a l l y composed of  a r c h e s of one order  c a r r i e d on monostyle s h a f t s , as a t Noyon.  r e g u l a r rhythm of c l u s t e r e d c o l o n n e t t e s but,  sim-  rose  A  to the s p r i n g i n g of the v a u l t s  i n c c o n t r a s t to Noyon, were of r e g u l a r c o u r s i n g  rather  than en d e l i t .  However, i t i s the u n i f o r m treatment of the t r i b u n e openings a t Noyon and 26 S e n l i s t h a t i s most noteworthy. by  In both, the s i n g l e openings a r e d e f i n e d  t r i p l e ordered arches supported on t h r e e compactly grouped  showing a c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n between the d e c o r a t i v e ( f i g s . 8 and 14).  Further,  colonnettes,  and s t r u c t u r a l elements  i n both the t r i b u n e c e l l s a r e t r e a t e d as s e p a r -  a t e u n i t s of space which i s emphasized by the sharp p o s i t i o n i n g of the c o l o n n e t t e s a t r i g h t a n g l e s t o the bay and by the d o m i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the vaults. and  Above the t r i b u n e l e v e l , however, the s i m i l a r i t y between S e n l i s  Noyon ceases.  Although w a l l b u t t r e s s e s were p r o b a b l y c o n c e a l e d beneath  the  tribune  r o o f s at S e n l i s , the zone between the  remained undecorated. s t r u c t i o n drawing  In the o r i g i n a l d e s i g n ,  ( f i g . 14),  tribunes  clerestory  as opposed to the  the s t r i n g c o u r s e s  recon-  i n the s p a n d r e l s of the  bunes would have been lowered i n alignment w i t h the s h a f t s , and  and  c a p i t a l s of the  tri-  ascending  the c l e r e s t o r y would have been shortened, which would have p r e -  sented an e x t e n s i v e  zone of b l i n d masonry, a zone d i s t i n g u i s h e d a t Noyon by  the t r i f o r i u m arcade. While the chevet at Noyon i s of a somewhat l a r g e r s c a l e and proportion,  both convey a sense of v e r t i c a l i t y .  The  appearance of the  s t o r y e l e v a t i o n a t Noyon as opposed to the t h r e e - s t o r y was  only  a matter of t a k i n g one  f u r t h e r step  lighter  e l e v a t i o n at  toward the v e r t i c a l  four-  Senlis  enlargement  of space through the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the t r i f o r i u m s t a g e . A p r e c i s e assessment of Noyon's p o s i t i o n i n the development of G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e has  been obscured by  First  the preponderate shadows of  con-  temporary b u i l d i n g s i n the a r e a around P a r i s and  constructional principles  of the e a r l i e s t  been c h a r a c t e r i z e d ,  stage of G o t h i c .  o f t e n , as a m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  The  chevet has  most  of the l i g h t e n e d mass at S a i n t - D e n i s .  While  the d e s i g n at Noyon e x p l o i t s c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of t h i s s t r u c t u r e , i t s f o u r s t o r y e l e v a t i o n expresses a new ard s t y l e . tribunes  and  By  the  syntax of v e r t i c a l compositions i n a P i c -  treatment of the d i s t i n c t i v e s t a g e s ,  the d e c o r a t i v e  t r i f o r i u m , by  the  the o r g a n i z a t i o n  t u r a l systems, the en d e l i t s h a f t s and w a l l b u t t r e s s e s ,  rib-vaulted of the  and,  above a l l ,  the concern f o r the expansion o f volumes, the chevet o f Noyon must brought to the f o r e as a s t r i k i n g  innovation  i n F i r s t Gothic  strucby  be  architecture.  NOTES  C. Seymour, J r . , Notre-Dame of Noyon i n the T w e l f t h Century. A Study i n the E a r l y Development of G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e , New York, 1968, 41-63. The chronology of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the chevet o u t l i n e d i n t h i s paper i s based upon the c a r e f u l and comprehensive r e s e a r c h p r e s e n t e d by C h a r l e s Seymour. 2  Ibid.,  55.  3 I b i d . , 106. thickness. 4  Ibid.,  106.  5  lbid.,  117.  6  Ibid.,  108.  7  Ibid.,  108.  By d e f i n i t i o n ,  the t h i c k - w a l l i s a meter or more i n  g The d i s p o s i t i o n of the t r i b u n e , of p a i r e d a r c h e s not taken under a r e l i e v i n g a r c h , i s u n u s u a l i n the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y . It i s found, however, i n the south t r a n s e p t of Soissons a f t e r 1177. 9 The p r o f u s i o n of responds and mouldings a t the t r i b u n e stage of the chevet i s d i s c u s s e d by P a u l F r a n k l as evidence of the tendency i n F i r s t G o t h i c toward heavy r e l i e f ; P. F r a n k l , G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e , Harmondsworth, 1962, 37-39. "^These mur-boutants were r e p l a c e d a f t e r a f i r e i n 1293 b u t t r e s s e s ; Seymour, 70. 1 1  Ibid.,  by  flying  117.  12 I b i d . , f i g . 14. 13 Seymour commented t h a t "the p r o p o r t i o n s of elements i n the e l e v a t i o n cannot a l t o g e t h e r c o n s i s t e n t l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e s u l t i n g from the a p p l i c a t i o n of predetermined mathematical canon." I b i d . , 160. 14 I b i d . , 112-116. E. Lambert, " L ' a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer et l ' e c o l e de S a i n t - D e n i s , " B u l l e t i n monumental, C, 1941, 47-63. S . McK. 475-1122. 1 5  Seymour,  1966,  ^S. McK. 4-8.  Crosby, The  Abbey of S a i n t - D e n i s ,  I , New  Haven,  1942,  114. Crosby, "Crypt  and  Choir Plans  at Saint-Denis,"  Gesta,  V,  18  The s i m i l a r i t i e s between the chevet of Noyon and t h a t of S a i n t Germain-des-Pres were f i r s t r e c o g n i z e d by E. L e f e v r e - P o n t a l i s , Congres a r c h e o l o g i q u e , P a r i s , 1919, 343-344. For the most r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n of Saint-Germain-des-Pres see: W i l l i a m C l a r k , " S p a c i a l I n n o v a t i o n s i n the Chevet of Saint-Germain-des-Pres," Gesta, XVII, 1978, 72. 19 The dates of the c a t h e d r a l of T o u r n a i have been the s u b j e c t of much controversy. The problems have been o u t l i n e d by H e l i o t , "Les p a r t i e s romanes de l a c a t h e d r a l e de T o u r n a i , " 3-76. 20 R o l l a n d , " l a c a t h e d r a l e de T o u r n a i , " 267-280, contends t h a t the nave of T o u r n a i had a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e upon Noyon; h i s arguments, however, a r e h i g h l y suspect as Seymour, 117, p o i n t s o u t . H e l i o t , 69-76, observed t h a t T o u r n a i had an impact on Noyon as w e l l as Cambrai and Laon. 21 Seymour, 117. 22 The main arcade and t r i b u n e stage a t S a i n t - E t i e n n e a t Caen a r e equal i n h e i g h t ; H e l i o t , 22. 23 The nave of T o u r n a i was f i r s t f u l l y v a u l t e d i n 1754; H e l i o t , 10, e t al. 2 4  Ibid.,  21-43.  Branner, " G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e 1160-1180," 95-96.  25 M. Aubert, La c a t h e d r a l e de S e n l i s , S e n l i s , 1910. Seymour, 117.  CHAPTER I I I  THE CHEVET OF  SAINT-GERMER  The abbey church of Saint-Germer-de-Fly has l o n g been n e g l e c t e d and o f t e n misunderstood.  U n t i l r e c e n t l y even i t s commencement date has been  the s u b j e c t of c a u t i o u s i n q u i r y and a v a r i e d range o f theories.''"  Because  2 of the absence remains  of r e l e v a n t documentary m a t e r i a l ,  the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d a t a  the o n l y a v a i l a b l e index of the chronology o f i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n .  However, the presence o f c e r t a i n a r c h a i c d e s i g n f e a t u r e s has c o n v e n t i o n a l l y been i n t e r p r e t e d as evidence o f a v e r y e a r l y date w i t h i n the framework o f 3 the e a r l i e s t stage of F i r s t G o t h i c . In 1963, Robert Branner  argued  t h a t " i f the d e t a i l s of Saint-Germer  be  read as a r c h a i c s u r v i v a l s r a t h e r than up-to-date e x p r e s s i o n s o f a u n i f o r m and m o n o l i t h i c development, then i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the church was begun a f t e r 1150 and even a f t e r 1155."^  In more r e c e n t y e a r s , on the b a s i s o f a  comparative a n a l y s i s o f Saint-Germer,  p a r t i c u l a r l y o f i t s c a p i t a l s , Marc  P e s s i n has confirmed a commencement date c a . 1155-1160. campaign, f i n i s h e d i n the e a r l y 1170's, comprised  This f i r s t  major  t h e chevet, the t r a n s e p t  and the t h r e e e a s t e r n bays o f the nave as w e l l as p o r t i o n s o f the f o u r t h . The second campaign, c a . 1175-1206, completed er r e g i o n s o f the west ensemble. ~*  the nave and a t l e a s t  By i t s chronology a l o n e ,  the low-  Saint-Germer  must be c o n s i d e r e d i n the sphere o f the second stage o f F i r s t G o t h i c and the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n of the chevet, i n p a r t i c u l a r , may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as an e x p e r i m e n t a l r e a l i z a t i o n o f the new d e s i r e f o r v e r t i c a l expansion i n the l o c a l s t y l e o f the B e a u v a i s i s . The main arcade of the chevet i s composed of p o i n t e d arches c a r r i e d on compound p i e r s  (fig.  15).  The arches a r e h e a v i l y moulded and d e c o r a t e d by  a chevron m o t i f , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e of Anglo-Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e . ^  The  supports are q u i t e i r r e g u l a r i n sequence s i n c e t h e r e are t h r e e  differ-  ent  types of compound p i e r s i n the chevet i n c l u d i n g the c r o s s i n g p i e r s .  