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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Development of a praxiological curriculum model for art education Wilson, Mary Joan Nelson 1979

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DEVELOPMENT OF A PRAXIOLOGICAL CURRICULUM MODEL FOR ART EDUCATION by MARY JOAN NELSON WILSON B.Ph., Siena Heights College, Michigan, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Art Education) [Faculty of Education] We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1979 © Mary Joan Nelson Wilson, 1979 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Art Education The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date August, 1979 'E-6 BP 75-51 1 E A b s t r a c t T h i s study p r e s e n t s the development o f a c u r r i c u l u m model f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n p r e d i c a t e d on the concept of p r a x i s . Two s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r t c u r r i c u l a are noted: 1) the e x c l u s i o n of the c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e paradigm of knowing, 2) the s e p a r a t i o n of c r e a t i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g a r t i n c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . An examination of the t r a d i t i o n a l ba-ses of c u r r i c u l u m r e v e a l s t h a t each f a i l s to p r o v i d e s u f f i c e - : ent c r i t e r i a f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c u r r i c u l u m . The p r e c e d i n g suggested l o c a t i n g a r t c u r r i c u l u m i n the c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e paradigm as a way o f a m e l i o r a t i n g the s e p a r a t i o n between the-ory and p r a c t i c e i n a r t c u r r i c u l a . Proceeding from t h i s , the author attempts t o develop a model of c u r r i c u l u m grounded i n an a l t e r n a t i v e base t h a t might j o i n the p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e -t i c a l i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p e s s e n t i a l t o human knowing. The model i s grounded i n key concepts s e l e c t e d from the thought of Paulo F r e i r e . His work o f f e r s a powerful concept of man w i t h i n a f u l l y developed humanistic p h i l o s o p h y t h a t assumes thatmnan 1 s " o n t o l o g i c a l v o c a t i o n " i s to become " f u l l y " human. F r e i r e ' s p h i l o s o p h y developed from h i s p r a c t i c e as an eduactor, and because of t h i s i t i s i n t e g r a l t o the methodo-logy h i s work p r o v i d e s f o r the development of c r i t i c a l con-s c i o u s n e s s . The study e x p l i c a t e s those concepts o f F r e i r e ' s c o n s i d e r -ed c e n t r a l to d e v e l o p i n g the model. T h i s p a r t o f the study i n c l u d e s : 1) an e x p l a n a t i o n of F r e i r e ' s view of men as beings i n - a - s i t u a t i o n , always i n r e l a t i o n to the world, 2) an explana-i i i t i o n of man's a b i l i t y to o b j e c t i f y s e l f and the world, to be both separate from and i n v o l v e d i n the world, and thus capable of p e r c e i v i n g the world c r i t i c a l l y ; 3) a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the concept o f problem-posing e d u c a t i o n , through which men come to examine c r i t i c a l l y t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the world, develop-i n g an awareness o f the i n f l u e n c e s of the pre s e n t , as w e l l as of those o f the p a s t i n forming a v i s i o n of f u t u r e . In prob-lem-posing edu c a t i o n F r e i r e says men g r a d u a l l y .come'-to be able t o " p e r c e i v e concrete r e a l i t y and re c o g n i z e themselves as ca-pable o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i n r e a l i t y . For F r e i r e , c r i t i c a l con-sci o u s n e s s i s developed i n communication wi t h o t h e r s . In ex-changing, a l t e r i n g , and expanding p e r c e p t i o n s , i n d i v i d u a l s c r e a t e and r e - c r e a t e through the human process of p r a x i s . The t h i r d p a r t o f the study c o n s i s t s of the p r e s e n t a t i o n and development o f the model. F i r s t , the p a r t s o f the model are d e l i n e a t e d . Next, the two major " c a t e g o r i e s " o f the model, r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n , are e l u c i d a t e d . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by an e x p l a n a t i o n of the "segments" of both c a t e g o r i e s of the model. F i n a l l y , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and suggestions f o r d e v e l o p i n g and decoding themes are given. The development of the model s y n t h e s i z e s key ideas o f F r e i r e ' s and the i d e a of p r a x i o l o g i c a l a r t . A r t i s a s s e r t e d to be a human c o n s t r u c t , shaped by a humanly c o n s t r u c t e d r e -a l i t y and having c e r t a i n consequences, consequences t h a t can be a l t e r e d by human i n t e r v e n t i o n . A r t educa t i o n i n v o l v e s d i a -l o g i c a l a c t i o n i n which teacher and students as c o - i n v e s t i g a -t o r s probe the d i a l e c t i c between man and world and a r t and i v world, making p o s s i b l e the r e v e l a t i o n o f new understandings and a c t i o n on the b a s i s o f these understandings.'.; The i n t e n t of a r t educ a t i o n as p r a x i s i s the development of c r i t i c a l c onsciousness through the c o n t i n u a l p r a x i s o f human beings. Among the c o n c l u s i o n s drawn from the study, the author f i n d s t h a t the model i s not l i m i t e d to a r t educ a t i o n . T h i s suggests t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t -i v e paradigm i n a p p l i c a t i o n t o c u r r i c u l u m may open new p o s s i -b i l i t i e s f o r the i n t e g r a t i o n of s u b j e c t areas w i t h i n the sc h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . C u r r i c u l a r r e s e a r c h concerned w i t h other paradigms of knowing and other c r i t i c a l t h e o r i e s i s encou-raged, e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t of what t h i s author c o n s i d e r s c r i -t i c a l contemporary e d u c a t i o n a l concerns. Acknowledgements There are a number of people to whom I am indebted i n ma-k i n g p o s s i b l e t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t of a l l , I would l i k e t o ex-press my deep g r a t i t u d e to Dr. Douglas Boughton f o r h i s i n s i g h t f u l a d v i c e , guidance and constant encouragement. As w e l l , I want to p a r t i c u l a r l y thank Dr. Walter Werner, who i n t r o d u c e d me to the work of Paulo F r e i r e and gave generously of h i s time and energy to h e l p me develop my t h i n k i n g . I a l s o want to thank Dr. Graeme Chalmers, who p r o v i d e d u n f a i l i n g support, v a l u able c r i t i c i s m , and a remarkable knowledge of the f i e l d . C a r o l G e l l a t e l y , E l l e n Tatham, and S a l l y S a t t e r w a i t e are owed a s p e c i a l debt of g r a t i t u d e f o r the help and support they o f f e r e d i n so many d i f f e r e n t ways. My canine f r i e n d "Bo" should a l s o be acknowledged f o r the abundance of p a t i e n c e he d i s p l a y e d i n enduring long n i g h t s under the desk. I am a p p r e c i a t i v e , too, of the o p p o r t u n i t y p r o v i d e d by the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and members of the Lambton County Board of Education, without which t h i s work would not have been r e a l i z e d F i n a l l y , I want to express my g r a t i t u d e to my p a r e n t s , who have never f a i l e d t o encourage wholeheartedly a l l my en-deavours . Deep a p p r e c i a t i o n and g r a t i t u d e i s expressed to a l l of these people. Table of Contents v i CHAPTER PAGE I THE PROBLEM 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM 1 Three Curricular Factors 5 Curriculum and Culture 5 Curriculum and the Nature of the Child 10 Curriculum and Knowledge 12 Summary 18 Some Characteristics of Contemporary Art Education Curricula 19 Summary 23 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 24 DISCUSSION OF THE PROBLEM 25 Summary 35 INTENT OF THE STUDY 35 DESIGN OF THE STUDY 37 DEFINITION OF TERMS 37 II THE PHILOSOPHY OF PAULO FREIRE 45 The Nature of Man 45 The Concept of Reality 52 The Subject Object Relationship 53 Consciousness 54 The Concept of Praxis 59 Problem-Posing Education 61 Dialogue 62 v i i Methodology 65 Summary . 68 I I I A PRAXIOLOGICAL MODEL OF ART EDUCATION 71 The " C a t e g o r i e s " o f R e f l e c t i o n and A c t i o n 74 The "Segments" of R e f l e c t i o n and A c t i o n 86 Thematic I n v e s t i g a t i o n 95 The Nature o f Themes 96 Developing Thematic U n i t s 9 8 The Process of Decoding Themes 100 Summary 104 IV SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 110 Summary 110 Conc l u s i o n s 112 V BIBLIOGRAPHY 118 v i i i L i s t of F i g u r e s F i g u r e Page 1. A P r a x i o l o g i c a l C u r r i c u l u m Model f o r A r t Edu c a t i o n 73 2. The Process of R e f l e c t i o n and A c t i o n 78 3. D i a l o g i c L e a r n i n g S i t u a t i o n 92 4. Generative Themes 99 5. Themes of an I n d i v i d u a l ' s C o n t e x t u a l R e a l i t y .... 101 6. Decoding by A b s t r a c t i o n 102 7. Stages of the Decoding Process 103 1 Chapter I The Problem I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Problem What should be the f u n c t i o n of a r t education? T h i s ques-t i o n , flamed by the t r a d i t i o n a l l y low p o s i t i o n accorded the v i s u a l a r t s i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , has generated c o n s i d e r a b l e w r i t i n g i n the f i e l d . C u r r e n t l y the l i t e r a t u r e - r e f l e c t s a deepening of t h i s concern i n response to r e c e n t evidence t h a t the c o n t i n u a t i o n of many a r t programs i n the schools i s t h r e a -tened (Jean Rush, 1979). The ways suggested f o r a m e l i o r a t i n g the s i t u a t i o n are tremendously v a r i e d but a l l e x h i b i t "consen-sus t h a t the v a l u e s and experiences of a r t can enhance the q u a l i t y of l i f e f o r modern students and, through them, the q u a l i t y of modern s o c i e t y " (Stephen Mark Dobb.s, 1974, p. 169). Seeking the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y a r t educators have ex p l o r e d the f u n c t i o n of a r t i n s o c i e t y , the nature of a r t , p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory, c u r r i c u l u m development, r e s e a r c h , and e v a l u a t i o n , as w e l l as myriad other areas t h a t might i l l u m i -nate p e r s p e c t i v e s a l l o w i n g a r t c u r r i c u l a to f u n c t i o n i n a way i n which a r t would be p e r c e i v e d as v i t a l to the e d u c a t i o n of a l l s t udents. D i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the v a r i e d c u r r i c u l a r approaches i n a r t e d u c a t i o n i s f a c i l i t a t e d by E l l i o t E i s n e r ' s (1972) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of "two major o r i e n t a t i o n s to the r o l e of a r t i n e d u cation" (p. 7). E i s n e r , who i s probably the most e l o -2 quent advocate of j u s t i f y i n g a r t e d u c a t i o n on the b a s i s of i t s unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , d e s i g n a t e s an e s s e n t i a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e as one which d e r i v e s the f u n c t i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n from one or more a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s . D e r i v a t i o n from t h i s source p r o v i d e s the b a s i s f o r the d i v i s i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n t o three d i s t i n c t m o d a l i t i e s : a r t h i s t o r y , a r t c r i t i c i s m , and c r e a t i n g a r t . In d i f f e r e n t ways each of the three modes i s seen to c o n t r i b u t e to the development of " a r t i s t i c v i s i o n " which f a c i l i t a t e s under-s t a n d i n g of the human concerns communicated i n a r t . In t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the e d u c a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s , e s s e n t i a l i s t s c l a i m a r t i s d i s t i n c t from other d i s c i p l i n e s . W i t h i n the e s s e n t i a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n , a r t educators p r o v i d e numerous v a r i a n t s of a r t programs r e f l e c t i v e of d i f f e r i n g em-phases on a e s t h e t i c t h e o r i e s . For i n s t a n c e , Kenneth L a n s i n g (1976) grounds a r t e d u c a t i o n i n the t h e o r e t i c a l premise t h a t an a r t o b j e c t i s a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d e n t i t y . His a e s t h e t i c o r i -e n t a t i o n focuses the i n t e n t s of the a r t program on understand-i n g and u s i n g the formal elements of a r t . In c o n t r a s t to Lansing's r e l i a n c e on a s i n g l e a e s t h e t i c theory, A l Hurwitz and S t a n l e y Madeja (1977) draw from a number of a e s t h e t i c the-o r i e s . They propose, f o r example, b e g i n n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t s with a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the formal p r o p e r t i e s of an a r t o b j e c t , or w i t h a^.consideration of the background of the a r t -i s t , or w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the movement to which a par-t i c u l a r work belongs. Regardless of the s t a r t i n g p o i n t , the " u l t i m a t e outcome ... should be based on the student's ob-t a i n i n g a g e n e r a l a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n i n the v i s u a l a r t s t h a t 3 w i l l make them a p p r e c i a t o r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the v i s u a l a r t s and engage them i n the making o f a r t f o r t h e i r own p l e a -sure or f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development" (p. 1). Thus, w h i l e a r t programs c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by educators s h a r i n g an e s s e n t i a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n e x h i b i t d i s p a r a t e emphases, a l l o f the programs have i r i common a r a t i o n a l e d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y from a e s t h e t i c theory or t h e o r i e s . D e r i v a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n the essen-t i a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n c o n t r a s t s with the c o n t e x t u a l i s t p o s i t i o n i n t h a t the l a t t e r regards a e s t h e t i c theory as a secondary c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the f u n c t i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n . The c o n t e x t u a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n draws from s o c i o l o g i c a l , anthro-p o l o g i c a l , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c i p l i n e s , m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t the focus of a r t e d u c a t i o n i s determined by a p a r t i c u l a r c ontext. A r t programs shaped by a c o n t e x t u a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e may d i s p l a y a number of emphases i n c l u d i n g : a r t as c u l t u r a l understanding, a r t as environment, a r t as l e i s u r e , a r t as therapy, and a r t i n -t e g r a t e d w i t h other c u r r i c u l a r areas. A c o n t e x t u a l i s t view s t r e s s i n g c u l t u r a l and environmental concerns i s p r o v i d e d by McFee & Degge (1977). T h e i r a e s t h e t i c base r e c o g n i z e s a r t both as the e x p r e s s i o n of experience and the communication of i d e a s , but both f u n c t i o n s are regarded e s s e n t i a l l y as a means of p r o v i d i n g i n s i g h t i n t o c u l t u r a l d i -v e r s i t y and environmental c o n d i t i o n s . For McFee & Degge, as f o r a l l c o n t e x t u a l i s t s , the f u n c t i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n i s l e s s a concern about the d i s c i p l i n e of a r t and much more a c o n s i d e r -a t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l ends o b t a i n a b l e through a r t . 4 The c o n t e x t u a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to C h a r l e s Dorn (1978), i s c u r r e n t l y the most favored b a s i s f o r determining the f u n c t i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n s c h o o l s . Dorn a s s e r t s that the l a c k of an adequate theory i n c o r p o r a t i n g the making o f a r t as w e l l as the absence of c l e a r l y - a r t i c u l a t e d and d e f e n s i b l e claims by e i t h e r e s s e n t i a l i s t or c o n t e x t u a l i s t o r i e n t a t i o n s , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c u r r e n t emergence of an e c l e c t i c p h i l o -sophy of a r t . "Planned e c l e c t i c i s m " i s d e f i n e d as the s e l e c -t i o n of s c h o l a r l y context r e l a t i n g t o the p r o d u c t i v e , c r i t i c a l , and h i s t o r i c a l m o d a l i t i e s i n r e l a t i o n t o the p s y c h o s o c i a l r e -a l i t i e s p r esented by the s c h o o l and the l e a r n e r . Dorn encourages d i s c o u r s e i n the f i e l d , s e e i n g i n examin-a t i o n and exchange of views, the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g newer t h e o r i e s and models capable of c l a r i f y i n g the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between a r t and e d u c a t i o n . In h i s view, a r t educators should c o n s i d e r : 1. The a p p l i c a b i l i t y of content d e r i v e d from the s c h o l a r l y m o d a l i t i e s of a r t to a r t e d u c a t i o n . 2. The s u i t a b i l i t y of the accepted c r i t i c a l models of de^ s c r i p t i o n , a n a l y s i s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and e v a l u a t i o n to a r t e d u c a t i o n g o a l s . 3. The wisdom o f determining a r t e d u c a t i o n aims on the b a s i s of the needs of the c h i l d , the s c h o o l , and the d i s c i p l i n e of a r t . The i s s u e s Dorn advocates examining are i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t they i d e n t i f y the t h r e e f a c t o r s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n g u i d i n g c u r r i c u l a r thought; the nature of the c h i l d , the na-5 •cure of the c u l t u r e , and the nature of knowledge. H i s a n a l y s i s of the c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n a r t e d u c a t i o n suggests examination of thought concerning these three c u r r i c u l a r i n f l u e n c e s may be u s e f u l i n a s s e s s i n g e x i s t i n g a r t i c u l a t i o n s of the f u n c t i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n and i n shaping a l t e r n a t i v e n o t i o n s . Three C u r r i c u l a r F a c t o r s Throughout e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y views of the c h i l d , know-ledge and c u l t u r e have i n f l u e n c e d ideas about the f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n . The p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n of c u r r e n t views r e g a r d -i n g the purpose of a r t e d u c a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t these h i s t o r i c a l i n f l u e n c e s continue to shape c u r r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The e s s e n t i a l i s t p o s i t i o n , grounded i n a view of the nature of a r t i s t i c knowledge, forms a concept of e d u c a t i o n r o o t e d i n views about the nature of knowledge. The c o n t e x t u a l i s t p o s i -t i o n , on the other hand, most o f t e n premises the purposes of a r t e d u c a t i o n on c u l t u r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y as they r e l a t e to what appear to be the needs of c h i l d r e n . Dorn's (1978) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the f l o w e r i n g o f e c l e c t i c i s m i n a r t e d u c a t i o n p h i l o s o p h y suggests awareness i n the f i e l d o f the inadequacy of c u r r i c u l u m dominated by emphasis on e i t h e r the nature of the d i s c i p l i n e or by the requirements of s o c i e t y , or by the needs and i n t e r e s t s of c h i l d r e n . C u r r i c u l u m and C u l t u r e The view t h a t a f u n c t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m i s to perpetuate and t r a n s m i t the c u l t u r e of the s o c i e t y i s r o o t e d i n North American e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y ( C o r n e l i u s Jaenen, 1977). S t a t -i n g t h a t " P u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y con-6 ceded to be the prime agencies f o r t r a n s m i t t i n g c u l t u r e . . . " (p. 77), Jaenen hypothesizes t h a t e d u c a t i o n i n a m u l t i c u l t u r a l country such as Canada should r e f l e c t not o n l y the "dominant group c u l t u r e " but the "mosaic of e t h n o - c u l t u r a l communities" as w e l l . He t r a c e s h i s t o r i c a l l y the development of a m u l t i -c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y and pr e s e n t s f o u r h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o r s which have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the acceptance of c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m i n Canada and by i m p l i c a t i o n , i n Canadian c u r r i c u l u m . While the n o t i o n o f c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m may be accepted i n edu c a t i o n , the q u e s t i o n of which c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c groups are s e l e c t e d and how they are r e f l e c t e d i n c u r r i c u l u m i s another matter. This q u e s t i o n i s the concern of the authors o f the book, Whose  c u l t u r e ? Whose h e r i t a g e ? (1977). I n v e s t i g a t i n g " e t h n i c and m u l t i c u l t u r a l content i n p r e s c r i b e d elementary and secondary c u r r i c u l a used across Canada d u r i n g the 1974-75 s c h o o l year" (p. 1), the study r e p o r t s on s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a but r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s t h a t i m p l i c a t e c u r r i c u l u m g e n e r a l l y . The authors' q u e s t i o n , "Whose c u l t u r e and whose h e r i t a g e i s rep r e s e n t e d by S o c i a l S t u d i e s ? " (p. 55), i n d i c a t e s one of the problems encoun-t e r e d i n grounding c u r r i c u l u m i n a view of c u l t u r e . By what c r i t e r i a are d e c i s i o n s to be made concerning which c u l t u r e s comprising the s o c i e t y are to be represented? Assuming t h a t i n i t i a t i o n i n t o and t r a n s m i s s i o n of a l l t h a t i s v a l u e d i n a l l of the c u l t u r e s comprising the s o c i e t y i s not p o s s i b l e , i t seems i n e v i t a b l e t h a t i n a d e q u a c i e s , i f not i n j u s t i c e s , must be t o l e r a t e d i f c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n i s accepted i n i t s e l f as a s u i t a b l e b a s i s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . 7 Another problem encountered i n b a s i n g d e c i s i o n s about c u r -r i c u l u m content on c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of the c u l t u r e of the s o c i e t y l i e s i n t r y i n g to " s t a t e i n s p e c i f i c terms what t h a t c u l t u r e i s " (A.V.Kelly, 1977, p. 52). June King McFee and Rogena, Degge (1977), both o f whom are concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a r t and c u l t u r e , a s s e r t t h a t : C u l t u r e i s a p a t t e r n of b e h a v i o r s , i d e a s , and v a l u e s shared by a group. The v i s u a l a r t s are a means of :; communicating, t e a c h i n g , and t r a n s m i t t i n g these c u l -t u r a l ideas and v a l u e s , thus m a i n t a i n i n g the behavior, i d e a s , and v a l u e s (p. 272). In a d d i t i o n to t h i s concept of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a r t and c u l t u r e the authors maintain a r t i s an instrument f o r promoting an understanding of c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y and change. In t h e i r view of s o c i e t y , comprised of a dominant c u l t u r e and numerous s u b - c u l t u r e s , i t appears t h a t t e a c h e r s would r e q u i r e a d e f i n i -t i o n of the "behaviors, i d e a s , and v a l u e s " of both the dominant c u l t u r e and o f a l l s u b - c u l t u r e s . T h i s suggests the n e c e s s i t y of d e c i d i n g what the norms of the dominant c u l t u r e are and of g e n e r a l i z i n g the b e h a v i o r , i d e a s , and v a l u e s of the many sub-9 c u l t u r e s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the dominant c u l t u r e . In a f l u i d , rapidly, changing s o c i e t y , i f s t e r e o t y p e s and c u l t u r a l misrepre-s e n t a t i o n s are to be avoided, c u r r i c u l a would have to change much more r a p i d l y than the e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e now p e r m i t s . I t may be as K e l l y (1977) s t a t e s , " t h a t i n a modern advanced i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y no one p a t t e r n of l i f e can be c a l l e d the c u l t u r e of t h a t s o c i e t y " (p. 52). I f t h i s i s so, then b a s i n g c u r r i c u l u m on an i d e a of a c u l t u r e common to a l l the c u l t u r e s and e t h n i c groups i n the s o c i e t y c r e a t e s a p e r p l e x i n g dilemma. 8 The dilemma c o u l d be avoided i f c u l t u r e i s viewed as "what i s regarded as the most v a l u a b l e among the i n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t i s t i c achievements of s o c i e t y " ( K e l l y , 1977, p. 51). This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n has, however, e l i t i s t c onnotations suggest-i v e of ed u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n i n g t o produce i n d i v i d u a l s p o s s e s s i n g a homogeneous n o t i o n of the "best". F u r t h e r , some c r i t e r i a are r e q u i r e d i n order t o decide what c o n s t i t u t e s the "best", es-p e c i a l l y i n attempting to a s c e r t a i n what i s most v a l u a b l e i n the r e c e n t p a s t o f a s o c i e t y marked by r a p i d l y changing norms, v a l u e s , customs, and morals and composed of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and many e t h n i c groups. C u r r i c u l u m based on a n o t i o n of the most o u t s t a n d i n g and v a l u a b l e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of a c u l t u r e may c r e a t e a view f o r students o f c u l t u r e and e t h n i c i t y as m a t e r i a l t h i n g s , w i t h an emphasis upon t h a t which i s unique, s t a t i c , and d i f f e r e n t . E t h n i c s t u d i e s thus become l i k e a t r i p to a museum or an a r t g a l l e r y . At the secondary s c h o o l l e v e l these n o t i o n s may be conceived h i s t o r i c a l l y as h e r i t a g e . . . . T h i s emphasis upon m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e and h e r i t a g e tends t o perpetuate an i m p l i c i t h i e r a r c h y of e t h n i c groups (W. Werner, B. Connors, T. Aoki & J . D a h l i e , 1977, pp. 53-54). U n c r i t i c a l acceptance of educa t i o n f u n c t i o n i n g t o teach and t r a n s m i t v a l u e d s o c i e t a l b e l i e f s and ideas has, i n a r t edu-c a t i o n , other consequences. I r v i n g Kaufman (19 70) comments: A f a v o r i t e i n a r t educa t i o n i s the p r o l i f e r a t i n g b e l i e f s t h a t stem from r e l a t i n g c r e a t i v i t y and the a p p r e c i a t i o n of a r t to democracy. There are the r e a d i l y accepted t e n e t s t h a t every c h i l d not onl y deserves but needs the experience -of a r t , t h a t i t promotes f r a t e r n i t y and democratic sentiments, t h a t i t i s the o b l i g a t i o n of c u l t u r e t o f i n d those common denominators of form and fancy so t h a t the p l e a s u r e s of a r t are bestowed upon one and a l l . . . (p. 269). Kaufman ques t i o n s the p l a u s i b i l i t y o f a r t experience g u i d i n g people t o democracy, sugge s t i n g t h a t what i s a c t u a l l y accom-9 p l i s h e d i s " a kneading and shaping [ o f ] both a r t and student behavior to conform t o the e x t e r n a l d i c t a t e s of what i s con-v e n i e n t f o r c u l t u r e " (p. 270). His i n t e n t i s not to d e n i g r a t e democratic i d e a l s or values but to i l l u s t r a t e a d i s t o r t i o n of the purposes of a r t . An a l t e r n a t e view of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of a r t to democracy sees a r t as a l u s t y c o n t r i b u t o r t o democracy,", and democracy as c o n t i n u a l l y b e i n g c r e a t e d and r e c r e a t e d by human beings. I t suggests a r t c u r r i c u l a t h a t enables i n d i v i -d uals t o p e r c e i v e themselves and o t h e r s , whether those others happen t o be a r t i s t s o r not, as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the ongoing c r e a t i o n o f democratic v a l u e s and i d e a l s . I t suggests an un-de r s t a n d i n g o f a r t as i l l u m i n a t i o n of s o c i a l purpose, as so-c i a l c r i t i c i s m , and as a h a r b i n g e r o f change. The f o r e g o i n g has by no means p r o v i d e d an exh a u s t i v e con-s i d e r a t i o n of c u l t u r e as a base f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c u r r i c u l u m , but i t does suggest t h a t even i f i t i s seen as the r o l e o f edu c a t i o n to i n i t i a t e students i n t o the c u l t u r e o f s o c i e t y , some d e c i s i o n i s r e q u i r e d r e g a r d i n g which c u l t u r e s and e t h n i c groups comprising the s o c i e t y are to be re p r e s e n t e d i n c u r r i c u -lum. Since i t i s not p o s s i b l e to t r a n s m i t a l l t h a t i s valued, a s e l e c t i o n o f those elements of the c u l t u r e s and e t h n i c i t i e s which are to be r e p r e s e n t e d needs t o be made. Thus, the va-r i o u s c u l t u r e s o f a s o c i e t y cannot be completely and f a i t h -f u l l y t r a n s m i t t e d . For t h i s reason, K e l l y (1977) s t a t e s , "Any n o t i o n of the c u l t u r e o f the s o c i e t y , no matter how ac-ce p t a b l e i n d e f i n i t i o n or content, w i l l i n i t s e l f not p r o v i d e us w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e c r i t e r i a of s e l e c t i o n " (p. 54). 