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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The theatrical aesthetic of John Cage Ozier, Joyce Ruth 1979

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THE THEATRICAL AESTHETIC OF JOHN CAGE by JOYCE RUTH OZIER B . S c , Skidmore Colle g e , 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Theatre Department We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1979 Q Joyce Ruth O z i e r , 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f THEATRE T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 OCTOBER 15, 1979 i i ABSTRACT The t o p i c of t h i s t h e s i s i s an a n a l y s i s of John Cage's a e s t h e t i c from a t h e a t r i c a l point of view. I have done t h i s by examining h i s performed works and h i s t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s . A short b i o g r a p h i c a l chapter i s included i n order that the reader may become aware of c e r t a i n i n f l u e n c e s and events which have a f f e c t e d h i s b a s i c ideas. In a d d i t i o n , two short chapters- one on Happenings and another on the L i v i n g Theatre- are i n -cluded as s p e c i f i c examples of t h e a t r i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of h i s a e s t h e t i c . I t i s concluded that Cage's ideas have i n f l u e n c e d the general development of recent the-a t r i c a l experimentation. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION page 1 JOHN CAGE- A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY page 5 CAGE'S AESTHETIC page 19 CAGE AND THE HAPPENING page 50 CAGE AND THE LIVING THEATRE page 5 7 CONCLUSION page 65 FOOTNOTES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY..page 69 APPENDIX page 78 i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would l i k e to thank my t h e s i s a d v i s e r , Dr. Donald Soule,£or h i s i n v a l u a b l e guidance and f o r having f a i t h i n me. In a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e to acknowledge Dr. Richard Schechner, who f i r s t introduced me to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of e x p l o r i n g t h e a t r i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . Most important, however, are my husband I r v i n g and my c h i l d -ren E l i z a b e t h , David and Douglas, who i n s p i r e d me to complete t h i s p r o j e c t . Their p a t i e n t support has been p a r t i c u l a r l y important. V . INTRODUCTION 1 . INTRODUCTION John Cage, working i n the f i e l d of experimental music, has developed a h i g h l y personal a e s t h e t i c which has relevance to a l l the performing a r t s . His broad a r t i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e and f l e x i b l e approach to s t r u c t u r e have s t i m u l a t e d others'to expand, t r a d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of a r t and t h e a t r e , thus leading to a generation of t h e a t r i c a l experiments which are m u l t i - f o c u s , often multi-media and f r e q u e n t l y concerned with e n t i r e a r c h i t e c t u r a l space rather than the l i m i t e d s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of t r a d i t i o n a l proscenium st a g i n g . The impact of t h i s a e s t h e t i c has l e d Michael Kirby to c a l l Cage the "backbone of New Theatre"."'" (New Theatre comprises the bulk of t h e a t r i c a l experimentation during the l a s t f i f t e e n years.) I w i l l attempt to define and analyze Cage's a e s t h e t i c w i t h i n a t h e a t r i c a l frame of reference. A c o n s i d e r a t i o n of hi s work i s of value to students of theatre f o r two main reasons. F i r s t , the a p p l i c a t i o n s of Cage's a e s t h e t i c extend beyond the realm of music. The concepts of indeterminacy, audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n and process i n a r t can, and have been, a p p l i e d to theatre as w e l l as music. Second, Cage's perform-ances are o v e r t l y t h e a t r i c a l . T y p i c a l l y , they i n v o l v e a p h y s i c a l l y a c t i v e use of space by the performers and the completion of various non-musical t a s k s , which combine to create a form of spectacle that i s comparable to a pageant, f a i r or r i t u a l . I t i s a form of n o n - l i t e r a r y theatre which i s at base popular, yet conceptual enough to be a d i s t i n c t type. One sees a c l e a r and d i r e c t t h e a t r i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s form 2. i n the Happenings of the s i x t i e s . Since Cage has been o f t e n misunderstood by commentators, I w i l l deal d i r e c t l y with primary sources. These include p r i n c i p a l l y h i s t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s , h i s "Indeterminacy" l e c t u r e and various published i n t e r v i e w s . Cage's e c c e n t r i c p e r s o n a l i t y and i r r e v e r e n t sense of fun have l e d some to dismiss him simply as a clown, not to be taken s e r i o u s l y . Such d i s -m i s s a l i s not j u s t i f i e d . In a c t u a l i t y , h i s genius f o r approaching problems i n an i r r e v e r e n t and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c way makes him l e s s i n h i b i t e d by sacred a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n s than most t h e o r i s t s , f r e e i n g him to a s s i m i l a t e more f u l l y i n t o h i s a e s t h e t i c i n -fluences and ideas gleaned from various non-art sources and to imbue h i s w r i t i n g s and l e c t u r e s w i t h an unusual warmth, unpretentiousness and humour. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , these non-art sources are as e c l e c t i c as mycology, physics and Zen Buddhism. D i r e c t , everyday experiences act as s t i m u l a t i o n and raw m a t e r i a l f o r h i s a r t , a l l o w i n g him to b r i n g together apparently u n r e l a t e d m a t e r i a l i n order to a r r i v e at innovative s o l u t i o n s to a r t i s t i c problems. His l i f e and a r t are unusually c l o s e l y coupled because of t h i s . Therefore, i t i s w e l l worth examining Cage from a b i o g r a p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . One can then see the major experiences and i n f l u e n c e s that have shaped the development of h i s ideas and career. In a d d i t i o n (although i t i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s s t a t e d p h i l o s o p h y ) , i t must be acknowledged that Cage's p e r s o n a l i t y i s s t r o n g l y revealed i n h i s work. Thus, a deeper understanding of h i s work can be achieved by studying Cage as a whole person, r a t h e r than merely as a composer and t h e o r e t i c i a n . The form of Happenings i s e s s e n t i a l l y defined by t h e i r s i m u l t a n e i t y and non-matrixed a c t i n g , a l l of which r e f l e c t Cage's d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e . Some performances employed chance techniques as w e l l . In a d d i t i o n to these elements, Happenings al s o u t i l i z e the i n t e r m i n g l i n g of various a r t forms, another product of Cage's approach to a r t . The form of Happenings i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to t h i s study because the Happening phenomenon remains the most d i r e c t i l l u s t r a t i o n of a t h e a t r i c a l use of Cage's a e s t h e t i c . Many of the o r i g i n a l Happening a r t i s t s were former students of Cage at the New School of S o c i a l Research i n New York. Although most of them were not theatre people, t h e i r work a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of the more experimental segment of the theatre community and st i m u l a t e d considerable r e - e v a l u a t i o n of t r a d i t i o n a l techniques. C e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s l i k e Michael K i r b y and Richard Schechner got i n v o l v e d i n the Happening phenomenon i n a d i r e c t way, but f o r the most p a r t , i t remained an attempt by v i s u a l a r t i s t s to make thea t r e . The f i r s t theatre company to incorporate some of Cage's ideas i n t o i t s work was the L i v i n g Theatre, the founders of which Cage knew p e r s o n a l l y . They experimented t h e a t r i c a l l y by applying many of h i s ideas d i r e c t l y , i n a more r a d i c a l way than anyone i n theatre has since attempted. While chapters on Happenings and the L i v i n g Theatre are included as s p e c i f i c examples of t h e a t r i c a l uses of Cage's a e s t h e t i c , i t i s not the i n t e n t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s to i n v e s t i g a t e the e n t i r e range of Cage's i n f l u e n c e . In general terms, i t goes w e l l beyond the instances c i t e d here. These p a r t i c u l a r examples have been chosen as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ones, s i n c e they show an u n u s u a l l y c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h h i s own works and because Cage was d i r e c t l y and p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d i n each of them. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n both cases the e x p l o r a t i o n of h i s ideas has gone w e l l beyond h i s d i r e c t p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e -ment. This f a c t alone i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the f r u i t f u l n e s s of Cage's i n f l u e n c e s on contemporary t h e a t r i c a l i n n o v a t i o n . JOHN CAGE - A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY 5 . JOHN CAGE - A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY John Cage's concept of s i l e n c e as music and h i s a l e a t o r i c compositions are the work of a h i g h l y i n v e n t i v e and o r i g i n a l mind. Major i n f l u e n c e s , such as Dada and Zen Buddhism,are c l e a r , yet Cage i s more s i g n i f i c a n t l y a true product of h i s e a r l y environment. For that reason, a b r i e f look at h i s f a m i l y and h i s e a r l y years i s r e l e v a n t to a study of h i s t h i n k i n g . More-over, as h i s career has developed, he has continued to draw on many areas of n o n - a r t i s t i c experience, such as mycology and technology, to define and express h i s a r t i s t i c ideas. More than most a r t i s t s , he has been able to incorporate these out-side sources i n t o h i s a r t so that h i s work has evolved i n a h i g h l y personal way. Despite h i s awareness of a wide v a r i e t y of outside sources, t h e r e f o r e , Cage has remained an American e c c e n t r i c . In order to understand h i s a e s t h e t i c , i t i s import-ant to trace h i s development as an i n d i v i d u a l . John M i l t o n Cage, J r . was born i n Los Angeles i n 1912, the only son of an engineer and h i s w i f e . He remembers h i s childhood i n t h i s m i d d l e - c l a s s , Methodist Episcopal household as unexceptional and happy. His parents were simple, but not ordinary, people. They were both strong i n d i v i d u a l i s t s , choosing to l i v e i n C a l i f o r n i a at a time when i t s t i l l had traces of a pioneer m e n t a l i t y and d i s d a i n f o r eastern American and European t r a d i t i o n s . His mother, a housewife, was a c t i v e i n community s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . She had been married three times before marrying h i s f a t h e r . In h i s w r i t t e n D i a r y , he humourously r e c a l l s her i n a b i l i t y to remember the f u l l name of her f i r s t husband. His many warmly r e l a t e d s t o r i e s about her present her as r a t h e r s c a t t e r b r a i n e d and s l i g h t l y comical. I t must be remembered,however, that most of Cage's s t o r i e s are t o l d w i t h the i n t e n t of p o i n t i n g out the nonsensical i n l i f e . His f a t h e r , an award-winning amateur i n v e n t o r , once designed an i n h a l a t o r f o r the quick absorption of vitamins and hormones i n t o the bloodstream. I t was prevented from general 2 d i s t r i b u t i o n , however, by the American Medical A s s o c i a t i o n . He a l s o invented an unconventional submarine that stayed under water f o r a record length of time. I t was not u s e f u l f o r m i l i t a r y purposes, however, because of the constant stream of 3 a i r bubbles that i t created. I n s p i r e d by c u r i o s i t y more than commercialism, h i s inventions were often more imaginative than p r a c t i c a l . Cage's a t t i t u d e of s t a r t i n g from zero to f i n d p o s s i b l e new s o l u t i o n s to problems probably has some of i t s roots i n t h i s father-son r e l a t i o n s h i p . The same can be s a i d f o r Cage's ease with mechanics and e l e c t r o n i c s . Schoenberg once s a i d of Cage, "He's not a composer. He's an i n v e n t o r , of genius. The Cage home was not c u l t u r e - o r i e n t e d , although h i s mother d i d i n s i s t that piano lessons be a part of h i s e a r l y education. Cage remembers h i s childhood piano teacher f o r her approach to composition. She composed by l i s t e n i n g to the songs of b i r d s , n o t a t i n g them, and using them as b a s i c themes i n her works. The acceptance of nature and the r e l i a n c e on d i r e c t experience, r a t h e r than on i n s p i r a t i o n as t r a d i t i o n a l l y understood or on other people's previous music, may w e l l have 7 . been r e c a l l e d l a t e r when Cage h i m s e l f , through a d i f f e r e n t conceptual route, began using n a t u r a l sounds. Cage graduated from Los Angeles High School at s i x t e e n , v a l e d i c t o r i a n of h i s c l a s s . Encouraged by h i s parents to be a m i n i s t e r l i k e h i s grandfather, he entered Pomona College i n R e l i g i o u s S t u dies, but dropped out before the end of h i s second year. John Cage, the i n d i v i d u a l , needed time to develop. He spent the next three years wandering. He t r a v e l e d through Europe. He became f a s c i n a t e d w i t h Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e and spent much time i n various l i b r a r i e s teaching h i m s e l f a l l he could about i t . Through an a c c i d e n t a l meeting w i t h a former teacher from Pomona Co l l e g e , he was able to get a minor job i n the o f f i c e of the French a r c h i t e c t , Ernb" Goldfinger. There i s no evidence that he ever took any academic t r a i n i n g i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , but a strong s p a t i a l awareness i s character-i s t i c of h i s mature musical work. He returned to C a l i f o r n i a , only to hold odd-jobs l i k e gardening and checking out patents f o r h i s f a t h e r . He organized a course i n modern p a i n t i n g and music and o f f e r e d i t to neighbourhood housewives by s e l l i n g t i c k e t s door-to-door. He candidly admitted that he knew very l i t t l e about the sub-j e c t s , but was very e n t h u s i a s t i c , and promised to research the t o p i c s w e l l before each c l a s s . Twenty to t h i r t y people came each week. During t h i s p e r i o d , Cage p e r i o d i c a l l y s t u d i e d piano and harmony with various teachers. I t i s an important stage of h i s l i f e because i t was at t h i s time that he b.egan to w r i t e , 8 . p a i n t and compose music, and made the personal d e c i s i o n to study the a r t s s e r i o u s l y . This d e c i s i o n was a very unpopular one at home; both h i s parents found i t d i f f i c u l t to accept. A r t i s t s were somewhat suspect. In 1933, Cage moved to New York, where he was more removed from fa m i l y pressures. He began to study contemporary music under Henry Cowell, the e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t , at the New School f o r S o c i a l Research. Cowell used the piano i n an unorthodox way, which may have i n f l u e n c e d Cage's l a t e r development of the Prepared Piano. Cowell performed using the piano s t r i n g s as w e l l as the keys and developed the idea of "tone c l u s t e r s " , i n which the piano keys are played p e r c u s s i v e l y with the e n t i r e f i s t . The c r i t i c a l p o i n t i n h i s development came when Cage returned to Los Angeles and, at the suggestion of Henry Cowell, sought out Arnold Schoenberg at UCLA. Schoenberg, already famous f o r h i s experimental work with the twelve-tone s c a l e , must have sensed Cage's p o t e n t i a l , because he agreed to work wit h him p r i v a t e l y at h i s home at no c o s t , i n exchange f o r a promise that he would s e r i o u s l y become a musician. The r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Schoenberg helped Cage to define himself as an a r t i s t . Slowly, he began more c o n f i d e n t l y to implement hi s own musical ideas, rather than simply c a r r y out extensions of the ideas of h i s teachers. From that p o i n t on, one sees a gradual a r t i s t i c maturing. From the beginning, Cage had d i f f i c u l t y w ith harmony. 9. Schoenberg t o l d me that without harmony I would always come to a w a l l and never be able to go through i t . I s a i d , "Well, then, I ' l l j u s t beat my head against that w a l l " . In a sense that i s what I've been doing a l l my l i f e . 