In  the h e m i c y c l e c l u s t e r s of three engaged s h a f t s r i s e from the massive p l i n t h s of the p i e r s to the s p r i n g i n g of the v a u l t s phasize  the s u p p o r t i n g  ( f i g . 16);  they v i s u a l l y  f u n c t i o n of the main b e a r i n g w a l l s .  s h a f t s , of r e g u l a r courses of masonry, punctuate the f l a t w a l l s and The  em-  Moreover, these surfaces  of  the  a c c e n t u a t e the v e r t i c a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l bays. t r i b u n e stage c o n s i s t s of two  round arches per bay  r e s t i n g on  i  paired colonnettes  and  taken under a round-headed r e l i e v i n g a r c h  17).  The  tympana are p i e r c e d by  foils  or chevron m o t i f s .  (figs.  decorated o c u l i ^ c a r r y i n g e i t h e r  However, i n the  w i d e s t bays, the openings are i n c r e a s e d  quatre-  f i r s t bays of the chevet,  to t h r e e and  16,  the  the c e n t r a l arch i s  Q heightened,  thus e l i m i n a t i n g the f i e l d  f o r an o c u l u s  t r i b u n e stage i s t r e a t e d i n s e v e r a l p l a n e s ,  from the prominent  arches w i t h t h e i r d e c o r a t i v e mouldings to the f l a t ed o c u l i which, augmented by  the moulded arches and  tends to d i s g u i s e the t h i n n e s s  of the  ( f i g s . 15,18).  The  relieving  tympana w i t h t h e i r paired  void-  colonnettes,  walls.  9 The  t r i b u n e s are covered by  groin vaults  r a n t arches are a l i g n e d l a t e r a l l y a g a i n s t ize  the p i e r s a g a i n s t  the quadrant arches,  meant t h a t the r o o f s had As  to be  The  both c o n t a i n e d r a i s e d high  above, a range of quad-  the main b e a r i n g  the t h r u s t of the v a u l t s and  the g a l l e r y on to the e x t e r i o r b u t t r e s s e s . v a u l t s and  and,  walls  to  stabil-  p a r t i a l l y d i r e c t i t over  i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the beneath the t r i b u n e  on the e x t e r i o r w a l l s  groin  roofs,  ( f i g . 15).  at Noyon, t h i s r e s u l t e d i n a zone of masonry on the i n t e r i o r between  t r i b u n e s and  c l e r e s t o r y which was  simple r e c t a n g l e s The  positioned  p i e r c e d at Saint-Germer by  i n the v e r t i c a l a x i s of each bay  the  a s e r i e s of ( f i g . 18).  i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s t r i f o r i u m stage conforms p e r f e c t l y to  the  a e s t h e t i c of the t h i n - w a l l e l e v a t i o n ; i t came from the need to r e l i e v e arid  d e c o r a t e the w a l l surfaces.""""  While  the a p e r t u r e s perform  the f u n c t i o n of  a e r a t i n g the t r i b u n e r o o f s , they were not n e c e s s i t a t e d by s t r u c t u r a l r e q uisites;  they do not add to the h e i g h t of the e l e v a t i o n , as i n the case of  the t r i b u n e , nor are they taken i n the t h i c k n e s s of the w a l l as a passage. The a p e r t u r e s simply p e n e t r a t e an otherwise b l i n d more, they mark a t h i r d s t o r y i n the The bay  zone of masonry.  Further-  elevation.  c l e r e s t o r y i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a range of narrow windows, one  per  e n c l o s e d by a t r a n s v e r s e arch r e s t i n g on s m a l l c o l o n n e t t e s ( f i g . 19).  The windows are p l a c e d w e l l above the l e v e l of the upper c a p i t a l s , above the apex of the quadrant  arches beneath the t r i b u n e r o o f s .  just More im-  p o r t a n t l y and c u r i o u s l y , however, a continuous passage i s i n c o r p o r a t e d a t the s i l l  of the c l e r e s t o r y  i s incongruous  ( f i g s . 18,19).  The v e r y presence  i n the c o n t e x t of the t h i n - w a l l and  the p r i n c i p l e of the Norman t h i c k - w a l l . so narrow as to be unusable  i s more i n keeping  F u r t h e r , i t i s com-  ( f i g . 18) r a t h e r than lodged i n  the w a l l i n the orthodox Norman manner as a t S a i n t - E t i e n n e a t Caen. t h i s passage appears t h i c k - w a l l , i t was  with  Yet the passage a t Saint-Germer i s  as a means of c i r c u l a t i o n .  posed of a ledge and c a r r i e d on b r a c k e t s  of a passage  to have been i n t r o d u c e d under the impact  While  of the Norman  r e c o n c i l e d to the e f f e c t s of the t h i n - w a l l by the  treat-  ment of the w a l l as a membrane s t r e t c h e d between the main supports."'""'" The  f o u r s t o r i e s a t Saint-Germer are markedly d i s t i n c t  are seemingly  d e l i b e r a t e l y d i s p a r a t e i n r e l a t i o n one  i n design  to the o t h e r .  i s d i s p a r i t y between the p o i n t e d arches of the main arcade and  the  and  There round  arches of the t r i b u n e , the t r i f o r i u m r e c t a n g l e p i e r c e d i n the c e n t e r of the bay  and  the c l e r e s t o r y passage p r o j e c t e d between the supports  The  c o e x i s t e n c e of p o i n t e d and  round  ( f i g . 15).  arches i n a s i n g l e e l e v a t i o n was  not  12 unusual  i n the m i d - t w e l f t h century;  a t Saint-Germer,  however, the  sharp  d i f f e r e n c e i n the mouldings of the arches tends to f u r t h e r a c c e n t u a t e  the  d i f f e r e n c e s of t h e i r forms. r e c t a n g l e and  Moreover, the p o s i t i o n i n g of the  the c l e r e s t o r y ledge a t r i g h t angles to one  another  i c a l l y emphasizes the c o n t r a s t i n g a c t i o n of the v e r t i c a l and aspects.  In sum,  triforium dramat-  horizontal  the f o u r s t o r i e s do not seem to a c t i n u n i s o n and,  r e s u l t , each s t o r y i s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as an independent the s t o r i e s are o r g a n i z e d one  component.  above the other as superposed  as a Further  d i v i s i o n s of  equal c l a r i t y which, i n the s p e c t a t o r ' s eyes, produces :the e f f e c t . o f an.enlarged  scale.  The massive v e r t i c a l s of the compound p i e r s and in  the chevet of Saint-Germer s t r o n g l y punctuate  s i n g l e bay  the b a s i c u n i t of the d e s i g n ( f i g .  the continuous s h a f t s  the t h i n w a l l s , making the  16).  They are o v e r l a p p e d  a d e c o r a t i v e s t r i n g c o u r s e above the l e v e l of the main arcade and by  by  shaft-  r i n g s i n l i n e w i t h the a b a c i of the t r i b u n e c o l o n n e t t e s which p a r t i a l l y i n t e r r u p t the v e r t i c a l movement but p r o v i d e a p l a s t i c e f f e c t Between the supports the s t o r i e s a r e , i n p a r t , arranged v e r t i c a l a x i s of the bay. of  the t r i b u n e , through  of  the v e r t i c a l a s p e c t .  the  to the o c u l u s  to the t r i f o r i u m , t h e r e i s a c o n t i n u i t y i n the  rise  F u r t h e r , the v e r y form of the t r i f o r i u m , t h a t of  however, the v e r t i c a l emphasis i s thoroughly checked  While  to a c c e n t u a t e  From the apex of the main arcade  a r e c t a n g l e , r e i t e r a t e s the v e r t i c a l u n i t of the bay.  a c r o s s the  ( f i g . 17).  At the  clerestory,  by the ledge  running  bays. the chevet of Saint-Germer measures an o v e r - a l l h e i g h t of approx  i m a t e l y n i n e t e e n meters, i t appears  even h i g h e r as a r e s u l t of the s l e n d e r 13  p r o p o r t i o n s of the i n t e r i o r volume.  However, the s p a c i a l c o n s t r u c t of  the e l e v a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d , above a l l , by  the prominent c l u s t e r s of  r i s i n g from the base of the main arcade to the v a u l t d e p a r t u r e s . p r o t r u d e i n t o the c e n t r a l volume of the chevet and tical  slices.  shaft  They  cut i t i n t o narrow, v e r -  The chevet of Saint-Germer  stands as a h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and  ex-  p e r i m e n t a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n i n the development F i r s t Gothic architecture.  The thematic o r i g i n s of the e l e v a t i o n may  of  be  14 t r a c e d from T o u r n a i and, perhaps, Cambrai  to Noyon and Saint-Germer,  i t was  However, the p a r t i c u l a r e x p r e s s -  d i c t a t e d by the concern f o r h e i g h t .  i o n of the t h i n - w a l l e l e v a t i o n of f o u r s t o r i e s a t Saint-Germer a d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e as to r e p r e s e n t a fundamentally new  where  i s of such  means of h a n d l i n g  space, o f moving v e r t i c a l l y . The b a s i c scheme of t a l l ,  t h i n w a l l s w i t h compound p i e r s ,  ed t r i b u n e s and quadrant arches was  first x  L u c i e n a t Beauvais  (fig.  groin-vault-  f o r m u l a t e d i n the chevet of S a i n t 15  1 ) , begun ca. 1090.  I t was  adopted a t S a i n t -  Germer and s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o d i f i e d i n accordance w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of the second stage of F i r s t G o t h i c . the c e n t r a l v e s s e l was  The main b e a r i n g w a l l s were h e i g h t e n e d  reduced i n w i d t h , which  s h i f t e d the s p a c i a l  and  concept 16  of the Beauvais formula toward an i n c r e a s i n g emphasis upon v e r t i c a l i t y . Similarly,  the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the t r i f o r i u m stage between the t r i b u n e and  the c l e r e s t o r y marked the t r a n s l a t i o n of the e l e v a t i o n from t h r e e to f o u r s t o r i e s and,  thereby, e s t a b l i s h e d an e n t i r e l y new  range of v i s u a l  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the framing of the bays by engaged s h a f t s was the developments  i n the B e a u v a i s i s as was  by prominent mouldings  round openings  i n concert with  the s c u l p t u r i n g of the t h i n w a l l s  and p l a s t i c a c c e n t s .  