10 C u r r i c u l u m and the Nature of the C h i l d The ideas of Rousseau, f u r t h e r a r t i c u l a t e d by P e s t a l o z z i and F r o e b e l , produced profound changes i n e d u c a t i o n d a t i n g back to the t u r n o f the century. In North America the i n f l u e n c e o f t h e i r t h i n k i n g shaped a n o t i o n of education as n u r t u r i n g - the development of the c h i l d . What came to be known as;<a c h i l d -c e n t ered movement i n e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d support from John Dewey whose work perhaps more than any other American p h i l o -sopher caused s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n North America. Dewey's thought r e q u i r e d educators to cease r e g a r d i n g the c h i l d as a r e c e p t a c l e o*'fr i n f o r m a t i o n and see him r a t h e r as an i n d i v i d u a l having c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t s , needs, and requirements f o r growth ( E i s n e r , 1972). In a r t e d u c a t i o n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Dewey's ph i l o s o p h y produced some unfortunate concepts which s t i l l emerge from time to time as an i n f l u e n c e i n the t e a c h i n g of a r t . Begin-n i n g i n the 20's, perhaps the most p e r v a s i v e i d e a was t h a t the c h i l d must not be i n t e r f e r e d w i t h i n a r t . For the c h i l d t h i s meant doing i n a r t whatever he wanted. For the teacher i t meant r e f r a i n i n g from imposing i n s t r u c t i o n ( E i s n e r , 1972). Dewey's i d e a of the wholeness of experience a l s o l e d to the i n -t e g r a t i o n of a r t w i t h o t h e r areas of the c u r r i c u l u m . In p r a c -t i c e a r t o f t e n became a v e h i c l e f o r making s a l t and water r e -l i e f maps i n geography, producing w a t e r c o l o u r s of w i l d flow-e r s i n s c i e n c e , or c o l o u r i n g costumes of f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s . A r t as a v e h i c l e f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and i n d i v i d u a l 11 growth f l o u r i s h e d d u r i n g the 30's and 40's i n North America. Examination of a r t e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i n d i c a t e s one problem i n attempting to base c u r r i c u l u m on the i d e a of n a t u r a l growth (although Dewey's i d e a was of guided growth) i s h e l p f u l i n d e c i d i n g methodology but l e s s h e l p f u l i n d e c i d i n g the func-t i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n . Growth i m p l i e s some d i r e c t i o n or g o a l ( K e l l y , 1977). A problem w i t h b a s i n g c u r r i c u l u m on the con-cept of growth i s t h a t d e c i s i o n s must be made i n order to de-c i d e what c o n s t i t u t e s continuous growth f o r an i n d i v i d u a l . In choosing what t o i n c l u d e or what experiences to a v o i d the con-cept i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l and d e c i s i o n s become a ques-t i o n o f v a l u e s ( K e l l y , 1977). Basing the c u r r i c u l u m on a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i n t e r e s t s of the c h i l d i s , l i k e the concept o f growth, more h e l p f u l i n s u g g e s t i n g m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s ( K e l l y , 1977). Dewey's thought encouraged teachers to p r o v i d e an environment capable of s t i m u l a t i n g the c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t and promoted acceptance o f areas of study suggested by the c h i l d r e n ( E i s n e r , 1972). The c h i l d ' s i n t e r e s t was seen as d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the e f f o r t and r e l e v a n c e of l e a r n i n g . While d e v i s i n g c u r r i c u l u m based on the i n t e r e s t s of c h i l d r e n may a v o i d imposing on them the v a l u e s of o t h e r s , i t appears some s e l e c t i o n of i n t e r e s t s would be r e -q u i r e d . I f i t i s not p o s s i b l e to pursue a l l the i n t e r e s t s of c h i l d r e n , which i n t e r e s t s are s e l e c t e d and which are d i s r e g a r -ded? On the o t h e r hand, c h i l d r e n w i t h l i m i t e d backgrounds may have few i n t e r e s t s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c u r r i c u l u m should per-haps f u n c t i o n t o expand i n t e r e s t s ( K e l l y , 1977). 12 Grounding c u r r i c u l u m i n the needs of c h i l d r e n a l s o p r e -sents problems. What e x a c t l y c o n s t i t u t e s a need? How are needs d i s t i n g u i s h e d from wants? How does one r e v e a l the needs of o t h e r s ? A c c o r d i n g to E i s n e r (1972): What a need i s can be determined only i n r e l a t i o n to a s e t of v a l u e s . Thus, two i n d i v i d u a l s may examine the "same" community and a r r i v e a t o p p o s i t e c o n c l u s i o n s about what the needs of t h a t community are. What, f o r example, do c h i l d r e n need from a r t e d u c a t i o n : to de-v e l o p t h e i r c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s , to l e a r n to a p p r e c i a t e f i n e a r t , to become s k i l l e d a t the p r o d u c t i o n of a r t forms? The study of a group of c h i l d r e n by i n d i v i -d u als h o l d i n g d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s concerning a r t ' s r o l e i n e d u c a t i o n w i l l y i e l d d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s about what c h i l d r e n need (p. 4). As w i t h the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of i n t e r e s t s , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of needs i s not as s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d as i n i t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n might suggest. Both i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e c r i t e r i a r o o t e d i n v a l u e s . I t appears, then, t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the needs, i n t e r -e s t s , and growth of c h i l d r e n does not alone p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i a f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a b a s i s f o r c u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s . The c e n t r a l premise of the c h i l d - c e n t e r e d view, t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a s s i s t i n g each c h i l d t o d i s c o v e r h i s unique p o t e n t i a l e n a b l i n g him to achieve s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n through the development of h i s p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s , has been p a r t i c u l a r l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n a r t e d u c a t i o n . However, as a s i n g l e premise f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c u r r i c u l u m i t f a i l s to p r o v i d e an adequate "framework of v a l u e s f o r c h o i c e s of content" ( K e l l y , 1977, p. 70) . C u r r i c u l u m and Knowledge There i s a t h i r d approach to e s t a b l i s h i n g a b a s i s f o r 13 c u r r i c u l u m which p l a c e s emphasis on the nature o f knowledge. This approach i n c l u d e s what i s r e f e r r e d t o as the s u b j e c t -centered approach t o c u r r i c u l u m and through a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of knowledge seeks c l a i m t o the i n t r i n s i c v a lue of a give n s u b j e c t . A prominent n o t i o n about knowledge t h a t has been a f o r c e throughout the development of Western European p h i l o s o p h y i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the h i e r a r c h y o f knowledge e s t a b l i s h e d by P l a t o . His l e v e l s of knowledge, d e v i s e d on the b a s i s of degrees o f ab-s t r a c t i o n , accorded g r e a t e r s t a t u s to d i s c i p l i n e s r e q u i r i n g g r e a t e r l e v e l s of a b s t r a c t i o n . P h ilosophy, i n P l a t o ' s h i e r -a r c h i c a l arrangement, was p l a c e d a t the apex, with g r a d a t i o n s down to knowledge a s s o c i a t e d w i t h sense-experiences o f p h y s i c a l phenomena. The i d e a o f i n t e l l e c t as s u p e r i o r t o oth e r human f a c u l t i e s and of somehow f u n c t i o n i n g independently of the sen-ses s t i l l i n f l u e n c e s e d u c a t i o n a l thought. R e c o g n i t i o n o f the i n f l u e n c e of t h i s theory i n ed u c a t i o n suggests a reason f o r the g e n e r a l l y low regard f o r a r t ed u c a t i o n w i t h i t s sensory and ex-p e r i e n t i a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s . A second prominent e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l theory developed i n Western European philosophy maintains knowledge e n t e r s the mind through the senses. John Locke was perhaps the most powerful proponent o f the i d e a t h a t knowledge i s a c q u i r e d through r e * f l e c t i o n on and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of sensory p e r c e p t i o n s ( K e l l y , 1977). For Locke, a l l human beings b e g i n l i f e w i t h a t a b u l a  r a s a ; a mind dev o i d of knowledge. The e m p i r i c i s t view of knowledge, as i t i s r e f e r r e d t o by K e l l y (1977), was f u r t h e r expounded by David Hume, who "came to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t no 14 knowledge was p o s s i b l e a t a l l o r , a t l e a s t , t h a t we c o u l d have l i t t l e c e r t a i n t y i n our knowledge of the world about us" (p. 58). An e m p i r i c i s t view of knowledge has i n f l u e n c e d numerous r e c e n t t h e o r i e s of knowledge t h a t begin w i t h "the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t hu-man knowledge has to be t r e a t e d i n a f a r more t e n t a t i v e way than many who take a r a t i o n a l i s t view would concede and t h a t , i n r e l a t i o n t o c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n i n g , we are i n no p o s i t i o n to be dogmatic about i t s content" ( K e l l y , 1977, p.. 58)'. K e l l y notes t h a t the p r a g m a t i s t movement i n education was tremendously i n -f l u e n c e d by John Dewey's thought, which r e c o g n i z e d the hypothe-t i c a l nature of knowledge. For Dewey (1973), knowing i n v o l v e d the f o r m u l a t i o n of p o s s i b i l i t i e s , m o d i f i e d and suggested by precedents or p r e v i o u s knowledge. While experience was seen as t r a n s i t i o n a l , i t was o b j e c t i v e i n so f a r as the knowledge produced by experience r e s u l t e d from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p r e -sent i n l i g h t of the p a s t . Without " i n t e l l i g e n t e f f o r t " , f u -t u r e ends are " i n e r t , h e l p l e s s , s e n t i m e n t a l , without means o f r e a l i z a t i o n " (p. 206). However, i n e d u c a t i o n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n North American a r t e d u c a t i o n d u r i n g the 20's through the 40's, Dewey's epistemology c o n t r i b u t e d to an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of l e a r n i n g as e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s n o t i o n i n f l u e n c e d thought i n a r t e d u c a t i o n which E i s n e r (1973) contends i s "the p h i l o s o p h i c o r i e n t a t i o n of a v a s t segment of the f i e l d .... T h i s o r i e n t a -t i o n h o l d s , i n g e n e r a l , t h a t a r t i s not so much taught as i t i s caught" (p. 1197). The i d e a t h a t knowledge i s not o n l y a ihuman c o n s t r u c t but i s s o c i a l l y formed i s "the main t h r u s t of the r e c e n t dramatic 15 developments i n s o c i o l o g y toward the ge n e r a t i o n of a s o c i o l o g y of knowledge" ( K e l l y , 1977, p. 59). Of i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s area i s the thought of K a r l Marx. A c c o r d i n g to E r i c Fromm (1961), Marx b e l i e v e d t h a t language manifests the consciousness o f men. Language, the product of oth e r men, e x i s t s p r i m a r i l y f o r every i n d i v i d u a l as the means of s a t i s f y i n g the n e c e s s i t y o f i n t e r -a c t i o n with o t h e r s . Thus, language, the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the consciousness o f others as w e l l as t h a t o f each i n d i v i d u a l , i s the product of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Consciousness i s , then, a s o c i a l product. Fromm (1961) s t a t e s : "Marx, l i k e S p i -noza and l a t e r Freud, b e l i e v e d t h a t most o f what men co n s c i o u s -l y t h i n k i s ' f a l s e ' c o nsciousness, i s id e o l o g y and r a t i o n a l i -z a t i o n ; t h a t the t r u e mainsprings of man's a c t i o n s are uncon-s c i o u s to him" (p. 21). In t h i s view, " S o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d knowledge i s i d e o l o g y " ( K e l l y , 1977, p. 59). Attempts to make c u r r i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s based on b e l i e f s of the value of c e r t a i n kinds of knowledge are then i m p l i c a t e d as e f f o r t s to impose a p a r t i c u l a r i d e o l o g y on c h i l d r e n . Whether the i m p o s i t i o n i s d e l i b e r a t e o r r e s u l t s from unexamined assumptions u n d e r l y i n g c u r r i c u l a r p r a c t i c e s , educators debating from t h i s p o i n t o f view see the i s s u e as one of c o n f l i c t i n g i d e o l o g i e s (Michael Apple, 1974). The work o f men such as A l f r e d Schutz, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Edmund H u s s e r l i n phenomenology and of Hans-Georg Gadamer, Wilhelm D i l t h e y and M a r t i n Heidegger i n hermeneutics. has c o n t r i b u t e d t o a b a s i s f o r a s o c i o l o g y of knowledge. A comprehensive e x p l a n a t i o n of these i n t e r p r e t a t i v e s c i e n c e s i s beyond the scope of this chapter. However, Richard Palmer's (1969) definition of hermeneutics provides a notion of the curricular implications of this science: Hermeneutics, when defined as the study of the understanding of the works of man, transcends linguistic forms of interpretation. Its prin-ciples apply not only to works in written form but to any work of art. Since this is so, her-meneutics is fundamental to a l l the humanities — a l l those disciplines occupied with the in-terpretation of the works of man (p. 10). While there are several differing positions in the f i e l d , her-meneutics is generally concerned with the discovery of meaning as i t draws on'"personal" knowledge as well as with questioning the phenomenon of understanding i t s e l f . The influence of "Ger-man phenomenology and existential philosophy" (Palmer, 1969, p. 10) on the latter concern contributes to the complexity of distinguishing between phenomenology and hermeneutics and of drawing from them curricular implications. It is not the pur-pose of this chapter to investigate the numerous implications of hermeneutic theories for curriculum. What is suggested by this brief glimpse is .that;, if-'-'the past works of men are to be meaningful to students, recognition of individuals as subjects in-a-situation endeavouring to interpret works created by men is essential to understanding. It suggests curriculum that enables the development of "real historical consciousness" which for Palmer (1977) is "a genuine comprehension of the way that history is constantly at work in understanding, and a con-sciousness of the creative tension between the horizon of the work and that of one's own present time" (p. 224). Douglas Boughton (1976) d i s t i n g u i s h e s hermeneutics as con-cerned with i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the p a s t and phenomenology as concerned with i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the pr e s e n t . A c c o r d i n g to Schutz (19 64), phenomenology views i n d i v i d u a l s as i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e i r o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l world, which i s a l s o the world of o t h -e r s , on the b a s i s of t h e i r p a s t l e a r n i n g , experiences and edu-c a t i o n . T h i s constant i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s made i n an e f f o r t t o make sense of and o r i e n t o n e s e l f t o the o b j e c t s o f the world as they r e l a t e t o one's everyday, common sense world. Thus, what i n d i v i d u a l s seek to "know" i s i n f l u e n c e d by one's f i r s t hand experience, p r e s e n t a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s i t u a t i o n , and s o c i a l knowledge d e r i v e d from the pas t . "Knowing" i s d i r e c t e d t o one' " p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t " i n changing the "outer world", and t h i s i n t e r e s t determines r e l e v a n c e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s (Schutz, 1970).. This view suggests t h a t i f c u r r i c u l u m i s t o be r e l e v a n t t o i n d i v i d u a l s , the p e r s o n a l , "common sense" knowledge of students must be re c o g n i z e d ( K e l l y , 1977). F u r t h e r phenomenological theory i n d i c a t e d r e c o g n i t i o n i n c u r r i c u l u m o f the "here" and "now" s i t u a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s . I t suggests, too, acknowledge-ment of the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d s t r u c t u r e s o f everyday l i f e and e x p l o r a t i o n o f the ways i n which these s t r u c t u r e s impede or a s s i s t the communication and a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s . The p r e c e d i n g review r e v e a l s t h a t c u r r i c u l u m is. i n f l u -enced by s e v e r a l t h e o r i e s o f knowledge, no one of which i s u n i v e r s a l l y accepted. Thus, as K e l l y (1977) suggests, f o r c u r r i c u l u m g e n e r a l l y , attempting to e s t a b l i s h the f u n c t i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n p r i m a r i l y on t h e o r i e s about the o r i g i n o f know-18 ledge w i l l not provide a sufficient basis for curriculum. Whether we regard knowledge as abstract and static, or as real and constantly being created, i t is indicated that consider-ations beyond epistemological justifications are involved. Summary Currently, one of two distinct orientations is revealed in arguments justifying the functions of art education. Essentialists derive the function of art education from con-siderations of the nature of aesthetic knowledge, while others assert that psychological, anthropological or sociological factors are the basis of art curricula. Both consider, with varying emphasis, the three curricular factors of the nature of the child, the nature of culture, and the nature of know-ledge. According to Kelly (1977), consideration of the nature of the child is more useful pedagogically in curriculum. Among the diverse theories of knowledge and of culture are some which objectify knowledge .and .culture, creating a per-spective which tends to objectify human beings and their world. Other theories advance the idea that knowledge and culture are created by human beings, suggesting a subjective relation-ship between individuals and the objects of their world. It appears, then, that in the absence of a universally accepted theory of knowledge, some other center for curriculum should be sought. Since consideration of theories guiding the appli-cation of ideas about the child or culture indicates no one of these provides in i t s e l f sufficient c r i t e r i a for ascert-aining the function of curriculum, consideration of alter-19 native "centers" for curriculum is suggested. Some Gharacteristics of Contemporary Art Education Curricula Curricula for the teaching of art in our schools is tremendously varied, reflecting different aesthetic and psy-chological theories, diverse emphases on curricular orienta-tions, dissimilar conceptions about the function of art in schools, and plurality regarding the nature of knowing. These curricular influences were considered in an analysis of text-books written for preservice and inservice art teachers (Joan Wilson, 1979). From this analysis emerged two salient cha-~--• racteristics of art education which provided the focus of this thesis. The f i r s t characteristic concerns "ways of knowing", and refers to the theory developed by Jtirgen Habermas (1971/1968). In this thesis, the terms used to designate the three funda-mental "cognitive" human interests that Habermas sees as gui-ding human knowing are those provided by Ted Aoki (197 8). As well, understanding of the three modes of knowing as communi-cated in this thesis is underpinned by Aoki 1s interpretation of Habermas1 analysis. The three paradigms are expressed as follows: 1. Empirical-analytic (technical) knowing which relates man practically to his natural world. 2. Situational interpretative knowing which relates man to his social and cultural world. 3. C r i t i c a l l y reflective knowing which relates man to his self and to his world. • 20 The human interests guiding the acquisition of technical knowledge are certainty and control. Understanding in this realm facilitates explanation and prediction. Examples of disciplines which have a primary interest in technical know-ledge are science, technology, and behavioral psychology. Art curricula oriented in this realm may emphasize the acquisition of data about art objects or art history, or i t may emphasize techniques and s k i l l s in the realm of making art. Curricular goals in themselves, however, do not necessarily reveal a sa-lient orientation to a form of knowing. It is possible for intents to be subverted by curricular technique. Situational knowing is guided by human interest in com-munication and in understanding the social and cultural world; Hermeneutics, Phenomenology, and the Sociology of Knowledge are examples of disciplines which seek to extend inter-subjective understanding. Art curricula oriented to-ward situational knowing may seek to provide individuals with understandings about their personal, social, and cultural world through investigation of the humanly relevant in and through art. C r i t i c a l knowing is guided by human interest in freedom and emancipation from the rules and patterns imposed by "na-ture" and history. Through c r i t i c a l reflection on himself and his world, man seeks to create and recreate self and his culture. C r i t i c a l social theory and psychoanalysis are ex-amples of knowing in the c r i t i c a l paradigm. Both seek dia-l e c t i c a l l y to illuminate the actual and assumed "necessity" 21 of man. A r t c u r r i c u l u m i n t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n might i n t e n d en-couragements and development o f m u l t i p l e and a l t e r n a t i v e world-views. I t may a l s o promote changing, through a r t , the q u a l i t y of l i f e i n the community. Such a c u r r i c u l u m would, a c c o r d i n g to Van Manen (1977), m a i n t a i n a k i n d of double v i s i o n f o c u s -s i n g on both the a c t u a l and on the p o s s i b l e . One segment of the textbook i n v e s t i g a t i o n was d i r e c t e d to d i s c o v e r y of the s a l i e n t o r i e n t a t i o n s to knowing evidenced i n contemporary a r t c u r r i c u l a . I t was found t h a t , i n v a r y i n g degrees, a r t c u r r i c u l a emphasized two forms of knowing: the e m p i r i c a l - a n a l y t i c ( t e c h n i c a l ) and the s i t u a t i o n a l i n t e r p r e -t a t i v e . The c r i t i c a l l y - r e f l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n was not d i s -cerned as s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f any of the c u r r i c u l a examined. A second c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c u r r i c u l a r o r i e n t a t i o n s p r esented i n the textbooks r e v e a l e d a view of a r t l e a r n i n g as i n c l u d i n g experience i n producing a r t as w e l l as a c q u i r i n g "formal" knowledge about a r t . "Formal" knowledge r e f e r s here to the strands of a r t c u r r i c u l a such as: a r t h i s t o r y , a r t c r i t i c i s m , c u l t u r e , and the b u i l t environment. I t i n c l u d e s both f a c t u a l and t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge as w e l l as knowledge as communication and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . "Formal" knowledge r e c o g n i z e s i n c l u s i o n by the m a j o r i t y of the'nauthors of c u r -r i c u l a r i n t e n t s such as: h e l p i n g students d i s c o v e r meaning i n the world, e n a b l i n g the r e v e l a t i o n of i n s i g h t s , ideas and f e e l i n g s , s u g g e s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f what l i f e might be l i k e , as w e l l as i m p a r t i n g knowledge o f a r t forms, a r t symbols, and 22 •art-.history ( E i s n e r , 1972) . To a v o i d the u nwieldiness of r e f e r r i n g i n d i v i d u a l l y to each of the areas c o n t r i b u t i n g to "formal" knowledge i n a r t c u r r i c u l a , the term " a r t a p p r e c i a -t i o n " w i l l be used throughout t h i s t h e s i s . A r t a p p r e c i a t i o n w i l l , then, r e f e r to areas such as a r t h i s t o r y and a r t c r i t i -cism i n which knowledge may be f a c t u a l or t h e o r e t i c a l and may a l s o seek to i l l u m i n a t e f o r i n d i v i d u a l s the p e r s o n a l and u n i -v e r s a l elements of the human c o n d i t i o n r e f l e c t e d by a r t . In examining c u r r i c u l a r i n t e n t s i t was r e v e a l e d t h a t both producing a r t and a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n are regarded as necessary to d e v e l o p i n g and r e f i n i n g v i s u a l and c o g n i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n and t h a t c r e a t i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g are p e r c e i v e d as r e l a t e d to one another. However, the c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s designed to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between these stran d s of a r t e d u c a t i o n r e a l i z e t h i s i n t e n t o n l y i n a tenuous and sometimes s u p e r f i -c i a l manner. The problem of r e l a t i n g c r e a t i n g v a n d a p p r e c i a -t i n g i s a d i f f i c u l t one. I t i s one t h a t has been acknowledged i n the l i t e r a t u r e as w e l l as i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . C h a r l e s Dorn (197 8) i d e n t i f i e s the problem as "what has come to be the s e p a r a t i o n of a r t e d u c a t i o n i n t o two p a r t s : 'crea-t i o n ' and ' a p p r e c i a t i o n ' " (p. 8). Commenting f u r t h e r , he notes: Concern about t h i s s e p a r a t i o n i s w e l l expressed i n John Dewey's n o t i o n of "doing" and "underf going", which he f e l t i f connected formed the most p r o d u c t i v e way to l e a r n i n a r t . Susanne Langer a l s o has expressed the same concern i n terms which she c a l l s the a r t s of " e x p r e s s i o n " and "impression". In her book, F e e l i n g and  Form, Langer suggests t h a t " l o o k i n g " i s not the same as "making" though u n l i k e Dewey, she does not t e l l us what t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p should be. 23 Maybe i t was Langer's intent that the art educator should be the one to c l a r i f y that relationship... (p. 8). What emerges from my investigation of art education textbooks is that regardless of whether the author's orientation toward the function of art curricula is essentialist or contextualist almost a l l recognize and strive in various ways to address the relationship between understanding and experiencing. While the curricular intents suggested by most authors reject any notion of what Olgerts Puravs (1973) has noted as isolation of "the student from the experiences of art by a false ob-jectivity ... or by a false subjectivity" (p. 12), examina-tion of curricular activities indicates that the d i f f i c u l t problem of relating creation and appreciation essentially remains largely unresolved. Summary An examination of curricula proposed by art educators revealed art activities attended to empirical analytic (tech-nical) ."'knowing and to the situational interpretative form of knowing. While some curricular intents in several of the books recognized the social as well as the personal nature of art, the activities designed to realize such intents could not be said to encourage knowing as c r i t i c a l l y re-flective. The analysis revealed a problem in art education also pointed to by others: the d i f f i c u l t y of overcoming the tendency of "creating" and "appreciating" to emerge as two separate entities of art curricula. 