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Zhong-shan phonology : a synchronic and diachronic analysis of a Yue (Cantonese) dialect Chan, Marjorie K. M. 1980

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ZHONG-SHAN PHONOLOGY: A Synchronic  and D i a c h r o n i c A n a l y s i s  of a Yue (Cantonese) D i a l e c t by MARJORIE KIT MAN  CHAN  B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department o f L i n g u i s t i c s  We accept  t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  to t h e r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1980  ©  M a r j o r i e K i t Man Chan, 1980  In presenting this thesis in partial  fulfilment of the requirements for  an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It  is understood that copying or publication  of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Depa rtment The University of B r i t i s h Columbia  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  ABSTRACT Zhong-shan i s a county i n Kwangtung P r o v i n c e i n southern China. is  What i s normally r e f e r r e d t o as the "Zhong-shan d i a l e c t "  the speech of S h i - q i , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e f o r the  county.  For the p r e s e n t t h e s i s , data were c o l l e c t e d from n a t i v e Zhong-shan speakers from S h i - q i and neighbouring v i l l a g e s where the  speech  can be equated w i t h the S h i - q i , Zhong-shan d i a l e c t . The data e l i c i t e d c o n s i s t of two main t y p e s : (1) c o l l o q u i a l v o c a b u l a r y , f o r which g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n (an the of  standard Chinese c h a r a c t e r s ) do not e x i s t , and  based on the r e a d i n g of a standard word l i s t surveys  (namely, the Fang-yan Diao-cha  some 3,700 Chinese c h a r a c t e r s .  form  (2) a l e x i c o n  f o r Chinese  dialect  Z i - b i a o ) , which c o n t a i n s  The s y n c h r o n i c study, which used  both s e t s of data, i s based on an amalgamation o f Western s t r u c t u r a l i s t and Chinese  ( t r a d i t i o n a l and modern)  approaches.  For the d i a c h r o n i c study, the d i a l e c t survey  list,  arranged a c c o r d i n g t o h i s t o r i c a l p h o n o l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , was indispensible.  The d i a c h r o n i c study e s s e n t i a l l y mapped the pat-  t e r n of correspondences  of the d i a l e c t a g a i n s t the h i s t o r i c a l  c a t e g o r i e s t o which each word belonged. it  A g a i n s t such a  backdrop,  i s p o s s i b l e to observe the development of a given d i a l e c t with  r e s p e c t not only t o e a r l i e r s t r a t a of the Chinese language, a l s o t o other modern Chinese d i a l e c t s . f e a t u r e s may  Thus, i n Zhong-shan, some  r e v e a l c e r t a i n mergers w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a p a r t i c u l a r  stratum of the language, whereas o t h e r f e a t u r e s may of  but  yet older d i s t i n c t i o n s .  show s u r v i v a l s  References to p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s on the  Zhong-shan d i a l e c t are a l s o made when d i f f e r e n c e s between (.or  among) data seem s i g n i f i c a n t .  C r o s s - d i a l e c t a l l y , s i n c e the Can-  tonese d i a l e c t i s the standard f o r the Yue d i a l e c t group t o which Zhong-shan belongs, a comparison i s made throughout  the study.  between Zhong-shan and Cantonese  Other southern Chinese  dialect  groups, such as Min and Hakka, a r e a l s o c i t e d where r e l e v a n t . The t h e s i s i t s e l f i s d i v i d e d i n t o two main p a r t s : the f i r s t p a r t i s the s y n c h r o n i c study, and the second p a r t t h e d i a chronic analysis.  In order t h a t the t h e s i s may b e t t e r serve  f u t u r e r e s e a r c h endeavours,  both the c o l l o q u i a l l e x i c o n and the  l e x i c o n o f c h a r a c t e r readings are i n c l u d e d : the c o l l o q u i a l data appear . a t the end o f P a r t I , w h i l e the d i a l e c t word l i s t a t the end o f P a r t I I .  occurs  The r e a d i n g o f the c h a r a c t e r s i s recorded  d i r e c t l y onto the format o f the Fang-yan Diao-cha  Zi-biao that  the Chinese L i n g u i s t i c s P r o j e c t a t P r i n c e t o n had prepared expressl y f o r f i e l d w o r k purposes.  Immediately  f o l l o w i n g the d i a l e c t  survey m a t e r i a l i s an index t o the d i a l e c t m a t e r i a l .  The index  i s l i k e w i s e prepared by the Chinese L i n g u i s t i c s P r o j e c t , with, the words arranged a c c o r d i n g t o P i n - y i n r o m a n i z a t i o n .  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS T i t l e Page  i  Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  iv  L i s t o f Tables  v i i  L i s t o f Charts  viii  L i s t o f Maps  ix  Acknowledgement  x Part I.  CHAPTER 0.  Synchronic Study  INTRODUCTION 0.1. 0.2. 0.3.  Terminology, T r a n s l i t e r a t i o n and Other Conventions  1  H i s t o r i c a l , G e o g r a p h i c a l and L i n g u i s t i c Setting  3  Data Base  6  0.3.1. The I n f o r m a n t s — B i o g r a p h i c a l Sketch  6  0.3.2. D a t a - C o l l e c t i o n  8  0.3.3. A d d i t i o n a l shan Data  CHAPTER 1.  1  Techniques  Sources f o r Zhong11  Notes t o Chapter 0  14  PHONETIC DESCRIPTION AND PHONEMIC ANALYSIS.  17  1.1.  Initials  21  1.2.  Finals  32  1.2.1. Nuclear Vowels  40  1.2.2. M e d i a l s  50  1.2.3. Endings  62  1.2.4. S y l l a b i c Nasals  63  Tones  63  1.3.1. Tonal System  64  1.3.2. Tone Sandhi  67  1.3.3. Tone Change  68  1.3.  1.4.  Combination o f I n i t i a l s  and F i n a l s  1.4.1. L a b i a l D i s s i m i l a t i o n  77 77  V  1 . 4 . 2 . Syncope 1.4.3. Sesquisyllabic Structures 1 . 4 . 4 . C o l l o q u i a l Versus Forms Notes t o Chapter 1 CHAPTER 2 .  CHAPTER 3 .  Literary 95 101  SYLLABARY AND LEXICON 2.1. S y l l a b a r y Arranged A c c o r d i n g t o Modern Zhong-shan F i n a l s 2.2. L e x i c o n of C o l l o q u i a l Terms A r r a n g e d A c c o r d i n g t o Modern Zhong-shan F i n a l s  Part II.  107 110 126  D i a c h r o n i c Study  ANALYSIS OF MODERN REFLEXES OF HISTORICAL CATEGORIES 3.1. Initials 3 . 1 . 1 . R e c o n s t r u c t e d V a l u e s of M i d d l e Chinese I n i t i a l s 3 . 1 . 2 . Zhong-shan Correspondences t o M i d d l e Chinese I n i t i a l s 3 . 1 . 2 . 1 . B i l a b i a l s (LMC) 3 . 1 . 2 . 2 . L a b i o d e n t a l s CLMC) 3 . 1 . 2 . 3 . D e n t a l s (LMC) 3 . 1 . 2 . 4 . D e n t a l S i b i l a n t s (LMC) 3 . 1 . 2 . 5 . R e t r o f l e x e s (LMC) 3 . 1 . 2 . 6 . R e t r o f l e x S i b i l a n t s (EMC) and P a l a t a l s 3.1.2.7. Velars  (EMC)  (LMC)  3.1.2.8. Gutturals 3.2.  78 79  (LMC)  161 164 164 175 175 180 183 191 197 201 216 232  Finals  241  3 . 2 . 2 . Modern Zhong-shan Correspondences t o LMC F i n a l s 3 . 2 . 2 . 1 . Guo-she 3.2.2.2. Jia-she 3 . 2 . 2 . 3 . Yu-she 3.2.2.4. Xie-she 3 . 2 . 2 . 5 . Zhi-she 3 . 2 . 2 . 6 . Xiao-she 3.2.2.7. Liu-she  260 261 265 266 271 277 282 283  vi 3.2.2.8. Xian-she  285  3.2.2.9. Shen-she  289  3.2.2.10. Shan-she  290  3.2.2.11.  Zhen-she  297  3.2.2.12. Dang-she  304  3.2.2.13. Jiang-she  307  3.2.2.14. Zeng-she  309  3.2.2.15. Geng-she  311  3.2.2.16. Tong-she  317  3.3. : Tones 3.4.  •  319  Concluding Remarks  333  Notes t o Chapter 3 CHAPTER 4.  LEXICON (AS ARRANGED ZI-BIAO)  334 IN THE FANG-YAN DIAO-CHA 337  Rhyme Groups: 1.  Guo-she  1  339  2.  Jia-she  7  345  3.  Yu-she  14  352  4.  Xie-she  28  366  5.  Zhi-she  47  385  6.  Xiao-she  67  405  7.  Liu-she  81  419  8.  Xian-she  92  430  9.  Shen-she  110  448  10.  Shan-she  115  453  11.  Zhen-she  148  486  12.  Dang-she  166  504  13.  Jiang-she  180  518  14.  Zeng-she  184  522  15.  Geng-she  191  529  16.  Tong-she  212  212  Index Bibliography  565 655  vii  LIST OF TABLES Table 1.  The I n i t i a l s  Table 2.  (a) A n a l y s i s o f the F i n a l s — C h a n  35  (b) A n a l y s i s o f the F i n a l s — C h a o  36  (c)  A n a l y s i s o f the F i n a l s — E g e r o d  37  (d) T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f F i n a l s i n (Macao) Zhong-shan—Ball  38  (e) Phonetic T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f the F i n a l s i n Cantonese  39  (a) Tonal System o f Zhong-shan  65  (b) A Comparison o f Cantonese and Zhong-shan Tones  66  Table 3.  Table 4.  i n Zhong-shan  C o l l o q u i a l Versus L i t e r a r y  21  Forms:  (a) Tone /13/ A s p i r a t e d I n i t i a l and /22/ U n a s p i r a t e d I n i t i a l  98  (b) /a:ng/ and /ang/ F i n a l s (c) Table 5.  98  / i a : n g / and / i n g / F i n a l s  Words with A l t e r n a t e H i s t o r i c a l Categories:  99-100 Tonal  (a) Words L i s t e d as Ping-sheng  327  '(b) Words L i s t e d as Shang-sheng  327  (c)  Words L i s t e d as Qu-sheng  328-329  (d) Words L i s t e d as Ru-sheng  329  Notes t o Table 5  329  vili  LIST OF CHARTS Chart  1.  S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e o f Chinese  17  Chart  2.  S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e o f Zhong-shan  19  Chart  3.  (a) A n a l y s i s o f the Vowels—-Chan  40  (b) A n a l y s i s o f the V o w e l s — C h a o  41  (c) A n a l y s i s o f the V o w e l s — E g e r o d  41  Chart  4.  The 36 I n i t i a l s o f Late Middle Chinese  Chart  5.  E a r l y Middle Chinese  Chart  6.  Middle Chinese I n i t i a l s Diao-cha Z i - b i a o  Chart  7.  Initials  165-166 169  i n the Fang-yan  Zhong-shan Correspondences t o the Middle Chinese I n i t i a l s i n the Fang-yan Diao-cha Zi-biao  172  173-174  Chart  8.  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the LMC G l i d e s and M e d i a l s  244  Chart  9.  The 16 Rhyme Groups  248  Chart 10.  Late Middle Chinese F i n a l s  249-252  Chart 11.  Rhymes and Grades W i t h i n Each Rhyme Group  256-258  Chart 12.  Zhong-shan Correspondences t o the LMC F i n a l s  259  Chart 13.  (a) Zhong-shan Correspondences t o the H i s t o r i c a l Tones  320  (b) Cantonese Correspondences t o the H i s t o r i c a l Tones  320  Ru-sheng Correspondences i n Cantonese and Zhong-shan  323  Tonal Correspondences i n Zhong-shan (and Cantonese)  323  Chart 14.  Chart 15.  Map  1.  Kwangtung P r o v i n c e  Map  2.  Zhong-shan County  X  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The data f o r the present study o f the Zhong-shan d i a l e c t was  c o l l e c t e d a t v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s , beginning w i t h a s h o r t p r o j e c t  i n the s p r i n g o f 1977; the bulk o f the data f o r the t h e s i s , however, was  gathered i n the s p r i n g o f 1978.  F o r these e l i c i t a t i o n s , the  p r i n c i p a l informants were my p a r e n t s , Chen Gui-hong Yang Z h i - f a n g ^ / c V ^ f endless q u e s t i o n s . cannot  .  They responded  t i r e l e s s l y t o my  ^  anc  P^L-^j^l^  seemingly  To them, I owe a depth o f g r a t i t u d e t h a t words  f u l l y express.  T h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s , p a t i e n c e and support have  made t h i s experience a very p e r s o n a l l y rewarding one. I am g r a t e f u l t o the L i n g u i s t i c s Department a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the academic t r a i n i n g t h a t I have r e c e i v e d , and f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t i v e r o l e i n my endeavours.  Con-  c e r n i n g the t h e s i s - w r i t i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r , I am indebted t o my Committee members, Dr. M. Dale Kinkade and Dr. Sarah B e l l , f o r t h e i r r e a d i n g o f an e a r l i e r d r a f t and h e l p f u l suggestions. a l s o a p p r e c i a t i v e o f Dr. Kinkade's  I am  a s s i s t a n c e i n the f i n e r phonetic  t r a n s c r i p t i o n s noted i n the study. To my a d v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r E.G. P u l l e y b l a n k , I owe deep g r a t i t u d e f o r h i s many c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions throughout  the t h e s i s - w r i t i n g , and f o r h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f v a r i -  ous p o i n t s t h a t were u n c l e a r t o me.  H i s h e l p f u l n e s s , together  w i t h h i s q u i e t support and immense p a t i e n c e d u r i n g t h a t e n t i r e p e r i o d , cannot be over-emphasized. I would a l s o l i k e t o thank P r o f e s s o r J e r r y Norman, a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington, who k i n d l y read through an e a r l i e r  draft  and made a number o f h e l p f u l comments, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h regard  xi to Min d i a l e c t m a t e r i a l . A l s o h e l p f u l i n my t h e s i s endeavours has been K a r l K. Lo, a native  Zhong-shan speaker, who  are recorded here.  supplied  a few of the forms  I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o my husband,  White, f o r h i s moral support, encouragement,  Gary  that  R.  and g e n e r a l a s s i s t -  ance t h a t f a c i l i t a t e d the w r i t i n g and f i n a l type-up o f the t h e s i s . I wish t o acknowledge  w i t h h e a r t f e l t thanks support from  the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1976-1978).  (U.B.C. Graduate F e l l o w s h i p  I am a l s o g r a t i f i e d t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia allowed me t o use the Summer Research Grant (.1977) to attend  the L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y  Institute.  o f America's 1977  Summer L i n g u i s t i c  That year, the I n s t i t u t e was h e l d a t the U n i v e r s i t y  of Hawaii where s p e c i a l emphasis was  on A s i a n and P a c i f i c languages.  The study programme was a l s o supported by the L i n g u i s t i c S o c i e t y of America my deep  (LSA F e l l o w s h i p 1977), to which I wish a l s o to express  gratitude. Needless to say, a l t h o u g h I owe much to a l l those who  have guided me i n the t h e s i s , I am s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e e r r o r s t h a t remain.  f o r whatever  X I 1  Map 1.  Kwangtuna  Province.  (A m o d i f i c a t i o n , of. Yue, 1979:2.)  xiii  - 1 -  PART I. CHAPTER 0.  SYNCHRONIC STUDY  INTRODUCTION  S t u d i e s of. the Yue d i a l e c t s of Chinese have g e n e r a l l y concentrated on standard Cantonese  and Taishanese, w h i l e other  d i a l e c t s have r e c e i v e d p e r i p h e r a l a t t e n t i o n .  To counterbalance  t h i s g e n e r a l t r e n d , the Yue d i a l e c t which i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the present t h e s i s i s the Zhong-shan"*"  <Xf  dialect.  The primary g o a l  of t h i s study, however, i s to supplement e x i s t i n g works on the Zhong-shan d i a l e c t w i t h a l a r g e r corpus of f i e l d data and a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of i t s phonology level.  on a s y n c h r o n i c and  diachronic  The hope i s t h a t both the raw data and the a n a l y s i s  will  c o n t r i b u t e to f u t u r e l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h .  0.1.  Terminology, T r a n s l i t e r a t i o n and Other The term "Cantonese"  the standard Cantonese  Conventions  has o f t e n been used t o i d e n t i f y both  d i a l e c t and the d i a l e c t group,  thereby  c r e a t i n g some c o n f u s i o n f o r those l e s s f a m i l i a r w i t h the s i t u a t i o n i n Kwangtung P r o v i n c e i n southern China.  linguistic  To e l i m i n a t e  t h i s source of ambiguity, the d i s t i n c t i o n between the terms and "Cantonese" here: "Yue"  "Yue"  drawn by Oi-kan Yue Hashimoto (1972a:1) i s adopted  i s used t o r e f e r t o the d i a l e c t group, and  to the group norm.  Yue  "Cantonese"  i s the d i a l e c t group r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  Kwangtung P r o v i n c e , although found t h e r e are a l s o other major Chinese d i a l e c t groups Standard Yue,  such as Hakka and Min.  Cantonese,  i s the d i a l e c t of the m a j o r i t y of people i n Canton  and Hong Kong, l o c a t e d on the P e a r l R i v e r D e l t a . Cantonese"  or  w i l l be a term used o n l y f o r f u r t h e r  "Standard clarification  - 2 or emphasis. The new  P i n - y i n romanization system, which has been  o f f i c i a l l y adopted  i n the People's Republic of China t o t r a n s c r i b e  the n a t i o n a l standard, pu--tong-hua ('common d i a l e c t ' , or what i s u s u a l l y regarded as the Peking d i a l e c t o f Mandarin), w i l l be used here f o r the t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n of Chinese terms, i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n a l and p l a c e names, w i t h a few minor m o d i f i c a t i o n s .  Hyphens w i l l  be  i n s e r t e d between s y l l a b l e s w i t h i n a word, and an o c c a s i o n a l tone mark w i l l be used f o r disambiguation i n cases where the  romanized  form of s e v e r a l words, f o r example, would have been i d e n t i c a l except f o r tone. '"' f o r l e v e l , falling.  The f o u r tones i n Mandarin  "  1  rising,  l v  '  are marked thus:  d i p p i n g ( f a l l i n g - r i s i n g ) , and  , v  '  P i n - y i n i s used f o r Chinese p e r s o n a l and p l a c e names  except f o r well-known g e o g r a p h i c a l names, such as Canton  and Hong  Kong, f o r which the romanization e s t a b l i s h e d i n the China P o s t a l A t l a s w i l l be r e t a i n e d .  Moreover, r a t h e r than attempt  to over-  s t a n d a r d i z e p e r s o n a l names t o a s i n g l e r o m a n i z a t i o n system,  the  romanization t h a t has a l r e a d y been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the names of well-known Chinese l i n g u i s t s such as Yuen Ren Chao and Fang Kuei L i w i l l l i k e w i s e be used here. The use of the terms " c h a r a c t e r " and "word" needs some clarification.  The Chinese language d i s t i n g u i s h e s between what  i s a " c h a r a c t e r " ( z i ^jl ) and what i s a "word" ( c i ^s) ).  A cha-  r a c t e r i s simply the i n d i v i d u a l ideograph, which i s a m o n o s y l l a b l e . Often a c h a r a c t e r c o n s t i t u t e s a word; the c h a r a c t e r da i n s t a n c e , i s a word meaning " b i g " . with the c h a r a c t e r xue ^  , for  However, i t can a l s o combine  (which, as a m o n o s y l l a b i c word, means  'to study') t o form the d i s y l l a b i c word da-xue  ^ ^  / which  -- 3 means ' u n i v e r s i t y ' . further  I n a g r a m m a t i c a l a n a l y s i s , one s h o u l d  i n t r o d u c e the l i n g u i s t i c term 'morpheme', which i s 2  l o o s e l y d e f i n e d as a " m i n i m a l m e a n i n g f u l u n i t "  .  i s a o n e - t o - o n e correspondence between a s y l l a b l e  Usually (or  there  character)  and a morpheme; t h a t i s , most morphemes i n Chinese are m o n o s y l l a b i c , as e x e m p l i f i e d by da and xue above, w h i c h can now be a n a l y z e d as two m o n o s y l l a b i c morphemes c a r r y i n g t h e meanings ' b i g ' and study'  respectively.  There a r e , n o n e t h e l e s s , a few r a r e cases of  d i s y l l a b i c morphemes whose o r i g i n i s no l o n g e r known.  tg^JJ  hu-die  'to  ' b u t t e r f l y ' i s a case i n p o i n t ;  hu c o n t a i n s no meaning i n and of  the f i r s t  The word syllable  itself.  Other t e r m i n o l o g i e s and c o n v e n t i o n s w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d as they are met i n the f o l l o w i n g 0.2.  H i s t o r i c a l , G e o g r a p h i c a l and L i n g u i s t i c S e t t i n g . D u r i n g the Han Dynasty  the county "I)  sections.  guan county Dynasty  what i s now  ( x i a n ^j^. ) ^of. Zhong-shan was p a r t of P a n - y u *  %  (206 B . C . - 2 3 A . D . ) ,  I  jj^  n  T a n  county  9 times (618-907) i t became a p a r t o f Dong.  I t was a t the b e g i n n i n g of the Song  (960-1279) t h a t i t became e s t a b l i s h e d as a s e p a r a t e  c a l l e d X i a n g - s h a n county  |j J, |tj^  county  , now o v e r e i g h t hundred y e a r s  ago. In t h e f o u r t e e n t h y e a r of t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a  (i.e.,  1 9 2 5 ) , i n honour of D r . Y a t - s e n Sun, the f a t h e r of the Chinese revolution,  the name of h i s b i r t h p l a c e was o f f i c i a l l y changed by  the p r o v i n c i a l government of Kwangtung from X i a n g - s h a n t o shan  VJ*  Zhong-  based on the name which D r . Sun adopted w h i l e s e e k i n g  p o l i t i c a l asylum i n J a p a n , "Zhong-shan" b e i n g the Chinese  -  p r o n u n c i a t i o n of "Naka-yama"  4  -  ^  4  Geographically of Kwangtung P r o v i n c e .  , Zhong-shan i s one of the c o a s t a l c o u n t i e s I t i s s i t u a t e d west of the P e a r l R i v e r  d e l t a and immediately n o r t h of Macao, thus partway between and Macao (see Map in area—70  1).  The county i s over 1,800  square k i l o m e t r e s  k i l o m e t r e s l o n g running n o r t h and south, and 35  metres wide e a s t and west.  (.otherwise romanized  kilo-  W i t h i n t h i s c i r c u m f e r e n c e , the county  i s d i v i d e d i n t o nine a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e c t i o n s c a l l e d qu (3* qi  Canton  as "Shekki")  fa  .  , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  centre and the l a r g e s t town i n the county, i s l o c a t e d i n the qu.  Shi-  first  The Zhong-shan d i a l e c t i s here i d e n t i f i e d and equated w i t h  S h i - q i speech, which i s c o n s i d e r e d the standard f o r the county. Besides S h i - q i , a l s o e n t e r i n g i n t o the p r e s e n t study i s the neighb o u r i n g v i l l a g e of Ku-chong  jfjjj  , s i t u a t e d i n the f o u r t h qu  immediately behind the boundary southeast of S h i - q i  (see Map  2).  A number of the more c o l l o q u i a l e x p r e s s i o n s c o l l e c t e d i n the present study r e f l e c t Ku-chong speech r a t h e r than t h a t of the more educated townspeople  of S h i - q i .  In terms of i t s l i n g u i s t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  Zhong-shan i s  one of the Yue d i a l e c t s , consequently s h a r i n g many of the f e a t u r e s found i n Cantonese.  At the same time, the S h i - q i d i a l e c t i n China  i s a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the surrounding d i a l e c t s . i n area, a l l t h r e e major d i a l e c t groups  Although s m a l l  i n Kwangtung—-namely Hakka,  Min and Y u e — a r e spoken i n the Zhong-shan county.  I t i s therefore  not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d each d i a l e c t i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d by the o t h e r s , i n a process which has been d e s c r i b e d by Egerod  (1956:76)  as " b a l k a n i z a t i o n " , u s i n g the term i n the l i n g u i s t i c sense of "the g r a d u a l merging  of g e o g r a p h i c a l l y c l o s e , e t y m o l o g i c a l l y  far-removed  - 5 speech forms".  Egerod (p.77) notes, f o r example, t h a t the s i m p l i -  c i t y o f S h i - q i t o n a l p a t t e r n , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h a t i n Cantonese, renders the S h i - q i d i a l e c t c l o s e r t o Min than to Yue w i t h r e s p e c t to  the number o f tones.  Zhong-shan  i s , i n f a c t , the only e x c e p t i o n  to the p a t t e r n o f e i g h t o r more tones and the dichotomy o f the Y i n - r u tone which c o n s t i t u t e two of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  the Yue d i a l e c t s  (Hashimoto, 1972a:44).  Hence,  features  i t would not  be unreasonable to suggest b a l k a n i z a t i o n as a p o s s i b l e f a c t o r i n the  uniqueness o f the Zhong-shan  t o n a l system amongst the Yue  dialects. Although the S h i - q i d i a l e c t i s the standard f o r the county, i t i s predominant o n l y w i t h i n i t s own qu.  In the remaining e i g h t  qu, Cantonese, Hakka, and v a r i o u s forms of Min c o n s t i t u t e the  6 major d i a l e c t s .  Hence, the S h i - q i d i a l e c t i s a c t u a l l y spoken i n  a very l i m i t e d area, i t s prominence f e l t only as a r e s u l t o f i t s economic and p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s .  In t h i s p o s i t i o n a l s o , i t has  s t r i n g e n t c o m p e t i t i o n from Macao, which i s g e o g r a p h i c a l l y and h i s 7 torically county.  , though no l o n g e r p o l i t i c a l l y , a p a r t o f The l i n g u i s t i c  scene i n Macao has undergone  Zhong-shan drastic  changes s i n c e J.D. B a l l ' s f i e l d w o r k b e f o r e the t u r n o f the century when the county was s t i l l  c a l l e d "Xiang-shan" (or "Hong-shan", i n g  B a l l ' s Cantonese t r a n s c r i p t i o n ) . the  d i a l e c t spoken i n Macao was  According to B a l l  (1897:550)  i d e n t i c a l to the Zhong-shan  dia-  l e c t , w i t h e x c e p t i o n s a r i s i n g p r i m a r i l y from the d e s i r e of the educated c l a s s i n S h i - q i to emulate the more p r e s t i g i o u s Cantonese forms.  By m i d - t w e n t i e t h century, Egerod (p.3) observes t h a t Stan-  dard Cantonese has become the main d i a l e c t i n Macao.  Neverthe-  l e s s , the Cantonese spoken there r e t a i n s a few t r a c e s o f the Zhong-  - 6 shan d i a l e c t , such as the f u s i o n of the p l a i n and l a b i a l i z e d stops as a r e s u l t of which Cantonese /kwa/  and /ka/, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  are both pronounced /ka/ i n Macao, w i t h l a b i a l i z a t i o n Meanwhile,  velar  lost.  because of low y i e l d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l  production  i n the past i n Zhong-shan"^, i t has been a t r a d i t i o n f o r the l o c a l people to seek a means o f l i v e l i h o o d away from home. p l a c e s which a t t r a c t e d many immigrants was As Chao ( 1 9 4 8 : 4 9 ) was  Among the  the Hawaiian I s l a n d s .  commented, the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n i n Hawaii  11  predominantly speakers of the Zhong-shan d i a l e c t .  