the t r i b u n e s t a g e , of two  effects.  The p a r t i c u l a r d i s p o s i t i o n of  taken under a r e l i e v i n g a r c h , was  f e a t u r e d at S a i n t - L u c i e n and S a i n t - E t i e n n e a t Beauvais, C r e i l , P o i s s y , and17 others ium was  (fig.  20).  y  Moreover,  the form of a simple r e c t a n g l e i n the  trifor-  perhaps determined by the B e a u v a i s i s t r a d i t i o n of emphasizing the 18 v e r t i c a l u n i t of the bay. While the chevet of Saint-Germer m o d i f i e d and r e v i s e d the scheme of S a i n t - L u c i e n at Beauvais, i t s e l e v a t i o n u l t i m a t e l y 19 retained a strong, l o c a l imprint.  The  chevet of Saint-Germer  f o l l o w e d i n the l i n e of Noyon; i t was  begun no more than t e n y e a r s a f t e r Noyon and l o c a t e d o n l y a few k i l o m e t e r s away.  In both s t r u c t u r e s the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n was  based  g i v e n an e x p r e s s i o n  on the F i r s t G o t h i c d e s i r e f o r the v e r t i c a l expansion o f space.  ever, the e l e v a t i o n a t Saint-Germer  How-  represented a d i f f e r e n t s o l u t i o n  struc-  20 t u r a l l y and,  thereby; v i s u a l l y  from t h a t of Noyon.  The use of compound p i e r s a t the main arcade of Saint-Germer a scheme of g r e a t s t r e n g t h and p l a s t i c i t y ,  determined  one t h a t i s f a r removed from  f i r m s i m p l i c i t y of Noyon where the supports are s l e n d e r monostyle  the  columns.  F u r t h e r , the c l u s t e r e d c o l o n n e t t e s , although of the same number as Noyon, are of r e g u l a r courses of masonry, r i s i n g to the v a u l t d e p a r t u r e s  ( f i g s . 6 and  from the base of the main  arcade  15); they e s t a b l i s h a u n i t y of t e x t u r e  and a s t r o n g c o n t i n u i t y i n the p u n c t u a t i o n of the w a l l s as opposed to the d e t a c h a b l e q u a l i t y of the c o l o n n e t t e s en d e l i t a t Noyon. At both Saint-Germer p r i m a r i l y to f u l f i l l  and Noyon the t r i f o r i u m stage was  the need t o r e l i e v e the i n t e r i o r w a l l c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o  the h e i g h t of the t r i b u n e r o o f s . at Saint-Germer,  introduced  However, the presence  of quadrant  a l i g n e d a t approximately a f o r t y degree  main b e a r i n g w a l l s , f o r c e d a r e l a t i v e l y  taller  arches  angle a g a i n s t the  zone of masonry between the  t r i b u n e and the c l e r e s t o r y than d i d the mur-boutants a t Noyon, p l a c e d a t 21 approximately a t h i r t y degree  angle ( f i g s . 8 and  of r e c t a n g l e s a t the t r i f o r i u m of Saint-Germer  15).  In t u r n , the s e r i e s  were p i e r c e d i n the  w a l l s as simple a p e r t u r e s , g i v i n g the e l e v a t i o n a prominent slots.  The b l i n d arcade a t Noyon, on the o t h e r hand, was  i z o n t a l band between the bays and was narrow zone of running r e l i e f the arcade may  (fig.  zone of  thin dark  l i n k e d i n a hor-  a t t a c h e d to the w a l l , p r o v i d i n g a  7).  In one sense, the d i s p o s i t i o n of  be r e l a t e d to the p r i n c i p l e of the t h i n - w a l l technique  the treatment of the w a l l on i t s s u r f a c e .  and  However; i t i s r e m i n i s c e n t i n  form to a passage arcade and i t s colonnettes are detached from the wall, which i s at least suggestive of the final expression of the thick-wall, of the wall treated in depth. The elevation of Saint-Germer bears l i t t l e relation to Noyon beyond the  general correspondence of four stories collected in a single scheme.  The opinion that Noyon was a direct source of influence appears unfounded. The use of the thin-wall technique, of compound piers, and groin-vaulted tribunes, and the particular treatment of the walls at Saint-Germer came 22 from a profoundly different foyer than that of Noyon.  The relative pos-  itions of Saint-Germer and Noyon in the second stage of First Gothic might simply be characterized as simultaneous but independent developments. In subsequent years, the chevet of Saint-Germer probably exercised an influence upon the chevet of Notre-Dame at Paris, begun ca. 1163. The thinwall elevation of four stories appears to have passed directly from SaintGermer to Paris where i t was substantially modified.  The chevet at Paris 23  measures a colossal height of approximately thirty-two meters, thirteen meters higher than Saint-Germer.  a full  The thin walls are supported by  monostyle columns which permit the free flow of space into the lateral volumes of the double side aisles to both physically and visually Tighten the mass of the structure.  In contrast to Saint-Germer, the bays are not delin-  eated by the strong verticals of the compound piers and continuous shafts, and the walls are not relieved by plastic characteristics but rather they are  construed as mural surfaces (figs. 16 and 21). At the tribune stage,  in particular, the walls appear to be nothing more than a thin membrane without structural value.  In the original  design, however,  the wall  surfaces on the interior, corresponding to the height of the quadrant arches beneath the tribune roofs on the exterior, were penetrated by a series of oculi (fig. 21).  These openings marked the third story in the elevation  but d i d n o t a c c e n t u a t e i t s s c a l e ;  they c r e a t e d ,  form, a tumbling momentum, one t h a t t r a v e r s e d  by v i r t u e o f t h e i r round  t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s o f the  interior. The treatment of the t h i r d s t o r y a t P a r i s was undoubtedly based on the d e s i g n of Saint-Germer, than r e c t a n g l e s .  though  i t was t r a n s p o s e d as a s e r i e s o f o c u l i  In t h i s r e s p e c t ,  rather  a l o n e , P a r i s was h e a v i l y i n d e b t e d t o t h e  advances made i n t h e chevet o f Saint-Germer.  A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e scheme o f  the t h i n - w a l l e l e v a t i o n o f f o u r s t o r i e s , common to both s t r u c t u r e s , was employed i n the chevet o f P a r i s t o i n a u g u r a t e t h e c o l o s s a l phase o f l o f t y interior  volumes.^  NOTES  The commencement of the c o n s t r u c t i o n of Saint-Germer was suggested as h a v i n g o c u r r e d between 1130 and 1150 by E. L e f e v r e - P o n t a l i s , "Etude sur l a date de l ' e g l i s e de Saint-Germer," B i b l i o t h e q u e de 1'ecole des c h a r t r e s , XLVI, 1885, 478. A commencement date f o r the chevet c a . 1145 was proposed by E. G a l l , D i e g o t i s c h e Baukunst i n F r a n k r e i c h und Deutschland, L e i p z i g , 1925, 150-159. T h i s was h e l d by R. de L a s t e y r i e , L ' a r c h i t e c t u r e r e l i g i e u s e en France a l'epoque gothique, I , P a r i s , 1929, 17. F i n a l l y , P. H e l i o t , "Remarques s u r l ' a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer e t s u r l e s b l o c s de f a c a d e du X I I s i e c l e , " B u l l e t i n monumental, CXIV, 1956, 112, suggested a commencement date ca. 1150. e  The a v a i l a b l e documents a r e d i s c u s s e d by A. Besnard, L ' e g l i s e Saint-Germer-de-Fly (Oise) et sa S a i n t e - C h a p e l l e , P a r i s , 1913, 84.  de  3 H e l i o t , "Remarques sur l ' a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer," 114. The d i s p o s i t i o n of round arches and the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of g r o i n v a u l t s a t the t r i b une stage have been regarded, above a l l , as a r c h a i c d e s i g n f e a t u r e s . Branner,  4  " G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e 1160-1180,"  102.  I.M. P e s s i n , "The T w e l f t h Century Abbey Church of Saint-Germer-de-Fly and I t s P o s i t i o n i n the Development of F i r s t G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e , " Gesta, XVII, 1978, 71. 5  H e l i o t , "Remarques sur l ' a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer,"  84.  T h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n of o c u l i i n the tympana of the t r i b u n e s i s found a t S a i n t E t i e n n e a t Caen. I t was l a t e r f e a t u r e d i n the nave of Noyon and the chevet of Chars. 7  Q T h i s arrangement was common i n Anglo-Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e ; see H e l i o t , "Remarques sur l ' a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer," 84. Q  The t r i b u n e s were p a r t i a l l y renovated i n the seventeenth c e n t u r y and the g r o i n v a u l t s were p r o b a b l y r e s t o r e d a t t h i s time; I b i d . , 82. "^The t r i f o r i u m openings were w a l l e d up i n the seventeenth c e n t u r y , a p p a r e n t l y to f u r t h e r s t a b i l i z e the s t r u c t u r e ; I b i d . , 83. IL . Pessin, 12 1 3  71.  7 1  I t occured a t P o i s s y , Sens and  the nave of Noyon among o t h e r s .  S e e T a b l e 1.  14 See Appendix:  The Q u e s t i o n of Cambrai  ^ T h e u l t i m a t e antecedent of the t h i n - w a l l i s found a t Jumieges; see Bony, "La technique normande du mur e p a i s , " 154-156. On S a i n t - L u c i e n a t Beauvais see above, 2-3. 16  See T a b l e 1.  H e l i o t , "Remarques s u r l ' a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer," 84-85. 18 P e s s i n , 71. The form of the t r i f o r i u m , of simple r e c t a n g l e s , proba b l y came from Normandy ( B o s c h e r v i l l e ) or the P a s - d e - C a l a i s ( L i l l e r s ) . 19 Ibid. H e l i o t , "Remarques s u r l ' a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer," 113, a l s o r e c o g n i z e d the s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e of S a i n t - L u c i e n a t Beauvais upon the e l e v a t i o n of Saint-Germer. 