24 Statement of the Problem The foregoing identifies three "threads", a l l part of a single strand. Woven together they form the problem of this study. The f i r s t concerns the finding of an alternative basis for curriculum, suggested by investigation of the commonly assumed bases of curriculum. The second is the absence of the c r i t i c a l l y reflective paradigm in art curricula, suggest-ing inquiry in this area may be valuable. The third concerns one of the most persistent curricular problems in art educa-tion: the separation of creation and appreciation. The problem of this study responds to these three con-siderations and is expressed in the following question: Can a model for art curriculum be developed that,  grounded in an alternative base, joins the practical  and theoretical aspects of art education in a rela-.:.'„,;.. tionship essential to human knowing? The central assumption of this problem is underpinned by Habermas1 thesis: commitment to a theoretical stance in Western thought has separated knowledge from human interests. Inasmuch as a severance of theoretical and practical know-ledge is evidenced in art curricula, Habermas" analysis sug-gests that an alternative curricular base may be found in a linkage between knowing and human interests. If these are essentially related in art curricula, the s p l i t betwen crea-ting and appreciating may be overcome. 25 D i s c u s s i o n of the Problem The f o r e g o i n g suggests " c e n t e r i n g " c u r r i c u l a f o r a r t w i t h i n a broader context than t h a t a f f o r d e d by c u r r i c u l u m centered on the development o f the c h i l d , t h e o r i e s of know-ledge, or views of c u l t u r e . A o k i (1978) c r i t i c i z e s "these ^ c e n t e r s ' f o r not p r o v i d i n g s u f f i c i e n t scope and c o n t e x t u a l -i t y t h a t a l l o w entertainment of views of human and s o c i a l a c t s we c a l l 'education'" (p. 51), p r o p o s i n g c e n t e r i n g c u r r i c u l u m on a concept of "man-world r e l a t i o n s h i p s " . Toward t h i s pur-pose he draws from Habermas' (1968/1971) a n a l y s i s of know-ledge. A c c o r d i n g to Habermas: The e m p i r i c a l - a n a l y t i c s c i e n c e s develop t h e i r t h e o r i e s i n a s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a u t o m a t i c a l l y generates c o n t i n u i t y w i t h the beginnings o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought. For both are committed to a t h e o r e t i c a l a t t i t u d e t h a t f r e e s those who take i t from dogmatic a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t s of l i f e and t h e i r i r r i t a t i n g i n -f l u e n c e ; and both share the c o s m o l o g i c a l i n t e n t i o n of d e s c r i b i n g the u n i v e r s e t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n i t s l a w l i k e o r d e r , j u s t as i t i s . In c o n t r a s t , the h i s t o r i c a l -hermeneutic s c i e n c e s , which are concerned w i t h the sphere of t r a n s i t o r y t h i n g s and mere o p i n i o n , cannot be l i n k e d up so smoothly w i t h t h i s t r a d i t i o n — t h e y have nothin g to do w i t h cosmology. But they, too, comprise a s c i e n t i s t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s , based on the model of s c i e n c e . For even the symbolic meanings of t r a d i t i o n seem capable of b e i n g brought together i n a cosmos of f a c t s i n i d e a l s i m u l t a n e i t y . . . . H i s t o r i c i s m has become the p o s i t i v i s m of the c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . P o s i t i v i s m has a l s o permeated the s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d -ings of the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , whether they obey the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l demands of an e m p i r i c a l - a n a l y t i c beha-v i o r a l s c i e n c e or o r i e n t themselves to the p a t t e r n of n o r m a t i v e - a n a l y t i c s c i e n c e s , based on p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s about maxims of a c t i o n . In t h i s f i e l d of i n q u i r y which i s so c l o s e to p r a c t i c e , the concept of v a l u e -freedom (or e t h i c a l n e u t r a l i t y ) has simply r e a f f i r m e d the ethos t h a t modern s c i e n c e owes t o the beginnings of t h e o r e t i c a l thought i n Greek p h i l o s o p h y : psycho-l o g i c a l l y an u n c o n d i t i o n a l commitment to theory and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y the severance of knowledge from i n t e r e s t (pp. 302-303). 26 T h i s expresses Habermas' b a s i c p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t knowledge has been d i v o r c e d from human i n t e r e s t s . Both the " p o s i t i v i s t s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the nomological s c i e n c e s " (p. 316) and the " o b j e c t i v i s t s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the hermeneutic s c i - ences" (p. 316) operate under the i l l u s i o n o f pure theory, t h a t i s , t h a t complete r e l i a n c e on methodology has obscured the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g method. The r e s u l t , a c c o r d i n g to Habermas, i s the d e r i v a t i o n of meaning, by assuming a stance '. i n which the world i s o b j e c t i f i e d and o b j e c t s become i n s t r u -mental to and separate from s u b j e c t s . Thus, "the s c i e n c e s l a c k the means o f d e a l i n g w i t h the r i s k s t h a t appear once the connection of knowledge and human i n t e r e s t has been compre-hended on the l e v e l of s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n " (p. 315). Examination of the i n t e n t s of a r t c u r r i c u l a and the un-derstandings u n d e r l y i n g those c u r r i c u l a r i n t e n t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t a r t educators i n c l u d e as f u n c t i o n s of c u r r i c u l a the r e -v e l a t i o n and understanding of both s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l con-cerns (Chapman, 1978; E i s n e r , 1972; Feldman, 1970). However, i n seeking ways to r e a l i z e a r t as both s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l , a r t educators tend to r e f l e c t the assumptions of knowledge i n g r a i n e d i n our h e r i t a g e , which a c c o r d i n g to Habermas d i -vorces knowledge from human i n t e r e s t s . Of t h i s s e p a r a t i o n Habermas (1968/1971) comments: They have abandoned the c o n n e c t i o n of t h e o r i a and kosmos....What was once supposed to comprise the p r a c t i c a l e f f i c a c y of theory has now f a l l e n prey to m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o h i b i t i o n s . The c o n c e p t i o n o f theory as a process of c u l t i v a t i o n of the per-son has become apocryphal. Today i t appears to us t h a t the mimetic conformity of the s o u l to the 27 p r o p o r t i o n s of the u n i v e r s e , which seemed a c c e s s i b l e to contemplation, has o n l y taken t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge i n t o the s e r v i c e of the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of norms and thus estranged i t from i t s l e g i t i m a t e task (p. 304). T h i s suggests t h a t i n attempting to move toward overcoming the schism between c r e a t i n g and a r t a p p r e c i a t i o n we need to seek ways of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g "the connection between t h e o r i a and kosmos" (Habermas, 1968/1971, p. 304). A c c o r d i n g to Habermas 1 (1968/1971) f o u r t h t h e s i s , " i n the power of s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n , knowledge and i n t e r e s t are one" (p. 314). T h i s suggests i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l l y r e -f l e c t i v e paradigm which, i n A o k i 1 s (197 8) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , understands man as a b e i n g of p r a x i s ( r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n ) , and has as i t s r o o t a c t i v i t y "the r e l a t i n g o f man t o s e l f and s o c i a l world" (p. 56). I t i s t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n which appears most sympathetic to the f u n c t i o n s o f a r t . E i s n e r (1972) s t a t e s : The work of a r t f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t s to our senses a s e t of v a l u e s , e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e ; the work p r a i s e s or condemns, but i t comments on the world and makes us f e e l toward the o b j e c t i t de-p i c t s . . . . In s h o r t , the a r t i s t f r e q u e n t l y f u n c t i o n s as s o c i a l c r i t i c and a v i s i o n a r y . His work enables those of us w i t h l e s s p e r c e p t i v i t y to l e a r n to see what was unseen, and having seen through a r t , we are the b e t t e r f o r i t (p. 16). I f a r t does speak about s o c i a l r e a l i t y as p e r c e i v e d through the lenses of the a r t i s t ' s p e r s o n a l r e a l i t y , c r i t i c a l r e -f l e c t i o n i l l u m i n a t e s t h i s communication i n an a c t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between teacher and student and o b j e c t s of t h e i r i n -v e s t i g a t i o n . In t h i s understanding the r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d i a -l o g i c a l ; o b j e c t s and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r a c t w i t h n e i t h e r ob-28 j e c t or p a r t i c i p a n t regarded as p a s s i v e or s t a t i c . The i n t e n t of c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e knowing i s to u n v e i l the hidden and r e v e a l our t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d assumptions. Knowing i n t h i s sense endeavours to b r i n g t o conscious awareness the reasons, i n t e n t s or motives u n d e r l y i n g our responses to the world. I t seeks to r e l a t e s e l f t o world and enable new understandings and change. A p p l i e d to the a e s t h e t i c a c t Gyorgy Lukacs (1972) notes: No person immediately becomes another one i n the enjoyment of a r t or by i t . . . . No, a l l h i s p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e s , which were a l i v e and a t hand i n the grounding of h i s s o c i a l i d e n t i t y , remain a c t i v e a l s o i n the a p p r e c i a t i o n of a r t . In any recog-n i t i o n of the e v o c a t i v e power of the a r t i s t i c , c h a r i t y d i c t a t e s t h a t each r e c i p i e n t should compare the r e a l i t y r e f l e c t e d by the a r t w i t h the one h e l d by him u n t i l then (p. 235). In r e f l e c t i o n Lukacs a s s e r t s a r t deepens and extends the be-h o l d e r ' s view and experiences of the world, e n r i c h i n g and r e -forming " s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s " . I t i s the constant t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of consciousness which l i e s a t the h e a r t of Aoki's (1978) suggestion of " c e n t e r i n g " c u r r i c u l u m on man-world r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Such a c e n t e r i n g i s concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p of knowledge to human beings i n human s i t u a t i o n s . The e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n i s seen as a human s i t u a t i o n i n which people may probe,, "the deeper meaning of what i t i s f o r persons (teachers and students) to be hu-man, t o become more human, and t o a c t humanly i n e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s " (p. 51). T h i s suggests t h a t i n c o n s i d e r i n g a l -t e r n a t e c u r r i c u l u m p e r s p e c t i v e s , the i n f l u e n c e of dominant s o c i e t a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s must be r e c o g n i z e d . Ma-29 gorah Maruyama's (1974) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of three broad c a t e g o r i e s of s t r u c t u r a l paradigms p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t h i s r e g ard and f a c i l i t a t e s an understanding of the c o r -respondence between the e x i s t i n g s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y and t h a t of s c h o o l s . The paradigm t h a t Maruyama c a l l s the "one-way c a u s a l " i s s i m i l a r to the s t r u c t u r e known as h i e r a r c h i c a l . T h i s s t r u c t u r e a c c o r d i n g to Maruyama i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a view of community members as i g n o r a n t , or more g r a c i o u s l y , as l a c k i n g i n e x p e r t i s e . P l a n n i n g i s the p r o v i n c e of e x p e r t s , who i n the i n t e r e s t s of r e t a i n i n g power, must m y s t i f y knowledge so t h a t the "masses" are kept uninformed. Homogeneity and c o n t r o l are sought i n the i n t e r e s t s of maximum e f f i c i e n c y . Man i s o b j e c t i f i e d . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r i n g i s "monopolarization", which i s d e f i n e d by Maru-yama (1974) as dependence "on one t r u t h , one r i g h t t h e o r y , one method which i s supposed to be u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e " (p. 112). H i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e s and the e f f e c t s of "one- : way c a u s a l " r a t i o n a l i t y dominate our p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e as w e l l as other s o c i e t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The paradigm t h a t dominates the s t r u c t u r i n g of knowledge i n schools r e f l e c t s the same e f f i c i e n t , l i n e a r r a t i o n a l i t y as Maruyama's one-way c a u s a l paradigm. Dominant c u r r i c u l u m thought based, as i t i s , on a f a c t o r y metaphor s e p a r a t i n g ends from means, c r e a t e s a view of human beings as "manipu-l a t i v e a b s t r a c t i o n s " (Apple, 1974, p. 10). Apple p o i n t s out t h a t w hile the l i m i t e d p e r s p e c t i v e of the dominant paradigm i s not n e c e s s a r i l y wrong, i t does g i v e r i s e to t a k e n - f o r -30 granted assumptions and tends "to hide from s c h o o l people the p o l i t i c a l and e t h i c a l nature o f t h e i r a c t s " (p. 11). Taken-f o r - g r a n t e d assumptions i n f l u e n c e , as w e l l , what P h i l i p Jack-son (1968) has l a b e l l e d the "hidden c u r r i c u l u m " . T h i s c u r r i -culum l e g i t i m i z e s and e f f e c t i v e l y teaches, without conscious or p u b l i c acknowledgement, the dominant s o c i e t a l world-view. Seymour Sarason's (1971) o b s e r v a t i o n s of the t a c i t assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the "behavior and programmatic r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the s c h o o l " (p. 3), f o r c e f u l l y r e v e a l s the nature of the r e a l i t y imparted by s c h o o l s . : The work of Jackson and Sarason as w e l l as t h a t o f Apple (1975, 1976), Jonathan K o z o l (1975), M i c h a e l Katz (1971) and Edgar Fr i e d e n b u r g (1976) p o i n t s t o the per-s u a s i v e , m y s t i f y i n g and m a n i p u l a t i v e c h a r a c t e r o f our domi-nant p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and c u r r i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e s . In l i g h t of t h i s , Aoki*s (197 8) s u g g e s t i o n of c e n t e r i n g c u r r i c u l u m on man-world r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s c r i t i c a l a t t h i s time i n our s o c i e t y i f i n d i v i d u a l s are to be f u l l y human; i f they are to understand and a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c r e -a t i o n of t h e i r world. E r i c h Fromm (19 68) speaks o f "the syn-drome of a l i e n a t i o n " (p. 40) t h a t renders modern man p a s s i v e , and u n c r i t i c a l i n acceptance of man's c o n d i t i o n . He w r i t e s : Knowing man i n the sense of compassionate and empathetic knowing r e q u i r e s t h a t we get r i d o f the narrowing t i e s o f a g i v e n s o c i e t y , r a c e , or c u l t u r e , and pene t r a t e t o the depth of t h a t human r e a l i t y i n which we are a l l no t h i n g but human. True compassion and knowledge o f man has been l a r g e l y underrated as a r e v o l u t i o n a r y f a c t o r i n the development of man, j u s t as a r t has been (p. 83). 31 Fromm 1s statement suggests the p o t e n t i a l of a e s t h e t i c ex-pe r i e n c e to p r o v i d e communicative and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a l under-s t a n d i n g . The a e s t h e t i c f a c i l i t a t e s t h i s understanding be-cause "Art works immediately, on the ...human s u b j e c t ; the rep-r e s e n t a t i o n of the o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , t h a t o f s o c i a l man i n h i s t r a n s a c t i o n s w i t h other men and i n h i s exchanges wi t h nature" (Lukacs, 1972, p. 237). Thus i n t u r n i n g to man-world r e l a t i o n -s h i p s as a cente r f o r c u r r i c u l u m , a e s t h e t i c experience i s un-derstood t o i n c l u d e the s e l f - w o r l d d i a l o g u e i n s p i r e d by e i t h e r b e h o l d i n g or c r e a t i n g a r t . For whether i n d i v i d u a l s are en-gaged i n making or b e h o l d i n g an a r t work the contemplation of symbol and f e e l i n g ( i n Suzanne Langer's [1972] sense o f the term), " A r t i s t i c form i s congruent w i t h the dynamic forms of our d i r e c t , sensuous, mental, and emotional l i f e ; works of a r t are p r o j e c t i o n s of ' f e l t l i f e " , as Henry James c a l l e d i t , i n t o s p a t i a l , temporal, and p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e s " (p. 174). The power of a r t to enable i n d i v i d u a l s to c o n f r o n t t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e a l i t y and the r e a l i t y of others suggests the communicative and i n t e r -p r e t a t i v e understandings of what Aoki (1978) c a l l s the s i t u a -t i o n a l - i n t e r p r e t a t i v e paradigm. The process o f c r e a t i n g and beh o l d i n g a r t i s seen as an attempt to d i s c o v e r man's e x i s t i n g -i n - t h e world and re c o g n i z e s the h i s t o r i c a l , c u l t u r a l and valu4:'. i n g dimension o f man. S e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g or "compassionate and empathetic knowledge" (Fromm, 1968/ p. 83), do not alone p r o v i d e knowledge t h a t permits i n d i v i d u a l s t o a c t and assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l f and world. A r t c u r r i c u l u m must a l s o acknowledge the power of a r t to r e v e a l and enable man's i n t e r e s t i n emancipa-32 t i o n and freedom. The power.of a r t i n t h i s r e gard i s expressed by Paul T i l l i c h (1952): One c o u l d say t h a t the t o t a l i t a r i a n systems fought modern a r t j u s t because they t r i e d t o r e s i s t the meaninglessness expressed i n i t . The r e a l answer l i e s deeper. Modern a r t i s not propaganda but r e v e l a t i o n . I t shows t h a t the r e a l i t y of our e x i s t e n c e i s as i t i s . I t does not cover up the r e a l i t y i n which we are l i v i n g . The q u e s t i o n t h e r e f o r e i s t h i s : i s the r e v e l a t i o n of a s i t u a t i o n propaganda f o r i t ? I f t h i s were the case a l l a r t would have to become d i s h o n e s t b e a u t i f i c a t i o n . I t i s an i d e a l -i z e d n a t u r a l i s m which i s p r e f e r r e d because i t removes every danger of a r t becoming c r i t i c a l and r e v o l u t i o n a r y (p. 145) . T i l l i c h p o i n t s to the p o t e n t i a l of a r t to u n v e i l r e a l i t y . In t h i s a r t enables i n d i v i d u a l s to know through c o n f r o n t i n g the world and a c t i n g to a l t e r the world. I f man's i n t e r e s t i n freedom i s r e c o g n i z e d , a r t c u r r i c u l a must a t t e n d to the de-velopment of the c r i t i c a l c a p a c i t y of human beings, s t r i v i n g to open avenues t h a t allow i n d i v i d u a l s t o d i s c o v e r o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y . For Paulo F r i e r e (1973/1969) only as men grasp the themes of the r e a l i t y w i t h i n which the themes are generated, can they i n t e r v e n e and p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e a l i t y . T h i s i s the work of s i g n i f i c a n t a r t i s t s whose work does not simply a r t i c u -l a t e the c u l t u r e of the time but "both f o r e t e l l s the f u t u r e and warns of p r e s e n t dangers" ( C h a r i t y James, 1974, p. 101). In t h i s understanding a r t e d u c a t i o n does not t r a n s m i t inform-a t i o n , f a c t s , and i d e a s . I t i s i n s t e a d the i n v o l v i n g of i n -d i v i d u a l s i n a v i t a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h r e a l i t y r e q u i r i n g of both a r t i s t and beholder c r e a t i o n and r e - c r e a t i o n . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n of s i t u a t i o n a l - i n t e r p r e t a t i v e and c r i t i c -a l l y - r e f l e c t i v e knowing does not i n t e n d t h a t a r t c u r r i c u l a should i g n o r e the e m p i r i c a l - a n a l y t i c paradigm. I t i s assumed t h a t the importance o f t e c h n i c a l knowing to both c r e a t i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g i n a r t educ a t i o n i s w e l l understood and needs l i t t l e e l a b o r a t i o n i n t h i s study. Man's i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l and c e r t a i n t y i s most immediately r e c o g n i z a b l e i n the need f o r technique i f e x p r e s s i o n and communication of the content intended f o r a r t forms i s to be r e a l i z e d . A c c o r d i n g b r i e f a t t e n t i o n t o t e c h n i c a l knowing i s not then a d i s m i s s a l o f t h i s paradigm as unimportant. Man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the world r e -q u i r e s the r e c o g n i t i o n of a l l three knowledge i n t e r e s t s i n c u r r i c u l u m . I t should be noted, however, t h a t i n c l u s i o n o f the e m p i r i c a l - a n a l y t i c a l i n the con t e x t of a r t ed u c a t i o n does not suggest the use of s c i e n t i f i c methodology. Rather, as has been p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , the i n t e r e s t i s i n c o n t r o l and know-ledge of those techniques and s k i l l s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e and i n -crease e f f e c t i v e a e s t h e t i c e x p r e s s i o n and communication. In t h i s , t e c h n i c a l knowing i s understood as necessary but not s u f f i c i e n t a e s t h e t i c knowing, as i s i n t e r p r e t a t i v e and communi-c a t i v e understanding. Both may complement and a s s i s t the s e l f -world emancipatory knowing of the c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e p a r a -digm as i s suggested by K a r l Otto Appel's (1977) d i s c u s s i o n o f what he c a l l s h i s "complementarity t h e s i s . " I t should be noted t h a t the a e s t h e t i c i s regarded i n t h i s study as onl y one way of opening the m u l t i p l e and d i v e r s e mean-ings of the l i f e - w o r l d o f every human being to conscious aware-ness, and viewing man as a b e i n g - i n - r e l a t i o n - w i t h other men and with h i s world. Jean Paul S a r t r e (1947); t e l l s us, " E x i s t -e n t i a l i s m ' s f i r s t move i s to make every man aware of what he i s and to make the f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of h i s e x i s t e n c e r e s t 34 on him" (p. 19). Through his choices, man creates himself. Man's acts also affirm an image of man as he thinks man ought to be. Because man cannot choose and act without touching other men, man's responsibility involves a l l of mankind. Cen-t r a l to curriculum is a view of man as creator of self and world; a view of man as responsible for self and others. In seeking to move individuals toward an understanding of man's way of existing-in-the-world and of man's responsibility for creating his world, art provides a way of seeing the world and suggests ways of existing-in-the-world. As well art is a way of interpreting the relationship between man and society, sug-gesting ways of attending to yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Art is not the statements of isolated individuals but as Hel-mut Wagner (1978) points out, deals "significantly with act-ions in a social realm, with interchanges between persons, -with collective ideas about art, with social processes of communication" (p. 9). Art communicates and reveals to men of the latest generations the feelings, ideas and actions of their predecessors as well as those of their contemporaries. The power of the aesthetic to involve self with the thought of others and to promote a search for meaning is suggested by Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1964/1960), when he says: We usually, say that the painter reaches us across the silent world of lines and colors, and that he addresses himself to an unformulated power of deciphering within us that we control only after we have blindly used i t — only after we have enjoyed the work (p. 45). This suggests the power of the aesthetic to move individuals to enter into dialogue with the work, a dialogue which may 35 s t i m u l a t e and generate q u e s t i o n s . Such que s t i o n s may move students toward the d i s c l o s u r e o f meanings about s e l f and world, e n a b l i n g the growth of c r i t i c a l awareness and c r i t i c a l choosing. In such q u e s t i o n s and i n - t h e i r r e v e l a t i o n s , i n d i -v i d u a l s may r e a l i