UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An artless art : fiction and reality in the work of Shiga Naoya Starrs, Roy 1980

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e l  AN FICTION  AND  ARTLESS  ART:  R E A L I T Y IN THE  WORK OF .SHIGA  NAOYA  by ROY  STARRS  B.A. , T h e U n i v e r s i t y A T H E S I S SUBMITTED THE  'of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  REQUIREMENTS  FOR  MASTER OF  THE  DEGREE  OF  ARTS  in THE  We  FACULTY  OF  GRADUATE  STUDIES  (Department  of Asian  Studies)  accept to  THE  this  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  OF  August ©  as c o n f o r m i n g  Roy  standard  BRITISH 19 80  Starrs,  19 80  COLUMBIA  1971 OF  In  presenting  this  thesis  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  at  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  that  it  purposes  for  freely  permission may  representatives. thesis  in p a r t i a l  financial  of  The U n i v e r s i t y  Asian of  gain  Columbia  2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  October  13,-  1980  Columbia,  British  by  for  shall  the  that  not  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  Studies  British  of  for extensive  permission.  Department  Date  is  of  available  be g r a n t e d  It  fulfilment  of  or  that  study.  this  thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT  This Shiga  thesis  Naoya,  Japan.  Shiga  shosetsu  of  the  critics,  first,  Shiga's third,  of  by  showing  both  pointing  a  in  Morning"),  i t s simplest  everything genre. of  that  Some o f  "triviality".  Shiga,  by  virtue  psychological significant in  fact,  1,  the  as  Shiga's  i s used and  them,  of  the  first  as  an  Western  answer  to  a  into  genre This  answer of by  Shiga's  West  itself.  level;  this  to  as  significant  a l r e a d y contains i n microcosm  of and,  practise  "Aru  in  Asa"  example about  accused  charge,  turn  an  dislike  have  how  the s h i - s h o s e t s u  thus  critics  these  part  published story,  and  Western  showing  integral  of  i s  the s h i - s h o s e t s u  to  example  that  certain  thematic  his masterful style manages  to  second,  and  modern  non-fiction to  basis  of  author?of s h i -  and  i s an  for instance,  insight,  material  solid  b a r e s t form,  certain  In  of  of  Japanese  attempts  parallels  trends  the  disturbing  reality  the  t h e work  writers  fiction  technical  of  autobiography.  tradition;  and  out  some r e c e n t l i t e r a r y  ("One  between  literary  Chapter  and  present thesis  fiction  a r t on  In  analysis  creative  particularly  by  Japanese  fiction  lines  been  and  mixture  of  the  critics,  the  major  the  critical  i s presented primarily  to have  the  of  elements  "blurring"  in  a  ("I-novels"), a d i s t i n c t i v e l y  combines  shown  one  offers  the  I have  of  this story  shown  how  and  h i s depth  of  even  seemingly  in-  literature. the  central  "Aru  Asa",  problem  to  be e x p l o r e d  namely,  the c o n f l i c t  individual on  freedom  the other,  with  in  near way  and  union  have  with  Shiga  o f mind  later  works:  desire f o r  a n d communion  this  of union  analogies West,  also  On  this  shock  i s given  health:  by  contrast  consider  Here t h e of  s e l f — of  (  self-surrender  that  the best  with  i t s opposite,  a Tolstoy  o u t more  I  "prob  some i n t i m a t i o n  through  work w i t h  to this  t o h i s sense  the p r i n c i p l e  to bring  I deal  with  i n fact,  to Shiga's  River".  two authors' / 1  with  i s seen nature.  consists  idyllic  I compare  Hearted  i n the story  n i t e " (At K i n o s a k i " ) .  i s often  protagonist  lyrical,  offered  clearly  story,  way  "Three  the special  qual-  shi-shosetsu.  the story  story,  adumbrated  psychic  compared  i n order  eventually  a profound  nature.  something  Shiga  degree the  important  the protagonist's  f o r peace  accident--but  of the In  the  receives  also  Deaths", ities  "Kinosaki  to ultimate  define  the  h i s longing  2,  fatal  the  I  most  and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n on t h e one hand and,  o f the ego" i s f i r s t Chapter  to  between  s o l u t i o n which  protagonist a  Shiga's  others. The  lem  throughout  mood.  i n Chapter t o have  The n a r r a t i v e simply  I also  point  that  a Hemingway out that as  ("Bonfire  attained  some  progression  o f a steady  T o show  use o f imagery  "Takibi"  already  "naturally plotted"  "Takibi" with  3,  deepening  there  a r e some  stories  i n the  story,  of  recent  " B i g Two-  the a f f i n i t y  "objective  of  between  correlative"  - ivis  by  no means c o i n c i d e n t a l , i n v i e w o f t h e  Japanese poetry  on  influence  Hemingway t h r o u g h E z r a Pound and  of  the  Imagists. In the  f o u r t h and  (A Dark N i g h t ' s of  nature  of  the  dialectic  both a thematic  himself  t h a t i s the  i s s u e I see  crucial  longing  for spiritual  as  some t o be  s e e n as  and  Western reader,  t o be  h i s work i n t h e  the  fiction/reality  improved  the  problem of  and  as w e l l as climate  an  i t is  the  protagonist's other  the  i s a writer of  what, i n my  In  the e s s e n t i a l  same p r o b l e m , and  c o u l d o b t a i n o n l y when t h e man  I consider  a technical level.  In An'ya Koro, i n the  Koro  culmination  t e c h n i c a l issue with  u l t i m a t e l y the  d i s c u s s i o n with  An'ya  problem at i t s core,  liberation.  p r o b l e m o f t h e man  to the  the  c e n t r a l t o h i s work:  words, the  offer  and  as  i n c l u d i n g the  relates this  thematic  I c o n c l u d e my  I deal with  comes t o g r i p s w i t h  shi-shosetsu,  h e r e a l s o t h a t he  that  chapter  P a s s i n g ) , which I regard  S h i g a ' s a r t on  t h i s work S h i g a  final  writer in a  way  shi-shosetsu.  view, Shiga  has  a p p r a i s a l of  f o r the r e c e p t i o n  to  what of  West.  ,  Supervisor  -  TABLE  OF  v  -  CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Introduction Chapter  1  Chapter  2  Chapter  3  Chapter  4  Footnotes Bibliography  J  % I l  ;  ."  •  43 80 113  w .... .  161 178  -  1  -  Introduction No as  modern  sorely  the  Although  Taisho period  appeared  i n 1937,  stantial  translation  in  English.  his  short  ful  of  this as  There  are  in spite of  the  novel-length was  finally  Passing  (1975).  translated  I  unsympathetic revision though  of  more  results the  most  senting  the  author  been  the  of  to  show,  chapter  great  novel  any  h i s w o r k was  sub-  undertaken  collection  various anthologies--  S h i g a has the  form  l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d i n Japan.  studies,  His  Mathy's is a  to h i s subject  A  Dark  rather  image  appeared Mathy,  of  p e r c e p t i v e study context  of  devoted  and Hero, in  a  1979;  Sibley  that,  in  my  Shiga's a r t . to  h i s own to  be  Naoya  Shiga  Freudian approach  distorted  to  narrow  The  than  Night's  first  Shiga  Slhfcleyjs  one  (1937)  the  dissertation,  Ueda Makoto  of  hand-  1  this  i n the  written  i s i n French" ") ; a m e r e  William  and  were  that  book-length  Francis  equally  more  1970's  been  Ja. -jj^  stories  Edwin M c C l e l l a n as  doctoral  helpful  of  has  Naoya  <Qfe ffi ^g-  Koro  a markedly  i n an  Perhaps  has  that  stature  his single  the  throughout  was  sympathetic takes  until  there  by  treatment.  h i s 1971  nevertheless view,  intend  and  for critical  form  Shiga  h i s major  y e t , no  fact  work, An'ya  As  as  criticism  g r e a t masters  i n book As  and  (though  i n 1976.  published  not  i s , as  the  of  comparable  (1912-1926),  scattered  of  of  West  most  i t was  stories  them  one  writer  n e g l e c t e d i n the  (1883-1971). in  Japanese  Shiga  date,  pre-  culture, in his  Modern which  Japanese I  Writers  shall  have  has  Shiga's  Why  and  the  occasion work  to  readership  that  to  writers  Kawabata,  basic  reason  seems  Shiga's  works  most  the  of  as  to  lack  the  events  has  be  fashion  is  i n the  way  little  structure;  and, s i n c e  persona,  i s almost  absorbed  works,  "rounded" the  to  that,  author  them  as  "unformed  biographical  view  by  own  and  or  his  protagonist of  the  that  t h a t may  kind  in  Shiga and  these  self-  rang.e  of  expresses  shi-shosetsu  "a  s c a r c e l y seem  there  fictional  of  wrote as  a  plot-  a wide  of  since  life,  "well-built"  The  readers,  "fiction":  S e i d e n s t i c k e r perhaps of  a  Abe?  Western  directly  himself,  reminiscence"  jotting  neglect  of  of  development  ("I-novels")  ,\\  long  author's  the  Edward  Western  later.  eyes  taken  the  (1976),  enthusiastic reception  i n the  are  from  i s no  Literature  to  attributes  invariably  characters.  an  conventional  the  there  traditional  yjfl^  of  of  T a n i z a k i , Mishima.and  described  random  return  given  usual  seemingly  Nature  suffered this  Western such  2 -  w h e n he form  to  refers  of  auto-  deserve  the  2 name  fiction  sticker  at  admits  all." the  reluctantly,  in  when he  that  says  guishing where,  the  the  same e s s a y ,  significance  the  overall  " i f there  modern  i t i s the  In  Japanese  importance  of  context i s any novel of  this of one from  however,  genre,  Seiden-  albeit  modern Japanese characteristic the  undisguised  modern and  fiction distin-  novel  else-  unshaped  auto-  central  place  3 biography."  Mishima  Yukd>o a l s o  recognized  the  of  this  but  genre  3 -  i n the contemporary  h e saw i t i n a m o r e  literature  cosmopolitan  of h i s country,  and l e s s  belittling  light: The " I - n o v e l " o f modern Japanese l i t e r a t u r e i s a complex c r e a t i o n o f mixed a n c e s t r y bred from the French n a t u r a l i s t n o v e l , from the Japanese o c c a s i o n a l essay s t y l e o f t h e M i d d l e Ages ( c a l l e d , r e v e a l i n g l y , " f o l l o w i n g one's thoughts") and from t h e s e l f - w o r s h i p of European romanticism. And, because o f t h e p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f J a p a n e s e p o e t r y w h i c h I h a v e ment i o n e d b e f o r e , t h e " I - n o v e l " f o r m w a s a l s o made t o serve t h e f u n c t i o n o f ^ f u l f i l l i n g p o e t i c needs through the v e h i c l e o f prose. r  The shosetsu That  issue,  i n fact,  p e r se, though  the problematic  has  preoccupied  has  been w e l l  i s even this  i s a very  relation  Writers.  of  eight  novelists, the f i r s t  in  each  and  especially As that  exercised  I shall  Francis  which  must  point  Mathy  arise  emphasizing  writers  wrote.  torted  image  question  attempts  modern  influence  Ueda  between  life  that has  Japan.  1, i t seems this  t o me,  central  of Shiga works  claim,  actual  theories considers  i ti s a question  t o evade  reality  i n h i s Modern  that  i n modern  genre.  novelists  that  To do s o , I w o u l d  of h i s abiding  and  o f the r e l a t i o n  conventional  o f Shiga's  practised  view  i n any c o n s i d e r a t i o n  both  fiction  of the shi-  of the literary  out i n Chapter  t h e few more  author  and  a n d he shows  that  widely  greatest  In h i sanalysis  i s the writer's  literature,  than  by Ueda Makoto  Japanese  case  between  many o f J a p a n ' s  demonstrated  larger  by  then,  issue over-  of f i c t i o n the  i s to present  accomplishment  on t h e l i t e r a t u r e  a  as a  diswriter  of h i s country.  Shiga to  Naoya must  try  to  Western nature  stand  "dress  garb of  him  is a  the  or  up"  fall  In  e x c l u s i v e l y on  and  to  as  c e n t r a l to  seeking total  to  trace these  free  union  the  shi-shosetsu,  Asa"  $  quently, Western to  an  the  the  same  of  the  values  of  through  Kobayashi  culmination  of  a l l that  tradition.  On  the  level  of  the  of  i n Shiga's  I  regard of  a  man  achieving  try  to  as  great  published as  an  form  that  address  this  for  a  with  shall  novel:  the  story,  "Aru  and,  genre. are  i n the  My  intention  heavily  I point  earliest  story  out the  pre-  Shiga's native  they  Japanese  theme,  the  conse-  sympathetic  instance,  of  offends  c u l t u r e ; when of  I  example  most  critics  own  is finest  I  reality.  barest  eyes  by  I  writer,  that  himself,  1908),  these  Hideo,  time,  and  about  their  theme  works:  in his  everything  views  the  egotism  first  and  in particular  as  discern  shi-shosetsu  Shiga  fiction  Morning,  true  arises i n connection  with  Shiga's  such  already  that  deal  between I use  which  b e l i e s the  or  a n a l y s i s , then,  of  At  problem  example  viewed  a  own  i t s simplest  that  by  are  critic  in  as  his  problem  (One  critics  show  judiced works  as  1  ^  Shi-shosetsu  is  a  dialectic Chapter  Shiga  shi-shosetsu;  conventional  only  present  from  came u l t i m a t e l y t o  In  that  development  nature.  central critical  on-going  this  of  acceptably  "autobiographical"  the  show,  the  himself  with  a writer  exercise  concentrate attempt  as  i n more  futile  subject.  4 -  seem  a  literary  that  we  can  o u t l i n e s of  a  problem over  that  the  solve  will  next  the  recur  thirty  tension ego  munion  others?  with  finally his  comes,  and  as  magnum o p u s ,  throughout  years:  between  independent  his  how  the  his  demands  see,  published  of  his  almost  own  of  the  to  re-  fiercely  mind  s o l u t i o n to  with  written  protagonist  f o r peace  definitive  shall  shi-shosetsu  i s the  longing  The  we  5 -  and  com-  this  problem  c l i m a c t i c scene  thirty  years  after  of  "Aru  Asa" . In art, his  Chapter  a work short  that  he  must  in  context  as  story  i t has  of  with  It  "Three  structure also  to  the a  te"  a  to  and  Chapter  3 deals  ^ stories,  also  achieve union  by  a  nature.  has  a  mood  though,  another  of  that  of  1920). this  as of  we  work  to  shi-shosetsu  compare  this  the  West, the  the  genre  Leo  Tolstoy  concept shall  and  see,  i t  contrast.  Shiga's In  earlier  order  master,of the  far  liberation:  the  also  a  senses  In  of  similar overall  te",  (Bonfire, the  in  coincidence  interesting points  with  I  great  traditionally  the  ultimate  literature,  story  receives in  of  (At  already  nature  Shiga's  celebrated  than  he  his  with  distinctive  ni  self  of  \? \  of  fortunate  "Kinosaki  ffy o>  sense  world  Deaths",  most  his  practised  is  the  protagonist  short  some  earlier  ni  of  Shiga  the  presents  "Takibi"  one  example  the  travel  clearly  been  Tolstoy. story,  to  self-surrender more  Shiga  Here  a more m a t u r e  fact,  "Kinosaki  shock  define the  with  near-fatal accident--but  direction towards  i s , in  1917).  profound  story—a  I deal  stories:  Kinosaki, more  2  best-known  contrast i s close  to to  the  stories, two  idyllic  as  the  protagonist  enjoying as  in  a  2  Western  shosetsu , i n "Big  I  use  form  out  Shiga's this  In  Chapter  4  brought  regard a  as  i s the  that  he  issue  and  himself  I have  i n other  the  writer  in a  way  shi-shosetsu.  of  what,  as  well  i n my an  how  the  are  no  Where-  tradi-  Shiga's  Hemingway  i s by  mountains,  nature.  shi-  story,  some  more r e c e n t  close  West.  means  Japanese  in  turn  my  discussion  in  the  It  as  is  of  Shiga's in  this  grips  I  also  entirely  influence  influenced  work,  for  the  such  be  as  obtain  conclude Shiga  appraisal  spiritual  seen  of  my  has what  I  a  of  and  the  to  hope  only  when  man  to  show,  dialectic  this  the  point:  same is  with  o f f e r to  the  I  consider  to  In  a  problem, a  writer  summation  Western be  An'ya  thaaproblem  man  to  also  thematic  and  the  discussion  work  nature  liberation.  ultimately  a  ife i s h e r e the  up  seen  thematic  essential  with  work  be  Koro,  fiction/reality  his  problem  may  both  as  the  i t s core,  to  An'ya  a r t ' on  with  the  at  central  could  view,  of  to  longing  I  analysis  "technical" issue  come t o that  who  l e v e l s of  problem  words,  of  as  two  including  this  seen  the  a  considerable  poets,  comes  crucial  protagonist's  Koro,  the  level.  relates  show  the  Hemingway.  shi-shosetsu,  that  in  and  there  affinity  the  culmination  technical  the  of  together  the  Shiga  apparent  "Imagist" as  be  practise  i n view  Western  show  man  in  d i f f e r e d from  that  writers  of  genre  life  to  to  fiction  the  this  story  River",  the  of  Tolstoy  both  Two-Hearted  coincidental,  that  of  with  I use  that  and  a  quiet  chapter  point  I  communion  a  present  to  to  leading  the  parallels  on  shown  pleasant  Chapter  tional  is  6 -  the  reader,  improved  climate  f o r t h e r e c e p t i o n o f h i s work  Shiga in  7 -  Miyagi  N a o y a was b o r n  i n 1883 a t t h e v i l l a g e  P r e f e c t u r e on the northeast  his  f a t h e r was p o s t e d  The  f a t h e r , h o w e v e r , was a n a m b i t i o u s  man,  a graduate  he  returned  to  make  a name  Eventually insurance Shigas of  a  he became company.  "good"  early  f o r generations  biography,  since  School",  be s a i d  i n terms  i tenabled  writers of the Shirakaba  since  i tenabled  concentrate  exclusively  a  pace  leisurely  Although later,  at  good  Gakushuin  before  Shiga  the best  ticularly  without  student.  completing  crucial  h i s course  the Gakushuin  of studies  with  importantly,  of h i s l i f e ,  to  t u r n i n g o u t works a t a  living.  schools and,  he was n o t a  he had t o r e p e a t  o u t o f Tokyo  social  about h i s  contact  a n d , more  the rest  born  and o f  fact  came i n t o  i n the country,  a n d he d r o p p e d  a n d an  N a o y a was  one o f t h e b e s t  In fact,  long  that the  the n e c e s s i t y o f making  university  business-  samurai r e t a i n e r s  that  on h i s w r i t i n g ,  attended  Bank.  finance.  a railway  o f wealth  group,  him, throughout  of high  him t o attend  he f i r s t  other  where  and s e t o u t  the case  leading  t h e most  where  o f Japan,  and s u c c e s s f u l  o f both  i t was a l s o  i s , indeed,  Ishimaki  of the Dai-ichi  i n the world  i t may w e l l  of  U n i v e r s i t y , and b e f o r e  the director Since  coast  h i s j o b a t t h e bank  family, both  This  "peers'  quit  f o rhimself  had been  status.  or  o f t h e new K e i o  t h e Soma c l a n ,  into  as an employee  t o Tokyo,  i n t h e West.  two  paryears  Imperial University (in English  literature). tation above  as  a  young  men  that who  Mushanokoji supporter  a  had  Shiga  had  advanced  not  only  published  attempted  to  tance  i n Taisho  Japan.  must  member to  on  of  Shiga  vided  be  m u c h h i s own  There  father.  As  any  I hope  of  this  the  first  from  was  show,  of  of  1910  these  the  but  func-  impor-  vehicle  widely  known.  of him  Still,  as  the  support  the w r i t e r  1923,  literature  i t s literary  Shiga  to  itself  impoajtance o f and  young  published  considerable  categorizations  friendship  of  and  (White B i r g h ) .  group  became  The  friend  they  both  this  rate,  have  other  group  Western  any  I  importantly  <%^>  serving  influence to  as  several  University,  of  i n the  direct  When  influence  facile  and  a group  i t protheories  was  very  man.  i s one  marly  By  "Shirakaba group".  i n any  h i s work.  Shiga's  of  l a y f a r more  than  At  most  contemporary  Shiga's stories  wary  the  cultural  emotion  in circulation  readers.  a  instinct  Shiga's closest  members  introduce  i t became  one  by  repu-  with  Shirakaba  remained  tions  be  t o Tokyo  called  works  a r t to Japanese  which  ambitions,  of h i s l a t e r  at school,  contact  his life.  together  which  valued  i t was  would  of  i n view  who  into  literary  magazine  magazine,  through  came  S a n e a t s u , who  The  and  a man  Nevertheless,  f o r the r e s t  literary  also  is significant  "primitive",  intellect.  mentioned,  men  This  8 -  other  fact  which  b i o g r a p h y : h i s stormy  Needless to say,  as  must  be  mentioned  relationship  a hard-headed  about  with  businessman  his the  father  was  none  particularly dependent other tion his to  affair  that  f o r much  of i r r i t a t i o n :  by a copper with  h i s son's he w o u l d  mine  remain  maids  was  change,  his  " K i n o s a k i n i t e " and " T a k i b i " .  with Tokyo with to  death  o n t h e one hand  i n t h e summer nature  live  Central  Japan)  assertion  into  With  new  this  ciliation in  changed  (Reconciliation, cipal to  drama  spend  mountain  h e was  of Shiga's  the rest  With life  came  o f h i s days  able  h i s new  and peace  i n 1971) i n t h e q u i e t  of  of nature  bride  a  and  h i s death  enjoyment  and o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  self-  o f mind. recon-  i s movingly  reconciliation  (until  union  of Akagi i n  to effect  which  of  described  jfo  ^  the p r i n -  t o a n e n d , a n d h e was  eighty-eight the world  with  s h i - s h o s e t s u Wakai this  brush  sense  of confrontation  an e v e n t  celebrated  1917).  soon  see,i n  His close  scenery  his attitude  h i s father,  one o f h i s most  shall  a  h i t by a s t r e e t c a r i n  one o f l o n g i n g f o r harmony attitude  with  a s we  ( i n 1915 he w e n t  the beautiful  the years  underwent  o f 1913) a n d h i s i n c r e a s i n g  on the other  amid  (he was  During  o f mind  relfected,  with;  i n 1914 w i t h o u t h i s  significant stories  a change  state  the pollu-  and h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n  h i s marriage  Shiga's  over  were  associated  to a cousin of Mushanokoji.  t o 1915, however,  financially  There  protests  h i s family  one o f t h e f a m i l y  consent  choice of vocation,  of his life.  Naoya's  her; and, f i n a l l y ,  .father's 1913  i t meant  on h i s f a t h e r  caused  marry  too pleased with  since  sources  9 -  able  a t t h e age o f  of h i s family, Far Eastern  arts.  With on  time,  the Japanese  the  after  cultural  as a w r i t e ^ ,  became scene,  h i s magnum o p u s ,  tortuous  process:  appeared, After  a full  This  with  not until  fact  alone  lationship Having  seems  between  poured  though  life  into  this  had  best  maintain  sage  years  he  lived  to t e l l  was  a dignified  a  s t i l l long  was  after  t h e w o r k was  novel  another  u s much  about  silence.  that  to  and  instalment  Shiga  begun.  wrote  thirty-four  little years.  the special r e and h i s work.  and the hard-earned  i t seems  him  published  the l a s t  a writer of shi-shosetsu  one work,  awaited  that  one g r e a t  like  ofold.  struggle  This  figure  and more  of the novel  1937  a l l o f t h e agony  his  more  great  Koro.  part  thepublication of this  archetypal  h i s f a t h e r : he h a d  An'ya  twenty-five  any c o n s e q u e n c e ,  an almost seeming  final  the f i r s t  1 9 2 1 , a n d i t was  -  enlightened  one  his reconciliation  finish  of  Shiga  r e i n c a r n a t i o n o f some But,  in  i n fact,  10  Shiga  wisdom o f  now  felt  he  -  11  -  Chapter I Shiga Naoya may shortstory writer. his  one  be regarded  as f i r s t and  foremost a  T h i s i s not to deny the importance of  n o v e l , An'ya Koro  (A Dark Night's  P a s s i n g ) , upon  which much of h i s high r e p u t a t i o n i n Japan r e s t s .  Nor  is  i t to deny the wide appeal o f h i s most famous n o v e l l a , Wakai  ( R e c o n c i l i a t i o n ) , t h a t watakushishosetsu par e x c e l -  lence which has moved c r i t i c s (or  to such e f f u s i v e h e i g h t s  depths) i n d e s c r i b i n g i t s emotional  £act remains t h a t Shiga was  impact.  f a r more p r o l i f i c  s t o r y w r i t e r than as a n o v e l i s t and,  ("At Kinosaki")  more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , and  seem to embody, to a g r e a t e r  extent thati any of h i s other works, those q u a l i t i e s most c r i t i c s , Shiga".  the  as a s h o r t -  t h a t s h o r t s t o r i e s such as " T a k i b i " ("Bonfire") "Kinosaki nite'i  But  that  I t h i n k , would regard as " q u i n t e s s e n t i a l l y  Furthermore, even h i s great novel i s r a t h e r  e p i s o d i c i n c h a r a c t e r , so t h a t d e s p i t e i t s c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h , i t has been regarded we  by more than one  as  s h a l l see, as more a s e r i e s of l o o s e l y r e l a t e d s h o r t  s t o r i e s than a t i g h t l y s t r u c t u r e d novel(and, was  critic,  o r i g i n a l l y planned as s u c h " ) . 1  One  indeed, i t  might add  Shiga took the major p a r t of h i s working l i f e t w e n t y - f i v e years)  to w r i t e h i s one  say, t h i s seems to imply easy to  him.  novel.  that  (about  Needless to  t h a t n o v e l - w r i t i n g d i d not come  -  Although problem  o f which  particularly is  Shiga  did  not possess  already  famous  tells  his  case  own  view,  which  we  a great  through  a deeply  will  like left  personal  of clothes.  his characteristic  they  do a l l m a n i f e s t , style".  represent  broad  f o r content,  and  those  that  that  a r e more  with  there  already  or f i c t i o n / r e a l i t y  was  that  of his  the  case  to the then,  this  was  view,  on e v e r y t h i n g he  wrote.  are masterpieces, the  but  unmistakeable  any o f them w o u l d  serve  of h i s a r t . may  be d i v i d e d  are more or less :  invented  In  n o t be changed a t  In keeping  aspect  that,in  style,  (the s h i - s h o s e t s u ) , comprising  classification, fiction  i t could  later,  forcefully  Because  almost  This  Shiga's  the depths  "rhythm"  itself  the stories  c a t e g o r i e s : those  graphical"  from  t o some e x t e n t ,  primary  of styles.  i s t h e man".  stamp  he  o f w r i t e r he was.  a l l h i s works  As a r e s u l t ,  this  considered  i n more d e p t h  basic  thing,  i s not t o say that  As  explore  own  f o r , above a l l ,  and Akutagawa,  of a variety  the kind  communicated  This  "Shiga  Tanizake  t h e w r i t t e n word.  a suit  i s renowned  spontaneously  t h e man's  writer,  such  Shiga  arose  the  o f the writer's a r t ) but, unlike  the "style  shall  stories,  s e e , he h i m s e l f  command  about  i n particular,  odd s h o r t  Shiga  shall  a facile  u s much  i t was  reader  to  What  contemporaries,  writer's style  being;  sixty  o u t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s n o t a  t o be t h e q u i n t e s s e n c e  most  of  one.  ( a n d , a s we  his  a  some  to single  vexing  his style  style  wrote  12 -  into  "autobio-  by f a r t h e m a j o r i t y ,  or "fictional".  appears  dialectic  the which  two  With  this  fiction/nonwill  be a recurs?  - 13 ring  theme  iately to  me  that  study  there  of  i s no  Shiga.  preconceptions  his ranking  of  the  But  I wish  value-judgment  t h a t F r a n c i s Mathy,  Western by  i n my  to  say  immed-  implied here.  It  f o r i n s t a n c e , cbnly b e t r a y s  his  about  what  "fictional"  constitutes stories  "good  above  seems  literature"  the  "auto-  full-length  study  2 biographical" Shiga  .  In  in English,  stories Shiga  in a  was  ferred  to  Mathy  chapter  unable  impossible  h i s book,  to  theory write  gives  called  prose  "such  first  "star  "A  coverage"  Golden  w r i t e more  of  in  the  because 3  fiction",  a  Ten"  to  and  he  was  as  fictional  laments  that  "hampered  by  i . e . , he  d e f e c t i v e genre  the  of  generally the  an  pre-  autobio-  4 graphical  novel".  emphasizing  the  biographical, as  a writer,  shosetsu of  this  rate,  fictional  Mathy since  and  (and  appropriate  present balance  autobiographical  entire ("One  I have opus.  Morning"  characteristic  by  than  said, Even -  study  there  in his  1908)  view  of  Shiga's  achievement  majority  of  his  i n Japan  Japanese  I have  the  tried  to  greater  first  published  style  the  master  exercised his  attain  At a  any  more  unity to story,  a p p e a r many and  shi-  the  stories.  remarkable  his  auto-  are  length with  fictional  already  as  literature).  is a  , there  f e a t u r e s of  has  the  stories  mainly  t h a t he  dealing at with  over-  of  such  modern  t h a t by  expense  i s known  at  t o me  the  our  great  i t i s as  i n f l u e n c e on  i n the  As  the  i t seems  stories  distorts  s i n c e he  genre  enormous  Furthermore,  content.  Shiga's  "Aru of In  Asa" the fact,  it  would  page  be o n l y  product  greater  who  of Shiga's  portion  "Aru  getting  be coming  orial  service  have  to rise  ready. hours  work  f o r h i s dead long  before  But Shintaro  h i m up, he f a l l s  the p r i e s t  Now, back  b u t s t e r n l y commanding  who it his he  defiantly  tells  more d i f f i c u l t grandmother i s no l o n g e r  prevents  her that  i s sharing  a Buddhist  priest  a mem-  they  would  until  the early comes t o  She grows i n -  him t o g e t up, and t o be out the rebel  a l lher pestering Calling  Shintaro's  i n Shintaro,  has only him a  "devil",  Even  stubborn  made  though  pride  now  h i m f r o m g e t t i n g up.  "psychology"  mattress  late,  she i s n o t p o l i t e l y  brings  sleepy,  very  who  s t a l k s a n g r i l y o u t o f t h e room.  When h i s g r a n d m o t h e r of  until  h i s grandmother  f o r h i m t o g e t up.  really  The-night  and t h a t  again.  finally  i n turn  Shintaro,  to celebrate  reading  to sleep  until  This  man,  arrived to get everything  whenever  requesting  i t .  him that  grandfather,  irritated,  about  a novel  morning  creasingly  quick  o f a young  had continued  o f the morning.  five  contains the  o f h i s grandmother,  the next  this  i n microcosm.  story  She had warned  early  already  o u t o f bed one m o r n i n g .  the protestations  would  get  of h i s later  same b e d r o o m .  t o say that  e a r l y manhood  he h a d p e r s i s t e d i n r e a d i n g  despite the  exaggeration  Asa" i s the simple  has t r o u b l e  before  a slight  returns  on him: she begins  and q u i l t s ,  even  though,  once  more,  folding  she t r i e s  u p h e r own  a t seventy-three,  a b i t heavy  she  should  n o t be p u t t i n g  clever  S h i n t a r o sees  to  budge.  him  Finally,  of having  being  herself through  of " f i l i a l  and c a l l  a strain.  her strategy  h i s grandmother  no s e n s e  a t t h e beck  t o such  and s t i l l  becomes  duty".  But the  angry  refuses  and  "Iff i l i a l  o f an o l d l a d y " ,  accuses  duty  Shintaro  means  answers  5 rather  spitefully,  mother  rushes  Now mosity, still  he h a s e n j o y e d  he e n t e r t a i n s  go s k a t i n g  drowned  His that  —  of i t . "  cathartic  H i s grand-  i n t h e mood  release  another  spiteful  day on a lake this  will  While  thought: where  make  grandmother  S h i n t a r o i s now  priest  when he comes.  two b r u s h e s  three  now  up, she t r i e s  about  back  e n t e r s t h e room  which  t o make  writing  She m e e k l y  again. peace  students  brushes  obeys  as n o t s u i t a b l e .  with  to offer  fee?ls  like  With  this  laughing.  Left  He c a n c e l s  trip  and begins  to fold  a n d p u t i t away.  Now  completely  "reconciled",  i s suddenly  overcome,  begding.  While  " i nthe midst  to the  further  of the skating  up h i s g r a n d m o t h e r ' s  him by  when he o r d e r s h e r t o  a g a i n , he s u d d e n l y  he  he  Relieved  along  folds  getting  h i s grandmother  t o h i s ego, S h i n t a r o i s t h o r o u g h l y appeased.  neatly  B u t he  perhaps  salve  idea  ani-  him.  h i s advice  the  of  t o g e t up.  a l l h i s resentment.  surely  asking  put  this  feels  the next  recently  about  no p a r t  out i n tears.  has not exhausted  worry  I want  Shintaro finally  dressed, will  that  "then  doing  up h i s b e d d i n g  so,  he  even  though,  o f l a u g h t e r " , by an  uncontrollable so  many  that  urge  to cry.  "he c o u l d  The t e a r s  no l o n g e r  the tears  stop,  he f e e l s  In  the f i n a l  scene  of the story,  in  brother  their  playful joking.  priately at  light  having  here of  i n which  simply  and c l e a r l y .  been  erally of  chosen  o f a simple,  adjectives;  but  rather  —  Junichiro (and  with  has pointed  from  expression  appronot just  8  out,  short,  the sense  There  i s a  and f i n d s  i n h i s own w o r k s ) .  I f we  sen-  t h e words  words  a r e gen-  sparse use  "decorative" Tanizaki  an e s s e n t i a l l y "masculine" the "feminine"  no  are stated  i s a very  I t i s , as  kind  comes,  clipped  that  and these  i snot  can d i s c e r n  which  i s n o t i n a n y way  i twith  Murasaki  family  7  there  and f a c t s  care,  efficient.  contrasts Lady  rhythm:  kind.  the language  economical,  Tanizaki  descends  extreme  already  joins  b u t , more  o f amae.  Generally,  i s given  basic  on an  emotions  we  are wasted  One  he  euphoria  to the writing  staccato  no words  toh i s  "Aru Asa" i s w r i t t e n  features.  the almost  tences  ends  realm  style",  a u t h o r i t a t i v e tone  doubt,.from  have  Japanese  "Shiga  i t s major  goes  to r e j o i n the comfortable  the s t y l e i n which  y e t the mature  strong,  thus  o f some n e g a t i v e able  purified".  room, where  1  purged  h i s cheeks  B u t when  Shintaro  i n the next  The s t o r y  the all-important  someof  "refreshed,  signifying Shintaro s  a t being  Although quite  note,  been  importantly, circle,  and s i s t e r s  down  see anything".  finally  younger  stream  style  style  that  i t s p r i n c i p a l modern were  t o lchok  for i t s  - 17 equivalent equally  i n English,  celebrated  perhaps  the closest  "Hemingway s t y l e "  fact,  some r e m a r k a b l e  these  two w r i t e r s ,  similarities  even  i n such  would  be t h e  -- and t h e r e a r e ,  between  details  the styles  as t h e i r  i n  of  choice of  words.^ Shiga for  i s renowned  instance,  across  as a model  the country)  all-important significant  above  of ideal  and s t y l e ,  position  essay  a l l for'.his  Japanese  as I have  i n h i s own v i e w  he w r o t e  style  prose  said,  on the subject,  mean  i n the Japanese  apparent  pline  t o him as an a r t ) , Shiga uses  describe  tessence the  that  o f good  skillful  something  Of  akin,  this of  many  i t seems, then,  does  much  was  which  —  the author  must  developed  to explain  Shiga c r i t i c s  "rhythm"  t o be t h e q u i n a matter of  of  a  - - some-  talented  being.  (Perhaps fixation"  he was h i m s e l f , charismatic  by a l l  person).  one's  of  "life-force".  be n o t j u s t  from  a kind  and s p i r i t "  concept  human  tell  disci-  word  the "biographical —  (I  f o r i tbe-  the words",  "mind  to the Shavian  be  i t i s , one might s a y ,  "between  the author's  "One c a n a l w a y s  the English  i s not merely  o f words  In a  as a writer  a spiritual  he c o n s i d e r s  an i m p r e s s i v e , almost  to Shiga:  a s much  This  almost  a highly  Japanese  accounts, ing  from  but also  view  writing.  communicated  necessity,  artist  quality  arrangement  "reverberation" what  writing  might  o f do o r m i c h i ,  comes  to  that  o c c u p i e s an  which  a p e r s o n a l m a n i f e s t o o f h i s "way" sense  i n schools  of literature.  considered "way"  ( i t i s used,  own  Accord-  reaction  on  reading  bility the  has  used  paintings,  a  this  (or  their  books  —  a l l good  pleasure  spiritual  opened  to  whatever  he  since  deeds,  real  of  while  the  of  communion qualities  with  have  then,  great  hidden  the  is  works  words, this  is  or  good  effect  the  men:  within  rhythm  pronouncements  pleasure...Good  reading,  sensi-  w r o t e . A n d  with  their  works  author's  the  " A l l encounters  us  kind  feebly)  rhythm  gives  true  -  irrelevant,  same:  whether  good  The  1  strongly  with  the  men,  writings,  us.""*"  how  i s almost  basically  superior  their  story  pulsated  medium  always of  a  18  upon  pleasure  "Our  of  eyes  are  we  might  ourselves 12  share  with  them.  Our  "quasi-mystical" highly of  Shiga's  ready all  sense  with  to  works  of  man,  of  means  for  at  in  and  his  than  in  "Aru  Asa":  content  other  of  saw this  with  a  of the  as  most we  literature  of  his of  transmitted as  also theme  to  communion  sense  itself  is  seen, "is a l -  struggle  members  be  This  recurrent  have  total  concrete  could  taut..."  literature  hero's  other  his  that  a  overcome with  his  family,  and  "rhythm"  as  from  to  very  man  practical  communion.  according in  the  of  the  achieving  With  grow  function  theme w h i c h ,  force  achieving  discussion  any  a  obviously  spirit  i s probably  and  large.  Furthermore, form  what  and  the  a l i e n a t i o n by  natural  Shiga  of  particularly  nature  kind  man,  view  adumbrated  fellow  a  relevant  mind  work Ihara  to of  Shiga  literature.  Saikaku,  Japanese  "rhythm"  the  He  writer  tradition:  transcends  both  makes  clear  he  this  admired  "Saikaku's  more  Ogeba  and  Oridome  are written  strong  rhythm.  in  'floating  the  the  reader  Their  with  cool,  subjects  world';  which  a  and  clean  detachment  are various  y e t they  trivial  have  I mentioned before:  a  that  and  a  occurrences  effect  tightening  up  upon of  one's  13 mind  and  spirit."  even  out of  masterful  "trivial"  on  this  "splendid"  for  the  point.  but does  by  is  little  "not a  xndxcate,  have the  the  but like  story  as  matter,  a  of  there  finds  the  of  boy,  as  he  art  commands  a  If this  no  such  were  a  ishly"  towards h i s grandmother  Japan,  where  i s n o t t o be  r e l a t i o n s were a t home u n t i l  i s  not to  to freely  necessarily appreciate be  enjoy  different  imthe  fo his  own  "comparative i t may  a c t so  oppressively married,  who  this  so, i t would  should  i s  Surely  to the contemporary man  he  the hero,  but, i n the context  at.  compensates  to  does  as  be  seem  f o r instance,  year-old  wondered  not  very  case,  to  would  behaviour  reader  reprehensible  lived  of  words 15  one  discipline  that  men  and  —  values  In the present  twenty-five  "Aru Asa"  with  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  the hero's  reader  young  of  this sufficiently 14  "ad hominem"  or even  haviour  great  eye-to-eye  of twenty-five".  cultures with  family  style  his actions  "cosmopolitan"  be  n o t see  self-centeredness"  approve of story.  that  implausible  where  t o make  providing  i t s contents.  "Immature  would  literature".  does  not f e e l  arguing  f o r the  literature and  i s able  Mathy  a g r o w n man  to marally  possible  --  He  "triviality"  much  subject  Francis  irritated  too  a writer  style.  Apparently, Shiga  Thus  Western "child-  of  close  seem  Meiji and  Shintaro's  be-  But me,  in  there  fact,  that  achievement. ingly  like  beauty,  modern  art  once  story, Shiga  a  has  authorial  possessed  at  beneath  of  high  much  has  only  and  who  has  eye  this  seems  a  calm,  life  the a  one  to  the and  pair  of  must  his  The  the  since  point  into  be  his  them  shoes,  fabled  not  seem-  Ever  a  King  Midas, by  miracles  of  "rhythm". the  He human  disturbing  uneventful  is  short  misled  insight into  show us  seemingly  old  s t y l e or  of  small,  after a l l ,i s ,  incident the  to  Shiga's  turned  else.  accomplishes of  of  seems  beholder.  Like  powers  him  essence  i f nothing  he  force  enables  of  trivial.  --  It  Triviality,  of  But  here.  taken  "trivial"  touch.  the  the  very  order.  considerable  this  the  painting  us  stake  everyday  i n the  turned  by  at  forces  surface  of  every-  life. On  after  closer  a l l .  themes  As  view, I  individual issue  of  Meiji  period.  