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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The theatrical aesthetic of John Cage Ozier, Joyce Ruth 1979

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THE THEATRICAL AESTHETIC OF JOHN CAGE by JOYCE RUTH OZIER B.Sc,  Skidmore C o l l e g e , 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Theatre Department  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  October, 1979 Q  Joyce Ruth O z i e r , 1979  In  presenting  an  advanced  the  Library  I  further  for  his  of  this  written  shall  agree  thesis  in  at  University  the  make that  it  thesis  purposes  for  partial  freely  permission may  representatives.  for  University  of  financial  British  2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  OCTOBER 15, 1979  of  Columbia,  British  by  gain  Columbia  for  the  is understood  THEATRE  of  of  extensive  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  available  permission.  Department The  degree  scholarly  by  this  shall  Head  be  requirements  reference copying  that  not  the  of  agree  and  of my  I  this  or  allowed  without  that  study. thesis  Department  copying  for  or  publication my  ii  ABSTRACT  The  t o p i c of t h i s t h e s i s i s an a n a l y s i s of John  Cage's a e s t h e t i c from a t h e a t r i c a l p o i n t o f view.  I  have done t h i s by examining h i s performed works and theoretical writings.  A short b i o g r a p h i c a l chapter i s  i n c l u d e d i n o r d e r t h a t the r e a d e r may c e r t a i n i n f l u e n c e s and basic ideas.  his  become aware of  events which have a f f e c t e d h i s  In a d d i t i o n , two  short chapters-  one  on  Happenings and another on the L i v i n g T h e a t r e - are i n cluded  as s p e c i f i c examples of t h e a t r i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s  of h i s a e s t h e t i c .  I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t Cage's  have i n f l u e n c e d the g e n e r a l atrical  experimentation.  ideas  development of r e c e n t  the-  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  page 1  JOHN CAGE- A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY  page 5  CAGE'S AESTHETIC  page 19  CAGE AND THE HAPPENING  page 50  CAGE AND THE LIVING THEATRE  page 5 7  CONCLUSION  page 65  FOOTNOTES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY..page  APPENDIX  69  page 78  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I would l i k e t o thank my t h e s i s a d v i s e r , Dr. Donald Soule,£or h i s i n v a l u a b l e f a i t h i n me. Dr.  Richard  guidance and f o r h a v i n g  I n a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e t o acknowledge  Schechner, who f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of exploring  me t o t h e  theatrical alternatives.  Most  i m p o r t a n t , however, a r e my husband I r v i n g and my c h i l d ren E l i z a b e t h , David and Douglas, who i n s p i r e d me t o complete t h i s p r o j e c t . particularly  important.  T h e i r p a t i e n t support has been  V.  INTRODUCTION  1.  INTRODUCTION  John Cage, w o r k i n g i n t h e f i e l d o f e x p e r i m e n t a l music, has developed a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l a e s t h e t i c which has r e l e v a n c e to  a l l the p e r f o r m i n g a r t s .  H i s broad a r t i s t i c  perspective  and f l e x i b l e approach t o s t r u c t u r e have s t i m u l a t e d o t h e r s ' t o expand, t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f a r t and t h e a t r e , thus l e a d i n g t o a g e n e r a t i o n o f t h e a t r i c a l experiments which are m u l t i - f o c u s , o f t e n m u l t i - m e d i a and f r e q u e n t l y concerned w i t h e n t i r e a r c h i t e c t u r a l space r a t h e r than the l i m i t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t r a d i t i o n a l proscenium s t a g i n g . of  The impact  t h i s a e s t h e t i c has l e d M i c h a e l K i r b y t o c a l l Cage the  "backbone o f New Theatre"."'" of  spatial  (New Theatre comprises the b u l k  t h e a t r i c a l experimentation during the l a s t f i f t e e n years.) I w i l l attempt t o d e f i n e and a n a l y z e Cage's a e s t h e t i c  w i t h i n a t h e a t r i c a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e . his  A consideration of  work i s o f v a l u e t o s t u d e n t s o f t h e a t r e f o r two main  reasons.  First,  the a p p l i c a t i o n s o f Cage's a e s t h e t i c e x t e n d  beyond the r e a l m o f music.  The concepts o f i n d e t e r m i n a c y ,  audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p r o c e s s i n a r t c a n , and have been, a p p l i e d t o t h e a t r e as w e l l as music. ances are o v e r t l y t h e a t r i c a l .  Second, Cage's perform-  T y p i c a l l y , they i n v o l v e a  p h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e use o f space by the p e r f o r m e r s and the c o m p l e t i o n o f v a r i o u s n o n - m u s i c a l t a s k s , which combine t o c r e a t e a form o f s p e c t a c l e t h a t i s comparable t o a pageant, f a i r or r i t u a l .  I t i s a form o f n o n - l i t e r a r y t h e a t r e which i s  at base p o p u l a r , y e t c o n c e p t u a l enough t o be a d i s t i n c t t y p e . One sees a c l e a r and d i r e c t t h e a t r i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  form  2.  i n the Happenings o f the S i n c e Cage has  sixties.  been o f t e n m i s u n d e r s t o o d by  I w i l l deal d i r e c t l y with primary sources.  commentators,  These  include  p r i n c i p a l l y his t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s , h i s "Indeterminacy" l e c t u r e and v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y and him  simply  published  m i s s a l i s not j u s t i f i e d .  to be  taken s e r i o u s l y .  dismiss  Such d i s -  In a c t u a l i t y , h i s genius f o r approaching  problems i n an i r r e v e r e n t and l e s s i n h i b i t e d by s a c r e d  fluences  Cage's e c c e n t r i c  i r r e v e r e n t sense of fun have l e d some to  as a clown, not  f r e e i n g him  interviews.  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c way  makes  him  a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s than most t h e o r i s t s ,  to a s s i m i l a t e more f u l l y i n t o h i s a e s t h e t i c i n -  and  ideas  gleaned from v a r i o u s n o n - a r t sources  to imbue h i s w r i t i n g s and  and  l e c t u r e s w i t h an u n u s u a l warmth,  u n p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s and humour. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , these n o n - a r t sources are as e c l e c t i c as mycology, p h y s i c s  and  Zen Buddhism.  e x p e r i e n c e s a c t as s t i m u l a t i o n and a l l o w i n g him  H i s l i f e and  unrelated  material  s o l u t i o n s to a r t i s t i c problems.  a r t are u n u s u a l l y  c l o s e l y c o u p l e d because  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s w e l l worth examining Cage from a  biographical perspective. and  raw m a t e r i a l f o r h i s a r t ,  to b r i n g t o g e t h e r a p p a r e n t l y  i n o r d e r to a r r i v e at i n n o v a t i v e  of t h i s .  D i r e c t , everyday  One  can  then see  the major e x p e r i e n c e s  i n f l u e n c e s t h a t have shaped the development of h i s  and c a r e e r .  In a d d i t i o n ( a l t h o u g h  his stated philosophy),  i t i s inconsistent  with  i t must be acknowledged t h a t Cage's  p e r s o n a l i t y i s strongly revealed  i n h i s work.  Thus, a deeper  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of h i s work can be a c h i e v e d by s t u d y i n g as a whole p e r s o n , r a t h e r than merely as a composer theoretician.  ideas  Cage and  The form o f Happenings  i s e s s e n t i a l l y d e f i n e d by  s i m u l t a n e i t y and non-matrixed a c t i n g , a l l o f which Cage's d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e . t e c h n i q u e s as w e l l .  their  reflect  Some performances employed  chance  In a d d i t i o n to these e l e m e n t s ,  Happenings  a l s o u t i l i z e the i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f v a r i o u s a r t forms, another p r o d u c t o f Cage's approach to a r t .  The form of Happenings  p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to t h i s study because  the  is  Happening  phenomenon remains the most d i r e c t i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a t h e a t r i c a l use o f Cage's a e s t h e t i c . Many o f the o r i g i n a l Happening o f Cage at the New  a r t i s t s were former s t u d e n t s  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Research i n New  York.  A l t h o u g h most o f them were not t h e a t r e p e o p l e , t h e i r work a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n o f the more e x p e r i m e n t a l segment o f the t h e a t r e community and s t i m u l a t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e r e - e v a l u a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l techniques.  Certain individuals l i k e Michael  K i r b y and R i c h a r d Schechner got i n v o l v e d i n the  Happening  phenomenon i n a d i r e c t way, but f o r the most p a r t , i t remained an attempt by v i s u a l a r t i s t s to make t h e a t r e . The f i r s t t h e a t r e company to i n c o r p o r a t e some of Cage's i d e a s i n t o i t s work was  the L i v i n g T h e a t r e , the founders o f  which Cage knew p e r s o n a l l y .  They experimented t h e a t r i c a l l y by  a p p l y i n g many o f h i s i d e a s d i r e c t l y , i n a more r a d i c a l way  than  anyone i n t h e a t r e has s i n c e attempted. While c h a p t e r s on Happenings  and the L i v i n g Theatre are  i n c l u d e d as s p e c i f i c examples o f t h e a t r i c a l uses of Cage's a e s t h e t i c , i t i s not the i n t e n t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s t o i n v e s t i g a t e the e n t i r e range o f Cage's i n f l u e n c e .  In  terms, i t goes w e l l beyond the i n s t a n c e s c i t e d h e r e .  general These  particular  examples have b e e n c h o s e n as  since  show an u n u s u a l l y  they  works and each o f  because  them.  Cage was  ideas  has  ment.  This  Cage's  influences  fact  gone w e l l alone on  correlation  directly  Significantly,  of h i s  close  and  i n both  beyond h i s  i s an  the  direct of  theatrical  own  involved  in  exploration  personal  the  ones,  with his  personally  cases  indication  contemporary  representative  involve-  fruitfulness innovation.  of  JOHN CAGE - A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY  5.  JOHN CAGE - A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY  John Cage's concept o f s i l e n c e as music and h i s a l e a t o r i c c o m p o s i t i o n s are the work o f a h i g h l y i n v e n t i v e and mind.  original  Major i n f l u e n c e s , such as Dada and Zen Buddhism,are c l e a r ,  y e t Cage i s more s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t r u e p r o d u c t o f h i s e a r l y environment.  For t h a t r e a s o n , a b r i e f l o o k a t h i s f a m i l y and  h i s e a r l y y e a r s i s r e l e v a n t to a study o f h i s t h i n k i n g .  More-  o v e r , as h i s c a r e e r has developed, he has c o n t i n u e d to draw on many areas o f n o n - a r t i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e , such as mycology and t e c h n o l o g y , t o d e f i n e and express h i s a r t i s t i c i d e a s .  More  than most a r t i s t s , he has been a b l e t o i n c o r p o r a t e these outs i d e sources i n t o h i s a r t so t h a t h i s work has e v o l v e d i n a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l way.  D e s p i t e h i s awareness of a wide v a r i e t y  o f o u t s i d e s o u r c e s , t h e r e f o r e , Cage has remained an American eccentric.  In o r d e r to understand h i s a e s t h e t i c , i t i s import-  ant to t r a c e h i s development as an John M i l t o n Cage, J r . was  individual.  born i n Los Angeles  the o n l y son o f an engineer and h i s w i f e .  in  1912,  He remembers h i s  c h i l d h o o d i n t h i s m i d d l e - c l a s s , M e t h o d i s t E p i s c o p a l household as u n e x c e p t i o n a l and happy. ordinary, people.  H i s p a r e n t s were s i m p l e , but not  They were both s t r o n g i n d i v i d u a l i s t s ,  c h o o s i n g to l i v e i n C a l i f o r n i a at a time when i t s t i l l  had  t r a c e s of a p i o n e e r m e n t a l i t y and d i s d a i n f o r e a s t e r n American and European t r a d i t i o n s . H i s mother, a h o u s e w i f e , was organizations. his father.  a c t i v e i n community s o c i a l  She had been m a r r i e d t h r e e times b e f o r e  marrying  In h i s w r i t t e n D i a r y , he humourously r e c a l l s  her  i n a b i l i t y to remember the f u l l name of her f i r s t husband. H i s many warmly r e l a t e d s t o r i e s about her p r e s e n t her r a t h e r s c a t t e r b r a i n e d and s l i g h t l y c o m i c a l .  as  I t must be  remembered,however, t h a t most of Cage's s t o r i e s are t o l d w i t h the i n t e n t o f p o i n t i n g out the n o n s e n s i c a l i n l i f e . H i s f a t h e r , an award-winning amateur i n v e n t o r , once designed  an i n h a l a t o r f o r the q u i c k a b s o r p t i o n of v i t a m i n s  hormones i n t o the b l o o d s t r e a m .  I t was  prevented  and  from g e n e r a l 2  d i s t r i b u t i o n , however, by the American M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . He a l s o i n v e n t e d an u n c o n v e n t i o n a l water f o r a r e c o r d l e n g t h o f t i m e .  submarine t h a t s t a y e d under I t was  not u s e f u l f o r  m i l i t a r y p u r p o s e s , however, because o f the c o n s t a n t stream of 3  air  bubbles t h a t i t c r e a t e d .  I n s p i r e d by c u r i o s i t y more than  commercialism, h i s i n v e n t i o n s were o f t e n more i m a g i n a t i v e  than  p r a c t i c a l . Cage's a t t i t u d e o f s t a r t i n g from zero to f i n d p o s s i b l e new  s o l u t i o n s to problems p r o b a b l y has some of i t s  roots i n t h i s father-son r e l a t i o n s h i p . for  The  same can be  Cage's ease w i t h mechanics and e l e c t r o n i c s .  once s a i d o f Cage, "He's  not a composer.  He's  said  Schoenberg an i n v e n t o r ,  of genius. The  Cage home was  not c u l t u r e - o r i e n t e d , a l t h o u g h h i s  mother d i d i n s i s t t h a t piano l e s s o n s be a p a r t o f h i s e a r l y education.  Cage remembers h i s c h i l d h o o d piano t e a c h e r f o r her  approach to c o m p o s i t i o n .  She  composed by l i s t e n i n g to the  songs of b i r d s , n o t a t i n g them, and u s i n g them as b a s i c themes i n her works.  The  acceptance o f nature  and the r e l i a n c e on  d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e , r a t h e r than on i n s p i r a t i o n as understood  or on o t h e r people's  traditionally  p r e v i o u s m u s i c , may  w e l l have  7.  been r e c a l l e d l a t e r when Cage h i m s e l f , through a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l r o u t e , began u s i n g n a t u r a l  sounds.  Cage graduated from Los Angeles High School at s i x t e e n , v a l e d i c t o r i a n of h i s c l a s s .  Encouraged  by h i s p a r e n t s to be a  m i n i s t e r l i k e h i s g r a n d f a t h e r , he e n t e r e d Pomona C o l l e g e i n R e l i g i o u s S t u d i e s , but dropped out b e f o r e the end of h i s second y e a r .  John Cage, the i n d i v i d u a l , needed time to  develop. He spent the next t h r e e y e a r s wandering. through Europe.  He  traveled  He became f a s c i n a t e d w i t h G o t h i c a r c h i t e c t u r e  and spent much time i n v a r i o u s l i b r a r i e s t e a c h i n g h i m s e l f a l l he c o u l d about i t .  Through an a c c i d e n t a l meeting w i t h a  former t e a c h e r from Pomona C o l l e g e , he was  a b l e t o get a minor  job i n the o f f i c e o f the French a r c h i t e c t , Ernb" G o l d f i n g e r . There i s no evidence t h a t he ever  took any academic t r a i n i n g  i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , but a s t r o n g s p a t i a l awareness i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f h i s mature m u s i c a l work. He r e t u r n e d to C a l i f o r n i a , o n l y t o h o l d odd-jobs gardening and c h e c k i n g out p a t e n t s f o r h i s f a t h e r .  like  He  o r g a n i z e d a course i n modern p a i n t i n g and music and o f f e r e d i t to neighbourhood  housewives  by s e l l i n g t i c k e t s  door-to-door.  He c a n d i d l y a d m i t t e d t h a t he knew v e r y l i t t l e about the subj e c t s , but was  v e r y e n t h u s i a s t i c , and promised to r e s e a r c h  the t o p i c s w e l l b e f o r e each c l a s s .  Twenty t o t h i r t y  people  came each week. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , Cage p e r i o d i c a l l y s t u d i e d p i a n o harmony w i t h v a r i o u s t e a c h e r s . h i s l i f e because i t was  and  I t i s an i m p o r t a n t stage o f  at t h i s time t h a t he b.egan t o w r i t e ,  8.  p a i n t and compose m u s i c , and made the p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n to study the a r t s s e r i o u s l y . one at home; Artists  T h i s d e c i s i o n was  a very  unpopular  both h i s p a r e n t s found i t d i f f i c u l t to a c c e p t .  were somewhat s u s p e c t .  In 1933,  Cage moved to New  from f a m i l y p r e s s u r e s .  York, where he was  more removed  He began to study contemporary music  under Henry C o w e l l , the e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t , at the New S o c i a l Research. which may  School f o r  C o w e l l used the piano i n an unorthodox  way,  have i n f l u e n c e d Cage's l a t e r development o f the  Prepared P i a n o .  C o w e l l performed u s i n g the piano s t r i n g s  w e l l as the keys and developed  the i d e a of "tone  as  clusters",  i n which the piano keys are p l a y e d p e r c u s s i v e l y w i t h the e n t i r e fist. The c r i t i c a l p o i n t i n h i s development came when Cage r e t u r n e d to Los Angeles  and, at the s u g g e s t i o n o f Henry C o w e l l ,  sought out A r n o l d Schoenberg a t UCLA.  Schoenberg, a l r e a d y  famous f o r h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l work w i t h the t w e l v e - t o n e must have sensed Cage's p o t e n t i a l , because he agreed  scale, to work  w i t h him p r i v a t e l y at h i s home at no c o s t , i n exchange f o r a promise t h a t he would s e r i o u s l y become a m u s i c i a n .  The  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Schoenberg h e l p e d Cage to d e f i n e h i m s e l f as an a r t i s t . his  S l o w l y , he began more c o n f i d e n t l y to implement  own m u s i c a l i d e a s , r a t h e r than s i m p l y c a r r y out  of the i d e a s o f h i s t e a c h e r s . gradual  artistic  extensions  From t h a t p o i n t on, one  sees a  maturing.  From the b e g i n n i n g , Cage had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h harmony.  9. Schoenberg t o l d me t h a t w i t h o u t harmony I would always come to a w a l l and never be a b l e to go through i t . I s a i d , " W e l l , t h e n , I ' l l j u s t beat my head a g a i n s t that w a l l " . In a sense t h a t i s what I've been doing a l l my l i f e . 5  T h i s d i f f i c u l t y proved h i s own  i n f a c t to be a g r e a t a s s e t i n d e f i n i n g  s t y l e and i d e n t i t y .  S i n c e harmony was  so  difficult  f o r him, he chose i n i t i a l l y to i g n o r e i t by s i m p l y making music through p e r c u s s i o n w i t h o n l y n o i s e and rhythm.  This s h i f t i s  s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e a l l Cage's l a t e r developments are b u i l t on i t . Rhythmic, r a t h e r than harmonic, r e l a t i o n s h i p s a l l o w e d him  to  e x p l o r e sound i n and f o r i t s e l f and e v e n t u a l l y l e d him to d i s cover the u n p r e d i c t a b l e and continuous  sounds i n s i l e n c e .  