5 This d i f f i c u l t y proved i n f a c t to be a great asset i n d e f i n i n g h i s own s t y l e and i d e n t i t y . Since harmony was so d i f f i c u l t f o r him, he chose i n i t i a l l y to ignore i t by simply making music through percussion w i t h only noise and rhythm. This s h i f t i s s i g n i f i c a n t since a l l Cage's l a t e r developments are b u i l t on i t . Rhythmic, r a t h e r than harmonic, r e l a t i o n s h i p s allowed him to explore sound i n and f o r i t s e l f and e v e n t u a l l y l e d him to d i s -cover the unpredictable and continuous sounds i n s i l e n c e . This a b i l i t y to create advantage out of disadvantage i s one of Cage's greatest strengths. I t i s the mark of both the inventor and the a r t i s t . In 1935, Cage married Xenia Andreyevna Kasheroff, an a r t student, who was the daughter of an Alaskan Russian Orthodox p r i e s t . They l i v e d i n S e a t t l e , where from 1936 to 1938 Cage worked as a dance accompanist at the Cornish School, a progress-ive a r t school now known as the Cornish I n s t i t u t e of A l l i e d A r t s . I t was here that he f i r s t met Merce Cunningham. During t h i s p e r i o d , Cage organized a student percussion o r c h e s t r a , which toured the Northwest performing h i s own per-cussion compositions. Xenia helped him by c o l l e c t i n g various unconventional "found" instruments, such as an ass's jawbone. In a 1943 i n t e r v i e w i n Time, Cage r e f e r s to her as "the d e f t e s t of a l l l i v i n g flowerpot and gong whackers".^ While i n the P a c i f i c Northwest, Cage began a l i f e l o n g i n t e r e s t i n mushrooms. This hobby gives him the opportunity to 10 . to spend much of h i s time i n the w i l d e r n e s s , surrounded by the of t e n s u b t l e , ceaseless sound of nature. Going out i n t o the wilderness allows him q u i e t time to experience these " f u l l " s i l e n c e s . In 1962, he formed the New York M y c o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , together with Lois Long, Esther Dam, Guy Nearing and Ralph F e r r a r a . He i s also a member of the Czechoslovakian Mushroom Society. During the t h i r t i e s , Cage worked i n t r a d i t i o n a l rhythmic counterpoint, at the same time searching f o r new sounds to expand h i s percussive vocabulary. The "Prepared Piano", which Cage invented i n 1938 as a dance accompaniment f o r S y v i l l a Fort's "Bacchanale", came out of h i s search f o r new sound q u a l i t i e s . I t i s produced by i n s e r t i n g screws, b o l t s , paper, rubber bands, etc . under and between the s t r i n g s of a standard piano. The instrument i s played p e r c u s s i v e l y . by s c r a p i n g , h i t t i n g , p l u c k i n g (or whatever comes to mind) the wood, s t r i n g s , metal and keys to produce gamelan-like sounds. In 1941, Cage was i n v i t e d by L a s z l o ,Moholy-Nagy, formerly of the Bauhaus, to teach a c l a s s i n Experimental Music at the Chicago I n s t i t u t e of Design. I t was there that he met Max Ernst. Ernst suggested that the Cages move to New York C i t y . Xenia was already a budding s c u l p t o r , and they f e l t they both could b e n e f i t from the s t i m u l a t i o n of the New York a r t scene. The Cages spent most of t h e i r money on the bus f a r e and a r r i v e d i n New York i n 1942 with twenty-five cents betweem them. At f i r s t , they stayed with Ernst and Peggy Guggenheim. Through Peggy Guggenheim they met Marcel Duchamp. (Xenia i s 11. l i s t e d as an a s s i s t a n t i n Duchamp's f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of Box i n A Valis.e.) Cage took a job as Music D i r e c t o r of the Merce Cunningham Dance Company. This c o l l a b o r a t i o n , which has been maintained u n t i l the present, i s a very important one. Together they have evolved a system of independent p a r a l l e l performance which forms the groundwork f o r l a t e r multi-media a c t i v i t y . The Anechoic Chamber at Harvard's physics l a b o r a t o r i e s i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y designed to be as n o i s e l e s s as p o s s i b l e . When Cage f i r s t experienced i t i n the e a r l y f o r t i e s , he heard two sounds, one high and one low. These were l a t e r explained to him to be i n t e r n a l sounds: one was h i s own blood moving through h i s v e i n s ; the other was the e l e c t r i c a l charges of h i s nervous system i n operation. This experience profoundly a f f e c t e d him f o r i t proved t h a t , without t o t a l deafness, there i s no s i l e n c e . He began developing the idea of " f u l l s i l e n c e s " rather than "empty" ones. In 1943, Cage's r e p u t a t i o n as an avant-gardist was f i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n a s e r i e s of percussion concerts sponsored by the League of Composers at the Museum of Modern A r t . The program i n c l u d e d Amores, Construction i n M e t a l , Imaginary Land-scape #5, and some works of Henry Cowell, Lou Har r i s o n and Amadea Roldan. Cage conducted the twelve players (one of whom was Xenia), who were dressed i n t a i l s and black evening gowns and p l a y i n g flowerpots, automobile axles and r i c e bowls, among other instruments. The New York Times reviewer considered i t 7 " c h i l d i s h " , "not serious enough to require d e t a i l e d comment", but New York's avant-garde community responded w i t h enthusiasm. 12. The e c c e n t r i c i t y of the performance got him n a t i o n a l media a t t e n t i o n as w e l l , i n c l u d i n g large write-ups i n L i f e and Time. 1943 was an important year f o r Cage i n many ways. His Q marriage d i s s o l v e d , and, as an " a l t e r n a t i v e to p s y c h i a t r y " , he began a three-year study of Zen Buddhism wi t h Dr. Diasetz Suzuki at Columbia. In Eastern thought, one can see the basis of many of h i s ideas. As h i s career developed, he took the concepts of non-i n t e n t i o n (or existence f o r existence's sake), u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y and the oneness of a l l t h i n g s , and a p p l i e d them to h i s work. He began to use compositional techniques which removed him from t o t a l c o n t r o l , i n an a t t i t u d e of O r i e n t a l purposelessness. These techniques i n v o l v e d using the imperfections on a piece of paper (e.g. Music f o r Piano-1952), the chance over-lapping of s e v e r a l transparent p l a s t i c templates arrangeable i n many d i f f e r e n t ways (e.g. V a r i a t i o n s - 1 9 5 8 ) , or the p o s i t i o n of the s t a r s on a s t r o l o g i c a l charts (e.g. Music f o r C a r i l l o n - 1 9 6 1 ) . The i n t e n t i o n was to distance himself and h i s personal t a s t e from the performance r e s u l t . In 1949, Cage received a Guggenheim Fellowship i n r e c o g n i t i o n of h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to "extending the boundaries of musical a r t " . ^ He used t h i s money to t r a v e l again to Europe, where he was befriended by P i e r r e Boulez. In 1951, h i s score f o r Herbert Matters' f i l m , Works of  Calder, was awarded F i r s t P r i z e f o r Music at the Woodstock A r t F i l m F e s t i v a l . 1952 was another c r u c i a l year f o r Cage. I t was the year of the Black Mountain Piece, and of 4'33", both of which were 13. extremely i n f l u e n t i a l and c o n t r o v e r s i a l works. Imaginary  Landscape #5 was done as a dance score f o r Jean Erdman the same year, and i s also important because i t i s g e n e r a l l y considered the e a r l i e s t American tape music. In i t , Cage fragmented the sounds of f o r t y three j a z z records, combined them by chance and d i s t o r t e d t h e i r o r i g i n a l sounds through e l e c t r o n i c s . This work made Cage the o r i g i n a t o r of tape music. In 1954, together with David Tudor, Cage toured Europe. This t r i p e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r presence i n the European avant-garde, although not without waves. The concert scheduled at the h i g h l y p r e s t i g i o u s Donaueschingen F e s t i v a l of Avant-garde Music was c a n c e l l e d at the l a s t minute, when the promoter refused to move the two prepared pianos to opposite ends of the performance space. The promoter announced to the w a i t i n g audience that the performance would not take place because i t was "too r a d i c a l f o r p u b l i c ears, and might cause u n r e s t " . ^ Returning from Europe, Cage moved from New York C i t y to a house in. a. co-operative community i n •'./•Stony P o i n t , New York, which had been e s t a b l i s h e d by Paul W i l l i a m s , a former student at Black Mountain College. (Cage i s a S o c i a l A n a r c h i s t and has a deep committment to co-operative ventures.) This modest house i n the country has remained h i s home to the present time, although much of h i s time i n recent years has been spent t r a v e l l i n g to l e c t u r e and perform.. In a d d i t i o n , he shares a West V i l l a g e apartment with Merce Cunningham when he has to be i n New York. From 1956 to 1960, Cage taught s e v e r a l courses at the New School f o r S o c i a l Research i n New York. His course i n 14. Experimental Composition was attended by many of the major a r t i s t s l a t e r i n v o l v e d i n the development of the Happening form. The course was considered seminal to t h e i r work. Four months of 1958 were spent working at the M i l a n radio s t a t i o n , Studio d i Fondogia, composing an e l e c t r o n i c piece c a l l e d Fontana Mix. During h i s stay i n M i l a n , Cage became a n a t i o n a l c e l e b r i t y by appearing f o r s e v e r a l weeks on the I t a l i a n t e l e v i s i o n equivalent of "Double or Nothing": " L a s c i a o Raddoppia," as an expert on Mushroom I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , he used t h i s opportunity to get exposure f o r some of h i s work. Each week, he amused I t a l i a n audiences wi t h humorous and e c c e n t r i c musical performances. One was Water Walk : which uses, among other i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , a bathtub, a pressure cooker, a syphon, a Waring blender, a vase of roses, a watering can, and a la r g e rubber f i s h . He won $6,000 on the program and received thousands of l e t t e r s from viewers, as w e l l as an o f f e r from Federico F e l l i n i to appear i n the f i l m La Dolce V i t a . Cage d i d not accept the o f f e r . I t was i n 1958 that Cage presented h i s l e c t u r e on "Indeterminacy" at the Brussels World's F a i r and had h i s r e t r o s p e c t i v e concert "25 Years of Experimentation" at the Town H a l l i n New York C i t y . The large and e n t h u s i a s t i c audience at the concert included the bulk of the c i t y ' s avant-garde community. The academic year 1960-61 was spent by Cage as a Fellow at the Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Center f o r Advanced Studies. Here he wrote the book S i l e n c e , which presents h i s philosophy and a e s t h e t i c i n w r i t t e n form. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , the ideas are b r o k e n up and a r r a n g e d i n s e v e r a l i n t e r w e a v i n g type s t y l e s . The d u r a t i o n o f each i d e a / t y p e s t y l e u n i t was d e c i d e d by chance o p e r a t i o n s . R o b e r t W i l s o n had c i t e d S i l e n c e as h a v i n g had an 12 " i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t on h i s t h i n k i n g " . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Cage met M a r s h a l McLuhan and B u c k m i n s t e r F u l l e r a t W e s l e y a n , b o t h o f whom were a l s o F e l l o w s t h e r e a t the t i m e . M c L u h a n ' s i n s i g h t s i n t o e l e c t r o n i c i n f o r m a t i o n s t r u c t u r e s u p p o r t e d C a g e ' s own i d e a s on a r t i s t i c n o n - i n v o l v e m e n t and s u b j e c t i v i t y . The i n t e n t i o n o f p u t t i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n the c e n t r e o f a bombardment o f i n f o r m a t i o n s t i m u l i i s to c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n where each p e r s o n i s f o r c e d t o u n d e r s t a n d r e a l i t y on i n d i v i d u a l t e r m s . When McLuhan s t a t e s i n The Gu tenbe rg G a l a x y t h a t t he "modern p h y s i c i s t i s a t home w i t h o r i e n t a l f i e l d t h e o r y he makes the same c o n n e c t i o n between Wes t e rn t e c h n o l o g y and O r i e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y t h a t Cage d o e s . Cage and B u c k m i n s t e r F u l l e r sha re a n a i v e l y o p t i m i s t i c b e l i e f i n the power o f t e c h n o l o g y . B o t h a l s o h i g h l y v a l u e i n v e n t i v e n e s s . F u l l e r , howeve r , e x p r e s s e s l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n c h a n c e , t e n d i n g more t o o v e r - d e s i g n t han t o l e a v e a n y t h i n g open to randomness . However , h i s t o t a l , s p a t i a l v i e w o f the w o r l d e x c i t e d Cage , as d i d h i s a c t i v i s m and s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s -n e s s . A f t e r ' t h i s y e a r a t W e s l e y a n , one sees a s t r o n g e r commitment by Cage to a p p r o a c h the l a r g e r p rob lems o f the w o r l d by c r e a t i n g new s t r u c t u r e s and i n v e n t i o n s ana logous t o h i s a n a r c h i c app roach t o m u s i c . The i d e a s o f McLuhan and F u l l e r t a k e up much o f C a g e ' s l a t e r b o o k , A Y e a r From Monday, w r i t t e n t e n y e a r s l a t e r d u r i n g 16. h i s second term as a Fellow at the Wesleyan Center i n 1972. Unfortunately, however, Cage i s a more convincing a r t i s t i c revolutionary,, than he i s a s o c i a l v i s i o n a r y . The messages of A Year From Monday too often p a r r o t F u l l e r and McLuhan to be powerful or s t i m u l a t i n g . In 1962, Cage and Tudor d i d a six-week concert tour of Japan, sponsored by Mr. Sofu Teshigahara, awe:aLthy patron of avant-garde a r t . The climax of the t r i p was a s p e c i a l s e r v i c e at the Grand Shinto Shrine of Ise to bles s t h e i r avant-garde work. In 1964 A t l a s E c l i p t i c a l i s was performed by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra under Leonard B e r n s t e i n at L i n c o l n Center. The r e a c t i o n of the s u b s c r i p t i o n audience was one of shock. More than h a l f of the audience walked out. The ult i m a t e i n s u l t , however, came from the pla y e r s of the P h i l -harmonic i t s e l f , who began h i s s i n g when Cage was introduced by Be r n s t e i n at the end of the concert. Cage had the p r i v i l e g e of l i v i n g w ith Teeny and Marcel Duchamp i n Cadaques, Spain i n 1966^ Although there are great d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r approach, Cage's work i s i n the Dada t r a d i t i o n i n i t s use of chance, s i m u l t a n e i t y , i r r e v e r e n c e , n o n - r a t i o n a l i t y , nonsense j u x t a p o s i t i o n s , and m a t e r i a l s and ideas from non-art sources. (Duchamp also experimented w i t h chance i n composition by using the e f f e c t s of wind and g r a v i t y on a piece of s t r i n g . ) Duchamp i s one of the world's a r t i s t s t hat Cage most admires. During the 1966 v i s i t , he stud i e d chess w i t h him. R e f e r r i n g to these s e s s i o n s , Cage s a i d , 17. Every now and then he would get very impatient w i t h me. He complained that I didn't seem to want to win. A c t u a l l y , I was so d e l i g h t e d t o be with him that the notion of winning was beside the p o i n t . When we played, he would always give me a knight i n advance. He was extremely i n t e l l i g e n t and he almost always won. .... In t r y i n g to teach me how to p l a y , Marcel s a i d something which i s very o r i e n t a l , 'Don't j u s t play your side of the game, play both s i d e s . ' I t r i e d t o , but I was more impressed with what he s a i d than I was able to f o l l o w i t . 1 5 Stimulated by these s e s s i o n s , he organized Reunion , a musical, performance i n which Duchamp, Cage and Teeny Duchamp played chess on a board e l e c t r o n i c a l l y wired f o r sound. This took place i n Toronto i n 1968. Also i n 1>9;68, Cage was electe,dr la . member of* the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of A r t s and L e t t e r s . His career-long fear of not being taken s e r i o u s l y was q u e l l e d . He was now o f f i c i a l l y a member of the a r t i s t i c Establishment. Notations was published i n 1968. This i s a c o l l e c t i o n of graphic music n o t a t i o n which Cage e d i t e d together w i t h A l i s o n Knowles. (She i s the mother of Christopher Knowles, the retarded c h i l d who has appeared i n s e v e r a l of Robert Wilson's theatre pieces.) The t e s t i s w r i t t e n p r i m a r i l y by the various composers whose works are shown. The space a l l o t t e d to each c o n t r i b u t o r , r e l a t i v e to the t o t a l book, was chosen by I Ching chance operations. In 1972, WGBH, the pioneering educational t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n i n Boston, presented "A T r i b u t e to John Cage", an hour-long program by Nam June Paik i n honour of Cage's s i x t i e t h b i r t h d a y . Cage's most recent book, M, appeared i n 1973. I t i s w r i t t e n i n the h i g h l y c o n t r o l l e d form of mesostics, or 18. a c r o s t i c s with the c r i t i c a l l e t t e r i n the centre of the word rather than at the beginning. The book shows a deeper commit-ment to s o c i a l change than h i s e a r l i e r ones. Much a t t e n t i o n i s given to the a n t i - e l i t i s t s o c i a l approach of the Chinese C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with nature of Henry David Thoreau, and much t a l k about mushrooms and personal f r i e n d s . In 1976, Cage received much a t t e n t i o n w i t h h i s work com-missioned f o r the American B i - C e n t e n n i a l , Apartment House/ Renga, which was also performed by the New York Philharmonic. A l l e n Hughes, the reviewer f o r the New York Times, p r a i s e d i t h i g h l y f o r i t s sense of c e l e b r a t i o n . The audience, however, was once again h i g h l y p o l a r i z e d . "Hundreds f l e d t h e i r s e a t s " , while those that remained to the end, "cheered and booed 1 7 e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . " Cage i s now sixty.seven years o l d . He i s s t i l l composing, l e c t u r i n g and o c c a s i o n a l l y performing. The questions and challenges he poses are s t i l l g e t t i n g strong r e a c t i o n s . With a warmth and humour rare i n r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , he has become as much a philosopher as a musician. CAGE'S AESTHETIC 19. CAGE'S AESTHETIC Cage defines a r t as the conscious s t r u c t u r i n g of time and space that stimulates the senses. M a t e r i a l objects are not included i n the d e f i n i t i o n ; the emphasis i s on s t r u c t u r i n g . The a r t i s t remains the maker, or form-giver, i n the A r i s t o t e l i a n sense. However, i t i s the a c t i o n of s t r u c t u r i n g per se that i s the " a r t " , r ather than the product of the a c t i v i t y given form by an a r t i s t . In these terms, then, t r a d i t i o n a l t h e a t r i c a l production i s a by-product of a r t not the a r t i t s e l f . Cage's type of a e s t h e t i c lends i t s e l f to a t h e a t r i c a l form where the emphasis i s on doing or a c t i v i t y more than on c r e a t i n g an end product. I t a lso lends i t s e l f to a workshop or audience p a r t i c i p a t o r y form more than to a p r e s e n t a t i o n a l one, although Cage u s u a l l y works w i t h the p r e s e n t a t i o n a l . Although the a r t object or production i s of secondary importance, i t s scope i s enlarged. T r a d i t i o n a l non-art media are acceptable w i t h i n the defined a r t . The non-hermetic and the u n i n t e n t i o n a l f a l l w i t h i n the bounds of a r t as long as they are contained by a c o n s c i o u s l y - s t r u c t u r e d framework of a c t i v i t y . As Harold Rosenberg points out, t h i s type of d e f i n i t i o n " d i s s o l v e s a l l l i m i t a t i o n s on the kinds of sub-stances out of which a r t can be c o n s t i t u t e d " . 