Watakushi  i t is  and  then,  have  i s prefigured  perspective,  "the  a  golden  psyche,  day  of  pronouncements  not  work  events  longer  the  a writer  taught  Shiga  issue  misses  splendid  has  i t no  alchemy  art very  Gogh d i d  also  is  insignificant literary  that  larger  Mathy  Here  into  Van  is a  20 -  his  already in  the  this  needs  no  upsurge  short  was  (My in  does  very  of  a  seen  seem  in  so  "trivial"  Shiga's  from  a man's  social  much  Natsume  not  oneoof  work:  between  part  discussing  Kojinshugi  remarkable  as  Asa"  indicated,  conflict  "individualism" In  "Aru  a  "social"  needs  group.  major  as  an  The  whole late  the  air in  the  Soseki's  famous  talk,  Individualism), individualism  Jay  that  Rubin  followed  notes the  -  21 16  Russo-Japanese ture, of  War  "naturalist fiction,  t h e i n d i v i d u a l , was  too,  both  with  the "tension  mergence trasts  between  h i s own  In the realm  i t s emphasis  and t h e l o n g i n g  In h i s talk,  independent  o f Japanese  stance  was  Soseki  concerned  t o modern, f o r emotional sub-  f o r instance, the  he  con-  "feudalistic"  B u t he a l s o a d m i t s 19 suffering the "loneliness of individualism". S u c h Meijii> 20 as Soseki  ualism"  as an e s s e n t i a l  they  were In  Shiga the  older  how  values lem  own will  problem  t o be worked  with  he r e j e c t e d  Kanzo —  traditional  when  they  But, unlike  individualism  as an  f o r instance,  Japanese  cultural  i t i s f o r him a p e r s o n a l  of h i s w i l l  as opposed  standards  tohis  to h i s family's  of behaviour.  (In  of the Christian  on i d e o l o g i c a l as on  threatened  prob-  relations with h i s  to a c t according  the teachings  n o t s o much  culture  as an i n d i v i d u a l ,  of h i s time.  not approach  to their  "individ-  t o Japan.  rights  i n s t i n c t s and f e e l i n g s ,  same way  Uchimura  t o import  rather  saw  o f the Western  out i n h i s day-to-day  he c o n f o r m  doubt  he i s n o t c o n c e r n e d ,  I t i s a matter  that  grounds  —  i n the abstract;  deepest  Mo  o n h i s own  he d o e s  i tconflicts  family.  Ogai.  c e r t a i n l y a product  writers,  groups.  ingredient  trying  his insistence  intellectual with  and Mori  so b u s i l y  t o o was  literary  with  litera-  And  and i n h i s novels, commitment  of  on the l i b e r a t i o n  i n popularity."  a proud  individualism 18  writers  the  talk  i n the group."  cliquishness  with  gaining  i n h i s public  rationalistic  to  o f 1904-1905."  to interfere with  leader  personal what  he  - 22 considered to be the " n a t u r a l ^ f r e e e x p r e s s i o n of h i s sexual 21 instincts.  ).  Thus Shiga d i d not s u f f e r from any vague,  q u a s i - m e t a p h y s i c a l sense of a l i e n a t i o n such as h i s more i n t e l l e c t u a l contemporary, Akutagawa Ryunosuke, gave as h i s 22 reason f o r committing s u i c i d e ;  and, s i n c e he was  not con-  cerned w i t h any " l a r g e r " p o l i t i c a l or p h i l o s o p h i c a l once he was  issue,  completely " r e c o n c i l e d " with h i s f a m i l y , he  able t o spend the r e s t of h i s long l i f e q u i l s t a t e of mind To those who  in a relatively  was tran-  (and, i r o n i c a l l y , w a i t i n g very l i t t l e ) . would accuse Shiga of having too  "narrow"  a scope as a w r i t e r , one might quote some eloquent words o f his  g r e a t e s t a p o l o g i s t , the "dean o f Japanese  critics",  Kobayashi Hideo; "Empty thought can go anywhere, my own can t r e a d only a small b i t of ground. life, not  I must s h o r t l y d i e .  have many l o v e r s .  feet  We t h i n k of e t e r n a l  I cannot have many f r i e n d s , I can-  The t h i n g s to which I can g i v e assent  from my v e r y e n t r a i l s add up to but a t i n y sum,  the people  I can love and hate can number no more than the few immedi a t e l y beside me. is  T h i s i s the s t a t e of l i f e  f o r everyone...The  from h i s own  f o r me,  and i t  f a c t t h a t the w r i t e r does not depart  l i f e means t h a t he g i v e s i t h i s a s s e n t , and i t  23 alone."  The d i s t i n g u i s h e d s c h o l a r Nakamura Hajime has de-  voted a good p a r t of a l e n g t h y volume to demonstrating the 24 e s s e n t i a l "down-to-earthness" but  of the Japanese  world-view,  i t i s d o u b t f u l whether anyone has expressed i t b e t t e r  than Kobayashi i n t h i s b r i e f passage.  Shiga h i m s e l f has put  w h a t we ly: is  may  "A of  him  regard  as  superficial little  to  to  Even  to  those  small  Shiga's  credo"  r a r e and  things that  to  than  Edward  S e i d e n s t i c k e r f o r i n s t a n c e , would Shiga  story  "utamonogatari" Ise  Monogatari  was  provided  was  usually  served  to  of  to  lyrical  the  "a  i t that  of  and  period,  have  or  lyrics...So  The  that  i t i s with  awareness.  i t offers  The  whole  a  is  see  be  the as  the  ground  ground  itself It  but  The  i s to  be  f o r the as  forever not.  such  judged  are.  the  Shiga.  setting  i s to  are  value.  a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l background  extent  us  they  v e r s i o n of  literary  for  i t is  non-fictional  lyrics.  slight  Mathy  "poem-tales"  fictional  of  readers  i t clearly  modern-day  succession of  formless  the  Heian  i n which  for a  of  a kind  the  s e t o f f the  triviality given  of  as  important  t h i n g s " f o r what  t o make  succinct-  25  f o r Western  h i s work  of  more  sensational events  deeply."  trying  typical  out  even  I t i s more  "small  sympathetic something  of  writer.  i t seems  accept  more  the  even  Unfortunately, difficult  "writer's  experience  value  experience  his  23 -  for-  moments a  unified  26 work  of  this  may  fiction be  sympathetic  no  regarded Western  of  "triviality",  of  h i s Japanese  Triviality, And, as  more  as  as  than  i s an  a valiant  critic  to  'utamonogatari'." attempt  rescue  I have  Shiga  said,  i s i n the  the  "prosy  setting"  for a  eye  and few  the  from  at  i s i n need  i n dismissing Shiga's ' t r i v i a l  merely  Shiga  i t i s d o u b t f u l whether, admirers,  on  part of the  least of  of  annoying  a  charge  i n the  being the  While  eyes  rescued.  beholder. reminiscence"  "moments o f  poetry",  it  seems  the  that  the  --  the  substance  anyway  that  merely  to  stories,  any  set  of  the  works.  would  o f f a-few  It  write  out  "Arus  " p o e t i c moments".  If  lyrical,  i s an  long  "moments o f  including  single-mindedly  throw  the  baby  "autobiographical background"  author  in fact,  guishable so  S e i d e n s t i c k e r would  bathwater  all,  24 «  absurd  have  Shiga's  s u r e l y he  i s , after notion  stretches of  poetry"  Asa"  with  prose  --  many o f  no  such  Shiga's  distin-  i n t e n t i o n s had  would  have  been  written  poetry. Taking calls  on  quite  the  to  make  To  Sibley,  of  a willful  "big  Shiga's  morning  opposite  ideas"  "small  for  young  cibility  towards  that  can  be  life  and  work  man  not  (and,  Sibley  concedes  stiory"  that  seem Asa"  grandmother only  that,  course, on  "represents i t s most  larger i s not  easel); has  i n the the  i t s own,  than  limited."  total  the  life  In  out  story  of  Oedipal  work  Asa"  is a  bed  one  irrasorigins  of  Shiga's  of  Dr.  Freud).  "slight  fiction view,  try  are.  hero's  and  his  to  the  context  personal  27  get  who  they  simply  deeoly  "Aru  Japanese  Sibley,  psychoanalysis  i s r e l u c t a n t to  unheard-of  of  i s William  Freudian  "Aru  who  an  his  tack  things"  understood  at  of  instance,  (surely  shosetsu)  an  (shi-  we  can  begin  28 to  make  story  sense  only  appears  of  after  the we  throughout  analysis.  Sibley  "seemingly have  the  subjected  author's  i s not  pointless detail"  too  the  entire  clear  on  "Shiga opus  to  w h a t we  Hero"  of  this  as  he  thorough shall  psycho-  discover  then,  b u t i t seems  t o have  crying  spell.  I t appears  phasis  to Shintaro's  for  h i s dead  for  h i s treatmentof  upset one  point,  outburts when  'inside' which well  sense  of i t .  they have  might felt  Most  t o complete  justified  of those  they  of the author's  draw  which  grief  Remorse  he h a s been  she makes a t  ill-tempered who  read  "AruAsa"  d i d not, presumably,  could  life  em-  a sudden  Or perhaps  i n Shirakaba  Indeed,  inordinate  h i s tears?  a particularly  part.  the hero's  wonder,  to h i s father  published  knowledge  he g i v e s  has e l i c i t e d  at first  on t h e hero's  make m u c h  that  " I s i t , we  that  reference  first  t o do w i t h  h i s grandmother?  provoking  i t was  t o me  tears:  grandfather  by a b r i e f  something  not, without  some  and p e r s o n a l i t y  the story.  i n not, finally,  on  And so they  caring  may  t o o much  29 what  i t i s that  example  of the kind  inevitably Sibley  "Aru  from  assumes  analytical author  the "reductive" that  insight  f o r having  the main  in  the t o t a l  of  course,  matter  tion  of reductio  Shiga  h i d them  clue,  context  approach  an u n f a i r was  i t was —  first  of psycho-  and then  he r e b u k e s t h e  He w o u l d  detective  reduce  story i n  c a n be u n d e r s t o o d  "case  history"  Xand  on t h e r e a d e r ) .  he n e v e r  i n one famous  prime  to literature:  any one p r i n c i p l e that  i s a follows  sometidbits  tears,  trick  this  that  too successfully.  of the hero's  i f there  the reader  ad absurdum  the lines"  the hero's  t o as a w r i t e r , from  T o me  psychoanalytical  i s playing  of fact,  cry."  has hidden  "between  A s a " t o a kindcof  which  hered  makes t h e h e r o  that  withheld  instance,  he  only  this, As  a  Shiga adinformareprimanded  Akutagawa story  "The  "hero" (a  for  "tricking  Martyr",  i s actually  l a 0. It  Henry). seems  no  mystery  In  fact,  a  present  a l l about  at  passage  him  see  that  cause  of  Here,  from  communion does  not  belonging world,  tense  begin to  of  young  while  he  he  of  cry  too,  very  end  there  the  hero  a n y o n e who  in  first  fact,  —  give  of  and  up  i s not  we  until  he  grandmother  a  which  des-  over  already  have of  derives, of  the  tacti-  ultimately,  intimate  world.  touches  a  Shintaro  something  i n Shiga's  "animistic"  iDt i s t h i s  immediate  with  her  "presence".  contact with  his  "grandmother"  which  f o r her,  obliterating a l l  dormant  the  animosity  moments b e f o r e . "Shiga  love  What  hero",  as  he  had  causes we  felt  his  shall  thus  towards  tears  see,  hint  grandmother's  "objective"  which,  look  strong  concreteness  actually  --  is  too  to  i t eomes  his  " m y s t i c a l " sense with  us  is cry".  I f we  spell"  outburst:  story,  kind  story.  "crying  is folding  the  even  to  i n the  man's  i s famous  or  to  his  though  traces  does,  " s u b j e c t i v e " man  is filled  physical  (the  the  example  "poetic" of  the  psychological profundities  Shintaro's  i n Shiga's  f o r which  his  transparent  Shiga  case  i t i s t h a t makes  happening  i n which  characteristic tility  "what  unearthing  'spontaneously"  bedding.  the  i n the  is actually  the  until  that,  what  to  that  in his  30  notice  as  way  fact"  revealed  i t is perfectly  we  this  "surprise  i s not  with  cribed,  the  in just  girl  preoccupied  the  reader"  wherein  t o me  at  the  her  i s not  does  not  awakens  so  just much  waste  his in-  a  few remorse  time  feeling  guilty  about  feeling  of  replaced simple  "doing  relief  by  a  release of  Japanese  "state the to  of  the  an  see  that  prevent  right,  but  i s a l l i n the i s necessary  us  hero  from  however  real his  w e l l be  stories)  the  does  historians,  i t is interesting by  the  to of  not  a  simple  emotion  i n other heed  "message"  to of  grandmother  be  a  the  very  as  shosetsu  f o r our observe first "Aru  later  story,  been  (literally,  of  Shiga  but  have  that  extraneous  understanding how  trained  emphasize  Nothing  a  much.  they  to  been  hero's  as  shinkyo  has  words,  described,  "shosetsu".  his  or  —  i t i s important  accepting  "simple"  but  negative  emotion  One  loves  may  literary  stories  prefigured  unpleasant  positive  t h a t he  mind"  comes n a t u r a l l y " )  tension.  stories  "shinkyo"  doubt  -ot  to  i s simply Shiga's  by  that  powerful  psychoanalyst tears  what  heroes  this  Asa"  as  a  story  h o w e v e r much  of  a  "small  them.  No are  should in i t s  own  thing"  is  is. Long  before  understood  the  beauty  been  has  lyrical are cry,  essay  reduced the  to  dance  i t came  beauty  into  of  "minimal  hauntingly  on  the  the  No  i n the  art".  evoked  play,  barest  is little  vogue  by  Taema:  essentials. more  than  West,  The  power  Kobayashi "Music The  a walk,  the  this in  dance  music and  of  Hideo  and  Japanese  and  is like  the  his  song  song a  is  like  31 ordinary  prayer.  Similarly things"  Shiga's  are  to  be  I t i s enough. i s an  a r t of  appreciated  What  else  is  needed?"  ^barest essentials". in a l l their  simple,  His  "small  immediate  r e a l i t y , i n t h e i r "suchness"  28 -  (sono mama) t o use a Buddhist  term, l i k e the f r o g i n Basho's h a i k u , l i k e the rocks i n a Zen temple garden o r , to take a more contemporary l i k e the simple images of f a m i l y l i f e Yasujiro.  example,  i n the f i l m s o f Ozu  As soon as the reader begins t o a n a l y z e , t o i n t e l -  l e c t u a l i z e , t o look f o r deep symbolic o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l meanings, he has immediately say. in  " l o s t i t " , as the Zen masters  O b v i o u s l y t h i s puts the c r i t i c  a rather d i f f i c u l t position.  s a i d , has undoubtedly  (and the graduate  student)  Kobayashi Hideo, as I have  been Shiga's most s u c c e s s f u l a p o l o g i s t ,  and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that he h i m s e l f i s more of an i n t u i t i v e poet or p h i l o s o p h e r than an "orthodox"  analytical c r i t i c i n  the Western sense -- h i s i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , o r a c u l a r  pronounce-  ments, though h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e , are o f t e n f a r more d i f f i c u l t to  fathom than the w r i t i n g s they are meant t o e l u c i d a t e .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s Kobayashi's t i o n a l Japanese  understanding of the t r a d i -  a e s t h e t i c s e n s i b i l i t y , as r e v e a l e d i n the  essay j u s t quoted, t h a t enables him to a p p r e c i a t e Shiga's work so deeply. "Aru Asa", then, i s the simple s t o r y of a young man's a l t e r c a t i o n and e v e n t u a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with h i s grandmother. But i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t i t a n t i c i p a t e s i n t h i s , as we s h a l l see, the b a s i c p a t t e r n of the " a c t i o n " i n many of Shiga's l a t e r s t o r i e s , i n c l u d i n g h i s two major works length and i n q u a l i t y ) : (A Dark Night's P a s s i n g ) .  Wakai  (both i n  ( R e c o n c i l i a t i o n and An'ya Koro  The cause o f the r i f t between the  Shiga  hero  forward his  as  being  society  and- h i s  f a m i l y i s not  in  Asa",  more w i l l f u l  permits;  phasizes  more  feelings  to  tion" once  he  few  his  than  run  has  mood  insults  advice.  the  becomes  We  way  may  by  she  agree  has  with  beauty"  is a  but,  hero  story,  we  only  a  em-  allow  his  "reconcilia-  observe  that,  pestering,  after  humbled  with  Shiga  must  before  do  he  has  herself  by  that  thrown  asking  this  is  nevertheless, i t is convincingly  essay  primary  the  straight-  Japanese  what  F r a n c i s Mathy  therefore, "natural". excellent  stories,  conciliatory  and  than  h i s grandmother's  human  i n an  to  present  behaviour  out  i t g e n e r a l l y has  course  "childish" and,  or  i s that  "natural"  In  so  "self-oriented"  anything  angered  her  clear  i n a l l these  their  been  though  and  but,  i s possible.  Shintaro's a  "Aru  always  on  quality  As  Ueda Makoto  has  Shiga's  aesthetics,  "natural  i n Shiga's  concept  of  pointed  the  "ideal  32 novel". trees  But  —  natural  this  does  i t i s , above beauty  comes  all, from  honestly,  i n accordance  would  repress  not  convention...He self  even  father his  pure for  or  his  would  survival  to  was  the  reader  belong  his  a man  inmost  feelings  lead  death  beautiful, 33  to  mountains  human b e a u t y :  f o l l o w the  to morally  only  observing  with  i n his motives." the  a  true  i f that would even  not  to of  i n the  because  approve  conducts  interest of  his  he  A  was,  man  of  a  hero  as  a  of  man  social  innermost with  his  fighting  i f nothing  necessary,  of  himself  Such  explosive clash  his wife.  I t i s not  who  impression  feelings.  dictates an  "An  and  I  have  i n order  to  for  else,  said, derive  aesthetic Asa",  we  satisfaction have  "natural"— far  more But  Shiga at  of  "Aru  now,  i n seeming  having  the  the  author  written  this  as  Shiga's  hero,  as  entry of  Shiga  intellectual  we the  first,  morning  In  about  p r e v i o u s day,  changed  "non-f ictcbon".  In  a  to confusing  the  he  is  perhaps, prob-  case  of  to have  1908,  he  a quarrel  ("Hi-Shosetsu,  later  "Aru  counts  critical  seemed  14,  —  what  central  January  in  abstraction.  close  approach  "fiction".  himself, at  here,  instincts  come p e r i l o u s l y  viewpoint,  the  And  " a m o r a l i t y " : the  intuitions, a mere  Shiga  Grandmother"  though,  work  to  during the  h i s grandmother  Non-Story,  --  i t s status  In h i s d i a r y  ficantly, of  "moral"  a Western  h i s work:  of  feelings,  the  from  doubts.  "A  gut  -  his portrayal.  taste  than  Asa",  with  raw  first  himself with  least  lem  our  from  30  his  notes  he  had  that, had  called  the  piece:  Sobo")\  i 3 4  Signi-  h i s mind  about  commentary  on  the  status  i t written 35  in  1928,  may  d e s c r i b e s i t as  speculate that,  tues  had  a work  of  after was  all,  likely  As  he  matured  to  s e t h i s own "Aru  shosetsu  Asa"  his first  i n the meantime,  fiction  become more  was, and  he  or  a  avid  t o be  i s the  of  influenced  aesthetic  of  Chekhov,  by  Western  naturally  The  One  what or,  young  Tolstoy concepts  developed  the  constiperhaps,  Shiga  and  Fikaubert  of  fiction.  confidence  standards.  first  ("I-novels" or  h i s view  Japanese.  reader  i n h i s a r t he  story".  s h o s e t s u had broadened 36  traditionally an  "short  in a  long  line  of  "personal f i c t i o n s " ) ,  Shiga's s h i stories  closely  based or  on  less  are  the  of  identifiable  hesitant  fiction. as  events  or  "unformed  jotting  as  even  Edward  his  own  refuse  to  scarcely  and  featuring  Certain  accept  Seidensticker  may  -  life  himself.  reminiscence"  that  31  Western  such  describes  works  the  and  as  a  seem  to  deserve  a  "form  hero  more  critics as  "legitimate"  shi-shosetsu  of  autobiographical  the  name  fiction  at  37 all." "Aru he  Francis Asa":  "The  laments  theory able  of  to  Mathy makes  that  piece the  prose  same p o i n t  i s hardly  more  than  a u t h o r i w a s 'hampered  fiction"  transcend  the  the  39  although  r  i n regard a  by  sketch..."  an  and  impossible  occasionally  autobiographical  to 3 8  mode a n d  "Shiga  find  was  objective  40 fictional Japanese  symbols critic,  "tempted"  to  and  these  in  fiction  seems more  that,  —  A  —which  into  has  novel,  of  —  one to  object  novels  of  Joyce's  could  the  go  Western  structured  "works  to  autobiography this  states."  Even  a  said  that  he  was  An' y a  Koro  as  "non-  of  Seidensticker,  du  on  per  for  se.  of  Temps  at  of  are  the  the  the  the  most  as  a  Young  Lawrence's  these  effect,  "the  Sons  But  works  Japanese  calls  pre-  largely  indefinitely.  aesthetic  instance,  very  Artist  Perdu,  least,  than  course,  Many o f  century  almost  eye  fiction" for  i s not,  Portrait  l a Recherche  consciously  shaped  Shiga," s  critics  Western  Proust's Lovers  inner  Nakamura M i t s u o ,  autobiographical Man,  his  ^  What  celebrated  express  describe  Oiiterature" .  sence  to  i t  appear  more  finely  shi-shosetsu unshapen  Snes".  4  But  this  exactly  sense what  made h i m  of  "formal  Shiga  eschew  (koshiraemono,  to  use  (We  have  the  the  formal  i t seems His  smacked  word  by  a  Nor  novel",  the  of  aversion  i s he  (hanashi  no  of  is  the  "natural"  father of Western  the  some o f  in this nai  shi-  novel^ ) a  conventional to  alone  t o me,  fabrication  certain  plot-structure his  love  of  which  denounced  stories.)  "storyless  avoid.  that  already mentioned  well-plotted for  to  the  s h o s e t s u , Tayama K a t a i , —including  structure",  wished  anything  32-  fiction.  Akutagawa's  predeliction  shosetsu)  to  use  43b the  term  fact,  Akutagawa  he  has  tradition that  a very  behind  merely  himself  substantial  him.  "tells  a  The  l i n e a g e i n both  emb  odied  i n the  out  in his  term  light  fiction,  serious it  was  a  for  As  collection  --  tales',  contains  was  field  t o fame and s o c i a l C o n f u c i u s no d o u b t  not  a  and  and,  i n which  literary  44  prestige." h a d much t o  do  or  has  as  points  stories:  (shosetsu  in  undertone  every a  the  ambition  a  fact,  Franke  Chinese  indeed  unlike poetry  fiction  i t i s , in  certain  generally regarded  literary  sense  Herbert of  In  Japanese  "popular"  Japan  shosetsu. a  work.  conventional  and  Narrative prose,  literature, not  to  the  f o r n o v e l l a s , Hsiao-shuo  'little  disparagement.  i n the  China  word  introduction  Chinese  Japanese),  very  Shiga's  part of  contempt  story"  venerable  "The  a p p l i e d to  sort  branch formal could  of of  of essay,  lead  on  The s t e r n s t r i c t u r e s o f with this. Like Plato  in  45 a  famous  took  passage  a dim  view  of of  the the  Republic fictive  the  Chinese  imagination,  philosopher  a b j u r i n g any  talk  -  33 -  of " m i r a c l e s , a c t s of v i o l e n c e , t r o u b l e s , and  ghosts."  T h i s s t r i c t Confucian a t t i t u d e seems to have been along with much e l s e , i n t o --Japan. ;  of the Heian p e r i o d , as we while the men  46  imported,  The g r e a t works of  fiction  a l l know, were w r i t t e n by women,  were occupied with the more " s e r i o u s " business  of w r i t i n g C h i n e s e - s t y l e poems and essays.  Lady  Muraskaki  i s o b v i o u s l y responding to the charge of " f a l s i t y " o f t e n l e v e l e d a g a i n s t the novel i n her day when she puts her famous "defense of f i c t i o n "  i n t o the mouth of B r i n c e G e n j i :  "The  C h r o n i c l e s of Japan and the r e s t are a mere fragment of the whole t r u t h .  I t i s your romances t h a t f i l l  i n the  details...  There are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the degree of s e r i o u s n e s s . d i s m i s s them as l i e s i s i t s e l f to depart from the  But to  truth...  47 He now  seemed bent on e s t a b l i s h i n g the uses of  Murasaki's  arguments f a i l e d to convince the l i t e r a r y  ment, though. Norinaga was all,  fiction."  U n t i l the a r r i v a l of the g r e a t c r i t i c  i n the e i g h t e e n t h century, even her own  establishMotoori  masterpiece  rendered acceptable to Buddhists and Confucians, i f a t only by being c o n t o r t e d t o f i t v a r i o u s a l l e g o r i c a l  interpretations.  Meanwhile, the "mainstream" t r a d i t i o n of  Japanese l i t e r a t u r e continued to c o n s i s t of d i a r i e s , (fandom e s s a y s ) , haibun  (poems mixed with prose)  zuihitsu  and so on.  (A l i t e r a t u r e , i n o t h e r words, of the " p e r s o n a l " or  lyric  r a t h e r than <bf the e p i c or dramatic mode.) F i c t i o n may  seem t o have enjoyed  something of a r e n a i s -  sance with the a r r i v a l of Ihara Saikaku i n the l a t e  seventeenth  century.  As  geration  to  Donald say  Keene  that  he  34 -  remarks,  " i t i s not  r e - e s t a b l i s h e d prose  much  of  fiction  an  exag-  as  an  48 art  after  But, for  as  Keene  the  light,  four  comic  zoshi  Hibbitt,  of  his  tales  what  hundred  also points  content  world"; ukiyo  over  sets  of  out,  apart  like  the  anenymous w r i t i n g s . "  which  pleasure from  i s his masterful  Saikaku,  of  Saikaku  stories, the  him  years  i s admired are,  quarters,  countless  style.  great  for  In  woodblock  the  the  so  much  most  part,  "floating  other  the  not  writers  words print  of  of  Howard  artists,  49 achieves  his  Indeed,  as  Saikaku  more  "Their  "finest  we  have than  subjects  world';  and  already any  are  yet  effects  other  have  sheery  seen,  various  they  by  Shiga  Japanese trivial  that  stylistic himself,  writer,  who  said  occurrences  effect  upon  verve."  the  admired  of  his  i n the reader  works:  'floating which  I  50 mentioned This  was In  before: because  other  nothing  to  fiction  per  literary this of  view  of  t i g h t e n i n g up the  words,  change se  the  was  was  of  an And  provided  the  great  by  as  of  view  certainly of  Keene  of  mind the  p o p u l a r i t y of  appropriate  any  one's  rhythm"  traditional  not  that,  "strong  the  expression.  ukiyo-zochi  incidents  a  no  licensed quarters  author's  Saikaku  style.  did  medium  for  "serious"  cause  for  a  were or  spirit."  that well-plotted  Saikaku's  says,  and  to  change  successors,  "devoted the  to  in  writers trivial  implausible  doings  51 of  paper-thin  style,  i f at  heroes,"  and  that  a l l , only  because  resemble  they  were  Saikaku's  directly  works  in  plagiarized  from  him.~'"  over  the centuries —  Bakin. be  Bakin s 1  together "low  of course,  himself  novels,  with  considered  Akinari  fiction  and Takizawa  with  works t o  his non-fiction,^' were  lumped  of his era (literally,  terms,  "originally  exceptions  his fictional  heavily didactic,  i n Keene's  t h a t was  Ueda  i n comparison  though  the gesaku —  a few i m p o r t a n t  i n particular,  consequence"  works")  term  were,  But A k i n a r i  of "small  and  a  There  L  the "playful  intended  the  compositions",  to indicate  that the 53  author  disclaimed responsibility  general  trend  o f Japanese  ized  by Ivan  Morris:  ever  s i n c e the days  down o n p r o s e only  such  this  long  an ambiguous  Meiji"  were  garded  as such  As  Ivan  work an  country,  to find  says:  "One r e s u l t  and then  The  summar-  and  indeed  s c h o l a r s have  breeds."  them  as b e i n g f i t 54  of fiction  wonder that  that  having  t h e "men o f  the novel  i n the nineteenth  looked  was r e -  century  of the introduction  West.  of  was  t o enhance t h e p o s i t i o n o f prose f i c - T s u b o u c h i S h o y o ' s S h o s e t s u S h i n z u i (The  Shoyo  planning  behind  a r t form  of theoretical  steady  startled  of the Novel),  a r t form.  i s bluntly  regarded  and the l e s s e r  a high  literature 55 i n Japan."  Essence  was w i d e l y  tradition  somewhat  Morris  of Genji,  status, i t i s l i t t l e  Western tion  which  opinion  work".  t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d ,  o f The T a l e  f o r women, c h i l d r e n , With  critical  "During  fiction,  for a frivolous  w r i t t e n i n 1 8 8 5 , was  criticism laments  expresses  from  now  to take  the novel  the low s t a t e the pious  the f i r s t  hope  seriously  of f i c t i o n that  on f o r t h e improvement  Japanese as  i n his  "by d i n t  of  of our novels  we  may  36  -  f i n a l l y be able to surpass i n q u a l i t y the European  novels,  and  permit our  novels to take a g l o r i o u s place  with p a i n t i n g , music, and poetry  along  on the a l t a r of the a r t s . " " ^  At f i r s t M e i j i w r i t e r s t r i e d to i m i t a t e t h e i r Western models as d u t i f u l l y as they c o u l d , w r i t i n g p o l i t i c a l a l a D i s r a e l i and  novels  novels of s o c i a l concern a la. Z o l a .  But i t  d i d not take long f o r the n a t i v e t r a d i t i o n to r e a s s e r t  itself,  though under the guise of the very modern-sounding " n a t u r a l ism".  From the o u t s e t , as Ivan M o r r i s p o i n t s out,  naturalism had  began to diverge  inspired i t .  The  served  from the movement i n Europe t h a t  p u b l i c a t i o n i n 19 08 of Futon  a novel by Tayama K a t a i , one  of the  (The Q u i l t ^  leading n a t u r a l i s t s ,  to e s t a b l i s h the a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l  dard as the standard  "Japanese  approach as the  stan-  f o r Japanese w r i t e r s of the n a t u r a l i s t  57 school."  Where the French n a t u r a l i s t s , aiming to g i v e  p o r t r a i t of a whole s o c i e t y , c r e a t e d  h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d novels  f e a t u r i n g a broad range of c h a r a c t e r s , p a r t s focused  shosetsu.  t h e i r Japanese counter-  e x c l u s i v e l y on the everyday events of t h e i r .  rather uneventful fashion.  the  lives, writing i n a discursive, diary-like  Thus began the t r a d i t i o n of the modern Japanese s h i "The  main legacy  of n a t u r a l i s m  i n Japan has  the b e l i e f of many w r i t e r s t h a t the only worthwhile  been  and  ' s i n c e r e ' form of l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t which takes i t s m a t e r i a l d i r e c t l y from the f a c t s of the author's p h y s i c a l and life. T h i s trend a f f e c t e d s e v e r a l w r i t e r s who r e s p e c t s s t r o n g l y opposed to the n a t u r a l i s t s . 58 was Shiga Naoya."  spiritual  were i n other Among them  The form  foremost  practitioner  o f n o v e l - w r i t i n g , Natsume  naturalists  as a r a t h e r  t o I t o S e i , they  his  were  realities,  the writer  with  "Western"  was r e g a r d e d  panderer  "criticized  a l l 'fictions'  and t h a t  Soseki,  superficial  According works  o f t h e d a y o f a more  by t h e  t o popular  Soseki,  saying  that  no d e s c r i p t i o n s o f  should  fully  expose  taste  harsh  himself  59 in  h i s works."  graphical  When  novel,  "generally  as the only  may  have  suasive tioned for  Michikusa  appreciated  and  that  a personal  novel that  of Soseki's  because  the t r a d i t i o n a l  he r e a l i z e d  i n Shiga's  of the shi-shosetsu.  day i s c l e a r l y  Kume  such  Western  classies  a s War a n d P e a c e , C r i m e  Japanese Kume  theme  resorts to a rather  matter  a n d seems  how b e a u t i f u l l y  trite  Taking  as  to dismissing  and Punishment and  fabricated  up t h e f a m i l i a r  of conventional  metaphor:  produced,  close  novels,  of the " a r t i f i c i a l i t y "  i n an  the I-novel  writing"  f o rentertainment."  was  regards  of prose  popular 61  grounds  bias  shown  men-  t h e best-known  essense  just  the per-  perhaps  "the  as "great  works,  As I have  "anti-fiction"  w r i t t e n i n 1 9 2 5 b y Kume M a s a o ,  stories  entire  i n Japanese s o c i e t y s o l i d 6 0 to win readers."  alive  Bovary  i t was  exist  essay  Madame  autobio-  o f t h e name o f n o v e l . . . S o s e k i t o o  very  and  an  by t h e Wayside),  still  apologist  much  d i dwrite  t h a t mode o f w r i t i n g h a d .  there  fact  (Grass  'I' novel  before,  The  finally  as t h e b e s t  one worthy  w r i t t e n an power  Soseki  "I think  an a r t i f i c i a l  fiction  t h a t no  flower  falls  too  far  short  Edward  of  one  i n wile  literature"  view  i s the  -  nature."  S e i d e n s t i c k e r has  "anti-fiction"  38  shown  that  peculiarly  (jun bungaku) , w h i c h  6 2  at  the  Japanese  has  played  basis  of  concept  an  this  o f 'pure  important  part 6 3  in  indigenous  It  may  seem  readers, which  paradoxical  but  in this  is entirely  completely sonal  would  not  which  even  Japanese  literarily  product  critics  Seidensticker  but  as  as  a  the  Meiji  the  novel  writer's  one  which  critics,  "literature" at  suzbku, out  slick  at  the  period.  Western  i s not  the  one  imagination  (i.e.  is intimately  (i.e. autobiographical)  pointed  " o f t e n have  "pure"  the  standing  i s the  has  the of  since  contradictory to  some W e s t e r n  regard  "pure"  novel  even  context  self-revelatory  works  writers  a  the  or  "fictional")  and  words,  by  t h e o r i e s of  as  we  all.  --  in  have  other  seen,  What  opposite  per-  is  pole  seen  to  the  popular  fiction.  (And,  elsewhere,  Japanese  popular  patness  in their  plotting  as  that 64  would Thus  be the  novel" Jun to for  of  tendency  the of  a  "popular"  Bungaku  Yogisetsu  the a  as  worthy  financially living  and  most  skillful  critics  to  novel.)  science-fiction  regard  the " w e l l - p l o t t e d  Kume M a s a o ,  (Pure L i t e r a t u r e  as  'pure  in his  1935  Avocation),  straightened literatus  producing  writer."  essay, recommends  "writing pot-boilers  literature'  i n one's  spare  65a time". the  He  Shiga's  work  as  the  "highest  peak"  of  pure. Kume's  as  offers  "pure  strictures  literature"  setting  are,  of  up  the  course,  autobiographical every  b i t as  novel  narrow  as  those  of Western  critics  that regard  Needless  to say, Shiga  excesses  of h i s apologists.  one  o f Akutagawa's  ending",  as  "fictional"  h i s views  preference  aesthetic  than  Indeed, literary  implies, one  else.  we  graphical Western that the  Shiga  is  that  those  less  readers  just  stories  chose  versus  f o rthe  he d i d a t t a c k "surprise  wrote t o do  some so.  "non-fiction" o f some  highly In other  were n o t  of h i s apologists.  one. whether  claimed  t o have  Japanese. were  legitimate  S e i d e n s t i c k e r makes  chose  Shiga  read  well prepared  as q u i t e  i f only  as Ivan  little  shosetsu.  the interesting  "Perhaps  lyrics-with-setting  and so t o arouse  false  expectations as  change  and f o l l o w e r s  their  shosetsu  claim  i n t h e end one's  and h i s c o l l e a g u e s  to rendering  tradi-  And what o f  to give  accustomed  thing  autobio-  the s h i - s h o s e t s u would works:  any-  Western  by t h e l o n g  his "plotless"  Morris  o r by  But the important  to accept  against  was i n f l u e n c e d  o f the Shirakaba-ha,  reviewed  be w e l l  Shiga  by t h e n a t u r a l i s t s ,  designation of their  they  seen,  he h i m s e l f  as those  at a l l —  and even  complaint  shosetsu, of  "fiction"  himself  readers?  genre  have  when he  i t i s questionable  a l l would  chief  hand,  an i d e o l o g i c a l  trends  have  accountable  f o r t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l mode was m o r e a n  t h a t Japanese  tion  "non-literature".  for i t s artificial  b y h i s f e l l o w members  literature is  on  be h e l d A s we  works  exclusive or doctrinaire  His  by  stories  b u t , on t h e o t h e r  successful words,  cannot  i t as  t h e name  i n the breasts 'short  story  1  or  'novel'."^  We  gestion  Shiga  that  expectations"  may  of Western  readers  the  shosetsu).  down  t o a simple  to  paraphrase  by  any o t h e r  f o r a moment,  e t a l must  Japanese word  overlook,  would  be h e l d  readers  n o t have  But does  matter  the Bard, name?  40 -  responsible  ( f o r , a s we such  t h e whole  a shi-shosetsu a Western  have  problem  reader  "false  pointed out, aroused  really  o f genres?  smell  sug-  f o r the  expectations  of the confusion  Would  the strange  as bad  suddenly  by  boil  Would n o t , ( o r a s good) cease to  67 find if  Shiga's  he were  stories  told  they  "wearisome", were  setting"  or utamonogatari?  sition.  One  one's we  eyes  —  are really We  might  stories a  can change  talking  ing  in  a rather  doubtful  one's  that  easily  bearing  come  not just  of perceiving  spirit  propo-  but not eyes  that  across  i n t h e West.  Western  imprint  o f Andre a truly  tend  t o be  of the  of the Gide.)  "order-  autobioI t seems,  fundamental  the world  say,  But Western  novels,  i n aesthetic values  concept  autobiographical  as one r e a d s ,  i n the aesthetics).  "Japanese  enough  Shiga's  f o r instance,  and approaching  of course,  "lyrics-with-  conditioned  a strong  or the journals  have  here,  distinctive  that  like  (One t h i n k s ,  we  word,  here.  o r an a u t o b i o g r a p h y  o f Rousseau  fact,  glasses  i n t h e same  s t r u c t u r e d works  reflected, the  I t seems  and a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s ,  difference way  by  about  be r e a d  intellect".  graphy  stories"  say, f o r instance,  literary diary  highly  not "short  and i t i s t h e c u l t u r a l l y  should  diaries  t o use Seidensticker's  cultural  b u t i n t h e whole (which  i s i n turn  I n commenting  of structural  unity",  on Ueda  - 41 Makoto  remarks:  principle in  the  that  of  "Japanese  unity  structure  could  and  of  admit  into  i f they wanted  prose,  which  natural The  loosely of  a  his of  view  to  of  human  A  constructed  that  one  life  measure  large  emphasize  rhythm  i n fact/  especially  life  logically  the  together.  logically  nected  a  than  Genjim  incidents  even  logical  structure.  are  Lady of  that  life,  tragedy but  i s essentially constructed.  says  The  work  of  logical; stories  make  use  does  so;  series  loosely lies  is traditionally the  of  short  seldom  but  tight,  only  i s never  a l l this  and  of  present a  dramatic  irrational  of  language,  certainly  plays,  arts  work  of  the  discursive  speaks  series  beneath  of  importance  Chikamatsu  i n themselves  Norinaga  a  those  the  which  could  his historical  another... Perhaps  the  of  as  intellect  poetic  Murasaki  i s almost  plot  of  i s true  i s s u p p o s e d l y more never  logic  role  about  strung  plays,  the  talking  coherent  of  shun  to...When  smoothness,  Tale  this  themselves  aestheticians  logically  generally  t r y to minimize  a work;  reason  Japanese  arts  con-  a  Japanese:  universe i s  a r t , i f i t aims  to  not  copy  68 life  and  anture  (underlining This nent  to  faithfully,  my  last  cannot  have  a  logical  structure."  own) sentence,  Shiga's works.  i t seems The  only  t o me, logic  i s especially  they  possess  perti-  i s , as  K o b a y a s h i Hideo has s a i d , the " l o g i c o f e v e r y d a y l i f e " . o t h e r w o r d s , S h i g a ' s n a r r a t i v e s do n o t p r o g r e s s i n t h e  69  In linear,  70 syllogistic with  a  fashion  "logical"  of  the  classic  Aristotelean  cause-and-effect relation  plot-line,  between  a  clearly  identifiable in  his  beginning,  stories  are  42  middle  linked  -  and  in a  end.  Rather,  lossely  the  associative  events  manner  71 reminiscent  of  Japanese  of  t h e 'randomness"  of  this  technique  Kobayashi His  has  trials  Already of  writing  of  those  in  life  i s one  said  are  of  linked  "Aru  verse  itself.  of  a  a  i n w h i c h 'the  "His  growing  Asa"  we  The  ) - - o r ,  total  indeed,  aesthetic  effect  quiet, relaxed naturalness.  Shiga: of  (renga  can  logic  s p i r i t does 72 tree."  see  of  the  not  results  everyday  life  know  of  drama.  this  itself  As  method  becomes  73 the  logic  involved  of  literary  here  --  merely  a matter  writer  must  and  of  exerc  series  sseen, of  ise great  Shiga  conveys  short  narrative  quote  again  from  writer  succeeded  even v i o l e n t l y , ( U n d e r l i n i n g my to  see  with  literary as  wresting own.) Shiga's  they  and  a  few  "Since  value well  of as  from  and  able  to  get  economy,  own  life Naoya life  Ueda  to  have  feel of  in just  bed. a  learned  mature  in full works.  f l o w e r , we  must  go  on  to  To from  i t i s , no in  a work  boldly, of a r t . "  the  some o f  74  "natural  75 plot"  few  dialogue.  