UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Carl Borden and archaeology in British Columbia : an interactive history Williams, Anne M. 1980

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CARL BORDEN AND ARCHAEOLOGY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: AN INTERACTIVE HISTORY by c, ' ANNE M. WILLIAMS B . A . , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n ; :•>• THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ANTHROPOLOGY AND SOCIOLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OF BR I TISH COLUMBIA We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requ i red standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1980 @ Anne M e l i t a W i l l i a m s In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date i i i . ABSTRACT Car l Borden has been des ignated "Grandfather of B.C. a rchaeo logy" (Car lson 1979: 233). I present an aspect of h i s c l a i m to t h i s t i t l e by f o c u s i n g on h i s important c o n t r i b u t i o n to the e f f o r t s made in the 1950's, 60's and e a r l y 70's to p rov ide a forum amenable to the p u r s u i t of a rchaeo -l o g i c a l research in B r i t i s h Columbia . My t h e s i s i s , t h e r e f o r e , p r i m a r i l y a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the l i t e r a t u r e which addresses i t s e l f to understanding Borden's p lace in the h i s t o r y of archaeology in B r i t i s h Columbia . As such , i t w i l l not on ly i n t e r e s t those a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s who knew and worked w i t h Borden, but a l s o a wider audience of Canadian a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and a r c h a e o l o g i s t s who are concerned w i t h understanding the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the persons and i n s t i t u t i o n s d iscussed in " l o c a l h i s t o r i e s " w i t h i n the broader framework of the h i s t o r y of Canadian anthropo logy . In p resent ing h i s t o r y , I a l s o engage in i t s c r e a t i o n . My t h e s i s r e f l e c t s my s e l f ^ c o n s c i o u s n e s s in producing an account where Borden's p o i n t of y iew Cas expressed in the l i t e r a t u r e and a s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e w s ) and my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s po in t of view are n e g o t i a t e d . I c a l l t h i s process of n e g o t i a t i o n an : i n t e r a c t i v e h i s t o r y . It i s through t h i s process that I d i s c o v e r an important aspect of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Borden to archaeology in B r i t i s h Columbia. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s a process which w i l l be of re levance to those a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i n t e r e s t e d in the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of knowledge. P r e s e n t i n g h i s t o r y and being s e l f - c o n s c i o u s about how we d i s c o v e r h i s t o r y are par t of a r e f l e x i v e approach to f u r t h e r i n g an understanding of ou rse l ves and our Western C u l t u r e . My t h e s i s advances t h i s approach in two ways. F i r s t , by app l y ing the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l method of f i e l d w o r k , i v . t r a d i t i o n a l l y a p p l i e d to other c u l t u r e s , to make a statement about an i n s t i t u t i o n - archaeology in B r i t i s h Columbia - which emerges from my own c u l t u r e . Second, by c o n f r o n t i n g t h i s statement and making i t s f o r m u l a t i o n e x p l i c i t . V . CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 P a r t One: Framing the Q u e s t i o n s 1 P a r t Two: C o n s t r u c t i n g an I n t e r a c t i v e H i s t o r y 4 CHAPTER ONE: RECOGNIZING THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL f POTENTIAL IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 14 1. How Borden came t o be concerned i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia .14 2. The S o c i a l C o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h Borden's c o n c e r n d e v e l o p e d s24' CHAPTER TWO: DEFINING THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 34 1 . Fund i ng 35 2. S t u d e n t P a r t i c i p a t i o n 43 3. A s s i s t a n c e from n o n - f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s 51 CHAPTER THREE: CALLING PUBLIC ATTENTION TO THE ARCHAEO-LOGICAL POTENTIAL IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 61 1. R a i s i n g P u b l i c Awareness 62 2. M a i n t a i n i n g P u b l i c Awareness 78 EPILOGUE 85 1. Borden's p o s i t i o n a t UBC 85 2. Borden's commitment t o the i d e a o f c o n s e r v a t i o n a r c h a e o l o g y 87 FOOTNOTES. 89 APPENDIX 1 90 APPENDIX 2 93 APPENDIX 3 9^ SOURCES CONSULTED 103 v i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The i n t e r v i e w s I conducted w i t h t he l a t e C a r l Borden, P r o f e s s o r E m e r i t u s o f A r c h a e o l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , were made p o s s i b l e by a B r i t i s h Columbia Youth Employment Program g r a n t . I would l i k e t o ta k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o acknowledge my i n d e b t e d n e s s t o Dr. C a r l Borden, both f o r the i n t e r e s t he e x p r e s s e d i n my p r o j e c t , and f o r making the i n t e r v i e w s p e r s o n a l l y r e w a r d i n g o c c a s i o n s w h i c h I c o n s i d e r m y s e l f f o r t u n a t e t o have e x p e r i e n c e d . My t h e s i s was w r i t t e n under t h e g u i d a n c e o f my a d v i s o r Dr. E l v i W h i t t a k e r who has been an i n s p i r a t i o n t o me t h r o u g h o u t my y e a r s as a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a t UBC. I t has a l s o b e n e f i t e d from the h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m s and s u g g e s t i o n s o f t h e o t h e r members o f my a d v i s o r y c ommittee, Dr. M i c h a e l Ames, Dr, M i c h a e l Kew and Dr. David P o k o t y l o . The f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n s have d i s c u s s e d my t h e s i s w i t h me a t v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f i t s development, and t h e i r i n t e r e s t has been a s o u r c e o f encou r -agement t o me: L o r i n d a D a n i e l Is (UBC A r c h i v e s ) ; J e a n e t t e Auger; John B a r k e r ; Herb B a r b o l e t ; Anne-Marie Fenger; Dianna H a l l ; M o i r a I r v i n e and E l e n a P e r k i n s (Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , UBC); and Car l a P a t t e r s o n (Department o f H i s t o r y , UBC). I s h o u l d a l s o l i k e t o thank Serena P o t t e r f o r t y p i n g my t h e s i s . F i n a l l y I would l i k e t o thank my s i s t e r L i n d a W i l l i a m s f o r her su p p o r t and t h o u g h t f u l n e s s w h i l e I was w r i t i n g my t h e s i s . 1. INTRODUCTION FIELDWORK IN HISTORY P a r t One: Framing the Q u e s t i o n s The q u e s t i o n s w i t h w h i c h we approach the l i t e r a t u r e r e p o r t i n g on a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l d i r e c t o ur u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . For example, i f our q u e s t i o n s a r e concerned w i t h a n t i q u i t y , papers on c u l t u r e h i s t o r y , p r e h i s t o r i c l i f e w a y s , and c u l t u r e p r o c e s s i n f o r m us o f t h e c u l t u r a l development o f the e a r l y i n l a n d and c o a s t a l d w e l l e r s . T h i s i s because a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , i n t e r e s t e d i n a knowledge o f the p r e h i s t o r y and h i s t o r y o f t h i s a r e a , have d i s c o v e r e d and r e c o r d e d d a t a w h i c h a r e e v i d e n c e o f the a c t i o n s o f t h e s e p e o p l e . I f , however, our q u e s t i o n s a r e concerned w i t h how t h i s knowledge has been c o n s t r u c t e d , t h i s l i t e r a t u r e g i v e s us i n s i g h t s i n t o t he p r o c e s s by w h i c h a r c h a e o l o g y i s a c c o m p l i s h e d , because i t a l s o c o n t a i n s e v i d e n c e o f the a c t i o n s o f the a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . I t r e v e a l s a s e r i e s o f h i s t o r i c e v e n t s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e the emergence o f s y s t e m a t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B i b l i o g r a p h i e s and r e f e r e n c e s p o i n t t o i d e a s w h i c h have shaped r e s e a r c h , and p r e f a c e s , i n t r o d u c t i o n s , acknowledgements, and f o o t n o t e s p r o v i d e us w i t h a g l i m p s e o f the c o n c e r n s , b e l i e f s , and problems w h i c h s u r r o u n d and g i v e meaning t o e v e n t s of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i c h w i l l advance an under-s t a n d i n g o f the p r o c e s s by which a r c h a e o l o g y i s a c c o m p l i s h e d . The l i t e r a t u r e approached i n t h i s way s u g g e s t s t h a t some t h i r t y y e a r s ago the c o a s t a l s t r e t c h between N o r t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a and S o u t h w e s t e r n A l a s k a was a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y one o f the l e a s t known a r e a s o f the N o r t h American 2. c o n t i n e n t . T h i s was P h i l i p D r u c k e r ' s v i e w o f the s i t u a t i o n when he r e p o r t e d on h i s s u r v e y o f the N o r t h e r n Northwest Coast w h i c h took p l a c e i n the f a l l of. 1938 ( D r u c k e r 19^3). . T h i s s u r v e y has s i n c e been acknowledged as the f i r s t s y s t e m a t i c work i n the r e g i o n (Sprague 1973). A r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h a c c o m p l i s h e d p r i o r t o t h i s by C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t i n the l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y and l a t e r by H a r l a n I. S m i t h , who was a f f i l i a t e d w i t h t h e Jesup N o r t h P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n , i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be u s e f u l (Borden 1955; C a r l s o n 1970; Maude 1978; Noble 1972; Sprague 1973; Winram 1975) a l t h o u g h u n s p e c t a c u l a r (Sprague 1973). However, Roy C a r l s o n , w r i t i n g i n 1975, r e f e r s t o "an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x p l o s i o n " w h i c h he s u g g e s t s took p l a c e between the y e a r s 1965 and 1975- He s t a t e s , " t h e amount o f a r c h a e o l o g y a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h i n the l a s t ten y e a r s i s more than t e n t i m e s t h a t o f a l l p r e v i o u s y e a r s combined" ( C a r l s o n 1975: 1*0. The q u e s t i o n I ask of the l i t e r a t u r e a t t h i s p o i n t i s t h i s : How and why d i d t h i s e x p l o s i o n come about ? C a r l s o n , h i m s e l f , p r o v i d e s an i m p o r t a n t c l u e . He s t a t e s t h a t " C h a r l e s Borden has done as much as any one man can do by u n d e r t a k i n g e x t e n s i v e e x c a v a t i o n s and s u r v e y s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the p r o v i n c e . " In C a r l s o n ' s o p i n i o n , " u n t i l the mid -60's he was the o n l y a r c h a e o l o g i s t i n B.C." ( C a r l s o n 1975: 1 4 ) . C h a r l e s E. ( C a r l ) Borden was born on May 15, 1905, i n New Y o r k . He r e c e i v e d h i s B.A. degree i n 1932 a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t Los A n g e l e s and h i s M.A. and Ph.D. degrees i n 1933 and 1937 r e s p e c t i v e l y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y . A f t e r t e a c h i n g a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a and a t Reed C o l l e g e i n P o r t l a n d , Oregon, he j o i n e d the UBC f a c u l t y i n 1939 as an A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r o f German. In 19^9, h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia l e d t o a c r o s s a p pointment 3. i n a n t h r o p o l o g y as L e c t u r e r i n a r c h a e o l o g y . One y e a r b e f o r e h i s r e t i r e -ment, i n 1969, he was a p p o i n t e d f u l l t i m e as P r o f e s s o r o f a r c h a e o l o g y . Even a f t e r h i s r e t i r e m e n t , Borden c o n t i n u e d t o engage i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . He d i e d on C h r i s t m a s Day, 1978, a t the Vancouver Gen e r a l Hospi t a l . He was 73• R e c o g n i t i o n o f Borden's c a r e e r i n a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C olumbia i s such t h a t i t has a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n . He has been a c c o r d e d the f o l l o w i n g honours: F e l l o w o f the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement o f S c i e n c e ; The C e n t e n n i a l Medal f o r V a l u a b l e S e r v i c e t o Canada; L i t e r a r u m D o c t o r ( U . B . C ) ; Queen's S i l v e r J u b i l e e M e d a l , 1977; and the Smith Wintemburg Award o f the Canadian A r c h a e o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1978. To d a t e , t h o s e who have f u r t h e r e d an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s i g n i f i -cance o f h i s c a r e e r have done so by commenting on h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n (Bunyan 1978; C a r l s o n 1979a, 1979b; Noble 1972; Robinson 1969; Sprague 1973) t o s y s t e m a t i c a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . They n e g l e c t , however, a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f h i s c a r e e r w h i c h i s b e t t e r e x p l a i n e d from a p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h makes i t s p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e the s o c i a l c o n t e x t o f i d e a s . T h i s a s p e c t c e n t r e s on h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r o t e c t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . In t he l a t e f o r t i e s and f i f t i e s , i n d u s t r i a l development i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h r e a t e n e d t o o b l i t e r a t e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . Then, i n 1960, the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t was passed ( C h a p t e r 15, The R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1960). Among the main p o i n t s o f t h e a c t (see copy i n a p p e n d i x 2) was t h a t i t p r o v i d e d f o r the appointment o f an A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board t o a d v i s e the M i n i s t e r i n c h a r g e o f the a c t . The a c t was a landmark i n t h a t i t p l a c e d B r i t i s h Columbia i n the vanguard o f a n a t i o n w i d e move t o expand the forum w i t h i n w h i c h problems o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e k. might be e x p l o r e d t o i n c l u d e a r c h a e o l o g y as a m a t t e r o f government b u s i n e s s . I t marked the b e g i n n i n g o f a new o r i e n t a t i o n among Canadian a r c h a e o l o g i s t s w hich W.J. Byrne (1976: 140) d e s c r i b e s a s : A g r a d u a l s h i f t from a k i n d o f p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e o f the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f the d e s t r u c t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s as a r e s u l t o f e v e r i n c r e a s i n g i n d u s t r i a l and urban d e v e l o p -ment, t o an a l m o s t m i l i t a n t i n s i s t e n c e upon the r i g h t s o f a r c h a e o l o g y i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the i n h e r e n t i r r e p l a c e a b l e c h a r a c t e r and v a l u e o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . I t marked the b e g i n n i n g o f a new c h a l l e n g e f o r a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t h a t G.R. W i l l e y and J.A. S a b l o f f (1980: 261) d e s c r i b e as the c h a l l e n g e o f the t e n s i o n between a r c h a e o l o g i c a l g o a l s and p u b l i c p o l i c y . Borden c o n t r i b u t e d towards a c h i e v i n g t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n ( C a r l s o n 1979a). My q u e s t i o n now i s t h i s : What was the n a t u r e o f t h i s a s p e c t o f h i s i n v o l v e -ment i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n B r i t i s h Columbia ? P a r t Two: C o n s t r u c t i n g an I n t e r a c t i v e H i s t o r y The purpose o f my t h e s i s i s t o f u r t h e r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Bocden's c o n t r i b u t i o n towards e s t a b l i s h i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s t h r o u g h the c o n s c i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f an i n t e r a c t i v e h i s t o r y where knowledge o f t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s n e g o t i a t e d between Borden and m y s e l f . A l l h i s t o r i e s a r e i n t e r a c t i v e because a s , f o r example, C a r l Becker (1935) and E.H. C a r r (1965) e x p l a i n , h i s t o r i e s emerge as a consequence o f h i s t o r i a n s i n t e r p r e t i n g , t h e i r d a t a i n the l i g h t o f t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e . Each h i s t o r y i s t h e r e f o r e a uniq u e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p a s t . My commonsense knowledge o f h i s t o r i e s t e l l s me, however, t h a t many t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s have not a r t i c u l a t e d an acknowledgement o f t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n . S u b s e q u e n t l y t h e i r h i s t o r i e s tend t o emerge as a u t h o r i t a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . B e c k e r ' s comments (1935: 2^9-50) on " t h e s c i e n t i f i c h i s t o r i a n " a r e a p t . He s a y s , " t h e s c i e n t i f i c h i s t o r i a n , i t seems, was one who s e t f o r t h t h e f a c t s w i t h o u t i n j e c t i n g any e x t r a n e o u s meaning i n t o them." 5. Becker c o n t i n u e s t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s " o b j e c t i v e " h i s t o r i a n b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was not he, the h i s t o r i a n , who spoke, but h i s t o r y w h i c h spoke t h r o u g h him. To say t h a t I am d o i n g an i n t e r a c t i v e h i s t o r y means t h a t u n l i k e the " s c i e n t i f i c h i s t o r i a n " I am aware t h a t the h i s t o r y i p r e s e n t i s o n l y one o f many p o s s i b l e h i s t o r i e s about Borden and a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t does not p r e t e n d t o be t h e d e f i n i t i v e h i s t o r y of h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n . There w i l l be p e r s o n s whose e x p e r i e n c e o f Borden w i l l not be s a t i s f i e d by my t h e s i s . F u r t h e r , t o say t h a t I am d o i n g an i n t e r a c t i v e h i s t o r y means t h a t I am c o n s c i o u s o f the t e n s i o n between p r e s e n t i n g Borden's p o i n t o f v i e w and my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s p o i n t o f v i e w . T h i s t e n s i o n commences w i t h my engagement w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e and proceeds t h r o u g h the s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s t h a t I c o n d u c t w i t h Borden. I t i s made a p p a r e n t i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s where, i n o r d e r t o b a l a n c e my a n a l y s i s o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , I r e l y h e a v i l y on Borden's comments as d a t a . Y e t , a t t h e same t i m e , the p a t t e r n i n t o w h i c h I p l a c e h i s comments r e v e a l s , o f c o u r s e , my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . What emerges i s a h i s t o r y t h a t i s v e r y much a p r o d u c t o f t h i s p r o c e s s o f i n t e r a c t i o n . A h i s t o r y i n w h i c h I t r y t o a v o i d the d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f Borden's p o i n t o f v i e w i n t o my g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , b y r e f u s i n g t o t r e a t Borden as an o b j e c t t o be r e s e a r c h e d and a n a l y z e d . H i s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e way he p e r c e i v e s h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s i m p o r t a n t t o me. W h i l e I r e a l i z e t h e r e may be more t o be s a i d about t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n I w i s h t o make m y s e l f a c c o u n t a b l e f o r p r e s e n t i n g h i s f e e l i n g s and p e r c e p t i o n s about h i s p l a c e i n t h e h i s t o r y of a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In a c l i m a t e where p e o p l e ' s e x p e r i e n c e s o f Borden a r e v a r i e d , I see t h i s as my moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The p r o c e s s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s t a r t s , as I p o i n t o u t , w i t h a s u r v e y of the l i t e r a t u r e (Borden's p u b l i c a t i o n s , p u b l i s h e d commentary by o t h e r s , government and u n i v e r s i t y documents). I have found i t p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l 6. t o read the i n t r o d u c t i o n s , p r e f a c e s , acknowledgements, and f o o t n o t e s t o h i s p u b l i c a t i o n s . In t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s , I sense something o f Borden's f e e l i n g s about the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l endeavour. I c a t c h g l i m p s e s o f h i s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e importance of p r e s e r v i n g t h e p a s t evoked by words such as " r e s c u e o p e r a t i o n s " and " t h r e a t e n e d " a r e a s : f o r example, i n "An A n c i e n t Coast V i l l a g e , " Borden (1955: 12) r e f e r s t o " s u r v e y s t o a s s e s s the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s and the need f o r s a l v a g e o p e r a t i o n s . " Now I b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the 1960 A c t from the p o i n t o f v i e w of a person f o r whom the p r i n c i p l e s i t s t o o d f o r meant a g r e a t d e a l . I b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d an e v e n t from a p e r s p e c t i v e concerned w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between an e v e n t and the v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and c o n c e r n s s u r r o u n d i n g t h a t e v e n t . The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e h i g h l i g h t s d a t a w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t Borden c o n t r i b u t e d towards e s t a b l i s h i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h r e e v e r y i m p o r t a n t ways. F i r s t , he r e c o g n i z e d the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t -i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Second, he p r e s e n t e d a s c h o l a r l y d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l . T h i r d , because h i s documented c o n c e r n d i d not e x i s t i n a vacuum, he embarked upon a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t o r a i s e p u b l i c awareness t o the i d e a o f r e g a r d i n g a r c h a e o l o g y as a non-renewable r e s o u r c e and t o a c c e p t i n g the n e c e s s i t y o f p r e s e r v i n g t h a t r e s o u r c e . ^ He a p p e a l e d t o what C o l i n T u r n b u l l (1976: 122) d e s c r i b e s as "our s o c i e t y ' s i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n w i t h c o n s e r v a t i o n ! s m . " Borden w r i t e s : A r c h a e o l o g i s t s do not want t o s t a n d i n the way o f economic g r o w t h , but we must c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o the u r g e n t need i n B r i t i s h Columbia o f l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r o t e c t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains from wanton d e s t r u c t i o n and t o p r o v i d e the means f o r adequate s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s wherever a n c i e n t s i t e s a r e t h r e a t e n e d by i n d u s t r i a l development and urban e x p a n s i o n (Borden 1955: 19). Yet t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s c r y p t i c and r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s . I t o n l y p a r t l y e x p l a i n s t h e n a t u r e of Borden's c o n t r i b u t i o n . I was, however, i n a 7. p o s i t i o n t o f u r t h e r t he development o f an i n t e r a c t i v e h i s t o r y t h r o u g h f i e l d w o r k . In May 1978, I c o n t a c t e d Borden and e x p r e s s e d my i n t e r e s t i n i n t e r v i e w i n g him. I t o l d him t h a t I wanted the i n t e r v i e w s t o f o c u s on h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n towards p r o v i d i n g t h e s e t t i n g i n wh i c h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h had d e v e l o p e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I e x p l a i n e d t h a t the i n t e r -v i e w s were t o be spon s o r e d by a B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Government Youth Employment Program G r a n t . They would be taped and t r a n s c r i b e d and would e v e n t u a l l y r e s i d e i n t h e UBC Museum o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a r c h i v e s where they would be a v a i l a b l e t o i n t e r e s t e d s c h o l a r s . I a l s o t o l d Borden t h a t the i n t e r v i e w s might p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r my M.A. t h e s i s . To f o c u s on i n t e r v i e w i n g i n t e r e s t s me. As a means o f a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s o f h i s t o r i c e v e n t s , i t i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h one o f t h e purposes o f a n t h r o p o l o g y : t o move towards an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e v e n t s from the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n s p l a c e d upon them by t h e pe r s o n s who l i v e them. An i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n would p r o v i d e Borden w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e f l e c t and comment on h i s c a r e e r a t l e n g t h and i n g r e a t d e p t h , and i t would produce an ac c o u n t c o n s t r u c t e d by an e c d o t e s and r e m i n i s c e n c e s w h i c h would s u p p l y a br o a d e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . When I use the word a c c o u n t , I mean e x p l a n a t i o n . Borden's a c c o u n t i s one e x p l a n a t i o n o f an a s p e c t o f h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n towards the e s t a b l i s h -ment o f s y s t e m a t i c a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In t h e i r paper " A c c o u n t s " (1968), M a r v i n B. S c o t t and S t a n f o r d Lyman make a d i s t i n c t i o n between e x p l a n a t i o n and a c c o u n t s w i t h the f o r m e r r e f e r r i n g t o " s t a t e m e n t s about e v e n t s where untoward a c t i o n i s not an i s s u e and does not have c r i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p . " T h e i r c o n c e r n i s f o r l i n g u i s t i c forms t h a t a r e o f f e r e d f o r untoward a c t i o n and wh i c h they d e s i g n a t e " a c c o u n t s . " However, common and i m p o r t a n t t o both t h e i r use 8. and my use o f t h e word i s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t p e o p l e ' s " a c c o u n t s " - the words they use - c a r r y a r e c o g n i t i o n o f a c u l t u r a l commitment. Words a r e a s s o c i a t e d t o some degree w i t h the v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f c u l t u r e . P e o p l e a c c o u n t f o r e v e n t s w i t h i n a framework o f a commonly shared s e t o f a s s u m p t i o n s . For example, e a r l i e r I e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t i n Borden's use o f the words " s a l v a g e " and " r e s c u e . " These words o f t e n appear i n the l i t e r a t u r e and a r e a p p r o p r i a t e - make sense - w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f the i d e o l o g y - background a s s u m p t i o n s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s , and e x p e c t a t i o n s - o f a group o f p e o p l e ( a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and a r c h a e o l o g i s t s ) whose t a s k i t o f t e n i s t o d i s c o v e r and r e c o r d c u l t u r e s w h i c h have d i s a p p e a r e d o r a r e f a s t d i s a p p e a r i n g . In p r i n c i p l e , t h e r e f o r e , i n t e r v i e w i n g can a c c o m p l i s h an i n t e r p r e t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e v e n t s where, as M a u r i c e Natanson . (1963) s u g g e s t s , " t h e emphasis i s on t r y i n g t o comprehend the way i n wh i c h s o c i a l l i f e i s l i v e d by a c t o r s on t h e s o c i a l s c e n e . " T h i s i s not t o assume, t o use an e x p r e s s i o n o f C l i f f o r d G e e r t z (1976), t h a t an i n t e r v i e w e r can g e t under the n a r r a t o r ' s s k i n t o produce the p o i n t o f vie w o f t h e l a t t e r p e r s o n . R a t h e r , i n t e r v i e w i n g i s l i k e G e e r t z ' s d e s c r i p t i o n (1973) o f et h n o g r a p h y : t h i c k d e s c r i p t i o n . The i n t e r v i e w e r , l i k e t he e t h n o g r a p h e r , p u l l s t o g e t h e r the b i t s and p i e c e s t o c r e a t e h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the n a r r a t o r ' s own c o n s t r u c t -i o n s . T h i s a s p e c t o f i n t e r v i e w i n g has r e l e v a n c e f o r most a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and some o t h e r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s engaged i n f i e l d w o r k and i n t e r e s t e d i n the s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f knowledge (e.g . G e e r t z 1973, 1976; Lee 1950; M a l i n o w s k i 1935; O l s e n and W h i t t a k e r 1967; Smith 197*0. And i t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y debated by a group o f s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s who r e l y e x c l u s i v e l y on i n t e r v i e w i n g f o r t h e i r d a t a and who c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h l i f e h i s t o r i e s . Gordon W. A l l p o r t (19^2) , John 9. D o l l a r d (1935), C l y d e K l u c k h o r n (19^5), and L.L. Langness (1965) acknowledge t h e problem. R e c e n t l y , however, G e y l a Frank (1979) and James M. Freeman and David J . K r a n t z (1980) have s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s e d on the problem. As Frank p o i n t s o u t , " t h e s t o r y o f a l i f e h i s t o r y i s not a f a i t a c c o m p l i o f u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s but i s a form w h i c h emerges i n d i s c o u r s e " ( F r a n k , 1979". 86). Freeman and K r a n t z e l a b o r a t e : G i v e n the problems o f e d i t i n g , t r a n s l a t i n g , and d i r e c t i n g o f n a r r a t i v e s , most n a r r a t e d l i f e h i s t o r i e s a r e t h e r e s u l t o f the combined e f f o r t s o f t h e n a r r a t o r and the t r a n s l a t o r - e d i t o r , who d i r e c t s the l i f e h i s t o r y and thus i s i n v o l v e d i n the c r e a t i o n o f the v e r y d a t a he a n a l y z e s (Freeman and K r a n t z 1980: k). F r a n k , Freeman, and K r a n t z r e c o g n i z e the im p o r t a n c e o f the i d e a t h a t knowledge o r i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d by the n a r r a t o r w i l l not remain s t e a d f a s t l y t he same r e g a r d l e s s o f who the i n t e r v i e w e r may be. S i m i l a r l y , they r e c o g n i z e what E r v i n g Goffman (1959) assumes: When an i n d i v i d u a l appears b e f o r e o t h e r s , he w i l l have many m o t i v e s f o r t r y i n g t o c o n t r o l t he i m p r e s s i o n they r e c e i v e o f the s i t u a t i o n . The n a r r a t o r t o some e x t e n t p u r p o s e f u l l y shapes h i s p u b l i c f a c e . Both t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e b a s i c t o the p r o d u c t i o n o f an ac c o u n t and a r e t h e r e f o r e r e l e v a n t t o my work. I would l i k e t o i n d i c a t e how they a f f e c t t he a c c o u n t t h a t emerges from t h e i n t e r v i e w s 1 conducted w i t h Borden. F i r s t , , I am l i k e the n o v i c e a n t h r o p o l o g i s t who Dennison Nash (1963) s u g g e s t s " i s r e c r u i t e d i n t o and t r a i n e d by a group w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l i d e o l o g y w h i c h , t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r e x t e n t , he a b s o r b s . " As a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t , I have been i n f l u e n c e d by the c u l t u r e o f s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g y t h r o u g h my p r o f e s s o r s and f e l l o w g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . G r a d u a l l y my s p e c i a l t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n the a n t h r o p o l o g y o f e v e r y d a y knowledge has t a k e n shape and has s t i m u l a t e d the approach I t a k e t o d e v e l o p an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f Borden t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f 10. s y s t e m a t i c a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s C o l u m b i a . I approached t h e i n t e r v i e w s , i n t e r e s t e d not so much i n Borden's i d e a s about the p r e h i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , but r a t h e r some o f the e v e r y d a y e v e n t s w h i c h had h e l p e d t o shape the s o c i a l c l i m a t e w i t h i n w h i c h t h e s e i d e a s had d e v e l o p e d . More s p e c i f i c -a l l y , as the q u e s t i o n s l i s t e d i n app e n d i x 2 r e f l e c t , I was con c e r n e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : the e v e n t s i n Borden's e a r l y l i f e w h i c h a f f e c t e d h i s d e c i s i o n t o come t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; how the t e a c h i n g program he i n i t i a t e d i n a r c h a e o l o g y a t UBC d e v e l o p e d ; and how he expanded t h i s academic forum t o i n c l u d e a g e n e r a l p u b l i c awareness o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Second, the ac c o u n t i s a l s o a f f e c t e d by the r o l e s p l a y e d by Borden and m y s e l f i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n . Borden was a P r o f e s s o r E m e r i t u s o f a r c h a e o l o g y and I was a s t u d e n t . As I have e x p l a i n e d , Borden u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w s might p r o v i d e me w i t h m a t e r i a l f o r an M.A. t h e s i s and t h a t i n any e v e n t they would p r o v i d e r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l f o r i n t e r e s t e d s c h o l a r s . He knew t h a t what he s a i d would c o n s t i t u t e o f f i c i a l knowledge. The f e e l i n g s he e x p r e s s e d would have t o s t a n d p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . He a l s o knew t h a t he was d y i n g o f c a n c e r and t h a t the i n t e r v i e w s would p o s s i b l y be the l a s t o p p o r t u n i t y t o o f f i c i a l l y a r t i c u l a t e h i s f e e l i n g s about h i s work. Borden was t h e r e f o r e , a c t i v e i n s h a p i n g t h i s p u b l i c a c c o u n t . He was not a p a s s i v e n a r r a t o r . I approached the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p l a n n e d q u e s t i o n s (see l i s t e d i n a p p e n d i x 2 ) , but as the i n t e r v i e w s p r o g r e s s e d , a l m o s t i m p e r c e p t i b l y , Borden took command o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . I f I put a q u e s t i o n t o him wh i c h he thought i n a p p r o p r i a t e , he would s u g g e s t t h a t we d i s c u s s something e l s e . A l t h o u g h my q u e s t i o n p l a n had d i r e c t e d the g e n e r a l f o c u s o f the i n t e r v i e w s , i t became l e s s predominant. G r a d u a l l y , the i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n became not the f o r m a l o c c a s i o n I had a n t i c i p a t e d , but r a t h e r an 11. i n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n e x t e n d i n g o v e r t w i c e w e e k l y m e e t i n g s , Mondays and F r i d a y s between k p.m. and 6 p.m., d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f the two months. The a c c o u n t t h a t emerged was a n e c d o t a l and i t s c o n t e n t s d i v e r s e . The t o p i c s each i n t e r v i e w ranged o v e r a r e i n d i c a t e d i n the I n t e r v i e w Index ( a p p e n d i x 1 ) . O v e r a l l , i t r e f l e c t s what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g a forum amenable t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . That he c o n s i d e r e d t h e s h a p i n g o f t h i s forum i m p o r t a n t i s r e v e a l e d i n h i s f o l l o w i n g words w h i c h f o l l o w comments he made on the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o d u c i n g f u l l a c c o u n t s o f v a r i o u s s i t e r e p o r t s , w h i c h as he su g g e s t e d u s u a l l y ended up b e i n g mere p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t s , and h i s t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p o l i t i c a l commitment t o a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W e l l , perhaps I s h o u l d n ' t have done a l l t h e s e t h i n g s . But they d i d g i v e me a comprehensive background knowledge t h a t I never would have g a i n e d i f I hadn't p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s manner. But one c o u l d weigh i t on the s c a l e . What i s more i m p o r t a n t ? Do t h i s , o r t o say "no" t o a l l t h i s and w r i t e s i t e r e p o r t s on the d i f f e r e n t s i t e s we had i n v e s t i g a t e d ? (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1919: 85). • I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e how the a c c o u n t would have d i f f e r e d i f , s a y , f o r example, I had been one o f Borden's c o l l e a g u e s o r a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l a c h i e v e m e n t . In h i s a c c o u n t , Borden b r i e f l y m entions how h i s w i s h e s f o r expanded t e a c h i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a r c h a e o l o g y were f r u s t r a t e d by the Department. I f I had been a c o l l e a g u e , I might have q u e s t i o n e d him more c l o s e l y about t h i s r e v e a l i n g f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . As a s t u d e n t , I f e l t r e l u c t a n t t o do so. And knowing the a c c o u n t would be made p u b l i c knowledge made me h e s i t a n t t o e n t e r the a r e a o f p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g s about department p o l i c i e s and d e c i s i o n s . If I had been a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t e d i n h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r i b u t -i o n , my q u e s t i o n s would have been v e r y d i f f e r e n t ( c f . R o b i n s o n 1969), 12. e l i c i t i n g a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the development o f a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O f t e n Borden d i d comment on the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s f i n d s t o me, but I p u r p o s e l y evaded a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s w h i c h would e l i c i t f u r t h e r comments o f t h i s s o r t because o f my estrangement from a r c h a e o l o g y . I was u n c e r t a i n about a d d r e s s i n g an a r e a about w h i c h I knew a l m o s t n o t h i n g . The a c c o u n t t h a t emerged from my i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h Borden i n the i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n p r o v i d e s t h e b a s i s f o r my t h e s i s , but I d i d not want t o p r e s e n t i t s i m p l y as i t s t o o d . A t the same t i m e , as I have a l r e a d y s t r e s s e d , I d i d not want t o l o s e i t s c o n t e n t by p a r a p h r a s i n g Borden's comments and making some a u t h o r a t a t i v e s t a t e m e n t about h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n . R a t h e r , 1 wanted t o n e g o c i a t e h i s a c c o u n t as i t s t o o d and the way i n w h i c h I made sense o f i t . I saw Borden's c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g a forum f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h as h a v i n g a d e f i n i t e / s h a p e . He r e c o g n i z e d , d e f i n e d and took a c t i o n t o r a i s e p u b l i c awareness t o t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . But t o s t a t e t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n my own words gave i t a h o l l o w r i n g . T h e r e f o r e , u s i n g p r i m a r i l y h i s a c c o u n t ( i n v i e w o f q u e s t i o n s l e f t unanswered because o f h i s d e a t h , I a l s o c o n s u l t e d p e r s o n s who knew him w e l l ) , my t h e s i s b r i n g s i n t o f o c u s : Borden's v i e w o f how he d e v e l o p e d h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h r o u g h an academic forum. How he used t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d him t o d e f i n e t h a t p o t e n t i a l . And how he took advantage o f h i s p o s i t i o n as an academic t o appeal f o r p u b