1 This s h i f t from the a e s t h e t i c to the non-aesthetic, he c a l l s the 2 " d e - d e f i n i t i o n of the a r t s " . The i n s i d e - o u t s i d e productions of Squat Theatre exemplify t h i s a e s t h e t i c i n p r a c t i c a l t h e a t r i c a l terms. Their P i g , 20 . C h i l d , F i r e (1977) was staged i n a s t o r e f r o n t window wi t h the audience f a c i n g out toward the s t r e e t . The n o n - t h e a t r i c a l space and events of Twenty-third S t r e e t that were framed by the window,and the presence and r e a c t i o n s of the s h i f t i n g group outside c u r i o u s l y l o o k i n g i n (outside audience watching i n s i d e audience and performance) became part of the a r t work. Cage ignores any reference to a r a t i o n a l response on the part of the p e r c e i v e r . L i k e Artaud, he wants us to respond i n t u i t i v e l y and s e n s o r i l y i n d i r e c t ways. I t i s s i g h t and hearing, our p u b l i c senses, that are s t i m u l a t e d by theatre. In theory, t h e r e f o r e , Cage's own a r t i s n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l . In p r a c t i c e , however, i t i s h i g h l y i n t e l l e c t u a l , since i t demands a s o p h i s t i c a t e d conceptual understanding f o r greatest impact. Of a l l the s p e c i f i c a r t forms, Cage considers theatre to be the most pure, since i t "resembles l i f e more c l o s e l y than 3 the other a r t s " . Theatre i n Cage's terms i s something that engages both the eye and the e a r . . . i t i s an occasion i n v o l v i n g any number of people, but not j u s t one. 4 In j u s t i f i c a t i o n , Cage s t a t e s : the reason that I want to make my d e f i n i t i o n of theatre that simple i s so one could view every-day l i f e i t s e l f as theatre.5 What Cage considers theatre i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d performance. Performance i s a l i v e a c t i o n intended to be presented to at l e a s t one spectator. I t may or may not be s c r i p t e d . I t may or may not be dramatic. I t i s r e l a t e d to a c t i v i t y or to the completion of a p r e s c r i b e d task. Performance i s the genus. Theatre i s the speci e s . 21 Theatre since the Greeks has i n v o l v e d dramatic a c t i o n , c o n f l i c t , and c r e a t i o n of a r t i f i c i a l time, p l a c e , and c h a r a c t e r . K i r b y c a l l s theatre which has these a r t i f i c i a l elements "matrixed".^ A c t i o n and spectacle are common to both. Performance i s to theatre then, what " o r g a n i z a t i o n of sound" i s to harmony. I t i s the removal of c l a s s i c a e s t h e t i c expectations, while s t i l l employing a formal s t r u c t u r e . The content or subject . matter of a work of a r t must deal w i t h processes of the exernal world. Cage i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t works whose content i s s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . To Cage, "communication ["self - expression] i s a way of c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n 7 to one's own psychology" and should be avoided because i t i s f i l l e d w i t h i r r e l e v a n t ego. The ego, which acts as a f i l t e r i n g system f o r the e x t e r n a l , must not be blocked and r i g i d since i t i s the e x t e r n a l , r a t h e r than the p s y c h o l o g i c a l concerns of the i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t , that Cage f e e l s i s appropriate subject matter f o r a r t . The i n v i d i d u a l i t y of the a r t i s t i s evident through the choice of a c t i v i t i e s that he/she makes. Cage t r i e s to minimize the presence of h i s ego by working with chance techniques i n order to remove these choices from h i s c o n t r o l I n e v i t a b l y , though, hi s presence i n h i s works remains strong by the very choice of chance i t s e l f . Artaud, too, i n h i s Theatre of C r u e l t y , renounces " p s y c h o l o g i c a l man, with h i s w e l l - d i s s e c t e d character and f e e l i n g s , and s o c i a l man, submissive to laws misshapen by r e l i g i o n and precepts", and concerns himself with a " t o t a l 22 . g man.... cosmic and u n i v e r s a l t r u t h s " . He accuses psychology q of causing theatre's "abasement and f e a r f u l l o s s of energy". Cage became aware of The Theatre and I t s Double e a r l y i n the f i f t i e s through P i e r r e Boulez i n France. He r e f e r s to Artaud i n S i l e n c e and other t h e o r e t i c a l w r i t i n g s . (Here i s an instance of a t h e a t r i c a l i n f l u e n c e on Cage i n c o n t r a s t to h i s i n f l u e n c e on theatre.) The content of a r t must provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r per-c e i v i n g our m a t e r i a l environment and, as such, should deal w i t h s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c processes. Cage points out i n A Year From Monday, however, that these processes change as our understanding of them i s a l t e r e d by s c i e n t i f i c developments. For example, the E i n s t e i n i a n concept of space/ time has fundamentally changed our way of seeing the world from a f i x e d model to a s h i f t i n g one. The Uncertainty P r i n c i p l e of Heisenberg i s also noteworthy i n i t s relevance to Cage's general a e s t h e t i c . The Heisenberg P r i n c i p l e s t a t e s that you cannot p r e d i c t anything w i t h absolute c e r t a i n t y . A l l you can do i s s p e c i f y p r o b a b i l i t i e s . ^ This renders everything indeterminate. Buckminster F u l l e r c r e d i t s t h i s s h i f t i n s c i e n t i f i c consciousness w i t h changing our a t t i t u d e s toward i n n o v a t i o n . Inventions and new-fangled ideas were anathema to the Newtonian i n h i s changeless u n i v e r s e , but innovation i s the essence of the E i n s t e i n i a n u n i v e r s e . H Cage agrees that innovation i n i t s e l f i s a value. He i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n the experimental a t t i t u d e than i n c r e a t i n g great works of a r t . When subject matter r e l f e c t s n o n - s t a t i c e x t e r n a l 23. processes r a t h e r than personal emotions or i n d i v i d u a l i d e a s , the r e s u l t , according to Cage, i s more oft e n than not i n n o v a t i v e . The t h e o r e t i c a l reason f o r t h i s i s that i n a s h i f t i n g universe of constant change the p o i n t at which an a r t i s t begins to create i s a unique space/time, w i t h a unique p r o f i l e of s t i m u l a t i o n . I f we can allow e x t e r n a l processes to flow openly i n and out of us, our c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s based on them w i l l , of n e c e s s i t y , be d i f f e r e n t from what has come before. Cage's works are h i g h l y innovative,but t h i s i s due more to h i s i n d i v i d u a l i n v e n t i v e a b i l i t y than to h i s t h e o r e t i c a l base. The subject matter of the m a j o r i t y of h i s works i s the same: the order w i t h i n the d i s o r d e r of the universe. His chance techniques produce much v a r i e t y of sound and image, but the r e a l innovation i n h i s works comes i n the instrumentation and s t r u c t u r i n g . From t h i s p o i n t of view,his own works do not f u l l y support h i s theory. Regarding value judgements, Cage f e e l s there can be no "good" or "bad" a r t as long as the a r t work f u l f i l l s the d e f i n i t i o n described above. "Good"and "bad" only r e f l e c t middle c l a s s t a s t e , which changes wi t h d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l p e r i o d s . Duchamp p o i n t e d t h i s out earlier,when he s a i d , a r t may be bad, good, or i n d i f f e r e n t , but whatever a d j e c t i v e i s used, we must c a l l i t a r t , and bad a r t i s s t i l l a r t i n the same way that a bad emotion i s s t i l l an emotion.12 Cage defines e r r o r as "simply a f a i l u r e to adjust 13 immediately from pre-conception to a r e a l i t y " . As such, 24. there can be no c o n s i d e r a t i o n of e r r o r . Things come to pass, a r i s i n g and disappearing. Things are always going wrong.14 One must accept l i f e processes i n and f o r themselves. In so doing, one gives up the need to change the things one does not l i k e . This renders e r r o r i r r e l e v a n t i n a work of a r t , as w e l l as i n l i f e . Cage's approach r a i s e s questions about the concept of r e h e a r s a l . I f any occurrence, i n t e n t i o n a l or u n i n t e n t i o n a l , i s acceptable, p r a c t i c e toward a s p e c i f i c goal i s unnecessary. Rehearsal becomes simply a process of e x p l o r a t i o n , rather than the f i n e - t u n i n g t o o l of product-oriented t h e a t r e . Squat Theatre performs with a no-rehearsal p o l i c y . They don't warm up. They don't rehearse. They t a l k about what they want to do... discuss i t i n d e t a i l . . . n o t too much before, j u s t a f t e r -war dsl5 Few other companies work i n such a r a d i c a l way. Even Cage, when performing with large o r c h e s t r a s , i n s i s t s on r e h e a r s a l s . T r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c i s m i s obsolete. Cage sees i t as "negative" and "non-consumptive". Instead, l i f e processes should flow and " c r i t i c i s m must tu r n to c r e a t i o n . . . respond wi t h a work of your own".^ ^  E x i s t i n g a r t works of a l l k i n d s , then, become s t i m u l a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r a r t works i n the same way as do the other processes of l i f e . Masterpieces take on new meaning. They lose t h e i r sacredness, and become resource m a t e r i a l f o r f u r t h e r innovation. We must take i n t e n t i o n a l m a t e r i a l , l i k e Beethoven, and turn i t i n t o n o n - i n t e n t i o n (we must get something out of i t that he didn't put i n i t ) l 7 I t i s i m p l i e d that everyone i s a p o t e n t i a l a r t i s t j u s t by 2 5 . v i r t u e of being a l i v e . Artaud had a s i m i l a r d i s r e s p e c t f o r the worship of great a r t works. Masterpieces of the past, are good f o r the past. They are not good f o r us. We have the r i g h t to say what has been s a i d , and even what has not been s a i d , i n a way that belongs to us, a way that i s immediate and d i r e c t , corresponding to present modes of f e e l i n g , and understandable to everyone... the i d o l a t r y of f i x e d masterpieces i s an aspect of bourgeois conformism.1 ^ The prime f u n c t i o n of a r t i s to increase our s e n s i t i v i t y to the e x t e r n a l world i n order to i n t e g r a t e our environment f u l l y i n t o our l i v e s . Cage s t a t e s : The o b l i g a t i o n , the m o r a l i t y , i f you wish, of a l l the a r t s today, i s to i n t e n s i f y , a l t e r p erceptual awareness, and hence, consciousness... of the r e a l , m a t e r i a l world. Of tJie things we see and hear and t a s t e and touch.1 He wants a "view of the a r t s which does not separate them from the r e s t of l i f e " . 2 0 He considers only the m a t e r i a l , sensory side of l i f e , however,and ignores the emotional e n t i r e l y . " L i f e " i s a l i v e , but c o l d and unemotional. In h i s d i s c u s s i o n of A.K. Coomaraswamy's statement that the t r a d i t i o n a l Indian f u n c t i o n of a r t i s to "quiet the mind, 21 making i t s u s c e p t i b l e to d i v i n e i n f l u e n c e s " , he c l a r i f i e s t h i s . He i n t e r p r e t s " d i v i n e i n f l u e n c e s " to be "the environment i n which we are", and a "quiet mind" to be one i n which "the ego does not obstruct the fluency of the things that come i n through our senses and up through our dreams". This i s i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n to the Western t r a d i t i o n i n which sense perceptions are secondary to conceptualization. Cage l i m i t s the i n t e g r a t i o n of the environment, however, 26 . 22-to " s o c i a l - r e a l i z a t i o n " , r ather than " s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n " . A r t functions to increase our understanding of and helps us 23 "to adapt to our complex, contemporary s o c i e t y " . This i s done by c r e a t i n g s h i f t s i n p u b l i c s e n s i b i l i t i e s . He considers Buckminster F u l l e r a major a r t i s t because he has been able to accomplish t h i s . Cage u t i l i z e s F u l l e r ' s concept of C o l l e c t i v e Consiousness when he s t a t e s , We have only one mind (the one we share). Changing things r a d i c a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , i s simple. You j u s t change that one mind.24 (Obviously Cage i s s i m p l i f y i n g matters f o r the purpose of making a r h e t o r i c a l point.) . The s t r u c t u r e of h i s Apartment House (1976) can be used as an example of h i s i n t e n t to r a i s e s o c i a l consciousness through a r t . I t r e f l e c t s the random interweaving r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r a c i a l mix that forms America's base. The process of i n t e r -dependence and co-operation of those e a r l y i n h a b i t a n t s , as they faced a challenging but d i f f i c u l t l i f e , o f t e n with common problems, i s expressed. The importance of c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n d i v e r s i t y i s b a s i c to Cage's p o l i t i c a l philosophy as a S o c i a l A n a r c h i s t . He f e e l s that a r t i s capable of improving s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and environmental problems. This can be done by the con s c i o u s n e s s - r a i s i n g of the works themselves. I t can also be done by applying the imagination, i d e a l i s m , and c r e a t i v i t y t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated w i t h the a r t s d i r e c t l y to s o c i a l problems. When a r t i s . seen as an a c t i v i t y rather than an obj e c t , the act of a r t can then be a p p l i e d to l i f e on s o c i a l , i n t e r a c t i v e l e v e l s . In h i s book A Year From Monday, he proposes: 2 7 . Take the f a c t s of a r t s e r i o u s l y : t r y them i n e c o n o m i c s / p o l i t i c s ; g i v i n g up, that i s , notions about balance (of power) (of wea l t h ) , foreground, background. 2-; 2 Another f u n c t i o n of a r t i s to "keep us from o s s i f y i n g " . A r t should s t i m u l a t e us i n t o r e a c t i o n . In t h i s way, i t helps us avoid stagnation. (Gertrude S t e i n s i m i l a r l y considered a r t use-f u l only when i t was i r r i t a t i n g . ) In a world of constant change, i t i s important f o r s u r v i v a l not to become complacent. I r r i t a t i n g a r t i s best when i t s t i r s the audience to a c t i o n . The performances of the F u t u r i s t s (which i n c i d e n t a l l y a lso used noise and s i m u l t a n e i t y ) o f t e n brought v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n s from t h e i r audiences. M a r i n e t t i once wrote a manifesto on "The Pleasure of Being Booed" (1911). 2 In t h e i r work, they i n t e n t i o n a l l y t r i e d to antagonize people with pranks l i k e double-booking the t h e a t r e , and p u t t i n g glue on seats. Frequently, M a r i n e t t i , B a l l a or Russolo were j a i l e d f o r t h e i r d i s r u p t i v e n e s s . The Dada movement too was a p r o t e s t of i r r a t i o n a l i t y designed to shock audiences i n t o seeing the madness of t h e i r s o c i e t y . Dadaism recognized a r t as a s o c i a l n e c e s s i t y . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , n o n - s t a g n a t i n g a r t t h e o r e t i c a l l y prepares us f o r r i s k - t a k i n g . There i s nothing we r e a l l y need to do that i s n ' t dangerous. Eighth Street a r t i s t s knew t h i s years ago. Constantly spoke of r i s k . 