has  calls  details we  out  of  as  The  complex  Tayama K a t a i  Shiga  what  As  rather  snatches  daily  his  art of  a  art  expect,  happen".  events.  is finally --  might  in selecting  through  he  i s a delicate one  of  admirable  Kobayashi:  the  has  go  before  sentences  as  course  h i s grandmother  Maupassant  But  "natural"  a l l this  as  sensitivity  S h i n t a r o must  with  not,  reporting "things  mood-changes  "reconciled"  There  i t is certainly  i n f o l l o w i n g the  already  creation."  his  more  Chapter  2  "Kinosaki  ffy  ni te"  written  i n 1917,  almost  becomes  evident,  on  achieved fact,  full  one  stories  the  has  with  tween  the  he  The  opens  but  with  which  a  ato  onsen  e dekaketa."  line,  I went  alone  This  "practicality" not  so  rare  generally  a  soon  had  by  te"  now  i s , in  anthologized  (After to  is a  quality to  be  ^  us no  i s thus  de  example  in  and  ) of  suffered so  that  notices  not  casual  as  a  what  no  train  first of  the  matter kega  Kinosaki on  style  i n Japanese  circumlocutory.  in  sentence,  the to  Yamanote con-  Tanizaki calls  Shiga's  be-  poetry.  heart  Tajima  them  relationship  spring i n Tajima of  of  n i hanetobasarete  h i t by  hot  world  death,  vigorous the  densha  being  of  The  as  which  recently  overlook  into  i n E n g l i s h as more  has  intensity.  Kinosaki fine  i n the  omnipresence  yosei n i , hitori  (jitsuyo  tends  t h a t he  topically  takes  o  valesce.)  It  encounters  manifested  associative  "Yamanote-sen  sono  widely  three  described  immediately: shita,  Shiga  "Kinosaki n i  normally  and  incidents  words wasted,  as  the  would  narrative  story  to  clarity  three  Asa".  that  p r a i s e d and  accident  conventional  no  story,  writer.  death  sensitive  abnormal  "Aru  was  Japan.^  notices things an  a  (At K i n o s a k i )  after  this  widely  near-fatal  made h i m  with  as  ^  i s s t r u c t u r e d around  n a r r a t o r has A  decade  reading  most  modern  «» Jv»f  a  maturity  story  nature.  he  of  of  The the  43 -  --  prose,  the  perhaps which  - 44 In has  the f i r s t  paragraph  not yet completely  we  escaped  cording  to h i s doctor, there  develop  tuberculosis  Thus  he t a k e s  sees way  from  i t one morning to his hotel.  The impact  i s with  this  narrator's  death-oriented consciousness  two  by a g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n  of  ways: t h e dead  bee, i t s legs  "doubled  might  fatal.  the smallest  a dead  bee.  He  the entrance-  sight  has on t h e  i s made  real  of the pathetic tight  ac-  him.  o f t h e genkan,  which  he  prove  i n even  around  "encounter"  on t h e r o o f  the narrator  that  could  interest  i n the world  first  that  a chance  o f the spine, which  of death  narrator's  told  t h e shadow o f d e a t h :  i s s t i l l  an understandable  manifestations The  are also  under  t o us i n figure  i t " and " i t s  3 feelers  dropped  untidily  the  dead  it:  "The i n d u s t r i o u s  life. it,  bee w i t h  over  t h e many  i t s head"  living  living  bees  The o t h e r b e s i d e them,  s t i l l  bees gave  rolled  i n t h e same s p o t w h e n e v e r  , and by a c o n t r a s t swarming  busily  so c o m p l e t e l y over  with  I looked  of  around  a sense  i t s legs  of  udder  a t i t , morning,  4 noon,  night  are  then  "It  g a v e me  —  told  how  completely  explicitly  a feeling  the evening  when  a sense  of the narrator's  of utter  was chonely t o s e e t h e d e a d in  i t gave  quietness.  body  the rest  left  had gone  of death."  emotional  We  response:  Of l o n e l i n e s s .  t h e r e on t h e c o l d inside.  It  tile  A n d a t t h e same  5 time in  i t was  Shiga's  world  tranquil,  soothing."  shi-shosetsu:  o f human r e l a t i o n s ,  This  i s a familiar  pattern  a graphic evocation of the natural f o l l o w e d by an extended  analysis  of  the  narrator's  other  words,  a  usually  continual  rather  complex  responses  r e c i p r o c a t i o n between  —  outer  in and  inner  worlds. As ponse  i s evident  to  his  positive  he  He  After  imagines  quiet  first  one.  death.  now.  mentions Crime"  I  that  dead  (Han  --  no  wife.  his  the  the  been  washed  working  a  written  $ Chinese mood  point  of  a  juggler, would  view,  "to  in  her  might  remark  Without  here  Shiga  in  that  close  to  a  Shiga's had to  describe  of  The  House  of  "the  he  urge  disturbed that  of  never was that  &he  did  write  there". my  hero  way of  u  He of  a  t  rains, "how  no  longer  "Han's  'fictional"  murdered  rewrite her  his  the  story  murdered  Beauties  novel  us  the  and  Wife  further:  had I was  become  of "I so  writing."  one  ego)  his  comes  opposite  "necrophilic"  (Nemureru  fortunately  Murdered  tells  alter  considered  Yasunari,  perhaps The  facetious,  narrative  usually  thinking  long  overly  his  Kawabata  B  that  (or  Sleeping  $K us  being  writer  "healthy-mindedness",  author  of  i  grave".  uncomfortably  rather  q u i e t . H e called  7 quiet  the  working,  that  Han,  like  a  motionless:  story of  res-  quietude  iaway b y  and to  , one  he  narrator's  is generally  completely  only  recently  the  peaceful  c e r t a i n nearness  present  wife's  death  to  has  Hanzai  i n which  from  a  quote,  with  somewhere  has  stories), In  bee  before  felt he  above  attracted  i t lying be  the  encounter is  the  i t must  moving  from  Bijo  Shiga Han,  assures although  was  much  different  9  The  from  reference  is,  of  course,  Night's  seem  of  Kensaku,  "positivist";  "fiiendly  to  portions  of  the  that  Shiga  "Kinosaki  less  and  he a  "A  large  to  get  small rat  skewer  Some o f creature  the  some r o c k s  bank  and  itself  but  from  The  narrator  see  the  and  turns 13  encounter  Walking  crowd  of  some e i g h t so  back  One one  a  from  ten  are  into  at  the  see  the  the  four  i t .  the  nothing  how  scene:  nature  rather t©wn along  finds  the  that:  desperately long  was  about  below  It  thrust three  the  of  the  un-  struggles catches  "trying from  "I d i d  final,  the  sport  desperate  be-  novel.  is a  skewer  stream,  i t  same  with  gathered  inches  those  the  his  through  making  but  tell  at  union  death  or  doubt for  i t projected  stones  could  of  des-  narra-  see,  swimming  three  hole,  could  was  that  bystanders  into  and  people  to  and  throwing  away  shall  i n v e s t i g a t e s , he  i n and  head  least,  towards  with  one.  thrown  i t falls  i t s actions  we  chapter  When h e  the  somehow.  end."  penultimate  the  by  as  no  writing  K e n s a k u moves  i t s neck,  above  was  "self-dissolution"  stream.  s k i n of  throat.""''"'"  as  noisy  A  inches  fortunate  a  been  or  though,  unpleasant  had  the  —  second  notices  through  up  i n the  and  away.  four  of  narrator's  day,  te"  true  experience  more v i o l e n t  of  ni  less  Daisen  novel  present  would at  Dark  i s almost  the  death"  i s true,  The  save  and  heco,  This  Mount  climb  the  Kensaku.  as  bank  feeling  A  to  climactic  one  i n which  (  abhorrent  comes  on  Koro  life-affirming  mood  early time  An'ya  Passing),  perately tor's  to  to on  still  itssface, i t  not  was." want  12 to  to  Whereas h i s f i r s t of  e x p e r i e n c e gave him  the u l t i m a t e peace of death,  rat  i s f a r more d i s t u r b i n g :  this  suffering  lay before  feel  a certain  nearness  then, the  " I t was  the  an  inviting  sight  terrible  q u i e t I was  of  the  tormented  to think  after.  to that quiet after  sense  that  Even i f I d i d  death,  s t i l l  the  14 struggle that, had "I  on  t h e way  after  terrible."  as  t o do  p o w e r f u l l y and w h a t c o u l d be  for  myself.  one  to telephone  I told  I was  afraid  t h e y w o u l d n o t be  w h a t was  same t i m e ,  S t r a n g e l y , though,  While  out  lizard  as  tosses a  the  the  of  evening  on  stone  lizard  of  stroll,  he  some-  doctor immedworked  surprised  at i t  that,  a t how  fate,  who  a stream. 17  the  Again,  By  i s even  little  he  Wishing  water merely  "to  absent-mindedly  w h a t seems t o h i m  stone  more  b r i n g s i t about.  comes a c r o s s a  the water",  is killed.  the  remembers  with death  agent  in i t s direction. twist  I asked  mind  afterward too  encounter  a rock beside into  he  hospital  death.""^  himself i s the  lizard  some p e r v e r s e and  he  f o r an  sitting  startle  fear  surprised  narrator's final  disturbing,  t h a t I was  rat's:  a  to operate  h a l f - c o n s c i o u s my  most i m p o r t a n t  " I was  t r o u b l e d by The  but  ready  reminded  to survive  on  I was  1  was  I decided  is  the  i n advance because  afterward myself." ^  I  as  there.  E v e n w h e n I was  the  irresistibly  done.  he  instinct  taken  iately.  at  indeed  t o be  out  on  and  how  m i g h t be  so w e l l  And  h i s r e c e n t a c c i d e n t , h i s own  w e l l e d up wanted  was  like  scores a d i r e c t h i t  Shiga's  descriptive  powers  -  are admirably  evocative:  "The  and f e l l i n t o the water.  48  -  stone slapped a g a i n s t the rock  As i t h i t , the l i z a r d  f i v e inches or so to the s i d e .  Its t a i l  seemed to jump  c u r l e d high i n the  a i r . . . T h e curved t a i l began q u i e t l y to f a l l back down of i t s own  weight.  The  toes of the p r o j e c t i n g f r o n t f e e t , braced  a g a i n s t the slope with kiaee j o i n t s c u t , turned under and lizard  f e l l f o r w a r d , a i t s s t r e n g t h gone.  Its t a i l  the  lay f l a t 18  a g a i n s t the rock.  I t d i d not move.  There i s no t r a c e l e f t now a t t r a c t i o n to death.  I t was  dead."  of the n a r r a t o r ' s p r e v i o u s  What e s p e c i a l l y t r o u b l e s him i s the  way  the l i z a r d ' s death seems such a product of a r b i t r a r y chance. Indeed, long before Camus and Ionesco,  Shiga here p r e s e n t s us  with an acute sense of the " e x i s t e n t i a l absurdifiy" of the of  a l l living  creatures:  such, but the thought to  f i l l e d me  "I o f t e n enough k i l l  lizards  fate  and  t h a t I had k i l l e d one without i n t e n d i n g  w i t h a strange r e v u l s i o n .  I had done i t , but 19  from the beginning e n t i r e l y by chance." Contemplating  thus theslizard's death, the n a r r a t o r i s  f i l l e d with aa sense of the l o n e l i n e s s of the l i v i n g c r e a t u r e " T h i s i s f u r t h e r i n t e n s i f i e d when he t h i n k s now  of what might  have become of the two other dead c r e a t u r e s , the bee  "carried  21  underground by t h a t r a i n " ,  and the r a t , swept " o f f to sea,  probably, and i t s body, b l o a t e d from the water, would be wash22  ing  up now  with the r u b b i s h on a beach."  turned to h i m s e l f :  "And  I who  Hishthoughts  had not d i e d was  walking  then here.  I  knew  ness  I  should  be  refused to  two  grateful.  come.  To  o p p o s i t e extremes.  But  be  the  alive  There  proper  and  d i d not  to  feeling  be  seem  dead  t o be  of  happi-  were  not  much  differ-  23 ence  between  extreme  them. "  detachment,  darkness:  from  my  left  with  "the  sight, the  work  rather  now.  more  <5f  back  feet  somber  to  that  the  though,  i n tone:  get  spinal  the  story  his  with  a  pessimism  inn  ground, 24  has  kind  cut o f f  of  --  are  thus  somewhat  encounter  " I t i s more  tuberculosis  growing  We  been  final  and  i n the  extreme."  narrator  e n l i g h t e n e d , by  ends,  his  a g a i n s t the  u n c e r t a i n i n the  positive  I d i d not  mood  stumbles  feeling  death.  this  o f my  seemed  albeit  The  he  feel  devastated,  is  In  with  "footnote"  that  than  years  that  three  much  I  es-  25 caped."  Thus  opening  and  closing  i s set i n a  paragraphs,  sort  of  i n whifcih t h e  "frame"  by  narrator  the  reminices  about  the events "at K i n o s a k i " from a d i s t a n c e of three y e a r s . According to Tanikawa Tetsuzo, Japanese w r i t e r s , "from — 26 Akutagawa Ryunosuke on, have l a v i s h e d p r a i s e on t h i s story." What the to  the  be  the  the  rat, by  have  excellence of  Shiga's on  critics  me  source  the  bee  over  directly  a  and  as and  to  i t s style. of  commentary events  found  this on  the  period  To  story:  actually water  of  sincerely  i n i t , above  illustrate  what  e x c e l l e n c e , Tanikawa  the  they  praise  happened.  lizard  several about  "This too  a l l were  days.  the  And  feelings  from  of  based the  witnessed  intended  that  is  considers  story  deaths  really I  he  quotes  is a  The  all,  arose  to  write  i n me  at  .the to a  time."  27  the events  The v e r y  fact,  o f which  he w r i t e s  "directness"  attain. of  This  then,  and " s i n c e r i t y " idea  "sincerity"  despite  that  gives  that  i s by no means  the shi-shosetsu,  term  50 the writer h i s s t y l e an  i t could  peculiar  Francis  slose  immediacy,  not otherwise  to the  Mathy's  has "but a low p l a c e  i s so  apologists  claim  that  i n the Western  the  critical  28 vocabulary." vocabulary that the  sincerity with  which  he  an  the  which  concept  "Reality  Hardy  she  because  Hardy's turn  ^  very  "felt  F.R.  or lesser  the  sensation  close  indeed  realizations") to h i s espousal  but onsother  Leavis,  i n an  that  example essay  "sincerity"  must II  by E m i l y Bronte  Bronte  unfavorably  i s "dramatizing n o t known  less  has an advantage  out) that •4. ..33 sincerity.  sounds  To take  0  maintained  t r y a n d g i v e some u s e f u l 31 and c a r e f u l u s e . . . " And he g o e s o n t o  i s betryingly  poem  3  experiences  out, i s central  critic,  a critic  as she has c l e a r l y  offers  (^  who  i n the  " i n consequence o f  and S i n c e r i t y " , m a i n t a i n s  " t o which  a poem  This  art.  English  by a p p r o p r i a t e  compare  Tolstoy,  place  i s , of the greater  himself  points  "autobiographical"  a term  force  that  of jikkan  himself  than  i t has a high  (i.e. persuasive)  the a r t i s t 29  distinguished  such  a writer  o f the a r t i s t ,  as Mathy  entitled is  less  of fact,  i s conveying..."  Shiga's  which, of  o f no  art i s "infectious"  force  to  As a m a t t e r  i t represents  with  herself  i n actual 32  real."  And  i n reality a profounder  one by  Thomas  i n a situation experience:  " t o say  i s t o say and  what  that (it will  completer  Of on  course,  this  belief  point that  subjects stances  one  of  the  the  subject  sonal  sensations  cular  poem  i s but genuine  the  Flaubert's  dictum:  is  mark,  power-;"  34  oeuvre  from  And  we  est  that,  author's  excellence often  of  circum-  found  the  and  choice  and  A t • l e a s t I have  equivocal  Coleridge's  i s "the  interests  the  unanimity  notes  genius"  immediately  "toute  there  himself  private  himself.  poetic  that  of  experiences,  an  of  mean  Leavis  i s taken and  -  "promises  from  writer  the  not  West.  remote  where  pledge,  does  i n the  very of  this  51  of  a  a  per-  parti-  fallacious  might  add  condamnable  ou  to  this  1'auteur  35 se  laisse  us  against  to  be  every  work  words,  the  debate  one  been  has  those  the  i t was  most  represented Again best  that  expresses style  perceptions of  the  the that  are  Hideo of  Japanese  or  author's  that,  of the  the  immediacy readers like  wings  of  a  a  the  of  eternal  as  in  was  well  memorable  Junichiro.) similes, in  appealing:  cobra  swaying  the  ptarmigan  day  which  Tanizaki  the  Japan.  Shiga's  spontaneity so  seems  of 36  i s an  side"  few  and  find  of  shi-shosetsu  "other  with  face  itself."  Japan  story-teller,  who,  indeed, the  i t  i n Europe  i n the  "warned  i s unworthy  apologists  vigorously  (although  sense  direct  flute,  as  consummate  i t i s Kobayashi  Shiga's  sound  by  the  Barry,  "autobiographical"  "sincerity"  admirers  the  thinks  between  the  i t seems  the  he  William  i t s condemnation  conducted  Nevertheless, least,  of  says  i n which  egotism,  bears  and  and  art  and  other  won  of  artist,  "fictional"  at  Flaubert,  reflected...Sugh  supreme In  deviner."  "His to  turning  the white  with  the  advent  of  winter.  does  not  permit  of  hesitation  are  found  before  the  The  ripples  immediacy  i n the have  of  choice  reached  the of  the  awareness  words. edge  of  They the  37 pond. --  I t i s d o u b t f u l whether  could  not  attain  write  directly  Yoshida even  going  details, him  this  f a r as  process  simply  and  "because  only  necessary  "When o n e using is  a l l the  and  this  most  see  this  of  sentence prose"  the by  no  say  degree  of  immediacy  own  the  not  Shiga  to  purpose.  about  When  i s indeed i n him on  to  "science of sentence, "^C  did  they  I do  to  one's  something  But  without  writer.  The  to says  select  observed:  tries  true writer's  think  about  attention things I do  —  i t a l -  whatever  these  are  the  temperament! even  trying  process  to  of  unconsciously." though,  rhetorie"  )•  alive",  I w r i t e down o n l y  born  say,  does  are  superfluous  naturally,  a  comes  once  writing,  i t afterwards'.  things  i f he  of pertinent  much,  himself  other,  the  writer  over,  sentences  t h i n g and  usually  other  spontaneity,  selection  d e s c r i b e too  particular  and  Shiga's  w r i t e r s agonize  "Shiga's  do  any  experience.  that  belssed with  goes  (meibun  or  m a t e r i a l f o r one's  operates  Yoshida view  a  --  emphasizes  details.  essential  —  selection  to  they  at  mind  a man  the  thm  also  more d i s t r a c t e d  i n my  of  his  t h a t most  unconsciously,  words  see  the  serves  remains  To  looks  i t as  of  naturally.  Yoshida, the  out  Sei-ichi  so  a  miraculous  Shiga  not He  that  "Shiga's  necessarily notes,  from  the  writing, qualify  for instance,  point looked as the  of at  "fine many  repetitions following "Su mattaku iru  no  ni  suru  ni  ippiki,  mata  ite,  i k a n i mo  hachi  ni  hitotsu  s o r e wa xxxxxxx  ga  s t i l l the  nokotta  cannot,  any  to  And,  again,  noon  or  certainly there  was  e  me  lying  g a v e me  g a v e me to  saw  face the  than a  see  the  one  exact  they  dead  one  that  days.  of  ataeru  S o r e wa xxxxxxx  tsumetai  no  mite Hoka kawara Shikashi,  bee  but  effect busjrly  busily were  around  When  left  I  a  them,  dead  looked And on  of the  they  bees  things. morning  i n e x a c t l y the i t was  the  that  working  living  beside  i t  of a l l  signiwhatever  quietness.  dead  miru  Samishikatta.  crawled  down a l w a y s  feeling  o  hitotsu o  samishikatta.  These  that  three  ni  i r u no  translation  g.ave no  feeling  ga  ataeta.  tabi  i t a .  higure, wa  o  iu kanji  natte  the  bee.  the  the  39  "They  feeling  miru  ataeta.  reproduce  dead  haimawaru  iu kanji  to  literal  they  example  n i korogatte  koto  datta."  o  mo,  mono  o  o miru  but  I  yu  shimatta  rather  the  the  f o r more  lonely  kanji  an  Isogashiku t a c h i h a t a r a i t e  mo  shinda  haitte  hive  waki  i r u mono t o  i n Japanese.  whenever  night,  certainly It  na  shigai  to  sono  hiru  as  te":  s o n o mama n i  shizuka  their  gave  mo  course,  relation  certainly  lay  of  repetitions  had  hodo  sue  ni  nakatta.  n i mo  following i s a  entrance  it  mina  quoting  n i utsumuki  shizuka  i k a n i mo  The  asa  fcka  S o r e wa m i k k a xxxxxxx  wa  ikite  ugokazu  da.  no  "Kinosaki  yosu  i k a n i mo  ga  phrases,  isogashiku  wa  mattaku  sore  and  from  deiri  kodei  Sono w a k i  to,  words  passage  hachi  tokoro  of  same  place,  thing.  It  at  i t ,i t  loneliness. cold  roof-  - 54tile  when  fall.  But a l s o "In  is  the others  this  and  Shiga's poetic  The  wa  the writer  h a v e made  Jibun  from  jibun wa  would  o  how  I_ t r i e d  of the  are three  should  b e s o many  and d e l e t e d  the point  forceful  of view o f  this  part of  are a part  expression  impact  of h i s  to  those  on h i s mind."  as w e l l with  as  as a  40  sty-  the following  n i te": no y o na k o t o wa  dake  yahari  koto  ga  nezumi  okottara t o o n a j i yo  o o m o w a n a i d e wa  no k o t o  o shiyo  irarena-  to shita.  Jibun  kimeta." ^ 4  J. d o  in?  night-  "there  and u n a v o i d a b l e  illustrates  n i natta  i f J- w e r e  Would  i n t h e same way  recalling  from  a thematic  Jibun  dekiru  there  the deepest  n i ano nezumi daro.  there  The r e p e t i t i o n s  serve  after  repetitions  has omitted  a fault  "Kinosaki  de b y o i n  t h e r a t was  may  hive  remarks,  i n which  That  and g i v e  Yoshida  suru  n i chikai  ("What  dent.  after  which  jibun do  jishin  vival  sentences  a r e two.  o f rhythm,  a&so  "Ima  Yoshida  are four  there  repetitions  passage,  katta.  two  i s probably  purpose.  jibun  there  their  tranquil.")  alone,"  mode o f e x p r e s s i o n . sense  listic  passage  into  But i t i s a l l a necessary  impressions  sore  even  as p o s s i b l e  rhetoric.  certainly  i n which  two i n w h i c h  much  as  brief  or phrase,  repetitions  wa  i t was  one s e n t e n c e  same w o r d  had a l l gone  now  i n t h e same  I not, after  a s t h e r a t was  I had behaved  much  t o do w h a t e v e r  could  a l l ,struggle  doing?  like  situation  that  I_ c o u l d when  f o r surnot help  I_ h a d my  p o s s i b l y be done.  acci-  I_ d e -  cided  on  a  hospital  "What asks  Yoshida.  it  as  to  delete  an  'jibun'  these  " I f we  example  embedded  the  about  for  of  many o f  were  bad  self  then  assumes  repetitions  to  isolate  style,  context,  this  mode o f  a necessary  of  this  i t would  repetitions.  in i t s original works,  -  myself.") eight  the  55  word  passage  probably  But and  the  i f we  t r y to  and  be  look  as  part  of  the  examine  possible at  discern  expression which  role  'jibun'?"  i t as how  this  emphasizes honest  self-  42 absorption of  the  of  the  thematic  use  Shiga;s  repeated  saki  te".)  ni  Yoshida's tention  that  technique, rhetoric as  we  or  there  any seen,  from  the  of  sound  Although gists  on  the  return  repetitions  later  w h e n we  the  this  what  he  good  word  support  style  than  t o be this  i t i s also,  we  in  or  rules  of  himself,  define  style.  the  But,  more  than  the  very  say,  con-  skill  Shiga  involves  "Kino-  Shiga's  t r y to  good  subject  examine  textbook  to  might  this  mere  standards.  "rhythm"  example,  and  to  to  (lonely)  following  regarded  d i d not  innate  seems  involves  the  feelings he  to  "sabishi"  "artificial"  above --  word  then,  i s more  used  may  a writer's  shall  of  other  of  of  (We  analysis,  quintessence  patterns  of  use  whether  have  see  passage."  as just  pattern  thoughts.  see  eye-to»eye  superiority  of  the  with  Shiga's  shi-shosetsu  apologenre  43 per list  se,  Tanizaki  h i m s e l f , was  Junichiro, as  who  unreserved  as  was  certainly  anyone  else  no  mean  in his  we  sty-  praise  of  Shiga's  style.  Of  56  -  "Kinosaki ni te" i n particular,  he  said  43 that  i t had  quotes style  from  finest  he  seems  cality"  to  the  shimatta  shigai  o  on  cold  the  entered have  miru  tile  the  f a r more  h a c h i wa  mina  su  ga  tsumetai  kawara  no  ue  virtues  economy  writing. no  kawara  hachi no  see  after  ue  the the  of  ga  Reader) . "practi-  an  example,  mina  dead  su  ni nokotta  body  left  had a l l  Tanizaki,  way:  nokotte  Shiga's  ni hitotsu  says  shimatte  ni hitotsu  As  one  roundabout  ni haitte  or  o t h e r bees  ordinary writer,  in a  t a no  "Ta  (...to  this  to  the  He  Stylistic  Shiga's  evening  Any  encountered.  a l l i s the  tsumetai 45  i n the  ever  ^t, ^  sentence:  wa..."  hive.")  written  (  ) of  higure  koto  had  illustrate  above  ^  partial  haitte  he  to  Tokuhon  admire  (jitsuyo  quotes  style  i t extensively  i n h i s Bunsho  What  he  the  "Hi  sono  would  ga  kureru  shigai  i t a ga,  dake  sore  o  46 miru had  to..." a l l gone  behind, izaki up"  the  hive,  on  the  describes Shiga's  up'  j?| jffij^  enables  more  he  maeashi  arukimawaru  no  wa  ushiroashi aru  a  and  body  tile;  when  I  as  to  having  says  that  convey  further  hame n o  awai  ni orita.  ga  teinei sugu  other  would  bees  be  left  it...").  Tan-  "tightened  "this  very  'tight-  i t s impressions  illustration  kara  Soko  saw been  graphic description  de  the  dead  ) and  As  dark  the  sentence  sentence 47  yane  y a t s u mo  only  fcf>  Shiga's  "Hachi  genkan ya  the  grown  cold  clarity."  quotes  bees:  hitomazu o  the  a l l alone,  the  point of  into  (hikishimeta  ening  all  ("After i t had  de  of  this  activity  surinukete deru hane  n i totonoeru hosonagai  the  of  with  hane  ya to o  to  shokkaku sukoshi ryoho  e  shik-  - 57 kari  t o h a t t e buuun  to  tobitatsu.  Tobitatsu  t o kyu  ni  hayaku  48 natte  tonde  boards  they  would  walk  wings  and  iately off  would around  feelers  they  with  yuku."  ("Pushing pause  the  roof  f o r a moment with  too would  a heavy  on  their  way  of  after  out  the  they  from  entranceway. had  front  and  spread  their  s l e n d e r wings  Once  the  movements",  hind  i n the  legs,  a i r they  and  the  Some  arranged  their  droning.  between  their immed-  taut  and  moved  take  quickly  49 away."  )  "Here  cribed  precisely  tion.  The  because word  reader  a l l waste  that  i s not  Responding haps more phasizes from  one  feels has  that  f o r "close  of  the  says  them  necessary  through  has  Shiga's  Shiga's  left  Tanikawa  own  way  motion  thinking,  also  even  out."  Tetsuzo,  derives  observation" but and  of  not  from  from  des-  observa-  description;  been  writing  world  close  "are  seeing each  i n the  analysis,  natural  Tanizaki,  is actually  eliminated  with  power o f  see he  to Tanizaki's  towards  strength  that  absolutely  the  his talent  would  been  i n consonance  sensitivity sonal  as  bees'  any  50 perem-  merely his  his  deep  per-  character:  I f e e l a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n the passage which d e s c r i b e s the rat's death. What i s shown h e r e i s S h i g a ' s p o w e r as a r e a l i s t — I mean n o t m e r e l y h i s p o w e r s o f d e s c r i p t i o n b u t t h e power o f h i s h e a r t t o gaze unflinchingly V, a n d w i t h o u t r e g r e t a t a n y s c e n e w h a t s o e v e r . Furthermore, S h i g a has t h e s o r t o f temperament t h a t i s more t h a n u s u a l l y t e s p o n s i v e to such scenes. In t h i s case a l s o he s a y s f i n a l l y : 'I f e l t l o n e l y and u n h a p p y . But h a v i n g s a i d t h i s , h e d o e s n o t t u r n h i s e y e s away f r o m the scene. One c a n f i n d t h i s k i n d o f e x a m p l e everywhere in Shiga. He i s t h e same i n r e g a r d t o t h e h u m a n h e a r t . He s e e s w h a t h e m u s t s e e , h e f e e l s w h a t h e m u s t f e e l ; he d o e s n o t , l i k e t h e f a i n t - h e a r ^ d , t u r n h i s e y e s away o r t r y t o c o v e r t h i n g s u p . " 1  Erom  the  we  may  of  s t y l e alone,  and  take  comments  thus  may  parative It  i t that as  of  idea  as  Shiga's  stand  then,  but  "Three  fictional  tradition  of two  I  think,  that  te"  about  the  of  i s regarded, the  built  than  to  handle  in  could  genre  to  be  any  short  the  European  and  way  same  Western  tell  special  i n which  should  be  quickly  us merits  these  basically similar story  "influenced  story.  manner:  the  It will  nature  com-  highly  represent  the  genre,  in  a  then,  grounds  largely  the  Tolstoy?)  compare a  this  around  much  who  on  shi-shosetsu  happens  very  critics,  modern Western  distinctive  genre  different writers  the  there  (and  better  of  Japanese  represent  story  Deaths"  question  ni  say,  written  the/..;shi-shosetsu  The  to  Western  Tolstoy's  much,  major  a masterpiece  i t with,  i s fortunate,  "representative"  these  "Kinosaki  fairly  study  of  -  58  concept.  disposed  52 of.  Although  unlikely already  S l i g a was  that quoted  great  this  is  a  him  as  saying,  he  had  of  "autobiographical"  immune  a  case  of  actually experienced.  to  any  "indirectly" witnessed  kind  of  because question,  cal  of  he  to  had  and  critical  of  Shiga  based  It  i s one  in  general  make  read  one  interest.  a  the  that  Tolstoy,  i t is  "direct influence".  story  the  of  Tolstoy  they  of  story  i s anyway more  on  are  of  virtues  was  events  is a  have  fairly  Shiga  the  I  events  obvious  Whether out  As  story  the  that  direct influence.  influenced  esoteric than  writers  admirer  he  rather  biographi-  -  like of  Tolstoy's  story,  "Kinosaki  n i te",  a wealthy  tree.  The s t o r y  first  part,  Russia her  we  band  the doctor  acting  culosis In  advises  the second  an  o l d d r i v e r who  of  In sharp death  with  t h e house  only  surely  that  of a  parts.  travelling  h e r husband,  young In the  from  her doctor  and  a t a p o s t - s t a t i o n and  not to continue  d i e along  h i s wife  with  t h e way.  to turn  back,  the  The hus-  butshe,  petulant,  spoiled  child,  t h e warm  climate  o f the south,  we  are taken  and here  i s also, contrast calm  driver  be n e e d i n g  asking  numbered  has stopped  like  insists  that, her  to the lady, even  them,  that  the youth  dying  however,  tuber-  his illness  accedes  since  of  tubercu-  he a c c e p t s h i s t o t h e woman  has caused h e r . he w i l l  without  buy a g r a v e s t o n e  room  Theodore,  apologizing  f o rh i s boots,  t h e o l d man  the drivers'  to Uncle  the. l a d y ,  stoicism,  asks  inside  introduced  f o r the inconvenience  When a y o u n g er  will  deaths:  and that  to the lady,  the husband  part  the post-station  coming  separate  four  with  i s structured,  vanish.  at  losis.  into  The group  she can eeach will  three  by stagecoach  a rather  implies,  o f an o l d p e a s a n t  t o p r e v a i l upon  like  only  that  as h i s wife  tries  around  are introduced  to Italy  journey,  as i t s t i t l e  i s divided  maidservant.  here  if  lady,  59 -  no  long-  complaint,  f o r h i m when he i s  dead. In scene  the third  part  i s the wealthy  i t i s about  lady's  house  half  a year  i n Russia.  later  and the  She d i d n o t go  on  to Italy  her  grieving  solemnity lady's  Up  Only  fied  calm.  dead  bee:  Neither  when d e a t h Now  there  we  "The d e a d  b u t he  finally old  he a g r e e s  the  scene  tree's from  blows, when  t h e young  described  fully  looked  by t h e  recovered  to accept with  struggle  an  of  stern  of and  nor i n the f i r m l y  the  i n -  instinc-  Shiga's  she a c h i e v e  and f i n a l  Uncle  Theodore  chapter  a digni-  Shiga's majestic.  closed  lips  are taken  dead  The young  now  a tree,  Tolstoy  "draws  the young  o f Nature  disturb  back"  itself  so t h a t t h e him.  and  driver's  the other  In the  describes  eyes  - - t h e way  the beauty  trees  who  until  b u t as the axe-  the silence of the forest.  ash has f a l l e n , "flaunted  over  back  many  driver  b y t h e woman o f t h e h o u s e  not through o f view  we  has been  a t l e a s t a wooden c r o s s  as h a v i n g  be  o f death  h a s no g r a v e s t o n e .  f o r instance,  The  her husband had  of the quietude  face  scene o f  53  of the story  the point  idea  t o g o o u t a n d c u t down  have  death  she would  comes d o e s  brow  him one i s p r o d d e d  man m i g h t  final  woman's  fourth  s t i l l  i f only  the f u t i l e  finally  cold  her deathbed.  she r e f u s e s  the very  any movement."  the story's  promised  moment  <the s o l e m n  i s somewhat m a r r e d  that,  are reminded  the post-station.  months  though,  recalls  i n the clear  In  if  which  witness  to Italy,  to her last  ferocity  we  around  insistence  she r e j e c t s  rat.  to  gathered  her to proceed  evitable;  was  family  of theoccasion,  now.  tive  a l l a n d now  continuing  allowed by  after  60 -  around  of their  And  i t are  motionless  branches As  still this  have  more  this  case,  specific between trast  last  joyously  quote  i n common  immediately  that  life  to give and d e a t h .  i n giving  achieves  leaves  merely  branches  gladly  of those  have  dead  this  t h e same  whispered  We  t h e two  of contrast  sense  bee w i t h The  space.'  stories  seen  how  the b u s i l y final  Shiga's active  sentence  of  on t h e t r e e t o p s , began  way:  con-  ones Tolstoy's  and p e a c e f u l l y living  quite  of the d i f f e r e n c e  t h e same  were  In  i n a  e f f e c t i n much  that  54  o v e r a l l conception.  already  sense.  cleared  suggests,  their  a profound  of the motionless  story  i n the newly  i t i s the use of the device  way:  succeeded  the  more  61 -  "the sappy and  to rustle  slowly  55 and in  m a j e s t i c a l l y over fact,  example, her  uses he  this  device  contrasts  energetic,  the dead  and p r o s t r a t e  more  extensively  the feeble,  cheerful  than  irritable  maidservant  who  tree."  Tolstoy,  Shiga.  dying  For  lady  possesses  a  with  "full  56 bosom"  and  gentle  o l d Theodore  of  life, Both  described ferent  "quick  who  b&ack e y e s " with  demands  authors  effect.  t h e young  driver,  he  contrasts  insolent but  the  full  h i s boots.  also,  i n their  , and l i k e w i s e  of course,  respective  In Tolstoy  contrast  stories,  the three  b u t now  the contrast  serves  deaths  to quite largely a  difmoral  and s a t i r i c o u r p o s e : a s h i s E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t o r r e m a r k s , he contrasts "the querulous i n v a l i d lady with the dying peasant  57  and  the useful  other  words,  perennial  tree  even  which  i n this  made n o d e m a n d s early  theme o f t h e d e c a d e n c e  story  on anyone."  of Tolstoy's  o f the upper  we  classes  In find his as  opposed (to  represented  we  have A  nature total  similar plays opus,  world  of  vides  hero's"  escape more  as  that  first  from  of  the  this  shall  see,  An'ya  Koro.  In  tions  of  Asa:,  seemed his  wider  to  we  he  to  as  the  the  have of  general  belong)  --  would  expect,  Shiga  deaths,  how  i n the  role  context  of  i n that  that  Shiga's  i t records  contact with  seen,  was  the  concerned  human r e l a t i o n s  the  within  of  Shiga  nature.  throughout a  kind  years  saying have  "Kinosaki n i  c o n f i n e s : by  world  hero  Shiga's  discern  later  works  in his  Shiga  turned  away  "the  t o be  the until,  novel,  from  troublesome  g r a d u a l l y come  and  can  climax  pro-  seek  t u r n i n g more We  a  man  te"  will  of  that  are  ranging  " c l a u s t r o p h o b i c " f o r a young  of  a  negative.  significant we  in  also  three  remarked In  nature  contrasts mainly  the  individuality.  final  affairs  As  What  world  i t reaches  even more,  human  really  oppressive  his  tree.  be  of  te" i s important  narrow  tendency  we  human w o r l d  may  world  peasantry  positive  indication  these  the  stories.  first  express  towards  growth  two  the  the  responses  the  "Aru  with  to  the  difference  nature.  the  to  cerebral.  from  i n the  setting  yearning  and  "Kinosaki ni  exclusively family  and  by  emotional  seen,  "Shiga  here  moral  different  the  peasantry  i n T o l s t o y ' s view,  far less  his as  the  which,  world is  to  the  complica-  most  distaste  58 ful  t o me."  tirely that  with  Shiga  His  very  p l a n t s and had  last  stories  animals.  established  an  As  almost  are  concerned  F r a n c i s Mathy perfect  almost says:  rapport  with  en"Now  nature  he no l o n g e r  cations  o f human  felt  the urge  affairs,  to write  b u t was  content  about  the  to live  compli-  immersed i n 59  nature, In  quietly  "Kinosaki  enjoying  n i t e " , then,  we m i g h t  call  The  human b e i n g s  only  the beauty  Shiga's  there  growing  t o appear  are the onlookers  rat.  And even  the narrator  intentionally,  light:  some h i n t  f o r human  who  cruelly  torment  himself  i s not presented  through  carelessness,  he i s t h e a g e n t  o f what  nature.  i n the story, besides  himself,  favourable  surrounded him."  i s already  "distaste"  rator  entirely  that  the narthe dying i n an  albeit  of the unfortunate  un-  lizard's  death. In purity of  Tolstoy's  story  too there  of the natural world  the Russian o n human  life.  seen  as every  b i ta part  Tolstoy  as opposed,  aristocracy; but s t i l l  more  And  F o r one t h i n g ,  i s , after  of nature  a l l ,  character.  pages very is  (almost short  with  just  there  this  and even  in-more  the story  as the t r e e s  of only  ones  sense  of the narrator. later.  world  i s centred f a r peasants are i n the forests.  about  gallery  seem  o f the master's  detail  to the  Western  of Shiga's  a whole  i n this  of the  writer  a l l i s the portrayal of  the length  the minor  "characters"  at least,  the stoical  story  f o r Tolstoy!)  consciousness  point  i n this  times  a few s t r o k e s  a r e no  bodied  three  indeed  presented,  Even  sense  a nineteenth-century  what he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n above human  i s a strong  fifteen  story but of  characters  to spring  pen.  into  In Shiga's  -- o n l y  life story  t h e "disem-  But I s h a l l  return to  Because largely his  the he  f o r the  view  even  Tolstoy  of  moral  nature,  sentimental. Russian  also  employs  tends  to  purpose  as We  peasant,  we  a l l know but  idealize  We  for instance,  "The  trees  flaunted  the  more  joyously  i n the  s t i l l  picture pretty  of  the  one  tree's  i f we  realistic  portrayal  vival  the  and  Shiga,  like  to  humal  the  clear,  unflinching  interest" tioned, word  advisedly,  of  In like  A  as  of  connote  more  an  already  quoted: branches  struggle  sees he  has  this  as  the  judge  too  i s by  sur-  Although alternative  no  I have (I use  than no  a  "vested  i s , as  emotional  for  there with  "distaste"  but  mind.  altogether  a welcome  he  —  anth-  uncompromisingly  There  h i s growing  of  modern  mischance.  because  point.  the  how  a  menthe  moral  means  the  main  of  merely,  story.  setting  Shiga's  judge,  to  perhaps  a moral  here  nature  d e s c r i b e s what  f o r human b e i n g s the  naturally  he  by  see  a kind  seems an  desperate  death  can  s p a c e . T o l s t o y ' s  Shiga's  rat's  idealistic, idealized  motionless  cleared  i t with  turns to  eye,  i n making  some h i n t  response) point  world,  their  i n fact,  absurd  to  he  we  n a t u r e , by  sentence  of  newly  the  lizard's  Tolstoy,  i n the  t o be  story  peasantry  aristocracy,  persistently  present  the  the  tends  unconvincing  death,  of  how  beauty  compare  satirizing  inanimate  i s rather  including  expect,  i n the  that  this,  of  might  ropomorphism see  "nature",  h i m s e l f up  narrator,  assumes after  the  all,  the  instead  experiencer of  the  world,  God-like, "omniscient" point  must  appear  t o be  as  "objective",  Tolstoy  of and  view. this  pretence  to objectivity  65 -  would  be f a r l e s s  first-person  narrative viewpoint  seems  t o me,  the very  story  and T o l s t o y ' s  and It  the mainstream i s not merely  the  way  Shiga  tradition  especially  who  The  feeling  that  i s i n some way  of Fiction,  Wayne  ideas is one  devices  the surface  be - b o u t  present  guished  anyone  the shi-shosetsu I  have  describe  already  who  grounds,  i s wary  "omniscient"  ad-  of a  remarks:  study,  "One o f  of the action mind  could  to t e l l  has here  written  a re-  Whatever our  tells  know.  by t h o r o u g h l y  U n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , I am  i s the trick  a story,  the author  The  themost  to obtain  and heart.  possibly  narra-  i s certainly not  of the storyteller  whenever  life  critic  specific  In h i s seminal  but ourselves  signs..."