S i n c e the  p u b l i c a t i o n of C h a o s a r t i c l e i n the middle o f the century, i t i s 1  p o s s i b l e t h a t the i n f l u x of Chinese immigrants from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and o t h e r areas may  have reduced the p r o p o r t i o n of Zhong-  shan speakers i n Hawaii.  0.3.  Data Base. The study of Zhong-shan phonology i s based on d a t a c o l l e c t -  ed by the w r i t e r at v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s from 1977 of which was  gathered d u r i n g the s p r i n g of 1978.  t o 1980,  the bulk,  P u b l i s h e d works  on the d i a l e c t have a l s o been c o n s u l t e d , as w i l l be f u r t h e r  ela-  b o r a t e d subsequently.  0..3.1.  The I n f o r m a n t s - - B i o g r a p h i c a l Sketch. Data were e l i c i t e d from two main i n f o r m a n t s : Chen Gui-hong  fjL  $h  a n c  ^  Y a n  9  Zhi-fang  Chen was born i n 1923 ^  $  i n the v i l l a g e  '  t  n  e  (cun ^  writer's parents. ) o f Ku-chong ^  , where he a c q u i r e d the e a r l y p a r t o f h i s e d u c a t i o n .  fj  He com-  p l e t e d grammar s c h o o l i n S h i - q i , which i s west o f the v i l l a g e , about h a l f an hour's walk away.  H i s mother, who  i s l i v i n g with  - 7 'the f a m i l y , was  born i n the v i l l a g e  (xiang  ) of Yuan-feng  , n o r t h o f S h i - q i , a l s o approximately h a l f an walking d i s t a n c e from the town (see Map  2).  hour's  Chen attended b u s i -  ness c o l l e g e i n Hong Kong, where he a l s o s t u d i e d Mandarin, and Japanese.  English  He t r a v e l l e d between Ku-chong and Hong Kong s e v e r a l  times b e f o r e immigrating t o Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia to j o i n h i s p a r e n t s .  Chen's f a t h e r , who  was  in  1952  born i n Ku-chong,  spoke Zhong-shan and a few words of E n g l i s h , w h i l e Chen's mother o n l y knows the Zhong-shan d i a l e c t .  Contact w i t h f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s  from Ku-chong i s maintained through  f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s and  annual  g a t h e r i n g s o r g a n i z e d by r e s i d e n t s of the "Ku-chong Home", a house open to Ku-chong v i l l a g e r s who or who  wish to drop i n from time to time,  need a p l a c e t o s t a y . Yang was  born i n 19 27 i n S h i - q i , where she r e c e i v e d f o u r  or f i v e years of e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e i t was of China by Japan.  d i s r u p t e d by the i n v a s i o n  She continued t o l i v e i n S h i - q i , working  as a nurse d u r i n g the war y e a r s .  there  Yang l i v e d i n Ku-chong f o r  s e v e r a l years b e f o r e spending two or t h r e e years i n Macao and Hong Kong, a r r i v i n g i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia had exposure  to Mandarin and Japanese.  i n 1958.  She  has  Her knowledge of E n g l i s h  has been a c q u i r e d i n f o r m a l l y , p r i m a r i l y through c o n t a c t w i t h customers i n a s m a l l , f a m i l y - o p e r a t e d grocery s t o r e . The w r i t e r h e r s e l f a l s o served as an informant,  although  t o a much more l i m i t e d e x t e n t s i n c e she l e f t Ku-chong a t the of f o u r or f i v e and was  age  then exposed to Cantonese i n Macao and  Hong Kong, and i n Canada subsequently.  - 8 -  p.. 3 . 2 .  Data-Collection  Techniques  A p r e l i m i n a r y s e t o f d a t a was c o l l e c t e d i n the s p r i n g  of  1977 i n the attempt t o e l i c i t c o l l o q u i a l v e r s u s l i t e r a r y  readings  of the same c h a r a c t e r s based on those found i n Cantonese  (i.e.,  i n Hashimoto, 1 9 7 2 a : 1 6 9 - 1 7 0 ) .  I t was r e c o g n i z e d by the  writer  t h a t such an approach has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , the p r i m a r y one b e i n g t h a t a d i s t i n c t i o n between l i t e r a r y and c o l l o q u i a l r e a d i n g o f some words found i n Zhong-shan but not p r e s e n t i n Cantonese would be missed.  G i v e n l i m i t e d t i m e , however,  i t was n e v e r t h e l e s s  a con-  v e n i e n t means t o o b t a i n a s i z e a b l e l i s t w i t h o u t r e s o r t i n g t o an extensive l e x i c o n .  The method used was as f o l l o w s : a c h a r a c t e r ; ,  was f i r s t read by Chen, f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n o f whether o r there e x i s t s a c o l l o q u i a l counterpart.  not  Some e f f o r t was a l s o made  s u b s e q u e n t l y t o produce l i t e r a r y v e r s u s c o l l o q u i a l f o r m s ,  although  not by any s y s t e m a t i c o r c o n s i s t e n t a p p r o a c h . The major t a s k of e l i c i t i n g Zhong-shan d a t a was, based on the Fang-yan D i a o - c h a Z i - b i a o  -^/l) ^ ^- jfc^  ^  'A Table o f C h a r a c t e r s f o r D i a l e c t S u r v e y s ' as the " d i a l e c t s u r v e y l i s t " f o r s h o r t ) .  however,  (hereafter  referred  to  That s o u r c e p r o v i d e s a  s t a n d a r d l i s t of j u s t over 3,700 c h a r a c t e r s a r r a n g e d a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o n a l Chinese p h o n o l o g i c a l c a t e g o r i e s , and i s used f o r comp a r i s o n s among the Chinese d i a l e c t s and f o r s t u d i e s of the h i s t o r i c a l phonology o f a p a r t i c u l a r d i a l e c t . e d i t i o n s of t h i s survey l i s t e x i s t , w i t h but minor v a r i a t i o n s  Although  different  they are e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same,  i n the c h o i c e of c h a r a c t e r s and f o r m a t .  The e d i t i o n used i n the p r e s e n t study i s p u b l i s h e d by P r i n c e t o n University  ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and i s p a r t o f the Chinese L i n g u i s t i c  at Princeton.  This e d i t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y arranged f o r  Project  fieldwork  - 9 purposes, compiled  i s based on the 1955  c h a r a c t e r l i s t of the same name  by the Research I n s t i t u t e of L i n g u i s t i c s , Chinese Academy  of  Sciences i n Peking.  The  survey l i s t  p r o v i d e d data f o r the  of  the p h o n o l o g i c a l system of Zhong-shan, as w e l l as y i e l d i n g  study the  necessary m a t e r i a l f o r a d i a c h r o n i c a n a l y s i s of the d i a l e c t . In p r e p a r i n g f o r the d i a l e c t survey on Zhong-shan, each c h a r a c t e r on the l i s t was  a s s i g n e d a number c o n s i s t i n g of  p a r t s separated by a dash  two  w i t h the p a r t p r e c e d i n g the dash  i n d i c a t i n g r e f e r e n c e to the page number i n the d i a l e c t survey  list,  and the p a r t f o l l o w i n g the dash t h a t of the c h a r a c t e r ' s p o s i t i o n i n the column on a g i v e n page.  12  The word duo  example, i s a s s i g n e d the number "1-1" the f i r s t c h a r a c t e r on the page.  on page one  'many', f o r  to s p e c i f y page one,  and  S i m i l a r l y , tuo ftfcj 'to drag  along' i s a s s i g n e d the number "1-2" ter  h  ^  i n the survey t e x t .  s i n c e i t i s the second (See Chapter  charac-  4.)  A f t e r each c h a r a c t e r had been g i v e n a number, the order of  the c h a r a c t e r s i n the survey l i s t was  informant a c t u a l l y it,  randomized.  What the  saw. i s the c h a r a c t e r , the number a s s i g n e d to  and, where p r o v i d e d by the c o m p i l e r s , such i n f o r m a t i o n as  word d e f i n i t i o n s , p a r t of speech, environments i n which the ter  may  ing  the informant  one-  charac-  occur, and a l t e r n a t e s p e l l i n g , f o r the purpose o f a s s i s t i n r e c a l l i n g the c h a r a c t e r and/or making the  c o r r e c t choice f o r a character with m u l t i p l e pronunciations.  A  p a r a l l e l case i n E n g l i s h would be to i d e n t i f y "export" as a verb or noun i n order to e l i c i t the form w i t h the s t r e s s p a t t e r n sought. The d i a l e c t survey l i s t was a r e e l - t o - r e e l tape r e c o r d e r . phonemically  read by Chen and recorded  on  The w r i t e r t r a n s c r i b e d the data  d u r i n g the e l i c i t a t i o n and used the tape f o r double-  - 10 checking afterwards.  Questions concerning some o f the f i n e r  phonetic d i s t i n c t i o n s were brought  t o the a t t e n t i o n o f M.D. K i n -  kade i n the L i n g u i s t i c s Department a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The data c o l l e c t e d was then compared w i t h the Cantonese 13 forms given i n Hashimoto (1972a) drawn f o r double-checking  .  A l i s t o f c h a r a c t e r s was  pronunciation.  Each o f these c h a r a c t e r s  was accompanied by a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t e r e c a l l , o r to a v o i d c o n f u s i o n w i t h other c h a r a c t e r s which g r a p h i c a l l y appear quite similar.  Such i n f o r m a t i o n u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f d e f i n i t i o n s  ( i n E n g l i s h o r Chinese)  and the combination  with others t o form p o l y s y l l a b i c words.  o f these c h a r a c t e r s  V a r i a n t forms c o l l e c t e d  o f t e n r e f l e c t d i a l e c t a l i n f l u e n c e from Cantonese, e s p e c i a l l y i n those cases where the informant was u n c e r t a i n o f the p r o n u n c i a t i o n . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t some of the more l i t e r a r y words have r e c e i v e d Cantonese p r o n u n c i a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f c o n t a c t w i t h Cantonese speakers  i n Hong Kong and Vancouver.  T h i s may account  f o r some  of the d i f f e r e n c e s found between the present s e t of data and t h a t o b t a i n e d by Chao i n S h i - q i . For the second  s e t o f data, Yang served as primary  mant, with Chen j o i n i n g i n on some of the o c c a s i o n s .  infor-  The second  task was s t i m u l a t e d by the o b s e r v a t i o n o f many gaps i n Chao's r e p e r t o i r e o f Zhong-shan s y l l a b l e s , i n c l u d i n g d i s t i n c t i o n o f tone. The aim was t o f i n d c o l l o q u i a l Zhong-shan words t o f i l l of these empty spaces as p o s s i b l e .  i n as many  The w r i t e r soon found t h a t t o  simply ask whether such-and-such a s y l l a b l e e x i s t s i n Zhong-shan produced  few responses.  The next approach was f o r the w r i t e r her-  s e l f t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y go through each p o t e n t i a l  syllable,  - 11 p a r t i c u l a r l y those l e f t blank i n Qiao's study, i n o r d e r t o f i n d a word which would l a t e r be confirmed by Yang as a word spoken i n S h i - q i , i n both S h i - q i and Hong Kong, or s t r i c t l y colloquialism.  as a Hong KOng  The m a j o r i t y of the words suggested by the w r i t e r  were i d e n t i f i e d by Yang as S h i - q i e x p r e s s i o n s .  Yang was  frequently  a b l e t o e l a b o r a t e on the meaning of a word suggested by the w r i t e r , and sometimes produced a d d i t i o n a l meanings or usages f o r the word or s y l l a b l e .  These were n e c e s s a r i l y i n f o r m a l s e s s i o n s , conducted  whenever the o p p o r t u n i t y  arose.  Chen's mother, who  i s now i n her s e v e n t i e s , understands  Cantonese, but speaks only Zhong-shan.  A few d i s t i n c t i v e  s i o n s which she uses are a l s o recorded f o r t h i s  0.3.3.  expres-  study.  A d d i t i o n a l Sources f o r Zhong-shan Data As f a r as the w r i t e r i s aware, t o date only t h r e e works  have been p u b l i s h e d which c o n t a i n f i e l d m a t e r i a l on the Zhong-shan dialect.  Of these, "Zhong-shan fang-yan"  dialect')  (1948) by Y.R.  k  % ~$  ('Zhong-shan  Chao, and p o r t i o n s of The Lungtu D i a l e c t  (1956) by S. Egerod c o n t a i n data on the Zhong-shan d i a l e c t spoken in Shi-qi. entitled  A t h i r d source i s an a r t i c l e by J.D. B a l l i n 1897  "The Hong Shan or Macao d i a l e c t " , which d e s c r i b e s the  Zhong-shan d i a l e c t as spoken i n Macao, a l l e g e d l y i d e n t i c a l t o S h i q i speech.  S h i - q i forms which d i f f e r from those found i n Macao  are recorded by B a l l i n h i s f o o t n o t e s . A comparison w i t h Chao's a r t i c l e r e v e a l s more d i f f e r e n c e s between B a l l ' s Macao data and Chao's S h i - q i data than were by B a l l .  reported  At l e a s t some of these d i f f e r e n c e s may have r e s u l t e d  from sound changes d u r i n g t h a t i n t e r v a l between B a l l ' s  collection  - 12 of data on the. Zhong-shan d i a l e c t and Chao's f i e l d w o r k i n S h i - q i , a. p e r i o d  o f a t l e a s t t h i r t y or f o r t y y e a r s .  primarily  o f h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e ; i t s u s e f u l n e s s f o r compara-  t i v e purposes i s r a t h e r  limited.  Tone i n d i c a t o r s ,  are omitted by B a l l i n h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s . an i n t e r n a t i o n a l precision  Ball's article i s  f o r instance,  Furthermore,  alphabet by which t o t r a n s c r i b e  lacking  with greater  and conciseness the phonetic sounds o f the d i a l e c t a t  t h a t time, B a l l had t o s t r u g g l e  w i t h the inadequacies o f the  English, language and the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the E n g l i s h Consequently, he r e s o r t e d  a t times t o c i r c u m l o c u t o r y phrases t o  d e s c r i b e a p a r t i c u l a r sound. attempted t o e x p l a i n  alphabet.  T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e when he  the manner i n which some o f the vowel c l u s t e r s 14  and  diphthongs were a r t i c u l a t e d .  his syllabary  Ci.e., repertoire  B a l l ' s c h o i c e o f format i n o f the s y l l a b l e s i n the d i a l e c t ) ,  a l s o presents a weakness: by u s i n g Cantonese s y l l a b l e s t o show Zhong-shan c o u n t e r p a r t s , the s t r u c t u r e obscured.  o f Zhong-shan phonology i s  Sounds which, c o n t r a s t e d h i s t o r i c a l l y and were p r e s e r y e d  i n Zhong-shan are not r e a d i l y d i s c e r n e d i n B a l l ' s s y l l a b a r y merged i n Cantonese.  In such, cases, only one o f the sounds i n  Zhong-shan •iwast presented i n the s y l l a b a r y entered i n the footnote as .exceptions:,-, rests primarily  i f they  and the other merely Egerod's  contribution  cm h i s f a i r l y d e t a i l e d phonetic d e s c r i p t i o n  S h i - q i d i a l e c t , as w e l l  as the p r o v i s i o n  o f the  o f background i n f o r m a t i o n  on the d i a l e c t and the r e g i o n . The most v a l u a b l e and most f r e q u e n t l y  c i t e d source on the  Zhong-shan d i a l e c t i s Chao's a r t i c l e on the phonology o f the S h i qi dialect. one  Chao's m a t e r i a l  i s based mostly on data e l i c i t e d  informant i n S h i - q i i n 1929..  Supplemental m a t e r i a l  was  from  - 13 gathered on another informant i n Hawaii ten years l a t e r .  Although  t e r s e l y w r i t t e n , Chao's a r t i c l e i s a comprehensive work c o n t a i n i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n of the p h o n o l o g i c a l bary, a l i s t of some exceptions dialect and  system of Zhong-shan, a s y l l a -  to the sound changes i n the modern  on the b a s i s of h i s t o r i c a l p h o n o l o g i c a l  a sample  classifications,  dialogue.  Besides the aforementioned works, there i s a l s o a  Sino-  Portuguese g l o s s a r y compiled by Guang-ren Y i n and  R u - l i n Zhang  c i r c a mid-eighteenth, century  historical  interest.  The  g l o s s a r y , c o n s i s t i n g of 395  o f the t e x t Ao-meri J j - l u e which, s e v e r a l e d i t i o n s e x i s t ducted on the g l o s s a r y (.1959), W.  i n Macao which i s of  Boltz  f*\'$£j  today.  include CR.  (.1977), and M.  Chan  l e x i c a l items, i s p a r t  (-'Record of Macao') of Studies which have been conBawden (1954)., R.W. (forthcoming).  Thompson  - 14 Notes to Chapter 0. .1.  A l s o t r a n s c r i b e d as "Chungshan" i n Wade-Giles r o m a n i z a t i o n , and as "Hbng Shan" a c c o r d i n g to Cantonese  2.  For a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of Mandarin m o r p h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e , see, f o r example, K r a t o c h v i l  3.  pronunciation.  (.1968:55-88).  The h i s t o r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s d e r i v e d from v a r i o u s s o u r c e s : Hsu, 1970:540; Zhao, 1955:135-136; X i e , 1933:100; and Scenery P u b l i s h e r s ' "Zhong-shan q i a o - x i a n g feng-guang" r}? ^  ^|  ('Scenic spots of C h u n g s h a n ' — E n g l i s h t i t l e provided)  (no d a t e — c . 1 9 7 5 ? ) . 4.  Much o f the g e o g r a p h i c a l and l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s thanks to the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the county by Egerod  (1956:3).  (Note t h a t Egerod r e f e r s t o Zhong-shan  as a " d i s t r i c t " . ) 5.  Unless noted otherwise, r e f e r e n c e s t o Egerod are t o h i s book, The Lungtu D i a l e c t  (1956).  For Egerod  (1956), only page  r e f e r e n c e w i l l be g i v e n h e r e a f t e r . 6.  Hashimoto (1972a:8) notes t h a t although Zhong-shan i s predominantly Yue-speaking, a q u a r t e r of i t s i n h a b i t a n t s speak a Hakka d i a l e c t w h i l e a number speak a Southern Min  7.  dialect.  For example, i n Zhao (1955:136) i t i s s t a t e d t h a t Macao, w h i l e b e l o n g i n g t o Xiang-shan county, was Sino-Portuguese t r e a t y o f 1888 Emperor Guang-xu )\j \M  •  l e a s e d t o P o r t u g a l i n the  i n the t h i r t e e n t h y e a r of  (See a l s o Bu, 1977:1; Hua-qiao Z h i ,  1964:1). 8.  A l l subsequent r e f e r e n c e s to B a l l w i l l be t o h i s 1897 t h e r e f o r e , only page number w i l l be s p e c i f i e d  9.  article;  hereafter.  K a r l Lo, a n a t i v e Zhong-shan speaker, r e c e i v e d h i s elementary  - 15 e d u c a t i o n i n Macao d u r i n g the 1940's, at which time the d i a l e c t o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n h i s c l a s s e s was dard Cantonese of  Cantonese  (Lo., p e r s o n a l communication) .  Hsu  The emergence  as the main d i a l e c t must have been more o r l e s s  contemporaneous w i t h Egerod's 10.  Zhong-shan, not s t a n -  fieldwork.  (1970:540) a t t r i b u t e s poor a g r i c u l t u r a l output to i n f e r -  t i l e s o i l , whereas the p i c t o r i a l magazine on "Zhong-shan q i a o xiang feng-guang"  (n.d.:17) c l a i m s t h a t " ( t ) h e r e are s e v e r a l  m i l l i o n mu o f f e r t i l e a l l u v i a l sandy land i n Ch.ungsh.an county ... (b)ut i t s annual g r a i n output reached only 200 to 250 k i l o s i n the p a s t because of i t s backward a g r i c u l t u r e shabby water conservancy". of 11.  (.'Mu i s a Chinese 1  land-measure  area.)  Unless otherwise i n d i c a t e d , a l l r e f e r e n c e t o Chao p e r t a i n s to  h i s p u b l i c a t i o n on Zhong-shan phonology  (1948); t h e r e f o r e ,  only page number w i l l be p r o v i d e d i n subsequent 12.  A f t e r the survey was  references.  conducted, a few words were added to the  survey l i s t u s i n g l e t t e r s o r a d d i t i o n a l numbers. be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l 13.  and  This  will  later.  Unless s p e c i f i e d otherwise, a l l subsequent c i t i n g s of H a s h i moto are of Hashimoto (1972a).  For t h i s work on  Cantonese  which i s c i t e d throughout the p r e s e n t study f o r comparative purposes, o n l y page number w i l l be g i v e n subsequently. 14.  An e x c e r p t from the d e s c r i p t i o n o f the sound / o i / , word g a i  / k o i / 'ought', i s c i t e d here as an example:  approximation o f i t may ese sounds ko now  as i n the  (&  be got by pronouncing the two  ) and y i (_3» ) r a p i d l y t o g e t h e r .  "An  Canton-:.  Having  got t h i s sound, then s l i g h t l y open the l i p s f u r t h e r and  -  pronounce  16  -  i t a l i t t l e more open, a t the same time t a k i n g  great  care not t o get too near t o the open k o i sound of the Cantonese  c£jj^ ) •  In t h i s way  and by l i s t e n i n g to a n a t i v e from  Macao pronouncing i t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a r r i v e a t the sound of the word "f$ , k o i i n Macao." ( B a l l , p.509). x  of the t r a n s c r i p t i o n s mine.)  (Underlining  - 17 CHAPTER 1.  PHONETIC DESCRIPTION AND  The  PHONEMIC ANALYSIS  phonology o f the Zhong-shan d i a l e c t w i l l be  described  a c c o r d i n g to an amalgamation of American s t r u c t u r a l i s t and ( t r a d i t i o n a l and modern) approaches.  Since i t i s the  latter  approach which i s u n f a m i l i a r to most Western l i n g u i s t s , the t e r m i n o l o g i e s and conventions  Chinese  some of  based on Chinese a n a l y t i c a l  c a t e g o r i e s w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d below. First  of a l l , the s y l l a b l e i s analyzed  i n t o two major p a r t s : the i n i t i a l The  initial  i s simply  and the f i n a l  the beginning  s t i t u t e s the "zero i n i t i a l " .  The  The  ( c f . Chart  linguists 1).  consonant whose absence con-  f i n a l c o n s i s t s of an o p t i o n a l  medial, which i s a g l i d e or v o c a l i c segment and Chinese rhyming p r a c t i c e s .  by Chinese  i s ignored i n  rhyming p a r t - ( i . e . , the rhyme)•con-  s i s t s of an o b l i g a t o r y s y l l a b i c segment, the nucleus,  followed  by  an o p t i o n a l ending, which i s a g l i d e , or a n a s a l or stop consonant. is  A l s o c o n s i d e r e d p a r t of the f i n a l by some Chinese  linguists  the tone, which i s u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d i n terms of p i t c h  and d u r a t i o n .  Other l i n g u i s t s simply regard tone as a supraseg-  mental f e a t u r e and t r e a t i t s e p a r a t e l y . Chart 1.  contour  S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e of Chinese.  S Y L L A B L E FINAL RHYME INITIAL  MEDIAL  NUCLEUS  ENDING  - 18 T h i s a n a l y s i s o f the Chinese s y l l a b l e i n terms o f an i n i t i a l - f i n a l dichotomy i s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a t r a d i t i o n which has  i t s source  i n a method o f " s p e l l i n g " used s i n c e l a t e Han, o r  second century A.D., c a l l e d f a n - q i e fg^ ^jj and c u t t i n g . 1  , literally,  'turning  I t i s a means o f o b t a i n i n g the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f a  c h a r a c t e r by u s i n g two o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , the f i r s t o f which bears the same i n i t i a l ( e s s e n t i a l l y the non-rhyming p o r t i o n ) , and the second the same rhyme, o r f i n a l .  The c h a r a c t e r dong  f o r example, i s d e f i n e d p h o n e t i c a l l y by the g l o s s de faj- : t h a t i s , d(e) - (h) png = dong.  'east', and hong  The f an-qie method works w e l l  when the f i n a l o f a word c o n t a i n s only the rhyme, but breaks down when the f i n a l i n c l u d e s a m e d i a l , 1  which i s not c o n s i s t e n t l y found  i n the second c h a r a c t e r i n the f a n - q i e . While f a n - q i e i s i n v o l v e d i n grouping  words which c o n t a i n  the same rhyme, the n i u £.3- (.'knot') p r i n c i p l e i s used i n c a t e g o r i z i n g words which have the same i n i t i a l ;  t h a t i s , words c o n t a i n i n g  the same i n i t i a l which are grouped together belong niu  ( P u l l e y b l a n k , 1977).  t o the same  Beyond the d i v i s i o n o f a c h a r a c t e r i n t o  i n i t i a l and f i n a l , the f u r t h e r decomposition o f the f i n a l i n t o s m a l l e r component p a r t s such as nucleus ence o f Western approach, which analyzes l i n e a r sequence o f sounds arranged  and ending i s the i n f l u a s y l l a b l e i n terms o f a  according to t h e i r  temporal  p o s i t i o n i n a spoken c h a i n . The  c a n o n i c a l shape of the s y l l a b l e i n Zhong-shan (Chart 2)  can be analyzed u s i n g the terms i n t r o d u c e d above. Zhong-shan i s a consonant which, when omitted, "zero" i n i t i a l ,  and i s assigned the phoneme /0/  The i n t i a l i n  c o n s t i t u t e s the ( i . e . , the n u l l  element, f o r convenience o f r e f e r e n c e ; the zero i n i t i a l i s omitted  - 19 Chart 2.  S y l l a b l e S t r u c t u r e o f Zhong-shan.  T (I)  £T  Examples:  55,  r  Lt ea  i  IJ  where  i  + a:  +  ng  55  _55  +  w + a  rI W A i n iJ  / w  +  —  +  a:  +  n  5  [JAik ]  / j  +  —  +  a:  +  k  2  [ixp J  /  —  +  —  +  i  +  In  /  —  +  —  +  ng  +  1  2  3-  +  / k  5  t  J  / t  J  Lkwax - U?  + (M) + N + (E)  2  J  +  _  M = Medial  55  / = /wa:n / 'yet' 51  1  /= / j a : k / 'eat' 2  /= / i p / 2  1 3  1 3  (Consonant o r "zero"  'five'  initial)  . ( / i / o r /w/) (Vowel o r s y l l a b i c  nasal)  E = Ending  ( G l i d e , stop, o r nasal)  With regard t o the f i n a l ,  element i s the m e d i a l , which i s an o p t i o n a l segment.  or  'leaf  /= / n g /  N = Nucleus  in actual transcriptions).  Zhong-shan.  / 'nail  T = Tone I = Initial  importance  55  /tia:ng  /= / k w a / 'melon'  2  P  /=  the f i r s t Of c e n t r a l  i s the nucleus, which i s a vowel o r a s y l l a b i c n a s a l i n The ending i s o p t i o n a l , c o n s i s t i n g o f a g l i d e ,  n a s a l consonant.  The tone, i n d i c a t e d by the use of s u p e r s c r i p t s ,  f o l l o w i n g the s y l l a b l e , i s t r e a t e d as a suprasegmental over the e n t i r e  stop  feature  syllable.  With regard t o conventions  f o r i n d i c a t i n g tone, Y.R. Chao  has d e v i s e d two systems, one u s i n g tone l e t t e r s and the other ....  numerals.  20  Both systems continue t o be used by Chinese  In the f i r s t ,  linguists.  tone l e t t e r s g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t the p i t c h h e i g h t  and the contour of a tone.  