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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An artless art : fiction and reality in the work of Shiga Naoya 1980

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e l AN ARTLESS ART: FICTION AND REALITY IN THE WORK OF .SHIGA NAOYA by ROY STARRS B.A. , The U n i v e r s i t y 'of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A s i a n S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t 19 80 © Roy S t a r r s , 19 80 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d tha t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f A s i a n S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date October 13,- 1980 ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s o f f e r s a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e work o f S h i g a Naoya, one o f t h e m a j o r c r e a t i v e w r i t e r s o f modern J a p a n . S h i g a i s p r e s e n t e d p r i m a r i l y as t h e a u t h o r ? o f s h i - s h o s e t s u ( " I - n o v e l s " ) , a d i s t i n c t i v e l y J a p a n e s e g e n r e t h a t combines e l e m e n t s o f f i c t i o n and a u t o b i o g r a p h y . T h i s " b l u r r i n g " o f t h e l i n e s between f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n i s shown t o have been p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t u r b i n g t o c e r t a i n W e s t e r n c r i t i c s , and t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s a t t e m p t s t o answer t h e s e c r i t i c s , f i r s t , by s h o w i n g t h e s o l i d b a s i s o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u i n t h e J a p a n e s e l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n ; s e c o n d , by s h o w i n g how t h e m i x t u r e o f f i c t i o n and r e a l i t y i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f S h i g a ' s a r t on b o t h a t e c h n i c a l and a t h e m a t i c l e v e l ; and, t h i r d , by p o i n t i n g o u t t h e p a r a l l e l s t o S h i g a ' s p r a c t i s e i n some r e c e n t l i t e r a r y t r e n d s o f t h e West i t s e l f . I n C h a p t e r 1, S h i g a ' s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d s t o r y , " A r u A s a " ("One M o r n i n g " ) , i s u s e d as an example o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u i n i t s s i m p l e s t and b a r e s t f o r m , and t h u s as an example o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t c e r t a i n W e s t e r n c r i t i c s d i s l i k e a b o u t t h i s g e n r e . Some o f them, f o r i n s t a n c e , have a c c u s e d t h e s t o r y o f " t r i v i a l i t y " . I n answer t o t h i s c h a r g e , I have shown how S h i g a , by v i r t u e o f h i s m a s t e r f u l s t y l e and h i s d e p t h o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t , manages t o t u r n e v e n s e e m i n g l y i n - s i g n i f i c a n t m a t e r i a l i n t o s i g n i f i c a n t l i t e r a t u r e . "Aru A s a " , i n f a c t , a l r e a d y c o n t a i n s i n m i c r o c o s m t h e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m t o be e x p l o r e d t h r o u g h o u t S h i g a ' s most i m p o r t a n t l a t e r w o r k s : namely, t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s d e s i r e f o r i n d i v i d u a l f r e e d o m and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n on t h e one hand and, on t h e o t h e r , h i s l o n g i n g f o r p e a c e o f mind and communion w i t h o t h e r s . The s o l u t i o n w h i c h S h i g a e v e n t u a l l y o f f e r e d t o t h i s " p r o b lem o f t h e ego" i s f i r s t a dumbrated i n t h e s t o r y I c o n s i d e r i n C h a p t e r 2 , " K i n o s a k i n i t e " (At K i n o s a k i " ) . Here t h e p r o t a g o n i s t r e c e i v e s a p r o f o u n d shock t o h i s s e n s e o f s e l f — a n e a r f a t a l a c c i d e n t - - b u t a l s o i s g i v e n some ( i n t i m a t i o n o f t h e way t o u l t i m a t e p s y c h i c h e a l t h : t h r o u g h s e l f - s u r r e n d e r and u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e . On t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e b e s t way t o d e f i n e s o m e t h i n g i s o f t e n by c o n t r a s t w i t h i t s o p p o s i t e , I have a l s o compared t h i s work w i t h a T o l s t o y s t o r y , " T h r e e D e a t h s " , i n o r d e r t o b r i n g o u t more c l e a r l y t h e s p e c i a l q u a l - i t i e s o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u . I n t h e s t o r y I d e a l w i t h i n C h a p t e r 3 , " T a k i b i " ( " B o n f i r e t h e S h i g a p r o t a g o n i s t i s s e e n t o have a l r e a d y a t t a i n e d some d e g r e e o f u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e . The n a r r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n o f t h e s t o r y , i n f a c t , c o n s i s t s s i m p l y o f a s t e a d y d e e p e n i n g o f t h i s l y r i c a l , i d y l l i c mood. To show t h a t t h e r e a r e some a n a l o g i e s t o S h i g a ' s " n a t u r a l l y p l o t t e d " s t o r i e s i n t h e r e c e n t West, I compare " T a k i b i " w i t h a Hemingway s t o r y , " B i g Two- H e a r t e d R i v e r " . I a l s o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e a f f i n i t y between t h e two authors' 1/ u s e o f i m a g e r y as " o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e " - i v - i s by no means c o i n c i d e n t a l , i n view of the i n f l u e n c e of Japanese poetry on Hemingway through E z r a Pound and the Imagists. In the f o u r t h and f i n a l chapter I d e a l w i t h An'ya Koro (A Dark Night's P a s s i n g ) , which I regard as the c u l m i n a t i o n of Shiga's a r t on both a thematic and a t e c h n i c a l l e v e l . In t h i s work Shiga h i m s e l f comes to g r i p s w i t h the e s s e n t i a l nature of the s h i - s h o s e t s u , i n c l u d i n g the f i c t i o n / r e a l i t y d i a l e c t i c t h a t i s the c r u c i a l problem at i t s c o r e , and i t i s here a l s o t h a t he r e l a t e s t h i s t e c h n i c a l i s s u e w i t h the thematic i s s u e I see as c e n t r a l to h i s work: the p r o t a g o n i s t ' s l o n g i n g f o r s p i r i t u a l l i b e r a t i o n . In An'ya Koro, i n other words, the problem of the man and the problem of the w r i t e r some to be seen as u l t i m a t e l y the same problem, and i n a way t h a t c o u l d o b t a i n o n l y when the man i s a w r i t e r o f s h i - s h o s e t s u . I conclude my d i s c u s s i o n with what, i n my view, Shiga has to o f f e r to the Western reader, as w e l l as an a p p r a i s a l of what I c o n s i d e r to be the improved c l i m a t e f o r the r e c e p t i o n o f h i s work i n the West. , S u p e r v i s o r - v - TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i I n t r o d u c t i o n J % C h a p t e r 1 I l C h a p t e r 2 ; ." 43 C h a p t e r 3 • 80 C h a p t e r 4 113 F o o t n o t e s w . . . . . 161 B i b l i o g r a p h y 178 - 1 - I n t r o d u c t i o n No modern J a p a n e s e w r i t e r o f c o m p a r a b l e s t a t u r e has b een as s o r e l y n e g l e c t e d i n t h e West as S h i g a Naoya J a . - j j ^ (1883-1971). A l t h o u g h most o f h i s m a j o r s t o r i e s were w r i t t e n i n t h e T a i s h o p e r i o d (1912-1926), and h i s s i n g l e g r e a t n o v e l a p p e a r e d i n 1937, i t was n o t u n t i l t h e 1970's t h a t any s u b - s t a n t i a l t r a n s l a t i o n and c r i t i c i s m o f h i s work was u n d e r t a k e n i n E n g l i s h . T h e r e i s , as y e t , no b o o k - l e n g t h c o l l e c t i o n o f h i s s h o r t s t o r i e s (though t h e r e i s i n French" 1") ; a mere hand- f u l o f them a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t v a r i o u s a n t h o l o g i e s - - t h i s i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t S h i g a has l o n g b een r e c o g n i z e d as one o f t h e g r e a t m a s t e r s o f t h e f o r m i n J a p a n . H i s one n o v e l - l e n g t h work, An'ya K o r o <Qfe ffi ĝ- (1937) was f i n a l l y t r a n s l a t e d by Edwin M c C l e l l a n as A Dark N i g h t ' s P a s s i n g i n 1976. As f o r c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s , t h e f i r s t t o be p u b l i s h e d i n book f o r m was F r a n c i s Mathy's S h i g a Naoya (1975). As I i n t e n d t o show, t h i s i s a r a t h e r n a r r o w and u n s y m p a t h e t i c t r e a t m e n t . W i l l i a m Slhfcleyjs The S h i g a H e r o , a r e v i s i o n o f h i s 1971 d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , a p p e a r e d i n 1979; t h o u g h more s y m p a t h e t i c t o h i s s u b j e c t t h a n Mathy, S i b l e y n e v e r t h e l e s s t a k e s a m a r k e d l y F r e u d i a n a p p r o a c h t h a t , i n my v i e w , r e s u l t s i n an e q u a l l y d i s t o r t e d image o f S h i g a ' s a r t . P e r h a p s t h e most h e l p f u l and p e r c e p t i v e s t u d y t o d a t e , p r e - s e n t i n g t h e a u t h o r more i n t h e c o n t e x t o f h i s own c u l t u r e , has b e e n t h e c h a p t e r Ueda Makoto d e v o t e d t o S h i g a i n h i s - 2 - Modern J a p a n e s e W r i t e r s and t h e N a t u r e o f L i t e r a t u r e ( 1 9 7 6 ) , w h i c h I s h a l l have o c c a s i o n t o r e t u r n t o l a t e r . Why has S h i g a ' s work s u f f e r e d t h i s l o n g n e g l e c t by a W e s t e r n r e a d e r s h i p t h a t has g i v e n an e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c e p t i o n t o s u c h w r i t e r s as Kawabata, T a n i z a k i , M i s h i m a . a n d Abe? The b a s i c r e a s o n seems t o be t h a t , i n t h e e y e s o f W e s t e r n r e a d e r s , S h i g a ' s works l a c k t h e u s u a l a t t r i b u t e s o f " f i c t i o n " : s i n c e most o f t h e e v e n t s d e s c r i b e d a r e t a k e n d i r e c t l y and i n a s e e m i n g l y random f a s h i o n f r o m t h e a u t h o r ' s own l i f e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e i n t h e way o f c o n v e n t i o n a l " w e l l - b u i l t " p l o t - s t r u c t u r e ; and, s i n c e t h e a u t h o r h i m s e l f , o r h i s f i c t i o n a l p e r s o n a , i s a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y t h e p r o t a g o n i s t o f t h e s e s e l f - a b s o r b e d w o r k s , t h e r e i s no d e v e l o p m e n t o f a w i de rang.e o f " r o u n d e d " c h a r a c t e r s . Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r p e r h a p s e x p r e s s e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l W e s t e r n v i e w o f t h e k i n d o f s h i - s h o s e t s u yjfl^ , \ \ ( " I - n o v e l s " ) t h a t S h i g a w r o t e when he r e f e r s t o them as "unformed r e m i n i s c e n c e " and as "a f o r m o f a u t o - b i o g r a p h i c a l j o t t i n g t h a t may s c a r c e l y seem t o d e s e r v e t h e 2 name f i c t i o n a t a l l . " I n t h e same e s s a y , however, S e i d e n - s t i c k e r a d m i t s t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s g e n r e , a l b e i t r e l u c t a n t l y , i n t h e o v e r a l l c o n t e x t o f modern J a p a n e s e f i c t i o n when he s a y s t h a t " i f t h e r e i s any one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t i n - g u i s h i n g t h e modern J a p a n e s e n o v e l f r o m t h e modern n o v e l e l s e - where, i t i s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f u n d i s g u i s e d and u n s h a p e d a u t o - 3 b i o g r a p h y . " M i s h i m a Yukd>o a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h e c e n t r a l p l a c e - 3 - o f t h i s g e n r e i n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y l i t e r a t u r e o f h i s c o u n t r y , b u t he saw i t i n a more c o s m o p o l i t a n and l e s s b e l i t t l i n g l i g h t : The " I - n o v e l " o f modern J a p a n e s e l i t e r a t u r e i s a complex c r e a t i o n o f m i x e d a n c e s t r y r b r e d f r o m t h e F r e n c h n a t u r a l i s t n o v e l , f r o m t h e J a p a n e s e o c c a s i o n a l e s s a y s t y l e o f t h e M i d d l e Ages ( c a l l e d , r e v e a l i n g l y , " f o l l o w i n g one's t h o u g h t s " ) and f r o m t h e s e l f - w o r s h i p o f E u r o p e a n r o m a n t i c i s m . And, b e c a u s e o f t h e p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f J a p a n e s e p o e t r y w h i c h I have men- t i o n e d b e f o r e , t h e " I - n o v e l " f o r m was a l s o made t o s e r v e t h e f u n c t i o n o f ^ f u l f i l l i n g p o e t i c needs t h r o u g h t h e v e h i c l e o f p r o s e . The i s s u e , i n f a c t , i s even l a r g e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u p e r s e , t h o u g h t h i s i s a v e r y w i d e l y p r a c t i s e d g e n r e . T h a t t h e p r o b l e m a t i c r e l a t i o n between f i c t i o n and r e a l i t y has p r e o c c u p i e d many o f J a p a n ' s g r e a t e s t modern n o v e l i s t s has b e en w e l l d e m o n s t r a t e d by Ueda Makoto i n h i s Modern J a p a n e s e W r i t e r s . I n h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e l i t e r a r y t h e o r i e s o f e i g h t n o v e l i s t s , t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n t h a t Ueda c o n s i d e r s i n e a c h c a s e i s t h e w r i t e r ' s v i e w o f t h e r e l a t i o n between l i f e and l i t e r a t u r e , and he shows t h a t i t i s a q u e s t i o n t h a t has e s p e c i a l l y e x e r c i s e d w r i t e r s i n modern J a p a n . As I s h a l l p o i n t o u t i n C h a p t e r 1, i t seems t o me, t h e n , t h a t F r a n c i s Mathy a t t e m p t s t o evade t h i s c e n t r a l i s s u e w h i c h must a r i s e i n any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f S h i g a by o v e r - e m p h a s i z i n g t h e few more c o n v e n t i o n a l works o f f i c t i o n t h e a u t h o r w r o t e . To do s o , I w o u l d c l a i m , i s t o p r e s e n t a d i s - t o r t e d image b o t h o f S h i g a ' s a c t u a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t as a w r i t e r and o f h i s a b i d i n g i n f l u e n c e on t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f h i s c o u n t r y . - 4 - S h i g a Naoya must s t a n d o r f a l l a s a w r i t e r o f s h i - s h o s e t s u ; t o t r y t o " d r e s s him up" i n more a c c e p t a b l y c o n v e n t i o n a l o r W e s t e r n g a r b i s a f u t i l e e x e r c i s e t h a t o n l y b e l i e s t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f t h e s u b j e c t . I n t h i s p r e s e n t a n a l y s i s , t h e n , I c o n c e n t r a t e e x c l u s i v e l y on S h i g a as a s h i - s h o s e t s u w r i t e r , and a t t e m p t t o t r a c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e theme I r e g a r d as c e n t r a l t o t h e s e " a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l " w o r k s : t h a t o f a man s e e k i n g t o f r e e h i m s e l f f r o m h i s own e g o t i s m by a c h i e v i n g t o t a l u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e . A t t h e same t i m e , I t r y t o a d d r e s s t h e c e n t r a l c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m w h i c h a r i s e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u , a p r o b l e m t h a t S h i g a h i m s e l f , as I s h a l l show, came u l t i m a t e l y t o d e a l w i t h i n h i s g r e a t n o v e l : t h e o n - g o i n g d i a l e c t i c between f i c t i o n and r e a l i t y . I n C h a p t e r 1 I u s e S h i g a ' s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d s t o r y , " A r u A s a " $ ^ (One M o r n i n g , 1 9 0 8 ) , as an example o f t h e S h i - s h o s e t s u i n i t s s i m p l e s t and b a r e s t f o r m and, c o n s e - q u e n t l y , as an example o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t most o f f e n d s W e s t e r n c r i t i c s i n p a r t i c u l a r a b o u t t h i s g e n r e . My i n t e n t i o n i s t o show t h a t t h e v i e w s o f t h e s e c r i t i c s a r e h e a v i l y p r e - j u d i c e d by t h e v a l u e s o f t h e i r own c u l t u r e ; when S h i g a ' s works a r e v i e w e d t h r o u g h t h e e y e s o f a s y m p a t h e t i c n a t i v e c r i t i c s u c h as K o b a y a s h i H i d e o , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e y seem a c u l m i n a t i o n o f a l l t h a t i s f i n e s t i n t h e J a p a n e s e l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . On t h e l e v e l o f theme, I p o i n t o u t t h a t we c a n a l r e a d y d i s c e r n i n S h i g a ' s e a r l i e s t s t o r y t h e o u t l i n e s o f a - 5 - p r o b l e m t h a t w i l l r e c u r t h r o u g h o u t h i s s h i - s h o s e t s u w r i t t e n o v e r t h e n e x t t h i r t y y e a r s : how i s t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o r e - s o l v e t h e t e n s i o n between t h e demands o f h i s own f i e r c e l y i n d e p e n d e n t ego and h i s l o n g i n g f o r p e a c e o f m i n d and com- munion w i t h o t h e r s ? The d e f i n i t i v e s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b l e m f i n a l l y comes, as we s h a l l s e e , w i t h t h e c l i m a c t i c s c e n e o f h i s magnum op u s , p u b l i s h e d a l m o s t t h i r t y y e a r s a f t e r " A r u A s a " . I n C h a p t e r 2 I d e a l w i t h a more ma t u r e example o f S h i g a ' s a r t , a work t h a t i s , i n f a c t , one o f t h e most c e l e b r a t e d o f h i s s h o r t s t o r i e s : " K i n o s a k i n i t e " ffy o> \? \ (At K i n o s a k i , 1 9 1 7 ) . Here t h e S h i g a p r o t a g o n i s t r e c e i v e s a f a r more p r o f o u n d s h o c k t o h i s s e n s e o f s e l f t h a n i n t h e e a r l i e r s t o r y — a n e a r - f a t a l a c c i d e n t - - b u t a l s o he a l r e a d y s e n s e s t h e d i r e c t i o n he must t r a v e l t o a c h i e v e h i s u l t i m a t e l i b e r a t i o n : t o w a r d s s e l f - s u r r e n d e r and u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e . I n o r d e r t o d e f i n e more c l e a r l y t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e w o r l d l i t e r a t u r e , I a l s o compare t h i s S h i g a s t o r y w i t h a s h o r t s t o r y by a g r e a t m a s t e r , o f t h e g e n r e as i t has b e en p r a c t i s e d t r a d i t i o n a l l y i n t h e West, L e o T o l s t o y . I t i s a f o r t u n a t e c o i n c i d e n c e t h a t t h e T o l s t o y s t o r y , " T h r e e D e a t h s " , has a s i m i l a r o v e r a l l c o n c e p t and s t r u c t u r e t o " K i n o s a k i n i t e " , t h o u g h , as we s h a l l s e e , i t a l s o p r e s e n t s some i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t s o f c o n t r a s t . C h a p t e r 3 d e a l s w i t h a n o t h e r o f S h i g a ' s b e s t - k n o w n s t o r i e s , " T a k i b i " ^ ( B o n f i r e , 1 9 20). I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e two e a r l i e r s t o r i e s , t h e mood o f t h i s work i s c l o s e t o i d y l l i c as - 6 - t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i s shown l e a d i n g a q u i e t l i f e i n t h e m o u n t a i n s , e n j o y i n g a p l e a s a n t communion w i t h b o t h man and n a t u r e . Where- as i n C h a p t e r 2 I u s e a T o l s t o y s t o r y t o show how t h e t r a d i - t i o n a l W e s t e r n f o r m o f t h i s g e n r e d i f f e r e d f r o m S h i g a ' s s h i - s h o s e t s u , i n t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r I u s e a Hemingway s t o r y , " B i g T w o - H e a r t e d R i v e r " , t o show t h a t t h e r e a r e some c l o s e p a r a l l e l s t o S h i g a ' s p r a c t i s e i n t h e more r e c e n t West. I a l s o p o i n t o u t t h a t t h i s a p p a r e n t a f f i n i t y i s by no means e n t i r e l y c o i n c i d e n t a l , i n v i e w o f t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e J a p a n e s e i n f l u e n c e on t h e W e s t e r n " I m a g i s t " p o e t s , who i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d s u c h f i c t i o n w r i t e r s as Hemingway. I n Chapter 4 t h e two l e v e l s o f my d i s c u s s i o n may be s e e n t o be b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f A n 'ya K o r o , a work I r e g a r d as t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f S h i g a ' s a r t ' on b o t h a t h e m a t i c and a t e c h n i c a l l e v e l . I t i s i n t h i s work, as I hope t o show, t h a t S h i g a h i m s e l f comes t o g r i p s w i t h t h e e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u , i n c l u d i n g t h e f i c t i o n / r e a l i t y d i a l e c t i c t h a t i s t h e c r u c i a l p r o b l e m a t i t s c o r e , and ife i s h e r e a l s o t h a t he r e l a t e s t h i s " t e c h n i c a l " i s s u e w i t h t h e t h e m a t i c i s s u e I have s e e n as c e n t r a l t o h i s work up t o t h i s p o i n t : t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s l o n g i n g f o r s p i r i t u a l l i b e r a t i o n . I n A n 'ya K o r o , i n o t h e r words, t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e man and thaaproblem o f t h e w r i t e r come t o be s e e n as u l t i m a t e l y t h e same p r o b l e m , and i n a way t h a t c o u l d o b t a i n o n l y when t h e man i s a w r i t e r o f s h i - s h o s e t s u . I c o n c l u d e my d i s c u s s i o n w i t h a summation o f what, i n my v i e w , S h i g a has t o o f f e r t o t h e W e s t e r n r e a d e r , as w e l l as an a p p r a i s a l o f what I c o n s i d e r t o be t h e i m p r o v e d - 7 - c l i m a t e f o r t h e r e c e p t i o n o f h i s work i n t h e West. S h i g a Naoya was b o r n i n 1883 a t t h e v i l l a g e o f I s h i m a k i i n M i y a g i P r e f e c t u r e on t h e n o r t h e a s t c o a s t o f J a p a n , where h i s f a t h e r was p o s t e d a s a n employee o f t h e D a i - i c h i Bank. The f a t h e r , however, was an a m b i t i o u s and s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s - man, a g r a d u a t e o f t h e new K e i o U n i v e r s i t y , and b e f o r e l o n g he r e t u r n e d t o To k y o , q u i t h i s j o b a t t h e bank and s e t o u t t o make a name f o r h i m s e l f i n t h e w o r l d o f h i g h f i n a n c e . E v e n t u a l l y he became t h e d i r e c t o r o f b o t h a r a i l w a y and an i n s u r a n c e company. S i n c e i t was a l s o t h e c a s e t h a t t h e S h i g a s had b e e n f o r g e n e r a t i o n s l e a d i n g s a m u r a i r e t a i n e r s o f t h e Soma c l a n , i t may w e l l be s a i d t h a t Naoya was b o r n i n t o a "good" f a m i l y , b o t h i n terms o f w e a l t h and o f s o c i a l s t a t u s . T h i s i s , i n d e e d , t h e most c r u c i a l f a c t a b o u t h i s e a r l y b i o g r a p h y , s i n c e i t e n a b l e d h i m t o a t t e n d t h e G a k u s h u i n o r " p e e r s ' S c h o o l " , where he f i r s t came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r w r i t e r s o f t h e S h i r a k a b a g r o u p , and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , s i n c e i t e n a b l e d him, t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e , t o c o n c e n t r a t e e x c l u s i v e l y on h i s w r i t i n g , t u r n i n g o u t works a t a l e i s u r e l y p a c e w i t h o u t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f making a l i v i n g . A l t h o u g h S h i g a a t t e n d e d one o f t h e b e s t s c h o o l s and, l a t e r , t h e b e s t u n i v e r s i t y i n t h e c o u n t r y , he was n o t a p a r - t i c u l a r l y good s t u d e n t . I n f a c t , he had t o r e p e a t two y e a r s a t G a k u s h u i n and he d r o p p e d o u t o f Tokyo I m p e r i a l U n i v e r s i t y b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g h i s c o u r s e o f s t u d i e s ( i n E n g l i s h - 8 - l i t e r a t u r e ) . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n v i e w o f h i s l a t e r r e p u - t a t i o n as a " p r i m i t i v e " , a man who v a l u e d i n s t i n c t a n d e m o t i o n above i n t e l l e c t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was a t s c h o o l , as I have m e n t i o n e d , t h a t S h i g a came i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r young men who had l i t e r a r y a m b i t i o n s , most i m p o r t a n t l y M u s h a n o k o j i S a n e a t s u , who w o u l d be S h i g a ' s c l o s e s t f r i e n d and s u p p o r t e r f o r t h e r e s t o f h i s l i f e . When t h i s g r o u p o f young men had a d v a n c e d t o g e t h e r t o Tokyo U n i v e r s i t y , t h e y p u b l i s h e d a l i t e r a r y m a g a z i n e c a l l e d S h i r a k a b a <%̂> (White B i r g h ) . The m a g a z i n e , w h i c h r e m a i n e d i n c i r c u l a t i o n f r o m 1910 t o 1923, n o t o n l y p u b l i s h e d works by members o f t h e g r o u p i t s e l f b u t a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o i n t r o d u c e c o n t e m p o r a r y W e s t e r n l i t e r a t u r e and a r t t o J a p a n e s e r e a d e r s . By s e r v i n g b o t h o f t h e s e f u n c - t i o n s i t became a c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r - t a n c e i n T a i s h o J a p a n . A t any r a t e , t h i s was t h e v e h i c l e t h r o u g h w h i c h S h i g a ' s s t o r i e s f i r s t became w i d e l y known. S t i l l , one must be wary o f any f a c i l e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s o f him as a member o f t h e " S h i r a k a b a g r o u p " . The impoajtance o f t h e g r o u p t o S h i g a l a y f a r more i n t h e f r i e n d s h i p and s u p p o r t i t p r o - v i d e d t h a n i n any d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f i t s l i t e r a r y t h e o r i e s on h i s work. As I hope t o show, S h i g a t h e w r i t e r was v e r y much h i s own man. T h e r e i s one o t h e r f a c t w h i c h must be m e n t i o n e d a b o u t S h i g a ' s marly b i o g r a p h y : h i s s t o r m y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f a t h e r . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , as a h a r d - h e a d e d b u s i n e s s m a n t h e - 9 - f a t h e r was none t o o p l e a s e d w i t h h i s son's c h o i c e o f v o c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e i t meant t h a t he w o u l d r e m a i n f i n a n c i a l l y d e p e n d e n t on h i s f a t h e r f o r much o f h i s l i f e . T h e r e were o t h e r s o u r c e s o f i r r i t a t i o n : Naoya's p r o t e s t s o v e r t h e p o l l u - t i o n c a u s e d by a c o p p e r mine h i s f a m i l y was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ; h i s a f f a i r w i t h one o f t h e f a m i l y m a i d s and h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o m a r r y h e r ; and, f i n a l l y , h i s m a r r i a g e i n 1914 w i t h o u t h i s . f a t h e r ' s c o n s e n t t o a c o u s i n o f M u s h a n o k o j i . D u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1913 t o 1915, however, S h i g a ' s s t a t e o f mind u n d e r w e n t a s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e , a change r e l f e c t e d , as we s h a l l s e e , i n h i s s t o r i e s " K i n o s a k i n i t e " and " T a k i b i " . H i s c l o s e b r u s h w i t h d e a t h on t h e one hand (he was h i t by a s t r e e t c a r i n Tokyo i n t h e summer o f 1913) and h i s i n c r e a s i n g s e n s e o f u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e on t h e o t h e r ( i n 1915 he went w i t h h i s new b r i d e t o l i v e amid t h e b e a u t i f u l m o u n t a i n s c e n e r y o f A k a g i i n C e n t r a l J a p a n) c h a n g e d h i s a t t i t u d e o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n and s e l f - a s s e r t i o n i n t o one o f l o n g i n g f o r harmony and p e a c e o f mind. W i t h t h i s new a t t i t u d e he was soon a b l e t o e f f e c t a r e c o n - c i l i a t i o n w i t h h i s f a t h e r , an e v e n t w h i c h i s m o v i n g l y d e s c r i b e d i n one o f h i s most c e l e b r a t e d s h i - s h o s e t s u Wakai jfo ^ ( R e c o n c i l i a t i o n , 1 9 17). W i t h t h i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t h e p r i n - c i p a l drama o f S h i g a ' s l i f e came t o an e n d , and he was a b l e t o s p e n d t h e r e s t o f h i s d a y s ( u n t i l h i s d e a t h a t t h e age o f e i g h t y - e i g h t i n 1971) i n t h e q u i e t e n j o y m e n t o f h i s f a m i l y , o f t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e and o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l F a r E a s t e r n a r t s . - 10 - W i t h t i m e , i n f a c t , S h i g a became an a l m o s t a r c h e t y p a l f i g u r e on t h e J a p a n e s e c u l t u r a l s c e n e , s e e m i n g more and more l i k e t h e r e i n c a r n a t i o n o f some e n l i g h t e n e d sage o f o l d . B u t , as a w r i t e ^ , one f i n a l g r e a t s t r u g g l e a w a i t e d h i m a f t e r h i s r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h h i s f a t h e r : he had s t i l l t o f i n i s h h i s magnum o p u s , An'ya K o r o . T h i s was a l o n g and t o r t u o u s p r o c e s s : t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e n o v e l was p u b l i s h e d i n 1921, and i t was n o t u n t i l 1937 t h a t t h e l a s t i n s t a l m e n t a p p e a r e d , a f u l l t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s a f t e r t h e work was begun. A f t e r t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s one g r e a t n o v e l S h i g a w r o t e l i t t l e o f any c o n s e q u e n c e , t h o u g h he l i v e d a n o t h e r t h i r t y - f o u r y e a r s . T h i s f a c t a l o n e seems t o t e l l us much a b o u t t h e s p e c i a l r e - l a t i o n s h i p between a w r i t e r o f s h i - s h o s e t s u and h i s work. H a v i n g p o u r e d a l l o f t h e agony and t h e h a r d - e a r n e d wisdom o f h i s l i f e i n t o t h i s one work, i t seems t h a t S h i g a now f e l t he had b e s t m a i n t a i n a d i g n i f i e d s i l e n c e . - 11 - Chapter I Shiga Naoya may be regarded as f i r s t and foremost a shortstory writer. This i s not to deny the importance of his one novel, An'ya Koro (A Dark Night's Passing), upon which much of his high reputation i n Japan rests. Nor i s i t to deny the wide appeal of his most famous novella, Wakai (Reconciliation), that watakushishosetsu par excel- lence which has moved c r i t i c s to such effusive heights (or depths) i n describing i t s emotional impact. But the £act remains that Shiga was far more p r o l i f i c as a short- story writer than as a n o v e l i s t and, more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , that short stories such as "Takibi" ("Bonfire") and "Kinosaki nite'i ("At Kinosaki") seem to embody, to a greater extent thati any of his other works, those q u a l i t i e s that most c r i t i c s , I think, would regard as "quintessentially Shiga". Furthermore, even his great novel i s rather episodic i n character, so that despite i t s considerable length, i t has been regarded by more than one c r i t i c , as we s h a l l see, as more a series of loosely related short stories than a t i g h t l y structured novel(and, indeed, i t was o r i g i n a l l y planned as such 1"). One might add that Shiga took the major part of his working l i f e (about twenty-five years) to write his one novel. Needless to say, t h i s seems to imply that novel-writing did not come easy to him. - 12 - A l t h o u g h S h i g a w r o t e some s i x t y odd s h o r t s t o r i e s , t h e p r o b l e m o f w h i c h t o s i n g l e o u t as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s n o t a p a r t i c u l a r l y v e x i n g one. What S h i g a i s renowned f o r , above a l l , i s h i s s t y l e (and, as we s h a l l s e e , he h i m s e l f c o n s i d e r e d s t y l e t o be t h e q u i n t e s s e n c e o f t h e w r i t e r ' s a r t ) b u t , u n l i k e h i s most famous c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , T a n i z a k e and Akutagawa, he d i d n o t p o s s e s s a f a c i l e command o f a v a r i e t y o f s t y l e s . T h i s a l r e a d y t e l l s us much a b o u t t h e k i n d o f w r i t e r he was. I n h i s c a s e i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e " s t y l e i s t h e man". S h i g a ' s own v i e w , w h i c h we s h a l l e x p l o r e i n more d e p t h l a t e r , was t h a t a w r i t e r ' s s t y l e a r o s e s p o n t a n e o u s l y f r o m t h e d e p t h s o f h i s b e i n g ; i t was t h e man's own b a s i c "rhythm" t h a t , i n t h e c a s e o f a g r e a t w r i t e r , communicated i t s e l f f o r c e f u l l y t o t h e r e a d e r t h r o u g h t h e w r i t t e n word. B e c a u s e s t y l e , t h e n , was s u c h a d e e p l y p e r s o n a l t h i n g , i t c o u l d n o t be c h a n g e d a t w i l l l i k e a s u i t o f c l o t h e s . I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s v i e w , S h i g a l e f t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c stamp on e v e r y t h i n g he w r o t e . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t a l l h i s works a r e m a s t e r p i e c e s , b u t t h e y do a l l m a n i f e s t , t o some e x t e n t , t h e u n m i s t a k e a b l e " S h i g a s t y l e " . As a r e s u l t , a l m o s t any o f them w o u l d s e r v e t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s p r i m a r y a s p e c t o f h i s a r t . As f o r c o n t e n t , t h e s t o r i e s may be d i v i d e d i n t o two b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s : t h o s e t h a t a r e : m o r e o r l e s s " a u t o b i o - g r a p h i c a l " ( t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u ) , c o m p r i s i n g by f a r t h e m a j o r i t y , and t h o s e t h a t a r e more i n v e n t e d o r " f i c t i o n a l " . W i t h t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , t h e r e a l r e a d y a p p e a r s t h e f i c t i o n / n o n - f i c t i o n o r f i c t i o n / r e a l i t y d i a l e c t i c w h i c h w i l l be a recurs? - 13 - r i n g theme i n my s t u d y o f S h i g a . B u t I w i s h t o say immed- i a t e l y t h a t t h e r e i s no v a l u e - j u d g m e n t i m p l i e d h e r e . I t seems t o me t h a t F r a n c i s Mathy, f o r i n s t a n c e , cbnly b e t r a y s h i s W e s t e r n p r e c o n c e p t i o n s a b o u t what c o n s t i t u t e s "good l i t e r a t u r e " by h i s r a n k i n g o f t h e " f i c t i o n a l " s t o r i e s above t h e "auto- 2 b i o g r a p h i c a l " . I n h i s book, t h e f i r s t f u l l - l e n g t h s t u d y o f S h i g a i n E n g l i s h , Mathy g i v e s " s t a r c o v e r a g e " t o t h e f i c t i o n a l s t o r i e s i n a c h a p t e r c a l l e d "A G o l d e n Ten" and l a m e n t s t h a t S h i g a was u n a b l e t o w r i t e more b e c a u s e he was "hampered by an 3 i m p o s s i b l e t h e o r y o f p r o s e f i c t i o n " , i . e . , he g e n e r a l l y p r e - f e r r e d t o w r i t e i n " s u c h a d e f e c t i v e g e n r e as t h e a u t o b i o - 4 g r a p h i c a l n o v e l " . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t seems t o me t h a t by o v e r - e m p h a s i z i n g t h e f i c t i o n a l s t o r i e s a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e a u t o - b i o g r a p h i c a l , Mathy d i s t o r t s o u r v i e w o f S h i g a ' s a c h i e v e m e n t as a w r i t e r , s i n c e t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f h i s s t o r i e s a r e s h i - s h o s e t s u and s i n c e he i s known i n J a p a n m a i n l y as t h e m a s t e r o f t h i s g e n r e (and i t i s as s u c h t h a t he has e x e r c i s e d h i s enormous i n f l u e n c e on modern J a p a n e s e l i t e r a t u r e ) . A t any r a t e , i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y I have t r i e d t o a t t a i n a more a p p r o p r i a t e b a l a n c e by d e a l i n g a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h w i t h t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l t h a n w i t h t h e f i c t i o n a l s t o r i e s . As I have s a i d , t h e r e i s a r e m a r k a b l e u n i t y t o S h i g a ' s e n t i r e o p u s . E v e n i n h i s f i r s t p u b l i s h e d s t o r y , " A r u A s a " ("One M o r n i n g " - 1908) , t h e r e a l r e a d y a p p e a r many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f h i s s t y l e and c o n t e n t . I n f a c t , i t w o u l d be o n l y a s l i g h t e x a g g e r a t i o n t o say t h a t t h i s f i v e page p r o d u c t o f S h i g a ' s e a r l y manhood a l r e a d y c o n t a i n s t h e g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f h i s l a t e r work i n m i c r o c o s m . " A r u A s a " i s t h e s i m p l e s t o r y o f a young man, S h i n t a r o , who has t r o u b l e g e t t i n g o u t o f bed one m o r n i n g . T h e - n i g h t b e f o r e he had p e r s i s t e d i n r e a d i n g a n o v e l u n t i l v e r y l a t e , d e s p i t e t h e p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f h i s g r a n d m o t h e r , who i s s h a r i n g t h e same bedroom. She had warned him t h a t a B u d d h i s t p r i e s t w o u l d be coming e a r l y t h e n e x t m o r n i n g t o c e l e b r a t e a mem- o r i a l s e r v i c e f o r h i s dead g r a n d f a t h e r , and t h a t t h e y would have t o r i s e l o n g b e f o r e t h e p r i e s t a r r i v e d t o g e t e v e r y t h i n g r e a d y . B u t S h i n t a r o had c o n t i n u e d r e a d i n g u n t i l t h e e a r l y h o u r s o f t h e m o r n i n g . Now, whenever h i s g r a n d m o t h e r comes t o g e t him up, he f a l l s b a c k t o s l e e p a g a i n . She grows i n - c r e a s i n g l y i r r i t a t e d , u n t i l f i n a l l y she i s n o t p o l i t e l y r e q u e s t i n g b u t s t e r n l y commanding h i m t o g e t up, and t o be q u i c k a b o u t i t . T h i s i n t u r n b r i n g s o u t t h e r e b e l i n S h i n t a r o , who d e f i a n t l y t e l l s h e r t h a t a l l h e r p e s t e r i n g has o n l y made i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r h i m t o g e t up. C a l l i n g h i m a " d e v i l " , h i s g r a n d m o t h e r s t a l k s a n g r i l y o u t o f t h e room. E v e n t h o u g h he i s no l o n g e r r e a l l y s l e e p y , S h i n t a r o ' s s t u b b o r n p r i d e now p r e v e n t s h i m f r o m g e t t i n g up. When h i s g r a n d m o t h e r r e t u r n s once more, she t r i e s a b i t o f " p s y c h o l o g y " on him: she b e g i n s f o l d i n g up h e r own hea v y m a t t r e s s and q u i l t s , e v e n t h o u g h , a t s e v e n t y - t h r e e , she s h o u l d n o t be p u t t i n g h e r s e l f t o s u c h a s t r a i n . B u t t h e c l e v e r S h i n t a r o s e e s t h r o u g h h e r s t r a t e g y and s t i l l r e f u s e s t o budge. F i n a l l y , h i s g r a n d m o t h e r becomes a n g r y and a c c u s e s him o f h a v i n g no s e n s e o f " f i l i a l d u t y " . " I f f i l i a l d u t y means b e i n g a t t h e beck and c a l l o f an o l d l a d y " , S h i n t a r o answers 5 r a t h e r s p i t e f u l l y , " t h e n I want no p a r t o f i t . " H i s g r a n d - mother r u s h e s o u t i n t e a r s . Now t h a t he has e n j o y e d t h i s c a t h a r t i c r e l e a s e o f a n i - m o s i t y , S h i n t a r o f i n a l l y f e e l s i n t h e mood t o g e t up. B u t he s t i l l has n o t e x h a u s t e d a l l h i s r e s e n t m e n t . W h i l e g e t t i n g d r e s s e d , he e n t e r t a i n s a n o t h e r s p i t e f u l t h o u g h t : p e r h a p s he w i l l go s k a t i n g t h e n e x t day on a l a k e where t h r e e s t u d e n t s drowned r e c e n t l y — s u r e l y t h i s w i l l make h i s g r a n d m o t h e r w o r r y a b o u t him. H i s g r a n d m o t h e r now e n t e r s t h e room a g a i n . R e l i e v e d t h a t S h i n t a r o i s now up, she t r i e s t o make p e a c e w i t h him by a s k i n g h i s a d v i c e a b o u t w h i c h w r i t i n g b r u s h e s t o o f f e r t o t h e p r i e s t when he comes. She m e e k l y o b e y s when he o r d e r s h e r t o p u t two b r u s h e s b a c k as n o t s u i t a b l e . W i t h t h i s f u r t h e r s a l v e t o h i s ego, S h i n t a r o i s t h o r o u g h l y a p p e a s e d . L e f t a l o n g a g a i n , he s u d d e n l y fee?ls l i k e l a u g h i n g . He c a n c e l s t h e i d e a o f t h e s k a t i n g t r i p and b e g i n s t o f o l d up h i s b e d d i n g n e a t l y and p u t i t away. Now c o m p l e t e l y " r e c o n c i l e d " , he e v e n f o l d s up h i s g r a n d m o t h e r ' s b e g d i n g . W h i l e d o i n g s o , t h o u g h , he i s s u d d e n l y overcome, " i n t h e m i d s t o f l a u g h t e r " , by an u n c o n t r o l l a b l e u r g e t o c r y . The t e a r s s t r e a m down h i s c h e e k s so many t h a t "he c o u l d no l o n g e r s ee a n y t h i n g " . B u t when f i n a l l y t h e t e a r s s t o p , he f e e l s " r e f r e s h e d , p u r i f i e d " . I n t h e f i n a l s c e n e o f t h e s t o r y , S h i n t a r o goes t o h i s y o u n g e r b r o t h e r and s i s t e r s i n t h e n e x t room, where he j o i n s i n t h e i r p l a y f u l j o k i n g . The s t o r y t h u s ends on an a p p r o - p r i a t e l y l i g h t n o t e , s i g n i f y i n g S h i n t a r o 1 s e u p h o r i a n o t j u s t a t h a v i n g b een p u r g e d o f some n e g a t i v e e m o t i o n s b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , a t b e i n g a b l e t o r e j o i n t h e c o m f o r t a b l e f a m i l y 7 c i r c l e , t h e a l l - i m p o r t a n t J a p a n e s e r e a l m o f amae. A l t h o u g h t h e s t y l e i n w h i c h "Aru A s a " i s w r i t t e n i s n o t q u i t e y e t t h e m a t u r e " S h i g a s t y l e " , we a l r e a d y c an d i s c e r n h e r e someof i t s m a j o r f e a t u r e s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e r e i s a k i n d o f s t r o n g , a u t h o r i t a t i v e t o n e t o t h e w r i t i n g w h i c h comes, no d o u b t , . f r o m t h e a l m o s t s t a c c a t o r h y t h m : s h o r t , c l i p p e d s e n - t e n c e s i n w h i c h no words a r e w a s t e d and f a c t s a r e s t a t e d s i m p l y and c l e a r l y . One i s g i v e n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e words have been c h o s e n w i t h e x t r e m e c a r e , and t h e s e words a r e gen- e r a l l y o f a s i m p l e , b a s i c k i n d . T h e r e i s a v e r y s p a r s e u s e o f a d j e c t i v e s ; t h e l a n g u a g e i s n o t i n any way " d e c o r a t i v e " b u t r a t h e r e c o n o m i c a l , e f f i c i e n t . I t i s , as T a n i z a k i — 8 J u n i c h i r o has p o i n t e d o u t , an e s s e n t i a l l y " m a s c u l i n e " s t y l e (and T a n i z a k i c o n t r a s t s i t w i t h t h e " f e m i n i n e " s t y l e t h a t d e s c e n d s f r o m Lady M u r a s a k i and f i n d s i t s p r i n c i p a l modern e x p r e s s i o n i n h i s own w o r k s ) . I f we were t o lchok f o r i t s - 17 - e q u i v a l e n t i n E n g l i s h , p e r h a p s t h e c l o s e s t w o u l d be t h e e q u a l l y c e l e b r a t e d "Hemingway s t y l e " -- and t h e r e a r e , i n f a c t , some r e m a r k a b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s between t h e s t y l e s o f t h e s e two w r i t e r s , e v e n i n s u c h d e t a i l s a s t h e i r c h o i c e o f wo r d s . ^ S h i g a i s renowned above a l l f o r ' . h i s s t y l e ( i t i s u s e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , as a model o f i d e a l J a p a n e s e p r o s e i n s c h o o l s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y ) and s t y l e , a s I have s a i d , o c c u p i e s an a l l - i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n i n h i s own v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e . I n a s i g n i f i c a n t e s s a y he w r o t e on t h e s u b j e c t , w h i c h m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d a p e r s o n a l m a n i f e s t o o f h i s "way" a s a w r i t e r (I mean "way" i n t h e J a p a n e s e s e n s e o f do o r m i c h i , f o r i t be- comes a p p a r e n t t h a t w r i t i n g was as much a s p i r i t u a l d i s c i - p l i n e t o him as an a r t ) , S h i g a u s e s t h e E n g l i s h word "rhythm" t o d e s c r i b e t h a t q u a l i t y w h i c h he c o n s i d e r s t o be t h e q u i n - t e s s e n c e o f good w r i t i n g . T h i s i s n o t m e r e l y a m a t t e r o f t h e s k i l l f u l a r r a n g e m e n t o f words — i t i s , one m i g h t s a y , s o m e t h i n g communicated a l m o s t "between t h e words", a k i n d o f " r e v e r b e r a t i o n " f r o m t h e a u t h o r ' s "mind and s p i r i t " -- some- what a k i n , i t seems, t o t h e S h a v i a n c o n c e p t o f " l i f e - f o r c e " . Of n e c e s s i t y , t h e n , t h e a u t h o r must be n o t j u s t a t a l e n t e d a r t i s t b u t a l s o a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d human b e i n g . (Perhaps t h i s v i e w d o e s much t o e x p l a i n t h e " b i o g r a p h i c a l f i x a t i o n " o f many J a p a n e s e S h i g a c r i t i c s — he was h i m s e l f , by a l l a c c o u n t s , an i m p r e s s i v e , a l m o s t c h a r i s m a t i c p e r s o n ) . A c c o r d - i n g t o S h i g a : "One c a n a l w a y s t e l l f r o m o n e ' s own r e a c t i o n - 18 - on r e a d i n g a s t o r y how s t r o n g l y (or f e e b l y ) t h e a u t h o r ' s s e n s i - b i l i t y has p u l s a t e d w i t h t h i s r h y t h m w h i l e he w r o t e . A n d t h e medium u s e d i s a l m o s t i r r e l e v a n t , s i n c e t h e r h y t h m i s a l w a y s b a s i c a l l y t h e same: " A l l e n c o u n t e r s w i t h t h e works o f s u p e r i o r men, w h e t h e r t h e i r d e e d s , t h e i r p r o n o u n c e m e n t s o r t h e i r w r i t i n g s , g i v e s us r e a l p l e a s u r e . . . G o o d words, good p a i n t i n g s , g o od books — a l l good works have t h i s e f f e c t upon us.""