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The poetry of the Kyōunshū "Crazy cloud anthology" of Ikkyū Sōjun Arntzen, Sonja 1979

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THE POETRY OF THE KYOUNSHU "CRAZY CLOUD ANTHOLOGY" GF IKKYU SOJUN by SONJA ELAINE ARNTZEN B.A., University of Bri t i s h Columbia, 1966 M.A., University of British Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Asian Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF August, © Sonja Elaine BRITISH COLUMBIA 1979 Arntzen I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 6 B P 75-5 1 I E i i . , * Abstract The subject of this thesis i s the poetry of the Kyounshu, "Crazy Cloud Anthology", an anthology of Chinese poetry written by the Muromachi Zen monk Ikkyu Sojun (1394-1^81). Ikkyu i s one of the most fascinating and enigmatic figures i n Japanese l i t e r a -ture. He was both renegrade monk and venerated prelate, illuminated sage and self-proclaimed profligate. Moreover, perhaps because of these conflicting qualities, he i s also one of the most human and accessible of the great Zen masters of Japan. His poems.are the medium for the expression of his dynamic personality and the vivid impression his personality makes t e s t i f i e s to his s k i l l as a poet. This thesis focuses on Ikkyu's poetry i t s e l f , examining how the poetry works, how i t creates a powerful reading experience. The Introduction describes a ci r c l i n g dialectic that plays a crucial role i n Zen philosophy and also i n Ikkyu 1s poetry. The Introduction also provides background information about the poet, his milieu and his audience. Chapter one examines some of the peculiarities of the way Ikkyu handles the elements of Chinese prosody. I t w i l l be demon-strated how Ikkyu at times broke the rules of Chinese prosody and at other times observed them i n ways a native Chinese poet would not approve of. Despite his bending and breaking of the rules and, i i i more surprisingly, because of i t , his style has a fresh vigour and bold originality. Taking into consideration that he was writing for a Japanese audience, one can say he turned linguistic dis-advantage to advantage, ending with a style of poetry that bewilders the c r i t i c who would try to make a dualistic judgement of "good" or "bad". The core of Chapter two i s a collection of analyses that con-centrate on the functioning of the technique of allusion that per-vades Ikkyu's poetry. The analyses attempt to re-create the reading experience of an intended reader to c l a r i f y the specific roles allusion plays i n particular poems. The more general topic of the chapter i s how Ikkyu's poetry creates a dia l e c t i c a l reading experience, one that disturbs, unsettles and pivots the mind of the reader round to face a problem that cannot be solved by words. I t i s suggested that often allusion i s the vehicle for bringing the opposite term of the problematic equation of non-duality into the poem, thereby turning i t into a conundrum. Chapter three w i l l pursue the dialectical theme further. I t w i l l be argued that often the juxtaposition of opposites, usually through connotation rather than by overt statement, i s the dynamic technique by which Ikkyu's poems are transformed into powerful experiences. An extended analysis follows this technique i n operation through a particularly strong set of poems under the joint t i t l e , "The Scriptures are Bum-wipe". i v . The introductory section of the thesis concludes by inviting the reader to investigate Ikkyu's poems for himself. Indeed, to enable the reader to do just that, the bulk of the thesis i s given over to the translations with commentaries of one hundred poems from the Crazy Cloud Anthology. V . Table of Contents page Preface v i Introduction 1 Chapter One 3& Chapter Two ^7 Chapter Threel 6 9 Translations , 8 2 Abbreviations , 3 1 1 Footnotes 3 1 2 Bibliography 3 2 2 v i . Preface The subject of this study i s the Kyounshu ^ "Crazy Cloud Anthology", a collection of the Chinese poetry by the Japanese Zen monk, Ikkyu Sojun •— (1394-1481). A sub-stantial part of the work i s given over to the translations of one hundred poems from the Kyounshu. The translations are an important part of the work because aside from a handful of poems translated i n Donald Keene's art i c l e , "The Portrait of Ikkyu",* some sixty poems i n the present author's former publication, and another seventy or so i n an as yet unpublished thesis on Ikkyu by Jim Sanford,-/ there are no other translations. The introductory essay of this study i s directed by an approach that i s at once philosophical and l i t e r a r y . I t attempts to analyse how this poetry transforms philosophical ideas into religious experience. More specifically i t examines how the poet bends prosody and allusive language to serve that soteriological purpose. A period of concentrated research on Ikkyu's poetry was made possible thanks to the support of a Japan Foundation grant for which I would l i k e to express my deep thanks. I owe a much deeper debt of gratitude to Professor Yanagida Seizan and Professor Hlrano Sojo who were my mentors during the period of research i n Kyoto. Both were overwhelmingly generous with their time, research materials and the invaluable knowledge at their disposal. I extend my warmest personal thanks to them both. The acknowledgment would not be complete without mentioning Kato Shuichi who i n i t i a l l y v i i . inspired me to study Ikkyu 1s poetry and who through the years has taken a constant and encouraging interest i n the work as i t progressed. The l i t e r a r y approach of the introductory essay owes a great deal to a stimulating comparative literature seminar the Profs. Ken Bryant and Jan Walls conducted some three years ago at U.B.C. Moreover, Ken Bryant was kind enough to give the rough draft of this thesis a good c r i t i c a l reading and suggest ways of improving the style and organization of the work. Thanks are also due Prof. Shotaro Iida and Kathy Hansen who took the time to read the work through and make helpful comments. Last but far from least, I wish to express the profoundest gratitude to my advisor Prof. Leon Hurvitz. So far as this slow and inept student i s concerned he has been the embodiment of the paramita of patience. His energy and the joy he takes i n learning have been a constant source of inspiration and an example to aspire to. A l l of the above should take credit i f there i s anything of merit i n the following pages; the errors and shortcomings are my own. The following guidelines have been followed with regard to names of Chinese and Japanese people and texts. Chinese and Japanese names w i l l be given i n East Asian order, that i s , surname f i r s t . Characters w i l l be provided for people's names the f i r s t time they appear except those that appear i n the bibliography or i n the body of translated material for which the original text has been supplied. Chinese figures w i l l be referred to only by the Chinese . romanization of their names with the one notable exception v i i i . of Lin-chi > ^ whose name w i l l periodically be followed by the Japanese pronunciation of his name as well to c l a r i f y his con-nection with the Rinzai school of Zen i n Japan. Works from the Chinese Buddhist Canon w i l l be cited by the Chinese Romanization of their t i t l e s except for the four well-known sutras, the Vimalakirti Sutra, the Heart Sutra, the Diamond  Sutra and the Lotus Sutra for which, i n the interest of easy identification, the popular names just cited above w i l l be used. Another exception w i l l be the Pi-yen Lu from the Zen canon which w i l l often be referred to by the English translation of i t s t i t l e , the "Blue C l i f f Record," The only other matter of technical con-cern to be mentioned i s that the unsimplified forms of the Chinese characters have been used throughout. 3 i x . To speak of Ikkyu i s really to speak of oneself... This man w i l l now continue for a while to summon up a new concern among various people. People forget he was a Zen monk. I t i s a strange and marvelous thing that everyone has the sense of secretly having met him somewhere before. Is he not perhaps the only one of a kind i n the history of Buddhism throughout India, China and Japan? Yanagida Seizan* r 1 . Po Chii-i asked Master Bird Nest, "What is the broad meaning of Buddhism?" Bird Nest said, "Do no e v i l , do much good." Po Chii-i said, "But a three-year-old child could understand a teaching l i k e that ." Bird Nest replied, "A three-year-old child may be able to say i t but there are eighty-year-old men who cannot practice i t . " Old Master Ryozen used to say: "If i t were not for this one phrase of Bird Nest, our followers would a l l get bogged down i n •From the beginning, not one thing 1 'Not thinking of good, not thinking of e v i l ' 'Good and e v i l are not two' 'False and true, one reality* and a l l the rest, so that i n the end they would ignore karma and the world would just be f u l l of false teachers, impure i n their daily l i v e s . " So now on this topic, I, Ikkyu, have composed a poem and instructed a congregation with i t . Students who ignore karma are sunk. That old Zen master's words are worth a thousand pieces of gold, Do no e v i l , do much good. I t must have been something the Elder sang while drunk. In this prose introduction and poem* by the poet Ikkyu Sojun (1394-1481), a Japanese Zen monk of the Muromachi period, a dialec-t i c unfolds that sets the duality of good and e v i l against a trans-cendental view that sees the two as one. Following the composition 2 . through as i t unfolds w i l l reveal the alternation from one position to the other. The prose introduction rests upon two quotations. The "fi r s t 2 i s from a Chinese Zen text, the Ch'uan Teng Lu. The passage des-cribes an encounter between the famous T'ang poet, Po Chii-i, and the Zen master, Niao K'e % "Bird Nest", so named because he was found of sleeping i n a large pine tree. The name conjures up a humourous picture of an old Zen master up i n a tree; Ikkyu jokes i n another poem about Bird Nest, "His nest must have been cold, that old Zen codger up i n the tree." I t sets a light mood for the encounter that follows. Po Chii-i's question, "What i s the broad meaning of Buddhism?" i s one of the conventional questions that a seeker addresses to a Zen master. In such confrontations, the master's answer i s never predictable, and i s usually characterised by a purposeful oblique-ness. Thus Po Chii-i i s taken aback by Bird Nest's apparently straightforward reply. "Do no e v i l , do much good", coming from a Zen master, i s too simple to satisfy a questioner lik e Po Chii-i, and so he counters by saying i n effect, "Do you take me for a child?" Bird Nest neatly replies to Po Chu-l's objection, asserting that, although such a teaching may be easy to pronounce, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to practice, thereby reasserting that "Do no e v i l , do much good" i s the beginning and the end of the meaning of Buddhism. But i t i s not only the simplicity of that reply that jars Po Chu-i and for that matter any hearer grounded i n Zen Buddhism. 3 . What also shocks i s that i t i s a reply i n terms of duality, because the pivotal idea of non-duality i s fundamental to Zen. Consider this passage from the Vimalakirti Sutra: "Good" and " e v i l " make two. To seek to do neither good nor e v i l . . . i s to penetrate into non-duality.^ Bird Nest's pronouncement f l i e s i n the face of that orthodox posi-tion. Looked at i n this way, the exchange stands as a koan £\ , a case that presents a problem to the rational, distinguishing mind. I t i s much i n the same vein as Chao Chou's T^H 'ifl answer "No" to the question, "Does the dog have a Buddha nature?",-* when the innate Buddha nature of a l l l i v i n g creatures i s orthodox doctrine. Ikkyu quotes the Japanese Zen master Ryozen LL\ ^ to clar-ify,;? the problem, and the light mood of the i n i t i a l encounter changes to one of serious consideration. Ryozen preceded Ikkyu by only four generations i n their spiritual lineage. He had a repu-tation for uncompromising moral rectitude. I t i s thus f i t t i n g that he should be glad of Bird Nest's pronouncement. Here he explains why the instruction i n terms of duality i s not out of place. The concept of non-duality i t s e l f can become a trap, something one clings to and i s caught i n , rather than a key to liberation. Much worse, i t can become an excuse for those false i n heart to indulge themselves i n e v i l behavior. Even though the ultimate truth i s beyond the distinction of good and e v i l , i t i s f a r better to encour-age the earnest to do good rather than to allow the misguided to practice e v i l under the guise of non-duality. 4 . The exchange between Bird Nest and Po Chii-i and Ryozen's interpretation of i t having been presented, Ikkyu now gives us his comment on the case i n the form of a poem. He begins by paraphras-ing Ryozen's words. In the second line, he accords them great praise. We might assume that praise and celebration w i l l be the order of the poem from here on. Next comes a quotation of Bird Nest's words. At this point, we w i l l l i k e l y reinterpret the second line as referring to Bird Nest, seeing him as the "old Zen master whose words are worth a thousand pieces of gold." We are thus caught thinking retrospectively as we read, "It must have been some-thing the Elder sang while drunk." "Elder" i s a term of address applied only to a layman, therefore neither of the old Zen masters i s meant here. "Drunkenly singing" i s a sobriquet of the poet Po Chii-i, whose question opened the dialogue, so i t i s he who i s introduced into the poem, and he who must have sung, "Do no e v i l , do much good," while he was i n his cups. When we read the third line, we heard these words of wisdom as issuing from the l i p s of Bird Nest and being echoed by Ryozen. Now they issue from a tipsy Po Chii-i. From the solemn moral pronouncements of Ryozen we have come to drunken song. Where the ground was solid now a l l i s slippery and shaky again. What i s Ikkyu saying? Was i t that, after talking to Bird Nest, Po Chu'-i went home, got drunk and then truly awakened to the words of Bird Nest? Is the drunken Po Chii-i "impure i n his daily l i f e " ? Or i s i t Ryozen who has gone too far i n establishing dualistic 5 . points of reference? Ts "do no e v i l , do much good" simply the s p i r i t of Po Chii-i's poetry? Is i t a party of four at the end: do we see Bird Nest, Ryozen and Ikkyu enjoying Po Chii-i's song? Do we hear the transcendental mirth of this company who have a l l gone far beyond the distinctions of e v i l and good, a l l knowing there i s nothing to be understood? We find ourselves perplexed at the end of this poem, unable to pin down exactly what i t means. To read the poem i s to confront a question. But that i s how i t should be. The goal of Zen i s not to answer questions but to dissolve questioning. One of the ways i n which this i s accomplished i s to bewilder the student with questions, or with statements that amount to questions, un t i l he finds .his own way out of his reasoning mind. That i s the art of the Jcoan, the Zen problem. I t i s also the art of Ikkyu's poetry. The prose introduc-tion to the poem just presented opens with a koan. and Ryozen*s words add a commentary to i t ; Ikkyu closes the whole with a poem that i s a koan. The majority of Ikkyu's poems are not simply about Zen, they are the realization of Zen principles i n the form of poe-t i c experience. The basic nature of that experience may be called dialectical, i n the sense i n which- that term has been used by Stanley Fish i n his book, Self-consuming Artifacts: A dialectical presentation...is disturbing, for i t requires of i t s readers a searching and rigorous scrutiny of every-thing they believe i n and l i v e by. I t i s didactic i n a special sense; i t does not preach the truth but asks that the readers discover the truth for themselves....' Within the context of Zen, what i s the truth that one must 6 . discover for oneself? To begin with, i t cannot be said what that truth i s . Zen considers truth to be beyond the reach of words. Words are only provisional designations that may help the seeker find the Path of truth, but they must not be confused with that Path. The famous expression, "a finger pointing at the moon", sums up the role words perform i n Zen. They can direct our gaze toward the moon, the symbol for truth, but they cannot be the moon. The limited role ascribed to words i n Zen i s related to the central importance that non-duality has i n Zen philosophy. ' Words are the primary instruments of making distinctions, of opposing "this" to "that". Tt i s d i f f i c u l t to make any statement that i s not dualistic. But the nature of truth i s equated with non-duality, a consciousness beyond the distinctions of subject and object, good and e v i l . Hinged to the idea of non-duality i s the notion of the ultimate identity of opposites. In the words of the Heart  Sutra, this i s expressed a>, That which i s emptiness i s form. That which i s form i s emptiness. That same formulation holds true for a l l opposites, enlightenment and ignorance, good and e v i l , purity and defilement, sacredness and profanity. The truth i s beyond a l l distinctions and the unity of a l l distinctions. But note how, by virtue of the way the preceding sentence i s phrased, the word "truth" begins to take on an ill u s o r y reality, as though i t referred to some "thing" simply because we can say i t i s "beyond a l l distinctions" and "the unity of a l l 7. distinctions." The rhetoric of the sutras that inspired Zen i s contrived to discourage that trick-laying quality of the mind with regard to confusing words with reality. Consider one of Vimalakirti's tirades when he challenges Subhuti, one of the Buddha's disciples, to confrontthe awesome paradox of the teaching before he accepts his dutifully begged food. Reverend Subhuti, take this food i f , without destroy-ing love, hate or error, you do not remain i n their company; i f , without destroying the false view of the self, you penetrate the one Path; i f , without destroying ignorance or the thi r s t for existence, you give rise to knowledge and deliverance.9 The pitch of his challenge gradually heightens until he concludes with a remark that would be blasphemous i f we were thinking on the plane of duality. Reverend Subhuti, take this food...if you speak i l l of a l l Buddhas, i f you c r i t i c i z e the Law, i f you do not participate i n the community and i f , f i n a l l y , you w i l l never enter into Nirvana.10 m Subhuti i s properly confused and turns to leave, abandoning his bowl, but Vimalakirti entreats him not to be afraid and to take up his bowl, instructing him thus: The sages did not become attached to words and were not afraid of them.... How i s that? Because, words being without own nature or true character, a l l that i s not words i s deliverance.... This i s the kind of rhetoric that served as a model for Zen, but i n much Zen writing the attack on the process of conceptualiza-tion i s taken much further. The above passage ends with a state-ment that has an a i r of resolution. " A l l that i s not words i s 8 . deliverance" i s a statement that appears to give us a definite idea to grasp hold of even though the argument that leads up to i t implies we must not hold on to anything. Let us consider a passage from a Zen text that effectively leaves the reader without anything to grasp. The passage i s from the Pi-yen Lu "Blue C l i f f Record", an anthology of koans compiled by the Sung monk Hsueh-tou ^ H* edited and provided with commentary by a later Sung monk Yuan-wu |J] 4"^  • Ths anthology was the foundation for koan practice i n the Zen monasteries of Muromachi Japan. Its name w i l l appear fre-quently i n the commentaries to the translations i n this paper because Ikkyu alludes to i t often. In the section I w i l l c i t e , Hsueh-tou borrows a passage from the Vimalakirti Sutra to stand as a koan. The passage may be considered the climax of the sutra. After a long section where the many Bbdhisattvas offer their instruc-tion on the entry to the gate of non-duality, the Bodhisattva Maiijusri expresses his wisdom on the matter, and then, Vimalakirti i s called upon to deliver his pronouncement. Dramatically, Vimala-k i r t i responds with silence. Here i s how this passage i s pre-sented i n the Blue C l i f f Record. Vimalakirti asked Manjus'rl, "What i s a Bodhisattva*s entry into the Dharma gate of non-duality?" Maiijusri said, "According to what I think, i n a l l things, no words, no speech, no demonstration and no recognition, to leave behind a l l questions and answers; this i s entering the Dharma gate_of non-duality." Then Maiijusri asked Vimalakirti, "We have each already spoken. Now you should t e l l us, good man, what i s a Budhisattva*s entry into the Dharma gate of non-9 duality?" Hsiieh-tou said, "What did Vimalakirti say?" He also said, "Completely exposed."13 Everyone, knowing the passage well, expects to hear, "Vimala-k i r t i kept silent," for that would provide a sense of resolution by completing the quotation. But instead, the compiler, Hslieh-tou, cuts off the citation and interjects a question, "What did Vimalakirti say?" We a l l know he said nothing but Hsueh-tou's question implies his silence was a statement too. We are challenged to answer what that was i n terms of non-duality. We are a l l put i n Vimalakirti 1s place; answer who dare. The mimicryof Vimalakirti, simply keeping silence, w i l l not do. Hsiieh-tou himself answers with "completely exposed", a phrase with the compacted meaning of "It's right here for anyone to see." That answer too challenges the reader to discover i t s meaning. I f we look for help from the commentator to this text, Yuan-wu, we find a verbose footnote: Not only at that time, but now too i t i s so. Hsiieh-tou i s drawing his bow after the thief has gone. Although he uses a l l his strength to help the congregation, what can he do?~Calamity comes forth from his own door. But t e l l me, can Hsiieh-tou see ILwhere this comes down? Since he hasn't seen i t even i n a dream, how can he say, "completely exposed"? Danger! Even the golden-haired l i o n i s unable to search i t out. Yiian-wu does not explain "completely exposed". He appears to cas t i -gate Hsiieh-tou, but, i n a school of thought that takes the ultimate identity of opposites seriously and therefore ultimately considers praise and blame to be equal, he may be praising with great blame. The reader i s thrown back on his own perplexity. He i s not allowed to rest with some easy notion of non-duality. The authors of the 1 0 . Blue C l i f f Record w i l l resort to nonsense before they w i l l allow the reader anything to hold onto. What we see functioning i n this kind of Zen rhetoric i s an endlessly c i r c l i n g dialectic. When something i s asserted, one must tear i t down, cancel i t out. The cancelling out w i l l represent another assertion, so i t too must, i n turn be torn down and can-celled out. A perpetual iconoclasm i s the order of the school. Yuan-wu constantly provides that service to the k 5 a n s of Hsiieh-tou. One never allows the debate to come to an end. When someone asks a question expecting an answer i n terms of non-duality (as Po Chii-i does when he addresses Bird Nest) one answers i n terms of duality. When the person adjusts himself to feel comfortable with duality (as the reader does at the end of Ryozen's explanation of Bird Nest's answer) then one surprises him with non-duality (as Ikkyu does with his poem).' Such a dialectic mirrors the world around us, which constantly changes and allows nothing to remain s t i l l . I t also challenges us, as does the experience of l i f e , to find eternal quiescence within perpetual movement. The goal of this dialectic i s not just to play with the art of twisting thought but to prod the reader to get beyond words, beyond the distinction between subject and object, and to leave him, as i t i s said i n the Blue C l i f f Record, "clean and naked, free and at ease."1-* The most challenging of Ikkyu's poetry addresses I t s e l f to this task. The Poet 1 1 . The preceding section outlined the philosophical and soterio-logical problem of non-duality that i s the center of so much of Ikkyu's poetry. As the discussion implied by reference to the Vimalakirti Sutra and the Blue C l i f f Record, the problem i s not original to Ikkyu but the continuing concern of a long religious tradition. What i s unique about Ikkyu i s that he gave this r e l i -gious conundrum such an intensely personal expression. I f the themes of non-duality and the mutual identification of opposites come up so often i n his poetry, i t i s not only because these ideas are central to Zen philosophy but because the understanding and practi-cal realization of them were of v i t a l concern to his personal l i f e . To understand how they were of concern to him, we must speak a l i t t l e of the man as he appears i n his poetry. Self-Praise Crazy madman stirring up a crazy style, Coming and going amid brothels and wineshops. Which of you patch-cloth monks can t r i p me up? I mark out the South, I mark out the North, the East and West.^ In the poem above, two characteristics of Ikkyu stand out;>one i s his great self-confidence and the other i s his penchant for unorthodox behavior, summed up i n "coming and going amid brothels and wineshops." Both because he was so sure of himself that he did not fear ridicule and because he knew that by conventional standards 12 his own conduct as a monk was peculiar, he embraced the label "crazy" by giving himself the sobriquet "Crazy Cloud". Ikkyu's self-confidence i s the expression of the boundless self-possession that i s the stamp of the enlightened man. Here i s another poem i n the same mode. Kaso's descendants do not know Zen. In front of Crazy-Cloud, who would explain Zen? For t h i r t y years, heavy on my shoulders _ • 17 I have carried the burden of Sung-yuan's Zen. The vehement tone that marks his claim to enlightenment and his conviction that he alone bore the burden of transmitting Zen must be understood i n a historical context. During the Muromachi period, Zen was at the zenith of wealth and influence as a religious institution. Closely a l l i e d with the ruling warrior clans, enriched by the lucrative activities of sake-brewing, pawn-broking and foreign trade, the large Zen monasteries commanded a position of great power i n Mumomachi society and were correspondingly beset by the i l l s of corruption and spiritual vacuity. Monks shamelessly sought honour and welath, while such debased practices as the selling of 18 seals of enlightenment and "secret answers to the koans" flour-19 shed. Against such a background, i t does not seem strange that a high proportion of poems i n Ikkyu's anthology should be expres-sions of protest and Indignation. Ikkyu, incensed by the decadence of the religious structure that surrounded him, became a monk given 1 3 . to writing a n t i - c l e r i c a l poetry. As i n the next poem, Ikkyu often holds up the enlightenment of common labourers as a reproach to the pretentious claims of the clergy who had forgotten the meaning of simple and frugal l i v i n g . Ikkyu's own stance i s that of a wandering beggar. Straw Raincoat and Hat Woodcutters and fishermen, their understanding and appli-cation i s perfect; What need have they of the Zen of carved chairs and medi-tation floors? Straw sandals and bamboo stick, roaming the Triple Sphere, 2 0 Water-dwelling, wind-eating, twenty years. His c r i t i c i s m extends to the forms of religious r i t u a l . I Hate Incense Who can measure a master's means? Explaining the Way, discussing Zen, t h e i r tongues just grow longer. I have always disliked piety. In the darkness, my nose wrinkles, incense before the Buddha. His most acrimonious complains, however, are reserved for Daiyu Yoso A_ $\ ^ his elder brother i n the Daitokuji lineage, which i s to say that both Ikkyu and Y5so studied with the same master Kaso but Yoso was Ikkyu's senior. For Ikkyu, Yoso was the i. 14. symbol of spiritual superficiality, a l l the more infuriating because he was one of the family, so to speak. In the following poem, one of two written to "congratulate" Yoso upon his success at obtaining an honorary t i t l e for their deceased master, Ikkyu compares the virtue of a former master, Lan-'tsan 4$fL 3^ who shunned a l l contact with p o l i t i c a l power and preferred to remain i n his hermitage, steaming sweet potatoes, to Yoso's scrambling after t i t l e s and worldly fame. Daiyu means l i t e r a l l y "Great Activity" and Ikkyu i n no uncertain terms t e l l s us what Yoso's great ac t i v i t y amounts to: How about Lan-tsan turning down the imperial order? Sweet potatoes locked i n smoke i n the bamboo fir e d stove. His "Great Activity" manifesting i t s e l f , the true monk, 22 On the master's face, throws slop water. Standing opposed to this inspired self-confidence and uncom-promising indictment of the spiritual i l l s of the monastic commun-i t y i s Ikkyu's own unorthodox conduct. I f we are to take him at his word, he ignored two of the fundamental injunctions of his monastic order, temperance and celibacy. Paradoxically, he bran-dishes his infractions of the code as a challenge to the hypocrisy of other monks he saw entangled i n greed and the desire for power. This i s particularly true of poems which mention drunkeness. Addressed to a monk at the Daitokuji Many are the men who enter Daito's gate. 1 5 . Therein, who rejects the veneration of the master role? Thin rice gruel, coarse tea, I have few guests; A l l alone I sing drunkenly and f a l l over kegs of muddy sake.23 In the poem above, his f i n a l description of himself as a lonely man sipping gruel and twig tea, drunkenly signing, creates an amusing picture, and on the surface makes the statement of the poem a humble one, "others i n this monastery pride themselves on their position and crave veneration, I alone am unpopular, poor and an unabashed drunkard," but underneath the cloak of self-effacement, the defiance and protest against the prevailing order i s clear. I t i s characteristic of Ikkyu that, when he speaks of sake, he nearly always qualifies i t as "muddy sake". that i s unclarified sake which, by virtue of having omitted the f i n a l stage i n the brewing process, was the cheapest grade of sake available and therefore the drink of the poor. In a prose introduction piece that might be subtitled "a sermon on muddy sake", he states plainly to his pupils, " i f you are going to drink sake, then you must always drink muddy sake." Another aspect then of the subject of drinking i n Ikkyu's poetry i s that i t was a symbol of his sense of identi-fication with the "people", the "wood cutters and fishermen", who i n turn represented a wisdom unsullied by monkish pretensions. The tone of protest and challenge i s also evidence i n Ikkyu's poems about brothels. 16. Putting to Shame the Knowledge of the Dharma With a Poem about a Brothel With koans and old examples, deception grows; Everyday breaking one's back meeting the o f f i c i a l s , Idly boasting of the virtuous knowledge that transcends the world. The young g i r l i n the brothel wears a golden surplice. Picture of an Arhat Reveling i n a Brothel Emerging from the dust, the arhat i s s t i l l far from Buddha. Enter a brothel once and great wisdom happens. I laugh deeply at Manjusri reciting the Suramgama Sutra, Lost and• gone are the pleasures of his youth. J The historical perspective should not be ignored when consider-ing Ikkyu's poems about brothels. This was a period of great moral laxity within the Zen monasteries. I t appears the secret keeping of concubines was r i f e , not to mention the universal practice of pederasty.^ I f a monk was not o f f i c i a l l y allowed to pursue the religious path and also to indulge sexual desire, that seems i n fact to have been the experience of many monks. During this same period, the popularity of the Pure Land school of Buddhism, which under the impetus of a s p i r i t akin to Protestant reformation, took the step of allowing monks to marry and raise families, had grown enormously. By taking the contemporary context into consideration, Ikkyu's preoccupation with the theme of sex can be seen less as an eccentric aberration than as an honest confrontation of an everyday 17. rea l i t y and an attempt to reconcile that r e a l i t y with his own religious views. In other poems about'brothels, the tone of protest completely disappears. Inscription for a Brothel A Beautiful woman's cloud-rain, love's deep river. Up i n the pavilion, the pavilion g i r l and the old monk sing. I find inspiration i n embraces and kisses And think not at a l l of abandoning my body as though i t 27 were a mass of f i r e . In poems like this one, Ikkyu's admission of disregarding the injunction of celibacy i s startling because of the dramatically positive perception of physical desire. This i s a l l the more strik-ing i n the series of love poems about or to the paramour of his later years, the blind singer Mori. Calling my Hand Mori's Hand My hand, how i t resembles Mori's hand. I believe the lady i s the master of loveplay; I f I take i l l , she can cure the jeweled stem. ?8 And then they rejoice, the monks at my meeting.