l i c s u p p o r t o f an A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t . The p r o c e s s o f i n t e r a c t i o n does n o t , however, end h e r e . The ac c o u n t t h a t emerges from the i n t e r v i e w s , i n j u x t a p o s i t i o n w i t h o t h e r a c c o u n t s o f h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y , w i l l s t i m u l a t e q u e s t i o n s and be p r o d u c t i v e o f f u r t h e r knowledge i n t h e c o n t i n u i n g p r o c e s s o f the development o f an i n t e r a c t i v e h i s t o r y o f C a r l Borden and a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 14. CHAPTER ONE RECOGNIZING THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL IN BRITISH COLUMBIA C h a r l e s E. ( C a r l ) Borden's e a r l y f i e l d r e p o r t s ( 1 9 5 0 a , 1 9 5 0 b , 1 9 5 1 a , 1 9 5 1 b , 1 9 5 2 a , 1 9 5 2 b , 1 9 5 3 - 4 a , and 1 9 5 6 ) a r e a c l e a r s t a t e m e n t o f h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . They a l s o e x p r e s s the c o n c e r n w h i c h gave t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n meaning. T h i s f i n d s s t r o n g e r e x p r e s s i o n i n o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s and a s s o c i a t e d documents (Borden 1 9 5 5 , 1 9 7 7 ) , where he s t r e s s e s h i s f e a r f o r the s a f e t y o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n t h e f a c e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l and urban e x p a n s i o n , and h i s d i s t r e s s a t the i n d i f f e r e n c e shown towards t h i s p r o c e s s . In 1 9 5 5 , he u r g e s : The c u l t u r a l remains t h a t l i e b u r i e d i n the a n c i e n t s i t e s o f t h i s p r o v i n c e a r e p a r t o f the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e o f a l l mankind and ... i t i s our d u t y not t o l e t t h e s e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s go t o waste t h r o u g h apathy and n e g l i g e n c e (Borden 1 9 5 5 : 1 9 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e i s i n f o r m a t i v e , but a t the same ti m e i t r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t , why and how d i d Borden, engaged t o t e a c h German a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC), come t o be c oncerned i n the a r c h a e o l -o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; and s e c o n d , i n what s o c i a l c o n t e x t d i d t h i s c o n c e r n d e v e l o p ? I b e l i e v e t h a t the a c c o u n t , t h a t emerges from my i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Borden (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1 9 7 9 ) , adds s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the n a t u r e o f h i s r e c o g n i t i o n by g i v i n g us some background i n f o r m a t i o n and by p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s i n t o the v a l u e s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d h i s work. 1. How Borden came t o be concerned i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia Borden's i n t e r e s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r c h a e o l o g y p r e c e d e s h i s a r r i v a l i n Vancouver t o j o i n t h e German s e c t i o n o f t h e Department o f Modern 15. Languages a t UBC a t the i n v i t a t i o n o f I s a b e l M a clnnes. He e x p l a i n s : B e f o r e I came, something e l s e p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n my d e c i s i o n t o t r a n s f e r t o Vancouver. I had a map o f V a n c o u v e r , and on t h i s map were I n d i a n r e s e r v e s o u t l i n e d w i t h i n t h e c i t y l i m i t s , and t h i s was an a d d i t i o n a l a t t r a c t i o n t o come here ... I n o t i c e d t h a t two were l o c a t e d r i g h t w i t h i n the c i t y l i m i t s . One was K i t s i l a n o a t the south-west end o f the B u r r a r d S t r e e t b r i d g e on the s p o t where the C e n t e n n i a l Museum i s now l o c a t e d . E a r l i e r , i t was the l o c a t i o n o f an I n d i a n s i t e named Snauq (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 3-6). In h i s a c c o u n t , Borden r e v i e w s the i n f l u e n c e w h i c h shaped the i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d i n no s m a l l measure t o h i s d e c i s i o n t o come t o B r i t i s h Columbia and t o e v e n t u a l l y p u r s u e a c a r e e r i n a r c h a e o l o g y : My f i r s t i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y was aroused by two h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s whom I had i n Germany. T h i s was a f t e r the F i r s t W orld War. I a c t u a l l y s pent the F i r s t World War i n Germany as a boy. I was caught t h e r e as an American c i t i z e n - s t r a n d e d t h e r e you might say. D u r i n g my s c h o o l y e a r s I met, as I mentioned, two h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . And i n c i d e n t a l l y they both had PhD's and both had studied., among o t h e r s u b j e c t s , a r c h a e o l o g y and p r e - h i s t o r y . One, p a r t i c u l a r l y , was q u i t e a c t i v e i n a r c h a e o l o g y . T o g e t h e r we went on s u r v e y s , r e c o r d e d s i t e s , and made s m a l l t e s t e x c a v a t i o n s . T h i s was o v e r a p e r i o d o f two o r t h r e e y e a r s ; i n o t h e r words from about 1920 onward. ... As you can s e e , I had an e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a r c h a e o l o g y (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 1). I t was a p r o d u c t i v e i n t r o d u c t i o n : The a r t i f a c t s w h i c h I f o u n d , and w h i c h a r e now i n our museum, i n c l u d e some b l a d e s o f f l i n t w h i c h v e r y l i k e l y d a t e t o the l a t e Upper P a l e o l i t h i c . I t h i n k A l f r e d Rust l a t e r c a l l e d t h i s c u l t u r e the Hamburgian w h i c h i s a contemporary o f the M a g d a l e n i a n c u l t u r e i n F r a n c e . These b l a d e s were found i n a l o c a l i t y not v e r y f a r from B e r g e d o r f where t h e r e a r e dunes. The wind o f t e n d r i f t e d the sand away and exposed p r e - h i s t o r i c m a t e r i a l . In a d d i t i o n t o the f i n d s w h i c h may d a t e t o the l a t e Upper P a l e o l i t h i c I found some b l a d e l e t s , q u i t e a number o f b l a d e l e t s a c t u a l l y , s o - c a l l e d m i c r o b l a d e s , w h i c h a r e now i n our c o l l e c t i o n . These a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y d a t e t o the M e s o l i t h i c . O c c a s i o n a l l y , the wind exposed some s h a r d s a n d . c a l c i n e d bone f r a g m e n t s . These were p a r t o f a b u r i a l ground d a t i n g t o the Bronze Age. I do r e c a l l t h a t I found,a few Bronze-Age a r t i f a c t s . I t h i n k a t l e a s t one o f them i s i n our c o l l e c t i o n . I t was p r o b a b l y p a r t o f the head o f a p i n . ... There a r e s e v e r a l o t h e r p i e c e s t h a t a n t e d a t e the Bronze Age and w h i c h b e l o n g t o the N e o l i t h i c . There i s one f r a g m e n t a r y dagger, the t i p o f w h i c h - i s m i s s i n g . T h i s was found on the o u t s k i r t s o f B e r g e d o r f . There i s a l s o an axe-head, a 16. p o l i s h e d axe-head, w h i c h was found i n a f i e l d i n Wendorf w h i c h i s j u s t a c r o s s the b o r d e r from B e r g e d o r f . B e r g e d o r f i s a p a r t o f the f r e e c i t y o f Hamburg D i s t r i c t g o i n g back t o t h e Hanseati.c t i m e s . Wendorf be l o n g s t o the S t a t e . Yes, t h e s e a r t i f a c t s I have r e t a i n e d t h r o u g h the y e a r s and now they a r e here i n the Museum (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 11)-A f t e r t h i s e a r l y i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a r c h a e o l o g y , Borden's i n t e r e s t l a y dormant f o r many y e a r s ( p l e a s e see Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 12-19 f o r an a c c o u n t o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g t h e s e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s ) . But as he r e f l e c t s : I n ever l o s t my i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y , and I always hoped t h a t I might some day be a b l e t o r e t u r n t o i t (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 2). He was a b l e t o do so. In 1935, w h i l e s t i l l a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t w o r k i n g towards a Ph.D. degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y , he won a S c h o l a r s h i p t o Germany: In 1935, t h e r e was a c o m p e t i t i o n f o r a s c h o l a r s h i p t o one o f the S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s ; I t h i n k one had a c h o i c e . I p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h a t , but somebody e l s e g o t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s c h o l a r s h i p . But a f t e r a s h o r t w h i l e I r e c e i v e d a c a l l from the Dean o f Graduate S t u d i e s a s k i n g me whether I would be i n t e r e s t e d i n a c c e p t i n g a s c h o l a r s h i p t o Germany. Now, t h i s was a r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t d e c i s i o n t h a t I had t o make. My w i f e was J e w i s h and i n H i t l e r ' s Germany Jews were not welcome, t o say the l e a s t . So I w i r e d my w i f e , and i t was e n t i r e l y up t o her whether we would go o r n o t . She w i r e d back i m m e d i a t e l y i n the a f f i r m a t i v e . So i n 1935, we d r o v e our o l d c a r a c r o s s the c o n t i n e n t from Los A n g e l e s t o New York and boarded a f r e i g h t e r , the B l a c k Condor. There were a l t o g e t h e r about 12 p a s s e n g e r s w h i c h was r a t h e r p l e a s a n t , and i t was cheap. We had t o s t r e t c h our f u n d s . T h i s s c h o l a r s h i p was t h e W a l t e r Lowie T r a v e l l i n g S c h o l a r s h i p . I t s p e c i f i e d t h a t t h e r e c i p i e n t s t u d y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f H e i d e l b e r g (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 19). The s i t u a t i o n i n Germany a t t h a t t i m e was t e n s e : I t was i n some r e s p e c t s a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g y e a r and i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t y e a r a l s o . H e i d e l b e r g was a t t h a t time a r a t h e r s m a l l and s t i l l r o m a n t i c town, and the a d v e r s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m were q u i t e s t r o n g by c o n t r a s t w i t h some of the l a r g e r c i t i e s where Jews c o u l d move e a s i l y and c o n c e a l t h e m s e l v e s . We had p l e n t y o f e v i d e n c e t h a t Jews were b e g i n n i n g t o have a v e r y bad t i m e . T h i s was i n 1935. I don't want t o g e t t o o much i n t o t h a t . I t h i n k I s t i l l have a few p o s t e r s w h i c h I r i p p e d o f f , and one i n p a r t i c u l a r I r e c a l l s a i d 17. "War, R e v o l t , U n r e s t i n a l l the r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . Only Germany i s an i s l a n d o f peace. Vote f o r A d o l f H i t l e r i n the e l e c t i o n . " The e l e c t i o n was i n A p r i l 1936. I b e l i e v e I s t i l l have t h a t p o s t e r somewhere. I t was a b s o l u t e l y u s e l e s s t o read newspapers; they were p r i n t i n g a l l the bad t h i n g s t h a t were happening i n the r e s t o f t h e w o r l d . There were c o n s t a n t a t t a c k s a g a i n s t Jews. Newspapers a l l p r i n t e d the same t h i n g no m a t t e r where you were. They were a l l g l e i c h g e r c h a l t e t ; t h a t i s , they were a l l on the same c i r c u i t . There was no d i s c u s s i o n , n o t h i n g , no r e a l e d i t o r i a l s w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n and so f o r t h . So whenever we c o u l d , we made i t a c r o s s the b o r d e r and i t was l i k e g e t t i n g a b r e a t h o f f r e s h a i r . Whenever you got o u t o f Germany, you were f r e e t o s e l e c t any newspaper o r any j o u r n a l and see what was r e a l l y happening i n the w o r l d (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 20-21). B u t , i t was i n H e i d e l b e r g t h a t h i s i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y was re-awakened: One o f the c o u r s e s I took a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f H e i d e l b e r g was g i v e n by a nobleman.- P r o f e s s o r Von S a l i s was a s p e c i a l i s t i n Roman and Greek A r c h a e o l o g y and I a t t e n d e d h i s e x c e l l e n t l e c t u r e s w i t h much i n t e r e s t . Of c o u r s e , t h i s was, a g a i n , c l o s e t o some o f my e a r l y i n t e r e s t s , and t h i s was an o p p o r t u n i t y t o expand on them. Then a l s o I was i n t e r e s t e d i n p h o t o g r a p h y , and t h e r e was a v e r y good c o u r s e i n photography w h i c h I a t t e n d e d , and I became somewhat o f a s p e c i a l i s t i n p h otography. T h i s came i n v e r y handy l a t e r on i n my a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work i n t a k i n g p r o g r e s s s h o t s o f f i e l d work and t a k i n g photographs o f a r t i f a c t s , e t c . V a r i o u s t h i n g s , w h i c h seemed t o be d i s c r e t e , l a t e r on combined t o p r e p a r e me f o r what I e v e n t u a l l y was g o i n g t o do. D u r i n g the S p r i n g i n t e r s e s s i o n , between s e m e s t e r s , we took a t r i p t o I t a l y w h i c h was r e a l l y w o n d e r f u l . We e n t e r e d I t a l y from S w i t z e r l a n d and t r a v e l l e d as f a r s o u t h as N a p l e s and then back o v e r the Brenner Pass i n t o A u s t r i a and then Germany. We v i s i t e d many museums and a r t g a l l e r i e s and o f c o u r s e a l s o P o m p e i i . T h a t , a g a i n , was a tremendous e x p e r i e n c e f o r me (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 21-22). I t was a l s o d u r i n g Borden's y e a r s a t B e r k e l e y (1932-1937) t h a t he e n c o u n t e r e d Lowie and K r o e b e r . He r e c a l l s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 22), " I t was i m p o s s i b l e t o be a t t h a t u n i v e r s i t y w i t h o u t coming under t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , " and " t h e y d i d have an impact on me." The impact was i n d i r e c t s i n c e Borden d i d not a t t e n d t h e i r c o u r s e s , a l t h o u g h he d i d read some o f t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 25). In l a t e r y e a r s , he was a b l e t o meet Kroeber p e r s o n a l l y : I t was not u n t i l 1950 o r '51 t h a t I met P r o f e s s o r Kroeber h i m s e l f . We d i s c u s s e d a r c h a e o l o g y a t l e n g t h , and he e n j o i n e d me, whenever c o n d u c t i n g e x c a v a t i o n s , not t o s t o p when th e c u l t u r a l 18. d e p o s i t s seem t o come t o an end, but t o c o n t i n u e d i g g i n g and t o make s u r e t h a t t h e r e were no e a r l i e r d e p o s i t s u n d e r l y i n g what appeared t o be s t e r i l e s o i l . T h i s was v e r y good a d v i c e . L a t e r on, t h i s a d v i c e became v e r y p e r t i n e n t p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g our F r a s e r Canyon p r o j e c t about w h i c h 1 wi11 t a l k l a t e r on. I s e n t P r o f e s s o r Kroeber a copy of one o f my f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n s on the work t h a t we had done i n the F r a s e r D e l t a up t o 1950. I t was as a r e s u l t o f t h i s communication t h a t I r e c e i v e d P r o f e s s o r K r o e b e r ' s l e t t e r w i t h v e r y e n c o u r a g i n g comments. I v e r y much c h e r i s h e d t h a t because i t r e i n f o r c e d and encouraged me i n the work I was d o i n g . ( T h i s l e t t e r i s now on f i l e i n C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 21-22). When Borden a r r i v e d i n V a ncouver, c i r c u m s t a n c e s were such t h a t he was a b l e t o spend time s u r v e y i n g t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l o f the a r e a : In 1939 the war had s t a r t e d and i t was a d i f f i c u l t t i m e a l l round. I n t e r e s t i n German, of c o u r s e , had s l a c k e n e d , and UBC's r e s e a r c h l i b r a r y i n German was s t i l l e x t r e m e l y poor f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s , and I c o u l d n ' t r e a l l y c a r r y on any r e s e a r c h i n German-i s t i c s . So i t happened t h a t I had l e i s u r e t i m e t o wander around B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a , and one day I d i s c o v e r e d a s m a l l I n d i a n camp s i t e w h i c h was r e v e a l e d by the p r e s e n c e o f d e c a y i n g mussel and clam s h e l l s , e t c . I t was i n 1945, t h e n , t h a t I persuaded one o f my c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e E n g l i s h Department, Dr. P h i l i p A k r i g g , who shared an o f f i c e w i t h me, t o make some t e s t e x c a v a t i o n s a t t h i s I n d i a n camp s i t e w h i c h was b e i n g b a d l y eroded away by waves and by p e o p l e w a l k i n g o v e r i t t o go t o the beach. A t t h a t t i m e -t h i s was on the s o u t h e r n s h o r e o f the B u r r a r d P e n i n s u l a - t h e beach used t o e x t e n d a l l around t h e p o i n t and a l s o q u i t e a way a l o n g t h e s o u t h e r n s h o r e . I f you go down t h e r e now you w i l l f i n d i t c o m p l e t e l y changed and overgrown w i t h v e r d u e and i t would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o see any s i t e s u n l e s s you knew where th e y were. And so i t was t h a t we made our f i r s t e x c a v a t i o n s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 4). P h i l i p A k r i g g r e c a l l s t h a t a t t h a t time he and Borden s h a r e d an o f f i c e w i t h two o t h e r s . I t was room Z i n the o l d A r t s B u i l d i n g . One day Borden n o t i c e d a book on Northwest Coast I n d i a n s on A k r i g g ' s desk. Borden asked A k r i g g i f he was i n t e r e s t e d i n I n d i a n c u l t u r e , and would he be i n t e r e s t e d i n d o i n g some e x c a v a t i n g ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , P. A k r i g g , A p r i l 14, 1980). A k r i g g was persuaded t o do so. He remembers t h a t on t h i s o c c a s i o n they took s h o v e l s down t o the a r e a o f beach now known as Wreck Beach. I t took some ti m e t o g e t r i d o f t h e o v e r l a y and t h e r e s u l t s were meagre. As t h e y were c l i m b i n g back up the c l i f f , t hey were stopped 19. by a Vancouver p o l i c e m a n who had been warned t h a t two s u s p i c i o u s c h a r a c t e r s were p o s s i b l y b u r y i n g l o o t on t h e beach. A k r i g g c o n t i n u e d t o accompany Borden on o t h e r e x c a v a t i o n s . In Borden 1 s words: A l i t t l e l a t e r we a l s o e x c a v a t e d a n o t h e r s m a l l s i t e w h i c h was a s h o r t d i s t a n c e f u r t h e r e a s t and c o v e r e d by a s u c c e s s i o n o f mud s l i d e s . A l l a l o n g , i t was my idea t o s a l v a g e and t o p r e v e n t s i t e s from b e i n g d e s t r o y e d w i t h o u t any r e c o r d , and many o f the t h i n g s we obs e r v e d and e x c a v a t e d a t t h a t t i m e might have been c o m p l e t e l y l o s t . We a l s o r e c o r d e d some i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s t h a t nobody had r e c o g -n i z e d : f o r i n s t a n c e , I n d i a n canoe runways. The beach a l o n g t h e so u t h s h o r e was not o n l y sandy but i t was a l s o l i n e d w i t h r o c k s . And I n d i a n s , i n some p l a c e s , had removed t h e r o c k s so t h a t they c o u l d beach t h e i r canoes w i t h o u t damaging them. There a r e n e g a t i v e s o f two o f t h e s e canoe runways i n the a r c h i v e s a t UBC. Thus, my i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y h a v i n g been reawakened, I made some r a t h e r i n t e n s i v e s u r v e y s o f the p e n i n s u l a . I d i s c o v e r e d s e v e r a l s i t e s t h a t were q u i t e l a r g e . Most o f them were p a r t l y o r alm o s t t o t a l l y d e s t r o y e d . One i s r i g h t w i t h i n a s t o n e ' s throw o f the U n i v e r s i t y ( t h e a r e a c a l l e d P o i n t Grey) ... A n o t h e r was t h e Locarno Beach s i t e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 4-5). ( A k r i g g p o i n t s o u t t h a t they both knew o f p l a n s t o b u i l d on t h i s l a t t e r s i t e ) . Borden c o n t i n u e s , W i t h some c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y I a l s o r e l o c a t e d the M a r p o l e s i t e where H a r l a n I. Smith had e x c a v a t e d i n t h e l a t e 1800's. Smith was the A r c h a e o l o g i s t who had been a p p o i n t e d t o t h e Jesup N o r t h P a c i f i c E x p e d i t i o n and he had conducted e x c a v a t i o n s t h e r e . Of c o u r s e , a t t h a t time i t was a l m o s t untouched. Now, t h e s i t e i s l a r g e l y b u i l t o v e r and d e s t r o y e d . But the o l d Vancouver C i t y Museum had engaged a man, by the name o f Herman L e i s k , i n t h e e a r l y 1930's, and he cond u c t e d e x c a v a t i o n s a t the Ma r p o l e s i t e . Some o f the r e c o v e r e d a r t i f a c t s were on e x h i b i t i n the C i t y Museum whi c h was l o c a t e d on the top f l o o r o f the o l d C a r n e g i e L i b r a r y . A f t e r t h e new Vancouver main l i b r a r y was b u i l t , the o l d l i b r a r y b u i l d i n g s t o o d v a c a n t and the museum expanded i n t o t he e n t i r e bu i l d i ng ... I t was a l s o i n 19^6 t h a t Dr. A k r i g g and I e x c a v a t e d two t r e n c h e s and a s e r i e s o f t e s t p i t s a t the P o i n t Grey s i t e . Most o f the s i t e had been e r a s e d by a c h i l d r e n ' s h e a l t h camp. However, t h e r e were a few a r e a s t h a t were s t i l l u n d i s t u r b e d and we s e l e c t e d t h r e e f o r our main e x c a v a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n we conducted t e s t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t o f the s i t e . One i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g about the s i t e i s t h a t i t has not o n l y a p r e h i s t o r i c h o r i z o n but a l s o a h i s t o r i c h o r i z o n . I t was one of the f i r s t a r e a s i n t h i s r e g i o n i n w h i c h l o g g i n g had 20. been c a r r i e d out i n t h e mid 80's o f the l a s t c e n t u r y . R i g h t on the r e m a i n i n g p a r t o f the midden were two l a r g e stumps, Douglas f i r stumps. These huge t r e e s seemed t o have been g r o w i n g r i g h t out of the midden. One of our purposes was t o i n v e s t i g a t e whether th e t r e e s had a c t u a l l y been growing out o f the midden as i t seemed. We were a b l e t o borrow an increment b o r e r from t h e Department o f F o r e s t r y t o b o re i n t o the t r e e s and t o c ount the annual r i n g s . We found t h a t one o f the t r e e s was o v e r 250 y e a r s o l d . And a t a n o t h e r p a r t of the s i t e , we d e t e r m i n e d t h a t one o f t h e huge stumps was o v e r 400 y e a r s o l d . I n c i d e n t a l l y i t i s s t i l l t h e r e . The P a r k s Department of V a ncouver, some y e a r s ago, was g o i n g t o blow up a l l t h e stumps but I persuaded them not t o do so. The l o g g i n g had been g o i n g on i n t h e mid 80's o f the l a s t c e n t u r y . So i f you combine t h e time t h a t had e l a p s e d and add t o t h a t the t i m e t h a t we d e t e r m i n e d , we had a minimum age f o r the s i t e o f 500 y e a r s . And i f I m i g h t a n t i c i p a t e . L a t e r , when I was a c t u a l l y t e a c h i n g a r c h a e o l o g y a t the u n i v e r s i t y , we c o n d u c t e d , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h our c o u r s e s , f i e l d work d u r i n g w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t s l e a r n e d e x c a v a t i n g t e c h n i q u e s , r e c o r d i n g , mapping, and so f o r t h . D u r i n g one o f t h e s e c o u r s e s , we c o l l e c t e d some c h a r c o a l s a m p l e s , and we now know t h a t t h e a c t u a l age o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r s i t e a t P o i n t Grey goes back t o the l a s t c e n t u r y B.C. (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979'- 5 - 8 ) . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f time A k r i g g s u g g e s t s t h a t Borden d e v e l o p e d "an a r c h e o l o g i s t 1 s eye." He remembers one o c c a s i o n when he and Borden were d r i v i n g t h r o u g h the Musqueam r e s e r v e . Borden would know i n t u i t i v e l y when t o s t o p the c a r and g e t o u t t o p i c k up a p o i n t ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , P. A k r i g g , A p r i l 14, 1980) . A l t h o u g h A k r i g g h i m s e l f d e c i d e d t o commit h i s time t o t e a c h i n g E n g l i s h , he saw t h a t Borden was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y more absorbed i n a r c h a e o l o g y and i n an awareness o f the " d e s p e r a t e r a c e " t o r e s c u e o b j e c t s from s i g n i f i c a n t s i t e s . Borden's own words convey t h i s c o n c e r n : Economic a c t i v i t i e s were t h r e a t e n i n g the a r c h a e o l o g y o f the p r o v i n c e . For example the b u i l d i n g o f r o a d s , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f dams and r e s e r v o i r s , urban e x p a n s i o n , even a g r i c u l t u r e . A l l t h e s e would d e s t r o y s i t e s b e f o r e they were i n v e s t i g a t e d . From the b e g i n n i n g , my emphasis had been on s a l v a g i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains w h i l e they were s t i l l a c c e s s i b l e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 3 0 ) . I t was a c o n c e r n t h a t , as A k r i g g s u g g e s t s , was r o o t e d i n commitment. Here was an a r e a w h i c h , u n l i k e German l i t e r a t u r e , had not been worked o v e r . As Borden p o i n t s o u t (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 2 7 ) , " t h e r e was no 21 . p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t a c t i v e i n the w e s t . " Borden committed h i m s e l f t o the t a s k of m a s t e r i n g what he d i d not know about a r c h a e o l o g y . Books on a r c h a e o l o g y a r r i v e d i n the o f f i c e from v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the w o r l d ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , P. A k r i g g , A p r i l 14, 1980). In a d d i t i o n , Borden communicated w i t h a r c h a e o l o g i s t s e l s e w h e r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t h i s p o i n t w i t h t h o s e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y ( p e r s o n a l c o m munication, B. Simonsen, A p r i l 10, 1980). T h e r e , D r u c k e r was a s o u r c e o f i n s p i r a t i o n f o r Borden, p a r t i c u l a r l y because o f h i s r e f u t a t i o n o f Diamond J e n n e s s ' v i e w o f the p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Borden r e f l e c t s : W e l l I was s p e a k i n g about Diamond J e n n e s s . H i s I n d i a n s o f  Canada i s s t i l l a c l a s s i c , even now, a l t h o u g h i t was w r i t t e n many y e a r s ago. I b e l i e v e t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n was i n 1932 o r '33-There i s the s t a t e m e n t i n t h a t volume w h i c h i s r e a l l y r a t h e r d e v a s t a t i n g f o r the a r c h a e o l o g y o f the Northwest Coast ... I t runs t o t h i s e f f e c t -- t h a t one c o u l d d i g f o r about two weeks w i t h a six-man crew and come up w i t h n o t h i n g more than around s i x a r t i f a c t s w h i c h would be w o r t h w h i l e t a k i n g home. Now t h i s was not e x a c t l y an encouragement t o come t o the West Coast o f B r i t i s h Columbia t o conduct a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i e l d w o r k . And i t was a t l e a s t i n p a r t , P h i l i p D r u c k e r ' s i n t e n t i o n t o r e f u t e t h i s n o t i o n and t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h r o u g h h i s work t h a t r e a l l y a good d e a l c o u l d be l e a r n e d by c o n d u c t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i e l d w o r k i n t h i s a r e a . So here was a n o t h e r i n c e n t i v e f o r me t o c o n t i n u e the work I had s t a r t e d (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 27). Borden (1974) r e f e r s t o D r u c k e r ' s p u b l i c a t i o n (1943) as a b i b l e . The f o l l o w i n g remarks echo t h i s s e n t i m e n t : I l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l from t h a t p u b l i c a t i o n (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 26) ... t h i s was a c l a r i o n c a l l (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 7)• Both Borden and A k r i g g v i s i t e d B e r k e l e y i n 1946. They met Mr. B e a r d s l e y who had accompanied D r u c k e r i n h i s s u r v e y o f the n o r t h e r n Northwest Coast i n 1937. He was a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a t t h a t t i m e . He and o t h e r s a t B e r k e l e y were e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l t o Borden, showing him t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n s and the forms they were u s i n g . Borden comments: 22 So we had e x c e l l e n t c o o p e r a t i o n t h e r e w h i c h made our t a s k a good d e a l e a s i e r , and made i t p o s s i b l e f o r us t o f o l l o w what then were c u r r e n t s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e d u r e s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 7). Borden a l s o r e c e i v e d h e l p and encouragement a t t h i s e a r l y s t a g e o f h i s c a r e e r from Erna Gunther who was head o f the Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington. She had i n i t i a t e d an A r c h a e o l o g i c a l program: I was v e r y c o r d i a l l y r e c e i v e d and o b t a i n e d h e l p f u l i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p r o c e d u r e s , f i e l d r e c o r d forms and so f o r t h (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 7). B j o r n Simonsen comments i n t e r e s t i n g l y t h a t Borden never made a p o i n t of e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t he was not t r a i n e d i n a r c h a e o l o g y . And, i n d e e d , as time p r o g r e s s e d , i t never seemed t o be a d i s a d v a n t a g e . He became a s e n i o r p e r son i n the f i e l d ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , B. Simonsen, A p r i l 10, 1980). N e v e r t h e l e s s , Borden h i m s e l f was " k e e n l y aware" t h a t he d i d not have any f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n a r c h a e o l o g y . But he reminds us: ... the s o r t o f d o c t o r a t e t h a t I had - p a r t i c u l a r l y , the p r o f e s s o r under whom I was w o r k i n g , was v e r y i n s i s t e n t on e x t r e m e l y t h o r o u g h work. He a b s o l u t e l y would not p a s s , f o r i n s t a n c e , any q u o t a t i o n t h a t had been l i f t e d from some o t h e r work t h a t had quoted an o r i g i n a l . He always i n s i s t e d t h a t one go t o the o r i g i n a l and see a c t u a l l y what the man had s a i d and what the t o t a l c o n t e x t was. So t h i s was i m p o r t a n t i n my own work and t h e same thoroughness I t r y t o a p p l y t o t h e c o l l e c t i n g and a s s e m b l i n g o f the raw d a t a as w e l l as t o the a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a t h e m s e l v e s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 81-82). And i t was, t h e r e f o r e , not s i m p l y t h e c o n c e r n w i t h w h i c h Borden approached the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t impressed H a r r y Hawthorn when he a r r i v e d t o t a k e up h i s appointment as P r o f e s s o r o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a t UBC i n 19^7, but h i s s c h o l a r l y t h o r o u g h n e s s . Hawthorn ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , H. Hawthorn, O c t o b e r 2, 1979) r e g a r d e d Borden as "a s c h o l a r " w i t h "a f e e l f o r e v i d e n c e , " " o r d e r l y and s y s t e m a t i c . " Hawthorn s u g g e s t s t h a t " s e n s i b l e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s would r e s p e c t C a r l f o r the 23 c a r e w i t h w h i c h he g a t h e r e d t he e v i d e n c e . " T h e r e f o r e , they would " r e s p e c t h i s c o n c l u s i o n s even i f l a t e r p e o p l e a r r i v e a t d i f f e r e n t o n e s . " H i s r e g a r d f o r Borden's work l e d him t o i n v i t e Borden t o t e a c h a r c h a e o l o g y on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . Borden r e c o l l e c t s : In 19^7, P r o f e s s o r H a r r y Hawthorn was a p p o i n t e d t o the f a c u l t y a t UBC i n the Department o f Economics, P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e and S o c i o l o g y . And then A n t h r o p o l o g y was added. I b e l i e v e I mentioned b e f o r e t h a t Dr. Hawthorn v i s i t e d some o f my e x c a v a t i o n s , and he examined some o f what I had w r i t t e n , and so i t came t h a t i n 19^8 he asked me i f I would be w i l l i n g t o t e a c h , on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s , p a r t o f h i s c o u r s e on the I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s p a r t o f the c o u r s e was t o i n v o l v e some f i e l d work i n a r c h a e o l o g y . As p a r t o f t h e i r work, s t u d e n t s had t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n an e x c a v a t i o n , l e a r n f i e l d t e c h n i q u e s and then l a t e r p r e p a r e a m e a n i n g f u l r e p o r t on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s f i e l d work and, on t h e a n a l y s i s o f the r e c o v e r e d a r t i f a c t s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 24). He was meanwhile t e a c h i n g German: ... even though I was t e a c h i n g one and l a t e r two c o u r s e s i n a r c h a e o l o g y on a l t e r n a t e y e a r s , I was s t i l l t e a c h i n g a f u l l l o a d i n German S t u d i e s . That means f o u r c o u r s e s - f o u r c o u r s e s i n German. Some i n t r o d u c t o r y c o u r s e s , a S c i e n t i f i c German c o u r s e , and a f o u r t h - y e a r c o u r s e i n t h e H i s t o r y o f German C i v i l i z a t i o n . I a lways s t a r t e d w i t h p r e - h i s t o r y because I thought i t was u t t e r l y wrong t o b e g i n w i t h M e d i e v a l t i m e s . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n Germany, you have a v e r y , v e r y long p r e - h i s t o r y g o i n g back t o Ne a n d e r t h a l man. I thought i t i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t o have a knowledge o f t h a t (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 33-3*0 . A k r i g g p o i n t s o u t t h a t Borden was e s s e n t i a l l y c a r r y i n g two f u l l t i m e c a r e e r s . He remembers t h a t i t was a t t h i s p o i n t Borden d e v e l o p e d asthma ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , P. A k r i g g , A p r i l 14, 1980). The a r c h a e o l o g y p r o j e c t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h Hawthorn's c o u r s e on the I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia was s u c c e s s f u l , and so t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r (1949-50), Borden was persuaded t o t e a c h a f u l l c o u r s e i n t h e A r c h a e o l o g y of B r i t i s h Columbia w h i c h would i n v o l v e " f i e l d w o r k , l a b work, t h e o r y , method, and p r a c t i c e " (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 29). Problems i n v o l v i n g the s t r u c t u r e and c o n t e n t o f the c o u r s e were l e f t t o Borden: 24 Dr. Hawthorn's c h a r g e , and h i s t a s k , was t o e s t a b l i s h a s e p a r a t e department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y . He was a c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g i s t and h i s p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t was i n t h a t . And he b u i l t up one o f t h e b e s t Departments o f A n t h r o p o l o g y i n Canada - as a m a t t e r o f f a c t on the N o r t h American C o n t i n e n t . A r c h a e o l o g y was o f p e r i p h e r a l i n t e r e s t t o H a r r y Hawthorn and he l e f t me p r e t t y w e l l t o my own d e v i c e s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1 9 7 9 : 3 0 ) . 