The tone l e t t e r s f o r the v a r i o u s l e v e l  tones, f o r i n s t a n c e , are "1 1 -\ -I J " , w i t h a gradual descent i n p i t c h h e i g h t r e p r e s e n t e d by the gradual lowering of the h o r i z o n t a l stroke.  Tonal l e n g t h i s a l s o g r a p h i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d .  A long .  l e v e l tone, f o r example, i s i n d i c a t e d by a comparatively h o r i z o n t a l s t r o k e than a s h o r t l e v e l tone Short l e v e l tones are g e n e r a l l y used stop  longer  (e.g., "1 versus 1 ) .  f o r s y l l a b l e s ending i n a  consonant. The  second  system f o r t o n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n i s a numerical  one which uses the s c a l e of "1" to "5" wherein lowest p i t c h and  "5" the h i g h e s t .  "1" i n d i c a t e s  the  Thus, a h i g h l e v e l tone may  represented by  "55",  f o r i n s t a n c e , and a h i g h f a l l i n g tone by  and so f o r t h .  A s i n g l e number i s used  be "51",  f o r denoting s h o r t s y l l a -  b l e s , e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t t o the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of s y l l a b l e s w i t h stop consonant endings. it  For t y p o g r a p h i c a l and comparative  i s t h i s l a t t e r system of tone n o t a t i o n which w i l l be employed  i n the present  study.  T r a n s c r i p t i o n of consonants  i s basically in  with the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic Alphabet cations. [']  reasons,  accordance  (IPA), with a few m o d i f i -  A s p i r a t i o n , f o r example, i s i n d i c a t e d by the  (e.g., [p'] i n s t e a d o f IPA  [phj) .  The segment I t s J  an a f f r i c a t e r a t h e r than a sequence of two aspirated counterpart.  diacritic represents  segments; I t s ' ]  i s the  2 1  -  1.1.  -  Initials The consonants i n Table 1 r e p r e s e n t the i n v e n t o r y o f  i n i t i a l consonants i n broad phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n . sonants  Those con-,  accompanied by a dash. "-" occur i n s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l  p o s i t i o n only.  Table 1 .  The I n i t i a l s  i n Zhong-shan.  Plosive Unasp*. Bilabial  Asp'd.  p  Nasal  pi-  Lateral  Fricative  m  w  Labiodental  f  Dental  t  t'~  Alveolar  ts-  ts'-  Velar  k  k'-  Glottal  Glide  n  -  1j  q  (?)  h-  The broad p h o n e t i c t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n Table 1 above i s e s s e n t i a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o a phonemic i n v e n t o r y t h a t can be a r r i v e d at by a p p l y i n g the p r i n c i p l e s o f complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n and phonetic s i m i l a r i t y .  Thus, Table 1 a l s o serves as the phonemic  system o f Zhong-shan i n i t i a l s .  For t y p o g r a p h i c a l reasons, /ng/  w i l l be used t o r e p r e s e n t the v e l a r n a s a l [q] i n the phonemic system and should be c o n s i d e r e d a u n i t phoneme.  Likewise, / t s /  and / t s ' / c o n s t i t u t e u n i t phonemes. In the f o l l o w i n g paragraphs i s a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of  some o f the phonemes and t h e i r a l l o p h o n e s .  /t/,  The phonemes /p/,  /ts/.and /k/ are u n a s p i r a t e d , and g e n e r a l l y q u i t e weak,  v o i c e l e s s p l o s i v e s , o f t e n p e r c e i v e d p h o n e t i c a l l y as [bj , [dj , {d z] 4  - 22 and  [ g ] , and sometimes even w i t h s l i g h t v o i c i n g .  Note t h a t t h i s  o b s e r v a t i o n d i f f e r s from t h a t made by Chao (p.51) who a s s e r t s t h a t , u n l i k e Mandarin, the d i a l e c t s o f Cantonese, Zhong-shan and Wu are a l i k e i n having s t r o n g , u n a s p i r a t e d stops i n s y l l a b l e initial  position. There i s s t r o n g a s p i r a t i o n i n the a s p i r a t e d s e r i e s ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent  i n the c a r e f u l e n u n c i a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l  c h a r a c t e r s c o n t a i n i n g them. Some l i p - r o u n d i n g accompanies the i n i t i a l s when they occur before the h i g h rounded vowel k , w  h ]). W  I t was f u r t h e r observed  [u:J (e.g., ^ [ p , p w  /  ts , W  t h a t s l i g h t a f f r i c a t i o n may  it occur, as i n the word bu tf? 'step', p h o n e t i c a l l y There i s some disagreement  < W  5 22 [p ux. J .  among l i n g u i s t s concerning the  nature o f the s i b i l a n t s i n Zhong-shan.  Chao (p.51) f e e l s t h a t  there i s c l e a r l y no p a l a t a l i z a t i o n i n the S h i - q i d i a l e c t , i n c o n t r a s t t o h i s o b s e r v a t i o n o f s t r o n g p a l a t a l i z a t i o n i n Cantonese. Egerod  (p.13), on the other hand, p o s i t s a p a l a t a l s e r i e s f o r both  Cantonese and S h i - q i , w i t h the phonemes / c / , / c h / and / s / 3  s'  r e p r e s e n t i n g the phonetic segments [c J , [c  J and [s] r e s p e c t i v e l y .  B a l l ' s a n a l y s i s may c o n s t i t u t e a compromise i n t h a t complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n can perhaps be i n f e r r e d from h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s : i n g e n e r a l , B a l l ' s / t s / occurs w i t h back vowels while h i s / c h / occurs w i t h f r o n t ones, which suggests t h a t the p a l a t a l / c h / i s the 2 r e s u l t o f a s s i m i l a t i o n t o the f o l l o w i n g f r o n t vowel. .  ' ..It was observed  i n the w r i t e r ' s data t h a t Chen's pronun-  c i a t i o n tends t o be s l i g h t l y more p a l a t a l than Yang's, but i s nonetheless not as s t r o n g l y p a l a t a l i z e d as found among some speakers o f Cantonese.  In her study o f Cantonese, Hashimoto (p.88)  7  23  -  d e s c r i b e s the s i b i l a n t s i n her i d i o l e c t as d e n t a l i n a r t i c u l a t i o n , but adds t h a t the p l a c e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h i s s e r i e s o f sound, ranges from d e n t a l to p a l a t a l among Cantonese  speakers,  w i t h a tendency f o r some degree of p a l a t a l i z a t i o n p r e c e d i n g h i g h f r o n t vowels.  Hashimoto  (p.l7,fn.8) f u r t h e r c i t e s an  v a t i o n made by D.C.  Lau at the U n i v e r s i t y of London who  t h a t there i s a g r e a t e r tendency f o r male speakers speakers  to p a l a t a l i z e .  obser-  found  than  T h i s would concur with our  the  female  observations  on Chen and Yang's speech with regard to the r e l a t i v e degree of p a l a t a l i z a t i o n of the s i b i l a n t  series.  As noted by both Chao and Egerod, the i n i t i a l  n a s a l con-  sonants are o f t e n accompanied by homorganic s t o p s : [m ,  n^,  3  n~^] .  However, i n the case of a n o n - l a b i a l n a s a l f o l l o w e d by the high, back vowel [ u : ] , i t was  found t h a t the homorganic stop may  be  r e p l a c e d by l a b i a l  [b] i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g l a b i a l  segment, as i n one  of the r e p e t i t i o n s i n the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the  word nu times,  Ijp 'anger', which was  rendered  [n u:  ] by Chen.  At  i n s t e a d o f the n a s a l consonant being accompanied by a  homorganic stop, the i n i t i a l  segment becomes i n f a c t a p r e n a s a l i z e d  stop, as i n Chen's p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the word men  'door'.  It  51 is  [mum  J i n broad phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n ; i n narrow phonetic  t r a n s c r i p t i o n , however, the word should be recorded as The of  a l t e r n a t i o n between /n/ and /!/ observed  a number of Hong Kong speakers  maintains  i s not found  nounced with the l a t e r a l cases  i n the survey of an  3  [11 i n Zhong-shan. In] corresponding  m  i  i n the speech  i n Zhong-shan, which  a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n between these two  the words which had the h i s t o r i c a l N i yf<J  { bu:n^ j.  (*n-)  initials. initial  None of are  pro-  There are o n l y t h r e e to the L a i  - 24 initial:  (.1) the c h a r a c t e r l i a n g  fa  which i s pronounced [n0ot)  13  ]  13 w i t h the meaning of  'two  (173-12) and  a measure word to mean 'a t a e l '  [loan  (173-13);  ] when i t i s used as  (.2) the c h a r a c t e r  ling  4f| C201-7) f o r ' c o l l a r ' and 'to apply f o r which has the l i t e r a r y 13 13 r e a d i n g of I l i n ] , w h i l e a c o l l o q u i a l r e a d i n g of [neairj ] only 13 a p p l i e s to the f i r s t meaning, and second meaning; and  t h a t of  [leain  (3) the c h a r a c t e r l i  J only to the  (1.13-13) which i s a  c l a s s i f i e r f o r s m a l l , round o b j e c t s such as seeds, g r a i n , p e a r l s , 5 buttons, of why  e t c . , and  i s pronounced InBp J .  Although any  explanation  these three c h a r a c t e r s have a c q u i r e d a n a s a l i n i t i a l  can  only be s p e c u l a t i v e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the /n/ i s a r e s u l t of borrowing i n a l l three Two  cases.  of the three words, l i a n g  and  l i n g ,  can  found i n the very u s e f u l c r o s s - d i a l e c t a l r e f e r e n c e source, Han-yu Fang-yan Z i - h u i y& bary',  (.'Chinese D i a l e c t S y l l a -  (.1962)—hereafter  r e f e r r e d to as  s h o r t , with page r e f e r e n c e i n c l u d e d o n l y ) .  e n t r y f o r the word l i a n g g l o s s e s , one 'two'  the  e d i t t e d by the B e i j i n g Daxue Zhong-guo Yu-yan Wen-xue-xi  Yu-yan-xue J i a o - y a n - s h i for  7f "if %  be  and  bary.  .  There i s only  Since the Z i - h u i does not  provide  ' t a e l ' , are combined i n the s i n g l e e n t r y i n t h a t  While most of the d i a l e c t s have the l a t e r a l  represented dialect), two  one  can only suppose t h a t the two meanings of the word,  r e f l e x of the h i s t o r i c a l L a i i n i t i a l , t h e r e i n show an  111  a few of the  [n] i n i t i a l .  forms c o n t a i n an In] i n i t i a l ,  [niu]. and  Inp]  as  syllathe  dialects  In Amoy (a Southern and one  an  p a r t i a l l y r e f l e c t i n g s t y l i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s : .[lion] i s 4 whereas  "Zi-hui"  are c o l l o q u i a l r e a d i n g s .  11J  initial,  . literary  However,  [1] are i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Amoy, w i t h  Min  [n]  and  In], o c c u r r i n g  - 25before n a s a l i z e d vowels and [q] and [1] elsewhere.  5  Although t h e r e may be c o n t a c t between Zhong-shan and Amoy, or some o t h e r s i m i l a r Southern Min d i a l e c t , s t r o n g e r evidence f o r p o s s i b l e d i a l e c t a l i n f l u e n c e comes from Fu-zhou, dialect  (data p r o v i d e d by J . Norman).  a N o r t h e a s t e r n Min  Not a l l Fu-zhou  maintain a phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n between /n/ and / l / ;  speakers  however,  among those who do, 'two' i s [naq ] , w h i l e ' t a e l ' i s I - l i o r ) ] . ^ 2  The /n/-~> / l /  s p l i t i n Fu-zhou not only serves the same f u n c t i o n  as t h a t found i n Zhong-shan, but the same assignment o f i n i t i a l to meaning occurs i n the two d i a l e c t s .  There are no data on the  Long-du d i a l e c t  r o m a n i z a t i o n ) , which i s  ("Lungtu"  i n Wade-Giles  spoken i n the second qu i n Zhong-shan, and i s regarded by both. J . Norman and N. Bodman as a N o r t h e a s t e r n Min d i a l e c t . l e s s , one would suspect t h a t Zhong-shan borrowed f o r the two meanings o f the word l i a n g  Neverthe-  the / n / ~ / l /  split  xfc) from L o n g - d u — i f such  a d i s t i n c t i o n occurs i n t h a t d i a l e c t — o r  from Fu-zhou or another  Northeastern d i a l e c t where the same d i s t i n c t i o n i s found. I t might a l s o be noted t h a t although Hashimoto (p.570) records a l a t e r a l i n i t i a l  f o r both meanings o f the c h a r a c t e r  liang  1$) , whein i t i s useid t o mean ' two , the c h a r a c t e r i s pronounced i n 1  the Yang-shang tone 1 2 4 ] , w h i l e i t s use t o mean ' t a e l ' i s rendered i n the Yin-shang tone I 3 5 J .  Hashimoto Cp-668) suggests t h a t s i n c e  lj.ang as a measure word i s a c o l l o q u i a l term, i t s Yin-shang tone may be the product o f e i t h e r changed  tone phenomenon ( i . e . , an  o r i g i n a l tone changed t o a h i g h r i s i n g the  colloquial  I 3 5 J ) , or i n f l u e n c e from  layer.  The evidence thus f a r demonstrates, . . f i r s t l y , . t h a t the two meanings o f the c h a r a c t e r l i a n g  do d i v e r g e i n t h e i r  suscepti-  - 26 bility ing  to e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e s , with. Zhong-shan and Fu-zhou show-  an a l t e r n a t i o n of i n i t i a l s ,  differentiation.  Secondly,  while Cantonese e x h i b i t s a t o n a l  and more i m p o r t a n t l y with regard to  Zhong-shan, given the p a u c i t y of exceptions of  the L a i i n i t i a l  i n Zhong-shan and the evidence  i t would be l o g i c a l to suggest has  i n the modern r e f l e x  the /n/ i n i t i a l  from Fu-zhou,  t h a t the r e a d i n g of l i a n g which  i n Zhong-shan i s l i k e l y to have been the  borrowed i n t o the d i a l e c t , whereas the one with the / l / is  initial  the n a t i v e form. A p a r a l l e l case may  which has both an / l / in  one  be argued f o r the c h a r a c t e r l i n g  and an /n/ i n i t i a l  Zhong-shan: the form [ l e a n j  'collar'.  Again,  which show an  13  i n the c o l l o q u i a l  reading  J means 'to apply f o r ' and  [neain  there are s e v e r a l d i a l e c t s i n the Z i - h u i  [n] i n i t i a l  f o r the c h a r a c t e r l i n g .  Of the  Chinese d i a l e c t s recorded i n the Z i - h u i , only Chao-zhou  ,  13 J  (p.255) southern  (Southern  52 Min)  shows an  form g i v e n ) . maintained  [n] i n i t i a l  f o r the c h a r a c t e r :  [nia  J  (with no  other  In g e n e r a l , the / n / ^ / l / d i s t i n c t i o n i s not very w e l l  i n Southern Min d i a l e c t s .  I t i s noted t h a t such a d i s -  t i n c t i o n i s l i k e w i s e not always maintained  i n Northeastern  I t i s t h e r e f o r e c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the n a s a l i n i t i a l q u i a l reading of  ' c o l l a r ' i s a borrowing from one  f o r the  Min. collo-  of the Min  dia-  lects. Chao's data on the Zhong-shan d i a l e c t show initial is  a l a t e r a l ..  f o r the c o l l o q u i a l r e a d i n g of the c h a r a c t e r l i n g 4%. 13 7  t r a n s c r i b e d by Chao phonemically  as / l i a : n g  /.  r  which  It i s signifi-  cant t h a t Chao leaves the s l o t f o r the p o t e n t i a l s y l l a b l e  /nia:ng  i n h i s s y l l a b a r y empty, which q u i t e s t r o n g l y suggests t h a t the 13 p r o n u n c i a t i o n of / l i a : n g / f o r the c h a r a c t e r l i n g encompasses  x 3 /  - 27 both, the meanings o f ' c o l l a r  and 'to apply f o r ' .  1  The p r e s e n t  data on S h i - q i , which y i e l d s a n a s a l form, would l e a d t o the p r o p o s a l t h a t the borrowing may be a r e c e n t one.  In contrast,  the c h a r a c t e r l i a n g xfi) i n Chao's data agrees w i t h the p r e s e n t corpus i n haying both a l a t e r a l and a n a s a l i n i t i a l , which probably r e f l e c t s an e a r l i e r  borrowing.  The c h a r a c t e r l i %.JL  [n^p^j , which i s a measure word f o r  s m a l l , round o b j e c t s , o n l y has the /n/ i n i t i a l is  i n Zhong-shan.  It  l i k e l y t h a t t h i s i s a l s o a borrowed form, although the w r i t e r  has no concrete c r o s s - d i a l e c t a l data on which t o support claim.  this  The g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s made above on the Min d i a l e c t s  and the r a r i t y o f /n/ as a r e f l e x o f the L a i i n i t i a l would suggest a s i m i l a r borrowing exceptions t o the L a i i n i t i a l  i n Zhong-shan  i n t h i s t h i r d and l a s t case o f  i n the Zhong-shan data.  Moreover, although Hashimoto  (p.513) records  [lsp ]  for  the c h a r a c t e r , i t i s noteworthy t h a t Huang (1970:425)., f o r example, p o s i t s only an /n/ i n i t i a l  f o r the same c h a r a c t e r , c a r r y i n g the  meaning o f 'measure o f seeds, g r a i n s , e t c . ' i n h i s Cantonese Dictionary. or  The word does not occur elsewhere  i n the d i c t i o n a r y ,  more p r e c i s e l y , i t does not appear i n the s e c t i o n under  (Huang t r a n s c r i b e s the word as nap, i n Y a l e romanization.)  /l/. S.L.  Wong (.1954)_ l i k e w i s e records the word L i under the s y l l a b l e [ n s p ] for  Cantonese.  However, Wong does note t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s a l s o  read s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f the h i s t o r i c a l l y homophonous word, l i j£ . 5 (.113-12) ; t h a t i s , l i has an a l t e r n a t e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f [ l B p J . One  can, however, assume t h a t the r e a d i n g o f the word l i %JL  the /n/ i n i t i a l  with  i n Cantonese i s the primary one i n Wong's Chinese  s y l l a b a r y based on the p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n Canton.  Given Wong's  d e c i s i o n t o r e c o r d l i . %JL. only, under .the /n/ i n i t i a l  category,  and Huang's r e c o r d i n g of the word o n l y w i t h an /n/ i n i t i a l , i t appears who  t h a t not o n l y Zhong-shan, but Cantonese speakers  do not normally  "confuse" /n/ and /!/ i n i t i a l s  l e s s pronounce the word l i . JJC^L The  initial  would  as w e l l , neverthe-  with a nasal i n i t i a l .  /h/ i s a g l o t t a l f r i c a t i v e .  ever s t a t e s t h a t when /h/ precedes  Chao (p. 51).  the back vowels /u/ and  how/o/,  t h e r e i s some v e l a r or u v u l a r f r i c a t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n a sound which i s almost .[;xj .  T h i s a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a t i o n was  speech, o f Chen and Yang to any s i g n i f i c a n t g The  zero i n i t i a l  /#/  not observed  degree.  , a c c o r d i n g t o Chao (p.51), i s a  smooth onset b e f o r e h i g h vowels, but i s u s u a l l y a g l o t t a l [ j j b e f o r e mid and low vowels. the zero i n i t i a l was The  zero i n i t i a l  stop  T h i s a l l o p h o n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of  not c o n s i s t e n t l y observed i n the p r e s e n t data.  occurs b e f o r e f i n a l s beginning w i t h a n u c l e a r  vowel, as w e l l as b e f o r e s y l l a b i c n a s a l s . of  i n the  a s y l l a b l e c o n t a i n i n g a zero i n i t i a l ,  a c t u a l l y never t r a n s c r i b e d . Egerod  In the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n the n u l l symbol "ft" i s  records a phonemic g l o t t a l  stop / ? / r a t h e r than a zero i n i t i a l , which he p o s i t s b e f o r e vowels and  s y l l a b i c nasals.  Egerod makes no note of a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a t i o n s .  Before d i s c u s s i n g the semi-vowel i n i t i a l s ,  i t should be  made c l e a r t h a t the phonemic a n a l y s i s of both Egerod  and  the  w r i t e r d i s t i n g u i s h e s between vowels and g l i d e s and, moreover, allows the l a t t e r to serve as i n i t i a l s .  Chao, on the other hand,  does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e g l i d e s from vowels i n h i s a n a l y s i s . treats /u/.  [j] as an allophone of the phoneme/i/, and H i s r a t i o n a l e i s founded  He  [wj as t h a t of  on the s t r i c t a p p l i c a t i o n of the  p r i n c i p l e of complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n ;  s i n c e whether the segment  - 29. /i/,  T  f o r i n s t a n c e , i s the vowel { i j o r the semi-vowel {jj can be  p r e d i c t e d on the b a s i s o f i t s p o s i t i o n i n the s y l l a b l e and/or what rhyme or f i n a l accompanies i t , Chao combines the f r o n t vowel and p a l a t a l g l i d e under the phoneme / i / . vowel [u] and the l a b i a l g l i d e  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g back  {wj are i n c o r p o r a t e d under the  phoneme /u/ on s i m i l a r grounds. Since vowels and g l i d e s are i n complementary in  Zhong-shan, c o n t r a s t i n g them phonemically would  c r e a t e redundancies i n the system.  distribution  inevitably  Egerod's d i s t i n c t i o n o f g l i d e s  and vowels i s probably prompted by the d e s i r e t o s e t up the vowel c l u s t e r /ua/, which he records p h o n e t i c a l l y as [ox>] t i n g up the phonemes /w/  Set-  and /u/ allows such minimal p a i r s as  /kwan/ and /kuan/, which are p h o n e t i c a l l y tively  or [ D : J .  [kwerij and [kom]  (using our phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ) .  respec-  Although the present  a n a l y s i s does not have such an o b j e c t i v e i n mind, i t i s i n the treatment o f medials t h a t the r e c o g n i t i o n o f vowels versus g l i d e s becomes a p a r t i c u l a r l y important i s s u e , as we s h a l l see l a t e r . Chao a l s o d i f f e r s from Egerod and the w r i t e r i n t h a t he does not t r e a t the g l i d e s as i n i t i a l cussed i n the s e c t i o n on i n i t i a l s .  segments.  Chao (pp.51,53) r e f e r s t o them  e x p l i c i t l y as medials ( j i e - y i n ^ > / phoneme /u/ i n the word hua 22 phonetically  [WA:  They are not d i s -  'medial sounds').  The  22 /ua  / ( i n Chao's  transcription,  ] ) , i s analyzed by Chao as a m e d i a l , whereas  both Egerod and the w r i t e r would analyze t h a t segment as an  initial.  Although on the whole, there i s h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s f o r a n a l y z i n g a g l i d e i n such a p o s i t i o n i n the modern d i a l e c t as a m e d i a l preceded by the zero i n i t i a l , in  i t i s nonetheless a very c o s t l y  step  t h a t i t would s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n c r e a s e the number of f i n a l s .  - 30 At  the same time, many of these f i n a l s would a c t u a l l y have a very  low f u n c t i o n a l l o a d . Iq0qj,  F i n a l s such as I v o i n T . , IwDikJ,  f o r example, would only occur with the zero  [jun] and  initial.  Chao s o l v e s the problem by p u t t i n g the two g l i d e s ( h i s /i/ in  and /u/ phonemically) i n b r a c k e t s i n h i s c h a r t of i n i t i a l s  and,  h i s s y l l a b a r y , he p o s i t s these two medials under what i s i n :  f a c t the category of i n i t i a l s .  Thus, although Chao analyses them  as medials, he i s a c t u a l l y t r e a t i n g them as i n i t i a l s without a c t u a l l y acknowledging  it.  Only i n the case of h i s f i n a l s  /ia/,  / i a : n g / and / i a : k / does Chao t r e a t / i / as a medial i n h i s s y l l a b a r y , the reason b e i n g t h a t i n these f i n a l s , medial / i / does co-occur with, most of the i n i t i a l s and hence c a r r y a heavy f u n c t i o n a l However, by allowing' / i / in ble  load.  to occupy both i n i t i a l and medial p o s i t i o n  h i s s y l l a b a r y , Chao a l s o c r e a t e s c e r t a i n redundancies; a s y l l a such as * / i i a / ,  f o r example, would not be p o s s i b l e i n the  J  d i a l e c t , but i t c o u l d be generated from the combination of " i n i t i a l + f i n a l " i n his syllabary. In  the present a n a l y s i s , a s i m i l a r problem  i s avoided by  s t a t i n g the f o l l o w i n g r e s t r i c t i o n : the two medials, /w/ never co-occur w i t h the zero i n i t i a l . are  /w/  and / j / . ) .  the phoneme /w/  and  (The two semi-vowel  A c c o r d i n g to t h i s co-occurrence  /i/, initials  restriction,  i n the s y l l a b l e /kwa/, f o r example, i s a n a l y z e d as  a medial whereas, i t i s an i n i t i a l i n the s y l l a b l e /wa/.  The  phoneme / i / i s a m e d i a l i n the s y l l a b l e / k i a : k / , f o r i n s t a n c e , w h i l e / j / i n the s y l l a b l e such as / j a : k / i s an i n i t i a l .  (The  phoneme / i / can o n l y occur s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l l y when i t i s the n u c l e a r yowel Ii,:].)  The reasons f o r choosing an  asymmetrical  p a i r of phonemes (/w/  and / i / ) . f o r the medials w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  -  31  -  later. Returning now  to the d i s c u s s i o n of g l i d e i n i t i a l s ,  simply the back, rounded semi-vowel front glide  Ij] .  [wj, w h i l e / j /  /w/  is  i s usually  the  Before the f r o n t rounded vowel [ 0 ] , however, the  g l i d e a s s i m i l a t e s to the rounding of the f o l l o w i n g segment, and thus becomes the f r o n t , rounded semi-vowel [ q j .  The o n l y occur-  rence of t h i s r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n i n the p r e s e n t data i s i n the s y l l a b l e / j 0 j / , p h o n e t i c a l l y  [i[0uj  , w i t h the n u c l e a r vowel  a f f e c t i n g both the preceding and the f o l l o w i n g segment. With regard to a comparison of the i n i t i a l s  i n Zhong-shan  and Cantonese, i n g e n e r a l , there i s very l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between the two  dialects.  One  o b s e r v a t i o n d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r was  the d i f f e r -  ence i n degree of p a l a t a l i z a t i o n present i n t h e ^ s i b i l a n t s i n the dialects.  Another, concerns  and some of the o t h e r Yue  the n a s a l i n i t i a l s .  dialects  two  U n l i k e Zhong-shan  (e.g., S i - y i d i a l e c t s ) , Canton^  ese does not have homorganic stops accompanying the a r t i c u l a t i o n of  nasals.  presence  Another d i f f e r e n c e t h a t i s found i n Cantonese i s the  of homorganic g l i d e s p r e c e d i n g the h i g h vowels.  the Zhong-shan s y l l a b l e wise, Zhong-shan  [u:n] would be  [ix] corresponds  shan [yx] i s Cantonese  [qyx].  Thus,  [wu:n] i n Cantonese.  to Cantonese [ j i x ] , and  Like-  Zhong-  Moreover, Cantonese i s o f t e n t r e a t e d  as c o n t a i n i n g a p h o n o l o g i c a l c o n t r a s t between a p l a i n versus a labialized velar i n i t i a l /k'w/).  