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The development of neighbourhood in Kitsilano : ideas, actors and the landscape Carr, Adriane Janice 1980

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THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEIGHBOURHOOD IN KITSILANO: IDEAS, ACTORS AND THE LANDSCAPE A.R.C.T., The University of Toronto, 1973 B.A., The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Geography) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by ADRIANE JANICE CARR MASTER OF ARTS i n May 1980 (§) Adriane Janice Carr, 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 -6 BP 75-5 1 1 E X I ABSTRACT K i t s i l a n o , a Vancouver i n n e r - c i t y neighbourhood i s an i n t r i g u i n g place which has developed from a middle-class community of s i n g l e -family homes to an area of apartments and condominiums a t t r a c t i n g young singles and c h i l d l e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l s . In i t s early years, a num-ber of act i v e resident groups promoted the development and s o l i d a r i t y of a family-oriented place. They appeared, to some degree, to have suc c e s s f u l l y challenged the a c t i v i t i e s of City H a l l and r e a l estate developers who were encouraging i n d u s t r i a l , and high density r e s i -d e n t i a l land use. In l a t e r years, however, residents seemed to under-mine t h e i r e a r l i e r goals by a c t i v e l y supporting r e s i d e n t i a l upzoning. The primary objective of t h i s thesis i s to understand the appar-ently contradictory behaviour of these resident groups i n the commu-ni t y development process. An understanding of behaviour l i e s , most f r u i t f u l l y , i n the probing of motivations which prompt action. Since these resident groups were i n t e n t i o n a l l y involved with shaping the character of t h e i r l o c a l area, t h i s thesis focuses i t s attention on t h e i r ideas of neighbourhood. In order to understand both the ideas and actions of residents more f u l l y , a case study of one resident group - the K i t s i l a n o Rate-payers' Association - provides the bulk of data. Extensive reference i s made, however, to. other community associations.. The more d e t a i l e d data sources which expose group ideology and behaviour include p r i v a t e group records and personal interviews. In order to allow the emergence i i i of themes, data i s examined i n d u c t i v e l y using content analysis methods which range from rigorous frequency counts to the more subjective noting of key quotes. Contextual information regarding the general process of community development i s provided by a r c h i v a l materials, l o c a l newspapers, maps, census and school board records and c i t y d i r e c t o r i e s . The data suggest that two concepts of neighbourhood -communal and p r i v a t e - simultaneously underlay resident action, and that the community groups i n K i t s i l a n o appeared to focus the greatest e f f o r t on promoting t h e i r p r i v a t e i d e a l s . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x i Foreward x i i Chapter One: Introduction 3 Geographical L i t e r a t u r e : Understanding Place 5 Landscape Patterns 5 Human Processes 6 Man-Place Relations 6 S o c i o l o g i c a l L i t e r a t u r e : Community and Neighbourhood 8 Community, Local Area and Neighbourhood 9 The Meaning of Neighbourhood 10 Neighbourhood i n K i t s i l a n o 11 Chapter Two: H i s t o r i c a l Context 21 Assessment and Early Land Use: 1884-1908 22 I n i t i a l Development: 1909-1934 33 A r t i c u l a t i o n of Neighbourhood: 1935-1961 53 Conclusion 64 Chapter Three: The K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association 76 Group Formation 78 General Goals and Action 79 Group Membership 82 Group Representativeness 84 Conclusion 90 Chapter Four: The Communal Notion of Neighbourhood 94 Concern with Place: K i t s i l a n o D i s t r i c t 97 Public Services 97 Quality of the Neighbourhood Environment 102 So c i a l Interaction 109 Soc i a l Interaction F a c i l i t i e s 114 Community S o l i d a r i t y 116 Community S p i r i t 116 Cooperative Action 118 Mutual Support 119 Symbolization 122 T r a d i t i o n a l Neighbourhood Defined 123 Conclusion 128 V TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd) Chapter Five: The Private Notions of Neighbourhood 137 A Safe Nuisance-Free Environment 140 Environment f o r Children 148 The F i n a n c i a l Security of the Family 154 S e l f - i n t e r e s t s ' 159 Interests of Apartment Owners 165 Interests of the E l d e r l y 168 Conclusion 171 Chapter Six: Conclusion 179 BIBLIOGRAPHY , 195 APPENDIX 1: K i t s i l a n o Clubs and Associations Mentioned i n the K i t s i l a n o Times Newspaper, 1918-1962, One-Quarter Sample 205 APPENDIX 2: Location of Sample Blocks used i n the Study of Res i d e n t i a l Status 206 APPENDIX 3: Census Area Boundaries i n K i t s i l a n o , 1961 and 1971 207 APPENDIX 4: K i t s i l a n o Improvement.Association Executive, 1907 208 APPENDIX 5: The Purchase of K i t s i l a n o Beach Park, 1909 209 APPENDIX 6: Members' Addresses and Occupations: K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association 210 vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 SOCIAL STATUS OF KITSILANO RESIDENTS BY PERCENT, SAMPLE BLOCKS 1900 TO 1970 27 TABLE 2 THE EXPANSION OF PUBLIC SERVICES IN KITSILANO FROM 1909 TO 1934 44 TABLE 3 SOME COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS ESTABLISHED IN KITSILANO FROM 1909 TO 1934 50 TABLE 4 PERCENTAGE OF OCCUPANTS RESIDING AT THE SAME ADDRESS OVER FIVE YEAR INTERVALS FROM 1915 TO 1930 TABLE 5 CENSUS HOUSING STATISTICS FOR KITSILANO, 1961 TABLE 6 CENSUS DEMOGRAPHIC STATISTICS FOR KITSILANO, 1961 52 57 59 TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE OF OCCUPANTS RESIDING AT THE SAME ADDRESS OVER TEN YEAR INTERVALS FROM 1940 TO 1970 60 TABLE 8 COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS ESTABLISHED IN KITSILANO FROM 1935 TO 1961 62 TABLE 9 TABLE 10 TABLE 11 KITSILANO RATEPAYERS' ASSOCIATION: COMMITTEE REPORTS. TO MEETINGS FROM 1935 TO 1946 81 KRA MEMBERSHIP FROM 1939 TO 1956 82 KITSILANO RATEPAYERS' ASSOCIATION: SOME OUTSTANDING MEMBERS 83 TABLE 12 SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF KRA MEMBERS AND KITSILANO RESIDENTS 85 TABLE 13 KRA MEMBERSHIP: RESIDENTIAL DISTRIBUTION 86 TABLE 14 KRA COMMUNAL CONCERNS: PUBLIC UTILITIES AND SERVICES 98 TABLE 15 KRA COMMUNAL CONCERNS: QUALITY OF THE NEIGHBOUR-HOOD ENVIRONMENT 102 TABLE 16 SOCIAL EVENTS NOTED IN THE KITSILANO TIMES NEWSPAPER DURING THE 1930'S 110 v i i LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd) TABLE 17 KRA COMMUNAL CONCERNS: SOCIAL INTERACTION IN KITSILANO 111 TABLE 18 SOME KRA MEMBERS AND THEIR SOCIAL CONNECTIONS 113 TABLE 19 KRA COMMUNAL . CONCERNS: COMMUNITY SOCIAL FACILITIES 114 TABLE 20 KRA COMMUNAL CONCERNS: MUTUAL SUPPORT 120 TABLE 21 KRA COMMUNAL CONCERNS: NEIGHBOURHOOD OF SINGLE-FAMILY HOMES 124 TABLE 22 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS: A NUISANCE-FREE ENVIRONMENT 140 TABLE 23 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS: A SAFE ENVIRONMENT 142 TABLE 24 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS: UNDESIRABLE SOCIAL FACILITIES 151 TABLE 25 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS: HOMEOWNER COSTS 154 TABLE 26 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS: INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS 160 TABLE 27 KRA INTEREST GROUPS 163 TABLE 28 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS: RESIDENTIAL UPZONING 165 TABLE 29 THE RESOLUTION OF KRA ISSUES 186 v i i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 The Location of Kitsilano in Vancouver 2 FIGURE 2 . Logging activity near Point Grey Road and Macdonald Street in 1895 23 FIGURE 3 Home of R.D. Rorison, Esquire, 3148 Point Grey Road, 1908. 26 FIGURE 4 Killarney Mansion, Point Grey Road and Bayswater Street, 1908 28 FIGURE 5 Kitsilano Beach, 1905 29 FIGURE 6 Enrollment in Kitsilano Schools from 1906 to 1975 31 FIGURE 7 Fourth Avenue, 1904 30 FIGURE 8 Real Estate Office, corner of Third Avenue and Trutch Street, 1908 32 FIGURE 9 1800 Block Waterloo Street in 1910 34 FIGURE 10 1800 Block Waterloo. Street in 1914 35 FIGURE 11 Fourth Avenue streetcar at Alma Road, 1909 36 FIGURE 12 C.P.R. show home at 2030 Whyte Avenue, 1909 37 FIGURE 13 Lot Subdivision in Kitsilano, 1910 38 FIGURE 14 Smaller homes in Eastern Kitsilano, 2019-2029 York Street, 1978 39 FIGURE 15 Larger homes in Western Kitsilano, c. 1910-1912 40 FIGURE 16 Single family homes in the Vicinity of Trafalgar Street and Twelth Avenue, 1928 41 FIGURE 17 Land Use in Kitsilano, 1927 42 FIGURE 18 Melton Court Apartments, 2300 Block Cornwall Avenue, erected by Fred Melton, 1922 43 FIGURE 19 Zoning in Kitsilano, 1929 46 i x LIST OF FIGURES (Cont'd) FIGURE 20 Looking East on Fourth Avenue from Macdonald Street, 1928 47 FIGURE 21 K i t s i l a n o Pool, 1935 48 FIGURE 22 Tatlow Court Rowhouses, 1820 Bayswater Street, 1978 51 FIGURE 23 Three-storey walkup apartment blocks, 2300 Block York Avenue, 1978 55 FIGURE 24 Changes i n Residential Zoning i n K i t s i l a n o from 1929 to 1956 56 FIGURE 25 Res i d e n t i a l Conversion into Suites, 2143 York Avenue, 1978 55 FIGURE 26 One of the many re s t homes i n K i t s i l a n o , 2906 West 8th Avenue, 1978 58 FIGURE 27 Apartment blocks on West Second Avenue, looking west from Maple Street, 1978 65 FIGURE 28 K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association Executive and Pioneer Members, 1944 77 FIGURE 29 Res i d e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of KRA Executive Members i n K i t s i l a n o , 1956 88 FIGURE 30 Presbyterian church p i c n i c , Greer's Beach, 1894 K i t s i l a n o Showboat 95 FIGURE 31 Untidy p i l e of wood on boulevard, Maple Street, 1952 103 FIGURE 32 Older homes i n good r e p a i r , 1956 107 FIGURE 33 B l i g h t spot at 1839 Creelman Avenue, 1956 108 FIGURE 34 K i t s i l a n o ' s B i g Day, July 24, 1935 118 FIGURE 35 Small cottage type house converted into s u i t e s , 1200 block Arbutus Street, 1956 125 X LIST OF FIGURES (Cont'd) FIGURE 36 Coca Cola Sign 127 FIGURE 37 Distribution of KRA Members' Homes and Concerns in Kitsilano, 1935 to 1946 130 FIGURE 38 Mr. and Mrs. J a m e s Quiney, 1930 Theresa Quiney, undated W.H. Glazer, 1909 FIGURE 39 The Distribution of KRA Members' Homes and Concerns in Kitsilano, 1954 to 1957 FIGURE 40 Couple on plank sidewalk, Kitsilano, 1911 138 164 180 XX ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thanks go f i r s t and foremost to my parents, who stimulated my c u r i o s i t y and my eagerness to tackle the new and challenging. My i n t e r e s t i n Geography was f i r s t sparked by Ivor Winton and was nourished by Marwyn Samuels, Cole Harris and David Ley, whose ideas seemed to always excite me. Thanks to my students at Langara f o r continuing to i n s p i r e i n me t h i s excitement and i n t r i g u e . The warm and supportive atmosphere of graduate school friends eased the often acute pain of i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional growth. I think most dearly of Donna Cook, Paul Bain, Deborah P h i l l i p s and Deryck Holdsworth. Special thanks must go to those friends who, over many years, have shared both my joys and fea r s , and offered always t h e i r care and confidence — m y s i s t e r Diana and brother John, Charlie Maule, Mary P h i l p o t t , Roz Scar n e l l and, e s p e c i a l l y , Linda Robertson. F i n a l l y , I am deeply g r a t e f u l to John Mercer and my graduate advisor, David Ley. This thesis would c e r t a i n l y not have been completed without t h e i r patient understanding and c a r e f u l com-ments on the thesis d r a f t . x i i FOREWORD > This thesis examines two concepts of neighbourhood: neighbourhood as a place-bound phenomenon rooted in human relationships and neighbour hood as the home setting for individuals seeking to attain their own personal goals. Human behaviour, as the differentiating factor In thes concepts, is communally-focused in the one case and individually-focuse in the other. Both communal and individual concerns have long found compatible expression in neighbourhood activity within Kitsilano, a westside resi-dential district adjacent to Vancouver's downtown peninsula. With the good of the community and the future children of Kitsilano in mind, a group of twenty-eight early residents donated their own money towards the public purchase of Kitsilano Beach Park. For the eight members of this group who were real estate agents within Kitsilano and the eleven whose homes lay within one block of the new park, increased property values must have been an attractive by-product of the park purchase. The coexistence of communal and individual, concerns amongst these early neighbourhood boosters seems rather obvious. In examining later initiatives of neighbourhood groups, the identification of motives be-comes more difficult. In the 1930's and 1940's, Kitsilano residents seemed absorbed in such social and philanthropic activities as the Kitsilano Showboat and the Santa Claus Fund. Kitsilano projected the image of an ideal neighbourhood: good homes, schools and churches; friendly merchants" and neighbours. Residents involved in improving and protecting the residential status of Kitsilano in the 1950's con-firmed this image, describing their activities in the rhetoric of x i i i community concern. However, despite both the image of neighbourhood s o l i d a r i t y and the active communal involvement of residents, K i t s i l a n o began to d i s i n t e g r a t e as a family d i s t r i c t . Increasingly by the 1960's the older homes were replaced by apartment b u i l d i n g s . The f a m i l i e s who had formed the basis of neighbourhood were replaced by young s i n -gles. Special i n t e r e s t groups c o n f l i c t e d over the nature of future K i t s i l a n o development. One would expect these changes to upset greatly those residents who had worked to b u i l d and protect K i t s i l a n o . This was not the case. Members of the t r a d i t i o n a l neighbourhood groups seemed s a t i s f i e d with the changes and i n t o l e r a n t of those who impeded them. Indeed, the l a t e 1950's found long-term residents f i g h t i n g f or the upzoning which would bring increased apartment construction. Although the communal concept of neighbourhood o f f e r s an under-standing of the e a r l i e r behaviour of K i t s i l a n o residents, i t does not explain the l a t e r behaviour. Why was the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of K i t s i l a n o as a t r a d i t i o n a l l y communal neighbourhood encouraged by the residents who had seemed so supportive of i t ? An analysis of the K i t s i l a n o Park purchase found that the concerns of people often have both communal and i n d i v i d u a l roots. The behaviour of K i t s i l a n o residents through time can perhaps be better understood through an examination of not only t h e i r communal concerns, which seemed the most dominant and s e l f -advertised, but also t h e i r more subtle and perhaps taken-for-granted i n d i v i d u a l concerns. I t i s with these apparently paradoxical a t t i t u d e s to neighbourhood s o l i d a r i t y and neighbourhood change, the i n t e r p l a y x i v of s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l responses to community, that t h i s thesis i s c e n t r a l l y concerned. The most s i g n i f i c a n t question of t h i s thesis concerns the puzzling r o l e of long-term residents i n the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l neighbourhood within K i t s i l a n o . I t i s probable that many present-day K i t s i l a n o residents would, however, dispute t h i s demise. I would ask that these people consider not the contemporary attachment of residents to the neighbourhood, but the growing pace of change i n K i t s i l a n o - the bu i l d i n g a c t i v i t y , the t r a f f i c congestion, the transience of neighbours. K i t s i l a n o has changed from i t s e a r l i e r days of i n d i v i d u a l homes and family u n i t s . A contemporary attachment to place e x i s t s i n K i t s i l a n o , but t h i s attachment i s to a d i f f e r e n t place by people d i f f e r e n t from the former residents. This contemporary neighbourhood of K i t s i l a n o c e r t a i n l y warrants i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The concern of t h i s t h e s i s , however, l i e s with the t r a d i t i o n a l neighbourhood of K i t s i l a n o — the neighbour-hood of which only remnants now remain. There are many i n today's society who bemoan the.demise of neigh-bourhood. Echoing Simone.Weil, they cry out f o r roots and sec u r i t y i n human re l a t i o n s h i p s and place. I t i s easy, from t h i s perspective, to condemn the behaviour of those who allow or encourage neighbourhood d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . Such condemnation i s , I f e e l , rather inappropriate i n the case of the conduct examined i n th i s t h e s i s . The men and women of t r a d i t i o n a l K i t s i l a n o worked hard to shape a neighbourhood to which they were, over a long period of time, deeply attached. Their motiva-XV t i o n l a y not i n the destruction of neighbourhood. I t i s , i n f a c t , the incongruity between the many good intentions of these people and the i n some ways lamentable outcome of t h e i r actions which i s of i n t e r e s t . Although my own intentions may have d i f f e r e d from those of the K i t s i l a n o residents I have studied, I have great respect f o r the deter-mination they displayed i n the struggle to achieve t h e i r goals. And although I regret some of the changes i n K i t s i l a n o encouraged by these residents, I admire t h e i r sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n and success. 1 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 2 FIGURE 1 The Location of Kitsilano in Vancouver 3 "Every c i t y has i t s favored r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t , and K i t s i l a n o occupies that enviable p o s i t i o n i n the c i t y of Vancouver." x K i t s i l a n o , located i n Vancouver's i n n e r - c i t y , has long projected the image Of an i d e a l neighbourhood — a place i n which f a m i l i e s could 2 comfortably and happily set up home. An active c i t i z e n r y i n the neighbourhood, represented by such groups as ratepayers' associations, church groups, s o c i a l clubs and the Chamber of Commerce, attended to continual improvements i n landscape, services and s o c i a l m i l i e u . A sense of neighbourliness was encouraged by these residents through such a c t i v i t i e s as the K i t s i l a n o Showboat, Kiddies Parade, and church services at the beach. Appreciative of t h e i r s o c i a l amenities, t h e i r convenient i n n e r - c i t y l o c a t i o n and t h e i r superb view of mountains and sea, these early K i t s i l a n o residents were confident of t h e i r neigh-3 bourhood's r e s i d e n t i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y and continued progress. By 1980 we see a K i t s i l a n o r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from that of e a r l i e r days. Concrete hig h r i s e s and cedar-panelled walk-ups have replaced wooden bungalows. Four foot fences ensure the privacy — not neigh-bourliness — of residents. Some homes remain, yet exposed the i r r e -s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of multiple tenants. Others sport Greek-pillared or 'Vest Coast modern" f a c e - l i f t s . Scattered n u c l e i of shops and res-taurants o f f e r a dynamic youth-oriented night l i f e : Bimini's, the King's Head, Orestes, Rohan's and the Soft Rock Cafe. The more mellow K i t s i l a n o residents frequent the shops of Fourth Avenue — recycled clothing, antiques, boutiques, c r a f t s and health food. 4 K i t s i l a n o residents today are a diverse group comprising ethnic f a m i l i e s , mobi]t s i n g l e s , 'laid-back' n a t u r a l i s t s , students and pro-f e s s i o n a l s . Yet they a l l are attracted to K i t s i l a n o . Like e a r l i e r residents they seem appreciative of the attractiveness of K i t s i l a n o ' s s e t t i n g , l o c a t i o n and services. There seems to be no i n d i c a t i o n , however, of them sharing i n i d e n t i c a l form the. e a r l i e r - h e l d b e l i e f i n the importance of family s e c u r i t y and neighbourhood "progress". If the present-day residents of K i t s i l a n o hold any b e l i e f i n common i t may we l l be the importance of accepting the d i v e r s i t y of K i t s i l a n o r e s i d e n t s . 4 This thesis grows out of a concern to understand the r i s e and f a l l of neighbourhood i n K i t s i l a n o — i t s t r a n s i t i o n from a f r i e n d l y place of family homes to a multi-dimensional inner c i t y neighbourhood. It presupposes that an explanation of t h i s change does not l i e simply i n the commonly-treated inner c i t y redevelopment process. As Tuan so convincingly points out, the roots of place a r e . i n man. I t i s man's actions which, over time, shape.and convey meaning to place (Tuan, 1974 (b)). In order to understand place, then, one must understand the people who have fashioned that place — the behaviour of these people over time."* A conscious desire to influence the development of t h e i r neighbourhood prompted the residents of K i t s i l a n o to early on form a c t i v e citizens.' groups. The r o l e of people i n the place-shaping process i s thus both evident and examinable i n K i t s i l a n o . Just as the roots of place l i e i n man, the roots of human behav-ious l i e i n motivation and in t e n t . This thesis w i l l examine those 5 ideas which gave r i s e to the actions of people concerned about the character of t h e i r community. An image of neighbourhood underlay coordinated group e f f o r t . In an attempt to understand the place, K i t s i l a n o , t h i s thesis w i l l thus turn i t s focus from the landscape and place-shaping process, to the ideas upon which behaviour and landscape are predicated: the concepts of neighbourhood. Two sets of l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r a methodological and p h i l o s o p h i c a l framework f o r t h i s examination: the geographical l i t e r a t u r e concerned with understanding place and the s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e concerned with understanding neighbourhood. Both sets of l i t e r a t u r e treat the rel a t i o n s h i p s between human nature, behaviour and place. Their ap-propriateness to the present study v a r i e s according to the degree to which they o f f e r an understanding of the ideas which prompt man to shape place, GEOGRAPHICAL LITERATURE: UNDERSTANDING PLACE  Landscape Patterns Landscape and place are two d i f f e r e n t concepts. Landscape refe r s to the ph y s i c a l or tangible elements of the earth's surface and i s a r e f l e c t i o n of both human and natural processes (English, 1968). Place includes also the intangible dimensions of r e a l i t y : the a f f e c t i v e t i e s between man and landscape i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n (Tuan, 1974 (b)). Place cannot be separated from the thoughts and fe e l i n g s of man. Geographers have not always made t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between land-scape and place. In attempting to understand place many geographers 6 have acknowledged the role which man plays i n shaping place, but focused t h e i r examination on the tangible elements of landscape.^ Hartshorne describes the goals of such geographers: "to describe and i n t e r p r e t the v a r i a b l e character from place to place of the earth as the world of man".8 Human Processes A d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the degree of understanding of place a t -tainable through the focus on landscape l e d to enquiries into the processes which l a y behind the landscape .patterns (Golledge, 1972). "the e a r l i e r stress on the geometric outcome of the s p a t i a l game has lessened i n favor of analysis of the rules which govern the moves of the actors who populate the gaming table."9 There was a recognition that place could be better understood through an understanding of the actions of man (Berry, 1973). Unfortunately, not a l l who investigated behavioural processes sought to understand the roots of these processes. In many cases a simple d e s c r i p t i o n of s p a t i a l behaviour accompanied the e a r l i e r descriptions of s p a t i a l patterns (Harvey, 1975 and Olsson, 1974). Man's r o l e i n shaping place, and the meaning of place to man were not the focus of examination. Man-Place Relations Disillusionment with the l i m i t e d understanding provided by des-c r i p t i o n s of s p a t i a l patterns and behaviour l e d to a deeper i n v e s t i g a -t i o n of man i n r e l a t i o n to place. The environmental perception school of research focused on the images man holds of the places around him. An understanding of action i n r e l a t i o n to place was sought i n an exam-7 in a t i o n of these images, which i d e n t i f i e d the meaningful elements i n place as well as providing an explanation f o r behavioural decisions (Downs, 1970). Most of the l i t e r a t u r e on environmental perception and images of place, however, have been concerned with l o c a t i o n a l rather than place-shaping behaviour (Gould, 1974). The image of place was considered not as an i d e a l model underlying the shaping of r e a l i t y , which i s the concern of t h i s t h e s i s , but as a s t r u c t u r a l model of the degree to which " r e a l i t y " was accurately perceived (Appleyard, 1964 and Lynch, 1960). Interest i n environmental perception and the images man holds of place has not i n a l l cases been focussed on the accuracy of human per-ception and the understanding of purely l o c a t i o n a l behaviour. A num-ber of geographers, notably Lowenthal and Tuan, have concerned them-selves with the value-imbued meanings of place (Tuan, 1974 (b) ; Lowenthal, 1968 and Lowenthal and Prince, 1965). This study of per-ception and images has treated more deeply the nature of man i n order to uncover the ideas - or meanings of place - which prompt man to shape h i s environment i n a p a r t i c u l a r manner. "Landscapes are formed by landscape tastes. People see t h e i r surroundings through preferred and accus-tomed glasses, and tend to make the world as they see it."10 This school of research i s thus i n accord with t h i s thesis i n acknow-ledging human ideas as the root of place-shaping processes. Unfortu-nately, work i n t h i s f i e l d has been hampered by the d i f f i c u l t y of obtaining data which conveys the nature of place-related ideas. 8 "Actions are i n t e n t i o n a l and purposive, they have meaning but access to t h i s meaning requires know-ledge of the motives and perception of the actor, h i s d e f i n i t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n . " i l Examining landscape on a large scale, researchers were able to turn to the thoughts of poets and statesmen as they expressed t h e i r f e e l -ings towards place (Lowenthal and Prince, 1965). One cannot assume, however, that the ideas expressed by these 'exceptional' people are the same as those of the 'common' inhabitant. I f one hopes to under-stand the man-place r e l a t i o n s as they e x i s t i n day-to-day l i f e one must seek the spontaneous expressions of ideas.and.landscape meanings by l o c a l residents. This type of data are, of course, d i f f i c u l t to obtain. In t h e i r absence, researchers i n t h i s f i e l d have had to r e l y on t h e i r own i n t u i t i v e assessment of landscape features, l o c a l r e s i -dents, and the r e l a t i o n s between the two (Duncan, 1973 and Gibson, 1971). The problem of data s c a r c i t y i s not one which besets t h i s t h e s i s . In attempting to,uncover the ideas which l e d to the shaping of place i n K i t s i l a n o t h i s researcher i s privy to extensive community group records which expound at length on the designs intended by r e s i -12 dents f o r t h e i r neighbourhood. SOCIOLOGICAL LITERATURE:.. COMMUNITY AND NEIGHBOURHOOD The value to t h i s thesis of much of the geographical l i t e r a t u r e t r e a t i n g place rests i n i t s understanding of the r e l a t i o n s between man's ideas, behaviour and environment. Most relevant i s that l i t e r -ature which focusses on the meaningful t i e s between man and place, and the basis of man's behaviour i n meaning. There i s s o c i o l o g i c a l 9 l i t e r a t u r e which s i m i l a r l y treats the nature of man's attachment to place: community and neighbourhood studies. This l i t e r a t u r e r aises an issue which i s c r i t i c a l to my t h e s i s : what i s the meaning of neighbourhood or l o c a l community? Since the concern of t h i s thesis i s to explore the meaning of neighbourhood to the residents a c t i v e l y involved i n d i r e c t i n g i t s development, a review of the academic d e f i n -i t i o n s of neighbourhood may o f f e r a framework f o r t h i s examination. Community,, Local Area and Neighbourhood The terms community, l o c a l area and neighbourhood have thus f a r i n t h i s thesis been used interchangeably. A b r i e f examination of • these terms should be undertaken i n order to substantiate t h e i r r e -latedness and provide a basis f o r the closer examination of the nature of neighbourhood. The numerous d e f i n i t i o n s which e x i s t of community seem i n agree-ment that the most c r i t i c a l component of community i s s o c i a l i n t e r a c -t i o n ( H i l l e r y , 1955). "Community i s considered (as) a group of people 13 i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n having some t i e s or bonds i n common." Commu-n i t y , as defined i n this manner, i s not nec e s s a r i l y place-bound, and, i f so, i s usually q u a l i f i e d as " l o c a l community" (Clark, 1973 and Stacey, 1969). Local area, unlike community, i s based f i r s t and foremost on i t s s p a t i a l i t y . "The en t i r e urban landscape, (is ) divided into small areas 14 by the network of transportation and industry." Although these l o c a l areas may serve as the bases f o r community, there are " l o c a l 10 conditions where no such ( s o c i a l ) system could be expected."^ In contrast, " l o c a l areas that have p h y s i c a l boundaries, s o c i a l net-works , concentrated use of area f a c i l i t i e s , and s p e c i a l emotional and symbolic connotations for t h e i r inhabitants are considered neighbour-16 hoods." Thus neighbourhood i s an i n t e g r a t i v e concept, i d e n t i f y i n g communities which are place-bound and l o c a l areas which sustain s o c i a l 17 xnteractxon. The. Meaning of Neighbourhood The terms outlined above have been used interchangeably by many researchers (Suttles, 1972), and thus have added to the already e x i s t -ing confusion over the nature of the concept ( H i l l e r y , 1955; F r e i l i c h , 1963; Stacey, 1969; and Clark, 1973). A review of some of the research i n t h i s f i e l d reveals, however, a l i m i t e d number of factors which seem consistently important i n i d e n t i f y i n g the nature of neighbourhood. Soc i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , a s p e c i f i c s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n a n d . s o l i d a r i t y seem to be the three most c r i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of neighbourhood ( H i l l e r y , 18 1955). Although, for the most part, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these fac-tors has been determined i n t u i t i v e l y by the researchers themselves, an increasing i n t e r e s t has been shown i n the indigenously expressed meanings of neighbourhood (Gans, 1962; S u t t l e s , 1968; Ley, 1974). Serving as a basis f or s o c i a l networks and reinforced by those networks, a c e r t a i n communality of values and l i f e s t y l e i s found within a neighbourhood. These values and l i f e s t y l e s are r e f l e c t e d i n the land-scape — homes, gardens, mailboxes, churches, community h a l l s — and 11 further serve to a t t r a c t s i m i l a r people (Duncan, 1973). The comple-mentarity of landscape, neighbours and oneself o f f e r s comfort and sec u r i t y . One f e e l s at ease, at home, attached to place and even w i l l i n g to defend i t i f i t i s threatened. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of the s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on community to thi s thesis l i e s i n i t s assertion that human beings are a c r i t i c a l com-ponent of neighbourhood - one must understand a people to understand a place. The l i t e r a t u r e has further u t i l i t y i n that some consideration has been given to the conceptualization of neighbourhood by the 'common' resident. However, other than an acknowledgment of the tendency of a neighbourhood to r e f l e c t symbolically i n i t s landscape the nature of i t s inhabitants, the s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e has generally avoided the r e l a t i o n s h i p between peoples' concept of neighbourhood and the 19 i n t e n t i o n a l moulding of that place. Therefore, although the socio-l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e o f f e r s a stronger context f o r the examination of the meaning of neighbourhood undertaken i n t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s the geographical l i t e r a t u r e which o f f e r s a framework f or the exploration of connections between the meaning of neighbourhood and the ultimate shaping of i t by i t s inhabitants. NEIGHBOURHOOD IN KITSILANO The neighbourhood of K i t s i l a n o i n inner c i t y Vancouver has long been the focus of concern on the part of residents who have spontane-20 ously and i n t e n t i o n a l l y acted to shape the nature of t h e i r community. 12 A content analysis of a l o c a l newspaper, the K i t s i l a n o Times, has re-vealed the c e n t r a l i t y of four groups i n neighbourhood a c t i v i t i e s : the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers 1 Association, K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, Kit s i l a n o - L i o n ' s Club and Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association (Appendix 1). Although a l l four groups deserve attention, the i n -depth examination of any one group would reveal some of the ideas and goals which motivated resident action i n general. An analysis of the s p a t i a l focus and time span of group a c t i v i t i e s may help i n determin-ingwhidhof the four groups i s most appropriate f o r study. The K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce and the K i t s i l a n o — l a t e r Burrard — Lion's Club began t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n K i t s i l a n o i n the mid-1930 's. Although they took a strong r o l e i n promoting l o c a l a c t i v i -t i e s , both groups operated on a larger scale o r i e n t a t i o n . The Lion's Club admits openly i t s n a t i o n a l b i a s : "The aims of the l o c a l organi-zation w i l l be i n l i n e with the general aims of the senior (Canadian) 21 body." Although the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce was much more a l o c a l expression of residents' ideas and plans f o r K i t s i l a n o than was the K i t s i l a n o Lion's Club, the organization obviously, focused i t s con-cerns on merchants' i n t e r e s t s . Its members, despite operating stores 22 i n K i t s i l a n o , l a r g e l y resided outside the area. By i t s nature, the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce.was thus a commercial rather than a r e s i d e n t i a l body. I t s involvement i n r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s was of great enough s i g n i f i c a n c e , however, to warrant reference i n th i s t h e s i s . 13 Just as the K i t s i l a n o Lion's Club and the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce were overly broad i n t h e i r focus of i n t e r e s t s , the Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association was too l o c a l i z e d . The concern of this organization was with one small area within K i t s i l a n o — the ex-treme northeast corner. I t was organized in.1952 to meet the needs of an already fragmenting community where residents began to f e e l i d e n t i -f i c a t i o n with only a small portion of what was o r i g i n a l l y considered the K i t s i l a n o neighbourhood. Furthermore, i t s concerns, although spa-t i a l l y more confined, were s i m i l a r i n nature to those of the already e x i s t i n g K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association. In f a c t , a 1957 proposal to amalgamate the two organizations stated, "In K i t s i l a n o , our i n t e r -ests i n s t r e e t s , parks, museums, etc., coincide, so why a l l t h i s du-23 p l i c a t i o n ? " Thus, an extensive examination of both K i t s i l a n o r a t e -payers' associations might prove to a large extent redundant. Since t h i s thesis i s concerned with the neighbourhood of K i t s i l a n o as a whole, a focus on the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, whose are a ! boundaries approximate most accurately the present day adminis-24 t r a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n of K i t s i l a n o , i s most convenient. Furthermore, the a c t i v i t i e s of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, i n i t i a t e d i n 1906, spanned by f a r the greatest length of time of any of the neigh-bourhood groups. Thus, although the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association was not alone i n the active l o c a l r o l e i t played, its.behaviour o f f e r s the most appropriate case study. 