^ American  reader  t h e n a t u r a l way  i n so-called real know  i n general.  certain distinct  "artificial"  Booth  of a character's  unmistakably  ternal  to  beneath  may  never  of  artificial  view  Shiga's  shi-shosetsu  fiction  to offer  the third-person  Rhetoric  liable  lies, i t  judgments.  critics.  going  the  On t h e s e  t o t h e modern  t o Japanese  of  of Western  seem  confined  obviously  between  the world.  makes a b s o l u t e  viewpoint  Here  a technical difference but a difference i n  and t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u  writer  used.  i fa  o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between  -- and i n d e e d  of apprehending  vantages,  tive  crux  were  convincing  artifice  us what In l i f e  no we  reliable i n -  sure,  this  a convincing  distindefense  aesthetic. used  Ueda M a k o t o  an " a s s o c i a t i v e " r a t h e r  1  s term,  than  the "Statural  a casual  plot"  narrative  -  66 -  can see that  this  line,  b u t now we  lated  to the narrative  is  something  the  inner  and  this  I  case,  the "inner would  from  a s we  even  story,  ni  This  "Three the  i s made  parts,  Deaths",  o l d peasant  coincidental:  Booth  whereas  deeper,  thematic  brought  level,  these  to  make  a moral  to  theppeasant's  point. death  Western  narrative:  related  t o the lady's  story  into  i n the usual  But  artificiality written  deaths" of into of  a  "Kinosaki  by t h e f a c t four  that  distinct  death  the lady's  aware  dying.  that  the author  thematically  them  i s causally  B.  has  lies  "syllogistic"  A, t h e r e f o r e  purely  carriage  to c o n t r a s t  death  In  to that of  of the action,  theipeasant  together  tell  i s a l l "of a piece".  level  that  The t r e e ' s  death  as t r e e s .  as t h o s e  apparent  the readeris  because  so f a r as t o  of a story  of the lady's  where  two d e a t h s  apparent i n  The "three  h i s story  so happens  a t the post-house  —  are not integrated  i s , on t h e surface  i tjust  of characters  this  Shiga's  the relation  us  and say t h a t  immediately  to divide  telling  such  of- v i e w .  out, there  an author  objects  structure  i s also r e -  points  when he g o e s  as s u c c e s s f u l l y  stopped  has  seen,  point  whole  i s obliged  numbered  about  particularly  f o r instance,  seamless  Tolstoy  have  to the narrative  natural, te".  becomes  than  an "omniscient"  Tolstoy's  artificial  feelings" of natural  go f u r t h e r  extends  As Booth  and f e e l i n g s o f a v a r i e t y  artificiality  Tolstoy's us  viewpoint.  undeniably  thoughts  "naturalness"  On  and so related  manner o f  But again,  only  a  t o make  i t i s a  moral  point;  indeed,  relationships three  deaths  seem  i f the which  by  reader  have  the  enables  the  paragraph  first  informs  us  of  place,  world  about  might  fail  respond  moral  will,  that him,  In  nature  the  story  of  these  thematic  imposed  then  be  God's  view  shinkyo  the  that  of  the  shosetsu  the  find  we  upon  story  the  would  being  that  the  through there to As  fullest  t e " , then,  of  that  be a  of the  the  which  a l l the  pretence  faithfully  indeed  mind of  (thus  the  he  should  the of  all,  as  in  "objective" i s  prepared  inevitable,  i t is  example This  w r i t t e n i n the  mind"  deep  a  term).  excellent  of  person  an  natural,  autobiographical.  narrator's "state  at  with  the  events  reader  of  in  defines  the  sense  being  death  trip  the  exceptionally  s h i - s h o s e t s u genre.  story  in  place, that  presented  a  narrator  his  "normal"  paragraph  result,  i s an  a  with  i s no  before  of  In  the  natural,  observant  first  "natural"  seen,  just  second  a  subjectivity.  have  death  forms  d e s c r i b e d as  i n the  or  are  such  perfectly  narrator's state  ni  a matter  singular  the  reality.  subjectivity  merely  from  we  "small" deaths  words,  events  as  i n the  filtered;  of  "Kinosaki total  escape  consciousness  story,  expression  story,  and,  have  undisguised  i n small  these  Tolstoy's  accept  the  to  is especially  even  other  will  eye  he  notice,  even  feeling. of  and  te"  I t t h e r e f o r e seems  to  to  of  h i s near  Kinosaki.  first  we  unaware  "artificially"  "Kinosaki n i  i s i t s complete  to  been  author's  structure  the  were  pointless. What  to  67-  of is  the not  first-person  If, for instance,  permeates  the  whole  - 68 s t o r y even i n the s m a l l e s t d e t a i l s .  The e n t i r e s t o r y i s per-  vaded by the p s y c h o l o g i c a l atmosphere o f a traumatized mind, the  mind o f a man s t i l l  i n a m i l d s t a t e o f shock a f t e r having  suffered a serious accident. in  The n a r r a t o r t e l l s us h i m s e l f  the second paragraph of the s t o r y : "My head was s t i l l not 6 2  clear."  And indeed he seems to wander about K i n o s a k i , i t =  s e l f a r a t h e r " u n r e a l " r e s o r t town, as i n a waking dream. There i s a dream-like q u a l i t y ^ f o r i n s t a n c e , t o the i n t e n s i t y and minute d e t a i l o f h i s o b s e r v a t i o n of the bees.  But the  f i n a l scene o f the s t o r y i n p a r t i c u l a r verges on the s u r r e a l istic.  The n a r r a t o r i s o u t f o r a walk one evening on a moun-  t a i n road above the town.  He f e e l s s t r o n g l y compelled t o go  on and on as i n a dream: "I kept t h i n k i n g I would go back, but each time I went on t o see what, was around the next c o r 6 3 ner." And the nature surrounding him takes on a mysterious dream-like ambience: The q u i e t made me s t r a n g e l y r e s t l e s s . There was a l a r g e mulberry t r e e b e s i d e the road. A l e a f on one branch t h a t protruded out over the road from the f a r s i d e f l u t t e r e d r h y t h m i c a l l y back and f o r t h . There was no wind, e v e r y t h i n g except the stream was sunk i n s i l e n c e , o n l y t h a t one l e a f f l u t t e r e d on. I thought i t odd. I was a l i t t l e a f r a i d even, b u t I was c u r i o u s . I went down and looked a t i t f o r a time. A breeze came up. The l e a f stopped moving. 6 4 T h i s seemingly i r r a t i o n a l behaviour of the s i n g l e c r e a t e s the proper a i r o f mystery  leaf  f o r what i s about t o happen:  The n a r r a t o r spots a water l i z a r d s i t t i n g on a rock b e s i d e a stream.  I t j u s t so happens t h a t l i z a r d s have a k i n d o f per-  sonal symbolic s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r him:  -  69 -  Some y e a r s b e f o r e , w h e n I was s t a y i n g i n t h e mount a i n s n ot f a r from Tokyo, I had seen water l i z a r d s g a t h e r e d around a d r a i n from t h e i n n , and I had t h o u g h t how I w o u l d h a t e t o b e a w a t e r l i z a r d , w h a t i t w o u l d be l i k e t o be r e b o r n one. I d i d n o t l i k e t o come o n w a t e r l i z a r d s b e c a u s e t h e y a l w a y s b r o u g h t o n t h e same thought. 65 It  i s t h e r e f o r e as i f t h i s  some d e e p as  lizard  " o b s e s s i v e " r e g i o n o f h i s own  i n a dream.  dentally" doctor  present  Thus  kills  when  he c a s u a l l y  the l i z a r d ,  o f Vienna  one need  t o see the obvious  has sprung  unconscious  throws not c a l l  symbolic  from  mind,  a stone  and  again "acci-  on t h e good meaning  that  this  "dream-like" a c t i o n has.  With  this  last  example,  formal  to the thematic  level,  of  how  well-integrated  these  is  difficult  narrator's  to talk  consciousness  but  this  the  story.  This  the  central  interest  which or may  consciousness  experiences  i s also  of the story  the events  lies  the story  reciprocal  consciousness, style  infinitum.  indication  are i n Shiga  —  Not o n l y  that i t  i s the  of a l l external the actual  events  subject of  of the shi-shosetsu: i n the series  of  changes  as i t witnesses  describes.  interaction  which  and s t r u c t u r e  i t i s an  undergoes  the subject of the narration  narrator's  from the  separately.  the " f i l t e r "  itself  a r e moving  two l e v e l s  too i s characteristic  c l a i m a unique  narrative  we  and indeed  the narrator's consciousness  content:  ad  o f them  though,  The genre  between  form  i s t h e changes  are i n turn reflected  thus  and  i n the i n the  and so on, one m i g h t s a y ,  Lest means  this  i n more  insight story  into  sents.  that  fact,  full-blooded, delineated  the  narrator  embodied" of  which  haviour  the  might  story  such  appearance, can  Shiga  make e v e n  We  know n o t h i n g  "personal"  he  is  he  a writer;  individual. from  This  i s , in  deeply  subjective  but,  it  even  course,  Tolstoy  to  would  also  whole  story  of  that of  study  about  Western  two the  story,  more  or  a  of  the  we  to  would  present expect is  "personify" expect a wider  that  focused  an  the  range  in  narrator,  on  would  him,  be  except as  that  the  writer  at more  belife. that  an emerges is  despite  objects  characters,  Shiga's  of  completely  hand,  "personal"  of  to  shi-shosetsu  almost  "objective"  tricks  spring  c e n t r a l paradox  natural  Even  6  idiosyncratic  i n d i v i d u a l human p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d , tends  no  "dis-  identifiable  other  us  details  narrator  time,  pre-  Forster  than  character  the  i t  E.M.  little  of  of  novel.^  none  Shiga's  same  f a r more  the  those  hardly  on  terms  offers  type  of  little  minor  in  Shiga  the  mannerism  a  seen,  "charaeters"  employes  fact,  at  objectivity, is  presents  seen, Of  of  the  have  Tolstoy's  stories:  of  pose  Shiga's  the  comparison  the  we  i s perhaps  a  personal;  As  a master,  personal  i t  depth  say  is  what  extraordinary  range  well  abstract,  an  with  celebrated  Shiga's  was  overly  characters  consciousness.  which  is  compare  ifc, i n one  Tolstoy  physical  to  in his  in  sound  terms  "rounded"  has  to  human p s y c h e .  begin  --  In  concrete the  cannot  "breadth"  a l l begin  as  as  such  least, highly  that  have  such  but  its  sense we  im  trees  as  then since  we the  "individ-  - 71 uated"  than  ly  the  not  nature in  of  as  the  a  --  gives  seemed  out,  narrator, of  goes  into  tures  he  quite  literally  of the  finds  universal  the  This  —  true  that  reader  i s not  shosetsu  hand,  of  at  to  by  this  a l l :  It  least  condemnation  as of  he  the  are  the  no  I  seem have  that  the  details  and  at  to  so  be  one".  And the  a fea-  i t is  this  sense  problem  i s , afteruall,  a  almost  deeper  perhaps  that  on.  such  distinguishing  the  that most  itself. also  explains  s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n of  p r a c t i s e d by the  as  level,  fact  story  appears  longer  opinions  appears  less  deepest  death  the  may  the  largely surface  seems  "impersonality" by  i t usually  i s presented  that  is certain-  closely  personality,  such  " a l l men  in  offended  genre,  Flaubert's  of  the  as  mannerisms,  being  at  confronts  aspect  of  this  more  a paradox  human p s y c h e  there  problem  least  "everyman".  u n i v e r s a l i t y i s added narrator  at  use  other  psychic  non-individuated  writer  the  examine  be  appearance,  But  we  characters  is his  on  his  --  to  Tolstoy's  character's  level  characters.  I f , however,  what  pointed  Shiga's deep  Tolstoy's  human p e r s o n a l i t y  What  already  of  case.  fiction  so.  any  "egotism:  the  Shiga. of  any  why  the shi-  I quoted work  "in  earlier which  67 the  author's  might but  face  counter,  his  i t i s not  "soul",  human p s y c h e psychology "collective  as  is reflected."  at  and  one  the  much  as  by  author's  might  i t s deepest  add,  level  Eastern  unconscious").  But  Shiga's  "face"  the is  in  that  work, is  impersonality  attested  philosophy  to  by  (e.g.,  one  reflected of  the  Western Jung's  The which  p o i n t emerges more  Shiga  as  the  in  their  the in  and  central  they  of  on  death  cruelty  Thus  because the  sense say,  there  the  are  only  part,  Basho  a  at  or  peace  that  basic  and  —  regarded  before  satiric  also  point, nature  with i t s  on  a  f a r more  stripped  of a l -  human  author's  "egotism"  with he  the  same  with as  poem  universal  that  what  sacrifiees  in  to  --  us  him.  the --  prob-  narrator  "exhibits"  share  in  interested  fundamental  lyrical  i n saying  i t s best  we  i s the  a Western  then,  but  working  the  that  story  i t s most  justified, at  part  and  in  difference  found  consciousness,  himself  the  we  way  c o n f r o n t the; v e r y  identification  Shiga  haiku  of  question of  p a r t of  " I " of  shi-shosetsu  In  "I"  this  behind  i t i s human  level.  Shiga  --  "breadth"  I  think  and  the  he  gains  "depth".  I and is  i s no  to  i s thus  human  be  is a  a moral  confronting a  reader's  deepest the  a  the  consciousness  in  i t s sense  a basic  that  may  Tolstoy i s mainly  t o make  He  There  to  attempts  arbitrariness.  c o n t r a s t the  which  stories.  nature.  deaths"  with  level:  preventing  we  with  i f we  death,  parallel  a l l "personality",  lem.  is  both  otherhand,  itself, and  of here  "three  the  universal most  theme  dealt  using his  Shiga,  T o l s t o y approach  approaches  way  clearly  have  content this:  but that  not  already  remarked  i n Shiga's only  story,  i s the  impersonality itself i s the  series  of  on  the  but  the  narrative i s the  changes  "reciprocity"  form  u l t i m a t e example  voice  largely  narrator's final  which  of  the  of i t  impersonal, "goal"  —  narrator's conscious-  ness are  undergoes, a l l in The  the  and  which  direction  critic  Yoshida  are of  the  story's  true  focal  point,  impersonality.  Sei-ichi,  as  I  have  already  shown  at  6 8 some of  length,  the  as  "lonely".  the a  atmosphere"  important  used  to  when  the  rest  his  these  he  utter  dead  word  of  the  deaths  the  a  or  how  stories.  words  is  narrator's  had  gone  In  Of  there  xnside."  often  "Kinosaki  form,  dead  loneliness. the  ni  cold  Watchxng  "psycho-  te"  the  word  to  bee  the  is  each  "gave  I t was  tile  the  translated  response  the  use  the  usually  nominal  on 69  makes  establish  sabishii,  Seeing  quietness. left  to  emotional  witnesses.  body  Shiga  phrase  i t s a d j e c t i v a l or  describe  three  see  of In  f e e l i n g of  to  demonstrated  r e p e t i t i o n of  logical most  has  in  of me  lonely the  doomed  evening rat:  70 "I  felt  "I  was  lonely filled  the  loneliness  had  lived.  ly,  and  and  unhappy."  with  a  of  the  Quite  by  presently  I  And,  sadness  for  living  the  the  back  killed  lizard,  creature.  accident started  having  Quite  lizard toward  with  had the  by  thslizard: a  sense  accident,  died. inn  of I  I was  down  the  loneroad  71 s t i l l  visible  at  Obviously wasting that  words,  word  to  fortunately, that  weight  associations  my  i f a  the  of  writer  repeats  carry  --  feet."  one  more  the  as  Shiga,  famous  word  so  often,  then  we  might  weight  of  meaning.  than  English  i t has,  such  of  word  i t s normal "lonely"  course,  Japanese  word  none  for  not expect  is  not  able  to  of  the  rich  cultural  sabishii.  As  Un-  bear  William  Sipley  points a  out, sabishii  "quite  positive,  i n the context of Shiga's  i f largely  passive,  story  describes  esthetic-emotional  „72 experience... The a in  key word  key term  o f Japanese  the poetics  Ueda Makoto conceived phere,  points  loneliness  thus  school  out, often says  sabishii,  of haiku.  toward  o r sorrow,  sabishii.  which  i s a  be o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d ,  a way  himself,  i n which  atmos-  personal  because  o f Basho's  his plea  as  B u t he  "as an i m p e r s o n a l  conceived l a y a t thsbottom  pointing  particularly  Basho  t h e word  Ueda,  cannot  i s , of course,  and i s used  used  with grief  The c o n t r a s t  from  aesthetics,  o f Basho's  i n contrast  life,  derived  of loneliness,  emotion.  of  sabi,  view  'return  to  73 nature'  c a n be f u l f i l l e d . "  to  t h e human w o r l d ,  of  nature.  Thus,  whereas  " i t would  be o n l y  through  men's d e h u m a n i z i n g  i n o t h e r words,  "loneliness"  i f i t were  sorrow,  sorrow  Sorrow,  possible  through  belongs  f o r men  a denial  themselves.  of  They  belongs  to the world  t o escape  from  humanity, can escape  from  only  when t h e y t r a n s f o r m i t i n t o a n i m p e r s o n a l atmos74 phere, l o n e l i n e s s . " This t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s brought about by a d e e p communion w i t h n a t u r e , a s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g h a i k u o f Basho: My s o r r o w f u l s o u l - Make i t f e e l onesome, You, a cuckoo. 75 The was like  s t i l l  poet,  says  Ueda,  i n the world  sorrow.  " a s he  s e t o u t t o compose  o f humanity,  The cuckoo,  with  a personal  on t h e o t h e r hand,  seemed  thspoem, feeling t o have  « 75 already  transcended  nature.  Thereupon  enlighten  h i s soul  impersonal Such  atmosphere 7  review we  where he w o u l d  of personal  to the heart of  the bird's him i n t o  no  emotion  the core  t h e way  find  to take  pervading  that  into  c r y might  the realm  longer  o f Basho's  greater  And  feel  an  of  sorrow. . .  impersonal  attitude  Shiga  and more  sense  toward  the word  throughout  o f an  the e f f e c t  uses  the story i t  "impersonal  which  atmosphere"  the absorption of  has on t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s  and g r e a t e r  the dead  i n which  more  on Basho's  nature.  "atmosphere"  of  that  and e v e n t u a l l y l e a d  constitutes  we  sabishii,  a  wished  closer  6  If  comes  a s i t was  the poet  loneliness,,  a dissolution  l i f e " .  sorrow,  sense  bee g i v e s  o f detachment.  him a sense  His  i s to  this  produce  contemplation  of "loneliness"  but "at  77 the  same  Basho's  time terms  impersonal to  reminds But  formation" identifying  in  i s not a  soothing."  "personal  derived directly  o f t h e doomed  Already,  sorrow"  from  but a  nature.  r a t struggling  then,  i n  liberating,  His  for survival  response at  first  " s o r r o w f u l " and t h e r e f o r e " p e r s o n a l " -- i n f a c t , i t struggle to survive afterhhis  contemplation Basho with  demands  leads from  t h e r a t , he  i s a universal  h i m s e l f , and t h a t  take  tranquil,  h i m o f h i s own  further  survive  this  feeling  the sight  seems more  i t was  him on t o the k i n d o f  the cuckoo comes  instinct,  accident.  i n h i s haiku:  t o see t h a t  present  t h e r e f o r e i t would  "transby  to struggle to  i n t h e r a t a s much be a b s u r d  i t " p e r s o n a l l y " , i . e . , f o r him t o f e e l  f o r him t o  bad that  he h a d  as  -76 acted  " l i k e an animal" a f t e r h i s a c c i d e n t , t h a t he too had  been d r i v e n by an i r r e s i s t a b l e f o r c e . him  This r e a l i z a t i o n  gives  the necessary sense o f detachment: I would have behaved but l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y indeed from the r a t . Even now, I decided, i t would be much the same — l e t i t be. My mood a t the moment, i t was c l e a r c o u l d have l i t t l e immediate e f f e c t . And the t r u t h l a y on both s i d e s . I t was very good i f there was such an e f f e c t , and i t was very good i f there was none. That was a l l . 7 8 The  n a r r a t o r ' s profound sense of detachment i s even f u r -  t h e r i n t e n s i f i e d by h i s a c c i d e n t a l k i l l i n g of the l i z a r d . He i s f i l l e d with creature.  "a sense o f the l o n e l i n e s s of the l i v i n g  Quite by a c c i d e n t  I had l i v e d .  Quite by a c c i d e n t  79 the l i z a r d had d i e d . i d e n t i f y i n g with  I was l o n e l y . . . "  In other words, by  the l i z a r d as he had with the r a t , he r e -  ceives a further i n s i g h t :  t h a t death s t r i k e s a r b i t r a r i l y .  He  f e e l s t h a t he h i m s e l f might j u s t as e a s i l y be dead now — i f he had been as unlucky as the l i z a r d a t the time o f h i s a c c i dent.  The thought i s enough to make him l o s e h i s attachment  to l i f e :  "And I who had not d i e d was walking here.  should be g r a t e f u l .  I knew I  But the proper f e e l i n g o f happiness r e -  fused t o come.  To be a l i v e and t o be dead were not two oppo-  s i t e extremes.  There d i d not seem t o be much d i f f e r e n c e be-  80 tween them."  Thus, i t seems, the n a r r a t o r has reached an  ultimate l e v e l of "impersonality"  and detachment s i n c e , though  he knows he w i l l i n s t i n c t i v e l y s t r u g g l e f o r s u r v i v a l  i f the  need a r i s e s , he no longer r e a l l y c a r e s , i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a t l e a s t , whether he l i v e s or d i e s .  But  what  achieving  i s the  such  77 -  purpose,  the  reader  may  well  an  "unhuman" d e t a c h m e n t ?  What  significance?  We  have  Basho  development  an  impersonal  of  already  seen  that  state  of  ask,  of  i s i t s wider advocated  consciousness  as  the  a  way  81 of  "returning  is  exactly  this  expressing he  to  in  "found  nature". sense  of  According closeness  to  F r a n c i s Mathy, i t  nature  "Kinosaki n i te"'i a f t e r  h i m s e l f e n t e r i n g a new  to  that  Shiga  h i s encounter  world  of  union  is  with  and  death,  harmony  82 with  nature."  mature his  William Sibley  acceptance  deep  of  communion  death  with  emphasizes  that  has  nature.  been  And  the  "Shiga  brought  Sibley  hero's"  about  relates  by  this  to  83 the of  "more  fully  Shiga's  Passing). Kensaku and  the  retreats  and  union  of  again  at  chapter  traditional  "mystical"  nature.  *ft of  A this  hermit  Dark  long  before  of  hero  Night's  novel,  t o Mount  experience  Shortly  , the  Daisen  self-dissolu-  he  has  this  experthe  annihiliation)."  of  there  of,detachment  "Kinosaki n i as  Mathy  the  i s some r e l a t i o n  "self-annihilation:  experience  forward  a  %L  Kensaku"  84  experience  of  a  $fj  (  of  a r e t o l d t h a t "he was i r r e s i s t a b l y a t t r a c t e d t o Buddhists c a l l 'nirvana' or 'jakumetsu i r a k u '  bliss  rator  like  with  Undoubtedly  the  Koro  penultimate  undergoes  i e n c e , we realm the (the  n o v e l , An'ya In  there  tion  delineated experience  and  final  and  t e " , but Sibley  part of  union  with  Kensaku's nature  "impersonality" of  I doubt  would the  and  between  have  story,  that us we  the  i t i s as  believe. find  that  and nar-  straightI f we  the  look  n a r r a t o r ' s experience has by no means l e f t him i n an u n a l l o y e d s t a t e of b l i s s .  He f e e l s none of theeeuphoria t h a t Kensaku  experiences on Mount Daisen. able and confused.  In f a c t , he f e e l s r a t h e r miser-  The f i n a l scene o f t h e s s t o r y makes i t  q u i t e c l d a r t h a t h i s "dark n i g h t " has not y e t passed:  "My  sense o f s i g h t took i n dmly the d i s t a n t l i g h t s , a n d the f e e l of my f e e t a g a i n s t the ground, c u t o f f from my s i g h t , seemed u n c e r t a i n i n the extreme. I t l e a d me deeper  Only my head worked on as i t would.  and deeper  i n t o these f a n c i e s . "  85  These l a s t two sentences i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t seems t o me, t e l l us why the n a r r a t o r has not y e t achieved the p s y c h i c breakthrough  —  the " s a t o r i " —  he i s a f t e r :  he continues t o  i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e , t o f a n t a s i z e , and t h e r e f o r e t o stand a p a r t from nature.  He has not y e t surrendered h i s whole mind and  s o u l t o nature as Kensaku does on Mount Daisen. f a c t , something  There  is, in  s u s p i c i e u s l y " i n t e l l e c t u a l " even about h i s  sense of detachment.  When he says: "To be a l i v e and t o be  dead were n o t two o p p o s i t e extremes", he i s s t a t i n g an i d e a r a t h e r than d e s c r i b i n g an experience — whether any Zen master  and i t i s d o u b t f u l  (or f o r t h a t matter, any reader) would  accept t h i s as r e a l proof o f s p i r i t u a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . When Kensaku experiences complete  union with nature on  Mount Daisen, he remembers t h a t he has had s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e s b e f o r e , but t h a t he had "always t r i e d i n s t i n c t i v e l y t o r e s i s t it,  and on f i n d i n g such r e s i s t a n c e d i f f i c u l t , he had f e l t a  d i s t i n c t uneasiness.  But t h i s time, he had not the s l i g h t e s t  will  to resist;  and c o n t e n t e d l y , w i t h o u t  a trace  o f theo l d  86 uneasiness,  he a c c e p t e d  yashi  Hideo  and W i l l i a m S i b l e y  hero"  as one c o n s i s t e n t  "autobiographical" te"  ni  philosophy,  be r e l a t e d  hilation". death  then  What  we  might  embrace".  certainly  attraction  individual  he  i s reminded  to  resist  instinct with  that  nature. ready  moving  i s , after  Kensaku  This  "instinct  speaks  orthodox  the of  "Kinosak death  of anni-  cases  i s the  so t h a t  i t may  would  that i s  explain  to survive"  r a t -- t h i s  complete  why after  instinct  an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t  of, to resist  "tried  same mergence  The n a r r a t o r o f " K i n o s a k i n i t e " i s o b v i o u s l y n o t  f o r such  hesitantly  unreservedly  a complete i n that  "letting  loosened  by a w h o l e  see  more c l e a r l y  this  all,  claim that  self  Shiga's  dwelling  of consciousness  o f i t by the s t r u g g l i n g  death  i n  to the "bliss  world.  n a r r a t o r i s t r o u b l e d b y h i s own  he  Without  to death  human  state  the natural  when  f o r i n both  "Shiga  "Kinosaki n i  to the quietude  attraction  "impersonal"  see the  say t h a t  of nirvana  Koba-  at least,  experiences  seems t o be y e a r n e d  a t one w i t h  I f ,like  o t h e r s , we  might  earlier  t o Kensaku's  r e p l a c e d by an  the  so  we  among  "nature's  of the troublesome  totally  yet  to resist  te" narrator's early  may  be  works,  the problematical r e l a t i o n  Buddhist  embrace."  character throughout,  d e s c r i b e s one o f those  instinctively" on  nature's  surrender  direction.  Before  go", the g r i p  series  of traumatic  w h e n we  come  of self,  though  he i s c a p a b l e  o f h i s ego must shocks.  t o An'ya  he i s  Koro.  B u t we  of  be shall  Chapter  "Kinosaki  as  a  was to  ni  ("Bonfire", as  one  sibories. of  the  selected  by  another  as  fiction  of  Shiga; s  approaching  according  lyricism, formed  Shiga  a model  of  to  of  pure  two  poetry.  Although  Akutagawa  was  the a  "Takibi" Ryunosuke,  finest  'Jkind  of  quintessential  to  exalted  saw  offered  Junichiro,  be  with  cele-  was  i t s traditional  everyday he  a place most  te"  to  which  W h a t was  1  "sincere",  ordinary,  ni  considered  A k u t a g a w a , was  rather  three  Tanizaki  fiction,  poetry".  or  contemporary,  he  of  shares  "Kinosaki  s t y l e by  what  i t s intensely  the  as  great  art  1920)  Shiga's  Just  paragon  qualities  into  "$ te"  short  serve  art,  -  3  "Takibi"  brated  80  mood  events  Shiga  as  the a  this  Japanese that  trans**  story  described  "realist  who  2 does  not  depend  on  fancy  or  £i.e.,  (  fantasy"  as  an  "autobio-  g r a p h i c a l " w r i t e r ) , he Shiga's realism unique  was a l s o c o n v i n c e d t h a t "what i s h i s p o e t i c s p i r i t which i s  entrenched  tradition";  technical  in Oriental mastery,  endows  his  3  most  this,  "coupled  pcosaic  makes deeply  with  work w i t h  a  his singu-  4 lar  beauty".  shosetsu)  Thus  such  i t was  as " T a k i b i "  possible to  be  a  for  a  "pure  story"  " p l o t l e s s s<bory"  (jun  (hanashi  5 no a  nai  shosetsu),  highly  the  structured  the  plot-line,  pervasive was  the  lyrical  unifying  mood,  and  principle  not of  work. As  I  shall  gawa, p e r h a p s here  because  an  a  make  clear  little  too  later,  i t seems  eager  to  make  a  over-simplified analysis  of  Shiga's  to  me  point, art,  that  Akuta-  presented since  he  tried  t o reduce  Nevertheless, a moment, to a  dominant  ness  one.  but then  he  sees  that is  one o f i t s major "Takibi"  i t was  stories  He i s a t f i r s t —  whether  he r e c o i l s  back  stillness.  problem,  about  the Shiga  heroJ  result,  attracted  into  the shell  o f h i s own  able  of "Kinosaki n i t e " , then,  a  steady  tional towards as  "narrative deepening  fiction,  the opening  three years o f mind;  death"  tranquility  later,  intellectual  himself  mood  t o commune m o r e  comfortably  the overall  modd  paragraph  of  somber  "Takibi"  and j o y .  may  -- r a t h e r t h a n ,  be seen  t h e mood  of the story  i s anything  makes  as  as i n conven-  up o f c a H i a a l l y - r e l a t e d  At first,  with-  a n d , a s a somewhat p a r a -  progression" of the story of this  e g o when  without  as an  t o immerse  s t i l l -  precedes  In c o n t r a s t t o the rather dark,  the building  a "climax".  able  world  mood  The  frame  am-  or "nirvana"  that necessarily  versus  h i s fellow  one o f p r o f o u n d  to the absolute "death"  i s now  plays  i s an  be c a l l e d  with  is  man.  world  this  "life  he i s a l s o  choice  of nature  to this  w r i t t e n about  i n the natural  appropriate  for  b u t i n " K i n o s a k i n i t e " , as  of a f a r different  himself  restraint  doxical  "Takibi",  ingredients.  "Kinosaki n i te"  The w o r l d  t h e v i o l e n c e and s u f f e r i n g  troubling  with  a highly  "lyricism".  i n both  -  the n a r r a t o r ' s response  the product  out  s e e why  a t i t s core  —  compare  Shiga's  role  h-ve seen,  biguous  i f we  we may  illustrate  we  i t t o merely  81  events but  clear:  I t r a i n e d t h a t day from morning on.All.'through t h e a f t e r n o o n I p l a y e d c a r d s i n my r o o m u p s t a i r s w i t h my w i f e , t h e p a i n t e r S., a n d K., t h e i n n k e e p e r . The  lyrical,  - 82 s m o k e ^ f i l l e d room made everyone f e e l drowsy. By three o'clock we were s i c k of c a r d - p l a y i n g and had overs t u f f e d o u r s e l v e s with cakes. 6 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , then, the n a r r a t o r and h i s f r i e n d s are f i r s t presented to us i n d o o r s , and they are i n a bored r e s t l e s s mood.  and  In other words, they are c o n f i n e d w i t h i n the  same narrow, c l a u s t r o p h o b i c world as the n a r r a t o r of "Aru Asa", and the s t u f f y , s m o k e - f i l l e d room seems to a p t l y r e p r e s e n t t h i s world.  But r e l i e f i s soon a t hand:  One of as stood up and s l i d open the paper-screen window. At some p o i n t the r a i n had stopped. Chill mountain a i r charged with the scent of f r e s h green streamed i n t o the room, d r i v i n g the tobacco smoke into swirls. We a l l exchanged g l a n c e s , as i f suddenly-coming to l i f e . 7 In  the second paragraph of the s t o r y , then, there i s a l -  ready a t u r n away from the human world and towards nature. windows are l i t e r a l l y  The  thrown open to l e t i n some of nature's  f r e s h a i r , wliiich c l e a r s out the tobacco somke and makes the people i n s i d e f e e l as i f they have been brought back to At  life.  t h i s p o i n t , i t might be a p p r o p r i a t e to make a few r e -  marks on Shiga's use of imagery.  In the hands of a more c e r e -  b r a l w r i t e r than he, the use of imagery  such as the above  c o u l d w e l l seem l i k e a form of s i m p l i s t i c , "symbolism".  over-obvious  But t h i s i s another important advantage  of the  c a s u a l , d i a r y - l i k e s t y l e of the s h i - s h o s e t s u : even i f the author does i n s e r t some imaginary d e t a i l s to s u i t h i s thematic purpose, the reader s t i l l has the sense t h a t he i s simply desc r i b i n g t h i g s "as they happened", and i s not s t r a i n i n g to  create said  meaningful  of  anothe-  but  83 -  a r t i f i c i a l "symbols'.'V  story:  "In  a  r e l a x e d frame  As  Shiga  of  mine  himself I  wrote  Q down  the  day's  important even  point  i s that  i n h i s more  shall  see  fail  present  --  this  as  In which  i n the  West,  tive  --  of  something mountain nature;  a i r does  "represent" In  other  more the  language, as  "thirty  exception which  the  words,  anything perhaps  to  than  likewise  we  may  such  i s any  stuffy,  form  and  to  simple  of  term  indeed,  stream  nature  s m o k e - f i l l e d room --  of  —  oldest  and  most  natural  a l l symbolic  this out  cattel". which  we  In shall  note  conspicuously because  of  everyday  "Takibi"  there  later,  not  usually  form  of  fresh  merely  i t is_ t h a t  elementary  an  for  i t is_  does  mose  i n such  primi-  stands  the  of  In  connota-  almost  rarely  not  having  "symbolism"  --  does  be  Shiga's  metaphysical  c l a u s t r o p h o b i c human w o r l d  symbolism  artificiality.  the  the  we  would  while  of  "symbolize"  "symbolism"  of  as  unnoticed.  success  apply  style  reader  a l l the  object i n Shiga  really  Shiga's  the  The  works,  than  head  stands  Thus  a l l t r a c e s of  a weight  An  "relaxed"  subtly the  occurred."  "symbolic"  i t might  i t is in itself:  not the  there  see  s i n c e i t i s embodied  to  Koro.  even  Shiga's  this  more  h i s mind,  abolish  imagery.  other  and  An'ya  hesitates  carries  tion  use  to  actually  maintains  course,  on  areas,  one  usually  to  of  effect  "program"  fact,  he  they  to notice that  although,  i n other  aesthetic  come  even  cumulative  as  "fictional"  w h e n we  usually  its  happenings  world.  amount  to  synecdoche, uses  of  expressions i s one  important  exception  i t i s a more  complex  kind is  of  symbol.  concrete To  stream  and  restless  climb  to  This of  our  out  will  a place  buildin-  sense  to  humans  spirits  in.  most  story,  " e h i l l mountain  their  are  the  part,  though,  Shiga's  a  into be  working  net  effect  of  a i r " i s to  entice  the  the  world  of  nature,  further refreshed.  some way  small  the  up  hut  the  together  group  where  where  n a r r a t o r and  outdoors  in-rushing  gives  them  the  On  see,  which,  story. the  that  of  vious  as  we  the  now  saw,  know  they a l l  together  his wife a  they  to  very  live  real  there  but  also,  good  with  throughout  i n the time  not  nature.  i s none  the  a  had  of  confronts  strong  sense  the  sense of  nature of  "com-  only  i n the  group's  the  story,  in their  This  sense  of  f o l l o w i n g paragraph  they  v  d o m i n a n t mood  longer  i s now  mellow as now, day's joy  d i f f e r e n c e between  there  was  n a r r a t o r no  i s manifested  communing  recalls  important  te":  The  further intensified  rator  an  ni  contrary,  together  joys  then,  "Kinosaki  spirit"  working  is  and  earlier  munal  the  we  "loneliness"  alone.  bored,  satisfaction:  Already  of  of  they  Eventually  mountain  f o r the  the  T w i l i g h t on t h e m o u n t a i n a l w a y s p u t s one i n a mood, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r a r a i n f a l l . And when, we h a d b e e n w o r k i n g a n d p a u s e d t o o b s e r v e o u r work w h i l e h a v i n g a smake, a f l e e t i n g k i n d o f arose between us. 9  "Takibi"  imagery  "this-worldly".  return of  For  84 -  had  together  sharing  "joyful when on  sharing"  the  the  nar-  pre-  day: On t h e d a y b e f o r e i t h a d a l s o c l e a r e d up i n t h e afternoon and the t w i l i g h t had been b e a u t i f u l . I t was made a l l t h e more b e a u t i f u l by a g r e a t r a i n b o w t h a t e x t e n d e d a l l theiway f r o m T o r i i P a s s t o B l a c k C y p r e s s Mountain.  -  85 -  We h a d l i n g e r e d near the hut f o r a long time. It was p l a c e d among a g r o v e o a o a k s a n d we c o u l d n ' t resist c l i m b i n g them. E v e n my w i f e h a d w a n t e d t o c l i m b up t o h a v e a g o o d l o o k a t t h e r a i n b o w , s o K. a n d I h e l p e d h e r c l i m b t o a h e i g h t o f more t h a n s i x m e t r e s . "It's a s c o m f o r t a b l e a s a n a r m c h a i r " , K. h a d s h o u t e d down t o us. He l a y f a c e up i n a f o r k o f h i g h b r a n c h e s t h a t were c o n v e n i e n t l y w i d e - s p r e a d and, p u f f i n g on a c i g a r e t t e , he s e t t h e b r a n c h e s s w a y i n g l i k e g r e a t waves. 10 This should this  happy  a l l go  highly  expedition  memory  boating  casual on  among  "the  tall  dark  on  animistic  sense  story,  in  the  fact,  that  the  a  shrine  entrance At from  into  the  row  out  for  darkness  to  we  Shinto  the  descends.  shrine  passes  was  hidden  group's  of  coming  nature  --  atmosphere of  "gateway"  of  Shinto.  Thus  for  the  group's  set  them  world. group's  curiosity between solemn  Vivid  that  power  reminiscent  high  them.  the  take  the  of  a  the  nature  like  they  of  apart  excited  see  shore  look.  group's  mood o f  act  When  opposite  to  images  spirits  They  on  quiet,  the.group  ever-deepening  burning  the  spring.  themaa " p r i m i t i v e "  appropriate  surrounds  up  in  group's  give  bonfire  set  the  in  will  adventure.  of  begins,  the  strongly  natural  out  lake  awesome, m y s t e r i o u s an  event:  they  see,  world  on  Thus  that  shall  night's  over  and  As  a  suggest  evening  the  a  contrast  chatter  way  highly  that  main  their  is  though,  nature  gatherer's  subtle  the  first,  children  they  forms  story's  of  to  night.  quiet  takes  "nature-worship"  that  one  natural  of  lake  the  precincts  the  narrator  lake  f i r trees.""'""'" with  the  the  a mountain  encounter  the  on  manner,  Siginificantly, through  leads  a  bracken-  the  There  is  lake, a  light-hearted natural are  world  interposed  as with  snatches of c o n v e r s a t i o n . q u i l evening.  On"  86 the one hand:  " I t was  a tran-  Some f a i n t a f t e r - g l o w of the sunset s t i l l r e -  mained i n the western  sky.  But the mountains on a l l s i d e s  were b l a c k , and I thought they resembled  the backs of c r o u c h i n g  12 water l i z a r d s . " water was  And:  "From B i r d I s l a n d to the mainland  e s p e c i a l l y calm.  the  Looking oyer the s i d e s of the  boat, we oould see below us a p e r f e c t mirror-image  of the  star-  13 filled  sky."  And,  on the other hand: " ' I t seemed a l i t t l e  c o l d ' , I s a i d , d i p p i n g my  hand i n t o the water.  'But when I  spent a few days viewing the autumn leaves around Ashino Lake a while ago,  I went swimming there e a r l y one morning 'and i t  wasn't as c o l d as I thought i t would be. swimming around  there i n e a r l y A p r i l . '  I have even gone 'My,  you were r e a l l y  something  i n thesold days', s a i d my w i f e t e a s i n g l y , knowing 14 f u l l w e l l how I am u s u a l l y so s e n s i t i v e t o c o l d . " But g r a d u a l l y t h i s p l a y f u l , l i g h t - h e a r t e d mood of the f o u r people d i m i n i s h e s as they are drawn deeper  and  deeper  i n t o the q u i e t e r , more solemn mood of nature i t s e l f .  What  seems to make fior a "turning p o i n t " i n t h i s r e g a r d i s the l i g h t i n g of the b o n f i r e which, as i n d i c a t e d by the stands as the c e n t r a l image of the s t o r y .  Now  title,  they are no  longer merely p a s s i v e observers of the n a t u r a l scene; by the "ritualistic"  a c t of l i g h t i n g a f i r e ,  they themselves  a c t i v e " c e l e b r a n t s " of nature's mysterious beauty In  f a c t , before they can even attempt  become  and power.  