2. The S o c i a l C o n t e x t w i t h i n w h i c h Borden's c o n c e r n d e v e l o p e d Borden's c o n c e r n w i t h t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia was now t o f i n d e x p r e s s i o n and d e v e l o p w i t h i n an academic forum. But b e f o r e a r c h a e o l o g y c l a s s e s c o u l d s t a r t , f a c i l i t i e s had t o be found "where a r c h a e o l o g y c o u l d be t a u g h t and ... where the a r t i f a c t s c o u l d be s t o r e d and a n a l y z e d ... where r e p o r t s c o u l d be w r i t t e n " (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1 9 7 9 : 3 1 ) - Borden r e m i n i s c e s : W e l l one day, I b e l i e v e i t was i n 1 9 ^ 9 , the P r e s i d e n t , and the Dean, and H a r r y Hawthorn, and m y s e l f s e a r c h e d the campus f o r a l o c a t i o n where we c o u l d e s t a b l i s h s o r t o f a b r i d g e - h e a d f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . And we found t h i s b r i d g e - h e a d i n the west basement wing o f the o l d A r t s B u i l d i n g on campus. There was one room f o r wh i c h we c o u l d n ' t even g e t a key, and we had t o c l i m b t h r o u g h t h e window i n o r d e r t o g e t i n . The room s m e l l e d o f v i n e g a r and r o t t e n v e g e t a b l e s and o t h e r g r o c e r i e s because i t was the room w h i c h had been used by the c a f e t e r i a i n the o l d A u d i t o r i u m b u i l d i n g . So i t was t h e r e t h a t I e s t a b l i s h e d some t a b l e s . That i s t o s a y , some 4 x 8 plywood s u p p o r t e d by saw-horses. We even had a s i n k w i t h r u n n i n g w a t e r w h i c h was a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y , but t h e r e was no v e n t i l a t i o n , and the steam p i p e s w h i c h ran behind t h e room i n the basement were not t i g h t and s e n t o a t steam t o o v e r h e a t the a r e a . I t was not an i d e a l s i t u a t i o n . I t was not u n t i l sometime l a t e r t h a t 1 was a b l e t o persuade P h y s i c a l P l a n t t o i n s t a l l a f a n , wh i c h they d i d . And they i n s t a l l e d a window and a door w i t h an i r o n g r i d . A s i m i l a r g r i d was i n s t a l l e d i n t h e f r o n t door. So, when you put on the f a n , t h e r e was some d r a f t coming t h r o u g h . But the f a n was an o l d one and i t c l a t t e r e d . We worked t o the tune o f t h i s c l a t t e r i n g f a n . There were a good many o t h e r rooms i n t h a t basement, but they were o c c u p i e d by v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s on campus. For i n s t a n c e , by the b o o k s t o r e w h i c h had a l a r g e a r e a f o r t he s t o r a g e o f books, and i n v o i c e s , and o t h e r p a p e r s . Then, t h e r e was a n o t h e r s m a l l , narrow room wh i c h was used by the campus c o n s t a b u l a r y . They had a l i t t l e c o o k i n g f a c i l i t y and t h e room s m e l l e d o f f r i e d bacon and o t h e r t h i n g s - f o r i n s t a n c e , o n i o n s . And t h e s e s m e l l s w a f t e d t h r o u g h i n t o t he l a b . B u t , e v e n t u a l l y , I was a b l e t o o u t - l i v e t h e s e p e o p l e and t o elbow my way i n t o t he s t o r a g e room o f t h e b o o k s t o r e . They had o c c u p i e d 25 a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l space i n one o f the army huts w h i c h had been brought t o the campus a t the end o f the War. But, when they b u i l t the b o o k s t o r e b u i l d i n g , they e v e n t u a l l y e v a c u a t e d the basement and, because I had t h r o u g h t h e y e a r s made q u i t e a p e s t of m y s e l f and p r e s s u r e d t h a t we wanted and needed t h i s s p a c e , we were e v e n t u a l l y a b l e t o o b t a i n t h i s a r e a . One o f the most d i f f i c u l t rooms t o get was the one i m m e d i a t e l y a d j o i n i n g the f i r s t room wh i c h we had, and t h i s f o r m e r room was o c c u p i e d by the head o f the campus j a n i t o r s . He was q u i t e a c h a r a c t e r . He chewed t o b a c c o and s p a t over h i s desk a t the h e a t i n g f a c i l i t y . And once i n a w h i l e he would c a l l on t h e c a r p e t some j a n i t o r o r j a n i t r e s s and g i v e them a good c a l l i n g down because of what they had o r had not done. He used r a t h e r s t r o n g and p r o f a n e language w h i l e d o i n g so. I was competing w i t h t h i s w h i l e t r y i n g t o l e c t u r e nearby. So t h e s e were some o f the e a r l y d i f f i c u l t i e s we had, and t h i s head j a n i t o r was d e t e r m i n e d t o e v e n t u a l l y expand t o a l l the a r e a s w h i c h we o c c u p i e d . But I managed t o o u t l i v e him. He r e t i r e d b e f o r e he was a b l e t o r e a l i z e h i s a m b i t i o n , and we f e l l h e i r t o h i s f o r m e r room (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 31-35). In t h e s e e a r l y days Borden s t a t e s t h a t he was t e a c h i n g a r c h a e o l o g y s i x days a week (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 35). At the b e g i n n i n g , t h e r e was o n l y a h a n d f u l o f s t u d e n t s who would p a r t i c i p a t e , but l a t e r on I had between 12 and 15 and some-time s even more. O f t e n , a t the b e g i n n i n g , t h e c l a s s e s would be 20 o r s o , but not everyone was w i l l i n g t o go out i n a l l w e a t h e r s and submit t h e m s e l v e s t o the a g o n i e s t h a t i t e n t a i l e d because, o f t e n , i t was v e r y c o l d and wet and soggy and not t o o p l e a s a n t . And some p e o p l e who had some r o m a n t i c i d e a s about a r c h a e o l o g y v e r y q u i c k l y l e a r n e d t h a t i t e n t a i l e d a g r e a t d e a l o f r e a l l y u n p l e a s a n t work (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: hi). S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n f i e l d s e s s i o n s p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n c o u r s e work: F i r s t o f a l l , as f a r as the c o u r s e A n t h r o p o l o g y 420 was c o n c e r n e d , t h a t i s the A r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , we d i d have f i e l d s e s s i o n s . And, i n t h e e a r l y d a y s , they were h e l d e v e r y S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n , and o f c o u r s e the s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n them. We were f o r t u n a t e i n a way t h a t we d i d have s i t e s i n the immediate v i c i n i t y o f Vancouver and some a c t u a l l y i n Vancouver where the s t u d e n t s c o u l d engage i n p r a c t i c a l f i e l d work (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 36). Borden was, however, eager t o f i n d s i t e s where f i e l d work c o u l d be engaged i n o v e r a much l o n g e r p e r i o d : 26. In o r d e r t o do t h a t , I s u r v e y e d the Musqueam I n d i a n R e s e r v e , w h i c h i s l o c a t e d jus,t t o t h e s o u t h e a s t of the Endowment Lands of the U n i v e r s i t y , r i g h t w i t h i n a few m i l e s of the campus. That was a t a s k w h i c h was not so r e a d i l y done because i n t h o s e days the I n d i a n s were r a t h e r s u s p i c i o u s o f s t r a n g e r s and h o s t i l e t o p e o p l e coming on t h e i r r e s e r v e . Now, I thought I went t h r o u g h the p r o p e r s t e p s . For example, I went t o t h e I n d i a n Agent i n V a n c o u v e r , and he was q u i t e c o o p e r a t i v e , and he w r o t e a l e t t e r t o the S e c r e t a r y o f the band s t a t i n g q u i t e c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t t h i s a u t h o r i z e s Dr. C h a r l e s E. Borden t o c a r r y o u t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s on the Musqueam I n d i a n R e s e r v e . When I showed t h a t l e t t e r t o Mr. Sparrow, who was the S e c r e t a r y o f t h e band a t t h a t t i m e , he a l m o s t h i t the r o o f , you know, because the I n d i a n Agent had no r i g h t t o do t h a t . So t h a t was a v e r y bad b e g i n n i n g , you know, t o e s t a b l i s h good r e l a t i o n s w i t h the I n d i a n Band t h e r e . But i n t i m e , I d i d manage t o c o n v i n c e Mr. James P o i n t , who was the c h i e f o f the band a t t h a t t i m e , t h a t i t was d e s i r a b l e t o r e s c u e t h e s e remains b e f o r e they were d e s t r o y e d . In o r d e r t o persuade and p a c i f y Mr. Sparrow, I i n v i t e d him t o come t o our l a b and t o v i e w what we had e x c a v a t e d a l r e a d y i n s i t e s such as the P o i n t Grey s i t e and t h e L o c a r n o Beach s i t e . So one day I packed them a l l I n t o my c a r and d r o v e them ou t t o the l a b . Mr. Sparrow came, and h i s w i f e , h i s c h i l d r e n , and g r a n d c h i l d r e n . We a l l landed i n the l a b , and I e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l the v a r i o u s items t h a t we had. They o b v i o u s l y d i d not know what they were and how t h e y f u n c t i o n e d , and they were v e r y , v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d , i n p a r t i c u l a r Mr. Sparrow. And a f t e r a w h i l e when one o f the c h i l d r e n t r i e d t o h a n d l e some o f t h e s e r a t h e r f r a g i l e o b j e c t s , he t o l d him, "Don't t o u c h , don't t o u c h , be c a r e f u l . " And so t h i s e s t a b l i s h e d a good b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r c o o p e r a t i o n . Mr. Sparrow, h i m s e l f , p e r m i t t e d me then t o c o n d u c t e x c a v a t i o n s on l a n d w h i c h bel o n g e d t o h i s f a m i l y on the r e s e r v e . And we d i d t h a t f o r s e v e r a l seasons (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 3 7~38). Then, i n l a t e r s e a s o n s , we were a b l e t o e x c a v a t e on l a n d t h a t b elonged t o C h i e f James P o i n t , and we made some i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c o v e r i e s t h e r e . Now, t h e s e e x c a v a t i o n s were on a s i t e w h i c h had been v i s i t e d i n 1808 by Simon F r a s e r upon h i s a r r i v a l a t the mouth o f the r i v e r . T h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s d e t a i l e d i n h i s j o u r n a l s about h i s p e r i l o u s t r i p down the F r a s e r . He d i d r e c e i v e a r a t h e r h o s t i l e r e c e p t i o n from the I n d i a n s . I t h i n k i t was on the 2nd o f J u l y , 1808. He a r r i v e d w i t h h i s band a t h i g h t i d e . He went up a s m a l l s t r e a m and t h e r e seemed t o be a s m a l l l a k e i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the v i l l a g e , and they p u l l e d up t h e i r canoe t h e r e . Most o f the I n d i a n s had r e t r e a t e d i n t o the nearby f o r e s t and so he and h i s group went t h r o u g h the e n t i r e v i l l a g e , and o n l y a few e l d e r l y p e o p l e were t h e r e . Now when th e y had c ompleted t h e i r i n v e s t i g a -t i o n s - and i t i s r e a l l y t a n t a l i z i n g how much he c o u l d have t o l d about what he saw, but he o n l y gave us some i d e a about the s i z e o f the v i l l a g e and he d i d n ' t d e s c r i b e i t i n d e t a i l - and r e t u r n e d t o t h e i r canoes they found t h a t the t i d e had gone o u t , and t h e i r canoes were beached h i g h and d r y , and t h e y had g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y moving a canoe a t a l l . I n c i d e n t a l l y , a canoe w h i c h had been c o n f i s c a t e d a g a i n s t the w i s h e s o f the c h i e f o f a v i l l a g e i n the v i c i n i t y o f p r e s e n t day New W e s t m i n s t e r . And i t was p o s s i b l e 27 t h a t the news of t h a t had t r a y e l l e d t o the r e s e r v e . A t any r a t e , when the I n d i a n s saw t h a t he d i d have d i f f i c u l t y , t hey came r u n n i n g and s h o u t i n g out o f the woods b r a n d i s h i n g t h e i r , c l u b s and s p e a r s and so f o r t h and, a c c o r d i n g t o him, h o w l i n g l i k e so many w o l v e s . ! suppose the a d r e n a l i n began t o f l o w , and e v e n t u a l l y they were a b l e t o budge the canoe and la u n c h i t i n t o t h e s m a l l s t r e a m and t o come out t o the s a f e t y o f t h e r i v e r . A t t h a t time he n o t i c e d t h a t t h e r e was a n o t h e r s m a l l v i l l a g e f u r t h e r down. That i s a l i t t l e f u r t h e r west. And I am q u i t e s u r e t h a t t h i s c o u l d n ' t have been any o t h e r v i l l a g e than the r e c e n t v i 1 l a g e o f Male. Now, I me n t i o n t h i s because t h e r e has been some c o n f u s i o n about the name Musqueam and how much the name Musqueam encompasses. I t a l k e d t o a n o t h e r I n d i a n i n f o r m a n t on the r e s e r v e who, upon my q u e s t i o n "What i s the name o f t h i s v i l l a g e ?" s t a t e d t h a t i t was S t s l a x , and t h a t , a p p a r e n t l y , was a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . He a c t u a l l y was t h i n k i n g m a i n l y o f the a r e a on wh i c h we were s t a n d i n g . And t o my second q u e s t i o n , "What does Musqueam then mean ?" he s a i d t h a t i t was the e n t i r e a r e a o f the r e s e r v e . So t h e r e was, r e a l l y , a m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e r e w h i c h l a t e r became p r e c i p i t a t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e because I r e f e r r e d t o the Musqueam v i l l a g e under the name o f S t s l a x v i l l a g e , and i t r e a l l y s h o u l d have remained Musqueam. And i n s t e a d o f the S t s l a x phase i t s h o u l d be the Musqueam phase. So t h a t c o n f u s i o n I was not a b l e t o c l e a r up u n t i l much l a t e r . So a c t u a l l y w e were a b l e t o e x c a v a t e a t Musqueam (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 38-40). Borden c o n t i n u e s w i t h h i s r e m i n i s c e n c e s : L a t e r on, I met Mr. Frank C h a r l e s who was a v e r y o l d I n d i a n gentleman who remembered even the f i r e o f Vancouver. You remember t h e r e was a huge b l a z e s h o r t l y a f t e r the s e t t l e m e n t had been e s t a b l i s h e d a t Gastown, and i t burned down. He remembered the f i r e . You have t o remember t h a t he was v e r y o l d and he spoke v e r y l i t t l e E n g l i s h , but somehow we d i d manage t o engage i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , and I l e a r n e d a few v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g items from him. But t o make a long s t o r y s h o r t , i t was th r o u g h him and h i s f a m i l y t h a t we r e c e i v e d p e r m i s s i o n t o e x c a v a t e i n one o f the two I n d i a n houses t h a t were s t i l l s t a n d i n g . In o t h e r words, we were g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n t o e x c a v a t e the house f l o o r o f t h e s e houses. Of c o u r s e they had no p l a n k f l o o r . I t was a d i r t f l o o r , and o v e r the c e n t u r i e s the o c c u p a t i o n a l d e b r i s a c c u m u l a t e d , and you had a long h i s t o r y o f the o c c u p a t i o n o f t h a t house. So t h a t was work f o r a number o f seasons o r academic y e a r s o f S a t u r d a y a f t e r n o o n s . And t h o s e were the t h r e e , w e l l the two, main s i t e s . No, t h e r e was a t h i r d one on the r e s e r v e w h i c h we were a b l e t o work. The l a s t one was up on top o f t h e b l u f f . Both Male and Musqueam v i l l a g e i t s e l f were r e c e n t v i l l a g e s w i t h a h i s t o r i c h o r i z o n . Male had been v i r t u a l l y d e s t r o y e d by the C h i n e s e t r u c k f a r m e r s when they had ploughed the e n t i r e a r e a and had s c a t t e r e d a l l the d e p o s i t s o v e r a wide a r e a . But t h e r e was a n o t h e r v i l l a g e , a n o t h e r s h e l l midden, on top o f t h e b l u f f w h i c h o v e r l o o k e d the v i l l a g e o f Male and looked out o v e r the G u l f o f G e o r g i a . I was i n t e r e s t e d because out o f the d e p o s i t s , a p p a r e n t l y , had been gro w i n g v e r y l a r g e c e d a r t r e e s and Douglas f i r t r e e s t h e stumps 28. o f w h i c h were s t i l l s t a n d i n g , and so t h e r e was a l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h i s s i t e was much o l d e r than t h e o t h e r ones. I l e a r n e d from the C h i n e s e t r u c k f a r m e r s t h a t the c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e s e , t h a t i s the t r u c k f a r m i n g , had begun around 1910. An e l d e r l y C h i n e s e a l s o t o l d me how they had t o e l i m i n a t e the stumps w h i c h t h e y had on t h e i r f i e l d s . That was one of the l a s t s i t e s w h i c h we e x c a v a t e d on the r e s e r v e . Then the o t h e r s i t e , a n o t h e r o l d s i t e 1 have a l r e a d y mentioned i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e t r i a l v e n t u r e w h i c h we had i n 1949, was the M a r p o l e s i t e . We e x c a v a t e d t h e r e a g a i n i n 1955 and a g a i n i n 1957, and t h a t was our l a s t f l i n g a t the M a r p o l e s i t e . So, P o i n t Grey, Musqueam, and Musqueam n o r t h as we c a l l e d i t , sometimes o l d Musqueam, and M a r p o l e , t h o s e were the s i t e s r i g h t w i t h i n Vancouver t h a t we were a b l e t o e x c a v a t e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 40-41). An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f f i e l d w o r k was the emphasis o f the need f o r s a l v a g i n g s i t e s . Borden i n s t i l l e d t h i s i n t o h i s s t u d e n t s . Borden reminds us f h a t i t was t h i s emphasis on s a l v a g e w h i c h h;e i n s t i 1 l e d i n Wi 1 son D u f f " ( D u f f , 1925 - 1976, B.A. UBC M.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f Wash i n g t o n , e v e n t u a l l y became a l e a d i n g a u t h o r i t y on the a r t and a n t h r o p o l o g y o f Northwest Coast I n d i a n s ) . A t t h i s p o i n t D u f f was s t u d y i n g a r c h a e o l o g y w i t h Borden who p o i n t s o u t t h a t " I n subsequent y e a r s , we c l o s e l y c o l l a b o r a t e d on many v e n t u r e s " (Borden I n t e r v i e w s , 1979: 30). Borden remarks t h a t he l a t e r l e a r n e d t h a t t h i s f i e l d w o r k was " t h e f i r s t urban s a l v a g e a r c h a e o l o g y i n a l l o f Canada" (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 30). I have a l r e a d y r e f e r r e d t o Borden's e a r l y communication w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y and w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington. H i s appointment t o t e a c h a r c h a e o l o g y a t UBC was an i m p o r t a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t i n t h a t i t a f f o r d e d him f u r t h e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o exchange i d e a s . D u r i n g the c o u r s e o f the i n t e r v i e w s , I asked Borden how he f e l t about t h i s : W e l l , they a c t u a l l y d i d n ' t go too f a r beyond the a c t u a l v i s i t s t o t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r the purpose o f s e e i n g what forms they were u s i n g i n t h e i r f i e l d w o r k . And they were v e r y generous i n g i v i n g us a l l t h e s e forms f o r our use. For i n s t a n c e , t o f i l l o u t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h b u r i a l s and g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s i t e s and a r t i f a c t forms and so f o r t h , Come t o t h i n k o f i t , I d i d a c t u a l l y v i s i t some of t h e i r e x c a v a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W ashington, t h e i r e x c a v a t i o n on San Juan I s l a n d and one of the 29. i m p o r t a n t s i t e s on w h i c h Arden King made an u n p u b l i s h e d ... ( C a t t l e P o i n t m a n u s c r i p t , l a t e r . p u b l i s h e d , see King 1951). Y e s , I r e v i e w e d t h a t f o r him. I a t t e n d e d one o f t h e con-f e r e n c e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y and h i s work t h e r e , and a l s o h i s p u b l i c a t i o n about the work, was t h o r o u g h l y panned by some o f h i s a s s o c i a t e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a , whereas, by c o n t r a s t , my r e v i e w was r a t h e r f a v o u r a b l e . Y es, you mentioned t h e r e were i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s i n i t . I c o n s i d e r e d i t a v e r y i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o p i o n e e r work, and I c o n t r a s t e d i t f a v o u r a b l y w i t h a n o t h e r work t h a t was p u b l i s h e d a t the same t i m e , M a r i a n Smith's work. Her work had a v e r y a m b i t i o u s t i t l e : " A r c h a e o l o g y o f the Columbia F r a s e r R e g i o n . " I t was m o s t l y f i c t i o n and c o n t a i n e d v e r y l i t t l e t r u t h , and i t a l s o i n c l u d e d some c r a s s e r r o r s . For i n s t a n c e , she d i d n ' t r e a l i z e a p p a r e n t l y t h a t Eburne and Ma r p o l e were one and the same s i t e . That was t h e c o n f u s i o n t h a t she i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t he l i t e r a t u r e , but a c t u a l l y her work was h a r d l y e v e r quoted as Arden K i n g ' s work was. Now, on the b a s i s o f the work t h a t I had c a r r i e d o ut m y s e l f and w i t h Dr. A k r i g g and then l a t e r w i t h my s t u d e n t s , even as e a r l y as 1950, I p u b l i s h e d a summary o f t h a t work, and I e v o l v e d a t l e a s t t h e r u d i m e n t s o f a c u l t u r a l sequence. Something w h i c h had not r e a l l y appeared b e f o r e . A l t h o u g h Arden K i n g , whose work I t h i n k was p u b l i s h e d i n the same y e a r , 1950, had t r i e d t he same t h i n g a t C a t t l e P o i n t , a t h i s C a t t l e P o i n t s i t e . But t h e r e was much t h a t was u n c e r t a i n about t h i s s o r t o f sequence t h a t he proposed t h e r e . And i n t h e e n s u i n g y e a r s p e o p l e a c t u a l l y r e f e r r e d more t o my work than t o h i s . A n o t h e r s i t e t h a t I v i s i t e d was one t h a t was b e i n g c o n d u c t e d by Dr. R.D. Daugherty. A t t h a t t i m e , he was a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Wash i n g t o n , and he was c o n d u c t i n g some s a l v a g e e x c a v a t i o n s a t Moses Lake a t some s i t e s t h e r e . W e l l , we were a t t h e Moses Lake s i t e , and i t was o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t t o me how they were p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h a t e x c a v a t i o n and I l e a r n e d a good d e a l from t h a t . Dr. Daugherty, R i c h a r d Daugherty ... l a t e r on became q u i t e famous i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h i s work a t t h e L i n d i C o u l e e s i t e , w h i c h was one o f the o l d e r s i t e s , o v e r 9,000 y e a r s o l d , on the Columbia p l a t e a u , and then l a t e r w i t h many o f the s i t e s on the Snake R i v e r . And, o f c o u r s e , one o f h i s c h i e f c o n t r i b u t i o n s has been h i s c o n t i n u i n g work a t the O z e t t e s i t e on the Olympic P e n i n s u l a , on the west c o a s t o f t h a t p e n i n s u l a . T h i s was an abandoned Makah v i l l a g e w i t h f a b u l o u s l y p r e s e r v e d p e r i s h a b l e s l i k e b a s k e t r y , wood c a r v i n g s , and so f o r t h . They e x c a v a t e d one e n t i r e house and had about 30,000 r e c o r d e d items from t h a t one s i t e . So he made q u i t e a name f o r h i m s e l f l a t e r on. So t h e r e was a good d e a l o f exchange. Some s t u d e n t s from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington came up t o v i s i t my work, ... Some o f the g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s came up t o i n s p e c t our work and were impressed by i t ... and Mr. Robert Lane, who i s now P r o f e s s o r Lane, P r o f e s s o r o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 30. came t o my e x c a v a t i o n i n 1948 a t L o c a r n o Beach ... (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 43-45). Borden c o n t i n u e s : Soon a f t e r I r e c e i v e d an i n v i t a t i o n t o t e a c h t h e summer f i e l d s c h o o l i n a r c h a e o l o g y w h i c h the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington had i n i t i a t e d as a Summer S e s s i o n c o u r s e . In 1949 the f i e l d s c h o o l was t o be h e l d a t the l a r g e midden s i t e on Whalen f a r m , Boundary Bay (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 9) ••• And, w h i l e I was w o r k i n g a t the Whalen farm s i t e , i t was Mr. Wayne S u t t l e s , now P r o f e s s o r o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a t P o r t l a n d S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , who brought us much o f the g e a r t h a t we used i n our f i e l d work a t the Whalen farm s i t e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 45 -46). L a t e r , a f t e r Wayne S u t t l e s 1 appointment a t UBC i n 1951, Borden and S u t t l e s became good f r i e n d s . In S u t t l e s ' own words: I g o t a c q u a i n t e d w i t h C a r l a f t e r g o i n g t o Vancouver and we were good f r i e n d s u n t i l h i s d e a t h . I saw a l o t o f him a t UBC and we saw each o t h e r from time t o time a f t e r I r e t u r n e d t o the U.S. (At one p o i n t he was s t u c k here i n P o r t l a n d i n h o s p i t a l f o r a time a f t e r a h e a r t a t t a c k and I v i s i t e d him n e a r l y e v e r y day.) We argued o v e r the y e a r s about the meaning o f a r c h e o l o g i c a l d i s c o v e r i e s and the p r e h i s t o r y o f the r e g i o n . I seem t o remember n e a r l y e v e r y y e a r t a l k i n g t o the a r c h a e o l o g y s t u d e n t group (I t h i n k t h e r e was a l w a y s one — sometimes w e l l o r g a n i z e d , sometimes l e s s so) and making as s t r o n g a c a s e as I c o u l d f o r the r e l e v a n c e o f e thnography and the e v i d e n c e f o r p e o p l e d o i n g d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s a t d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t t o o l s . C a r l , i t a l w a y s seemed t o me, was t o o i n c l i n e d t o c o n s t r u c t t y p e s . We a l s o d i s a g r e e d about the e v i d e n c e f o r the emergence o f the S a l i s h out of the i n t e r i o r ... But the d i s a g r e e m e n t was always the b a s i s f o r l o n g p l e a s a n t t a l k . I l i k e d C a r l v e r y much and I know the f e e l i n g was r e t u r n e d ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , Wayne S u t t l e s , March 4, 1980). Borden c o n t i n u e s : So t h e r e was a good d e a l o f c o n t a c t and exchange. I a l s o went down t o t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington and r e p o r t e d on some o f my work here and gave a l e c t u r e t h e r e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h some o f t h e i r s e s s i o n s . I met W a l t e r T a y l o r t h e r e you know who had q u i t e an impact on me, the one who w r o t e "A Study o f A r c h a e o l o g y " (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 46). He d i s c u s s e s the impact o f T a y l o r ' s s t u d y . He q u e s t i o n e d many o f the c u r r e n t t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h were b e i n g a p p l i e d i n f i e l d work and the t h e o r i e s t h a t l a y b e h i n d t h i s work. He emphasized t h a t the a r c h a e o l o g i s t i n h i s work d e s t r o y s the e v i d e n c e t h a t he i s c o l l e c t i n g o r t r y i n g t o c o l l e c t , and i t was t h e r e f o r e i m p o r t a n t not t o go i n t o the f i e l d w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r 31. o b j e c t i v e i n mind because t h i s might b i a s the r e s u l t s on the one hand and would tend t o have the r e s e a r c h e r n e g l e c t some o f the o t h e r e v i d e n c e w h i c h was b e i n g d e s t r o y e d . He championed t h e c o n j u n c t i v e a p p roach. That i s , t h a t - e v e r y t h i n g the a r c h a e o l o g i s t u n c o v e r s i s i m p o r t a n t and r e c o r d s s h o u l d be made o f i t . T h i s i s a n o t h e r l e s s o n w h i c h I l e a r n e d and wh i c h became i m p o r t a n t f o r me. A c t u a l l y i t i s r a t h e r i r o n i c a l t h a t the s o - c a l l e d new a r c h a e o l o g i s t s n e g l e c t e d t h i s c a v e a t o f W a l t e r T a y l o r ' s . They a c t u a l l y encouraged the f o r m u l a t i o n o f hypotheses b e f o r e g o i n g i n t o the f i e l d . Now i t i s a l r i g h t t o have h y p o t h e s e s . But they s h o u l d not be c h e r i s h e d t o the e x t e n t t h a t you l o o k f o r d a t a t h a t w i l l r e i n f o r c e and s o r t o f v e r i f y and c o n f i r m t h e hypotheses but n e g l e c t o t h e r e v i d e n c e w h i c h i s on hand. Here i s a l i t t l e swipe a t some o f the new a r c h a e o l o g i s t s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 2 7 - 2 8 ) . C o n t a c t s and exchange of i d e a s were not r e s t r i c t e d t o N o r t h A merican u n i v e r s i t i e s . T e a c h i n g A r c h a e o l o g y a t UBC put Borden i n a p o s i t i o n t o a p p l y f o r a U n i v e r s i t y R e s e a r c h Committee T r a v e l g r a n t t o v i s i t Europe. He comments: I had always i n c l u d e d some o l d w o r l d p r e - h i s t o r y even i n my A r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C olumbia c o u r s e . B u t , o f c o u r s e , I c o u l d n ' t be v e r y comprehensive i n t h i s . I t was o n l y a p a r t o f the I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the c o u r s e . T h i s was, a g a i n , a c h a l l e n g e and an o p p o r t u n i t y t o broaden my own knowledge i n o r d e r t h a t I might convey the developments (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 8 6 ) . He was awarded the t r a v e l g r a n t and s e t out f o r Europe i n the summer o f 1953. He r e c o u n t s h i s European t r a v e l s i n h i s ac c o u n t (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 86-124). I t was an i m p o r t a n t j o u r n e y as i t put him i n c o n t a c t w i t h w o r l d famous a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s such as V. Gorden C h i l d e , and Andre L e r o i - G o u r h a n . I t broadened h i s a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and i t h e r a l d e d a new c o u r s e - A n t h r o p o l o g y 320, Old World P r e h i s t o r y w h i c h , i n t u r n , would a t t r a c t more s t u d e n t s . But a l t h o u g h Borden was g i v e n the chance t o d e v e l o p h i s i n t e r e s t w i t h i n an academic forum, t h e l a t t e r was, i n h i s o p i n i o n , l i m i t e d . To be g i n w i t h , i t was not u n t i l 1969, t h a t i s one y e a r b e f o r e h i s r e t i r e m e n t , t h a t he was f i n a l l y a p p o i n t e d f u l l - t i m e i n t o t h e Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y as a P r o f e s s o r o f A r c h a e o l o g y . The f o l l o w i n g passage from h i s a c c o u n t conveys h i s f e e l i n g s on t h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s : 32. I had been promoted i n the f o r t i e s t o A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r i n German. Then, i n 1954, t o P r o f e s s o r i n German, but I d i d n ' t l e a r n about t h i s l a t t e r a ppointment u n t i l I r e t u r n e d from one o f my f i e l d e x p e d i t i o n s . And, when I r e c e i v e d the n o t i c e , i t d i d n ' t say i n w h i c h department I had been promoted. I t j u s t s a i d "promoted t o P r o f e s s o r . " I met the Deputy P r e s i d e n t G e o f f r e y Andrew and I asked him, "What am I P r o f e s s o r o f ?" He s a i d he d i d n ' t know. I t h i n k P r o f e s s o r Hawthorn was i n a b i t o f a b i n d a t t h a t t i m e . I t h i n k he m i ght have c o n s i d e r e d t a k i n g me f u l l - t i m e i n t o the department i f I had s t i l l been an A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r . But a F u l l P r o f e s s o r c a r r i e d w i t h i t , o f c o u r s e , a h i g h e r s a l a r y and t h e r e was s i m p l y not enough money t o go a r o u n d , I t h i n k , t o make i t p o s s i b l e t o add a P r o f e s s o r o f A r c h a e o l o g y t o the department a t t h a t t i m e , I would have r e a l l y welcomed i t because I c o u l d have then devoted my f u l l energy t o a r c h a e o l o g y . A l t h o u g h I d i d p u b l i s h , f o r the most p a r t i t was p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t s and s y n t h e s e s ... There s i m p l y was no time t o p u b l i s h d e f i n i t i v e r e p o r t s on p r o j e c t s upon which we were engaged, and I t h i n k t h i s i s most u n f o r t u n a t e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 34-35). For Borden, an i m p o r t a n t and u n f o r t u n a t e consequence o f t h i s was t h a t : The two c o u r s e s , t h a t i s the Old World P r e - H i s t o r y c o u r s e , A n t h r o p o l o g y 320 and the A r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia c o u r s e , the f o u r t h y e a r c o u r s e , A n t h r o p o l o g y 420, had t o be g i v e n i n a l t e r n a t e y e a r s . I t h i n k i t would have been b e t t e r f o r the s t u d e n t s i f the c o u r s e c o u l d have been g i v e n c o n c u r r e n t l y . We c o u l d have a t t r a c t e d more s t u d e n t s and t h e r e would have been a b e t t e r f l o w t h r o u g h t h e program because some s t u d e n t s , i n the development o f t h e i r c o u r s e , c o u l d n ' t f i t i n b o t h c o u r s e s because they were o f f e r e d i n a l t e r n a t e y e a r s . So I t h i n k we l o s t q u i t e a number o f s t u d e n t s who might have s p e c i a l i z e d i n a r c h a e o l o g y (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 148). and i n h i s o p i n i o n : Dr. Hawthorn leaned o v e r backwards t o s u p p o r t s o c i o l o g y and, o f c o u r s e , he f a v o u r e d c u l t u r a l a n t h r o p o l o g y . But a r c h a e o l o g y always r e c e i v e d m a r g i n a l i n t e r e s t and had t o d e v e l o p a l o n g i t s own l i n e s . The winds changed when Dr. Belshaw became Head o f the Department - he saw t h e need (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: f o o t n o t e 35)• Hawthorn r e c a l l s t h a t as an a d m i n i s t r a t o r , n e g o t i a t i n g e x p a n s i o n w i t h a l i m i t e d budget was not an easy t a s k . H i s i n t e r e s t s were t o expand s o c i a l a n t h r o p o l o g y and the Museum c o l l e c t i o n . He a l s o wanted t o b r i n g i n l i n g u i s t i c s ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , H. Hawthorn, October 2, 1979). 33. Y e t d e s p i t e i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , as h i s a c c o u n t i l l u m i n a t e s , Borden's t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n i n a r c h a e o l o g y a t UBC a l l o w e d him f i r s t , t o expand h i s own knowledge o f a r c h a e o l o g y , most p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t a l l o w e d h i s i n t e r e s t i n s a l v a g e a r c h a e o l o g y t o d e v e l o p from r o m a n t i c e n t h u s i a s m t o a s o c i a l commitment, h i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y h a v i n g o f f e r e d him e x p e r i e n c e i n s u r v e y i n g and e x c a v a t i n g and the o p p o r t u n i t y t o make c o n t a c t s w i t h o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . Second, h i s t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n ensured t h a t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l knowledge o f the Northwest C o a s t , and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f t h i s knowledge, s h o u l d r e s i d e p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l academic community o f wh i c h he was a member. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h i s knowledge was how t o d e v e l o p w i t h i n the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e t h n o l o g i s t s and a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . As we s h a l l s e e , h i s p o s i t i o n a t UBC was t o h e l p l a y the f o u n d a t i o n f o r l e g i s l a t i o n . F i r s t , i t would p l a c e him i n a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n from w h i c h he c o u l d go on t o d e f i n e the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m bia. Second, i t would p l a c e him i n a uniq u e p o s i t i o n from w h i c h he c o u l d proceed t o r a i s e p u b l i c awareness t o t h a t p o t e n t i a l , and would p r o v i d e him w i t h t r a i n e d a l l i e s t o lobby f o r him i n t h i s p r o c e s s . 34. CHAPTER TWO DEFINING THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Borden d e f i n e s the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , as C a r l s o n ( 1 9 7 9 ) p o i n t s o u t , i n h i s major papers on c u l t u r e h i s t o r y ( 1 9 5 1 c , 1954, 1 9 6 2 a , 1965, 1 9 6 8 a , 1 9 6 8 b , 1 9 6 8 c , 1969c, 1 9 6 9 b , 1970, 1 9 7 3 a , 1 9 7 5 a and 1 9 7 9 ) ; h i s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a r t i c l e s ( 1 9 5 0 c and 1 9 5 2 c ) ; h i s f i e l d w o r k r e p o r t s (1950a, 1950b, 1951a, 1951b, 1952a, 1952b, 1953~54a, 1956a, I 9 6 0 , 1962b, 1972, 1974a, 1 9 7 4 b , 1 9 7 5 b and 1 9 7 6 a ) ; h i s n e w s l e t t e r a r t i c l e s (1951a, 1956b, 1959-61, 1963-68, 1969c, 1974c and 1975c); h i s p o p u l a r a r t i c l e s . 0955, 1961, 1969d and 1973b); comments ( I 9 5 3 " 5 4 b , and 1969e) and o b i t u a r i e s (1953~54c, 1976b and 1 9 7 7 ) . He w r i t e s : The answers t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l problems s t i l l l i e b u r i e d i n c o u n t l e s s s i t e s a l o n g the more than 1,000 m i l e s of the once populous and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y a l m o s t unknown c o a s t between the G u l f o f G e o r g i a and the P a c i f i c Eskimo r e g i o n (Borden 1962a: 1 9 ) . R e f e r r i n g t o t h i s p o t e n t i a l , he p r o p o s e s : S y s t e m a t i c e x c a v a t i o n s have j u s t begun. I t w i l l t a k e much ti m e and e f f o r t b e f o r e a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p r e -h i s t o r i c e v e n t s i n t h i s a r e a can be g a i n e d . But by p a t i e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n and w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e o f s c i e n t i s t s i n o t h e r f i e l d s , w i t h the h e l p o f i n d i v i d u a l s and groups ... we s h a l l g r a d u a l l y approach t h i s g o a l (Borden 1950a: 2 4 6 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e p o i n t s o u t t h a t " p a t i e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n " became pervaded w i t h a growing sense o f u r g e n c y . Borden summarizes the e v e n t s p r e c e d i n g the Tweedsmuir P a r k Survey: W i l s o n ( D u f f ) informed me l a t e i n 1950 o f the then L i b e r a l Government's i n t e n t i o n t o g r a n t t h e Aluminium Company of Canada a l i c e n c e t o c o n s t r u c t a dam i n t h e gorge o f the Nechako R i v e r f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a huge power r e s e r v o i r i n Tweedsmuir Park f o r the Aluminium Company's Kemano-Kitimat p r o j e c t . The backed-up w a t e r would f l o o d more than 400 m i l e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y u n e x p l o r e d l a k e and 35. r i v e r m a r gins (Borden 1977: 5). And he goes on t o urge (.1954: 196) t h a t " s a l v a g e o p e r a t i o n s be c a r r i e d o ut wherever i m p o r t a n t p r e h i s t o r i c remains a r e t h r e a t e n e d by urban e x p a n s i o n and i n d u s t r i a l development." An i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n f o r me a t t h i s p o i n t i s t h i s : what were the d i m e n s i o n s t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h i s u r g e n t p r o c e s s o f d e f i n i t i o n ? The l i t e r a t u r e p o i n t s t o : (1) f u n d i n g , (2) s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , (3) t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f n o n - f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s . Borden's a c c o u n t adds t o our under-s t a n d i n g of t h i s p r o c e s s by p r o v i d i n g a n e c d o t a l ! i n f o r m a t i o n and commentary whi c h not o n l y a d d r e s s t h e s e s p e c i f i c d i m e n s i o n s , but g i v e us f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e v a l u e s w h i c h g i v e meaning t o h i s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . 1. Funding That f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t was i m p o r t a n t t o Borden's d e f i n i t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d i n a document q u o t i n g s o u r c e s o f a l l f u n d i n g between 1945 - 1967 ( L a b o r a t o r y o f A r c h a e o l o g y , Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y August 15, 1967). I t i s i n t e r -e s t i n g t o note t h a t Borden's f i r s t v e n t u r e s d u r i n g the y e a r s 1945 - 1948 were f i n a n c e d by h i m s e l f and .'Akrigg, but t h e r e a f t e r the a c q u i s i t i o n o f funds became an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h . E a r l i e r , I s u g g e s t e d t h a t Borden's development o f a r e c o g n i t i o n of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h i n an academic forum would be i m p o r t a n t t o h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h a t p o t e n t i a l . T h i s becomes c l e a r e r when c o n s u l t i n g t h i s f i n a n c i a l document. Support from the UBC R e s e a r c h Committee ( t o t a l $19,150) was a v a i l a b l e f o r the f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t s : Whalen Farm, 1949; C h i n l a c , 1950, 1952; Tweedsmuir, 1951; Musqueam, 1951, 1952, 1954, 1956, I960 and 1961; Old World-New World R e l a t i o n s , 1953; M a r p o l e , 1955 and 1957; F r a s e r R i v e r , 1956 and 1958; F r a s e r Canyon, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964; P o i n t Grey, 1965; and B.C. A r c h a e o l o g y , 36. 