T h i s a b i l i t y to c r e a t e advantage out o f d i s a d v a n t a g e one of Cage's g r e a t e s t s t r e n g t h s . i n v e n t o r and the In 1935, s t u d e n t , who priest.  is  I t i s the mark of both  the  artist.  Cage m a r r i e d X e n i a Andreyevna K a s h e r o f f , an a r t was  the daughter of an A l a s k a n R u s s i a n Orthodox  They l i v e d i n S e a t t l e , where from 1936  to 1938  Cage  worked as a dance accompanist at the C o r n i s h S c h o o l , a p r o g r e s s i v e a r t s c h o o l now I t was  known as the C o r n i s h I n s t i t u t e of A l l i e d A r t s .  here t h a t he f i r s t met Merce Cunningham.  During t h i s p e r i o d , Cage o r g a n i z e d a s t u d e n t p e r c u s s i o n o r c h e s t r a , which t o u r e d the Northwest p e r f o r m i n g h i s own cussion compositions.  per-  X e n i a h e l p e d him by c o l l e c t i n g v a r i o u s  u n c o n v e n t i o n a l "found" i n s t r u m e n t s , such as an ass's jawbone. In a 1943  i n t e r v i e w i n Time, Cage r e f e r s to her as "the d e f t e s t  of a l l l i v i n g f l o w e r p o t and gong whackers".^ While i n the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , Cage began a l i f e l o n g i n t e r e s t i n mushrooms.  T h i s hobby g i v e s him the o p p o r t u n i t y to  10 . to spend much o f h i s time i n the w i l d e r n e s s , surrounded by the o f t e n s u b t l e , c e a s e l e s s sound o f n a t u r e .  Going out i n t o the  w i l d e r n e s s a l l o w s him q u i e t time to e x p e r i e n c e these silences.  In 1962, he formed the New  t o g e t h e r w i t h L o i s Long, E s t h e r Dam, Ferrara.  "full"  York M y c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , Guy N e a r i n g and  Ralph  He i s a l s o a member o f the C z e c h o s l o v a k i a n Mushroom  Society. D u r i n g the t h i r t i e s , Cage worked i n t r a d i t i o n a l c o u n t e r p o i n t , at the same time  s e a r c h i n g f o r new  expand h i s p e r c u s s i v e v o c a b u l a r y . Cage i n v e n t e d i n 1938  sounds to  The " P r e p a r e d P i a n o " , which  as a dance accompaniment f o r S y v i l l a  F o r t ' s "Bacchanale", came out o f h i s s e a r c h f o r new qualities.  rhythmic  sound  I t i s produced by i n s e r t i n g screws, b o l t s ,  paper,  rubber bands, e t c . under and between the s t r i n g s of a s t a n d a r d piano.  The i n s t r u m e n t i s p l a y e d p e r c u s s i v e l y . by s c r a p i n g ,  h i t t i n g , p l u c k i n g (or whatever comes t o mind) the wood, s t r i n g s , metal and keys to produce g a m e l a n - l i k e sounds. In 1941, Cage was  i n v i t e d by L a s z l o ,Moholy-Nagy, f o r m e r l y  o f the Bauhaus, to t e a c h a c l a s s i n E x p e r i m e n t a l Music at the Chicago  I n s t i t u t e o f Design.  Max  E r n s t suggested t h a t the Cages move t o New  Ernst.  City.  X e n i a was  I t was  t h e r e t h a t he  met York  a l r e a d y a budding s c u l p t o r , and they f e l t  they b o t h c o u l d b e n e f i t from the s t i m u l a t i o n of the New art  York  scene. The Cages spent most o f t h e i r money on the bus f a r e  a r r i v e d i n New  and  York i n 1942 w i t h t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s betweem them.  At f i r s t , they s t a y e d w i t h E r n s t and Peggy Guggenheim. Through Peggy Guggenheim they met M a r c e l Duchamp.  (Xenia i s  11. l i s t e d as an a s s i s t a n t i n Duchamp's f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n o f Box i n A Valis.e.)  Cage took a job as Music D i r e c t o r of the  Merce Cunningham Dance Company.  T h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n , which has  been m a i n t a i n e d u n t i l the p r e s e n t , i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t one. Together they have e v o l v e d a system of independent p a r a l l e l performance which forms the groundwork f o r l a t e r m u l t i - m e d i a activity. The A n e c h o i c Chamber at Harvard's p h y s i c s l a b o r a t o r i e s i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y d e s i g n e d to be as n o i s e l e s s as p o s s i b l e . When Cage f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e d i t i n the e a r l y f o r t i e s , he heard two sounds, one h i g h and one low. to him to be i n t e r n a l sounds: through h i s v e i n s ;  explained  one was h i s own b l o o d moving  the o t h e r was  h i s nervous system i n o p e r a t i o n . a f f e c t e d him  These were l a t e r  the e l e c t r i c a l charges o f This experience profoundly  f o r i t proved t h a t , w i t h o u t t o t a l d e a f n e s s ,  t h e r e i s no s i l e n c e .  He began d e v e l o p i n g the i d e a of " f u l l  s i l e n c e s " r a t h e r than "empty" ones. In 1943, Cage's r e p u t a t i o n as an a v a n t - g a r d i s t was f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n a s e r i e s o f p e r c u s s i o n c o n c e r t s sponsored by the  League o f Composers at the Museum o f Modern A r t .  The  program i n c l u d e d Amores, C o n s t r u c t i o n i n M e t a l , Imaginary Landscape #5, and some works o f Henry C o w e l l , Lou H a r r i s o n and Amadea Roldan.  Cage conducted the t w e l v e p l a y e r s (one o f whom  was X e n i a ) , who were d r e s s e d i n t a i l s and b l a c k evening gowns and p l a y i n g f l o w e r p o t s , automobile a x l e s and r i c e b o w l s , among other instruments.  The New  York Times r e v i e w e r c o n s i d e r e d i t 7  " c h i l d i s h " , "not s e r i o u s enough to r e q u i r e d e t a i l e d comment", but New York's avant-garde community responded w i t h enthusiasm.  12. The  e c c e n t r i c i t y o f the performance got him n a t i o n a l media  a t t e n t i o n as w e l l , i n c l u d i n g l a r g e w r i t e - u p s  i n L i f e and Time.  1943 was an i m p o r t a n t y e a r f o r Cage i n many ways. H i s Q  marriage  d i s s o l v e d , and, as an " a l t e r n a t i v e t o p s y c h i a t r y " ,  he began a t h r e e - y e a r study o f Zen Buddhism w i t h Dr. D i a s e t z S u z u k i a t Columbia. In E a s t e r n thought, ideas.  one can see the b a s i s o f many o f h i s  As h i s c a r e e r developed,  he took the concepts  o f non-  i n t e n t i o n (or existence f o r existence's sake), u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and t h e oneness o f a l l t h i n g s , and a p p l i e d them t o h i s work. He began t o use c o m p o s i t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s which removed him from t o t a l c o n t r o l , i n an a t t i t u d e o f O r i e n t a l p u r p o s e l e s s n e s s . These t e c h n i q u e s  i n v o l v e d u s i n g the i m p e r f e c t i o n s on a  p i e c e o f paper (e.g. M u s i c f o r Piano-1952),  the chance over-  l a p p i n g o f s e v e r a l t r a n s p a r e n t p l a s t i c templates  arrangeable i n  many d i f f e r e n t ways (e.g. V a r i a t i o n s - 1 9 5 8 ) , o r the p o s i t i o n o f the s t a r s on a s t r o l o g i c a l c h a r t s (e.g. M u s i c f o r C a r i l l o n - 1 9 6 1 ) . The  i n t e n t i o n was to d i s t a n c e h i m s e l f and h i s p e r s o n a l t a s t e  from the performance r e s u l t . In 1949, Cage r e c e i v e d a Guggenheim F e l l o w s h i p i n r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to "extending musical a r t " . ^  the boundaries o f  He used t h i s money t o t r a v e l a g a i n t o Europe,  where he was b e f r i e n d e d by P i e r r e B o u l e z . In 1951, h i s s c o r e f o r H e r b e r t M a t t e r s ' f i l m , Works o f C a l d e r , was awarded F i r s t P r i z e f o r M u s i c a t t h e Woodstock Art Film Festival. 1952  was another  c r u c i a l y e a r f o r Cage.  I t was the year  o f t h e B l a c k Mountain P i e c e , and o f 4'33", both o f which were  13. e x t r e m e l y i n f l u e n t i a l and c o n t r o v e r s i a l works.  Imaginary  Landscape #5 was done as a dance s c o r e f o r Jean Erdman the same y e a r , and i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t because i t i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d the e a r l i e s t American tape music.  In i t ,  Cage  fragmented the sounds o f f o r t y t h r e e j a z z r e c o r d s ,  combined  them by chance and d i s t o r t e d t h e i r o r i g i n a l sounds  through  electronics.  T h i s work made Cage the o r i g i n a t o r o f tape music.  In 1954, t o g e t h e r w i t h D a v i d Tudor, Cage t o u r e d Europe. T h i s t r i p e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r presence i n the European a v a n t - g a r d e , a l t h o u g h not w i t h o u t waves.  The c o n c e r t s c h e d u l e d at the  h i g h l y p r e s t i g i o u s Donaueschingen  F e s t i v a l of Avant-garde Music  was c a n c e l l e d at the l a s t m i n u t e , when the promoter  refused  to move the two p r e p a r e d p i a n o s to o p p o s i t e ends o f the performance space.  The promoter announced to the w a i t i n g  audience t h a t the performance would not take p l a c e because i t was "too r a d i c a l f o r p u b l i c e a r s , and might cause R e t u r n i n g from Europe, Cage moved from New  unrest".^  York C i t y to  a house i n . a. c o - o p e r a t i v e community i n •'./•Stony P o i n t , New  York,  which had been e s t a b l i s h e d by P a u l W i l l i a m s , a former s t u d e n t at B l a c k Mountain C o l l e g e .  (Cage i s a S o c i a l A n a r c h i s t and has  a deep committment t o c o - o p e r a t i v e ventures.)  T h i s modest  house i n the c o u n t r y has remained h i s home to the p r e s e n t t i m e , a l t h o u g h much o f h i s time i n r e c e n t y e a r s has been spent t r a v e l l i n g t o l e c t u r e and perform..  In a d d i t i o n , he  shares a West V i l l a g e apartment w i t h Merce Cunningham when he has to be i n New  York.  From 1956 to 1960, Cage taught s e v e r a l courses a t the School f o r S o c i a l Research i n New York.  His course i n  New  14. E x p e r i m e n t a l C o m p o s i t i o n was  a t t e n d e d by many o f the major  a r t i s t s l a t e r i n v o l v e d i n the development The course was  o f the Happening  form.  c o n s i d e r e d s e m i n a l to t h e i r work.  Four months of 1958 were spent w o r k i n g a t the M i l a n r a d i o s t a t i o n , S t u d i o d i Fondogia, composing c a l l e d Fontana Mix.  an e l e c t r o n i c p i e c e  D u r i n g h i s s t a y i n M i l a n , Cage became a  n a t i o n a l c e l e b r i t y by a p p e a r i n g f o r s e v e r a l weeks on the I t a l i a n t e l e v i s i o n e q u i v a l e n t of "Double  or N o t h i n g " : " L a s c i a  o Raddoppia," as an e x p e r t on Mushroom I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , he used t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to get exposure f o r some o f h i s work.  Each week, he amused I t a l i a n  w i t h humorous and e c c e n t r i c m u s i c a l performances. Water Walk  :  audiences  One  was  which u s e s , among o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , a b a t h t u b ,  a p r e s s u r e c o o k e r , a syphon, a Waring b l e n d e r , a vase of r o s e s , a w a t e r i n g can, and a l a r g e rubber f i s h .  He won  $6,000 on  the program and r e c e i v e d thousands o f l e t t e r s from v i e w e r s , as w e l l as an o f f e r from F e d e r i c o F e l l i n i to appear i n the f i l m La Dolce V i t a . I t was  Cage d i d not a c c e p t the o f f e r .  i n 1958 t h a t Cage p r e s e n t e d h i s l e c t u r e on  " I n d e t e r m i n a c y " a t the B r u s s e l s World's F a i r and had h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e c o n c e r t "25 Years o f E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n " at the Town H a l l i n New  York C i t y .  The l a r g e and  enthusiastic  audience a t the c o n c e r t i n c l u d e d the b u l k o f the c i t y ' s avantgarde community. The academic y e a r 1960-61 was  spent by Cage as a F e l l o w a t  the Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Center f o r Advanced S t u d i e s .  Here he  wrote the book S i l e n c e , which p r e s e n t s h i s p h i l o s o p h y and a e s t h e t i c i n w r i t t e n form.  Characteristically,  the i d e a s are  b r o k e n up and a r r a n g e d  in several  i n t e r w e a v i n g type  The d u r a t i o n o f e a c h i d e a / t y p e s t y l e operations.  styles.  u n i t was d e c i d e d b y  chance  R o b e r t W i l s o n h a d c i t e d S i l e n c e as h a v i n g h a d an 12  "important  effect  on h i s t h i n k i n g " .  Significantly, Fuller  Cage met M a r s h a l McLuhan and B u c k m i n s t e r  a t W e s l e y a n , b o t h o f whom w e r e a l s o F e l l o w s t h e r e a t  the  time. McLuhan's supported  Cage's  subjectivity. centre  insights  into electronic information  own i d e a s  terms.  is  "modern p h y s i c i s t i s  he makes  the  at  w o r l d e x c i t e d C a g e , as ness.  However, h i s did his  field  a n a r c h i c approach The i d e a s  theory  and  Both a l s o h i g h l y value  expresses  total,  l i t t l e interest  to leave spatial  the  larger  and i n v e n t i o n s  in  anything view of  a c t i v i s m and s o c i a l  A f t e r ' t h i s y e a r a t W e s l e y a n , one s e e s a  b y c r e a t i n g new s t r u c t u r e s  Galaxy  share a n a i v e l y o p t i m i s t i c  however,  commitment by Cage t o a p p r o a c h  later  i n The G u t e n b e r g  t e n d i n g more t o o v e r - d e s i g n t h a n  open to randomness.  a  r e a l i t y on  home w i t h o r i e n t a l  i n t h e power o f t e c h n o l o g y . Fuller,  the  does.  Cage and B u c k m i n s t e r F u l l e r  inventiveness.  and  to c r e a t e  same c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n W e s t e r n t e c h n o l o g y  O r i e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y t h a t Cage  chance,  is  f o r c e d to understand  When McLuhan s t a t e s  t h a t the  belief  individuals in  of information s t i m u l i  s i t u a t i o n where e a c h p e r s o n individual  on a r t i s t i c n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t  The i n t e n t i o n o f p u t t i n g  o f a bombardment  structure  the  conscious-  stronger  problems  o f the  analogous  to  world  his  to music.  o f McLuhan and F u l l e r  take  up much o f  b o o k , A Y e a r From M o n d a y , w r i t t e n t e n y e a r s  Cage's  later  during  16. his  second term as a F e l l o w at the Wesleyan C e n t e r i n 1972.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , however, Cage i s a more c o n v i n c i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y , , than he i s a s o c i a l v i s i o n a r y .  artistic  The messages o f  A Year From Monday too o f t e n p a r r o t F u l l e r and McLuhan t o be p o w e r f u l or s t i m u l a t i n g . In 1962, Cage and Tudor d i d a six-week c o n c e r t t o u r of Japan, sponsored by Mr. S o f u T e s h i g a h a r a , awe:aLthy p a t r o n o f avant-garde a r t . The c l i m a x o f the t r i p was a s p e c i a l at  service  the Grand S h i n t o S h r i n e o f I s e t o b l e s s t h e i r avant-garde  work. In 1964 A t l a s E c l i p t i c a l i s was performed by the New  York  P h i l h a r m o n i c O r c h e s t r a under Leonard B e r n s t e i n a t L i n c o l n Center. shock.  The r e a c t i o n o f the s u b s c r i p t i o n audience was More than h a l f o f the audience walked o u t .  ultimate i n s u l t ,  one o f  The  however, came from the p l a y e r s of the P h i l -  harmonic i t s e l f , who began h i s s i n g when Cage was  i n t r o d u c e d by  B e r n s t e i n at the end o f the c o n c e r t . Cage had the p r i v i l e g e of l i v i n g w i t h Teeny and M a r c e l Duchamp i n Cadaques, S p a i n i n 1 9 6 6 ^  A l t h o u g h t h e r e are  g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r approach, Cage's work i s i n the Dada t r a d i t i o n i n i t s use of chance, s i m u l t a n e i t y , i r r e v e r e n c e , n o n - r a t i o n a l i t y , nonsense  j u x t a p o s i t i o n s , and m a t e r i a l s  i d e a s from n o n - a r t s o u r c e s .  and  (Duchamp a l s o experimented w i t h  chance i n c o m p o s i t i o n by u s i n g the e f f e c t s of wind and g r a v i t y on a p i e c e o f s t r i n g . ) artists  t h a t Cage most admires.  s t u d i e d chess w i t h him.  Duchamp i s one of the w o r l d ' s D u r i n g the 1966 v i s i t ,  he  R e f e r r i n g to these s e s s i o n s , Cage s a i d ,  17. Every now and then he would get v e r y i m p a t i e n t w i t h me. He complained t h a t I d i d n ' t seem to want to w i n . A c t u a l l y , I was so d e l i g h t e d t o be w i t h him t h a t the n o t i o n of w i n n i n g was b e s i d e the p o i n t . When we p l a y e d , he would always g i v e me a k n i g h t i n advance. He was extremely i n t e l l i g e n t and he almost always won. .... In t r y i n g to teach me how to p l a y , M a r c e l s a i d something which i s v e r y o r i e n t a l , 'Don't j u s t p l a y your s i d e of the game, p l a y both s i d e s . ' I t r i e d t o , but I was more impressed w i t h what he s a i d than I was a b l e to f o l l o w i t . 1 5 S t i m u l a t e d by these s e s s i o n s , he o r g a n i z e d musical,  Reunion , a  performance i n which Duchamp, Cage and Teeny Duchamp  p l a y e d chess on a board e l e c t r o n i c a l l y w i r e d f o r sound. took p l a c e i n Toronto i n  1968.  A l s o i n 1>9;68, Cage was  electe,dr a . member of* the N a t i o n a l l  I n s t i t u t e of A r t s and L e t t e r s . being  taken s e r i o u s l y was  member of the a r t i s t i c N o t a t i o n s was  H i s c a r e e r - l o n g f e a r of not  quelled.  He was  now  officially  p u b l i s h e d i n 1968.  (She  the r e t a r d e d c h i l d who Wilson's  This i s a c o l l e c t i o n with  i s the mother o f C h r i s t o p h e r Knowles, has appeared i n s e v e r a l of Robert  theatre pieces.)  The  t e s t i s w r i t t e n p r i m a r i l y by  the v a r i o u s composers whose works are shown.  The  space  a l l o t t e d t o each c o n t r i b u t o r , r e l a t i v e to the t o t a l book, chosen by I Ching chance o p e r a t i o n s . In 1972,  WGBH, the p i o n e e r i n g e d u c a t i o n a l  s t a t i o n i n Boston, presented hour-long  a  Establishment.  of g r a p h i c music n o t a t i o n which Cage e d i t e d t o g e t h e r A l i s o n Knowles.  This  program by Nam  television  "A T r i b u t e to John Cage", an  June P a i k i n honour of Cage's  s i x t i e t h birthday. Cage's most r e c e n t book, M,  appeared i n 1973.  w r i t t e n i n the h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d form of m e s o s t i c s ,  It is or  was  18. a c r o s t i c s w i t h the c r i t i c a l l e t t e r i n the c e n t r e of the word r a t h e r than a t the b e g i n n i n g .  The book shows a deeper commit-  ment to s o c i a l change than h i s e a r l i e r ones. i s g i v e n t o the a n t i - e l i t i s t  Much a t t e n t i o n  s o c i a l approach o f the  Chinese  C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h n a t u r e o f Henry David Thoreau, and much t a l k about mushrooms and  personal  friends. In  1976,  missioned  Cage r e c e i v e d much a t t e n t i o n w i t h h i s work com-  f o r the American B i - C e n t e n n i a l , Apartment House/  Renga, which was  a l s o performed by the New  A l l e n Hughes, the r e v i e w e r f o r the New h i g h l y f o r i t s sense o f c e l e b r a t i o n . was  once a g a i n h i g h l y p o l a r i z e d .  York P h i l h a r m o n i c .  York Times, p r a i s e d i t The  a u d i e n c e , however,  "Hundreds f l e d t h e i r s e a t s " ,  w h i l e those t h a t remained to the end, "cheered 17  and booed  enthusiastically." Cage i s now  s i x t y . s e v e n years o l d .  l e c t u r i n g and o c c a s i o n a l l y p e r f o r m i n g . c h a l l e n g e s he poses are s t i l l  He i s s t i l l The  questions  composing, and  g e t t i n g strong r e a c t i o n s .  