20 Lambert, " L ' a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer," 54-63, contends t h a t S a i n t Germer was h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by the chevet of Noyon. H i s arguments a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y , a l b e i t b r i e f l y , countered by H e l i o t , "Remarques s u r l ' a b b a t i a l e de Saint-Germer," 113. 21 The t r i f o r i u m of Noyon s c a r c e l y r i s e s above the crown of the t r i b u n e vaults. 22 Seymour, 176. 23 In the n i n e t e e n t h century a r c h a e o l o g i s t s excavated the f o u n d a t i o n s of the c a t h e d r a l a t P a r i s and d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the f o o t i n g s were over n i n e meters i n depth. (By comparison the f o o t i n g s of the chevet a t Noyon a r e f i v e meters i n depth; I b i d . , 106.) Such ample f o o t i n g s a t P a r i s were o b v i o u s l y prepared from the s t a r t to support extremely t a l l w a l l s ; W. Stoddard, A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n M e d i e v a l France , New York, 1972, 137-138. 24 In the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y the c l e r e s t o r y windows of the e n t i r e c a t h e d r a l a t P a r i s were enlarged and the s e r i e s of o c u l i above the s p a n d r e l s of the t r i b u n e s were removed. In the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y V i o l l e t - l e - D u c r e s t ored the i n t e r i o r bays a d j a c e n t to the c r o s s i n g to t h e i r o r i g i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n but o n l y i n an approximate f a s h i o n . A r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the '-original s t a t e of P a r i s and a d i s c u s s i o n of the changes up to the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y i s p r o v i d e d by M. Aubert, Notre-Dame de P a r i s , sa p l a c e dans l ' h i s t o i r e de 1 ' a r c h i t e c t u r e du X I I au XIV s i e c l e , P a r i s , 1920. 25 Seymour, 163. e  26 The scheme of Notre-Dame a t P a r i s i n f l u e n c e d a g r e a t number of s t r u c t u r e s i n the l a s t t h i r d of the t w e l f t h c e n t u r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the d i o c e s e of P a r i s . I t s t r i b u n e g a l l e r y was reproduced a t Mantes, Beaumont-sur-Oise, S a i n t - L e u - d ' E s s e r e n t and Moret. However, i t was not u n t i l the 1190's, a t Bourges t h a t the l o n g i t u d i n a l s p a c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the chevet a t P a r i s were developed f u r t h e r .  CHAPTER IV  THE  CHEVET OF LAON  In the l a t e 1150's the f i r s t b u i l d i n g campaign of the c a t h e d r a l of Laon was  undertaken by Bishop G a u t i e r  w e l l as the t r a n s e p t .  The  de Montagne"^ and  comprised the chevet  second campaign, ca. 1178,  included  e r n bays of the nave, the p a i r e d towers of the t r a n s e p t  the two  east-  the  crossing  tower.  A t h i r d campaign, ca. 1190-1215, completed the nave and  the west  front.  The  o r i g i n a l chevet of Laon, however, was  and  as  shortlived.  I t was  re2  placed  i n 1205  Nevertheless, paign It  by  the p r e s e n t  g r e a t l y lengthened, f l a t - e n d e d s t r u c t u r e .  the system of c o n s t r u c t i o n and  is s t i l l  i s evident  preserved  e l e v a t i o n of the f i r s t  i n t h r e e bays on the east s i d e of the  t h a t from the o u t s e t  the master of Laon had  firm  cam-  transept. possession  of the t h i c k - w a l l e l e v a t i o n of f o u r s t o r i e s , i t s s t r u c t u r a l demands and ual  possibilities. The main arcade of t h i s f i r s t  of monostyle columns w i t h arches ( f i g . 22). Saint-Denis and  vis-  The  campaign i s composed of a u n i f o r m 3  c y l i n d r i c a l bases and  use  abaci  supporting  of the monostyle column, no  and Noyon, allows  series  pointed  doubt i n h e r i t e d from  a marked economy i n the mass of the  f o s t e r s a f r e e flow of space i n t o the l a t e r a l volumes of the  structure side  aisles. The by  t r i b u n e stage c o n s i s t s of two  a slender  22,23).  The  colonnette extensive  and  round arches i n each bay  separated  taken under a round-headed r e l i e v i n g a r c h  tympana remain undecorated but  the arches c a r r y , i n  the same manner as those of the main arcade, a s i n g l e r o l l between chamfers. The  (figs.  two  4  v a s t t r i b u n e s , i n which the deeply  f a l s e bearing,  are covered by  rib vaults  penetrating  ( f i g . 24).  piers reveal a  Above, i s o l a t e d  wall  b u t t r e s s e s , s i t t i n g b e h i n d and  at r i g h t angles  t h r u s t at the p o i n t s of impact and es."'  The  to the p i e r s , r e s i s t  d i r e c t i t onto the  the  external•buttress-  l e a n - t o r o o f s of the t r i b u n e s are c a r r i e d , as at Noyon, above  the t r i a n g u l a r w a l l b u t t r e s s e s where t h e i r upper s l o p e s d e s c r i b e a degree a n g l e from the h o r i z o n t a l .  thirty  T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y narrow  zone on the i n t e r i o r w a l l a t the t h i r d s t o r y of the e l e v a t i o n , a zone t h i c k i n s e c t i o n . ( f i g . 24).  I t was  r e l i e v e d at Laon by  a true  triforium  passage. The  t r i f o r i u m opens onto the i n t e r i o r by  arches per bay way  r e s t i n g on s m a l l c o l o n n e t t e s  ( f i g s . 22,  i s p i e r c e d l o n g i t u d i n a l l y i n the t h i c k n e s s  p l a t e s of masonry l i n k i n g the i n n e r and i n g system forms the f l o o r i n g and  an arcade of t h r e e 23).  ( f i g . 24).  c e i l i n g of the passage and  as an i n t e r n a l b u t t r e s s i n g r e s t r a i n t .  The  The  of the w a l l w i t h  outer walls  round passagecontinuous This  also  chain-  functions  t r i f o r i u m passage p r o v i d e s  means of c i r c u l a t i o n but, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , r e p r e s e n t s  a new  a  expression  of the t h i c k - w a l l on a l a r g e s c a l e , of the w a l l t r e a t e d i n depth, i n l a y e r s . Here, f o r the f i r s t a voided The  time i n a f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n the w a l l i s reduced  s e c t i o n , y i e l d i n g an added space i n the e l e v a t i o n . c l e r e s t o r y i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by one window per bay,  round arch c a r r i e d on coursed The  colonnettes  framed by  a  ( f i g . 22).  e l e v a t i o n of the t r a n s e p t bays at Laon i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d , i n the  same manner as the o r i g i n a l chevet, by a r i g o r o u s order i n f a c t , a s k e l e t a l economy i n c o n s t r u c t i o n . d e f i n e d by c l u s t e r s o f en d e l i t c o l o n n e t t e s  The  along  ( f i g . 22).  The  7  abaci  S i m i l a r l y , the  stringcourses,  the s u r f a c e of the w a l l , d i v i d i n g one  ( f i g s . 22,23).  and,  u n i t s of the bays are w e l l  l i m i t s of the s t o r i e s are c l e a r l y marked by decorated continuously  i n treatment  r e g u l a r l y r i s i n g from the  of the monostyle p i e r s to the v a u l t d e p a r t u r e s  other  to  s t o r y from  running an-  f o u r - s t o r i e d e l e v a t i o n i s , t h e r e f o r e , expressed  w i t h i n the context  of a t i g h t l y woven g r i d of v e r t i c a l s and h o r i z o n t a l s .  Between the p i e r s the t h i c k - w a l l i s r e l i e v e d at every to  a scheme of superimposed arcades and  ings. in  At the t r i f o r i u m s t a g e , i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  e f f e c t , re-doubled,  stituting by ily  apertures,  two  The  the p e n e t r a t i o n of s p a c i o u s v o i d s and clarifies  i s reduced  of prominent mould-  the w a l l i s hollowed out  the d e c o r a t i v e arcade and  p a r a l l e l l a y e r s ( f i g . 24).  and  s t o r y and  and,  the s o l i d w a l l behind  con-  l i g h t e n i n g of the w a l l mass,  the v a r i a t i o n i n p l a n e s ,  necessar-  the component p a r t s of the e l e v a t i o n .  The v i s u a l e f f e c t of the e a s t e r n bays of the t r a n s e p t c r e a t e s an ity  between the v e r t i c a l r i s e and  e n r i c h e d by tions  the h o l l o w i n g  the l o n g i t u d i n a l flow of space, which i s  out of the w a l l .  Because of the s l e n d e r  twenty-four meters i n h e i g h t .  f u r t h e r s l i c e d i n t o narrow v e r t i c a l u n i t s by onnettes  and  from one bay penetrates  to the n e x t .  Simultaneously,  a t i o n , superposed one  one  above the o t h e r .  Moreover, each bay  arcade i s simply  r e i t e r a t e d by  The  i n the e l e v -  i s subdivided  s i n g l e opening of the main  the s i n g l e l i g h t of the c l e r e s t o r y .  graduated r e d u c t i o n i n the areas  trifor-  I t becomes a  a g a i n s t the other and,  from bottom to top i n the r a t i o 1:2:3:1.  thoroughly  t r i b u n e g a l l e r y and  f i n a l l y permeates the c l e r e s t o r y windows.  system of s p a c i a l volumes juxtaposed  col-  the s t r i n g c o u r s e s l e a d i n g  the i n t e r i o r volume  the l a t e r a l c e l l s of the s i d e a i s l e ,  the  It is  the c l u s t e r of en d e l i t  i s a l s o cut i n t o h o r i z o n t a l rows by  ium passage, and  of the v o i d s as w e l l as the s o l i d s  This tends  suggest a d i m i n i s h i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . The  ity  propor-  of the main v e s s e l the i n t e r i o r volume appears c a n a l i z e d between  t a l l w a l l s which are approximately  to  equal-  first  campaign of Laon embodies a c l a r i t y and  of s t r e n g t h i n f u l l  command of i t s r e s o u r c e s .  