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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A socio-dialectology survey of the English spoken in Ottawa : a study of sociological and stylistic variation… Woods, Howard B. 1979

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A SOCIO-DIALECTOLOGY SURVEY OF THE ENGLISH SPOKEN I N OTTAWA:  A STUDY  OF SOCIOLOGICAL AND STYLISTIC VARIATION IN CANADIAN ENGLISH by HOWARD B. WOODS  B.Sc., M.A.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY  . -  I  N  -  THB FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department"^ L i n g u i s t i c s )  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s conforming t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA O c t o b e r , 1979  Q  Howard B. Woods,, 1979  In presenting t h i s thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  t^J*  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  DE-6  BP  75-51 1 E  ii A S o c i o - d i a l e c t o l o g y Survey o f t h e E n g l i s h Spoken i n Ottawa: A Study o f S o c i o l o g i c a l and S t y l i s t i c V a r i a t i o n i n Canadian E n g l i s h .  ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i s a response t o t h e l o n g - s t a n d i n g need -within t h e f i e l d o f A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s f o r a "better u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f G e n e r a l Canadian E n g l i s h and f o r a q u a n t i t a t i v e documentation o f i t s usage. T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s o f a sample o f t h i s  national  language as spoken "by persons whose mother tongue i s E n g l i s h and were b o r n and r a i s e d i n t h e c i t y o f Ottawa. The a n a l y s i s  who  demonstrates  t h a t t h e • i n f o r m a n t s v a r y t h e i r speech p a t t e r n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i n g u i s t i c t a s k s w h i c h t h e y a r e asked t o p e r f o r m . E-urther, t h e a n a l y s i s demonstrates t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n usage a r e c o r r e l a t e d t o age, s e x , ariW'-socio-economic s t a t u s . ' An h o u r - l o n g i n t e r v i e w was  conducted w i t h one hundred i n f o r m a n t s  by means o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t p h o n o l o g i c a l , m o r p h o l o g i c a l , s y n t a c t i c , s e m a n t i c , and l e x i c a l r e s p o n s e s w h i l e t h e i n f o r m a n t s were p e r f o r m i n g a.number.of language r e l a t e d t a s k s . U n l i k e s e v e r a l urban s o c i o - d i a l e c t o l o g y s u r v e y s conducted r e c e n t l y , t h i s s u r v e y a n a l y s e s t h e speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a b r o a d range o f t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e from s k i d row t h r o u g h t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s t o t h e l o w e r upper c l a s s . I t i s t h e r e b y t h e f i r s t such s u r v e y d e a l i n g w i t h Worth American E n g l i s h w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e mainstream o f s o c i e t y as w e l l as t h e m i n o r i t y e t h n i c groups.  P r i o r t o p r e s e n t i n g t h e e x t e n s i v e d a t a and e v a l u a t i v e comments on the  c o - v a r i a t i o n of s t y l i s t i c  and s o c i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n o f Canadian  iii English  u s a g e , a number  a review  and e v a l u a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s  Second, t h e background situation is  relation  t o other  time  Third,  dialects  Canadian E n g l i s h from  ' Chapter  5 presents  items  degree o f f o r m a l i t y data prove  variation. The  p a t t e r n s and p r e s e n t o f Canadian E n g l i s h  national.dialect  o f those  upper  characteristics  American,  demonstrating  i t sclosest  parameters.  differentiation  variation  o f the task performed  also  distin-  relative.  o f 27  Our d a t a  itself.  phonological forcefully  co-variation,  directly  related  by t h e informant.  with  to the Similarly,  o f p h o n o l o g i c a l and socio-economic  c a s e , 10 o f t h e 27  Our a n a l y s i s  which  of the co-variation  and s t y l i s t i c  c l a s s e s u s e a much  classes.  c a n be p l a c e d i n  i s the methodology o f t h e study  an a n a l y s i s  our hypothesis  In t h i s  First,  studies i s presented.  our h y p o t h e s i s . o f p h o n o l o g i c a l and s t y l i s t i c  20 o f t h e 27  our  t h e development  Northern  with  segments and s o c i o l o g i c a l prove  settlement  with.  o f t h e . E n g l i s h language f a m i l y . T h i s i s  account  fourth subject dealt  subjects are dealt  dialectology  so t h a t t h i s  followed by a d e t a i l e d  The  o f Ottawa's  is.discussed.  t r a c e d through  guish  o f background  broader  items  demonstrate  range o f s t y l e s  r e v e a l s important  i n a d d i t i o n t o a number  findings  o f important  ordered  than  costratification.  do t h e  lower  o f s e x a n d age phonological  dis-  coveries .  Chapter and I3  6 analyses  vocabulary  forms and s o c i o l o g i c a l  o f 15 g r a m m a t i c a l  vocabulary Prestige  the co-variation  items  items,  have c l e a r  o f grammatical,  factors.  also  demonstrate  demonstrate t h a t  25 o f hQ p r o n u n c i a t i o n i t e m s , and o r d e r e d  socio-economic  and s t i g m a t i z e d forms were d e s i g n a t e d  These d a t a  The d a t a  pronunciation,  and 2 o f 8  stratification.  a c c o r d i n g t o usage p a t t e r n s .  sex a n d age d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ;  our  female  iv informants frequency  maintained  The and  Chapters  tations  5 and 6 have  findings.of their  Conclusion  suggestions  naire,  class  h i e r a r c h y , had the lowest  o f s t i g m a t i z e d forms, and t h e h i g h e s t  forms. Both important  the strongest  contains  a summary  respective  a.summary  frequency  s e c t i o n which  of prestige contains the  analyses.  of the significant  findings  f o r future s t u d i e s . Appendices.A t o G contain the question-  t h e complete  computer p r i n t o u t o f t h e d a t a ,  of paralinguistic  and a t t i t u d i n a l  and t a b u l a r  observations.  presen-  v:  TABLE OF CONTENTS  p  ABSTRACT  age 1 1  TABLE OP CONTENTS.  •  •  •  •  DEDICATION  ^  PREFACE...  viii  CHAPTER 1:  CHAPTER 2:  CHAPTER 3:  CHAPTER 4:  INTRODUCTION  1  1. Purpose 2. The V a l u e of S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Urban Surveys 3. P r e v i o u s S t u d i e s . .' Footnotes  1 5 10 15  OTTAWA  20  1. Ottawa, I t s S e t t l e m e n t and S e t t i n g 2. Ottawa V a l l e y Urban C e n t r e s Footnotes  20 24 26 -  CANADIAN ENGLISH  27  1. Canadian E n g l i s h i n R e l a t i o n t o Other D i a l e c t s 2. L i n g u i s t i c F e a t u r e s Footnotes  27 33 57  METHODOLOGY  59  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  59  The S o c i o l o g i c a l Parameters The C o n t e x t u a l S t y l e s . . . The Sample The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Interviews T r a n s c r i p t i o n and A n a l y s i s Limitations Footnotes  6  6  71 83 84 85 86 9  0  vi  i Page CHAPTER 5:  THE CO-VARIATION OF THE PHONOLOGICAL VARIABLES WITH SOCIOLOGICAL AND STYLISTIC PARAMETERS  CHAPTER 6:  93  1. Measurement o f C o - v a r i a t i o n 2. E v a l u a t i o n and Summary 3. Somers' D S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s Footnotes  93 178 194 205  THE CO-VARIATION OF GRAMMATICAL, PRONUNCIATION, AND VOCABULARY VARIABLES WITH SOCIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS  212  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. CHAPTER 7:  Grammar and Syntax Pronunciation Vocabulary E v a l u a t i o n and Summary Somers' D A n a l y s i s Comparison w i t h SCE Footnotes  213 226 262 270 282 287 289  CONCLUSION  292  1. Methodology 2. The C o - v a r i a t i o n o f P h o n o l o g i c a l V a r i a b l e s w i t h S o c i o l o g i c a l and S t y l i s t i c Parameters 3. The C o - v a r i a t i o n o f Grammatical, P r o n u n c i a t i o n , and V o c a b u l a r y V a r i a b l e s w i t h S o c i o l o g i c a l Parameters Footnotes .'  292  BIBLIOGRAPHY  294  301 308 310  APPENDIX A:  OTTAWA ENGLISH QUESTIONNAIRE  316  APPENDIX B:  ITEM BY ITEM PRINT OUT  345  APPENDIX C:  DISTINCTIVE ITEMS OF OTTAWA VALLEY URBAN CENTRES  407  APPENDIX D:  CANADIAN INDEX  APPENDIX E:  LANGUAGE ATTITUDES  4 i  5  APPENDIX F:  PARA-LINGUISTIC'.PHENOMENA  4 2  1  APPENDIX G:  MAPS  4  4  2  1 2  4  vii  DEDICATION  This d i s s e r t a t i o n i s dedicated to Drs. Robert J. Gregg and Ruth E. McConnell both of whom have devoted t h e i r careers to the study of Canadian  English.  viii  PREFACE  This study i s a response to the long-standing need w i t h i n the f i e l d of applied l i n g u i s t i c s f o r a b e t t e r understanding of General Canadian English and f o r a q u a n t i t a t i v e documentation of i t s usage.  This d i s s e r -  t a t i o n w i l l present an analysis of a sample of t h i s n a t i o n a l language as spoken by persons whose mother tongue i s E n g l i s h and who were born and r a i s e d w i t h i n the urban boundaries of the c i t y of Ottawa.  The analysis  w i l l demonstrate that the informants vary t h e i r speech patterns according to the tasks which they are asked to perform.  Further, the  analysis w i l l demonstrate that v a r i a t i o n s i n usage are correlated to age, sex, socio-economic status, ethnic background, r u r a l background and sometimes to the number of generations the informants family has been i n Canada. An hour-long interview was conducted with one hundred informants by means of a questionnaire which was designed to e l i c i t phonological, morp h o l o g i c a l , s y n t a c t i c , semantic, and l e x i c a l responses while the informants were performing a number of language r e l a t e d tasks.  There  was, of course, no way of e l i m i n a t i n g completely the influences of the interview situation,which generally causes speech to be more formal than the  relaxed, unguarded s t y l e of casual conversation.  However, a number  of techniques were employed i n order to enable the informant to r e l a x and thereby speak more f r e e l y .  ix U n l i k e s e v e r a l urban s o c i o - d i a l e c t o l o g y s u r v e y s  conducted  p r e v i o u s l y , t h i s s u r v e y w i l l a n a l y s e the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a broad range of the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t r u c t u r e , i n c l u d i n g the l o w e r , w o r k i n g , lower m i d d l e , m i d d l e m i d d l e , upper m i d d l e , and lower classes.  upper,  I t i s t h e r e f o r e the f i r s t such s u r v e y d e a l i n g w i t h N o r t h  American E n g l i s h w h i c h a n a l y s e s the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e mainstream  of s o c i e t y as w e l l as those of t h e - m i n o r i t y e t h n i c groups.  Chapter 5 w i l l p r e s e n t an a n a l y s i s of the c o - v a r i a t i o n of 27 phonol o g i c a l segments and s o c i o l o g i c a l and s t y l i s t i c parameters. w i l l f o r c e f u l l y prove t h e \ h y p o t h e s i s of p h o n o l o g i c a l and c o - v a r i a t i o n , w i t h 20 of the  Our  data  stylistic  27 items d e m o n s t r a t i n g v a r i a t i o n  directly  r e l a t e d t o the degree o f f o r m a l i t y of the t a s k performed by the i n f o r mant.  S i m i l a r l y , the d a t a w i l l prove the h y p o t h e s i s of p h o n o l o g i c a l and  socio-economic c o - v a r i a t i o n . demonstrate  I n t h i s case, 10 o f the 27 items  ordered s t r a t i f i c a t i o n .  will  'The d a t a a l s o r e v e a l that, the upper  c l a s s e s use a much b r o a d e r range of s t y l e s than do the lower c l a s s e s . Our a n a l y s i s w i l l a l s o r e v e a l i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s o f sex and age  dif-  f e r e n t i a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o a number o f i m p o r t a n t p h o n o l o g i c a l d i s coveries. Chapter 6 w i l l a n a l y s e the c o - v a r i a t i o n of g r a m m a t i c a l , p r o n u n c i a t i o n , and demonstrate  v o c a b u l a r y forms and s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s .  The d a t a w i l l  t h a t 12 of 15 grammatical i t e m s , 25 of 48 p r o n u n c i a t i o n  i t e m s , and two of 8 v o c a b u l a r y items have c l e a r and o r d e r e d s o c i o economic s t r a t i f i c a t i o n .  We w i l l . d e s i g n a t e p a r t i c u l a r forms to be  p r e s t i g e and s t i g m a t i z e d forms a c c o r d i n g t o observed usage p a t t e r n s . Our d a t a w i l l a l s o demonstrate for  i n t e r e s t i n g s e x and age  differentiation;  example,our female i n f o r m a n t s m a i n t a i n e d the s t r o n g e s t c l a s s  X  h i e r a r c h y , had t h e lowest f r e q u e n c y o f s t i g m a t i z e d forms, and t h e h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c y o f p r e s t i g e forms. Chapters 5 and 6 b o t h have an e v a l u a t i o n and summary s e c t i o n w h i c h contains the important  f i n d i n g s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a n a l y s e s , a com-  p a r i s o n of d a t a and c o n c l u s i o n s from p r e v i o u s  s t u d i e s and a Somers' D  s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f our r e s u l t s . P r i o r t o p r e s e n t i n g t h e e x t e n s i v e d a t a and e v a l u a t i v e comments on the c o - v a r i a t i o n o f s t y l i s t i c  and s o c i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n of Canadian  E n g l i s h usage, w h i c h i s t o be found i n Chapters 5 and 6, a number of background s u b j e c t s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h . of the p r e v i o u s  F i r s t , a r e v i e w and e v a l u a t i o n  d i a l e c t o l o g y s t u d i e s from w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t  adapted w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . ment p a t t e r n s and p r e s e n t  study i s  Second, t h e background o f Ottawa's s e t t l e s i t u a t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d .  T h i r d , the  development of Canadian E n g l i s h w i l l be t r a c e d t h r o u g h time so t h a t t h i s n a t i o n a l d i a l e c t can be p l a c e d i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r d i a l e c t s o f t h e E n g l i s h language f a m i l y .  T h i s h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h w i l l be f o l l o w e d by  a d e t a i l e d account o f those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h Canadian E n g l i s h from N o r t h e r n A m e r i c a n , i t s c l o s e s t r e l a t i v e .  Linguistic  comparisons i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be made most o f t e n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o N o r t h e r n American and G e n e r a l American r a t h e r than w i t h S t a n d a r d Southern B r i t i s h .  The f o u r t h s u b j e c t t o be d e a l t w i t h w i l l be t h e  methodology o f t h e study The  itself.  c o n c l u s i o n w i l l c o n t a i n a summary o f t h e i m p o r t a n t 7  a comparison o f d a t a from p r e v i o u s studies.  s t u d i e s , and s u g g e s t i o n s  findings, f o r future  The Appendices A t o F w i l l c o n t a i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e  complete computer p r i n t o u t of t h e d a t a , l i n g u i s t i c d a t a from Ottawa  TP?  Valley urban centres,and  tabular and graphic presentations of para-  l i n g u i s t i c and a t t i t u d i n a l observations.  1  CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION  1.  Purpose The purpose o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e n a t u r e and  e x t e n t o f the c o - v a r i a t i o n o f c e r t a i n l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s w i t h s o c i o l o g i c a l and s t y l i s t i c  parameters i n t h e speech o f t h e p e o p l e o f  Ottawa, O n t a r i o .  T h i s s t u d y , w h i c h makes use o f s p e c i a l t e c h n i q u e s t o  elicit stylistic,  s o c i o l o g i c a l , and r e g i o n a l d i a l e c t o l o g i c a l v a r i a n t s  of the  our l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a b l e s , i s t h e f i r s t l a r g e - s c a l e e f f o r t t o d e s c r i b e speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an urban a r e a o f E n g l i s h Canada."'"  It is  a l s o t h e f i r s t work i n N o r t h American urban d i a l e c t o l o g y w h i c h f o c u s s e s on t h e mainstream, o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g a l a r g e range o f s o c i a l c l a s s e s , many e t h n i c backgrounds, and a l l s e c t i o n s o f t h e c i t y and i t s r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  I n r e c e n t times because o f t h e g r e a t s o c i a l need,  l i n g u i s t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have f o c u s s e d t h e i r urban s t u d i e s on m i n o r i t y groups w i t h i n t h e i n n e r - c i t y c o r e s o f t h e l a r g e s t American 2 metropolises. U n t i l f i f t e e n y e a r s ago, d i a l e c t o l o g i s t s were m o s t l y concerned w i t h regional dialectology. the  One o f t h e i r major i n t e r e s t s was t o d e t e r m i n e  g e o g r a p h i c b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e d i a l e c t s o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e languages.  T h i s i n t e r e s t caused most o f t h e i r work t o t a k e p l a c e i n r u r a l which i n t u r n l e d the d i a l e c t o l o g i s t s t o search f o r o l d r e l i c b e f o r e those forms d i s a p p e a r e d f o r e v e r .  The many p r o j e c t s  settings, forms,  contributing  2 to the L i n g u i s t i c A t l a s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada a r e e x c e l l e n t 3 examples of t h i s type of d i a l e c t o l o g y .  G i v e n t h e i r aims i t i s under-  s t a n d a b l e t h a t l i t t l e was done t o d e s c r i b e o r a n a l y s e the speech characteristics  of the p e o p l e who  l i v e d i n t h e u r b a n c e n t r e s , and even  l e s s was done t o d e t e r m i n e the c o r r e l a t i o n of v a r i a t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r i a l w i t h s o c i o l o g i c a l or s t y l i s t i c parameters. s i t u a t i o n was a l t e r e d  I n 1966, the  c o n s i d e r a b l y by W. Labov's s o c i o l o g i c a l and  s t y l i s t i c s t u d y of the E n g l i s h spoken i n the Lower E a s t S i d e of Manhattan I s l a n d i n New Y o r k C i t y , e n t i t l e d The S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n of E n g l i s h 4 i n New Y o r k C i t y .  As a r e s u l t of t h i s b r e a k t h r o u g h , d i a l e c t o l o g y  has two major a r e a s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and t r a d i t i o n a l r e g i o n a l d i a l e c t o l o g y .  now  s o c i o l o g i c a l urban d i a l e c t o l o g y This present study f i n d s i t s  t h e o r e t i c a l base and o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e s i n s o c i o l o g i c a l urban d i a l e c t o l o g y s p e c i f i c a l l y from the Labov and T r u d g i l l s t u d i e s , " ' w h i l e a t the same time u s i n g a l a r g e number of l i n g u i s t i c i t e m s w h i c h have been shown t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Canadian as opposed t o N o r t h e r n American i n previous regional studies.  Most o f the p u r e l y r u r a l Canadianisms  were e x c l u d e d from t h i s s t u d y . I n o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h the i n v e s t i g a t i o n , we c o n s t r u c t e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e of 752 i t e m s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Canadian E n g l i s h w h i c h we s u s p e c t e d would show s t y l i s t i c and s o c i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n . q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  This  then a d m i n i s t e r e d o r a l l y t o one hundred n a t i v e - b o r n  anglophone Ottawans.  Care was t a k e n t o ensure t h a t a l l major s o c i o -  l o g i c a l s u b - d i v i s i o n s were r e p r e s e n t e d i n numbers l a r g e enough t h a t m e a n i n g f u l comparisons among t h e s e groups c o u l d be made. groups were based on:  The  sociological  age, sex, s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s , e t h n i c background,  u r b a n / r u r a l background, and the number o f g e n e r a t i o n s the i n f o r m a n t ' s  3 f a m i l y had been i n Canada.  I t i s a major h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n  t h a t c e r t a i n items i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r i a l w i l l show c o - v a r i a t i o n  with  these s o c i o l o g i c a l parameters i n a s y s t e m a t i c and non-random manner. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o - v a r i a t i o n of t h e l i n g u i s t i c phenomena and s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , a second s o c i o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n , s t y l e o r r e g i s t e r as i t i s a l s o c a l l e d by many l i n g u i s t s , was i n v e s t i g a t e d . S t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n g e n e r a l l y o c c u r s as a r e s u l t o f changes i n t h e s o c i a l context,  e.g. t h e f o r m a l i t y o f t h e o c c a s i o n ,  the r o l e s of the  i n d i v i d u a l s , o r t h e r e l a t i v e age and sex o f those communicating.  How-  ever, i n the i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n , the s o c i a l context i s r e l a t i v e l y constant.  The problem, t h e n , was t o c o n s t r u c t  interview  situations  w h i c h would e l i c i t as f u l l a range o f s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n as p o s s i b l e . Two p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s a l r e a d y mentioned have developed and t e s t e d language r e l a t e d t a s k s f o r i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h e l i c i t a l a r g e range o f s t y l e s .  These s t y l e s have been shown t o a p p r o x i m a t e t h e range  6 of s t y l e s found i n most s o c i a l c o n t e x t s .  Ranging from t h e most f o r m a l  to the most c a s u a l , t h e t a s k s w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a n t was r e q u i r e d t h i s s u r v e y , were:  t o do i n  1) r e a d i n g o f m i n i m a l pairs,. 2) r e a d i n g o f word  l i s t s , , 3) i d e n t i f y i n g o b j e c t s by p i c t u r e s , 4) r e a d i n g a s t o r y , and 5) s p e a k i n g f r e e l y about Ottawa, Canadian E n g l i s h , h i s / h e r  closest  encounter w i t h d e a t h , and c r e a t i n g a n a r r a t i v e from a sequence o f pictures.  The second major h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t h a t  c e r t a i n items i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r i a l w i l l demonstrate c o - v a r i a t i o n w i t h t h e language r e l a t e d t a s k s i n a s y s t e m a t i c manner. The  l i n g u i s t i c items s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d  i n the question-  n a i r e and i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two major categories.  The f i r s t group i s made up o f p h o n o l o g i c a l  segments,  4 e i t h e r s e p a r a t e l y o r i n groups from w h i c h thousands o f words can be generated.  L i a i s o n p a t t e r n s a l s o form p a r t of t h i s group.  The p r o -  n u n c i a t i o n of the twenty-seven i t e m s i n t h i s group w i l l be a n a l y s e d t h o r o u g h l y w i t h r e l a t i o n t o the s t y l i s t i c  t a s k s and s o c i o l o g i c a l p a r a -  meters r e f e r r e d t o above. The second major c a t e g o r y o f l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y i s comprised of seventy-one g r a m m a t i c a l , word p r o n u n c i a t i o n , and v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s .  Much of the d a t a of t h i s p o r t i o n of our study  can be compared d i r e c t l y w i t h the r e s u l t s o f The Survey of Canadian E n g l i s h by M.H.  S c a r g i l l and H.J. Warkentyne.^  A l t h o u g h our s t u d y i s  r e s t r i c t e d t o m a i n l y one c i t y and does n o t have the scope o f a l l t e n p r o v i n c e s as t h e SCE does, we a r e a b l e t o a n a l y s e our d a t a w i t h r e f e r ence t o more i n t e r e s t i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l p a r a m e t e r s , i n c l u d i n g  especially  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s , e t h n i c background, r u r a l / u r b a n background, and the  number of g e n e r a t i o n s an i n f o r m a n t ' s f a m i l y has been i n Canada. The f a c t t h a t Canadian E n g l i s h i s a d i a l e c t d e r i v e d f r o m and much  i n f l u e n c e d by American and B r i t i s h d i a l e c t s i s a major theme of r e f e r e n c e throughout t h i s s t u d y .  Indeed, most of the v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s s t u d y a r e  l i m i t e d t o e i t h e r B r i t i s h or American usage c h o i c e s .  In a d d i t i o n to a  l i m i t e d number of i n d i g e n o u s usage i t e m s which d i s t i n g u i s h Canadian E n g l i s h from o t h e r d i a l e c t s of E n g l i s h , Canadian E n g l i s h i s most e a s i l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i t s unique b l e n d of American and B r i t i s h usage.  There-  f o r e , the c o - v a r i a t i o n of s o c i o l o g i c a l and s t y l i s t i c parameters w i t h l i n g u i s t i c phenomena were d i s c u s s e d f r e q u e n t l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o usage p a t t e r n s from t h e s e two d i a l e c t s w i t h w h i c h Canadian E n g l i s h i s i n contact.  I n o r d e r t o d e a l w i t h and u n d e r s t a n d t h i s ' d i a l e c t s i n c o n t a c t '  s i t u a t i o n , we f i r s t p r e s e n t the h i s t o r y of Canadian E n g l i s h ; second, we  5 p r e s e n t t h e l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e Canadian  English;  and f i n a l l y , we determine t h e f r e q u e n c y break-down of the v a r i a n t s of the v a r i a b l e s .  I n a d d i t i o n to t h e s e v e r a l hundred l i n g u i s t i c  items  e l i c i t e d and a n a l y s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , a number of p a r a l i n g u i s t i c phenomena were i n v e s t i g a t e d ; t h e s e i n c l u d e d : pulmonic  i n g r e s s i v e s , r e a d i n g t i m e , h e s i t a t i o n phenomena, s t u t t e r i n g ,  s w e a r i n g , and language a t t i t u d e s . Appendix  2.  u t t e r a n c e s of agreement,  These d a t a a r e t o be found i n  C.  The V a l u e of S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c Urban Surveys  A New Body of Data One  of t h e most obvious r e s u l t s o f t h i s type of s u r v e y i s t h e  a c c u m u l a t i o n o f a new body of l i n g u i s t i c d a t a . These d a t a can p r o v i d e a base upon w h i c h l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y can be developed and  verified.  Because of a l a c k of such d a t a the g e n e r a t i v e - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t s o f the 1960's, f o r example, f r e q u e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y g  w h i l e t r y i n g to d e c i d e what was  a c c e p t a b l e E n g l i s h usage.  The V a l u e t o D i a l e c t o l o g y I n a c i r c u l a r manner, each new  s u r v e y i n the f i e l d of d i a l e c t o l o g y  can h e l p d i a l e c t o l o g i s t s r e - e v a l u a t e t h e i r methods and t e c h n i q u e s f o r s u r v e y i n g language usage. r e l a t i v e l y new  S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c urban s u r v e y s a r e a  a c t i v i t y and the s t y l i s t i c and s o c i o l o g i c a l  parameters  used i n c o r r e l a t i o n t o the l i n g u i s t i c phenomena need to be t e s t e d refined.  and  S i m i l a r l y , the e l i c i t i n g and s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s need  r e - e v a l u a t i o n and development.  T h i s study i s i n n o v a t i v e i n r e l a t i o n  6 to r e c e n t urban s t u d i e s i n i t s use of p i c t u r e s f o r e l i c i t i n g  isolated  9 words o r p h r a s e s , c a s u a l speech,"^  i n the use of s e q u e n t i a l p i c t u r e s f o r e l i c i t i n g i n the use o f a c a s u a l r e a d i n g passage f o r e l i c i t i n g  l i a i s o n f e a t u r e s and f a i r l y r e l a x e d speech, and i n s e t t i n g out t o a number of p a r a - l i n g u i s t i c phenomena. have broken new  observe  T h i s s t u d y w i l l a l s o prove to  ground i n i t s s e t t i n g out t o e l i c i t l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r i a l  from i n f o r m a n t s i n a l l l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y , i n c l u d i n g the upper m i d d l e and lower upper c l a s s e s .  W.  Labov's study appears to be an assessment  o f a t r u n c a t e d p o r t i o n of American s o c i e t y l o c a t e d on the Lower E a s t S i d e of Manhattan I s l a n d whose income i s n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a f t e r $4,500.00 per annum,''""'" and P. T r u d g i l l ' s i n d e x of income f o r h i s i n f o r m a n t s i n Norwich, England s t o p s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g upwardly 12 $5,000.00 a n n u a l l y .  at approximately  Our i n f o r m a n t s had annual incomes r a n g i n g from  $0.00 to over $35,000.00 and i t would appear b o t h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a l l y and l i n g u i s t i c a l l y t h a t the i n f o r m a n t s of these two o t h e r s t u d i e s would be s i t u a t e d i n our m i d d l e - m i d d l e working  c l a s s downward to our lower o r  classes.  The V a l u e t o E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n On the p r a c t i c a l s i d e , a s t u d y such as t h i s which p r o v i d e s a l a r g e d a t a base o f c u r r e n t usage i s of g r e a t v a l u e to those i n the language e d u c a t i o n p r o f e s s i o n and more s p e c i f i c a l l y those i n v o l v e d i n the teaching of English.  F o r how  i s one t o know what t o t e a c h and what  problems t o t e a c h t o i f one does n o t know the p r e s e n t s t a t u s and s t a n d a r d o f E n g l i s h usage i n Canada and e s p e c i a l l y i n Canadian c i t i e s . Ever s i n c e 1876 when Georg: Wenker s t a r t e d h i s s u r v e y o f the ;  d i a l e c t s of Germany, l i n g u i s t s the w o r l d over have been c o n d u c t i n g  Rhine  7 s u r v e y s and b u i l d i n g up d a t a on t h e i r languages.  T h e i r main f o c u s ,  however, has been t o s u r v e y the r u r a l areas so as t o u n d e r s t a n d the l i n g u i s t i c s u b s t r a t u m from w h i c h most urban speech was d e r i v e d and to r e c o r d the most a r c h a i c t y p e s of r u r a l speech b e f o r e t h a t speech disappeared.  T h e i r work f r e q u e n t l y has n o t been i m m e d i a t e l y r e l e v a n t  to the s c h o o l systems i n the c i t i e s .  Only r e c e n t l y  have l i n g u i s t s  t u r n e d t o urban s u r v e y s i n any l a r g e or s y s t e m a t i c way. j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r urban s u r v e y s i n Canada  The v a l u e and  seem i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t . 13  Canada i s now  76 p e r c e n t u r b a n i z e d and o n l y 24 p e r c e n t r u r a l .  The  p r o p o r t i o n o f p e o p l e l i v i n g i n u r b a n f a r e a s has s h i f t e d d r a s t i c a l l y from the t i m e when d i a l e c t s u r v e y s s t a r t e d , and, o f c o u r s e , usage s u r v e y s s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e where the people l i v e .  Not o n l y a r e urban s u r v e y s  i m p o r t a n t because of the number of p e o p l e l i v i n g i n c i t i e s , b u t they a r e i m p o r t a n t because the c i t i e s a r e c u l t u r a l and commercial c e n t r e s from w h i c h language s t y l e s and s t a n d a r d s emanate.  P e o p l e from o u t s i d e  the urban areas g e n e r a l l y a d j u s t t h e i r language h a b i t s t o conform more c l o s e l y w i t h urban p a t t e r n s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , g a i n employment, or r a i s e t h e i r s o c i a l  status.  The s o c i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t o f such urban s t u d i e s i s i m p o r t a n t because of t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y a c e r t a i n segment of the urban s o c i e t y s e t s the l i n g u i s t i c standard.  T h i s l i n g u i s t i c s t a n d a r d i s not l e g i s l a t e d or  even c o n s c i o u s l y thought o u t ; i t i s m a i n l y the composite o f the language h a b i t s of the upper-upper,  lower upper, and upper m i d d l e c l a s s e s .  This  segment of the p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h comprises about 10 p e r c e n t o f the n a t i o n , e x e r t s a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n f l u e n c e on the l e g a l ,  governmental,  e d u c a t i o n a l , media, and commercial I n s t i t u t i o n s of Canada, and o n l y a s t u d y of t h i s segment of s o c i e t y and i t s l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the  8  o t h e r c l a s s e s w i l l g i v e us an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f Canadian E n g l i s h .  The Value o f Data Most e d u c a t i o n a l i s t s f i n d i t d e s i r a b l e to t e a c h what they would c a l l the s t a n d a r d language.  Even those most f e a r f u l o f the n e g a t i v e  e f f e c t s o f such a p o l i c y advocate  the t e a c h i n g o f the s t a n d a r d language  as a second d i a l e c t to non-standard development.  speakers  late i n their educational  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , f a i l u r e to a c q u i r e a s t a n d a r d  dialect  tends t o h i n d e r an i n d i v i d u a l ' s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r development and advancement. described.  I f the s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t i s t o be t a u g h t , then i t must be There a r e two major ways o f g o i n g a s t r a y when d e s c r i b i n g  s t a n d a r d language usage.  One way  i s to d e s c r i b e the manner i n w h i c h  most people speak, t h e r e b y i g n o r i n g t h e impact o f the upper c l a s s e s on language s t a n d a r d s .  The o t h e r i s to p r e s c r i b e usage a c c o r d i n g t o r u l e s  o f l o g i c , c l a s s i c a l L a t i n grammar, and p a s t B r i t i s h usage, thereby d e n y i n g the a r b i t r a r y n a t u r e o f language and the f a c t t h a t language i s c o n t i n u o u s l y changing.  S o c i o l i h g u i s t i c s t u d i e s such as t h i s a r e  designed to a v o i d the p i t f a l l s o f these two extremes and to p r o v i d e a data base from w h i c h an adequate d e s c r i p t i o n o f the language can be made.  The Value to E.S.L. Such s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s u r v e y s are a l s o o f g r e a t b e n e f i t to those i n v o l v e d i n t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h as a second language ( E . S . L . ) . the t e a c h e r i s concerned  I n E.S.L.,  w i t h t e a c h i n g usage r e g i s t e r s f o r the purposes  of c a s u a l communication w i t h c o l l e a g u e s and  f r i e n d s as w e l l as t e a c h i n g  9 the f o r m a l r e g i s t e r s f o r j o b i n t e r v i e w s , o r a l t e s t s , speeches,  etc.  The  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l a r g e d a t a base o f s t y l i s t i c and s o c i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n w i l l be a g r e a t a i d t o a t e a c h e r ' s i n t u i t i o n .  Such s t u d i e s s h o u l d  be made a v a i l a b l e as r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l f o r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g programmes and t e a c h e r r e s o u r c e l i b r a r i e s . C u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s and t e x t b o o k w r i t e r s must e n s u r e " t h a t  their  examples, e x e r c i s e s , d i a l o g u e s , a c t i v i t i e s , e t c . , r e f l e c t a p p r o p r i a t e usage.  And a p p r o p r i a t e usage s h o u l d be r e l a t e d •to'-.'.the s i t u a t i o n s i n  w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s a r e l i k e l y t o be p l a c e d .  Language d a t a which show  usage p a t t e r n s a c c o r d i n g t o s e x , age, s o c i a l c l a s s , s t y l i s t i c e t c . , are p r e c i s e l y what i s needed.  level,  Moreover, i f t h e t e x t b o o k s a r e  d e s i g n e d t o t r a i n s t u d e n t s f o r l i f e i n Canada, then t h e d a t a base s h o u l d be from Canadian E n g l i s h usage.  A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , many American  t e x t s a r e used i n t h e E.S.L. c l a s s r o o m s i n Canada f r e q u e n t l y g i v i n g models o f E n g l i s h i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e Canadian c o n t e x t .  (For examples  of t h e d i f f e r e n c e between Canadian and American usage see S e c t i o n 2 o f Chapter  3 entitled  'Linguistic Features').  the f a c t t h a t many Canadian E.S.L. American E n g l i s h .  textbooks  Equally unfortunate i s a r e based on r e s e a r c h on  T h i s s t u d y and o t h e r s . l l k e i t h e l p a l t e r t h i s  situ-  a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g a l a r g e d a t a base o f Canadian usage.  The V a l u e t o Other  Fields  Knowledge o f a p p r o p r i a t e Canadian usage i s a l s o a concern o f those i n v o l v e d i n r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g .  Announcers, p r o d u c e r s ,  w r i t e r s , and t h e i r support s t a f f a r e o f t e n made p a i n f u l l y aware o f any usage w h i c h t h e i r l i s t e n e r s f i n d u n u s u a l o r i n c o r r e c t .  The CBC's  14  monthly p u b l i c a t i o n e n t i t l e d You Don't Say  and i t s CBC News S t y l e Book  help i t s personnel  t o a v o i d o f f e n d i n g the t a x p a y e r s '  s t a t i o n s o f t e n request  ears.  Other  a d v i c e from u n i v e r s i t y departments of E n g l i s h  and L i n g u i s t i c s when they f e e l u n c e r t a i n about a p a r t i c u l a r usage. F u r t h e r , members of o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s such as p l a y w r i g h t s , n o v e l i s t s , s i t - c o m w r i t e r s , a c t o r s , p e o p l e i n a d v e r t i s i n g , and customs o f f i c e r s a r e a l l known to have made o b s e r v a t i o n s speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  and  i n q u i r i e s about Canadian  Surveys such as t h i s c o u l d be of v a l u e t o t h e s e  p r o f e s s i o n s as w e l l . S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s can a l s o be of v a l u e to s o c i o l o g y s o c i o l o g i s t s , as l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o r s o c i a l c l a s s , age,  and  sex  i s one of the prime i n d i c a t o r s of  groupings.  F i n a l l y i t i s hoped t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s from the U n i t e d B r i t a i n , and  elsewhere who  and  States,  have moved t o Canada and become t e a c h e r s  E n g l i s h , E.S.L., modern languages and  l i n g u i s t i c s w i l l want to use  d a t a of such s u r v e y s t o b e t t e r understand Canadian E n g l i s h and p e o p l e who  3.  The  the  the  speak and w r i t e i t .  Previous  Regional  of  Studies  Studies . e a r l i e s t s t u d i e s of N o r t h American E n g l i s h d i a l e c t o l o g y have  been concerned w i t h r u r a l d i a l e c t o l o g y .  As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , most of  t h e s e p r o j e c t s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h or i n t e g r a l p a r t s of the  research  16 f o r The L i n g u i s t i c A t l a s of the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. t h e s e s t u d i e s l e g i t i m a t e l y has been concerned w i t h :  The  aim  1) d e t e r m i n i n g  of the  g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s and b o u n d a r i e s of the major r e g i o n a l d i a l e c t s , 2) f i n d i n g the l i n g u i s t i c items w h i c h a r e most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i a l e c t s ,  and  3) r e c o r d i n g o l d d i a l e c t forms b e f o r e t h e y have d i s a p p e a r e d .  The works  of K u r a t h , Marckwardt, A l l e n , andC. Reed a r e perhaps most r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y , as they d e f i n e the American d i a l e c t s w i t h w h i c h Canadian E n g l i s h w i l l be compared.  Urban S t u d i e s In the p a s t decade a number of urban s t u d i e s have been conducted i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s  '  These s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d out w i t h the p r i m a r y  g o a l of d e s c r i b i n g the d i a l e c t s o f m i n o r i t y groups found i n i n n e r - c i t y areas of l a r g e A m e r i c a n . c i t i e s .  The m o t i v a t i o n f o r many o f t h e s e  s t u d i e s was t o g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n f o r t h e s e d i a l e c t s as languages o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h o s e s t u d e n t s who  spoke them.  Labov's work, The  Social  18 S t r a t i f i c a t i o n of E n g l i s h i n New Y o r k C i t y ,  i s the f i r s t study which  p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n between l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a t i o n on the one hand and s t y l i s t i c and s o c i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n on the o t h e r .  H i s work i s a  major r e f e r e n c e f o r a l l s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s w h i c h have f o l l o w e d .  A  few y e a r s l a t e r i n B r i t a i n , the e x c e l l e n t s u r v e y i n s o c i o l o g i c a l urban d i a l e c t o l o g y The S o c i a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of E n g l i s h i n N o r w i c h by P. 19 Trudgill  was p u b l i s h e d p r e s e n t i n g the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  p e o p l e of t h a t c i t y .  A l t h o u g h the speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  and s o c i a l  c l a s s s t r u c t u r e s of b o t h Manhattan and Norwich d i f f e r ' g r e a t l y from t h o s e Ottawa, t h e s e two s t u d i e s have p r o v i d e d a model i n t h e o r y and p l a n n i n g from which, we c o n s t r u c t e d our s t u d y .  Other i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s i n  the a r e a of s o c i o l o g i c a l urban d i a l e c t o l o g y came from F i e l d Techniques 20 i n an Urban Language Study by Shuy, Wolfram, and R i l e y and from "Sample Survey Methods and Computer A s s i s t e d A n a l y s i s i n the Study of 21 Grammatical V a r i a t i o n " by S a n k o f f and S a n k o f f .  Canadian E n g l i s h Usage Many works p r o v i d e d  needed d a t a on Canadian E n g l i s h usage; those  w h i c h d e a l t w i t h speech d i f f e r e n c e s a l o n g the Canadian-American b o r d e r 22 were A l l e n , 1959;  A v i s 1954,  1955,  and  1956;  and Reed, 1957  and  1961.  Those w h i c h d e a l t w i t h p a r t i c u l a r sounds i n Canadian speech were: 23 Chambers, 1975;  Gregg, 1973a, 1975;  J o o s , 1942.  There a r e  l o c a l / r e g i o n a l s u r v e y s e x t a n t i n c l u d i n g A v i s , 1975; Gregg, 1973b; H a m i l t o n , 1958; 24 1974;  and W i l s o n ,  A v i s , 1967,  1973;  McDavid, 1967, Finally,  1975.  K i n l o c h , 1972;  Chambers, 1975;  1971;  L o v e l l , 1955;  S c a r g i l l , 1957,  t h e r e i s The  1977;  Chambers,  Poison,  G e n e r a l background and  1969;  r e f e r e n c e books a r e :  1974  Survey of Canadian E n g l i s h sponsored by t o 1974.  U.S.  1956  survey  Rodman, 1972  W a l t e r A v i s ' works  d e a l i n g w i t h speech d i f f e r e n c e s a l o n g the 27  border i n s p i r e d personal  i n t e r e s t i n the t o p i c  number of i t e m s f o r t h i s s u r v e y .  Ontario-  and p r o v i d e d  M a r t i n J o o s ' a r t i c l e "A  a  Phonological  Dilemma i n Canadian E n g l i s h " i s i m p o r t a n t because i t i s the f i r s t  to  s i n g l e out the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Canadian d i p h t h o n g s . M.H.  S c a r g i l l ' s Modern Canadian E n g l i s h Usage, r e f e r r e d to as the  i s perhaps the most u s e f u l r e s o u r c e ^ m a t e r i a l on Canadian E n g l i s h usage f o r our s t u d y . responses t o over 30,000 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and  2 5  1971.  A few of the above works m e r i t s p e c i a l mention. 1955,  This  1972;  1977.  the  ( t h e major w o r k ) ; S c a r g i l l and Warkentyne, 26  ( t h e r e p o r t ) ; and Warkentyne,  i n 1954,  1979;  and von B a e y e r , 1976,  f o s t e r e d s e v e r a l p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g K i n l o c h , 1971, Scargill,  1974;  Wanamaker,  McConnell,  Canadian C o u n c i l of Teachers of E n g l i s h from 1970  1974;  several  t h e i r parents i n a l l ten provinces  The  with precise SCE  SCE,  statistics  i s a r e p o r t on  the  s e n t out t o grade 9 s t u d e n t s of Canada.  The  questionnaire  13 was  made up- ;of q u e s t i o n s d e a l i n g w i t h morphology and s y n t a x , pronun-  c i a t i o n , s p e l l i n g , and v o c a b u l a r y .  The many t a b l e s g i v e us a q u i c k  view of t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n usage ( o r perhaps the d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s towards usage) by age group, sex, and p r o v i n c e . s t a n t i a t e q u i t e c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t females  These t a b l e s a l s o sub-  conform more r e a d i l y to what  i s " c o r r e c t " , and t h a t a g r e a t d e a l of language l e v e l l i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e among young s t u d e n t s . C e r t a i n d i s a d v a n t a g e s were i n h e r e n t i n the SCE s t u d y , however. They were:  (1) the study c o u l d r e p o r t o n l y what i n f o r m a n t s  claimed  they s a i d , and i t assumed t h a t t h e i n f o r m a n t s c o u l d make the d i s t i n c t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n phonology.  necessary  S c a r g i l l s t a t e s on page 70,  "With a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to i n t e r p r e t the answers  g i v e n about the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of calm, caught, f a t h e r , b o t h e r . " c o u l d a l s o f e e l some doubt about Q u e s t i o n s guarantee; to  i . e . v a s e and  (2) i n f o r m a n t s gave one answer o n l y and no attempt was made  take s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n i n t o account.  like  27 and 110,  One  I n response  to q u e s t i o n s  S c a r g i l l ' s Q u e s t i o n 49 b u t t e r (which reads; "Does t h e - t t - i n  b u t t e r sound l i k e  the -dd-  i n s h u d d e r ? " ) , we w i l l t e s t the  stylistic  v a r i a t i o n o f s e v e r a l words w h i c h c o n t a i n a m e d i a l t . Some of our i n f o r m a n t s a c t u a l l y ranged from 100 p e r c e n t m e d i a l 100 p e r c e n t m e d i a l  [ t ] i n t h e i r f o r m a l r e g i s t e r to  [d] i n t h e i r c a s u a l speech.  I t can be s a f e l y assumed  t h a t most i n f o r m a n t s c l a i m e d usage c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r more f o r m a l r e g i s t e r s of speech; and  (3) t h e s u r v e y a v o i d e d c a t e g o r i z i n g p e o p l e  a c c o r d i n g to s o c i a l or e d u c a t i o n a l groups. the i n f o r m a n t s by p r o v i n c e .  I n s t e a d , t h e survey  That d e c i s i o n may  have been  grouped  politically  m o t i v a t e d , c o n s c i o u s l y o r s u b c o n s c i o u s l y , i n order t o a v o i d the taboo of s o c i a l c l a s s .  T h i s s t u d y w i l l attempt  to show t h a t f o r O n t a r i o  and  west, s t y l i s t i c and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s a r e f a r g r e a t e r d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r s i n usage v a r i a t i o n .than a r e g e o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s .  These  limita-  t i o n s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , the SCE i s the major work on Canadian E n g l i s h usage, and the one w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e impetus and d e s i r e t o b e g i n t h i s present study. R.J. Gregg's l a t e s t work, t h e as y e t u n p u b l i s h e d monograph on 28  Canadian E n g l i s h f o r The Commonwealth S e r i e s on E n g l i s h  g i v e s an  e x c e l l e n t summary of t h e development of Canadian E n g l i s h and d e s c r i b e s the  major s y s t e m a t i c elements of Canadian E n g l i s h w i t h comparison made  mainly to B r i t i s h E n g l i s h . of  t h i s present study.  T h i s m a n u s c r i p t was u n a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g most  However the knowledge  i n v o l v e d had been con-  veyed by Gregg over s e v e r a l y e a r s of seminars on Canadian E n g l i s h . Of most immediate b e n e f i t t o t h i s s u r v e y was Survey of the C i t y of Vancouver:  Pilot Project.  the Urban  Dialect  This project  headed  by P r o f e s s o r Gregg and a s s i s t e d by M a r g a r e t Murdoch, Gaelan de W o l f , and E r i k a Ludt i s a survey of s o c i o l o g i c a l and s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n of 29 Vancouver.  D u r i n g the summer o f 1977, I was f o r t u n a t e enough t o have  the  o p p o r t u n i t y t o work on t h i s p i l o t p r o j e c t .  the  Ottawa q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a development from t h a t p i l o t  i n c l u d i n g the reading" passage by Murdoch.  Most of t h e d e s i g n of project,  I n r e t u r n the newly begun  Vancouver P r o j e c t i s now m o d e l l i n g a number of concepts a f t e r t h e Ottawa Survey.  15  Chapter I:  Footnotes  ''"David and G i l l i a n S a n k o f f conducted a s u r v e y on Canadian F r e n c h i n M o n t r e a l . For a r e p o r t on t h e i r methodology see D. and G. S a n k o f f , "Sample Survey Methods and Computer A s s i s t e d A n a l y s i s i n the Study o f Grammatical V a r i a t i o n , " Canadian Language i n t h e i r S o c i a l C o n t e x t , ed. Regna D a r n e l l , (Edmonton: Edmonton L i n g u i s t i c R e s e a r c h , 1973), pp.12-23. 