*" 1 The t r u e p l e a s u r e o f r e a d i n g , t h e n , i s t h e p l e a s u r e o f a k i n d o f s p i r i t u a l communion w i t h g r e a t men: "Our e y e s a r e o pened t o w h a t e v e r q u a l i t i e s h i d d e n w i t h i n o u r s e l v e s we m i g h t 12 s h a r e w i t h them. Our mind and s p i r i t grow t a u t . . . " T h i s " q u a s i - m y s t i c a l " v i e w o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e i s a l s o h i g h l y r e l e v a n t t o what i s p r o b a b l y t h e most r e c u r r e n t theme o f S h i g a ' s works and a theme w h i c h , as we have s e e n , " i s a l - r e a d y adumbrated i n " A r u A s a " : t h e h e r o ' s s t r u g g l e t o overcome a l l s e n s e o f a l i e n a t i o n by a c h i e v i n g t o t a l communion w i t h h i s f e l l o w man, p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h o t h e r members o f h i s f a m i l y , and w i t h n a t u r e a t l a r g e . W i t h h i s c o n c r e t e s e n s e o f "rhythm" as a k i n d o f n a t u r a l f o r c e t h a t c o u l d be t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m man t o man, S h i g a o b v i o u s l y saw l i t e r a t u r e i t s e l f as a v e r y p r a c t i c a l means f o r a c h i e v i n g t h i s communion. F u r t h e r m o r e , a c c o r d i n g t o S h i g a "rhythm" t r a n s c e n d s b o t h f o r m and c o n t e n t i n a work o f l i t e r a t u r e . He makes t h i s c l e a r i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f I h a r a S a i k a k u , t h e w r i t e r he a d m i r e d more t h a n any o t h e r o f t h e J a p a n e s e t r a d i t i o n : " S a i k a k u ' s Ogeba and Oridome a r e w r i t t e n w i t h a c o o l , c l e a n d e t a c h m e n t and a s t r o n g r h y t h m . T h e i r s u b j e c t s a r e v a r i o u s t r i v i a l o c c u r r e n c e s i n t h e ' f l o a t i n g w o r l d ' ; and y e t t h e y have t h a t e f f e c t upon t h e r e a d e r w h i c h I m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e : a t i g h t e n i n g up o f o n e ' s 13 mind and s p i r i t . " Thus a w r i t e r i s a b l e t o make g r e a t a r t e v e n o u t o f " t r i v i a l " s u b j e c t m a t t e r , p r o v i d i n g he commands a m a s t e r f u l s t y l e . A p p a r e n t l y , F r a n c i s Mathy does n o t see e y e - t o - e y e w i t h S h i g a on t h i s p o i n t . He f i n d s t h e s t y l e o f " A r u A s a " t o be " s p l e n d i d " b u t d o e s n o t f e e l t h a t t h i s s u f f i c i e n t l y c o m p e n s a t e s 14 f o r t h e " t r i v i a l i t y " o f i t s c o n t e n t s . I n p a r t i c u l a r , he i s i r r i t a t e d by t h e "Immature s e l f - c e n t e r e d n e s s " o f t h e h e r o , who i s " n o t a l i t t l e boy, as h i s a c t i o n s and words w o u l d seem t o 15 x n d x c a t e , b u t a grown man o f t w e n t y - f i v e " . S u r e l y t h i s i s t o o much l i k e a r g u i n g "ad hominem" — one d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y have t o m a r a l l y a p p r o v e o f t h e h e r o ' s b e h a v i o u r t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e s t o r y as a s t o r y . I f t h i s were n o t s o , i t w o u l d be im- p o s s i b l e f o r t h e " c o s m o p o l i t a n " r e a d e r t o f r e e l y e n j o y t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f c u l t u r e s w i t h v a l u e s v e r y d i f f e r e n t f o h i s own -- and t h e r e w o u l d be no s u c h d i s c i p l i n e as " c o m p a r a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e " . I n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i t may seem i m p l a u s i b l e o r e v e n r e p r e h e n s i b l e t o t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y W e s t e r n r e a d e r t h a t a t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r - o l d man s h o u l d a c t so " c h i l d - i s h l y " t o w a r d s h i s g r a n d m o t h e r b u t , i n t h e c o n t e x t o f M e i j i J a p a n , where f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s were o p p r e s s i v e l y c l o s e and where young men l i v e d a t home u n t i l m a r r i e d , S h i n t a r o ' s be- h a v i o u r i s n o t t o be wondered a t . - 20 - B u t t h e r e i s a l a r g e r i s s u e a t s t a k e h e r e . I t seems t o me, i n f a c t , t h a t Mathy m i s s e s t h e v e r y e s s e n c e o f S h i g a ' s a c h i e v e m e n t . Here i s a w r i t e r who has t a k e n t h e s m a l l , seem- i n g l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e and t u r n e d them i n t o l i t e r a r y a r t o f a h i g h o r d e r . T r i v i a l i t y , a f t e r a l l , i s , l i k e b e a u t y , v e r y much i n t h e eye o f t h e b e h o l d e r . E v e r s i n c e Van Gogh d i d a s p l e n d i d p a i n t i n g o f a p a i r o f o l d s h o e s , modern a r t has t a u g h t us t h i s i f n o t h i n g e l s e . The p o i n t i s t h a t o n c e S h i g a has t u r n e d a " t r i v i a l " i n c i d e n t i n t o a s h o r t s t o r y , i t no l o n g e r seems t r i v i a l . L i k e t h e f a b l e d K i n g M i d a s , S h i g a has t h e g o l d e n t o u c h . B u t one must n o t be m i s l e d by a u t h o r i a l p r o n o u n c e m e n t s -- he a c c o m p l i s h e s h i s m i r a c l e s o f a lchemy n o t o n l y by t h e f o r c e o f h i s s t y l e o r "rhythm". He a l s o p o s s e s s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e powers o f i n s i g h t i n t o t h e human p s y c h e , and t h i s e n a b l e s him t o show us t h e d i s t u r b i n g f o r c e s a t work b e n e a t h t h e c a l m , s e e m i n g l y u n e v e n t f u l s u r f a c e o f e v e r y - day l i f e . On c l o s e r v i e w , t h e n , " A r u A s a " d o e s n o t seem so " t r i v i a l " a f t e r a l l . As I have a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d , o n e o o f S h i g a ' s m a j o r themes i s p r e f i g u r e d i n t h i s s h o r t work: s e e n f r o m a " s o c i a l " p e r s p e c t i v e , i t i s t h e c o n f l i c t between a man's needs as an i n d i v i d u a l and h i s needs as p a r t o f a s o c i a l g r o u p . The whole i s s u e o f " i n d i v i d u a l i s m " was v e r y much i n t h e a i r i n t h e l a t e M e i j i p e r i o d . I n d i s c u s s i n g Natsume S o s e k i ' s famous t a l k , W a t a k u s h i no K o j i n s h u g i (My I n d i v i d u a l i s m ) , J a y R u b i n n o t e s " t h e r e m a r k a b l e u p s u r g e i n i n d i v i d u a l i s m t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e - 21 - 16 R u s s o - J a p a n e s e War o f 1904-1905." I n t h e r e a l m o f l i t e r a - t u r e , " n a t u r a l i s t f i c t i o n , w i t h i t s e m p h a s i s o n t h e l i b e r a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , was g a i n i n g i n p o p u l a r i t y . " And S o s e k i t o o , b o t h i n h i s p u b l i c t a l k and i n h i s n o v e l s , was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e " t e n s i o n between a p r o u d commitment t o modern, r a t i o n a l i s t i c i n d i v i d u a l i s m and t h e l o n g i n g f o r e m o t i o n a l s u b - 18 mergence i n t h e g r o u p . " I n h i s t a l k , f o r i n s t a n c e , he c o n - t r a s t s h i s own i n d e p e n d e n t s t a n c e w i t h t h e " f e u d a l i s t i c " c l i q u i s h n e s s o f J a p a n e s e l i t e r a r y g r o u p s . B u t he a l s o a d m i t s 19 t o s u f f e r i n g t h e " l o n e l i n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m " . Such Meijii> - - 20 w r i t e r s a s S o s e k i and M o r i O g a i . Mo d o u b t saw " i n d i v i d - u a l i s m " a s an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t o f t h e W e s t e r n c u l t u r e t h e y were so b u s i l y t r y i n g t o i m p o r t t o J a p a n . I n h i s i n s i s t e n c e on h i s own r i g h t s a s an i n d i v i d u a l , S h i g a t o o was c e r t a i n l y a p r o d u c t o f h i s t i m e . B u t , u n l i k e t h e o l d e r w r i t e r s , he d o e s n o t a p p r o a c h i n d i v i d u a l i s m as an i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o b l e m — he i s n o t c o n c e r n e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , w i t h how i t c o n f l i c t s w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l J a p a n e s e c u l t u r a l v a l u e s i n t h e a b s t r a c t ; r a t h e r i t i s f o r him a p e r s o n a l p r o b - lem t o be worked o u t i n h i s d a y - t o - d a y r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s f a m i l y . I t i s a m a t t e r o f h i s w i l l t o a c t a c c o r d i n g t o h i s own d e e p e s t i n s t i n c t s and f e e l i n g s , a s o p p o s e d t o h i s f a m i l y ' s w i l l t h a t he c o n f o r m t o t h e i r s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o u r . (In t h e same way he r e j e c t e d t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n l e a d e r U c h i m u r a Kanzo n o t so much on i d e o l o g i c a l as on p e r s o n a l g r o u n d s — when t h e y t h r e a t e n e d t o i n t e r f e r e w i t h what he - 22 - considered to be the "natural^ free expression of his sexual 21 i n s t i n c t s . ). Thus Shiga did not suffer from any vague, quasi-metaphysical sense of al i e n a t i o n such as his more i n - t e l l e c t u a l contemporary, Akutagawa Ryunosuke, gave as his 22 reason for committing suicide; and, since he was not con- cerned with any "larger" p o l i t i c a l or philosophical issue, once he was completely "reconciled" with his family, he was able to spend the rest of his long l i f e i n a r e l a t i v e l y tran- q u i l state of mind (and, i r o n i c a l l y , waiting very l i t t l e ) . To those who would accuse Shiga of having too "narrow" a scope as a writer, one might quote some eloquent words of his greatest apologist, the "dean of Japanese c r i t i c s " , Kobayashi Hideo; "Empty thought can go anywhere, my own feet can tread only a small b i t of ground. We think of eternal l i f e , I must shortly die. I cannot have many friends, I can- not have many lovers. The things to which I can give assent from my very e n t r a i l s add up to but a t i n y sum, the people I can love and hate can number no more than the few immed- i a t e l y beside me. This i s the state of l i f e for me, and i t i s for everyone...The fact that the writer does not depart from his own l i f e means that he gives i t his assent, and i t 23 alone." The distinguished scholar Nakamura Hajime has de- voted a good part of a lengthy volume to demonstrating the 24 esse n t i a l "down-to-earthness" of the Japanese world-view, but i t i s doubtful whether anyone has expressed i t better than Kobayashi i n th i s b r i e f passage. Shiga himself has put - 23 - what we may r e g a r d as h i s " w r i t e r ' s c r e d o " e v e n more s u c c i n c t - l y : "A s u p e r f i c i a l e x p e r i e n c e o f r a r e and s e n s a t i o n a l e v e n t s i s o f l i t t l e v a l u e t o t h e w r i t e r . I t i s more i m p o r t a n t f o r 25 him t o e x p e r i e n c e e v e n s m a l l t h i n g s d e e p l y . " U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t seems t h a t f o r W e s t e r n r e a d e r s i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a c c e p t S h i g a ' s " s m a l l t h i n g s " f o r what t h e y a r e . E v e n t h o s e more s y m p a t h e t i c t o h i s work t h a n Mathy a r e f o r e v e r t r y i n g t o make s o m e t h i n g o u t o f i t t h a t i t c l e a r l y i s n o t . Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r f o r i n s t a n c e , w o u l d have us s e e t h e t y p i c a l S h i g a s t o r y as a k i n d o f modern-day v e r s i o n o f t h e " u t a m o n o g a t a r i " o f t h e H e i a n p e r i o d , " p o e m - t a l e s " s u c h as t h e I s e M o n o g a t a r i i n w h i c h "a f i c t i o n a l o r n o n - f i c t i o n a l g r o u n d was p r o v i d e d f o r a s u c c e s s i o n o f l y r i c s . The g r o u n d i t s e l f was u s u a l l y f o r m l e s s and o f s l i g h t l i t e r a r y v a l u e . I t b u t s e r v e d t o s e t o f f t h e l y r i c s . . . S o i t i s w i t h S h i g a . The t r i v i a l i t y o f t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l b a c k g r o u n d i s t o be f o r - g i v e n t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t o f f e r s a s e t t i n g f o r t h e moments o f l y r i c a l a w a r e n e s s . The whole i s t o be j u d g e d as a u n i f i e d 2 6 work o f f i c t i o n no more t h a n i s an ' u t a m o n o g a t a r i ' . " W h i l e t h i s may be r e g a r d e d as a v a l i a n t a t t e m p t on t h e p a r t o f a s y m p a t h e t i c W e s t e r n c r i t i c t o r e s c u e S h i g a f r o m t h e c h a r g e o f " t r i v i a l i t y " , i t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r , a t l e a s t i n t h e e y e s o f h i s J a p a n e s e a d m i r e r s , S h i g a i s i n need o f b e i n g r e s c u e d . T r i v i a l i t y , as I have s a i d , i s i n t h e eye o f t h e b e h o l d e r . And, i n d i s m i s s i n g S h i g a ' s ' t r i v i a l and a n n o y i n g r e m i n i s c e n c e " as m e r e l y t h e " p r o s y s e t t i n g " f o r a few "moments o f p o e t r y " , - 24 « i t seems t h a t S e i d e n s t i c k e r w o u l d throw o u t t h e baby w i t h t h e b a t h w a t e r -- t h e " a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l b a c k g r o u n d " i s , a f t e r a l l , t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e works. I t i s an a b s u r d n o t i o n anyway t h a t any a u t h o r w o u l d w r i t e l o n g s t r e t c h e s o f p r o s e m e r e l y t o s e t o f f a-few "moments o f p o e t r y " -- many o f S h i g a ' s s t o r i e s , i n f a c t , i n c l u d i n g "Arus A s a " have no s u c h d i s t i n - g u i s h a b l e " p o e t i c moments". I f S h i g a ' s i n t e n t i o n s h a d b een so s i n g l e - m i n d e d l y l y r i c a l , s u r e l y he w o u l d have w r i t t e n p o e t r y . T a k i n g q u i t e an o p p o s i t e t a c k i s W i l l i a m S i b l e y , who c a l l s on t h e " b i g i d e a s " o f F r e u d i a n p s y c h o a n a l y s i s t o t r y t o make S h i g a ' s " s m a l l t h i n g s " seem l a r g e r t h a n t h e y a r e . To S i b l e y , f o r i n s t a n c e , " A r u A s a " i s n o t s i m p l y t h e s t o r y o f a w i l l f u l young man who i s r e l u c t a n t t o g e t o u t o f bed one m o r n i n g ( s u r e l y n o t an u n h e a r d - o f e a s e l ) ; t h e h e r o ' s i r r a s - c i b i l i t y t o w a r d s h i s g r a n d m o t h e r has d e e o l y O e d i p a l o r i g i n s t h a t c a n be u n d e r s t o o d o n l y i n t h e t o t a l c o n t e x t o f S h i g a ' s l i f e and work (and, o f c o u r s e , t h e l i f e and work o f Dr. F r e u d ) . S i b l e y c o n c e d e s t h a t , on i t s own, " A r u A s a " i s a " s l i g h t s t i o r y " t h a t " r e p r e s e n t s J a p a n e s e p e r s o n a l f i c t i o n ( s h i - 27 s h o s e t s u ) a t i t s most l i m i t e d . " I n h i s v i e w , we c a n b e g i n 2 8 t o make s e n s e o f t h e " s e e m i n g l y p o i n t l e s s d e t a i l " o f t h i s s t o r y o n l y a f t e r we have s u b j e c t e d t h e " S h i g a Hero" as he a p p e a r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e a u t h o r ' s e n t i r e opus t o t h o r o u g h p s y c h o - a n a l y s i s . S i b l e y i s n o t t o o c l e a r on what we s h a l l d i s c o v e r t h e n , b u t i t seems t o have s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e h e r o ' s c r y i n g s p e l l . I t a p p e a r s t o me t h a t he g i v e s i n o r d i n a t e em- p h a s i s t o S h i n t a r o ' s t e a r s : " I s i t , we wonder, a sudden g r i e f f o r h i s dead g r a n d f a t h e r t h a t h as e l i c i t e d h i s t e a r s ? Remorse f o r h i s t r e a t m e n t o f h i s g r a n d m o t h e r ? Or p e r h a p s he has been u p s e t by a b r i e f r e f e r e n c e t o h i s f a t h e r w h i c h she makes a t one p o i n t , p r o v o k i n g a t f i r s t a p a r t i c u l a r l y i l l - t e m p e r e d o u t b u r t s on t h e h e r o ' s p a r t . M o s t o f t h o s e who r e a d " A r u A s a " when i t was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n S h i r a k a b a d i d n o t , p r e s u m a b l y , make much s e n s e o f i t . I n d e e d , t h e y c o u l d n o t , w i t h o u t some ' i n s i d e ' knowledge o f t h e a u t h o r ' s l i f e and p e r s o n a l i t y on w h i c h t h e y m i g h t draw t o c o m p l e t e t h e s t o r y . And so t h e y may w e l l have f e l t j u s t i f i e d i n n o t , f i n a l l y , c a r i n g t o o much 29 what i t i s t h a t makes t h e h e r o c r y . " To me t h i s i s a p r i m e example o f t h e k i n d o f r e d u c t i o ad absurdum t h a t f o l l o w s i n e v i t a b l y f r o m t h e " r e d u c t i v e " a p p r o a c h t o l i t e r a t u r e : f i r s t S i b l e y assumes t h a t S h i g a has h i d d e n s o m e t i d b i t s o f p s y c h o - a n a l y t i c a l i n s i g h t "between t h e l i n e s " and t h e n he r e b u k e s t h e a u t h o r f o r h a v i n g h i d them t o o s u c c e s s f u l l y . He w o u l d r e d u c e "A r u A s a " t o a kindcof p s y c h o a n a l y t i c a l d e t e c t i v e s t o r y i n w h i c h t h e mai n c l u e , t h e h e r o ' s t e a r s , c a n be u n d e r s t o o d o n l y i n t h e t o t a l c o n t e x t o f t h e h e r o ' s " c a s e h i s t o r y " Xand t h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s p l a y i n g an u n f a i r t r i c k on t h e r e a d e r ) . As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , i f t h e r e was any one p r i n c i p l e t h a t S h i g a ad- h e r e d t o as a w r i t e r , i t was t h a t he n e v e r w i t h h e l d i n f o r m a - t i o n f r o m t h e r e a d e r — i n one famous i n s t a n c e , he r e p r i m a n d e d Akutagawa f o r " t r i c k i n g t h e r e a d e r " i n j u s t t h i s way i n h i s s t o r y "The M a r t y r " , w h e r e i n t h e " s u r p r i s e f a c t " t h a t t h e " h e r o " i s a c t u a l l y a g i r l i s n o t r e v e a l e d u n t i l t h e v e r y end 30 (a l a 0. H e n r y ) . I t seems t o me t h a t , i n t h e p r e s e n t c a s e t o o , t h e r e i s no m y s t e r y a t a l l a b o u t "what i t i s t h a t makes t h e h e r o c r y " . I n f a c t , i t i s p e r f e c t l y t r a n s p a r e n t t o anyone who i s n o t t o o p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h u n e a r t h i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o f u n d i t i e s t o n o t i c e what i s a c t u a l l y h a p p e n i n g i n t h e s t o r y . I f we l o o k a t t h e p a s s a g e i n w h i c h S h i n t a r o ' s " c r y i n g s p e l l " i s d e s - c r i b e d , we see t h a t S h i g a d o e s , i n f a c t , g i v e us a s t r o n g h i n t as t o t h e c a u s e o f t h e young man's o u t b u r s t : i t eomes o v e r him ' s p o n t a n e o u s l y " w h i l e he i s f o l d i n g up h i s g r a n d m o t h e r ' s b e d d i n g . H e r e , i n S h i g a ' s f i r s t s t o r y , we a l r e a d y have a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c example o f t h e k i n d o f c o n c r e t e n e s s o f t a c t i - t i l i t y f o r w h i c h he i s famous — and w h i c h d e r i v e s , u l t i m a t e l y , f r o m h i s " p o e t i c " o r e v e n " m y s t i c a l " s e n s e o f t h e i n t i m a t e communion o f " s u b j e c t i v e " man w i t h " o b j e c t i v e " w o r l d . S h i n t a r o does n o t b e g i n t o c r y u n t i l he a c t u a l l y t o u c h e s s o m e t h i n g b e l o n g i n g t o h i s g r a n d m o t h e r -- w h i c h , i n S h i g a ' s " a n i m i s t i c " w o r l d , i s f i l l e d w i t h h e r " p r e s e n c e " . iDt i s t h i s i m m e d i a t e p h y s i c a l c o n t a c t w i t h h i s " grandmother" w h i c h awakens h i s i n - t e n s e t h o u g h dormant l o v e f o r h e r , t h u s o b l i t e r a t i n g a l l t r a c e s o f t h e a n i m o s i t y he had f e l t t o w a r d s h e r j u s t a few moments b e f o r e . What c a u s e s h i s t e a r s i s n o t so much r e m o r s e (the " S h i g a h e r o " , as we s h a l l s e e , does n o t w aste t i m e f e e l i n g g u i l t y a b o u t " d o i n g what comes n a t u r a l l y " ) b u t a s i m p l e f e e l i n g o f r e l i e f t h a t an u n p l e a s a n t n e g a t i v e e m o t i o n has been r e p l a c e d by a p o w e r f u l p o s i t i v e e m o t i o n — i n o t h e r w o rds, a s i m p l e r e l e a s e o f t e n s i o n . One does n o t h e e d t o be a t r a i n e d p s y c h o a n a l y s t t o s e e t h a t t h e r e a l "message" o f t h e h e r o ' s t e a r s i s s i m p l y t h a t he l o v e s h i s g r a n d m o t h e r v e r y much. S h i g a ' s s t o r i e s may w e l l be d e s c r i b e d , as t h e y have been by J a p a n e s e l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i a n s , as s h i n k y o s h o s e t s u ( l i t e r a l l y , " s t a t e o f mind" s t o r i e s ) b u t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o e m p h a s i z e t h a t t h e " s h i n k y o " i s a l l i n t h e " s h o s e t s u " . N o t h i n g e x t r a n e o u s t o t h e s t o r i e s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f them. No d o u b t i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o o b s e r v e how l a t e r S h i g a h e r o e s a r e p r e f i g u r e d by t h e h e r o o f h i s f i r s t s t o r y , b u t t h i s s h o u l d - o t p r e v e n t us f r o m a c c e p t i n g " A r u A s a " as a s t o r y i n i t s own r i g h t , however " s i m p l e " o r however much o f a " s m a l l t h i n g " i s i s . L o ng b e f o r e i t came i n t o vogue i n t h e West, t h e J a p a n e s e u n d e r s t o o d t h e b e a u t y o f " m i n i m a l a r t " . The power o f t h i s b e a u t y has been h a u n t i n g l y e v o k e d by K o b a y a s h i H i d e o i n h i s l y r i c a l e s s a y on t h e No p l a y , Taema: " M u s i c and d a nce and s o n g a r e r e d u c e d t o t h e b a r e s t e s s e n t i a l s . The m u s i c i s l i k e a c r y , t h e dance i s l i t t l e more t h a n a w a l k , and t h e s o n g i s l i k e 3 1 o r d i n a r y p r a y e r . I t i s enough. What e l s e i s n e e d e d ? " S i m i l a r l y S h i g a ' s i s an a r t o f ^ b a r e s t e s s e n t i a l s " . H i s " s m a l l t h i n g s " a r e t o be a p p r e c i a t e d i n a l l t h e i r s i m p l e , i m m e d i a t e - 28 - r e a l i t y , i n the i r "suchness" (sono mama) to use a Buddhist term, l i k e the frog i n Basho's haiku, l i k e the rocks i n a Zen temple garden or, to take a more contemporary example, l i k e the simple images of family l i f e i n the films of Ozu Yasujiro. As soon as the reader begins to analyze, to i n t e l - l e c t u a l i z e , to look for deep symbolic or psychological meanings, he has immediately " l o s t i t " , as the Zen masters say. Obviously t h i s puts the c r i t i c (and the graduate student) i n a rather d i f f i c u l t p o s i t ion. Kobayashi Hideo, as I have said, has undoubtedly been Shiga's most successful apologist, and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that he himself i s more of an i n t u i t i v e poet or philosopher than an "orthodox" a n a l y t i c a l c r i t i c i n the Western sense -- his impressionistic, oracular pronounce- ments, though highly suggestive, are often far more d i f f i c u l t to fathom than the writings they are meant to elucidate. Nevertheless, i t i s Kobayashi's understanding of the t r a d i - t i o n a l Japanese aesthetic s e n s i b i l i t y , as revealed i n the essay just quoted, that enables him to appreciate Shiga's work so deeply. "Aru Asa", then, i s the simple story of a young man's al t e r c a t i o n and eventual r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with his grandmother. But i t i s intere s t i n g to note that i t anticipates i n t h i s , as we s h a l l see, the basic pattern of the "action" i n many of Shiga's l a t e r s t o r i e s , including his two major works (both i n length and i n q u a l i t y ) : Wakai (Reconciliation and An'ya Koro (A Dark Night's Passing). The cause of the r i f t between the S h i g a h e r o and- h i s f a m i l y i s n o t a l w a y s so c l e a r o r s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d as i n " A r u A s a " , t h o u g h i t g e n e r a l l y has t o do w i t h h i s b e i n g more w i l l f u l and " s e l f - o r i e n t e d " t h a n J a p a n e s e s o c i e t y p e r m i t s ; b u t , i n a l l t h e s e s t o r i e s , what S h i g a em- p h a s i z e s more t h a n a n y t h i n g i s t h a t t h e h e r o must a l l o w h i s f e e l i n g s t o r u n t h e i r " n a t u r a l " c o u r s e b e f o r e a " r e c o n c i l i a - t i o n " i s p o s s i b l e . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t o r y , we o b s e r v e t h a t , once he has been a n g e r e d by h i s g r a n d m o t h e r ' s p e s t e r i n g , S h i n t a r o ' s mood becomes c o n c i l i a t o r y o n l y a f t e r he has thrown a few i n s u l t s h e r way and she has humbled h e r s e l f by a s k i n g h i s a d v i c e . We may a g r e e w i t h F r a n c i s Mathy t h a t t h i s i s " c h i l d i s h " b e h a v i o u r b u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s c o n v i n c i n g l y human and, t h e r e f o r e , " n a t u r a l " . As Ueda Makoto has p o i n t e d o u t i n an e x c e l l e n t e s s a y on S h i g a ' s a e s t h e t i c s , " n a t u r a l b e a u t y " i s a p r i m a r y q u a l i t y i n S h i g a ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e " i d e a l 32 n o v e l " . B u t t h i s does n o t b e l o n g o n l y t o m o u n t a i n s and t r e e s — i t i s , above a l l , a human b e a u t y : "An i m p r e s s i o n o f n a t u r a l b e a u t y comes f r o m o b s e r v i n g a man who c o n d u c t s h i m s e l f h o n e s t l y , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h h i s i n m o s t f e e l i n g s . Such a man w o u l d n o t r e p r e s s h i s t r u e f e e l i n g s i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f s o c i a l c o n v e n t i o n . . . H e w o u l d f o l l o w t h e d i c t a t e s o f h i s i n n e r m o s t s e l f e v e n i f t h a t w o u l d l e a d t o an e x p l o s i v e c l a s h w i t h h i s f a t h e r o r e v e n t o t h e d e a t h o f h i s w i f e . A man f i g h t i n g f o r h i s s u r v i v a l was b e a u t i f u l , b e c a u s e he was, i f n o t h i n g e l s e , 33 p u r e i n h i s m o t i v e s . " I t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y , as I have s a i d , f o r t h e r e a d e r t o m o r a l l y a p p r o v e o f a h e r o i n o r d e r t o d e r i v e - 30 - a e s t h e t i c s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m h i s p o r t r a y a l . And h e r e , i n " A r u A s a " , we have o u r f i r s t t a s t e o f S h i g a ' s " a m o r a l i t y " : t h e " n a t u r a l " — raw g u t f e e l i n g s , i n t u i t i o n s , i n s t i n c t s — c o u n t s f a r more t h a n t h e " m o r a l " -- a mere i n t e l l e c t u a l a b s t r a c t i o n . B u t now, i n seeming t o come p e r i l o u s l y c l o s e t o c o n f u s i n g S h i g a h i m s e l f w i t h t h e S h i g a h e r o , we a p p r o a c h what i s p e r h a p s , a t l e a s t f r o m a W e s t e r n v i e w p o i n t , t h e c e n t r a l c r i t i c a l p r o b - lem o f h i s work: i t s s t a t u s as " f i c t i o n " . I n t h e c a s e o f " A r u A s a " , t h e a u t h o r h i m s e l f , a t f i r s t , seemed t o have h i s d o u b t s . I n h i s d i a r y e n t r y o f J a n u a r y 14, 1908, he n o t e s t h a t , h a v i n g w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e m o r n i n g a b o u t a q u a r r e l he had had w i t h h i s g r a n d m o t h e r t h e p r e v i o u s d a y , he c a l l e d t h e p i e c e : "A N o n - S t o r y , Grandmother" ( " H i - S h o s e t s u , S o b o " ) \ i 3 4 S i g n i - f i c a n t l y , t h o u g h , S h i g a l a t e r c h a n g e d h i s mind a b o u t t h e s t a t u s o f t h i s work as "non-f i c t c b o n " . I n a commentary on i t w r i t t e n 35 i n 1928, he d e s c r i b e s i t as h i s f i r s t " s h o r t s t o r y " . One may s p e c u l a t e t h a t , i n t h e meantime, h i s v i e w o f what c o n s t i - t u e s a work o f f i c t i o n o r a s h o s e t s u had b r o a d e n e d o r , p e r h a p s , 3 6 had become more t r a d i t i o n a l l y J a p a n e s e . The young S h i g a was, a f t e r a l l , an a v i d r e a d e r o f Chekhov, T o l s t o y and F i k a u b e r t and was l i k e l y t o be i n f l u e n c e d by W e s t e r n c o n c e p t s o f f i c t i o n . As he m a t u r e d i n h i s a r t he n a t u r a l l y d e v e l o p e d t h e c o n f i d e n c e t o s e t h i s own a e s t h e t i c s t a n d a r d s . " A r u A s a " i s t h e f i r s t i n a l o n g l i n e o f S h i g a ' s s h i - s h o s e t s u ( " I - n o v e l s " o r " p e r s o n a l f i c t i o n s " ) , s t o r i e s c l o s e l y - 31 - b a s e d on t h e e v e n t s o f h i s own l i f e and f e a t u r i n g a h e r o more o r l e s s i d e n t i f i a b l e as h i m s e l f . C e r t a i n W e s t e r n c r i t i c s a r e h e s i t a n t o r e v e n r e f u s e t o a c c e p t s u c h works as " l e g i t i m a t e " f i c t i o n . Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r d e s c r i b e s t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u as "unformed r e m i n i s c e n c e " and as a " f o r m o f a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l j o t t i n g t h a t may s c a r c e l y seem t o d e s e r v e t h e name f i c t i o n a t 37 a l l . " F r a n c i s Mathy makes t h e same p o i n t i n r e g a r d t o 3 8 "Aru A s a " : "The p i e c e i s h a r d l y more t h a n a s k e t c h . . . " and he l a m e n t s t h a t t h e a u t h o r i w a s 'hampered by an i m p o s s i b l e 39 t h e o r y o f p r o s e f i c t i o n " r a l t h o u g h o c c a s i o n a l l y " S h i g a was a b l e t o t r a n s c e n d t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l mode and f i n d o b j e c t i v e 40 f i c t i o n a l symbols t o e x p r e s s h i s i n n e r s t a t e s . " E v e n a J a p a n e s e c r i t i c , Nakamura M i t s u o , has s a i d t h a t he was "tempted" t o d e s c r i b e Shiga," s n o v e l , An' y a K o r o as "non- O i i t e r a t u r e " . ^ What t h e s e c r i t i c s o b j e c t t o i s n o t , o f c o u r s e , t h e p r e - s e n c e i n f i c t i o n o f a u t o b i o g r a p h y p e r s e . Many o f t h e most c e l e b r a t e d W e s t e r n n o v e l s o f t h i s c e n t u r y a r e v e r y l a r g e l y a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l — J o y c e ' s P o r t r a i t o f t h e A r t i s t as a Young Man, P r o u s t ' s A l a R e c h e r c h e du Temps P e r d u , L a w r e n c e ' s Sons and L o v e r s — one c o u l d go on a l m o s t i n d e f i n i t e l y . B u t i t seems t h a t , t o t h e W e s t e r n eye a t l e a s t , t h e s e works a p p e a r more c o n s c i o u s l y s t r u c t u r e d f o r a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t , more f i n e l y s h a p e d i n t o "works o f f i c t i o n " t h a n t h e J a p a n e s e s h i - s h o s e t s u 4 — w h i c h S e i d e n s t i c k e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , c a l l s " t h e u n s h a p e n S n e s " . - 32- But t h i s s e n s e o f " f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e " , i t seems t o me, i s e x a c t l y what S h i g a w i s h e d t o a v o i d . H i s l o v e o f t h e " n a t u r a l " made him eschew a n y t h i n g t h a t smacked o f f a b r i c a t i o n ( k o s h i r a e m o n o , t o u s e t h e word by w h i c h t h e f a t h e r o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u , Tayama K a t a i , d e n o u n c e d a c e r t a i n W e s t e r n n o v e l ^ a ) — i n c l u d i n g t h e f o r m a l p l o t - s t r u c t u r e o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f i c t i o n . (We have a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d h i s a v e r s i o n t o some o f Akutagawa's w e l l - p l o t t e d s t o r i e s . ) Nor i s he a l o n e i n t h i s p r e d e l i c t i o n f o r t h e " s t o r y l e s s n o v e l " , ( h a n a s h i no n a i s h o s e t s u ) t o u s e 43b t h e t e r m Akutagawa h i m s e l f a p p l i e d t o S h i g a ' s work. I n f a c t , he has a v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l p a r t o f t h e J a p a n e s e l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n b e h i n d him. The contempt f o r " p o p u l a r " f i c t i o n t h a t m e r e l y " t e l l s a s t o r y " i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s e n s e has a v e n e r a b l e l i n e a g e i n b o t h C h i n a and J a p a n -- i t i s , i n f a c t , emb o d i e d i n t h e v e r y word s h o s e t s u . As H e r b e r t F r a n k e p o i n t s o u t i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a c o l l e c t i o n o f C h i n e s e s t o r i e s : "The C h i n e s e t e r m f o r n o v e l l a s , H s i a o - s h u o ( s h o s e t s u i n J a p a n e s e ) , ' l i t t l e t a l e s ' , c o n t a i n s a c e r t a i n u n d e r t o n e o f d i s p a r a g e m e n t . N a r r a t i v e p r o s e , and i n d e e d e v e r y s o r t o f l i g h t f i c t i o n , was n o t g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as a b r a n c h o f s e r i o u s l i t e r a t u r e , and, u n l i k e p o e t r y o r t h e f o r m a l e s s a y , i t was n o t a f i e l d i n w h i c h l i t e r a r y a m b i t i o n c o u l d l e a d on 44 t o fame and s o c i a l p r e s t i g e . " The s t e r n s t r i c t u r e s o f C o n f u c i u s no d o u b t had much t o do w i t h t h i s . L i k e P l a t o i n 45 a famous p a s s a g e o f t h e R e p u b l i c t h e C h i n e s e p h i l o s o p h e r t o o k a d i m v i e w o f t h e f i c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , a b j u r i n g any t a l k - 33 - 4 6 of "miracles, acts of violence, troubles, and ghosts." This s t r i c t Confucian attitude seems to have been imported, along with much else, into ;--Japan. The great works of f i c t i o n of the Heian period, as we a l l know, were written by women, while the men were occupied with the more "serious" business of writing Chinese-style poems and essays. Lady Muraskaki i s obviously responding to the charge of " f a l s i t y " often leveled against the novel i n her day when she puts her famous "defense of f i c t i o n " into the mouth of Brince Genji: "The Chronicles of Japan and the rest are a mere fragment of the whole truth. I t i s your romances that f i l l i n the d e t a i l s . . . There are differences i n the degree of seriousness. But to dismiss them as l i e s i s i t s e l f to depart from the truth... 47 He now seemed bent on establishing the uses of f i c t i o n . " Murasaki's arguments f a i l e d to convince the l i t e r a r y e s t a b l i s h - ment, though. U n t i l the a r r i v a l of the great c r i t i c Motoori Norinaga i n the eighteenth century, even her own masterpiece was rendered acceptable to Buddhists and Confucians, i f at a l l , only by being contorted to f i t various a l l e g o r i c a l interpretations. Meanwhile, the "mainstream" t r a d i t i o n of Japanese l i t e r a t u r e continued to consist of d i a r i e s , zuihitsu (fandom essays), haibun (poems mixed with prose) and so on. (A l i t e r a t u r e , i n other words, of the "personal" or l y r i c rather than <bf the epic or dramatic mode.) F i c t i o n may seem to have enjoyed something of a renais- sance with the a r r i v a l of Ihara Saikaku i n the late seventeenth - 34 - c e n t u r y . As D o n a l d Keene r e m a r k s , " i t i s n o t much o f an e x a g - g e r a t i o n t o say t h a t he r e - e s t a b l i s h e d p r o s e f i c t i o n as an 48 a r t a f t e r o v e r f o u r h u n d r e d y e a r s o f anenymous w r i t i n g s . " B u t , as Keene a l s o p o i n t s o u t , S a i k a k u i s a d m i r e d n o t so much f o r t h e c o n t e n t o f h i s s t o r i e s , w h i c h a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , l i g h t , c o m i c t a l e s o f t h e p l e a s u r e q u a r t e r s , t h e " f l o a t i n g w o r l d " ; what s e t s him a p a r t f r o m c o u n t l e s s o t h e r w r i t e r s o f u k i y o z o s h i i s h i s m a s t e r f u l s t y l e . I n t h e words o f Howard H i b b i t t , S a i k a k u , l i k e t h e g r e a t w o o d b l o c k p r i n t a r t i s t s , 49 a c h i e v e s h i s " f i n e s t e f f e c t s by s h e e r y s t y l i s t i c v e r v e . " I n d e e d , as we have a l r e a d y s e e n , S h i g a h i m s e l f , who a d m i r e d S a i k a k u more t h a n any o t h e r J a p a n e s e w r i t e r , s a i d o f h i s w o r k s : " T h e i r s u b j e c t s a r e v a r i o u s t r i v i a l o c c u r r e n c e s i n t h e ' f l o a t i n g w o r l d ' ; and y e t t h e y have t h a t e f f e c t upon t h e r e a d e r w h i c h I 50 m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e : a t i g h t e n i n g up o f one's mind and s p i r i t . " T h i s was b e c a u s e o f t h e " s t r o n g r h y t h m " o f t h e a u t h o r ' s s t y l e . I n o t h e r words, t h e g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y o f S a i k a k u d i d n o t h i n g t o change t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w t h a t w e l l - p l o t t e d f i c t i o n p e r se was n o t an a p p r o p r i a t e medium f o r " s e r i o u s " l i t e r a r y e x p r e s s i o n . And c e r t a i n l y no c a u s e f o r a change i n t h i s v i e w was p r o v i d e d by any o f S a i k a k u ' s s u c c e s s o r s , w r i t e r s o f u k i y o - z o c h i t h a t , as Keene s a y s , were " d e v o t e d t o t r i v i a l i n c i d e n t s o f t h e l i c e n s e d q u a r t e r s o r t o t h e i m p l a u s i b l e d o i n g s 51 o f p a p e r - t h i n h e r o e s , " and t h a t r e s e m b l e S a i k a k u ' s works i n s t y l e , i f a t a l l , o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y were d i r e c t l y p l a g i a r i z e d f r o m him.~'"L T h e r e were, o f c o u r s e , a few i m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n s o v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s — i n p a r t i c u l a r , Ueda A k i n a r i and T a k i z a w a B a k i n . B u t A k i n a r i h i m s e l f c o n s i d e r e d h i s f i c t i o n a l works t o be o f " s m a l l c o n s e q u e n c e " i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h h i s n o n - f i c t i o n , ^ ' and B a k i n 1 s n o v e l s , t h o u g h h e a v i l y d i d a c t i c , were lumped t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e g e s a k u f i c t i o n o f h i s e r a ( l i t e r a l l y , t h e "low works") — i n Keene's t e r m s , t h e " p l a y f u l c o m p o s i t i o n s " , a t e r m t h a t was " o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e 53 a u t h o r d i s c l a i m e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a f r i v o l o u s work". The g e n e r a l t r e n d o f J a p a n e s e c r i t i c a l o p i n i o n i s b l u n t l y summar- i z e d by I v a n M o r r i s : " D u r i n g t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d , and i n d e e d e v e r s i n c e t h e d a y s o f The T a l e o f G e n j i , s c h o l a r s have l o o k e d down on p r o s e f i c t i o n , w h i c h was w i d e l y r e g a r d e d as b e i n g f i t 54 o n l y f o r women, c h i l d r e n , and t h e l e s s e r b r e e d s . " W i t h t h i s l o n g t r a d i t i o n b e h i n d them o f f i c t i o n h a v i n g s u c h an ambiguous s t a t u s , i t i s l i t t l e wonder t h a t t h e "men o f M e i j i " were somewhat s t a r t l e d t o f i n d t h a t t h e n o v e l was r e - g a r d e d as s u c h a h i g h a r t f o r m i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y West. As I v a n M o r r i s s a y s : "One r e s u l t o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f W e s t e r n l i t e r a t u r e was t o enhance t h e p o s i t i o n o f p r o s e f i c - 55 - -t i o n i n J a p a n . " T s u b o u c h i Shoyo's S h o s e t s u S h i n z u i (The E s s e n c e o f t h e N o v e l ) , w r i t t e n i n 1885, was t h e f i r s t J a p a n e s e work o f t h e o r e t i c a l c r i t i c i s m t o t a k e t h e n o v e l s e r i o u s l y as an a r t fo r m . Shoyo l a m e n t s t h e low s t a t e o f f i c t i o n i n h i s c o u n t r y , and t h e n e x p r e s s e s t h e p i o u s hope t h a t "by d i n t o f s t e a d y p l a n n i n g f r o m now on f o r t h e improvement o f o u r n o v e l s - 36 - we may f i n a l l y be able to surpass i n quality the European novels, and permit our novels to take a glorious place along with painting, music, and poetry on the a l t a r of the a r t s . " " ^ At f i r s t M e i j i writers t r i e d to imitate t h e i r Western models as d u t i f u l l y as they could, writing p o l i t i c a l novels a l a D i s r a e l i and novels of s o c i a l concern a la. Zola. But i t did not take long for the native t r a d i t i o n to reassert i t s e l f , though under the guise of the very modern-sounding "natural- ism". From the outset, as Ivan Morris points out, "Japanese naturalism began to diverge from the movement in Europe that had inspired i t . The publication i n 19 08 of Futon (The Quilt^ a novel by Tayama Katai, one of the leading n a t u r a l i s t s , served to e s t a b l i s h the autobiographical approach as the stan- dard as the standard for Japanese writers of the n a t u r a l i s t 57 school." Where the French n a t u r a l i s t s , aiming to give the p o r t r a i t of a whole society, created highly structured novels featuring a broad range of characters, t h e i r Japanese counter- parts focused exclusively on the everyday events of t h e i r . rather uneventful l i v e s , writing i n a discursive, d i a r y - l i k e fashion. Thus began the t r a d i t i o n of the modern Japanese s h i - shosetsu. "The main legacy of naturalism i n Japan has been the b e l i e f of many writers that the only worthwhile and 'sincere' form of l i t e r a t u r e i s that which takes i t s material d i r e c t l y from the facts of the author's physical and s p i r i t u a l l i f e . This trend affected several writers who were i n other respects strongly opposed to the n a t u r a l i s t s . Among them 5 8 was Shiga Naoya." The f o r e m o s t p r a c t i t i o n e r o f t h e day o f a more "Western" f o r m o f n o v e l - w r i t i n g , Natsume S o s e k i , was r e g a r d e d by t h e n a t u r a l i s t s as a r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l p a n d e r e r t o p o p u l a r t a s t e A c c o r d i n g t o I t o S e i , t h e y " c r i t i c i z e d S o s e k i , s a y i n g t h a t h i s works were a l l ' f i c t i o n s ' w i t h no d e s c r i p t i o n s o f h a r s h r e a l i t i e s , and t h a t t h e w r i t e r s h o u l d f u l l y e x p o s e h i m s e l f 59 i n h i s works." When S o s e k i f i n a l l y d i d w r i t e an a u t o b i o - g r a p h i c a l n o v e l , M i c h i k u s a ( G r a s s by t h e W a y s i d e ) , i t was " g e n e r a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d as t h e b e s t o f S o s e k i ' s e n t i r e w o r k s , and as t h e o n l y one w o r t h y o f t h e name o f n o v e l . . . S o s e k i t o o may have w r i t t e n an ' I ' n o v e l b e c a u s e he r e a l i z e d t h e p e r - s u a s i v e power t h a t t h a t mode o f w r i t i n g had. As I have men- t i o n e d b e f o r e , t h e r e e x i s t i n J a p a n e s e s o c i e t y s o l i d g r o u n d s 6 0 f o r a p e r s o n a l n o v e l t o w i n r e a d e r s . " The f a c t t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l " a n t i - f i c t i o n " b i a s was s t i l l v e r y much a l i v e i n S h i g a ' s day i s c l e a r l y shown i n an e s s a y w r i t t e n i n 1925 by Kume Masao, p e r h a p s t h e bes t - k n o w n a p o l o g i s t o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u . Kume r e g a r d s t h e I - n o v e l as " t h e e s s e n s e o f p r o s e w r i t i n g " and seems c l o s e t o d i s m i s s i n g s u c h W e s t e r n c l a s s i e s as War and P e a c e , C r i m e and P u n i s h m e n t and Madame B o v a r y as " g r e a t p o p u l a r n o v e l s , and f a b r i c a t e d 61 s t o r i e s j u s t f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t . " T a k i n g up t h e f a m i l i a r J a p a n e s e theme o f t h e " a r t i f i c i a l i t y " o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f i c t i o n Kume r e s o r t s t o a r a t h e r t r i t e m e t a p h o r : " I t h i n k t h a t no m a t t e r how b e a u t i f u l l y p r o d u c e d , an a r t i f i c i a l f l o w e r f a l l s - 38 - 6 2 t o o f a r s h o r t o f one i n w i l e n a t u r e . " Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r h a s shown t h a t a t t h e b a s i s o f t h i s " a n t i - f i c t i o n " v i e w i s t h e p e c u l i a r l y J a p a n e s e c o n c e p t o f 'pure l i t e r a t u r e " ( j u n bungaku) , w h i c h has p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t 6 3 i n i n d i g e n o u s t h e o r i e s o f t h e n o v e l s i n c e t h e M e i j i p e r i o d . I t may seem p a r a d o x i c a l o r e v e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o W e s t e r n r e a d e r s , b u t i n t h i s c o n t e x t t h e " p u r e " n o v e l i s n o t t h e one w h i c h i s e n t i r e l y a p r o d u c t o f t h e w r i t e r ' s i m a g i n a t i o n ( i . e . c o m p l e t e l y " f i c t i o n a l " ) b u t t h e one w h i c h i s i n t i m a t e l y p e r - s o n a l and s e l f - r e v e l a t o r y ( i . e . a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l ) -- i n o t h e r w o r ds, works w h i c h some W e s t e r n c r i t i c s , a s we have s e e n , w o u l d n o t e v e n r e g a r d as " l i t e r a t u r e " a t a l l . What i s s e e n by J a p a n e s e c r i t i c s as s t a n d i n g a t t h e o p p o s i t e p o l e t o t h e l i t e r a r i l y " p u r e " i s t h e s u z b k u , p o p u l a r f i c t i o n . (And, as S e i d e n s t i c k e r has p o i n t e d o u t e l s e w h e r e , J a p a n e s e p o p u l a r w r i t e r s " o f t e n have a s l i c k p a t n e s s i n t h e i r p l o t t i n g t h a t 64 w o u l d be w o r t h y o f t h e most s k i l l f u l s c i e n c e - f i c t i o n w r i t e r . " Thus t h e t e n d e n c y o f c r i t i c s t o r e g a r d t h e " w e l l - p l o t t e d n o v e l " as a " p o p u l a r " n o v e l . ) Kume Masao, i n h i s 1935 e s s a y , J u n Bungaku Y o g i s e t s u (Pure L i t e r a t u r e as A v o c a t i o n ) , recommends t o t h e f i n a n c i a l l y s t r a i g h t e n e d l i t e r a t u s " w r i t i n g p o t - b o i l e r s f o r a l i v i n g and p r o d u c i n g 'pure l i t e r a t u r e ' i n o n e ' s s p a r e 65a t i m e " . He o f f e r s S h i g a ' s work as t h e " h i g h e s t peak" o f t h e p u r e . Kume's s t r i c t u r e s s e t t i n g up t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o v e l as " p u r e l i t e r a t u r e " a r e , o f c o u r s e , e v e r y b i t as n a r r o w as t h o s e o f W e s t e r n c r i t i c s t h a t r e g a r d i t as " n o n - l i t e r a t u r e " . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , S h i g a c a n n o t be h e l d a c c o u n t a b l e f o r t h e e x c e s s e s o f h i s a p o l o g i s t s . As we have s e e n , he d i d a t t a c k one o f Akutagawa's s t o r i e s f o r i t s a r t i f i c i a l " s u r p r i s e e n d i n g " , b u t , on t h e o t h e r hand, he h i m s e l f w r o t e some h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l " f i c t i o n a l " works when he c h o s e t o do so. I n o t h e r words, h i s v i e w s on " f i c t i o n " v e r s u s " n o n - f i c t i o n " were n o t as e x c l u s i v e o r d o c t r i n a i r e a s t h o s e o f some o f h i s a p o l o g i s t s . H i s p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l mode was more an a e s t h e t i c t h a n an i d e o l o g i c a l one. I n d e e d , i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r S h i g a was i n f l u e n c e d by l i t e r a r y t r e n d s a t a l l — by t h e n a t u r a l i s t s , as I v a n M o r r i s i m p l i e s , by h i s f e l l o w members o f t h e S h i r a k a b a - h a , o r by any- one e l s e . S h i g a h i m s e l f c l a i m e d t o have r e a d l i t t l e W e s t e r n l i t e r a t u r e and e v e n l e s s J a p a n e s e . B u t t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s t h a t J a p a n e s e r e a d e r s were w e l l p r e p a r e d by t h e l o n g t r a d i - t i o n we have j u s t r e v i e w e d t o a c c e p t h i s " p l o t l e s s " a u t o b i o - g r a p h i c a l s t o r i e s as q u i t e l e g i t i m a t e s h o s e t s u . And what o f W e s t e r n r e a d e r s ? S e i d e n s t i c k e r makes t h e i n t e r e s t i n g c l a i m t h a t a l l w o u l d be w e l l i f o n l y t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u w o u l d change t h e g e n r e d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e i r w o r k s : " P e r h a p s i n t h e e n d one's c h i e f c o m p l a i n t a g a i n s t S h i g a and h i s c o l l e a g u e s and f o l l o w e r s i s t h a t t h e y c h o s e t o g i v e t h e i r l y r i c s - w i t h - s e t t i n g t h e name s h o s e t s u , and so t o a r o u s e f a l s e e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t h e b r e a s t s o f t h o s e a c c u s t o m e d t o r e n d e r i n g s h o s e t s u as ' s h o r t s t o r y 1 o r - 40 - ' n o v e l ' . " ^ We may o v e r l o o k , f o r a moment, t h e s t r a n g e s u g - g e s t i o n t h a t S h i g a e t a l must be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e " f a l s e e x p e c t a t i o n s " o f W e s t e r n r e a d e r s ( f o r , a s we have p o i n t e d o u t , J a p a n e s e r e a d e r s w o u l d n o t have s u c h e x p e c t a t i o n s a r o u s e d by t h e word s h o s e t s u ) . B u t does t h e whole p r o b l e m r e a l l y b o i l down t o a s i m p l e m a t t e r o f t h e c o n f u s i o n o f g e n r e s ? Would n o t , t o p a r a p h r a s e t h e B a r d , a s h i - s h o s e t s u s m e l l as bad (or as good) by any o t h e r name? Would a W e s t e r n r e a d e r s u d d e n l y c e a s e t o 6 7 f i n d S h i g a ' s s t o r i e s "wearisome", t o u s e S e i d e n s t i c k e r ' s word, i f he were t o l d t h e y were n o t " s h o r t s t o r i e s " by " l y r i c s - w i t h - s e t t i n g " o r u t a m o n o g a t a r i ? I t seems a r a t h e r d o u b t f u l p r o p o - s i t i o n . One c a n change one's g l a s s e s e a s i l y enough b u t n o t one's e y e s — and i t i s t h e c u l t u r a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d e y e s t h a t we a r e r e a l l y t a l k i n g a b o u t h e r e . We m i g h t s a y , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t S h i g a ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l s t o r i e s s h o u l d be r e a d i n t h e same s p i r i t as one r e a d s , s a y , a l i t e r a r y d i a r y o r an a u t o b i o g r a p h y i n t h e West. B u t W e s t e r n d i a r i e s and a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s , l i k e W e s t e r n n o v e l s , t e n d t o be h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d works b e a r i n g a s t r o n g i m p r i n t o f t h e " o r d e r - i n g i n t e l l e c t " . (One t h i n k s , f o r i n s t a n c e , o f t h e a u t o b i o - g r a p h y o f R o u s s e a u o r t h e j o u r n a l s o f And r e G i d e . ) I t seems, i n f a c t , t h a t we have come a c r o s s a t r u l y f u n d a m e n t a l c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e h e r e , n o t j u s t i n a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s b u t i n t h e whole way o f p e r c e i v i n g and a p p r o a c h i n g t h e w o r l d (which i s i n t u r n r e f l e c t e d , o f c o u r s e , i n t h e a e s t h e t i c s ) . I n commenting on t h e d i s t i n c t i v e " J a p a n e s e c o n c e p t o f s t r u c t u r a l u n i t y " , Ueda - 41 - Makoto r e m a r k s : " J a p a n e s e a r t s g e n e r a l l y shun l o g i c as t h e p r i n c i p l e o f u n i t y and t r y t o m i n i m i z e t h e r o l e o f i n t e l l e c t i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a work; t h i s i s t r u e e v e n o f t h o s e a r t s t h a t c o u l d a d m i t i n t o t h e m s e l v e s a l a r g e measure o f d i s c u r s i v e r e a s o n i f t h e y wanted to...When t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e work o f p r o s e , w h i c h i s s u p p o s e d l y more l o g i c a l t h a n p o e t i c l a n g u a g e , J a p a n e s e a e s t h e t i c i a n s n e v e r e m p h a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t i g h t , l o g i c a l l y c o h e r e n t s t r u c t u r e . L a d y M u r a s a k i s p e a k s o n l y o f n a t u r a l s m o o t h n e s s , t h e r h y t h m o f l i f e , w h i c h i s n e v e r l o g i c a l ; The T a l e o f G e n j i m i n f a c t / i s a l m o s t a s e r i e s o f s h o r t s t o r i e s l o o s e l y s t r u n g t o g e t h e r . A t r a g e d y c o u l d c e r t a i n l y make u s e o f a l o g i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d p l o t b u t C h i k a m a t s u s e l d o m d o e s s o ; h i s p l a y s , e s p e c i a l l y h i s h i s t o r i c a l p l a y s , p r e s e n t a s e r i e s o f i n c i d e n t s t h a t a r e i n t h e m s e l v e s d r a m a t i c b u t l o o s e l y c o n - n e c t e d t o one a n o t h e r . . . P e r h a p s b e n e a t h a l l t h i s l i e s a v i e w o f l i f e t h a t N o r i n a g a s a y s i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y J a p a n e s e : human l i f e i s e s s e n t i a l l y i r r a t i o n a l and t h e u n i v e r s e i s n o t l o g i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d . The work o f a r t , i f i t aims t o c o p y 6 8 l i f e and a n t u r e f a i t h f u l l y , c a n n o t have a l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e . " ( u n d e r l i n i n g my own) T h i s l a s t s e n t e n c e , i t seems t o me, i s e s p e c i a l l y p e r t i - n e n t t o S h i g a ' s works. The o n l y l o g i c t h e y p o s s e s s i s , as 6 9 K o b a y a s h i H i d e o has s a i d , t h e " l o g i c o f e v e r y d a y l i f e " . I n o t h e r words, S h i g a ' s n a r r a t i v e s do n o t p r o g r e s s i n t h e l i n e a r , 7 0 s y l l o g i s t i c f a s h i o n o f t h e c l a s s i c A r i s t o t e l e a n p l o t - l i n e , w i t h a " l o g i c a l " c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n between a c l e a r l y - 42 - i d e n t i f i a b l e b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e and end. R a t h e r , t h e e v e n t s i n h i s s t o r i e s a r e l i n k e d i n a l o s s e l y a s s o c i a t i v e manner 71 r e m i n i s c e n t o f J a p a n e s e l i n k e d v e r s e ( r e n g a ) - - o r , i n d e e d , o f t h e 'randomness" o f l i f e i t s e l f . The t o t a l a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s one o f a q u i e t , r e l a x e d n a t u r a l n e s s . As K o b a y a s h i has s a i d o f S h i g a : " H i s s p i r i t d o e s n o t know drama. 