1967. The A n t h r o p o l o g y Department a l o n e funded the f o l l o w i n g p r o j e c t s ( t o t a l $245): M a r p o l e , 1949, 1950; and Musqueam, 1951. But a l t h o u g h t h i s was a s t a r t , the a c q u i s i t i o n o f funds was an ongoing problem. Borden comments, I always r e c e i v e d h e l p from t h e U n i v e r s i t y Committee on Rese a r c h but t h e i r funds were l i m i t e d . The p i e had t o be c u t i n t o many p i e c e s because we weren't the o n l y a p p l i c a n t f o r a s l i c e o f the p i e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 7 5 ) . The sense o f urgency a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the ongoing a c q u i s i t i o n o f funds i s i m p l i e d t h r o u g h o u t the l i t e r a t u r e where f o o t n o t e s acknowledge a l l s u p p o r t . But i t becomes v e r y e x p l i c i t i n t h e media. For example, The money must be found ... t h e work must be g u a r a n t e e d n e x t y e a r . P a r t o f the v i l l a g e (Marpole) has a l r e a d y been d e s t r o y e d f o r e v e r by b u i l d e r s ' b u l l d o z e r s . Two c i t y l o t s a r e r e s e r v e d by the c i t y f o r the midden f o u n d a t i o n s work ( G r e a t F r a s e r Midden F o u n d a t i o n ) . But c i t y c o u n c i l can e a s i l y grow weary o f w a i t i n g i n f a c e o f the p r e s s u r e o f p r o g r e s s (Anon. 1956). The media a l s o p o i n t s t o the impo r t a n c e o f p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s work i n the p r o c e s s o f a c q u i r i n g f u n d s . The P r o v i n c e , December 14, 1955: Dr. Borden noted t h a t funds g r a n t e d the UBC A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey f o r 1955 have run out and o n l y the g e n e r o s i t y o f p e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n p r e - h i s t o r i c l i f e i n t h e Vancouver d i s t r i c t can keep the d i g g i n g g o i n g . R e f e r r i n g t o one such p e r s o n , Borden r e c a l l s : Some i n d i v i d u a l s were e x c e e d i n g l y h e l p f u l i n c o n t r i b u t i n g funds and here I must mention p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e l a t e H.R. M a c M i l l a n . I r e c a l l when we were w o r k i n g a t t h e M a r p o l e s i t e w h i c h was r e a l l y i n i t s l a s t t h r o e s a t the t i m e . We were v e r y a n x i o u s t o c o n t i n u e work, but we would have had t o s t o p i n the m i d d l e o f the summer i f a d d i t i o n a l f u n d s d i d not become a v a i l a b l e . You s e e , the s t u d e n t s d i d have t o make some money. They had t o e a r n some money i n o r d e r t o be a b l e t o r e t u r n t o U n i v e r s i t y i n the f a l l . And i f they c o u l d n ' t g e t i t th r o u g h a r c h a e o l o g y , as they wanted t o , then they would have t o l o o k f o r o t h e r work. So we were i n d i r e s t r a i t s f o r funds i n 1954 a t t h e M a r p o l e s i t e and were f o r t u n a t e t h a t a r e p o r t e r j u s t happened t o come a l o n g and was i n t e r e s t e d i n what we were d o i n g . I always t r y t o d e a l f a i r l y and f r a n k l y w i t h r e p o r t e r s , and I .expla i n e d e v e r y t h i n g he wanted t o know. But I a l s o informed him t h a t we would p r o b a b l y have t o s t o p v e r y soon because we had no f u r t h e r funds a v a i l a b l e . And l o and b e h o l d i n the next i s s u e o f the paper t h e r e was an e d i t o r i a l , a v e r y n i c e e d i t o r i a l , t h a t 37. e x p l a i n e d the s i t u a t i o n t o the p u b l i c . That same e v e n i n g , I r e c e i v e d a c a l l from H.R. M a c M i 1 l a n , and he o f f e r e d t o under-w r i t e a l l the expenses t h a t we had f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e summer whi c h I thought was r e a l l y a m a r v e l l o u s t h i n g t o do. U n f o r t -u n a t e l y , I c a n ' t say t h a t t h e r e were o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s who d i d t h i s e x c e p t f o r the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s m a l l amounts (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 76-77). Funding was o f paramount c o n c e r n and l a c k o f funds c o u l d l e a d t o u n f o r s e e n h a z a r d s . Borden's r e m i n i s c e n c e s o f the Tweedsmuir P a r k s u r v e y (1951) funded by t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government and UBC Res e a r c h Committee a r e i11 urn i nat i ng: Now then l e t us t u r n t o t h a t v e n t u r e , and I can a l m o s t c a l l i t an a d v e n t u r e . W i l s o n Duff o f c o u r s e was P r o v i n c i a l A n t h r o -p o l o g i s t a t the P r o v i n c i a l Museum and as a c i v i l s e r v a n t he heard many t h i n g s t h a t were not b r o a d c a s t a t the ti m e and e v e r y -t h i n g was s o r t o f hush hush. But he had l e a r n e d t h a t the then L i b e r a l Government planned t o g i v e the Aluminum Company o f Canada a l i c e n c e t o b u i l d a dam i n the Nechako gorge w h i c h would back up w a t e r r i g h t from the dam s i t e t o the head o f T a h t s a Lake, and w h i c h would f l o o d some hOO m i l e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y unknown l a k e and r i v e r m a r g i n s . So W i l s o n and I g o t t o g e t h e r , and we p r e p a r e d a b r i e f t o the P r o v i n c i a l Government. And, when i t was announced t h a t t h i s dam would be b u i l t and t h a t the damage I j u s t mentioned would a c t u a l l y t a k e p l a c e , we were ready w i t h our b r i e f w h i c h p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s a r e a was a r c h a e o l o g i c a 1 l y unknown and no doubt t h e r e would, be i m p o r t a n t s i t e s i n t h i s d r a i n a g e s y s t e m , and i t was a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t h a t a s a l v a g e s u r v e y s h o u l d be f i r s t c o nducted and t h e n , p o s s i b l y , f o l l o w e d by e x c a v a t i o n s i n the e n s u i n g y e a r . To our s a t i s f a c t i o n the answer, the r e s p o n s e , was a f f i r m a t i v e . We o b t a i n e d a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l g r a n t o f $2,000.00 w h i c h a t l e a s t e n a b l e d us t o buy a b o a t , a f i b r e g l a s s b o a t , o n l y 12 f e e t long and w i t h a f i v e horsepower motor, and some o t h e r n e c e s s a r y equipment such as t e n t s and so f o r t h . So i t was i n 1951, t h e n , t h a t we s t a r t e d o u t t o conduct t h i s s u r v e y . There were two o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h me. One was A l a n Bryan who had e x c a v a t e d w i t h me a t Whalen farm and a l s o C h i n l a c , and the o t h e r was Bob S t e i n e r who was a g e o l o g y s t u d e n t a t t he U n i v e r s i t y and who s u p p o s e d l y knew the t e r r i t o r y v e r y w e l l and knew how t o ha n d l e boats and motors and so f o r t h . So i t seemed good a t the ti m e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 50 -51 ) . However, l i m i t e d funds p l a y e d a p a r t i n the f o l l o w i n g c o u r s e o f e v e n t s : 38. We c o u l d not p o s s i b l y a f f o r d any o f the g u i d e s because they were c h a r g i n g $30.00 a day, and t h i s was way beyond the budget we had. So the s u r v e y had t o be c a r r i e d o u t on our own. We loaded the boat w i t h our p r o v i s i o n s and equipment and s u p p l i e s and so f o r t h and s e t out one a f t e r n o o n , and t h i s was from the n o r t h s h ore o f Ootsa Lake. The l a k e was j u s t l i k e a m i r r o r , i t was b e a u t i f u l , and t h e sun was s h i n i n g , and we s e t o u t . The s h o r e was l i n e d w i t h some o f the g u i d e s who shook t h e i r heads and p r e d i c t e d d i r e m i s a d v e n t u r e s f o r us. W e l l , we were about h a l f way a c r o s s the l a k e when the sky darkened and from t h e c o a s t m o u n t a i n s , whose i c y peaks we c o u l d see i n t h e d i s t a n c e i n the we s t , came a b l a s t . W i t h i n j u s t a few m i n u t e s , the l a k e was churned and t h e r e were waves t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e f e e t h i g h , and we began t o s h i p w a t e r but f o r t u n a t e l y we made i t a c r o s s t h e l a k e t h a t t i m e . We made camp and spent the n i g h t on the o p p o s i t e s h o r e . We hadn't l e a r n e d our l e s s o n y e t , and we had t o pay f o r t h a t d e a r l y . A f t e r we had spent the n i g h t t h e r e , we p r e p a r e d b r e a k f a s t and packed our gear and s e t out t o go up t o T a h t s a R i v e r and t h e n , l a t e r on, t o t u r n o f f to.go towards W h i t e s a i l Lake. W e l l , we reached the w e s t e r n end o f Ootsa Lake and were e n t e r i n g T a h t s a R i v e r w h i c h has a v e r y s t r o n g c u r r e n t even i n the d e l t a a r e a , and we were t h r e e i n the s m a l l b o a t . Our f r e e b o a r d was o n l y about s i x i n c h e s w h i c h o f c o u r s e means t h a t t h e boat was way o v e r l o a d e d , and t h e r e was a s t r o n g g u s t o f wind coming, and we were b e g i n n i n g t o s h i p w a t e r a g a i n . I was s i t t i n g i n the m i d d l e , and Bob S t e i n e r was o p e r a t i n g the motor, and A l a n Bryan was i n the f r o n t . When we s h i p p e d w a t e r , I t o l d A l a n t o f a s t e n the t a r p o v e r the boat i n f r o n t so t h a t we c o u l d n ' t t a k e on so much w a t e r . W e l l , as he d i d t h a t , Bob S t e i n e r a p p a r e n t l y had d i f f i c u l t y i n k e e p i n g the boat headed up s t r e a m , and he t u r n e d up the motor, and, j u s t as A l a n Bryan was i n f r o n t , i n s t e a d o f the boat r i s i n g somewhat, w i t h A l a n Bryan's w e i g h t r i g h t near the prow o f the b o a t , t h e boat took a d i v e . B e f o r e we knew i t , we were deep i n the w a t e r . F o r t u n a t -e l y , we were on one o f the s h a l l o w p l a c e s o f the d e l t a , and our f e e t found s o l i d g r o u n d , but we were up t o our c h e s t s i n w a t e r , and the boat had sunk, the motor had sunk, and a l l t h e gear t h a t c o u l d f l o a t - gas i n cans and t e n t s , b l a n k e t s , and s l e e p i n g bags - was bobbing down the r i v e r and i n t o Ootsa Lake. We were e x t r e m e l y f o r t u n a t e t h a t a boat o f the f o r e s t s e r v i c e manned by two men saw a l l t h i s g e a r . They p i c k e d up some of i t , and by then they thought they had b e t t e r see where t h i s had a l l come from as maybe t h e r e were some p e o p l e i n t r o u b l e , as indeed t h e r e were. So they came t o our a s s i s t a n c e , and we were a b l e t o g e t the boat out o n t o d r y land and t h e motor and some o f the gear t h a t had sunk. But not v e r y much. They then went out o n t o the l a k e a g a i n and p i c k e d up some more t e n t s and s l e e p i n g bags and so f o r t h . One t h i n g t h a t I must mention - I dreamt about t h i s q u i t e o f t e n l a t e r on. In my b r i e f c a s e t h e r e were two cameras, a new L e i c a and a new R o l a f l e x t o g e t h e r w i t h n o t e b o o k s ; t h i s a l l f l o a t e d j u s t beyond my r e a c h . I c o u l d a l m o s t r e a c h i t but not q u i t e , you know. I t bobbed away and o f c o u r s e e v e n t u a l l y sank. So t h a t was a g r e a t l o s s . W e l l , a t l e a s t we were a l i v e . We had l e a r n e d , the hard way, a v e r y i m p o r t a n t l e s s o n t h a t you must never o v e r l o a d a b o a t , and a f t e r g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y we were a b l e t o s t a r t the motor a g a i n . 39. I t wasn't r u n n i n g p r o p e r l y but a t l e a s t i t r a n . And we were a b l e t o r e t u r n t o our s t a r t i n g p o i n t and t h e r e , l i n i n g the s h o r e , were t h e g u i d e s w i t h an I - t o l d - y o u - s o l o o k on t h e i r f a c e s . And of c o u r s e we were v e r y meek and humble. A n o t h e r s t r a n g e i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d . t f we hadn't r e t u r n e d , my c a r would p r o b a b l y have burned up. Bob S t e i n e r had l e f t near the r e a r window o f the c a r , w i t h the concave f a c e up, a s h a v i n g m i r r o r . The l a t e a f t e r n o o n sun had f o c u s s e d the sun's image o n t o the c e i l i n g o f the c a r w h i c h had s t a r t e d b u r n i n g and had a l r e a d y burned a long s t r i p and was c o n t i n u i n g t o burn. When we opened the c a r , smoke b i l l o w e d o u t , and we were a b l e t o put out the f i r e . So t h e r e was d i s a s t e r upon d i s a s t e r , but a t l e a s t we were a b l e t o put out the f i r e . I c a l l e d up my w i f e l o n g d i s t a n c e t o t e l l her what happened and asked her t o 'phone the i n s u r a n c e company and i n f o r m them, and t o go t o the p h o t o g r a p h i c s t o r e where I had o b t a i n e d the cameras and p u r c h a s e some new o nes, w h i c h she d i d . So a c o u p l e o f days l a t e r we s t a r t e d o u t a g a i n and w i t h much l e s s i n our b o a t . From then on we c a r r i e d out the s u r v e y w i t h o u t any f u r t h e r mishap w h i c h i s a l m o s t i n c r e d i b l e because i t r e a l l y was d i f f i c u l t ; the l a k e s were v e r y stormy a t times w i t h t o w e r i n g waves, f r i g h t e n i n g waves,. But the boat was good; i t behaved w e l l . As long as i t wasn't o v e r l o a d e d , i t responded v e r y n i c e l y l i k e a n u t s h e l l on the waves. And a n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g t h i n g , when we came down some o f t h e s e narrow waterways w i t h the r u s h i n g w a t e r we would bump a g a i n s t r o c k s and stumps t h a t s t u c k o u t , and the f i b r e g l a s s would b u c k l e i n and b u c k l e out a g a i n . So i t r e a l l y proved i t s e l f q u i t e w e l l as a s u r v e y b o a t . But the motor o f c o u r s e was somewhat i n a d e q u a t e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 51-54). Borden c o n t i n u e s : I t was a r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t u n d e r t a k i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h the i n a d e q u a t e equipment we had, and the boat w i t h a motor w h i c h was o n l y 5 h.p. was not r e a l l y s t r o n g enough f o r some o f t h e f a s t mountain streams t h a t we had t o n a v i g a t e . I t g i v e s one a v e r y e e r i e f e e l i n g when one i s out o f c o n t a c t w i t h the w o r l d , out i n the w i l d e r n e s s and the boat i s r u n n i n g f u l l f o r c e - the motor i s r u n n i n g f u l l f o r c e - and one makes ho headway a g a i n s t the c u r r e n t . One goes from one bank o f the stream t o the, o t h e r i n an e f f o r t t o f i n d some s l o w w a t e r . B u t , i n s t e a d of f i n d i n g i t , the boat goes downstream r a t h e r than upstream. And so i t happened, f r e q u e n t l y , t h a t we s i m p l y had t o go t o the bank o f the s t r e a m and p u l l the boat upstream w h i c h a g a i n was d i f f i c u l t because of c o u r s e the v e g e t a t i o n a l o n g the banks o f the s t r e a m made i t awkward. Sometimes t h e r e was no o t h e r way o f d o i n g i t but by g e t t i n g i n t o t h i s i c e - c o l d w a t e r and t a k i n g the boat by. the w h i s k e r s and p u l l i n g i t upstream w h i c h was v e r y s t r e n u o u s s i n c e we were t h o r o u g h l y c h i l l e d b e f o r e l o n g . But e v e n t u a l l y we always made i t , o t h e r w i s e I w o u l d n ' t be t a l k i n g here now. So t h e r e a r e a few o f the h a z a r d s t h a t we e n c o u n t e r e d , but the s u r v e y on the whole was s u c c e s s f u l . We managed t o l o c a t e a t o t a l o f 130 s i t e s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979= 54-55). ho. As a r e s u l t of these e x p e r i e n c e s , and when a p p l y i n g f o r f u n d s , Borden made more c a r e f u l c a l c u l a t i o n s . With re fe rence to the Tweedsmuir Park excavat ions in 1952, he remembers: We c a l c u l a t e d very c a r e f u l l y what we would need in the way of equipment and the amount of food and so f o r t h . We planned on a crew of between ten and f i f t e e n . 1 t h i n k we worked i t down to the l a s t penny . . . t h i s must have impressed some of the bureaucrats in V i c t o r i a . . . we were r e a l l y f o r t u n a t e as f a r as t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t was concerned. The L i b e r a l Government responded very g e n e r o u s l y , I thought . When we had worked out the funds that would be necessary f o r the f o l l o w - u p excavat ions in 1952, they gave us the f u l l amount - $ 8 , 5 0 0 . 0 0 or something to that e f f e c t (actua l f i g u r e $8,650.00) which was a f a i r sum in those days (Borden Interv iews 1979: 5 6 - 7 4 ) . Then, i t was not q u i t e so easy to persuade the Aluminum Company of Canada to c o n t r i b u t e a sum and one of the main reasons , accord ing to them, was that they were somewhat annoyed by the a r t i c l e s that had appeared in the p r e s s . They f e l t that the press was unduly p r e s s u r i z i n g them f o r a fund and g i v i n g them some bad p u b l i c i t y . But e v e n t u a l l y they d i d come through , and they prov ided a sum of $ 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 which was exceed ing l y h e l p f u l because i t enabled us to purchase a f i e l d t r u c k . P r i o r to t h i s , we had to t r a n s p o r t a l l our own gear in our own cars or sh ip i t by r a i l and so f o r t h . But t h i s f i e l d t ruck was v e r y , very use fu l and i t l a s t e d f o r n i n e -teen y e a r s . We took good care of i t , and so f o r t h and i t became a veteran of many opera t ions l a t e r on (Borden Interv iews 1979: 7 5 ) . Borden's account f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e s how funds were spent and at the same time prov ides us w i t h a g l impse of the o r g a n i z a t i o n r e q u i r e d in p lann ing a l a r g e - s c a l e f i e l d t r i p . He r e f e r s to the f i r s t of the ongoing excavat ions in the F raser Canyon p r o j e c t : In order to p lan the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of such a s i t e i t would r e q u i r e severa l seasons , and the necessary funding in those years was d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n . Now I t h i n k I mentioned b r i e f l y before that the Nat iona l Museum, at the suggest ion of Dr. R ichard S. MacNeish whom we c a l l e d Scot ty MacNeish, was prepared to co -sponsor f i e l d w o r k i f funds could be found l o c a l l y and f o r t u n a t e l y we were ab le to d o , s o . The UBC Research Committee promised a moderate amount, and then we had a promise from Dr. H.R. M a c M i l l a n , the g reat lumber magnate, f o r f i v e years of f u n d i n g , If we combined these sources w i t h the funds that we would o b t a i n from the N a t i o n a l Museum we would have s u f f i c i e n t to cover the most necessary expendi tures (Borden Interv iews 1979; 2051. 41. N e c e s s a r y e x p e n d i t u r e c o v e r e d , f i r s t , the day t o day needs of h i s crew. H i s f o l l o w i n g commentary r e v e a l s h i s c a r e f u l a p p r o a c h t o p l a n n i n g f o r t h e s e needs: B e f o r e one can go i n t o the f i e l d - t h i s of c o u r s e had been t r u e a l r e a d y o f our Tweedsmuir P a r k p r o j e c t , but i t was even more n e c e s s a r y here because one planned a program o v e r s e v e r a l y e a r s -one has t o be s u r e o f adequate equipment. And I might l i s t some o f the e s s e n t i a l s . I t does not c l a i m t o be a c o m p l e t e l i s t , but i t does g i v e you some i d e a o f what i s r e q u i r e d . We needed l a r g e t e n t s , t h a t i s a cook t e n t and d i n i n g t e n t . The cook and d i n i n g t e n t s a r e u s u a l l y combined under one l a r g e t e n t where t h e r e a r e c o l l a p s i b l e t a b l e s and c h a i r s . We needed a p a n t r y t e n t f o r the s t o r a g e o f t i n n e d goods, f l o u r , s u g a r , beans, e t c e t e r a . And then t h e v a r i o u s members o f the crew, o f c o u r s e , needed t e n t s as w e l l , and u s u a l l y t h e r e would be two p e o p l e t o one t e n t . A l a b t e n t was a l s o r e q u i r e d because much o f the p r e l i m i n a r y work c o u l d be done i n the f i e l d a f t e r , o r d u r i n g , hours by a s s i g n i n g a c e r t a i n member o f the crew t o dp t h i s p a r t i c u l a r work. And q u i t e o f t e n I had t h i s on a ' s o r t o f r o t a t i n g b a s i s even a t n i g h t - i n the e v e n i n g ... And, o f c o u r s e , when we have a crew out i n the f i e l d they must be f e d ; i f they a r e young they a r e u s u a l l y ravenous a f t e r a day's work - and even d u r i n g the day. Sometimes t o me i t seems they a r e b o t t o m l e s s p i t s , d i f f i c u l t t o f i l l and s a t i s f y . So, we need c o o k i n g equipment - Coleman s t o v e s f o r the t e n t s . I n s i d e the d i n i n g tent,.-Coleman l a n t e r n s and f u e l f o r them a r e needed, w h i t e gas we c a l l e d i t . A l s o , c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s - p o t s and pans and a l l k i n d s o f o t h e r c o o k i n g d i s h e s and e a t i n g u t e n s i l s , b o w l s , p l a t e s , c u p s , k n i v e s , f o r k s , spoons, e t c e t e r a ... In a d d i t i o n , o f c o u r s e , t h e r e were a l l the v a r i o u s f o o d items r e q u i r e d f o r a f i e l d p r o j e c t o f t h i s k i n d . O f t e n the bread i s baked r i g h t on the s i t e by someone who has the know-how t o do so. Canned f o o d and o t h e r s t a p l e s can always be bought w h o l e s a l e t h r o u g h the P u r c h a s i n g Department w h i c h i s a n e c e s s a r y i n t e r m e d i a r y between the p e r s o n s who p l a n the p r o j e c t and the f i r m s t h a t s e l l the goods o f v a r i o u s k i n d s . The P u r c h a s i n g Department always o b t a i n s a b e t t e r r a t e than an i n d i v i d u a l and the p r i c e i s b e t t e r when l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s a r e bought. But i t i s not e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t o c i r c u m v e n t p u r c h a s i n g m a t e r i a l l o c a l l y , and I had t o make arrangements w i t h the Super V a l u s t o r e i n Hope and t a l k e d w i t h the manager about our s u p p l i e s o f f r e s h f r u i t , v e g e t a b l e s , meat, e t c e t e r a w h i c h came a t l e a s t t w i c e a week. A l l o f t h i s has t o be p r e - p l a n n e d and p r e -a r r a n g e d , consuming a g r e a t d e a l o f time and e f f o r t (Borden I n t e r -v i e w s 1979: 205-210). Second, implements used d u r i n g the p r o c e s s o f e x c a v a t i n g had t o be p u r c h a s e d . Borden's p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n 1923 as Tool Keeper f o r t h e D o m i l l C o n s t r u c t i o n Company i n New York (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 15-16) gave him a f a c i l i t y w i t h t o o l s w h i c h he c o n s i d e r e d v e r y u s e f u l i n some o f h i s e x p e d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . He t a l k s about the t o o l s he used the e x c a v a t i o n s i n the F r a s e r Canyon: We needed implements such as s h o v e l s and p i c k s . Now, I r a r e l y use a s h o v e l t o e x c a v a t e an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e . To me i t ' s t o o c r u d e a t o o l . But i t was q u i t e o b v i o u s t h a t the c u l t u r a l s t r a t a a t t h i s F r a s e r Canyon s i t e , t o w h i c h I" w i l l r e f e r t o i n the f u t u r e as t h e M i l . l i k e n s i t e , were i n t e r b e d d e d between s o r t o f g r a v e l d e p o s i t s . G r a v e l s had come.down the mountain s i d e as s l i d e s and had been d e p o s i t e d as sand d e p o s i t s by a s m a l l stream w h i c h was now e x t i n c t as i t had s h i f t e d i t s c o u r s e f a r t h e r down the r i v e r . Now t h e s e g r a v e l s were q u i t e c o n s o l i d a t e d and we j u s t c o u l d n ' t s h o v e l them o u t but had t o p i c k a way t h r o u g h them. As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , ( o c c a s i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d the use o f b l a s t i n g powder t o l o o s e n the g r a v e l i n o r d e r t o speed t h i n g s up but I was a f r a i d o f t h e o t h e r consequences t h a t t h i s might have. The f a c e s o f the t r e n c h and so f o r t h might c o l l a p s e , so the c r u d e s t t o o l s t h a t I c a r e d t o use were s h o v e l s and p i c k s and crowbars i n o r d e r t o g e t t h r o u g h t h e s e c o n s o l i d a t e d sand d e p o s i t s . Now, when i t came to w o r k i n g i n the c u l t u r a l s t r a t a w h i c h were u s u a l l y much l o o s e r and not so c o n s o l i d a t e d as t h e o t h e r s t r a t a , we used trowels., s p a t u l a s , g r a p e f r u i t k n i v e s , d e n t i s t t o o l s , and a s s o r t e d b r u shes when we came upon a r t i f a c t s t o expose them. In a d d i t i o n , o t h e r equipment i s needed. When one e x c a v a t e s w i t h t r o w e l s , one may m i s s s m a l l items such as m i c r o b l a d e s , beads, e t c e t e r a . So e v e r y t h i n g t h a t we e x c a v a t e w i t h t r o w e l s i s moved o n t o a s o r t o f d u s t p a n - l i k e d e v i c e and then put i n t o a b u c k e t , and the bucket i s then t a k e n o v e r t o a s c r e e n where such m a t e r i a l i s s c r e e n e d . T h i s i s a s o r t o f p r o c e d u r e t h a t i s s t i l l w i d e l y used. I might j u s t m e ntion here as an a s i d e t h a t , b e f o r e I s t a r t e d f i e l d w o r k here i n the P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t , s c r e e n s were not w i d e l y used. S h o v e l s were more common, and I t h i n k we would have missed a g r e a t d e a l by not u s i n g s c r e e n s o f v a r i o u s degrees o f c o a r s e n e s s and f i n e n e s s . We a l s o used specimen bags o f v a r i o u s s i z e s . Each a r t i f a c t i s p l a c e d i n a s e p a r a t e bag and the bag has stamped on i t the s i t e d e s i g n a t i o n , code, number o f s i t e , and then the number o f the a r t i f a c t . Now, the a r t i f a c t number can a l s o be stamped on i t . For t h i s we used a rubber stamp w h i c h a u t o m a t i c a l l y p r o g r e s s e d . T h i s number then c o r r e l a t e s w i t h the e n t r y i n the a r t i f a c t r e c o r d book. And i t i s always v e r y i m p o r t a n t t h a t one does not d i s s o c i a t e the a r t i f a c t bag from the specimen o r the specimen from t h e bag. They must always s t a y t o g e t h e r and t h i s i s why I t h i n k i t i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o c l e a n the a r t i f a c t s i n the f i e l d and put the f i n a l l a b e l o n t o the a r t i f a c t a l s o i n the f i e l d . And t h i s , o f c o u r s e , i s the p r e l i m i n a r y l a b work. Then we a r e much s a f e r , you s e e , because t h e r e i s always a danger t h a t we might l o s e t h i s i m p o r t a n t a s s o c i a t i o n o f the a r t i f a c t and a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i t s provenance and so i f we don't have t h a t . In a d d i t i o n , o f c o u r s e , we need t h e v a r i o u s r e c o r d i n g forms w h i c h 43. a r e f a i r l y s t a n d a r d a l t h o u g h they change t h r o u g h time and become more and more demanding as time goes on. And then t h e r e a r e o t h e r n e c e s s a r y t o o l s , more mundane ones, l i k e o r d i n a r y c a r p e n t e r s ' t o o l s because when s e t t i n g up camp t h e r e a r e numerous o c c a s i o n s f o r t h e i r use. So we must have a complete s e t of c a r p e n t e r s ' t o o l s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 205-210). A l t h o u g h he always c a r r i e d f i r s t a i d equipment f o r "minor i n j u r i e s " Borden emphasizes h i s e f f o r t s t o a v o i d major a c c i d e n t s w i t h t o o l s : I a lways t r i e d t o a v o i d major i n j u r i e s and c a u t i o n e d my crews t o put a l l the t o o l s i n t h e i r p r o p e r p l a c e s , such as saws, hoes, o r a x e s . And anyone who used an axe must have had e x p e r i e n c e f i r s t . Thus, I have always been a b l e t o a v o i d major i n j u r i e s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 209). A t h i r d n e c e s s a r y e x p e n d i t u r e " i n c l u d e d cameras and f i l m t o make p r o g r e s s s h o t s o f the exposed t o o l s and o f the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f any ... c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e " (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 209). Maureen C a r l s o n ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u l y 11, 1980) remembers the c a r e w i t h w h i c h Borden approached photography. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note here t h a t e a r l i e r i n h i s l i f e , p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g UCLA, he had worked i n a photo-e n g r a v i n g shop i n Los A n g e l e s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 16). Borden was a b l e t o a v o i d s p e n d i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f money on e x p e n s i v e s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t s t h r o u g h the h e l p o f " c o o p e r a t i v e p e o p l e " i n the Department o f E n g i n e e r i n g who s u p p l i e d him w i t h a l i a d e s , p l a n e t a b l e , l e v e l s and t r i p o d s . The o n l y e x p e n s i v e i n s t r u m e n t he d i d buy was a l e v e l . T h i s was purchased w i t h funds o b t a i n e d from H.R. M a c M i l l a n (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 210). 2. Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n Borden's p o s i t i o n a t UBC gave him t h e advantage o f a c c e s s t o s t u d e n t s who would p a r t i c i p a t e i n h i s s u r v e y s and e x c a v a t i o n s . To b e g i n w i t h , f i e l d w o r k was always an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f c o u r s e work. For example, r e f e r r i n g t o the summer o f 1949 Borden w r i t e s ; 44, S t u d e n t s from both U n i v e r s i t i e s (UBC and the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington) j o i n e d f o r c e s and began the e x c a v a t i o n on a l a r g e s i t e on the Whalen farm a t Boundary Bay, i n the s o u t h -west c o r n e r o f the F r a s e r D e l t a (Borden 1950a: 242). The i n i t i a l s o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s , and t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n subsequent s u r v e y s and e x c a v a t i o n s d u r i n g the f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s , a r e on r e c o r d i n f i e l d w o r k c a t a l o g u e s i n the A r c h a e o l o g y Reading Room, UBC Museum of A n t h r o p o l o g y . T h e i r f u l l names a r e on f i l e i n the A r c h a e o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y , Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , UBC ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , M o i r a I r v i n e , A p r i l 21, 1980). T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s a measure o f the i m p o r t a n c e of the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f s t u d e n t s t o a d e f i n i t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s i s acknowledged i n Borden's p u b l i c a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n "Notes and News" i n A m e r i c a n A n t i q u i t y between the y e a r s 1959 - 61 when he s e r v e d as C o n t r i b u t i n g E d i t o r , and i n P r e s s c o v e r a g e ( e . g . Anon, 1957, 1965). But the i n f o r m a t i o n does not d i s t i n g u i s h between Borden's own s t u d e n t s i n A n t h r o p o l o g y 420 and t h o s e d o i n g g r a d u a t e work, h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s who a l s o took p a r t i n the s u r v e y s ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , M o i r a I r v i n e , A p r i l 21, 1980), and s t u d e n t s from o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s . In a g e n e r a l way, Borden's a c c o u n t g i v e s us i n s i g h t s i n t o the v a r i e t y o f s t u d e n t s , but more s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t adds t o our a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the i m p o r t a n c e o f s t u d e n t s t o h i s work by c o n v e y i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o the f o l l o w i n g : how he r e c r u i t e d s t u d e n t s , what he e x p e c t e d o f them and the q u a l i t i e s they d e m o n s t r a t e d . Borden e x p l a i n s v a r i o u s ways i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s became i n v o l v e d i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e d o i n g f i e l d w o r k as p a r t o f t h e i r c o u r s e work a t UBC: Sometime t h e Head o f the Department would w r i t e t o me and ask whether I was g o i n g t o c a r r y out some f i e l d work i n the summer and t h a t t h e r e were a number o f s t u d e n t s a v a i l a b l e who would be i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g . P r o f e s s o r McFeat c o n t a c t e d me i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , and so I s u g g e s t e d t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l students should w r i t e to me and g i ve me a b i t of background of t h e i r p rev ious exper iences (Borden Interv iews 1979: 7 1 ) . O f t e n , s tudents a p p l i e d to Borden d i r e c t l y : . . . Sometimes the students in d i s t a n t par ts would hear about a p r o j e c t which was being planned through v a r i o u s channe ls . For i n s t a n c e , Paul T o l s t o y of the U n i v e r s i t y of New York wrote to me and a p p l i e d fo r the p o s i t i o n , and he had had c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e , and he was an i n t e r e s t i n g person . He came from a White Russian f a m i l y and was a Master in Russian and E n g l i s h ; he was e q u a l l y f l u e n t in both languages. He was very use fu l at the American Museum of N a t u r a l , H i s t o r y . When g iven a p u b l i c a t i o n in E n g l i s h or in R u s s i a n , he would read i t o f f in E n g l i s h which was very u s e f u l . So, because of h i s o ther exper iences t o o , I thought he would be an i n t e r e s t i n g member to have on the e x p e d i t i o n . Then there were some people from the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington l i k e Roy Car l son f o r i n s t a n c e . Dr. Car l son i s now the Head of the Department of Archaeology at Simon Fraser U n i v e r s i t y . And some other students from the U n i v e r s i t y of Washington had heard about t h i s b ig p r o j e c t which we were going to c a r r y o u t , and a l l of them had had some prev ious e x p e r i e n c e , and so I adopted them, accepted them, t e n t a t i v e l y . And some of them, of c o u r s e , were our own students (Borden Interv iews 1979: 71-73) -And w i th re fe rence to the Fraser Canyon p r o j e c t : In p a r t i c u l a r , maybe I should mention Don McLeod from the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto . He was h i g h l y recommended to us by P r o f e s s o r MacI Iwra i th who was the Head of the Department of Anthropology at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto . And another student from there was Peter H a r r i s o n . Now, Don was r e a l l y g reat to have on the s i t e not on ly because of h i s a b i l i t y as a. f ie l .dworker , but a l s o because of h i s innate c h e e r f u l n e s s , h i s i n t e r e s t , and the way that he had w i t h other members of the crew. For i n s t a n c e , he was q u i t e w e l l versed in p h y s i c a l anthropo logy , and in the evenings he managed to present a s o r t of course in p h y s i c a l anthropology to the students and to the other members of the crew who .took a great i n t e r e s t in t h i s . Peter Har r i son (see American A n t i q u i t y , V o l . 27, no. k, 1962) a l s o proved to be a very good and met i cu lous f i e l d w o r k e r a l though he had a good deal to l ea rn as a l l of them d i d . It was i n t e r e s t i n g to see that even from some of the best u n i v e r s i t i e s in Canada we were ab le to a t t r a c t crew members. Then, a g a i n , we had some people from Washington who j o i n e d us and a few other i n d i v i d u a l s who were there on a par t t ime b a s i s . My sons a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d f o r va r ious lengths of time in that second season dur ing which we expanded a good deal eastward from the s i t e of the o r i g i n a l t r e n c h , that i s the 1959 t rench . (Borden Interv iews 1979= 225-226). he. Above a l l , Borden loo k e d f o r c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t i e s . R e f e r r i n g t o t he Tweedsmuir P a r k e x c a v a t i o n s , he e x p l a i n s , I had t o be a b s o l u t e l y s u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Tweedsmuir P a r k , t h a t t h i s was the k i n d o f c a n d i d a t e t h a t I wanted on the p r o j e c t . P r e f e r a b l y , they s h o u l d have had some e x p e r i e n c e p r i o r t o t h i s p r o j e c t and a l s o know how t o ha n d l e axes and so f o r t h so t h a t the axe would h i t the wood and not t h e i r l e g s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 72). The s u r v e y u n d e r t a k e n the p r e v i o u s y e a r had warned him o f the p o t e n t i a l h a z a r d s i n v o l v e d i n w o r k i n g i n w i l d e r n e s s a r e a s . T h e r e f o r e : In t h e summer o f 1952, I rounded up a crew c o n s i s t i n g o f some of my own s t u d e n t s and a l s o s t u d e n t s from the U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o and from the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington and even from the U n i v e r s i t y o f New York. T h i s was an u n t r i e d crew and I was somewhat uneasy about t a k i n g them i n t o t he w i l d e r n e s s w i t h o u t h a v i n g some k i n d o f a t r i a l p e r i o d f i r s t . So, b e f o r e we went back t o Tweedsmuir P a r k , i n 1952, I r e t u r n e d w i t h the s t u d e n t s t o C h i n l a c where we had e x c a v a t e d i n 1950, and where we had not q u i t e completed the e x c a v a t i o n o f a house. So we were then a b l e t o complete the e x c a v a t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r house and t o complete the mapping o f the house and t o add t o the s u b s t a n t i a l c o l l e c t i o n w h i c h we a l r e a d y had from t h i s one house wh i c h amounted t o o v e r 1,500 a r t i f a c t s -j u s t from t h i s one s i t e . T h i s was q u i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i c u l a r l y when o n e ' c o n s i d e r s t h a t most o f the a r t i f a c t s were s t o n e and l i t h i c d e b r i s from m a n u f a c t u r e . There was a v e r y poor bone and a n t l e r p r e s e r v a t i o n a l t h o u g h we knew from r e a d i n g some of the e t h n o g r a p h i c a l r e p o r t s t h a t bone and a n t l e r were v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r manu-f a c t u r e s . W e l l , I cannot go i n t o t oo much d e t a i l about t h i s . I am happy t o say t h a t most o f the s t u d e n t s proved t h e m s e l v e s e x c e e d i n g l y w e l l . Some o f them needed a l i t t l e e x t r a push, and I t o l d them t h a t i f they d i d n ' t shape up they would have t o be s e n t back, and they p u l l e d up t h e i r s o c k s and performed a l l r i g h t (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 56). T h i s was how Borden assembled h i s s t u d e n t s f o r the Tweedsmuir P a r k e x c a v a t i o n s and f o r a l l h i s p r o j e c t s . In h i s words: I wanted t o be a b s o l u t e l y s u r e t h a t ... s t u d e n t s would g e t a l o n g w i t h each o t h e r f i r s t o f a l l and then t h a t they were ded-i c a t e d w o r k e r s and knew about l i v i n g o u t d o o r s w i t h o u t g e t t i n g i n t o t r o u b l e ^ I t was i n t h a t way t h a t I assembled the v a r i o u s s t u d e n t s f o r the Tweedsmuir Park p r o j e c t and f o r o t h e r p r o j e c t s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 73). E n t h u s i a s m was an i m p o r t a n t q u a l i t y t h a t Borden loo k e d f o r i n a s t u d e n t : 4 7 . Times have changed, you know. S t u d e n t s now e x p e c t f a i r l y h i g h wages. They work a l i m i t e d number o f h o u r s , w i t h fewer hours e v e r y week, j u s t l i k e o t h e r s who a r e w o r k i n g by the hour and b e i n g p a i d . ... They want two days o f f and, i f p o s s i b l e , they want a beer p a r l o u r nearby and so f o r t h (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 223). ... In t h o s e d a y s , s t u d e n t s were s t i l l f a i r l y i d e a l i s t i c and more d e d i c a t e d than most o f the s t u d e n t s now-adays. Now I d e l i b e r a t e l y s a i d most o f the s t u d e n t s because t h e r e a r e s t i l l some d e d i c a t e d ones, but t h e r e a r e o t h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p r o j e c t j u s t t o g e t as much out o f i t as they can. But I have always been v e r y f o r t u n a t e i n h a v i n g d e d i c a t e d s t u d e n t s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 206). Some o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s were h i g h - s c h o o l s t u d e n t s : J i m ( B a l d w i n ) ... was v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d i n a r c h a e o l o g y and a t t h a t time (he was'16 y e a r s o l d , summer 1954), had p l a n n e d a c a r e e r i n a r c h a e o l o g y . He had v i s i t e d a number o f s i t e s t h a t P h i l i p D r u c k e r had r e c o r d e d i n h i s s u r v e y o f t h e N o r t h -west Coast i n 1938. One of t h e s e was r i g h t on the o u t s k i r t s o f P r i n c e Rupert and was i n an advanced s t a g e o f b e i n g d e s t r o y e d . Now, J i m had c a r r i e d o u t some s y s t e m a t i c e x c a v a -t i o n s a t t h i s s i t e on t h e b a s i s o f what he had l e a r n e d d u r i n g h i s e x p e r i e n c e a t Tweedsmuir P a r k . The s i t e was a v e r y l a r g e one and even the remnant chunk was l a r g e . I t was a l s o q u i t e deep so t h a t J i m had never been a b l e t o g e t down t o the v e r y bottom o f i t . So I d e c i d e d t h a t we would d i g a t e s t p i t i n t o t h e m a r g i n o f t h e s i t e from the s u r f a c e down t o t h e s t e r i l e s u b s o i l . T h i s we d i d and made a c a r e f u l r e c o r d i n g o f s t a t i -g r a p h y , and r i g h t a t the bottom we were a b l e t o c o l l e c t the c h a r c o a l sample w h i c h l a t e r was s u b m i t t e d f o r r a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g . ... Now, J i m made a l l h i s r e c o r d s and the a r t i f a c t s t h a t he had e x c a v a t e d a v a i l a b l e t o the u n i v e r s i t y f o r s t u d y and r e s e a r c h (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979; 153-154). A n o t h e r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t whose f i n d s became u s e f u l was Andrew C h a r l e s . Borden i s reminded o f h i s f i n d s a t M a r p o l e and h i s work a t the S t . Mungo s i t e : Oh y e s , I s h o u l d not f o r g e t Andrew C h a r l e s who i s a member of the Musqueam I n d i a n band. He was i n h i g h s c h o o l a t the time and the f i r s t I n d i a n , I t h i n k , who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n e x c a v a -t i o n s t h a t might p e r t a i n t o h i s a n c e s t o r s here on the c o a s t . He d i d e x c e l l e n t work. At one t i m e , he d i s c o v e r e d a r a t h e r l a r g e bone k n i f e ; he had not a n t i c i p a t e d t h i s and i t f r a c t u r e d as he was e x c a v a t i n g . C o n s e q u e n t l y he was m o r t i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t he m i g h t have been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b r e a k i n g i t . But he had a n o t h e r more g r a t i f y i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h a t he e x c a v a t e d one o f the f i r s t p e s t l e - s h a p e d s t o n e hand-mauls t h a t were a c t u a l l y found i n s i t u i n c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s , u n d i s t u r b e d c u l t u r a l d e p o s i t s , I t h i n k t h i s d e s e r v e s t o be m e n t i o n e d . He n e v e r l