14 The bulk of the data used i n th i s thesis i s drawn from the p r i -vate records of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association supplemented by the pr i v a t e records of the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce and the Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association. These include correspondence, meeting minutes and miscellaneous f i l e s . Records are a v a i l a b l e f o r 25 the following years : K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association: 1935 - 1946 Minutes 1950 - 1951 Correspondence 1954 - 1957 Correspondence 1960 - 1970 Minutes 1962 - 1970 Correspondence K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce: 1954 - 1970 Minutes Scattered correspondence and miscellaneous f i l e s . Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association: 1953 - 1967 Correspondence One other major source of data i s the K i t s i l a n o Times newspaper, which was rig o r o u s l y analyzed f o r the years. 1918 - 1923, 1926 - 1929, 1936 -26 1941 and 1953 - 1962. Other sources of data include interviews, o r a l h i s t o r y tapes, Vancouver c i t y d i r e c t o r i e s , census data, h i s t o r i -c a l maps, and miscellaneous h i s t o r i c a l records and newspaper c l i p p i n g s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those contained i n the Vancouver C i t y Archives. The use of such a v a r i e t y of data sources i s c r i t i c a l to th i s t h e s i s . The de-t a i l e d nature of pri v a t e group records allows considerable i n s i g h t into the residents themselves - a necessity considering the goal of understanding t h e i r a spirations regarding t h e i r home neighbourhood. Newspaper data provides contextual information: the f i l l i n g i n of 27 data gaps, and a perspective on group f i l e data. Interviews, o r a l 15 h i s t o r i e s and p r i v a t e h i s t o r i c a l records again allow more focussed i n s i g h t , providing the more emotionally expressive statements which portray more c l e a r l y the meaning of neighbourhood to these residents. A balance to t h i s more subjective, q u a l i t a t i v e data i s provided by the d i r e c t o r i e s , census data and maps. The primary methodology used to analyze the data was content an a l y s i s , ranging i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n from rigorous frequency counts to the more subjective drawing out of key quotes. The treatment of a l l data was inductive. The discussion which follows i s thus organized around themes which emerged during the ac t u a l data c o l l e c t i o n and ana-l y s i s . The thesis focuses on the period 1935 to 1961, although a con-textual chapter w i l l provide information p r i o r to 1935 and, to a more li m i t e d extent, a f t e r 1961. The time scale of the study was i n part determined by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of data - i n p a r t i c u l a r , the p r i v a t e group records. More c r i t i c a l , however, was the h i s t o r i c a l appropriate-ness of t h i s era f o r study. At one end, 1935 was a c r i t i c a l year i n K i t s i l a n o ' s s o c i a l h i s t o r y . In that year Bert Emery, the ' u n o f f i c i a l mayor of Kitsilano', organized the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, re -v i t a l i z e d the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, and established numer-ous other community a c t i v i t i e s , including the well-known K i t s i l a n o Showboat. During the years 1935 to 1961, the community projected a strongly cohesive neighbourhood image. By 1961, however, q u a l i t a t i v e changes i n the landscape and s o c i a l character of K i t s i l a n o had become 16 increasingly v i s i b l e . Thus during the peak years of neighbourhood s o l i d a r i t y i n K i t s i l a n o - 1935 to 1961 - processes leading to the ultimate d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the neighbourhood must have been at work. To examine K i t s i l a n o during t h i s period may therefore uncover the roots of the neighbourhood change which came l a t e r . Chapter two supplies the h i s t o r i c a l context for the narrower tem-poral focus of l a t e r chapters. Chapter three outlines c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association whose a c t i v i t i e s seemed so c r i t i c a l w ithin the neighbourhood - the nature of i t s membership, i t s representativeness of the community as a whole, and i t s general goals. Chapters four and f i v e present two concepts of neighbourhood which seem to underlie the a c t i v i t i e s of the residents i n the period 1935 to 1961. Chapter s i x provides the conclusions one can draw re-garding the meaning of neighbourhood to these K i t s i l a n o residents, and the explanatory value of neighbourhood concepts i n an understanding of the changing nature of the community. 17 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER 1 K i t s i l a n o Times, A p r i l 10, 1920, p. 1. The p r o j e c t i o n of t h i s image i s v e r i f i e d by a content analysis of newspaper clippings held i n the Vancouver C i t y Archives. 'Progress as used here r e f e r s to improvements i n the services and landscape of K i t s i l a n o . Chapters Four and Five deal with t h i s concept more e x p l i c i t l y . Evidence of r e s i d e n t s 1 appreciation and confidence i n r e s i d e n t i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y and progress may be found i n a general reading of any issue of the K i t s i l a n o Times newspaper. These conclusions are based on many informal conversations with K i t s i l a n o residents and my own experience as a K i t s i l a n o resident f o r the past seven years. The mediation of s o c i a l m i l i e u i n landscape development was the centre of discussion of the French School, epitomized i n the work of V i d a l de l a Blache. The mediation of culture i n landscape pro-cesses was also discussed by the Chicago School (Park, 1925). 'There are c e r t a i n l y other sets of l i t e r a t u r e which may have been reviewed; notably the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s t l i t e r a t u r e , which pro-vides some perspective on the group a r t i c u l a t i o n of goals and or-ganization of behaviour and the c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , which deals with the r e l a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e of l o c a l users, l a r g e r -scale landscape-shaping forces. I have included a few b i b l i o g r a p h i c references appropriate to these perspectives (e.g., Frisken, Head, Jacobs, Kasperson, Shibutani and Wellman). I do f e e l , however, that both sets of l i t e r a t u r e focus too heavily on the s o c i o l o g i c a l or p o l i t i c a l analysis of behavioural processes to warrant extensive review i n t h i s t h e s i s . r The t r a d i t i o n a l focus on landscape i n geographical w r i t i n g i s discus-sed i n many works. Lukermann (1964) discusses the h i s t o r i c a l impor-tance of place d e s c r i p t i o n s . "Emphasis was placed on empirical ob-servation c o l l e c t e d through f i e l d study" (Lukermann, 1964, p. 20). Such emphasis on landscpae patterns may also be seen i n the f i e l d of economic geography which grew out of Ratzel's suggestion that ". . . geography be studied as the science of abstract d i s t r i b u t i o n s " (Lukermann, 1964, p. 26). An emphasis on the study of the v i s i b l e or tangible elements of the landscape may be found, too, i n the Berkeley school of landscape geographers, epitomized by the work of C a r l Sauer (Brookfield, 1964, pp. 288-291). 18 Hartshorne, 1959, p. 47. Olsson, 1969, p. 14. '^Lowenthal, 1968, p. 61. '"'"Ley, 1975, pp. 20-21. I t should be noted that even though l o c a l expression of place-related ideas i s documented, the meanings underlying such statements may not be wholly e x p l i c i t . Thus the researcher does not t o t a l l y avoid the i n t e r p r e t i v e r o l e he must of necessity take where such data are li m i t e d . Schutz (1953, p. 3) notes that the expression of feeli n g s by the common person becomes interpreted when organized into a scheme of understanding by the researcher. 1 3 H i l l e r y . , 1955, p. 118. 1 4Ross, 1970, p. 559. 1 5 S t a c e y , 1969, p. 139. 1 6 K e l l e r , 1968, pp. 156-157. " ^ K i t s i l a n o w i l l often be re f e r r e d to i n th i s thesis as community or l o c a l area. However, i t i s with t h e i r place-bound and s o c i a l expres-sions i n mind that these terms are used. One may pursue an understanding of these three concepts i n the f o l -lowing sets of references: a) s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n : Park et a l . , 1925; Zorbaugh, 1929; Tonnies, 1955 and Janowitz, 1967. b) s p a t i a l l o c a t i o n : Mann, 1970. c) s o l i d a r i t y : F i r e y , 1945; Gans, 1962; Su t t l e s , 1968 and Ley, 1974. K e l l e r (1968) o f f e r s an example of s o c i o l o g i c a l research which does examine the re l a t i o n s h i p s between peoples 1 (planners') concepts of neighbourhood and t h e i r shaping of place. The common accusation, "Is neighbourhood j u s t another academic im-po s i t i o n ? " c e r t a i n l y seems inappropriate given the grass roots con-cern for neighbourhood apparent i n K i t s i l a n o . 19 21 Kitsilano Times, January 13, 1938, p. 1. 22 The Kitsilano Chamber of Commerce constitution affirms the organiza-tion's focus on both merchants' concerns and the good of the Vancou-ver community at large. An analysis of the residential location of Kitsilano Chamber of Commerce members found 48.5 percent of the executive body residing outside Kitsilano in the 1940's and in 1967 and 55 percent of the general body residing outside Kitsilano in 1959. 23 Kitsilano Ratepayers' Association letter to the Lower Kitsilano Ratepayers' Association, November 12, 1957. 24 The Kitsilano Ratepayers' Association's northern boundary at the English Bay foreshore, southern boundary at 16th Avenue and western boundary at Alma Road are concomitant with the informal adminis-trative boundaries identified by the City Planning Department. The association's eastern boundary at Fir Street does, however, l i e two blocks east of the administrative boundary at Burrard Street. 25 A group of unclassified Kitsilano Ratepayers' Association records covering the years 1941-46 was discovered in the Vancouver City Archives just prior to the completion of this thesis. Time con-straints prevented the thorough analysis of this data. 2 6 These years cover the complete holdings of the Kitsilano Times weekly newspaper in the B.C. Provincial archives. A rigorous con-tent analysis was conducted on one-quarter of the issues (rotating weeks of the month) and a more informal search for information con-ducted on the remaining issues. 27 The validity of a community newspaper as a source of data - particu-larly contextual data - is often difficult to establish. Certainly every community newspaper has its own biases. The attempt of the paper, however, to establish a comprehensive coverage is important. "The Times is very much interested in the progress of every organization in Kitsilano, but hasn't the staff to go to every organization and get news of its activities. We invite you to see that your organization keeps its members, though our paper, acquainted with its Fall activities" (Kitsilano Times, Sept. 17, 1936, p. 1). 20 27(cont'd) The K i t s i l a n o Times assessed i t s readership i n K i t s i l a n o i n 1937 as 14,000 people out of an approximate t o t a l K i t s i l a n o population of 30,000 ( K i t s i l a n o Times, March 24, 1937, p. 1). The s t a f f of:the K i t s i l a n o Times c e r t a i n l y saw i t s e l f as a t r u l y representative community newspaper, s u b t i t l i n g the paper i n 1936 as "The Voice of K i t s i l a n o " . "During the years that I have been here, K i t s i l a n o has made d e f i n i t e s t r i d e s forward. My part i n those forward movements was to work shoulder to shoulder with the dozens of men and women who made that progress possi b l e , was to so c l e a r l y iden-t i f y the K i t s i l a n o Times with every community project that we became indeed an i n t e g r a l part of community l i f e " (statement by Rex Werts, r e t i r e d e d i t o r , K i t s i l a n o Times, A p r i l 28, 1938, p. 1). 21 CHAPTER TOO: HISTORICAL CONTEXT 22 "To have cleared the fo r e s t and erected homes - to have thrust a spade for the f i r s t time into v i r g i n s o i l - to have transformed a wilder-ness into a garden." 50th Anniversary Message, K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Associa-t i o n , 1956. "In 1974, community pressure i n K i t s i -lano brought a temporary freeze on high-ri s e apartments. One b u i l d i n g was able to s l i p through the freeze, however, and another block of homes f e l l to the bulldozer." Gutstein, 1974, p. 106. ASSESSMENT AND EARLY LAND USE: 1884 - 1908 The peaceful seclusion of the K i t s i l a n o f o r e s t with i t s abundant game and f i s h - f i l l e d streams attracted as i t s f i r s t residents the Squamish Indians of the Coast S a l i s h Tribe."'" S e t t l i n g f o r the most part i n the v i l l a g e of Snaaq on K i t s i l a n o Point they remained undis-turbed u n t i l 1861, when government o f f i c i a l s from New Westminster cut an access t r a i l through the K i t s i l a n o f o r e s t to reach a newly appro-2 priated m i l i t a r y reserve i n Point Grey. Access i n i t i a t e d white ap-p r a i s a l of the K i t s i l a n o area: "By a l l accounts, from present G r a n v i l l e Street to the t i p of Point Grey grew one of the most, s i g n i - ^ f i c a n t stands of v i r g i n timber the world has seen." Commercial logging a c t i v i t y on the slopes bordering English Bay was firmly established by 1865 (Figure 2). 23 FIGURE 2 Logging a c t i v i t y near Point Grey Road and Macdonald Street i n 1895 (source: Vancouver Ci t y Archives). Although government and logging a c t i v i t i e s c e r t a i n l y disturbed the Indians' existence, neither could r i v a l the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Sam Greer's entry into K i t s i l a n o i n 1884. His purchase of 320 acres of 4 land from the Indians marks the beginning of white settlement. Int e r e s t i n g l y , Greer's occupance of a home i n K i t s i l a n o met with un-favourable reaction not from the Indians but from the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company (C.P.R.) who i n 1885 received a Crown grant of land which included Greer's property."* A clause i n the grant guaranteed that a l l large p r i v a t e landowners i n Vancouver would r e l i n q u i s h to the C.P.R. one-third of the l o t s i n each block they owned. The 24 C.P.R., however, seemed determined i n Greer's case to outst him en-t i r e l y and defend t h e i r r i g h t to a l l of h i s l o t s . "The C.P.R. claims that they have acted within t h e i r l e g a l r i g h t s since Mr. Greer i s occupying property which belongs to the r a i l r o a d , and that i n the course of preparing f o r the yards and docks of the terminal on the south shore of English Bay, i t has been neces-sary to remove Mr. Greer and his encumbrances from the right-of-way."7 The equally determined e f f o r t s of the C.P.R. to e v i c t Greer and Greer to remain i n K i t s i l a n o f i n a l l y l e d to intervention by the l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s i n 1391. A party of o f f i c i a l s a r r i v e d on Greer's door-step determined to convince him of h i s f o l l y . They met with a gun-shot b l a s t from Greer which ended negotiations and resulted i n Greer's imprisonment. Greer's land was repossessed by the government and awarded once again to the C.P.R. Although Greer l o s t h i s b a t t l e , h i s determination to remain a resident i n the place of h i s choice was applauded by many. "Sam was the hero of Vancouver and the pioneers s t i l l honour hi s memory. Sam Greer was one of the men whom nature equipped to pioneer the West."8 Greer's resistance to the plans of outside developers and l o c a l govern-ment mark him as the f i r s t of K i t s i l a n o ' s residents to become a c t i v e l y involved i n the d i s t r i c t ' s development. He, l i k e many of those who were to follow him, acted to protect h i s own in t e r e s t s and intentions for the area. The r e s i d e n t i a l attractiveness of K i t s i l a n o - or Greer's Beach as i t was f i r s t c a l l e d - was l i m i t e d f o r many years due to the area's 25 i s o l a t i o n from the i n i t i a l concentration of Vancouver development on Burrard Peninsula. The G r a n v i l l e Street bridge, completed i n 1888, marginally improved access from Vancouver and thus prompted some settlement. The new residents began t r i c k l i n g into K i t s i l a n o about 1890 and s e t t l e d south of Cornwall Street i n the easterly end of K i t s i l a n o -9 as close to the G r a n v i l l e Street bridge as p o s s i b l e . Access to K i t s i -lano was further improved i n 1905 with the i n i t i a t i o n of s t r e e t c a r ser-v i c e by the B.C. E l e c t r i c Railway Company from Vancouver's West End to the foot of Balsam Street at K i t s i l a n o Beach. The new K i t s i l a n o t r e s t l e offered much quicker access than did the G r a n v i l l e Street bridge, and thus prompted further development of the. area. Residents' homes s t i l l , however, were clustered close to the access routes. A study of r e s i d e n t i a l development was conducted on s i x sample blocks within K i t s i l a n o (locations are given i n Appendix 2). In the f i r s t two years examined i n the study - 1900 and 1911 - the 2000 block West 2nd i n eastern K i t s i l a n o was the only sample block with any residents (Table 1). The r e s i d e n t i a l development elsewhere i n K i t s i l a n o was rather l i m i t e d . "To the west, on K i t s i l a n o H i l l (Vine, Balsam, Larch) a profusion of stumps, stones, ragged bushes and decaying f o r e s t l i t t e r e d a torn surface. Here and there a rough road or t r a i l had been cut to mark-future streets and provide access of a s o r t . Beyond Trafalgar, and over the h i l l to the south, the forest stood i n primeval state, save f o r such large trees as had been removed by loggers twenty years previously, and whose abandoned logging t r a i l s provided means by which berry pickers ^ c o l l e c t e d quantities of blackberries and salmonberries." 26 The early residents of eastern K i t s i l a n o , as revealed by the r e s i d e n t i a l study, were p r i m a r i l y of working class status (Table 1) Photographs taken of the few homes scattered through the western part of K i t s i l a n o seem, however, to r e f l e c t residents of a socio-economic status considerably higher than that t y p i c a l of eastern K i t s i l a n o residents (Figure 3 and 4). K i t s i l a n o thus seems to have attracted residents of a wide v a r i e t y . FIGURE 3 Home of R.D. Rorison, Esquire, 3148 Point Grey Road, 1908. When constructed t h i s was the only home west of Trafalger on Point Grey Road (source: Vancouver City Archives). 27 TABLE 1 1900 TO 1970-1 BLOCK SOCIAL STATUS 1900 1911 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 3500 Pt. Professionals 18 23 26 14 15 28 Grey Rd. Middle Class 36 18 26 25 26 25 Working Class 27 32 37 39 33 17 Retired & Widow 18 27 11 19 22 15 Student 3 4 15 2900 W. Professionals 40 28 22 11 13.5 19 5th Ave. Middle Class 40 28 11 22 13.5 19 Working Class 20 23 56 56 56 52 Retired & Widow 5.5 11 11 17 10 Student 5.5 1900 Professionals 70 67 41 25 17 27 McNicoll Middle Class 20 8 12 15 20 15 Ave. Working Class 10 8 12 25 33 36 Retired & Widow 17 35 30 23 12 Student 5 7 10 2000 W. Professionals 33.5 21 24 7 7 8 28 2nd Ave. Middle Class 12.5 19 29 10 13 14 6 22 Working Class 87.5 47.5 42 63 53 62 50.5 33 Retired & Widow 8 3 27 17 33.5 4 Student 2 13 2200 Professionals 40 33.5 6 14 8 15 Stephens Middle Class 27 11 12 8 10 St. Working Class Retired & 33 33.5 41 35 42 60 Widow 22 35 43 42 10 Student 6 7 5 2400 W. Professionals 8 8 13 33 23 13th Ave. Middle Class 33.5 17 8 13 19 18 Working Class 66.5 67 69 35 19 32 Retired & Widow 8 15 35 29 23 Student 4 4 KITSILANO Professionals 33.5 32 29 19 14 15 25. .5 (6 Block Middle Class 12.5 19 30 15 15 16 16 20 Sample) Working Class Retired & 87.5 47.5 32 41 43 43 39 35 Widow 6 14 22 24 27 9, .5 Student 1 1- 3 3 10 Total No. of Residents Sampled 8 21 68 111 130 140 180 263 '''See Appendix 2 for mapped location of. the sample blocks. Blishen's occupational class scale (1965) was used to analyze the occupational data procured from Vancouver City directories. The professional cate-gory used in this table corresponds to Blishen's categories one and two. The Middle Class category used in this table corresponds to Blishen's categories three and four. The working class category used in this table corresponds to Blishen's categories f ive, s ix and seven. Note that appropriate data was unavailable for the year 1910. 28 FIGURE 4 K i l l a r n e y Mansion, Point Grey Road and Bayswater Street, 1908. Owned by the J.Z. H a l l family (Mrs. J.Z. H a l l was the daughter of Sam Greer), t h i s mansion was a t y p i c a l of K i t s i l a n o homes, but i n d i c a t i v e of the range i n housing q u a l i t y (source: Vancouver Ci t y Archives). Lack of convenient access to the concentration of urban a c t i v i t y i n Vancouver's West End impeded the early r e s i d e n t i a l development of K i t s i l a n o , but encouraged i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l use. "In the 1890's Greer's Beach, more distant and les s easy of access, was a secluded and exclusive summer camp re-sort f o r fashionable pioneer f a m i l i e s , reached either by rowboat down False Creek from C a r r a l l Street, or by walking from the wooden G r a n v i l l e Street bridge on p i l e s , which spanned False Creek from Beach Avenue to Third Avenue."12 29 These e a r l y frequenters e s t a b l i s h e d the a t t r a c t i v e n e s s of the beach area and thus the use of the beach increased d r a m a t i c a l l y with the i n c e p t i o n of s t r e e t c a r s e r v i c e i n 1905 (Figure 5). A boathouse, bathhouse and e v e n t u a l l y semi-permanent tents and cottages served the v a c a t i o n e r s . FIGURE 5 K i t s i l a n o Beach, 1905. Note the K i t s i l a n o s t r e e t c a r , t e r m i n a t i n g at K i t s i l a n o Beach, on the f a r r i g h t and d a n c e h a l l ( r a i s e d b u i l d i n g ) i n the centre of the photo (source: Vancouver C i t y A r c h i v e s ) . The improved access to K i t s i l a n o encouraged not only r e c r e a t i o n a l but a l s o r e s i d e n t i a l development. C o n s t r u c t i o n had begun on the f i r s t school at Fourth Avenue and Yew i n 1904. Completed i n 1906, i t opened j u s t i n time to serve the f a m i l i e s who were a r r i v i n g i n K i t s i l a n o at an i n c r e a s i n g l y r a p i d r a t e . Over 600 students were r e g i s t e r e d i n the 30 school in 1908 (Figure 6). The first community services were esta-blished: the Kitsilano Presbyterian Church in 1906, St. Mark's 13 Anglican and the Kitsilano Methodist churches in 1908. Fourth Avenue had begun to emerge as a centre for shopping (Figure 7). FIGURE 7 Fourth Avenue, 1904 - already a commercial centre for Kitsilano (source: Vancouver City Archives). One of the chief promoters of streetcar service to the beach, and thus the development of Kitsilano, was the C.P.R.. With sub-stantial real estate holdings in eastern Kitsilano, the C.P.R. 14 stood to gain much by improved access to the area. Concomitant with the beginning of streetcar service, the C.P.R. opened its land for construction, bestowing on the area a new name for promotion: FIGURE 6 Enrollment i n K i t s i l a n o Schools from 1906 to 1975 5 ooo Hooo 5 O O O 2. ooo I—1 iqc6 »**io Wi5 lQ£o \Q3o W H O IQM5 lA«5o t<*fcS W T O Source: Vancouver School Board Records, 1906 to 1975. S t a t i s t i c s are aggregated for K i t s i l a n o High School and Bayview, General Gordon, Henry Hudson and Lord Tennyson Elementary schools. A dotted l i n e i n the graph indicates years for which data were unavailable. 32 Kitsilano."'""' Other r e a l estate agents were quick to move i n and pro-16 mote development (Figure 8). FIGURE 8 Real Estate office, corner of Third Avenue and Trutch Street, 1908 (source: Vancouver City Archives). Real estate interests were understandably concerned with the de-velopment of Kitsilano, but more interesting is the unexpected atten-tiveness to development shown by local residents. Rather than leave the future of their district in the hands of real estate promoters, local residents chose to become actively involved in shaping their community. Concerned with the long-term desirability of Kitsilano as a home, they protested the increasing pollution of Kitsilano Beach 33 by summer vacationers. In 1906, the K i t s i l a n o Improvement Association was formed with the aims of obtaining public u t i l i t i e s and expansion of roads within the community. Within two years the group name had changed to the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers Association - an organization of residents intent on playing a r o l e i n t h e i r community's development. At the time of Greer's a r r i v a l i n K i t s i l a n o i n 1884 "the only signs of c i v i l i z a t i o n between the (Indian) Reserve and Jericho (were) the potato patches and a few apple trees and currant and raspberry bushes growing around the Indians' driftwood shacks.""'"7 Improved ac-cess to the area had prompted development so that by 1908 there existed "a considerable extension of settlement on the h i l l s i d e about the 18 beach where the C.P.R. had thrown open land for occupancy." K i t s i l a n o , although s t i l l l i m i t e d i n are a l extent, was by 1908 moving strongly towards r e s i d e n t i a l development. Despite t h e i r d i v e r s i t y , residents had organized to increase the area's amenities. K i t s i l a n o was moving away from i t s past associations with Indian settlement, logging and r e c r e a t i o n a l use. The ban on summer tents at K i t s i l a n o Beach was issued i n 1908 - the era of transient white a c t i v i t y i n K i t s i l a n o was ended by residents intent on preserving and shaping a 19 desirable home environment. INITIAL DEVELOPMENT: 1909 - 1934 During the f i r s t decade of the twentieth century wealth amassed during the Yukon gold rush made the west coast of North America an 34 ideal location for investment. As a result, during the years 1909 -1913, the city of Vancouver experienced a real estate boom. Kitsilano development reflected the intensity of Vancouver's growth (Figures9 and 10) . "Old-timers recall the feverish building boom in 1912 when properties along Fourth Avenue and down the h i l l towards the beach sky-rocketed in value to thousands of dollars a lot, and houses rose like mushrooms as the fires of men clearing the hillside of stumps and undergrowth prepared the way further West."21 "At one time we counted one hundred and fifty houses being built at one time; we could count that number without moving from one spot. You could hear the hammers humming, almost like a beehive."22 FIGURE 9 1800 Block Waterloo Street in 1910 (source: Vancouver City Archives). 35 FIGURE 10 1800 Block Waterloo Street i n 1914. Note how extensively the area has developed (source: Vancouver City Archives). Just as i n e a r l i e r days, improved access to K i t s i l a n o was a major stimulus to growth. Streetcar service along Fourth Avenue was i n i t i a t e d by the B.C.E.R. on July 1, 1909 (Figure 11). Unlike the K i t s i l a n o s treetcar, which served only the eastern portion of K i t s i l a n o , the Fourth Avenue st r e e t c a r served the community from the east through to 23 i t s western boundary at Alma. Later residents of K i t s i l a n o agreed: 24 "the B.C.E.R. on Fourth Avenue opened the area." 36 FIGURE 11 Fourth Avenue streetcar at Alma Road, 1909 (source: Vancouver City Archives). As i n e a r l i e r days, too, r e a l estate promoters played a strong r o l e i n shaping the d i s t r i c t ' s growth. In 1909 the C.P.R. opened 25 to sale i t s land on K i t s i l a n o Point. The company's land depart-ment b u i l t f i v e homes on "the Point as an attempt to induce s e t t l e -ment as well as set a r e s i d e n t i a l tone i n the area, each house on a s i x t y - s i x foot l o t s e l l i n g f o r about $5,000 (Figure 12). 3 7 FIGURE 12 C.P.R. show home at 2030 Wh>te Avenue, 1909 (source: Vancouver Ci t y Archives). Although the b u i l d i n g of these 'show homes' was an e x p l i c i t at-tempt by the C.P.R. to influence the nature of development, the sub-d i v i s i o n of l o t s into varying s i z e s subtly played as i n f l u e n t i a l a r o l e Real estate developers had subdivided K i t s i l a n o into l o t s of f i v e sizes ranging from twenty-five feet to over s i x t y - s i x feet, with the larger l o t sizes generally located i n western K i t s i l a n o (Figure 13). These l o t subdivisions provided the context within which the neighbourhood 26 grew. Larger, and thus more expensive homes tended to be b u i l t on the larger - and p a r t i c u l a r l y corner - l o t s i n western K i t s i l a n o , and smaller homes were b u i l t on the generally smaller l o t s i n the east (Figures 14 and 15). FIGURE 13 Lot Subdivision in Kitsilano, 1910 Park Unsubdivided Kitsilano Indian Reserve oo 39 FIGURE 14 Smaller homes i n eastern K i t s i l a n o , 2019-2029 York Street, 1978. Although these homes were b u i l t on what were o r i g i n a l l y subdivided f i f t y foot l o t s , the zoning of most of eastern K i t s i l a n o f o r high density multiple dwellings encouraged dense r e s i d e n t i a l development. 40 FIGURE 15 Larger homes i n western K i t s i l a n o . Waterloo Street and Fourth Avenue, b u i l t 1910 to 1912 (source: Vancouver Ci t y Archives). Building within K i t s i l a n o took place on a predominantly lot-by-l o t basis with owners or small scale developers erecting one home at 27 a time. This resulted i n an e r r a t i c b u i l d i n g up of the landscape, with many sing l e houses i n i t i a l l y i s o l a t e d i n the fo r e s t . By 1927, however, most of K i t s i l a n o had been f a i r l y s o l i d l y s e t t l e d with s i n -gle family homes (Figure 16) . 41 FIGURE 16 Single family homes i n the v i c i n i t y of Trafalgar Street and Twelth Avenue, 1928 (source: Vancouver C i t y Archives). Only the southwest portion - that area furthest from i n i t i a l access 28 points and growth - was l a r g e l y undeveloped i n 1927 (Figure 17). Although si n g l e family homes dominated K i t s i l a n o ' s landscape, the f i r s t three storey apartment blocks had already begun to be erected by r e a l estate developers by 1909, and were scattered through north 29 eastern K i t s i l a n o by the 1920's (Figuresl7 and 18). FIGURE 17 Land Use i n K i t s i l a n o , 1927 SF Single Family Dwellings TS Two Family Dwellings • Apartment Block P Park C Commercial 1." I n d u s t r i a l KIR K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve Undeveloped NJ Source: F i r e Insurance Plan of the City of Vancouver, B.C. Underwriters Association, 1927. 43 FIGURE 18 Melton Court Apartments, 2300 Block Cornwall Avenue, erected by Fred Melton, 1922. This was the f i r s t apartment block to be erected on Cornwell Avenue (source: Vancouver Ci t y Archives). Although K i t s i l a n o development c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t e d the r o l e of r e a l estate agents i n l o t subdivision and construction, i t r e f l e c t e d , too, the influence of the Vancouver c i t y government within whose boun-daries the neighbourhood l a y . The provision of public services by the government was of course, necessary i n order f or development to proceed. Swamps, muskegs and bogs had to be f i l l e d and surface streams 30 31 diverted underground. Roadways were continually being expanded. Construction of the f i r s t sewer system was approved i n 1914. The l o c a l government provided, as w e l l , the public services such as parks and schools which were e s s e n t i a l i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area (Table 2). 44 TABLE 2 THE EXPANSION OF PUBLIC SERVICES IN KITSILANO FROM 1909 TO 1934 Schools and Educational Services 1910 - Tennyson Elementary School 1911 - General Gordon Elementary School 1911 - Hudson Elementary School 1914 - Bayview Elementary School 1919 - K i t s i l a n o High School (sources offered i n a temporary f a c i l i t y since 1917) 1927 - K i t s i l a n o Branch Public Library Parks and Recreation 1909 - K i t s i l a n o Beach Park 1911 - McBride Park 1912 - Connaught Park 1928 - Haddon Park 1931 - K i t s i l a n o Beach Swimming Pool 1934 - Trafalgar Park Not only concerned with providing the services necessary f o r develop-ment, however, the Vancouver c i t y council decided to play a d i r e c t r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g the type of development which woule ensue. In 1928 a plan f or the c i t y of Vancouver was formulated and c i t y coun-c i l ' s intentions f o r K i t s i l a n o were revealed. Zoning ordinances ex-pressed most concretely the council's expectations f o r K i t s i l a n o (Figure 19). "The Town Planning Commission i s under o b l i g a t i o n to state the case f o r those who are to follow. I t knows from i t s studies that thousands and thousands w i l l l i v e i n apartments, h o t e l s , and c l o s e l y packed dwellings i n the v i c i n i t y of the K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve i n future years, . . the Reserve w i l l have surrounding i t . . . the most concentrated population of the metropolitan area."32 45 Northeast K i t s i l a n o - the area surrounding the K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve - was as a consequence zoned f o r high density r e s i d e n t i a l use. The 1928 zoning ordinance thus confirmed the emergence of northeast K i t s i l a n o as a high density r e s i d e n t i a l area and eastern K i t s i l a n o i n general as a higher density r e s i d e n t i a l area than 33 western K i t s i l a n o . Eastern K i t s i l a n o would have to face the p o t e n t i a l of increased i n d u s t r i a l as well as high density r e s i d e n t i a l development. Although i n d u s t r i a l zoning i n southeast K i t s i l a n o corresponded to an area of already-established i n d u s t r i a l land use (Figure 17), there were only seven small i n d u s t r i e s scattered throughout the northeast section 34 i n 1927. The large block of i n d u s t r i a l zoning i n northeast K i t s i -lano established i n the council's plan might thus serve to encourage more i n d u s t r i a l land use i n the future. The c i t y ' s zoning ordinance confirmed Fourth Avenue and Broadway Street as the major commercial s t r i p s i n K i t s i l a n o . Although commer-c i a l development was s t i l l rather l i m i t e d along these two st r e e t s — as of January, 1928, only twenty-four percent of the, a v a i l a b l e f r o n t -age on Fourth Avenue from Alma Street to G r a n v i l l e Street was developed with occupied stores and eight percent of the a v a i l a b l e frontage on Broadway from Alma Street to G r a n v i l l e Street had been commercially 35 developed — they were the recognized commercial areas (Figure 20). FIGURE 19 Zoning i n K i t s i l a n o , 1929 RSI Single Family Dwellings RS2 Two-Family Dwellings (Duplexes) RM3A Multiple Family Dwellings (Apartments) Commercial I n d u s t r i a l Park 4 7 FIGURE 20 Looking east on Fourth Avenue from Macdonald Street, 1928 (source: Vancouver Ci t y Archives). Through i t s supply of services and establishment of zoning, the c i t y council d e f i n i t e l y made an impact on the course of K i t s i l a n o ' development. What i s perhaps most i n t e r e s t i n g to note, however, i s that council did not develop i t s plans with the idea of K i t s i l a n o as a community unto i t s e l f i n mind. Operating as the overseer of develop ment for the en t i r e c i t y , the government treated K i t s i l a n o as a part of a much larger scheme. Res i d e n t i a l overcrowding i n Vancouver's West End necessitated the opening up of surrounding suburbs. Burrard Street bridge, completed i n 1932, f a c i l i t a t e d the inte g r a t i o n of K i t s i l a n o into the Vancouver community. 48 "The completion of the $3,000,000 Burrard Bridge which opened July 1st, 1932, marked the opening of a new era for K i t s i l a n o ; expanding i t s f a c i l i -t i e s for communication to an immeasurable extent not only f o r the K i t s i l a n o D i s t r i c t , but f o r the residents of Point Grey West and South."36 The Point Grey Road park s t r i p was to be part of a city-wide scenic pleasure drive system. The K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve would house "a 37 sports area with a great municipal stadium." This v i s i o n of K i t s i l a n o as an i n t e g r a l part of a larger community was exemplified i n the remarks by l o c a l government o f f i c i a l s at the opening of K i t -s i l a n o Pool i n 1931 (Figure 21): "The pool i s not a d i s t r i c t u t i l i t y only but i s for the whole c i t y and the Lower Mainland."38 FIGURE 21 K i t s i l a n o Pool, 1935 (source: Vancouver Ci t y Archives). 49 The people who came to K i t s i l a n o i n the period 1909-1934, however, f e l t d i f f e r e n t l y . K i t s i l a n o was t h e i r home and they jealous-l y eyed the new i n t e r e s t s and intentions f o r t h e i r area. " K i t s i l a n o wasn't discovered u n t i l they put the Burrard Street bridge through. Even the alder-men didn't know this place was here u n t i l the bridge."39 These people were, by and large, as diverse as were the l o t sizes and homes which attracted them. Although the neighbourhood housed a mix-ture of professionals, middle class and working class people, i n gen-e r a l a higher proportion of working class people resided i n eastern K i t s i l a n o and a higher proportion of professionals i n western K i t s i -40 lano (Table 1). "Poor people were usually at the eastern end of K i t s i l a n o , and the westerly end had the better homes."41 Despite t h e i r d i v e r i s t y , K i t s i l a n o residents established and supported a range of community organizations (Table 3). A community press — The K i t s i l a n o Times — was established i n 1912 and encouraged the . . . . . . . . 