With  a warmth and humour r a r e i n r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , he has become as much a p h i l o s o p h e r as a m u s i c i a n .  CAGE'S AESTHETIC  19.  CAGE'S AESTHETIC  Cage d e f i n e s a r t as the c o n s c i o u s s t r u c t u r i n g o f time space t h a t s t i m u l a t e s the  and  senses.  M a t e r i a l o b j e c t s are not i n c l u d e d i n the d e f i n i t i o n ; emphasis i s on s t r u c t u r i n g .  The  a r t i s t remains  f o r m - g i v e r , i n the A r i s t o t e l i a n sense.  the  the maker, or  However, i t i s the  a c t i o n o f s t r u c t u r i n g per se t h a t i s the " a r t " , r a t h e r than the p r o d u c t o f the a c t i v i t y g i v e n form by an  artist.  In these terms, t h e n , t r a d i t i o n a l t h e a t r i c a l p r o d u c t i o n i s a by-product  o f a r t not the a r t i t s e l f .  Cage's type of  a e s t h e t i c l e n d s i t s e l f t o a t h e a t r i c a l form where the emphasis i s on doing or a c t i v i t y more than on c r e a t i n g an end I t a l s o lends i t s e l f t o a workshop or audience form  product.  participatory  more than to a p r e s e n t a t i o n a l one, a l t h o u g h Cage u s u a l l y  works w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n a l . A l t h o u g h the a r t o b j e c t or p r o d u c t i o n i s o f i m p o r t a n c e , i t s scope i s e n l a r g e d .  secondary  T r a d i t i o n a l n o n - a r t media  are a c c e p t a b l e w i t h i n the d e f i n e d a r t .  The non-hermetic  and  the u n i n t e n t i o n a l f a l l w i t h i n the bounds of a r t as l o n g as they are c o n t a i n e d by a c o n s c i o u s l y - s t r u c t u r e d framework of activity.  As H a r o l d Rosenberg p o i n t s o u t , t h i s type o f  d e f i n i t i o n " d i s s o l v e s a l l l i m i t a t i o n s on the k i n d s of subs t a n c e s out o f which a r t can be c o n s t i t u t e d " . 1  This  from the a e s t h e t i c t o the n o n - a e s t h e t i c , he c a l l s  shift  the  2  " d e - d e f i n i t i o n of the a r t s " . The  i n s i d e - o u t s i d e p r o d u c t i o n s of Squat Theatre e x e m p l i f y  t h i s a e s t h e t i c i n p r a c t i c a l t h e a t r i c a l terms.  Their P i g ,  20.  Child, Fire  (1977) was staged  i n a s t o r e f r o n t window w i t h the  audience f a c i n g out toward the s t r e e t . space and events o f T w e n t y - t h i r d  The n o n - t h e a t r i c a l  S t r e e t t h a t were framed by  the window,and the p r e s e n c e and r e a c t i o n s o f the s h i f t i n g group o u t s i d e c u r i o u s l y l o o k i n g i n ( o u t s i d e audience w a t c h i n g i n s i d e audience and performance) became p a r t o f the a r t work. Cage i g n o r e s any r e f e r e n c e p a r t o f the p e r c e i v e r .  t o a r a t i o n a l response on the  L i k e A r t a u d , he wants us to respond  i n t u i t i v e l y and s e n s o r i l y i n d i r e c t ways.  I t i s s i g h t and  h e a r i n g , our p u b l i c s e n s e s , t h a t are s t i m u l a t e d by t h e a t r e . In t h e o r y , t h e r e f o r e , Cage's own a r t i s n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l . In p r a c t i c e , however, i t i s h i g h l y i n t e l l e c t u a l , s i n c e i t demands a s o p h i s t i c a t e d c o n c e p t u a l  understanding  f o r greatest  impact. Of a l l the s p e c i f i c a r t forms, Cage c o n s i d e r s  theatre to  be the most p u r e , s i n c e i t "resembles l i f e more c l o s e l y than 3  the o t h e r a r t s " .  Theatre i n Cage's terms i s  something t h a t engages both the eye and the e a r . . . i t i s an o c c a s i o n i n v o l v i n g any number o f p e o p l e , but not j u s t o n e . 4  In j u s t i f i c a t i o n , Cage s t a t e s : the r e a s o n t h a t I want t o make my d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e a t r e t h a t simple i s so one c o u l d view everyday l i f e i t s e l f as t h e a t r e . 5 What Cage c o n s i d e r s  t h e a t r e i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d performance.  Performance i s a l i v e a c t i o n i n t e n d e d l e a s t one s p e c t a t o r .  I t may o r may not be s c r i p t e d .  or may not be d r a m a t i c . completion  t o be p r e s e n t e d  to at I t may  I t i s r e l a t e d t o a c t i v i t y or t o the  of a p r e s c r i b e d  task.  Performance i s the genus.  Theatre i s the s p e c i e s .  21  Theatre s i n c e the Greeks has  i n v o l v e d dramatic  action, conflict,  and c r e a t i o n of a r t i f i c i a l t i m e , p l a c e , and c h a r a c t e r . c a l l s t h e a t r e which has A c t i o n and  these a r t i f i c i a l elements  s p e c t a c l e are common to b o t h .  Kirby  "matrixed".^  Performance i s to  t h e a t r e t h e n , what " o r g a n i z a t i o n of sound" i s to harmony. I t i s the removal o f c l a s s i c a e s t h e t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s , w h i l e s t i l l employing a f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e . The  content  w i t h processes  or s u b j e c t . m a t t e r of a work o f a r t must d e a l  of the e x e r n a l w o r l d .  i n a r t works whose c o n t e n t  Cage i s not i n t e r e s t e d  is self-expression.  "communication ["self - e x p r e s s i o n ]  i s a way  To Cage,  of c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n  7  to  one's own  psychology"  f i l l e d with irrelevant The  and s h o u l d be avoided because i t i s ego.  ego, which a c t s as a f i l t e r i n g system f o r the e x t e r n a l ,  must not be b l o c k e d and r i g i d s i n c e i t i s the e x t e r n a l , r a t h e r than the p s y c h o l o g i c a l concerns of the i n d i v i d u a l  artist,  t h a t Cage f e e l s i s a p p r o p r i a t e s u b j e c t m a t t e r f o r a r t . The  i n v i d i d u a l i t y o f the a r t i s t i s e v i d e n t through the  of a c t i v i t i e s t h a t he/she makes.  Cage t r i e s to m i n i m i z e  presence of h i s ego by w o r k i n g w i t h chance t e c h n i q u e s to his  remove these c h o i c e s from h i s c o n t r o l presence i n h i s works remains s t r o n g by  of chance  I n e v i t a b l y , though, the v e r y  choice  A r t a u d , t o o , i n h i s Theatre of C r u e l t y , renounces with h i s well-dissected character  f e e l i n g s , and s o c i a l man,  submissive  the  i n order  itself.  " p s y c h o l o g i c a l man,  choice  and  to laws misshapen by  r e l i g i o n and p r e c e p t s " , and concerns h i m s e l f w i t h a " t o t a l  22 . g  man.... cosmic and u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s " .  He accuses  psychology q  o f c a u s i n g t h e a t r e ' s "abasement and f e a r f u l l o s s of energy". Cage became aware o f The  Theatre and I t s Double e a r l y i n the  f i f t i e s through P i e r r e Boulez  i n France.  He r e f e r s to A r t a u d  i n S i l e n c e and o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s .  (Here i s an  i n s t a n c e o f a t h e a t r i c a l i n f l u e n c e on Cage i n c o n t r a s t to h i s i n f l u e n c e on t h e a t r e . ) The  c o n t e n t o f a r t must p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r per-  c e i v i n g our m a t e r i a l environment  and, as such, s h o u l d d e a l  w i t h s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c p r o c e s s e s . out i n A Year From Monday, however, t h a t these change as our u n d e r s t a n d i n g developments.  Cage p o i n t s  processes  of them i s a l t e r e d by  scientific  For example, the E i n s t e i n i a n concept  time has f u n d a m e n t a l l y  changed our way  from a f i x e d model to a s h i f t i n g one. P r i n c i p l e o f Heisenberg  of  space/  o f s e e i n g the w o r l d The U n c e r t a i n t y  i s a l s o noteworthy i n i t s r e l e v a n c e to  Cage's g e n e r a l a e s t h e t i c .  The H e i s e n b e r g  Principle states  t h a t you cannot p r e d i c t a n y t h i n g w i t h a b s o l u t e A l l you can do i s s p e c i f y p r o b a b i l i t i e s . ^  certainty.  This  renders  everything indeterminate. Buckminster  Fuller credits this shift i n s c i e n t i f i c  consciousness w i t h I n v e n t i o n s and the Newtonian innovation i s universe.H Cage agrees  changing our a t t i t u d e s toward i n n o v a t i o n . new-fangled i d e a s were anathema to i n h i s changeless u n i v e r s e , but the essence o f the E i n s t e i n i a n  that innovation i n i t s e l f i s a value.  He i s more  i n t e r e s t e d i n the e x p e r i m e n t a l a t t i t u d e than i n c r e a t i n g g r e a t works o f a r t .  When s u b j e c t matter r e l f e c t s n o n - s t a t i c e x t e r n a l  23. processes  r a t h e r than p e r s o n a l emotions or i n d i v i d u a l  ideas,  the r e s u l t , a c c o r d i n g to Cage, i s more o f t e n than not innovative.  The  t h e o r e t i c a l reason f o r t h i s i s that i n a  s h i f t i n g u n i v e r s e of c o n s t a n t change the p o i n t a t which an a r t i s t begins  to c r e a t e i s a unique s p a c e / t i m e , w i t h a unique  p r o f i l e of s t i m u l a t i o n . f l o w openly  I f we  can a l l o w e x t e r n a l processes  to  i n and out of us, our c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s based on  them w i l l , of n e c e s s i t y , be d i f f e r e n t from what has come before. Cage's works are h i g h l y i n n o v a t i v e , b u t t h i s i s due more to h i s i n d i v i d u a l i n v e n t i v e a b i l i t y than to h i s t h e o r e t i c a l base.  The  s u b j e c t m a t t e r of the m a j o r i t y of h i s works i s the  same:  the o r d e r w i t h i n the d i s o r d e r of the u n i v e r s e .  chance techniques  produce much v a r i e t y o f sound and image, but  the r e a l i n n o v a t i o n i n h i s works comes i n the  instrumentation  and s t r u c t u r i n g . From t h i s p o i n t of v i e w , h i s own f u l l y support  His  works do  not  h i s theory.  R e g a r d i n g v a l u e judgements, Cage f e e l s t h e r e can be "good" or "bad"  a r t as l o n g as the a r t work f u l f i l l s  d e f i n i t i o n d e s c r i b e d above.  "Good"and "bad"  only  no  the  reflect  middle c l a s s t a s t e , which changes w i t h d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l p e r i o d s . Duchamp p o i n t e d t h i s out e a r l i e r , w h e n he  said,  a r t may be bad, good, or i n d i f f e r e n t , but whatever a d j e c t i v e i s used, we must c a l l i t a r t , and bad a r t i s s t i l l a r t i n the same way t h a t a bad emotion i s s t i l l an emotion.12 Cage d e f i n e s e r r o r as " s i m p l y a f a i l u r e to a d j u s t 13 immediately  from p r e - c o n c e p t i o n  to a r e a l i t y " .  As  such,  24. t h e r e can be no c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e r r o r . Things come to p a s s , a r i s i n g and d i s a p p e a r i n g . Things are always g o i n g wrong.14 One  must accept l i f e p r o c e s s e s i n and  d o i n g , one like.  f o r t h e m s e l v e s . In so  g i v e s up the need to change the t h i n g s one  does not  T h i s r e n d e r s e r r o r i r r e l e v a n t i n a work of a r t , as w e l l  as i n l i f e . Cage's approach r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s r e h e a r s a l . I f any acceptable,  about the concept of  o c c u r r e n c e , i n t e n t i o n a l or u n i n t e n t i o n a l , i s  p r a c t i c e toward a s p e c i f i c g o a l i s u n n e c e s s a r y .  R e h e a r s a l becomes s i m p l y a p r o c e s s of e x p l o r a t i o n , r a t h e r the f i n e - t u n i n g t o o l o f p r o d u c t - o r i e n t e d Theatre performs w i t h a n o - r e h e a r s a l  theatre.  than  Squat  policy.  They don't warm up. They don't r e h e a r s e . They t a l k about what they want t o do... d i s c u s s i t i n d e t a i l . . . n o t too much b e f o r e , j u s t a f t e r war d s l 5 Few  other  companies work i n such a r a d i c a l way.  when p e r f o r m i n g w i t h l a r g e o r c h e s t r a s , i n s i s t s on T r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m i s obsolete. "negative" should  and "non-consumptive".  f l o w and  Even Cage, rehearsals.  Cage sees i t as  Instead,  life  processes  " c r i t i c i s m must t u r n to c r e a t i o n . . . respond  w i t h a work o f your own".^ ^  E x i s t i n g a r t works of a l l k i n d s ,  t h e n , become s t i m u l a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r a r t works i n the same way  as do the o t h e r p r o c e s s e s of l i f e .  new  meaning.  M a s t e r p i e c e s take  They l o s e t h e i r s a c r e d n e s s , and become  material for further  resource  innovation.  We must take i n t e n t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , l i k e Beethoven, and t u r n i t i n t o n o n - i n t e n t i o n (we must get something out of i t t h a t he d i d n ' t put i n i t ) l 7 It  on  i s i m p l i e d t h a t everyone i s a p o t e n t i a l a r t i s t j u s t by  25  .  v i r t u e of b e i n g a l i v e . A r t a u d had art  a similar disrespect  f o r the w o r s h i p of  great  works. M a s t e r p i e c e s of the p a s t , are good f o r the p a s t . They are not good f o r us. We have the r i g h t to say what has been s a i d , and even what has not been s a i d , i n a way t h a t belongs to us, a way t h a t i s immediate and d i r e c t , c o r r e s p o n d i n g to p r e s e n t modes of f e e l i n g , and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e to everyone... the i d o l a t r y o f f i x e d m a s t e r p i e c e s i s an a s p e c t of bourgeois conformism.1^ The  prime f u n c t i o n of a r t i s to i n c r e a s e  our  to the e x t e r n a l w o r l d i n o r d e r to i n t e g r a t e our f u l l y i n t o our l i v e s .  sensitivity  environment  Cage s t a t e s :  The o b l i g a t i o n , the m o r a l i t y , i f you w i s h , of a l l the a r t s t o d a y , i s to i n t e n s i f y , a l t e r p e r c e p t u a l awareness, and hence, c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . of the r e a l , m a t e r i a l w o r l d . Of tJie t h i n g s we see and hear and t a s t e and touch.1 He wants a "view of the a r t s which does not from the r e s t of l i f e " .  2 0  He  considers  o n l y the  s e n s o r y s i d e o f l i f e , however,and i g n o r e s entirely.  " L i f e " i s a l i v e , but c o l d and  In h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f A.K. the t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n  s e p a r a t e them  the  material,  emotional  unemotional.  Coomaraswamy's statement t h a t  f u n c t i o n of a r t i s to " q u i e t the mind, 21  making i t s u s c e p t i b l e to d i v i n e i n f l u e n c e s " , He  i n t e r p r e t s " d i v i n e i n f l u e n c e s " to be  we  a r e " , and  not o b s t r u c t  a " q u i e t mind" to be one  this.  "the environment i n which  i n which "the ego  does  the f l u e n c y of the t h i n g s t h a t come i n through  our senses and up through our dreams". opposition  he c l a r i f i e s  This i s i n d i r e c t  to the Western t r a d i t i o n i n which sense  perceptions  are secondary to c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . Cage l i m i t s the i n t e g r a t i o n of the environment, however,  26 .  to " s o c i a l - r e a l i z a t i o n " , r a t h e r than " s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n " . A r t f u n c t i o n s t o i n c r e a s e our u n d e r s t a n d i n g  22-  o f and h e l p s us 23  " t o adapt t o our complex, contemporary s o c i e t y " .  This i s  done by c r e a t i n g s h i f t s i n p u b l i c s e n s i b i l i t i e s .  He c o n s i d e r s  B u c k m i n s t e r F u l l e r a major a r t i s t because he has been able t o accomplish t h i s . Cage u t i l i z e s F u l l e r ' s concept o f C o l l e c t i v e Consiousness when he s t a t e s , We have o n l y one mind (the one we s h a r e ) . Changing t h i n g s r a d i c a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , i s simple. You j u s t change t h a t one mind.24 ( O b v i o u s l y Cage i s s i m p l i f y i n g m a t t e r s f o r the purpose o f making a r h e t o r i c a l point.) . The  s t r u c t u r e o f h i s Apartment House (1976) can be used as  an example o f h i s i n t e n t t o r a i s e s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s through art.  I t r e f l e c t s the random i n t e r w e a v i n g  the r a c i a l mix t h a t forms America's base. dependence and c o - o p e r a t i o n  representative of The p r o c e s s o f i n t e r -  o f those e a r l y i n h a b i t a n t s , as they  f a c e d a c h a l l e n g i n g but d i f f i c u l t l i f e , o f t e n w i t h common problems, is expressed.  The importance of c o o p e r a t i o n  i s b a s i c t o Cage's p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y  within diversity  as a S o c i a l A n a r c h i s t .  He f e e l s t h a t a r t i s capable o f improving p o l i t i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems.  social,  T h i s can be done by t h e  c o n s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g o f t h e works themselves.  I t can a l s o be  done by a p p l y i n g t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , i d e a l i s m , and c r e a t i v i t y t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated w i t h the a r t s d i r e c t l y to s o c i a l problems.  When a r t i s . seen as an a c t i v i t y r a t h e r than an  o b j e c t , t h e a c t o f a r t can then be a p p l i e d t o l i f e on s o c i a l , interactive levels.  I n h i s book A Year From Monday, he proposes:  27.  Take the f a c t s o f a r t s e r i o u s l y : t r y them i n e c o n o m i c s / p o l i t i c s ; g i v i n g up, t h a t i s , n o t i o n s about b a l a n c e ( o f power) ( o f w e a l t h ) , f o r e g r o u n d , background. 2  ;  2  Another f u n c t i o n o f a r t i s t o "keep us from o s s i f y i n g " . s h o u l d s t i m u l a t e us i n t o r e a c t i o n . avoid stagnation.  Art  In t h i s way, i t h e l p s us  (Gertrude S t e i n s i m i l a r l y c o n s i d e r e d a r t use-  f u l o n l y when i t was i r r i t a t i n g . )  In a w o r l d o f c o n s t a n t change,  i t i s important f o r s u r v i v a l not to  become  complacent.  I r r i t a t i n g a r t i s b e s t when i t s t i r s t h e audience t o action.  The performances  of the F u t u r i s t s  (which  incidentally  a l s o used n o i s e and s i m u l t a n e i t y ) o f t e n brought v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n s from t h e i r a u d i e n c e s . "The  M a r i n e t t i once wrote a m a n i f e s t o on  P l e a s u r e o f B e i n g Booed" ( 1 9 1 1 ) .  2  I n t h e i r work, they  i n t e n t i o n a l l y t r i e d t o a n t a g o n i z e people w i t h pranks double-booking  like  the t h e a t r e , and p u t t i n g g l u e on s e a t s .  F r e q u e n t l y , M a r i n e t t i , B a l l a o r R u s s o l o were j a i l e d f o r t h e i r disruptiveness. The Dada movement t o o was a p r o t e s t o f i r r a t i o n a l i t y d e s i g n e d t o shock audiences i n t o s e e i n g the madness o f t h e i r society.  Dadaism r e c o g n i z e d a r t as a s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y .  Significantly,non-stagnating art theoretically  prepares  us f o r r i s k - t a k i n g . There i s n o t h i n g we r e a l l y need t o do t h a t i s n ' t dangerous. E i g h t h S t r e e t a r t i s t s knew t h i s y e a r s ago. C o n s t a n t l y spoke o f r i s k . 2  Cage's p e r s o n a l r i s k s are a l l a r t i s t i c , however, when compared w i t h t h e L i v i n g T h e a t r e , who c r e a t e o f t e n t h r e a t e n i n g p r o t e s t s i t u a t i o n s o r C h r i s Burden, t h e Body A r t i s t , who a c t u a l l y p u t s h i s l i f e momentarily  i n danger.  