o s t h i s i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y and a n t h r o p o l o g y . S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e M a r p o l e p r o j e c t , he u n d e r t o o k e x c a v a t i o n s on 48. h i s own a t t h e S t . Mungo s i t e and uncovered t h e a r t i f a c t s o f a phase t h a t was a t t h a t time unknown t o us. We d i d not know where i t would f i t i n . I thought p o s s i b l y i t would f i t i n somewhere between the M a r p o l e and t h e l a t e s t phase, the S t s l e x phase. But he donated h i s f i e l d n o t e s , h i s d r a w i n g s , and p r o f i l e s , e t c e t e r a , t o the l a b o r a t o r y o f a r c h a e o l o g y a t UBC (Borden i n t e r v i e w s 1979: 196-197). and e x p l a i n s the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f Andrew C h a r l e s ' f i n d : ... i t was on the b a s i s o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t I d i r e c t e d Gay C a l v e r t , who i s now Mrs. Gay Boehm, t o t h e S t . Mungo s i t e where she c a r r i e d out v e r y c a r e f u l and s y s t e m a t i c e x c a v a t i o n s and was a b l e t o d e f i n e the S t . Mungo phase. And we have s e v e r a l components o f the S t . Mungo phase now, both a t t h a t t y p e s i t e , S t . Mungo, and a l s o a g a i n a t the G l e n ro s e about w h i c h I may make some comments l a t e r on. So w i t h o u t the work o f Andy C h a r l e s we might not have been a b l e t o do t h a t . I t i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t f i r s t e v e n t s t h a t seem r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t , you know, become s i g n i f i c a n t l a t e r on (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 197). Even h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s had t o be r e s o u r c e f u l on s u r v e y and e x c a v a t i o n p r o j e c t s . Borden r e f e r s t o a p r o j e c t a t the Kitsumkalum v i l l a g e s i t e i n the C e n t r a l I n t e r i o r : And, f i n a l l y , we d i d l o c a t e the v i l l a g e s i t e . B u t , l i k e some o f the g r e a t s e t t l e m e n t s i n c e n t r a l A m e r i c a , you know, i n the Yucatan and so f o r t h , the a r e a o f the v i l l a g e was com-p l e t e l y overgrown and h i d d e n under v e g e t a t i o n . I t ' s r e a l l y p a r t o f the dense r a i n f o r e s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and i t i s f u l l y as dense as some o f the j u n g l e s i n c e n t r a l A m e r i c a . We d i d f i n d , a t some d i s t a n c e away from the a c t u a l s e t t l e m e n t , a n i c e p l a c e t o camp by the r u s h i n g Kitsumkalum R i v e r . There was no way t h a t we c o u l d camp near the s e t t l e m e n t , a t the s e t t l e m e n t i t s e l f . So we p i t c h e d our t e n t and, o f c o u r s e , t h e Queen's S c o u t s e n j o y e d f i x i n g up t h e c a m p s i t e a c c o r d i n g t o what they had l e a r n e d as s c o u t s . They d i d an e x c e l l e n t j o b , and w h i l e they were t h e r e e v e r y t h i n g was c onducted i n a v e r y p r o p e r manner. ... Every day o f c o u r s e the garbage was q u i t e d e e p l y b u r i e d and c o v e r e d , but d u r i n g our absence the camp was v i s i t e d by a b l a c k bear and he c a r r i e d out e x c a v a t i o n s on h i s own. E v e r y t h i n g t h a t had been b u r i e d he e x c a v a t e d and a t e w h atever he thought was f i t t o e a t . He became more and more o f a p e s t because e v e n t u a l l y he was not s a t i s f i e d t o e x c a v a t e our garbage but a c t u a l l y s t a r t e d t o r a i d our food m a t e r i a l t h a t we l e f t t h e r e w i t h o u t p u t t i n g i t away. But t h e bear c o m p e l l e d us t o l o c k i t up i n the t r u c k e v e r y morning b e f o r e we went t o work. He then t r i e d t o break i n t o the t r u c k where he l e f t s c r a t c h marks a l l o v e r i t . He r i p p e d o f f the r u b b e r , you know, around the windows, e t . c e t e r a . We were r e a l l y overcome about a l l t h i s . We had a c o n s u l t a t i o n , and the boys had an i d e a 49. t h a t perhaps we c o u l d proceed i n the way o f N e a n d e r t h a l o r Cromagnon man. So they p r e p a r e d wooden s p e a r s f o r each one o f us and hardened the t i p s i n the f i r e . The bear e v e n t u a l l y s t a y e d r i g h t near camp, j u s t w i t h i n about f i f t y y a r d s , so we r e a l l y had t o take some measures. So one day when e v e r y t h i n g was r e a d y , each one w i t h a spe a r p r o p e r l y p o i n t e d and hardened, the f o u r o f us made a s e m i - c i r c l e . The bear was s i t t i n g on the f a l l e n t r u n k o f a t r e e and we approached him from f o u r s i d e s and s e t up a huge hue and c r y , but t h i s animal would not be i n t i m i d a t e d . I t j u s t s a t t h e r e and c l i c k e d i t s jaws i n the most menacing manner. He wo u l d n ' t budge. So we were a t a l o s s as t o what t o do n e x t . F i n a l l y , J i m B a l d w i n came up w i t h t he i d e a o f s t a r t i n g t he motor, r e v v i n g i t , and moving the t r u c k back and f o r t h so as t o make the bear t h i n k t h a t we were g o i n g a f t e r him w i t h t he t r u c k . We thought t h i s was a good i d e a and we t r i e d i t o u t . We s t a r t e d t he t r u c k and i t went, rhmmm, rhmmm, rhmmm, you know. We moved i n the d i r e c t i o n o f the b e a r , and e v e n t u a l l y he d e c i d e d t h a t t he monster was g o i n g a f t e r him and he took o f f o v e r the h i l l , and we never saw him a g a i n . So t h a t was one o f our e x p e r i e n c e s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 156-160). The b u l k o f the work was done by u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s who came out to s u r v e y s and e x c a v a t i o n s r e p e a t e d l y . Borden r e c a l l s the M a r p o l e p r o j e c t (1954-1957): The crews r a r e l y numbered more than f i v e , s i x , o r s e v e n , but i n a c t u a l i t y a g r e a t many more i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s e e x c a v a t i o n s . Some came q u i t e r e g u l a r l y , o t h e r s o n l y when they c o u l d s p a r e the t i m e . Perhaps as many as twenty a c t u a l l y took p a r t and a few o f them may be o f p a r t i c -u l a r i n t e r e s t : f o r i n s t a n c e , Mike Kew, now an A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f A n t h r o p o l o g y i n t h e Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y a t UBC, Mike Ames, P r o f e s s o r o f A n t h r o p o l o g y i n our Department and a l s o t he D i r e c t o r o f the Museum. Roy C a r l s o n and h i s w i f e Maureen came out r e p e a t e d l y , a l s o K e i t h Douglas who was and s t i l l i s an e n g i n e e r . He was v e r y h e l p f u l and l a t e r on he w i l l p l a y a p a r t i n the F r a s e r Canyon p r o j e c t . Dr. A k r i g g a l s o came out r e p e a t e d l y . And he, o f c o u r s e , was t h e one who s t a r t e d t he s a l v a g e work w i t h me i n the F r a s e r D e l t a r e g i o n . John Sendey, who i s now the D i r e c t o r o f the Museum a t P o r t A l b e r n i , was a t t h a t time a h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t w o r k i n g w i t h me a t M a r p o l e . A l s o , h i s f r i e n d , R i c h a r d Cox who i s now i n the Department o f A n t h r o -p o l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C o n n e c t i c u t . Bob Kid d i s i n the Department o f H i s t o r i c A r c h a e o l o g y a t Edmonton, not a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y b u t , I b e l i e v e , a t the Museum t h e r e . And, t h e n , Diane McEachern who i s the s i s t e r o f my d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w . Her s i s t e r Edna m a r r i e d my e l d e s t son Harvey. Diana was a l s o a member o f the A r c h a e o l o g y C l u b and took a B.C. and M.A. w i t h us here a t UBC and then l a t e r went on t o o b t a i n her d o c t o r a t e a t the U n i y e r s i t y o f Washington w i t h the m a t e r i a l t h a t she had 50. g a t h e r e d i n A u s t r a l i a among the A u s t r a l i a n A b o r i g i n e women. A l l o f t h e s e p e o p l e were s e r i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 195-196)." Then, the F r a s e r Canyon p r o j e c t (1959-1961): Roy and Maureen C a r l s o n whom, as you w i l l r e c a l l , met and f e l l i n l o v e d u r i n g the Tweedsmuir Park p r o j e c t . They a g a i n p a r t i c i p a t e d a t M a r p o l e , were p r e s e n t d u r i n g our s u r v e y i n the e a s t K o o t e n a y s , and were a l s o w i t h me i n the f i r s t y e a r o f t h e F r a s e r Canyon p r o j e c t . And Maureen was o u r cook, and Roy was our f i e l d crew member. Maureen d i d e x c e l l e n t l y as a cook, k e e p i n g us w e l l f e d and h e a l t h y . She d i d n ' t l i k e c l e a n i n g f i s h w h i c h we o c c a s i o n a l l y o b t a i n e d as a p r e s e n t from some o f the I n d i a n s who were f i s h i n g i n the canyon a t t h e t i m e . Then J i m B a l d w i n who f i r s t worked w i t h us i n Tweedsmuir P a r k , l a t e r on worked a t the Co-op. s i t e by h i m s e l f , and l a t e r s t i l l e n t e r e d UBC and worked a t M a r p o l e . Now he was w i t h us as a crew member on the F r a s e r Canyon p r o j e c t . Harvey Borden, my e l d e s t s o n , h e l p e d p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f the p r o j e c t as d i d my o t h e r son, K e i t h . They were not r e g u l a r crew members, but they were e x c e e d i n g l y h e l p f u l . A crew member whom I have not mentioned y e t , who was p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n two o f the l a t e r s e a s o n s , was Don M i t c h e l l . He e v e n t u a l l y was a n o t h e r M.A. s t u d e n t o f mine who l a t e r took h i s Ph.D. degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon. He i s now A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 2 2 9 ) . And, commenting on the r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s , Borden r e c a l I s : One t h i n g I must m e n t i o n . I t happened d u r i n g the second s e a s o n . Our s o u r c e o f w a t e r was a s p r i n g w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d u n d e r n e a t h the " r i p rap'^and we s i p h o n e d w a t e r by means o f a p i p e w h i c h had been l a i d by the CNR e n g i n e e r s . I t was where we o b t a i n e d our wa t e r w h i c h we l a b o r i o u s l y c a r r i e d u p h i l l i n t o t he k i t c h e n t e n t . And t h i s , o f c o u r s e , was not o n l y w a t e r f o r c o o k i n g but s e r v e d a l s o f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s . I t was a v e r y t e d i o u s t h i n g t o c a r r y the w a t e r up the h i l l , and i f improvement was p o s s i b l e i t s h o u l d be made. Now, i t was e v e n t u a l l y f o r c e d upon us because as the season wore o n , t h a t i s t he second season i n I9 6 0 , the s p r i n g gave o u t . I t was a f a i r l y d r y y e a r and the s p r i n g was e v e n t u a l l y reduced t o a t r i c k l e . So t h e n e a r e s t w a t e r s o u r c e - o f c o u r s e we c o u l d not g e t any w a t e r from the F r a s e r ; i t was f a r t o o deep and too s t e e p ; i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n i t from t h e r e - was some d i s t a n c e down the r i v e r t h r o u g h the s h o r t t u n n e l and a g a i n some d i s t a n c e onward and was what was g e o g r a p h i c a l l y named Si w a s h Creek. I never l i k e d t h a t name because S i w a s h , o f c o u r s e , i s a c o r r u p t i o n from the Fren c h sauvage, w h i c h means savage and r e f e r r e d t o the l o c a l I n d i a n s . I c o u l d n ' t 51. p o s s i b l y use such a word, but I c o u l d n ' t change i t s geo-g r a p h i c name. At any r a t e , - S i w a s h Creek was our n e a r e s t s o u r c e o f w a t e r . So i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n w a t e r - we c o u l d n ' t , o f c o u r s e , c a r r y the w a t e r from t h e r e t o camp, i t was f a r t o o f a r away. So I had t o make a s p e c i a l t r i p t o Vancouver and p u r c h a s e about a h a l f - m i l e o f p l a s t i c p i p e , and t h i s was t a k e n up by the w a y - f r e i g h t , and we l a i d out the p i p e from t h e camp down a l o n g the t r a c k s , t h r o u g h the t u n n e l and then t o a d i s t a n c e f a r enough up the Creek, Siwash Creek, w h i c h was r e a l l y a b e a u t i f u l mountain stream t u m b l i n g down the r o c k s , t o an e l e v a t i o n h i g h enough so i t would be h i g h e r than the e l e v a t i o n o f our camp. And here i s where we p l a c e d t h e w a t e r i n t a k e , t h a t i s , a s c r e e n f a s t e n e d t o the end o f the p i p e w h i c h would s c r e e n out any d i r t and so f o r t h w h i c h might p l u g up the p i p e . So the w a t e r ran from the i n t a k e a l l a l o n g the t r a c k s and then u p - h i l l t o the camp s i t e , t o our camp. And i t was always good t o have members on the crew who a r e i n g e n i o u s enough t o do t h e s e t h i n g s . They b u i l t a s p e c i a l s i n k w i t h an o u t l e t and had a t a p w h i c h ran i n t o the s i n k . So we had c o n t i n u o u s r u n n i n g w a t e r i n t h e k i t c h e n t e n t w h i c h was v e r y c o n v e n i e n t and most h e l p f u l i n many ways (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1 9 7 9 : 2 2 4 - 2 2 5 ) . 3 - A s s i s t a n c e from n o n - f u n d i n g a g e n c i e s Throughout Borden's p u b l i c a t i o n s , I f i n d r e f e r e n c e s t o the coop-e r a t i o n he r e c e i v e d from n o n - f u n d i n g and " n o n - e x c a v a t i n g " a g e n c i e s w h i c h c l e a r l y a s s i s t e d h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. Much o f t h i s c o o p e r a t i o n was i n the form o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e from f e l l o w academics i n r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s such as G e o l o g y , C h e m i s t r y and E n g i n e e r i n g (Borden 1 9 5 5 : 1 5 , 1 9 6 0 : 1 0 6 ) . A n o t h e r example o f a generous s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t was the Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y (Borden 1 9 6 8 c : 5 5 ) . And one o f the most n o t a b l e o f a l l forms o f a s s i s t a n c e was t h a t o f f e r e d by t h o s e l a y i n d i v i d u a l s who d i r e c t e d Borden's a t t e n t i o n t o s i t e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l (Borden 1 9 5 3 " 4 c ; Anon 1 9 5 7 a : 6 ) . a) A s s i s t a n c e from r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s Borden's a c c o u n t echoes h i s acknowledgement o f t h i s v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e m e n t i o n i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r Ken McCallum and s t a f f , Department o f C h e m i s t r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f Saskatchewan, and W i l l i a m Mathews, Department o f 52. Geology, UBC. Borden t e l l s o f a s p e c t s o f t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , when r e f e r r i n g t o h i s f i r s t e n c o u n t e r w i t h the F r a s e r Canyon s i t e : Now, t h i s e a r l y s t r a t a , s t r a t u m , was l o c a t e d i n s a n d , and the o n l y agent t h a t c o u l d have d e p o s i t e d t h e s e sands was the F r a s e r r i v e r . But even a t maximum, the f l o o d s t a g e o f the F r a s e r r i v e r a t p r e s e n t time i s something l i k e f o r t y f e e t o r more below the l e v e l o f t h i s bed o f sand i n w h i c h t h e s e e a r l y f i n d s were made. And t h i s , by i t s e l f , s u g g e s t e d t o me a c o n s i d e r a b l e age. Of c o u r s e , I am not a g e o l o g i s t but I wanted a s p e c i a l i s t t o examine the s i t e w i t h me and t o check out t h i s c o n c l u s i o n . So, I t h i n k i t was e a r l y i n 1957 t h a t I persuaded Dr. W i l l i a m Matthews o f our Department o f Geology t o v i s i t the s i t e w i t h Mr. M i l l i k e n and m y s e l f i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e s i t u a t i o n . H i s e x a m i n a t i o n was of tremendous h e l p , r e a l l y , i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r a t h e r complex geomorphology of the s i t e (Borden i n t e r v i e w s 1979: 200). D u r i n g the e x a m i n a t i o n Borden c o l l e c t e d some c h a r c o a l and e n t i r e p i t s o f a w i l d c h e r r y (Prunus Demi ssa) : I s u b m i t t e d t h i s sample f o r r a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g t o Dr. Ken McCallum a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t o o n i n Saskatchewan, and t h i s was d a t e d . They had e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t r a d i o c a r b o n d a t i n g l a b o r a t o r y i n the Department o f C h e m i s t r y t h e r e . And as I may have mentioned b e f o r e , Dr. S p i n k s , t h e Head o f the Department, had i n v i t e d me t o submit samples and, o f c o u r s e , I a v a i l e d m y s e l f o f t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y w i t h g r e a t a l a c r i t y . A f t e r some t i m e , the r e s u l t on t h i s sample came i n , and I was e l a t e d a t the d a t e . B e f o r e I mention t h e d a t e h e r e , I s h o u l d say t h a t I c a l l e d Dr. Matthews and asked him how l o n g i t would have taken the r i v e r t o deepen i t s bed between f o r t y and s i x t y f e e t as seemed i n d i c a t e d . And he had c o n f i r m e d , you know, my e a r l i e r c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h i s was F r a s e r r i v e r s a n d , and he thought a moment and s a i d , "Oh, perhaps 4,000 y e a r s . " So I s a i d , " W e l l , B i l l , you can m u l t i p l y t h i s by two. The r a d i o -c a r b o n age o f t h i s s t r a t u m i s 8,150 y e a r s p l u s o r minus 350." And he s a i d , " W e l l , t h i s i s v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . " And, o f c o u r s e , I was e l a t e d because t h i s was t h e e a r l i e s t d a t e t h a t we had a t t h a t time i n the Canadian West. And i t was r e a l l y one o f the e a r l i e s t d a t e s i n a l l o f w e s t e r n N o r t h A m e r i c a . So, t h i s was q u i t e i m p o r t a n t (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 202). Borden a l s o r e c e i v e d a s s i s t a n c e from the Department o f E n g i n e e r i n g , he e s p e c i a l l y r e c a l l s : K e i t h D o u g l a s , an e n g i n e e r , who had worked w i t h us o c c a s i o n a l l y a t M a r p o l e and who had a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y , came out and was e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l i n making a p r o f e s s i o n a l s u r v e y o f t h e s i t e , e s t a b l i s h i n g a c c u r a t e l y i t s e l e v a t i o n above sea 53. l e v e l and then making a map o f the s i t e ( F r a s e r Canyon). He then h e l p e d us t o l a y out our t r e n c h and e s t a b l i s h v a r i o u s datum and r e f e r e n c e p o i n t s . He p r e p a r e d a map w h i c h was l a t e r s e n t out t o us (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 214). b) A s s i s t a n c e from the Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y D u r i n g a t l e a s t the f i r s t two y e a r s o f h i s F r a s e r Canyon p r o j e c t , the Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y was a p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l and generous s o u r c e o f s u p p o r t (Borden 1968c: 5 5 ) . Borden e x p l a i n s the n a t u r e o f t h i s s u p p o r t : I had t o make arrangements f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f a l l our equipment f o r our f i e l d crew and f o r our f u t u r e d e l i v e r i e s o f our s u p p l i e s . So I had t o go t o the top i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e the b e s t p o s s i b l e d e a l . The C.N.R. d i s t r i c t manager and s u p e r i n t e n d e n t were, f o r t u n a t e l y , most c o o p e r a t i v e ; we were a s s i g n e d a s p e c i a l box-car w h i c h c o u l d be a t t a c h e d t o the work-t r a i n w hich made i t s way up and down the r i v e r a t l e a s t t w i c e a week - u s u a l l y on Tuesdays and Thursdays - a l t h o u g h t h e r e were changes. They were f a i r l y p r e d i c t a b l e i n t h e i r t i m e , but t h e i r s c h e d u l e c o u l d v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y . They were e a s i l y d e l a y e d . They were w o r k - t r a i n s w h i c h p r o v i d e d goods and equipment t o v a r i o u s s c a t t e r e d l o c a l i t i e s a l o n g the C.N.R. r i g h t o f way, both s p e c i f i c a l l y t o C.N.R. p e o p l e who were m a i n t a i n i n g the t r a c k s , and a l s o t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s who had no o t h e r way o f communicating w i t h the o u t s i d e w o r l d . So I made t h i s a r r a n g e -ment f o r t h i s c a r t o be a t t a c h e d t o the w o r k - t r a i n w h i c h i s a l s o the w a y - f r e i g h t o r the s w i t c h e r . I t has a l o c o m o t i v e and a few box c a r s w h i c h c o n t a i n m a t e r i a l w h i c h i s needed a l o n g the way - we had our own box c a r - a caboose i n w h i c h the p e o p l e o f the w o r k - t r a i n c o u l d l i v e . They s l e e p t h e r e , they cook t h e r e , and so f o r t h . In the e a r l y d a y s , they even had an o l d p a s s e n g e r c a r a t t a c h e d t o t h i s t r a i n because the I n d i a n s l i v e d a l o n g the way, and o t h e r s were i n t h e s e i s o l a t e d l o c a l i t i e s , and they c o u l d buy t i c k e t s and make t h e i r way up and down the canyon (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 211-212). ... We loaded a l l the equipment and o t h e r s u p p l i e s o n t o the box c a r , and t h e r e was v e r y l i t t l e space l e f t a f t e r t h a t was c o m p l e t e d . There were l i t e r a l l y q u i t e a few tons t o t r a n s p o r t . Then we had t o p u r c h a s e round t r i p t i c k e t s f o r everyone who was t o be a r e g u l a r member o f the crew, even temporary h e l p who would be r i d i n g as p a s s e n g e r s on the t r a i n . So we were v e r y f o r t u n a t e i n o b t a i n i n g t h e s e box c a r s ; t h i s was not o n l y i n t h e f i r s t y e a r but they were f r e e o f c h a r g e l a t e r on as w e l l . They were j u s t a t t a c h e d t o the t r a i n . The t r a i n had t o go up anyhow and no one asked any q u e s t i o n s . So when e v e r y t h i n g was r e a d y , the t r a i n d e p a r t e d and made i t s way s l o w l y up the r i v e r t o Hope (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 215). 5V. ... We a l s o had t o make arrangements f o r the t r a i n t o s t o p a t the s i t e w h i c h , o f c o u r s e , was l o c a t e d not a t any p a r t i c u l a r l o c a l i t y where they u s u a l l y stopped by, on the c o n t r a r y , was r i g h t o ut i n the w i l d c o u n t r y a t a p o i n t w h i c h was c a l l e d m i l e 23.1. M i l e 23.1 from P o r t Mann, I t h i n k . Now, P o r t Mann was a s t a r t i n g p o i n t , not too f a r from t h e P a t t u l l o B r i d g e , w h i c h s e r v e d as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r many o f t h e s e t r a i n s . E a r l i e r , I s h o u l d have mentioned a n o t h e r p o i n t . We had no way o f r e f r i g e r a t i n g f o o d , and so the p e o p l e o f the work t r a i n a c t u a l l y v o l u n t e e r e d t o b r i n g us a b i g box o f i c e ... and d e l i v e r m a i l and f r e s h f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s and meat w h i c h was d e l i v e r e d from the Super V a l u a t Hope ... (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 210-212). ... B a c k i n g up a l l o f t h i s p r e p a r a t i o n were v a r i o u s p e o p l e among whom I s h o u l d mention M i s s E l i s a b e t h B o u s c h o l t e above a l l . She was s e c r e t a r y t o P r o f e s s o r Soward who was Head o f the Department o f H i s t o r y and a l s o Dean o f Graduate S t u d i e s a t the ti m e . She had an i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y and d i d a g r e a t d e a l f o r u s . i n a c t i n g as a back-up p e r s o n and an i n t e r m e d i a r y f o r the r e - r o u t i n g o f m a i l , e t c e t e r a (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 212). c) R e c o g n i t i o n o f s i t e s by l a y i n d i v i d u a l s ( i ) John Henry ( J a c k ) S e w e l l 1885 - 1953-J a c k S e w e l l had r e t i r e d t o Vanderhoof from Saskatchewan, where he had been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . Borden had heard o f h i s f l i n t - k n a p p i n g t e c h n i q u e s and i n v i t e d him t o come and dem o n s t r a t e them t o h i s s t u d e n t s . Borden says o f S e w e l l : He was an i n t e r e s t i n g man. He had come from Saskatchewan where he had been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y , and he had q u i t e a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n from t h e r e . And, t h e n , he had a l s o done a good d e a l o f s u r v e y i n g and s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i n g i n the v i c i n i t y o f Vanderhoof and i n the g e n e r a l N e c h a k o - S t u a r t R i v e r d r a i n a g e a r e a . W e l l , t o make a long s t o r y s h o r t , he came down here and demonstrated some o f h i s f l i n t -k napping t e c h n i q u e s t h a t he had e v o l v e d on the b a s i s o f h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f I n d i a n a r t i f a c t s , s t o n e a r t i f a c t s , t h a t he had c o l l e c t e d . And so he was a man who was d e e p l y i n t e r e s t e d i n I n d i a n c u l t u r e and p r e s e r v i n g s i t e s - not d e s t r o y i n g them. He d i s c o u r a g e d amateur e x c a v a t i o n s . But he was i n f a v o u r o f c o n s e r v i n g and s u r f a c e c o l l e c t i n g and k e e p i n g a good r e c o r d o f where the a r t i f a c t s came from (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 47). D u r i n g the c o u r s e o f the v i s i t , S e w e l l i n v i t e d Borden t o l o o k a t a s i t e w h i c h was l o c a t e d on the S t u a r t R i v e r , Borden r e c a l l s ; He t o l d me about a s i t e w h i c h was l o c a t e d on the S t u a r t R i v e r i n the v i c i n i t y o f the c o n f l u e n c e o f the S t u a r t R i v e r w i t h the Nechako, and he t o l d me t h a t i t was an a p p a r e n t C a r r i e r s i t e w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o F a t h e r M o r i c e who was one o f the famous m i s s i o n a r i e s o f t h a t r e g i o n , had been abandoned s i n c e the f i r s t h a l f , s i n c e about 1745, o f the 18th c e n t u r y . He m e n t i o n e d , t o o , t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o one o f h i s i n f o r m a n t s the s i t e had been, the s e t t l e m e n t had.been, r a i d e d by C h i l c o t i n I n d i a n s who had s l a i n v i r t u a 1 1 y e v eryone i n the v i l l a g e . And t h a t the v i l l a g e had not been i n h a b i t e d s i n c e . So Mr. J a c k S e w e l l !.. i n v i t e d me t o come up t h e r e sometime and e x c a v a t e a t Ch i n l a c w h i c h i s the name o f the s e t t l e m e n t (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 48). In the l a t t e r p a r t o f the summer o f 1950, Borden and two o f h s t u d e n t s went t o C h i n l a c : We had e x c e l l e n t c o o p e r a t i o n from Mr. S e w e l l and some of h i s a c q u a i n t a n c e s and f r i e n d s i n Vanderhoof. I t i s a s i t e w h i c h a t t h a t time was v e r y d i f f i c u l t o f a c c e s s because t h e r e were no roads l e a d i n g t o i t , and a l l our equipment had t o be t r a n s p o r t e d t h e r e by b o a t s w i t h a v e r y s h a l l o w d r a f t because i n some p l a c e s the S t u a r t R i v e r , i n p a r t i c u l a r , was v e r y , v e r y s h a l l o w . And so they were f l a t - b o t t o m e d b o a t s w h i c h were d r i v e n by p r o p e l l e r s l i k e t h o s e w h i c h a r e s t i l l b e i n g used i n t h e F l o r i d a swamps and so f o r t h . W e l l , t h a t was v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g . We s e t up camp a t the s i t e ... a v e r y , v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g s i t e w h i c h was e s t a b l i s h e d on the r i m o f t h e s t e e p bank t h a t l e d down t o the S t u a r t R i v e r . When one came up t h a t bank and lo o k e d a l o n g the bank one c o u l d d i s c e r n a t l e a s t t en o u t l i n e s , s l i g h t d e p r e s s i o n s , t h a t were houses t h a t s t o o d a t one t i m e . And we p r e p a r e d a map o f t h i s s i t e . I t was a c l e a r i n g w h i c h was s t i l l q u i t e o b v i o u s l y an a r t i f i c i a l c l e a r i n g w h i c h the I n d i a n s had made i n o r d e r t o use the t r e e s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the houses and f o r f i r e w o o d and so f o r t h . And i t was j u s t then b e i n g r e - i n v a d e d by t h e s u r r o u n d i n g j a c k p i n e f o r e s t , and most o f the c l e a r i n g was s t i l l f r e e . So we sp e n t the r e s t o f the summer e x c a v a t i n g most o f one o f the houses, and the d e p o s i t s were, by c o n t r a s t w i t h our deep s h e l l middens on the c o a s t , q u i t e s h a l l o w . So one had t o be v e r y c a r e f u l not t o d i s t u r b the s u c c e s s i v e s t r a t a * . We were a b l e t o i s o l a t e an h i s t o r i c h o r i z o n and the p r e - h i s t o r i c h o r i z o n . In the h i s t o r i c h o r i z o n t h e r e were some e a r l y t r a d e goods w h i c h i n c l u d e d g l a s s beads, copper f o i l , t u b u l a r beads and a few items o f i r o n - even a C h i n e s e c o i n . Now t h i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h i s s i t e w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n as h a v i n g been s t i l l o c c u p i e d d u r i n g h i s t o r i c times and abandoned sometime l a t e r . Then, beneath the h i s t o r i c h o r i z o n , we came t o p r e - h i s t o r y . So t h i s was a s o r t o f i m p o r t a n t s i t u a t i o n i f you can go from h i s t o r y t o p r e - h i s t o r y a t one s i t e w i t h a r t i f a c t s , you know, o f the l a t e p r e - h i s t o r i c p e r i o d c o n t i n u i n g i n t o the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . I t p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t b a s i s f o r c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s o f the f i n d s l a t e r on (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979; 48-49). 56. Borden emphasizes the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the work a c c o m p l i s h e d : A t any r a t e t h i s work t h e r e , w h i c h went i n c o m p l e t e as f a r as t h i s one house was concerned f o r the time b e i n g , a t l e a s t gave me some i d e a o f what t h e c o u n t r y was l i k e i n c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia and the s o r t o f c o n d i t i o n s one might e n c o u n t e r i n the w i l d e r n e s s t h e r e . And w i t h o u t t h i s e x p e r i e n c e I doubt whether I would have dared t o engage i n the work - the tremendous work a t Tweedsmuir Park (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 49-50). ( i i ) Henry C a s t i l l o u , 1896-1967-Borden met C a s t i l l o u i n 1954 on the way t o P r i n c e R u p e r t on the N o r t h e r n Northwest Coast o f B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. He r e m i n i s c e s : We met Judge C a s t i l l o u a t Cache Creek. Now, Judge C a s t i l l o u was q u i t e a c h a r a c t e r and w i d e l y known i n the C a r i b o o and on the c o a s t among the I n d i a n s . He had defended many o f the I n d i a n s who were accused o f murder and he was q u i t e proud o f the f a c t t h a t none o f t h e s e had e v e r been c o n v i c t e d . Now, he was v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r e - h i s t o r y o f the r e g i o n but h i s approach t o a r c h a e o l o g y and p r e - h i s t o r y was somewhat o f a r o m a n t i c one and he o f t e n mixed f a n t a s y and f i c t i o n w i t h f a c t and so f o r t h . Never-t h e l e s s , I am much i n d e b t e d t o him f o r c a l l i n g my a t t e n t i o n , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t o b u r i a l grounds near Cache C r e e k , and on the way n o r t h we stopped o f f t h e r e . We met him and a l s o the d i r e c t o r o f the s m a l l but i n t e r e s t i n g museum a t C l i n t o n , w h i c h i s n o r t h o f Cache Creek, and t o g e t h e r we went up the h i l l t h a t o v e r l o o k s Cache Creek, and t h e r e he p o i n t e d out t o us a s e r i e s o f c a i r n s . These c a i r n s were a c c u m u l a t i o n s o f r o c k s - b o u l d e r s - t h a t t h e I n d i a n s had used t o mark t h e i r g r a v e s . We d e c i d e d t o e x p l o r e a t l e a s t one o f t h e s e g r a v e s , and i n the c o u r s e o f d o i n g so I l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l about how t o e x c a v a t e one o f them. I t was a t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r t e c h n i q u e . The I n d i a n s b u r i e d t h e i r dead i n q u i t e a com-p l i c a t e d way. They dug a p i t about t h r e e o r t h r e e and a h a l f f e e t i n d e p t h and then l a i d t he dead i n d i v i d u a l i n a f a i r l y t i g h t -f l e x e d p o s i t i o n i n t o t he g r a v e . They then b u i l t a s o r t o f t e n t -l i k e s t r u c t u r e o f many s t a k e s o v e r the g r a v e and s e t t h i s a f i r e . P e r h a p s , and v e r y l i k e l y p r o b a b l y because some o f t h e s e p r a c t i c e s c a r r i e d on i n t o e t h n o g r a p h i c t i m e s , they a l s o suspended some of the b e l o n g i n g s o f the dead on t h i s s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . A f t e r t h i s had been s e t a f i r e , the c h a r c o a l and the ashes f e l l i n t o t he g r a v e and cov e r e d the dead. And i n the c o u r s e o f t h i s c o n f l a g r a t i o n , p a r t o f the body was o f t e n charred i n c l u d i n g o c c a s i o n a l l y even some o f the bones. B u t , the t r i c k then would be, o r the t e c h n i q u e i n o r d e r t o e x c a v a t e such a b u r i a l p r o p e r l y , t o d i g around i t and expose the s t r u c t u r e w h i c h remained under ground. T h i s we d i d a t a l a t e r t i m e . So t h i s was a good l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 50-51)• A l t h o u g h Borden was i n d e b t e d t o C a s t i l l o u f o r c a l l i n g h i s a t t e n t i o n t o b u r i a l g r o u n d s , Borden's f o l l o w i n g remarks convey both h i s d i s a p p r o v a l 57. o f C a s t i l l o u ' s d i s p l a y o f b u r i a l s i n the Museum a t C l i n t o n and h i s f e e l i n g s about h i s own e t h i c a l s t a n c e as an a r c h a e o l o g i s t : From the Cache Creek b u r i a l ground we proceeded t o C l i n t o n and stopped o f f t h e r e a t the museum, a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g l i t t l e museum w i t h many s i g n i f i c a n t items o f the e a r l y h i s t o r y o f the C a r i b o o on e x h i b i t t h e r e . I may mention here t h a t the s t a f f and some h e l p e r s o f the museum who were under the i n f l u e n c e o f Mr. C a s t i l l o u d i d something o f w h i c h I d i d n ' t a t a l l a p p r o v e . They e x c a v a t e d one o f t h e s e . c a i r n b u r i a l s by t h e m s e l v e s . A c c o r d i n g t o Judge C a s t i l l o u t h e s e were v e r y o l d g r a v e s , d a t i n g back t o the l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e t i m e s , w h i c h would have made them 9,000 o r 10,000 y e a r s o l d , you see. And the b u r i a l was on e x h i b i t . I t had been put t o g e t h e r a g a i n w i t h the g r a v e a d d i t i o n s and was i n a g l a s s cage w i t h the legend a t t a c h e d t o t h i s d i s p l a y . I am v e r y much opposed t o h a v i n g b u r i a l s o f t h a t k i n d i n the museum on d i s p l a y because i t i s o f f e n s i v e t o the I n d i a n s . T h e i r s e n s i b i l i t i e s must be c o n s i d e r e d , and even i n r e c e n t y e a r s s t r o n g e x c e p t i o n s have been e x p r e s s e d a g a i n s t t h e s e p r a c t i c e s . The museum a t Kamloops had, f o r i n s t a n c e , on e x h i b i t a b u r i a l t h a t had been e x c a v a t e d by a l o c a l t e a c h e r . The I n d i a n s became v e r y much u p s e t about t h a t , and t h r o u g h the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board we persuaded the museum t o d i s m a n t l e t h i s d i s p l a y and t o r e t u r n the s k e l e t o n m a t e r i a l t o the I n d i a n band who had c o n t r o l o v e r t h a t t e r r i t o r y ... (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 51-52). Borden a l s o r e c a l l s C a s t i l l o u ' s g e n e r o s i t y : Because o f my f r i e n d s h i p w i t h him, he and h i s w i f e v i s i t e d our home. I remember one e v e n i n g when I showed him some o f the s l i d e s t h a t I had taken i n Europe, you know, the caves and so f o r t h , and he was v e r y much i n t e r e s t e d i n t h a t . W e l l , t o make a long s t o r y s h o r t , i n h i s W i l l he i n d i c a t e d t h a t he wanted a l l h i s c o l l e c t i o n s t o go f i r s t o f a l l t o me and then t o the U n i v e r s i t y , and so t h a t ' s where they a r e housed now. So t h e r e i s a t i e - u p w i t h the u n i v e r s i t y a g a i n and a l s o the museum. W e l l , from W i l l i a m s Lake ... no t h e r e was a n o t h e r t h i n g t h e r e . A t W i l l i a m s L ake, Judge C a s t i l l o u a l s o p o i n t e d out some p i t - h o u s e s t h a t were b u i l t a l o n g a t e r r a c e o f the l a k e s h o r e , so we made a r e c o r d i n g o f t h a t s i t e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 153)-( i i i ) August Mi 1 1i ken M i l l i k e n d i r e c t e d Borden t o the famous F r a s e r Canyon s i t e . In Dj R i 3 An e a r l y s i t e i n the F r a s e r Canyon B r i t i s h Columbia (1957: 106) Borden thanks M i l l i k e n f o r h i s a s s i s t a n c e as g u i d e and f o r h i s h o s p i t a l i t y . He a l s o acknowledges M i l l i k e n ' s a s s i s t a n c e i n "A l a t e P l e i s t o c e n e P e b b l e 58. Tool i n d u s t r y o f Sou t h w e s t e r n B r i t i s h ' C o l u m b i a " . (1968). Borden r e f e r s t o h i s h e l p as "a s p l e n d i d example o f the a s s i s t a n c e l a y p e o p l e can rend e r a r c h a e o l o g i s t s " (Anon 1957: 2). Borden goes on t o e x p l a i n : ... the F r a s e r Canyon p r o j e c t ... l a s t e d from 1959 t o 1963. But f i r s t I s h o u l d m e n t i o n some o f the i n i t i a l s t e p s t h a t l e d up t o t h i s i m p o r t a n t p r o j e c t . I t was around 1955 o r 1956 t h a t I r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from Mr. August M i l l i k e n o f Y a l e . He was a r e t i r e d businessman who spent a good d e a l o f h i s time e x p l o r i n g around the e n v i r o n m e n t s o f Y a l e , o f t e n s l e e p i n g o u t , p r o s p e c t i n g , and l o o k i n g f o r e v i d e n c e o f r e c e n t and e a r l y o c c u p a t i o n by the I n d i a n s . On one o f th e s e t r i p s , he examined the work b e i n g done by the C.N.R. (Canadian N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y ) e n g i n e e r s a t a p l a c e about 2^ m i l e s up r i v e r from Y a l e where a s l i d e had o c c u r r e d . I t c o v e r e d the t r a c k s o f the C.N.R. r i g h t - o f - w a y and r e q u i r e d s e v e r a l days i n w h i c h t o c l e a r t he t r a c k s b e f o r e the t r a i n s would s t a r t moving a g a i n . Now, i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t a r e c u r r e n c e o f such a s l i d e , the e n g i n e e r s had s e n t a b u l l d o z e r i n t o t he a d j o i n i n g s e diments t o d i g o u t a l a r g e , v i r t u a l l y c i r c u l a r p i t deep i n t o t h e s e s e d i m e n t s . Then they paved the bottom o f the p i t w i t h l a r g e b l o c k s o f ro c k and put i n a c u l v e r t w h i c h s i p h o n e d o f f the w a t e r and l e t i t out beneath the t r a c k s o f the r a i l r o a d . Now, when Mr. M i l l i k e n , u s u a l l y c a l l e d Gus M i l l i k e n a l t h o u g h he d i s l i k e s the a b b r e v i a t i o n t o Gus, came t o t h i s s i t e , he n a t u r a l l y i n s p e c t e d t he exposed f a c e t h a t t he b u l l - d o z e r had c r e a t e d . He n o t i c e d a s t r a t a , a d a r k s t r a t a , c h a r c o a 1 - s t a i n e d s t r a t a , w h i c h c o n t a i n e d numerous c h i p s , t h a t i s , t he d e t r i t u s o f the l i t h i c m a n u f a c t u r e s o f e a r l y o c c u p a n t s o f the s i t e . T h e r e were s e v e r a l o f t h e s e s t r a t a ; one o f them i n p a r t i c u l a r was q u i t e