2 The l e a d i n g r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e on t h i s t o p i c a r e : W i l l i a m Labov, T h e S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n of E n g l i s h i n New York C i t y , (Washington, D.C: Center f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , 1966), pp.1-655; W i l l i a m Labov e t a l . , A Study of t h e Non-Standard E n g l i s h of Negro and P u e r t o R i c a n Speakers i n New Y o r k C i t y , ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U.S. R e g i o n a l Survey, 1968), v o l . 1 : 1 - 3 7 5 , v o l . 2 : 1 - 3 5 7 ; Roger W. Shuy, W a l t e r A. Wolfram, and W i l l i a m K. R i l e y , L i n g u i s t i c C o r r e l a t e s of S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n D e t r o i t Speech, F i n a l R e p o r t , C o o p e r a t i v e Research P r o j e c t 6-1347, (Washington: U.S. O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n , 1967); Roger W. Shuy, W a l t e r A. Wolfram, and W i l l i a m K. R i l e y , F i e l d Techniques i n an Urban Language Study, (Washington, D.C: Center f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , 1968), pp.1-128; W a l t e r Wolfram, S o c i o l i n g u i s t i c A s p e c t s o f A s s i m i l a t i o n ; P u e r t o R i c a n E n g l i s h i n New York C i t y , ( A r l i n g t o n , Va.: Center f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , 1974), pp.1-241; W a l t e r A. Wolfram and Ralph W. F a s o l d , The Study o f S o c i a l D i a l e c t s i n American E n g l i s h , (Englewood C l i f f s , N.J.: P r e n t i c e H a l l , 1974), pp.1-239. 3 There a r e s c o r e s of b r a n c h i n g p r o j e c t s w i t h i n t h i s p r o j e c t ; f o r an a n t h o l o g y of t h e s e works s e e : Readings i n American D i a l e c t o l o g y , eds. H a r o l d B. A l l e n and Gary N. Underwood, (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n , C e n t u r y , C r o f t , 1971), pp.1-283 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as RAD) and A V a r i o u s Language, eds. J u a n i t a V. W i l l i a m s o n and V i r g i n i a M. B u r k e , (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1977), pp.1-706. 4 W. Labov, T h e (Washington, D.C:  S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n of E n g l i s h i n New Y o r k C i t y , Center f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , 1966), pp.1-655.  ^ P e t e r T r u d g i l l , The S o c i a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of E n g l i s h i n N o r w i c h , (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974), pp.1-211. 6  L a b o v , 1966, pp.90-135 and T r u d g i l l , 1974, pp.45-54.  ^M.H. S c a r g i l l and H.J. Warkentyne, "The Survey o f Canadian E n g l i s h : A R e p o r t , " E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y , Volume 5, No.3, (Autumn 1972), pp.47-104. R e p r i n t e d s e p a r a t e l y w i t h p e r m i s s i o n from the Canadian C o u n c i l of Teachers o f E n g l i s h and r e v i s e d and p u b l i s h e d as a book: M.H. S c a r g i l l , Modern Canadian E n g l i s h Usage: L i n g u i s t i c Change and  16 R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t i n c o o p e r a t i o n t h e Canadian C o u n c i l of Teachers o f E n g l i s h , 1974), pp.1-143.  with  T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t s t r i e d t o come t o terms w i t h what was and was not g r a m m a t i c a l . F o l l o w i n g i s a t y p i c a l f o o t n o t e : "11 The same seems t o h o l d t r u e f o r E n g l i s h , a l s o , a t l e a s t f o r some d i a l e c t s . Observe t h e f o l l o w i n g s e n t e n c e s : ( i ) A g i r l t h a t John knew d e c e i v e d a boy t h a t he d i s l i k e d , ( i i ) A g i r l t h a t he knew d e c e i v e d a boy t h a t John d i s l i k e d , ( i i i ) I t i s t h e boy t h a t John d i s l i k e d t h a t t h e g i r l t h a t he ^knew d e c e i v e d . ( i v ) ? I t i s t h e boy t h a t he d i s l i k e d t h a t t h e g i r l t h a t John knew d e c e i v e d . . . There seems t o be a wide f l u c t u a t i o n i n n a t i v e s p e a k e r s ' i n t u i t i o n on t h e g r a m m a t i c a l i t y o r u n g r a m m a t i c a l i t y of t h e s e and r e l a t e d s e n t e n c e s . " The above was t a k e n from Susumu Kuno "The P o s i t i o n o f L o c a t i v e s i n E x i s t e n t i a l S e n t e n c e s , " L i n g u i s t i c I n q u i r y , V o l . 1 1 , No.3 (Summer 1971), pp.343. W. Labov commented on t h i s d i f f i c u l t y t h a t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l i s t s had: "When c h a l l e n g e s t o d a t a a r i s e on t h e f l o o r o f a l i n g u i s t i c m e e t i n g , t h e a u t h o r u s u a l l y defends h i m s e l f by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e many ' d i a l e c t s ' and t h a t t h e s y s t e m a t i c argument he was p r e s e n t i n g h e l d good f o r h i s own ' d i a l e c t ' . This i s an odd use o f the term, and i t r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n as t o what the o b j e c t o f l i n g u i s t i c d e s c r i p t i o n can or should be." Quote t a k e n from "The Study o f Language i n i t s S o c i a l C o n t e x t , " Studium G e n e r a l e , V o l . 2 3 (1970), p.37. 9 We agree w i t h t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e use of p i c t u r e s w h i c h A.M. K i n l o c h p u t f o r t h i n h i s a r t i c l e , "The Use o f P i c t u r e s i n E l i c i t a t i o n , " American Speech, V o l . 4 6 , (1971), pp.38-46. ^We made use o f t h e sequence of p i c t u r e s i n P.R. Hawkins; S o c i a l C l a s s , t h e Nominal Group and V e r b a l S t r a t e g i e s , (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1977), pp.56-57. 13  "Labov, 1977, p.215.  1 2  T r u d g i l l , 1974, pp.60-61.  13 1976  "Population: Geographic D i s t r i b u t i o n Urban and R u r a l D i s t r i b u t i o n , " Census o f Canada, ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Ottawa, 1976), p.7-1.  ^ " Y o u Don't Say," u n p u b l i s h e d monthly b u l l e t i n s c o m p i l e d and d i s seminated by t h e O f f i c e o f B r o a d c a s t Language, eds. Lamont T i l d e n and George R i c h , (CBC, T o r o n t o , 1975-78), volume 1, i s s u e s 1-20; volume 2, i s s u e s 1-20.  17 1 5  C E C News S t y l e Book, (CBC, T o r o n t o , 1971), pp.1-83.  16 See f o o t n o t e 3 and t h e f o l l o w i n g works: Hans K u r a t h , Handbook o f the L i n g u i s t i c Geography o f New England , 2nd e d . , (New Y o r k : AMS P r e s s , 1973), pp.1-527; A l b e r t H. Marckwardt, " P r i n c i p a l and S u b s i d i a r y D i a l e c t Areas i n t h e N o r t h - C e n t r a l S t a t e s , " i n RAD, pp.74-82; H a r o l d B. A l l e n , The L i n g u i s t i c A t l a s o f t h e Upper Midwest, ( M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1973-6), v o l . 1 : 1 - 4 2 5 , v o l . 2 : 1 - 9 2 , v o l . 3 : 1 - 3 6 2 ; H a r o l d B. A l l e n , "The P r i m a r y D i a l e c t A r e a s o f t h e Upper Midwest," i n RAD, pp.83-93; H a r o l d B . A l l e n , "The M i n o r D i a l e c t A r e a s o f t h e Upper Midwest," i n RAD, pp.94-104; David W. Reed, " E a s t e r n D i a l e c t Words i n C a l i f o r n i a , " i n RAD, pp.105-114; C a r r o l l E. Reed, "The P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f E n g l i s h i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , " i n RAD, pp.115-121. "^See f o o t n o t e 2. 18 Labov, 1966, o p . c i t . 1 9  T r u d g i l l , 1974, o p . c i t .  20 (Washington, D.C:  Center f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , 1968) ,pp. 1-128.  21 See f o o t n o t e 1. 22 H.B. A l l e n , "Canadian-American Speech D i f f e r e n c e s a l o n g t h e M i d d l e B o r d e r , " JCLA, v o l . 5 , no.1, (1959), pp.17-24; W.S. A v i s , "Speech d i f f e r ences a l o n g t h e O n t a r i o - U n i t e d S t a t e s b o r d e r , 1 v o c a b u l a r y , " JCLA, v o l . 1 , n o . l , (1954), pp.13-17; W.S. A v i s , "Speech d i f f e r e n c e s a l o n g t h e O n t a r i o U n i t e d S t a t e s b o r d e r , I I grammar and s y n t a x , " JCLA, v o l . 1 , n o . l , (1955), pp.14-19; W.S. A v i s , "Speech d i f f e r e n c e s a l o n g t h e O n t a r i o - U n i t e d S t a t e s b o r d e r , I I I p r o n u n c i a t i o n , " JCLA, v o l . 2 , no.2, ( 1 9 5 6 ) , pp.41-59; and C F . Reed, "Word Geography i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , " O r b i s , v o l . 6 , (1957), pp.86-93; C F . Reed, "The p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f E n g l i s h i n t h e P a c i f i c N o r t h west," Language, v o l . 3 7 , (1961), pp.559-564. 23 J.K. Chambers, "Canadian R a i s i n g , " i n Canadian E n g l i s h : Origins and S t r u c t u r e s , ed. J.K. Chambers (Toronto: Methuen, 1975), pp.83-100; R.J. Gregg, " N e u t r a l i s a t i o n and F u s i o n o f V o c a l i c Phonemes i n Canadian E n g l i s h as Spoken i n t h e Vancouver A r e a , " JCLA, v o l . 3 , (1957), pp.78-83; R.J. Gregg, "The Diphthong a i and ai i n S c o t l a n d , S c o t c h - I r i s h and Canadian E n g l i s h , " C J L , v o l . 1 8 , no.2, (1973), pp.136-145; R . J . Gregg, "The Phonology o f Canadian E n g l i s h as Spoken i n t h e A r e a o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " Canadian E n g l i s h , ed. J.K. Chambers, ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1975), pp.133-144; -M. J o o s , "A P h o n o l o g i c a l Dilemma i n Canadian E n g l i s h , " Language, v o l . 1 8 , (1942), pp.141-144; D.E. H a m i l t o n , "Standard Canadian E n g l i s h : P r o n u n c i a t i o n , " P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e N i n t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress o f L i n g u i s t s , ed. H.C L u n t , (The Hague: Mouton, 1964), pp.456-459.  18 W.S. A v i s , "The Phonemic Segments of an Edmonton I d i o l e c t , " Canadian E n g l i s h : O r i g i n s and S t r u c t u r e s , ed. J.K. Chambers, ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1975), pp.118-128; J.K. Chambers, "The Ottawa V a l l e y 'twang'," Canadian E n g l i s h : O r i g i n s and S t r u c t u r e s , ed. J.K. Chambers, ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1975), pp.55-59; R.J. Gregg, "The L i n g u i s t i c Survey o f B r i t i s h Columbia: the Kootenay R e g i o n , " Canadian Languages i n t h e i r S o c i a l C o n t e x t , ed. Regna D a r n e l l , (Edmonton: Edmonton L i n g u i s t i c R e s e a r c h , 1973) , pp.105-116; D.E. H a m i l t o n , "The E n g l i s h Spoken i n M o n t r e a l : A P i l o t Study," ( u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t e de M o n t r e a l , 1958), pp.1-74; A.M. K i n l o c h , "The Survey of Canadian E n g l i s h : P o s s i b l e E v i d e n c e f o r P r o n u n c i a t i o n , " EQ, V o l . 4 , No.4, ( 1 9 7 1 ) , pp.59-66; A.M. K i n l o c h , "The Survey of Canadian E n g l i s h : a f i r s t l o o k a t New B r u n s w i c k r e s u l t s , " EQ, V o l . 4 , No.4, (1972-3), pp.41-54; J . P o i s o n , "A L i n g u i s t i c Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia," ( u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1969), pp.1-122; M.G. Wanamaker, "Survey of Canadian E n g l i s h — f o c u s on M a n i t o b a , " Classmate ( O f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n o f M a n i t o b a A s s o c i a t i o n of Teachers of E n g l i s h ) , V o l . 4 , No.2 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , pp.37-43; H.R. W i l s o n , "Lunenburg Dutch: F a c t and F o l k l o r e , " Canadian E n g l i s h : Origins and S t r u c t u r e s , ed. J.K. Chambers ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1975), pp.40-44. 25 W.S. A v i s e t a l . , D i c t i o n a r y of Canadianisms on H i s t o r i c a l P r i n c i p l e s , ( T o r o n t o : Gage, 1967), pp. 1-926; W.S. A v i s , "The E n g l i s h language i n Canada," C u r r e n t Trends i n L i n g u i s t i c s , ed. T.A. Sebeok, V o l . 1 0 , N o . l , ( 1 9 7 3 ) , pp.40-74; J.K. Chambers, ed., Canadian E n g l i s h : O r i g i n s and S t r u c t u r e s , ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1975), pp.1-144 ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Canadian E n g l i s h ) ; C.J. L o v e l l , " L e x i c o g r a p h i c a l C h a l l e n g e s i n Canadian E n g l i s h , " JCLA, V o l . 1 , N o . l , ( 1 9 5 5 ) , pp.2-5; R.E. M c C o n n e l l , Our Own V o i c e : Canadian E n g l i s h and how i t i s S t u d i e d , ( T o r o n t o : Gage E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i s h i n g , 1979), pp.1-275, H1-H48; R . I . McDavid, " L i n g u i s t i c Geography i n Canada: an i n t r o d u c t i o n , " JCLA, V o l . 1 , N o . l , (1954), pp.3-8; R . I . McDavid, "Canadian E n g l i s h , " AS, V o l . 4 6 , ( 1 9 7 1 ) , pp.287-289; M.H. S c a r g i l l , "The Sources o f Canadian E n g l i s h , " JEGP, V o l . 5 6 , ( 1 9 5 7 ) , pp.610-614, r e p r i n t e d i n Canadian E n g l i s h , pp.12-15; M.H. S c a r g i l l , A S h o r t H i s t o r y of Canadian E n g l i s h , ( V i c t o r i a : Sono N i s , 1977), pp.7-63; C o r n e l i u s von Baeyer, T a l k i n g about Canadian E n g l i s h , (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1976), pp.1-74; C o r n e l i u s von B a e y e r , The A n c e s t r y o f Canadian E n g l i s h , (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1977), pp.1-62. M.A. K i n l o c h , "The Survey o f Canadian E n g l i s h : P o s s i b l e E v i d e n c e f o r P r o n u n c i a t i o n , " E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y , ' V o l . 4 , No.4 (Winter, 1971) , pp. 59-65; M.A. K i n l o c h , "The Survey of Canadian E n g l i s h : A F i r s t Look a t New B r u n s w i c k R e s u l t s , " E n g l i s h Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 5 , No.4, (1972-1973), pp.41-51; L. Rodman, " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of B.C. E n g l i s h , " EQ_, V o l . 7 , No.4, (1974-5), pp.49-82; M.H. S c a r g i l l , Modern Canadian E n g l i s h Usage: L i n g u i s t i c Change and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1974) , pp.7-143; M.H. S c a r g i l l and H. Warkentyne, "The Survey of Canadian E n g l i s h : A R e p o r t , " EQ_, V o l . 5 , No.3, ( 1 9 7 2 ) , pp.47-104; H.J. Warkentyne, "Contemporary Canadian E n g l i s h , " American Speech, V o l . 4 6 , ( 1 9 7 1 ) , pp. 193, 199;  19 I grew up on t h a t b o r d e r i n P o r t Huron, M i c h i g a n o p p o s i t e S a r n i a , O n t a r i o , s o n o f a Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y f a m i l y , w i t h my f a t h e r and g r a n d f a t h e r h a v i n g worked many y e a r s on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e b o r d e r . 28 R.J. Gregg, "Canadian E n g l i s h , " V a r i e t i e s . , o f E n g l i s h : Commonw e a l t h E n g l i s h S e r i e s , ed. Y. Matsumura, (Japan, f o r t h c o m i n g ) , MS. pp.3-12. 29 To d a t e two papers have been r e a d p u b l i c l y from t h e p i l o t s u r v e y ; they a r e : R . J . Gregg, "Urban D i a l e c t o l o g y : a p i l o t s u r v e y o f . t h e E n g l i s h spoken i n t h e c i t y o f Vancouver, B.C.," r e a d a t t h e Learned S o c i e t i e s C o n f e r e n c e , F r e d e r i c t o n , 1977, pp.1-9; M. Murdoch, "Reading Passages and I n f o r m a l Speech," r e a d a t t h e T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference of D i a l e c t o l o g y Methods, London, O n t a r i o , .1978, pp.1-7.  Abbreviations AS EQ CJL JCLA  f o r names o f j o u r n a l s :  American Speech English Quarterly Canadian J o u r n a l o f L i n g u i s t i c s (1961) J o u r n a l o f t h e Canadian L i n g u i s t i c s A s s o c i a t i o n  (1954-60).  CHAPTER 2 OTTAWA  1.  Ottawa, i t s S e t t l e m e n t and S e t t i n g T h i s work i n Canadian E n g l i s h d i a l e c t o l o g y and s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s  t a k e s t h e form o f a study o f t h e E n g l i s h spoken i n t h e c i t y of Ottawa, O n t a r i o , t h e p o l i t i c a l c a p i t a l of Canada and t h e n a t i o n ' s f o u r t h largest city.  The p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a i s growing  r a p i d l y and i s p r e s e n t l y a t 693,288 i n h a b i t a n t s , w i t h 302,341 a c t u a l l y w i t h i n the boundaries  o f t h e c i t y proper."'"  I n a d d i t i o n , the v i l l a g e  of R o c k c l i f f e P a r k , p o p u l a t i o n 2,017, and t h e c i t y of V a n i e r , p o p u l a t i o n 2 18,237, a r e surrounded by t h e c i t y o f Ottawa.  Ottawa i s s i t u a t e d on  the Ontario-Quebec border on t h e s o u t h bank o f t h e Ottawa R i v e r where the R i d e a u R i v e r j o i n s i t ,  some 100 m i l e s upstream from t h e S t . Lawrence  R i v e r , 114 m i l e s west o f M o n t r e a l , and 220 m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f T o r o n t o . Ottawa, H u l l , and a d j a c e n t suburbs on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e Ottawa R i v e r form t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a o f O t t a w a - H u l l  and a somewhat l a r g e r a r e a  forms t h e vague e n t i t y c a l l e d t h e N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l  Region.  Bytown, as Ottawa was f i r s t c a l l e d , was a c o n s t r u c t i o n s i t e f o r t h e b u i l d i n g o f t h e R i d e a u Canal and t h e c e n t r e f o r lumber t r a d e .  Queen  V i c t o r i a s e l e c t e d i t t o be t h e c a p i t a l o f Upper and Lower Canada i n 1857,  and i t s c a p i t a l s t a t u s has been i t s main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ever s i n c e .  T h i s f a c t o r has i m p o r t a n t  l i n g u i s t i c consequences.  The p o p u l a t i o n o f  Ottawa has become i n many ways a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f t h e  c o u n t r y as a whole.  F i r s t l y , s i n c e World War  I I thousands of i n d i v i d -  u a l s w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n and s k i l l s have been h i r e d a n n u a l l y from a c r o s s Canada t o t a k e on r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the F e d e r a l Government, and n a t u r a l l y t h e p o l i t i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and t h e i r come from a l l r e g i o n s of Canada.  T h i s movement t o Ottawa has  staffs  brought  about a l i n g u i s t i c m i x i n g and l e v e l l i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h tends to d e c r e a s e the importance o f the l o c a l speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . number of these  I t i s n o t o n l y the  newcomers b u t a l s o the f a c t t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e h o l d  i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n s w h i c h has l i n g u i s t i c r e l e v a n c e .  Secondly,  and  p o s s i b l y by chance, the Francophone p o p u l a t i o n of Ottawa i s v e r y c l o s e 3  t o the n a t i o n a l average of 27 p e r c e n t .  Ottawa i s a l s o t y p i c a l o f many  Canadian c i t i e s i n t h a t i t has a c t e d as a g o a l f o r i n - m i g r a t i o n and commuting from t h e s u r r o u n d i n g r u r a l a r e a .  T h i s r u r a l a r e a i s , however,  not l i n g u i s t i c a l l y t y p i c a l of G e n e r a l Canadian and needs t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d i n order to understand  the l o c a l s u b - s t r a t u m of urban Ottawa.  Ottawa i n the Ottawa V a l l e y No summary of the s e t t l e m e n t and s e t t i n g of Ottawa can be made i n any l i n g u i s t i c work w i t h o u t m e n t i o n i n g the s u r r o u n d i n g Ottawa V a l l e y . The Ottawa V a l l e y h e r e i s d e f i n e d as the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n of the Ottawa R i v e r watershed  i n Quebec as w e l l as O n t a r i o .  This region,  s e t t l e d m a i n l y by the I r i s h and t h e S c o t s and l a t e r by Quebecers and some P o l e s and Germans, forms one of t h e most d i s t i n c t i v e r u r a l areas i n Canada.  (See Map  1.)  dialect  Some r e l i c l i n g u i s t i c i n f l u e n c e s of the  'Ottawa V a l l e y Twang' can be found i n the c i t y of Ottawa today.  This  s t u d y , however, w i l l comment on o n l y those items w h i c h were r e c o r d e d d u r i n g our urban s u r v e y .  For an i n - d e p t h s t u d y of the Ottawa V a l l e y  d i a l e c t one s h o u l d c o n s u l t t h e work o f Enoch P a d o l s k i and I a n P r i n g l e now i n progress."'  The c i t y o f Ottawa s e r v e s as a c u l t u r a l , t r a d e , and  employment c e n t r e f o r much o f t h e Ottawa v a l l e y .  Socio-economic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n Ottawa W i t h i n t h e c i t y o f Ottawa t h e socio-economic as c l e a r l y a w e s t - t o - e a s t Vancouver.  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s not  g r a d a t i o n o f r i c h t o poor as i n a c i t y such as  F i n e houses have been b u i l t a l o n g t h e c a n a l , r i v e r s ,  parks,  and parkways, b u t o n l y two b l o c k s removed from t h e s e houses one o f t e n f i n d s q u i t e humble d w e l l i n g s .  T h i s p a t t e r n tends t o make t h e o f f i c i a l  census t r a c t s q u i t e heterogeneous and t h e r e f o r e v e r y m i s l e a d i n g . P e r s o n a l income and s a l a r i e s a r e t h e h i g h e s t p e r c a p i t a i n t h e nation.  F u r t h e r m o r e , Ottawa, among Canadian c i t i e s , has by f a r t h e  highest percentage of u n i v e r s i t y graduates.  There may a l s o be a c e r -  t a i n i n f l a t i o n o f t i t l e and p o s i t i o n w h i c h may i n f l u e n c e any s o c i o economic comparisons w i t h o t h e r Canadian c i t i e s .  Communications and C u l t u r e Ottawa has a i r , r a i l , b u s , and expressway l i n k s t o M o n t r e a l and Toronto and, m a i n l y through t h e s e c i t i e s , t o t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . Ottawa has two E n g l i s h evening newspapers and one French. M a i l from Toronto s e r v e s as t h e morning paper.  The Globe and  Ottawa's E n g l i s h t e l e -  v i s i o n s t a t i o n s a r e t h e CBC, CTV, G l o b a l , and O n t a r i o E d u c a t i o n a l , and v i a c a b l e v i s i o n t h e American networks NBC and CBS a r e r e l a y e d from R o c h e s t e r , New Y o r k and t h e P u b l i c B r o a d c a s t i n g System ( E d u c a t i o n a l ) from Watertown, New York. Ottawa's c u l t u r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s b o t h i n t h e f i e l d o f enjoyment and  23 T a b l e 1. 'Income, E d u c a t i o n , and M i g r a t i o n f o r Canada's' l a r g e s t C i t i e s . Census Metropolitan Area Calgary ChicoutimiJonquiere Edmonton Halifax Hamilton Kitchener London Montreal Ottawa-Hull Quebec Regina St. CatharinesNiagara S t . John's S a i n t John Saskatoon Sudbury Thunder Bay Toronto Vancouver Victoria Windsor Winnipeg Metropolitan Canada Nonmetropolitan Canada Canada  Average Family Income $ 10,943 9,162  University Graduation 1971 % 7.3 3.9  Statistics  In-migrants from t h e r e s t of Canada 78,410 10,535  Immigrant Population Total % 20.5 1.4  10,660 10,176 10,757 10,661 10,763 10,292 12,010 10,159 9,637 9,997  6.4 6.8 4.3 4.6 5.6 5.5 9.5 5.7 5.7 3.4  80,450 32,605 45,755 32,890 42.565 160,390 85,560 52,150 25.465 23,245  18.3 7.2 26.7 21.8 20.0 14.8 12.5 2.2 13.1 22.9  8,488 8,821 9,479 11,739 10,165 11,841 10,664 9,921 11,281 9,989 10,788  3.6 3.5 7.0 3.6 3.4 6.3 5.7 5.4 3.9 5.7 5.8  14.435 9,850 27,240 22,825 10.620 185,530 131.555 35,650 18,600 58,590  3.0 4.9 13.9 12.4 21.1 34.0 26.5 24.7 21.5 19.9 20.8  8,062  2.7  8.5  9,600  4.4  15.3  From Canadian Urban Trends: M e t r o p o l i t a n P e r s p e c t i v e , V o l . 2 , ed. D. M i c h a e l Ray, (Toronto: Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g , 1977), T a b l e s 4.1, 4.3, 1.6 and 5.1; pp.7, 40, 43, and 71.  employment a r e much g r e a t e r than a r e found i n o t h e r Canadian c i t i e s o f comparable s i z e .  Q u i t e n a t u r a l l y , because Ottawa i s t h e c a p i t a l o f t h e  c o n f e d e r a t i o n , i t i s t h e home o f such i n s t i t u t i o n s as t h e N a t i o n a l A r t G a l l e r y , The N a t i o n a l Museum o f Man, The N a t i o n a l L i b r a r y and P u b l i c A r c h i v e s , The N a t i o n a l A r t s C e n t r e and t h e N a t i o n a l Museum of S c i e n c e and Technology.  Ottawa a l s o c o n t a i n s C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , The U n i v e r s i t y  of Ottawa, S t . P a u l ' s U n i v e r s i t y , and A l g o n q u i n C o l l e g e .  2.  Ottawa V a l l e y Urban C e n t r e s Eleven informants  from urban c e n t r e s i n t h e Ottawa V a l l e y were  i n t e r v i e w e d i n o r d e r t h a t we c o u l d compare t h e speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of n a t i v e Ottawans w i t h t h e speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p e o p l e from nearby towns, namely Renfrew and Smiths F a l l s .  We were a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n  a s c e r t a i n i n g t o what e x t e n t t h e Ottawa V a l l e y 'twang' c o u l d s t i l l be found among townspeople i n t h a t a r e a . "The  J . K. Chambers i n h i s a r t i c l e  Ottawa V a l l e y 'twang'" s t a t e s : A v i s i t o r i n Carp o r A r n p r i o r o r K i l l a l o e i s l i k e l y t o spend a l o t o f t i m e t h e r e nowadays b e f o r e he comes upon a n a t i v e who speaks much d i f f e r e n t l y than he h i m s e l f does. The f o l k l o r e i s even much l e s s c r e d i b l e , o f c o u r s e , as i t a p p l i e s t o t h e u r b a n i z e d c e n t r e s o f t h e Ottawa V a l l e y l i k e Ottawa, H u l l , Renfrew and Pembroke. R e s i d e n t s o f s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o who move t o those c e n t r e s , as hundred do a n n u a l l y , may v e r y w e l l l i v e t h e r e s t o f t h e i r days i n them w i t h o u t c o n t a c t i n g a s p e a k e r o f t h e twang. I t was n o t always t h u s . The f o l k l o r e has i t s b a s i s i n f a c t , and even a g e n e r a t i o n ago might have been termed g e n e r a l l y t r u e . Now t h e Ottawa V a l l e y d i a l e c t s u r v i v e s o n l y i n whatever i s o l a t e d r u r a l communities remain. A l o n g t h e main r o u t e s , t h e dominant d i a l e c t has come t o be t h e d i a l e c t o f h e a r t l a n d Canada.? We h y p o t h e s i z e  t h a t p e o p l e from t h e s e towns a r e speakers of G e n e r a l  Canadian E n g l i s h w i t h perhaps a few v o c a b u l a r y items r e m a i n i n g from t h e 'twang'.  We w i l l f i n d some of t h e s e i t e m s o f ' V a l l e y T a l k ' e x t a n t i n  the towns.  We w i l l d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t t h e s e i t e m s a r e i n t h e  speech o f n a t i v e - O t t a w a n s .  Renfrew g Renfrew, a town o f 8,530  i n h a b i t a n t s , i s an a g r i c u l t u r a l c e n t r e  w h i c h a l s o has some secondary i n d u s t r y i n e l e c t r o n i c s and machine p a r t s . I t i s s i t u a t e d on t h e CN, t h e CPR, and t h e Trans-Canada Highway, s i x t y m i l e s west o f Ottawa. Smiths  Falls  Smiths F a l l s , s i t u a t e d f i f t y m i l e s southwest o f Ottawa on t h e R i d e a u C a n a l , highways 15 and 29, and CN and CPR l i n e s , i s a commercial and s e r v i c e c e n t r e f o r t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l Rideau Lakes.  I t a l s o has some secondary i n d u s t r y .  l a n d s and t h e Unfortunately, a  number o f secondary i n d u s t r i e s have f a i l e d or moved r e c e n t l y . 9 p o p u l a t i o n i s 9,149.  The  26  Chapter 2:  Footnotes  ^"Ottawa, S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1976 Census of Canada: P r e l i m i n a r y Counts, ( 1 9 7 6 ) , pp.50, 52, 54.  Population:  2 Ottawa, S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Census T r a c t s , O t t a w a - H u l l , (1971), pp.1-10. 3  Ibid,  pp.1-10.  S.K. Chambers, "The Ottawa V a l l e y 'twang'," Canadian E n g l i s h : O r i g i n s and S t r u c t u r e s , ed. J.K. Chambers ( T o r o n t o : Methuen, 1975), pp.55-59. The above a r t i c l e o f f e r s a s h o r t summary o f t h e d i a l e c t s i t u a t i o n i n the V a l l e y . ^E. P a d o l s k y and I . P r i n g l e , " R e f l e x e s of M.E. Vowels b e f o r e / r / i n Ottawa V a l l e y D i a l e c t s of H i b e r n o - E n g l i s h Types," u n p u b l i s h e d a r t i c l e r e a d a t t h e Learned S o c i e t i e s C o n v e n t i o n a t F r e d e r i c t o n , N.B., (1977), pp.1-13. B o t h r e s e a r c h e r s a r e p r o f e s s o r s a t C a r l e t o n U n i v e r s i t y , Ottawa. ^Canadian Urban Trends: M e t r o p o l i t a n P e r s p e c t i v e , V o l . 2 , ed. D.M. Ray, (Toronto: Copp C l a r k P u b l i s h i n g , 1977), pp.39-42. (See our T a b l e 1 compiled f r o m t h e above s o u r c e . ) ^Chambers, o p . c i t . , p.55. Population: P r e l i m i n a r y Counts: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1976), p.54. I b i d . , p.50.  1976 Census o f Canada, (Ottawa:  27  CHAPTER 3 CANADIAN ENGLISH  1.  Canadian E n g l i s h i n R e l a t i o n t o Other D i a l e c t s I n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e v a r i e t y o f E n g l i s h w i t h w h i c h we a r e  d e a l i n g , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e d i a l e c t , Canadian E n g l i s h , be p l a c e d w i t h i n t h e l a r g e r framework o f t h e E n g l i s h language f a m i l y .  There a r e  two main branches o f t h e E n g l i s h language, t h e B r i t i s h branch and t h e N o r t h American b r a n c h .  The B r i t i s h  Branch  The B r i t i s h branch i n c l u d e s t h e E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s o f t h e B r i t i s h I s l e s , A u s t r a l i a , New Z e a l a n d , S o u t h e r n A f r i c a , and a number o f s m a l l e r c o l o n i e s and former c o l o n i e s .  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 91 m i l l i o n p e o p l e a r e  n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f t h i s branch o f t h e language.''"  Some elements common  to most o f t h e d i a l e c t s w i t h i n t h i s b r a n c h and d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e N o r t h American E n g l i s h a r e :  1) t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n  from  o f [a] i n words such  as dance, c a n ' t , h a l f , and g r a s s where t h e vowel does n o t i m m e d i a t e l y precede a s t o p , 2) t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n  o f f t ] i n m e d i a l p o s i t i o n i n words  l i k e c i t y o r d i r t y , 3) t h e ' r l e s s ' p r o n u n c i a t i o n ,  i . e . the d e l e t i o n o f  / r / i n word and morpheme f i n a l p o s i t i o n and p r e - c o n s o n a n t a l p o s i t i o n , e.g. c a r and p a r t y , 4) t h e s y n t a c t i c c o m b i n a t i o n o f modal verb  followed  by t h e a u x i l i a r y verb do_ i n s h o r t form sentences such as We would do. and 5) t h e use o f g o t as t h e p a s t p a r t i c i p l e o f g e t . throughout t h e w o r l d s t i l l  Most p e o p l e  choose Standard Southern B r i t i s h , SSB, t h e  28 p r e s t i g i o u s d i a l e c t w i t h i n t h i s b r a n c h , as t h e i r model when l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a Second Language.  The N o r t h American  Branch  The N o r t h American Branch i s much l a r g e r ; a p p r o x i m a t e l y 211  million  2 p e o p l e speak i t n a t i v e l y .  A l t h o u g h c o n s e r v a t i v e i n some r e s p e c t s , t h i s  branch has developed g r a d u a l l y away from i t s source, which was,of course,. the E n g l i s h spoken i n B r i t a i n i n the s e v e n t e e n t h and e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r i e s . The American c o l o n i e s were the f i r s t  a r e a to be s e t t l e d , and a t t h a t  t i m e , 1620-1775, t r a n s - o c e a n i c communications were p r i m i t i v e .  and o v e r l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 3  I t was q u i t e n a t u r a l t h a t the two branches grew a p a r t .  A t t h a t t i m e , i n n o v a t i o n s were made t o the language on the new c o n t i n e n t m a i n l y i n the a r e a o f v o c a b u l a r y because o f the presence o f p r e v i o u s l y unknown f l o r a and fauna and as a r e s u l t of the c o n t a c t w i t h t h e I n d i a n s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e i n e v i t a b l e i n t e r n a l change o f language usage o v e r time was happening i n the mother c o u n t r y as w e l l as i n the c o l o n i e s .  London  and the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s o f S o u t h e r n E n g l a n d , f o r example, were i n t h e p r o c e s s of l o s i n g f i n a l and p r e - c o n s o n a n t a l / r / . R e v o l u t i o n a r y War,  1776, and independence  W i t h t h e o n s e t o f the  i n 1781, i t was  only natural  t h a t w i t h i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s l i n g u i s t i c d i v e r s i t y would d e v e l o p even more r a p i d l y and t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e i n usage would be sought o u t , m a g n i f i e d , and  institutionalized.  The S e t t l e m e n t o f Canada I t was  i n 1783 and 1784,  R e v o l u t i o n a r y War,  the y e a r i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r  the  t h a t Canada f i r s t became s e t t l e d i n any  significant  4 number by E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g p e o p l e .  These s e t t l e r s , w i s h i n g t o remain  29 under the B r i t i s h Crown and the r u l e o f law and o r d e r , were c a l l e d U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s ; some moved from New  England  and f u r t h e r s o u t h  onto t h e c o a s t l i n e o f Nova S c o t i a , a r e g i o n l a t e r t o be c a l l e d p r o v i n c e s o f New  Brunswick, Nova S c o t i a , and P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d .  Others s e t t l e d i n Quebec C i t y and M o n t r e a l . New  the  From Vermont, u p - s t a t e  Y o r k , w e s t e r n P e n n s y l v a n i a , and e l s e w h e r e , U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s  of g e n e r a l l y humbler s t a t u s and a more f r o n t i e r background moved o v e r l a n d to S o r e l , Quebec,where they were g i v e n food and s h e l t e r i n a r e f u g e e camp f o r two y e a r s w h i l e the i n i t i a l l a n d survey was conducted.  being  These L o y a l i s t s e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e d a l o n g the n o r t h e r n bank  o f t h e S t . Lawrence R i v e r and t h e n o r t h e r n shores of Lakes O n t a r i o E r i e i n what i s now  Ontario."'  (See Map  3.)  10,000 U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s a l l t o l d who L o y a l i s t s who  There were, perhaps, settled Ontario.^  and only  Many  f i r s t had s e t t l e d i n Nova S c o t i a l a t e r moved t o Upper  Canada upon h e a r i n g r e p o r t s of a more f a v o u r a b l e c l i m a t e and b e t t e r s o i l conditions. A somewhat l a r g e r number o f s e t t l e r s moved f r o m the n o r t h e r n s t a t e s to Upper Canada a decade o r two l a t e r (hence t h e i r name 'Late L o y a l i s t s ' ) , t a k i n g up l a n d c o n c e s s i o n s i n a program sponsored  by the Crown.  These two groups t o g e t h e r , the L o y a l i s t s and the l a t e L o y a l i s t s , formed i n Upper Canada a p o p u l a t i o n o f about 100,000 by 1 8 1 2 . t i c a l l y , t h i s was because i t was  7  the most i m p o r t a n t s e t t l e m e n t i n B r i t i s h N o r t h  O n t a r i o w h i c h was  d e s t i n e d to become the r i c h and  LinguisAmerica, densely  p o p u l a t e d h e a r t l a n d o f Canada. C o u l d the s p a r s e s e t t l e m e n t o f 100,000 form the b a s i s of a n a t i o n a l language by each summer a s s i m i l a t i n g s h i p l o a d s of s c o r e s o f thousands o f B r i t i s h immigrants?  D u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ,  from 1812  to 1850,  800,000 immigrants  from B r i t a i n , m a i n l y S c o t s g  I r i s h , s e t t l e d i n t h e same a r e a s o f Upper Canada. t r o v e r s y today whether the American immigrants  and  I t remains a con-  or the B r i t i s h  immigrants  9  l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n f o r Canadian E n g l i s h .  What seems i m p o r t a n t i n  summing up the development o f Canadian E n g l i s h i n those e a r l y y e a r s 1782  from  t o 1850 b e f o r e Canada e x i s t e d i s : 1) t h a t b o t h American and  B r i t i s h i m m i g r a t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t c o n t r i b u t e d j o i n t l y t o the d e v e l o p ment o f Canadian E n g l i s h , 2) t h a t the B r i t i s h and American d i a l e c t s must have been l e s s d i v e r g e n t than they are t o d a y , 3 ) t h a t each major d i a l e c t , i . e . A m e r i c a n and B r i t i s h , must have been spoken i n Canada by hundreds o f thousands of s p e a k e r s a n d  4) t h a t Canadian E n g l i s h was  d e v e l o p i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f the two by p i c k i n g and c h o o s i n g what i t p r e f e r r e d and by i n n o v a t i n g on i t s own when i t d i d not l i k e the c h o i c e o r when t h e r e was  no q u e s t i o n o f c h o i c e .  A f t e r 1850, we see c o n t i n u e d i m m i g r a t i o n from B r i t a i n and  the  U n i t e d S t a t e s and a growing p r o s p e r i t y i n s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o and M o n t r e a l . As w e s t e r n Canada i s b e i n g s e t t l e d , we see t h r e e major E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g groups s e t t l i n g t h e p r a i r i e s and i n f l u e n c i n g t h e language; the,Americans  these a r e  and the B r i t i s h a g a i n but a l s o f o r the f i r s t time the  Canadians, m o s t l y O n t a r i a n s .  The Canadian s t y l e o f E n g l i s h p r e v a i l s ,  and t h i s p a t t e r n c o n t i n u e s as Canada expands westward and  northward.  Southern O n t a r i o c o n t i n u e s t o grow and dominates t h e r e s t o f Canada i n d u s t r i a l l y , c o m m e r c i a l l y , and p o l i t i c a l l y , and as a consequence o f dominating i n these three f i e l d s , i t s e t s the l i n g u i s t i c  standard.  Present S i t u a t i o n I f one l o o k s a t the language s i t u a t i o n a c r o s s Canada today,  one  w i l l see t h a t t h e M a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s s t i l l r e t a i n a s t y l e o f speech s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t of<the r e s t of Canada, a r e s u l t of t h e s  i n f l u x o f s e t t l e r s from c o a s t a l New England s i n c e t h e 1760's and from c o n t i n u o u s c u l t u r a l and economic Newfoundland  t i e s w i t h New England ever s i n c e .  too has a unique s t y l e o f E n g l i s h based m a i n l y on t h e  speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s e t t l e r s from I r e l a n d and from t h e southwest of E n g l a n d .  The speech o f i n d i v i d u a l s who l i v e i n t h e o u t p o r t s i s t h e 12  most d i f f e r e n t from G e n e r a l Canadian Canada.  t h a t one w i l l encounter i n  The speech h e a r d i n the c i t i e s , however, resembles more and  more t h e speech h e a r d a c r o s s Canada. Newfoundland  In f a c t , recent interviews o f  h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s sounded almost i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  from t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n suburban T o r o n t o .  T h i s same language  l e v e l l i n g among young p e o p l e i s a l s o v e r y n o t i c e a b l e n o t o n l y i n t h e M a r i t i m e p r o v i n c e s b u t a l s o i n r u r a l d i a l e c t p o c k e t s a c r o s s Canada. E n g l i s h i n r u r a l r e g i o n s o f Quebec i s almost n o n - e x i s t e n t except for  t h e E a s t e r n Townships and P o n t i a c County.  The E a s t e r n Townships  were s e t t l e d by L o y a l i s t s and L a t e L o y a l i s t s from w e s t e r n New England and u p - s t a t e New Y o r k .  F r e n c h i s now r e p l a c i n g E n g l i s h i n t h i s a r e a .  P o n t i a c County i s p a r t o f the Ottawa V a l l e y and has speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h conform t o t h a t r e g i o n .  Anglophone 13 v e r y much l i k e speakers from t h e r e s t o f Canada.  M o n t r e a l e r s sound  As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , o v e r l a n d s e t t l e r s from w e s t e r n New England, u p - s t a t e New Y o r k , New J e r s e y and P e n n s y l v a n i a moved i n t o O n t a r i o .  Of  those items w h i c h a r e o f American d e r i v a t i o n i n Canadian E n g l i s h a predominant number a r e from t h e N o r t h e r n American d i a l e c t - t h e p r e s t i g e d i a l e c t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e major c o n t r i b u t o r t o G e n e r a l American.  The g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n o f t h e N o r t h e r n American d i a l e c t i s  32 a l s o t h e r i c h i n d u s t r i a l h e a r t l a n d o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  The  Northern  American d i a l e c t a r e a i s i m p o r t a n t to O n t a r i o E n g l i s h not o n l y because i t was  t h e source o f i m m i g r a t i o n from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , but a l s o  because i t i s the a r e a o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h which O n t a r i o has maintained the c l o s e s t t i e s .  A l l t h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t M i d l a n d  America d i d not p l a y a m e a n i n g f u l r o l e , f o r M i d l a n d s p e a k e r s a l s o immigrated to s o u t h e r n O n t a r i o . T h i s e x p l a i n s why we have M i d l a n d forms i n Canadian speech, e.g. b l i n d s , dew worm, and c o a l o i l .  These  forms were most e a s i l y a c c e p t e d when B r i t i s h immigrant usage c o i n c i d e d , as i n the case o f b l i n d s . The p r a i r i e s were s e t t l e d by farmers moving west from O n t a r i o , the American Mid-West ( m a i n l y N o r t h e r n and some M i d l a n d s p e a k e r s a g a i n ) , the G r e a t P l a i n s s t a t e s , and from B r i t a i n .  There a l s o were a l a r g e  number of U k r a i n i a n s , French Canadians, Germans and S c a n d i n a v i a n s . Educated Englishmen o f t e n o b t a i n e d , as they do today, p o s i t i o n s of a u t h o r i t y and p r e s t i g e as a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c l e r g y , o f f i c e r s , e d u c a t o r s , c i v i l servants, e t c .  T h i s may be one o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t  differ-  ences between the l i n g u i s t i c s i t u a t i o n o f Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s today, namely t h a t B r i t i s h E n g l i s h enjoys a p o s i t i o n o f p r e s t i g e and r e s p e c t throughout Canada.  T h i s advantage  i s a f f o r d e d to one g e n e r a t i o n  o n l y as the i m m i g r a n t s ' c h i l d r e n i n e v i t a b l y speak Canadian. The c o a s t a l r e g i o n and t h e Okanagan r e g i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia  had  a much l a r g e r number and p r o p o r t i o n o f s e t t l e r s f r o m B r i t a i n t h a n d i d the P r a i r i e s , b u t even h e r e , the Canadians  from t h e M a r i t i m e s , O n t a r i o ,  and t h e P r a i r i e s moved i n and l a t e r a s s i m i l a t e d them. i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia was  s e t t l e d by miners from Utah and  whose a n c e s t o r s came from M i d l a n d a r e a s . assimilated, too.  Much o f the  These miners.were  later  Idaho  33 Canadian E n g l i s h thus i s v e r y u n i f o r m from O n t a r i o t o B r i t i s h Columbia and n o r t h w a r d , and i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y so i n A t l a n t i c Canada.  The i n f l u e n c e s , N o r t h e r n American, B r i t i s h , and M i d l a n d  American were c o n t i n u o u s and sometimes r e c o n v e r g i n g f o r o v e r 200 y e a r s of development.  As a r e s u l t , a u n i f o r m Canadian d i a l e c t c o v e r s a l a r g e r  l a n d mass than any o t h e r one d i a l e c t i n t h e w o r l d .  Canadian  English  today i s most d e f i n i t e l y a N o r t h A m e r i c a n d i a l e c t o f E n g l i s h , be i t from the L o y a l i s t s or from 200 y e a r s o f c o n s t a n t c o n t a c t a c r o s s some 4,000 miles of i n t e r n a t i o n a l border.  To i l l u s t r a t e how s i m i l a r Canadian  E n g l i s h and N o r t h e r n American a r e , we can r e p o r t  t h a t i t t a k e s most  B r i t o n s a few y e a r s i n Canada t o d i s t i n g u i s h the d i f f e r e n c e , and  that  some Canadian u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s have a t t e n d e d l e c t u r e s f o r one y e a r w i t h o u t knowing whether t h e i r p r o f e s s o r was American o r n o t . instances  These  n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Canadian E n g l i s h i s a d i s t i n c t i v e d i a l e c t  w i t h i n the N o r t h American b r a n c h o f the E n g l i s h language f a m i l y , and i t e n j o y s the s o c i o p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s of a n a t i o n a l language, something w h i c h N o r t h e r n , M i d l a n d , S o u t h e r n o r Western A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h can n o t . H a v i n g examined the development and p r e s e n t s t a t e o f Canadian E n g l i s h , l e t us now i n v e s t i g a t e those l i n g u i s t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h i t from educated N o r t h e r n A m e r i c a n , the d i a l e c t most c l o s e l y 14 r e l a t e d t o Canadian E n g l i s h .  2.  L i n g u i s t i c Features As a r e s u l t of 1) l i s t e n i n g t o Canadian and N o r t h e r n American  E n g l i s h , 2) n o t i c i n g how f o r e i g n e r s 3) a n a l y s i n g  categorize  Canadian E n g l i s h  and  our s u r v e y r e s u l t s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t Canadians and  N o r t h e r n Americans n o t i c e l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e between each o t h e r , i t i s  c l e a r t h a t Canadian E n g l i s h and N o r t h e r n American ( a l s o G e n e r a l American) a r e v e r y s i m i l a r . i t as a r e f e r e n c e  Acknowledging t h i s s i m i l a r i t y and  using  p o i n t , the n e x t s e c t i o n w i l l o u t l i n e the d i s t i n g -  u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Canadian E n g l i s h . We w i l l now t a k e the major l i n g u i s t i c c a t e g o r i e s describe  the d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t .  of language and  Those i t e m s w h i c h a r e unique  to Canadian speech o r w h i c h may be s u s p e c t e d o f b e i n g i n a s t a t e o f change w i l l t h e n be the b a s i s f o r the s t y l i s t i c  and s o c i o l o g i c a l  s u r v e y which i s t o f o l l o w .  Phonology I t i s a t the l e v e l o f phonology t h a t we f i n d the g r e a t e s t systematic  d i f f e r e n c e between Canadian E n g l i s h and N o r t h e r n A m e r i c a n .  Any d i f f e r e n c e here i n the r e s p e c t i v e systems c o u l d mean a d i f f e r e n c e i n pronunciation  o f hundreds o f words.  We w i l l now l o o k a t t h e s e g -  mental u n i t s o f t h e s e two d i a l e c t s and compare them.  The  Consonants The c o n s o n a n t a l systems of Canadian E n g l i s h and N o r t h e r n A m e r i c a n  are p h o n e m i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l .  In f a c t a l l o t h e r major E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s  seem t o have a c o n s o n a n t a l system w h i c h i s t a b u l a t e d  below.  35  Labial Stops  P  Dental  Alveolar t  b  d  Affricates Nasals f  V  e 5  s  z  Lateral  1  Frictionless Continuant  r  Glides  Velar k  tj  d^  J'  3  Glottal  g-  n  m  Fricatives  Palatal  w  h  j  I t i s t h e a l l o p h o n i c r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e phonemes and t h e i r  combina-  t i o n s which d i f f e r e n t i a t e the d i a l e c t s .  1.  /tj,  dj , n j /  Perhaps t h e most n o t i c e a b l e speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c the consonants i s t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n  associated  by many Canadians o f t h e y o d , / j / ,  when f o l l o w e d by an /u/ and preceded by a It/, / d / , o r /n/. r e a l i z e this pronunciation  with  Canadians  f r e q u e n t l y when t h e word c o n t a i n i n g t h e  sound i s pronounced i n i s o l a t i o n o r when t h e word i s i n a s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n w i t h i n a sentence.  Americans do n o t have t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n  w i t h yod as a g o a l .  Word  Canadian  N o r t h e r n American  1.  tube  [tjub]  [tub]  2.  Tuesday  [tjuzdei]  [tuzdei]  3.  tune  [tjun]  [tun]  36 Word  Canadian  Northern American  4.  student  [stjudant]  [student]  5.  stupid  [stjupad]  [stuped]  1.  dew  [dju]  2.  dual  [djual]  [dual]  3.  due  [dju]  [du-:].  4.  duke  [djuk]  [duk]  5.  dune  [djun]  [dun]  6.  dupe  [djup]  [dup]  7.  duplex  [djupleks]  1.  new  [nju]  [nu]  2.  nude  [njud]  [nud]  3.  avenue  [svanju]  2.  /hw/  [du]  [dupleks]  [asvanu]  S i m i l a r l y , many Canadians pronounce a voiceless version of /w/, i . e . , /hw/ or /M/, i n words l i k e whether, where, what, which, why, whine, white, etc., when these words are stressed.  Americans t y p i c a l l y do not hold  this as a goal. These two differences between Canadian and American speech within the area of consonantal usage w i l l be investigated thoroughly i n the s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n portion of the survey.  The Vowels 1.  The V o c a l i c System The v o c a l i c systems o f Canadian and N o r t h e r n American a r e somewhat  different.  Illustration  The Canadian system i s i l l u s t r a t e d  below.  3.1 beat  The Canadian V o c a l i c System  As one can s e e , t h e r e a r e 10 s t r e s s e d vowel phonemes p l u s t h e schwa w h i c h i s an a l l o p h o n i c v a r i a n t o f any vowel sound i n an u n s t r e s s e d position. The N o r t h e r n American v o c a l i c system d i f f e r s  i n one i t e m o n l y :  where Canadian E n g l i s h has t h e back, open, rounded phoneme /n/, N o r t h e r n American has t h e a d d i t i o n a l unrounded /a/.  