42 growth of community s p i r i t . In the desire to play an active r o l e i n K i t s i l a n o ' s development l o c a l residents were confronted with the plans of both r e a l estate 43 developers and l o c a l government. In 1909 a number of residents, f r u s t r a t e d with the i n e r t i a of the l o c a l government, donated t h e i r own money to ensure the public purchase of a beach park. C i t y H a l l ' s 50 TABLE 3 SOME COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS ESTABLISHED IN KITSILANO FROM 1909 TO 1934 1 Developmental Organizations K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association West K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association West K i t s i l a n o Improvement Association K i t s i l a n o Board of Trade Service Organizations K i t s i l a n o Service League Church Organizations: Broadway West Baptist Church Crosby United Church Hebron H a l l K i t s i l a n o Presbyterian Church St. Augustine's Roman Catholic Church St. James United Church St. Mark's Anglican Church Second Church of C h r i s t ( S c i e n t i s t ) Sikh Temple Trafalgar Road United Church Parent-Teacher Associations: Bayview P.T.A. K i t s i l a n o High P.T.A. So c i a l and Recreational Organizations K i t s i l a n o Yacht Club K i t s i l a n o Community Club K i t s i l a n o Boys' Band K i t s i l a n o Five-Pin Bowling League "'"source: K i t s i l a n o Times newspaper, one-quarter sample. provision of services to the growing community was considered inade-quate and thus numerous p e t i t i o n s were c i r c u l a t e d to encourage pub-l i c works — p a r t i c u l a r l y the improvement of roads, sidewalks, street-cars, sewers and st r e e t l i g h t i n g . In 1921 a delegation of f i f t y to 51 s i x t y K i t s i l a n o residents took a p e t i t i o n of two thousand names to c i t y h a l l i n an attempt to improve streetcar service and sewers i n 44 the community. Residents were unhappy, as w e l l , with the r e a l estate developers' construction of apartment blocks. Antagonism to the multiple dwellings was expressed i n 1926 by public protest against a proposed apartment 45 b u i l d i n g at the corner of Maple Street and Creelman Avenue. In protesting the construction of the Tatlow Court Rowhouses i n 1927, K i t s i l a n o residents conveyed the b e l i e f that multiply s t y l e housing would lead to the demise of K i t s i l a n o as a respectable r e s i d e n t i a l 46 d i s t r i c t (Figure 22). 52 K i t s i l a n o residents were obviously not content to allow the charac-ter of t h e i r neighbourhood to be determined s o l e l y by outsiders. In order to ensure the compatibility of t h e i r neighbourhood's develop-ment with t h e i r own i d e a l s , they would p e t i t i o n , protest and even r a i s e t h e i r own funds f o r public s e r v i c e s . Despite scattered empty l o t s and lagging development i n the south-west, the period 1909 to 1931 witnessed the transformation of K i t s i l a n o from r e l a t i v e l y uninhabited f o r e s t to r e s i d e n t i a l community. Although the neighbourhood contained varying housing types, single-family homes dominated the landscape. Community services complemented the homes i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a family neighbourhood. The growing s t a b i l i t y of the neighbourhood by 1931 i s indicated i n increased school enrollments and greater r e s i d e n t i a l s t a b i l i t y (Figure 6 and Table 4). TABLE 4 . PERCENTAGE OF OCCUPANTS RESIDING AT THE SAME ADDRESS. OVER FIVE YEAR INTERVALS FROM 1915 TO 1930 SAMPLE BLOCK 1915 1920 1925 1930 2000 W. 2nd Ave. 82 35 29 45 1900 McNicholl Ave. 40 27 25 2400 W. 13th Ave. 25 50 23 3500 Pt. Grey Road 15 14 11 2900 W. 5th Avenue 29 19 50 2200 Stephens St. 18 31 44 KITSILANO 82 22 25.5 33.6 Occupancy i n 1915 was compared to occupancy i n 1911. Data were unavailable f o r the year 1910 53 The year 1909 marked not only the f i r s t major thrust of development i n the d i s t r i c t — the inception of the Fourth Avenue str e e t c a r ser-v i c e and promotion of r e s i d e n t i a l development by the C.P.R. — but also, i n t h e i r purchase of a beach park, the f i r s t expression of community involvement i n the development process. As the community became more f i r m l y established, residents increased t h e i r range of involvement i n s o c i a l and developmental a c t i v i t i e s and confronted both developers and l o c a l government with t h e i r own plans for K i t s i l a n o . ARTICULATION OF NEIGHBOURHOOD: 1935-1961 Although K i t s i l a n o had established i t s e l f as a r e s i d e n t i a l com-munity p r i o r to 1935, consolidation of t h i s community was yet to be accomplished. The period 1935 to 1961 witnessed the i n - f i l l of Kitsilano' s landscape and the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of community a c t i v i t i e s . With growth s t a b l i s e d and a range of s o c i a l organizations f l o u r i s h i n g , K i t s i l a n o began to project the image of a strong community and an at-tractive family neighbourhood. The world-wide economic depression of the 1930's dampened the l o c a l development process. "You have to remember that those were the depression years, and there was very l i t t l e doing i n the c i t y , very l i t t l e a c t i v i t y . " 4 7 Development, however, was only held i n check temporarily. By 1935, b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y had resumed i t s former pace. 54 " K i t s i l a n o i s expanding r a p i d l y . One has but to take a walk or drive through the d i s t r i c t to see the new stores, houses and apartments which are springing up on vacant lots."48 "There seemed to be a steady b u i l d i n g programme that started at the end of the depression. And then i t j u s t gradually b u i l t up. I t didn't take long."49 By the l a t e 1940's K i t s i l a n o had been f u l l y developed to i t s southern boundary at Sixteenth Avenue and western boundary at Alma Road."^ The l e v e l l i n g out of school enrollments and the slower growth i n Ki t s i l a n o ' s population a f t e r 1950 seem to confirm t h i s completion of i n - f i l l (Figure 6). Eastern K i t s i l a n o , c l o s e s t to downtown Vancouver access routes, had been the f i r s t area to complete the i n - f i l l process and, i n f a c t , while other parts of K i t s i l a n o s t i l l had l o t s l e f t to c l e a r , the eastern area showed signs of age. As early as the mid-1930's, r e a l estate developers found t h e i r new r o l e i n eastern K i t s i l a n o as that of redevelopers. By the l a t e 1940's, the a c t i v i t y quickened: "There was a spurt of redevelopment a f t e r the war and parts of eastern K i t s i l a n o were r e b u i l t with three-storey frame walkup apartments."51 (Figure 23) The l o c a l government encouraged redevelopment with i t s zoning by-law of 1956, which rezoned a number of areas i n K i t s i l a n o f or higher density r e s i d e n t i a l land use (Figure 24). The new zoning by-law, to some extent, r e f l e c t e d land use changes which had taken place. Some homes i n western K i t s i l a n o , f or instance, had already been con-52 verted into suites (Figure 25). FIGURE 25 Residential Conversion into Suites, 2143 York Avenue, 1978. FIGURE 24 Changes i n Residential Zoning i n K i t s i l a n o from 1929 to 1956 i ^ ^  j i j |^  j j j j j * • • • • i • i • i_ ••••anBRRR595-Single Family Dwellings Single Family Conversions Two-Family Dwellings (Duplexes) RM3A Multi p l e Family Dwellings (Three Storey Apartments) CI Ml P Commercial I n d u s t r i a l Park Ln 57 A number of apartment blocks, some of them intended to provide accom-modation for World War Two veterans, had been erected along Fourth Avenue and Broadway Street. The new zoning by-law, however, r e f l e c t e d what was c e r t a i n l y the exception rather than the r u l e . In 1960, only twenty-five percent of the apartment zoned land i n K i t s i l a n o was ac-53 t u a l l y occupied by apartments. The by-law might, therefore, serve to encourage the redevelopment process which was underway. In 1961 Ci t y H a l l amended zoning i n northeast K i t s i l a n o to permit the b u i l d i n g 54 of high r i s e apartments. There could be no doubt of the l o c a l government's v i s i o n of K i t s i l a n o as a high density neighbourhood. The impact of zoning l e g i s l a t i o n on the character of K i t s i l a n o was profound. Whereas the bulk of r e s i d e n t i a l land use i n early K i t s i l a n o consisted of single-family homes (Figure 17), those areas zoned at a higher density had developed consistent to the zoning. In 1960 eastern K i t s i l a n o ' s landscape consisted predominantly of apartments, while southwestern K i t s i l a n o ' s landscape retained the single family homes for which i t had been zoned (Table 5). TABLE 5 CENSUS HOUSING STATISTICS FOR KITSILANO, 1961  Housing Information Area of Kitsilano"*' N.E. S.E.. N.W. S.W. KITS S.F. dwellings as % of a l l dwellings 35% 23% 58% 83% 50% Apts. and Converted F l a t s as % of a l l dwellings 65% 77% 42% 17% 50% ''"See map of census area boundaries i n Appendix 3. 58 A change i n the socio-economic status of K i t s i l a n o ' s residents r e f l e c t s to some degree the changes i n land use. The denser apart-ment development of northeast K i t s i l a n o seemed to a t t r a c t an i n -creasing number of r e t i r e d residents and fewer residents of profes-s i o n a l status (Table 1, West 2nd Ave. and Stephens S t r e e t ) . On the whole, however, the changing socio-economic status of K i t s i l a n o r e s i -dents r e f l e c t s more the general pattern of community development. The new si n g l e family homes of e a r l i e r years attracted a mixture of residents to K i t s i l a n o — from professionals to working c l a s s . As home q u a l i t y declined with age and le s s status-oriented home con-versions took place, K i t s i l a n o ' s population came to consist of fewer professionals and more working and middle class people. At the same time, e a r l i e r residents who remained i n K i t s i l a n o began to reach r e -tirement age (Figure 26). FIGURE 26 One of the many re s t homes i n K i t s i l a n o , 2906 West 8th Avenue, 1978. 59 With the high proportion of r e t i r e d residents and low proportion of professionals i n K i t s i l a n o i n 1960, t h i s process seemed to have 55 reached i t s climax (Table 1). The changing family status of K i t s i l a n o residents r e f l e c t s both the changes i n land use and the community aging process. Total school enrollments i n K i t s i l a n o peaked i n the pre-World War II era (Figure 6) emphasizing the e a r l i e r dominance of family households. The high proportion of one-person households and no-children f a m i l i e s i n 1961 ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n northeast and southeast K i t s i l a n o ) r e f l e c t s the maturing population as w e l l as the inc r e a s i n g l y apartment-domin-ated landscape (Table 6). TABLE 6 CENSUS DEMOGRAPHIC STATISTICS FOR KITSILANO,  1961 Demographic Information Area of Kitsilano"*" N.E. S.E. N.W. S.W. KITS Pop. 65 years of age or older as % of t o t a l pop. 15% 24% 15% 14% 17% One-person households as % of a l l households 26% 34% 17% 12% 22% Families with no ch i l d r e n as % of t o t a l families 50% 58% 42% 41% 48% Tenant Occupied dwellings as % of a l l occupied dwellings 74% 67% 45% 22% 52% "*"See map of census area boundaries, Appendix 3. 60 The higher rates of tenancy and increasing proportion of apartments and sin g l e or c h i l d l e s s residents i n K i t s i l a n o has resulted i n de-creased r e s i d e n t i a l s t a b i l i t y . Over the period from 1940 to 1960 r e s i d e n t i a l s t a b i l i t y i n K i t s i l a n o declined from 35% to 20%, with the northeast apartment d i s t r i c t d e c l i n i n g the most dramatically (Table 7). TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE OF OCCUPANTS RESIDING AT THE SAME ADDRESS OVER TEN YEAR INTERVALS FROM 1940 TO 197Q1 Sample Block 1940 1950 1960 1970 2000 West 2nd Avenue 41% 22% 9% 1% 1900 McNicholl Avenue 35% 10% 13% . 22% 2400 West 13th Avenue 38% 26% 57% 26% 3500 Point Grey Road 24% 31% 17% 15% 2900 West 5th Avenue 25% 17% 28% 25% 2200 Stephens Street 55% 25% 27% 8% K i t s i l a n o 35% 23% 21% 7% Length of residence i n sample blocks was determined by the use of Vancouver c i t y d i r e c t o r i e s . See Appendix 2 for mapped locations of the sample blocks. Occupancy i n 1940 was compared to occupancy i n 1930. One would expect that as a consequence of the u n s e t t l i n g s o c i a l and landscape changes which characterized K i t s i l a n o during the period from 1935 to 1961 the communal action of e a r l i e r years might d i s i n -tegrate. This was not the case. In f a c t , during the 1930's and 1940's i t seems K i t s i l a n o residents became even more prominently i n -volved i n t h e i r support of neighbourhood. 61 In 1935 K i t s i l a n o ' s growing community s p i r i t found expression i n a f l u r r y of a c t i v i t y : the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association was r e v i t a l i z e d and the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, K i t s i l a n o Showboat, Miss K i t s i l a n o Contest and Community Concert Party were established. During the ensuing years l o c a l associations p r o l i f e r a t e d (Table 8). As thousands of Vancouverites flocked to the K i t s i l a n o Showboat and the KitsUano Karnival, Kitsilano became i d e n t i f i e d as a model neighbour-hood i n Vanocuver — the epitome of community s p i r i t . "This K i t s i l a n o Karnival i s the biggest entertainment feature i n the city."56 Although the a c t i v i t i e s of K i t s i l a n o ' s residents during t h i s era seemed to be focused p r i m a r i l y on the s o c i a l development of the neigh-bourhood, concern was expressed throughout the 1930's and 1940's with the improvements of streets and expansion of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , p a r t i c u -l a r l y sewers.^ Furthermore, residents opposed, as they had e a r l i e r , the attempts by both r e a l estate developers and l o c a l government to change the character of. t h e i r neighbourhood from s i n g l e family homes to multiple dwellings. In 1949, a proposed rezoning of the 2400 and 2500 blocks Cornwall and Point Grey Roads from two family to three 58 storey apartments was condemned by the l o c a l residents. K i t s i l a n o residents were not b l i n d to the decline i n housing qu a l i t y which was already apparent i n the oldest sections of K i t s i -lano . 62 TABLE 8 COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS ESTABLISHED IN KITSILANO  FROM 1935 TO 19611 Developmental Organizations Kitsilano Chamber of Commerce (1935) Lower Kitsilano Ratepayers* Association (1952) Point Grey Road Waterfront Property Owners' Association (1957) Service Organizations Community Concert Party (1935) Kitsilano Santa Claus Fund (1936) Kitsilano Lions Club (1937) Kitsilano Council (1936)2 Henry Hudson P.T.A. (1944) Kitsilano Good Citizen Award (1950) Kitsilano United Church (1952)3 St. James United Church (1930) Gordon House General Gordon P.T.A. Kitsilano Legion , Kitsilano Neighbourhood House (1938) Klwanis Club of Kitsilano Sons of Scotland Benevolent Association Social, P o l i t i c a l and Recreational Organizations Kitsilano Showboat (1935) Miss Kitsilano Contest (1935) Kitsilano Kiddies Parade (1937) Kitsilano Karnival (1939) Kitsilano War Memorial Community Centre (1958) Alma Y.M.C.A. Altrusa Club Current Events Club Burrard Conservatives Burrard Liberals Ex-Gordon Athletic Club Hungarian Social Club Kitsilano Boys' Choir Kitsilano Crescent Boxing Club Kitsilano Good Times Club Kitsilano Horticultural Association Kitsilano Housewives League Kitsilano Ladies Choir Kitsilano Lawn Bowling Club Kitsilano Social and Athletic Club Revellers' Club Veroga Club Wright Social Credit Group Hlost of these associations were noted in the one-quarter sample issues of the Kitsilano Times 1936-1940 and 1953-1961 (Appendix 2). Others were noted in community group records. This l i s t i s not intended to be exhaustive, but rather representative of the associations which existed in Kitsilano during this time period. 2 The Kitsilano Council was an executive body coordinating the a c t i v i -ties of many Kitsilano associations. 3 The Kitsilano United Church was formed in 1952 with the union of Crosby and St. Stephens United Churches. The church had sponsored thirty-seven associated clubs and organizations by 1954. 4 Kitsilano Neighbourhood House grew out of the Alexandra Orphanage. 63 "Consider that portion on the h i l l s i d e between Fourth Avenue and Cornwall Street once the most desirable part of the d i s t r i c t . A l o t of the houses are now dil a p i d a t e d and a disgrace to K i t s i l a n o . . . A l l of them require a coat of paint." 59 Their answer to the problem was not, however, the destruction of the homes i n redevelopment schemes. Instead, they i n i t i a t e d the "Clean-Up and Paint-Up" campaign of 1939 and the "Help Keep K i t s i l a n o Beau-60 t i f u l " campaign of 1941. K i t s i l a n o residents seemed intent on maintaining the s i n g l e family neighbourhood which had i n i t i a l l y a t -tracted them. Towards the end of t h i s period, however, a change i n attitudes had begun to take place. Resident groups began to support and indeed even promote rather than oppose the higher density development of Kitsilano.^"'" At the same time, the groups themselves began to d i s -62 integrate. Membership and attendance records f e l l . Formerly v i t a l 63 community a c t i v i t i e s suffered from lack of i n t e r e s t . The period 1935 to 1961 witnessed not only the completion of K i t s i l a n o ! s i n i t i a l development, but the inception of a redevelopment process which f u l f i l l e d r e a l estate and l o c a l government plans f o r the neighbourhood. The redevelopment process had an i n t e r e s t i n g im-pact on K i t s i l a n o ' s s o c i a l development. The early years of t h i s period witnessed the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of community a c t i v i t i e s and com-munity s p i r i t — the consolidation of community within K i t s i l a n o . This sense of community seems to have been aff e c t e d by the landscape changes and increased r e s i d e n t i a l I n s t a b i l i t y which characterized the 64 l a t e r years of th i s period. Despite the residents' e a r l i e r concern with protection and maintenance of t h e i r family neighbourhood, K i t -silano i n 1961 was obviously i n the process of change. CONCLUSION In 1908 K i t s i l a n o was an i s o l a t e d summer camping r e s o r t . In the seventy years since then, the d i s t r i c t underwent an i n i t i a l period of extremely rapid growth followed by consolidation as a community of family homes and f i n a l l y redevelopment as an i n n e r - c i t y d i s t r i c t of singl e or c h i l d l e s s apartment-dwellers. Land use changes seem to i n d i -cate that K i t s i l a n o has been moving towards f u l f i l l m e n t of the 1928 and l a t e r 1956 zoning plans. Through zoning and the redevelopment process both l o c a l government and r e a l estate agents seemed to have played determining roles i n the development of the neighbourhood. Their roles through time have, however, been subject to the influence of l o c a l residents who a c t i v e l y supported or undermined government and r e a l estate plans as they saw f i t . The pattern of change i n K i t s i l a n o has culminated most v i s i b l y i n the most recent period of development since 1961. Between 1962 and 1968 ten high r i s e apartment buildings were constructed i n north-64 eastern K i t s i l a n o . In a l l parts of the neighbourhood the percentage of land use devoted to apartments and converted homes increased. Whereas f o r t y percent of K i t s i l a n o ' s housing units consisted of apart-ments and converted homes i n 1961, apartments and converted homes con-s t i t u t e d s i x t y percent of units i n 1971 (Figure 27).^ 65 FIGURE 27 Apartment blocks on West Second Avenue, looking west from Maple Street, 1978. Demographic changes reflected the land use changes. School enroll-ments at a l l Kitsilano schools declined dramatically (Figure 6). By 1971 over one-half of Kitsilano's resident families were childless 66 and one-third of a l l households comprised single people. The changing family status of Kitsilano residents was accom-panied by a drop in the proportion of working class residents and a rise in middle class and, notably, professional residents (Table 1). "The existing residents of the area, the working-class and lower middle-class families, the many people who had grown up in the area, were being displaced by another group, the more affluent singles and childless couples who would live in smaller bachelor and one-bedroom units and who could afford to pay much more for that accommo-dation. "°7 66 Converted homes attracted students and "a more transient type popu-68 l a t i o n with le s s stake i n the community." The r e s i d e n t i a l s t a b i l i t y of K i t s i l a n o ' s population, which had been d e c l i n i n g i n recent decades, 69 thus lapsed even more dramatically (Table 7). These s o c i a l and land use changes led to a d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the community which had been so strongly developed i n K i t s i l a n o i n the 1930's and 1940's. The i n s t i t u t i o n s serving as a basis f o r t h i s community struggled to survive. "Schools are half-empty, the church congregations are dwindling."70 Formerly strong resident groups disbanded.^ It appears that with the change i n at t i t u d e on the part of the K i t s i l a n o residents, the check on the process of more intensive r e s i -d e n t i a l development had been l i f t e d . The changes i n K i t s i l a n o which had been promoted by r e a l estate developers and Cit y H a l l i n e a r l i e r years became rapid and conclusive i n the 1960's and 1970's. In order, then, to understand K i t s i l a n o ' s development, one should examine the K i t s i l a n o residents who played the i n i t i a l r o l e of promoting and pro-t e c t i n g community and yet who ultimately supported the land use changes which l e d to the demise of t h e i r single-family neighbourhood. The remainder of t h i s thesis w i l l be focused on an examination of one representative community group, the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers Associa-t i o n , and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , on an understanding of the goals towards which t h i s group worked — the type of neighbourhood i t wanted to promote. This examination w i l l focus on the years 1935 to 1961 — 67 the period during which community s p i r i t i n K i t s i l a n o reached i t s apex and community d i s i n t e g r a t i o n began. "I would say that i n the t h i r t i e s to f o u r t i e s was when the d i s t r i c t was more or les s evolving into a preparatory stage where you could go in t o the things that f i n a l l y happened."72 In t h i s period, which so conspicuously projects the process of com-munity consolidation, the process of community d i s s o l u t i o n has i t s subtle roots. 68 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER TWO "^Matthewsj Vol. 2, 1932, p. 32. Elk, beaver, deer, duck, salmon and cedar are c i t e d amongst the a t t r a c t i o n s of the K i t s i l a n o s i t e to the Indians. 2 The reserve was established i n 1859 and c a l l e d the Jericho Reserve by Colonel Richard Clement Moody of the Royal Engineers (stationed i n New Westminster). The Reserve's eastern boundary l i e s j u s t west of Alma Road. The t r a i l from New Westminster was c a l l e d the Jericho T r a i l and approximates the present-day Grandview Highway (Morley, 1969, p. 18). 3Morley, 1969, p. 28. 4 The land was bought from two Indians who had squatted away from the Indian Reserve on K i t s i l a n o Point (Light, 1958). ^The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company received 6,000 acres of prime Vancouver land including land near Coal Harbour, a l l of D i s t r i c t Lot 541 (downtown Vancouver) and a l l of D i s t r i c t Lot 526 (much of present-day r e s i d e n t i a l Vancouver from Trafalgar to Ontario Streets) (Gutstein, 1975, pp. 11-12). 6 G u t s t e i n , 1975, pp. 11-12. 7Morley, 1940. g Matthews, Vol. 1, 1932, p. 162. A public p e t i t i o n to release Greer was c i r c u l a t e d i n K i t s i l a n o , Vancouver, New Westminster, V i c t o r i a and Nanaimo, and ultimately included 4,800 signatures. Although Greer was given a three year sentence he was released from prison a f t e r a few months due, at l e a s t i n part, to t h i s p u b l i c p e t i t i o n and front page p u b l i c i t y i n l o c a l Vancouver newspapers (Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association f i l e s ) . 9Matthews, 1932, Vol. 2, p. 310. 1 0 T h e quote describes K i t s i l a n o i n 1908 (Matthews, 1932, Vol. 2, p. 311). 69 11 Note that i n these early years the numbers of residents being sampled i s rather small. The conclusions being drawn are thus more tenta-t i v e than those based on the more su b s t a n t i a l data of l a t e r years. 12 Matthews,.1932, V o l . 2, p. 256A. Greer's Beach could also be reached from the North Arm Road along a sinuous t r a i n which approximates present-day Seventh Avenue. 13 St. Mark's Church was b u i l t at the corner of F i r s t Avenue and Maple Street. The K i t s i l a n o Presbyterian Church moved to Vine Street and" Second Avenue i n 1911 and l a t e r became St. Stephen's United Church. The K i t s i l a n o Methodist Church moved i n 1909 to the corner of Second Avenue and Larch Street and l a t e r became Crosby United Church. A l l three were w e l l patronized churches and involved i n the s o c i a l l i f e of the community ( K i t s i l a n o Times, general survey). 14 Holdsworth ( i n progress, Chapter 3) discusses the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company o f f e r of several blocks of eastern K i t s i l a n o r e a l estate to the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t r i c Railway Company to encour-age the K i t s i l a n o Beach st r e e t c a r l i n e . Later, Holdsworth points out, i t became evident that the C.P.R. int e n t i o n was to encourage the sale of eastern K i t s i l a n o property before the b u i l d i n g of a streetcar l i n e to the western section of K i t s i l a n o . The name Greer's Beach had obviously unpleasant h i s t o r i c a l a s s o c i -ations f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway Company. A f t e r consulting a l o c a l expert on Indian culture, the C.P.R. decided upon " K i t s i l a n o " as a fashionable name f o r the area. Indian names were ' i n vogue' i n Vancouver at that time ( K i t s i l a n o Times, May 22, 1926, p. 1). The name was derived from the Squamish Chief Khaatsa-lah-nough who had s e t t l e d i n Stanley Park. The :name K i t s i l a n o f i r s t appeared i n p r i n t i n 1905 as the name of the new sub-post o f f i c e i n the d i s t r i c t . Later i n the year i t became the name of the st r e e t c a r run to Greer's Beach. Real estate within K i t s i l a n o had been divided into 3 sections — D i s t r i c t Lot (D.L.) 526, D.L. 540 and D.L. 192. Trafalgar Street was the boundary between D.L. 526, owned by the C.P.R. and D.L. 540 and D.L. 192, both owned by the Cit y of Vancouver. The auctioning of property within D.L. 540 had begun i n 1886 and continued i n piecemeal fashion as K i t s i l a n o developed. P r i o r to 1886, D.L. 192 (161 acres west of Trafalgar) had been sold to H.V. Southey of Burnaby f o r $388.00 ( N i c o l l s , 1954, p. 15). Property within D.L. 192 changed hands many times before being s e t t l e d . Speculators 70 16 (Cont'd) included Mr. C.G. Major of New Westminster, Hon. John Robson, Hon. Mr. Smythe, V i c t o r i a p o l i t i c i a n s and C.P.R. men (Matthews, 1932, Vol. 1, p. 162). Mr. J.H. Calland, former alderman for Ward 6 (which included K i t s i l a n o ) and a K i t s i l a n o r e a l estate agent, s o l d a great portion of Major's Block 192 holdings, himself acquiring a sizeable piece of property on Point Grey Road between Trafalgar and Stephens Streets (Matthews, 1932, Vol. 1, pp. 113 - 114). Calland was one of the organizers of the K i t s i l a n o Improvement Association and the K i t s i l a n o Beach park purchase. In 1904 the C.P.R. placed on market l o t s south of Cornwall between Yew and Trafalgar Streets. F i f t y foot l o t s sold i n i t i a l l y f o r about $400.00 but with the com-p l e t i o n of the st r e e t c a r l i n e to K i t s i l a n o Beach, soared i n p r i c e to about $5,000.00 (Matthews, 1932, Vol. 1, p. 162 and Major Fred B a y l i s s ' f i l e , Vancouver Ci t y Archives). Morley, 1940. 'Matthews,1932, Vol. 2, p. 311. This i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the area i n 1908 by Matthews. Note that although improved access to K i t s i -lano c e r t a i n l y played a c r i t i c a l r o l e i n i t s development, the neces-s i t y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l expansion from an over-crowded West End was c e r t a i n l y an important factor as w e l l (Holdsworth, i n progress, Chapter .3). i Stewart, 1956. 20 N i c o l l s , 1954, p. 21 and Matthews, 1932, Vol. 1, p. 2.. I t i s impor-tant to r e a l i z e that the development of. Vancouver and K i t s i l a n o within i t was c e r t a i n l y shaped by large-scale events. Local events gave p a r t i c u l a r character to the d i r e c t i o n of growth, while growth i t s e l f was often stimulated from outside. The Panama Canal, which was begun i n 1907 and completed i n 1914, served as one such impetus to investment i n Vancouver. The Canadian government's encouragement of immigration to Canada i n this period also enhanced economic growth on the west coast (Sage, 1946). 21 "Great Building Boom of 25 Years Ago Recalled"., K i t s i l a n o Times, March 24, 1937, p. 1. 2 2Matthews, 1932, Vol. 1, p. 86. 23 The boundaries of K i t s i l a n o are considered by present-day planners as the English Bay foreshore, Sixteenth Avenue, Burrard Street and Alma Street. H i s t o r i c a l l y there has been some dispute over K i t s i -lano's southern and eastern boundaries, although there was no d i s -pute over i t s western boundary at Alma Road — the municipal boun-dary of Vancouver (Matthews, 1932, Vol. 2, pp. 31 and 309). 71 24 Browne, Oral h i s t o r y tape, Geography 371, U.B.C., 1974. The Fourth Avenue st r e e t c a r l i n e was followed within a few years (at l e a s t by 1919) by the Broadway streetcar run — along Broadway from G r a n v i l l e to Alma Road. 25 K i t s i l a n o Point r e f e r s to that area north of Cornwall Street. As i n 1905, land development i n 1909 took place simultaneous with trans-portation development. 26 It i s important to r e a l i z e that large scale economic trends, r e a l estate developers and l o c a l government a l l play c r i t i c a l roles i n the development of K i t s i l a n o (indeed, of any pla c e ) . These i n f l u -ences provide the context within which l o c a l residents acted. The int e n t i o n of th i s chapter i s to provide t h i s contextual information for the l a t e r analysis of l o c a l residents' behaviour. 27 Holdsworth, i n progress. The tendency f o r l o t - b y - l o t construction i s v e r i f i e d by the Emery o r a l h i s t o r y tape, Geography 371, U.B.C, 1974. 28 Some areas along Fourth Avenue and Broadway Street were undeveloped as w e l l . This may have been due to the reluctance of home owners to erect dwellings i n an area which would l i k e l y develop commer-c i a l l y (Bartholomew, 1929, p. 214). 29 The Browne o r a l h i s t o r y tape (Geography 371, U.B.C, 1974) notes that an apartment block at the corner of Trafalgar and Broadway was sold i n 1909. 30 The swamp at K i t s i l a n o Point was f i l l e d i n 1913 with as much as thi r t e e n feet of f i l l (Matthews, 1932, Vol. 1, p. 55). 31 The K i t s i l a n o Times documents the construction of roads. For i n -stance, a regular column i n 1928 l i s t s road and lane improvements in K i t s i l a n o . The paving of Fourth Avenue i n 1909 was seen as a s i g n i f i c a n t boost to the community ( K i t s i l a n o Times, Nov. 9, 1939, P. 1). 32 Bartholomew, 1929, p. 203. 33 I n t e r e s t i n g l y , the zoning ordinance for K i t s i l a n o seemed to r e f l e c t the e a r l i e r r e a l estate l o t subdivision, which i n smaller l o t sizes had prepared eastern K i t s i l a n o f or a high population density. Reality tends eventually to r e f l e c t zoning since zoning serves as a basis f o r r e a l estate values and peoples' expectations for an area. 72 34 Fire Insurance Maps of Vancouver, 1927. Industrial establishments were much more frequent in the area to the east of Kitsilano — along the False Creek foreshore and slope. 35 Bartholomew, 1929, p. 214, and Browne oral history tape, Geography 371, U.B.C., 1974. 36 Kitsilano Ratepayers' Association,Annual Report, 1932, p. 1. 37Bartholomew, 1929, p. 203. 38 "Thousand Cheer-when Kitsilano Pool is Opened", Vancouver Sun, August 16, 1931. Remarks were made by Fred Crone, Chairman of the Parks Board, who became president of the Kitsilano Ratepayers' Association in 1937. 39 Shaw, Oral history tape, Geography 371, U.B.C., 1974. 40 Perhaps due to the i n i t i a l influence of the show homes of the Cana-dian Pacific Railway Company, Kitsilano Point has always been an anomoly within eastern Kitsilano, attracting in general middle class and professional people (Table 1 and Latimer oral history . tape, U.B.C., Geography 371, 1974). 41 Emery, Oral history tape, Geography 371, U.B.C., 1974. 42 Community boosterism was a favourite theme of editorials in the Kitsilano Times during its i n i t i a l years, e.g., "The Booster", June 15, 1918, p. 1. 43 The plans of real estate developers and local government will be treated in a general manner only in this thesis. The plans of both do, however, deserve further attention — certainly since there seems to be an interesting similarity between them. 44 Kitsilano Times, Sept. 8, 1921, p. 1. 4 5 l b i d . , March 2, 1926, p. 1. 46 Holdsworth, in progress. 73 47 Latimer, Oral h i s t o r y tape, U.B.C., Geography 371, 1974. The slowness of growth during the depression i s v e r i f i e d by the K i t s i l a n o Times newspaper ( K i t s i l a n o Times, March 24, 1937, p. 6). 48 K i t s i l a n o Times, May 26, 1938, p. 2. 49 Shaw , Oral h i s t o r y tape, Geography 371, U.B.C., 1974. The Shaws also note the encouragement of development by the Federal Government funding f o r home construction which began under the auspices of the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation i n the l a t e 1930's. "^Latimer and Shaw , Oral h i s t o r y tapes, Geography 371, U.B.C, 1974. 5 1 G u t s t e i n , 1975, p. 104. 52 Ibid. Not a l l the zoning changes encouraged or r e f l e c t e d residen-t i a l land use changes. The rezoning from RM-3A to Ml of the area bounded by Cornwall Avenue, F i r s t Avenue, Burrard Street and Cypress Street formally recognized the already-existing Coca Cola plant and Bekins Storage b u i l d i n g s . 53 Gutstein, 1975, p. 106. 54 In 1960 construction began on the Park View Towers at the south end of Burrard Street Bridge — K i t s i l a n o ' s f i r s t high r i s e . The apart-ment b u i l d i n g was developed by Tom Campbell who l a t e r became mayor of Vancouver. The rezoning - from RM-3A to RM-3 - permitted develop-ment up to 120 feet i n height. Even denser development was allowed where the development plans included l a r g e r s i t e s , more open space or underground parking (Gutstein, 1975, p. 105). "'"'This community aging process may perhaps account f o r the drop i n population recorded by Canada Census f o r K i t s i l a n o ' s southeastern section between the years 1951 and 1961. In 1961, 24% of Southeast i K i t s i l a n o ' s . population was: over the age of 64:years. ^ K i t s i l a n o Times, January 4, 1940, p. 1. K i t s i l a n o ' s image spread even beyond Vancouver. The K i t s i l a n o Show-boat shows are described as the "famed outdoor concerts at K i t s i l a n o Beach. The shows have been seen by v i s i t o r s from every part of the world". ( K i t s i l a n o Times, July 23, 1953, p. 1). The expansion of K i t s i l a n o ' s image abroad was also conveyed by the K i t s i l a n o Boys' Band who toured abroad f i r s t i n 1936 and many times i n ensuing years. 74 " ^ K i t s i l a n o Times, June 16, 1938, p. 1. 58 L e t t e r from the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association to the Vancouver C i t y Zoning By-Law Board of Appeal, J u l y 14, 1949. 59 Conversation between F. Rex Werts and Bert Emery, November, 1934, recorded i n the Foreward to the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce Shopper's Guide, 1974-1975, p. 3. K i t s i l a n o Times, March 16, 1939, p. 1 and Sept. 18, 1941, p. 1. This commitment to home improvement continues to present-day, with over 50% of the Vancouver applicants f or RRAP (Residents R e h a b i l i -t a t i o n Assistance Program) moneys l i v i n g i n K i t s i l a n o . 61 See, for example, the promotion of an upzoning change (RT-2 to RM-2) for K i t s i l a n o Point which absorbed members of the Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association from 1954 to 1957. 62 Group records for the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, the K i t s i -lano Chamber of Commerce and the Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Asso-c i a t i o n a l l contain i n d i c a t i o n s of concern for membership decline. 63 The K i t s i l a n o Karnival was discontinued i n 1941 due to i n s u f f i c i e n t attendance ( K i t s i l a n o Times, Jan. 16, 1941, p. 1). Both the K i t s i l a n o Showboat and K i t s i l a n o Kiddies Parade ran at a d e f i c i t for the f i r s t time i n 1959 ( K i t s i l a n o Times, Sept, 24, 1959, p. 1 and the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce meeting minutes, 1959). Miss K i t s i l a n o was a non-Kitsilano resident i n 1958. The competition had been opened to a l l of Vancouver due to i n s u f f i c i e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s from K i t s i l a n o . 