deep, a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty f e e t from the s u r f a c e . and c o n t i n u e s : Now, upon t h i s d i s c o v e r y , he w r o t e me a l e t t e r and i n v i t e d me t o come up and have a l o o k a t t h i s s i t e . I t h i n k i t was sometime i n 1956 t h a t J i m B a l d w i n , who had been w i t h me a t Tweedsmuir P a r k and then a g a i n a t M a r p o l e , went up w i t h me t o v i s i t Mr. M i l l i k e n . He rowed us a c r o s s the r i v e r where we were t u r n e d around i n the w h i r l p o o l s s e v e r a l t i m e s t o be c a r r i e d much f a r t h e r down the r i v e r than where we had s t a r t e d . But we made i t a c r o s s q u i t e s a f e l y , p u l l e d o ut the b o a t , and h i k e d up t h e t r a c k s p a s t the South Y a l e CNR s t a t i o n , then through the 2,000 f o o t long t u n n e l t hrough a mountain spur w h i c h j u t s o ut westward towards Y a l e and d i v e r t s the r i v e r a l o n g t h i s s p u r . So we passed t h r o u g h t h i s long t u n n e l and then a n o t h e r 2\ m i l e s a l o n g t he w i n d i n g t r a c k o f the CNR r i g h t -of-way t o the p l a c e where the s l i d e had o c c u r r e d . D u r i n g t h i s f i r s t v i s i t we c l e a r e d and s t r a i g h t e n e d up some o f the faces, o f t h e e x p o s u r e . I noted t h a t t he e a r l i e s t e v i d e n c e o f o c c u p a t i o n was about twenty f e e t f r o m . t h e s u r f a c e , and we r e c o v e r e d some c h i p p i n g d e t r i t u s from t h a t and b i t s o f c h a r -c o a l . And a l s o something e l s e w h i c h I hadn't known a t the 59. t i m e , but w h i c h came t o l i g h t l a t e r a f t e r e x a m i n i n g some o f the b i t s o f c h a r c o a l under m a g n i f i c a t i o n , was t h a t i t was o b v i o u s l y the p i p s o f some w i l d f r u i t . I gave t h e s e t o Dr. T a y l o r and Dr. J . K u i j t , who i d e n t i f i e d them as p i t s o f a w i l d c h e r r y f o r w h i c h the L a t i n name i s Prunus demissa (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 198-200). I t was the c h a r c o a l and the c h e r r y p i t s t h a t he s e n t t o McCallum f o r carb o n d a t i n g and w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n Borden's words, " t h e p o t e n t i a l s o f t h i s s i t e were g r e a t . " Borden c a l l e d t he s i t e M i l l i k e n a f t e r "Mr. M i l l i k e n , the d i s c o v e r e r o f the s i t e " (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 201). Borden's p u b l i c a t i o n s , as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s d e f i n i t i o n , g i v e us a g l i m p s e o f the e x t e n t o f the energy he expended i n t h i s u r g e n t p r o c e s s by d i n t o f s h e e r volume. A n o t h e r way o f e s t i m a t i n g t h i s i s put f o r w a r d i n News 1 e t t e r (Anon, 1978) w h i c h s u g g e s t s , Some c o n c e p t i o n o f the magnitude and d e d i c a t i o n o f C a r l ' s e f f o r t s may be g l e a n e d i n the f a c t t h a t he has examined 10,000 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and has c o n t r i b u t e d 80,000 a r t i f a c t s t o the New Museum o f Man i n Vancouver (Anon 1978; 1). H i s a c c o u n t , however, adds t o our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s p r o c e s s by showing t h a t Borden's u r g e n t d e f i n i t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia was n e g o t i a t e d i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l community o f UBC. A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the d i m e n s i o n s i m p o r t a n t t o t h i s p r o c e s s o f n e g o t i a t i o n i l l u s t r a t e s not o n l y how he used the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t h i s p o s i t i o n a t UBC o f f e r e d him, but a l s o h i s emerging sense o f academic r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards s a l v a g e a r c h a e o l o g y . T h i s i s most c l e a r l y d e monstrated i n h i s approach t o h i s s t u d e n t s . Not o n l y was sound s c h o l a s t i c work i n c o r p o r a t i n g " c a r e f u l and s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s " and "good m e t i c u l o u s " f i e l d w o r k i m p o r t a n t , but a l s o , as h i s a c c o u n t e v o k e s , a sense o f commitment t o a r c h a e o l o g y . I t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t s t u d e n t s "proved t h e m s e l v e s " and were " f a i r l y i d e a l i s t i c " and " s e r i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d . " By i n s t i l l i n g t h i s sense o f academic r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n h i s s t u d e n t s , Borden 60. e n s u r e d the f u r t h e r d i s s e m i n a t i o n of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l knowledge i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Some s t u d e n t s c a r r i e d i t w i t h them t o o t h e r c e n t r e s o f l e a r n i n g i n B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. For example, Don M i t c h e l l t o the U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a and Roy C a r l s o n t o Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , Vancouver. O t h e r s as we s h a l l s e e , c a r r i e d i t t o government p o s i t i o n s c r i t i c a l t o the e s t a b l i s h i n g o f l e g i s l a t i o n t o e n s u r e the p r o t e c t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 61. CHAPTER THREE CALLING PUBLIC ATTENTION TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL IN BRITISH COLUMBIA As I noted i n c h a p t e r two, Borden's p o s i t i o n a t UBC p l a c e d him i n a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n from w h i c h he was a b l e t o work towards a d e f i n i t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A l t h o u g h t h i s d e f i n i t i o n was i m p o r t a n t t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s y s t e m a t i c a r c h a e o l o g y , i t was not enough to s t o p the o b l i t e r a t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . Borden s t r e s s e s t h a t i n t h e 1950's the l a r g e s c a l e d e s t r u c t i o n " o f u n i n v e s t i g a t e d a n c i e n t s i t e s t h r o u g h i n d u s t r i a l development, road c o n s t r u c t i o n , power r e s e r v o i r s , urban e x p a n s i o n , f a r m i n g , and the lumber i n d u s t r y " c o n t i n u e d (Borden 1977: 7). I t g r a d u a l l y became c l e a r t o him t h a t i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o the u r g e n t need f o r l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C olumbia t o p r o t e c t a r c h a e o -l o g i c a l remains (Borden 1955: 19). Borden's e a r l y c o n c e r n w i t h l e g i s l a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the n a t u r e o f the c o n t e n t s o f h i s p e r s o n a l f i l e s d e a l i n g w i t h the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f s i t e s and l a b e l l e d L e g i s l a t i o n (see C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . C o p i e s o f a c t s , f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of a n c i e n t s i t e s , a l r e a d y passed i n the U.S.A. and Canada, a r e i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h l e t t e r s and p e r s o n a l comments. Amongst them, i s a copy (see copy i n a p p e n d i x 2) o f the " H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t " ( C h a p t e r 145, R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r 1948) on w h i c h Borden had s c r i b b l e d the f o l l o w i n g : The h i s t o r i c o b j e c t s P r e s . A c t s h o u l d be amended so as t o r e q u i r e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s a l v a g e o p e r a t i o n s t o be c a r r i e d out wherever i m p o r t a n t l o s s e s may o c c u r t h r o u g h c o n s t r u c t i o n work, f l o o d i n g by r e s e v o i r s e t c . C o s t s o f s a l v a g e work s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the o v e r a l l c o s t o f a p r o j e c t ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) , 62. T h i s c o n c e r n e v e n t u a l l y l e d Borden t o j o i n f o r c e s w i t h W i l s o n D u f f , P r o v i n c i a l A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , and W i l l a r d I r e l a n d , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , i n an i n t e n s i v e l o n g term campaign t o p r o t e c t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s and t o c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o the u r g e n t need f o r l e g i s l a t i o n (Borden 1977; C a r l s o n 1979; Ed. note t o Borden 1955; Anon 1978). Simonson ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , A p r i l 10, 1980) and C a r l s o n ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u l y 10, 1980) s u g g e s t t h a t D u f f , i n h i s c a p a c i t y as c i v i l s e r v a n t , was the prime mover i n the passage o f t h e A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t i n 1960. Borden, as an academic, was an o u t s i d e r . Both D u f f and I r e l a n d c o u l d not d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e him. From the r e s o u r c e s a t my d i s p o s a l , I s u g g e s t , however, t h a t Borden's u n i v e r s i t y p o s i t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s s p e c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the campaign. I t p l a c e d him i n a u n i q u e p o s i t i o n from w h i c h he c o u l d proceed f i r s t , t o r a i s e p u b l i c awareness t o t h i s u r g e n t n e c e s s i t y f o r an a c t , and s e c o n d , t o engage i n a c t i v i t i e s t o m a i n t a i n p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . 1. R a i s i n g P u b l i c Awareness Borden embarked on an i n t e n s i v e c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t o r a i s e p u b l i c awareness t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f l e g i s l a t i o n . The E d i t o r o f I n d i a n Time comments: Dr. Borden has been i n d e f a t i g a b l e i n h i s e f f o r t s t o p r e s e r v e a t l e a s t some p a r t o f the M a r p o l e Midden f o r r e s e a r c h . P u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the p r o j e c t i s i n c r e a s i n g as the f a c t s become known (Borden 1955: 9 ) . T h i s was a c c o m p l i s h e d because Borden was i n a p o s i t i o n t o f r e e l y speak h i s mind on the i s s u e o f l e g i s l a t i o n and was, t h e r e f o r e , a b l e t o i n s p i r e and p ersuade p e o p l e t o lobby f o r him. D u f f and I r e l a n d were l i m i t e d as t o the p u b l i c p r e s s u r e they c o u l d b r i n g t o bear on the m a t t e r . T h e i r j o b s were a t s t a k e . Borden was f r e e t o p r e s s u r e the government t h r o u g h p u b l i c c h a n n e l s . W i t h o u t t h i s p r e s s u r e , the a c t may not have been passed 63. ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , D. A b b o t, A p r i l 11, 1980, and B. Simonsen, A p p i l 10, 1980). Borden r e c a l l s one o f t h e ways i n w h i c h he brought h i s c o n c e r n s t o p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n : " I gave l e c t u r e s t o numerous s e r v i c e c l u b s , t o s c h o o l s , wherever they wanted t o hear me." L e t t e r s t h a n k i n g Borden f o r t h e s e l e c t u r e s ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) a r e an i n d i c a t i o n o f the i n t e r e s t w i t h w h i c h they were r e c e i v e d . For example, on March 2, 1953, he r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from the C o u n c i l o f the Canadian C l u b s o f B.C. t o a r r a n g e a d a t e f o r a f u r t h e r t a l k i n the f a l l o f t h a t y e a r . A l e t t e r from the B.C. M o u n t a i n e e r i n g C l u b ( A p r i l 9, 1953) thanks him f o r h i s " i n f o r m a t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g t a l k , " and a l e t t e r from the Vancouver N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y ( J u l y 3, 1951) thanks him f o r h i s " v e r y e x c e l l e n t and i n t e r e s t i n g a d d r e s s " ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e l e c t u r e s , and as e a r l y as 1948 (Borden 1948), Borden gave t a l k s o v e r the r a d i o . These were not l i m i t e d t o Canada as he p o i n t s o u t : I n c i d e n t a l l y , I even gave a t l e a s t one t a l k o v e r " H i e r S p r i c h t Canada" t h a t i s the " V o i c e of Canada" i n Germany. So t h a t was beamed t o Germany and was v e r y w e l l r e c e i v e d t h e r e . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t i t was r e - b r o a d c a s t a number o f t i m e s t h e r e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 74). B e s i d e s e n c o u r a g i n g a g e n e r a l p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l , Borden's a c t i v e c o n c e r n i n s p i r e d and encouraged o t h e r s t o lobby f o r the cause. As p r e v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d i n c h a p t e r two (p.3) , Borden r e c a l l s always t r y i n g t o d e a l f a i r l y w i t h r e p o r t e r s and n o t e s , "We were v e r y f o r t u n a t e i n h a v i n g the p r e s s and media on our s i d e " (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 74). Both The Vancouver P r o v i n c e and The Vancouver Sun showed g r e a t i n t e r e s t and informed the p u b l i c o f Borden's e f f o r t s ( s e e , f o r example, Anon 1 9 5 5 a , Anon 1 9 5 5 b , Anon 1 9 5 6 a , Anon 1 9 5 6 b , Anon 1 9 5 7 a , Anon 1 9 5 7 b , Anon 1 9 5 7 c ) . R e p o r t i n g on a l e c t u r e g i v e n by Borden on S a t u r d a y , A p r i l 9 , 1 9 5 5 , a t the Vancouver I n s t i t u t e , The Vancouver P r o v i n c e s t a t e s " A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s need p r o t e c t i o n , " and c o n t i n u e s : There i s "an u r g e n t need" f o r l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r o t e c t B.C.'s a r c h e o l o g i c a l s i t e s , w h i c h a r e " r a p i d l y d i s a p p e a r i n g , " Dr. C h a r l e s E. Borden o f UBC t o l d a c a p a c i t y a u d i e n c e a t a Vancouver I n s t i t u t e m eeting S a t u r d a y n i g h t . " A r c h e o l o g i c a l i mportance t o the Western Hemisphere o f the P a c i f i c Northwest r e g i o n i s second o n l y t o the a n c i e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n s o f C e n t r a l and South A m e r i c a , " s a i d Dr. Borden, an a n t h r o p o l o g y p r o f e s s o r who has spent s e v e r a l months e x c a v a t i n g a t the M a r p o l e midden. " U n l e s s our a r c h e o l o g i c a l s i t e s a r e p r e s e r v e d , t h e r e w i l l be a s e r i o u s gap i n our knowledge o f e a r l y h i s t o r y o f t h e n o r t h w e s t c o a s t . " Dr. Borden c l a i m e d t h a t the s i t e s a r e b e i n g d e s t r o y e d by expandi n g c i t i e s and i n d u s t r i a l p r o j e c t s . He s a i d t h a t a " s t r o n g l y worded p e t i t i o n " had been s e n t t o the P r o v i n c i a l Government l a s t y e a r "but i t was i g n o r e d " (Anon 1 9 5 6 a ) . F u r t h e r , as Borden p o i n t s o u t , "even e d i t o r i a l s appeared i n the newspapers" (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1 9 7 9 : 7*0 . An e d i t o r i a l by Elmore P h i l p o t t i n the Tuesday, October 1 1 , 1 9 5 5 , e d i t i o n o f The Vancouver Sun r e p o r t s on Borden's work a t M a r p o l e , a s i t e w h i c h , i n Borden's e s t i m a t i o n (1955), was among the most i m p o r t a n t i n the F r a s e r d e l t a . P h i l p o t t wr i t e s : There i s s e n s a t i o n a l new e v i d e n c e j u s t dug up by the noted a r c h a e o l o g i s t , Dr. C h a r l e s E. Borden o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., t h a t Vancouver i s among t h e o l d e s t s i t e s o f human h a b i t a t i o n i n Canada - perhaps the o l d e s t o f a l l . C h i d i n g t h e p u b l i c f o r i g n o r i n g t h e i r h e r i t a g e , he c o n t i n u e s by r e m i n d i n g h i s r e a d e r s t h a t e l s e w h e r e t h i s f i n d would i n s p i r e a c t i o n : When I heard about t h i s amazing f i n d r i g h t on Vancouver's o r i g i n a l f r o n t d o o r s t e p I thought t o m y s e l f : "What would the Norwegians do i f they had made t h a t f i n d ?" T h i s summer i n O s l o , I saw a b u i l d i n g w h i c h houses some of the most famous a n c i e n t g a l l e y s i n wh i c h Norsemen c r o s s e d the seas ... i f t h e C i t y F a t h e r s o f O s l o had our Ma r p o l e midden, they would make a 6 5 . t o u r i s t a t t r a c t i o n o f i t . and s u g g e s t s : the s i t e o f the M a r p o l e midden would make a f i n e l i t t l e p a r k ... a v i s i b l e reminder t o the v a s t numbers of p a s s e r s - b y t h a t a t t h i s v e r y spot where the m i g h t y F r a s e r meets the m i g h t y w e s t e r n sea t h e r e were human s e t t l e m e n t s v e r y many y e a r s ago ( P h i l p o t t 1 9 5 5 ) . P u b l i c a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the e f f o r t s o f the p r e s s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t s from a l e t t e r s e n t t o the e d i t o r o f The Vancouver Sun (R. Rowe H o l l a n d 1 9 5 5 ) on b e h a l f o f the "Totem-Land" S o c i e t y : Your work t o d a t e i n awakening p u b l i c o p i n i o n t o " t h e t r a g e d y o f the Midden" b e i n g s a c r i f i c e d , i n d e e d , t o immediate commercial d e s i r e s , i s worthy o f the h i g h e s t commendation. I can o n l y f e r v e n t l y hope, a l o n g w i t h Dr. Borden, t h a t your e f f o r t s may be s u c c e s s f u l ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . But i t was not o n l y the l o c a l p r e s s t h a t g e n e r a t e d p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the campaign f o r s a v i n g and p r o t e c t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n B r i t i s h Col umb i a . : Borden,;cont i.nues : Much o f what the l o c a l newspapers p u b l i s h e d was p i c k e d up by newspapers i n the v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s a c r o s s the c o u n t r y ... even the C h r i s t i a n S c i e n c e M o n i t o r p i c k e d i t up, and the New  York Times I t h i n k p u b l i s h e d two o r t h r e e a r t i c l e s on t h i s and always s t r e s s e d t h a t we were u r g i n g the Government t o pass l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s and t h a t they s h o u l d a l s o p r o v i d e funds f o r the n e c e s s a r y s u r v e y s and f o l l o w - u p e x c a v a t i o n s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1 9 7 9 : 7 4 ) . The New York Times, Sunday, J u l y 3 , 1 9 5 5 , r e p o r t s on the F r a s e r Midden: Dr. Borden hopes t h a t he and c o l l e a g u e s i n o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada e v e n t u a l l y w i l l p e rsuade a u t h o r i t i e s t o pass l e g i s l a t i o n p r o t e c t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s (Anon 1 9 5 5 ) . B e s i d e s s e c u r i n g the h e l p o f the p r e s s , Borden's d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t s i n s p i r e d o t h e r s t o lobby for him. The f o l l o w i n g r e s o l u t i o n sponsored by the M a r p o l e Chamber o f Commerce was s u b m i t t e d t o the Q u a r t e r l y M e e t i n g o f the A s s o c i a t e d Boards o f Trade o f the F r a s e r V a l l e y and Lower M a i n l a n d a t White Rock, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , September 14, 1 9 5 5 . 66. WHEREAS r e c e n t emergency e x c a v a t i o n s c a r r i e d o ut by The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n the M a r p o l e a r e a have r e s u l t e d i n the d i s c o v e r y o f v a l u a b l e p r e h i s t o r i c r e l i c s , a n c i e n t d w e l l i n g s , bur i a I s , e t c . , and WHEREAS such a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains would be i r r e t r i e v a b l y l o s t i n the eve n t the p r o p e r t y were s o l d f o r b u i l d i n g purposes w i t h o u t e f f o r t s b e i n g made t o s a l v a g e and t o r e s t o r e same and WHEREAS i n t h e p a s t some of t h e s e a n c i e n t s i t e s have been l o s t beyond r e c o v e r y NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED t h a t t he A s s o c i a t e d Boards o f Trade o f the F r a s e r V a l l e y and Lower M a i n l a n d urge the Government o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia t o p l a c e on the S t a t u t e Books an a c t d e s i g n e d t o en s u r e the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h i s and o t h e r s i m i l a r s i t e s t h r o u g h o u t the P r o v i n c e as r e c o r d s o f N a t i o n a l H i s t o r y and t o p r o v i d e means f o r adequate s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f such s i t e s ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . I t was r e g u l a r l y moved, seconded, and c a r r i e d " t h a t the above r e s o l u t i o n be approved and adopted and se n t f o r w a r d t o the p r o p e r Department o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and a c t i o n " ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . T h i s k i n d o f response i s echoed i n the f o l l o w i n g e x t r a c t o f a l e t t e r s e n t t o Borden from C.R.W. Rogers on b e h a l f o f the N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia (September 2k, 1955). I thought you might be i n t e r e s t e d i n r e c e i v i n g a copy o f the l e t t e r we r e c e n t l y s e n t t o the C i t y C o u n c i l c o n c e r n i n g y o u r work a t the M a r p o l e Midden t h i s p a s t summer. We have not as y e t heard from the C o u n c i l , but I w i l l send you a copy o f t h e i r r e p l y when we hear from them. We were a l l v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n your work and c e r t a i n l y hope t h a t the C i t y w i l l c o n s i d e r making a pa r k o f t h i s a r e a ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . The l e t t e r s e n t t o the C i t y C o u n c i l (September 13, 1955) b e g i n s by s t a t i n g t h a t a t a r e c e n t e x e c u t i v e meeting o f the N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y , c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n was g i v e n t o the work b e i n g conducted by Borden i n the e x c a v a t i o n o f the M a r p o l e midden. I t c o n t i n u e s ; 6 7 . We u n d e r s t a n d t h a t some thought i s b e i n g g i v e n t o keep t h e s e t h r e e l o t s as a c i t y p a r k and c e r t a i n l y w i s h t o t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p r e s s t o you how s o l i d l y o u r S o c i e t y i s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h i s p r o p o s a l . In commending Borden's e f f o r t s and h i s " p a i n s t a k i n g work," t h i s l e t t e r p u ts f o r w a r d a s t r o n g argument i n Borden's s u p p o r t by a d d r e s s i n g i t s e l f t o the k i n d s o f i s s u e s t o w h i c h any c o u n c i l would be m o r a l l y committed. I t n o t e s : T h i s a r e a s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y be s e t a s i d e as a permanent memorial f o r the p e o p l e o f Vancouver. I t would seem from t h e work b e i n g done t h a t t h i s s p o t may c o n t a i n some o f t h e e a r l i e s t h i s t o r y of men known i n B.C. We u n d e r s t a n d o u t -l i n e s o f an I n d i a n long house has been uncovered w h i c h d a t e s back t o the s t a r t o f t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a o r e a r l i e r . As w e l l as t h i s , remains o f a woman and c h i l d have been found and many thousands of a r t i f a c t s . And recommends: A l l t h e s e t h i n g s we b e l i e v e would be most i n t e r e s t i n g t o the p e o p l e o f t h i s c i t y i f a s m a l l museum c o u l d be b u i l t t h e r e t o e x h i b i t them and e x p l a i n not o n l y what a midden i s , but a l s o g i v e t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e s e e a r l y p l a c e s . I f t h e s e t h r e e l o t s were r e s e r v e d now f o r a c i t y park our f e e l i n g i s t h a t i t might then be p o s s i b l e t o p r e s e r v e a l l t h e s e r e l i c s f o r the e n l i g h t e n m e n t o f our p r e s e n t and f u t u r e c i t i z e n s . May we t h e r e f o r e e a r n e s t l y t r e a t you t o g i v e v e r y s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h i s a r e a by r e s e r v i n g i t i n d e f i n i t e l y as a c i t y p a r k ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . The M a r p o l e midden was not s aved. D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f the i n t e r v i e w s Borden, s t i l l f i g h t i n g u n d i s c e r n i n g p r o g r e s s , e x p l a i n s : I s h o u l d m ention something about the u l t i m a t e , s a d , r e a l l y v e r y t r a g i c t a l e o f the M a r p o l e s i t e . That i s , what was l e f t o f the s i t e , ... was overwhelmed by s o - c a l l e d p r o g r e s s . T h i s means the e x t e n s i o n of the beer p a r l o u r o f the F r a s e r Arms H o t e l westward o v e r the s i t e . And then i n 1 9 5 8 , because o f the huge beer p a r l o u r ( l t h i n k i t was the l a r g e s t on the lower m a i n l a n d ) , and the need f o r f u r t h e r p a r k i n g s p a c e , t h i s p a r k i n g a r e a was then expanded a l s o t o the west and e v e n t u a l l y c o v e r e d what was l e f t o f the s i t e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1 9 7 9 : 1 9 7 ) . He a l s o c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n the d e c i s i o n making a b i l i t y o f c i t y c o u n c i l : 68. So t h i s i s r a t h e r sad and i s not a f a v o u r a b l e r e f l e c t i o n o f the c o u n c i l m e n o f Vancouver who p e r m i t t e d a d e c i s i o n o f t h i s k i n d t o be made (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 201). D e s p i t e the s e t b a c k a t M a r p o l e , Borden's e f f o r t s i n the campaign f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s i t e s c o n t i n u e d t o i n s p i r e members o f the p u b l i c t o l o b b y a f t e r s u p p o r t o f an " a n t i q u i t y a c t . " Even E n g l i s h g e o l o g i s t s became p a r t o f the campaign. The f o l l o w i n g i s an e x t r a c t from a l e t t e r ( O c t o b e r 14, 1959) s e n t t o Borden from A.C. Dal t o n , a member o f the G e o l o g i s t s A s s o c i a t i o n o f London, En g l a n d . I have today w r i t t e n t o P r e m i e r B e n n e t t the e n c l o s e d l e t t e r i n s u p p o r t o f y o u r work and the a d o p t i o n o f the " A n t i q u i t y A c t . " A l s o I have w r i t t e n the Van. Nat. H i s t . Soc. a s k i n g f o r t h e i r v i e w s and s u p p o r t , a l s o the Audubon Soc. o f Canada. D a l t o n c o n t i n u e s t o suggest t o Borden how the campaign might s t r a t e g i c a l l y p r o c e e d : My e x p e r i e n c e i s such t h a t as many p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s as p o s s i b l e and as from a wide a f i e l d as p o s s i b l e i s o f t e n o f some i n f l u e n c e , w h i c h perhaps you c o u l d augment. I t r u s t you w i l l approve o f my a c t i o n , and w i s h i n g you e v e r y s u c c e s s ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . Borden's p o s i t i o n a t UBC a l l o w e d him the o p p o r t u n i t y t o proceed wi the campaign i n t h i s way, u r g i n g " t h e p u b l i c and government t h a t they had moral o b l i g a t i o n t o see t h a t ... unrenewable r e s o u r c e s were not w a s t e d " (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 64), and p o i n t i n g o u t an i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n t o t h i s o b i i g a t i o n : In many ways we a l s o had an o b l i g a t i o n towards the I n d i a n s because, a l t h o u g h we p e r s o n a l l y c o u l d not be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e , a t l e a s t the a n c e s t o r s o f o u r s t h a t had come here f i r s t had done t h e i r b e s t t o d e s t r o y t h e I n d i a n c u l t u r e . Whether t h e y had wanted t o o r not they had committed g e n o c i d e , you know, t h r o u g h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f d i s e a s e s t o w h i c h the I n d i a n s had no immunity and so f o r t h . But the most i m p o r t a n t p a r t was t h a t t h e I n d i a n c u l t u r e was undermined and the I n d i a n s were d e m o r a l i z e d . We had an o b l i g a t i o n t o a t l e a s t s a l v a g e the p r e - h i s t o r y o f t h e s e I n d i a n s w h i c h , t o some e x t e n t , then c o u l d be used i n perhaps r e c o v e r i n g some o f the l a t e r e t h n o g r a p h i c c u l t u r e (Borden I n t e r -v i e w s 1979: 64), 69. That Borden's p o s i t i o n a l l o w e d him the o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n f l u e n c e the p r e s s and an i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c t o lobby f o r him i s an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n the i n t e n s i v e campaign f o r l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r o t e c t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . H i s most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n , however, was the i n f l u e n c e he e x e r t e d o v e r h i s s t u d e n t s . As f o r m e r s t u d e n t Don A b b o t t p o i n t s o u t ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u l y 11, 1980), "we may not have agreed w i t h e v e r y t h i n g Borden s a i d , but we were i n f l u e n c e d by him." As s t r e s s e d i n c h a p t e r two, one o f Borden's major aims was t o i n s t i l i n h i s s t u d e n t s an i n t e r e s t i n s a l v a g e a r c h a e o l o g y . H i s e f f o r t s were rewarded i n the i n t e r e s t h i s s t u d e n t s took i n the campaign f o r l e g i s l a t i o n . A l e t t e r t o D u f f (October 26, 1955), i n f o r m i n g him o f the f o r m a t i o n o f the A r c h a e o l o g y C l u b a t UBC, conveys Borden's hopes t h a t the c l u b would p a r t i c i p a t e i n the campaign. He t e l l s D u f f t h a t one o f the main o b j e c t i v e s o f the c l u b i s t o campaign f o r an a n t i q u i t y a c t . He w r i t e s : At p r e s e n t e n t h u s i a s m i s r u n n i n g h i g h . I wonder how long i t w i l l l a s t . A t any r a t e , they seem t o be o f f t o a good s t a r t ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . T h i s e n t h u s i a s m l a s t e d . In 1959, the UBC A r c h a e o l o g y C l u b s e n t a l e t t e r (.November 14, 1959) t o the E d i t o r s o f The Vancouver Sun t h a n k i n g them f o r the r e c e n t a r t i c l e s and an e d i t o r i a l c a l l i n g a t t e n t i o n t o "our u n i q u e and i r r e p l a c e a b l e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s ; " and a g r e e i n g w i t h The Vancouver Sun t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s h o u l d a t i t s next s e s s i o n " c o n s i d e r and pass an A n t i q u i t y A c t d e s i g n e d t o p e r m i t s u f f i c i e n t t i m e f o r s y s t e m a t i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f s i t e s t h r e a t e n e d w i t h d e s t r u c t i o n , and t o p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r such r e s e a r c h . " The l e t t e r s u g g e s t s t h a t , "The law s h o u l d s t i p u l a t e t h a t funds f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n s be i n c l u d e d as p a r t o f the c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t s , " and p o i n t s out t h a t "such f u n d s , as i n d i - . . ; J c a t e d by d a t a from the U n i t e d S t a t e s , w i l l never amount t o more than a 70. s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f one per c e n t o f the t o t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n c o s t . " The l e t t e r then goes on t o s t r e s s : The A n t i q u i t y A c t w i l l i n no way impede the economic growth o f the P r o v i n c e o r the p r o g r e s s o f o u r own c u l t u r e . Y e t , i t w i l l a s s u r e t h a t f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s a r e not d e p r i v e d , t h r o u g h our mismanagement, o f the o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e a knowledge of the p a s t . It.must not be s a i d o f us t h a t we were a s e l f -c e n t e r e d , m a t e r i a l i s t i c p e o p l e who, o b l i v i o u s t o both p a s t and f u t u r e , t h o u g h t l e s s l y e x p l o i t e d the r e s o u r c e s o f our c o u n t r y and, t h u s , showed o u r s e l v e s t o be u n f i t g u a r d i a n s o f the h e r i t a g e e n t r u s t e d t o us ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . Some o f Borden's s t u d e n t s l a t e r went on t o ta k e c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e f u t u r e o f a r c h a e o l o g y i n the P r o v i n c e . Among the s t u d e n t s who took h i s message o f s a l v a g e a r c h a e o l o g y s e r i o u s l y was W i l s o n D u f f , who Borden d e s c r i b e s a s : A b r i l l i a n t young man who ... had been w i t h the Royal Canadian A i r F o r c e d u r i n g the war ... he d i d b r i l l i a n t l y a t l e a s t i n my p a r t o f the c o u r s e , and I know from Dr. Hawthorn t h a t he a l s o e x c e l l e d i n o t h e r a r e a s o f A n t h r o p o l o g y (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 24). D u f f g r a d u a t e d from UBC w i t h a B.A. i n the s p r i n g o f 1949. By 1950, i n h i s c a p a c i t y as P r o v i n c i a l A n t h r o p o l o g i s t , he was a l r e a d y p u t t i n g f o r w a r d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r l e g i s l a t i o n i n response t o a r e q u e s t by D. Leechman, Chairman o f the Canadian Museum A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the P r o t e c t i o n o f A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s . D u f f ' s s u g g e s t i o n s were: 1. Some p r o v i s i o n t o s e t i m p o r t a n t s i t e s a s i d e and make i t a g a i n s t the law t o touch them w i t h o u t p e r m i s s i o n . T h i s would s t o p the use o f such s i t e s as gardens o r s o u r c e s o f f r e e s h e l l , and would a l s o , keep o u t . p o t - h u n t e r s and u n q u a l i f i e d a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . 2. P r o v i s i o n t o make some s i t e s permanent monuments. 3. Some c o n t r o l o v e r o u t s i d e a r c h a e o l o g i s t s who work i n the P r o v i n c e , I f we made them g e t a p e r m i t t o d i g , we c o u l d keep tab on what's g o i n g o n ? g e t a copy o f t h e i r r e p o r t s , and above a l l , have some say i n what happens t o the a r t i f a c t s they u n c o v e r , 1. t h i n k a r e s p r e s e n t a t i v e s h a r e of t he a r t i f a c t s s h o u l d s t a y i n B.C. As f o r e t h n o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s , I : t h i n k we s h o u l d have some power t o keep o u t s t a n d i n g a r t i c l e s and c o l l e c t i o n s i n B.C. I 71. Borden's r e a c t i o n t o t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s l e t t e r t o Hawthorn (November 10, 1950), who, w i t h D u f f ' s knowledge, had w r i t t e n t o B o r d e n ^ f o r any a d d i t i o n s t o t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s t h a t he might t h i n k o f . In p r i n c i p l e , Borden agreed w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n s . He w r i t e s : I have g i v e n some thought t o the proposed l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , I am much p l e a s e d t h a t such l e g i s l a t i o n i s b e i n g c o n t e m p l a t e d . In g e n e r a l , I am i n agreement w i t h W i l s o n D u f f ' s s u g g e s t i o n s . I t i s good t h a t e v e r y e f f o r t be made t o p r o t e c t i m p o r t a n t s i t e s and t o save them f o r f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . However, he makes two p r o p o s a l s i n response t o D u f f ' s s u g g e s t i o n s . F i r s t , d o u b t i n g t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n aimed a t p r o t e c t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s "would s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the d e c i s i o n as t o whether the r e s e r v o i r s needed f o r the power a r e t o be c r e a t e d , " he proposes t h a t a g e n c i e s c o n t e m p l a t i n g development on s i t e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l s h o u l d p r o v i d e funds t o bear the c o s t s o f emergency s u r v e y s and e x c a v a t i o n s . He c o n t i n u e s : S i m i l a r l y , the g r a n t i n g o f p e r m i s s i o n t o b u i l d f a c t o r i e s o r o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s a t p l a c e s where s i t e s a r e l o c a t e d , s h o u l d be made c o n t i n g e n t on the p r o v i s i o n by the i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s o f funds f o r the i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f such s i t e s b e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n commences. We cannot p r e v e n t urban e x p a n s i o n and i n d u s t r i a l development, but by i n t e l 1 i g e n t 1 e g i s 1 a t i o n they c o u l d be t u r n e d from a bane t o a boon t o a r c h a e o l o g y . I can get a l l e x c i t e d about the p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Second, he p r o p o s e s : Any l e g i s l a t i o n a i m i n g a t the " c o n t r o l o v e r o u t s i d e a r c h -a e o l o g i s t s " s h o u l d be phrased w i t h the utmost c a u t i o n . As i t i s t h e r e a r e enough f a c t o r s w h i c h a c t as d e t e r r e n t s t o a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t o work i n t h e s e p a r t s . We s h o u l d not add t o them. The a r c h a e o l o g y o f the Northwest w i l l never be a d e q u a t e l y known w i t h o u t much a s s i s t a n c e from q u a l i f i e d w o r k e r s from the U.S.A. and e l s e w h e r e . E x p e d i t i o n s s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o t a k e out aj_l_ f i n d s f o r thorough s t u d y , a l t h o u g h arrangements might be made f o r the r e t u r n o f c e r t a i n items a f t e r t he s t u d y and the r e p o r t have been completed ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . L e g i s l a t i o n d i d not o c c u r f o r some t e n y e a r s . But i n the meantime, Borden and D u f f c o o p e r a t e d i n the t a s k o f s a l v a g e a r c h a e o l o g y , m e e t i n g each s i t u a t i o n as i t a r o s e . As Borden p o i n t s out (Borden 1977: 5 ) , Du f f 72. as a c i v i l s e r v a n t l e a r n e d o f government p l a n s f o r i n d u s t r i a l development long b e f o r e p u b l i c announcements were made, and was a b l e t o make s a l v a g e p l a n s w i t h Borden's h e l p b e f o r e i t was t o o l a t e . One o f t h e i r f i r s t c o o p e r a t i v e v e n t u r e s was the Tweedsmuir Park p r o j e c t . As d e t a i l e d i n Chap t e r two, Du f f had informed Borden o f the then L i b e r a ] government's i n t e n t i o n t o g r a n t the Al u m i n i u m Company o f Canada a l i c e n c e t o c o n s t r u c t a dam i n the gorge o f the Nechako R i v e r . As Borden r e c a l l s (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 63) a s i d e from the s c i e n t i f i c r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by the s u r v e y and the subsequent e x c a v a t i o n s , a number o f p r e c e d e n t s were s e t and s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s e s t a b l i s h e d : 1. A r c h a e o l o g i s t s must be g i v e n s u f f i c i e n t l e a d time t o p l a n (a) adequate r e g i o n a l s i t e s u r v e y s i n t h r e a t e n e d a r e a s and s u b s e q u e n t l y (b) problem o r i e n t e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t s e l e c t e d key s i t e s . 