z e t h e i r humanity. Summary Aoki (197 8) suggests c e n t e r i n g a r t ed u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l a on man-world r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A c c o r d i n g to Habermas both the e m p i r i c a l - a n a l y t i c and the h i s t o r i c a l - h e r m e n e u t i c s c i e n c e s comprise a " s c i e n t i s t i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s " i n which r e a l i t y i s s t r u c t u r e d by methodology t h a t severs knowledge from human i n t e r e s t . T h i s o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n of knowledge i s r e f l e c t e d i n a r t e d u c a t i o n , c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the s e p a r a t i o n o f theory and p r a c t i c e i n c u r r i c u l a . The c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e paradigm which f u n c t i o n s to r e l a t e man t o s e l f and world suggests a way of connecting i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h t h e i r knowledge. Since r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n are necessary to the a p p r e c i a t i o n and c r e a t i o n o f a r t , i t i s i n the c r i t i c a l paradigm t h a t a way to connect human beings w i t h t h e i r theory and p r a c t i c e i s sought. I n t e n t o f the Study The i n t e n t o f t h i s study i s to develop a model of a r t c u r r i c u l u m based on some key pe d a g o g i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l ideas presented i n the work of Paulo F r e i r e . The purpose of the model i s to enable the grad u a l development of c r i t i c a l c onsciousness by p r o v i d i n g a s t r u c t u r e t o promote understand-i n g d i a l e c t i c a l l y the ways i n which human beings know i n t h e i r 36 relations with ..the world. In this a commitment to education for liberation is assumed. Liberation is understood as the realization of authentic human being permiting individuals to c r i t i c a l l y know and act in transforming their world. To this end the leading knowledge interest of the model w i l l be that of the c r i t i c a l l y reflective paradigm seen as accommodating both technical and situational-interpretative knowing. As well, amelioration of the dichotomy between the-ory and practice noted in current art curricula w i l l be sought in the dialectical relationship between reflection and action which is praxis. Underlying this is recognition of the a b i l -ity of human beings to objectify their actions and their world as created by their actions and those of others, and in so doing uncover the theory underlying action, and on the basis of this understanding act. This unity of theory and practice is believed necessary to "authentic" personal expression and to "authentic" aesthetic knowledge. To consider the products of human action apart from theory " i s to f a l s i f y the picture and the result is quietism or conformism" (Albrecht Wellmer, 1969/1971, p. 14). Freire's philosophy relates man to the world in a way consistent with humanity. Because of his powerful concept of man, i t is his thought that w i l l underpin the model. As well, Freire provides a pedagogy based on his ex p l i c i t l y stated philosophy, moving from cosmology through ontology and epistemology, to the function of education. Further, i t must be realized that Freire's philosophy is a logical 37 outgrowth of h i s p e d a g o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . In u n i t i n g h i s p e d a g o g i c a l a c t i n g w i t h r e f l e c t i o n , h i s work not o n l y espous-es the c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n to knowing but exem-p l i f i e s p r a x i s . As such h i s work p r o v i d e s an e d u c a t i o n a l de-s i g n thoroughly grounded i n an o v e r a l l p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t r u c -t u r e . F r e i r e ' s c o s m o l o g i c a l , o n t o l o g i c a l , and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s p r o v i d e then a u n i f i e d base f o r h i s p e d a g o g i c a l methods. Design of the Study The f i r s t stage of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o n s i s t s of an e x p l i c a t i o n of some of the key concepts of F r e i r e ' s thought. T h i s stage i s necessary f o r two reasons. The f i r s t i s t o p r o v i d e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the concepts from which the model of c u r r i c u l u m draws. The second reason r e c o g n i z e s t h a t r r ^ i : : - . . c : ; F r e i r e ' s pedagogy and p h i l o s o p h y are interwoven throughout h i s work r a t h e r than presented i n a s y s t e m a t i c developmental order. I t i s hoped t h a t i n attempting to p r e s e n t the essence of concepts e s s e n t i a l to the model i n c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d seg-ments, both an understanding o f F r e i r e ' s thought and of the model w i l l be f a c i l i t a t e d . A p r a x i o l o g i c a l model of a r t e d u c a t i o n i s presented i n the next stage of t h i s study. The f i n a l stage suggests some li m i t a t i o n s . . a n d implica-.i :: t i o n s t h a t have emerged d u r i n g t h i s study. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Terms which may r e q u i r e c l a r i f i c a t i o n and the meaning of each intended i n t h i s study are p r o v i d e d here. 38 1. A d a p t a t i o n means'..the accommodation of one or more i n d i -v i d u a l s t o e x t e r n a l p r e s c r i p t i o n due to the d e n i a l o f s i g n i -f i c a n t c h o i c e or d e c i s i o n ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970). In educ a t i o n examples p r o l i f e r a t e . For i n s t a n c e , i n a r t .classes students may be r e q u i r e d t o adapt to the te a c h e r ' s t a s t e and i d e a of a r t . 2. C o d i f i c a t i o n r e f e r s t o the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of an e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970). 3. D e c o d i f i c a t i o n i s the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of a coded s i t u -a t i o n f o r the purpose of u n v e i l i n g what was not p r e v i o u s l y p e r c e i v e d ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970). 4. D i a l e c t i c i s a method of c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s which begins from the f a m i l i a r , c l a r i f i e s , and focusses i t , and then moves g r a d u a l l y to a new concept. I t i s based on a concept of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f o p p o s i t e s . I t i s sug g e s t i v e of the t e n s i o n between the " i s " and the "ought", or f o r example between per-manence and change, and the r e s o l u t i o n of the t e n s i o n by the p r o v i s i o n o f new p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t enable change. 5. Dialogue i s a process i n which through the "word" i n d i v i -duals "mediated" by the world (as c o d i f i e d v i s u a l l y i n an ob-j e c t ) are enabled t o "name" the world ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970). 6. E x i s t e n t l a 1 S i t u a t i o n r e f e r s to the l i f e - w o r l d r e a l i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l . 7. Generative Theme r e f e r s to the nature of themes. 8. A L i m i t-S i t u a t i o n i s a context or c o n d i t i o n which pr e -vents an i n d i v i d u a l from being f u l l y and completely human. Such a s i t u a t i o n cuts both ways: i t serves some people and negates others ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970). 39 9. P r a x i s r e f e r s to man's a b i l i t y to tran s f o r m h i m s e l f and h i s world through the d i a l e c t i c of a c t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n , p roducing knowledge, c u l t u r e , and h i s t o r y as w e l l as products f o r man's use ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970). 10. P r o b l e m a t i z a t i o n r e f e r s to education t h a t c o n s i s t s i n ac t s of c o g n i t i o n r a t h e r than " d e p o s i t i n g " i n f o r m a t i o n i n i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s i s accomplished through d i a l o g i c a l r e -l a t i o n s h i p s i n which "no one teaches another, nor i s anyone s e l f - t a u g h t " ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970, p. 67). Thus, educ a t i o n " i s no longer t r a n s m i s s i o n o f c u l t u r e from g e n e r a t i o n t o gen e r a t i o n . I t gets beyond t h a t and causes the p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves to become c u l t u r e - c o n s c i o u s so t h a t they purpose-f u l l y t r a n s f o r m t h e i r c u l t u r e by t h e i r own conscious a c t s of c r i t i c a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the very process o f c u l t u r e t r a n s -m i s s i o n " (John DeWitt, 1971, p. 117). 40 References A o k i , T. Toward c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y i n a new key. In Pre-s e n t a t i o n s on a r t e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h : Phenomenological  d e s c r i p t i o n , P o t e n t i a l f o r r e s e a r c h i n a r t e d u c a t i o n  No. 2. 1978^ 47-69. A p e l , K.O. Types of s o c i a l s c i e n c e i n the l i g h t of human i n t e r e s t s of knowledge. S o c i a l Research. 1977, 4j4, 425-470. Apple, M. The process and i d e o l o g y of v a l u i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . In M. Apple, M. Subkoviak and H. 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[ C r i t i c a l theory of s o c i e t y ] ( J . Cumming, t r a n s . ) . New York: Seabury P r e s s , 19 71.., ( O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , 1969.) Werner, W., Connors, B., A o k i , T., & D a h l i e , J . Whose c u l - t u r e ? Whose h e r i t a g e ? E t h n i c i t y w i t h i n Canadian s o c i a l  s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l a . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia: Centre f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , 1977. Wilson, J . A d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of a r t ed u c a t i o n textbooks. Unpublished paper, 1979. 45 Chapter II The Philosophy of Paulo F r e i r e The Notion of Man Perhaps the most powerful aspect of Freire's work i s his conception of what i t i s to be human. It i s Freire's ontology that i s the heart of t h i s study. JrEfeirel?(19^68X197Q)' begins his work, The pedagogy of the op-pressed, with an e x i s t e n t i a l d e f i n i t i o n of man "as an uncomple-ted being conscious of his incompletion" (p. 27). This aware-ness, F r e i r e says, creates "man's ontological and h i s t o r i c a l vocation to become more f u l l y human" (pp. 40-41). As an "un-completed being", man i s involved i n a continuous process of becoming; a process that w i l l never r e a l i z e t o t a l completion of s e l f . However, each point i n time i s the complete history of an i n d i v i d u a l ; a point containing as well the future as i n -dicated by an array of p o s s i b i l i t i e s . From these possibili - r . t i e s an in d i v i d u a l chooses and moves to become. Frei r e i d e n t i f i e s three human d i s t i n c t i o n s that enable human beings to discover p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The f i r s t of these l i e s i n the a b i l i t y of human beings to know t h e i r personal  history. From t h e i r present point i n time, men may reach into the past and form a v i s i o n of the future. Man's present i n -cludes his past and both past and present are ine x t r i c a b l y wo-ven into the future. The second d i s t i n c t i o n i s that man i s able to r e f l e c t on himself and on the world. As a being ca-46 pable o f r e f l e c t i o n , man i s able to c o n c e p t u a l i z e f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The power of r e f l e c t i o n i s , then, c r u c i a l t o man's becoming. In F r e i r e ' s (1968/1970) words: One may w e l l remember--trite as i t seems--that, of the completed beings, man i s the onl y one t o t r e a t not o n l y h i s a c t i o n s but h i s very s e l f as the o b j e c t of h i s r e -f l e c t i o n ; t h i s c a p a c i t y d i s t i n g u i s h e d him from the animals, which are unable to separate themselves from t h e i r a c t i v i t y and thus are unable to r e f l e c t on i t (p. 87). In order t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s may i d e n t i f y p o s s i b i l i t i e s emerging from r e f l e c t i o n , they must f i r s t r e c o g n i z e themselves as sub-j e c t s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the world. I n t e g r a t i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from a d a p t a t i o n by. F r e i r e (1969/1973) , who e x p l a i n s : I n t e g r a t i o n r e s u l t s from the c a p a c i t y t o adapt o n e s e l f to r e a l i t y p l u s the c r i t i c a l c a p a c i t y t o make c h o i c e s and to tr a n s f o r m t h a t r e a l i t y . To the extent t h a t man l o s e s h i s a b i l i t y to make c h o i c e s and i s s u b j e c t e d t o the c h o i c e s o f o t h e r s , to the extent t h a t h i s d e c i s i o n s are no longer h i s own because they r e s u l t from e x t e r n a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s , he i s no longer i n t e g r a t e d . Rather, he has adapted (p. 4). I n t e g r a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s know themselves as c r e a -t o r s of h i s t o r y ; as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n h i s t o r i c a l epochs which F r e i r e (1969/1973) d e s c r i b e s as "a s e r i e s of a s p i r a t i o n s , con-cerns, and va l u e s i n search o f f u l f i l l m e n t " (p. 5). As p a r t i -c i p a n t s , i n d i v i d u a l s " e x i s t - i n - t h e - w o r l d " ,. a term F r e i r e uses i n the understanding t h a t to e x i s t i s more than t o l i v e i n or simply be i n the world. To e x i s t - i n - t h e - w o r l d , i s t o be with the world as w e l l . For F r e i r e (1970a), " E x i s t e n c e i s r e a l l y more than j u s t l i v i n g . I t i s l i v i n g c r e a t i v e l y , c u l t u r a l l y , h i s t o r i c a l l y , s p i r i t u a l l y " (p. 1/4). In e x i s t i n g - i n - t h e -world, human beings add to i t "something of t h e i r own making, by g i v i n g temporal meaning to cgeographic space, by c r e a t i n g 47 c u l t u r e " ( F r e i r e , 1969/1973, p. 5). The t h i r d c o n d i t i o n f o r the f u l f u l l m e n t of p o s s i b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e s awareness of man's a b i l i t y to enlarge h i s world through a c t s of consciousness. Through r e f l e c t i o n on h i m s e l f , h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and h i s r o l e i n c u l t u r e , man's c a p a c i t y f o r ch o i c e i s broadened and h i s scope of p o s s i b i l i t i e s e n l a r g e d . I t i s not enough t o acknowledge the power of r e f l e c t i o n f o r o n e s e l f ; i t must be a s s e r t e d and extended f o r a l l human beings i n r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t each of us must, i f we are f u l l y human, seek our s e l f - a f f i r m -a t i o n . The r e a l i z a t i o n o f these three human c a p a b i l i t i e s allows i n d i v i d u a l s to separate themselves from the world and from t h e i r own a c t i v i t y . In so doing they may become the au-tho r s of d e c i s i o n s t h a t r e l a t e them to t h e i r world and to other human bein g s . Although i n d i v i d u a l s are capable of knowing t h e i r p e r s o n a l h i s t o r y , of r e f l e c t i o n s , and of a c t s o f consciousness, accord-i n g to F r e i r e t h e i r i n i t i a l "world o r i e n t a t i o n " or "fundamental s i t u a t i o n " i s a "spontaneous" one r a t h e r than an " e p i s t e m o l o g i -cal"oone. F r e i r e (1970a) says: The primary a t t i t u d e of men toward r e a l i t y i s n a i v e , and t h e i r a c t i o n on r e a l i t y i s e s s e n t i a l l y p r a c t i c a l . T h i s does not mean, however, t h a t men do not have a c o n s c i o u s -ness of r e a l i t y , s i n c e t h e i r " i n t e n t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s " i s always consciousness o f something. I t does mean t h a t primary r e a l i t y i s , f o r men, the concre t e s i t u a t i o n i n which they develop the a c t i v i t i e s from which t h e i r sen-s i b l e p e r c e p t i o n r e s u l t s (p. 1/3). In t h i s "world o r i e n t a t i o n " knowledge i s doxa or mere o p i n i o n or b e l i e f and as such i t f a i l s t o p r o v i d e the r e a l meaning of r e a l i t y or of experience. Even i n view of t h i s l i m i t a t i o n , the understanding o f human beings a t t h i s l e v e l i s , however, 48 s u p e r i o r to t h a t of animals. T h i s i s so because men achieve t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n t o the world through "thought-language", and t h i s i m p l i e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of r e a l knowledge. Animals simply adapt to the world i n an a h i s t o r i c a l manner, whereas men are aware of the h i s t o r i c a l dimension of the world and, through t h e i r p r a x i s , a c t on the world. But f o r F r e i r e , u n l e s s i n d i -v i d u a l s are able t o examine c r i t i c a l l y t h e i r p r a x i s , through which they c r e a t e and change t h e i r world, t h e i r r e a l i t y w i l l always be "a mixture of t r u t h and e r r o r about t h e i r r e a l i t y " ( F r e i r e , 1970a, p. 1/3). For F r e i r e , i n order f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o achieve f u l l hu-manity, they must be able "to p e n e t r a t e the very 'essence' or nature of phenomena, through the a c t of s p l i t t i n g t h e i r know-able o b j e c t , [and] overcome doxa by l o g o s " ( F r e i r e , 1970a, p. 1/4). T h i s r e q u i r e s the e x e r c i s e of c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n on one's primary " o r i e n t a t i o n i n the world". In a l l of h i s work, F r e i r e s t r e s s e s the p o t e n t i a l of men to become c r i t i c a l . Even i n a naive a t t i t u d e toward the world, i n d i v i d u a l s are conscious beings i n a d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the world. They are "beings not o n l y i n , but a l s o i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the world" ( F r e i r e , 1970a, p. 1/5). F r e i r e does not, then,, separate man from the world. Man i s always i n the world; the world i s always i n man. Men are always i n a d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h r e a l i t y — t h a t i s the world as an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s i t to b e — a n d t h i s under-s t a n d i n g c o n s t i t u t e s d i f f e r i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o the world. F r e i r e (1968/1970) d i s t i n g u i s h e s f o u r "world o r i e n t a t i o n s " . 49 These o r i e n t a t i o n s are d i s c e r n a b l e i n the North American con-t e x t and thus have p e d a g o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . The f i r s t o r i e n -t a t i o n , " b e i n g - i n - i t s e l f " , i s the a h i s t o r i c a l s t a t e possessed by animals unable to o b j e c t i f y themselves and r e f l e c t upon themselves and t h e i r a c t i v i t y . L i v i n g o n l y i n the p r e s e n t , they are unable t o s e t o b j e c t i v e s or make d e c i s i o n s . T h e i r a c t i v i t y i s the a c t i v i t y o f t h e i r s p e c i e s , an e x t e n s i o n of themselves. F r e i r e (1968/1970) c l a r i f i e s the concept o f "be-ings i n themselves" when he s t a t e s : Animals are not c h a l l e n g e d by the c o n f i g u r a t i o n which c o n f r o n t s them; they are merely s t i m u l a t e d . T h e i r l i f e i s not one of r i s k - t a k i n g , f o r they are not aware of t a k i n g r i s k s . . . . Consequently, animals cannot com-mit themselves. T h e i r a h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n does not permit them to "take on" l i f e . Because they do not "take i t on" they cannot c o n s t r u c t i t , they cannot t r a n s f o r m i t s c o n f i g u r a t i o n (p. 88). Men, unable t o d i s c e r n the s i g n i f i c a n c e of changes i n t h e i r world, are a l s o unable to "take on" l i f e . As a v i c t i m o f myths and unable to i n t e r v e n e , man i s " c a r r i e d along i n the wake of change" ( F r e i r e , 1969/1973, p. 7). Of t h i s man-world r e l a t i o n s h i p i n contemporary l i f e , F r e i r e (1969 /1973) com-. . ments: Perhaps the g r e a t e s t tragedy of modern man i s h i s domi-n a t i o n by the f o r c e s o f these myths and h i s manipula-t i o n by org a n i z e d a d v e r t i s i n g , i d e o l o g i c a l or o t h e r -wise. G r a d u a l l y , without even r e a l i z i n g the l o s s , he r e l i n q u i s h e s h i s c a p a c i t y f o r c h o i c e ; he i s e x p e l l e d from the o r b i t o f d e c i s i o n s . Ordinary, men do not per-c e i v e the tasks of the time; the l a t t e r are i n t e r p r e t e d by an " e l i t e " and presented i n the form o f r e c i p e s , o f p r e s c r i p t i o n s . And when men t r y to save themselves by f o l l o w i n g the p r e s c r i p t i o n s , they drown i n l e v e l l i n g anonymity, without hope and without f a i t h , domestica-ted and ad j u s t e d (p. 6). Another world o r i e n t a t i o n i s t h a t o f having. "Having-as-50 ^being" exhibitsi5a s t r o n g l y p o s s e s s i v e consciousness, s e e i n g others and the world as o b j e c t s of m a n i p u l a t i o n and domina-, t i o n . F r e i r e (1968/1970) s t a t e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who regard having more as t h e i r i n a l e n a b l e r i g h t do not p e r c e i v e t h e i r monopoly on having more as a p r i v i l e g e which dehumanizes others and themselves. They cannot see t h a t , i n the e g o i s t i c p u r s u i t of having as a p o s s e s s i n g c l a s s , they s u f f o c a t e i n t h e i r own possess-ions and no longer are, they merely have (p. 45). The possessor consciousness sees others as o b j e c t s — t h i n g s to be m a n i p u l a t e d — i n the d r i v e f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of p o s s e s s i o n s . In the c o m p e t i t i o n c r e a t e d by the need to accumulate more i n order to preserve s t a t u s , possessors i r o n i c a l l y become o b j e c t s themselves. In denying o t h e r s humanity, t h e i r own i s negated as w e l l . As f o r those submerged i n having, F r e i r e (1968/1970) says they develop the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r them to t r a n s f o r m e v e r y t h i n g i n t o o b j e c t s of t h e i r p u r c h a s i n g power; hence t h e i r s t r i c t l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c concept o f e x i s t e n c e . Money i s the measure of a l l t h i n g s , and p r o f i t the primary g o a l (p. 44). For o t h e r s , those who are c o n t r o l l e d by those t h a t have, t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n to the world;,is "be'ing-as^ kabge^ "-';":"",?.' an o r i e n t a -t i o n i n which they p e r c e i v e themselves as o b j e c t s to be mani-p u l a t e d by others./ In t h i s r e a l i t y , men may respond to those i n c o n t r o l by a s p i r i n g to the l i f e of those who have power; a l i f e p e r c e i v e d as more d e s i r a b l e than t h e i r own. T h e i r de-s i r e t o achieve l i f e as l i v e d by those i n c o n t r o l may cause oppressed people to i m i t a t e and f o l l o w t h e i r o p p r essors. Or they may i n t e r n a l i z e the a t t i t u d e h e l d of them by those who have power, an i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n t h a t i s m a n i f e s t by d e p r e c i a -51 t i o n of themselves i n the b e l i e f t h a t they are t r u l y u n f i t and i n f e r i o r . T h i s a t t i t u d e may be observed among students who f a i l t o f i t the mold c a s t f o r them by the s t r u c t u r e o f the sc h o o l and by the assumptions of educators (Apple, 1974). For i n d i v i d u a l s who do not f i t a s i n g l e s t a n d a r d — u n d e r a c h i e -v e r s , h y p e r a c t i v e s , slow l e a r n e r s — t h e a t t i t u d e s t h a t accom-pany the l a b e l s are i n t e r n a l i z e d , i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e i r a l i e n a -t i o n . Another m a n i f e s t a t i o n of a l i e n a t i o n mentioned by F r e i r e (1969/1973) i s the i n a b i l i t y t o a c t autonomously. Forever wavering between optimism and hopelessness, i n d i v i d u a l s and s o c i e t i e s seek, i n answers from o t h e r s , s o l u t i o n s to t h e i r problems. F r e i r e ' s a n a l y s i s o f human beings r e v e a l s a f o u r t h "world o r i e n t a t i o n " , t h a t o f ' a u t h e n t i c beingV». In t h i s a t t i -tude, u n l i k e being-as-having and b e i n g - a s - o b j e c t , i n d i v i d u a l s know themselves as a c t i n g s u b j e c t s who can "name" the world. Naming the world means t h a t through r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s o b j e c t i f y the world and through the "word" come to understand t h e i r world, moving them t o seek t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of t h a t world. C r i t i c a l t o t h i s concept i s the n e c e s s i t y of both r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n t o a u t h e n t i c human being. F r e i r e (1968/1970) s t a t e s : W i t h i n the word we f i n d two dimensions, r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n , i n such r a d i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t i f one i s s a c r i f i c e d — e v e n i n p a r t — t h e other immediately s u f f e r s . There i s no t r u e word t h a t i s not a t the same time a p r a x i s . Thus, t o speak a t r u e word i s to t r a n s f o r m the world (p. 75). The "word" i s then t h a t by which men communicate and express the world and i s "the i n d i v i s i b l e u n i t y of r e f l e c t i o n and 52 a c t i o n " ( F r e i r e , 1970, p. 4/7). Once "named", the world i s i d e n t i f i e d as a problem r e q u i r i n g a new naming by r e - c r e a t i n g the knowledge p r e v i o u s l y c r e a t e d . R e a l i z a t i o n of the a b i l i t y to t r a n s f o r m one's world n e c e s s i t a t e s the acceptance of r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c r e a t i n g a world t h a t permits every i n d i v i d u a l a u t h e n t i c b e i ng. To choose to be f u l l y human means one chooses i t f o r a l l men. As an a u t h e n t i c being, man chooses the person he wants to be and i n each of h i s c h o i c e s he confirms what man ought to be. In every c h o i c e an i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t e s an image of man t h a t corresponds to h i s n o t i o n of what man ought to be ( S a r t r e , 1947). The a u t h e n t i c human being r e a l i z e s s e l f as the c r e a t o r and transformer of the world because i n b e i n g f u l l y human i n d i v i d u a l s know themselves as beings of r e f l e c -t i o n and a c t i o n . As such, they c r e a t e f o r themselves and f o r others a r e a l i t y t h a t permits a l l men to be a u t h e n t i c a l l y human. The Concept o f R e a l i t y E s s e n t i a l to understanding the concept of a u t h e n t i c hu-man being i s F r e i r e ' s n o t i o n of r e a l i t y . R e a l i t y , f o r F r e i r e , i s the world as i t i s p e r c e i v e d by an i n d i v i d u a l . A l l i n d i -v i d u a l s o b j e c t i f y the world and p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y by c o n s t a n t l y s t r u c t u r i n g and r e - s t r u c t u r i n g the world i n consciousness. The world i s t h a t which i s known by human consciousness. Re-a l i t y i s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the world. In p e r c e i v i n g the world, a u t h e n t i c consciousness does not c o n s i d e r the world without men—or men without a world. Man i s not a b s t r a c t , nor i s the world. "Consciousness and world are