28. The e s s e n t i a l t h i n g about a work o f a r t i s t h a t i t somehow be u s e f u l to us i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h our d a i l y l i v e s . . . There i s no need t o m i n i m i z e the c o m p l e x i t y of the s i t u a t i o n ( o u r l i v e s ) , b u t r a t h e r a g r e a t need to make t h i s c o m p l e x i t y something we can e n j o y . I f our a r t s i n t r o d u c e us to i t , then I t h i n k they are p e r f o r m i n g a u s e f u l f u n c t i o n . 30 The u t i l i t a r i a n a s p e c t o f Cage's work can be seen i n the types o f a c t i o n s t h a t he chooses to work w i t h .  Tasks are never  p u r e l y a e s t h e t i c ; they always p e r f o r m some s o r t o f f u n c t i o n . For example, the p e r f o r m e r s changing the r a d i o s i n Radio Music do not do so l o o k i n g f o r b e a u t i f u l sounds. stations i s purely functional.  The a c t o f changing  Cage's use o f space i s the same.  Rather than b e a u t i f y t h e environment, he a l l o w s i t t o r e f l e c t the f u n c t i o n a l uses o f the space.  The c o m p l i c a t e d s p a t i a l a r r -  angement o f the many elements o f HPSCHD was a r r i v e d a t e i t h e r randomly o r by the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f e l e c t r i c a l s o u r c e s . Cage d e f i n e s a r t i s t i c s t r u c t u r e as a framework t h a t can be broken down i n t o c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e p a r t s .  I t i s struc-  t u r e t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s a work o f a r t from a non-work o f a r t . 31 S t r u c t u r e i s the " n e t " w i t h i n which the artwork l i v e s . S t r u c t u r e must be f l e x i b l e i n form. I f something e l s e happens t h a t o r d i n a r i l y would be thought o f as an i n t e r r u p t i o n , doesn't a l t e r i t , then i t i s w o r k i n g the way i t now must.32 A c c i d e n t s and u n i n t e n t i o n a l events t h a t o c c u r w i t h i n t h e cons c i o u s l y s t r u c t u r e d time a r e , t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i d e r e d an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the a r t w o r k .  A l l the non-hermetic t h a t e x i s t s i n t h a t  space/time e x i s t s on an e q u a l p l a n e w i t h the a e s t h e t i c .  In h i s  overview t h i s i s j u s t i f i e d , s i n c e b o t h are s i m p l y f l u i d ,  inter-  weaving p a r t s o f an i n f i n i t e whole.  The p r o c e s s e s o f a r t ,  t h e r e f o r e , s h o u l d n o t stop the p r o c e s s e s  29. of n o n - a r t ( l i f e ) .  A r t and l i f e are i n s e p a r a b l e .  One doesn't s t o p l i v i n g when.one i s o c c u p i e d w i t h art.33 I n c l u s i o n o f the non-hermetic i n t o the a e s t h e t i c  structure  makes us aware o f the f o r m a l elements t h a t make up the nonhermetic.  4'33" i s Cage's most r a d i c a l example of t h i s .  The non-hermetic extends t o the p h y s i c a l environment and the p r o c e s s and a c t i o n s of the members o f the a u d i e n c e .  In  an extreme example, the audience t h a t r e a c t e d v i o l e n t l y to Cage's M i l a n performance o f Empty Words c r e a t e d an i n t e n s e l y d r a m a t i c and a l i v e performance.  When t h i s type o f v i o l e n c e  p e r s i s t s beyond the d e f i n e d space/time o f the a r t i s t i c s t r u c t u r e , however,  i t s h i f t s from b e i n g " a l i v e and u n p r e d i c t a b l e  non-hermetic a c t i v i t y " to p o t e n t i a l l y - u n c o n t r o l l a b l e  "social  disturbance". The e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a g i n g t e c h n i q u e s o f the e a r l y work o f G r o t o w s k i (e.g. Kordian-1962) and t h a t o f The Performance Group (e.g. Dionysus i n 69-1969) v i s u a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d the audience i n t o the t h e a t r i c a l images.  The movements and f a c i a l e x p r e s s -  i o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l audience members were v i s u a l l y j u x t a p o s e d w i t h the performance i t s e l f , adding a c o n s t a n t l y  changing,non-  h e r m e t i c l e v e l o f r e a l i t y to the focus o f the e n t i r e p r o d u c t i o n . Duchamp's Readimades and h i s G l a s s P a i n t i n g s a l s o b r i n g non-hermetic r e a l i t y i n t o a r t , as does much o t h e r Dada work. The G l a s s P a i n t i n g s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , p a r a l l e l Cage's 4'35" i n c o r p o r a t i n g the p h y s i c a l environment and immediate human a c t i v i t y t h a t f a l l s w i t h i n view of the framed a r e a .  Real  t h i n g s and a c t i o n s become a r t by v i r t u e o f the a r t i s t ' s  by  30.  s e l e c t i o n and  framing.  than Cage's.  The  However, Duchamp's i n t e n t was  Dada s l o g a n t h a t A r t = L i f e was  different  aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y  at r e n d e r i n g t r a d i t i o n a l n o t i o n s o f a r t m e a n i n g l e s s , r a t h e r than at m e a n i n g f u l i n t e g r a t i o n .  R i c h t e r p o i n t s t h i s out i n h i s  book, Dada, A r t and A n t i - A r t , when he c o n s i d e r s Duchamp's use  of the non-hermetic as p a r a l l e l w i t h " a m o r a l i t y , emptying 34  l i f e as w e l l as a r t of a l l i t s s p i r i t u a l  content."  A l t h o u g h Cage, l i k e the D a d a i s t s , wants to change t r a d i t i o n a l concepts o f a r t , he i s aware t h a t a r t i s not to  l i f e . Life is interesting in i t s e l f .  Art i s a  crucial  dispensable  tool. We open our eyes and ears s e e i n g l i f e each day e x c e l l e n t as i t i s . T h i s r e a l i z a t i o n no l o n g e r needs a r t , though w i t h o u t i t , i t would have been d i f f i c u l t to come by. 35, In h i s o p t i m i s t i c view o f l i f e , e v e r y t h i n g h o l d s is  j u s t a m a t t e r of The  interest. It  concentration.  i n c l u s i o n of u n p r e d i c t a b l e non-hermetic elements w i t h i n  the a r t work changes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the a r t i s t  toward  the work. He becomes an a c c e p t o r , i n a d d i t i o n to b e i n g a maker in  the A r i s t o t e l i a n sense. To accept whatever comes r e g a r d l e s s o f the consequences i s to be u n a f r a i d or to be f u l l o f t h a t l o v e which comes from a sense of a t oneness w i t h w h a t e v e r . 3 6  However, " a c c e p t i n g whatever comes, r e g a r d l e s s of the consequences" can a l s o mean a r e l u c t a n c e to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the work.  personal  Incorporating violence, for  example, i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y w i t h i n the a r t i s t ' s bounds as a c c e p t o r , but i t can i n t e r f e r e w i t h i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on a p r a c t i c a l  level.  an  and  31.  In an i n t e r v i e w i n " A r t i n A m e r i c a " , Cage r e v e a l s concern and d i s a p p r o v a l f o r the u n p r e d i c t a b l e v i o l e n c e used i n the  work o f o t h e r a r t i s t s such as Nam  example,  June P a i k .  For  P a i k ' s p i e c e e n t i t l e d 'In Homage to John Cage  (1962)  c o n s i s t e d o f P a i k e v i s c e r a t i n g the i n s i d e s of an o l d p i a n o , J-  then jumping o f f the stage t o run over to Cage, who s i t t i n g i n a f r o n t row s e a t . at  He then c u t Cage's n e c k t i e o f f  the neck and poured a b o t t l e o f shampoo over h i s head.  A f t e r massaging auditorium.  Cage's bubbly head a b i t ,  he r a n out of the  The shock o f both Cage and the audience  broken by a t e l e p h o n e c a l l . the  was  was  I t was P a i k c a l l i n g t o say t h a t  performance was o v e r . A l t h o u g h P a i k i s a d i s c i p l e o f  Cage, the a g g r e s s i v e n e s s o f t h i s p i e c e made Cage p e r s o n a l l y aware of the p o t e n t i a l dangers of u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . F l e x i b i l e s t r u c t u r e produces a r t works t h a t are nons t a t i c and d i f f e r e n t w i t h changes i n time and e n v i r o n m e n t a l conditions.  They are never e x a c t l y r e p r o d u c i b l e .  a s p e c t s o f the performance w i l l the  total is transitory.  the  permanent. In  remain when r e p e a t e d , but  The immediate  t a k e s precedence  over  t h e a t r e more than o t h e r a r t forms, e x a c t r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y  has never r e a l l y been p o s s i b l e . v a r i a b l e s i n l i v e performance. of  Some  There are too many human I t was  to counter t h i s aspect  the a r t t h a t t h e o r i e s l i k e C r a i g ' s system o f U b e r m a r i o n e t t e s  were developed. From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , a n y t h i n g l a s t i n g becomes documentation, r a t h e r than the event or e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f .  32 .  Photographs, v i d e o t a p e s , documentation.  r e c o r d i n g s , and f i l m a r e c o n s i d e r e d  They serve o n l y to r e c o r d the e x p e r i e n c e  as an  h i s t o r i c a l e v e n t , much l i k e a p o s t c a r d . In a f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e t h a t i n c l u d e s u n i n t e n t i o n a l elements, innumerable l e v e l s o f r e a l i t y " i n t e r p e n e t r a t e " t o mutually  a f f e c t each o t h e r a t any g i v e n moment.  This  s t r u c t u r e , t h e n , s h o u l d have no p r e s c r i b e d focus  according  to Cage, s i n c e many p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i l l always e x i s t .  Cage  r e f l e c t s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f McLuhan when he s t a t e s , Nowadays, everything happens a t once, and our souls are conveniently Art,  e l e c t r o n i c (omni-attentive) ^  l i k e l i f e , s h o u l d e x i s t i n a changing f i e l d .  an O r i e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s approach.  7  One sees  Western a e s t h e t i c s  i s b u i l t on r a t i o n a l l i n e a r i t y , o r cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , as opposed t o an O r i e n t a l v i e w , which sees l i f e as based on an i n c a l c u a b l e number o f s i m u l t a n e o u s causes and effects. Lack o f a p r e s c r i b e d focus r a d i c a l l y a l t e r s the r o l e of the t r a d i t i o n a l p e r c e i v e r i n r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e a r t work. Surrounded by a f i e l d o f s t i m u l a t i o n , the p e r c e i v e r must make p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n s about what t o focus on and when t o s h i f t focus.  T h i s approach i s s u p p o r t e d by t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l  r e s e a r c h done by S e g a l l , Campbell and H e r s k o v i t s they show t h a t although  we assume t h a t everyone  the same as we do, they don't.  i n which perceives  I n r e a l i t y , everyone i s  r e s p o n d i n g w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l s e t o f p e r c e p t u a l  content and  3 8  system o f a s s o c i a t i o n s and i n f e r e n c e s . are s h a r e d , but they a r e always p e r c e i v e d  Many  perceptions  i n an i n d i v i d u a l way.  33.  Correspondingly,  a non-linear s t r u c t u r e c r e a t e s works  which b e g i n and end by p e r s o n a l p o i n t s o f involvement involvement.  and non-  Since the p e r c e i v e r i s d e f i n i n g the experience/  p i e c e f o r h i m / h e r s e l f , t h e p i e c e begins when h i s / h e r a t t e n t i o n i s focused.  The p i e c e ends when a t t e n t i o n i s no l o n g e r h e l d .  In t h i s way, every a r t work becomes d i r e c t l y participatory. 3  audience-  I n Cage's words, "each person i s i n the b e s t  9  seat". A c c o r d i n g t o Cage, t h e r e i s no r i g h t or wrong way to perceive.  Every  i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t e s a unique combination  the s t i m u l a t i o n based on h i s / h e r own p e r s p e c t i v e .  from  However, t o  the u n i n i t i a t e d , t r a i n e d t o expect d e f i n e d , l i n e a r development from t h e a r t i s t , the e x p e r i e n c e  of a f i e l d - s t r u c t u r e d a r t  work i s o f t e n one o f c o n f u s i o n and chaos. B a s i c t o Cage's a e s t h e t i c i s t h e concept o f i n d e t e r minacy.  Indeterminacy  i s the s t a t e t h a t e x i s t s when  s t r u c t u r e d u n i t s i n t e r a c t w i t h each o t h e r i n an i n p r e d i c t a b l e way.  I t i s a s p e c i f i c type o f f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e .  Cage's work from Music f o r Piano  A l l of  (1952) to t h e p r e s e n t i s  indeterminate. Indeterminacy  i s a f o r m a l means o f s e p a r a t i n g the  a r t i s t ' s i n t e n t i o n and t a s t e from the e x p e r i e n c e  o f the a r t  work  itself. A l l t h i n g s a r e r e l a t e d , and t h i s c o m p l e x i t y i s more e v i d e n t when i t i s not o v e r s i m p l i f i e d by an i d e a o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n one person's mind.40 Any d i r e c t i d e a t h a t the a r t i s t may have i s a l t e r e d by the i n t r u s t i o n o f t h e u n p r e d i c t a b l e elements.  New meanings a r i s e  which can then be r e - i n t e r p r e t e d by the p e r c e i v e r .  It is a  f o r m a l attempt to l e t t h i n g s happen, r a t h e r than make them happen. Cage v a l u e s technology individual intention.  as a t o o l capable of  minimizing  On a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , he i s i n t i m a t e l y  i n v o l v e d w i t h the t o o l s of t e c h n o l o g y and computers - i n h i s a r t works. themselves to c o o l , i m p e r s o n a l ,  - namely e l e c t r o n i c s  T e c h n o l o g i c a l media l e n d  and.unemotional works of a r t .  Computers are b r i n g i n g about a s i t u a t i o n t h a t ' s l i k e the i n v e n t i o n of harmony. S u b r o u t i n e s are l i k e chords. No one would t h i n k of k e e p i n g a chord to h i m s e l f . You'd g i v e i t to anyone who wanted i t . S u b r o u t i n e s are a l t e r e d by a s i n g l e punch. We're g e t t i n g music made by man h i m s e l f , not j u s t one man. I t i s a paradox t h a t Cage, who  1  t u r n s to chance to  escape the r a t i o n a l , a l s o t u r n s to computers, the m e c h a n i c a l e x t e n s i o n of the human b r a i n , i n hopes of f r e e i n g a r t from artists.  One  i s reminded of the U n i v a c s l o g a n :  Let U n i v a c do i t f o r  Don't t h i n k .  you.  Indeterminacy r e s u l t s i n one-of-a-kinduperformances. For t h i s r e a s o n ,  they a r e " e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g to the  former as to the a u d i e n c e " . ^ 4  makes the performance a l i v e .  per-  I t i s the u n p r e d i c t a b l e However, i t i s o f t e n  d i f f i c u l t f o r a p e r f o r m e r to l e t go of h i s f e a r of  that  very the  unknown. Indeterminacy a l l o w s f o r s i m u l t a n e i t y , or m u l t i p l e , u n r e l a t e d t h i n g s happening at the same time.  The  Black  Mountain P i e c e . makes e f f e c t i v e use of t h i s phenomenon. The  Dadaists  a l s o made use o f s i m u l t a n e i t y as e a r l y as  to express the c h a o t i c p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Europe at time.  1912 the  35.  S i m u l t a n e i t y r e s u l t s i n i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n , i n which innumerable l e v e l s o f r e a l i t y m u t u a l l y b r i n g i n g b o t h the non-hermetic and discussed  a f f e c t each o t h e r ,  aesthetic together,  as  earlier.  I am i n t e r e s t e d i n any a r t not as a c l o s e d - i n t h i n g by i t s e l f , but as a g o i n g - o u t one to i n t e r p e n e t r a t e w i t h a l l o t h e r t h i n g s , even i f they are a r t s , too .43" Both a random cough and  a f l e e t i n g thought are brought i n t o  the a r t work because they o c c u r w i t h i n the d e f i n e d s t r u c t u r e and are j u s t as worthy of focus elements.  intended  J u x t a p o s i t i o n causes a s s o c i a t i o n s which become  p a r t of the t o t a l p e r c e p t i o n is  as the  space/time  o f the work.  Interpenetration  constant. "There i s no such t h i n g as an empty space or an empty time".44 When one  s i m u l t a n e o u s element t e m p o r a r i l y obscures  o t h e r s , Cage r e f e r s to i t as a " t r u c k e f f e c t " , ^ s i t u a t i o n p a r a l l e l to a passing  truck obscuring  a b u i l d i n g across  The  exist. The  i.e., a the view of  b u i l d i n g continues  to  I t i s o n l y the p e r c e p t i o n o f i t t h a t i s cut o f f .  t r u c k e f f e c t o c c u r s i n the non-hermetic r e g u l a r l y . An  the use All  the s t r e e t .  5  the  indeterminate  s t r u c t u r e can be a c c o m p l i s h e d through  o f chance t e c h n i q u e s ,  such as d i c e or the I_ C h i n g .  of Cage's major works are s t r u c t u r e d by t h i s method.  However, he r e c o g n i z e s  i t as a t o o l , and  s t a t e s t h a t "chance  t e c h n i q u e s are unnecessary when the a c t i o n s performed  are  4ft  unpredictable." Cage's use precedents.  The  of chance t e c h n i q u e s has first  two  i s O r i e n t a l philosophy,  significant which i s  36.  r e f l e c t e d i n h i s f r e q u e n t use o f the I Ching.  As  already  mentioned, Cage has s e r i o u s l y s t u d i e d Zen Buddhism.  Zen i s an  a n t i - r a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n of the p r e s e n t . L i f e as i t i s l i v e d s u f f i c e s . I t i s o n l y when the d i s q u i e t i n g i n t e l l e c t s t e p s i n and t r i e s to murder i t t h a t we stop to l i v e and imagine o u r s e l v e s to be s h o r t of or i n something. L e t the i n t e l l e c t a l o n e , i t has u s e f u l n e s s i n i t s p r o p e r sphere, but l e t i t not i n t e r f e r e w i t h the f l o w i n g of the l i f e stream. ^ 7 I t i s based on a b e l i e f t h a t e v e r y t h i n g i n the u n i v e r s e i s 4  r e l a t e d , and " a l l  i s one".  8  Examination  of d i s s i m i l a r s  and o p p o s i t e s i s b e l i e v e d to r e v e a l n a t u r a l t r u t h s .  Chance i s  used to b r i n g d i s s i m i l a r s i n t o p l a y w h i l e not u p s e t t i n g the n a t u r a l o r d e r w i t h human i n t e l l i g e n c e . The  second major i n f l u e n t i a l precedent  i n Cage's use  of chance i s the work o f the D a d a i s t s i n the e a r l y t w e n t i e s . T z a r a , A r p , and Duchamp a l l used chance t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e i r work.  Much Dada p o e t r y and c o l l a g e i s b u i l t on chance.  expressed  It  the i r r a t i o n a l i t y and chaos they f e l t i n s o c i e t y .  They "adopted chance, the v o i c e o f the unconscious i f you l i k e - as a p r o t e s t a g a i n s t  - the  soul,  rigidity."^  U n d e r l y i n g a l l of t h i s i s the concept  of p r o c e s s , the  s t a t e o f c o n s t a n t change t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s . In Cage's words, i t i s " c o n t i n u a l l y becoming t h a t i t i s becoming". ^ 5  lessness.  T h i s r e f l e c t s a Zen s e n s i b i l i t y o f purpose-  A n y t h i n g t h a t happens between two f i x e d p o i n t s  i n time i s always i n the p r o c e s s o f becoming something o t h e r than i t was  b e f o r e , but never a c t u a l l y a r r i v e s at a g i v e n  end p o i n t .  No g o a l i s n e c e s s a r y , s i m p l y the g o a l o f c o n s t a n t  37.  change.  A l l a c t i v i t i e s then have the same g o a l .  P r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d a r t has no permanent, or s t a t i c , end product.  Only t h e documentation i s l a s t i n g .  d i f f e r e n t when r e p e a t e d ,  Since i t i s  t h e same work i s o f t e n  and thought t o be another p i e c e .  unrecognizable  S e v e r a l o f Cage's works have  been performed o n l y once, b u t have s t r o n g s i m i l a r i t i e s to o t h e r works. Elements i n process  do n o t a l l change a t t h e same r a t e .  