^ Wishing to Thank Mori for My Deep Debt to Her Ten years ago, under the flowers, I made a fragrant alliance; 18. One step more delight, affection without end. I regret to leave pillowing my head on a g i r l ' s lap. Deep i n the night, cloud-rain, making the promise of past, 29 present and future. Although Ikkyu often used the theme of sex for i t s shock value, he obviously had a deeper concern with the subject. For Ikkyu, sex as the principle "desire" was a kind of touchstone for his realiza-tion of the dynamic concept of non-duality that pivots upon the essential unity of the realm of desire and the realm of enlighten-ment. I t i s as though he tested his own sense of enlightenment against this primary experience. Nevertheless, by traditional standards, Ikkyu's attitude toward spiritual discipline was highly irregular for a Zen monk. Ikkyii was well aware of that himself. The breaking of the monastic code was conventionally thought to bring karmic .retribution i n i t s wake, and Ikkyu, while for the most part displaying an unshakable confidence, occasionally had doubts about his own conduct, notably when he was i l l . Consider the following poem, one of the two entitled, "Composed when I was i l l . " A monk who has broken the precepts for eighty years, Repenting a Zen that has ignored cause and effect. When i l l , one suffers the effects of past deeds; 30 Now how to act i n order to atone for kalpas of bad karma.J Thus one more convolution i s added to the question of Ikkyu's 1 9 . morality, because fear of karmic retribution i s as hard to reconcile with the standard conception of an enlightened man as attachment to physical pleasure. There i s a koan that Ikkyu frequently alludes to known as "Po-chang*s wild fox", which centers around this puzzling relation-ship of the enlightened man to karma. The koan relates the story of an encounter between the Zen master Po-chang i§ ^ L, and a man who had been coming to l i s t e n to Po-chang's sermons. The man said to Po-chang, "I am not a man. Once, years ago, I was a teacher on this mountain who, when asked, 'Does a man of great training (an enlightened man) f a l l into the chains of karma?' replied, 'No, he does not f a l l into the chains of karma'. Then, after that, I was reincarnated five hundred times as a wild fox. Now I ask you, for my sake, say a word of enlightenment that I may be released from my fox body." Po-chang said, "The man of great training does not ignore karma." These words enlightened the questioner, who was the s p i r i t of the former teacher who had been reincarnated so many times as a fox."^* In the poem above Ikkyu speaks of his fear that his own Zen was one that ignored karma. The f i r s t l i n e of the poem that opened this paper, "Students who ignore karma are sunk", echoes this same problem. The formula of the Heart Sutra, "That which i s form i s empti-ness; that which i s emptiness i s form," implies the .same unity for a l l opposites, including desire and release, but this particular 20. interface i n the realm of truth i s a dangerous path to tread usually shunned i n the name of caution by those following the r e l i -gious path. It i s to walk the wire between "impurity i n one's daily l i f e " and an enlightened compassionate perception that can gaze with equanimity upon one's own and a l l beings' weakness, see-ing i t as no different from strength. Knowing when one has fall e n off this intangible wire i s d i f f i c u l t Indeed. This i s the crux of Ikkyu*s moral dilemma. Rven though the ultimate insight of Zen i s beyond the distinction of moral and immoral, Ikkyu knew that following a course of breaking the precepts entailed the danger of sinking into the degeneracy of a Zen that ignored cause and effect. He lived at the edge of profligacy and enlightenment, and thus met the challenge to "give rise to knowledge and deliverance without destroying ignorance and the th i r s t for existence." So much of his poetry i s directed toward recreating the experience of the ultimate insight of Zen because, having chosen such a d i f f i c u l t and dangerous path, he had a deep need constantly to renew his perception, to borrow Po Chu-i's phrase, of "the broad meaning of Buddhism." A dividing line cannot be drawn between Ikkyu's grappling with his own strong emotions and his concern with the philosophical problem of non-duality. From the mixture of the two^issues a poetry that i s at once l y r i c a l and metaphysical, sensual and abstract. The Place of the Man- and his Work Within his Tradition and his Times 21. In most respects, Ikkyu with his fierce individuality, uncom-promising attitude and unconventional behaviour cuts a figure very much i n the style of the great T'ang masters. Zen i s a school that has valued i t s eccentircs. One might point for examples to the clastic streak. The reader w i l l have ample opportunity to savour the provocative words and antics of the former masters because, being the source of many allusions i n Ikkyu's poetry, they w i l l appear often i n the commentaries to the poems. In one respect, however, Ikkyu stands alone within his trad i -tion. No other Zen master approached physical desire with such a positive and at the same time religious attitude. To my knowledge, no other Zen master has ever broached the subject i n discourse, l e t alone dared to say, "Fnter a brothel once and great wisdom happens." The former masters never went so far i n their iconoclas-t i c rhetdric as to affirm conduct that broke with the basic precepts of monasticism. In the discussion that preceded above, i t was suggested that this predilection of Ikkyu's, which i s eccentric by traditional standards, can be understood i n the context of the times i n which he lived. Reference was made to the loose discipline within the Zen monasteries and to the reformation within the Pure Land school that sancioned the marriage of monks. Thus we made use of the his-t o r i c a l setting to render more familiar and understandable what , the vagabonds P'u Hua and PuvTai but nearly a l l the T'ang masters had a roguish and icono-22 seemed an aberration from a traditional point of view. But i r o n i -cally, while Ikkyu's positive attitude toward physical desire can be understood i n the ligh t of his temporal context, the qualities that made him seem a rightful member of his tradition made him an anomaly i n the time he lived. In order to explain the above statement, we must go back to discuss b r i e f l y how the Zen tradition had been transformed within China by the SungDynasty, for i t was at that stage of development that the tradition was imported to Japan, Zen (Ch. Ch'an) Buddhism of the Sung period had become a highly i n t e l l e c t u l l and refined religious system, encumbered with a large body of literature. The words of the former masters had been overlaid with generations of later commentary, so that discus-sion of the principles of the school had taken on the character of communication i n code.-^ The practice of meditation upon koans had been regularized and institutionalized. In the writings of the Sung masters, bold and original personalities l i k e those of the past are seldom seen. In the poetry and discourse of Hsii-^'ang, for example, (the sixth master i n Ikkyu's lineage, who marks the point i n the transmission of that lineage from China to Japan) i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to get the sense of a flesh-and-blood human being. The feeling i s more one of a careful and distant i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y . Moreover, Sung Zen was concretely realized i n a formidable religious institution. The many monasteries were organized i n an elaborate order of ranking. Likewise, a ranking system for monks 23. formalized relations within the monasteries. I t was this ordered and elaborate system that was gradually transplanted to Japan. By Muromachi times, the Rinzai school of Zen, i n particular, was a full-blown and ponderously formal religious institution i n i t s own right. By virtue of the great monasteries 1 close alliance with the seat of secular power, Zen prelates were i n effect high o f f i c i a l s of the state. Outwardly, they projected a decorum and dignity commensurate with the wealth and power of their office. Within that social context, Ikkyu's stance as a wandering vaga-bond i n straw raincoat and hat, however appropriate i n terms of Zen tradition, was outrageous and challenging to his contemporaries. This was especially so because he was not a complete outsider to the circles of monastic power. Had he been only an eccentric "coming and going amid brothels and wineshops", perhaps his verses would only have been heard by his drinking companions, and his fame would certainly not have been handed down to this age. But he was heir to the lineage of the Daitokuji, which although i t was a monastery on the outer edge of the p o l i t i c a l arena because i t drew most of i t s support from the Imperial Court rather than the great warrior clans, was s t i l l a large and powerful monastery. I t should be remembered that Ikkyu was eventually appointed abbot of this monastery at the age of eighty-one. He was also instructor i n matters of Zen to two Emperors. In short, Ikkyu was someone high monastic o f f i c i a l s had to contend with from time to time, which makes 24. the crazy style he professed a l l the more remarkable. In sum, Ikkyu, the man, was a fundamentalist, emulating and imitating the virtues of the great founding teachers of the school. At the same time, he was an iconoclast, breaking forms and rules even the former masters did not dare to transgress. Moreover, his fundamentalist penchant made him an iconoclast i n the social r e a l i t y of his own time. Ikkyu's poetry presents somewhat the same situation. lifhile the general tenor of his poetry and many elements i n i t have ante-cedents i n the Zen poetry that intersperses the records of the C former masters and the capping of verses i n the koan anthologies, i t i s very unusual when compared to the Chinese poetry being pro-duced by his contemporaries. The Muromachi period was a very active period for the composi-tion of Chinese (kanbun )Iliterature. This school of of the Five Mountains". "Mountains" refers to monasteries, since i t was customary i n both China and Japan to build monasteries on h i l l s . The "Five Mountains" refers to the top five ranks within the monastic structure. Gozan Bungaku i s a vast and as yet rela-34 tively unexplored area i n Japanese literature. Confining my remarks here to Gozan poetry and comparing i t to Ikkyu's, the f i r s t striking difference i s that, whereas most of Ikkyu's poetry i s about Zen, the opposite i s true of Gozan poetry: most of i t i s on secular themes. The Gozan poets were for the most part employing literature was known as Gozan "Literature 2 5 . Chinese poetry i n the same way as the Chinese l i t e r a t i , as a tool of social intercourse. Thus poems written for certain occasions, commemorations, parting, travel and so on are i n the majority. In general, the Gozan monks were writing within a clearly delineated set of conventions with regard to appropriate topics and emotional modes. For reasons of taste, they suppressed highly individualis-t i c expression. Most of a l l , they were writing with a professional attitude towards Chinese poetry. Their goal was to write Chinese verse as well as the Chinese. Many monks of the generations prior to Ikkyu had had the opportunity to study and l i v e abroad for con-siderable lengths of time, so that their knowledge of Chinese as a l i v i n g spoken language, as well as a l i t e r a r y language, was indeed profound, and their achievement of the goal of writing as well as the Chinese was correspondingly high. In contrast, hardly any of the above may be said of Ikkyu. Only rarely do his poems seem to be written to o i l the cogs of social intercourse. As mentioned i n the last section, his poetry rather appears to issue as a response to a deeply f e l t spiritual need. The other main role his poetry served was to instruct his disciples, where again the uppermost aim was to evoke and to pro-voke the realization of the profound truths of the school. Furthermore, Ikkyu seems to have been l i t t l e concerned with writing Chinese verse by professional standards. He broke many of the prosodic conventions of Chinese verse, a subject we w i l l return 2 6 . to i n the f i r s t chapter. There are precedents within the Zen school for this cavalier attitude to poetic composition. Han Shan, for example, scoffed at those who would c r i t i c i z e his verse for ignoring the niceties of prosody. But though Ikkyu i s i n the company of Han Shan, he i s even more daring. He commands our awe i n that he ventured to be innovative and weildin such-a free and unconventional manner . :r a language foreign to him. The Audience Since the c r i t i c a l analyses of a l l three chapters w i l l , i n one way or another, involve assumptions concerning the reading experience of these poems by Ikkyu's intended reader, i t seems appropriate to preface the discussion with a description of who the members of Ikkyu's audience were and of what kind of knowledge they brought to their reading. Ikkyu's audience was probably very small. Often one gets the impression that Ikkyu wrote primarily* for himself. Some prefaces 35 to poems state, "out of an excess of emotion, I wrote..."-^ or "so, to console myself, I composed..."-^ indicating, as has already been mentioned, that the poems were frequently responding to very personal needs. Nevertheless, there are even more poems introduced 37 by phrases lik e "presented to a congregation" and "presented to members of my group", which suggests that Ikkyu's principal audience was his own c i r c l e of students i n matters of Zen. That c i r c l e , however, includes people from a wide cross-section of 27. Muromachi Society. The emperors, Gokomatsu $L / k i-k and Hanazono (Jrj studied Zen with Ikkyu. Also included among his students are the No playwright, Komparu Zenchiku & ^ 'f^'f^f the llnked-verse master Socho ^ the tea master, Murata Shuko &i W a n d a ^ least one merchant of the free port Sakai. As an aside, i t should be pointed out that three- of the above, Zenchiku, Socho and Shuko, were important contributors to the development of Muromachi culture. Thus, though Ikkyu's audience was small, the influence his poetry might potentially have had through these key members was very great. These were the members of Ikkyu's audience, the readers pro-perly informed to appreciate his poetry. The major prerequisite they would share was a reading knowledge of classi c a l Chinese. I mention the obvious here to emphasize that i t was a reading know-ledge and not a spoken knowledge. Like the poet himself, none of the individuals mentioned above had the opportunity to l i v e and study i n China for an extended period of time, surely the only way, at that time, to gain a true proficiency i n the spoken lan-guage. This point w i l l be important to observations made at the end of Chapter one. Since Ikkyu's poetry i s highly allusive, as well as simply a reading knowledge of the language, his readers would have to have a firm grounding i n the literature that i s the source of Ikkyu's allusions. This would mean, f i r s t and foremost, an intimate fami-l i a r i t y with and almost rote knowledge of the major Zen texts, then 28. after that, i n descending order of familiarity, Chinese poetry, Buddhist scriptures other than those of the Zen school, and the classic works of Chinese philosophy and history. Some of this l i t e r a r y background would be absorbed naturally by the process of learning Chinese because the classics of Chinese literature were the texts of schooling from the elementary level on up. Therefore, for example, the metaphor taken from Chuang-tzu 39 i n poem No. 2 3 4 , "On the horns of a snail" which has the prover-b i a l meaning of "storm i n a teapot" would be as familiar to one of Ikkyu's readers as any of the host of proverbial expressions from Shakespeare's plays i s to an English speaker. Likewise, by the Muromachi period, Japan was so much a Buddhist country that references to a Buddhist text l i k e the Lotus Sutra would no more need exegesis for Ikkyu's contemporaries than references to the Bible for this culture, at least until recently. The famous metaphor of the "burning house" from the Lotus Sutra that appears i n poem No. 46' i s an appropriate example of that kind of reference. For Chinese poetry we have to assume a very extensive but, i n one respect, curiously limited knowledge. I f we look at the sources of allusion i n Ikkyu's poetry, we find they range over the whole of Chinese poetry up to the Sung period. References are made to the Book of Songs, Tao Yuan-ming The interesting limitation i s that, so far as T'ang poetry i s con-and Huang 2 9 . cerrted, while allusions are often made to poems of some of the lesser luminaries among the T'ang poets, those poems nearly always are from a single anthology, the San T'i Shih. which enjoyed an enormous popularity during the Muromachi period among the students of Chinese poetry. In poem No. 2 0 3 , for example, the last line i n the San T'i Shih. Ikkyu's poem was occasioned by witnessing the devastation and suffering caused by typhoon and flood i n the year 146"0. Someone i n the midst of the general woe has having a party. The callousness of such gaiety i n the face of so many people's suffering saddened Ikkyu and gave rise to the poem. Li I's poem was written to express his grief over the death of a lover. I w i l l cite L i I's poem, then Ikkyu's. On this smooth bamboo mat, water-patterned, my thoughts d r i f t far away. A thousand miles to make the tryst now i n one night, i t i s over. From here on, I have no heart to enjoy the lovely night; Let i t be, l e t the bright moon sink behind the Western Pavilion. Typhoon, flood, suffering for ten thousand people; Song, dance, flutes and strings, who sports tonight? In the Dharma, there i s flourishing and decay; i n the kalpas, there i s increase and decline. of the poem i s a quotation from a poem by L i I that appears 3 0 . "Let i t be, l e t the bright moon sink behind the Western Pavilion." In Ikkyu's poem, the f i r s t two lines set the situation. On the one hand, many people are suffering, on the other, unfeeling people disport themselves. Then he turns to consider the perspec-tive of eternity, the rise and f a l l of the aeons, which makes this time of suffering the chimera of a moment. After this, the state-ment, "Let i t be, l e t the bright moon sink behind the Western Pavilion", conveys resignation and acceptance. But, i n the con-text of the original poem, the same line conveys unconsolable grief. Thus, a reader aware of the allusion i s struck simultane-ously by both resignation and grief beyond solace, the two emotions pulling at the heart of the poet. L i I's poem, beautiful as i t i s , i s not one of the T'ang dynasty's best known poems. In Ikkyu's poem, failure to recognize the allusion to L i I would seriously attenuate the poem's effect. I f one had to expect Ikkyu's reader to be able to recognize allusions to any T'ang poem of the same currency as L i I's, we would be demanding prodigious feats of memory, but i t i s the case that nearly a l l those allusions to poems on the outskirts of famous T'ang poetry can be traced back to the San T'i Shih. By far the most detailed knowledge demanded of a reader for Ikkyu's poems i s that of Zen texts. A cursory glance through the commentaries to the translations presented herein w i l l be sufficient to convince anyone of that. I f we are to judge from the number and 3 1 . recondite quality of the allusions to Zen texts that pervade Ikkyu's poetry, we must assume that Ikkyu's audience knew a great deal of Zen literature by heart. Works alluded to most frequently are the anthologies of anecdotes and pronouncements of the T'ang masters, principally the Ch'uan Teng Lu and the Wu Teng Hui Yuan that were the sources for most of the koans. Next would come the k5an anthologies, f i r s t and foremost, the Pi-yen Lu or "Blue C l i f f Record" which was the foundation for k5an practice i n the Muromachi period. The works associated with Ikkyu's particular lineage of Zen also appear often, beginning with the Lin-chi l u , the record of the founder of the Lin-chi ( J . Rinzai) school, then the Hsu-t'ang Lu the record of the Chinese patriarch who marks the point i n the transfer of the lineage to Japan and f i n a l l y some of the works of the Japanese patriarchs i n the lineage, such as the .Daito roku, the record of Daito A - 1$t founder of the Daitokuji. The above i s not an exhaustive l i s t , but i t includes the main works represen-tative of the kind of material Ikkyu's reader would have i n his mental library. At f i r s t glance, this seems li k e a great deal to expect of a reader, but i t must be remembered that Ikkyu* s readers were active students of Zen. The degree of familiarity they had with these texts cannot be understood without referring to the practice of meditation on koans. In brief, the practice involved the following procedure: A student was given a certain koan to meditate upon. Once he had come to a thorough understanding of i t and was able 32. spontaneously to deliver his own words of enlightenment on the koan i n front of his master, he was considered to have passed the koan. A student might s i t on many hundreds of these k5ans during his period 6f training. Often his own capping words to a koan would be drawn from other Zen writings. In fact, later Japanese anthologies of Zen aphorisms lik e the Zenrln Kushu were written i n response to the need for convenient source books of material suitable for capping koans. I believe i t i s easy to imagine how a practice li k e this would encourage In a student the .development of a very specific and deeply ingrainted memory for the words of Zen scriptures. The poem among the translations herein that i s the most impressive for the demands i t makes on a reader i s No. 44. This poem cannot be presented without i t s two pages of commentary, so for reasons of space I w i l l refrain from quoting i t here. The point I would l i k e to make about i t i s that the allusions i n this poem are not only to Zen scriptures but also to the oral tradition of koan interpretation within the Daitokuji lineage. The fact that the allusions are to an oral tradition of interpretation within a single lineage indicates how particular the knowledge of the audience had i n some instancesto be and how small an audience Ikkyu was writing for. I t i s hoped that this description of Ikkyu's audience has provided a context i n which to understand remarks made i n succeed-ing chapters about the reading experience of his informed readers. 3 3 . The fact that Ikkyu was writing for such a small audience with a specialized knowledge i s undoubtedly one of the major contributing factors to the d i f f i c u l t y his poetry presents to a modern audience. The amazing thing i s that even though he wrote for such a particular audience, he was also able to compose some poems of immediate comprehensibility and wide appeal for any audience. "I hate incense" and the "Crazy madman" poems, quoted i n the section about the poet, are examples. Furthermore, I believe the reader w i l l find even his most d i f f i c u l t poetry well worth the effort of decipher-ment. Summary of the Three Chapters The three chapters that follow hereupon w i l l take a close look at the poetry contained i n the Kyounshu "Crazy Cloud Anthology", Ikkyu's major anthology of Chinese poems. Chapter one w i l l examine some of the peculiarities of the way Ikkyu* handles the elements of Chinese prosody. I t w i l l be demon-strated how Ikkyu at times broke the rules of Chinese prosody and at other times observed them i n ways a native Chinese poet would not approve of. Despite his bending and breaking of the rules and, more surprisingly, because of i t , his style has a fresh vigour and bold originality. Taking into consideration that he was writing for a Japanese audience, one may say he turned lin g u i s t i c disadvan-tage to advantage, ending with a style of poetry that bewilders the c r i t i c who would try to make the dualistic judgment of "good" or 34 "bad". The core of chapter two i s a collection of analyses that grew out of a fascination with the functioning of the technique of allusion that pervades Ikkyu's poetry. The analyses attempt to re-create the reading experience of an intended reader to c l a r i f y the specific roles allusion plays i n particular poems. The more general topic of the chapter i s the continuing theme of how Ikkyu's poetry creates that experience designated as dialec-t i c a l i n the beginning of this paper, the experience that disturbs, unsettles and pivots the mind round to face a problem that cannot be solved by words. I t i s suggested that often allusion i s the vehicle for bringing the opposite term of the problematic equation of non-duality into the poem, thereby turning i t into a conundrum. However, the poems where allusion works very effectively are not always those of a d i a l e c t i c a l character. I t i s acknowledged i n this chapter that Ikkyu did not only write dialectical poetry and that i n some poems allusion function i n a rhetorical way, that i s , that the allusion complements the reader's expectations and sense of given truth. For the sake of contrast, examples of this kind of poem are also analysed. Chapter three w i l l pursue the d i a l e c t i c a l theme further. I t w i l l be argued that often the juxtaposition of opposites, usually through connotation rather than by overt statement, i s the dynamic technique by which Ikkyu's poems are transformed into powerful experiences. An extended analysis follows this technique i n operation 3 5 . through a particularly strong set of three poems under the joint t i t l e , "The scriptures are bum-wipe." > 3 6 . Chapter One •'Those who follow rules are asses, those who break the rules are men" from No. 128 Classical Chinese was the language of almost a l l of Ikkyu*s formal education and his principle language of expression, but i t i s unlikely that he knew a single Chinese sound. This situation i s possible because classical Chinese i s essentially a written rather than a spoken language, and more importantly, because i t i s one of the few languages i n the world that i s not written with a phonetic script. Therefore, i t can be mastered to an acceptable degree without a knowledge of any spoken Chinese dialect. Further-more, from very early times, the Japanese developed a system of reading Chinese by simultaneously translating i t into Japanese. This i s what i s known as the kundoku " p i reading system, and mastery of this s k i l l makes the knowledge of spoken Chinese superfluous i n the practical sense. However, Ikkyu was writing Chinese poetry, and the formal requirements of that poetry were developed to suit Chinese sound. One can assume that Ikkyu, being ignorant of Chinese sound, would handle the formal elements of that poetry differently from a native Chinese poet. "Different" i s perhaps a kind word for what might, from a Chinese point of view, be plainly maladroit. Let us consider f i r s t the matter of rhyme. Rhyme has a central place i n a l l Chinese poetry, whereas i t has never played a role i n 37. Japanese poetry. Rhyme, then, i s a very foreign device from a Japanese point of view. The principle form of verse i n the Kyounshu i s the cHi yen chiieh chii -t- "f ^  JaJ ( J . shichigon zekku) a verse form consisting of four lines, each line seven characters long. The chii yen chiieh chii was especially popular among Zen monks, both i n China and i n Japan. The Chlang-hu Feng-yueh Chi, an anthology of verse by Sung and Yuan monks, for example, contains only verses of this form. Perhaps the brevity of the form appealed to Zen monks; one interpretation of the meaning of chiieh chii ( l i t e r a l l y "cut-off verse") i s "unexcelled verse", the verse that "cuts off" a l l competition, quintessential i n i t s compactness. Except for a handful of poems, i t i s the only form Ikkyu wrote. While he was following tradition i n choosing the chiieh chii, the fact that he wrote only i n that short form suggests that his writing scope i n Chinese was limited. The chiieh chii rhyme scheme i s A A B A, the classic model of pattern established, broken then returned to for closure. In general, the rhymes of the Kyounshu are correct. But, although Ikkyu may have rhymed by and large correctly, his handling of rhyme reveals some individual peculiarities. To begin with, on several occasions, he does something that perhaps no Chinese poet would ever do; he uses the same rhyme word throughout the whole poem. In other words, the three lines that rhyme a l l end with the same word. Repeating any item of voca-bulary i n a poem as short as the chu'eh chii was usually considered bad form, but to repeat the same word for something as important 38. as rhyme verges on the unthinkable. However, Ikkyu does that very thing to quite strong effect. Here i s an example of that, poem No. 254 "An Arhat Sporting i n a Brothel". rakan shutsujin mushiki jo iribo yuga ya ta jo nahen hi i na hen ze nossu kufu mabutsu jo The arhat has l e f t the dust, no more desire. Playful games at the brotehl, so much desire. This one i s bad, this one i s good. The monk's s k i l l , Devil Buddha desire. J i In this translation, the word "desire" translates J£, the repeated rhyme word. As pointed out i n the commentary to this poem, the meaning of jo^ i n the last l i n e i s far from clear. Because of the preceding lines where i t was clearly "desire", that meaning i s quite present to the mind when the word appears for the third time. However, jo can also mean "condition", or the "facts of the matter". Hence a possible paraphrase would be "the monk's s k i l l i s knowing the condition of the essential unity of the Buddha and the Devil", that i s , that distinctions between good and e v i l are not real. But one must caution that this i s an interpretation, 39. that what he actually means by the phrase, "Devil Buddha desire", i s hard to pin down. The t i t l e of this poem i s , after a l l , "An Arhat Sporting i n a Brothel", hence another possible interpreta-tion of the last two lines i s , "This g i r l ' s no good, that one i s fine; the monk's s k i l l i s having the appetite of a Devilish Buddha," The poet may be using lo f t y philosophical language to be lewd, yet the diction strikes one as nonetheless l o f t y and philosophical. For the sake of this discussion, the interest i n the repeti-tion of the same word at the end of the line i n the rhyming position i s that the meaning of the word changes or, at least, becomes ambiguous at the third repetition. As the context changes, the meaning of the word changes, creating a curious tension i n our understanding of i t . Because of that, the repetition i s by no means monotonous, but rather works as a way of creating emphasis and leaving the reader i n a state of perplexity with opposites juxtaposed i n his head, a favorite closural strategy of Ikkyu's. "Deluded Enlightenment", No. 3$5, i s another poem presented i n this selection that uses only one rhyme word throughout. Indeed, i n that particular poem not only the rhyme word, but several items of vocabulary, are repeated up to three times. mushi mushu ga isshin fu jobutsu sho honrai shin honrai jobutsu butsu mogo 40. shujo honrai meido shin No beginning, no end, this mind of ours; Tt doesn't achieve Buddhahood, the innate mind. "Innate Buddhahood" was the Buddha's wild talk. The beings' innate mind i s the path to delusion. As mentioned i n the commentary, the repetition here makes for almost a staccato effect that drives the message home. I f i t i s 41 read i n boyomi, i t sounds l i k e a pardoy of the sutras, hammering out a message i n direct opposition to the sutras—there i s no enlightenment, the Buddha was mouthing nonsense. To take the poet to task here for repetition seems beside the point because the poem succeeds as a mind-twister by poetic means. Another less obvious eccentricity i n Ikkyu's use of rhyme i s a predilection for certain rhyme categories and combinations of words within those categories. For example, over f i f t y poems out of a total of eight hundred and eighty poems;.are composed with rhymes from th e / < v ^ shin category. While that i s not so remarkable on i t s own, within that number of poems, twenty-five have 0^ gin "sing," and/V^\ shin "heart" as two of their rhyme words. That means that twenty-five have a similar feeling tone to the rhyme set. Indeed, nine poems of the twenty-five use exactly the same set of rhyme words, U'? gin "sing", > ^ shin "deep", and shin "heart". Another category that i s represented with a large number 41. of poems i s the ryu category. There are seventy-two poems using rhymes from this category and only twenty different rhyming characters are used to make the rhyming combinations, that is,only twenty characters are combined to f i l l two hundred and sixteen slots (seventy-two sets of three, i n other words). "Egad!", one can hear the Chinese poet say, "What paucity of vocabulary! The monotony of his verse must be terr i b l e ! " I suggest that i n actual experience, Ikkyu's poetry i s not monotonous at a l l . Rather, these recurring patterns of rhyme com-binations set up a feeling of familiarity that gives the Kyounshu a flavor that one can ascribe only to Ikkyu. When one encounters a poem where the rhyming words are $ "sing", > C "deep", ^ "heart", one gets the feeling of reprise, as though i t were an irregularly appearing chorus underlying the anthology. I t e l i c i t s something lik e a sigh, "Ah, Ikkyu", because i n a sense, the three words encapsulate something about the poet; his heart was deep and he sang i t out. Herein l i e s another key to what gives Ikkyu's use of rhyme a distinctive character. I t often appears that Ikkyu chose his rhyme words for the meaning they formed together, almost as i f they formed a miniature poem-within-a-poem that sums up the overall mood or feeling. In poem 68, for example, the rhyme words are /Xv_ "deep", /vc^ "heart", and (77 "songs". They can stand as a description of the Fish-basket Kannon; "Her deep heart sings." In No. 77, the same combination, i n the same order, describes T'ao 42 Yuan-ming equally well. (What i s translated as "verse" here i s the same word gin.) Sometimes the rhyme words taken separately make, an ironic comment on the poem. In two poems, Ikkyu does this with very similar rhyme-word combinations. One i s son "des-cendents", || son "venerate", sen. "sake keg", i n the poem entitled "Living i n the mountains",^2 and the other i s f *f mon '.'the school", ]| son "venerate", son "sake keg", i n poem No. 176, "Addressed to a monk at the Daitokuji". This matching of rhyme words i n combination with the sense of the whole poem does not happen i n every poem, but i t happens often enough to say i t i s characteristic of Ikkyu's style. The clearest (and crudest) example of the practice actually i s i n the other of Ikkyu's poetry antho-logies, the Jikaishu "Self-Admonitions", a t i t l e of obvious ironic intent because the work i s , end to end, a scathing condemnation of the Zen institution both i n general and i n the person of Daiyu Yoso, Ikkyu's immediate predecessor i n the Daitokuji l i n e . In the Jikaishu, some f i f t y poems ( f i f t y out of a total of one hundred and twenty-two) are written with exactly the same rhyme-word ensemble, consisting of sen "boats", ^ sen "money", and zen "Zen". The poems very clearly c r i t i c i z e the trade the Zen monasteries carried on with Ming China, and the rhyme words again sum up the concern. The Jikaishu as a whole has an impromtu character to i t . I t i s almost as i f Ikkyu had collected the three appropriate rhyming words i n his mind and then just freely extemporized, pouring forth 43. a l l the dammed-up indignation, without having to worry about think-ing up new rhyming combinations. T suggest that one of the reasons Ikkyu had such a penchant for rhyming combinations that made some sense as a unit i n themselves i s that they were easier to remember that way. Of course, this implies that Ikkyu's knowledge of Chinese was inferior to a Chinese poet's. Indeed, from a Chinese point of view, Ikkyu's use of rhyme may be repetitious i n the extreme. S t i l l , his poetry was not meant for a Chinese audience, i t was meant for a Japanese audience, for most of whom appreciation of rhyme was an intellectual exercise; they could not hear i t . In kundoku reading, the rhyme inherent i n the written text disappears. Yet, one s t i l l perceives the text as Chinese on the page, and the position of the rhyme words at the ends of three lines gives them emphasis. The matching of the sense the rhyme words make together with the overall sense of the poem takes advantage of that position of emphasis and whether good or bad i n terms of conventional Chinese prosody, undeniably gives Ikkyu's stamp to the anthology. I t i s not only i n the area of rhyme that we find Ikkyu "dancing to his own tune". I r i y a Yoshitaka 3& vs? a specialist i n Chinese literature, i s perhaps alone among his countrymen i n the f i e l d for his a b i l i t y to appreciate Chinese poetry through Chinese eyes and, more importantly, Chinese ears. When I asked him about his opinion of Ikkyu's poetry, he said, "Frankly, i t embarrasses me." We discussed Ikkyu's eccentric use of rhyme and repetitious use of vocabulary, but then he said, "Do you know what i s the very 44. worst of all? I t i s that he constantly violates the four-three rhythm of the seven character l i n e . " In the chiieh chii, the seven characters of a line are conventionally broken up into a group of four succeeded by a group of three. The sense of the line i s con-structed so that i t i s natural to pause after the fourth character. Since Chinese i s a contextual language with few grammatical aids, the rhythm of a line i s often the clue to sense. The poet manipu-lates his sense to f i t the four-three rhythm; the reader familiar with that rhythm reads a poem that way and finds i t easier to dis-cover the sense. For the poet to break that rhythm i s to make i t much more d i f f i c u l t for the reader to understand. That i s why someone attuned to pure Chinese finds Ikkyu's poetry constantly frustrating i n that way. Here again, i t i s not the case that every poem exhibits this broken rhythm, but i t happens often enough that one associates i t with Ikkyu's style. Here i s an example of one poem i n which the f i r s t , second and fourth lines observe the four-three rhythm, but the third line breaks that rhythm i n a very unorthodox way. The poem i s presented i n the original Chinese with a l i t e r a l English version underneath. For a more l i t e r a r y version see No. 46. ;S ^ .JSL ^ JL #-(of) wine, sippedttiree cups. s t m l i p s I JL TL )t fA m $-Ts'ao-shan old fellow. P o r t e d poor orphan straightway lay body, burning house*within, sfe - 41 m fVj t # f (in) one second's space. 