simultaneous: consciousness n e i t h e r precedes the 5 3 world nor f o l l o w s i t " ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970, p. 69). R e a l i t y i s achieved through an ongoing d i a l e c t i c between the e n v i r o n -ment of i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r c onsciousness. T h i s d i a l e c t i c , i s a continuous process r e q u i r i n g constant naming and r e -naming; d e c i d i n g and choosing; making and re-making of the world. R e a l i t y i s not, then, s t a t i c . R e a l i t y i s always "be-coming". For F r e i r e (1970a), to understand r e a l i t y " i s " , means educa t i o n cannot be understood as " t r u l y d i a l e c t i c " , and as a r e s u l t : The educator w i t h a m e c h a n i s t i c mind w i l l manipulate men, whether he i s aware of i t or not. Since the m e c h a n i s t i c mind cannot p e r c e i v e the d i a l e c t i z a t i o n of men-world but r a t h e r conceives r e a l i t y as " p o s i t -i n g " , as a g i v e n , as a "reason i n i t s e l f " , as some-t h i n g which o n l y is_, i t n e c e s s a r i l y cannot understand e d u c a t i o n ( c u l t u r a l a c t i o n ) except as an a c t i o n f o r the a d a p t a t i o n of men. E d u c a t i o n or c u l t u r a l a c t i o n thus becomes a s p e c i a l i z e d a c t i o n e x e r c i s e d by edu-c a t o r s who make educatees the o b j e c t s of t h e i r p r a c -t i c e , and adjustment to the world i t s o b j e c t i v e (p. 2/2). F r e i r e (1970a) does not suggest t h a t e d u c a t i o n f o r a d a p t a t i o n i s f r e e from the d i a l e c t i z a t i o n of man-world simply because i t i s not understood by "the m e c h a n i s t i c mindl'V E d u c a t i o n f o r a d a p t a t i o n i s , on the c o n t r a r y , most s u c c e s s f u l , "pre-c i s e l y because of t h i s d i a l e c t i z a t i o n " (p. 2/2). But i t s success l i e s i n " m y t h i f y i n g " r e a l i t y ; i n c r e a t i n g a r e a l i t y t o which men must adapt. I f men are t o r e a l i z e a u t h e n t i c human being, e d u c a t i o n must enable i n d i v i d u a l s to "demythi-f y ' r e a l i t y " and p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h others i n the mutual and n a t u r a l s earch f o r meaning. The S u b j e c t - O b j e c t R e l a t i o n s h i p 54 World and human consciousness are r e l a t e d by the constant d i a l e c t i c between s u b j e c t i v i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y . In knowing, man o b j e c t i f i e s the world i n h i s consciousness but h i s under-s t a n d i n g o f the world i s s u b j e c t i v e : i t i s the world as per-c e i v e d by him. F r e i r e (1970b) says, "We r e c o g n i z e the i n -d i s p u t a b l e u n i t y between s u b j e c t i v i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y i n the ac t of knowing. R e a l i t y i s never j u s t simply the o b j e c t i v e datum, the concre t e f a c t , but i s a l s o men's p e r c e p t i o n o f i t " (p. 13). To separate o b j e c t i v i t y from s u b j e c t i v i t y when ana-l y z i n g r e a l i t y o r a c t i n g upon i t i s o b j e c t i v i s m . On the other hand, t o deny o b j e c t i v i t y r e s u l t s i n s u b j e c t i v i s m . S u b j e c t i -v i t y and o b j e c t i v i t y are then interdependent, r e s i d i n g i n the c a p a c i t y o f human consciousness to separate " s e l f " from "world". T h i s s e p a r a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e "to the extent t h a t the world i s 'not I* f o r men. So men become ' I ' through the 'not-I' o f the world" ( F r e i r e , 1970a, p. 1/5). The s e p a r a t i o n of " I " from the world and g r a s p i n g the world as "not I" c r e -ates f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t h e i r s e l f - w o r l d r e a l i t y . Consciousness does not, then, e x i s t separate from the world or the world separate from consciousness. T h i s "consciousness-world" d i a -l e c t i c "corresponds to the union of s u b j e c t i v i t y and o b j e c t -i v i t y . There i s no s u b j e c t i v i t y without o b j e c t i v i t y , w h i l e every o b j e c t i m p l i e s a s u b j e c t " ( F r e i r e , 1970a, 3/1). " I " become t o the exten t , I as a knowing s u b j e c t grasp the ob-j e c t i v e r e a l i t y of my world. Consciousness Consciousness i n F r e i r e * s (1970a) epistemology i s always 5 5 consciousness o f something; i t i s always r e a c h i n g beyond i t -s e l f . „ F r e i r e d i s t i n g u i s h e s between "the p r e s e n t a t i o n - : . a l immediacy" of r e a l i t y to consciousness and the "entrance" of r e a l i t y t o consciousness (p. 3/2). In h i s view r e a l i t y does not "enter" i n t o consciousness. Consciousness i s r a t h e r i n t e n t i o n a l ; a s t r e t c h i n g to r e a l i t y . In r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n on the world, i n the e x e r c i s e of p r a x i s , men know. This r e q u i r e s a " r e f l e x i v e " consciousness; a consciousness c o n s t a n t l y r e a c h i n g out to r e a l i t y . " I n t e n t i o n a l " c o n s c i o u s -ness i s t h a t o f an a c t i v e , c u r i o u s and c r i t i c a l mind; a mind always i n t e n t on an o b j e c t b e f o r e i t . For F r e i r e , then, the a c t of knowing, which i m p l i e s the sense p e r c e p t i o n of t h i n g s , cannot stay a t the l e v e l a t which men under-stand merely the doxa of r e a l i t y . In order to r e a l l y know,, men must go beyond sense p e r c e p t i o n and achieve the very "logos" or "reason" o f the knowable o b j e c t (p. 3/3). For t h i s reason, consciousness i s not, f o r F r e i r e , a space i n s i d e men a k i n to an "empty pot". Consciousness i s not some k i n d o f r e c e p t a c l e t o be f i l l e d by r e a l i t y . Knowing cannot be t r a n s f e r r e d , extended, or given t o another. The act o f knowing r e q u i r e s i n t e n t i o n a l consciousness; a r e l a -t i o n s h i p to the knowable o b j e c t s of the world. In F r e i r e ' s (1970a) view, then: E d u c a t i o n as an a c t of t r a n s f e r r i n g s k i l l i m p l i e s , i n a c e r t a i n sense, a " m u t i l a t i o n " of men. To the ex t e n t t h a t i t v i o l a t e s the r e f l e x i v e c a p a c i t y o f t h e i r i n t e n t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i t "domesticates" men. T h i s " d o m e s t i c a t i o n " i s never completely e f f e c t i v e , p r e c i s e l y because of the i n t e n t i o n a l i t y of c o n sciousness.... Sooner o r r l a t e r , consciousness d i s c o v e r s t h a t i t i s be i n g s u b j e c t e d to the a l i e n -a t i o n of "banking e d u c a t i o n . " T h i s i s because con-s c i o u s n e s s i s capable of s p l i t t i n g i t s e l f and be-coming conscious of consciousness (p. 3/3). 56 Consciousness i s , then, capable of r e f l e c t i o n on i t s e l f and on r e a l i t y and i n t h i s i s capable of r e f l e c t i o n on i t s own r e f l e x a c t s . Because consciousness i s always i n a d i a l e c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the world, consciousness i s capable of know-in g consciousness as mere r e f l e x . If> says F r e i r e (1970a), consciousness was r e f l e x or a "kneejerk", men c o u l d not over-come the s i t u a t i o n s i n which they are i n v o l v e d ; they would be the o b j e c t s of r e a l i t y and "only r e a l i t y c o u l d t r a n s f o r m r e a l i t y " (p. 3/4). Consciousness, which "names" and transforms the world, i s the consciousness of a u t h e n t i c human being. I t i s a " c r i -t i c a l c onsciousness"capable of i d e n t i f y i n g what i s , of con-c e i v i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s of what c o u l d be, and of a c t i n g . For F r e i r e consciousness i s not simply e i t h e r r e f l e x i v e or c r i -t i c a l ; consciousness i s r a t h e r h i e r a r c h i c a l , r e f l e c t i v e o f d i f f e r e n t "men-world r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " The l e v e l s o f c o n s c i -ousness s t r u c t u r e d by F r e i r e (1970a) are not, he says, ex-c l u s i v e , but "must be understood i n terms of preponderance" (p. 4/1). I t should be noted as w e l l t h a t h i s a n a l y s i s i s of the l e v e l s of consciousness i n L a t i n American s o c i e t y ( F r e i r e , 1970b) as i n f l u e n c e d by the concrete r e a l i t y of t h a t s o c i e t y . While t h i s does not n e c e s s a r i l y i n v a l i d a t e h i s c o g n i t i v e hierarchy, f o r o t h e r areas, i t must be c r i t i -c a l l y examined and j u d i c i o u s l y approached i n the North Ameri-can context. Focus on F r e i r e ' s l e v e l s of consciousness c o u l d w e l l obscure the humanity as w e l l as the h u m i l i t y i n -herent i n h i s pedagogy. The appeal of c a t e g o r i e s to r a t i o n a -l i t y c o n d i t i o n e d to l i n e a r o r g a n i z a t i o n may overshadow 57 F r e i r e ' s emphasis on the g r a d u a l development of c o n s c i o u s -ness. I f the l e v e l s of consciousness are i n t e r p r e t e d as hard and f a s t d i v i s i o n s , they may then be seen, as P e t e r Berger (1974) charges, as " e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l arrogance" (p. 40). Or l e a r n i n g may be viewed simply as "the process by which one moves from one l e v e l of consciousness to another" (John E l i a s , 1974, p. 8). What must be s t r e s s e d , as E l i a s (1974) a l s o notes, i s t h a t l e a r n i n g begins w i t h genuine acceptance and r e c o g n i t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p r e s e n t conception of r e a l i t y . In F r e i r e ' s h i e r a r c h y of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , " s e m i - i n t r a n s i t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s " t or a consciousness of submergence i s charac-t e r i z e d by the apprehension of problems o n l y as they r e l a t e t o b i o l o g i c a l s u r v i v a l . The cause of problems i s a t t r i b u t e d to a m a g i c a l , i n a u t h e n t i c source. Although they are not f r e e , i n d i v i d u a l s may p e r c e i v e themselves as f r e e . "Maive-transitiyity":or the consciousness of emergence tends to view r e a l i t y as beyond the c o n t r o l of man, a t t r i b u t i n g c a u s a l i t y t o f a n c i f u l or magical e x p l a n a t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l s a t t h i s l e v e l of consciousness have l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n i n v e s t i -g a t i o n , t e n d i n g to o v e r - s i m p l i f y problems. " T r a n s i t i v e consciousness" or popular consciousness i s en-gaged almost t o t a l l y w i t h e x i s t e n c e . I t i s a consciousness of " i n s e r t i o n " , d e v e l o p i n g , but " s t i l l f r a g i l e and capable of d i s t o r t i o n " ( F r e i r e , 1969/1973, p. 18). D i s c u s s i o n may be marked by a s t r o n g l y emotional s t y l e , with a p r e f e r e n c e f o r polemics r a t h e r than d i a l o g u e . I f i n d i v i d u a l s do not move from t h i s l e v e l , they may become m a s s i f i e d , remaining o b j e c t s 58 unable to t r a n s f o r m the r e a l i t y which has determined t h e i r m a s s i f i c a t i o n . M a s s i f i c a t i o n i s d e s c r i b e d by F r e i r e (1970b) as the phenomenon of mass s o c i e t y which " i n order to f u n c t i o n , ... r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l t i e s , which become s p e c i a l i s m s , and r a -t i o n a l i t y , which degenerates i n t o myth-making i r r a t i o n a l i s m " (p. 49). Overcoming m a s s i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e s e d u c a t i o n committed to d e v e l o p i n g c r i t i c a l c onsciousness. Without t h i s e f f o r t , the " c r u c i a l step from naive t r a n s i t i v i t y t o c r i t i c a l t r a n s i t i v i t y w i l l not occur a u t o m a t i c a l l y " ( F r e i r e , 1969/1973, p. 19). E d u c a t i o n intended to enable i n d i v i d u a l s t o be f u l l y human seeks to develop c r i t i c a l c o n sciousness. T h i s development of consciousness i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by depth i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of problems and i n the p e r c e p t i o n of c a u s a l i t y . I n d i v i d u a l s having achieved t h i s l e v e l of the development of consciousness e x h i b i t w i l l i n g n e s s to change i d e a s , to t e s t f e e l i n g s , t o per-c e i v e problems c l e a r l y , t o a v o i d preconceptions when a n a l y z i n g problems, t o e n t e r i n t o d i a l o g u e , to accept what i s v a l i d i n both o l d and new i d e a s , and to employ sound arguments. The ' ^ i t l c a l l y / t r a n s i t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s " p e r c e i v e s a u t h e n t i c cau-s a l i t y and a c t s to t r a n s f o r m c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y . C r i t i c a l con-s c i o u s n e s s i s marked by commitment and the c a p a c i t y f o r genu-ine c h o i c e . "The development o f the awakening of c r i t i c a l awareness" ( F r e i r e , 1969/1973, p. 19), i s c r e a t e d by an i n d i -v i d u a l ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n i n and i n t e g r a t i o n with h i s world, a l -lowing one to transcend a s i n g l e dimension. Achievement of c r i t i c a l consciousness means i n d i v i d u a l s r e c o g n i z e themselves 59 as; r e s p o n s i b l e c r e a t o r s of t h e i r world and the world of o t h e r s . The Concept of P r a x i s In " c u l t u r a l a c t i o n " f o r c r i t i c a l c o nsciousness, e d u c a t i o n i s an a r t of knowing and " knowledge i s not a f a c t but a pro-cess ... a process which determines the p r a x i s o f men and women i n t h e i r r e a l i t y . Because of t h i s , knowing i m p l i e s transform-i n g . We know when we transform" ( F r e i r e , 1973, p. 79). P r a x i s i s a c t i o n f i r s t and then theory. A f t e r a c t i o n and tr a n s f o r m -a t i o n one t h e o r i z e s a c t i o n s — n o t b e f o r e ( F r e i r e , 1973). F r e i r e (1969/1973) s t a t e s t h a t empty v e r b a l i s m and techno-c r a t i c a c t i v i s m r e s u l t from the f a i l u r e t o d e r i v e genuine the-ory from p r a x i s . He maintains t h a t the a c t i o n s of men always correspond to a theory and "the nature of t h a t a c t i o n c o r r e s -ponds t o the nature of ... understanding" (p. 44). Human ac-t i o n s are c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e i r own r e s u l t s and f o r t h i s reason "there are d i f f e r e n t degrees of r e l a t i o n s to the world, d i f -f e r e n t degrees o f a c t i o n and p e r c e p t i o n " (p. 112). I t i s es-s e n t i a l , then, t o understand our a c t i o n s , going beyond "the mere 'doxa' ... r i g h t t o i t s "logos'" (p. 112). T h i s i s ac-complished i n r e f l e c t i o n , i n r e a c t i n g to our a c t i o n , and r e -v e a l i n g i t s o b j e c t i v e s , means, and e f f e c t . In t h i s u n v e i l i n g / ; the theory u n d e r l y i n g our a c t i o n s i s made e x p l i c i t . I f th e r e i s ho s e p a r a t i o n of theory and p r a c t i c e , what may have for m e r l y been obscured from our v i e w — t h e theory o f our a c t i o n — i s r e -v e a l e d . Overcoming "doxa" by "logos" begins i n c r i t i c a l r e -f l e c t i o n on one's e x i s t e n t i a l e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t experience which shapes one's primary world-view ( F r e i r e , 1970a). In 6 this, new knowledge is gained demanding a new praxis. Freire (1970a) describes this new praxis as a "second praxis, in which men look for the logos of reality, [and] i s , in the last ana-lys i s , a praxis on the former praxis" (p. 1/4). In this praxis individuals c r i t i c a l l y search for the causes of their previous perceptions of reality and in perceiving causality, again re-make their understandings of reality. This does not imply, how ever, reflection without some kind of action. Human beings en-gaged with the world transform their world by acting. In re-turn, they are shaped by the reality created by their trans-forming action. For this reason, i t is impossible to consider men and world as separate from each other (Freire, 19 69/1973). Nor can the world be regarded as static. It is rather ih:\a. con-stant state of becoming. Education cannot, then, preserve or transfer the world of culture, history of'..science because " i t is impossible to transfer something which is not static, something which is in the process of becoming every day" (Freire, 1973, p. 79). This attitude is d i f f i c u l t to overcome, because, as Freire (1973) recognizes, our educational experi-ence is to be objects receiving knowledge rather than to be subjects of knowing* In order for individuals to be subjects of knowing Freire (1973) explains: there is a f i r s t demand which is simply to die each day as an exclusive educator of the educatees in order to be born again as an educatee with the edu-catees. But, on the other hand, at the moment at which the educator for liberation is dying as an exclusive educator, he also has to challenge the educatees in order for them to die as exclusive 61 educatees i n order to be born again as educators. In t h i s mutual c y c l e d r e b i r t h both become s u b j e c t s of the process of knowing, of the process of t r a n s -forming r e a l i t y , and not one the s u b j e c t of the t r a n s -f e r r i n g knowledge and the other the o b j e c t or r e c i p i -ent of t h a t knowledge which i s t r a n s f e r r e d . I f we .:: are not able to experience t h i s E a s t e r — I can now use a b i b l i c a l c o n c e p t — i f we are not able to experience everyday t h i s E a s t e r , we are not engaged i n a process of l i b e r a t i o n (pp. 79-80). We must d i e then t o be born again, to experience the c o n t i n u a l process of becoming, " c o n s t a n t l y remade i n the p r a x i s " ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970, p. 72). Problem-Posing E d u c a t i o n Problem-posing e d u c a t i o n seeks to enable i n d i v i d u a l s to o b j e c t i f y the world and see as p r o b l e m a t i c what was f o r m e r l y taken f o r granted. The process r e j e c t s the "banking" concept of e d u c a t i o n which assumes a v e r t i c a l s t r u c t u r e w i t h the t e a -cher "who knows" n a r r a t i n g to students "who do not know". The e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l of d e p o s i t i n g knowledge i s abandoned, adoptf i n g a concept of communication i n which problems are posed by conscious beings " i n t e n t upon the world" ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970, p. 66). As Brewster Kneen (1971) notes, "This i s c l e a r l y not p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g but, i n a sense, p r o b l e m - c r e a t i n g . . . . T h i s i s an open process which cannot be reduced to the c l o s e d process of p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g " (p. 31). Not o n l y does problem-posing e d u c a t i o n embody communication, " i t epitomizes the s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c o n s c i o u s n e s s : being conscious o f " ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970, p. 66). In t h i s F r e i r e r e f e r s to the " J a s p e r i a n ' s p l i t ' " , the q u a l i t y of consciousness to not only a t t e n d t o o b j e c t s but t o t u r n i n w a r d — " c o n s c i o u s n e s s as consciousness 62 of consciousness" ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970, p. 67). E s s e n t i a l t o problem-posing e d u c a t i o n i s r e s o l u t i o n of any dichotomy between students and t e a c h e r s , as was noted e a r -l i e r . Both must be committed to the po s i n g o f problems expe-r i e n c e d by men i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with the world. In t h i s c ontext, a problem i s a " d i s t i n c t p e r c e p t i o n " or a r e a l prob-lem i d e n t i f i e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s . Content r e l a t e d t o the prob-lem i s presented v i s u a l l y and mediates c o - i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n the ac t of " p r o b l e m a t i z i n g " . The technique o f problem p o s i n g i s b a s i c a l l y r e f l e c t i o n on content t h a t presents an aspect of r e -a l i t y as p e r c e i v e d by those t o be educated. " P r o b l e m a t i z a t i o n " i s always r e f l e c t i v e of the human being i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the world. Together i n d i v i d u a l s seek to i d e n t i f y l i m i t - s i t u a t i o n s or the causes of r e a l i t y and to d i s c o v e r p o s s i b l e ways of mo-v i n g beyond the s i t u a t i o n . In t h i s simultaneous r e f l e c t i o n on s e l f and world, r e f l e c t i o n must not be dichotomized from a c t i o n . R e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n must be i n t e n t on e n a b l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o develop c r i t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n o f "the way they  e x i s t i n the world with which and i n which they f i n d them^ s e l v e s " ( F r e i r e , ;968/1970, p. 71). Through- a u t h e n t i c thought and a c t i o n , problem-posing e d u c a t i o n seeks t o enable human beings t o see the world as a r e a l i t y i n process and not ind e -pendent from the " i n t e n t i o n a l i t y " o f human consciousness. Dialogue In F r e i r e " s view, r e a l i t y i s s t r u c t u r e d by the c o n s c i o u s -ess of i n d i v i d u a l s . Each i n d i v i d u a l has a unique way of per-c e i v i n g r e a l i t y as a consequence of one's p a r t i c u l a r world-63 view. I t i s through d i a l o g u e t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s and s i m i l a r i -t i e s i n response to the world are exchanged, understanding o f the s i t u a t i o n under c o n s i d e r a t i o n expanded and views gradu-a l l y a l t e r e d . C o n f l i c t and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s appear, commonali-t i e s emerge, and the r e a l i t y of s i t u a t i o n s i s u n v e i l e d . In c r i t i c a l l y c o n f r o n t i n g s i t u a t i o n s , " l i m i t - s i t u a t i o n s " are i d e n t i f i e d and the c h a l l e n g e r e q u i r i n g " l i m i t a c t s " (those d i r e c t e d a t neg a t i n g and overcoming) i s r e v e a l e d . Communication i s e s s e n t i a l t o problem-posing education because "only through communication can human l i f e h o l d mean-i n g . The teacher's t h i n k i n g i s a u t h e n t i c a t e d o n l y by the a u t h e n t i c i t y of the student's t h i n k i n g " ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970, pp. 63-64). Such communication r e q u i r e s an " e n t e r i n g i n t o " by i n d i v i d u a l s who are d i r e c t e d toward " p r o b l e m a t i z i n g " the same o b j e c t . T h e i r views must be expressed i n a language common to both s u b j e c t s and o b j e c t . T h i s type o f communication r e -q u i r e s thought, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e d by r e a l i t y , and expressed i n r e f e r e n c e to t h a t r e a l i t y . I f communication i s to be v i a b l e , the meaning o f sign s used t o express thought must be e s t a b l i s h e d among p a r t i c i p a n t s . F r e i r e (1968/1970) c o n t r a s t s "authentic communication" with " a - c r i t i c a l communication" i d e n t i f i e d as t h a t evoked by o b j e c t s b e l o n g i n g to the sphere of emotion. Such o b j e c t s evoke emotional responses such as f e a r , joy, or sadness i n i n d i v i d u a l s or groups. T h i s type of communication i s t h a t o f the n a i v e l y - t r a n s i t i v e or t r a n s i t i v e consciousness. I f the process of the di a l o g u e i s a u t h e n t i c , however, the r e - c r e a t i o n 64 of knowledge i n the r e v e l a t i o n of the knowledge of others cannot be avoided. The teacher must re c o g n i z e t h a t the know-ledge expressed i n d i a l o g u e w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y be e m p i r i -c a l l y v a l i d knowledge as i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Knowledge as l i v e d or common sense knowledge must be regarded as accept-able and v a l i d . I t i s e s s e n t i a l to a u t h e n t i c d i a l o g u e t h a t a t r u s t i n g , humble, and l o v i n g atmosphere p r e v a i l s i n which a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s are accepted i n a s p i r i t o f empathy. The world i n which human beings are i n v o l v e d must be r e c o g n i z e d by a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s , who t o g e t h e r move to "name" the world and i n naming i t t r a n s f o r m i t . In d i a l o g u e i n d i v i d u a l s communicate about the content of an o b j e c t and i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the t h i n k i n g o f o t h e r s , p a r t i c i p a n t s come to e s t a b l i s h what they t h i n k . Dialogue i s not, however, centered around a problem i d e n t i f i e d by the teacher who p r e s e n t s i t to the students to be s o l v e d . Nor does the teacher f u n c t i o n as a d i s p e n s e r of knowledge. Prob-lems are not i n d i v i d u a l tasks r e q u i r i n g a n a l y s i s i n t o compo-nent p a r t s i n order to f i n d a means f o r e f f i c i e n t s o l u t i o n . T h i s , i n F r e i r e ' s view, d i s t o r t s the t o t a l i t y of humans ex-i s t i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d and suggests to students t h a t problems are mere d i f f i c u l t i e s t o be s o l v e d by the a p p l i c a t i o n of c o r r e c t data and an a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g y . Dialogue " i s not to invade, not to manipulate, not to make 'slogans'" ( F r e i r e , 1969/1973, p. 115). T h i s r e q u i r e s a teacher committed to n o n - e l i t i s t forms of l e a d e r s h i p . Students and teacher become c o - i n v e s t i g a t o r s w i t h the r o l e 65 of student and teacher interchangeable. The teacher and the student must be willing to re-.learn in each encounter that which he "knew". The purpose of dialogue is to awaken aware-ness through the communication and interplay of knowledge re-flective of the world and of the human beings existing in the world. The social process of dialogue allows individuals to understand dialectically the different forms in which human beings know -:in their relations with the world. Dialogue be-gins at the level of the participants with genuine acceptance of people at their level. It places objects of reality in a system of relationships within a particular context and seeks to reveal the totality of relationships. Without perception of the relationship of the parts to the problem, actions w i l l prove inappropriate. Freire (1968/1970) asserts: Faith in man is an a p r i o r i requirement for dialogue; the "dialogical man" believes in other men even before he meets them face to face. His faith, however, is not naive. The "dialogical man" is c r i t i c a l and knows that although i t is within the power of men to create and transform, in a concrete situation of alienation men may be impaired in the use of that power. Far from destroying his faith in man, however, this possibility strikes him as a challenge to which he must respond. He i s convinced that the power to create and transform, even when thwarted in concrete situations, tends to be reborn (p. 79). Methodology Freire (1968/1970) says, "It is to the reality which me-diates men and to the perception of that reality held by edu-cators and people, that we must go to find the program con-text of education" (p. 86). Thus, the starting point for organizing the content of education i s the present, lived-in 66 situation of individuals. The program reflects the preoccu-pations of individuals, preoccupations which are presented in dialogue and about which views are exchanged. These views must be understood and accepted as reflecting the situation