E v e r y t h i n g i s c h a n g i n g , b u t w h i l e some t h i n g s are c h a n g i n g , o t h e r s a r e n o t . Eventually, those t h a t were n o t changing b e g i n suddenly t o change e t v i c e v e r s a ad i n f i n i t u m . 51 These v a r i a t i o n s i n t e n s i f y u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . t o g e t h e r and s e p a r a t e . never be t h e same t w i c e .  Elements come  T h e r e f o r e , momentary c o n d i t i o n s can There are t o o many elements  changing a t t h e same time a t d i f f e r e n t r a t e s . The  complexity  o f p r o c e s s - o r i e n t e d a r t i s unfathomable.  Exact d e f i n i t i o n i s no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e . You w i l l never be a b l e t o g i v e a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e p o r t , even t o y o u r s e l f , o f j u s t what happened. 52 T h i s l a c k o f d e f i n i t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t f o r many p e o p l e t o a d j u s t to.  The f u z z i n e s s and d i s t r a c t i o n d i s t u r b s our sense o f  stability.  Process  i n a r t requires conceptual  Cage's a e s t h e t i c i s to c o n t r i b u t e t o t h a t  re-education.  re-education.  CAGE'S PERFORMANCE  38.  CAGE'S PERFORMANCE  I s h a l l c o n s i d e r Cage's performance i n the f o l l o w i n g way:  1) t h e a t r i c a l i t y  - s p e c t a c l e and C o n c e p t u a l T h e a t r e ,  and 2) i n v e n t i o n s and i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . categorical,  r a t h e r than developmental d i v i s i o n s ,  o f t e n some o v e r l a p p i n g o f Theatricality the  S i n c e these a r e  forties.  there i s  characteristics.  has been i m p o r t a n t t o Cage's work s i n c e  B e f o r e t h a t t i m e , t h e performance o f h i s  p e r c u s s i o n c o n c e r t s were g i v e n i n t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e r t format. Through h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n s w i t h Merce Cunningham, he began to see h i s m u s i c a l performances as a type o f t h e a t r e .  As  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, he sees t h e a t r e s i m p l y as an a c t i v i t y t h a t s t i m u l a t e s b o t h t h e eye and t h e e a r i n a p u b l i c Such a broad d e f i n i t i o n theatrical  i s closely  situation.  aligned with non-literary  genres such as p a g e a n t s , s p e c t a c l e , a n d c i r c u s .  Together, Cunningham and Cage e v o l v e d a system o f e q u a l , p a r a l l e l performance. either  The music was n o t l i n k e d  t o the dance  r h y t h m i c a l l y o r t h e m a t i c a l l y , but both were performed  s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t h e same performance space.  Cage's move-  ment, i n t h e a c t i v i t y o f making sounds, was p a r t o f the dance whole.  C o n v e r s e l y , t h e sounds o f the dancers moving  a l o n g t h e f l o o r , e t c . , became p a r t s o f the p e r c u s s i v e score.  This.:differs  sound  from t r a d i t i o n a l dance i n t h a t the sound  i s n o t s i m p l y s u p p o r t i v e o f t h e movement, b u t e q u a l to i t . (The independent "zones" o f a c t i o n and v i s u a l  imagery, i n  t h e a t r e p i e c e s such as Robert W i l s o n ' s K i n g o f S p a i n (1969), or L i f e and Times o f Joseph S t a l i n t h i s idea.)  (1974) a r e p a r a l l e l t o  39 .  Cage uses t h i s s i m u l t a n e o u s performance technique most o f h i s l e c t u r e s and as m u s i c a l performances.  in  A  t r a d i t i o n a l a u d i e n c e - p e r f o r m e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o f t e n maint a i n e d , but i n f o r m a t i o n i s i n t e r r u p t e d by the nature  of the p r e s e n t a t i o n .  The  r a t h e r than communication of  intent i s experiential  information.  "Indeterminacy", a l e c t u r e presented David Tudor at the 1958 good i l l u s t r a t i o n . chosen s t o r i e s .  together  s t o r i e s varied i n length.  They were  read a l o u d , a l l o w i n g one  for  to be read q u i c k l y .  Some had  be s t r e t c h e d out.  d i f f i c u l t to comprehend.  The  minute  Others had  T h i s c r e a t e d an u n p r e d i c t a b l e  of words and s i l e n c e s .  as a  a c o l l e c t i o n o f n i n e t y , randomly  i n no s e t o r d e r . Each was each s t o r y .  with  B r u s s e l s World's F a i r , serves  I t was The  simultaneous  to  rhythm  s t o r i e s themselves were o f t e n  P a r a l l e l w i t h the r e a d i n g , D a v i d  Tudor performed Fontana Mix,  an e l e c t r o n i c p i e c e which uses  v e r y l o u d sounds, i n which the performer i s f r e e to the order and d u r a t i o n of the n o i s e . noises frequently obstructed  The  decide  loud e l e c t r o n i c  the speaker's v o i c e .  a r t i s t knew b e f o r e h a n d what the o t h e r would do.  Neither The  fixed  p a r t s of the s t r u c t u r e were the one minute i n t e r v a l s ,  the  read s t o r i e s , the e l e c t r o n i c sounds, and the t o t a l time of n i n e t y minutes.  The  u n p r e d i c t a b l e , was  performance r e s u l t , b e i n g s t r u c t u r e d y e t indeterminate.  In the B l a c k Mountain P i e c e  (1952) , Cage began to  use  s p e c t a c l e by i n t e g r a t i n g o t h e r w i s e  u n r e l a t e d v i s u a l elements  w i t h the s o n i c i n an i n d e t e r m i n a t e  way.  B l a c k Mountain P i e c e  40.  was  done c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y w i t h Cunningham as a l e c t u r e a t  B l a c k Mountain C o l l e g e . Buddhism, w i t h M.C. l a d d e r s adding movie was  I t i n v o l v e d Cage l e c t u r i n g on  Zen  R i c h a r d s and C h a r l e s Olsen on s c a t t e r e d  commentary.  David Tudor p l a y e d the p i a n o .  A  p r o j e c t e d onto Robert Rauschenberg's w h i t e p a i n t i n g s  t h a t were hung from the c e i l i n g .  An o l d phonograph p l a y e d  and Cunningham, f o l l o w e d by a s t r a y dog, throughout the a u d i t o r i u m .  The  i m p r o v i s e d a dance  e f f e c t was  one of c o n f u s i o n  and o v e r l a p p i n g s t i m u l a t i o n . The  audience was  arranged  i n a formation focussing into  the c e n t r e o f the room.  O =  loudspeaker performer  or  Loudspeakers were p l a c e d throughout the space.  Activities  happened  traditional  at random spots around the room.  p h y s i c a l audience-performer  r e l a t i o n s h i p was  The  a l t e r e d to  encourage each p e r s o n to have an i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e p t i o n of the event.  B l a c k Mountain P i e c e i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d  the  p r o t o t y p i c a l Happening. By the l a t e s i x t i e s / e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , Cage had the B l a c k Mountain i d e a to c i r c u s p r o p o r t i o n s .  enlarged  The l a r g e -  s c a l e s p e c t a c l e and t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t y of the l a t e r works,  41. l i k e HPSCHD, a r e a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f a more h i g h l y developed technology. funding  (They a r e a l s o a by-product o f t h e i n c r e a s e d  t h a t comes w i t h  recognition.)  HPSCHD.,. (the name i s d e r i v e d from computer language) was performed a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with Lejaren H i l l e r . works.  Forty eight a r t i s t s contributed  their  O u t s i d e the b u i l d i n g , a l a r g e s p o r t s a r e n a , f i f t y - t w o  carousels projected overlapping  images onto the w a l l s .  Inside,  hanging from the r a f t e r s , were s e v e r a l l a r g e (one hundred f e e t by f o r t y f e e t ) t r a n s l u c e n t p a n e l s . s l i d e s weie p r o j e c t e d through them.  Simultaneously, Cage a t t a c h e d  f i l m and  contact  microphones t o the l i g h t i n g board so t h a t each change o f l i g h t s c r e a t e d sound.  Other e l e c t r o n i c sounds were a m p l i f i e d  over f i f t y - e i g h t s e p a r a t e  channels,  each h a v i n g  o p e r a t o r who c o u l d a d j u s t the volume a t w i l l . h a r p s i c h o r d i s t s independently composition  played  a  separate  Seven l i v e  e i t h e r t h e i r own  o r one o f the p i e c e s chosen by the o t h e r s .  one was t o l d when t o do what.  No  S e v e r a l thousand moving people  f i l l e d the f l o o r and s i d e s o f the a r e a , adding t o the conf u s i o n and n o i s e . The  i n c l u s i o n o f an acrobat  and a b e l l y dancers i n the  P a r i s v e r s i o n o f t h i s i d e a (1970) p o i n t s up the t h e a t r i c a l i n t e n t b e h i n d t h e work even more c l e a r l y .  I t was a m u l t i -  r i n g c i r c u s ( w i t h o u t t h e r i n g s ) i n which the p e r f o r m e r s and audience shared the performance space i n a c o n s t a n t change and movement.  Ronconi's p r o d u c t i o n  flow of  o f Orlando  (1970) uses the same i n t e g r a t e d s t a g i n g t e c h n i q u e .  The  Furioso  42 . i n t e g r a t e d a u d i e n c e , through c o l o u r , p h y s i c a l presence  and  human r e a c t i o n , becomes p a r t of the t h e a t r e i t s e l f . Theatre i n these terms has become what Cage d e s c r i b e s i  as " p u r p o s e l e s s p l a y t h a t awakens our senses". pure a c t i o n must e x i s t on i t s own.  Theatre as  With so many v a r i a b l e s at  such a s c a l e , Cage l o s e s c o n t r o l o f the p i e c e .  H i s non-  i n t e n t i o n , however, i s c o n c e p t u a l . s i n c e l o s s of c o n t r o l actually his original  intent.  A l l o f Cage's performances HPSCHD.  was  are not as g r a n d i o s e as  T h e a t r e P i e c e (1960), which was performed at the  L i v i n g T h e a t r e , i s of a s c a l e more t y p i c a l of the b u l k of h i s work.  I t i s a l s o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n i t s i n d e t e r m i n a c y and  o f e l e c t r o n i c sounds.  use  A l t h o u g h i n d e t e r m i n a c y i n many o f h i s  works i s a r r i v e d at through the O r i e n t a l "Book o f Changes", the J_ Ching (e.g. Music o f Changes-1951) , random i r r e g u l a r i t i e s o f a p i e c e o f paper  (e.g. Music f o r P i a n o - 1 9 5 2 ) , or the chance  overlapping of s e v e r a l transparent p l a s t i c templates V a r i a t i o n V-1958),  Theatre P i e c e  i s not.  from i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s . where between one and e i g h t p e r f o r m e r s " compartments.  The form i s b u i l t I t c a l l s f o r "any-  and i s s t r u c t u r e d i n  I n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m e r s choose twenty nouns and/  or verbs b e f o r e they b e g i n . o f these i s randomly  D u r i n g each time b r a c k e t , one  chosen and completed as an a c t i o n by  o f the p e r f o r m e r s i n d e p e n d e n t l y . play simultaneously.  Taped e l e c t r o n i c sounds  Thus, Theatre P i e c e r e l i e s on the  p e r f o r m e r s t h e m s e l v e s , r a t h e r than e l e c t r o n i c s and e f f e c t s to c r e a t e the t h e a t r e . spectacular.  (e.g.,  visual  I t i s more c o n c e p t u a l than  each  43.  4' 33"  (1952) i s Cage's u l t i m a t e Conceptual  performance.  4'33"  i n v o l v e d David Tudor, an  p i a n i s t , s i t t i n g s i l e n t l y at the p i a n o , n o t minutes and t h i r t y t h r e e seconds.  Theatre  accomplished  p l a y i n g , for four  The p i e c e ;was  made up  of  the g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g sounds of the audience as i t grew more and more r e s t l e s s and confused.  A l s o i n c l u d e d were the  o t h e r a c c i d e n t a l sounds t h a t occured d u r i n g t h a t s h o r t period  (e.g. doors opening,  etc.).  p l a c i n g the s c o r e on the p i a n o .  The  p i e c e began w i t h Tudor  I t ended when he c l o s e d the  s c o r e and walked o f f the stage f o u r minutes and t h i r t y seconds l a t e r .  three  Only the format and the d u r a t i o n of the p i e c e  were arranged beforehand.  The  d u r a t i o n was  chosen by chance  techniques. U s i n g the c o n c e r t h a l l format, Cage e x p l o i t e d t r a d i t i o n a l audience/performer  decorum and p l a y e d up shock v a l u e .  Performed i n the woods or a s t r e e t c o r n e r  (both o f which are  t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e ) , a d i f f e r e n t but e q u a l l y v a l i d s e t of u n i n t e n t i o n a l sounds would be produced, but the parody would disappear.  Parody i s v i t a l to the p i e c e .  o t h e r p i e c e o f Conceptual  4'33", l i k e  A r t , o n l y works once.  have r e a l i z e d t h i s , s i n c e the p i e c e was  never  even though i t i s h i s most famous work.  any  Cage must re-performed,  I t i s an e x e r c i s e  i n p e r c e p t i o n and u n p r e d i c t a b l i t y , as w e l l as a d e l i b e r a t e c h a l l e n g e to Western a e s t h e t i c s . 4'33"  i s Cage a t h i s most outrageous.  i s t i c i n i t s r a d i c a l s i m p l i c i t y and minimal numerical  framework.  I t i s uncharacterr e l i a n c e on a  I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t i t i s the  first  44.  p i e c e to come to mind i n any d i s c u s s i o n of Cage.  It is a  b r i l l i a n t p i e c e of C o n c e p t u a l A r t , however, w e l l b e f o r e i t s time. The  f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t of a r e c e n t Cage performance i n  M i l a n i s i n t e r e s t i n g because of the audience r e a c t i o n . i n t e r e s t i n g to see a new  It is  g e n e r a t i o n r e a c t i n g v i o l e n t l y to the  r a t i o n a l i t y of the ideas t h a t t h e i r p a r e n t s  found d i s t u r b i n g l y  irrational. L a s t December, John Cage p r e s e n t e d at M i l a n ' s T e a t r o L i r i c o h i s c o n c e r t of Empty Words . That i s the r e a d i n g of a hodgepodge of s y l l a b l e s and l e t t e r s o b t a i n e d by p u t t i n g Henry David Thoreau's J o u r n a l through a c e r t a i n number of chance changes ach.^ ved by means of the J_ Ching. S l i d e s showed drawings by Thoreau. The c o n c e r t , o r g a n i z e d by the p r i v a t e r a d i o network Channel 96, was a t t e n d e d m o s t l y by young p e o p l e , who b e i n g unprepared f o r Cage's "music" r e a c t e d a g a i n s t i t a f t e r the f i r s t few minutes. Threatening shouts l i k e "Shoot him" and'TJeath to I n t e l l e c t u a l s " were accompanied by f i r e c r a c k e r s and p l a s t i c bags f i l l e d w i t h water and thrown on Cage's head. A group from the audience even c l i m b e d on stage and a t t a c k e d Cage v e r b a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y . Without showing the l e a s t emotion, Cage w|nt on w i t h h i s "chant" f o r two and a h a l f hours. e  Cage's i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n g r e a t l y a f f e c t s the c h a r a c t e r his  performances.  of  The n o v e l t y of many of h i s i n v e n t i o n s o f t e n  c o l o u r s the p r e s e n t a t i o n w i t h a v e r y p e r s o n a l w i t and humour. Cage's e a r l y works are p e r c u s s i v e .  Found  instruments,  an e x t e n s i o n of e a r l i e r Dada experiments w i t h n o n - a r t o b j e c t s , are used c o n s i s t e n t l y because of t h e i r n o v e l sound p o s s i b ilities.  An e a r l y p i e c e such as C o n s t r u c t i o n i n M e t a l  t y p i c a l l y employs u n c o n v e n t i o n a l  instrumentation.  a d d i t i o n to the more t r a d i t i o n a l gongs, b e l l s , and  (1938)  In cymbals,  Cage u t i l i z e s automobile brake drums and l a r g e p i e c e s of scrap metal.  The s t r u c t u r e used i n the p i e c e i s t r a d i t i o n a l  and h i g h l y n u m e r i c a l , but the s e n s i b i l i t y o f i n v e n t i v e n e s s and e x p l o r a t i o n can a l r e a d y be  seen.  Found o b j e c t s used to c r e a t e unusual sounds l e d t o the i n v e n t i o n o f the P r e p a r e d P i a n o .  A t Cage's f i r s t  H a l l r e c i t a l i n 1949, Ross Parmenter  o f the New  Carnegie  York Times  said, John Cage came i n t o h i s own l a s t n i g h t , b o t h as an i n v e n t o r and a composer. Maro Ajemian p l a y e d a s i x t y n i n e minute c o m p o s i t i o n o f h i s on one of h i s " P r e p a r e d P i a n o s " , and t h e r e was no q u e s t i o n i n g the double impact on the s e l e c t and i n t e l l e c t u a l audience g a t h e r e d to hear i t at C a r n e g i e R e c i t a l H a l l . 5 P  Between 1938, the date o f the o r i g i n a l Bacchanale  Piano p i e c e , and 1951, when he composed Two wrote f i f t e e n works f o r the i n s t r u m e n t .  Prepared  P a s t o r a l e s , Cage  The P r e p a r e d P i a n o ,  however, i s as much an i d e a as i t i s an i n s t r u m e n t .  Particular  sound q u a l i t i e s needed f o r s p e c i f i c works determine the type o f p r e p a r a t i o n the p i a n o undergoes.  T h i s c r e a t e s an i n s t r u m e n t  which changes from p i e c e to p i e c e depending  on the type and  q u a n t i t y o f o b j e c t s m a n i p u l a t e d i n t o the p i a n o  itself.  Many o f these c o m p o s i t i o n s were c o n c e i v e d as accompani /  ments f o r performances  o f the Merce Cunningham Dance Company.  The i n s t r u m e n t i s a v e r y c o n v e n i e n t one f o r t o u r i n g , s i n c e most performance  spaces have p i a n o s .  The m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y t o  t r a n s f o r m any a v a i l a b l e ipiano - a few e r a s e r s , rubber bands, screws, and b l o c k s o f wood - are e a s i l y p o r t a b l e .  If  n e c e s s a r y , new v a r i a t i o n s on the P r e p a r e d Piano can be  improv-  i s e d from whatever m a t e r i a l s are a t hand, and the p i e c e can  46. s t i l l be performed as l o n g as the r h y t h m i c s t r u c t u r e i s maintained.  The P r e p a r e d Piano i s a l s o c o n v e n i e n t when t h e r e  i s l i m i t e d manpower.  An i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m e r has the t o n a l  range of s e v e r a l c o n v e n t i o n a l p e r c u s s i o n i s t s . Among Cage's o t h e r m u s i c a l i n v e n t i o n s i s the Water Gong. T h i s i s c r e a t e d by p l a c i n g a v i b r a t i n g gong i n a tub  o f water.  T h i s causes the t i m b r e and the q u a l i t y o f the sound to g r a d u a l l y change.  I t i s used i n many o f h i s works, such as Water Walk  (1959). Cage's sense o f humour i s shown i n h i s use of the t o y p i a n o as a s e r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t .  I t i s used, b o t h alone and  h i g h l y a m p l i f i e d , i n s e v e r a l o f h i s works.  In Music f o r  A m p l i f i e d Toy P i a n o (1960) he g i v e s i t c e n t r a l and s o l o f o c u s . B e f o r e the development  o f magnetic t a p e , Cage i n c o r p o r a t e d  the u n p r e d i c t a b l e sounds o f r a d i o . f o r i n Imaginary Landscape  #4.  Twelve r a d i o s are c a l l e d  Radio Music (1956) , a l a t e r  work, c a l l s f o r "one to e i g h t p e r f o r m e r s , each a t a r a d i o " . ^ The p e r f o r m e r s s i m p l y change the volume and the s t a t i o n s indeterminately  When Cage t o l d Morton Feldman about h i s  p l a n s t o p r e s e n t Radio Music i n performance, Feldman s a i d , 7  "But you c a n ' t do t h a t , and expect p e o p l e t o pay f o r i t . " Cage d i d . Cage's Imaginary Landscape  #5 i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d  to be the f i r s t magnetic tape c o m p o s i t i o n , which p r o b a b l y makes Cage the i n v e n t o r o f magnetic tape as a v i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t . He developed a new way o f s p l i c i n g which d i s t o r t s the o r i g i n a l l y taped sounds.  E l e c t r o n i c s p r o v i d e s him w i t h a wide range of n o i s e t h a t was u n a t t a i n a b l e b e f o r e , by making use o f a m p l i f i c a t i o n , f e e d back and d i s t o r t i o n .  