2. Whenever t h e P r o v i n c i a l Government i s i n v o l v e d i n i n d u s t r i a l and s i m i l a r d e v e l o p m e n t s , i t has a moral o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e funds f o r s u r v e y s , t o a s s e s s the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s i n the a f f e c t e d a r e a s and, i f n e c e s s a r y , f o r f o l l o w - u p s a l v a g e o p e r a t i o n s . F i n a l l y , 3- P r i v a t e companies a r e s i m i l a r l y o b i i g a t e d (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 63). And as he f u r t h e r comments: Now, i t was on t h e s e t h r e e main p o i n t s t h a t W i l s o n D u f f and I then based an i n t e n s i v e campaign d u r i n g the 50's f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t would p r o t e c t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s and wh i c h would o b l i g a t e government a g e n c i e s and p r i v a t e f i r m s t o s u p p o r t s a l v a g e work - s u r v e y f i r s t and then s a l v a g e work t o f o l l o w i f the need s h o u l d a r i s e (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 63). L e t t e r s exchanged between Borden and Du f f on the F r o b i s h e r - V e n t u r e s p r o j e c t e x e m p l i f i e s t h i s c o o p e r a t i o n . In 1954, Northwest Power I n d u s t r i e s L t d . , w h i c h i s a branch o f the F r o b i s h e r - V e n t u r e s companies, planned t o b u i l d a dam on the Lewes R i v e r a t M i l e s Canyon, f o u r m i l e s s o u t h o f W h i t e h o r s e , Yukon T e r r i t o r i e s , The r i s i n g w a t e r above the dam was 7 3 . e x p e c t e d t o f l o o d a t o t a l o f 6 3 6 m i l e s o f l a k e and r i v e r m a r g i n s , 3 9 9 o f w hich were i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . D u f f i n a l e t t e r t o Borden ( O c t o b e r 20, 195**) had l e a r n e d t h a t F r o b i s h e r - V e n t u r e s were e a g e r t o improve t h e i r p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and might be approached t o f i n a n c e a d e f i n i t e program o f work p r i o r t o the b u i l d i n g o f the dam. He a l s o f e l t i t would be b e t t e r i f t h e U n i v e r s i t y were t o make the approach s i n c e the government and the Company were i n the m i d s t o f n e g o t i a t i o n s ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . Borden's r e p l y t o D u f f ' s l e t t e r r e f l e c t s h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s academic r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h D u f f . In h i s l e t t e r ( October 7, 1954), he w r i t e s : The F r o b i s h e r - V e n t u r e s p r o j e c t , o f w h i c h you w r i t e i n your l e t t e r , has been much on my mind and c o n s c i e n c e . As you w i l l u n d e r s t a n d , I have been most r e l u c t a n t t o become i n v o l v e d i n such a l a r g e u n d e r t a k i n g so f a r from home ba s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y when so many i m p o r t a n t p r o j e c t s f u r t h e r South demand a t t e n t i o n , - not t o speak o f work a l r e a d y done w h i c h needs t o be w r i t t e n up. B u t , o f c o u r s e , H a r r y and you a r e r i g h t i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i s the l o g i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t s h o u l d t a k e a l e a d i n g p a r t i n the o r g a n i z i n g and a r r a n g i n g f o r the f i n a n c i n g o f s a l v a g e o p e r a t i o n s i n the a r e a s t o be f l o o d e d . W e l l , I ' l l do my b e s t , - but I ' l l need he l p. He c o n t i n u e s : F i r s t o f a l l , I am as y e t not a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the d e t a i l s o f the p r o j e c t . I s h o u l d know what and how many m i l e s o f l a k e and r i v e r m a r gins w i l l be f l o o d e d . I need t o know t h i s so t h a t I can g i v e an e s t i m a t e o f the funds t h a t w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y o u t an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y o f the a r e a . I would a p p r e c i a t e i t i f you c o u l d g i v e me any i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s t h a t you may have. I ' l l t r y t o f i n d out what I can. As soon as I know, I ' l l p r e p a r e a b r i e f w i t h a r e q u e s t f o r funds f o r t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n . F u r t h e r r e q u e s t s w i l l have t o be based on the r e s u l t s o f the s u r v e y ( C E . Borden l e t t e r f i l e s , D i v i s i o n o f A r c h a e o l o g y , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum). Some two months l a t e r , Borden r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from D u f f (December 1 3 , 1 9 5 4 ) i n f o r m i n g him: 7 4 . T h i n g s have d e v e l o p e d somewhat f a r t h e r on the F r o b i s h e r b u s i n e s s . A few weeks ago, as a r e s u l t o f my memo t o the m i n i s t e r on the need f o r a r c h a e o l o g y i n t h i s a r e a , he asked me to p r e p a r e an o u t l i n e and budget f o r the work t h a t s h o u l d be done. ! d i d s o , and he sen t i t t o Mr. Summers, who i n t u r n has s e n t i t t o the C o m p t r o l l e r o f Water R i g h t s . Now when F r o b i s h e r a p p l y f o r t h e i r w a t e r l i c e n s e , they w i l l be t o l d t h a t they have t o p r o v i d e funds f o r a r c h a e o l o g y b e f o r e they f l o o d the a r e a . (Maybe t h a t i s to o s t r o n g a st a t e m e n t - a t l e a s t the s u b j e c t w i l l e n t e r i n t o the n e g o t i a t i o n s . ) ( C E . Borden l e t t e r f i l e s , D i v i s i o n o f A r c h a e o l o g y , B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Museum) The c o o p e r a t i o n between D u f f and Borden c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t t he f i f t i e s u n t i l i n Borden's words: G r a d u a l l y the s u s t a i n e d p u b l i c campaign by W i l s o n and m y s e l f f o r l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r o t e c t B r i t i s h Columbia's a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s , combined w i t h growing p u b l i c p r e s s u r e , was b e g i n n i n g t o have i t s impact on the p o l i t i c i a n s i n V i c t o r i a a t t h a t t i m e (Borden 1 9 7 7 : 7 ) . In a l e t t e r t o Borden (October 1 1 , 1 9 5 7 ) D u f f w r i t e s o f the i n t e r e s t shown by The Honourable Ray W i l l i s t o n , M i n i s t e r o f Lands and F o r e s t s , i n s a l v a g i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s t h r e a t e n e d w i t h d e s t r u c t i o n by the Wenner-Gren power p r o j e c t on the Peace R i v e r : I phoned Mr. W i l l i s t o n y e s t e r d a y t o ask i f any c o n s i d e r a t i o n had been g i v e n t o a r c h a e o l o g y . He s a i d t h a t none had, but t h a t i f I w r o t e him a b r i e f memo on i t he would see what he c o u l d do. He seemed c o n f i d e n t t h a t something s h o u l d and c o u l d be done ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . D u f f then proceeded w i t h a memorandum t o W i l l i s t o n (October 1 0 , 1 9 5 7 ) r e m i n d i n g him: It i s now a g e n e r a l p r a c t i s e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a t o r e c o g n i z e the o b l i g a t i o n o f s t u d y i n g p r e h i s t o r i c remains w h i c h a r e t o be d e s t r o y e d by i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , and many p l a c e s have w e l l - o r g a n i z e d programmes o f s a l v a g e a r c h a e o l o g y , backed up by l e g i s l a t i o n . and, s t r e s s i n g t h a t " i n B.C. we have not y e t f a c e d up t o t h i s g e n e r a l problem posed by our r a p i d development, and we have t o meet each s i t u a t i o n as i t a r i s e s , " he went on t o w r i t e : 75. The Peace R i v e r p r o j e c t w i l l c o m p l e t e l y o b i i t e r a t e a l 1 p r e h i s t o r i c remains i n the r i v e r v a l l e y s w h i c h form the r e s e r v o i r a r e a . S i n c e e a r l y man l i v e d m o s t l y i n the v a l l e y s , the f l o o d i n g w i l l i n e f f e c t d e s t r o y a l m o s t a l l o f the remains i n t h e whole g e n e r a l a r e a . S i n c e no a r c h a e o l o g y has been done i n the a r e a we do not know what i t c o n t a i n s , but i t s p o t e n t i a l importance i s v e r y g r e a t . I t was one o f the f i r s t a r e a s o f B.C. t o be f r e e o f g l a c i a l i c e , and p r o b a b l y c o n t a i n s t r a c e s o f v e r y e a r l y h u n t i n g p o p u l a t i o n s o f 10,000 o r more y e a r s ago. A l s o the T r e n c h i t s e l f i s a n a t u r a l m i g r a t i o n r o u t e o f e a r l y man, j o i n i n g the h e a r t o f the c o n t i n e n t w i t h the n o r t h . We cannot p r e d i c t e x a c t l y how much a r c h a e o l o g y w i l l have t o be done, but the f o l l o w i n g w i l l s e r v e as a rough g u i d e . The p r e s e n t s t a f f s o f the P r o v i n c i a l Museum and U n i v e r s i t y c o u l d p r o b a b l y not do more than p r o v i d e o v e r a l 1 , - d i r e c t i on t o the p r o j e c t . Funds must be p r o v i d e d t o o b t a i n q u a l i f i e d f i e l d w o r k e r s . The n e c e s s a r y s u r v e y s and e x c a v a t i o n s would p r o b a b l y t a k e t h r e e s e a s o n s . P r o v i s i o n s h o u l d be made f o r a s u p e r v i s i n g a r c h a e o l o g i s t , f o r summer f i e l d c r e w s , f o r equipment, and f o r expenses. The e n t i r e r e s e r v o i r a r e a s h o u l d be s u r v e y e d on f o o t . The amount o f e x c a v a t i o n n e c e s s a r y w i l l depend on what i s f o u n d , but i n g e n e r a l i t s h o u l d be enough t o p r o v i d e an adequate sample o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c remains o f the a r e a and t o p r o v i d e more thorough i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f any s i t e s o f o u t s t a n d i n g age o r o t h e r i m p o r t a n c e . Some p r o v i s i o n s h o u l d be made f o r the s t u d y and a n a l y s i s o f the e x c a v a t e d m a t e r i a l s and the p u b l i c a t i o n o f r e s u l t s . The t o t a l ' , c o s t s o v e r the t h r e e y e a r s would p r o b a b l y be i n the o r d e r o f $50,000. I u n d e r s t a n d you t o say t h a t you would a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n some a c t i o n on t h i s m a t t e r . N e e d l e s s t o s a y , i f we can a s s i s t by p r o v i d i n g f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , o r i f t h e r e a r e any o t h e r s t e p s you t h i n k we might t a k e , we w i l l be a n x i o u s t o do so. Many thanks f o r your i n t e r e s t so f a r (C.E. Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . L e g i s l a t i o n d i d not o c c u r f o r a n o t h e r t h r e e y e a r s but e v e n t u a l l y , i n 1959, a f t e r c o n s u l t i n g w i t h Borden (Borden 1977: 7 ) , D u f f c o n f e r r e d w i t h the l e g a l a d v i s o r s o f the p r o v i n c i a l government and worked out the d r a f t o f B r i t i s h Columbia's f i r s t A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t . I t seems t h a t beyond t h i s p o i n t , Borden was not i n v o l v e d w i t h the d e t a i l s o f the A c t . In J a n u a r y 1960, a memorandum wh i c h Borden p r e p a r e d f o r N.A.M. Ma c K e n z i e , P r e s i d e n t o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s u g g e s t s t h a t Borden s e r i o u s l y doubted the s u c c e s s o f t h i s a t t e m p t . He w r i t e s : 76. In o r d e r t o a s s u r e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f funds f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s a l v a g e o p e r a t i o n s , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o p l a c e on t h e s t a t u t e books o f t h i s P r o v i n c e an A n t i q u i t y A c t d e s i g n e d t o d e a l w i t h emergency s i t u a t i o n s of t h i s s o r t . Over the p a s t few y e a r s , s p o r a d i c a t t e m p t s have been made by i n d i v i d u a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t h e p r e s s t o c a l l t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the P r o v i n c i a l Govern-ment th e need f o r such an a c t . A l l t h e s e a t t e m p t s have f a i l e d . O b v i o u s l y , a more c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t i s needed t o a c h i e v e t h e o b j e c t i v e . Borden's l e t t e r s u g g e s t s t h a t he saw the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e f f e c t i n g t h i s c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t as l y i n g w i t h the U n i v e r s i t y . He c o n t i n u e s : I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t I p ropose t o you t h a t a committee be formed whose t a s k i t w i l l be (a) t o p r e p a r e a b r i e f , o u t l i n i n g i n some d e t a i l the need f o r l e g i s l a t i o n t o a s s u r e the s t u d y o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s p r i o r t o t h e i r d e s t r u c t i o n , and (b) t o p r e s e n t a d r a f t o f an A n t i q u i t y A c t t h a t w i l l p r o v i d e f o r a l l f o r e s e e a b l e e m e r g e n c i e s . In my o p i n i o n , such a committee s h o u l d i n c l u d e : (a) A member o f the UBC A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; (b) A l e g a l e x p e r t ; (c) Someone c o n v e r s a n t w i t h p l a n s f o r power development i n B r i t i s h Columbi a; (d) A g e o g r a p h e r ; (e) Someone w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n c o n s e r v a t i o n measures; ( f ) The I n d i a n Commissioner o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; (g) An a r c h a e o l o g i s t ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . The A c t was, however, passed i n March. Borden responded by l e t t e r (March 19, 1960) t o D u f f ' s n o t e i n f o r m i n g him o f t h i s e v e n t : Many thanks f o r y o u r note o f March 18 and the c o p i e s o f B i l l No.67. I t i s w o n d e r f u l , but s t i l l h a rd t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s a c t u a l l y law now. The papers have been most n e g l e c t f u l i n r e p o r t i n g what was g o i n g on i n the L e g i s l a t u r e . I had no c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t the B i l l was passed u n t i l your l e t t e r a r r i v e d t o - d a y . The P r o v i n c e c a r r i e d a b r i e f summary o f t h e A c t a f t e r i t s f i r s t r e a d i n g . I a l s o n o t i f i e d t h e Sun r e p o r t e r on the Campus a t t h a t t i m e , but the paper - a f t e r y e a r s o f p l u g g i n g f o r such l e g i s l a t i o n -e v i d e n t l y l o s t i n t e r e s t once t h e r e was a r e a l chance t h a t t h e b i l l would p a s s . I had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o "make p l e a s e d n o i s e s " about t h e a c t o v e r CBUT (.6.45 p.m. news, March 9) and on CBC " B y l i n e " ( T r a n s -Canada, F r i d a y , March 11, 5-40 p.m.). I u n d e r s t a n d t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f both were r e q u e s t e d by the P r e m i e r ' s O f f i c e . 77. The next s t e p , I suppose, i s t h e f o r m a t i o n of the A d v i s o r y Board. How do we get the M i n i s t e r t o g e t the L i e u t e n a n t Governor t o do so ? Once a g a i n , Many thanks ! ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) The A c t d i d make p r o v i s i o n f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t by t h e L i e u t e n a n t -Governor- in-Counc.i 1 o f an A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board (ASAB) . The membership o f the board was t o compose " t h e D i r e c t o r o f the P r o v i n c i a l Museum o r h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ( W i l s o n D u f f ) , the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t (W.E. I r e l a n d ) , and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the a p p r o p r i a t e department o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia ( C E . B o r d e n ) . A l s o i n c l u d e d was the Deputy P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y ( L . J . W a l l a c e ) " (Borden 1977: 8 ) . D u r i n g the c o u r s e o f the i n t e r v i e w s t h a t I conducted w i t h Borden, 1 asked him how he f e l t about the ten y e a r w a i t f o r a p r o t e c t i o n a c t : W e l l , t h a t i s an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n . Of c o u r s e we would have p r e f e r r e d t o have been s u c c e s s f u l e a r l i e r than we were, but you must remember t h a t t h e r e had been a change o f government from L i b e r a l t o S o c r e d . I s h o u l d n ' t j u s t say S o c r e d , I s h o u l d say S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y . And, o f c o u r s e , they had t o f i r s t o f a l l e s t a b l i s h t h emselves and o r g a n i z e the Government as they wanted t o . He went on t o s t r e s s t h a t the c o n s t a n t c o n t i n u o u s s t r a t e g y he had employed to a c h i e v e l e g i s l a t i o n was e s s e n t i a l : I t i s not enough t o say i t once, but you have t o say i t a g a i n , and a g a i n , and a g a i n . I t i s j u s t l i k e a d v e r t i s i n g . I mean, w i t h o u t a d v e r t i s i n g some o f t h e s e companies w o u l d n ' t be a b l e t o s e l l t h e i r p r o d u c t s . And w i t h o u t our s u s t a i n e d camp-a i g n i n g we w o u l d n ' t have been able, t o have t h i s l e g i s l a t i o n i n t r o -duced and passed i n P a r l i a m e n t . And as he p o i n t e d , o u t , the subsequent l e g i s l a t i o n was w o r t h the w a i t : So you might say i t ' s an u n r e a s o n a b l e l e n g t h o f t i m e , but i t was a f i r s t . I t was a p i o n e e r i n g f i r s t . And a f t e r t h i s A c t had been passed i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t was p i c k e d up by v a r i o u s p r o v i n c e s i n Canada, and they v e r y soon passed A c t s t h a t were worded i n a v e r y s i m i l a r manner t o our A c t . And even though, as f o r i n s t a n c e i n A l b e r t a , t h e r e were o t h e r l a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t s , a t l e a s t t h i s i s t h e way they o r i g i n a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r l e g i s l a t i o n . ... 78. Above a l l , Borden's r e p l y conveys h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f h i s academic r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e d u c a t e the government and the g e n e r a l p u b l i c t o the impor t a n c e o f s a l v a g i n g what was l e f t o f the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . He s a y s : But not o n l y they (government) but the g e n e r a l p u b l i c needed to be educated t o the needs o f t h i s and persuaded t h a t not o n l y s c h o o l s , r o a d s , and r a i l r o a d s , were i m p o r t a n t but t h a t i t was a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o s a l v a g e whatever was l e f t o f the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , the p r e - h i s t o r i c h e r i t a g e , o f Canada (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979; 77-78). 2. M a i n t a i n i n g P u b l i c Awareness Even as a p i o n e e r i n g f i r s t , the A c t had i t s l i m i t a t i o n s . Borden r e c a l i s ; Now our l e g i s l a t i o n , t o o , had t o be m o d i f i e d . The A c t o f I960 was n o t , by any means, p e r f e c t . I t had i t s good and weak s i d e s , but i t needed t e e t h . And i n o r d e r t o e n f o r c e the A c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y when i t came t o the d e s t r u c t i o n o f s i t e s , you know, p i p i n g a g e n c i e s and c o r p o r a t i o n s , because any d e l a y was c o s t i n g them money, I always s t r e s s e d the need f o r s u f f i c i e n t l e a d time and t h a t the a r c h a e o l o g i s t s be informed a f a i r amount o f time ahead o f when a development was g o i n g t o go ahead. In a d d i t i o n t o t h a t , we always had the problem o f v a n d a l s who were e x c a v a -t i n g s i t e s i l l e g a l l y i n o r d e r t o r e t r i e v e s o u v e n i r s and g o o d i e s from s i t e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y . b u r i a l - s ' i t e s . • A l l o f t h i s , o f c o u r s e , was i l l e g a l , but we had no means r e a l l y o f e n f o r c i n g i t ( t h e A c t ) . And not o n l y v a n d a l s would go ahead and do t h i s but a l s o some c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s , c o n t r a c t o r s , and so f o r t h . I f t h e y , f o r i n s t a n c e , a c c i d e n t a l l y came upon a b u r i a l s i t e , r a t h e r than r e p o r t i t as they were supposed t o do, they would t r y t o c o v e r i t up and j u s t g e t r i d o f the b u r i a l s and go ahead. Of c o u r s e , t h i s was v e r y bad, not o n l y because i t made f o r v e r y poor r e l a t i o n s w i t h the I n d i a n s when they found o u t about t h a t , but i t was a l o s s o f i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e c u l t u r a l remains (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 78-79) -Borden a l s o r e a l i z e d t h a t p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the A c t had t o be m a i n t a i n e d , and saw i t as h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o see t h a t i t was. He c o n t i n u e s : We were a b l e t o o b t a i n some c o o p e r a t i o n from the Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e , and they added a s o r t o f l i a i s o n who s a t i n on our board m e e t i n g s , t h i s was a v e r y good t h i n g because they then informed a l l the v a r i o u s l o c a l R,C.M.P. e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o f the e x i s t e n c e o f the A c t and what they s h o u l d do; what the i n d i v i d u a l o f f i c e r s s h o u l d do when they came upon i l l e g a l a c t i v i t i e s : o f t h i s k i n d so t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d be p r o s e c u t e d . Now, when t h i s became known, i t was something o f 79. a d e t e r r e n t a t any r a t e . But i n a sense the Government i t s e l f i n i t s v a r i o u s v i c i o u s c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s wrought the g r e a t e s t d e v a s t a t i o n . They were w o r k i n g w i t h b i g machines, you know, and they would p l o u g h t h r o u g h a p i t house v i l l a g e s i t e i n s h o r t o r d e r . We saw t h i s w i t h g r e a t c o n c e r n . So I w r o t e t o the Honourable Mr. B l a c k , who was the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y a t the t i m e . That was i n the s i x t i e s . And I e x e r t e d al1 the p r e s s u r e t h a t I c o u l d (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979; 79). Borden's f i l e s c o n t a i n two l e t t e r s w r i t t e n t o t h e Honourable Wesley B l a c k . One (August 11, 1971) d e a l s w i t h the ASAB's proposed ammendment o f the 1960 a c t , and the o t h e r (October 25, 1971) i n f o r m s B l a c k o f the ASAB's unanimous recommendation t h a t "Mr. Simonsen's appointment as P r o v i n c i a l A r c h a e o l o g i s t be made permanent" ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . The t a s k o f e n l i s t i n g h e l p t o lobby f o r e f f e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n was not o v e r . D u r i n g the s i x t i e s , Borden's e f f o r t s t o see the e x i s t i n g a c t ammended were a i d e d by y e t a n o t h e r group composed o f i n t e r e s t e d amateur a r c h a e o l o g i s t s : The A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Borden's f e e l i n g s about amateur a r c h a e o l o g i s t s were a m b i v a l e n t . As I have p o i n t e d out i n c h a p t e r two, Borden acknowledges the h e l p o f amateur a r c h a e o l o g i s t s such as S e w e l l and M i l l i k e n . But C a r l s o n ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u l y . 11 ,. 1980) s u g g e s t s t h a t , a t t h i s p o i n t , b e s i d e s t h e s e p e r s o n s , Borden had v e r y l i t t l e t i me f o r amateurs. Borden's f i l e s c o n t a i n a m a n u s c r i p t t i t l e d "Middens not f o r M u d d l i n g ; The I n t e g r a t i o n o f P r o f e s s i o n a l and Amateur A r c h a e o l o g y i n B.C." In t h i s he w r i t e s : We have g r e a t need o f more J a c k S e w e l l s , Gus M i l l i k e n s , and J i m B a l d w i n s . T h e i r a c t i v i t y c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l a t r o c i t i e s p e r p e t r a t e d by t h o s e i r r e s p o n s i b l e and s e l f i s h i n d i v i d u a l s who rape and d e v a s t a t e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e p o s i t s t o p r i v a t e g a i n and p l e a s u r e ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . Borden was s u s p i c i o u s o f amateurs (Bunyan , 1978; 14-16).. He f e l t s t r o n g l y t h a t a r c h a e o l o g y s h o u l d be l e f t t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , D, Abbott,, A p r i l 11 r 1980). A l e t t e r (March 15, 1955) t o the South Peace 80: J u n i o r - S e n i o r High School conveys h i s f e e l i n g s on the s u b j e c t : Dr. Hawthorn has asked me t o s u p p l y , i f p o s s i b l e , some o f the i n f o r m a t i o n you r e q u e s t e d and wh i c h may be h e l p f u l t o the members o f your r e c e n t l y formed a r c h a e o l o g y c l u b . W h i l e as a r u l e , we t r y t o d i s s u a d e u n t r a i n e d amateurs from a c t u a l d i g g i n g f o r f e a r they might d e s t r o y i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n , t h i s s t r i c t u r e does not a p p l y t o s i t e s w h i c h a r e t h r e a t e n e d w i t h immediate d e s t r u c t i o n by i n d u s t r i a l development, road c o n s t r u c t i o n , e t c . Amateurs can make s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s by c a r r y i n g our emergency s a l v a g e e x c a v a t i o n s . The t h i n g t o remember i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l specimens i s not so much what you f i n d but how you f i n d them. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o know t h e i r c h r o n o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n and the c u l t u r a l , and i n the case o f v e r y a n c i e n t f i n d s , the g e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t i n w h i c h they o c c u r . ... If you hear o f the f o s s i l remains o f mammoth or o t h e r e x t i n c t mammals be i n g exposed i n some g r a v e l p i t by a road c u t o r by a s t r e a m c u t t i n g i n t o a bank, e t c . , see i f you can f i n d any h i n t s , e i t h e r c h i p s o r manufactured s t o n e o b j e c t s d e f i n i t e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the animal r emains. I f you do, do not d i g but n o t i f y us. Take photographs and, i f p o s s i b l e , have a competent g e o l o g i s t s t u d y t h e s i t u a t i o n ( C E . Borden P a p e r s , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . In 1966, the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia (which I s h a l l i n f u t u r e r e f e r t o as the ASBC) was formed a t the s u g g e s t i o n o f C a r l s o n (Ennenburg 1975: 1 1 ) , who w i t h D u f f f e l t t h a t amateurs had an i m p o r t a n t r o l e t o p l a y i n t h e development o f s y s t e m a t i c a r c h a e o l o g y ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , R. C a r l s o n , J u l y 11, 1980; B. Simonsen, A p r i l 10, 1980). I s u s p e c t t h a t Borden came t o r e a l i z e t h a t the ASBC was an i m p o r t a n t v e h i c l e f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l c o n c e r n s t o m a i n t a i n l a y i n t e r e s t . C a r l s o n ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J u l y 11, I980) adds t h a t Borden saw the d i f f e r e n c e between two k i n d s o f ama t e u r s , the r e l i c h u n t e r s and the i n t e l l e c t u a l s . Members o f the ASBC had an i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y . They c o u l d be t r u s t e d . For example, when the D e l t a Rockhounds 1 a p p l i c a t i o n t o s . i f t t he D e l t a Midden was removed on Borden's a d v i c e , the D e l t a M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l s a i d f u t u r e d i g s would be conducted by the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y o r a u n i v e r s i t y team 8 1 . (Anon 1 9 6 9 : 2 ) . In November 1 9 6 8 (Anon 1 9 6 8 : 3 ) , the ASBC formed a committee, headed by B i l l Lane, t o s t u d y the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g laws f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t o c o n s i d e r methods of p r e v e n t i n g the e x p o r t o f a r t i f a c t s ; and t o i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e new l e g i s l a t i o n a t p r o v i n c i a l o r f e d e r a l l e v e l s . Borden encouraged t h i s p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t o f the S o c i e t y . The F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 0 e d i t i o n o f The Midden (Anon 1 9 7 0 : 3 ) r e v i e w s a panel d i s c u s s i o n h e l d a t the end o f the UBC E x t e n s i o n l e c t u r e s i n the f a l l o f 1 9 6 9 and r e p o r t s t h a t Borden, when asked about the law i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a r c h a e o l o g y , r e p l i e d : B.C. i s the most p r o g r e s s i v e p r o v i n c e i n l e g i s l a t i o n but more i s needed. The ASPA needs ammendments wh i c h w i l l ' b e s u g g e s t e d t o the government. Ammendments w i l l s t r e n g t h e n the A c t . S e c t i o n 10 i s t o be changed so t h a t s i t e s might be s u r v e y e d b e f o r e c o n s t r u c t i o n b e g i n s . We need a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h a e o l o g i s t . The ASAB was a p p o i n t e d when the A c t became law, t o a d v i s e the m i n i s t e r i n a l l m a t t e r s t h a t r e l a t e t o t h i s A c t . I t c o n t i n u e s t o r e p o r t t h a t : Dr. Borden s u g g e s t e d t h a t we l e t our M.L.A.'s know t h a t we want a f u l l - t i m e a p p o i n t e e . B r i t i s h Columbia a l s o needs a f e d e r a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o t e c t i o n a c t because t h e r e a r e o v e r 1 , 6 0 0 I n d i a n r e s e r v e s i n the p r o v i n c e (Anon 1 9 7 0 ) . In A p r i l 1 9 7 3 (Anon 1 9 7 3 a ) , Ron S u t h e r l a n d was a p p o i n t e d t o the A r c h a e o l o g -i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y B o a r d , and i n December o f the same y e a r "The F u t u r e o f the P a s t , " a b r i e f , was p r e s e n t e d t o the P r o v i n c i a l Government Caucus by the ASBC (Anon 1 9 7 3 b ) . The A c t was e v e n t u a l l y r e v i s e d i n 1 9 7 2 (see copy i n a p p e n d i x 2 ) so t h a t as Borden s u g g e s t s : The government i t s e l f became much more r e s t r i c t e d i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s . I t c o u l d n ' t go ahead j u s t as i t p l e a s e d and i t had done so b e f o r e . I mean t h e r e a r e many i n s t a n c e s where t h e r e a r e ways o f d i v e r t i n g a road i n such a way, you know, to a v o i d d e s t r o y i n g a s i t e o r i f a b r i d g e was t o be c o n s t r u c t e d 82. a c r o s s a r i v e r o r a gorge then i t was o f t e n p o s s i b l e t o move the l o c a t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r b r i d g e t o a n o t h e r l o c a t i o n (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 79-80). A v e r y i m p o r t a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f the r e v i s e d A c t was the appointment o f a f u l l - t i m e p r o v i n c i a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t . Borden comments: But what we needed, r e a l l y , was a f u l l - t i m e a r c h a e o l o g i s t . For q u i t e a number o f y e a r s , Dr. Don M i t c h e l l , o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , had s e r v e d as p a r t - t i m e a r c h a e o l o g i s t . But he had a f u l l - t i m e j o b as p r o f e s s o r , and he was i n t e r e s t e d i n c a r r y i n g out f i e l d work, and he j u s t c o u l d n ' t c o v e r a l l o f t h i s . But a f u l l - t i m e a r c h a e o l o g i s t , p r e f e r a b l y w i t h a s t a f f o f a s s i s t a n t a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , would be a b l e t o do t h i s . So, I a l s o s t r o n g l y a d v o c a t e d t h a t a f u l l - t i m e a r c h a e o l o g i s t be a p p o i n t e d (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 80). B j o r n Simonsen', one o f Borden's for m e r s t u d e n t s who l a t e r went on t o g e t h i s M.A. a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a under Don M i t c h e l l , a l s o a f o r m e r s t u d e n t o f Borden, was a p p o i n t e d t o the p o s i t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l A r c h a e o l o g i s t . Borden says o f Simonsen: Mr. Simonsen has r e a l l y done e x c e e d i n g l y w e l l . ... he has done an e x c e l l e n t j o b i n h i s p o s i t i o n . He knows how t o d e a l w i t h p o l i t i c i a n s and w i t h the heads o f Crown C o r p o r a t i o n s and p r i v a t e f i r m s , and he has been a b l e t o expand, t o b u i l d up a s t a f f , t o expand h i s s t a f f , so t h a t he has now q u i t e a s t a b l e o f a r c h a e o l o g i s t s t o c a l l on t o cond u c t s u r v e y s and, i f need be, s a l v a g e e x c a v a t i o n s . So i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g j u s t one p a r t -t i m e a r c h a e o l o g i s t , l i k e m y s e l f , c r y i n g i n the w i l d e r n e s s , t h e r e a r e now a f a i r number (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 66). And c o n t i n u e s : and now the funds t h a t do become a v a i l a b l e f o r f i e l d work have no com p a r i s o n s t o the l i m i t e d sums w i t h w h i c h we had t o o p e r a t e i n e a r l i e r y e a r s . I mean sums i n the range o f $100,000.00 t o $150,000.00 f o r one p r o j e c t a r e q u i t e common now. The P r o v i n c i a l budget, the A r c h a e o l o g i s t ' s budget, even j u s t a few y e a r s ago, was ov e r 5 m i l l i o n d o l l a r s , and I b e l i e v e i t i s c l o s e now t o one m i l l i o n d o l l a r s a y e a r . So i t has r e a l l y boomed s i n c e we have had a f u l l - t i m e a r c h a e o l o g i s t (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979: 80). Borden's remarks a r e s i g n i f i c a n t . L e g i s l a t i o n d i d not r e s o l v e a l l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s , and Simonsen ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , A p r i l 10, 1980) s t a t e s , h i s o f f i c e i s always w o r k i n g on i m p r o v i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . However, p r i o r t o l e g i s l a t i o n , A b b o t t ( p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , A p r i l 11, 83-1980) p o i n t s o u t , a r c h a e o l o g i s t s were t h i n k i n g s m a l l . T h e i r hopes and a m b i t i o n s seemed u n o b t a i n a b l e . Borden's r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as an academic, t o c o n t i n u e t o m a i n t a i n p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n adequate l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s , h e l p e d shape an a c t w h i c h i n i t i a t e d a change i n s c a l e f o r a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. The a c t made p r o v i s i o n f o r a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h a e o l o g i s t w i t h an i n c r e a s e d number o f a r c h a e o l o g i s t s and i n c r e a s e d f u n d i n g f o r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work. I t a l s o e n l a r g e d the forum w i t h i n w h i c h the r e s o l u t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l problems might be approached. Knut Fladmark (1980: 10-11), o b s e r v e s t h a t the f o r m a l e s t a b l i s h -ment o f a P r o v i n c i a l A r c h a e o l o g i s t ' s O f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a was a development w h i c h has had the s i n g l e g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on the amount and d i r e c t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i e l d w o r k c a r r i e d o ut i n the '70's. He d e s c r i b e s the di m e n s i o n s o f t h i s change i n s c a l e : A b l y managed from t h e o u t s e t by B j o r n Simonsen, t h i s p r o v i n c i a l government agency has a d m i n i s t e r e d , o r g a n i z e d , and c o n t r o l l e d t h e b u l k o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h f u n d s , f i e l d - p r o j e c t s and f i e l d - e m p l o y m e n t a v a i l a b l e i n the p r o v i n c e i n the 1970's. Working w i t h the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l S i t e s A d v i s o r y Board and under the g u i d e l i n e s o f the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c a l S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t , ( r e p l a c e d by the H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n A c t passed i n 1977), the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h a e o l o g i s t ' s O f f i c e has p r o v i d e d manag-e r i a l c o n t r o l and p l a n n i n g a f f e c t i n g t he n a t u r e and l o n g -term d i r e c t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n q u i r y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Simonsen's o f f i c e has worked t o open avenues o f communication w i t h o t h e r government a g e n c i e s and development companies such as B.C. Hydro and the Department o f Highways and has s t r i v e d t o d i r e c t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e n e r g i e s toward l o n g - t e r m r a t i o n a l management o f the non-renewable and r a p i d l y d i m i n i s h i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s o u r c e s o f the p r o v i n c e . The P r o v i n c i a l A r c h a e o l o g i s t (now t i t l e d : " C h i e f , Resource Management D i v i s i o n , H e r i t a g e C o n s e r v a t i o n Branch") and h i s 9 f u l l - t i m e c o - w o r k e r s have c o - o r d i n a t e d s y s t e m a t i c s i t e s u r v e y i n g o r " r e s o u r c e i n v e n t o r i e s " a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e , so t h a t o v e r 13,000 a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s a r e c u r r e n t l y documented i n the p r o v i n c i a l s i t e - f i l e . In a d d i t i o n , they have managed numerous s a l v a g e e x c a v a t i o n programs on the s o u t h e r n c o a s t and t h r o u g h o u t the i n t e r i o r , and have been generous t o a f a u l t i n p r o v i d i n g r e s o u r c e f u n d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s t u d e n t s Qk. and f a c u l t y o f v i r t u a l l y a l l the c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s o f the p r o v i n c e (Fladmark 1980: 1 1 ) . Borden's a c c o u n t (Borden I n t e r v i e w s 1979) c o n f i r m s what the l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s . Borden was not an " a r m c h a i r academic.', 1 A l t h o u g h he approached a r c h a e o l o g y from a s c h o l a r l y p e r s p e c t i v e , he was a l s o v e r y concerned w i t h g e t t i n g t h e a r t i f a c t s o u t of the ground b e f o r e i t was too l a t e . T h i s p r o c e s s he r e a l i z e d , was p a r t l y dependent on the w o r l d o u t s i d e t h a t o f academic a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d i s c o u r s e . In t h i s c h a p t e r , I have shown how h i s e f f o r t s t o i n t e r e s t the e v e r y d a y w o r l d i n a r c h a e o l o g y p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n a c h i e v i n g l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h would make f o r a s i t u a t i o n where both a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s might be n e g o t i a t e d i n the p r o c e s s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a knowledge o f B r i t i s h Columbia's p r e h i s t o r y . 85 EPILOGUE A c c o m p l i s h i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f C a r l Borden t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s o f d e f i n i t i o n by many persons w i t h d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . My approach has been t o r e a c h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f one a s p e c t of h i s c o n t r i b u t i from a p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h makes i t s p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e t h e s o c i a l c o n t e x t of i d e a s , d e v e l o p i n g t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e t h r o u g h the c o n s t r u c t i o n of an i n t e r -a c t i v e h i s t o r y . The a c c o u n t t h a t emerges adds an a n e c d o t a l , p e r c e p t u a l a s p e c t t o what i s a l r e a d y known of h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n . U s i n g t h i s a c c o u n t , c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n , I b r i n g i n t o f o c u s h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o w i d e n i n g the forum f o r t h e p u r s u i t o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n B r i t i s h C olumbia by e s t a b l i s h i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . As I i n d i c a t e , t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t two i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n s t o t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n . F i r s t , Borden's p o s i t i o n a t UBC and second, h i s commitment t o the i d e a o f c o n s e r v a t i o n a r c h a e o l o g y . 1. Borden's p o s i t i o n a t UBC Borden's f a c u l t y p o s i t i o n f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d him as a s c h o l a r . D e s p i t e h i s l a c k of f o r m a l t r a i n i n g i n a r c h a e o l o g y , i t was c o n s i d e r e d a p p r o p r i a t e f o r him t o t a k e upon h i m s e l f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i n i t i a t i n g a t e a c h i n g program i n a r c h a e o l o g y . In c h a p t e r one, I e x p l a i n how Borden took advantage of h i s p o s i t i o n a t UBC t o d e v e l o p h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C olumbia by g a i n i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n s u r v e y i n g and e x c a v a t i n g , and by making c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i s t s . At the same time he e n s u r e d t h a t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l knowledge o f the Northwest C o a s t , and.the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f t h i s knowledge, s h o u l d r e s i d e w i t h i n the academic community. 