1 0 ^ 0 0 k a l p a , s p f t i n 4 5 . The third line here i s an audacious experiment i n breaking up a Chinese l i n e . Tt divides into three units, three, three and one. Furthermore, the unit of one, the verb "see", i s a case of enjambe-ment, a verb whose object comes i n the next l i n e . Enjambement i s simply not part of the Chinese poetic repertoire. The rhythm i s broken, there i s a renegade enjambement, a l l i n a l l the line i s quite outrageous. I s t i l l remember the pained expression of Professor Iriya's face when I produced this example for his perusal. S t i l l , to a Japanese reader unfamiliar with Chinese sound, someone in the same position as the poet himself, i n other words, i t would not seem so te r r i b l y strange. He would notice that the four-three division had been violated, but that rhythm would not be such a part of his auditory instincts that the violation would rankle. Presuming that the reader was reading the line i n some kind of kundoku fashion, one concludes he would not feel the abruptness of that enjambement. For example, the modem reading for that line i s : j i k i ni mi o kataku no uchi ni yokotaete mireba I t i s as natural i n Japanese as i t i s strained i n Chinese. In reading i t aloud, one naturally pauses after mireba so that the force of the enjambement i s very slight. A reader of Ikkyu's time would probably know Chinese well enough to appreciate Intellectually the fact that the lin e plays havoc with Chinese poetic conventions, yet i n kundoku reading I t would not offend his own ears. I 'suggest that i n the curious tension between these two perceptions might l i e 46. the effectiveness of this l i n e . This i s an unusual situation i n world literature. We are dealing with a poetry that was written i n one language and given sound i n another. For the poet who was a perfectionist, one assumes his concern would have been to conform as closely as possible to the Chinese conventions, to write poetry as flawlessly as a Chinese poet. But Ikkyu was not that kind of poet; rather than write for the sake of craftsmanship, he seems to have written soley from a deep personal need to express himself i n whatever way he could. With Chinese poetry, Ikkyu kept the rules only enough to make his breaking of the rules effective, disregard-ing the rules when they became fetters. He was at a disadvantage l i n g u i s t i c a l l y i n that language, but wielded freely the knowledge he had to hand, even i f i t meant breaking and bending rules, breaking and bending the language i t s e l f . From the standpoint of classical Chinese prosody, one might therefore c a l l his poetry "bad" for this, but there i s more to i t than that. In some ways, the power of this poetry emanates from the bold and even crude way i n which his Chinese i s used. Further-more, i t must not be forgotten that his intended audience was not Chinese. They were people who could read Chinese well, but who did not have i t s rhythms i n their bones. What would make a Chinese auditor shudder would not have the same effect on a Japanese reader, but rather a novel and original effect. At the end. of course, this leaves us quite at a loss whether to condemn or to praise the poet) Ikkyu remains as much as enigma on the poetic plane as he i s on the moral plane, and that i s perhaps as i t should be. 47. Chapter Two Allusion i n Ikkyu's poetry challenges a translator because there i s so much of i t and i t plays such a crucial and varied role. I f one misses an allusion i n a poem, one often cannot make any sense of the poem at a l l . An example of that i s poem No. 223. Addressed to a monk who k i l l e d a cat In my group, there i s a l i t t l e Nanach'uan; With a f l i c k of the wrist he k i l l e d the cat, the koan i s complete. Mistaken, he regretted that i n practising this teaching; He disturbed i t s nap under the peony blossoms. The last line alludes to a remark i n the Wu Teng Hui Yuan, "Under the peony tree, sleeps a cat." J I f one did not know that allusion, one would have no idea that a cat i s being referred to i n the la s t line, and the line therefore would seem senselessly oblique rather than what i t i s , delicately oblique. Allusion performs many different roles i n Ikkyu's poetry besides that of indirect or oblique statement. One of the aims of this chapter i s to trace by a series of analyses the warp of allusion through a number of poems to communicate the variety and complexity of the ways i n which the technique i s employed. The mode of analysis seeks to recreate the reading experience of an 48. informed reader for this poetry, which i s assumed to be quite a different experience from that of a reader of this paper. A reader of this paper w i l l probably read a poem and end up with a large number of questions i n his mind. The proper names, the connections between lines i n most poems, w i l l be puzzling until one reads the commentary. I f , after reading the commentary, one reads the poem again, one w i l l begin to approach the reading experience of the informed reader, except that now, i n many cases, one w i l l know too much as one begins to reread. For example, i n some poems there i s a surprise allusion i n the last line, something that throws the poem i n an entirely unexpected direction. That happens to some degree i n the example that began this paper, the poem about "Do no e v i l , do much good." The allusion at the end of that poem to the poet Po Chtt-i by means of the term of address "Elder" and"drunkenly singing" i s meant to catch the reader off-guard and give the direction of the poem a dialectical twist. Most readers of this paper w i l l not recognize that allusion imme-diately. Once one has been informed of the allusion and returns to reread the entire piece, prose and poem, the force of the unexpected allusion i s attenuated because one already knows i t i s coming. One can no longer be surprised unless one makes the effort of imagining what i t would be l i k e to read the poem with the necessary knowledge already i n one's mind to appreciate the allusion as i t happens. That i s precisely what the method of analysis used i n this chapter involves,an effort of the imagination to reconstruct 49. the reading of these poems by an informed reader of the time. In the process of applying this method to the poems i t has become evident that Ikkyu uses allusion i n two basically different ways. On the one hand, he uses allusion i n a way that accords with convention. He makes allusions that he knows the reader w i l l not only recognize but also understand i n a familiar and thus ultimately satisfying way. This may be called a rhetorical use of allusion. On the other hand, Ikkyu often uses allusion i n a way that breaks the contract of conventional understanding between poet and reader. He makes allusions that are based on his own personal and eccentric interpretations of the scriptures and sense of the world. The effect of these allusions i s to disturb and shock the reader. This may be called a dialectical use of allusion. Rhetorical allusion generally serves two purposes, which are interrelated. One i s to make the poetry more beautiful, to use allusive language for ornament. The other i s to make indirect statements, to say much with l i t t l e which can also have an aesthe-t i c effect. The purpose dialectical allusion serves i s more complicated but i n general one might say i t i s to throw the reader off-guard and force him to re-evaluate his sense of what the poem i s about. Allusion coming in the last line often brings a contradictory ele-ment into the poem that collapses the frame of reference the poem has set up. At other times, opposites are brought together i n 5 0 . such a way that the distinction between them i s obliterated or at least l e f t problematical and unclear. In the confusion, one glimpses a knowing beyond the distinction of duality. The analyses that follow are arranged i n an ascending order of complexity with regard to allusion. In the interest of saving space, only the background information pertinent to the discussion at hand i s provided. For detailed background material such as f u l l citations of passages alluded to, the reader may turn to the commentaries. We w i l l begin with two poems i n a rhetorical vein. No. 107 These days accomplished monks of long [training Are mesmerized by their own words and c a l l i t a b i l i t y . At Crazy Cloud's hut, there i s no a b i l i t y but a flavor; He boils a cup of rice i n a broken-footed cauldron. This poem has great simplicity of expression, and i s compre-hensible without understanding the allusion embedded i n the last l i n e . Lines one and two establish and develop the theme, the monks of today and their superficial enlightenment. In line three, the subject becomes the poet himself, "Crazy Cloud", i n opposition to the monastic rabble. Line four describes the poet's actual state, poor and cooking with a broken pot, but the implication i s that this i s truly virtuous. I f one takes the poem without the a l l u -sion, the poem seems to be a rather modest expression of the poet's 5 1 . self-confidence. Tt says, i n effect, "I may be one of no a b i l i t y but I have a style of my own, and practice frugal l i v i n g . " How-ever, the "broken-footed cauldron" i n the last line alludes to the "Last Admonition of Master Daito" (the second master i n Ikkyu's lineage i n Japan and founder of the Daitokuji), where Dait5 says, "If there i s one who practices righteousness i n the wilds, who i n a l i t t l e hut passes his day eating vegetables boiled i n a broken-footed cauldron...such a one, day by day, looks this old monk i n the eye and returns the favor of my teaching." Recognition of that allusion subtly changes the effect of the poem. Ikkyu i s no longer simply describing his poverty, and his statement of self-confidence i s no longer so modest; through the allusion he i s saying, "I am the one who looks our Master i n the eye, the one who i s worthy to receive his teaching, while the rest of you at Daitokuji are charlatans." The statement i s a l l the more powerful for being made indirectly through allusion. No. 57 The Plum Ripened It s ripening, over the years, i s s t i l l not forgotten. In words, there i s a flavor but who i s able to taste it? When his spots were f i r s t v isible, Big Plum was already old. Sprinkle of rain, fine mist, that which was green had already turned yellow. This i s a poem i n praise of a former master, Ta-mei, whose 52. name l i t e r a l l y means "Big Plum". Ta-mei's master Ma-tsu was the f i r s t to play with the l i t e r a l meaning of the name. The Ch'uan TengLu records how Ma-tsu acknowledged his students' attain-ment with the phrase, "Ah, the plum has ripened." This i s alluded to i n the poem beginning with the t i t l e . Note the degrees by which the allusion becomes obvious. The t i t l e cues the allusion, but, as far as the middle of line three, the content of the poem remains general enough to allow different interpretations. The question i n line two gives a twist to the movement of the poem, and begins to suggest because of the reference to "words" that the poem i s not about an actual plum tree. The appearance of Ta-mei's name in the third line assures our recognition of the allusion. Line four rounds out the poem by coloring, albeit with the monochromes of rain and mist, the vaguely suggested image of a plum tree, and by elegantly embroidering i n one more allusion to the original pas-sage i n the Ch'uan Teng Lu. Taimei answered the question, "How long have you been here?" with "Four times only have I seen the mountains turn green and then yellow." Now the expression i s turned to describe a plum, not mountain foliage, no other plum than the old master himself. Knowledge of the original enables one to appre-ciate how the poet has transformed the allusion i n the poem. F i r s t he puns on Ta-mei's name much as Ma-tsu did, then he turns Ta-mei's own words around to describe himself. The allusions complement the subject matter of the poem. The 5 3 . poem rewords familiar material within a predictable framework and, because of this, the strategy of cuing the allusion early in the poem and then making a more direct reference at the end i s particularly effective. I t i s very pleasurable for the reader to pick up the hint of an allusion and then have the supposition of where the poem w i l l go verified by the arrival of a more expli-c i t reference. I t i s l i k e the fulfillment of a promise, and one's joy at the fulfillment of the promise l i e s i n the recognition that earlier a promise was made. This i s a convenient place to introduce poems where the allusion produces a di a l e c t i c a l effect, because the following poem i s otherwise very similar i n strategy to the preceding poem. No. 206 I admonished my followers saying, "If you are going to drink sake, then you must always drink muddy sake, and for tidbits just have the dregs. This i s why the l a t t e r are sometimes called 'dry sake'." Thereupon I made a poem, laughing at myself: Men i n the midst of their drunkenness, what can they do about their wine-soaked guts? Sober, at the l i m i t of their resources, they suck the dregs. The lament of him who "embraced the sands" and cast himself into the river by Hsiang-nan Draws out of this Crazy Cloud, a laugh. 54. In "The Plum Ripened", allusions to a single source, i n that case the account of Ta-mei i n the Ch'uan Teng Lu are sprinkled throughout the poem. In No. 2 0 6 , one source i s alluded to several times. The source here i s the passage from the Book of History about the suicide of CHii Yuan Here follows a paraphrase of that passage. Disappointed and sorely grieved, CHii Yuan, the slandered but virtuous o f f i c i a l , resolves to throw himself into the river. As he stands on the bank of the river preparing to carry out his resolve, a fisherman draws him into conversation. Criii Yuan declares, " A l l the world i s muddied i n confusion, only I am puret A l l men are drunk and I alone am sober." The fisherman counters CHii Yuan's lament with some salty wisdom, "A true sage does not stick at mere things.... I f a l l the world i s a muddy turbulence, why do you not follow i t s current and rise upon i t s waves? I f a l l men are drunk, why do you not drain their dregs and swill their thin wine with them?t CHii Yuan rejects the advice and, composing the rhyme prose poem "Kmbracing the Sands", casts himself into the river. Knowing this core of the account i s necessary to appreciate the allusion. However, there i s l i t t l e i n the prose introduction to the poem that suggests CHu Yu'an, particularly because the tone i s so jocular. The reader would probably begin to think of CR'u Yuan when he per-ceived the opposition of "drunkenness" and "sober" at the beginning of lines one and two of the poem. That would c a l l up CHii Yuan's 5 5 . remark, " a l l men are drunk, I alone am sober." The word "men", which relates to CHu Ytian's " a l l the world" and " a l l men", and the words "dregs" which relates to "why do you not drain their dregs" also play a role i n cuing the allusion. But i t i s probably only at the perception of "Embracing the Sands" that the reader would be quite sure CHii Yuan was being alluded to. Then the a l l u -sions i n line one and two would be affirmed, and i n retrospect the introduction as a whole would appear to have led up to the CHii Yuan reference. For example, the words "dregs" and "muddy" i n the introduction then would appear somewhat loaded. As i n the preceding poem, "The Plum Ripened", once again the allusion i s made explicit i n the third line by a proper noun, i n this case, the t i t l e of CHii Yiian's rhymed prose composition. Though the strategy of these two poems, which i s to gradually broaden the hints of allusion and then assure the recognition of the allusion with a proper noun, i s thus common to both poems; on the level of content, the effect yielded by that strategy i s very different. In the poem about Ta-mei, there i s a harmony between the intent of the poem, celebration of a former master, and the material alluded to, his biography. In the "muddy sake" poem, for a monk, the theme of praise for sake, i s unexpected. Added to that i s the incongruity of the allusion to CHii Yuan that gradually becomes apparent i n the poem. In conventional Chinese li t e r a r y rhetoric, mention of CHii Yuan always provides sighs of 5 6 . sympathy; i t verges on the sacrilegious to find i t thus i n a poem of comic intent. This i s not to say that i t i s out of place or f a i l s to work i n this particular instance. The jarring quality of the allusion f i t s the poet's goal i n this poem, which i s to shock and unsettle the reader, thereby producing laughter. This i s the f i r s t of many Instances where we see Ikkyu using allusion as a vehicle for bringing into the poem something quite opposite or contradictory to the theme apparent on the surface. No. 77 Arhat Chrysanthemums Tea-brown golden flowers, deep with Autumn's color. Breeze and dew on the East hedge, a heart that has l e f t the dust behind. The miraculous powers of the Five Hundred Arhats of Mr. T'ien T'ai. Cannot touch one fragment of verse from T'ao Yuan-ming. We are s t i l l dealing with a poem i n which only one allusion figures. The t i t l e ( t i t l e s can never be ignored i n the kyounshu) announces a Buddhist subject, Chrysanthemums seen as Arhats. That raised a question i n at least one commentator's mind as to whether there might have actually been a variety of chrysanthemums with that name i n the Muromachi period, but the f i r s t line provides the 57 answer to that question. I t i s their color that makes them Arhats; their golden brown color i s the same as that of a Hinayana monk's robes. "Breeze and dew on the East Hedge" i s the key to the a l l u -sion. Since T'ao Yuan-ming and chrysanthemums are vi r t u a l l y inseparable i n the iconography of Chinese poetry, the expression "East Hedge" i n a poem on chrysanthemums would immediately c a l l to the reader's mind T'ao Yuan-ming's famous li n e , "Picking chrysan-themums by the East hedge." But why, apart from the chrysanthemum connection, the reference should be made i s not yet clear. The next phrase, "a heart that has l e f t the dust behind", i s a con-ventional epithet for the Arhat; he who starts on the Path must f i r s t leave the dust of the world behind. This phrase i s particu-l a r l y Buddhist i n flavor and, therefore, i s not an epithet one would normally think of applying to T'ao Yuan-ming, who was many things, but not a Buddhist. For this reason, the allusion to T'ao Yuan-ming remains a small question mark as one proceeds. The next line begins with' a grand-sounding Buddhist subject, "the miraculous powers of the Five Hundred Arhats". We wait the s p l i t second i n suspense because i t i s the end of the line, "cannot touch...T'ao Yuan-ming". The poem ends with unreserved praise for T'ao Yuan-ming and onions for the Arhats, but the reader i s not surprised; he has been cued to anticipate something like this outcome by the a l l u -sion i n the second l i n e . Or, to put i t i n a different way, perhaps the allusion was not enough to provide him with expectations for 58. the outcome, but when he reads the last line, he has more of a feeling of "So that's i t , " rather than "What's going on?" Here again, we have the bringing together of opposites, i n this case Buddhist and non-Buddhist. The poem overtly proclaims a Buddhist theme, but the allusion covertly suggests the counter-theme that i s f i n a l l y unveiled i n the l a s t l i n e . The following poem reworks this theme i n a more forceful manner. No. 49 To Hear a Sound and Awaken to the Way Striking bamboo one morning he forgot a l l he knew. Hearing the b e l l at f i f t h watch, his many doubts vanished. The ancients a l l became Buddhas right where they stood. T'ao Yuan-ming alone just knit his brows. We have moved up a step i n the number of allusions i n the poem. Here there are three. "To hear a sound and awaken to the Way" i s a standard phrase i n Zen that expresses one of the para-doxes beloved by the school. In orthodox Buddhism, the senses are considered mere obstacles to awakening, yet one can be awakened to the Way by a sound. This reference encourages the anticipation of a laudatory verse i n the same style as the poem about "Big Plum", For the f i r s t three lines, one's expectations are satisfied. F i r s t comes Hsiang Yen /§X^ one of the most familiar of the masters 5 9 . enlightened by a sound. One morning as he was sweeping the garden, the sound of a pebble striking bamboo awakened him. In the words of the Ch'uan Teng Lu, "He forgot a l l he knew." Then, we are of a b e l l t o l l i n g the f i f t h watch i s recounted i n the Pi-yen Lu. "The ancients a l l became Buddhas..." comes as a kind of summation; i f one wonders anything, i t i s where the poem can go from here. At this point, the name of T'ao Yuan-ming comes as a great surprise. Kven when the allusion i s recognized, "Ah yes, T'ao Yuan-ming also realized something when he heard a sound—hearing the temple b e l l , he realized he did not want to become a Buddhist," ca perplexity remains. Is Ikkyu praising or damning? Is he saying T'ao Yuan-ming was the odd man out because he never awakened to the Way? Or i s he saying, T'ao Yuan-ming, right where he stood, became a Buddha for not becoming a Buddhist? I f he i s praising T'ao Yuan-ming, then what of Hsiang-yen and Master Fu? Were their realizations false? This ambiguity i s encouraged by the word rendered "just" i n the translation. I t can also mean "justly", "correctly", or u r i g h t l y so". This second reading would encourage the interpretation that T'ao was the only enlightened Buddha of the three, but i t i s the confusion over which reading to take that i s the point. Ikkyu has used the f i n a l allusion to unsettle the reader by bringing i n something opposite to his expectations. The poem above has three allusions packed into four lines of reminded of Master Fu whose enlightenment by the sound 6 0 . verse. The following poem also has three allusions, but two of them occur simultaneously i n the same line and phrase. No. 493 Spreading Horse Dung to Cultivate the Mottled Bamboo Baked potatoes i s Lan Ts'an*s old story. He did not seek fame and fortune, that too was furyu. Mutual longing without pause. This Lord's rain; Wiping away the tears, singing alone, autumn by the Hsiang river. The t i t l e of this poem brings together the gross and the sub-lime. Bamboo always intimates the sublime i n a Sino-Japanese cultural set; of dung, no more need be said. Yet i n practical horticulture (as i n Zen) i t i s salutary that the two be brought together. The f i r s t line takes up the theme of dung by alluding to Lan Ts'an, who baked his potatoes with dung for f u e l . Let the reader refer to the commentary to poem 121 to get a sense of that story. In the original story, i t i s a minor detail that he uses dung for fuel, but nonetheless adds to the overall earthiness of the account. Here, mention of dung i s the link between the t i t l e of this poem and the introduction of Lan Ts'an. The second line develops the material introduced i n the f i r s t line by making i t clear that Lan Ts'an stands for uncompromising spiritual integrity. 61. "Mutual longing" starts the allusion to the legend of the origin of the mottled bamboo. The legend i s that the splotches on the bamboo stalk were the marks of.the tears shed by Lord Shun's wives as they waited i n vain on the banks of the Hsiang river for their lord to return. The Palace of Mutual Longing i s one of the place names on the Hsiang river that i s associated with Lord Shun's wives. As a reader of the time read the t i t l e , that legend would probably be one of the f i r s t things that came to mind. That i s why the reference can be as oblique as i t i s ; i t merely suggests the story of Lord Shun's wives and then follows i t with another allusion that serves a double purpose. In the context of the mottled bamboo legend, "This Lord" implies Lord Shun for whom the tears that mottled the bamboo were shed. The reader would also recognize i t as a name for bamboo, originating i n a separate l i t e r a r y source. The source i s the Chin Shu, history of the Chin dynasty. Therein, Wang' Hui Jj. ^ $!J^  replied, when queried why he was planting bamboo even before furnishing his house, said, "How can I l i v e a day without This Lord?" The statement was such an eloquent expression of the universal sentiment Chinese gentlemen f e l t toward bamboo that i t became an epithet for bamboo. "Rain", so often a cliche for tears, binds the two allusions together. "This lord's rain", an image of rain f a l l i n g on the bamboo, overlays the sense, "the tears shed on this lord" or "the tears shed for their lord." I suggest that an intended reading 6 2 . of that line registers the two senses and allusions simultaneously. Sensual image and l i t e r a r y reference commingle. The last line continues the allusion to Lord Shun's wives, "tears" and "Hsiang river" making the reference e x p l i c i t . ' Here, then, i s another example of a strategy noted before of saving the most explicit reference for the l a s t . What the allusions "do" here i s indirectly t e l l us a great deal about the poet himself. They allow him to be intimately personal without intruding himself into the poem, beyond the t i t l e that t e l l s us what activity occasioned the poem. The reference to Lan Ts'an t e l l s us, "When I handle dung, I feel at one with the s p i r i t of Lan Ts'an, who turned his back on the world." Line three t e l l s us, "I love bamboo as much as Wang Hui, who could not bear to liv e a day without i t , as much as the two wives love Lord Shun"; line four, "In the autumn of my l i f e , I am as lonely as Shun's wives." This, then, i s a more complex example of what was found in the f i r s t poem of this series, No. 107, namely, use of allusion for indirect expression. The elegant way image and l i t e r a r y ref-erence are woven together i n line three of this poem recalls line four of the "The Plum Ripened". The various allusions i n the "mot-tled bamboo" are i n harmony with the theme of the poem. One might say line three i s ambiguous because of the doubling of the sense of "This lord", referring both to Wan Hui's bambooiand to Lord Shun, and because of the layering of the image "rain on the bamboo" over 6 3 . the allusion "tears on the bamboo", but i t i s ambiguous for aesthe-t i c effect, an elegant confusion, i f you w i l l , rather than for the sake of disturbing the reader's sense of meaning. Now l e t us look at a poem which stands at the apex of both a hierarchy based on complexity of allusion and a hierarchy based on intensity of dialectical experience. No. 4 5 Yiin-men addressed a gathering saying: "The old Buddha and the bare post commune with one another. This i s opportunity number what? Then, answering for himself he said; "On the south mountain clouds arise; on the north mountain, i t rains." How did the L i t t l e Bride marry Master P'eng? Cloud-rain, tonight, a single dream. In the morning at T'ien T'ai, i n the evening at Nan-yueh No one knows where to see Shao-yang. The introduction to this poem i s not the poet's own composi-tion, but rather consists of the quotation of a koan by the T'ang monk Yun-men. The question posed i n this koan i s , two phenomena which are quite unrelated interact; what sort of category can you put that into? The question i s not so interesting when put that 64. way. The picture of an old Buddha statue having a conversation with a bare post i s much more stimulating to the imagination and, as such, very important to the poem. Yun-men deigns to answer his own question. He does so by ignoring the demand to categorize, and merely presents another case where two seemingly unrelated phenomena interact. How can clouds on the south side of the mountain make i t rain on the north side? It i s a restatement of the original question posing as an answer i n the form of a declarative sentence. Another question, "How did the L i t t l e Bride marry Master P'eng?", opens the poem. "The L i t t l e Bride" i s a small island i n the Yangtze; "Master P'eng" i s a large boulder on the south bank of the Yangtze. How did these two features of the Chinese lands-cape, unrelated but for a spatial proximity, come to be married? Thus we have another restatment of the philosophical question broached i n the koan. The mention of marriage cues a suggestion that something else might have gone on between the old Buddha and translated as "communes with" can also mean to "have relations with" i n the sexual sense. I f the mention of marriage only barely suggests that, then the next line i n which "cloud rain" and "dream" figure, renders i t obvious. "Cloud rain" i s a euphemism for physical love that originates i n a passage from thertKao T'ang Fu" ^ ^ by Sung-yii j£> ^  the bare post besides simple conversation. here 6 5 . I w i l l quote the passage i n i t s entirety because the wording of i t becomes important to the interpretation of the third l i n e . Long ago, a former king was amusing himself at Kao T'ang. Feeling weary, he slept and i n a dream he saw a woman. She said, "I am the woman of Wushan "Sorceress Mountain" and a guest at Kao T'ang. I heard you were vis i t i n g Kao T'ang, and wish to serve at your pillow. The King thereupon favored her. When she rose to leave, she said, "I dwell on the south slope of Wushan and the steeps of Kao-ch'iu. In the morning, I make the cloud, i n the evening, I make the rain; morning upon morning, evening upon evening beneath Yang-t'ai." In the morn-ing, the King saw i t was a she said and so he constructed a temple and called i t "Morning Cloud". "Cloud-rain" furthermore signals that the poet takes the cloud and rain i n the original koan i n an erotic sense. The koan as a whole takes on a ribald cast and one i s l e f t to imagine what the old Buddha was doing to the bare post or vice versa that could produce cloud and rain. Line three runs a l l the elements of the poem together through a maze of allusion. "In the morning..." because of the preparation of line two, now immediately brings to mind the Kao T'ang passage, "In the morning, I make the cloud, i n the evening, I make the rain." 66. The poet's erotic interpretation of the koan becomes clear beyond doubt. But then one's sense of where the poem i s going i s jolted by the appearance of T'ien T'ai. T'ien T'ai i s the name of a mountain sacred to Buddhism as the seat of the T'ien T'ai school. The erotic turn the poem had been taking i s halted momentarily. "In the evening" reestablishes i t because i t reminds us of "In the evening, I make the rain", but then the mention of Nan-yiieh takes us back to a more religious atmosphere. I t i s the name of another it *$} mountain sacred to Buddhism, the home of the monk Hui-ssu ;*=-s T'ien T'ai and Nan-yiieh are thus related; they represent two mountains and two people, one the master, the other the disciple. But what do they mean here? Professor Hirano sees this line as related to a remark that appears i n the Hsii-T'ang l u . There a monk, i n reply to the question, "What do you do when you cannot say anything?" says,"If I am not at T'ien T'ai, I shall be at Nan-yiieh." Professor Yanagida on the other hand sees i t as an allusion to two other sayings of Yuri-men's: founder of the T'ien T'ai school. In the morning, I arrive at the Western Heaven (India), In the evening, I return to the Land i n the East (China). In the morning, I sport at Dandaka (a mountain in India), In the evening, I arrive at Lo-fu (a mountain i n China). 