38  cot a [ kat ]  • •  1  1 caught t> [ k D t  ]_  N o r t h e r n American thus has a c o n t r a s t i n sound and meaning between c o t and caught; and between c a l l e r [ k n l e r ] and c o l l a r Most Canadians a c t u a l l y  use b o t h t h e s e sounds b u t i n f r e e  1. e. w i t h o u t making any d i s t i n c t i o n i n meaning. c h o i c e l e x i c a l l y o r a t random. variation  2.  [kdler].  They seem t o make t h e i r  We w i l l a n a l y s e t h e n a t u r e of t h i s  free  i n the study.  Canadian Diphthongs There a r e t h r e e d i p h t h o n g s common t o t h e v o c a l i c  systems o f Canadian  E n g l i s h , N o r t h e r n American and a l l o t h e r major E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s ; are:  variation,  1. / a i / as i n buy, 2. /ao/ as i n bough, and 3: / o i / as i n boy.  these  39 Illustration  3.2  English  Diphthongs  The a l l o p h o n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of the second of t h e s e t h r e e d i p h t h o n g s i s what d i f f e r e n t i a t e s Canadian E n g l i s h most markedly from N o r t h A m e r i c a n , and i t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s h i b b o l e t h around and about the house.  In  the environment where the 'ou' d i p h t h o n g i s f o l l o w e d by a v o i c e l e s s consonant i t i s pronounced out [Aut].  [Au ] or sometimes [eu], e.g. s o u t h  [SAUG]  T h i s d i p h t h o n g w i t h a h i g h e r s t r e s s e d element may  also  and occur,  b u t c e r t a i n l y l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , i n environments where a v o i c e l e s s consonant i s the u n d e r l y i n g form, but where the s u r f a c e form i s r e a l i z e d ^ a s v o i c e d , e.g. as i n shouted where the u n d e r l y i n g form i s [ J / u t e d ] b u t where the s u r f a c e form i s [jAudad], a p p l y i n g the m e d i a l / t / v o i c i n g r u l e . Here we have an i n t e r e s t i n g case of r u l e o r d e r i n g , i . e . , does one s e l e c t the d i p h t h o n g w i t h the h i g h e r s t r e s s e d element f i r s t , t h e n v o i c e the / t / ,  40  or does one f i r s t v o i c e the / t / and then choose the. d i p h t h o n g w i t h the l o w e r s t r e s s e d element u n r a i s e d ? ..Some manage t o say [Jauded].  Illustration  3.3  Canadian Diphthongs w i t h H i g h S t r e s s e d Elements  The o t h e r d i p h t h o n g w h i c h has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t r i b u t i o n i s the /a 1/ d i p h t h o n g . the like  Canadian a l l o p h o n i c  P a r a l l e l t o the [ A U ] d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  [ s i ] r e a l i z a t i o n o c c u r s when f o l l o w e d by a v o i c e l e s s consonant, e.g. [ l a i k ] , night  [ n s i t ] , or when the u n d e r l y i n g form of the consonant  i s v o i c e l e s s , e.g., w r i t e r i s f r e q u e n t l y pronounced  [raider].  Canadians  and Americans seem unaware of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r speech c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s b u t s u b c o n s c i o u s l y may  include i t i n t h e i r evaluation that  Canadian speech i s more " c l i p p e d " and  "crisp".  I n the s t u d y we w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e these d i p h t h o n g s t h o r o u g h l y i n many environments and  styles.  3.  Phonemic R e d u c t i o n b e f o r e / r / Canadian as w e l l as N o r t h e r n American s p e a k e r s have reduced t h e  number of s t r e s s e d vowel phonemes o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e / r / from t h e t e n o r e l e v e n p o s s i b l e down t o f i v e : 1.  pier [pir]  2.  pear [ p e r ]  3.  purr [ p e r ]  4.  poor  [por]^  5.  par  [par]  Some C a n a d i a n s , however, pronounce an over-rounded [o] b e f o r e / r / i n words l i k e p o r r i d g e , D o r o t h y , orange, and s o r r y . A l s o , many Canadians tend t o r e t a i n a d i f f e r e n c e  between:  Mary ] \ [meYi ] merryJ marry) [mari ] Most N o r t h e r n Americans have merged a l l t h r e e words t o [ m e V i ] .  4.  Liaison N o r t h e r n Americans f r e q u e n t l y do n o t a p p l y t h e second h a l f of a  p r e s c r i p t i v e r u l e w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t one s h o u l d say a. [ a ] , t h e [ 6 e ] , _to [ t e ] , e t c . , b e f o r e words b e g i n n i n g w i t h consonant sounds and an [ a n ] , the  [3i]» _t° [ t ] u  5  e t c . b e f o r e words b e g i n n i n g w i t h v o w e l sounds.  We  w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e s e l i a i s o n f e a t u r e s i n Ottawa speech.  P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f Words In a d d i t i o n t o t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l systems w h i c h have been d e s c r i b e d and c o n t r a s t e d above, t h e r e i s the s i m p l e r f a c t o r o f t h e c h o i c e o f phoneme t o be used i n an i n d i v i d u a l word o r s e t of words.  The  of phoneme used i n a word g i v e s us some o f t h e most e a s i l y  recognizable  d i f f e r e n c e s between  Canadian and American E n g l i s h .  I n ;the l i s t  choice  that  f o l l o w s , t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n c i t e d i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e most f r e q u e n t v a r i a n t , b u t i t does r e p r e s e n t a s t y l i s t i c v a r i a n t w h i c h most s t r i k i n g l y 16 d i s t i n g u i s h e s a Canadian from an American and v i c e v e r s a . There a r e a few a f f i x e s w i t h w h i c h we w i l l d e a l f i r s t .  Affix 1. - i l e  Canadian  N o r t h e r n American  Comment  [ail]  [ai]  The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s h i g h , i . e . most Canadians say [at I ] and most Americans say [ a l ] , c f . CEU, 17 pp.80, 81, and W i l l .  [ant i ] [mAlti] Is£m'\ ]  I eent a L ] [ mA* I t a i ] [semai]  The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s h i g h , c f . CEU, pp.60, 61.  [IQ]  [iQ] [an]  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , You Don't'Say, V o l . one, I s s u e 5, d i s cusses t h i s usage i n Canada.  Examples) a.  agile fertile futile hostile missile  f.  mobile  g-  proj e c t i l e  h.  virile  2.  antimultisemi-  3.  -ing  [in]  43 Word  Canadian  Northern American  Comment  absurd  [abzard]  [absard]  Some di-fferentation, cf. DCE and W i l l .  asphalt  [ffisfnlt]  [fflJfDlt]  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , cf. DCE and W i l l .  again  [agei n]  [agin ]  Americans rarely say [agei n]; see CEU, p.72 for Canadian percentages.  Algonquin  [aelgnnkin]  [ael gAnkw i n ]  See DCE and W i l l .  apricots  [eiprakbts]  [ffiprekats]  See CEU, p.54, and Gregg, 1973, pp. 109-113.  balcony  [ br> I kan i ]  [be Ikan i ]  See DCE and W i l l .  [ baa I kan i ] been  [bin]  [bin]  Americans rarely say [bi n]. See DCE for Canadian usage.  blouse  [bIaoz]  [bIaos ]  Americans never say [blaoz]. See DCE for preferred usage.  caramel  [ keerame I ]  Datsun  [ditsan]  [ d'cttsan ]  High  differentiation.  decal  [d£kal ]  [dake* I ] [ d f ke I ]  High  differentiation.  eh  [ei]  either  [ai5ar]  [ karma I ]  [hA]  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , see CEU, pp.67, 68.  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n tag sounds.  [f5ar]  See CEU, pp.78, 79 for Canadian percentages .  eleven  [ al e'van ]  [ i I e'van ]  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  garage  [gard^]  [gar&d^]  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  44  H  1.  Word  Canadian  hoof  [huf ]  Northern  American  [hof ]  Comment  Canadians  [hof].  rarely  say  S e e CEU,  p.75, f o r C a n a d i a n percentages of roof .  Iroquois  [ irakwd]  [ Crakwo i ]  High cf.  K,  khaki  [ k&rki]  [ kaeki ]  2.  lever  3.  lieutenant  4.  lilac  DCE  and  Americans  [kdrki]. and  leisure  differentiation,  If^r]  [Ii?er]  [  [ I fv.sr]  [ I ever]  Will.  never  say  S e e DCE  I  Will.  S e e CEU, p . 7 4 , a n d G r e g g , 1973:, p p . 1 1 1 , 112, f o r C a n a d i a n percentages. S e e CEU and G r e g g , 1973', p p . 1 1 2 , 113 f o r Canadian percentages . Americans never say [Ieftenant]. S e e CEU p.7.3 f o r C a n a d i a n percentage.  [lailak]  [ I  a 11 ask ]  High cf.  differentiation, DCE  and  Will.  M  1.  0  neither  [na tSar ]  [n'Sar]  Usage p e r c e n t a g e s seem t o a p p r o x i m a t e those f o r e i t h e r , except i n the phrase me n e i t h e r .  45 Word  Canadian  Northern  p  American  Comment Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , see CEU, p.86, 87, f o r Canadian p e r centages .  1.  produce n.  [proudus]  [prddus]  2.  progress  [prougres]  [prdgres]  3.  process  [prouses]  [prases]  1.  Renault  [renou]  [ renalt]  High  2.  roof  [ruf]  [ rof ]  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , see CEU, p.75, f o r Canadian p e r c e n t a g e s .  3.  root  [rut]  [rot]  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , see Gregg, 1973, pp. 108-112 f o r Kootenay percentage.  route  [rut]  [raot]  See CEU, pp.87, 88 and Gregg, 1973, pp. 108-113 f o r Canadian percentages.  schedule  [J^d^ul]  [skerd^ul]  Americans  Q  S  l.  differentiation.  [ J e d ^ u l ].  never say See  CEU  pp.55,56, and Gregg, 1973, pp.109-113 f o r Canadian p e r c e n t a g e s . 2.  senile  [s^nail]  3.  shone  [J^n]  tomato  [temseto]  T1.  [s'nail]  [Jon]  [tameido]  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , c f . DCE and W i l l . Americans never say [Jnn ]; Canadians almost always do. See Gregg, 1973, pp. 108,113, f o r Canadian percentages. Americans  never say  [t ameeto ] ; Canadians  sometimes do. See CEU, pp.65, 66, and Gregg, 1973, pp.108, 113 f o r Canadian percentages.  46  Word  Canadian  Northern American  Comment  vase  [ vnz] or [vaz ] or [ vei z ]  [ vei s ]  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , see CEU, pp.58, 59, and Gregg, 1973, pp. 109-113 for Canadian percentages.  were  [ wer]  [wer ]  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  2.  weren't  [wernt]  [warnt ]  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  l.  Z  [zed]  [zi]  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , see CEU, pp.59, 60, for Canadian percentages .  2.  zebra  [zebra ]  [ zfbra ]  Americans never say [zdbra]; Canadians sometimes do. See Gregg, 197.3, pp.108113, for B.C. percentages.  3.  zero  [ ziYou ]  [zi:rou ]  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  U  w1.  X  Y  J  Grammar:  Morphology and Syntax  The grammatical structure i s the most conservative element of any language.  The phonology and lexicon of various dialects of any language  vary widely one from another, but i t i s at the levels of morphology and syntax that dialects are most s i m i l a r .  The items which d i f f e r e n t i a t e are:  47 Canadian  N o r t h e r n American  Comment  Do y o u n o t . . Are you n o t .  Don't you.. A r e n ' t you.  Canadians may use Don't you and A r e n ' t you b u t Americans r a r e l y use t h e Do you n o t and A r e you n o t forms.  Tuesday n e x t  next  Tuesday n e x t i s normal B r i t i s h usage.  Tuesday week  a week from t h i s coming Tuesday  Tuesday  Tuesday n e x t i s normal B r i t i s h usage. T h i s t y p e of word order, started i n governmentese, i s patterned after F r e n c h and i s one of t h e r e s u l t s o f the b i l i n g u a l i s m p o l i c y and language contact.  A i r Canada H e a l t h and W e l f a r e Canada Labour Canada S t a t i s t i c s Canada S p o r t Canada T r a n s p o r t Canada L o t t o Canada etc. eh (as a s u b s t i t u t e for question tags, etc.)  huh  Americans use eh when t e a s i n g l y reprimanding a f r i e n d and o t h e r wise only extremely rarely. Canadians use huh o n l y extremely r a r e l y .  Have you g o t . .  Do you have.  Canadians may p r e f e r Have you g o t . . . more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n do Americans. See A v i s , 1954, pp.13-17.  In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e may be a few S t a n d a r d S o u t h e r n B r i t i s h forms and usages w h i c h a r e used more f r e q u e n t l y by Canadians t h a n by Americans.  1.  SSB  USA  got  gotten  (as  i n t h e p a s t p a r t i c p l e of g e t )  48 SSB  USA  2.  Don't l e t ' s ~ r r  Let's not...  3.  proved  proven  (as i n t h e p a s t p a r t i c i p l e o f prove)  Lexicon I t i s a t t h e l e v e l of l e x i c o n t h a t we f i n d t h e g r e a t e s t number o f items w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e  Canadian E n g l i s h from N o r t h e r n American.  Moreover, i t i s a t t h i s l e v e l more than any o t h e r t h a t one can see t h a t Canadian E n g l i s h has developed i n d e p e n d e n t l y . Many Canadian words and phrases r e l a t e  t o u n i q u e l y Canadian e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e r e f o r e w i l l be  found nowhere e l s e b u t Canada.  The L e x i c o g r a p h i c a l C e n t r e f o r Canadian  E n g l i s h l o c a t e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a under t h e d i r e c t i o n o f P r o f e s s o r S c a r g i l l has produced two books w h i c h d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h this subject.  These books a r e A D i c t i o n a r y of Canadianisms 19  W. A v i s and A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f Canadian E n g l i s h  18  e d i t e d by  by M.H. S c a r g i l l .  Below, we l i s t some common Canadian items w h i c h a r e p a r t of t h e v o c a b u l a r y of everyday l i f e and w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e  Canadians from N o r t h e r n Americans.  The c l a i m i s n o t t h a t a l l Canadians use a p a r t i c u l a r the  term 100 p e r c e n t o f  t i m e , b u t r a t h e r t h a t t h a t usage c o u p l e d w i t h o t h e r suohousages w i l l  distinguish  a Canadian from a N o r t h e r n American.  according to semantic area.  The i t e m s a r e p r e s e n t e d  49 EDUCATION Canadian  Northern  American  Grade 1, 2, e t c .  f i r s t grade, e t c .  100%  someone i n grade 3  third  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  grader  Comment differentiation  Grade 13 does n o t e x i s t i n the United S t a t e s and some provinces.  Grade 13  collegiate institute  high school  Americans never say collegiate institute.  secondary s c h o o l  junior high school and h i g h s c h o o l  Some Canadians say (junior) high school  s e n i o r secondary  high school  Some Canadians say (senior) high school  j u n i o r secondary  j u n i o r high school  Some Canadians say (junior) high school  elementary  grade s c h o o l  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  matriculated  graduated  Matriculated i s not heard i n t h e U.S.  Separate  Parochial or C a t h o l i c Schools  P a r o c h i a l Schools o r C a t h o l i c Schools i s not h e a r d i n Canada.  eraser  B r u s h i s n o t heard i n the U.S.  brush supply  school  Schools  (blackboard) teacher  substitute  teacher  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  e l a s t i c (band)  rubber band  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  zed  zee  Americans never say zed.  grades  marks  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  i n v i g i l a t e (tests) invigilator  monitor  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  residence  dorm(itory)  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  catalog  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  calendar  (bulletin)  50 Canadian 19.  university  N o r t h e r n American  Comment  college ( i n a phrase l i k e 'gone o f f to _ . ')  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , Canadians usage i s u n i v e r s i t y i n such phrases.  HOUSEHOLD Canadian  N o r t h e r n American  Comment  bag ( g r o c e r y )  sack  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , see A v i s , 1954, p.13.  blinds  shades  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , see Gregg, 1974, pp. 108-114 f o r Canadian and American p e r centages .  3.  braces  suspenders  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  4.  budgie  parakeet  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  davenport  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , see CEU, pp.106, 107, and Gregg, 1974, pp. 108-112.  1.  5.  chesterfield  6.  cutlery flatware  silverware  Low  7.  hydro b i l l hydro p o l e etc.  electricity b i l l e l e c t r i c i t y or telephone pole  Americans do n o t have t h i s usage.  8.  porridge  oatmeal  High  serviette  napkin  Low d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , see CEU, pp.116, 117.  tap(s)  faucet  Faucet i s g a i n i n g i n usage i n Canada f o r one f i x t u r e w h i c h combines h o t and c o l d w a t e r . Tap i s used i n both countries f o r the o u t s i d e f i x t u r e . See CEU, pp.107-108, and Gregg, 1974, pp. 108-115 f o r Canadian and American p e r c e n t ages .  9.  10.  differentiation  differentiation  51 Canadian  N o r t h e r n American  Comment  11.  veranda  porch  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  12.  wallet  billfold  Few Canadians s a y billfold.  LOCAL POLITICS, PUBLIC AFFAIRS Canadian  N o r t h e r n American  Comment  e l e c t e d by acclamation  elected without opposition  T h i s usage i s n o t found i n the States. See DCE and The D i c t i o n a r y o f Canadianisms.  alderman  councilman  Councilman i s n o t used i n Canada. C o u n c i l l o r i s used i n P.E.I.  concession c o n c e s s i o n road concession l i n e  land grant  Concession i s r a r e l y used i n t h e S t a t e s .  4.  county town  county s e a t  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  5.  reeve (of a municipality)  mayor  Reeve i s r a r e l y used i n the States.  6.  fire  fire station  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  7.  p o s t a l code  zip  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , p o s t a l code i s p a t t e r n e d a f t e r French and i s a r e s u l t o f the b i l i n g u a l i s m p o l i c y and language c o n t a c t . Z i p code i s h e a r d v e r y f r e q u e n t l y i n Canada.  postie  mailman  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . P o s t i e i s n o t heard i n the States. Mailman i s most common i n Canada.  s o c i a l insurance number (SIN number)  social security number  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  hall  code  52 Canadian  N o r t h e r n American  Comment  10.  garbage  garbage ( f o o d products) j u n k (non-food products) t r a s h (non-food products)  High  11.  returning officer (an o f f i c i a l i n charge o f an election i na constituency.  Returning o f f i c e r i s n o t used i n the S t a t e s .  12.  scrutineer (one who examines v o t e s d u r i n g an election)  Scrutineer i s not used i n t h e S t a t e s ,  13.  hustings (a p l a t f o r m from w h i c h a c a n d i d a t e makes speeches)  H u s t i n g s i s ^seldom used i n t h e S t a t e s .  14.  riding (a p o l i t i c a l divis ion r e p r e s e n t e d by an M.P., M.L.A., M.P.P., e t c . )  15.  backbencher (an o r d i n a r y member o f P a r l i a m e n t or o f a l e g i s l a t i v e assembly)  Backbencher i s n o t used i n t h e S t a t e s .  16.  r a t e payer (one who pays m u n i c i p a l taxes)  Rate payer i s n o t used i n t h e S t a t e s .  17.  enumerator (one who, p r i o r t o an election, registers e l i g i b l e voters)  Enumerator i s n o t used i n t h e S t a t e s .  18.  w h i t e paper green paper (government r e p o r t s )  T h i s usage i s seldom found i n t h e S t a t e s .  congressional district, state d i s t r i c t  differentiation.  R i d i n g i s n o t used i n the States.  53 Canadian  N o r t h e r n American  Comment  19.  constable  policeman  Constable i s r a r e l y used i n the n o r t h e r n states.  20.  Baby Bonus ($20.00/month/child)  T h i s usage i s n o t found i n the S t a t e s .  MISCELLANEOUS Canadian  N o r t h e r n American  Comment  Anglophone  An E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g person  Anglophone i s unknown i n the S t a t e s .  Francophone  A French speaking person  Unknown i n the S t a t e s ,  dew worm  a n g l e worm night crawler  High  differentiation.  reserve ( f o r Indians)  reservation  High  differentiation.  the e x ( h i b i t i o n ) CNE, CCE, PNE, e t c .  state  High  differentiation.  the o l d c o u n t r y (Europe or most often B r i t a i n i s how b e i n g extended to A s i a )  High  differentiation.  the l i n e (meaning the U.S.-Canada border)  High  differentiation.  the 49th p a r a l l e l (meaning the U.S.Canada b o r d e r even i n N.B., Que., Ont., Man. and B.C.)  High  differentiation.  down E a s t (meaning the Maritimes)  High  differentiation.  fair  54  Canadian  Northern-American  back E a s t (anywhere i n Canada E a s t o f the Lakehead)  Comment High  differentiation  differentiation  the S t a t e s  America the U.S.(A) Stateside  High  beer p a r l o r (a room i n a h o t e l where b e e r i s sold)  b e e r garden  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , see DCE.  mickey (a s m a l l whisky b o t t l e shaped t o f i t i n the hip pocket)  flask  Mickey i s n o t used i n the States.  rye  whiskey  T h i s meaning o f r y e i s u n i q u e l y Canadian.  red ribbon ( f i r s t place)  blue ribbon  A r e d ribbon i s the award f o r second p l a c e i n the States.  G i r l Guides  Girl  High  biscuit  crackers cookies  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , t h e r e i s some o v e r l a p p i n g o f meaning o f t h e s e t h r e e words.  chocolate bar  candy b a r  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , candy b a r i s seldom heard i n Canada.  Scouts  differentiation  T h i s meaning o f cache i s u n i q u e l y Canadian.  cache ( a place f o r storing supplies; to s t o r e away) stampede  rodeo  Landed Immigrant (one a d m i t t e d t o Canada as a s e t t l e r and p o t e n t i a l citizen)  (Legal)  T h i s meaning o f stampede i s u n i q u e l y Canadian. Alien  Landed Immigrant i s l e s s i n t i m i d a t i n g and u n i q u e l y Canadian.  55 Canadian  N o r t h e r n American  Comment  22.  New Canadian (one b o r n i n another c o u n t r y l i v i n g permanently i n Canada)  Naturalized Citizen  New Canadian i s o b v i o u s l y unique.  23.  ethnic  groups Canadians etc. (euphemism f o r f o r e i g n , i . e . not of the two f o u n d i n g peoples)  T h i s usage o f e t h n i c i s unique.  24.  pink s l i p (proof of t h i r d party l i a b i l i t y insurance)  T h i s usage i s u n i q u e l y Canadian.  25.  r u n n i n g shoes  t e n n i s shoes sneakers  Some d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  26.  August C i v i c H o l i d a y  f i r s t Monday i n Augus t  T h i s h o l i d a y does n o t e x i s t i n the U n i t e d States.  27.  B o x i n g Day  December 26  High d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . Websters I I I omits Canada from l i s t of countries which celebrate this holiday.  28.  Remembrance Day  A r m i s t i c e Day "Veterans Day  High  29.  ramp (expressway)  expressway e x i t and e n t r a n c e  T h i s usage i s p r o b a b l y t o accommodate F r e n c h rampe.  differentiation.  I n a d d i t i o n t o the above l i s t e d words and terms w h i c h h e l p t o d i s t i n g u i s h a Canadian from an American, Canadian E n g l i s h c o n t a i n s many o t h e r usages, m a i n l y of B r i t i s h o r i g i n b u t a l s o F r e n c h Canadian, w h i c h are  l i t t l e known or f o r e i g n t o American E n g l i s h ; some f a i r l y common  items i n c l u d e d i n the group a r e :  b a l a c l a v a , bands ( o f I n d i a n s ) , bank  h o l i d a y , Bay S t r e e t , b i l i n g u a l i s m , b i s c u i t , b l o o d y , b l o k e , buckshee,  56 bugger, chap, c h i p s , Donnybrook, i n f u t u r e , G r i t s , h o l i d a y s  (vacation),  the l i q u o r s t o r e , muck about, queue, The Reserve ( N a t i o n a l G u a r d ) , a round about, second ( v e r b ) , shadow c a b i n e t , s u p e r a n n u a t i o n , Tory, tuque, 20 t w i t , t h e Van Doos ( v i n g t - d e u x ) , w a f f l e ( v e r b ) , and w r i t e an exam. A l a r g e number of the 752 v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y were chosen from among the p h o n o l o g i c a l ,  pronunciation,  g r a m m a t i c a l , and  l e x i c a l items p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r , thus g i v i n g the s t u d y a d e f i n i t e f o c u s on Canadian E n g l i s h as i t i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d American.  from N o r t h e r n  57  Chapter 3:  Footnotes  ^"The U n i t e d N a t i o n s S t a t i s t i c a l Yearbook, N a t i o n s , 1977), pp.67-73.  (New Y o r k :  United  2 I b i d . , pp.67-73. 3 The c o a s t a l areas of N o r t h A m e r i c a d i d a c c e p t some l i n g u i s t i c i n n o v a t i o n from t h e mother c o u n t r y , e.g. the ' r l e s s n e s s ' o f c o a s t a l c i t i e s from B o s t o n to Savannah. 4 P r i o r to the American R e v o l u t i o n a r y War, t h e r e were a few thousand t r o o p s g a r r i s o n e d i n H a l i f a x , A n n a p o l i s R o y a l , Quebec C i t y , M o n t r e a l , e t c . and t h e r e were some 7,000 New E n g l a n d e r s , 2,000 B r i t i s h , 3,000 Germans, and 8,000 A c a d i a n s l i v i n g i n Nova S c o t i a . N. MacDonald, Canada, 1763-1841 I m m i g r a t i o n arid S e t t l e m e n t , ( T o r o n t o : Longmans, Green and Co., 1939), pp.41-73. ^The L o y a l i s t s drew l o t s , by s t a t u s and r a n k , f o r t h e i r w i l d e r n e s s l a n d , and they s u f f e r e d g r e a t l y u n t i l they r e - e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s . N. M i k a , H. M i k a , U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s : P i o n e e r s of Upper Canada, ( B e l l e v i l l e : Mika P u b l i s h i n g , 1976), p.154. J . B . B r e b n e r , "The A r r i v a l o f the L o y a l i s t s , " The U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s : Men and Myths, ed. L.F.S. Upton, (Toronto: Copp C l a r k , 1967)p.92. 6  ^Helen I . Cowan, B r i t i s h E m i g r a t i o n t o B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a , (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1961), p.12. H e l e n I . Cowan, B r i t i s h I m m i g r a t i o n B e f o r e C o n f e d e r a t i o n , (Ottawa: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1968), p.16. 9 The f o l l o w i n g sources g i v e v a r y i n g o p i n i o n s about t h i s q u e s t i o n : Morton B l o o m f i e l d , "Canadian E n g l i s h : i t s R e l a t i o n to E i g h t e e n t h Century American Speech," J o u r n a l o f E n g l i s h and Germanic P h i l o l o g y , (JEGP), V o l . 47, (1948), pp.58-63; M.H. S c a r g i l l , "Sources o f Canadian E n g l i s h , " JEGP, V o l . 5 6 , (1957), pp.610-614; W a l t e r S. A v i s , "The E n g l i s h Language i n Canada," C u r r e n t Trends i n L i n g u i s t i c s , V o l . 1 0 , p a r t 1, e d . T. Sebeok, (1970), pp.40-68; M.H. S c a r g i l l , A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f Canadian E n g l i s h , ( V i c t o r i a : N i s Sono P r e s s , 1977), C h a p t s . l , 7, 8, 9; C o r n e l i u s von Baeyer, The A n c e s t r y of Canadian E n g l i s h , (Ottawa: Supply and S e r v i c e s Canada, 1977), pp.1-7; R.J. Gregg, "Canadian E n g l i s h " V a r i e t i e s o f E n g l i s h : Commonwealth E n g l i s h S e r i e s , e d . Y. Matsumura (Japan, f o r t h c o m i n g ) , MS. pp. 3-12.  58 "^For an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of t h i s d i v e r g e n c e and a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of one p h o n o l o g i c a l i t e m , see Gregg, o p . c i t . , pp.3-13. "'""'"This s i t u a t i o n of two c o n c u r r e n t d i a l e c t s has c o n t i n u e d t o the p r e s e n t day. One r e s u l t o f t h i s f a c t i s t h a t most Canadians a r e b i d i a l e c t a l ( B r i t i s h / N o r t h A m e r i c a n ) , e s p e c i a l l y i n l i s t e n i n g and r e a d i n g comprehension,to a much h i g h e r degree t h a n t h e i r American c o u n t e r p a r t s . Another r e s u l t may be t h a t i n the f o r m a l end of many Canadians' s t y l i s t i c range, the B r i t i s h usage may be the g o a l . 12 G e n e r a l Canadian r e f e r s t o a s t a n d a r d d i a l e c t w h i c h i s spoken i n most p a r t s o f Canada from the Ottawa R i v e r t o t h e P a c i f i c ; i t i s r o u g h l y the d i a l e c t of b r o a d c a s t e r s on the n a t i o n a l networks and of the u n i v e r s i t y educated. I n c r e a s i n g l y , i t i s the m a j o r i t y d i a l e c t of a l l Canadian c i t i e s . 13 D.E. H a m i l t o n , "The E n g l i s h Spoken i n M o n t r e a l : A P i l o t S t u d y , " u n p u b l i s h e d masters d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M o n t r e a l , M o n t r e a l . 14 For a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of.how Canadian E n g l i s h and S t a n d a r d Southern B r i t i s h d i f f e r , see Gregg, ( f o r t h c o m i n g ) , o p . c i t . , pp.13-40. "''"'Some Canadians and Americans pronounce words l i k e p o o r , [ p e r ] and Moore, [ n o r ] . Canadians seem t o do t h i s much more f r e q u e n t l y than do Americans; see the D i c t i o n a r y of Canadian E n g l i s h , eds. W.S. A v i s , R.J. Gregg, e t a l . , ( T o r o n t o : Gage, 1975).  out  "^Such Canadian forms w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as Canadianisms t h r o u g h t h i s study.  ^ C E U i s the a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r M.H. S c a r g i l l ' s Modern Canadian E n g l i s h Usage, ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1974). A l l d a t a i n t h a t book a r e i d e n t i c a l t o d a t a i n M.H. S c a r g i l l and H.J. Warkentyne's "The Survey of Canadian E n g l i s h , " o p . c i t . , however the comments, con- • e l u s i o n , and page numbers a r e d i f f e r e n t . The a b b r e v i a t i o n W i l l r e f e r s t o Websters T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n D i c t i o n a r y . DCE s t a n d s f o r the D i c t i o n a r y of Canadian E n g l i s h , o p . c i t . 1 8  (Toronto:  Gage, 1967), pp.1-927.  19 ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.: Sono N i s P r e s s , 1977), pp.9-60. Most words and phrases c i t e d i n b o t h t h e s e books, though of c o u r s e of h i s t o r i c a l i n t e r e s t , a r e g e n e r a l l y l i t t l e known t o most Canadians. 20 The B r i t i s h items i n t h i s l i s t a r e a r e f l e c t i o n of the f a c t t h a t Canadians a r e somewhat b i - d i a l e c t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g b o t h N o r t h American and B r i t i s h English.  59  CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY  1.  The S o c i o l o g i c a l Parameters When measuring usage o f a language, i t becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent  t h a t one i s a c t u a l l y measuring v a r i a t i o n , and t h a t v a r i a t i o n can be measured w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o o n l y a few p a r a m e t e r s , namely g e o g r a p h i c a l , s o c i o l o g i c a l , and s t y l i s t i c .  temporal,  Because o u r s u r v e y has been  conducted w i t h i n t h e c i t y l i m i t s o f Ottawa and s i n c e o u r survey  i s by  d e s i g n s y n c h r o n i c , we w i l l n o t be d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h t h e f i r s t two parameters."''  The s t y l i s t i c parameters a r e p r e s e n t e d  s e c t i o n immediately  following this.  i n S e c t i o n 2, t h e  We s h a l l , t h e r e f o r e , d i s c u s s t h e  s o c i o l o g i c a l parameters which w i l l be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e l i n g u i s t i c phenomena.  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n s more q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e  i n f o r m a n t ' s background than we w i l l p r o b a b l y want t o use; however, i f an u n u s u a l usage occurs, we may d e s i r e t o t r a c e i t back t o i t s p r o b a b l e o r i g i n , f o r example, t h e Ottawa V a l l e y , t h e e t h n i c background, e t c . The s o c i o l o g i c a l parameters which we w i l l use s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a r e : s e x , age, and s o c i a l c l a s s .  Sex and age a r e s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d f a c t u a l  infor-  mation.  Age The i n f o r m a n t s  d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o g i v e t h e i r year o f b i r t h , and  the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n appeared t o be t r u e .  We s u s p e c t  t h a t t h e speech  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Ottawa changed markedly  d u r i n g and a f t e r t h e Second  World War, when l i f e s t y l e s were changing r a p i d l y everywhere i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d world.  F o r Ottawa, t h i s was t h e f i r s t time t h a t  thousands o f people from a c r o s s Canada were h i r e d t o work f o r t h e F e d e r a l Government.  Ottawa would no l o n g e r be such a c l o s e d s o c i e t y  as i t had been p r e v i o u s l y . T h i s was a l s o t h e time when m a r r i e d women were f i r s t a l l o w e d t o work i n t h e C i v i l S e r v i c e , and t h e time when Ottawans s w i t c h e d from h a v i n g t h e i r l a r g e d i n n e r s a t home a t noon t o h a v i n g lunches i n t h e i r o f f i c e s .  We h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s  r a i s e d i n Ottawa b e f o r e t h i s p e r i o d o f change w i l l have c e r t a i n usage p a t t e r n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those used by p e o p l e r a i s e d i n Ottawa a f t e r t h e change.  The c u t o f f y e a r o f b i r t h w i l l p r o b a b l y be  around 1937. We w i l l check t h i s and o t h e r age group f a c t o r s .  2 Social Class S o c i a l c l a s s i s a much more c o m p l i c a t e d m a t t e r , f o r a t l e a s t t h e three f o l l o w i n g reasons.  F i r s t , a l t h o u g h segments o f s o c i e t y can be  grouped f a i r l y e a s i l y through a v e r a g i n g a v e r y l a r g e number o f p e o p l e , i t does n o t seem f u l l y adequate t o s i m p l y t a k e t h e average o f an 3  individual's sociological indicators.  Consider the d i f f i c u l t i e s of  c a t e g o r i z i n g someone who has "dropped o u t " and i s l i v i n g o f f t h e l a n d , o r a s k i l l e d l a b o u r e r who i s e a r n i n g more money than a u n i v e r s i t y music p r o f e s s o r , o r someone who has r e c e n t l y m a r r i e d i n t o o r made a g r e a t d e a l o f money.  Secondly, t h e concept o f c l a s s i s an a r e a of taboo f o r  many m i d d l e c l a s s and upper middle c l a s s p e r s o n s .  T h i r d l y , language  usage i s i n i t s e l f an i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f c l a s s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ;  thus  f o r t h i s s t u d y , i n o r d e r n o t t o become c i r c u l a r , l i n g u i s t i c f e a t u r e s must be k e p t out of t h e s o c i a l i n d e x .  The Socio-economic Index The  g o a l i n c r e a t i n g a socio-economic  c l a s s i n d e x i s t o have a  t o o l by w h i c h to measure o b j e c t i v e l y the s o c i o l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n o f each informant.  Each i n f o r m a n t can then be g i v e n a s c o r e , and groups can  be formed from these s c o r e s .  The  l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a t i o n can then be  p l o t t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to these s o c i a l c l a s s The modelled  type o f i n d e x developed  groupings.  f o r t h i s study was  a m u l t i - i t e m index  a f t e r Labov's and T r u d g i l l ' s i n d i c e s but m o d i f i e d g r e a t l y f o r 4  the Canadian and Ottawa c o n t e x t .  The i n d e x was  s p e c i f i c a l l y extended  to i n c l u d e the upper m i d d l e c l a s s and the lower upper c l a s s , a f f o r d i n g us w i t h the f i r s t n o n - t r u n c a t e d dialectology.  The upper upper c l a s s was  socio-economic inaccessible.  thus  study o f urban The i n d e x , as  shown below, has seven s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s which can be employed s e p a r a t e l y or c o n j o i n t l y f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a t i o n .  Each  o f the se-ve n i n d i c a t o r s has a s c a l e a s s i g n e d to i t w i t h p o i n t s r a n g i n g i n each case from 1 to 6 so t h a t each i n f o r m a n t c o u l d be a s s i g n e d p o i n t s r a n g i n g from 7 t o 42.^  total  A d i s c u s s i o n o f each o f the i n d i c a t o r s  appears below the c h a r t . Occupation The i n f o r m a n t s were g i v e n s c o r e s r a n g i n g from 1 to 6 a c c o r d i n g t o the o c c u p a t i o n i n w h i c h they were p r e s e n t l y i n v o l v e d .  The s c o r e s  r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of o c c u p a t i o n s a r e based on B a r b e r , 1957,  and  pp.102-104^  and'an i n t i m a t e knowledge o f the j o b - r a n k i n g h i e r a r c h y of the F e d e r a l Public Service.  R e t i r e d persons  before retirement.  a r e r a t e d a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r  occupation  Housewives, househusbands and widows a r e r a t e d as to  SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASS INDEX  Table 4.1  Income  Education  Spouse's Education  House Value  seasonal manual  0-9,999 UICWelfare  grade 7  grade 7  <40,000 Rented  lower  town  10  manual blue c o l l a r semi-skilled  manual blue c o l l a r semi-skilled  10,00014,999  grade 11  grade 11  40,00049,999 subsidized  lower town E a s t End  20  3  s k i l l e d worker foreman blue c o l l a r  s k i l l e d worker foreman blue c o l l a r  15,00017,999  grade 12 or 13  grade 12 commercial  50,00059,999  bungalow areas  20  4  white c o l l a r c l e r k , - teacher semi-professional, salesman  s k i l l e d worker foreman blue c o l l a r  18,00023,999  high school complete & some Univ.Coll.training  high school complete  60,00079,999  $60,000.00 house value areas  40  5  careerman i n profession, b r a n c h and u n i t managers  white c o l l a r c l e r k , teacher semi-professional, salesman  24,000 34,99.9  B.A,, B,Sc., some grad. studies  university degree  80,000119,999  Glebe, A l t a Vista, West End  8  6  high l e v e l manager, employer, professional  careerman i n profession, b r a n c h and u n i t managers  graduate p r o fessional degree,private schools  university degree p l u s  >120,000 fireplaces, library,den, central a i r conditioning, landscaping  Rockcliffe along canal I s l a n d Park  2  Occupation  Father's Occupation  1  seasonal manual  2  Points  >35,000  0-10.5 p o i n t s - lower 10.5-17.5 p o i n t s - w o r k i n g 17.5-24.5 p o i n t s - m i d d l e lower  Location  •%  24.5-31.5 p o i n t s - middle m i d d l e 31.5-38.0 p o i n t s - upper m i d d l e >38 p o i n t s - lower upper ON  t-o  63 t h e i r spouse's o c c u p a t i o n .  Students were g i v e n an u n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g f o u r  points.  Father's  Occupation  The p o i n t system f o r t h i s i n d i c a t o r i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f O c c u p a t i o n , but some p r o v i s i o n was made f o r upward m o b i l i t y i n these r e c e n t decades of a f f l u e n c e and i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y .  Therefore  o f f e r s h i g h e r p o i n t s f o r a lower r a n k i n g o c c u p a t i o n  Father's  Occupation  i n t h r e e boxes.  A  comparison o f t h e f i r s t two i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e i n d e x may show a case o f upward m o b i l i t y .  I n s t a n c e s o f upward m o b i l i t y a r e o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t t o  l i n g u i s t i c s t u d i e s such as t h i s one because a l a r g e number o f l i n g u i s t i c changes tend t o c o - o c c u r w i t h t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l changes.^  Income T h i s i n d i c a t o r i s based on t h e s a l a r y , d i v i d e n d s , e t c . o f t h e major b r e a d w i n n e r o f t h e h o u s e h o l d , n o t on t h e combined income o f husband and w i f e , f o r two lower m i d d l e c l a s s workers w i t h . g o o d s a l a r i e s do n o t assume the manners, power, and p r e s t i g e o f a lower upper c l a s s f a m i l y w i t h o n l y one p e r s o n w o r k i n g e x t e r n a l l y .  The income s c a l e i s based on t h e s a l a r y  s c a l e s f o r t h e Ottawa F i r e F i g h t e r s , O n t a r i o U n i v e r s i t y Employees, and the F e d e r a l P u b l i c S e r v i c e , and on U.I.C., w e l f a r e , and o l d - a g e a l l of which a r e p u b l i c information. children s t i l l  pensions,  Housewives, househusbands, and  l i v i n g a t home were g i v e n p o i n t s commensurate w i t h t h e  income o f t h e f a m i l y ' s major income e a r n e r .  Education The  score f o r t h i s i n d i c a t o r i s probably  t h e e a s i e s t t o a s s i g n as  64 one e i t h e r d i d or d i d not complete a grade o r degree.  Unlike  Occupation  and Income the p o i n t s f o r e d u c a t i o n a r e not t r a n s f e r a b l e t o dependents. Two  a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s a r e g i v e n f o r p r i v a t e s c h o o l attendance  and  one  a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s a f t e r once h a v i n g been i n the work f o r c e f o r some y e a r s .  Spouse's E d u c a t i o n People tend t o marry members of the o p p o s i t e sex of the same s o c i a l c l a s s or o f immediately  adjacent s o c i a l c l a s s e s .  b e s t modes of e v a l u a t i n g who  Perhaps one o f  the  a p e r s o n t h i n k s he i s , i s to l o o k a t the  p e r s o n whom he or she m a r r i e s .  There i s a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the amount and q u a l i t y o f s c h o o l i n g and the p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l e a d e r s h i p roles i n society.  House Value One  can a c q u i r e a f a i r l y adequate knowledge of house and  v a l u e by s t u d y i n g the r e a l e s t a t e pages o f the l o c a l papers. Tract data help i n t h i s respect too.  property The  I t does not seem to m a t t e r  r e s i d e n c e i s r e n t e d or n o t , as the v a l u e d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  Census if a  sufficiently.  House L o c a t i o n Where one r e s i d e s w i t h i n a c i t y i n d i c a t e s a g r e a t d e a l about one's social status i n l i f e .  I n every c i t y , t h e r e are c e r t a i n areas where the  poor tend to l i v e and o t h e r s where the r i c h tend to l i v e . do may  The w e l l - t o -  p r e f e r c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to i n t e r e s t s such as r e c r e a -  t i o n a l , e.g.,  p r o x i m i t y to p a r k s , g o l f c o u r s e , m a r i n a s ,  etc.;  e.g. p r o x i m i t y to the N a t i o n a l A r t s C e n t r e ; h i s t o r i c a l , e.g.  cultural, the p r e s t i g e  of h e r i t a g e houses.; o c c u p a t i o n a l , e.g. the E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s B u i l d i n g , e t c .  the p r o x i m i t y t o a u n i v e r s i t y ,  I d e n t i c a l houses i n d i f f e r e n t  p a r t s of town can s e l l f o r v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t p r i c e s .  This d i f f e r e n c e i n  p r i c e i s a r e f l e c t i o n of s o c i e t y ' s d e s i r e f o r p r e s t i g e and a s s o c i a t i o n . I n the p a s t c e r t a i n r a c e s and e t h n i c groups were e x c l u d e d areas of g r e a t e r Ottawa.  from c e r t a i n  A l t h o u g h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i s no l o n g e r  p o s s i b l e , some of the p a t t e r n may  still  exist.  T h i s concludes the e x p l o r a t i o n of the i n d i c a t o r s f o r our economic C l a s s Index.  legally  Socio-  Other s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s sometimes used i n  t h i s survey are:  E t h n i c Background C e r t a i n usages i n Canada are known to have t h e i r o r i g i n s i n B r i t i s h , American, S c o t t i s h , I r i s h , F r e n c h , German, and g Dialects.  When items are s u s p e c t e d of coming from o t h e r  Scandinavian languages  we w i l l a n a l y z e the v a r i a t i o n p a t t e r n s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the e t h n i c background of the i n f o r m a n t s . was  The  e t h n i c background of the  informant  asked d i r e c t l y i n q u e s t i o n number 18.  R u r a l / U r b a n Background Although a l l informants i n Ottawa, and backgrounds.  t h e r e f o r e a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d An i n f o r m a n t was  the i n f o r m a n t ' s the i n f o r m a n t informants  i n t e r v i e w e d i n Ottawa were b o r n and urbanites,. some had  rural  c a t e g o r i z e d t o have a r u r a l background i f  mother, f a t h e r or spouse had  had  raised  l i v e d i n the c o u n t r y  l i v e d o u t s i d e a c i t y , or i f  f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of time.  All  from Renfrew and Smith's F a l l s were c a t e g o r i z e d t o have r u r a l  backgrounds.  Ottawa V a l l e y T h i s c a t e g o r y i s i d e n t i c a l to R u r a l Background, as a l l our mants w i t h r u r a l backgrounds happened to have Ottawa V a l l e y  New  Canadian/Several Generation Informants who  were b o r n i n another c o u n t r y or whose mother o r  a l l o t h e r s were c l a s s i f i e d S e v e r a l G e n e r a t i o n Canadians  2.  Backgrounds.  Canadian  f a t h e r was . b o r n i n a n o t h e r c o u n t r y were c a t e g o r i z e d as New  s h o r t e n e d to O l d  infor-  Canadians;  sometimes  Canadians.  The C o n t e x t u a l S t y l e s The c o - v a r i a t i o n of l i n g u i s t i c m a t e r i a l w i t h s o c i o l o g i c a l  can be seen a l o n g two main dimensions.  parameters  The d i m e n s i o n a l r e a d y d e a l t w i t h  i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s t h a t o f s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , e.g. age, s e x , e t h n i c background,  r u r a l o r urban background,  e d u c a t i o n , and s o c i a l c l a s s .  second dimension, the one d e a l t w i t h h e r e , i s s t y l i s t i c  The  variation.  S t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n i s the r e s p o n s e , c o n s c i o u s or s u b c o n s c i o u s , on t h e p a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l speaker t o t h e . s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h  the  speech a c t o c c u r s .  style  c o u l d be:  1)  F a c t o r s which may  i n f l u e n c e an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  the f o r m a l i t y of t h e o c c a s i o n , 2)  i n d i v i d u a l on t h a t o c c a s i o n , 3)  t h e r o l e o f the  the r e l a t i v e age and s e x , and 4)  the  s o c i a l r a n k i n g of those p r e s e n t . The s u r v e y was  d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t from each i n f o r m a n t as f u l l  range of s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n as p o s s i b l e by means o f one questionnaire.  a  structured  Of c o u r s e , one i n t e r v i e w e r w i t h a tape r e c o r d e r i s not  a b l e to c r e a t e the f u l l gamut of human e x p e r i e n c e , but by means of g i v i n g the i n f o r m a n t s s p e c i f i c language r e l a t e d t a s k s , one i s a b l e to  observe a wide range o f s t y l i s t i c f o r m a l i t y and i n f o r m a l i t y . We w i l l f i r s t d e s c r i b e c a r e f u l speech and c a s u a l speech a f t e r w h i c h we w i l l l a b e l and d e f i n e t h o s e t a s k s w h i c h were i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n o r d e r t o e l i c i t t h e f i v e s t y l e s used throughout t h e a n a l y s i s .  C a r e f u l Speech C a r e f u l speech i s l i k e l y t o be t h e s t y l e p r e s e n t when i n d i v i d u a l s do n o t know one a n o t h e r o r when t h e i r r o l e s s e p a r a t e  them s o c i a l l y one  from a n o t h e r , e.g. i n response t o f o r m a l s c h o o l t e s t i n g , j o b i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n s , l i n g u i s t i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , addresses t o l a r g e g r o u p s , o r f i r s t encounters.  D u r i n g t h e s u r v e y i n t e r v i e w , f o r m a l speech would  ..  most l i k e l y , be . e l i c i t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g when f a m i l y background i s b e i n g asked about, i n t h e grammar s e c t i o n , and i n those s e c t i o n s w h i c h r e q u i r e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l words be spoken i n i s o l a t i o n , i . e . t h e m i n i m a l p a i r s , word l i s t ,  and p i c t u r e s s e c t i o n s .  As a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t t h a t i t took  s e v e r a l minutes t o persuade many Ottawans t o submit t o t h e i n t e r v i e w , some i n f o r m a n t s  were o f t e n v e r y r e l a x e d and c h a t t y by t h e t i m e we  s t a r t e d t h e i n t e r v i e w a t S e c t i o n One.  This  l e d t o an uneven comparison  of performance i n t h a t s e c t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e t h i s s e c t i o n was  excluded  from t h e a n a l y s i s .  Casual  Speech  C a s u a l , unguarded speech i s most l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f r i e n d s and f a m i l y a t i n f o r m a l o c c a s i o n s , e.g., a t home, a t work during breaks, The  and i n r e s t a u r a n t s and b a r s .  s i t u a t i o n o f a s t r a n g e r e n t e r i n g someone's house, p l a c i n g a  tape-recorder  i n f r o n t o f t h a t p e r s o n , and a s k i n g more than one hundred  68 q u e s t i o n s might l e a d one t o expect t h a t o n l y c a r e f u l , guarded speech and not c a s u a l speech would be f o r t h c o m i n g . the case.  There a r e many t e c h n i q u e s  c a s u a l speech.  F o r t u n a t e l y t h a t i s not  i n i n t e r v i e w i n g which help e l i c i t  These i n c l u d e a s k i n g the i n f o r m a n t  to:  1) r e c i t e  lists  known from c h i l d h o o d , 2) count by f i v e s o r t e n s , 3) t e l l a funny s t o r y , 4) t a l k about h i s c i t y , 5) recount  a dangerous s i t u a t i o n , 6) c r e a t e a  s t o r y from a sequence o f p i c t u r e s , 7) r e a d an i n f o r m a l s t o r y , 8) d i g r e s s from any  t o p i c . F u r t h e r m o r e , f a m i l y members and f r i e n d s were encouraged  to remain i n the room w h i l e the i n t e r v i e w was  taking place.  