to l i g h t the f i r e ,  must begin to r e l a t e t o t h e i r environment  they  i n a more i n t i m a t e  - 87 way  that  naturally  heightens  their  awareness  of i t :  T o c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e b o n f i r e , we a l l e n t e r e d the dark f o r e s t . T h e r e was e v e r y w h e r e a l u x u r i a n t growth of f e r n s , w i l d p l a n t s , y e l l o w - f l o w e r e d shrubs and so on. We a l l w e n t o u r s e p a r a t e w a y s b u t , w h e n e v e r K. o r S. p u f f e d o n a c i g a r e t t e , we c o u l d s e e w h e r e t h e y were by t h e s m a l l r e d glow. W h e r e t h e o l d b a r k o f t h e w h i t e b i r c h e s was already p e e l i n g , i t s r o u g h e d g e s t u r n e d o u t , i t was e a s y t o tear o f f . E v e r y now a n d t h e n , t h e s o u n d o f K. snapping o f f a b r a n c h broke the deep s i l e n c e o f the f o r e s t . When we h a d g a t h e r e d a s m u c h a s we c o u J d l h a n d l e , we c a r r i e d i t back to the beach. 15 And whole  when  world  finally  around  they  them  light  the  fire,  i s transformed  by  i t i s as this  i f the  act:  The a r e a a r o u n d us s u d d e n l y grew b r i g h t . The firelight was r e f l e c t e d a c r o s s t h e w a t e r a n d e v e n o n t o t h e t r e e s o p p o s i t e us on B i r d I s l a n d . 16 As effect  we  shall  again  with  Fire  an  along,  of  Shiga  uses  the  i n h i s n o v e l , An'ya  explicitly plays  see,  a  Shinto  important  course,  other  dominant  group  has  with  image  first  water  of  a  the  of  but  now  "fire  —  fire  to  festival"  purification  —  which,  significantly,  a body  "universally  of  understood"  Kurama.'  rites,  remember  water  mor  of  Shinto  When we  great  connected  i n  "Takibi".  crossed over  Norman F r i e d m a n ,  Koro,  ritual, role  image  is  the  that  the  (according symbol  18  of  to  "some  19 sort  of  spiritual  becomes  evident  suggest  the  these  of  "spiritual  first that  people  scene has  that  deeper  do  of  transition" Shiga  nature  stand  the  i n need  story  overstuffed  i s using of  transition" the  ) and  do —  itself  cakes  —  and  I f we  bored,  But what  recall  restless  I think  the  i t  images  experience.  undergo?  tired,  bonfire,  elemental  "purification"  they  on  l i ta  these  group's  of  the  then  to why  manner the  group  answer  becomes  clear.  psychic  "purification",  freshment, and  Lighting  that  itself world the  over  f a r from —  mersion, What  their  mood  gives  the stories  K.,  the innkeeper.  spot he  able  told  K.  i n the group  i s the only  o f harmony  fact,  comes  least  of the genius  them,  i n a way  beauty  alone  with  t o seem,  first  room  itself  change  ©ver  around  by t h e s t o r i e s to lead  deeper this  im-  primarily  resident  by  o f the  particular  he t e l l s .  nature  into  the bonfire  the others  the surrounding  removed  perceptibly.  o f mood  long-time  began;  t h e human  experience  changes  sits  —  and h i s c l o s e n e s s t o t h i s  i s the appropriate person  sense  a i rfirst  has l i t e r a l l y  people  o f mind  as the group  on e a r t h i s emphasized  K.'s  t o immerse  the process of  as p h y s i c a l r e -  mountain  smoke-filled  As t h e f o u r or state  as w e l l  t h e group  expression to this  are  mountain  of fresh  the stuffy,  o f nature.  completes  of spiritual  the lake  a n d s o i s now  world  the bonfire  the inrush  by c r o s s i n g  88 -  Thus  to a greater  -- h i s v o i c e , i n  i f not the voice of nature  itself,  at  loci.  story  "deepens"  the group's  mood  by  reminding  reminiscent of "Kinosaki n i te", that not  but also  terror  and death  are present  i n nature:  "were t h e r e a n y w i l d d o g s a b o u t i n t h e o l d d a y s ? " asked S. "As a b o y I o f t e n h e a r d t h e m , " a n s w e r e d K. "Somet i m e s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i g h t I h e a r d them h o w l i n g i n t h e d i s t a n c e a n d I r e m e m b e r i t g a v e me a t e r r i b l e feeling of loneliness." He t h e n t o l d u s a s t o r y a b o u t h i s f a t h e r , now d e a d , who had l i k e d t o go n i g h t - f i s h i n g . One n i g h t t h e w i l d d o g s had s u r r o u n d e d h i m a n d , t o e s c a p e them, he h a d h a d t o make h i s way home t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r a l o n g t h e s h o r e l i n e . And t h e y e a r when t h e y h a d f i r s t p u t t h e i r h o r s e s o u t t o g r a z e o n t h e m o u n t a i n , he h a d s e e n one o f them t h a t h a d been a t t a c k e d and h a l f - d e v o u r e d by t h e dogs. 20  K. s  89 -  second s t o r y i s a k i n d of i r o n i c prelude t o h i s  1  f i n a l and most important one: The s t o r y was t h a t K., as a c h i l d , was coming home from Maebashi one n i g h t when he saw t h i s t h i n g i n a l a r g e pine grove about e i g h t k i l o m e t r e s p a s t Kogure. An area about three hundred metres i n f r o n t o f him glowed with a vague l i g h t and a b l a c k f i g u r e over two metres high moved w i t h i n i t . But when he walked f u r t h e r on he came across a man with a l a r g e pack on h i s back r e s t i n g by the r o a d s i d e , and he r e a l i z e d t h a t i t had been t h i s man, o c c a s i o n a l l y s t r i k i n g a match t o l i g h t a c i g a r e t t e as he walked along, whom he had taken f o r the g i a n t w i t h i n the halo of l i g h t . 2 1 T h i s experience  o f K.'s with the pseudo-giant  group t o a d i s c u s s i o n of "mysteries"  leads the  i n general.  "Mysteries u s u a l l y t u r n out t h a t way, don;t they?" s a i d S. "But I t h i n k there are some r e a l m y s t e r i e s , 'I s a i d my wife. "I don't know about g i a n t s and such but I b e l i e v e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t t h i n g s are sometimes r e v e a l e d t o us i n dreams." "Well, t h a t ' s something e l s e ggain now, i s n ' t i t ? " s a i d S. And then, as i f suddenly remembering something: "Say, K.-san, t h a t s t o r y about when you were trapped i n the snow l a s t year, t h a t ' s p r e t t y mysterious, i s n ' t i t ? " And, t u r n i n g around to me: "Have you heard about t h a t y e t ? " "No, I haven't." "Yes, t h a t was r e a l l y q u i t e strange," s a i d K. And he proceeded t o t e l l the s t o r y . 22 Thus the second s t o r y of a " f a l s e mystery" leads to K.'s extended account o f a genuine mystery he has experienced, and t h i s l a s t s t o r y - w i t h i n - a - s t o r y r e a l l y forms a k i n d o f "climax" (or h i g h - p o i n t , a t l e a s t ) t o the whole development o f " T a k i b i " as we have been t r a c i n g i t . The  i n c i d e n t had o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s  Returning  winter.  to the mountain from a t r i p t o Tokyo, K. had a r r i v e d  at the nearby town of Mizumuma a t about three o'clock i n the afternoon.  Since i t was s t i l l  e a r l y and home was so near, he  did  not f e e l l i k e w a i t i n g  90 -  fintil  the next day  to ascent  the  mountain. T h i n k i n g t h a t he would go as f a r as the f o o t of the mountain anyway and then decide whether to climb or not, he l e f t Mizunuma. Dusk had j u s t s e t t l e d as he approached the second of the s e r i e s of Shinto archways a t the f o o t of the mountain. There was ample moonlight and he f e l t to t i r e d ness i n e i t h e r body or mind. He decided to climb. 23 One  notes again t h a t K. must pass through  a torii  Shinto "archway") before he enters more deeply i n t o the of  nature -- as the group i t s e l f  (a world  had done e a r l i e r i n the s t o r y  before they crossed the l a k e . K.  soon f i n d s h i m s e l f , i n f a c t , i n danger of being  "im-  mersed" i n nature not j u s t s p i r i t u a l l y but i n a l i t e r a l , p h y s i cal  sense.  The  snow grows deeper the h i g h e r he c l i m b s , so  t h a t even he, who trail.  has grown up on the mountain., l o s e s the  A l l he can do i s head upwards, higher and  higher.  He continued c l i m b i n g , u r g i n g h i m s e l f on step by step. He d i d n ' t f e e l e s p e c i a l l y a f r a i d or uneasy. But he f e l t a c e r t a i n vagueness encroaching upon h i s mind. "Thinking about i t now, I know I was i n r e a l danger," s a i d K. "People who d i e i n the snow u s u a l l y get t h a t way and then they f a l l a s l e e p . They end up dying i n t h e i r s l e e p . " S t r a n g e l y enough, even though he had known a l l t h i s , K. had not f e l t the s l i g h t e s t u n e a s i ness a t the time. 24 The  theme of the a t t r a c t i o n of death, of the " b l i s s of  a n n i h i l a t i o n " , appears a t t h i s p o i n t i n " T a k i b i " too, then,  and  j u s t as i n " K i n o s a k i n i t e " and An'ya Koro, i t i s a s s o c i a t e d with Shiga's major theme of the achievement of t o t a l union nature.  with  - 91 But finally his  K.  manages t o  reaches  descent,  distance. late up  with  in-law could tell  he  He  hour.  the  with  top  her.  lanterns that  coming  anyone  and  three  their  guests of he  was  h i s m o t h e r had had  had  thought to  mountain-pass.  lantern-bearers  She  She  "siren-song"  assured  spoke  question  so  finds  w h a t she  that  he  be  out  Even though at  got  and  t h e m up  and  As  and  begins in  at  i t is his  coming back  clearly  death  t h o u g h , w h e n he  inn.  them t h a t  of  towards him  should  i s even more s u r p r i s e d ,  that  meet him.  the  the  two  is surprised  have known t h a t him  of  notices  He  the  resist  -  K.  had  this  this meets  brotherno-one  time,  sent  the  they  them out  to  j u s t c a l l e d out  firmly that  they  had  to  not  said.  "When I a s k e d a b o u t i t l a t e r , " s a g s K., " i t turned out t h a t t h i s was e x a c t l y t h e t i m e w h e n I was. m o s t w e a k and had t h a t s l i g h t f e e l i n g o f v a g u e n e s s . On the m o u n t a i n we go t o b e d e a r l y , a t s e v e n o r e i g h t , s o i t was j u s t a g o u n d t h a t t i m e w h e n e v e r y o n e h a d f a l l e n i n t o the deepest sleep. E v e n s o , my m o t h e r w o k e u p f o u r men and s e n t them o u t i n t o t h e n i g h t — so I t h i n k she m u s t have heard t h a t c a l l very clearly." "And d i d y o u i n f a c t c a l l o u t t o h e r ? " a s k e d my wife. "No, I certainly didn't. B e c a u s e no m a t t e r how h a r d I had c a l l e d f r o m the o t h e r s i d e o f the p a s s , no-one w o u l d have h e a r d me." "Of c o u r s e , " s a i d my w i f e . Obviously she had b e e n v e r y moved by t h e s t o r y . There were t e a r s i n her eyes. 25 K.'s awestruck  tale  of  silence that  light-hearted  chatter.  they have e n j o y e d a  rather  deeper  real-life  of  reduces  is in telling W h e r e a s up  communing 'with  superficial  level  mystery  level,  K.'s  contrast  to  this  nature story  communion p o s s i b l e  the  and  group  to  point with  reminds  to  their i n the  an  earlier evening  each other  them o f  b e t w e e n human b e i n g s  the --  on much in  this  case,  tives  92 -  the l o v e between mother  further  emphasis  and son.  t o the p o i n t with  The n a r r a t o r  some  comments o f h i s  own: I f o n e k n e w a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n K. a n d h i s m o t h e r , o n e was e v e n m o r e d e e p l y m o v e d b y t h i s story. I d i d n ' t know h i m v e r y w e l l b u t K . ' s d e a d f a t h e r , who was n i c k n a m e d " I b s e n " b e c a u s e o f h i s r e s e m b l a n c e to the p l a y w r i g h t , d i d n ' t s e e m a p a r t i c u l a r l y b a d man b u t , t o s a y t h e l e a s t , he d i d n ' t amount t o much a s a h u s b a n d . They say t h a t he l i v e d most o f t h e time around Maebashi w i t h h i s y o u n g m i s t r e s s a n d , come summerm h e w o u l d b r i n g h e r w i t h h i m t o t h e m o u n t a i n , p i c k up h i s e a r n i n g s f r o m the i n n and then l e a v e . K. was d e e p l y u p s e t b y h i s f a t h e r ' s behaviour and o f t e n c l a s h e d w i t h him. And t h i s maSe K. a l l t h e m o r e d e e p l y a t t a c h e d t o h i s m o t h e r a n d h i s mother a l l t h e more d e e p l y a t t a c h e d t o him. 26 But the  i t i s important  depths  o f a human  the world  of nature  what  they  come  to feel  able  even  to transcend  they  have  l i t  this  deepest  expression has  sharing munion we  of this  nature.  this  t h e bounds  this  elemental  force  i t i s likewise  to achieve  union  them.  o f time  On  the contrary,  love,  which i s  and space,  o f nature  i s as  as the  In other  ineffable  that  made  now,  this  we  all-pervasive  with  his fellow  fire  a r e an  that  saw t h a t possible  awe-  words, a t  force  o n a much  into  the group  are one, s i n c e both  Earlier  both  insight  not distract  evening.  and r e a d e r ;  moving  mother's  a power  and nature  "rhythm"..  between w r i t e r  man  does  same e l e m e n t a l ,  called  can see that  enables  man  this  surrounds  i s that  on t h e beach  of that  elsewhere  that  and elemental  level  that  relationship  from  some , m y s t e r i o u s  t o note  Shiga  i t was t h e a deep  wider  scale,  "rhythm" man  com-  which  and w i t h  Thus, group with  i n the  turn  their  a vastly  symbolized  closing eyes  by  their  passages  back  deepened  93 -  to  sense  final  the of  of  the  world  story,  around  oneness.  "commanal"  them,  This  ( i n more  when  is  the i t is  brilliantly  senses  than  one)  action: K. p i c k e d a w e l l - c h a r r e d b r a n c h o u t o f t h e f i r e and h u r l e d i t w i t h a l l h i s might f a r out over the lake. Red s p a r k s s c a t t e r e d f r o m t h e b r a n c h a s i t went f l y i n g through the a i r . In simultaneous r e f l e c t i o n , a branch s c a t t e r i n g r e d s p a r k s went f l y i n g t h r o u g h the water. T h e u p p e r a n d l o w e r b r a n c h e s d e s c r i b e d t h e same a r c , one t h o u g h a i r , t h e o t h e r t h r o u g h w a t e r , u n t i l , the i n s t a n t t h e y came t o g e t h e r a t t h e w a t e r ' s surface, t h e y s i z z l e d o u t and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a f e l l b a c k into darkness. T h e e f f e c t was f a s c i n a t i n g . The rest o f us a l s o b e g a n t o p i c k up s m o l d e r i n g b r a n c h e s and h u r l them o u t o v e r t h e l a k e . 27 There in  the  firey  is a  branches  beautiful  We  the may  natural  bonfire  now  we  can  the  story's  "Takibi" as  but  how  the  and the  lake,  now  clearly  in this  story:  the  full  "mystical  indeed, ritual  this  of  one  sense final images  might  lighting  of  as  ecstacy, they  an  of  a  they  brillian has and  which say, the  of  agent  i s the  main  Shiga's  bonfire  of and  first abandon.  scene, used  so  fire.  s y m b o l i c a l meaning the  sense  joyful  he  fling  awesome  when  a i r , water  I t i s both  union"  of  i s also  t h e r e was  the  image.  people  creating  as  with  almost  There  three elemental  central  that  four  i n the  Shiga,  throughout see  these  phenomenon,  t o g e t h e r the  of  of  over  --  note  effectively  symbol  out  exhiliration,  participation  also  brings  Just  of  self-abandonment  ritual-like  l i t  sense  of  and  /And "fire",  the  theme  entire  of  opus.  precipitated  the  group's the  feeling  form  tain  of  air  of  burning  (which first  earlier  crossed)  branches  scene)  of  d e s c r i b e d the water,  water's  s u r f a c e , they  back As  mersed  into  the  fact,  as  the  as  painting  an  figures  (an  of  and  (My  integral  a r t which  own  of  came the  mounthe  group  has  and,  i t is  and  even  lower  a i r , the together  other at  surrounding  the  area  emphasis.)  is silent, the  world  thoroughly  around  p a r t of  the  landscape  traditional  Far  Eastern  Shiga  the  in  in  upper  through  and  group  the  union  "The  they  out  28  i t is fire,  together  lake  perfect  instant  beauty  in a  (the  a r c , one  sizzled  now  s m o k e - f i l l e d room  nirvana:  c l o s e s the  peace  much  tiny  the  darkness."  story  i n the  in  until,  brings  water  or  same  nature,, so  the  symbol  death  through  fell  the  -  that  into  and  in a  final  with  branches,  streamed  story's  suggested,  oneness  94  greatly  admired  and  them  im—  themselves  sansui even  ink  tried  29 to  emulate  left But  with  in his writing the  whereas  with  "impersonal"  i n the  nature",  ).  now  earlier  As  in  "Kinosaki n i  atmosphere story  i t i s just  the  simply  of  the  sense of  t e " we  natural  was  "nature  of  "man  alone  are  world, alone with  nature": We b o a r d e d t h e b o a t . The b r a c k e n - g a t h e r e r ' s bonfire a c r o s s t h e l a k e h a d now also died out. Our boat r o u n d e d B i r d I s l a n d and g l i d e d q u i e t l y t o w a r d s the weods a r o u n d t h e S h i n t o s h r i n e . 2Q The c a l l s o f t h e o w l grew more and more d i s t a n t . The  narrative  be  seen  as  it  swings  line  of  "oscillating" like  a pendulum  "Takibi"  thus  r a t h e r than back  and  as  forth  may  perhaps  straight: between  better  that i s , the  human  and  the  natural  together that  worlds  and  the  i s perhaps  struck  i n the  of  be  seen  which  and  rate, the  silence  the  stuffy  perhaps  bargained mind  narrator  though  this  the  have  in  an  i n the  the  two  the  worlds  the  peaks  together  story.  i t s basic  dying two  come  worlds  figure  were  sound,  they the  brought  "sonic"  i f a bell  this  of  from  At  that  any  forms  narrative  conflict  another  form  to  they  they  resolu-  arise i n the  Akutagawa  claims  story  by  they  deatharise  long i n  from a  with  nature.  "communion"  than  they  latter  of.their  they  by  communion  naturally  the  even  "natural  arose  narrator's  the of  state  his  "subjective".  narrative  "plot"  make  are.  from  case,  ultimately  cases may  Shiga's  confined too  g e t more  i n both that  the  spirits  are  of  incidents  present  principle  u n c o n v e n t i o n a l way  of  people,  (and,  dynamic  somewhat d i f f e r e n t ,  as  end  story,  stories  sense  is  "plotless",  the  their  end,  the In  of  are  i t s gently  finally  working  of  refresh  Both  of  a  movement b e t w e e n  movement  we  group  i n the  use  to  " K i n o s a k i n i t e " the  for.)  friends). And,  to  a  worlds  fiction.  consciousness,  room,  the  associative  yearning of  listen  between  the  then,  in  two to  "wave-length"  of  than  "Takibi",  of  we  - - i . e . ,  dynamic  Whereas  and  movement  rather  Or,  diminish until  In  obssessed  (And  the  conventional  virtue  stops.  narrative  of  plot".  of  form  these  a p p r o p r i a t e , i t i s as  the  i t i s the  "rhythm",  the  more  gradually  essential  tion  pendulum  —  to  therev-is  finally  wilderness  reverbrations may  until  the It is  is  structures  structured  stories  seem  doubtful,  though, less  whether  s t o r y " --  or  "invisible  no  discernible  course,  one  as  can  exist  might  as  painting".  A  no  I hope  longer to  have  internal  definable  movement  towards  different  so  that  absurd  misrepresentation.  to  and  like-minded  the  works  story.  call  a  of  avis  plotless  after  story.  kind  of  climax  One  what  all,  as  do  with  to  of  music" have  then,  of  structure, even  a  denoument  conventional f i e -  either  end,  that  closely were  paradigms  Oxford  "plot-  Shiga's  and  and  likely,  Western  the  own,  look  i s more  and  i s , i n the  suspects  failed  --  integral  their  "plotless"  had  or,  an  those  a  s t o r y would  Certainly  have  to  as  "soundless  of  nineteenth-century  Plot,  rara  logic a  them  critics  themselves by  truly  i n nature  tion),  fluenced  such  speak  shown,  rigorous  very  well  be  almost  (albeit  any  n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e whatsoever  i t would  stories, an  there  96 -  English  an  Akutagawa enough  at  over-in-  of  the  short  dictionary  31 reminds  us,  connected  to  traditional In ing to  Shiga  as  other.  Western  As  fiction  i s very  the I  events  have  this  other  much  way  in a  already  pointed  connection forms  there  —  i f a  story  are  out,  i s usually  but  s t i l l  a  critic  takes  the  in  casual.  connecttrouble  for i t .  seems  almost --  each  principle look  to  i t u s u a l l y takes  Shiga's it  has  to  real me,  i s quite  epic-like shown by  crossing  the  problem  nature  his  lake  use and  i n regard an  of of  to  opposite the  one.  underlying  certain  lighting  narrative structure,  the  Given  a c t i o n of  universal, fire  in  the  elemental, his  archetypal  "Takibi",  the  stories symbols:  "journey tain  through  i n An'ya  stories ture  might  Koro  night"  and t h e f i n a l  -- t h e r e  taste.  I t i s here  of the shi-shosetsu  genre  that  story's  thematic  some  ness". I  But I s h a l l  come  to deal  In ences  near-sighted  the previous  between  "Kinosaki  to  we  "Three  j u s t over  some  have  already  mentioned  length  as r e p r e s e n t e d  however,  stories.  look  as  among  i t i s possible closer  I am  Shiga,  differ-  story  thinking, i n  Ernest  the remarkable  to  analogies  stories of a writer  after  when  by  short  I f we  have  "formless-  fundamental  Western  dis-  a s we  i fof  found  a t l e a s t much  short  a decade  that,  accused  Deaths".  infor-  of the Shiga  at greater  writers,  parallels,  of the early  formality  point  shi-shosetsu  "naturally plotted"  particular,  I  chapter  Western  i f not exact  debut  Koro.  by T o l s t o y ' s  Shiga's  his  An'ya  the Shiga  contemporary  find,  this  n i t e " and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l  represented more  with  pprsue  have  i n struc-  to h i s rescue,  so s u c c e s s f u l l y  critics  that h i s  the d i a r y - l i k e  h a s come  the e p i c - l i k e or parable-like conception  o f t h e moun-  too formalized  guising  seen,  ascent  i s a c t u a l l y a danger  become t o o s c h e m a t i c ,  f o r modern  mality  dark  who  made  Hemingway.  similarity  be-  32 tween  Shiga's  style  and Hemingway's  after  we  taken  into  two to  have  respective  languages.  eschew a l l forms  "big  words"  account There  -- t h a t  the gulf  that  i s i n both  i s , of  separates  writers  of " a r t i f i c i a l i t y " , including  and a b s t r a c t  rhetoric  that  course,  a  their  desire  the kind  characterize  of  "intel-  lectual  d i s c o u r s e " i n any language.  simple,  down-to-earth  both  tend  to write  short declarative  c l a u s e s and t h i s  staccato  rhythm.  includes  jectives (i.e.,  which  words  adjectives, overly their  they  writing  also  express  such  both  objects.  emotional  key  or phrase  word  w o u l d make  that  use o f  their  they  name  i n which  contantly rather  than  both  resort  such  writing f i l l  actual  i s also  expressed  f o rthe "non-logical"  n o t a b l y , t h e way  diction  o f those ad-  Concomitantly,  writers  almost  judgments  A wider  c o n c r e t e nouns  sub-  colloquial  commonplace  or "nice").  they  of  a strong,  "anti-intellectualism"  the preference o f both —  free  or intellectual  and a b s t r a c t . simple,  prose  use a simple  seem t o f e e l ,  This  language  their  both  as "good"  with  most  gives  i s fora  As a r e s u l t ,  sentences  a few o f t h e most  intellectual  physical by  They  only  preference  mode o f e x p r e s s i o n .  ordinate  which  Their  will  use o f  repeat  a  to explicit  33 argument  t o make  their  point.  writers  are characterized  packing  ahe g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e  words  -- and by such  of the experience  claimed  that  their  by such  a vivid  feeling  prose  Above  all,  a disciplined  meaning  into  immediacy  -- t h a t  critics  approaches these  critics  "naturalness'1,  and they  often  use images  beautiful cribe  series  this  point.  o f metaphors  t h e "immediacy"  o f Shiga's  of both  insist  I have  that  economy  the fewest  the q u a l i t y  however,  to illustrate  o f both --  possible  -- c a p t u r i n g t h e e x a c t  t h e feame t i m e ,  world  the styles  often  of poetry.  At  on i t s extreme  taken  from  the natural  already quoted the  Kobayashi  style,  have  Hideo  saying that  used  t o des-  i t was  like  "the  wings  winter" Ford  of  and  wrote  the  so on  ptarmigan  on.  34  The  Hemingway's  turning white  with  f o l l o w i n g passage style  i s much  the  that  i n the  advent  Ford  same  of  Madox  vein:  Hemingway's words s t r i k e y o u , e a c h one, as i f t h e y were pebbles f e t c h e d f r e s h from a brook. They l i v e and shine, each i n i t s p l a c e . So o n e o f h i s p a g e s h a s t h e e f f e c t o f a b r o o k - b o t t o m i n t o w h i c h y o u l o o k down t h r o u g h the flowing water. 35  36 But prising ities  since that,  on  between  common. belong  that  traced time  of  back  two  M.H.  "cultural to  Rousseau  thelvlndustrial  l'homme meme", there  w r i t e r s whose affinity,  seemingly As  est  observation,  ultimate  "primitivist". tradition  closer  these  Their to  "le style  Abrams  points  out,  the  Revolution  Romantics was  some  have  of  there  much  is that  beginning  affinin both  man,  the  is a  strong  West w h i c h --  sur-  deeper  so  t o me,  category  p r i m i t i v i s m " i n the and  are  styles  i t seems  paradoxical  i t i s hardly  may  i . e . , to t o make  modern  be  about i t s  the  impact  felt. C u l t u r a l p r i m i t i v i s m i s the p r e f e r e n c e of "nature" over "art" i n a n y f i e l d o f human c u l t u r e and v a l u e s . For example i n e t h i c s a p r i r j i i t i v i s t l a u d s the " n a t u r a l " , or " i n n a t e " i n s t i n c t s and p a s s i o n s o v e r the d i c t a t e s p f r e a s o n and p r u d e n t i a l f o r e t h o u g h t ; i n s o c i a l philosophy, t h e i d e a l i s t h e s i m p l e and " n a t u r a l " f o r m s o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r d e r i n p l a c e o f the a n x i e t i e s and frustrations e n g e n d e r e d by a c o m p l e x and h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d social organi z a t i o n ; i n m i l i e u , a p r i m i t i v i s t p r e f e r s outdoor "nature", u n m o d i f i e d b y human i n t e r v e n t i o n , t o c i t i e s o r a r t f u l g a r d e n s ; and i n l i t e r a t u r e and t h e o t h e r a r t s , he puts his r e l i a n c e o n s p o n t a n e i t y , t h e f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f emot i o n , and the i n t u i t i v e p r o d u c t s o f " n a t u r a l g e n i u s " , as a g a i n s t t h e r e a s o n e d a d a p t a t i o n o f a r t i s t i c means t o f o r s e e n ends and t h e r e l i a n c e on " a r t i f i c i a l " f o r m s , r u l e s and conventions. To thing  this  that  obviously  also  apposite  seems q u i t e  summation,  germane  to  our  I might  add  some-  present  discussion:  - 100 namely,  that  value  he  tion,  and  other  words,  as  his  the  places the  literary in  on  first  "primitivist",  "spontaneity,  intuitive  the  products  immediacy  and  -  --  foremost  free  of  has  because  the  expression  tended  because,  as  to  great  of  'natural genius'"  usually  subject,  of  emo-  —  in  take  himself  Hemingway  once  38 asked: of  "Does  course,  and  the  began  this  f i g u r e of  familiar  one  The in  a writer  away  from  lost  i t s original stories  his  with  his  himself,  Confessions,  " e g o t i s t " became  interesting  that  experience,  Critics  first  i s an  i t seems  immediate  his  great  Byronic  Hemingway  speaking,  own  Rousseau  a  literature.  power.  and  better?"  self-absorbed  Ernest  Generally  drew  early  the  of  anyone  tradition  i n Romantic  career  point.  know  are  the  f u r t h e r tie  the  more h i s  generally  two  novels  his  most  are  case  his  agreed most  writing  that  his  successful  39 works, The  and  change  these  reflected  famous  "Hemingway  points  out,  and  It  and,  was  the  'It shosetsu way  his  to  style  as  that  For  changed  "Nick  later  "from to  that to  such  than Adams  became our  his  d e t e r i o r a t i o n of  early  a much less  famous  As  longer,  earlier on  (1940) works. the  Donaldson language  more d i s c u r -  successful and  the  of  later  imitated." Shiga's  non-autobiographical  Tolls  stories",  Scott  economy  discussion of  later, Bell  autobiographical.  works.  an  a l l observers,  Whom t h e  structured  biographical  in his  pertinent  note  closely  noticeable  presentation  almost  first  the  style"  of  is also  novels  tionally  for  also  in  style  objectivity  sive,  are  Heming-  more  The  closely hand,  40  shi-  are  other  style.  conven-  may  autowell  be  regarded  Shiga's not  as  being  "naturally  shi-shosetsu.  as  "well-made"  Reminiscing publishers  To  early  stories  about  the  refused  but  plotted"  i n a way  similar  readers,  in fact,  they  as  formless  difficulties  to  accept  short-story  form,  Hemingway  back  i n the  mail...with  call  them  stories,  101-  but  of  his  "slices early  his radically once wrote  notes  of  always  of  new  anecdotes,  appeared  of  life".  career,  when  versions of  " a l lof  rejection  to  the  stories  that would  sketches,  the  never  contes,  41 etc."  As  lem  with  not  yet  we  have  certain caught  Western  short  latter of  theless,  an  affinities  between  i n the  early  i n f l u e n c e of  of  mentor  cised  his  same way Japanese  of  "blue as  he  there  and  and may  important account,  1920's  in Paris,  pencil" d i d on  the  so-called  a l l , Ezra on  the  i n f l u e n c e on Pound 42 well-documented, and t h i s  and  because  to  no  they  question  Hemingway had  of  any  early of  bulk  i s , never-  connection" for  in  the  "apprentice-  and  in fact, in  Eliot.  Imagists  i n t u r n , may  the  especially  stories  T.S.  direct  the  came u n d e r  Pound,  other  influence,  of  (since  his  "Imagists",  the  the  w r i t t e n the  Hemingway  poetry  prob-  have  in  some e x t e n t ,  years  Pound.  same  Hemingway.  "Japanese  Hemingway's early  the  published), there  During  them  be and  them.  the  has  developments  former  was  s t i l l  perhaps  can  Shiga the  Hemingway  which  --  T o l s t o y and  between  interesting  Shiga  remarkable  between  way  direct the  the  Japanese  case  seen,  critics  course,  before  Hemingway's  ship"  of  no  h i s work  with  story  either  read  Western  up  Although, influence  already  has be  exerthe The been seen  to  - 102 have to  reached  Hemingway m a i n l y  i n Hemingway's  crete  use  of  imagery  atmosp-here. of  the  case,  "objective  above  to  I t i s the  through  Pound.  What  a l l , i s a very  c r e a t e an  emotion  technique  correlative",  made  precise  or  a  famous  although,  i t amounts con-  psychological  under  as  and  Eliot's  Jackson  term  Benson  43 points  out,  James  concept.  In  to  the  l i e at  fact,  Joyce's this  core  of  "epiphany"  central  the  expresses  doctrine  aesthetic  of  theory  a very  similar  I m a g i s m may of  the  be  whole  seen  "Pound-  44 Lewis-Ford-Joyce^Stein-Eliot we  must,  the  name o f  exaggeration  to  say  twentieth-century  W.B.  Yeats  that  the  i n rather  more  tive  correlative".  once  wrote,  was  to  this  concrete he  real  thing,  i f we  that  to  a  on  the  crucial  one. his  or  imagist  "objec-  i n h i s work,  sequence  of  an  early  "epiphany"  capture  as  i t i s hardly  influence was  add,  himself expressed  terms  tried  that, list,  in English  Hemingway  What  "the  so  Japanese  literature  Characteristically, credo  group"  motion  he  and  45 fact the  which "real  ing" his  thing"  (jikkan)  Japanese regard  its  a  the  sense  internal  we  have  Both  already  writers,  As  to  seen,  work  vision and  was  might  that  Benson  "Haiku-like"  isolated  Shiga's  then,  Jackson  t i m e l e s s n e s s : the  concept  combination  in their  Hemingway's  stresses,  close  i t is this  tradition.  some o f of  and  Hemingway's  remarkably  t r u e emotion  poetic  to  as  program.  realists",  image w i t h  emotion."  seems  which,  aesthetic  "lyrical  is  made t h e  of  of  "real  captured,  be the  links  feel-  instant  to  called precise i t to  points out  yet  of  central  sentences, an  here  the  in  "there and a l l  speaking  for  - 103 itself. also a  The  matter-of-factness  poetic.  These  Station of  What  Benson  the says  what Akutagawa  sentences  Metro' here  says  of  are  which  of  is journalistic,  he  very called  Hemingway's  Shiga;s  much  style  a  but  like  i t is  Pound's  'hokku-like  style  i s very  i n the  'In  sentence'.  similar  passage  to  I have a l -  47 ready  quoted.  Needless  Pound  in  background  Shigass  to  say, —  he  one  need  not  comes by  look  this  for  a  tradition  quite  "naturally". In  Hemingway;s  case,  tional  veracity leads  on  the  data  he  knows h i s  the  way  of  his  own  own  in  Shiga's  writer  life  —  the  young  the  perforce  f o r , as  f e e l i n g s best-  i n which  biographical"  the  as  to  a  heavy  Hemingway  Carlos  Hemingway  emphasis  Baker  emo-  reliance  pointed  has  arrived at  on  out,  described  this  "auto-  preference:  " A l l y o u h a v e t o do i s w r i t e one t r u e s e n t e n c e , " he told himself. " W r i t e t h e t r u e s t s e n t e n c e t h a t y o u know." I t must be above a l l a " t r u e s i m p l e d e c l a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e without s c r o l l w o r k o r o r n a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e o f any sort. I t m u s t d e a l w i t h s o m e t h i n g he knew f r o m p e r s o n a l experience. S t o r i e s l i k e "The p a s s i n g o f P i c k l e s M c C a r t y " o r "Wolves and D o u g h n u t s " had b e e n l a r g e l y invented. T h e y g r a z e d h i s own experience i n I t a l y and Illinois without keeping the c e n t r a l f a c t s i n focus. Now he wanted t o p l a c e h i s f a i t h i n the d i r e c t transcription o f w h a t he saw. T h a t a n d no m o r e . Somehow t h e e m o t i o n t h a t he w a n t e d t o c o n v e y w o u l d f i l t e r t h r o u g h t h e r e ported facts. 48 It sonal of  was  inevitable that,  emotion,  fiction.  write  the  Hemingway,  Being  so  traditional  with  like  his  Shiga,  s e l f - c e n t r e d , he English  "social  primary would  emphasis  write  would novel",  a  new  obviously nor,  with  on  per-  kind not his  distrust style  of  abstract  ideas,  "thesis-novel".  works,  Hemingway,  tional  form  has  -  would  he  write  Especially in his  like  that  104  Shiga,  was  r i s e n to  a  the  more  earlier  French  (and  p r a c t i t i o n e r of  prominence  only  in  best)  that  this  fic-  century,  49 which  Ralph  result, fairly all  Freedman  the  "Hemingway  consistent  s t o r i e s to  novel,  Islands  identifiable It  is  Shiga,  acy  no  of  and  real  included and  Hills  as of  the  not  points  in  in his  "Aru  short  as Asa"  Africa  a  novel,  to  the  note his  have  that  "Nick of  his  and  hero",.is  the  own  been  fact  written  but  protagonist  of  final,  posthumous  his  character  because  of  experience,  customary D  is  his  an  with  that  some o f first  as  as  diary  literal  "fic-  the  West.  shows  journalistic  just a  in  pri-  Hemingway,  consistently  Indeed,  reports,  safaris,  a  of  this  that,  Hemingway  very  a  Adams"  c o l l e c t i o n s were  is a  with  as  As  d i s t i n c t i o n s between  volume'."  first  (1985)  "Shiga  i t is a l l fiction, 50  story  was  novel".  himself.  rigid  out,  newspaper  complete  the  author  in reporting  this  Hemingway's A f r i c a n of  the  make  insisting  people  the  (1970),  " f a c t s " of  wilfulness  then  "lyrical  appears  from  Stream of  the  Baker  published  such  works,  "non-fiction" that  Sheridan kind  did  like  who  interesting also  like  a  hero",  the  "Thomas H u d s o n "  persona  r e l i a n c e on  and  the  in  mary  tion?  called  character  Hemingway's m a j o r  first  As  has  a  accur-  'there  the  are  works  written  Shiga  story  entry.  Green  account  of  one  of  i t i s presented  in  the  form  extensive  dialogue.  As  Hemingway  -  says  in  the  absolutely the  true  pattern  pete A  foreword:  with  of  the  Movable  book  "The to  (1964)  Hemingway w r i t e s  in  has  whether  action  imagination."^"'"  Feast  -  writer  see  a month's  105  the  can,  shape  i f truly  preface:  in  a  to  of  write  a'country  Paris  reader  and  com-  memoir,  novelistic  " I f the  an  presented,  Similarly, his  i s presented  the  attempted  form  and  prefers,  this  52 b o o k may Fraser  be  regarded  Sutherland  as  defends  guing  that  thing  he  writes  is  write  'pure'  fiction  to  fiction."  "since  the  this  or  his  practise  writer's  fiction.  In  mind  And pure  of  "Memoir  Fiction"  Hemingway)s  i s always  whether  as  the  at  by  work,  ar-  every-  writer pretends  n o n - f i c t i o n , he  produces  a  new  „ 53 image. Jackson nothing  new  fiction  —  "news". "was to  about the  'true  a  very  new  the  never  'made u p ' ,  graphy,  more  a  of but  either  more  Another  way  of  is  the  story  of  of  of  that  after  fiction  and  the  early must  as  discovered But  the  must  this, seem  as  we  have  "natural"  really with to  content  that  goes  novelists.  never  be  something  back Fic-  fiction,  that  'document'  modern  a u t h e n t i c i t y , more  putting  and  approach  presented  'diary'.  style  old  us,  is  fact  an  tells  a  there  a l l , is related  journalistic  Defoe  always  us  "journalistic"  "novel",  history,  discovered  immediacy,  that  use  tells  a p p l i c a t i o n of  history  —  mixing  word  accounts'  tion,  happened  however,  this  Hemingway's  really the  Benson,  or  temper  really bio-  demands 54  impersonality." seen  (i.e.,  in  Shiga's  taken  case,  directly  -  from  nature)  Hemingway,  as opposed  like  106  -  to "artificial".  S h i g a , wanted  to write  In this  an  sense  "anti-literary  55 literature".  As R o b e r t  Weeks h a s t e s t i f i e d ,  Hemingway's  "consummate a r t " - i s an " a r t so u n o b t r u s i v e as t o e l i c i t charge art  of not being a r t at a l l " " *  the  i n other words, the best  6  o f a l l t o Hemingway, as t o S h i g a , i s one t h a t  appears  to  be ' a r t l e s s " . At  this  wherein, lie?  point  a s c e p t i c a l reader might  then, does t h e seemingly  in  invisible  The a n s w e r , o f c o u r s e , i s : f i r s t  very process of selection.  T h i s was  h i s famous b i l i n g u a l motto,  well  ask:  exactly  a r t o f such  and f o r e m o s t ,  writers  i n the  summed u p b y E z r a P o u n d  o b t a i n e d by chance  from  a  57 German-Italian ^to  Jackson  that so,  Benson,  enabled  "Dichten=condensare."  i t was H e m i n g w a y ' s  him t o put t h i s  " w r i t i n g prose  involved of  dictionary:  looking  motto  carefully, getting  economical  'condensed essence' But Shiga's  "reportorial  into practise  skills"  and, by  i n t h e manner o f modern p o e t r y .  t h e s i t u a t i o n he o b s e r v e d ,  straight-forward,  According  speak  fashion,  the emotion  these  a matter  facts  f a c t s down i n a  and then  letting 58 for itself."  t h e famous "economy" o f Hemingway's i s not merely  His effort  at the essential  putting  of packing words;  doing  style,  as of  the greatest  meaning i n t o  the fewest possible  the writer  "economical"  i n h i s selection of h i s material,  this  possible  i s also  so t h a t  what  59 is  left  always  out i s often t r y to write,"  as i m p o r t a n t as what i s i n c l u d e d . Hemingway  once remarked,  "I  "on t h e p r i n -  ciple  of  the  for  every  and  i t only  part  This the  major  (1925).  