2 Cage's personal r i s k s are a l l a r t i s t i c , however, when compared wit h the L i v i n g Theatre, who create o f t e n threatening p r o t e s t s i t u a t i o n s or Chris Burden, the Body A r t i s t , who a c t u a l l y puts h i s l i f e momentarily i n danger. 28. The e s s e n t i a l t h i n g about a work of a r t i s that i t somehow be u s e f u l to us i n connection w i t h our d a i l y l i v e s . . . There i s no need to minimize the complexity of the s i t u a t i o n (our l i v e s ) , but rather a great need to make t h i s complexity something we can enjoy. I f our a r t s introduce us to i t , then I think they are performing a u s e f u l f u n c t i o n . 30 The u t i l i t a r i a n aspect of Cage's work can be seen i n the types of actions that he chooses to work w i t h . Tasks are never purely a e s t h e t i c ; they always perform some s o r t of f u n c t i o n . For example, the performers changing the radios i n Radio Music do not do so loo k i n g f o r b e a u t i f u l sounds. The act of changing s t a t i o n s i s purely f u n c t i o n a l . Cage's use of space i s the same. Rather than b e a u t i f y the environment, he allows i t to r e f l e c t the f u n c t i o n a l uses of the space. The complicated s p a t i a l a r r -angement of the many elements of HPSCHD was a r r i v e d at e i t h e r randomly or by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of e l e c t r i c a l sources. Cage defines a r t i s t i c s t r u c t u r e as a framework that can be broken down i n t o c l e a r l y d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e p a r t s . I t i s s t r u c -ture that d i s t i n g u i s h e s a work of a r t from a non-work of a r t . 31 Structure i s the "net" w i t h i n which the artwork l i v e s . S t r ucture must be f l e x i b l e i n form. I f something else happens that o r d i n a r i l y would be thought of as an i n t e r r u p t i o n , doesn't a l t e r i t , then i t i s working the way i t now must.32 Accidents and u n i n t e n t i o n a l events that occur w i t h i n the con-s c i o u s l y s t r u c t u r e d time are, t h e r e f o r e , considered an i n t e g r a l part of the artwork. A l l the non-hermetic that e x i s t s i n that space/time e x i s t s on an equal plane w i t h the a e s t h e t i c . In h i s overview t h i s i s j u s t i f i e d , since both are simply f l u i d , i n t e r -weaving parts of an i n f i n i t e whole. The processes of a r t , t h e r e f o r e , should not stop the processes 29. of non-art ( l i f e ) . A r t and l i f e are inseparable. One doesn't stop l i v i n g when.one i s occupied wi t h art.33 I n c l u s i o n of the non-hermetic i n t o the a e s t h e t i c s t r u c t u r e makes us aware of the formal elements that make up the non-hermetic. 4'33" i s Cage's most r a d i c a l example of t h i s . The non-hermetic extends to the p h y s i c a l environment and the process and actions of the members of the audience. In an extreme example, the audience that reacted v i o l e n t l y to Cage's M i l a n performance of Empty Words created an i n t e n s e l y dramatic and a l i v e performance. When t h i s type of v i o l e n c e p e r s i s t s beyond the defined space/time of the a r t i s t i c s t r u c t u r e , however, i t s h i f t s from being " a l i v e and unpredictable non-hermetic a c t i v i t y " to p o t e n t i a l l y - u n c o n t r o l l a b l e " s o c i a l disturbance". The environmental staging techniques of the e a r l y work of Grotowski (e.g. Kordian-1962) and that of The Performance Group (e.g. Dionysus i n 69-1969) v i s u a l l y incorporated the audience i n t o the t h e a t r i c a l images. The movements and f a c i a l express-ions of i n d i v i d u a l audience members were v i s u a l l y juxtaposed with the performance i t s e l f , adding a c o n s t a n t l y changing,non-hermetic l e v e l of r e a l i t y to the focus of the e n t i r e production. Duchamp's Readimades and h i s Glass P a i n t i n g s a l s o b r i n g non-hermetic r e a l i t y i n t o a r t , as does much other Dada work. The Glass P a i n t i n g s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , p a r a l l e l Cage's 4'35" by i n c o r p o r a t i n g the p h y s i c a l environment and immediate human a c t i v i t y that f a l l s w i t h i n view of the framed area. Real things and actions become a r t by v i r t u e of the a r t i s t ' s 3 0 . s e l e c t i o n and framing. However, Duchamp's i n t e n t was d i f f e r e n t than Cage's. The Dada slogan that A r t = L i f e was aimed s p e c i f i c a l l y at rendering t r a d i t i o n a l notions of a r t meaningless, rather than at meaningful i n t e g r a t i o n . R i c h t e r points t h i s out i n h i s book, Dada, A r t and A n t i - A r t , when he considers Duchamp's use of the non-hermetic as p a r a l l e l with " a m o r a l i t y , emptying 34 l i f e as w e l l as a r t of a l l i t s s p i r i t u a l content." Although Cage, l i k e the Dadaists, wants to change t r a d -i t i o n a l concepts of a r t , he i s aware that a r t i s not c r u c i a l to l i f e . L i f e i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n i t s e l f . A r t i s a dispensable t o o l . We open our eyes and ears seeing l i f e each day e x c e l l e n t as i t i s . This r e a l i z a t i o n no longer needs a r t , though without i t , i t would have been d i f f i c u l t to come by. 35, In h i s o p t i m i s t i c view of l i f e , everything holds i n t e r e s t . I t i s j u s t a matter of concentration. The i n c l u s i o n of unpredictable non-hermetic elements w i t h i n the a r t work changes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the a r t i s t toward the work. He becomes an acceptor, i n a d d i t i o n to being a maker i n the A r i s t o t e l i a n sense. To accept whatever comes regardless of the consequences i s to be u n a f r a i d or to be f u l l of that love which comes from a sense of at-oneness wi t h whatever.36 However, "accepting whatever comes, regardless of the con-sequences" can also mean a reluctance to accept personal r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the work. Incorporating v i o l e n c e , f o r example, i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y w i t h i n the a r t i s t ' s bounds as an acceptor, but i t can i n t e r f e r e w i t h i n d i v i d u a l values and moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l . 31. In an i n t e r v i e w i n "Art i n America", Cage reveals con-cern and disapproval f o r the unpredictable v i o l e n c e used i n the work of other a r t i s t s such as Nam June Paik. For example, Paik's piece e n t i t l e d 'In Homage to John Cage (1962) c o n s i s t e d of Paik e v i s c e r a t i n g the i n s i d e s of an o l d piano, J-then jumping o f f the stage to run over to Cage, who was s i t t i n g i n a f r o n t row seat. He then cut Cage's n e c k t i e o f f at the neck and poured a b o t t l e of shampoo over h i s head. A f t e r massaging Cage's bubbly head a b i t , he ran out of the auditorium. The shock of both Cage and the audience was broken by a telephone c a l l . I t was Paik c a l l i n g to say that the performance was over. Although Paik i s a d i s c i p l e of Cage, the aggressiveness of t h i s piece made Cage p e r s o n a l l y aware of the p o t e n t i a l dangers of u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . F l e x i b i l e s t r u c t u r e produces a r t works that are non-s t a t i c and d i f f e r e n t with changes i n time and environmental c o n d i t i o n s . They are never e x a c t l y r e p r o d u c i b l e . Some aspects of the performance w i l l remain when repeated, but the t o t a l i s t r a n s i t o r y . The immediate takes precedence over the permanent. In theatre more than other a r t forms, exact r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y has never r e a l l y been p o s s i b l e . There are too many human v a r i a b l e s i n l i v e performance. I t was to counter t h i s aspect of the a r t that t h e o r i e s l i k e Craig's system of Ubermarionettes were developed. From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , anything l a s t i n g becomes documentation, rather than the event or experience i t s e l f . 32 . Photographs, videotapes, recordings, and f i l m are considered documentation. They serve only to record the experience as an h i s t o r i c a l event, much l i k e a post card. In a f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e that includes u n i n t e n t i o n a l elements, innumerable l e v e l s of r e a l i t y " i n t e r p e n e t r a t e " to mutually a f f e c t each other at any given moment. This s t r u c t u r e , then, should have no p r e s c r i b e d focus according to Cage, since many p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i l l always e x i s t . Cage r e f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e of McLuhan when he s t a t e s , Nowadays, everything happens at once, and our souls are conveniently e l e c t r o n i c (omni-attentive) ^ 7 A r t , l i k e l i f e , should e x i s t i n a changing f i e l d . One sees an O r i e n t a l i n f l u e n c e i n t h i s approach. Western a e s t h e t i c s i s b u i l t on r a t i o n a l l i n e a r i t y , or cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s , as opposed to an O r i e n t a l view, which sees l i f e as based on an i n c a l c u a b l e number of simultaneous causes and e f f e c t s . Lack of a p r e s c r i b e d focus r a d i c a l l y a l t e r s the r o l e of the t r a d i t i o n a l p e r c e i v e r i n responding to the a r t work. Surrounded by a f i e l d of s t i m u l a t i o n , the p e r c e i v e r must make personal d e c i s i o n s about what to focus on and when to s h i f t focus. This approach i s supported by the p s y c h o l o g i c a l research done by S e g a l l , Campbell and Herskovits i n which they show that although we assume that everyone perceives the same as we do, they don't. In r e a l i t y , everyone i s responding w i t h an i n d i v i d u a l set of perceptual content and 3 8 system of a s s o c i a t i o n s and in f e r e n c e s . Many perceptions are shared, but they are always perceived i n an i n d i v i d u a l way. 3 3 . Correspondingly, a non-linear s t r u c t u r e creates works which begin and end by personal p o i n t s of involvement and non-involvement. Since the p e r c e i v e r i s d e f i n i n g the experience/ piece f o r him/herself, the piece begins when h i s / h e r a t t e n t i o n i s focused. The piece ends when a t t e n t i o n i s no longer held. In t h i s way, every a r t work becomes d i r e c t l y audience-p a r t i c i p a t o r y . In Cage's words, "each person i s i n the best 3 9 seat". According to Cage, there i s no r i g h t or wrong way to perce i v e . Every i n d i v i d u a l creates a unique combination from the s t i m u l a t i o n based on h i s / h e r own p e r s p e c t i v e . However, to the u n i n i t i a t e d , t r a i n e d to expect defined, l i n e a r development from the a r t i s t , the experience of a f i e l d - s t r u c t u r e d a r t work i s often one of confusion and chaos. Basic to Cage's a e s t h e t i c i s the concept of in d e t e r -minacy. Indeterminacy i s the st a t e that e x i s t s when s t r u c t u r e d u n i t s i n t e r a c t w i t h each other i n an i n p r e d i c t a b l e way. I t i s a s p e c i f i c type of f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e . A l l of Cage's work from Music f o r Piano (1952) to the present i s indeterminate. Indeterminacy i s a formal means of separating the a r t i s t ' s i n t e n t i o n and t a s t e from the experience of the a r t work i t s e l f . A l l things are r e l a t e d , and t h i s complexity i s more evident when i t i s not o v e r s i m p l i f i e d by an idea of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n one person's mind.40 Any d i r e c t idea that the a r t i s t may have i s a l t e r e d by the i n t r u s t i o n of the unpredictable elements. New meanings a r i s e which can then be r e - i n t e r p r e t e d by the p e r c e i v e r . I t i s a formal attempt to l e t things happen, rather than make them happen. Cage values technology as a t o o l capable of minimizing i n d i v i d u a l i n t e n t i o n . On a p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , he i s i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the t o o l s of technology - namely e l e c t r o n i c s and computers - i n h i s a r t works. Technological media lend themselves to c o o l , impersonal, and.unemotional works of a r t . Computers are b r i n g i n g about a s i t u a t i o n that's l i k e the i n v e n t i o n of harmony. Subroutines are l i k e chords. No one would think of keeping a chord to himself. You'd give i t to anyone who wanted i t . Subroutines are a l t e r e d by a s i n g l e punch. We're g e t t i n g music made by man h i m s e l f , not j u s t one man. 1 I t i s a paradox that Cage, who turns to chance to escape the r a t i o n a l , a l s o turns to computers, the mechanical extension of the human b r a i n , i n hopes of f r e e i n g a r t from a r t i s t s . One i s reminded of the Univac slogan: Don't think. Let Univac do i t f o r you. Indeterminacy r e s u l t s i n one-of-a-kinduperformances. For t h i s reason, they a r e " e q u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g to the per-former as to the audience". 4^ I t i s the unpredictable that makes the performance a l i v e . However, i t i s often very d i f f i c u l t f o r a performer to l e t go of h i s fear of the unknown. Indeterminacy allows f o r s i m u l t a n e i t y , or m u l t i p l e , u n r e l a t e d things happening at the same time. The Black  Mountain Piece . makes e f f e c t i v e use of t h i s phenomenon. The Dadaists a l s o made use of s i m u l t a n e i t y as e a r l y as 1912 to express the c h a o t i c p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Europe at the time. 3 5 . S i m u l t a n e i t y r e s u l t s i n i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n , i n which innumerable l e v e l s of r e a l i t y mutually a f f e c t each other, b r i n g i n g both the non-hermetic and a e s t h e t i c together, as discussed e a r l i e r . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n any a r t not as a c l o s e d - i n t h i n g by i t s e l f , but as a going-out one to i n t e r p e n e t r a t e with a l l other t h i n g s , even i f they are a r t s , too .43" Both a random cough and a f l e e t i n g thought are brought i n t o the a r t work because they occur w i t h i n the defined space/time s t r u c t u r e and are j u s t as worthy of focus as the intended elements. J u x t a p o s i t i o n causes a s s o c i a t i o n s which become part of the t o t a l perception of the work. I n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n i s constant. "There i s no such t h i n g as an empty space or an empty time".44 When one simultaneous element temporarily obscures the others, Cage r e f e r s to i t as a "truck e f f e c t " , ^ 5 i . e . , a s i t u a t i o n p a r a l l e l to a passing truck obscuring the view of a b u i l d i n g across the s t r e e t . The b u i l d i n g continues to e x i s t . I t i s only the perception of i t that i s cut o f f . The truck e f f e c t occurs i n the non-hermetic r e g u l a r l y . An indeterminate s t r u c t u r e can be accomplished through the use of chance techniques, such as dice or the I_ Ching. A l l of Cage's major works are s t r u c t u r e d by t h i s method. However, he recognizes i t as a t o o l , and s t a t e s that "chance techniques are unnecessary when the a c t i o n s performed are 4ft u n p r e d i c t a b l e . " Cage's use of chance techniques has two s i g n i f i c a n t precedents. The f i r s t i s O r i e n t a l philosophy, which i s 3 6 . r e f l e c t e d i n h i s frequent use of the I Ching. As already mentioned, Cage has s e r i o u s l y studied Zen Buddhism. Zen i s an a n t i - r a t i o n a l r e l i g i o n of the present. L i f e as i t i s l i v e d s u f f i c e s . I t i s only when the d i s q u i e t i n g i n t e l l e c t steps i n and t r i e s to murder i t that we stop to l i v e and imagine ourselves to be short of or i n something. Let the i n t e l l e c t alone, i t has usefulness i n i t s proper sphere, but l e t i t not i n t e r f e r e with the flowing of the l i f e -stream. ^ 7 I t i s based on a b e l i e f that everything i n the universe i s 4 8 r e l a t e d , and " a l l i s one". Examination of d i s s i m i l a r s and opposites i s b e l i e v e d to r e v e a l n a t u r a l t r u t h s . Chance i s used to b r i n g d i s s i m i l a r s i n t o play while not u p s e t t i n g the n a t u r a l order with human i n t e l l i g e n c e . The second major i n f l u e n t i a l precedent i n Cage's use of chance i s the work of the Dadaists i n the e a r l y twenties. Tzara, Arp, and Duchamp a l l used chance techniques i n t h e i r work. Much Dada poetry and c o l l a g e i s b u i l t on chance. I t expressed the i r r a t i o n a l i t y and chaos they f e l t i n s o c i e t y . They "adopted chance, the voice of the unconscious - the s o u l , i f you l i k e - as a p r o t e s t against r i g i d i t y . " ^ Underlying a l l of t h i s i s the concept of process, the s t a t e of constant change that c h a r a c t e r i z e s a l l l i v i n g t h ings. In Cage's words, i t i s " c o n t i n u a l l y becoming that i t i s becoming". 