of individuals in the world. Education "which is not c r i t i c a l l y aware of this situation runs the risk of either 'banking' or of preaching in the desert" (Freire, 1968/1970, p. 85). Pro-gram content i s , then, what Freire (1968/1970) calls the "thematic universe" of the people. These themes are consti-tuted by the "generative themes" of people; the hopes, fears, and doubts of people as expressed in continental, national, regional, local and individual "epochal units". These epochal units are not closed, static periods of time but are f l u i d , continuing manifestations of the past, the present and the future of human beings. The themes of an epoch are always in-ter-related and they indicate tasks to be carried out and f u l -f i l l e d . Through dialogue in problem-posing education the de-velopment of c r i t i c a l consciousness allows people to identify the themes of their epoch, to identify limit-situations ex-isting in concrete reality and either accept the situation as unchangeable or design appropriate action to transform re-a l i t y . The a b i l i t y to investigate c r i t i c a l l y permits people to interpret the "themes of the epoch" and avoid being sub-merged in the changes of the time, becoming instead p a r t i c i -pants in their history. If men cannot identify the themes and tasks of their time, interpretation is l e f t to an e l i t e group of specialists who claim special knowledge and p r i v i -lege. The failure of men to penetrate the realities of 67 t h e i r epoch to know themselves as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n h i s t o r y r e q u i r e s a tremendous e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t intended to enable i n d i v i d u a l s to p e r c e i v e the world as a t o t a l i t y w i t h i n which d i f f e r e n t p a r t s i n t e r a c t ; to see the world as a r e a l i t y which they can i n f l u e n c e . The a c t o f knowing i n F r e i r e ' s (19 70b) view i n v o l v e s "two i n t e r r e l a t e d c o n t e x t s " (p. 14). The f i r s t i s the c ontext of a u t h e n t i c d i a l o g u e between teachers and students as co-i n v e s t i g a t o r s . The second i s the concrete r e a l i t y i n which men e x i s t . In d i a l o g u e concrete s i t u a t i o n s are c r i t i c a l l y a nalyzed i n search of knowledge about r e a l i t y . T h i s process r e q u i r e s a b s t r a c t i o n which i n F r e i r e ' s methodology i s f a c i l i -t a t e d by means of " c o d i f i c a t i o n " . C o d i f i c a t i o n r e f e r s to the v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the l e a r n e r ' s concrete s i t u a t i o n . The c o d i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n mediates the knowing s u b j e c t s i n the process of d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or " d e c o d i f i -c a t i o n " . The c o d i f i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n s permits s u b j e c t s to d i s t a n c e themselves from r e a l i t y as i t mediates between the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n moving toward c r i t i c a l knowledge. In t h i s process p a r t i c i p a n t s move between the c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n which p r o v i d e s o b j e c t i v e f a c t s to the ab-s t r a c t or t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l where the f a c t s are probed and analyzed. A n a l y s i s of the c o d i f i c a t i o n i n t h i s manner i n -v o l v e s p r a x i s , f i r s t of a l l at the concrete l e v e l and then at the t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l where the former p r a x i s i s re-con-s t r u c t e d i n a new p r a x i s . Seeking to u n v e i l the d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and the w o r l d : i n t h i s way r e q u i r e s 68 a u t h e n t i c d i a l o g u e i n which both t e a c h e r s and students are a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n seeking t o know and both c o n s t a n t l y r e -a d j u s t t h e i r knowledge. Summary The b a s i c assumption of F r e i r e ' s work i s t h a t i t i s man's " o n t o l o g i c a l v o c a t i o n " to be a Subject i n the world. As sub-j e c t , i n d i v i d u a l s may i n the c r i t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r r e -l a t i o n s h i p t o the world a c t , and i n so doing t r a n s f o r m t h e i r world. A l l human beings have, a c c o r d i n g to F r e i r e , the r i g h t to speak the "word" and "name" the world. A l l human beings have the r i g h t to 'e x i s t - i n - t h e - w o r l d " a s a u t h e n t i c human beings who analyze the world c r i t i c a l l y and p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c r e -a t i o n of the world. The world t o which men r e l a t e i s not a s t a t i c or c l o s e d world. I t i s c o n s t a n t l y i n a s t a t e of becoming as men a c t and transform, c r e a t e and r e - c r e a t e . T h i s world, the c r e -a t i o n of men, prese n t s a r e a l i t y which i n t u r n c o n d i t i o n s man and h i s a c t i n g . Through c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n on h i s a c t i o n s , man i s capable of p e r c e i v i n g the reasons f o r h i s a c t i o n s , of p e r c e i v i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between h i s past , h i s pr e s e n t and the f u t u r e t h a t he i s always c r e a t i n g . In the a c t of knowing, men as s u b j e c t s c o n f r o n t the ob-j e c t s o f the world, r e - c r e a t i n g t h e i r former knowledge and t r a n s f o r m i n g t h e i r r e a l i t y . In c o n t i n u a l p r a x i s , men con-s t a n t l y c r e a t e and r e - c r e a t e t h e i r r e a l i t y and t h e i r world. Men are beings of p r a x i s ; of simultaneous a c t i o n and r e f l e c t -i o n . To separate a c t i o n from r e f l e c t i o n r e s u l t s i n a c t i v i s m 69 or mere v e r b i a g e . For F r e i r e i t i s e q u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o dichotomize man and the world. Men are always i n a r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o the world and the world i s always r e l a t e d t o men. One cannot e x i s t without the other. In the a c t o f knowing men come to re c o g n i z e the i n t e r -r e l a t e d n e s s of men and world and the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of ob-j e c t s , f a c t s and e v e n t s — o r they do not. F r e i r e maintains t h a t e d u c a t i o n can never be n e u t r a l ; i t always proceeds from some world-view. In F r e i r e ' s view, edu c a t i o n i s e i t h e r t o dominate people or to f r e e them as "authentic" human beings. I f e d u c a t i o n i s f o r l i b e r a t i o n , students and teachers must p a r t i c i p a t e as c o - i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n the process of ' b o n s c i e n t i -zation'*. I f ed u c a t i o n i s f o r domination, students are o b j e c t s who are f i l l e d w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n and f a c t s d e p o s i t e d by edu-c a t o r s . E d u c a t i o n f o r freedom views students as knowing sub-j e c t s , who i n the s o c i a l process o f dialogue''problematize" t h e i r world. T h i s process of a c t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n enables the g r a d u a l development of c r i t i c a l awareness of the r e a l i t i e s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n f l u e n c i n g and shaping t h e i r l i v e s and the l i v e s o f o t h e r s . As w e l l awareness of the a b i l i t y of hu-man beings t o change and tr a n s f o r m r e a l i t y i s c r e a t e d . T h i s awakening of consciousness allows human beings t o come t o c r i t i c a l l y know t h e i r world and know themselves as f r e e , r e s -p o n s i b l e and committed human bein g s . 70 References Apple, M. The process and i d e o l o g y of v a l u i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . In M. Apple, M. Subkovich & H. L u f l e r (Eds.), E d u c a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n : A n a l y s i s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1974, 3-34. Berger, P. Consciousness r a i s i n g : To whom--by whom? S o c i a l  P o l i c y , 1974, 5 (34), 39-42. E l i a s , J . S o c i a l e a r n i n g and Paulo F r e i r e . The J o u r n a l of  E d u c a t i o n a l Thought, 1974, £ (1), 5-14. F r e i r e , P. [Pedagogy of the oppressed] (M. Bergman Ramos, t r a n s . ) . New York: The Seabury P r e s s , 1970. ( O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , 1968.) F r e i r e , P. C u l t u r a l a c t i o n : A d i a l e c t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Four l e c t u r e s presented a t the Centro I n t e r c u l t u r a l de Docu-mentation, Cuernavaca, Mexico, 1970a. (Cuderno No. 1004.) F r e i r e , P. C u l t u r a l a c t i o n f o r freedom. Cambridge, Massa-c h u s e t t s : Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 1970b. F r e i r e , P. [Education f o r c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ] (M. Berg-man Ramos, L. Bigwood, M. M a r s h a l l , t r a n s . ) . New York: The Seabury P r e s s , 1973. ( O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , 1969.) F r e i r e , P. By l e a r n i n g they can teach. Convergence, 1973, 6 (1), 78-84. Kneen, B. Pedagogy of the oppressed. The Canadian Forum, July-August 1971, pp. 29-31. S a r t r e , J . P. E x i s t e n t i a l i s m . l!New York: The P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1947. 71 Chapter I I I A P r a x i o l o g i c a l Model for A r t Ed u c a t i o n The p r a x i o l o g i c a l model f o r a r t educa t i o n proposed i n t h i s chapter i n intended t o make o p e r a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m t h a t seeks through d i a l o g i c a l a c t i o n the grad u a l development of c r i t i c a l c onsciousness e n a b l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e a l i z e t h e i r " h i s t o r i -c a l v o c a t i o n " o f be i n g f u l l y human. To enable t h i s develop-ment and t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n , the model f u n c t i o n s to promote per-c e p t i o n of the d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c t i n g and r e -f l e c t i n g so t h a t human beings may come to p e r c e i v e and i n t e r -p r e t t h e i r r e a l i t y as a t o t a l i t y o f i n t e r a c t i v e p a r t s and i n the r e - c r e a t i o n of t h e i r p r e v i o u s knowing, a c t to tr a n s f o r m t h e i r r e a l i t y and t h e i r world. Grounded i n the phi l o s o p h y and methodology of F r e i r e , t h i s model bases c u r r i c u l u m on a view of man; a view i n which man i s a knowing Subject always i n r e l a t i o n to the world and world i s always i n r e l a t i o n to man. In t h i s understanding whether i n d i v i d u a l s do or do not re c o g n i z e t h e i r p r e s e n t s i -t u a t i o n as c r e a t e d by f o r c e s o u t s i d e themselves as w e l l as by t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of and a c t i o n s on r e a l i t y ^ they a c t on the b a s i s o f t h e i r knowing and i n so doing c r e a t e t h e i r r e -a l i t y and the world. T h i s model seeks t o make e x p l i c i t i n c u r r i c u l u m the r e l a t i o n s h i p between theory and p r a c t i c e and to enable people t o u n v e i l the theory u n d e r l y i n g a c t i o n . In making e x p l i c i t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , the s e p a r a t i o n between making and a p p r e c i a t i n g i n a r t c u r r i c u l u m , noted i n the 72 f i r s t chapter of this study, may be overcome. Curriculum based on this model assumes a commitment to enabling individuals to develop authentic c r i t i c a l conscious-ness and to the realization of themselves as authentic human beings existing-in-the-world capable of changing and trans-forming the world. In this, curriculum would realize Vincent Lanier's (1976) suggestion "that the teaching of art should transcend purely aesthetic concerns and move in the direction of c r i t i c a l moral commitment" (p. 19). The praxiological model for art education proposed in this chapter is based on the human dialectic between action and re-flection providing the two main "categories" acting and re-flection. It is essential that the "categories" are seen as relationships, not as discrete entities. Unification of the categories requires recognition of the concept of praxis and of men as beings of praxis. The "category" of action is composed of three segments of acting involving aesthetic ac-tion. The "category" of reflection consists of three segments involving reflection. The segments of reflection compose the hermeneutic circ l e in which man is involved, and because of the inseparable nature of man's past, present, and future, these segments cannot be regarded as distinct, clearly de-lineated components. On the other hand, the segments of act-ing may or may not be attended to separately depending on the educational situation. The form of the model presented in Figure 1 shows the "categories" as dialectically related in the continual and in-73 Figure 1 A PraxioiogicalcCurric^ for:Art"Education separable process of a c t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n as understood i n F r e i r e ' s (1968/1970, 1970a, 1970b, 1973/1969, 1973) work and i n Aoki's (1978) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e paradigm of knowing. A l s o , F i g u r e 1 i n d i c a t e s t h a t the c r i -t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e paradigm i s seen to i n c l u d e e m p i r i c a l -a n a l y t i c knowing and s i t u a t i o n a l - i n t e r p r e t a t i v e knowing. Drawing from Apel's X1977) work, and as d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I, the model i n d i c a t e s t h a t communicative, i n t e r p r e t a t i v e , and t e c h n i c a l knowing are complementary to emancipatory knowing. The "-Categories" of R e f l e c t i o n and A c t i o n C e n t r a l to t h i s model f o s a r t e d u c a t i o n i s the r e l a t i o n -s h i p between r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p pro-v i d e s a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of a r t c u r r i c u l u m as a continuous p r a x i o l o g i c a l process of a c t i o n and r e f l e c t i o n . An a r t program becomes i n i t s e l f an a c t of c r e a t i o n r e f l e c t i n g the p r a x i s of teacher and students who" .together i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i r r e a l i t y and the world seeking to "develop t h e i r power to p e r c e i v e c r i t i c -a l l y the way they e x i s t i n the world w i t h which and i n which they f i n d themselves; to come to see the world not as a s t a t i c r e a l i t y , but as a r e a l i t y i n p r o c e s s , i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970, p. 71). A c c o r d i n g to F r e i r e (1968/1970), " I t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t the form of a c t i o n men adopt i s to a l a r g e extent a f u n c t i o n of how they p e r c e i v e themselves i n the world" (p. 71). T h i s suggests, as c r i t i c a l theory a s s e r t s , t h a t u n d e r l y i n g a l l hu-:; : man a c t i o n i s theory. Understanding the reasons f o r our per-c e p t i o n s and the r e a l i t y we c r e a t e as a r e s u l t of the a c t i o n s 75 made on the b a s i s of these p e r c e p t i o n s i s e s s e n t i a l t o au-t h e n t i c k n o w l e d g e — t o knowing o u r s e l v e s as human beings whose a c t i o n s have consequences. A u t h e n t i c p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n and a u t h e n t i c a e s t h e t i c knowledge cannot be d i v o r c e d from know-ledge o f s e l f and world. For t h i s reason a u t h e n t i c a e s t h e t i c a c t i o n must always be i n r e l a t i o n to a u t h e n t i c a e s t h e t i c theo-r e t i c a l and s e l f - w o r l d knowledge. A u t h e n t i c knowing and a c t -i n g emerge from the gradual growth of r e c o g n i t i o n o f s e l f as Sub j e c t who can "name" the world. In a c t i n g and i n pr o b i n g the reasons f o r and consequences of a c t i n g , r r e a l i t y i s ob-j e c t i f i e d , understood and transformed. "We know when we transform" ( F r e i r e , 1 9 7 3 , p. 7 9 ) . Through the process of knowing, g r a d u a l l y awareness emerges of s e l f as a being cap-able of i n t e r v e n t i o n i n and i n t e g r a t i o n with world, as an au-t h e n t i c human being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making a world t h a t permits a u t h e n t i c b eing f o r everyone. A u t h e n t i c knowing t u r n s on the a b i l i t y o f human beings to stand back from or to o b j e c t i f y t h e i r a c t i o n s and t h e i r world. " T h e i r world" s i g n i f i e s the world as c r e a t e d by the a c t i o n s of ot h e r s as w e l l as one's own unique and i n d i v i d u a l world as c r e a t e d by an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a s t biography and presen t s i t u a t i o n . One's p e r c e p t i o n o f and r e a c t i o n to t h e i r w o r l d — an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e a l i t y — c r e a t e s one's world-view. The a b i -l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l s t o o b j e c t i f y t h e i r world allows them to uncover not onl y the theory u n d e r l y i n g a c t i o n i n the world but a l s o to pe n e t r a t e the reasons u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r world-view. Consequently, i n seeking to d i s c o v e r the theory u n d e r l y i n g 7 6 a c t i o n , both the theory t h a t g i v e s r i s e to p e r s o n a l a c t i n g as w e l l as the t h e o r i e s of a c t i n g on the l a r g e r s c a l e t h a t a r i s e from the s t r u c t u r e s of r e a l i t y c r e a t e d by men and tend to formulate men's a c t i o n s are probed. In p e n e t r a t i n g both types of theory, i n d i v i d u a l s are enabled to see the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s of human a c t i n g . They come to understand the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i r a c t i o n s t o t h e i r world, p e r c e i v i n g t h e i r a c t i n g as r i -s i n g from i d e a s , f e e l i n g s , and v a l u e s shaped by t h e i r i n d i -v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e p a s t , by t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f p r e s e n t r e a l i t i e s , and by t h e i r view of f u t u r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . These t h r e e , p a s t , p r e s e n t and f u t u r e are the "segments" of the category o f r e f l e c t i o n as shown i n F i g u r e 1. In awareness of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a c t i n g and theory, i n d i v i d u a l s see they are not o n l y shaped by i d e a s , f e e l i n g s , v a l u e s , and the products of men's c r e a t i o n but t h a t t h e i r a c t i n g i n the world i m p l i c a t e s them as shapers and re-shapers o f i d e a s , v a l u e s , f e e l i n g s , and products of t h e i r world. I t i s i n t h i s sense t h a t the terms shaping and shaped by are used i n the mo-d e l . In t h i s understanding students come t o see themselves and others as h i s t o r i c a l beings whose r e l a t i o n s w i t h the world have consequences. They come to see t h a t through c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n , through the a b i l i t y t o both separate s e l f from world and i n v o l v e s e l f i n the world, i n d i v i d u a l s may as sub-j e c t s c o n s c i o u s l y c r e a t e and r e - c r e a t e consequences. In t h i s awareness students may p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e i s "not o n l y to be i n the world but to engage i n r e l a t i o n s with the world — t h a t through a c t s o f c r e a t i o n and r e - c r e a t i o n , man makes 77 c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y and thereby adds to the n a t u r a l world, which he d i d not make" ( F r e i r e , 1969/1973, p. 43). The c e n t r a l b a s i c assumption r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s p r a x i o -l o g i c a l model of a r t e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t i t i s man's v o c a t i o n to a c t upon and t r a n s f o r m h i s world. The world i s not seen as a s t a t i c , g i v e n r e a l i t y , but r a t h e r i n a constant s t a t e of becoming, p r e s e n t i n g s i t u a t i o n s to be accepted or overcome. The c e n t r a l p r i n c i p l e p r o v i d e d by the model f o r c u r r i c u l u m i s t h a t a r t i s p r a x i s . A r t e d u c a t i o n as p r a x i s i s the continuous process (Figure 2) of r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n , e n a b l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s t o develop the power to p e r c e i v e c r i t i c a l l y the way they e x i s t i n the world i n which they f i n d themselves. A r t , as p a r t of t h a t  world, i s p e r c e i v e d as shaped by as w e l l as shaping human be-ings who i n e x p r e s s i o n of i d e a s , v a l u e s , c o n f l i c t s , and f e a r s  form and re-form the world of h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e . T h i s un-d e r s t a n d i n g develops f i r s t as i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e t h e i r own " s i t u a t i o n a l i t y " . I t i s necessary f o r teachers and students to r e c o g n i z e each other as beings i n - a - s i t u a t i o n , marked by c o n d i t i o n s t h a t have shaped them and which they have a l s o shaped. F r e i r e (1968/19 70) t e l l s us, "Men are because they are i n a s i t u a t i o n . And they w i l l be more the more they not only c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t upon t h e i r e x i s t e n c e but c r i t i c a l l y a c t upon i t " (p. 100). The d i a l o g i c a l a c t i o n t h a t i s e s s e n t i a l to communication and d i s c o v e r i n g meaning i s a process i n which the s i t u a t i o n -a l i t y o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i s accepted. Teacher and students 78 Figure 2 The Process of Reflection and Action Action Reflection dialogue /problemati zation of concrete reality limit, (situation Address limit-situation through action involving the aesthetic Reflection 79 are active co-investigators "jointly responsible for a process in which a l l grow" (Freire, 1968/1970, p. 67). For the tea-cher, this means that he is not "cognitive" at one point and "narrative" at another. He is always cognitive whether pre-paring a project or engaging in dialogue with the students. He does not regard cognizable objects as his private property, but as the object of re-flection by himself and the students (Freire, 1968/1970, p. 68). Teaching demands an entering-into and constant reformulation of one's own reflections in the light of the reflections of stu-dents. In presenting to students films, tapes, slides, l i t e -rature, f i e l d trips and so on, earlier interpretations of the teacher are reconsidered as students express their considera-tions. In the constant re-creation of knowledge teachers may find some of the most sacred notions enshrined in the tradi-tion of teaching art revealed as nothing more than "mythici-zing reality, concealing certain facts which explain the way men exist in the world" (Freire, 1968/1970, p. 71). Teachers may discover that weeks spent teaching perspective, the co-lour wheel, or a l l the orders of Greek columns do not necess-arily and of themselves contribute to knowledge at the level of the "logos". Technique may come to be regarded as necess-ary to the powerful communication and expression of authentic human concerns and problems but not an end in i t s e l f . The point is that teaching becomes praxiological, involving a  constant unveiling of reality and creative power. As such i t creates the situation Irving Kaufman (1970) calls for. He states: 80 If education is to foster any creative and humanly dimensioned relationship to technology, i t s admini-strators, but most particularly i t s practitioners, the teachers, have an obligation to examine the context within which they function. They have to come to grips with the conditions that are shaping their own personalities, that of their students as well as those of the environment. The teachers of art have an extraordinary amount of understanding to do and an especial responsibility. In a way, they are working against the grain (pp. 270-271). This proposal, suggesting that i t is the responsibility of teachers to unveil concrete reality, may be realized in praxi-ological teaching-learning in which teachers and students cre-ate not just knowledge of art but knowledge of oneself as a person existing-in-the-world, able to understand concrete re-a l i t y and influence and change the world. In this knowing, in reflection and dialogue about "the very condition of ex-istence" (Freire, 1968/1970, p. 100), awareness of others as beings in-a-situation also emerges. Toward this, art, which has through the ages portrayed the condition of man, "trans-forming the personal and ineffable into a public form in which others may participate" (Eisner, 1972,. p. 11), may vividly confront students with their "situationality" and the situations of others, challenging the a b i l i t y to think and act c r i t i c a l l y . People reflect and act upon their situation to the extent that they are challenged to do so (Freire, 1968/ 1970). The world portrayed by Francis Bacon may illuminate problems and challenge students to respond to the world and with the world: the reality of the frozen figures of George Segal may help students apprehend challenges that might other-wise remain submerged. In reflection challenges must be 81 r e v e a l e d as r e l a t e d to problems w i t h i n a t o t a l c ontext i f a c t i o n i s to be a p p r o p r i a t e . In responding to a c h a l l e n g e i t does not remain a t h e o r e t i c a l c h a l l e n g e i n v o l v i n g t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . A c t i o n i n response t o a c h a l l e n g e b r i n g s f o r t h new c h a l l e n g e s to be probed i n r e f l e c t i o n , evoking new understandings, which i n t u r n b r i n g f o r t h new responses and a c t i o n s . In c h a l l e n g i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to a c t and r e f l e c t , awareness of the absence of a dichotomy between i n d i v i d u a l s and the world begins to emerge. Men c r e a t e the world and the world c r e a t e s men. Students begin to see themselves not as spec-t a t o r s but as p a r t i c i p a n t s ; , e x i s t i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d . I n v e s t i g a -t i o n of contemporary phenomena such as b l u e jeans, vans, and punk rock as c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t i e s c r e a t e d by the a c t i o n s o f men i n response to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of r e a l -i t y , may enable students to understand the f l u i d q u a l i t y of l i f e , t o deepen p e r c e p t i o n of the man-world d i a l e c t i c and s t i m u l a t e c r i t i c a l awareness of the r e l a t i o n s h i p betwen e x i s t i n g - i n - t h e - w o r l d and changing the world. Both c r e a t i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g a r t i n v o l v e r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n . We may conceive of them as having a d i f f e r e n t emphasis. T h i s i s to say t h a t c r e a t i n g a r t may. be seen as p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h a c t i n g and t h a t a p p r e c i a t i n g a r t may be seen as p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h r e f l e c t i o n . But, as F r e i r e (1968/1970) s t a t e s , t o a c t without r e f l e c t i o n i s a c t i v i s m ; to r e f l e c t without a c t i n g i s mere'verbiage. F r e i r e ' s p o s i t i o n here i s s i m i l a r to John Dewey's (1970): 82 Experience as trying involves change, but change is meaningless transition unless i t is consciously connected with the return wave of consequences which flow from i t . When an activity is continued into the undergoing of consequences, when the change made by action is reflected back into a change,made in us, the mere flux is loaded with significance.'