72 H i s t r i a l s a r e t h o s e o f a g r o w i n g t r e e . " A l r e a d y i n " A r u A s a " we c a n s e e t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s method o f w r i t i n g i n w h i c h 'the l o g i c o f e v e r y d a y l i f e i t s e l f becomes 73 t h e l o g i c o f l i t e r a r y c r e a t i o n . " T h e r e i s a d e l i c a t e a r t i n v o l v e d h e r e -- i t i s c e r t a i n l y n o t , as one m i g h t e x p e c t , m e r e l y a m a t t e r o f r e p o r t i n g " t h i n g s as t h e y happen". The w r i t e r must e x e r c i s e g r e a t s e n s i t i v i t y i n s e l e c t i n g d e t a i l s and i n f o l l o w i n g t h e " n a t u r a l " c o u r s e o f e v e n t s . As we have a l r e a d y s s e e n , S h i n t a r o must go t h r o u g h a r a t h e r complex s e r i e s o f mood-changes b e f o r e he i s f i n a l l y a b l e t o f e e l " r e c o n c i l e d " w i t h h i s g r a n d m o t h e r -- and t o g e t o u t o f bed. S h i g a c o n v e y s a l l t h i s w i t h a d m i r a b l e economy, i n j u s t a few s h o r t n a r r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s and a few s n a t c h e s o f d i a l o g u e . To q u o t e a g a i n f r o m K o b a y a s h i : " S i n c e Tayama K a t a i l e a r n e d f r o m M a u p a s s a n t t h e l i t e r a r y v a l u e o f d a i l y l i f e as i t i s , no w r i t e r has s u c c e e d e d as w e l l as S h i g a Naoya has i n b o l d l y , 74 e v e n v i o l e n t l y , w r e s t i n g f r o m h i s own l i f e a work o f a r t . " ( U n d e r l i n i n g my own.) B u t t o s e e S h i g a ' s a r t o f what Ueda c a l l s t h e " n a t u r a l 75 p l o t " i n f u l l f l o w e r , we must go on t o some o f h i s more mature works. - 43 - C h a p t e r 2 " K i n o s a k i n i t e " ffy «» Jv»f ^ (At K i n o s a k i ) was w r i t t e n i n 1917, a l m o s t a d e c a d e a f t e r " A r u A s a " . I t soon becomes e v i d e n t , on r e a d i n g t h i s s t o r y , t h a t S h i g a had by now a c h i e v e d f u l l m a t u r i t y as a w r i t e r . " K i n o s a k i n i t e " i s , i n f a c t , one o f t h e most w i d e l y p r a i s e d and w i d e l y a n t h o l o g i z e d s t o r i e s o f modern J a p a n . ^ The s t o r y i s s t r u c t u r e d a r o u n d t h r e e e n c o u n t e r s w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r has w i t h d e a t h as m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e . A n e a r - f a t a l a c c i d e n t t h a t he has r e c e n t l y s u f f e r e d h a s made him s e n s i t i v e t o t h e o m n i p r e s e n c e o f d e a t h , so t h a t he n o t i c e s t h i n g s he w o u l d n o r m a l l y o v e r l o o k and n o t i c e s them w i t h an a b n o r m a l c l a r i t y and i n t e n s i t y . The r e l a t i o n s h i p be- tween t h e t h r e e i n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b e d i s t h u s n o t c a s u a l as i n c o n v e n t i o n a l n a r r a t i v e b u t a s s o c i a t i v e as i n p o e t r y . The s t o r y opens w i t h a t o p i c a l l y v i g o r o u s f i r s t s e n t e n c e , no words w a s t e d , w h i c h t a k e s us i n t o t h e h e a r t o f t h e m a t t e r i m m e d i a t e l y : "Yamanote-sen no d e n s h a n i h a n e t o b a s a r e t e k e g a o s h i t a , sono a t o y o s e i n i , h i t o r i de T a j i m a no K i n o s a k i o n s e n e d e k a k e t a . " ( A f t e r b e i n g h i t by a t r a i n on t h e Yamanote l i n e , I went a l o n e t o K i n o s a k i h o t s p r i n g i n T a j i m a t o c o n - v a l e s c e . ) T h i s i s a f i n e example o f what T a n i z a k i c a l l s t h e " p r a c t i c a l i t y " ( j i t s u y o ^ ) o f S h i g a ' s s t y l e -- p e r h a p s n o t so r a r e a q u a l i t y i n E n g l i s h as i n J a p a n e s e p r o s e , w h i c h g e n e r a l l y t e n d s t o be more c i r c u m l o c u t o r y . - 44 - I n t h e f i r s t p a r a g r a p h we a r e a l s o t o l d t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r has n o t y e t c o m p l e t e l y e s c a p e d f r o m t h e shadow o f d e a t h : a c - c o r d i n g t o h i s d o c t o r , t h e r e i s s t i l l a c h a n c e t h a t he m i g h t d e v e l o p t u b e r c u l o s i s o f t h e s p i n e , w h i c h c o u l d p r o v e f a t a l . T hus he t a k e s an u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n t e r e s t i n e v e n t h e s m a l l e s t m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f d e a t h i n t h e w o r l d a r o u n d him. The n a r r a t o r ' s f i r s t " e n c o u n t e r " i s w i t h a d e a d bee. He s e e s i t one m o r n i n g on t h e r o o f o f t h e genkan , t h e e n t r a n c e - way t o h i s h o t e l . The i m p a c t w h i c h t h i s s i g h t h as on t h e n a r r a t o r ' s d e a t h - o r i e n t e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s made r e a l t o us i n two ways: by a g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a t h e t i c f i g u r e o f t h e dead b e e , i t s l e g s " d o u b l e d t i g h t u n d e r i t " and " i t s 3 f e e l e r s d r o p p e d u n t i d i l y o v e r i t s head" , and by a c o n t r a s t o f t h e d e a d bee w i t h t h e many l i v i n g b e e s swarming b u s i l y a r o u n d i t : "The i n d u s t r i o u s l i v i n g b e e s gave so c o m p l e t e l y a s e n s e o f l i f e . The o t h e r b e s i d e them, r o l l e d o v e r w i t h i t s l e g s u d d e r i t , s t i l l i n t h e same s p o t whenever I l o o k e d a t i t , m o r n i n g , 4 noon, n i g h t — how c o m p l e t e l y i t gave a s e n s e o f d e a t h . " We a r e t h e n t o l d e x p l i c i t l y o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e : " I t gave me a f e e l i n g o f u t t e r q u i e t n e s s . Of l o n e l i n e s s . I t was chonely t o s e e t h e d e a d body l e f t t h e r e on t h e c o l d t i l e i n t h e e v e n i n g when t h e r e s t had gone i n s i d e . And a t t h e same 5 t i m e i t was t r a n q u i l , s o o t h i n g . " T h i s i s a f a m i l i a r p a t t e r n i n S h i g a ' s s h i - s h o s e t s u : a g r a p h i c e v o c a t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d o f human r e l a t i o n s , f o l l o w e d by an e x t e n d e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s u s u a l l y r a t h e r complex r e s p o n s e s — i n o t h e r words, a c o n t i n u a l r e c i p r o c a t i o n between o u t e r and i n n e r w o r l d s . As i s e v i d e n t f r o m t h e above q u o t e , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s r e s - p o n s e t o h i s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h d e a t h i s g e n e r a l l y a r a t h e r p o s i t i v e one. He i s a t t r a c t e d t o t h e p e a c e f u l q u i e t u d e o f d e a t h . A f t e r t h e d e a d bee has b e e n washed iaway by t h e r a i n s , he i m a g i n e s i t l y i n g somewhere c o m p l e t e l y m o t i o n l e s s : "how q u i e t i t must be -- b e f o r e o n l y w o r k i n g and w o r k i n g , no l o n g e r m o v ing now. I f e l t a c e r t a i n n e a r n e s s t o t h a t q u i e t . H e m e n t i o n s t h a t he has r e c e n t l y w r i t t e n a s t o r y c a l l e d "Han's C r i m e " (Han no H a n z a i $ , one o f S h i g a ' s ' f i c t i o n a l " s t o r i e s ) , i n w h i c h a C h i n e s e j u g g l e r , Han, had m u r d e r e d h i s w i f e . I n h i s p r e s e n t mood he w o u l d l i k e t o r e w r i t e t h e s t o r y f r o m t h e w i f e ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , " t o d e s c r i b e h e r m u r d e r e d and i 7 q u i e t i n h e r g r a v e " . W i t h o u t b e i n g o v e r l y f a c e t i o u s , one m i g h t remark h e r e t h a t S h i g a (or h i s n a r r a t i v e a l t e r ego) comes u n c o m f o r t a b l y c l o s e t o a w r i t e r u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d h i s o p p o s i t e i n " h e a l t h y - m i n d e d n e s s " , Kawabata Y a s u n a r i , t h e " n e c r o p h i l i c " a u t h o r o f The House o f S l e e p i n g B e a u t i e s (Nemureru B i j o $K B u t p e r h a p s f o r t u n a t e l y S h i g a a s s u r e s us t h a t he n e v e r d i d w r i t e The M u r d e r e d W i f e o f Han, a l t h o u g h " t h e u r g e was t h e r e " . He t e l l s us f u r t h e r : " I was much d i s t u r b e d t h a t my way o f t h i n k i n g had become so d i f f e r e n t f r o m 9 t h a t o f &he h e r o o f a l o n g n o v e l I was w r i t i n g . " The r e f e r e n c e i s , o f c o u r s e , t o An'ya K o r o ( A Dark N i g h t ' s P a s s i n g ) , i n w h i c h t h e h e c o , K e n s a k u , i s a l m o s t d e s - p e r a t e l y l i f e - a f f i r m i n g and " p o s i t i v i s t " ; t h e p r e s e n t n a r r a - t o r ' s mood o f f e e l i n g " f i i e n d l y t o d e a t h " w o u l d no d o u b t seem a b h o r r e n t t o K e n s a k u . T h i s i s t r u e , a t l e a s t , f o r t h o s e e a r l y p o r t i o n s o f t h e n o v e l t h a t S h i g a was w r i t i n g a t t h e same t i m e as " K i n o s a k i n i t e " — t h o u g h , as we s h a l l s e e , i t be- comes l e s s and l e s s t r u e as K e n s a k u moves t o w a r d s h i s f i n a l , c l i m a c t i c e x p e r i e n c e o f " s e l f - d i s s o l u t i o n " and u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e on Mount D a i s e n i n t h e p e n u l t i m a t e c h a p t e r o f t h e n o v e l . The n a r r a t o r ' s s e c o n d e n c o u n t e r w i t h d e a t h i s a r a t h e r more v i o l e n t and u n p l e a s a n t one. W a l k i n g t h r o u g h t h e t ©wn one d a y , he n o t i c e s a n o i s y crowd o f p e o p l e g a t h e r e d a l o n g t h e bank o f a s m a l l s t r e a m . When he i n v e s t i g a t e s , he f i n d s t h a t : "A l a r g e r a t had been t h r o w n i n and was swimming d e s p e r a t e l y t o g e t away. A skewer some e i g h t t o t e n i n c h e s l o n g was t h r u s t t h r o u g h t h e s k i n o f i t s n e c k , so t h a t i t p r o j e c t e d a b o u t t h r e e o r f o u r i n c h e s above t h e head and t h r e e o r f o u r b e l o w t h e throat.""''"'" Some o f t h e b y s t a n d e r s a r e m a k i n g s p o r t o f t h e un- f o r t u n a t e c r e a t u r e by t h r o w i n g s t o n e s a t i t . I t s t r u g g l e s t o c l i m b up t h e bank and i n t o a h o l e , b u t t h e skewer c a t c h e s on some r o c k s and i t f a l l s b a c k i n t o t h e s t r e a m , " t r y i n g s t i l l t o s a v e i t s e l f somehow. One c o u l d t e l l n o t h i n g f r o m i t s s f a c e , 12 b u t f r o m i t s a c t i o n s one c o u l d see how d e s p e r a t e i t was." The n a r r a t o r t u r n s away f r o m t h e s c e n e : " I d i d n o t want t o 13 see t h e end." Whereas h i s f i r s t e x p e r i e n c e g a v e h i m an i n v i t i n g s e n s e o f t h e u l t i m a t e p e a c e o f d e a t h , t h e n , t h e s i g h t o f t h e t o r m e n t e d r a t i s f a r more d i s t u r b i n g : " I t was t e r r i b l e t o t h i n k t h a t t h i s s u f f e r i n g l a y b e f o r e t h e q u i e t I was a f t e r . E v e n i f I d i d f e e l a c e r t a i n n e a r n e s s t o t h a t q u i e t a f t e r d e a t h , s t i l l t h e 14 s t r u g g l e o n t h e way was t e r r i b l e . " And i n d e e d he i s r e m i n d e d t h a t , a f t e r h i s r e c e n t a c c i d e n t , h i s own i n s t i n c t t o s u r v i v e h a d w e l l e d up a s p o w e r f u l l y and i r r e s i s t i b l y a s t h e r a t ' s : " I w a n t e d t o do w h a t c o u l d be d o n e . I d e c i d e d o n a h o s p i t a l f o r m y s e l f . I t o l d how I was t o be t a k e n t h e r e . I a s k e d some- one t o t e l e p h o n e i n a d v a n c e b e c a u s e I was a f r a i d t h e d o c t o r m i g h t be o u t a n d t h e y w o u l d n o t be r e a d y t o o p e r a t e immed- i a t e l y . E v e n when I was b u t h a l f - c o n s c i o u s my m i n d w o r k e d so w e l l o n what was m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h a t I was s u r p r i s e d a t i t a f t e r w a r d m y s e l f . " 1 ^ S t r a n g e l y , t h o u g h , he remembers t h a t , a t t h e same t i m e , " I was s u r p r i s e d a f t e r w a r d t o o a t how l i t t l e I was t r o u b l e d by f e a r o f d e a t h . " " ^ The n a r r a t o r ' s f i n a l e n c o u n t e r w i t h d e a t h i s e v e n more d i s t u r b i n g , as he h i m s e l f i s t h e a g e n t who b r i n g s i t a b o u t . W h i l e o u t f o r an e v e n i n g s t r o l l , he comes a c r o s s a w a t e r l i z a r d s i t t i n g on a r o c k b e s i d e a s t r e a m . W i s h i n g m e r e l y " t o 17 s t a r t l e t h e l i z a r d i n t o t h e w a t e r " , he a b s e n t - m i n d e d l y t o s s e s a s t o n e i n i t s d i r e c t i o n . By w h a t seems t o h i m l i k e some p e r v e r s e t w i s t o f f a t e , t h e s t o n e s c o r e s a d i r e c t h i t and t h e l i z a r d i s k i l l e d . A g a i n , S h i g a ' s d e s c r i p t i v e p o w e r s - 48 - are admirably evocative: "The stone slapped against the rock and f e l l into the water. As i t h i t , the l i z a r d seemed to jump f i v e inches or so to the side. Its t a i l curled high i n the air...The curved t a i l began quietly to f a l l back down of i t s own weight. The toes of the projecting front feet, braced against the slope with kiaee j o i n t s cut, turned under and the l i z a r d f e l l forward,aits strength gone. Its t a i l lay f l a t 18 against the rock. It did not move. I t was dead." There i s no trace l e f t now of the narrator's previous a t t r a c t i o n to death. What es p e c i a l l y troubles him i s the way the l i z a r d ' s death seems such a product of a r b i t r a r y chance. Indeed, long before Camus and Ionesco, Shiga here presents us with an acute sense of the " e x i s t e n t i a l absurdifiy" of the fate of a l l l i v i n g creatures: "I often enough k i l l l i z a r d s and such, but the thought that I had k i l l e d one without intending to f i l l e d me with a strange revulsion. I had done i t , but 19 from the beginning e n t i r e l y by chance." Contemplating thus theslizard's death, the narrator i s f i l l e d with aa sense of the loneliness of the l i v i n g creature" This i s further i n t e n s i f i e d when he thinks now of what might have become of the two other dead creatures, the bee "carried 21 underground by that r a i n " , and the r a t , swept "off to sea, probably, and i t s body, bloated from the water, would be wash- 22 ing up now with the rubbish on a beach." Hishthoughts then turned to himself: "And I who had not died was walking here. I knew I s h o u l d be g r a t e f u l . B u t t h e p r o p e r f e e l i n g o f h a p p i - n e s s r e f u s e d t o come. To be a l i v e and t o be d e a d were n o t two o p p o s i t e e x t r e m e s . T h e r e d i d n o t seem t o be much d i f f e r - 23 ence between them. " I n t h i s mood <5f somber p e s s i m i s m and e x t r e m e d e t a c h m e n t , he s t u m b l e s b a c k t o h i s i n n i n t h e g r o w i n g d a r k n e s s : " t h e f e e l o f my f e e t a g a i n s t t h e g r o u n d , c u t o f f 24 f r o m my s i g h t , seemed u n c e r t a i n i n t h e e x t r e m e . " We a r e t h u s l e f t w i t h t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r has b e e n somewhat d e v a s t a t e d , a l b e i t e n l i g h t e n e d , by h i s f i n a l e n c o u n t e r w i t h d e a t h . The work e n d s , t h o u g h , w i t h a k i n d o f " f o o t n o t e " t h a t i s r a t h e r more p o s i t i v e i n t o n e : " I t i s more t h a n t h r e e y e a r s now. I d i d n o t g e t s p i n a l t u b e r c u l o s i s -- t h a t much I e s - 25 c a p e d . " Thus t h e s t o r y i s s e t i n a s o r t o f " f r a m e " by t h e o p e n i n g and c l o s i n g p a r a g r a p h s , i n whifcih t h e n a r r a t o r r e m i n i c e s a b o u t t h e e v e n t s " a t K i n o s a k i " f r o m a d i s t a n c e o f t h r e e y e a r s . A c c o r d i n g t o T a n i k a w a T e t s u z o , J a p a n e s e w r i t e r s , " f r o m — 26 Akutagawa Ryunosuke on, h a ve l a v i s h e d p r a i s e on t h i s s t o r y . " What t h e c r i t i c s have f o u n d t o p r a i s e i n i t , above a l l , i s t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f i t s s t y l e . To i l l u s t r a t e what he c o n s i d e r s t o be t h e s o u r c e o f t h i s e x c e l l e n c e , T a n i k a w a q u o t e s f r o m S h i g a ' s commentary on t h e s t o r y : " T h i s t o o i s a s t o r y b a s e d on t h e e v e n t s as t h e y a c t u a l l y happened. The d e a t h s o f t h e r a t , t h e bee and t h e w a t e r l i z a r d a l l were r e a l l y w i t n e s s e d by me o v e r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l d a y s . And I i n t e n d e d t o w r i t e d i r e c t l y and s i n c e r e l y a b o u t t h e f e e l i n g s t h a t a r o s e i n me a t - 50 - 27 .the t i m e . " The v e r y f a c t , t h e n , t h a t t h e w r i t e r i s so s l o s e t o t h e e v e n t s o f w h i c h he w r i t e s g i v e s h i s s t y l e an immediacy, a " d i r e c t n e s s " and " s i n c e r i t y " t h a t i t c o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e a t t a i n . T h i s i d e a i s by no means p e c u l i a r t o t h e a p o l o g i s t s o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u , d e s p i t e F r a n c i s M a thy's c l a i m t h a t t h e t e r m " s i n c e r i t y " h as " b u t a low p l a c e i n t h e W e s t e r n c r i t i c a l 2 8 v o c a b u l a r y . " As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , i t has a h i g h p l a c e i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f no l e s s a w r i t e r t h a n T o l s t o y , who m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a r t i s " i n f e c t i o u s " ( i . e . p e r s u a s i v e ) " i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e s i n c e r i t y o f t h e a r t i s t , t h a t i s , o f t h e g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r f o r c e w i t h w h i c h t h e a r t i s t h i m s e l f e x p e r i e n c e s t h e s e n s a t i o n 29 w h i c h he i s c o n v e y i n g . . . " T h i s sounds v e r y c l o s e i n d e e d t o S h i g a ' s c o n c e p t o f j i k k a n ( ̂  ^ " f e l t r e a l i z a t i o n s " ) w h i c h , as Mathy h i m s e l f p o i n t s o u t , i s c e n t r a l t o h i s e s p o u s a l o f an " a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l " a r t . 3 0 To t a k e b u t o n s o t h e r example t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d E n g l i s h c r i t i c , F.R. L e a v i s , i n an e s s a y e n t i t l e d " R e a l i t y and S i n c e r i t y " , m a i n t a i n s t h a t " s i n c e r i t y " i s a t e r m " t o w h i c h a c r i t i c must t r y and g i v e some u s e f u l 31 f o r c e by a p p r o p r i a t e and c a r e f u l u s e . . . " And he goes on t o II compare a poem by E m i l y B r o n t e u n f a v o r a b l y w i t h one by Thomas Hardy b e c a u s e B r o n t e i s " d r a m a t i z i n g h e r s e l f i n a s i t u a t i o n s u c h as she has c l e a r l y n o t known i n a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e : what 32 she o f f e r s i s b e t r y i n g l y l e s s r e a l . " And " t o say t h a t H a r d y ' s poem has an a d v a n t a g e i n r e a l i t y i s t o say ( i t w i l l t u r n o u t ) t h a t i t r e p r e s e n t s a p r o f o u n d e r and c o m p l e t e r • 4 . ..33 s i n c e r i t y . - 51 - Of c o u r s e , t h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t t h e r e i s u n a n i m i t y on t h i s p o i n t i n t h e West. L e a v i s h i m s e l f n o t e s C o l e r i d g e ' s b e l i e f t h a t one o f t h e " p r o m i s e s o f g e n i u s " i s "the c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t s v e r y remote f r o m t h e p r i v a t e i n t e r e s t s and c i r c u m - s t a n c e s o f t h e w r i t e r h i m s e l f . A t • l e a s t I have f o u n d t h a t , where t h e s u b j e c t i s t a k e n i m m e d i a t e l y f r o m t h e a u t h o r ' s p e r - s o n a l s e n s a t i o n s and e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e e x c e l l e n c e o f a p a r t i - c u l a r poem i s b u t an e q u i v o c a l mark, and o f t e n a f a l l a c i o u s 34 p l e d g e , o f g e n u i n e p o e t i c power-;" And we m i g h t add t o t h i s F l a u b e r t ' s d i c t u m : " t o u t e o e u v r e e s t condamnable ou 1 ' a u t e u r 35 se l a i s s e d e v i n e r . " F l a u b e r t , s a y s W i l l i a m B a r r y , "warned us a g a i n s t e v e r y work o f a r t i n w h i c h t h e a u t h o r ' s f a c e seems t o be r e f l e c t e d . . . S u g h e g o t i s m , he t h i n k s i s u n w o r t h y o f a 3 6 supreme a r t i s t , and b e a r s i t s c o n d e m n a t i o n i t i t s e l f . " I n o t h e r words, t h e d e b a t e between t h e a p o l o g i s t s o f t h e " f i c t i o n a l " and t h o s e o f t h e " a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l " i s an e t e r n a l one and has b e e n c o n d u c t e d as v i g o r o u s l y i n E u r o p e as i n J a p a n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t seems t h a t , i n t h e J a p a n o f S h i g a ' s d a y a t l e a s t , i t was t h e " s i n c e r i t y " o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u w h i c h won t h e most a d m i r e r s ( a l t h o u g h t h e " o t h e r s i d e " was w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by t h a t consummate s t o r y - t e l l e r , T a n i z a k i J u n i c h i r o . ) A g a i n i t i s K o b a y a s h i H i d e o who, w i t h a few memorable s i m i l e s , b e s t e x p r e s s e s t h e s e n s e o f immediacy and s p o n t a n e i t y i n S h i g a ' s s t y l e t h a t J a p a n e s e r e a d e r s f i n d so a p p e a l i n g : " H i s p e r c e p t i o n s a r e d i r e c t i n d e e d , l i k e t h e c o b r a s w a y i n g t o t h e sound o f t h e f l u t e , o r t h e w i n g s o f t h e p t a r m i g a n t u r n i n g w h i t e w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f w i n t e r . The immediacy o f t h e a w a r e n e s s d o e s n o t p e r m i t o f h e s i t a t i o n i n t h e c h o i c e o f words. They a r e f o u n d b e f o r e t h e r i p p l e s have r e a c h e d t h e edge o f t h e 37 pond. I t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r S h i g a -- o r any o t h e r w r i t e r -- c o u l d a t t a i n t h i s m i r a c u l o u s d e g r e e o f immediacy i f he d i d n o t w r i t e d i r e c t l y o u t o f h i s own e x p e r i e n c e . Y o s h i d a S e i - i c h i a l s o e m p h a s i z e s S h i g a ' s s p o n t a n e i t y , e v e n g o i n g so f a r as t o say t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n o f p e r t i n e n t d e t a i l s , a p r o c e s s t h a t most w r i t e r s a g o n i z e o v e r , comes t o him s i m p l y and n a t u r a l l y . " S h i g a ' s s e n t e n c e s a r e a l i v e " , s a y s Y o s h i d a , " b e c a u s e t h e y do n o t d e s c r i b e t o o much, t h e y s e l e c t o n l y t h e n e c e s s a r y d e t a i l s . S h i g a h i m s e l f o n c e o b s e r v e d : "When one l o o k s a t a p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g and t r i e s t o t h i n k a b o u t u s i n g i t as t h e m a t e r i a l f o r one's w r i t i n g , o n e ' s a t t e n t i o n i s a l l t h e more d i s t r a c t e d t o o t h e r , s u p e r f l u o u s t h i n g s — and t h i s s e r v e s no p u r p o s e . When I do s o m e t h i n g I do i t a l - most u n c o n s c i o u s l y , and u s u a l l y I w r i t e down o n l y w h a t e v e r r e m a i n s i n my mind a b o u t i t a f t e r w a r d s ' . B u t t h e s e a r e t h e words o f a man b e l s s e d w i t h t h e t r u e w r i t e r ' s temperament! To s e e t h e e s s e n t i a l t h i n g s n a t u r a l l y , w i t h o u t e v e n t r y i n g t o see thm — t h i s i s i n d e e d a b o r n w r i t e r . The p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n o p e r a t e s i n him u n c o n s c i o u s l y . " Y o s h i d a goes on t o s a y , t h o u g h , t h a t f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t h e " s c i e n c e o f r h e t o r i e " "Shiga's w r i t i n g , l o o k e d a t s e n t e n c e by s e n t e n c e , d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y q u a l i f y as " f i n e p r o s e " (meibun "^C )• He n o t e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e many r e p e t i t i o n s o f words and p h r a s e s , q u o t i n g as an example t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e f r o m " K i n o s a k i n i t e " : "Su no d e i r i n i i s o g a s h i k u sono w a k i o haimawaru ga m a t t a k u k o d e i s u r u y o s u wa n a k a t t a . I s o g a s h i k u t a c h i h a t a r a i t e i r u h a c h i wa i k a n i mo i k i t e i r u mono t o i u k a n j i o a t a e t a . Sono w a k i n i i p p i k i , a s a mo h i r u mo y u mo, m i r u t a b i n i h i t o t s u t o k o r o m a t t a k u u g o k a z u n i u t s u m u k i n i k o r o g a t t e i r u no o m i r u t o , s o r e ga mata fcka n i mo s h i n d a mono t o i u k a n j i o a t a e r u no d a . S o r e wa m i k k a hodo sono mama n i n a t t e i t a . S o r e wa m i t e x x x x x x x x x x x x x x i t e , i k a n i mo s h i z u k a na k a n j i o a t a e t a . S a m i s h i k a t t a . Hoka no h a c h i ga mina sue e h a i t t e s h i m a t t a h i g u r e , t s u m e t a i kawara n i h i t o t s u n o k o t t a s h i g a i o m i r u k o t o wa s a m i s h i k a t t a . S h i k a s h i , 39 s o r e wa i k a n i mo s h i z u k a d a t t a . " x x x x x x x The f o l l o w i n g i s a r a t h e r l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n b u t i t s t i l l c a n n o t , o f c o u r s e , r e p r o d u c e t h e e x a c t e f f e c t o f a l l t h e r e p e t i t i o n s i n J a p a n e s e . "They c r a w l e d b u s j r l y a r o u n d t h e e n t r a n c e t o t h e i r h i v e b u t t h e y g.ave no s i g n i w h a t e v e r t h a t t h e y had any r e l a t i o n t o t h e d ead bee. T h e s e b u s i l y w o r k i n g b e e s c e r t a i n l y gave me t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y were l i v i n g t h i n g s . And, a g a i n , whenever I saw t h e d e a d one b e s i d e them, m o r n i n g noon o r n i g h t , l y i n g f a c e down a l w a y s i n e x a c t l y t h e same p l a c e , i t c e r t a i n l y gave me t h e f e e l i n g t h a t i t was a d ead t h i n g . I t l a y t h e r e f o r more t h a n t h r e e d a y s . When I l o o k e d a t i t , i t c e r t a i n l y g ave me a f e e l i n g o f q u i e t n e s s . And o f l o n e l i n e s s . I t was l o n e l y t o see t h e one d e a d bee l e f t on t h e c o l d r o o f - - 54 - t i l e when t h e o t h e r s had a l l gone i n t o t h e i r h i v e a f t e r n i g h t - f a l l . B u t a l s o i t was c e r t a i n l y t r a n q u i l . " ) " I n t h i s b r i e f p a s s a g e a l o n e , " Y o s h i d a r e m a r k s , " t h e r e i s one s e n t e n c e i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e f o u r r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e same word o r p h r a s e , two s e n t e n c e s i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e t h r e e and two i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e two. T h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be so many r e p e t i t i o n s e v e n a f t e r t h e w r i t e r has o m i t t e d and d e l e t e d a s much a s p o s s i b l e i s p r o b a b l y a f a u l t f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f r h e t o r i c . B u t i t i s a l l a n e c e s s a r y and u n a v o i d a b l e p a r t o f S h i g a ' s mode o f e x p r e s s i o n . The r e p e t i t i o n s a r e a p a r t o f h i s p o e t i c s e n s e o f r h y t h m , and g i v e f o r c e f u l e x p r e s s i o n t o t h o s e 40 i m p r e s s i o n s w h i c h have made t h e d e e p e s t i m p a c t on h i s mind." The r e p e t i t i o n s may s e r v e a t h e m a t i c as w e l l a s a s t y - l i s t i c p u r p o s e . Y o s h i d a i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e , a&so f r o m " K i n o s a k i n i t e " : "Ima j i b u n n i ano nezumi no yo na k o t o ga o k o t t a r a j i b u n wa do s u r u d a r o . J i b u n wa y a h a r i nezumi t o o n a j i yo s o r e n i c h i k a i j i b u n n i n a t t a k o t o o omowanai de wa i r a r e n a - k a t t a . J i b u n wa d e k i r u dake no k o t o o s h i y o t o s h i t a . J i b u n wa j i s h i n de b y o i n o k i m e t a . " 4 ^ ("What w o u l d J. do i f J- were now i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n a s t h e r a t was i n ? Would I n o t , a f t e r a l l , s t r u g g l e f o r s u r - v i v a l i n t h e same way as t h e r a t was d o i n g ? I_ c o u l d n o t h e l p r e c a l l i n g how I had beh a v e d much l i k e t h a t when I_ had my a c c i - d e n t . I_ t r i e d t o do w h a t e v e r c o u l d p o s s i b l y be done. I_ de- - 55 - c i d e d on a h o s p i t a l f o r m y s e l f . " ) "What a b o u t t h e s e e i g h t r e p e t i t i o n s o f t h e word ' j i b u n ' ? " a s k s Y o s h i d a . " I f we were t o i s o l a t e t h i s p a s s a g e and examine i t as an example o f bad s t y l e , i t w o u l d p r o b a b l y be p o s s i b l e t o d e l e t e many o f t h e r e p e t i t i o n s . B u t i f we l o o k a t i t as embedded i n i t s o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t , and t r y t o d i s c e r n how t h i s ' j i b u n ' w orks, t h e n t h i s mode o f e x p r e s s i o n w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s t h e s e l f assumes a n e c e s s a r y r o l e as p a r t o f t h e h o n e s t s e l f - 42 a b s o r p t i o n o f t h e p a s s a g e . " (We s h a l l r e t u r n t o t h i s s u b j e c t o f t h e t h e m a t i c use o f r e p e t i t i o n s l a t e r when we examine S h i g a ; s r e p e a t e d use o f t h e word " s a b i s h i " ( l o n e l y ) i n " K i n o - s a k i n i t e " . ) Y o s h i d a ' s a n a l y s i s , t h e n , seems t o s u p p o r t S h i g a ' s c o n - t e n t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s more t o good s t y l e t h a n mere s k i l l o r t e c h n i q u e , w h e t h e r t h i s i n v o l v e s f o l l o w i n g t e x t b o o k r u l e s o f r h e t o r i c o r any o t h e r " a r t i f i c i a l " s t a n d a r d s . S h i g a h i m s e l f , as we have s e e n , u s e d t h e word "rhythm" t o t r y t o d e f i n e t h e q u i n t e s s e n c e o f what he r e g a r d e d t o be good s t y l e . B u t , as we may see f r o m t h e above example, t h i s i n v o l v e s more t h a n j u s t p a t t e r n s o f sound -- i t i s a l s o , we m i g h t s a y , t h e v e r y p a t t e r n o f a w r i t e r ' s f e e l i n g s and t h o u g h t s . A l t h o u g h he d i d n o t see e y e - t o » e y e w i t h S h i g a ' s a p o l o - g i s t s on t h e i n n a t e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u g e n r e 43 p e r s e , T a n i z a k i J u n i c h i r o , who was c e r t a i n l y no mean s t y - l i s t h i m s e l f , was as u n r e s e r v e d as anyone e l s e i n h i s p r a i s e - 56 - o f S h i g a ' s s t y l e . Of " K i n o s a k i n i t e " i n p a r t i c u l a r , he s a i d 43 t h a t i t had t h e f i n e s t s t y l e he h a d e v e r e n c o u n t e r e d . He q u o t e s f r o m i t e x t e n s i v e l y t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e v i r t u e s o f S h i g a ' s s t y l e i n h i s Bunsho Tokuhon ( ^t, ^ S t y l i s t i c Reader) . What he seems t o admire above a l l i s t h e economy o r " p r a c t i - c a l i t y " ( j i t s u y o ^ ) o f S h i g a ' s w r i t i n g . As an example, he q u o t e s t h e p a r t i a l s e n t e n c e : "Ta no h a c h i ga m i n a s u n i h a i t t e s h i m a t t a h i g u r e t s u m e t a i kawara no ue n i h i t o t s u n o k o t t a 45 s h i g a i o m i r u k o t o wa..." (...to s e e t h e one d ead b ody l e f t on t h e c o l d t i l e i n t h e e v e n i n g a f t e r t h e o t h e r b e e s h a d a l l e n t e r e d t h e h i v e . " ) Any o r d i n a r y w r i t e r , s a y s T a n i z a k i , w o u l d have w r i t t e n t h i s i n a f a r more r o u n d a b o u t way: " H i ga k u r e r u t o t a no h a c h i wa m i n a s u n i h a i t t e s h i m a t t e sono s h i g a i dake ga t s u m e t a i kawara no ue n i h i t o t s u n o k o t t e i t a ga, s o r e o 4 6 m i r u t o . . . " ( " A f t e r i t h a d grown d a r k and t h e o t h e r b e e s had a l l gone i n t o t h e h i v e , o n l y t h e dead body w o u l d be l e f t b e h i n d , a l l a l o n e , on t h e c o l d t i l e ; when I saw i t . . . " ) . T an- i z a k i d e s c r i b e s S h i g a ' s s e n t e n c e as h a v i n g been " t i g h t e n e d up" ( h i k i s h i m e t a j?| jffiĵ  fcf> ) and s a y s t h a t " t h i s v e r y ' t i g h t - e n i n g up' e n a b l e s t h e s e n t e n c e t o c o n v e y i t s i m p r e s s i o n s w i t h 47 a l l t h e more c l a r i t y . " As a f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h i s p o i n t he q u o t e s S h i g a ' s g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e b e e s : " H a c h i wa hame no awai k a r a s u r i n u k e t e d e r u t o h i t o m a z u genkan no yane n i o r i t a . Soko de hane y a s h o k k a k u o m a e a s h i y a u s h i r o a s h i de t e i n e i n i t o t o n o e r u t o s u k o s h i a r u k i m a w a r u y a t s u mo a r u ga sugu h o s o n a g a i hane o r y o h o e s h i k - - 57 - k a r i t o h a t t e buuun t o t o b i t a t s u . T o b i t a t s u t o k y u n i h a y a k u 48 n a t t e t o n d e y u k u . " ("Pushing t h e i r way o u t f r o m between t h e b o a r d s t h e y w o u l d pause on t h e r o o f o f t h e e n t r a n c e w a y . Some wo u l d walk a r o u n d f o r a moment a f t e r t h e y had a r r a n g e d t h e i r w i n g s and f e e l e r s w i t h t h e i r f r o n t and h i n d l e g s , and immed- i a t e l y t h e y t o o w o u l d s p r e a d t h e i r s l e n d e r w i n g s t a u t and t a k e o f f w i t h a h e a v y d r o n i n g . Once i n t h e a i r t h e y moved q u i c k l y 49 away." ) "Here t h e b e e s ' movements", s a y s T a n i z a k i , " a r e d e s - c r i b e d p r e c i s e l y as one w o u l d see them t h r o u g h c l o s e o b s e r v a - t i o n . The r e a d e r f e e l s t h a t he i s a c t u a l l y s e e i n g e a c h m o t i o n b e c a u s e a l l waste has b een e l i m i n a t e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n ; any 50 word t h a t i s n o t a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y has b een l e f t o u t . " R e s p o n d i n g t o T a n i z a k i ' s a n a l y s i s , T a n i k a w a T e t s u z o , p e r - haps more i n c o n s o n a n c e w i t h S h i g a ' s own way o f t h i n k i n g , em- p h a s i z e s t h a t t h e power o f S h i g a ' s w r i t i n g d e r i v e s n o t m e r e l y f r o m h i s t a l e n t f o r " c l o s e o b s e r v a t i o n " b u t a l s o f r o m h i s deep s e n s i t i v i t y t o w a r d s t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d and e v e n f r o m h i s p e r - s o n a l s t r e n g t h o f c h a r a c t e r : I f e e l a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e p a s s a g e w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e r a t ' s d e a t h . What i s shown h e r e i s S h i g a ' s power as a r e a l i s t — I mean n o t m e r e l y h i s powers o f d e s c r i p - t i o n b u t t h e power o f h i s h e a r t t o g a z e u n f l i n c h i n g l y V, and w i t h o u t r e g r e t a t any s c e n e w h a t s o e v e r . F u r t h e r m o r e , S h i g a h a s t h e s o r t o f temperament t h a t i s more t h a n u s u a l l y t e s p o n s i v e t o s u c h s c e n e s . I n t h i s c a s e a l s o he s a y s f i n a l l y : 'I f e l t l o n e l y and unhappy. 1 B u t h a v i n g s a i d t h i s , he does n o t t u r n h i s e y e s away f r o m t h e s c e n e . One c a n f i n d t h i s k i n d o f example e v e r y w h e r e i n S h i g a . He i s t h e same i n r e g a r d t o t h e human h e a r t . He s e e s what he must s e e , he f e e l s what he must f e e l ; he does n o t , l i k e t h e f a i n t - h e a r ^ d , t u r n h i s e y e s away o r t r y t o c o v e r t h i n g s up." - 58 - Erom t h e comments o f t h e s e m a j o r J a p a n e s e c r i t i c s , t h e n , we may t a k e i t t h a t " K i n o s a k i n i t e " i s r e g a r d e d , on g r o u n d s o f s t y l e a l o n e , as a m a s t e r p i e c e o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u g e n r e , and t h u s may f a i r l y s t a n d t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s g e n r e i n any com- p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f i t w i t h , s a y , t h e modern W e s t e r n s h o r t s t o r y . I t i s f o r t u n a t e , t h e n , t h a t t h e r e happens t o be a h i g h l y " r e p r e s e n t a t i v e " W e s t e r n s t o r y b u i l t a r o u n d l a r g e l y t h e same i d e a a s S h i g a ' s b u t w r i t t e n v e r y much i n t h e E u r o p e a n manner: T o l s t o y ' s " T h r e e D e a t h s " (and who c o u l d r e p r e s e n t t h e W e s t e r n f i c t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n b e t t e r t h a n T o l s t o y ? ) I t w i l l t e l l us much, I t h i n k , a b o u t t h e d i s t i n c t i v e n a t u r e and s p e c i a l m e r i t s o f the/..;shi-shosetsu g e n r e t o compare t h e way i n w h i c h t h e s e two d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s h a n d l e a b a s i c a l l y s i m i l a r s t o r y c o n c e p t . The q u e s t i o n o f " i n f l u e n c e d s h o u l d be q u i c k l y d i s p o s e d 52 o f . A l t h o u g h S l i g a was a g r e a t a d m i r e r o f T o l s t o y , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h i s i s a c a s e o f " d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e " . As I have a l r e a d y q u o t e d him as s a y i n g , S h i g a b a s e d t h e s t o r y on e v e n t s he had a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d . I t i s one o f t h e o b v i o u s v i r t u e s o f " a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l " w r i t e r s i n g e n e r a l t h a t t h e y a r e f a i r l y immune t o any k i n d o f d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e . Whether S h i g a was " i n d i r e c t l y " i n f l u e n c e d t o make a s t o r y o u t o f t h e e v e n t s he w i t n e s s e d b e c a u s e he had r e a d t h e T o l s t o y s t o r y i s a r a t h e r e s o t e r i c q u e s t i o n , and one t h a t i s anyway more o f b i o g r a p h i - c a l t h a n o f c r i t i c a l i n t e r e s t . - 59 - T o l s t o y ' s s t o r y , a s i t s t i t l e i m p l i e s , i s s t r u c t u r e d , l i k e " K i n o s a k i n i t e " , a r o u n d t h r e e s e p a r a t e d e a t h s : t h a t o f a w e a l t h y l a d y , t h a t o f an o l d p e a s a n t and t h a t o f a young t r e e . The s t o r y i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r numbered p a r t s . I n t h e f i r s t p a r t , we a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e l a d y , t r a v e l l i n g f r o m R u s s i a t o I t a l y by s t a g e c o a c h w i t h h e r h u s b a n d , h e r d o c t o r and h e r m a i d s e r v a n t . The g r o u p has s t o p p e d a t a p o s t - s t a t i o n and h e r e t h e d o c t o r a d v i s e s t h e h u s b a n d n o t t o c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e j o u r n e y , a s h i s w i f e w i l l s u r e l y d i e a l o n g t h e way. The h u s - band t r i e s t o p r e v a i l upon h i s w i f e t o t u r n b a c k , b u t s h e , a c t i n g l i k e a r a t h e r p e t u l a n t , s p o i l e d c h i l d , i n s i s t s t h a t , i f o n l y she c a n e e a c h t h e warm c l i m a t e o f t h e s o u t h , h e r t u b e r - c u l o s i s w i l l v a n i s h . I n t h e s e c o n d p a r t we a r e t a k e n i n s i d e t h e d r i v e r s ' room a t t h e p o s t - s t a t i o n and h e r e i n t r o d u c e d t o U n c l e T h e o d o r e , an o l d d r i v e r who i s a l s o , l i k e the. l a d y , d y i n g o f t u b e r c u - l o s i s . I n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o t h e l a d y , however, he a c c e p t s h i s coming d e a t h w i t h c a l m s t o i c i s m , e v e n a p o l o g i z i n g t o t h e woman o f t h e house f o r t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e h i s i l l n e s s h a s c a u s e d h e r . When a young d r i v e r a s k s f o r h i s b o o t s , s i n c e he w i l l no l o n g - e r be n e e d i n g them, t h e o l d man a c c e d e s w i t h o u t c o m p l a i n t , a s k i n g o n l y t h a t t h e y o u t h buy a g r a v e s t o n e f o r him when he i s dead. In t h e t h i r d p a r t i t i s a b o u t h a l f a y e a r l a t e r and t h e s c e n e i s t h e w e a l t h y l a d y ' s house i n R u s s i a . She d i d n o t go - 60 - on t o I t a l y a f t e r a l l and now we w i t n e s s <the so l e m n s c e n e o f h e r g r i e v i n g f a m i l y g a t h e r e d a r o u n d h e r d e a t h b e d . The s o l e m n i t y o f t h e o c c a s i o n , t h o u g h , i s somewhat m a r r e d by t h e l a d y ' s c o n t i n u i n g i n s i s t e n c e t h a t , i f o n l y h e r h u s b a n d had a l l o w e d h e r t o p r o c e e d t o I t a l y , she w o u l d be f u l l y r e c o v e r e d by now. Up t o h e r l a s t moment she r e f u s e s t o a c c e p t t h e i n - e v i t a b l e ; she r e j e c t s t h e v e r y i d e a o f d e a t h w i t h an i n s t i n c - t i v e f e r o c i t y w h i c h r e c a l l s t h e f u t i l e s t r u g g l e o f S h i g a ' s r a t . O n l y when d e a t h f i n a l l y comes does she a c h i e v e a d i g n i - f i e d c a l m . Now we a r e r e m i n d e d o f t h e q u i e t u d e o f S h i g a ' s d e ad b e e : "The d e a d woman's f a c e l o o k e d s t e r n and m a j e s t i c . N e i t h e r i n t h e c l e a r c o l d brow n o r i n t h e f i r m l y c l o s e d l i p s 53 was t h e r e any movement." I n t h e s t o r y ' s f o u r t h and f i n a l c h a p t e r we a r e t a k e n b a c k t o t h e p o s t - s t a t i o n . U n c l e T h e o d o r e has been d e a d now many months b u t he s t i l l has no g r a v e s t o n e . The young d r i v e r who p r o m i s e d him one i s p r o d d e d by t h e woman o f t h e house u n t i l f i n a l l y he a g r e e s t o go o u t and c u t down a t r e e , so t h a t t h e o l d man m i g h t have a t l e a s t a wooden c r o s s o v e r him. I n t h e f i n a l s c e n e o f t h e s t o r y T o l s t o y "draws b a c k " and d e s c r i b e s t h e t r e e ' s d e a t h n o t t h r o u g h t h e young d r i v e r ' s e y e s b u t as i f f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f N a t u r e i t s e l f -- t h e way t h e axe- b l o w s , f o r i n s t a n c e , d i s t u r b t h e s i l e n c e o f t h e f o r e s t . And when t h e young a s h has f a l l e n , t h e o t h e r t r e e s a r o u n d i t a r e d e s c r i b e d as h a v i n g " f l a u n t e d t h e b e a u t y o f t h e i r m o t i o n l e s s - 61 - 54 b r a n c h e s s t i l l more j o y o u s l y i n t h e newly c l e a r e d s p a c e . ' As t h i s l a s t q u o t e i m m e d i a t e l y s u g g e s t s , t h e two s t o r i e s have more i n common t h a t m e r e l y t h e i r o v e r a l l c o n c e p t i o n . I n t h i s c a s e , i t i s t h e use o f t h e d e v i c e o f c o n t r a s t i n a q u i t e s p e c i f i c way: t o g i v e a p r o f o u n d s e n s e o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between l i f e and d e a t h . We have a l r e a d y s e e n how S h i g a ' s c o n - t r a s t o f t h e m o t i o n l e s s d e a d bee w i t h t h e b u s i l y a c t i v e o nes s u c c e e d e d i n g i v i n g t h i s s e n s e . The f i n a l s e n t e n c e o f T o l s t o y ' s s t o r y a c h i e v e s t h e same e f f e c t i n much t h e same way: " t h e sappy l e a v e s w h i s p e r e d g l a d l y and p e a c e f u l l y on t h e t r e e t o p s , and t h e b r a n c h e s o f t h o s e t h a t were l i v i n g b egan t o r u s t l e s l o w l y 55 and m a j e s t i c a l l y o v e r t h e d e a d and p r o s t r a t e t r e e . " T o l s t o y , i n f a c t , u s e s t h i s d e v i c e more e x t e n s i v e l y t h a n S h i g a . F o r example, he c o n t r a s t s t h e f e e b l e , i r r i t a b l e d y i n g l a d y w i t h h e r e n e r g e t i c , c h e e r f u l m a i d s e r v a n t who p o s s e s s e s a " f u l l 56 bosom" and " q u i c k b&ack e y e s " , and l i k e w i s e he c o n t r a s t s t h e g e n t l e o l d T h e o d o r e w i t h t h e young d r i v e r , i n s o l e n t b u t f u l l o f l i f e , who demands h i s b o o t s . B o t h a u t h o r s a l s o , o f c o u r s e , c o n t r a s t t h e t h r e e d e a t h s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t o r i e s , b u t now t o q u i t e d i f - f e r e n t e f f e c t . I n T o l s t o y t h e c o n t r a s t s e r v e s l a r g e l y a m o r a l and s a t i r i c o u r p o s e : as h i s E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t o r r e m a r k s , he c o n t r a s t s " t h e q u e r u l o u s i n v a l i d l a d y w i t h t h e d y i n g p e a s a n t 57 and t h e u s e f u l t r e e w h i c h made no demands on anyone." I n o t h e r w o rds, e v e n i n t h i s e a r l y s t o r y o f T o l s t o y ' s we f i n d h i s p e r e n n i a l theme o f t h e d e c a d e n c e o f t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s as o p p o s e d t o t h e p e a s a n t r y and t o t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e i n g e n e r a l (to w h i c h , i n T o l s t o y ' s v i e w , t h e p e a s a n t r y a l s o b e l o n g ) -- a w o r l d r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e by t h e t r e e . As we w o u l d e x p e c t , S h i g a i s f a r l e s s m o r a l and c e r e b r a l . What he c o n t r a s t s m a i n l y a r e h i s d i f f e r e n t e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s t o t h e t h r e e d e a t h s , r a n g i n g as we have s e e n , f r o m t h e p o s i t i v e t o t h e n e g a t i v e . A s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n c e may be r e m a r k e d i n t h e r o l e t h a t n a t u r e p l a y s i n t h e two s t o r i e s . I n t h e c o n t e x t o f S h i g a ' s t o t a l o p us, " K i n o s a k i n i t e " i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h a t i t r e c o r d s t h e " S h i g a h e r o ' s " f i r s t r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e . " A r u A s a : , as we have s e e n , was c o n c e r n e d e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t h e n a r r o w w o r l d o f human r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n a f a m i l y s e t t i n g t h a t seemed " c l a u s t r o p h o b i c " f o r a young man y e a r n i n g t o e x p r e s s h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . " K i n o s a k i n i t e " p r o - v i d e s t h e f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n o f how t h e S h i g a h e r o w i l l s e e k e s c a p e f r o m t h e s e o p p r e s s i v e c o n f i n e s : by t u r n i n g more and more t o w a r d s t h e w i d e r w o r l d o f n a t u r e . We c a n d i s c e r n t h e g r o w t h o f t h i s t e n d e n c y t h r o u g h o u t S h i g a ' s l a t e r works u n t i l , as we s h a l l s e e , i t r e a c h e s a k i n d o f c l i m a x i n h i s n o v e l , An'ya K o r o . I n h i s f i n a l y e a r s S h i g a t u r n e d away f r o m t h e human w o r l d e v e n more, s a y i n g t h a t " t h e t r o u b l e s o m e c o m p l i c a - t i o n s o f human a f f a i r s have g r a d u a l l y come t o be most d i s t a s t e 5 8 f u l t o me." H i s v e r y l a s t s t o r i e s a r e c o n c e r n e d a l m o s t en- t i r e l y w i t h p l a n t s and a n i m a l s . As F r a n c i s Mathy s a y s : "Now t h a t S h i g a had e s t a b l i s h e d an a l m o s t p e r f e c t r a p p o r t w i t h n a t u r e he no l o n g e r f e l t t h e u r g e t o w r i t e a b o u