5^ This r e f l e c t s a Zen s e n s i b i l i t y of purpose-lessness. Anything that happens between two f i x e d p o i n t s i n time i s always i n the process of becoming something other than i t was before, but never a c t u a l l y a r r i v e s at a given end p o i n t . No goal i s necessary, simply the goal of constant 37. change. A l l a c t i v i t i e s then have the same goa l . Process-oriented a r t has no permanent, or s t a t i c , end product. Only the documentation i s l a s t i n g . Since i t i s d i f f e r e n t when repeated, the same work i s often unrecognizable and thought to be another p i e c e . Several of Cage's works have been performed only once, but have strong s i m i l a r i t i e s to other works. Elements i n process do not a l l change at the same r a t e . Everything i s changing, but while some things are changing, others are not. E v e n t u a l l y , those that were not changing begin suddenly to change et v i c e versa ad i n f i n i t u m . 51 These v a r i a t i o n s i n t e n s i f y u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . Elements come together and separate. Therefore, momentary co n d i t i o n s can never be the same twice. There are too many elements changing at the same time at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s . The complexity of process-oriented a r t i s unfathomable. Exact d e f i n i t i o n i s no longer p o s s i b l e . You w i l l never be able to give a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e p o r t , even to y o u r s e l f , of j u s t what happened. 52 This lack of d e f i n i t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t f o r many people to adjust to. The f u z z i n e s s and d i s t r a c t i o n d i s t u r b s our sense of s t a b i l i t y . Process i n a r t requires conceptual re-education. Cage's a e s t h e t i c i s to c o n t r i b u t e to that re-education. CAGE'S PERFORMANCE 3 8 . CAGE'S PERFORMANCE I s h a l l consider Cage's performance i n the f o l l o w i n g way: 1) t h e a t r i c a l i t y - spectacle and Conceptual Theatre, and 2) inventions and instrumentation. Since these are c a t e g o r i c a l , r ather than developmental d i v i s i o n s , there i s often some overlapping of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e a t r i c a l i t y has been important to Cage's work since the f o r t i e s . Before that time, the performance of h i s percussion concerts were given i n t r a d i t i o n a l concert format. Through h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n s w i t h Merce Cunningham, he began to see h i s musical performances as a type of th e a t r e . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, he sees theatre simply as an a c t i v i t y t hat s t i m u l a t e s both the eye and the ear i n a p u b l i c s i t u a t i o n . Such a broad d e f i n i t i o n i s c l o s e l y a l i g n e d w i t h n o n - l i t e r a r y t h e a t r i c a l genres such as pageants, spectacle,and c i r c u s . Together, Cunningham and Cage evolved a system of equal, p a r a l l e l performance. The music was not l i n k e d to the dance e i t h e r r h y t h m i c a l l y or t h e m a t i c a l l y , but both were performed simultaneously i n the same performance space. Cage's move-ment, i n the a c t i v i t y of making sounds, was part of the dance whole. Conversely, the sounds of the dancers moving along the f l o o r , e t c . , became parts of the percussive sound score. Thi s . : d i f f e r s from t r a d i t i o n a l dance i n that the sound i s not simply supportive of the movement, but equal to i t . (The independent "zones" of a c t i o n and v i s u a l imagery, i n theatre pieces such as Robert Wilson's King of Spain (1969), or L i f e and Times of Joseph S t a l i n (1974) are p a r a l l e l to t h i s idea.) 39 . Cage uses t h i s simultaneous performance technique i n most of h i s l e c t u r e s and as musical performances. A t r a d i t i o n a l audience-performer r e l a t i o n s h i p i s often main-t a i n e d , but information i s i n t e r r u p t e d by the simultaneous nature of the p r e s e n t a t i o n . The i n t e n t i s e x p e r i e n t i a l rather than communication of i n f o r m a t i o n . "Indeterminacy", a l e c t u r e presented together with David Tudor at the 1958 Brussels World's F a i r , serves as a good i l l u s t r a t i o n . I t was a c o l l e c t i o n of n i n e t y , randomly chosen s t o r i e s . The s t o r i e s v a r i e d i n length. They were i n no set order. Each was read aloud, a l l o w i n g one minute f o r each s t o r y . Some had to be read q u i c k l y . Others had to be s t r e t c h e d out. This created an unpredictable rhythm of words and s i l e n c e s . The s t o r i e s themselves were oft e n d i f f i c u l t to comprehend. P a r a l l e l w i t h the reading, David Tudor performed Fontana Mix, an e l e c t r o n i c piece which uses very loud sounds, i n which the performer i s free to decide the order and duration of the noise. The loud e l e c t r o n i c noises f r e q u e n t l y obstructed the speaker's v o i c e . Neither a r t i s t knew beforehand what the other would do. The f i x e d parts of the s t r u c t u r e were the one minute i n t e r v a l s , the read s t o r i e s , the e l e c t r o n i c sounds, and the t o t a l time of n i n e t y minutes. The performance r e s u l t , being s t r u c t u r e d yet u n p r e d i c t a b l e , was indeterminate. In the Black Mountain Piece (1952) , Cage began to use spectacle by i n t e g r a t i n g otherwise u n r e l a t e d v i s u a l elements w i t h the sonic i n an indeterminate way. Black Mountain Piece 4 0 . was done c o l l a b o r a t i v e l y with Cunningham as a l e c t u r e at Black Mountain College. I t i n v o l v e d Cage l e c t u r i n g on Zen Buddhism, w i t h M.C. Richards and Charles Olsen on s c a t t e r e d ladders adding commentary. David Tudor played the piano. A movie was p r o j e c t e d onto Robert Rauschenberg's white p a i n t i n g s that were hung from the c e i l i n g . An o l d phonograph played and Cunningham, followed by a s t r a y dog, improvised a dance throughout the auditorium. The e f f e c t was one of confusion and overlapping s t i m u l a t i o n . The audience was arranged i n a formation focussing i n t o the centre of the room. Loudspeakers were placed throughout the space. A c t i v i t i e s happened at random spots around the room. The t r a d i t i o n a l p h y s i c a l audience-performer r e l a t i o n s h i p was a l t e r e d to encourage each person to have an i n d i v i d u a l perception of the event. Black Mountain Piece i s g e n e r a l l y considered the p r o t o t y p i c a l Happening. By the l a t e s i x t i e s / e a r l y s e v e n t i e s , Cage had enlarged the Black Mountain idea to c i r c u s p r o p o r t i o n s . The l a r g e -scale spectacle and t e c h n i c a l complexity of the l a t e r works, O = loudspeaker or performer 41. l i k e HPSCHD, are a d i r e c t r e s u l t of a more h i g h l y developed technology. (They are also a by-product of the increased funding that comes wit h r e c o g n i t i o n . ) HPSCHD.,. (the name i s derived from computer language) was performed at the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Lejaren H i l l e r . Forty eight a r t i s t s c o n t r i b u t e d t h e i r works. Outside the b u i l d i n g , a large sports arena, f i f t y - t w o carousels p r o j e c t e d overlapping images onto the w a l l s . I n s i d e , hanging from the r a f t e r s , were s e v e r a l large (one hundred feet by f o r t y feet) t r a n s l u c e n t panels. Simultaneously, f i l m and s l i d e s weie proj ected through them. Cage attached contact microphones to the l i g h t i n g board so that each change of l i g h t s created sound. Other e l e c t r o n i c sounds were a m p l i f i e d over f i f t y - e i g h t separate channels, each having a separate operator who could adjust the volume at w i l l . Seven l i v e h a r p s i c h o r d i s t s independently played e i t h e r t h e i r own composition or one of the pieces chosen by the others. No one was t o l d when to do what. Several thousand moving people f i l l e d the f l o o r and sides of the area, adding to the con-f u s i o n and noise. The i n c l u s i o n of an acrobat and a b e l l y dancers i n the P a r i s v e r s i o n of t h i s idea (1970) p o i n t s up the t h e a t r i c a l i n t e n t behind the work even more c l e a r l y . I t was a m u l t i -r i n g c i r c u s (without the r i n g s ) i n which the performers and audience shared the performance space i n a constant flow of change and movement. Ronconi's production of Orlando Furioso (1970) uses the same i n t e g r a t e d staging technique. The 42 . i n t e g r a t e d audience, through c o l o u r , p h y s i c a l presence and human r e a c t i o n , becomes part of the theatre i t s e l f . Theatre i n these terms has become what Cage describes i as "purposeless play that awakens our senses". Theatre as pure a c t i o n must e x i s t on i t s own. With so many v a r i a b l e s at such a s c a l e , Cage loses c o n t r o l of the p i e c e . His non-i n t e n t i o n , however, i s conceptual . since l o s s of c o n t r o l was a c t u a l l y h i s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t . A l l of Cage's performances are not as grandiose as HPSCHD. Theatre Piece (1960), which was performed at the L i v i n g Theatre, i s of a scale more t y p i c a l of the bulk of h i s work. I t i s also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n i t s indeterminacy and use of e l e c t r o n i c sounds. Although indeterminacy i n many of h i s works i s a r r i v e d at through the O r i e n t a l "Book of Changes", the J_ Ching (e.g. Music of Changes-1951) , random i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of a piece of paper (e.g. Music f o r Piano-1952), or the chance overlapping of s e v e r a l transparent p l a s t i c templates (e.g., V a r i a t i o n V-1958), Theatre Piece i s not. The form i s b u i l t from i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s . I t c a l l s f o r "any-where between one and eight performers" and i s s t r u c t u r e d i n compartments. I n d i v i d u a l performers choose twenty nouns and/ or verbs before they begin. During each time bracket, one of these i s randomly chosen and completed as an a c t i o n by each of the performers independently. Taped e l e c t r o n i c sounds play simultaneously. Thus, Theatre Piece r e l i e s on the performers themselves, rather than e l e c t r o n i c s and v i s u a l e f f e c t s to create the t h e a t r e . I t i s more conceptual than spectacular. 43. 4' 33" (1952) i s Cage's u l t i m a t e Conceptual Theatre performance. 4'33" involved David Tudor, an accomplished p i a n i s t , s i t t i n g s i l e n t l y at the piano,not p l a y i n g , f o r four minutes and t h i r t y three seconds. The piece ;was made up of the g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s i n g sounds of the audience as i t grew more and more r e s t l e s s and confused. Also included were the other a c c i d e n t a l sounds that occured during that short period (e.g. doors opening, e t c . ) . The piece began w i t h Tudor p l a c i n g the score on the piano. I t ended when he closed the score and walked o f f the stage four minutes and t h i r t y three seconds l a t e r . Only the format and the duration of the piece were arranged beforehand. The duration was chosen by chance techniques. Using the concert h a l l format, Cage e x p l o i t e d t r a d i t i o n a l audience/performer decorum and played up shock value. Performed i n the woods or a s t r e e t corner (both of which are t e c h n i c a l l y p o s s i b l e ) , a d i f f e r e n t but e q u a l l y v a l i d set of u n i n t e n t i o n a l sounds would be produced, but the parody would disappear. Parody i s v i t a l to the piece. 4'33", l i k e any other piece of Conceptual A r t , only works once. Cage must have r e a l i z e d t h i s , since the piece was never re-performed, even though i t i s h i s most famous work. I t i s an exercise i n perception and u n p r e d i c t a b l i t y , as w e l l as a d e l i b e r a t e challenge to Western a e s t h e t i c s . 4'33" i s Cage at h i s most outrageous. I t i s uncharacter-i s t i c i n i t s r a d i c a l s i m p l i c i t y and minimal r e l i a n c e on a numerical framework. I t i s unfortunate that i t i s the f i r s t 44. piece to come to mind i n any d i s c u s s i o n of Cage. I t i s a b r i l l i a n t piece of Conceptual A r t , however, w e l l before i t s time. The f o l l o w i n g report of a recent Cage performance i n Milan i s i n t e r e s t i n g because of the audience r e a c t i o n . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see a new generation r e a c t i n g v i o l e n t l y to the r a t i o n a l i t y of the ideas that t h e i r parents found d i s t u r b i n g l y i r r a t i o n a l . Last December, John Cage presented at Milan's Teatro L i r i c o h i s concert of Empty Words . That i s the reading of a hodgepodge of s y l l a b l e s and l e t t e r s obtained by p u t t i n g Henry David Thoreau's J o u r n a l through a c e r t a i n number of chance changes ach.^eved by means of the J_ Ching. S l i d e s showed drawings by Thoreau. The concert, organized by the p r i v a t e radio network Channel 96, was attended mostly by young people, who being unprepared f o r Cage's "music" reacted against i t a f t e r the f i r s t few minutes. Threatening shouts l i k e "Shoot him" and'TJeath to I n t e l l e c t u a l s " were accompanied by f i r e c r a c k e r s and p l a s t i c bags f i l l e d w ith water and thrown on Cage's head. A group from the audience even climbed on stage and attacked Cage v e r b a l l y and p h y s i c a l l y . Without showing the l e a s t emotion, Cage w|nt on with h i s "chant" f o r two and a h a l f hours. Cage's instrumentation g r e a t l y a f f e c t s the character of hi s performances. The novelty of many of h i s inventions often colours the p r e s e n t a t i o n with a very personal w i t and humour. Cage's e a r l y works are percussive. Found instruments, an extension of e a r l i e r Dada experiments with non-art o b j e c t s , are used c o n s i s t e n t l y because of t h e i r novel sound possib-i l i t i e s . An e a r l y piece such as Construction i n Metal (1938) t y p i c a l l y employs unconventional instrumentation. In a d d i t i o n to the more t r a d i t i o n a l gongs, b e l l s , and cymbals, Cage u t i l i z e s automobile brake drums and large pieces of scrap metal. The s t r u c t u r e used i n the piece i s t r a d i t i o n a l and h i g h l y numerical, but the s e n s i b i l i t y of inventiveness and e x p l o r a t i o n can already be seen. Found objects used to create unusual sounds l e d to the i n v e n t i o n of the Prepared Piano. At Cage's f i r s t Carnegie H a l l r e c i t a l i n 1949, Ross Parmenter of the New York Times s a i d , John Cage came i n t o h i s own l a s t n i g h t , both as an inventor and a composer. Maro Ajemian played a s i x t y nine minute composition of h i s on one of h i s "Prepared Pianos", and there was no questioning the double impact on the s e l e c t and i n t e l l e c t u a l audience gathered to hear i t at Carnegie R e c i t a l H a l l . 5 P Between 1938, the date of the o r i g i n a l Bacchanale Prepared Piano p i e c e , and 1951, when he composed Two P a s t o r a l e s , Cage wrote f i f t e e n works f o r the instrument. The Prepared Piano, however, i s as much an idea as i t i s an instrument. P a r t i c u l a r sound q u a l i t i e s needed f o r s p e c i f i c works determine the type of p r e p a r a t i o n the piano undergoes. This creates an instrument which changes from piece to piece depending on the type and qu a n t i t y of objects manipulated i n t o the piano i t s e l f . Many of these compositions were conceived as accompani /-ments f o r performances of the Merce Cunningham Dance Company. The instrument i s a very convenient one f o r t o u r i n g , since most performance spaces have pianos. The m a t e r i a l s necessary to transform any a v a i l a b l e ipiano - a few e r a s e r s , rubber bands, screws, and blocks of wood - are e a s i l y p o r t a b l e . I f necessary, new v a r i a t i o n s on the Prepared Piano can be improv-i s e d from whatever m a t e r i a l s are at hand, and the piece can 46. s t i l l be performed as long as the rhythmic s t r u c t u r e i s maintained. The Prepared Piano i s also convenient when there i s l i m i t e d manpower. An i n d i v i d u a l performer has the t o n a l range of s e v e r a l conventional p e r c u s s i o n i s t s . Among Cage's other musical inventions i s the Water Gong. This i s created by p l a c i n g a v i b r a t i n g gong i n a tub of water. This causes the timbre and the q u a l i t y of the sound to g r a d u a l l y change. I t i s used i n many of h i s works, such as Water Walk (1959). Cage's sense of humour i s shown i n h i s use of the toy piano as a serious instrument. I t i s used, both alone and h i g h l y a m p l i f i e d , i n s e v e r a l of h i s works. In Music f o r A m p l i f i e d Toy Piano (1960) he gives i t c e n t r a l and solo focus. Before the development of magnetic tape, Cage incorporated the unpredictable sounds of r a d i o . Twelve radios are c a l l e d f o r i n Imaginary Landscape #4. Radio Music (1956) , a l a t e r work, c a l l s f o r "one to eight performers, each at a r a d i o " . ^ The performers simply change the volume and the s t a t i o n s indeterminately When Cage t o l d Morton Feldman about h i s plans to present Radio Music i n performance, Feldman s a i d , 7 "But you can't do t h a t , and expect people to pay f o r i t . " Cage d i d . Cage's Imaginary Landscape #5 i s g e n e r a l l y considered to be the f i r s t magnetic tape composition, which probably makes Cage the inventor of magnetic tape as a v i a b l e instrument. He developed a new way of s p l i c i n g which d i s t o r t s the o r i g i n a l l y taped sounds. E l e c t r o n i c s provides him w i t h a wide range of noise that was unattainable before, by making use of a m p l i f i c a t i o n , feed-back and d i s t o r t i o n . Cage's many e l e c t r o n i c