The  ( i . e . , /k/ versus /kw/,  and / k / 1  versus  l a b i a l i z e d c o u n t e r p a r t s are t r e a t e d i n Zhong-shan as  a sequence of a v e l a r i n i t i a l p l u s a l a b i a l medial to correspond to  the n o n - l a b i a l medial / i / .  The absence of a medial / i /  Cantonese, combined w i t h a h e a v i e r f u n c t i o n a l l o a d of the ized i n i t i a l s  i n Cantonese make the o p t i o n of t r e a t i n g /kw/  in labialand  - 32 /k'w/ as i n i t i a l segments a p r a c t i c a l one f o r Cantonese.  1.2.  Finals. A broad phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f the f i n a l s i n Zhong-shan,  together w i t h a phonemic a n a l y s i s , i s presented i n Table 2 (a) on page 35.  In the t a b l e , the phonemic r e n d i t i o n s o f the medials  and s y l l a b l e n u c l e i are p l a c e d i n the l e f t - m o s t endings  are recorded across the very top.  p a r t i c u l a r phonemic s o l u t i o n proposed  column, w h i l e the  J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the  here w i l l be d e t a i l e d  In the meantime, f o r the purpose o f comparison, Egerod's treatment  o f the f i n a l s a r e r e - i n t e r p r e t e d  later.  Chao and  i n Tables 2  (b). and (c) i n order t o f i t i n t o the format o f Table 2 C a ) . f i n a l s i n B a l l ' s study a r e g i v e n i n Table 2 (d).  For cross-dia-  l e c t a l comparison with Cantonese, the f i n a l s i n Cantonese, on Hashimoto (p.90), are p l a c e d i n Table 2 ( e ) .  The  based  To conform with,  the format e s t a b l i s h e d here f o r Zhong-shan, the l a b i a l f e a t u r e o f the l a b i a l i z e d v e l a r i n i t i a l s  i s t r e a t e d as a medial i n the t a b l e .  Such a treatment w i l l a l s o prove u s e f u l i n the l a t e r comparison of h i s t o r i c a l r e f l e x e s o f v a r i o u s rhyme Egerod's data cause  groups.  some d i f f i c u l t y  s i n c e he d i d not  p r o v i d e a s y l l a b a r y f o r S h i - q i and h i s corpus o f data on the d i a l e c t i s extremely  limited.  I t w i l l be assumed here t h a t the  f i n a l s found i n Chao's study a r e a l s o present i n Egerod's.  More-  over, some segments which Egerod has analyzed as "vowel c l u s t e r s " have been r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n Table 2 (_c). : h i s /aa/ c l u s t e r i s regarded as a simple "vowel nucleus", w h i l e the c l u s t e r s / i a / , /0a/  and /ua/  as w e l l as the sequences /wa/ and /waa/ (_with /w/ o r i g i n a l l y  part  of the v e l a r consonant c l u s t e r ) , a r e c o n s i d e r e d a combination of  - 33 -  " m e d i a l + vowel n u c l e u s " , based on h i s t o r i c a l and c r o s s - d i a l e c t a l data. It  i s more d i f f i c u l t t o know the p r e c i s e p h o n e t i c  value  J . D . B a l l i n t e n d e d i n h i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f Macao Zhong-shan.  In  some i n s t a n c e s , t h e r e i s an attempt t o t r a n s c r i b e the words phonetically: [ i ] and [ i f ]  f o r example, h i s vowels / i / and / ! / c o r r e s p o n d respectively  i n modern ( S h i - q i )  Zhong-shan.  However,  /'£/ i s a l s o used f o r a sound which i s now the f r o n t g l i d e In o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s , t i o n of forms.  to  [JJ.  i t ^ a p p e a r s t o be s i m p l y an o v e r - d i f f e r e n t i a -  The i n i t i a l s / t s / and / c h / , mentioned e a r l i e r ,  t r a n s c r i b e d as though they may be c o n t r a s t i v e  are  i n the d i a l e c t .  It  i s l i k e l y t h a t such a c o n t r a s t between a d e n t a l and an a l v e o l a r (or p a l a t a l )  s e r i e s — a l s o found i n a number o f e a r l i e r works on  Cantonese ( i n c l u d i n g those by B a l l ) — i s  i n f a c t an a r t i f i c i a l  c r e a t i o n which became q u i t e w i d e l y a c c e p t e d s i n c e i t had f u n c t i o n a l value. The o v e r - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  i s based on a d i s t i n c t i o n  found  i n the n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d w h e r e i n the d e n t a l s i b i l a n t s i n Cantonese g e n e r a l l y c o r r e s p o n d t o the d e n t a l / p a l a t a l s e r i e s i n M a n d a r i n , and the Cantonese a l v e o l a r s of the r e t r o f l e x  (or p a l a t a l s , as the case may be)  s e r i e s i n the Mandarin d i a l e c t .  It  is  that  primarily  f o r the purpose o f a i d i n g Cantonese speakers i n l e a r n i n g the n a t i o n a l d i a l e c t t h a t the two s e r i e s had o f t e n been k e p t a p a r t  in  Cantonese, even though such a d i s t i n c t i o n i s founded on p e d a g o g i c a l r a t h e r than l i n g u i s t i c grounds 19); Yuan (.1960:183), e t c . ) .  (see,  f o r example, Chao  The f a c t t h a t a s e r i e s of  (.1947:18dental  v e r s u s p a l a t a l s i b i l a n t s i s phonemic i n S h u n - d e , which i s one of the Yue d i a l e c t s but i s by no means r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of the  dialect  - 34 f a m i l y as a whole, may t i a t i o n recorded  have c o n t r i b u t e d to the o r i g i n a l  differen-  i n e a r l i e r w r i t i n g s on Cantonese.  Some of B a l l ' s f i n a l s a l s o appear to be o v e r l y d i f f e r e n t i ated; f o r example, B a l l t r a n s c r i b e s the f i n a l s of the three words ming  ^  (.200.-2) 'name', j i n g  ling ^  (201-8) ' h i l l '  below.  The  fcfa  (200-3) ' q u i c k - w i t t e d ' ,  i n three d i f f e r e n t ways, as shown i n  H i s t o r i c a l l y , these  to the same rhyme group  same rhyme (Qing ^ reason  (.1)  f i n a l s of a l l three words are pronounced £ea:y] i n the  c o l l o q u i a l reading i n Zhong-shan. only belong  and  not  ( G e n g ^ ^ ) ^ , but a l s o to the  ) and the same grade ( I I I ) \ 1 (  to expect t h a t these  finals  There i s no  f i n a l s recorded by B a l l should have  r e f l e c t e d a c o n t r a s t i n t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i o n s u f f i c i e n t t o warrant three d i f f e r e n t means of (1)  ..Ball ^  /meeng/  transcription. Chan  .Gloss  /mia:ng / ([mea:n ]) 51  55 ,, _  L  ^  5555  rj  /tsieng/  /tsiasng  /leng/  /lia:ng  1 3  'name'  5x  /([tseaxq /  ])  'quick-witted'  ([leain ])  'hill'  1 3  In the r e c o r d i n g of B a l l ' s f i n a l s i n Table  2 (d), some of  the d i a c r i t i c a l marks t h a t he used i n h i s a r t i c l e are not  very  d i s t i n c t i n the m i c r o f i c h e of h i s a r t i c l e from which a photocopy was  made f o r t h i s study.  w r i t e r may  have recorded  As a r e s u l t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a circumflex  {*)  the  where i t should have been  an umlaut ("), a grave accent (>) i n s t e a d of a c i r c u m f l e x , e t c . attempt i s n e v e r t h e l e s s made to be c o n s i s t e n t . /ik/  are found i n S h i - q i speech o n l y .  areas use /ang/ modern  speech).  and /ak/  F i n a l s / i n g / and  Macao and the  instead (phonetically  An  surrounding  {BIJJ and  Ink] i n  - 35 T a b l e  2  ( a ) .  A n a l y s i s  \ending voweTS. nucleuses  -j  i  i i  y  y*  u  u:  3X  t h e  F i n a l s — C h a n .  -w  -m  -n  -ng  "P  -t  -k  i i w  i im  i in  if)  iip  i i t  ik  ux j  uin  0U_  0n  31  a  j  ow  o :n  A :  AI  j  A IW  Aim  un  0t Din  Dip  Dlt  en  BQ  Bp  Bt  A  in  uk  U It  oin  BJ  a:  yi t  yin  03 I-  o  o f  A  i n  A I  p  Alt  D  ik Bk  A  i k  1 medial • vowel n u c l e u s 0 31}  io ia:  ea.i-  e a:  w  eaim  eai.y  0Dk  ea,i;p  ea i t  w i k  wi wa wa:  syllabic nasal  ea i k  wBn  WBJ WA  :  WA  I  j  WA  m  in  WBt  WBQ WA  ig  ?  WA I t  WBk WA  ik  - 36 Table 2 ( b ) . A n a l y s i s of the F i n a l s — C h a o . Nending vowerv nucleus^ i  i  y  yx  u  ux  u: j  CE  031  n  i  O  o:  -u  -m  i i w  i im  - i  i  D  =>* j A W  A  I  AX j  eq  in  i i p  ~t  - k  i i t  ek  yin  yit  u in  U l t  ow  a a:  i  -P  03 i k  031 q  ey D  -n  A  :  w  :m  D  •em Aim  A  et  eri  on  in  Din  Dip  Dit  Bn  Bn  Bp  Bt  in  A I p  in  A  A It  ok D  i k Bk  A  ik  medial* vowel nuc leus  ia:  i A :  wa wa:  WBt  wen  WB j WA I  WA I j  W A  in  WAin  syllabic nasal  i a ik  i a ii)  m  J] *  WA I t  WA i k  - 37 Table 2 (c) . sending vowePv nucleus^  A n a l y s i s of the FihaTs--KEgerod.  -j  i  i:  y  V-  u  uX  i  -w  -m  -n  -q  w  iim  iin  eq  i  -P.. ixp  y xn u xn  ux j  ixt  ek  ok  uIt  OJ}  oen  oey  a  aj  aw  am  an  aq  ap  axj  axw  aim  a in  a xq  a xp  ai  -k  yit  0  aa  - t  (Bt  at ai  t  ak aik  medial+ vowel nuc]Leus ia  ea  eaq  e ak  0a  (BO  oeoq  oeok  ua  oo  wa waa syllabic nasal  wa i  oon  Doq  DOt  wa j  wan  waq  wat  wax j  wain  m i  wax  q  r)  wa i  t  DOk  wa  ik  - 38 Table 2 Cd) . T r a n s c r i p t i o n o f F i n a l s i n (Macao) Zhong- shan- - B a l l """-^^ ending vower\^ nucleus * (i), [ i ] •  .  ~  ~2  -u  -ii  -m  -n  -ng  -p  -t  . (ik)  (ing) / s  s  /  xn  xp  x^t  [iii  1:.-  [u]  u  [yx]  ii  ii  iin  ut  [ U l ]  u  •  u  un  lit  [ U l j  uu  1 U  X  /  /  U U l  uou  [oex ,ceo] 6  6  loi]  0  0  ID:]  6"  [owj  0  [B]  a •  [AX]  a  uk  ung  [ 0 , u x ] uo  V  lffl  -k  A  ok  ong  oii on  ong  ot  ok  f  O l  b • •  a  ai //  ax  au  am  an  ang  ap  at  ak  au  am  an  ang  ap  at  ak  medial+ vowel nucleus Iea x ]  e  lea xJ  e  ie yeu  [ e a x J ye ee  leaxj  ya  syllabic nasal  ek  xeng  xek yep  yem  A  [ eax]  eng  eeng (ya)  yam m  Modern Zhong-shan equivalents are recorded on the left-most column. Zhongshan [q] = Ball's /ung/. >  - 39 2  Table  (e) .  Nending vowelv  Phohe t i c  y  nucleus\  -i  T r a n s c r i p t i o n of  \J  -y  the F i n a l s  v  -u .  -n  -m  -p  - 0  i  in  Cantonese.  -t  i k  i n  i :  i x  y*  V-  i :u  i xm  i x-p  i xn y xn  i xt yit  uk  UI)  u UI  U  I  e  e  i  Y  uxn  U X 1  -k  UX-t  e xk  e xn V  e  ei  0  0n  0y  ce x k  cexrj  ce:  cs  0t  ou  0 D1  D  X  B A I  A :  V  o xn  3X1 Bl  BU  Bm  All  AXU  A i m  A  O  oxt  It)  oxk  Bn  Bl)  Bp  Bt  Bk  xn  AXt)  AXp  AXt  AXk  medial+ vowel nuc! .eus W  I  wi x WD  A  wo x. WBn  WB1 I  syllabic nasal  wik  wo x q  WD xk  wi x  WB  WA  win  WA X  WA  WA X 1  m  1  xn  WBq WA X  0  0 •  WBt  WBk  WAIt  WAlk  -  1.2.1.  40  -  Nuclear Vowels Of the f i n a l s , the n u c l e a r vowels w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f i r s t .  In  the present a n a l y s i s o f Zhong-shan, they form a t h r e e - t i e r ,  six-vowel system w i t h a phonemic c o n t r a s t o f l e n g t h i n the low vowels o n l y , as diagrammed i n Chart 3 ( a ) . t h a t , g e n e r a l l y , tense and l a x v o w e l s — o r s h a r i n g the same vowel h e i g h t of  the same phoneme.  combination  I t may be observed  l o n g and s h o r t v o w e l s —  (high, mid, low) serve as allophones  The c h a r t a l s o i n c l u d e s an a n a l y s i s o f the  o f "medial + vowel".  Comparative c h a r t s of Chao and  Egerod's vowel system f o r Zhong-shan are shown i n Charts 3 (b) and (c)  respectively.  As i n Table 2, p a r t o f t h e i r phonemic system  i s r e - i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o f "medial + vowel" f o r which Chart 3 Ca)  serves as the model.  Chart 3 (a). Phonetic  A n a l y s i s o f the V o w e l s — C h a n .  Representation:  Phonemic System:  I i  u:  i  i  u  0  0 ce:  y  o a/a:  rzi A:  M e d i a l + Vowel: tea:!  =/ i a /  [03]  =/io/  IWB3  =  /wa/  [WAX.]'  =  /wa:/  u  - 41 Chart 3 ( b ) .  A n a l y s i s o f the V o w e l s — C h a o .  Phonetic Representation: u:  y*  Phonemic System: i  y  CE  u o/o:  a/a:  ce i  M e d i a l + Vowel; [ia:]  = /ia/.  [we]  =  /ua/  [WA:]  =  /ua:/  Chart 3 ( c ) . A n a l y s i s o f the Vowels—-Egerod. Phonetic R e p r e s e n t a t i o n : l :  e  0  u:  Phonemic System: i  y  o  a/aa  M e d i a l + Vowel: [ea]  = /ia/  [ceo]  =  /0a/  =  /ua/  [wa]  =  /wa/  [wax]  =  /waa/  [ob]/[oi]  u  - 42 There are three phonemic h i g h vowels i n Zhong-shan: /y/ a n d /u/.  The phoneme / i /  i s pronounced  Ii:.] i n s y l l a b l e -  f i n a l p o s i t i o n , a n d when i t i s f o l l o w e d b y the l a b i a l the l a b i a l ing  o r dental n a s a l  C/p/ a n d / t / ) .  stops  the c a r d i n a l  Ii].  Before  /i/,  glide  /w/  f  ( i . e . , /m/ o r /n/) , o r the correspondChao d e s c r i b e s the vowel a s being the stop endings /p/ a n d / t / ,  almost  there i s  some tendency towards pronouncing the vowel w i t h a schwa o f f - g l i d e thus: is  Ii p] 9  and I i t ] , f i r s t  noted b y Chao (p.53).  9  a case o f the l a x i n g o f I i : J ,  o f the w o r d j i e  'knot',  Sometimes i t  r e s u l t i n g i n the p r o n u n c i a t i o n  f o r instance, a s I k i ' t ] 2  (phonemically  2  / k i t /)..  A t other times,  ducing the segment word j i e  [i ], e  the o f f - g l i d e a s observed 2  The p h o n e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n  above i s based o n Chen's p r o n u n c i a t i o n . vowel i s simply a l o n g I i : ] . vowel I i : . J  Egerod  pro-  i n the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f the  'outstanding' a s I k i t J . e  i s f u r t h e r lowered,  In g e n e r a l , however, the  (p.14) records the l o n g  without e l a b o r a t i o n .  C r o s s - d i a l e c t a l l y , the s i t u a t i o n i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t : what i s merely a l o w - l e v e l schwa o f f - g l i d e f i n a l s i n Zhong-shan i s a f u l l  found  i n some / i p /  and / i t /  vowel i n other d i a l e c t s such a s  Mandarin, Southern Min a n d Hakka. The: c h a r a c t e r j i e 'knot' , 35 32 f o r example, i s pronounced [ t c s i e ] i n Mandarin, I k i a t ] i n Amoy 21 11 (Southern Min), a n d I k i e t ] i n Mei-xian (Hakka) ( Z i - h u i , p.34). T h i s f i n a l i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d b y K a r l g r e n a s A n c i e n t Chinese ( o r "Anc." f o r short) * i a t and  by Pulleyblank  grades, and / i n /  i n Division  a s Late Middle  o r divisions.  III, and * i e t Chinese  i n D i v i s i o n IV;  (.LMC). * i a t  f o r both  C r o s s - d i a l e c t a l data f o r what are the / i m /  f i n a l s i n Zhong-shan  parallel'  the above o b s e r v a t i o n s ,  r e f l e c t e d i n the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s (e.g., LMC * i a m a n d  - 43 *ian).  S i m i l a r c r o s s - d i a l e c t a l and h i s t o r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n s as  above can be made o f f i n a l s which correspond t o Zhong-shan / y t / and / u t / f i n a l s i n which a schwa o f f - g l i d e i s o n l y heard s p o r a d i c ally. and  U s u a l l y , the two  f i n a l s / y t / and / u t / are pronounced  [ u : t ] , without a p e r c e p t i b l e g l i d i n g e f f e c t .  Chao (p.53) who  first  lyitj  Again, i t was  made the o b s e r v a t i o n of a schwa o f f - g l i d e ,  w h i l e Egerod simply recorded a long l y i ] and a long [ u i j ,  w i t h no  d i s c u s s i o n of a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a t i o n s . The phoneme / i / i s pronounced  [i] before v e l a r s .  (The  p r e f e r r e d IPA symbol f o r [ i ] i s [ i ] . ) Chao a l s o analyzes t h i s vowel as / i / ,  which he d e s c r i b e s as b e i n g q u i t e open b e f o r e /o/  and /k/, almost becoming an he uses f o r the vowel. same environment. Cantonese,  [ e ] , which i s the broad phonetic form  Egerod a l s o t r a n s c r i b e s / i / as  [e] i n the  T h i s vowel i s i d e n t i c a l to the one found i n  u s u a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d as e i t h e r  Ie] or  [1].  A f u r t h e r p o i n t must a l s o be added c o n c e r n i n g the s p e c i a l complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n found i n the s y l l a b l e / i n g / .  In a l l  the tones except the r i s i n g one, the s y l l a b l e has a smooth onset, and begins simply w i t h the vowel  [ 1 ] , as i n the word y i n g  jfe  55 ' d i s t i n g u i s h e d , which i s phonemically / i n g / and i s pronounced 55 . 1  ].  In c o n t r a s t , the s y l l a b l e i n the r i s i n g tone begins w i t h  the f r o n t o n - g l i d e [ j ] , as i n the words y i n g ^ 'to in  r e f l e c t ' , both of which are / i n g 13  f a c t pronounced  [jig  'shadow' and y i n g  / phonemically, but are  ] , w i t h an i n i t i a l  palatal on-glide.  The reason f o r t h i s phenomenon i s not c l e a r t o the w r i t e r . blank  (personal communication) s p e c u l a t e s t h a t i t may  r e s u l t o f the laxness o f {1]  Pulley-  be the  combined with some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f  the r i s i n g tone, s i n c e a l l o t h e r f i n a l s with / i / i n the r i s i n g  - 44 tone have the tense, long [ i x ] , and are produced  w i t h a smooth  onset before the n u c l e a r vowel; f o r example, y i  'chair' i s  / i  1  3  / ,  phonetically  [ix ^], 1  and yan  'to conceal* i s / i m ^ / , 1  13 p h o n e t i c a l l y lixm  J.  The phoneme /y/ i s pronounced somewhat more open than cardinal  l y ] i n Chen's speech, which agrees w i t h Chao's observa-  t i o n o f the vowel.  In Zhong-shan t h i s vowel i s always l o n g ,  o c c u r r i n g as a f i n a l e i t h e r alone o r f o l l o w e d by a d e n t a l .  How-  ever, r e c a l l t h a t the f i n a l / y t / i s sometimes pronounced [y t ] , with an o f f - g l i d e f o l l o w i n g the vowel. The phoneme /u/ i s pronounced [uxj i n s y l l a b l e - f i n a l p o s i t i o n and when i t occurs b e f o r e / j / /t/.  and the d e n t a l s , /n/ and  The vowel i s a c t u a l l y s l i g h t l y more open than c a r d i n a l [ u j ,  a p o i n t a l s o made by Chao (p. 53). . / u t / i s sometimes pronounced  [u t j .  As mentioned e a r l i e r , the f i n a l In the environment b e f o r e the  v e l a r endings, /ng/ and /k/, the phoneme /u/ i s somewhat more open than  lu] (= l u j o r the p r e f e r r e d IPA symbol ]>J), which i s  i d e n t i c a l to i t s Cantonese c o u n t e r p a r t , v a r i o u s l y t r a n s c r i b e d as I.oJ . IuJ and lu] i n Cantonese. In both Egerod's and the present study o f Zhong-shan, what i s t r a n s c r i b e d here as the h i g h , l a x vowel  [u] i s analyzed  as the allophone o f /u/, i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n with the corresponding tense, long vowel  [ux].  Chao, however, t r e a t s our -  [u] as /o/, moreover r e g a r d i n g the a n a l y s i s o f t h i s vowel as /u/ i n Cantonese being due to the i n f l u e n c e o f E n g l i s h and German, wherein  the l e t t e r  "u" i n the E n g l i s h word "put", f o r example, i s ,  a c c o r d i n g t o Chao, extremely open and q u i t e c l o s e t o c a r d i n a l [ o ] (p.53,  fn.9).  Whether o r not Chao's surmise o f i n f l u e n c e from  -  45  -  E n g l i s h and German i s t r u e , the a n a l y s i s of the h i g h , l a x , back rounded vowel [u] as /u/ i n the f i n a l s p r o v i d e s c o n g r u i t y t o the p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d e a r l i e r i n the a n a l y s i s of the h i g h , l a x , f r o n t unrounded vowel 3 (a)).  [ i ] . as / i /  Furthermore,  dialectally similarly  i n the f i n a l s  the f i n a l s  [ug ] and  and h i s t o r i c a l l y t o [ i n ] and  [ i n ] and  [ i k ] (see Chart  [ u k j correspond c r o s s [ i k ] , and should be  analyzed.  The symmetry between t r e a t i n g l a x [ i ] as an allophone of /i/  and l a x [u] as an allophone of /u/ can be b r i e f l y e l a b o r a t e d  as f o l l o w s .  Historically,  *-ip, * - i n , *-ity -ap/  * - i j ( < *-iaj)  - s i n ; - a t / -aj # and -aw,  Zhong-shan and Cantonese. *-q  the Late Middle Chinese  now  and  the two Yue  (now  dialects).  *-im,  * - i w gave the l a x f i n a l s  [em],  [ep ] and so f o r t h  -am,  i n modern  Such a development d i d not occur b e f o r e  (and the corresponding Ru-sheng ending,  r e s u l t e d i n -en  finals  *-k).  LMC  final * - i n  [ i n ] (or [ e g ] i n a l t e r n a t e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ) i n As a comparison,  LMC  f i n a l * - i g gave  Mandarin - i n . In the case of the Late Middle Chinese  f i n a l * - o g (*-ok  i n Ru-sheng), i t remains -og i n Zhong-shan and Cantonese,  now  phonetically  In  Mandarin, LMC  [ u g ] (or [ o g ] i n a l t e r n a t e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s ) . f i n a l *-og y i e l d s  -ug.  Thus, the symmetry o f - e g  and -og (and -ek and - o k ) j u s t i f i e s p a r a l l e l treatment [TJ]  on h i s t o r i c a l grounds.  observed  same - e g ~ - o g  i n l i t e r a r y Min and appears  development. *-iq  The  [ i ] and  parallellism  is  t o be a g e n e r a l southern  In the n o r t h , the p a r a l l e l l i s m  and * - o g i s observed  of  between the LMC  finals  i n the Mandarin r e f l e x e s o f - i q and -ug  corresponding t o the two h i s t o r i c a l f i n a l s .  Thus, the tense  l a x d i s t i n c t i o n , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s t o r i c a l and c r o s s -  and  - 46 d i a l e c t a l arguments the  supports a phonemic a n a l y s i s which r e c o g n i z e s  p a r a l l e l l i s m or symmetry t h a t e x i s t s between the vowels [ i l . 12  and l u j ,  and t r e a t s them a c c o r d i n g l y . Turning now  to the mid vowels, phonemically. there are  two mid vowels: /</>/ and /o/. i s pronounced  Regarding the f i r s t  [ce:] as a s y l l a b l e - f i n a l segment.  phoneme, /</>/ There are very  few words i n Zhong-shan and Cantonese w i t h the f i n a l these may  Ice:] , and  be v e s t i g e s o f an e a r l i e r l a y e r of the language as  suggested by P u l l e y b l a n k  (personal communication).  Chao  (p.53)  chooses phonemic symbol /oe / f o r Ice:] when i t occurs i n s y l l a b l e final position.  Before the endings /ng/ and /k/, Chao notes t h a t  /ce / tends to break i n t o a [ 0 0 ] c l u s t e r , which i s t r e a t e d phonem i c a l l y as / i o / i n the present a n a l y s i s . point later.)  (We w i l l r e t u r n to t h i s  Egerod p o s i t s the vowel c l u s t e r /0a/, which, he  t r a n s c r i b e s p h o n e t i c a l l y as [ceo] , o c c u r r i n g w i t h an i n i t i a l sonant o n l y , or b e f o r e /q/ (= /ng/) In  and  con-  /k/.  the present phonemic a n a l y s i s , /0/ i s r e c o r d e d as [cei]  s y l l a b l e - f i n a l l y , and elsewhere  ( i . e . , before the endings /n/,  / t / and / j / ) as a rounded vowel which i s s l i g h t l y more open and c e n t r a l i z e d than [ 0 ] .  The vowel  phonetic form i n Table 2 (.a). vowel as a rounded, mid c e n t r a l Cantonese c o u n t e r p a r t .  [0]  i s recorded as the broad  Chao (p. 52) d e s c r i b e s the same [el, which i s the same as i t s  Chao analyzes h i s Ie] as /o/ phonemically,  adding an umlaut above the phoneme ( i . e . , /6/)  i n o r d e r to f a c i l i -  t a t e r e c o g n i t i o n and r e c a l l of i t s a c t u a l p h o n e t i c v a l u e .  More-  over, Chao (p.52,fn.8) makes the comment t h a t t h i s vowel i s t r a n s c r i b e d by D a n i e l Jones as [ce] , which i s the same p h o n e t i c form suggested by Kinkade f o r the vowel i n q u e s t i o n .  Egerod  (p.14) a l s o  - 47 hears the vowel Ice] i n h i s Zhong-shan data, a n a l y z i n g i t phonemica l l y as  On a p r e c e d i n g page however, Egerod  (p.12), i n  d e s c r i b i n g the p h o n o l o g i c a l system of standard Cantonese, records the phoneme /0/  which he s t a t e s i s I 0 ] b e f o r e /n/, / t / and  Recent s t u d i e s on Cantonese  (.e.g., Kao,  1971;  /j/.  Hashimoto, 19.72a;  Cheung, 19.72) have v a c i l l a t e d between s e l e c t i n g the form Ice] or [0] f o r t r a n s c r i b i n g the vowel. The phoneme /of  i s pronounced  ment b e f o r e the l a b i a l g l i d e /w/ lower than c a r d i n a l  [D:J  except i n the e n v i r o n -  where i t i s pronounced somewhat  l o ] . Whereas i n the present a n a l y s i s l e n g t h  i s n o n - c o n t r a s t i v e except i n the low vowels, Chao t r e a t s s h o r t .'[.o.J as /o/ phonemically,  and long ID:.] as /o:/,  c o n s i d e r i n g l e n g t h phonemic i n Zhong-shan. however, s i n c e he a l s o subsumes h i s mid  He  thereby  implicitly  i s not c o n s i s t e n t ,  c e n t r a l vowel I e ] under  the phoneme /o/, and provides no corresponding  long phoneme to h i s  / C B / , which only has the long Ice:] as i t s b a s i c phonetic I t i s observed loa]  t h a t the vowel ID:]  ( i n which the i n i t i a l  shape.  sometimes s p l i t s  into  segment o f the b i v o c a l i c nucleus i s  s l i g h t l y lower than c a r d i n a l ID] and the second somewhat more c e n t r a l i z e d than c a r d i n a l i n g of the vowel ID:]  [a.]}.  Chao (p.53) d e s c r i b e s the break-  ( h i s phoneme /o:/)  n o t a b l e a f t e r v e l a r s and l a r y n g e a l s .  as  Egerod  [OD] , p a r t i c u l a r l y (p.14). s e t s up a  13 vowel c l u s t e r /ua/, with. I DO]  as the p r i n c i p a l phonetic  presumably o c c u r r i n g a f t e r v e l a r s , l a r y n g e a l s and / f / , allophone  form,  since i t s  I D : ] , which i s enclosed i n round b r a c k e t s , occurs most  commonly a f t e r d e n t a l s , s i b i l a n t s and l a b i a l s with the e x c e p t i o n of / f / .  Concerning  the allophone [oil, Egerod s t a t e s t h a t i f i t  i s c o n s i d e r e d a phoneme, i t should be w r i t t e n /o/.  T h i s would  -  48  -  p a r a l l e l h i s treatment o f the vowel page f o r Standard Cantonese  I ox,] as /o/ on the p r e c e d i n g  (p.12).  I t should be observed t h a t i n Cantonese there i s a c o n t r a s t between Ik'wjX  I k J and  [kw] (and between  the a s p i r a t e d s e r i e s ,  I k ' J and  b e f o r e the vowel I D : ] , namely a f f e c t i n g the f i n a l s  I D :..rjJ and  [31k].  [oil,  Such a c o n t r a s t i s not found i n Zhong-shan.  C o n s i d e r , f o r example, the Cantonese p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the word ge \fy  ' ( . c l a s s i f i e r ) ' , which i s {k 3: .]. ,. and t h a t o f guo j$l 44  14  44  'to c r o s s ' , which i s Ikwsx  *]..  