Cage's many e l e c t r o n i c c o m p o s i t i o n s  s a t i s f y h i s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the p u r e l y t e c h n o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of p r o d u c i n g sound.  In performance, h i s works, l i k e t h a t o f  o t h e r e l e c t r o n i c music, are f i l l e d w i t h knobs, and t a n g l e s o f e x t e n s i o n c o r d s . however.  transistors,  Cage's are always h i g h l y a c t i v e ,  He moves from equipment  to equipment, o f t e n w e a r i n g  earphones, r e s e m b l i n g an e l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n i c i a n more than a t r a d i t i o n a l musician. At B r a n d e i s U n i v e r s i t y i n 1965, Cage p r e s e n t e d R o z a r t M i x . I t i s t y p i c a l o f h i s e l e c t r o n i c works i n performance.  He  p l a c e d e i g h t y - e i g h t tape l o o p s (the same as the number o f keys i n a p i a n o ) a t various l o c a t i o n s throughout the b u i l d i n g .  The  loops were made by d i s t o r t i n g e x c e r p t s o f the correspondence between Cage and the o r g a n i z e r s o f the event i n the p l a n n i n g o f the performance.  S i x p e r f o r m e r s were i n v o l v e d .  Their  t a s k was to move throughout the b u i l d i n g , i n t e r m i n g l i n g w i t h the s c a t t e r e d a u d i e n c e , and r e p l a c e the broken tape l o o p s . When o n l y t w e l v e loops were l e f t , the event became a p a r t y and r e f r e s h m e n t s were brought out.  (The c l o s e a u d i e n c e /  p e r f o r m e r c o n t a c t , and the freedom o f audience members to move throughout the space, i s much l i k e the s t a g i n g of Schechner's Tooth of Crime.) Cage's use of the extended performance space, which develops s t r o n g l y from the B l a c k Mountain P i e c e (19 52), comes d i r e c t l y from an a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e n s i b i l i t y .  High a m p l i f i c -  48. a t i o n o f sound f o r the purpose o f f i l l i n g i n t e r i o r spaces a l s o reflects this.  I t makes us k e e n l y aware o f the a r c h i t e c t u r e  as an e n c l o s u r e and emphasizes i t s p e c u l i a r i t i e s . Cage's i n t e r e s t i n the extended performance space goes back as e a r l y as 1941, when he made d i r e c t use o f the a r c h i t e c t u r a l environment i n L i v i n g Room M u s i c by u t i l i z i n g d o o r s , windows, e t c . as p e r c u s s i v e i n s t r u m e n t s .  T h i s i n t e g r a t i o n of  the a r c h i t e c t u r a l space w i t h the a r t work i s an e a r l y e x p e r i ment i n E n v i r o n m e n t a l i s m .  Schechner, as w e l l as Ann  Halprin  and o t h e r r e c e n t e x p e r i m e n t a l groups, c o n s c i o u s l y i n c o r p o r a t e the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the performance space i n t o t h e i r performance . Another e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e t h a t Cage has made much use o f as i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n i s the c o n t a c t microphone.  In performance,  i t i s always c o u p l e d w i t h a m u l t i p l e l o u d s p e a k e r system, which i s a r r a n g e d around the t o t a l performance space.  He has  used t h i s i n s t r u m e n t i n a performance s i t u a t i o n i n ways as s i m p l e as w e a r i n g a c o n t a c t microphone on h i s t h r o a t and d r i n k i n g a g l a s s o f w a t e r , the sound then being h i g h l y and d i s t r i b u t e d around the room. Eclipticalis  amplified  On a l a r g e r s c a l e , A t l a s  (1964) i n v o l v e s an e n t i r e symphony o r c h e s t r a  equipped w i t h c o n t a c t microphones on each i n s t r u m e n t , each w i t h i t s own l o u d s p e a k e r a t some p o i n t i n the a u d i t o r i u m . The sounds o f the p i e c e are i n d e t e r m i n a t e l y s t r u c t u r e d from a set of transparent p l a t e s of a s t r o l o g i c a l  charts.  A t l a s E c l i p t i c a l i s makes use o f another Cage i n v e n t i o n , the M e c h a n i c a l Conductor.  T h i s i s a l a r g e arm (not r e a l i s t i c )  which moves i n a c l o c k - l i k e r o t a t i o n d u r i n g the e n t i r e p e r f o r m -  49.  ance, and ends the p i e c e when i t s t o p s moving.  I t i s placed  i n the c e n t r e o f the o r c h e s t r a , r e p l a c i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l conductor.  When the p i e c e was p l a y e d i n New York by the  New York P h i l h a r m o n i c , Leonard B e r n s t e i n g r a c i o u s l y t u r n e d the podium over to the M e c h a n i c a l Conductor f o r the Cage p a r t o f the c o n c e r t . In summary, Cage sees h i s performance work b e i n g as much t h e a t r e as i t i s music.  W h i l e h i s performances v a r y a g r e a t  d e a l i n t h e i r s p e c t a c l e , they c o n s i s t e n t l y employ a t h e a t r i c a l i t y i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t and competing media and a c t i v i t i e s u n i f i e d o n l y by a shared s p a c e / t i m e . frequently highly technical, u t i l i z i n g d e s i g n e d by Cage.  They are  unique i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , they u s u a l l y approach  space a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y , and, perhaps n e e d l e s s to add, they are never e x a c t l y r e p r o d u c i b l e .  49a.  CAGE AND THE HAPPENING  50.  CAGE AND  THE  HAPPENING  A l l Happenings are t h e a t r e i n Cage's terras. "engage both the eye and way.  They c l e a r l y  the e a r " i n a c o n s c i o u s l y s t r u c t u r e d  They a l s o " i n v o l v e any number of p e o p l e , but not j u s t  L i k e Cage's own  work, they are a type of t h e a t r i c a l  one".  spectacle.  In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e r e a l a c t i o n s , o b j e c t s , and p e o p l e are used, they are a c t u a l l y more "pure" as an a r t form, i n Cagean terms, than l i t e r a r y t h e a t r e .  They "resemble l i f e more c l o s e l y " by  dealing d i r e c t l y with functional r e a l i t y . Darko S u v i n d e f i n e s a Happening as a genre- of t h e a t r e s p e c t a c l e , u s i n g v a r i o u s types of s i g n s and media, o r g a n i z e d around the a c t i o n o f human p e r f o r m e r s i n a homogeneous and t h e m a t i c a l l y u n i f i e d way, and a n o n - d i a g e t i c [from the Greek , d i e g e s e = s t o r y t o l d j s t r u c t u r i n g of time and space. K i r b y expands on t h i s d e f i n i t i o n to i n c l u d e a c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e and "non-matrixed" performance. words " m a t r i x e d "  and  (He uses the  " n o n - m a t r i x e d " to d i s t i n g u i s h between  t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i n g , i n which the a c t o r c r e a t e s an m a t r i x o f t i m e , p l a c e , and person who  c h a r a c t e r , and  the a c t i v i t i e s of a  i s b e i n g watched w h i l e c o m p l e t i n g  a real-life  A n o n - c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p of v i s u a l and s h o u l d be added to the  imaginary  s o n i c images  definition.  Happenings are not t h e a t r e i n the t r a d i t i o n a l They do not i n v o l v e dramatic s u s p e n s i o n of d i s b e l i e f .  sense.  c o n f l i c t or p l o t or demand the  B e i n g " n o n - m a t r i x e d " , as K i r b y  p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e i s no c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a r t i f i c i a l time and s e t t i n g .  task.)  T h i s s t y l e of p r e s e n t a t i o n i s an  character, extension  of Cage's Dada-based i d e a s of b l u r r i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n s between  51. the a r t i s t i c and n o n - h e r m e t i c , o r a r t and l i f e .  Performers  c a r r y out t h e i r t a s k s as themselves i n a c t u a l environments. Happenings, as a form, o f f e r much d i v e r s i t y , tod e x c e p t i o n s can be found f o r most g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  about them.  D e s p i t e t h e i r v a r i a t i o n s , however, Cage's concept o f a r t and theatre  as a c t i v i t y i s b a s i c  t o a l l Happenings.  a c t i o n of completing assigned tasks w i t h i n a  I t i s the  given.structure  t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e form. In t h e Happening, a c t i o n i t s e l f i s seen i n f u n c t i o n a l terms. The p e r f o r m e r s r e a c t f u n c t i o n a l l y , n o t a e s t h e t i c a l l y , t o each o t h e r ' s a c t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e i r own.  The images are  a e s t h e t i c , but the a c t i v i t i e s themselves a r e p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l . The p i c n i c scene i n Robert Whitman's Mouth (1960), f o r example, was a c t u a l l y d i n n e r f o r t h e two p e r f o r m e r s i n v o l v e d . ( I t s ;  menu changed w i t h each performance, depending upon who had p r e p a r e d the meal, i n c i d e n t a l l y , t r u e t o t h e Cagean s p i r i t o f non-reproducibility.  )  Bringing  actual r e a l i t y  within  a e s t h e t i c s , as Cage does, b l u r s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n s between u s e f u l a c t i o n and n o n - u s e f u l a c t i o n and o f t e n c r e a t e s  a double-edged  reality. Cage's a c t i v e a e s t h e t i c o r i e n t a t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate  t o t h e v i s u a l a r t i s t s and m u s i c i a n s , l i k e A l l a n  Kaprow and George B r e c h t , who a t t e n d e d h i s E x p e r i m e n t a l Composition classes  a t t h e New S c h o o l f o r S o c i a l Research from  1958 t o 1960. Cage's i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c view o f a r t - a s - a c t i o n complemented t h e A b s t r a c t a r t i s t s a t the time.  Expressionist  mood o f most New York  The a r t - a s - a c t i o n a s p e c t o f Happenings  thus has i t s r o o t s as much i n t h e A c t i o n P a i n t i n g o f J a c k s o n  52.  P o l l o c k as i t does i n Cage. Most Happening a r t i s t s were o r i g i n a l l y v i s u a l a r t i s t s o r , l i k e Cage ,musicians.  F r e q u e n t l y , words were used as sounds  r a t h e r than f o r meaning, i n much the same way noises.  In f a c t , Cagean n o i s e i t s e l f was  productions.  The  as Cage uses  o f t e n used i n these  l a c k o f t e c h n i c a l t h e a t r i c a l e x p e r t i s e or  a c t i n g s k i l l by the people making Happenings, c o u p l e d w i t h t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n the v i s u a l and m u s i c a l a r t s , shaped the type o f t h e a t r e they produced.  Cage, the m u s i c i a n , as w e l l as Cage,  the t h e o r i s t was r e l e v a n t . One  o f Cage's most i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the  ment o f Happenings was  the l i b e r a t i n g e f f e c t he had on the  o r i g i n a l Happening a r t i s t s . those New  School  develop-  D i c k H i g g i n s r e m i n i s c e s about  classes:  The b e s t t h i n g t h a t happened to us i n Cage's c l a s s was the sense t h a t he gave t h a t "anyt h i n g goes", a t l e a s t p o t e n t i a l l y . The main t h i n g was the r e a l i z a t i o n o f the p o s s i b i l i t i e s which made i t e a s i e r t o use s m a l l s c a l e s , and a g r e a t e r gamut of p o s s i b i l i t i e s than our ^ p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e would have l e d us to e x p e c t . Cage's a t t i t u d e toward e r r o r , v a l u e judgements i n a r t , and h i s acceptance  of t h i n g s g o i n g wrong as s i m p l y p a r t of a  l a r g e r , u n i v e r s a l f l o w , f r e e d h i s s t u d e n t s from f e a r o f f a i l u r e and opened t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y .  A l s o , s e e i n g the a r t i s t  as  a c c e p t o r brought new p o s s i b i l i t i e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s by m i n i m i z i n g i n d i v i d u a l t a s t e and p u l l i n g the a e s t h e t i c and n o n - a e s t h e t i c closer together. H i s most d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e can be seen i n the use o f a flexible structure.  Compartmentalization,  indeterminacy,  m u l t i - f o c u s , and s i m u l t a n e i t y are g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the form.  C o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n , as opposed t o t h e l i n e a r cause-  a n d - e f f e c t i n f o r m a t i o n s t r u c t u r e found i n l i t e r a r y t h e a t r e , i s common t o a l l Happenings.  T h i s i s the framework t h a t a l l o f  Cage's works a r e based on. In Happenings, c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n was f r e q u e n t l y accomplished  through l i g h t i n g , as i n Robert Whitman's American  Moon ( I 9 6 0 ) , where a b l a c k o u t d i v i d e d each s e c t i o n .  Kaprow  p h y s i c a l i z e d t h e concept by l i n k i n g each s e c t i o n w i t h a corresponding, d i s t i n c t , s p a t i a l area.  For example, i n  18 Happenings i n 6. P a r t s (1958) , p a r t i t i o n s were s e t up t o d i v i d e the space.  P h y s i c a l c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n was f r e q u e n t l y  used by o t h e r s as w e l l . Indeterminacy, d i f f e r e n t ways.  t o c r e a t e f l e x i b i l i t y , was a l s o used i n  D i c k H i g g i n s ' G r a p h i s S e r i e s (1961) i n t e g r a t e d  the space w i t h the a c t i o n by marking  the f l o o r i n a l a r g e ,  i r r e g u l a r d e s i g n and l a b e l l i n g each i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h an action-direction.  Performer movement was l i m i t e d t o f o l l o w i n g  the f l o o r l i n e s , but no d i r e c t i o n was p r e s c r i b e d .  At every  i n t e r s e c t i o n , one o f a l i s t o f p r e - l e a r n e d sentences was s a i d , w h i l e p e r f o r m i n g t h e a c t i o n d i c t a t e d on the f l o o r . of  A variety  i n d e t e r m i n a t e combinations were c r e a t e d i n t h i s way. Sometimes i n d e t e r m i n a c y was a c h i e v e d by combining  r a t h e r than the p h y s i c a l environment,  props,  w i t h the a c t i o n s .  George B r e c h t ' s Motor V e h i c l e Sundown (1960) i n v o l v e d the p a r t i c i p a n t s s i t t i n g i n t h e i r c a r s , p e r f o r m i n g i n a random o r d e r p r e - a s s i g n e d t a s k s , l i k e s t a r t motor, open and c l o s e  54. window, b l i n k l i g h t s , t u r n on w i n d s h i e l d w i p e r , and sound horn. The  c a r s were f o u n d - o b j e c t s  !  made i n t o v i s u a l and s o n i c  ments, much l i k e the p e r c u s s i o n i n s t r u m e n t s  instru-  o f Cage's e a r l y  works, o r some o f h i s more e c c e n t r i c i n v e n t i o n s .  The rhythms  were i n d e t e r m i n a t e and the t o t a l , n o n - s t a t i c e f f e c t was one of s h i f t i n g , u n p r e d i c t a b l e j u x t a p o s i t i o n .  T h i s p i e c e was  o r i g i n a l l y performed " I n D e d i c a t i o n t o John Cage".^ Although  t h e form i s i n d e t e r m i n a t e , few Happenings employ  f o r m a l chance t e c h n i q u e s  l i k e d i c e o r the I_ Ching.  An  e x c e p t i o n i s D i c k H i g g i n s , who used d i c e i n The T a r t K i r b y ' s F i r s t and Second W i l d e r n e s s game format, a l t h o u g h  (1965).  (1963) a l s o used d i c e i n a  t h i s performance was r e p o r t e d l y p i c k e t e d  by H i g g i n s and A l Hansen, d i s c i p l e s o f Cage, f o r "improper use of chance  techniques".^  S i m u l t a n e i t y was taken beyond Cage's use o f i t by the Happening a r t i s t s .  They o f t e n c r e a t e d simultaneous  events  t a k i n g p l a c e a t v a r i o u s d i s t a n t , l o c a t i o n s a t the same time. M a r t a M i n u j i n ' s S i m u l t a n e i t y i n S i m u l t a n e i t y (1966) happened i n t h r e e c o u n t r i e s and made use o f mass media l i k e t e l e g r a m s , and t e l e p h o n e s . A l t h o u g h  television,  t h i s p i e c e was i n v o l v e d  w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l media, as i s Cage's work, most Happenings i n v o l v e d n o t h i n g more advanced t h a t the use o f s l i d e s and f i l m . Indeterminacy  and s i m u l t a n e i t y were not used i n Happenings  f o r the purpose o f m i n i m i z i n g the presence o f the a r t i s t e s taste.  They were used t o a r r i v e a t new and u n p r e d i c t a b l e  relationships.  The a r t i s t ' ; s w i l l was t o c r e a t e images or  i n t e n t i o n a l sensory o v e r l o a d through  simultaneous,  random  55 .  juxtaposition  and i s v e r y much;. i n evidence . ;  Although thocontent, has  or s u b j e c t m a t t e r , o f most Happenings  l i t t l e t o do w i t h p s y c h o l o g y , i t i s not concerned w i t h  "social realization" either.  Most Happenings a r e concerned  w i t h the a b s t r a c t j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f u n r e l a t e d  images  Oldenburg's Autobodys-1965), o r pure f a n t a s y  (e.g. Red Groom's  The  Burning Building-1959).  ilities"  (e.g.  The o n l y " s h i f t i n p u b l i c  sensib-  t h a t t a k e s p l a c e i s a detached and a e s t h e t i c one.  Q u e s t i o n s about t r a d i t i o n a l performance and the n a t u r e o f a r t i n general  are r a i s e d .  The r e a l m i s a r t i s t i c , n o t s o c i a l .  When Kaprow c a l l s f o r the source o f themes, m a t e r i a l s , a c t i o n s , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between them....to be d e r i v e d from any p l a c e o r p e r i o d except from t h e a r t s , t h e i r d e r i v a t i v e s , and t h e i r m i l i e u , ? h i s i n t e n t f o l l o w s Cage: everyday r e a l i t y .  namely, t o b r i n g a r t c l o s e r t o  Even though the raw m a t e r i a l s o f the  medium a r e f a m i l i a r t o everyone, however, Happenings remained much l i k e Cage's work, an e l i t e a r t phenomenon, rooted  i n a e s t h e t i c s and t h e r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t o l d e r  They were never p o p u l a r e n t e r t a i n m e n t . i n small, intimate gatherings  traditions.  They were u s u a l l y done  o f the avant-garde community,  i n l o f t s , o f f - b e a t g a l l e r i e s , c l a s s r o o m s and o t h e r nont h e a t r i c a l environments. The  Happening i d e a developed from t h e B l a c k Mountain P i e c e  and was spread through Cage's s t u d e n t s t o o t h e r s .  Many  a r t i s t s c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t s development, g i v i n g much v a r i e t y t o the form.  T h e i r common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f m u l t i - m e d i a , a c t i o n  b u i l t from non-matrixed t a s k s , s i m u l t a n e i t y l e a d i n g t o  56 .  unrealistic  and o f t e n  nonsensical  juxtapositions,  sensory o r i e n t a t i o n a l l remain true model. collages  Like  Cage's  of actions  t o the B l a c k Mountain  performance works, Happenings which explored  and a  were  a non-theatrical  and i n w h i c h no p a r t i c u l a r message was  communicated.  environment  CAGE AND THE LIVING THEATRE  57. CAGE AND THE LIVING THEATRE  The p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n between Cage and J u d i t h M a l i n a and J u l i a n Beck goes back t o the e a r l y f o r t i e s , b e f o r e the f o r m a t i o n o f the L i v i n g T h e a t r e .  When he and X e n i a  first  moved to New York and were l i v i n g w i t h Peggy Guggenhim and Max E r n s t , they became a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the Becks.  The Becks  were p a r t o f the community o f a r t i s t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s  who  surrounded Peggy Guggenheim a t the time. In  1947, Cage was one o f the o r i g i n a l group o f people the  Becks c o n t a c t e d when they were l o o k i n g f o r support f o r t h e i r new t h e a t r e . years.  