The  presence of these p e o p l e tended t o r e l a x the i n f o r m a n t , e n a b l i n g  him  to speak more c a s u a l l y .  9  The F i v e S t y l e s  Minimal P a i r s This task e l i c i t s  the most c a r e f u l speech by p r e s e n t i n g the  infor-  mant w i t h a l i s t o f p a i r s of words w h i c h are pronounced a l i k e or almost alike.  The s i m i l a r i t y of the words e n t i c e s the i n f o r m a n t  t o make  phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n s w h i c h a r e not n o r m a l l y p a r t of h i s i d i o l e c t dialect.  What the i n f o r m a n t  pronounces h e r e i s t h e r e f o r e v e r y  because the t a s k e l i c i t s the u n d e r l y i n g form, the form w h i c h he i s most ' c o r r e c t ' .  T h i s may  be the c l o s e s t l o o k we  important thinks  ever get a t a  person's competence, f o r when a p e r s o n i s t a l k i n g n o r m a l l y o f t e n o n l y h i s performance l e v e l t h a t we  or  i t i s most  can o b s e r v e .  Word L i s t For t h i s t a s k , the i n f o r m a n t  i s asked t o read a l i s t o f 120 words.  As i s the case w i t h the o t h e r t a s k s , most of these words c o n t a i n a t  l e a s t one of the 27 l i n g u i s t i c items w h i c h we a r e i n v e s t i g a t i n g systematically.  T h i s t a s k , however, has the d i s a d v a n t a g e  a r e a d i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n f o r a number of words.  of o f t e n  eliciting  T h i s t a s k w i l l most  l i k e l y e l i c i t the second most c a r e f u l s t y l e o f speech.  Pictures T h i s t a s k r e q u i r e s t h a t the i n f o r m a n t presented ciations.  to him.*''"'"  i d e n t i f y p i c t u r e s of objects  T h i s t a s k reduces the chances of r e a d i n g pronun-  Because the p i c t u r e s d i s t r a c t the i n f o r m a n t from the  l i n g u i s t i c n a t u r e of the i n t e r v i e w , i n t h i s t a s k and the Word L i s t we w i l l f i n d a l a r g e number of Canadian l e x i c a l markers.  task  I t i s hypo-  t h e s i z e d t h a t t h i s t a s k w i l l e l i c i t the t h i r d most c a r e f u l s t y l e of speech.  Reading Here we have the f i r s t t a s k w h i c h r e q u i r e s the i n f o r m a n t  to speak  connected d i s c o u r s e , a l b e i t r e a d , f o r normal l e n g t h s o f time u s i n g n a t u r a l c a t e n a t i o n or l i a i s o n p a t t e r n s .  I n a r e a d i n g passage t h e r e are  so many l i n g u i s t i c items to c o n t r o l t h a t one's h a b i t u a l speech t e r i s t i c s w i l l p r e v a i l most o f the t i m e .  charac-  The. r e a d i n g passage was  i n t e n t i o n a l l y put i n an i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g i n v o l v i n g young p e o p l e mother i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a t home.  and  a  A l t h o u g h Labov and T r u d g i l l i n c l u d e  t h e i r r e a d i n g s t y l e s , S t y l e C and Reading S t y l e r e s p e c t i v e l y , as p a r t 12 o f f o r m a l speech,  we w i l l demonstrate t h a t our r e a d i n g passage  a c a s u a l s t y l e , arid t h a t f o r some i t e m s , the r e a d i n g s t y l e may  elicits  be more  13 c a s u a l than the s o - c a l l e d c a s u a l s t y l e . a s p e c t i n depth.  We w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s  I t seems t h a t many r e a d e r s t a k e on a r o l e when  7G r e a d i n g w h i c h may  be more c a s u a l than t h e i r own  c a s u a l speech.  Free Speech We were:  i n c o r p o r a t e d a few q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r to e l i c i t  f r e e speech;  1) have you ever been i n s e r i o u s danger o r what was your  these  closest  encounter w i t h d e a t h , 2) has something happened to you t h a t was  strange or  funny, 3) c o u l d you t e l l me about a r e c e n t t r i p , and 4) what do you t h i n k of  l i v i n g i n Ottawa?  I n most c a s e s , the t o p i c and f o l l o w up q u e s t i o n s d i s -  t r a c t e d the i n f o r m a n t from the l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n . F u r t h e r we I n c o r p o r a t e d a new  s u b - t a s k i n t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n  o r d e r t o e l i c i t more c o n t r o l l a b l e c a s u a l speech.  From Hawkins  (1977),  14 p.56,  we  took a s e r i e s of f o u r p i c t u r e s and asked the i n f o r m a n t to  make up a s t o r y f o l l o w i n g t h e sequence o f p i c t u r e s . the i n f o r m a n t was  In two i n s t a n c e s ,  asked to say e x a c t l y what the p e r s o n i n t h e p i c t u r e  sequence would say.  T h i s p i c t u r e sequence s u b - t a s k a f f o r d e d us t h e  chance to d i r e c t a l l i n f o r m a n t s t o a common e x p e r i e n c e and more o f t e n than n o t , to the same v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s . There are a number o f o c c a s i o n s o u t s i d e the f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w p r o p e r when c a s u a l speech i s a p t to o c c u r .  These o c c a s i o n s o f t e n  o f f e r us t h e o p p o r t u n i t y to r e c o r d speech i n i t s most unguarded, n a t u r a l style.  Such o c c a s i o n s p r e s e n t e d themselves b e f o r e and a f t e r  i n t e r v i e w and d u r i n g i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n the I n t e r v i e w .  the  I f the i n t e r v i e w  took p l a c e i n the i n f o r m a n t ' s home, as they most o f t e n d i d , f r e q u e n t i n t e r r u p t i o n s would o c c u r , f o r example the telephone would r i n g , a baby would need changing, the c h i l d r e n and/or spouse would have a comment to make o r b r i n g c o f f e e , a neighbour would drop i n , e t c . In  t h i s s u r v e y , care was  t a k e n to r e c o r d these happenings o f  71 real l i f e .  A n o t h e r o c c a s i o n w h i c h o f f e r s c a s u a l speech we w i l l  digression.  label  T h i s o c c u r s when some i n f o r m a n t s make a weak l i n k between  a q u e s t i o n and t h e i r f a v o r i t e t o p i c then c o n t i n u e f o r minutes; too,  was encouraged and r e c o r d e d .  3.  The Sample In  t a k i n g t h e sample f o r t h e Ottawa s u r v e y , t h e f o l l o w i n g  this,  principles  were adhered to-: 1) a l l segments o f t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g s o c i e t y s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d ; 2) a b r o a d g e o g r a p h i c  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e census t r a c t s  s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d ; 3) t h e r e s h o u l d be e x t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r t h e person c o n t a c t e d t o agree t o be i n t e r v i e w e d ; 4) e v e r y member o f t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g p o p u l a t i o n s h o u l d have a random, near e q u a l , and nonzero chance o f r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s segment o f s o c i e t y ; c o n s e q u e n t l y  5) t h e  method o f s e l e c t i o n s h o u l d i n no way be r e l a t e d t o t h e p r i m a r y v a r i a b l e s of t h e s u r v e y ; and 6) no c h a i n o r network o f f r i e n d s , f a m i l y , o r c o l l e a g u e s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d t o form a group o f i n f o r m a n t s .  Sampling  Procedure  We d e c i d e d t h a t t h e s a m p l i n g u n i v e r s e was t o c o n s i s t o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s age 16 o r over who were b o r n and r a i s e d i n Ottawa, l i f e l o n g r e s i d e n t s o f Ottawa, and n a t i v e speakers  of E n g l i s h .  For p r a c t i c a l  purposes f o r t h i s s u r v e y a n a t i v e Ottawan was d e f i n e d as a p e r s o n who was b o r n i n Ottawa o r anyone who had moved t o Ottawa b e f o r e k i n d e r g a r t e n , i . e . age f i v e .  starting  A l i f e - l o n g r e s i d e n t was d e f i n e d as anyone  who has l i v e d a l l h i s l i f e i n Ottawa, o r one who had l e f t t h e c i t y o n l y i n o r d e r t o a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t y o r s e r v e d u r i n g t h e wars.  In addition, a  person who had l e f t t h e c i t y f o r l e s s than two y e a r s and had r e t u r n e d  l o n g ago was  considered a l i f e - l o n g r e s i d e n t .  No s t a t i s t i c s  are  a v a i l a b l e on born and r a i s e d anglophone Ottawans; however, i t i s common knowledge t h a t they do not r e p r e s e n t a c r o s s s e c t i o n of the Ottawan p o p u l a t i o n .  F i g u r e 4.9  i n Canadian Urban Trends, volume 2,  e n t i t l e d "Income d i s p a r i t i o n " ^ c l e a r l y shows t h a t the F r e n c h south European s e c t i o n s of Ottawa have the l o w e s t incomes. Ottawans who  migrated  Non-native  to Ottawa from o t h e r p a r t s of Canada seemed t o  be the m a j o r i t y of the anglophone p o p u l a t i o n . those c o n t a c t e d who  and  S i x t y - t h r e e percent  d i d not meet our c r i t e r i a were i n t h i s  The Census T r a c t B u l l e t i n :  of  category.  O t t a w a - H u l l shows 70,975 i n - m i g r a n t s t o 16  Ottawa p r o p e r i n the f i v e y e a r p e r i o d b e f o r e t h e 1971  census.  number, w h i c h i s an i n d i c a t o r of a m o b i l e p o p u l a t i o n , i s l a r g e r the i n - m i g r a n t number f o r c i t i e s o f comparable s i z e . of Canadian c i t i e s , see our T a b l e 1,  This than  For a comparison  p.23.  The p r o c e s s of s e l e c t i n g an address of a p o t e n t i a l i n f o r m a n t based on the s o c i o l o g i c a l make-up of the census t r a c t s . Ottawa-Hull  Census T r a c t B u l l e t i n " * " ^ we  was  From the  chose census t r a c t s a c c o r d i n g  t o the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : 1. H i g h e s t employment income (male). 2.  H i g h e s t employment income ( f e m a l e ) .  3.  H i g h e s t income ( s i n g l e ) .  4.  H i g h e s t house v a l u e .  5.  H i g h e s t cash r e n t .  6.  Mid l e v e l employment income ( m a l e ) .  7.  Mid l e v e l employment income ( f e m a l e ) .  8  Mid l e v e l income ( s i n g l e ) .  9.  Mid l e v e l house v a l u e .  73 10.  Mid l e v e l cash r e n t .  •11.  Lowest employment income ( m a l e ) .  12.  Lowest employment income ( f e m a l e ) .  13.  Lowest income ( s i n g l e ) .  14.  Lowest house v a l u e .  15.  Lowest cash r e n t .  We canvassed t h e c i t y a c c o r d i n g t o these census t r a c t s w i t h a v i e w t o f i n d i n g i n f o r m a n t s o f v a r i o u s s o c i o l o g i c a l backgrounds our p r e d e t e r m i n e d s o c i o l o g i c a l c e l l s .  who would  fill  See o u r T a b l e s 4.3.1. t o "4.3.13..for a  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e sample. A f t e r d e s i g n a t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e census t r a c t , we then determined the g e o g r a p h i c a l m i d p o i n t o f t h a t census t r a c t , went t o t h e n o r t h s i d e of t h e s t r e e t o f t h a t l o c a t i o n , knocked a t t h e door, and e x p l a i n e d t h e survey.  I f t h e p e r s o n met o u r c r i t e r i a , we asked f o r an appointment,  and i n some cases we i n t e r v i e w e d t h e r e and then.  I f the person d i d not  meet our c r i t e r i a o r r e f u s e d ( t h e r e were n i n e r e f u s a l s ) we would  con-  t i n u e t r y i n g s u c c e s s i v e l y h i g h e r s t r e e t numbers s t a y i n g on the n o r t h s i d e of t h e s t r e e t u n t i l we found a p e r s o n who met our r e q u i r e m e n t s and who was w i l l i n g t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g an i n t e r v i e w w i t h one i n f o r m a n t i n a p a r t i c u l a r mid l e v e l census t r a c t , we would move t o another mid l e v e l census t r a c t , where we would r e p e a t t h e s e a r c h and i n t e r v i e w procedures. I n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e non-middle  c l a s s census t r a c t s o f Ottawa, one  i s faced w i t h c e r t a i n s o c i o l o g i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s .  F i r s t , there are only  62 census t r a c t s i n Ottawa, and s e v e r a l o f these a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y francophone d i s t r i c t s .  S e c o n d l y , a few t r a c t s a r e almost  governmental, commercial o r i n d u s t r i a l zones.  exclusively  T h i r d l y , there are only  a few areas i n Ottawa where t h e lower-upper c l a s s l i v e .  These a r e a s a r e  R o c k c l i f f e P a r k and s m a l l s e c t i o n s of A l t a V i s t a , I s l a n d P a r k , and t h e Glebe.  S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e a r e o n l y a few areas where l o w e r c l a s s and  w o r k i n g c l a s s anglophones l i v e .  These d i s t r i c t s  Town, L e B r e t o n F l a t s , and e a s t e r n Overbrook.  are parts of Centre  Thus t h e census t r a c t s of  these non-middle c l a s s e s had t o be s u r v e y e d more i n t e n s e l y t h a n t h o s e t r a c t s w h i c h c o n t a i n e d the m i d d l e c l a s s e s .  We s e t a l i m i t  o f no more  than 6 i n t e r v i e w s f o r t h e s e census t r a c t s . F i l l i n g the age and sex quotas was l e f t t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e r , who would t r y t o make up f o r t h e u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f w o r k i n g age males.  For  example, t h e i n t e r v i e w e r would ask t o i n t e r v i e w the f a t h e r i f a l l members of t h e f a m i l y q u a l i f i e d as n a t i v e - b o r n anglophone.Ottawans. See Appendix B number 527 f o r an a n a l y s i s of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  i n f o r m a n t s by census t r a c t .  l o c a t i o n of the census t r a c t s .  Map  2 on page 426 shows the g e o g r a p h i c a l  A t a l l y s h e e t a c c o u n t o f p e o p l e con-  t a c t e d b u t who d i d n o t meet our r e q u i r e m e n t s i s as f o l l o w s : 1.  Non-Ottawa b o r n Canadian anglophones - 63%.  2.  Francophones  - 11%.  3.  F o r e i g n b o r n anglophones  -  4.  F o r e i g n b o r n f o r e i g n mother tongue ( I t a l i a n , Portuguese, Chinese,  - 19%.  6%.  German, Lebanese, Greek, unknown) In  t h e m i d d l e c l a s s census t r a c t s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e of p e o p l e  unreached, e.g. not home, i n d i s p o s e d , or d i d n o t answer, was about 20% even though t h e i n t e r v i e w e r s r e t u r n e d a few t i m e s .  I n the non-middle  c l a s s census t r a c t s , the unreached p e r c e n t a g e was l e s s than 10% as t h e i n t e r v i e w e r r e t u r n e d t o t h e same s t r e e t and address on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s .  75  N e a r l y 1 , 0 0 0 addresses were approached  i n order to o b t a i n the 1 0 0  interviews.  Informant M o t i v a t i o n One may wonder what would m o t i v a t e an i n d i v i d u a l t o submit t o an i n t e r v i e w such as o u r s . 1.  The f o l l o w i n g m o t i v e s were s t a t e d :  M o n e t a r y — e a c h p e r s o n who met our r e q u i r e m e n t s was o f f e r e d three d o l l a r s to take p a r t i n the i n t e r v i e w . T h i s o f f e r m o t i v a t e d some o f t h e p o o r e r p e o p l e and some o f the younger p e o p l e : it  i t had t h e added e f f e c t t h a t  c o n v i n c e d many t h a t t h i s was n o t a magazine s a l e s  promotion. 2.  Canadian U n i t y — d u r i n g t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s u r v e y , we mentioned  t h a t we would be comparing  d a t a o f speech  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s a c r o s s Canada. T h i s m o t i v a t e d many i n d i v i d u a l s t o f e e l t h a t they s h o u l d do t h e i n t e r v i e w f o r t h e sake o f Canadian u n i t y and they e x p r e s s e d such s e n t i m e n t s . 3.  P a r e n t a l - F a m i l i a l P r e s s u r e — i f one member o f t h e f a m i l y whose address we p i c k e d met our r e q u i r e m e n t s , t h e o t h e r members o f t h e f a m i l y would f r e q u e n t l y t r y t o persuade t h a t p e r s o n t o be i n t e r v i e w e d .  4.  H i s t o r i c a l - — w h i l e e x p l a i n i n g t h e s u r v e y , we t h a t we were comparing  mentioned  o l d e r s t y l e s o f speech t o  younger s t y l e s and t h a t we would be a s k i n g i n f o r m a n t s t o t a l k about Ottawa i n t h e o l d e n days. p e o p l e showed a keen i n t e r e s t i n t h i s  Many o l d e r  topic.  Empathy f o r a d o o r - t o - d o o r c a n v a s s e r — m a n y  p e o p l e had  some time i n t h e i r l i v e s knocked on doors w h i l e w o r k i n g on s c h o o l p r o j e c t s , ' s e l l i n g something, o r c a n v a s s i n g f o r a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n such as t h e Red C r o s s .  Some o f t h e s e p e o p l e e x p r e s s e d  comradeship  and agreed t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . I n a b i l i t y t o s a y n o — a few p e o p l e o b v i o u s l y d i d n o t want t o be i n t e r v i e w e d b u t c o u l d n o t s a y 'no'.  One  woman asked h a l f way through t h e i n t e r v i e w whether she had t o do t h i s ; I t o l d her"yes,"and she c o n t i n u e d . C u r i o s i t y — p r o b a b l y most people who agreed t o be i n t e r viewed had some degree o f c u r i o s i t y . E n n u i — m a n y p e o p l e s a i d they had n o t h i n g b e t t e r t o do. P r i d e i n i d e n t i t y — w h i l e e x p l a i n i n g t h e s u r v e y , we mentioned  t h a t we would be comparing p e o p l e by age,  c l a s s , s e x , o c c u p a t i o n , e t h n i c background, e t c .  Many  p e o p l e took p r i d e i n r e p r e s e n t i n g one o r more o f t h e s e groups. R e l i g i o u s — o n e woman had a magazine r a c k i n t h e v e s t i b u l e l a d e n w i t h r e l i g i o u s pamphlets j u s t w a i t i n g f o r someone t o knock on h e r door. almost  She and h e r husband would submit t o  any i n t e r v i e w b u t c e r t a i n l y demanded e q u a l t i m e .  Waste t h i s salesman's  time—many people b e l i e v e d  that  the s u r v e y was j u s t a n o t h e r magazine s a l e s p r o m o t i o n . Two men s t a t e d they began t h e i n t e r v i e w i n o r d e r t o s e e how  l o n g t h e i n t e r v i e w e r would c o n t i n u e t o l i e .  77 12.  H e l p i n g a n i c e young m a n — a number o f e l d e r l y women s t a t e d they wanted t o h e l p a n i c e young man.  13.  I n t e r e s t i n t o p i c — a t l e a s t ten informants were v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t o p i c .  s a i d they  F i v e p e o p l e who  r e f u s e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d showed u n e q u i v o c a l l y they were n o t .  that  This i s a p o s s i b l e source of b i a s s e d  r e s u l t s , as those who were i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t o p i c r e a d i l y agreed t o be i n t e r v i e w e d , w h i l e a few who were not i n t e r e s t e d , r e f u s e d o r may have s t a t e d t h a t did  n o t meet our  they  requirements.  S i z e of Sample Although  t h e number o f i n f o r m a n t s  i s c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r than  we would have l i k e d , t h e number i s adequate f o r a s o c i o l o g i c a l urban d i a l e c t o l o g y survey.  The N o r w i c h Survey by T r u d g i l l had o n l y  sixty  19 informants,  and the Lower East S i d e Manhattan Survey by Labov was com20 p r i s e d o f 81 New Y o r k e r s . The Ottawa Survey has 89 Ottawans. W i t h 21 r e f e r e n c e t o s i z e o f sample, T r u d g i l l quotes Labov, 1966a, p.638; t h e f u l l quotation follows: I t may t h e r e f o r e be concluded t h a t t h e 26 New Y o r k C i t y t e l e v i s i o n i n f o r m a n t s show t h e same l i n g u i s t i c b e h a v i o r as t h e 81 New Y o r k C i t y ALS i n f o r m a n t s . I f t h e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s of New Y o r k C i t y had f o l l o w e d a s y s t e m a t i c method of s e l e c t i n g i n f o r m a n t s , t h e 25 o r 30 cases d e s c r i b e d would have been s u f f i c i e n t t o show t h e o u t l i n e s o f a s y s t e m a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f s t y l i s t i c and s o c i a l v a r i a t i o n . We may c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o r s o c i a l and s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n o f language can be s t u d i e d through samples c o n s i d e r a b l y s m a l l e r than those r e q u i r e d f o r t h e study of o t h e r forms o f s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . F u r t h e r , w h i l e d i s c u s s i n g s i z e of sample and i n s t a n c e s w i t h i n a c e l l , Labov states:  78 I n Chapter I V , we found t h a t from 10 t o 20 i n s t a n c e s of a g i v e n v a r i a b l e were s u f f i c i e n t t o a s s i g n a v a l u e t h a t f i t s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n t o a complex m a t r i x of s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n , w h i l e at the l e v e l of t h r e e or f o u r i n s t a n c e s , f l u c t u a t i o n u n r e l a t e d to the m a t r i x was n o t e d . S i m i l a r l y , we w i l l f i n d t h a t from t e n t o twenty i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l g i v e us a v a l u e f o r a s o c i a l c l a s s w h i c h f i t s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n t o an o v e r a l l p a t t e r n of s t r a t i f i c a t i o n w h i l e groups of f o u r or f i v e show unrelated fluctuation. I n the case of ( r ) , i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o d i v i d e a.group, of 81 i n f o r m a n t s i n t o s i x s t r a t a w h i c h are c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e d i n the same o r d e r f o r f i v e s t y l i s t i c l e v e l s . Thus we see t h a t numbers w h i c h might be t o t a l l y i n a d e q u a t e f o r the s t u d y of a t t i t u d e s , say, towards r a c i a l s e g r e g a t i o n , w i t h the a s s o c i a t e d r e l u c t a n c e t o g i v e a s t r a i g h t f o r ward p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s e , a r e q u i t e adequate f o r the study of the p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s . 2 2 A few y e a r s l a t e r he r e v i s e d h i s number of r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a n t s to f i v e  downward  stating: ...we f i n d t h a t the b a s i c p a t t e r n s of c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , f o r example, emerge from samples as s m a l l as 25 s p e a k e r s . E x t r e m e l y r e g u l a r a r r a y s of s t y l i s t i c and s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n emerge even when our i n d i v i d u a l c e l l s c o n t a i n as few as f i v e speakers and we have no more than f i v e or t e n i n s t a n c e s of the g i v e n v a r i a b l e f o r each s p e a k e r . W i t h t h i s r e g u l a r and r e p r o d u c i b l e d a t a , we are i n a p o s i t i o n t o s p e c i f y what we mean by the " s t y l i s t i c " or " s o c i a l " meaning w h i c h seems so e l u s i v e when language i s s t u d i e d out of context.23  We  do, however, agree w i t h T r u d g i l l when he s t a t e s : However, a r a t h e r l a r g e sample would have been u s e f u l f o r t h o s e cases where i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o c l a s s i f y i n f o r m a n t s a c c o r d i n g to s e x , age and s o c i a l c l a s s simultaneously.24,25  A n a l y s i s of the Sample The  s o c i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the 89 Ottawa and  informants  11 urban v a l l e y  were p l a c e d i n t o m a t r i c e s w i t h a v i e w t o e v a l u a t i n g the  tribution. Labov, 1966,  We  chose to u t i l i z e those which were most s i m i l a r to  T r u d g i l l , 1974,  dis-  the  and S c a r g i l l , 1974 , Surveys and w h i c h were  c o n f i g u r e d so as t o c o n t a i n t h e l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e number i n each  cell.  The most i n t e r e s t i n g m a t r i c e s a r e p r e s e n t e d below; t h o s e w h i c h were u t i l i z e d throughout e i t h e r Chapter 5 o r Chapter 6 a r e boxed.  T a b l e 4.3.1  Ottawa Valley Total  AGE-GROUP >40  <40  37 7 44  52 4 56  T a b l e 4.3.2  Total 89 11 100  SEX-GROUP M  F  Total  Ottawa Valley Total  43 4 47  46 7 53  89 11 100  T a b l e 4.3.3  GENERATION CANADIAN New Canadians 0 + 1 s t gen.  Ottawa Valley Total  T a b l e 4.3.4  38 0 38  51 11 62  89 11 100  RURAL BACKGROUND OTTAWA VALLEY BACKGROUND rural  Ottawa Valley Total  Old Total Canadians 2 o r more gens.  23 11 34  urban 66 0 66  Total 89 11 100  80 T a b l e 4.3.5  ETHNIC BACKGROUND Irish  Ottawa Valley Total  15 5 20  6 0 6  19 1 20  Total  Male <40  Female <40  2 1 4 3 3 13  4 5 7 4 4 24  2 9 13 4 2 30  3 7 7 4 1 22  11 22 31 15 10 89  SEX, AGE, CLASS (OTTAWA AND VALLEY)  3 1 4 3 3 14  Female > 40  Male < 40  Female < 40  Total  5 8 9 4 4 30  2 10 15 4 2 33  4 7 7 4 1 23  14 26 35 15 10 100  Female < 40  Total  10 7 5 22  33 31 25 89  SEX/AGE CLASS CONVERGED (OTTAWA) Male > 40  L-WK-LM Mid UM LU Total  27 0 27  Other  Female >40  Male > 40  T a b l e 4.3.8  French  Male >40  T a b l e 4.3.7  Low-wrk Low-mid Mid-mid Up-mid Low-up Total  20 5 25  English  SEX, AGE, CLASS (OTTAWA)  T a b l e 4.3.6  Low-wrk Low-mid Mid-mid Up-mid Low-up Total  Scots  3 4 6 13  Female > 40 9 7 8 24  Male < 40 11 13 6 30  81 T a b l e 4.3.10  Lower Working Low-Mid Middle Up-Mid L-Up Total  ETHNIC BACKGROUND/CLASS (OTTAWA AND VALLEY)  PQ  US  Eng  0 2 2 1 1 0 6  0 1 1 2 1 0 5  1 2 4 11 4 5 27  Scot  .0 3 4 11 3 4 25  Ire  Itl  Ukr  Pol  0 4 7 7 2 1 21  0 0 3 2 0 0 5  1 0 0 0 2 0 3  0 0 0 1 0 0 1  Cz 0 0 1 0 0 0 1  Eur  Jwsh 0 0 0 0 1 0 1  0 0 3 0 1 0 4  SAm T o t a l  .2  0 0 1 0 0 0 1  12 26 35 15 10 100  AGE CONVERGED CLASS; . SEX CONVERGED CLASS (OTTAWA)  T a b l e 4. 3.11  •>40  <40  F  M  L WK LM  12  21  17  16  Mid M i d  11  20  17  14  UM LU  14  11  12  13  Total  37  52  46  43  T h i s m a t r i x was u t i l i z e d throughout Chapter 6.  T a b l e 4.3.12  SEX/AGE (OTTAWA AND VALLEY)  Male >40  Female>40  Male<40  Female<40  Total  Ottawa  13  24  22  30  89  Valley  1  6  1  3  11  14  30  23  33  100  Total  T h i s m a t r i x was u t i l i z e d throughout Chapter 5.  82 T a b l e 4.3.13  CLASS (OTTAWA AND  VALLEY)  Valley  Ottawa  Total  Lower-Working  11  3  14  Lower M i d d l e  22  4  26  Middle  31  4  35  Upper M i d d l e  15  0  15  Lower Upper  10  0  10  Total  89  11  100  T h i s m a t r i x was u t i l i z e d throughout Chapter  5.  L i n g u i s t i c Sample The l i n g u i s t i c i t e m s w h i c h we i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the f i v e s t y l e s s i s t e d o f 27 i t e m s .  con-  Below, these items are l i s t e d w i t h t h e i r f r e q u e n c y  o f o c c u r r e n c e i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r each s t y l e ; the column headed 'Free Speech' c o n t a i n s numbers i n d i c a t i n g the t o t a l number of u t t e r ances of t h a t i t e m d u r i n g f r e e speech by a l l 100 i n f o r m a n t s .  T a b l e 4.3.14  LINGUISTIC SAMPLE MP  WL  P  SR  Reading  Free Speech  1.  VtV  9  21  9  10  41  1,513  2.  ntV  3  10  4  16  12  554  3.  -ing  3  5  7  3  20  1,404  4.  nj,tj,dj  4  9  3  1  6  133  5.  rV=rV  0  9  4  1  3  57  6.  st  0  1  3  0  4  300  7.  h  4  0  0  12  205  8  v  0  2  3  # #  v  :  0  0  6.  79  83  9.  Free Speech  MP  WL  P  SR  Reading  0  9  1  0  4  79  10.  AU  4  5  3  2  8  493  11.  Aut  1  •0  0:  0;  5  217  12.  ai  3  1  3  3  10  431  13.  ait  1  2  0  0  4  194  14.  An  0  2  0  0  1  16  15.  nd  1  4  4  1  5  723  16.  vr-+er  6  5  0  0  7  77  17.  vr->-ar  0  1  0  0  0  114.  18.  SB  0  2  0  0  4  231  19.  hw  4  2  1  0  6  328  20.  kt, pt  1  1  1  0  5  89  3  4  0  0  5  221  3  5  6  2  15  1,780  1  1  0  4  0  0  0  3  110  21.  ~D  22.  3,  23.  or  0  24.  going to  0  25.  milk  0  1  0  0  1  0  26.  good [a/  0  1  0  0  3  16  27.  tomato  0  1  1  0  1  0  9  0  A p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  f r e q u e n c i e s f o r a l lthe  i n d i v i d u a l variable  w h i c h go i n t o the. p h o n o l o g i c a l s t u d y , Chapter .5, and t h e g r a m m a t i c a l , p r o n u n c i a t i o n , and v o c a b u l a r y s t u d y , Chapter 6, can be found i n Appendix B. SR stands f o r s e r i e s ; because 4.  t h i s s t y l e was dropped  from t h e a n a l y s i s m a i n l y  of t h e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e i n f o r m a n t s t o r e c i t e poems, l i s t s , e t c .  The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o p u t t h e i n f o r m a n t  a t ease.  The f i r s t s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e i n f o r m a n t ' s background  which  a l l o w s t h e i n f o r m a n t t o t a l k about h i m s e l f , h i s f a m i l y , and times p a s t . The n e x t s e c t i o n asks the i n f o r m a n t t o i d e n t i f y common o b j e c t s by means  84  o f p i c t u r e s ; t h i s t a s k e a s i l y c o n v i n c e s every i n f o r m a n t t h a t he can do the i n t e r v i e w , and  i t demonstrates t o the i n f o r m a n t t h a t we  i n t e r e s t e d i n what he a c t u a l l y says r a t h e r than what he may  are  think i s  ' c o r r e c t ' , t h e r e b y s e t t i n g the tone f o r the e n t i r e i n t e r v i e w . s e c t i o n i s a word l i s t o f 120  indeed  The  third  items w h i c h the i n f o r m a n t i s t o r e a d .  Then  comes the grammar s e c t i o n which r e q u i r e s o n l y t h a t the i n f o r m a n t o r a l l y f i l l i n the m i s s i n g word w h i l e the i n t e r v i e w e r s a y s t h e r e s t o f sentence.  the  I n the second p o r t i o n of t h i s grammar s e c t i o n , the i n f o r m a n t  i s asked to choose from two sentences spoken by the i n t e r v i e w e r the t h a t he would most l i k e l y say. to s u p p l y  F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the i n f o r m a n t i s asked  or choose l o c a l words and p h r a s e s , then to read the  passage, t o t a l k about l i f e i n Ottawa, and the i n f o r m a n t i s asked t o t e l l a s t o r y by  Next,  f o l l o w i n g a sequence o f f i n a l l y , t o respond  of language a t t i t u d e c o n c e r n i n g the Canadian, A m e r i c a n ,  B r i t i s h v a r i e t i e s of E n g l i s h and The e n t i r e q u e s t i o n n a i r e  5.  reading  to g i v e a n a r r a t i v e .  p i c t u r e s , t h e n to read a l i s t o f m i n i m a l p a i r s and to q u e s t i o n s  one  the i n f o r m a n t ' s own  and  speech p a t t e r n s .  i s r e p r i n t e d i n Appendix A.  Interviews Of the 100  Murdoch and  i n t e r v i e w s , 64 were conducted by m y s e l f , 15 by Margaret  21 by S t e f f i O r t i z .  A l l t h r e e o f the i n t e r v i e w e r s  are  graduate s t u d e n t s i n L i n g u i s t i c s Departments w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n d i a l e c t o l o g y and a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n Canadian E n g l i s h . were conducted i n a s i m i l a r f r i e n d l y and  A l l the  i n f o r m a l s t y l e , and  appears t o be no d i f f e r e n c e i n the t h r e e s e t s of d a t a . v i e w e r s ensured t h a t a l l i t e m s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  The  interviews there three  were e l i c i t e d  encouraged the Informants to speak f r e e l y and d i g r e s s when they so  interand  85 desired.  Most i n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n the i n f o r m a n t s ' homes.  f r i e n d s and  f a m i l y were encouraged t o remain i n the same room.  arrangement tended to r e l a x the i n f o r m a n t  and enabled  Their  This  us t o r e c o r d  c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s among f r i e n d s d u r i n g b r e a k s i n the i n t e r v i e w .  6 .  T r a n s c r i p t i o n and A n a l y s i s From the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a key was  c r e a t e d which numbered a l l the  v a r i a b l e s , the a n t i c i p a t e d v a l u e s , and l e f t numbered b l a n k s f o r unexpected values.  For the F r e e Speech s t y l e , we l i s t e d the v a r i a b l e s , t h e i r  and p r o v i d e d space to t i c k o f f the o c c u r r e n c e p l a y e d the r e c o r d e d  i n t e r v i e w and  the v a r i a b l e s as we p r o g r e s s e d  o f each v a l u e .  We  values  then  t i c k e d o f f the a p p r o p r i a t e v a l u e  through the tape.  t r a n s c r i b i n g every b i t o f the i n t e r v i e w , we  of  Thus, r a t h e r than  s e l e c t e d the v a l u e o f o n l y  those v a r i a b l e s we had p r e v i o u s l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . U s i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e , we Our n e x t t a s k was  saved man-months o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n  to t r a n s f e r the r e s u l t s from the 100  code books o r k e y s to computer F o r t r a n C o d i n g Forms and sheets t o computer punch c a r d s . was  time. individual  from  these  The p u n c h i n g and punch v e r i f i c a t i o n  done by t h e Computer S e r v i c e s Department o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f  B r i t i s h Columbia. The n e x t s t a g e , t h a t of a r r a n g i n g and p r e s e n t i n g the d a t a , was  per-  formed w i t h the h e l p o f the Amdahl 470/V6, Model I I computer under the 26 MTS  o p e r a t i n g system w i t h a T e k t r o n i c 4012  Midas programme was  Graphics Terminal.  employed throughout t h i s stage o f our survey  L e w i s James, Computer C o n s u l t a n t  The by  f o r the A r t s F a c u l t y .  The a n a l y s i s o f our d a t a was as w e l l as w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l means.  c a r r i e d ouC w i t h computer a s s i s t e d t e s t s For the d a t a i n C h a p t e r 5, we  con-  86  s i d e r e d t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f each o f o u r l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a b l e s i n r e l a t i o n to our s o c i o l o g i c a l parameters u s i n g Somers' D (a measure o f o r d i n a l variation).  The d a t a i n Chapter 6 was a n a l y s e d s i m i l a r l y , e x c e p t t h a t  i n s t e a d o f g i v i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e time t h e i n f o r m a n t responded i n a p a r t i c u l a r way, we have d i c h o t i m i z e d t h e i n f o r m a n t s ' s c o r e s as t o whether they f e l l above o r below t h e median.  C h i - s q u a r e t e s t s and i n some cases  t h e F i s h e r t e s t f o r p r o b a b i l i t y were used t o measure whether  there  was a - s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e f r e q u e n c y of occurence o f v a l u e s i n Ottawa v e r s u s t h e Ottawa V a l l e y urban c e n t r e s .  The above t e s t s  were c a r r i e d out by V i r g i n i a Green, S t a t i s t i c s C o n s u l t a n t t o t h e A r t s F a c u l t y a t U.B.C.  7.  Limitations The l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e t h e l o g i c a l consequences  of the  t h e o r e t i c a l d e s i g n o f the s u r v e y , t h e equipment used, and t h e u n a v o i d a b l e b i a s e s o f one t r a n s c r i b e r .  L i m i t a t i o n s due t o Survey D e s i g n A l t h o u g h d i a l e c t o l o g y as a s c i e n c e has e x i s t e d f o r w e l l o v e r one hundred y e a r s and a l t h o u g h i t has developed  e s t a b l i s h e d and proven,  t e c h n i q u e s , t h e l i n g u i s t i s e v e r aware t h a t h i s p r e s e n c e , as p a r t o f a s u r v e y , a f f e c t s t h e speech w h i c h he i s t r y i n g t o o b s e r v e .  Urban s o c i o -  d i a l e c t o l o g i s t s , who attempt t o be more s e n s i t i v e t o s t y l i s t i c and s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s than d i d w o r k e r s i n t r a d i t i o n a l d i a l e c t o l o g y , a r e even more k e e n l y aware o f t h i s problem.  The f a c t t h a t we were p r e s e n t  o b s e r v i n g speech has no doubt a l t e r e d t h a t speech. the speech we observed i s a consequence  A n o t h e r e f f e c t on  o f our having devised tasks  87 w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a n t s were t o perform;  some o f these t a s k s were q u i t e  u n n a t u r a l , and perhaps never b e f o r e performed by t h e i n f o r m a n t s .  A  f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n t o a p u r e l y unbiased d e s c r i p t i o n o f speech i s t h a t we then t a k e these speech u t t e r a n c e s w h i l e p e r f o r m i n g q u i t e a r t i f i c i a l and equate them t o s p e c i f i c speech s t y l e s .  The d e s i g n o f t h i s  c o n t a i n i n g such t a s k s , though an improvement upon t h e o l d e r  tasks  survey  survey  method which e l i c i t e d answers i n o n l y one s t y l i s t i c mode, n e v e r t h e l e s s must be e v a l u a t e d as a l i m i t a t i o n . observe a wide gamut o f s t y l i s t about t h e i n f o r m a n t ' s  With t h e new methodology, one does  v a r i a t i o n , b u t one i s l e f t  to speculate  f u l l range o f s t y l e s .  Lack o f A m e r i c a n Data Throughout t h e e n t i r e time o f t h e s u r v e y and e s p e c i a l l y w h i l e d e v e l o p i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s and a n a l y s i n g t h e r e s u l t s , we were aware o f a l a c k o f s o c i o l o g i c a l and s t y l i s t i c s u r v e y s o f main s t r e a m urban 27 Americans w i t h w h i c h we c o u l d have made comparisons. for  i n s t a n c e , t h e frequency  percentages  We now know,  o f v a l u e s o f - i n g i n Ottawa (and  Vancouver) b u t we know v e r y l i t t l e about t h i s same i t e m i n t h e U n i t e d States. The Number o f Informants Because o f time r e s t r i c t i o n s , we c o u l d i n t e r v i e w o n l y one hundred informants.  T h i s s m a l l number o f i n f o r m a n t s p r o v i d e s us w i t h an even  s m a l l e r number o f i n f o r m a n t s  i n each c e l l when two o r t h r e e o f t h e  i n d i c a t o r s ( s e x , age, c l a s s ) were combined. i n a c e l l a l l o w e d t o go below e l e v e n .  A t no time was t h e number  88 Nature o f  Recruitment  The f a c t t h a t our i n f o r m a n t s were v o l u n t e e r s g i v e s a d e f i n i t e skew to our d a t a .  I t was  my o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t one group o f those who  refused  to be i n t e r v i e w e d were not i n t e r e s t e d i n E n g l i s h , and they p r o b a b l y spoke much l i k e t h e two i n f o r m a n t s i n the lower c l a s s .  Others who  appeared t o  be o f the lower upper c l a s s d e c l i n e d , c l a i m i n g l a c k o f t i m e . i n a l l c l a s s e s those who  l i k e d E n g l i s h o r who  f e l t t h a t they were good  a t E n g l i s h agreed to be i n t e r v i e w e d more r e a d i l y . t h a n those who t h e i r usage was  not standard.  Probably  f e l t that  We a l s o d i d not have the f a c i l i t i e s ,  time,  o r aim o f c o n d u c t i n g a f u l l y random s a m p l i n g which would meet the r i g o r o u s s t a n d a r d s o f an e x t e n s i v e s o c i o l o g i c a l  survey.  L i m i t a t i o n s due t o Equipment Because we needed t o have the r e c o r d i n g equipment l i g h t , s e l f - c o n t a i n e d and u n i n t i m i d a t i n g i n appearance, we used a Sony 110-B  c a s s e t t e tape  r e c o r d e r u t i l i z i n g the b u i l t - i n microphone and b a t t e r y power w i t h Sony 28 Low-Noise C-90  cassettes.  The frequency response was speech r e c o r d e d but was  The frequency response  i s 50-10,000 Hz.  adequate to make v a l i d t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f a l l  c e r t a i n l y not of a q u a l i t y to m e r i t f u r t h e r  a n a l y s i s on a sound s p e c t r o g r a p h . Informants'  Difficulties  Four women i n f o r m a n t s d i d not wear t h e i r dentures w h i l e b e i n g i n t e r viewed and one man  complained  about h i s dentures w h i l e b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d .  S i x people had some t r o u b l e r e a d i n g w i t h or w i t h o u t g l a s s e s , and one somewhat h a r d o f h e a r i n g . l i n g u i s t i c items m i n i m a l l y .  These f a c t o r s may  have i n f l u e n c e d some  was  89  L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Computer The Midas programme and the hardware c o n f i g u r a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o above s e r v e d our purposes w e l l .  We d i d f i n d , however, t h a t t h e computer  p r i n t e r s c o u l d n o t e a s i l y be a d j u s t e d t o use IPA ( t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l Phonetic Alphabet); t h i s necessitated  several coding t r a n s f e r r a l s  by hand w i t h t h e accompanying chance o f e r r o r s w i t h each t r a n s f e r r a l .  Limitations of  Transcriber  To a c e r t a i n degree one has a p r o p e n s i t y  t o h e a r what one has been  t r a i n e d t o h e a r and n o t h e a r what one has n o t been t r a i n e d t o h e a r .  This  t r a n s c r i b e r , l i k e a l l o t h e r t r a n s c r i b e r s , had such a b i a s w h i c h w i l l i n e v i t a b l y skew t h e r e s u l t s t o some s m a l l e x t e n t .  The t r a n s c r i p t i o n s  of t h i s Ottawa p r o j e c t and t h e Vancouver p r o j e c t w i l l however be s i m i l a r because t h e t r a n s c r i b e r s have had s i m i l a r t r a i n i n g .  fairly  90  Chapter 4:  Footnotes  "'"Concerning the g e o g r a p h i c a l parameter, i t i s planned t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s Ottawa s t u d y w i l l be compared to the r e s u l t s o f t h e Vancouver s t u d y . Moreover, i t i s hoped t h a t comparable s t u d i e s w i l l be c a r r i e d out i n o t h e r urban communities a c r o s s Canada. Where the t e m p o r a l parameter i s c o n c e r n e d , we w i l l make comp a r i s o n s o f d a t a from t h i s s t u d y w i t h d a t a from p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , e.g. A v i s , 1954, 1955, 1956; McDavid, 1951. 2 A w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f c l a s s f o r t h i s s t u d y i s : 'a major s o c i a l group, members of w h i c h a r e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same economic p o s i t i o n , p r e s t i g e , o c c u p a t i o n a l r a n k , power, v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s , and c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n t e r a c t i o n and c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , " t a k e n from H.K. R e a d i n g , A G l o s s a r y of S o c i o l o g i c a l Terms (London: S o c i o l o g i a , 1976), p.27. 3 See our Socio-economic C l a s s Index below. We do i n f a c t t a k e the average o f the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n d i c a t o r s . 4 O p . c i t . , pp.211-220; o p . c i t . ,  pp.38-41.  "'There a r e t h r e e a d d i t i o n a l p o i n t s w h i c h may be a s s i g n e d t o an i n f o r m a n t i n the e d u c a t i o n i n d i c a t o r . Two p o i n t s a r e g i v e n f o r p r i v a t e s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e and one p o i n t f o r r e t u r n i n g f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g . Bernard B a r b e r , S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , . B r a c e , and W o r l d , 1957), pp.102-104. We a l s o c o n s u l t e d B. B l i s h e n and Hugh McRoberts, "A R e v i s e d Socioeconomic Index f o r O c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada," Canadian Review of S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y , v o l . 1 3 , n o . l (1976), pp.71-79. ^W. Labov when summarizing d a t a on s o c i a l m o b i l i t y c o n c l u d e s : "1) Upwardly m o b i l e persons adopt t h e norms o f an e x t e r i o r r e f e r e n c e group - as a r u l e , the norms o f the next h i g h e r group w i t h which they are i n c o n t a c t . 2) A group w h i c h shows a p a s t h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y tends t o be governed more by i t s own l i n g u i s t i c norms - more p r e c i s e l y , to a c h i e v e a b a l a n c e i n w h i c h own and e x t e r n a l norms a r e r e f l e c t e d i n f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t performance, w i t h o u t a wide range o f s t y l e s h i f t i n g . 3) A downward m o b i l e c a t e g o r y d e v i a t e s i n i t s nonacceptance o f t h e normative p a t t e r n s which o t h e r segments r e c o g n i z e . Here we are s p e a k i n g of a s e t o f i n d i v i d u a l s who d e v i a t e from t h e p r i n c i p a l subgroup i n w h i c h they were r a i s e d . " W. Labov, "The E f f e c t o f S o c i a l M o b i l i t y on L i n g u i s t i c B e h a v i o r , " S o c i o l o g i c a l I n q u i r y , v o l . 3 6 , no.2 ( S p r i n g 1966), pp.202, 203. We have made p r o v i s i o n f o r s o c i a l m o b i l i t y d a t a i n t h i s s u r v e y and hope to be a b l e t o u t i l i z e i t i n a f u t u r e s t u d y .  91  g See the D i c t i o n a r y of Canadianisms, o p . c i t . , and t h e D i c t i o n a r y o f Canadian E n g l i s h , o p . c i t . 9  For t h e purpose o f s i m p l i c i t y , we w i l l l a b e l b o t h t h e t a s k and the s t y l e w i t h the same h e a d i n g . We h y p o t h e s i z e t h e t a s k s e l i c i t ' s t y l e s ' w h i c h c o r r e l a t e c l o s e l y t o the range o f s t y l e s found i n n a t u r a l human communication. See Labov, 1966, pp.90-131 f o r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s point. S e e Noam Chomsky, A s p e c t s of the Theory o f S y n t a x , (Cambridge: M.I.T. P r e s s , 1965), pp.3-15 f o r a c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the l i n g u i s t i c terms competence and performance. 1 0  "'""'"This t a s k , f i r s t used by me i n t h e Kootenay Region Survey d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1970 (Gregg, 1973, pp.105-116), i s not p a r t o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s d i s p l a y e d by Labov or T r u d g i l l . Murray K i n l o c h i n h i s a r t i c l e , "The Use o f P i c t u r e s i n E l i c i t a t i o n , " American Speech, v o l . 4 6 (1971), pp.38-46, d i s c u s s e s t h e advantages of this technique. 12 O p . c i t . , pp.92-109; o p . c i t . ,  p.47.  13 See Margaret Murdoch, "Reading Passages and I n f o r m a l Speech," unp u b l i s h e d paper g i v e n a t the T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on Methods i n D i a l e c t o l o g y (London, O n t a r i o ) , 1978, pp.1-7. 14 P.R. Hawkins, S o c i a l C l a s s , The Nominal Group arid V e r b a l S t r a t e g i e s , (London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , 1977), p.56. "^Canadian Urban Trends: M e t r o p o l i t a n P e r s p e c t i v e , V o l . 2 , ed. Ray, ( T o r o n t o : Copp C l a r k , 1977), p.53. "^Census T r a c t B u l l e t i n : 1971), p.2.  O t t a w a - H u l l , (Ottawa:  D.M.  S t a t i s t i c s Canada,  " ^ I b i d . , pp.2-37. 18 The above comments on t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f the i n f o r m a n t s and the manner o f approach ori the p a r t o f the i n t e r v i e w e r can b e s t f i t i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f f i e l d t e c h n i q u e s as found i n : Roger Shuy, W a l t e r Wolfram, and W i l l i a m R i l e y , F i e l d Techniques i n an Urban Language Study, (Washington: C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , 1968), pp.20-28; W i l l i a m Samarin, F i e l d L i n g u i s t i c s : A Guide t o L i n g u i s t i c F i e l d Work, (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1967), pp.33, 34, and 108; D a v i d S a n k o f f and G i l l i a n S a n k o f f , "Sample Survey Methods and Computer A s s i s t e d A n a l y s i s i n the Study of Grammatical V a r i a t i o n , " Canadian Languages i n t h e i r S o c i a l C o n t e x t , ed. Regna D a r n e l l , (Edmonton: Edmonton L i n g u i s t i c R e s e a r c h , 1973), pp.12-23; and W. Labov, "The Study of Language i n i t s S o c i a l C o n t e x t , " Studium G e n e r a l e , v o l . 2 3 (1970), pp.45-49.  92  1 9  T r u d g i l l , 1974, o p . c i t . ,  p.27.  20 Labov s t a r t e d w i t h 122 i n t e r v i e w s b u t found t h a t he had t o e l i m i n a t e some because they were not n a t i v e New Y o r k e r s and o t h e r s because they were n o n - n a t i v e s p e a k e r s . The Norwich Survey and the Ottawa Survey saved much time by s e t t i n g s t r i c t c r i t e r i a o f p l a c e o f b i r t h and n a t i v e language from the o u t s e t . 2 1  T r u d g i l l , 1974, o p . c i t . ,  p.27.  22 Labov, 1966a, o p . c i t . , p.181. 23 Labov, 1970, o p . c i t . ,  p.43.  24 T r u d g i l l , 1974, o p . c i t . , p.27, f o o t n o t e 2. 25 Labov's work, T h e S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f E n g l i s h i n New York C i t y , has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r u s i n g as few as f i v e l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a b l e s as the base f o r a s o c i o l i n g u i s t i c s u r v e y ; see J . P e l l o w e e t a l . , "A Dynamic M o d e l l i n g o f L i n g u i s t i c V a r i a t i o n : The Urban ( T y n e s i d e ) L i n g u i s t i c Survey," L i n g u a , v o l . 3 0 , n o . l (1972), pp.1-30. 26 For f u r t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , see J . L . L e i g h and T i n a Duke, UBC F a c i l i t i e s , (Vancouver: U.B.C. Computing C e n t r e , 1978), pp.1-31. 27 As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d i n Chapter 1, most American s u r v e y s have been o f r u r a l o r i n n e r - c i t y speech. 28 Sony TC-110B s p e c i f i c a t i o n s h e e t .  93  CHAPTER 5 THE CO-VARIATION OF THE PHONOLOGICAL VARIABLES WITH SOCIOLOGICAL AND STYLISTIC PARAMETERS  1.  Measurement o f C o - v a r i a t i o n A major aim o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o - v a r i a t i o n o f  p h o n o l o g i c a l items w i t h s o c i o l o g i c a l and s t y l i s t i c parameters.  