words i s merged i n Zhong-shan  The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f these two such t h a t both ge and guo are p r o -  22 nounced Iks':  J.  The c o n t r a s t found i n Cantonese between  sample words i s r e f l e c t e d h i s t o r i c a l l y Kai-kou  V2  the two  i n the d i s t i n c t i o n  between  (.'open mouth', a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the absence o f l i p -  rounding), and He-kou  ^  &  (.'closed mouth', a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  presence of l i p - r o u n d i n g ) , r e c o n s t r u c t e d by P u l l e y b l a n k as *ka  and *kwct r e s p e c t i v e l y .  As noted above, Chao (p. 52)  the b r e a k i n g of the vowel [01]  i n Zhong-shan  [osj a f t e r v e l a r s and l a r y n g e a l s .  LMC  describes  i n t o the sequence  While one can say t h a t  Zhong-  shan does, not have a Kai-He d i s t i n c t i o n , Chao suggests t h a t one might e q u a l l y take the vowel i n Zhong-shan Kai and He. his cluster  as o r i g i n a l l y  between  Egerod's treatment o f [ 3 : ] , and even more so t h a t o f [3t>] as /ua/ r a t h e r than /o/, as i n our a n a l y s i s , o r  /o:/, as i n Chao's, i s o b v i o u s l y an attempt, however i m p l i c i t , to r e f l e c t the He-kou c a t e g o r y . There are two low vowels i n the data, c o n t r a s t i n g i n l e n g t h and tenseness.  Short / a / i s p h o n e t i c a l l y a very l a x vowel, des-  c r i b e d by Chao (p.52) as one r a i s e d towards  [ e ] , except b e f o r e  where i t i s a low, c e n t r a l vowel f o r which he adopts the symbol  /w/,  - 49 [A].  In our broad phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n i n Table 2 ( a ) , the  vowel [BJ i s used throughout the s e t o f / a / f i n a l s .  Kinkade per-  c e i v e s s h o r t / a / i n the data as simply the low, back vowel [ a ] , although he observes t h a t the vowel o c c a s i o n a l l y s h i f t s t o midway between  Is] and lae] .  Egerod simply records a. .low c e n t r a l  out any comment concerning a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a t i o n s .  .[&.•] w i t h -  T h i s vowel i s  i d e n t i c a l t o the c o r r e s p o n d i n g s h o r t , low vowel i n Cantonese. Long / a : / i s a low, c e n t r a l vowel, t r a n s c r i b e d here u s i n g the symbol  [A:].  Chao's phoneme / a : / i s a l s o  The same vowel i s a l s o found i n Cantonese.  [A:] i n Zhong-shan.  Hashimoto, f o r i n s t a n c e ,  t r a n s c r i b e s the long, low vowel i n Cantonese as [ A : ] .  Egerod .  records h i s l o n g , low c e n t r a l vowel as [ a : ] , which he t r e a t s phonemically as the vowel c l u s t e r /aa/.  Chao (p.52) notes t h a t  b e f o r e stop endings, the d i f f e r e n c e i n vowel length, between the two low vowels / a / and / a : / i s not sharp; f o r the most p a r t , i t i s the vowel q u a l i t y which d i f f e r e n t i a t e s them.  Egerod (p.14)  makes the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i n h i s s y l l a b l e / j a a / , the phonetic form [ja:.J and Ijaei] occur i n f r e e v a r i a t i o n .  T h i s i s not  n o t i c e d i n the speech o f the informants used i n the present study wherein only the low, c e n t r a l  [ A I ] i s found.  Note i n Table 2 (a) t h a t a l l the vowels i n s y l l a b l e - f i n a l p o s i t i o n are long i n Zhong-shan.  While there i s a phonemic con-  t r a s t between / a / and / a : / i n n o n - f i n a l p o s i t i o n , such a c o n t r a s t does not e x i s t i n s y l l a b l e - f i n a l p o s i t i o n .  Thus, t o mark l e n g t h  i n the l a t t e r case would be redundant, and i s t h e r e f o r e omitted i n such an environment (e.g., ma ^  'mother' i s /ma /, p h o n e t i c 55  55 ally  [JIA i  ] .  In the d i s c u s s i o n of n u c l e a r vowels i n t h i s s e c t i o n , no  - 50 account i s taken o f the i n f l u e n c e which the medials may have on them.  The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n on medials w i l l i n c l u d e a l l o p h o n i c  v a r i a t i o n s o f the n u c l e a r vowels r e s u l t i n g from a s s i m i l a t i o n o f c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f the medials, and c o n v e r s e l y , o f the e f f e c t o f the n u c l e a r vowels on the medials.  1.2.2.  Medials Two medials are proposed f o r the Zhong-shan data, namely  /i/  and /w/.  Although i t might have been more symmetrical t o  p o s i t e i t h e r a p a i r of medial vowels o r a p a i r o f medial g l i d e s , the c h o i c e o f the vowel / i /  and the semi-vowel /w/  i s based on  synchronic data, supported by c r o s s - d i a l e c t a l and h i s t o r i c a l dence.  S y n c h r o n i c a l l y , f o r example, v o c a l i c medial / i /  vowel i n Zhong-shan, p h o n e t i c a l l y /o/.  The g l i d e /w/  evi-  is a  [e] b e f o r e / a / , and [0J b e f o r e  i s i n f a c t the semi-vowel [w] i n Zhong-shan.  Thus, p h o n e t i c a l l y , the two medials i n Zhong-shan are not symmet r i c a l w i t h r e s p e c t t o vowel q u a l i t y . D i a c h r o n i c a l l y , there are a l s o good reasons f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the v o c a l i c nature o f the two Zhong-shan m e d i a l s . i n Zhong-shan i s d e r i v e d from the LMC medial * i , has i t s source i n medial *w. also d i f f e r i n vocalic Pulleyblank  Medial  / i /  w h i l e medial  /w/  Thus, h i s t o r i c a l l y , the two medials  quality.  (1970-71),  f o r example, analyzes the f o u r  grades i n h i s t o r i c a l Chinese phonology  i n terms o f d i f f e r e n c e s  found i n the m e d i a l s , s i n c e Chinese rhyming  p r a c t i c e s do not take  e i t h e r the Kai-He d i s t i n c t i o n s o r the v a r i o u s grades i n t o deration. glides.  consi-  P u l l e y b l a n k r e c o n s t r u c t s both medial vowels and medial Evidence f o r such a d i s t i n c t i o n i s found i n Cantonese  and  Zhong-shan.  The word guan '|p  (134-1)  ' governraent  official',  55  for  example, i s LMC  *kuan, Zhong-shan [ku:n  ] and Cantonese  53  [kuin  ] , wherein the medial i n Grade I o f the Shan  L U rhyme  group (He-kou s e r i e s ) i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d as the vowel *u.  In modern  Zhong-shan and Cantonese, the n u c l e a r vowel *a was l o s t ,  result-  ing  i n medial *u becoming the new n u c l e a r vowel which was  length-  ened to compensate f o r the l o s t segment. n t r a s tI,I o the wordsame guan (138-7)and'to i s found Ini nc o Grade f the rhyme group r e cshut', o n s t r u which c t e d as LMC *kwam, i s [kwAin  55  ] i n Zhong-shan and [kwAin  53  ] i n Cantonese.  T h i s time the r e c o n s t r u c t e d medial i s a g l i d e , *w, which i s p r e served as a g l i d e medial i n both present day Zhong-shan and Cantonese.  In the modern r e f l e x e s of many d i a l e c t s of Chinese, the  two r e c o n s t r u c t e d forms, *kuan and *kwa:n, have merged words  'government o f f i c i a l '  Mandarin).  (e.g., both,  and 'to shut' are pronounced guan i n  In the Yue d i a l e c t s such as Zhong-shan and Cantonese,  however, one can see t h a t the d i s t i n c t i o n between the two forms has been maintained. it  On the b a s i s of Zhong-shan and Cantonese,  i s e v i d e n t t h a t the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a medial vowel versus a  medial g l i d e i s important i n h i s t o r i c a l phonology.  Karlgren also  d i s t i n g u i s h e s a " v o c a l i c u" as opposed to a "consonantal w" i n the  two words d i s c u s s e d above, r e c o n s t r u c t i n g guan '^f  *kuan and guan j^£J  as Anc. *kwan.  as A n c :  (Note t h a t K a r l g r e n a l s o recon-  s t r u c t s a q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t n u c l e a r vowel.)  In the Zhong-  shan data, i t i s t h e r e f o r e reasonable to p o s i t a medial /w/ a r i s e s from an h i s t o r i c a l medial Medial / i / an  historical * i .  *w.  which  15  i n Zhong-shan, i n c o n t r a s t , has i t s source i n On the b a s i s of Pulleyblank'. s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s ,  - 52 w h i l e medial * j i s l o s t i n Zhong-shan, medial * i i s s t i l l  present  i n the d i a l e c t .  i n the  I t i s maintained  as the medial vowel / i /  c o l l o q u i a l l a y e r of Grades I I I and IV words i n the Geng group.  rhyme  In the corresponding l i t e r a r y l a y e r , medial * i had become  the n u c l e a r vowel / i /  i n Zhong-shan.  Consider the word j i n g  (199-6) 'mirror', which occurs i n Grade I I I , Geng )$L  t  rhyme group.  J i n g /4JfLi i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d by P u l l e y b l a n k as LMC * k i a j n  (..= Anc.  22 *kiang).  I t i s /kia:ng  and / k i n g  2 2  / i n the c o l l o q u i a l l a y e r of Zhong-shan  / i n the l i t e r a r y  Now,  contrast jing  layer.  /jjftj with geng ^  (192-8) 'watches of  55 the n i g h t ' , which i s /ka:ng  / i n the c o l l o q u i a l r e a d i n g , and  55 /kang  / i n the l i t e r a r y l a y e r .  Zhong-shan forms f o r geng  No medial i s p r e s e n t i n the  , which i s a Grade I I word.  blank r e c o n s t r u c t s i t w i t h a medial * j : LMC  *kjaijn  Pulley=  (.= Anc. *kong) .  Thus, i n terms o f Pulleyblank.'s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s , Late Middle Chinese medial * j . i s l o s t i n Zhong-shan, as demonstrated by the word geng  .  I n c o n t r a s t , medial  * i i s p r e s e r v e d i n the d i a l e c t  e i t h e r as a medial vowel or n u c l e a r vowel, as shown i n j i n g  .  The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the LMC g l i d e medial *w as a medial /w/ i n Zhong-shan, and the p a r a l l e l p r e s e r v a t i o n o f a v o c a l i c medial i n Zhong-shan corresponding to the LMC medial * i lends h i s t o r i c a l support f o r not p o s i t i n g the same v o c a l i c q u a l i t y t o the p a i r o f medials  i n Zhong-shan. C r o s s - d i a l e c t a l l y , medial * i i s a l s o p r e s e r v e d as a medial  segment i n some d i a l e c t s .  Regarding  the word q i n g ^ £  (.201-1)  44 ' l i g h t (e.g., i n w e i g h t ) ' , f o r example, i t i s pronounced [tcsliai) .] i n Wen-zhou (a Wu d i a l e c t ) . In Nan-chang (a Gan d i a l e c t ) , the 42 same word has a c o l l o q u i a l r e a d i n g [te'ian ] and a l i t e r a r y read-  -  ing  [to.'in  ].  In Mei-xian  c o l l o q u i a l form  [kiaq  44  53  -  (a Hakka d i a l e c t ) , q i n g  ] and a l i t e r a r y form  Ikin  44  has a J . (Zi-hui,  p.257,) The medial / i /  i n the f i n a l s / i o n g / and / i o k / i n Zhong-  shan i s a l s o d e r i v e d from medial * i i n Late Middle Chinese. two  f i n a l s are r e c o n s t r u c t e d by P u l l e y b l a n k as *ian  r e s p e c t i v e l y , (= Anc.  *i,ang and * i a k  served i n most Chinese d i a l e c t s . 'bright' IliayJ  ( c f . Z i - h u i , p.232),  i n (Peking) Mandarin  )..  The  and * i a k  The medial i s a l s o pre-  The word l i a n g ftj (174-18)  f o r example, has the s y l l a b l e  and a number o f other Mandarin  dia-  l e c t s , Su-zhou (Wu), Chao-zhou (Southern M i n ) , and the l i t e r a r y l a y e r o f Amoy (Southern Min).  The s y l l a b l e  [lian]  i s found i n  Nan-chang (Gan), Mei-xian, and the c o l l o q u i a l l a y e r o f Amoy. Zhong-shan pronounces phonemicized Cantonese %  as / l i o n g  >• 22 the word l i a n g faj as [loon ] , which i s 22 /.  P u l l e y b l a n k (1977) proposes  c e r t a i n LMC f i n a l s  ( v i z . , Grade I f i n a l s i n the Dang  rhyme group), f i n a l s * - a g and *-tik rounded  j u s t as *-a rounded  to -o  that i n  ( i n the Guo ^  t o - o g and - o k ,  rhyme group).  He f u r -  t h e r . p o s t u l a t e s t h a t i n Grades I I I and IV (of the Dang group), * - i a g mediary  and * - i a k a l s o rounded  rhyme  t o - i o g a n d - i o k as an i n t e r -  stage, a f t e r which the p a l a t a l medial became fused w i t h  the f o l l o w i n g vowel by a process o f umlaut, r e s u l t i n g i n the finals  -cag and -ask. Zhong-shan data would suggest the f o l l o w i n g development:  the vowel  * a i n the LMC f i n a l s * - Q , * - a q and * - a k rounded  The same process a f f e c t e d the *-d i n the f i n a l s * - l a g In the l a t t e r case w i t h medial * i ,  to :D,  and *'-.iak.  the medial underwent a lower-  i n g and rounding t o -0 as a r e s u l t o f the f o l l o w i n g back,  rounded  - 54 mid vowel  -o.  The result is the present Zhong-shan finals,  [0oql  and l0o.k] .  Cantonese, on the other hand, may be a case of the lowering and rounding of medial *i to -ce.  The nuclear vowel is subse-  quently lost, causing compensatory lengthening of -ce to -ce:, yielding present day Cantonese finals rftj  , for example, is pronounced I ice i n  lowering of medial *i in the Dang ^  IceiijJ.  and {cerkj . Liang  J in Cantonese. This rhyme group in Cantonese  parallels the lowering of medial *i to -e in the Geng  rhyme  group. What is proposed here is that in Cantonese, medial *i lowered to -e in the finals *-iajn and. *r-iajk. In this case, rounding of the medial does not occur since there is no condition for such regressive assimilation.  However, as in the previous  case, the nuclear vowel becomes lost, and -e becomes the nuclear vowel.  It is lengthened in compensation for the loss of the  original nuclear vowel *-a. The finals that emerge in Cantonese are -e:g and -eik- Thus, the colloquial reading of jing^Jb is . not lost •in [keiq 44] in Cantonese. The nuclear vowel *-a is Zhong-shan; jing is pronounced [keaxn 22 /kiarng / , as noted earlier).  J (phonemically , .  Turning now to a synchronic analysis of the interaction between the medials and other segments in the syllable, medial /w/ will be discussed first.  In the present data, the only two  initials that occur with medial /w/ are /k/ and /k'/.  Egerod and  Chao, however, also include the velar nasal as another initial which can precede the labial medial. The cluster /ngw/ is merely mentioned by Egerod. In Chao's article it occurs only in the word 51 wan .jf.fi . (137-U4) 'obstinate', phonemicized by as /ngua:n / .  - 56 l a b i a l segment i n S h i - q i depended although Macao shows a.complete  on the i n d i v i d u a l speaker,  l o s s o f /w/  after velars.  Addi-  t i o n a l s y l l a b l e s c o n t a i n i n g a l a b i a l v e l a r c l u s t e r recorded by B a l l f o r S h i - q i i s l i s t e d i n (2) below.  B a l l states  that these  words are spoken by some people i n S h i - q i , and a t t r i b u t e s the  i m i t a t i o n of Cantonese speakers.  column qi  The a s t e r i s k  that t o  (.*) marks the  ...... which B a l l regards to be the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of some S h i -  speakers.  Regarding the c h a r a c t e r ^ "  , i t i s used i n Cantonese  to mean 'to be t i r e d ' , and i s a word which i s not used c o l l o q u i a l l y 22 i n Mandarin.  Zhong-shan has i t s own  c o l l o q u i a l word /na:j  with, b a s i c a l l y the same meaning of 'to be t i r e d ' . below,  list  "Cant." i s "Cantonese", and "Zh." i s "Zhong-shan".) . Sample Bill,' s Word Macao Cant.*  (2)  (In the  /,  Modern Cant.  Modern Zh.  Gloss  ?  ?  •p  'to  ?  ?  1.  kwe  ke  '%,  2.  kwing  kang  fa  3.  kwit  kit  *&'\  ?  4.  kwo  ko  *  r [wo:. 'ij  [koi  5.  kwok  kok  ii  Ikwo z.k^]  Ik a i k J  6.  kwong  kong  to  IkwDiq  Ikoxn  7.  k'wong  k' ong  [k'oin ]  Ik'oxn ]  'crazy'  8.  kwGii  koii  [kuxj ]  Ikuij ]  'to be t i r e d '  9.  k' woii  k' ou  Ik'uij ]  Ik'uxj  10.  kwu  ku  [kux. ]  [kux ]  11.  k' wu  k'u  **  Ikux ]  12.  kwun  kun  f  Ikui.n ]  ? 35 [ k w 11)  5  J  3  J 2 1  3 3  3 5  53  5 3  53  bolt'  'spear'  J  'nation'  2  'bright'  J 51  2 2  ]  55  ?  'middleman' 'father's sister' 'wheel'  Ikuin ] 5 5  'government official'  - 55 Wan fify^ occurs i n the He-kou s e r i e s o f the Shan  ih  rhyme group.  Apparently, i t i s the only common word from t h a t s e t where the s y l l a b l e /ngwa:n/, o r the p o t e n t i a l s y l l a b l e /ngwa:k/ can occur. In c o n s u l t i n g the p r i n c i p a l informants as w e l l as another shan speaker  Zhong-  concerning the word wan 7 ^ , i t was found t h a t none  of them preserve a l a b i a l segment i n the word: they simply gave /nga:n /. 51  For the present data a t l e a s t , i t w i l l be concluded t h a t the only i n i t i a l s which can occur with medial /w/ are /k/ and /k'/. The sequence /ngw/ i s assumed t o have merged w i t h the p l a i n / v e l a r nasal.  In o t h e r words, the Kai-He d i s t i n c t i o n has been l o s t  the v e l a r n a s a l i n the Shan rhyme group.  after  The word wan ffy i s i n  f a c t the o n l y word present i n the d i a l e c t survey l i s t which can be r e c o n s t r u c t e d as LMC *nwa.in. In c o n t r a s t , there are a few common words with the s y l l a b l e /nga:n/ from LMC *D.ja:n and a s m a l l number o f indigenous  ( c h a r a c t e r l e s s ) words i n Zhong-shan a l s o  c o n t a i n i n g the s y l l a b l e /nga:n/.  I t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s i n g  to f i n d t h a t the word wan has l o s t i t s l a b i a l segment, and has merged with, the more common s y l l a b l e without  labialization.  In  Cantonese (as i n Mandarin),  the word wan has l o s t i t s v e l a r n a s a l  i n i t i a l , but has maintained  the l a b i a l segment, and i s pronounced  2  1  r 1WA  ini JConcerning  the c l u s t e r s /kw/ and /k'w/, these combine  only w i t h the n u c l e a r vowels / i / / a / and / a : / .  (found s o l e l y i n the rhyme  /ik/),  Gaps i n the f i n a l such as the non-occurrence o f  /*wa:m, *wam, *wap/ and so f o r t h are the r e s u l t o f l a b i a l  dissimi-  l a t i o n , which i s a phenomenon found i n many d i a l e c t s o f Chinese. According t o B a l l ' s data, the l o s s o r p r e s e r v a t i o n o f the  - 57 The  list  -  i n (2) prompts a l o w ^ l e v e l phonetic  t h a t might otherwise have been l e f t u n s t a t e d . Zhong-shan and  observation  In modern  (Shi-qi).  Cantonese, some l i p - r o u n d i n g occurs i n the  pro-  17 n u n c i a t i o n of i n i t i a l s before  the rounded vowel  It i s  _ L u z J .  p o s s i b l e t h a t t h i s f e a t u r e i s absent i n Macao, as r e f l e c t e d i n B a l l ' s r e c o r d i n g of numbers  (.10)  to  (12) i n the l i s t  s i m i l a r l a c k of l i p - r o u n d i n g on the i n i t i a l s may  be  above.  interpreted  from B a l l ' s t r a n s c r i p t i o n of the Macao forms i n (8) and Numbers i s not e y i d e n t  (4). to  (.9).  (.7) show a presence of l a b i a l i z a t i o n which  i n the Zhong-shan speech recorded  the w r i t e r , although i t i s s t i l l  is,  there i s a phonemic c o n t r a s t i n Cantonese between /k/ and  /k'w/  before  tioned e a r l i e r , exemplified Egerod  preserved  by Chao, Egerod  and  and between /k.'/  the vowel  d i a l e c t spoken i n Macao has  now  l e c t , Cantonese, there are s t i l l  i n Cantonese.  as we  IDZJ,  by the words g_e  (.p. 3) makes the o b s e r v a t i o n  and  s h i f t e d to the standard a few  and  /kw/  have men-  the Yue  dia-  v e s t i g e s of the l o c a l d i a and  Sino-Portuguese g l o s s a r y of c i r a 1750,  nevertheless,  /kw/.  In s t u d y i n g  t h a t although the medial /w/  /k/ when f o l l o w e d by the mid  That  guohjffi^ .  t h a t although  l e c t , among which i s the f u s i o n of /k/  strongly substantiated  A  back vowel which i s now  i t can was  the  be  lost after  ID:.] , the  'li.-.  d i s t i n c t i o n between the presence or absence of a l a b i a l a f t e r the v e l a r stop was  still  maintained b e f o r e  low vowels at the time t h a t  the three hundred and  n i n e t y - f i v e Portuguese e n t r i e s were t r a n s -  c r i b e d i n t o Chinese.  While the c h a r a c t e r s  (Cantonese Portuguese /ko/,  ge  , ge gffi^ and  [ k o i ] ) , were used most f r e q u e n t l y t o the c h a r a c t e r s  guo  ^  and  represent  guo jyffi^. (.Cantonese  [kwDz.]) were nonetheless used f o r the same purpose, thereby  ge  - 58 suggesting  a l o s s of d i s t i n c t i o n between /k/  i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r environment.  As i n the  and /kw/,  at l e a s t  (Shi-qi). Zhong-shan  d i a l e c t today, however, the Sino-Portuguese data show d i s t i n c t i o n was  preserved  before  that t h i s  low vowels a t t h a t time,  i n g e i t h e r the speech of the t r a n s c r i b e r o n l y , or the century Macao d i a l e c t i n g e n e r a l . jia  , jia  and  jia  eighteenth  In the g l o s s a r y , the  A l l three  to the Kai-kou s e r i e s of the J i a 4 £ s L rhyme group  and are pronounced IkAiJ i n both present day Zhong-shan.  characters  were c o n s i s t e n t l y used to t r a n s c r i b e  Portuguese words which do not c o n t a i n l a b i a l segments. c h a r a c t e r s belong  reflect-  Cantonese and  I t i s t h e r e f o r e s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t gua  (Shi-qi).  CtkwAiJ  in  both Cantonese and S h i - q i Zhong-shan), which i s the only He-kou word from the J i a rhyme group, should be used to t r a n s c r i b e the word quatro quatro  'four' (entry number 328  i n the g l o s s a r y ) .  In t u r n ,  i s the o n l y Portuguese word r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n the g l o s s a r y  that contains a v e l a r i n i t i a l  f o l l o w e d by a l a b i a l  segment.  Assuming t h a t the t r a n s c r i b e r ' s speech r e f l e c t s the n: " time, one  at the  can q u i t e s a f e l y conclude from the o b s e r v a t i o n above  t h a t , with, r e s p e c t t o low vowels, a Kai-He d i s t i n c t i o n was preserved  i n the e i g h t e e n t h century Macao data.  Turning now  to a''.discussion of medial / i / ,  bines with one of two  the medial com-  p o s s i b l e n u c l e a r vowels: / a : / or /o/.  i t combines with / a : / , medial / i / and /w/),  still  may  follow l a b i a l s  When  (except / f /  d e n t a l s , s i b i l a n t s , v e l a r stops and l a r y n g e a l  /h/.  R e - i n t e r p r e t i n g Chao's data from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , h i s medial  / i /  i s p h o n e t i c a l l y somewhat more open than the vowel { i j ( c f . fn.16 of the present  chapter).  Egerod and the w r i t e r t r a n s c r i b e  sound as l e j . At the same time, medial / i /  this  i s sometimes heard as  -  a palatal  [j] .  59  -  Thus, the word j i n g 13  Be pronounced Tkeaig  'neck', f o r example,  13 J or  o n l y i n the environment  [kjain  J i n free v a r i a t i o n .  a f t e r l a r y n g e a l /h/ t h a t  of the medial does not occur.  d i a l e c t attempting to produce  It is  palatalization  As suggested by P u l l e y b l a n k upon  o b s e r v i n g t h i s phenomenon i n the data, i t may  the l a b i a l one,  may  be a case of the  a p a l a t a l medial t o correspond to  thereby c r e a t e r g r e a t e r symmetry i n the  The f a c t t h a t m e d i a l / i /  system.  i s never pronounced as a p a l a t a l  when i t f o l l o w s /h/ i s probably due t o the e f f o r t s of the  glide speakers  not to p a l a t a l i z e /h/, s i n c e the r e s u l t of p a l a t a l i z i n g /h/ would be p e r c e i v e d by the n a t i v e ear as b e i n g q u i t e a b e r r a n t from the o r i g i n a l laryngeal  initial.  In g e n e r a l , Yang tends to produce more p a l a t a l than Chen. medial / i /  At the same time, i t i s a l s o Yang who vowel h i g h e r than Chen.  of the vowel by Chen may  [ j ] medials  pronounces the  The more open p r o n u n c i a t i o n  be an i n f l u e n c e from Cantonese i n which  the Zhong-shan sequence I e a r ] , o r i g i n a t i n g from the sequence "medial / i / long  + n u c l e a r vowel / a : / " , corresponds to the Cantonese  (nuc1earI  vowel  Ie:].  In the environment  b e f o r e /o/, medial / i /  rounded as a r e s u l t of r e g r e s s i v e a s s i m i l a t i o n . ment, medial / i /  i s pronounced  [0].  The  respectively.  These two  and  In t h i s e n v i r o n -  [00^] and  [00k]  f i n a l s are t r e a t e d by Chao as /aeng/.and  Note t h a t Egerod a l s o t r e a t s the f i n a l  c l u s t e r /0a/.  i s lowered  sequence / i o / only occurs  i n the f i n a l s / i o n g / and / i o k / , p h o n e t i c a l l y  /aek/.  ,vi,v V.  [OBI.]  as the vowel  The w r i t e r analyzes t h i s f i n a l as phonemic  r a t h e r than the c l u s t e r / i o / .  /0/  Chao t r e a t s i t phonemically as / C E / .  D i s t r i b u t i o n a l l y , the f i n a l s / i o n g / and / i o k / occur w i t h  - 60 d e n t a l s , s i b i l a n t s and v e l a r s t o p s . with, the / i o n g / f i n a l . are the s y l l a b l e s and  IjDikJ  lj0oql  I n i t i a l /h/ combines o n l y  Present i n both. Chao and Egerod' s data and  which correspond t o [jaxgj  I j 0 D k J ,  i n the present data.  Ball  (p.531) records t h e s y l l a b l e  /yong/, e x a m p l i f i e d by the word yang ^  (193-5) 'ocean , f o r both 1  Cantonese and Macao, but records /yong/ f o r S h i - q i  (fn.120).  Presumably, the corresponding stop ending r e f l e c t s the same p a t t e r n , although i t was not made e x p l i c i t i n B a l l . Zhong-shan data and modern Cantonese concur t i o n : Zhong-shan has the s y l l a b l e s  The present  with B a l l ' s  observa-  Ijonj] and [ j o i k ] w h i l e Canton-  ese has [uosir)] and [qcexk] . Based on B a l l ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s and the w r i t e r ' s data, one c o u l d suggest t h a t s y l l a b l e s  [jong] and [ j o i k ] are the indigenous  forms i n the S h i - q i speech, and t h a t the s y l l a b l e s [J03kJ  recorded by Chao and Egerod  [j0orjj and  a r e due t o Cantonese i n f l u e n c e .  