64 Gutstein, 1975, p. 104. 6 5 I b i d . , p. 105. 66 Canada Census, 1961 and 1971. 6 7 G u t s t e i n , 1975, p. 102. 6 8 I b i d . 75 64.5% of the dwelling units i n K i t s i l a n o i n 1971 were tenant- as opposed to owner-occupied. Gutstein blames r e a l estate developers and l o c a l government zoning f o r the speculation process which had led to r e s i d e n t i a l i n s t a b i l i t y (Gutstein, 1975, 105). 3 G u t s t e i n , 1975, p. 102. ''"The Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association disbanded i n 1968. The K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association disbanded, at l e a s t temporarily, i n 1976. An interview with the president of the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce i n 1976 conveys the f e e l i n g that the r o l e of the Cham-ber i n the community i s " v i r t u a l l y non-existent". Latimer, Oral h i s t o r y tape, Geography 371, U.B.C, 1974. 76 CHAPTER THREE: THE KITSILANO RATEPAYERS' ASSOCIATION 77 FIGURE 28 78 "Come and meet the people who take an i n t e r e s t i n our community." KRA News B u l l e t i n January 23, 1967 Since the determined stand of the pioneer Greer, K i t s i l a n o r e s i -dents have pursued t h e i r own designs f o r t h e i r neighbourhood. A l -though numerous i n d i v i d u a l s and groups arose to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the shaping of K i t s i l a n o , one group seems most s i g n i f i c a n t i n i t s long term persistence - the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association.^" In an attempt to understand resident involvement i n the community develop-ment process, the remainder of t h i s thesis w i l l focus on the nature and a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s group. To prepare for the more d e t a i l e d analysis of behaviour and ideas which w i l l be undertaken i n l a t e r chapters, t h i s chapter w i l l d i s -cuss general group concerns as portrayed i n the association's c o n s t i -t u t i o n and committees. I t w i l l , as w e l l , o f f e r some notions as to the type of people involved i n the community-shaping process. This may prove of some benefit i n the attempt to understand the ideas which underlie and prompt group act i o n . GROUP FORMATION The roots of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association (KRA) l i e i n the K i t s i l a n o Improvement Association which was formed i n 1906 with the objective of mounting "concerted action to get sewers, tram ser-79 2 v i c e , opening up of s t r e e t s , etc. i n K i t s i l a n o . " Within a few years the organization, which had unobtrusively changed i t s name to the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, brought pressure to bear on 3 the l o c a l government to ban campers' tents on K i t s i l a n o Beach. In 1909 members lobbied f o r the p u b l i c purchase of K i t s i l a n o Beach Park (Appendix 5). In obtaining p u b l i c services the KRA improved both the d i s t r i c t as well as enhanced the economic and s o c i a l investment of rate-payers. These e a r l y actions thus r e f l e c t e d two primary concerns of the organization: "to protect and advance the i n t e r e s t s of K i t s i l a n o ' s 4 ratepayers and to improve and better K i t s i l a n o D i s t r i c t . " The two concerns were intimately r e l a t e d . They j o i n t l y formed the focus of the KRA's f i r s t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l objective and were frequently presented together i n p u b l i c statements of the organizations' goals. The im-portance 6 f both d i s t r i c t and ratepayers' i n t e r e s t to the KRA i s s i g -n i f i e d by the range and v i t a l i t y of the committees these i n t e r e s t s sponsored (Table 9). GENERAL GOALS AND ACTION In order to f u l f i l l i t s plans f o r K i t s i l a n o , the KRA recognized the need to confront the government bodies who also took an i n t e r e s t and a c t i v e r o l e i n the neighbourhood's development. The association's goals thus included: 80 "to i n t e r e s t the body of ratepayers i n obtaining a knowledge of municipal a f f a i r s and public services and by open discussion at i t s meetings to c r y s t a l l i z e the views and wishes of the ratepayers i n regard to the a c t i v i t i e s of municipal a u t h o r i t i e s and p u b l i c service corporations within the D i s t r i c t and to present to and urge upon the proper a u t h o r i t i e s and bodies such views and issues. . . In proper cases to make representations to the P r o v i n c i a l or Dominion a u t h o r i t i e s , L e g i s l a t u r e or Parliament."5 The KRA obviously expected to act as a l i a i s o n body between ratepayers and government, with the i n t e n t i o n of intervening i n any undesirable government plans for K i t s i l a n o . K i t s i l a n o d i s t r i c t was defined by the KRA as that area bounded by F i r Street, Alma Street, the English Bay foreshore and Sixteenth Avenue. Within t h i s area, the organization attended to both the f i n a n c i a l and the s o c i a l well-being of i t s residents (Table 9). "The objects of the Association s h a l l be. . . to f o s t e r an enlightened community s p i r i t ; to encour-age voluntary community enterprise; and to work i n harmony with a l l organizations engaged therein. .. . to extend the foregoing a c t i v i t i e s to secure the wise conduct of the business of the C i t y of Vancou-ver which would be r e f l e c t e d i n increasing the bene-: f i t s and reducing the burdens of the ratepayers and to co-operate i n t h i s intent with other s i m i l a r associations."6 Although one might expect the KRA to focus i t s formal concerns and a c t i v i t i e s on s p e c i f i c ratepayers' i n t e r e s t s , i t appears that the organization did hold a wider view of i t s r o l e i n the community. Although active involvement i n philanthropic work was l i m i t e d , the organization's i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l issues - i n c l u d i n g i t s i n t e r n a l s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s - was f a i r l y pronounced 7 (Table 9). 81 TABLE 9 KITSILANO RATEPAYERS' ASSOCIATION:  COMMITTEE REPORTS TO MEETINGS. ERQB-1935  TO 1946 Number of Tines Committee Committee T i t l e Reported, 1935 - 1946 Internal Affairs Attendance 3 Collection 0 Finance^ s 3 Historian 0 Membership 27 Programme (Entertainment) 12 Publicity 5 Reception 3 Refreshments 2 Social Convenor 3 Sports Day 2 Welcoming _0 Total 60 38.5% Kitsilano D i s t r i c t and Ratepayers Interests Building 0 Clean Up of Kitsilano Pavilion 4 Community Development 2 Fourth Avenue Repaving and Widening 4 Fuel 5 Help Keep Kitsilano Beautiful 2 Kitsilano Indian Reserve (Development) 8 Litt e r 3 Police and Fire 0 Schools, Parks and Boulevards 5 Septic Tanks 3 Sewers 10 Sidewalks 2 Stop Signs and Parking 4 Taxes 2 Transportation (Streetcars & Busses) 18 Zoning _6 Total 78 49.5% Social Interests and Community Solidarity Community Association 0 Community Centre 4 General Welfare 0 Haddon Memorial 2 Kitsilano Pool Concerts 8 Salvage Drive (Red Cross) _2 Total 14 10% Concern with Government City Finances 2 Civic Affairs _0 Total 2 1% Grand Total 156 100% ''"Committee reports were tabulated from both general and executive meeting minutes through the years 1935 to 1946 inclusive. The t i t l e s of many committees changed over time. To f a c i l i t a t e tabulation and documentation, the t i t l e s in this table were chosen to represent com-mittees which despite changing names, were concerned with the same issues over time. 2 The Finance Committee reports are distinct from the treasurer's report which was given at every meeting. 82 GROUP MEMBERSHIP Consistent with i t s i n t e r e s t i n the community of K i t s i l a n o as a whole, the KRA allowed as members not only the ratepayers but a l l residents within the d i s t r i c t . " A l l persons paying municipal taxes upon lands Within the d i s t r i c t and the wife or husband of such taxpayer together with a l l residents within the d i s t r i c t s h a l l be e l i g i b l e for membership i n the Association."8 The organization's responsiveness to people intere s t e d i n t h e i r com-munity moved them i n 1940 to further allow as members people who were " p a r t i c u l a r l y interested", even i f they resided outside of 9 K i t s i l a n o . Membership i t s e l f v a r i e d i n s i z e through the years but 1 0 reached i t s highest point i n 1956 (Table 10). TABLE 10 KRA MEMBERSHIP FROM 1939 TO 1956 1 Year Total Membership 1939 50 1940 58 1941 107 1942 100 1943 129 1944 103 1945 186 1946 c.200 1956 354 Data were a v a i l a b l e f o r scattered years only and were obtained from a v a r i e t y of sources: KRA meeting minutes and correspondence and the K i t s i l a n o Times newspaper. Just as large scale economic events influenced the development process as a whole within K i t s i l a n o , the unstable economic conditions of the 1930's had se r i o u s l y affected the v i t a l i t y of the organization. 83 "For f o r t y years (1906 to 1946) meetings have been held, some large and some small, at times the membership has shrunk and with i t , funds with which to carry on the good work i n looking a f t e r the d i s t r i c t ' s i n t e r e s t . But there always appeared on the scene some interested ratepayer of K i t s i l a n o who would rouse i n t e r e s t and then again the Association would take i t s r i g h t f u l p o s i t i o n i n c i v i c a f f a i r s . " 1 2 Many i n d i v i d u a l s within the KRA played c r i t i c a l roles i n the organ-i z a t i o n ' s ongoing a c t i v i t i e s (Table 11). TABLE 11 KITSILANO RATEPAYERS' ASSOCIATION: SOME OUTSTANDING MEMBERS Members recognized as outstanding by. the KRA H i s t o r i c a l Records  Book, 1946: Mr. Lynne Browne Mr. W.K. Burns Mr. Fred Crone Lt . Col. G.M. Endacott Miss Anna Fagan Mr. and Mrs. J. H a l l Major E.A. Hudson Mrs. C. Latimer Mrs. A. McGovern Major J.S. Matthews Mr. and Mrs. F. Melton Mr. and Mrs. A. Owens Mr. R. Parm P e t t i p i e c e Mr. Fred Scudamore Miss Joy Scudamore Mr. John Sutherland Mr, George Thompson Mr. L.A. T i t l e b o r n Members awarded l i f e membership by the KRA: Mr. Lynne Browne Mrs. A. McGovern Major J.S. Matthews Mrs. E.A. Owens Mrs. W.J. Smiley Miss Margaret Sutherland 84 These people n a t u r a l l y expressed t h e i r leadership q u a l i t i e s i n 13 executive p o s i t i o n s . GROUP REPRESENTATIVENESS One may w e l l question whether the a c t i v i t i e s of the KRA were rooted i n the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of i t s executive members or r e f l e c t i v e of the organization as a whole. An answer to t h i s question l i e s i n how representative the executive members were of the general mem-bership. A study of the socio-economic status of KRA members re-veals a number of pronounced differences between the executive and general membership bodies (Table 12). In 1938 a higher proportion of executive members i n comparison to the general membership were of professional and middle class s t a -tus. In 1956 the number of r e t i r e d executive members rose consider-ably and thus the KRA's executive body was proportionately composed of more r e t i r e d and pr o f e s s i o n a l members and fewer working and mid-dle class members, than the general membership body. The differences between executive and general members of the KRA were apparent as w e l l between the association and the community as a whole. In the l a t e 1930's the KRA consisted of a higher pro-portion of pr o f e s s i o n a l and middle class residents and lower propor-t i o n of working class residents than did the K i t s i l a n o community at large. S i m i l a r l y i n the l a t e 1950's the KRA was les s representative of working class and more representative of professionals ,and r e t i r e d 85 TABLE 12 SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF KRA MEMBERS AND i KITSILANO RESIDENTS1 2 Profes- Middle? Working^ Retired Sampli Membership sionals Class Class & Widows Students Size Known 1938 General 28% 36% 9% 25.5% 1.5% 75 1938 Executive 37.5% 50% 12.5% 8 1940 K i t s i l a n o Residents5 19% 15% 43% 22% 1% 130 1940s Executive 46% 30% '6% 18% 33 1950 K i t s i l a n o Residents 14% 16% 43%::; 24% 3% 140 1956 General 17% 20.2% 27.4% 35% 0.4% 212 1956 Executive 21.4% 7.2% 1474% 57% 14 1960 K i t s i l a n o Residents 15% 16% 39% 27% 3% 180 1960's Exec 6 36% 25% 11% 28% 28 1970 K i t s i l a n o Residents 25.5% 26% 35% 9.5% 10% 263 The socio-economic status of KRA members was determined by applying Blishen's occupational status scale (1965) to the occupations of members as given i n the KRA records and the Vancouver City Directory. Data f o r K i t s i l a n o residents was determined by applying Blishen's occupational status scale (1965) to a sample of 6 blocks of residents (see Table 1). See Appendix 6 for t h e l i s t of members, addresses and oc-cupations . 2 Blishen (1965) categories 1 and 2. 3 Blishen (1965) categories 3 and 4. 4 Blishen (1965) categories 5, 6 and 7 ^Analysis covers members for the years 1942, 1943, 1944 and 1946. Analysis covers members for the years 1960, 1962, 1964, 1966 and 1968. members of the community. These differences p a r a l l e l the differences within the KRA i t s e l f . The executive body of the association seemed to represent i n extreme the differences which were already pronounced between the organization's general membership and the K i t s i l a n o com-munity. As evidence by both general and executive members the KRA 86 thus formed within K i t s i l a n o an e l i t e of professionals and middle class i n 1938 and e l i t e of professionals: and..retired residents_.in 1956. The executive body's exaggeration of differences between the KRA as a whole and the K i t s i l a n o community was noticeable as w e l l i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of members' homes. In 1938 the pattern of KRA membership seemed p a r t i c u l a r l y to favour the northwest area of K i t s i -lano, while i n 1956 the concentration extended to both north and south western areas (Table 13). TABLE 13 KRA MEMBERSHIP: RESIDENTIAL DISTRIBUTION' Places of Residence Addresses Membership NW K i t s SW K i t s NE K i t s SE K i t s Outside Known Tota l 1938 General 31% 8% 40% 5% 21% 91 92 1938 Executive 33.5% 11% 55.5% 9 10 1940's Exec. 2 38% 6% 38% 3% 15% 34 35 1956 General 35.5% 22% 36.5% 6% 276 354 1956 Executive 56% 19% 19% 6% 16 17 1960's Exec.3 43% 28.5% 3.5% 25% 28 32 1941 K i t s i l a n o Residents 25% 14% 43% 18% 31,389 1956 K i t s i l a n o Residents 25% 15% 41% 19% 35,823 1961 K i t s i l a n o Residents 26% 15% 41% 18% 36,171 1971 K i t s i l a n o Residents 24% 14% 44% 18% 37,425 "The d i s t r i b u t i o n represents only those members for whom addresses were av a i l a b l e - either i n group f i l e s or Vancouver Ci t y D i r e c t o r i e s . The siib areas of K i t s i l a n o correspond to the census d i v i s i o n s given i n Table 7. The demographic d i s t r i b u t i o n within K i t s i l a n o as a whole was calculated on the basis of census s t a t i s t i c s . 87 Table 13 (cont'd) 2 Addresses are of members serving on the KRA executives i n 1942, 1943, 1944 and 1946. 3 Addresses are of members serving on the KRA executives i n 1960, 1962, 1964, 1966 and 1968. The most under-represented area of K i t s i l a n o i n both 1938 and 1956 lay i n the southeast. The executive body of the KRA was i n 1938 even less representative of the southeast area and more representa-t i v e of a l l , o t h e r three areas than was the general membership. In 1956 the concentration of executive members i n the western portion of K i t s i l a n o - p a r t i c u l a r l y the northwest - increased. This a r e a l concentration seems to complement the s o c i a l status bias of the asso-c i a t i o n . Since KRA members, and p a r t i c u l a r l y executive members, were more representative of higher status residents i n K i t s i l a n o , they were also clustered i n the western areas of the neighbourhood, where bet-ter q u a l i t y housing tended to be located. A map of the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of executive members i n 1956 indicates further t h i s l o -c a t i o n a l bias towards K i t s i l a n o ' s better housing i n the markedly high incidence of locati o n s along Point Grey Road (Figure 29). The differences between both the KRA and the K i t s i l a n o community and the KRA executive and i t s general members are notable. I f , how-ever, one recognizes that exceptional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s usually d i s t i n -guish the most active members of any group of people, these d i f f e r -ences might become less s i g n i f i c a n t . The c r i t i c a l question i s then one of perceived representativeness rather than representativeness 88 p4 •D DDDDD •••••1 •••••• DDDDD ODODD BLUOD •••DO .JDDDDDDDDD iffiDDODDDDDD OOGDGOODD /•.ADD! •DDI 'fjrJODI IDDD DDDDDDDDD! DDQnDDDD none •DOG •OCPDODD IDPDC DO IDODDDDQ •••••••• •ODD •rjDTJDD 89 measured on some s o c i o l o g i c a l scale. The KRA did f e e l i t s e l f to be a bona f i d e spokesman f o r K i t s i l a n o as a whole. "Our a s s o c i a t i o n represents approximately 10,000 municipal tax payers."1^ The association f e l t that the general p u b l i c d i f f e r e d from i t s e l f only to the degree of i t s appreciation and committed involvement i n community issues. Thus, one of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l goals of the KRA was to enlighten and ac t i v a t e the i n t e r e s t of the ratepayers at large. There c e r t a i n l y was some i n d i c a t i o n that the residents of K i t s i -lano both supported the goals of the KRA and looked upon the associa-t i o n as a legitimat body. In promoting the spot rezoning of one street corner i n northeast K i t s i l a n o - an area not p a r t i c u l a r l y w ell represented by the KRA - the organization canvassed surrounding pro-perty owners and found 80% i n favour of t h e i r proposed change. 1^ When independent l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e arose i n at l e a s t one case outside of the organization, residents sought the support of the KRA, which 16 i t w i l l i n g l y gave. The perception of the KRA's r o l e as a guiding body within a wider supportive but non-active community thus rested on the b e l i e f that s i m i l a r i t i e s between association and community members did i n fac t exist,..and t r u s t and support were mutual. Within the organization, a s i m i l a r perception d i f f e r e n t i a t e d the executive as a leadership body within a supportive membership-at-large. A f t e r s i n g l i n g out a number of executive members for praise, an early president stated: 90 "There are many o t h e r s , too, that are worthy of mention because each and every member has a v a l u a b l e p a r t to p l a y to make an o r g a n i z a t i o n a s u c c e s s . , ! ±7 Despite d i f f e r e n c e s which may have e x i s t e d , the members at l a r g e seemed to accept t h e i r executive body as spokesman f o r t h e i r i n t e r -e s t s . The c h a r a c t e r and successfulness of two d i f f e r e n t meeting places r e f l e c t s both these d i f f e r e n c e s and the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of gen-e r a l members with the status image of the e x e c u t i v e . The KRA meet-ings which were h e l d f o r a time i n General Gordon School i n order to appeal to general members s u f f e r e d from poor attendance. I t was decided to h o l d the meeting once again at K i l l a r n e y mansion - a meet-ing p l a c e f a r more expressive, of the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d execu-t i v e than the middle c l a s s general membership. Attendance l e v e l s , 18 which had always been high t h e r e , rose once a g a i n . CONCLUSION From the examination of the KRA, i t may be concluded that K i t s i -lano r e s i d e n t s , through the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the KRA, determined to play a strong c o l l e c t i v e r o l e i n the development of t h e i r neighbour-hood. Although the KRA seemed most concerned w i t h p h y s i c a l s e r v i c e s such as sewers and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n the d i s t r i c t , i t c e r t a i n l y r e c -ognized and promoted the s o c i a l dimension of community as w e l l . S u p e r f i c i a l examination seems to i n d i c a t e that the KRA was u n -r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the community as a whole, b i a s e d towards p r o f e s -s i o n a l , middle c l a s s and r e t i r e d r e s i d e n t s . I t d i d , however, r e c e i v e 91 the backing of K i t s i l a n o residents who attended i t s meetings and s o c i a l events, signed i t s p e t i t i o n s and, further, sought i t s help. It seems that j u s t as p o l i t i c a l party members may win the widespread endorsement of an electorate i n many respects d i f f e r e n t from them-selves, the KRA had won the endorsement of diverse K i t s i l a n o r e s i -dents. The basis upon which support and representativeness i s attained l i e s , of course, on a deeper l e v e l than that of s o c i a l status or residence. To have received the backing of residents, the KRA must have touched upon ideas compatible with those of i t s constituency. Given that the actions of the group derived from i t s concern with the l o c a l community, one would expect the most s i g n i f i c a n t of these ideas to' be community-related. The following two chapters, i n exploring the concepts of community held by the KRA thus aim to expose the ideas which underlay both the group's representativeness and the indigenous place-shaping process which i t advocated. 92 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER THREE ^A content analysis of the K i t s i l a n o Times newspaper provides evidence of the c e n t r a l i t y of the group i n neighbourhood a f f a i r s (Appendix 1). 2 K i t s i l a n o Improvement Association letterhead. The stated objectives were pursued i n West Fairview which was the name applied to the d i s -t r i c t between G r a n v i l l e and Trafalgar before the name K i t s i l a n o be-came we l l established (Matthews, Vol. 2, 1932, p. 309). See Appen-dix 4 f or names, addresses and occupations of the KRA executive i n 1907. 3 The h i s t o r i c a l records of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association do not note the year of name change, and discuss the early actions of the K i t s i l a n o Improvement Association as those of the KRA. Records seem to i n d i c a t e that the name change occurred some time i n the years 1908-1909. 4 KRA, General Meeting Minutes,,April 29, 1941. 5KRA, Constitution, 1936. The KRA saw the need to deal with both p r o v i n c i a l and fede r a l governments due to t h e i r plans f o r the de-velopment of the KRA. r 3KRA, Constitution, 1936. 7The emphasis placed on i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s may we l l be due to the time period from which the data emerge. During the Depression arid war years, associations l i k e the KRA f i l l e d a d e f i n i t e s o c i a l need. 3KRA, Constitution, 1936. ) Amendment to the KRA Constitution, executive meeting, January 12, 1940. The encouragement of residents other than ratepayers to j o i n the association was i n part a response to the intentions of the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce to sponsor a general c i t i z e n s organi-zation i n 1935. The KRA decided to a l t e r i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n i n 1935 to admit a l l residents of K i t s i l a n o as members and thus render a c i t i z e n s ' organization redundant (Memo from Bert Emery to KCC exec-utive , KCC records). 9 3 1935 Annual Report, K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, p. 3. Numerous records a t t e s t to the membership problems of the KRA at thi s time.. The K i t s i l a n o Times noted that the KRA had been func-ti o n i n g l e s s and l e s s r e g u l a r l y over the previous two years (The K i t s i l a n o Times, March 11, 1937, p. 1). "A move to decrease the s i z e of the executive body from 10 to 5 i n 1935 was necessary due to the d i f f i c u l t y i n procuring active members (KRA, Executive meeting minutes, January 11, 1935). The problem pe r s i s t e d i n 1936 and 1937 (KRA, General Meeting Minutes, February 19, 1936; KRA, Executive meeting minutes, November 25, 1937). 1 1KRA, Annual Report, 1933, p. 1. 12 Letter from Fred Scudamore to the KRA, H i s t o r i c a l Records Committee, September 3, 1946. 13 Major J.S. Matthews, Cit y a r c h i v i s t , did.not hold an executive p o s i t i o n within the KRA. However, he did play a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e . His l e t t e r s to the KRA frequently contained suggestions f o r actio n , e.g., "I am of the opinion that i f the Ratepayers thought f i t to send a message of thanks and congratulations to the Parks Board, that such a message would be most agreeable f o r the Commissioners to receive" (Letter from Major J.S. Matthews to the KRA, May 9, 1950). 14 L e t t e r from KRA to the Department of Transport Commissioners, January 15, 1962. 1 5KRA, General Meeting Minutes, March 30, 1939. 16 The KRA offered i t s assistance i n support of a p e t i t i o n c i r c u l a t i n g amongst K i t s i l a n o residents i n regards to heavy t r a f f i c on Point Grey Road. ^^Letter from Fred Scudamore to the KRA,. H i s t o r i c a l Records Committee, September 3, 1946. 18 KRA, Executive meeting minutes, A p r i l 12, 1935. 19 The question of the representativeness of the KRA, although-'an im-portant question to probe may we l l be simply answered i n the longevity and indigenous roots of the group, . and i t s concern with long-term goals. 94 CHAPTER FOUR: THE COMMUNAL NOTION OF NEIGHBOURHOOD FIGURE 30 Presbyterian Church P i c n i c , Greer's Beach, 1894 (source: Vancouver City Archives). K i t s i l a n o Showboat (source: K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce). 96 "FRIENDLY KITSILANO" Its a f r i e n d l y place: Where children play, And washings are hung on t h e i r proper day. Where people speak With f r i e n d l y words, And scat t e r crumbs For nesting b i r d s , Where housewives l i n g e r To chat awhile, And greet a f r i e n d With a f r i e n d l y smile, Where gardens bloom With tender care, And every hearth Has a welcome to share, With a stranger endowed By wisdoms grace, Who makes him home ^ In t h i s k i n d l y place. A review of l i t e r a t u r e found the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of neigh-bourhood to have three dimensions: a s p e c i f i c p l a c e - o r i e n t a t i o n , a 2 basis i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and a concern with s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y . During the h i s t o r i c a l development of K i t s i l a n o , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the period from 1935 to 1961, K i t s i l a n o residents seem to have focused attention upon these same neighbourhood c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The Kitsilano Ratepayers' Association, as a model of community concern, acted to shape the landscape of i t s s p e c i f i e d area, supported s o c i a l programmes and promoted the fee l i n g s of s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y and com-munity s p i r i t . This chapter w i l l more f u l l y explore the actions and attitudes of the KRA as they seem to support t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l notion of neighbourhood. 97 CONCERN WITH PLACE: KITSILANO DISTRICT The character of place seemed to be by f a r the most s i g n i f i c a n t concern of the KRA. The organization lauded K i t s i l a n o ' s p h y s i c a l amenities and dedicated i t s e l f to improving the pub l i c services and neighbourhood appearance which ensured a high q u a l i t y l i v i n g e n vir-onment . Public Services From t h e i r inception i n 1906, the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Associa-t i o n absorbed themselves i n the task of improving K i t s i l a n o ' s p u b l i c services and u t i l i t i e s . By 1926 the organization boasted t h e i r r o l e i n securing the Imperial Street sewer, the extension of sidewalks and streetcar services on Broadway Street, the retention of Bala-clava F i r e H a l l , the development of K i t s i l a n o Park and bathhouse, the development of Connaught Park playing f i e l d s , the addition to 3 General Gordon School and a K i t s i l a n o branch p u b l i c l i b r a r y . The breadth of t h e i r achivements indicated t h e i r appreciation of the wide range of amenities which are i n t e g r a l to a neighbourhood (Table 14). Although the KRA attended to improving a wide range of pub l i c services within t h e i r community, i t seemed to devote the greatest energy to obtaining what i t f e l t were e s s e n t i a l services or u t i l i t i e s — sewers, roads, p u b l i c t r a n s i t and parks (Table 14). During the 1940's the issue of sewers became a f o c a l point of the a c t i v i t i e s of the KRA. 98 TABLE 14 KRA COMMUNAL CONCERNS: PUBLIC UTILITIES AND SERVICES Issue No. of times mentioned No. of l e t t e r s .'.in meeting minutes, addressed to i s -1935 to 1946 sue, 1954-1957 Sewers Streets and roads Public t r a n s i t K i t s i l a n o beach and park Securement of K i t s i l a n o Indian 28 24 10 35 8 8 2 Reserve as a park Other parks i n K i t s i l a n o Library services Schools Telephone services 19 8 1 1 1 1 1 Although the KRA attended to improving a wide range of p u b l i c services within t h e i r community, i t seemed to devote the greatest energy to obtaining what i t f e l t were e s s e n t i a l services or u t i l i t i e s — sewers, roads, p u b l i c t r a n s i t and parks (Table 14). During the 1940's the issue of sewers became a f o c a l point of the a c t i v i t i e s of the KRA. "The members of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Associa-t i o n deplore the most objectionable, unsavoury, unhealthy and unsanitary conditions e x i s t i n g on the beach along Point Grey Road, caused by the f i l t h i e s t kind of sewage f l o a t i n g i n the water and deposited on the beaches."4 Membership i n the KRA rose from le s s than 100 people to 200 people during the years 1944 to 1946 when the issue of sewage disposal took precedence over a l l other issues. "The correspondence alone on sewage disposal would f i l l a box s i x feet by s i x feet.""' Work focused on the extension of sewers at the foot of Maple Street, Balaclava Street and along Point Grey Road and Cornwall Street. Since most of the sewers emptied into the shoreline along K i t s i l a n o Beach, the 99 main object of concern was the beach area. The problem lay i n "defec-t i v e s e p t i c tanks which overflowed and contaminated the shoreline below Lower Point Grey Road and the condition which p r e v a i l s at low tide on K i t s i l a n o Beach as a r e s u l t of drainage from the t o i l e t f a c i l i t i e s of the bathhouse." The KRA established a committee to examine i n depth the sewer issue. The committee, headed by Mrs. Rosalind Latimer, monitored the outflow from the Maple Street sewer, produced a report on the sewer problems and made numerous contacts, both i n person and i n l e t t e r , with c i t y o f f i c i a l s . Their e f f o r t s met with r e s u l t s , and dur-ing the 1940's extensive sewer projects were completed i n K i t s i l a n o . 7 In the early phases of neighbourhood growth, roads were n a t u r a l l y considered of utmost importance. Development of the area could not take place without access and the convenience of a.good road system. As a consequence, numerous str e e t projects — varying from the r e -pair of a lane i n the 2200 block Cornwall Street, to the widening and paving of Fourth Avenue and Point Grey Road.— received the atten-t i o n of the KRA (Table 14). In 1926 the KRA sent a large " K i t s i l a n o Delegation" to the Vancouver C i v i c Works Board to request improvements to the roads within K i t s i l a n o d i s t r i c t . Most s i g n i f i c a n t amongst t h e i r requests was the paving and general, improvement of Twelfth Avenue to Alma Road; and the construction of cement sidewalks on g streets f r o n t i n g schools, e s p e c i a l l y i n Lower K i t s i l a n o . The extension of sidewalks and st r e e t l i g h t i n g , l i k e the improvement i n roads, indicated a general upgrading of the K i t s i l a n o d i s t r i c t . " K i t s i l a n o now has modern, l i g h t standards on Fourth Avenue from G r a n v i l l e Street to Balsam. Very shortly t h i s ser-vice, w i l l be extended as f a r as Alma Road, which i s our c i v i c boundary. Good work. Good progress."9 100 The KRA was concerned with both the extension of new sidewalks and the improvement of those which had deteriorated. Sidewalks on B a l -sam Street and on Macdonald Street between Third and Fourth Avenues were both considered i n p a r t i c u l a r l y poor condition. The asso c i a t i o n also p e t i t i o n e d f o r better: s t r e e t l i g h t i n g along a l l major transpor-tatio n a r t e r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Point Grey. Road and at the entrance to K i t s i l a n o Park. Streets, s t r e e t - l i g h t i n g and sidewalks were a l l amenities which advertised the community of K i t s i l a n o as a desirable place i n which to l i v e . Naturally, good p u b l i c transportation s e r v i c e s , such as street cars and buses, further enhanced the neighbourhood's image. During the early 1940's bus service existed on Macdonald Street only during July and August. "Residents i n t h i s area northward from Sixteenth Avenue to the K i t s i l a n o Beach Swimming Pool,.park and p i c n i c grounds, have suffered through the lack of adequate transportation during the ten months when the summer extension bus l i n e was not i n operation. The KRA thus spent a great deal of energy attempting to improve pub-l i c t r a n s i t i n t h e i r area (Table 14). Numerous other public services and u t i l i t i e s , such as schools and telephone and l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s , were associated with the type of neighbourhood which the KRA desired. Although f o r the most part the KRA was concerned with the improvement of already-established schools, p a r t i c u l a r l y the addition of gyms and auditoriums, the KRA also attempted to convince the school board of the necessity of a new school i n southeast K i t s i l a n o , which was the l a s t area of the 101 neighbourhood to be developed. The Vancouver School Board, which f e l t a new f a c i l i t y to be unwarranted given the room s t i l l a v a i l a b l e i n other d i s t r i c t schools, obviously did not share the KRA's v i s i o n of equitably d i s t r i b u t e d p u b l i c se r v i c e s . In 1927, the KRA was responsible f o r the opening of a l o c a l branch of the Vancouver Public Library system. During the d i f f i c u l t years which the K i t s i l a n o branch l i b r a r y faced i n the early 1930's, the KRA was responsible f o r a campaign - ultimately unsuccessful - to keep the l i b r a r y open. Despite the closure, the a s s o c i a t i o n did not abandon i t s b e l i e f that the l i b r a r y was a necessary neighbourhood f a c i l i t y and, within a few years, secured the l i b r a r y ' s reopening, "thereby rendering untold service to the community, young and o l d . Of a l l the services with which the Association was concerned, parks were of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The impulse for the organization of the KRA had, i n f a c t , rested on the securement of K i t s i l a n o Park i n 1908. "To secure t h i s property for our a l l - t i m e use. . . 28 members subscribed $1500 i n order that i t might be saved f o r the enjoyment of future generations. That action alone would j u s t i f y the existence of t h i s Association through the years."-^ The extension and improvement of parks i n K i t s i l a n o became one of the major goals of the association (Table 14). In e a r l i e r years the KRA encouraged the development of Haddon and Connaught Parks as w e l l as the establishment of beach parks at the foot of Bayswater Street and on the former K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve. The extension of Tatlow and K i t s i l a n o Parks i n the 1950's and the continued f i g h t to secure the 102 the K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve as a park through to the 1960's were s i g n i f i c a n t l a t e r issues. The r e c r e a t i o n a l necessity f o r parks i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area was often c i t e d as a reason f o r park expansion. "Our parks are e s s e n t i a l . . . The K i t s i l a n o Indian ^ Reserve i s a very important and necessary park area." The p u b l i c services and u t i l i t i e s which became the focus of KRA action were considered fundamental dimensions of the place i n which the asso c i a t i o n members resided. The KRA's concerns, however, centered on more than j u s t the provision of basic services, f o r K i t s i -lano was to be more than j u s t an adequate place i n which to l i v e . "New street cars and new stre e t s are of l i t t l e use, Fred Smelts, newly elected president of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association declared, ' u n t i l the people i n the homes take a r e a l pride i n the appearance of t h e i r block.'"14 Quality of the Neighbourhood Environment Numerous KRA a c t i v i t i e s focussed on the maintainance of a high q u a l i t y environment i n K i t s i l a n o (Table 15). TABLE 15 KRA COMMUNAL CONCERNS: QUALITY OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD ENVIRONMENT Issue L i t t e r problems and general untidiness Unpleasant odors, soot & smoke Tree planting, and care of plants No. of times men-tioned .in meeting minutes, 1935-1946 23 1 6 No. of l e t t e r s addressed to the issue, 1954-1957 4 7 103 Certa i n l y the KRA's concern with the attractiveness of the d i s t r i c t underlay i t s work i n regards to a growing l i t t e r problem (Table 15 and Figure 31). FIGURE 31 Untidy p i l e of wood on boulevard, Maple Street, 1952 (source: Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association). During the 1940's the KRA involved i t s e l f i n two a n t i - l i t t e r campaigns the "Clean-up and Paint-up" campaign and the "Help Keep K i t s i l a n o B e a u t i f u l " campaign. "Do you know of any community 'eyesores'? Unbeautiful spots i n K i t s i l a n o w i l l become a thing of the past i f the e f f o r t s of well-meaning c i t i z e n s bear f r u i t . . . K i t s i l a n o i s n a t u r a l l y b e a u t i f u l . This plan i s the f r u i t of a healthy desire to keep i t so."