86. Lack o f fo rma l t r a i n i n g in a r c h a e o l o g y d i d not appear to be a d i s a d v a n t a g e to Borden. H i s p u b l i s h e d work wh ich d e f i n e s the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l in B r i t i s h Co lumbia has g a i ned both a n a t i o n a l and an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n . For example , h i s " U n i f o r m S i t e D e s i g n a t i o n Scheme f o r Canada" (Borden 1952), a code system f o r d e s i g n a t i n g and l o c a t i n g a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s , has been adopted (1956) by the N a t i o n a l Museums o f Canada, and now forms the b a s i s o f the N a t i o n a l I nventory Data Bank. The scheme i s a l s o be ing u t i l i z e d in the a r e a e a s t o f Lake Rudo l f in Kenya ( I s a a c , Leakey and Behrensmeyer 1971: 1129). In c h a p t e r two, I show how B o r d e n ' s p o s i t i o n as L e c t u r e r in a r c h a e o l o g y , d e s p i t e i t s l i m i t a t i o n s , o f f e r e d him o p p o r t u n i t i e s to work towards a d e f i n i t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I d i s c u s s , t oo , .how he used the se o p p o r t u n i t i e s and d e a l t w i t h t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d p rob lems . Throughout h i s c a r e e r , Borden f e l t s t r o n g l y t h a t a r c h a e o l o g y shou ld be l e f t in cha rge o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s , those w i t h f o rma l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g such as the t r a i n i n g he p r o v i d e d a t UBC. As Simonsen p o i n t s o u t , p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m f o r Borden was based on academic c r i t e r i a ( p e r s o n a l commun ica t i on , B. S imonsen, A p r i l 10, 1980) . Dur ing the c o u r s e o f the i n t e r v i e w s , I asked Borden how he f e l t about h i s own l a c k o f fo rma l a r c h a e o l o g y t r a i n i n g . H i s r e p l y , wh ich I have a l r e a d y r e c o r d e d in c h a p t e r one ( p . 1 1 ) , sugges t s some r e g r e t , but a t the same t ime h i s emphas is on the a p p l i c a t i o n o f s c h o l a r l y method to a r c h a e o l o g y conveys h i s f e e l i n g s about the impor tance o f an academic p e r s p e c t i v e , so much a p a r t o f h i s own e x p e r i e n c e , to be ing " p r o f e s s i o n a l . 1 . . 1 Borden p r o v i d e d the b a s i s f o r an academic r o u t e f o r those i n t e r e s t e d in p u r s u i n g a c a r e e r in a r c h a e o l o g y . As I e x p l a i n in c h a p t e r t h r e e , i t was w i t h the h e l p o f some o f h i s s t u d e n t s who were p r o d u c t s o f 87. t h i s academic r o u t e and who went on t o become p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , t h a t he was a b l e t o i n t e n s i f y the campaign f o r p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n and t o e s t a b l i s h a forum f o r the n e g o t i a t i o n o f b o t h a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s . 2. Borden's commitment t o the i d e a o f G o r a s e r v a t i o h ^ a r c b a e o l o g y Borden's commitment t o the i d e a o f eense§va± frohr-aaclhaeo 1 dgyeissessenitia 1 t o and u n i f i e s the p r o c e s s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a r c h a e o l o g y as a f u n c t i o n o f government. He w r i t e s j u s t p r i o r t o the a c t o f I960: I f the a c t w i l l make adequate p r o v i s i o n f o r s a l v a g e a r c h a e o l o g y , i t would mean the a t t a i n m e n t o f an o b j e c t i v e toward w h i c h we have been w o r k i n g f o r many y e a r s (Borden 1960: 149). Borden's sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards s a v i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n c u l t u r e from d e s t r u c t i o n r e v e r b e r a t e s t h r o u g h both the l i t e r a t u r e and h i s a c c o u n t . In c h a p t e r one, I i n d i c a t e how i t shaped h i s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . In c h a p t e r two, I s u g g e s t i t l e n d s a sense o f urgency t o h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s p o t e n t i a l . And i n c h a p t e r t h r e e , I e x p l a i n how h i s e f f o r t t o i n s t i l t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n h i s s t u d e n t s was rewarded w i t h t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g a i n i n g p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f the n e c e s s i t y o f l e g i s l a t i o n . Borden was not the f i r s t a r c h a e o l o g i s t t o show c o n c e r n f o r f i n d i n g and p r e s e r v i n g N a t i v e I n d i a n p r e h i s t o r y . He was, however, the f i r s t a r c h a e o l o g i s t i n B r i t i s h Columbia t o p r o v i d e f o r the t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s c o n c e r n i n t o p u b l i c p o l i c y . I t was the i n t e r p l a y between f i r s t , h i s p o s i t i o n a t UBC and s e c o n d , h i s c o n c e r n w i t h t h e i d e a o f e o n s e j j v a t i o n a r c h a e o l o g y t h a t l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n f o r l e g i s l a t i o n . Borden used h i s p o s i t i o n a t UBC as a v e h i c l e f o r the t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h i s c o n c e r n i n t o p u b l i c p o l i c y . From t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , the campaign f o r l e g i s l a t i o n commenced i n the v e r y e a r l y days o f Borden's c a r e e r i n a r c h a e o l o g y when he 88. s t a r t e d e x c a v a t i n g w i t h A k r i g g , and when, as A k r i g g . o b s e r v e s , Borden became i n c r e a s i n g l y more absorbed i n a r c h a e o l o g y and i n an awareness of the d e s p e r a t e r a c e t o r e s c u e o b j e c t s ( c h a p t e r one, page 8 ) . I t proceeded t h r o u g h h i s s c h o l a r l y d e f i n i t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l w h i c h c o n v i n c e d him o f the n e c e s s i t y o f l e g i s l a t i o n and o f h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as an academic t o t a k e a c t i o n t o r a i s e p u b l i c awareness t o the n e c e s s i t y o f an a c t . I t reached i t s peak i n the passage of the a c t i n March, 1960. As I have p o i n t e d o u t , however, adequate l e g i s l a t i o n i s i l l u s i v e . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the e f f o r t s o f some o f h i s s t u d e n t s , now government and u n i v e r s i t y a r c h a e o l o g i s t s , who a r e p r e s e n t l y t r y i n g t o improve l e g i s l a t i o n . The campaign i n i t i a t e d by Borden c o n t i n u e s ... 89. FOOTNOTES A r t i c u l a t i n g the p r o c e s s i n terms of " r e c o g n i t i o n , " " d e f i n i t i o n , " and " t a k i n g a c t i o n " was i n s p i r e d by r e a d i n g Becoming a P a t i e n t i n An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o M e d i c a l S o c i o l o g y (Tucket 1976). A c c o r d i n g t o M o i r a I r v i n e ( A r c h a e o l o g y l a b o r a t o r y , Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , UBC), the Rip-Rap c o n s i s t s of v e r y l a r g e b o u l d e r s w h i c h b r i d g e the r i f t , caused by the s l i d e , i n t h e r o c k s i t u a t e d between the r a i l w a y t r a c k and the h i g h e r ground. 3. For c o m plete s u r v e y o f a l l C o l l e c t i o n , UBC A r c h i v e s ) . newspaper c l i p p i n g s see P r e s s F i l e s (Borden 90. APPENDIX 1 INDEX TO TRANSCRIBED INTERVIEWS (PP 225) WHICH ARE LOCATED WITH THE TAPES (14 HRS) IN THE UBC MUSEUM OF ANTHROPOLOGY ARCHIVES Tape 1, s i d e s 1 and 2 1 - C h a r l e s E. Borden's r e c o l l e c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e d h i s i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y b o t h p r i o r t o and i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g h i s a r r i v a l i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Tape 2, s i d e s 1 and 2 18 - C o n t i n u a t i o n o f r e c o l l e c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e s r e f e r r e d t o above. - I n i t i a t i n g B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y c o u r s e a t U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC). Tape 3, s i d e s 1 and 2 36 - I n i t i a t i n g B.C. a r c h a e o l o g y c o u r s e a t UBC c o n t i n u e d . - C o n t a c t w i t h a r c h a e o l o g i s t s a t U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington and U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a a t B e r k e l e y . - D i s c u s s i o n o f e v e n t s l e a d i n g up t o Tweedsmuir P a r k p r o j e c t . Tape k, s i d e s 1 and 2 5^ - Tweedsmuir P a r k p r o j e c t . D i s c u s s i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s p r o j e c t . - E f f o r t s t o r a i s e p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n t o a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l ' i n B r i t i s h Columbia and t o the n e c e s s i t y o f l e g i s l a t i o n t o p r o t e c t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s . - Involvement o f s t u d e n t s i n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t s . Tape 5, s i d e s 1 and 2 72 - Involvement o f s t u d e n t s c o n t i n u e d . - F u r t h e r r e c o l l e c t i o n s o f e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h a p r o t e c t i o n a c t . 91. - D i s c u s s i o n o f I960 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t . - R e f l e c t i o n s upon s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l commitment t o a r c h a e o l o g y . - P r e p a r a t i o n s t o v i s i t Europe, summer 1953. Tape 6, s i d e s 1 and 2 90 - E x p e r i e n c e s i n Europe, summer 1953. Tape 7, s i d e 1 o n l y 116 - E x p e r i e n c e s i n Europe c o n t i n u e d . Tape 8, s i d e s 1 and 2 128 - Commentry on c o n t e n t o f Course A n t h r o p o l o g y 320, Old World P r e h i s t o r y . - F e e l i n g s e x p r e s s e d about l i m i t a t i o n s imposed on t e a c h i n g a r c h a e o l o g y a t UBC. - R e m i n i s c e n c e s about s u r v e y s and e x c a v a t i o n s on t h e N o r t h e r n Northwest Coast o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Tape 9, s i d e s 1 and 2 152 - C o n t i n u a t i o n o f r e m i n i s c e n c e s r e f e r r e d t o above. - S u r v e y i n g i n the Ea s t Kootenays. - E x c a v a t i n g a t M a r p o l e . D i s c u s s i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f i n d s a t M a r p o l e . Tape 10, s i d e s 1 and 2 176 - D i s c u s s i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f i n d s a t M a r p o l e c o n t i n u e d . - F i n a n c i a l a s p e c t s o f Ma r p o l e p r o j e c t . - S t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d a t M a r p o l e . - Borden's f e e l i n g s about p o l i t i c a l a s p e c t o f Ma r p o l e p r o j e c t . - P r e p a r a t i o n s f o r F r a s e r Canyon p r o j e c t . Tape 11 , s i d e s 1 and 2 - F r a s e r Canyon P r o j e c t c o n t i n u e d . D i s c u s s i o n o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p r o j e c t . 201 92. - D i s c u s s i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p r o j e c t . Tape 12, s i d e 1 o n l y 225 - D i s c u s s i o n o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f F r a s e r Canyon p r o j e c t c o n t i nued. 93. APPENDIX 2 QUESTION PLAN FOR INTERVIEWS WITH CARL BORDEN P a r t I - The E a r l y Y e a r s a) How d i d you ( C a r l Borden) become i n v o l v e d i n the a r c h a e o l o g y o f B r i t i s h Columbia ? How f a r back i n your l i f e does your i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y e x t e n d ? b) To what e x t e n t d i d the f a c t t h a t you knew t h a t B r i t i s h C olumbia was p o t e n t i a l l y a p l a c e o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i n f l u e n c e your d e c i s i o n t o come t o UBC ? c) What was your p e r c e p t i o n o f the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C olumbia upon your a r r i v a l : ( i ) How d i d a r c h a e o l o g y compare w i t h the r e s t o f Canada ? ( i i ) How d i d i t compare w i t h the r e s t o f the w o r l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a ? P a r t II - The Growth o f Borden's P e r s o n a l I n t e r e s t i n A r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia What f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d the growth o f your p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n a r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia ? P a r t I I I - The Growth o f Borden's Academic I n t e r e s t What f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d the growth o f your academic i n t e r e s t , i n c l u d i n g i n t e r e s t i n t e a c h i n g a r c h a e o l o g y ? P a r t IV - The Growth o f Borden's P o l i t i c a l I n t e r e s t a) When d i d you f i r s s t r e a l i z e the n e c e s s i t y f o r l e g i s l a t i o n ? b) What measures d i d you t a k e towards a c h i e v i n g l e g i s l a t i o n ? P a r t V - A r c h a e o l o g y i n B r i t i s h Columbia Now - Where i s i t Going ? a) N a t i o n a l / i n t e r n a t i o n a l impact. b) P e o p l e now i n v o l v e d . 94. APPENDIX 3 LEGISLATION A. An A c t t o P r o v i d e f o r the P r e s e r v a t i o n o f H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s (Copy) ( R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B.C., 1948. V o l . I I , Chapt. 145, p. 1899.) 1. T h i s a c t may be c i t e d as t h e " H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t " . R.S. 1936, c. 117, s. 1. 2. The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may d e c l a r e any p r i m i t i v e f i g u r e o r legend c u t i n or p a i n t e d upon r o c k , o r any group o f such f i g u r e s o r l e g e n d s , o r any s t r u c t u r e , o r any n a t u r a l o b j e c t e x i s t i n g w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e t o be a " h i s t o r i c o b j e c t " w i t h i n t h e meaning and scope o f t h i s A c t , and may make p r o v i s i o n f o r the e r e c t i o n and mai n t e n a n c e i n the v i c i n i t y o f such h i s t o r i c o b j e c t o f a n o t i c e r e f e r r i n g t o t h i s A c t , i n such form as may be deemed a d v i s a b l e . R.S. 1936, c. 117, s. 2. 3. When a n o t i c e has been e r e c t e d i n the v i c i n i t y o f any h i s t o r i c o b j e c t p u r s u a n t t o t h i s A c t , no person s h a l l , e x c e p t p u r s u a n t t o a p e r m i t i n w r i t i n g o f the P r o v i n c i a l S e c r e t a r y f i r s t o b t a i n e d , remove, d e f a c e , o b l i t e r a t e , a l t e r , add t o , o r o t h e r w i s e i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h a t h i s t o r i c o b j e c t , o r the n o t i c e so e r e c t e d , nor s h a l l any per s o n c u t , o r c a r v e , o r w r i t e , o r p a i n t any f i g u r e , l e g e n d , o r name i n o r upon any ro c k o r m a t e r i a l c o m p r i s e d i n o r a p p u r t e n a n t t o t h a t h i s t o r i c o b j e c t . R.S. 1936, c. 117, s. 3-4. Every person v i o l a t i n g any p r o v i s i o n o f s e c t i o n 3 s h a l l be l i a b l e on summary c o n v i c t i o n , t o a f i n e not e x c e e d i n g f i v e hundred d o l l a r s . R.S. 1936, c. 117, s. 4. S i t e s R eserved Under " H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t " 1196/27 I n d i a n Rock, S t a n l e y P a r k . 754/27 P e t r o g l y p h a t Nanaimo on B l k . D. " " S p r o a t Lake on L o t 52 A l b e r n i D i s t r i c t . " " G r e a t C e n t r a l Lake on Lot 749 C l a y o q u o t D i s t r i c t . " " A l d r i c h P o i n t on L o t 94 Sooke D i s t r i c t . The e r r a t i c r o c k on C o l d s t r e a m Ranch O.D.Y.D. 9 5 5 / 2 8 Memorial e r e c t e d a t Leach R i v e r re d i s c o v e r y o f Gold by L i e u t . P . J . Lea c h , 1 8 6 4 . 637/30 D i n o s a u r t r a c k s i n Rocky Mountain Canyon and f o s s i l bones, Peace R i v e r D i s t r i c t . Amend 0/c 1475/30. 1474/41 P e t r o g l y p h s , K u l l e e t Bay, K u l l e e t I n d i a n R eserve Van. I s . 814/31 C r a i g f l o w e r S c h o o l , V i c t o r i a . See o/c 3 1 / 5 2 . 1449/33 Near B a r k e r v i l l e t o mark t e r m i n u s o f Y a l e - C a r i b o o Wagon Road. 1 1 1 0 / 3 3 Monument t o mark F o r t A l e x a n d r i a i n 1 8 2 1 . 1 2 3 0 / 3 5 I n d i a n C a r v i n g s , N i c o l S t r e e t E x t e n s i o n , Nanaimo. f o r l a n d r e s e r v e see o/c 417 / 48 . 1 3 6 3 / 3 7 S t u i e S e p u l c h r e and Rock w i t h I n d i a n P a i n t i n g s . 921 /40 P i c t o g r a p h s on l i m e s t o n e b l u f f s i n M a r b l e Canyon on the e a s t s h o r e o f P a v i l i o n Lake, L i l l o o e t Land D i s t r i c t . No s p e c i a l land r e s e r v e made, but i s c o v e r e d by l a r g e r e s e r v e made f o r P a r k s D i v . 0/c 1 4 9 8 / 5 4 . 204/45 R i c h f i e l d C o u r t House. 417/48 P i c t o g r a p h s l o c a t e d on l o t 1 o f Sec .1 Nanaimo D i s t r i c t on Chase R i v e r . 720/51 I n d i a n P i c t o g r a p h s l o c a t e d on F r a c . l e g a l Sued. 12 o f S e c . 2 5 , Twp . 2 5 , R .8 W .617- Beach Bay Shuswap Lake, o/c 9 6 3 / 5 1 . 1 2 0 1 / 5 5 T r e e s e n t w i n e d by In d i a n s a t time o f s u r v e y o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l b o r d e r on Lot 3 , Blk . 4 8 o f Lot 501 S.D.Y.D. P l a n 3 . See. o/c 1 6 9 2 / 5 5 f o r r e s e r v a t i o n o f Lot 3 -B. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t ( 1 9 6 0 ) (Copy) ( A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n - Chapt e r 15 ) T i t l e . 1. T h i s A c t may be c i t e d as the A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t . 1 9 6 0 , c. 2 , s. 1 . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 2 . In t h i s A c t , u n l e s s the c o n t e x t o t h e r w i s e r e q u i r e s , " a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e " means an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e d e s i g n a t e d as such under s e c t i o n 3 ; " h i s t o r i c s i t e " means a h i s t o r i c s i t e d e s i g n a t e d as such under s e c t i o n 3 ; " a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t " means any o b j e c t i n o r from an ar c h a e o -l o g i c a l s i t e ; " h i s t o r i c o b j e c t " means any o b j e c t o f h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e found i n o r on a h i s t o r i c s i t e ; " M i n i s t e r " means the member o f the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l charged f o r the t i m e b e i n g w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s A c t ; " p e r m i t " means a v a l i d and s u b s i s t i n g p e r m i t i s s u e d under t h i s 96. A c t . 1960, c . 2 , s . 2 . D e s i g n a t i o n s by M i n i s t e r . 3. (1) The M i n i s t e r may d e s i g n a t e any ( i ) I n d i a n k i t c h e n - m i d d e n ; ( i i ) I n d i a n s h e l l - h e a p ; ( i i i ) I n d i a n house-pi t ; ( i v ) I n d i a n c a v e ; (v) o t h e r I n d i a n h a b i t a t i o n ; ( v i ) c a i r n ; ( v i i ) mound; ( v i i i ) f o r t i f i c a t i on; ( i x ) s t r u c t u r e ; (x) p a i n t i n g o r c a r v i n g on r o c k ; ( x i ) g r a v e o r o t h e r b u r i a l - p l a c e ; o r ( x i i ) o t h e r p r e h i s t o r i c remain as an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e . (2) The m i n i s t e r may d e s i g n a t e any s i t e , p a r c e l o f l a n d , o r s t r u c t u r e o f h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e as a h i s t o r i c s i t e . 1960, c . 2 , s . 3 -A c q u i s i t i o n o f s i t e . h. (1) The M i n i s t e r may, w i t h the c o n s e n t o f the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l and on b e h a l f o f Her M a j e s t y , a c q u i r e , by p u r c h a s e , g i f t , o r o t h e r w i s e , any a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i t e o r o b j e c t . (2) The M i n i s t e r s h a l l pay as compensation t o the owner o f any a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c a l s i t e o r o b j e c t a c q u i r e d under s u b s e c t i o n (1) an amount t o be f i x e d by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . 1960, c . 2 , s.k. P r o h i b i t i o n s . 5. (1) No person s h a l l k n o w i n g l y d e s t r o y , d e s e c r a t e , d e f a c e , move, e x c a v a t e , o r a l t e r i n any way an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i t e o r remove o r cause t o be removed t h e r e f r o m any a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c o b j e c t , e x c e p t t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t he i s a u t h o r i z e d t o do so by a v a l i d and sub-s i s t i n g p e r m i t i s s u e d under t h i s A c t . (2) No p e r s o n s h a l l k n o w i n g l y d e s t r o y , d e s e c r a t e , o r a l t e r any b u r i a l -p l a c e i n the P r o v i n c e , o r remove t h e r e f r o m any s k e l e t a l r e m a i n s , e x c e p t t o the e x t e n t t h a t he i s a u t h o r i z e d t o do so by a v a l i d and s u b s i s t i n g p e r m i t i s s u e d under t h i s A c t . (3) No p e r s o n s h a l l k n o w i n g l y d e s t r o y , d e f a c e , o r o t h e r w i s e a l t e r any I n d i a n p a i n t i n g o r c a r v i n g on r o c k i n the P r o v i n c e , e x c e p t t o the e x t e n t t h a t he i s a u t h o r i z e d t o do so by a v a l i d and s u b s i s t i n g p e r m i t i s s u e d under t h i s A c t . (k) No p e r s o n s h a l l k n o w i n g l y d e s t r o y , d e f a c e , o r o t h e r w i s e a l t e r , e x c a v a t e , o r d i g i n any I n d i a n k i t c h e n - m i d d e n , s h e l l - h e a p , h o u s e - p i t , c a v e , o r o t h e r h a b i t a t i o n s i t e , o r any c a i r n , mound, f o r t i f i c a t i o n , o r o t h e r s t r u c t u r e , o r any o t h e r a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remain on Crown l a n d s , whether d e s i g n a t e d as an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e o r n o t , under the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t , e x c e p t t o the e x t e n t t h a t he i s a u t h o r i z e d t o do so by a v a l i d and s u b s i s t i n g p e r m i t i s s u e d under t h i s A c t . 1.960, c . 2 , s . 5 -97. Issue o f p e r m i t s . 6. (1) Upon a p p l i c a t i o n made t o him i n w r i t i n g , the M i n i s t e r may i s s u e a p e r m i t t o any p e r s on t o e x c a v a t e or a l t e r an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e and remove a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t s t h e r e f r o m , o r t o remove, move, o r a l t e r a h i s t o r i c s i t e and remove h i s t o r i c o b j e c t s t h e r e f r o m . (2) The M i n i s t e r may l i m i t a p e r m i t as t o t i m e and l o c a t i o n , may r e q u i r e such r e p o r t s as he deems p r o p e r , and may impose such o t h e r terms and c o n d i t i o n s as he c o n s i d e r s p r o p e r . (3) The M i n i s t e r may c a n c e l a p e r m i t a t any t i m e . 1960, c.2, s.6. Consent t o and compensation f o r e x c a v a t i o n s , a l t e r a t i o n s , and r e m o v a l s . 7. (1) A p e r s o n s h a l l not e x c a v a t e o r a l t e r an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i t e o r remove any a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c o b j e c t t h e r e f r o m w i t h o u t the c o n s e n t i n w r i t i n g o f the owner o f such s i t e o r o b j e c t . (2) When, as a r e s u l t o f e x c a v a t i o n o r a l t e r a t i o n o f an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i t e o r the removal t h e r e f r o m o f an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c o b j e c t , i t i s shown t h a t the v a l u e of the i n t e r e s t o f any p e r s o n i n any s i t e , p a r c e l o f l a n d , b u i l d i n g , o r s t r u c t u r e a f f e c t e d t h e r e b y i s d i m i n i s h e d , the person c a r r y i n g out o r c a u s i n g t o be c a r r i e d o u t the e x c a v a t i o n , a l t e r a t i o n , o r removal s h a l l pay t o such p e r s o n i n r e s p e c t o f such d i m i n u -t i o n i n v a l u e such compensation as may be m u t u a l l y agreed upon o r , i n the absence o f agreement, an amount t o be a s s e s s e d upon a p p l i c a t i o n t o a Judge of the Supreme C o u r t . 1960, c.2, s.7. S e i z u r e o f o b j e c t s . 8. (1) Any a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c o b j e c t t h a t i s t a k e n by a p e r s o n who i s not a p e r m i t - h o l d e r o r by a p e r m i t - h o l d e r i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f h i s p e r m i t may be s e i z e d by a p e r s on a u t h o r i z e d t o do so by the M i n i s t e r and t u r n e d o v e r t o and d e p o s i t e d i n such p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n as the M i n -i s t e r may d e s i g n a t e . (2) The M i n i s t e r may d i r e c t t h a t any a r c h a e o l o g i c a l or h i s t o r i c o b j e c t o r m a t e r i a l taken under the a u t h o r i t y o f a p e r m i t be t u r n e d o v e r t o and d e p o s i t e d i n such p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n as he may d e s i g n a t e . (3) The M i n i s t e r may d i r e c t t h a t any I n d i a n s k e l e t a l remains i n the p o s e s s i o n o f a p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l be t u r n e d o v e r t o and d e p o s i t e d i n such p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n as he may d e s i g n a t e . 1960, c.2, s.8. P e n a l t y . 9. A p e r s o n who c o n t r a v e n e s any p r o v i s i o n o f t h i s A c t o r a p e r m i t o r d i r e c t i o n o f the M i n i s t e r under t h i s A c t i s g u i l t y o f an o f f e n c e , and, on summary c o n v i c t i o n , i s l i a b l e t o a p e n a l t y o f not more than f i v e hun-dred d o l l a r s o r t o imprisonment f o r a term o f not more than s i x months, o r t o both f i n e and imprisonment. 1960, c.2, s.9. P r e v e n t i v e and r e c o r d i n g measures. 10. Whenever, i n t h e o p i n i o n o f the M i n i s t e r , any p r e h i s t o r i c o r h i s -t o r i c r e main, whether or not d e s i g n a t e d as a p a r t of an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i t e under t h i s A c t , i s t h r e a t e n e d w i t h d e s t r u c t i o n by r e a s o n o f c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , o r o t h e r a c t i v i t y , the M i n i s t e r may r e q u i r e the 98.. p e r s o n s u n d e r t a k i n g the a c t i v i t y t o p r o v i d e f o r adequate i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r e c o r d i n g , and s a l v a g e o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c o b j e c t s t h r e a t e n e d w i t h d e s t r u c t i o n as the M i n i s t e r may d i r e c t . I 9 6 0 , c.2, s.10. Not i c e s . 11. The M i n i s t e r may make p r o v i s i o n f o r the e r e c t i o n and main-tenance on o r near any a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i t e o f an a p p r o p r i a t e n o t i c e r e f e r r i n g t o t h i s A c t . 1960, c.2, s.11. Agreements. 12. The M i n i s t e r may make p r o v i s i o n o r e n t e r i n t o agreement w i t h o t h e r a u t h o r i t i e s t o d e v e l o p any a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i t e as a p e r -manent monument by the e r e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e b u i l d i n g s , c a i r n s , n o t i c e s , o r by o t h e r means. 1960, c.2, s.12. A d v i s o r y Boards. 13. (1) The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , upon the recommen-d a t i o n o f the M i n i s t e r , may e s t a b l i s h an A d v i s o r y Board o r Boards t o a d v i s e and make recommendations t o him on any o r a l l m a t t e r s t o w h i c h t h i s A c t r e f e r s o r a r i s i n g o ut o f the o p e r a t i o n t h e r e o f . (2) Any A d v i s o r y Board o r Boards e s t a b l i s h e d under s u b s e c t i o n (1) s h a l l i n c l u d e the D i r e c t o r o f the P r o v i n c i a l Museum o f N a t u r a l H i s t o r y and A n t h r o p o l o g y o r h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t o r h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from the a p p r o p r i a t e department o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , o r any two o f them. (3) The members of the A d v i s o r y Board o r Boards s h a l l s e r v e w i t h -out r e m u n e r a t i o n , but each member s h a l l be p a i d h i s p r o p e r t r a v e l l i n g and o t h e r expenses i n c u r r e d i n t h e work o f the Board o r Boards. 1960, c.2, s.13. R e g u l a t i o n s . 14. The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may make such r e g u l a t i o n s and o r d e r s not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s A c t as a r e n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y out the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t . a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r o b v i o u s i n t e n t o r t o meet any c a s e s t h a t a r i s e and f o r wh i c h no p r o v i s i o n i s made i n t h i s A c t , and, w i t h o u t r e s t r i c t i n g t he g e n e r a l i t y o f the f o r e g o i n g , may make r e g u l a t i o n s o r o r d e r s (a) n o m i n a t i n g t h a t member o f the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l who s h a l l be t h e M i n i s t e r charged w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s A c t ; (b) a p p o i n t i n g t h e members o f the A d v i s o r y Board o r B o a r d s , f i x i n g t he number o f members o f such Board o r B o a r d s , f i x i n g the term o f o f f i c e o f the members, and p r e s c r i b i n g t h e quorum and p r o c e d u r e a t mee t i n g s o f t h e Board o r Bo a r d s ; (c) a p p r o v i n g o r d e r s made by the M i n i s t e r as p r o v i d e d h e r e i n . 1960, c.2, s.14. Repea1. 15. The H i s t o r i c O b j e c t s P r e s e r v a t i o n A c t , b e i n g c h a p t e r 145 of the R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1948, i s r e p e a l e d , but each s i t e 99. d e c l a r e d t o be a " h i s t o r i c o b j e c t " under t h a t A c t i s an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i t e w i t h i n the meaning o f t h i s A c t . 1960, c.2, s.15• Expenses. 16. Any expenses i n c u r r e d i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s A c t d u r i n g the f i s c a l y e a r e n d i n g on the t h i r t y - f i r s t day o f March, 1961, s h a l l be a c h a r g e on and p a i d out o f the C o n s o l i d a t e d Revenue Fund. 1960, c.2, s.16. C. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t (1972) (Copy) ( A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n Chap.h)  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . 1. In t h i s A c t , u n l e s s the c o n t e x t o t h e r w i s e r e q u i r e s , (a) " d e s i g n a t e d , " when used i n r e l a t i o n t o a s i t e o r an o b j e c t , means d e s i g n a t e d under s e c t i o n 2; and " d e s i g n a t e " and " d e s i g n a t i o n " have c o r r e s p o n d i n g meanings; (b) " m i n i s t e r " means the member of t h e E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l charged from time t o t i m e w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s A c t ; (c) " o b j e c t " means an o b j e c t o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i g -n i f i c a nce; (d) " p e r m i t " means a v a l i d and s u b s i s t i n g p e r m i t i s s u e d under t h i s A c t ; (e) " s i t e " means land o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , and i n c l u d e s l a n d c o v e r e d by w a t e r . 1972, ch, s.1. D e s i g n a t i o n by the m i n i s t e r . 2. (1) Where, i n the o p i n i o n of the m i n i s t e r , l a n d i s o f e x c e p t i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , he may, by o r d e r , d e s i g n a t e i t as an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e o r as an h i s t o r i c s i t e . (2) Where, i n the o p i n i o n o f the m i n i s t e r , an o b j e c t i s o f e x c e p t i o n a l a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , he may, by o r d e r , d e s i g n a t e i t as an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o b j e c t o r as an h i s t o r i c o b j e c t . (3) Where l a n d i s d e s i g n a t e d under t h i s s e c t i o n and i t i s shown t h a t the v a l u e o f the l a n d i s d i m i n i s h e d by r e a s o n o f the d e s i g n a t i o n , the m i n i s t e r s h a l l pay t o t h e owner an amount t o be d e t e r m i n e d by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l . 1972, ch, s.2. A c q u i s i t i o n s o f s i t e s and o b j e c t s . 3. The m i n i s t e r may, w i t h the c o n s e n t o f the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l and on b e h a l f o f the Crown, a c q u i r e , by p u r c h a s e , g i f t , o r l e a s e , any s i t e o r o b j e c t . 1972, ch, s.3-P r o h i b i t i o n s . h. No p e r s on o r agency s h a l l k n o w i n g l y (a) d e s t r o y , d e s e c r a t e , d e f a c e , move, e x c a v a t e , o r a l t e r i n any way a d e s i g n a t e d s i t e or remove from i t an o b j e c t ; (b) d e s t r o y , d e s e c r a t e , o r a l t e r a b u r i a l - p l a c e o r remove from i t s k e l e t a l r e m a i n s ; (c) d e s t r o y , d e f a c e , o r a l t e r an I n d i a n p a i n t i n g o r c a r v i n g on r o c k ; 100. (d) d e s t r o y , d e f a c e , a l t e r , e x c a v a t e , o r d i g i n an I n d i a n k i t c h e n -midden, s h e l l - h e a p , h o u s e - p i t , cave o r o t h e r h a b i t a t i o n s i t e , o r a c a i r n , mound, f o u n d a t i o n , o r o t h e r s i t e o r o b j e c t s i t u a t e d on Crown l a n d s , e x c e p t t o the e x t e n t and i n the manner t h a t he i s a u t h o r i z e d t o do so by a p e r m i t . 1972, ch, s.h. Issue o f permi t s . 5. (1) Upon a p p l i c a t i o n made t o him i n w r i t i n g , the m i n i s t e r may i s s u e a p e r m i t t o e x c a v a t e , o r a l t e r a s i t e and t o remove, move, o r a l t e r o b j e c t s from i t . (2) The m i n i s t e r may l i m i t a p e r m i t as t o time and l o c a t i o n , may r e q u i r e such r e p o r t s as he deems n e c e s s a r y o r p r o p e r , and may impose o t h e r terms and c o n d i t i o n s t h a t he c o n s i d e r s n e c e s s a r y o r p r o p e r . (3) The m i n i s t e r may c a n c e l o r suspend a p e r m i t a t any t i m e . 1972, ch, s . 5 . E x c a v a t i o n o f p r i v a t e l a n d . 6. Where a p e rson i s e x c a v a t i n g o r a l t e r i n g , w i t h the c o n s e n t o f the owner, a s i t e o r an o b j e c t t h a t i s not s i t u a t e d on Crown l a n d s o r t h a t has not been d e s i g n a t e d , the c o n s e n t o r agreement between t h a t p e r s o n and the owner s h a l l be deemed t o c o n t a i n the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s (a) t h a t the c o n s e n t o r agreement i s s u b j e c t t o s e c t i o n s h and 7; and (b) t h a t the p e r s on s h a l l r e p o r t t o the m i n i s t e r the r e s u l t s o f h i s f i n d i n g s and work, and s h a l l s ubmit t o the m i n i s t e r such r e p o r t s as the m i n i s t e r deems p r o p e r o r n e c e s s a r y ; and (c) t h a t the p e r s o n s h a l l not remove from the P r o v i n c e any o b j e c t d e r i v e d from the s i t e w i t h o u t t h e w r i t t e n c o n s e n t o f the m i n i s t e r . 1972, ch, s . 6 . P r e v e n t i v e measures. 7. (.1) For the purposes of t h i s s e c t i o n (a) " s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n " means the e x a m i n a t i o n o f a s i t e f o r the purpose of r e c o r d i n g , removing, moving o r s a l v a g i n g o b j e c t s ; (b) " s i t e s u r v e y " means the e x a m i n a t i o n o f l a n d f o r the purpose o f d e t e r m i n i n g the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l o r h i s t o r i c r e s o u r c e s of t h e 1 and. (2) Where, i n the o p i n i o n o f the m i n i s t e r , l a n d c o n t a i n s a s i t e t h a t i s l i k e l y t o be a l t e r e d , damaged, o r d e s t r o y e d by r e a s o n o f c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , r e s i d e n t i a l , o r o t h e r development o r a c t i v i t y , o r i s l i k e l y t o d e p r e c i a t e o r become d i l a p i d a t e d , he may (a) o r d e r a s i t e s u r v e y and, i f he c o n s i d e r s i t n e c e s s a r y , a s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; and (b) o r d e r the owner or p e r son r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development o r a c t i v i t y t o p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t f unds f o r the s i t e s u r v e y and, i f r e q u i r e d , the s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; and (c) o r d e r t h a t t h e development o r a c t i v i t y be suspended i n whole o r i n p a r t u n t i l the s i t e s u r v e y and, i f n e c e s s a r y , the s i t e i n v e s t i -g a t i o n , have been c o m p l e t e d . (.3) Where a s i t e s u r v e y or s i t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s o r d e r e d under sub-s e c t i o n (2), i t s h a l l be u n d e r t a k e n f o r t h w i t h and i n such a manner t h a t 101 . i t w i l l not cause undue h a r d s h i p on the owner o r p e r s o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development o r a c t i v i t y . 1972, ck, s . 7 -P e n a l t y . 8. A p e r s o n who c o n t r a v e n e s t h i s A c t , o r a p e r m i t o r d i r e c t i o n o f the m i n i s t e r under t h i s A c t , i s g u i l t y o f an o f f e n c e and i s l i a b l e , on summary c o n v i c t i o n , t o a p e n a l t y o f not more than one thousand d o l l a r s o r t o imprisonment f o r a term not e x c e e d i n g s i x months, or t o both the f i n e and the i mprisonment. 1972, ck, s . 8 . N o t i c e s . 9. The m i n i s t e r may e r e c t and m a i n t a i n on o r near any s i t e an app r o -p r i a t e n o t i c e r e f e r r i n g t o t h i s A c t . 1972, ch, s.S. Agreements. 10. The m i n i s t e r may, on b e h a l f o f the Crown, e n t e r i n t o an a g r e e -ment w i t h any p e r s o n o r agency r e s p e c t i n g the development, m a i n t e n a n c e , or r e n o v a t i o n o f any s i t e o r o b j e c t . 1972, c . 4 , s . 1 0 . A d v i s o r y b o a r d s . 11. (1) The L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may, upon the recom-mendation o f the m i n i s t e r , e s t a b l i s h a d v i s o r y boards t o a d v i s e and make recommendations t o him on any m a t t e r t o w h i c h t h i s A c t r e f e r s o r a r i s i n g out o f i t s o p e r a t i o n . (.2) Any a d v i s o r y board e s t a b l i s h e d under t h i s s e c t i o n s h a l l i n c l u d e the d i r e c t o r o f the P r o v i n c i a l Museum, the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v i s t , and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from each o f the p u b l i c u n i v e r s i t i e s i n the P r o v i n c e . (3) A member o f an a d v i s o r y board s h a l l s e r v e w i t h o u t r e u m u n e r a t i o n , but s h a l l be p a i d h i s p r o p e r t r a v e l l i n g and o t h e r expenses i n c u r r e d i n the work of the b o a r d . 1972, ck, s . 1 1 . . R e g u l a t i o n s . 12. For t h e purpose o f c a r r y i n g o u t the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t a c c o r d -ing t o t h e i r i n t e n t , the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may make such r e g u l a t i o n s and o r d e r s as a r e a n c i l l a r y t h e r e t o and not i n c o n s i s t e n t t h e r e -w i t h and as a r e c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y or a d v i s a b l e ; and e v e r y r e g u l a t i o n o r o r d e r made under t h i s s e c t i o n s h a l l be deemed p a r t o f the A c t and has the f o r c e o f law. 1972, ck, s . 1 2 . A c t r e p e a l e d . 13- ( l ) The A r c h a e o l o g i c a l and H i s t o r i c S i t e s P r o t e c t i o n A c t i s r e -p e a l e d . (2) N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g s u b s e c t i o n ( l ) , e v e r y d e s i g n a t i o n made and e v e r y p e r m i t i s s u e d under the forme r A c t c o n t i n u e s good and v a l i d , and may be r e s c i n d e d , v a r i e d , e n f o r c e d , o r o t h e r w i s e d e a l t w i t h under the p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t . 1972, ck, s . 13. 102. Commencement. 14. (1) T h i s A c t , e x c e p t i n g t h i s s e c t i o n , comes i n t o f o r c e on a day t o be f i x e d by the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r by h i s P r o c l a m a t i o n and he may f i x d i f f e r e n t d a t e s f o r the coming i n t o f o r c e o f the s e v e r a l p r o v i s i o n s o f t h i s A c t . (2) T h i s s e c t i o n comes i n t o f o r c e on Royal A s s e n t . 1972, ck, s.14. (NOTE.-Act p r o c l a i m e d i n f o r c e May 11, 1972, P a r t II G a z e t t e V o l . 15, p.419.) 1 0 3 . 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