The w r i t e r , however, would p r e f e r t o suggest t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e observed between the present data and those o f Chao and Egerod i s s t r i c t l y a case o f a s u b - d i a l e c t a l v a r i a t i o n . (p.51) e x p l i c i t l y d e s c r i b e s the i n i t i a l /icEng/  F i r s t o f a l l , Chao  segment o f h i s s y l l a b l e  p h o n e t i c a l l y as the unrounded f r o n t g l i d e  s y l l a b l e appears  [ j ] . Thus Chao's  t o be mid-way between the s y l l a b l e found i n the  present Zhong-shan data and t h a t i n Cantonese.  Phonetically,  Chao's s y l l a b l e i s [J0oq], whereas the Cantonese s y l l a b l e i s [xifflin ] . Secondly, ble  except f o r t h i s s y l l a b l e  w i t h the corresponding stop ending, the p h o n o l o g i c a l system  recorded i n Chao and Egerod one.  I j 0 o n j , and the s y l l a -  i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e p r e s e n t Zhong-shan  There i s no reason t o expect such a unique  borrowing.  - 61 T h i r d and l a s t l y , t h e r e are a few c o l l o q u i a l terms i n Chao's a r t i c l e t h a t show s l i g h t p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n s between his In  informant's speech and the speech o f the w r i t e r ' s i n f o r m a n t s . the d e i c t i c word ' t h i s ' , f o r example, Chao records the v a r i a n t  forms o f /ko  22 55 55 / and /ko / whereas the present data show /ku /.  (On one o c c a s i o n , nonetheless, the w r i t e r heard Chen's mother use 55 /ko  / f o r 'this'.)  In the reading o f i s o l a t e d words, Chao's  informant a l s o pronounces some words w i t h an i n i t i a l or f i n a l t h a t d i f f e r s from the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f the w r i t e r ' s informants.  The  word ku ^ (.16-24) ' b i t t e r ' , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s recorded by Chao 13 13 as /k'u / and by the w r i t e r as /hu /. In terms o f the o v e r a l l p a t t e r n o f correspondences  t o the h i s t o r i c a l p h o n o l o g i c a l catego-  r i e s , however, the data from Chao, Egerod  and the w r i t e r are i n  agreement. In  summary, there i s evidence of l o w - l e v e l , s u b - d i a l e c t a l  v a r i a t i o n s t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , do not a f f e c t e i t h e r the Zhong-shan p h o n o l o g i c a l system on the whole, o r the d i a l e c t ' s correspondences.  historical  One can see no reason t o suppose t h a t t h e r e has  been an i s o l a t e d case o f s u b s t i t u t i n g a Cantonese s y l l a b l e f o r a Zhong-shan one.  The c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s t h a t among some  Zhong-shan speakers, the s y l l a b l e use  [join].  initial  [joon] i s used, whereas others  One would suspect, g i v e n Chao's o b s e r v a t i o n o f an ...  I j J t h a t the f o l l o w i n g segment i s probably s l i g h t l y  less  rounded than c a r d i n a l J>]. C r o s s - d i a l e c t a l l y , the s y l l a b l e other d i a l e c t s .  The word yang p|  236)  has the s y l l a b l e  xian  (Hakka),  [jog] i s a l s o found i n  (173-8) ' b r i g h t '  ( Z i - h u i , p.  [jon] (or [iaq]) i n Nan-chang (Gan), Mei-  and Amoy (S. M i n ) . The Mandarin d i a l e c t s g e n e r a l l y  - 62 -  pronounce the word as  JJax..n'l  ( t r a n s c r i b e d i n the Z i - h u i as  {iag]).  Of the d i a l e c t s represented i n the Z i - h u i , only Cantonese has syllable  [ u 3 i >j] (.[jcenj i n the Z i - h u i ) .  s y l l a b l e fyon] f o r yang ^ s t r u c t e d as LMC 1.2.3.  .  Both yang s ^  the  are recon-  *jiag.  i n v e n t o r y of endings present i n Zhong-shan i s i d e n t i -  c a l t o t h a t found i n Cantonese. and /ng/; and  and f-|j  1  has  Endings The  /w/  Fu-zhou (_N. Min)  the  There are three n a s a l s : /m/,  three corresponding s t o p s : /p/, / t / , /k/;  and two  /n/ glides:  /j/. The stops are u n r e l e a s e d , and o f t e n p r e g l o t t a l i z e d i n  Zhong-shan.  The ending /k/ i s moreover o f t e n simply reduced  a g l o t t a l stop. l e v e l tones o n l y .  to  S y l l a b l e s w i t h stop endings u s u a l l y occur i n Exceptions r e s u l t from changed tones, t o be  e l a b o r a t e d upon l a t e r . Chao notes t h a t a f t e r long n u c l e a r vowels endings vowels  IAIW]  and  [ i : w ] ) , /w/  (as i n the endings The g l i d e / j /  [ew]  i s more open.than a f t e r s h o r t n u c l e a r and  [ow]).  i s phonetically  f o l l o w i n g the f r o n t rounded vowel / 0 / , rounded semi-vowel [q] . /J0j  13  /r  ( i . e . , i n the  [j] w i t h one /j/  i s phonetically  Thus, the word r u i ,gjp^  f o r example, i s p h o n e t i c a l l y  [^0^  exception:  13  the  (61-15) 'stamen'  J , i n which both  the  preceding and the f o l l o w i n g semi-vowel segments are rounded to {uj as a r e s u l t of a s s i m i l a t i o n to the rounding of the n u c l e a r vowel.  - 63 1.2.4.  S y l l a b i c Nasals There are two s y l l a b i c n a s a l s i n Zhong-shan which  consti-  t u t e the o n l y segment i n the s y l l a b l e , and a f f e c t a v e r y r e s t r i c t e d lexicon.  These two segments are /m/  [gj r e s p e c t i v e l y . the  The s y l l a b l e /m/  n e g a t i v e marker  B  and /ng/, pronounced  5 1  'Wu  * 51 ' "gr /m / 'not' (also  found i n Cantonese). /ng"*" / ' f i v e ' , wu  ^  3  (a surname; a Chinese d i a l e c t group to which the Shangi  <  22  h a i d i a l e c t belongs) ', and wu •fQ' /ng  / 'to r e a l i z e ' .  b l e /ng/ occurs i n a l l but the h i g h l e v e l tone. s y l l a b i c /ng/ h i s t o r i c a l l y bore a v e l a r r e c o n s t r u c t e d as LMC the v e l a r  and  o n l y occurs c o l l o q u i a l l y , as  Words with the s y l l a b l e /ng/ i n c l u d e : wu /ng /  ImJ  *nua.  nasal i n i t i a l ,  sylla-  Words p o s s e s s i n g  nasal i n i t i a l ,  Some of the d i a l e c t s  The  and are  s t i l l preserve  as e x e m p l i f i e d by the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f 331  the word wu f^-  i n such d i a l e c t s as Su-zhou (Wu): [gsu J, 23 42 33 Shuang-feng (Xiang): [qu ] , M e i - x i a n : [gu ] , Xia-men: [rjo J, 35 242 Chao-zhou: Igo ] , and Fu-zhou: [qua ] ( Z i - h u i , p.94). 1.3.  Tones P i t c h v a r i a t i o n which i s used t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the meanings  of words i s c a l l e d tone. pitch, c a r r i e s the  phenomenon,  r e l a t i v e v a l u e o n l y , w i t h the h e i g h t and range o f  p i t c h dependent  speaker.  In i t s f u n c t i o n as a t o n a l  upon such f a c t o r s  as the age and sex o f the  Chao's numerical system, which i s used here f o r t r a n s -  c r i b i n g the tones i n Zhong-shan, i s based on the s u b d i v i s i o n the  normal p i t c h range of a speaker i n t o f i v e p i t c h  l e v e l s , with  "5" d e s i g n a t i n g the h i g h e s t p i t c h and "1" the lowest. in  Chinese may  be s p e c i f i e d by a s i n g l e  ment of the p i t c h  pitch  from one l e v e l t o another.  of  The  tones  l e v e l or the move(In the case o f the  -  t h i r d tone i n Mandarin,  64  -  f o r i n s t a n c e , which has a f a l l i n g - r i s i n g  contour, a m u l t i - d i r e c t i o n a l movement i s i n v o l v e d . ) Besides d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g l e x i c a l meaning, tone a l s o e n t i a t e s grammatical  (morphological) meaning.  I t i s important to  bear i n mind t h i s second f u n c t i o n , t o which we w i l l l a t e r For in  the p r e s e n t , however, the focus w i l l be on the f i r s t  return. function,  c o n t i n u a t i o n of the p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of Zhong-shan.  1.3.1.  Tonal System In  or  differ-  t r a d i t i o n a l , h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s , t h e r e are f o u r tones,  sheng  i n Chinese: Ping-sheng ^ Fg^  sheng _H_ jfe  'ascending tone', Qu-sheng  and Ru-sheng  >v^jF  'entering tone'.  'even tone', Shang-  f-^_  'departing tone',  While s y l l a b l e s c o n t a i n i n g  the f i r s t t h r e e tones end i n a long vowel,  a g l i d e , or a n a s a l ,  Ru-sheng s y l l a b l e s end i n a stop consonant  ( i . e . , /p/, / t / or  and i s sometimes r e f e r r e d to as "checked" of  syllables.  /k/)  As a r e s u l t  the abrupt c l o s u r e a t s y l l a b l e - f i n a l p o s i t i o n , Ru-sheng  sylla-  b l e s normally are l e v e l i n p i t c h and s h o r t e r i n d u r a t i o n than t h e i r non-checked c o u n t e r p a r t s .  In terms of western,  structural  lin-  g u i s t i c theory and a n a l y s i s , the Ru-sheng i s i n complementary d i s t r i b u t i o n with l e v e l p i t c h tones and should not be and t r e a t e d as phonemically d i s t i n c t . d i a l e c t a l comparisons,  isolated  For d i a c h r o n i c s t u d i e s and  i t i s nonetheless convenient t o d i s t i n g u i s h  s y l l a b l e s ending i n / p , t , k / from those c o n t a i n i n g other endings. Or more g e n e r a l l y , the adoption of the Chinese terms i s u s e f u l f o r a n a l y z i n g the modern r e f l e x e s of these h i s t o r i c a l Chinese  tones  both w i t h i n a g i v e n d i a l e c t and across d i a l e c t s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the tones i n Chinese are f u r t h e r d i v i d e d  - 65 i n t o "upper" x i a "f  (yin  , o r shang J,  ) and "lower"  (yang J%  , or  ) r e g i s t e r s , which r e f l e c t the nature o f the h i s t o r i c a l  initials,  t o be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r .  S u f f i c e i t t o say f o r now t h a t  the Yin-Yang s p l i t was taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n by Chao i n h i s t o n a l a n a l y s i s o f Zhong-shan. The numerical values o r i g i n a l l y a s s i g n e d by Chao f o r Zhongshan, and subsequently by Egerod as w e l l , are adopted here w i t h the minor m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t a k i n g i n t o account the s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n of the Ru-sheng by a s s i g n i n g t o i t s i n g l e numbers, as opposed t o double numbers f o r the o t h e r tones.  In the enumeration  o f Zhong-  shan tones a c c o r d i n g t o the Chinese approach, t h e r e a r e a t o t a l of s i x tones i n the d i a l e c t ; but a c c o r d i n g t o western phonemic a n a l y s i s , t h e r e are o n l y f o u r o f them.  The f o u r phonemic tones  i n Zhong-shan are g i v e n i n Table 3 (a) below.  The p r e s e n t enume-  r a t i o n o f the tones as Tone 1 through Tone 4 r a t h e r than the t r a d i t i o n a l terms as used by Chao, recorded i n the t a b l e f o r comp a r a t i v e purposes, i s p r i m a r i l y t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l tones.  T a b l e 3 (b) i s a comparison o f Zhong-shan tones  w i t h the Cantonese  ones t r a n s c r i b e d by Hashimoto.  names f o r the Cantonese Table 3 (a)•  Traditional  tones a r e used i n the t a b l e .  Tonal Sys ;em o f Zhong-shan. Chao  Chan Tone 1:  55 (or 5*)  Y i n - p i n g f£ -f-  / Y i n - r u f^T 7 v :  55  Tone 2:  51  Yang-ping f § f  :  51  Tone 3:  35  Shang  :  35  Tone 4:  22 (or 2*)  Qu £  :  22  C * Used f o r checked  /Yang-ru \ % ^  s y l l a b l e s only.)  - 66 Table 3 ( b ) . A Comparison of Cantonese and Zhong-shan Tones. Zhong-shan  Cantonese Yin-ping  HA  55/53  55  Tone 1  Yang-ping  llf  21/22  51  Tone 2  \  Yin-shang  35  Yang-shang  ?&>.  24  Yin-qu  ft'*  44  r J ]  Yang-qu  ni  33  J  Shang Y i n - r  u  Zhong Y i n - r  u  Xft^  f ft  7^  Tone 4  5  Tone 1  \ r J  3  Yang-ru  V 22  5 4  Tone 3  1 3  2  Tone 4  Concerning Zhong-shan tones, Tone 1 i s h i g h and l e v e l i n non-checked f i n a l s .  Both B a l l  (.p. 510) and Egerod  (p. 14)  observe  t h a t the Zhong-shan upper even tone i s s l i g h t l y lower i n p i t c h than i t s Cantonese c o u n t e r p a r t .  Chao  (p.54) notes t h a t i n Zhong-  shan, the s t a r t i n g p i t c h o f the Y i n - p i n g lower than the Yang-ping (Tone 2 ) . r e c o r d Tone 1 as /44/.  (Tone 1) i s s l i g h t l y  I t i s therefore possible to  However, f o r the sake of g r e a t e r phonemic  c o n t r a s t , /55/ i s used by Chao, Egerod and the w r i t e r t o r e p r e s e n t the  phonemic t o n a l value of the Y i n - p i n g tone. /5/  i s used f o r Tone 1 i n those Ru-sheng, o r checked,  f i n a l s which Chao terms " Y i n - r u " .  Because Ru-sheng s y l l a b l e s end  i n a stop consonant, these s y l l a b l e s are r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t i n comp a r i s o n t o those w i t h open s y l l a b l e s or those ending i n a n a s a l or g l i d e .  /5/ p a r a l l e l s the high l e v e l /55/ tone i n t h a t i t s  p i t c h h e i g h t i s s l i g h t l y lower than the Shang Y i n - r u , or the  -  67 -  h i g h upper e n t e r i n g tone o f Cantonese  (which Hashimoto and others  t r a n s c r i b e as / 5 / ) . Tone 2 i s a h i g h f a l l i n g tone, t r a n s c r i b e d by Chao and the w r i t e r as  /51/.  Tone 3 i s recorded phonemically as /13/, observes t h a t i t i s i n f a c t c l o s e r t o .1121 . pose of maximizing phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n , I t was  although Chao  Again, f o r the pur-  /13/ was  n o t i c e d i n the p r e s e n t data t h a t Tone 3 was  chosen  produced with,  a minute d i p t o the tone; t h a t i s , t h e r e i s a s l i g h t the r i s e .  Ball  (.p. 510)  tone which "descend(s)  fall  before  a l s o d e s c r i b e s the tone i n Macao as a a s h o r t s p a c e — b e g i n n i n g at the same p i t c h  of v o i c e as the Cantonese  ~j» ^  , ha hou* (or Y i n - q u — H a s h i m o t o ' s  /44/), lower r e t i r i n g v o i c e , i t f a l l s a l i t t l e than the Cantonese  instead.  T ^"  lower a t i t s end  , ha p ' i n g Cor Yang-ping—Hashimoto's  /21/)„, lower even tone". Tone 4 i s a mid-low tone, recorded by Chao as /22/. i s here recorded as /22/ i n non-checked s y l l a b l e s .  The  It  shorter  /2/ i s used f o r stop endings.  1.3.2.  Tone Sandhi It  i s noted by Egerod  (p.14) t h a t one tone sandhi phenome^  non i n Zhong-shan operates i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: when two more low l e v e l tones tone i s pronounced ally identical  ( i . e . , /22/)  /si 33  phonetically in  the  first  s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than the succeeding, phonemic-  t o n e ( s ) , and may ^  occur i n a sequence,  or  [si:  the present data.  kon  be t r a n s c r i b e d p h o n e t i c a l l y as  / 'work, a f f a i r ' would be  22 ko:n  ].  The same sandhi phenomenon i s observed  -  68  -  Egerod a l s o notes t h a t i n n o n - f i n a l p o s i t i o n ( i . e . ,  in  environments not p r e c e d i n g open j u n c t u r e o r p a u s e ) , t h e r i s i n g tone  (Tone 3) o n l y e x h i b i t s a s l i g h t r i s i n g c o n t o u r , o r even a  low l e v e l t o n e , p h o n e t i c a l l y d a t a agree  [12] o r  [11].  The p r e s e n t  Zhong-shan  w i t h E g e r o d ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s , w i t h t h e a d d i t i o n a l remark  t h a t the r i s i n g tone i n such environments tends t o be s h o r t e r  in  d u r a t i o n than when i t o c c u r s b e f o r e a p a u s e , such as a t the end of a clause or i n s e n t e n c e - f i n a l p o s i t i o n .  1.3.3.  Tone Change "Tone change", o r b i a n - y i n ftfc^ ~fl  'changed t o n e ' ,  refers  t o the m o r p h o l o g i c a l and s y n t a c t i c use o f tone d i s t i n c t from i t s lexical function.  U n l i k e C a n t o n e s e , which has a r i c h d i s t r i b u -  t i o n o f s y l l a b l e s e x h i b i t i n g the tone change phenomenon s e r v i n g v a r i o u s p u r p o s e s , the g r a m m a t i c a l use o f tone i n Zhong-shan i s very l i m i t e d .  There are two changed tones i n Zhong-shan, as  t h e r e a r e i n C a n t o n e s e : a h i g h l e v e l / 5 5 / and a l e n g t h e n e d ,  high  r i s i n g / 3 5 / , which we w i l l here term " M o d i f i e d Tone 1" and " M o d i f i e d Tone 3 " r e s p e c t i v e l y . Chao and E g e r o d . c r i b e s as / 3 5 / .  It  Only M o d i f i e d Tone 3 i s d e s c r i b e d by  i s a h i g h r i s i n g tone which Egerod t r a n s -  The examples t h a t Chao and Egerod g i v e  involve  s y l l a b l e s which o r i g i n a l l y had Tone 3 o r Tone 4. A l t h o u g h e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s need t o be conducted on the b a s i c and changed tones i n Zhong-shan b e f o r e one can d e s c r i b e  in  more d e t a i l and w i t h g r e a t e r p r e c i s i o n t h e tone change s i t u a t i o n , perceptually,  a t l e a s t , t h e m o d i f i e d tones a r e s l i g h t l y l o n g e r  d u r a t i o n than t h e i r b a s i c f o r m s , and are more prominant i n the speech o f t h e female i n f o r m a n t s than the male i n f o r m a n t .  More-  in  - 69 oyer, i t has been observed i n the present data t h a t the other tones i n the d i a l e c t a l s o can undergo tone change.  In r e p r e s e n t -  i n g b i a n - y i n , the o r i g i n a l tone i s given f i r s t , with the changed tone f o l l o w i n g , separated from the o r i g i n a l by a comma.  The charac-  t e r undergoing the tone change i s a l s o marked by an a s t e r i s k chi  /ja:k / 2  'to e a t ' ,  /ja:k  2 , 3 5  /  'to have eaten'  (e.g.,  (eat +  PERFECTIVE)). M o d i f i e d Tone 1 does not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y  from the  r e g u l a r Tone 1 i n terms of p i t c h h e i g h t .  I t i s the i n c r e a s e i n  s y l l a b l e l e n g t h which i s most prominent.  Ball  (p. 511). d e s c r i b e s . . j .'<:  the M o d i f i e d Tone 1 i n the Macao (Zhong-shan) d i a l e c t as only s l i g h t l y h i g h e r i n p i t c h l e v e l than the r e g u l a r Tone 1. f i e d Tone 1 i s ,  The Modi-  i n f a c t , of the same p i t c h h e i g h t as the o r d i n a r y  Yin-rping tone i n Cantonese ( r e c a l l i n g t h a t the Zhong-shan Y i n p i n g has been noted as being lower i n p i t c h than the Cantonese one). Tone 1 words which underwent tone change w i l l be i n d i c a t e d u s i n g 55 55* an a s t e r i s k (e.g., l a / l a : j / 'to p u l l ' , 25L * / l a : j / 'to have p u l l e d '  ( p u l l + PERFECTIVE)).  One of the f u n c t i o n s of b i a n - y i n uses M o d i f i e d Tone 1 t o i n d i c a t e f a m i l i a r i t y , or c o l l o q u i a l speech. highly unpredictable.  Zuo fl'jte 'yesterday' / t s o k / and r i |3 2  2 / j a t /, f o r example, combine t o form the word 2 2 5 i s c o l l o q u i a l l y pronounced / t s i o k i n the f i n a l of zuo 0^  Such changes are 'day'  'yesterday', which  j a t ' /, w i t h a v o c a l i c change  and a tone change i n r i #  •  These  changes r e f l e c t c o l l o q u i a l , d a i l y usage, whereas the p r o n u n c i a t i o n 2 2 of z u o - r i Qty Q /tsok j a t / r e f l e c t s a more l i t e r a r y form. 51 L i k e w i s e , ming  $Q  ' l i g h t ' /ming  / combined with r i 0  2 'day' / j a t / i s h i g h l y l i t e r a r y f o r 'tomorrow'.  The Zhong-shan  - 70 c a s u a l word f o r  'tomorrow'  p l u s zao J^- ' e a r l y '  i s based on the c o m b i n a t i o n of ming  / t s o w / t o produce / m i n 1 3  '  5 1  5 5  tsow /.  In  1 3  t h i s c a s e , t h e tone change on ming $fl  i s accompanied by a change 19 xn the a r t x c u l a t x o n of the n a s a l endxng as w e l l . The word ya j^L ' t o p r e s s ' has the f o r m a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f / a : t / , which would be used i n terms such as y a - l i JjjjjL f) 2  'pressure' /a:t  2  l i k /.  2 ^  C o l l o q u i a l l y , t h e word i s / a : t  '  /to  2  mean ' t o p r e s s ' , and / a : t / f o r the p a s s i v e meaning of p r e s s e d ' , as i n y a - z h u J^L  ' t o be  ('.press + c e a s e ' ) .  In the word y i ^jj^ ' s i s t e r o f o n e ' s w i f e o r m o t h e r ' , when i t o c c u r s i n d i r e c t a d d r e s s , i t combines w i t h a §U graphic variant  /a  22  /)  t o form / a  22  i  51  '  55  /.  (A  (or  sister'.  I n Zhong-shan, a - y i  is  'mother's  The tone change t o M o d i f i e d Tone 1 i s  'Mother's older s i s t e r '  I n words such as  1  /,  its  in  younger  obligatory.  i n Zhong-shan i s y i - m a  w i t h no tone change i n y i  5  i s an  empty p r e f i x a l form which s e r v e s t o p r e v e n t m o n o s y l l a b i c i t y appellations.)  /i  /i  ma  /,  . H^JL  - f i n a l l y ' /saw mi / , tone 55 13 5 5 change i s o p t i o n a l , w i t h , /saw mi ' / equally p e r m i s s i b l e . A & /t, 22 .13, . , 2 2 , 5 5 . synonym, \ / h a w mx / xs u s u a l l y pronounced /haw 13 5 5 mi ' / i n t h e speech of the Zhong-shan i n f o r m a n t s i n t h e s t u d y , 33 a l t h o u g h Hashimoto (p. 97) i n d i c a t e s t h e o p t x o n a l i t y o f Ih-ew 24 33 24 55 mej J v e r s u s [hnw mej ' J. Note a l s o t h a t i n Z h o n g - s h a n , b o t h i  n  s y l l a b l e s undergo tone change. We t u r n now t o the more s y s t e m a t i c g r a m m a t i c a l f u n c t i o n of tone change, a l l of which i n v o l v e M o d i f i e d Tone 3 . o f M o d i f i e d Tone 3 , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s t o i n t e n s i f y the  One f u n c t i o n adjective  i n a r e d u p l i c a t i n g , m o n o s y l l a b i c a d j e c t i v e i n which t h e tone change  - 71 occurs on the f i r s t member o f the r e d u p l i c a t i n g p a i r .  Thus,  13 'good', f o r example, i s hao Jj$- /how /, and 'very good i s 1 ^ ^5 13 22 /how ' how /. C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y , ' b i g ' i s da ^ / t a : j /, j 22 35 22 while 'very b i g ' i s 7 ^ * 7 ^ / t a : j ' t a : j /. As a l r e a d y 1  s t a t e d , the d e r i v e d tone i s l o n g e r , c o n t a i n i n g a h i g h r i s i n g  con-  tour. Besides i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n , a r e d u p l i c a t e d a d j e c t i v e a l s o has the meaning o f 'however + ADJECTIVE ; thus, 1  7 ^ * 7^- / t a : j  '  22 ta:j ing ( 3 )  ->  (  / a l s o has the meaning o f 'however b i g ' , as i n the f o l l o w c l a u s e C'NEG" = n e g a t i v e ) :  K  K*  &  h  $  ' .22,35 ^ .22 , 55 13 . 22 ta:j ta:j tu mow j ung CBIG BIG STILL NEG-HAVE USE) 'However b i g ( i t i s ) , ( i t ' s ) s t i l l no use.' In  the case o f an a d j e c t i v e m o d i f i e d by the c h a r a c t e r hao  /how /, meaning 13  'very', emphasis can be p l a c e d on the word  'very' by means of tone change t o i n t e n s i f y the a d j e c t i v e f o l l o w ing  it.  Thus, the phrase  'very f a r ' ^ 3 " l i b - /how yn \ 13 35 13  s t r e s s e d by r e n d e r i n g i t as  13  Jfo*/how  '  yn  1 3  / can be  /, denoting even  greater distance. The c h a r a c t e r j_i meaning o f ' f a i r l y ,  /ki  1 3  /,  on the other hand, has the  r a t h e r ' , and o n l y i n the m o d i f i e d tone does i t  a c q u i r e the meaning of 'very', s e r v i n g t o i n t e n s i f y the a d j e c t i v e . 'Quite g o o d , f o r example, i s 1  /ki  '  dous'.  how  3|;4V/ki  13  how /, w h i l e 13  /, w i t h the changed tone, means 'very good,  A rough t r a n s l a t i o n a l e q u i v a l e n t o f sentence  stupen-  (4), f o r  example, would be ' I t sure t a s t e d good!' o r ' I t sure was good!' ("S" = sentence,  "PRT" = p a r t i c l e . )  - 72 -  (4)  ° . Yl3,35 u 13 . ,2 . 22 ki how ja:k l a (VERY GOOD EAT S-PRT) ' I t was very good (to e a t ) . ' Another r e g u l a r f u n c t i o n o f the b i a n - y i n i s t o compensate  f o r a d e l e t e d s y l l a b l e c o n t a i n i n g a h i g h tone /5/ o r /55/; t h a t i s , the p i t c h o f the tone i s absorbed by the immediately precedi n g s y l l a b l e when the s y l l a b l e which o r i g i n a l l y c a r r i e d i t was deleted.  One case o f such a usage i s when there i s a change i n  the tone o f a verb.  The tone change serves t o mark p e r f e c t i v i t y  55 i n l i e u o f the p o s t - v e r b a l p e r f e c t i v e marker /p'ow / i n Zhong55 55 55 shan. V a r i a n t forms o f /p'ow / a r e /how / and /ow /. The p e r f e c t i v e marker may sometimes be the repeat ..of the f i n a l on the verb i n which the repeated f i n a l c a r r i e s the h i g h pitch, o f Tone 1. j.  22 'to go' /hy /, f o r example, the p e r f e c t i v e 22 55 22 55 of the verb may be /hy p'ow / (or i t s v a r i a n t s ) , o r /hy y /. In the case o f qu  22 35 P e r f e c t i v i z a t i o n through tone change would y i e l d /hy Zhong-shan, the marker o f p e r f e c t i v i t y  *|J«L (or  '  /.  In  *fi. ) / t s o / i s  a l s o used, but i t i s c o n s i d e r e d a more formal o r p o l i t e form borrowed from  Cantonese.  In a n a l y z i n g the p e r f e c t i v i z a t i o n o f verbs by means o f tone change, one theory t h a t has been advanced  f o r Cantonese i s  l i k e w i s e proposed here, namely, t h a t the tone change i s a r e s u l t of copying the h i g h p i t c h o f the p e r f e c t i v e marker onto the end of the p r e c e d i n g s y l l a b l e , which i s the verb.  When the p e r f e c t i v e  marker i s d e l e t e d , a t r a c e remains i n the compensatory  lengthening  of the p r e c e d i n g s y l l a b l e , w i t h a concomitant r i s e i n the contour of t h a t s y l l a b l e a t i t s end p o i n t . There a r e a few cases o f tone change connected w i t h the  - 73 5 d e l e t i o n o f jjL concomitant  'one' / j a t /.  Three cases o f y i - d e l e t i o n and  tone change w i l l be d i s c u s s e d .  As i n p e r f e c t i v i z a -  t i o n by means o f b i a n - y i n above, the tone change here a l s o serves a compensatory r o l e . s y l l a b i c phrases  The f i r s t case o f y i - d e l e t i o n i n v o l v e s t r i -  i n which, the f i r s t  s y l l a b l e i s a monosyllabic  verb, the second yjL ~-~ , and the t h i r d the r e d u p l i c a t i o n o f the monosyllabic verb.  The d e l e t i o n o f y i r e s u l t s i n the f i r s t  form a c q u i r i n g M o d i f i e d Tone 3.  Thus, 'to take a look'  verb  kan-yi-kan  22 5 22 ^ j j -~ ^ j j , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s /hon j a t hon / (.'look one l o o k ' ) . 