-'--* 104 Letters requesting c i v i c action were written by the association re-garding numerous s i t e s of untidiness: along Fourth Avenue, Chestnut Street and the BCER right-of-way, around 'the tearoom i n K i t s i l a n o P a v i l i o n , the gas s t a t i o n at the corner of Yew and Cornwall Street, the beach area and even lanes. The main focus of attention f o r the association, however, seemed to be the K i t s i l a n o Park and K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve areas. "Strong c r i t i c i s m of the f i l t h and muck l i t t e r i n g K i t s i l a n o Beach Park i s expressed by F.M. Scudamore, past president of the l o c a l ratepayers' association. . . '.Little attempt i s made to keep the parks f i t f o r decent c i t i z e n s . F i l t h and l i t t e r i n the parks are u n i v e r s a l l y condemned. They are quite unneces-sary to the enjoyment of anyone. They are insuper-able b a r r i e r s to the enjoyment of the m a j o r i t y . ' M ± 6 The problems of unpleasant odors, soot and smoke i n the area of the K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve prompted Rosalind Latimer to c i r c u l a t e a p e t i t i o n on K i t s i l a n o Point. The KRA also became intensely involved with the l o c a l government's plan to use the K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve as a garbage dump. Since the dump would be an open area, situated i n c l e a r sight of a l l those entering K i t s i l a n o along Burrard Street bridge, the KRA was righteously indignant. "It's l i k e putting garbage out on the front yard of Vancouver."17 City H a l l ' s plans were set aside. The KRA's concern with the image of K i t s i l a n o as an a t t r a c t i v e neighbourhood underlay not only i t s a n t i - l i t t e r work, but also numer-ous projects to enhance the area's beauty. In part, i t s promotion of improved p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s — e s p e c i a l l y parks and roads — stemmed 105 from this goal. Point Grey Road and Cornwall Street, running along the waterfront of Kitsilano, were logical choices for scenic beach drives. "A scenic drive. . . would rival the beauty of great cities 18 such as Rio de Janeiro." When Canada Dry Ginger Ale Incorporated of New York applied for a change in the zoning of the southern portion of the Kitsilano Indian Reserve to allow for the development of a soft drinkfactory, the KRA strongly opposed the move. If the area was made a park, as i t suggested, "there would be no more.chance of spoil-ing a beautiful landscape with buildings such as. the one proposed 19 for this site." When the area was later set aside, as a park and site for the Vancouver Planetarium and-Maritime Museum, the KRA proudly claimed its role in the achievement. Parks, of course, preserved as well as possible the natural envir-onment which was the root of. Kitsilano's beauty. "I love to walk beside the sea On Kitsilano's shore: It brings such peaceful thoughts to me, Remote from urban roar. The park, the promenade, the beach, — a setting truly fine."20 Trees, shrubs, flowers and boulevarding a l l enhanced the natural beauty of the area. The KRA felt, for example,, that Kitsilano Park should "not only be kept free of litter but flower beds be included for a l l 21 to admire." The association promoted tree., planting and the upkeep of boulevards throughout the district (Table 15). Letters were written to city officials to ensure the trimming of blackberry vines, hedges and trees in order to maintain the visual quality of Kitsilano streets. 106 The association's commitment to/landscape estheticism even prompted i n d i v i d u a l members to take public i n i t i a t i v e . "The Parks Board i s considering a suggestion from R. Parm P e t t i p i e c e that Balaclava Street be chosen as one of the thoroughfares f o r boulevarding t h i s year. Mr. P e t t i p i e c e stated that i f the Board decided against the choice of Balaclava Street, he would agree to do some work himself, Including tree planting."22 Perhaps the c l e a r e s t example of the KRA's attention to environ-mental q u a l i t y lay i n i t s assessment of- the q u a l i t y of b u i l d i n g ac-t i v i t y i n K i t s i l a n o . Just as the association judged the proposed Canada Dry Ginger Ale plant as detrimental to the. beauty of K i t s i l a n o Point, i t judged the appropriateness of other b u i l d i n g s . "The K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association i s jealous of the beauty of i t s r e s i d e n t i a l area and through R. Rowe Holland i t t r i e d to convince the Zoning Board of Appeal . . . that the owner of 1633 Stephens should not be permitted to b u i l d a garage i n front of him home."23 The focus of KRA concern rested i n the q u a l i t y of the neighbourhood's homes. In t h i s regard, the KRA seemed to express a concern t y p i c a l of K i t s i l a n o residents i n general. A column i n the early editions of the K i t s i l a n o Times newspaper l i s t e d improvements to homes i n the d i s t r i c t . In l a t e r e d i t i o n s , the paper encouraged and commended a l l residents who enhanced the q u a l i t y of K i t s i l a n o ' s landscape through t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l home improvement projects. "An appeal to community-spirited c i t i z e n s for improving the appearance of t h e i r homes never f a i l s to f i n d Mrs. McNeil of 2550 York Street leading her d i s t r i c t i n such a c t i v i t i e s . She may now be seen d i r e c t i n g operations on beauti-fying her residence f o r the J u b i l e e . This i s the s p i r i t that helps Kitsilano."24 107 The Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association c l e a r l y offered i t s opinion on the type of home - older, but i n good repair - appropriate to the area (Figure 32). FIGURE 32 "Older homes i n good r e p a i r , " 1956 (source: Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association). The "b l i g h t spot" at 1839 Creelman Avenue, on the other hand, exem-p l i f i e d the "type of dwelling (which) does not make an a t t r a c t i v e d i s t r i c t " (Figure 3 3 ) . 2 5 108 FIGURE 33 "Blight spot at 1839 Creelman Avenue", 1956 (source: Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association). Worse yet, such buildings would f a i l to a t t r a c t the type of people necessary to sustain the community. "Despite the amenities of our area, young people are not attracted to meagre houses with soft wood f l o o r s , small windows and a generally o l d -fashioned l a y o u t . " 2 " The KRA c e r t a i n l y noted with s a t i s f a c t i o n the q u a l i t y of i t s own members' homes. "(Fred Bayliss) b u i l t a b e a u t i f u l home on the corner of McNicoll Avenue and Arbutus Street. . . and i t was a very 'show' place."27 109 The well-cared-for q u a l i t y home appeared to epitomize the a t t r a c t i v e environment so cherished by the KRA. "The home i s l i k e another s e l f with lovable and human a t t r i b u t e s . The s t r i v i n g f o r s e l f - p r e s e r -vation and s e l f improvement i s a natural law working through a l l l i v i n g things. . . The homemaker sees beauty i n other homes as he looks out of h i s own windows. He sees beauty i n the gardens that frame them. He v i s u a l i z e s what beauty may do for himself. He resolves that he w i l l enlarge h i s dwelling, l i t -e r a l l y or s p i r i t u a l l y , or both, by adding those caresses of t o i l , of grace, of wholesomeness which in d i c a t e a constant s t r i v i n g upward and a growth outward into sunshine and air."28 The KRA's concern with the q u a l i t y of neighbourhood homes may w e l l have rested i n the undeniable assertion that a community i s i t s residents. A l l the concrete elements of landscape, p a r t i c u l a r l y the home, are s i g n i f i c a n t i n that they both r e f l e c t and provide the s e t t i n g f o r s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and a way of l i f e . SOCIAL INTERACTION The celebrated status of K i t s i l a n o as a " f r i e n d l y place to l i v e " was rooted i n the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n which took place amongst neigh-bours. In the early days of the community, neighbourliness was rooted i n the attendance of numerous church functions. A content analysis of the K i t s i l a n o Times newspaper during the 1930's indicates that of a l l the p u b l i c s o c i a l functions noted i n the newspaper, f i f t y percent were church r e l a t e d (Table 16). 110 TABLE 16 SOCIAL EVENTS NOTED IN THE KITSILANO TIMES NEWSPAPER DURING THE 1930'S So c i a l Events i n K i t s i l a n o Number Noted i n One-Quarter Sample of K i t s i l a n o Times Issues, 1930's  Church-related Club-based Private events 198 198 272 The K i t s i l a n o United Church was, i n f a c t , known as "the f r i e n d l y i n t h e i r community and unanimously endorsed a r e s o l u t i o n f o r the 30 exemption of the church from government taxation.. Church functions complemented the large number of club a c t i v i t i e s and p r i v a t e s o c i a l events such as weddings,, p a r t i e s and showers which characterized a s o c i a l l y active community (Table 16). S o c i a b i l i t y permeated K i t s i l a n o and even neighbourhood stores became the regular meeting ground f o r residents. "Bert Emery's. . . store was not an 'ordinary' drug store, but was the meeting place f o r business and pro f e s s i o n a l men who came to drink coffee at the lunch counter and t a l k over various problems. . . Many e l -derly people, j u s t out f o r a s t r o l l , dropped i n f o r a f r i e n d l y chat and a r e s t before returning home."31 So c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n K i t s i l a n o was encouraged by the KRA i n a v a r i e t y of ways (Table 17). A number of s o c i a l events, such as the K i l l a r n e y Garden Party and the Old Timers' meetings,. were more e l a -borate extensions of the KRA's own meetings. The regular meetings were open to a l l members of the K i t s i l a n o community, and i t was common pra c t i c e f o r the president to introduce the various people i n the church I I 29 The KRA supported wholeheartedly the r o l e of the church I l l TABLE 17 KRA COMMUNAL CONCERNS: SOCIAL INTERACTION IN KITSILANO S o c i a l Event No. of times mentioned No. of l e t t e r s i n meeting minutes addressed to the 1935 to 1946 issue, 1954-7 B.C. Centenary Celebration Concerts at K i t s i l a n o Park Dominion Day Celebration Hosting of K i t s i l a n o Showboat K i l l a r n e y Garden Party K i t s i l a n o High School events Old Timers' meetings Vancouver Golden Jubilee 1 3 1 2 1 3 3 3 audience to one another. At the KRA general meeting of June 27, 1944, for example, the president introduced f i v e aldermen,, one park commis-sioner, the vice-president of the Lions Gate branch of the Canadian Legion, the president of the Point Grey Improvement Association and the president and secretary of the Association of Property Owners of Van-32 couver. In that same year, i t became the p o l i c y of the KRA to i n t r o -duce at each meeting a guest who was prominent i n some organization 33 within the community. Similar to the host or. hostess at a party, the KRA thus encouraged contact between i t s members and supporters. The i n t e r a c t i o n between the KRA and other community organizations was regularized through formal a f f i l i a t i o n s . In 1936, for example, the KRA became a f f i l i a t e d with the K i t s i l a n o Council, and i n 1942 34 with the Associated Property Owners of Vancouver. Relations between the KRA and the Associated Property Owners of Vancouver became even closer when Mr. J.A. Sutherland became president of both organizations 112 simultaneously i n 1943. Mr. Sutherland was t y p i c a l of numerous KRA members who, through t h e i r involvement i n several community groups or issues, set the grounds f o r i n t e r a c t i o n between the KRA and other l o c a l associations (Table 18). Most of the s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s encouraged by the KRA were, i n f a c t , j o i n t l y sponsored by i t s e l f and other K i t s i l a n o organizations. Some of these events were i n i t i a l l y promoted by these other groups, notably the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, which was outstanding i n i t s e f f o r t s to encourage s o c i a l events wi t h i n K i t s i l a n o . The KRA joined the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce i n sponsoring concerts i n K i t s i l a n o Park, and s p e c i a l events such as Centennial and Jubilee celebrations (Table 17). The K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce was responsible f o r the most renowned of K i t s i l a n o ' s s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . These included the K i t s i l a n o Kiddies Parade, the Miss K i t s i l a n o Contest and the K i t s i l a n o Showboat, situated i n K i t s i l a n o Pool. The primary inten-t i o n of the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the Showboat was to provide free entertainment for the Depression-weary c i t i z e n s . They began on a grand s c a l e . "We started our p u b l i c entertainment at K i t s i l a n o Beach (with) a parade of over 100 p r i v a t e cars, a l l the buses that were a v a i l a b l e , the K i t s i l a n o Boys Band, and a l l our Federal, P r o v i n c i a l and C i v i c d i g n i t a r i e s . A f t e r an 18 mile drive through our d i s t r i c t we f i n a l l y wound up at K i t s i l a n o Beach where a crowd estimated at 35,000 people awaited us. They a l l enjoyed the big program which we had arranged with displays i n the Pool, Acrobatics on the lawn i n front of the Bath House, a Band concert i n the P i c n i c Grounds and a Water Carnival of g a i l y festooned boats with Japanese lanterns i n the Bay". 3 5 113 TABLE 18 SOME KRA MEMBERS AND THEIR. SOCIAL CONNECTIONS KRA Member Organizations Involved i n other than the KRA Appleyard, Gerry Brown, Don Brown, Buda Browne, Lynn Crone, Fred Derrick, Howard Emery, Bert G i l e s , A.C. Horton, J . Latimer, Rosalind Mallek, Dr. Howard and wife Moul, George Pe t t i p i e c e , R. Parm P e t t i p i e c e , Mrs. R.P. Ridler, Mrs. G.L. Simmons, Ed Smelts, Fred Smelts, Mrs. F. Stevens, Mrs. W.H. Thompson, George Ti t l e b o r n , Leo Watkins, Gwyn LKRA, Van.. Apt. & Lodging House Association KCC, Local Legion, M.L.A. KCC, Parks Board, M.L.A. K i t s i l a n o Board of Trade, K i t s Santa Claus Fund, K i t s i l a n o Times (editor) Parks Board, Alderman KCC KCC, Rovers Club of St. Mark's Church, K i t s Santa Claus Fund, K i t s Lions Club, Vancouver Metro.. Communities Council., K i t s H o r t i c u l t u r a l Society, Alderman, Parks Board, K i t s Community Centre K i t s i l a n o Board of Trade KCC, K i t s Santa Claus Fund, Kits Five Pin Bowling League B.C. Parent-Teacher Federation, Henry Hudson P.T.A., LKRA Pt. Grey Rd. Homeowners' Assoc., K i t s Resources Board LKRA, Vancouver Central Council of Ratepayers, K i t s i l a n o Planning Board Alderman Crosby United Church Womens' A u x i l i a r y LKRA, Van. Central Council of Ratepayers', West K i t s i l a n o C i t i z e n s Group KCC, Kits.Lions Club, K i t s Santa Claus Fund, Vancouver Community Council K i t s i l a n o Council University Women's Club, Greater Vancouver G i r l Guides Council, K i t s i l a n o High School P.T.A. Crosby United Church Women's A u x i l i a r y KCC, K i t s Santa Claus Fund, Parks Board, M.L.A. K i t s i l a n o Council LKRA, Van. Central Council of Ratepayers, Van. C i v i c Voters' Association, Town Planning Assoc. of B.C., Town Planning Association of Canada, Vancouver Housing Association Source: One-quarter sample of the K i t s i l a n o Times newspaper, 1918-1923, 1926-1929, 1936-1941 and 1953-1962. LKRA refer s to the Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association. KCC refe r s to the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce. 11.4 The KRA p a r t i c i p a t e d e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y i n the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce plans and on several occasions took over the Showboat stage for an evening. S i m i l a r l y , when the KRA i n i t i a t e d events such as the K i t s i l a n o childrens' sports celebration i n 1935, i t , i n turn, received the cooperation of the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce and other l o c a l groups. The KRA'was proud: to note that i t s s o c i a l events were gen-e r a l l y very successful and, i n f a c t , at the childrens' sports ce l e -37 bration "record attendance was present at a l l events". S o c i a l Interaction F a c i l i t i e s In addition to i t s promotion of neighbourhood a c t i v i t i e s , KRA i n i t i a t i v e s'.in community development extended to the development of l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s i n which s o c i a l events could take place (Table 19). "Our Association i s eager to a s s i s t i n the creation of.pleasure f o r c i t i z e n s and v i s i t o r s to the beach, provide them with entertainment and music while t h e r e . " 3 6 TABLE 19 KRA COMMUNAL CONCERNS: COMMUNITY SOCIAL FACILITIES F a c i l i t y No. of times mentioned i n meeting minutes, 1935 to 1946 No. of l e t t e r s addressed to the issue, 1954-1957 K i t s Yacht Club Tea room at K i t s Beach Concert Bowl i n K i t s Park K i t s Community Centre 2 2 1 11 1 115 The KRA. was responsible f o r the establishment of the K i t s i l a n o Yacht Club i n 1937, i n gratitude for which the Yacht Club extended an i n v i -38 t a t i o n "to a l l members of the Association, to v i s i t them at any time". Although beach oriented f a c i l i t i e s did receive a f a i r proportion of the KRA's attention, the K i t s i l a n o community centre was perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t of a l l the community f a c i l i t i e s supported by the asso-c i a t i o n . The community centre, ultimately b u i l t at Connaught Park, became o f f i c i a l l y a f f i l i a t e d with numerous K i t s i l a n o groups inc l u d i n g the KRA, the Burrard ( K i t s i l a n o ) Lions Club, the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, the K i t s i l a n o Ladies A u x i l i a r y , the K i t s i l a n o S o c i a l and A t h l e t i c Club, Trafalgar Soccer, the Metropolitan Communities Council, the Meralomas and the K i t s i l a n o Co-Op Kindergarten. The KRA was represented by two members on the Board of Directors of the community centre and thus played an i n t e g r a l r o l e i n planning the centre' ac-t i v i t i e s . Its representatives endorsed the centre f o r the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i t fostered; for example the "ever popular bingo (which) every Saturday night i s a t t r a c t i n g more neighbours to the f r i e n d l y 39 games." In the l a t e r appeal for the expansion of the centre, the KRA noted i t s popularity and praised i t s s o c i a l function within the community as a whole. "Young toddlers, teenagers., and the senior c i t i z e n s , as a matter of f a c t , a l l ages use the centre, as well as business and club meetings, which are held there regularly."^0 Due to the r o l e i t played i n coordinating the a c t i v i t i e s of such d i -verse groups, the community centre not only increased s o c i a l i n t e r -116 action, but also promoted community s o l i d a r i t y - a basic c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c of neighbourhood and a goal.very dear to the members of the KRA. COMMUNITY SOLIDARITY Community s o l i d a r i t y was b u i l t not only on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n within a neighbourhood, but also on the cooperative action of residents towards common goals, mutual support, e s p e c i a l l y i n times of need, and the consolidation of community s p i r i t . Community S p i r i t "To f o s t e r an enlightened community s p i r i t " or sense of pride i n community was one of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l goals of. the KRA. This sense of pride sponsored an act i v e and p o s i t i v e promotion of the neighbourhood. "Boost your d i s t r i c t , boost your friends Boost the church that you attend. Boost the st r e e t on which you're dwelling. Boost the goods that you are s e l l i n g . Boost the people round about you: They can get along without you But success w i l l quicker f i n d them If they know that you're behind them. Boost f o r every forward movement, Boost f o r every new improvement, Boost the man for whom you labour; Boost the stranger and the neighbour. Cease to be a chronic knocker, Cease to be a progress blocker. If you'd make your d i s t r i c t b etter, Boost i t to the f i n a l l e t t e r . " 4 1 Such fervent support f o r community i d e n t i f i e d a c e r t a i n type of i d e a l resident. 117 "A town i s no better than the people that make up the population. I f they are dead i n t h e i r s h e l l the future of the town i s blank. If they are t i g h t wads, a f r a i d to r i s k the investment of a d o l l a r i n upbuilding, the town n a t u r a l l y becomes a dead one. I t might as we l l be scrapped. I t i s i n a class with a cemetery. On the other hand, i f the c i t i z e n s have confidence i n t h e i r town; i f they are progressive and p u b l i c -s p i r i t e d ; i f they are w i l l i n g to r i s k investments i n the way of improvements or any venture that may promise to be a contributory factor i n be t t e r i n g the place; i f they can look one e f f o r t that may prove a f a i l u r e f e a r f u l l y i n the face and buckle i n and t r y something e l s e , i f they have the snap, the pep, the ginger to beli e v e i n t h e i r town, pay out f o r the town and smile, smile, smile, with an optimism that does not recognize f a i l u r e , the town;, i s c e r t a i n .'.to forge ahead. B u i l d i n g towns i s a game that only man-sized men should engage i n , as pessimists, weaklings, and "I t o l d you so's" are out of place i n endeavours of that nature. It i s the s p i r i t to do things that gets a community anywhere."42 That K i t s i l a n o did indeed house many of these s p i r i t e d community boosters was obvious to those who l i v e d outside the d i s t r i c t (Figure 34). In 1936, Vancouver Mayor McGeer, addressing a record crowd attending the Jubilee celebration of Vancouver i n K i t s i l a n o pointed "with pride to the great progress Vancouver has made i n her f i f t y years of growth and to the remarkable community s p i r i t that has been 43 evidenced recently i n K i t s i l a n o . " C e r t a i n l y the KRA recognized and even advertised i t s own enthusiasm as "the community organization 44 with a r e a l community s p i r i t . " 118 II / Am 6o«i TO SHOW of=e, TO SVCVT"- yot> J i l l K*OH) ?- A i t miie -mvR, e&eE emeus, \ I' HrTSILAVO 8ol£ BAUD CoHCERT, u/frrsn. il SPoGTS w w f POOL, KirsiLfti^ VACHr CLUB II PftRAVE ON TUB WATER U/ITH JAt>nfJE<SE | LONTEVH5 YOU'P BirT-reK COME fUGMG •• ')/•' AHP t-EFPJe Youf* waLLEr AT Home •• 17$ f)u. (j F&ES* — JUST 8ftl>JO YOVR 09<? AND GST f 1 if'tys tWttOMJ - ~ W W ) o n t i n **vms \ It/ M T S I M W O 7Myftiy eRiE^D • UAU* j FIGURE 34 K i t s i l a n o ' s Big Day, July 24, 1935 (source: Vancouver Ci t y Archives). Cooperative Action In the attempt to generate community consciousness, the KRA promoted cooperation and s o l i d a r i t y amongst the neighbourhood's com-munity groups. In a statement t y p i c a l of KRA executives, Fred Smelts, president of the KRA i n 1938 "emphasized h i s desire to cooperate with 45 a l l associations working for the welfare of K i t s i l a n o . " The i n -119 tended goal of the KRA to work i n harmony with other neighbourhood organizations i s perhaps best exemplified by i t s cooperation with the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce. Beyond t h e i r mutual p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a number of community s o c i a l events,.,the. two organizations j o i n t l y formed a v a r i e t y of committees — to ensure the repaving of Fourth Avenue, to prevent the closure of K i t s i l a n o branch p u b l i c l i b r a r y , and to support the Red Cross. Their cooperation was based on the recog-n i t i o n of a common goal: "making the d i s t r i c t of K i t s i l a n o a better place to lxve i n . Although the KRA worked most extensively with the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, i t did involve i t s e l f i n j o i n t action with other organizations i n K i t s i l a n o . The KRA gave i t s t o t a l support, f o r i n -47 stance, to the Hadden Playschool movement i n 1945. This s o l i d a r i t y was reciprocated and the KRA noted that the General Gordon Parent Teacher Association "was behind us i n anything we wished to do i n 48 regard to cleaning up the beach.". Mutual Support Community s o l i d a r i t y was rooted i n mutual i n t e r e s t and support both on a group and i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l . A philanthropic sense of duty to one's neighbours, e s p e c i a l l y i n time of need, was thus a l o g i c a l extension of a strong sense of community. "'Good S a m a r i t a n man serves dinner for 6 boys at Lions Workshop'. I t i s such acts that do much to remind people that a healthy and fast-growing s p i r i t i s developing more and more i n the d i s -t r i c t to make th i s a better and more c l o s e l y k n i t Kitsilano."49 120 Although the KRA extended i t s philanthropic i n t e r e s t s to endorsement of missionary work i n the East Canadian A r c t i c , i t s main focus of con-cern was .with the residents of: i t s own neighbourhood (Table 20). TABLE 20 KRA COMMUNAL CONCERNS.: . MUTUAL SUPPORT No. of times mentioned No. of l e t t e r s i n meeting minutes, addressed to the Issue 1935 to 1946 issue, 1954-1957 Missionary work i n East A r c t i c 1 R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of K i t s war veterans 2 Fuel shortage f o r K i t s poor 3 Old age pensioners care 3 The KRA donated money to both the l o c a l branch of the Canadian Legion and the l o c a l Anglican Homes Society."^ The association, also a c t i v e l y supported the l o c a l Santa Claus Fund established by the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce i n 1 9 3 5 . I n that year, seventy-six l o c a l mer-chants made up food hampers to give to the needy residents of K i t s i -lano. In the following year over t h i r t y - f i v e K i t s i l a n o organizations took an a c t i v e part i n the drive and over four hundred K i t s i l a n o families were given hampers."'2 "The K i t s i l a n o Santa Claus Fund i s a community development unique i n the c i t y . I t i s operated e n t i r e l y by volunteer workers and from l o c a l organizations. I t v i s i t s a l l homes asking f o r hampers and i s able to give more personal and f r i e n d l y attention that the d a i l y paper funds can do. A l l provisions necessary for the hampers are bought i n K i t s i l a n o and packed and delivered free of change."53 121 K i t s i l a n o ' s needy families were also the object of much concern amongst KRA members i n regards to the f u e l shortage which plagued Vancouver during the 1930's. Furthermore, the KRA a c t i v e l y supported any at-tempts by organizations to a l l e v i a t e i n general the problems of the poor, which they f e l t were .exacerbated by i n d u s t r i a l encroachment i n areas of low income housing. "There i s the problem of ind u s t r i e s replacing housing i n c e r t a i n areas and the displacement of many peo-54 pie i n the low income bracket." " I t i s a pleasure f o r me, on behalf of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, to have the opportunity to congratulate the Burrard Lions Club on t h e i r Tow r e n t a l housing unit which w i l l be erected at Balsam Street and Eighth Avenue. . . With the cost of so: . many things going up, t h i s project w i l l be a godsend to some of our more unfortunate citizens."55 The KRA also e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y supported the l o c a l Chamber of Commerce "Employment Plan" f o r K i t s i l a n o , set up during the Depression to " f i n d jobs f o r our unemployed c i t i z e n s . . . using K i t s i l a n o unemployed and 56 K i t s i l a n o m aterials." The o l d age pensioners of K i t s i l a n o s i m i l a r l y received attention from the KRA (Table 20). Two extra benches were secured by the asso-c i a t i o n f o r K i t s i l a n o Park, "thereby providing accommodation and con-venience f o r many e l d e r l y people — i n v a l i d s and lovers of the beauti-f u l , frequenting these oases of beauty and de l i g h t during the summer season. 7 The KRA also attended to the serious issue of housing f o r the e l d e r l y . "I should appreciate i t i f you would kindly advise i f your department i s making any plans to provide f> housing f o r old age pensioners as I understand you are planning to do away with i l l e g a l suites."58 122 The problems of a t h i r d group of K i t s i l a n o c i t i z e n s — the World War II war veterans — were also attended to by the KRA. The associa-t i o n supported the war cause i t s e l f i n i t s 1943 purchase;;of a $50 war v i c t o r y bond and i n i t s co-sponsorship with.KCC, Lions Club and l o c a l branch of the Legion a "monster v i c t o r y loan rally".. I t s main con-cern, however, rested i n the rehousing and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the vet-erans a f t e r the war (Table 20). The a s s o c i a t i o n was "proud of i t s boys" and wanted to do a l l i t could to ensure t h e i r well-being. Symbolization There are i n e v i t a b l y a l i m i t e d number of symbols which capture the image of a strong community. In K i t s i l a n o , these symbols included most predominantly the K i t s i l a n o Showboat — which not only f a c i l i -tated s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n but also provided funds for c h a r i t a b l e work — and other beach a c t i v i t i e s . Perhaps as an outgrowth of i t s e a r l i e r use as a summer re s o r t , K i t s i l a n o ' s v i t a l i t y was most f u l l y expressed on i t s beaches. Thus, an old anchor found i n Burrard In l e t became a relevant symbol of K i t s i l a n o to the KRA, and was placed i n Hadden Park. Just as the o l d anchor symbolized the maritime connections of K i t s i l a n o , the Hadden Park Memorial.symbolized the dedication of those early pioneers who struggled to b u i l d the community and the generosity they displayed i n s e t t i n g aside park areas for K i t s i l a n o ' s 59 future residents. ,In order to commemorate these pioneers, a museum 123 i n Hadden Park became an important goal of the KRA. .The a s s o c i a t i o n wholeheartedly backed a proposal to b u i l d the museum as a B.C. Cen-te n n i a l project i n 1958. "We are going to have a museum second to 60 none i n Western Canada." Community symbols were often expressed i n s u p e r l a t i v e s . The K i t s i l a n o Boys Band, who represented K i t s i l a n o at home and abroad, was, f o r instance, "the premier band of the world i n i t s c l a s s " . ^ K i t s i l a n o groups, including the KRA, also annually nominated a " K i t s i -lano Outstanding C i t i z e n " who "was a c t i v e i n l o c a l organizations and. . . 62 made a s i g n i f i c a n t contribution to the betterment of ; our area." Through the extensiveness of i t s residents' a c t i v i t y , K i t s i l a n o became a model community within Vancouver, s e t t i n g the example f o r other Vancouver neighbourhoods to follow. " A l l the hotels i n Vancouver w i l l not begin to : hold the v i s i t o r s coming to Vancouver during the J u b i l e e . Where w i l l they stay? As our v i s i -t o r s , we cannot see them l e f t to fend f o r them-selves. We must open our homes to them. Let K i t s i l a n o lead the way to the r e s t of the c i t y ^ i n o f f e r i n g to room or room and board t o u r i s t s . " TRADITIONAL NEIGHBOURHOOD DEFINED What are the p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s "model community" which served as the focus for the actions of associations l i k e the KRA? The KRA.'s attention to improving u t i l i t i e s and services and promoting s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and community s o l i d a r i t y i d e n t i f y the association's image of K i t s i l a n o as "a high-class r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t " — an area of f a m i l i e s and q u a l i t y homes. Despite the apartment buildings 12.4 which existed i n K i t s i l a n o from i t s early days, K i t s i l a n o remained u n t i l the 1960's p r i m a r i l y an area of s i n g l e family dwellings. The KRA's concern with the neighbourhood's status was expressed i n i t s e f f o r t s to preserve family homes (Table 21). TABLE 21 KRA COMMUNAL CONCERNS: NEIGHBOURHOOD.OF SINGLE-FAMILY HOMES No. of times mentioned No. of l e t t e r s i n meeting minutes, addressed to the Issue 1935 to 1946 issue,1954-1957 Protest Residential Upzoning 3 Protest Conversion of Homes into suites 2 Protest Rezoning f o r non-r e s i d e n t i a l use 9 2 The KRA opposed a number of attempts to e i t h e r increase the density of the r e s i d e n t i a l . a r e a s of the neighbourhood or to change the area from a r e s i d e n t i a l to n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t . "The houses you b u i l t 30 and 40 years ago are today as sound i n construction as when they were f i r s t erected. . . They were f o r the majority too well b u i l t to be torn down to make room f o r a modern stucco b u i l d i n g " . The association also f e l t that " K i t s i l a n o i s developing into a slum d i s t r i c t because of the conversioriointo suites of a number of homes."^~> The Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association obviously agreed with the KRA, commenting on a photograph that a "small cottage type house, converted into suites gives a poor impression of a waterfront s t r e e t " (Figure 35). 125 In other cases the KRA protested against the upzoning of a d i s t r i c t from a two-family to a multiple-family dwelling area. "This association wishes to inform the Zoning Board that the membership voted unanimously i n favour of the present Zoning By-Laws and wished them not to be relaxed. A two-family dwelling d i s t r i c t should not be rezoned into a three-storey multiple dwelling d i s t r i c t without the support of the people i n the community. Although c e r t a i n l y the KRA protested such changes due to t h e i r i n e v i t -able impact on the basic character of the neighbourhood, t h e i r con-cern rested also i n the q u a l i t y of development which replaced the o r i g i n a l s o l i d homes. 126 "We f a i l to see why such development would necessa r i l y . have to be i n the form of the box-like structures which have been permitted i n other areas, which are purely f u n c t i o n a l , make no pretence at design, con-t r i b u t e nothing to the amenity of the d i s t r i c t , but ^ tend very quickly to become a scar on the landscape." Feelincj the desire to protect the r e s i d e n t i a l character of t h e i r neighbourhood, the KRA. protested most f o r c i b l y the rezoning of areas of K i t s i l a n o for non-residential use (Table 21). In several instances, the group protested the s p e c i f i c rezoning of s i t e s f o r i n d u s t r i a l use, such as 2196 West Thirteenth Avenue and the south side of York Avenue between Cypress and Chestnut Streets. In general, however, the KRA was opposed to a l l n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l rezoning within K i t s i l a n o and asked the Vancouver Town Planning Commission to p r o h i b i t a l l future i n d u s t r i a l development west of Burrard Street and south to 68 Sixth Avenue. Although the KRA f a i l e d to prevent the south side of York Avenue from developing i n d u s t r i a l l y , the association must have been pleased with C i t y H a l l ' s decision i n 1956 to rezone several areas i n northeastern K i t s i l a n o from i n d u s t r i a l to r e s i d e n t i a l land use (Figure 24). Again, the actions of the Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association affirmed a common set of convictions. An issue the LKRA perceived as s i g n i f i c a n t and vigorously contested, was the neon sign erected by the Coca Cola plant at the corner of Burrard and Cornwall Streets. This plant, with i t s g l a r i n g sign, epitomized the i n d u s t r i a l development d i s l i k e d so intensely by the KRA and LKRA members (Figure 36). 