In order  to measure t h i s type o f c o r r e l a t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e was undertaken:  1) on F o r t r a n c o d i n g forms, we a s s i g n e d  a coded v a l u e t o each o f  the 752 q u e s t i o n n a i r e items a c c o r d i n g t o each i n f o r m a n t ' s  response;  2) t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e items w h i c h c o n t a i n e d any o f t h e 27 p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s were then s e l e c t e d from t h e r e s t o f t h e items and grouped t o g e t h e r a c c o r d i n g t o v a r i a b l e and t h e t a s k i n w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a n t was, a t t h e time o f u t t e r a n c e , p e r f o r m i n g ;  3) each i n f o r m a n t was p l a c e d i n a  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c class,"'' an age group, a s e x group, a r u r a l o r urban background group, an e t h n i c background group, and a s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n o r new Canadian group a l l a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n  during  the i n t e r v i e w and as a r e s u l t of a p p l y i n g t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s i n d e x criteria.  T h i s procedure a l l o w e d us t o o b t a i n frequency  s c o r e s f o r each  v a r i a b l e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o each s o c i o l o g i c a l group and each s t y l e . By means o f these s c o r e s , we were a b l e :  1) t o a n a l y s e t h e n a t u r e  and e x t e n t o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s and s o c i o economic c l a s s , s o c i a l c o n t e x t , age, s e x and t h e o t h e r  sociological  f a c t o r s ; 2) t o d i s c o v e r w h i c h v a r i a b l e s a r e most s u b j e c t t o c o - v a r i a t i o n w i t h t h e above l i s t e d s o c i o l o g i c a l parameters; and consequently  3) t o  94 a s c e r t a i n whether our h y p o t h e s e s , assumptions, i n d i c e s , s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s , age  ' c u t s ' , c l a s s ' c u t s ' , t a s k o r d e r i n g , e t c . , were v a l i d .  We w i l l now  p r e s e n t the 27 p h o n o l o g i c a l i t e m s , items which seemed  l i k e l y to p r o v i d e some s o c i o l o g i c a l o r s t y l i s t i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s f o r each i t e m i n graph form.  and  The f i v e  con-  t e x t u a l s t y l e s a r e p l o t t e d a l o n g t h e a b s c i s s a ; the s t y l e s range on a l i n e a r s c a l e from the most f o r m a l , M i n i m a l P a i r s (MP), through Word L i s t (W),  P i c t u r e s ( P ) , and Reading  the most i n f o r m a l .  ( R ) , t o F r e e Speech ( F S ) , assumed  The i n d e x s c o r e s f o r one v a l u e o f each p h o n o l o g i c a l  v a r i a b l e a r e d i s p l a y e d i n percentages and p l o t t e d a l o n g the o r d i n a t e . These p e r c e n t a g e s a r e the mean average of the f r e q u e n c y of a v a l u e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e u t t e r a n c e s of a v a r i a b l e by a l l members of a s o c i o l o g i c a l group.  The symbols r e p r e s e n t the s o c i o l o g i c a l g r o u p i n g s , and the l i n e s  connect the s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by each group i n the f i v e c o n t e x t u a l s t y l e s . The c l a s s e s r e p r e s e n t e d i n the graphs a r e : (LM) , M i d d l e (M) , Upper M i d d l e (UM)  Working (W), Lower M i d d l e  and Lower Upper ( L U ) .  A clear  case  o f o r d e r e d s o c i o l o g i c a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n would be i l l u s t r a t e d by a graph d i s p l a y i n g o r d e r e d and n o n - i n t e r s e c t i n g l i n e s spaced w i t h good s e p a r a t i o n ; c o n t e x t u a l v a r i a t i o n would be i l l u s t r a t e d by the s l o p e o f t h e l i n e s .  1.  The V a r i a b l e ( V t V ) , m e d i a l / t / Examples:  c i t y , Ottawa, l i t t l e , out o f , and 146 more words and  phrases.  T h i s v a r i a b l e i s the p o s t t o n i c / t / , pronounced [ t ] or [ d ] , w h i c h i s found between vowel sounds or between the l i q u i d sounds / l / and / r / and vowel sounds, e.g. s h e l t e r , d e l t a , t i l t e d , and d i r t y , p a r t y , t h i r t y , q u a r t e r , and smarty.  belted  In addition,  this  95  variable was found to occur frequently after most.voiceless f r i c a tives; after / f / i n after, often, f i f t e e n , and f i f t y ; after /s/ i n s i s t e r , sixteen, mister, twister, b l i s t e r , etc.; and a f t e r / J / i n wished our, washed ( h ) i s , fished i t , etc. Furthermore,  a medial  /t/variation was noted to take place after In/, e.g. carpenter, seventy, seventeen, winter, centre, and pointed; occurrences of this l a s t v a r i a t i o n were always tabulated under the variable (ntv), however. arctic.  The medial Id rule also applied a f t e r /k/ i n picture and  96 VtV = VtV by Class  Figure 5.1.a.  •=WQRKING S L O W E R  MIDDLE  X^MIDDLE •=UPPER  MIDDLE  S L O W E R  UPPER  Figure 5.1.a. displays the average percentage scores f o r (VtV) = [VtV] for the f i v e s o c i a l classes established from our socio-economic class index (Table 4.1) contextual s t y l e s .  i n each of the f i v e  Figure 5.1.a. reveals that the phonological  variable (VtV) i s 1) involved i n a good amount of ordered  social  97 c l a s s d i f f e r e n t a t i o n as i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e l i n e s and t h e almost p e r f e c t l i n e a r s e q u e n c i n g o f t h e c l a s s e s a t each s t y l i s t i c marker.  I n f a c t i f we used o n l y t h r e e c l a s s  lines,  as Labov f r e q u e n t l y d i d , LU/UM, M, and LM/W, we would have no c r o s s overs or i n t e r s e c t i o n s .  F u r t h e r m o r e , a 20 p e r c e n t s e p a r a t i o n i s  m a i n t a i n e d between t h e lower upper c l a s s and.the two l o w e s t c l a s s e s . S t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n i s also strong w i t h scores generally d e c l i n i n g as we p r o g r e s s from l e f t to i n f o r m a l .  t o r i g h t on t h e a x i s o f f o r m a l  The s c o r e s drop 45 p e r c e n t f o r some c l a s s e s .  The  s t e e p e s t g r a d i e n t i s between W and P, b o t h r e p r e s e n t i n g non-connected speech, r a t h e r than between P and R, f o r example, w h i c h would have r e p r e s e n t e d a v a r i a t i o n between non-connected  and connected  speech.  The p e r c e n t a g e s range between 67 and 7 and a few i n d i v i d u a l s s c o r e d 100 p e r c e n t i n MP and 0 p e r c e n t i n FS.  Some o f t h e w o r k i n g  class,  e s p e c i a l l y those i n t h e l o w e r c l a s s , showed almost no s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n a t a l l , w i t h t h e p e r c e n t a g e s b e i n g below 15 i n a l l s t y l e s . There appears t o be some s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o h a v i n g t o o low a p e r centage o f [ t ] i n m e d i a lfrjp o s i t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n more f o r m a l s t y l e s . N o t i c e t h a t f o r t h e l o w e r upper c l a s s , t h e r e a d i n g s t y l e s c o r e f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e i s lower than t h e f r e e speech s c o r e . of  Many i n f o r m a n t s  t h e lower upper and upper m i d d l e c l a s s e s demonstrate  throughout t h e s u r v e y .  this pattern  98 Figure 5.1.b.  VtV = VtV by Sex/Age  P J = M H L £ S GE 4 0 YEARS OF AGE A-=MALES LT 4 0 Y E A R S OF AGE X - F E M A L E S GE 4 0 Y E A R S OF AGE <t>=FEMALES L T 4 0 YEARS OF AGE  Figure 5.1.b. displays the variable (VtV) when analysed according to sex/age groups.  We can see that females over 40 years  of age are the most formal through the entire range of s t y l e s while the young males were consistently the most informal; this 2  i s a pattern which recurs frequently i n our study.  99 A v i s , 1956;  Gregg, 1957;  and  CEU  t r e a t the usage of  this  3 v a r i a b l e i n Canadian E n g l i s h . There i s no p a r a l l e l study of N o r t h e r n American usage w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s v a r i a b l e , and  c o n s e q u e n t l y no comparison can be made.  The Webster's T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y t r a n s c r i b e s words w i t h p o s t - t o n i c m e d i a l / t / as 2.  The  Variable  Examples:  /nd/.  choice.  (ntV)  p l e n t y , c e n t r e , twenty, w i n t e r , and 44 o t h e r words.  T h i s v a r i a b l e has /n/, or  [d] as f i r s t  three p o s s i b l e pronunciations,  namely, / n t / ,  100 Figure 5.2.a.  ntV = nt by Class  •^WORKING A=LQWER MIDDLE  X=MIDDLE  •=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0WER UPPER  Figure 5.2.a. displays the average percentage scores for the value /nt/.  This graph c l e a r l y reveals that for this phonological  variable, the upper middle class has consistently higher scores than does the lower upper class; we w i l l want to check the pattern throughout our survey as well.  No other clear s o c i a l class  101 d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n p a t t e r n emerges from our s t a t i s t i c s .  On the o t h e r  hand, the g r a d i e n t s of the l i n e s demonstrate a s t r o n g s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n , w i t h the frequency  of / n t / d e c r e a s i n g i n a l l c l a s s e s  as the f o r m a l i t y of the c o n t e x t d e c r e a s e s . 94 to 13 p e r c e n t .  The s c o r e s range from  T h i s range o f s c o r e s f o r c i b l y i l l u s t r a t e s  the  i n h e r e n t weakness of p o s t a l s u r v e y s w h i c h i n e v i t a b l y must ask q u e s t i o n s such a s , "Does the - t t - o f b u t t e r sound l i k e the -ddshudder?"  of  4  The l e x i c a l i t e m c e n t r e e l i c i t e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n s more f r e q u e n t l y c o n t a i n i n g / n t / than o t h e r words c o n t a i n s the v a r i a b l e ( n t V ) ; the h i g h p r e s t i g e o f the N a t i o n a l A r t s C e n t r e i n Ottawa p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h i s anomaly.  undoubtedly  102 Figure 5.2.b.  ntV = nt by Sex/Age  m=MHL£S GE 40 YEARS OF AGE A=MALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE X=FEMALE5 GE 40 YEARS OF AGE •^FEMALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE  Figure 5.2.b. represents the same variable and value to sex/age groups.  according  We can observe that females are much more formal  than males i n a l l styles, and that age does not appear to be s i g n i ficant.  103 Figure 5.2,c,  ntV = nd by Age/Sex  •"=MALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE A^MALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE X=FEMALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE <2>=FEMALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE  o  a _J 00 I  a _  I—co LU  LJ  CK  -  UJ  STYLE  Figure 5.2.c, displays the variable  (ntV) pronounced as /nd/.  Males over forty, and to a lesser extent males less than forty, predominate i n this pronunciation.  104 3.  The V a r i a b l e (-ing) Examples:  d o i n g , f i s h i n g , morning, b u i l d i n g , and 97 o t h e r i t e m s .  T h i s v a r i a b l e i s t h e g r a m m a t i c a l morpheme s u f f i x w h i c h marks t h e p r o g r e s s i v e a s p e c t and gerund.  I t i s also a nominalizing s u f f i x i n  words s u c h as morning and b u i l d i n g b u t i s n o t p a r t o f m o n o - s y l l a b i c stems s u c h as t h i n g , s i n g , o r w i n g . I t n e v e r c a r r i e s p r i m a r y s t r e s s and i s pronounced i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t manners, namely, A o / , / i n / , and /an/. F i g u r e 5.3.a.  - i n g = i Q by C l a s s  •=WQRKING A=LQWER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE S U P P E R MIDDLE *=LDVER UPPER  Figure 5.3.a. displays the average percentage for each class for  the variable (-ing) r e a l i s e d as / i n / . This graph i l l u s t r a t e s  f a i r l y consistent d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and ordering according to class, some intersections and cross-over of lines notwithstanding.  The  percentages range from 94 f o r the lower upper class to 34 for the working class i n minimal pair s t y l e with a separation of about 20 points maintained  between these classes i n a l l other s t y l e s .  A  strong s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n i s present with the steepest gradients again occurring between W" and P. 11 percent.  The scores range between 94  and  Comparing p a r a l l e l studies on this variable,"' we  notice that the pronunciation /an/ i s considered to be the only alternative to / i n / .  106 F i g u r e 5.3.b.  - i n g = a n by C l a s s •^WORKING  A=L0WER M I D D L E X=MIDDLE S U P P E R MIDDLE  *=L0VER  UPPER  2n  si  UJ  (_j  -  STYLE  F i g u r e 5.3.b. d i s p l a y s t h e f r e q u e n c y o f / e n / .  One i m m e d i a t e l y  sees t h a t t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s stands o u t p r e d o m i n a n t l y f o r t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n FS b u t t h a t f o r a l l o t h e r c l a s s e s and s t y l e s t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h i s s t i g m a t i z e d form i s c o n s i s t e n t l y v e r y low.  How-  ever our s t u d y i n Ottawa r e v e a l s , and p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s elsewhere i n Canada s u b s t a n t i a t e , t h a t b o t h / i n / and / e n / a r e n o t  107  the most frequent r e a l i z a t i o n s of v a r i a b l e (-ing), but that [in] i s . This pronunciation, not yet discussed i n l i n g u i s t i c j o u r n a l s , i s  6 treated as usage to be avoided by CBC newscasters i n You Don't Say. When analysing our corpus, we frequently discovered that our informants pronounced such words as being and bean, paying and pain, playing and p l a i n , saying and sane, and e s p e c i a l l y beings and beans i n a very s i m i l a r manner, with the vowel i n the word containing the -ing s u f f i x z b e i n g somewhat longer.  An example of the confusion  which can a r i s e from t h i s pronunciation comes from Margaret Murdoch, chief interviewer f o r the Vancouver Survey, interviewer f o r our Ottawa Survey, and n a t i v e of Ottawa-Rockcliffe Park; she reports that a frequently e l i c i t e d opposite of playing i s fancy.^  108  F i g u r e 5.3.c.  - i n g = i n by C l a s s  •=WQRKING  A=L0WER MIDDLE  X=MIDDLE •=UPPER MIDDLE * = L 0 V E R UPPER  F i g u r e 5.3.c. shows t h e average f r e q u e n c y o f / i n / f o r each i n each s t y l e .  class  No r e g u l a r c l a s s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n emerges except t o  mention t h a t as t h e lower upper c l a s s and t h e lower c l a s s have h i g h o c c u r r e n c e s o f / i n V and /en/ r e s p e c t i v e l y , t h e i r s c o r e s f o r / i n / a r e lower than t h e t h r e e m i d d l e c l a s s e s . g r a d i e n t between W and P.  There i s a s t r o n g s t y l i s t i c  109 F i g u r e 5.3.d.  - i n g = i n by Sex/Age  m=MflLES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE A=MALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE X=FEMALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE <!>=FEMALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE  F i g u r e 5.3.d. d i s p l a y s t h e f r e q u e n c y o f / i n / a c c o r d i n g t o s e x / age groups.  I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t i c e t h a t females and males l e s s  than f o r t y y e a r s o f age employ t h i s usage more than t h e o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n does.  I t i s t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e a u t h o r t h a t / i n / i s an  attempt towards t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n / i n / and away from /en/. By f a r , most p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f / i n / i n our corpus were o f t e r t i a r y s t r e s s  110  l e v e l or lower.  Only when a s p e a k e r r a i s e s t h e s t r e s s l e v e l o f / i n /  to secondary o r h i g h e r l e v e l s do some l i s t e n e r s r e a c t n e g a t i v e l y t o i t s usage; o t h e r w i s e i t s usage was e y a l u a t e d as f u l l y a c c e p t a b l e o r  g u n n o t i c e d i n our i n f o r m a l s u r v e y s .  I f we compare t h e Manhattan  s t a t i s t i c s w i t h t h e Ottawa s t a t i s t i c s assuming t h a t t h e Ottawa / i n / and / i n / a r e e q u i v a l e n t t o Manhattan A n / and Ottawa /on/ i s e q u i v a l e n t t o Manhattan /©n/, we w i l l r e a d i l y see i n F i g u r e s 5.3.e. and 9 5.3.f. 4.  t h a t t h e two c i t i e s v a r y g r e a t l y i n (-ing) usage.  The V a r i a b l e ( t y , dy, ny) p a l a t a l Examples:  glide  t u n e , due, new s t u d e n t , duke, s t u p i d , avenue, nude, n u c l e a r , mature, t u b e , t u n e , Tuesday, and a few others.  T h i s v a r i a b l e i s t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence o f t h e p a l a t a l  glide  [ j ] a f t e r / t / , / d / , or /n/ and b e f o r e /u/. I n Canadian E n g l i s h , the  palatal glide  [ j ] i s n o r m a l l y n o t h e a r d i n t h e word s u i t and  always h e a r d a f t e r / f / , / v / , /m/, and /b/; /k/ i s f o l l o w e d by e i t h e r v a l u e of ( y u ) .  Ill Figure 5.4.a.  ty, dy, ny = ty, dy, ny by Class  •^WORKING ASLOWER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE <J>=UPPER MIDDLE *=LQWER UPPER  Figure 5,4.a. presents the averaged percentage scores f o r the [j] option of variable (ty, dy, ny) for a l l f i v e classes i n a l l f i v e styles.  The graph i l l u s t r a t e s that there i s a strong and ordered  pattern of class d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n class. comment.  with the exception of the working  The non-linear ranking of the working class requires some For a number of phonological items, the working class and  112 the  lower upper and upper m i d d l e c l a s s e s have s i m i l a r  patterns.  An e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h i s l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t Ottawa and the s u r r o u n d i n g Ottawa V a l l e y was s e t t l e d i n the 1840s, 50s, and 60s, by S c o t s and I r i s h of m a i n l y humble s o c i a l s t a n d i n g . Many o f the descendents of t h e s e s e t t l e r s have now  reached  the upper m i d d l e and lower upper c l a s s e s of Ottawa w h i l e a l a r g e number have remained i n t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . found f o r t h i s i t e m and o t h e r s s u c h as (ou) , Cai)  The  results  , C.hw) , (ar) ,  ( p o t a t o ) , ( o r ) and ( f i l m ) p o i n t t o t h i s common h e r i t a g e .  The  r e m a i n i n g c l a s s e s , LM and M, a r e t o a l a r g e e x t e n t made up of new  Canadians and newcomers, many o f whom f o l l o w more c l o s e l y  G e n e r a l Canadian usage p a t t e r n s . Females over f o r t y y e a r s o f age have much h i g h e r s c o r e s than the o t h e r sex/age groups; see F i g u r e 5.4.b.  113 F i g u r e 5.4.b.  t y , dy, ny = t y , dy, ny by Sex/Age  LTJ^MRLES GE 4 0 Y E A R S OF AGE A """MALES L T 4 0 Y E A R S OF AGE X"""FEMALES GE 4 0 Y E A R S OF AGE 0 = F E M A L E S L T 4 0 Y E A R S OF AGE  The s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n  i s s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y between R and FS where  the g r a d i e n t i s q u i t e s t e e p . For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on O n t a r i o and Canadian usage o f t h i s v a r i a b l e see A v i s , 1956  and CEU."'"^  Speakers o f N o r t h e r n American g e n e r a l l y do not appear t o have t h i s p a l a t a l g l i d e as a g o a l i n t h e i r most f o r m a l  styles.  114 5.  The Variable (rV),r metathesis Examples:  apricot, professor, A f r i c a , agriculture, presume, hundred, introduce, precisely, presented, promoted, provincial.  Figure 5.5.a.  rV = rV by Class  •^WORKING A-LOWER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE 0=UPPER MIDDLE *=LDVER UPPER o  2 n  STYLE  115 T h i s v a r i a b l e i s t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence o f r m e t a t h e s i s . pattern of v a r i a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure  5.5.a.  represent the frequency of metathesis f o r a l l c l a s s e s We can see t h a t i n s p i t e o f c r o s s - o v e r s ,  The  The p e r c e n t a g e s i n four s t y l e s .  t h e r e i s some c l a s s  differ-  e n t i a t i o n f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e as t h e upper c l a s s e s have t h e h i g h e r s c o r e s and t h e lower c l a s s e s have t h e lower s c o r e s .  There i s no  c l e a r pattern of s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e . w h i c h we expected f o r a l l c l a s s e s m a t e r i a l i z e d only.  The p a t t e r n  f o r the working class  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s v a r i a b l e a c c o r d i n g t o s e x r e v e a l e d  t h a t females had c o n s i s t e n t l y fewer o c c u r r e n c e s o f m e t a t h e s i s than d i d males.  6.  The V a r i a b l e ( s t ) Examples:  He j u s t l e f t , h a l f p a s t e i g h t , l a s t S a t u r d a y , f a s t c a r , almost two, y o u n g e s t , must b e , b e s t p a r t , West V i r g i n i a , m o s t l y , o l d e s t , and f i r s t  thing.  T h i s v a r i a b l e i s t h e p r e s e n c e o f absence o f t h e / t / o f t h e c l u s t e r / s t / i n morpheme f i n a l p o s i t i o n .  116 Figure 5.6.a.  st = s t by Class  •=V0RKING A=LOWER  MIDDLE  X=MIDDLE • - U P P E R  MIDDLE  *=LQVER  UPPER  a  a.  (—to  LU CJ Cr: UJ  Q_,  P'  STYLE  Figure 5.6.a. displays the presence of / t / f o r a l l classes for four styles; W and P are combined.  We can see some class d i f f e r -  entiation, with the working class having the lowest scores throughout and the lower upper class having the highest scores twice.  The  scores f o r the three middle classes reveal no regular pattern.  Too  H7 few  / s t / v a l u e s i n morpheme f i n a l p o s i t i o n would appear t o be a  stigmatized feature e s p e c i a l l y i n formal contexts.  The s t y l i s t i c  v a r i a t i o n i s q u i t e r e g u l a r as a l l s c o r e s d e c r e a s e as we move from f o r m a l t o more i n f o r m a l s t y l e s . We have no r e p o r t s t o t e l l us what t h e s i t u a t i o n w i t h t o t h i s and t h e p r e v i o u s  v a r i a b l e i n N o r t h e r n American might be;  however, we b e l i e v e t h a t i t would be v e r y  7.  regard  similar.  The V a r i a b l e (h) Examples:  h e , h i m , h e r , h i s , h e r s , them, and come h e r e .  T h i s v a r i a b l e i s t h e presence o r absence o f i n i t i a l a s p i r a t i o n i n words i n t e r n a l t o p h r a s e s and i n u n s t r e s s e d  position.  118 F i g u r e 5.7.a.  h = h  •=WORKING A=LQVER MIDDLE X-MIDDLE <!>=UPPER MIDDLE *=LOWER UPPER a a  _  a CD  STYLE  F i g u r e 5.7.a. i l l u s t r a t e s t h e frequency t i o n o f t h e f i v e c l a s s e s i n MP, R, and FS.  of this i n i t i a l a s p i r a No r e g u l a r p a t t e r n appears  evident f o r s o c i o l o g i c a l c o - v a r i a t i o n of t h i s v a r i a b l e .  However, t h e  s t y l i s t i c g r a d i e n t from f o r m a l t o i n f o r m a l i s q u i t e steep f o r a l l groups.  N o t i c e t h a t t h e lower upper c l a s s ranges 74 p e r c e n t  i n MP  119 to  0 p e r c e n t i n FS. C e r t a i n environments appeared  to t r i g g e r a  h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y of i n i t i a l a s p i r a t i o n than d i d o t h e r s ; f o r example, the  p h r a s e b i k e he bought e l i c i t e d a low f r e q u e n c y o f /h/  (39%)  whereas, the phrase guess h e ' l l be e l i c i t e d a h i g h e r frequency of /h/ ( 7 6 % ) .  T h i s may  l e a d someone t o i n v e s t i g a t e the l i a i s o n  p a t t e r n s o f p l o s i v e s v e r s u s s i b i l a n t s r e g a r d i n g s i l e n t 'h'."""""" F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e was  a marked tendency among our i n f o r m a n t s  towards i n i t i a l a s p i r a t i o n a f t e r m e d i a l Itlwhen  pronounced  as [ t ]  and towards the absence of i n i t i a l a s p i r a t i o n when m e d i a l t was pronounced for  8.  as  [d].  The phrase t o i n v i t e h e r s e r v e s as an example  t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g case of r u l e o r d e r i n g and  The V a r i a b l e Examples:  interdependence.  (V V) # #  the a p p l e , *a a p p l e , t o e a t , t o i n v i t e , the egg, the  answer, t h e owner, the a i r ,  the A r t s C e n t r e ,  the  i c e , the o t h e r , the o l d , the end, the a r e a ,  the  a l l e y , t h e Ex, the  apartment.  Almost a l l grammar books p r e s c r i b e a r u l e w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t a f u n c t i o n word b e f o r e a word b e g i n n i n g w i t h a vowel sound must not end w i t h a schwa.  T h i s v a r i a b l e (V^^V) measures the presence o r  absence o f t h a t schwa.  120  Figure 5.8.a.  V#V = a V by Class  LH=W0RKING  A = L 0 W E R MIDDLE  X=MIDDLE S U P P E R MIDDLE * = L 0 W E R UPPER  a oo  STYLE  Figure 5.8.a. indicates the frequency of the occurrence of the schwa before words that begin with vowel sounds.  Here again the  working class and the lower class i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d strongly from a l l other classes i n styles R and FS, the styles of connected This pronunciation across word boundaries would appear to be a  speech.  121 stigmatized feature.  There i s no o t h e r p a t t e r n of s o c i o l o g i c a l or  s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n which i s evident. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o observe t h a t N o r t h e r n American s p e a k e r s , e s p e c i a l l y M i c h i g a n d e r s a r e known f o r t h i s schwa usage, and usage may  that  this  be a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o the low assessment o f N o r t h e r n  American E n g l i s h by our Canadian i n f o r m a n t s ;  see d a t a on language  a t t i t u d e s , Appendix E.  9.  The V a r i a b l e ( t y , #  Examples:  d y)  would you,  #  d i d you,  get you, b e s i d e you, thought you,  c o u l d you, but you, bet t h a t you,  you,  t o l d you, what (are) you,  a t you, what you've done.  T h i s v a r i a b l e i s r e a l i s e d e i t h e r w i t h a s t r o n g h i a t u s between the a v e o l a r p l o s i v e s / t / or /d/ and  the / j u / t h a t f o l l o w s , or  the a f f r i c a t e d p a l a t a l g l i d e s [ t j u ] or  [d^,u].  as  122  Figure 5.9.a.  t y, d y = t y, dy  by Class  •^WORKING A=LDWER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE 0=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0VER UPPER o  a _  I—CO  LU CJ> CK LU  -  Figure 5.9.a. displays the average>frequencies of the f u l l hiatus as spoken by the f i v e classes i n three s t y l e s .  Although no  clear s o c i o l o g i c a l patterns or s t y l i s t i c patterns are evident, the graph does demonstrate that the a f f r i c a t e d p a l a t a l glide i s the prevailing usage for a l l classes i n a l l s t y l e s .  123 10.  The V a r i a b l e ( o u ) : Examples:  t h e Canadian Diphthong  house, s o u t h , mouth, l o u t , s h o u t , houses, w i t h o u t , about, t r o u t , o u t , and mouse.  T h i s v a r i a b l e (-ou) i s t h e major p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e w h i c h d i f f e r e n t i a t e s Canadian E n g l i s h from N o r t h e r n American T h i s d i p h t h o n g i s pronounced  English.  r e l a t i v e l y more c l o s e [ A U ] b e f o r e  v o i c e l e s s consonants and more open [ao] b e f o r e v o i c e d segments and 12 i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n ; see Chapter 3, S e c t i o n 2. s p e a k e r s pronounce  N o r t h e r n American  t h e more open v a r i e t y b e f o r e t h e v o i c e l e s s  consonants as w e l l as b e f o r e t h e v o i c e d environments. '  124 Figure 5.10.a.  ou = A U by Class  •^WORKING A=L0VER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE 0=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0VER UPPER  I—LD LU O CL.  3'  o CM  MP  P  R  "?S  STYLE  Figure 5.10.a. displays the average frequency of [ A U ] b e f o r e voiceless consonants f o r the f i v e classes i n the f i v e s t y l e s . i s no s i g n i f i c a n t five styles.  There  s t y l i s t i c co-variation for the f i v e classes i n the  Further,  there i s only a p a r t i a l pattern of socio-  economic co-variation, with the lower upper class having the highest  125 s c o r e s and t h e m i d d l e and lower m i d d l e c l a s s e s h a v i n g t h e l o w e s t scores.  However, t h e p a t t e r n becomes q u i t e confused when we add  the w o r k i n g c l a s s and t h e upper m i d d l e c l a s s .  The i m p o r t a n t  aspect  of t h e d a t a f o r Canadian E n g l i s h i s t h e h i g h f r e q u e n c i e s o f [ A U ] b e f o r e v o i c e l e s s consonants We attempted  f o r a l l classes i n a l l styles.  t o f i n d o t h e r s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s which might  i n f l u e n c e the frequency of t h i s v a l u e .  F i r s t , we h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t  i n f o r m a n t s w i t h r u r a l backgrounds would have a h i g h e r i n s t a n c e o f t h i s v a l u e than would those i n f o r m a n t s w i t h urban backgrounds. c o n t r a s t e d these two groups and, as F i g u r e 5.10.b. r e v e a l s , we found no e v i d e n c e t o s u b s t a n t i a t e o u r h y p o t h e s i s .  We  Figure 5.10.b.  ou = A U , Rural/Urban  •=RURRL A=URBflN  127 Figure  5.10.C.  ou  A U , S e v e r a l G e n e r a t i o n Canadians v e r s u s New Canadians  •^SEVERAL GENERATIONS A=NEW CANADIANS  a a  _  r—iO LU  CJ  CLYL CL.  MP  STYLE  ?S  S e c o n d l y , we h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i n f o r m a n t s who were new or whose p a r e n t s were new t h i s diphthong  Canadians  Canadians would have a lower i n s t a n c e o f  [AU] than would Canadians o f l o n g e r l i n e a g e .  5.10.C. proved t h i s h y p o t h e s i s t o be c o r r e c t .  F i n a l l y , we  Figure investi-  gated the sex/age groups and found t h a t females who were l e s s  than  128 40 years of age had markedly lower scores than the other three groups; see Figure 5.10.d.  This i s a somewhat disquieting sign for  this Canadian diphthong, as i t i s often young women i n society who set the trends i n language usage for the future.  Figure 5.10.d.  ou = A U by Sex/Age  •=MALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE A=MALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE X=FEMALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE 0=FEMALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE  °KP  ?  ? STYLE  R  1  ?S  129, F u r t h e r , t h i s d i p h t h o n g was noted t o have a range o f h e i g h t o f the i n i t i a l vowel from [A] t o [e] . to  The i n i t i a l vowel was e v a l u a t e d  be h i g h e r among male and female i n f o r m a n t s over 40 y e a r s o f age  and among young males than among young f e m a l e s . Three i n f o r m a n t s who were u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s and who had t r a v e l l e d and l i v e d i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s s t a t e d s e p a r a t e l y t h a t they had been s i n g l e d out f o r t h i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n and ^ h and t h a t they had t r i e d t o suppress b o t h .  Moreover,  i t was noted on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s  t h a t when a word c o n t a i n i n g t h e v a r i a b l e (ou) was pronounced or w i t h h e s i t a t i o n , t h e d i p h t h o n g was pronounced  11.  The V a r i a b l e ( o u t V ) : Examples:  slowly  13 [ ao] , n o t [ AU] .  t h e Canadian d i p h t h o n g p l u s m e d i a l It/  p o u t e r , s h o u t e d , about i t , about an, o u t i n , o u t on, etc.  The v a r i a b l e (ou) b e f o r e m e d i a l / t / p r e s e n t s us w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n g r u l e o r d e r i n g problem and w i t h s c o r e s much d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e f o r v a r i a b l e (ou) . R u l e (1) ou -»- Au/—t V when m e d i a l / t / r u l e , t -> d/v-V, i s n o t a p p l i e d . R u l e (2) ou -> ao/-dV  when m e d i a l / t / r u l e , t ->• d/V-V, i s a p p l i e d .  F i g u r e 5.11.a d i s p l a y s a s t r o n g and o r d e r e d s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n MP and FS b u t n o t i n R.  socio-economic  130 Figure 5.11.a.  outV = Aut  by Class  •=W0RKING A - L O V E R MIDDLE X=MIDDLE • = U P P E R MIDDLE * = L 0 W E R UPPER  As i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 5.11.a., there are high scores i n styles which generally e l i c i t the medial / t / as [ t ] , and there are generally low scores when the s t y l e s e l i c i t the medial / t / as [d]. There was, however, no one to one relationship present here, f o r there was occasionally an [acw] before a [t] and a 17 percent instance of  [AU ] before [d].  131 12.  The V a r i a b l e (T) T h i s Canadian d i p h t h o n g i s i n many ways p a r a l l e l t o t h e v a r -  i a b l e ( o u ) , b u t f a r l e s s known and c o n s c i o u s l y p e r c e i v e d . Examples:  k i t e , night, right, bike, tonight, alright,  invite,  s l i c e d , w r i t e , sjLte, e t c . T h i s v a r i a b l e ( T ) i s a major p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e which d i f f e r e n t i a t e s Canadian E n g l i s h from N o r t h e r n American. pronounced r e l a t i v e l y more c l o s e ,  This diphthong i s  [ai ] b e f o r e v o i c e l e s s  consonants  and more open J a i ] b e f o r e v o i c e d environments and i n f i n a l see i l l u s t r a t i o n s 3.2 and 3.3.  position;  As i s t h e case w i t h ( o u ) , speakers  of N o r t h e r n American pronounce t h e more open v a r i e t y , v o i c e l e s s as w e l l as v o i c e d environments.  [at] before  132 T = ei by Class  Figure 5.12.a.  •^WORKING A=L0VER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE S U P P E R MIDDLE *=LQWER UPPER  LU CJ CK LU  CD .  CM  MP  "7  STYLE  Figure 5.12.a. shows the average frequencies of the value [ei] before voiceless consonants f o r the f i v e classes i n a l l f i v e s t y l e s . We can see that there i s a f a i r l y consistent pattern of socio-economic v a r i a t i o n , with the exception again of the working class.  The common  background of the lower upper class and the working class of Ottawa  133 was d i s c u s s e d above when we p r e s e n t e d t h e v a r i a b l e ( t y , dy, n y ) . There i s no c l e a r p a t t e r n of s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n .  I t i s important  to observe t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f [ e i ] b e f o r e v o i c e l e s s f o r a l l c l a s s e s and s t y l e s .  consonants  The l o w e r m i d d l e and m i d d l e c l a s s e s  had t h e l o w e s t s c o r e s f o r t h i s t y p i c a l l y Canadian i t e m . Many i n f o r m a n t s t o l d us t h a t t h e Canadian d i p h t h o n g s a r e s t r o n g e r i n t h e r u r a l areas than i n t h e c i t i e s . l e a d , we c u t o u r sample a c c o r d i n g l y .  Following  this  134 Figure 5.12.b.  i = s i , Urban versus Rural  •=RURflL A=URBflN  o  UJ CJ UJ  CM  O  MP  P'  " f t  STYLE  Figure 5.12.b. displays consistent separation at a l l s t y l i s t i c markers with urbanites scoring lower. grounds, however, was  Among those with urban back-  a s i g n i f i c a n t minority of new  Canadians, while  a l l those with r u r a l backgrounds were Canadians of several generations,  135 Figure 5.12.C.  T = ei by Generations  •-SEVERAL GENERATIONS A-NEW CANADIANS  CD  a  _  LU CJ  cn LU  CM  MP  STYLE  R  ?S  We.then examined the scores for new Canadians versus Canadians of several generations.  Figure 5.12.c, not surprisingly,  illustrates  that Canadians of several generations have higher scores of this c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Canadian diphthong than do new Canadians.  136 Figure 5.12.d.  T = ai by Sex/Age  GAMBLES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE A=MALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE X=FEMALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE <!>=FEMALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE  Looking f o r further s o c i o l o g i c a l patterns i n the v a r i a t i o n of [ai ], we analysed the scores according to our four sex/age groups, Figure 5.12.d.  As i s the case for the value [ A U ] , females under 40  years of age had scores much below the other groups. percentages  The frequency  f o r this group leads one to predict a general but s l i g h t  137 d e c l i n e o f t h i s Canadian marker f o r a l l Canadians i n t h e n e x t few decades.  As was a l s o t h e case w i t h [ A U ] , we n o t i c e d a range of  h e i g h t f o r the i n i t i a l and f i n a l vowels o f t h i s d i p h t h o n g ; females under 40 g e n e r a l l y had a l o w e r i n i t i a l / a / and g l i d e d / i / than d i d the o t h e r sex/age  13.  groups.  The V a r i a b l e (TtV) 14 Examples:  writer, i n v i t e (h)er,  i n v i t e d , r i g h t up, r i g h t  away. Because o f t h e r u l e o r d e r i n g o p t i o n s , t h e h i g h d i p h t h o n g [ a i ] i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e a m e d i a l / t / p o s i t i o n had t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d separately. R u l e (1) a i -> a i V — t V  when m e d i a l t r u l e , "t -* d/V_V, i s n o t a p p l i e d .  R u l e (2) a i ->- a i / — d V  when m e d i a l t r u l e , t -> d/V_V, i s a p p l i e d .  138 F i g u r e 5.13.a.  i t V = a i t V by C l a s s  CD=WORKING SLOWER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE •=UPPER MIDDLE *=LOVER UPPER  F i g u r e 5.13,a, d i s p l a y s t h e average p e r c e n t a g e s  per class of the  v a l u e [ a i ] when immediately b e f o r e m e d i a l / t / . As we can s e e , t h e s c o r e s f o r (XtV) c l o s e l y f o l l o w t h e p a t t e r n f o r medial/t/, i . e . [ a i ] b e f o r e medial/t/as  [ t ] and [ a t ] b e f o r e m e d i a l / t / a s  [ d ] . However, i t s h o u l d  a l s o be noted t h a t t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n i s n o t a one t o one r e l a t i o n s h i p , e.g. we t r a n s c r i b e d s e v e r a l i n s t a n c e s o f ;[ait] and, more i n t e r e s t i n g l y ,  139 we  t r a n s c r i b e d even more i n s t a n c e s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 p e r c e n t , o f  [aid].  14.  The V a r i a b l e (un-) Examples:  untrue, u n b e l i e v a b l e , unbearable, unforgetable, u n r e a l .  T h i s v a r i a b l e , a n e g a t i v e p r e f i x , can be pronounced i n two f e r e n t ways, [ A n ] or [ a n ] .  Informants  dif-  from Smith's F a l l s and Renfrew  of the w o r k i n g and lower m i d d l e c l a s s e s had v e r y h i g h s c o r e s of [ a n ] .  140 Figure 5.14.a.  un = a n , Rural/Urban/Class  •=RURflL A^RURRL X=URBRN DURBAN  WORKING I LOWER MIDDLE M I D D L E 8, UPPER WORKING I LOWER M I D D L E M I D D L E I UPPER  Figure 5.14.a. shows the frequency of the p r o n u n c i a t i o n : [ a n ] i n three styles W, R, and FS, and according to four s o c i o l o g i c a l groups. Informants with r u r a l backgrounds of the working and lower middle classes pronounced the negative prefix -un a s : [ a n ] much more f r e quently than did any other group.  Informants with r u r a l  backgrounds  of the middle, upper middle and lower upper classes were the group  141 w i t h the n e x t h i g h e s t s c o r e s , a l t h o u g h groups was  the spread between these  two  very large.  Our u s u a l f i v e socio-economic  groups and u r b a n - r u r a l background  groups were r e p l a c e d by r u r a l - c l a s s v e r s u s u r b a n - c l a s s groups to more f o r c i b l y i l l u s t r a t e the s o c i o l o g i c a l f o r c e s a t p l a y as t h i s v a r i a b l e , i . e . r u r a l and c l a s s . the w o r k i n g another  regards  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to n o t e t h a t  and lower upper c l a s s e s do not c l o s e l y approximate  one  i n the p r o n u n c i a t i o n of t h i s i t e m a l t h o u g h one might have  suspected  it.  T h i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n [an] i s a s t i g m a t i z e d f e a t u r e of  Canadian E n g l i s h .  Some speakers  of N o r t h e r n American E n g l i s h v e r y  d e f i n i t e l y have t h i s f e a t u r e [an] i n t h e i r speech though we do  not  y e t know to what e x t e n t , and whether t h e r e e x i s t s a s o c i o l o g i c a l correlation.  This item r e q u i r e s f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i t h r e f e r -  ence t o s t r e s s .  15.  The V a r i a b l e Examples:  (nd)  sandwich, grandmother, husband, g r a n d f a t h e r , second, almond, around, sound, and h i s , k n i v e s and f o r k s , hundreds, f r i e n d s , k i n d s , k i n d o f , l a n d s c a p e s , grounds.  T h i s v a r i a b l e i s the presence o r absence of the /d/ i n the cluster  /nd/.  and  142 Figure 5.15.a.  nd = nd by Class  •=WORKING A=LOWER M I D D L E X=MIDDLE <S>=UPPER M I D D L E *=LOWER UPPER  Figure 5.15.a. shows the scores for the value /nd/ f o r the f i v e classes i n f i v e s t y l e s .  The s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n follows a pattern  similar to that for (VtV), (ntV), (-ing), (outV), (TtV), and (hw). No co-variation patterns related to socio-economic class are evident •in the f i r s t , three styles, but there i s strong s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n R and FS.  It i s , however, very interesting to observe that again the upper  143 middle  c l a s s i s more i n f o r m a l - i n R than i n FS; t h e lower upper c l a s s  maintained  e q u a l s c o r e s f o r t h e s e two s t y l e s .  a very informal s t y l e .  We a l s o see t h a t P i s  T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t as t h i s  i s a new t a s k / s t y l e n o t used i n e i t h e r Labov o r T r u d g i l l . c h o i c e of t h e l e x i c a l items f o r each s t y l e was e x t r e m e l y  The important  and a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f skewed r e s u l t s ; some words such as sound had a v e r y h i g h s c o r e o f /nd/ w h i l e and was u s u a l l y pronounced /n/. For t h i s i t e m , we r e c o r d e d a few i n s t a n c e s of (nd) as [ n t ] , i . e . f i n a l devoicing.  T h i s l a t t e r p r o n u n c i a t i o n was almost e x c l u s i v e l y  l i m i t e d t o the w o r k i n g  16.  class.  The V a r i a b l e (aer), (eel) Examples:  M a r r y , guarantee,  c a r a m e l , B a r r y , wheelbarrow,  Carp, ( b a l c o n y ) and ( A y l m e r ) . I n Chapter 3, page 41 we d i s c u s s e d t h e convergence o f vowel sounds b e f o r e / r / . T h i s v a r i a b l e i s t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f (eer) as e i t h e r [aer] o r [ e r ] , the converged form.  144 F i g u r e 5.16.a.  ssr =. e r by C l a s s  •=WORKING A=LOWER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE 0=UPPER MIDDLE *=LOVER UPPER  F i g u r e 5.16.a. d i s p l a y s the f r e q u e n c y i n p e r c e n t a g e of (j&r) pronounced as [ e r ] , the converged form, f o r a l l c l a s s e s i n t h r e e s t y l e s , MP, W, and R.  We can see t h a t as t h e f o r m a l i t y of t h e  s t y l e d e c r e a s e s , t h e r e i s a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n the i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s v a l u e , a moderate amount of s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n .  145 We a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s v a l u e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o r u r a l v e r s u s urban background, and sex/age groups.  F i g u r e 5.16.b.  ser = e r , R u r a l / U r b a n  •=RURBL A-URBRN  o_4  CM  MP  7"  P'  STYLE  FS  146 Figure 5.16.C.  asr = e r by Sex/Age  •"""MALES >= 40 YEARS OF AGE A=MALES < 40 YEARS OF AGE X=FEMALE5 >= 40 YEARS OF AGE <> """FEMALES < 40 YEARS OF AGE  o  si  fM  MP  P'  ?S  STYLE  Figures 5.16.b. and c. display the scores f o r these two sociol o g i c a l parameters, respectively; we can see that our informants  with  r u r a l backgrounds converge /aa/ before / r / less frequently than our urban informants  and that women over 40 converge /eer/ to / e r / less  frequently than a l l other sex/age groups.  147 Figure 5.16.d.  eer = er by Age  •= GE 40 YEARS OF AGE A - LT 40 YEARS OF AGE  Figure 5.16.d. demonstrates that there was s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r entiation with regard to age alone.  Our Somers' D index number 16  shows the difference by age to be .24896. Two other sources which deal with this v a r i a b l e i n Canadian English are Gregg, 1957, and SCE.  17  148 Speakers of N o r t h e r n American a r e known f o r merging marry, merry, and Mary t o an [ e r ] p r o n u n c i a t i o n .  The r e t e n t i o n of [aer],  t h e r e f o r e , i s a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g marker f o r Canadian E n g l i s h . pronunciation  of Carp as [keerp] o c c u r r e d o n l y t w i c e as t r u e  The elici-  t a t i o n s , b u t p o s s i b l y a l l i n f o r m a n t s knew and i m i t a t e d i t as Ottawa V a l l e y "twang". •  Examples:  b a l c o n y , and Aylmer.  A v e r y l i m i t e d s t a t i s t i c a l base i n d i c a t e s . t h e v a r i a b l e (ss I) would f o l l o w a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f (aer).  17.  The V a r i a b l e (Vr->sr) Examples:  f o r , p a r t i c u l a r , forget, there's,  This v a r i a b l e i s the pronunciation /r/ o r t h e r e d u c t i o n  o r , and y o u ' r e .  of t h e v o w e l q u a l i t y b e f o r e  o f t h e vowel b e f o r e / r / t o schwa.  149 Figure 5.17.a.  Vr = 3 r by Class  •^WORKING A=L0VER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE SUPPER MIDDLE *=L0VER UPPER  I  ! i  o o _,  s-  1  oo  0.4 I—CD  ZZL  LU  CJ CK  H  CL.  MP  STYLE  ?5  Figure 5.17.a. displays the frequency of vowel quality retention before / r / f o r a l l f i v e classes i n two styles only.  We can  see a good deal of s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n with vowel quality retention increasing as the formality of the s t y l e decreases.  This same figure  shows that with regard to socio-economic parameters, the upper classes have less vowel reduction i n formal s t y l e than do the other classes.  150 Vr = er by Sex/Age  Figure 5.17.b.  LTJ-MRLE5 GE 4 0 Y E R R S OF RGE A ^ M R L E S LT 4 0 Y E R R S OF RGE X ^ F E M R L E S GE 4 0 Y E R R S OF RGE <5>=FEMRLE5 L T 4 0 Y E R R S OF RGE  o o _  CD  o.  h-uo ZZL  UJ CJ • CK  LU  CKr-,  CM  HP  i?  p  1  STYLE  PT"  ? S  Figure 5.17.b. reveals that females both old and young have markedly less vowel reduction i n non-connected speech than do males. The scores of a l l groups converge i n Free Speech, however. As vowel reduction i n English i s very much dependent upon rhythm 18 and stress patterns,  and as Canadian and Northern American English  151 rhythm and s t r e s s p a t t e r n s a r e v e r y s i m i l a r , one would expect  this  v a r i a b l e (Vr->ar) t o y i e l d s i m i l a r s c o r e s i n s u r v e y s of b o t h d i a l e c t s .  18.  The V a r i a b l e (se) . Examples:  t h a t ( i n s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n ) , g l a s s , g r a s s , and  last.  T h i s v a r i a b l e (ae) has two p h o n o l o g i c a l r e a l i z a t i o n s ; they a r e [ee] and  [ae] .  At the p r e s e n t time i n Canadian E n g l i s h , the lower ae,  s y m b o l i z e d . [ae], i s found o p t i o n a l l y o n l y i n a few words some o f which a r e l i s t e d above.  152 Figure 5.18.a.  ae = ae by Sex/Age  •=MALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE A=MALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE X=FEMflLES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE «>=FEMALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE  o o _,  si  STYLE Figure 5,18.a. i l l u s t r a t e s that females who are less than forty years of age pronounce Ig] f a r more frequently than any other sex/age group, this leads us to believe that this pronunciation may increase i n the future.  Our s t a t i s t i c a l analysis of socio-economic v a r i a t i o n  and of s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n did not y i e l d any conclusive r e s u l t s .  153 Canadian E n g l i s h , l i k e N o r t h e r n American, has r e t a i n e d t h e . [as] i n words such as g r a s s , dance, c a n ' t , h a l f , p a t h , and p a s s , whereas 19 S t a n d a r d S o u t h e r n B r i t i s h has adopted [ a : ] . Ottawa s u r v e y c o n s i s t e n t l y pronounced  Only one woman i n the  t h e . [ a : ] i n the B r i t i s h manner.  She had l i v e d i n B r i t a i n f o r a s h o r t t i m e , was m a r r i e d t o a B r i t i s h e r , and found h e r i d e n t i t y i n B r i t i s h c u l t u r e , a not uncommon Canadian phenomenon. 19.  The V a r i a b l e Examples:  (hw)  where, why, what, when, w h i c h , wheelbarrow,  whipped,  and whether. T h i s v a r i a b l e i s t h e presence o r absence of the f e a t u r e ' ~ v o i c e ' r e p r e s e n t e d by the /h/. b e f o r e the /w/.  The f r e q u e n c i e s of /hw/ f o r  a l l the c l a s s e s and s t y l e s a r e d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 5.19.a. Our graph demonstrates a d e f i n i t e and o r d e r e d s o c i a l c l a s s s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , w i t h the l o w e r upper c l a s s b e i n g f o l l o w e d i n sequence by the upper m i d d l e , m i d d l e , lower m i d d l e , and w o r k i n g c l a s s e s .  The  graph a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s a p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e i n the range o f s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n as one moves up the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e .  Further,  we can o b s e r v e t h a t the upper m i d d l e c l a s s was more i n f o r m a l i n R than i n FS.  Figure 5.19.a.  hw = hw by Class  •=WORKING A=LQWER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE 0=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0WER UPPER  155 Figure 5.19.b,  hw = hw by Sex/Age  m=MALES G E 4 0 Y E R R S O F A G E A=MALES  L T 40  X=FEMALE5  YEARS  OF  AGE  GE 40  YEARS  OF  AGE  <J>=FEMALES L T 4 0  YEARS  OF  AGE  A close look.at.the sex/age groups, Figure 5.19.b., reveals a strong generation gap. The s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n for females and males over forty years of age i s very s i m i l a r to the s t y l i s t i c patterns f o r (VtV), (ntV) , (-ing), and (nd).  