Shiga's  we  are  the  i s the  cribed are  with  hints  "fishing on  the  own  sets  gets  where up  up  deeply  story,"  "was  about  with on  of  a  to  fish  whole a  series raver  himself  the  morning  the  story's  story  i s , in  back  from  and  a  few  that  i s no  this a  rather  source  war  but  in  He  hikes  down  for  trout  ordinary  therapy  of  this  was  to  his  wound?  a f t e r he  there  attempt  wrote i t , no  mention  61 of  the  war  story's deeper The the  in  it."  imagery  and  O n c e we action  have  become  realized  this  comprehensible  fact, on  a  the much  level. "burned-over"  story,  for  country  instance,  (and  which which  i s the is  so  --  there  desperate  administer  the  of  i t i s a l l des-  Nevertheless,  said years  the  beds  realism.  to  And  catches  action  fact,  protagonist psyche.  and  As  surface':  cooks  next  Time  "Takibi". the  a meal,  by  i t happens  camp,  Hemingway h i m s e l f  coming  i s , as  happen  alone  our  f i s h e d when y o u n g e r .  that  wounded  River",  In  often  microscopic  the  eliminate  illustrated  collection,  to  can  water  0  contrast  returning  almost  --  know y o u  protagonist  of  of  "The  the  and  seems  extent  trip"  first  i t under  he  the  throughout  part  little  Adams,  of  is brilliantly  comparison  very  you  Two-Hearted  stories,  Michigan  miles,  "Big  for  story,  night,  this  story,  eighths  iceberg."^  Hemingway's  Hemingway  few  your  story  of  seven  Anything  principle"  shown N i c k  northern  shows.  is  "iceberg  suited  it  a  that  There  strengthens  The  admirably  early  iceberg.  opening  image  reminiscent  of  of  T.S.  Eliot's  before) war  now  Nick  caused  seems  has  much  Shiga's  serves  as  be  take up  a  to  a very  cipal  out  "good  action  of  iziviliaation  tive" nature out  --  over  the  lake  camp,  an  structure does  cooking  itself  almost  the  entire  story,  and  almost  monotonous  detail  that  "ritualistic"  --  in  of  has  fact,  this  story  "Takibi"? i t a l l that  i n both  by  the  cases,  Shiga's  man;  --  --  group  the  as  we  i s an  two  stories  engaged  prin-  would escape  into  deeper the  continuously i n meals, indeed,  harmony firey  are  the  not "primi^ with  branches Hemingway  ritualistic  preparing his these  does  in certain  greater extent  nature.  i t  protagonist hikes  words  throwing  the  the  nature.  these  they  of  in  of  of  which,  writers  group  even  fishing  their  --  i n other  bonfire,  to  country,  devastated  themselves  the —  Shiga  equipment,  about  yet  years  scars  civilization".  world  i s shown e n g a g e d  making  of  of  psychic  embodiment  from  between  the  bring  lighting  protagonist actions:  to  not  the  similarity  rituals  i n the  "primitivist"  into  as  the  l a k e , Hemingway's  stories,  two  Just  and  imagistic  "ills  the  both  from  there.  the  couple  "burned-over"  escape  country"  from  the  to  over  expect  But  from,  a  the-.physical r u i n  s m o k e - f i l l e d room"  i s about  boat  both  function  concrete  only  end  same  d e s c r i b e d as  the  symbolize  Hemingway's the  -  written just  returned  "stuffy,  protagonist may  Land",  to  just  i n him.  performs as  "Waste  108  fishing  activities  occupy  d e s c r i b e d i n such  reader  can  have  no  minute,  doubt  In double  the  Hemingway  purpose:  protagonist a more over  He  into  urgent  h i s own  Nick,  as  i n the  closer  function  to a  He  as  with  they  help  the  there  keep  is a and  they  him  to  they  exercise  mind.  The  "does  him  from  strain  of  not  want  "nature  ritual  do  with  (and,  as  a  bring  the  also  have  control  war-scarred  thinking."  rituals  experience  story's central  help but  to  t o have  to  consciously putting  Nick's  "uniizive"  seem  nature,  points out,  will  i n Shiga,  a momentary  through  rituals  story,  i s , in fact,  that  Nevertheless,  least  touch  Wells  act.  ritual  Hemingway,  these  Shiga  —  -  disordered, traumatized  Elizabeth  wants  through  as  story,  109  think. himself  6 2  mysticism"  bring  him  in  at  nature.  This  comes  Jackson  Benson  63 points  the  central  ritual  fishing.  When h e  catches  his  momentary  oneness  with  from  out,  the  Philip even  oppressive  Young  i n the  language of  abruptly.  The  and  playing  become  identical story Nick  of  a  big  of  fish  this the  strike  pressure the  first  fish,  from  a  In  our  is skiing:  of  experience  Time "The  called rush  trout man,  stories):  achieves  release i s  the he  style  sudden  extreme  changes but  lengthen  an  earlier  Snow", b u t as  right  greatly  describes  i n an  swoop  As  reflected  i s nowhere  explicitly  a  briefly  i s the  Hemingway  "Cross-Country the  Adams  troubled self.  the sentences 64  more  and  Nick  "When t h e r e  i s o f f the then  Nick  r e l e a s e s him  momentary  appropriately graceful." kind  trout,  h i s own  story'i  and  a l l the  which  confines of  points out,  excitement  there  the  of  he  this  time  dropped  - no down a out  steep  and  left  u n d u l a t i o n i n the him  only  the  -  mountainside  wonderful  plucked  flying,  Nick's  dropping  mind  sensation  65  in  his body."  Nick  As  Sheridan  i s s e a r c h i n g , i n our  earthbound  sort  of  way  -In some w a y s , us  more  of  story,  alone  to  control story my  head  into  and  may  nature  to  t r y to  his  which  worked  on  as  While  the  mood  thoughts  Like  Nick  as of  passes  --  for  in a  R i v e r " may  seem  "Takibi".  In  recent  he  had  trouble  In  the  final  I t l e d me  tough,  to  of  remind  the  the  thoughts  which  a l l understanding."  protagonist also  too  i t would.  peace  unlike  from  by  "The  earlier  retired  trauma  a  exercising  scene  of  death:  deeper  of  the  "Only  and  deeper  67  of  that  tortured practise  the  recover  overwhelmed  fancies."  as  <bf  t r a u m a t i z e d mind.  these  studied  i s not  recall,  accident. his  says:  " B i t Two-Hearted  is fairly  and  that  we  tranquil  dark  —  as  over  he  time,  "Kinosaki n i te" than  Shiga  near-fatal  Baker  " B i g Two^Hearted  of  "Takibi",  that his  i n check:  of  River" i s not  however,  neither  "Kinosaki n i te".  "rituals", "His mind  Nick was  does  light  i s i t as  Through  manage  starting  as  to  the keep  t o work.  He  6 8  knew he as  we  could  have  oblivion direction future.  choke  seen,  and  i t because  he  union  does with  achieve nature.  h i s r e c o v e r y must The  story,  mistic note: "There u *.u »69 f i s h t h e swamp.  he  in fact, were  was a  few  Now  take. ends  tired  plenty of  And,  moments  of  self-  knows,  at  least,  he  There on  enough."  this days  i s hope  here  for  emphatically coming  the  when he  the  opticould  On  the other hand, the mood of " T a k i b i " i s not as  reservedly there  " l i g h t - h e a r t e d " as might f i r s t appear.  are shadows i n the background and,  made too e x p l i c i t because Shiga, the power of "the  i s an  Here too  they are  On  c l o s e r view of  f i n d t h a t , j u s t as Nick's war^  Shiga n a r r a t o r ' s n e a r - f a t a l a c c i d e n t  still  the  experience  "unspoken presence" i n "Big Two-Hearted R i v e r " ,  ground of " T a k i b i " .  so  the  looms i n the back-  F r a n c i s Mathy p e r c e p t i v e l y n o t i c e s  when, i n speakingoof Shiga's l i f e on Mount Akagi, the of " T a k i b i " , he remarks: "The  not  l i k e Hemingway, b e l i e v e s i n  t h i n g l e f t out".  s t o r y , i n f a c t , we  again,  un-  this  site  q u i e t melancholy t h a t Shiga  begun to experience a f t e r h i s brush with death was deepened here on t h i s mountain.  had  further  I t i s the f e e l i n g of q u i e t  70 melancholy t h a t informs the s t o r y way  'Bonfire'";.."  as Hemingway r e f e r s s y m b o l i c a l l y  of the  to the war  In the same with h i s image  "burnt-over" country at the opening of h i s s t o r y , e a r l y  i n " T a k i b i " Shiga makes use  of a s t r i k i n g image t h a t immed-  i a t e l y puts us i n mind of "Kinosaki accident:  "But  n i t e " and  the n e a r - f a t a l  the mountains on a l l s i d e s were b l a c k ,  and  I  7 thought they resembled the backs of crouching  water  When we  n i t e " , i n which  r e c a l l the f i n a l episode of "Kinosaki  the n a r r a t o r k i l l s  a water l i z a r d , as w e l l as the deep sym-  b o l i c s i g n i f i c a n c e which he t e l l s us these c r e a t u r e s him,  lizards."  have f o r  then i t i s d i f f i c u l t to b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s j u s t a  casually-dropped  simile  (and, of course, i t i s a l s o made con-  spicuous by the f a c t t h a t Shiga r a r e l y uses auch s i m i l e s ) .  As  the  story  explicitly once  then in  w h e n K.  killed  night,  progresses,  a  tells  "Hell  tells  horse  threatened of  Valley"  on  to  the  too, his  the  k i l l  skull just  story  darker  note  emerges  of  wild  dogs  mountain his  of  a  this  and  father;  "a  few  the  who  and  small wild  days  had the  who  had  even,  one  narrator  animal"  before.  more  Death  he  himself  had  being  found  perhaps  72 the it  major  theme  i s hardly  from  of  Shiga's  surprising  "Takibi",  oneaof  Nevertheless,  amidst  on  evening  a  tranquil  shadow of  —  life  longer  albeit  overwhelm  harmony of  the Shiga  and  "Takibi"  shows,  he  experience  of  An'ya  of  the  i s , as Koro  "foil"  mind  mountain seems  to  i s , in we  and,  his  but  stories.  and a  even  the  lake  distant  s e t o f f the  joyful  Thoughts  death  in  necessary  with  absent  "light-hearted"  n a r r a t o r , as  of  Hemingway's,  entirely  foreground.  nature  that  i t i s of  i n spring, death  with  "enlightenment"  most  beauty  necessary  the  as  i t i s not  Shiga's  ibhe q u i e t n e s s  both  that  the  that occupies  disturbing  scene  a  work,  shall  see,  indeed,  of  no  "Kinosaki n i te", f o r him  f e l l o w man.  fact,  of  sense  well the  on  to  achieve  As  the  the  way  final to  the  culminating  Shiga's  entire  opus.  Chapter  4  With  w r i t e r s more  be  some d i s p u t e  as  the  most  case, out A  his  Night's  as  An ya  pression  Shiga's  his  he  fact  that  effort that  had  to write  a f t e r * : i t was  though  he  lived  go  , Japanese  And, so  as  f a r as  literature."  Nevertheless, the we  erated  examined form,  the  up  At•about  are  the  novel,  as  the he  to  1937)  done w i t h ,  written:  years  to  i t the  —  of  have  put a l l the  intermittent  very  be  by  the  fact  little  to  "Some of  else,  this  found  aspired  peak  ex-  of  by  Regarding  highest  novellas  forceful  second,  out:  a l l or  first,  i s to  points  pages,  passages to  wrote  t h a t he  Mathy  most  seemed  years.  "Here  Francis call  he  work  finest  and,  singled  stories  evidenced,  twenty-five  Shiga's  hundred  clearest,  and  in  X8&$L.4^$?T  Koro  short  may  regarded  be  novel-length  Indeed,  1912  be  can  four  either  everything  every-  in his  life  Japanese modern  2  An'ya  q u i n t e s s e n t i a l Shiga have  work w h i c h  .  there  representative;  thirty-four  has  possesses,  work."''"  may  themes  about  another  Shiga  critics  one  finally  thing and  1937)  (from  Agawa H i r o y u k i  works  one  style.  novel  their  contains  him  i t  Naoya,  magnum o p u s : An ' y a  major  this  i t took  Shiga  most  writings  prose  into  that  substantial,  Koro  1  celebrated  that  the  his  really  Furthermore  of  i s only  fictional  of  or  Passing,  only  other  which  there  unreservedly  i s his  to  important  however,  Dark  it  as  prolific  to  Koro Naoya  this  "fictional  i s not  so  "pure"  shi-shosetsu  point.  It  as  is that  autobiography",  an the  example short  seemingly  i n two  of stories adult-  distinct  senses.  On  t h e one hand,  autobiography, Kensaku, events  discover  i s obviously  the novel  "Kensaku s  i fplaced  a persona  the novel  though  h i m s e l f , many  are f i c t i t i o u s .  As S h i g a  r e p r e s e n t what  circumstances,  as t h e  author's  the protagonist,  of Shiga  and f e e l i n g s  i n similar  regard  that,  describes  actions  1  do  we  i f we  o r what  Tokito  of the  once  wrote:  I myself  would  I would  want t o  3 do,  o r what  novel is  I have  i s also  presented  acter, see,  as t h e a c t u a l  be r e g a r d e d  Koro.  interested that  I n my  ledge,  previous  standing  the other  level, about  critics  An'ya a man  an a u t o b i o g r a p h y  Naoya.  i t seems  of the aesthetic  Koro,  a s we  trying I shall  i n this  be  have  t o me  achievement  failed crucial  shall  more  second  To t h e b e s t  char-  to write  of the character, Tokito  o f t h e work  though  that i t  of the f i c t i o n a l  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e work,  Shiga  hand, the  i n the sense  autobiography  as a novel  o f t h e man,  distinction,  On  autobiography"  i s , qua t h e autobiography than  of  done."  On t h i s  i n i t s being  rather  this  "fictional  T o k i t o Kensaku.  may  An'ya  a  actually  o f my  sense  --  Kensaku know-  t o emphasize to a full  and thematic  under-  significance  the novel. With  seem  goes  largely  to content  dences cular  their  which work.  "biographical"  themselves  do e x i s t One  between  An'ya  Koro  ferreting  the author's  rather hostile  so f a r as t o say t h a t  accepted  with  critic,  readers  as a g r e a t  approach,  out those life  and t h i s  even  with  though  critics  correspon-  Nakamura M i t s u o ,  contemporary  novel,  Japanese  partieven  Shiga  t h e main  character only of  " n e v e r more  because  the  the  is  they  writer  novel  such  as  Francis  as  kind  idealized  of  write  The  material  in his  to  resort  Mathy,  to  way  an  the  the  the  hand, on  f i l l  a  A  rather did  lengthy  accepted  novel  pre-  Western  seems  Shiga's  i t , Shiga  figure  readers  writer."  other  very  hero  existence"  autobiographical  defeat"  to  abstract  abstract  the  sees  life  some o f  of  autobiography  Mathy  own  kind  because  the  of  -  the  of  on  fictional  shosetsu.  as  self  ''admission a  a  I t was  uncenditionally  the  would  than  behind  himself.  senting  a  "saw  115  to  regard  part than  not  " f a b r i c a t i o n s " he  that a  i t he  pure  have  novel,  critic  shi-  enough  and  so  had  had  always  of  intro-  5 frowned  upon.  He  also  wished  to  avoid  the  pain  spection: To s a l v a g e t h e p a r t s h e h a d a l r e a d y w r i t t e n a n d go on t o c o m p l e t e t h e n o v e l , he h a d r e c o u r s e to f i c t i o n : he d e s i g n e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e two " s i n s " , the " s i n " of y.he h e r o ' s m o t h e r a n d t h a t o f h i s w i f e , a n d i n t o t h i s s t r u c t u r e were f i t t e d the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s . Since i t was n e v e r more t h a n a c o n v e n i e n t t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e , i t i s no w o n d e r t h a t i t h a s s o l i t t l e o r g a n i c f u n c t i o n i n the novel. S h i g a ' s i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t i n u e the work w i t h out recourse to f i c t i o n a l elements i s eloquent testimony o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e d e s i r e t o "mine what i s i n me" had begun t o y i e l d t o the d e s i r e f o r harmony and peace. 6 In  making  Japanese  critics,  autobiography sense  —  that,  once  tional comples  these  qua we  is  only the  in  still the  points,  regarding first  autobiography  regard  autobiography mixture  various  of  the  novel  i n both  fiction  and,  like  An'ya  a  Koro  i t seems  of  Shiga  in  i t s proper  senses  and  however, Mathy  —  reality  the  we  to  as me,  man.  fictional lesser  I hope  light  discover  i t contains,  the  —  as  that far  to a  show fic-  the from  being  "inorganic",  theme  from  the  consciously problems,  is  very  an  beginning.  confronts  both  involves.  integral part  the  personal  is a  part  nature  tension  that  namic  Koro:  on  the  that the  one  hand  and  once  we  Kensaku, tion  we  that  Not  to  to  miss  able as  of  Reminiscences", his  involved  relations with  unfavorable  reputable-looking him been  he  boy  —  i s b a f f l e d and  singled  out  for  the  "real"  go  which  forms  other.  This  union  the of  i t  and  the  Shiga,  the  is  as  basic  on  of to  the  of  man  and  I  hope  to  autobiography  Kensaku's  a  childhood.  from  between tension  Shiga  and  writing  Daisen,.and  short  i n which  from  the  shi-shosetsu  which  the  the  fact,  and  a  dy-  this write  of  tension  nature show  resolu-  very  autobiography  that,  Tokito  ultimate this  in  work.  i s ,  then,  i t s meaning.  episodes  are  to  opens w i t h  l  "grandfather":  as  in  the  i t i s because  work  part  An, ya K o r o Hero's  is  the  good  Koro  novel,  form  between m a n / a r t / c i v i l i z a t i o n  the  in  Mount  that  Kensaku  regard a  on  An'ya  find  on  resolved  scene  regard  tension  nature  is ultimately climactic  the  and  novel's  that  larger  inevitably felt,  An'ya  the  the  "primitivist", of  of  aesthetic,  of  the  this  and  Furthermore,  "fictional"  With  of  his  Kensaku  A l l five family.  Kensaku's  the so  when  resentful this  entitled,  recalls deal  In  —  the  he  is  Kensaku  that  of  is  of  "The major  his  first  difficult,  i t is  his  the  old  man  "seedy"  and  dis-  sent  a l l his  s p e c i a l treatment,  five  with  impressions  beginning that  prologue  to  live  family  although  he  with has  "since  my  infancy The  I h a d come  second  mother.  Once,  to expect  episode when  concerns  h e was  four  found  him perched  dangerously  there  by r i v e t i n g  force  cued as  family. ever  "For years  my  mother  The  third  mother.  father to  When  some.  really  or  t o be  so  long  loved  high  by  my  also  she r e f u s e s  was  done  with  tears  whatever  relations cake  t o soothe  continues  " t o c r y my i tdidn't my  with  that h i s  i n retrospect,  wanted  when-  g  h i m some  —  memory  ofhis  to myself:  much."  him  res-  this  and a g g r e s s i v e l y  a t , o r t o be b e a t e n  as something  f i l l  remarks  he o n l y  be  o n e member  Kensaku's  to give  he p e r s i s t e n t l y  the cake,  shouted  very  h i s mother  he c o u l d  thought  with h i s  She h e l d  cherishes  would  concerns  As t h e n a r r a t o r  want  until  at least  me  old,  on a r o o f .  eyes  loved  relations  years  still  And I have  at least episode  or five  Kensaku  after,  i t .  has bought,  demand  not  he was  I remembered  else,  his  that  Kensaku's  o f h e r eyes  by two m a n s e r v a n t s .  a proof  injustice."  he d i d  heart out,  matter  nerves,  which,  to get r i d  9 of  the t e r r i b l e  picture feels see,  feeling  of himself  sorely stay The  him i n t o  fourth  epiaode  his  grandfather's  The  house  was  characters,  as a r a t h e r  neglected  with  of oppression."  —  that,  boy  a s we  a  who are to  adulthood. concerns  house where  dropped  he p a x n t s  high-strung  characteristics  a gathering-place  who  gloomy,  Thus  the young  "everything  Kensaku's was  f o r a l l sorts  i n at night  to play  life  slovenly.""'" of  cards.  at 0  disreputable Kensaku's  - 118 only  c o n s o l a t i o n was  who  acted  own  m o t h e r wad  and  was  her  knees  would  as  a  in a  feel  grandfather's  young  kind  of  s u b s t i t u t e mother  dead  by  then).  mood,  "she  good  and  his  hold  such  me  would  tight  ecstasy  When  then,  f o r him  she  had  pick  i n her  me  up  a  few  drinks  and  put  me  thick  cared  Oei,  (since his  had  strong,  I hardly  mistress,  on  arms,  that  I  I  could  not  breathe."^ In  the  with  his  good  mood,  starts comes  a  feelings  he  so a  away b y  this  the  with  first  other  and rage  and  opening  w r i t t e n by  might  begin  answer by  in  man". way  There the  provides  case  the  the  an  poses  answer.  he  the  Why  arise, i s : why  their is  roughly  h e l p l e s s on  i n the  of  of  themes child  f o r which  and  t o me,  i s Kensaku's  in  use  this  with  a We  i t forms motifs,  i s father of  the  floor,  person?  that  suspenseful  is  the  Shiga  first  course,  he  father.  i t seems does  be-  true  persists,  his  a  What  suddenly  third-person novel  "the  questions  him.  two  still  lies  novel's  element  with  Kensaku  towards  hero  particularly  i s even  prologue  long  saying,  introduction to  Kensaku's  As  relating  father i s in  allow  surface.  Koro, a  the  both  when he  i s shown  his  between  hatred  An'ya  prologue  splendid  to  day  to wrestle  t h a t must  short  to  Kensaku  they  foot.  question  of  whep  f a t h e r and,  consideration of device  boy  play-fight  each  hand  episode  particular  invites  his  bound  unusual  final  i n earnest  towards  The  On  harmless  is filled  any  he  fight  finally  and  father.  as  pushed  fifth  mystery novel  grandfather  a  since the in  the  proper  presented  - 119 as  such  ually  an  singled  cluding why  and  seduced  was  away  from  through One  --  i n the  giving  his  and  see, --  of  pages  a w r i t e r of  person  of  away.  the  duces  the  as  just  how  the  with  his II  when M s  father?  of  the  mother  "father"  product  night" begins prologue  And  his  that his  i s the  skillfully  struggle to  of  at  shows,  ^prologue,  .(We  are  t o me  least  this  the  continues  the  An'ya  Koro  as  Shiga  concept  form  well.  a  rest  By  at  The of  least  fictional  at  the  again  of  fate"  same  serves  time,  Hemingway's  "thing left  out".)  another  potentially,  prologue,  the  i t as  accomplishes  "dark  his  i t e s t a b l i s h e s Kensaku  novel,  have p r e s e n t e d  casting  his  prologue  important:  might  actually of  the  itself. the  here  strategic  so,  introduces  without,  reminded  that  as  Shiga  overcome  the  s h i - s h o s e t s u and  in this  Kensaku,  and,  i c e b e r g " and  written, like  and  material by  that  been  "grandfather"  with  in Part  Kensaku,  "dark  of  i s at  have  comes  Kensaku s  Kensaku's  function  author  answer  himself  then,  i t seems  the  relations  with  family, i n -  his grandfather?  in his  1  Nevertheless,  as  the  his  relations  t h a t he  his birth  much  "principle  animosity  Thus  with  by  contin-  childhood.  few  too  live  tension in his  supposed  home  i s Kensaku h i m s e l f  treatment  discover, along  of  may  theme  o f f to  questions  union.  his  Why  "unjust"  certain  by  moment  major  a  these  was  very  for  shipped  w h e n we  "sinful"  character?  outright  a l l of  novel,  out  being  i s there  mother To  unsavory  a  after i n the  as  a l l ,  might  third  i t s "introductory"  shi-shosetsu written  three  t h i n g s : he  character being  the  intro-  author  of  a work  that  Shiga  himself  whole  novel  we  know, o f c o u r s e ,  (thus  preparing  i s a l s o meant  ter) ; and f i n a l l y , and  t h e complex  involves, shosetsu the  only  author  notably to  since  the  question  like  been  one m i g h t upset  which  forms  since  the novel  between  Shiga  Firstly,  c i l i a t i o n , 1917), person  although  while  own  person,  t o have balance  there  f o r instance,  calling  himself  of the s h i Shiga  as most  i s purposely  greatly  made  revered  go on t o w r i t e  presenting  done  i t out-  of Tokito  senses  be answered i s a  between  as Wakai Shiga  (  as a  "fiction-  o n two  differ-  identity large  necessary  himself  and Kensaku.  4fO  does w r i t e  by a f i c t i t i o u s  reality But  are also  i t was  have  and  "spiritual"  there  Kensaku?  so would  of fiction  so t h a t  some d i s t a n c e such  that i t  aesthetic tension.  must  i n the novel,  itself,  elements,  d i d not Shiga  and h i s p r o t a g o n i s t ,  shi-shosetsu  who  i n two d i f f e r e n t  the question  to establish  a lengthy  why  that  genre  regard  fictitious  charac-  of the o l d school).  underlying  operates  of fiction  example  as the shi-shosetsu  answer  that the  reality"  ( i f we  t o Shiga's  i n the f i r s t  the novel's  the author  elements  In  several  the delicate  autobiography", levels.  Kensaku  arises:  the prologue,  t o have  "pure"  -- a samurai  then  the idea  versus  of the grandfather,  of the novel  Generally,  for  i tcontains  w r i t t e n by  the shi-shosetsu  i s a  q u a authored'-By  then  actually  been w r i t t e n by t h i s  of " f i c t i o n  the prologue  grandfather  rest  right,  ent  t o have  be d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s i t e  The  al  problem  was  us t o a c c e p t  he i n t r o d u c e s  the character  paternal  120 -  Reconi n the  first  name, b u t t h i s  - 121 work By  is a  direct  writing  that  An'ya  i t i s not  earlier  wished  or  otherwise)  the  On  but  for this  An'ya  contrary, as  shi-shosetsu  we  novel"). to  first  Tayama a l l ,  view.  cause  I  i f he the  wants  with  discuss  as,  this  not  know  i t ,  so,  throughout  the  world  1  entirely  of  enough  his  to  show,  ("fictional" the  shi-shosetsu  some d i s t a n c e  through  i s , i t seems  novel's central  the his  wrote  the  from  rest  of  shi-shosetsu. direction.  h i s own was  genre  --  "pure"  by  ho  including ("'I'  for a writer  change  semblance case  brief  fate"  person  i t s designation  but  i s told  "dark  third  i n this  practise  i n the  one  i n the  Kensaku's  some  i n t h e p r o l o g u e , we  Kensaku s  the  as  I hope  to point  despite  later,  boy  to  i t as  to maintain  the  there  —  important point,  shall  Just  person,  of  But  needed  more  i t i s easy  the wholennovel,  of  as  on  Shiga usually  Katai  is  that  t o me  seen,  But  tion  work,  being written  regarding  i t seems  ality. that  he  notice  autobiographical  commentary  also  life.  serves  shi-shosetsu  among o t h e r w r i t e r s  After  "he"  from  i n the  "founder",  Koro's  have  means u n i v e r s a l  "I"  extended purpose  p r e v e n t us  Although,  the  an  a  h i s own  p e r s o n , he  in this  not merely  from  itself.  not  the  events  third  Furthermore,  Secondly, does  i n the  of  straight-forwardly  to write  and  form  Koro  so  works.  he  genre,  transcription  important  not  because the  of  o f An'ya  from  do  to  fictionKoro, excep-  Kensaku's know he  the  point root  himself  novel,  we  does  perceive  eyes.  t o me,  t h e m e , why  a deeper Kensaku  reason,  s h o u l d be  related made  to  - 122 write h i s s p i r i t u a l reason  autobiography  which I s h a l l  more d e t a i l  briefly  later.  i n the t h i r d  outline  here  person,  a  but return to i n  T h r o u g h o u t t h e n o v e l we a r e p r e s e n t e d  again  and a g a i n w i t h  bring  any o f h i s s h i - s h o s e t s u t o a s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n .  the novel's tached his  end we know why: he h a s b e e n i n s u f f i c i e n t l y  from the c o m p l i c a t i o n s o f h i s l i f e  own t y r a n n i c a l l y  quite naturally, an  author  Only  comes w i t h free  egotistical  s e l f ; without  i t has b e e n i m p o s s i b l e  when he h a s a c h i e v e d  his final  union with  novel  de-  this  detachment,  f o r h i m t o w r i t e , as h i s l i f e or  t h e supreme d e t a c h m e n t  nature  novel c a l l e d  i n the t h i r d  An'ya K o r o .  on Mount D a i s e n  person,  then,  That  that  i s he  Shiga  continues  The c h a p t e r  though, i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t : acquaintance,  in  fact,  Sakaguchi.  i t leaves  "a n a s t y  "mounting d i s l i k e  i n the f i r s t even  chap-  satirical  a scene r e m i n i s c e n t o f "Aru A s a " :  to sleep, reading  hours o f the morning.  an  self.  b u t now i n a l i g h t e r ,  opens w i t h  the p r o t a g o n i s t , unable early  h i s new-found d e -  the shi-shosetsu motif  of the novel proper,  vein.  he h a s w r i t t e n t h e  signifies  tachment from h i s f o r m e r l y o p p r e s s i v e  the  By  t o w r i t e -- a n d , I w o u l d a r g u e , what he goes on t o w r i t e  this  ter  to  a n d , above a l l , f r o m  o f s h i - s h o s e t s u must d o , a b o u t e i t h e r  himself.  is  Kensaku as a f r u s t r a t e d w r i t e r unable  i n bed u n t i l the  What K e n s a k u i s r e a d i n g  here,  i t i s a s h i - s h o s e t s u w r i t t e n by And i t does n o t p l e a s e  Kensaku;  t a s t e i n h i s mouth" and c o n f i r m s  f o r Sakaguchi"  t h a t he h a s f e l t  f o r some  12  time.  He t h r o w s t h e s t o r y a s i d e a n d , i n t e r e s t i n g l y  enough,  seeks  refuge  i n a 'harmless  123  -  little  book",  a  "historical  ro-  13 mance"  called  Tsukahara  swordsman  of  dialectic  i s introduced  very  the  beginning But t h e r e  afternoon, on  him,  at  first  Muromachi  (the  period).  in a  rather  he  finds  that  with  refuses  to  Sakaguchi  another  see  adventure  Thus  the  humorous  of the novel. i s more. When K e n s a k u  together  arev'then  Bokuden  awakes  himself  Sakaguchi,  but  a  master  fiction/reality fashion  the  has  acquaintance,  of  at  following  come  to  Tatsuoka.  quickly  the  call Kensaku  relents.  We  told:  The s t o r y by S a k a g u c h i t h a t K e n s a k u had f o u n d s o unp l e a s a n t was a b o u t a man who h a s an a f f a i r w i t h h i s f i f t e e n - y e a r - o l d housemaid; the housemaid becomes p r e g n a n t and i s s e n t t o an a b o r t i o n i s t . Kensaku t h o u g h t i t m o s t l i k e l y t h a t i t was b a s e d o n t h e author's own experience. The f a c t s d e s c r i b e d were i n t h e m s e l v e s unpleasant e n o u g h ; b u t w h a t h e r e a l l y d i s l i k e d was the o b v i o u s f l i p p a n c y of the author. He c o u l d h a v e f o r g i v e n t h e f a c t s i f h e h a d b e e n a l l o w e d t o f e e l some s y m p a t h y for the p r o t a g o n i s t ; but the f l i p p a n c y , the supercilio u s n e s s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t (and o f S a k a g u c h i ) l e f t no room f o r s u c h sympathy. He was a n g e r e d , t o o , b y t h e way the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s f r i e n d , who he was c e r t a i n had b e e n m o d e l e d on himself, was described. 14 Because ing  Sakaguchi  observer,  harboring  protrays what  him  in  amounted  the to  a  story  as  "an  unknow-  secret  longing  that  Sakaguchi  for  15 the  girl",  would  have  the the  irate  nerve  to  Kensaku  is surprised  come c a l l  on  him.  Had he e x p e c t e d t o g e t a n a n g r y l e t t e r f r o m K e n s a k u and when i t d i d n ' t come, become u n e a s y and b e g u n t o f e e l t h r e a t e n e d by t h e u n c a n n y s i l e n c e ? Or had he come t o p l a y t h e s t a g e v i l l a i n , g l o a t i n g o v e r h i s own nastiness? He h a d b e t t e r b e c a r e f u l , K e n s a k u t h o u g h t , o r I ' l l g i v e h i m a p i e c e o f my m i n d . Thus h i s f a n c i e s  <- 124 a b o u t S a k a g u c h i became l e s s a n d l e s s r e s t r a i n e d ; a n d b y t h e t i m e he h a d f i n i s h e d w a s h i n g h i s f a c e , he was i n a state of considerable agitation. 16 When K e n s a k u Tatsuoka guehi s  i s equally  imagined",  the  sort  backs." the  convinced  unintelligent  1  is  joins h i s guests,  face  "He s a y s  Kensaku,  "but I doubt  he t e l l s  Sakaguchi o f these  write  about  most  that  f o r Saka-  of the story  i t .  He's  just  h i s friends behind  . maintains  himself  he f i n d s  he i s t h e model  character.  of fellow who'll  17  that  however,  their  . . silence i n  a haughty  accusations:  One t h i n g a t l e a s t was c l e a r - - h e was e n j o y i n g himself, Why e l s e w o u l d h e h a v e t h a t s m i r k o n h i s f a c e ? In h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a s h i o n , h e was f l a u n t i n g h i s s u p e r iority. 18 When h e f i n a l l y two  men come  retreat, was  close  because  not only  tries  to s i l e n c e Tatsuoka,  t o blows.  But Sakaguchi  h e i s "no m a t c h  twice  as l a r g e  though, the  must b e a t  f o rTatsuoka  but a third-grade  a  hasty  p h y s i c a l l y , who black  belt i n  19 judo." of  Kensaku  mediator  that  between  the firend  though, this  finds himself  would  i n the story  be t o admit  "unadmirable" i s such  you  really  have  you  should  see yourself  the  i s only  character,  saku,  the real  Sakaguchi.  i s Tatsuoka. he sees  some  might  i n himl'"  hoping  that,  model,  from  not  easily  between  Sakaguchi,  ask:  even  to think  that  by d o i n g  s o , he w i l l  breaking  about i t ,  "'Do  own c h a r a c t e r  Kensaku  role  convinced  similarity  so t h a t  a low o p i n i o n o f your 20  pretending  the unexpected  To p r o t e s t  and h i m s e l f ,  " s l i p p e r y customer", such  into  B u t he i s s t i l l  that  character  who  Tatsuoka  a  t h e two.  thrust  that  suspects  that  he i s t h e model f o r prevent  o f fh i s f r i e n d s h i p  Kenwith  At any r a t e , one t h i n g these r a t h e r convoluted  agonies  of s u s p i c i o n seem t o i l l u s t r a t e , with more than a touch o f humour, are the o c c u p a t i o n a l  hazards o f a w r i t e r o f s h i - s h o -  s e t s u , the p e r i l s of mixing f i c t i o n with r e a l i t y .  Although  the scene approaches f a r c e when the engineer and the w r i t e r almost come t o blows, there of s e r i o u s comment here.  i s , nevertheless,  To begin with,  an undercurrent  S a k a g u c h i s s t o r y , as 1  an account o f the author's a f f a i r w i t h h i s young maid, i s highly reminiscent  o f Tayama K a t a i ' s Futon  Q u i l t , 1980), the f i r s t  ( ^  The  " n a t u r a l i s t " shi-shosetsu  Jpaan, and the work which f i r s t p o p u l a r i z e d  o f modern  t h i s genre.  Shiga,  then, seems t o be s e r v i n g n o t i c e here t h a t h i s shtb-shosetsu i s to be i n some important way d i f f e r e n t t o those o f Tayama and  the " n a t u r a l i s t s " .  How he p e r c e i v e s  t h i s d i f f e r e n c e be-  comes c l e a r i f we look again a t Kensaku's c r i t i c i s m o f Sakagushi's him  story.  I t i s not the "unpleasant" f a c t s t h a t  disburb  (and the " n a t u r a l i s t s " were w e l l known f o r wallowing i n  the mud), i t i s the unsympathetic a t t i t u d e of the author and of the p r o t a g o n i s t ,  h i s a l t e r ego.  "He c o u l d have f o r g i v e n the  f a c t s i f he had b e e l allowed t o f e e l some sympathy f o r the prot a g o n i s t ; but the f l i p p a n c y , the s u p e r c i l i o u s n e s s of thevpro21 tagonist The  (and o f Sakaguchi) l e f t no room f o r such sympathy."  cynical protagonist  i s shown c u r e l l y m i s t r e a t i n g the young  maid f o r h i s own amusement, although the r e a l g i r l was, as 22 Kensaku knows, "innocent  and good-hearted".  In other words,  Sakaguchi l a c k s the one q u a l i t y t h a t i s a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l i n a w r i t e r of s h i - s h o s e t s u :  sincerity.  I f the author l a c k s  126  -  this  q u a l i t y then so,  and  h i s w o r k , no  fall  flat  our  inevitably, will  m a t t e r how  because,  as  have  seen, By  acter  Kensaku t e l l s  spirit  Shiga  and  aesthetics), already his  has  suggested  a w r i t e r --  and  go  on  of  cause;  his  seem o u t  this of  even of  his  self-doubts  revealed,  by  identifies  to  arouse  all-important as  we  between p e r s o n a l  this  very  he  with on  he  t o n e , we  the the  b e c a u s e o f w h a t he  can  Succeed  their  rather  himself  a d m i t s , by  disagreeable basis  of  any  perceives  not  and,  trivial only  the  very  character  a  agi-  finally,  external  as  tlais  some  mental  almost paranoia,  as  in  given  a n g e r and to  have solve  Already are  harmless Tatsuoka;  as  I  Kensaku must  novel.  his  Japanese  theme t h a t  before  a l l proportion to  (a  in traditional  novel:  char-  shi-shosetsu  f o r the  problem:  the  Sakaguchi, not  entirely  us  self"  s u s p i c i o n , amounting  Sakaguchi but  trayed  will  w r i t e r which,  w r i t i n g of  i t s almost comic  depths of  t h a t he  persona,  fail  about t h a t  and  the  the  to write  of  fact  i n the  "problem of  hints  which  i t will  relation  i s c e n t r a l to  scene, despite  tation,  close  also prepares  first  the  us,  bring  fictional  intellectually,  always been emphasized  Shiga  fundamental  his  called'"rhythm".  aesthetic value that  not  between reader  establishing this  relation  but  brilliant  sympathy, i . e . , i t w i l l  communion o f  -  por-  evidence  "similarity  of  character".^ On as  the  other  hand, t h i s  clear indications that  Kensaku.  In  telling  opening  there  contrast  to  scene  also  i s much t o be the  smug,  gives  hoped  us  for  just from  self-satisfied  Sakaguchi,  Kensaku i s at l e a s t aware —  something w i t h i n him i s s e r i o u s l y awry.  painfully  aware -- t h a t  He admits  that he i s being " f a r too s u s p i c i o u s of Sakaguchi" "ever s i n c e h i s experience with A i k o " , he has  to himself and t h a t ,  found i t i n c r e a s -  24 i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o t r u s t people".  (As i s c o n s i s t e n t with  t h i s being Kensaku's s h i - s h o s e t s u , h i s own ness", we do not understand in  the n o v e l ) .  "stream of c o n s c i o u s -  t h i s r e f e r e n c e to "Aiko" u n t i l  He a l s o admits  later  t h a t he does not " l i k e t h i s  ten-  2 dency i n h i m s e l f , but there was  not.much he c o u l d do about i t . "  N e v e r t h e l e s s , by t h i s very a c t of p a i n f u l self-awareness, has taken the f i r s t  step on the road t h a t w i l l l e a d him  mately out of h i s "dark n i g h t " .  What t h i s f i r s t  us, i n Shiga's admirably economical u n l i k e h i s f e l l o w - w r i t e r , Sakaguchi,  he  ulti-  scene shows  f a s h i o n , i s t h a t Kensaku, possesses  at l e a s t  the  s i n c e r i t y necessary to make progress as a human being --  and  so as a w r i t e r of s h i - s h o s e t s u . Throughout the remainder  of P a r t I of the n o v e l , however,  Kensaku's development seems more i n the nature of a progress".  He begins to frequent the teahouses  the brodihels of Yoshiwara,  "rake's  and, e v e n t u a l l y ,  conducting l i a s o n s with  several-  different  g e i s h a , but without b e i n g r e a l l y s a t i s f i e d with  any  of them.  U l t i m a t e l y he must admit to h i m s e l f h i s i n a b i l i t y  c o n t r o l h i s sexual d e s i r e s , as he admitted e a r l i e r t h a t he could not c o n t r o l h i s s u s p i c i o n s ; and t h i s too i s a symptom of some deeper m a l a i s e :  to  - 128 The t r u t h was t h a t he was drawn t o almost every woman he saw...And before he c o u l d stop h i m s e l f , he was asking himself the unwelcome q u e s t i o n : "What i s i t t h a t I want?" He knew the answer; but i t was so unp l e a s a n t , he wanted t o hide from i t . 26 F i n a l l y , Kensaku's sexual d e s i r e becomes f i x e d on O e i , his  "grandfather's"  ex-mistress  as^-a k i n d of housekeeper.  who i s now l i v i n g with him  He r e c o g n i z e s  i n s t i n c t i v e l y , though  t h a t h i s i n c r e a s i n g " s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e " might l e a d him now t o v i o l a t e some deep taboo, which c o u l d prove d i s a s t r o u s : With every p a s s i n g day, h i s s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e became more intense. As h i s l i f e grew more a n a r c h i c , so d i d h i s mind, and h i s lewd f a n t a s i e s about Oei became more and more uncontrolled. He wondered f e a r f u l l y what would happen to them i f h i s present c o n d i t i o n were t o p e r s i s t . T h i s woman, who had been h i s grandfather's m i s t r e s s , was almost twenty years o l d e r than he. He imagined . t h e i r f u t u r e together. What he saw — and he shrank before the p r o s p e c t -- was h i s own d e s t r u c t i o n . 