127 Coca Cola sign (source: Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Asso c i a t i o n ) . "As a resident. . . on K i t s i l a n o Point, north of Cornwall Street, I would l i k e to advise you that I consider the Coca Cola sign a great detriment to our d i s t r i c t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y objectionable to residents of our b e a u t i f u l K i t s i l a n o Point. We have t r i e d hard to uphold and improve our d i s t r i c t , and signs such as Coca Cola have erected are very damaging. Nobody d r i v i n g over Burrard Bridge with the Coca Cola sign g l a r i n g at them would consider Lower K i t s i l a n o as a good d i s t r i c t to b u i l d a home i n now. They would be more l i k e l y to consi-der i t a good place f o r a glue factory."69 128 Although the i n t r u s i o n of large scale i n d u s t r i a l ventures into t h e i r area was considered most obj ectionable, both the KRA and LKRA opposed even small scale i n d u s t r i a l or commercial ventures. The KRA protested a non-conforming beauty parlor at 1948 McNicoll Avenue, a small f u r n i -ture manufacturing operation at 1972-4 West F i r s t Avenue and a boat construction operation at the corner of F i r s t Avenue and Maple Street. The LKRA b a t t l e d at l e a s t twenty-two proposed or e x i s t i n g non-con-forming land uses. " I t i s most d i f f i c u l t to achieve and maintain a standard i n an area where commercial use i s per-mitted i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area, and i t has taken the d i s t r i c t of Lower K i t s i l a n o many years of e f f o r t to surmount the b l i g h t i n g which i s induced through non-conforming use."71 There can be no doubt of residents treatment of K i t s i l a n o as a high quality/neighbourhood. The extensiveness of. t h e i r promotional and p r o t e c t i v e actions emphasized j u s t how attached they were to : t h i s place as i t was. CONCLUSION The t r a d i t i o n a l c o l l e c t i v e meaning, of neighbourhood does seem to have found i t s expression i n K i t s i l a n o . The KRA, i n i t s desire to fashion such, a neighbourhood, encouraged the b u i l d i n g of q u a l i t y homes and appropriately desirable p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s and ser v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y parks. Attempts were made to p r o h i b i t or eradicate land uses inap-propriate to t h i s i d e a l place. Thus, a marina proposed for the K i t -silano foreshore was opposed as " i t would profane the sacred use of 129 72 Hadden Park". With the motto of the KRA as "Keep K i t s i l a n o Beauti-f u l " , considerable e f f o r t was expended to preserve the q u a l i t y of the landscape. Attention was paid not only to s t r e e t s , buildings and parks, but also to the homes which characterized the neighbourhood. "These houses. . . are very small, of poor construc-t i o n , and we already note a general d e t e r i o r a t i o n . If something i s not done to r e t r i e v e these weak spots, of which we estimate there are some seven or eight, we can foresee that a b l i g h t w i l l spread to the bett e r houses with whom they abut."73 Recognizing the importance of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n to t h i s i d e a l neighbourhood, the KRA sponsored and encouraged community en t e r t a i n -ment -- p a r t i c u l a r l y at K i t s i l a n o Beach — as we l l as contact amongst in d i v i d u a l s and neighbourhood groups. Community s o l i d a r i t y was promoted through the philanthropic attempts, to care, f o r K i t s i l a n o ' s more needy residents and the e f f o r t s to boost cooperative action and community s p i r i t . A map showing the d i s t r i b u t i o n of KRA concerns during the years 1935 to 1946 emphasizes the organization's focus on the waterfront beaches and parks e s s e n t i a l to the image and s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y of the neighbourhood (Figure 37). Certain l y neighbourhood as a concept which i s c o l l e c t i v e l y ascribed to by a group of people i n a place does explain much of the character and development of K i t s i l a n o . Indeed the very existence of the KRA and other neighbourhood groups i s rooted i n th i s sense of community. Chapter Two, however, noted that K i t s i l a n o changed markedly during the l a t e r part of i t s development. The d i s i n t e g r a -t i o n of community groups i n the l a t e 1950's and 1960's i s incompatible FIGURE 37 D i s t r i b u t i o n of KRA Members' Homes and Concerns i n K i t s i l a n o , 1935 to 19461 J U c a n i J 15=1 CZJ CZJ C=3 C=3 L~3 LEGEND fe^i KRA Concern o • KRA Member Home Soofotof Issues: KRA Meeting Minutes, 1935 to 1946 Home addresses were mapped f o r 1938 General KRA members and 1942, 1943, 1944 and 1946 executive KRA members 131 with the strong sense of community which existed i n the 1930's and 1940's, e s p e c i a l l y considering how long the groups were i n existence. Furthermore, the seemingly strong i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n within the community does not explain why the KRA l a t e r wanted to .'. l i m i t the entertainment provided by the "Showboat" at K i t s i l a n o Pool. Nor does the KRA's involvement i n philanthropic a c t i v i t i e s explain t h e i r l a t e r protest against r e h a b i l i t a t i o n homes being l o c a t e d , i n K i t s i l a n o . And the association's primary concern with K i t s i l a n o as a neighbourhood of homes c e r t a i n l y does not explain the l a t e r support given by the a s s o c i a t i o n f o r r e s i d e n t i a l upzoning, the spot i n d u s t r i a l rezoning of the Coca Cola plant and the promotion of K i t s i l a n o as a t o u r i s t r e s o r t . In order, then, to understand K i t s i l a n o as i t has more recently developed and the r o l e of community groups i n t h i s development, one must consider the p o s s i b i l i t y that goals other than those associated with the t r a d i t i o n a l c o l l e c t i v e concept of neighbour-hood may also underlie the residents' behaviour. The following chapter w i l l attempt to probe the meaning of neighbourhood which may more ac-curately characterize K i t s i l a n o as i t e x i s t s today. 132 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER FOUR "'"Kitsilano Times, A p r i l 3, 1941, p. 3. 2 H i l l a r y , 1955. See also Chapter l . o f t h i s t h e s i s . 3 KRA, L e t t e r to A l i c e Pyche, Sept. 29, 1926. 4 KRA,General Meeting Minutes, Oct. 29, 1945. ^Fred Scudamore, Let t e r to the KRA H i s t o r i c a l . Records Committee, Sept. 3, 1946. "Beach Conditions a Health Menace", KRA H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, undated newspaper a r t i c l e , 1946. ^"Big Works Project to Eliminate Fouling of K i t s i l a n o Beaches", K i t s i l a n o Times, undated news a r t i c l e i n KRA H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, 1946. g K i t s i l a n o Times, Feb. 13, 1926, p. 1. 9 I b i d . , May 29, 1926, p. 1 "^KRA, Lett e r to Vancouver City Town Planning Commission, June 18, 1941. 1:LKRA, Annual Report, 1935. 12 KRA, H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, unsigned entry, 1946. 1 3KRA, Annual Report, 1935. 14 K i t s i l a n o Times, March 3, 1938, p. 1. 1 5 I b i d . Sept. 18, 1941, p. 1. The Help Keep K i t s i l a n o B e a u t i f u l campaign involved both the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce and the KRA. 16 "For cleaner parks and beaches", undated news a r t i c l e i n KRA H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, 1946. 133 "^"Verbal b l a s t i n g given Bennett on dump issue", Vancouver Province, June 28, 1944. 18 K i t s i l a n o Times, Jan. 24, 1957, p. 1. Although there was some controversy amongst KRA members regarding the development of a beach drive, the association did ultimately support the proposal ( K i t s i l a n o Times, Feb. 19, 1957). 19 KRA, l e t t e r to Vancouver Ci t y Town Planning Commission, Oct. 20, 1944. 20 Gordon Rooke, "Peace and the Sea", K i t s i l a n o Times, Dec. 28, 1939, p. 1. 21 Fred Scudamore, L e t t e r to the KRA H i s t o r i c a l Records Committee, Sept. 3, 1946. 22 K i t s i l a n o Times, Feb. 27, 1926, p. 1. 23 " K i t s i l a n o antique garage f i g h t i n 3rd round", undated a r t i c l e i n KRA H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, 1946. 24 K i t s i l a n o Times, A p r i l 23, 1936. 25 Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, Preliminary b r i e f on K i t s i l a n o Point Upzoning, June 28, 1956. Ibxd. 27 Major J.S. Matthews, Notes on Fred B a y l i s s , Vancouver Ci t y Archives. 28 Lynn Browne, E d i t o r i a l , K i t s i l a n o Times, A p r i l 8, 1937, p. 2. 29 K i t s i l a n o Times:, Feb. 2, 1956, p. 1. 3 0 I b i d . , Sept. 8, 1928, p. 1. 3 1 I b i d . , March 19, 1959, p. 1. 32 KRA, General Meeting Minutes, June 27, 1944. 134 33 KRA, Executive Meeting Minutes, Feb. 18, 1944. 34 The K i t s i l a n o Council was one of a series of Community Councils established i n Vancouver by Bert Emery. 35 K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, Foreward to the Roster, 1959. 36 "Denies K i t s i l a n o Red Light Area",. K i t s i l a n o Times, June 19, 1941, p. 1. 3 7KRA, Annual Report, 1935. KRA, General Meeting Minutes, May 19, 1937. 39 K i t s i l a n o Times, Sept. 13, 1962, p. 1. ^°Harold Kidd, president of the KRA, Le t t e r to the KRA, Dec. 7, 1964. 4 1"Be a Booster", K i t s i l a n o Times, Feb. 1, 1962. The K i t s i l a n o Times played an important r o l e i n t h e i r support of community. I t s sub-t i t l e indicated t h i s : "published weekly to boost the d i s t r i c t of K i t s i l a n o and Fairview as business and r e s i d e n t i a l sections". 42 K i t s i l a n o Times, A p r i l 26, 1919, p. 15. A 3 "Local j u b i l e e celebration a t t r a c t s record crowd",. K i t s i l a n o Times, July 2, 1936, p. 1. ^KRA, C i r c u l a r and membership card, A p r i l 19, 1935. ^5KRA, General Meeting Minutes, Feb. 15, 1938. 46 KRA, Executive Meeting Minutes, Feb. 8, 1935. 4 7 I b i d . , May 15, 1945. 48T, Ibid. 49 K i t s i l a n o Times, Dec. 28, 1939, p. 1 135 The donation of $5,000 to the K i t s i l a n o Legion was noted i n the KRA meeting minutes,. October 11, 1946. The money was procured from a show which the KRA sponsored. The KRA also purchased a $10 share i n the new h a l l for the Canadian Legion, K i t s i l a n o branch, on Fourth Avenue. "'"''The K i t s i l a n o Santa Claus Fund was also considered as an exten-sion of the drive sponsored by the Province newspaper although the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce organized and supported the l o c a l event, e s p e c i a l l y through K i t s i l a n o Showboat contributions. 52 K i t s i l a n o Times, Dec. 30, 1936, p. 1. 5 3 I b i d . , Oct. 29, 1936, p. 1. 54 KRA, L e t t e r to Vancouver C i t y Town Planning Commission, May 30, 1956. 5 5KRA, Letter to Burrard. Lions Club, Nov. 18, 1966. 56 K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, Foreword to the Roster, 1959. 5'7KRA, Annual Report, 1934. 58 KRA, L e t t e r to Vancouver C i t y Town Planning Commission, May 30, 1956. 59 KRA, H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, 1946. Major J.S. Matthews., L e t t e r to KRA, Jan. 28, 1957. 61 K i t s i l a n o Times, October 22, 1936, p. 2. W.H. H i l t o n , L e t t e r to KRA, May 1, 1967. 63 "Open your home f o r the J u b i l e e " , K i t s i l a n o Times, May 14, 1936, p. 1. 64 KRA, General Meeting Minutes, March 28, 1944. 136 ~^*KRA, Letter to Vancouver City Town Planning Commission, August 21, 1956. 66 "Board refutes Charge Kitsilano becoming slum", news article dated Nov. 21, 1944, no source given, KRA Historical Records Book, 1946. 67 KRA, Letter to Vancouver City Town Planning Commission, August 15, 1963. 68 KRA, Executive Meeting Minutes, Oct. 17, 1949. 69 Unsigned letter from LKRA member to the LKRA Utilities Committee, July 20, 1953. 7^Twenty-two issues related to non-conforming land uses were cited in LKRA records kept by Rosalind Latimer. 7"'"LKRA, Letter to Mayor Tom Campbell and City Council, Feb. 16, 1968. 72 LKRA, Petition to Parks Board, Feb. 8, 1956. 73 LKRA, Brief to the Vancouver Technical Planning Board, June 28, 1956. 137 CHAPTER FIVE THE PRIVATE NOTIONS OF NEIGHBOURHOOD FIGURE 38 139 "Man i n h i s pursuit of happiness i n the quiet enjoyment of h i s home and his c h i l d r e n . " North-west Point Grey Home-Owners Association 1953 "In the opinions of the residents i n t h i s area a s i n g l e factory north of Cornwall Street would reduce property values from 33 and 1/3 percent down". LKRA, 1952 The d e f i n i t i o n of neighbourhood i n purely communal terms over-looks the more mundane but very r e a l day-to-day l i f e of residents who sought to f u l f i l l a set of goals r e l a t e d to t h e i r p r i v a t e l i v e s . "The people who were i n these homes that were next to these f a c t o r i e s . . . were i n a very bad way. . . They would wring t h e i r hands and they would say 'we can't sleep and there's hammering a l l night and the sawdust i s awful and trucks are wizzing by. Next thing my house w i l l be going.' So we looked up the c i t y regulations and found out about the zoning by-laws and a l l these various things. And I s a i d to them, 'Well, you're quite within your r i g h t s . We'll f i g h t f o r t h i s thing'. . . So we organized ourselves. And everybody was so happy and j u s t made the dust f l y . " l The p r i v a t e concerns not only, prompted an E n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t set of actions than those emanating from communal i n t e r e s t s , but also added force to some of the more tradi t i o n a l l y - e x p r e s s e d objectives. The two concerns - communal and p r i v a t e - were thus sometimes i n con-f l i c t and sometimes i n accord. In e i t h e r case, an understanding of the p r i v a t e motivations of residents c l a r i f i e s t h e i r actions and ideas of neighbourhood. 140 A SAFE NUISANCE-FREE ENVIRONMENT The desire to create an a t t r a c t i v e and high q u a l i t y neighbour-2 hood environment - indeed, a "better place to l i v e i n " - prompted the KRA's promotion of public u t i l i t i e s and services within K i t s i l a n o . Equally important as a goal underlying the action to improve u t i l i -t i e s , however, was the group's pr i v a t e i n t e r e s t i n eliminating nuisance and ensuring'safety i n its.neighbourhood (Table 22). TABLE 22 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS: A NUISANCE-FREE ENVIRONMENT No. of time mentioned No. of l e t t e r e s ad-i n meeting minutes, dressed to the issue, Issue 1935 to 1946 1954-1957 Improve mail de l i v e r y 16 Change time of milk de l i v e r y 1 Change time of streetcar service 4 Improve parking 3 4 Reduce noise at K i t s Park 7 Reduce soot and smoke 1 The KRA devoted much attention to a v a r i e t y of seemingly mundane day-to-day nuisances. The inconvenience of lower Point Grey Road r e s i -dents having to track down l o s t mail prompted the KRA to suggest a change i n the name of the s t r e e t . "Confusion r e s u l t s when persons unfamiliar with the d i s t r i c t t r a v e l west along Cornwall and j o i n . Point Grey Road at the i n t e r s e c t i o n of Trafalgar. The two co n t r o v e r s i a l blocks run p a r a l l e l to Cornwall on the north between Balsam and T r a f a l -gar. Complaints a r i s e when delivery men leave parcels at corresponding addresses on Cornwall a f t e r f a i l i n g to locate the two l o s t ...blocks. "3 141 The association also requested r e s t r i c t i o n s i n non-resident parking near K i t s i l a n o Beach, and changes i n the time of milk d e l i v e r y , the time of the early morning s t r e e t car run and the route of s t r e e t -car service. Inconveniences and i r r i t a t i o n s i n the d a i l y l i v e s of i t s members would thus be reduced. Perhaps the most bothersome i r r i t a t i o n s , to K i t s i l a n o residents were noise and soot. Residents' attempts to p r o h i b i t i n d u s t r i a l en-croachment i n t h e i r neighbourhood c e r t a i n l y seemed to be based i n part on this concern with environmental i r r i t a t i o n . Through the Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, they pe t i t i o n e d f o r the r e -moval of Nicholson P r i n t e r s , 2092. West Second Avenue. "The continual 4 hammering of the presses i s nerve-racking and h e a l t h - d e t e r i o r a t i n g . " The KRA took up the cause of residents who were s i m i l a r l y discon-tented with the a c t i v i t i e s of the Royal Canadian A i r Force depot on the K i t s i l a n o . Indian Reserve. "We have had to endure the volumes of sooty smoke which issue from the stack of the a i r f o r c e depot i n the Indian Reserve,.adjacent to Burrard Bridge, since t h e i r power house was erected; but we f e e l that the time has now come to voice our complaints. This stack i s r a r e l y seen without smoke even i n the summer, and with the p r e v a i l i n g easterly winds the - soot i s t e r r i f i c . I t seeps through closed windows and f a l l s on back porches l i k e black snow. I t i s impossible to hang clothes on the l i n e i f an east wind i s blowing at the time." 5 This p o l l u t i o n was a source of d a i l y i r r i t a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y to the l o c a l housewives. The KRA thus c i r c u l a t e d a p e t i t i o n and wrote nu-merous l e t t e r s i n an attempt to a l l e v i a t e the problem. With the eventual removal of the depot the problem was, of course, solved. 142 The KRA's focus on environmental nuisances i n K i t s i l a n o was matched by i t s attention to environmental safety (Table 23). TABLE 23 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS: A SAFE ENVIRONMENT No. of times mentioned No. of l e t t e r s . i n meeting minutes, addressed to the Issue 1935 to 1946 issue, 1954-1957 Expansion of sewer system 28 Elimination of t r a f f i c hazards 20 1 P r o h i b i t b i c y c l e s on paths i n K i t s i l a n o Park 2 Eliminate " l u r k e r s " i n K i t s Park 3 Controls on bathing i n K i t s Pool 1 Prevent RCAF use of K i t s i l a n o Point 7 Eliminate f i r e hazards 7 The ass o c i a t i o n complained b i t t e r l y of a s e p t i c tank j u s t west of K i t s i l a n o Pool not only because "the odor was said to be so odious at times that a nearby resident 'daren't open her bedroom window at n i g h t " 1 but also because i t was a d e f i n i t e health hazard. A l -though c e r t a i n l y the KRA considered sewers important because of t h e i r testimony to a well-serviced neighbourhood, t h e i r main value seemed to l i e i n a l l e v i a t i n g the dangers associated with raw sewage ou t l e t s . "Recently, a man and a woman were passing the storm sewer when an explosion occurred i n the sewer, thought to be caused by the explosion of gases. The force of the explosion threw the couple some l i t t l e distance and they were taken into a neighbour's and given a t t e n t i o n . " 7 143 "The opinion of ratepayers and residents of the d i s t r i c t i s that whatever the cost, the work (on a new sewer system) should be done immediately, as the Maple Street sewage outlet i s considered a d e f i n i t e health hazard." 8 The i n t e r e s t shown at large i n the q u a l i t y of K i t s i l a n o ' s en-vironment seemed to be rooted p r i m a r i l y i n a concern f o r safety, and only secondarily i n e s t h e t i c s . "Loose firewood dumped c a r e l e s s l y on the l o t often spreads beyond the property l i n e s on to the...lane, sidewalk and boulevard causing a hazard to t r a f f i c and pedestrians besides being very unsightly."9 Although the KRA promoted the planting of shrubs and trees throughout K i t s i l a n o , i t advocated t h e i r removal to improve t r a f f i c v i s i b i l i t y and reduce the p o t e n t i a l f o r accidents. The "hedge and tree menace" to vehicular and pedestrian t r a f f i c approaching the corner of Third Avenue and Macdonald Street prompted such an action."^ T r a f f i c hazards, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the form of congested streets and parking problems were considered a major obstacle to safety by the KRA (Table 22). Perhaps because of the access into the d i s t r i c t afforded by Burrard Street Bridge, Point Grey Road and Cornwall Street became the centre of much discussion regarding t r a f f i c hazards. The association noted that both Cornwall Street and Point Grey Road "are very narrow and cars are allowed to park on both sides of the street','. Conditions were judged p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous around Balsam Street at the entrance to K i t s i l a n o Park. R e s t r i c t i o n s on parking and the widening of both Point Grey Road and Cornwall Street were promoted by the KRA as solutions to the problem. 14.4 The KRA's work to eliminate t r a f f i c problems was.based on a con-cern f o r the safety of not only the motorist but also the pedestrian. In f a c t , with the safety of pedestrians and even t h e i r pets i n mind, the association sought to p r o h i b i t the r i d i n g of b i c y c l e s on paths i n K i t s i l a n o Park. Stop signs and t r a f f i c c o n t r o l l i g h t s — p a r t i c -u l a r l y along Cornwall and Point Grey Road — w e r e considered essen-t i a l at corners where pedestrians frequently had to cross the road. Street l i g h t i n g , which had been promoted f o r i t s e s t h e t i c value, was also considered necessary for safety reasons. The KRA requested the repair of a broken l i g h t at the corner of Cornwall and Vine Streets, since "that corner has heavy t r a f f i c and i n the rush of evening 12 t r a f f i c someone crossing i s very l i a b l e to get hurt." Sidewalks poorly-constructed or i n poor r e p a i r posed a d d i t i o n a l dangers to the pedestrain. "When the concrete walks were l a i d , c e r t a i n small b i t s of wood, or bark, got into the mixture of cement and sand, or perhaps too large a pebble. As the years past, the b i t of wood r o t s , or, by the constant tramping, pebbles worked loose, and the t h i n covering of concrete above i t , breaks. In both cases, a t i n y hole appears i n the surface of the concrete sidewalk. I think there are t h i r t y of such holes i n two blocks near the beach. Two years ago, a lady's small heel entered one of these holes on Pt. Grey Road near Balsam. The weight of the lady forced i t i n f i r m l y , with the r e s u l t that she was thrown onto the concrete, her stocking torn, the f l e s h of her knees bled, and for s i x months she limped from the.injury to one knee."13 In 1957, the sidewalk on Macdonal Street between Third and Fourth Avenues was i n a s i m i l a r l y hazardous state. The KRA p e t i t i o n e d f or sidewalk repairs and City H a l l complied. 145 Land uses, l i k e p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s and servi c e s , were also assessed by the KRA on the basis of t h e i r danger to K i t s i l a n o residents. In 1942, the organization protested the rebu i l d i n g of Canada Roof Pro-ducts at the corner of Ninth Avenue and Arbutus Street. The b u i l d i n g had already burned down once and would, i f r e b u i l t , pose a severe 14 f i r e threat to the surrounding area. In the same year, the KRA also protested the establishment of the RCAF m i l i t a r y base on K i t s i -lano Point. The p o s s i b i l i t y of di s a s t e r was obvious. "Enemy bombers attacking the sa i d depot would . . . do untold damage to the t h i c k l y populated .resi-d e n t i a l K i t s i l a n o d i s t r i c t . " x 5 A l l i n d u s t r i a l ventures, i n f a c t , posed a threat to. residents. The KRA noted that three times an orange crush truck dumped i t s load on 16 a l o c a l s t r e e t without c a r e f u l l y checking f o r people i n i t s path. Although the KRA attended most frequently to issues of safety i n the p h y s i c a l environment, i t expressed some concern f o r safety i n the s o c i a l environment as w e l l . In requesting better st r e e t l i g h t i n g on F i f t h Avenue between Macdonald and Bayswater Streets, the association noted that."the area has been the scene of several purse snatchings and other i n c i d e n t s " . 1 7 Again, i n 1942 the group.; protested the b u i l d i n g of hot dog stands i n K i t s i l a n o Park, since they "would have afforded a.place for: undesirable characters a f t e r 18 dark". Despite the p u b l i c convenience of such stands, desirable within the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of community, the KRA chose to oppose such development and attend to i t s more pri v a t e desire to secure a safe neighbourhood. 146 The importance of the s o c i a l environment was, of course, r e l a t e d to the general concern with the convenience and ease of day-to-day l i f e . People who share the same l i f e s t y l e are f a r le s s l i k e l y to engage i n a c t i v i t i e s offensive and 'a l i e n ' to each other. The KRA's request f o r increased p o l i c e p a t r o l and better l i g h t i n g i n K i t s i l a n o Park emanated from;;.the complaints of "hoodlums disturbing the peace" with noise and gambling keeping the residents i n the v i c i n i t y of the 19 park awake at night. S i m i l a r l y , the Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association complained to p o l i c e of a c t i v i t i e s out of place " i n an 20 otherwise quiet r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t " : "I am now harrased by noises and some going on which seem to be a l i e n to a r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t . As soon as the new tenants moved i n we were d i s -turbed from time to time by noises, banging, ham-mering, e t c . , usually s t a r t i n g at 11:00 p.m., and going on i n t e r m i t t e n t l y u n t i l as l a t e as 4:00 a.m. Now taxis a r r i v e at a l l hours during the day as w e l l as during these l a t e hours of the night. The a r r i v a l of each t a x i i s followed by much door slamming, loud conversation and other noise, a l l of which c a r r i e s into my bedroom windows which are next door to t h i s place. You can well imagine... that i t i s very disturbing to say the least."21 Perhaps the most c l a s s i c example of concern expressed by residents towards a l i f e s t y l e u n b e f i t t i n g to K i t s i l a n o was the protest of the "hippie invasion" during the 1960's. In commenting on the proposed establishment of. a youth ho s t e l f o r transients, Rosalind Latimer noted the incongruity of such a group of people with the general neighbourhood. 147 "There are school teachers, bank managers, lawyers, housewives who devote themselves to the bringing up of t h e i r c h i l d r e n to the best of t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , s e c r e t a r i e s who trudge f a i t h f u l l y to the place of t h e i r em-ployment d a i l y , working men who r i s e with the dawn and sleep with the sun, ch i l d r e n who are urged from t h e i r warm beds to attend a school i n the proximity of the proposed h o s t e l . . . These are but a few whose occu-pations dedicate them to a q u a l i t y of l i f e which the majority of our transient youth views with d e r i s i o n and v o c a l l y intends to have no part of. . . Would not the s e t t i n g up of t h i s h o s t e l promulgate a Haight Street s i t u a t i o n i n the heart of one of Vancouver's most desirable districts?"22 The "hippie" l i f e s t y l e was obviously seen as incompatible with that of the average K i t s i l a n o resident. Being incompatible, i t would be a constant source of i r r i t a t i o n , worry and fear. "Many of (our customers) have expressed t h e i r fear and disgust with the l o i t e r e r s i n t h i s block, whom they must pass to enter our pre-mises a f t e r parking t h e i r car. or en route from the bus stop. Indeed our business has decreased noticeably due to t h i s problem. . . Our reac-tions changed from amused to disgusted, then nauseated, and f i n a l l y extreme anger. The hippie philosophy, which they claim to be one of love, tolerance and goodwill, i s sham and hypocrisy and.an excuse for s l o v e l i n e s s and sexual l i c e n s e . They profess to consider labour as useless, but i n r e a l i t y they are i r r e -sponsible, free-loading, lazy bums with the p r o c l i v i t i e s of a stray dog (no i n s u l t intended to dogs). They l o i t e r on the sidewalks at a l l hours of the day or night, l i t t e r i n g the pavement with refuse, smashing empty bo t t l e s on the s t r e e t , using doorways as l a t r i n e areas, i n t i m i d a t i n g e l d e r l y people and corrupting our young teen-agers . . . In addition there i s t h e i r unashamed admission of the use of drugs and ha l l u c i n a t o r y agents (e.g., smoking banana p e e l ) . . . L i s t e n 148 to t h e i r unashamed and unguarded utterances, and t h e i r a t t i t u d e o f — ' I am a j u v e n i l e , you can't do anything to me I' Also l i s t e n to the c r i e s of parents whose t h i r t e e n and fourteen year old g i r l s are missing, l i v i n g i n t h e i r communal houses."23 ENVIRONMENT FOR CHILDREN The KRA's attendance to the conveniences, and safety of day-to-day l i f e i n K i t s i l a n o stemmed from an underlying preoccupation with the family. "Almost a n y t h i n g — i f i t concerned the welfare of the c h i l d r e n , t h e i r r e s t or health—we'd get into it!"24 The neighbourhood environment was of such c r i t i c a l importance to th group because i t provided the context for the r a i s i n g of ch i l d r e n . U n t i l the 1960's, K i t s i l a n o was an area or; predominantly s i n g l e -family homes, w e l l suited to that purpose. "The houses you b u i l t t h i r t y and f o r t y years ago are today as sound i n construction as when they were f i r s t erected, large and b u i l t f o r a happy family l i f e . " 2 5 In contrast, the area j u s t east of K i t s i l a n o exemplified the unwhol some conditions which were condemned as unsuitable for c h i l d r e n . "The area i s a badly mixed one of slum proper-t i e s , vacant l o t s , and intermittent i n d u s t r i a l p l ants. . . The e f f e c t on mothers and c h i l d r e n are degrading and ruinous to morale. The ob-s t a c l e s to maintaining a reasonable standard of cleanliness are overwhelming. Children s u f f e r from squalor, overcrowding, propinquity, and lack of play space. . . The dangers of accidents f o r c h i l d r e n from the heavy truck t r a f f i c are very great. F i r e hazards are high."26 149 As we have seen, KRA members worked d i l i g e n t l y to preserve and en-hance t h e i r home-oriented environment. Their actions, however, take on a new meaning when viewed from the perspective of the concern f o r family. Improved sewers, and t r a f f i c conditions guaranteed a safer environment for c h i l d r e n at play. "Raw sewage sweeping back into "27" the area where our kiddies bathed., caused parents much concern. "One day my c h i l d came home blowing what he c a l l e d a balloon. I t was a French safe! I was so r i l e d ! I took a quart b o t t l e and the human defecation and I got my kids and a l l the others I could pursuade out of the water. Then I took t h i s quart j a r and plunked i t on the ratepayers table. And I s a i d , ' t h i s i s the type of polluted water our c h i l d r e n are swimming i n i n K i t s i l a n o ' . " 2 8 The raw sewage outlets near K i t s i l a n o Pool and at the foot of Maple Street as well as the seven i n False Creek were thus a l l protested vigorously by the KRA. The KRA's promotion of stop signs, t r a f f i c l i g h t s and more ap-propriate parking regulations a l l had t h e i r roots i n the concern not only f or a convenient l i f e but also f or chi l d r e n . " I t has been brought to our attention by the p r o p r i -etors of the Edwards Bu i l d i n g (Academy of Arts) that a hazard e x i s t s f o r c h i l d r e n going to and from t h e i r classes i n t h i s building.' The ch i l d r e n are brought to and taken by t h e i r parents i n cars or i n taxis which are forced to double park or unload around the corner."29 The KRA suggested the erection of a "loading zone" or "no parking" sign as a s o l u t i o n to the.problem. The c r i t i c a l importance of c h i l d r e n to the. KRA i s examplified i n the association's 1956 suggestion to widen F i r s t Avenue rather than Cornwall Street i n order to prevent increased t r a f f i c genera-150. t i o n near Henry Hudson School, located at the corner of Cornwall and 30 Cypress Streets. Despite the obvious convenience of Cornwall Street to motorists using Burrard Street Bridge, the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Cornwall's waterfront l o c a t i o n and even the association's e a r l i e r suggestions to widen that s t r e e t , the KRA chose to protect f i r s t and foremost the i n t e r e s t s of i t s c h i l d r e n . A fear of the p o t e n t i a l t r a f f i c hazards which would be gener-ated by industry underlay i n large part the KRA's opposition to i n d u s t r i a l encroachment i n eastern K i t s i l a n o — p a r t i c u l a r l y near to Henry Hudson school. The experience with trucks, parked i n and around Tremblay Motors lead the KRA i n 1944 to oppose the indus-t r i a l rezoning of the south side of York Street between Cypress and Chestnut Streets. "The heavy trucks that might be used by the Campbell Construction. Company would be a d e f i n i t e hazard to the ch i l d r e n attending the Henry Hudson School'." 3 1 Industry provided a further danger to chi l d r e n — that of nega-t i v e l y i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r s o c i a l development. " A l l of us were interes t e d i n the welfare of c h i l -dren. We went down and recorded the language at the tow truck operation and stayed u n t i l 2:00a.m. one Saturday night. I didn't want to play i t back to Cit y H a l l but I t o l d them ' i f you force me to I w i l l ' " . 3 2 The e a r l i e r examination of the KRA's i n t e r e s t s i n the s o c i a l character of i t s neighbourhood confirms an i n t e r e s t s l i g h t l y d i f -f e r e n t than that emanating from family i n t e r e s t s . While i n a com-munal sense the KRA encouraged a wide v a r i e t y of s o c i a l contacts, 151 s o c i a l entertainment, and philanthropic a c t i v i t i e s , the more pri v a t e concern with family finds the KRA much more judicio u s i n i t s assess-ment and encouragement of c e r t a i n s o c i a l dimensions of community (Table 24). TABLE 24 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS: UNDESIRABLE SOCIAL FACILITIES No.of times mentioned No. . o f - l e t t e r s i n meeting minutes, addressed to the Issue 1935 to 1946 issue, 1954-1957 Oppose cabaret 1 Oppose Mental R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Home 4 Oppose Narcotics R e h a b i l i t a -t i o n C l i n i c 4 Despite the KRA's i n t e r e s t i n encouraging entertainment f a c i l -i t i e s within K i t s i l a n o , when these f a c i l i t i e s posed a threat to the c h i l d r e n of the neighbourhood, the association took an adamant stance against them. "A cabaret type business so close to a school i s not i n the best i n t e r e s t s of the pupils."33 Furthermore, despite the association's i n t e r e s t i n philanthropic en-deavours, i t protested, on the basis of safety to f a m i l i e s and c h i l -dren, a .number of social-welfare i n s t i t u t i o n s , including a home f o r the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of women released from Essondale and a narcotics r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c l i n i c . "The narcotics r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c l i n i c at 2893 Point Grey Road. . .would overlook children's playgrounds i n front and a beach i n the rear, mainly used by women and children. Undoubtedly i t would bring a very undesirable element such as dope peddlers and pushers, making i t unsafe f o r the residents i n the d i s t r i c t . " 3 4 152 The appropriate s o c i a l services and f a c i l i t i e s f o r K i t s i l a n o were, oi course, those which attended to the needs of fa m i l i e s with chi l d r e n . The K i t s i l a n o Showboat, beach concerts and high school events promoted by the KRA c e r t a i n l y indicated an i n t e r e s t i n the "good clean fun" type of family-oriented s o c i a l event. Simi-l a r l y the support for expansion of schools, l i b r a r i e s , playgrounds and other f a c i l i t i e s revealed the association's concern f o r the n e c e s s i t i e s and conveniences i n a family-oriented community. In requesting the replacement of a bench removed from K i t s i l a n o Park, the KRA noted "as these seats are much used, e s p e c i a l l y by mothers with small children, and baby buggies, i t was f e l t , that they should 35 be replaced!'