6?. These both refer to the self-sufficiency and supernatural powers of an enlightened sage. Then Yanagida, i n his interpretative commen-tary to this poem, suggests that Ikkyu may have been making a connection between Yun-men's koan and a koan of Master Daito . I t w i l l be remembered that Master Daito was the second patriarch i n Ikkyu's lineage i n Japan. Daito was enlightened by the act of understanding a koan of Yun-men's and was credited by his teacher with being a reincarnation of Tun-men. The koan of Daito's that Ikkyu may have i n mind here i s what became known as the "Three-Pivot Phrases of Daito": In the morning, entwining eyebrows, i n the evening, mixing shoulders, how about me? The bare post exhausts the day coming and going. Why i s i t I do not move? The "bare post" surfaces again, and there appears another varia-tion of "In the morning...in the evening" that can also be inter-preted i n an erotic way. Are we looking at another possible source of allusion? Is Ikkyu alluding to Daito who i s alluding to Yun-men? The last line closes down this poem with "No one knows where to see Shao-yang (Shao-yang i s another name for Yun-men) and, at this point, the reader may be wondering where to find himself. In this sequence of koan and poem, questions have been answered 68. with questions, distinctions between sacred and profane have been blurred, allusions have been cross-referenced to the point of con-fusion. I t i s this kind of poem that has earned Ikkyu's poetry a reputation for d i f f i c u l t y . While teasing with the logic of ques-tion and answer, i t frustrates comprehension i n a logical manner. But, as one reads i t , one experiences a marvelous melting together of separate categories of thought. The focal point for that fusion i s the enigmatic third l i n e . I t i s almost impossible to d i s t i l l a "meaning" out of that l i n e . Through a welter of allusions, i t brings together the sacred and profane, the King and the sorceress, masters and disciples, T'ien T'ai and Nan-yiieh, Yun-men and Daito; i f you follow the t r a i l of allusion as far as Daito"'s k5an even the old Buddha and the bare post are there. There i s some familiar ground here. Once again, i t i s the allusion that brings the unconventional, the opposite of what one expects, into the poem. Also the way i n which "In the morning...In the evening..." has two or possibly three referends reminds one of how i n No. 493 "this lord" refers to Lord Shun and to Wang Hui's bamboo. I t i s just that here the density of possible allusions has been magnified un t i l one loses track of where they end. Ikkyu wants his reader to lose track of where he i s , to end up suspended between knowing "this" and "that". Here the allusions are his vehicles for running the poem off the dualistic r a i l s of rational consciousness. 6 9 . Chapter Three "A night of f a l l i n g flowers and flowing water i s fragrant" from No. 71 This chapter picks up where the last chapter l e f t off. I t pursues the theme of the dialectical experience a l i t t l e farther. As noted i n the l a s t chapter, often the technique by which the rug i s pulled out from under the reader's feet i s the juxtaposition of opposites i n such a way that the distinction between them melts away. This technique i s dynamic i n the sense of being forceful i n operation. Ikkyu's poems do not present opposites frozen i n juxtaposition; rather, as the reader's mind flows through the poem, contradictory elements manifest themselves and i n turn dissolve into one another. On the surface the poet says one thing but a suggested undercurrent, often brought into being by allusion, says the opposite and cancels the surface theme out. I t i s i n this way that the poems offer experiences rather than pronouncements. In the end, Ikkyu's poems of this kind deliver nothing that can be grasped; they obstruct any deductive analysis seeking to extract meaning from them as gold i s extracted from ore. There i s nothing solid i n these poems to be extracted. In fact, they succeed in the measure that they leave the reader suspended with "not a t i l e overhead nor an inch of ground below. The remainder of this chapter w i l l analyse a series of three 70. poems under the joint t i t l e of "The Scriptures are Bum-wipe". I t was noted i n Chapter one that Ikkyu wrote only the short four-line form of Chinese verse known as the chueh ch'u. This suggests that Ikkyu was either unable or unwilling to work with a more extended form. However, occasionally, as i n the following three poems, he wrote a series of poems that form a single progression together. The t i t l e of the series of poems, "The Scriptures are Bum-wipe" while shocking at f i r s t glance, i s an allusion to a pronounce-ment by Lin-chi ( J . Rinzai), the founder of the school of Zen to which Ikkyu belonged. Lin-chi's statement i s , "The Twelve-Fold Teachings of the Three Vehicles are a l l old paper for wiping bums." The allusion summons up i n the reader an anticipation of a display of iconoclasm i n Lin-chi's scatological style. No. 69 The scriptures from the beginning have been paper for wiping bums. The Dragon Palace Sea Treasury toys with words and phrases. Have a look at the Blue C l i f f Record with i t s hundred cases Scattered wildly over Breast Peak before the wind and moon. The f i r s t line rephrases the t i t l e as though to say—"I said i t once and I ' l l say i t again." The addition of the word "paper" makes i t a l i t t l e more explicit that we are rubbing shoulders with 71. Rinzai. The second line i n a chiieh chii i s normally expected to develop the material introduced i n the f i r s t l i n e . This line, while shifting the tone of the diction, f u l f i l l s that expectation. "The Dragon Palace Sea Treasury" i s a conventional metaphor for the Buddhist scriptures. The source of the metaphor i s the Sea  Dragon King Sutra, which describes the Dragon King's efforts to obtain a copy of the Buddhist canon to store i n his palace for the edification of the creatures i n the sea. His efforts are rewarded when the Buddha not only bestows a holy library upon him but also consents to attend the commemoration of i t s installation. Buddha, Bodhisattvas, Dragon King and water sprites gather together to eulogize the scriptures. Hence the "Sea Treasury of the Dragon Palace" i s a metaphor that has colorful associations and implies great respect.,r Thus, the poem's second line addresses the topic of the scriptures i n a tone of reverence. When we go on to read "toys with words and phrases", we see that reverence vanish. The honorific metaphor with i t s p i c t o r i a l connotations takes on an ironic note; a l l the noble efforts of the Dragon King, a l l the eulogies of the assembled host, were for pieces of paper that merely play with words. The third line i n a chiieh chii i s conventionally the "turning" line. This third line turns by shifting to direct address with the phrase "have a look". The subject matter also appears to shi f t . We are told to look at the "one hundred cases of the Blue C l i f f 72. Record." This work i s part of the Zen canon as opposed to the Buddhist canon proper. Certainly the phrase kyokan, here trans-lated as "scriptures", would bring the orthodox scriptures to mind f i r s t , so the instruction to look at the Blue C l i f f Rgcord raises a question i n the reader's mind; did the Blue C l i f f Record have a precious piece of wisdom to contribute to this topic, or i s i t too a trap for the unwary? The fourth line answers the implied question with a picture: on Breast Peak (the place where Hsiieh-tou compiled the Blue C l i f f Record), leaf over leaf, the pages f l u t t e r i n the wind under the moon. The picture i s lovely i n i t s e l f . One can see the sheets of paper, radiant whie with reflected moon light, l i f t e d into arabesques by the wind. The place name "Breast Peak" plays a role too, conjuring up a shape suggesting whiteness. The picture also suggests that this i s what must be done with the Blue  C l i f f Record: i t cannot be spared inclusion i n the category of the "Scriptures"; i t must be cast away too. Seduced by the beauty of the picture, who, at this point, would not assume the appropriate state of mind and be ready to f l i n g the scriptures to the wind? But there i s an allusion i n the last line which gives i t s sense one more twist. "Scattered wildly over Breast Peak" comes from a poem i n the Chiang-hu feng-yuehchi that laments the neglect of the Blue C l i f f Record. At the time of the composition of that poem the Blue C l i f f Record had not yet been granted inclusion i n the Tripitaka, the o f f i c i a l Buddhist canon. The last two lines of the 7 3 . poem state: I t was not collected i n the great storehouse of sutras, Up t i l l now, i t has been scattered wilcflyover Breast Peak, A couple of centuries later i n Muromachi Japan, the Blue  C l i f f Record had become a firmly entrenched part of the Zen canon, abetting the gradual ossification of k5an Zen, Just as the context of the Blue C l i f f Record had changed i n real time and space, so i n this poem, Ikkyu has changed the context of "scattered wildly over Breast Peak", so that rather than e l i c i t the reaction of "What a pity", as i t does i n the original poem, i t encourages the response of "and so i t should be." No. 70 The bow i n the guest's cup, much rending of the guts. Night comes and a new sickness enters the v i t a l region. Ashamed am I not to equal a beast; The dog pisses on the sandalwood old Buddha Hall. One i s brought down from the ending of the previous poem to contemplate sickness. The "bow i n the guest's cup" i s a proverbial metaphor for i l l n e s s caused by the mind. In the story that i s the source of this expression, a guest becomes physically i l l because he sees the reflection of a snake-ornamented bow i n his wine and 7 4 . believes after draining his cup that he has swallowed a snake. The second line develops the theme of i l l n e s s . I t i s a new i l l n e s s , but we are not told what kind. The personal voice of the poet begins to make i t s e l f f e l t . The f i r s t line announces the subject objectively, but the second line with i t s specific references to a time, "night", and the "newness" of the il l n e s s , intimate that the poet i s speaking i n a personal way, which i s confirmed i n the third line with the entrance of " I " . The personal pronoun can easily be avoided i n classical Chinese, so i t s presence has a special force. Line two l e f t us wondering what the poet i s suffer-ing from; line three increased the sense of puzzlement. He i s ashamed not to equal a beast. Why? What can a beast do that the poet cannot? The answer comes with maximum iconoclastic effect i n the fourth l i n e . The poet cannot piss on the Buddha Hall without being mindful that i t i s a Buddha Hall. He i s caught i n the delu-sion of distinguishing between the sacred and the profane, an i l l -ness with psychologically f a t a l consequences. But what has this poem to do with the statement "the scriptures are for wiping bums"? In general terms, the t i t l e of the set made a contract to attack conventional notions of the sacred and profane by resorting to scatological reference. The last line f u l f i l l s that contract with the image of a dog pissing on an altar, thereby bringing the poem as a whole under the umbrella of the t i t l e ; but one would s t i l l expect a more specific connection with the "scriptures". 75. That connection i s made by way of an allusion carefully camouflaged by the word order of the line so that we recognize i t only at the last minute. The allusion i s to the same Blue C l i f f Record whose pages we saw scattered before the moon at the end of the preceding poem. In an appreciatory verse to the ninety-sixth case, there i s the line, Before the old Buddha Hall, a dog pisses at the sky. Ikkyu borrows this image and transforms i t . The dog pisses on the Buddha Hall rather than at the sky. Thus transformed, i t shocks even the reader anticipating an iconoclastic closure, and does not immediately c a l l up the lin e i n the Blue C l i f f Record. The phrase, "old Buddha Hall" gives away the allusion. In the line from the Blue C l i f f Record, the "old Buddha Hall" comes at the beginning, whereas i n Ikkyu's poem i t comes at the end of the l i n e . When I was f i r s t translating this poem, my instinctwas to switch the order of the lin e to read, "On the old Buddha Hall made of sandalwood, the dog pisses," to save the heaviest thrust until the end for maximum shock effect. I wondered why, aside from the considera-tion of matching the rhyme, Ikkyu had not wanted to do the same. Upon perceiving; the significance of the allusion, i t became clear that Ikkyu had a double iconoclastic purpose i n mind. I t i s the "old Buddha Hall" which w i l l cue the reader to remember the line of the Blue C l i f f Record and to realize that the "pissing dog" i s i n fact borrowed from the very scriptures we were told to use for I 7 6 . for bum-wipe and to scatter to the wind. In the act of reading the line, one moves from the edge of scatological license back to the authority of the scriptures. This allusion and i t s delayed recognition, rather than state that the reader and the poet are trapped i n the words that t e l l them to get free, lead the reader to experience that entrapment i n the very act of reading the l i n e . Wo. 71. Without ado, he f l i c k s his hand round and wipes his bum, The master's countenance i s exposed and clear. On the south side of the mountain, clouds arise, on the north side, i t rains. A whole night of f a l l i n g flowers and flowing water i s fragrant. In the f i r s t l i n e , i t i s no longer necessary to say with what the master i s wiping his bum nor why i t i s significant that i t be done "without ado". The reader has been cued by a l l that precedes to understand that i t i s "the scriptures". I t i s as i f the pages of the Blue C l i f f Record that materialized at the end of the last line i n the preceding poem have f i n a l l y been subdued and put i n their proper place. The second line teases with an ambiguity that i s unfortunately d i f f i c u l t to reproduce i n English. A "countenance exposed and clear" can refer either to intellectual c l a r i t y (the 77. doors of perception cleansed, everything i s obvious) or to the exposure of the master's anatomy. There i s a tone of resolution and certainty to the opening lines of this poem. One wonders how the poet w i l l be able to close the poem and the whole series when he has already run through so much of his iconoclastic ammunition. One anticipates perhaps a triumphant finale, one last thrust. Instead, we meet two lines dazzlingly multifaceted with associations and meaning. Line three i s a quotation from the Blue C l i f f Record. I t appears i t was not to be cast away so easily. I t i s a lin e from the k5an already familiar to us from poem No. 4 5 , Yuri-men's koan that begins, "The old Buddha and the bare post commune with one another, this i s occasion number what?" As mentioned before, that koan.- may be taken as an expression of the philosophical principle that a l l phenomena, even those seemingly unrelated, mutually affect one another. The line c a l l s up that koan i n the reader's mind, but not only that. The contract made by the t i t l e , and indeed a l l that precedes to juxtapose the sacred with the scatological, s t i l l compels the reader to make that connection again. I f one may assume rote knowledge of the Blue C l i f f Record on the part of Ikkyu 1s informed reader, one would remember the appreciatory verse to this koan. On the South side, cloud; on the north side, rain, 78. The forty-seven Saints and six Patriarchs look one another i n the eye. In the land of the Barbarians, a monk mounts the lectern. In the land of great T'ang, they have not yet struck the drum. In pain, pleasure, i n pleasure, pain. Who says gold i s lik e shit? The scatological connection has been made again, and i n the apprecia-tory verse the leap has been made from the topic of the inter-relation of a l l phenomena to the topic of the identity of opposites. "On the south mountain, clouds arise, on the North mountain i t rains", c a l l s up another case of the union of opposites, because particularly i n Ikkyu's poetry, rain following close upon cloud always suggests the classical euphemism for physical love, "cloud-rain". We have already analysed poem No. 45 where Ikkyu elaborates his own erotic interpretation of Yun-men's koan. Any reader of Ikkyu would immediately sense the hint of erotic allusion here. To summarize, l e t us l i s t the associations this l i n e has evoked. I t i s a full-fledged quotation from the Blue C l i f f Record, and as such commands the reader to face i t as a koan. a philoso-phical and spiritual problem. The whole koan as i t appears i n the Blue C l i f f Record flashes through the mind, leaving the parting shot of the appreciatory verse, "Who says gold i s lik e shit?", 79. reverberating i n the mind. Being familiar with Ikkyu"'s predilections leads one to sense an erotic overtone i n the "cloud" and "rain" of Yun-men's koan. With such a jumble of impressions i n the mind, the reader confronts the f i n a l l i n e . "A night of f a l l i n g flowers and flowing water i s fragrant" i s also a quotation. I t i s a poetic tag adapted from a statement of Hsueh-tou, "One night of f a l l i n g flower's rain f i l l s the ci t y with fragrant flowing water." The phrase may be looked upon as a poetic touchstone for the philosophical view that a l l phenomena are inter-related. One might even think of i t as a possible answer to Yun-men's koan. In response to a situation where the connection between phenomena i s obscure ("cloud on the south side causing rain on the north side"), the poet presents a situation where the connection i s obvious and natural, the f a l l i n g petals giving their fragrance to the water. I f these two lines were being looked at i n isolation, the discussion might end here; but their context charges the last line with as many meanings as the penultimate l i n e . Picking up the scatological thread again, "A whole night of f a l l i n g flowers" i n Chinese poetic diction conjures up a scene of drinking and feasting beneath the blossoms. Then the fragrant flowing water could be taken as a euphemism for the sorry intestinal consequences after an evening of intemperance. But the same scene conjures up another picture as well. "Fallen flower" i s often a metaphor i n Chinese poetry for a courtesan. Thinking of fallen flowers i n that 80. sense would suggest another interpretation for the "flowing fragrant water"; i t becomes the "lascivious flu i d s " that are the subject of others of Ikkyu's poems. The poet does a l l this so quietly. On the surface, the diction i s so subdued and decorous; clouds and rain, blossoms fluttering onto rushing streams. Both lines are quotations from the scrip-tures, as though the poet has f i n a l l y given up the struggle to break free from enshrined words. But he has not surrendered; instead, through the force of context, he has bent the words of the scriptures to suggest profane things. These two lines leave the reader with the philosophical, the scatological, and the erotic, the most contradictory of images and ideas juxtaposed, l a i d over one another i n the mind, impossible to separate. That, I believe, i s the intended reading of those two lines. The reader i s not meant to deduce a philosophical truth from them, but to experience the dissolution of the boundaries between sacred and profane i n the act of reading the lines and perceiving simultaneously a l l their possible connotations. That i s why they make such an effec-tive closure for the set of three poems. Ikkyu has succeeded i n saying neither " i s " or " i s not", but i n conveying an experience beyond that distinction. Conclusion Ikkyu did not write only dialectical poetry. Some of the poems 81. i n a rhetorical mode were examined i n Chapter two. But this thesis has centered around poetry of a dialectical nature. How does one conclude something like this, since any conclu-sion deciding "this" or "that" renders the poetry less l i v e l y than i t is? Like a koan, Ikkyu's poetry poses an impossible dilemma: the harder you try to figure i t out and to put i t i n neat cate-gories of thought, the more unmanageable i t becomes. As this thesis has progressed, I have found myself becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the label " d i a l e c t i c a l " . As a "finger pointing at the moon", i t gives only the broadest indication of direction and leaves much of the reality of this poetry untouched. The time has come to l e t go of the struggle and invite the reader to discover Ikkyu's poetry for himself. TRANSLATIONS FROM THE CRAZY CLOUD ANTHOLOGY 83 Preface to the Translations A l l of the translations i n this paper are from the Kyounshu "Crazy Cloud Anthology", Ikkyu's major anthology of Chinese poetry. There are several extant manuscripts for the Kyounshu, but one, the Okumura manuscript, i s so superior to the rest that i t has become the basic text for recent scholarship/on the work. The Okumura text bears a holograph that indicates that i t was produced while Ikkyu was s t i l l l i v i n g , and that he oversaw i t s transcrip-tion. Indeed, IkkyS's own handwriting appears i n two separate places i n the manuscript.* With this indisputable evidence for i t s authenticity, i t i s the earliest of any of the surviving manu-scripts. Moreover, i t contains the largest number of poems, eight hundred and eighty, and has the fewest copyist's errors. 2 The Iwanami edition of the Kyounshu contained i n Chusei Zenke no Shiso ^ ^ C D j £ ^ (abbreviated i n this study to CZS) i s based on the Okumura text and most modern scholars have followed suit i n basing their research on i t . The present work i s no excep-tion. In this paper, the numbers assigned to the translations are the numbers of the poems as they appear i n the Iwanami edition and therefore represent the order of the poems i n the Okumura manuscript.1 Thus, the remarks that follow about the organization of the Kyounshu apply to the Kygunshu of the Okumura manuscript. The Kyounshu i s broken up into three parts, a f i r s t part com-prising 677 poems which are for the most part on religious themes, 84. a second part of 49 go i^jj^ poems which commemorate religious names Ikkyu bestowed on his pupils, and a third part of 154 poems bearing the sub-title, the Kyounshu shi shu J^L * ^ \^Lj^A jijC "Crazy Cloud Poem Anthology". This l a s t part of the Kyounshu i s designated as a shi ""^J "poem" anthology to distinguish i t from the f i r s t part which contains what are usually called ge /j/J^ "religious odes". This division i s based on a difference i n content; i n general the ge_ treat religious subjects, whereas the shi treat secular subjects. In a l l formal respects, the shi and ge of the Kyounshu are identical. As one can easily see, the poems on religious subjects far outnumber the poems on secular topics. Aside from this division into three parts on the basis of content, the organization of the Kyounshu strikes one as for the most part random. Occasionally there are sequences of poems under the same t i t l e , which naturally form a unit together and often reveal an Internal order of progression. One,;< such series of three has been analysed i n Chapter three of this paper. From time to time, there are also series of poems which do not share the same t i t l e but appear to have been written around the same time and form an autobiographical narrative. This sporadic occurrence of sequences of poems related to the poet's biography i s due to the fact that a loose chronological order may be observed i n the Kyounshu. While the majority of the poems cannot be dated or pinned down to any single event i n the poet's l i f e , those that can be dated f i t a chronological order. However, 8 5 . since the presence of a chronological order can be appreciated only from the view point of the whole, the actual reading exper-ience i s serendipidous i n character. As one moves from poem to poem, the sequence constantly provides surprises, leading to an overall feeling of randomness broken only here or there by a biographical vignette that strikes a chronological chord. In selecting the translations for this effort, I have been guided primarily by personal predilection. When deciding upon an order for these poems, I chose to reproduce the order of the Kyounshu i t s e l f , although because this i s a selection of one hundred translations from a total of eight hundred and eighty, there are many gaps. Nevertheless, what results i n the selection i s a randomness punctuated by occasional sequences of related poems quite akin, I believe, to the Kyounshu i t s e l f . In preparing the translations themselves, I was reluctant to weigh them down with explanatory interpretation i n addition to the commentary they cannot do without. Furthermore, as i t i s hoped the c r i t i c a l introduction conveyed, although i t i s possible to des-cribe what the poetry does, one risks doing this poetry a grave injustice by trying to explain what i t "means". I t i s hoped that the reader w i l l be able to discover his own reading experiences i n these poems. I would suggest one might read the poems i n imitation of the c r i t i c a l analysis, which would be to read the poem and the commentary through once and then reread 8 6 . the poem, making the effort of imagination to perceive i t as i f one were reading i t for the f i r s t time with a l l the necessary background material already i n mind. 87. No. 17 Staw Sandal Ch'en Putting on a sales pitch to the people, out dealing them right and l e f t Te-shan and Lin-chi would have no way to haggle. Wielding the stick and raising the f l y whisk are not my af f a i r , My fame need only belong to the North Hall. 8 8 . No." 17 Notes: Straw Sandal Ch'en:. Ch'en (780-877) was a disciple of Huang-Po who after achieving enlightenment returned to lay-l i f e , taking up the occupation of plaiting straw sandals i n order to make a livi n g for himself and his aged mother.1 Te-shan: (78O-865) was a contemporary of Lin-chi. He was noted for his use of the stick i n Zen training. "Thirty blows i f you can answer, thirty blows i f you can't answer"^ sums up his style of teaching. Lin-chi: (d. 866) ( J . Rinzai), the founder of the school of Zen to which Ikkyu belonged. Wielding the stick and raising the f l y whisk: the motions of formalized Zen. The North Hall: traditionally the part of the house where the women resided, hence a reference to Ch'en's mother. 89. No. 33 &k t k 'jkk ^ & % % k & 'A t & & # X ^ X i s £ ^ f & flA ^ t & M 1 4 # ^ 41 ^  ?! Hi - f € ^ f - ft I'l * f tiktt m & z-^ JIL ft £ *» w ti it % $ ^ it %> t l t ft f ! t * t i l I l i s 90. No. 33 " A l l those who would study Zen and learn the Way must be pure in their daily l i v e s . Impurity i n one's daily l i f e i s not allowed. The person who can be called pure i n his daily l i f e w i l l be one who by clarifying even one situation w i l l arrive at the realm of understanding beyond reason. When day and night, he practices his s k i l l without t i r i n g , when, as the occasion arises, he cuts off the sources of delusion and decides with c l a r i t y and f i n a l i t y matters which even the Buddhas and the Devils have d i f f i c u l t y even in glimpsing, when he repeatedly buries his name and conceals his traces, when f i n a l l y , under a tree i n a mountain forest, he raises up a case for study, then he i s unadulterated and pure and one c a l l s him pure i n his daily l i f e . However, take the example of one who says of himself, I am a Good Friend, who raises up the staff and f l y whisk, gathers a congregation, preaches the Dharma and thus bewitches the sons and daughters of others; who, i n his heart, coveting fame and profit, invites students to his c e l l and says he w i l l enlighten the profound mystery for them thus causing the students to be guilty of specious and idle chatter and the master i n turn i s trapped i n biased feelings. This l o t i s not even human. These are truly ones impure i n their daily l i v e s . One who takes the Buddha's teaching and makes of i t a scheme for getting on i n the world i s a fellow given to wordly self-glorification. Everyone who has a body has to wear clothes; 91. everyone who has a mouth has to eat; i f you understand this truth, how can you boast of yourself i n the world; how can you adulate high office? This sort, for three lives to sixty kalpas w i l l be a hungry ghost or a beast; there w i l l l i k e l y be no fixed term for release. And i f by chance he i s born as a human being he w i l l suffer from leprosy and never hear even the name of the Buddha's teaching. Oh, terrible, t e r r i b l e ! " What precedes i s Master Ryozen TettcJ's sermon delivered to those given to sel f - g l o r i f i c a t i o n . Taking i t for a subject, as an epilogue, I say: I f your s k i l l cannot work i n the Nirvana Hall, Confronted with the g l i t t e r of fame and profit, your mind w i l l be busy. I believe men's b i l l of fare i s fixed, One bowl of mutton gruel and a cup of citrus rind tea. 92. No. 33 notes: situation: l i t e r a l l y one case of cause and conditioning, here equivalent to the term koan.^ Good Friend: good friend i n the religious sense, a term applied to virtuous monks, meaning one who i s f i t to preach the dharma and who can stimulate enlightenment i n others. causing the students...biased feelings: This passage i s very d i f f i c u l t to construe. Ichikawa quotes Professor I r i y a Yoshitaka's opinion that I t does not make sense as Chinese. The present translation i s a guess at best and involves the emendation of the second causitive It to 4t here rendered as "in turn". three lives or sixty kalpas: Three lives i s the shortest period to become a Buddha; sixty kalpas i s the longest. A kalpa i t s e l f i s an unimaginably long period of time. "This compound three lives or sixty kalpas" appears often i n the Kyounshu with the meaning of simply a very long time. Master Ryozen TettS's sermon: Master Ryozen Tetto fjf. '^T *R) (1295-1369) was the f i r s t abbot of Daitokuji after the founder Daito. In addition to the fact that Tetto was a direct fore-bearer i n the Daitokuji line of transmission and due veneration 9 3 . as such, Ikkyu was particularly drawn to Tetto's stem style of Zen. Tt i s noteworthy that this sermon does not appear i n the TettS roku, the o f f i c i a l record of his pronouncements. The only extant text for i t other than the several manuscripts of the Kyounshu, i s a sc r o l l i n Ikkyu's hand kept i n the Shinjuan repository. Mention of the sermon also turns up i n the IkkyuOsho'Nempu, the chronicle of Ikkyu's l i f e . There Yoso, the senior disciple of the same master as Ikkyu and often the subject of complaint i n the Kyounshu, accuses Ikkyu of throwing shit-water i n their master's face because he instructed his students with Tetto's sermon and the story about Po-chang dying of starvation. Ikkyu seems to think Yoso i s implying that Ikkyu made them up, for he retorts, "I did not make up the story about Po-chang dying of starvation. You can clearly see reference to his "a day of no work i s a day of no eating" i n the record of Patriarch Hsii-t'ang. And as for Tetto's sermon, i t was something our former master used to speak of every day."^ This leaves room for speculation that this sermon, i f not Ikkyu's invention, may be the setting down i n his own words of this sermon as he remembered i t from oral presentation. Nirvana Hall: The monastery infirmary, where, willing or not, one may have to experience Nirvana, which i s , i t w i l l be remembered, extinction as well as enlightenment. Metaphorically, i t means a l i f e or death situation. 9 4 No. 35 Peach Blossom Waves "Following waves, chasing waves, how much red dust? Once again meeting the peach blossoms, spring i n the third month. Futile regrets flowing down stream, three lives to sixty kalpas; At the Dragon Gate, year after year, g i l l s and scales parching i n the sun. 11 > 1 fit ? 