compositions s a t i s f y h i s f a s c i n a t i o n with the purely t e c h n o l o g i c a l aspects of producing sound. In performance, h i s works, l i k e that of other e l e c t r o n i c music, are f i l l e d with knobs, t r a n s i s t o r s , and tangles of extension cords. Cage's are always h i g h l y a c t i v e , however. He moves from equipment to equipment, often wearing earphones, resembling an e l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n i c i a n more than a t r a d i t i o n a l musician. At Brandeis U n i v e r s i t y i n 1965, Cage presented Rozart Mix. I t i s t y p i c a l of h i s e l e c t r o n i c works i n performance. He placed e i g h t y - e i g h t tape loops (the same as the number of keys i n a piano) at various l o c a t i o n s throughout the b u i l d i n g . The loops were made by d i s t o r t i n g excerpts of the correspondence between Cage and the organizers of the event i n the planning of the performance. Six performers were in v o l v e d . Their task was to move throughout the b u i l d i n g , i n t e r m i n g l i n g w i t h the s c a t t e r e d audience, and replace the broken tape loops. When only twelve loops were l e f t , the event became a party and refreshments were brought out. (The close audience/ performer contact, and the freedom of audience members to move throughout the space, i s much l i k e the staging of Schechner's Tooth of Crime.) Cage's use of the extended performance space, which develops s t r o n g l y from the Black Mountain Piece (19 52), comes d i r e c t l y from an a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e n s i b i l i t y . High a m p l i f i c -48. a t i o n of sound f o r the purpose of f i l l i n g i n t e r i o r spaces also r e f l e c t s t h i s . I t makes us keenly aware of the a r c h i t e c t u r e as an enclosure and emphasizes i t s p e c u l i a r i t i e s . Cage's i n t e r e s t i n the extended performance space goes back as e a r l y as 1941, when he made d i r e c t use of the arch-i t e c t u r a l environment i n L i v i n g Room Music by u t i l i z i n g doors, windows, etc. as percussive instruments. This i n t e g r a t i o n of the a r c h i t e c t u r a l space with the a r t work i s an e a r l y e x p e r i -ment i n Environmentalism. Schechner, as w e l l as Ann H a l p r i n and other recent experimental groups, c o n s c i o u s l y incorporate the p e c u l i a r i t i e s of the performance space i n t o t h e i r perform-ance . Another e l e c t r o n i c device that Cage has made much use of as instrumentation i s the contact microphone. In performance, i t i s always coupled with a m u l t i p l e loudspeaker system, which i s arranged around the t o t a l performance space. He has used t h i s instrument i n a performance s i t u a t i o n i n ways as simple as wearing a contact microphone on h i s throat and d r i n k i n g a glass of water, the sound then being h i g h l y a m p l i f i e d and d i s t r i b u t e d around the room. On a l a r g e r s c a l e , A t l a s  E c l i p t i c a l i s (1964) involves an e n t i r e symphony orches t r a equipped w i t h contact microphones on each instrument, each with i t s own loudspeaker at some point i n the auditorium. The sounds of the piece are indeterminately structured from a set of transparent p l a t e s of a s t r o l o g i c a l c h a r t s . A t l a s E c l i p t i c a l i s makes use of another Cage i n v e n t i o n , the Mechanical Conductor. This i s a large arm (not r e a l i s t i c ) which moves i n a c l o c k - l i k e r o t a t i o n during the e n t i r e perform-4 9 . ance, and ends the piece when i t stops moving. I t i s placed i n the centre of the o r c h e s t r a , r e p l a c i n g the t r a d i t i o n a l conductor. When the piece was played i n New York by the New York Philharmonic, Leonard B e r n s t e i n g r a c i o u s l y turned the podium over to the Mechanical Conductor f o r the Cage part of the concert. In summary, Cage sees h i s performance work being as much theatre as i t i s music. While h i s performances vary a great deal i n t h e i r s p e c t a c l e , they c o n s i s t e n t l y employ a t h e a t r i c a l -i t y i n v o l v i n g s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t and competing media and a c t i v i t i e s u n i f i e d only by a shared space/time. They are f r e q u e n t l y h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l , u t i l i z i n g unique instrumentation designed by Cage. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , they u s u a l l y approach space a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y , and, perhaps needless to add, they are never e x a c t l y r e p r o d u c i b l e . 49a . CAGE AND THE HAPPENING 50. CAGE AND THE HAPPENING A l l Happenings are theatre i n Cage's terras. They c l e a r l y "engage both the eye and the ear" i n a c o n s c i o u s l y s t r u c t u r e d way. They a l s o " i n v o l v e any number of people, but not j u s t one". Like Cage's own work, they are a type of t h e a t r i c a l s p e c t a c l e . In a d d i t i o n , since r e a l a c t i o n s , o b j e c t s , and people are used, they are a c t u a l l y more "pure" as an a r t form, i n Cagean terms, than l i t e r a r y t h e a t r e . They "resemble l i f e more c l o s e l y " by d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y with f u n c t i o n a l r e a l i t y . Darko Suvin defines a Happening as a genre- of theatre s p e c t a c l e , using various types of signs and media, organized around the a c t i o n of human performers i n a homogeneous and t h e m a t i c a l l y u n i f i e d way, and a non-diagetic [from the Greek , diegese=story t o l d j s t r u c t u r i n g of time and space. K i r b y expands on t h i s d e f i n i t i o n to include a compartmentalized s t r u c t u r e and "non-matrixed" performance. (He uses the words "matrixed" and "non-matrixed" to d i s t i n g u i s h between t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i n g , i n which the actor creates an imaginary matrix of time, p l a c e , and character, and the a c t i v i t i e s of a person who i s being watched while completing a r e a l - l i f e task.) A non-cause-and-effect r e l a t i o n s h i p of v i s u a l and sonic images should be added to the d e f i n i t i o n . Happenings are not theatre i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense. They do not involve dramatic c o n f l i c t or p l o t or demand the suspension of d i s b e l i e f . Being "non-matrixed", as Kirby p o i n t s out, there i s no c o n s t r u c t i o n of a r t i f i c i a l c h a r a c t e r , time and s e t t i n g . This s t y l e of p r e s e n t a t i o n i s an extension of Cage's Dada-based ideas of b l u r r i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n s between 51. the a r t i s t i c and non-hermetic, or a r t and l i f e . Performers ca r r y out t h e i r tasks as themselves i n a c t u a l environments. Happenings, as a form, o f f e r much d i v e r s i t y , tod exceptions can be found f o r most g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s about them. Despite t h e i r v a r i a t i o n s , however, Cage's concept of a r t and theatre as a c t i v i t y i s basic to a l l Happenings. I t i s the a c t i o n of completing assigned tasks w i t h i n a g i v e n . s t r u c t u r e that c o n s t i t u t e s the form. In the Happening, a c t i o n i t s e l f i s seen i n f u n c t i o n a l terms. The performers react f u n c t i o n a l l y , not a e s t h e t i c a l l y , to each other's a c t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e i r own. The images are a e s t h e t i c , but the a c t i v i t i e s themselves are p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l . The p i c n i c scene i n Robert Whitman's Mouth (1960), f o r example, was a c t u a l l y dinner f o r the two performers i n v o l v e d . ( I t ; s menu changed with each performance, depending upon who had prepared the meal, i n c i d e n t a l l y , true to the Cagean s p i r i t of n o n - r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y . ) B r i n g i n g a c t u a l r e a l i t y w i t h i n a e s t h e t i c s , as Cage does, b l u r s the d i s t i n c t i o n s between u s e f u l a c t i o n and non-useful a c t i o n and ofte n creates a double-edged r e a l i t y . Cage's a c t i v e a e s t h e t i c o r i e n t a t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to the v i s u a l a r t i s t s and musicians, l i k e A l l a n Kaprow and George Brecht, who attended h i s Experimental Composition c l a s s e s at the New School f o r S o c i a l Research from 1958 to 1960. Cage's i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c view of a r t - a s - a c t i o n complemented the Ab s t r a c t E x p r e s s i o n i s t mood of most New York a r t i s t s at the time. The a r t - a s - a c t i o n aspect of Happenings thus has i t s roots as much i n the A c t i o n P a i n t i n g of Jackson 5 2 . P o l l o c k as i t does i n Cage. Most Happening a r t i s t s were o r i g i n a l l y v i s u a l a r t i s t s or, l i k e Cage ,musicians. Frequently, words were used as sounds rather than f o r meaning, i n much the same way as Cage uses noises. In f a c t , Cagean noise i t s e l f was often used i n these productions. The lack of t e c h n i c a l t h e a t r i c a l e x p e r t i s e or a c t i n g s k i l l by the people making Happenings, coupled w i t h t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n the v i s u a l and musical a r t s , shaped the type of theatre they produced. Cage, the musician, as w e l l as Cage, the t h e o r i s t was r e l e v a n t . One of Cage's most important c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the develop-ment of Happenings was the l i b e r a t i n g e f f e c t he had on the o r i g i n a l Happening a r t i s t s . Dick Higgins reminisces about those New School c l a s s e s : The best t h i n g that happened to us i n Cage's c l a s s was the sense that he gave that "any-t h i n g goes", at l e a s t p o t e n t i a l l y . The main t h i n g was the r e a l i z a t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s which made i t e a s i e r to use small s c a l e s , and a greater gamut of p o s s i b i l i t i e s than our ^ previous experience would have l e d us to expect. Cage's a t t i t u d e toward e r r o r , value judgements i n a r t , and h i s acceptance of things going wrong as simply p a r t of a l a r g e r , u n i v e r s a l flow, freed h i s students from fear of f a i l u r e and opened t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y . A l s o , seeing the a r t i s t as acceptor brought new p o s s i b i l i t i e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s by minimiz-ing i n d i v i d u a l t a s t e and p u l l i n g the a e s t h e t i c and non-aesthetic c l o s e r together. His most d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e can be seen i n the use of a f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e . Compartmentalization, indeterminacy, m u l t i - f o c u s , and s i m u l t a n e i t y are general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the form. Compartmentalization, as opposed to the linear cause-and-effect information s t r u c t u r e found i n l i t e r a r y t h e a t r e , i s common to a l l Happenings. This i s the framework that a l l of Cage's works are based on. In Happenings, compartmentalization was f r e q u e n t l y accomplished through l i g h t i n g , as i n Robert Whitman's American  Moon (I960), where a blackout d i v i d e d each s e c t i o n . Kaprow p h y s i c a l i z e d the concept by l i n k i n g each s e c t i o n with a corresponding, d i s t i n c t , s p a t i a l area. For example, i n 18 Happenings i n 6. Parts (1958) , p a r t i t i o n s were set up to d i v i d e the space. P h y s i c a l compartmentalization was f r e q u e n t l y used by others as w e l l . Indeterminacy, to create f l e x i b i l i t y , was a l s o used i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Dick Higgins'Graphis S e r i e s (1961) i n t e g r a t e d the space w i t h the a c t i o n by marking the f l o o r i n a l a r g e , i r r e g u l a r design and l a b e l l i n g each i n t e r s e c t i o n w i t h an a c t i o n - d i r e c t i o n . Performer movement was l i m i t e d to f o l l o w i n g the f l o o r l i n e s , but no d i r e c t i o n was p r e s c r i b e d . At every i n t e r s e c t i o n , one of a l i s t of pre-learned sentences was s a i d , w hile performing the a c t i o n d i c t a t e d on the f l o o r . A v a r i e t y of indeterminate combinations were created i n t h i s way. Sometimes indeterminacy was achieved by combining props, rather than the p h y s i c a l environment, with the a c t i o n s . George Brecht's Motor V e h i c l e Sundown (1960) i n v o l v e d the p a r t i c i p a n t s s i t t i n g i n t h e i r c a r s , performing i n a random order pre-assigned t a s k s , l i k e s t a r t motor, open and clo s e 54. window, b l i n k l i g h t s , t u rn on wi n d s h i e l d wiper, and sound horn. The cars were found-objects ! made i n t o v i s u a l and sonic i n s t r u -ments, much l i k e the percussion instruments of Cage's e a r l y works, or some of h i s more e c c e n t r i c i n v e n t i o n s . The rhythms were indeterminate and the t o t a l , n o n - s t a t i c e f f e c t was one of s h i f t i n g , unpredictable j u x t a p o s i t i o n . This piece was o r i g i n a l l y performed "In Dedication to John Cage".^ Although the form i s indeterminate, few Happenings employ formal chance techniques l i k e dice or the I_ Ching. An exception i s Dick H i g g i n s , who used dice i n The Tart (1965). Kirby's F i r s t and Second Wilderness (1963) also used dice i n a game format, although t h i s performance was r e p o r t e d l y p i c k e t e d by Higgins and A l Hansen, d i s c i p l e s of Cage, f o r "improper use of chance techniques".^ S i m u l t a n e i t y was taken beyond Cage's use of i t by the Happening a r t i s t s . They often created simultaneous events taking place at various d i s t a n t , l o c a t i o n s at the same time. Marta Minujin's S i m u l t a n e i t y i n Si m u l t a n e i t y (1966) happened i n three c o u n t r i e s and made use of mass media l i k e t e l e v i s i o n , telegrams, and telephones. Although t h i s piece was in v o l v e d w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l media, as i s Cage's work, most Happenings involved nothing more advanced that the use of s l i d e s and f i l m . Indeterminacy and s i m u l t a n e i t y were not used i n Happenings f o r the purpose of minimizing the presence of the a r t i s t e s t a s t e . They were used to a r r i v e at new and unpredictable r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The a r t i s t ' ; s w i l l was to create images or i n t e n t i o n a l sensory overload through simultaneous, random 55 . j u x t a p o s i t i o n and i s very much;. i n ; evidence . Although tho c o n t e n t , or subject matter, of most Happenings has l i t t l e to do with psychology, i t i s not concerned with " s o c i a l r e a l i z a t i o n " e i t h e r . Most Happenings are concerned wi t h the abstr a c t j u x t a p o s i t i o n of unrela t e d images (e.g. Oldenburg's Autobodys-1965), or pure fantasy (e.g. Red Groom's The Burning Building-1959). The only " s h i f t i n p u b l i c sensib-i l i t i e s " that takes place i s a detached and a e s t h e t i c one. Questions about t r a d i t i o n a l performance and the nature of a r t i n general are r a i s e d . The realm i s a r t i s t i c , not s o c i a l . When Kaprow c a l l s f o r the source of themes, m a t e r i a l s , a c t i o n s , and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between them....to be derived from any place or p e r i o d except from the a r t s , t h e i r d e r i v a t i v e s , and t h e i r m i l i e u , ? h i s i n t e n t f o l l o w s Cage: namely, to b r i n g a r t c l o s e r to everyday r e a l i t y . Even though the raw m a t e r i a l s of the medium are f a m i l i a r to everyone, however, Happenings remained much l i k e Cage's work, an e l i t e a r t phenomenon, rooted i n a e s t h e t i c s and the r e a c t i o n against older t r a d i t i o n s . They were never popular entertainment. They were u s u a l l y done i n s m a l l , intimate gatherings of the avant-garde community, i n l o f t s , o ff-beat g a l l e r i e s , classrooms and other non-t h e a t r i c a l environments. The Happening idea developed from the Black Mountain Piece and was spread through Cage's students to others. Many a r t i s t s c o n t r i b u t e d to i t s development, g i v i n g much v a r i e t y to the form. Their common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of multi-media, a c t i o n b u i l t from non-matrixed t a s k s , s i m u l t a n e i t y leading to 56 . u n r e a l i s t i c and o f t e n n o n s e n s i c a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n s , and a sensory o r i e n t a t i o n a l l remain true to the Black Mountain model. Li k e Cage's performance works, Happenings were c o l l a g e s of a c t i o n s which expl o r e d a n o n - t h e a t r i c a l environment and i n which no p a r t i c u l a r message was communicated. CAGE AND THE LIVING THEATRE 57. CAGE AND THE LIVING THEATRE The personal a s s o c i a t i o n between Cage and J u d i t h Malina and J u l i a n Beck goes back to the e a r l y f o r t i e s , before the formation of the L i v i n g Theatre. When he and Xenia f i r s t moved to New York and were l i v i n g with Peggy Guggenhim and Max Ernst, they became acquainted w i t h the Becks. The Becks were part of the community of a r t i s t s and i n t e l l e c t u a l s who surrounded Peggy Guggenheim at the time. In 1947, Cage was one of the o r i g i n a l group of people the Becks contacted