. Further, one of the main reasons given by the KRA to j u s t i f y the need f o r a stop point on the t r o l l e y l i n e at Fourth Avenue and Bayswater t r a v e l l i n g west, was that " t h i s point i s close to apartment buildings occupied l a r g e l y by f a m i l i e s , many of them 36 including c h i l d r e n i n arms". Although the KRA dealt with a wide range of family services, t h e i r promotion of parks i n general, and p a r t i c u l a r l y playground f a c i l i t i e s , i ndicated a committed encouragement of family a c t i v i t i e s i n the natural environment. "Our association would l i k e to have swings and other equipment i n s t a l l e d i n Tatlow Park for the use of children. We would also suggest that sand be placed on the bottom of the creek to make i t more su i t a b l e for wading. There are a number of ch i l d r e n i n the d i s t r i c t . . . and the addition of these a t t r a c t i o n s add greatly to the park."37 153 The KRA's attention to parks and, further, the q u a l i t y of the environ-ment as a whole, r e f l e c t s t h e i r perception of the r i g h t kind of en-vironment i n which to r a i s e c h i l d r e n . "The old saying that a home i s not a home u n t i l i t i s planted i s as true today as ever. Every unplanted home i n Canada can be made more a t t r a c -t i v e by the judicious use of trees, shrubs, vines, flowers and a well-kept lawn. We are influenced by our surroundings to a greater degree than we sometimes r e a l i z e . Children are p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e i n th i s regard. Surely a home i n and around which flowers.are grown i s a better place to b r i n g up c h i l d r e n than a home where no atten-t i o n i s paid to these friends of the plant king-dom. If ch i l d r e n are taught to love flowers and become f a m i l i a r with them they w i l l be f i l l e d with love f o r these things. There w i l l be l e s s room i n t h e i r hearts and minds f o r the things that hurt and d e s t r o y . " 3 8 The association's encouragement of tree planting and i t s work to "Keep K i t s i l a n o B e a u t i f u l " thus had roots not j u s t i n a proud sense of the q u a l i t y of t h e i r neighbourhood, but also i n a keen awareness of the s e n s i t i v i t y of chi l d r e n to t h e i r environment. Beyond the consideration of f a c i l i t i e s and esthetics appropri-ate to a family neighbourhood, the KRA deeply.considered the type of residence s u i t a b l e f o r f a m i l i e s . "We wish to go on record as protesting the housing of f a m i l i e s i n multiple dwellings. . . the inade-quacy of t h i s type of housing for young c h i l d r e n seems to be i g n o r e d . " 3 9 In opposing the development of non-basement dwellings at 2600 Point Grey Road, the KRA outlined i t s concerns: 154 "Without a basement there i s no play area during inclement weather, and the matter of supervision should not be ignored. Without adequate space, and supervision, a very serious problem can be imposed upon the neighbourhood, since c h i l d r e n w i l l be forced onto the str e e t s or into the homes of neighbours."40 The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n was n a t u r a l l y considered to l i e i n the hands of parents who should provide the type of home which would f u l f i l l the family's needs, independent" of the broader neighbourhood. The KEA, beyond i t s communal dimension, was thus an organization dedicated to easing t h i s individual, burden of parents by helping to secure the proper home and neighbourhood environment for the p r i v a t e c h i l d - r e a r i n g process. •THE FINANCIAL SECURITY OF THE FAMILY Involvement i n improving the u t i l i t i e s , s o c i a l services and safety of the neighbourhood was one major avenue whereby the KRA attended to the i n d i v i d u a l needs of K i t s i l a n o parents. The associa-t i o n also focused much of i t s work on protecting the f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y of the family. In part, t h i s consisted of reducing the f i n a n c i a l burden of the home-owner by keeping down the cost of u t i l i t i e s and taxes (Table 25). TABLE 25 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS:. HOMEOWNER COSTS No. of times mentioned i n Issue meeting minutes, 1935-1946 Telephone/Hydro/Water Price of sawdust f u e l Taxes Cost of Education 7 1 6 1 155 The problem of homeowner costs was an issue repeatedly addressed by the KRA. At one of the association's "enthusiastic and well-attended meetings (a) unanimously strong stand was taken against the increase i n taxes and- water rates and a r e s o l u t i o n passed-. protesting t h i s 41 a d d i t i o n a l burden i n property already too heavily taxed". The taxa-t i o n rate was seen as p a r t i c u l a r l y problematic for the young home-owners j u s t e s t a b l i s h i n g themselves i n K i t s i l a n o . " I f City Council wants to avert d i s a s t e r to young people who are s e t t i n g up t h e i r homes here, the continued boosting of taxes w i l l have to stop."42 An i n t e r e s t i n not only the p o t e n t i a l success of these i n d i v i d u a l s but also the ongoing v i a b i l i t y of the neighbourhood as a whole must c e r t a i n l y have prompted the KRA's protectiveness. The association's concern regarding' sawdust f u e l emanated as much from a concern with costs as with a v a i l a b i l i t y . "At a recent meeting of the Executive of the KRA, some time was given to a discussion of the current shortage of f u e l sawdust i n the c i t y . Customers should be protected against winter shortage and unwarranted increased i n price."43 Both the f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and also the welfare of .the family i t s e l f was at .stake. To a large degree, the f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y of the family rested i n the home. The KRA thus focused much of i t s attention on sustain-ing and enhancing the property values of homes i n i t s neighbourhood. A l l the u t i l i t i e s and services which the KRA promoted during the 156 development of K i t s i l a n o increased property value. Further, the en-couragement of a c t i v i t i e s to promote the es t h e t i c appeal of K i t s i l a n o seemed d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to th i s concern with the value of the home. "There are many good reasons why every householder. . . should do h i s or her part towards making the home's surroundings more a t t r a c t i v e . In the f i r s t place, the money spent on nursery stock or other plant-ing materials i s a good investment and w i l l i n -crease the value of a home to a much greater ex- ^ tent than the amount spent on planting materials." Although the KRA's opposition to i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t i e s may be explained by t h e i r communal concern with preserving the r e s i d e n t i a l and environmental q u a l i t y of t h e i r neighbourhood, t h e i r opposition to i n d u s t r i a l encroachment i s further explained by the impact of industry on property values. "Wherever industry established itself.home property values took a slump. Turning the ( K i t s i l a n o Indian) Reserve into i n d u s t r i a l s i t e s would make the adja-cent d i s t r i c t an area of blight."45 The association thus opposed the i n d u s t r i a l rezoning of the south side of York Street between Cypress and Chestnut Streets, not only to pro-tect the safety of t h e i r environment but also to protect the value of t h e i r homes. "Encroachment would be a detrement';to r e a l estate values i n the district."46 I n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y was not the only land use to have a negative impact on property values. The KRA considered various s o c i a l ser-vices such as nursing homes and. half-way houses to have a s i m i l a r e f f e c t on the property values i n the d i s t r i c t . In 1958, the associa-157 t i o n protested a home which was to have housed eight boys, f i f t e e n to twenty years of age, "who were i n danger of d r i f t i n g into wrong mid „48 47 ways". Neighbouring property owners claimed "that the home would devaluate property and begin forming the d i s t r i c t into a slum area During the 1950's, as w e l l , the KRA opposed the b u i l d i n g of three private h o s p i t a l s on Point Grey Road. Twelve of such homes already existed i n the Point Grey Road area and were the cause of much constern-49 ation amongst nearby residents. "The main complaint against the nursing homes i s that they depreciate the value of neighbouring single-family dwellings." 5^ Despite the KRA's community support goals, i t s president i n 1955, Fred Scudamore, commented that "he'd prefer to see the nursing homes c l o s e d . R e c o g n i z i n g , and perhaps f e e l i n g uncomfortable about th i s c o n f l i c t between communal and private sentiments, another mem-ber of the KRA "pointed out that the homes were operated f o r p r o f i t 52 and not for philanthropic reasons." Despite the KRA's membership i n v i t a t i o n to a l l residents of the neighbourhood, the association's desire to sustain property values ultimately l e d i t to protesting the. i n t r u s i o n of the "wrong" type of people into K i t s i l a n o . "The O r i e n t a l population has increased during the past twenty years u n t i l there are at present (1933) 174 Orientals attending Henry Hudson School (over 22% of the school population). This f a c t lowers the value of a l l property t r i b u t a r y to t h i s school."53 158 The value and status of Henry Hudson school i t s e l f was considered to have declined - and the primary cause of the decline, the O r i e n t a l s , became exaggerated i n the minds of those looking back on the problem. " I t was a very poor school. I think i t was one of the worst i n Vancouver.. You didn't dare men-t i o n to your friends that, your c h i l d went to Henry Hudson School, that's how bad i t was! It was so run down. I would say that seventy-five percent were Orientals arid Japanese."^^ During the period from 1935 to 1946, the KRA addressed ten of i t s meetings to the c r u c i a l issue of the "Oriental penetration" into K i t s i l a n o . This same b e l i e f that property values were fundamentally i n f l u -enced by the type of residents i n an area underlay, i n part, the l a t e r apprehensions expressed by the KRA towards the i n t r u s i o n of "hippies" into K i t s i l a n o . "At a recent meeting of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers Association's Action Committee., i t was suggested that I write you i n regard to the element that hang around your b u i l d i n g , day and night, des-troying the appearance of your, grounds, l i t t e r i n g your premises, as w e l l as creating a most d i s -graceful scene i n front of a l l business esta-blishments i n the area. . . we are getting to-gether to t r y and have t h i s element eliminated or c o n t r o l l e d , as by a l l reports, the businesses i n t h i s area are s u f f e r i n g , value of property i s dropping, and i t i s becoming very d i f f i c u l t to rent to s u i t a b l e people."^^ It i s evident that the KRA's private concern with the f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y of the family c o n f l i c t e d , to some degree, with i t s communal in t e r e s t i n neighbourhood s o l i d a r i t y . This . c o n f l i c t was further 159 exemplified i n the association's apparently contradictory stance towards i n d u s t r i a l rezoning. Depsite a l l the apprehensions expressed regarding i n d u s t r i a l encroachment i n K i t s i l a n o , i n 1940 the KRA supported the Coca Cola Company's a p p l i c a t i o n to rezone the south-west corner of Cornwall and Burrard Streets for i n d u s t r i a l use. The company's plant would "provide employment for up to 200 men" — em-ployment which would o f f e r f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y to a number of K i t s i -lano f a m i l i e s . I t appears that, i n taking a stance on the Coca Cola rezoning a p p l i c a t i o n , the KRA was forced to decide between i t s pr ivate . desire to secure ajnonetary goal and i t s desire to secure a whole set of goals — e s t h e t i c s , the safety of c h i l d r e n and even the pro-te c t i o n of property values — jeopardized by the industry. Perhaps influenced by the f i n a n c i a l l y troublesome depression and war years, or maybe merely di s p l a y i n g i t s most v i t a l concern, the KRA supported i n d u s t r i a l encroachment and increased employment opportunities. SELF-INTERESTS The concern for family s e c u r i t y and a safe and wholesome envir-onment i n which to r a i s e c h i l d r e n c e r t a i n l y prompted many of the i n i -t i a t i v e s not explained by the KRA's more c o l l e c t i v e sense of neigh-bourhood. Family concerns do not, however, explain a l l of the KRA's less communally-oriented behaviour. There existed a realm of p r i -vate concerns based on the s e l f - i n t e r e s t of i n d i v i d u a l KRA members which underpinned many of the association's actions. 160 Every formal organization has, of'course, i t s members' i n t e r e s t s to protect. The K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce openly admitted the private goals which underlay i t s most successful community a c t i v i t y , the K i t s i l a n o Showboat: "To use these audiences f o r p u b l i c i t y purposes i n connection with our a c t i v i t i e s and to i n f l u -ence them i n patronizing our l o c a l stores."57 The s e l f - i n t e r e s t s of the KRA., however, are not quite so e a s i l y defined, f o r the group, through i t s own c o n s t i t u t i o n a l objective, comprised a wide range of i n d i v i d u a l s . In serving the c o l l e c t i v e i d e a l of neighbourhood, the KRA focused i t s attention upon issues which affected the majority o f : i t s members and the various areas within K i t s i l a n o . In serving the more p r i v a t e i d e a l of neighbourhood, however, the KRA attempted to serve the very l o c a l i z e d and s p e c i f i c wishes of i t s i n d i v i d u a l members (Table 26). TABLE 26 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS: INDIVIDUAL INTERESTS No. of times mentioned No. of l e t t e r s i n meeting minutes, addressed to the Issue 1935 to 1946 i s s u e , 19.54-1957 F i n a n c i a l Interests of members 4 2 Recreational i n t e r e s t s of members 3 Residential i n t e r e s t s of members 4 2 In a number of cases the KRA responded to the pleas f o r help by members u n f a i r l y burdened by the expenses demanded of them by C i t y H a l l . Numerous l e t t e r s , for example, were, written by the asso c i a t i o n to absolve one member of the excess f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a sewer connection. 161 "The K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association has con-sidered the p o s i t i o n of Mrs. Lukin Johnston, of 2475 Point Grey Road, r e l a t i v e to the connection from her house to the Point Grey Road Sewer, which she has been instruc t e d to have made by City a u t h o r i t i e s . I t appears that t h i s connec-t i o n cannot be made without considerable expense over and above the normal cost of such a connec-t i o n , as the sewer, when put i n , was not made deep enough to receive outlets from buildings already e x i s t i n g on Point Grey Road. . . This Association views with grave concern any sug-gestion that the householder concerned should be penalized by the extra expense a r i s i n g from a s i t u a t i o n for which she bears no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The Association therefore submits that, i n f a i r -ness to Mrs. Lukin Johnston, the Cit y of Vancouver should absorb the a d d i t i o n a l expense required to make the connection from 2475 Point Grey Road to the sewer."58 The KRA attempted not only to reduce the f i n a n c i a l burdens of members but also to increase and protect t h e i r assets. In the face of C i t y H a l l ' s denial of a permit to one of t h e i r members, Harold Clay, f o r the continued use of the False Creek foreshore as a wharf, the asso-c i a t i o n mounted a vigorous protest. Despite i t s many e f f o r t s to expand pu b l i c f a c i l i t i e s i n the neighbourhood, the KRA opposed any which would c o n f l i c t with members' already-established use of an area. In 1939, a c u r l i n g r i n k proposed for Heather Park was thus protested for i t s disruption of the park's quiet use by members. A proposed putting green and even child r e n s ' use of the park against regulations was similarly, considered an incon-venience by the McBride Park frequenters. "Admittedly a putting green i s , i n i t s e l f , no menace but, as i s the case with so many other p r i v i l e g e s , i t i s what they bring i n t h e i r wake that cause protests. In th i s case, people to whom t h i s concession has been granted are not 162 residents of the block facing the park, there-fore, may be i n d i f f e r e n t to such annoyance as t h e i r amusements may cause. Their own s t r e e t blocks w i l l be l e f t undisturbed while ours w i l l be subjected to the concentrated r e s u l t s of the i n t r u s i o n of those from the surrounding v i c i n i t y . Already, although the park bears a large notice to the e f f e c t that no b a l l games are permitted, i t i s not an infrequent thing f o r groups of boys to indulge i n bouts of f o o t b a l l -to the inconvenience of those who use the park f o r i t s o r i g i n a l purpose - i n place of r e s t . The communally-based i n t e r e s t i n serving the residents of K i t s i l a n o as a whole was thus only upheld by the KRA as long as the i n t e r e s t s of i n d i v i d u a l members were not compromised. This submission of communal to i n d i v i d u a l goals was further ex-emplified i n the KRA's protection of members' i n t e r e s t s at the ex-pense of other K i t s i l a n o residents. In several cases, the KRA pro-tested b u i l d i n g projects which would adversely, a f f e c t the residences of i t s members. The association, for example, supported the cause of Mr. and Mrs. William M. Shearer and John Sutherland, president of the KRA i n 1943, i n t h e i r attempt to prevent the b u i l d i n g of a garage at 1633 Stephens Street. "The south side of the p a r t i a l l y constructed garage b u i l d i n g at 1633 Stephens Street i s approximately seventy-five feet from the veranda of the . . . property owned by us at' 1645 Stephens, and shuts out our view towards Point Grey Road and the bay. . . Although I plan to l i v e i n t h i s property a f t e r my retirement . . . I would not consider i t a s u i t a b l e place to l i v e i f t h i s garage were bu i l t . " 6 0 Although a map of the l o c a t i o n of issues tackled by the KRA dur-ing the period from 1935 to 1946 indicated a focus on the waterfront 16.3 area where social, a c t i v i t i e s and neighbourhood image rested, a closer examination of the map reveals that f i f t y - f o u r percent of KRA mem-61 hers' homes lay within one block of the s i t e of an issue (Figure 27). In 1956, that proximity of members' homes to group issues rose to f i f t y - s i x percent (Figure 39). It seems that the KRA has always been f a i r l y a t tentive to i t s i n d i v i d u a l members' desired. An examination of the occupations of KRA members may more f u l l y expose the nature of the i n d i v i d u a l s whose goals influenced KRA p o l i c y . Although such an examination does reveal a wide range of occupations (Table 12), three i n t e r e s t groups are d i s c e r n i b l e (Table 27). TABLE 27 KRA INTEREST GROUPS Apt. Owners or •/•Real-.'.Estate. . Retired or Housewives Developers Widowed 1938 General Members 5% 7% 25.5% 1940's Executive Members 9% 9% 18% 1956 General Members 26% 4% 35% 1956 Executive Members 0% 7% 57% The concerns of housewives c e r t a i n l y must have been f u l f i l l e d i n the KRA's attendance to matters concerning home, chil d r e n and family. It i s , perhaps, the i n t e r e s t s of the apartment owners and r e t i r e d residents which need further probing i n the attempt to understand the changing r o l e of the KRA i n community development. FIGURE 39 The Distribution, of KRA Members' Homes and Concerns i n K i t s i l a n o , 1954 to 1957x cm—my* n 11 w J"ii / C O f f • • Q i ^ ^ jz3 • LZZI nn cn a • a a Q n E a n • • C D a • • • n i p n r i a • • L Z Q ~ » a D Q • • • ^ • • • • • • • ^ • • • • • LEGEND KRA Concerns KRA Member Home H-1 4> Source of Issues: KRA Correspondence 1954 to 1957 Home addresses were mapped for 1956 general and executive KRA members. 165 Interests of Apartment Owners It was a well known fac t that a number of key executive members of the KRA - Fred Melton, Fred Scudamore and N e v i l l e and Margaret Beaton, for example - were small scale r e a l estate developers and the association sought to ease the development goals of these members. Certain l y the association's support of the upzoning of the K i l l a r n e y mansion s i t e — home f o r years of KRA meetings — must have been rooted i n the desire to please the owners. Given the association's often expressed antipathy to apartment construction, i t s promotion of r e s i d e n t i a l upzoning does not otherwise make sense (Table 28). landlords. 62 I t was perhaps not so well known that, i n many cases, I have been aware of rumours f o r three months that your association would be requested to endorse the request of some property owners for rezoning and spot zoning i n the area west of Larch."63 TABLE 28 KRA PRIVATE CONCERNS.: RESIDENTIAL UPZONING Area to be upzoned to apts. No. of times mentioned i n meeting minutes, 1935 to 1946 No. of l e t t e r s addressed to the issue, 1954-1957 K i l l a r n e y s i t e 1 Larch to Bayswater Streets, 4th Ave. to Pt. Grey Rd. •2 4th Ave .-.to Broadway, Bayswater St. to Alma' Rd. 6 SW corner of 3rd Ave. & Vine 4 166 The KRA attended to the i n t e r e s t s of apartment owners i n v a r i -ous ways. In 1947, i t passed a r e s o l u t i o n c a l l i n g f o r the reprieve of Federal government rent controls "to compensate owners of renting properties f o r the i n j u s t i c e to which they have been subjected for a 64 very long period". The KRA also was "opposed to the l i m i t a t i o n to eight suites on apartment blocks on f i f t y - f o o t l o t s " , and fought 65 to change the r e s t r i c t i o n . Even the various communally-based objectives of the KRA were intended to serve, as w e l l , the more p r i -vate goals. During ten meetings of the KRA i n 1941, members pro-tested the speeding t r a f f i c on Cornwall Street not merely for the safety of pedestrians, but also because apartment, owners i n the area were s u f f e r i n g a lo s s of revenue. The KRA members whose i n t e r e s t s lay i n the promotion of r e a l estate development must c e r t a i n l y have had a d i f f e r e n t conception of neighbourhood than those whose main concern lay i n the protection of c h i l d r e n and the single-family home. Fred Scudamore described h i s image of K i t s i l a n o . "The north side of Point Grey Road, from Trafalgar to Alma (should be) expropriated f o r c i v i c park purposes. . . The south side should be rezoned for four or f i v e storey apartments to overlook such a magnificent view of the mountains." 6 6 This v i s i o n of K i t s i l a n o as the " R i v i e r a " or "beach r e s o r t " of Van-couver was held, as w e l l , by various other people, including members of the LKRA, whose "ultimate goal (was). . . a complete sweep of beach fringed by park from Burrard Bridge to Balsam Street, forming 167 an a t t r a c t i v e background for prosperous apartments and hotels, pro-68 v i d i n g a tremendous t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n . " I n t e r e s t i n g l y , C i t y H a l l , who proposed a Beach Park Drive for Point Grey Road i n 1956 wanted "no new apartment buildings i n the area" alongside the water-69 front. Although the KRA as a whole approved of t h i s plan — i t did allow apartment development on the south side of Point Grey Road and, furthermore, enhanced property values by adding parks and bet-teri n g views — a number of property owners along the north side of Point Grey Road were incensed. One might expect t h e i r opposition to the plan to be based on the fear of expropriation. This was not, however, the case. Their concern lay i n the intermediate plans of City H a l l "with i t s r e s t r i c t i o n s on normal and economic development of the p r o p e r t i e s . " 7 ^ "The (planning) board passed a motion,, to c i t y c ouncil asking that 'no s p e c i a l consents be given for apart-ment b u i l d i n g s ' because the board thinks the property should be acquired f o r park purposes', said Mr. Cran. 'This means the freeze i s on,' he s a i d . 'Who i s going to buy a piece of property here? ' " 71 Mr. Cran as leader of the Point Grey Road Waterfront Property Owners' Association, stated that h i s group wanted " s p e c i a l permission to 72 b u i l d 'garden-type' apartments of two storeys." The Point Grey Road incident revealed not only an i n t e r e s t i n g switch i n City H a l l and K i t s i l a n o residents' p o s i t i o n s regarding r e s i -d e n t i a l upzoning, but also the beginnings of d i s i n t e g r a t i o n i n the c o l l e c t i v e sense of neighbourhood. Two key members i n the Point Grey 168 Road Waterfront Property Owners' Association, N e v i l l e and Margaret Beaton, had been executive members of the KRA. Their p r i v a t e i n t e r -ests obviously c o n f l i c t e d with the pr i v a t e i n t e r e s t s of other KRA members, notably Fred Scudamore, who owned property on the south side of Point Grey Road, and thus they resigned to form another as-soc i a t i o n to meet t h e i r needs. Interests of the E l d e r l y The concerns of. both housewives and apartment owners seem to have extensively influenced KRA actio n . Neither group:, however, dom-inated the KRA's membership numbers as heavily as did the r e t i r e d and widowed (Table 27). One would thus expect that the p o l i c i e s of the KRA,. p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the 1950's would r e f l e c t the concerns of t h i s well-represented group. To a ce r t a i n extent the KRA's attentions to pub l i c and p a r t i c u -l a r l y park f a c i l i t i e s throughout the years were based on the needs and desires of i t s r e t i r e d members. When four park benches were re-moved from the area between Vine and Balsam Streets, the KRA protested to c i t y o f f i c i a l s . "These p a r t i c u l a r benches were very popular with the e l d e r l y people who use the park i n spring and summer."73 The KRA also complained to the l o c a l government regarding the incon-venience of municipal voting stations to the e l d e r l y . 169 "A number of our members are complaining about the voting place i n and around the 3100 block West Sixteenth. In the past they have been obliged to climb a h i l l and go to the kitchen or school at King Edward and Blenheim. This works quite a hardship on e l d e r l y people."74 The attendance to these needs did not, i n general, c o n f l i c t with actions regarding other association i n t e r e s t s , such as a more com-munal sense of neighbourhood or even family and home. The KRA's consistent attempts to secure pensioner housing from 1956 to 1963, for example, were commensurate with many of i t s goals regarding neighbourhood s o l i d a r i t y . 7 ^ In l a t e r years, however, the complemen-t a r i t y of these i n t e r e s t s gave way to.increasing c o n f l i c t . " I t has been brought to our attention that play-ground equipment has been i n s t a l l e d at Pioneer Park. . . I t i s not the intentions of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association to deprive the chi l d r e n of that area the p r i v i l e g e s of Park Grounds, but we f e e l , that with the large f a c i l i t i e s at Fourth and Collingwood and the possible development of Jericho Beach as a.playground, that Pioneer Park should remain as an h i s t o r i c s i t e , and quiet a t -mosphere, p r e v a i l , so that, our C i t i z e n s , e s p e c i a l l y the Senior people, can enjoy i t s b e a u t i f u l view and pleasant surroundings .."76 Later, too, i n consort with the aims of members involved i n r e a l es-tate development and i n opposition to those hoping to protect the single-family homes of K i t s i l a n o , the r e t i r e d KRA members expressed a desire for r e s i d e n t i a l upzoning. Comments attached to an undated news a r t i c l e i n the 1960 and 1970 KRA f i l e s noted: "People who b u i l t up t h i s c i t y and have an i n t e r e s t i n i t s progress should not be penalized a f t e r paying taxes for years on apartment property." 170 The news a r t i c l e concerned C i t y H a l l ' s r e f u s a l to allow a spot upzoning f o r an apartment block i n K i t s i l a n o . The property i n question was, therefore, not yet zoned for apartment use, although the KRA comment suggested that such use had been perceived as not only f e a s i b l e , but expected. The payment of taxes, seemed to be considered by KRA members rather l i k e an investment to be r e a l i z e d i n the future. One ought to be able to ultimately b e n e f i t from a l u c r a t i v e subdivision of one's home or sale of one's property. The attempts by r e t i r e d K i t s i l a n o residents to enhance property values did r e s u l t i n a concern f o r preserving a high q u a l i t y residen-t i a l environment. These concerns, of. course, complemented the KRA's more communally-based protests against i n d u s t r i a l encroachment and environmental decline. "My husband and I have lived, at the above address (1851 West Fourth Avenue) f o r a great many years. We have stayed, here a l l t h i s time hoping thatnone day we would be able to get the value f o r our pro-perty that we f e l t was worthwhile. However, with industry continually i n f i l t r a t i n g into areas zoned f o r r e s i d e n t i a l , . . we have not been able to make any move."77 Eld e r l y residents' hopes to. e i t h e r subdivide or s e l l t h e i r homes f o r f i n a n c i a l gain, however, undermined the KRA's e f f o r t s to enhance both community s o l i d a r i t y and the family character of neighbourhood. The c o n f l i c t between the i n t e r e s t s of fa m i l i e s and r e t i r e d residents was probed i n an address by Bernie McKee, president of the Northwest Point Grey Home Owners' Association. 171 "The c h i l d r e n grow up and the house i s too large for the parent alone. The obvious course i s to rent or s e l l the house and rent or buy something smaller, possibly i n the. same area. Now, t h i s i s a natural adjustment that comes i n the course of l i f e . Yet, some persons make the adjustment and others. . . appear at City H a l l wanting to cut up the big house and be very angry because there are zoning ordinances t r y i n g to save that house so somebody else with c h i l d r e n can have the pleasure of r a i s i n g a family i n i t . " 7 ^ Since the i n t e r e s t s of these d i f f e r e n t groups of residents sometimes c o n f l i c t e d , a choice to serve one or the other had to be made by the KRA. The choice was revealed not only i n the association's promotion of r e s i d e n t i a l upzoning (Table 28) but also i n the representativeness of the association's executive body v i s - a - v i s i t s general membership. During:the 1940's,;:the KRA executive over-represented housewives and under-represented the e l d e r l y i n i t s general membership (Table 27). In contrast, although both housewives and the e l d e r l y each constituted over one-quarter of the general, membership i n 1956, the executive body of that year included not one housewife, yet comprised over f i f t y percent widowed and r e t i r e d members. CONCLUSION That the KRA considered the c o l l e c t i v e notion of neighbourhood, p a r t i c u l a r l y as a place of good neighbours, as important, cannot be denied. Neighbourhood, however, also had a more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c meaning to a s s o c i a t i o n members. As a place where one l i v e d , neigh-bourhood must be quiet and convenient. The KRA thus attended to the provision of services and elimination of disruptions - issues important to the q u a l i t y of day-to-day l i f e . 172 Neighbourhood was, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , a place i n which many r e s i -dents intended to r a i s e a family. As such, the environment — both ph y s i c a l and s o c i a l — took on new meaning. K i t s i l a n o must be above a l l safe and have the appropriate amenities to provide for the sound upbringing of c h i l d r e n . The KRA understandably procured such services and worked to protect the family's home and f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s . Neighbourhood was considered by many not only a place i n which to l i v e , but also a place i n which to invest. In serving the needs of these private i n t e r e s t s , the KRA enhanced property values through up-holding environmental q u a l i t y and argued for a higher density zoning which would allow more l u c r a t i v e redevelopment. The meanings of neighbourhood, although to some extent comple-mentary, obviously i n large part d i f f e r e d amongst these p r i v a t e i n t e r -est groups. The KRA's p o l i c i e s and actions serving these i n t e r e s t s c o n f l i c t e d as w e l l . I t seemed that the key issue d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g family i n t e r e s t s from r e a l estate and r e t i r e d i n t e r e s t s was the maintenance of K i t s i l a n o as a neighbourhood of single-family homes. Inthel930's and 1940's the KRA was most vigorous i n the attempt to preserve the family character of the neighbourhood. T h i r t y - f i v e percent of a l l issues mentioned i n KRA meeting minutes from 1935 to 1946 noted a basic i n t e r e s t i n family and c h i l d r e n . However, by the 1950's, .a period characterized by the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l character of neighbourhood i n K i t s i l a n o , the proportion of family-re-79 l a t e d issues had dropped by almost one-half to eighteen percent. 173 In the 1950's the KRA had i t s e l f begun to focus on the private con-cerns of groups of people interested not i n the homes and amenities which characterized the t r a d i t i o n a l concept of a family-oriented neighbourhood, but i n the p r o f i t that might be made by s e l l i n g t h e i r homes or redeveloping. 174 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER FIVE 1 Latimer, Oral h i s t o r y tape, Geography 371, U.B.C, 1974. 2 KRA, Executive Meeting Minutes, Feb. 8, 1935. 3 "Families feud on naming of s t r e e t s " , Vancouver Sun, Feb. 4, 1955, p. 9. ^Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, B r i e f compiled by residents i n the area of Nicholson Ltd. P r i n t e r s , Dec. 29, 1952. ^KRA, L e t t e r to RCAF depot A i r Marshall, K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve, Oct. 21, 1947. KRA, H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, 1946. 7KRA, Le t t e r to Vancouver City H a l l , March 14, 1947. g "Sewage endangers health of swimmers i n K i t s i l a n o Pool", undated a r t i c l e , no source given, KRA H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, 1946. 9 LKRA, Le t t e r to Vancouver Mayor and Ci t y Council, May 6, 1963. X^KRA, Le t t e r to Vancouver City Engineer, Oct. 5, 1955. X ±KRA, Le t t e r to Vancouver Ci t y Chief of P o l i c e , June 16, 1954. 12 KRA, Let t e r to Vancouver City E l e c t r i c Maintenance Department, Feb. 6, 1948. 13 F.M. Scudamore, Lett e r to KRA, Nov. 21, 1944. 14 KRA, General Meeting Minutes, A p r i l 28, 1942. 1 5 I b i d . , Feb. 6, 1942. 16 KRA, H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, 1946. 1 7 K i t s i l a n o Times, May 21, 1959. 175 18 KRA, Address of president to the association, 1966. 19 "Noise at K i t s i l a n o Park disturbing nearby residents", K i t s i l a n o  Times, undated a r t i c l e i n KRA H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, 1946. 20 LKRA, Le t t e r to Vancouver P o l i c e Commission, July 22, 1955. 2 1Mrs. J.W. Bussy, L e t t e r to the LKRA, Jan. 28, 1955. 22 R. Latimer, L e t t e r to Vancouver City Council, Oct. 15, 1970. 2 3R.D. Keir, L e t t e r to the KRA, May 10, 1967. 24 Stevenson, Oral h i s t o r y tape, Geography 371, U.B.C, 1974. 25 KRA, Address by the president to Old Timers' Meeting, March 28, 1944. 26 Marsh, Rebuilding a Neighbourhood, p. 65. The statement comes from the report of a survey of East K i t s i l a n o prepared by the Henry Hudson P.T.A. Rosalind Latimer,, a member of the KRA and founder of the LKRA was deeply involved i n the work of the survey. 27 Stevenson, Oral h i s t o r y tape, Geography 37.1, U.B.C, 1974. Ibid. 29 KRA, L e t t e r to Vancouver Ci t y Clerk, Feb. 15, 1957. 30 KRA, Letter to Vancouver City Department of Works, Dec. 17, 1956. 31 KRA, Executive meeting minutes, Nov. 21, 1944. 32 Stevenson, Oral h i s t o r y tape, Geography 371, U.B.C, 1974. 33 "Protest dine and dance spot so close to school", undated a r t i c l e , no source given, KRA H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, 1946. 34 KRA, L e t t e r to the Vancouver Town Planning Commission, Aug. 21, 1956. 176 35 KRA, Letter to Vancouver Board of Park Commissioners, A p r i l 20, 1949. 3fi K i t s i l a n o Times, A p r i l 25, 1940, p. 1. 37 KRA, Le t t e r to Vancouver Parks Board, July 14, 1956. O Q K i t s i l a n o Times, A p r i l 25, 1940, p. 1. 39 KRA, Le t t e r to Vancouver Town Planning Commission, Aug. 15, 1963. 40 KRA, Lett e r to Vancouver City Council, Sept. 3, 1963. 41 K i t s i l a n o Times, A p r i l 5, 1939, p. 1. 4 2 I b i d . , A p r i l 14, 1955, p. 1. 43 KRA, Lett e r to Vancouver Ci t y Clerk, Jan. 25, 1949. 44 K i t s i l a n o Times, A p r i l 20, 1940, p. 2. 45 KRA, H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, 1946. 46 KRA, Executive Meeting Minutes, Nov. 21, 1944. 47 K i t s i l a n o Times, July 17, 1958, p. 1. Ibid. 49 "Ban sought on nursing homes", Vancouver Sun, Feb. 2, 1955. Ibid. 5 1 I b i d . Ibid. 53 " K t s i l a n o Ratepayers protested t h e i r high assessment", news a r t i c l e March 22, 1933, source not given, Vancouver Ci t y Archives. 177 54 Shaw , Oral h i s t o r y tape, Geography 371, U.B.C., 1974. "^KRA, Lett e r to B.C. Government Employees' Association, Sept. 11, 1967. K i t s i l a n o Times, Sept. 12, 1940, p. 1. "^Kitsilano Chamber of Commerce, Foreword to the Roster, 1959. 58 KRA, L e t t e r to Vancouver City Clerk, June 8, 1949. 59 Frederick F i s h , KRA member, Lett e r to Vancouver Ci t y Parks Board, Oct. 22, 1948. 60 Wm. M. Shearer, L e t t e r to the Vancouver Zoning Board of Appeal, A p r i l 14, 1947. ^ XTo a r r i v e at this s t a t i s t i c , the issues mappable between the years 1935 and 1946 were compared to. a l l KRA general members' homes i n 1938 and Executive homes i n 1942, 1943, 1944 and 1946. 62 Stevenson's Oral h i s t o r y tape (U.B.C, 1974) confirms that the Meltons owned considerable property i n K i t s i l a n o . The KRA H i s t o r i -c a l Records Book, 1946, l i s t s the various apartment blocks owned by Fred Scudamore. . Scudamore also held the post of director, of the Associated Property Owners of B.C. Fred Scudamore, Let t e r to the KRA, Feb. 18, 1956. 64 KRA, Let t e r to C.C. M e r r i t t , M.P., Feb. 20, 1947. ^ " K i t s i l a n o Raps Town Planners", Vancouver Sun, June 30, 1955. 66 Fred Scudamore, Let t e r to the editor of the K i t s i l a n o Times, Kitsilano'. Times, Jan. 31, 1957. 67 LKRA, B r i e f to Vancouver City Planning Department, March 12, 1953. 68 Henry Hudson Community Standards Committee of Housing (forerunner of the LKRA), Let t e r to the Vancouver Tourist Association, Sept. 10, 1952. 178 69 "Planners I n s i s t on Point Grey Road Park", Vancouver Sun, Feb. 8, 1957. 