1 it tit it J L Jet- 4& A it & 01 4~ g. 9 5 . No. 35 notes: peach blossom waves: a stock expression of great antiquity for the early part of the third month in the lunar calendar when the peach blossoms scatter over the waves of the flooding rivers. Legend also designates this as the time when carp gather at a river called the Dragon Gate jf ^  to attempt to climb the f a l l s . Those who succeed turn into dragons. Following waves, chasing waves, how much red dust?: The phrase "following waves, chasing waves", came to be known as one of the "Three Pivot Phrases" of Yun-men ^ f ^ (d. 9 ^ 9 ) . This line i s a synopsis of the l a s t two lines i n a poem of Ikkyu's entitled, "What i s i t l i k e , the Yiin-men school?" "The One Word Barrier and the Three Phrases, How many people have red dust i n their eyes?" Hirano offers an explanation of the sense there as, "The three phrases are d i f f i c u l t koans, how Q many people have been led astray?" Aside from the water imagery inherent i n this oblique phrase of Yun-men's, why he should be alluded to becomes clear i n the last l i n e . At the Dragon gate, year after year, g i l l s and scales bleaching i n the sun: As well as calling up the legend about the carp turning to dragons, this line alludes to Koan No. 60 i n the o Blue C l i f f Record: 9 6 . Yiin-men raised his staff and said: "This staff turns into a dragon that swallows up heaven and earth. Then where w i l l you find the mountains, rivers and great earth?" Superimposed over the legend of carp turning into dragons, then, we have Yun-men turning a staff into a dragon. The specific allusion, however, i s to the f i r s t four lines of the appreclatory verse that caps the koan: The staff swallows up heaven and earth, In vain do you speak of running the peach blossom rapids. Those with sun-burned t a i l s are not catching the clouds and seizing mist, Those with bleached g i l l s , why must they lose their l i v e r s and their souls? 9 7 . No. 37 Addressed to an Assembly on the Winter Solstice Alone, closing thegates and passes, not going on tours of inspection. Tn this, who i s King of Dharma? I f people ask for a phrase about winter's coming, I say, that from this morning, the days are one thread longer. 0 If it UK & m It t i 98. No. 37 notes: Addressed to an Assembly on the Winter Solstice: Of the importance of the Winter Solstice celebration i n Zen temples, Hirano says, "Zen schools, fromnolden times, have made the yearly festivals occasions for a master to mount the lectern and hold dialogues with his students. Because the Winter Solstice i s the shortest day of the whole year and from the next day the days lengthen, i t i s called the return of the yang. That, when yin reaches extremity, i t turns into yang i s compared to the fact that at the bottom of the greatest doubt there i s great satori. Therefore this day i s celebrated as the most auspicious of the 10 whole year. I t i s a day of deep meaning." Alone, closing the gates, not going on tours of inspection: an allusion to the Winter Solstice hexagram of the I Ching, No. 2k, "Return". The judgement of that hexagram i s : Thus the former kings on the day of the Solstice, closed the gates, merchants and travellers did not go about, and the ruler did not make tours of inspection. King of the Dharma: means a person of ultimate self-possession. The expression can be traced back to the Lotus Sutra where i t i s the words of the Buddha: I am the Dharma King 12 With respect to the Dharma acting completely at w i l l . 99. No. 40 The Buddha's Nirvana He crossed over to extinction i n India, old Shakyarauni. In another birth, he emerged into the world, to whose house did he go? The tears of two thousand three hundred years ago S t i l l sprinkle i n Japan, the blossoms of the second month. ti $ it % f'l i f )l IK 100. No. 40 notes: The Buddha's Nirvana: the death of s'akyamuni, the Buddha's incarnation as a man. S t i l l sprinkle, i n Japan, the blossoms of the second month: The Buddha's Nirvana i s celebrated on the 15th day of the second month. In the old lunar calendar, the second month was usually closer to March of the solar calendar, so that by that time the peach blossoms were already In bloom and f a l l i n g . The ambiguity of the last two lines makes the poetry here. Do the tears sprinkle on the blossoms, perhaps a figurative way of saying i t rained this year on the celebrations for the Buddha's Nirvana; that i t was as i f the tears of two thousand years ago were sprinkling on Japan? Or are the blossoms of the second month, that sprinkle and f a l l every year i n the second month, Japan's tears for the death of the Buddha? 1 0 1 No. kk A monk asked Yen-t'ou, "What i s i t l i k e when the o l d s a i l has not been h o i s t e d ? " Yen-t'ou s a i d , "The s m a l l f i s h swallows the b i g f i s h . " The monk asked, "And a f t e r i t i s h o i s t e d , what i s i t l i k e ? " Yen-t'ou s a i d , "In the back garden the donkey eats g r a s s . " C o l d , hot, p a i n , p l e a s u r e , time to be ashamed. Ears from the beginning are two p i e c e s o f s k i n . One, two, t h r e e ; a h i t h r e e , two, one. Nan-ch'uan wi t h a f l i c k o f the w r i s t ; k i l l e d the c a t . I * — 1 % k I # tA m $ A It i. It Iff i o 10 A-J 2: 4 a ^ t IM & # 102. No. 44 notes: A monk asked...the donkey eats grass: The introduction to this poem i s a koan. The lead personage i s Yen-t'ou ( 8 2 7 - 8 8 7 ) . Different version of this koan appear i n several places i n the Zen canon. That which appears i n the Ch'an-lin Lei-chu 13 Jt - ^ 4 i s the closest to the version here. Hsu-t'ang J^__ )£_ (1184-1269), a major patriarch i n the Daitokuji line, was enlightened by this particular koan. He assigned i t to Daio always been an important koan for the Daitokuji lineage. \ (1235-1308) and so on down the line;thus i t has 14 cold, hot, pain, pleasure, time to be ashamed: an allusion to the third of the "Three reflections of Fo-yen" ^  @$C ( 1 0 6 7 - 1 1 2 0 ) . See No. 209: Pain and pleasure, adversity and prosperity, the way l i e s i n the middle. Movement and quiessenee, cold and heat, 15 ashamed of myself, remorseful. Hirano notes that the two questions forming the introductory koan above can be understood as situations of prosperity l i t e r a l l y , "going with" and adversity, l i t e r a l l y , "going against". "When the old s a i l has not been hoisted" i s a situation of "going against", the wind blows i n a contrary direction. "After i t i s hoisted" i s a situation of "going 1 0 3 . 16 with", the wind blows f a i r from behind. That interpreta-tion, part of an oral tradition about the koan, i s the key to the reference to Fo-yen's three reflections. Ears from the beginning are two pieces of skin: "Ears are two pieces of skin" i n company with the phrase "tusks and teeth, , one set of bone", occurs sporadically i n Zen literature as a response to conundrums. More importantly, however, within the tradition of the Daitokuji lineage, "Bars are two pieces of skin" has been handed down as a capping phrase to the f i r s t answer i n this koan, "small f i s h swallows the big f i s h " . "Tusks and. teeth, one set of bones" caps "In the back garden, the donkey eats grass". According to Hirano, 17 Ikkyu i s alluding to this oral tradition of koan response. one, two, three; three, two, one: Again within the same tr a d i -tion, "Five, four, three, two, one" i s another appropriate capping to "small f i s h swallows the big f i s h " and "one, two, three, four, five".- then caps "In the back garden the donkey 18 eats grass". This may be another allusion then, although the figures work well enough as a mirror image representation of duality. Nan-chuan, with perfect confidence, k i l l e d the cut: an allusion to the Blue C l i f f Record, koan No. 6 3 : At Nan-chuan's one day, the monks of the East and West 104. were fighting over a cat. When Nan-chuan saw them, he raised up the cat and said, "If someone can speak, I w i l l not k i l l i t . " No one i n the assembly answered. Nan-chuan 19 cut the cat i n two. The taking of l i f e i s , of course, one of the cardinal prohi-bitions of Buddhism. The resolution to this koan may be found i n the notes to poem No. 5 2 . 105 Yun-men addressed a gathering saying, "The old Buddha and the bare post commune with one another; this i s opportunity number what?" Then anwering for himself, he said, "On the South mountain, clouds arise; on the North mountain , i t rains." How did the L i t t l e Bride marry Master P'eng? Cloud-rain, tonight, a single dream. In the morning at T'ien T'ai, i n the evening at Nan-yueh; No one knows where to see Shao-yang, M Ih TtL f l ft & jl % t h it & F4 w i i o i 1 0 6 . No. 45 notes: Yun-men addressed a gathering...: Yun-men (d. 949). The introduc-tion as a whole i s a quotation of koan No. 83 from the Blue 20 C l i f f Record. How did the L i t t l e Bride marry Master P'engT: " L i t t l e Bride" i s a small mountain that stands i n the middle of the Yang-tze's current. "Master P'eng" i s the name of a boulder that stands nearby on the shore. Popular legend linked these two features 21 of the landscape together as man and wife. cloud-rain: a euphemism for sexual love that originates i n the k*ao T'ang Fu *S % ^ by Sung-yii ^  j £ . Long ago, a former King was amusing himself at Kao T'ang v % 727 . Feeling weary, he slept and i n a dream he saw a woman. She said, "I am the woman of Wu-shan "Sorcer-ess Mountain" and a guest at Kao T'ang. I heard you were visi t i n g Kao T'ang and wish to serve at your pillow. The King thereupon favored her. When she rose to leave, she said, "I dwell on the South slope of Wu-shan and the steeps of Kao-ch'iu v^ 7 Tn the morning, I make the cloud; i n the even-ing, I make the rain; morning upon morning, evening upon evening beneath Yang-t'ai y/fe ." In the morning, the King saw i t was as she said and so he constructed a temple 107. and called It "Morning Clouds." c c Tn the morning at T'ien T'ai, i n the evening, at Nan-yiieh: This line i s a complex web of allusions. See the introduction, chapter two for a detailed analysis. The syntax of this line echoes that of the "punch l i n e " to Yun-men's koan. "In the morning...in the evening" parallels "On the south mountain ...on the north mountain..." One layer of allusion, then i s back to the YUn-men koan which heads the poem. At the same time, "In the morning...in the evening..." recalls the Kao T'ang Fu passage. T'ien T'ai and Nan-yiieh are two moun-tains i n China sacred to Buddhism. T'ien t ' a i i s the seat of T'ien T'ai Buddhism because It was the dwelling place of i t s founder Chih-i *$^J . Nan-yiieh was the dwelling place of Chlh-i's teacher Hui-ssu jg; . Hirano implies the possib i l i t y of a connection between this poem and a koan quoted i n the Hsu-fang Lu: ...This i s a phrase for when one cannot say anything: "If I am not at T'ien T'ai then surely I ' l l be at Nan-yiieh." Professor Yanagida on the other hand prefers to see the line as an allusion to two phrases of Yun-men's: In the morning, I arrive at the Western Heaven (India), In the evening, I return to the Land i n the East (China). In the morning, I sport at Dandaka (a mountain i n India), 108. In the evening, I arrive at Lo-fu ^  ~y% (a mountain 24 i n China). In another place i n his commentary to this poem, Professor Yanagida further suggests that there may be a connection 25 here to the "Three Pivot Phrases of Daito". Daito was a patriarch i n Ikkyu's lineage who was credited by his master with being the reincarnation of Yiin-men. Daito"'s "Three Pivot Phrases"begin: In the morning, entwining eyebrows, i n the evening, mixing shoulders, how about me? The bare post exhausts the day coming and going. Why i s i t I do not move? Shao-yang: Yiin-men's dwelling place and by extension another name for him. 109 No. 46 Pleasure i n Pain "You drank three cups of wine and s t i l l your l i p s are unmoistened." Thus, that old fellow Ts'ao-shan comforted the poor orphan. Just lay your body down i n a burning house and see In the space of a moment, ten thousand kalpas of pain. - t i >g I'l ii Ik % # 5?P £ Z- t ^ v£ i ? 4 t £ 110. No. 46 notes: Pleasure i n pain: The t i t l e for this poem and the succeeding one are taken from the appreciatory verse to the Blue C l i f f Record, koan No. 8 3 . See the notes to No. 45. The verse says: On the South mountain, cloud, On the North mountain, rain, The forty seven and six patriarchs look one another i n the face. In S i l l a , someone has already risen to lecture. In Great T'ang, they have not yet struck the drum. Pleasure i n pain, pain i n pleasure; 27 Who says gold i s l i k e shit. You drank three cups...poor orphan: an allusion to a koan from the Wu-men.:Kuan. Ts'ao Shan (840-901) was one of the founders of the Sots school. A monk, said to Ts'ao-shan, "I am a poor desitute monk. I beg you to bestow upon me the alms of salvation." Ts'ao-shan said, "Acarya (teacher )'." "Yes, Sir?", replied the monk. Ts'ao-shan said, "Someone has drunk three bowls of good wine but asserts 28 that he had not yet moistened his lips."?, ...a burning house: a metaphor for this world of passion which 111. originates with the parable of the burning house i n the Lotus 29 Sutra. This same theme i s taken up by Ikkyu i n a sermon included i n the Kyounshu", No. 6 5 4 . When your whole body f a l l s into a f i e r y p i t , you see minutely, the pleasure i n pain. I f you are able to see i t , you w i l l not be blind and ignore the realm of Karma. I f you cannot see i t , i t w i l l take a long time to become a Buddha. 112. No. 47 Pain i n Pleasure This i s what Gautama experienced, Hemp garments, sitting on the grass, his condition for six years. One morning, observing minutely, he came to see The desolate loneliness of his name after the passing of his body at Vulture Peak. t & % it t % f i t ^ a & t t % H < t & 4 \\ k 113. No. 47 notes: Pain i n Pleasure: see notes to No. 4 6 . Gautama: another name for s'akyamuni, the historical Buddha, derived from his clan name Gotama. Hemp garments, sittin g on the ground, his condition for six years: When he could no longer take pleasure i n his l i f e of ease as the prince of a wealthy kingdom, s'akyamuni l e f t his home and went into the forest to practice rigourous ascetic disciplines for six years. He abandoned those practices shortly before experiencing enlightenment. One morning, observing carefully, he came to see: an oblique reference perhaps to his enlightenment upon seeing the morning star as he meditated under the ; Bodhi tree. The enjambement here, however, presses us forward to take "the immense s t i l l -ness and solitude of his fame" as the object of the verb "to see". Vulture Peak: i s a mountain i n India where the Buddha i s reputed to have preached several important sutras. In the Zen school i t i s renowned as the site of the "Flower Sermon" which i s when the Buddha simply raised a flower and Kasyapa, the only one who understood, smiled back. This wordless sermon and 114. i t s silent understanding traditionally mark the beginning of the Zen school. 115. No. 49 To Rear a Sound and Awaken to the Way Striking bamboo one morning, he forgot a l l he knew. Hearing the b e l l at the f i f t h watch, his many doubts vanished. The ancients a l l became Buddhas right where they stood. Tko Yuan-ming alone just knit his brows. f X. i t ft r£ -- f it ft it ¥ fir 4 116. No. 49 notes: To hear a sound and awaken to the way: a stock phrase In Zen vocabulary, often paired with "To see a form and illuminate the mind". I t expresses one of the paradoxes the school abounds i n , that i s , that i n orthodox Buddhist thought, the senses are to be discounted as purveyors of i l l u s i o n , yet sometimes awakening can be occasioned by a sight or sound. Striking bamboo one morning, he forgot a l l he knew: an allusion to the story of Hsiang-Yen (c. 820),who one morning while weeding the garden accidently threw a pebble against bamboo. He was instantly enlightened by the sound. Hearing the b e l l at the f i f t h watch: an allusion to Master Fu ^ __h (822-890), who was enlightened to the nature of 31 the Dharmakayawhen he heard the b e l l at the f i f t h watch. T'ao Yuan-ming just knit his brows: T'ao Yuan-ming (3^5?-427) was a poet renowned as a free s p i r i t , a lover of wine, poetry and good fellowship. He lived close to the famous Buddhist center of Lu Shan.K Many of China's Intellectuals were turning to Buddhism at the time, for the age was exceedingly dis-orderly and Buddhism offered at least peace for the mind i f not for the world. There have always been rumours that 117. T'ao Yuan-ming associated with Buddhists and may have been influenced by them although the internal evidence of his work points to Taoist influence alone. Yet, rumours persist. In the legend alluded to here, T'ao Yuan-ming f i n a l l y v i s i t s Lu Shan, yet as he reaches the gate, he suddenly "knits his brows and departs". The source for this legend i s The 32 Biography of Lofty Worthies of the White Lotus Society. However, the b e l l striking does not appear i n that account. The b e l l gets added to the story by the Zen master Fa-yen }£\ B^Lwho blends the two stories of Master Fu and T'ao 33 Yuan-ming together. J The l i t e r a r y source directly alluded to i n this case i s most l i k e l y a line from a poem of Hsii-.. 3lf t'ang: "Yuan-ming heard the b e l l and knit his brows." 118 No. 52 There was a tortoise around Ta-sui's hermitage. A monk asked, " A l l beings have skin around their bones; why does this creature have bone around his skinT" Ta-sui took his sandals and put them on the tortoise's back. Human confusion, when w i l l i t end? Strike before and again behind. Without ado he saved the cat, old Chao Chou, Leaving with his sandals on his head was also furyu. 119. No. 52 notes: There was a tortoise...: This koan appears i n the Ch'uan Teng Lu ^  Without ado, he saved the cat, old Chao-Chou,...: Here i s the resolution ( i f the terra applies) to the koan about Nan-chuan k i l l i n g the cat already quoted i n the commentary to poem 44. I t i s presented as a separate koan. No. 64, i n the Blue C l i f f  Record. Nan-ch'iian brought up the preceding story and asked Chao-Chou what he would have done. Chao-chou took off his straw sandals, put them on his head and walked away. Nan-oh'uan said, "If you had been there, the cat would 36 have been saved. furyu: This, a very d i f f i c u l t term to translate, i s one of the most frequently occuring expressions i n the Kyounshu. I t has several different meanings within the Kyounshu, not to mention the many meanings i t has had i n the hands of other poets i n other times. I t s component characters are ^  fi^'wind" and ryu "stream" or "to flow". I f we concentrate on the different meanings of furyu that appear i n these selected translations, three major meanings can be singled out. The f i r s t i s the beauty of a simple rustic l i f e . Fishermen, woodcutters, anyone li v i n g far away from the a r t i f i c i a l i t y 120. and compromise of the vulgar busy world epitomizes this kind of beauty. The second meaning of furyu found often i n the kyounshu i s s t i l l a variation on the idea of beautiful and good but with erotic or, at least, vromantic connotations. The poem entitled "Night conversation i n the dreamchamber", No. 5 4 5 . presents a good example of that usage. The line, "Passionate furyu, i n poems and passion too" makes the erotic overtones of furyu quite e x p l i c i t . Perhaps the d i f f i c u l t y of translating furyu stems from the fact that i t really has very l i t t l e "meaning" but a wealth of connotation depending on the context i n which i t appears. This brings me to the third way i n which the term i s used, that i s , as a slang word with v i r t u a l l y no meaning at a l l but powerful connotations that escape neat definition. The closest equivalent i n English i s "far out",, i t s e l f contemporary slang. I t i s a characteris-t i c of slang that one needs to acquire a feeling for what i t means i n order to understand i t . I t i s true of slang what Louis Armstrong said i n response to the question, "What i s jazz?" "If you have to ask, you'll never know." Furyu obviously expresses approval, but when you try to specify the grounds for that approval, you are i n the mental quicksand of the koans. In the poem at hand, for example, an adept having passed the koan would know why Chao-Chou's leaving with his sandals on his head was both so appropriate and 121. amazing—in other words, "far out". Poem No. 140 i s a similar case. Sometimes, usages overlap, as i n poem No. 493. where Ikkyu applies i t to Lan-tsan. Lan-tsan's not seeking fame and prof i t as the act"of a "free s p i r i t " was "far out", yet the picture of him roasting his potatoes i n the open a i r i s also furyu i n the aesthetic sense. At any rate, begging-the question, I have l e f t furyu without translation, hoping that the reader w i l l be able to acquire a feeling for the word as i t turns up i n different contexts. 122. No. 54 Lin-chi Burned the Meditation Plank and Desk This fellow i s the number one master of Zen i n the school. "Take away subject, take away object", "The mystery within form." A safe firmly established l i f e , where i s i t ? A catayclismic f i r e w i l l lay waste to, and burn, the Great Thousand-fold World Sphere. 4-123. No. 54 notes: Lin-chi burned the armrest and desk: Lin-chi ( J . Rinzai) i s the founder of the school of Zen to which Ikkyu belonged. Lin-the transmission, from his teacher Po-chang, a small desk and meditation plank. ("Meditation plank" i s a l i t e r a l translation of the object i n question, exactly what i t was i s unclear.) Huang-po i n turn wished to pass these objects on to Lin-chi. Lin-chi, however, apparently burned them to show his disdain for any worldly accreditation of his spiritual attainment. This event i s related i n the Lin-chi Lu as follows: One day, Lin-chi was taking leave of Huang-po. Huang-po asked him, "Where are you going?" Lin-chi said, "If I'm not going south of the river, then 1*11 be returning North of the river." Huang-po, thereupon, tried to strike him. Lin-chi firmly restrained him and gave him a slap Instead. Huang-po gave a great laugh and called to his servant, "Bring me my former master's armrest and desk." Lin-chi said, "Servant bring f i r e . " "Say what you w i l l , only take them with you. Later, they may stay the tongues of the world." 3 7 As can be seen above, this account leaves one i n doubt as to whether Lin-chi actually burned these heirlooms or merely had received as a symbol of 124. threatened to. In the tradition of the Rinzai school, at least so far as Ikkyu may be considered a spokesman for i t , i t i s assumed he went ahead and burned them. Ikkyu followed i n the footsteps of Lin-chi when he burned his own certificate 38 of enlightenment. Take away subject, take away object: The third proposition of Lin-chi*s "Four Propositions", permutations of the three 39 terms, "man", "object", and "to take away". The mystery i n form: one of Lin-chi's "Three Mysteries". Lin-chi himself did not specify what the "Three Mysteries" were; later commentators interpreted them as the "mystery within form", "the mystery within words", and "the mystery within mystery". They appear that way for example in the appreclatory words 40 -to Pi-yen l u , koan No. 1 5 . KLrano suggests Ikkyu under-stands "mystery within form11 as a restatement of "take away 41 man, take away object". The two phrases at any rate, stand pars pro toto for the teachings of Lin-chi. They may also prepare us for the end of the poem, where the whole universe i s taken away i n flame. Certainly, that i s the mystery i n physical form, that i t seems so palpable and "real" but can be absolutely "taken away". Great Thousandfold World Sphere: an abbreviation for the Great Three-thousand-millionf old Word Sphere J L 7^ .. 4 %• . the term i n Buddhist cosmology for the universe i n the 125. Infinite sense. A cataclysmic f i r e w i l l lay waste to, and bum,...: an allusion to the Blue C l i f f Record, koan No. 29. A monk asked Ta-sui, "In the cataclysmic f i r e at the end of a kalpa, when the Great Chiliocosm i s altogether destroyed, w i l l "this one" be destroyed or not?" Ta-sui said, "It w i l l be destroyed."'4'2 What "this one" represents i s unclear. The commentator to the Iwanami edition of the Blue C l i f f Record suggests "Innate 43 Buddha-nature." Yuan-wu, the original commentator, teases his audience with this remark, "What sort of thing i s "this one"? The monks of the world w i l l grope for this phrase and never get i t . Scratch away and expect to i t c h . " " ^ 126 No. 57 Th© Plum Ripened Its ripening, over the years, i s s t i l l not forgotten. In words, there i s a flavor but who i s able to taste it? When his spots were f i r s t v i s i b l e , Big Plum was already old. Sprinkle of rain, fine mist, that which was green had already turned yellow. It A f ft & h &. & I A. ii M & $ & JL 127. No.' 57 notes: The plum ripened...: Ta-mei "Big Plum" (752-839) was a student of Ma-tsu v % . His "ripening" i s related i n the Ch'uan  Teng Lu: Ma-tsu sent a monk to inquire of Ta-mei, "When you saw Ma-tsu what i s i t you understood that then you should come to dwell on this mountain?" Ta-mei said, "Ma-tsu told me, the mind i s the Buddha and herein I abide." The monk said, "These days Ma-tsu:. has a different dharma to teach." Ta-mei said, "How i s i t different?" The monk said, "These days he also says, 'Not the mind, not the Buddha.'" Ta-mei said, "That old rascal, the day w i l l never come when he ceases to bewilder people." You can have your 'not the mind, not the Buddha', I ' l l just keep to 'whatever i s the mind i s the Buddha.'" The monk went back to Ma-tsu and told him what had happened. Ma-tsu said, "Ah, the plum has 45 ripened." ...that which was green had already turned yellow: allusion again to the Ch'uan Teng Lu: A monk mistook a road and arrived at Ta-mei's hermi-tage. He asked him, "How long have you been l i v i n g on this mountain? Ta-mei replied, "Four times only have I seen the mountains turn green and then yellow." 128. No. 66 The Great Master Yuan-wu Strikes a Harmony with the Cosmic Organ Quietly humming a line from a love song, Launching heaven and earth into motion, he harmonizes with the magnum organum. I f we compare him with him who heard bamboo struck or him who saw a peach blossom, He i s the stone tortoise at the foot of Mt. Sumeru. 129. No. 65 notes: The great masterYiian-wu: Yiian-wu (1063-1135) who was a student of Wu-tsu Fa-yen -1104) i s most famous for editing and appending the introductions, comments and criticisms to the Blue C l i f f Record. humming a line from a love song: allusion to Yiian-wu* s enlighten-ment, Wu teng hui yuan roll:U9: A prefect visited Wu-tsu and asked about the Path. Wu-tsu said, "When you were young, was there not a l i t t l e love poem you used to recite? There are two lines i n i t that are very close to Zen: 'She often called her maid for no reason at a l l , Just so that her lover would recognize her voice.' The Prefect responded, "Yes, yes." Wu-tsu said, "Let us work on that a l i t t l e more." Yiian-wu happened to return to the monastery and asked the Master about his presentation of the l i t t l e love poem. "Did the Prefect understand or not?" Wu-tsu said, "He only recognized my voice." Yiian-wu said, "But she just wanted her lover to recognize her voice. He recognized your voice, why was that incorrect?" Wu-tsu said, "What was the meaning of Bodhidharma coming from the West? The oak tree i n the garden.'" Yiian-wu was suddenly enlightened. 130. he who heard bamboo struck: Hsiang-Yen, see the notes to No. 49. he who saw a peach blossom: Ling-Tun jg? ^ (c. 8 2 0 ) , a student of Wei-shan l^M iL\ ( 7 7 1 - 8 5 3 ) , was enlightened by seeing a ^ M 48 peach blossom. He i s the stone tortoise at the foot of Mt. Sumeru: obviously of laudatory Intent and looking very much like an allusion but as yet no source has been pinpointed. No. 68 Praising th© Fish Basket Kannon Red cheeks, blue-black hair, compassion and love deep; His heart suspects he i s i n the midst of a dream of cloud-rain. One thousand eyes of Great Compassion, though she i s looked at, she i s not seen. A fisherman's wife by the river and sea, one whole l i f e of song. 132. No. 68 notes: Fish Basket Kannon: one of the thirty-three transformation bodies of Kannon (Avalokitesvara), coming under the general category of "wife of a layman". The name Fish Basket Kannon has no source i n the sutra, but appears to be of Chinese folklore 49 origin. She i s often depicted as a beautiful woman holding a f i s h basket or riding on. a f i s h . In the Shlh-shl Chl-ku Lueh version of the legend about her, Kannon i s transformed into a beautiful woman and many suitors vie for her hand. She puts them i n competition reciting the sutras un t i l only one man with the surname Ma i s l e f t . She marries him but dies the night 50 of the wedding. Whether this i s the version of the legend that Ikkyu knew i s d i f f i c u l t to say. The poem seems to imply that she ended l i v i n g a happily married l i f e . His heart suspects...cloud-rain. For cloud-rain, see the notes to No. 4 5 . This line suggests the husbands feelings of disbelief at having won such a wife. One thousand eyes of Great Sympathy: Kannon i s often described as having a thousand eyes and a thousand hands to indicate the bodhisattva's great capacity for compassion and active help. One whole l i f e of song: Her "songs" are the sutras. 133. Nos. 6 9 , 70, 71 134. Nos. 6 9 , 7 0 , 7 1 . The Scriptures are Bum4wipe Three poems The scriptures from the beginning have been paper for wiping bums. The Dragon Palace Sea Treasury toys with words and phrases. Have a look at the Blue C l i f f Record with i t s hundred cases Scattered wildly over Breast Peak before the wind and moon. The bow i n the guest's cup, much rending of the guts. Night comes and a new sickness enters the v i t a l region. Ashamed am I not to equal a beast; The dog pisses on the sandalwood old Buddha Hall. Without ado, he f l i c k s his hand round and wipes his bum, The master's countenance i s exposed and clear. On the south side of the mountain, clouds arise, on the north side i t rains. A whole night of f a l l i n g flowers and flowing water i s fragrant. 1 3 5 . Nos. 6 9 . 7 0 , 71. notes: The Scriptures are for wiping bums: allusion to Lin-chi's state-ment, "The Twelve Fold Teachings of the Three Vehicles are a l l old paper for wiping bums."^ No. 69 The Dragon Palace Sea Treasury: a conventional appelation for the Tripitaka, the great treasury of sutras. The Hai lung wang  ching "Sea Dragon King Sutra" records the legendary v i s i t of the Buddha to the Dragon King's palace below the sea i n order to expound Buddhist Law and scriptures. The Sutra became well known very early i n China and Japan because the chanting of i t was thought efficacious for encourag-ing r a i n f a l l . The "Dragon Palace Sea Treasury" became a conventional appelation for the Tripitaka. The Blue C l i f f Record with i t s hundred cases: The Blue C l i f f  Record has already been mentioned several times as a source of allusion. This collection of koans was a central work for the koan Zen of the Rinzai school i n Japan. I t was compiled during the Sung period by Hsiieh-tou ( 9 8 0 - 1 0 5 2 ) and later added to by Yuan-wu. (See notes to No. 6 6 . ) Scattered wildly over Breast Peak: Breast Peak i s where Hsiieh-tou 136. compiled the Blue C l i f f Record. This phrase alludes to a poem from the Chiang-hn feng-yueh chi on the subject of Hsiieh-tou's tomb: The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, what about them? His suffering lasted twenty years. I t did not get collected i n the Great Storehouse of Sutras, Up to now, i t i s scattered wildly over Breast Peak. This i s a lament over the neglect of the Blue C l i f f Record. Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors never saw i t s worth, so i t had not been included i n the Canon,at least at that poet 1s time. No. 70 The bow's reflection i n the guest's cup: a proverbial expression for seeing things amiss. The source i s i n the Chin shu, r o l l Yueh Kiiang had a friend who for a long time had not come to v i s i t . Yiieh Kuang asked why. He said, "The last time I sat here you gave me a cup of wine, and as I was about to drink, I saw a snake i n the cup. Thinking i t bad to mention i t , I drank i t and got sick. At that time, Yueh Kuang had a famous Hunan bow on the wall, painted l i k e a snake. Yiieh Kuang thought the snake i n the cup was the reflection of that bow. He put the wine cup i n the same place as before and asked the guest i f what he saw before 137. was i n the wine again or not. The guest said, "Yes, i t i s just as before." Yueh Kuang then explained what i t was, and the guest was much relieved. The dog pisses...in the old Buddha Hall: an allusion to the Blue  C l i f f Record, koan No. 96 On Wu-t'ai mountain, clouds steam rice. Before the old Buddha Hall, the dog pisses at the sky.^ No. 71 On the South mountain, clouds arise...: allusion to the Blue  C l i f f Record, koan No. Qj, See also Kyounshu, No. 4-5 A night of f a l l i n g flowers and the flowing water i s fragrant: This phrase originated from a statement of Master Hsiieh-tou: The Buddha had some secret words that Kasyapa did not hide, 'One night of f a l l i n g flowers rain f i l l s the c i t y 57 with fragrant flowing water.' 138. No. 77 Arhat Chrysanthemums Tea-brown golden flowers, deep with Autumn's color; Breeze and dew on the East hedge, the heart of one who l e f t the dust behind. The miraculous powers of the 500 arhats of Mt. T'ien-t'ai. Cannot touch one fragment of verse from T'ao Yuan-ming. 1 m m M A % % Jl ff4 139. No. 77 notes: Arhat Chrysanthemums: The color of the chrysanthemums, "tea-brown golden" i s the same color as the robes of <- arhats, Hinayaha monks. Perhaps, Ikkyu looking at the Chrysanthemums saw them as so many arhats sitting by the hedge. "Fast hedge": allusion to a poem of T'ao Yuan-ming's: I built my hut beside a traveled road Yet hear no noise of passing carts and horses. You would l i k e to know how i t i s done? With the mind detached, one's place becomes remote. Picking Chrysanthemums by the Eastern hedge, I catch sight of the distant Southern h i l l s : The mountain a i r i s lovely as the sun sets And flocks of flying birds return together. In these things i s a fundamental truth 58 I would l i k e to t e l l but lack the words. Five hundred arhats of Mt. T'ien-T'ai: References to 500 arhats appear sporadically i n the sutras. I f there i s a direct source for their mention here, i t may be the Lotus Sutra. There i n r o l l eight, five hundred arhats receive the prophesy 59 of their future enlightenment. The mention of Mt. T'ien-T'ai remains a problem. 