T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n has been m a i n t a i n e d over the  I n 1960, Cage was i n c l u d e d i n the Sponsoring Committee  to honour the L i v i n g Theatre's 1000th performance."'"  (Others  were Jean Cocteau, Merce Cunningham, E l a i n e and W i l l e m de Kooning, A l l n G i n s b e r g , P a u l Goodman, and Tennessee W i l l i a m s . ) e  In  the e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e L i v i n g T h e a t r e , Monday n i g h t s  were s e t up f o r i n f o r m a l g a t h e r i n g s . a r t i s t s , and o t h e r s congregated  Playwrights, poets,  to discuss current p r o j e c t s ,  and o f t e n r e a d from t h e i r works.  Dylan Thomas and Cage were  two o f the f i r s t t o r e a d . Between 1959 and 1963, these Monday evening programs were r e i n s t a t e d . D u r i n g t h i s t i m e , s e v e r a l Happenings were h e l d i n the t h e a t r e . In  1952, Cage performed  i n t h e L i v i n g Theatre space.  the p r e m i e r of Music of Changes Music o f Changes was one o f  Cage's e a r l y i n d e t e r m i n a t e c o m p o s i t i o n s . of  the I Ching i n h i s work.  I t was the f i r s t use  A l s o i n 1952, the f o l l o w i n g  t e x t was i n c l u d e d i n the program notes f o r "An Evening o f  58. Bohemian T h e a t r e " , which was staged by t h e L i v i n g w r i t t e n in.response ) to a r e q u e s t f o r ) a m a n i f e s t o , 1952 ) nothing writing nothing hearing nothing playing  i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by a p i e c e o f music i s accomplished by a p i e c e o f music i s accomplished by a p i e c e o f music  Cage's statement, which  and u n p r e d i c t a b l e  our ears are now m excellent condition  i s a poem i n i t s e l f , negated  a t i o n and opened t h e audience new.  instantaneous  Theatre,  expect-  t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f something  The p l a y s , t h r e e s h o r t p i e c e s by P i c a s s o , S t e i n and  T.S. E l i o t , were t r a d i t i o n a l l y s t r u c t u r e d and l i t e r a r y , however, I t was o n l y l a t e r t h a t t h e L i v i n g Theatre began to develop a looser t h e a t r i c a l  style.  I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o p o i n t out t h a t the i d e a s o f A r t a u d and P i s c a t o r , t o g e t h e r w i t h a p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f S o c i a l A r a r c h i s m , form t h e t h e o r e t i c a l base upon which the experiments o f t h e L i v i n g Theatre have been b u i l t .  Cage i s o n l y one o f  many i n f l u e n c e s t h a t have a f f e c t e d t h e i r development. However, as t h e mature s t y l e o f t h e L i v i n g Theatre grew, many a s p e c t s o f Cage's a e s t h e t i c came t o be seen. The p o l i t i c a l c o n t e n t o f t h e L i v i n g Theatre work i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h Cage's views on the c o n t e n t and f u n c t i o n o f art.  Not o n l y i s t h e s u b j e c t matter o f t h e i r works non-  p s y c h o l o g i c a l , b u t to t h e Becks as w e l l as Cage, who ;is a l s o a S o c i a l A n a r c h i s t , t h e i r works " h e l p us to adapt t o our complex, contemporary s o c i e t y " by p o s i n g a l t e r n a t i v e to a c a p i t a l i s t i c economy and s o c i a l  structure.  solutions  59^.  T h e i r i n t e n t t o b r i n g a r t and l i f e both i n the work and i n t h e i r l i f e s t y l e .  t o g e t h e r i s expressed The l i f e s t y l e of the  L i v i n g Theatre has become a work o f a r t i n i t s e l f .  As i t has  matured,  t h e . L i v i n g Theatre has managed, more than any o t h e r  American  t h e a t r e group, to b l u r a r t and l i f e on a n o n - a e s t h e t i c  level.  Having had the e x p e r i e n c e of p e r f o r m i n g at the  M i c h i g a n F e s t i v a l o f E x p e r i m e n t a l T h e a t r e the same year as the L i v i n g T h e a t r e , as w e l l as s h a r i n g an o r d i n a r y s o c i a l w i t h the company, I was  s t r u c k by the power of t h e i r  p r e s e n c e , even i n the most everyday s i t u a t i o n s .  evening collective  Their larger-  t h a n - l i f e q u a l i t y as a group i s a c h i e v e d i n p a r t through c u l t u r a l backgrounds  ( v a r i o u s c o l o u r s , shapes, and  mixed  nationalities),  i n p a r t from the w i l d n e s s of extreme h a i r s t y l e s and a sense o f a g g r e s s i v e s e x u a l i t y , i n p a r t through c l o t h i n g t h a t i s used b o t h i n and out of t h e a t r i c a l performance,  and i n p a r t from a  tendency to be c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l as i n d i v i d u a l s .  Together, they  communicate a t h r e a t n i n g c h a l l e n g e by b e i n g so a g g r e s s i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l a g a i n s t the background society.  Simply by b e i n g who  of a n o n - a n a r c h i s t i c  they are they f u n c t i o n on an  everyday l e v e l as a r t i n t e g r a t e d w i t h the r e s t of s o c i e t y . But by becoming t h e i r a n a r c h i s t i c a r t , t h e - L i v i n g Theatre are  v i r t u a l o u t s i d e r s wherever  they.go. Reports of t h e i r t o u r s  t e l l o f c o n t i n u a l d i s t r u s t and o f t e n c a n c e l l a t i o n because of 2  their i m p l i c i t threat.  Cage, on the o t h e r hand, l i v e s  q u i e t l y and c o m f o r t a b l y alone i n a s m a l l a r t i s t ' s community o u t s i d e o f New  York.  The L i v i n g Theatre have gone beyond him  i n t h e i r anarchy and i n b r i n g i n g l i f e and a r t t o g e t h e r . Compared to them, Cage seems t h e o r e t i c a l and academic i n  60  lifestyle. T h i s a r t / l i f e r e l a t i o n s h i p f l o w s i n t o t h e i r f o r m a l performances  through the use o f non-matrixed a c t i n g .  The  actors  p e r f o r m as t h e m s e l v e s , sometimes i n t r o d u c i n g themselves to the audience by t h e i r r e a l names.  Another t e c h n i q u e they use to  b l u r the a e s t h e t i c and non-hermetic i s d i r e c t audience i n v o l v e ment.  F r e q u e n t l y , audience members are asked to c o n t r i b u t e by  p e r f o r m i n g s p e c i f i c t a s k s w i t h i n the space-time s t r u c t u r e o f the  performance. They make much use of found, n o n - t h e a t r i c a l  environments.  The Legacy o f C a i n i s an as y e t u n f i n i s h e d but growing  group  of one hundred and f i f t y p l a y s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d to be 3  performed i n v a r i o u s c i t y l o c a t i o n s , but NOT  a theatre.  Found o b j e c t s as props and i n s t r u m e n t s are a l s o o f t e n used in production.  F r e q u e n t l y t h i s i s done out of economic  n e c e s s i t y , but i t s t i l l performances. (the  adds an everyday r e a l i t y to t h e i r  The found i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n used i n F r a n k e n s t e i n  f l o o r , f u r n i s h i n g s , s e a t s , e t c , of the room) i s the same  i d e a t h a t Cage used i n h i s e a r l y L i v i n g Room M u s i c . In the L i v i n g Theatre A c t i o n D e c l a r a t i o n (1974), the a r t - a s - a c t i o n a e s t h e t i c , so b a s i c to Cage, i s e x p r e s s e d . Abandon the t h e a t r e s . C r e a t e o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r the manci i n the s t r e e t . Create circumstances t h a t w i l l l e a d to a c t i o n , which i s the h i g h e s t form ^ of t h e a t r e we know. C r e a t e a c t i o n . F i n d new forms. U n l i k e Cage, however, the L i v i n g T h e a t r e d i r e c t s i t s a c t i o n toward p o l i t i c a l  ends.  S t r u c t u r a l l y , Cage's i n f l u e n c e can be seen i n the use o f compartmentalization.  T h i s has been used i n a l l L i v i n g Theatre  6 1.  p r o d u c t i o n s s i n c e M y s t e r i e s and S m a l l e r P i e c e s (1964) . Six  In  P u b l i c A c t s (1975), c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n was coupled w i t h  environmental  changes, much l i k e many Happenings.  s e c t i o n o f t h i s outdoor site.  Each  s p e c t a c l e took p l a c e at a d i f f e r e n t  The audience moved i n a m e d i e v a l - l i k e p r o c e s s i o n down  the s t r e e t s from p o i n t t o p o i n t . A s e c t i o n o f M y s t e r i e s and S m a l l e r P l a c e s i n v o l v e d a s e r i e s o f t a b l e a u x v i v a n t s i n which a c t o r s i n d e t e r m i n a t e l y changed p o s i t i o n s i n a c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z e d unable  t o see t h e o t h e r s .  set.  Each a c t o r was  A l l movement was done i n s i l e n c e .  The p i e c e was one o f c o n s t a n t s h i f t i n g and f l o w .  Judith Malina  states: A l l we wanted t o say w i t h these t a b l e a u x i s whatever p o s t u r e our b o d i e s assume, i t w i l l always be b e a u t i f u l , because t h e body i s b e a u t i f u l and the eye f i n d s a n a t u r a l s a t i s faction i n i t . 5 The  i d e a i s p a r a l l e l i n movement t o Cage's use o f i n d e t e r m i n a c y  i n sound and s i l e n c e .  The broad d e f i n i t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s  t h e a t r e , r e f l e c t e d i n Malina'-s statement,  i s a l s o v e r y Cagean.  The Chord, another compartment o f M y s t e r i e s , was e n t i r e l y based on i n d e t e r m i n a c y and u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . i n v o l v e d a l l performers  The scene  i n d i v i d u a l l y and s e q u e n t i a l l y i n t o n i n g  a note and s u s t a i n i n g i t .  The chord changed w i t h d u r a t i o n .  Every performance was d i f f e r e n t because o f v a r i a t i o n s i n t o n e , i n t e n s i t y and volume. art  The t h e a t r e , was s i m p l y the process and  o f making the chord. M y s t e r i e s was r e a l l y a Happening t h a t used a t h e a t r i c a l  r a t h e r than a v i s u a l a r t s or m u s i c a l v e r n a c u l a r .  There were  62. no t e x t or costumes. no n a r r a t i v e . t h e i r own  A l l a c t i n g was  non-matrixed.  was  Sounds and movement were used a b s t r a c t l y f o r  sake, not f o r the sake o f an imposed s t o r y .  performance  The  was i n d e t e r m i n a t e .  Free Theatre (1966) was  an experiment designed to c r e a t e  a t h e a t r i c a l e q u i v a l e n t of Cage's 4'33". anarchic  There  and w i t h o u t r u l e s .  o f t h e a t r e to the l i m i t .  It is totally  I t pushes the b r o a d e s t d e f i n i t i o n  Cage has d e f i n e d an experiment  "an a c t i o n of which the outcome i s u n f o r e s e e n " . ^ good example.  as  This i s a  The mimeographed sheet passed out to s p e c t a t o r s  read: FREE THEATRE T h i s i s Free T h e a t r e . Free T h e a t r e i s i n v e n t e d by the a c t o r s as they p l a y i t . Free Theatre has never been r e h e a r s e d . We have t r i e d Free T h e a t r e . Sometimes i t f a i l s . N o t h i n g i s ever the same. THE LIVING THEATRE In the M i l a n performance,  7  the p i e c e began w i t h o u t anyone p a y i n g  too much a t t e n t i o n to the a c t o r s .  The company j u s t s t o o d on  stage s e n s i n g the v i b r a t i o n s and w a i t i n g f o r something happen.  Nothing d i d .  to  S l o w l y , " w i t h o u t s p e a k i n g t o each o t h e r ,  we formed a t i g h t n u c l e u s of our b o d i e s i n s i l e n c e .  We  got  g  v e r y c l o s e t o each o t h e r and d i d not move or  speak."  E v e n t u a l l y , the I t a l i a n s got angry and began to p l a y Free Theatre themselves by screaming and f i n a l l y coming up onto the stage and p u s h i n g p e o p l e around.  The company  remained  t o g e t h e r , m o t i o n l e s s and s i l e n t , moving o n l y t o l e a v e b e f o r e the p o l i c e a r r i v e d to break up the angry crowd.  I t was  b a s i c a l l y the same e x p e r i e n c e t h a t happened to Cage i n M i l a n  63. twelve y e a r s  later.  In d i s c u s s i n g the r e a c t i o n to the p i e c e , M a l i n a s a i d , In our judgement, we d i d p e r f o r m , because we t r a n s f o r m e d a s p e c i f i c atmosphere i n t o an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t one. Then we l e f t because g t h e r e was n o t h i n g more t h a t c o u l d have emerged. (She was  not r e a l l y b e i n g honest, s i n c e , o b v i o u s l y , the  a r r i v a l of the p o l i c e would have produced another l e g i t i m a t e d r a m a t i c atmosphere to be  transformed.)  With Free T h e a t r e , t h e r e are no l o n g e r any c r i t e r i a f o r good and bad a c t i o n .  E t h i c s are n o n - e x i s t e n t .  The Becks t u r n  t h i s problem i n t o p o l i t i c a l d i a l o g u e by making the  romantic  a s s e r t i o n t h a t when a f r e e economic system i s e s t a b l i s h e d , and we are r i d o f the m a s t e r - s l a v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , e t h i c s w i l l l o n g e r be needed because man S i n c e t h e r e was  i s b a s i c a l l y good and  noble.  no d e f i n e d s t r u c t u r e at a l l , not even a  time s t r u c t u r e , even Cage's broad d e f i n i t i o n does not t h i s experiment  as t h e a t r e .  Although  cover  i t began as an a e s t h e t i c  i d e a , i t c r o s s e d the b a r r i e r , and became s i m p l y b i z a r r e In 1960,  no  life.  the L i v i n g Theatre produced a pure Cagean pro-  d u c t i o n e n t i t l e d Theatre  o f Chance.  Jackson MacLow, who  become i n t e r e s t e d i n Cage through h i s music and had been of h i s s t u d e n t s at the New  had one  S c h o o l , o r g a n i z e d the p r o d u c t i o n .  MacLow's chance music and chance p o e t r y were a l s o used i n l a t e r Living productions.  Theatre  o f Chance i n v o l v e d two  p l a y s , one w r i t t e n by MacLow. The M a r r y i n g Maiden was  w r i t t e n by d e v e l o p i n g c h a r a c t e r  and d i a l o g scenes u s i n g I Ching hexagrams.  Emotion, volume,  tone and d e s c r i p t i o n were added on the spot by chance  64.' s e l e c t i o n of p r e p a r e d a l t e r n a t i v e s . a t i o n a l and was  I t was h i g h l y i m p r o v i s -  almost e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t e v e r y performance.  The second p l a y was  a v e r s i o n o f S o p h o c l e s ' p l a y Women  o f T r a c h i s d i r e c t e d w i t h chance t e c h n i q u e s by J u d i t h M a l i n a . She p r e p a r e d cards of the t e x t of each scene.  D u r i n g perform-  ance d i c e were used i n the s e l e c t i o n o f each.  Every time a  seven was  thrown a random c a r d was handed t o an a c t o r ,  who  would p e r f o r m i t .  A f i v e a c t i v a t e d music which had been  composed by Cage.  The "music" c o n s i s t e d o f an e l e c t r o n i c a l l y  d i s t o r t e d r e a d i n g of the p l a y . Theatre o f Chance reamined i n the r e p e r t o r y f o r n e a r l y a year."^ The i n t e r a c t i o n between Cage and the L i v i n g T h e a t r e i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the g e n e r a l development of New  Theatre  because  they exposed h i s a e s t h e t i c to the l a r g e r t h e a t r i c a l community on a p r o d u c t i o n l e v e l .  Examples of such d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e as  the ones d e s c r i b e d here ( i . e . use of chance t e c h n i q u e s , e t c . ) are not p a r t o f the more r e c e n t L i v i n g Theatre s t y l e , but s i m u l t a n e i t y and a l l o w a n c e s f o r the u n p r e d i c t a b l e are b a s i c to t h e i r approach.  The broad Cagean d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e a t r e ,  i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n of the a e s t h e t i c and the n o n - a e s t h e t i c ( o f t e n through audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) , non-matrixed a c t i n g and comp a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n have a l s o been r e t a i n e d . e x p r e s s e d i n v a r i o u s ways i n the b u l k of New Cage's broad i n f l u e n c e s on the New  These are a l s o Theatre work.  Theatre owe a g r e a t d e a l  to the r e s p o n s i v e n e s s o f J u d i t h M a l i n a and J u l i a n Beck to his  ideas.  64a.  CONCLUSION  65.  CONCLUSION  As we have seen, Cage's a e s t h e t i c i s b u i l t m e n t a l l y on the combination  funda-  o f the n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l and  e x p e r i e n t i a l approach o f O r i e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y a r t , a r t = l i f e concepts found i n Dada.  and the a n t i -  The f i r s t i s expressed  through u n p r e d i c a b i l i t y , the g o a l o f p e r s o n a l  non-involve-  ment and the use o f a m u l t i - f a c e t e d f i e l d s t r u c t u r e i n p l a c e o f the cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t r a d i t i o n a l Western a r t .  The second i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s a n t i - t r a d i t i o n -  a l i s m and h i s concern w i t h f u n c t i o n a l , everyday in a r t i s t i c  reality  contexts.  Through the use o f m u l t i - f o c u s and s i m u l t a n e i t y , Cage has  c r e a t e d a r t works i n which the p e r c e i v e r must d e f i n e  h i s own a e s t h e t i c e x p e r i e n c e Chance and i n d e t e r m i n a c y  by making p e r s o n a l  choices.  are used t o c r e a t e f l e x i b l e , non-  s t a t i c works o f a r t i n which e l e m e n t s , b e i n g are engaged i n a s t a t e o f process  unpredictable,  o r c o n t i n u a l change.  This  leads t o a r t works which are v o i d o f f i x e d end p r o d u c t s and are never e x a c t l y  reproduceable.  H i s r a d i c a l and expansive  views have s t i m u l a t e d many  d i r e c t o r s and i n d i v i d u a l t h e a t r e a r t i s t s t o e x p l o r e nont h e a t r i c a l environments, a f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e and the ' n a t u r a l t h e a t r e ' o f r e a l , everyday a c t i o n s .  Historical  p r e c e d e n t s can be found f o r many o f h i s ideas i n the work of the F u t u r i s t s and Dada, b u t i t was Cage who m i n g l e d w i t h  66.  the t h e a t r i c a l avant-garde  o f the s i x t i e s and expressed  h i s i d e a s i n a language t h a t many people were ready to l i s t e n to.  P a r t o f Cage's genius l i e s i n h i s a b i l i t y t o  •make h i s i d e a s i n t e r e s t i n g t o o t h e r s .  People  are j u s t  b e g i n n i n g to r e c o g n i z e him as n o t o n l y a m u s i c i a n and a t h e o r i s t , but a poet as w e l l . H i s most d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e was f e l t i n the s i x t i e s when the c l i m a t e o f p o l i t i c a l r e s t l e s s n e s s among American a r t i s t s and youth n u r t u r e d r a d i c a l i d e a s i n g e n e r a l . Schechner, C h a i k i n , K i r b y and Ann H a l p r i n , among o t h e r s i n the t h e a t r e community, e x p l o r e d Cage's i d e a s i n the process of d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own.  (Schechner  even c r e a t e d a  4'66"  d i r e c t l y p a t t e r n e d a f t e r Cage.) Cage's t h e a t r i c a l importance, however, l i e s more i n h i s l i b e r a t i n g e f f e c t on the c l i m a t e o f modern t h e a t r e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n than on h i s s p e c i f i c t e c h n i q u e s . has developed toward  New  Theatre  away from the a n a r c h i c form o f the s i x t i e s  a more c o n t r o l l e d and p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n , but i t  has r e t a i n e d a broad Cagean concept theatre.  The simultaneous  o f what c o n s t i t u t e s  Happening form, which most c l o s e -  l y f o l l o w s Cagean dogma, has exhausted  i t s e l f through  rep-  e t i t i o n , but t h e r e has l i n g e r e d i n l a t e r work a f r e q u e n t use o f b l u r r e d , i n d i s t i n c t meanings, n o n - r a t i o n a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n s and decreased  emphasis on a l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e , as i n the  p r o d u c t i o n s o f the People Show or the work o f Robert a l l o f which show a c o n t i n u i n g debt t o Cage.  