The l i n e s representing s t y l i s t i c  v a r i a t i o n for females and males under 40 are much more horizontal,  156 r e p r e s e n t i n g l i t t l e change from s t y l e t o s t y l e .  I t i s important to  n o t i c e t h a t young women c o n s i s t e n t l y employ t h i s p r o n u n c i a t i o n l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than any o t h e r group.  T h i s tendency i s a g a i n a p o s s i b l e  s i g n o f l e s s f r e q u e n t usage o f (hw) i n the f u t u r e .  F u r t h e r , we  n o t i c e a g a i n t h a t f o r one group, the r e a d i n g s t y l e was l e s s f o r m a l than t h e f r e e speech s t y l e . F i g u r e 5.19.c. r e v e a l s t h a t i n f o r m a n t s whose f a m i l i e s have l i v e d s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s i n Canada have /hw/ as a g o a l i n t h e i r speech (see s c o r e s f o r MP and W) much more so than do t h e new Canadians.  c  157 Figure 5.19.C.  hw = hw by Generations  •=SEVERRL GENERATIONS A=NEV CANADIANS  For further discussion and data regarding this variable i n Canadian, B r i t i s h , and American English, see Avis, 1956; Gregg, 1957 and 1972; and CEU.  20  158 20.  The V a r i a b l e ( k t ) , ( p t ) Examples:  p i c t u r e , p e r f e c t l y , asked, e x a c t , e x a c t l y e x c e p t , perfect.  T h i s v a r i a b l e i s t h e consonant c l u s t e r o f two v o i c e l e s s s t o p s ; one v a l u e i s b o t h consonants a r t i c u l a t e d , k t o r p t , and the o t h e r v a l u e i s o n l y one o f the consonants a r t i c u l a t e d , k , t , o r p. F i g u r e 5.20.a.  k t = k t by C l a s s  •=V0RKING A=L0WER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE 0=UPPPR MIDDLE *=L0VER UPPER  o  STYLE  159 F i g u r e 5.20.a. d i s p l a y s t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e i n s t a n c e s of b o t h consonants b e i n g a r t i c u l a t e d f o r a l l c l a s s e s i n f o u r s t y l e s .  We can  see t h a t i n t h e non-connected speech s t y l e s t h e r e i s a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e i n s c o r e s among t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s , b u t t h a t t h e o r d e r i n g i s somewhat c o n f u s e d .  There i s a s t r o n g s t y l i s t i c  varia-  t i o n w h i c h takes p l a c e m a i n l y between t h e non-connected speech s t y l e s , MP and P, and t h e connected speech s t y l e s , R and FS.  Notice again  t h a t t h e upper m i d d l e c l a s s a r e more f o r m a l i n t h e i r f r e e speech s t y l e than i n t h e i r reading s t y l e .  F u r t h e r , t h o s e i t e m s w h i c h had  c l u s t e r s of t h r e e c o n s o n a n t s , e.g. p e r f e c t l y and e x a c t l y ,  elicited  much l o w e r s c o r e s .  21.  The V a r i a b l e /»/ Examples:  shone, c o l l a r , c o t , d a u g h t e r , ()ttawa, c a u g h t , h o t , bought, l o c k , so>ccer, s p o t , n o t , R o c h e s t e r , s o c k , r o c k , l o t , jodd, f o g , God, box, p o l i t i c s , pod, shock, h o l i d a y , s t o p , b l o c k , Boston.  I n Canadian E n g l i s h , t h e r e i s no phonemic d i s t i n c t i o n /r>/ and;/a/ as t h e r e i s i n N o r t h e r n American. t h i s v a r i a b l e i s pronounced e i t h e r  between  I n Ottawa, t h e r e f o r e  [x>] or: [ a ] ; t h e degree o f l i p  r o u n d i n g does n o t d i s t i n g u i s h meaning a t a l l .  As a consequence,  t h i s v a r i a b l e i s a c t u a l l y pronounced w i t h a c o n t i n u o u s r e d u c t i o n i n t h e range o f l i p r o u n d i n g from [n] t o [ a ] , b u t f o r t h e purposes o f t r a n s c r i p t i o n , we p l a c e d each u t t e r a n c e o f t h i s v a r i a b l e i n t o e i t h e r t h e / D / type o r t h e / a / type o f t h e N o r t h e r n American phonemic v o c a l i c system.  160 Figure 5.21.a.  v = v by Class  LTJ=VQRKING A=L0WER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE SUPPER MIDDLE *=LQWER UPPER  Figure 5,21.a. reveals no systematic socio-economic pattern of v a r i a t i o n , but i t does display the strongest s t y l i s t i c variation of this study, ranging from 100 percent to 14 percent. gradient i s between R and FS.  The steepest  161 v = t» by Sex/Age  Figure 5.21.b.  •=MALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE A=MALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE XrFEMALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE <5>=FEMALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE  Figure 5.21.b. reveals that women under forty years of age have consistently higher scores than any other sex/age group.  22.  The Variable (th) Examples:  whether, t h i r s t y , Thursday, grandfather, that, something, South, father, grandfather, grandmother, three,  162 t h i r t y , nothing, Dorothy, the, either, theatre, and many more. The variable (th) had the following values ordered by frequency from l e f t to r i g h t :  S, 6, n, z, t , and d.  th = 5, 9  Figure 5.22.a.  by Class  •^WORKING A=L0WER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE 0=UPPER MIDDLE *=LDVER UPPER  Q-J  l—to  LU  CJ  Cr: LU  -  °f?  J  P  1  STYLE  R  1  ?5  163 As i l l u s t r a t e d by F i g u r e 5.22.a., t h e r e was no p e r c e p t i b l e v a r i a t i o n i n the f i r s t f o u r s t y l e s f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e .  However, i n  Free Speech we d e t e c t e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a t i o n w h i c h was s i s t e n t w i t h our s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f i n d i n g s e l s e w h e r e .  The  con-  upper  m i d d l e c l a s s had the h i g h e s t s c o r e f o l l o w e d by the lower upper, m i d d l e , lower m i d d l e and the w o r k i n g c l a s s e s . The v a l u e /n/ was pronounced and t h i s , and and t h o s e .  i n phrases such as:  The v a l u e / z / was  phrase I s t h a t r i g h t , (eh)?  and  that,  o f t e n d e t e c t e d i n the  Both these p r o n u n c i a t i o n s , /n/ and  /z/,  are cases o f p r o g r e s s i v e c o n t e x t u a l a s s i m i l a t i o n w h i c h a r e n a t u r a l to n a t i v e speakers of E n g l i s h .  The / t / and /d/ p r o n u n c i a t i o n s were  i n a few cases mere performance e r r o r s , and i n o t h e r cases they were i n s t a n c e s o f language i n t e r f e r e n c e from F r e n c h and o t h e r mother tongues.  We  r e c o r d e d no / t / or /d/ sounds from i n f o r m a n t s w i t h 21  I r i s h backgrounds.  Because o f t h e c l a s s o r d e r i n g o f the pronun-  c i a t i o n of t h i s v a r i a b l e , we can assume some s t i g m a t i z a t i o n f o r those who  f r e q u e n t l y s u b s t i t u t e o t h e r sounds f o r the v a r i a b l e ( t h ) .  164 F i g u r e 5.22.b.  Labov's t h = 5, 9 by C l a s s  (th)  A comparison o f s t a t i s t i c s f o r Ottawa ( F i g u r e 5.22.a.) and 22 Lower East S i d e Manhattan ( F i g u r e 5.22.b)  r e v e a l s the f a c t that  people from t h e Lower E a s t S i d e , some of whom a r e t h i r d and f o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n A m e r i c a n s , have n o t been f u l l y a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h speech norms, whereas, g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , have.  T h i s comparison p r o v i d e s  a l l anglophone Ottawans  f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t the Labov  165 Manhattan s u r v e y cannot c l a i m t o r e p r e s e n t  main s t r e a m American  23 speech.  23.  The  Variable  Examples:  (or)  orange, s o r r y , D o r o t h y , and  T h i s v a r i a b l e had [QJJ  t o ] , and  [r>:].  porridge.  f i v e a l l o p h o n i c v a l u e s ; they were:  The v a l u e  [D] was  f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e were: c l a s s a g a i n had  The  generations  socio-  sociological findings  1) the w o r k i n g c l a s s and  the lower upper  s i m i l a r usage p a t t e r n s , t h i s time i n the f r e q u e n c y  o f [a] i n the word s o r r y i n word l i s t s t y l e (see F i g u r e 2) i n f o r m a n t s  [v],  used most f r e q u e n t l y by a l l  groups i n the t h r e e s t y l e s measured, w i t h no s y s t e m a t i c economic or s t y l i s t i c p a t t e r n e v i d e n t .  [o],  5.23.a.);  whose f a m i l i e s have been i n Canada f o r s e v e r a l  more o f t e n pronounced the over-rounded sound [ o]  / r / than d i d newer Canadians (see F i g u r e 5.23.b.); and  3)  before  informants  over f o r t y pronounced t h i s v a l u e more f r e q u e n t l y than d i d t h o s e under f o r t y ( F i g u r e 5.23.C.).  F i g u r e 5.23.a.  or = a by C l a s s  •^WORKING A=LGVER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE 0=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0WER UPPER o  SH  r-  S|  STYLE  167 F i g u r e 5.23.b.  o r = o by G e n e r a t i o n  •=SEVERRL GENERATIONS A=NEW CflNRDIflNS  CD CD  o  CD  .  CD .  -CO  LU CJ  OC  Lu Q_  168 or = o  Figure 5.23.c.  by Age  •= GE 40 YEARS OF RGE A = LT 40 YEARS OF AGE  a a _,  o.  I—CD UJ O  Words and Phrases The following variables are not phonological phrases.  items but words or  169 24.  The V a r i a b l e ( g o i n g t o ) T h i s v a r i a b l e has many r e a l i s a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g [ g o i Q t u ] ,  [gointu],  [ g 6 i n t a ] and [ g o m t a ] a l l o f w h i c h we have d e s i g n a t e d goto 1 and [ g e n e ] , [ g a n a ] , and [ g o n a ] w h i c h we have d e s i g n a t e d goto 2.  F i g u r e 5.24.a.  g o i n g t o = goto 1 by C l a s s  CD=WORKING ASLOWER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE «>=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0WER UPPER a  a.  CD . I—to  UJ  CJ LU  0_,3"  O-  MP  STYLE  170 F i g u r e 5.24.a. d i s p l a y s t h e f r e q u e n c y  of g o t o 1 f o r a l l f i v e  c l a s s e s i n t h e Reading and F r e e Speech s t y l e s .  The f r e q u e n c i e s i n t h e  Reading s t y l e r e v e a l no s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o c l a s s , w i t h 66.8  percent  of a l l o c c u r r e n c e s b e i n g  [gomta].  o t h e r hand, a g r e a t d e a l of socio-economic t h e s c o r e s f o r FS.  We  We  do see, on  v a r i a t i o n when we  n o t i c e , once more, much s t y l i s t i c  t h e f a c t t h a t t h e upper m i d d l e  analyse  variation  and  c l a s s a r e more f o r m a l i n FS than i n R s t y l e .  A l s o worth s p e c i a l n o t i c e i s the f a c t t h a t the w o r k i n g stands a l o n e i n t h e i r low f r e q u e n c y frequency  the  of goto 1 i n FS.  of goto 2 (90 p e r c e n t ) by t h e w o r k i n g  class  This high  c l a s s causes i t t o  be e v a l u a t e d as a s t i g m a t i z e d form i f used w i t h g r e a t f r e q u e n c y ;  on  t h e o t h e r hand, a f i f t y - f i f t y m i x i n g seems a c c e p t a b l e . Out of 397  e l i c i t a t i o n s of t h e v a r i a b l e ( g o i n g t o ) i n the Ottawa  s u r v e y , the f o l l o w i n g o c c u r r e n c e s were o b t a i n e d : Form  Occurrences  Percentage  230  57.9  1.  go i n t a  2.  goana  59  14.9  3.  go i nt a  52  13.1  4.  gana  34  8.6  5.  gone  11  2.8  6.  goanta  7  1.8  7.  goirytu  4  1.1 100.2  American l i n g u i s t i c r e s e a r c h has  caused a l l ESL  textbooks  p r i n t e d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o t e a c h [ g a n a ] as t h e g o a l f o r connected  speech; our e v i d e n c e s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s  [ g o i n t a ] would be more a p p r o p r i a t e .  t h a t , i n Canada,  171 25.  The V a r i a b l e ( m i l k ) T h i s v a r i a b l e i s pronounced e i t h e r [ m i l k ] o r [ m e l k ] , and has  t o do w i t h t h e r e d u c t i o n o f the number o f v o w e l phonemes b e f o r e /!/. m i l k = m i l k by C l a s s  F i g u r e 5.25.a.  •^WORKING A=L0VER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE <?>=UPPER MIDDLE SLOWER UPPER o o _  7  P  1  STYLE  ?  ?s  !  172 F i g u r e 5.25.a. d i s p l a y s t h e f r e q u e n c y of [ m i l k ] f o r a l l c l a s s e s i n two s t y l e s o n l y , namely W and R. scores  f o r t h i s value i n both s t y l e s .  The w o r k i n g c l a s s has t h e l o w e s t The s c o r e s  f o r the o t h e r  c l a s s e s show no c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . stylistic variation i s fairly  26.  The  l a r g e between the two s t y l e s .  The V a r i a b l e (good) T h i s v a r i a b l e has two p r o n u n c i a t i o n s  of t h e v o w e l , 1) w i t h  s l i g h t l i p r o u n d i n g and t h e [o ] i n p o s i t i o n as shown i n I l l u s t r a t i o n 3.1, page 37 and 2) w i t h no l i p r o u n d i n g and t h e [ o ] b r o u g h t f o r w a r d to a c e n t r a l i z e d [©'].  173 Figure 5.26.a.  good = gc£d by Sex/Age  LTJ^MALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE A^MALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE X=FEMALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE 0=FEMALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE  STYLE  Figure 5.26.a, displays the frequency We  can see that males who  of the l a t t e r version.  are less than forty years of age generate  this pronunciation i n Free Speech f a r more than any other group. Females who  are less than forty years of age appear to be a distant  second i n the production of this sound.  This pronunciation i s  7  174 found m o s t l y among t e e n a g e r s , and i t seems t o be a modern s u b s t i t u t e f o r s l a n g words such as n e a t , c o o l , and groovy.  We n o t e t h a t t h e  Somers' D a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s a s t r o n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c for this variable.  differentiation  We would r e q u i r e many more d a t a , however, b e f o r e  we c o u l d be c e r t a i n of t h i s t r e n d .  27.  The V a r i a b l e (tomato) T h i s v a r i a b l e has at l e a s t t h r e e v a l u e s i n Canadian E n g l i s h ,  and a l l were found i n Ottawa:  [tem&to],  [-temffito], and  [temeido].  The f i r s t two v a l u e s have p r e s t i g e v a l u e f o r women over f o r t y y e a r s of age.  The:/a/ v a l u e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h B r i t i s h E n g l i s h and  t h e h i g h e s t p r e s t i g e . Many i n f o r m a n t s who l a t e r c l a i m e d t h a t they always s a i d /a/.  had pronounced  has  /•&,/  The / e i / p r o n u n c i a t i o n  i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h American E n g l i s h and has no s t i g m a a t t a c h e d t o i t .  175 feel  Figure 5.27.a.  tomato = tamlajro by Sex/Age  •=MALE5 GE 40 YEARS OF AGE A-MALES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE X-FEMALES GE 40 YEARS OF AGE O-FEMBLES LT 40 YEARS OF AGE  Figure 5.27.a. demonstrates that women over forty stand out, predominately  over a l l other sex/age groups i n the pronunciation of  [temdto] and 11: amart o j" combined.  A further break-down of the s t a t i s -  t i c s of this v a r i a b l e f o r these women according to their socioeconomic class reveals i n t e r e s t i n g patterns i n v a r i a t i o n .  tomato  = tam(_a)to  Key:  F i g u r e 5.27.e.  F i g u r e 5.27.d.  F i g u r e 5.27.c  F i g u r e 5.27.b.  F i g u r e 5.27.f.  = .33  Women over 40 Upper M i d d l e Class 1001 80 60 40 20  7 / / / / / / / W  / / / / / / /  Lower Upper Class  iI R  Middle  100  100  100  100  80  80  80  60  60  60  60  40  40  40  20  20  20  7 /  40 J / / /  Lower M i d d l e Class  20  / / / /  w  / / / / / /  JZL R  W  R  Working Class  80  W  W  R  177 F i g u r e s 5.27.bv, c. , d., e. , and f . , d i s p l a y t h e f r e q u e n c i e s f o r t h e t h r e e v a l u e s , / a / , /ss/, and / e i / i n t h e t h r e e s t y l e s W, P, and R f o r women over f o r t y of the upper m i d d l e , lower upper, m i d d l e ' c l a s s , lower m i d d l e , and w o r k i n g c l a s s e s r e s p e c t i v e l y . We n o t i c e a g a i n t h a t t h e upper m i d d l e c l a s s has h i g h e r s c o r e s than t h e l o w e r upper c l a s s .  Moreover, we can s e e t h a t as we move  down t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l a d d e r , we move from a B r i t i s h p a t t e r n t o an American p a t t e r n ; t h i s tendency was observed throughout t h e survey w i t h other v a r i a b l e s . Other s o u r c e s w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e Canadian, B r i t i s h , and American p r o n u n c i a t i o n of (tomato) a r e A v i s , 1956; Gregg, 1973; and CEU.  24  178 2.  E v a l u a t i o n and Summary  Cross-analysis The d a t a f o r the 27 l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a b l e s p r e s e n t e d  above p r o v i d e  w i t h ample e v i d e n c e o f the c o - v a r i a t i o n o f p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s on one hand and s o c i o l o g i c a l and s t y l i s t i c phenomena on the o t h e r . Canadian E n g l i s h spoken by our sample of i n f o r m a n t s reveals  us  the  The  from Ottawa c l e a r l y  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n f o r the  m a j o r i t y of v a r i a b l e s .  Thus f a r i n t h i s c h a p t e r , we have a n a l y s e d  p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e i n d i v i d u a l l y by means o f the s o c i o l o g i c a l s t y l i s t i c parameters; we w i l l now  each  and  attempt to a n a l y s e the same d a t a  graphs by f o c u s i n g on the s o c i o l o g i c a l and s t y l i s t i c parameters as  and refer-  ence p o i n t s .  Stylistic Variation Stylistic hypothesised  v a r i a t i o n was  a major h y p o t h e s i s  of t h i s s t u d y .  I t was  t h a t a number of l i n g u i s t i c items would show p h o n o l o g i c a l  v a r i a t i o n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the degree o f f o r m a l i t y of the t a s k t o be performed by the i n f o r m a n t .  From our d a t a , we  can o b s e r v e t h a t o f the  p h o n o l o g i c a l items w i t h w h i c h we d e a l t i n t h i s s u r v e y , s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n i n a f a i r l y r e g u l a r manner.  20 items  These items  27  underwent  are:  VtV = VtV; ntV = n t ; - i n g = - i n ; t y , dy, ny = t y , dy, ny; r V = rV; s t = s t ; h = h; d#y Vr = e r ; hw = hw; and  tomato ??  or;  and  tem\d)to.  good  out =  k t = k t ; v = r>;  stylistic variation: or -  = d#y;  Aut;  Tt  =  ait;  nd = nd; Vr =  er;  t h = t h ; g o i n g to = goto 1; m i l k = m i l k ;  Only the f o l l o w i n g seven items d i d not show c l e a r V//V =  - go<d.  e#V; , ou = A U ; T = e i ; un = an;  a = as;  T h i s r e c o r d o f , 20 out of 27 items d i s p l a y i n g  179 s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n demonstrates t h e weakness of t h e u n i - s t y l i s t i c s t u d i e s and p r o v i d e s a s t r o n g case f o r i n c l u d i n g s t y l i s t i c  dialect  parameters  i n future dialectology surveys.  Socio-economic V a r i a t i o n Socio-economic c l a s s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and l i n g u i s t i c c o - v a r i a t i o n was the  o t h e r major h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s s t u d y .  I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , f o r  many i t e m s , t h e l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a t i o n would be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s of t h e s p e a k e r and that,.as one moved up t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e one would o b s e r v e more and more f o r m a l v a l u e s conforming t o prescribed standards.  From our d a t a we can see t h a t o r d e r e d s o c i o -  economic s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e f o l l o w i n g v a l u e s : VtV = V t V , - i n g = 'in, n j = n j , r V = r V , s t = s t , o u t = A u t , T t = a i t , nd = nd, hw ~.hw, and t h = t h .  I n a d d i t i o n t o such s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i f -  f e r e n t i a t i o n and o r d e r i n g , i t i s c l e a r t o see t h a t i n f o r m a n t s h i g h e r i n the  s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e have a much b r o a d e r range o f s t y l e s a t t h e i r  than do t h o s e i n f o r m a n t s l o w e r i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e .  command  See i n p a r t i c -  u l a r t h e graph f o r hw = hw; i t i s p r o b a b l y t h e case t h a t an i n f o r m a n t would be a b l e t o communicate a t any l e v e l o f f o r m a l i t y below t h a t a t w h i c h he performed d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w b u t l e s s l i k e l y t h a t an i n f o r m a n t would speak i n r e g i s t e r ranges much above t h a t w h i c h was r e c o r d e d d u r i n g the  interview. T h i s range o f d e l i v e r y on t h e p a r t o f t h e upper c l a s s e s s u b s t a n t i a t e s  the  o f t e n h e a r d w o r k i n g c l a s s c l a i m t h a t t h e upper c l a s s e s a r e d i s h o n e s t  and t w o - f a c e d , t a l k i n g t o d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e i n d i f f e r e n t ways, w h i l e they are  themselves h o n e s t and t r u t h f u l , t a l k i n g t h e same way t o a l l p e o p l e .  180 F i g u r e 5.28.a.  hw = hw R e g i s t e r C o n t r o l  •"""WORKING A ""•LOVER M I D D L E X=MIDDLE <I>=UPPER M I D D L E SLOWER UPPER  o o _  STYLE Hatch marks i n d i c a t e a r e a o f c o n t r o l f o r our LU and Working c l a s s e s . Our d a t a shows t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s a major p a r a meter r e l a t e d t o p h o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n and demonstrates the weakness o f d i a l e c t s t u d i e s w h i c h do n o t i n c l u d e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a .  The graph f o r  hw, f o r example, d i s p l a y s a 70 p e r c e n t s p r e a d between the lower upper and working classes i n Minimal P a i r s .  181 Data w i t h R e f e r e n c e  t o Working C l a s s  From t h e d a t a and graphs a v a i l a b l e f o r our p h o n o l o g i c a l i t e m s , we a r e a b l e t o see t h a t t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s has r e c o r d e d l o w e r s c o r e s than any o t h e r c l a s s f o r the f o l l o w i n g p r e f e r r e d v a l u e s : -ing = in; t j , Tt  VtV = VtV; ntV = n t ;  d j , n j = t j , d j , n j ; r V = r V ; s t = s t ; V#V = V#V; o u t = A u t ;  is  = a i t ; un- = An; V r = V r n o t o r ; hw = hw; t h = t h ; o r = o r , g o i n g t o =  g o t o ! , m i l k = m i l k ; and tomato = t a m ( a > t o .  This s e t of data b u i l d s a  s t r o n g case t o r e f u t e any c l a i m t h a t t h e r e i s no o r o n l y v e r y l i t t l e  social  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n Canadian E n g l i s h . S t i g m a t i z e d Forms I n a d d i t i o n t o a t t a i n i n g t h e l o w e s t s c o r e s f o r t h e above l i s t e d the w o r k i n g  items,  c l a s s s e t i t s e l f a p a r t from a l l o t h e r c l a s s e s i n i t s pronun-  c i a t i o n o f - i n g = on, r V = Vr", s t = s#, V#V = e#V, un- = a n , and t h = n, z, t , and d, g o i n g t o = goto I, and m i l k = me I k .  The s c o r e s f o r t h e s e  latter  e i g h t items were so f a r removed from t h e s c o r e s of t h e o t h e r c l a s s e s t h a t they c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d s i m p l y t h e l o w e s t , b u t they had t o be c a t e g o r i z e d as d r a s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t .  These forms a r e judged  t o be s t i g m a t i z e d  v a l u e s when used i n f o r m a l s i t u a t i o n s o r when used t o o f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e more i n f o r m a l s t y l e s . below.  The graphs f o r these s t i g m a t i z e d form a r e p r e s e n t e d  ing = an  Figure 5.29.a  •=VORKING A=LOWER MIDDLE X=M1DDLE e^UPPER MIDDLE *=LOWER UPPER o  STYLE  Figure 5.29.b.  rV = rV •=V0RKING A=L0WER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE OrUPPER MIDDLE *=L0WER UPPER o  °*  i?  ?  STYLE  S  ?s  183 F i g u r e 5.29.C.  st=st [^WORKING A=L0VER MIDDLE X=M1DDLE <J>=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0VER UPPER  Q  F i g u r e 5.29.d.  V*V = sh CD=WORKING A=L0WER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE 0=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0VER UPPER  Figure 5.29.e.  un-  =F  an  •=VORKING A=LBVER MIDDLE X^MIDDLE •=UPPER MIDDLE *=LOVER UPPER  th = 5, 9  Figure 5.29.f.  •=VORKING A=LOVER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE <»=UPPER MIDDLE *=LOVER UPPER  LU  a: LU  MP  P  STYLE  185 going to = goto 1  Figure 5.29.g.  O=U0RKING A=L0WER MIDDLE X^MIDDLE 0=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0VER UPPER  UJ U or LU  0-,  MP  STYLE  milk = mi Ik  Figure 5.29.h.  •^WORKING A-LOWER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE SUPPER MIDDLE *=L0WER UPPER  I—CD LU  (_> or  LU  MP  P  STYLE  7s  186 Reading S t y l e I n Chapter 4, when i n t r o d u c i n g t h e s t y l e s w h i c h would be e l i c i t e d and a n a l y s e d i n t h i s s t u d y , we mentioned t h a t i t appeared as though many i n f o r mants r e a d our r e a d i n g passage i n a more i n f o r m a l s t y l e than t h e i r own Free Speech s t y l e .  An a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a and graphs r e v e a l s t h a t t h e  lower upper c l a s s r e a d t h e v a r i a b l e s V t V = V t V , d^y = d#y, and r V = r V more i n f o r m a l l y i n t h e r e a d i n g passage t h a n they pronounced them i n t h e i r own F r e e Speech s t y l e .  S i m i l a r l y , t h e upper m i d d l e c l a s s r e a d t h e v a r i -  a b l e rV = r V , nd = n d , Tt = e i t , k t = k t , hw = hw, and g o i n g t o = g o t o ! more i n f o r m a l l y t h a n they pronounced them i n t h e i r own F r e e Speech. would appear t h a t t h e upper m i d d l e c l a s s and t h e lower upper c l a s s mants u n d e r t o o k r o l e p l a y i n g w h i l e r e a d i n g t h e passage.  It infor-  The r e a d i n g pas-  sage was p u r p o s e l y w r i t t e n w i t h a v i e w t o e l i c i t i n g q u i t e i n f o r m a l speech. The two above mentioned c l a s s e s r e a d t h e passage more s l o w l y t h a n t h e m i d d l e c l a s s b u t more r a p i d l y than a l l t h e o t h e r c l a s s e s . As we measured r e a d i n g s k i l l s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o our s o c i a l  classes  we saw a p r o g r e s s i v e i n c r e a s e i n ease and speed o f r e a d i n g as we moved up t h e c l a s s e s f r o m l o w e r , t o w o r k i n g , l o w e r m i d d l e , and m i d d l e .  However,  when we came t o t h e upper m i d d l e and l o w e r upper c l a s s e s we n o t i c e d a marked i n c r e a s e i n r o l e p l a y i n g and i n a c o n c e r n f o r t i m i n g and h e s i t a t i o n . T h i s r e a d i n g s t y l e was accompanied w i t h a d e c r e a s e i n speed. The graphs f o r the e i g h t v a r i a b l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d below a l o n g w i t h a t a b l e w h i c h p r e s e n t s t h e d u r a t i o n o f r e a d i n g by c l a s s .  187 Figure 5.30.a.  VtV = VtV •=V0RKING A=L0VER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE SUPPER MIDDLE *=L0VER UPPER  Figure 5.30.b.  •^WORKING A=L0VER MIDDLE X-MIDDLE •=UPPER MIDDLE *=LOVER UPPER  STYLE  Figure 5.30.C.  rV = rV •^WORKING A^LOVER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE «=UPPER MIDDLE *=LOVER UPPER  LU O LU  MP  Figure 5.3CLd.  P  STYLE  nd = nd •^WORKING A^LOVER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE «>=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0VER UPPER  Figure 5.30.e.  Tt = a l t O=W0RKING A-LOWER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE «=UPPER MIDDLE *=10VER UPPER  Figure 5.30.f.  kt = k t •^WORKING A=LOVER MIDDLE X^MIODLE 0=UPP-"R MIDDLE *=LOVER UPPER  Figure 5.30.g.  hw = hw •FORKING A=L0WER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE <J>=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0VER UPPER  STYLE  Figure 5.30.h.  going to = g o t o l CQ=WORKING A=L0WER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE •=UPPER MIDDLE *=i_0WER UPPER  v  1  ?  STYLE  r?  ft  191 Table 5.30.i.  DURATION OF READING BY CLASS Class  Seconds  Lower  280  Working  234  Low Mid  217  Middle  205  Up M i d  211  Lower Up  212  I t would be r e m i s s h e r e not t o d i s c u s s Labov's f i n d i n g s c o n c e r n i n g Reading s t y l e : A few upper m i d d l e c l a s s s p e a k e r s seemed t o have the degree of c o n t r o l and s e l f - a w a r e n e s s needed t o m o d i f y t h e i r r e a d i n g s t y l e i n the d i r e c t i o n of conv e r s a t i o n a l s t y l e , but t h i s i s a r a r e e f f e c t and not a v e r y l a r g e one.25 The f a c t t h a t our d a t a demonstrate a d e f i n i t e and r e c u r r i n g p a t t e r n of t h i s phenomenon w h i l e t h e Lower E a s t S i d e Manhattan i n f o r m a n t s produced o n l y r a r e i n s t a n c e s would tend t o s u b s t a n t i a t e our c l a i m t h a t the E a s t S i d e Manhattan Survey i s a s u r v e y o f a t r u n c a t e d p o r t i o n o f American s o c i e t y w h i c h d i d not i n c l u d e the upper-upper, the l o w e r upper, or upper middle c l a s s e s .  Our m i d d l e c l a s s i n f o r m a n t s appeared t o modify t h e i r  r e a d i n g about as o f t e n as Labov i n d i c a t e s h i s d e s i g n a t e d upper m i d d l e class did.  T h i s comparison would l e a d one t o c o n c l u d e t h a t Labov's  sample  g e n e r a l l y performed as d i d the bottom t h r e e c l a s s e s i n the Ottawa Survey. A f u r t h e r comparison o f d a t a from b o t h s u r v e y s on the v a r i a b l e s ( t h ) and (-ing) a l s o r e v e a l s v e r y d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s and p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e t h a t the Manhattan Survey i n v e s t i g a t e d and a n a l y s e d i n n e r - c o r e urban speech w h i c h c o n t a i n e d f e a t u r e s of f o r e i g n language i n t e r f e r e n c e , not the speech of a b r o a d sample of American s o c i e t y .  192 Pictures The t a s k and s t y l e l a b e l l e d P i c t u r e s was, as s t a t e d i n Chapter 4, an a d d i t i o n t o t h e method d e v i s e d by Labov i n 1966 and used by T r u d g i l l i n 1973.  There was some doubt as t o t h e p r o p e r placement o f P i c t u r e s i n t h e  sequence o f s t y l e s a l o n g t h e a b s c i s s a from f o r m a l t o i n f o r m a l .  We d e c i d e d  t o d e s i g n a t e and p l a c e i t as t h e l e a s t f o r m a l of t h e non-connected speech styles. L e t us now a n a l y s e t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s s t y l e .  Our d a t a  r e v e a l t h a t f o r f o u r v a r i a b l e s , namely V t V , - i n g , r V , and nd, P i c t u r e s would have been more a p p r o p r i a t e l y p l a c e d t o t h e r i g h t of R e a d i n g , i . e . more i n f o r m a l t h a n Reading.  The p r i n t e d word i n t h e r e a d i n g p a s s a g e , i t  would appear,.caused many i n f o r m a n t s t o produce r e a d i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n s and more c a r e f u l speech f o r some v a r i a b l e s than t h a t which was e l i c i t e d while informants i d e n t i f i e d p i c t u r e s .  C o n v e r s e l y , P i c t u r e s was more  f o r m a l than Word L i s t f o r t h e v a r i a b l e V#V.  F o r t h e remainder o f v a r i -  a b l e s f o r w h i c h P i c t u r e s was a s t y l e , P i c t u r e s was c o r r e c t l y p l a c e d .  One  c o u l d e v a l u a t e from the above a n a l y s i s t h a t P i c t u r e s , and i n d e e d a l l t h e o t h e r s t y l e s , were a d e q u a t e l y p l a c e d and t h a t t h e sequence o f t a s k s / s t y l e s 26  e s t a b l i s h e d above c o u l d w e l l be used i n f u t u r e s u r v e y s .  Sex/ Age Groups When a n a l y s i n g t h e d a t a w i t h a v i e w t o comparing t h e performance of the f o u r Sex/Age groups, we see e v i d e n c e f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l s t a t e ments : 1)  Females o v e r f o r t y y e a r s of age s t a n d out from t h e o t h e r sex/age  groups by t h e i r tendency t o pronounce more f r e q u e n t l y o f our v a r i a b l e s .  the formal values  E v i d e n c e o f t h i s tendency can be seen i n t h e graphs  f o r V t V = V t V , n t V = n t , - i n g = - i n , n y = ny, T t = a i t , V r = V r , hw = hw,  193 and tomato = t o m i d j t o .  T h i s tendency o f females over f o r t y t o be more  f o r m a l than t h e o t h e r sex/age groups i s seen t o be t h e case v e r y f r e q u e n t l y i n Chapter 6 as w e l l . 2)  The o p p o s i t e tendency i s o b s e r v a b l e among males l e s s than f o r t y y e a r s  of age.  They, more than any o t h e r sex/age group, pronounced  v a l u e s of t h e v a r i a b l e s .  the informal  E v i d e n c e o f t h i s tendency can be seen i n t h e  graphs f o r VtV = V t V , n t V = n t , ny = ny, hw = hw, and good = go^d. 3)  Males o v e r f o r t y y e a r s o f age u s u a l l y had s c o r e s between t h e extremes  of the-, two p r e v i o u s l y mentioned sex/age groups.  They d i d , however, s t a n d o u t  i n t h e i r p r o n u n c i a t i o n of n t V = nd and V r = o r . 4)  Females under f o r t y y e a r s o f age a l s o g e n e r a l l y had s c o r e s between  the  extremes o f t h e o l d e r females and younger males, b u t they d i d s t a n d  out f o r t h e i r lower f r e q u e n c y of t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f b o t h Canadian d i p h t h o n g s , (ou) and (T) and t h e l i p rounded /n/.  and t h e i r h i g h e r f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e lowered [ae] The d a t a r e g a r d i n g a l l f o u r sex/age groups con27  form g e n e r a l l y t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e Survey of Canadian E n g l i s h .  194 3.  Somers' D S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s I n a d d i t i o n t o the summary i n the p r e v i o u s S e c t i o n , we have a p p l i e d  the Somers' D s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t e our c l a i m o f l i n g u i s t i c and s o c i o l o g i c a l c o - v a r i a t i o n .  The Somers' D  a n a l y s i s i s b e s t s u i t e d t o the a n a l y s i s o f d a t a w h i c h can be d i v i d e d i n t o s i m p l e groups o f two.  I n o r d e r t o conform t o t h i s f o r m a t , we d i v i d e d  our f o u r sex/age groups i n t o two age groups, 40, and i n t o two s e x groups, female and male. a l l our i n f o r m a n t s i n t o two s o c i o - e c o n o m i c previous f i v e .  those over 40 and those under F u r t h e r , we d i c h o t o m i z e d  groups r a t h e r than our  T h i s d i v i s i o n was a c c o m p l i s h e d by f i n d i n g t h e median  s c o r e o f t h e Socio-economic  C l a s s Index (27.5 p o i n t s ) and p l a c i n g t h e 45  i n f o r m a n t s who were below t h a t s c o r e i n t o a group l a b e l l e d Below. r e m a i n i n g 44 i n f o r m a n t s were p l a c e d i n a group l a b e l l e d Above.  The  I t was  then p o s s i b l e t o r u n two by two g r i d s w h i l e h o l d i n g one parameter constant.  A p o s i t i v e s i g n (+) i n f r o n t o f t h e Somers' D v a l u e i s h e r e  a r b i t r a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n t o t h e top d i v i s i o n of c l a s s , t h e o l d e r d i v i s i o n i n age, and f e m a l e s .  The magnitude of t h e  Somers' D v a l u e i s e q u a l t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f people who had the chosen usage w i t h i n one s o c i o l o g i c a l group and t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f p e o p l e who had t h a t same usage i n t h e o p p o s i t e group.  The  28 Somers' D s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n f o l l o w s . (Immediately p r e c e d i n g t h e Somers' D v a l u e f o r C l a s s , Age, and Sex, we p r e s e n t the l i n g u i s t i c mean f o r each r e s p e c t i v e group.  The v a l u e  a t t a i n e d by t h e 'Above' group, Over 40, and Females i s p l a c e d above t h e 'Below' group, Under 40, and Males.)  SOMERS' D DESCRIPTION P h o n o l o g i c a l Items  Item 1. VtV = VtV  Style MP  L i n g u i s t i c Somers' D Mean Class Above/Below Above/Below  Linguistic Mean >40/<40  .63275  .64631  23256  .46002 W  .60117  .22687  .23388  ,29147  .19710  .13953  MP  .94574  .30334  .74109  .07000 ,22687  .5000 .44574  .44222  . 21013 .95370 .73241  ,16899  ,65278  .44906  ,52315 ,43667  .27338  .23960  .34522  .27403  .42276  .18164  .28160  .08360 .11700  .98519  .22407  .86179 .06624  .78815  .27338  .58475 .10470  .64744 ,18605  .60685  .14350  .65855  .59074 R  .27148  .37832  .08389  .90667  .63877 .71124  .38889  .08030  .90698 W  .26114  .62908  Somers' D Sex F/M  .39356  .16883  .07555 2. n t V = n t  .25427  .09593  .18972 FS  .61986  Linguistic Mean F/M  .45562  .42147  .09198 R  ,29111  .47444  .40846 .23837  Somers' D Age >40/<40  .75926  .14935  .53488 .18000  .57160 .36450  .42927  Item  Style FS  L i n g u i s t i c Somers' D Mean Class Above/Below Above/Below .27993  .14206  .22804 ,3. - i n g = i n  MP  .67442 .63721  ,23256 ,19948  .37497  .20155  .25679  ,23256  MP  .63953  ,32204  .58430  .25581 ,29147 .17003  .49138 .11795  .05128  .30899 .36352 .25482 .63657 .60268 .62963  ,37209  .71296  ,16239  ,50333 ,15778  ,10515  .61333  .01757  .25868  ,02584  .25066 .02000  .34334  .09431  .29750 .26767  .21414  .08291  .19280 , 35 889  .61481  ,12304  .46341 34188  .56270  .16331  .36877 .25427  .57037  ,10284  .51163 ,26000  .54000 ,35942  .62222  .59070  ,48077  .51550 FS  .63889  ,08291  .52846  .37466  .48148 .70930  .12444  ,47500  .35675 .60465  .62963  Somers' D Sex F/M  .19808  .16755  .44574 W  .30456  .29122  .15432 4. t y dy ny = t y dy ny  .03638  .21722  .26800 FS  .26407  .57692  .20910 R  Linguistic Mean F/M  .54000  .56889 .30255  Somers' D Age >40/<40  .24532  .48062 W  Linguistic Mean >40/<40  .70926  ,20054  .50610 ,40000  .44872 .19483  ,29708  Item 5. r V = r V  Style W  L i n g u i s t i c Somers' D Mean Class Above/Below Above/Below  Linguistic Mean >40/<40  .23611  .24279  .21499  .17603 .46111 .37209  .14005  .42391  .18605  W-P  .61302  .19919  .48256  .05271  .34363  .02326  MP  .62760  .01220 .04940  .06199 ,06212  .61111 .46528 .38693 .60897  , 13953  , 41165  ,10684  .11538 .02355  .04186  .34959  ,15501  .37209  .16077  .56667  .05271  .59303 -.06667  .45370  .01138  .42683 .13665  .30183  ,03624  .30783 .02911  .63426  .06481  .56481 32333  ,29238 -.04389  .42054  .27174  .60135  .37712 FS  .09875  .24191  .58065 . 30749  .36538  ,14884  .28889  .42333  .26646 7. h = h  ,13667  .55769  .39922 FS  .34506  .23837  Somers' D Sex F/M  .41111  .25676  .55667 R  .14744  .28704  .20930 st = s t  .48878  Linguistic Mean F/M  .17654  .31019  .26357 FS  ,13248  .15471  .36822 R  Somers' D Age >40/<40  .42610  .33604  .25034 ,11966  ,11326 .01406  .20417  Item 8. V#V = V#V  Style W  L i n g u i s t i c Somers' D Mean Class Above/Below Above/Below  Linguistic Mean >40/<40  Somers' D Age >40/<40  Linguistic Mean F/M  .91860  .95833  .14800  .90000  .01500  .91111 1.0000 1.0000 R  .87829 .88889  .11628  W  .22222  , 15200  .18605  -.11111  .20833  .01938  OU  =  AU  MP  .89147  ,09211  .73837  .18600  .76667  .03913  .28571 .09841 .89815  .04400  .73611  .18571  .75000 .74631  .86957  .08700  .23529  -.07721  .22222  .09722  .12500 .00000  .02506  -.20724  .26563 .14600  .76296  ,11300  .88618 .03700  .65556  -.09200  .81008  .72756 -.01520  ,21843  .31250  .76667  .72407 .72093  .30000  .88815  .81159  .16250  .75194 W  .04200  .10000  .07331 10.  .85000  NA  .79350  .26087  .16667 FS  ,20778  .83333  .33333 R  .87500  1.0000 1.0000  .82000  .77193 9. d#y, t#y  NA  1.0000  .80775 FS  1.0000  -.06000  .93023  .88462 NA  Somers' D Sex F/M  .01300  .64444 .84884  -.21100  Item  Style  L i n g u i s t i c Somers' D Mean Class Above/Below Above/Below .79070  .06900  .72073  .11630  MP  .81429  .16478  .36163  -.04651  .23073  ,11630  MP  .75581  ,04600  .80952  ,12100 .05400  .02300  .66892 .62070  .40833 .24170 .80556 .86111 .86111 .81019  -.05662  .72318 .58766  .66860  .05662  .85000  -.00610  .84390 .15600  .35889  -.07480  .38537 ,11778  .66860  -.05662  .66722 .17000  .72222  .01500  .69512 .19400  .73333  -.02900  .76190 ,19100  .73333  -.03700  .75969 ,24700  .64667  .68217 FS  ,05329  .66667  .71852 .74806  .85778  .03700  .66722  .66667  .68889 .77519  .02178  .64000  .66279 W  ,74170  Somers' D Sex F/M  .80488  .15544  .13858 12. T = a i  .72593  ,34500  . 38140 FS  .01000  ,62449  .65667 R  Linguistic Mean F/M  ,74000  .61858 11. outV = Aut  ,79630  Somers' D Age >40/<40  ,74038  .73643 FS  Linguistic Mean >40/<40  .72593  .06800  .70325 ,26403  .67567 .61012  ,14661  Item  Style  L i n g u i s t i c Somers' D Mean Class Above/Below Above/Below  Linguistic Mean >40/<40  Somers' D Age  Linguistic Mean F/M  Somers' S ex F/M  .95556  .20000  >40/<40 13.  Tt = a i t  MP  .93023  ,13900  .79070 W  .62791  .82000 .08837  .51111 R  .27907  .02326  .24892 .18070  14.  un = An  W  .81395  -.03700  .82222 R  .88372  .81731 .04700  .83721 FS  1.0000  NA  nd = nd  MP  .09302  1.0000 .02326  .06976 W  .56395  -.02687  .54167 .11059  .14074 R  .30930 .20349  .52778 .20833 .12821  .27907  .30972 .21800  .11680  .14341 .28667  .35556  .20879  .48256 .17778  .20940  -.07751  .12195 .58704  .01282'  NA  1.0000 .04444  .05111  .06000  .82927 1:0000  NA  .11111 .06000  .50926 .18217  1.0000  -.09000  .83721 .88889  .04700  .14661  .17012 .80000  .04900  .88889 .84000  1.0000 15.  .81944  .31816  .18293 .27567  .26403  .18450  .47674 .36667  .28000  .32318 .18766  .75610 .65556  .28419  .40278 .19000  .07662  .09700  .73611 .45192  .27907 FS  .91667  .22317  .15393  Item  Style FS  L i n g u i s t i c Somers' D Mean Class Above/Below Above/Below  Linguistic Mean >40/<40  .28505  .26614  ,26427  .15906 16. aer = asr  MP  .47287 .52326  .06977  .62857  ,00672  W  . M444  .11473  .27778  ,13200  8B  = 33  W  .81395  ,19616 ,01300  .44657  .02300  MP  ,55233  -.11765  ,39535 ,16667  .10100  .26727 .87500 .98611 ,55227  .39535  ,65972  -.10187  ,48611 ,13462  .51938  ,03876  .67687  31677  .75556  ,36100  .25604  .06117  .21964 ,13000  .93023  .28600  ,72222 16400  ,99390  ,24300  ,91111 ,11067  .58952  ,32500  ,43932 ,46222  , 17500 .26615  ,11870  .39535  ,45061  ,20349 W  .63889  .48667  .54658  .92500  .52043 19. hw = hw  ,35718  .78846  ,94767 FS  .70028  .03393  .48444  .21795  .83333 .95349  ,36111  .53846  .19638 18.  .58269  .23181  .40528  .48263  . 51163 FS  ,10778  .38426  .58804 17. V r = V r  .49400  L i n g u i s t i c Somers' D Mean Sex F/M F/M  .20958  .38380  .48074 R  .03351  .18818  .42287 W  Somers' D Age >40/<40  ,41667  ,12087  ,33537 ,43803  ,30000 ,25581  .05220  Style  L i n g u i s t i c Somers' D Mean Class Above/Below Above/Beli .17073  .05962  .11111 R  .17442 .10474  .09302  .62791  ,17308  .47675  .00000  .16744  -.02643  .13095  -.02326  .90698  -.02005  .81589  -.04600  .62558  -.15000  .15864 .10021  .22778  .12364 .69444 .48849 .21111 .13725 .87963 .81713  .02326  .56111  .27713  .12783 .13241  .00976  .07761  .09402  .05665 .11400  .64444  .03400  .60976 .03681  .47929  -.02643  .47625 .05889  .19556  .01355  .17561 .06138  .08772  -.02005  .14683 -.15000  .90370  -.03200  .91870 -.11111  .89815  .10500  .82752 -.15889  .64333 .05058  .14444 .11057  .89583  .59225 FS  .21296  .11905  .93333  .90926 R  .04004  .10507  .91473 W  .15909  .16800  .10526 MP  .10973  .47115  .20465 FS  .20588  .58000  .47929 R  Somers' S ex F/M  .02803  .62791 W-P  Linguistic Mean F/M  .06733  .03322 MP  Somers' D Age >40/<40  .09615  .08217 FS  Linguistic Mean >40/<40  .63481  .12087  .58049 -.02262  .18696 .06359  .16725  Item 22. t h = 96  Style MP  L i n g u i s t i c Somers' D Mean Class Above/Below Above/Below 1.0000  NA  1.0000 W  1.0000  NA  1.0000  NA  23. o r = or  W  .97442  NA .13900  R  FS 25. m i l k = mi Ik  W  1.0000 .91892 .95288  .0000  .0000  NA .02200  .64922  .97222  -.09302  .72674  .67500  .83740  .87879  .06900  .75000  .73551  .61765  .60185  .28706  .35933  .36042  .93023  .94444  .88889  NA  .04100  .88462  NA  1.0000  NA  1.0000  NA  1.0000 NA  1.0000  NA  1.0000 -.20000  .94891  .09700  .91183 NA  .0000  NA  .0000 .02800  1.0000 .70602  1.0000  Somers' Sex F/M  1.0000  .0000  .97778  24. g o i n g t o = goto 1  1.0000  .90543  1.0000  NA  1.0000  .0000  R  1.0000  Linguistic Mean F/M  1.0000  1.0000  1.0000 FS  NA  1.0000  1.0000 R  1.0000  Somers' D Age >40/<40  1.0000  1.0000 1.0000  Linguistic Mean >40/<40  .97778  -.02200  1.0000 .04667  .68148  -.05962  .69512 .17400  .88372  .14900  .68981 .23611  .55167  .14091  .38409 .05900  .93333 .88372  .04900  Item  Style R  L i n g u i s t i c Somers' D Mean Class Above/Below Above/Below  Linguistic Mean >40/<40  Somers' D Age >40/<40  Linguistic Mean F/M  .76744  .66667  .01300  .60000  ,18600  .58140 26.  good = god  W  .95349  .68000 -.00300  .95556 R  .75969  -.04600  .75000  tomato = t a m v v t o  W  .37209  7500 .26098  .39535  .26202  Correlation  77 o f 101  .41667 .50000  ,23256  .44444  ,50000  84 o f 101  .73333  -.19200  1.00000  75000  .25000 30128  .48409  ,23928  .11628 ,40385  .49031  ,23874  .13953 ,28444  .16000 75 o f 101  .04800  .80488  .09615  .16279 Positive  .00400  .11538  .13333 R  .00000  .97778 .93023  .50000  .11111 .39535  .07700  .76667  .00000 27.  .76852  -.15600  .75610  .92308  .77519 FS  1.0000  Somers' D Sex F/M  .50252  ,34688  .09756 87 o f 101  74 o f 101  74 o f 101  NJ O  205  Chapter 5:  Footnotes  "'"This was done w i t h the a i d o f our Socio-economic C l a s s Index. Of c o u r s e , the cut o f f p o i n t s used t o determine the placement of i n f o r m a n t s were a r b i t r a r y , but the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c continuum i s v e r y r e a l . We r e a l i z e t h a t some p e o p l e w i l l be u p s e t w i t h the m e n t i o n i n g of s o c i o economic c l a s s . The w o r k i n g c l a s s and the l o w e r c l a s s have been merged f o r a l l f i g u r e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r , because there.were too few i n f o r m a n t s i n the lower c l a s s t o g i v e an adequate i n d i c a t i o n o f usage p a t t e r n s . The two major m a t r i c e s used i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e p r e s e n t e d below. T a b l e 4.3.12.p.  Ottawa  SEX/AGE (OTTAWA)  Male > 40  Female > 40  13  24  T a b l e 4.3.12.b.  Male < 40 22  Female < 40 30  CLASS (OTTAWA)  Ottawa Lower-Working  11  Lower M i d d l e  22  Middle  31  Upper M i d d l e  15  Lower Upper  10  Total  89  Total 89  206 " T r u d g i l l , when d e s c r i b i n g t h e s e x d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e v a r i a b l e (ng) n o t i c e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n and o f f e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n : T h i s i s a f a c t w h i c h i s n o t , on t h e f a c e o f i t , p a r t i c u l a r l y s u r p r i s i n g , b u t one t h a t i s a t t h e same time i n need o f some e x p l a n a t i o n . There would appear t o be two i n t e r - c o n n e c t e d explanatory f a c t o r s : 1. Women i n our s o c i e t y are:more s t a t u s - c o n s c i o u s than men, g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , and a r e t h e r e f o r e more aware o f the s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a b l e s . There are p r o b a b l y two main r e a s o n s f o r t h i s : ( i ) The s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o f women i n o u r s o c i e t y i s l e s s s e c u r e than t h a t o f men, and g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h a t o f men. I t i s t h e r e f o r e more n e c e s s a r y f o r women to s e c u r e and s i g n a l t h e i r s o c i a l s t a t u s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y and i n o t h e r ways, and they a r e more aware o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s type o f s i g n a l . ( i i ) Men i n o u r s o c i e t y c a n be r a t e d s o c i a l l y by t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n , t h e i r e a r n i n g power, and perhaps by t h e i r other a b i l i t i e s : i n o t h e r words, by what they do. F o r the most p a r t , however, t h i s i s n o t p o s s i b l e f o r women, who have g e n e r a l l y t o be r a t e d on how they appear. Since they cannot be r a t e d s o c i a l l y by t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n , by what o t h e r p e o p l e know about what they do i n l i f e , o t h e r s i g n a l s o f s t a t u s , i n c l u d i n g speech, a r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y more important. T h i s l a s t p o i n t i s perhaps the most i m p o r t a n t . 2. The second, r e l a t e d , f a c t o r i s the WC s p e e c h , l i k e many o t h e r a s p e c t s o f WC c u l t u r e , has, i n o u r s o c i e t y , connotation of m a s c u l i n i t y , s i n c e i t i s associated w i t h the roughness and toughness s u p p o s e d l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f WC l i f e , w h i c h a r e , t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , c o n s i d e r e d t o be d e s i r a b l e m a s c u l i n e a t t r i b u t e s . They a r e n o t , on t h e o t h e r hand, c o n s i d e r e d t o be d e s i r a b l e f e m i n i n e c h a r a c teristics. On t h e c o n t r a r y , r e f i n e m e n t and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n a r e much p r e f e r r e d . 3 A v i s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s v a r i a b l e (VtV) i n 1955 among upper m i d d l e c l a s s O n t a r i a n s . He asked t h e i n f o r m a n t s t o a n a l y s e t h e i r own pronunc i a t i o n o f m i n i m a l p a i r s c o n t a i n i n g i n t e r v o c a l i c I t / ; a l l the words i n the l i s t were s i m i l a r o r i d e n t i c a l t o those i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . Of 102 i n f o r m a n t s answering t h e q u e s t i o n , 52 c l a i m e d t h a t they pronounced m e d i a l / t / o n l y as [ t ] . W.A. A v i s , "Speech D i f f e r e n c e s A l o n g t h e O n t a r i o U n i t e d S t a t e s B o r d e r : I I I P r o n u n c i a t i o n , " JCLA, V o l . 2 , No.2, (1956), pp. 54, 55. Gregg a n a l y s e d t h e c a s u a l speech o f V a n c o u v e r i t e s and s t a t e s : "The d i s t i n c t i o n between p o s t - t o n i c , i n t e r v o c a l i c [ t ] and [d] has been l o s t i n n a t u r a l Van. speech. The [ t ] i n t h i s p o s i t i o n has been v o i c e d , so t h a t m a t t e r , a n d madder a r e b o t h pronounced [ 'maedsr] h i t i t and h i d i t , b o t h [ h i d i t ] V ( R . J . Gregg, "Notes on t h e P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f Canadian E n g l i s h as Spoken i n Vancouver, B.C.," JCLA, V o l . 