140. T'ao Yuan raing: See the notes to poem No. 49. 141. No. 78 Chrysanthemums: An Arhat and Yang Kuei-fei i n the Same Vase Yang Kuei-fei flushed i n drunkenness, a hedgeful of autumn. The tea-colored arhat, mingled with her, makes a good companion. He has lost his magic power, come down to l i v e on earth, For a Transformation Body, Marquis P i Yang of the T'ien-pao era. it 1 * it m •4s % %% & % it T hi #. i r 41 hi ft 142 No. 78 notes: an Arhat: Within the Mahayana School of Buddhism, the term denotes an adept of the Hinayana "lesser vehicle" path. The arhat i s one who seeks enlightenment for himself alone, not aspiring to the Bodhisattva path of awakening a l l the beings. For Ikkyu, the term arhat represented the self-righteous monk who religiously avoids contact with the world and jealously keeps his virtue to himself. Yang Kuei-fei: a famous "femme fatal©", the favorite of the T'ang emperor HsUan-tsung . Marquis Pi-Yang: The Marquis i s recorded i n the Shih Chi as a man wielding great influence because of a special relationship 60 with the Empress. He i s , then, the classic sycophant. T'ien-pao era: The era during the T'ang dynasty when Yang Kuei-f e i flourished. 143 No. 79 Snowball Heaven and earth buried, the gates and barriers gone. Roll i t up and now i t i s the Himalayas. At that time, the crazy vagabond comes; i t turns to powder. The Great Chiliocosm arises and disappears i n the space of a moment. 4 t & # ' & %k £P is. % w in % n %\ ® A i No. 79 notes: snowball: an allusion to the Blue C l i f f Record, koan No. 42: Lay brother P'ang y ^ , ~£ was taking his leave of Yao-shan ^ j j * jlx . Yao-shan ordered ten disciples to accompany P'ang as far as the gate. P'ang pointed to the snow f a l l i n g i n the sky and said, "Lovely snow, flake by flake, i t f a l l s yet does not land i n separate places." A disciple names Ch'uan^" asked, "Where does i t f a l l ? " P'ang slapped him once. Ch'uan said, "Lay brother, don't be so rough." P'ang said, "How do you c a l l yourself a disciple of Zen, the old King of Hell hasn't l e t you go yet." Ch'uan said, "And what about yourself, lay brother?" P'ang slapped him again and said, "You see as i f blind, talk as i f dumb." At this point, Hsueh-tou interjects, "At the f i r s t question, he should just have rolled up a snowball and hit him with i t . " ^ * 145 No. 91 Instructing the Cook i n the Mountains Kuei-tsung's one flavor could be enjoyed day after day and s t i l l have more to give. Cook, here i n the mountains, your s k i l l i s not i n vain. Stop seeking for Vimalakirti's Feast of Massed Fragrances. When shall we have just two tasty f i s h on the table. fa SB If — % H e ill 44 ii in it 146 No.' 91 notes: Instructing the Cook i n the Mountains: This poem occurs within a group of poems about l i f e i n the mountains: No. 88, Mountain Road (not translated here), Nos. 89, 9 0 , "In the Mountains" (see Arntzen, p. 117, 118), and No. 92, "In the Mountains Getting a Letter from Nanko" jlf) ^Jt- (not translated). The poem, "Mountain Road" has as a sub-title, the place name Yuzuriha UlL x).^  . I t i s l i k e l y that a l l the poems of this group date from Ikkyu's period of retreat at Yuzuriha (located between present-day Takatsuki >^f? /j^ JL and Kameoka 1*^? )^ and that i s recorded i n the Nempu as follows: The master's forty-ninth year (1442). Ikkyu came for the f i r s t time to Yuzuriha mountain and rented a farm house there. There are poems about this l i v i n g i n the mountains. Later he established the Shida-dera ^ t i and moved into i t . Those disciples who missed him and came to him there were a l l the sort who could forget there own comfort for the sake of the Dharma. Therefore, they gathered f i r e wood and dipped water from the torrents. The mountain road was twisted and f u l l of p i t f a l l s . They worked diligently m r t i r i n g . 6 3 One of their hardships must certainly have been rough, plain fare, hence this poem. 147. Kuei-tsung's one flavor: allusion to the Wu Teng Hui Yuan: A monk was taking his leave. Kuei-tsung asked, "Where are you going?" The monk said, "I'm going here and there to study the Zen of Five flavors." Kuei-tsung said, "Other places may teach the Zen of Five flavors; here I have only the Zen of one flavor." "And what i s the Zen of one flavor?" said the monk. Kuei-tsung hit him. "I under-stand, I understand." "Then t e l l me, t e l l me." Just as the monk opened his mouth, Kuei-tsung hit him again. VimalakirtiSs Feast of Massed Fragrances: In the Chapter entitled "The Buddha of Massed Fragrances" of the Vimalakirti gutra, r o l l 10, Sariputra i s worried about what to feed the assembled Budhisattvas. Vimalakirti t e l l s him the Buddha taught release from a l l material things. How can one desire both to eat and to hear the Dharma? However, i f there are those who want to eat, just wait a moment. Vimalakirti conjures up an il l u s o r y Bodhisattva and sends him to the land of the Buddha of Massed Fragrance. He returns with a vase of the ambrosia of that land, the fragrance of which astonishes them a l l . As they are about to eat, Vimalakirti invites them, saying, "Come and partake of the Tathagata's sweet nectar and ambrosia that 65 i s perfumed with great compassion, two tasty fish: an allusion to two lines i n a poem of Tu Fu's called "Li-kan's house" About to eat the two tasty f i s h , Who would look for the heaviness of other flavors? 149. No. 107 One of Nine Poems Composed on the Day of the "Double Yang" Festival These days accomplished monks of long training Are mesmerized by their own words and c a l l i t a b i l i t y . At Crazy Cloud's hut, there i s no a b i l i t y but a flavor; He boils a cup of rice i n a broken-footed cauldron. iff is? if ii t il it & M I fit H 150. No. 10? notes: the "Double Yang" festi v a l : the ninth day of the ninth month. In the cosmology of the I Chlng, nine i s the most yang of numbers, therefore this day was celebrated as a time of double yang influence. There i s a prose introduction to the 6 ? set of poems of which this poem i s the eighth. I t explains the none-too-joyful circumstances surrounding the composition of the poems. (Arntzen, p. 92) Because of p o l i t i c a l trouble at the Daitokuji, Ikkyu had retreated to the mountains, apparently resolved to starve himself to death i n protest. a broken-footed cauldron: an allusion to the "last admonition" of Daito: Now, i f there i s one who practices righteousness i n the wilds, who i n a l i t t l e hut passes his day eating vegetables boiled i n a broken-footed cauldron, who has completely penetrated and c l a r i f i e d his own nature, such a one day by day looks this old monk i n the eye and returns the favor of my teaching. 151. Nos. 110, 111, ft 0 t f H - S t @ ft <a i $ 0.4 l/\D k i t t i t 1 5 2 . Wind Bell two poems No. 110 In the stillness i t echoes not, i n movement i t rings; Is i t the wind or the b e l l that has a voice? Waking up this old monk from his day-time nap, What need i s there to sound the midnight watch at noon? No. I l l The realm of the senses i s outrageous. Beatiful this clear sound, f a i n t l y i n the cold. Old Rascal P'u-hua had l i v e l y tricks; Harmonizing with the wind, i t hangs above the polished balustrade. 153 No. 110 notes: Is i t the wind or the b e l l that has a voice?: allusion to the Ch'uan Teng Lu chapter on the Sixth Patriarch, Eui-neng ^ H t ( 6 3 8 - 7 1 3 ) ; Two monks were arguing over a banner fluttering i n the evening wind. One said, "The banner moves." The other said, "The wind moves." Hui-neng said, "Truly neither the 69 wind nor the banner moves; the movement i s i n the mind." 7 What need i s there to sound the midnight watch at noon: allusion to the words of Te-shao 4^ 1st? (891-972) about the teachings of Lin-chi, " I f you want to understand the meaning therein, 70 strike the midnight watch at noon." 154. No. I l l notes: fa i n t l y i n the cold...Old rascal P'u-hua: Most of the T'ang masters were quite eccentric i n their conduct, but the most extravagantly unconventional of them a l l was P'u-hua. His antics are recorded i n the Lin-chi l u . " i n the cold" alludes to the miraculous circumstances surrounding his death: One day P'u-hua went about the streets asking people he met for a one-piece gown. They a l l offered him one, but P'u-hua declined them a l l . Lin-chi had the steward of the temple buy a coffin, and when P'u-hua came back the Master said: "I've fixed up a one-piece gown for you." P'u-hua put the coffin on his shoulders and went around the streets calling out: "Lin-chi fixed me up a one-piece gown. I'm going to the East Gate to depart this l i f e . " A l l the townspeople scrambled after him to watch. "No, not today," said P'u-hua, "but tomorrow I ' l l go to the South Gate to depart this l i f e . " After he had done the same thing for three days, no one believed him any more. On the fourth day not a single person followed him to watch. He went outside the town walls a l l by himself, got into the coffin, and asked a passer-by to n a i l It up. 1 5 5 . The news immediately got about. The townspeople a l l came scrambling; on opening the coffin, they saw he had vanished, body and a l l . Only the sound of his b e l l could be heared 71 i n the sky, f a i n t l y receding into the distance...' Harmonizing with the wind, i t hangs above the polished balustrade: This line as a whole i s taken from a sermon by Hsu-t'ang, who In turn had borrowed the line from a poem by the Five Dynasties poet Hsu Chung-ya ^ f l t . Hsu-fang's sermon: Rising i n the h a l l to lecture, he said, "In the valley forest leaves f a l l , the voices of the frontier geese are cold. Seeing through the koan i s very d i f f i c u l t , very d i f f i c u l t . A hundred iron balls scatter. Harmonizing with the wind, i t hangs above the polished balustrade. 7 2 Hsu Chung-ya1s poem: She rises at dawn, fearful of the spring cold, Lightly raising the vermilion blinds, gazes at the camellia. Not a handful of willow f l u f f to gather. Harmonizing with the wind, i t hangs above the polished 7 3 balustrade. No. 113 Half a Cloud (name for a study) One wisp, rootless, shifting, a spot i n the blue sky;— Any safe firmly established l i f e i s just therein. Dream s p i r i t last night i n the rain at Wushan; The singing stops, morning comes, one fragment remains. t < ft a A it u h Ik 157. No. 113 notes: Any safe, firmly established l i f e : See No. 54 for the same expres-sion. Dream s p i r i t , last night i n the rain at Wushan: See the notes to No. 4 5 . 158. No. 115 Monastic librarian Shoen i s measuring up the ground and siting his house, "just a l i t t l e house, four plain walls". The plaque on the front w i l l say "Earth House", I have composed a poem to commemorate i t . As cool as a tree nest i n summer, as warm as a cave i n winter, comfortable for a body. Up to one's waist i n water, thrashing through the mud, a mind busy with ten thousand thoughts. I f you understand the t o i l of farming, Then you know that a l l these monasteries of sandalwood are scenes of greed and the quest for notoriety. 159 No.1 115 notes: Monastic Librarian Shoen: an unidentifiable person. "Just a l i t t l e house, four plain walls": the description of the hovel Ssu-ma Hsiang-ju "^ f ^ H^? and Wen-chun X_ ^ 7k lived i n after eloping. As cool as a tree nest i n summer...: a description of a comfor-75 table house. 160. No. 117 Straw Raincoat and Hat (name for a hermitage) Woodcutters and fishermen, their understanding and application i s perfect; What need have they of the Zen of carved chairs and meditation floors? Straw sandals and bamboo stick, roaming the Three-thousandfold World Sphere, Water-dwelling, wind-eating, twenty years. it A A ii , i 1 6 1 . No. 117 notes: Straw raincoat and hat: the raingear of peasants and pilgrims Three-thousandfold World Sphere: another abbreviation for the Great Three-thousand-milllonfold World Sphere. See the notes to No. 54. Water-dwelling, wind-eating for twenty years: Ikkyu uses this phrase to describe Daito Kokushi during his twenty years spent as a beggar around Gojo bridge. Nos. 120, 121. T V H % t I I %L it I) % ii ># ft 4 r 6/5 . — & fa ti Q « j •o fffj 4-ih If s si .— 4f 1 163. I t i s already more than twenty years since Master Kaso veiled his l i g h t . Now autumn i n 1452, the honorific t i t l e Daiki Koju Zenji (Zen Master of Great Opportunity, the Propagator of the Essential Message) has been conferred on him by imperial decree. So I have made Zen poems to offer to the monk Daiyu Yoso describing my feelings of congratulation. No. 120 For f i f t y years he shunned the dusty world, Fragrant sounding names, splendid fame, i s what kind of Zen? Tsu-hsii i n the evening of his l i f e , resorted to revolting behavior, Right before his eyes, he had the corpse lashed three hundred times. No. 121 How about Lan-tsan turning down the Imperial order? Sweet potatoes locked i n smoke i n the bamboo f i r e d stove. His "Great Activity" manifesting It s e l f , the true monk, On the master's face, throws slop water. 164 No. 120 notes: Master Kaso: Kaso Sodon -sj? ^ ||? (d.1428) Ikkyu's master, a stern man of rigorous virtue who preferred to keep to a small monastery i n Katada W then a rough port town on the shores of Lake Biwa }$A rather than have to observe the p o l i t i c a l intrigues that embroiled the large monasteries i n the capitol. Daiyu Yoso: As senior disciple of the same master Kaso, Yoso (1376^ 1459) was Ikkyu's elder brother i n a religious sense. Relations between the two "brothers" were never very good, however. One of their quarrels i s mentioned i n the notes to No. 3 3 . Tsu-hsii, i n the evening,..: an allusion to the Shih Chi, r o l l 6 6 . Tzu-hsu's father and elder brother had been k i l l e d by the King of Ch'u • Tzu-hsu therefore went over to the enemy state of Wu to help bring about Ch'u's defeat. When the armies of Wu conquered Ch'u, Tzu-hsu was disappointed to find that the King was already dead. In order to satisfy his desire for revenge, he had the corpse exhumed and lashed three hundred times. Tzu-hsu's reply to c r i t i c s of his behavior was, "I am i n the evening of my l i f e and s t i l l have far to go, therefore I have overturned-proper conduct and carried out my intention i n a revolting way.""^ 165. No. 121 notes: How about Lan-tsan...: Lan-tsan i s not a well-documented T'ang monk. He i s represented i n the Ch'uan Teng Lu only by one song of his own composition. A colorful legend, however, grew up around him: When Lan-tsan was livi n g as a hermit, the T'ang emperor Te-tsung ^ f ^ ^ f x heard of him and invited him to court. Lan-tsan was roasting sweet potatoes over a f i r e of cow-dung and would not even turn around to look at the imperial messenger. His nose running from the cold, he took a potato from the f i r e and began to eat. The messenger said, "Can't you even wipe your nose for His Majesty's messenger?" Lan-tsan replied, "I have no time to wipe my nose for the common likes of you." 7 8 In his own poem, he alludes to this event i n two terse lines, I did not pay court to the Fmperor. 79 What i s there to envy i n Kings and Dukes? "Great Activity": the l i t e r a l meaning of the Daiyu component of Yoso's name. 166 No. 126 Praising P'u-hua How could Topshan and Lin-chi match his conduct? At his mad antics on the street and i n the market place, the masses were alarmed. Of a l l the Zen monks who died either sitting or standing, few could equal him. Harmonious sound, faintly, a jeweled b e l l . 167. No. 126 notes: P'u-hua: See the notes to No. 111. Te-shan and Lin-chi: See the notes to No. 17. Of a l l the Zen monks who died either...: The manner i n which a Zen master died i s an important part of his biography. To die i n the f u l l lotus position after making one's la s t pro-nouncements i n verse was an ideal. P'u-hua's death, on the other hand, was certainly one of the most imaginative on record. 168. No. 128 Under One's Feet, the Red Thread Those who keep the rules are asses, those who break the rules are men. With as many different names as the sands of the Ganges are the ways of teasing the s p i r i t . The newborn infant i s bound with the threads of marital alliance. How many springs have the scarlet blossoms opened and fa l l e n . f*1 fa W A t m A it 4 it 1 6 9 . No. 128 notes: Under one's feet, the red thread: Is a partial quotation of the third of what i s commonly known as the "Three Pivotal Phrases" of Sung-yuan (d. 1209) who was a patriarch i n IkkyH's lineage. The f u l l question i s , "Why i s i t that under the feet of the 80 bright-eyed monk the red thread i s not yet severed?" This phrase appears independently i n the Sung-yuan yu lu; only later did i t come to be considered one of the "Three Pivotal 81 Phrases". Ikkyu took the "red thread" as a metaphor for passion. Nos. 140, 141. 170. 171. On Tiger Mount, the Snow Falls on Three Grades of Monks two poems No. 140 The piled snow at Shao-lln placed i n the mind, The koan completes i t s e l f for the upper rank fellow. The one i n the monk's quarters composing poems i s a layman with a shaved head; The one who i s hungry and talks of food i s also furyu. No. 141 The meditator and the poet are both stupid. The three grades of monks on a snowy day, so much controversy. I f Miao-hsi had a heart of great compassion, The monk who spoke of food would have got a Feast of Massed Fragrances. 172. No. 140,141. notes: On Tiger mount the snow f a l l s . . . : These two poems are based on an wrote: "In snowy weather there are three types of monks. The highest-grade monk i s i n the meditation hal l doing zazen. The middle-grade monk i s making his ink, taking up his brush and composing poems about snow. The lowest grade monk i s huddled round the f i r e p i t talking about food." Now i t i s winter i n the year 1127 on Tiger Mount, the snow i s f a l l i n g and the monks can a l l be divided into those three types. I laughed out loud and thought "So the words 82 of a former comrade were not mere fabricationsI" The piled snow at Shao-lin...: allusion to the koan about the Second Patriarch's interview with Bodhidharma. Bodhidharma was facing the wall. The Second Patriarch was standing i n the snow and cut off his own arm. "Master he said, "I have no peace of mind, I beg you to pacify my mind." Bodhidharma said, "Well show me your mind and I ' l l pacify i t for you." The Second Patriarch said, "But when I look for my mind, I can't find i t . " "There," said Bodhidharma, "I have pacified your mind." episode i n the Tavhui Wu-k'u where Master Ta-hui I I 6 3 ) reflects on the apt remarks of a former master: (1089-snowy day, once 173 Miao-hsi: which may be translated as "Wondrous Joy" i s a sobriquet of Ta-hui. great compassion...Feast of Massed Fragrances: allusion to the "Feast of Massed Fragrances" of the Vimalakirti Sutra. Vimalakirti describes the feast as "the Tatagatha's nectar and ambrosia perfumed with great compassion." See the notes to No. 91. 174. No. 145 Addressed to a Monk i n the Hall of Long Life When the k i l l i n g demons of impermanence are before you, To whom can you speak about the f i n a l prison? A hundred affairs are Impossible to s t i l l , the five desires are noisy, You want to bar the six windows of the senses, but the eight winds blow them open. ®L ii if &. fL & 4L M % # °t (A it & 175. No. 145 notes: The Hall of Extending Longevity: l i k e Nirvana Hall, a name for the Monastic infirmary. The five desires: the desires that arise from the five realms of perception, form, sound, fragrance, taste and texture. The six windows of the senses: the five senses plus thought. The eight winds: either things that agitate and delude the mind, gain and loss, disparagement and flattery, praise and slander, 84 pain and pleasure. 176 No. 153 jfskyamuni Practicing Ascetic Discipline For six years hunger and cold pierced his bones to the marrow. Ascetic discipline i s the mysterious teaching of the Buddhist patriarchs. I am convinced there i s no natural Sakyamuni1 Now i n the world patch-clad monks are just rice bags. T n 'ft % If /l - V ty if t l 177. No. 153 notes: Sakyamuni practicing ascetic discipline: s'akyamuni, the histori-cal Buddha, devoted himself to ascetic practices for six years. This poem was composed as an appreciatory verse for a s c r o l l by the painter Dasoku depicting s'akyamuni as an a s c e t i c . ^ 178. No. 161 Composing a Poem on the Dragon-Gate Pavilion to Congratulate the Reconstruction of the Tenryuji. The exhaustion of the potentialities of heaven and earth was the style of the founder. Ten thousand peaks, rugged Saga i n the misty rain. Three stages of high rough water, black cloud chains; The lurking carp, right there, achieve transfiguration into Divine Dragons. >W - * m \\ & M $ 41 % m ft % fa X M it p £ I 1 v\ H Jil ^ 4K 179 No. 161 notes: The Dragon Gate Pavilion...: Tenryujl ( l i t e r a l l y the Divine Dragon Monastery) was one of the largest and most important of the Muromachi Zen monasteries located, then as now, i n the Arashiyama $\ ilk d i s t r i c t of Kyoto beside the Hozu the Tenryujl precinct, of which the Dragon-Gate Pavilion was one. Its namesake, the original Dragon Gate, was the place on the upper reaches of the Yellow River where the carp were supposed to gather to attempt the f a l l s and become dragons. See the notes to No. 35. rugged Saga: another name for the Arashiyama d i s t r i c t . Saga means "rugged". Three stages of high rough water: a description of the Dragon Gate i n the Blue C l i f f Record . the appreciatory verse to koan No. 7. "At the three stages of high rough water, f i s h 86 turn into dragons." )jf river. There were ten famous landscapes within this school's founder: the i l l u s t r i o u s Muso Soseki (1275-1351) black cloud chains: an allusion to a poem i n the Chlang-hu Feng- yueh Chi wherein comes the line, "The ten thousand foot Dragon an Gate, chained i n black cloud." 180 No. 166 Praising the Dharma Master Tz'u-en K'uei-chi K'uei-chi*s samadhi alone, was by i t s very nature real. Wine, meat, the scriptures and beauties, The eye of the abbot was just l i k e t h i s . In our school, there i s only this So"jun. v.-rC? % d if el i it ft 181 No. 166 notes: Dharma Master Tz'u-en K'uei-chi: K'uei-chi ( 6 3 2 - 8 I ) i s the o f f i c i a l f i r s t Patriarch of the Fa-hsiang, Yogacara, school of Buddhism i n China. He was the disciple of Hsuan-tsang, the i l l u s t r i o u s and intrepid pilgrim, who brought an enormous collection of sutras from India and with'.them the transmission of the Yogacara teaching. I t was for K'uei-chi to write the commentaries to these sutras and to formulate the theoretical writings of the school. A legend persists about his uncon-ventional behavior, that, for example, he loved the sutras but could not give up wine and women. The legend probably reached Ikkyu through the Ts'ung-lin Sheng-shih , a Sung Zen text which has a biographical entry for K'uei-chi. The pertinent section thereof follows: Furthermore, when he saw the Emperor, he would not make obeisance. He just went to and fro, followed by three 88 carts f i l l e d with the sutras, wine, food and women." Hence, he became known as the "Three-Cart Monk". Stanley 89 Weinstein, i n a biographical study of K'uei-chi, v i r t u a l l y proves, by reference to the oldest, and often ignored, sources for K'uei-chi's biography, that the legend dates from the Sung period, that i t has no basis i n fact whatsoever. He suggests that K'uei-chi may well have been called disparagingly 182 the "Three-Cart Monk" i n Sung times, not for incontinent behavior but for his unique interpretation of the Lotus  Sutra. He asserted that "the doctrine of the Three Vehicles represents the ultimate truth of Buddhism, whereas the doctrine of the all-embracing One Vehicle which transcends the separ-ateness of the Three Vehicles i s only a provisional teaching, designed to lead the unenlightened to the truth of the Three Vehicles." Such an interpretation invited fierce criticism from members of other schools, for whom the One-Vehicle teaching of the Lotus was a cherished doctrine. Welnstein remarks that the failure of the o f f i c i a l Sung biographer to indicate this and "even worse, his inclusion of patently slanderous material...has resulted i n a manifestly unsympa-thetic attitude toward Tz'u-en on the part of many Buddhist historians, which has persisted i n one form or another to 90 the present day." Ironically, the aprocryphal legend that slurred K'uei-chi*s character, so far as most schools of Buddhism were concerned, made him a kind of hero for the Zen school, which has always valued unconventionality and s p i r i -t u a lity untainted by over-serious r e l i g i o s i t y . 183 No. 1?6 Addressed to a Monk at the Daitokuji Many are the men who enter Daito's gate. Therein who rejects the veneration of the master role? Thin rice gruel, coarse tea, I have few guests; A l l alone I sing drunkenly and f a l l over kegs of muddy sake. f ^ i t A I t ft A $ % ii §L t t X A in % n # ii % & < 4 M & % if a H is % n 184. No. 180 Po-chang Fasting The Zen master Ta-chih trod a path d i f f i c u l t to follow, For the sake of people of the f i n a l Dharma, truly dropping to the ground. Those who have glutted and soused shall get molten metal ba l l s . Then they w i l l f i r s t learn to fear YaraariQa at the Yellow Springs.1 ih JL % % T il m it 1 il 1 il ii M 185. No. 180 notes: Po-chang fasting: Po-chang (749-814) was the f i r s t monk to draw up a code of discipline particularly suited for Zen temples. His f i r s t and most celebrated rule was "a day of no work i s a day of no eating". When Po-chang was very old, he s t i l l would not put his gardening tools aside. His disciples could not bear to see him to i l i n g i n the fi e l d s , and so one day hid his tools. Po-chang said, "I may be useless, but I w i l l 91 not beg for alms." Thereupon he stopped eating. 7 Ta-chi: an honorific name for Po-chang The people of the f i n a l Dharma: As the time between the l i f e of the Buddha and the present lengthens, so i t becomes more d i f f i c u l t to get enlightenment. Yamaraja: originally the King of Twilight but then by extension the King of Hell. 186 No. 184 Presented to a Congregation As for the Immortal of Forbearance and the Bodhisattva Never-Disparaging, The f r u i t of their enlightenment was f u l l and already complete. I f one ignores karma, one gives oneself to selfish baseness And becomes a blind man leading the blind. n XL % If % Ah 18?. No. 184 notes: The Immortal of Forbearance: This Immortal, who with no sense of self or other, practiced forbearance, appears i n the Diamond 92 Sutra. The Bodhisattva Never-Disparaging: a figure from the Lotus Sutra, whose attribute was a profound respect for a l l i n the universe, ...when he saw the fourfold multitude from afar, he would make a special point of going to them, doing obeisance, and uttering praise, saying, "I dare not hold you a l l i n contempt, since you are a l l to become Buddhast" Within the fourfold multitude were some who gave way to anger, whose thoughts were impure, who reviled him with a foul mouth...V yet he did not give way to anger but constantly 9 3 said, "You shall a l l become Buddhasl" 188 No. 187 h it ^7 •0 fa it ik if-41 71C If ft I- 3! A ft f C7 7]C T l\ ^7 & -7 It t & 4- Jt M Or a.? tn t 189. No. 187 Master Sung-yuan rose to lecture and presented this case. A monk once asked Pa-ling: "Are the meaning of the Zen Patriarchs and the Teaching of the Buddha the same or different?" Pa-ling said, "Chickens,when they are cold, roost i n trees; geese, when they are cold, settle i n the water." Gur ancestor Po-yiin said: "Pa-ling said only half of i t . I would say i t differently: Scoop up water and the moon i s i n your hands, play with flowers and their frgrance f i l l s your clothes." Our Master Sung-yuan In f i n a l retort said: Po-yiin, even though he put a l l he had into what he said, gets only eight points. I f someone were to ask me, I would just say: the ignorance of selfhood i s stuck on one stick. Are the meaning of the Patriarchs and the Teaching different or the same? The measuring up, now and then, never ends. Old Sung-yuan, kind as a grandmother, t e l l s us That the ignorance of distinguishing selfhood beings with ourselves. 19.0. No. 18? notes: Master Sung-yuan rose to lecture: Master Sung-yuan was one of the patriarchs of Ikkyu's spiritual lineage. (See the notes to 94 No. 128.) This discourse from the Sung-yuan yu l u presents i n chronological order some of the definitive views on the question of whether the meaning of Zen and Buddhism proper i s different or the same, a question almost as old as the school of Zen i t s e l f . Sung-yuan f i r s t presents the opinion of T'ang Dynasty monk, Pa-ling, one of the numerous f i r s t -generation progeny of Yun-men, then the view of Po-yiin (1025-1072), an early Sung monk some six generations before Sung-yuan himself i n the same l i n e . Altogether, then, counting Ikkyu's poem, we have four different generations of comment on this question. As this example demonstrates, by the Sung Dynasty i t was v i r t u a l l y impossible to speak of any of the basic questions of the school without referring to some of the more famous pronouncements that had already been delivered on the subject. This i s the tradition that informs Ikkyu's style of philosophical comment and one of the reasons why his poetry i s so studded with allusions. No. 188 Nirvana Hall The eyes' light f a l l e n to the earth, Nirvana Hall Remorse and shame, a soup with a crab i n i t ; Seven arms, eight legs suffer ten thousand kalpas of pain. The k i l l e r demons of impermanence are busy with their burning chariots. 192. No. 188 notes: Nirvana Hall: See the notes to No. 3 3 . The eyes' light f a l l e n to the ground...a soup with a crab i n i t ; This metaphor for i l l n e s s originated with Yun-men, One day when the eyes' ligh t f a l l s to the ground, what would you compare i t to? There i s nothing that resembles i t so much as a crab thrown into the soup pot with i t s 95 legs and arms f l a i l i n g around.7 193. No. 203 In Choroku i n the l?th year of the sexagenery cycle (1460) the 29th of the 8th month, there was a great Typhoon and flood; the people are a l l suffering. Yet tonight someone i s having a fe s t i v i t y with feasting and music. Unable to l i s t e n to i t , I made a poem to console myself. Typhoon, flood, suffering for ten thousand people; Song, dance, flutes and strings, who sports tonight? In the Dharma, there i s flourishing and decay, i n the kalpas there i s increase and decline. "Let i t be, l e t the bright moon sink behind the Western pavilion." A 4 A m & It tit A ^ it I'L H T 0 ii * f I t A A o Off s fifl t < 194, No. 203 notes: Let i t be, l e t the bright moon...: a line taken from a poem by the T'ang poet L i I J% ;§2Z , entitled, "Pouring forth my feelings", where he laments the death of his lover. On this smooth bamboo mat, water-patterned, my thoughts d r i f t far away; A thousand miles to make the tryst, now i n one night, i t i s over. From here on, I have no heart to enjoy lovely nights. Let i t be, l e t the bright moon sink behind the Western 96 Pavilion. 1 9 5 . No. 205 \h ^ x & ± %>14L%WM I>A$ &^ "£lip I ;A Ii tH#F$ — £ 4fe & 41 $ y< I, -I # 0 I %AiM & Ufa . 196. No. 205 Po Chii-i asked Master Bird Nest, "What i s the broad meaning of Buddhism?" Bird Nest said, "Do no e v i l , do much good." Po Chu-i said, "But a three-year-old child could understand a teaching l i k e that." Bird Nest replied, "A three-year-old child may be able to say i t but there are eighty year-old men who cannot practice i t . " Old Master Ryozen used to say: I f i t were not for this one phrase of Bird Nest, our followers would a l l get bogged down i n 'From the beginning, not one thing' •Not thinking of good, not thinking of e v i l ' 'Good and e v i l are not two' 'False and true, one reality' and a l l the rest, so that i n the end they would ignore karma and the world would just be f u l l of false teachers, impure i n their daily l i v e s . " So now on this topic, I, Ikkyu, have composed a poem and instructed a congregation with i t . Students who ignore karma are sunk. That old Zen master's words are worth a thousand pieces of gold, Do no e v i l , do much good. I t must have been something the Elder sang while drunk. 197. No. 205 notes: Po Chii-i (772-84): the famous: T'ang poet. Master Bird Nest: Niao-k'e (741-824). Niao-k'e means l i t e r a l l y "Bird Nest", a nickname he apparently received because he slept i n a tree. While a l l monk's names have meaning, I chose to translate this one because i t adds to the humour of the story, and the drollery of the name i s something Ikkyu himself played with i n another poem about Bird Nest, No. 177 (not translated here), which begins, "His nest must have been cold, that old Zen codger up i n the tree." The record of this encounter between Bird Nest and Po Chu-i appears i n 97 the Ch'uan Teng Lu. Ikkyu's foundness for this story and i t s "moral" i s attested to by two large scrolls i n his own powerful hand that say, "Do no e v i l . " "Do much good." Master Byozen See the notes to No. 3 3 . I t must have been something the Elder - sang while drunk: "Drunk-enly Singing" was a sobriquet of Po Chu-i's; therefore this last line c a l l s him back into the picture. The term here translated "Elder" i s not normally applied to Zen monks. 