correspondence between r i b s and  s h a f t s and,  By  o r d e r and  the e f f e c t of a c l o s e  more i m p o r t a n t l y , by  p l o i t a t i o n of the w a l l i n depth, the scheme was  a qual-  the  ex-,  drawn to i t s l o g i c a l .  c o n c l u s i o n whereby the m u r a l i t y of a s t r u c t u r e and importance.  In the o r i g i n a l chevet of Laon and  cept of s k e l e t o n i z a t i o n was The  and  f i r s t master of Laon was  e l e v a t i o n of f o u r s t o r i e s w i t h  design  of Noyon but  con-  expression.  undoubtedly h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by  l o c a t e d o n l y twenty k i l o m e t e r s  the same proportions."'""'"  the t r a n s e p t bays the  f i n a l l y given a d i s t i n c t i v e Picard  chevet of Noyon, "^ completed s h o r t l y b e f o r e ram  i t s visual effects lost  the  the commencement of h i s p r o g -  away.  He  adopted the t h i c k - w a l l  a s i m i l a r d i s p o s i t i o n of component p a r t s i n  However, h i s was  not a p a s s i v e r e p e t i t i o n of  a p o w e r f u l c l a r i f i c a t i o n and  extension  the  of the fundamen-  12 t a l p r i n c i p l e s of t h a t The  composition  design.  of the main arcade at Laon, of monostyle columns  and  13 pointed  a r c h e s , was  drawn from Noyon  columns were e n l a r g e d ilarly,  but was  s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d i n that  i n mass, g i v i n g a f i r m e r base to the e l e v a t i o n .  the system of c o l o n n e t t e s  to the monostyle columns, was  a l s o d e r i v e d from Noyon.  However,  the  in- number from the t h r e e of Noyon to  f i v e , r e l a t e d i n number to the r i b s of the v a u l t s , which more e x a c t l y the o r g a n i z a t i o n of l o a d and  the v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s of the w a l l ed i n a s t r e n g t h e n i n g tinguished  Sim-  en d e l i t , descending from the h i g h v a u l t s 14  c l u s t e r e d c o l o n n e t t e s were i n c r e a s e d  derlined  the  support  un-  and more c l e a r l y punctuated  ( f i g s . 6 and  22).  These changes r e s u l t -  i n the d e l i n e a t i o n of the bays and  generally  dis-  the treatment of Laon from t h a t of Noyon.  At the t r i b u n e stage of Laon the presence of round a r c h e s i s somewhat r e g r e s s i v e i n c o n t r a s t to the p o i n t e d  a r c h e s of N o y o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  the  a d d i t i o n of a r e l i e v i n g a r c h i s e v i d e n c e of s t r i n g e n t s t r u c t u r a l concerns and  planar r e l i e f ,  23).  The  the a r c h seemingly c a r v i n g out  form of p a i r e d a r c h e s ,  a r c h a t the t r i b u n e stage was  though p o i n t e d ,  to be f e a t u r e d  the s o l i d  tympanum ( f i g .  taken under a r e l i e v i n g  i n the t r a n s e p t and  nave a t  16 Noyon,  i n the chevet of Saint-Remi a t Reims, Notre-Dame-en-Vaux a t  Chalons-sur-Marne, Montierender and It  I s , however, a t the  a s s i m i l a t i n g and  pierced s i d e and  In the need to r e l i e v e the  tribunes  Noyon.(fig. 8).  an arcade was  T h i s was  applied  c a r r i e d one  step  the  the o t h e r ( f i g . 24).  t h i c k - w a l l was  t h r u s t of the v a u l t s was masonry j o i n i n g the  of  f u r t h e r a t Laon.  the w a l l  at  A passage  absorbed by  was  one  p a r a l l e l l a y e r s and  by  distinguished  the c l e r e s t o r y , p r o v i d i n g  elements of the e l e v a t i o n .  By opening the  s o l i d c o n c e p t i o n o f the w a l l s t i l l  to Noyon,  evident  w a l l as a l o n g i t u d i n a l l y v o i d e d s e c t i o n  the  triangular  window i n each bay,  considerably though s t i l l  taller  buttress  further r e l i e f  to  the  t r i f o r i u m Laon moved beyond a t Noyon to e s t a b l i s h the  ( f i g s . 8 and  the  thick-  24).  than t h a t a t Noyon and  The the  e n c l o s e d < w i t h i n the c e l l of the  more s u c c e s s f u l l y l i g h t s the i n t e r i o r and  of  as an a d d i t i o n a l space  the c l e r e s t o r y of Laon the i n f l u e n c e of Noyon i s l o s t .  proportionately  the  the p i e r s , the continuous p l a t e s  outer w a l l s , and  Moreover, the t r i f o r i u m was and  In sharp c o n t r a s t  d i v i d e d i n t o two  i n n e r and  between the t r i b u n e s  is  to the s u r f a c e  aper-  an arcade (of a comparable d i s p o s i t i o n to t h a t of Noyon) opening  therefore,  At  t h i c k - w a l l above the  i n the l o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n of the w a l l w i t h a b l a n k w a l l on  onto the i n t e r i o r on  walls.  t r i f o r i u m stage of Laon t h a t the a c t i o n of  then s u p e r s e d i n g the experiments of Noyon i s most dram-  a t i c a l l y apparent. t u r e s of the  Mouzon.  story  single vault,  crowns the e l e v a t i o n than  the  p a i r a t Noyon. When the e l e v a t i o n of the f i r s t component p a r t s  i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i s c e r n the s t r o n g  the e l e v a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d how  campaign a t Laon i s reduced to i t s impact of Noyon.  i n i t s t o t a l i t y , however, one  f a r the s o l u t i o n s of Laon d i f f e r from those of Noyon.  s p a c i a l r e q u i s i t e s d i c t a t e d the need f o r heavy s u p p o r t i n g  can  If  observe j u s t  In both elements.  the In  chevet of Noyon the w a l l s have been v o i d e d by v a s t openings a t the main  the  arcade and t r i b u n e s t a g e but the l o c a l i z a t i o n of t h r u s t i s emphasized the p r o f u s i o n of responds and mouldings  ( f i g . 5);  At Laon, by  by  comparison,  the v i s u a l e f f e c t of the mass i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y l i g h t e n e d and a t the t r i f o r ium s t a g e , i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  the sense of the w a l l fades i n f a v o r of the s c r e e n  of arches and c o l o n n e t t e s b o l d l y s t a n d i n g f o r t h from the f a c e of the w a l l (fig.  23).  Where the chevet of Noyon remained a scheme of s o l i d i t y  p l a s t i c i t y , Laon reached toward a system of f i r m  lucidity.  The system of the t h i c k - w a l l p e n e t r a t e d by passages was of Norman and Anglo-Norman a r c h i t e c t u r e .  18  and  characteristic  At S a i n t - E t i e n n e a t Caen and  ~ 19 l a t e r at C e r i s y - l a - F o r e t s t o r y and opened  a passage was  taken a t the base of the c l e r e -  onto the i n t e r i o r of the nave by a p o r t i c o of t a l l a r c h e s .  While the p r i n c i p l e of the t h i c k ^ w a l l t r e a t e d i n depth was these s t r u c t u r e s , i t was  prepared i n  expressed i n the c o n t e x t of the Romanesque t h r e e -  s t o r i e d e l e v a t i o n w i t h the passage a t the c l e r e s t o r y p r i m a r i l y as a means 20 of c i r c u l a t i o n .  I t was  left  to the b u i l d e r s i n the second s t a g e of F i r s t 21  G o t h i c to d i s s o c i a t e the passage from the c l e r e s t o r y , an independent f e a t u r e .  In the chevet of Noyon the form of an arcade, w i t h -  out the a c t u a l passage, was Laon, i n what may  to a p p r e c i a t e i t as  first  i n t r o d u c e d a t the t r i f o r i u m s t a g e .  At  be seen as the i n e v i t a b l e r e s u l t of the i n s i s t e n c e upon  the a c c e n t u a t i o n of the s e p a r a t e s t o r i e s of the e l e v a t i o n and the r e d u c t i o n i n the mass of the w a l l , the t r u e t r i f o r i u m passage was 22 ated i n a f o u r - s t o r y The f i r s t  at l a s t  incorpor-  elevation.  campaign  of Laon may  be seen to stand a t the summit of the  second s t a g e of F i r s t G o t h i c and to s e t the s t a g e f o r the developments of 23 the s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n .  The use of the t h i c k - w a l l e l e v a t i o n of f o u r -  s t o r i e s was based upon a complete a s s i m i l a t i o n of the F i r s t G o t h i c d r i v e toward h e i g h t ; moreover,  the e x p r e s s i o n of the e l e v a t i o n by a prominent  g r i d of responds and s t r i n g c o u r s e s and the p e n e t r a t i o n of the t r i f o r i u m  passage was  e v i d e n c e of a g r e a t c l a r i f i c a t i o n .  By the treatment of the  w a l l i n depth, Laon marked the tendency toward the l i g h t e n i n g and h o l l o w ing  out of the s t r u c t u r a l l i m i t s .  1170's and 1180's. e f f e c t was In  I t was  to be a major concern of the  The p o i n t , however, was  immediate  f i r s t made a t Laon and i t s  and widespread.  the t r a n s e p t o f Noyon, ( c a . 1165-1170) the scheme o f Laon  was  2 5 f o l l o w e d by the i n c l u s i o n of an arcaded t r i f o r i u m passage, p o s i t i o n immediately above the f i r s t was at  s t o r y of the e l e v a t i o n  despite i t s (fig.  25).  c a r r i e d much f u r t h e r , however, by the c o l l e c t i o n of two g l a z e d the upper l e v e l s .  There the f a b r i c of the w a l l was  It  passages  reorganized  and  reduced to such an e x t r a o r d i n a r y degree as to be t r u l y a s k e l e t o n . In  the chevet of Saint-Remi a t Reims (begun ca.M170) and l a t e r i n the  chevet of Notre-Dame-en-Vaux a t Chalons-sur-Marne 26 ied  e l e v a t i o n of Laon was  continued,  ( c a . 1185)  the f o u r - s t o r -  complete w i t h monostyle p i e r s a t the  main arcade, p a i r e d openings a t the t r i b u n e stage and an arcaded t r i f o r i u m passage  (fig.  26).  