3 , N o . l , [October 1957], p.25). CEU r e v e a l s t h a t 51 t o 72 p e r c e n t o f the p a r e n t s c l a i m e d t o pronounce m e d i a l / t / a s [ t ] . M.H. S c a r g i l l , Modern Canadian E n g l i s h Usage: L i n g u i s t i c Change and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1974), pp.66, 67, h e n c e f o r t h c i t e d as CEU.  207 Our d a t a r e v e a l s t h a t the t h r e e s o u r c e s above were p r o b a b l y n o t c o n t r a d i c t o r y b u t m e r e l y measuring d i f f e r e n t s t y l e s . 4  CEU, pp.66-67.  5  L a b o v , pp.394-399, and T r u d g i l l , pp.91-95.  You Don't Say, v o l . 2 , i s s u e 4, e d i t o r s Lamont T i l d e n and George R i c h , ( T o r o n t o : CBC, 1978), p.2. ^Personal  communication.  M e n t i o n o f i n f o r m a l s u r v e y s g i v e s me t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e p o r t t h a t t h i s s u r v e y has caused a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t among a l a r g e number o f p e o p l e w i t h whom I had c o n t a c t d u r i n g t h e two y e a r p e r i o d o f t h i s p r o j e c t . These p e o p l e formed an u n o r g a n i z e d network o f a d v i s o r s and e v a l u a t o r s of the s u r v e y . They o f f e r e d 1) s u g g e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g w h i c h l i n g u i s t i c items s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d , 2) s u g g e s t i o n s as t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between Canadian and N o r t h e r n American E n g l i s h , 3) o p i n i o n s on t h e r e s u l t s of t h e s u r v e y , and 4) t h e i r own s u b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward Canadian E n g l i s h usage. These i n f o r m a l s u r v e y s had i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r i b u t o r s from t h e f o l l o w i n g groups o f p e o p l e : 1. My a s s i s t a n t s on t h e s u r v e y , Margaret Murdoch and S t e f f i O r t i z . 2. I n f o r m a n t s , t h e i r f a m i l y , f r i e n d s , and n e i g h b o u r s who would d i s c u s s ,Canadian E n g l i s h usage a t g r e a t l e n g t h a f t e r the i n t e r v i e w . 3. My c o l l e a g u e s a t t h e F e d e r a l Language Bureau: V e r a McLay, C o r n e l i u s von B a e y e r , M i c h a e l S u t t o n , E d i t h P a h l k e , and C h r i s t i n e Deeble. 4. Members o f t h e A r t s Computer Consultancy S e r v i c e s U n i t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia: L e w i s James, V i r g i n i a Green, and O l g a E l i a s . 5. Many B r i t i s h - C a n a d i a n s , American-Canadians, and Canadians who had e x p e r i e n c e d t h e d i f f e r e n t usage p a t t e r n s i n v a r i o u s E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g lands.  208 The s t a t i s t i c s f o r Manhattan a r e t a k e n from Labov, p.398, F i g u r e 3. N o t i c e t h a t Labov's graphs need t o be t u r n e d 180° t o be compared w i t h T r u d g i l l ' s and o u r s . I n Labov's g r a p h , A = C a s u a l s p e e c h , B = C a r e f u l Speech, C = Reading s t y l e , and SEC = s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s w i t h 0 = Lower C l a s s , 1 = Mixed Lower C l a s s and Working C l a s s , 2-5 = Working C l a s s , 6-8 = Lower M i d d l e C l a s s , and 9 = Upper M i d d l e C l a s s .  - i n g = i n + i n by C l a s s  F i g u r e 5.3.e.  •=VuRKING A=L0WER MIDDLE X=MIDDLE <!>=UPPER MIDDLE *=L0VER UPPER  o.  r—CO LU  "91  a  KP  P  STYLE  209 Labov's - i n g = LQ by C l a s s  F i g u r e 5.3.f.  Contextual  style  A v i s observes t h a t i n O n t a r i o , the p a l a t a l g l i d e enjoys p r e s t i g e , but t h a t t h e r e i s a remarkable degree o f v a r i a t i o n f o r i n d i v i d u a l words. He p r e s e n t s t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a :  [juj/liu] [u]  Tuesday  news  97 56  93 51  dew  duke  tune  58 47  56 49  64 41  due 52 53  student l u t e 73 75  suit  19 86  W.S. A v i s , o p . c i t . , pp.48, 49. CEU p r e s e n t s a s h o r t h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h o f the once f a s h i o n a b l e [duk t u z d i ] and d a t a a c c o r d i n g t o s e x , age, and p r o v i n c e . CEU, pp.52, 53. "'""'"Stress p a t t e r n s , t o o , s h o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d more t h o r o u g h l y . 12 A v i s c a l l s t h i s Canadian d i p h t h o n g b e g i n n i n g . A v i s , 1956, o p . c i t . , p.42.  " f a s t " with a r e l a t i v e l y high  13 B e f o r e we l e a v e t h i s v a r i a b l e , we would l i k e t o mention t h a t we r e c o r d e d a few cases o f t h e word how pronounced as [hAu].  18 87  210 14  T h i s p h r a s e has two s t e p s o f o p t i o n a l r u l e s w h i c h can u l t i m a t e l y a f f e c t the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f the d i p h t h o n g : Rule (1) h -»- h i n f u n c t i o n words i n s e n t e n c e i n t e r n a l p o s i t i o n . -> <f> i n f u n c t i o n words i n s e n t e n c e i n t e r n a l p o s i t i o n . Rule  (2) a i -> e i / _ t V when m e d i a l t r u l e , ai/-dV when m e d i a l t r u l e ,  't-*dA/-V i s not a p p l i e d . ' t-Kl/V-V i s a p p l i e d .  "'""'Our c h o i c e o f the p h r a s e , D i d he f i n d them, has o b v i o u s l y d i s t o r t e d our graph i n the s t y l e MP. We would have expected a 70 to 90 r e a d i n g f o r nd i n M i n i m a l P a i r s . 16 this  Our Somers' D a n a l y s i s of the d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d chapter.  i n S e c t i o n 3 of  "^Gregg, o p . c i t . , p.22, when d e s c r i b i n g the v o w e l [e] s t a t e s : "Some speakers use t h i s vowel i n words l i k e B a r r y , p a r r y , e t c . , w h i c h are thus homophones of b e r r y , P e r r y [ ' b e r i ] [ ' p e r i ] . The same speakers a l s o t r e a t as homophones H a r r y and h a i r y [ ' h e r i ] , marry, Mary, and merry [ ' m e r i ] . CEU p r e s e n t s a t a b l e r e p r e s e n t i n g the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f guarantee a c c o r d i n g t o s e x , age and p r o v i n c e s , pp.95-99. 18 For an e x p l a n a t i o n of low s t r e s s l e v e l s on f u n c t i o n words see my b o o k l e t Rhythm and U n s t r e s s (Ottawa: Government of Canada, 1978), pp.1-7. 19 For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of /ee/, see Ruth M c C o n n e l l , Our Own ( T o r o n t o : Gage E d u c a t i o n a l P u b l i s h i n g L i m i t e d , 1979), pp.22-23.  Voice,  20 A v i s , o p . c i t . , p.53, a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d t h i s v a r i a b l e (hw) i n O n t a r i o among the upper m i d d l e c l a s s by means of a " w r i t t e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e and a m i n i m a l p a i r t a s k . Of 159 i n f o r m a n t s , 68 c l a i m e d t o pronounce [hw], 50 c l a i m e d j u s t [w], and 41 acknowledged i n c o n s i s t e n t usage. Gregg, o p . c i t . , p.26, a g a i n a n a l y s i n g f r e e speech s t a t e s : "17. The younger f o l k i n Van. seem l a r g e l y to have l o s t the [hw] sound, the u n v o i c e d c o u n t e r p a r t of [w]. W i t h them w i t c h and w h i c h have f a l l e n t o g e t h e r as [ w i t s ] , w i l e and w h i l e , as [ w a e l ] , w e a l and w h e e l , as [ w i l ] . " CEU p r e s e n t s an h i s t o r i c a l s k e t c h of [hw] and [w] and proceeds t o confuse the q u e s t i o n and the answer c h o i c e s so t h a t the d a t a must be r e j e c t e d , pp.94, 95, and the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n s e r t . Young people i n Ottawa appear to p r e s e r v e the [hw] somewhat more than do t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n Vancouver, the K o o t e n a y s , and the N o r t h e r n United States. 21 There i s a number of P u b l i c S e r v a n t s of I r i s h a n c e s t r y from P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and Newfoundland i n Ottawa who f r e q u e n t l y s u b s t i t u t e [ t ] and [d] f o r /6/ and /5/ r e s p e c t i v e l y . ( P e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n . )  211 22  T h i s graph o f Manhattan's usage o f ( t h ) i s t a k e n from Labov, 1966, o p . c i t . , p.260. N o t i c e t h a t Labov's graphs must be t u r n e d 180 degrees t o be compared w i t h o u r s . 23 Labov when d e s c r i b i n g the s o c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i s survey a r e a a d m i t s : "The absence o f a s t e a d y segment o f t h e upper m i d d l e c l a s s i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f t h e Lower E a s t S i d e . I t i s a p o r t o f e n t r y f o r immigrants and a p l a c e o f n u r t u r e f o r t h o s e on t h e way up, b u t n o r m a l l y n o t a permanent home f o r c h i l d r e n o f upper m i d d l e c l a s s p a r e n t s " ( J u a n i t a W i l l i a m s o n and V i r g i n i a B u r k e , e d s . , "The E f f e c t of S o c i a l M o b i l i t y on L i n g u i s t i c B e h a v i o r , " A V a r i o u s Language: P e r s p e c t i v e s on American D i a l e c t s , [New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1971], pp.640-659). 24 A v i s , o p . c i t . , p.53, r e c o r d s t h a t o f 152 i n f o r m a n t s , 108 p r e f e r r e d /temeto/, 32 /temaeto/, and 12 /tamdto/. CEU d e s c r i b e s B r i t i s h and N o r t h American r e g i o n a l p r o n u n c i a t i o n s and p r e s e n t s d a t a broken down a c c o r d i n g t o s e x , age, and p r o v i n c e , pp. 65-66. Gregg r e p o r t s t h a t t h e t e e n a g e r s i n t h e Kootenays use o n l y /temeto/. R.J. Gregg,."The L i n g u i s t i c Survey o f B r i t i s h Columbia: The Kootenay Region," Canadian Languages i n t h e i r S o c i a l C o n t e x t , ed. Regna D a r n e l l (Edmonton: Edmonton L i n g u i s t i c R e s e a r c h , 1973), pp.109-113. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on B.C. usage, see R o b e r t a S t e v e n s o n ' s , The P r o n u n c i a t i o n o f E n g l i s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia, u n p u b l i s h e d M.A. t h e s i s , (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976), pp.1-153. 25  » Labov, 1966, o p . c i t . , p.96, and f o o t n o t e 6, p.132.  26 A s i x t h t a s k / s t y l e , S e r i e s , was attempted and abandoned because o f v e r y i r r e g u l a r performance and t h e i n a b i l i t y o f i n f o r m a n t s t o r e c i t e o r list. 27 Compare d a t a w i t h SCE o r CEU. A l s o see H.J. Warkentyne, "Contemp o r a r y Canadian E n g l i s h : A Report o f t h e Survey o f Canadian E n g l i s h , " American Speech, V o l . 4 6 , ( 1 9 7 1 ) , pp.193-199. T h i s l a t t e r a r t i c l e c o n t a i n s a two page s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " E f f e c t s of E d u c a t i o n on Usage" w h i c h summ a r i z e s t h e SCE d a t a on a s o c i o l o g i c a l b a s i s . 28 For a deeper u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e Somers' D s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n , see G. David Garson, Handbook o f P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Methods, ( B o s t o n : H o l b r o o k P r e s s , I n c . , 1971), pp.161-162.  212  CHAPTER 6 THE CO-VARIATION OF GRAMMATICAL, PRONUNCIATION AND VOCABULARY VARIABLES WITH SOCIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS  Measurement o f C o - v a r i a t i o n In  the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , we i n v e s t i g a t e d p h o n o l o g i c a l items and t h e  e x t e n t and degree t o which they v a r i e d a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i o l o g i c a l and s t y l i s t i c parameters.  We demonstrated t h a t f o r many items t h e r e was  s y s t e m a t i c v a r i a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o socio-economic Furthermore,  c l a s s , s e x , and age.  our d a t a r e v e a l e d even s t r o n g e r e v i d e n c e of s t y l i s t i c  t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the t a s k s t h e i n f o r m a n t s were asked t o p e r f o r m .  variaIn t h i s  c h a p t e r , we w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e 71 items which a r e i m p o r t a n t i n Canadian E n g l i s h because:  1) t h e items a r e b e l i e v e d t o be i n a s t a t e o f change,  2) t h e items a r e expected  t o show l i n g u i s t i c and s o c i o l o g i c a l  o r 3) the items a r e p e c u l i a r l y Canadian o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y e s p e c i a l l y when compared t o N o r t h e r n American.  co-variation, Canadian,  I n the design of the  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , no s y s t e m a t i c attempt was made a t a c h i e v i n g a s t y l i s t i c a n a l y s i s f o r each i t e m .  A l t h o u g h t h e r e no doubt would be s t y l i s t i c  v a r i a t i o n f o r each i t e m , we b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s would be much l e s s than f o r the p h o n o l o g i c a l items o f t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . As s t a t e d i n Chapter  1. o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , one o f t h e major  m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s f o r t h i s study was t h e Survey o f Canadian English"*"and 2 i t s d e r i v a t i v e book Canadian E n g l i s h Usage;  the SCE r e v e a l s t h e l i n g u i s -  t i c and s o c i o l o g i c a l c o - v a r i a t i o n o f 103 v a r i a b l e s a c c o r d i n g t o age, s e x and p r o v i n c e .  The SCE, however, e x c l u d e d socio-economic  class.  213 It i s our b e l i e f that one w i l l find more l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a t i o n within a city,but across class boundaries, than one w i l l find i n t r a v e l l i n g 3,142 kilometers from Ottawa to Vancouver, but staying within the same c l a s s . Only when the Vancouver Survey and other Canadian urban surveys have been completed w i l l we be able to combine our. results and see whether our hypothesis i s correct. In order to p a r t i a l l y substantiate our hypothesis, we w i l l present data f o r l i n g u i s t i c items which we believe w i l l show v a r i a t i o n with respect to socio-economic parameters as well as the other s o c i o l o g i c a l parameters of age, sex, ethnic background, rural/urban background, and new Canadian/several generation Canadian background.  The 71 variables  w i l l be presented i n alphabetical order i n the following three sections: 1) Grammar and Syntax, 2) Pronunciation, and 3) Vocabulary, thereby 4 following closely the format of SCE and Avis' three studies.  1.  Grammar and Syntax The f i r s t section of t h i s chapter deals with the c o r r e l a t i o n between  the syntactic v a r i a t i o n of an item on the one hand and the s o c i o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n on the other.  A l l the variables i n this section were e l i c i t e d  o r a l l y i n a style very similar to the style of response to written questionnaires.  Our data, therefore, are d i r e c t l y comparable to SCE,  Avis 1954, 1955, and 1956, and Gregg, 1973.  5  Avis (1954, p.14) when  introducing h i s grammar and syntax data stated:  "In matters of grammar  especially, cleavages are more commonly s o c i a l than regional,..." i n t u i t i o n would seem to agree with this statement.  Our  Let us now look at  the s o c i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of our items with a view to evaluating  214 whether our socio-economic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s more e n l i g h t e n i n g than t h e p r o v i n c i a l d i f f e r e n c e as p r e s e n t e d i n SCE.  1.  Between John and Me #263 Question:  John, Mary, and I a r e s i t t i n g i n a row.  Mary i s  s i t t i n g between John and A.  me  B.  T a b l e 6.1.1  I  BETWEEN JOHN AND ME Age > 40  L WK LM MID UM LU OTTAWA  C. you  Age  <  All  Male  Female'  40  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  27 73 79 61  73 27 21 39  0 0 0 0  14 35 73 35  86 60 27 63  0 5 0 2  22 57 85 51  78 43 15 49  0 0 0 0  14 41 67 40  86 53 33 58  0 6 0 2  19 48 76  A l l data f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e r e v e a l a s y s t e m a t i c socio-economic progression.  The lower c l a s s e s tend t o use t h e h y p e r - c o r r e c t i o n between John and  I_, w h i l e t h e upper m i d d l e and lower upper c l a s s e s m a i n l y employ between John and 'me.  M i d d l e c l a s s i n f o r m a n t s o v e r 40 y e a r s o f age c l o s e l y  approx-  imate t h e upper c l a s s e s w h i l e younger m i d d l e c l a s s i n f o r m a n t s a r e midway between t h e upper and lower c l a s s e s .  F o r form A, the i n f o r m a n t s over the  age o f 40 had markedly h i g h e r s c o r e s , average 6 1 , than those under 40, average 35, and females c o n s i s t e n t l y had h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n males.  The  g e n e r a t i o n gap which i s p r e s e n t i n our d a t a i s a l s o e v i d e n t i n t h e CEU, p .26.  215 2.  J u s t Between You and Me #264 Question:  J u s t between y o u and  , I think that they're not  t e l l i n g the t r u t h . A.  me  B.  I  JUST BETWEEN YOU AND ME  T a b l e 6.1.2  Age > 40  L WK M MID UM LU OTTAWA  Male  Female  Age < 40  All  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  64 73 100 81  36 27 0 19  95 58 100 82  5 42 0 18  89 69 100 86  11 31 0 14  79 59 100 77  21 41 0 23  84 63 100  This c o l l o c a t i o n was i n c l u d e d t o demonstrate t h a t t h e usage o f a l i n g u i s t i c i t e m c a n v a r y g r e a t l y depending on i t s ; e n v i r o n m e n t .  The  e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e lower c l a s s e s a r e q u i t e c o n f i d e n t  i n their  usage, t h a t t h e m i d d l e c l a s s i s u n c e r t a i n and f r e q u e n t l y u t t e r s , h y p e r u r b a n i s m s , and t h a t the, usage o f t h e upper c l a s s e s i s i n agreement w i t h (prescriptive  3.  standards.  Eh W h - i n t e r r o g a t i v e Question:  #312  Do y o u ever say something l i k e , What a r e they t r y i n g t o  do, eh? A.  yes  B.  T a b l e 6.1.3a  no  EH WH-INTERROGATIVE Age > 40  L WK LM MID UM LU OTTAWA  C. abhorrence  Age  Female  40  Male  All  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  B,C  10 9 14 11  80 64 71 71  10 27 14 17  25 16 9 18  75 68 82 74  0 16 10 8  22 14 8 16  72 79 85 78  6 7 8 7  17 13 13 15  83 56 67 67  0 31 17 17  80 87 88  216 Most i n f o r m a n t s f e l t t h a t the eh was and even more so a f t e r a l o n g q u e s t i o n . p a t t e r n i s e v i d e n t but q u i t e weak. markers o f Canadian E n g l i s h .  inappropriate after a question An o r d e r e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  Eh i s one of the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  I n t h i s s u r v e y , we i n v e s t i g a t e d 8 d i f f e r e n t  types of eh based on the s t r u c t u r e of the p r e c e d i n g sentence and the q u e s t i o n t a g w h i c h eh r e p l a c e s . ^  full  Eh types s i x and seven a r e d i s p l a y e d  here because t h e i r usage v a r i e s d r a s t i c a l l y from t h a t of the o t h e r s . T a b l e 6.1.3b. p r e s e n t s d a t a Cor. a l l 8 v a r i e t i e s of eh.  T a b l e 6.1.3b. Type of Eh Uses (%) 1. Reversed p o l a r i t y , agreement 72 2. Reversed p o l a r i t y , confirma-: . tion 58 3. Constant p o l a r i t y 64 4. I m p e r a t i v e 52 5. E x c l a m a t i o n 73 6. W h - i n t e r r o g a t i v e 15 7. N a r r a t i v e 6 8. Pardon  Does not (%) 28  43  A sample sentence f o r each type of eh was  Abhorrence  41 36 48 27 73 47  12 47  42  16  (%)  -  r e c i t e d by the i n t e r v i e w e r ,  see Q u e s t i o n n a i r e numbers 306-314, and the i n f o r m a n t was  asked t o answer  whether he used t h a t type or n o t . I n a d d i t i o n we noted a n i n t h v a r i e t y of eh which d i d n o t f i t our s t r u c t u r e d c a t e g o r i e s ; examples i n c l u d e :  No,eh; Thanks, eh;  into and  Good l u c k , eh. See CEU, pp.75-76 f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and d a t a on t h i s v a r i a b l e . CEU's q u e s t i o n 24 i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h our eh type 3; the percentages almost  identical.  are  217 4.  Eh N a r r a t i v e #313 Question:  Do y o u ever s a y something l i k e . T h i s guy i s up on t h e 27th  f l o o r , eh, then gets o u t on t h e l e d g e , eh, then t h e p o l i c e come, eh... A.  yes  B.  no  Table 6.1.4  C. abhorrence  EH. NARRATIVE Age > 40  All  Male  Female  Age < 40  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  B,C  0 0 0 0  40 73 14 40  60 27 86 60  20 5 0 10  45 63 45 52  35 32 55 38  11 7 0 7  39 71 15 42  50 21 85 51  17 0 0 5  50 63 42 52  33 38 58 42  86 97 100  L WK- LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  T h i s v a r i e t y o f e h , u s u a l l y c a l l e d t h e ' n a r r a t i v e e h ' , has been d e s g i g n a t e d a s t i g m a t i z e d form by A v i s , 1972,  types 6 and 8 o b v i o u s l y a r e t o o  T a b l e 6.1.4 r e v e a l s o r d e r e d r a n k i n g ; t h e lower c l a s s i n f o r m a n t s have t h i s usage more t h a n t h e o t h e r c l a s s e s , m i d d l e c l a s s i n f o r m a n t s use t h i s  form  l e s s f r e q u e n t l y and the upper c l a s s e s c l a i m never t o u s e i t . 5.  Fewer #296 Question:  What i s t h e o p p o s i t e of t h i s sentence?  There a r e more  p e o p l e h e r e t o n i g h t than l a s t n i g h t . A.  fewer  B.  Table 6.1.5  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  less  FEWER Male  Age > 40  Age < 40  Female  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  56 55 71 62  44 36 29 35  30 37 56 38  70 63 44 63  47 43 77 52  53 57 23 45  25 50 50 42  75 50 50 58  All A 38 43 65  218 T a b l e 6.1.5 r e v e a l s t h a t t h e upper m i d d l e and lower upper  classes  c o n s i s t e n t l y had t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s f o r fewer, t h e p r e s c r i b e d form. t a b l e a l s o demonstrates  The  a large sociological differentiation with refer-  ence t o t h e two age groups, w i t h t h o s e over 40 s c o r i n g h i g h f o r fewer. F u r t h e r , females averaged h i g h e r s c o r e s f o r fewer than d i d males.  The  o r d e r e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c o r r e l a t i o n o u t l i n e d above r e c u r s c o n s i s t e n t l y f o r t h e items o f t h i s s e c t i o n .  6.  Have You Got #277 Question:  I f you needed a match, what would you ask your  friend:  a match? A.  Have y o u g o t (Canadian)  C.  Have y o u ( B r i t i s h )  B.  Do y o u have (American)  D.  G i v e me, Could I have, e t c .  T a b l e 6.1.6  HAVE YOU GOT  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  Age < 40  Female  Male  A  B  C  D  A  B  C  D  A  B  C  D  A  0 45 43 35 33 34  14 9 29 20 17 19  29 36 7 25 17 22  57 9 21 20 33 25  29 25 18 24 26 25  62 45 55 45 65 54  0 5 9 3 4 4  10 25 18 28 4 17  13 29 23 20 22 21  50 36 38 36 50 42  13 21 8 16 11 14  25 14 31 28 17 23  33 35 42 38 35 37  A l l D  A  50 0 17 29 12 24 42 8 8 33 8 21 47 6 12 39 7 17  18 33 29  B  C  A v i s , 1954, p.16 s t a t e s : A c c o r d i n g t o my s u r v e y , do y o u have has s u r p r i s i n g l y l i t t l e c u r r e n c y i n O n t a r i o ; o f 85 persons q u e s t i o n e d , o n l y n i n e responded w i t h t h e American form and t h r e e would use e i t h e r . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that s e v e r a l of the 12 persons who use t h e form have l i v e d i n t h e S t a t e s a t one time o r a n o t h e r .  219 T a b l e 6.1.6 r e v e a l s a s t r o n g g e n e r a t i o n gap, w i t h t h e o l d e r i n f o r mants o f t h e m i d d l e and upper c l a s s e s p r e f e r r i n g have y o u g o t and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e younger i n f o r m a n t s employing do y o u have.  The B r i t i s h  form have y o u has moderate usage among t h e o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s o f the l o w e r and m i d d l e c l a s s e s b u t l e s s usage among t h e younger i n f o r m a n t s . i n f o r m a n t s o f new Canadian backgrounds for  Young  had t h e h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c y s c o r e s  t h e American form; t h i s i s a p a t t e r n w h i c h we f i r s t observed i n t h e  97 Kootenay  7.  s u r v e y and which we w i l l e v a l u a t e throughout t h i s c h a p t e r .  I f I t Were #288 Question: A.  B.  were  was I F I T WERE  T a b l e 6.1.7 Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  warmer.  They would go f o r a walk i f i t  Age  < 40  Female  Male  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  50 33 73 61  50 67 27 39  14 14 25 18  86 86 75 82  29 25 70 48  71 75 30 52  25 17 33 26  75 83 67 74  All A 27 20 53  T a b l e 6.1.7 r e v e a l s a s t r o n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o age and sex; t h e i n f o r m a n t s over 40 and females had much h i g h e r s c o r e s f o r A, 61 and 48 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y , than d i d t h e younger i n f o r m a n t s and m a l e s , 18 and 26 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y .  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e upper c l a s s e s , i . e . t h e  upper m i d d l e and t h e lower upper c l a s s e s , d i f f e r e n t i a t e s h a r p l y from t h e o t h e r c l a s s e s . in linear progression.  themselves  The d a t a f o r t h e m i d d l e c l a s s a r e n o t  CEU, pp.40-41 r e v e a l s s i m i l a r b u t weaker s o c i o -  l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s f o r age and s e x , l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e a c c o r d i n g t o p r o v i n c e , and o f course no r e f e r e n c e t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  class.  220 8.  I f You Had #287 Question:  We would've h e l p e d y o u i f y o u  asked u s .  A.  would've  C.  had've  B.  had  D.  0, i . e . n o t h i n g i n t h e b l a n k  Table 6.1.8  I F YOU HAD  A L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU RURAL URBAN OTTAWA ALL TOT  :B . C  22 56 0 91 0 100 0 95 10 76 6 85 5 85  11 9 0 5 10 6 7  All  Male  Female  Age < 40  Age > 40 D  A  B  C  D  A  B  C  D  A  B  C  D  B  11 0 0 0 5 3 2  24 10 18 25 16 17 18  52 75 82 58 70 67 67  24 10 0 17 12 13 13  0 5 0 0 2 2 2  29 7 8 11 18 16 16  59 86 92 89 73 77 78  6 7 0 0 6 5 4  6 0 0 0 3 2 2  15 6 8 7 10 10 9  46 76 92 71 71 71 71  38 12 0 21 16 17 18  0 6 0 0 3 2 2  53 81 92  These d a t a demonstrate s t r o n g and r e g u l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  differentiation  w i t h t h e upper c l a s s e s c o n s i s t e n t l y h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s f o r form B. We a l s o observe minor d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o age and s e x .  The  i n f o r m a n t s over 40 y e a r s o f age and the female i n f o r m a n t s had h i g h e r average s c o r e s f o r form B than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s d i d .  Of s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t  i s form C, had've; t h e l o w e r , w o r k i n g , lower m i d d l e , and m i d d l e c l a s s e s a l l had i n c i d e n c e s o f t h i s v a l u e , b u t t h e upper m i d d l e and lower upper c l a s s e s d i d n o t have a s i n g l e i n c i d e n c e o f t h i s form. p e r c e n t o f t h e male i n f o r m a n t s o f t h e lower  Had've was employed by 38  classes.  221 9,10. L i e , L a y , Has L a i n //s 275 and 276 Question:  He l i e s i n t h e sun every day. Y e s t e r d a y , he  f o r • 3 hours•  (A.  B. l a y  laid  there f o r 5 hours.  he has  C.  lied  (A.  laid  So f a r tc  lie)  D. B.  there  C. l a y e n  lain  D. l i e d ) L I E PAST  Table 6. 1.9  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  40  Age  >  .'A  B  C  D  40 9 .7 17  60 91 93 83  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  38 9 0 12  D  .A  B  C  D  A  10 15 19 12  5 0 0 2  35 14 18 20  53 79 92 73  6 7 0 5  6 0 0 2  50 18 8 26  C  D  B  43 7 71 12 83 8 65 9  0 0 0 0  48 74 88  B  L I E PRESENT PERFECT  Table 6. 1.10  A  A • B C 43 43 20 65 '..9 82 27 60  All  Male  Female  Age < 40  Age < 40  Age  >  40  B  c  C  A  25 25 73 18 93 7 70 15  0 0 0 0  48 45 18 40  B  C  D  29 0 19 40 15 0 73 0 0 42 6 8  D  A  19 13 19 64 14 0 85 0 0 53 9 7  38 41 8 31  A B C 50 21 8 28  All  Male  Female  C  D  B  38 0 41 18 83 8 52 10  8 0 0 2  28 52 84  B  B o t h t a b l e s r e v e a l s t r o n g and r e g u l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  differentiation  w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e P a s t and P r e s e n t P e r f e c t tenses o f t h e v e r b l i e . S t r o n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o age i s a l s o e v i d e n t . CEU, pp.34-35 i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e P r e s e n t P a r t i c i p l e o f these two v e r b s , l i e and l a y , and f i n d s t h e c o n f u s i o n p e r c e n t a g e t o be 39 p e r c e n t , w h i c h i s s i m i l a r t o our data.  222 11.  ? Not ? #744 A count was taken o f t h e o c c u r r e n c e s o f q u e s t i o n s generated by t h e  i n f o r m a n t s i n f r e e speech which c o n t a i n e d t h e n o n - c o n t r a c t e d form n o t .  Table 6.1.11  ? NOT ? Age  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  > 40  Age < 40  A  A  1 6 4 11  1 0 7 8  Female  Male A  2 0 7 9  Total  A 0 6 4 10  A 2 6 11  I n the s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e which d e a l s w i t h S u b j e c t i v e A t t i t u d e and Language Awareness, t h e q u e s t i o n was asked: d i f f e r e n c e between Canadian and American speech?"  "What i s t h e  A s m a l l number o f  i n f o r m a n t s responded t h a t Canadians ask some q u e s t i o n s w i t h t h e f u l l form n o t w h i l e t h e Americans do n o t .  N i n e t e e n such q u e s t i o n s were  r e c o r d e d d u r i n g t h e s u r v e y ; T a b l e 6.1.11 p r e s e n t s those o c c u r r e n c e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o our s o c i o l o g i c a l parameters.  A l t h o u g h o n l y a few o c c u r -  rences a r e a v a i l a b l e t o make a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , we can s e e t h a t an o r d e r e d c o r r e l a t i o n by c l a s s i s e v i d e n t , i ; e . our upper c l a s s e s have t h e h i g h e s t frequency f o l l o w e d by t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , and f i n a l l y t h e lower c l a s s e s have t h e  l o w e s t frequency o f o c c u r r e n c e .  be conducted  concerning t h i s v a r i a b l e .  Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n should  223 12.  P a s t P e r f e c t #315 Question:  Do you ever use v e r b forms l i k e t h e s e ; had g i v e n , had gone?  Give an example i n a s e n t e n c e showing t h a t t h e s i m p l e P a s t c o u l d n ' t be used.  (An example might be:  i t had been found when t h e p o l i c e  arrived.) A.  uses P a s t P e r f e c t d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e  B.  uses P a s t P e r f e c t b u t doesn't demonstrate t h e d i f f e r e n c e  C.  gives only Conditional I I I construction.  D.  no  T a b l e 6.1.12  PAST PERFECT Age >40  A' B L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  C-J D  0 88 13 0 45.27 18 9 46 31 8 15 34 44 13 9  Age < 40 A B C D 15 26 64 30  60 10 15 63 5 5 27 0 9 54 6 10  Female A B C D 0 29 67 28  71 12 18 57 7 7 33 0 0 56 7 9  Male A B C D 27 38 42 36  64 9 0 44 13 6 25 8 25 44 10 10  A l l A 11 33 54  The a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a t e a s e n t e n c e w h i c h demonstrates t h e use of t h e P a s t P e r f e c t was s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s i n each age and sex group.  More than t w o - t h i r d s o f a l l i n f o r m a n t s were u n a b l e t o generate  a sentence which d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e P a s t P e r f e c t from t h e P a s t , and i t would appear t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e i n f o r m a n t s do n o t use t h e P a s t P e r f e c t i n t h e i r speech o r w r i t i n g .  224 13.  Snuck #280 Question:  They sneak i n t o t h e movie t h e a t r e .  Y e s t e r d a y , they  i n t o the movie t h e a t r e . A.  sneaked  B.  snuck  Table 6.1.13  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  SNUCK Age > 40  Age < 40  Female  Male  A  A  A B  A B  B  30 91 64 63  70 9 36 37  B  0 10 18 8  100 90 82 92  12 43 46 32  88 57 54 68  7 35 42 28  All A  93 65 58 72  10 39 44  T a b l e 6.1.13 shows the s t r o n g e s t g e n e r a t i o n gap of the s u r v e y . socio-economic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s a l s o evident.  A few e l d e r l y  Some  ladies  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would n o t g e n e r a t e e i t h e r sneaked or snuck, and over 20 i n f o r m a n t s laughed or c h u c k l e d w h i l e answering t h i s q u e s t i o n . pp.43, 44 r e v e a l s a s i m i l a r s p l i t between the age  14.  The  CEU,  groups.  S u b j e c t - V e r b Non-agreement A count was  s u b j e c t and v e r b .  t a k e n o f the o c c u r r e n c e s of non-agreement i n number between A l l o c c u r r e n c e s of s u b j e c t - v e r b non-agreement were o f  the f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n : T a b l e 6.1.14  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA ALL TOT  There i s + p l u r a l .  SUBJECT-VERB NON-AGREEMENT Male  Total  Age > 40  Age < 40  Female  A  A  A  A  A  16 4 3 23 0  22 17 1 40 0  19 7 2 28 0  19 14 2 35 0  38 21 4  225 The above d a t a show t h a t t h e r e i s a d i r e c t and o r d e r e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t - v e r b agreement and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s ; t h e l o w e r t h e c l a s s , the h i g h e r the frequency of there i s + p l u r a l .  Informants over 40  and females had t h e l o w e s t s c o r e s , 23 and 28 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  We n o t i c e t h a t  f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e , t h e m i d d l e c l a s s i n f o r m a n t s over 40 y e a r s o f age conform to  t h e upper c l a s s e s usage p a t t e r n w h i l e t h e m i d d l e c l a s s i n f o r m a n t s l e s s  than 40 s i d e w i t h t h i s lower c l a s s usage.  Data o f t h i s n a t u r e a l a r m many  e d u c a t o r s and p a r e n t s .  15.  Take #318 Question:  You and S a l l y a r e on the t h i r d f l o o r , M r s . F r a s e r i s on  the s i x t h f l o o r . A.  take  Ask S a l l y t o c a r r y a l e t t e r up t o Mrs. F r a s e r .  B.  bring  T a b l e 6.1.15  TAKE Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU RURAL URBAN IRISH SCOTS ENGLISH FRENCH OTHER OTTAWA ALL TOT  Age < 40  Female  Male  All  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  78 90 100 89 90 86 100 100 0 60 91 90  22 10 0 11 10 14 0 0 0 40 9 10  85 95 91 83 88 86 100 93 100 77 90 87  15 5 9 17 12 14 0 7 0 23 10 13  88 86 92 88 88 89 100 94 100 70 88 88  12 14 8 12 12 11 0 6 0 30 12 12  75 100 100 85 90 80 100 100 100 75 92 88  25 0 0 15 10 20 0 0 0 25 8 12  83 93 96  I t has l o n g been my o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t people from the Ottawa V a l l e y and from t h e ' c i t y o f Ottawa i t s e l f w i l l f r e q u e n t l y employ b r i n g when r e f e r r i n g t o t h e a c t o f someone c a r r y i n g something away from or  their s p a t i a l reference point.  themselves  Our d a t a r e v e a l t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n  226 usage does i n f a c t e x i s t , and t h a t i t i s p a r t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o c l a s s b u t much more definitely„to I r i s h background.  We a r e l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o  r e s u l t s from t h e Ottawa V a l l e y Survey c o n c e r n i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e .  2.  Pronunciation The s p e a k e r o f Canadian E n g l i s h has a p h o n o l o g i c a l system as o u t -  l i n e d and a n a l y s e d i n Chapter 4 and 5 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s p h o n o l o g i c a l system a l l o w s t h e speaker t o g e n e r a t e an i n f i n i t e s e t o f p o s s i b l e words by means o f p l a c i n g t h e component p a r t s o f t h e system i n t o v a r i o u s combinations.  I n a d d i t i o n t o a n a l y s i n g t h i s sound system i n Chapter 5, we  undertook i n t h i s study t o e l i c i t and a n a l y s e the p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l words.  These i n d i v i d u a l words c o n s i s t o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l  segments w h i c h we have o u t l i n e d and a n a l y s e d above.  We, t h e r e f o r e , a r e  a n a l y s i n g t h e c h o i c e o f p h o n o l o g i c a l segments, e.g. e i t h e r may be p r o nounced  /aiSer/ o r /foer/.  We w i l l see t o what e x t e n t  sociological  parameters c o r r e l a t e t o v a r i a t i o n i n word p r o n u n c i a t i o n . The p r o n u n c i a t i o n c h o i c e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d i n t h e l i n g u i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e w i t h a B r i t i s h form, an American form, and i n some cases a u n i q u e l y Canadian form.  T h i s i s done i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t a l l  l i n g u i s t s a r e aware o f a g r e a t d e a l o f v a r i e t y i n usage w i t h i n t h e s e countries.  227 1.  A f r i c a #53  AFRICA  Table 6.2. 1  Male  Female  Age < 40  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  B. [ aef e rke]  A. [aef reko ]  Task; P i c t u r e s :  A  B  A  B  A  64 91 64 72  36 0'9 36 • 28  38 75' 45 52  62! 25 55.-• 46  61 ' 7:9' •54 64  All  A  B  A  ' 29 39: 21 82 46, . .'58 58 3.6  71 18 42 42  49 82 55  B  1  Table 6.2.1 r e v e a l s t h e r e i s no l i n e a r c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e word p r o n u n c i a t i o n and socio-economic c l a s s .  We can s e e , however, t h a t t h e  m i d d l e c l a s s c o n s i s t e n t l y has 30 p e r c e n t h i g h e r s c o r e s f o r form A than do the o t h e r two c l a s s groups.  F u r t h e r , t h e o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s and t h e female  i n f o r m a n t s have h i g h e r s c o r e s , 7 2 and 64 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y , than do the younger i n f o r m a n t s and t h e males, 54 and 58 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y .  2.  A g a i n #146 Task; Word l i s t :  A.  T a b l e 6.2. 2  [ eg£n]  AGAIN Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  B.  [egei n]  Age <: 40  Female  All  Male  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  27 36 14 18 36 25  73 64 86 82 64 75  19 30 36 17 39 27  81 70 64 83 61 73  17 43 23 19 37 27  83 57 77 81 63 73  29 24 25 16 39 26  71 76 75 84 61 7.4  Our d a t a demonstrate Canadian E n g l i s h .  A 22 32 24  t h a t [ e g e i n ] i s s t i l l a s i g n i f i c a n t marker o f  Our d a t a on t h e o t h e r hand show no r e g u l a r c o - v a r i a -  t i o n o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n and s o c i o l o g i c a l parameters  except t h a t Ottawans  228 w i t h new  Canadian background have c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s f o r [ a g e i n ] ;  A v i s , 1956,  p.45  t e l l s us t h a t [ e g e i n ] r e f l e c t s B r i t i s h p r a c t i c e and  i t o c c u r s most f r e q u e n t l y i n s t r e s s e d p o s i t i o n . the word l i s t  that  Many i n f o r m a n t s r e a d  i n b r e a t h groups; i f the word a g a i n was  a t the b e g i n n i n g o f  a word group o r b r e a t h group i t would f r e q u e n t l y be s t r e s s e d and more l i k e l y be pronounced [ e g e i n ] .  I f t h e word  was  i n the m i d d l e of the  b r e a t h g r o u p , i t would n o r m a l l y have l e s s s t r e s s and be pronounced [ a g e n ] . We  a l s o n o t i c e d more s t r e s s on the f i r s t few words o f a column or page  and l e s s s t r e s s on words w i t h i n the CEU,  p.72  p r e s e n t s a s e l f a n a l y s i s on the p a r t of the i n f o r m a n t s of  the v a r i a b l e ( a g a i n ) .  The d a t a were s e l e c t e d by means of a w r i t t e n  q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; the i t e m was formal s t y l e a t t a i n a b l e . in  list.  e l i c i t e d i n complete i s o l a t i o n i n the most  The r e s u l t s , showing a p r e f e r e n c e f o r [ o g e i n ]  a l l s o c i o l o g i c a l groups, a r e i n marked c o n t r a s t t o our d a t a and demon-  s t r a t e the r e p e r c u s s i o n of d i f f e r e n t survey  3.  Table  Anti-(pollution)  #195  Task; Word  A.  list:  6.2. 3  L WK LM MID UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  B.  [aent i ]  methodologies.  C.  [sentat. ]  [ffinte ]  ANTIAge  >  A  B  C  91 91 93 86 100 92  0 0 7 5 0 3  9 9 0 9 0 6  40  Age  <  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  0 5 9 7 0 4  0 0 0 0 0 0  94 100 100 96 100 98  0 0 0 0 0 0  6 100 0 88 0 83 4 84 0 100 2 91  0 6 17 12 0 7  0 6 0 4 0 2  97 94 92  10095 91 '93 100 96  Female  40  Male  All  The form [ s s n t i ] i s a v e r y s t r o n g Canadianism and i t i s g a i n i n g f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h among t h e younger i n f o r m a n t s .  We  can see t h a t i n f o r m a n t s  229 w i t h new Canadian backgrounds value. them.  a l l had s c o r e s o f 100 p e r c e n t f o r t h i s  T h i s suggests t h a t new Canadians a c c e p t t h e p r e v a i l i n g form around Answer C. [ a s n t a ] was e l i c i t e d from o n l y a few i n f o r m a n t s a l l o f  whom were over f o r t y .  A v i s , 1956, p.47 and CEU, pp.60-61 p r e s e n t s i m i l a r  p e r c e n t a g e s and r e v e a l a s t r e n g t h e n i n g t r e n d f o r [jjeirti ].  A v i s , 1956, g i v e s  us a q u a r t e r of a c e n t u r y ' s h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h i s  4.  trend.  A p r i c o t s #65 Task; P i c t u r e s :  A.  Table 6.2.4  [elprakbfs]  APRICOTS Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  B".'  [aepreknts]  Age < 40  Male  Female  A  B  A  B  A  B  73 91 57 73 71 72  27 9 43 27 29 28  85 89 73 93 74 84  15 11 27 7 26 16  78 100 69 84 79 82  22 0 31 16 21 18  A  All B  85 . 15 82 18 42 58 17 83 67 33 76 24  B 19 10 36  Table 6.2.4 r e v e a l s a tendency toward [ a e p r e k c t ] , the American form, among t h e younger i n f o r m a n t s .  The t r e n d away from B r i t i s h forms toward  N o r t h e r n American forms i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding. CEU, pp.54-55 p r e s e n t s s i m i l a r p e r c e n t a g e s f o r O n t a r i o and d a t a which demonstrate t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g of [ s p r a k x i t s ] among younger i n f o r m a n t s , w h i l e Gregg, 1973, pp.111-113 and CEU r e v e a l t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia i s 30 t o 40 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s removed from t h e r e s t o f Canada i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of L e I p r a k b t s J , t h e normal B r i t i s h  form.  230 5.  A s p h a l t #123 Task; Word l i s t :  A.  [aejfalt]  B.  [eszfalt]  C.  ASPHALT  Table 6.2.5  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  [aesfalt]  Age > 40  Age  A  A  30 64 57 51  B  C  40 9 29 26  30 27 14 23  B  5 15 18 12  A  C  90 80 82 84  B  6 36 31 23  5 5 0 4  All  Male  Female  < 40  A  C  C  A  64 14 59 12 42 8 56 12  13 32 40  B  81 13 21 50 14 29 62 8 50 65 12 33  The most s t r i k i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e i s found by comparing t h e age groups.  We can see t h a t t h e i n f o r m a n t s over  f o r t y had h i g h s c o r e s f o r [ a e s f a l t ] and f a i r l y h i g h s c o r e s f o r [ s e z f a l t ] , w h i l e the younger i n f o r m a n t s have v e r y h i g h s c o r e s f o r [ a e j f a l t ]•  The  lower c l a s s e s c o n s i s t e n t l y had the h i g h e s t s c o r e s f o r [ a e j f a l t ] . No comparative d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e .  6.  Aunt #79 Task; P i c t u r e s :  A.  Table 6.2.6  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU. OTTAWA  [aent]  B.  [tint]  C. [ a n t ]  AUNT Age  > 40  A  B  91 91 86 89  0 0 0 0  Male  Female  Age  <  40  C  A  B  C  A  B  9 9 14 11  95 95 91 94  5 0 9 4  0 5 0 2  89 93 77 87  6 0 8 4  All  A  :.B  C  B,C  6 100 7 94 15 100 9 98  0 0 0 0  0 6 0 2  6 7 12  C  The d a t a f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e deomonstrate t h a t form A, [aent ] i s p r e dominant f o r a l l s o c i o l o g i c a l groups.  Females o f t h e upper m i d d l e and  lower upper c l a s s e s s c o r e d 23 p e r c e n t f o r [ n n t ] and [ a n t ] combined. n o t i c e here a s i m i l a r usage p a t t e r n t o t h e v a r i a b l e ( t o m a t o ) .  We  A v i s , 1956,  231 p.52  states:  "Aunt and drama, p r o b a b l y because o f t h e s o c i a l  i n which they a r e used, appear  environment  t o have a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f t h e 'broad a'  than most o t h e r words i n t h e group;...."  See Gregg, 1973, p.112 and CEU,  pp.84-85 f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and almost i d e n t i c a l d a t a on t h i s  7.  variable.  B a l c o n y #234 Task; Word l i s t : D.  A.  [be'lkeni]  [baelkani]  C.  [balkeni]  [bnlkeni]  T a b l e 6.2.7  BALCONY Age > 40  A L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  B.  36 18 21 25  B C D 45 18 0 36 27 18 71 7 0 53 17 6  A 48 20 18 31  B  C  Male  Female  Age < 40 D  43 0 10 45 20 15 82 0 0 52 8 10  A B C 44 14 23 29  D  50 6 .0 50 21 14 77 0 0 58 9 4  A B C 43 24 17 28  All D  36 7 14 35 24 18 75 8 0 47 14 12  T a b l e 6.2.7 r e v e a l s t h a t t h e upper m i d d l e and lower upper  B 44 42 76  classes  have p r e d o m i n a n t l y h i g h s c o r e s f o r / b a l k e n i / , w h i l e t h e l o w e r , w o r k i n g , arid lower m i d d l e c l a s s e s have t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s f o r /be* I ken i / . For f u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e see v a r i a b l e (Vr->£r) o f Chapter 5.  232 8.  Been #181 Task; Word  A.  list:  [ ben ]  C.  BEEN  T a b l e 6.2. 8 Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW RURAL URBAN OTTAWA ALL TOT  B. [ b i n ]  [bin]  Female  Age < 40  Male  All  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  30 55 43 55 23 70 27 43 48  60 36 57 36 77 20 68 51 45  10 9 0 9 0 10 5 6 7  81 70 91 83 74 85 74 79 77  19 30 9 17 26 8 26 21 21  0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 2  65 57 54 65 50 78 52 59 61  29 43 46 31 50 17 45 39 35  6 0 0 4 0 6 3 2 4  64 71 75 76 61 73 66 70 68  36 24 25 20 39 13 34 28 28  0 6 0 4 0 13 0 2 4  A 64 64 64  12 Our d a t a would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e Canadianism i n f r e q u e n c y o f usage.  T a b l e 6.2.8 r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s a l a r g e genera-  t i o n gap between the age groups>with  t h e younger i n f o r m a n t s h a v i n g con-  s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e s f o r form A [ b i n ] , mants.  [ b i n ] i s growing  than d i d t h e o l d e r  infor-  The t a b l e f u r t h e r r e v e a l s t h a t b o t h [ b i n ] and [ b e n ] a r e u t t e r e d  more f r e q u e n t l y from i n f o r m a n t s w i t h r u r a l backgrounds  than from  urban  informants. A v i s , 1956, p.45 p o i n t s out t h a t [ b i n ] i s most l i k e l y t o be u t t e r e d i n stressed position.  Form B [ b in ] i s the normal one i n u n s t r e s s e d  i n b o t h N o r t h e r n American and Canadian E n g l i s h .  position  233 9.  B l o u s e #88 Task; P i c t u r e :  A.  B.  [b1aoz]  or  [blAus]  [b 1 aos ]  BLOUSE  Table 6.2.9 Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  Age < 40  Male  Female  A  B  A  B  A  91 91 100 100 86 94  9 9 0 0 14 6  86 100 91 97 87 92  14 0 9 3 13 8  100 100 100 100 100 100  All  _B  A  B  A  0 0 0 0 0 0  71 94 92 96 72 86  29 6 8 4 48 14  88 97 96 96  A l l female i n f o r m a n t s pronounced t h i s v a r i a b l e [ b l a o z ] .  Lower c l a s s  males and i n f o r m a n t s w i t h new Canadian backgrounds had t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s for  o r [ bIaos}.  [blAus]  V a l u e A. [ b l a o z ] , i s t h e o n l y p r o n u n c i a t i o n g i v e n  by t h e C o n c i s e O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y .  10.  Caramel #152, 153, 154 Task; Word l i s t : D.  A.  [keYamel]  [ kaereme I ]  C.  [ kdreme I ]  [ kdrmeI]  Table 6.2.10  CARAMEL  Age > 40 A L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  B.  44 89 31 58 42 52  B  C  D  Age < 40 A  B  22 22 11 94 0 11 0 0 80 5 62 8 0 90 10 17 5 0 77 8 33 17 8 100 0 35 10 3 87 4  C  Female  Male  D  A  B  C  D  A  0 6 5 10 0 0 4 12 0 0 2 7  75 86 67 70 84 76  13 7 33 22 11 17  6 7 0 9 0 5  6 0 0 0 5 2  78 80 45 68 69 69  B 0 7 45. 18 15 17  A l l D  B  11 11 0 13 9 0 ' 0 14 15 0 6 9  6 6 38  C  Form D [kdrmeI], a p o p u l a r form i n the S t a t e s and I r e l a n d , was n o t once u t t e r e d by any i n f o r m a n t o f t h e upper m i d d l e o r lower upper c l a s s e s i n Ottawa.  A l s o e v i d e n t from t h i s t a b l e i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e younger  234 i n f o r m a n t s c o l l a p s e [asr] t o [ e r ] more than any o t h e r group.  Form B  [ ksereme I ] c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c e i v e d i t s h i g h e s t s c o r e s from the upper m i d d l e and lower upper c l a s s e s . CEU,  pp.67, 68 p r o v i d e s d i v e r g e n t d a t a on t h i s i t e m .  I t f o c u s e s on  whether t h e v a r i a b l e has two o r t h r e e s y l l a b l e s , and i n f o r m a n t s c l a i m a 48 p e r c e n t f r e q u e n c y f o r form D.  T h i s q u e s t i o n i n the SCE would have been  d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e i n f o r m a n t s t o answer.  11.  C a t c h i n g #530 Task; Reading:  A.  C.  [ke'tjin]  [k£tj I Q ]  CATCHING  T a b l e 6.2. 11 Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  B.  [ksetf i n ]  Age < 40  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  91 100 86 92  9 0 14 9  0 0 0 0  70 89 91 82  25 0 9 12  5 .6 0 6  83 86 92 87  11 0 8 7  Table 6.2.11 demonstrates  Male  Female C" 6 14 0 6  A  B  C  A  69 100 83 85  31 0 17 15  0 0 0 0  77 93 88  t h a t among the younger i n f o r m a n t s  v a r i a b l e v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h socio-economic  status.  All  this  Further,the table  shows t h a t o n l y young female i n f o r m a n t s lowered t h e /ee/ t o  [as]. The  lower c l a s s e s s c o r e d h i g h e r than t h e o t h e r two c l a s s e s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o /e/.  