198. No. 206 I admonished my followers saying, "If you are going to drink sake, then you must always drink muddy sake, and for t i d b i t s just have the dregs. This i s why the latte r are sometimes called fdry sake 1." Thereupon I made a poem, laughing at myself: Men i n the midst of their drunkenness what can they do about their wine-soaked guts? Sober, at the l i m i t of their resources, they suck the dregs. The lament of him who "embraced the sands" and cast himself into the river by Hsiang-nan Draws out of this Crazy Cloud, a laugh. a m 11 7A A ii ft 1>L \3 1 9 9 . No.1 206 notes: muddy sake: unrefined sake, which by virtue of having skipped a phase i n the brewing process costL much less. tidbits: refers to the snacks i t i s s t i l l customary i n Japan to eat with sake. A cheap variety of snack was dried sake lees, so that 'here Ikkyu i s joking about the fact that the monks are not only drinking sake but eating i t as well. Drunk among the masses...: The f i r s t three lines of the poem allude to the Shih Chi account of the suicide of Ch'u Yuan, the celebrated author of the Ch'u Tz'u "Songs of Ch'u" and archetype of the frustrated virtuous o f f i c i a l : When Chliyuan reached the banks of the Yangtze..., a fisherman happened to see him and asked, "Are you not the high minister of the Royal family? What has brought you to this?" " A l l the world i s muddied i n confusion," replied CHu-yuan, "Only I am pureI A l l men are drunk, and I alone am soberI For this I have been banishedt" "A true sage does not stick at mere things, but changes with the times," said the fisherman, "If a l l the world i s a muddy turbulence, why do you not follow i t s current and rise upon i t s waves? I f a l l men are drunk, why do you not drain their dregs and swill their thin'wine with them? Why 200. must you cling so tightly to this jewel of virtue and bring banishment upon yourself?" Crfu Yuan replied: "... What man can bear to s o i l the cleanness of his person with the f i l t h you c a l l 'mere things'? Better to plunge into this never ending current beside us and find an end i n some river fish's bellyt Why should radiant whiteness be clouded by the world's v i l e darkness?' Then he composed a poem, i n the rhyme prose style, entitled "Embracing the Sands." .... With this he grasped a stone i n his arms and, 98 casting himself into the river, drowned.7 Ikkyu i n other poems expresses great admiration for and empathy with Ch'u-yuan. Ikkyu sometimes saw himself as a man of lonely virtue doggedly supporting a hopeless cause. S t i l l , insofar as he expressed himself from a point of view free of self-pity and removed from dualistic morality, the Fisherman was talking li k e a Zen master. 201. 202, No. 209 In the Three Reflections of Master Fo-yen Ch'ing-yuan, i t i s said: "Reward and retribution, cause and effect are empty hallu-cinations, you cannot force anything. What does the floating world amount to; one i s rich or poor depending on one's household. Pain and pleasure; adversity and prosperity; the Way l i e s i n the middle. Agitated and calm; cold and hot, I am ashamed of myself, remorseful." Self reproach, shame, hot and cold. Just have a look, i n the Triple Sphere, there i s no s t a b i l i t y . Ignorance Is truly the pleasure of the masses; A taste of honey and we forget the disaster at the bottom of the well. 2 0 3 . No. 209 notes: the Three Reflections of Master Fo-yen Ch'ing-yuan: The "Three Reflections" of Fo-yen (1067-1120) appear i n the Ku-tsun-su  Ytt-lu." Ikkyu cites the third of the three. I am ashamed of myself: Presumably he i s ashamed of allowing him-self to be caught up i n the vicissitudes of l i f e . Triple Sphere: This term designates the realm i n which the myriad beings are caught i n the endless transmigration of birth and death. A taste of honey and we forget...: reference to a parable that has i t s original source i n the Pin-t'ou-lu Wei Wang Shuo Fa Ching*^ but which also appears i n the Zen work, Wei-shan 101 Ching-ts'e. A paraphrase of the parable, as Hirano pre-sents i t , follows: On a wide plain a man, encountering a great f i r e and chased by a mad elephant, took refuge i n a dry well. Above the well, a vine was hanging on which he climbed into the well. However,, at the. bottom of the well were three poison-ous dragons and four poisonous snakes. Moreover, two rats, one black and one white, were gnawing away at the vine.1 Just at that moment, a stinging bee l e t a l i t t l e 204, honey drop into his mouth. Craving more honey, the man forgot a l l his troubles. The wide plain i s the Triple Sphere; the elephant i s the demon of lmpermanence; the vine i s l i f e ; the rats are the sun and moon; the well i s hel l ; the three dragons are the poisons of covetousness, anger and stupidity; the four snakes are the four great elements of earth, water, f i r e and wind; the bee i s the five desires. When we begin to crave the objects of desire, 102 we forget .'the woes of birth and death. 205,, No. 210 Composing a Poem and Trading i t For Food As one goes to and fro i n the KLgashiyama d i s t r i c t , old times are as though now. When you are starving, a bowl of rice i s worth a thousand pieces of gold. For the lichees, old Ch'ing-su returned the Buddha Devil koan. I am ashamed to sing of l y r i c a l feeling, of wind and moon. t J 1 Ok X 41 it b, it A 4 t tip 206. No. 210 notes: the Higashiyama d i s t r i c t : here loosely refers to the Kenninji where Ikkyu f i r s t studied Chinese poetry at the age of 13. For the lichees, old Ch'ing-su...: Ch'ing-su, a Sung dynasty promising virtue i n Ikkyu's personal mythology. He missed perfection by making the single mistake of instructing one pupil and becoming embroiled i n the question of the c e r t i f i c a -tion of enlightenment. The koan Ch'ing-su put to this one student, however, i s one greatly admired by Ikkyu. Here i s the account i n the Ch'uan Teng Lu: There was one Ch'ing-su who had studied a long time with Tz'u-ming. He dwelt i n retirement and would not have anything to do with other people. One day Tou-shuai "^ p was eating honey-preserved lichees. Ch'ing-su happened to pass his door. Shuai called out, "These are f r u i t from my old village, please share them with me." Ch'ing-su said, "Since my former master died, a long time ago, I have not had a chance to eat this f r u i t . " Tou-shuai said, "And who was your former Master?" Ch'ing-su said, "Tz'u-ming. I had the honor of serving him f o r only thirteen years." -Tou-shuai was astonished. "If you were equal to symbol of uneom-20?.. serving him thirteen years, how could you f a i l to understand his Path?" Then, he gave him the remaining lichees and came gradually to know him. There follows an interlude where Ch'ing-su discusses the former masters i n their l i n e . Tou-shuai, more impressed than ever with Ch'ing-su's understanding, begs for further instruction. Ch'ing-su at f i r s t modestly declines but f i n a l l y relents and says: You have a go at t e l l i n g me a l l that you have understood about l i f e . " Tou-shuai t e l l s him everything he has experienced. Ch'ing-su says: ".You may have entered the realm of the Buddha but you are not yet able to penetrate the realm of the Devil.i» A W 208. No. 216 Fisherman Learning the Way, studying Zen, they run afoul of the Buddha's original mind. One tune from the fisherman i s worth a thousand pieces of gold. Rain at dusk on the Hsiang river, the moon among the clouds of Ch'u. Furyu without end, night after night singing. I t f 4? A. I f it 4- 4-A & A y 2 0 9 , No. 216 notes: fisherman: Hirano remarks that poems romanticising the l i f e of fishermen occur quite often i n Zen literature of the Sung 105 period. Ikkyu inherited this tradition. Hsiang river...the clouds of Ch'u: These place names c a l l up Ch'u-yuan's encounter with the fisherman on the banks of the Hsiang. See notes to No. 2 0 6 . furyu: See notes to No. 52. 2 1 0 . No. 223 Addressed to a Monk Who Killed a Cat In my group, there i s a l i t t l e Nan-ch'iian; With a f l i c k of the wrist he k i l l e d the cat, the koan i s complete. Mistaken, he regretted that, i n practising this teaching; He disturbed i t s nap under the peony blossoms. 1! ft ft H T M A f 211, No. 223 notes: Addressed to a monk who k i l l e d a cat...Little Nan-ch'uan: See notes to No. 44 and No. 52 for the Nan-ch'uan koan. One can only surmise the circumstances surrounding this poem. Perhaps, one monk striving to break through the Nan-ch'uan koan actually k i l l e d a cat. . . . i t s nap under the peony blossoms: an allusion to a dialogue between Ta-kuan recorded i n the Wu Teng Hui Yuan: Ta-kuan said, "What i s i t l i k e , when halfway through the night, the true brightness of Heaven dawns without dew?" 106 Ku-yln said, "Under the peony blossoms sleeps a cat." No. 234 About Disturbances at the Daitokuji The Zennists fight over Zen, the poets over poetry; On the horns of a snail appear safety and danger. The knife that k i l l s , the sword that makes men l i v e -Only the lovely lady of Ch1ang-hsln knows. it Jus % A. >i m At 1\ 4 < L X 4f & 4 "J 1 it ii 2 1 3 , No. 234 notes: On the horns of a snail: a proverb equivalent to "a storm i n a tea pot" drawn from the Chuang Tzu: There i s a creature calledithe snail.... On top of i t s l e f t horn i s a kingdom called Buffet, and on top of i t s right horn i s a kingdom called Maul. At times they quarrel over territory and go to war, strewing the f i e l d with corpses by the ten thousands, the victor pursuing the 107 vanquished for half a month before returning home." the sword that k i l l s , the sword that makes men l i v e : This phrase 108 appears i n the capping poem to Wu-men kuan case 11. the lovely lady of CVang-hsin: reference to Lady Pan of the Han Dynasty, the favorite concubine of the emperor until she was displaced by the infamous Chao Fei-yen . She wrote a poem expressing her sorrow over loss of favor. (See notes to No. 293) Afterwards, she requested to retire and serve the dowager Rmpress at Ch'ang-hsin palace. Hirano suggests she i s a symbol here of someone removed from conflict 109 who can view i t with a cool objective eye. 214. No. 240 Congratulating Elder Ki on the New Construction of Eagle T a l l Monastery and Inquiring after His Leprosy. On Eagle Peak, he constructs a grand monastery. By building, mountains are crumbled, c l i f f s are torn apart. Your five organs rot, making pus and blood; The yellow robe over your leprous flesh i s a stinking sweat rag. iK Ax 1 JL jt # in m 215.. No. 240 notes: Elder Ki: §6ki ^ft_ ;>^. a disciple of and spiritual heir to Y5so. (See the notes to No. 120.) He was also heir to the vehement disparagement Ikkyu had formerly heaped on Y6*so. Eagle T a i l Monastery: Where exactly this may have been and the circumstances surrounding i t s construction are not known. Leprosy: Those who f a l s i f y the Dharma were thought to contract leprosy. In the Jikaishu "Self admonitions", Ikkyu graphically 110 describes Yoso dying of leprosy. Here S5ki i s accused of contracting the same disease. This poem i s the third i n a series of ten which revile him, principally for the building project but for other transgressions as well. I translated this one, i t must be confessed, because i t was the most out-rageous of them a l l . 216, No. 244 notes: furyu: see notes to No. 52. Tz'u-ming's narrow path: Tz'u-ming (986-1040) was a Sung dynasty master. His student Yang-ch'i Ji^fa {Jjj^. fit the moment of enlightenment asked him, "If two people meet on a narrow path, what happens?" Tz'u-ming said, "You back up and I ' l l go over there."*** Hirano suggests "narrow path" can also mean a narrow alley i h the brothel d i s t r i c t ; hence,perhaps 112 i t s mention here i n a poem c r i t i c i s i n g unseemly alliance. Part of the personal mythology Ikkyu associated with Tz'u-ming concerned his cohabitation with an old woman. In poem No. 298 "Love Vows" (not translated here), he makes explicit his own idea about their relationship. The l i t t l e love song: See the notes to No. 66. This poem i s the seventh i n the same series as No. 240. Here Elder Kl i s attacked for lechery. I t i s interesting that two allusions having very positive connotations elsewhere, the " l i t t l e love song" and the Tz'u-ming reference, because of the context become quite negative and sarcastic. The same can be said of the term furyu. No. 2kk So furyu. admitting nuns to his c e l l ; I t makes one think of Tz'u-ming's narrow path. One i s rent by the graceful hand put forth, Secretly humming the " l i t t l e love song". No. 249 Thanking a Man for the G i f t of Salty Soya Sauce Reckless, natural, for thir t y years, Crazy Cloud practices this kind of Zen. A hundred flavors of meat and drink i n one cup; Thin gruel, twig tea belong to the True Transmission. Two Pieces Composed While 111 No. 250 A monk who has broken the precepts for eighty years, Repenting a Zen that has ignored cause and effect. When i l l , one suffers the effect of past deeds; Now how to act i n order to pay off kalpas of bad karma. No. 251 Beautiful feast, who w i l l prepare the pair of fishes? The love song koan, useless i n daily practice. A body singing l u s t f u l tunes, white snow on my head, Before my eyes, weeds not yet plowed. 221. No. 251 notes: pair of fishes: See notes to No. 91. the love song koan: See notes to No. 66. weeds not yet plowed: allusion to the Lin-chi Lu. A lecture master asked, "The Twelve-fold Teaching of the Three Vehicles reveal the Buddha nature, do they not?" 113 Lin-chi said, "Your weeds are not yet plowed." 222. No. 254 Picture of an Arhat Sporting at a Brothel The Arhat has l e f t the dust, no more desire. Playful games at the brothel, so much desire. This one i s bad, this one i s good. The monk's s k i l l , Devil-Buddha desire. tt *P # ft 5 "il ;l g ^ # *z $ 223. No. 254 notes: Arhat: See notes to No. 78. Sporting at a brothel: This i s one of two poems on the same subject. For the other see Arntzen, p. 127. desire: As this translation t r i e s to indicate, the rhyme word i n a l l three lines i s the same, that i s , ch'ing/jo'l^ . This word has, however, a wide range range of meanings from "heart", "feeling", hence "passion" to the less subjective "circum-stances" or "conditions". The meaning of ch'ing/jo i n the last line i s ambiguous. 224. No. 280. Remorse Over Sins for Which My Tongue Should Be Pulled Out With Spears of words, how many men have I killed? Composing religious odes, putting forth poems, my brush has reviled men. Seven flowers torn eight ways, sin on the t i p of my tongue; At the Yellow Spring, i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to escape the men i n the f i e r y carts. 225. No. 280 notes: Seven flowers torn eight ways: things torn seven or eight ways, therefore a metaphor for confusion and destruction which 114 appears sporadically i n Zen texts. The Yellow Spring: Hell 226. No. 291 The Correct S k i l l for Great Peace Natural, reckless, correct s k i l l ; Yesterday's c l a r i t y i s today's stupidity. The universe has dark and light, entrust oneself to change. One time, shade the eyes and gaze afar at the road of Heaven. - t 7 # * 0 fk M i& f 1L ii 4 X if ^  1 A 227 No. 291 notes: the road of Heaven: The expression, while unremarkable i n English, i s written with an unusual character for "road". Particularly i n conjunction with the sense of the third line, i t leads one to suspect an allusion to the I-ching, "Book of Changes", one of the earliest places where the expression occurs. In the Hexagram 26 "Taming Power of the Great", the f i n a l line, an auspicious prognostication, says, "What i s i t ? The great good fortune of the road of heaven."**^ 228. No. 292 The Correct S k i l l for a Disorderly Age The strong one must equip himself with the right view; Deluded notions i n keeping with the object manifest themselves. About a horse, one asks, "Do you have a good one or not?" They reply, "This sword i s sharp." ^ ~ l ii Vi il iL fi t U i i jE. •T i l A 229 No. 293 Reducing Desires and Knowing Contentment "A thousand mouths are none too many," so the rich family complains; • For the poor family i n hardship, even one i s too many. The carp i n the rivulet wished only for a ladleful of water. Next morning, a winter fan floats on the wide river. ft * % O M IS ft t f & H 1 % ?9 & & 4 - is X X 1 M & 23.0. No. 293 notes: a thousand mouths are not enough...: This appears to be a proverb that was appropriated by the Zen school. Hirano points out a place i n the Ch'uan Teng Lu where i t i s used for capping a 116 koan. Tt also appears i n the Hsu-t'ang l u i n this form, "The rich complain a thousand mouths are too few, the poor 117 lament that one body i s too many." the carp i n the rivulet: an allusion to the uExternal Things" chapter i n the Chuang Tzu, Chuang Chou's family was very poor and so he went to borrow some grain from the marquis of Chien-ho $$L/*[, The marquis said, "Why, of course! I ' l l soon be getting the tribute money from my f i e f ; when I do, I ' l l be glad to lend you three hundred pieces of gold. Wi l l that be a l l right? Chuang Chou flushed with anger and said, "As I was coming here yesterday, I heard someone calling me on the road. I turned around and saw that there was a perch i n the carriage rut. I said to him, "Come, perch—what are you doing here? He replied, "I am a Wave O f f i c i a l of the Eastern Sea. Couldn't you give me a dipperful of water so I can stay alive?" I said to him, "Why, of course\ I'm just about to start South to v i s i t the kings of Wu ^_ and 1 2 3 1 . Yuehjl$ . I ' l l change the course of the West River and send i t i n your direction. W i l l that be a l l right?" The perch flushed with anger and said, I've lost my element! I have nowhere to go! I f you can get me a dipperful of water, I ' l l be able to stay alive. But i f you give me an answer like that, then you'd best look for me i n a dried f i s h s t o r e . " 1 1 8 a winter fan floats on the wide river: Hirano sees the p o s s i b i l i t y of an allusion to a poem expressing a mother's desire to v i s i t her son i n far off Sung , from the Shih ching. Who says the river i s wide? There's not enough for a l i t t l e boat. Who says Sung i s far? 119 I t won't take a morning to reach i t . I am inclined rather to see an allusion to Lady Pan's poem, comparing a woman's loss of favor to a fan once autumn c h i l l s the a i r . To begin I cut fine s i l k of ch'i, White and pure as frost or snow, Shape i t to make a paired-joy fan, round, round as the luminous moon, to go i n and out of my lord's breast, when l i f t e d to s t i r him a gentle breeze. But always I dread the coming of autumn, cold winds that scatter the burning heat, 232. when i t w i l l be l a i d away i n a hamper, 120 love and favor cut off midway. Suffice i t to say the line has considerable evocative power. 2 3 3 . No. 306 Mutual Contradiction The second month, when the Buddha entered the quiescence of Nirvana, A single sword stroke severed both mind and body. Unborn, undying, the Buddha i s impossible to find; The flowers are bound to a spring where being and non-being contradict one another. ,—-A M A %i 'A it j l ii 4 ii ik 0L 234. No. 306 notes: the second month...quiescence of Nirvana: See the notes to No. 40. -235. No. 308 No One Sees I t the Same The mind flows lik e water through the four mindfulnesses never the same. The Buddha realm, Mara's fortress bestrides the thenand the now. Cold window, wind-blown snow, moon among the plum blossoms; The drinker toys with his cup, the poet hums a poem. is 'A Ml 4 k ft til A A 7 236. No. 308 notes: the four mindfulnesses: This i s a discipline of meditating on the "body" to realize i t s impurity, on "sensation" to realize that the perception of things pleasant and unpleasant i s the root of pain, on "thought" to realize i t s impermanence and - 121 on "objects" to realize their absence of self. 2 3 7 . No. 315 The Gentleman's Wealth The poet's wealth i s elegant phrases; In the world of scholarly elegance, days and months are long. Plum blossoms outside the window, the exaltation of poetic chant; The belly c h i l l s : snow, moon, dawn sky, frost. 238. No. 332 The Last Chrysanthemum i n the South Garden Late chrysanthemums by the East hedge, fading color i n autumn; As I face the Southern h i l l s for a while, my thoughts are far far away. The "Three Essentials", the "Three Mysteries", I do not understand at a l l ; The joy i n T'ao Yuan-ming1s song i s my kind of furyu. 8A 3£> 239* No. 3 3 2 notes: chrysanthemums by the East hedge...southern h i l l s : See notes to No. 7 7 . The "Three Essentials", the "Three Mysteries": stand for Lin-chi's teachings. The Master further said: "Each statement must comprise the Gates of the Three Mysteries, and the gate of each Mystery must comprise the Three essentials. There are temporary expedients and there i s functioning. How do a l l of you understand t h i s ? " 1 2 2 I do not understand at a l l : See notes to No. 77 . The line i n T'ao Yuan-ming's poem that Hightower translates, "I would l i k e to t e l l but lack the words," can also be translated, "I would t e l l but have already forgotten the words." Albeit only a difference i n nuance, the l a t t e r version i s perhaps closer to the way Ikkyu understood i t as he echoed i t with his own "I do not understand at a l l . " furyu: see the notes to No. 5 2 . No. 343 Subject and Object, Recollection of the Past Object i s mindless, the stone lantern land bare post; Subject distinguishes pearls from clods of earth. One night sing of f i f t y years ago, The waning moon over green mound, the rain on Wu-shan. 241. No. 343 notes: subject and object: See the notes to No. 54. This i s an allusion to Lin-chi*s "Four Propositions" that play with the permuta-123 tions of subject, object and the negations thereof. The stone lantern and the bare post: We have already met the bare post once i n Yiin-men*s koan about the old Buddha and the bare post. (See No. 45.) The stone lantern and the bare post are palred'vin the Lin-chi Lu. Then there are old shavepates who do not know bad from good. They point to the East and point to the West, "nice fine weather", "nice rain", "nice stone lantern", "nice 124 bare post." This i n turn apparently refers to a remark of Yang-shan 7>|' a contemporary of Lin-chi*s, who, when asked, "What i s the meaning of Bodhidharma coming from the West?", replied, "A 125 nice stone lantern." lady who was married off to the tartars because her lord did not become aware of her beauty unt i l too late. Green Mound: the tomb of Wang Chao-chun unfortunate the rain on Wu-shan: See the notes to No. 45. 242. No. 334 Two pieces of skin and one set of bones. Birds, bugs, horses and cows, furthermore Mara and Buddha. When the primordial chaos was not yet separated, the darkness was pitch black. The clouds and moon knew for whom they were beautiful. No. 344 notes: two pieces of skin and one set of bones: See the notes to No. 44. ;244. No. 352 Taking a Metaphor for Reality For this old coot, a daily practice since ages past, and now The koan "privately carriages pass" confuses clear and muddy. Last night, to the f a l l i n g leaves striking against the window, Forlorn, I listened and composed a poem about the sound of rain. 245, No. 352 notes: daily practice: the use of metaphor for instruction. The koan "privately carriages pass": appears i n the Lin-chi Lu. "Not so," disagreed Yang-shan. "Then what do you think?" asked Wei-shan. " O f f i c i a l l y a needle i s not permitted to enter; privately 126 carriages can get through." In principle, words as a vehicle for truth are denied by Zen, yet as expedient means they are resorted to constantly. said: "No words have actual signifii .cance. 246. No. 376 Within a hut, quietly singing beside the lamp; Following his own bent, unbound by any teaching, this poet-monk; A sad man inspired with spring, yet the night i s cold, On the figured slips of paper i n my sleeve the plum blossoms have frozen. i A 4-M t fa 247. No. 376 notes: Within a hut...beside the lamp: allusion to a koan of Hsiang-lin Someone asked, "What i s I t , a lamp i n a hut?' Hsiang-lin said, " I f three men t e s t i f y that i t ' s a turtle then i t ' s a tu r t l e . " The commentator to the Iwanami edition of the Blue C l i f f Record where this koan appears says of the phrase "the lamp" that i t represents "the great wisdom of seeing into the Buddha nature". For Ikkyu, i t had an added meaning of referring to the founder of the Daitokuji, Daito Kokushi, whose name means l i t e r a l l y "the great l i g h t " . "The lamp" then would refer to Ikkyu himself as the last beacon of the founder's virtue. However, both these layers of connotation are definitely subsidiary to the simple picture created by the line of a solitary figure humming to himself beside the lamp. figured slips of paper: patterned paper to write poems on. '248. No. 381 Recollecting the Past Love recollection, love longing, pain the breast; Poetry and literature a l l forgotten, not a single word remains. There i s only awakening to the path, not the mind to seek th© path. Yet today T sorrow over sinking into birth and death. 249. No. 383 The Stick How painful, when physical attachment i s very deep; Suddenly everything i s forgotten, prose and verse; I never knew before this natural happiness; S t i l l delightful, the sound of the wind soothing my thoughts. % f ft # No. 383 notes: the stick: the Zen master's stick used to rap students into awakening. 251. Utterly absorbed i n the dream of Wu-shan, night after night; Su, Huang, L i and Tu composed good poems. If you were to take lust and exchange i t for elegance, I t would be worth untold myriads of pieces of gold. 3? Ax A ft. m 252. No. 384 notes: dream of Wu-shan: See the notes to No. 45. Su, Huang, L i and Tu: Su Tung-po (1037-1101), Huang Shan-ku^C^L^ (1045-1105), L i Po ^  ^ (701-726), Tu Fu (712-770) and or Tu Mu (803-852), several of the great T'ang and Sung poets. No. 385 Deluded Enlightenment No beginning, no end, this mind of ours; I t does not achieve Buddhahood, the innate mind. Innate Buddhahood was the Buddha's wild talk. The beings' innate mind i s the path to delusion. & ^ *F # j t A & & jA & 4 i% 48. 41 i l 4% <\± U € % & & it ^ ; X V 254. No. 385 notes: Buddhahood: That a l l sentient creatures have the Buddha-nature and are capable of achieving Buddhahood i s an a r t i c l e of fa i t h i n Mahayana Buddhism, hence the twisting of the mind i n Chao-chou's koan. "Does the dog have the Buddha-nature?" "NoI" This poem i s both prosodically and philosophically 0 l i k e the Chao-chou koan i n that i t overturns accepted conven-tions. As i n poem No. 2 5 4 , the rhyme words are a l l one word, i n this case,/Vj> "mind". I neglected to point out i n No. 254 that such a practice would look quite inept from a conventional aesthetic standpoint. Also, within this very short poem, Ikkyu has managed to repeat other vocabulary items not only twice but three times, again a highly unortho-dox thing to do. I t was usually thought to demonstrate pau-c i t y of imagination that, given the wealth of Chinese vocabu-lary, one should have to use the same word twice i n a short poem. Yet, paradoxically, the poem's weakness i s i t s strength. The repetition of the blocks of Buddhist terminology set up a staccato rhythm that pounds home the unorthodox and unsettling message. 255.. Nos. 3 8 8 , 3 8 9 , 390 4 ^ 1 I 4 ii t 41 256. Addressed to a Monk Who Burned Books three poems No. 388 Shih-wang distinguished by nature the false from the true; The demon's curse, as i f seen i n the palm of the hand Have a look when the cataclysmic f i r e lays waste the universe, Books have an indestructible diamond nature. No. 389 Under a tree, on top of a boulder, i n a l i t t l e rush hut, Poetry, prose, the commentaries and digests a l l dwell together. I f you want to burn the old manuscripts i n your bag, You must f i r s t forget the books i n your belly. No. 390 In the belly, h e l l takes shape; Immeasurable kalpas of passion. Wild f i r e burns but never destroys i t ; The spring breeze blows and the grass grows again. 257. No. 388 notes: Shih Wang: the Ch'in Emperor who was the f i r s t ruler to unite China. Because he wished to have history begin with his own reign, he attempted to burn a l l history and literature written previously. His reign was brief. the demon's curse: presumably the Ch'in Emperor's fate to die without successors. The word translated as demon, Po-hsun more e v i l one", an ephithet for Mara. the cataclysmic f i r e : See the notes to No. 54. indestructible diamond nature: an allusion perhaps to the story of Te-shan burning his scriptural commentaries i n the f i r s t important i n Te-shan's early spiritual development, popular legend had Te-shan burn the Diamond Sutra. , i s a transcription of the Sanskrit papiyan, "the flush of enlightenment. 130 Since the Diamond Sutra was very No. 390 notes: Wild f i r e burns...: The last two lines paraphrase three lines of a poem by Po Chii-i, "Taking as a subject, the ancient plains grass, I send someone off." Luxuriant, the grass on the plain, In one year, withers and flourishes. The f i e l d f i r e bums but cannot destroy i t . When the spring wind blows, The fragrant grass encroaches on the ancient path; I t meets the azure sky and rough wall, As I send you off again, old friend, 131 My heart overflows with the feeling of parting. Comment: These three poems get progressively shorter, f i r s t a seven-word line, then a six-word line and f i n a l l y a five-word l i n e . I t i s almost as though the flames were licking away at them. 2 5 9 . No. 394 Lamenting Soldiers Dead i n the War Red-faced asuras, rank with the s p i r i t of blood, Screaming insults, i n wild movement, demolish heaven and earth. When they lose a battle, their skulls are s p l i t . Immeasurable millions of kalpas their ancient spi r i t s shall roam. U X H ii] if] •<07 it Iff it It m n t 260.. No. 394 notes: asuras: stands for warriors, since i n the Indian tradition the asuras having been expelled from Heaven were constantly at war with the gods. « No. 441 Hell In the Triple Sphere, there i s no stability, It's just l i k e a house on f i r e . "Here, Master?" Jui-yen answered, "Yes." n i & ^  ± ¥ t 2 6 2 ; No. 441 notes: Triple Sphere: See notes to No. 2 0 9 . l i k e a burning house: See notes to No. 46. "Here Master, Jui-yen: allusion to Wu-men kuan, case No. 1 2 . Jul i s supposed to have talked to himself as follows: "Hellow Master." "Yes." "Better sober up." "Yes." "Don't be fooled by others." 132 "Yes, yes." 263 Nos. 4 9 3 , 495 ^ _ - f Hi fi M M % IB 4% )& M ii ill ^§ Spreading Horse Dung to Cultivate the Mottled Bamboo No. 4 9 3 Baked potatoes and Lan-ts'an i s an old story; He did not seek fame and fortune, that too was furyu. Mutual longing without pause. This Lord's rain. Tears wiped away, singing alone, autumn by the Hsiang River. No. 4 9 4 Have a look, T nourish the phoenix mind. Swallows, sparrows, pigeons and crows are wild fowl. Lin-chi planted pine, Ikkyu plants bamboo; Of the monastery's pleasant ambience, la t e r people w i l l sing. 265. No. 493 notes: mottled bamboo: a variety of bamboo dappled with dark splotches. Popular legend explains the origin-r-of the mottling: i t Is said that when Lord Shun died on a tour of inspection to the South, his wives came as far as the Hsiang River and wept for him. Their tears f e l l on the bamboo, staining i t 133 for evermore. Thus another common name for mottled bamboo i s Hsiang-Wife Bamboo. Baked potatoes: See notes to No. 121. A detail of importance for this particular poem i s that Lan-ts'an was f i r i n g his oven with dried cow dung. The connection i s with Ikkyu" spreading dung for f e r t i l i z e r . furyu: See notes to No. 52. mutual longing without pause: one of the place names on the Hsiang River associated with the legend about Shun's wives i s the "Palace of Mutual Longing". "This Lord": another name for bamboo. I t s source i s i n the Chin  Shu. He (Wang-huei JL fjjiyv) was dwelling i n an empty house but ordered that bamboo be planted. Someone asked the reason; he only sighed and pointed to the bamboo, saying: 266. 134 "How can I l i v e a day without This Lord. s Lord's rain: metaphorically alludes to the tears Shun's wives shed on the bamboo; "rain" on the bamboo i s tears for their "Lord". 2 6 7 . No. 494 notes: Swallows, sparrows, pigeons and crows: an allusion to a statement the Ch'in Empire i n 209 B.C. When his fellow farm labourers mocked him for his ambition, he said, "Oh well, how could you l i t t l e sparrows be expected to understand the ambitions of a swan?"*"^ Lin-chi planted pine...: In the Lin-chi Lu, Huang-po comes across Lin-chi one day planting pines, When Lin-chi was planting pine trees, Huang-po asked: "What's the good of planting so many trees i n the deep mountains?" "Fir s t , I want to make a natural setting for the main gate. Second, I want to make a landmark for later generations," said Lin-chi, and thumped the ground with his mattock three times. "Be that as i t may, you've already tasted t h i r t y blows of my stick," replied Huang-po. Again Lin-chi thumped the ground with his mattock three times and breathed out a great breath. "Under you my line w i l l flourish throughout the world," 136 said Huang-po. man to lead a revolt against 268. Ikkyu plants bamboo: Ikkyu*s fondness for bamboo i s recorded i n the Nempu as well. South of the vegetable bed, Ikkyu had planted bamboo which had grown into a grove that was good for keeping cool. He suffered from the heat every summer, so he had a small pavilion b u i l t among the bamboo. They cut rushes for a roof and wove bamboo for a floor mat. Ikkyu would go there i n a sedan chair and spend half the day taking his ease. 2 6 9 . No. 512 Praising Master Lin-chi Katsu, katsu, katsu, katsu, katsut Meeting the occasion, he either k i l l s or gives l i f e . Devil demon eyes, Bright, bright as the sun and moon. -u, 4 Ik 4 S N it n ii 2 7 0 . No. 512 notes: katsu: the sound of. Lin-chi*s shout. Lin-chi was famed for his use of shouting to awaken his students to enlightenment. In the Lin-chi Lu, he talks about the functioning of the shout:; The Master asked a monk: "Sometimes a shout i s l i k e the jeweled sword of the Vajra King; sometimes a shout i s lik e the golden-haired l i o n crouching on the ground; sometimes a shout i s l i k e a weed-tipped fishing pole; sometimes a shout doesn't function as a shout. How do you understand this?" The monk hesitated. The Master gave a shout. bright, bright as the sun and moon: There i s a powerful visual simplicity to this last l i n e , since the character for "bright" i s made up of "sun" and "moon". No. 544 Lady Mori's Afternoon Nap The guests have scattered, the piece i s over, not a sound; No one knows when she w i l l awake from this deep sleep. Face to face, now, a butterfly plays. Who hears the striking of the midnight watch at noon? ii H f ^ B & $ £ y^ m & u % \-\ n u & & It i S f #. 