In c o n t r a s t to Laon, however, the s t r u c t u r e was  l i g h t e n e d and the c l e r e s t o r y windows were m u l t i p l i e d , Reims and two or t h r e e a t Chalons-sur-Marne. the  greatly  t h r e e to a bay at  Furthermore, the arcade of  t r i f o r i u m , of t h r e e u n i t s of two arches r a t h e r than a row of i d e n t i c a l  a r c h e s , was  linked  from the s i l l  to the c l e r e s t o r y by s l e n d e r s h a f t s which were r a i s e d  of the t r i f o r i u m to frame the windows.  t h e r e f o r e , were c o n s t r u e d i n a much more complex  The upper  stories,  f a s h i o n than those a t Laon.  They c r e a t e d , i n e f f e c t , an i n t e g r a t e d u n i t w i t h i n the bay which was f a r from the d i s t i n c t i v e bands of Laon.  The i n t r o d u c t i o n of t r i p l e t s and the  l i n k a g e of the t r i f o r i u m and c l e r e s t o r y might be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the chevet 27 of  A r r a s ( c a . 1171-1174),  another s t r u c t u r e t h a t conserved the g e n e r a l  scheme of Laon but tended toward more audacious e f f e c t s . At  V a l e n c i e n n e s (begun c a . 1171)  and a g a i n a t Montierender  28  the  thick-wall elevation of four.stories was also employed with the triforium and clerestory firmly distinguished but was characterized by an ornate delicacy that goes beyond the regularity of Laon. 29 In the south transept of Soissons (after 1177)  a lightness and lucid-  ity was achieved in visual effect by the superposition of apertures and arcades, and by the slenderness of the piers (fig. 27).  However, by the sharp  differentiation between the piers and the stories with their multiple divisions and by the incorporation of stringcourses, a horizontal continuity was established within prominent verticals which was perhaps drawn from the surface pattern and, thereby, the spacial aspect of the chevet of Laon. The influence of Laon was certainly prodigious and pervasive.  It even 30  extended to the cathedral of Chartres, by way "of Saint-Vincent at Laon and possibly Orbais where the arcaded triforium passage was incorporated in a three-storied elevation.  Nevertheless, by the 1170's the experiments on  the hollowed out wall had been superseded by the expression of the diaphanous wall, of superposed passages- and the remois passage, which, together with the play of the linked triforium and clerestory and the popularity of triplets, responded to a new set of structural and spacial concerns.  The  f u l l force of the f i r s t campaign of Laon was to be long felt, however, in the handling of the wall in depth.  NOTES  A commencement date of 1157 has been suggested on the b a s i s of a b u l l of Alexander I I I ; L. Broche, La c a t h e d r a l e de Laon, P a r i s , 1930, 163-164. A date of c a . 1160 was p r e f e r e d by E. Lambert, " l a c a t h e d r a l e de Laon," Gazette des b e a u x - a r t s , 1926, 362 and by H. Adenauer, Die K a t h e d r a l e von Laon, D f i s s e l d o r f , 1934, 30. T h i s date has more r e c e n t l y been h e l d by R. K i n g , "Laon C a t h e d r a l : the Second Campaign of C o n s t r u c t i o n , " J o u r n a l of the S o c i e t y of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , XXI, 1972, 228, and by P. H e l i o t , "Le chevet de l a c a t h e d r a l e de Laon, ses antecedents f r a n g a i s e t ses s u i t e s , Gazette des b e a u x - a r t s , LXXX, 1972, 193. 2 The reasons f o r the d e m o l i t i o n of the o r i g i n a l chevet unknown; Lambert, "La c a t h e d r a l e de Laon," 362.  of Laon a r e  3  In the course of h i s e x c a v a t i o n s , M. Boeswilwald d i s c o v e r e d f o u r c o l umns of the o r i g i n a l chevet i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y s t r u c t u r e ; Adenauer, 18. 4  Ibid.,  21.  "'in the t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , f l y i n g b u t t r e s s e s were added to the e n t i r e cathedral. They were not n e c e s s i t a t e d by any inadequacy on the p a r t of the mur-boutants but r a t h e r were added to modernize the c a t h e d r a l i n accordance w i t h the new High G o t h i c a e s t h e t i c . I b i d . , 12. For t h i s system of c h a i n i n g see Choisy,  297-300.  I t appears, on the b a s i s of the r e s e a r c h by Adenauer and the e v i d ence of the t r a n s e p t bays, t h a t the en d e l i t c o l o n n e t t e s of the f i r s t camp a i g n were of a uniform p a t t e r n r a t h e r than a l t e r n a t i n g , as i n the nave, from t h r e e to f i v e . 7  g The prolongment of the s t r i n g c o u r s e s a c r o s s the engaged c o l o n n e t t e s a t each s t o r y i s unusual. I t does r e c u r , however, a t C h a r t r e s . 9  See  Table  1.  "^"The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Laon and Noyon can be t r a c e d c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , almost bay f o r bay. One has the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the two a r c h i t e c t s v i s i t e d one another and d i s c u s s e d each s u c c e s s i v e s t e p . " These apt o b s e r v a t i o n s were noted by Frank!, 44. 1:L  See Table  1.  12 The b a s i c work on the s t y l i s t i c "sources of Laon i s Lambert, "La c a t h e d r a l de l a o n , " 361-384. H i s main theses are unshaken by Adenauer. However, Lambert tends to focus upon the o r i g i n s of the towers of Laon r a t h e r than the e l e v a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l chevet and he l a r g e l y omits the r e l a t i o n s h i p to Noyon. 13 Seymour, 118. Ibid.  39  "'"^The presence of round arches at the t r i b u n e stage of an e l e v a t i o n i n the 1160's was n o t u n u s u a l . 16  Seymour, 138.  ^In the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the c l e r e s t o r y windows o f Noyon were enl a r g e d and the median jambs removed, p r o d u c i n g an arrangement s i m i l a r to t h a t of Laon; I b i d . 114. 18  Bony, "La t e c h n i q u e normande du mur e p a i s , " 153-188.  19 The apse of C e r i s y - l a - F o r e t was begun a t the end o f the e l e v e n t h cent u r y or the s t a r t of the t w e l f t h . 20 In the nave a t T o u r n a i the t h i c k - w a l l e l e v a t i o n of f o u r s t o r i e s was a l s o designed w i t h a passage. However, i t s i n f l u e n c e upon Laon was p r o b a b l y n e g l i g i b l e s i n c e the passage was i n c o r p o r a t e d on the e x t e r i o r a t the c l e r e s t o r y l e v e l ; Branner, " G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e 1160-1180," 95-97. 21 In the abbey churches of Tewkesbury and Pershore a t r i f o r i u m passage was perhaps i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a f o u r s t o r i e d e l e v a t i o n b u t c e r t a i n l y w i t h i n a Romanesque c o n t e x t ; Bony, "Tewkesbury e t de P e r s h o r e , " 503-504. 22 The t r i f o r i u m passage may have been g i v e n an e a r l i e r e x p r e s s i o n i n the s c h o o l of F i r s t G o t h i c a t S a i n t - V i n c e n t a t Laon. The e l e v a t i o n of S a i n t - V i n c e n t was c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to Laon C a t h e d r a l but i t s date has remained a matter of much s p e c u l a t i o n . E. Lambert, "L'ancienne abbaye de S a i n t V i n c e n t de Laon," Comptes rendus des'seances de l'academie des i n s c r i p t i o n s et b e l l e s - l e t t r e s , 1939, 137, proposed a date ca." 1174-1205. J . Bony, "The R e s i s t a n c e to C h a r t r e s i n E a r l y T h i r t e e n t h Century A r c h i t e c t u r e , " J o u r n a l of the B r i t i s h A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , XX-XXI, 1957-1958, 41, suggested a commencement date c a . 1180. 23 H. F o c i l l o n , The A r t of the West i n the M i d d l e Ages, I I , G o t h i c A r t , t r a n s l a t e d by D. K i n g , e d i t e d and i n t r o d u c e d by J . Bony, New York, 1969, 18. 24 Branner, " G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e 1160-1180," 103. See a l s o P. H e l i o t , "Les oeuvres c a p i t a l e s du gothique f r a n c a i s p r i m i t i f , " W a l l r a f - R i c h a r t z Jahrbuch, XX, 1958, 98-99. 25  Seymour,  127-129.  26 The r e l a t i o n s between Laon and Reims have most r e c e n t l y been d i s cussed by A. Prache, Saint-Remi de Reims, 1'oeuvre de P i e r r e de C e l l e e t sa p l a c e dans 1 ' a r c h i t e c t u r e gothique, P a r i s , . 1 9 7 8 , 95-96. 27 See J . Bony i n H e l i o t , "Les oeuvres c a p i t a l e s , " 98-99. The d e s i g n may have been i n s p i r e d by such a work as the gate house a t Bury S a i n t Edmund ' s. 28 M. Aubert, "A propos du choeur de Montier-en-Der," Congres a r c h e o l ogique, CXIII, 1955, 277-281.  C.F. Barnes, J r . , "The T w e l f t h Century T r a n s e p t of S o i s s o n s : The M i s s i n g Source f o r C h a r t r e s ? " J o u r n a l of the S o c i e t y of A r c h i t e c t u r a l H i s t o r i a n s , XXVIII, 1969, 9-25. )  See note  22.  CHAPTER V  CONCLUSION  In h i s A r t of the West, H e n r i F o c i l l o n observed of the b u i l d i n g s t i n g u i s h e d by was  four-storied elevations  fundamental, d e s p i t e  Saint-Germer and serves  t h a t "the u n i f o r m i t y  the v a r i e t y of the treatment."''"  Laon there  dis-  of the scheme Indeed, at Noyon,  i s a b a s i c homogeneity inasmuch as each con-  a scheme of s e p a r a t e s t o r i e s - main arcade, t r i b u n e s , t r i f o r i u m and  c l e r e s t o r y - superposed i n a s i n g l e e l e v a t i o n . that the commonality as w e l l as the u n i f o r m i t y stage of F i r s t G o t h i c was  F o c i l l o n might have added of the scheme i n the  a f u n c t i o n of the d e s i r e to a c h i e v e the  second  vertical  expansion of space. In the chevets of Noyon, Saint-Germer and a l expansion may I t may  be  be  Laon the concern f o r v e r t i c -  i d e n t i f i e d as the u n d e r l y i n g  p r i n c i p l e of  seen, f u r t h e r m o r e , as a l o g i c a l e x t e n s i o n  e a r l i e s t stage of F i r s t G o t h i c ,  t h a t of S a i n t - D e n i s  of the focus and  f o l l o w i n g , where the h o r i z o n t a l expansion of space was move toward h e i g h t , and  of  the  i t s immediate f u l l y explored.  