27 As P a r t I ends, Kensaku decides  t h a t he must g e t away  from Tokyo f o r s i x months o r a year, t o t r y t o come t o g r i p s with h i m s e l f on h i s own, away from Oei and from the d i s t r a c t i o n s of h i s p e r p e t u a l l y c a r o u s i n g  friends.  he a l s o hopes t h a t i n s o l i t u d e he w i l l  As he t e l l s  Oei,  "get a l o t of work  28 done".  T h i s i s the f i r s t  important  statement i n the novel  of the l i n k between Kensaku's s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g and h i s capacity to write.  A l s o , by going  away t o face h i m s e l f  he acknowledges, a t l e a s t u n c o n s c i o u s l y ,  t h a t h i s fundamental  problem does not l i e i n h i s e x t e r n a l circumstances inner condition — beginning  which he alone can change.  o f a process  of p r o g r e s s i v e  alone,  but i n h i s  T h i s i s the  "internalization" i n  Kensaku's  perception of  culminates fronts  i n the  h i s own to  seek  fashion  at  the  on  As michi,  a  Inland  Sea,  an  Mount  end  II  of  of  mind  at  the  opens,  Kensaku  Daisen  has  the  the  also  which,  novel His  going  traditional  of  Part  i s on  to  several years  as  deck,  the  he  shall  openly  see,  con-  hermetical  Oriental  his  final  "re-  IV.  h i s way  the  we  into  foreshadows  end  chosen  as  when he  town b e a u t i f u l l y  ship's  prelude  problem  i n the  Daisen  he  -  egotism.  I  on  important  of  Part  which  alone  own  part  small provincial  Standing is  peace  Mount  Part  final  "tyranical"  retreat  treat"  his  129  by  ship  situated  site  of  his  to on  Onothe  retreat.  has  an  experience  experience  he  will  have  that on  later:  Above and below, t o h i s r i g h t and l e f t , t h e darkness stretched without limit. And h e r e he was, standing i n the v e r y m i d d l e o f t h i s enormous thing...He alone s t o o d f a c e t o f a c e w i t h n a t u r e , as m a n k i n d ' s c h o s e n representative. But t o g e t h e r w i t h t h i s exaggerated s e n s e o f s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e came t h e h o p e l e s s f e e l i n g t h a t h e was a b o u t t o b e s w a l l o w e d u p b y t h e g r e a t darkness a r o u n d him. I t was n o t a l t o g e t h e r u n p l e a s a n t . He fought against i t nevertheless. As i f t o p r o v e t o h i m s e l f h i s own p r e s e n c e , h e t i g h t e n e d t h e m u s c l e s i n h i s l o w e r abdomen and b r e a t h e d d e e p l y . As s o o n as he stopped d o i n g s o , h o w e v e r , he a g a i n f e l t i n d a n g e r o f b e i n g s w a l l o w e d up. 29 It "let he  i s obvious  go"  and  already  from  this  t h a t Kensaku  completely  lose  himself  recognizes  unpleasant'. .  And  "exaggerated  sense  1  the  other  side of  that  i t i s also of  the  i n nature,  experience  obvious  what  self-importance" —  which  i s fear,  the  i s not  fear  is  yet even  "not  ready though  altogether  i s stopping  him:  i . e . , h i s ego of  to  losing  his --  himself,  of  being  Zen  "swallowed  is called  way  his  own  Kensaku  this  At the  enough  himself  the  This  was  be  a  prologue,  first  The  "hero's  to  for  that  to  his has  the  I  spoke such  writing  at  of  this  the  prove  to  had  from  part of  being  his  the  embrace egotism  requires.  he  life  on  felt  relaxed  been  planning.  childhood  to  in  to  and  peaceful  he  begun  prologue's before  is  what  tightens  course,  least  life  of  excessive  his  reminiscences-"  lacks  continue  of  project  he  written  he  i f to  that  "At  speculate,  detachment  fact  inability  may  "as  eventually,  Onomichi.  words,  Kensaku  way,  well  on  fear  ),  moment, h i s  long-range  i t was  "post-Daisen"  to  responds  other  account  Zen  self-surrender  a  we  deeply,  the  work b a s e d  the  person:  come  this  ^  The  for  above  specifically,  would  of  on  p r e s e n t . I n  This  will  Kensaku  start to  (mu  breathes  but,  kind  first  to  counteract  presence".  mountainside  the  and  nothingness;  prevents  To  "nothingness"  abdominal muscles himself  up".  -  130  write  to  An'ya  the Koro  that  later  his  childhood.  written  Kensaku had  becomes  in  the  attained  the  earlier.  detachment  is  OnomicM.  A  shown by writer  of  his shi31  shosetsu, but  this  Kensaku, touched  as  Shiga  often for his  once  involves  instance, mother's  four-year-old,  and  said,  must  painful  introspection  i s troubled  genitals while  having  been  "mine" what  by  a  and  memory  sleeping  reprimanded  by  is in  of  with her  him,  self-analysis. having her  as  a  for doing  He f e l t shame s t i l l a s h e r e m e m b e r e d t h e i n c i d e n t . He was a l s o p u z z l e d by t h e memory. W h a t . h a d made h i m do such a thing? Was i t c u r i o s i t y o r was i t some k i n d o f  so.  -  -  131  u r g e ? . . . P e r h a p s , h e t h o u g h t w e t c h e d l y , he h a d i n h e r i t e d s u c h an i n c l i n a t i o n ; p e r h a p s e v e n w i t h s u c h t h i n g s , one may be c u r s e d by t h e s i n s o f o n e ' s f o r e f a t h e r s . I t was w i t h c h i l d h o o d r e m i n i s c e n c e s l i k e these, then, t h a t he b e g a n h i s w r i t i n g . 32 But, ories,  after  the  Kensaku: pace,  presence  "For  and  tory.  "As  his  a month  of  about  both  Then  And:  about  daily  work  past  a month  gradually  his  the  of  reawakening becomes  h i s work  life  and  faltered  he  health  began  began  p a i n f u l mem-  a b i t too  progressed  his  everything  such  much  at  a  seemed  for  steady satisfac-  to d e t e r i o r a t e . "  to  s u f f e r from  33  the  mono-  34 tony  of  then,  his  a  life.  Every  somewhat more  shi-shosetsu  than  and  demands  one  that  detachment,  since  Finding, during turns  solifiude to  an  Nobuyuki, Nobuyuki's adamantly son  why  from  the  that  external him  she  must:  his the  whom s h e  was  mistress  piece  of  information  sense  of  self;  the  yet,  to  in  good  "shoddy,  shock;  but  him  the  blow  that  to  of  very  writing scene,  self-  to  his  does  brother, to  Oei.  Oei  the  rea-  o l d man" This  up  Kensaku  marriage  reveals  to  builds  bear,  only  father. yet  of  subject.  common, w o r t h l e s s  deepest to  not  Nobuyuki  real  of  writes  proposal  i s Kensaku's i s the  he  have,  opening  deal  f o r him  we  hazards  pressure  for relief:  double  the  principle  much  his  Here  novel's  a  internal  proposal,  i t shakes  of  the  is his  convey a  same."  writer  too  source  answer b r i n g s refuse  the  "self"  the  example  presented  i s , as  asking  was  serious  was  then,  day  to  unwelcome  Kensaku's  core.  I t was a l l l i k e a dream t o him. The b e i n g t h a t was h i m s e l f , t h e p e r s o n h e h a d k n o w n u n t i l now as h i m s e l f , seemed t o be g o i n g f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r i n t o t h e d i s tance l i k e a t h i n n i n g mist. 35  - 132 Again, then, Kensaku f e e l s threatened by a sense of "nothingness".  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , what saves him a t t h i s p o i n t i s the sud-  den surge of sympathy he f e e l s f o r h i s dead mother: His mother and t h a t shoddy, common, worthless o l d man — the mere thought of the a s s o c i a t i o n was ugly and unclean. He was then suddenly f i l l e d with overwhelming p i t y f o r h i s mother, h i s mother who had been d e f i l e d by t h a t man. "Mama!" he c r i e d out, l i k e a boy about t o throw h i m s e l f i n t o h i s mother's arms. 36 By t h i s spontaneous  cry from the depths of h i s soui: Kensaku  turns a l l h i s a t t e n t i o n away from h i m s e l f and towards another, thus f r e e i n g h i m s e l f , at l e a s t momentarily, sonal p a i n .  from h i s own  Although t h i s i s an e n t i r e l y i n s t i n c t i v e  per-  action  here, i t i s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , an important i n d i c a t i o n of the  way  t h a t , u l t i m a t e l y , Kensaku must c o n s c i o u s l y embrace: the way s e l f - t r a n s c e n d e n c e , of " f r e e i n g the s e l f from the  of  self".  In the l e t t e r t h a t he sends hack t o h i s b r o t h e r , Kensaku makes i t c l e a r t h a t he i s determined t o make p o s i t i v e use of h i s new  "self-knowledge", however p a i n f u l , both as a man  and  as a w r i t e r of s h i - s h o s e t s u : Through my new knowledge about myself I s h a l l to do my work with g r e a t e r d e t e r m i n a t i o n than And i n t h a t new d e t e r m i n a t i o n I s h a l l seek my There i s no .other way f o r me. By t h a t means, be able to accomplish two t h i n g s at once: do I want to do and f i n d myself. 37  be able before. salvation. I shall the work  Here, then, we have the most e x p l i c i t statement y e t of the i n t i m a t e r e l a t i o n between Kensaku's " f i n d i n g h i m s e l f " and h i s c a p a c i t y to w r i t e .  There a  i s also  some  subject familiar  Nobuyuki  has  will  make  must  try to  by  i t s way  the  his  into  reassure  ironic,  now:  expressed  133  -  almost perils  concern  Kensaku's  comic  comment  of writing  that  the  writings,  here  on  shi-shosetsu.  "family scandal" so  that  Kensaku  him:  I can sympathize w i t h your f e a r l e s t the a f f a i r s of our f a m i l y s h o u l d a p p e a r i n my w r i t i n g s . I cannot promise t h a t t h e y w i l l n o t a p p e a r i n some f o r m o r o t h e r . But I s h a l l t r y t o be c a r e f u l n o t t o c a u s e d i s c o m f o r t . 38 Left is  tempted  sin". he  alone  t o brooS.  But,  knows  with  at  already,  intuitively  able  to  "dissolve"  ture  that  his  thoughts  times  at Onomichi,  about  his being  born  long before  his experience  that  can  relief  his troubled self  surrounds  Kensaku  be  found  i n the  a  naturally  "child  of  on  Mount  Daisen,  only  i f he  is  vast world  of  na-  him:  He made h i m s e l f t h i n k o f t h e v a s t n e s s o f t h e w o r l d around h i m . . . i n t h e m i d s t o f t h i s v a s t n e s s t h e r e was t h i s m i n u t e p a r t i c l e t h a t was h i m s e l f , b u s i l y w e a v i n g a web o f m i s e r y i n the l i t t l e world o f h i s mind. S u c h was h i s c u s t o m a r y way o f c o m b a t t i n g h i s own f i t s of depressiorj. .. 39 Nevertheless, heal  h i s own  turn  to  again  wounded  Tokyo,  into  Kensaku  does  spirit  although  his old life  a l l by  with of  not  yet  feel  himself.  misgivings  that  strong  enough  He  decides  he  might  to  to re-  relapse  dissipation.  T h e t h o u g h t o f - l i v i n g o n c e m o r e t h e way h e h a d d o n e t h o s e l a s t t h r e e m o & t h s i n T o k y o was almost enough t o d e t a i n him. T h e r e was h i s w o r k t o o , n o w h e r e n e a r completion. How c o u l d he l i v e l i k e t h a t a g a i n , he w o n d e r e d , r u s h i n g about f r a n t i c a l l y y e t always w i t h t h a t o p p r e s s i v e f e e l i n g of guilt? 40 Back to  resign  i n Tokyo, from  his  Kensaku company  finds and  that  take  up  h i s b r o t h e r has the  study  of  decided  Zen.  The  - 134 s t a r t l e d Kensaku " c o u l d h a r d l y share Nobuyuki's confidence i n the E f f i c a c y of Zen.  Sen was becoming a w f u l l y f a s h i o n a b l e , 41  and Kensaku n a t u r a l l y f e l t animosity toward  it."  He a l s o  disapproves of the Zen master Nobuyuki has chosen to study with:  "He was the s o r t t h a t spoke to l a r g e audiences a t such  p l a c e s as the M i t s u i Assembly H a l l .  For men l i k e him, who  went about s c a t t e r i n g seed i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y on b a r r e n Kensaku had no r e s p e c t . " T h i s i s the f i r s t An'ya Kore.  ground,  4 2  s i g n i f i c a n t mention  o f Zen Buddhism i n  There i s an i n t e r e s t i n g d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n be-  tween t h i s n o v e l and the "meditation" s e c t t h a t has e x e r c i s e d such an overwhelming i n f l u e n c e on Japanese of  culture.  As some  my comments have already suggested, Kensaku's "journey  through dark n i g h t " -- h i s s t r u g g l e to f r e e h i m s e l f from h i s own egotism and h i s e v e n t u a l achievement with nature — of  o f t h i s by t o t a l " union  f a l l p e r f e c t l y w i t h i n the Zen view o f l i f e and  the b a s i c human predicament.  L a t e r i n the n o v e l , i n f a c t ,  Kensaku i s shown t o be r e a d i n g and admiring the Zen c l a s s i c s : the "enlightenment s t o r i e s " , i n p a r t i c u l a r , "appealed deeply to  h i s s u s c e p t i b l e mind.  And each time he heard the words,  'Thus i n an i n s t a n t t h e r e was enlightenment', he would  feel  43 like cryihgi" told:  And, j u s t before h i s Daisen experience, we are  "Though he knew nothing about Buddhism, such  realms  b e l i e v e d i n by Buddhists as 'nirvana' and 'the realm of b l i s s ' 44 ssemed i r r e s i s t i b l y a t t r a c t i v e t o him." While l i v i n g on  Mount  Daisen,  sesshin  in fact,  (extended  period  Nevertheless, novel, is  so  wise  that  he  with  i s not  humbly  of  we  (an e x a m p l e  the  point,  that try  though,  the  feet  come  culture,  of  some  then,  to  with  terms  ineffable  "Kanzan  1910),  and,  Temple  of  the  Golden  imagine  Zen  of  The  Natsume  Mishima  1956).  Shiga's  Of  tion  of  "orthodox"  Zen,  comes  closest  Zen  experience  of  great  spiritual  who  of  in  Zen. i t has koan  must  go  h i s ego.  As  sitting  45  regarded and  as  part  stories  that  aspect list  Soseki's  Yukio's  i t seems  a  be  novels  Zen.  not,  of  himself  priest". may  does  satori,  man  enormity  though,  tic  that  the  although  (meditation) or of  fundamental  (1916),  Pavilion,  t o me  type  Koro  this  recently,  the  to  Zen  zazen  quoted  Kensaku,  practise  a  in his  master  ideas,  genuine  Japanese  widdom  Jittoku"  more  him  Zen  actual  by  of  An'ya  modern  Ogai's  not  smug  of major  the  is a  because  at  of  saw  Zen  i s that  the  i s definitely  i f only  level,  up  and  " i tdistressed  one  sway  experience  "naturally"  Kensaku  series to  under  which  "indiscriminate"  told:  On  matter,  as  Daisen  the  the  Zen  h i s brother, take  are  on  about  contrast  we  a  feelings  somewhat  --  h i s p e r s o n a l views  but  negative  undoubtedly  way  tract  some r a t h e r  important  own  religious  in i t s  above).  his  a  Zen  opinion of  practise.  and m e d i t a t i o n ) .  about  contemptuous  achieved  Zen  feelings  organized religion  been  attending a  positive  modern  h i s Mount  to  Kensaku's  form  If  close  lectures  Koro  "pure"  to  -  comes  Shiga, whatever  to balance  The  even of  An'ya  135  of  Japanese  includes Mon  a l l these  Gate,  (The works,  despite i t s apparent to p r e s e n t i n g the liberation  Mori  (The  Kinkakuji  of  rejecauthen-  achieved  after  years  very  palpable  something  of  Japanese To to  a  in  effort.  spiritual  power  a  "cult  return to  to  his  spirit II  4  of  the  this  accounts  novel, which  among  for  the  gave i t  several generations  of  itself,  though:  d e s p i t e a l l h i s good  former  and  story  life-style  Yoshiwara.  He  i n body...His  way  of  as  Part  II  resolutions,  f r e q u e n t i n g the  "once more of  life  he  dreams  began  again  to  draws does  teahouses decline,  both  became d i s o r d e r -  6  At from  Perhaps  following"  the  Kensaku  brothels of  ly" . N  painful  -  readers.  close,  return and  of  136  the  the  same  world  time,  of  however,  men,  much  like  a  of  escaping  traditional  entirely  hermit:  He w o u l d f i n d a w o r l d w h e r e t h e v e r y a i r he breathed was d i f f e r e n t . He w o u l d l i v e a t t h e f o o t o f some g r e a t m o u n t a i n , among p e a s a n t s who knew n o t h i n g . A n d i f he c o u l d l i v e a p a r t e v e n f r o m them, a l l the b e t t e r . . . How good i t w o u l d be t o l i v e and e v e n t u a l l y d i e i n t h a t condition — f o r g o t t e n , unknown, u n t o u c h e d by t h e o u t e r world! 47 Walking  through  himself  the  the  spirit  Ginza of  a  one  Zen  n i g h t , he  man  of  old  tries like  to  evoke  within  Han-Shan:  He m u s t l o o k s t r a i g h t a h e a d w i t h t h e e y e s o f a c a l m and c o n t r o l l e d man and n o t l o o k a b o u t h i m n e r v o u s l y as he was w o n t t o d o . He w a n t e d t o b e l i k e a man striding alone through the w i l d e r n e s s i n the t w i l i g h t , unmindful of the c r y i n g p i n e s and t h e w h i s p e r i n g g r a s s . (Had N o b u y u k i s a i d t h e i m a g e was t o be f o u n d i n a poem by Han-Shan?) He w a n t e d t o c a p t u r e t h e s p i r i t o f s u c h a man -- e v e n h e r e on G i n z a . And he d i d n o t a l t o g e t h e r f a i l t o do s o . I n h i s p r e s e n t f r a m e o f m i n d he n e e d e d d e s p e r a t e l y t o c l i n g t o some s u c h i d e a l . 48 As  we  would  expect  from  his present  Kensaku  also  fails  t o make  any  progress  was  long  piece  that  had  worked  the  he  on  mental c o n d i t i o n , in his writing. i n Onomichi  and  "There was  s t i l l  u n f i n i s h e d , b u t he  137  -  d i d not want t o touch  that  for  the  49 time being." Koro of  (Kensaku  itself.)  painful  i s referring  S i n c e he  i s i n no  introspection  shosetsu would  that  require,  he  quarter".  heard  from  two  While  feels  t h a t he  drawing  visiting  geisha the  mood t o e n g a g e i n t h e  the w r i t i n g  work o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f i c t i o n , "gay  h e r e , o f c o u r s e , t o An  on  kind  of h i s lengthy s h i might  try writing  a  h i s experiences i n the  a teahouse  story  ya  one  of Eihana,  n i g h t he  "the most  had  wicked  50 geisha  i n twon",  a girl.  She  whom K e n s a k u h a d  had  trained  b u t had  run  the son  of  b a c k by  h i s p a r e n t s and  pregnant  by  then  own  child  who  turned out  for  a  in  few  and  training  bookseller.  and  she  But  was  t o be  years but  now  Y a n a g i b a s h i , one  of  she  first  She was  she man  had  back  by  was  to live  soon  hers. had  who  She  was  destroyed happened  working  with  taken  as  a  her  along,  disappeared from and  was  ballad-singer  finished  the boy  i t that  w i t h the  a pimp.  was  disowned  rumor had  t a k e n up  p e r f o r m when she  when y o u n g t o become a  away b e f o r e h e r a local  seen  Tokyo geisha  the pleasure q u a r t e r s frequented  by  Kensaku. This within are in ese  the  the  tale  of Eihana  story"  samurai  China,  the  colonial  Mount D a i s e n  that  tale  story  appear  told  by  first  and  of  a series  i n An'ya Koro  of  "stories  (other examples  Naoko's u n c l e , Oei's  of the Korean  authorities about  i s the  misadventures  n o b l e m a n m i s t r e a t e d by  Japan-  the g o s s i p t h a t Kensaku hears  the melodramatic  goings-on  that  surround  on  the  "sluttish"  "Takibi",  wife  this  by  being  seems  ial  "detached"  here  i n this  from  he h a s h e a r d ) ,  has heard.  style"  stories  do have  serve  within like  as  Just  i s made m o r e  acceptable  o f framework  with  words,  Shiga  where,  that  (the story  function,  the best  i t s opposite.  Eihana"  suggests would  within  good  make  these  interest  the author "reporting"  When,  perse,  f o r instance,  literature tales  Koro.  fiction sounds  o f t h e Tokugawa  of the "floating  the f i c t i o n / r e a l i t y  something  world");  dialectic,  to the shi-shosetsu.  to define  here  In other  as  else-  i s by c o n t r a s t  f o r i n s t a n c e , Kensaku's  story,  as  "conventional-  conventional  " a l l that background  a good  mater-  merely  as s t o r i e s  use o f the p r i n c i p l e ,  way  that  presented  of Eihana,  end o f the p o l e  makes  as t h e  f u n c t i o n i n An'ga  traditional,  o u t o f the gesaku  the opposite  Ishimoto  intrinsic  i t s highly coloured  they  (since  he i s merely  Nevertheless,  an i m p o r t a n t  to represent  something  thus  with  their  the novel  period, and  from  saw i n  of Shiga's.  made m o r e p a l a t a b l e b y b e i n g  apart  A s we  so i s the r a t h e r melodramatic  Kensaku  they  kind  Take).  the material —  gossip  Quite  device  material i n "Takibi"  presented  something  o f the woodcutter  i s a favorite  "supernatural"  138 -  friend  stuff  about  Kensaku'sdreaction  i s signi-  ficant: " Q u i t e s o , " s a i d Kensaku w i t h an o b v i o u s l a c k o f e n t h u siasm. "At l e a s t , i t ' s good c o n v e r s a t i o n m a t e r i a l . " T h i s l a s t r e m a r k was u n g r a c i o u s , b u t h e h a d t o make i t ; f o r he r e s e n t e d I s h i m o t o ' s a s s u m p t i o n that the s t u f f o f g o s s i p c o u l d immediately be t r a n s l a t e d into writing. 51 In happened  other does  words,  t h e mere  not qualify  fact  that  something  has  actually  i t as m a t e r i a l f o r a w r i t e r o f s h i -  shosetsu. most  Life  vulgar  select  as  itself  soap  opera,  to  him.  the  tells  us  and  Eihana much  but  -  as  the  full  of  melodrama  writer,  as  an  o n l y what  seems m o s t  as  artist,  the  must  appropriate  and  52  Nevertheless, about  is often  his material  "natural"  139  Kensaku  story  about  as  has  a momentary  material  home  from  of  for his writing,  what m o t i v a t e s  his brother return  change  him  the  as  heart and  a writer.  this  When  he  teahouse:  Nobuyuki recounted f o r Oei's b e n e f i t the story of Eihana. I t was a t a l e t o l d w i t h l i t t l e p i t y a n d i n a s p i r i t o f c e n s u r e a b o u t a woman s t e e p e d i n e v i l . . . K e n s a k u was f i l l e d with anger. He t h o u g h t o f t h a t l i t t l e p a l e - f a c e d g i r l on t h e s t a g e , so h e l p l e s s y e t p r o u d , and w a n t e d t o t e l l them, " I t ' s n o t E i h a n a t h a t ' s bad!" But t h e y had n e v e r s e e n t h e g i r l , a n d t h e y w o u l d n o t know w h a t he meant; and a s he s a t t h e r e t r y i n g t o c o n t a i n h i s a n g e r , i t s u d d e n l y o c c u r r e d t o h i m t h a t t h e r e was s o m e t h i n g he c o u l d w r i t e about. 53 It  is clear,  al  feeling  In  the  sonal  about  case reason  of  then,  something  Eihana,  than  that  the  before  there one  Kensaku must he  i s able  i s , in fact,  indicated  have  an  i n the  a  strong  to write even  above  person-  about i t .  deeper quote:  peras  a  54 "fallen is how  one  woman", s h e crucial  i s he  reminds  him  of  h i s mother.  stumbling-block:  as  an  to w r i t e about  someone  other  author than  S t i l l ,  there  of shi-shosetsu himself?  He t r i e d w r i t i n g a b o u t E i h a n a f r o m h i s own p o i n t o f v i e w ; q u i c k l y i t became e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s t o r y w o u l d b e t o o b a r e t o l d t h a t way, a n d he d e c i d e d t o t e l l i t from her p o i n t of view, g i v i n g h i s i m a g i n a t i o n f r e e rein. He t o y e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f h a v i n g h e r m e e t O m a s a the V i p e r . . . H e l i k e d t h e s t o r y l e s s and l e s s as i t developed. I t seemed t o him t o become p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n t r i v e d a f t e r the heroine's journey to Hokkaido. B e s i d e s , h e f o u n d t e l l i n g a s t o r y f r o m a woman's p o i n t o f v i e w , w h i c h he had n e v e r a t t e m p t e d b e f o r e , f a r m o r e d i f f i c u l t t h a n he had i m a g i n e d . 55 (My e m p h a s i s . )  Here "credo" to  we  as  tell  would  he  be  at  almost of  to  even  Nikki"  moved and  with  own  to  works  of  response most  miring  i t s temples,  his  time  a  woman  p i c t u r e of her  household  and  of  he  not  had  and  such  in a  nearby to  to  saw  thought around  he  a  we  in  projections the  "Kuradiasu  no  have  in.  He  "ancient times,  has temples  inviting  possible.""^  He  the  ad-  old  city,  soaking  happens  who  lonely  was  that,  him  and  house,  the  i f  spirits  ancient  outing  "She  of  whose  a r t works  On:one  find  writing  on.  last  walking  his  (Han's C r i m e ) ,  Japan,  back  chores.  we  indeed,  Kensaku's  we  himself,  "contrived"  identifiable  so  opens,  domesticity  than  "Claudius"  gently  gardens  sight  the  doldrums  just  other  Hanzai"  capital  that  atmosphere.  about  the  view  stories,  no  novel  for  And,  are  Shiga's  least  artificial,  Claudius")  old  peaceful  viting  "Han  of  of  at  fiction.  Kakita",  the  him  young  point  of  statements  that,  protagonists  l e d him  spends  of  any  kind  of  of  the  from  from  from  art  of  shi-shosetsu:  the  III of  Kyoto,  explicit  "fictional"  "Han"  somewhat  -  most  conventional  Diary  Part  the  the  "Akanishi  ("The  revived  risk  the  of  As  of  case,  himself:  of  story  his  every  "Kakita"  a  a  associated  look  one  a writer  t r y to  own  have  140  in i t s  to  presents Kensaku  pleasing  as  and  catch an  in-  she  goes  wholesome  57 sight,  and  in  fact,  or  less  he  that on  the  interestingly tional  was  immediately  the  impulsive  spot.  In  Don  Kensaku  doing  enough, w i t h  characters,  drawn  so,  perhaps  Quixote,  and  to  her."  resolves he the  So to  marry  identifies most  hopes  is  her,  he, more  himself,  famous  that  drawn  his  of  a l l  fic-  new-found  -  141 -  love might r a i s e him above h i m s e l f as d i d the " b l i n d " love o f Quixote f o r D u l c i n e a .  These hopes seem to be r e a l i z e d , a t  f i r s t , when the g i r l and her f a m i l y accept h i s p r o p o s a l and Kensaku s e t t l e s down with h i s new b r i d e , Naoko, to a l i f e o f comfortable  domestic b l i s s i n the b e a u t i f u l suburbs o f n o r t h -  ern Kyoto.  But there i s some suggestion  shi-shosetsu h i s l i f e  i s now a l i t t l e  too comfortable:  would o f t e n s i t a t h i s desk and simply w r i t i n g a word." Marriage,  t h a t , f o r a w r i t e r of  s t a r e a t the view, not  58  though, soon b r i n g s i t s own g r e a t t r i a l s .  a month a f t e r the newly wed couple's  About  f i r s t c h i l d i s born, i t  d i e s a slow, a g o n i z i n g death from e r y s i p e l a s . had  "He  Kensaku, who  f e l t g r e a t d e l i g h t a t becoming a f a t h e r , i s plunged back  i n t o the depths o f d e s p a i r .  He f e e l s g r e a t b i t t e r n e s s towards  what he p e r c e i v e s to be h i s e v i l f a t e , which has destroyed h i s new-found happiness j u s t a t i t s i n c e p t i o n : "why must he be bet r a y e d now, when a f t e r years of j o u r n e y i n g down the dark  road,  he had thought t h a t the w a i t i n g and seeking had not been i n v a i n , t h a t the dawn had a t l a s t come?... he c o u l d not i n the end escape the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he was the v i c t i m o f some e v i l  force  59 bent on h u r t i n g him."  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , then, Kensaku xs s t i l l  i n c l i n e d t o p l a c e the bl-ame f o r h i s misery on some power ext e r i o r to h i m s e l f . t h a t too f a i l s him:  He turns t o h i s w r i t i n g f o r therapy, but "Kensaku sought to immerse h i m s e l f i n h i s  work, which had l a i n d i s c a r d e d too long.  But he f e l t so  weighed down by a sense of f a t i g u e -- i t was l i k e a heavy  - 142 chain  wrapped  mersion."^ of  around Part  0  him  --  that  I I I ends,  he  was  incapable of  then,  with  Kensaku  at  awaits  him,  though,  and  such  the  im-  nadir  his despair. One  final  great'trial  recounted  i n the  to  ten-day  take  a  stranded When h e  there  from  wrong.  He  finally  she  he  she  had  for  power  to  Kyoto,  had  once  turmoil "'I  do  so  Indeed,  this  but  tells  that  she  she  they  does  not  do want  the to  best  is  his  that felt  Taking  had  the  half  him  stay  until of  seduction  f o r both  his wife  and  the  of a l l  capacity  his  late,  resisted  drained  1  to  to  Naoko  lessen Kensaku s  said  she  uncomfortable  overcome  he  and  dis-  advantage  her.  even  her  children,  to  her',  seriously  absence  cards  herself  lost  been  business.  were  played  ambiguous, to  has  immediately  allowed  "felt  soon  nothing  condemn  had  h i m s e l f upon  i s thus  thing  s t i l l  had  s t r u g g l e s b r a v e l y , however, and  they  together  h i s back.  she  During  is  obliged  i s troubling  When  a game  is  "geisha" Kensaku  him.  e v e n t u a l l y she  half  He  and  forced  incident  who  what  played  t h i n k . T h e  Oei,  to reveal  t o massage  resist.  He  thatosomething  night after  but  a  intuitive  Nevertheless,  Kaname h a d  rescue  IV.  behavior,  overtones,  one  Part  s e t up  c o u s i n , Kaname.  time,  rape,  to  the  Naoko  her  offered  some  failing  to  by  and,  situation,  Korea  of  down  erotic  her  to  his wife's  h i s presence.  with  chapters  breaks  Naoko  tinctly in  after  presses  visited and  trip  returns to  sesnses,  was  opening  this  to and  shock.  emotional himself.  himself, repeating  what  he  had  said  to  Naoko  143  the  -  night  before.  'I want  to  for-  6 2 give is  her.'"  easier  not  avoid  tire  than  done:  the  'And  unaware  ness",  of  Suematsu  which  hint  i s provided  he  the  large  "A  ego  I  as  to  be  the  cause  him  the  only  Kensaku's  real  so  badly  moment l a t e r ,  so  by  berates  judges  his  shall 6 3 loser.'"  only  important  labyrinth s t i l l  with  adding,  affair, An  in  said  But,  of  he in  quick,  present  this  could the  this  Suematsu.  Kensaku's  the  fool  out  friend,  of  for  however,  only  way  bruised,  en-  emotional Though "touchi-  "irrational"  way  people.  In m a t t e r s i n v o l v i n g your f e e l i n g s , you r e a l l y are a tyrant. Y o u ' r e a t e r r i b l e e g o i s t , youkknow. True, y o u ' r e n o t a c a l c u l a t i n g p e r s o n , and I s u p p o s e t h a t ' s a good t h i n g . B u t y o u c a n be v e r y thoughtless...Let me p u t i t a n o t h e r way. Perhaps you y o u r s e l f a r e n ' t t y r a n n i c a l ; r a t h e r , i t ' s as though a l i t t l e t y r a n t i s l i v i n g i n s i d e you somewhere. I suppose i t ' s p o s s i b l e t h a t the r e a l v i c t i m i s t h e r e f o r e you." 64 Because admit  to  of  his  himself  the  basic  "sincerity",  t r u t h of  his  Kensaku  friend's  is  forced  to  words.  Kensaku had a l w a y s a l l o w e d h i s e m o t i o n s t o t y r a n n i z e o v e r h i m ; b u t he h a d n o t b e f o r e t h o u g h t t o d e s c r i b e h i s own c o n d i t i o n q u i t e i n these words. Now, a s he r e m e m b e r e d t h e v a r i o u s i n c i d e n t s i n h i s l i f e , he h a d a g a i n t o g r a n t t h a t m o r e o f t e n t h a n n o t he h a d b e e n w r e s t l i n g w i t h h i m s e l f , t h a t h i s enemy h a d b e e n a c r e a t u r e r e s i d i n g w i t h i n him. 65 This tion"  i s the  I mentioned  fundamental he  knows  tion  he  now has  culmination before.  problem that taken  as  of  Kensaku  caused  theproblem a major  the  by lies  step  process now  no  of  longer  "interiorizaperceives  some e x t e r i o r " e v i l within.  towards  his  With  fate"  his —  this  realiza-  spiritual  freedom.  Although now,  at  his  'dark  end  is  going  there least,  to  By  And  a  by  Suematsu.  rest of  the  with  end  of  incident  Kensaku  expect  a l l does  subject  One  day  nearby  toilet  Kensaku get  aboard, She  At  begun  orders  falls  to  be  in  a better  calm  but  rages  Naoko w i t h train  pull  to  onto  out  return  Kensaku,  a  been  shows  born?", isn't  driven  months  later.  child,  of  mind.  that  that  i t  further  few  fact  am  waiting.'"66  mind  another  and On  Kensaku  the is  he  has  by  no  on  an  outing  to  goes  to  use  the  The  train  "as  the  some o t h e r s  s t a t i o n she  is infuriated  her  is  the  thing  "'Perhaps  frame  the  at  "'If I  this  of  from  tensions.  the  to  with  ego  with  sure  lies  having  occurs  is  emerge  asks:  peace  "tyrant" that  to  what  look":  blessed  him  inner  Kensaku  already  been  find  takes  resort.  and  the  unpredictable  his  he  has  seem  to  means r e s o l v e d  off.  to  my  i t a l l there's  by  time  of  "consoling  to  an  of  fighting  point  about  Kensaku  travel  promise  life  the  a  come, he  When K e n s a k u  my  w h a t was  to  must  prophetic  point  still  to  struggles  Suematsu's  would  has  more  d i r e c t i o n he  him,  i f at  surface  a  few  -  the  the  tells  this  one  given  i n s i d e me,  bad,  home  of  spend  Suematsu so  a  night".  also  that's  are  144  by  her  slowness.  when N a o k o home.  in a  tries  When  reflex  she  to  board i t .  persists in  action",  station platform,  trying  pushes  injuring  her  herself  68 slightly. Kensaku could off  that  i s n a t u r a l l y very  s t i l l  the  Thinking  see  train.  the  he  have  shocked  strange  I t was  must  look  by  had his  "some s o r t own  i n Naoko's  unbearable.  Oh  God,  of f i t "  behavior: eyes he  as  "He  she  fell  thought,  I've  -  145 -  69 done  something  what  h i s action  is  indeed  acted,  Naoko's  of  11  1 was me,  you weren't  her  s t i l l  that  he must  going  day. 71  you said  to brood  admit  even  She  about  i t , since expect  y o u do s o m e t h i n g  help  Although  you weren't  But you can't  when  I can't  sadness.  forgiven her i n h i s heart  when  you said  y o u d o r e s e n t me."  suggestion  It  w i t h i n him had  b u t knowing  d i d no one a n y g o o d .  you d i d the other  contemplate 70  self.,  pleased  whiat  not  future relationship."  not really  terribly  and b r o o d i n g  inside,  "he d a r e d  i s one o f deep  of having  t o go on b e l i e v i n g  what  to their  h i s true  reaction  t o hate  hating me  than  Kensaku  hearts:  going  had done  And  a s i f some u n c o n t r o l l a b l e " t y r a n t "  rather  accuses  irreparable."  thinking that  Kensaku  deep  i s angered  h i s forgiveness i s tinged with  that:  " A s y o u s a y , my  like  feelings  by egotism,  aren't  as  72 magnanimous  a s my  ideas."  He  sees  this,  though,  as a  prob-  lem w h i c h he must s o l v e a l o n e . "A d o c t o r may s a y I'm s u f f e r i n g from a nervous breakdown. B u t e v e n i f I am, I d o n ' t w a n t t o 73 go  to a doctor  go  away  f o r help."  t o some m o u n t a i n  myself. As  h i s place  Daisen,  "a h o l y  in  a Buddhist  that  he w i l l  return  jesting:  temple.  this  a year,  time  of the Tendai Before  "concentrate  "He was  for half  of retreat  place  as Buddha".  As a r e s u l t :  indeed  on a t t a i n i n g  leaving  and l i v e  Kensaku 75  sect",  leaving  But there  " I want m e r e l y  chooses  where  he t e l l s  quietly  o f mind  Mount  jokingly  and  i s a serious undertone i n a frame  by  he c a n s t a y  Naoko  Buddhahood"  to  "shall to  this  akin to  that  of  a man  about  to  take  holy orders, but  he  could  objects  similar  hardly  77 tell  Naoko  so."  he  had  he  explains  "I  went  I  made  to  found  work  a  to her  that  h i s motives  Onomichi  to  i t was  i s not  my  few  that  to Onomichi  that  spiritual  When O e i  force  too  years  myself  concern.  w e l l - b e i n g , you  b e f o r e d i d him now  I  failed.  and  done;  But  i n order  to  good,  different:  some w o r k  going  say,  retreat  little  quite  get  and  I'm  might  are  to  difficult,  primary  the  this  to  time,  find  r e c o v e r my  physi-  78 cal  strength."  This  and  how  —  desperate  quest,  now  tism.  And,  writing of  that  he  Kensaku has  although  i s now  his  block  he As  his  has soon  spirits  great  will  his  two  contrast  how  become  about  his  really  arrives  to revive.  between  nature.  the  close  to  was  made  aware  that  such  a world  thought,  that  live  he  though as  not  A  ego-  his author  spiritual  through  the  writer's  novel. vicinity  live  like  h i s own  i s an  o f Mount  i s immediately  who  "As  to break  i n the  He  people  because  --  spiritual  of  inseparable.  him  a l l through  depths  serious  w e l l - b e i n g " and  concern",  live  he  clear  terrible  who  people,  makes  "spiritual  enable  Kensaku  begin  has the  are  also  suffered as  seen  "primary  s h i - s h o s e t s u the  break-through  difference  i n the  city  f o r the  this wild  struck  by  and  the  those  firststime,  existed. cats  Daisen,  in a  There cave,  he are  forever  79 snarling he  at  ascends  man" close less  at to  a  each the  mountain  teashop nature;  times  other;  who "He  and  then  itself,  seems must  there he  is this  comes  across  an  ideal  example  have  gazed  at  before; yet here  he  was,  life."  the  s t i l l  of same  a  When  "serene  a man scene  gazing at  who  old lives  count-  i t without  - 147 apparent boredom...he was l i k e an a n c i e n t t r e e i n the mountains, he was l i k e a moss-covered rock t h a t had been p l a c e d f r o n t of the view.  there i n  I f he was t h i n k i n g a t a l l , he was  as an o l d t r e e or a rock would t h i n k .  thinking  He seemed so t r a n q u i l ,  80 Kensaku envied  him."  Here, then, i s a p e r f e c t image of what  i t means t o be " d i s s o l v e d " i n nature, "mindless" i n the Zen sense, untroubled  by any of the p e t t y concerns of the human  world -- f r e e even of one's own memories, one's, own " i d e n t i t y " . Here i s an image, i n f a c t , o f e v e r y t h i n g  t h a t Kensaku hopes t o  become. There i s another " n a t u r a l " man whom Kensaku meets on the mountain:  Take, the C h r i s t - l i k e carpenter  the temple b u i l d i n g s without pay.  His wife  who  later fixes  i s a notorious  "slut"  with s e v e r a l l o v e r s but Take, i n t e l l i n g c o n t r a s t t o Kensaku, 81 "could not b r i n g h i m s e l f  to hate her".  Kensaku marvels a t  Take's forbearance which, he s p e c u l a t e s , probably comes from " h i s t o t a l understanding of what h i s wife was...Of course Take must have s u f f e r e d , he must be s u f f e r i n g now. 82 how managed to r i s e above h i s misfortune."  Yet he had someT h i s simple  car-  penter, then, has a t t a i n e d the s t a t e of egolessness t h a t Kensaku a s p i r e s t o . In h i s new c o n c i l i a t o r y mood, Kensaku w r i t e s a l e t t e r home t o Naoko. ready occurred  He e x p l a i n s to her the changes t h a t have a l i n h i s s t a t e of mind:  "Since  coming t o t h i s  mountain I've spent a l o t of time l o o k i n g a t the l i t t l e b i r d s , the i n s e c t s , the t r e e s , the water, the r o c k s .  As I observe  - 148 closely to  a l l these  a l l kinds  That  a world  t h i n g s by m y s e l f ,  of feelings which  I find  and thoughts  had never  that  that  existed  they  I hever  f o r me  give  rise  had b e f o r e .  before  has opened  83 itself with  u p t o me  h i s psychic condition  again, to  h a s g i v e n me  We  saku  - - a s we w o u l d now  approach  not only decides  as t o watch  He  i s accompanied  whose  w h a t may  to hike  Koro  already  o f h i s work  be r e g a r d e d  begun  to write  i n his letter  sketch". as the c l i m a c t i c opus.  up t o t h e t o p o f Mount  Daisen  oae  from  by a group  there  the following  o f company  spirits  subdued  sensitivity  been  he h a s a l s o  entire  boisterous holiday  growing  Significantly,  but of Shiga's  the sunrise  s a k u 's own q u i e t ,  of joy."  expect',, a " n a t u r e  o f An'ya  so  his  improved  and he e n c l o s e s a n example  Naoko  scene  a sense  mood.  contrast Indeed,  to nature.  on t h e mountain  employees  When  a fortnight,  night,  morning.  from  Osaka,  sharply with they  share  he t e l l s they  Ken-  Ken-  little  them  ask:  of  he h a s  "How c a n  84 you  stand  given  it?  