7°NeviIle and Margaret Beaton, Let t e r to KRA, Feb. 11, 1957. 7 ±"Mass Indignation Protest on Park S t r i p Plan urged", Vancouver Sun, Feb. 2, 1957, p. 21. 72 "Planning study ordered of Point Grey Road park", no source given, undated news a r t i c l e , Vancouver C i t y Archives. 73 Salter S t i l w e l l , L e t t e r to the KRA, A p r i l 17, 1949. S t i l w e l l sug-gested that the KRA write a l e t t e r regarding t h i s issue to the Parks Board. The KRA complied. 74 KRA, Letter to Vancouver Ci t y Clerk, Nov. 7, 1956. ^Numerous l e t t e r s were written by the KRA to l o c a l and fed e r a l gov-ernments and the CMHC i n 1962-1963 to secure old age or pensioner housing. 76 KRA, L e t t e r to Vancouver City Park Superintendant, July 12, 1962. 7 7LKRA member, Lett e r to Vancouver City Council, Oct. 30, 1952. 78 Bernie McKee, "Family Homes. . . Our Greatest Asset", undated. 79 This percentage i s based on an evaluation of KRA correspondence during the years from 1954 to 1957. 179. CHAPTER SIX: CONCLUSION 180 FIGURE 40 Couple on plank sidewalk, K i t s i l a n o , 1911 (source: Vancouver City Archives). 181 "A large part of any human landscape is obviously the result of human ac-tion. Behind this action lies thought. A man does not expend time and money building a house, give years to clearing land, cut the lawn . . . or plant trees along a city street without some purpose."! This thesis was based on the premise that in order to understand landscape, one must probe the ideas which prompt the landscape -shaping process. These ideas provide the key to understanding the particular character of place. "Meaning is not an incidental intervening variable between environment and behaviour, as i t has often been treated in behavioural geography, but provides the central inte-grating concept."2 Ideas concerning the meaning of neighbourhood underlay residents long term determination to shape the character of Kitsilano in Vancouver. To some extent the meaning of neighbourhood in Kitsilano seemed consistent with what others have conceived of as the traditional con-cept of neighbourhood, rooted in a particular place, a form of social interaction and an expression of community solidarity. "A neighbourhood contains inhabitants having something in common — perhaps only the current sharing of a common environment. This gives them a certain collec-':£:: .tive:.'character^ ^ whichoaff ects and reflects people's feelings about living there and the kinds o"f rela-tionships the residents establish." 3 The descriptions of Kitsilano by both resident groups and the commu-nity press parallelled these academic observations. 18;'2 "The man who s t i c k s up for h i s own community i s generally the fellow with enterprise and f a i t h i n h i s fellow man. He has enterprise enough to go ahead with h i s own share i n community work and upbuilding, and f a i t h i n h i s neighbour doing likewise. A great b a t t l e squadron derives i t s power and i n v i n c i b i l i t y from the perfect coordin-ated teamwork and the same thing applies i n l i k e measure to a community. The i n d i v i d u a l who then i s asked where he l i v e s , and answered K i t s i l a n o . . . i s as a general r u l e w i l l i n g to volunteer the information that you couldn't beat that part of the c i t y . This i s c i v i c pride and community s p i r i t . " 4 I t seems, however, that t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l notion of neighbour-hood does not explain a l l of the.purposes behind landscape formation i n K i t s i l a n o . There existed a more private set of ideas which served not only to promote landscape change, but a l s o , paradoxically, to serve as the very basis for community s o l i d a r i t y and group formation. "The appearance of communion i s a function of sub-j e c t i v e . . . c r i t e r i a ; these w i l l include the emer-gence of leaders or a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s who w i l l work towards the creation of l o c a l consciousness, they w i l l include the existence of issues which threaten a common i n t e r e s t or which provides goals to which a l o c a l group can work."5 The a r t i c u l a t i o n of a set of private i n t e r e s t s i n K i t s i l a n o led to the emergence of the K i t s i l a n o Improvement Association — l a t e r KRA — i n 1906. In i t s early years, the association's goals were e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d . " K i t s i l a n o i n 1907 was emerging from the v i r g i n f o r e s t and there was much work and many problems f o r the young asso c i a t i o n to constantly cope with. For instance, at that time, there were no paved s t r e e t s , no sewers, no sidewalks, no l i g h t s . . . I n s t e a d there were plenty of cow t r a i l s and short cuts through the wood's."6 183 The KRA. devoted i t s energy to developing the d i s t r i c t of K i t s i l a n o "as a decent place to l i v e " , 7 focusing on the improvement and ex-tension of a v a r i e t y of public services and u t i l i t i e s . During t h i s i n i t i a l period of neighbourhood formation - l o t c l e a r i n g and b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t y - residents worked, f o r the most part, i n consort with both l o c a l government and p r i v a t e r e a l . e s t a t e develop-ers. A l l promoted an a t t r a c t i v e , well-serviced community. Although t h e i r goals at t h i s time seemed f a i r l y s i m i l a r , government, r e a l es-tate developers and residents did perceive the area d i f f e r e n t l y . The defiant stance of Sam Greer and even the formation of the KRA attested to residents' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r image of K i t s i l a n o as home - a place where the p r o v i s i o n of roads and sewers became a more urgent matter for attention. As K i t s i l a n o began to mature and the basic services provided, the character of the neighbourhood had to be a r t i c u l a t e d more c l e a r l y . By 1935 - a year of extensive s o c i a l organization i n K i t s i l a n o - a v a r i e t y of i n t e r e s t groups began to i d e n t i f y t h e i r intentions for the area. "A l i t t l e place on a quiet s t r e e t , A home, a haven, a place of r e t r e a t From the cares and stress of the long weary day. With friends and good neighbours not far away."° This notion - although communally-oriented - was, none-the-less, rooted i n two more pri v a t e consideration — the importance of family and the q u a l i t y of day-to-day l i f e . In f a c t , one of the community groups emerging i n t h i s period grew out of the concern for c h i l d r e n a r t i c u l a t e d by the Henry Hudson P.T.A. 184 " I f you want the best for your children you must take an a c t i v e part. So I got busy f i r s t with the church when the ch i l d r e n were l i t t l e . . . Then the c h i l d r e n started going to school, so I became interested i n the P.T.A. and study groups, and one thing l e d to another."9 The KRA continuously attended to the issues emanating from these p r i -vate concerns with family and d a i l y l i f e . "Having new sidewalks l a i d or rep a i r s to old ones; boulevards attended to, trees trimmed or removed; a load of rock or sand to f i l l a .hole i n someone's a l l e y to keep youngsters from playing i n i t when f i l l e d with water i n winter time. Small items, perhaps, but i n a period of f i f t y years, these add up to quite an item and your President and Executive committee — having an i n t e r e s t i n K i t s i l a n o — have been attending to a l l these ' l i t t l e things' for f i f t y years."1° The as s o c i a t i o n continued to improve r e s i d e n t i a l services and u t i l i -t i e s , but also worked to protect t h e i r homes and l i f e s t y l e s through attention to land use and environmental q u a l i t y . The prevention of both i n d u s t r i a l encroachment and r e s i d e n t i a l upzoning became two c r i t i c a l issues. During the period of neighbourhood a r t i c u l a t i o n from 1935 to 1961, the i n t e r e s t s of K i t s i l a n o residents began to diverge more r a d i c a l l y from those of C i t y H a l l and the r e a l estate developers. Both govern-ment and developers began to promote, a higher, "density, more indus-t r i a l i z e d d i s t r i c t than l o c a l residents, wanted to a c c e p t . 1 1 C o n f l i c t s , of course, ensued. "Seems l i k e we were always going to Ci t y H a l l to save K i t s i l a n o . " x 2 185 "One fellow f e l t we were drawing everything into the area. Just because you couldn't have any c h i l d r e n didn't mean you had to be so b i t t e r . This fellow f e l t we shouldn't have ch i l d r e n i n t h i s area anyway. They should remove Henry Hudson school and clear, out and put i t a l l i n apartments arid have a R i v i e r r a e f f e c t and bring i n money. His whole world was around money."13 To a large extent K i t s i l a n o residents were successful i n t h e i r attempts to f u l f i l l t h e i r own hopes f o r K i t s i l a n o i n the face of others' goals, and p a r t i c u l a r l y to protect.the r e s i d e n t i a l q u a l i t y of t h e i r neighbourhood. "We have continued the p o l i c i n g of our boundaries against commercial i n f i l t r a t i o n and have recently s u c c e s s f u l l y opposed the. 26th attempt to locate a commercial venture i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area. 25 wins out of 26 cases."14 The KRA a t t r i b u t e d much of the early expansion of d i s t r i c t services and u t i l i t i e s , including parks., roads, s t r e e t l i g h t i n g and sewers, to i t s e f f o r t s . "Through d i r e c t e f f o r t s of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, a t o t a l of $133,500 i n sewer construc-tion i s e i t h e r going on i n the d i s t r i c t , or i s con-templated. "15 The communi'ty l i b r a r y , Yacht Club and Centennial Museum park and com-plex on K i t s i l a n o Point were also considered to be achievements of the a s s o c i a t i o n . As noted by the KRA president i n 1966: " I t was with considerable pride I had occasion to represent t h i s organization at the o f f i c i a l Lease Signing Ceremony (for the a c q u i s i t i o n of the former RCAF property as a p a r k ) . . . I was extremely proud to have my name mentioned as taking part i n f i n a l i z i n g t h i s p r o j ect. . . The Planetarium, to be b u i l t at K i t s i l a n o Point w i l l be a landmark for a l l to be proud of. . . This was brought about by sheet determination on my part acting on your behalf."16 186 The success of the KRA i n achieving i t s goals was revealed, to some extent, i n i t s correspondence. Sixty-one percent of the issues for which some l e t t e r i n d i c a t i n g a r e s o l u t i o n of the issue existed, had been resolved i n the KRA's favour (Table 29). TABLE 29  THE RESOLUTION OF KRA ISSUES 1 Issues Resolved i n KRA favour Year of Resolution Prevent development of K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve as c i t y garbage dump 1944 Reduce soot and smoke from the RCAF depot 1947 Expand sewer system 1947 Prevent operation of a cabaret on Cornwall Street 1948 Obtain closure of a beauty parlour, 1948 McNicoll 1948 Obtain a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t i n g , K i t s i l a n o Park 1948 Prohibi t parking at entrance to K i t s i l a n o Park 1954 Rezone K i l l a r n e y mansion for apartments 1956 Eliminate t r a f f i c hazard caused by hedge at the northwest corner of Third and Macdonald 1956 Bu i l d footpath from foot of Trafalgar to K i t s i l a n o Beach 1957 Repair sidewalk on Macdonald between Third and Fourth 1957 Improve bus service on Fourth Avenue 1957 Clean up c i t y l o t , southeast corner of Macdonald and K i t s i l a n o Diversion . 1957 Obtain old K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve (RCAF base) as a .park 1966 Source: KRA correspondence from 1947 to 1957 and a few miscellaneous KRA f i l e s . Considering the devotion of residents to a set of id e a l s which r e f l e c t a t r a d i t i o n a l notion of neighbourhood based on the communal attendance to family home and l i f e s t y l e , and t h e i r success i n perpetuat-ing those i d e a l s , the demise of t r a d i t i o n a l neighbourhood i n K i t s i l a n o seems u n l i k e l y . I t appears that t h i s commitment to t r a d i t i o n a l neigh-187 bourhood was not as unive r s a l or as strong as might be thought. The increasing d i v e r s i t y of i n t e r e s t s which emerged during the maturing of K i t s i l a n o c e r t a i n l y thwarted community s o l i d a r i t y . Bert Emery, i n or-ganizing the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce i n 1935 noted the lack of resident consensus on community goals. "Right from the s t a r t we could see that we could not expect too much cooperation from the Ratepayers."17 Although the KRA and the KCC did work together on a number of community oriented programs during the 1930's and. 1940's., they became increasing-l y at loggerheads with each other, the most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n f l i c t occur-ing over the entertainment provided by the KCC at the K i t s i l a n o Pool. "The ratepayers v o c i f e r o u s l y protested the constant noise that came from the area of the concert p l a t -form and claimed that the d i s t r i c t s surrounding K i t s i l a n o Beach Pool i s nothing but a red l i g h t d i s t r i c t . " 1 8 The KRA, i n apprehending a threat to t h e i r image of K i t s i l a n o as a desirable".family neighbourhood, and annoyed by the nuisance caused i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s by the noisy K i t s i l a n o Showboat, c r i t i c i z e d t h i s s o c i a l a c t i v i t y undertaken by the KCC and indeed, did a l l i t could to prevent that a c t i v i t y from taking place. "Should the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce be considering the presentation of entertainment t h i s year, such en-tertainment must be r e s t r i c t e d . " ! 9 The emergence of a second ratepayers association i n K i t s i l a n o — the Lower K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association — gives further i n d i c a -t i o n of the increasing d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of resident i n t e r e s t s . 188 "We were such a mixed up d i s t r i c t . That's why we had to have t h i s s p e c i a l ratepayers' association. I t wasn't that we were down-grading the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, but they j u s t couldn't see our problems when we went up t h e r e . " 2 ^ The leader, Rosalind Latimer, and many members of t h i s group had been, i n f a c t a c t i v e within the KRA i t s e l f . Mrs. Latimer's formation of th i s new group i n 1952 and the resignation of KRA executive members N e v i l l e and Margaret Beaton i n 1957 to j o i n the Point Grey Road Pro-perty Owners Association demonstrates the i n a b i l i t y of the KRA to serve the more diverse goals being expressed by K i t s i l a n o residents. The community group which had for so long played a strong r o l e i n the development of community was beginning to d i s i n t e g r a t e . The c o l l e c -t i v e i n t e r e s t s which had been served by t h i s one group for s i x t y years, were d i s s o l v i n g into p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s which could only be served by-anumber of smaller s e l f - i n t e r e s t groups. Each of these i n t e r e s t groups would promote the development of K i t s i l a n o to serve i t s own p a r t i c u l a r ends. The m u l t i p l i c i t y of these ends could not possibly sustain the c o l l e c t i v e form of community which had once existed. A question which must, be posed i s : "Why did the c o l l e c t i v e i n -terests i n K i t s i l a n o dissolve into the variety, of private i n t e r e s t s leading to community breakdown?" In part, the answer l i e s , as already noted, i n the general process of community development. Not only were cert a i n developments, and thus resident goals, more c l e a r l y d i s c e r n -able i n the early years, residents themselves were then f a r fewer i n 189. number and perhaps more intent on cooperating. "In those days, I knew every person for blocks around. When a new residence was erected and a family moved i n , we who had preceeded them i n occupation considered i t a . neighbourly duty to give them f r i e n d l y greet-ing. As the rate of development increased, however, t h i s became impossible, and that warm s p i r i t so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Pioneering i n any area gradually c h i l l e d towards the i n d i v i d u a l i s o l a t i o n of older and larger communities."2l By the.very f a c t of an increased density of population i n the more mature K i t s i l a n o , diverse goals and c o n f l i c t s of i n t e r e s t were more l i k e l y . Although community breakdown may, i n part, be explained by the a r r i v a l of increasing numbers of new people to K i t s i l a n o , i t may also be a t t r i b u t e d to a f a r more pervasive change — the aging of the t r a -d i t i o n a l resident body. As r e t i r e d or widowed residents of K i t s i l a n o i n the 1950's, these people no longer had the same i n t e r e s t s as they had i n the 1930's and 1940's. A concern with the protection of home for the r a i s i n g of c h i l d r e n changed to that of a concern with the ex-change value of the home f o r retirement — a value greatly increased by r e s i d e n t i a l upzoning for apartment development.. From 1954 to 1957 the LKRA threw almost a l l of i t s energy to the upzoning of K i t s i l a n o Point. In the 1960's, twenty-five percent of the KRA executive mem-bers resided outside K i t s i l a n o . I t i s extremely important to r e a l i z e that there was no sense on the part of these people that they had consciously changed t h e i r ob-j e c t i v e s and, by t h e i r new actions, were contributing to the demise 190 22 of the t r a d i t i o n a l neighbourhood which they had enjoyed. The rea-son for t h i s rests perhaps i n the f a c t that they were acting as they had always acted, to secure not only communal, but also, and at times p r i m a r i l y , t h e i r p r i v a t e goals. Their p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s of twenty to t h i r t y years e a r l i e r had been focused on a t t a i n i n g a well ser-viced neighbourhood and an appropriate environment for the e s t a b l i s h -ment of a home and family. This concern with the character:of place, and indeed the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and community s o l i d a r i t y emanating from a shared commitment to t h i s notion of place c e r t a i n l y gives e v i -dence of the existence of neighbourhood as t r a d i t i o n a l l y defined. What i t i s most important to r e a l i z e , however, i s that a shared set of goals — p r i v a t e i n nature — lay at the root of that t r a d i t i o n a l neighbourhood. When the more communally-focused i n t e r e s t s of neigh-bourhood came in t o c o n f l i c t with these more p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s , as they did on many occasions, residents acted to f i r s t f u l f i l l t h e i r private i n t e r e s t s . It i s also important to note that one c r i t i c a l idea underlying the t r a d i t i o n a l community - the image of K i t s i l a n o as a high q u a l i t y l i v i n g environment - continued to motivate group e f f o r t s i n l a t e r years, and even prompted the promotion of r e s i d e n t i a l upzoning and the protest against "hippies" during the 1960's. For group members, acting i n these years, with t h e i r shared commitment to place and feelings of s o l i d a r i t y , neighbourhood was as strong an e n t i t y as ever. Moreover, the changes i n K i t s i l a n o ' s landscape, which some perceived 191 as the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l neighbourhood, a c t u a l l y served to f u l f i l l these residents' goal of maintaining a "high-class 23 r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t " . Condominium units s e l l i n g f o r $99,500 i n the Carriage House high r i s e i n "the mid 1970's, or a "luxury two bed-room waterfront penthouse with den, unique design, four skylights and 24 squash court" renting for $850 per month i n 1980 a l l a t t e s t to the q u a l i t y of the landscape and the status of residents i n K i t s i l a n o today. The goals of K i t s i l a n o residents, had always been c l e a r : "The K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association has served the residents of t h i s area for the l a s t 65 years, and has worked towards the goal of continuous upgrading of the d i s -t r i c t . "25 Serving the l a t e r i n t e r e s t s of residents, the KRA and other neighbour-hood groups continued to improve t h e i r neighbourhood :— although i n a manner quite d i f f e r e n t from the o r i g i n a l securement of services and public u t i l i t i e s . The homes which had been protected as a f u l -f i l l m e n t of e a r l i e r family needs were replaced by the townhouses and condominiums whose property values f u l f i l l e d the l a t e r needs of retirement. Although i t has not been possible to f u l l y assess the e f f e c t i v e -ness of KRA action i n shaping the, landscape, i t appeared that, i n numerous cases, the group did have d i r e c t impact (Table 29). Further-more, the development of K i t s i l a n o seemed to be i n accord with the association's ideology. The i n t r u s i o n of hippies and the upzoning for high r i s e s i n the 1960's, for example, appeared to be merely 192 temporary aberrations in the pattern of quality middle class resi-dential development promoted by the association. Such coincidence between landscape and ideology of course prompted the feeling of success amongst.group members. "The Kitsilano Ratepayers' Association has been an active and effective organization in this community since 1906. Many old time Vancouverites s t i l l residing in Kitsilano will recall numerous occassions when decisions and action taken on problems important in the community have had lasting effect."26 The KRA, similarly to other traditional residents of Kitsilano, worked towards shaping their ideals into reality. "(They) caught a glimpse of Kitsilano as i t could be; a delightful entry to the sweeping beauty of marine drive, the beach garland by parks where prosperous apartments and homes formed a background for shopping and school facilities."27 Although to determine whether or not Kitsilano today is an explicit product of residents' actions is difficult, i t is possible to more fully understand the character of this place through the examination of these ideals. The images of neighbourhood which prompted group formation and action grew out of two. sets of interests — communal and private — which expose not simply the demise of traditional neighbourhood in Kitsilano, but, in neighbourhood development, the fruition of resident dreams. 19 3 FOOTNOTES: CHAPTER SIX X H a r r i s , 1971, p. 168. 2Ley, 1975, pp. 20-21. 3 K e l l e r , 1968, p. 90. 4 K i t s i l a n o Times, June 15, 1918, p. 1. 5Herbert and Raine, 1976, p. 327. K i t s i l a n o Times, A p r i l 23, 1959. 7 KRA, L e t t e r to prospective members , undated, g Gladys R i d l e r , Secretary of the Central Council of Ratepayers, "Dream or Nightmare",. Verses for Voters, undated. 9 Stevenson, Oral h i s t o r y tape, Geography 371, U.B.C, 1974. X^KRA, President's address, November 15, 1956. X ±0ne key issue over which c o n f l i c t occurred was the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l governments' expression of plans to i n d u s t r i a l l y develop the K i t s i l a n o Indian Reserve. 12 Stevenson, Oral h i s t o r y tape, Geography 371, U.B.C, 1974. Ibi d . 14 LKRA, Annual Report, 1954-1955. X"*"Big Works Project to Eliminate Fouling of K i t s i l a n o Beaches", K i t s i l a n o Times, undated a r t i c l e i n KRA H i s t o r i c a l Records Book, 1946. KRA, President's Address by Harold Kidd, 1966. x 7 B e r t Emery, Memo to K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, undated. 19.4 18 " K i t s i l a n o red l i g h t area", K i t s i l a n o Times, June 14, 1941. 19 KRA, Executive Meeting Minutes, March 18, 1941. 20 Latimer, Oral h i s t o r y tape, Geography 371, U.B.C., 1974. 21 Dr. Frank Patterson, address to K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce annual meeting, K i t s i l a n o Times, March 10, 1938. 22 In f a c t , the LKRA, perhaps naively, f e l t that the r e s i d e n t i a l upzoning of K i t s i l a n o Point would not only allow the construction of three-storey garden apartments to replace the older rundown homes, but also preserve the value of better single-family r e s i -dences, which they considered would l a s t f o r another t h i r t y years ( K i t s i l a n o Times, Feb. 14, 1957). 23 LKRA, Notes accompanying b r i e f to Vancouver Town Planning Commission, undated, 1956. 24 Vancouver Sun, c l a s s i f i e d ads, A p r i l 9, 1980. 25 KRA, Le t t e r to Daniel Janczewski, K i t s i l a n o Area Planner, Aug. 31, 1974. 26 " K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers to Mark 50^ Anniversary with Dinner Tonight", K i t s i l a n o Times, Nov. 15, 1956. 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Lowenthal, David, ed., Environmental Perception and Behaviour, Department of Geography, Research Paper No. 109, The University of Chicago, Chicago, 1967. Lowenthal, David, "Geography, Experience, and Imagination: Towards a Geographical Epistemology", Fred E. Dohrs, ed., C u l t u r a l Geography, Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, 1967, pp. 71-91. Lowenthal, David and Hugh C. Prince, "English Landscape Tastes", The Geographical Review, Vol. 55 (1965), pp. 186-222. Lukermann, F., Geography Among the Sciences, Kalamata, Minneapolis, 1964, pp. 10-28. Lynch, Kevin, The Image of the Cit y, University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1960. Maclver, R.M., Community, Macmillan Company, London, 1917. Mann, Peter H., "The Neighbourhood", Robert Gutman and David Popenoe, eds., Neighbourhood, City and Metropolis, Random House, New York, 1970, pp. 568.583. Marsh, Leonard C., Rebuilding a Neighbourhood, Research Publ i c a t i o n No. 1, Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1950. 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Sennett, Richard, "Middle-Class Families and Urban Violence: The Experience of a Chicago Community i n the Nineteenth Century", Stephan Thernstrom and Richard Sennett, eds., Nineteenth-Century C i t i e s , Yale University Press, New: Haven and London, 1969, pp. 386-418.. Sennett, Richard, The Uses of Disorder: Personal Identity and C i t y  L i f e , A l f r e d A. Knopf, New York, 1970. Shibutani, Tamotsu, Society and Personality: An I n t e r a c t i o n i s t Approach  to S o c i a l Psychology, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1961. Stein, Maurice, The E c l i p s e of Community, Harper and Row, New York, 1960. Suttles, Gerald D., The S o c i a l Construction of Communities, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1972. Suttles, Gerald D., The So c i a l Order of the Slum, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1968. 200 BIBLIOGRAPHY (Cont'd) Tonnies, Ferdinand, Community and Association.(Gemeinschaft und Ges e l l s c h a f t ) , Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1955. Tuan, Yi-Fu, "Geography, Phenomenology and the Study of Human Nature", Canadian Geographer, Vol. XV No. 3 (1971), pp. 181-192. Tuan, Yi-Fu, "Space and Place: humanistic perspective", Progress i n  Geography, Vol. 6, Edward Arnold, London, 1974, pp. 211-252. Tuan, Yi-Fu, "Structuralism, E x i s t e n t i a l i s m and Environmental Perception", Environment and Behaviour, Vol. 4, No. 3, Sept. 1972, pp. 319-331. Tuan, Yi-Fe, Topophilia: a study of environmental, perception, a t t i t u d e s  and values, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1974. Watson, J. Wreford, "Image Geography: The Myth of America i n the American Scene", Advancement of Science, Vol. 26, (1970), pp. 71-79. Watson, J . Wreford,. "The Role of I l l u s i o n i n North American Geography: A Note on the Geography of North American Settlement", The Canadian  Geographer, Vol. XIII, No. 1 (1969), pp. 10-27. Webber, Melvin M., "Order i n Diversity—Community Without Propinquity", L. Wingo, J r . , ed,, C i t i e s and Space: The Future Use of Urban Land, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1963. Weil, Simone, The Need for Roots, Beacon Press, Boston, 1955. Wellman, Barry, "Who Needs Neighbourhoods?", James A. Draper ed., C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Canada, new press, Toronto, 1971, pp. 282-287. Willhelm, Sidney and Gideon' Sjoberg, "Economic vs. Protective Values i n Urban Land Use Change", The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 19 (1959-1960), pp. 151-160. Wirth, L., "The Scope and Problems of the Community", Pu b l i c a t i o n of the  American S o c i o l o g i c a l Society, Vol. XXVII (1933), p. 62. Wood, L.J., "Perception studies i n geography", I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Geographers, Transactions, No. 50 (July, 1970), pp. 129-142. Wrigley, E.A., "Changes i n the Philosophy of Geography" R. Chorley and P. Haggett, e d s . ^ F r o n t i e r s i n Geographical Teaching, Methuen, London, 1965, pp. 3-20. Zorbaugh, H.W., The Gold Coast and the Slum, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1929. 201 BIBLIOGRAPHY (Cont'd)  Data Sources Archive-Clippers Club, Chronicle of K i t s i l a n o , K i t s i l a n o Secondary School, Vancouver, 1973. A r c h i v i s t s ' Club, Vancouver: A Short History, Templeton Junior High School, Vancouver, 1936. Barker, Greg, The Changing S o c i a l Image of K i t s i l a n o from 1910 to 1970, Geography 371 paper, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1974. Bartholomew, Harland and Associates, A Plan for the C i t y of Vancouver, B.C., Town Planning Commission, Vancouver, B.C., 1929. Blishen, Bernard R., "The Construction and Use of an Occupational Class Scale:, R. Bernard Blishen et. a l . eds., Canadian Society  S o c i o l o g i c a l Perspective, Macmillan of Canada, Toronto, 1965, pp. 449-459. B r i t i s h Columbia Underwriters Association. Free Insurance Plan of the  City of Vancouver, B.C., Vol. 2, Sheets 201-285, Vancouver, July, 1927. B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon Directory, Sun D i r e c t o r i e s Ltd., Vancouver, 1940. Browne, Tom, Oral History, taped conversation with Dale Berry, Geography 371 project, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1974. C l a s s i f i e d advertisements, Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 9, 1980. Davis, Chuck, ed., The Vancouver Book, J . J . Douglas Ltd., Vancouver, 1976, pp. 86-88. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , "Population and Housing C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by Census Tracts, Vancouver, B.C.", Census of Canada, 1961, 95-537, CT-22, Minis t r y of Trade and Commerce, 1963. Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , "Population, Household and Family C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by Census Tracts, Vancouver, B.C.", Census of Canada, 95-728, CT-28A, Minis t r y of Industry, Trade and Commerce, 1973. E l s i e , Bud, "Waikiki Beach Plan f o r c i t y finds renewed i n t e r e s t " , Vancouver Sun, February 22, 1964. Emery, Bert, Oral History, taped conversation with Dale Berry, Geography 371 project, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1974. 202 BIBLIOGRAPHY (Cont'd) Gibson, Edward, The Impact of S o c i a l B e l i e f on Landscape Change: A  Geographical Study of Vancouver, PhD d i s s e r t a t i o n , Department of Geography, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1971. Government of the Ci t y of Vancouver Board of School Trustees, Yearly  School Enrollments, 1906 to 1975. Government of the City of Vancouver, Pocket Map of Vancouver C i t y , Number 616-8 (87) R220, June, 1910. Government of Canada, Map of Burrard I n l e t , surveyed by W.J. Stewart, Thom-son Stationary Co., Ltd., 1898. Gutstein, Donald, Vancouver Ltd., James Lorimer and Company, Toronto, 1975. Henderson's B r i t i s h Columbia Gazetteer and Directory, Vol. VII, (1900-1901), Henderson Publishing Company, V i c t o r i a and Vancouver. Henderson's Vancouver, New Westminster and Fraser Valley Directory. 1911 and 1920. Holdsworth, Deryck, House, and Home i n Vancouver, PhD D i s s e r t a t i o n , Department of Geography, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver,in progress. K i t s i l a n o Area Resources Council, Annual Report,.Vancouver, 1967-1968. K i t s i l a n o Planning Committee, K i t s i l a n o : an information handbook, Vancouver Ci t y Planning Department, Vancouver, January, 1974. K i t s i l a n o Times, weekly newspaper, Vancouver, 1918-1962. Khouri, Jacques, "The issue i n K i t s i l a n o i s redevelopment", K i t s i l a n o  Resources, Vol. 1 No. 1 (August, 1975), K i t s i l a n o Community Resources Board, pp. 4-5. Latimer, Rosalind, Oral History, taped conversation with Dale Berry, Geography 371 project, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1974. Light, Louis, "Sam Greer's shotgun stand against the C.P.R.", MacLean's' Magazine, Nov. 8, 1958. Matthews, Major J.S., Early Vancouver, Volumes 1 and 2, Brock Webber P r i n t i n g Co. Ltd., Vancouver, 1932. 203 BIBLIOGRAPHY (Cont'd) Matthews, Major J.S., Conversation with Mr. Kenelm Quiney, Sept. 26,  1958, Vancouver City Archives. Matthews, Major J.S., Fred B a y l i s s : news clippings and notes, Vancouver City Archives. Matthews, Major J.S., Sam Greer: The Fight f o r K i t s i l a n o Beach, Vancouver'City Archives. Morgan, Ken, President of the K i t s i l a n o Chamber of Commerce, Interview  with author, Balaclava Pet Shop, 9:50 a.m. to 11:30 a.m., Saturday, March 22, 1975. Morley, Alan, "The Romance of Vancouver: the story of early Pioneers", Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 8, 1940. Morley, Alan, Vancouver; . From Milltown to Metropolis, M i t c h e l l Press, Vancouver, 1969. Moule, George, President of the K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers' Association, Interview with author, at home, 3:50 p.m. to 5:50 p.m., Thursday, March 20, 1975. Native Sons of B.C., Post No. 2, Romance of Vancouver, Vancouver, 1926. N i c o l , E r i c , Vancouver, Doubleday Canada Ltd., Toronto, 1970. N i c o l l s , J.P., Real Estate Values i n Vancouver, Vancouver Ci t y Archives, 1954. Vancouver City Archives, Newspaper Clippings: K i t s i l a n o . Vancouver Ci t y Archives, Quiney C o l l e c t i o n of Photographs of Early  Vancouver. "Sam Greer: Project honors pioneer", Vancouver Sun, Oct. 18, 1977, p. A9. "Shaw, Mr. and Mrs., Oral History, taped conversation with Dale Berry, Geography 371 project, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1974. Stevenson, K., Oral History, taped conversation with Dale Berry, Geography 371 project, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1974. Stewart, Duncan, " K i t s i l a n o Ratepayers began c i v i c works h a l f century ago", Vancouver Province, Nov. 8, 1956. BIBLIOGRAPHY (Cont'd) 204 Vancouver and New Westminster Directory, B.C. D i r e c t o r i e s Ltd., Vancouver, 1950. Vancouver Ci t y Directory, B.C. D i r e c t o r i e s , Vancouver, 1960 and 1970. Vancouver Urban Research Group, Forever Deceiving You:: The P o l i t i c s  of Vancouver Development, Vancouver, 1972. Wrigley-Henderson B r i t i s h Columbia Directory, Vancouver, 1930. 205 APPENDIX 1 KITSILANO CLUBS AND ASSOCIATIONS MENTIONED IN THE KITSILANO TIMES  NEWSPAPER, 1918 -^ 1962, One Quarter Sample Number of times mentioned In the Kitsilano Times by time period 1918-1928 1936-1940 1953-1962 Club Alma Y.M.C.A. Altrusa Club Bayview P.T.A. Burrard Conservatives (Div. 2) Burrard Liberals (Div. 5) Crosby United Church (later Kitsilano United Church) Current Events Club Ex-Gordon Athletic Club General Gordon P.T.A. Gordon House Henry Hudson P.T.A. Hungarian Social Club Kitsilano Board of Trade Kitsilano Boys' Band Kitsilano Boys' Choir Kitsilano Chamber of Commerce Kitsilano Community Centre Kitsilano Council Kitsilano Crescent Boxing Club Kitsilano Good Times Club Kitsilano High School P.T.A. Kitsilano Horticultural Association Kitsilano Housewives League Kitsilano Ladies Choir Kitsilano Lawn Bowling Club (formerly Murabma Lawn Bowling Club) Kitsilano Legion Kitsilano Lions Club (later Burrard Lions Club) Kitsilano Neighbourhood House (formerly Alexandra Orphanage) Kitsilano Ratepayers' Association Kitsilano Service League Kitsilano Social and Athletic Club Kitsilano United Church (formerly Crosby and St. Stephens United Churches) Kitsilano Yacht Club Kiwanis Club of Kitsilano Lower Kitsilano Ratepayers' Assn. Pt. Grey Road Waterfront Property Owners' Association Revellers' Club St. James United Church St. Mark's Anglican Church St. Stephen's United Church (later Kitsilano United Church) Sons of Scotland Benevolent Assn. Veroga Club West Kitsilano Improvement Assn. West Kitsilano Ratepayers' Assn. Wright Social Credit Group 10 2 1 5 12 1 1 4 7 1 133 2 1 3 5 1 2 4 23 12 31 1 1 9 5 1 1 2 2 2 1 4 1 64 17 3 1 1 34 1 21 1 14 1 3 30 APPENDIX 2 Location of Sample Blocks Used i n the Study of Re s i d e n t i a l Status •••••cur tZUT" sy\y—'Ssgc'—"—"—"—"—1 <—i • • • • • • • 3 D O E Z ] O I Z I I C Z ] BE AM e. tt3 E D O tzDizn 3 5=1 siatzjaczinz] • • • • • • a ••qg^pa • • • • • • • •••••••^••••EjQn 3 • • • • • • • • • • l z 3 LEGEND 3500 block Point Grey Road 2900 block West F i f t h Avenue 1900 block McNicoll Avenue 2000 block West' Second Avenue 2200 block Stephens Street 2400 block West Thirteenth Avenue N3 o APPENDIX 3 Census Area Boundaries i n K i t s i l a n o , 1961 and 1971 • • • • • • a — • n n n n ••••••• E3l • ] 3 • LZD C D l E ^ a r - i i — n — i r t - i r - i r - i Although the census areas of Northeast and Southeast K i t s i l a n o extend to Gr a n v i l l e Street, as, much as possible, data for census tracts between Gr a n v i l l e and Burrard Streets were omitted. N3 O 

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