5 The d e l e t i o n o f 'one' / j a t / produces the l o n g , h i g h r i s i n g tone . i 2235 22 on the f i r s t s y l l a b l e y i e l d i n g & * j|j /hon ' hon /. As i  /  observed by Kwok (.1971:50). f o r Cantonese, the r e s u l t a n t  redupli-  cated verb form denotes a b r i e f d u r a t i o n o f a c t i o n denoted by the verb.  In h i s a n a l y s i s o f Mandarin, Chao (1968:204) r e f e r s t o  t h i s r e d u p l i c a t i o n as the " t e n t a t i v e aspect o f v e r b s " . In  the second  case o f M o d i f i e d Tone 3 a r i s i n g from t h e 5 d e l e t i o n o f 'one' / j a t /, the s i n g u l a r occurrence o f an a c t i o n 5 13 can be s p e c i f i e d u s i n g the e x p r e s s i o n y i - x i a 'one  time/occasion'.  CXia nrf  (or ~f  ^-  e"f* / j a t  ha  /  ) i s a c l a s s i f i e r f o r the  number o f occurrences o f an a c t i o n . )  When an a c t i o n occurs once,  the number 'one' i s u s u a l l y omitted. 22 5 13  Thus, kan y i - x i a ^  'to  look once' /hon 22 35  /hon 5 /jat  / (.'look one time'), becomes  13 ha  r  j a t ha  *"f  /, w i t h a tone change on the verb.  The meaning o f  13 ha  / i s sometimes extended  so t h a t i t does not n e c e s s a r i l y  always haye the l i t e r a l meaning o f 'one t i m e / o c c a s i o n ' , as shown in  (.5)..  (A c i r c l e " O "  i s used t o d e s i g n a t e a c o l l o q u i a l word  with, no w r i t t e n c h a r a c t e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t .  "CL" = c l a s s i f i e r . )  - 74 -  ^VaS  <> ' 5  a  ' 13 ^55 n 22 hon ha ..sin syn (LOOK+ONE CL BEFORE PLAN) 'We'll see.'/'Wait and see f i r s t . '  '  Zl 13 yn13,35 . 13 how ' ha (GOOD FAR+ONE CL) ' I t ' s k i n d o f f a r . ' / ' I t ' s q u i t e f a r (contrary t o expectation) . '  *  13,35 , 13 . 22 51 . .22 .. 5 ja:ng ha tsaw m ki tak (SHADOW+ONE CL THEN NEG REMEMBER ABLE) 'One moment l a t e r (I) (already) f o r g o t ! ' ( i . e . , i n an i n s t a n t , very q u i c k l y )  D  c  f  , , 51 . .55* . 1 3 * 22 22 k'y ha:j ha tsaw ha:m (HE/SHE TOUCH CL THEN CRY) 'As f o r him, j u s t brush a g a i n s t (him) l i g h t l y and (he) c r i e s . ' In the t h i r d case o f compensatory tone change a f t e r y i d e l e t i o n , the change o f M o d i f i e d —~  i s omitted i n e x p r e s s i o n  as y i - k u a i - y i - k u a i — a f t e r another) / j a t  5  containing  "~ fa:j  5  fa:j  T h i s tone change i s a general  ('one p i e c e one p i e c e ) . 1  fa:j '  fasj  /,  Note t h a t i f a c l a s s i f i e r  r e d u p l i c a t e d , the e x p r e s s i o n  has the meaning o f "every  In Zhong-shan the f i r s t member o f such a r e d u p l i c a t e d p a i r  does not undergo tone change. 33 (phonetically  IfAij  means 'every p i e c e ' . IfAij  /  ( i . e . , one p i e c e  one a f f e c t i n g any r e d u p l i c a t e d  c l a s s i f i e r i n t h e above environment.  + CL".  2 2  — J$k* £5&>/jat  D e l e t i o n o f the second y i y i e l d s  i s simply  " y i + CL + y i + CL", such  'piece by p i e c e ' jat  2 2  Tone 3 occurs when the second y i  44 35  fAij  44  Thus,  J  ^  22 22 /fa:j fa:j /  22 fAij  1 due t o tone sandhi noted e a r l i e r )  (Contrast  ] 'every  t h i s w i t h Cantonese  piece'.)  There are a l s o some cases o f compensatory tone change due  - 75 to s y l l a b l e d e l e t i o n that i s h i g h l y i d i o s y n c r a t i c and hence nonproductive.  The e x p r e s s i o n  ^  /ki  1  3  t o ^ / 'how "much, how  many', f o r example, i s o f t e n reduced t o simply Thus, the q u e s t i o n or (6)  (6b). a.  ^ *  /ki  1 3  '"^/.  'How much d i d i t c o s t ? ' may be u t t e r e d as  (6a).  ("Q" = question.) **  1  J ?  3  5  5  5  1  B.  1  3  ki . . t o tsin ma:] (HOW-MUCH MANY MONEY BUY 'How much d i d ( i t ) c o s t ? '  2  2  a Q-PRT)  13 22 ki ' t s i n " " " ma:j a (HOW-MUCH MONEY BUY Q-PRT) 'How much d i d ( i t ) c o s t ? ' Tone change can a l s o serve  t o r e p l a c e the word dou ^  55 ' a l s o , l i k e w i s e ' / t u / as a marker o f i n c l u s i o n (INCL). t h a t dou ^jjj*  (Note  has the same meaning i n Cantonese t h a t i t has i n  Zhong-shan, but i n Mandarin dou means ' a l l , a l t o g e t h e r ' . )  The  (7) a. ngo & 1 3 lf 55 * 2 2 t u hy  sentence 'I'm going, t o o ' , f o r example, may be u t t e r e d as 7 (a) o r (b) (I ALSO GO) 'I'm going, t o o . '  nTo' hy 1 3 3 5  2  (I+INCL GO) 'I'm going, t o o . ' The r e s u l t a t i v e o r s e r i a l verb 'to r e t u r n , g i v e back thing)'  (some-  * ^/ 1 3 5 5 1335 O ife-- /pia:ng f a : n / i s o f t e n reduced t o /pia:ng ' /,  as i n (8) .  ngo pia:ng fa:n k'y lu (I GIVE RETURN HIM/HER S-PRT) 'I have returned ( i t ) t o him.'  76  -  b  -  & 1 3  . ° *  13,35.  -  51  ° 2 2  ngo pia:ng ' k'y lu (I GIVE+BETURN HIM/HER S-PRT) 1 have returned ( i t ) t o him. n  1  1  There are a l s o a t l e a s t a couple o f tone changes t o Modif i e d Tone 3 which a r e h i g h l y i r r e g u l a r .  The verb you  'by  51  (someone—in p a s s i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s ) ' /jaw  / i n the changed tone  means 'to a l l o w , t o be up t o (someone t o d e c i d e ) ' , as i n sentence (.9) • (9 i  y  )  .  ;  **  51,35  .  o  >L ,  51  ,  22  jaw k'y la (ALLOW HIM/HER/IT S-PRT) 'Let i t be./Don't bother with i t . / L e a v e i t a l o n e . \51 Another example i s the word mang "^j ' b l i n d ' /ma:ng / 1  51  which, i n the M o d i f i e d Tone 3 /ma:ng  35  '  / , . . i s used t o d e s c r i b e  some a c t i o n done b l i n d l y , f e r v e n t l y o r p e r s i s t e n t l y , as i n ( 1 0 ) . <  1 0  >  5 1  *  5 1 , 3 5  r  ° /  2 2  ^  2  k'y ma:ng ' kam ja:k (HE BLINDLY THUS EAT) 'He kept on e a t i n g ( f u r i o u s l y ) . ' The  l a s t example i n v o l v e s i n t e r r o g a t i v e s c o n t a i n i n g the  c o l l o q u i a l word d i a n  'how' / t i m / .  In Cantonese, a c o l l o -  1 3  ****  1  q u i a l e x p r e s s i o n such as 'how, i n what way' i s [ti:m  35  qceirj  33  ].  13  In Zhong-shan,  / t i m / undergoes tone change  to the h i g h , r i s i n g M o d i f i e d Tone 3 f o r the same e x p r e s s i o n : ,u  -jo  /tim  or  '  22  Jong  13  /.  L i k e w i s e , other combinations with / t i m /  f o r i n t e r r o g a t i v e s r e s u l t i n a tone change i n the word; f o r example,  'why' i s / t i m  means 'how, by what means'.  1 3  '  3 5  ka:j  1 3  /;  O  /tim  1 3  '  3 5  tsi  1 3  /  - 77 1.4.  Combination o f I n i t i a l s and F i n a l s Phonemically, i n c l u d i n g  eighteen i n i t i a l s i n Zhong-shan. of seventy, i n which t o n a l i n t o account. the  initials  the zero i n i t i a l ,  Of the f i n a l s there a r e a t o t a l  d i s t i n c t i o n s have not y e t been taken  When these are a l s o c o n s i d e r e d , the combination o f and f i n a l s , together with t o n a l  y i e l d s a sum o f a t l e a s t 1,600 d i f f e r e n t shan d i a l e c t . potential and  there a r e  This figure  differentiation,  s y l l a b l e s i n the Zhong-  i s , o f course, l e s s than the a b s o l u t e  number, which, may be the r e s u l t o f n a t u r a l gaps here  t h e r e , o c c u r r i n g a t random i n a language, a r i s i n g from a  "defective"  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f some segments; t h a t i s , t h e r e are  potentially  p e r m i s s i b l e combinations t h a t are not a c t u a l i z e d i n  the  dialect.  Some o f the gaps a r e s y s t e m a t i c , and may be the  consequence o f mergers i n the d i a l e c t which are p h o n o l o g i c a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d , a p o i n t which w i l l become c l e a r e r  later.  are  The most wide-  the r e s u l t o f co-occurrence r e s t r i c t i o n s .  Other gaps  spread case o f co-occurrence r e s t r i c t i o n among the Chinese i s l a b i a l d i s s i m i l a t i o n , which i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shan.  I t i s a topic  dialects  o f Zhong-  t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d next.  Besides the phenomenon o f l a b i a l d i s s i m i l a t i o n , we w i l l a l s o examine t h a t o f syncope, t h e d e l e t i o n g i c a l segment r e s u l t i n g  i n the c o n t r a c t i o n o f a word.  r e d u c t i o n o f a word c r e a t i n g be  o r l o s s o f a phonolo-  a sesquisyllabic  The p a r t i a l  structure w i l l  also  s t u d i e d , with a d i s c u s s i o n o f the d i s t i n c t i o n between c o l l o q u i a l  versus l i t e r a r y  1.4.1.  Labial  forms i n the d i a l e c t c o n c l u d i n g t h i s chapter.  Dissimilation  There are s e v e r a l environments i n which the l a b i a l  - 78 d i s s i m i l a t i o n p r o c e s s occurs i n Zhong-shan. the same environments lects, labial i n i t i a l s  They are e s s e n t i a l l y  as those found i n Cantonese,  In both d i a -  ( i n c l u d i n g v e l a r s f o l l o w e d by medial  a l t e r n a t i v e l y analyzed i n Cantonese  /w/,  as l a b i a l i z e d v e l a r i n i t i a l s )  cannot occur t o g e t h e r with l a b i a l consonantal endings.  Nor  can  the l a b i a l g l i d e i n i t i a l co-occur w i t h the l a b i a l g l i d e ending. Thus, the f o l l o w i n g are examples of i m p e r m i s s i b l e s y l l a b l e s i n both Zhong-shan and Cantonese:  [*mAi.p, * p ' i : p , *moim,  *fo:m,  *kwi:.m, *k'wAip, *wo:p, *wew] . There i s a l s o a p r o h i b i t i o n of f r o n t rounded vowels e i t h e r preceded by a l a b i a l i n i t i a l , The s y l l a b l e s  [*0w,  or f o l l o w e d by a l a b i a l  *0p, * y i p , *p0, * p ' y : ] , f o r i n s t a n c e , do not  occur i n e i t h e r Zhong-shan or  1.4.2.  Cantonese.  Syncope A few examples w i l l be c i t e d .  for  ending.  'what', f o r i n s t a n c e , i s  %^  The c o l l o q u i a l e x p r e s s i o n  /mat  ja  5  1  3  / which, when s h o r t -  51 ened by syncope, becomes /mia /m  51  hou / 1 3  /.  The n e g a t i v e i m p e r a t i v e  'don't'  (.'not good') i s sometimes reduced to /mow /. 13  k  24  (The a l t e r n a t i v e term of  [mej  Zhong-shan.) 'Twenty' i s e r - s h i which can be syncopated t o  if  ] i n Cantonese i s not used i n 22 2 -\  /ngi  /ngap /. 2  sap / ('..two ten') ,  T h i s syncopated form i s  more f r e q u e n t l y used f o r f i g u r e s between twenty-one and  twenty-  nine i n c l u s i v e than f o r the number 'twenty' by i t s e l f ; f o r example, u- -* 2 55 'twenty-three' i s rendered - f /ngap sa:m / f r o m er-shi-san i 22 2 55 S^— ~T /ngi sap sa:m / ('two ten t h r e e ) . (In Zhong-shan, 1  'thirty' simply  -* -J,  s a n - s h i Ju. T . /sa  5 1  /sa:m  55  2 sap / (.'three ten') o f t e n becomes  / , s i n c e the p r e c e d i n g process of syncope, i f  - 79 2 a p p l i e d to the number ' t h i r t y , would have y i e l d e d /sap /, l e a d ^ 1  i n g to c o n f u s i o n w i t h the same s y l l a b l e a l r e a d y being used to mean 'ten' .) There are some words f o r which only the syncopated seems to have s u r v i v e d .  The d e i c t i c words 'here' and  form  'there'  55 appear to be a f u s i o n of  O  /ku  / ' t h i s ' and the diminutive-  p a r t i c l e er / n g i / to y i e l d 0 / k u j / 'here', and O 55 51 55 /nu / 'that' p l u s / n g i / combine to form O /nuj / 'there'. T h i s i s p a r a l l e l to Mandarin z h e i 'jX, f o r ' t h i s ' and na f)^ for 5 1  5 5  'that', with the corresponding l o c a t i v e terms zher yg\^j(.zhei V l \ + e r 'tfij ) f o r 'here' and ner (na J)J 55 55 Zhong-shan, /kuj  / and /nuj  'that thing/matter'  + er  ) f o r 'there' .  In  / a l s o mean ' t h i s thing/matter'  and  respectively.  The same p a r t i c l e er  / n g i " * / mentioned above was 55 1  probably a l s o fused i n the i n t e r r o g a t i v e word  O  /naj  / 'where', 55 as was p o s t u l a t e d by our informant, Chen, i n which O /naj / is the syncope of na ^ / n o / 'where' (which only occurs i n l i t e r a r y • • in 51 usage) and the d i m i n u t i v e p a r t i c l e er / n g i /. (Compare t h i s w i t h Mandarin nar (na ^ + er ) 'where'.) 5 1  1.4.3.  Sesquisyllabic Structures While  t i o n of two  the examples i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n show the  reduc-  s y l l a b l e s to a s i n g l e one by syncope, there are other  s y l l a b l e s i n Zhong-shan where t h i s merger i s only p a r t i a l l y accomp l i s h e d , r e s u l t i n g i n a " s e s q u i s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e " , a term  used  by J . M a t i s o f f (.1973:86) to r e f e r to morphemes i n P r o t o - A u s t r o Asiatic  (a l i n g u i s t i c superstock which i n c l u d e s , among i t s members,  Mon-Kmer and Viet-Muong) which were "a s y l l a b l e and a h a l f " i n  -  length  20  80  -  : "(t) hat i s , the prevoealic consonant was o f t e n preceded  by-a ' p r e - i n i t i a l ' consonant, as i n the modern Cambodian words psaa 'market', tkiam 'jaw', ckat 'dog', kr}aok 'peacock'". In Zhong-shan, there are a few cases of words which can be s a i d to contain s e s q u i s y l l a b l e s .  Such words i n the d i a l e c t have  consonant c l u s t e r s which are separated by an epenthetic schwa. From a synchronic l e v e l , these s e s q u i s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e s can be analyzed as reductions of f u l l form which are p o l y s y l l a b i c i n origin.  This process of schwa-reduction i s moreover  restricted  to words i n which the second s y l l a b l e undergoing reduction contains the  initial /l/.  The schwa-reduction process a c t u a l l y a f f e c t s a  very l i m i t e d vocabulary. With the exception of a small handful of c o l l o q u i a l expressions found i n the data thus f a r , other manif e s t a t i o n s of t h i s phenomenon i n v o l v e onomatopoeic types of words. Both the f u l l and reduced forms are found i n Zhong-shan, with the f u l l form e s s e n t i a l l y c i t a t i o n forms.  I t i s the reduced  forms that are normally used i n d a i l y , conversational speech. Given the s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e that normally does not admit to a s e s q u i s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e , the synchronic a n a l y s i s very n a t u r a l l y seeks to derive the reduced form from a . f u l l , p o l y s y l l a b i c one. D i a c h r o n i c a l l y , however, there are arguments f o r proposing o r i g i n a l i n i t i a l consonant c l u s t e r s f o r at l e a s t some of the s e s q u i s y l l a b i c forms i n Zhong-shan; that i s , some of the s e s q u i s y l l a b i c forms can be associated w i t h words which have been reconstructed i n Old Cor Archaic). Chinese as containing i n i t i a l consonant c l u s t e r s . Consider, f i r s t , the c o l l o q u i a l word f o r 'corner-(e.g., of a room)_ . 1  The characters u s u a l l y given f o r i t i n Cantonese and  Tai-shan (another Yue d i a l e c t ) are  ji.fl .  They are pronounced  Ikoxk  4  loik  5  t'Bw  35  J i n Cantonese and [kok  The same term i s a l s o found i n Zhong-shan. 2 it  5  i s Ikax.k  Iok  5  35 hau J i n T a i - s h a n .  The c i t a t i o n form f o r  51 t'-ew  loik  1  J.  reduced to I k 3 l o : k 5 t ' B w ] 5 1  C o l l o q u i a l l y , the word i s u s u a l l y (,/klok  t'aw /).  5  51  Hashimoto (.1972b:  34) expresses doubt concerning the c o n n e c t i o n between the second •  s y l l a b l e and the c h a r a c t e r l u o pronounced  ti  (.169-21) , which i s normally  i n a low tone i n Zhong-shan, as i t i s i n Cantonese.  Hashimoto suggests t h a t both, the f i r s t f a c t stand f o r the c h a r a c t e r j i a o poses t h a t j i a o proto-Yue. vil,  jl)  jj)  and the second s y l l a b l e i n (.183-20) , and f u r t h e r pro-  i s d e r i v e d from a h i s t o r i c a l * k l -  cluster i n  (Tou £1^ i s simply a word-formative s u f f i x (Kratoch-  1968:68), and i s not r e l e v a n t to the p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n , )  Hashimoto's  evidence f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t the f i r s t two  syllables  both r e p r e s e n t the c h a r a c t e r j i a o i s based on f a n - q i e : j i a o $J has two d i f f e r e n t f a n - q i e ' s which demonstrate t h a t i t has both a *k- and an *\i  initial.  A c c o r d i n g l y , Hashimoto h y p o t h e s i z e s t h a t  when i n i t i a l c l u s t e r s f e l l out of usage, the only means whereby these c l u s t e r s c o u l d s u r v i v e was by having a s y l l a b l e between the two consonants i n the c l u s t e r .  (Yang  inserted  (.1971) , f o r  example, r e f e r r e d t o such an i n s e r t i o n — t h a t o f a v o c a l i c  element  between a d j a c e n t c o n s o n a n t s — a s a "process of a n a p t y x i s " . ) To account f o r the t o n a l d i f f e r e n c e between the f i r s t and second s y l 4 l a b l e i n the word Ikaxk laxk 5 t ' B W 21 ' 35J 'corner', Hashimoto suggests t h a t the h i g h tone o f the second s y l l a b l e i s a r e s u l t o f tone change,  s i n c e such a change i s not uncommon i n r e d u p l i c a t e d  syllables—or, Yue  i n t h i s case, p s e u d o - r e d u p l i c a t e d s y l l a b l e s — i n the  dialects. V a r i o u s Chinese p h o n o l o g i s t s have l i k e w i s e r e c o n s t r u c t e d  an i n i t i a l word.  consonant c l u s t e r f o r j i a o jt)  Jiao  |2) , which i s a Grade I I  has been r e c o n s t r u c t e d by Fa-kao Chou as A r c h a i c  Chinese *krewk, f o r i n s t a n c e , and by P u l l e y b l a n k as O l d Chinese *krak .  The  Zhong-shan s e s q u i s y l l a b i c form f o r 'corner' would  t h e r e f o r e l e n d support  f o r some k i n d of * k l - or *kr-  consonant c l u s t e r f o r j i a o i n Old Chinese,  initial  a c l u s t e r which had  s u r v i v e d i n protp-Yue, and apparently i n e a r l i e r forms of other 55 d i a l e c t s as w e l l , as witness d a r i n f o r 'a hidden corner'  Ika  " 35 lsr  In '*£  J |*J }%•  i n (Peking) Man-  (Hashimoto, 1972b:33-34).  The  tri-  s y l l a b i c " f u l l " form f o r the word 'corner' i n Zhong-shan i s b a s i c a l l y a c i t a t i o n form which expands the s e s q u i s y l l a b l e to f i t the more common CVC  s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e i n the d i a l e c t . 21  cess of " d i m i d i a t i o n "  , which p a r a l l e l s the h i s t o r i c a l  The  pro-  process  proposed by Hashimoto, i s used i n such s i t u a t i o n s as t e a c h i n g word to a c h i l d , or r e p e a t i n g the word slowly t o an  the  inquisitive  and p e r s i s t e n t l i n g u i s t . It  should be noted  t h a t d e s p i t e the f u l l  form given by  Hashimoto f o r the word 'corner' i n Cantonese, McCoy 27)  (1966:185,fn.  i n f a c t argues t h a t t h i s word i s one of a very r a r e number of  words i n Standard  Cantonese which possess  atonic s y l l a b l e s .  i n d i c a t e s such s y l l a b l e s by u s i n g the tone d i a c r i t i c n u c l e a r vowel i n these s y l l a b l e s i s a l s o reduced  [°].  McCoy The  to a schwa and  l i n k e d to the f o l l o w i n g s y l l a b l e by a hyphen to show c l o s e juncture.  Of the words i n h i s data, McCoy found only two which con4 35 22 t a i n an a t o n i c s y l l a b l e : [ks° - loxk t'BW 1 'corner' i s one 33 33 of  them, and  [hem  ba°  -  IAX-O  ] ' a l l , completely'  i s the  other.  (.We w i l l r e t u r n t o the second word l a t e r . ) In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , McCoy's a t o n i c s y l l a b l e , which has  -  83  -  c l o s e j u n c t u r e w i t h the f o l l o w i n g f u l l s y l l a b l e , i s what we are t r e a t i n g here as a s e s q u i s y l l a b l e . the  However, McCoy seems to deny  e x i s t e n c e of the f u l l , c i t a t i o n form; he notes t h a t the forms,  c o n t a i n i n g n e u t r a l tone s y l l a b l e s c i t e d i n d i c t i o n a r i e s are r e c o r d ed  "as i f " they were pronounced with, f u l l tones.  The f a c t  that  both f u l l and reduced forms can be e l i c i t e d from the p r e s e n t informants i n d i c a t e s a t l e a s t t h a t both v a r i a n t s do e x i s t and are not is  mutually e x c l u s i v e .  As suggested e a r l i e r , the c i t a t i o n form  l i k e l y an attempt to expand the s e s q u i s y l l a b i c form to conform  w i t h the more orthodox s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e of the d i a l e c t . Another c o l l o q u i a l e x p r e s s i o n i n Zhong-shan which ihas a i  s e s q u i s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e i s the word 'knot'. is  [k'ixt  5  5 ^ 5 l i : t ] , and the reduced form [k' lix.t ] .  (1972b: 37, fn..'19; 38,fn.26) her  The c i t a t i o n form  notes t h a t K. Whitaker  Hashimoto  (1952:47-48), i n  d i s s e r t a t i o n on the " C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the Cantonese  dia-  l e c t with, s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e to i t s m o d i f i e d tones", proposes an initial  *kl-  c l u s t e r f o r the word 'knot' by making a c o n n e c t i o n  between the l i t e r a r y word f o r 'knot' j i e  (133-1)  [kixt^J  2 (./kit / i n Zhong-shan) and the c o l l o q u i a l word f o r 'knot' i n 4 4 Cantonese, which has the v a r i a n t forms of [ k i i t Hashimoto  ] and  [lixt  ]•  (1972b:33). , however, r e j e c t s Whitaker's p r o p o s a l based  on the a l t e r n a t i v e p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the c o l l o q u i a l word f o r 'knot  1  on the premise t h a t the l a t t e r has no f a n - q i e evidence to support her  claim.  Hashimoto  word x i e k*$. [ s i x t ^ ] [lixt  J.  'to t i e ;  a b r i d l e ' and the c o l l o q u i a l word  She bases her c l a i m on the o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t the c h a r a c t e r  *f!!i|_, f o r example, was ing  proposes, i n s t e a d , a c o n n e c t i o n between the  supposed to have had an * i _ i n i t i a l a c c o r d -  to fan-qie s p e l l i n g .  (However, the f a n - q i e f o r x i e js--t£ i n  -  84 -  b o t h Chou (1973) and the C i - h a i d i c t i o n a r y , an * s - i n i t i a l o n l y . )  f o r i n s t a n c e , shows  N o n e t h e l e s s , on the b a s i s of her  rather  tenuous f a n - q i e e v i d e n c e , Hashimoto p o s i t s an * s l - c l u s t e r  for  the word x i e Zhong-shan e v i d e n c e , on the o t h e r hand, would t e n d t o support W h i t a k e r ' s c l a i m of a * k l - c l u s t e r .  W h i l e Cantonese  a l t e r n a t e s between a /k/ and an / ! / i n i t i a l f o r t h e c o l l o q u i a l word ' k n o t ' , i n Zhong-shan the same word has a d i s y l l a b i c 5 5 5 t u r e / k ' i t l i t / , o r t h e s e s q u i s y l l a b i c form o f / k l i t / . one can assume t h a t t h e words  'corner'  strucIf  d i s c u s s e d above, and t h e  p r e s e n t word ' k n o t ' underwent a s i m i l a r p r o c e s s i n the breakdown of i n i t i a l consonant c l u s t e r s , t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t b a s i s f o r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the word j i e  /kit / 2  ' k n o t ' o r i g i n a l l y bore some  k i n d of * k l - c l u s t e r . Historically, j j e l£  the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a * k l - c l u s t e r  , a Grade IV w o r d , has been suggested by P u l l e y b l a n k (.196 2) ,  t h e n as a * k i - c l u s t e r .  P u l l e y b l a n k d i s t i n g u i s h e s between c l u s t e r s  i n O l d Chinese which c o n t a i n * - l *-r-  for  o c c u r s w i t h Grade I I  Grade IV words  (e.g.,  words  and those w h i c h c o n t a i n (e.g.,  j i e j& )•  jiao  Very b r i e f l y ,  ),  *-r-:  and * - i - w i t h  P u l l e y b l a n k was  m o t i v a t e d t o p o s t u l a t e a * k l - c l u s t e r f o r such Grade IV words as ji  (154-16)  (154-17)  ' l u c k y ' / k a t / (Middle C h i n e s e * k j i t ) 5  'to investigate' / k ' i t / 2  and j i e ~tj  ( M i d d l e Chinese * k ' j i t ) . . i n o .  o r d e r t o e x p l a i n why they d i d not have p a l a t a l i n i t i a l s i n M i d d l e C h i n e s e , whereas Grade I I I  words, such as z h i JL  (48-12)  'branch'  55 /tsi  / ( E a r l y M i d d l e Chinese *t<?ia) d i d d e v e l o p p a l a t a l i n i t i a l s .  I t was the p r e s e n c e of * - l words such as jjL  a  i n the O l d Chinese forms o f Grade  and j i e ' f S  IV  which b l o c k e d p a l a t a l i z a t i o n a t  - 85 the  Middle Chinese stage. In  still  5 the modern Zhong-shan form of / k ' l i t / f o r 'knot', one  needs to account f o r the presence o f an a s p i r a t e d  initial  i n s t e a d o f the u n a s p i r a t e d one i f an a s s o c i a t i o n i s t o be made between the Zhong-shan c o l l o q u i a l term f o r 'knot' and the l i t e r a r y 2 one of j i e i/£ in  / k i t /.  There i s a l s o the q u e s t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e  tone between the two forms.  A number o f c o l l o q u i a l  N e i t h e r poses a major  difficulty.  (and l i t e r a r y ) words which are pronounced  w i t h an a s p i r a t e d stop i n i t i a l  i n Zhong-shan have been r e c o n s t r u c t e d  for  Words c o n t a i n i n g the J i a n |L» (*k-) i n i t i a l , \ 22 example, i n c l u d e gua jf%\* (45-1) 'to hang' /k'wa / and guang  J^i,  (180-1) 'to s t r o l l '  with p l a i n stops.  /k'wa.ng /. 22  Cantonese has  [kw : J  and  44  A  33 IkwAiy  J r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r the two words.  noted, l i k e w i s e showsunaspirated i n i t i a l s .  f o r gua  be  and guang  I t i s t h e r e f o r e not i m p l a u s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r the r e c o n s t r u c t  t i o n of a p l a i n * k l in  Mandarin, i t may  c l u s t e r d e s p i t e the c o l l o q u i a l word 'knot'  Zhong-shan showing  a s p i r a t i o n on the i n i t i a l  segment.  Concerning the problem of a t o n a l d i f f e r e n c e i n the two forms f o r 'knot', one might f i r s t look a t the c o l l o q u i a l form f o r 2 5 51 'corner'. In /kok Iok t'aw /, the f i r s t s y l l a b l e p r e s e r v e s the b 2 t o n a l v a l u e of the word j i a o  ji| /kok /.  