when they were looking f o r support f o r t h e i r new theatre. This a s s o c i a t i o n has been maintained over the years. In 1960, Cage was included i n the Sponsoring Committee to honour the L i v i n g Theatre's 1000th performance."'" (Others were Jean Cocteau, Merce Cunningham, E l a i n e and Willem de Kooning, A l l e n Ginsberg, Paul Goodman, and Tennessee Williams.) In the e a r l y years of the L i v i n g Theatre, Monday nights were set up f o r informal gatherings. P l a y w r i g h t s , poets, a r t i s t s , and others congregated to discuss current p r o j e c t s , and often read from t h e i r works. Dylan Thomas and Cage were two of the f i r s t to read. Between 1959 and 1963, these Monday evening programs were r e i n s t a t e d . During t h i s time, s e v e r a l Happenings were held i n the the a t r e . In 1952, Cage performed the premier of Music of Changes i n the L i v i n g Theatre space. Music of Changes was one of Cage's e a r l y indeterminate compositions. I t was the f i r s t use of the I Ching i n h i s work. Also i n 1952, the f o l l o w i n g t e x t was included i n the program notes f o r "An Evening of 58. Bohemian Theatre", which was staged by the L i v i n g Theatre, w r i t t e n in.response ) to a request f o r ) instantaneous and unpredictable a manifesto, 1952 ) our ears are now m e x c e l l e n t c o n d i t i o n nothing i s accomplished by w r i t i n g a piece of music nothing i s accomplished by hearing a piece of music nothing i s accomplished by p l a y i n g a piece of music Cage's statement, which i s a poem i n i t s e l f , negated expect-a t i o n and opened the audience to the p o s s i b i l i t y of something new. The p l a y s , three short pieces by P i c a s s o , S t e i n and T.S. E l i o t , were t r a d i t i o n a l l y s t r u c t u r e d and l i t e r a r y , however, I t was only l a t e r that the L i v i n g Theatre began to develop a looser t h e a t r i c a l s t y l e . I t i s important to poin t out that the ideas of Artaud and P i s c a t o r , together w i t h a p o l i t i c a l philosophy of S o c i a l Ararchism, form the t h e o r e t i c a l base upon which the experiments of the L i v i n g Theatre have been b u i l t . Cage i s only one of many in f l u e n c e s that have a f f e c t e d t h e i r development. However, as the mature s t y l e of the L i v i n g Theatre grew, many aspects of Cage's a e s t h e t i c came to be seen. The p o l i t i c a l content of the L i v i n g Theatre work i s compatible w i t h Cage's views on the content and f u n c t i o n of a r t . Not only i s the subject matter of t h e i r works non-p s y c h o l o g i c a l , but to the Becks as w e l l as Cage, who ;is also a S o c i a l A n a r c h i s t , t h e i r works "help us to adapt to our complex, contemporary s o c i e t y " by posing a l t e r n a t i v e s o l u t i o n s to a c a p i t a l i s t i c economy and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . 59^. Their i n t e n t to b r i n g a r t and l i f e together i s expressed both i n the work and i n t h e i r l i f e s t y l e . The l i f e s t y l e of the L i v i n g Theatre has become a work of a r t i n i t s e l f . As i t has matured, t h e . L i v i n g Theatre has managed, more than any other American theatre group, to b l u r a r t and l i f e on a non-aesthetic l e v e l . Having had the experience of performing at the Michigan F e s t i v a l of Experimental Theatre the same year as the L i v i n g Theatre, as w e l l as sharing an ordinary s o c i a l evening w i t h the company, I was struck by the power of t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e presence, even i n the most everyday s i t u a t i o n s . Their l a r g e r -t h a n - l i f e q u a l i t y as a group i s achieved i n part through mixed c u l t u r a l backgrounds (various c o l o u r s , shapes, and n a t i o n a l i t i e s ) , i n p art from the wildness of extreme h a i r s t y l e s and a sense of aggressive s e x u a l i t y , i n part through c l o t h i n g that i s used both i n and out of t h e a t r i c a l performance, and i n part from a tendency to be c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l as i n d i v i d u a l s . Together, they communicate a t h r e a t n i n g challenge by being so a g g r e s s i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l against the background of a n o n - a n a r c h i s t i c s o c i e t y . Simply by being who they are they f u n c t i o n on an everyday l e v e l as a r t i n t e g r a t e d with the r e s t of s o c i e t y . But by becoming t h e i r a n a r c h i s t i c a r t , t h e - L i v i n g Theatre are v i r t u a l o u t s i d e r s wherever they.go. Reports of t h e i r tours t e l l of c o n t i n u a l d i s t r u s t and often c a n c e l l a t i o n because of 2 t h e i r i m p l i c i t t h r e a t . Cage, on the other hand, l i v e s q u i e t l y and comfortably alone i n a small a r t i s t ' s community outside of New York. The L i v i n g Theatre have gone beyond him i n t h e i r anarchy and i n b r i n g i n g l i f e and a r t together. Compared to them, Cage seems t h e o r e t i c a l and academic i n 60 l i f e s t y l e . This a r t / l i f e r e l a t i o n s h i p flows i n t o t h e i r formal per-formances through the use of non-matrixed a c t i n g . The actors perform as themselves, sometimes i n t r o d u c i n g themselves to the audience by t h e i r r e a l names. Another technique they use to b l u r the a e s t h e t i c and non-hermetic i s d i r e c t audience i n v o l v e -ment. Frequently, audience members are asked to c o n t r i b u t e by performing s p e c i f i c tasks w i t h i n the space-time s t r u c t u r e of the performance. They make much use of found, n o n - t h e a t r i c a l environments. The Legacy of Cain i s an as yet u n f i n i s h e d but growing group of one hundred and f i f t y plays s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to be 3 performed i n various c i t y l o c a t i o n s , but NOT a theatre. Found objects as props and instruments are also often used i n production. Frequently t h i s i s done out of economic n e c e s s i t y , but i t s t i l l adds an everyday r e a l i t y to t h e i r performances. The found instrumentation used i n Frankenstein (the f l o o r , f u r n i s h i n g s , s e a t s , e t c , of the room) i s the same idea that Cage used i n h i s e a r l y L i v i n g Room Music. In the L i v i n g Theatre A c t i o n D e c l a r a t i o n (1974), the a r t - a s - a c t i o n a e s t h e t i c , so b a s i c to Cage, i s expressed. Abandon the t h e a t r e s . Create other circumstances fo r the manci i n the s t r e e t . Create circumstances that w i l l lead to a c t i o n , which i s the highest form ^ of theatre we know. Create a c t i o n . Find new forms. Unlike Cage, however, the L i v i n g Theatre d i r e c t s i t s a c t i o n toward p o l i t i c a l ends. S t r u c t u r a l l y , Cage's i n f l u e n c e can be seen i n the use of compartmentalization. This has been used i n a l l L i v i n g Theatre 6 1. productions since Mysteries and Smaller Pieces (1964) . In Six P u b l i c Acts (1975), compartmentalization was coupled w i t h environmental changes, much l i k e many Happenings. Each s e c t i o n of t h i s outdoor spectacle took place at a d i f f e r e n t s i t e . The audience moved i n a m e d i e v a l - l i k e procession down the s t r e e t s from po i n t to p o i n t . A s e c t i o n of Mysteries and Smaller Places involved a s e r i e s of tableaux v i v a n t s i n which actors indeterminately changed p o s i t i o n s i n a compartmentalized set. Each actor was unable to see the others. A l l movement was done i n s i l e n c e . The piece was one of constant s h i f t i n g and flow. J u d i t h Malina s t a t e s : A l l we wanted to say with these tableaux i s whatever posture our bodies assume, i t w i l l always be b e a u t i f u l , because the body i s b e a u t i f u l and the eye f i n d s a n a t u r a l s a t i s -f a c t i o n i n i t . 5 The idea i s p a r a l l e l i n movement to Cage's use of indeterminacy i n sound and s i l e n c e . The broad d e f i n i t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s t h e a t r e , r e f l e c t e d i n Malina'-s statement, i s also very Cagean. The Chord, another compartment of Myste r i e s , was e n t i r e l y based on indeterminacy and u n p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . The scene involved a l l performers i n d i v i d u a l l y and s e q u e n t i a l l y i n t o n i n g a note and s u s t a i n i n g i t . The chord changed with duration. Every performance was d i f f e r e n t because of v a r i a t i o n s i n tone, i n t e n s i t y and volume. The theatre, was simply the process and ar t of making the chord. Mysteries was r e a l l y a Happening that used a t h e a t r i c a l rather than a v i s u a l a r t s or musical vernacular. There were 62. no t e x t or costumes. A l l a c t i n g was non-matrixed. There was no n a r r a t i v e . Sounds and movement were used a b s t r a c t l y f o r t h e i r own sake, not f o r the sake of an imposed s t o r y . The performance was indeterminate. Free Theatre (1966) was an experiment designed to create a t h e a t r i c a l equivalent of Cage's 4'33". I t i s t o t a l l y anarchic and without r u l e s . I t pushes the broadest d e f i n i t i o n of theatre to the l i m i t . Cage has defined an experiment as "an a c t i o n of which the outcome i s unforeseen".^ This i s a good example. The mimeographed sheet passed out to spectators read: FREE THEATRE This i s Free Theatre. Free Theatre i s invented by the actors as they p l a y i t . Free Theatre has never been rehearsed. We have t r i e d Free Theatre. Sometimes i t f a i l s . Nothing i s ever the same. THE LIVING THEATRE7 In the M i l a n performance, the piece began without anyone paying too much a t t e n t i o n to the a c t o r s . The company j u s t stood on stage sensing the v i b r a t i o n s and w a i t i n g f o r something to happen. Nothing d i d . Slowly, "without speaking to each other, we formed a t i g h t nucleus of our bodies i n s i l e n c e . We got g very close to each other and d i d not move or speak." E v e n t u a l l y , the I t a l i a n s got angry and began to play Free  Theatre themselves by screaming and f i n a l l y coming up onto the stage and pushing people around. The company remained together, motionless and s i l e n t , moving only to leave before the p o l i c e a r r i v e d to break up the angry crowd. I t was b a s i c a l l y the same experience that happened to Cage i n Milan 63. twelve years l a t e r . In d i s c u s s i n g the r e a c t i o n to the p i e c e , Malina s a i d , In our judgement, we d i d perform, because we transformed a s p e c i f i c atmosphere i n t o an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t one. Then we l e f t because g there was nothing more that could have emerged. (She was not r e a l l y being honest, s i n c e , obviously, the a r r i v a l of the p o l i c e would have produced another l e g i t i m a t e dramatic atmosphere to be transformed.) With Free Theatre, there are no longer any c r i t e r i a f o r good and bad a c t i o n . E t h i c s are non-existent. The Becks turn t h i s problem i n t o p o l i t i c a l dialogue by making the romantic a s s e r t i o n that when a free economic system i s e s t a b l i s h e d , and we are r i d of the master-slave r e l a t i o n s h i p , e t h i c s w i l l no longer be needed because man i s b a s i c a l l y good and noble. Since there was no defined s t r u c t u r e at a l l , not even a time s t r u c t u r e , even Cage's broad d e f i n i t i o n does not cover t h i s experiment as t h e a t r e . Although i t began as an a e s t h e t i c i d e a , i t crossed the b a r r i e r , and became simply b i z a r r e l i f e . In 1960, the L i v i n g Theatre produced a pure Cagean pro-duction e n t i t l e d Theatre of Chance. Jackson MacLow, who had become i n t e r e s t e d i n Cage through h i s music and had been one of h i s students at the New School, organized the production. MacLow's chance music and chance poetry were a l s o used i n l a t e r L i v i n g productions. Theatre of Chance involved two p l a y s , one w r i t t e n by MacLow. The Marrying Maiden was w r i t t e n by developing character and d i a l o g scenes using I Ching hexagrams. Emotion, volume, tone and d e s c r i p t i o n were added on the spot by chance 64.' s e l e c t i o n of prepared a l t e r n a t i v e s . I t was h i g h l y improvis-a t i o n a l and was almost e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t every performance. The second play was a v e r s i o n of Sophocles' play Women  of Trachis d i r e c t e d w i t h chance techniques by J u d i t h Malina. She prepared cards of the t e x t of each scene. During perform-ance dice were used i n the s e l e c t i o n of each. Every time a seven was thrown a random card was handed to an a c t o r , who would perform i t . A f i v e a c t i v a t e d music which had been composed by Cage. The "music" c o n s i s t e d of an e l e c t r o n i c a l l y d i s t o r t e d reading of the p l a y . Theatre of Chance reamined i n the r e p e r t o r y f o r n e a r l y a year."^ The i n t e r a c t i o n between Cage and the L i v i n g Theatre i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n the general development of New Theatre because they exposed h i s a e s t h e t i c to the l a r g e r t h e a t r i c a l community on a production l e v e l . Examples of such d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e as the ones described here ( i . e . use of chance techniques, etc.) are not part of the more recent L i v i n g Theatre s t y l e , but s i m u l t a n e i t y and allowances f o r the unpredictable are b a s i c to t h e i r approach. The broad Cagean d e f i n i t i o n of t h e a t r e , i n t e r p e n e t r a t i o n of the a e s t h e t i c and the non-aesthetic (often through audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) , non-matrixed a c t i n g and com-p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n have also been r e t a i n e d . These are also expressed i n various ways i n the bulk of New Theatre work. Cage's broad i n f l u e n c e s on the New Theatre owe a great deal to the responsiveness of J u d i t h Malina and J u l i a n Beck to h i s ideas. 64a. CONCLUSION 6 5 . CONCLUSION As we have seen, Cage's a e s t h e t i c i s b u i l t funda-mentally on the combination of the n o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l and e x p e r i e n t i a l approach of O r i e n t a l philosophy and the a n t i -a r t , a r t = l i f e concepts found i n Dada. The f i r s t i s expressed through u n p r e d i c a b i l i t y , the goal of personal non-involve-ment and the use of a m u l t i - f a c e t e d f i e l d s t r u c t u r e i n place of the cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p of t r a d i t i o n a l Western a r t . The second i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s a n t i - t r a d i t i o n -a l i s m and h i s concern with f u n c t i o n a l , everyday r e a l i t y i n a r t i s t i c contexts. Through the use of mu l t i - f o c u s and s i m u l t a n e i t y , Cage has created a r t works i n which the p e r c e i v e r must define h i s own a e s t h e t i c experience by making personal choices. Chance and indeterminacy are used to create f l e x i b l e , non-s t a t i c works of a r t i n which elements, being u n p r e d i c t a b l e , are engaged i n a st a t e of process or c o n t i n u a l change. This leads to a r t works which are v o i d of f i x e d end products and are never e x a c t l y reproduceable. His r a d i c a l and expansive views have st i m u l a t e d many d i r e c t o r s and i n d i v i d u a l theatre a r t i s t s to explore non-t h e a t r i c a l environments, a f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e and the 'natural theatre' of r e a l , everyday a c t i o n s . H i s t o r i c a l precedents can be found f o r many of h i s ideas i n the work of the F u t u r i s t s and Dada, but i t was Cage who mingled with 66. the t h e a t r i c a l avant-garde of the s i x t i e s and expressed h i s ideas i n a language that many people were ready to l i s t e n to. Part of Cage's genius l i e s i n h i s a b i l i t y to •make h i s ideas i n t e r e s t i n g to others. People are j u s t beginning to recognize him as not only a musician and a t h e o r i s t , but a poet as w e l l . His most d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e was f e l t i n the s i x t i e s when the climate of p o l i t i c a l r e s t l e s s n e s s among American a r t i s t s and youth nurtured r a d i c a l ideas i n general. Schechner, C h a i k i n , K i r b y and Ann H a l p r i n , among others i n the theatre community, explored Cage's ideas i n the process of developing t h e i r own. (Schechner even created a 4'66" d i r e c t l y patterned a f t e r Cage.) Cage's t h e a t r i c a l importance, however, l i e s more i n h i s l i b e r a t i n g e f f e c t on the climate of modern theatre experimentation than on h i s s p e c i f i c techniques. New Theatre has developed away from the anarchic form of the s i x t i e s toward a more c o n t r o l l e d and personal expression, but i t has r e t a i n e d a broad Cagean concept of what c o n s t i t u t e s theatre. The simultaneous Happening form, which most c l o s e -l y f o l lows Cagean dogma, has exhausted i t s e l f through rep-e t i t i o n , but there has l i n g e r e d i n l a t e r work a frequent use of b l u r r e d , i n d i s t i n c t meanings, n o n - r a t i o n a l j u x t a p o s i t i o n s and decreased emphasis on a l i n e a r s t r u c t u r e , as i n the productions of the People Show or the work of Robert Wilson, a l l of which show a continuing debt to Cage. 67. S i m