Wilson,  67.  S i m i l a r l y , f o r m a l chance methods have proven l i m i t e d and gimmicky to be l a s t i n g . is  too  What i s l e f t , however,  the w i l l i n g n e s s of p e r f o r m e r s to accept the u n p r e d i c t a b l e  as a p a r t of t h e a t r i c a l performance.  The  recent para-theat-  r i c a l work o f G r o t o w s k i , f o r example, i s deeply based i n p s y c h o l o g y , but i t i s a l s o b u i l t - on the b l u r r i n g o f a r t and l i f e and a t r u s t o f the u n p r e d i c t a b l e . T h i s b l u r r i n g o f a r t and l i f e ,  so b a s i c i n the  s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f t h e a t r e , i s comparable to the s h i f t  from  the a r t i s t i c to the p o l i t i c a l t h a t has o c c u p i e d much o f Cage's most r e c e n t thought.  I t i s the acknowledgement t h a t ,  above a l l , a r t i s o n l y one f a c e t of s o c i e t y .  Although  he  t a l k s and w r i t e s about the l a r g e problems o f s o c i e t y , howe v e r , he o f f e r s few p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r improvement. It i s a p a r a - p o l i t i c a l stance, p o l i t i c a l not p o l i t i c a l  i n i m p l i c a t i o n but  in itself.  Theatre h i s t o r i a n s w i l l p r o b a b l y remember Cage m o s t l y for  the e f f e c t he has had on m i x i n g v a r i o u s a r t forms.  Also  s i g n i f i c a n t , however, i s h i s d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n w i t h audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s i n c e so many audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n ments grew from h i s s t i m u l a t i o n .  experi-  Many have responded  to  Cage's i d e a of p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h o u t d i r e c t l y i m i t a t i n g  him.  A l t h o u g h the t h e o r e t i c a l base might be the same, f o r example, t h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the use of audience t i o n i n a p i e c e l i k e Schechner's HPSCHD.  participa-  Commune and i t s use i n  Cage's p a r t i c i p a t i o n has always been kept on a p e r -  68.  ceptual l e v e l .  A l t h o u g h p e r f o r m e r s have p r e s c r i b e d ..actions  to p e r f o r m , audiences do n o t . a r t i s t s , Cage has  U n l i k e some p a r t i c i p a t i o n  always r e l i e d on the i n a d v e r t e n t  and  n a t u r a l movements and sounds t h a t grow s i m p l y from b e i n g audience.  Perhaps t h i s d i f f e r e n c e e x p l a i n s why  an  so many of  the t h e a t r i c a l attempts at audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  the  s i x t i e s and the e a r l y s e v e n t i e s were not s u c c e s s f u l .  They  o f t e n a g g r e s s i v e l y f o r c e d people i n t o s e l f - c o n s c i o u s  situ-  a t i o n s and r e a c t i o n s i n the name of l i b e r a t e d t h e a t r e . Cage must c e r t a i n l y be c r e d i t e d w i t h h e l p i n g to educate audiences to see d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s i n p r o d u c t i o n s  than  they had b e f o r e .  in  the long run had  H i s concept of s i l e n c e i n music has the e f f e c t of h e l p i n g people to  loosen  t h e i r narrow d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e a t r e , to see more of l i f e w i t h i n t h e a t r e and the t h e a t r e w i t h i n  the  life.  F i n a l l y , Cage's g r e a t e s t t h e a t r i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n has undoubtedly been h i s a b i l i t y to make people q u e s t i o n in  a r t t h a t they had p r e v i o u s l y taken f o r granted:  at t h e a t r e i n a new  way,  to  to develop more f l e x i b l e and  s i v e a t t i t u d e s toward s u b j e c t m a t t e r , s t r u c t u r e and e r a l f u n c t i o n of a r t . unpredictable  things look respon-  the gen-  Without the d i s t u r b i n g , w h i m s i c a l  i n f l u e n c e of John Cage, t h e a t r e and  audiences  might w e l l have been l e s s able to make use of a r t to cope with a d i s t u r b i n g , whimsical  and u n p r e d i c t a b l e  and  world.  FOOTNOTES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  69.  FOOTNOTES I . INTRODUCTION 1. M i c h a e l K i r b y , The A r t o f Time (New York, E.P. and Co., 1969), p. 77.  Dutton  I I . BIOGRAPHY 1. John Cage, M: W r i t i n g s '67-72 ( M i d d l e t o w n , C o n n e c t i c u t , Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973), p. 102. 2. John Cage, A Year From Monday ( M i d d l e t o w n , C o n n e c t i c u t , Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967), p. 155. 3. C a l v i n Tomkins, The B r i d e and the B a c h e l o r s (New The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1965), p. 76.  York:  4. R i c h a r d K o s t e l a n e t z , John Cage (New York: Praeger Publ i s h e r s , 1970), p. 53. 5. Contemporary  Music N e w s l e t t e r , May/June 1977, p. 3.  6. " P e r c u s s i o n i s t " , Time, 22 February 1943, p. 70. 7. " P e r c u s s i o n Music Heard a t C o n c e r t " , New York Times 8 February 1943, p. 14. 8. Tomkins, The B r i d e and the B a c h e l o r s , p. 99. 9. I b i d . , p. 71. 10. Andrew C u l v e r , "John Cage at 65", M o n t r e a l S t a r , 14 January 1978, p. E l l . 11. Tomkins, The B r i d e and the B a c h e l o r s , p.  132.  12. C a l v i n Tomkins, The Scene: Reports on Post-Modern A r t (New York: The Viicing P r e s s , 19T5") , p. 238. 13. H e r b e r t M a r s h a l l McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1962), p. 39. 14. M o i r a Roth and W i l l i a m Roth, "John Cage on M a r c e l Duchamp',' A r t In A m e r i c a , Nov/Dec 1973, p. 79. 15. I b i d . , p.  74.  70.  16. O c t a v i o Paz, M a r c e l Duchamp: Appearance S t r i p p e d B a r e , t r a n s . R a c h e l P h i l l i p s and Donald Gardner (New York: The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1978), p. 82. 17. A l l a n Hughes, "Hundreds Walk Out o f Premiere of John Cage Work at F i s h e r H a l l " , New York Times 5 November 1976, p. C3.  I I I . AESTHETIC 1. H a r o l d Rosenberg, The D e - D e f i n i t i o n o f A r t (New  York:  H o r i z o n P r e s s , 1972), p. 37. 2. I b i d . , passim. 3. Cage, A Year From Monday, p. 32. 4. M i c h a e l K i r b y and R i c h a r d Schechner, "An I n t e r v i e w w i t h John Cage", The Tulane Drama Review 10 ( w i n t e r 1965)p.50. 5 . I b i d . , p. 50. 6. K i r b y , A r t o f Time, p. 78. 7. John Cage, S i l e n c e (Middletown, C o n n e c t i c u t : Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961), p. 12. 8. A n t o n i n A r t a u d , The Theatre and I t s Double, t r a n s . My C. R i c h a r d s (New York: Grove P r e s s , I n c . , 1958), p. 123. 9. I b i d . , p. 77. 10. Van Nostrand's S c i e n t i f i c E n c y c l o p e d i a , F i f t h ed., s.v. "Chemical Elements". 11. R i c h a r d B u c k m i n s t e r F u l l e r , I_ Seem to Be a Verb York: Bantam Books, 1970), p. 138A.  (New  12. Robert L e b e l , M a r c e l Duchamp, t r a n s . George Heard H a m i l t o n (New YorTTi Grove P r e s s , 1959), p. 77. 13. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 14. I b i d . , p.  170.  187.  15. R i c h a r d Schechner, " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s : B e f o r e and A f t e r " , The Drama Review T79 (September, 1978), p. 27.  71.  16. R i c h a r d K o s t e l a n e t z , The Theatre o f Mixed Means (New York: D i a l P r e s s , 1968), p. 59. 17. I b i d . , p. 58. 18. A r t a u d ,  Theatre and I t s Double, p. 74.  19. K o s t e l a n e t z , Theatre o f Mixed Means, p. 52. 20. Cage, Year From Monday, p. 32. 21. K o s t e l a n e t z , Cage, p. 77. 22. Cage, Year From Monday, p. 53. 23. K o s t e l a n e t z , Cage, p. 50. 24. Cage, Year From Monday, p. 158. 25. I b i d . , p. 54. 26. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 44. 27. RoseLee G o l d b e r g , Performance: L i v e A r t 1909 to the Present (New York: H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c . , 1979) , p. 12. 28. W i l l y V e r k a u f , ed. Dada: Monograph o f a Movement (New York: H a s t i n g s  House, 1961), p. 20.  29. Cage, Year From Monday, p. 14. 30. K o s t e l a n e t z , Cage, p. 164. 31. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 100. 3 2 . I b i d . , p. 238. 33. I b i d . , p. 139. 34. Hans R i c h t e r , Dada: A r t and A n t i - A r t (New York: McGraw-Hill,  1965J7 p. 91.  35. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 238. 36. I b i d . , p. 130. 37. K o s t e l a n e t z , Cage, p. 167.  72. 38. M a r s h a l l H. S e g a l l , Donald T. Campbell, and M e l v i l l e H e r s k o v i t s , The I n f l u e n c e o f C u l t u r e on V i s u a l P e r c e p t i o n (Bobbs, M e r r i l l , 1966) i n K i r b y , A r t of Time, p. 2 8. 39. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 97. 40. John Cage and David Tudor, " I n d e t e r m i n a c y : New Aspect of Form i n I n s t r u m e n t a l and E l e c t r o n i c M u s i c " , (New York: Folkways Records, 1959), album n o t e s . 41. K o s t e l a n e t z , Cage, p. 209. 42. Cage, " I n d e t e r m i n a c y " l e c t u r e . 43. K o s t e l a n e t z , Cage, p. 115. 44. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 8 45. Cage, " I n d e t e r m i n a c y " l e c t u r e . 46.  Ibid.  47. D a i s e t z T e i t a r o S u z u k i , An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Zen Buddhism (New York: Grove P r e s s , I n c , 1934), p. 35. 48. I b i d . , p. 67. 49. R i c h t e r , Dada, p. 58. 50. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 14. 51. I b i d . , p. 154. 52. I b i d . , p. 15.  IV.  PERFORMANCE 1. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 12. 2. P e t e r ' s E d i t i o n s C a t a l o g u e : John Cage (New York: Henmar P r e s s , I n c . , 1962), p. 19. 3. "John Cage i n M i l a n " F l a s h A r t , F e b / A p r i l 1978, p. 6. 4. "Ajemian P l a y s Work by Cage 69 M i n u t e s " , New York Times 13 January 1949, p. 28. 5. P e t e r ' s C a t a l o g u e , Cage, p. 18.  73. 6. I b i d . , p.  7.  LIVING THEATRE 1. P i e r r e B i n e r , The L i v i n g Theatre (New York: Hori z o n P r e s s , 19 72), p. 56. 2. R e n f r e u N e f f , The L i v i n g T h e a t r e : U.S.A.(Indiana p o l i s , I n d i a n a ! B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1970), passim. 3. P a u l Ryder Ryan, "The  L i v i n g T h e a t r e ' s Money Tower"  The Drama Review 18 (June 1974): p. 10. 4. I b i d . , p. 10. 5. B i n e r , L i v i n g T h e a t r e , p.  89.  6. P e t e r ' s C a t a l o g u e , Cage, p.  48.  7. J u l i a n Beck, The L i f e o f Theatre (San F r a n c i s c o : C i t y L i g h t s Books, 1972) , p. 45. 8. I b i d . , p. 45. 9. B i n e r , L i v i n g T h e a t r e , p.  144.  10. I b i d . , p. 35. HAPPENINGS 1. Darko S u v i n , " R e f l e c t i o n s on Happenings," Review T47  (summer 1970) p.  2. K i r b y , A r t o f Time, p.  134.  82.  3. M i c h a e l K i r b y , ed., Happenings Dutton and Co., 1965), p. 4. K o s t e l a n e t z , Cage, p.  The Drama  (New York:  E.P.  152.  124.  5. A l l a n Kaprow, Assemblage, Environments and Happenings (New York: H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c . , 1966), p. 272. 6. M i c h a e l K i r b y , "Menujin's ' S i m u l t a n e i t y i n S i m u l t a n e i t y ' The Drama Review T39 ( s p r i n g 1968) p. 149. 7. Kaprow, Assemblage, p. 188.  74.  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Artaud, Antonin. The Theatre and I t s Double. T r a n s l a t e d by Mary C a r o l i n e R i c h a r d s . New York: Grove P r e s s , I n c . , 1958. Beck, J u l i a n . The L i f e o f T h e a t r e . L i g h t s Books, 1972. B i n e r , P i e r r e . The 1972 .  San F r a n c i s c o : C i t y  L i v i n g T h e a t r e . New  York: H o r i z o n  Press,  B r i n d l e , R e g i n a l d Smith. The New Music: The Avant-Garde Since 1945. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975. Cage, John. S i l e n c e . M i d d l e t o w n , C o n n e c t i c u t : Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. . A Year From Monday. M i d d l e t o w n , C o n n e c t i c u t : Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1967. . M: W r i t i n g s ' 67- 72 . M i d d l e t o w n , C o n n e c t i c u t : Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1973. Cage, John and Knowles, A l l i s o n , ed. N o t a t i o n s . Vermont: Something E l s e P r e s s , 1969. Contemporary Music Catalogue. 1975 .  New  York: C.F.  P e t e r s Corp.,  Croyden, Margaret. L u n a t i c s , Lovers and P o e t s : The Contempo r a r y E x p e r i m e n t a l Theatre.New York: M c G r a w - H i l l Book Co., 1974. F l e m i n g , W i l l i a m . A r t s and Ideas. New and Winston, I n c . , 1974.  York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t  F u l l e r , R i c h a r d Buckminster. U t o p i a or O b l i v i o n . New Overlook P r e s s , 1969.  . I Seem To Be A Verb. Goldberg,  New  York:  York: Bantam Books,  RoseLee. Performance: L i v e A r t 1909 to the New York: Harry N. Abrams, I n c . , 1979.  1970.  Present.  G r o p i u s , W a l t e r , ed. The Theatre o f The Bauhaus. T r a n s l a t e d by A r t h u r S. Wensinger. M i d d l e t o w n , C o n n e c t i c u t : Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961.  75.  Hassan, Ihab. L i b e r a t i o n s : New Essays on the Humanities i n R e v o l u t i o n . M i d d l e t o w n , C o n n e c t i c u t : Wesleyan Unive r s i t y P r e s s , 1971. H e n r i , A d r i a n . T o t a l A r t : Environments, Happenings and Performance . Nwe York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1974. Hoover, Thomas.  Zen C u l t u r e .  New York: Random House, 1977.  Kaprow, A l l a n . Assemblage, Environments and Happenings. New York: H a r r y N. Abrams, I n c . , 1966. K i r b y , E.T., ed. T o t a l T h e a t r e . Co., 1969.  New  K i r b y , M i c h a e l . The A r t of Time. Co., 196T7 . F u t u r i s t Performance. Co., 19 71. , ed. Happenings. 1965. Kostelanetz, Richard. Dial Press,  New  York: E.P. Dutton and  New York: E.P. Dutton and New  York: E.P. Dutton and  York: E.P. Dutton and  Co.,  The Theatre of Mixed Means. New 1968.  , ed. The New American A r t s . P r e s s , 1965. , ed. John Cage.  New  York:  York: H o r i z o n  New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s ,  1970.  Kultermann, Udo. A r t and L i f e . T r a n s l a t e d by John W i l l i a m G a b r i e l . New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. L a h r , John. Up_ A g a i n s t the F o u r t h W a l l . P r e s s , I n c . , 1970.  New York: Grove  . A s t o n i s h Me: Adventures i n Contemporary New York: V i k i n g P r e s s , 1973.  Theatre.  L e b e l , Jean Jacques. E n t r e t i e n s avec l e L i v i n g T h e a t r e . P a r i s : P. B e l f o n d , 1969. L e b e l , R o b e r t . M a r c e l Duchamp. T r a n s l a t e d by George Heard H a m i l t o n . New York: Grove P r e s s , 1959. L i p p a r d , Lucy. Changing: Essays i n A r t C r i t i c i s m . E.P. Dutton and Co., 1971.  New  York:  The L i v i n g Book o f the L i v i n g T h e a t r e . Grenwichy C o n n e c t i c u t New York G r a p h i c S o c i e t y , 1971. A l\  76.  McLuhan, H e r b e r t M a r s h a l l . The Gutenberg G a l a x y . U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1962. .  U n d e r s t a n d i n g Media.  New  Totonto:  York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1964.  McLuhan, H e r b e r t M a r s h a l l and F i o r e , Q u e n t i n . The Medium i s the Massage. New York: Bantam Books, 196TT Malina, Judith. The Enormous D e s p a i r . House, 1972.  New  York: Random  Masheck, J o s e p h , ed. M a r c e l Duchamp i n P e r s p e c t i v e . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1975. N e f f , R e n f r e u . The L i v i n g T h e a t r e : U.S.A. I n d i a n a : B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1970.  Indianapolis,  Paz, O c t a v i o . M a r c e l Duchamp: Appearance S t r i p p e d Bare. T r a n s l a t e d by Rachel P h i l l i p s and Donald Gardner. New York: The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1978. P e t e r ' s E d i t i o n s C a t a l o g u e : John Cage. P r e s s , I n c . , 1962.  New  R i c h t e r , Hans. Dada: A r t and A n t i - A r t . H i l l , 1965 .  York: Henmar  New  York: McGraw-  Rosenberg, H a r o l d . The D e - D e f i n i t i o n o f A r t • H o r i z o n P r e s s , 1972. .  A r t oiii the Edge.  New  .  P u b l i c Domain.  Environmental Theatre. I n c . , 1973.  York:  York: M a c m i l l a n , 1975.  S a i n e r , A r t h u r . The R a d i c a l Theatre Notebook. Avon Books, 1975. Schechner, R i c h a r d . 1969.  New  New New  New  York:  York: Avon Books,  York: Hawthorn Books,  S u s u k i , D a i s e t z T e i t a r o . An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Zen Buddhism. New York: Grove P r e s s , 1934. . Essays i n Zen Buddhism. 1961.  New  York: Grove P r e s s ,  Tomkins, C a l v i n . The B r i d e and the B a c h e l o r s : The H e r e t i c a l C o u r t s h i p i n Modern A r t . New York: d i k i n g P r e s s , T9 65  77.  . The Scene: R e p o r t s on Post-Modern A r t . The V i k i n g P r e s s , 1976. Van N o s t r a n d ' s S c i e n t i f i c - E n c y c l o p e d i a . "Chemical Elements."  New York:  Fifth Edition.  V e r k a u f , W i l l y , ed. Dada: Monograph o f a. Movement. York: H a s t i n g s House, 1961.  S.v.  New  Periodicals "Ajemian P l a y s Work by Cage 69 M i n u t e s " , New York Times, 13 January 1949, p. 28. Cage, John. "26 Statements r e . Duchamp." A r t (1964) pp. 9-10 " C r i s i s i n the F i n e A r t s Today". (1970) p. 64.  L i t e r a t u r e 3_  J o u r n a l o f A e s t h e t i c s 29  C u l v e r , Andrew. "John Cage a t 65." M o n t r e a l S t a r 14 J a n u a r y 1978, p. E l l "Caught i n the Act',' Melody Maker, 24 June 1978 , p. 18. A  Evans, B., "Thousands p. 965.  F l e e " , N a t i o n a l Review, 1 September  1972,  " F i g u r e i n an Imaginary Landscape." New Y o r k e r , 28 November 1964, pp. 64-6 "The F u t u r e o f M u s i c " , New M u s i c , 5 (1974), pp.  6-15.  Happenings I s s u e , The Drama Review, 10 ( W i n t e r , 1965). Henahan, Donald. "John Cage, E l f i n Enigma a t 64". 22 October 1976,  New York Times  A l l a n Hughes, "Hundreds Walk out o f Premiere o f John Cage Work a t F i s h e r H a l l " , New York Times, November 5, 1976, p. C3. "An Hour and 4'33" w i t h John Cage". Music J o u r n a l 34, 1976), pp. 6-8. "An I n t e r v i e w w i t h John Cage" Melody M a k e r  y  (December  10 June 1972 , p. 35  M i c h a e l , K i r b y and R i c h a r d Schechner, "An I n t e r v i e w w i t h John Cage", The Drama Review 10 (Winter 1965) pp. 50-72.  •'Kirby. M i c h a e l . " M a r t a Menu j i n ' s The Drama Review T39, ;  "Music:  'Simultaneity i n Simultaneity' ( S p r i n g 1968), pp. 149-15 2. ;  The'Content o f John Cage", V i l l a g e V o i c e , 9 January 1978, p. 54.  " P e r c u s s i o n Concert'.' L i f e , 15 March 1943, p. 42. " P e r c u s s i o n Music Heard at C o n c e r t " , New r u a r y 1943, p. 14.  York Times, 8 Feb-  " P e r c u s s i o n i s t " , Time, 22 February 1943, p.  70.  Robbins, Eugenia S. " P e r f o r m i n g A r t " , A r t i n A m e r i c a , J u l y 1966, pp. 107-11. Roth,Moira and Roth, W i l l i a m . "John Cage on M a r c e l Duchamp", A r t i n A m e r i c a , November/December 1973, pp. 72-79. Ryan, P a u l Ryder. "The L i v i n g T h e a t r e ' s Money Tower", The Drama Review 18 (June 1974), pp. 9-19. "The  Sounds and S i l e n c e s o f John Cage". Downbeat, 7 May pp. 20-22.  1964,  S u v i n , Darko. " R e f l e c t i o n s on Happenings." The Drama Review T47, (summer 1970), pp. 125-144.  OTHERS Cage, John and Tudor, D a v i d . " I n d e t e r m i n a c y : New A s p e c t o f Form i n I n s t r u m e n t a l and E l e c t r o n i c M u s i c . " (New York: Folkways Records, 1959).  78a.  APPENDIX  PREVIOUSLY COPYRIGHTED LEAVES  78b - 8 1 ,  MATERIAL,  IN A P P E N D I X ,  NOT MICROFILMED,  "VARIATIONS"  COPYRIGHT  © 19.60 BY HENMAR PRESS  373 PARK. AVE... SOUTH., NEW YORK. 1 6 ,  INC, NEW YORK.  

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