272. No. 544 notes: - 139 Lady Mori: the paramour of Ikkyu*s later years. a butterfly plays: Any mention of a butterfly i n connection with sleeping immediately c a l l s up the butterfly parable i n the Chuang Tzu, Once Chuang Chou dreamt he was a butterfly f l i t t i n g and fluttering around, happy with himself and doing as he pleased. He did not know he was Chuang Chou. Suddenly he woke up and there he was, solid and unmistakable Chuang Chou. But he did not know i f he was Chuang Chou who had dreamt he was a butterfly, or a butterfly dreaming 140 he was Chuang Chou. the striking of the midnight watch at noon: See the notes to No. 110. 273. No. 545 Night Conversation i n the Dream Chamber Sometimes by river and sea, sometimes i n the mountains; The monk outside the world i s apart from fame and p r o f i t . Night upon night, mandarin ducks snuggling on the meditation platform. Furyu intimate chatter, the whole body at ease. A it a. m t A. ii % i'\ U A 274 No.! 545 notes: "Dream Chamber" i s another of Ikkyu's sobriquets. (See the introduction to No. 819 and following.) mandarin ducks: a traditional symbol of conjugal f i d e l i t y because they take one mate for l i f e . furyu: see notes to No. 5 2 . 275. No. 555 The Fisherman By the river, the sun sets; the water flows into the distance; The line hangs obliquely, autumn on the Han. Furyu by the river or the sea, with whom does he speak? Between heaven and earth, rocking to and fro, a fishing boat. fc ;1 k & 8 % He ft - it M •§ & \i 4 * / A U / v / 7 v /v i^ Jf  t l it it 276. No. 555 notes: ...on the Han: In the original, the Yangtze river i s mentioned with the Han. I l e f t out the name of the Yangtze for the sake of brevity, and I do not think the meaning i s thereby affected. ...to and fro: graphically represented by the characters,S V_ , which read vertically, visually giving a feeling of suspension. 277. No/ 572 Po Luo-t'ion Catching the elegance of words for a hundred million springs, A thousand words, ten thousand phrases swelling i n newness, Throughout ancient and modern times he alone attests to never growing old; The world admits he i s one who pushed his head beyond heaven. 278. No.; 572 notes: Po Luo-t'ien: a sobriquet of Po Chti'i. See the notes to No. 205. 279. No. 593 Cause and Effect for a Lustful Monk Cause to effect, effect to cause, on what day w i l l i t end Among the inmates of the prison of transmigration i n the Triple Sphere? Night comes with eight million four thousand thoughts; The cloud-rain of Wu-shan blows over the pillow. 1 A it iX ii I a it ¥\ 4 0 X A No. 593 notes: Triple Sphere: See the notes to No. 2 0 9 . cloud-rain of Wu-shan: See notes to No. 4 5 . 281 No. 604 Retreating from Mikanohara and Going to Nara The road I go i s hard, hard. Can I know how long? The mountains are those of Great Sung, the river i s the Wei rapids.' Ten thousand miles of road, ten thousand scrolls of writing; I begin to understand the feeling and flavor of Tu-ling's poetry. 282. No. 604 notes: Retreating from Mikanohara and Going to Nara: The Nempu records this event: In the seventh month, the troops of the West army (the Yamana faction i n the Onin War) entered Takigi ^ . Ikkyu fled to the Jisaian )ft $L i n Mikanohara. On the second day of the eighth month he l e f t Mikanohara and went to the Southern capitol (Nara), where he only stayed one night. On the third , he went to Izumi and stayed overnight. On the f i f t h , he l e f t Izumi again and took up temporary residence i n the Soseian i n Sumiyoshi <7 . This place had been b u i l t by the monk Takunen 5j? . and was much loved by Ikkyu as a place rich i n memories of that monk. Furthermore, both Settsu and Izumi were i n a barbaric state and not livable. 141 Ikkyu's 7 6 t h year, 1469. Tu-ling: Tu-Fu. Even i n this limited selection of poems, Tu Fu, either the man or a poem of his i s alluded to five times, No.! 91. No. 3 8 4 , No.' 604 (the present poem), No.; 6 0 5 and No. 822.' Among the poems of the Kyounshu not translated here, there are several poems exclusively-in praise of Tu Fu, Nos. 283. 727, 7 2 8 , 2 6 8 , 2 6 9 . Ikkyu's admiration and love for the T* poet i s manifestly clear. 284. No. 605 Would that i t were the realm of Gods and Immortals or some Heavenly mansion. On earth there are bands of evil-doers, the roads are not passable. Thereupon I thought of Tu Ling's flowers sprinkling tears; Autumn fragrant yellow chrysanthemums, earth's acrid smell i n the wind. 285. No. 605 notes: Tu-ling's flowers sprinkling tears: alludes to Tu Fu's poem "Spring View" ^ , that was written while Chang-an _yf was occupied by rebel troops: The state crumbles, mountains and rivers remain. The c i t y i n Spring, grass and shrubs grow rankly. Feeling the times, flowers sprinkle tears. Lamenting separation, birds startle the heart. The signal f i r e s have burned continuously for three months; A l e t t e r from home would be worth a myriad pieces of gold.' I scratch my white head, thinning the hair even more; 142 Soon there w i l l not be enough to stand up to a comb. 286 Nos. 6 3 9 , 640, 641 ft -fp1 fa -JL -k 10 f t fa 4- til 4$ Sac 1 ' ii 1 ^ % i i it ii ^3 i it ft II 4. * 287, The Second Year of Kansho (1461)—Starvation 3 poems No. 639 In the years of Kansho, countless people dead, On the Wheel of Transmigration, ten thousand kalpas, ancient s p i r i t s . In the Nirvana Hall, there i s no penance. One s t i l l prays for long l i f e and endless spring. No. 640 The extreme pain of hunger and cold pressing one body, Before the eyes—hungry ghosts, before the eyes—men. Within the burning house of the Triple Sphere, a five foot frame. This i s a million Mount Sumerus of suffering. No. 641 Exhausting the beings i n the ten directions a l l over the world; Arrogance and desire are the empty feelings of the kalpa. Buddha and devil, man and beast, a l l mixed up; For the f i r s t time, I have to take fright at the natural effects of karma. :288. No. 639 notes: The second year of Kanshio: The years preceding the Onin War were blighted by poor harvests and natural calamities. While there i s a rough chronological order to the Kyounshu, i t may be noti-ced that the order i s not always adhered to, as here poems related to the period before the war follow poem ,604, which was written during the war. In the Nirvana Hall: See the notes to No. 3 3 . The Nempu entry for roughly the same period records that Ikkyu was suffering 143 from an i l l n e s s , so that he may be referring to himself i n these last two lines. No. 640 notes: hungry ghosts: one of the lower destinies. the burning house of the Triple Sphere: See the notes to No. 5 4 . Mount Sumerus: In Buddhist cosmology, Mount Sumeru Is the huge mountain at the center of our world. 289. No. 647 The thirteenth day of the eighth month of the f i r s t year of Bunsho (1466), soldiers from the various provinces f i l l the capitol. The members of my school do not know i f i t i s peace or war. They might be called "mindless11 c l e r i c s . Therefore I composed a poem and instructed them with i t , saying: The world at war, a l l heaven a l l earth battle. The time of Great Peace, a l l heaven a l l earth are calm. Misfortune, misfortune, on the edge of a sword. The "Path followers" of the monasteries find the Path d i f f i c u l t to attain. € f $ t A >f ^ A -) v / f -t Al s it ii »'l 1} /I it .290, No. 647 notes: f i r s t year of Bunsho, 1466: This i s the year before the outbreak of the Onin war. "mindless": l i t e r a l l y "no mind". The term usually has a good meaning i n Zen. Take for example the statement of Te-shan, "Only when you have no thing i n your mind and no mind i n 14 things are you vacant and spiritual, empty and marvelous." But here Ikkyu i s poking fun at his followers; they cannot make up their minds whether i t i s peace or war; they have "no mind" about i t . Misfortune...on the edge of a sword: c a l l s up a dialogue i n the Lin-chi Lu. -'A monk asked Lin-chi, "What i s i t like on the edge of a sword?" Lin-chi; said, "Misfortune, misfortune." 1 "path followers": This term was translated as " c l e r i c s " i n the prose introduction because i t does simply mean men of the cloth. I translated i t l i t e r a l l y here to try and catch the pun on "path". There i s an entry i n the Nempu. which may refer to this poem: Ikkyu's 74th year, f i r s t year of Onin, 1467— In the sixth month there was an uprising. Both factions paraded to the Prime Minister's residence. No 291. one c ould t e l l whether "Liu" ^ 1 or "Hsiang" j£f[ would f o o t h i l l s . At that time there was a great deal of action i n the capital and the Katsuro-an was destroyed by the flames of war. In the ninth month Ikkyu l e f t Kokyu and went to the received him with happiness and joy. Ten years before, he had warned his disciples, "There are omens of war. I see the streets of the capital flooded with soldiers. You should quickly take precautions and put your affairs i n order before i t i s too late." He put his warning into a poem. Because he had predicted things accurately, everyone had great respect for his foresight. I f this entry does indeed refer to poem 647, i t demonstrates that the chronology of the Nempu sometimes does not accord with the dates that occur i n the prefaces to Ikkyu's own poems. The Nempu entry, for example, says that the warning poem was written ten years before the Onin War, but the preface to Ikkyu's poem states i t was written only the previous year. A l l the village elders 147 292. No. 690 Sea Cloud Last night, there was no wind, the waves were huge; Rolling i n , rolling out, there i s a road, for whom does i t pass? I f the place to which a hundred streams return knows^contentment, A l i t t l e piece of cloud athwart the sky would wipe out empty space. 2 9 3 . No. 690 notes: Sea Cloud: This poem i s from a section of the Kyounshu headed go " t i t l e s " or "sobriquets". That i s , they are names bestowed by Ikkyu upon his pupils. Most of the people who received these names are unidentifiable now. As might be expected, many of the poems that commemorate the names are obscure because the context must have been quite a personal one. 294. No. ?15 4L & to £ & £ g? t & K B M A ; A ^ f t % $ x £ £ £ f & * # & « g ^ | ^ A /Il 0 [4 1 I t / V i f ft Jb f^1 4 4 1 2 9 5 . No. 715 Sonrin "Forest of Venerability" I nurtured a l i t t l e sparrow and loved i t very much. One day i t suddenly died. My grief being extraordinary, I buried i t with a funeral ceremony just as i f i t had been a person. At f i r s t I had called i t Jakujisha "Sparrow Attendant" and later changed the character Jaku "Sparrow" to Shaka "Sakyamuni". I also gave i t the formal name, Sonrin l uForest of Venerability". Hence, I commemorated this with a poem. Sixteen-foot burnished golden body, When he entered Nirvana i n the grove of paired s'ala trees. He escaped the in f i d e l s ' hands that k i l l or l e t live at w i l l . A thousand mountains, ten thousand trees, a hundred flowers i n spring. 296. No. 715 notes: Sonrin: This i s another poem from the section of poems commemorat-ing the giving of a name. Tt fortunately has a prose intro-duction to explain on whom the name was bestowed as well as the circumstances that occasioned the poem. Sixteen-foot burnished golden body...: a description of the Buddha's body. When he entered Nirvana...: These two lines evoke the parinirvana 149 of the Buddha. With gentle humour, Ikkyu compares the death of his pet sparrow with the Nirvana of the Buddha. No. 771 On a Spring Outing to the Tomb of the Retired Emperor Gokomatsu at Unryoin i n Sen'yuji In elevated conversation with a monk you forget to enjoy the distinguished amusement. The blossoms f a l l , the birds sing, the mountains deepen,,. New grass, old moss, rain before the ancestral tomb, How may times has spring come round, how many times autumn? 298. No. 771 notes: Emperor Gokomatsu: I f the Nempu i s correct, the Emperor Gokomatsu 150 was Ikkyu's father. Unryoin at Sen'yuji: Unryoin was a private retreat established within the Higashiyama Sen'yuji monastery by the Emperor Gokomatsu. 29.9 Prose introduction to Nos. 819, 820, 821, 822 300. Prose introduction to Nos. 819, 820, 821, 822 I f one i s thirsty, one w i l l dream of water. I f one i s cold, one w i l l dream of a fur coat. "Dream Chamber", that i s my clan name. In old times and recently, there have been three named "Dream"; that i s , the reverends MusS "Dream Window", Musu "Dream High" and Mumu "No Dream". I recently took the name "Dream Chamber" and set i t on a plaque over my study. Although that name treads i n the footsteps of the other three "Dreams", i t really does not match their affairs at a l l . Whereas those three masters were men of a vigorous virtue and flourishing aspiration singled out by people, I am just an old madman down on my luck advertising what I l i k e . So I composed four poems, entitling them "Chronicle of the Dream Chamber". 302. No. 819 Talk i n the thatched hut reaches the Palace of Shou-yang; The butterfly elegantly sports, excitement never exhausted. On the pillow, a plum blossom; outside the window, the moon, A singing soul, night after night, entwined with the spring breeze. No. 820 Chilled singing, elegant phrases i n the la s t month of winter; Once one i s drunk, the cup of wine i s heavy before the cask. On the pillow, for ten years, no night rain; The moon sinks; Chang-lo at the fifth-watch b e l l . 303. Nos. 821, 822 ¥1 2L ix at i£ i t •it A ii a4 hi 304. No. 821 In the depths of the boudoir, how much poetic inspiration. Sing before the wind-blown flowers of the purity of the fragrant feast. Cloud-rain on the pillow, the feeling of river and sea. Mandarin ducks spend their remaining l i f e sleeping on the water. No. 822 The rain drops of Wu-shan f a l l into a new song; Passionate furyu, i n poems and passion too. The whole wide world and Tu Ling's tears; At Fu-chou tonight, the moon sinks. .305. Prose introduction to Nos. 819, 8 2 0 , 821, 822. notes: Muso "Dream Window": Muso Soseki (1275-1351). the founder of Tenryuji, an extremely influential and p o l i t i c a l l y involved Zen prelate. Musu "Dream High": Musu Ryoju ~f & % L §j (<*• 1281) of it # *• TSfukuji 5f-§ ^ (d. 1 3 6 8 ) , also of Tofukuji. 306, No. 819 notes: The Palace of Shou Yang: refers to Lady Shou-yang, a concubine of the Southern Sung Emperor Wu, who dreamed that plum blossoms scattered over her face while she was sleeping, and could not be removed. This was said to be the origin of a kind of cosmetic known as "Plum Blossom Powder". The link here i s with the topic dreams and the erotic connotation of cosmetics. The butterfly sports...: reference to Chuang-tzu's butterfly dream. See notes to No. 544. No. 820 notes: Ch'ang-lo: A palace i n Ch'ang-an whose name has the translated meaning of "Extended Pleasure". The line c a l l s up a couplet from the Wakan Roei Shu: The sound of the b e l l of Ch'ang-lo ends i n the flowers, The color of the willows by Dragon Pond deepenv i n the . 153 rain. 307. No. 822 notes: Wu-shan rain: See the notes to No. 45 furyu: See the notes to No. 52. ...Tu Fu's tears / At Fu-chou tonight, the moon: an allusion to the touching poem Tu Fu wrote while a prisoner at Ch'ang-an after the An Lu-shan rebellion. He had sheltered his family at Fu-chou, a town removed from the path of the marching armies. On the way back from Fu-chou, he was captured and detained at Ch'ang-an, Gazing at the moon i n Ch'ang-an he imagined his wife must be watching the same moon i n Fu-choui Moonlit night Tonight, at Fu-chou, the moon, From the bedchamber, my wife gazes alone, T long for my far-away l i t t l e ones, Who are too young to understand the worry of Ch'ang-an, Scented mist moistens her cloud hair, Clear lig h t c h i l l s her jade white arms, When w i l l we two lean out the open casement again And l e t the double glistening tracks of our tears dry i n 154 the moonlight? 308. No. 839 a £ 4 r ^ 4 f c i £ -4 3 £ X § £. ^  <B 'L - & 3 0 9 . No. 839 When Ikkyu was old, he contracted the illn e s s of diarrhoea. He would recover and then contract i t again, two or three times i n succession. Everyone said, "It i s dangerous." But when affairs went against his heart, his v i t a l vapours would escape. Yesterday, as chance would have i t , he lost about a hundred sticks of ink that he had been saving. He searched but could not find them. As a result, his s p i r i t was not happy and the diarrhoea threatened to start again. A l l the attendants turned pale. Then he composed a poem about the lost ink, as a lesson about l i f e . He was just copying the poem and had not yet finished f i l l i n g the paper when the ink suddenly appeared. His joy couldn't be contained i n words. Aah, choosing among the treasures and wealth of the world, his preference would be a stick of ink. Not only had he worn out his shoes looking for i t but nearly lost his l i f e over one loss. Of those with many desires, i f someone were to hear this poem, perhaps he would feel a l i t t l e shame. His attendants, i n obedience to his order, composed a preface for the poem and put i t to the right of his seat. The poem said: A dark world now, there i s no style with the ink and brush; Thoughts of furyu too, how fut i l e t For three l i v e s on this earth the singing s p i r i t suffers, The ten-thousand-time pounded frost flowers on the East slope of Hua Ting. 3 1 0 . No. 839 notes: prose preface: While a l l other prose prefaces appear to be written by Ikkyu, this one i s evidently written by his disciples. furyu: See the notes to No. 52. The ten-thousand-times pounded frost flowers on the East slope of Hua Ting: The best ink i s supposed to be made with the charcoal of the orchid tree that grows on Hua Ting, the highest of the five peaks that comprise T'ien T'ai mountain. Another ingredient i s finely powdered cuttlefish shell, which, because i t i s white, i s elegantly referred to as the 11 ten-thousand-times pounded frost flowers". Here for example, i s a couplet from a poem i n the Chlang-hu Feng-yueh Chi, entitled, "Sending ink to a friend". Moon bright Hua Ting, windy pure night, The ten-thousand-times pounded frost flowers f a l l on a wool coat. The sense i n Ikkyu's poem seems to be that the s p i r i t suffers ordeals on the Wheel of Transmigration just as the finest ink i s made through many poundings. Ikkyu's loss of hoarded ink was just one more pounding of the mortar that purges desire. 3 1 1 . Abbreviations Note: Except for the f i r s t two items, these entries w i l l not be duplicated In the Bibliography section. CZS Chusei Zenka no Shiso io ^ ^ ^ ^ . ( P ^ i l l c h i k a w a Hakugen "I et a l . Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, ^  lA^! ^7 , 1972. KZ Kyounshu Zenyaku , Hirano So jo Tokyo: Shunjusha ^ ftjNU , 1976. SP Ssu Pu Pi Yao ffi If H I J C Shang hai: Chung hua shu ehu, ^^^M . 1936. ST Ssu Pu Ts'ung K'an V\)^^Jfl\ Shang hai: Shang-hai Commer-c i a l Press J l > l j j ^ j 1936, (reduced print edition) T;'1 Taisho Shinshu Daizokyo ^ ^ ^ f T o k y ° : Taisho Tssai Kyo Kankokai, ^ i f - \J] %\\ ^ , 1922. ZGR Zoku Gunsho Rui ju jfljl i f f ^  j^f /£.. Tokyo: Zoku Gunsho Ruiju Kanseikai AL . 1927. ZZ Zoku Zokyo j.j ^ ^.3? . Hong Kong; Photo Reprint of the original Dalnihon, Zoku Z5kyo ^$Jr by the Hong Kong Buddhist Association, 1946. 312. Footnotes *Yanagida Seizafl,"Ikkyu no Shiso to Sono Shogai," Daihorln, 1 9 7 6 , p. 1 0 7 . 1 . Donald Keene, Landscapes and Portraits, pp. 226-241, See Bibliography for a complete citation of this and a l l other works mentioned i n the study, 2. Sonja Arntzen, Ikkyu Sojun, a Zen monk and his poetry. 3 . James Sanford, Ikkyu Sojun: A Zen monk of 1 5 t h c. Japan. Introductory Essay: 1 . Kyounshu No. .205 i n the original text contained i n CZS and also i n the translation section of this study. Likewise hereafter, the number assigned to a poem i s the number i t bears i n CZS and also i n the translations. 2 . Ch'uan Teng Lu, T. 5 1. p. 230 b. For f u l l citations including Chinese Characters for this and a l l other works mentioned i n the study, see the Bibliography section. Note that works such as the above that are cited by t i t l e alone are i n section I of the Bibliography, whereas works cited by author f i r s t appear i n section I I . 3 . CZS, No.' 1 7 7 , not translated i n this paper. In the original the line presented here i s : 4, Vimalakirti Sutra, T. 14, p. 550 c. Etienne Lamotte (trans.), L'Enselgnment de Vimalakirti, p. 3 0 5 . ' 5 . Wu-men Kuan, T. 48, p. 292 a. Preface: third Japanese master i n Ikkyu*s lineage. 7 . Stanley Fish, Self -Consuming Artifacts, p. 1 . 8. Heart Sutra, T. 8, p. 848 c. Edward Conze, Buddhist Wisdom  Books, p. 81. 313 9. Vimalakirti Sutra, T. 14, p. 540 a-c. Lamotte, L'Enseignment, p. 156. 10. Ibid. Lamotte, p.1 158-59. 11. Ibid. 1 2 . Ibid., p. 551 C Lamotte, p. 317. 13. Pi Yen Lu, koan 84, T. 48, p. 209 b-c. Thomas and J.C. Cleary, The Blue C l i f f Record, p. 541. 14. Ibid. 1 Cleary, p. 542. 1 5 . Ibid. p. 209 b.H Cleary, p. 541. 1 6 . CZS, No. I 5 6 . Sonja Arntzen, Ikkyu Sojun, p. 8 5 . 17. CZS, No. 1 3 0 . Arntzen, p. 97. Kaso was Ikkyu*s master. Sung-yiian was a Sung dynasty patriarch i n Ikkyu's lineage. 18. Ichikawa Hakugen, Ikkyu, p.1 78. 1 9 . Ibid., P ; 74 20. CZS, No.' 117.' 21. Ibid., No. 454.5 Arntzen, p.'91. 2 2 . Ibid., No. 121. 2 3 . Ibid., No.' 176. 24. Ibid.", No. 284, Arntzen, p. 115.' 2 5 . Ibid., No. 254, Arntzen, p. 127. 2 6 . Ichikawa, p. 77-78. 27. CZS, No.' 144, Arntzen, p. 123. 28. Ibid., No. 5 3 6 , Arntzen, p.1 147. 29. Ibid., No. 543, Arntzen, p. 143. 3 0 . Ibid., No. 2 5 0 . 3 1 . ¥u Teng Hui Yuan, r o l l 3. ZZ, v. I 3 8 , p. 474, ab. 314. <32; See note 8. 33. See the introduction to poem No. 187 i n the translation section. 34. ' For more information about Gozan Bungaku see the recent publica-tion Poems of the Five Mountains, by Marian Ury. 35. ^ wL^-^L^ ^ i ^ f r o m the preface to CZS No.' 1, not translated herein, 3 6 . CZS No. 203. 37. j ^ L ^ No. 170, not translated herein. 38. ^ JIL^^CNO. 134, not translated herein. 3 9 . When a poem i s referred to by number i n the body of the intro-ductory essay, i t i s the number the poem bears, i n CZS and also i n the translation section of this paper. Translations: 1. Ch'uan Teng Lu, r o l l 12, T. 5 1 , P. 291-292. 2. Wu Teng Hui Yuan, r o l l 7, ZZ v., 138, p. 116 a. 3. CZS, p. 283.' 4. Ibid., p. 284. 5. Ikkyu Osho Nempu (Hereafter referred to only as the Nempu). ZGR, No. 9 part 2, p.( ? 6 0 . See also, Hirano SB jo, Ikkyu  Osho Nempu no Kenkyu, p. 111. 6. Jen T'ien Yen-mu, T. 48, 312 a. 7. CZS, No. 10. Arntzen, p. 45. 8. KZ, p.! 11. 9. Pi-yen Lu, T. 48, p. 192 b. 10. KZ, p. 3 6 . 11. Chou-1 (I-ching) ST, r o l l 3, p. 16. 12. Lotus Sutra, T. 9, p. 15 W See also Leon Hurvitz, Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma, p. 75. 315 1 3 . Ch'an-lin Lel-chu, r o l l 15, ZZ, v. 117, p. 187 a. 14. KZ, p. 41. 15. Ku-tsun-su Yii-lu, ZZ, v. 118, p. 304 a. 1 6 . KZ, p. 41-42. 17. Ibid. 18. Ibid. 1 9 . Pi-yen Lu, T. 48, p. 194 c. 2 0 . Ibid., p. 208-209 c. 2 1 . K'uel T'ien Lu, Ou-yang Wen Chung Chi, SP, r o l l , 127, p. 1 2 . 2 2 . In the Wen-hsuan, r o l l 29, p. 1 - 2 . 23. KZ, p. 46. 24. Kato Shuichi and Yanagida Seizan, Nihon no Zengoroku, Ikkyu, p. 2 2 2 . For the-first expression see Yun-men Kuang-lu, r o l l 1 , 1/ 4 7 , p. 550 a. For the second expression see Ibid. p. 563 a. 25. Kato and Yanagida, p. 2 2 2 . 26. Daito Kokushl Goroku, T. 81, 224 a. 27. Pi-yen Lu, T. 48, p. 209 ab. 28. Wu-men Kuan, case No. 10, T. 48, p. 294 a. 29. Lotus Sutra, T. 9, p. 12 b c. Hurvitz, p. 58-60. 30. Ch'uan Teng Lu. r o l l 11 , T. 5 1 , p. 284 a. 3 1 . Pi-yen Lu, T. 48, p. I 8 3 b. 3 2 . Lien-she Kao-hsien Ch'uan, T'ang Sung Ts'ung Shu, vol. 5, p. 26-27. 33. KZ, p. 46. 3 4 / Hsu-t'ang Lu, r o l l 7 , T. 4 7 , p. 1034 b. 316. 3 5 . Ch'uan Teng Lu, r o l l 11 , T. 5 1 . p. 2 8 4 a. 3 6 . Pi-yen Lu, T. 4 8 , p. 195 a. 3 7 . Lin-chi Lu, T. 4 7 , 505 c. 3 8 . Nempu ZGR v. 9 , part 2 , p. 7 5 9 . HLrano, p. 1 0 9 . 3 9 . Lin-chi Lu. T. 4 7 , p. 4 9 7 i s a . 4 0 . Pi-yen Lu, T. 4 8 , p. 155 a. 4 1 . KZ p. 5 2 . 4 2 . Pi-yen Lu, T. 4 8 , p. I 6 9 , a. 4 3 . Hekiganroku, Iwanami Bunko, v. 2 . 3 2 8 . 4 4 . Pi-yen Lu, T. 4 8 , p. I69 a. 4 5 . Ch.'uan Teng Lu, p T. 5 1 , p. 2 5 4 c. 4 6 . Ibid. 4 7 . Wu Teng Hul Yuan, r o l l 19, ZZ, v. I 3 8 , p. 7 3 9 a 4 8 . Ibid., r o l l 4 , ZZ, v. I 3 8 , p. 7 1 7 b. 4 9 . ! Mochizuki Shinko, Bukkyo Daijiten, v. 1 , p. 6 2 9 . 5 0 . Shih-shih Chi-ku Ling, r o l l 3 , T. 4 9 , p. 8 3 3 b. 5 1 . IAn-chi Lu, T. 4 7 , 4 9 9 c. 5 2 . Hai Lung Wang Ching, T. 1 5 . p. 131-157. 5 3 . Chiang-hu Feng-yue Chi, part 2 , p. 7 . 5 4 . Chin Shu, r o l l 4 3 , SP. p. 2 2 5 5 . Pi-yen Lu, T. 4 8 , p. 219 b. 5 6 . Ibid,, p. 2 0 9 a. 5 7 . Wu Teng Hul Yuan, ZZ. v. I 3 8 , p. 551 b. 5 8 . James Hightower, T'ao Yuan-ming, p. 130. Wang-yao, T'aoYuan chi p. 6 3 . 317. 59. Lotus Sutra, T. 9, p. 29a. 60. Shih Chi. SP, r o l l 97, p. 8 - 9 . 61. Pi-yen Lu, p. 179 b. 6 2 . KZ p. 85. 6 3 . Nempu, ZGR, v. 9 , Part II, p. 7 5 8 . Hirano, p. 107. 64. Wu Teng Hul Yuan, r o l l 3 , ZZ, v. I 3 8 , p. 9 7 a . 6 5 . Vimalakirti Sutra, T. 14, p. 5 3 2 f f . 6 6 . Ch'ou chao- ao, Tu Hsiao-ling Chi Hsiang-chu, p. 7 8 . 6 7 . The prose introduction to this set of poems i s translated i n Arntzen, p. 9 7 . 6 8 . Daito Kokushi Nempu, p. 3 3 - 3 4 . 6 9 . Ch'uan Teng Lu, T. 51, 235 c. 70. Wu Teng Hul Yiian, v. 138, p. 4 5 8 . 7 1 . Lin-chi Lu. T. 4 7 , p. 504 b. 7 2 . Hsu-t'ang Lu, T. 4 7 , p. 986 b. 7 3 . Ch'uan T'ang Shih, v. 2, p. 2164. 7 4 . Shih Chi. SP, r o l l 117, p. 2. 75. The preface to the Wen-hsuan. r o l l 1, p. 1. 7 6 . CZS No. 8, Arntzen, p. 55. 77. Shih-Chi, SP, r o l l 6 6 , p. 5. 7 8 . CZS, p. 4 2 9 . 7 9 . Ch'uan Teng Lu, T. 5 1 , p. 461 c. 80. Sung-yuan Lu, r o l l 1, ZZ, v. 121 , p. 2 8 9 - 2 9 0 . 81. KZ, p. 24. 82. Ta-hui Wu-k'u, T. 4 7 , p. 956 b. 318 83. Wu-men Kuan. T. 48, p. 298 a. 84. KZ, p. 140. 85. ltd" Toshiko, Ikkyu Tokushu, p i . 14 and description, p. 6 7 . 8 6 . Pi-yen Lu, koan No. 7 , T. 48, p. 147 c. 8 7 . Chiang-hu Feng-yue Chi, poem by Hsu Yuan-shih M- ^ ' | ! f entitled "Words of Hsu-t'ang" j ; , part 2 , p. 39. 8 8 . Ts'ung-lin Sheng-shlh, r o l l 2 , 7.7., v. 148, p. 47 b. 89. Weinstein Stanley, "A Biographical Study of Tz'u-en", Monumenta Nlpponica, XV ( 1 9 5 9 ) Nos. 1 and 2 . 9 0 . Ibid. 91. Wu Teng Hul Yuan, r o l l 3 . 7.7., v. I 3 8 , p. 476 a. 92. The Diamond Sutra, T. 8, 750 b. 93. Lotus Sutra, r o l l 7, T. 9, p. 50-51. Hurvitz, p. 280. 9 4 . Sung-yiian Lu, 7.7., v. 1 2 1 , p. 381 a and b. 9 5 . Yiin-men Kuang-lu, r o l l 1, T. 47, p. 547 b. 9 6 . San T'i Shih, Kokuyaku Kambun Taisei. v. 6 , p. 177-178. 9 7 . Ch'uan Teng Lu, r o l l 4 , TV 5 1 , p. 230 b. 9 8 . Burton Watson, Records of the Grand Historian, V. I, p. 504-505. Shih Chi. SP, r o l l 84, p. 4 - 6 . 99. Ku-tsun-SuYu-lu, 7.7., v. 118, p. 304 a. 1 0 0 . P'in-tou-lu-¥ei Wang Shou Fa Ching, T. 32, p. 787 a. 1 0 1 . KZ p. 9 3 . The Wei-shan Ching-ts'e v j | 'if His not avai-lable i n a modern printed edition. 102. KZ, p. 93. 1 0 3 . Nempu, ZGR, v. 9, part 2 , p. 7 5 0 , Hirano, p. 9 4 . 104. Ch'uan Teng Lu, T. 5 1 . 6 l 6 B. 319. 105. KZ, p. 197. 1 0 6 . Wu Teng Hul Yuan, ZZ, v. 138, p. 435 a. 107. Burton Watson, The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu, p. 284. Chuang Tzu, SP, r o l l 8 , p. 26. 108. Wu-men Kuan, case No. 11 , T. 48, p. 294 b. 1 0 9 . KZ, p.; 210. 110. Nakamoto Tamaki, Kyounshu, p. 354. (Nakamoto has appended the text of the Jikalshu to his study of the Kyounshu.) 111. Wu Teng Hul Yuan, r o l l 1 9 , ZZ, v. 138, p. 721 b. 112. KZ, p. 5. 113. Lin-chi Lu, T. 4 7 . p. 496 b.' 114. Yamada Kodo, Zenshujlten, p. 4 3 4 . 115. Chou-i. hexagram No. 2 6 , ST, r o l l 3. P. 18, 116. KZ, p. 249. 117. Hsu-t'ang Lu. r o l l 8 , T. 4 7 , p. 1045 b. 118. Watson, The Complete Works, p. 295. SP, Chuang tzu, r o l l 9. p. 1 - 2 . 119. KZ, p. 249. Mao Shih SP r o l l 3 , p. 1 5 . 120. Burton, Watson, Chinese lyricism, p. 9 4 - 9 5 . ' Yu-t'al hsin yung, p. 14 - 1 5 . 121. Louis de La Vallee-Poussin (trans), L'Abhldharmakosa de Vasubandhu, v. 6 , pp. I 5 8 - I 6 2 . 122. Lin-chi Lu, T. 4 7 , p. 497 a. 123. Ibid. p. 497 a. 124. Ibid., p. 500 b. 1 2 5 . Paul Demieville, Rntretlens de L i n - t s i , p. 1 1 5 . 126. Lin-chi Lu, T. 4 7 , p. 5>6 b. 320. 127. Pi-yen Lu, koan No. 17, T. 48, p. 157 b. 128. Hekiganroku, Iwanami Bunko edition, v. 1 , p. 2 1 2 . 129. Wu-men Kuan, T. 48, p. 292 a. 130. Wu teng hui yuan, r o l l 7 , ZZ, v. 1 3 8 , p. 115 a. 1 3 1 . Po Hsiang-shan Shih Chi. SP r o l l 1 3 , p.* 1 2 . 1 3 2 . Wu-men Kuan, ZZ. v. 119, p. 323 b. 133. Po Wu Chih, r o l l 8 , shih pu, i n Pai Tzu Ch'uan Shu, v. 6 9 , p. 1 . 134. Chin Shu, SP, r o l l 80, p. 7 . 1 3 5 . Watson, Records of the Grand Historian, v. I, p. 1 9 , Shih Chi, SP r o l l 48, p. 2 . 1 3 6 . Lin-chi Lu. T. 4 7 . 505 a. 137. Nempu, ZGR, v. 9 . part 2 , 7 6 4 - 7 6 5 . Hirano, p. 115-116. 1 3 8 . Lin-chi Lu, T. 4 7 , 504 a. 139. For a discussion of their relationship and other poems that concern her, see Arntzen, p. 137-157. 140. Watson, p. 4 9 . SP, Chuang Tzu, r o l l 1 , p. 25 - 2 6 . 141. Nempu, ZGR, v. 9 , part 2 , p. 7 6 3 . ' 142. Tu Kung-pu Shih Chi, SP, r o l l 9 , p.! 15. ' 143. Nempu, ZGR, v. 9 , part 2 , p. 7 6 2 , Hirano p. 114. 144. La Vallee-Poussin, L'Abhidharmakosa, v. 2 , p. 2 0 7 , vol. I I , p. 207. 145. Lien Teng Hui Yao, r o l l 2 0 , ZZ, v. I 3 6 , p. 378 b. 146. Lin-chi l u , T. 4 7 , p. 497 a. 147. Nempu, p. 115 ZGR, v. 9 , part 2 , p. 7 6 2 - 7 6 3 . Hirano, p. 115. 148. Fang-huang Da Chuang-yen Ching, r o l l 12 , T. 3 , p. 615 c. 321 149. Nleh-p'an Ching, T." 1 2 , 365 c. 1 5 0 . Nempu ZGR, v. 9 , part 2 ,p. 7 4 9 , Hirano, p. 9 3 . 15'51. Mochizuki, p. 3008 a. 152. Kato and Yanagida, p. 2 5 4 . Yanagida cites the Chin-ling Chih. a gazetter of Nan-King, as the source of this story, but I was unable to consult i t . 1 5 3 . Wakan Roel Shu, p. 6 7 . 154. Tu Kung-pu Shih Chi, SP, r o l l 9 , p. 1 5 . 1 5 5 . Chiang-hu Feng-yue Chi, part 2 , p.! 1 3 . 322. Bibliography Section I: Works cited by t i t l e f i r s t i n the footnotes. Ch';.an-lin Lei-chu 4f ?tLlf ZZ, v. 117. Chlang-hu Feng-yue Chi ;£ %)\ )$LA >HjJ« Goko Fugetsu Shu), note: The easily available modem edition of this work i s a Japanese one: Goko Fugetsu Shu, Shibayama Zenkei ( e d . ) ^ i L \ ^ Osaka: Sogen ShaJ^J/L^feL second printing, 1975. Chin Shu # ^ , SP. Chuang Tzu |1 ? , SP. Ch'uan Teng Lu /ffi j f f I I , T. 5 1 . Ch'uan T'ang Shih ^  • T'ai-p'ei: Photo reprint of 1706. 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Lien Teng Hui-Yao ^jf ij^ ZZ, v. 1 3 6 . Mao Shih (Shih Ching), SP. Nleh-p'an Ching . T. 1 2 . Pin-t'ou-lu Wei Wang Shuo Fa Ching if f j ^  j|j it^ilf, T. 32 Pi-yen Lu Po Hsiang-shan Shih Chi /h^A » SP. Po Wu Chih || ^ ^ i n the Pai Tzu Ch'uan Shu fa % ^ ^ Shanghai: Sao Yeh Shan Fang $$'$L_Ax% , 1919. San T'i Shih (J. San Tai Shi) S- $ f. ^ , Kokuyaku Kambun Taisei Tokyo: Kokumin Bunko Kankokai, ? i ^ f 4 . 1 9 2 5 . Shih Chi Hit* , SP. Shih-shih Chi-ku Lueh If ^ ^ ^ T. 4 9 . Sung-yuan Lu jjX^^> ZZ, v. 121. Ta-hui Wu-k'u . 7 ^ . - ^ ^ J^" , T. 4 7 . ^sf J i 7j% & l o 324. -shih -jj: tyL zz:, V. 148. ;TB'ung-lin Sheng  Tu Kung-pu Shih Chi j j . 1 " § P^^_SP. Vimalakirti Sutra. (Ch. Wei-mo-chieh So Shuo Ching) $f ftf\%^$H T. 14. Yun-men Kuang-lu ^  f 1 T. 47. Wakan Roel S h u ^ , ) ? ffi j>V j ^ . Kawaguchi Hisao (ed.), J'( C7 fl^fjL Nihon Koten Bungaku Taikel 6 ^ c£ Xj^J^Jh V. 73. Tokyo: Twanami Shoten j^b y-^L-jif , I 9 6 5 . 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Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970. Hirano Sojd ^ J?f , Kyounshu Zenyaku ^ ^ , (To this date, only the f i r s t volume of the projected two volumes has been publish.) Tokyo: Shunju S h a - ^ ^ - ^ i - , 1976. — Ikkyu 0sh5 Nempu no Kenkyu — ^ t t ^ M ^ • Kyoto: Hanazono University Zen Bunka Kenkyu jo |^| 7\J^ 'fif %1[ ^  ff( , offpring No. 7 , undated. Hsu Ling (ed.), ^  Yu-t'al Hsin-yung jfc, ^  jfr^Jkj Shih-chieh Wen-k'u, Wen-hsueh Ts'ung-shu ' T^J^ ' Shang-hai: Shih Chieh Shu-chu $ , 1931. Hurvitz, Leon, Scripture of the Lotus Bloosom of the Fine Law. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976. Ichikawa Hakugen "fjO . Ikkyu ~- /^_. Tokyo: Nihon Hoso Shuppan Kyokai B^/^i% j l 4 • ^ 7 0 . — et a l , Chusei Zenke no Shi so ^ t n j ^ j j . Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1972. Ito Toshlko (ed.) jf S f ^ ^ J Ikkyu Tokushu ~^4L ^ J^j > Yamato Bunka No. 41. Nara: Yamato Bunka Kan 1964. Kato Shuichi and Yanagida Seizan, fa $1 " * M\ ffl S? » Nihon no Zen Goroku: Ikkyu $ ( O ^ ^ J^C" / t ^ . T o k y ° : Kodansha"f^.-|^^^, I 9 6 7 . 526 Keene, Donald, Landscapes and Portraits* Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1 9 7 1 . Lamotte, Etienne, L 'Knselgnment de(Vimalakirti. Louvain: Publica-tions Universltaires, 1 9 6 2 . La Vallee-Poussin, L'Abhidharmakosa de Vasubandhu. Buxelles: Institut Beige des Hautes Etudes Chinoises, 1 9 7 1 . Miuna Tsshu and Ruth Sasaki, Zen Dust, The History of the Koan and  Koan Study i n Rinzai (Lin-chi) Zen. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World Inc., 1 9 6 6 . Mochizukl Shinko "Jfi. A ^ If » Bukkyo D a i j i t e n ^ jt.Kyoto: Sanford, James, Ikkyu Sojun: A Zen-monk of 1 5 t h C. Japan. Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University,, 1 9 7 2 . Ury, Marian, Poems of the Five Mountains. Tokyo: Mushinsha, 1 9 7 7 . Watson, Burton, Records of the Grand Historian of China, New York and London: Columbia University Press, 1 9 6 1 . — The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu, New York: Columbia University Press, 1 9 6 8 . — Chinese Lyricism. New York and London, Columbia University Press, 1 9 7 1 . Wang Yao (ed.) j£ Tso-chia Ch*u-pan She 327 Weinstein, Stanley, "A Biographical Study of Tz'u-en", Monumenta  Nlpponica, XV, (1959), Nos. 1 and 2 . Yamada Kodo &x ^  • Zenshu Jiten Jfjf ^  ^ ^ Tokyo: Koyukan Tt Hit 1916. ' Yanagida Seizan ^4fl $ 5 - i L \ . "Ikkyu no Shiso to Sono Shogai" —" £ / l ^ , Daihorin T ^ / i ^ special edition Zenso Ikkyu no subete rfjf/^^.• / j ^ (T) ^ < , 1976, p. 107. 

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