We'd  a distinct  g o mad  sense  traditional  pilgrim's  mountain":  "Begone  after  of irony chant  two d a y s when  as they  a l l the senses,  here."  We  they  a l l break  into  begin  to ascent  the "holy  l e t the s p i r i t s  are thus a  guide  us  85 to  the clear  state  sky above."  o f mind,  however,  priate  tenor,  coming  experience.  That of  a n d may  Regarded these  have  even be regarded  there are s t i l l ,  worldly egotism  words  from  left  though,  Kensaku's an e n t i r e l y  appro-  as p r o p h e t i c o f h i s  f o r t h e moment,  i n h i m i s made  present  clear  some  by t h e  traces  "competi-  149  -  tive"  feeling  wards  the  he  other  Osaka.  This  pace  theirs,  ing  as the  has,  the  y o u n d men,  makes  after  as  him  in  spite  effects  of  of  only  who  push  a  -  Tokyo  are  on  up  the  man  i n the  a l l from the  fact  "severe  the  group,  rival  mountain  at  to-  city  the  of  same  that  he  is still  suffer-  attack  of  d i a r r h e a " he  had  86 earlier an  that  hour's  strength there the  hike, to  until  group Left  day.  though,  continue. dawn,  and  continues alone  Kensaku  i s now  He  down o n  sits  When  on able the  on the to  the  group  Kensaku He  then up  tells  feels the  that  others  r e t u r n home b y the  mountain  mountain  i n the  commune w i t h  grass  pauses  and  begins  to  rest  he  has  that  no  he  quiet as  about  more  will  himself.  without  nature  after  rest  Reluctantly,  him.  of  the  never  "breathing  night, before.  deeply  through  87 his  nose,  his  way  a  adept  Zen  perhaps  the  eyes  most  closed"  (interestingly,  q u i e t s h i s mind  before  c e l e b r a t e d passage  the  traditional  meditation).  i n a l l of  Then  comes  Shiga:  He f e l t h i s e x h a u s t i o n t u r n i n t o a s t r a n g e s t a t e o f rapture. He c o u l d f e e l h i s m i n d a n d h i s b o d y b o t h gradually merging into t h i s great nature that surrounded him. I t was n o t n a t u r e t h a t was v i s i b l e t o t h e eyes; r a t h e r , i t was l i k e a l i m i t l e s s body o f a i r t h a t wrapped itselftaround him, t h i s t i n y c r e a t u r e no l a r g e r t h a n a poppy seed. To be g e n t l y drawn i n t o i t , and t h e r e be r e s t o r e d , was a p l e a s u r e beyond the power of words t o d e s c r i b e . . . He h a d e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s f e e l i n g o f b e i n g a b s o r b e d b y n a t u r e b e f o r e ; b u t t h i s was the f i r s t time t h a t i t was a c c o m p a n i e d by such r a p t u r e . In p r e v i o u s i n s t a n c e s , t h e f e e l i n g p e r h a p s had b e e n more t h a t o f b e i n g s u c k e d i n by n a t u r e t h a n t h a t o f m e r g i n g into i t ; a n d t h o u g h t h e r e h a d b e e n some p l e a s u r e attached t o i t , h e h a d a t t h e same t i m e a l w a y s t r i e d i n s t i n c t i v e l y t o r e s i s t i t , and on f i n d i n g s u c h r e s i s t a n c e d i f f i c u l t , he had f e l t a d i s t i n c t u n e a s i n e s s . But t h i s time, he had n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t w i l l t o r e s i s t ; and contentedly, w i t h o u t a t r a d e o f t h e o l d u n e a s i n e s s ; he accepted n a t u r e ' s embrace. 88  - 150 It iately by  i s important, preceding  his illness  terous the  great  novel, As  Osaka  gral  trials  experience:  Beyond  this,  have  taxed  o f course,  phrase  And t h i s  o f Zen t r a i n i n g ,  we  throughout  worn o u t  with  the bois-  must  recall a l l  the course  of the  close\to breaking-point.  has i t :  truth  a s we  c o n d i t i o n immed-  thoroughly  o f competing  his spirit  Christian  Kensaku's  he was  he h a s undergone  opportunity." part  t o bote  and by t h e e f f o r t  the familiar  God's  this  men.  which  first,  "Man's e x t r e m i t y i s  has a l s o  know  from  been  the  made  an  inte-  innumerable  . 8' "enlightenment in  which  to  the very  the adept  grip  only  i n this  this  seems  t o be borne  i n nature  loss  of his identity  consciousness  and c e r t a i n l y  out.  before  As he h i m s e l f a similar  (as I have  difference  now  since  r e c e i v e d a good  (as he s a y s ,  many  only  shocks,  has admitted  h i s own  and has c o n s i i o u s l y  one  thing,  coming  to this  had  not the s l i g h t e s t  will  egotism  taken  to resist;  the viseloosened case  i n t h e above  feeling  of being  earlier,  resisted "sucked  have  on t h e  i t , fearing in"). self  greatly  The has  reduced  himself,  a s we  t o be h i s f u n d a m e n t a l  measures  mountain).  pushed  recalls  o n h i m a n d , more i m p o r t a n t l y , Kensaku  seen,  that  of individual  which  Suzuki,  when  c a n be  noted  of being  i s t h a t h i s sense  o f D.T.  i n Kensaku's  he h a d " i n s t i n c t i v e l y "  great  problem  satori  I t i s claimed  when he h a d e x p e r i e n c e d  t o Onomichi),  have  o n human  e x a c t i n g way,  boat  hold  i n t h e works  frequently attains  of egotism  "dissolved"  its  recounted  end o f h i s t e t h e r .  like  passage,  stories"  t o overcome  And s o , " t h i s  i t  time,  and c o n t e n t e d l y ,  (for he  without  - 151 a  t r a c e o f t h e o l d u n e a s i n e s s , he a c c e p t e d Here, then,  creasing of  bare  major works.  outline  sensitive resulted  story,  was p r e s e n t e d :  h i srelations  hyper-  that  inevitably  with others, especially  within the  narrow,  rather oppressive confines of the traditional  family.  By " K i n o s a k i n i t e " he h a s r e c e i v e d a more  shock  to h i sdelicate  but  he a l s o  away f r o m he  his  t h e human w o r l d  h i s equating  such  doubts  towards a state  these  following  the passage quoted  for  o f a way o u t : b y  and towards  estingly,  taken  nature.  regret.  I f this  turning  Nevertheless, that a  as i s evidenced  the s t o r y ' s end, which o f union w i t h death.  above:  "He  to eternity.  felt  this  journey  arise  paragraph  a s i f he h a d  just  Death h e l d no t h r e a t  means d y i n g , he t h o u g h t ,  But t o him then,  by  (Inter-  a r e answered by K e n s a k u i n t h e  a step on t h e road  him.  accident  f o r the degree of s e l f - s u r r e n d e r  doubts  Japanese  severe  -- a n e a r - f a t a l  mergence w i t h n a t u r e would r e q u i r e ,  intellectual  from  of self  i s g i v e n some i n k l i n g  i s not y e t ready  total  sense  four  "Aru Asa",the  how w a s a  y o u n g man t o c o p e w i t h t h e f r i c t i o n s  9o  of i n -  I have t r a c e d through  In h i s earliest  of the problem  from  embrace."  i s the culmination of that process  union w i t h nature which  Shiga's  nature's  I can d i e without  to eternity  d i dn o t  91 s e e m t h e same a s d e a t h . " has  already attained  shared  ience  the Shiga protagonist  some d e g r e e o f u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e b u t ,  a s i t i s among a g r o u p o f c o n v i v i a l  more l i k e lake's  ) In "Takibi"  a p a s s i n g m o o d -- l i k e  surface i n the story of self-surrender  —  friends,  t h e momentary calm  rather than  that the solitary  this  of the  the profound Kensaku  seems  exper-  undergoes,  an  experience  one f e e l s  on  t h e man's w h o l e  will  being  a l l t h e s t a g e s we  stories,  b u t i n much  cal as  Kensaku  those  end  there.  A s we  perception Asa"  that  with  inated that  other  the root  of liberation  seen,  something  and i n An'ya  ' lating  have  Koro  —  lating  with  others  to the traditional  life  known a s " r e - e n t e r i n g  illustrated finds  Perhaps  that,  i n fact,  below  the true  —  since  awry  way.  i s the import  descending  from  i n t h e form significance  i n"Aru i n re-  he h a s  retreat  elimnatural  and r e -  T h i s would  corres-  o f t h e " e n l i g h t e n e d " man's and  invariably  pictures  one  Asia. o f An'ya  obvious  than  also  first  -- i t i s o n l y  o f t h e Zen o x - h e r d i n g East  i t must  supposedly,  the marketplace"  a l l over  i t began  -- b o t h  h i s mountain  stage  profound.  hisdifficulties  and f r e e r  final  s h o r t and, r a t h e r  actually  world  from  so as n o t t o be o v e r l y  scene  saku  i n the last  i n monasteries Such,  But  Now  criti-  protagonists, just  protagonist's  ,-- h i s own e g o t i s m  pond  the  from  i n a new  a r e f a r more  o f nature,  arose  he b e shown d e s c e n d i n g  i s , t h e wounds  y e t complete:  the Shiga  i n fact,  i s f a r more  was b a s i c a l l y  people.  cause  that  of self  not i n the world  Koro,  effects  i n the previous  of the e a r l i e r  i s not quite  t h e human w o r l d ,  and r a d i c a l An'ya  observed  t o h i s sense  than  the cycle  lasting  dimensions:  h i s ultimate experience But  in  have  larger  receives  and p r o l o n g e d  have  and c h a r a c t e r .  contains  that  152 -  employ  about  —  o f t h e scene  final  i t , Shiga  the symbolism  the mountain,  o f Naoko  Koro's  come  scene. keeps  o f Ken-  he h a s t h e human t o Kensaku  i s nevertheless  instead. quite  apparent. bed,  When N a o k o  arrives,  thoroughly exhausted,  shocks her  her.  But  when  a n x i e t y and  153  falls  Kensaku  and  she  is lying  h i s worn  draws  under  -  near  the  appearance  t o him,  spell  prostrate  of  she  h i s new  in  initially  soon  forgets  presence:  H i s g a z e was l i k e a c a r e s s . She t h o u g h t she h a d n e v e r seen such g e n t l e m e s s , such l o v e , i n anyone's eyes before. S h e was a b o u t t o s a y , " E v e r y t h i n g i s a l l r i g h t now," b u t she r e f r a i n e d , f o r i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f such c o n t e n t m e n t and q u i e t , t h e words seemed h o l l o w . 92 That  one  "caress"  --  communion  word  tells  with  describing us  the  volumes  others.  As  quality  about  was  h i s new-found  revealed  creased  capacity  f o r union  with  nature  creased  capacity  f o r union  with  one's  deepest  level,  used is  the  shared  this he  term by  sage  nature  one.  to express  that  more  a  phenomena,  spiritual  referring  above:  t o by  " I t was  b r i n g s an  As  we  a  recall,  physical  the word nature  since,  was  inat  the  Shiga  and  that  i t is  quality,  "nature" that  for  power  man,  --  an i n -  equally  fundamental  including  than  not  man  gaze  capacity  in "Takibi",  fellow  are  a l l natural  t o be  quoted  and  "rhythm"  "rhythm",  seems  man  of Kensaku's  i n the  that pas-  visible  to  93 the  eyes..."  this  universal  innermost word  "unitive"  "thought  device:  final the  he  o f man.  i n anyone's The  when K e n s a k u  "rhythm",  nature  for this  so Naoko love,  Thus,  few  she eyes  aTso  On  capacity  had  never  before."  paragraphs  narrative  the  becomes  becomes level i s , of  seen 94  of  the  identified  identified  of  novel  with  the  human r e l a t i o n s  course,  such  with  "love",  gentleness,  contain  viewpoint, having been  that  an of  the  and  such  unusual Kensaku  throughout  the entire  novel,  154 suddenly  This  h a s d i s t u r b e d some  critics  idea  from  that  Percy  Lubbock  who,  a novel  changed  to that  perhaps, must  have  have  o f Naoko.  got the  a r i g i d l y con-  95 sistent tion  p o i n t o f view,  i n mind,  lative"  Despite into  i t seems  on a f o r m a l  profound  depth  a perfectly  level  of union  her i n i t i a l  Kensaku's  even  but, regarded  f o r what  achieved  wifely  explica-  "objective  i s , on a thematic  between  that  t h e above  appropriate  Naoko  a n x i e t y , Naoko  "tranquility"  the idea that  with  level,  the  and Kensaku.  has been  s h e i s now  corre-  so drawn  prepared  to accept  he m i g h t d i e :  She h a d n e v e r s e e n h i m i o o k s o t r a n q u i l . Perhaps, she t h o u g h t , he i s n o t g o i n g t o l i v e t h r o u g h t h i s . But the t h o u g h t somehow d i d n o t s a d d e n h e r v e r y m u c h . As she sat t h e r e l o o k i n g a t him, she f e l t h e r s e l f becoming an i n s e p e r a b l e p a r t o f him; and she k e p t on t h i n k i n g , "Whether he l i v e s o r n o t , I s h a l l n e v e r l e a v e him, I s h a l l g o w h e r e v e r he g o e s . " 96 But point  there  which  i s another  has been  significance  missed  to this  by a c r i t i c  like  change  o f view-  F r a n c i s Mathy,  who 97  fails  t o take  Naoko  does  Kensaku just  been  union  write  f o r union  a s we  with  Naoko  with  Kensaku  down  had been  write  their  from  innermost  a thought  so t o t a l l y to write  t o such thoughts.  o f Naoko's  -- above a l l ,  With  a l l , who  the erstwhile absorbed  The f a c t  r a t h e r than  writer  i n himself of Eihana,  b u t h i s own,  an e x t e n t  has  h i s new-found  the story  any v i e w p o i n t  others  of the novel.  ( i t i s he, a f t e r  o t h e r s , Kensaku,  saw w h e n h e t r i e d  t o commune w i t h  ends w i t h  with  union  author  "enlightened" on t h e mountain).  c o u l d never  able  as the " f i c t i o n a l "  achieve  s h i - s h o s e t s u , who  that, he  not only  achieves  capacity of  Kensaku  that that  i s now  he c a n even the novel  o f Kansaku's  signi-  fies new a  the depth  of selflessness that  dimensions  that  have  opened  he h a s a t t a i n e d ,  f o r him both  and t h e  as a w r i t e r and  man. Many  readers  arguments  o f An'ya  as t o whether  Koro  Kensaku  engage goes  i n rather  on t o l i v e  bootless or to die at  98 the  end.  answer. saku  I read  Regarding  the novel  Shiga  t o be presumed  meaning  dead  as an a n l y s i s  involved of  As  link  come  by a bseakthrough  breakthrough itself. novel, Having  that  denoted  to regard  because, viewed  would  from  this  lose  enable  and  that,  psychic  as the author,  o f my  existed  (because  the novel  i n this  light  perspective), t o t h e work  because  be  over-  level,  a  An'ya  i f he h a d  other  Koro  critics  and, most  perhaps  devote  qua the s h i - s h o s e t s u  qua have  importantly,  analysis, the novel  I should  died  at a l l .  d i s c u s s i o n t o An'ya  Kensaku  of c r i t i c a l  i t s  writer's  h i m t o go on t o w r i t e  n o t have  Ken-  tbeeproblems  can only  of Tokito  remarks  of  "autobiographical"  Kensaku  would  much  the fact  "writer's block"  s o much  f o r t h e sake  concluding Naoya  will  of course,  an  about the  i f he had meant  on t h e p e r s o n a l ,  Regarding  shi-shosetsu  failed  the novel  between  and work, Kensaku's  the  as t h e author,  of the shi-shosetsu  life  the  i s no d o u b t  i n i t s creation: principally,  the intimate  Koro  there  of  i s best a few Shiga  himself. As  direct  we  have  seen,  Shiga  projection of himself  once 99  admitted  and, even  that  Kensaku  though  there  was  a  i s much  invented birth that  material i n the novel  o f the hero many  details  important union How  of these  with  nature  significant  fact the  basis  the  experience  of  o f Shiga's  life  rest  Buddha.  while  i t , almost  a s man  o f h i s days In other  the Daisen  have  b e e n made mythic  quite  and a r t i s t ,  "larger  than  proportions.  regardless versal the  "everyday"  pedestal  life"  aspect  tion  i s such  dark  night"  archetypal  towards aspect  symbolic  within  i n Shiga's  him t o  when  Koro  accounts,  himself i n fact,  inevitable  h i s material trouve  aspect own  -- s a y ,  i f placed experience  on a s y m b o l i c ,  uni-  of a novel. A l l  the "experience"  liberation.  live  fictionaliza-  assumed,  draws  t h e framework  o n e a s a man's  spiritual  o f An'ya  takes  course,  high-point  as an  so t o o an a u t h o r ' s  true, then,  a fundamental  of  have  beeseen  as  engightened  J u s t as an o b j e t  or private,  when p l a c e d  they  an author  on a f o r m a l ,  "trivial"  more so i s t h i s  —  T h i s may  life.  i n a museum,  how  But, of  t h e same p o s i t i o n  the process  by t h e  later,  and the c h a r a c t e r o f Shiga  own  onaa  of a century  as an a l l - c o m p a s s i o n a t e ,  experience  Most  o f deep  be judged  nor d i d i tenable  through  know  i n t h e summer o f 1 9 1 4 .  i t d i d n o t mark t h e c l i m a c t i c  words,  -- takes  also  t h e work.  o f h i s magnum o p u s .  from  o l d shoe  we  into  f o r h i m may  a quarter  r e g a r d l e s s o f how m u c h  an  Daisen  was  process, Ms  went  —  " i l l i c i t "  h i s own e x p e r i e n c e  on Mount  d i d n o t occupy  tion  almost  own  i s undoubtedly  as i n Kensaku's:  the  f o rinstance, the "semi-rape"  f o r the "climax"  h i s growth  —  and h i s w i f e ' s  the experience  t h a t he u s e d  life  156 -  "journey And t h i s o f course,  i n ques-  through mythic, f o r much  -  of  i t s underlying  man's of a  I t i s not simply  s p i r i t u a l struggle  a modern rather  ter  power.  but a kind  character  Nevertheless,  a l l , a Japanese  this  thematic  and a b s t r a c t i o n i s balanced  structure  and p a r t i c u l a r  which  medieval sesne, in  i s , i n this  nikki  (diary)  respect,  Koro  o f which  total  aesthetic It  may  novel  tendency  (and,  towards  informal  a worthy  o f the  descendant  (random  essay). Shiga  and m a s t e r f u l  as a b s o l u t e l y  this  and the supposed  has d i s t u r b e d  very  mixing  In  this  establishes balance,  essential  some W e s t e r n  on t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u ,  expands  this  complaint  of "fiction"  "formlessness"  article  ture  i n Chap-  both  to the  effect.  i s , however,  fiction",  I noted  genre i t -  and z u i h i t s u .  be seen  Kensaku i s  of the shi-shosetsu  i s one o f a d e l i c a t e  terms  progress"  by t h e v e r y  the f i c t i o n / r e a l i t y d i a l e c t i c which  An'ya  which  content  o f one  this,  i t i s a modern  formality  self,  with  i n the sense  because  novel),  the story  of "pilgrim's  (and, i n consonance  "impersonal"  2^^^).  above  Everyman  157 -  critics  Edward  that  and "non-  results  from i t ,  of the novel.  Seidensticker,  I n an  i n fact,  to a c r i t i c i s m of Far Eastern  Litera-  i n general: In t h e O r i e n t , t h e n o t i o n o f genre has been a t once too e l a b o r a t e and n o t e l a b o r a t e enough, i f these fundam e n t a l Western d i s t i n c t i o n s between f i c t i o n and nonf i c t i o n , l y r i c and drama, a r e accepted...Some J a p a n e s e c a t e g o r i e s , s u c h as s h o s e t s u and m o n o g a t a r i , seem so b r o a d as t o be m e a n i n g l e s s . They i n c l u d e v i r t u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g , and c u t a c r o s s what i n t h e Western t r a d i t i o n seem l i k e t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l d i s t i n c t i o n s . Others l i k e s h a r e b o n a n d K i b y o s h i , seem s o n a r r o w a s t o be meaningless. They c o v e r t i n y r e a l m s , and w i t h i n t h e i r t i n y r e a l m s seem c a p a b l e , i n a m o s t p e r v e r s e fashion,  -  158-  of mixing f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n , q u i t e as i n the monogatari empire. 102 As a matter of f a c t , though, evep the "fundamental d i s t i n c t i o n s " are not what they used to be.  Western  The rambling auto-  b i o g r a p h i c a l j o u r n a l s o f Jack Kerouac, f o r i n s t a n c e , works such as On the Road (1957) and The Dharma Bums (1958), were among the  mose c e l e b r a t e d "novels" of the ' f i f t i e s  "Best g e n e r a t i o n " .  W r i t i n g i n a more 'documentary" v e i n , Truman Capote caaimed have i n v e n t e d a new In  C o l d Blood  to  genre, the " n o n - f i c t i o n n o v e l " , w i t h h i s  (1965).  Norman M a i l e r a l s o has f o l l o w e d t h i s  trend with h i s " r e p o r t o r i a l n o v e l s " such as The Armies of the Night  (1968), s u b t i t l e d  " H i s t o r y as a Novel, the Novel as  H i s t o r y " , and h i s more r e c e n t The E x e c u t i o n e r ' s Song s u b t i t l e d "A True L i f e Novel".  Time magazine has even i n v e n t e d  an ugly neologism f o r such works: Whatever we may cent American  (1979),  "faction".  t h i n k o f the l i t e r a r y value of these r e -  novels, i t i s l i k e l y  spread acceptance, the younger  t h a t , because  of t h e i r wide-  g e n e r a t i o n of Western readers  w i l l be l e s s d i s t u r b e d than t h e i r "elders by the " b l u r r e d  lines"  between f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n i n the works o f Shiga Naoya. Perhaps, then, i t i s no c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t An'ya Koro appeared i n E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n i n 1976, its  finally  about f o r t y years a f t e r  f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n i n Japan, even though i t has l o n g been  r e c o g n i z e d i n i t s own  country as a modern C l a s s i c .  Shiga, i n  f a c t , seems a t the same time both p e c u l i a r l y modern and very much w i t h i n the Japanese t r a d i t i o n .  T h i s seeming  by no means unprecedented: t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese for  paradox i s  architecture,  i n s t a n c e , with i t s simple l i n e s and u n c l u t t e r e d decor, seems  very  modern  to  the  tuitous,  i n view  as  Lloyd  Frank  Chapter cause many  Japanese  an  was  a  diary-like  and  illusion fiction At  of  their  to  the  novelists  the  diary  fictional for  impression  to  be  works,  to  of  "artlessness"  But  there  is  to  be  a  Koro  which  side  to  and  "automatic" seems,  so  any-  much b y  a  news-  greater  knows,  on  facts".  non-  one  of  Shiga  uses  the  as  used  the  "reality"  writer  enables of  level,,  Just  Richardson  sense  the  on  "spontaneity",  seen,  "the  "artificiality"  another  Certainly  the  Aesthetically, this (since  to  fiction). be  for  Defoe  i n An'ya  least  strict  influence  there  publisher  may  impart  same p u r p o s e .  at  than  too  as  the  considered  book  appetite  "transcribing" reality) he  demands  the  in part  the  shaped  the  Whether  "Zen")  in  be-  and  determine.  temper  works  such  form  i s due  emphasize  --  in  formerly  But  better  reader's  Imagism  Kerouac.  far  shall  ultra-modern  the  instance,  any  Shiga's  to  for-  architects  movement. of  to  (As  any  rate,  for  that  sells  an  tion.  —  novel  them  we  on  (especially a  modern  generally  and  shosetsu  what  i n the  as  non-fiction  Jack  "reality".  English  letter  a  television  appeal  early  of  modernist  led  such  seeming  difficult  resulted,  writing  something  papers  to  that  of  entirely  on  influence  and  which  this  same way,  Western  Japanese  writers  is  influence  and  i s more  strong  emphasis  the  nor  way  early  fiction  influence  "Beat"  way,  in  a  with  that  between  --  the  has  its affinity  divisions  there  In  haiku  breakdown  eye  i t s seminal  Wright.  offshoibts of  recent  the  of  I I I , the  of  Western  Shiga  to  shiresults  seems to  merely  avoid  conventional  "artless art"  in  fic-  equation  the of  writer's certain  orders  the  art  details  selection  of  alike  case,  I  of  the  and  —  hope  of  to  the  liberation,  modern  and  mainstream  conception  terms.  the  works  the  hearts  This  fictional  fiction" as  itself.  of of  have  Shiga  but  in  this  culture  is  restatement  primarily  Naoya w i l l  Western  readers.  merely  the  essential  as  the  —  entire  the  and of  in  of an  such,  eventually  his  work.  vision  way  ancient  I would find  In to  which  and In  is  Orient. the  invention  vision  "fiction"  central of  human p r e d i c a m e n t a  not  material  unifies  shown,  spiritual  i t is It  lies  a l l his  which  -  160  "nonShiga's  redolent its wisdom  tradition  suggest,  their  way  in  that into  -  161  -  Introduction 1.  Marc  Mecreant,  (Paris:  trans.,  Marabout,  Le  Samourai,  1970).  Includes  by  Shiga  Naoya  twenty-two  Shiga  stories. 2.  Edward  Seidensticker,  Studies Sophia 3. 4.  i n Japanese Univ. Press,  Mishima  Chapter  Mishima  p.  Novels", i n  Joseph  Roggendorf  (Tokyo:  217.  Yukio Penguin  Ueda Makoto, Literature  2.  Francis  3.  ibid.,  p.  41  4.  ibid.,  p.  42  5.  Shiga  Naoya,  6 .  ibid.,  7.  As,  p.  Books,  Writing  Bownas  1972),  p.  1968)  i n Japan,  (HariSondsworth,  20.  tive  p.  Writers  Univ. Press, (New  17.  My  1976)  York:  i n Seibei  and  the  p.  20.  Twayne,  t o Hyotan  Nature  1974).  (Tokyo:  translation.  18 analyzed  trans.  Junichiro,  John  "Bunsho  by  for instance,  the most  judgments:  simple "good",  Dr.  Takeo  Bester  1958)  adjectives  Tanizaki  x x i . pp.  generally  "nice",  D o i , The  Anatomy  (Tokyo: Kodansha,  Tokuhon",  (Tokyo: Chuo K o r o n s h a ,  Both w r i t e r s , only  Japanese  Naoya  "Aru Asa",  Dependende,  Zenshg  Modern  Shiga  for instance,  Tanizaki  to  Geoffrey  (Stanford  Mathy,  Shinchosha,  of  and  t o New  I  see of  9.  1963)  ed.  Yukio, Introduction  Middlesex:  8.  Culture,  Shaped  Ibid.  ed.  1.  "Strangely  Junichiro  84-90.  restrict  descriptive  "pleasant",  1973).  themselves of  subjec-  "bad", e t c .  10.  Shiga  Naoya,  Hero 11.  (Univ.  ibid.  p.  of  ibid.  13.  ibid.,  p.  14.  Mathy,  Shiga,  15.  ibid. Jay  Nipponica, p.  25  18.  ibid.,  p.  21  19.  Natsume  no.  1  Ogai  on  Jay  and  the  Univ.  account  in  Hibbett  Kobayashi  of  1971)  Shiga  p.  257  pp.  34-35.  his  essay,  This  i n Japanese Press,  Nakamura  1971)  Hajime,  KoMnshugi"  issue,  Gen  of  see  Individ-  Richard  Japanese  Itasaka,  Mathy,  Press,  Modern  1965),  (Shinchosha,  Hideo"  Culture, p.  (My  (Suicide Note),  translation  "Kobayashi  21  vol.  Bowring,  Culture  1979)  Univ.  Zenshu  Monumenta  i n Monumenta N i p p o n i c a ,  "Isho"  and  in  p.  t h i s - i n c i d e n t , see  Harvard  Hideo  (1979)  no  this  Press,  Ryunosuke,  (Cambridge:  1  Modernization  Akutagawa  24.  i n The  43  to  22.  Howard  no.  (1979) p.  For  Univ.  Individualism",  Rubin  21.  tion  Sibley  45  reactions  (Cambridge  23.  William  dissertation,  "Watakushi  trans.  Ogai's  an  p.  Soseki,  ualism)",  Mori  Ph.D.  v o l . xxxiv,  ibid.,  On  Chicago  "Soseki  17.  20.  trans.  260  Rubin,  xxxiv,  -  257  12.  16.  i  "Rhythm",  162  ed.  by  p.  reprinted  Japanese  pp.  188-193  1955-57),  Edward  vol. v i ,  Seidensticker  in Tradition Donald  23  and  Moderniza-  Shively  (Princeton  Eastern  Peoples,  433  Ways o f  Thinking  of  in  trans.  Philip  Wiener  163  -  (Honolulu:  East-West  Center  Press,  1964) 25.  Quoted  in  26.  Seidensticker, Japanese  27.  Sibley,  28.  ibid.  29.  ibid.  Sibley,  Hero,  "Strangely  Culture, Shiga  Shiga  p.  Hero,  p.  31.  Kobayashi,  v o l . v i , pp.  "Kobayashi  Hideo"  33. 34.  Novels"  i n Studies  in  Japanese  Writers,  117-19  i n This  p.  104  Quoted  >r  Country,  in  Japan  Seidensticker,  (Kodansha,  1979)  181  Ueda, Modern  Japanese  Writers,  p.  99  ibid. see  Stephen  (Univ.  of  35.  ibid.,  p.  36.  The  word  works  Kohl,  "shosetsu"  than  the  38.  Mathy,  Shiga,  • 39.  ibid.,  p.  40.  ibid.,  Ph.D.  Critical  dissertation,  Biography 1974)  p.  21  p.  a  far broader  range  of  "novel".  Studies  i n Japanese  Culture,  p.  217  44  41  Shiga  Naoya-ron  (Tokjso:  Chikuma  Shobo,  91  42.  Seidensticker,  Japan  43a  Seidensticker,  This  43b  see  Ueda,  a  encompasses  word  Nakamura M i t s u o , , p.  Naoya:  20  Seidensticker,  1966)  Shiga  Washington  37.  41.  Shaped  126  s.ee  32.  89  219  30.  p.  Ueda, Modern  p.  p.  131  Quarterly, Country,  vol.  Japan,  x i , no. p.  100  1,  1964  44.  -  Herbert Franke,  Introduction,  Novellas  Millenia,  York:  o f Two  Harcourt, Brace Republic,  and  45.  Plato,  46.  Franke, Novellas  o f Two  47.  Murasaki  The  sticker 48.  164  and  Shikibu (New  Donald  York:  Keene,  Winston,  ibid.,  p.  50.  Sibley,  51.  Keene,  World  52.  ibid.,  p.  371  53.  ibid.,  p.  573  54.  Ivan Morris,  19 64)  Millenia,  Tale  56.  Taubouchi  of  Knopf,  3  16 trans.  Edward  1977)  pp.  437-38  (New  York;  Holt,  Walls  Seiden-  Rinehart  Modern  p.  Walls,  p.  Japanese  1962)  p.  Shoyo,  "The  Essence  Japanese  of  Vermont:  the Novel", trans.  Literature  ibid.,  59.  I t o S e i , "Natsume  Soseki—His  Essays  Soseki's  (New  Donald  York:  Grove  and  Works",  Press,  Japanese  Stories,  p.  15  16  Natsume  1970) pp.  (Rutland,  12-13  58.  on  Stories  57-58  Modern p.  392  13  i n Modern pp.  260  Morris,  ibid.,  p.  Genji,  57.  60.  (New  211  p.  Within  Tuttle,  ibid.,  cation,  p.  Levenson  211  55.  1956),  World,  Chinese  X  p.  Shiga Hero,  Charles  Casket:  Christopher  Within  1976)  Golden  trans.  Alfred  World  49.  Keene  Book  The  p.  15-16  5  Personality  Works  (Tokyo: M i n i s t r y  of  in Edu-  61.  Quoted  Tsurmta  Novelists", (1970),  p.  K i n y a i n "Akutagawa  Monumenta N i p p o n i c a , v o l . xxv,  63.  Seidenstmcker,  65.  Quoted  66.  Seidensticker,  Ueda  Makoto,  of  and  the  the Novel",  Studies  'In-Between'  i n This  i n Japanese  Studies  70.  Aristotle,  71.  On  This  i n Modern  Country,  Culture,  p.  Japan  212  Country, Japan,  i n Japanese  the  Culture,  principles  Quoted  73.  Quoted  74.  ibid.  i n Sibley,  Ueda, Modern  p.  p.  102  217  renga,  p.  1967)  p.  pp.  (Cleveland  224-25  1  7 see  Earl  (Princeton  Miner's  Univ.  Tradition  and  recent  press,  1979)  Modernization i n  426  S h i g a Hero,, p .  Japanese  i n Japan  Writers,  p.  1  106  2  See, his  of  Poetry  Culture,  Univ.,  Chapter  in Seidensticker,  Japanese  Art Theories  Shiga Hero,  Poetics,  Linked  and  Reserve  i n Sibley,  Japanese  Chapter  Literary  of Western  Quoted  1.  1-2  ibid.  69.  75.  'Pure'  i n Seidensticker,  Press  72.  nos.  98-111  Seidensticker,  68.  "The  Theories  64.  67  I-  V  j p . 25  ibid.,  pp.  and  14  62.  Japanese  Ryunosuke  for instance, S h i g a N a o y a no  1942)  p.  92  Tanikawa Sakuhin  Tetsuzo's fulsome (vol. 2),  praise  (Tokyo: M i k a s a  in Shobo,  2.  Tanizaki xxi  3.  p.  Junichiro  P..  Modern  (Tokyo: Chuo  "At K i n o s a k i " ,  Japanese  trans,  Literature  (New  273  4.  ibid.  5.  ibid.  6.  ibid.,  7.  ibid.  8.  ibid.  9.  ibid.  p.  274  10.  ibid.,  p.  273  11.  ibid.,  p.  274  12.  ibid.  13.  ibid.,  p.  275  14.  ibid.  15.  ibid.  16.  ibid.  17.  ibid.,  p.  276  18.  ibid.,  p.  277  19.  ibid.  20.  ibid.  21.  ibid.  22.  ibid.  23.  ibid.  24.  ibid.  25.  ibid.  26.  Koronsha,  1958)  90  S h i g a Naoya, in  Zenshu  166  Tanikawa,  S h i g a Mo  S a k u h i n , p.  92  Edward York:  Seidensticker Grove  Press,  1956)  -  27.  ibid.  28.  Mathy,  29.  Leo  Tolstoy,  p.  228  Shiga,  30.  Mathy,  31.  F.R.  Leavis,  From  Scrutiny  p.  " R e a l i t y and (Cambridge  33.  ibid.  34.  ibid.,  p.  35.  Quoted  in William  36. 37.  Press,  1929)  Sincerity", in his Univ.  Press,  1968)  A p.  Selection 252  Barry,  Kennikat  Heralds Press,  of  Revolt  1971)  p.  (Port  Washing-  237  ibid. Kobayashi  Yoshida  Zenshu Japan,  39.  ibid.  40.  ibid.,  41.  ibid.  42.  ibid. For  an  p.  account  44.  Yoshida,  Bunsho  45.  Tanizaki,  47.  ibid.  12-13.  trans.  Seidensticker,  This  156 "Shosetsu 1963)  no p.  Bunsho" 46.  My  i n Bunsho  to  Buntai  translation.  47  see  ibid.  p.  Shoin,  subject,  46.  I:  Sei-ichi,  (Tokyo: M e i j i  43.  Univ.  276  York:  Country, 38.  (Oxford  64-65  ibid.  New  i s Art?  pp.  32.  ton,  -  173  What  Shiga,  167  of  Ueda, to  Zenshu,  Tanizaki's Modern Buntai, xxi,  18  debate  Japanese p.  48  with  Akutagawa  Writers,  pp.  on  71-72  this  -  168  -  ibid. trans.  Seidensticker,  trans.  Sibley,  tanikawa, The as a  Shiga Hero,  S h i g a no  entire  lifelong  pp.  p.  idealists".  and  "Three  Aylmer  92.  are  Be  My  Maude  p.  273  that  (1859)  (London:  translation.  sometimes as  f o r the works  Deaths"  Literature,  76  S a k u h i n , p.  admiration  Tolstoy,  Louise  Japanese  "Shirakaba group"  "Tolstoyan  Leo  Modern  of  characterized  i t may,  S&iga  had  the  Russian  master  i n Nine  Stories  trans.  Oxford Univ.  press),  305-306  ibid.ra  p.  307  ibid.,  p.  308  ibid.,  p.  291  ibid.,  p.  v i i i  Quoted  i n Mathy,  ibid.,  p.  Tolstoy, Wayne  Shiga,  p.  161  160 Nine  Booth,  Press,  1966)  Keene,  Modern  ibid.,  p.  Stories, The p.  p.  Rhetoric  307 of F i c t i o n  (Univ.  of  Chicago  3  Japanese  Literature,  p.  27 2  276  ibid. ibid. E.M.  Forster,  1927) Barry, See  pp.  73-80  Revolt,  above,  Aspects of  p.  p. 39  237  the  Novel  (London:  Edward  Arnold,  69.  Keene,  Modern  70.  ibid.  71.  ibid.,  72.  Sibley,  73.  Ueda,  74.  ibid.  75.  ibid.  76.  ibid.  77.  Keene,  Modern  78.  ibid.,  p.  27 5  89.  ibid.,  p.  277  80.  ibid.  81.  Ueda,  82.  Mathy,  83.  Sibley,  84.  Shiga  p.  Japanese  Literature,  p.  p.  273  277  Shiga  Hero,  Literary  and  227  Art  Theories  Japanese  Literary Shiga,  and p.  Shiga  Naoya,  p.  Dark  Kodansha,  p.  1976)  Japanese  86.  Shiga,  Night's  87.  For  Kobayashi's  and  Modernization  Dark  p.  150  273  150  231  Night's  Keene, Modern A  Theories,  p.  p.  28  Hero, A  i n Japan,  Literature,  Art  85.  1.  -  275  (Tokyo:  Chapter  169  view  p.  Passing,  McClellan  375  Literature, Passing,  on  t r a n s . Edwin  this,  i n Japanese  pp. see  p.  277  400-401 Seidensticker, Tradition  C u l t u r e , p.  427  3  Quoted Wayne  2.  ibid.  3.  ibid.  i n Beongcheon State  Univ.  Yu,  press,  Akutagaway: 1972)  p.  79  an  Introduction  (Detroi  -  170-  ibid. ibid. Shiga  Naoya,  Shoten,  "Takibi",  1928)  p.  173.  i n Kozo My  no  Kamisama  (Tekyo:  Iwanami  translation.  ibid. Quoted  i n Ueda,  Shiga,  Kozo  no  Modern  Japanese  Kamisama, p.  Writers,  p.  86  175  ibid. ibid.,  p.  176  p.  179  ibid.,  p.  180  ibid.,  p.  181  Shiga,  A  ibid. ibid., ibid.  Dark  Night's  See,  f o r example,  fire  i n Shinto  (New  York:  Paragon  Friedman,  Poetry  and  Press,  1974)  Shiga,  Kozo  ibid.,  p.  ibid.,  pp.  ibid.,  p.  184  ibid.,  p.  185  ibid.,  p.  187  ibid.  D.C.  ritual  Norman  Passing,  no  account of  the  role  i n h i s The  National  Faith  of  Book  Reprint  "Symbol",  Corp.,  Alex  Kamisama, p.  183-4  1965)  p.  of Japan  29  i n Princeton Encyclopedia Preminger  834  183  290  Holtom's  P o e t i c s , ed. p.  p.  182.  of  (Princeton Univ.  -  -  p.  188  27.  ibid.,  28.  ibid.  29.  See  30.  Shiga,  Kozo  31.  Oxford  English Dictionary,  p.  p.  171  188  Mathy,  Shiga,  2210.  "In  no  events, See  p.  33.  For  repetition  Meth.  as  Wells,  a  Politics  fiction,  "Statistical River'"  use  118:  connexion  of  a  of plot."  i n Jackson  Hemingway: C r i t i c a l  Univ.  Press,  1975)  be  language  sidered  to  the  and-effect  reasoning..."  34.  See  p.  35.  Quoted  above,  36.  Comte de  §7.  M.H.  131: of  the  those  Prose  Benson, Essays  " I t i s most  see  The  Style Short  (Durham: often  incapable  of  concause-  36  i n Edmund pp.  p.  language,  /Analysis o f  Ernest  Wilson,  Eight Essays,  (New  York:  Doubleday,  93-94 Buffon,  Abrams,  Holt,  1971) v.  is called  of  1954)  Press,  certain  "non-logical"  'Big Two-Hearted  Stories  38.  Reason.  is a  of  Univ.  above  Elizabeth  Duke  (Oxford  there  i n a work  32.  of  Lewis  narrative,  which 5  161  Kamisama,  Quoting  every  p.  A  Rinehart  Quoted  i n A.E.  House,  1966)  Benson,  Discours  Glossary and  of  39.  See  40.  Scott Donaldson,  le Style  Literary  Winston,  Hotchner,  p.  sur  1971),  (1353)  Terms p.  (New  York:  137  P a p a Hemingway  (New  York:  Random  199  Hemingway, p. By  Eorce  xi of  Will:  the  Life  and  Art  of  Ernest  Hemingway  Hemingway, 1935) See  p.  172  (New Y o r k :  Green  Hills  Viking  of Africa  Press,  1977) p.  (New Y o r k :  242  Scribner's,  70  Earl  Miner,  American  The J a p a n e s e  Literature  Especially Benson,  Tradition  (Princeton  Univ.  i n British  Press,  and  1958)  chapters v - v i  Hemingway,  p.  307  ibid. Quoted  i n Donaldson,  Benson, See  Hemingway,  above,  Quoted Ralph  p.  Freedman,  Benson,  p.  p.  247  30 9  63  i n Benson,  Princeton  Will,  Hemingway,  The L y r i c a l  Univ.  Press,  Hemingway,  p.  Hemingway,  Africa,  Hemingway,  A Moveable  p.  3 07  Novel  (Princeton,  New  Jersey:  1963) 157  Foreword Feast  (New Y o r k :  Scribner's,  1964)  Preface Fraser  Sutherland,  Irwin,  1972) p .  Benson,  The S t y l e  o f Innocence  (Toronto:  Clarke,  83  Hemingway,  p.  275  ibid. Robert Essays Benson, ibid.  Weeks,  e d . , Hemingway:  (Englewood Hemingway,  Cliffs, p.  309  a Collection  of Critical.  N.J. : P r e n t i c e - H a l l ,  1962)  - 173 59.  See J u l i a n Out"  Smith's a r t i c l e ,  i n Benson,  Hemingway,  60.  Donaldson, W i l l ,  61.  Benson,  62.  ibid.,  p.  131  63.  ibid.,  p.  297  64.  Weeks,  Hemingway,  65.  Hemingway,  p.  Hemingway,  p.  and t h e T h i n g  Left  136  245 p.  39  p.  106  "Cross-Country  Scribner's,  "Hemingway  1925) p .  Snow"  i n I n Our Time  (New  York:  107 »  66.  Benson,  67.  Keene,  68.  Hemingway,  69.  ibid.,  p.  70.  Mathy,  Shiga,  71.  Shiga,  Kozo  72.  On H e m i n g w a y ' s o b s e s s i o n p.  Chapter  Hemingway, Modern  p.  154  Japanese L i t e r a t u r e ,  " B i g Two-Hearted  River"  p.  277  i n I n Our Time,  p.  14 2  156 pp.  29-30  no Kamisama, p.  176  with  death,  see Donaldson,  Will  282. 4  1.  Quoted  2.  ibid.  3.  ibid.,  p.  92  4.  ibid.,  p.  101  5.  i b i d . , pp  99 a n d  6.  ibid.,  157  7.  Shiga Tokyo:  i n Mathy,  p.  Naoya,  Shiga,  83  157  A Dark  Kodansha,  p.  Night's  1976) p .  16  Passing,  trans.  Edwin  McClell  8.  ibid.,  p.  17  9.  ibid.,  p.  18  10.  ibid.  11.  ibid.,  pp.  12.  ibid.,  p.  25  13.  ibid.  14.  itid.,  p.  26  15.  ibid.  16.  ibid.,  pp.  17.  ibid.,  p.  27  18.  ibid.  19.  ibid.,  p.  28  20.  ibid.,  p.  30  21.  ibid.,  p.  26  22.  ibid.  23.  ibid.,  p.  29  24.  ibid.,  p.  30  25.  ibid.  26.  ibid.,  p.  81  27.  ibid.,  p.  101  28.  ibid.,  p.  104  29.  ibid.,  p.  115  30.  ibid.,  p.  123  31.  See  32.  Shiga,  33.  "ibid.  34.  ibid.  -  19-20  26-27  Mathy, A  174  Shiga,  Dark  p.  Night's  43 Passing,  p.  125  "175 P-  146  P-  148  ibid.,  P-  150  40.  ibid.,  P-  158  41.  x b i d . , P-  172  42.  ibid.  43.  ibid.,  P-  186  44.  ibid.,  P-  375  45.  ibid.,  P-  186-87  46.  ibid.,  P-  184  47.  ibid.,  P-  193  48.  ibid.,  P-  194  49.  ibid.,  P-  181  50.  ibid.,  P-  174  51.  ibid.,  P-  178  52.  On  53.  Shiga,  A  54.  ibid.,  P-  185  55.  ibid.  56.  ibid.,  P-  201  57.  ibid.,  P-  202  58.  ibid.,  P-  271  59.  ibid.,  Pi  312  60.  ibid.,  PP .  61.  ibid.,  P-  35.  ibid.,  36.  ib i d .  37.  ibid.,  38.  ibid.  39.  this  point, Dark  see Ueda, Modern Japanese Night's  311-12 337  -  Passing,  p.  178  Writers,  p.  62.  ibid.,  p.  338  63.  ibid.  64.  ibid.,  p.  341  65.  ibid.,  p.  341  66.  ibid.  67.  ibid.,  p.  251  68.  ibid.  69.  ibid.  70.  ibid.,  71.  ibid.,  p.  354-55  72.  ibid.,  p.  356  73.  ibid.  74.  ibid.  75.  ibid.,  p.  357  76.  ibid.,  p.  358  77.  ibid.  78.  ibid.,  p.  357  79.  ibid.,  p.  364  80.  ibid.,  p.  369  81.  ibid.,  p.  381  82.  ibid.,  p.  392  83.  ibid.,  pp.  84.  i b i d . , p.  352  383-84 399  85.  ibid.  86.  ibid.,  p.  398  87.  ibid.,  p.  400  .88.  ibid.,  pp.  400-01  89.  Daisetz vols.  80. 91  Teitaro  (New  Shiga,  A  Suzuki,  York:  Dark  -  Essays  Samuel  Night's  177  i n Zen  Weiser,  Passing,  Buddhism  in 3  1971) p.  401  ibid.  92.  ibid.,  p.  407  93.  ibid.,  p.  400  95.  ibid.,  p.  407  95.  Percy  Lubbock,  Cape,  The  of Fiction  (London: J o h n a t h a n  1939)  96.  ibid.,  97.  See  98.  See,  p.  Mathy,  408 p.  102  for instance,  essay  Craft  Mathy,  i n t h e N i h o n Bungaku  (Tokyo:  Yuseido,  99.  See  above,  p.  100.  See  Mathy,  Shiga,  101.  See  above,  pp.  102.  Seidensticker,  1970)  pp.  p.  102  Kenkyu  and  Edwin  Shiryo  McClellan's  Sosho  series  300-01  95 p.  28  53-54 Studies  i n Japanese C u l t u r e ,  p.  210  -  178  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Benson,  Jackson,  Critical Booth,  The  Scott.  Hemingway Forster,  Durham:  Will:  Sei.  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