t t h e c o m p l i - c a t i o n s o f human a f f a i r s , b u t was c o n t e n t t o l i v e immersed i n 5 9 n a t u r e , q u i e t l y e n j o y i n g t h e b e a u t y t h a t s u r r o u n d e d him." I n " K i n o s a k i n i t e " , t h e n , t h e r e i s a l r e a d y some h i n t o f what we m i g h t c a l l S h i g a ' s g r o w i n g " d i s t a s t e " f o r human n a t u r e . The o n l y human b e i n g s t o a p p e a r i n t h e s t o r y , b e s i d e s t h e n a r - r a t o r h i m s e l f , a r e t h e o n l o o k e r s who c r u e l l y t o r m e n t t h e d y i n g r a t . And e v e n t h e n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f i s n o t p r e s e n t e d i n an e n t i r e l y f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t : t h r o u g h c a r e l e s s n e s s , a l b e i t un- i n t e n t i o n a l l y , he i s t h e a g e n t o f t h e u n f o r t u n a t e l i z a r d ' s d e a t h . I n T o l s t o y ' s s t o r y t o o t h e r e i s a s t r o n g s e n s e o f t h e p u r i t y o f t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d a s o p p o s e d , a t l e a s t , t o t h e w o r l d o f t h e R u s s i a n a r i s t o c r a c y ; b u t s t i l l t h e s t o r y i s c e n t r e d f a r more on human l i f e . F o r one t h i n g , t h e s t o i c a l p e a s a n t s a r e s e e n as e v e r y b i t a p a r t o f n a t u r e as t h e t r e e s i n t h e f o r e s t s . And T o l s t o y i s , a f t e r a l l , a n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y W e s t e r n w r i t e r what he i s i n t e r e s t e d i n above a l l i s t h e p o r t r a y a l o f human c h a r a c t e r . E v e n i n t h i s s t o r y o f o n l y a b o u t f i f t e e n p a ges ( a l m o s t t h r e e t i m e s t h e l e n g t h o f S h i g a ' s s t o r y b u t v e r y s h o r t i n d e e d f o r T o l s t o y ! ) a whole g a l l e r y o f c h a r a c t e r s i s p r e s e n t e d , and ev e n t h e m i n o r ones seem t o s p r i n g i n t o l i f e w i t h j u s t a few s t r o k e s o f t h e m a s t e r ' s pen. I n S h i g a ' s s t o r y t h e r e a r e no " c h a r a c t e r s " i n t h i s s e n s e -- o n l y t h e " d i s e m - b o d i e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e n a r r a t o r . B u t I s h a l l r e t u r n t o t h i s p o i n t i n - m o r e d e t a i l l a t e r . B e c a u s e T o l s t o y employs " n a t u r e " , i n c l u d i n g t h e p e a s a n t r y l a r g e l y f o r t h e m o r a l p u r p o s e o f s a t i r i z i n g t h e a r i s t o c r a c y , h i s v i e w o f n a t u r e , as we m i g h t e x p e c t , t e n d s t o be i d e a l i s t i c , e v en s e n t i m e n t a l . We a l l know how p e r s i s t e n t l y he i d e a l i z e d t h e R u s s i a n p e a s a n t , b u t i n t h e p r e s e n t s t o r y we c a n see how he a l s o t e n d s t o i d e a l i z e i n a n i m a t e n a t u r e , by a k i n d o f a n t h - r o p o m o r p h i s m t h a t i s r a t h e r u n c o n v i n c i n g t o t h e modern mind. We s e e t h i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e s e n t e n c e a l r e a d y q u o t e d : "The t r e e s f l a u n t e d t h e b e a u t y o f t h e i r m o t i o n l e s s b r a n c h e s s t i l l more j o y o u s l y i n t h e newly c l e a r e d s p a c e . T o l s t o y ' s p i c t u r e o f t h e t r e e ' s d e a t h , i n f a c t , seems an a l t o g e t h e r t o o p r e t t y one i f we compare i t w i t h S h i g a ' s u n c o m p r o m i s i n g l y r e a l i s t i c p o r t r a y a l o f t h e r a t ' s d e s p e r a t e s t r u g g l e f o r s u r - v i v a l and t h e l i z a r d ' s a b s u r d d e a t h by m i s c h a n c e . A l t h o u g h S h i g a , l i k e T o l s t o y , t u r n s t o n a t u r e as a welcome a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e humal w o r l d , he d e s c r i b e s what he s e e s t h e r e w i t h a c l e a r , u n f l i n c h i n g e y e , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e he h a s no " v e s t e d i n t e r e s t " i n making a m o r a l p o i n t . T h e r e i s , as I have men- t i o n e d , some h i n t h e r e o f h i s g r o w i n g " d i s t a s t e " (I u s e t h e word a d v i s e d l y , t o c o n n o t e more an e m o t i o n a l t h a n a m o r a l r e s p o n s e ) f o r human b e i n g s — b u t t h i s i s by no means t h e m a i n p o i n t o f t h e s t o r y . I n s e t t i n g h i m s e l f up as t h e j u d g e i n s t e a d o f as m e r e l y , l i k e S h i g a ' s n a r r a t o r , t h e e x p e r i e n c e r o f t h e w o r l d , T o l s t o y n a t u r a l l y assumes t h e G o d - l i k e , " o m n i s c i e n t " p o i n t o f v i e w . A j u d g e , a f t e r a l l , must a p p e a r t o be " o b j e c t i v e " , and t h i s - 65 - p r e t e n c e t o o b j e c t i v i t y w o u l d be f a r l e s s c o n v i n c i n g i f a f i r s t - p e r s o n n a r r a t i v e v i e w p o i n t were u s e d . Here l i e s , i t seems t o me, t h e v e r y c r u x o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e between S h i g a ' s s t o r y and T o l s t o y ' s -- and i n d e e d between t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u and t h e m a i n s t r e a m t r a d i t i o n o f W e s t e r n f i c t i o n i n g e n e r a l . I t i s n o t m e r e l y a t e c h n i c a l d i f f e r e n c e b u t a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e way o f a p p r e h e n d i n g t h e w o r l d . On t h e s e s p e c i f i c g r o u n d s , S h i g a and t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u seem t o o f f e r c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t a d - v a n t a g e s , e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e modern r e a d e r who i s wary o f a w r i t e r who makes a b s o l u t e j u d g m e n t s . The f e e l i n g t h a t t h e t h i r d - p e r s o n " o m n i s c i e n t " n a r r a - t i v e v i e w p o i n t i s i n some way " a r t i f i c i a l " i s c e r t a i n l y n o t c o n f i n e d t o J a p a n e s e c r i t i c s . I n h i s s e m i n a l s t u d y , The R h e t o r i c o f F i c t i o n , Wayne B o o t h r e m a r k s : "One o f t h e m o s t o b v i o u s l y a r t i f i c i a l d e v i c e s o f t h e s t o r y t e l l e r i s t h e t r i c k o f g o i n g b e n e a t h t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e a c t i o n t o o b t a i n a r e - l i a b l e v i e w o f a c h a r a c t e r ' s mind and h e a r t . Whatever o u r i d e a s may be - b o u t t h e n a t u r a l way t o t e l l a s t o r y , a r t i f i c e i s u n m i s t a k a b l y p r e s e n t whenever t h e a u t h o r t e l l s us what no one i n s o - c a l l e d r e a l l i f e c o u l d p o s s i b l y know. I n l i f e we n e v e r know anyone b u t o u r s e l v e s by t h o r o u g h l y r e l i a b l e i n - t e r n a l s i g n s . . . " ^ U n i n t e n t i o n a l l y , I am s u r e , t h i s d i s t i n - g u i s h e d A m e r i c a n c r i t i c has h e r e w r i t t e n a c o n v i n c i n g d e f e n s e o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u a e s t h e t i c . I have a l r e a d y u s e d Ueda M a k o t o 1 s t e r m , t h e " S t a t u r a l p l o t " t o d e s c r i b e an " a s s o c i a t i v e " r a t h e r t h a n a c a s u a l n a r r a t i v e - 66 - l i n e , b u t now we c a n see t h a t t h i s " n a t u r a l n e s s " i s a l s o r e - l a t e d t o t h e n a r r a t i v e v i e w p o i n t . As B o o t h p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g u n d e n i a b l y a r t i f i c i a l a b o u t an a u t h o r t e l l i n g us t h e i n n e r t h o u g h t s and f e e l i n g s o f a v a r i e t y o f c h a r a c t e r s — and t h i s a r t i f i c i a l i t y becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p a r e n t i n T o l s t o y ' s c a s e , as we have s e e n , when he goe s so f a r as t o t e l l us t h e " i n n e r f e e l i n g s " o f n a t u r a l o b j e c t s s u c h as t r e e s . B u t I w o u l d go f u r t h e r t h a n B o o t h and say t h a t t h i s a r t i f i c i a l i t y e x t e n d s e v e n t o t h e n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f a s t o r y w r i t t e n f r o m an " o m n i s c i e n t " p o i n t of- v i e w . The " t h r e e d e a t h s " o f T o l s t o y ' s s t o r y , f o r i n s t a n c e , a r e n o t i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a n a t u r a l , s e a m l e s s whole as s u c c e s s f u l l y as t h o s e o f " K i n o s a k i n i t e " . T h i s i s made i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t by t h e f a c t t h a t T o l s t o y i s o b l i g e d t o d i v i d e h i s s t o r y i n t o f o u r d i s t i n c t numbered p a r t s , whereas S h i g a ' s s t o r y i s a l l " o f a p i e c e " . I n " T h r e e D e a t h s " , t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e l a d y ' s d e a t h t o t h a t o f t h e o l d p e a s a n t i s , on t h e s u r f a c e l e v e l o f t h e a c t i o n , p u r e l y c o i n c i d e n t a l : i t j u s t so happens t h a t t h e l a d y ' s c a r r i a g e h a s s t o p p e d a t t h e p o s t - h o u s e where t h e i p e a s a n t l i e s d y i n g . On a d e e p e r , t h e m a t i c l e v e l , t h e r e a d e r i s aware t h a t t h e a u t h o r has b r o u g h t t h e s e two d e a t h s t o g e t h e r t o c o n t r a s t them and so t o make a m o r a l p o i n t . The t r e e ' s d e a t h i s c a u s a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p p e a s a n t ' s d e a t h i n t h e u s u a l " s y l l o g i s t i c " manner o f W e s t e r n n a r r a t i v e : b e c a u s e A, t h e r e f o r e B. B u t a g a i n , i t i s r e l a t e d t o t h e l a d y ' s d e a t h t h e m a t i c a l l y o n l y t o make a m o r a l - 67 - p o i n t ; i n d e e d , i f t h e r e a d e r were unaware o f t h e s e t h e m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h have been " a r t i f i c i a l l y " i mposed upon t h e t h r e e d e a t h s by t h e a u t h o r ' s m o r a l w i l l , t h e n t h e s t o r y w o u l d seem p o i n t l e s s . What e n a b l e s " K i n o s a k i n i t e " t o have s u c h a " n a t u r a l " s t r u c t u r e i s i t s c o m p l e t e and u n d i s g u i s e d s u b j e c t i v i t y . I n t h e f i r s t p a r a g r a p h o f t h e s t o r y , as we have s e e n , t h e n a r r a t o r i n f o r m s us o f h i s n e a r e s c a p e f r o m d e a t h j u s t b e f o r e h i s t r i p t o K i n o s a k i . I t t h e r e f o r e seems p e r f e c t l y n a t u r a l , i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h a t he i s e s p e c i a l l y o b s e r v a n t o f d e a t h i n t h e w o r l d a b o u t him, e v e n i n s m a l l f o r m s t h a t a " n o r m a l " p e r s o n m i g h t f a i l t o n o t i c e , and, i n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e , t h a t he s h o u l d r e s p o n d t o e v e n t h e s e " s m a l l " d e a t h s w i t h e x c e p t i o n a l l y deep f e e l i n g . I n o t h e r words, t h e f i r s t p a r a g r a p h d e f i n e s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h r o u g h w h i c h a l l t h e e v e n t s o f t h e s t o r y w i l l be f i l t e r e d ; t h e r e i s no p r e t e n c e a t a l l , as i n T o l s t o y ' s s t o r y , t h a t we a r e t o be p r e s e n t e d w i t h an " o b j e c t i v e " God's eye v i e w o f r e a l i t y . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e a d e r i s p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t t h e e v e n t s d e s c r i b e d as a n a t u r a l , i n d e e d i n e v i t a b l e , e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s s t a t e o f mind (thus i t i s a s h i n k y o s h o s e t s u i n t h e f u l l e s t s e n s e o f t h e t e r m ) . " K i n o s a k i n i t e " , t h e n , i s an e x c e l l e n t example o f t h e t o t a l s u b j e c t i v i t y o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u g e n r e . T h i s i s n o t m e r e l y a m a t t e r o f t h e s t o r y b e i n g w r i t t e n i n t h e f i r s t - p e r s o n s i n g u l a r o r b e i n g f a i t h f u l l y a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . I f , f o r i n s t a n c e , we f i n d t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r ' s " s t a t e o f mind" p e r m e a t e s t h e whole - 68 - story even i n the smallest d e t a i l s . The entire story i s per- vaded by the psychological atmosphere of a traumatized mind, the mind of a man s t i l l i n a mild state of shock a f t e r having suffered a serious accident. The narrator t e l l s us himself in the second paragraph of the story: "My head was s t i l l not 6 2 c l ear." And indeed he seems to wander about Kinosaki, it= se l f a rather "unreal" resort town, as i n a waking dream. There i s a dream-like q u a l i t y ^ for instance, to the in t e n s i t y and minute d e t a i l of his observation of the bees. But the f i n a l scene of the story i n p a r t i c u l a r verges on the surreal- i s t i c . The narrator i s out for a walk one evening on a moun- ta i n road above the town. He fe e l s strongly compelled to go on and on as i n a dream: "I kept thinking I would go back, but each time I went on to see what, was around the next cor- 6 3 ner." And the nature surrounding him takes on a mysterious dream-like ambience: The quiet made me strangely r e s t l e s s . There was a large mulberry tree beside the road. A leaf on one branch that protruded out over the road from the far side f l u t t e r e d rhythmically back and forth. There was no wind, everything except the stream was sunk i n s ilence, only that one leaf f l u t t e r e d on. I thought i t odd. I was a l i t t l e a f r a i d even, but I was curious. I went down and looked at i t for a time. A breeze came up. The leaf stopped moving. 6 4 This seemingly i r r a t i o n a l behaviour of the single leaf creates the proper a i r of mystery for what i s about to happen: The narrator spots a water l i z a r d s i t t i n g on a rock beside a stream. I t just so happens that l i z a r d s have a kind of per- sonal symbolic significance for him: - 69 - Some y e a r s b e f o r e , when I was s t a y i n g i n t h e moun- t a i n s n o t f a r f r o m T o k y o , I had s e e n w a t e r l i z a r d s g a t h e r e d a r o u n d a d r a i n f r o m t h e i n n , and I had t h o u g h t how I wo u l d h a t e t o be a w a t e r l i z a r d , what i t wo u l d be l i k e t o be r e b o r n one. I d i d n o t l i k e t o come on w a t e r l i z a r d s b e c a u s e t h e y a l w a y s b r o u g h t on t h e same t h o u g h t . 6 5 I t i s t h e r e f o r e as i f t h i s p r e s e n t l i z a r d h a s s p r u n g f r o m some deep " o b s e s s i v e " r e g i o n o f h i s own u n c o n s c i o u s mind, a g a i n as i n a dream. Thus when he c a s u a l l y t h r o w s a s t o n e and " a c c i - d e n t a l l y " k i l l s t h e l i z a r d , one need n o t c a l l on t h e good d o c t o r o f V i e n n a t o see t h e o b v i o u s s y m b o l i c meaning t h a t t h i s " d r e a m - l i k e " a c t i o n h a s . W i t h t h i s l a s t e xample, t h o u g h , we a r e m o v i n g f r o m t h e f o r m a l t o t h e t h e m a t i c l e v e l , and i n d e e d i t i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f how w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d t h e s e two l e v e l s a r e i n S h i g a t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t a l k o f them s e p a r a t e l y . Not o n l y i s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h e " f i l t e r " o f a l l e x t e r n a l e v e n t s b u t t h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i t s e l f i s a l s o t h e a c t u a l s u b j e c t o f t h e s t o r y . T h i s t o o i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u : t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t o f t h e s t o r y l i e s i n t h e s e r i e s o f c h a n g e s w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s u n d e r g o e s as i t w i t n e s s e s o r e x p e r i e n c e s t h e e v e n t s t h e s t o r y d e s c r i b e s . The g e n r e t h u s may c l a i m a u n i q u e r e c i p r o c a l i n t e r a c t i o n between f o r m and c o n t e n t : t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e n a r r a t i o n i s t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , w h i c h a r e i n t u r n r e f l e c t e d i n t h e n a r r a t i v e s t y l e and s t r u c t u r e — and so on, one m i g h t s a y , ad i n f i n i t u m . L e s t t h i s a l l b e g i n t o sound o v e r l y a b s t r a c t , what i t means i n more c o n c r e t e t e r m s i s an e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e p t h o f i n s i g h t i n t o t h e human p s y c h e . As we have s e e n , S h i g a ' s s t o r y c a n n o t b e g i n t o compare w i t h T o l s t o y ' s i n t e r m s o f " b r e a d t h " -- t h a t i f c , i n t h e r a n g e o f " c h a r a e t e r s " i t p r e - s e n t s . I n f a c t , one m i g h t w e l l s a y t h a t S h i g a o f f e r s us no f u l l - b l o o d e d , " r o u n d e d " c h a r a c t e r s o f t h e t y p e E.M. F o r s t e r has d e l i n e a t e d i n h i s c e l e b r a t e d s t u d y o f t h e n o v e l . ^ 6 E v e n t h e n a r r a t o r i n S h i g a ' s s t o r y i s l i t t l e more t h a n a " d i s - embodied" c o n s c i o u s n e s s . S h i g a employes none o f t h e t r i c k s o f w h i c h T o l s t o y was s u c h a m a s t e r , t h o s e l i t t l e d e t a i l s o f p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e , p e r s o n a l m annerism o r i d i o s y n c r a t i c b e - h a v i o u r w h i c h c a n make ev e n a m i n o r c h a r a c t e r s p r i n g t o l i f e . We know n o t h i n g " p e r s o n a l " a b o u t S h i g a ' s n a r r a t o r e x c e p t t h a t he i s a w r i t e r ; he i s , i n f a c t , h a r d l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as an i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s i s p e r h a p s t h e c e n t r a l p a r a d o x t h a t emerges f r o m a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two s t o r i e s : t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u i s d e e p l y s u b j e c t i v e b u t , a t t h e same t i m e , a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y im p e r s o n a l ; t h e W e s t e r n s t o r y , on t h e o t h e r hand, d e s p i t e i t s p o s e o f o b j e c t i v i t y , i s f a r more " p e r s o n a l " i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t p r e s e n t s i n d i v i d u a l human p e r s o n a l i t i e s and, as we have s e e n , e v e n t e n d s t o " p e r s o n i f y " n a t u r a l o b j e c t s s u c h as t r e e s Of c o u r s e , we w o u l d e x p e c t an " o b j e c t i v e " w r i t e r s u c h as T o l s t o y t o p r e s e n t a w i d e r r a n g e o f c h a r a c t e r s , b u t t h e n we w o u l d a l s o e x p e c t t h a t S h i g a ' s n a r r a t o r , a t l e a s t , s i n c e t h e whole s t o r y i s f o c u s e d on him, w o u l d be more h i g h l y " i n d i v i d - - 71 - u a t e d " t h a n any o f T o l s t o y ' s c h a r a c t e r s . B u t t h i s i s c e r t a i n - l y n o t t h e c a s e . I f , however, we examine more c l o s e l y t h e n a t u r e o f human p e r s o n a l i t y -- a t l e a s t as i t u s u a l l y a p p e a r s i n f i c t i o n -- what seemed t o be a p a r a d o x may no l o n g e r seem so. What g i v e s T o l s t o y ' s c h a r a c t e r s p e r s o n a l i t y , as I have a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , i s h i s use o f s u c h l a r g e l y s u r f a c e d e t a i l s as t h e c h a r a c t e r ' s a p p e a r a n c e , m a n n e r i s m s , o p i n i o n s and so on. S h i g a ' s n a r r a t o r , on t h e o t h e r hand, i s p r e s e n t e d a t s u c h a deep l e v e l o f h i s p s y c h i c b e i n g t h a t he a p p e a r s t o be a l m o s t a n o n - i n d i v i d u a t e d "everyman". I t seems t h a t t h e d e e p e r a w r i t e r goes i n t o t h e human p s y c h e t h e l e s s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a - t u r e s he f i n d s t h e r e — a t t h e d e e p e s t l e v e l , p e r h a p s i t i s q u i t e l i t e r a l l y t r u e t h a t " a l l men a r e one". And t h i s s e n s e o f u n i v e r s a l i t y i s added t o by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r o b l e m t h a t t h e n a r r a t o r c o n f r o n t s i n t h i s s t o r y i s , a f t e r u a l l , t h e most u n i v e r s a l p r o b l e m o f a l l : d e a t h i t s e l f . T h i s a s p e c t o f " i m p e r s o n a l i t y " a l s o e x p l a i n s why t h e r e a d e r i s n o t o f f e n d e d by t h e s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u g e n r e , a t l e a s t as p r a c t i s e d by S h i g a . I q u o t e d e a r l i e r F l a u b e r t ' s c o n d e m n a t i o n o f t h e " e g o t i s m : o f any work " i n w h i c h 6 7 t h e a u t h o r ' s f a c e i s r e f l e c t e d . " B u t i n S h i g a ' s work, one m i g h t c o u n t e r , i t i s n o t t h e a u t h o r ' s " f a c e " t h a t i s r e f l e c t e d b u t h i s " s o u l " , and one m i g h t add, t h e i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e human p s y c h e a t i t s d e e p e s t l e v e l i s a t t e s t e d t o by W e s t e r n p s y c h o l o g y as much as by E a s t e r n p h i l o s o p h y ( e . g . , J u n g ' s " c o l l e c t i v e u n c o n s c i o u s " ) . The p o i n t emerges more c l e a r l y i f we c o n t r a s t t h e way i n w h i c h S h i g a and T o l s t o y a p p r o a c h d e a t h , w h i c h may be r e g a r d e d as t h e c e n t r a l theme o f b o t h s t o r i e s . T h e r e i s a d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r a p p r o a c h e s h e r e p a r a l l e l t o t h a t we f o u n d b e f o r e i n t h e way t h e y d e a l t w i t h n a t u r e . T o l s t o y i s m a i n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g h i s " t h r e e d e a t h s " t o make a m o r a l and s a t i r i c p o i n t , S h i g a , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a t t e m p t s t o c o n f r o n t the; v e r y n a t u r e o f d e a t h i t s e l f , w i t h i t s s e n s e o f p e a c e b u t a l s o w i t h i t s c r u e l t y and a r b i t r a r i n e s s . He i s t h u s w o r k i n g on a f a r more u n i v e r s a l l e v e l : a b a s i c human c o n s c i o u s n e s s , s t r i p p e d o f a l - most a l l " p e r s o n a l i t y " , c o n f r o n t i n g a f u n d a m e n t a l human p r o b - lem. Thus t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n o f t h e a u t h o r ' s " e g o t i s m " p r e v e n t i n g t h e r e a d e r ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e n a r r a t o r -- b e c a u s e t h e o n l y p a r t o f h i m s e l f t h a t he " e x h i b i t s " t o us i s t h e d e e p e s t p a r t , t h e p a r t t h a t we s h a r e w i t h him. I n t h i s s e n s e t h e " I " o f a S h i g a s t o r y i s t h e same as t h e " I " b e h i n d s a y , a Basho h a i k u o r a W e s t e r n l y r i c a l poem -- i t i s human c o n s c i o u s n e s s a t i t s most b a s i c and u n i v e r s a l l e v e l . I t h i n k we a r e j u s t i f i e d , t h e n , i n s a y i n g t h a t what S h i g a -- and t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u a t i t s b e s t — s a c r i f i e e s i n " b r e a d t h " he g a i n s i n " d e p t h " . I have a l r e a d y r e m a r k e d on t h e " r e c i p r o c i t y " o f f o r m and c o n t e n t i n S h i g a ' s s t o r y , b u t t h e u l t i m a t e example o f i t i s t h i s : n o t o n l y i s t h e n a r r a t i v e v o i c e l a r g e l y i m p e r s o n a l , b u t i m p e r s o n a l i t y i t s e l f i s t h e n a r r a t o r ' s f i n a l " g o a l " — t h a t i s t h e s e r i e s o f c h a n g es w h i c h t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n s c i o u s - n e s s u n d e r g o e s , and w h i c h a r e t h e s t o r y ' s t r u e f o c a l p o i n t , a r e a l l i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f i m p e r s o n a l i t y . The c r i t i c Y o s h i d a S e i - i c h i , as I have a l r e a d y shown a t 6 8 some l e n g t h , h a s d e m o n s t r a t e d how S h i g a o f t e n makes use o f t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f a word o r p h r a s e t o e s t a b l i s h t h e " p s y c h o - l o g i c a l a t m o s p h e r e " o f h i s s t o r i e s . I n " K i n o s a k i n i t e " t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e words i s s a b i s h i i , u s u a l l y t r a n s l a t e d as " l o n e l y " . I n i t s a d j e c t i v a l o r n o m i n a l f o r m , t h e word i s u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e n a r r a t o r ' s e m o t i o n a l r e s p o n s e t o e a c h o f t h e t h r e e d e a t h s he w i t n e s s e s . S e e i n g t h e d e ad bee "gave me a f e e l i n g o f u t t e r q u i e t n e s s . Of l o n e l i n e s s . I t was l o n e l y t o see t h e d e a d body l e f t t h e r e on t h e c o l d t i l e i n t h e e v e n i n g 69 when t h e r e s t had gone x n s i d e . " Watchxng t h e doomed r a t : 70 " I f e l t l o n e l y and unhappy." And, h a v i n g k i l l e d t h s l i z a r d : " I was f i l l e d w i t h a s a d n e s s f o r t h e l i z a r d , w i t h a s e n s e o f t h e l o n e l i n e s s o f t h e l i v i n g c r e a t u r e . Q u i t e by a c c i d e n t , I had l i v e d . Q u i t e by a c c i d e n t t h e l i z a r d had d i e d . I was l o n e - l y , and p r e s e n t l y I s t a r t e d back t o w a r d t h e i n n down t h e r o a d 71 s t i l l v i s i b l e a t my f e e t . " O b v i o u s l y i f a w r i t e r s u c h as S h i g a , famous f o r n o t w a s t i n g words, r e p e a t s one word so o f t e n , t h e n we m i g h t e x p e c t t h a t word t o c a r r y more t h a n i t s n o r m a l w e i g h t o f m e aning. Un- f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e E n g l i s h word " l o n e l y " i s n o t a b l e t o b e a r t h a t w e i g h t -- i t h a s , o f c o u r s e , none o f t h e r i c h c u l t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s o f t h e J a p a n e s e word s a b i s h i i . As W i l l i a m S i p l e y p o i n t s o u t , s a b i s h i i i n t h e c o n t e x t o f S h i g a ' s s t o r y d e s c r i b e s a " q u i t e p o s i t i v e , i f l a r g e l y p a s s i v e , e s t h e t i c - e m o t i o n a l „72 e x p e r i e n c e . . . The key word s a b i , d e r i v e d f r o m s a b i s h i i , i s , o f c o u r s e , a key t e r m o f J a p a n e s e a e s t h e t i c s , and i s u s e d p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e p o e t i c s o f Basho's s c h o o l o f h a i k u . Basho h i m s e l f , as Ueda Makoto p o i n t s o u t , o f t e n u s e d t h e word s a b i s h i i . B u t he c o n c e i v e d o f l o n e l i n e s s , s a y s Ueda, "as an i m p e r s o n a l atmos- p h e r e , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h g r i e f o r s o r r o w , w h i c h i s a p e r s o n a l e m o t i o n . The c o n t r a s t c a n n o t be o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d , b e c a u s e l o n e l i n e s s t h u s c o n c e i v e d l a y a t t h s b o t t o m o f B a s h o ' s v i e w o f l i f e , p o i n t i n g t o w a r d a way i n w h i c h h i s p l e a ' r e t u r n t o 73 n a t u r e ' c a n be f u l f i l l e d . " S o r r o w , i n o t h e r w ords, b e l o n g s t o t h e human w o r l d , whereas " l o n e l i n e s s " b e l o n g s t o t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e . Thus, i f i t were p o s s i b l e f o r men t o e s c a p e f r o m s o r r o w , " i t w o u l d be o n l y t h r o u g h a d e n i a l o f h u m a n i t y , t h r o u g h men's d e h u m a n i z i n g t h e m s e l v e s . They c a n e s c a p e f r o m s o r r o w o n l y when t h e y t r a n s f o r m i t i n t o an i m p e r s o n a l atmos- 74 p h e r e , l o n e l i n e s s . " T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s b r o u g h t a b o u t by a deep communion w i t h n a t u r e , as i n t h e f o l l o w i n g h a i k u o f Basho: My s o r r o w f u l s o u l -- Make i t f e e l onesome, You, a c u c k o o . 75 The p o e t , s a y s Ueda, "as he s e t o u t t o compose thspoem, was s t i l l i n t h e w o r l d o f h u m a n i t y , w i t h a p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g l i k e s o r r o w . The c u c k o o , on t h e o t h e r hand, seemed t o have « 75 - a l r e a d y t r a n s c e n d e d s o r r o w , as i t was c l o s e r t o t h e h e a r t o f n a t u r e . T h e r e u p o n t h e p o e t w i s h e d t h a t t h e b i r d ' s c r y m i g h t e n l i g h t e n h i s s o u l and e v e n t u a l l y l e a d h i m i n t o t h e r e a l m o f i m p e r s o n a l l o n e l i n e s s , , where he w o u l d no l o n g e r f e e l s o r r o w . . . Such a d i s s o l u t i o n o f p e r s o n a l e m o t i o n i n t o an i m p e r s o n a l a t m o s p h e r e c o n s t i t u t e s t h e c o r e o f Ba s h o ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d l i f e " . 7 6 I f we r e v i e w t h e way i n w h i c h S h i g a u s e s t h e word s a b i s h i i , we f i n d t h a t more and more t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t o r y i t comes t o t a k e on Basho's s e n s e o f an " i m p e r s o n a l a t m o s p h e r e " p e r v a d i n g n a t u r e . And t h e e f f e c t w h i c h t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f t h i s " a t m o s p h e r e " has on t h e n a r r a t o r ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s t o p r o d u c e a g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r s e n s e o f d e t a c h m e n t . H i s c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f t h e d e a d bee g i v e s h i m a s e n s e o f " l o n e l i n e s s " b u t " a t 77 t h e same t i m e i t was t r a n q u i l , s o o t h i n g . " A l r e a d y , t h e n , i n Basho's t e r m s t h i s i s n o t a " p e r s o n a l s o r r o w " b u t a l i b e r a t i n g , i m p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y f r o m n a t u r e . H i s r e s p o n s e t o t h e s i g h t o f t h e doomed r a t s t r u g g l i n g f o r s u r v i v a l a t f i r s t seems more " s o r r o w f u l " and t h e r e f o r e " p e r s o n a l " -- i n f a c t , i t r e m i n d s him o f h i s own s t r u g g l e t o s u r v i v e a f t e r h h i s a c c i d e n t . B u t f u r t h e r c o n t e m p l a t i o n l e a d s him on t o t h e k i n d o f " t r a n s - f o r m a t i o n " Basho demands f r o m t h e c u c k o o i n h i s h a i k u : by i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h t h e r a t , he comes t o see t h a t t o s t r u g g l e t o s u r v i v e i s a u n i v e r s a l i n s t i n c t , p r e s e n t i n t h e r a t as much as i n h i m s e l f , and t h a t t h e r e f o r e i t w o u l d be a b s u r d f o r him t o t a k e i t " p e r s o n a l l y " , i . e . , f o r him t o f e e l b a d t h a t he had -76 - acted " l i k e an animal" after his accident, that he too had been driven by an i r r e s i s t a b l e force. This r e a l i z a t i o n gives him the necessary sense of detachment: I would have behaved but l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t l y indeed from the rat. Even now, I decided, i t would be much the same — l e t i t be. My mood at the moment, i t was clear could have l i t t l e immediate e f f e c t . And the truth lay on both sides. It was very good i f there was such an e f f e c t , and i t was very good i f there was none. That was a l l . 7 8 The narrator's profound sense of detachment i s even fur- ther i n t e n s i f i e d by his accidental k i l l i n g of the l i z a r d . He i s f i l l e d with "a sense of the loneliness of the l i v i n g creature. Quite by accident I had l i v e d . Quite by accident 7 9 the l i z a r d had died. I was lonely..." In other words, by id e n t i f y i n g with the l i z a r d as he had with the r a t , he re- ceives a further i n s i g h t : that death st r i k e s a r b i t r a r i l y . He feels that he himself might just as e a s i l y be dead now — i f he had been as unlucky as the l i z a r d at the time of his a c c i - dent. The thought i s enough to make him lose his attachment to l i f e : "And I who had not died was walking here. I knew I should be g r a t e f u l . But the proper f e e l i n g o f happiness re- fused to come. To be a l i v e and to be dead were not two oppo- s i t e extremes. There did not seem to be much difference be- 8 0 tween them." Thus, i t seems, the narrator has reached an ultimate l e v e l of "impersonality" and detachment since, though he knows he w i l l i n s t i n c t i v e l y struggle for sur v i v a l i f the need ari s e s , he no longer r e a l l y cares, i n t e l l e c t u a l l y at leas t , whether he l i v e s or dies. - 77 - B u t what i s t h e p u r p o s e , t h e r e a d e r may w e l l a s k , o f a c h i e v i n g s u c h an "unhuman" d e t a c h m e n t ? What i s i t s w i d e r s i g n i f i c a n c e ? We have a l r e a d y s e e n t h a t Basho a d v o c a t e d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f an i m p e r s o n a l s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s as a way 81 o f " r e t u r n i n g t o n a t u r e " . A c c o r d i n g t o F r a n c i s Mathy, i t i s e x a c t l y t h i s s e n s e o f c l o s e n e s s t o n a t u r e t h a t S h i g a i s e x p r e s s i n g i n " K i n o s a k i n i t e " ' i a f t e r h i s e n c o u n t e r w i t h d e a t h , he " f o u n d h i m s e l f e n t e r i n g a new w o r l d o f u n i o n and harmony 8 2 w i t h n a t u r e . " W i l l i a m S i b l e y e m p h a s i z e s t h e " S h i g a h e r o ' s " m a t u r e a c c e p t a n c e o f d e a t h t h a t has been b r o u g h t a b o u t by h i s deep communion w i t h n a t u r e . And S i b l e y r e l a t e s t h i s t o 8 3 t h e "more f u l l y d e l i n e a t e d e x p e r i e n c e o f K ensaku" , t h e h e r o o f S h i g a ' s n o v e l , An'ya K o r o ( $fj %L *ft A Dark N i g h t ' s P a s s i n g ) . I n t h e p e n u l t i m a t e c h a p t e r o f t h i s l o n g n o v e l , K ensaku r e t r e a t s l i k e a t r a d i t i o n a l h e r m i t t o Mount D a i s e n and t h e r e u n d e r g o e s a " m y s t i c a l " e x p e r i e n c e o f s e l f - d i s s o l u - t i o n and u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e . S h o r t l y b e f o r e he h a s t h i s e x p e r - i e n c e , we a r e t o l d t h a t "he was i r r e s i s t a b l y a t t r a c t e d t o t h e r e a l m t h e B u d d h i s t s c a l l ' n i r v a n a ' o r ' j a k u m e t s u i r a k u ' 84 (the b l i s s o f a n n i h i l i a t i o n ) . " U n d o u b t e d l y t h e r e i s some r e l a t i o n between K e n s a k u ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f " s e l f - a n n i h i l a t i o n : and u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e and t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f , d e t a c h m e n t and " i m p e r s o n a l i t y " o f t h e n a r - r a t o r o f " K i n o s a k i n i t e " , b u t I d o u b t t h a t i t i s as s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d as Mathy and S i b l e y w o u l d have us b e l i e v e . I f we l o o k a g a i n a t t h e f i n a l p a r t o f t h e s t o r y , we f i n d t h a t t h e narrator's experience has by no means l e f t him i n an unalloyed state of b l i s s . He feels none of theeeuphoria that Kensaku experiences on Mount Daisen. In f a c t , he feels rather miser- able and confused. The f i n a l scene of thesstory makes i t quite cldar that his "dark night" has not yet passed: "My sense of sight took i n dmly the distant lights,and the f e e l of my feet against the ground, cut of f from my sight, seemed uncertain i n the extreme. Only my head worked on as i t would. 8 5 I t lead me deeper and deeper into these fancies." These l a s t two sentences i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t seems to me, t e l l us why the narrator has not yet achieved the psychic breakthrough — the " s a t o r i " — he i s a f t e r : he continues to i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e , to fantasize, and therefore to stand apart from nature. He has not yet surrendered his whole mind and soul to nature as Kensaku does on Mount Daisen. There i s , i n fact , something suspicieusly " i n t e l l e c t u a l " even about his sense of detachment. When he says: "To be a l i v e and to be dead were not two opposite extremes", he i s stating an idea rather than describing an experience — and i t i s doubtful whether any Zen master (or for that matter, any reader) would accept t h i s as r e a l proof of s p i r i t u a l transformation. When Kensaku experiences complete union with nature on Mount Daisen, he remembers that he has had similar experiences before, but that he had "always t r i e d i n s t i n c t i v e l y to r e s i s t i t , and on finding such resistance d i f f i c u l t , he had f e l t a d i s t i n c t uneasiness. But this time, he had not the s l i g h t e s t w i l l t o r e s i s t ; and c o n t e n t e d l y , w i t h o u t a t r a c e o f t h e o l d 8 6 u n e a s i n e s s , he a c c e p t e d n a t u r e ' s embrace." I f , l i k e Koba- y a s h i H i d e o and W i l l i a m S i b l e y among o t h e r s , we see t h e " S h i g a h e r o " as one c o n s i s t e n t c h a r a c t e r t h r o u g h o u t , a t l e a s t , S h i g a ' s " a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l " w o r k s , t h e n we m i g h t say t h a t " K i n o s a k i n i t e " d e s c r i b e s one o f t h o s e e a r l i e r e x p e r i e n c e s when he " t r i e d i n s t i n c t i v e l y " t o r e s i s t " n a t u r e ' s embrace". W i t h o u t d w e l l i n g on t h e p r o b l e m a t i c a l r e l a t i o n o f n i r v a n a t o d e a t h i n o r t h o d o x B u d d h i s t p h i l o s o p h y , we m i g h t c e r t a i n l y c l a i m t h a t t h e " K i n o s a k n i t e " n a r r a t o r ' s e a r l y a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e q u i e t u d e o f d e a t h may be r e l a t e d t o K e n s a k u ' s a t t r a c t i o n t o t h e " b l i s s o f a n n i - h i l a t i o n " . What seems t o be y e a r n e d f o r i n b o t h c a s e s i s t h e d e a t h o f t h e t r o u b l e s o m e i n d i v i d u a l human s e l f so t h a t i t may be r e p l a c e d by an " i m p e r s o n a l " s t a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t i s t o t a l l y a t one w i t h t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d . T h i s w o u l d e x p l a i n why t h e n a r r a t o r i s t r o u b l e d by h i s own " i n s t i n c t t o s u r v i v e " a f t e r he i s r e m i n d e d o f i t by t h e s t r u g g l i n g r a t -- t h i s i n s t i n c t t o r e s i s t d e a t h i s , a f t e r a l l , an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t same i n s t i n c t t h a t K e n s a ku s p e a k s o f , t o r e s i s t c o m p l e t e mergence w i t h n a t u r e . The n a r r a t o r o f " K i n o s a k i n i t e " i s o b v i o u s l y n o t y e t r e a d y f o r s u c h a c o m p l e t e s u r r e n d e r o f s e l f , t h o u g h he i s moving h e s i t a n t l y i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . B e f o r e he i s c a p a b l e o f so u n r e s e r v e d l y " l e t t i n g go", t h e g r i p o f h i s ego must be l o o s e n e d by a whole s e r i e s o f t r a u m a t i c s h o c k s . B u t we s h a l l see t h i s more c l e a r l y when we come t o An'ya K o r o . - 80 - C h a p t e r 3 " T a k i b i " "$ ( " B o n f i r e " , 1920) s h a r e s a p l a c e w i t h " K i n o s a k i n i t e " as one o f S h i g a ' s two o r t h r e e most c e l e - b r a t e d s h o r t s i b o r i e s . J u s t as " K i n o s a k i n i t e " was o f f e r e d as a p a r a g o n o f t h e S h i g a s t y l e by T a n i z a k i J u n i c h i r o , " T a k i b i " was s e l e c t e d by a n o t h e r g r e a t c o n t e m p o r a r y , Akutagawa Ryunosuke, t o s e r v e as a model o f what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e f i n e s t q u a l i t i e s o f S h i g a ; s a r t o f f i c t i o n , w h i c h was a 'Jkind o f f i c t i o n a p p r o a c h i n g p o e t r y " . 1 What was q u i n t e s s e n t i a l t o t h i s a r t , a c c o r d i n g t o Akutagawa, was i t s t r a d i t i o n a l J a p a n e s e l y r i c i s m , i t s i n t e n s e l y " s i n c e r e " , e x a l t e d mood t h a t tr a n s * * f o r m e d t h e r a t h e r o r d i n a r y , e v e r y d a y e v e n t s t h e s t o r y d e s c r i b e d i n t o p u r e p o e t r y . A l t h o u g h he saw S h i g a as a " r e a l i s t who 2 does n o t depend on f a n c y o r f a n t a s y "  (£i.e., as an " a u t o b i o - g r a p h i c a l " w r i t e r ) , he was a l s o c o n v i n c e d t h a t "what makes S h i g a ' s r e a l i s m u n i q u e i s h i s p o e t i c s p i r i t w h i c h i s d e e p l y 3 e n t r e n c h e d i n O r i e n t a l t r a d i t i o n " ; t h i s , " c o u p l e d w i t h h i s t e c h n i c a l m a s t e r y , endows h i s most p c o s a i c work w i t h a s i n g u - 4 l a r b e a u t y " . Thus i t was p o s s i b l e f o r a " p u r e s t o r y " ( j u n s h o s e t s u ) s u c h as " T a k i b i " t o be a " p l o t l e s s s<bory" ( h a n a s h i 5 no n a i s h o s e t s u ) , b e c a u s e t h e p e r v a s i v e l y r i c a l mood, and n o t a h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d p l o t - l i n e , was t h e u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e o f t h e work. As I s h a l l make c l e a r l a t e r , i t seems t o me t h a t A k u t a - gawa, p e r h a p s a l i t t l e t o o e a g e r t o make a p o i n t , p r e s e n t e d h e r e an o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d a n a l y s i s o f S h i g a ' s a r t , s i n c e he - 8 1 - t r i e d t o r e d u c e i t t o m e r e l y one o f i t s m a j o r i n g r e d i e n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f we compare " T a k i b i " w i t h " K i n o s a k i n i t e " f o r a moment, we may see why i t was a h i g h l y a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e t o i l l u s t r a t e S h i g a ' s " l y r i c i s m " . The w o r l d o f n a t u r e p l a y s a d o m i n a n t r o l e i n b o t h s t o r i e s b u t i n " K i n o s a k i n i t e " , as we h-ve s e e n , t h e n a r r a t o r ' s r e s p o n s e t o t h i s w o r l d i s an am- b i g u o u s one. He i s a t f i r s t a t t r a c t e d t o t h e a b s o l u t e s t i l l - n e s s a t i t s c o r e — w h e t h e r t h i s be c a l l e d " d e a t h " o r " n i r v a n a " — b u t t h e n he r e c o i l s back i n t o t h e s h e l l o f h i s own ego when he s e e s t h e v i o l e n c e and s u f f e r i n g t h a t n e c e s s a r i l y p r e c e d e s t h a t s t i l l n e s s . " T a k i b i " , w r i t t e n a b o u t t h r e e y e a r s l a t e r , i s t h e p r o d u c t o f a f a r d i f f e r e n t frame o f mind; w i t h o u t t r o u b l i n g h i m s e l f a b o u t " l i f e v e r s u s d e a t h " a s an i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o b l e m , t h e S h i g a h e r o J i s now a b l e t o immerse h i m s e l f w i t h - o u t r e s t r a i n t i n t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d and, as a somewhat p a r a - d o x i c a l r e s u l t , he i s a l s o a b l e t o commune more c o m f o r t a b l y w i t h h i s f e l l o w man. I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r a t h e r d a r k , somber mood o f " K i n o s a k i n i t e " , t h e n , t h e o v e r a l l modd o f " T a k i b i " i s one o f p r o f o u n d t r a n q u i l i t y and j o y . The " n a r r a t i v e p r o g r e s s i o n " o f t h e s t o r y may be s e e n as a s t e a d y d e e p e n i n g o f t h i s mood -- r a t h e r t h a n , as i n c o n v e n - t i o n a l f i c t i o n , t h e b u i l d i n g up o f c a H i a a l l y - r e l a t e d e v e n t s t o w a r d s a " c l i m a x " . A t f i r s t , t h e mood i s a n y t h i n g b u t l y r i c a l , a s t h e o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h o f t h e s t o r y makes c l e a r : I t r a i n e d t h a t day f r o m m o r n i n g o n . A l l . ' t h r o u g h t h e a f t e r n o o n I p l a y e d c a r d s i n my room u p s t a i r s w i t h my w i f e , t h e p a i n t e r S., and K., t h e i n n k e e p e r . The - 82 - smoke^filled room made everyone f e e l drowsy. By three o'clock we were sick of card-playing and had over- stuffed ourselves with cakes. 6 S i g n i f i c a n t l y , then, the narrator and his friends are f i r s t presented to us indoors, and they are i n a bored and res t l e s s mood. In other words, they are confined within the same narrow, claustrophobic world as the narrator of "Aru Asa", and the st u f f y , smoke-filled room seems to aptly represent this world. But r e l i e f i s soon at hand: One of as stood up and s l i d open the paper-screen window. At some point the r a i n had stopped. C h i l l mountain a i r charged with the scent of fresh green streamed into the room, driving the tobacco smoke into swirls. We a l l exchanged glances, as i f sud- denly-coming to l i f e . 7 In the second paragraph of the story, then, there i s a l - ready a turn away from the human world and towards nature. The windows are l i t e r a l l y thrown open to l e t i n some of nature's fresh a i r , wliiich clears out the tobacco somke and makes the people inside f e e l as i f they have been brought back to l i f e . At t his point, i t might be appropriate to make a few re- marks on Shiga's use of imagery. In the hands of a more cere- bral writer than he, the use of imagery such as the above could well seem l i k e a form of s i m p l i s t i c , over-obvious "symbolism". But this i s another important advantage of the casual, d i a r y - l i k e style of the shi-shosetsu: even i f the author does i n s e r t some imaginary d e t a i l s to s u i t his thematic purpose, the reader s t i l l has the sense that he i s simply des- cr i b i n g thigs "as they happened", and i s not s t r a i n i n g to - 83 - c r e a t e m e a n i n g f u l b u t a r t i f i c i a l "symbols'.'V As S h i g a h i m s e l f s a i d o f a n o t h e - s t o r y : " I n a r e l a x e d frame o f mine I w r o t e Q down t h e d a y ' s h a p p e n i n g s as t h e y a c t u a l l y o c c u r r e d . " The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i s t h a t he m a i n t a i n s t h i s " r e l a x e d " s t y l e e v e n i n h i s more " f i c t i o n a l " and more " s y m b o l i c " w o r k s , as we s h a l l see when we come t o An'ya K o r o . Thus t h e r e a d e r w o u l d u s u a l l y f a i l e v e n t o n o t i c e t h a t t h e r e i s any f o r m o f s y m b o l i s m p r e s e n t -- a l t h o u g h , o f c o u r s e , i t m i g h t a l l t h e w h i l e be h a v i n g i t s c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t on h i s mind, s u b t l y and u n n o t i c e d . I n t h i s as i n o t h e r a r e a s , we may see t h e s u c c e s s o f S h i g a ' s a e s t h e t i c "program" t o a b o l i s h a l l t r a c e s o f a r t i f i c i a l i t y . I n f a c t , one h e s i t a t e s e v e n t o a p p l y t h e t e r m " s y m b o l i s m " w h i c h u s u a l l y c a r r i e s s u c h a w e i g h t o f m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n n o t a - t i o n i n t h e West, t o S h i g a ' s s i m p l e -- i n d e e d , a l m o s t p r i m i - t i v e -- u s e o f i m a g e r y . An o b j e c t i n S h i g a r a r e l y s t a n d s f o r s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n i t i s i n i t s e l f : t h e s t r e a m o f f r e s h m o u n t a i n a i r does n o t r e a l l y " s y m b o l i z e " n a t u r e — i t is_ n a t u r e ; l i k e w i s e t h e s t u f f y , s m o k e - f i l l e d room d o e s n o t m e r e l y " r e p r e s e n t " t h e c l a u s t r o p h o b i c human w o r l d -- i t is_ t h a t w o r l d . In o t h e r words, S h i g a ' s " s y m b o l i s m " does n o t u s u a l l y amount t o a n y t h i n g more t h a n t h e mose e l e m e n t a r y f o r m o f s y n e c d o c h e , p e r h a p s t h e o l d e s t and most n a t u r a l o f a l l s y m b o l i c u s e s o f l a n g u a g e , s i n c e i t i s embodied i n s u c h e v e r y d a y e x p r e s s i o n s as " t h i r t y h e a d o f c a t t e l " . I n " T a k i b i " t h e r e i s one i m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s w h i c h we s h a l l n o t e l a t e r , an e x c e p t i o n w h i c h s t a n d s o u t c o n s p i c u o u s l y b e c a u s e i t i s a more complex - 84 - k i n d o f s y m b o l . F o r t h e most p a r t , t h o u g h , S h i g a ' s i m a g e r y i s c o n c r e t e and " t h i s - w o r l d l y " . To r e t u r n t o o u r s t o r y , t h e n e t e f f e c t o f t h e i n - r u s h i n g s t r e a m o f " e h i l l m o u n t a i n a i r " i s t o e n t i c e t h e g r o u p o f b o r e d , r e s t l e s s humans o u t i n t o t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e , where t h e y know t h e i r s p i r i t s w i l l be f u r t h e r r e f r e s h e d . E v e n t u a l l y t h e y a l l c l i m b t o a p l a c e some way up t h e m o u n t a i n where t o g e t h e r t h e y a r e b u i l d i n - a s m a l l h u t f o r t h e n a r r a t o r and h i s w i f e t o l i v e i n . T h i s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r o u t d o o r s g i v e s them a v e r y r e a l s e n s e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n : T w i l i g h t on t h e m o u n t a i n a l w a y s p u t s one i n a m e l l o w mood, e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r a r a i n f a l l . And when, as now, we h a d b e e n w o r k i n g and p a u s e d t o o b s e r v e o u r d a y ' s work w h i l e h a v i n g a smake, a f l e e t i n g k i n d o f j o y a r o s e between u s . 9 v A l r e a d y we s e e , t h e n , an i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e between " T a k i b i " and " K i n o s a k i n i t e " : now t h e r e i s none o f t h e s e n s e o f " l o n e l i n e s s " w h i c h , as we saw, was t h e d o m i n a n t mood o f t h e e a r l i e r s t o r y . The n a r r a t o r no l o n g e r c o n f r o n t s n a t u r e a l o n e . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e r e i s now a s t r o n g s e n s e o f "com- munal s p i r i t " t h a t i s m a n i f e s t e d n o t o n l y i n t h e g r o u p ' s w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r b u t a l s o , t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t o r y , i n t h e i r s h a r i n g t h e j o y s o f communing w i t h n a t u r e . T h i s s e n s e o f " j o y f u l s h a r i n g " i s f u r t h e r i n t e n s i f i e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h when t h e n a r - r a t o r r e c a l l s t h e good t i m e t h e y had had t o g e t h e r on t h e p r e - v i o u s day: On t h e day b e f o r e i t h a d a l s o c l e a r e d up i n t h e a f t e r - noon and t h e t w i l i g h t had b e en b e a u t i f u l . I t was made a l l t h e more b e a u t i f u l by a g r e a t r a i n b o w t h a t e x t e n d e d a l l theiway f r o m T o r i i P a s s t o B l a c k C y p r e s s M o u n t a i n . - 85 - We had l i n g e r e d n e a r t h e h u t f o r a l o n g t i m e . I t was p l a c e d among a g r o v e oa oaks and we c o u l d n ' t r e s i s t c l i m b i n g them. E v e n my w i f e had w a nted t o c l i m b up t o have a good l o o k a t t h e r a i n b o w , so K. and I h e l p e d h e r c l i m b t o a h e i g h t o f more t h a n s i x m e t r e s . " I t ' s as c o m f o r t a b l e as an a r m c h a i r " , K. h a d s h o u t e d down t o u s . He l a y f a c e up i n a f o r k o f h i g h b r a n c h e s t h a t were c o n v e n i e n t l y w i d e - s p r e a d and, p u f f i n g on a c i g a r - e t t e , he s e t t h e b r a n c h e s s w a y i n g l i k e g r e a t waves. 10 T h i s happy memory l e a d s t h e n a r r a t o r t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d a l l go b o a t i n g on t h e l a k e t h a t n i g h t . Thus b e g i n s , i n t h i s h i g h l y c a s u a l manner, t h e s t o r y ' s main e v e n t : t h e g r o u p ' s e x p e d i t i o n on a m o u n t a i n l a k e one q u i e t e v e n i n g i n s p r i n g . S i g i n i f i c a n t l y , on t h e i r way t o t h e l a k e t h e . g r o u p p a s s e s t h r o u g h " t h e d a r k p r e c i n c t s o f a S h i n t o s h r i n e t h a t was h i d d e n among t a l l f i r trees.""'""'" As we s h a l l s e e , t h e g r o u p ' s coming e n c o u n t e r w i t h t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d w i l l g i v e themaa " p r i m i t i v e " a n i m i s t i c s e n s e o f t h e awesome, m y s t e r i o u s power o f n a t u r e -- t h e s t o r y , i n f a c t , t a k e s on an e v e r - d e e p e n i n g a t m o s p h e r e o f " n a t u r e - w o r s h i p " t h a t i s s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f S h i n t o . Thus t h e s h r i n e forms a h i g h l y a p p r o p r i a t e "gateway" f o r t h e g r o u p ' s e n t r a n c e i n t o t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d . A t f i r s t , t h o u g h , t h e g r o u p ' s h i g h s p i r i t s s e t them a p a r t f r o m t h e n a t u r e t h a t s u r r o u n d s them. They a c t l i k e e x c i t e d c h i l d r e n o u t f o r a n i g h t ' s a d v e n t u r e . When t h e y s e e a b r a c k e n - g a t h e r e r ' s b o n f i r e b u r n i n g on t h e o p p o s i t e s h o r e o f t h e l a k e , t h e y row o v e r o u t o f c u r i o s i t y t o t a k e a l o o k . T h e r e i s a s u b t l e c o n t r a s t s e t up between t h e g r o u p ' s l i g h t - h e a r t e d c h a t t e r and t h e q u i e t , solemn mood o f t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d as d a r k n e s s d e s c e n d s . V i v i d images o f n a t u r e a r e i n t e r p o s e d w i t h - 86 - snatches of conversation. On" the one hand: " I t was a tran- q u i l evening. Some f a i n t after-glow of the sunset s t i l l re- mained i n the western sky. But the mountains on a l l sides were black, and I thought they resembled the backs of crouching 12 water l i z a r d s . " And: "From Bird Island to the mainland the water was es p e c i a l l y calm. Looking oyer the sides of the boat, we oould see below us a perfect mirror-image of the star- 13 f i l l e d sky." And, on the other hand: " ' I t seemed a l i t t l e cold', I said, dipping my hand into the water. 'But when I spent a few days viewing the autumn leaves around Ashino Lake a while ago, I went swimming there early one morning 'and i t wasn't as cold as I thought i t would be. I have even gone swimming around there i n early A p r i l . ' 'My, you were r e a l l y something i n thesold days', said my wife teasingly, knowing 14 f u l l well how I am usually so sensitive to cold." But gradually this p l a y f u l , light-hearted mood of the four people diminishes as they are drawn deeper and deeper into the quieter, more solemn mood of nature i t s e l f . What seems to make fior a "turning point" i n t h i s regard i s the l i g h t i n g of the bonfire which, as indicated by the t i t l e , stands as the central image of the story. Now they are no longer merely passive observers of the natural scene; by the " r i t u a l i s t i c " act of l i g h t i n g a f i r e , they themselves become active "celebrants" of nature's mysterious beauty and power. In f a c t , before they can even attempt to l i g h t the f i r e , they must begin to relate to t h e i r environment i n a more intimate - 87 - way t h a t n a t u r a l l y h e i g h t e n s t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f i t : To c o l l e c t m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e b o n f i r e , we a l l e n t e r e d t h e d a r k f o r e s t . T h e r e was e v e r y w h e r e a l u x u r i a n t g r o w t h o f f e r n s , w i l d p l a n t s , y e l l o w - f l o w e r e d s h r u b s and s o on. We a l l went o u r s e p a r a t e ways b u t , whenever K. o r S. p u f f e d on a c i g a r e t t e , we c o u l d see where t h e y were by t h e s m a l l r e d glow. Where t h e o l d b a r k o f t h e w h i t e b i r c h e s was a l r e a d y p e e l i n g , i t s r o u g h edges t u r n e d o u t , i t was e a s y t o t e a r o f f . E v e r y now and t h e n , t h e sound o f K. s n a p p i n g o f f a b r a n c h b r o k e t h e deep s i l e n c e o f t h e f o r e s t . When we had g a t h e r e d as much as we c o u J d l h a n d l e , we c a r r i e d i t b a c k t o t h e b e a c h . 15 And when f i n a l l y t h e y l i g h t t h e f i r e , i t i s as i f t h e whole w o r l d a r o u n d them i s t r a n s f o r m e d by t h i s a c t : The a r e a a r o u n d us s u d d e n l y grew b r i g h t . The f i r e l i g h t was r e f l e c t e d a c r o s s t h e w a t e r and e v e n o n t o t h e t r e e s o p p o s i t e us on B i r d I s l a n d . 16 As we s h a l l s e e , S h i g a u s e s t h e image o f f i r e t o g r e a t e f f e c t a g a i n i n h i s n o v e l , A n'ya K o r o , b u t now c o n n e c t e d mor e x p l i c i t l y w i t h a S h i n t o r i t u a l , t h e " f i r e f e s t i v a l " o f Kurama.' — 18 F i r e p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n S h i n t o p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t e s , a l o n g , o f c o u r s e , w i t h w a t e r — w h i c h , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i s t h e o t h e r d o m i n a n t image o f " T a k i b i " . When we remember t h a t t h e g r o u p has f i r s t c r o s s e d o v e r a body o f w a t e r ( a c c o r d i n g t o Norman F r i e d m a n , a " u n i v e r s a l l y u n d e r s t o o d " symbol o f "some 19 s o r t o f s p i r i t u a l t r a n s i t i o n " ) and t h e n l i t a b o n f i r e , i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t S h i g a i s u s i n g t h e s e e l e m e n t a l images t o s u g g e s t t h e d e e p e r n a t u r e o f t h e g r o u p ' s e x p e r i e n c e . B u t why do t h e s e p e o p l e s t a n d i n need o f " p u r i f i c a t i o n " and what manner o f " s p i r i t u a l t r a n s i t i o n " do t h e y u n d e r g o ? I f we r e c a l l t h e f i r s t s c e n e o f t h e s t o r y — t h e t i r e d , b o r e d , r e s t l e s s g r o u p t h a t has o v e r s t u f f e d i t s e l f on c a k e s — I t h i n k t h e answer - 88 - becomes c l e a r . L i g h t i n g t h e b o n f i r e c o m p l e t e s t h e p r o c e s s o f p s y c h i c " p u r i f i c a t i o n " , o f s p i r i t u a l as w e l l as p h y s i c a l r e - f r e s h m e n t , t h a t t h e i n r u s h o f f r e s h m o u n t a i n a i r f i r s t b e gan; and by c r o s s i n g o v e r t h e l a k e t h e g r o u p has l i t e r a l l y removed i t s e l f f a r f r o m t h e s t u f f y , s m o k e - f i l l e d room — t h e human w o r l d — and so i s now a b l e t o immerse i t s e l f © v e r d e e p e r i n t o t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e . As t h e f o u r p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e t h i s im- m e r s i o n , t h e i r mood o r s t a t e o f mind c h a n g e s p e r c e p t i b l y . What g i v e s e x p r e s s i o n t o t h i s change o f mood p r i m a r i l y a r e t h e s t o r i e s t o l d as t h e g r o u p s i t s a r o u n d t h e b o n f i r e by K., t h e i n n k e e p e r . K. i s t h e o n l y l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t o f t h e m o u n t a i n i n t h e g r o u p and h i s c l o s e n e s s t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s p o t on e a r t h i s e m p h a s i z e d by t h e s t o r i e s he t e l l s . Thus he i s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n t o l e a d t h e o t h e r s t o a g r e a t e r s e n s e o f harmony w i t h t h e s u r r o u n d i n g n a t u r e -- h i s v o i c e , i n f a c t , comes t o seem, i f n o t t h e v o i c e o f n a t u r e i t s e l f , a t l e a s t o f t h e g e n i u s l o c i . K.'s f i r s t s t o r y "deepens" t h e g r o u p ' s mood by r e m i n d i n g them, i n a way r e m i n i s c e n t o f " K i n o s a k i n i t e " , t h a t n o t b e a u t y a l o n e b u t a l s o t e r r o r and d e a t h a r e p r e s e n t i n n a t u r e : "were t h e r e any w i l d dogs a b o u t i n t h e o l d d a y s ? " a s k e d S. "As a boy I o f t e n h e a r d them," answered K. "Some- t i m e s i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i g h t I h e a r d them h o w l i n g i n t h e d i s t a n c e and I remember i t gave me a t e r r i b l e f e e l i n g o f l o n e l i n e s s . " He t h e n t o l d us a s t o r y a b o u t h i s f a t h e r , now d e a d , who had l i k e d t o go n i g h t - f i s h i n g . One n i g h t t h e w i l d dogs had s u r r o u n d e d him and, t o e s c a p e them, he h a d had t o make h i s way home t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r a l o n g t h e s h o r e l i n e . And t h e y e a r when t h e y had f i r s t p u t t h e i r h o r s e s o u t t o g r a z e on t h e m o u n t a i n , he had s e e n one o f them t h a t had been a t t a c k e d and h a l f - d e v o u r e d by t h e d o g s . 2 0 - 89 - K. 1s second story i s a kind of i r o n i c prelude to his f i n a l and most important one: The story was that K., as a c h i l d , was coming home from Maebashi one night when he saw t h i s thing i n a large pine grove about eight kilometres past Kogure. An area about three hundred metres i n front of him glowed with a vague l i g h t and a black figure over two metres high moved within i t . But when he walked further on he came across a man with a large pack on his back resting by the roadside, and he r e a l i z e d that i t had been t h i s man, occasionally s t r i k i n g a match to l i g h t a cigarette as he walked along, whom he had taken for the giant within the halo of l i g h t . 21 This experience of K.'s with the pseudo-giant leads the group to a discussion of "mysteries" i n general. "Mysteries usually turn out that way, don;t they?" said S. "But I think there are some r e a l mysteries, 'I said my wife. "I don't know about giants and such but I believe, for instance, that things are sometimes revealed to us in dreams." "Well, that's something else ggain now, i s n ' t i t ? " said S. And then, as i f suddenly remembering something: "Say, K.-san, that story about when you were trapped i n the snow l a s t year, that's pretty mysterious, i s n ' t i t ? " And, turning around to me: "Have you heard about that yet?" "No, I haven't." "Yes, that was r e a l l y quite strange," said K. And he proceeded to t e l l the story. 22 Thus the second story of a "false mystery" leads to K.'s extended account of a genuine mystery he has experienced, and this l a s t story-within-a-story r e a l l y forms a kind of "climax" (or high-point, at least) to the whole development of "Takibi" as we have been tracing i t . The incident had occurred during the previous winter. Returning to the mountain from a t r i p to Tokyo, K. had arrived at the nearby town of Mizumuma at about three o'clock i n the afternoon. Since i t was s t i l l early and home was so near, he - 90 - did not f e e l l i k e waiting fintil the next day to ascent the mountain. Thinking that he would go as far as the foot of the mountain anyway and then decide whether to climb or not, he l e f t Mizunuma. Dusk had just s e t t l e d as he approached the second of the series of Shinto archways at the foot of the moun- tain . There was ample moonlight and he f e l t to t i r e d - ness i n either body or mind. He decided to climb. 23 One notes again that K. must pass through a t o r i i (a Shinto "archway") before he enters more deeply into the world of nature -- as the group i t s e l f had done e a r l i e r i n the story before they crossed the lake. K. soon finds himself, i n f a c t , i n danger of being "im- mersed" i n nature not just s p i r i t u a l l y but i n a l i t e r a l , physi- c a l sense. The snow grows deeper the higher he climbs, so that even he, who has grown up on the mountain., loses the t r a i l . A l l he can do i s head upwards, higher and higher. He continued climbing, urging himself on step by step. He didn't f e e l e s p e c i a l l y a f r a i d or uneasy. But he f e l t a certain vagueness encroaching upon his mind. "Thinking about i t now, I know I was i n r e a l danger," said K. "People who die i n the snow usually get that way and then they f a l l asleep. They end up dying i n th e i r sleep." Strangely enough, even though he had known a l l t h i s , K. had not f e l t the s l i g h t e s t uneasi- ness at the time. 24 The theme of the a t t r a c t i o n of death, of the " b l i s s of a n n i h i l a t i o n " , appears at this point i n "Takibi" too, then, and just as i n "Kinosaki n i te" and An'ya Koro, i t i s associated with Shiga's major theme of the achievement of t o t a l union with nature. - 91 - B u t K. manages t o r e s i s t t h e " s i r e n - s o n g " o f d e a t h a n d f i n a l l y r e a c h e s t h e t o p o f t h e m o u n t a i n - p a s s . As he b e g i n s h i s d e s c e n t , he n o t i c e s two l a n t e r n s c o m i n g t o w a r d s h i m i n t h e d i s t a n c e . He i s s u r p r i s e d t h a t a n y one s h o u l d be o u t a t t h i s l a t e h o u r . He i s e v e n more s u r p r i s e d , t h o u g h , when he m e e t s up w i t h t h e l a n t e r n - b e a r e r s a n d f i n d s t h a t i t i s h i s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w w i t h t h r e e g u e s t s o f t h e i r i n n . E v e n t h o u g h no-one c o u l d h a v e known t h a t he was c o m i n g b a c k a t t h i s t i m e , t h e y t e l l h i m t h a t h i s m o t h e r h a d g o t them up and s e n t them o u t t o meet h i m . She h a d a s s u r e d t h e m t h a t K. h a d j u s t c a l l e d o u t t o h e r . She had s p o k e so c l e a r l y a n d f i r m l y t h a t t h e y h a d n o t t h o u g h t t o q u e s t i o n w h a t she s a i d . "When I a s k e d a b o u t i t l a t e r , " s a g s K., " i t t u r n e d o u t t h a t t h i s was e x a c t l y t h e t i m e when I was. m o s t weak and h a d t h a t s l i g h t f e e l i n g o f v a g u e n e s s . On t h e m o u n t a i n we go t o b e d e a r l y , a t s e v e n o r e i g h t , s o i t was j u s t a g o u n d t h a t t i m e when e v e r y o n e h a d f a l l e n i n t o t h e d e e p e s t s l e e p . E v e n s o , my m o t h e r woke up f o u r men and s e n t them o u t i n t o t h e n i g h t — so I t h i n k s h e m u s t h a v e h e a r d t h a t c a l l v e r y c l e a r l y . " "And d i d y o u i n f a c t c a l l o u t t o h e r ? " a s k e d my w i f e . "No, I c e r t a i n l y d i d n ' t . B e c a u s e no m a t t e r how h a r d I h a d c a l l e d f r o m t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e p a s s , no-one w o u l d h a v e h e a r d me." "Of c o u r s e , " s a i d my w i f e . O b v i o u s l y she h a d b e e n v e r y moved by t h e s t o r y . T h e r e w e r e t e a r s i n h e r e y e s . 25 K.'s t a l e o f r e a l - l i f e m y s t e r y r e d u c e s t h e g r o u p t o an a w e s t r u c k s i l e n c e t h a t i s i n t e l l i n g c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r e a r l i e r l i g h t - h e a r t e d c h a t t e r . Whereas up t o t h i s p o i n t i n t h e e v e n i n g t h e y h a v e e n j o y e d communing ' w i t h n a t u r e a n d w i t h e a c h o t h e r o n a r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l l e v e l , K.'s s t o r y r e m i n d s them o f t h e much d e e p e r l e v e l o f communion p o s s i b l e b e t w e e n human b e i n g s -- i n - 92 - t h i s c a s e , t h e l o v e between m o t h e r and s o n . The n a r r a t o r t i v e s f u r t h e r e m p h a s i s t o t h e p o i n t w i t h some comments o f h i s own: I f one knew a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between K. and h i s m o t h e r , one was e v e n more d e e p l y moved by t h i s s t o r y . I d i d n ' t know him v e r y w e l l b u t K.'s d e a d f a t h e r , who was n i c k n a m e d " I b s e n " b e c a u s e o f h i s r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e p l a y w r i g h t , d i d n ' t seem a p a r t i c u l a r l y b a d man b u t , t o sa y t h e l e a s t , he d i d n ' t amount t o much as a husband. They say t h a t he l i v e d most o f t h e t i m e a r o u n d M a e b a s h i w i t h h i s young m i s t r e s s and, come summerm he w o u l d b r i n g h e r w i t h h i m t o t h e m o u n t a i n , p i c k up h i s e a r n i n g s f r o m t h e i n n and t h e n l e a v e . K. was d e e p l y u p s e t by h i s f a t h e r ' s b e h a v i o u r and o f t e n c l a s h e d w i t h him. And t h i s maSe K. a l l t h e more d e e p l y a t t a c h e d t o h i s m o t h e r and h i s mother a l l t h e more d e e p l y a t t a c h e d t o him. 26 But i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h i s m o ving i n s i g h t i n t o t h e d e p t h s o f a human r e l a t i o n s h i p does n o t d i s t r a c t t h e g r o u p f r o m t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e t h a t s u r r o u n d s them. On t h e c o n t r a r y , what t h e y come t o f e e l i s t h a t t h i s m o t h e r ' s l o v e , w h i c h i s a b l e e v e n t o t r a n s c e n d t h e bounds o f t i m e and s p a c e , i s as awe- some , m y s t e r i o u s and e l e m e n t a l a power o f n a t u r e as t h e f i r e t h e y have l i t on t h e b e a c h t h i s e v e n i n g . I n o t h e r w o r d s , a t t h i s d e e p e s t l e v e l man and n a t u r e a r e one, s i n c e b o t h a r e an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h a t same e l e m e n t a l , i n e f f a b l e f o r c e t h a t S h i g a has e l s e w h e r e c a l l e d "rhythm".. E a r l i e r we saw t h a t i t was t h e s h a r i n g o f t h i s e l e m e n t a l f o r c e t h a t made p o s s i b l e a deep com- munion between w r i t e r and r e a d e r ; now, on a much w i d e r s c a l e , we c a n see t h a t i t i s l i k e w i s e t h i s a l l - p e r v a s i v e " r h y t h m" w h i c h e n a b l e s man t o a c h i e v e u n i o n b o t h w i t h h i s f e l l o w man and w i t h n a t u r e . - 93 - Thus, i n t h e c l o s i n g p a s s a g e s o f t h e s t o r y , when t h e g r o u p t u r n t h e i r e y e s b a c k t o t h e w o r l d a r o u n d them, i t i s w i t h a v a s t l y d e e p e n e d s e n s e o f o n e n e s s . T h i s i s b r i l l i a n t l y s y m b o l i z e d by t h e i r f i n a l "commanal" ( i n more s e n s e s t h a n one) a c t i o n : K. p i c k e d a w e l l - c h a r r e d b r a n c h o u t o f t h e f i r e and h u r l e d i t w i t h a l l h i s m i g h t f a r o u t o v e r t h e l a k e . Red s p a r k s s c a t t e r e d f r o m t h e b r a n c h as i t went f l y i n g t h r o u g h t h e a i r . I n s i m u l t a n e o u s r e f l e c t i o n , a b r a n c h s c a t t e r i n g r e d s p a r k s went f l y i n g t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r . The u p p e r and l o w e r b r a n c h e s d e s c r i b e d t h e same a r c , one t h o u g h a i r , t h e o t h e r t h r o u g h w a t e r , u n t i l , t h e i n s t a n t t h e y came t o g e t h e r a t t h e w a t e r ' s s u r f a c e , t h e y s i z z l e d o u t and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a f e l l b a c k i n t o d a r k n e s s . The e f f e c t was f a s c i n a t i n g . The r e s t o f us a l s o began t o p i c k up s m o l d e r i n g b r a n c h e s and h u r l them o u t o v e r t h e l a k e . 2 7 T h e r e i s a s e n s e o f e x h i l i r a t i o n , a l m o s t o f e c s t a c y , i n t h e s e l f - a b a n d o n m e n t o f t h e s e f o u r p e o p l e as t h e y f l i n g f i r e y b r a n c h e s o u t o v e r t h e l a k e , T h e r e i s a l s o a s e n s e o f r i t u a l - l i k e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e c r e a t i n g o f an awesome and b e a u t i f u l n a t u r a l phenomenon, as t h e r e was when t h e y f i r s t l i t t h e b o n f i r e -- b u t now w i t h t h i s s e n s e o f j o y f u l abandon. We may a l s o n o t e how S h i g a , i n t h i s f i n a l b r i l l i a n s c e n e , b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t h e t h r e e e l e m e n t a l images he has u s e d so e f f e c t i v e l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t o r y : a i r , w a t e r and f i r e . /And now we c a n see c l e a r l y t h e f u l l s y m b o l i c a l meaning o f " f i r e " , t h e s t o r y ' s c e n t r a l image. I t i s b o t h t h e a g e n t and t h e symbol o f t h a t " m y s t i c a l u n i o n " w h i c h i s t h e m a i n theme o f " T a k i b i " and i n d e e d , one m i g h t s a y , o f S h i g a ' s e n t i r e o p u s . J u s t as t h e r i t u a l o f l i g h t i n g t h e b o n f i r e p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e - 94 - g r o u p ' s f e e l i n g o f o n e n e s s w i t h n a t u r e , , s o now i t i s f i r e , i n t h e f o r m o f b u r n i n g b r a n c h e s , t h a t b r i n g s t o g e t h e r t h e moun- t a i n a i r (which s t r e a m e d i n t o t h e s m o k e - f i l l e d room i n t h e s t o r y ' s f i r s t s c e n e ) and t h e w a t e r (the l a k e t h e g r o u p has e a r l i e r c r o s s e d ) i n a symbol o f p e r f e c t u n i o n and, i t i s even s u g g e s t e d , o f f i n a l d e a t h o r n i r v a n a : "The u p p e r and l o w e r b r a n c h e s d e s c r i b e d t h e same a r c , one t h r o u g h a i r , t h e o t h e r t h r o u g h w a t e r , u n t i l , t h e i n s t a n t t h e y came t o g e t h e r a t t h e w a t e r ' s s u r f a c e , t h e y s i z z l e d o u t and t h e s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a 2 8 f e l l b a c k i n t o d a r k n e s s . " (My own e m p h a s i s . ) As t h e s t o r y c l o s e s t h e g r o u p i s s i l e n t , t h o r o u g h l y im- m e r s e d i n t h e p e a c e and b e a u t y o f t h e w o r l d a r o u n d them — i n f a c t , as much an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e l a n d s c a p e t h e m s e l v e s as t h e t i n y f i g u r e s i n a t r a d i t i o n a l F a r E a s t e r n s a n s u i i n k p a i n t i n g (an a r t w h i c h S h i g a g r e a t l y a d m i r e d and e v e n t r i e d 29 t o e m u l a t e i n h i s w r i t i n g ). As i n " K i n o s a k i n i t e " we a r e l e f t w i t h t h e " i m p e r s o n a l " a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , B u t whereas i n t h e e a r l i e r s t o r y t h e s e n s e was o f "man a l o n e w i t h n a t u r e " , now i t i s j u s t s i m p l y o f " n a t u r e a l o n e w i t h n a t u r e " : We b o a r d e d t h e b o a t . The b r a c k e n - g a t h e r e r ' s b o n f i r e a c r o s s t h e l a k e had now a l s o d i e d o u t . Our b o a t r o u n d e d B i r d I s l a n d and g l i d e d q u i e t l y t o w a r d s t h e weods a r o u n d t h e S h i n t o s h r i n e . 2Q The c a l l s o f t h e owl grew more and more d i s t a n t . The n a r r a t i v e l i n e o f " T a k i b i " t h u s may p e r h a p s b e t t e r be s e e n as " o s c i l l a t i n g " r a t h e r t h a n as s t r a i g h t : t h a t i s , i t s w i n g s l i k e a pendulum ba c k and f o r t h between t h e human and t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d s u n t i l f i n a l l y t h e s e two w o r l d s a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r and t h e pendulum s t o p s . O r , t o u s e a " s o n i c " f i g u r e t h a t i s p e r h a p s more a p p r o p r i a t e , i t i s a s i f a b e l l were s t r u c k i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s and we l i s t e n t o i t s g e n t l y d y i n g r e v e r b r a t i o n s — t h e n a r r a t i v e movement between t h e two w o r l d s may be s e e n t o f o r m t h e " w a v e - l e n g t h " o f t h i s s o u n d , t h e p e a k s o f w h i c h g r a d u a l l y d i m i n i s h u n t i l f i n a l l y t h e y come t o g e t h e r and t h e r e v - i s s i l e n c e - - i . e . , t h e end o f t h e s t o r y . A t any r a t e , i t i s t h e movement between t h e two w o r l d s t h a t forms t h e e s s e n t i a l d ynamic o f t h e s t o r y , i t s b a s i c n a r r a t i v e "rhythm", r a t h e r t h a n t h e movement f r o m c o n f l i c t t o r e s o l u - t i o n o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f i c t i o n . I n " T a k i b i " , t h e n , we have a n o t h e r f o r m o f S h i g a ' s " n a t u r a l p l o t " . Whereas i n " K i n o s a k i n i t e " t h e i n c i d e n t s a r o s e by v i r t u e o f t h e a s s o c i a t i v e w o r k i n g o f t h e n a r r a t o r ' s d e a t h - o b s s e s s e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i n t h e p r e s e n t s t o r y t h e y a r i s e f r o m t h e y e a r n i n g o f a g r o u p o f p e o p l e , c o n f i n e d t o o l o n g i n a s t u f f y room, t o r e f r e s h t h e i r s p i r i t s by communion w i t h n a t u r e . (And p e r h a p s i n t h e end, t h e y g e t more "communion" t h a n t h e y b a r g a i n e d f o r . ) B o t h s t o r i e s a r i s e n a t u r a l l y f r o m t h e s t a t e o f m i n d o f t h e n a r r a t o r (and, i n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , o f h i s f r i e n d s ) . I n t h i s s e n s e t h e y a r e u l t i m a t e l y " s u b j e c t i v e " . And, t h o u g h t h e dynamic p r i n c i p l e o f . t h e i r n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e s i s somewhat d i f f e r e n t , i n b o t h c a s e s t h e " p l o t " i s s t r u c t u r e d i n an u n c o n v e n t i o n a l way t h a t may e v e n make t h e s t o r i e s seem " p l o t l e s s " , as Akutagawa c l a i m s t h e y a r e . I t i s d o u b t f u l , - 96 - t h o u g h , w h e t h e r t h e r e c a n e x i s t any s u c h r a r a a v i s as a " p l o t - l e s s s t o r y " -- one m i g h t as w e l l speak o f " s o u n d l e s s m u s i c " o r " i n v i s i b l e p a i n t i n g " . A t r u l y p l o t l e s s s t o r y w o u l d have no d i s c e r n i b l e n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e w h a t s o e v e r -- and t h e n , o f c o u r s e , i t w o u l d no l o n g e r be a s t o r y . C e r t a i n l y S h i g a ' s s t o r i e s , as I hope t o have shown, have an i n t e g r a l s t r u c t u r e , an a l m o s t r i g o r o u s i n t e r n a l l o g i c o f t h e i r own, and e v e n a d e f i n a b l e movement t o w a r d s a k i n d o f c l i m a x and denoument ( a l b e i t v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n n a t u r e t o t h o s e o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f i e - t i o n ) , so t h a t t o c a l l them " p l o t l e s s " i s , i n t h e e n d , an a b s u r d m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . One s u s p e c t s e i t h e r t h a t Akutagawa and l i k e - m i n d e d c r i t i c s had f a i l e d t o l o o k c l o s e l y enough a t t h e works t h e m s e l v e s o r , what i s more l i k e l y , were o v e r - i n - f l u e n c e d by n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y W e s t e r n p a r a d i g m s o f t h e s h o r t s t o r y . P l o t , a f t e r a l l , as t h e O x f o r d E n g l i s h d i c t i o n a r y 31 r e m i n d s u s , has t o do w i t h t h e way e v e n t s i n a s t o r y a r e c o n n e c t e d t o e a c h o t h e r . As I have a l r e a d y p o i n t e d o u t , i n t r a d i t i o n a l W e s t e r n f i c t i o n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i s u s u a l l y c a s u a l . I n S h i g a i t u s u a l l y t a k e s o t h e r f o r m s — but s t i l l a c o n n e c t - i n g p r i n c i p l e i s v e r y much t h e r e i f a c r i t i c t a k e s t h e t r o u b l e t o l o o k f o r i t . S h i g a ' s r e a l p r o b l e m i n r e g a r d t o n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , i t seems t o me, i s q u i t e an o p p o s i t e one. G i v e n t h e e l e m e n t a l , a l m o s t e p i c - l i k e n a t u r e o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g a c t i o n o f h i s s t o r i e s -- as shown by h i s use o f c e r t a i n u n i v e r s a l , a r c h e t y p a l s y m b o l s : c r o s s i n g t h e l a k e and l i g h t i n g t h e f i r e i n " T a k i b i " , t h e " j o u r n e y t h r o u g h d a r k n i g h t " and t h e f i n a l a s c e n t o f t h e moun- t a i n i n An'ya K o r o -- t h e r e i s a c t u a l l y a d a n g e r t h a t h i s s t o r i e s m i g h t become t o o s c h e m a t i c , t o o f o r m a l i z e d i n s t r u c - t u r e f o r modern t a s t e . I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e d i a r y - l i k e i n f o r - m a l i t y o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u g e n r e has come t o h i s r e s c u e , d i s - g u i s i n g t h e e p i c - l i k e o r p a r a b l e - l i k e f o r m a l i t y o f t h e S h i g a s t o r y ' s t h e m a t i c c o n c e p t i o n so s u c c e s s f u l l y t h a t , as we have s e e n , some n e a r - s i g h t e d c r i t i c s have a c c u s e d i f o f " f o r m l e s s - n e s s " . B u t I s h a l l p p r s u e t h i s p o i n t a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h when I come t o d e a l w i t h An'ya K o r o . I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r we f o u n d some f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r - e n c e s between t h e S h i g a s h i - s h o s e t s u as r e p r e s e n t e d by " K i n o s a k i n i t e " and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l W e s t e r n s h o r t s t o r y as r e p r e s e n t e d by T o l s t o y ' s " T h r e e D e a t h s " . I f we l o o k among more c o n t e m p o r a r y W e s t e r n w r i t e r s , however, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d , i f n o t e x a c t p a r a l l e l s , a t l e a s t much c l o s e r a n a l o g i e s t o S h i g a ' s " n a t u r a l l y p l o t t e d " s t o r i e s . I am t h i n k i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r , o f t h e e a r l y s h o r t s t o r i e s o f a w r i t e r who made h i s d e b u t j u s t o v e r a decade a f t e r S h i g a , E r n e s t Hemingway. I have a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d t h e r e m a r k a b l e s i m i l a r i t y b e- 32 tween S h i g a ' s s t y l e and Hemingway's -- t h a t i s , o f c o u r s e , a f t e r we have t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t t h e g u l f t h a t s e p a r a t e s t h e i r two r e s p e c t i v e l a n g u a g e s . T h e r e i s i n b o t h w r i t e r s a d e s i r e t o eschew a l l forms o f " a r t i f i c i a l i t y " , i n c l u d i n g t h e k i n d o f " b i g words" and a b s t r a c t r h e t o r i c t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e " i n t e l - l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e " i n any l a n g u a g e . T h e i r p r e f e r e n c e i s f o r a s i m p l e , d o w n - t o - e a r t h mode o f e x p r e s s i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e y b o t h t e n d t o w r i t e s h o r t d e c l a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e s f r e e o f sub- o r d i n a t e c l a u s e s and t h i s g i v e s t h e i r p r o s e a s t r o n g , a l m o s t s t a c c a t o r h y t h m . They a l s o b o t h use a s i m p l e c o l l o q u i a l d i c t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e s o n l y a few o f t h e most commonplace o f t h o s e ad- j e c t i v e s w h i c h e x p r e s s e m o t i o n a l o r i n t e l l e c t u a l judgments ( i . e . , words s u c h as "good" o r " n i c e " ) . A w i d e r use o f s u c h a d j e c t i v e s , t h e y b o t h seem t o f e e l , w o u l d make t h e i r w r i t i n g o v e r l y i n t e l l e c t u a l and a b s t r a c t . C o n c o m i t a n t l y , t h e y f i l l t h e i r w r i t i n g w i t h s i m p l e , c o n c r e t e nouns t h a t name a c t u a l p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s . T h i s " a n t i - i n t e l l e c t u a l i s m " i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d by t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f b o t h w r i t e r s f o r t h e " n o n - l o g i c a l " use o f l a n g u a g e — most n o t a b l y , t h e way i n w h i c h b o t h w i l l r e p e a t a key word o r p h r a s e c o n t a n t l y r a t h e r t h a n r e s o r t t o e x p l i c i t 33 argument t o make t h e i r p o i n t . Above a l l , t h e s t y l e s o f b o t h w r i t e r s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u c h a d i s c i p l i n e d economy -- p a c k i n g ahe g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e m e a n i n g i n t o t h e f e w e s t p o s s i b l e words -- and by s u c h a v i v i d immediacy -- c a p t u r i n g t h e e x a c t f e e l i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e -- t h a t c r i t i c s o f b o t h have o f t e n c l a i m e d t h a t t h e i r p r o s e a p p r o a c h e s t h e q u a l i t y o f p o e t r y . A t t h e feame t i m e , however, t h e s e c r i t i c s i n s i s t on i t s e x t r e m e " n a t u r a l n e s s ' 1 , and t h e y o f t e n use images t a k e n f r o m t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . I have a l r e a d y q u o t e d t h e b e a u t i f u l s e r i e s o f m e t a p h o r s t h a t K o b a y a s h i H i d e o u s e d t o d e s - c r i b e t h e "immediacy" o f S h i g a ' s s t y l e , s a y i n g t h a t i t was l i k e " t h e w i n gs o f t h e p t a r m i g a n t u r n i n g w h i t e w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f 34 w i n t e r " and so on. The f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e t h a t F o r d Madox F o r d w r o t e on Hemingway's s t y l e i s much i n t h e same v e i n : Hemingway's words s t r i k e y o u , e a c h one, as i f t h e y were p e b b l e s f e t c h e d f r e s h f r o m a b r o o k . They l i v e and s h i n e , e a c h i n i t s p l a c e . So one o f h i s pages has t h e e f f e c t o f a b r o o k - b o t t o m i n t o w h i c h y o u l o o k down t h r o u g h t h e f l o w i n g w a t e r . 35 3 6 B u t s i n c e " l e s t y l e e s t l'homme meme", i t i s h a r d l y s u r - p r i s i n g t h a t , on c l o s e r o b s e r v a t i o n , t h e r e a r e some d e e p e r a f f i n - i t i e s between t h e s e two w r i t e r s whose s t y l e s have so much i n common. T h e i r u l t i m a t e a f f i n i t y , i t seems t o me, i s t h a t b o t h b e l o n g t o t h a t s e e m i n g l y p a r a d o x i c a l c a t e g o r y o f man, t h e modern " p r i m i t i v i s t " . As M.H. Abrams p o i n t s o u t , t h e r e i s a s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n o f " c u l t u r a l p r i m i t i v i s m " i n t h e West w h i c h may be t r a c e d b a c k t o R o u s s e a u and t h e R o m a n t i c s -- i . e . , t o a b o u t t h e t i m e t h e l v l n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n was b e g i n n i n g t o make i t s i m p a c t f e l t . C u l t u r a l p r i m i t i v i s m i s t h e p r e f e r e n c e o f " n a t u r e " o v e r " a r t " i n any f i e l d o f human c u l t u r e and v a l u e s . F o r example i n e t h i c s a p r i r j i i t i v i s t l a u d s t h e " n a t u r a l " , o r " i n n a t e " i n s t i n c t s and p a s s i o n s o v e r t h e d i c t a t e s p f r e a s o n and p r u d e n t i a l f o r e t h o u g h t ; i n s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y , t h e i d e a l i s t h e s i m p l e and " n a t u r a l " f o r m s o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r d e r i n p l a c e o f t h e a n x i e t i e s and f r u s t r a t i o n s e n g e n d e r e d by a complex and h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d s o c i a l o r g a n - i z a t i o n ; i n m i l i e u , a p r i m i t i v i s t p r e f e r s o u t d o o r " n a t u r e " , u n m o d i f i e d by human i n t e r v e n t i o n , t o c i t i e s o r a r t f u l g a r d e n s ; and i n l i t e r a t u r e and t h e o t h e r a r t s , he p u t s h i s r e l i a n c e on s p o n t a n e i t y , t h e f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f emo- t i o n , and t h e i n t u i t i v e p r o d u c t s o f " n a t u r a l g e n i u s " , as a g a i n s t t h e r e a s o n e d a d a p t a t i o n o f a r t i s t i c means t o f o r s e e n ends and t h e r e l i a n c e on " a r t i f i c i a l " f o r m s , r u l e s and c o n v e n t i o n s . To t h i s o b v i o u s l y a p p o s i t e summation, I m i g h t add some- t h i n g t h a t a l s o seems q u i t e germane t o o u r p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n : - 100 - namely, t h a t t h e l i t e r a r y " p r i m i t i v i s t " , b e c a u s e o f t h e g r e a t v a l u e he p l a c e s i n " s p o n t a n e i t y , t h e f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f emo- t i o n , and t h e i n t u i t i v e p r o d u c t s o f ' n a t u r a l g e n i u s ' " — i n o t h e r w o rds, on immediacy -- has u s u a l l y t e n d e d t o t a k e h i m s e l f as h i s f i r s t and f o r e m o s t s u b j e c t , b e c a u s e , as Hemingway once 3 8 a s k e d : "Does a w r i t e r know anyone b e t t e r ? " R o u s s e a u h i m s e l f , o f c o u r s e , began t h i s t r a d i t i o n w i t h h i s g r e a t C o n f e s s i o n s , and t h e f i g u r e o f t h e s e l f - a b s o r b e d B y r o n i c " e g o t i s t " became a f a m i l i a r one i n R o m a n t i c l i t e r a t u r e . The c a r e e r o f E r n e s t Hemingway i s an i n t e r e s t i n g c a s e i n p o i n t . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , i t seems t h a t t h e f u r t h e r tie drew away f r o m h i s own i m m e d i a t e e x p e r i e n c e , t h e more h i s w r i t i n g l o s t i t s o r i g i n a l power. C r i t i c s a r e g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d t h a t h i s e a r l y s t o r i e s and h i s f i r s t two n o v e l s a r e h i s most s u c c e s s f u l 39 w o r k s , and t h e s e a r e a l s o h i s most c l o s e l y a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l . The change r e f l e c t e d i n t h e n o t i c e a b l e d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e famous "Hemingway s t y l e " i n h i s l a t e r w o rks. As S c o t t D o n a l d s o n p o i n t s o u t , h i s s t y l e c h a nged " f r o m an e a r l y economy o f l a n g u a g e and o b j e c t i v i t y o f p r e s e n t a t i o n t o a much l o n g e r , more d i s c u r - s i v e , and, f o r a l m o s t a l l o b s e r v e r s , l e s s s u c c e s s f u l l a t e r s t y l e . 40 I t was t h e f i r s t s t y l e t h a t became famous and i m i t a t e d . " 'It i s a l s o p e r t i n e n t t o o u r d i s c u s s i o n o f S h i g a ' s s h i - s h o s e t s u t o n o t e t h a t s u c h l a t e r , n o n - a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l Heming- way n o v e l s as F o r Whom t h e B e l l T o l l s (1940) a r e more c o n v e n - t i o n a l l y s t r u c t u r e d t h a n h i s e a r l i e r w o rks. The c l o s e l y a u t o - b i o g r a p h i c a l " N i c k Adams s t o r i e s " , on t h e o t h e r hand, may w e l l - 101- be r e g a r d e d as b e i n g " n a t u r a l l y p l o t t e d " i n a way s i m i l a r t o S h i g a ' s s h i - s h o s e t s u . To e a r l y r e a d e r s , i n f a c t , t h e y a p p e a r e d n o t as "well-made" s t o r i e s b u t as f o r m l e s s " s l i c e s o f l i f e " . R e m i n i s c i n g a b o u t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f h i s e a r l y c a r e e r , when p u b l i s h e r s r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t h i s r a d i c a l l y new v e r s i o n s o f t h e s h o r t - s t o r y f o r m , Hemingway o n c e w r o t e o f " a l l o f t h e s t o r i e s b a c k i n t h e m a i l . . . w i t h n o t e s o f r e j e c t i o n t h a t w o u l d n e v e r c a l l them s t o r i e s , b u t a l w a y s a n e c d o t e s , s k e t c h e s , c o n t e s , 41 e t c . " As we have a l r e a d y s e e n , S h i g a s t i l l h a s t h e same p r o b - l e m w i t h c e r t a i n W e s t e r n c r i t i c s -- p e r h a p s b e c a u s e t h e y have n o t y e t c a u g h t up w i t h t h e r e m a r k a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t h e W e s t e r n s h o r t s t o r y between T o l s t o y and Hemingway. A l t h o u g h , o f c o u r s e , t h e r e c a n be no q u e s t i o n o f any d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e e i t h e r way between S h i g a and Hemingway ( s i n c e t h e l a t t e r r e a d no J a p a n e s e and t h e f o r m e r had w r i t t e n t h e b u l k o f h i s work b e f o r e Hemingway was p u b l i s h e d ) , t h e r e i s , n e v e r - t h e l e s s , an i n t e r e s t i n g and i m p o r t a n t " J a p a n e s e c o n n e c t i o n " i n Hemingway's c a s e w h i c h may a c c o u n t , t o some e x t e n t , f o r t h e a f f i n i t i e s between them. D u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f h i s " a p p r e n t i c e - s h i p " i n t h e e a r l y 1920's i n P a r i s , Hemingway came u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s o - c a l l e d " I m a g i s t s " , and e s p e c i a l l y o f t h e mentor o f them a l l , E z r a Pound. Pound, i n f a c t , e x e r - c i s e d h i s " b l u e p e n c i l " on Hemingway's e a r l y s t o r i e s i n t h e same way a s he d i d on t h e e a r l y p o e t r y o f T.S. E l i o t . The J a p a n e s e i n f l u e n c e on Pound and t h e o t h e r I m a g i s t s has b een 42 w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d , and t h i s i n f l u e n c e , i n t u r n , may be s e e n t o - 102 - have r e a c h e d Hemingway m a i n l y t h r o u g h Pound. What i t amounts t o i n Hemingway's c a s e , above a l l , i s a v e r y p r e c i s e and c o n - c r e t e use o f i m a g e r y t o c r e a t e an e m o t i o n o r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l atmosp-here. I t i s t h e t e c h n i q u e made famous u n d e r E l i o t ' s t e r m o f t h e " o b j e c t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e " , a l t h o u g h , as J a c k s o n Benson 4 3 p o i n t s o u t , James J o y c e ' s " e p i p h a n y " e x p r e s s e s a v e r y s i m i l a r c o n c e p t . I n f a c t , t h i s c e n t r a l d o c t r i n e o f Imagism may be s e e n t o l i e a t t h e c o r e o f t h e a e s t h e t i c t h e o r y o f t h e whole "Pound- 44 L e w i s - F o r d - J o y c e ^ S t e i n - E l i o t g r o u p " so t h a t , i f we add, as we must, t h e name o f W.B. Y e a t s t o t h i s l i s t , i t i s h a r d l y an e x a g g e r a t i o n t o s a y t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e i n f l u e n c e on e a r l y t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y l i t e r a t u r e i n E n g l i s h was a c r u c i a l one. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , Hemingway h i m s e l f e x p r e s s e d h i s i m a g i s t c r e d o i n r a t h e r more c o n c r e t e t e r m s t h a t " e p i p h a n y " o r " o b j e c - t i v e c o r r e l a t i v e " . What he t r i e d t o c a p t u r e i n h i s work, he once w r o t e , was " t h e r e a l t h i n g , t h e s e q u e n c e o f m o t i o n and 45 f a c t w h i c h made t h e e m o t i o n . " Hemingway's c o n c e p t h e r e o f t h e " r e a l t h i n g " seems r e m a r k a b l y c l o s e t o S h i g a ' s " r e a l f e e l - i n g " ( j i k k a n ) w h i c h , as we have a l r e a d y s e e n , was c e n t r a l t o h i s a e s t h e t i c p r o g r a m . B o t h w r i t e r s , t h e n , m i g h t be c a l l e d " l y r i c a l r e a l i s t s " , and i t i s t h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e p r e c i s e image w i t h t h e t r u e e m o t i o n i n t h e i r work t h a t l i n k s i t t o t h e J a p a n e s e p o e t i c t r a d i t i o n . As J a c k s o n Benson p o i n t s o u t i n r e g a r d t o some o f Hemingway's " H a i k u - l i k e " s e n t e n c e s , " t h e r e i s a s e n s e o f t i m e l e s s n e s s : t h e v i s i o n o f an i n s t a n t and a l l i t s i n t e r n a l s t r e s s e s , i s o l a t e d and c a p t u r e d , y e t s p e a k i n g f o r - 103 - i t s e l f . The m a t t e r - o f - f a c t n e s s i s j o u r n a l i s t i c , b u t i t i s a l s o p o e t i c . T h e s e s e n t e n c e s a r e v e r y much l i k e Pound's 'In a S t a t i o n o f t h e M e t r o ' w h i c h he c a l l e d a ' h o k k u - l i k e s e n t e n c e ' . What Benson s a y s h e r e o f Hemingway's s t y l e i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o what Akutagawa s a y s o f S h i g a ; s s t y l e i n t h e p a s s a g e I h a v e a l - 47 r e a d y q u o t e d . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , one need n o t l o o k f o r a Pound i n S h i g a s s b a c k g r o u n d — he comes by t h i s t r a d i t i o n q u i t e " n a t u r a l l y " . I n Hemingway;s c a s e , as i n S h i g a ' s t h e e m p h a s i s on emo- t i o n a l v e r a c i t y l e a d s t h e w r i t e r p e r f o r c e t o a heavy r e l i a n c e on t h e d a t a o f h i s own l i f e — f o r , as Hemingway p o i n t e d o u t , he knows h i s own f e e l i n g s b e s t - C a r l o s B a k e r has d e s c r i b e d t h e way i n w h i c h t h e young Hemingway a r r i v e d a t t h i s " a u t o - b i o g r a p h i c a l " p r e f e r e n c e : " A l l y o u have t o do i s w r i t e one t r u e s e n t e n c e , " he t o l d h i m s e l f . " W r i t e t h e t r u e s t s e n t e n c e t h a t y o u know." I t must be above a l l a " t r u e s i m p l e d e c l a r a t i v e s e n t e n c e w i t h o u t s c r o l l w o r k o r o r n a m e n t a l l a n g u a g e o f any s o r t . I t must d e a l w i t h s o m e t h i n g he knew f r o m p e r s o n a l ex- p e r i e n c e . S t o r i e s l i k e "The p a s s i n g o f P i c k l e s M c C a r t y " o r "Wolves and D oughnuts" had b e en l a r g e l y i n v e n t e d . They g r a z e d h i s own e x p e r i e n c e i n I t a l y and I l l i n o i s w i t h o u t k e e p i n g t h e c e n t r a l f a c t s i n f o c u s . Now he wanted t o p l a c e h i s f a i t h i n t h e d i r e c t t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f what he saw. T h a t and no more. Somehow t h e e m o t i o n t h a t he wanted t o c o n v e y w o u l d f i l t e r t h r o u g h t h e r e - p o r t e d f a c t s . 48 I t was i n e v i t a b l e t h a t , w i t h h i s p r i m a r y e m p h a s i s on p e r - s o n a l e m o t i o n , Hemingway, l i k e S h i g a , w o u l d w r i t e a new k i n d o f f i c t i o n . B e i n g so s e l f - c e n t r e d , he w o u l d o b v i o u s l y n o t w r i t e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l E n g l i s h " s o c i a l n o v e l " , n o r , w i t h h i s - 104 - d i s t r u s t o f a b s t r a c t i d e a s , w o u l d he w r i t e t h e more F r e n c h s t y l e " t h e s i s - n o v e l " . E s p e c i a l l y i n h i s e a r l i e r (and b e s t ) works, Hemingway, l i k e S h i g a , was a p r a c t i t i o n e r o f t h a t f i c - t i o n a l f o r m t h a t has r i s e n t o p r o m i n e n c e o n l y i n t h i s c e n t u r y , 49 w h i c h R a l p h Freedman has c a l l e d t h e " l y r i c a l n o v e l " . As a r e s u l t , t h e "Hemingway h e r o " , l i k e t h e " S h i g a h e r o " , . i s a f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t c h a r a c t e r who a p p e a r s as t h e p r o t a g o n i s t o f a l l Hemingway's m a j o r w o r k s , f r o m t h e " N i c k Adams" o f h i s f i r s t s t o r i e s t o t h e "Thomas Hudson" o f h i s f i n a l , posthumous n o v e l , I s l a n d s i n t h e S t r e a m ( 1 9 7 0 ) , and t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s an i d e n t i f i a b l e p e r s o n a o f t h e a u t h o r h i m s e l f . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g a l s o t o n o t e t h a t , b e c a u s e o f h i s p r i - mary r e l i a n c e on t h e " f a c t s " o f h i s own e x p e r i e n c e , Hemingway, l i k e S h i g a , d i d n o t make t h e r i g i d d i s t i n c t i o n s between " f i c - t i o n ? and " n o n - f i c t i o n " t h a t have been c u s t o m a r y i n t h e West. As S h e r i d a n B a k e r p o i n t s o u t , Hemingway D c o n s i s t e n t l y shows a k i n d o f w i l f u l n e s s i n r e p o r t i n g f a c t w i t h j o u r n a l i s t i c a c c u r - a c y and t h e n i n s i s t i n g t h a t i t i s a l l f i c t i o n , t h a t ' t h e r e a r e 50 no r e a l p e o p l e i n t h i s v olume'." I n d e e d , some o f t h e works i n c l u d e d i n h i s s h o r t s t o r y c o l l e c t i o n s were f i r s t w r i t t e n and p u b l i s h e d as newspaper r e p o r t s , j u s t as a S h i g a s t o r y s u c h as " A r u A s a " was f i r s t w r i t t e n as a d i a r y e n t r y . G r e e n H i l l s o f A f r i c a (1985) i s a v e r y l i t e r a l a c c o u n t o f one o f Hemingway's A f r i c a n s a f a r i s , b u t i t i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o r m o f a n o v e l , c o m p l e t e w i t h e x t e n s i v e d i a l o g u e . As Hemingway - 105 - s a y s i n t h e f o r e w o r d : "The w r i t e r h a s a t t e m p t e d t o w r i t e an a b s o l u t e l y t r u e book t o see w h e t h e r t h e shape o f a ' c o u n t r y and t h e p a t t e r n o f a month's a c t i o n c a n , i f t r u l y p r e s e n t e d , com- p e t e w i t h t h e imagination."^"'" S i m i l a r l y , h i s P a r i s memoir, A M o v a b l e F e a s t (1964) i s p r e s e n t e d i n a n o v e l i s t i c f o r m and Hemingway w r i t e s i n t h e p r e f a c e : " I f t h e r e a d e r p r e f e r s , t h i s 52 book may be r e g a r d e d as f i c t i o n . " I n h i s "Memoir as F i c t i o n " F r a s e r S u t h e r l a n d d e f e n d s t h i s p r a c t i s e o f Hemingway)s by a r - g u i n g t h a t " s i n c e t h e w r i t e r ' s mind i s a l w a y s a t work, e v e r y - t h i n g he w r i t e s i s f i c t i o n . And w h e t h e r t h e w r i t e r p r e t e n d s t o w r i t e 'pure' f i c t i o n o r p u r e n o n - f i c t i o n , he p r o d u c e s a new „ 53 image. J a c k s o n B enson, however, t e l l s us t h a t t h e r e i s r e a l l y n o t h i n g new a b o u t t h i s m i x i n g o f " j o u r n a l i s t i c " f a c t w i t h f i c t i o n — t h e v e r y word " n o v e l " , a f t e r a l l , i s r e l a t e d t o "news". Hemingway's use o f j o u r n a l i s t i c s t y l e and c o n t e n t "was r e a l l y a new a p p l i c a t i o n o f an o l d a p p r o a c h t h a t goes b a c k t o t h e ' t r u e a c c o u n t s ' o f D e f o e and t h e e a r l y n o v e l i s t s . F i c - t i o n , t h e h i s t o r y o f f i c t i o n t e l l s u s , must n e v e r be f i c t i o n , n e v e r 'made up', b u t a l w a y s p r e s e n t e d as s o m e t h i n g t h a t r e a l l y happened — e i t h e r h i s t o r y , a d i s c o v e r e d 'document' o r b i o - g r a p h y , a d i s c o v e r e d ' d i a r y ' . B u t t h e modern temper demands 54 more immediacy, more a u t h e n t i c i t y , more i m p e r s o n a l i t y . " A n o t h e r way o f p u t t i n g t h i s , as we h a v e s e e n i n S h i g a ' s c a s e , i s t h a t t h e s t o r y must seem " n a t u r a l " ( i . e . , t a k e n d i r e c t l y - 1 0 6 - f r o m n a t u r e ) a s o p p o s e d t o " a r t i f i c i a l " . I n t h i s s e n s e Hemingway, l i k e S h i g a , w a n t e d t o w r i t e an " a n t i - l i t e r a r y 55 l i t e r a t u r e " . As R o b e r t Weeks h a s t e s t i f i e d , Hemingway's "consummate a r t " - i s an " a r t so u n o b t r u s i v e a s t o e l i c i t t h e c h a r g e o f n o t b e i n g a r t a t a l l " " * 6 i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e b e s t a r t o f a l l t o Hemingway, a s t o S h i g a , i s one t h a t a p p e a r s t o be ' a r t l e s s " . A t t h i s p o i n t a s c e p t i c a l r e a d e r m i g h t w e l l a s k : e x a c t l y w h e r e i n , t h e n , d o e s t h e s e e m i n g l y i n v i s i b l e a r t o f s u c h w r i t e r s l i e ? The a n s w e r , o f c o u r s e , i s : f i r s t a n d f o r e m o s t , i n t h e v e r y p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i o n . T h i s was summed up by E z r a P o und i n h i s famous b i l i n g u a l m o t t o , o b t a i n e d by c h a n c e f r o m a 57 G e r m a n - I t a l i a n d i c t i o n a r y : " D i c h t e n = c o n d e n s a r e . " A c c o r d i n g ^ t o J a c k s o n B e n s o n , i t was Hemingway's " r e p o r t o r i a l s k i l l s " t h a t e n a b l e d h i m t o p u t t h i s m o t t o i n t o p r a c t i s e a n d , by d o i n g s o , " w r i t i n g p r o s e i n t h e manner o f modern p o e t r y . H i s e f f o r t i n v o l v e d l o o k i n g c a r e f u l l y , g e t t i n g a t t h e e s s e n t i a l f a c t s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n he o b s e r v e d , p u t t i n g t h e s e f a c t s down i n a s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d , e c o n o m i c a l f a s h i o n , a n d t h e n l e t t i n g t h i s 5 8 ' c o n d e n s e d e s s e n c e ' s p e a k t h e e m o t i o n f o r i t s e l f . " B u t t h e famous "economy" o f Hemingway's s t y l e , a s o f S h i g a ' s i s n o t m e r e l y a m a t t e r o f p a c k i n g t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e m e a n i n g i n t o t h e f e w e s t p o s s i b l e w o r d s ; t h e w r i t e r i s a l s o " e c o n o m i c a l " i n h i s s e l e c t i o n o f h i s m a t e r i a l , s o t h a t w h a t 59 i s l e f t o u t i s o f t e n a s i m p o r t a n t a s w h a t i s i n c l u d e d . " I a l w a y s t r y t o w r i t e , " Hemingway o n c e r e m a r k e d , "on t h e p r i n - c i p l e o f t h e i c e b e r g . T h e r e i s s e v e n e i g h t h s o f i t u n d e r w a t e r f o r e v e r y p a r t t h a t shows. A n y t h i n g y o u know yo u c a n e l i m i n a t e and i t o n l y s t r e n g t h e n s y o u r i c e b e r g . " ^ 0 T h i s " i c e b e r g p r i n c i p l e " i s b r i l l i a n t l y i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e m a j o r s t o r y o f Hemingway's f i r s t c o l l e c t i o n , I n o u r Time (1925). The s t o r y , " B i g T w o - H e a r t e d R i v e r " , i s , as i t happens a d m i r a b l y s u i t e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n and c o n t r a s t w i t h " T a k i b i " . As i t S h i g a ' s s t o r y , v e r y l i t t l e seems t o happen on t h e s u r f a c e ' : we a r e shown N i c k Adams, t h e p r o t a g o n i s t o f a whole s e r i e s o f e a r l y Hemingway s t o r i e s , r e t u r n i n g a l o n e t o f i s h a r a v e r i n n o r t h e r n M i c h i g a n where he o f t e n f i s h e d when y o u n g e r . He h i k e s a few m i l e s , s e t s up camp, c o o k s h i m s e l f a m e a l , beds down f o r t h e n i g h t , g e t s up t h e n e x t m o r n i n g and c a t c h e s a few t r o u t -- t h i s i s t h e e x t e n t o f t h e s t o r y ' s a c t i o n and i t i s a l l d e s - c r i b e d w i t h a l m o s t m i c r o s c o p i c r e a l i s m . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e a r e h i n t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t o r y t h a t t h i s i s no o r d i n a r y " f i s h i n g t r i p " -- t h a t i s , i n f a c t , a r a t h e r d e s p e r a t e a t t e m p t on t h e p a r t o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t t o a d m i n i s t e r t h e r a p y t o h i s own d e e p l y wounded p s y c h e . And t h e s o u r c e o f t h i s wound? "The s t o r y , " Hemingway h i m s e l f s a i d y e a r s a f t e r he w r o t e i t , "was a b o u t coming b a c k f r o m t h e war b u t t h e r e was no m e n t i o n 61 o f t h e war i n i t . " Once we have r e a l i z e d t h i s f a c t , t h e s t o r y ' s i m a g e r y and a c t i o n become c o m p r e h e n s i b l e on a much d e e p e r l e v e l . The " b u r n e d - o v e r " c o u n t r y w h i c h i s t h e o p e n i n g image o f t h e s t o r y , f o r i n s t a n c e , (and w h i c h i s so r e m i n i s c e n t o f - 108 - T.S. E l i o t ' s "Waste L a n d " , w r i t t e n j u s t a c o u p l e o f y e a r s b e f o r e ) now seems t o s y m b o l i z e b o t h t h e - . p h y s i c a l r u i n o f t h e war N i c k has j u s t r e t u r n e d f r o m , and t h e p s y c h i c s c a r s i t has c a u s e d i n him. Hemingway's " b u r n e d - o v e r " c o u n t r y , i n f a c t , p e r f o r m s much t h e same f u n c t i o n i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s s t o r y as S h i g a ' s " s t u f f y , s m o k e - f i l l e d room" do e s i n " T a k i b i " ? i t s e r v e s as a v e r y c o n c r e t e i m a g i s t i c embodiment o f a l l t h a t t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i s a b o u t t o e s c a p e f r o m -- w h i c h , i n b o t h c a s e s , may be d e s c r i b e d as t h e " i l l s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n " . S h i g a ' s g r o u p t a k e a b o a t o u t o v e r t h e l a k e , Hemingway's p r o t a g o n i s t h i k e s up t o t h e "good c o u n t r y " n o t y e t d e v a s t a t e d by man; t h e p r i n - c i p a l a c t i o n o f b o t h s t o r i e s , i n o t h e r words -- as we w o u l d o n l y e x p e c t f r o m two " p r i m i t i v i s t " w r i t e r s -- i s an e s c a p e f r o m i z i v i l i a a t i o n i n t o t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e . B u t t h e s i m i l a r i t y between t h e s e two s t o r i e s d o e s n o t end t h e r e . J u s t as t h e S h i g a g r o u p engaged i n c e r t a i n " p r i m i ^ t i v e " r i t u a l s t o b r i n g t h e m s e l v e s i n t o d e e p e r harmony w i t h n a t u r e -- l i g h t i n g t h e b o n f i r e , t h r o w i n g t h e f i r e y b r a n c h e s o u t o v e r t h e l a k e — t o an e v e n g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h e Hemingway p r o t a g o n i s t i s shown engaged c o n t i n u o u s l y i n r i t u a l i s t i c a c t i o n s : m a k i n g camp, c o o k i n g m e a l s , p r e p a r i n g h i s f i s h i n g e q u i p m e n t , f i s h i n g i t s e l f -- i n d e e d , t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s o c c u p y a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e s t o r y , and t h e y a r e d e s c r i b e d i n s u c h m i n u t e , a l m o s t monotonous d e t a i l t h a t t h e r e a d e r c a n have no d o u b t a b o u t t h e i r " r i t u a l i s t i c " n a t u r e . - 109 - I n t h e Hemingway s t o r y , t h e s e r i t u a l s seem t o have a d o u b l e p u r p o s e : as i n t h e S h i g a s t o r y , t h e y h e l p t o b r i n g t h e p r o t a g o n i s t i n t o c l o s e r t o u c h w i t h n a t u r e , b u t t h e y a l s o have a more u r g e n t f u n c t i o n — t h e y h e l p him t o e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l o v e r h i s own d i s o r d e r e d , t r a u m a t i z e d mind. The w a r - s c a r r e d N i c k , as E l i z a b e t h W e l l s p o i n t s o u t , "does n o t want t o t h i n k . He wants t o a c t . He i s , i n f a c t , c o n s c i o u s l y p u t t i n g h i m s e l f 6 2 t h r o u g h a r i t u a l t h a t w i l l k e e p him f r o m t h i n k i n g . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e i s a s t r a i n o f " n a t u r e m y s t i c i s m " i n Hemingway, as i n S h i g a , and N i c k ' s r i t u a l s do b r i n g h i m a t l e a s t a momentary " u n i i z i v e " e x p e r i e n c e w i t h n a t u r e . T h i s comes t h r o u g h t h e s t o r y ' s c e n t r a l r i t u a l (and, as J a c k s o n Benson 6 3 p o i n t s o u t , t h e c e n t r a l r i t u a l o f a l l t h e N i c k Adams s t o r i e s ) : f i s h i n g . When he c a t c h e s h i s f i r s t t r o u t , N i c k a c h i e v e s a momentary o n e n e s s w i t h t h e f i s h w h i c h r e l e a s e s him b r i e f l y f r o m t h e o p p r e s s i v e c o n f i n e s o f h i s own t r o u b l e d s e l f . As P h i l i p Young p o i n t s o u t , t h i s momentary r e l e a s e i s r e f l e c t e d e v e n i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e s t o r y ' i "When t h e r e i s t h e extreme e x c i t e m e n t o f a b i g s t r i k e f r o m a t r o u t t h e s t y l e c h a n g e s a b r u p t l y . The p r e s s u r e i s o f f t h e man, he i s nowhere b u t r i g h t t h e r e p l a y i n g t h e f i s h , and t h e n t h e s e n t e n c e s l e n g t h e n g r e a t l y 64 and become a p p r o p r i a t e l y g r a c e f u l . " Hemingway d e s c r i b e s an i d e n t i c a l k i n d o f e x p e r i e n c e more e x p l i c i t l y i n an e a r l i e r s t o r y o f I n o u r Time c a l l e d " C r o s s - C o u n t r y Snow", b u t t h i s t i m e N i c k i s s k i i n g : "The r u s h and t h e s u d d en swoop as he d r o p p e d - n o - down a s t e e p u n d u l a t i o n i n t h e m o u n t a i n s i d e p l u c k e d N i c k ' s mind o u t and l e f t h i m o n l y t h e w o n d e r f u l f l y i n g , d r o p p i n g s e n s a t i o n 6 5 i n h i s body." As S h e r i d a n B a k e r s a y s : "The p e a c e f o r w h i c h N i c k i s s e a r c h i n g , i n o u r t i m e , i s n o t u n l i k e -- i n a t o u g h , e a r t h b o u n d s o r t o f way — t h a t w h i c h p a s s e s a l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . " -In some ways, " B i t T w o - H e a r t e d R i v e r " may seem t o r e m i n d us more o f " K i n o s a k i n i t e " t h a n <bf " T a k i b i " . I n t h e e a r l i e r S h i g a s t o r y , as we may r e c a l l , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t a l s o r e t i r e d a l o n e t o n a t u r e t o t r y t o r e c o v e r f r o m t h e r e c e n t t r a u m a o f a n e a r - f a t a l a c c i d e n t . L i k e N i c k t o o he had t r o u b l e e x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l o v e r h i s t r a u m a t i z e d mind. I n t h e f i n a l s c e n e o f t h e s t o r y he i s f a i r l y o verwhelmed by t h o u g h t s o f d e a t h : " O n l y my head worked on as i t w o u l d . I t l e d me d e e p e r and d e e p e r 6 7 i n t o t h e s e f a n c i e s . " W h i l e t h e mood o f " B i g T w o ^ Hearted R i v e r " i s n o t as l i g h t and t r a n q u i l as t h a t o f " T a k i b i " , however, n e i t h e r i s i t as d a r k and t o r t u r e d as t h a t o f " K i n o s a k i n i t e " . T h r o u g h t h e s t u d i e d p r a c t i s e o f h i s " r i t u a l s " , N i c k d o e s manage t o k e e p h i s t h o u g h t s i n c h e c k : " H i s mind was s t a r t i n g t o work. He 6 8 knew he c o u l d choke i t b e c a u s e he was t i r e d enough." And, as we have s e e n , he does a c h i e v e a few moments o f s e l f - o b l i v i o n and u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e . Now he knows, a t l e a s t , t h e d i r e c t i o n h i s r e c o v e r y must t a k e . T h e r e i s hope h e r e f o r t h e f u t u r e . The s t o r y , i n f a c t , ends on t h i s e m p h a t i c a l l y o p t i - m i s t i c n o t e : " T h e r e were p l e n t y o f d a y s coming when he c o u l d u *.u » 6 9 f i s h t h e swamp. On the other hand, the mood of "Takibi" i s not as un- reservedly "light-hearted" as might f i r s t appear. Here too there are shadows in the background and, again, they are not made too e x p l i c i t because Shiga, l i k e Hemingway, believes i n the power of "the thing l e f t out". On closer view of the story, i n f a c t , we f i n d that, just as Nick's war^ experience i s an "unspoken presence" i n "Big Two-Hearted River", so the Shiga narrator's near-fatal accident s t i l l looms i n the back- ground of "Takibi". Francis Mathy perceptively notices this when, in speakingoof Shiga's l i f e on Mount Akagi, the s i t e of "Takibi", he remarks: "The quiet melancholy that Shiga had begun to experience after his brush with death was further deepened here on this mountain. It i s the f e e l i n g of quiet 70 melancholy that informs the story 'Bonfire'";.." In the same way as Hemingway refers symbolically to the war with his image of the "burnt-over" country at the opening of his story, early i n "Takibi" Shiga makes use of a s t r i k i n g image that immed- i a t e l y puts us i n mind of "Kinosaki n i te" and the near-fatal accident: "But the mountains on a l l sides were black, and I 7 thought they resembled the backs of crouching water l i z a r d s . " When we r e c a l l the f i n a l episode of "Kinosaki ni te", i n which the narrator k i l l s a water l i z a r d , as well as the deep sym- b o l i c significance which he t e l l s us these creatures have for him, then i t i s d i f f i c u l t to believe that t h i s i s just a casually-dropped simile (and, of course, i t i s also made con- spicuous by the fact that Shiga rarely uses auch s i m i l e s ) . As t h e s t o r y p r o g r e s s e s , t o o , t h i s d a r k e r n o t e emerges more e x p l i c i t l y when K. t e l l s h i s s t o r y o f t h e w i l d dogs who h a d once k i l l e d a h o r s e on t h e m o u n t a i n and who had e v e n , one n i g h t , t h r e a t e n e d t o k i l l h i s f a t h e r ; and t h e n a r r a t o r h i m s e l f t h e n t e l l s o f t h e s k u l l o f "a s m a l l w i l d a n i m a l " he h a d f o u n d i n " H e l l V a l l e y " j u s t a few d a y s b e f o r e . D e a t h b e i n g p e r h a p s 72 t h e m a j o r theme o f S h i g a ' s work, as i t i s o f Hemingway's, i t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i t i s n o t e n t i r e l y a b s e n t e v e n f r o m " T a k i b i " , o n e a o f S h i g a ' s most " l i g h t - h e a r t e d " s t o r i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a m i d s t t h e b e a u t y o f t h e m o u n t a i n and t h e l a k e on a t r a n q u i l e v e n i n g i n s p r i n g , d e a t h seems b u t a d i s t a n t shadow — a l b e i t a n e c e s s a r y " f o i l " t o s e t o f f t h e j o y f u l s e n s e o f l i f e t h a t o c c u p i e s t h e f o r e g r o u n d . T h o u g h t s o f d e a t h no l o n g e r overwhelm t h e S h i g a n a r r a t o r , as i n " K i n o s a k i n i t e " , d i s t u r b i n g ibhe q u i e t n e s s o f mind n e c e s s a r y f o r h i m t o a c h i e v e harmony b o t h w i t h n a t u r e and w i t h h i s f e l l o w man. As t h e f i n a l s c e n e o f " T a k i b i " shows, he i s , i n f a c t , w e l l on t h e way t o t h e " e n l i g h t e n m e n t " t h a t i s , as we s h a l l s e e , t h e c u l m i n a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f An'ya K o r o and, i n d e e d , o f S h i g a ' s e n t i r e opus. C h a p t e r 4 W i t h w r i t e r s more p r o l i f i c t h a t S h i g a Naoya, t h e r e may be some d i s p u t e as t o w h i c h o f t h e i r works may be r e g a r d e d as t h e most i m p o r t a n t o r t h e most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ; i n S h i g a ' s c a s e , however, t h e r e i s o n l y one work w h i c h c a n be s i n g l e d o u t u n r e s e r v e d l y as h i s magnum opus : An 'ya K o r o X8&$L.4^$?T A Dark N i g h t ' s P a s s i n g , 1937) . A t • a b o u t f o u r h u n d r e d p a g e s , i t i s h i s o n l y r e a l l y s u b s t a n t i a l , n o v e l - l e n g t h work — a l l h i s o t h e r f i c t i o n a l w r i t i n g s a r e e i t h e r s h o r t s t o r i e s o r n o v e l l a s F u r t h e r m o r e A n 1 y a K o r o c o n t a i n s t h e c l e a r e s t , most f o r c e f u l ex- p r e s s i o n o f S h i g a ' s m a j o r themes and t h e f i n e s t p a s s a g e s o f h i s c e l e b r a t e d p r o s e s t y l e . I n d e e d , he seemed t o have p u t a l l t h a t he had i n t o t h i s one n o v e l , as e v i d e n c e d , f i r s t , by t h e f a c t t h a t i t t o o k him a b o u t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s o f i n t e r m i t t e n t e f f o r t t o w r i t e i t ( f r o m 1912 t o 1937) and, s e c o n d , by t h e f a c t t h a t a f t e r * : i t was f i n a l l y done w i t h , he w r o t e v e r y l i t t l e e l s e , t h o u g h he l i v e d a n o t h e r t h i r t y - f o u r y e a r s . R e g a r d i n g t h i s n o v e l Agawa H i r o y u k i has w r i t t e n : "Here i s t o be f o u n d e v e r y - t h i n g S h i g a p o s s e s s e s , e v e r y t h i n g t h a t he a s p i r e d t o i n h i s l i f e and work."''" And, as F r a n c i s Mathy p o i n t s o u t : "Some J a p a n e s e c r i t i c s go so f a r as t o c a l l i t t h e h i g h e s t peak o f modern , 2 J a p a n e s e l i t e r a t u r e . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , An'ya K o r o i s n o t so " p u r e " an example o f t h e q u i n t e s s e n t i a l S h i g a Naoya s h i - s h o s e t s u as t h e s h o r t s t o r i e s we have examined up t o t h i s p o i n t . I t i s t h a t s e e m i n g l y a d u l t - e r a t e d f o r m , t h e " f i c t i o n a l a u t o b i o g r a p h y " , i n two d i s t i n c t s e n s e s . On t h e one hand, i f we r e g a r d t h e n o v e l as t h e a u t h o r ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h y , we d i s c o v e r t h a t , t h o u g h t h e p r o t a g o n i s t , T o k i t o K e n s a k u , i s o b v i o u s l y a p e r s o n a o f S h i g a h i m s e l f , many o f t h e e v e n t s t h e n o v e l d e s c r i b e s a r e f i c t i t i o u s . As S h i g a once w r o t e : " K e n s a k u 1 s a c t i o n s and f e e l i n g s r e p r e s e n t what I m y s e l f w o u l d do i f p l a c e d i n s i m i l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s , o r what I w o u l d want t o 3 do, o r what I have a c t u a l l y done." On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e n o v e l i s a l s o a " f i c t i o n a l a u t o b i o g r a p h y " i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t i s p r e s e n t e d as t h e a c t u a l a u t o b i o g r a p h y o f t h e f i c t i o n a l c h a r - a c t e r , T o k i t o K e n s a k u . On t h i s l e v e l , An'ya K o r o , as we s h a l l s e e , may be r e g a r d e d a s a n o v e l a b o u t a man t r y i n g t o w r i t e A n ' ya K o r o . I n my d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e work, I s h a l l be more i n t e r e s t e d i n i t s b e i n g an a u t o b i o g r a p h y i n t h i s s e c o n d s e n s e -- t h a t i s , qua t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h y o f t h e c h a r a c t e r , T o k i t o K e n s a k u r a t h e r t h a n o f t h e man, S h i g a Naoya. To t h e b e s t o f my know- l e d g e , p r e v i o u s c r i t i c s o f t h e work have f a i l e d t o e m p h a s i z e t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n , t h o u g h i t seems t o me c r u c i a l t o a f u l l u n d e r - s t a n d i n g o f t h e a e s t h e t i c a c h i e v e m e n t and t h e m a t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e n o v e l . W i t h t h e i r l a r g e l y " b i o g r a p h i c a l " a p p r o a c h , J a p a n e s e c r i t i c s seem t o c o n t e n t t h e m s e l v e s w i t h f e r r e t i n g o u t t h o s e c o r r e s p o n - d e n c e s w h i c h do e x i s t between t h e a u t h o r ' s l i f e and t h i s p a r t i - c u l a r work. One r a t h e r h o s t i l e c r i t i c , Nakamura M i t s u o , e v e n goes so f a r as t o say t h a t r e a d e r s c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h S h i g a a c c e p t e d An'ya K o r o as a g r e a t n o v e l , e v e n t h o u g h t h e main - 115 - c h a r a c t e r i s " n e v e r more t h a n a k i n d o f a b s t r a c t e x i s t e n c e " o n l y b e c a u s e t h e y "saw b e h i n d t h e a b s t r a c t h e r o t h e f i g u r e o f t h e w r i t e r h i m s e l f . I t was b e c a u s e t h e r e a d e r s a c c e p t e d t h e n o v e l u n c e n d i t i o n a l l y as an a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o v e l p r e - s e n t i n g t h e i d e a l i z e d s e l f o f t h e w r i t e r . " A W e s t e r n c r i t i c s u c h as F r a n c i s Mathy, on t h e o t h e r hand, seems t o r e g a r d i t as a k i n d o f ''admission o f d e f e a t " on S h i g a ' s p a r t t h a t he w o u l d w r i t e a f i c t i o n a l a u t o b i o g r a p h y r a t h e r t h a n a p u r e s h i - s h o s e t s u . The way Mathy s e e s i t , S h i g a d i d n o t have enough m a t e r i a l i n h i s own l i f e t o f i l l a l e n g t h y n o v e l , and so had t o r e s o r t t o some o f t h e v e r y " f a b r i c a t i o n s " he h a d a l w a y s 5 f r o w n e d upon. He a l s o w i s h e d t o a v o i d t h e p a i n o f i n t r o - s p e c t i o n : To s a l v a g e t h e p a r t s he had a l r e a d y w r i t t e n and go on t o c o m p l e t e t h e n o v e l , he had r e c o u r s e t o f i c t i o n : he d e s i g n e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e two " s i n s " , t h e " s i n " o f y.he h e r o ' s mother and t h a t o f h i s w i f e , and i n t o t h i s s t r u c t u r e were f i t t e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s . S i n c e i t was n e v e r more t h a n a c o n v e n i e n t t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e , i t i s no wonder t h a t i t has s o l i t t l e o r g a n i c f u n c t i o n i n t h e n o v e l . S h i g a ' s i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t i n u e t h e work w i t h - o u t r e c o u r s e t o f i c t i o n a l e l e m e n t s i s e l o q u e n t t e s t i m o n y o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e d e s i r e t o "mine what i s i n me" had begun t o y i e l d t o t h e d e s i r e f o r harmony and p e a c e . 6 I n m aking t h e s e v a r i o u s p o i n t s , however, Mathy l i k e t h e J a p a n e s e c r i t i c s , i s s t i l l r e g a r d i n g An'ya K o r o as a f i c t i o n a l a u t o b i o g r a p h y o n l y i n t h e f i r s t and, i t seems t o me, l e s s e r s e n s e — qua t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h y o f S h i g a t h e man. I hope t o show t h a t , o nce we r e g a r d t h e n o v e l i n i t s p r o p e r l i g h t — as a f i c - t i o n a l a u t o b i o g r a p h y i n b o t h s e n s e s — we d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e c o m ples m i x t u r e o f f i c t i o n and r e a l i t y i t c o n t a i n s , f a r f r o m b e i n g " i n o r g a n i c " , i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e n o v e l ' s f o r m and theme f r o m t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g . W i t h t h i s n o v e l , i n f a c t , S h i g a c o n s c i o u s l y c o n f r o n t s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u and t h e p r o b l e m s , b o t h p e r s o n a l and a e s t h e t i c , t h a t t h e w r i t i n g o f i t i n v o l v e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e t e n s i o n between t h e " r e a l " and t h e " f i c t i o n a l " i s a p a r t o f t h a t l a r g e r t e n s i o n w h i c h S h i g a , as a " p r i m i t i v i s t " , i n e v i t a b l y f e l t , and w h i c h f o r m s t h e b a s i c dy- namic o f An'ya K o r o : t h e t e n s i o n between m a n / a r t / c i v i l i z a t i o n on t h e one hand and n a t u r e on t h e o t h e r . T h i s i s t h e t e n s i o n t h a t i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s o l v e d i n t h e u n i o n o f man and n a t u r e i n t h e c l i m a c t i c s c e n e on Mount D a i s e n , . a n d I hope t o show t h a t , o n ce we r e g a r d An'ya K o r o as t h e a u t o b i o g r a p h y o f T o k i t o K e n s a k u , we f i n d t h a t i t i s b e c a u s e o f t h i s u l t i m a t e r e s o l u - t i o n t h a t K e n s a ku i s a b l e t o go on t o w r i t e t h i s v e r y work. Not t o r e g a r d t h e work a s K e n s a k u ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h y i s , t h e n , t o m i s s a good p a r t o f i t s m e aning. An, lya K o r o opens w i t h a s h o r t p r o l o g u e e n t i t l e d , "The H e r o ' s R e m i n i s c e n c e s " , i n w h i c h K e n s a k u r e c a l l s f i v e m a j o r e p i s o d e s f r o m h i s c h i l d h o o d . A l l f i v e d e a l w i t h h i s d i f f i c u l t , i n v o l v e d r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s f a m i l y . I n t h e f i r s t i t i s h i s " g r a n d f a t h e r " : t h e boy K e n s a k u ' s i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e o l d man a r e u n f a v o r a b l e f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g — he i s " s e e d y " and d i s - r e p u t a b l e - l o o k i n g — so t h a t when K e n s a k u i s s e n t t o l i v e w i t h him he i s b a f f l e d and r e s e n t f u l t h a t o f a l l h i s f a m i l y he has been s i n g l e d o u t f o r t h i s s p e c i a l t r e a t m e n t , a l t h o u g h " s i n c e my i n f a n c y I had come t o e x p e c t i n j u s t i c e . " The s e c o n d e p i s o d e c o n c e r n s K e n s a k u ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s mother. Once, when he was f o u r o r f i v e y e a r s o l d , h i s mother f o u n d him p e r c h e d d a n g e r o u s l y h i g h on a r o o f . She h e l d him t h e r e by r i v e t i n g f o r c e o f h e r e y e s u n t i l he c o u l d be r e s - c u e d by two m a n s e r v a n t s . K e n s a k u s t i l l c h e r i s h e s t h i s memory as a p r o o f t h a t he was l o v e d by a t l e a s t one member o f h i s f a m i l y . " F o r y e a r s a f t e r , my e y e s w o u l d f i l l w i t h t e a r s when- e v e r I remembered i t . And I have t h o u g h t t o m y s e l f : w h a t e v e r g e l s e , my mother a t l e a s t l o v e d me v e r y much." The t h i r d e p i s o d e a l s o c o n c e r n s K e n s a k u ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s mother. When she r e f u s e s t o g i v e h i m some ca k e t h a t h i s f a t h e r h as b o u g h t , he p e r s i s t e n t l y and a g g r e s s i v e l y c o n t i n u e s t o demand some. As t h e n a r r a t o r r e m a r k s i n r e t r o s p e c t , he d i d n o t r e a l l y want t h e c a k e , he o n l y wanted " t o c r y my h e a r t o u t , o r t o be s h o u t e d a t , o r t o be b e a t e n — i t d i d n ' t m a t t e r w h i c h , so l o n g as s o m e t h i n g was done t o s o o t h e my n e r v e s , t o g e t r i d 9 o f t h e t e r r i b l e f e e l i n g o f o p p r e s s i o n . " Thus he p a x n t s a p i c t u r e o f h i m s e l f as a r a t h e r gloomy, h i g h - s t r u n g boy who f e e l s s o r e l y n e g l e c t e d — c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t , as we a r e t o s e e , s t a y w i t h him i n t o a d u l t h o o d . The f o u r t h e p i a o d e c o n c e r n s t h e young Kensaku's l i f e a t h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s house where " e v e r y t h i n g was s l o v e n l y . " " ' " 0 The house was a g a t h e r i n g - p l a c e f o r a l l s o r t s o f d i s r e p u t a b l e c h a r a c t e r s , who d r o p p e d i n a t n i g h t t o p l a y c a r d s . K e n s a k u ' s - 118 - o n l y c o n s o l a t i o n was h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ' s y o u n g m i s t r e s s , O e i , who a c t e d as a k i n d o f s u b s t i t u t e m o t h e r f o r him ( s i n c e h i s own m o t h e r wad d e a d by t h e n ) . When she had had a few d r i n k s and was i n a good mood, "she w o u l d p i c k me up and p u t me on h e r k n e e s and h o l d me t i g h t i n h e r s t r o n g , t h i c k arms, I w o u l d f e e l s u c h e c s t a s y t h e n , I h a r d l y c a r e d t h a t I c o u l d n o t b r e a t h e . " ^ I n t h e f i f t h and f i n a l e p i s o d e K e n s a k u i s shown r e l a t i n g w i t h h i s f a t h e r . On t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d a y h i s f a t h e r i s i n a good mood, so he i n v i t e s t h e boy t o w r e s t l e w i t h him. What s t a r t s as a h a r m l e s s p l a y - f i g h t b etween t h e two s u d d e n l y b e - comes a f i g h t i n e a r n e s t whep t h e y b o t h a l l o w t h e i r t r u e f e e l i n g s t o w a r d s e a c h o t h e r t o s u r f a c e . K e n s a k u i s r o u g h l y p u s h e d away by h i s f a t h e r and, when he s t i l l p e r s i s t s , he i s f i n a l l y bound hand and f o o t . As he l i e s h e l p l e s s on t h e f l o o r , he i s f i l l e d w i t h r a g e and h a t r e d t o w a r d s h i s f a t h e r . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n t h a t must a r i s e , i t seems t o me, i n any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f A n 'ya K o r o , i s : why does S h i g a u s e t h i s u n u s u a l d e v i c e o f o p e n i n g a l o n g t h i r d - p e r s o n n o v e l w i t h a s h o r t p r o l o g u e w r i t t e n by t h e h e r o i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n ? We m i g h t b e g i n t o answer by s a y i n g , o f c o u r s e , t h a t i t forms a s p l e n d i d i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e n o v e l ' s themes and m o t i f s , s i n c e i n K e nsaku's c a s e p a r t i c u l a r l y " t h e c h i l d i s f a t h e r o f t h e man". T h e r e i s e v e n an e l e m e n t o f s u s p e n s e f u l m y s t e r y i n t h e way t h e p r o l o g u e p o s e s q u e s t i o n s f o r w h i c h t h e n o v e l p r o p e r p r o v i d e s t h e answer. Why i s K e n s a k u ' s g r a n d f a t h e r p r e s e n t e d - 119 - as s u c h an u n s a v o r y c h a r a c t e r ? Why i s K e n s a k u h i m s e l f c o n t i n - u a l l y s i n g l e d o u t f o r " u n j u s t " t r e a t m e n t by h i s f a m i l y , i n - c l u d i n g b e i n g s h i p p e d o f f t o l i v e w i t h h i s g r a n d f a t h e r ? And why i s t h e r e a c e r t a i n t e n s i o n i n h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s mother and o u t r i g h t a n i m o s i t y i n h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h h i s f a t h e r ? To a l l o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s t h e answer comes i n P a r t I I o f t h e n o v e l , when we d i s c o v e r , a l o n g w i t h K e n s a k u , t h a t h i s m other was s e d u c e d by h i s s u p p o s e d " g r a n d f a t h e r " when M s " f a t h e r " was away f r o m home and t h a t he h i m s e l f i s t h e p r o d u c t o f t h i s " s i n f u l " u n i o n . Thus K e n s a k u 1 s " d a r k n i g h t " b e g i n s a t t h e v e r y moment o f h i s b i r t h and, as t h e p r o l o g u e shows, c o n t i n u e s t h r o u g h h i s c h i l d h o o d . One may s e e , t h e n , how s k i l l f u l l y S h i g a i n t r o d u c e s h i s m a j o r theme -- K e n s a k u ' s s t r u g g l e t o overcome h i s " d a r k f a t e " -- i n t h e few pages o f t h e ^ p r o l o g u e , w i t h o u t , a t t h e same t i m e , g i v i n g t o o much away. .(We a r e r e m i n d e d h e r e a g a i n o f Hemingway's " p r i n c i p l e o f t h e i c e b e r g " and t h e s t r a t e g i c " t h i n g l e f t o u t " . ) N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t seems t o me t h a t t h e p r o l o g u e s e r v e s a n o t h e r f u n c t i o n t h a t i s a t l e a s t as i m p o r t a n t : i t e s t a b l i s h e s K e n s a k u as a w r i t e r o f s h i - s h o s e t s u and s o , a t l e a s t p o t e n t i a l l y , as t h e a u t h o r o f An'ya K o r o i t s e l f . The p r o l o g u e , a f t e r a l l , m i g h t have been w r i t t e n , l i k e t h e r e s t o f t h e n o v e l , i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n and i n t h i s f o r m m i g h t h ave p r e s e n t e d i t s " i n t r o d u c t o r y " m a t e r i a l j u s t as w e l l . By c a s t i n g i t as a s h i - s h o s e t s u w r i t t e n by K e n s a k u , S h i g a a c t u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e s t h r e e t h i n g s : he i n t r o - d u c e s t h e c o n c e p t o f a f i c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r b e i n g t h e a u t h o r - 120 - o f a work t h a t we know, o f c o u r s e , was a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n by S h i g a h i m s e l f ( t h u s p r e p a r i n g us t o a c c e p t t h e i d e a t h a t t h e whole n o v e l i s a l s o meant t o have b e e n w r i t t e n by t h i s c h a r a c - t e r ) ; and f i n a l l y , he i n t r o d u c e s t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u g e n r e i t s e l f , and t h e complex p r o b l e m o f " f i c t i o n v e r s u s r e a l i t y " t h a t i t i n v o l v e s , s i n c e t h e p r o l o g u e i s a " p u r e " example o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u o n l y q ua authored'-By K e n s a k u ( i f we r e g a r d S h i g a as t h e a u t h o r t h e n i t c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l f i c t i t i o u s e l e m e n t s , most n o t a b l y t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e g r a n d f a t h e r , who i s p u r p o s e l y made t o be d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s i t e t o S h i g a ' s own g r e a t l y r e v e r e d p a t e r n a l g r a n d f a t h e r -- a s a m u r a i o f t h e o l d s c h o o l ) . The q u e s t i o n t h e n a r i s e s : why d i d n o t S h i g a go on t o w r i t e t h e r e s t o f t h e n o v e l i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n , p r e s e n t i n g i t o u t - r i g h t , l i k e t h e p r o l o g u e , a s t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u o f T o k i t o Kensaku? G e n e r a l l y , one m i g h t answer t h a t t o have done so w o u l d have b e e n t o have u p s e t t h e d e l i c a t e b a l a n c e o f f i c t i o n and r e a l i t y w h i c h forms t h e n o v e l ' s u n d e r l y i n g a e s t h e t i c t e n s i o n . B u t s i n c e t h e n o v e l o p e r a t e s i n two d i f f e r e n t s e n s e s as a " f i c t i o n - a l a u t o b i o g r a p h y " , t h e q u e s t i o n must be answered on two d i f f e r - e n t l e v e l s . F i r s t l y , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a " s p i r i t u a l " i d e n t i t y between t h e a u t h o r and h i s p r o t a g o n i s t , t h e r e a r e a l s o l a r g e e l e m e n t s o f f i c t i o n i n t h e n o v e l , so t h a t i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r S h i g a t o e s t a b l i s h some d i s t a n c e between h i m s e l f and Kensaku. I n a l e n g t h y s h i - s h o s e t s u s u c h as Wakai ( 4fO Recon- c i l i a t i o n , 1 9 1 7 ) , f o r i n s t a n c e , S h i g a d o e s w r i t e i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n w h i l e c a l l i n g h i m s e l f by a f i c t i t i o u s name, b u t t h i s - 121 - work i s a d i r e c t t r a n s c r i p t i o n o f e v e n t s f r o m h i s own l i f e . By w r i t i n g A n ' y a K o r o i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n , he s e r v e s n o t i c e t h a t i t i s n o t so s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d l y a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l as h i s e a r l i e r w o rks. F u r t h e r m o r e , i n t h i s work, as I hope t o show, he w i s h e d t o w r i t e n o t m e r e l y a s h i - s h o s e t s u ( " f i c t i o n a l " o r o t h e r w i s e ) b u t an e x t e n d e d commentary on t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u g e n r e , and f o r t h i s p u r p o s e a l s o he needed some d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e f o r m i t s e l f . S e c o n d l y , An'ya K o r o ' s b e i n g w r i t t e n i n t h e t h i r d p e r s o n does n o t p r e v e n t us f r o m r e g a r d i n g i t as Kensaku's s h i - s h o s e t s u . On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t seems t o me more t o p o i n t i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . A l t h o u g h , as we have s e e n , S h i g a u s u a l l y w r o t e h i s own " p u r e " s h i - s h o s e t s u i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n , t h i s p r a c t i s e was by ho means u n i v e r s a l among o t h e r w r i t e r s o f t h e g e n r e -- i n c l u d i n g t h e " f o u n d e r " , Tayama K a t a i — d e s p i t e i t s d e s i g n a t i o n ("'I' n o v e l " ) . A f t e r a l l , i t i s e a s y enough f o r a w r i t e r t o change " I " t o "he" i f he wants t o m a i n t a i n some se m b l a n c e o f f i c t i o n - a l i t y . B u t t h e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t , i n t h e c a s e o f An'ya K o r o , i s t h a t t h e w h o l e n n o v e l , w i t h one b r i e f b u t i m p o r t a n t e x c e p - t i o n t h a t I s h a l l d i s c u s s l a t e r , i s t o l d f r o m K e n s a k u ' s p o i n t o f v i e w . J u s t a s , i n t h e p r o l o g u e , we do n o t know t h e r o o t c a u s e o f t h e boy K e n s a k u 1 s " d a r k f a t e " b e c a u s e he h i m s e l f d o e s n o t know i t , s o , t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e s t o f t h e n o v e l , we p e r c e i v e t h e w o r l d e n t i r e l y t h r o u g h h i s e y e s . B u t t h e r e i s , i t seems t o me, a d e e p e r r e a s o n , r e l a t e d t o t h e n o v e l ' s c e n t r a l theme, why K e n s a k u s h o u l d be made t o - 122 - w r i t e h i s s p i r i t u a l autobiography i n the t h i r d person, a reason which I s h a l l b r i e f l y o u t l i n e here but r e t u r n to i n more d e t a i l l a t e r . Throughout the novel we are presented again and again with Kensaku as a f r u s t r a t e d w r i t e r unable to b r i n g any of h i s s h i - s h o s e t s u to a s u c c e s s f u l c o n c l u s i o n . By the novel's end we know why: he has been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y de- tached from the c o m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s l i f e and, above a l l , from h i s own t y r a n n i c a l l y e g o t i s t i c a l s e l f ; without t h i s detachment, q u i t e n a t u r a l l y , i t has been i m p o s s i b l e f o r him to w r i t e , as an author of s h i - s h o s e t s u must do, about e i t h e r h i s l i f e or h i m s e l f . Only when he has achieved the supreme detachment t h a t comes wit h h i s f i n a l union with nature on Mount Daisen i s he f r e e to w r i t e -- and, I would argue, what he goes on to w r i t e i s t h i s n o v el c a l l e d An'ya Koro. That he has w r i t t e n the novel i n the t h i r d person, then, s i g n i f i e s h i s new-found de- tachment from h i s form e r l y o p p r e s s i v e s e l f . Shiga continues the s h i - s h o s e t s u m o t i f i n the f i r s t chap- t e r of the novel proper, but now i n a l i g h t e r , even s a t i r i c a l v e i n . The chapter opens wi t h a scene r e m i n i s c e n t of "Aru Asa": the p r o t a g o n i s t , unable to s l e e p , r e a d i n g i n bed u n t i l the e a r l y hours of the morning. What Kensaku i s re a d i n g here, though, i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t : i t i s a s h i - s h o s e t s u w r i t t e n by an acquaintance, Sakaguchi. And i t does not ple a s e Kensaku; i n f a c t , i t leaves "a nasty t a s t e i n h i s mouth" and confirms the "mounting d i s l i k e f o r Sakaguchi" t h a t he has f e l t f o r some 12 time. He throws the s t o r y aside and, i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, - 123 - s e e k s r e f u g e i n a 'harmless l i t t l e book", a " h i s t o r i c a l r o - 13 mance" c a l l e d T s u k a h a r a Bokuden (the a d v e n t u r e o f a m a s t e r swordsman o f t h e Muromachi p e r i o d ) . Thus t h e f i c t i o n / r e a l i t y d i a l e c t i c i s i n t r o d u c e d i n a r a t h e r humorous f a s h i o n a t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g o f t h e n o v e l . B u t t h e r e i s more. When K e n s a k u awakes t h e f o l l o w i n g a f t e r n o o n , he f i n d s t h a t S a k a g u c h i h i m s e l f has come t o c a l l on him, t o g e t h e r w i t h a n o t h e r a c q u a i n t a n c e , T a t s u o k a . K e n s a k u a t f i r s t r e f u s e s t o s e e S a k a g u c h i , b u t q u i c k l y r e l e n t s . We arev'then t o l d : The s t o r y b y S a k a g u c h i t h a t K e n s a k u ha d f o u n d s o un- p l e a s a n t was a b o u t a man who has an a f f a i r w i t h h i s f i f t e e n - y e a r - o l d h o u s e m a i d ; t h e h o u s e m a i d becomes p r e g n a n t and i s s e n t t o an a b o r t i o n i s t . K e n s a ku t h o u g h t i t most l i k e l y t h a t i t was b a s e d on t h e a u t h o r ' s own e x p e r i e n c e . The f a c t s d e s c r i b e d were i n t h e m s e l v e s u n p l e a s a n t enough; b u t what he r e a l l y d i s l i k e d was t h e o b v i o u s f l i p p a n c y o f t h e a u t h o r . He c o u l d have f o r g i v e n t h e f a c t s i f he had b e en a l l o w e d t o f e e l some sympathy f o r t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ; b u t t h e f l i p p a n c y , t h e s u p e r c i l i - o u s n e s s o f t h e p r o t a g o n i s t (and o f S a k a g u c h i ) l e f t no room f o r s u c h sympathy. He was a n g e r e d , t o o , by t h e way t h e p r o t a g o n i s t ' s f r i e n d , who he was c e r t a i n had b e en m o d e l e d on h i m s e l f , was d e s c r i b e d . 14 B e c a u s e S a k a g u c h i p r o t r a y s him i n t h e s t o r y as "an unknow- i n g o b s e r v e r , h a r b o r i n g what amounted t o a s e c r e t l o n g i n g f o r 15 t h e g i r l " , t h e i r a t e K e n s a k u i s s u r p r i s e d t h a t S a k a g u c h i w o u l d have t h e n e r v e t o come c a l l on him. Had he e x p e c t e d t o g e t an a n g r y l e t t e r f r o m K e n s aku and when i t d i d n ' t come, become u n e a s y and begun t o f e e l t h r e a t e n e d by t h e uncanny s i l e n c e ? Or had he come t o p l a y t h e s t a g e v i l l a i n , g l o a t i n g o v e r h i s own n a s t i n e s s ? He had b e t t e r be c a r e f u l , K e n s a k u t h o u g h t , o r I ' l l g i v e him a p i e c e o f my mind. Thus h i s f a n c i e s <- 124 - a b o u t S a k a g u c h i became l e s s and l e s s r e s t r a i n e d ; and by t h e t i m e he had f i n i s h e d w a s h i n g h i s f a c e , he was i n a s t a t e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e a g i t a t i o n . 16 When Kensaku j o i n s h i s g u e s t s , however, he f i n d s t h a t T a t s u o k a i s e q u a l l y c o n v i n c e d t h a t he i s t h e model f o r Saka- g u e h i 1 s u n i n t e l l i g e n t c h a r a c t e r . "He s a y s most o f t h e s t o r y i s i m a g i n e d " , he t e l l s K e n s a ku, " b u t I d o u b t i t . He's j u s t t h e s o r t o f f e l l o w w h o ' l l w r i t e a b o u t h i s f r i e n d s b e h i n d t h e i r 17 . . . b a c k s . " S a k a g u c h i h i m s e l f m a i n t a i n s a h a u g h t y s i l e n c e i n th e f a c e o f t h e s e a c c u s a t i o n s : One t h i n g a t l e a s t was c l e a r -- he was e n j o y i n g h i m s e l f , Why e l s e w o u l d he have t h a t s m i r k on h i s f a c e ? I n h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f a s h i o n , he was f l a u n t i n g h i s s u p e r - i o r i t y . 