Presumably,  the second  5 s y l l a b l e /Iok / i s the r e s u l t of a tone change such t h a t i t o r i 2 5 5 g i n a l l y bore tone /2/ ( i . e . , /Iok ' / ) . In the word 'knot' / k ' i t lit /, 5  n e i t h e r s y l l a b l e has p r e s e r v e d the Zhong-shan r e f l e x of  the  tone f o r j i e  the  word 'knot' may  / k i t / , namely tone /2/. 2  I t i s possible that  have undergone an i n t e r m e d i a r y stage d u r i n g  which o n l y the second s y l l a b l e was  at f i r s t  a f f e c t e d by tone  change (as i n the case of the word ' c o r n e r ' ) , and i t i s only  - 86 subsequently t h a t the f i r s t s y l l a b l e was a l s o thus a f f e c t e d . As noted e a r l i e r , b e s i d e s the word ' c o r n e r , McCoy 1  185,fn.27>  a l s o mentions the Cantonese word ' a l l /  33 which i s p h o n e t i c a l l y Ihem ba° 33 33 33  (1966:  completely',  33 IAI-O  ].  The same word i s  t r a n s c r i b e d as Ihem P A : IAIIJ ] . by Hashimoto (p. 333). The p h o n e t i c i z a t i o n of Huang's (1970:394) t r a n s c r i p t i o n of ' a l t o g e t h e r , 33  33  33  a l l t o l d ' i s Ihem pAin IAIJJ ] . In Zhong-shan, t h i s word ' a l l ' 51 51 51 51 i s pronounced /ham pa l a : n g / i n c i t a t i o n form and /ham 51 pla:ng  / i n d a i l y speech.  In narrow phonetic t r a n s c r i p t i o n ,  /p/  a s s i m i l a t e s the v o i c i n g of the p r e c e d i n g segment and i s pronounced 5 1 a lb]:  [h-em  b  51 IAIH  J.  Except f o r t o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , McCoy's  form f o r Standard Cantonese and the corresponding Zhong-shan are  identical.  I t i s i n s t r u c t i v e t o add t h a t two o t h e r Yue  l e c t s recorded by Hashimoto  'all'  i n Teng-xian, and  dia-  (p.19) l i k e w i s e appear to c o n t a i n  s e s q u i s y l l a b l e s f o r the word ' a l l ' : for  form  Hashimoto records Ihorn2  plan ] 1  [Sham °plag] i n T a i - s h a n .  Regarding the p o r t i o n of the c o l l o q u i a l word ' a l l which 51 the s e s q u i s y l l a b l e (e.g., / p l a : n g / i n Zhong-shan, o r the 33 33 1  is  c o r r e s p o n d i n g Cantonese sequence (personal communication) fan  fa  [pAi  1A:O  < :  J ) / Pulleyblank  suggests l i n k i n g i t t o the l i t e r a r y word  (109-1)  ' a l l ' , d e r i v e d from LMC *ff\aim<EMC *buam. (Fan 51 21 i s pronounced [ f A i n ] i n modern Zhong-shan and If A M I J in Cantonese.) P u l l e y b l a n k p o i n t s out t h a t f a n f\j i s the phonetic i n a c h a r a c t e r such as f a n (109-7) ( / f a : n / / EMC *b uam)/ which 51  had been used t o t r a n s c r i b e the word 'Brahma'. the  phonetic i n l a n  [lAim  , which i s LMC  Fan ) \  i s also  *lam, and modern Cantonese  ]  It  i s not i n c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t the word f a n ]3u  once bore a  - 87 consonant c l u s t e r * b l - o r *br-.  In Zhong-shan, the presence o f 51  a v e l a r n a s a l ending i n the modern r e f l e x /pla:ng  / can be  e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d i n terms o f l a b i a l d i s s i m i l a t i o n , changing - n i n the presence  to /pa  5 1  la:ng  5 1  o f the l a b i a l i n i t i a l  *b-.  *-m  In the s y l l a b l e s  / and the s e s q u i s y l l a b l e / p l a : n g / , the tone i s /51/ 5 1  thus corresponding t o the same t o n a l r e f l e x t h a t i s i n the l i t e r a r y 51 word fan )\> / f a : n /. Of the Yue d i a l e c t s mentioned above, o n l y i n Zhong-shan has the r e g u l a r t o n a l r e f l e x o f f a n ^ been p r e s e r y e d . 33 33 The  tones i n Cantonese  [p x  ] , f o r example, dxd not p r e 21 serve the Yang-ping [21] tone o f f a n [fAin ]• What i s s t i l l not e n t i r e l y c l e a r i s the r o l e o f the s y l l a 51 51 51 ble /ham / i n Zhong-shan /ham p l a r n g /. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the n a s a l segment /m/  A  1A:I)  serves t o preserve the v o i c i n g o f the h i s -  t o r i c a l v o i c e d *b- i n i t i a l , when v o i c i n g was no longer  phonologic51 23  a l l y d i s t i n c t i n t h e i n t i a l segment /p/ o f the s y l l a b l e / p l a : n g The  o b s e r v a t i o n by McCoy and l a t e r by the w r i t e r t h a t /p/ i s phone-  tically  [bj i n the modern c o l l o q u i a l word ' a l l ' 51 33  itous after a l l . be regarded of  /  The s y l l a b l e /ham  / C[h-em  may not be f o r t u -  ] i n Cantonese) may  as an i n t r i n s i c p a r t of the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n  the word f a n  : i t bears the v o i c i n g f e a t u r e which would  otherwise have been l o s t when *b- no longer c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o i c e l e s s l a b i a l stops i n the p h o n o l o g i c a l system of  the d i a l e c t . Another c o l l o q u i a l word i n Zhong-shan which can be a s s o c i -  ated w i t h a word which once c o n t a i n e d an i n i t i a l consonant c l u s t e r 22 22 51 22 51 i s /ka la wa:ng /, o r / k l a wa:ng / 'crosswise; a t r i g h t 33 angles t o ' . 33 laa  Long-du has a s i m i l a r form f o r 'crosswise': /kaa  33 waaq  / (tone numerals a r e used i n s t e a d o f Egerod's  tone  - 88 d i a c r i t i c s , and / q / - [IJ])  O  O  \%  (Egerod, p.91). .  Jv Norman  (personal communication) does not r e c o g n i z e t h i s word as a r e g u l a r Min c o l l o q u i a l i s m , and can only presume t h a t i t i s borrowed from 24 Zhong-shan.  I g n o r i n g t o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the two d i a l e c t a l  forms f o r the moment, one can propose t h a t the p o l y s y l l a b i c of  form  the word 'crosswise' i n both d i a l e c t s c o n t a i n t r a c e s o f an  o r i g i n a l i n i t i a l consonant c l u s t e r . More p r e c i s e l y , the complete 22 22 51 33 33 forms o f Zhong-shan /ka la wa:ng / and Long-du /kaa l a a w a a q / can be connected t o the word heng , which i s a X i a 33  i n i t i a l , Grade I I word r e c o n s t r u c t e d by F.K. Chou, .for example, as A r c h a i c Chinese  *grwang. The s e s q u i s y l l a b l e / k l a 51  serves the i n i t i a l . *gr- c l u s t e r , and /wa:ng  22 / then p r e -  / i s simply the  s y l l a b l e - f i n a l o f the word. Regarding observed initial  initial  *g- i n the c l u s t e r , p h o n o l o g i s t s have  t h a t a t l e a s t some o f the words c o n t a i n i n g the X i a i n Middle Chinese had common o r i g i n s w i t h v e l a r s t o p s ,  as r e f l e c t e d i n the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f i n i t i a l *g- i n A r c h a i c Chinese by Chou f o r heng by K a r l g r e n .  jfll  , f o r example, and an a s p i r a t e d *g---  In terms o f h i s t o r i c a l phonology, t h e Zhong-shan  p o l y s y l l a b i c form f o r 'crosswise' thus lends support f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an e a r l i e r i n i t i a l y e l a r element.  c l u s t e r which c o n t a i n s a  More g e n e r a l l y , the Zhong-shan p o l y s y l l a b i c  p r o v i d e s evidence  f o r an i n t i a l consonant c l u s t e r f o r the word  Turning now t o the q u e s t i o n o f the t o n a l values for  form  recorded  the word 'crosswise' i n Zhong-shan as w e l l as i n Long-du, one  o b s e r v a t i o n should f i r s t be made concerning heng /wa:ng  51  /, Long-du /waaq  33  (Zhong-shan  / ) . Both d i a l e c t a l forms are r e g u l a r  r e f l e x e s of the h i s t o r i c a l Yang-ping tone w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a t t e r n of correspondences g i c a l system.  phonolo-  Thus, the tones i n a l l three s y l l a b l e s i n the Long-  33 du form /kaa  to the h i s t o r i c a l  33 laa  33 waaq  / are completely r e g u l a r .  In Zhong-  shan, w h i l e / 5 l / i s the r e g u l a r r e f l e x of Yang-ping, /22/ i n the 22 22 22 s y l l a b l e s /ka l a / and the s e s q u i s y l l a b l e / k l a / i s not. One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the e x c e p t i o n a l t o n a l r e f l e x i s t h a t 51 /ka  51 / and / l a  /, which would be the expected r e f l e x e s f o r 51 Zhong-shan, are extremely r a r e . In the present data, /ka / only occurs i n a c o l l o q u i a l , c h a r a c t e r l e s s word which r e f e r s t o a l e g 51 a s t r i d e , standing p o s i t i o n , while / l a 51  55  / occurs i n the  combination  it:  / Q  /la  a:j  meaning ' d i r t y , and as a s e n t e n c e - f i n a l p a r t i -  cle.  In c o n t r a s t , tone /22/  1  c o u n t e r p a r t s of these s y l l a b l e s  are  much more numerous, and can be found i n r e g u l a r l e x i c a l items. 51 51 Perhaps the r a r i t y of s y l l a b l e s /ka / and / l a / motivated the tone change to /22/ i n Zhong-shan. No f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l be attempted a t t h i s time. In the next word, Zhong-shan has two one corresponding s e s q u i s y l l a b i c form.  c i t a t i o n forms and  To d e s c r i b e an  instrument  or o b j e c t t h a t i s very s t r a i g h t , or a road or route t h a t i s very 22 5 5 s t r a i g h t or d i r e c t , Zhong-shan uses the phrase / t i m pat lat /  22  5  5  %, O O , or / t i m pat pat /. The s e s q u i s y l l a b i c form i s 22 5 22 /tim p l a t /. For the f i r s t s y l l a b l e / t i m /, Cantonese l i k e w i s e 33 has the word [ti:m J meaning ' s t r a i g h t ' , and c o i n e d .the c h a r a c t e r to r e p r e s e n t t h a t c o l l o q u i a l word. 5 What i n t e r e s t s us here i s the s e s q u i s y l l a b l e / p l a t / which one would l i k e to a s s o c i a t e w i t h the word b i 3p  (153-12)  'a w r i t i n g brush; s t r a i g h t , d i r e c t ' , which has been r e c o n s t r u c t e d  - 90 -  w i t h an i n i t i a l * p l - c l u s t e r . b i -jt  K a r l g r e n , f o r example,  reconstructs  as A r c h a i c Chinese * p l i s t ; Chou r e c o n s t r u c t s i t as * p l i w 9 t .  A * p l - c l u s t e r h a s : a l s o been p o s t u l a t e d by P u l l e y b l a n k (1962:111) for b i  , which i s a Grade I I I  word b e l o n g i n g t o t h e s o - c a l l e d  chong-niu  J[ £3- (..'double k n o t ' )  o r Grade I I I / X V d o u b l e t  finals.  X i e - s h e n g e v i d e n c e i n M i d d l e Chinese shows c o n t a c t o f p h o n e t i c w i t h b o t h i n i t i a l *p- as i n b i  "^p  2  (.162-10)  ' a law' /10t / .  / p a t / and * 1 - i n l u ^jp 5  P u l l e y b l a n k a l s o brought t h e w r i t e r ' s  a t t e n t i o n to h i s t o r i c a l evidence of b u - l u ^ 5  /pat  ^  (Zhong-shan  2  VK  IfSt /) b e i n g used t o r e n d e r t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f b i jE" . I t would appear t h a t i n Zhong-shan, t h e i n c l u s i o n o f  j$i  /tim  2 2  / meaning ' s t r a i g h t '  was used t o r e i n f o r c e t h e meaning  of / p l a t / as t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f b i Jjjf 5  to the * p l - i n i t i a l  c l u s t e r became opaque a f t e r t h e g e n e r a l l o s s o f i n i t i a l i n Chinese.  Evidently,  clusters  s y l l a b l e s c o n t a i n i n g / p i / then became  viewed as some s o r t o f onomatopoeic s y l l a b l e . One s h o u l d s u s p e c t 22 5 5 22 5 t h a t o f t h e two c i t a t i o n forms / t i m p a t l a t / and / t i m p a t 5  p a t / , t h e l a t t e r i s a more r e c e n t i n n o v a t i o n , where t h e o r i g i n a l meaning o f / p a t5 l a t 5/ o r / p l a t 5 / i s c o m p l e t e l y o b s c u r e d . Somewhat more t e n t a t i v e i s t h e l i n k a g e betwen t h e Grade III,  He-kou word juan  (142-13) / k y n / o r / k u n / 1 3  1 3  'a r o l l '  and t h e c o l l o q u i a l word f o r ' s o m e r s a u l t ' s u p p l i e d by K a r l L o , 55 55 13 *L another Zhong-shan s p e a k e r : /kwa:n la:n taw / O O >y in 55 c i t a t i o n form and / k l a : n  13 taw  / i n reduced f o r m .  A l t h o u g h no  i n i t i a l * k l - c l u s t e r i s u s u a l l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r t h e word j u a n ( e . g . , K a r l g r e n : A r c h a i c Chinese *kiwan) of x i e - s h e n g e v i d e n c e ,  due t o t h e absence  i t might be observed t h a t an i n i t i a l * k l -  was h y p o t h e s i z e d by P u l l e y b l a n k  (1962:126) f o r t h e word.  In t h i s  - 9.1 case, P u l l e y b l a n k t r e a t s *-.!- as a d e r i v a t i o n a l i n f i x based on Wulff's theory o f a m o r p h o l o g i c a l i n f i x * 1 . 'turn around' i s Middle Chinese i s Middle Chinese If to  *kiwen  the word juan  *kiwan, whereas juan ^  < O l d Chinese  Zhong-shan /kwa:n  55  Thus, juan  2 5  'roll'  *kwl5n.  55 55 l a : n / and / k l a : n / can be l i n k e d  , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t the c i t a t i o n  would be the one t h a t i n f a c t p r e s e r v e s the l a b i a l m e d i a l .  form In  t h i s case, one would expect t h a t the c i t a t i o n form and the s e s q u i s y l l a b i c form both evolved s i m u l t a n e o u s l y from the d i m i d i a t i o n o f the i n i t i a l feature.  c l u s t e r , w i t h the c i t a t i o n form p r e s e r v i n g the He-kou  Conceivably, a t an e a r l i e r stage, the s e s q u i s y l l a b i c  form had i n i t i a l  *kw l-. 3  The f i n a l i n the Zhong-shan c o l l o q u i a l  e x p r e s s i o n s t i l l p r e s e n t s a problem s i n c e the r e g u l a r Zhong-shan r e f l e x f o r juan for  i s /yn/.  The w r i t e r w i l l  leave t h i s problem  future investigation. F i n a l l y , t h e r e i s a l s o the l i t e r a r y word g_e f[%T (170-10) 2  'armpit' /kok /, which K a r l g r e n has r e c o n s t r u c t e d as A r c h a i c Chinese  *klak.  A * k l - c l u s t e r has a l s o been p o s t u l a t e d by other  p h o n o l o g i s t s , sometimes w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l l y homophonous word ge  ^- (170-7) 'each' /kok / r e p r e s e n t i n g ge  t h i s s e t o f Grade I words.  and others i n  Thus, L i (1974:251) and P u l l e y b l a n k  (.1962:119), f o r example, both p o s i t an o r i g i n a l * k l - i n i t i a l c l u s t e r f o r g_e ^ *kiak  : A r c h a i c Chinese  *klak by L i , and O l d Chinese  (since r e v i s e d as *klak) by P u l l e y b l a n k . C o l l o q u i a l data from a number o f Chinese d i a l e c t s ( c f .  e s p e c i a l l y Yang, 1971) s t r o n g l y supports the p o s t u l a t i o n o f an initial example.  consonant c l u s t e r f o r ge  .  Consider f i r s t  the Cantonese  Included among ^he v a r i o u s c o l l o q u i a l forms f o r 'armpit'  i n Cantonese  i s that of  lAik  [kAik**  -1  t-Bj  J J  (Hashimoto, pp.242,  ]  Wh/fc* •  330), f o r which Hashimoto uses the c h a r a c t e r s g e - l e - d i  P a r a l l e l to the case of the word 'corner', one can p o s t u l a t e t h a t 4  5  f i r s t two s y l l a b l e s , i.IkAik J and  the  word ge  IlAi.k ] , both r e p r e s e n t the  , which o r i g i n a l l y bore a * k l -  r e c o n s t r u c t e d by K a r l g r e n and o t h e r s .  cluster i n i t i a l ,  (The s u f f i x d i ^  as  , which  means 'underside, base', does not e n t e r i n t o the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of  the word g_e  ner'  j^^o".)  A l s o p a r a l l e l t o the case of the word  'cor-  i s the tone change i n the second s y l l a b l e : the b a s i c tone of c h a r a c t e r l e faf) i s Zhong Y i n - r u /4/  the  (i.e.,  {lAik ]). 4  As  argued i n the word 'corner', the c h a r a c t e r used to r e p r e s e n t the second s y l l a b l e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a dummy element w i t h both the and the second s y l l a b l e having been d e r i v e d from the character  first  first  historically.  Dong-guan, another Yue d i a l e c t , has a c o l l o q u i a l form f o r 'armpit' which i s very c l o s e to the Cantonese M/^ "f "p  xia  (from Yang, 1971—no tone marks provided) .  (The s u f f i x  means 'below, under', and does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  reconstruction.) for  form; Ikak lak haj  The same arguments used i n the Cantonese  form  p o s t u l a t i n g a * k l - c l u s t e r can be a p p l i e d here. Zhong-shan a l s o has a c o l l o q u i a l form f o r 'armpit' which  r e v e a l s an i n i t i a l  *kl-  cluster.  The Zhong-shan form, however,  had undergone a t t r i t i o n o f the f i n a l /k/ ending and p i t c h - r a i s i n g 55 55 22 /-\ ~r" as the c i t a t i o n to a high tone y i e l d i n g /ka la ha / O O r 55 22 form, and / k l a  ha  / as the s e s q u i s y l l a b i c form.  t i v e to know t h a t the Fu-zhou  form  I t i s instruc-  ( s u p p l i e d by Norman). , l i k e the  Zhong-shan one, shows l o s s of the stop ending, and i s p h o n e t i c a l l y [ k o  2  2  rou^ a  2 4 2  ]  }%T~^  •  Since i t i s a t y p i c a l f o r Zhong-shan  - 93  -  to l o s e i t s stop endings, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the a t t r i t i o n f i n a l /k/  i n the Zhong-shan form may  Fu-zhou or another N o r t h e a s t e r n Min  be due  to i n f l u e n c e from  dialect.  comparisons with, the Cantonese, Dong-guan and can be q u i t e c o n f i d e n t sents an i n i t i a l  of  On  the b a s i s  of  Fu-zhou forms,  t h a t the Zhong-shan form l i k e w i s e  one  repre-  consonant c l u s t e r f o r the word g_e jj^j- .  The w r i t e r i s a c t u a l l y not the f i r s t  to use p o l y s y l l a b i c ,  c o l l o q u i a l forms to support the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a * k l - c l u s t e r for  g_e  .  Among the pioneers  to do so i s Yang (1971) who  has  not only c o l l e c t e d such forms from a number of Chinese d i a l e c t s , but has order  a l s o i n c l u d e d cognates i n other East A s i a n  languages i n  to support arguments f o r an e a r l i e r e x i s t e n c e  c l u s t e r i n the word g_e  . 'armpit'.  of a * k l -  Thus, cognates which Yang  found f o r the word 'larmpit' i n c l u d e k l i a k i n Khmer (.Cambodian) and  ke1ek i n Malay. Pulleyblank  (personal communication) a l s o proposes t h a t 55  the c o l l o q u i a l , p o l y s y l l a b i c word i n Mandarin f o r 'armpit'  [ka  55 t§\  WUD  ] may  be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the word ge jffir  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d form.  For i n s t a n c e , i n what P u l l e y b l a n k  his  Type B s y l l a b l e s ( f o r our present  III  and  *-i*klak  i n the Kai-kou s e r i e s i n LMC),  as ..containing medial  the development of Old  > *k-^.iajk > k-tcsiajk > k-tcsi  A v e l a r f o r the i n i t i a l consonant and  Su-zhou (Wu) .  (See,  e.g.,  The  Chinese  (reconstruction h i s ) .  an a f f r i c a t e  ( p a l a t a l or  r e t r o f l e x ) f o r the second s y l l a b l e seems to be q u i t e among the Mandarin d i a l e c t s .  calls  purposes, they are Grade  IV s y l l a b l e s which he r e c o n s t r u c t s  i s *klak  (_*klak) or a  prevalent  same p a t t e r n is, a l s o found i n  Yang, 1971;  Han-yu Fang-yan C i - h u i  c o l l e c t i o n of Chinese d i a l e c t a l words') by the same e d i t o r s as  (.'A the  Zi-hui  94 -  (hence, h e r e a f t e r ' C i - h u i ' Concluding  the  f o r short)  s u b j e c t o f ge  (1964:195);.)  , i t should be noted t h a t  although the Zhong-shan c i t a t i o n form / k a  5 5  la  5 5  ha  2 2  / merely adds  to Yang's a l r e a d y long l i s t of p o l y s y l l a b i c forms i n v a r i o u s 55 Chinese d i a l e c t s f o r 'armpit', the s e s q u i s y l l a b i c s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h a t i t may  between the i n i t i a l  / is  a t t e s t to an e a r l i e r stage of the evo-  l u t i o n of the consonant c l u s t e r . v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d reduced  form / k l a  In the present as w e l l as pre-  forms, one may  regard the schwa  consonants i n the s e s q u i s y l l a b l e  inserted  as the  first  stage i n the anaptyxis process; t h a t i s , the s e s q u i s y l l a b i c t u r e may  struc-  r e p r e s e n t the stage a t which adjacent consonants i n s y l l a -  b l e - i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n were separated by means of thus c r e a t i n g  a sesquisyllable.  schwa-epenthesis,  Subsequent changes l e d to  tone  a l t e r a t i o n s i n some cases, and a t t r i t i o n of segments i n o t h e r s . The b r e a k i n g up of the i n i t i a l  consonant c l u s t e r , nonetheless, i s  captured and preserved i n the s e s q u i s y l l a b i c As observed 'all'  i n McCoy's r e c o r d i n g of the c o l l o q u i a l word  and Hashimoto's r e c o r d i n g of the same word i n Teng-xian  Tai-shan, i t appears t h a t the s e s q u i s y l l a b l e d i a l e c t s besides Zhong-shan, and may Yue  form.  dialects also.  the form normally  e x i s t s i n other  Yue  i n f a c t be present i n non-  The e x i s t e n c e of the c i t a t i o n form, which i s recorded i n f i e l d w o r k , i s then a f u r t h e r  s i o n away from the i n i t i a l  clusters.  As suggested  c i t a t i o n form e s s e n t i a l l y r e p r e s e n t s an o r i g i n a l  progres-  e a r l i e r , the sesquisyllable  which had been made to conform to the more p r e v a i l i n g structure.  and  CVC  - 95 1.4.4.  C o l l o q u i a l versus L i t e r a r y Forms Among many Chinese d i a l e c t s , there i s a d i s t i n c t i o n between  what are recognized as c o l l o q u i a l , or b a i \;D , forms and what are regarded  as l i t e r a r y , or wen  , forms of words which are phono-  l o g i c a l l y and s e m a n t i c a l l y r e l a t e d .  G e n e r a l l y speaking,  the  ...  l i t e r a r y forms r e f l e c t i n f l u e n c e from the standard language.  :c  In  the case of a d i a l e c t which i s i n f l u e n c e d by both a r e g i o n a l and a n a t i o n a l standard,  or one which i n c o r p o r a t e s forms from one  or  more d i a l e c t s at d i f f e r e n t stages i n i t s h i s t o r y , s e v e r a l forms f o r a word may  e x i s t s i d e by s i d e , r e f l e c t i n g the v a r i o u s  or l a y e r s of borrowing. China  One  sources  example i s the Min d i a l e c t i n southern  i n which one o f t e n encounters  as many as three l a y e r s of  p r o n u n c i a t i o n f o r a given word. As i n Cantonese, Zhong-shan has c o l l o q u i a l morphemes.  The  two major c a t e g o r i e s of  f i r s t category c o n s i s t s of p u r e l y  collo-  q u i a l terms which g e n e r a l l y l a c k c h a r a c t e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , with the e x c e p t i o n of those s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r s coined f o r Cantonese which can a l s o be used i n Zhong-shan to r e p r e s e n t c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r l e s s words.  A number of these c o l l o q u i a l Zhong-shan terms are  i n c l u d e d i n the l e x i c o n i n Chapter 3li The  second major category of c o l l o q u i a l morphemes c o n s i s t s  of c h a r a c t e r s which have both a c o l l o q u i a l and a l i t e r a r y The  two  forms can normally  The  c o l l o q u i a l form i s normally  reading.  share the same s y n t a c t i c environment. used i n d a i l y or i n f o r m a l speech,  while the l i t e r a r y form only occurs i n formal speech or i n the reading of w r i t t e n t e x t s .  In g e n e r a l , what i s analyzed as  the  c o l l o q u i a l r e a d i n g r e f l e c t s an e a r l i e r l a y e r of the Chinese l a n guage, and the l i t e r a r y r e a d i n g a l a t e r l a y e r .  - 96 The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the c o l l o q u i a l versus l i t e r a r y forms i s , as Hashimoto  (p.118) emphasizes,  not n e c e s s a r i l y  exclusive.  T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y the s i t u a t i o n with regard t o p o l y s y l l a b i c words which may u t i l i z e a c o l l o q u i a l form i n one combination and a l i t e r a r y form i n another.  however, i s cheng-shi  Thus., c o l l o q u i a l l y , a  'provincial  ^ j /sing""" " si" """/; here, the l i t e r a r y 1  1  1  p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f cheng i s used i n s t e a d .  There i s no known g e n e r a l  r u l e governing the c h o i c e of a c o l l o q u i a l r a t h e r than a l i t e r a r y form  (or v i c e versa) i n a p a r t i c u l a r  combination.  There are a l s o  morphemes which do not have s t y l i s t i c a l t e r n a n t s , w i t h one form serving a l l functions.  The morpheme q i n g  »£.  (2-0-7) / t s ' i n g  55  /  ' c l e a r , pure', f o r i n s t a n c e , o n l y has the l i t e r a r y form r e g a r d l e s s of usage or combination, whereas the morpheme j i n g /kia:ng  (202-1)  13 / 'neck' o n l y has a c o l l o q u i a l form. Given the non-exclusiveness i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the  c o l l o q u i a l and l i t e r a r y forms, i t i s obvious t h a t the term  "collo-  q u i a l " does not apply s p e c i f i c a l l y and s o l e l y t o "spoken" forms, any more than does the term " l i t e r a r y " apply only to " w r i t t e n " Hashimoto  forms.  (p.119) contends t h a t although the d i v i s i o n o f items i n  terms o f c o l l o q u i a l versus l i t e r a r y i s based p r i m a r i l y on an a c t u a l s t y l i s t i c d i s t i n c t i o n between the two sets o f forms, t h i s  division  should be c o n s i d e r e d a p h o n o l o g i c a l one s i n c e items not o n l y conform t o s t y l i s t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s , but they a l s o f o l l o w p a t t e r n s o f p h o n o l o g i c a l behaviour.  certain  I t i s the p h o n o l o g i c a l c r i -  t e r i o n which i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important both i n p r o p o s i n g g e n e r a l statements about the h i s t o r i c a l development o f Cantonese  and Zhong-  - 97 shan, and i n f o r m u l a t i n g r e c o n s t r u c t e d forms f o r proto-Yue. h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c o l l o q u i a l versus l i t e r a r y w i l l be c l a r i f i e d i n the second p a r t of t h i s study.  The  readings  For the  p r e s e n t , t h r e e main types of c o l l o q u i a l verus l i t e r a r y forms