i l a r l y , formal chance methods have proven too l i m i t e d and gimmicky to be l a s t i n g . What i s l e f t , however, i s the w i l l i n g n e s s of performers to accept the unpredictable as a part of t h e a t r i c a l performance. The recent para-theat-r i c a l work of Grotowski, f o r example, i s deeply based i n psychology, but i t i s also b u i l t - on the b l u r r i n g of a r t and l i f e and a t r u s t of the u n p r e d i c t a b l e . This b l u r r i n g of a r t and l i f e , so b a s i c i n the s o c i a l i z a t i o n of t h e a t r e , i s comparable to the s h i f t from the a r t i s t i c to the p o l i t i c a l that has occupied much of Cage's most recent thought. I t i s the acknowledgement that , above a l l , a r t i s only one f a c e t of s o c i e t y . Although he t a l k s and w r i t e s about the large problems of s o c i e t y , how-ever, he o f f e r s few p r a c t i c a l suggestions f o r improvement. I t i s a p a r a - p o l i t i c a l stance, p o l i t i c a l i n i m p l i c a t i o n but not p o l i t i c a l i n i t s e l f . Theatre h i s t o r i a n s w i l l probably remember Cage mostly fo r the e f f e c t he has had on mixing various a r t forms. Also s i g n i f i c a n t , however, i s h i s d i r e c t connection w i t h audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n , since so many audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n e x p e r i -ments grew from h i s s t i m u l a t i o n . Many have responded to Cage's idea of p a r t i c i p a t i o n without d i r e c t l y i m i t a t i n g him. Although the t h e o r e t i c a l base might be the same, f o r example, there i s a d i f f e r e n c e between the use of audience p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n a piece l i k e Schechner's Commune and i t s use i n HPSCHD. Cage's p a r t i c i p a t i o n has always been kept on a per-6 8 . ceptual l e v e l . Although performers have p r e s c r i b e d ..actions to perform, audiences do not. Unlike some p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r t i s t s , Cage has always r e l i e d on the inadvertent and n a t u r a l movements and sounds that grow simply from being an audience. Perhaps t h i s d i f f e r e n c e explains why so many of the t h e a t r i c a l attempts at audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the s i x t i e s and the e a r l y seventies were not s u c c e s s f u l . They often a g g r e s s i v e l y forced people i n t o s e l f - c o n s c i o u s s i t u -ations and r e a c t i o n s i n the name of l i b e r a t e d theatre. Cage must c e r t a i n l y be c r e d i t e d w i t h h e l p i n g to edu-cate audiences to see d i f f e r e n t things i n productions than they had before. His concept of s i l e n c e i n music has i n the long run had the e f f e c t of h e l p i n g people to loosen t h e i r narrow d e f i n i t i o n s of t h e a t r e , to see more of the l i f e w i t h i n theatre and the theatre w i t h i n l i f e . F i n a l l y , Cage's greatest t h e a t r i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n has undoubtedly been h i s a b i l i t y to make people question things i n a r t that they had p r e v i o u s l y taken f o r granted: to look at theatre i n a new way, to develop more f l e x i b l e and respon-s i v e a t t i t u d e s toward subject matter, s t r u c t u r e and the gen-e r a l f u n c t i o n of a r t . Without the d i s t u r b i n g , whimsical and unpredictable i n f l u e n c e of John Cage, theatre and audiences might w e l l have been l e s s able to make use of a r t to cope with a d i s t u r b i n g , whimsical and unpredictable world. FOOTNOTES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 69. FOOTNOTES I . INTRODUCTION 1. Michael K i r b y , The A r t of Time (New York, E.P. Dutton and Co., 1969), p. 77. I I . BIOGRAPHY 1. John Cage, M: Writings '67-72 (Middletown, Connecticut, Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973), p. 102. 2. John Cage, A Year From Monday (Middletown, Connecticut, Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967), p. 155. 3. C a l v i n Tomkins, The Bride and the Bachelors (New York: The V i k i n g Press, 1965), p. 76. 4. Richard K o s t e l a n e t z , John Cage (New York: Praeger Pub-l i s h e r s , 1970), p. 53. 5. Contemporary Music Newsletter, May/June 1977, p. 3. 6. " P e r c u s s i o n i s t " , Time, 22 February 1943, p. 70. 7. "Percussion Music Heard at Concert", New York Times 8 February 1943, p. 14. 8. Tomkins, The Bride and the Bachelors, p. 99. 9. I b i d . , p. 71. 10. Andrew Culver, "John Cage at 65", Montreal S t a r , 14 January 1978, p. E l l . 11. Tomkins, The Bride and the Bachelors, p. 132. 12. C a l v i n Tomkins, The Scene: Reports on Post-Modern A r t (New York: The Viicing Press, 19T5") , p. 238. 13. Herbert Ma r s h a l l McLuhan, The Gutenberg Galaxy (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1962), p. 39. 14. Moira Roth and W i l l i a m Roth, "John Cage on Marcel Duchamp',' Ar t In America, Nov/Dec 1973, p. 79. 15. I b i d . , p. 74. 70. 16. Octavio Paz, Marcel Duchamp: Appearance Stripped Bare, tra n s . Rachel P h i l l i p s and Donald Gardner (New York: The V i k i n g Press, 1978), p. 82. 17. A l l a n Hughes, "Hundreds Walk Out of Premiere of John Cage Work at Fish e r H a l l " , New York Times 5 Nov-ember 1976, p. C3. I I I . AESTHETIC 1. Harold Rosenberg, The D e - D e f i n i t i o n of A r t (New York: Horizon Press, 1972), p. 37. 2. I b i d . , passim. 3. Cage, A Year From Monday, p. 32. 4. Michael K i r b y and Richard Schechner, "An Interview w i t h John Cage", The Tulane Drama Review 10 (winter 1965)p.50. 5 . I b i d . , p. 50. 6. K i r b y , A r t of Time, p. 78. 7. John Cage, Si l e n c e (Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961), p. 12. 8. Antonin Artaud, The Theatre and I t s Double, tr a n s . My C. Richards (New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1958), p. 123. 9. I b i d . , p. 77. 10. Van Nostrand's S c i e n t i f i c Encyclopedia, F i f t h ed., s.v. "Chemical Elements". 11. Richard Buckminster F u l l e r , I_ Seem to Be a Verb (New York: Bantam Books, 1970), p. 138A. 12. Robert Lebel, Marcel Duchamp, tr a n s . George Heard Hamilton (New YorTTi Grove Press, 1959), p. 77. 13. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 170. 14. I b i d . , p. 187. 15. Richard Schechner, " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s : Before and A f t e r " , The Drama Review T79 (September, 1978), p. 27. 71. 16. Richard K o s t e l a n e t z , The Theatre of Mixed Means (New York: D i a l Press, 1968), p. 59. 17. I b i d . , p. 58. 18. Artaud, Theatre and I t s Double, p. 74. 19. Kostelanetz, Theatre of Mixed Means, p. 52. 20. Cage, Year From Monday, p. 32. 21. Kos t e l a n e t z , Cage, p. 77. 22. Cage, Year From Monday, p. 53. 23. Kostelanetz, Cage, p. 50. 24. Cage, Year From Monday, p. 158. 25. I b i d . , p. 54. 26. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 44. 27. RoseLee Goldberg, Performance: Live A r t 1909 to the Present (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1979) , p. 12. 28. W i l l y Verkauf, ed. Dada: Monograph of a Movement (New York: Hastings House, 1961), p. 20. 29. Cage, Year From Monday, p. 14. 30. Kos t e l a n e t z , Cage, p. 164. 31. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 100. 32.Ibid., p. 238. 33. I b i d . , p. 139. 34. Hans R i c h t e r , Dada: A r t and A n t i - A r t (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1965J7 p. 91. 35. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 238. 36. I b i d . , p. 130. 37. Kos t e l a n e t z , Cage, p. 167. 72. 38. Marshall H. S e g a l l , Donald T. Campbell, and M e l v i l l e H e r s k o v i t s , The Influence of Culture on V i s u a l Perception (Bobbs, M e r r i l l , 1966) i n K i r b y , A r t of Time, p. 2 8. 39. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 97. 40. John Cage and David Tudor, "Indeterminacy: New Aspect of Form i n Instrumental and E l e c t r o n i c Music", (New York: Folkways Records, 1959), album notes. 41. Kostelanetz, Cage, p. 209. 42. Cage, "Indeterminacy" l e c t u r e . 43. Kostelanetz, Cage, p. 115. 44. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 8 45. Cage, "Indeterminacy" l e c t u r e . 46. I b i d . 47. Daisetz T e i t a r o Suzuki, An In t r o d u c t i o n to Zen Buddhism (New York: Grove Press, Inc, 1934), p. 35. 48. I b i d . , p. 67. 49. R i c h t e r , Dada, p. 58. 50. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 14. 51. I b i d . , p. 154. 52. I b i d . , p. 15. IV. PERFORMANCE 1. Cage, S i l e n c e , p. 12. 2. Peter's E d i t i o n s Catalogue: John Cage (New York: Henmar Press, Inc., 1962), p. 19. 3. "John Cage i n M i l a n " Flash A r t , F e b / A p r i l 1978, p. 6. 4. "Ajemian Plays Work by Cage 69 Minutes", New York Times 13 January 1949, p. 28. 5. Peter's Catalogue, Cage, p. 18. 73. 6. I b i d . , p. 7. LIVING THEATRE 1. P i e r r e B i n e r , The L i v i n g Theatre (New York: Hor-izon Press, 19 72), p. 56. 2. Renfreu Neff, The L i v i n g Theatre: U.S.A.(Indian-a p o l i s , Indiana! B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1970), passim. 3. Paul Ryder Ryan, "The L i v i n g Theatre's Money Tower" The Drama Review 18 (June 1974): p. 10. 4. I b i d . , p. 10. 5. B i n e r , L i v i n g Theatre, p. 89. 6. Peter's Catalogue, Cage, p. 48. 7. J u l i a n Beck, The L i f e of Theatre (San Francisco: C i t y L i g h t s Books, 1972) , p. 45. 8. I b i d . , p. 45. 9. B i n e r , L i v i n g Theatre, p. 144. 10. I b i d . , p. 35. HAPPENINGS 1. Darko Suvin, " R e f l e c t i o n s on Happenings," The Drama Review T47 (summer 1970) p. 134. 2. K i r b y , A r t of Time, p. 82. 3. Michael K i r b y , ed., Happenings (New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1965), p. 152. 4. Ko s t e l a n e t z , Cage, p. 124. 5. A l l a n Kaprow, Assemblage, Environments and Happenings (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1966), p. 272. 6. Michael K i r b y , "Menujin's 'Simultaneity i n S i m u l t a n e i t y ' The Drama Review T39 ( s p r i n g 1968) p. 149. 7. Kaprow, Assemblage, p. 188. 74. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Artaud, Antonin. The Theatre and I t s Double. Translated by Mary Caroline Richards. New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1958. Beck, J u l i a n . The L i f e of Theatre. San F r a n c i s c o : C i t y L i g h t s Books, 1972. B i n e r , P i e r r e . The L i v i n g Theatre. New York: Horizon Press, 1972 . B r i n d l e , Reginald Smith. The New Music: The Avant-Garde Since 1945. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1975. Cage, John. S i l e n c e . Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961. . A Year From Monday. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967. . M: Writings ' 67- 72 . Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1973. Cage, John and Knowles, A l l i s o n , ed. Notations. Vermont: Something Else Press, 1969. Contemporary Music Catalogue. New York: C.F. Peters Corp., 1975 . Croyden, Margaret. L u n a t i c s , Lovers and Poets: The Contemp- orary Experimental Theatre.New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1974. Fleming, W i l l i a m . A r t s and Ideas. New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1974. F u l l e r , Richard Buckminster. Utopia or O b l i v i o n . New York: Overlook Press, 1969. . I Seem To Be A Verb. New York: Bantam Books, 1970. Goldberg, RoseLee. Performance: Live A r t 1909 to the Present. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1979. Gropius, Walter, ed. The Theatre of The Bauhaus. Translated by Arthur S. Wensinger. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961. 75. Hassan, Ihab. L i b e r a t i o n s : New Essays on the Humanities i n Revolution. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan Univ-e r s i t y Press, 1971. Henri, Adrian. T o t a l A r t : Environments, Happenings and Per-formance . Nwe York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1974. Hoover, Thomas. Zen Culture. New York: Random House, 1977. Kaprow, A l l a n . Assemblage, Environments and Happenings. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1966. K i r b y , E.T., ed. T o t a l Theatre. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1969. K i r b y , Michael. The A r t of Time. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 196T7 . F u t u r i s t Performance. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 19 71. , ed. Happenings. New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1965. Kos t e l a n e t z , Richard. The Theatre of Mixed Means. New York: D i a l Press, 1968. , ed. The New American A r t s . New York: Horizon Press, 1965. , ed. John Cage. New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1970. Kultermann, Udo. A r t and L i f e . Translated by John W i l l i a m G a b r i e l . New York: Praeger P u b l i s h e r s , 1971. Lahr, John. Up_ Against the Fourth W a l l . New York: Grove Press, Inc., 1970. . Ast o n i s h Me: Adventures i n Contemporary Theatre. New York: V i k i n g Press, 1973. Lebel, Jean Jacques. E n t r e t i e n s avec l e L i v i n g Theatre. P a r i s : P. Belfond, 1969. Lebel, Robert. Marcel Duchamp. Translated by George Heard Hamilton. New York: Grove Press, 1959. Lippard, Lucy. Changing: Essays i n A r t C r i t i c i s m . New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1971. The L i v i n g Book of the L i v i n g Theatre. Grenwichy Connecticut New York Graphic S o c i e t y , 1971. A l\ 76. McLuhan, Herbert M a r s h a l l . The Gutenberg Galaxy. Totonto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1962. . Understanding Media. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. McLuhan, Herbert M a r s h a l l and F i o r e , Quentin. The Medium i s  the Massage. New York: Bantam Books, 196TT Malina, J u d i t h . The Enormous Despair. New York: Random House, 1972. Masheck, Joseph, ed. Marcel Duchamp i n Pe r s p e c t i v e . Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , Inc., 1975. Neff, Renfreu. The L i v i n g Theatre: U.S.A. I n d i a n a p o l i s , Indiana: B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1970. Paz, Octavio. Marcel Duchamp: Appearance Stripped Bare. Translated by Rachel P h i l l i p s and Donald Gardner. New York: The V i k i n g Press, 1978. Peter's E d i t i o n s Catalogue: John Cage. New York: Henmar Press, Inc., 1962. R i c h t e r , Hans. Dada: A r t and A n t i - A r t . New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1965 . Rosenberg, Harold. The D e - D e f i n i t i o n of A r t • New York: Horizon Press, 1972. . A r t oiii the Edge. New York: Macmillan, 1975. Sainer, A r t h ur. The R a d i c a l Theatre Notebook. New York: Avon Books, 1975. Schechner, Richard. P u b l i c Domain. New York: Avon Books, 1969. . Environmental Theatre. New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1973. Susuki, Daisetz T e i t a r o . An I n t r o d u c t i o n to Zen Buddhism. New York: Grove Press, 1934. . Essays i n Zen Buddhism. New York: Grove Press, 1961. Tomkins, C a l v i n . The Bride and the Bachelors: The H e r e t i c a l Courtship i n Modern A r t . New York: d i k i n g Press, T9 65 77. . The Scene: Reports on Post-Modern A r t . New York: The V i k i n g Press, 1976. Van Nostrand's S c i e n t i f i c - E n c y c l o p e d i a . F i f t h E d i t i o n . S.v. "Chemical Elements." Verkauf, W i l l y , ed. Dada: Monograph of a. Movement. New York: Hastings House, 1961. P e r i o d i c a l s "Ajemian Plays Work by Cage 69 Minutes", New York Times, 13 January 1949, p. 28. Cage, John. "26 Statements r e . Duchamp." A r t L i t e r a t u r e 3_ (1964) pp. 9-10 " C r i s i s i n the Fine A r t s Today". Journal of A e s t h e t i c s 29 (1970) p. 64. Culver, Andrew. "John Cage at 65." Montreal Star 14 January 1978, p. E l l "Caught i n the Act',' Melody Maker, 24 June 1978 , p. 18. A Evans, B., "Thousands F l e e " , N a t i o n a l Review, 1 September 1972, p. 965. "Figure i n an Imaginary Landscape." New Yorker, 28 November 1964, pp. 64-6 "The Future of Music", New Music, 5 (1974), pp. 6-15. Happenings Issue, The Drama Review, 10 (Winter, 1965). Henahan, Donald. "John Cage, E l f i n Enigma at 64". New York Times 22 October 1976, A l l a n Hughes, "Hundreds Walk out of Premiere of John Cage Work at F i s h e r H a l l " , New York Times, November 5, 1976, p. C3. "An Hour and 4'33" w i t h John Cage". Music Journal 34, (December 1976), pp. 6-8. "An Interview with John Cage" Melody Maker y 10 June 1972 , p. 35 Michael,Kirby and Richard Schechner, "An Interview with John Cage", The Drama Review 10 (Winter 1965) pp. 50-72. •'Kirby. Michael."Marta Menu j in's 'Simultaneity i n S i m u l t a n e i t y ' ; The Drama Review T39, (Spring 1968), pp. 149-15;2. "Music: The'Content of John Cage", V i l l a g e Voice, 9 January 1978, p. 54. "Percussion Concert'.' L i f e , 15 March 1943, p. 42. "Percussion Music Heard at Concert", New York Times, 8 Feb-ruary 1943, p. 14. " P e r c u s s i o n i s t " , Time, 22 February 1943, p. 70. Robbins, Eugenia S. "Performing A r t " , A r t i n America, J u l y 1966, pp. 107-11. Roth,Moira and Roth, W i l l i a m . "John Cage on Marcel Duchamp", Ar t i n America, November/December 1973, pp. 72-79. Ryan, Paul Ryder. "The L i v i n g Theatre's Money Tower", The  Drama Review 18 (June 1974), pp. 9-19. "The Sounds and Si l e n c e s of John Cage". Downbeat, 7 May 1964, pp. 20-22. Suvin, Darko. " R e f l e c t i o n s on Happenings." The Drama Review T47, (summer 1970), pp. 125-144. OTHERS Cage, John and Tudor, David. "Indeterminacy: New Aspect of Form i n Instrumental and E l e c t r o n i c Music." (New York: Folkways Records, 1959). 78a . A P P E N D I X PREVIOUSLY COPYRIGHTED M A T E R I A L , LEAVES 78b - 8 1 , IN A P P E N D I X , NOT MICROFILMED, "VARIATIONS" COPYRIGHT © 19.60 BY HENMAR PRESS I N C , 373 PARK. AVE... SOUTH., NEW YORK. 1 6 , NEW YORK. 

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