. We learn something (p. 62). Thus, learning requires more than simply the experience of creating art (action) or the experience of appreciating art (reflection) as isolated components of aesthetic experience. They must be joined, given meaning by making "a backward and forward connection" (Dewey, 1970, p. 62). Aesthetic experi-ence must be both creating and appreciating; creating and re-creating interpretations and meaning from our position in the present, from the past that has marked us and from the future we envision. Jagodzinsky (Note 1) describes this hermeneutic-phenomenological view of aesthetic experience as: what happens in [the] moment of disinterestedness [when] man's consciousness "grasps" the objective world and thereby subjectivizes i t through his own selective processes. It is a "historical" moment since i t embodies the perceiver's past, present and future expectations. Aesthetic learning must go beyond situational-interpretative knowing, however, to grasp the man-world dialectic in which man is not only shaped by his culture and history but is also a shaper of culture and history. Man is not only capable of understanding his world, he is able to transform i t as well. Human interest in knowing is guided not only by interest in control and certainty (technical knowing) and interest in communication and under-standing (situational-interpretative knowing) , but also by. an 83 emancipatory interest, an interest in improving and trans-forming the condition of man. Art education which seeks to move people toward the freedom afforded by the realization of authentic humanity must see art'"as content having become  form" (Jagodzinsky, Note 1). By this Jagodzinsky suggests Marcuse's notion, "that an aesthetic transformation has been achieved through the reshaping of perception and understanding so that the 'essence' of reality becomes revealed" (Jagodzin-sky, Note 1). By the "essence" of reality Jagodzinsky means the "truth" of reality, achieved through the c r i t i c a l per-ception of the " i s " in order to arrive at the "ought". Through this dialectic, the a r t i s t may seek to counter the status quo by expressing.:its opposite, the "ought". In acting, a value is expressed—a moral decision is taken—and a synthesis of action and reflection combine to produce praxiological art. This requires that learning in art education "consists in acts of cognition" (Freire, 1968/1970,;?p. 67) , objectifying concrete reality in search of the theory underlying the world of history, culture, ideas and products created by the trans-forming actions of men. Aesthetic experience must create and re-create in praxis the understanding of individuals. In approaching art as the  manifestation of men's action and reflection that turns back  to act on men, art becomes a force in re-forming former pra- xis; in creating a hew praxis. In this relationship man is the creator of the world of culture, history, and ideas, a world that is constantly becoming. Art when regarded praxi-84 o l o g i c a l l y may engage individualsjiix;developingua c r i t i c a l con-sciousness able to p e n e t r a t e the concrete r e a l i t y of the hu-man s i t u a t i o n . " A e s t h e t i c experience i s seen as a change of c o n s c i o u s n e s s — a t r a n s v a l u a t i o n and a c a l l t o a c t i o n " (Jago-d z i n s k y , Note 1). Our o n l y terms of r e f e r e n c e cannot be the formal and t e c h n i c a l , the communicative and e x p r e s s i v e . A r t i s , as D.W. Gotshalk (1947) d i s c u s s e s , "more than an aesthe-t i c e n t e r p r i s e . I t has numerous n o n a e s t h e t i c f u n c t i o n s " (p. 217). In Gotshalk's view, "great a r t " would r e a l i z e both the s p i r i t u a l and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s p r o v i d e d by a r t as w e l l as so-c i a l v a l u e s s u c h i a s - Z r e l i g i o u s , commercial, h i s t o r i c a l , and so on. In maximum r e a l i z a t i o n o f both v a l u e s , Gotshalk as-s e r t s , "the f u l l e s t a c t u a l i z a t i o n of v a l u e s which we have s a i d f i n e a r t can possess f o r s o c i e t y " (p. 223) would be r e -a l i z e d . Achievement of g r e a t a r t would// he says, " i n v o l v e a h i g h l e v e l of i n t e r d i m e n s i o n a l v a l u e s " (p. 223), l e n d i n g credence t o a view of a r t as a product of the a r t i s t ' s con-f r o n t a t i o n w i t h r e a l i t y , a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of l o g i c and f e e l -i n g , c o g n i t i o n and v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n . A r t i s not r e s e r v e d f o r the few. I t d e a l s w i t h the c o n c r e t e world o f p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n , economics, ecology, and e d u c a t i o n . . A r t t e a c h i n g must seek to c r e a t e r e c o g n i t i o n of a r t as a p a r t of " r e a l " l i f e r a t h e r than g i v i n g substance to n o t i o n s of a r t as some-how ap a r t from the concerns of r e a l i t y , as a v e h i c l e of ca-t h a r t i c r e l e a s e or a refuge f o r those w i t h o n l y " t a l e n t " . The c h a r a c t e r of contemporary North American s o c i e t y suggests p r a x i o l o g i c a l a r t and p r a x i o l o g i c a l a r t e d u c a t i o n 85 i s e s s e n t i a l t o c u r r i c u l u m intended f o r people i n a techno-l o g i c a l s o c i e t y where the r e l a t i o n s h i p between knowledge and human a f f a i r s i s obscured (Herbert K l i e b a r d , 1977). T h i s m y s t i f i c a t i o n i n K l i e b a r d ' s view i s a consequence of s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t accords b a s i c decision-making and the c o n t r o l of s o c i a l purpose t o s p e c i a l i s t s . I n d i v i d u a l s compose a " s i l e n t m a j o r i t y " , powerless to a f f e c t o r change a r e a l i t y only vaguely understood. In r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s l a c k o f s i g n i -f i c a n c e f o r the common person, Harry Broudy (1973) s t a t e s : I t w i l l take a high order of ed u c a t i o n f o r every c i t i z e n t o d i s c h a r g e h i s v o c a t i o n a l and c i v i c obr-.i". l i g a t i o n s , and i t w i l l take an even h i g h e r order of e d u c a t i o n f o r the common man to f i n d s i g n i f i -cance i n l i f e t h a t he may not be able t o f i n d i n h i s work. In a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y mature system, every man i s a v o c a t i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t — s o m e t h i n g s p e c i a l — b u t o u t s i d e o f h i s job he can be very common indeed. Suppose, however, he wants to be an uncommon human bei n g , an a u t h e n t i c human being? (p. 74}) A r t which i s concerned w i t h the q u a l i t a t i v e can p r o v i d e a balance t o f a i t h r e s i d i n g s o l e l y i n l o g i c and the q u a n t i t a -t i v e . The c h a l l e n g e f o r a r t ed u c a t i o n i s t o enable i n d i v i -duals to r e a l i z e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r e x i s t i n g a u t h e n t i c a l -l y i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . To accept as a necessary c o n d i t i o n t h a t " r o b o t i z a t i o n and bureaucracy are the i n e v i -t a b l e accompaniments of l a r g e - s c a l e machine p r o d u c t i o n " (Broudy, 1977, p. 74), means acceptance o f the powerlessness of i n d i v i d u a l s to a f f e c t or change t h e i r r e a l i t y . I t means adapting t o the s t a t u s quo and a c c e p t i n g i t as a g i v e n , r a -th e r than a humanly c o n s t r u c t e d r e a l i t y i n which men can i n -tervene. In b a s i n g a r t ed u c a t i o n on the t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s 86 of aesthetics, art i s often regarded as the product of an innate human impulse to express self and the desire to com-municate thoughts, ideas, and values to others. The function of art is cathartic; an instrument for promoting self-actual-ization and self-expression. What is absent from this view is an understanding of art as a manifestation of conscious human praxis in response to concrete reality. The Segments of the Model The segments of aesthetic action include two-dimensional art, three-dimensional art, and four-dimensional art in refer-ence to media involving Sound, Light, Space, and Motion. These labels w i l l suggest to art teachers a plethora of art activities which w i l l not be elaborated on here. Two-dimensional art is regarded here as f a c i l i t a t i n g acting in any kind of two-dimensional imagery such as paint-ing (in a variety of media), printmaking, collage, montage, batik, drawing, lettering, poster making, stitchery, weaving, and serigraphy. The three-dimensional designation includes sculpture of wood, clay, metal, plastics, fiber, plaster, mixed media, as well as u t i l i t a r i a n forms such as furniture, tableware, playgrounds, and the built environment. Sound, Light, Space and Motion identifies the media of our epoch such as film, television, slides, music, fashion, and so on. It is by now clear that this model for art curriculum intends transcendence of aesthetic experience as technical control or as purely self-consummatory experience. Aesthe-t i c experience is extended to acting as well as appreciating. 87 F u r t h e r a e s t h e t i c experience, whether a c t i n g or r e f l e c t i n g , i s i m p l i c a t e d s o c i a l l y and m o r a l l y . Although i n the f o l l o w -i n g statement V i n c e n t L a n i e r (1976) addresses a e s t h e t i c ex-p e r i e n c e as c o n f i n e d to viewing a r t , h i s a s s e r t i o n c o n t a i n s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c r e a t i n g a r t . He says: I t i s reasonable to propose t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n t a d d i t i o n a l or a l t e r n a t i v e element t h a t should be c o n s i d e r e d i s the moral i m p l i c a t i o n i n the aesthe-t i c t r a n s a c t i o n , when such i m p l i c a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e . T h i s i s , of course, to assume t h a t a e s t h e t i c ex-p e r i e n c e s provoked by works of a r t are capable of s t i m u l a t i n g moral i m p l i c a t i o n s , an assumption the h i s t o r y of the a r t s makes d i f f i c u l t to deny (p. 20). /What L a n i e r suggests here i s t h a t a r t i n the schools must move beyond the c o n f i n e s of the classroom. I t i s not enough to r e f l e c t on r e a l i t y ; we must p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e a l i t y . The c a t e g o r i e s of a c t i n g i n c l u d e d i n the model must i n v o l v e , whenever p o s s i b l e , students i n the " r e a l " world. Thus t r a d i t i o n a l two-dimensional media might g i v e way to or i n c l u d e environmental p a i n t i n g such as the e x t e r i o r w a l l of a b u i l d i n g or a p e d e s t r i a n overpass. T h i s segment co u l d i n c l u d e p a i n t i n g s on i n t e r i o r w a l l s of the s c h o o l , the community c e n t e r , a s e n i o r c i t i z e n ' s home or a t a c t i l e p a i n t -i n g i n a s c h o o l f o r the b l i n d . Three-dimensional a c t i n g c o u l d i n v o l v e d e s i g n i n g and e x e c u t i n g a playground, a d e s i g n f o r a community park w a t e r f r o n t , or i n n e r c i t y improvement p r o j e c t . A e s t h e t i c a c t i n g i n t h i s view i m p l i e s " E n v i r o n -mental i s s u e s , housing i s s u e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i s s u e s , eco-nomic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ... viewed as moral q u e s t i o n s " (Jagodzinsky, 1977, p. 261). The media of Sound, 88 L i g h t , Space and Motion may be used i n documenting s i t e s , c r e a t i n g statements and p r e s e n t i n g arguments designed to i n -f l u e n c e the p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n r e q u i r e d i f students are to se-cure the support necessary to a c t i o n i n v o l v i n g them i n the community. Such a e s t h e t i c a c t i o n a r i s i n g from r e f l e c t i o n would " c l a r i f y the ways i n which the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic world works and how i t can be improved", which La-n i e r (1976) i d e n t i f i e s as "the c e n t r a l i s s u e of education" (pp. 23-24). Whether a e s t h e t i c a c t i n g i n v o l v i n g students d i r e c t l y i n community l i f e i s p o s s i b l e when a p r a x i o l o g i c a l program i s i n i t i a l l y implemented depends on a number of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . The foremost c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the a c t i n g segment of the program w i l l be the a t t i t u d e s , context, and concerns of the students. The e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n w i l l a l s o be a de-terminant. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p a r e n t a l support, the a r t pro-gram budget, the c l a s s s c h e d u l i n g of the s c h o o l , and the support of f e l l o w t e a c h e r s , a l l converge to e i t h e r l i m i t or open the k i n d s of p o s s i b i l i t i e s students may pursue. Ass-essment of such f a c t o r s and the a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e a favour-able c l i m a t e f o r i n n o v a t i o n w i l l determine the kinds of aes-t h e t i c a c t i n g teachers may encourage i n programs. Perhaps the most c r i t i c a l element i n c r e a t i n g a p r a x i o l o g i c a l p r o-gram i s the z e a l and degree of commitment of the p a r t i c i -pants . A e s t h e t i c a c t i n g w i l l a l s o occur i n the classroom. Here the a c t i o n segments may be kept separate or allowed to 89 overlap and blend. Materials, equipment, the type of art room, class size, as well as the teacher's organizational abi l i t y and tolerance for chaos w i l l influence the teacher's decision to organize the teaching environment so as to per-mit action in a wide array of media at the same time, or whether students w i l l work in one medium at a time. Accord-ing to Feldman (1970), "When every child executes in the same medium, at the same time, i t means that the program has sur-rendered to l o g i s t i c a l or administrative convenience" (p. 207). If, however, aesthetic acting is not seen as mere form (as the scie n t i f i c view suggests), nor as mere content (as the hermeneutic-pheno-menological sciences suggest), but as content  having become form...that an aesthetic trans-formation has been achieved through the re-shaping of perception and understanding so that the "essence" of reality becomes re-vealed (Jagodzinsky, Note 1), then the medium is not the focus but the focus is the pene-tration of reality evidenced in the content become form. This suggests less concentration on media than i s usual in most art classrooms and a preoccupation with the develop-ment of c r i t i c a l consciousness and evidence of this in aes-thetic action.and in dialogue. Any one medium offers a host of possibilities i f media are thought of as the material through which individuals evidence their confrontation with and participation in the world. The lines segmenting the kinds of acting are broken to suggest between the segments. It may be that at some times students work in one medium, at other times different 90 kinds o f media p r o l i f e r a t e . The model intends f l e x i b i l i t y . I t i s a guide for' human beings a c t i n g a e s t h e t i c a l l y i n r e s - ponse t o the c r i t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y . As p e r c e p t i o n s of r e a l i t y change and as a c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s -ness develops, the media requirements f o r a u t h e n t i c a c t i n g w i l l change. T h i s does not mean t h a t the p l a n n i n g necessary f o r many'..students working i n a r t media i s not necessary, o n l y t h a t i n the planning, o f a e s t h e t i c a c t i n g care should be taken to a v o i d r i g i d i t y . The three segments of r e f l e c t i o n i n c l u d e man shaping and shaped by the past , man shaping and shaped by the p r e -sent, and man shaping and shaped by h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the f u t u r e . Men are i n v o l v e d i n the hermeneutic c i r c l e ; they are i n the pre s e n t , a pr e s e n t shaped by the past and both are p a r t of the f u t u r e toward which they move. An i n d i v i d u -a l ' s s i t u a t i o n a l i t y and t h a t of men c o l l e c t i v e l y r e f l e c t s the p a s t , the pre s e n t , and suggests the f u t u r e . Yesterday, today and tomorrow are not dichotomous. In seeking to deve-lop c r i t i c a l c onsciousness, these segments of our i n d i v i d u a l r e a l i t y and of man's r e a l i t y , are co n f r o n t e d by Subjects who o b j e c t i f y the world and come t o see the i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s o f the p a s t , the pr e s e n t and the f u t u r e through i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e i r own biography and the world of h i s t o r y , c u l t u r e , economics, and s c i e n c e . In F r e i r e ' s view communication i s e s s e n t i a l t o under-s t a n d i n g r e a l i t y and the r e a l i t y of o t h e r s . Dialogue pro-v i d e s an exchange and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of many ways of p e r c e i v -91 i n g r e a l i t y , the emergence of c o n f l i c t s , c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , and through t h i s a c t i o n one's own views are c l a r i f i e d , expanded or a l t e r e d . In s h a r i n g and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the knowledge of o t h e r s , our knowledge i s r e - c r e a t e d . Dialogue must begin i n genuine acceptance of a l l p a r t i -c i p a n t s a t the l e v e l of understanding. I t begins w i t h r e -a l i t y as the p a r t i c i p a n t s understand i t to be and with s i t u -a t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d by them as r e l e v a n t . " I t i s to the r e a l i t y which mediates men, and to the p e r c e p t i o n of t h a t r e a l i t y h e l d by educators and people t h a t we must go to f i n d the pro-gram content of education" ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970, p. 86). T h i s r e a l i t y i s c o d i f i e d i n themes which become the focus of d i a -logue. The d i a l o g i c l e a r n i n g i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3. The themes may a r i s e from c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of students not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o a e s t h e t i c s or they may be generated by the products of a e s t h e t i c a c t i o n . Themes might focus on the consequences of a e s t h e t i c a c t i o n taken, or i n v e s t i g a t e p a s t h i s t o r i c a l a e s t h e t i c responses, or i n v e s t i g a t e contemporary a e s t h e t i c responses. Whatever the k e r n e l of r e f l e c t i o n , p ast, p resent, f u t u r e w i l l not be e n t i r e l y d i s c r e t e and r e -f l e c t i o n w i l always i m p l i c a t e a c t i o n . The process of r e -f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n c o nnecting the segments of these "ca-t e g o r i e s " i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 2. The attempt here i s t o i n d i c a t e the f l u i d and g e n e r a t i v e nature of the process as w e l l as to u n d e r l i n e the p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the segments of the model, e s p e c i a l l y i n the r e f l e c t i v e "category", w i l l 92 Figure 3 Dialogic Learning Situation' Adaptive Learning Situation 1. T. Aoki (1978) 93 not remain "pure". They f u n c t i o n only as f o c i which may be s h i f t e d i n the f l u x o f d i a l o g i c a l a c t i o n . Themes might i n c l u d e an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to s o c i e t a l values as evidenced i n f i l m , on t e l e v i s i o n and elsewhere. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a e s t h e t i c s and economy may i n c l u d e i n v e s t i g a t i n g the l a c k of c o p y r i g h t laws f o r v i s u a l a r t i s t s , why a r t i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l -i z e d i n museums, the Canadian A r t Bank, or i n p r i v a t e g a l l e -r i e s . Jagodzinsky (Note 1) poses some of the kinds of ques-t i o n s which may g i v e r i s e t o f u r t h e r thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n . He asks: As a r t educators, do we promote the view t h a t a r t i s a "packaged" a c t i v i t y , manipulated and supported by museums which emphasize c o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n s , and p r o v i d e the b u r e a u c r a t i c man-agement of a r t through proper means of venera-t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of " c u l t u r a l ornaments"? Are our a r t classrooms m i n i a t u r e museums? Do we s t i l l p e r c e i v e c o l o r t h e o r i e s i n s t a t i c " c o l o r wheel" terms and r o u t i n e l y s e t up s t i l l -l i f e s f o r our drawing c l a s s e s ? Do we p r a i s e the s e r i a l p a i n t i n g s of Max B i l l and c l a i m t h a t the c u r r e n t e x p l o s i o n i n "printmaking" i s the best t h i n g t h a t c o u l d have happened to a r t s i n c e the i n v e n t i o n of the brush? Now "every-one" has an equal chance t o own an o r i g i n a l . . . . Need the v i s u a l a r t s remain "boxed-in" by our own r u l e s ? Must a r t remain p u r e l y v i s u a l , a l a S t e l l a , O l i t s k i , L o u i s or Noland? I f one r e -a c t s to the above wi t h a "gut" l e v e l yes, then...we are e s s e n t i a l l y a c c e p t i n g a view of a r t which had developed i n the time p e r i o d from 1400 - 1600" (p. 15). Themes must be decided w i t h the d i a l o g u e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n accord w i t h t h e i r view of the "given". Dialogue i s not t o invade, not to manipulate, not to "make slogans" ( F r e i r e , 1968/1970). I t i s commitment t o the constant t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 94 of reality. Thematic investigation must, then, begin with reality as defined by the dialogue participants. A l l p a r t i c i -pants must be committed to understanding dialectically the different forms in which human beings know in their relations to the world and must acknowledge the "knowing" of others. Dialogue is the "content of the form of being which is peculi-arly human, i t is excluded from a l l relationships in which people are transformed into 'beings for another' by people who are false 'beings for themselves'" (Freire, 1969/1973, p. 115). In dialogue the lived-in-world of individuals is examined and interrelationships are discovered. Dialogue permits sharing in the "we think" encouraging alternative and multiple per-spectives and the gradual development of authentically c r i t i -cal consciousness. C r i t i c a l consciousness is not developed by identifying problems for people or by imposing the values of a given so-ciety on people. It is not developed in an authoritative, hierarchical structure, in which those who do know "give" knowledge to those who do not know. C r i t i c a l consciousness is not arrived at through psychology, subjectivity or ideal-ism nor through objectivism (Freire, 1969/1973). It requires a subject-object relationship—the individual confronts the objects of his world in concrete reality. In objectification individuals come to recognize their perception is conditioned by reality. In placing the objects of reality in a system of relationships within a particular context, this totality of relationships comes to be perceived c r i t i c a l l y by students. 95 In this manner individuals, through dialogue, come to trans-cend and deepen consciousness which is manifest in action, in the abi l i t y of individuals to integrate with and intervene in their world. Thematic Investigation Freire's method of discovering themes for reflection is anthropological. He begins by sending into the community a team composed of experts such as an educator, a psychologist, a sociologist and a language expert who as participant ob-servers gather information about the activities and concerns of the community. Teachers and most curriculum groups are not in a position to research a community in this way. In-stead, they w i l l have to rely on their own observation of the acti v i t i e s , conversations, and concerns of the student's con-text. Both organized and chance meetings with community workers, administrators, parents, and students are valuable sources of information about the community and the students. Using the information derived through observation and con-versation, the teacher or curriculum group may arrange group-ings of core themes,- as well as several sub-themes evolving out of each core theme. Visual material such as paintings, slides, and photographs are selected as "codifications" of the themes and sub-themes. These themes remain, however, as possibilities until the "teacher" meets with the "students" and together as co-investigators of their world, they make the fina l selection of themes to be investigated. The i n i t i a l dis-cussions with students w i l l then necessitate a re-considera-96 tion of thematic p o s s i b i l i t i e s . The preparation of new themes or modifications to previously determined themes may be ne-. : cessary. The selection of themes w i l l be determined, then, by two considerations: the existential situation of the stu-dents and their response to their situation. The Nature of Themes Themes suggested by the reflective category of the model would emphasize recognition of human beings as both shapers of reality and as shaped by reality. This implies creating thematic units that begin with the student's perceptions of the world, respecting the knowledge they have created in their relationship with the world and accepting their "common sense" knowing. No prescription can be given for the selection of the visual codifications of themes except to mention that the concrete representations of themes reflects the existential situation of the students. This may mean accepting i n i t i a l l y black velvet paintings or painted plaster statues as objects reflective.'.of the student's "here", as part of an individual's historical space. Individuals, unlike animals, can perceive situations as past, or present, and project their future.- Themes are found in concrete reality flowing from the past, moving into the present, and reaching toward the future. It is the past, present, and future shaping the constant transforming action of men that cause "epochal units" to materialize. In thinking about thematic units for curriculum, an epoch should not be considered a static time period but a fl u i d , dynamic continu-97 i t y of h i s t o r y . F r e i r e (1968/1970) s t a t e s : They do not e x i s t "out t h e r e " somewhere, as s t a t i c e n t i t i e s ; they are o c c u r r i n g . They are as h i s t o r i c a l as men themselves; consequently, they cannot be apprehended apart from men. To apprehend these themes and to understand them i s to understand both the men who embody them and the r e a l i t y to which they r e f e r . B u t — p r e c i s e l y because i t i s not poss-i b l e t o understand these themes a p a r t from men— i t i s necessary t h a t the men concerned understand them as w e l l . Thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n thus becomes a common s t r i v i n g towards awareness of r e a l i t y and towards self-awareness, which makes t h i s i n v e s t i -g a t i o n a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l pro-cess or f o r c u l t u r a l a c t i o n of a l i b e r a t i n g c h a r a c t e r (p. 9 8). The themes of an epoch, c o n s t a n t l y i n t e r a c t i n g and changing, are found i n the concrete r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of man's hopes, i d e a s , v a l u e s , and f e a r s and i n a l l the o b s t a c l e s t h a t p r e -vent man from b e i n g f u l l y human. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of themes i s t h a t they both r i s e from and g i v e r i s e to l i m i t - s i t u a t i o n s ; the t a s k s they imply r e q u i r e l i m i t - a c t s . A l i m i t - s i t u a t i o n e i t h e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y serves a person or persons but i n so doing r e -q u i r e s the negation o f another person o r persons. Themes are o f t e n obscured because the l i m i t - s i t u a t i o n s they c o n t a i n and are c o n t a i n e d i n are not c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d . A p r a x i o l o g i c a l c u r r i c u l u m would i n c l u d e themes c o n t a i n i n g l i m i t - s i t u a t i o n s as y e t u n i d e n t i f i e d or f u l l y comprehended by s t u d e n t s . In d i a l o g u e , p a r t i c i p a n t s move toward p e r c e p t i o n and i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n of the l i m i t - s i t u a t i o n and deliberation r e g a r d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f changing the s i t u a t i o n a t the p r e s e n t time. I t may be p e r c e i v e d as u n a l t e r a b l e concrete r e a l i t y t h a t must 98 be accepted or be accepted for the time being. If i t is per-ceived as alterable, then students w i l l devise various solu-tions, act on them, reflect on the consequences of their actions, perhaps test alternate actions and reflect on these. Freire (1968/1970) cautions that unless the situations are per-ceived as representing a choice between "being and being more human" or "being and nothingness" (p. 93), individuals may re-ject testing new perceptions in preference to preserving the status quo as a less threatening, more familiar alternative. Developing Thematic Units Freire (1968/1970) presents three "levels" of generative themes that are helpful in devising different ways of con-structing thematic units in relation to the situation of the students. It must be kept in mind that thematic units de-veloped in advance of meeting with students are tentative and-that generative themes are found in concrete reality and in interaction with students. However, teachers and curriculum groups need ways of thinking about arranging units of thema-t i c investigation in order to develop possible themes before they are fi n a l l y selected by the students. To assist this effort Figure 4 diagrams one location of generative themes. The figure illustrates the interrelationship of themes as always part of a whole and suggests the importance of rela-ting themes to the larger view of the context. Without this view Freire (1968/1970) t e l l s us: When men lack a c r i t i c a l understanding of their reality, apprehending i t in fragments which they 99 Figure 4 Generative"Themes dual Alternate Derivation of Themes 100 do not p e r c e i v e as i n t e r a c t i n g c o n s t i t u e n t elements of the whole, they cannot t r u l y know t h a t r e a l i t y (p. 9 5 ) . Another method of thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n attempts "to p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t dimensions o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n t e x t u a l r e a l i t y , the a n a l y s i s of which w i l l make i t p o s s i b l e f o r him to recog-n i z e the i n t e r a c t i o n of the v a r i o u s components" (p. 9 5 ). The s i g n i f i c a n t dimensions should be p e r c e i v e d as p a r t s i n i n t e r -a c t i o n w i t h the t o t a l r e a l i t y so t h a t the c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the e x i s t e n t i a l dimension allows a new a t t i t u d e toward the l i m i t - s i t u a t i o n s . As i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 5, c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s on the thematic u n i v e r s e of the i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s suggested as a way to i n t r o d u c e people t o t h i n k i n g c r i t i c a l l y about t h e i r world. A t h i r d way of g e n e r a t i n g themes i s recommended when i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e r e a l i t y as impenetrable. In t h i s s i t u a t i o n F r e i r e recommends thematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n by means of a b s t r a c t i o n . T h i s does not i n v o l v e r e d u c i n g the c o n c r e t e to the a b s t r a c t but maintains both elements as o p p o s i t e s i n t e r -r e l a t i n g d i a l e c t i c a l l y as shown i n F i g u r e 6. I f the process moves back and f o r t h betwen the a b s t r a c t s i t u a t i o n and the c o n c r e t e , t h i s movement leads to the c r i t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n of the concrete r e a l i t y . T h i s process i s e x p l a i n e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . The Process of Decoding Themes The stages of the process of decoding, as shown i n F i g u r e 7, begin w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n of the coded e x i s t e n t i a l s i t u a t i o n r e p resented i n v i s u a l form. In the a b i l i t y t o " s p l i t " the coded s i t u a t i o n the p a r t s are examined by constant movement 101 Figure 5 Themes of an Individual's Contextual Reality Significant Dimensions of an Individual's Life-World Reality The Past and Present always creating the Future Analysis of Parts i n Interaction with a l l Other Parts Parts perceived as Dimensions of total Reality Figure 6 Decoding By Abstraction Subject Object Recognition of self i n object as representation of situation i n which individual finds self 103 Figure 7 Stages of the Decoding Process "Split" of coded situation: description of situation - beginning discovery of interaction among parts Visually Repre-sented 3. Movement from apprehension of existential situation to Individual's own Situation and that of others World-view exteriorized i n a l l stages, unveiling the Generative Themes of Participants 104 b e t w e e n t h e a b s t r a c t a n d c o n c r e t e a n d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e p a r t s t o t h e w h o l e b e g i n s t o b e r e v e a l e d . T h e v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n b e g i n s , n o w , t o a c q u i r e m e a n i n g f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s h e c r i t i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e o b j e c t a n d a s t h e o b j e c t a c t s o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l . G r a d u a l l y , t h e t r a n s -i t i o n i s m a d e f r o m p e r c e i v i n g t h e c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n a s v i s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d , t o r e l a t i n g t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s t o o n e ' s o w n l i v e d - i n - w o r l d . R e a l i t y i s u n c o v e r e d a n d p e r s o n a l l y k n o w n . I t i s n o l o n g e r a n a b s t r a c t , i m p e n e t r a b l e s i t u a t i o n b u t o n e ' s o w n c o n c r e t e s i t u a t i o n p r e s e n t i n g a c h a l l e n g e t o b e m e t . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s d e c o d i n g p r o c e s s , i n d i v i d u a l s e x -t e r i o r i z e t h e i r w o r l d - v i e w . T h e i r c o m m u n i c a t i o n r e v e a l s t h e w a y t h e y t h i n k a b o u t t h e w o r l d a n d g e n e r a t e s n e w t h e m e s . T h e s a m e c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y c o u l d s t i m u l a t e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t t h e m e s , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e p e o p l e i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n . S u m m a r y T h e p r a x i o l o g i c a l m o d e l f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r s u g g e s t s a c u r r i c u l u m f o c u s o n w h a t i t i s t o b e a n a u t h e n t i c h u m a n b e i n g a n d o n a p r a x i o l o g i c a l a e s t h e t i c a s a s y n t h e s i s o f t h e t e c h n i c a l a n d s i t u a t i o n a l i n t e r p r e -t a t i v e f o r m s o f k n o w i n g t h a t u n i t e i n c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n . T h e t w o m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s o f t h i s m o d e l a r e p r e d i c a t e d o n t h e c o n c e p t o f p r a x i s . R e f l e c t i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h e s i t u a -t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i s i n t e n d e d t o m o v e t h e m t o c r i t i c a l a w a r e -n e s s o f s e l f a n d o t h e r s a s h i s t o r i c a l b e i n g s c a p a b l e o f e x -p e r i e n c i n g t h e w o r l d a s a n o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , c a p a b l e o f b e i n g k n o w n . I n t h e c r e a t i o n o f n e w u n d e r s t a n d i n g s a n d 105 ideas the acting category of the model intends the aesthe-t i c expression of those ideas through acting to create ob-jec t s , events, or experiences which have consequences i n re-a l i t y . In r e f l e c t i o n and action individuals come to understand themselves as the creators of knowledge, culture, history and the products of the world, a l l of which turn back to shape men and world. In the constant d i a l e c t i c between ac-tion and r e f l e c t i o n , individuals are enabled "to enter into r e a l i t y " and discover the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between the facts they observe. Gradually authentically c r i t i c a l conscious-ness i s developed. Individuals are able to be "transform-ing agents" of th e i r r e a l i t y , to integrate with and i n t e r -vene i n t h e i r world. As c r i t i c a l capacity i s developed, the a b i l i t y to assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and make choices i s i n -creased. I f teachers are committed to education as l i b e r a -t i o n rather than to education as adaptation, more than to-kens of "student", r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and choice are required. The determination to permit students the exercise of s i g -n i f i c a n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and choice takes a firm moral com-mitment on the part of teachers. I t w i l l require communi-cation with and support from parents and administrators. It w i l l require courage as well as unswerving f a i t h that i n working with' people rather than on them, learning becomes a creative act, generating i n both teacher and students a dynamism and "the impatience and v i v a c i t y which character-ize search and invention" (Freire, 1969/1973, p. 43). 106 In the understanding that "Only men are p r a x i s — t h e praxis which, as the r e f l e c t i o n and action which t r u l y transforms r e a l i t y , i s the source of knowledge and creation" (Freire, 1968/1970, p. 91), man i s viewed as the shaper of his knowledge, culture, history and products, a l l of which act to shape man. The pr a x i o l o g i c a l model for a r t education seeks to make operational education as an authentic human endeavour. I t represents an attempt to allow art education to function as a way of enabling individuals to become c r i -t i c a l l y conscious of th e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to th e i r world. This means that i n seeking to promote awareness of the re-lationships between man, art, history, and culture, more than the transmission of aesthetic knowledge i s required of art education. I t means going beyond a focus on the development of v i s u a l perception and beyond emphasis on providing insight into human concerns through the contem-plat i o n of art. I t means acceptance of a moral commitment to the development of a s o c i a l as well as an in d i v i d u a l c r i t i c a l consciousness permitting individuals to r e a l i z e authentic human being. 107 Reference Note 1. Jagodzinsky, J . Towards a new a e s t h e t i c . Unpublished manuscript, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1978. 108 References A o k i , T. Toward c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y i n a new key. In P r e s e n t a - t i o n s on a r t e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h : Phenomenological d e s c r i p -t i o n , P o t e n t i a l f o r Research i n A r t E d u c a t i o n No. 2,1978,47-69. Ap e l , K.O. Types of s o c i a l s c i e n c e i n the l i g h t of human i n -t e r e s t s of knowledge. S o c i a l Research, 1977, 44_, 425-470. Broudy, H. Humanism i n e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c Edu-c a t i o n , 1973, 1 (2), 67-77. Dewey, J . Experience and t h i n k i n g . In G. Pappas (Ed.), Con-cepts i n a r t and e d u c a t i o n . New York: The Macmillan Com-pany, 1970 r 62-71. E i s n e r , E. E d u c a t i n g a r t i s t i c v i s i o n . New York: Macmillan P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1972. Feldman, E. Becoming human through a r t : A e s t h e t i c experience  i n the s c h o o l . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e H a l l I ncorporated, 1970. F r e i r e , P. [Pedagogy of the oppressed] (M. Bergman Ramos, t r a n s . ) . New York: The Seabury P r e s s , 1970. ( O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , 19 68.) F r e i r e , P. C u l t u r a l a c t i o n : A d i a l e c t i c a l a n a l y s i s . Four l e c t u r e s presented a t the Centro I n t e r c u l t u r a l de Documen-t a c i o n , Cuernavaca, Mexico, 1970a. (Cuderno No. 1004.) F r e i r e , P. C u l t u r a l a c t i o n f o r freedom. Cambridge, Massa-c h u s e t t s : Harvard E d u c a t i o n a l Review, 1970b. F r e i r e , P. [Education f o r c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ] (M. Berg-man Ramos, L. Bigwood, M. M a r s h a l l , t r a n s . ) . New York: The Seabury P r e s s , 1973. ( O r i g i n a l l y p u b l i s h e d , 1969.) 109 F r e i r e , P. By l e a r n i n g they can teach. Convergence, 1973, 6 (1), 78-84. Gotshalk, D.W. A r t and the s o c i a l order. Chicago: The U n i -v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1947. Jagodzinsky, J . A e s t h e t i c s , a e s t h e t i c e d u c a t i o n , a r t ed u c a t i o n . Unpublished Master of Ed u c a t i o n t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f A l -b e r t a , 1977. Kaufman, I. The contexts of t e a c h i n g a r t . In G. Pappas (Ed.), Concepts i n a r t and ed u c a t i o n . New York: The Macmillan Company, 1970, 256-273. K l i e b a r d , H. C u r r i c u l u m theory: Give me a " f o r i n s t a n c e " . C u r r i c u l u m I n q u i r y , 1977, 16^ , 257-269. L a n i e r , V. The unseeing eye: C r i t i c a l consciousness and the te a c h i n g o f a r t . In E. E i s n e r (Ed.), The a r t s , human de- velopment, and ed u c a t i o n . B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1976/ 19-29. 110 Chapter IV Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s study r e p r e s e n t s an attempt to develop a p r a x i o l o g i --fo'f c a l model f o r a r t c u r r i c u l u m . In Chapter I two s a l i e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a r t c u r r i c u l a were noted: 1) the e x c l u s i o n of the c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e paradigm of knowing, 2) the s e p a r a t i o n of c r e a t i n g and appre-c i a t i n g a r t i n c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . An examination of the i t r a d i t i o n a l bases of c u r r i c u l u m r e v e a l e d that.eachfailstto cprovMe s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i a f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g c u r r i c u l u m . A l l of the p r e c e d i n g f a c t o r s converged to suggest ±Mt'xart-icH^iculT^5it<^t^ i n the c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e paradigm might be f r u i t f u l i n a m e l i o r a t i n g the s e p a r a t i o n between theory and p r a c t i c e i n a r t c u r r i c u l a . T h i s h y p othesis suggested attempting t o develop a model of c u r r i c u l u m grounded i n an a l t e r n a t i v e base t h a t might j o i n the p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p e s s e n t i a l to human knowing. The r e a l i z a t i o n of such a model i n d i c a t e d the need f o r a c r i t i c a l and o n t o l o g i c a l base. F r e i r e ' s work o f f e r s more than t h i s , however. I t i s a f u l l y developed humanistic p h i l o s o p h y t h a t assumes man's " o n t o l o g i c a l v o c a t i o n " i s to become f u l l y human. F r e i r e ' s p h i l o s o p h y de-veloped from h i s p r a c t i c e as an educator and h i s work pro-v i d e s as w e l l methodology f o r the development of c r i t i c a l con-sciousness p e r m i t t i n g people t o r e a l i z e t h e i r human v o c a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n and c o n t r i b u t i n g to the c r e a t i o n of t h e i r I l l world. Freire's powerful concept of man suggested grounding the model in some key concepts selected from his thought. Chapter II is comprised of an examination of those con-cepts of Freire's thought considered central to developing the model. This chapter includes an explanation of Freire's view of men as human beings in-a-situation, always in relation to the world. Man's abil i t y to objectify self and the world, to be both separate from and involved in the world, means for Freire that a l l men are capable of perceiving c r i t i c a l l y their world in dialogical encounter with others. In the gradual perception of self and world men become conscious of their own perceptions of reality and those of others. Through problem-posing education, they come to examine c r i t i c a l l y their re-lationship to the world and develop awareness of the i n f l u -ences of the present, as well as of those of the past in form-ing a vision of future. Freire says men come to gradually recognize themselves as capable of intervention in reality. They begin to apprehend themselves as capable of intervention in their world, so that the realization of authentic human be-ing:..is extended to a l l men. This c r i t i c a l consciousness is developed in communication with others and in exchanging, a l -tering, and expanding their perceptions knowledge is created and re-created through the human process of praxis. Chapter III consists of the presentation and development of the model. Fi r s t , the parts of the model are delineated. Next the two major "categories" of the model, reflection and 112 action, are elucidated. This is followed by an explanation of the "segments" of both categories of the model. Finally, a con-sideration of thematic investigation, and suggestions for de-veloping and decoding themes are given. Conclusion Investigation of art education curricula revealed two characteristics which are seen in this study to be related. One characteristic is the separation of creating and apprecia-ting in the activities of art curricula. The second is the curricular emphasis on empirical-analytic and situational interpretative knowing. C r i t i c a l l y reflective knowing func-tions to allow individuals to discover personal and universal relationships and inter-relationships, to make explicit under-standings that may otherwise remain obscured and in so doing enables individuals to develop a sense of the wholeness of continuity of human experiencing and acting. Art may function to bring to conscious awareness r e a l i t i e s , insights, social criticism, values, and ideas that might otherwise remain un-discovered (Eisner, 1972). Lukacs (1972) asserts that art may awaken "a self-consciousness which does not stand in hostile separation from the external world" (p. 237). The functions of art and those of c r i t i c a l knowing are, i t appears, complementary. Both are realized in simultaneous action and reflection. Art becomes less a celebration of individuality but is rather a manifestation of man-world relationships, a creation of man that has consequences in the world. The in-113 t e n t of a r t ed u c a t i o n as p r a x i s i s the development of c r i t i c a l c o n sciousness. In d i a l o g i c a l a c t i o n the d i a l e c t i c between man and h i s world and between a r t and world i s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n va-r i o u s ways i n search of new understandings and the r e v e l a t i o n of p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t are acted upon. E v a l u a t i o n i s concerned w i t h evidence o f the expansion of c r i t i c a l consciousness as demonstrated i n d i a l o g u e by each i n d i v i d u a l 1 s growth i n under-s t a n d i n g . As w e l l , e v a l u a t i o n c o n s i d e r s the nature of each person's a c t i v i t y which F r e i r e t e l l s us r e f l e c t s one's l e v e l of understanding. F r e i r e a s s e r t s t h a t p r a x i s i s e s s e n t i a l t o a u t h e n t i c knowing. In t h i s attempt t o develop a p r a x i o l o g i c a l model f o r a r t e d u c a t i o n , i t may be by now obvious t h a t the model i s not l i m i t e d t o a r t ed u c a t i o n . The "segments" of a c t i o n may be reduced or m u l t i p l i e d i n number and a c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e t o other s u b j e c t areas i n s e r t e d i n p l a c e o f those suggested f o r a r t c u r r i c u l u m . As w e l l , the model may be used t o develop a pro-gram u n i t r a t h e r than an e n t i r e program. T h i s suggests t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h drawing from c r i t i c a l theory may p r o v i d e s i m i -l a r l y f l e x i b l e models t h a t are not indigenous to a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . T h i s may open new p e r s p e c t i v e s on the i n t e g r a t i o n of s u b j e c t areas w i t h i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , a l l o w i n g e x p e r i -encing o f the i n t e r - r e l a t e d n e s s o f knowing to extend beyond the c u r r i c u l u m of a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t area. The?; p o s i t i o n of t h i s study i s unmistakably c o n t e x t u a l i s t which may be viewed by some as a su b v e r s i o n of the i n t r i n s i c 114 v a l u e s of a r t . I t should not, however, be construed as a d e n i a l of such v a l u e s . L a n i e r (1976) a s s e r t s , "There i s no i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n moving from i n t r i n s i c t o e x t r i n s i c concepts of v a l u e , given the d i c t a t e s of s o c i a l need" (p. 26). T h i s study r e f l e c t s the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of our age demand commitment to the development o f c r i t i c a l con-s c i o u s n e s s . That t h i s study e x h i b i t s a c o n t e x t u a l i s t p o s i t i o n i s not a d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t t h i s i s the o n l y p o s s i b l e p o s i t i o n f o r our time. We must be wary of our l a b e l s and c a t e g o r i e s . While they f a c i l i t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , they may a l s o b l i n d us to o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s and c o n c e a l from view a l t e r n a t e p e r s p e c t i v e s as y e t obscure. We must seek under-s t a n d i n g of the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g our p e r s p e c t i v e and remain open to q u e s t i o n i n g our assumptions. ,, In t h i s .light,- t h i s con-t e x t u a l i s t p o s i t i o n is--'not regarded as a panacea f o r a l l our e d u c a t i o n a l i l l s . I t i s hoped t h a t i t p r o v i d e s a modest con-t r i b u t i o n to the search f o r ways of amending the d e s t r u c t i o n of human p o t e n t i a l i n our s c h o o l s and our world. To t h i s end, other h o r i z o n s must be e x p l o r e d , r e v e a l i n g a l t e r n a t e v i s i o n s of human meaning and r e l e v a n c e . For i n s t a n c e , development of other c u r r i c u l u m models based on the thought of c r i t i c a l theo-r i s t s such as A l b r e c h t Wellmer, Herbert Marcuse, and Max Hork-heimer would r e v e a l d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . A l t e r n a t e per-s p e c t i v e s may a l s o be found i n L i b e r a t i o n Theology, t h a t area of thought which blends, as does F r e i r e , C h r i s t i a n and M a r x i s t t h i n k i n g . New understandings may be i l l u m i n a t e d by i n v e s t i g a -t i n g other "ways of knowing", such as Gerard Radnitzky's 115 "search for meaning", proposed as a fourth way in which human beings know. Other suggestions could be made for c r i t i c a l re-search directions. But more important than a l i s t of possibi-l i t i e s reflecting the perspective of this study, is the w i l l -ingness to confront a l l avenues that promise the stimulation of discussion and the engagement of others in the ongoing dia-logue essential to new knowledge. A basic assumption reflected in this study is that edu-cation must be for liberation. Our world needs, perhaps: more than at any other time in history, people capable of choice and action that extends the realization of f u l l humanity to a l l people. Broudy (1973) comments: Consider, for example, the common complaint that a technologically dominated mass society depersonalizes and robotizes l i f e . The complaint is jus t i f i e d , yet the very technology that reduces choice and moral responsibility in one direction expands them in an-other. No amount of moral sensitivity enabled So-crates to do anything about cancer; for him, i t could not be a moral issue. For us, there is at least the choice between donating to a cancer research fund and refusing to do so. Technology has enlarged the domain of morality by enlarging our power to act (p. 76). Our age requires education to function so that i t moves in-dividuals to realize their capacity for c r i t i c a l choosing and responsible acting. In art education a step towards this is to assert art as a human construct, shaped by a humanly con-structed reality and having certain consequences, consequences that can be altered by human intervention. Perhaps one rea-son art is considered peripheral to education l i e s in the per-sistence of art educators in maintaining art as something 116 a p a r t from the concrete r e a l i t i e s of the world. The develop-ment of " v i s u a l l i t e r a c y " i s not p e r c e i v e d as a matter of t r e -mendous rele v a n c e to students s e a r c h i n g f o r meaning i n a world concerned w i t h wars, the e x t i n c t i o n o f the p l a n e t , continuous i n f l a t i o n , e x p l o s i o n s of v i o l e n c e , the inhuman treatment of refugees, and unemployment. There seems to be an uneasiness i n the consciousness of today's youth t h a t our assurance i n c o n t r o l l e d change, more e d u c a t i o n , encouraging i n c r e a s i n g con-sumption, and p r o l i f e r a t i n g bureaucracy i s misplaced. I f we d i s m i s s the nagging a n x i e t i e s produced by our t e c h n o l o g i c a l age from e d u c a t i o n a l concern, we do so a t our p e r i l . The c h a l l e n g e f o r education i s to seek ways to enable i n d i v i d u a l s to develop consciousness of t h e i r s e l f - w o r l d r e l a t i o n s h i p , to apprehend , r e a l i t y c r i t i c a l l y and i n r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n , d i s c o v e r a l t e r n a t e p o s s i b i l i t i e s and new h o r i z o n s . They may become committed to the freedom of a u t h e n t i c human being and to r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t h e i r world. References Broudy, H. Humanism i n e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l of A e s t h e t i c Edu- c a t i o n , 1973, 7 (2), 67-77. E i s n e r , E. Ed u c a t i n g a r t i s t i c v i s i o n . New York: Macmillan P u b l i s h i n g Company, 19 72. L a n i e r , V. The unseeing eye. In E. E i s n e r (Ed.), The a r t s , human development, and ed u c a t i o n . B e r k e l e y : McCutchan P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1976, 19-29. Lukacs, G. A r t as s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n man's development. In B. Lang & F. W i l l i a m s (Eds.), Marxism and a r t . New York: David McKay Company, 1972, 228-239. 118 B i b l i o g r a p h y NOTE: T h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y c o n t a i n s i n one sequence a l l books and a r t i c l e s c i t e d , and other works c o n s u l t e d i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s ; the former of which are i n d i c a t e d by an a s t e r i s k . *Aoki, T. Toward c u r r i c u l u m i n q u i r y i n a new key. 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