18 When he f i n a l l y t r i e s t o s i l e n c e T a t s u o k a , t h o u g h , t h e two men come c l o s e t o b l o w s . B u t S a k a g u c h i must b e a t a h a s t y r e t r e a t , b e c a u s e he i s "no match f o r T a t s u o k a p h y s i c a l l y , who was n o t o n l y t w i c e as l a r g e b u t a t h i r d - g r a d e b l a c k b e l t i n 19 j u d o . " K e n s a k u f i n d s h i m s e l f t h r u s t i n t o t h e u n e x p e c t e d r o l e o f m e d i a t o r between t h e two. B u t he i s s t i l l n o t c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e f i r e n d i n t h e s t o r y i s T a t s u o k a . To p r o t e s t a b o u t i t , t h o u g h , w o u l d be t o a d m i t t h a t he s e e s some s i m i l a r i t y between t h i s " u n a d m i r a b l e " c h a r a c t e r and h i m s e l f , so t h a t S a k a g u c h i , who i s s u c h a " s l i p p e r y c u s t o m e r " , m i g h t e a s i l y a s k : "'Do yo u r e a l l y have s u c h a low o p i n i o n o f y o u r own c h a r a c t e r t h a t 2 0 y o u s h o u l d s e e y o u r s e l f i n h i m l ' " K e n s a k u e v e n s u s p e c t s t h a t T a t s u o k a i s o n l y p r e t e n d i n g t o t h i n k t h a t he i s t h e model f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r , h o p i n g t h a t , by d o i n g s o , he w i l l p r e v e n t Ken- s a k u , t h e r e a l m o d e l , f r o m b r e a k i n g o f f h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h S a k a g u c h i . At any rate, one thing these rather convoluted agonies of suspicion seem to i l l u s t r a t e , with more than a touch of humour, are the occupational hazards of a writer of shi-sho- setsu, the p e r i l s of mixing f i c t i o n with r e a l i t y . Although the scene approaches farce when the engineer and the writer almost come to blows, there i s , nevertheless, an undercurrent of serious comment here. To begin with, Sakaguchi 1s story, as an account of the author's a f f a i r with his young maid, i s highly reminiscent of Tayama Katai's Futon ( ^ The Qui l t , 1980), the f i r s t " n a t u r a l i s t " shi-shosetsu of modern Jpaan, and the work which f i r s t popularized t h i s genre. Shiga, then, seems to be serving notice here that his shtb-shosetsu i s to be i n some important way d i f f e r e n t to those of Tayama and the "n a t u r a l i s t s " . How he perceives t h i s difference be- comes clear i f we look again at Kensaku's c r i t i c i s m of Saka- gushi's story. I t i s not the "unpleasant" facts that disburb him (and the " n a t u r a l i s t s " were well known for wallowing i n the mud), i t i s the unsympathetic attitude of the author and of the protagonist, his a l t e r ego. "He could have forgiven the facts i f he had beel allowed to f e e l some sympathy for the pro- tagonist; but the flippancy, the superciliousness of thevpro- 21 tagonist (and of Sakaguchi) l e f t no room for such sympathy." The cynical protagonist i s shown cu r e l l y mistreating the young maid for his own amusement, although the r e a l g i r l was, as 22 Kensaku knows, "innocent and good-hearted". In other words, Sakaguchi lacks the one quality that i s absolutely e s s e n t i a l i n a writer of shi-shosetsu: s i n c e r i t y . If the author lacks - 1 2 6 - t h i s q u a l i t y t h e n s o , i n e v i t a b l y , w i l l h i s f i c t i o n a l p e r s o n a , and h i s w o r k , no m a t t e r how b r i l l i a n t i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , w i l l f a l l f l a t b e c a u s e , as K e n s a k u t e l l s u s , i t w i l l f a i l t o a r o u s e o u r s y m p a t h y , i . e . , i t w i l l n o t b r i n g a b o u t t h a t a l l - i m p o r t a n t communion o f s p i r i t b e t w e e n r e a d e r a n d w r i t e r w h i c h , as we h a v e s e e n , S h i g a c a l l e d ' " r h y t h m " . By e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s c l o s e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n p e r s o n a l c h a r - a c t e r and a e s t h e t i c v a l u e i n t h e w r i t i n g o f s h i - s h o s e t s u (a r e l a t i o n t h a t h a s a l w a y s b e e n e m p h a s i z e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l J a p a n e s e a e s t h e t i c s ) , S h i g a a l s o p r e p a r e s us f o r t h e theme t h a t I h a v e a l r e a d y s u g g e s t e d i s c e n t r a l t o t h e n o v e l : K e n s a k u m u s t s o l v e h i s f u n d a m e n t a l " p r o b l e m o f t h e s e l f " b e f o r e he c a n S u c c e e d a s a w r i t e r -- and go on t o w r i t e t h i s v e r y n o v e l . A l r e a d y i n t l a i s f i r s t s c e n e , d e s p i t e i t s a l m o s t c o m i c t o n e , we a r e g i v e n some h i n t s o f t h e d e p t h s o f t h i s p r o b l e m : h i s a n g e r and m e n t a l a g i - t a t i o n , w h i c h seem o u t o f a l l p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e i r r a t h e r t r i v i a l c a u s e ; h i s s u s p i c i o n , a m o u n t i n g t o a l m o s t p a r a n o i a , n o t o n l y o f S a k a g u c h i b u t e v e n o f t h e h a r m l e s s T a t s u o k a ; a n d , f i n a l l y , h i s s e l f - d o u b t s r e v e a l e d , as he h i m s e l f a d m i t s , by t h e v e r y f a c t t h a t he i d e n t i f i e s w i t h t h e d i s a g r e e a b l e c h a r a c t e r p o r - t r a y e d by S a k a g u c h i , n o t on t h e b a s i s o f any e x t e r n a l e v i d e n c e b u t e n t i r e l y b e c a u s e o f w h a t he p e r c e i v e s as a " s i m i l a r i t y o f c h a r a c t e r " . ^ On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h i s o p e n i n g s c e n e a l s o g i v e s us j u s t as c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e r e i s much t o be h o p e d f o r f r o m K e n s a k u . I n t e l l i n g c o n t r a s t t o t h e smug, s e l f - s a t i s f i e d Sakaguchi, Kensaku i s at least aware — p a i n f u l l y aware -- that something within him i s seriously awry. He admits to himself that he i s being "far too suspicious of Sakaguchi" and that, "ever since his experience with Aiko", he has found i t increas- 24 ingly d i f f i c u l t to t r u s t people". (As i s consistent with this being Kensaku's shi-shosetsu, his own "stream of conscious- ness", we do not understand t h i s reference to "Aiko" u n t i l l a t e r i n the novel). He also admits that he does not " l i k e t h i s ten- 2 dency i n himself, but there was not.much he could do about i t . " Nevertheless, by this very act of painf u l self-awareness, he has taken the f i r s t step on the road that w i l l lead him u l t i - mately out of his "dark night". What t h i s f i r s t scene shows us, i n Shiga's admirably economical fashion, i s that Kensaku, unlike his fellow-writer, Sakaguchi, possesses at le a s t the s i n c e r i t y necessary to make progress as a human being -- and so as a writer of shi-shosetsu. Throughout the remainder of Part I of the novel, however, Kensaku's development seems more i n the nature of a "rake's progress". He begins to frequent the teahouses and, eventually, the brodihels of Yoshiwara, conducting liasons with several- d i f f e r e n t geisha, but without being r e a l l y s a t i s f i e d with any of them. Ultimately he must admit to himself his i n a b i l i t y to control his sexual desires, as he admitted e a r l i e r that he could not control his suspicions; and this too i s a symptom of some deeper malaise: - 128 - The truth was that he was drawn to almost every woman he saw...And before he could stop himself, he was asking himself the unwelcome question: "What i s i t that I want?" He knew the answer; but i t was so un- pleasant, he wanted to hide from i t . 2 6 F i n a l l y , Kensaku's sexual desire becomes fixed on Oei, his "grandfather's" ex-mistress who i s now l i v i n g with him as^-a kind of housekeeper. He recognizes i n s t i n c t i v e l y , though that his increasing "self-indulgence" might lead him now to vi o l a t e some deep taboo, which could prove disastrous: With every passing day, his self-indulgence became more intense. As his l i f e grew more anarchic, so did his mind, and his lewd fantasies about Oei became more and more un- controlled. He wondered f e a r f u l l y what would happen to them i f his present condition were to p e r s i s t . This woman, who had been his grandfather's mistress, was almost twenty years older than he. He imagined . th e i r future together. What he saw — and he shrank before the prospect -- was his own destruction. 27 As Part I ends, Kensaku decides that he must get away from Tokyo for six months or a year, to try to come to grips with himself on his own, away from Oei and from the d i s t r a c - tions of his perpetually carousing friends. As he t e l l s Oei, he also hopes that i n solitude he w i l l "get a l o t of work 2 8 done". This i s the f i r s t important statement i n the novel of the li n k between Kensaku's s p i r i t u a l well-being and his capacity to write. Also, by going away to face himself alone, he acknowledges, at least unconsciously, that his fundamental problem does not l i e i n his external circumstances but i n his inner condition — which he alone can change. This i s the beginning of a process of progressive " i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n " i n - 129 - K e nsaku's p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s own p r o b l e m w h i c h , as we s h a l l s e e , c u l m i n a t e s i n t h e f i n a l p a r t o f t h e n o v e l when he o p e n l y c o n - f r o n t s h i s own " t y r a n i c a l " e g o t i s m . H i s g o i n g i n t o h e r m e t i c a l r e t r e a t t o seek p e a c e o f mind i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l O r i e n t a l f a s h i o n a t t h e end o f P a r t I a l s o f o r e s h a d o w s h i s f i n a l " r e - t r e a t " on Mount D a i s e n a t t h e end o f P a r t IV. As P a r t I I o p e n s , K e nsaku i s on h i s way by s h i p t o Ono- m i c h i , a s m a l l p r o v i n c i a l town b e a u t i f u l l y s i t u a t e d on t h e I n l a n d S e a , w h i c h he has c h o s e n as t h e s i t e o f h i s r e t r e a t . S t a n d i n g a l o n e on t h e s h i p ' s d e c k , he has an e x p e r i e n c e t h a t i s an i m p o r t a n t p r e l u d e t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e he w i l l have on Mount D a i s e n s e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r : Above and b e l o w , t o h i s r i g h t and l e f t , t h e d a r k n e s s s t r e t c h e d w i t h o u t l i m i t . And h e r e he was, s t a n d i n g i n t h e v e r y m i d d l e o f t h i s enormous t h i n g . . . H e a l o n e s t o o d f a c e t o f a c e w i t h n a t u r e , as mankind's c h o s e n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . B u t t o g e t h e r w i t h t h i s e x a g g e r a t e d s e n s e o f s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e came t h e h o p e l e s s f e e l i n g t h a t he was a b o u t t o be s w a l l o w e d up by t h e g r e a t d a r k n e s s a r o u n d him. I t was n o t a l t o g e t h e r u n p l e a s a n t . He f o u g h t a g a i n s t i t n e v e r t h e l e s s . As i f t o p r o v e t o him- s e l f h i s own p r e s e n c e , he t i g h t e n e d t h e m u s c l e s i n h i s l o w e r abdomen and b r e a t h e d d e e p l y . As s o o n as he s t o p p e d d o i n g s o , however, he a g a i n f e l t i n d a n g e r o f b e i n g s w a l l o w e d up. 29 I t i s o b v i o u s f r o m t h i s t h a t K e n s a k u i s n o t y e t r e a d y t o " l e t go" and c o m p l e t e l y l o s e h i m s e l f i n n a t u r e , e v e n t h o u g h he a l r e a d y r e c o g n i z e s t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e i s " n o t a l t o g e t h e r unpleasant'. 1. And i t i s a l s o o b v i o u s what i s s t o p p i n g him: h i s " e x a g g e r a t e d s e n s e o f s e l f - i m p o r t a n c e " — i . e . , h i s ego -- t h e o t h e r s i d e o f w h i c h i s f e a r , t h e f e a r o f l o s i n g h i m s e l f , - 130 - o f b e i n g " s w a l l o w e d up". To c o u n t e r a c t t h i s f e a r o f what i n Zen i s c a l l e d " n o t h i n g n e s s " (mu ^ ) , K e n s a k u t i g h t e n s h i s a b d o m i n a l m u s c l e s and b r e a t h e s d e e p l y , "as i f t o p r o v e t o h i m s e l f h i s own p r e s e n c e " . The Zen way, o f c o u r s e , and t h e way K e n s a k u h i m s e l f w i l l come t o e v e n t u a l l y , i s t o embrace t h i s n o t h i n g n e s s ; b u t , f o r t h e moment, h i s e x c e s s i v e e g o t i s m p r e v e n t s t h e k i n d o f s e l f - s u r r e n d e r t h a t t h i s r e q u i r e s . A t f i r s t K e n s a k u r e s p o n d s w e l l t o h i s p e a c e f u l l i f e on t h e m o u n t a i n s i d e above O n o m i c h i . "At l e a s t he f e l t r e l a x e d enough t o s t a r t on a l o n g - r a n g e p r o j e c t he had b e e n p l a n n i n g . T h i s was t o be a work b a s e d on h i s l i f e f r o m c h i l d h o o d t o t h e p r e s e n t . I n o t h e r w o rds, he has begun t o w r i t e A n 'ya K o r o s p e c i f i c a l l y , we may s p e c u l a t e , t h e p a r t t h a t l a t e r becomes t h e p r o l o g u e , t h e " h e r o ' s r e m i n i s c e n c e s - " o f h i s c h i l d h o o d . T h i s w o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e p r o l o g u e ' s b e i n g w r i t t e n i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n : i t was w r i t t e n b e f o r e K e n s a k u ha d a t t a i n e d t h e " p o s t - D a i s e n " d e t a c h m e n t I spoke o f e a r l i e r . The f a c t t h a t he l a c k s s u c h d e t a c h m e n t i s shown by h i s i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t i n u e w r i t i n g a t O n o m i c M . A w r i t e r o f s h i - 3 1 s h o s e t s u , as S h i g a once s a i d , must "mine" what i s i n him, b u t t h i s o f t e n i n v o l v e s p a i n f u l i n t r o s p e c t i o n and s e l f - a n a l y s i s . K e n s a k u , f o r i n s t a n c e , i s t r o u b l e d by a memory o f h a v i n g t o u c h e d h i s m o t h e r ' s g e n i t a l s w h i l e s l e e p i n g w i t h h e r as a f o u r - y e a r - o l d , and h a v i n g b een r e p r i m a n d e d by h e r f o r d o i n g s o . He f e l t shame s t i l l as he remembered t h e i n c i d e n t . He was a l s o p u z z l e d by t h e memory. What.had made h i m do s u c h a t h i n g ? Was i t c u r i o s i t y o r was i t some k i n d o f - 131 - u r g e ? . . . P e r h a p s , he t h o u g h t w e t c h e d l y , he had i n h e r i t e d s u c h an i n c l i n a t i o n ; p e r h a p s e v e n w i t h s u c h t h i n g s , one may be c u r s e d by t h e s i n s o f one's f o r e f a t h e r s . I t was w i t h c h i l d h o o d r e m i n i s c e n c e s l i k e t h e s e , t h e n , t h a t he began h i s w r i t i n g . 32 B u t , a f t e r a b o u t a month o f r e a w a k e n i n g s u c h p a i n f u l mem- o r i e s , t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e p a s t becomes a b i t t o o much f o r K e n s a k u : " F o r a b o u t a month h i s work p r o g r e s s e d a t a s t e a d y p a c e , and b o t h h i s d a i l y l i f e and h i s h e a l t h seemed s a t i s f a c - 33 t o r y . Then g r a d u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g b e g an t o d e t e r i o r a t e . " And: "As h i s work f a l t e r e d he b e g a n t o s u f f e r f r o m t h e mono- 34 t o n y o f h i s l i f e . E v e r y day was t h e same." He r e we h a v e , t h e n , a somewhat more s e r i o u s example o f t h e h a z a r d s o f w r i t i n g s h i - s h o s e t s u t h a n was p r e s e n t e d i n t h e n o v e l ' s o p e n i n g s c e n e , and one t h a t demands f r o m t h e w r i t e r a good d e a l o f s e l f - d e t a c h m e n t , s i n c e t h e " s e l f " i s h i s p r i n c i p l e s u b j e c t . F i n d i n g , t h e n , t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e t h a t b u i l d s up d u r i n g s o l i f i u d e i s , as y e t , t o o much f o r him t o b e a r , K e n s a k u t u r n s t o an e x t e r n a l s o u r c e f o r r e l i e f : he w r i t e s t o h i s b r o t h e r , N o b u y u k i , a s k i n g him t o c o n v e y h i s p r o p o s a l o f m a r r i a g e t o O e i . N o b u y u k i ' s answer b r i n g s a d o u b l e s h o c k ; n o t o n l y d o e s O e i a d a m a n t l y r e f u s e h i s p r o p o s a l , b u t N o b u y u k i r e v e a l s t h e r e a - son why she must: t h e "shoddy, common, w o r t h l e s s o l d man" t o whom she was m i s t r e s s i s K e n s a k u ' s r e a l f a t h e r . T h i s unwelcome p i e c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n i s t h e d e e p e s t blow y e t t o Kensaku's s e n s e o f s e l f ; i t s h a k e s him t o t h e v e r y c o r e . I t was a l l l i k e a dream t o him. The b e i n g t h a t was h i m s e l f , t h e p e r s o n he had known u n t i l now as h i m s e l f , seemed t o be g o i n g f a r t h e r and f a r t h e r i n t o t h e d i s - t a n c e l i k e a t h i n n i n g m i s t . 35 - 132 - Again, then, Kensaku feels threatened by a sense of "nothing- ness". S i g n i f i c a n t l y , what saves him at t h i s point i s the sud- den surge of sympathy he feels for his dead mother: His mother and that shoddy, common, worthless old man — the mere thought of the association was ugly and unclean. He was then suddenly f i l l e d with overwhelming p i t y for his mother, his mother who had been d e f i l e d by that man. "Mama!" he c r i e d out, l i k e a boy about to throw himself into his mother's arms. 36 By t h i s spontaneous cry from the depths of his soui: Kensaku turns a l l his attention away from himself and towards another, thus freeing himself, at least momentarily, from his own per- sonal pain. Although this i s an e n t i r e l y i n s t i n c t i v e action here, i t i s , nevertheless, an important indicat i o n of the way that, ultimately, Kensaku must consciously embrace: the way of self-transcendence, of "freeing the s e l f from the s e l f " . In the l e t t e r that he sends hack to his brother, Kensaku makes i t clear that he i s determined to make positi v e use of his new "self-knowledge", however p a i n f u l , both as a man and as a writer of shi-shosetsu: Through my new knowledge about myself I s h a l l be able to do my work with greater determination than before. And i n that new determination I s h a l l seek my salvation. There i s no .other way for me. By that means, I s h a l l be able to accomplish two things at once: do the work I want to do and f i n d myself. 37 Here, then, we have the most e x p l i c i t statement yet of the intimate r e l a t i o n between Kensaku's "finding himself" and his capacity to write. - 133 - T h e r e i s a l s o some i r o n i c , a l m o s t c o m i c comment h e r e on a s u b j e c t f a m i l i a r by now: t h e p e r i l s o f w r i t i n g s h i - s h o s e t s u . N o b u y u k i has e x p r e s s e d h i s c o n c e r n t h a t t h e " f a m i l y s c a n d a l " w i l l make i t s way i n t o K e n s a k u ' s w r i t i n g s , so t h a t K e n s a ku must t r y t o r e a s s u r e him: I c a n s y m p a t h i z e w i t h y o u r f e a r l e s t t h e a f f a i r s o f o u r f a m i l y s h o u l d a p p e a r i n my w r i t i n g s . I c a n n o t p r o m i s e t h a t t h e y w i l l n o t a p p e a r i n some f o r m o r o t h e r . B u t I s h a l l t r y t o be c a r e f u l n o t t o c a u s e d i s c o m f o r t . 3 8 L e f t a l o n e w i t h h i s t h o u g h t s a t O n o m i c h i , K e n s a k u n a t u r a l l y i s t e mpted t o brooS. a t t i m e s a b o u t h i s b e i n g b o r n a " c h i l d o f s i n " . B u t , a l r e a d y , l o n g b e f o r e h i s e x p e r i e n c e on Mount D a i s e n , he knows i n t u i t i v e l y t h a t r e l i e f c a n be f o u n d o n l y i f he i s a b l e t o " d i s s o l v e " h i s t r o u b l e d s e l f i n t h e v a s t w o r l d o f n a - t u r e t h a t s u r r o u n d s him: He made h i m s e l f t h i n k o f t h e v a s t n e s s o f t h e w o r l d a r o u n d h i m . . . i n t h e m i d s t o f t h i s v a s t n e s s t h e r e was t h i s m i n u t e p a r t i c l e t h a t was h i m s e l f , b u s i l y w e a v i n g a web o f m i s e r y i n t h e l i t t l e w o r l d o f h i s mind. Such was h i s c u s t o m a r y way o f c o m b a t t i n g h i s own f i t s o f d e p r e s s i o r j . . . 39 N e v e r t h e l e s s , K e n s a ku does n o t y e t f e e l s t r o n g enough t o h e a l h i s own wounded s p i r i t a l l by h i m s e l f . He d e c i d e s t o r e - t u r n t o T o k y o , a l t h o u g h w i t h m i s g i v i n g s t h a t he m i g h t r e l a p s e a g a i n i n t o h i s o l d l i f e o f d i s s i p a t i o n . The t h o u g h t o f - l i v i n g once more t h e way he had done t h o s e l a s t t h r e e mo&ths i n Tokyo was a l m o s t enough t o d e t a i n him. T h e r e was h i s work t o o , nowhere n e a r c o m p l e t i o n . How c o u l d he l i v e l i k e t h a t a g a i n , he wondered, r u s h i n g a b o u t f r a n t i c a l l y y e t a l w a y s w i t h t h a t o p p r e s s i v e f e e l i n g o f g u i l t ? 40 Back i n T o k y o , K e n s a k u f i n d s t h a t h i s b r o t h e r has d e c i d e d t o r e s i g n f r o m h i s company and t a k e up t h e s t u d y o f Zen. The - 134 - st a r t l e d Kensaku "could hardly share Nobuyuki's confidence i n the E f f i c a c y of Zen. Sen was becoming awfully fashionable, 41 and Kensaku naturally f e l t animosity toward i t . " He also disapproves of the Zen master Nobuyuki has chosen to study with: "He was the sort that spoke to large audiences at such places as the Mitsui Assembly H a l l . For men l i k e him, who went about scattering seed indiscriminately on barren ground, Kensaku had no r e s p e c t . " 4 2 This i s the f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t mention of Zen Buddhism i n An'ya Kore. There i s an in t e r e s t i n g d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n be- tween this novel and the "meditation" sect that has exercised such an overwhelming influence on Japanese culture. As some of my comments have already suggested, Kensaku's "journey through dark night" -- his struggle to free himself from his own egotism and his eventual achievement of t h i s by total" union with nature — f a l l p e r f e c t l y within the Zen view of l i f e and of the basic human predicament. Later i n the novel, i n fact, Kensaku i s shown to be reading and admiring the Zen c l a s s i c s : the "enlightenment s t o r i e s " , i n p a r t i c u l a r , "appealed deeply to his susceptible mind. And each time he heard the words, 'Thus i n an instant there was enlightenment', he would f e e l 43 l i k e c r y i h g i " And, just before his Daisen experience, we are t o l d : "Though he knew nothing about Buddhism, such realms believed i n by Buddhists as 'nirvana' and 'the realm of b l i s s ' 44 ssemed i r r e s i s t i b l y a t t r a c t i v e to him." While l i v i n g on - 135 - Mount D a i s e n , i n f a c t , he e v e n comes c l o s e t o a t t e n d i n g a Zen s e s s h i n ( e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f l e c t u r e s and m e d i t a t i o n ) . N e v e r t h e l e s s , An'ya K o r o i s n o t a r e l i g i o u s t r a c t b u t a n o v e l , so t h a t S h i g a , w h a t e v e r h i s p e r s o n a l v i e w s on t h e m a t t e r , i s w i s e t o b a l a n c e K e n s a k u ' s p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s a b o u t Zen i n i t s " p u r e " f o r m w i t h some r a t h e r n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s a b o u t Zen as a modern o r g a n i z e d r e l i g i o n (an example o f w h i c h we saw i n h i s contemptuous o p i n i o n o f t h e " i n d i s c r i m i n a t e " Zen m a s t e r q u o t e d a b o v e ) . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t , t h o u g h , i s t h a t K e n s a k u , a l t h o u g h u n d o u b t e d l y somewhat u n d e r t h e sway o f Zen i d e a s , does n o t , i n c o n t r a s t t o h i s b r o t h e r , t a k e up t h e a c t u a l p r a c t i s e o f Zen. I f h i s Mount D a i s e n e x p e r i e n c e i s a g e n u i n e Zen s a t o r i , i t has b e en a c h i e v e d " n a t u r a l l y " and n o t by z a z e n ( m e d i t a t i o n ) o r k oan p r a c t i s e . K e n s a k u i s d e f i n i t e l y t h e t y p e o f man who must go h i s own way -- i f o n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e e n o r m i t y o f h i s ego. As we a r e t o l d : " i t d i s t r e s s e d h i m t o i m a g i n e h i m s e l f s i t t i n g 45 humbly a t t h e f e e t o f some smug Zen p r i e s t " . On one l e v e l , t h e n , An'ya K o r o may be r e g a r d e d as p a r t o f t h a t s e r i e s o f m a j o r modern J a p a n e s e n o v e l s and s t o r i e s t h a t t r y t o come t o t e r ms w i t h t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l a s p e c t o f J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e , t h e i n e f f a b l e widdom o f Zen. The l i s t i n c l u d e s M o r i O g a i ' s "Kanzan J i t t o k u " ( 1 9 1 6 ) , Natsume S o s e k i ' s Mon (The G a t e , 1 9 1 0 ) , and, more r e c e n t l y , M i s h i m a Y u k i o ' s K i n k a k u j i (The Temple o f t h e G o l d e n P a v i l i o n , 1 9 5 6 ) . Of a l l t h e s e w o r k s , t h o u g h , i t seems t o me t h a t S h i g a ' s d e s p i t e i t s a p p a r e n t r e j e c - t i o n o f " o r t h o d o x " Zen, comes c l o s e s t t o p r e s e n t i n g t h e a u t h e n - t i c Zen e x p e r i e n c e o f a g r e a t s p i r i t u a l l i b e r a t i o n a c h i e v e d - 136 - a f t e r y e a r s o f p a i n f u l e f f o r t . P e r h a p s t h i s a c c o u n t s f o r t h e v e r y p a l p a b l e s p i r i t u a l power o f t h e n o v e l , w h i c h gave i t s o m e t h i n g o f a " c u l t f o l l o w i n g " among s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s o f J a p a n e s e r e a d e r s . To r e t u r n t o t h e s t o r y i t s e l f , t h o u g h : as P a r t I I draws t o a c l o s e , K e n s a k u d e s p i t e a l l h i s good r e s o l u t i o n s , does r e t u r n t o h i s f o r m e r l i f e - s t y l e o f f r e q u e n t i n g t h e t e a h o u s e s and b r o t h e l s o f Y o s h i w a r a . He "once more began t o d e c l i n e , b o t h i n s p i r i t and i n b o d y . . . H i s way o f l i f e a g a i n became d i s o r d e r - N II  4 6 l y " . A t t h e same t i m e , however, he dreams o f e s c a p i n g e n t i r e l y f r o m t h e w o r l d o f men, much l i k e a t r a d i t i o n a l h e r m i t : He w o u l d f i n d a w o r l d where t h e v e r y a i r he b r e a t h e d was d i f f e r e n t . He w o u l d l i v e a t t h e f o o t o f some g r e a t m o u n t a i n , among p e a s a n t s who knew n o t h i n g . And i f he c o u l d l i v e a p a r t e v e n f r o m them, a l l t h e b e t t e r . . . How good i t w o u l d be t o l i v e and e v e n t u a l l y d i e i n t h a t c o n d i t i o n — f o r g o t t e n , unknown, u n t o u c h e d by t h e o u t e r w o r l d ! 47 W a l k i n g t h r o u g h t h e G i n z a one n i g h t , he t r i e s t o evoke w i t h i n h i m s e l f t h e s p i r i t o f a Zen man o f o l d l i k e Han-Shan: He must l o o k s t r a i g h t ahead w i t h t h e e y e s o f a c a l m and c o n t r o l l e d man and n o t l o o k a b o u t him n e r v o u s l y as he was wont t o do. He wanted t o be l i k e a man s t r i d i n g a l o n e t h r o u g h t h e w i l d e r n e s s i n t h e t w i l i g h t , u n m i n d f u l o f t h e c r y i n g p i n e s and t h e w h i s p e r i n g g r a s s . (Had N o b u y u k i s a i d t h e image was t o be f o u n d i n a poem by Han-Shan?) He wanted t o c a p t u r e t h e s p i r i t o f s u c h a man -- e v e n h e r e on G i n z a . And he d i d n o t a l t o g e t h e r f a i l t o do s o . I n h i s p r e s e n t frame o f mind he n e e ded d e s p e r a t e l y t o c l i n g t o some s u c h i d e a l . 48 As we w o u l d e x p e c t f r o m h i s p r e s e n t m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n , K e n s a k u a l s o f a i l s t o make any p r o g r e s s i n h i s w r i t i n g . " T h e r e was t h e l o n g p i e c e t h a t he had worked on i n O n o m i c h i and was - 137 - s t i l l u n f i n i s h e d , b u t he d i d n o t w a n t t o t o u c h t h a t f o r t h e 49 t i m e b e i n g . " ( K e n s a k u i s r e f e r r i n g h e r e , o f c o u r s e , t o An y a K o r o i t s e l f . ) S i n c e he i s i n no mood t o e n g a g e i n t h e k i n d o f p a i n f u l i n t r o s p e c t i o n t h a t t h e w r i t i n g o f h i s l e n g t h y s h i - s h o s e t s u w o u l d r e q u i r e , he f e e l s t h a t he m i g h t t r y w r i t i n g a w ork o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f i c t i o n , d r a w i n g on h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e "gay q u a r t e r " . W h i l e v i s i t i n g a t e a h o u s e one n i g h t he h a d h e a r d f r o m two g e i s h a t h e s t o r y o f E i h a n a , " t h e m o s t w i c k e d 50 g e i s h a i n t w o n " , whom K e n s a k u h a d s e e n p e r f o r m when s h e was a g i r l . She h a d t r a i n e d when y o u n g t o become a b a l l a d - s i n g e r b u t h a d r u n away b e f o r e h e r t r a i n i n g was f i n i s h e d t o l i v e w i t h t h e s o n o f a l o c a l b o o k s e l l e r . B u t t h e b o y was s o o n t a k e n b a c k by h i s p a r e n t s a n d s h e was d i s o w n e d by h e r s . She was p r e g n a n t b y t h e n a n d r u m o r h a d i t t h a t s h e h a d d e s t r o y e d h e r own c h i l d a n d t a k e n up w i t h t h e f i r s t man who h a p p e n e d a l o n g , who t u r n e d o u t t o be a p i m p . She h a d d i s a p p e a r e d f r o m T o k y o f o r a f e w y e a r s b u t now s h e was b a c k and w o r k i n g a s a g e i s h a i n Y a n a g i b a s h i , one o f t h e p l e a s u r e q u a r t e r s f r e q u e n t e d b y K e n s a k u . T h i s t a l e o f E i h a n a i s t h e f i r s t o f a s e r i e s o f " s t o r i e s w i t h i n t h e s t o r y " t h a t a p p e a r i n A n ' y a K o r o ( o t h e r e x a m p l e s a r e t h e s a m u r a i t a l e t o l d b y N a o k o ' s u n c l e , O e i ' s m i s a d v e n t u r e s i n C h i n a , t h e s t o r y o f t h e K o r e a n n o b l e m a n m i s t r e a t e d by J a p a n - e s e c o l o n i a l a u t h o r i t i e s and t h e g o s s i p t h a t K e n s a k u h e a r s on Mount D a i s e n a b o u t t h e m e l o d r a m a t i c g o i n g s - o n t h a t s u r r o u n d - 138 - t h e " s l u t t i s h " w i f e o f t h e w o o d c u t t e r T a k e ) . As we saw i n " T a k i b i " , t h i s i s a f a v o r i t e d e v i c e o f S h i g a ' s . J u s t as t h e " s u p e r n a t u r a l " m a t e r i a l i n " T a k i b i " i s made more a c c e p t a b l e by b e i n g p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s k i n d o f framework ( s i n c e t h e a u t h o r seems " d e t a c h e d " f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l — he i s m e r e l y " r e p o r t i n g " s o m e t h i n g he has h e a r d ) , so i s t h e r a t h e r m e l o d r a m a t i c m a t e r - i a l h e r e made more p a l a t a b l e by b e i n g p r e s e n t e d m e r e l y as g o s s i p K e n s a k u h a s h e a r d . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s e " c o n v e n t i o n a l - s t y l e " s t o r i e s do have an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n i n An'ga K o r o . Q u i t e a p a r t f r o m t h e i r i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t a s s t o r i e s p e r s e , t h e y s e r v e t o r e p r e s e n t t r a d i t i o n a l , c o n v e n t i o n a l f i c t i o n w i t h i n t h e n o v e l ( t h e s t o r y o f E i h a n a , f o r i n s t a n c e , sounds l i k e s o m e t h i n g o u t o f t h e g e s a k u l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e Tokugawa p e r i o d , w i t h i t s h i g h l y c o l o u r e d t a l e s o f t h e " f l o a t i n g w o r l d " ) ; and t h u s t h e y f u n c t i o n , w i t h i n t h e f i c t i o n / r e a l i t y d i a l e c t i c , a s t h e o p p o s i t e end o f t h e p o l e t o t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u . I n o t h e r words, S h i g a makes good u s e o f t h e p r i n c i p l e , h e r e as e l s e - where, t h a t t h e b e s t way t o d e f i n e s o m e t h i n g i s by c o n t r a s t w i t h i t s o p p o s i t e . When, f o r i n s t a n c e , K e n s a k u ' s f r i e n d I s h i m o t o s u g g e s t s t h a t " a l l t h a t b a c k g r o u n d s t u f f a b o u t E i h a n a " w o u l d make a good s t o r y , K e n s a k u ' s d r e a c t i o n i s s i g n i - f i c a n t : " Q u i t e s o , " s a i d K e n s a k u w i t h an o b v i o u s l a c k o f e n t h u - s i a s m . " A t l e a s t , i t ' s good c o n v e r s a t i o n m a t e r i a l . " T h i s l a s t remark was u n g r a c i o u s , b u t he h a d t o make i t ; f o r he r e s e n t e d I s h i m o t o ' s a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s t u f f o f g o s s i p c o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o w r i t i n g . 51 I n o t h e r w o rds, t h e mere f a c t t h a t s o m e t h i n g h a s a c t u a l l y happened does n o t q u a l i f y i t as m a t e r i a l f o r a w r i t e r o f s h i - - 139 - s h o s e t s u . L i f e i t s e l f i s o f t e n as f u l l o f melodrama as t h e most v u l g a r soap o p e r a , b u t t h e w r i t e r , as an a r t i s t , must s e l e c t as h i s m a t e r i a l o n l y what seems most a p p r o p r i a t e and 52 " n a t u r a l " t o him. N e v e r t h e l e s s , K e n s a k u h a s a momentary change o f h e a r t a b o u t t h e E i h a n a s t o r y as m a t e r i a l f o r h i s w r i t i n g , and t h i s t e l l s us much a b o u t what m o t i v a t e s h i m as a w r i t e r . When he and h i s b r o t h e r r e t u r n home f r o m t h e t e a h o u s e : N o b u y u k i r e c o u n t e d f o r O e i ' s b e n e f i t t h e s t o r y o f E i h a n a . I t was a t a l e t o l d w i t h l i t t l e p i t y and i n a s p i r i t o f c e n s u r e a b o u t a woman s t e e p e d i n e v i l . . . K e n s a k u was f i l l e d w i t h a n g e r . He t h o u g h t o f t h a t l i t t l e p a l e - f a c e d g i r l on t h e s t a g e , so h e l p l e s s y e t p r o u d , and wanted t o t e l l them, " I t ' s n o t E i h a n a t h a t ' s b a d ! " B u t t h e y had n e v e r s e e n t h e g i r l , and t h e y w o u l d n o t know what he meant; and as he s a t t h e r e t r y i n g t o c o n t a i n h i s a n g e r , i t s u d d e n l y o c c u r r e d t o him t h a t t h e r e was s o m e t h i n g he c o u l d w r i t e a b o u t . 53 I t i s c l e a r , t h e n , t h a t K e n s a k u must have a s t r o n g p e r s o n - a l f e e l i n g a b o u t s o m e t h i n g b e f o r e he i s a b l e t o w r i t e a b o u t i t . I n t h e c a s e o f E i h a n a , t h e r e i s , i n f a c t , an e v e n d e e p e r p e r - s o n a l r e a s o n t h a n t h e one i n d i c a t e d i n t h e above q u o t e : as a 54 " f a l l e n woman", she r e m i n d s him o f h i s m o t h e r . S t i l l , t h e r e i s one c r u c i a l s t u m b l i n g - b l o c k : as an a u t h o r o f s h i - s h o s e t s u how i s he t o w r i t e a b o u t someone o t h e r t h a n h i m s e l f ? He t r i e d w r i t i n g a b o u t E i h a n a f r o m h i s own p o i n t o f v i e w ; q u i c k l y i t became e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s t o r y w o u l d be t o o b a r e t o l d t h a t way, and he d e c i d e d t o t e l l i t f r o m h e r p o i n t o f v i e w , g i v i n g h i s i m a g i n a t i o n f r e e r e i n . He t o y e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f h a v i n g h e r meet Omasa t h e V i p e r . . . H e l i k e d t h e s t o r y l e s s and l e s s as i t d e v e l o p e d . I t seemed t o him t o become p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n t r i v e d a f t e r t h e h e r o i n e ' s j o u r n e y t o H o k k a i d o . B e s i d e s , he f o u n d t e l l i n g a s t o r y f r o m a woman's p o i n t o f v i e w , w h i c h he had n e v e r a t t e m p t e d b e f o r e , f a r more d i f f i c u l t t h a n he had i m a g i n e d . 55 (My e m p h a s i s . ) - 140 - Here we have one o f t h e most e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t s o f S h i g a ' s " c r e d o " as a w r i t e r o f s h i - s h o s e t s u : t h a t , a t l e a s t f o r h i m s e l f , t o t r y t o t e l l a s t o r y f r o m any p o i n t o f v i e w o t h e r t h a n h i s own w o u l d be t o r i s k t h e k i n d o f a r t i f i c i a l , " c o n t r i v e d " w r i t i n g he a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n v e n t i o n a l f i c t i o n . And, i n d e e d , i f we l o o k a t e v e n h i s own " f i c t i o n a l " s t o r i e s , we f i n d t h a t , i n a l m o s t e v e r y c a s e , t h e p r o t a g o n i s t s a r e i d e n t i f i a b l e p r o j e c t i o n s o f h i m s e l f : t h e "Han" o f "Han no H a n z a i " (Han's C r i m e ) , t h e " K a k i t a " o f " A k a n i s h i K a k i t a " , t h e " C l a u d i u s " o f " K u r a d i a s u no N i k k i " ("The D i a r y o f C l a u d i u s " ) and so on. As P a r t I I I o f t h e n o v e l o p e n s , Kensaku's s p i r i t s have r e v i v e d somewhat f r o m t h e d o l d r u m s we l a s t saw him i n . He has moved t o K y o t o , t h e o l d c a p i t a l o f J a p a n , whose " a n c i e n t t e m p l e s and works o f a r t l e d h i m g e n t l y b a c k t o a n c i e n t t i m e s , i n v i t i n g a r e s p o n s e f r o m him t h a t he had n o t t h o u g h t p o s s i b l e . " " ^ He s pends most o f h i s t i m e j u s t w a l k i n g a r o u n d t h e o l d c i t y , ad- m i r i n g i t s t e m p l e s , g a r d e n s and a r t works and s o a k i n g i n i t s p e a c e f u l a t m o s p h e r e . On:one s u c h o u t i n g he h a p p e ns t o c a t c h s i g h t o f a young woman i n a n e a r b y h o u s e , who p r e s e n t s an i n - v i t i n g p i c t u r e o f d o m e s t i c i t y t o t h e l o n e l y K e n s a ku as she goes a b o u t h e r h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s . "She was a p l e a s i n g and wholesome 57 s i g h t , and he was i m m e d i a t e l y drawn t o h e r . " So drawn i s he, i n f a c t , t h a t t h e i m p u l s i v e K e n s a k u r e s o l v e s t o m a r r y h e r , more o r l e s s on t h e s p o t . I n d o i n g s o , he i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f , i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, w i t h p e r h a p s t h e most famous o f a l l f i c - t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r s , Don Q u i x o t e , and hopes t h a t h i s new-found - 141 - love might rais e him above himself as did the "blind" love of Quixote for Dulcinea. These hopes seem to be r e a l i z e d , at f i r s t , when the g i r l and her family accept his proposal and Kensaku s e t t l e s down with his new bride, Naoko, to a l i f e of comfortable domestic b l i s s i n the bea u t i f u l suburbs of north- ern Kyoto. But there i s some suggestion that, for a writer of shi-shosetsu his l i f e i s now a l i t t l e too comfortable: "He would often s i t at his desk and simply stare at the view, not 5 8 writing a word." Marriage, though, soon brings i t s own great t r i a l s . About a month afte r the newly wed couple's f i r s t c h i l d i s born, i t dies a slow, agonizing death from erysipelas. Kensaku, who had f e l t great delight at becoming a father, i s plunged back into the depths of despair. He feels great bitterness towards what he perceives to be his e v i l fate, which has destroyed his new-found happiness just at i t s inception: "why must he be be- trayed now, when afte r years of journeying down the dark road, he had thought that the waiting and seeking had not been i n vain, that the dawn had at l a s t come?... he could not i n the end escape the conviction that he was the vic t i m of some e v i l force 59 bent on hurting him." S i g n i f i c a n t l y , then, Kensaku xs s t i l l i n c l i n e d to place the bl-ame for his misery on some power ex- t e r i o r to himself. He turns to his writing for therapy, but that too f a i l s him: "Kensaku sought to immerse himself i n his work, which had l a i n discarded too long. But he f e l t so weighed down by a sense of fatigue -- i t was l i k e a heavy - 142 - c h a i n wrapped a r o u n d h i m -- t h a t he was i n c a p a b l e o f s u c h im- m e r s i o n . " ^ 0 P a r t I I I e n d s , t h e n , w i t h K e n s a k u a t t h e n a d i r o f h i s d e s p a i r . One f i n a l g r e a t ' t r i a l a w a i t s him, t h o u g h , and t h i s i s r e c o u n t e d i n t h e o p e n i n g c h a p t e r s o f P a r t IV. He i s o b l i g e d t o t a k e a t e n - d a y t r i p t o K o r e a t o r e s c u e O e i , who has b een s t r a n d e d t h e r e a f t e r f a i l i n g t o s e t up a " g e i s h a " b u s i n e s s . When he r e t u r n s t o K y o t o , t h e i n t u i t i v e K e n s a k u i m m e d i a t e l y s e s n s e s , f r o m h i s w i f e ' s b e h a v i o r , t h a t o s o m e t h i n g i s s e r i o u s l y wrong. He p r e s s e s Naoko t o r e v e a l what i s t r o u b l i n g h e r and f i n a l l y she b r e a k s down and t e l l s him. D u r i n g h i s a b s e n c e she was v i s i t e d by h e r c o u s i n , Kaname. When t h e y were c h i l d r e n , he and Naoko had once p l a y e d a game t o g e t h e r t h a t had d i s - t i n c t l y e r o t i c o v e r t o n e s , so t h a t she s t i l l f e l t u n c o m f o r t a b l e i n h i s p r e s e n c e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , she had a l l o w e d him t o s t a y w i t h h e r and, one n i g h t a f t e r t h e y had p l a y e d c a r d s u n t i l l a t e , she had o f f e r e d t o massage h i s b a c k . T a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , Kaname had f o r c e d h i m s e l f upon h e r . Naoko r e s i s t e d f o r some t i m e , b u t e v e n t u a l l y she " f e l t h e r s e l f d r a i n e d o f a l l power t o r e s i s t . I n d e e d , she s o o n l o s t e v e n t h e c a p a c i t y t o t h i n k . T h e i n c i d e n t i s t h u s ambiguous, h a l f s e d u c t i o n and h a l f r a p e , b u t t h i s d o e s n o t h i n g t o l e s s e n K e n s a k u 1 s s h o c k . He s t r u g g l e s b r a v e l y , however, t o overcome h i s e m o t i o n a l t u r m o i l and do t h e b e s t t h i n g f o r b o t h h i s w i f e and h i m s e l f . " ' I do n o t want t o condemn h e r ' , he s a i d t o h i m s e l f , r e p e a t i n g - 143 - what he had s a i d t o Naoko t h e n i g h t b e f o r e . 'I want t o f o r - 6 2 g i v e h e r . ' " B u t , w i t h h i s l a r g e ego so b a d l y b r u i s e d , t h i s i s e a s i e r s a i d t h a n d o n e : "A moment l a t e r , however, he c o u l d n o t a v o i d a d d i n g , 'And so I s h a l l be t h e o n l y f o o l i n t h e e n - 6 3 t i r e a f f a i r , t h e o n l y l o s e r . ' " An i m p o r t a n t h i n t as t o t h e o n l y way o u t o f t h i s e m o t i o n a l l a b y r i n t h i s p r o v i d e d b y K e n s a k u ' s f r i e n d , Suematsu. Though s t i l l unaware o f t h e r e a l c a u s e o f K e n s a k u ' s p r e s e n t " t o u c h i - n e s s " , Suematsu b e r a t e s him f o r t h e q u i c k , " i r r a t i o n a l " way i n w h i c h he j u d g e s p e o p l e . I n m a t t e r s i n v o l v i n g y o u r f e e l i n g s , y o u r e a l l y a r e a t y r a n t . Y o u ' r e a t e r r i b l e e g o i s t , youkknow. T r u e , y o u ' r e n o t a c a l c u l a t i n g p e r s o n , and I s u p p o s e t h a t ' s a good t h i n g . B u t y o u c a n be v e r y t h o u g h t l e s s . . . L e t me p u t i t a n o t h e r way. P e r h a p s y o u y o u r s e l f a r e n ' t t y r a n n i c a l ; r a t h e r , i t ' s as t h o u g h a l i t t l e t y r a n t i s l i v i n g i n s i d e y o u somewhere. I s u p p o s e i t ' s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e a l v i c t i m i s t h e r e f o r e y o u . " 64 B e c a u s e o f h i s b a s i c " s i n c e r i t y " , K e n s a k u i s f o r c e d t o a d m i t t o h i m s e l f t h e t r u t h o f h i s f r i e n d ' s words. Kensaku had a l w a y s a l l o w e d h i s e m o t i o n s t o t y r a n n i z e o v e r him; b u t he had n o t b e f o r e t h o u g h t t o d e s c r i b e h i s own c o n d i t i o n q u i t e i n t h e s e words. Now, as he remembered t h e v a r i o u s i n c i d e n t s i n h i s l i f e , he had a g a i n t o g r a n t t h a t more o f t e n t h a n n o t he had b e e n w r e s t l i n g w i t h him- s e l f , t h a t h i s enemy had been a c r e a t u r e r e s i d i n g w i t h i n him. 65 T h i s i s t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s o f " i n t e r i o r i z a - t i o n " I m e n t i o n e d b e f o r e . K e n s a ku now no l o n g e r p e r c e i v e s h i s f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m as c a u s e d by some e x t e r i o r " e v i l f a t e " — he knows now t h a t t h e p r o b l e m l i e s w i t h i n . W i t h t h i s r e a l i z a - t i o n he has t a k e n a m a j o r s t e p t o w a r d s h i s s p i r i t u a l f r e e d o m . - 144 - A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e a few more s t r u g g l e s t o come, he i s s u r e now, a t l e a s t , o f t h e d i r e c t i o n he must t r a v e l t o emerge f r o m h i s 'dark n i g h t " . And a p r o p h e t i c p r o m i s e o f what l i e s a t t h e end i s a l s o g i v e n by Suematsu. When Kensaku a s k s : " ' I f I am g o i n g t o s pend t h e r e s t o f my l i f e f i g h t i n g w i t h t h i s t h i n g t h a t ' s i n s i d e me, what was t h e p o i n t o f my h a v i n g b e en b o r n ? " , Suematsu t e l l s him, w i t h a " c o n s o l i n g l o o k " : " ' P e r h a p s i t i s n ' t so b a d , i f a t t h e end o f i t a l l t h e r e ' s p e a c e o f mind w a i t i n g . ' " 6 6 Suematsu's p o i n t a b o u t t h e " t y r a n t " ego i s f u r t h e r d r i v e n home t o K e n s a ku by an i n c i d e n t t h a t o c c u r s a few months l a t e r . By t h i s t i m e K e n s a k u h a s b e e n b l e s s e d w i t h a n o t h e r c h i l d , and one w o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d h i m i n a b e t t e r frame o f mind. On t h e s u r f a c e a l l d o e s seem t o be c a l m b u t t h e f a c t t h a t K e n s a k u i s s t i l l s u b j e c t t o u n p r e d i c t a b l e r a g e s shows t h a t he has by no means r e s o l v e d h i s i n n e r t e n s i o n s . One day he t a k e s Naoko w i t h some o t h e r s on an o u t i n g t o a n e a r b y r e s o r t . A t t h e t r a i n s t a t i o n she goes t o u s e t h e t o i l e t and K e n s a k u i s i n f u r i a t e d by h e r s l o w n e s s . The t r a i n has a l r e a d y begun t o p u l l o u t when Naoko t r i e s t o b o a r d i t . K e n s a k u o r d e r s h e r t o r e t u r n home. When she p e r s i s t s i n t r y i n g t o g e t a b o a r d , K e n s a k u , "as i n a r e f l e x a c t i o n " , p u s h e s h e r o f f . She f a l l s o n t o t h e s t a t i o n p l a t f o r m , i n j u r i n g h e r s e l f 6 8 s l i g h t l y . T h i n k i n g t h a t he must have had "some s o r t o f f i t " K ensaku i s n a t u r a l l y v e r y s h o c k e d by h i s own b e h a v i o r : "He c o u l d s t i l l s e e t h e s t r a n g e l o o k i n Naoko's e y e s a s she f e l l o f f t h e t r a i n . I t was u n b e a r a b l e . Oh God, he t h o u g h t , I've - 145 - 69 done s o m e t h i n g i r r e p a r a b l e . " And "he d a r e d n o t c o n t e m p l a t e 7 0 what h i s a c t i o n had done t o t h e i r f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p . " I t i s i n d e e d as i f some u n c o n t r o l l a b l e " t y r a n t " w i t h i n h i m had a c t e d , r a t h e r t h a n h i s t r u e s e l f . , Naoko's r e a c t i o n i s one o f deep b u t kn o w i n g s a d n e s s . She a c c u s e s K e n s a k u o f h a v i n g n o t r e a l l y f o r g i v e n h e r i n h i s h e a r t o f h e a r t s : 1 11 was t e r r i b l y p l e a s e d when y o u s a i d y o u w e r e n ' t g o i n g t o h a t e me, y o u w e r e n ' t g o i n g t o b r o o d a b o u t i t , s i n c e h a t i n g and b r o o d i n g d i d no one any good. B u t y o u c a n ' t e x p e c t me t o go on b e l i e v i n g whiat y o u s a i d when y o u do s o m e t h i n g l i k e what y o u d i d t h e o t h e r day. I c a n ' t h e l p t h i n k i n g t h a t d e e p 71 i n s i d e , y o u do r e s e n t me." A l t h o u g h K e n s a ku i s a n g e r e d by h e r s u g g e s t i o n t h a t even h i s f o r g i v e n e s s i s t i n g e d w i t h e g o t i s m , s t i l l he must a d m i t t h a t : "As y o u s a y , my f e e l i n g s a r e n ' t as 72 magnanimous as my i d e a s . " He s e e s t h i s , t h o u g h , as a p r o b - lem w h i c h he must s o l v e a l o n e . "A d o c t o r may s a y I'm s u f f e r i n g f r o m a n e r v o u s breakdown. B u t e v e n i f I am, I d o n ' t want t o 73 go t o a d o c t o r f o r h e l p . " As a r e s u l t : " I want m e r e l y t o go away t o some m o u n t a i n f o r h a l f a y e a r , and l i v e q u i e t l y by m y s e l f . As h i s p l a c e o f r e t r e a t t h i s t i m e K e n s a ku c h o o s e s Mount 75 D a i s e n , "a h o l y p l a c e o f t h e T e n d a i s e c t " , where he c a n s t a y i n a B u d d h i s t t e m p l e . B e f o r e l e a v i n g he t e l l s Naoko j o k i n g l y t h a t he w i l l " c o n c e n t r a t e on a t t a i n i n g Buddhahood" and " s h a l l r e t u r n as Buddha". B u t t h e r e i s a s e r i o u s u n d e r t o n e t o t h i s j e s t i n g : "He was i n d e e d l e a v i n g i n a frame o f mind a k i n t o t h a t o f a man a b o u t t o t a k e h o l y o r d e r s , b u t he c o u l d h a r d l y 77 t e l l Naoko s o . " When O e i o b j e c t s t h a t t h e s i m i l a r r e t r e a t he had made t o O n o m i c h i a few y e a r s b e f o r e d i d him l i t t l e good, he e x p l a i n s t o h e r t h a t h i s m o t i v e s now a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t : " I went t o O n o m i c h i t o f o r c e m y s e l f t o g e t some work done; I f o u n d t h a t i t was t o o d i f f i c u l t , and I f a i l e d . B u t t h i s t i m e , work i s n o t my p r i m a r y c o n c e r n . I'm g o i n g i n o r d e r t o f i n d s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g , y o u m i g h t s a y , and t o r e c o v e r my p h y s i - 7 8 c a l s t r e n g t h . " T h i s d i f f e r e n c e makes c l e a r how s e r i o u s -- and how d e s p e r a t e — K e n s aku has become a b o u t h i s s p i r i t u a l q u e s t , now t h a t he has s e e n t h e t e r r i b l e d e p t h s o f h i s own ego- t i s m . And, a l t h o u g h h i s " s p i r i t u a l w e l l - b e i n g " and n o t h i s w r i t i n g i s now h i s " p r i m a r y c o n c e r n " , b e c a u s e he i s an a u t h o r o f s h i - s h o s e t s u t h e two a r e r e a l l y i n s e p a r a b l e . A s p i r i t u a l b r e a k - t h r o u g h w i l l a l s o e n a b l e him t o b r e a k t h r o u g h t h e w r i t e r ' s b l o c k he has s u f f e r e d a l l t h r o u g h t h e n o v e l . As s o o n as K e n s a k u a r r i v e s i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f Mount D a i s e n , h i s s p i r i t s b e g i n t o r e v i v e . He i s i m m e d i a t e l y s t r u c k by t h e g r e a t c o n t r a s t between p e o p l e who l i v e i n t h e c i t y and t h o s e who l i v e c l o s e t o n a t u r e . "As t h o u g h f o r t h e f i r s t s t i m e , he was made aware t h a t s u c h a w o r l d as t h i s e x i s t e d . T h e r e a r e p e o p l e , he t h o u g h t , t h a t l i v e l i k e w i l d c a t s i n a c a v e , f o r e v e r 79 s n a r l i n g a t e a c h o t h e r ; and t h e n t h e r e i s t h i s l i f e . " When he a s c e n d s t h e m o u n t a i n i t s e l f , he comes a c r o s s a " s e r e n e o l d man" a t a t e a s h o p who seems an i d e a l example o f a man who l i v e s c l o s e t o n a t u r e ; "He must have g a z e d a t t h e same s c e n e c o u n t - l e s s t i m e s b e f o r e ; y e t h e r e he was, s t i l l g a z i n g a t i t w i t h o u t - 147 - apparent boredom...he was l i k e an ancient tree i n the mountains, he was l i k e a moss-covered rock that had been placed there i n front of the view. I f he was thinking at a l l , he was thinking as an old tree or a rock would think. He seemed so t r a n q u i l , 8 0 Kensaku envied him." Here, then, i s a perfect image of what i t means to be "dissolved" i n nature, "mindless" i n the Zen sense, untroubled by any of the petty concerns of the human world -- free even of one's own memories, one's, own " i d e n t i t y " . Here i s an image, i n fa c t , of everything that Kensaku hopes to become. There i s another "natural" man whom Kensaku meets l a t e r on the mountain: Take, the C h r i s t - l i k e carpenter who fixes the temple buildings without pay. His wife i s a notorious " s l u t " with several lovers but Take, i n t e l l i n g contrast to Kensaku, 81 "could not bring himself to hate her". Kensaku marvels at Take's forbearance which, he speculates, probably comes from "his t o t a l understanding of what his wife was...Of course Take must have suffered, he must be suffering now. Yet he had some- 8 2 how managed to r i s e above his misfortune." This simple car- penter, then, has attained the state of egolessness that Kensaku aspires to. In his new c o n c i l i a t o r y mood, Kensaku writes a l e t t e r home to Naoko. He explains to her the changes that have a l - ready occurred i n his state of mind: "Since coming to th i s mountain I've spent a l o t of time looking at the l i t t l e birds, the insects, the trees, the water, the rocks. As I observe - 148 - c l o s e l y a l l t h e s e t h i n g s by m y s e l f , I f i n d t h a t t h e y g i v e r i s e t o a l l k i n d s o f f e e l i n g s and t h o u g h t s t h a t I h e v e r had b e f o r e . T h a t a w o r l d w h i c h had n e v e r e x i s t e d f o r me b e f o r e has opened 8 3 i t s e l f up t o me has g i v e n me a s e n s e o f j o y . " S i g n i f i c a n t l y , w i t h h i s p s y c h i c c o n d i t i o n i m p r o v e d he has a l s o begun t o w r i t e a g a i n , and he e n c l o s e s an example o f h i s work i n h i s l e t t e r t o Naoko -- as we w o u l d expect',, a " n a t u r e s k e t c h " . We now a p p r o a c h what may be r e g a r d e d as t h e c l i m a c t i c s c e n e n o t o n l y o f An'ya K o r o b u t o f S h i g a ' s e n t i r e o p u s. Ken- s a k u d e c i d e s t o h i k e up t o t h e t o p o f Mount D a i s e n oae n i g h t , so as t o watch t h e s u n r i s e f r o m t h e r e t h e f o l l o w i n g m o r n i n g . He i s a c c o m p a n i e d by a g r o u p o f company em p l o y e e s f r o m Osaka, whose b o i s t e r o u s h o l i d a y s p i r i t s c o n t r a s t s h a r p l y w i t h Ken- s a k u 's own q u i e t , subdued mood. I n d e e d , t h e y s h a r e l i t t l e o f h i s g r o w i n g s e n s i t i v i t y t o n a t u r e . When he t e l l s them he has a l r e a d y b e e n on t h e m o u n t a i n a f o r t n i g h t , t h e y a s k : "How c a n 84 y o u s t a n d i t ? We'd go mad a f t e r two d a y s h e r e . " We a r e t h u s g i v e n a d i s t i n c t s e n s e o f i r o n y when t h e y a l l b r e a k i n t o a t r a d i t i o n a l p i l g r i m ' s c h a n t as t h e y b e g i n t o a s c e n t t h e " h o l y m o u n t a i n " : "Begone a l l t h e s e n s e s , l e t t h e s p i r i t s g u i d e us 8 5 t o t h e c l e a r s k y above." R e g a r d e d f r o m K e n s a k u ' s p r e s e n t s t a t e o f mind, however, t h e s e words have an e n t i r e l y a p p r o - p r i a t e t e n o r , and may e v e n be r e g a r d e d as p r o p h e t i c o f h i s coming e x p e r i e n c e . T h a t t h e r e a r e s t i l l , t h o u g h , f o r t h e moment, some t r a c e s o f w o r l d l y e g o t i s m l e f t i n h im i s made c l e a r by t h e " c o m p e t i - - 1 4 9 - t i v e " f e e l i n g he h a s , as t h e o n l y Tokyo man i n t h e g r o u p , t o - wards t h e o t h e r y o u n d men, who a r e a l l f r o m t h e r i v a l c i t y o f O s aka. T h i s makes him p u s h on up t h e m o u n t a i n a t t h e same p a c e as t h e i r s , i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t he i s s t i l l s u f f e r - i n g t h e a f t e r e f f e c t s o f a " s e v e r e a t t a c k o f d i a r r h e a " he had 8 6 e a r l i e r t h a t day. When t h e g r o u p p a u s e s t o r e s t a f t e r a b o u t an h o u r ' s h i k e , t h o u g h , K e n s a k u f e e l s t h a t he has no more s t r e n g t h t o c o n t i n u e . He t e l l s t h e o t h e r s t h a t he w i l l r e s t t h e r e u n t i l dawn, and t h e n r e t u r n home by h i m s e l f . R e l u c t a n t l y , t h e g r o u p c o n t i n u e s o n up t h e m o u n t a i n w i t h o u t him. L e f t a l o n e on t h e m o u n t a i n i n t h e q u i e t o f t h e n i g h t , K e n s a k u i s now a b l e t o commune w i t h n a t u r e as n e v e r b e f o r e . He s i t s down on t h e g r a s s and b e g i n s " b r e a t h i n g d e e p l y t h r o u g h 8 7 h i s n o s e , h i s e y e s c l o s e d " ( i n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l way a Zen a d e p t q u i e t s h i s m i n d b e f o r e m e d i t a t i o n ) . Then comes p e r h a p s t h e most c e l e b r a t e d p a s s a g e i n a l l o f S h i g a : He f e l t h i s e x h a u s t i o n t u r n i n t o a s t r a n g e s t a t e o f r a p t u r e . He c o u l d f e e l h i s m i n d and h i s body b o t h g r a d u a l l y m e r g i n g i n t o t h i s g r e a t n a t u r e t h a t s u r r o u n d e d him. I t was n o t n a t u r e t h a t was v i s i b l e t o t h e e y e s ; r a t h e r , i t was l i k e a l i m i t l e s s body o f a i r t h a t wrapped i t s e l f t a r o u n d him, t h i s t i n y c r e a t u r e no l a r g e r t h a n a poppy s e e d . To be g e n t l y drawn i n t o i t , and t h e r e be r e s t o r e d , was a p l e a s u r e b e y o n d t h e power o f words t o d e s c r i b e . . . He had e x p e r i e n c e d t h i s f e e l i n g o f b e i n g a b s o r b e d by n a t u r e b e f o r e ; b u t t h i s was t h e f i r s t t i m e t h a t i t was a c c o m p a n i e d by s u c h r a p t u r e . I n p r e v i o u s i n s t a n c e s , t h e f e e l i n g p e r h a p s h a d b e e n more t h a t o f b e i n g s u c k e d i n by n a t u r e t h a n t h a t o f m e r g i n g i n t o i t ; and t h o u g h t h e r e had b e e n some p l e a s u r e a t t a c h e d t o i t , he had a t t h e same t i m e a l w a y s t r i e d i n s t i n c t i v e - l y t o r e s i s t i t , and on f i n d i n g s u c h r e s i s t a n c e d i f f i c u l t , he had f e l t a d i s t i n c t u n e a s i n e s s . B u t t h i s t i m e , he had n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t w i l l t o r e s i s t ; and c o n t e n t e d l y , w i t h o u t a t r a d e o f t h e o l d u n e a s i n e s s ; he a c c e p t e d n a t u r e ' s embrace. 