however, meant the s a c r i f i c e of w i d t h .  the t h i c k - w a l l techniques were adopted and  expression.  The  thin-wall  r e v i s e d from Romanesque  models i n answer to the c o n s t r u c t i o n a l problems of b u i l d i n g i n h e i g h t , r a i s i n g and a t i o n s and ation.  stabilizing  the main b e a r i n g  superstructures,  The  and,  concomitantly,  f o u r - s t o r i e d e l e v a t i o n was  t r i f o r i u m was  introduced  to r e l i e v e the  walls.  The  of  They d i c t a t e d heavy foundrequired  a tribune elev- '  almost a foregone c o n c l u s i o n .  p r i m a r i l y i n response to d e c o r a t i v e  The  considerations,  zone of w a l l on the i n t e r i o r c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the h e i g h t  the t r i b u n e r o o f s on the e x t e r i o r ; i t s r o l e i n v i s u a l e f f e c t s , moreover, was  absolute  i n terms of a c c e n t u a t i n g  s t o r y e l e v a t i o n d i d not  the concern f o r h e i g h t .  r e q u i r e a generous s c a l e ; i t was  The  reduced to  fouran  of  exceedingly small  s c a l e i n the  at Chars and M o n t i e r e n d e r .  l a t e t w e l f t h and  early thirteenth  very expression  of the f o u r - s t o r y  The  centuries elevation  of m u l t i p l e d i v i s i o n s , n e c e s s a r i l y suggest an enlargement of the  scale.  Once the s t r u c t u r a l and  were s e t ,  s p a c i a l r e q u i s i t e s of b u i l d i n g i n h e i g h t  then, i n F o c i l l o n ' s terms, the g e n e r a l  scheme of the f o u r - s t o r y  i n the second stage of F i r s t G o t h i c was  elevation  fundamental.  However, the p a r t i c u l a r treatment of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n a t Noyon Saint-Germer and  Laon was  r u l e d by no  s i n g l e center  to a v a r i e t y of r e g i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s and f i x e d , n e c e s s a r y r e l a t i o n s and  was  influences.  characterized  s t r u c t u r a l , s p a c i a l and  decorative  Noyon, Saint-Germer and  Laon must be a p p r e c i a t e d  but  but  aspects.  by  rather  I t was  responded  d i c t a t e d by  a wide d i v e r s i t y of  In t h i s way,  the chevets of  as h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  simultaneous r e a l i z a t i o n s of the F i r s t G o t h i c d e s i r e f o r h e i g h t ;  over, each may  be  of a r e g i o n a l The  as an e x p e r i m e n t a l and  progressive  more-  expression  style.  chevet of Noyon i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  s t r u c t u r e and i c a c y and  identified  a rich plasticity  in detail.  l i g h t n e s s of S a i n t - D e n i s and  a s o l i d i t y and  strength  in  I t i s f a r removed from the  the r o l e of the chevet of  conventionally  been c o n s i d e r e d .  i n terms of the  The  a general  d i f f e r e n c e s between n o n - v a u l t e d and of the w a l l i n depth at Noyon by was  c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the g e n e r a l  w i t h the c a t h e d r a l a t Noyon and represent  the  of S e n l i s .  one  vaulted  thick-wall  i n t h a t there  architectures.  the p r o f u s i o n  development i n the r e g i o n  elevation  are  profound  The  treatment  of responds and and  mouldings was  in line  However, the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of the t r i f o r i u m  sharp d e l i n e a t i o n of the bays by  fundamentally new  has  i n f l u e n c e of the nave of T o u r n a i seems  thematic o r i g i n s of the  of f o u r s t o r i e s a l t h o u g h i t was  del-  Saint-  Denis i n r e l a t i o n to the e l e v a t i o n of Noyon appears somewhat l e s s than  more t e n a b l e  no  advances i n space and  the en d e l i t  colonnettes  v i s u a l e f f e c t s , advances  43 t h a t were to be f u r t h e r developed i n a s e r i e s of b u i l d i n g s i n P i c a r d y . In the chevet of Saint-Germer the p l a y of l o c a l s t y l i s t i c s t r i k i n g l y apparent.  The b a s i c  scheme and, i n p a r t ,  the p a r t i c u l a r t r e a t -  ment of the e l e v a t i o n i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to S a i n t - L u c i e n ever, by the h e i g h t e n i n g  sources i s  a t Beauvais.  How-  of the i n t e r i o r volumes and the framing of the  bays, by the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the t r i f o r i u m and, thereby, the- i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n , the Beauvais formula was s u b s t a n t i a l l y r e v i s e d i n accordance w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of the second stage of F i r s t G o t h i c . contrast Picard  to the chevet of Noyon, where the b a s i s of i t s e x p r e s s i o n  In  i s the  t h i c k - w a l l , the treatment of the f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n a t Saint-Germer  i s l a r g e l y symptomatic of the B e a u v a i s i s  and of the t h i n - w a l l .  In the chevet of Laon, the use of the t h i c k - w a l l e l e v a t i o n of f o u r s t o r i e s may w e l l be a t t r i b u t e d to the immediate i n f l u e n c e of Noyon. p u n c t u a t i o n of the bays by en d e l i t s t o r i e s by s t r i n g c o u r s e s corporation  may a l s o be t r a c e d  and the s e p a r a t i o n  to Noyon.  of the  However, by the i n -  of the arcaded t r i f o r i u m passage, Laon moved beyond Noyon  toward the h o l l o w i n g of the mass.  colonnettes  The  out of the w a l l and the l i g h t e n i n g of the v i s u a l e f f e c t  The p r i n c i p l e of p e n e t r a t i n g  the t h i c k - w a l l by passages was  based i n Norman and Anglo-Norman t r a d i t i o n s .  However, i t was i n t r o d u c e d  a new c o n t e x t a t Laon and was g i v e n a d i s t i n c t i v e P i c a r d e x p r e s s i o n  in  that  was to be l o n g l i v e d . In l i g h t of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the f o u r - s t o r y  e l e v a t i o n i n the  chevets of Noyon, Saint-Germer and Laon, F o c i l l o n ' s o r i g i n a l might be amended t o r e a d :  w h i l e the u n i f o r m i t y  of the scheme was  by  F i r s t G o t h i c p r i n c i p l e s , the d i v e r s i t y of the treatment was  by  regional variations.  I t was, above a l l ,  observation dictated  determined  the d i v e r s i t y of the e x p r e s s -  i o n s , the m u l t i p l i c i t y of the t r a d i t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e s  i n the second stage  of F i r s t G o t h i c t h a t marked i t as an age. of e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n .  44  NOTES  Focillon, 15.  45  TABLE 1 PERCENTAGE OF HEIGHT OF MAIN ELEMENTS TO HEIGHT OF ELEVATION  Main aisles  Tribunes  Triforium  Clerestory  Height of main vaults (meters)  Width of main vessel (meters)  Ratio  10.50  1:2.05  9.10  1:2.08  Noyon, chevet  36%  26%  10%  27%  21.50  Saint-Germer  41  24  11*  23  19  Laon  36  23  10  30  24  12  1:2  Cambrai  35  10  1:3.5  Saint-Lucien, Beauvais  20  11  1:1.8  31  24  9  1:2.6  25  18  9.20  1:1.95  Tournai, nave  29  30  12  Senlis  45  29  Paris  34  28  14*  23  32  14  1:2.28  Saint-Remi, Reims  34  30  11  24  25  14.75  1:1.69  Soissons, south arm  32  27  12  23  23  10.50  1:2.19  Note: Sources for figures: C. Seymour Jr., Notre-Dame of Noyon in the Twelfth Century, 160; I.M. Pessin, measurements of Saint-Germer; personal measurements of scaled drawings from G. Dehio and G. von Bezold, Die Kirchliche Baukunst des Abendlandes, l-V.  * Based on the height of the aperture.  Fig.  1. Beauvais, S a i n t - L u c i e n .  Sketch by van der Berghe.  47  F i g . 2.  Tournai, Cathedral. Transverse  s e c t i o n of nave.  48  Fig.  3 . Tournai, Cathedral. s e c t i o n of nave.  Longitudinal  F i g . 4.  T o u r n a i , C a t h e d r a l . Nave.  5. Noyon, C a t h e d r a l . Chevet.  51  52  F i g . 8. Noyon, C a t h e d r a l . T r a n s v e r s e s e c t i o n of chevet.  54  F i g . 9. Noyon, C a t h e d r a l . Chevet.  55  F i g . 10.  Noyon, C a t h e d r a l . P l a n as executed  to  1235.  +—H  Fig.  1  1  5 M.  11. S a i n t - D e n i s . of c h e v e t .  Plan  56  Fig. 12. Saint-Denis. Plan of crypt.  I—i—i—i—i  I  I  I  I  I  I  lOM.  F i g . 13. Saint-Germain-des-Pres. P l a n of chevet.  58  Fig. 14. Senlis, Cathedral. Reconstruction of elevation.  59  Fig.  15. Saint-Germer. L o n g i t u d i n a l s e c t i o n of chevet.  Fig.  16. Saint-Germer. Chevet.  Fig.  17. Saint-Germer. Chevet. D e t a i l of t r i b u n e s .  62  Fig.  19. Saint-Germer. Chevet. D e t a i l of  clerestory.  F i g . 20. Beauvais, S a i n t - E t i e n n e . Nave.  F i g . 21. P a r i s , C a t h e d r a l . Nave.  F i g . 22.  Laon, C a t h e d r a l . Longitudinal section.  F i g . 23. Laon, C a t h e d r a l . North t r a n s e p t w i t h view i n t o c r o s s i n g .  F i g . 24. Laon, C a t h e d r a l . T r a n s v e r s e  section.  25. Noyon, C a t h e d r a l . South  transept.  BIBLIOGRAPHY Acland, J.H. Medieval Structure:  The Gothic Vault.  Toronto, 1972.  Adenauer, H. Die Kathedrale von Laon. Dusseldorf, 1934. Anfray, M. L'architecture normande, son influence dans le nord de l a France aux XI et Xlie siecles. Paris, 1939. e  Aubert, M. 