There appears t o be a common p h o n o l o g i c a l background among t h e lower  and upper c l a s s e s which i s n o t shared by t h e m i d d l e c l a s s , see Chapter 5, p. 112 f o r some h i s t o r i c a l background t o t h i s p o i n t .  235 12.  Congratulate #191 Task; Word l i s t :  A.  [ kangraet  Table 6.2.12  [kengrsd^aleit]  B.  CONGRATULATE Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  Je I ei t ]  Age < 40  Female  Male  All  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  36 73 ' 79 64  64 27 21 36  14 30 45 27  86 70 55 73  28 36 69 42  72 64 31 58  14 53 58 42  86 47 42 58  22 45 64  This v a r i a b l e has very strong and ordered socio-economic d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n f o r a l l four age and sex groups.  The higher one moves up the  s o c i a l ladder, the more frequently one w i l l hear form A.  In addition, one  can see a very strong s h i f t i n usage between the two age groups.  One  could expect that the younger informants might s p e l l the word w i t h a 'd'. The data i n CEU, page 91 substantiates our claim that t h i s v a r i a b l e i s undergoing a change with reference to age group.  13.  Decal #222 Task; Word l i s t :  A.  [de5k9l]  B.  [de*kael  ]  C.  D. [de*kal] Table 6.2.13  DECAL  Age > 40 A B L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  55 27 43 41 43 42  9 27 21 23 14 19  [dfkal ]  C D 9 0 7 9 0 6  Age < 40 A  B  0 67 9 75 0 100 86 5 0 65 3 77  0 5 0 3 0 2  C D 14 5 0 3 13 8  0 5 0 0 4 2  Female A B C 50 6 22 43 14 7 69 8 8 54 8 12 53 11 16 53 9 13  Male D  A  B  0 0 0 0 0 0  79 71 67 80 61 72  0 12 17 16 0 9  All  C D  A  0 0 0 0 0 0  62 58 68  0 12 0 4 6 5  236 V a l u e s A, B, and D a r e t y p i c a l l y Canadian; v a l u e C and [dakasl] a r e American.  The major s o c i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e i s  w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o age group.  The younger i n f o r m a n t s have much h i g h e r  s c o r e s f o r [de*kel ] than do t h e o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s .  A g a i n we have  evidence  of a Canadianism g a i n i n g i n s t r e n g t h .  14.  Egg #55 Task; P i c t u r e s :  A. [ e i g ]  Age  > 40  A B C D L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  C.  [eg]  D.  [eig]  [ii!  EGG  Table 6. 2.14 Age  B.  91 0 9 82 18 0 71 14 14 81 11 8  0 0 0 0  < 40  A  B  C  D  86 90 82 87  10 10 18 12  0 0 0 0  5 0 0 2  B  C  D  A  83 6 79 21 77 23 80 16  6 0 0 2  6 0 0 2  93 94 75 88  A  All  Male  Female  C  D  B  7 0 6 0 8 17 7 5  0 0 0 0  6 13 16  B  No s t r o n g p a t t e r n o f l i n g u i s t i c and s o c i o l o g i c a l c o - v a r i a t i o n i s evident i n t h i s data. l o g i c a l groups. B and C.  Form A. [ e i g ] i s s t r o n g l y p r e f e r r e d by a l l s o c i o -  The upper c l a s s e s had t h e h i g h e s t i n c i d e n c e s o f forms  The s c o r e s f o r v a l u e D, / i i g / may be a few o c c u r r e n c e s  of per-  formance e r r o r s . 13 See Gregg, 1957, p.23 f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s v a r i a b l e .  237 15.  E i t h e r #179 Task; Word l i s t :  A. [ a i S a r ]  T a b l e 6.2.15  [.f5ar]  C. [aroar]  EITHER Age < 40  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  B.  Male  Female  AH  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  36 27 57 42  55 73 43 56  9 0 0 3  29 35 36 33  71 65 64 67  0 0 0 0  39 43 62 47  61 57 38 53  0 0 0 0  21 24 33 26  71 76 67 72  7 0 0 2  31 32 48  CEU, pp.78 and A v i s , 1956, pp. 51-52 a s s o c i a t e [ a i 5a r ] and T H 5ar] w i t h B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h r e s p e c t i v e l y . and Ottawa t h a t b o t h forms a r e used. f o r the p r e s t i g i o u s p r o n u n c i a t i o n Notice  I t i s t y p i c a l of Ontario  The upper c l a s s e s , however,  strive  /aiSar/ more t h a n t h e o t h e r c l a s s e s do.  t h a t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s i s s t r o n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d among  f e m a l e s , e s p e c i a l l y among o l d e r women; t h i s i s a r e c u r r i n g phenomenon i n our  survey.  Comparing t h e two age groups and t h e two s e x groups i n UM LU  we can s e e t h a t t h e o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s and t h e . f e m a l e i n f o r m a n t s c o n s i s t e n t l y -chose, t h e more p r e s t i g i o u s , form.  16.  F e b r u a r y #92, 93 Task; P i c t u r e s : D.  A. [ f £ b j u e r i ] '  C. [ f e b r u e r i ]  [febari]  T a b l e 6.2.16  FEBRUARY  D  A  50 0 33 17 17 33 50 0 0 55 36 9 17 35 39 9  67 50 22 48  , A  B  C  Female  Age < 40  Age >. 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  B. [ f ^ b u e r i ]  B  C  D  33 0 0 17 17 17 22 33 22 26 15 11  A  B C D  80 0 20 0 0 60 20 20 8 25 50 17 33 22 33 11  All  Male D  C  38 50 0 13 57 0 43 0 13 63 13 13 35 39 17 9  10 25 32  A  B  C  238 Amomg a l l young i n f o r m a n t s and female i n f o r m a n t s t h e i n c i d e n c e o f form C . [ f t f b r u e r i ]  i n c r e a s e d as we moved up t h e s o c i a l c l a s s  structure.  We can a l s o s e e t h a t [ f t f b j u e r i ] , t h e t y p i c a l l y American form, i s v e r y p o p u l a r among the l o w e r c l a s s e s , b u t t h a t t h i s p o p u l a r i t y d i m i n i s h e s r a p i d l y as we move up i n c l a s s .  Form D [ f e f b e r i ] i s a form w h i c h does  not have t h e secondary s t r e s s on the p e n u l t i m a t e s y l l a b l e ; o t h e r of  examples  t h i s a r e the B r i t i s h forms s e c r e t a r y [ s £ * k r a t r i ] , l i b r a r y [ l a i b r i ] ,  military [ r r u l a t r i ] , etc.  17.  Form B [ f c f b u e r i ]  enjoys a f a i r l y h i g h frequency.  F e r t i l e #196 A.  Task; Word l i s t :  [ f e r t a 11 ]  C.  [ f arde11]  FERTILE  T a b l e 6.2. 17  A 82 36 50 59 50 56  C  A  B:  C.  A  9 . 9 0 64 29 21 27 14 7 43 11 33  100 90 91 93 96 94  0 10 9 7 4 6  0 0 0 0. 0 0  100 71 62 85 74 80  B  Our d a t a demonstrate a g a i n t h a t younger  Al]  Male  Female  Age < 40  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  [fartal ]  B.  B  C.  A  B  C  A  0 29 31 12 26 18  0 0 8 4 0 2  86 71 75 72 83 77  7 29 8 20 11 16  7 0 17 8 6 7  94 71 68  i n f o r m a n t s use t h e t y p i c a l l y  Canadian f o r m f a r more f r e q u e n t l y than.do t h e o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s .  Further,  i n f o r m a n t s o f t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s u s e t h e t y p i c a l l y Canadian form more f r e q u e n t l y than do the o t h e r c l a s s e s . trary  t o our i n i t i a l  B o t h o f t h e s e t r e n d s a r e t h e con-  expectations.  A v i s , 1956, p.46 p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and d a t a on t h i s i a b l e plus s e n i l e , v i r i l e , d o c i l e , file.  futile, missile,  var-  p r o j e c t i l e , and p r o -  The 25 y e a r p e r s p e c t i v e which h i s s t u d y now a l l o w s us shows us  t h a t - i l e [ a i l ] i s m a i n t a i n i n g s t r e n g t h f o r most words and has g a i n e d i n f e r t i l e and f u t i l e .  239 18.  F u t i l e #215 A. |: f j u ta i l ]  Task; Word l i s t :  C. [ f j u t e l ]  FUTILE  T a b l e 6.2.18 Age > 40  L WE LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  B . [fjudel ]  Female  Age < 40  All  Male  A  A  . B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  80 82 86 86 79 83  10 0 7 0 14 6  10 18 7 14 7 11  95 90 91 90 96 92  •5 0 9 7 0 4  0 10 0 3 4 4  94 86 92 92 89 91  6 0 0 4 0 2  0 14 8 4 11 7  86 88 83 84 89 86  7 0 17 4 11 7  7 12 0 12 0 7  90 87 88  T a b l e 6.2.18 shows a high i n c i d e n c e of t h e t y p i c a l l y Canadian form /fjutail/  for a l l sociological  groups.  As was t h e case w i t h  (fertile),  the new Canadians over f o r t y y e a r s o f age have l o w e r s c o r e s t h a n t h e s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n Canadians i n t h e i r use o f t y p i c a l l y Canadian forms, but younger new Canadians s u r p a s s s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n Canadians i n t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n ; t h i s p a t t e r n f r e q u e n t l y r e c u r s .  19.  F i l m #237 A. [ f i l m ]  Task; Word l i s t :  T a b l e 6.2.19  FILM Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW RURAL URBAN OTTAWA ALL TOT  B. [ f i l o m ]  Age < 40  Female  Male  All  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  45 55 86 55 79 57 59 64 58  55 45 14 45 21 43 41 36 42  76 75 82 72 83 54 81 77 75  24 25 18 28 17 46 19 23 25  61 79 92 69 84 58 76 76 69  39 21 8 31 16 42 24 24 31  71 59 75 60 78 53 72 67 66  29 41 25 40 22 47 28 33 34  A 66 68 84  240 Those concerned about the " p u r i t y " of the E n g l i s h language may  be  p l e a s e d to see t h a t the younger i n f o r m a n t s conform much more f r e q u e n t l y t o the p r e s c r i b e d s t a n d a r d than do the o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s and t h a t  new  Canadians have c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s f o r [ f i l m ]  than do o l d  Canadians.  differentiation.  Females show the s t r o n g e s t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  Urban i n f o r m a n t s have h i g h e r s c o r e s f o r [ f i l m ] than do i n f o r m a n t s w i t h rural  backgrounds. I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o n o t e t h a t a l l i n f o r m a n t s on Elm S t r e e t i n a  w o r k i n g c l a s s d i s t r i c t of Ottawa pronounced where e l s e was  20.  elm r e c o r d e d w i t h two  Garage #71, Task; D.  No-  syllables.  72, 73, 74  Pictures:  A. [garcb,]  B. [ga~rd;$]  C. [garse^]  [grd^] GARAGE  T a b l e 6.2.20  A  B  C  Female  Age < 40  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  t h e i r s t r e e t Ii lam/.  D  60 0 20 20 57 0 43 0 33 25 33 8 8 46 13 33  A B C D 33 20 50 32  47 13 7 20 20 40 50 0 0 37 13 18  A 36 30 42 36  B C D 36 20 42 33  27 0 30 20 17 0 24 6  A  Male  All  B C D  A  44 33 0 22 33 8 25 33 38 25 25 13 38 21 17 24  No c l e a r s o c i o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n emerges from our d a t a .  25 23 32  It i s inter-  e s t i n g , however, t h a t the p o p u l a r N o r t h e r n America form [ g r a d ^ ] and  the  p o p u l a r B r i t i s h Columbia form [greedy] were n o t among the f o u r most f r e quently e l i c i t e d  forms.  241 21.  G e n e r a l l y #233 Task; Word L i s t :  D. [d^enar lli]  A. [  d^nara i I  Table 6.2.21  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  B.  [d^nrali]  [denarii]  C.  GENERALLY Age < 40  Age •>• 40 A  ]  B  C  D  A  18 9 36 45 18 0 8 15 0 23 14 11  36 27 62 43  10 15 9 12  D  A  B C D  29 24 29 10 15 50 18 9 55 19 17 42  11 21 8 13  17 28 39 29 0 36 31 0 46 24 11 40  B  C  All  Male  Female  D  D  14 29 29 21 29 0 18 47 9 0 9 73 19 10 19 45  31 42 58  A  B  C  The upper m i d d l e and l o w e r upper c l a s s e s p r e f e r r e d v a l u e D, [ d ^ n a r l l i ] , o v e r a l l o t h e r forms.  The lower c l a s s e s had h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e  of form C, [ d ^ e n a r l i ] , than d i d any o t h e r c l a s s ;  the frequency of t h i s  form C decreased s h a r p l y as one moved up t h e s o c i a l c l a s s e s .  I t appears  t h a t e x c e s s i v e vowel and s y l l a b l e r e d u c t i o n i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of s t i g -  matized speech, c f . a n t i - l i e u t e n a n t , n a t u r a l l y , p o t a t o , r e c o g n i z e , r e g u l a r , and  22.  temperature.  Genuine #157 Task; Word L i s t :  A. [ d ^ n j u a n ]  Table 6.2. 22  GENUINE  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU RURAL URBAN OTTAWA ALL TOT  B. [ d ^ n j uai n ]  Age < 40  Female  Male  All  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  36 73 79 43 73 64 58  64 27 21 57 27 36 42  29 50 55 8 49 42 39  71 50 45 92 51 58 61  17 71 69 42 48 49 46  83 29 31 58 52 51 54  50 47 67 13 66 53 49  50 53 33 87 34 47 51  31 58 68  242 A v i s , 1956, page 47, s t a t e s t h a t form B i s h e a r d w i d e l y i n s p i t e o f i t s b e i n g p r o s c r i b e d f o r more than a c e n t u r y .  He has a l s o s t a t e d t o  P r o f e s s o r R.J. Gregg t h a t he s u s p e c t s i t o f h a v i n g h i g h e r c u r r e n c y among r u r a l people.  Our d a t a proves A v i s c o r r e c t on b o t h c o u n t s .  In addition  to  t h e above comments we can see t h a t t h i s v a r i a b l e d i s p l a y s a g r e a t d e a l  of  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , w i t h t h e lower c l a s s e s p r e f e r r i n g  form B.  23.  Hundred #576 A. [ h X n d r e d ]  Task; S e r i e s : D.  B. [hXnCd)er"t ]  C. [ h X n r a d ]  [hAnderd]  T a b l e 6.2.23  HUNDRED  A L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  B  C  D  56 11 11 22 45 9 18 27 67 8 17 0 56 9 16 16  D  A  63 11 16 11 67 0 16 16 63 0 25 13 64 4 13 9  72 64 83 73  A  B  C  B C D 6 17 6 7 7 14 8 8 0 7 11 7  All  Male  Female  Age < 40  Age > 40  A  B  C  D  40 20 10 30 53 0 13 13 38 0 38 13 45 6 18 18  G e n e r a l l y , t h e h i g h e r one goes up t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s the  more one w i l l h e a r form A, [ h X n d r e d ] ;  A 60 58 65  system,  t h e lower one goes i n t h e  s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s , t h e more one w i l l hear form B, [ h A n ( d ) a r t ] , 14 with possible  [d] d e l e t i o n , r m e t a t h e s i s and f i n a l d e v o i c i n g .  Females  had a much h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e f o r t h e p r e f e r r e d form, form A, than d i d the  males.  243 24.  Khaki  #52  Task; P i c t u r e s :  A. E - k d r k i ]  Table 6.2.24 Age  64 82 93 82 79 81  27 18 7 14 21 17  C. E k d k i ]  D. unknown  KHAKI > 40  Age  A B C D L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  B. E k a k i ]  9 0 0 5 0 3  .< 40  Female  A B C D 0 0 0 0 0 0  K h a k i pronounced  17 20 55 30 23 27  Male  A B C D  44 0 11 40 10 10 18 9 18 37 4 15 36 9 9 37 6 12  All  A B C D  38 19 6 13 50 21 14 0 85' 0 8 8 56 12 8 12 56 17 11 0 56 14 9 7  31 35 67 50 33 43  62 41 25 42 44 43  A  0 0 0 12 0 8 0 4 0 11 0 7  35 42 76  [ k d r k i ] i s an e s t a b l i s h e d Canadianism c u r r e n t i n a l l  s o c i a l l e v e l s i n Canada.  I n T a b l e 6.2.24, we  d i s p l a y s a g r e a t d e a l of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  can see t h a t t h i s i t e m  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h the  c l a s s e s h a v i n g c l o s e r t i e s t o American usage.  lower  The younger g e n e r a t i o n i s  d e f i n i t e l y moving away from t h i s Canadianism; t h e r e i s a 54 p e r c e n t between the younger and o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s f o r t h i s v a l u e . t h i s i t e m may  shed some l i g h t on t h i s s h i f t .  from Urdu k h a k i meaning ' d u s t y ' , was  The h i s t o r y  of  Khaki, which i s derived  borrowed i n t o E n g l i s h i n the n i n e -  t e e n t h c e n t u r y by the B r i t i s h Army i n I n d i a .  The Canadians adapted i t  from the B r i t i s h ; they assumed t h a t what they h e a r d , E k d k i ], was t i o n of the r - l e s s  spread  a reflec-  speech of most B r i t a i n s , so they i n s e r t e d an _r.  In  B r i t a i n and Canada the k h a k i u n i f o r m i s of two t y p e s : f o r w i n t e r i t i s a heavy w o o l , w h i c h i s dark greenish-brown  i n c o l o u r ; f o r the summer the  u n i f o r m i s a l i g h t c o t t o n c l o t h and b e i g e i n c o l o u r .  I n the S t a t e s , how-  e v e r , the w i n t e r k h a k i i s not known and the b e i g e o r t a n c o l o u r e d m i l i t a r y cloth i s called [kaeki].  tropical  For the p a s t two o r t h r e e decades a t  l e a s t , p a n t s and j a c k e t s f o r teenagers have been made of t h i s c h i n o i n several colours.  fabric  D u r i n g one i n t e r v i e w a teenage i n f o r m a n t got up from  244 h e r c h a i r , went t o h e r c l o s e t and showed me h e r l a t e s t b l u e k h a k i s [kaekiz]. T h i s i s a s t r i k i n g example o f l i n g u i s t i c change.  The meaning o f k h a k i  had changed from a d a r k g r e e n i s h brown c o l o u r t o a l i g h t s h i n y c l o t h and style. A v i s , 1956, pp.43-44 s t a t e s t h a t o n l y 4 of 109 i n f o r m a n t s  said  [ k s s k i ] ; t h i s c o n s t i t u t e s t h e g r e a t e s t l i n g u i s t i c change we a r e a b l e t o see by comparing these two s t u d i e s .  25.  L i b r a r y #84 Tasks; P i c t u r e s :  D.  A.  [laibreri]  B.  [laiberi]  C.  [laibri]  [ I a i bar i 3  Table 6.2.25  LIBRARY Age < 40  Age > 40 A L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  18 64 29 36  B  C  D  27 36 18 27 9 0 21 43 7 25 31 8  C  D  A  76 24 0 60 30 10 82 9 0 71 23 4  0 0 9 2  50 64 46 53  A  B  Male  Female B C D 28 14 15 20  11 11 21 0 23 15 18 9  A 64 59 58 60  All  C  D  A  21 14 41 0 17 25 28 12  0 0 0 0  56 61 52  B  T a b l e 6.2.25 demonstrates t h a t t h e i n f o r m a n t s under f o r t y conform t o t h e p r e s c r i b e d form A much more than t h e o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s do. t a b l e a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t t h e B r i t i s h form [ l a i b r i ] i s f a i r l y among t h e i n f o r m a n t s over f o r t y b u t n o t among t h e younger  current  informants.  The form [ l a i b e r i ] i s found l e s s f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e upper c l a s s e s . middle  The  The  c l a s s over f o r t y y e a r s o f age conforms much more t o t h e p r e s e n t  norm than t h e o t h e r two c l a s s e s do.  245 26.  L i e u t e n a n t #147 Task; Word l i s t :  [Ieftenant]  A.  T a b l e 6.2.26  C.  [late'nant  LIEUTENANT Age < 40  Ag ;e > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  B. [ l u t e n a n t ]  All  Male  Female  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  45 91 71 68 71 69  45 9 29 32 21 28  9 0 0 0 7 3  14 25 40 21 27 24  86 75 60 79 73 76  0 0 0 0 0 0  28 57 69 46 53 49  72 43 31 54 47 51  0 0 0 0 0 0  21 41 45 36 35 36  71 59 55 64 59 62  7 0 0 0 6 2  25 48 58  Our d a t a demonstrate, t h a t t h e B r i t i s h form [ I e f t e n a n t ] i s a p r e s t i g i o u s form, f o r one sees t h a t g e n e r a l l y t h e h i g h e r t h e c l a s s , t h e higher i s the percentage of i t s occurrence.  F u r t h e r , from our d a t a we-  see a s t r o n g s h i f t towards t h e American form among t h e younger i n f o r m a n t s The t r e n d toward American forms i s v e r y s t r o n g i n m i l i t a r y ogy, see ( k h a k i ) and ( m i s s i l e ) .  terminol-  The o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s had c o n t a c t w i t h  the B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y i n World War I I , w h i l e t h e younger i n f o r m a n t s know the m i l i t a r y through American movies, news, and p r o t e s t s . c l a s s males u t t e r e d form C.  Only lower  Form C, [ l a t e ' r i a n t ] i s B r i t i s h n a v a l usage.  CEU, p.73, a l s o d i s p l a y s a s t r o n g s h i f t among younger i n f o r m a n t s to t h e American form.  246 27.  Luxury #129 Task; Word l i s t :  T a b l e 6.2.27  C. [ I X k j r i ]  LUXURY  Age > 40  Age < 40  All  Male  Female  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  B  9 82 0 100 0 100 3 94  9 0 0 3  5 10 9 8  95 90 91 92  0 0 0 0  6 94 0 100 0 100 2 98  0 0 0 0  7 12 8 9  86 88 92 88  7 0 0 3  91 94 96  A L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  B. [ i X k J e r i ]  A. [ l A g ^ e r i ]  No p a t t e r n o f l i n g u i s t i c  and s o c i o l o g i c a l c o - v a r i a t i o n i s e v i d e n t i n  this table.  Form B e n j o y s over 82 p e r c e n t f r e q u e n c y by a l l groups and  sub-groups.  Form C, [ l A k J Y i ] , w i t h d e l e t e d second s y l l a b l e was e l i c i t e d  o n l y from males of t h e lower c l a s s e s .  Our d a t a i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t  of CEU, pp.77-78.  28.  M i r r o r #41 A. [ m i r e r ]  Task; P i c t u r e :  Table 6.2.28 Age  Age  > 40  B. [ n u r ]  MIRROR < 40 Female  B  C  D  A  B  C  D  L WK LM 64 27 MIDDLE 100 0 UM LU 100 0 OTTAWA 89 8  0 0 0 0  9 0 0 3  71 75 80 75  24 25 20 24  5 0 0 2  0 0 0 0  A  C. [ m t r a l ]  A  D. [ n u r o u ]  Male  B  C  D  61 28 86 14 92 8 78 18  6 0 0 2  6 0 0 2  All  B  C  D  A  79 21 82 18 91 9 83 17  0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0  69 84 92  A  Here we have a c l e a r case o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . prescribed  form [ m t r e r ] i s more f r e q u e n t l y  class structure.  The f o r m [ m i r ] i n c r e a s e s  the c l a s s s t r u c t u r e . confusion with  t h e word  The forms [ m i r e l ] 'mural'.  The  e l i c i t e d as we moved up t h e i n f r e q u e n c y as we moved down  and [ r r u r o u ] may r e s u l t from  247 29.  M i s s i l e #87 Task; Picture:  A. [ n u s a i l ]  Table 6.2.24  MISSILE  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  B. [misal]  Age < 40  Female  All  Male  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  27 30 29 24 36 29  73 70 71 76 64 71  33 26 64 36 39 37  67 74 36 64 61 63  17 17 38 17 32 23  83 83 62 83 68 77  50 35 50 44 44 44  50 65 50 56 56 56  31 28 44  The data for this variable are markedly d i f f e r e n t from the data f o r the variables ( f e r t i l e ) and ( f u t i l e ) .  This fact reinforces our claim  that the trend toward American forms i s very strong i n m i l i t a r y terminology, see (khaki) and (lieutenant).  The B r i t i s h form, [ n u s a i l ] , never-  theless, ^-is growing i n prestige among the upper class informants who are less than forty years o l d . Notice that most women opt f o r the American form.  Males who have been i n the Canadian Forces overwhelmingly  choose the B r i t i s h form. See Avis, 1956, p.46 and CEU, pp.80-81, f o r further information and similar data on this variable.  248 30.  Morning #440 A. [ m o r n t - n ]  Task; R e a d i n g :  B. [ m o r n a n ]  T a b l e 6.2.30  [mornin]  MORNING All  Male  Female  Age < 40  Ag e > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  C.  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  45 64 71 61  0 0 0 0  55 36 29 39  45 42 45 44  0 0 0 0  55 58 55 56  56 50 69 58  0 0 0 0  44 50 31 42  31 50 50 44  B :  0 0 0 0  C  A  69 50 50 56  45 50 60  T a b l e 6.2.30 demonstrates t h a t f o r t h e o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s , t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e n o m i n a l i z i n g morpheme - i n g i s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a l l y ferentiated.  dif-  F o r t h e younger i n f o r m a n t s t h e r e appears t o be no c o r r e l a -  t i o n t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s , as a l l c l a s s e s range between 55 t o 58 percent f o r [-in].  As i s o f t e n t h e case i n o u r s u r v e y , t h e female  i n f o r m a n t s conform i n h i g h e r numbers t o p r e s c r i b e d and c a r e f u l speech. Not one o c c u r r e n c e o f [ a n ] was r e c o r d e d .  See v a r i a b l e (-ing) Chapter 5,  for further reference.  31.  M u l t i - ( n a t i o n a l ) #223 Task; Word l i s t :  C. [ mAlIts-]  B  0 0 7 5 0 3  C  A  9 9 14 18 0 11  100 95 91 93 100 96  All  Male  Female  Age < <40  Age > 40  L WK LM 91 MIDDLE 91 UM LU 79 OLD 77 NEW 100 OTTAWA 86  -]  MULTI-  T a b l e 6. 2.31  A  B . [mA l t a i  A. [mXl t l - ]  B  C  A  B  c  A  0 5 9 7 0 4  0 0 0 0 0 0  94 100 85 88 100 93  0 0 0 0 0 0  6 0 15 12 0 7  100 88 83 84 100 91  B  C  A  0 6 17 12 0 7  0 6 0 4 0 2  97 94 84  249 A l l s o c i o l o g i c a l groups have h i g h s c o r e s f o r v a l u e A. c l a s s e s , however, c o n s i s t e n t l y have the l o w e s t .  The  Informants  upper  whose  f a m i l i e s have been i n Canada f o r more than t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s have lower s c o r e s than new  Canadians.  Only people  over f o r t y u t t e r e d [ m X l t a - ] .  In  a d d i t i o n t h e r e were t h r e e u t t e r a n c e s of [ m A l d i - ] ; these are i n c l u d e d i n the [ m A ' l t i - ] s t a t i s t i c s .  See v a r i a b l e s ( a n t i - ) and  (semi-) f o r f u r t h e r  reference.  32.  N a t v - r a l l y #190 Task; Word l i s t :  D.  A. [ n s t j a r s l i ]  B. [ n s e t j r a l i ]  C.  [nstjerli]  [ nastjor I I i ]  T a b l e 6.2.32  NATURALLY  Age A L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA We  B  36 0 45 9 Q 43 25 19  Age  > 40 C. 18 27 21 22  D 36 18 29 28  C  D  A  5 20 60 15 20 50 0 9 45 8 18 53  15 5 36 16  24 14 0 14  A  B  D  D  7 7 71 14 35 0 47 6 0 33 25 25 16 12 49 14  23 10 32  A  B C D 18 36 23 25  24 36 38 32  All  Male  Female  < 40  29 14 38 27  B  C  p l a c e d t h i s i t e m i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h a t forms D  and C would show socio-economic  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , i . e . t h a t the upper  c l a s s e s would have the h i g h e s t i n c i d e n c e s of form D and t h a t the c l a s s e s would have the h i g h e s t i n c i d e n c e s o f form C. p a r t i a l l y supports  our h y p o t h e s i s .  6.2.21; t h e r e our same h y p o t h e s i s  lower  Our d a t a o n l y  Compare v a r i a b l e ( g e n e r a l l y ) T a b l e faired better.  250 33.  Ottawa #258, 259, and 260 Task; Word l i s t :  A. [ndewb]  B. [ntewib]  C. [ndawa]  D. [ddawe] T a b l e 6.2.33  OTTAWA  D  A  73 9 0 18 57 29 14 0 50 30 10 10 61 21 7 11  74 56 67 66  A L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  B  C  D  A  B C D  16 0 11 13 25 6 33 0 0 17 10 7  76 50 63 66  12 0 12 30 20 0 38 0 0 23 6 6  B  C  All  Male  Female  Age < 40  Age > 40  D  B  69 15 0 15 62 8 23 8 50 25 13 13 62 15 12 12  12 13 20  A  B  C  How one pronounces t h e name o f one's home town i s o f t e n an i n d i c a t o r of t h e s t a n d i n g one has w i t h i n t h a t community.  We can see from T a b l e  6.2.33 t h a t t o b e g i n Ottawa w i t h an [ a ] i s t o r i s k b e i n g c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h e lower c l a s s e s , see e s p e c i a l l y t h e d a t a f o r females and a l l i n f o r m a n t s under f o r t y .  On t h e o t h e r hand t o b e g i n Ottawa w i t h an [ n ]  f o l l o w e d by a [ t ] and ended w i t h an [x>] o r a schwa i s t o r i s k b e i n g taken f o r someone from R o c k c l i f f e o r a t l e a s t Clemow; [ndewb] i s n e u t r a l and n o n - d e s c r i p t i v e . Form C, [ndewe], i s employed o n l y by upper and middle  c l a s s i n f o r m a n t s whose f a m i l i e s had been i n Ottawa f o r s e v e r a l  generations.  251 34.  P i c t u r e s #36 Task; P i c t u r e s :  D.  A. [ p i k j a r z ]  B. [ p i t j a r z ]  [pikd^arz]  C.  [piktjarz]  Table 6.2.34  PICTURES Age < 40  Age > 40 D  A  B  10 0 70 20 27 0 45 27 0 14 79 7 11 6 66 17  14 15 18 15  0 0 0 0  A L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  B  C  C  Male  Female D  A  43 33 80 5 82 0 65 15  0 29 8 11  B C D 0 0 8 2  71 24 57 14 77 8 68 16  A  B  29 12 8 16  0 0 8 2  All D  C  29 36 76 12 83 0 63 16  52 68 80  C  T a b l e 6.2.34 r e v e a l s t h a t a l l groups p r e f e r r e d v a l u e C, [ p i k d ^ a r z ] , and s u r p r i s i n g l y t h a t o n l y t h e upper m i d d l e and l o w e r upper c l a s s e s s a i d [pitjarz].  They a l s o had t h e l o w e s t s c o r e s  [piktjarz];  f o r the p r e s c r i b e d  form,  The h i g h e s t s c o r e f o r [ p i k t j a r z ] was e l i c i t e d from males o f  the l o w e r , w o r k i n g , and lower m i d d l e c l a s s e s .  The upper c l a s s e s con-  s i s t e n t l y s c o r e d h i g h e s t f o r value.C. Form C, [ p i k d 5 a r z ] , r e p r e s e n t s extension  of the m e d i a l / t / r u l e , i . e . p o s t t o n i c t i s pronounced  [k] and when p a r t o f t h e a f f r i c a t e  [d^].  an  [d] a f t e r  See v a r i a b l e VtV i n Chapter 5  f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the m e d i a l / t / r u l e .  i  252 35.  P o t a t o #369 Task; Reading:  A. [ p e t e i d o ]  Table 6.2.35  [pedeido]  POTATO  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU RURAL URBAN IRISH SCOTS ENGLISH FRENCH OTHER OTTAWA ALL TOT  B.  Age < 40  Female  All  Male  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  36 64 79 50 59 29 60 75 0 63 61 55  64 36 21 50 41 71 40 25 100 17 39 45  75 74 73 42 76 57 67 73 75 85 74 69  25 26 27 58 24 43 33 27 25 15 26 31  61 93 92 53 82 56 80 88 33 100 80 71  39 7 8 47 18 44 20 13 67 0 20 29  62 50 58 38 58 20 57 55 100 63 56 52  38 50 42 62 42 80 43 45 0 38 44 48  61 70 76  T h i s v a r i a b l e o c c u r r e d t h r e e times i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; numbers 59-62 i n P i c t u r e s , numbers 244-247 i n Word l i s t and number 369-371 i n Reading.  We have p u r p o s e l y chosen numbers 369-371 i n o r d e r t o d i s p l a y  the h i g h e s t i n c i d e n c e of v a l u e B.  Our d a t a r e v e a l t h a t among i n f o r m a n t s  over f o r t y t h e r e i s v e r y s t r o n g and o r d e r e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and t h a t t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s d e c r e a s i n g i n frequency informants.  co-variation,  among t h e younger  We can see t h a t form B i s most p r e v a l e n t among i n f o r m a n t s  of I r i s h descent and t h a t i t i s more common among those w i t h r u r a l background.  Males had much h i g h e r s c o r e s f o r form B than d i d f e m a l e s , and  males w i t h I r i s h background r e c o r d e d t h e top s c o r e o f 80 p e r c e n t . e l i c i t e d o n l y two o c c u r r e n c e s is  We  of the s o f t , n o n - a s p i r a t e d i n i t i a l [ b ] which  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f I r i s h G a e l i c and I r i s h E n g l i s h .  The Ottawa V a l l e y  Survey s h o u l d g i v e us some i n t e r e s t i n g d a t a f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e .  253 36.  Recognize T a s k ; Word  #140  A. [rekegnaiz]  list:  T a b l e 6.2. 36  RECOGNIZE  Age :> 40 A L WK L M  73 100  MIDDLE UM L U OTTAWA  93 89  The  Age  < 40  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  95 100 82 94  5 0 18 6  83 100 92  17 0 8  93 100  7 0  91  9  93 93  7 7  87 100 88  B 27 0 7 11  middle class  upper and lower  37.  conforms  classes  Female  perfectly  Male  form whili  t othe prescribed  stray occasionally  f r o m the  All  mark.  R o u t e #156 Task;  Word  list:  ROUTE  Age  > 40  A  B  L WK LM MIDDLE  73 82  27 18  UM L U OTTAWA  93 83  7 17  Table  B.. [ r A u i ]  A. [ r ut ]  T a b l e 6.2. 37  this  B. [ n£ k e n a i z ]  Age  < 40  Female  B  A  B  A  B  A  90 80  10 20 0 12  11 14 0  79 76 92  21 24 8  84  100  89 86 100 91  9  81  19  A-  88  6.2.37 r e v e a l s  p r o n u n c i a t i o n item.  a fair  Value B which used  81 96  amount o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a t i o n i s frequently  United  States i s l i t t l e  enjoys  24 t o 27 p e r c e n t f r e q u e n c y among t h e l o w e r  Gregg,  All  Male  by t h e u p p e r  classes  heard  with  i n the  i n Ottawa, b u t i t and m i d d l e  classes.  1 9 7 3 , p p . 1 0 9 - 1 1 3 a n d o u r d a t a w e r e s i m i l a r w h i l e t h e CEU,  pp.87-88, i s c o n s i s t e n t l y  20 t o 30 p e r c e n t a g e p o i n t s  lower  for [rut].  254 38.  Sandwiches #89, 90 and 91 Task; P i c t u r e s :  A. [ saendw i t'Jez ]  Table 6.2.38  [ seenw i t j e z ]  C. [seem ( w ) i t j a z ]  SANDWICHES  Age > 40  -*  B.  Age  < 40  Female  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  L WK LM 60 MIDDLE 75 46 UM LU IRISH 80 SCOTS 63 ENGLISH 50 FRENCH 100 OTHER S 40 OTTAWA 58  10 25 38 20 25 25 0 40 26  30 0 15 0 13 25 0 20 16  19 32 55 25 33 40 50 15 31  52 53 36 50 44 40 50 69 49  29 16 9 25 22 20 0 15 20  47 36 62 57 75 56 67 20 49  B. C 18 55 38 14 25 31 33 60 34  35 9 0 29 0 13 0 20 17  Male  All  A  B  C  A  14 50 36 33 38 27 50 25 34  64 38 36 67 38 36 50 63 46  21 13 27 0 23 36 0 13 20  31 43 48  Informants under f o r t y years of age and female informants display ordered socio-economic s t r a t i f i c a t i o n with reference to form C. The s o c i o l o g i c a l pattern which we hypothesized f o r the r e t e n t i o n or d e l e t i o n of the [d] i s f u l l y r e a l i z e d only as applied to informants under forty. Two i n d i v i d u a l s pronounced t h i s v a r i a b l e as [ saenwi t Jez ], which i s a S c o t t i s h form and which enjoys f a i r l y high frequencies among older people i n the Ottawa V a l l e y . statistics.  Compare t h i s v a r i a b l e with (hundred) for d- d e l e t i o n  255 39.  Schedule #125 Task; Word l i s t :  A. [ Jffd^u 1 ]  T a b l e 6.2. 39  SCHEDULE  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  B. [skcfd^ul ]  Age < 40  Female  Male  All  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  36 36 57 45 43 44  64 64 43 55 57 56  24 15 18 17 22 19  76 85 82 83 78 81  17 36 54 38 26 33  83 64 46 62 74 67  43 12 25 20 33 26  57 88 75 80 67 74  28 23 40  V a l u e A [ J e ^ u I ], t h e c u r r e n t B r i t i s h v a r i a n t has been promoted by the CBC as a p r e s t i g i o u s form.  consciously  T h i s seems t o have had some  e f f e c t on o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s o f the upper c l a s s e s b u t v e r y l i t t l e o r a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on younger p e o p l e .  I n 1955 when A v i s d i d h i s s u r v e y ,  about 33 p e r c e n t o f h i s s t u d e n t s o p t e d f o r form A; today i n Ottawa t h e p e r c e n t a g e f o r t h a t same age group i s about h a l f t h a t number.  A v i s , 1956,  o p . c i t . , pp.53,54, Gregg, 1973, pp.109-113 and CEU, pp.55-56 show even h i g h e r - f r e q u e n c i e s for[sk£d^ul ].  40.  S e m i - ( c i r c l e ) #67 Task; Word l i s t :  A. [ s£mi-]  T a b l e 6. 2.40  C.[s e'ma- ]  SEMI-  Age  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  B. [ s 6 ma i - ]  > 40  Age < 40  Female  Male  All  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  c  A  82 82 93 82 93 86  9 0 0 5 0 3  9 18 7 14 7 11  100 95 82 96 91 94  0 5 18 4 0 6  0 0 0 0 0 0  94 92 100 96 95 95  0 0 0 0 0 0  6 8 0 4 5 5  93 88 75 84 89 86  7 6 17 8 11 9  0 6 8 8 0 5  94 90 88  256 T a b l e 6.2.40. demonstrates t h a t form A [s£mi] i s the p r e v a i l i n g form f o r a l l s o c i o l o g i c a l groups.  The two age groups and the two sex groups,  however, d i s p l a y o p p o s i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p a t t e r n s .  A v i s notes t h a t i n the  f i f t i e s , Americans were r e f e r r e d to as /se'maiz/ by Canadian t e e n a g e r s ; today, t h a t usage i s unknown. f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n and  41.  Sentence  See v a r i a b l e s ( a n t i - ) and ( m u l t i - ) f o r  references.  #119  Task; Word l i s t :  A. [s£ntans]  T a b l e 6.2.41  C. [se'ntns]  SENTENCE  Age > 40  Age < 40  A B C L WK LM 18 MIDDLE 100 UM LU 50 OTTAWA 56  B. [st5?ns]  64 0 43 36  A B C 18 0 7 8  48 60 82 60  43 20 18 29  10 20 0 12  Female A B C 33 93 85 67  56 7 15 29  Male  All  A B C 11 0 0 4  No c l e a r s o c i o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n i s e v i d e n t .  43 59 42 49  43 18 50 35  A 14 24 8 16  37 74 64  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to s e e ,  however, t h a t form B has a c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h s c o r e among groups of i n f o r mants of the lower c l a s s e s .  257 42.  Something  #143 and 144  Task; Word l i s t :  A. [ s X m G i r ) ]  T a b l e 6.2.42  [sAm?en]  SOMETHING  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  C.  B. [sXmGin]  Age < 40  Female  Male  All  A  B  c  A  B  c  A  B  C  A  B  c  A  36 82 71 64  45 18 29 31  18 0 0 6  84 75 70 78  16 25 30 22  0 0 0 0  67 79 69 71  22 21 31 24  11 0 0 4  67 76 73 72  33 24 27 27  0 0 0 0  63 77 71  Form C, [ s X m ? a n ] was e l i c i t e d  o n l y from women over 40 o f t h e lower  The m a j o r i t y o f a l l groups read form A, [ s X m G i n ] , t h i s f a c t adds  classes.  f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t o t h e p a t t e r n t h a t [-in#] i s p r e f e r r e d o n l y as a v e r b a l , i.e.  p r o g r e s s i v e a s p e c t and gerund morpheme.  comparable  43.  See i t e m 30, morning f o r  data.  Toronto #s 254, 255, 256, and 257 Task; Word l i s t :  A.  B.  [tenoirto]-  C.  [terdrrto]  [tenondo]  D. [ t a n o n o ]  T a b l e 6.2.43  TORONTO  Age  Age  C D  A  50 40 Q 10 36 55 9 0 71 7. 21 0 54 31 11 3  41 33 44 39  A L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  > 40  B  < 40  Female  Male  C D  A  B  C D  A  24 6 29 28 28 11 44 11 0 30 16 16  44 57 69 56  38 36 31 35  6 13 0 7 0 0 2 7  45 13 50 33  B  C  All D  A  18 0 36 40 40 7 10 40 0 25 28 14  39 32 56  B  Form D, [ten$no] d i s p l a y s a f u l l y o r d e r e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  correlation;  i t r e c e i v e d i t s h i g h e s t s c o r e s from the i n f o r m a n t s o f t h e l o w e r , w o r k i n g , and lower m i d d l e c l a s s e s ; t h e m i d d l e c l a s s had fewer i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s form and t h e upper c l a s s e s d i d n o t have any o c c u r r e n c e s a t a l l .  Form C ,  258 r e c e i v e d i t s h i g h e s t s c o r e s from o l d e r males. s o c i o l o g i c a l pattern.  Forms A and B show no c l e a r  The form [ t r d n a ] heard f r e q u e n t l y among t h e w o r k i n g  c l a s s i n t h e c i t y o f Toronto was n o t once r e a d by o u r n a t i v e  44.  Temperature  #158  Task; Word l i s t : C. [ te'mpart J a r ]  A. [ t e m p a r a t J a r ]  TEMPERATURE > 40  A B C D L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OTTAWA  0 27 7 11  B. [ te'mprat J a r ]  D. [ te'mpat J a r ]  Table 6.2.44 Age  Ottawans.  64 0 36 36 0 36 50 14 14 50 6 28  Age  < 40  A B C D 0 0 9 2  40 5 55 55 20 25 64 0 27 51 10 37  Female A B C D 0 14 8 7  59 43 69 57  0 41 7 36 8 8 5 30  Male A B C D 0 6 8 5  36 7 57 53 18 24 42 8 33 44 12 37  All B 48 48  Form A appears t o be a r e a d i n g p r o n u n c i a t i o n w h i c h i s i n f r e q u e n t l y pronounced even i n t h i s t a s k .  The p r e v a i l i n g form i s B f o r a l l  groups.  Form D i s f a v o u r e d by t h e lower c l a s s e s more than by any o t h e r group; the lower c l a s s e s tend t o reduce (and e l i m i n a t e ) s y l l a b l e s more than other c l a s s e s . speech.  E x c e s s i v e use o f t h i s r e d u c t i o n r e s u l t s i n s t i g m a t i z e d  259 45.  Vase #37 Task; P i c t u r e :  B . [vaz]  A. [ v n z ]  T a b l e 6.2.45  D. [ v e i s ]  VASE  Age  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  C. [ v e i z ]  Age  40  >  i  Female  40  <  t  A  B  C  D  A  B  C  D  A  64 38 36 36 43 39  36 64 29 36 50 42  0 18 36 27 7 19  0 0 0 0 0 0  14 15 9 14 13 13  33 45 55 48 35 42  48 40 36 38 48 42  5 0 0 0 4 2  44 21 38 35 37 36  B  33 71 31 46 42 44  Male  C  D  A  22 7 31 19 21 20  0 0 0 0 0 0  14 12 8 12 11 12  B  36 35 50 40 39 40  All  C  D  C  43 53 42 48 44 47  7 0 0 0 6 2  31 32 36  T a b l e 6.2.45 r e v e a l s t h a t the American form, form D, i s r a r e l y used i n Ottawa.  The Canadian form, formC, e n j o y s w i d e s p r e a d use i n Ottawa  w i t h younger i n f o r m a n t s and male i n f o r m a n t s h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t s c o r e s . Form B [ v a z ] w i t h an unrounded back open vowel i s more f r e q u e n t than t h e form [ V D Z ] .  Forms A and B were more f r e q u e n t l y e l i c i t e d from females and  o l d e r i n f o r m a n t s than from t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s . was n o t r e c o r d e d .  The p r o n u n c i a t i o n [veez]  A v i s , 1956, p.43, Gregg, 1974, pp.108-113 and CEU,  p.58, and we agree on about 30 p e r c e n t f o r [ v e i z ] , Gregg and we agree on 60 t o 70 p e r c e n t f o r forms A and B combined w h i l e A v i s and CEU had 40 and 30 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y .  T h i s was undoubtedly a d i f f i c u l t v a r i a b l e t o  d e a l w i t h through a p o s t a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  260 46.  Weren't #167 Task; Word l i s t :  T a b l e 6.2. 46  WEREN'T  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU RURAL URBAN OTTAWA ALL TOT  B . [wernt ]  A. [ w a r n t ]  Age < 40  Male  Female  All  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  B  91 91 86 85 82 89 83  9 9 14 15 18 11 17  95 84 91 77 93 90 89  5 11 9 23 5 8 9  94 86 77 74 85 87 81  6 7 23 26 12 11 17  93 88 100 93 94 93 93  7 13 0 7 6 7 7  6 10 12  T a b l e 6.2.46. e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e r e i s a moderate c u r r e n c y o f form B, [weYnt ], throughout s o c i e t y i n Ottawa.  T h i s form has an average  over-all  p e r c e n t a g e o f about 13 p e r c e n t w i t h h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e s among females of the upper c l a s s e s .  Form B i s a l s o more p o p u l a r among those i n f o r m a n t s  w i t h r u r a l background.  The word 'were', i t e m #600, was noted t o be p r o -  nounced [ w e r ] about 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e time b u t o n l y when i n a s t r e s s e d position.  The forms [-weYnt] and [ w e r ] enjoyed , s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  f r e q u e n c i e s , 40 and 46 p e r c e n t r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n our Ottawa V a l l e y c e n t r e s o f Renfrew and Smith's F a l l s .  urban  The r u r a l a r e a o f t h e Ottawa V a l l e y  undoubtedly would y i e l d even h i g h e r f r e q u e n c i e s .  The h i g h f r e q u e n c i e s  o f these forms i n t h e r u r a l p o r t i o n o f t h e Ottawa V a l l e y , a unique d i a l e c t p o c k e t a r e a , may have caused I a n P r i n g l e , co-worker  of t h e  Ottawa V a l l e y Survey, t o assume t h i s usage f o r t h e m a j o r i t y o f Canadians.^ I n f a c t , [weYnt] and [ w e r ] a r e m i n o r i t y usage forms.  R.J. Gregg e s t i m a t e s 18  a l e s s than 5 p e r c e n t f r e q u e n c y f o r [weY] and [weYnt] i n Vancouver. No o t h e r d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r comparison c o n c e r n i n g t h i s v a r i a b l e .  261 47.  W i l s o n #339 Task; Reading:  A. [ w i l s e n ]  T a b l e 6.2.47  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU RURAL URBAN OTTAWA ALL TOT  B. [ w i l t s e n ] WILSON  Age  > 40  Age  < 40  A  B  A  B  82 100 86 80 86 89 83  18 0 14 20 14 11 17  100 100 100 92 100 100 98  0 0 0 8 0 . 0 2  Female  Male  A  B  A  94 100 85 74 94 93 87  6 0 15 26 6 7 13  92 100 100 100 97 98 98  All A  B 8 0 0 0 3 2 2  94 100 92  We can s e e from t h i s t a b l e t h a t t h e i n t r u s i v e ' t ' a t l e a s t i n t h i s p o s i t i o n i s d y i n g o u t among t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n . c u r r e n c y among o l d e r females  I t has f a i r l y  and e s p e c i a l l y among r u r a l  high  females.  The i n t r u s i v e ' t ' does n o t appear t o be l o s i n g ground i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n words such as f a l s e , sense, and f e n c e .  F u r t h e r we r e c o r d e d  f o u r i n s t a n c e s o f a c r o s s pronounced as [ a k r n s t ^ a form v e r y common i n eastern Michigan.  48.  Zebra #48 Task; P i c t u r e s :  A. [ z f b r e ]  Table 6.2.48  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  B. [ z£bre] ZEBRA  Age  > 40  Age  < 40  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  80 82 86 76 93 83  20 18 14 24 7 17  100 95 100 97 100 98  0 5 0 3 0 2  94 93 92 88 100 93  6 7 8 12 0 7  92 88 92 88 94 90  8 12 8 13 6 10  94 90 92  Female  Male  All  262 A v i s ' s u r v e y s i n 1949-50 and 1954-5 r e v e a l t h a t the m a j o r i t y of h i s 19 i n f o r m a n t s chose form B [z£bre]; i n Ottawa.  t h i s i s d e f i n i t e l y n o t the case today  Our i n f o r m a n t s over f o r t y y e a r s of age averaged  o n l y 17 p e r -  cent f o r [ze'bre] and our i n f o r m a n t s under f o r t y averaged o n l y 2 p e r c e n t . The s t u d y i n the Kootenays r e v e a l s a s i m i l a r d e c l i n e i n p e r c e n t a g e s f o r [ze'bra] from the o l d e r generation's, 35 p e r c e n t , t o the t e e n a g e r s ' 6 p e r 20 cent. For comparative d a t a see:  A v i s , 1956, pp.44-45 and Gregg,  1973,  pp. 112-113. 3.  Vocabulary The v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s c a t e g o r y were s e l e c t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples  of l e x i c a l items w h i c h have l o n g been c o n s i d e r e d t y p i c a l l y Canadian i n usage, meaning, or f r e q u e n c y .  The terms of r e f e r e n c e remain  E n g l i s h v e r s u s N o r t h e r n American E n g l i s h .  Canadian  We h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t the d a t a  w i l l r e v e a l s o c i o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o age group and p o s s i b l y g e n e r a t i o n group more than to any s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  1.  Chesterfield  #42  Task; P i c t u r e :  I d e n t i f y by name a l a r g e p i e c e of f u r n i t u r e which  s e a t t h r e e to f o u r p e o p l e .  A. s o f a  T a b l e 6.3.1  B. c h e s t e r f i e l d  C.  couch  CHESTERFIELD Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  criteria.  Age < 40  Female  Male  All  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  B  18 27 14 23 14 19  55 73 79 59 86 69  27 0 7 18 0 11  24 35 27 28 30 29  19 40 36 34 26 31  57 25 36 38 43 40  11 36 15 19 21 20  44 50 62 50 53 51  44 14 23 31 26 29  36 29 25 32 28 30  14 53 58 40 44 42  50 18 17 28 28 28  31 52 60  can  263 Our d a t a r e v e a l a s t r o n g d r i f t away from c h e s t e r f i e l d towards s o f a and couch among those i n f o r m a n t s l e s s t h a n 40 y e a r s o f age.  A v i s i n 1955  r e c o r d e d t h a t up t o 88.8 p e r c e n t o f h i s i n f o r m a n t s chose c h e s t e r f i e l d . I n g e n e r a l , young p e o p l e seem t o have f a r fewer l e x i c a l Canadianisms i n t h e i r speech than o l d e r p e o p l e . The t h r e e c h o i c e s have somewhat d i f f e r e n t meanings a c c o r d i n g t o a s i z a b l e m i n o r i t y o f t h o s e sampled.  C h e s t e r f i e l d i s a p r e s t i g e p i e c e of  f u r n i t u r e f o r t h e l i v i n g room; couch i s a p i e c e o f f u r n i t u r e f o r r e l a x a t i o n i n ' t h e r e c r e a t i o n room and s o f a i s the n e u t r a l term. We can see t h a t t h e r e i s some o r d e r e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h regard to t h i s l i n g u i s t i c v a r i a b l e .  A l s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note i s  the f a c t t h a t 86 p e r c e n t of the i n f o r m a n t s w i t h new Canadian background who were over 40 s a i d c h e s t e r f i e l d w h i l e young i n f o r m a n t s w i t h Canadian backgrounds chose couch and s o f a .  new  Females conformed i n h i g h e r  p e r c e n t a g e s t o the Canadian usage t h a n d i d males.  Davenport, a v e r y  f r e q u e n t form i n Michigan,was mentioned o n l y two times and i n b o t h cases i t was a t h i r d o r f o u r t h c h o i c e . See A v i s , 1955, pp.13-18,  Gregg, 1973, pp.110-116, and CEU,  pp.106-  107 f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and s l i g h t l y d i v e r g e n t d a t a c o n c e r n i n g t h i s variable.  264 2.  Blinds  #51  Task; P i c t u r e :  I d e n t i f y by name an opaque c l o t h on a r o l l e r  which  when r o l l e d down i n a window p r e v e n t s l i g h t from e n t e r i n g o r l e a v i n g . A. B l i n d s  B. Shades  Table 6.3.2.  BLINDS  Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  Age •< 40  Female  All  Male  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  82 80 93 86 86 86  18 20 7 14 14 14  60 60 45 54 61 57  40 40 55 46 39 43  67 85 77 76 74 75  33 15 23 24 26 25  69 53 67 58 67 62  31 47 33 42 33 38  68 67 72  A g a i n , we see  t h a t the two age: groups d i s p l a y a 30% d i f f e r e n c e :  t h e i r o v e r a l l age s c o r e s . A v i s ' d a t a i n 1955 p r o v i d e us w i t h a q u a r t e r c e n t u r y ' s time p e r c e p t i o n ;< he r e c o r d e d t h a t then 94 .5 p e r c e n t of h i s i n f o r m a n t s chose b l i n d s ,. y e a r s o f age averaged 57 p e r c e n t .  Our d a t a r e v e a l t h a t our i n f o r m a n t s o v e r 41  86 p e r c e n t , b u t younger i n f o r m a n t s averaged  only  We n o t i c e f u r t h e r from our d a t a t h a t we more f r e q u e n t l y  e l i c i t e d t h e Canadianism  from females than from males.  See A v i s , 1955, pp.15-16 and Gregg, 1973, pp.108-115 f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n and g e n e r a l l y s i m i l a r d a t a on t h i s v a r i a b l e .  265 3.  Brush ( f o r c h a l k Task; P i c t u r e :  board) #63 I d e n t i f y by name the f e l t i n s t r u m e n t used to c l e B. e r a s e r  A. b r u s h  chalk boards.  BRUSH  T a b l e 6.3. 3 Age > 40  L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU OLD NEW OTTAWA  Age < 40  Female  Male  All  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  B  A  64 64 50 64 50 58  36 36 50 36 50 42  57 85 70 83 55 71  43 15 30 17 45 29  72 86 54 73 68 71  28 14 46 27 32 29  43 71 64 76 35 59  57 29 36 24 65 40  59 74 58  T h i s v a r i a b l e and zed are the o n l y two' v o c a b u l a r y f t ems c l a s s i f i e d as Canadianisms which r e c e i v e d h i g h e r s c o r e s from i n f o r m a n t s under 40 than from those over 40. "Informants whose f a m i l i e s have been i n Canada s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s had c o n s i s t / g n t l y h i g h e r s c o r e s than d i d the-newer Canadians. s t u d i e s of t h i s v a r i a b l e a r e e x t a n t . Canadian* us age of form A.  Americans  No o t h e r  do not u n d e r s t a n d - t h e  266 4.  Orange #322 Task; L o c a l words and usage: Question:  What c o l o u r s a r e t h e l i g h t s i n a t r a f f i c  A. orange  B. y e l l o w  C. amber ( o r c a u t i o n )  T a b l e 6.3.4  ORANGE  Age > 40 A L WK LM MIDDLE UM LU RURAL URBAN IRISH SCOTS ENGLISH FRENCH OTHER OTTAWA ALLTOT  light?  B  27 55 36 36 38 54 35 55 32 45 29 57 30 50 33 50 0 100 60 20. 34 49 33 50  Age < 40  Female  All  Male  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  B  C  A  18 27 8 10 23 14 20 17 0 20 17 17  15 32 27 8 26 14 44 20 25 23 24 22  80 42 64 75 57 86 56 53 50 62 62 61  5 26 9 17 17 0 0 27 25 15 14 17  22 29 33 22 30 22 20 38 0 30 27 27  61 43 67 61 52 67 80 44 67 50 57 55  17 29 0 17 18 11 0 19 33 20 16 18  15 38 33 29 26 20 43 9 50 38 29 27  85 38 50 64 55 80 43 64 50 50 56 58  0 25 17 7 19 0 14 27 .0 13 15 16  19 33 33  Throughout the Ottawa V a l l e y , , i n c l u d i n g the c i t i e s Montreal,one f r e q