88 - 150 - I t i s i m p o r t a n t , f i r s t , t o b o t e K ensaku's c o n d i t i o n immed- i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h i s e x p e r i e n c e : he was t h o r o u g h l y worn o u t by h i s i l l n e s s and by t h e e f f o r t o f c o m p e t i n g w i t h t h e b o i s - t e r o u s Osaka men. Beyond t h i s , o f c o u r s e , we must r e c a l l a l l t h e g r e a t t r i a l s he has u n d e r g o n e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u r s e o f t h e n o v e l , w h i c h have t a x e d h i s s p i r i t c l o s e \ t o b r e a k i n g - p o i n t . As t h e f a m i l i a r C h r i s t i a n p h r a s e has i t : "Man's e x t r e m i t y i s God's o p p o r t u n i t y . " And t h i s t r u t h h as a l s o been made an i n t e - g r a l p a r t o f Zen t r a i n i n g , as we know f r o m t h e i n n u m e r a b l e . 8' " e n l i g h t e n m e n t s t o r i e s " r e c o u n t e d i n t h e works o f D.T. S u z u k i , i n w h i c h t h e a d e p t f r e q u e n t l y a t t a i n s s a t o r i o n l y when p u s h e d t o t h e v e r y end o f h i s t e t h e r . I t i s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e v i s e - l i k e g r i p o f e g o t i s m on human c o n s c i o u s n e s s c a n be l o o s e n e d o n l y i n t h i s e x a c t i n g way, and c e r t a i n l y i n K e n s a k u ' s c a s e t h i s seems t o be b o r n e o u t . As he h i m s e l f r e c a l l s i n t h e above p a s s a g e , when he had e x p e r i e n c e d a s i m i l a r f e e l i n g o f b e i n g " d i s s o l v e d " i n n a t u r e b e f o r e (as I have n o t e d e a r l i e r , on t h e b o a t t o O n o m i c h i ) , he had " i n s t i n c t i v e l y " r e s i s t e d i t , f e a r i n g l o s s o f h i s i d e n t i t y (as he s a y s , o f b e i n g " s u c k e d i n " ) . The g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e now i s t h a t h i s s e n s e o f i n d i v i d u a l s e l f h as s i n c e r e c e i v e d a good many s h o c k s , w h i c h h ave g r e a t l y r e d u c e d i t s h o l d on h im and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , K e n s a k u h i m s e l f , a s we have s e e n , has a d m i t t e d h i s own e g o t i s m t o be h i s f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m and has c o n s i i o u s l y t a k e n m e a s u r e s t o overcome i t ( f o r one t h i n g , coming t o t h i s m o u n t a i n ) . And s o , " t h i s t i m e , he had n o t t h e s l i g h t e s t w i l l t o r e s i s t ; and c o n t e n t e d l y , w i t h o u t - 151 - 9 o a t r a c e o f t h e o l d u n e a s i n e s s , he a c c e p t e d n a t u r e ' s e m b r a c e . " H e r e , t h e n , i s t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h a t p r o c e s s o f i n - c r e a s i n g u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e w h i c h I h a v e t r a c e d t h r o u g h f o u r o f S h i g a ' s m a j o r w o r k s . I n h i s e a r l i e s t s t o r y , " A r u A s a " , t h e b a r e o u t l i n e o f t h e p r o b l e m was p r e s e n t e d : how was a h y p e r - s e n s i t i v e y o u n g man t o c o p e w i t h t h e f r i c t i o n s t h a t i n e v i t a b l y r e s u l t e d f r o m h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h i n t h e n a r r o w , r a t h e r o p p r e s s i v e c o n f i n e s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l J a p a n e s e f a m i l y . By " K i n o s a k i n i t e " he h a s r e c e i v e d a more s e v e r e s h o c k t o h i s d e l i c a t e s e n s e o f s e l f -- a n e a r - f a t a l a c c i d e n t b u t he a l s o i s g i v e n some i n k l i n g o f a way o u t : by t u r n i n g away f r o m t h e human w o r l d a n d t o w a r d s n a t u r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he i s n o t y e t r e a d y f o r t h e d e g r e e o f s e l f - s u r r e n d e r t h a t a t o t a l m e r g e n c e w i t h n a t u r e w o u l d r e q u i r e , a s i s e v i d e n c e d by h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l d o u b t s t o w a r d s t h e s t o r y ' s e n d , w h i c h a r i s e f r o m h i s e q u a t i n g s u c h a s t a t e o f u n i o n w i t h d e a t h . ( I n t e r - e s t i n g l y , t h e s e d o u b t s a r e a n s w e r e d by K e n s a k u i n t h e p a r a g r a p h f o l l o w i n g t h e p a s s a g e q u o t e d a b o v e : "He f e l t as i f he h a d j u s t t a k e n a s t e p o n t h e r o a d t o e t e r n i t y . D e a t h h e l d no t h r e a t f o r h i m . I f t h i s means d y i n g , he t h o u g h t , I c a n d i e w i t h o u t r e g r e t . B u t t o h i m t h e n , t h i s j o u r n e y t o e t e r n i t y d i d n o t 91 seem t h e same a s d e a t h . " ) I n " T a k i b i " t h e S h i g a p r o t a g o n i s t h a s a l r e a d y a t t a i n e d some d e g r e e o f u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e b u t , s h a r e d a s i t i s among a g r o u p o f c o n v i v i a l f r i e n d s , t h i s seems more l i k e a p a s s i n g mood -- l i k e t h e momentary c a l m o f t h e l a k e ' s s u r f a c e i n t h e s t o r y — r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r o f o u n d e x p e r - i e n c e o f s e l f - s u r r e n d e r t h a t t h e s o l i t a r y K e n s a k u u n d e r g o e s , - 152 - an e x p e r i e n c e one f e e l s w i l l have l a s t i n g and r a d i c a l e f f e c t s on t h e man's whole b e i n g and c h a r a c t e r . An'ya K o r o , i n f a c t , c o n t a i n s a l l t h e s t a g e s we have o b s e r v e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s t o r i e s , b u t i n much l a r g e r d i m e n s i o n s : t h a t i s , t h e wounds t h a t K e n s a k u r e c e i v e s t o h i s s e n s e o f s e l f a r e f a r more c r i t i - c a l and p r o l o n g e d t h a n t h o s e o f t h e e a r l i e r p r o t a g o n i s t s , j u s t as h i s u l t i m a t e e x p e r i e n c e o f l i b e r a t i o n i s f a r more p r o f o u n d . B u t t h e c y c l e i s n o t q u i t e y e t c o m p l e t e : s i n c e i t began i n t h e human w o r l d , n o t i n t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e , i t must a l s o end t h e r e . As we have s e e n , t h e S h i g a p r o t a g o n i s t ' s f i r s t p e r c e p t i o n t h a t s o m e t h i n g was b a s i c a l l y awry -- b o t h i n " A r u A s a " and i n An'ya K o r o — a r o s e f r o m h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r e - ' l a t i n g w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . Now t h a t , s u p p o s e d l y , he has e l i m - i n a t e d t h e r o o t c a u s e ,-- h i s own e g o t i s m -- i t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t he be shown d e s c e n d i n g f r o m h i s m o u n t a i n r e t r e a t and r e - l a t i n g w i t h o t h e r s i n a new and f r e e r way. T h i s w o u l d c o r r e s - pond t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f i n a l s t a g e o f t h e " e n l i g h t e n e d " man's l i f e known as " r e - e n t e r i n g t h e m a r k e t p l a c e " and i n v a r i a b l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e l a s t o f t h e Zen o x - h e r d i n g p i c t u r e s one f i n d s i n m o n a s t e r i e s a l l o v e r E a s t A s i a . S u c h , i n f a c t , i s t h e i m p o r t o f An'ya K o r o ' s f i n a l s c e n e . P e r h a p s so as n o t t o be o v e r l y o b v i o u s a b o u t i t , S h i g a k e e p s t h e s c e n e s h o r t and, r a t h e r t h a n employ t h e s y m b o l i s m o f Ken- s a k u a c t u a l l y d e s c e n d i n g f r o m t h e m o u n t a i n , he has t h e human w o r l d b e l o w — i n t h e f o r m o f Naoko — come t o Kensaku i n s t e a d . B u t t h e t r u e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s c e n e i s n e v e r t h e l e s s q u i t e - 153 - a p p a r e n t . When Naoko a r r i v e s , K e n s a k u i s l y i n g p r o s t r a t e i n bed, t h o r o u g h l y e x h a u s t e d , and h i s worn a p p e a r a n c e i n i t i a l l y s h o c k s h e r . B u t when she draws n e a r t o him, she soon f o r g e t s h e r a n x i e t y and f a l l s u n d e r t h e s p e l l o f h i s new p r e s e n c e : H i s g a z e was l i k e a c a r e s s . She t h o u g h t she had n e v e r s e e n s u c h g e n t l e m e s s , s u c h l o v e , i n anyone's e y e s be- f o r e . She was a b o u t t o s a y , " E v e r y t h i n g i s a l l r i g h t now," b u t she r e f r a i n e d , f o r i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f s u c h c o n t e n t m e n t and q u i e t , t h e words seemed h o l l o w . 92 T h a t one word d e s c r i b i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f K e n s a k u ' s g a z e -- " c a r e s s " -- t e l l s us v o l u m e s a b o u t h i s new-found c a p a c i t y f o r communion w i t h o t h e r s . As was r e v e a l e d i n " T a k i b i " , an i n - c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y f o r u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e b r i n g s an e q u a l l y i n - c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y f o r u n i o n w i t h o n e ' s f e l l o w man s i n c e , a t t h e d e e p e s t l e v e l , man and n a t u r e a r e one. As we r e c a l l , S h i g a u s e d t h e t e r m "rhythm" t o e x p r e s s t h a t f u n d a m e n t a l power t h a t i s s h a r e d by a l l n a t u r a l phenomena, i n c l u d i n g man, and i t i s t h i s " r h y thm", more a s p i r i t u a l t h a n a p h y s i c a l q u a l i t y , t h a t he seems t o be r e f e r r i n g t o by t h e word " n a t u r e " i n t h e p a s - sage q u o t e d a b o v e : " I t was n o t n a t u r e t h a t was v i s i b l e t o 93 t h e e y e s . . . " T h u s , when K e n s a k u becomes i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h i s u n i v e r s a l " r h y thm", he aTso becomes i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e i n n e r m o s t n a t u r e o f man. On t h e l e v e l of human r e l a t i o n s t h e word f o r t h i s " u n i t i v e " c a p a c i t y i s , o f c o u r s e , " l o v e " , and so Naoko " t h o u g h t she had n e v e r s e e n s u c h g e n t l e n e s s , s u c h 94 l o v e , i n a nyone's e y e s b e f o r e . " The f i n a l few p a r a g r a p h s o f t h e n o v e l c o n t a i n an u n u s u a l d e v i c e : t h e n a r r a t i v e v i e w p o i n t , h a v i n g b e e n t h a t o f K e n s a k u - 154 - t h r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e n o v e l , s u d d e n l y c h a n g e d t o t h a t o f Naoko. T h i s h as d i s t u r b e d some c r i t i c s who, p e r h a p s , h a v e g o t t h e i d e a f r o m P e r c y L u b b o c k t h a t a n o v e l must have a r i g i d l y c o n - 95 s i s t e n t p o i n t o f v i e w , b u t , r e g a r d e d w i t h t h e above e x p l i c a - t i o n i n mind, i t seems a p e r f e c t l y a p p r o p r i a t e " o b j e c t i v e c o r r e - l a t i v e " on a f o r m a l l e v e l f o r what i s , on a t h e m a t i c l e v e l , t h e p r o f o u n d d e p t h o f u n i o n a c h i e v e d between Naoko and K e n s a k u . D e s p i t e h e r i n i t i a l w i f e l y a n x i e t y , Naoko has b e e n so drawn i n t o K e n s a k u ' s " t r a n q u i l i t y " t h a t she i s now p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t e v e n t h e i d e a t h a t he m i g h t d i e : She had n e v e r s e e n him i o o k so t r a n q u i l . P e r h a p s , she t h o u g h t , he i s n o t g o i n g t o l i v e t h r o u g h t h i s . B u t t h e t h o u g h t somehow d i d n o t sadden h e r v e r y much. As she s a t t h e r e l o o k i n g a t h i m , she f e l t h e r s e l f b e c o m i n g an i n s e p e r a b l e p a r t o f him; and she k e p t on t h i n k i n g , "Whether he l i v e s o r n o t , I s h a l l n e v e r l e a v e him, I s h a l l go w h e r e v e r he g o e s . " 96 B u t t h e r e i s a n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t h i s change o f v i e w - p o i n t w h i c h has been m i s s e d by a c r i t i c l i k e F r a n c i s Mathy, who 97 f a i l s t o t a k e K e n s a ku as t h e " f i c t i o n a l " a u t h o r o f t h e n o v e l . Naoko do e s n o t o n l y a c h i e v e u n i o n w i t h Kensaku -- above a l l , K e n s a k u a c h i e v e s u n i o n w i t h Naoko ( i t i s h e , a f t e r a l l , who has j u s t b e e n " e n l i g h t e n e d " o n t h e m o u n t a i n ) . W i t h h i s new-found c a p a c i t y f o r u n i o n w i t h o t h e r s , K e n s a k u , t h e e r s t w h i l e w r i t e r o f s h i - s h o s e t s u , who had been so t o t a l l y a b s o r b e d i n h i m s e l f t h a t , a s we saw when he t r i e d t o w r i t e t h e s t o r y o f E i h a n a , he c o u l d n e v e r w r i t e f r o m any v i e w p o i n t b u t h i s own, i s now a b l e t o commune w i t h o t h e r s t o s u c h an e x t e n t t h a t he c a n e v e n w r i t e down t h e i r i n n e r m o s t t h o u g h t s . The f a c t t h a t t h e n o v e l ends w i t h a t h o u g h t o f Naoko's r a t h e r t h a n o f K a n s a k u ' s s i g n i - f i e s t h e d e p t h o f s e l f l e s s n e s s t h a t he has a t t a i n e d , and t h e new d i m e n s i o n s t h a t have opened f o r him b o t h as a w r i t e r and a man. Many r e a d e r s o f An'ya K o r o engage i n r a t h e r b o o t l e s s a rguments as t o w h e t h e r Kensaku goes on t o l i v e o r t o d i e a t 98 t h e end. As I r e a d t h e n o v e l t h e r e i s no d o u b t a b o u t t h e answer. R e g a r d i n g S h i g a as t h e a u t h o r , i f he had meant Ken- s a k u t o be presumed d e a d t h e n o v e l w o u l d l o s e much o f i t s meaning as an a n l y s i s o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u and tbeeproblems i n v o l v e d i n i t s c r e a t i o n : p r i n c i p a l l y , t h e f a c t t h a t , b e c a u s e o f t h e i n t i m a t e l i n k between an " a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l " w r i t e r ' s l i f e and work, K e n s a k u ' s " w r i t e r ' s b l o c k " c a n o n l y be o v e r - come by a b s e a k t h r o u g h on t h e p e r s o n a l , p s y c h i c l e v e l , a b r e a k t h r o u g h t h a t w i l l e n a b l e him t o go on t o w r i t e An'ya K o r o i t s e l f . R e g a r d i n g K e n s aku as t h e a u t h o r , i f he had d i e d t h e n o v e l , o f c o u r s e , w o u l d n o t have e x i s t e d a t a l l . H a v i n g d e n o t e d so much o f my d i s c u s s i o n t o An'ya K o r o qua t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u o f T o k i t o K e n s a k u ( b e c a u s e o t h e r c r i t i c s have f a i l e d t o r e g a r d t h e n o v e l i n t h i s l i g h t and, most i m p o r t a n t l y , b e c a u s e , f o r t h e sake o f c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s , t h e n o v e l i s b e s t v i e w e d f r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e ) , I s h o u l d p e r h a p s d e v o t e a few c o n c l u d i n g r e m a r k s t o t h e work qua t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u o f S h i g a Naoya h i m s e l f . As we have s e e n , S h i g a o nce a d m i t t e d t h a t K e n s a k u was a 9 9 d i r e c t p r o j e c t i o n o f h i m s e l f and, e v e n t h o u g h t h e r e i s much - 156 - i n v e n t e d m a t e r i a l i n t h e n o v e l — f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e " i l l i c i t " b i r t h o f t h e h e r o and h i s w i f e ' s " s e m i - r a p e " — we a l s o know t h a t many d e t a i l s o f S h i g a ' s own l i f e went i n t o t h e work. Mo s t i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e i s u n d o u b t e d l y h i s own e x p e r i e n c e o f deep u n i o n w i t h n a t u r e w h i l e on Mount D a i s e n i n t h e summer o f 1914. How s i g n i f i c a n t t h e e x p e r i e n c e was f o r h i m may be j u d g e d by t h e f a c t t h a t he u s e d i t , a l m o s t a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y l a t e r , as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e " c l i m a x " o f h i s magnum o p u s . B u t , o f c o u r s e , t h e e x p e r i e n c e d i d n o t o c c u p y q u i t e t h e same p o s i t i o n i n S h i g a ' s l i f e as i n K e n s a k u ' s : i t d i d n o t mark t h e c l i m a c t i c h i g h - p o i n t o f h i s g r o w t h as man and a r t i s t , n o r d i d i t e n a b l e h i m t o l i v e t h e r e s t o f h i s d a y s as an a l l - c o m p a s s i o n a t e , e n g i g h t e n e d Buddha. I n o t h e r words, t h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f f i c t i o n a l i z a - t i o n t h e D a i s e n e x p e r i e n c e and t h e c h a r a c t e r o f S h i g a h i m s e l f have been made " l a r g e r t h a n l i f e " — t h e y have assumed, i n f a c t , a l m o s t m y t h i c p r o p o r t i o n s . T h i s may b e e s e e n as an i n e v i t a b l e p r o c e s s , r e g a r d l e s s o f how much an a u t h o r draws h i s m a t e r i a l f r o m M s own " e v e r y d a y " l i f e . J u s t as an o b j e t t r o u v e -- s a y , an o l d shoe -- t a k e s on a f o r m a l , s y m b o l i c a s p e c t i f p l a c e d o n a a p e d e s t a l i n a museum, so t o o an a u t h o r ' s own e x p e r i e n c e r e g a r d l e s s how " t r i v i a l " o r p r i v a t e , t a k e s on a s y m b o l i c , u n i - v e r s a l a s p e c t when p l a c e d w i t h i n t h e framework o f a n o v e l . A l l t h e more so i s t h i s t r u e , t h e n , when t h e " e x p e r i e n c e " i n q u e s - t i o n i s s u c h a f u n d a m e n t a l one as a man's " j o u r n e y t h r o u g h d a r k n i g h t " t o w a r d s s p i r i t u a l l i b e r a t i o n . And t h i s m y t h i c , a r c h e t y p a l a s p e c t o f An'ya K o r o a c c o u n t s , o f c o u r s e , f o r much - 157 - o f i t s u n d e r l y i n g power. I t i s n o t s i m p l y t h e s t o r y o f one man's s p i r i t u a l s t r u g g l e b u t a k i n d o f " p i l g r i m ' s p r o g r e s s " o f a modern Everyman (and, i n c o n s o n a n c e w i t h t h i s , K e n s a k u i s a r a t h e r " i m p e r s o n a l " c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s e n s e I n o t e d i n Chap- t e r 2^^^). N e v e r t h e l e s s , b e c a u s e i t i s a modern n o v e l (and, above a l l , a J a p a n e s e n o v e l ) , t h i s t h e m a t i c t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s f o r m a l i t y and a b s t r a c t i o n i s b a l a n c e d by t h e v e r y i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e and p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e n t o f t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u g e n r e i t - s e l f , w h i c h i s , i n t h i s r e s p e c t , a w o r t h y d e s c e n d a n t o f t h e m e d i e v a l n i k k i ( d i a r y ) and z u i h i t s u . (random e s s a y ) . I n t h i s s e s n e , t h e f i c t i o n / r e a l i t y d i a l e c t i c w h i c h S h i g a e s t a b l i s h e s i n An'ya Koro i s one o f a d e l i c a t e and m a s t e r f u l b a l a n c e , b o t h t e r m s o f w h i c h may be s e e n as a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t o t h e t o t a l a e s t h e t i c e f f e c t . I t i s , however, t h i s v e r y m i x i n g o f " f i c t i o n " and "non- f i c t i o n " , and t h e s u p p o s e d " f o r m l e s s n e s s " t h a t r e s u l t s f r o m i t , w h i c h has d i s t u r b e d some W e s t e r n c r i t i c s o f t h e n o v e l . I n an a r t i c l e on t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u , Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r , i n f a c t , e xpands t h i s c o m p l a i n t t o a c r i t i c i s m o f F a r E a s t e r n L i t e r a - t u r e i n g e n e r a l : I n t h e O r i e n t , t h e n o t i o n o f g e n r e has been a t once t o o e l a b o r a t e and n o t e l a b o r a t e enough, i f t h e s e f u n d a - m e n t a l W e s t e r n d i s t i n c t i o n s between f i c t i o n and non- f i c t i o n , l y r i c and drama, a r e accepted...Some J a p a n e s e c a t e g o r i e s , s u c h as s h o s e t s u and m o n o g a t a r i , seem so b r o a d as t o be m e a n i n g l e s s . They i n c l u d e v i r t u a l l y e v e r y t h i n g , and c u t a c r o s s what i n t h e W e s t e r n t r a d i - t i o n seem l i k e t h e most f u n d a m e n t a l d i s t i n c t i o n s . O t h e r s l i k e s h a r e b o n and K i b y o s h i , seem so n a r r o w as t o be m e a n i n g l e s s . They c o v e r t i n y r e a l m s , and w i t h i n t h e i r t i n y r e a l m s seem c a p a b l e , i n a most p e r v e r s e f a s h i o n , - 158- of mixing f i c t i o n and non-fiction, quite as i n the monogatari empire. 102 As a matter of fact, though, evep the "fundamental Western d i s t i n c t i o n s " are not what they used to be. The rambling auto- biographical journals of Jack Kerouac, for instance, works such as On the Road (1957) and The Dharma Bums (1958), were among the mose celebrated "novels" of the ' f i f t i e s "Best generation". Writing i n a more 'documentary" vein, Truman Capote caaimed to have invented a new genre, the "non-fiction novel", with his In Cold Blood (1965). Norman Mailer also has followed th i s trend with his " r e p o r t o r i a l novels" such as The Armies of the Night (1968), su b t i t l e d "History as a Novel, the Novel as History", and his more recent The Executioner's Song (1979), s u b t i t l e d "A True L i f e Novel". Time magazine has even invented an ugly neologism for such works: "fact i o n " . Whatever we may think of the l i t e r a r y value of these re- cent American novels, i t i s l i k e l y that, because of t h e i r wide- spread acceptance, the younger generation of Western readers w i l l be less disturbed than their "elders by the "blurred l i n e s " between f i c t i o n and non-fiction i n the works of Shiga Naoya. Perhaps, then, i t i s no coincidence that An'ya Koro f i n a l l y appeared i n English t r a n s l a t i o n i n 1976, about forty years aft e r i t s f i r s t publication i n Japan, even though i t has long been recognized i n i t s own country as a modern C l a s s i c . Shiga, i n fa c t , seems at the same time both p e c u l i a r l y modern and very much within the Japanese t r a d i t i o n . This seeming paradox i s by no means unprecedented: t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese architecture, for instance, with i t s simple l i n e s and uncluttered decor, seems v e r y modern t o t h e W e s t e r n eye -- n o r i s t h i s e n t i r e l y f o r - t u i t o u s , i n v i e w o f i t s s e m i n a l i n f l u e n c e on s u c h a r c h i t e c t s as F r a n k L l o y d W r i g h t . I n t h e same way, as we s h a l l i n C h a p t e r I I I , t h e h a i k u h a s a way o f s e e m i n g u l t r a - m o d e r n b e - c a u s e o f i t s a f f i n i t y w i t h and i n f l u e n c e on Imagism and t h e many o f f s h o i b t s o f t h a t e a r l y m o d e r n i s t movement. Whether t h e r e c e n t breakdown i n t h e W e s t e r n n o v e l o f t h e f o r m e r l y s t r i c t d i v i s i o n s between f i c t i o n and n o n - f i c t i o n i s due i n p a r t t o J a p a n e s e i n f l u e n c e i s more d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . C e r t a i n l y t h e r e was a s t r o n g J a p a n e s e ( e s p e c i a l l y a "Zen") i n f l u e n c e on t h e " B e a t " w r i t e r s w h i c h l e d them t o e m p h a s i z e " s p o n t a n e i t y " , an e m p h a s i s t h a t r e s u l t e d , f o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e " a u t o m a t i c " d i a r y - l i k e w r i t i n g o f a J a c k K e r o u a c . B u t t h e r e seems, any- way, s o m e t h i n g i n t h e modern temper -- s h a p e d s o much by news- p a p e r s and t e l e v i s i o n — t h a t demands a t l e a s t a g r e a t e r i l l u s i o n o f " r e a l i t y " . (As any book p u b l i s h e r knows, non- f i c t i o n g e n e r a l l y s e l l s f a r b e t t e r t h a n f i c t i o n ) . A t any r a t e , S h i g a ' s works t o o may be s e e n , on one l e v e l , , t o a p p e a l t o t h e r e a d e r ' s a p p e t i t e f o r " t h e f a c t s " . J u s t as e a r l y E n g l i s h n o v e l i s t s s u c h as D e f o e and R i c h a r d s o n u s e d t h e l e t t e r and t h e d i a r y f o r m t o i m p a r t a s e n s e o f " r e a l i t y " t o t h e i r f i c t i o n a l w o r k s , i n A n 'ya K o r o S h i g a u s e s t h e s h i - s h o s e t s u f o r t h e same p u r p o s e . A e s t h e t i c a l l y , t h i s r e s u l t s i n an i m p r e s s i o n o f " a r t l e s s n e s s " ( s i n c e t h e w r i t e r seems m e r e l y t o be " t r a n s c r i b i n g " r e a l i t y ) w h i c h e n a b l e s S h i g a t o a v o i d what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be " a r t i f i c i a l i t y " o f c o n v e n t i o n a l f i c - t i o n . B u t t h e r e i s a n o t h e r s i d e t o t h e " a r t l e s s a r t " e q u a t i o n - 160 - t h e w r i t e r ' s a r t i t s e l f . T h i s l i e s n o t m e r e l y i n h i s i n v e n t i o n o f c e r t a i n f i c t i o n a l d e t a i l s b u t i n t h e e s s e n t i a l v i s i o n w h i c h o r d e r s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a l l h i s m a t e r i a l — " f i c t i o n " and "non- f i c t i o n " a l i k e — and w h i c h u n i f i e s t h e e n t i r e work. I n S h i g a ' s c a s e , as I hope t o have shown, t h i s c e n t r a l v i s i o n i s r e d o l e n t o f t h e m a i n s t r e a m s p i r i t u a l c u l t u r e o f t h e O r i e n t . I n i t s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e human p r e d i c a m e n t and o f t h e way t o wisdom and l i b e r a t i o n , i t i s a r e s t a t e m e n t o f an a n c i e n t t r a d i t i o n i n modern t e r m s . I t i s p r i m a r i l y as s u c h , I w o u l d s u g g e s t , t h a t t h e works o f S h i g a Naoya w i l l e v e n t u a l l y f i n d t h e i r way i n t o t h e h e a r t s o f W e s t e r n r e a d e r s . - 161 - I n t r o d u c t i o n 1. Marc M e c r e a n t , t r a n s . , Le S a m o u r a i , by S h i g a Naoya ( P a r i s : M a r a b o u t , 1970). I n c l u d e s twenty-two S h i g a s t o r i e s . 2. Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r , " S t r a n g e l y Shaped N o v e l s " , i n S t u d i e s i n J a p a n e s e C u l t u r e , e d . J o s e p h R o g g e n d o r f (Tokyo: S o p h i a U n i v . P r e s s , 1963) p. 217. 3. I b i d . 4. M i s h i m a Y u k i o , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o New W r i t i n g i n J a p a n , ed . M i s h i m a Y u k i o and G e o f f r e y Bownas (HariSondsworth, M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n Books, 1 9 7 2 ) , p. 20. C h a p t e r I 1. see Ueda Makoto, Modern J a p a n e s e W r i t e r s and t h e N a t u r e o f L i t e r a t u r e ( S t a n f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1976) p. 20. 2. F r a n c i s Mathy, S h i g a Naoya (New Y o r k : Twayne, 1974). 3. i b i d . , p. 41 4. i b i d . , p. 42 5. S h i g a Naoya, " A r u A s a " , i n S e i b e i t o H y o t a n (Tokyo: S h i n c h o s h a , 1968) p. 17. My t r a n s l a t i o n . 6 . i b i d . , p. 18 7. A s , f o r i n s t a n c e , a n a l y z e d by Dr. Takeo D o i , The Anatomy o f Dependende, t r a n s . J o h n B e s t e r (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1 9 7 3 ) . 8. T a n i z a k i J u n i c h i r o , "Bunsho Tokuhon", T a n i z a k i J u n i c h i r o Z e nshg (Tokyo: Chuo K o r o n s h a , 1958) x x i . pp. 84-90. 9. B o t h w r i t e r s , f o r i n s t a n c e , g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t t h e m s e l v e s t o o n l y t h e most s i m p l e a d j e c t i v e s d e s c r i p t i v e o f s u b j e c - t i v e j u d g m e n t s : "good", " n i c e " , " p l e a s a n t " , "bad", e t c . - 162 - 10. S h i g a Naoya, "Rhythm", t r a n s . W i l l i a m S i b l e y i n The S h i g a Hero ( U n i v . o f C h i c a g o Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , 1971) p. 257 11. i b i d . p. 257 12. i b i d . 13. i b i d . , p. 260 14. Mathy, S h i g a , p . 45 15. i b i d . 16. J a y R u b i n , " S o s e k i on I n d i v i d u a l i s m " , i n Monumenta N i p p o n i c a , v o l . x x x i v , no. 1 (1979) p. 21 17. i b i d . , p. 25 i 18. i b i d . , p. 21 19. Natsume S o s e k i , " W a t a k u s h i no K o M n s h u g i " (My I n d i v i d - u a l i s m ) " , t r a n s . J a y R u b i n i n Monumenta N i p p o n i c a , v o l . x x x i v , no. 1 (1979) p. 43 20. On O g a i ' s r e a c t i o n s t o t h i s i s s u e , see R i c h a r d B o w r i n g , M o r i O g a i and t h e M o d e r n i z a t i o n o f J a p a n e s e C u l t u r e (Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s , 1979) 21. F o r an a c c o u n t o f t h i s - i n c i d e n t , see Mathy, p. 23 22. Akutagawa Ryunosuke, " I s h o " ( S u i c i d e N o t e ) , r e p r i n t e d i n Howard H i b b e t t and Gen I t a s a k a , Modern J a p a n e s e (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 188-193 23. K o b a y a s h i H i d e o Zenshu ( S h i n c h o s h a , 1 9 5 5 - 5 7 ) , v o l . v i , pp. 34-35. T h i s t r a n s l a t i o n by Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r i n h i s e s s a y , " K o b a y a s h i H i d e o " i n T r a d i t i o n and M o d e r n i z a - t i o n i n J a p a n e s e C u l t u r e , e d . D o n a l d S h i v e l y ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1971) p. 433 24. Nakamura H a j i m e , Ways o f T h i n k i n g o f E a s t e r n P e o p l e s , - 163 - t r a n s . P h i l i p W i e n e r ( H o n o l u l u : E a s t - W e s t C e n t e r P r e s s , 1964) 25. Q u o t e d i n S i b l e y , S h i g a H e r o , p. 89 26. S e i d e n s t i c k e r , " S t r a n g e l y Shaped N o v e l s " i n S t u d i e s i n J a p a n e s e C u l t u r e , p. 219 27. S i b l e y , S h i g a H e r o , p. 126 28. i b i d . 29. i b i d . 30. s.ee Ueda, Modern J a p a n e s e W r i t e r s , p . 104 31. K o b a y a s h i , v o l . v i , pp. 117-19 > r Q u o t e d i n S e i d e n s t i c k e r , " K o b a y a s h i H i d e o " i n T h i s C o u n t r y , J a p a n (Kodansha, 1979) p. 181 32. Ueda, Modern J a p a n e s e W r i t e r s , p. 99 33. i b i d . 34. see S t e p h e n K o h l , S h i g a N aoya: a C r i t i c a l B i o g r a p h y ( U n i v . o f W a s h i n g t o n Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , 1974) p. 21 35. i b i d . , p. 20 36. The word " s h o s e t s u " encompasses a f a r b r o a d e r r a n g e o f works t h a n t h e word " n o v e l " . 37. S e i d e n s t i c k e r , S t u d i e s i n J a p a n e s e C u l t u r e , p. 217 38. Mathy, S h i g a , p. 44 • 39. i b i d . , p. 41 40. i b i d . , 41. Nakamura M i t s u o , S h i g a N a o y a - r o n (Tokjso: Chikuma Shobo, 1966) , p. 91 42. S e i d e n s t i c k e r , J a p a n Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . x i , no. 1, 1964 43a S e i d e n s t i c k e r , T h i s C o u n t r y , J a p a n , p. 100 43b see Ueda, p. 131 - 164 - 44. H e r b e r t F r a n k e , I n t r o d u c t i o n , The G o l d e n C a s k e t : C h i n e s e N o v e l l a s o f Two M i l l e n i a , t r a n s . C h r i s t o p h e r L e v e n s o n (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , 19 64) p. 3 45. P l a t o , R e p u b l i c , Book X 46. F r a n k e , N o v e l l a s o f Two M i l l e n i a , p. 16 47. M u r a s a k i S h i k i b u The T a l e o f G e n j i , t r a n s . Edward S e i d e n - s t i c k e r (New Y o r k : A l f r e d K n o p f , 1977) pp. 437-38 48. D o n a l d Keene, W o r l d W i t h i n W a l l s (New Y o r k ; H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1976) p. 211 49. i b i d . , p. 211 50. S i b l e y , S h i g a H e r o , p. 260 51. Keene, W o r l d W i t h i n W a l l s , p. 392 52. i b i d . , p. 371 53. i b i d . , p. 573 54. I v a n M o r r i s , Modern J a p a n e s e S t o r i e s ( R u t l a n d , Vermont: C h a r l e s T u t t l e , 1962) p. 12-13 55. i b i d . , p. 13 56. T a u b o u c h i Shoyo, "The E s s e n c e o f t h e N o v e l " , t r a n s . D o n a l d Keene i n Modern J a p a n e s e L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 57-58 57. M o r r i s , Modern J a p a n e s e S t o r i e s , p. 15 58. i b i d . , p. 16 59. I t o S e i , "Natsume S o s e k i — H i s P e r s o n a l i t y and Works", i n E s s a y s on Natsume S o s e k i ' s Works (T o k y o : M i n i s t r y o f Edu- c a t i o n , 1970) p. 5 60. i b i d . , pp. 15-16 61. Q u o t e d T s u r m t a K i n y a i n "Akutagawa Ryunosuke and I - N o v e l i s t s " , Monumenta N i p p o n i c a , v o l . xxv, n o s . 1-2 (1970), p. 14 62. i b i d . , j p . 25 V 63. S e i d e n s t m c k e r , "The 'Pure' and t h e 'In-Between' i n Modern J a p a n e s e T h e o r i e s o f t h e N o v e l " , i n T h i s C o u n t r y , J a p a n pp. 98-111 64. S e i d e n s t i c k e r , S t u d i e s i n J a p a n e s e C u l t u r e , p. 212 65. Q u o t e d i n S e i d e n s t i c k e r , T h i s C o u n t r y , J a p a n , p. 102 66. S e i d e n s t i c k e r , S t u d i e s i n J a p a n e s e C u l t u r e , p. 217 67 i b i d . 68. Ueda Makoto, L i t e r a r y and A r t T h e o r i e s i n J a p a n ( C l e v e l a n d P r e s s o f W e s t e r n R e s e r v e U n i v . , 1967) pp. 224-25 69. Q u o t e d i n S i b l e y , S h i g a H e r o , p. 1 70. A r i s t o t l e , P o e t i c s , C h a p t e r 7 71. On t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f r e n g a , see E a r l M i n e r ' s r e c e n t J a p a n e s e L i n k e d P o e t r y ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v . p r e s s , 1979) 72. Q u o t e d i n S e i d e n s t i c k e r , T r a d i t i o n and M o d e r n i z a t i o n i n J a p a n e s e C u l t u r e , p. 426 73. Q u o t e d i n S i b l e y , S h i g a Hero,, p. 1 74. i b i d . 75. Ueda, Modern J a p a n e s e W r i t e r s , p. 106 C h a p t e r 2 1. See, f o r i n s t a n c e , T a n i k a w a T e t s u z o ' s f u l s o m e p r a i s e i n h i s S h i g a Naoya no S a k u h i n ( v o l . 2 ) , (Tokyo: M i k a s a Shobo, 1942) p. 92 - 166 - 2. T a n i z a k i J u n i c h i r o Zenshu (Tokyo: Chuo K o r o n s h a , 1958) x x i p. 90 3. S h i g a Naoya, " A t K i n o s a k i " , t r a n s , Edward S e i d e n s t i c k e r i n Modern J a p a n e s e L i t e r a t u r e (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , 1956) P.. 273 4. i b i d . 5. i b i d . 6. i b i d . , p. 274 7. i b i d . 8. i b i d . 9. i b i d . 10. i b i d . , p. 273 11. i b i d . , p. 274 12. i b i d . 13. i b i d . , p. 275 14. i b i d . 15. i b i d . 16. i b i d . 17. i b i d . , p. 276 18. i b i d . , p. 277 19. i b i d . 20. i b i d . 21. i b i d . 22. i b i d . 23. i b i d . 24. i b i d . 25. i b i d . 26. T a n i k a w a , S h i g a Mo S a k u h i n , p. 9 2 - 167 - 27. i b i d . 28. Mathy, S h i g a , p. 173 29. Leo T o l s t o y , What i s A r t ? ( O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1929) p. 228 30. Mathy, S h i g a , pp. 64-65 31. F.R. L e a v i s , " R e a l i t y and S i n c e r i t y " , i n h i s A S e l e c t i o n From S c r u t i n y (Cambridge U n i v . P r e s s , 1968) p . 252 32. i b i d . 33. i b i d . 34. i b i d . , p. 276 35. Q u o t e d i n W i l l i a m B a r r y , H e r a l d s o f R e v o l t ( P o r t W a shing- t o n , New Y o r k : K e n n i k a t P r e s s , 1971) p. 237 36. i b i d . 37. K o b a y a s h i Z e nshu I : 12-13. t r a n s . S e i d e n s t i c k e r , T h i s C o u n t r y , J a p a n , p . 156 38. Y o s h i d a S e i - i c h i , " S h o s e t s u no Bunsho" i n Bunsho t o B u n t a i (Tokyo: M e i j i S h o i n , 1963) p . 46. My t r a n s l a t i o n . 39. i b i d . 40. i b i d . , p. 47 41. i b i d . 42. i b i d . 43. F o r an a c c o u n t o f T a n i z a k i ' s d e b a t e w i t h Akutagawa on t h i s s u b j e c t , see Ueda, Modern J a p a n e s e W r i t e r s , pp. 71-72 44. Y o s h i d a , Bunsho t o B u n t a i , p. 48 45. T a n i z a k i , Zenshu, x x i , 18 46. i b i d . 47. i b i d . - 168 - i b i d . t r a n s . S e i d e n s t i c k e r , Modern J a p a n e s e L i t e r a t u r e , p. 273 t r a n s . S i b l e y , S h i g a H e r o , p. 76 t a n i k a w a , S h i g a no S a k u h i n , p. 92. My t r a n s l a t i o n . The e n t i r e " S h i r a k a b a g r o u p " a r e sometimes c h a r a c t e r i z e d as " T o l s t o y a n i d e a l i s t s " . Be t h a t as i t may, S & i g a had a l i f e l o n g a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e works o f t h e R u s s i a n m a s t e r L e o T o l s t o y , " T h r e e D e a t h s " (1859) i n N i n e S t o r i e s t r a n s . L o u i s e and A y l m e r Maude (London: O x f o r d U n i v . p r e s s ) , pp. 305-306 i b i d . r a p. 307 i b i d . , p. 308 i b i d . , p . 291 i b i d . , p. v i i i Q u o t e d i n Mathy, S h i g a , p. 161 i b i d . , p. 160 T o l s t o y , N i n e S t o r i e s , p. 307 Wayne B o o t h , The R h e t o r i c o f F i c t i o n ( U n i v . o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1966) p. 3 Keene, Modern J a p a n e s e L i t e r a t u r e , p. 27 2 i b i d . , p. 276 i b i d . i b i d . E.M. F o r s t e r , A s p e c t s o f t h e N o v e l (London: Edward A r n o l d , 1927) pp. 73-80 B a r r y , R e v o l t , p. 237 See a b o v e , p. 3 9 - 169 - 69. Keene, Modern J a p a n e s e L i t e r a t u r e , p. 273 70. i b i d . p. 275 71. i b i d . , p. 277 72. S i b l e y , S h i g a H e r o , p. 227 73. Ueda, L i t e r a r y and A r t T h e o r i e s i n J a p a n , p. 150 74. i b i d . 75. i b i d . 76. i b i d . 77. Keene, Modern J a p a n e s e L i t e r a t u r e , p. 273 78. i b i d . , p. 27 5 89. i b i d . , p. 277 80. i b i d . 81. Ueda, L i t e r a r y and A r t T h e o r i e s , p. 150 82. Mathy, S h i g a , p. 28 83. S i b l e y , S h i g a H e r o , p. 231 84. S h i g a Naoya, A Dark N i g h t ' s P a s s i n g , t r a n s . Edwin M c C l e l l a n (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1976) p. 375 85. Keene, Modern J a p a n e s e L i t e r a t u r e , p. 277 86. S h i g a , A Dark N i g h t ' s P a s s i n g , pp. 400-401 87. F o r K o b a y a s h i ' s v i e w on t h i s , see S e i d e n s t i c k e r , T r a d i t i o n and M o d e r n i z a t i o n i n J a p a n e s e C u l t u r e , p. 427 C h a p t e r 3 1. Q u o t e d i n Beongcheon Yu, Akutagaway: an I n t r o d u c t i o n ( D e t r o i Wayne S t a t e U n i v . p r e s s , 1972) p. 79 2. i b i d . 3. i b i d . - 170- i b i d . i b i d . S h i g a Naoya, " T a k i b i " , i n Kozo no Kamisama ( T e k y o : Iwanami S h o t e n , 1928) p. 173. My t r a n s l a t i o n . i b i d . Q u o t e d i n Ueda, Modern J a p a n e s e W r i t e r s , p. 86 S h i g a , Kozo no Kamisama, p. 175 i b i d . i b i d . , p. 176 i b i d . i b i d . , p. 179 i b i d . i b i d . , p. 180 i b i d . , p. 181 S h i g a , A Dark N i g h t ' s P a s s i n g , p. 290 See, f o r example, D.C. H o l t o m ' s a c c o u n t o f t h e r o l e o f f i r e i n S h i n t o r i t u a l i n h i s The N a t i o n a l F a i t h o f J a p a n (New Y o r k : P a r a g o n Book R e p r i n t C o r p . , 1965) p. 29 Norman F r i e d m a n , "Symbol", i n P r i n c e t o n E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P o e t r y and P o e t i c s , e d . A l e x P r e m i n g e r ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1974) p. 834 S h i g a , Kozo no Kamisama, p. 182. i b i d . , p. 183 i b i d . , pp. 183-4 i b i d . , p. 184 i b i d . , p. 185 i b i d . , p. 187 i b i d . - 171 - 27. i b i d . , p. 188 28. i b i d . 29. See Mathy, S h i g a , p. 161 30. S h i g a , Kozo no Kamisama, p. 188 31. O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , ( O x f o r d U n i v . P r e s s , 1971) p. 2210. Q u o t i n g L e w i s Meth. R e a s o n . P o l i t i c s v . 118: " I n e v e r y n a r r a t i v e , t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n c o n n e x i o n o f e v e n t s , w h i c h i n a work o f f i c t i o n , i s c a l l e d a p l o t . " 32. See p. 5 above 33. F o r r e p e t i t i o n as a " n o n - l o g i c a l " u s e o f l a n g u a g e , see E l i z a b e t h W e l l s , " S t a t i s t i c a l /Analysis o f t h e P r o s e S t y l e o f ' B i g T w o - H earted R i v e r ' " i n J a c k s o n B enson, The S h o r t S t o r i e s o f E r n e s t Hemingway: C r i t i c a l E s s a y s (Durham: Duke U n i v . P r e s s , 1975) p . 131: " I t i s most o f t e n c o n - s i d e r e d t o be t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h o s e i n c a p a b l e o f c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e a s o n i n g . . . " 34. See a b o v e , p. 36 35. Q u o t e d i n Edmund W i l s o n , E i g h t E s s a y s , (New Y o r k : D o u b l e d a y , 1954) pp. 93-94 36. Comte de B u f f o n , D i s c o u r s s u r l e S t y l e (1353) § 7 . M.H. Abrams, A G l o s s a r y o f L i t e r a r y Terms (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1 9 7 1 ) , p. 137 38. Q u o t e d i n A.E. H o t c h n e r , P a p a Hemingway (New Y o r k : Random House, 1966) p. 199 39. See B e n s o n , Hemingway, p. x i 40. S c o t t D o n a l d s o n , By E o r c e o f W i l l : t h e L i f e and A r t o f - 172 - E r n e s t Hemingway (New Y o r k : V i k i n g P r e s s , 1977) p. 242 Hemingway, G r e e n H i l l s o f A f r i c a (New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , 1935) p. 70 See E a r l M i n e r , The J a p a n e s e T r a d i t i o n i n B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e ( P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1958) E s p e c i a l l y c h a p t e r s v - v i Benson, Hemingway, p. 307 i b i d . Q u o t e d i n D o n a l d s o n , W i l l , p . 247 Ben s o n , Hemingway, p. 30 9 See a b o v e , p. 63 Quoted i n B e n s o n , Hemingway, p. 3 07 R a l p h Freedman, The L y r i c a l N o v e l ( P r i n c e t o n , New J e r s e y : P r i n c e t o n U n i v . P r e s s , 1963) Ben s o n , Hemingway, p. 157 Hemingway, A f r i c a , F o r e w o r d Hemingway, A M o v e a b l e F e a s t (New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , 1964) P r e f a c e F r a s e r S u t h e r l a n d , The S t y l e o f I n n o c e n c e ( T o r o n t o : C l a r k e , I r w i n , 1972) p. 83 Benson, Hemingway, p. 275 i b i d . R o b e r t Weeks, ed. , Hemingway: a C o l l e c t i o n o f C r i t i c a l . E s s a y s (Englewood C l i f f s , N . J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1962) Benson, Hemingway, p. 309 i b i d . - 173 - 59. See J u l i a n S m i t h ' s a r t i c l e , "Hemingway and t h e T h i n g L e f t Out" i n Benson, Hemingway, p. 136 60. D o n a l d s o n , W i l l , p. 245 61. Benson, Hemingway, p. 39 62. i b i d . , p. 131 63. i b i d . , p. 297 64. Weeks, Hemingway, p. 106 65. Hemingway, " C r o s s - C o u n t r y Snow" i n I n Our Time (New Y o r k : S c r i b n e r ' s , 1925) p. 107 » 66. Benson, Hemingway, p. 154 67. Keene, Modern J a p a n e s e L i t e r a t u r e , p. 277 68. Hemingway, " B i g Two-Hearted R i v e r " i n I n Our Time, p. 14 2 69. i b i d . , p. 156 70. Mathy, S h i g a , pp. 29-30 71. S h i g a , Kozo no Kamisama, p. 176 72. On Hemingway's o b s e s s i o n w i t h d e a t h , s e e D o n a l d s o n , W i l l p. 282. C h a p t e r 4 1. Quoted i n Mathy, S h i g a , p. 83 2. i b i d . 3 . i b i d . , p. 92 4. i b i d . , p. 101 5. i b i d . , pp 99 and 157 6. i b i d . , p. 157 7. S h i g a Naoya, A Dark N i g h t ' s P a s s i n g , t r a n s . E d w i n M c C l e l l T o k y o : Kodansha, 1976) p. 16 - 174 - 8. i b i d . , p. 17 9. i b i d . , p. 18 10. i b i d . 11. i b i d . , pp. 19-20 12. i b i d . , p. 25 13. i b i d . 14. i t i d . , p. 26 15. i b i d . 16. i b i d . , pp. 26-27 17. i b i d . , p. 27 18. i b i d . 19. i b i d . , p. 28 20. i b i d . , p. 3 0 21. i b i d . , p. 26 22. i b i d . 23. i b i d . , p. 29 24. i b i d . , p. 30 25. i b i d . 26. i b i d . , p. 81 27. i b i d . , p. 101 28. i b i d . , p. 104 29. i b i d . , p. 115 30. i b i d . , p. 123 31. See Mathy, S h i g a , p. 43 32. S h i g a , A Dark N i g h t ' s P a s s i n g , p. 125 33. " i b i d . 34. i b i d . " 1 7 5 - 35. i b i d . , P- 146 36. i b i d . 37. i b i d . , P- 148 38. i b i d . 39. i b i d . , P- 150 40. i b i d . , P- 158 41. x b i d . , P- 172 42. i b i d . 43. i b i d . , P- 186 44. i b i d . , P- 375 45. i b i d . , P- 186-87 46. i b i d . , P- 184 47. i b i d . , P- 193 48. i b i d . , P- 194 49. i b i d . , P- 181 50. i b i d . , P- 174 51. i b i d . , P- 178 52. On t h i s p o i n t , see Ueda, Modern J a p a n e s e W r i t e r s , p. 53. 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