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"Etude sur l a date de l ' e g l i s e de Saint-Germer." B i b l i o t h e q u e de l ' e c o l e des c h a r t e s , XLVI, 1885, 478-495. L e f e v r e - P o n t a l i s , E. "Les i n f l u e n c e s normandes au X I e t au X I I siecle dans l e nord de l a F r a n c e . " B u l l e t i n monumental, LXX, 1906, 3-37. e  Moore, C.H. Development and Character  e  of G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e . London, 1890.  Panofsk-y, E. G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e and S c h o l a s t i c i s m .  New York, 1957.  P e s s i n , T.M. "The T w e l f t h Century Abbey Church of Saint-Germer-de-Fly and I t s P o s i t i o n i n the Development of F i r s t G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e . " Gesta, XVII, 1978, 71. P o r t e r , A.K. M e d i e v a l A r c h i t e c t u r e , i t s O r i g i n s and Development. I - I I . York, 1909. Prache, A. "Les a r c s - b o u t a n t s au X I I  e  s i e c l e . " Gesta, XV,  1976,  New  31-42.  Prache, A. 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A Study i n the E a r l y Development of G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e . New York, 1968. Simson, 0. von. The G o t h i c C a t h e d r a l : O r i g i n s of G o t h i c A r c h i t e c t u r e and the M e d i e v a l Concept of Order. P r i n c e t o n , 1974. Stoddard, W.S.  A r t and A r c h i t e c t u r e i n M e d i e v a l France. New  Temko, A. Notre-Dame of P a r i s . New  York,  York,  1972.  1955.  Verbeek, A. "Die O t t o n i s c h e Bautengruppe zu Essen und Werden und d i e V i e r g e s c h o s s i g e Wandgliederung." K a r o l i n g i s c h e und O t t o n i s c h e Kunst (Forschungen zur Kunst und C h r i s t l i c h e Arch'aologie, 3) . Wiesbaden, 1957, 150-158" V i o l l e t - l e - D u c , E. D i c t i o n n a l r e r a i s o n n e de 1 ' a r c h i t e c t u r e f r a n c a i s e du X I au X V I s i e c l e . I-X. P a r i s , 1854-1868. e  Warichez,  e  J . La c a t h e d r a l e de T o u r n a i . B r u x e l l e s ,  1934.  APPENDIX  THE  The  QUESTION OF  nave of the destroyed  CAMBRAI  c a t h e d r a l at Cambrai''" may  w e l l have been  one  2 of the f i r s t  f o u r - s t o r y e l e v a t i o n s of F i r s t G o t h i c  the a v a i l a b l e documentary and as a r e s u l t , and  architecture.  However,  a r c h e o l o g i c a l evidence i s parsimonious  the chronology of i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n cannot be  and,  firmly established  the d i s p o s i t i o n of i t s i n t e r n a l e l e v a t i o n cannot be determined w i t h  cer-  tainty. In the y e a r 1148  the e l e v e n t h century  c a t h e d r a l at Cambrai was  devastat-  3  ed by  fire  nave was  and  i t has  been g e n e r a l l y accepted t h a t the r e b u i l d i n g of  begun s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r .  course of c o n s t r u c t i o n d i d not c o l l a p s e d i n 1161.^ is  the extent  the m u n i c i p a l  The  4  I t was  completed ca. 1182^  pass u n i n t e r r u p t e d  but  the  the  s i n c e the western tower  p r o g r e s s of the nave to t h i s date i s u n c e r t a i n ,  of the damage.  However, the ground p l a n of the c a t h e d r a l  a r c h i t e c t Boileux^  shows a widening of the a i s l e s and  t e r a t i o n i n the responds e a s t of the f i f t h  bay  ( f i g . 28)  as by  an a l -  which suggests a  Q  bold is  change i n the d e s i g n ,  likely,  paigns:  one  t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the nave was  perhaps i n i t i a t e d a f t e r 1161. the r e s u l t of two  the f i r s t , begun ca. 1148/1150, may  the four'westernmost bays; and completed the nave a c c o r d i n g ation.  that was  a f t e r 1161,  to an e n l a r g e d  It  construction  cam-  have comprised the l a y - o u t  of  the second campaign might have p l a n as w e l l as a r e v i s e d  elev-  While the c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d of the nave at Cambrai must n e c e s s a r -  i l y have taken p l a c e between 1148/1150-1182, i t s f i n a l d e s i g n may  date to  1161. No  i n t e r i o r views of Cambrai have been found.  b a s i s of the ground p l a n by B o i l e u x south s i d e of the c a t h e d r a l by van  N o n e t h e l e s s , on  the  as w e l l as an e x t e r n a l drawing of der Meulen ( f i g . 29)  and  an  aerial  the  75  photograph of the n o r t h s i d e of a model of Cambrai, now  destroyed,  i t is  x u  p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n component f e a t u r e s of the nave. The nave reached ers."''"'"  I t may  an o v e r - a l l h e i g h t of approximately  be deduced from the ground p l a n by B o i l e u x t h a t the main  b e a r i n g w a l l s were l e s s than one meter i n depth main arcade was  t h i r t y - f i v e met-  ( f i g . 28).  Further,  composed of a r e g u l a r s e r i e s of compound p i e r s w i t h  teen s h a f t s c a r r y i n g f o u r - p a r t v a u l t s . the photograph of the model suggest  The  the six-  drawing by van der Meulen  and  a s t e e p l y p i t c h e d t r i b u n e r o o f which i s 12  i n d i c a t i v e of the e x i s t e n c e of quadrant arches extreme h e i g h t of the nave and  ( f i g . 29).  In view of  the  the t h i n n e s s of the w a l l s , an a d d i t i o n a l  abutment system of t h i s type would have been r e q u i r e d to r e s t r a i n the  aer-  i a l vaults. The  nave at Cambrai seems to have been, by a l l accounts,  the conquest of h e i g h t .  It utilized  t h i n - w a l l ; the b a s i c scheme of t a l l , probably,  dedicated  the Norman Romanesque technique t h i n walls with  compound p i e r s  to  of  the  and,  quadrant arches - perhaps d i r e c t l y d e r i v e d from S a i n t - L u c i e n at  13 Beauvais  and  c e r t a i n l y i n l i n e with  Saint-Germer and P a r i s .  In the same  manner as Saint-Germer and Noyon, the nave of Cambrai might a l s o have ployed an e l e v a t i o n of f o u r s t o r i e s .  However, the treatment  a t i o n on the i n t e r i o r , of the zone of masonry c o r r e s p o n d i n g  em-  of the e l e v to the h e i g h t  of the t r i b u n e r o o f s on the e x t e r i o r i s , t o - d a t e , unknown. whether i t s e l e v a t i o n was at Cambrai may  the nave  be c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n the second stage of F i r s t G o t h i c  i t e c t u r e by the evidence space.  composed of t h r e e or f o u r s t o r i e s ,  of i t s need to a c h i e v e  arch-  the v e r t i c a l enlargement of  However, a p r e c i s e assessment of i t s p o s i t i o n t h e r e i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n r e l a t i o n to Saint-Germer and P a r i s , i s h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c . assumed, on the one hand, t h a t the nave dates  If i t is  to ca. 1148/1150 then i t s  impact upon Saint-Germer i s t e n a b l e w i t h r e s p e c t to the concept  of b u i l d i n g  i n height; and  t h i s argument i s supported by  f o u r - p a r t v a u l t s a t Gambrai, f e a t u r e s  a r c h i t e c t u r e of the Germer.  On  1140's and  1150's and  the presence of compound p i e r s t h a t were i n c o n c e r t w i t h were i n c o r p o r a t e d  at  the  Saint-  the other hand, the c o l o s s a l h e i g h t of Cambrai i s compar14  able only  to t h a t a t P a r i s ,  d a t e s a f t e r ca. 1161  begun ca. 1163,  i t s sphere of i n f l u e n c e  f o c u s of the f o u r - s t o r i e d e l e v a t i o n i n F i r s t  and  i f , i n f a c t , the nave  l i e s outside  the p r i n c i p a l  Gothic.  D e s p i t e r e p e a t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n , the o r i g i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n of the i n t e r n a l e l e v a t i o n of  the nave a t Cambrai and  t i o n remain unanswered, and the c u r r e n t  research  the chronology of i t s c o n s t r u c -  perhaps unanswerable.  i n France by  It i s anticipated  Jacques T h i b a u t w i l l  of the  e n t i r e q u e s t i o n of Cambrai and  Gothic  architecture.  lead  to a  recasting  i t s r o l e i n the development of  v  that  First  NOTES "'"The cathedral was completely demolished during the French Revolution. 2 P. Heliot, "La nef et le clocher de l'ancienne cathedrale de Cambrai," Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch, XVIII, 1956, 91-110, assumes that the nave at Cambrai had an elevation of four stories, as does Branner, "Gothic Architecture 1160-1180," 92-104. This assumption was also held by L. Serbat, "Quelques eglises anciennement detruite du nord de l a France," Bulletin monumental, LXXXVIII, 1929, 402. 3 Heliot, "L'ancienne cathedrale de cambrai," 91. His source is the Chronique by Sigebert of Gembloux. 4 Ibid. See also R. Branner, "The Transept of Cambrai Cathedral," Gedenkschrift Ernst Gall, Berlin, 1965, 69. ^Heliot, "L'ancienne cathedrale de Cambrai," 92. A slightly earlier terminus date, ca. 1180, is given by Branner without any explanation. Heliot, "L'ancienne cathedrale de Cambrai," 92. The plan has been dated ca. 1800. It was lithographed by Engelmann and f i r s t reproduced by A. LeGlay, Recherches sur l'eglise metropolitaine de Cambrai, Paris, 1825. g Branner, "Gothic Architecture 1160-1180," 102. 9 This possibility was suggested by Heliot, L'ancienne cathedrale de Cambrai," 96. 7  "^The model of Cambrai, ca. 1695, was placed in the Berlin Arsenal by the Prussians in 1815 and was destroyed in 1945. Ibid., 95. :  "'""'"The height of the nave is given on the basis of an eighteenth century document conserved in the archives of the Nord; Branner, "The Transept of Cambrai," 81. 12 In the van der Meulen drawing the extrados of the quadrant arches appear to be represented, projecting above the roofs of the tribunes; see fig. 29. However, such an arrangement is unprecedented in First Gothic architecture and the drawing itself is imprecise on other accounts. 13 See above, 2-3. 14  See Table 1.  

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