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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Sophia Theresa Pemberton : her life and art Tuele, Nicholas 1980

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SOPHIA THERESA PEMBERTON: HER LIFE AND ART by NICHOLAS CRAIG TUELE B.A., University of V i c t o r i a , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Art History We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1980 (c) Nicholas Craig Tuele In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of A r t H i s t o r y The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date A p r i l , 1980 i i ABSTRACT' S o p h i a T h e r e s a Pemberton was b o r n i n 1869 and d i e d i n 1959. She was r a i s e d i n one o f t h e a f f l u e n t and s o c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t f a m i l i e s o f l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A t an e a r l y a ge, S o p h i e , as she was known t h r o u g h o u t h e r l i f e , r e c e i v e d l e s s o n s i n d r a w i n g , p a i n t i n g , and m u s i c . I n t h i s s he was l i k e most young women o f h e r c l a s s and u p b r i n g i n g . U n l i k e h e r p e e r s S o p h i e d e c i d e d t o p u r s u e a c a r e e r as a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t and by t h e e a r l y 1880's was s e e k i n g a r t i s t i c t r a i n i n g . S o p h i e e x c e l l e d i n h e r l e s s o n s and was soo n e s t a b l i s h e d as a p r o m i s i n g a r t i s t w i t h an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n . Her work was known t o t h e c r i t i c s i n W e s t e r n Canada, E n g l a n d and t h e c a p i t a l o f t h e a r t w o r l d - P a r i s . She e x h i b i t e d e x t e n -s i v e l y a t t h e R o y a l Academy, t h e S a l o n and i n g r o u p and i n d i v i d u a l shows d u r i n g t h e l a s t y e a r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d t h e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . Her c a r e e r came t o an a b r u p t e nd s h o r t l y a f t e r h e r f i r s t m a r r i a g e . I n t h e y e a r s s i n c e h e r l a s t e x h i b i t i o n as a p r a c t i s i n g a r t i s t s he has s l i p p e d i n t o s e m i - o b s c u r i t y and has b e e n v i r -t u a l l y o v e r l o o k e d by t h e p u b l i c and i n t h e p a g e s o f C a n a d i a n A r t H i s t o r y . Her modest a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s as an a r t i s t and h e r o u t s t a n d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t as t h e f i r s t woman a r t i s t t o w i n t h e P r i x J u l i a n , i n 1899, a r e o n l y b r i e f l y m e n t i o n e d i n t h e s t a n -d a r d C a n a d i a n A r t H i s t o r y t e x t s . I n s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e d e t a i l s o f S o p h i e ' s l i f e I have r e f e r r e d t o numerous n e w s p a p e r s and j o u r n a l s o f h e r day. As w e l l , I have b e n e f i t t e d f r o m i n t e r v i e w s w i t h h e r two n i e c e s Mrs. A.L. H a r v e y and M r s . C. Holmes. B o t h women, a d v a n c e d i n y e a r s , have v i v i d a nd d e t a i l e d memories o f t h e i r a u n t w i t h whom t h e y s p e n t a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e as young women. F i n a l l y , I was g i v e n a c c e s s t o many d i a r i e s and l e t t e r s o f S o p h i e ' s by v a r i o u s f a m i l y members. A l l o f t h e p a i n t i n g s l o c a t e d f o r t h i s t h e s i s were f o u n d i n f a m i l y c o l l e c t i o n s , t h e A r t G a l l e r y o f G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a and t h e B.C. P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . My t h e s i s w i l l show t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e b r e v i t y o f S o p h i e ' s c a r e e r , a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s p o u s e d i s a p p r o v a l , i l l h e a l t h and an u n f o r t u n a t e a c c i d e n t . P o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h e de m i s e o f h e r r e p u t a t i o n a r e g i v e n - modest a r t i s t i c o u t p u t , c h a n g i n g t a s t e s and t h e f a c t t h a t most o f h e r works r e m a i n e d i n f a m i l y c o l l e c t i o n s . A l s o , a b r i e f a r t i s t i c a n a l y s i s shows t h e r a n g e and s c o p e o f S o p h i e ' s e f f o r t s and i n d i c a t e s t h a t , had h e r c a r e e r c o n t i n u e d , she m i g h t w e l l have d e v e l o p e d a more h i g h l y d i s t i n c t i v e and p e r s o n a l a r t i s t i c s t a t e m e n t . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction 1-II . Her L i f e and Art 7. I I I . Conclusion 84. IV. Notes 89. V. Bibliography 99. VI. Appendices 104. i v ILLUSTRATIONS 1. C a r d i n a l 4 2. P l a s t e r C a s t 8 3. Nude 13 4. Boy w i t h G r a p e s 18 5. M a n s i 2 2 6. L i t t l e Boy B l u e 27 7. B i b i l a P u r e e 31 8. I n t e r e s t e d 34 9. John-o-Drearns 38 10. S p r i n g 42 11. S i r H e n r i J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e 46 12. M r s. J.D. Pemberton 51 13. I t a l i a n P e a s a n t Woman 54 14. I n t e r i o r o f an I r i s h C a b i n , W e s t p o r t 58 15. S u s i e 61 16. R e j e c t e d 65 17. Penumbra 69 18. C a n o i s t s 73 19. The S e i n e 76 20. M a c a u l a y P l a i n s 80 21. A P r o s p e r o u s S e t t l e r 83 22. L a d y s l i p p e r 88 1 I . I n t r o d u c t i o n C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t a r t i s t s , f r o m t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n i n e -t e e n t h c e n t u r e t o W o r l d War I , t r a v e l l e d t o E u r o p e t o c o m p l e t e t h e i r a r t i s t i c t r a i n i n g . S t u d e n t s f r o m Nova S c o t i a t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , l i k e t h e i r A m e r i c a n c o u n t e r p a r t s , s o u g h t t h e l a t e s t s c h o o l i n g a v a i l a b l e f r o m E u r o p e a n m a s t e r s . I t has been e s t i -m ated t h a t more t h a n one h u n d r e d f i f t y a s p i r i n g C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s a l o n e t r a v e l l e d t o E n g l a n d , F r a n c e and o t h e r E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . ^ T h e s e " w i l l i n g e x i l e s " , a l o n g w i t h t h o u s a n d s o f E u r o p e a n s t u d e n t s , were i n v o l v e d i n t h e " o f f i c i a l " a r t w o r l d . A l t h o u g h t h e s e C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s c o u l d , and d i d , s t u d y a t E a s t e r n a r t s c h o o l s and s c h o o l s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e y g e n e r a l l y c o m p l e t e d t h e i r c r e d e n t i a l s by s t u d y a b r o a d . The E u r o p e a n o f f i c i a l s y s t e m was c o m p r i s e d o f a r i g o r o u s and e x a c t i n g t r a i n i n g w i t h e m p h a s i s on t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s . L o n g y e a r s o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p were n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e a c a d e m i c s a n c t i o n 2 and o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n c o u l d be b e s t o w e d . C o m p e t i t i o n was f i e r c e f o r t h e v a r i o u s p r i z e s , m e d a l s and c e r t i f i c a t e s w h i c h marked t h e s t e a d y advancement o f t h e d e d i c a t e d s t u d e n t a r t i s t . U l t i m a t e l y t h e g o a l was t h e P r i x de Rome; a v i r t u a l g u a r a n t e e o f s u c c e s s , fame and f o r t u n e . I t was t h i s o f f i c i a l , a c a d e m i c a r t s y s t e m w h i c h t h e young S o p h i e Pemberton d e c i d e d 3 t o g r a p p l e w i t h by 1890. A l t h o u g h t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y saw more and more women a r t i s t s e n t e r i n g t h e s y s t e m and a c h i e v i n g d i s t i n c t i o n , change was g r a d u a l . 4 Women s t u d e n t s were n o t p e r m i t t e d i n t o t h e l i f e c l a s s e s u n t i l t h e e i g h t i e s . V i c t o r i a n 2 a t t i t u d e s p r e v a i l e d and p r o p e r young l a d i e s s i m p l y d i d n o t v i e w t h e naked human body. W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f s e g r e g a t e d l i f e c l a s s e s women had g r e a t e r a c c e s s t o t h e more t h o r o u g h t r a i n i n g men s t u d e n t s had e n j o y e d ; however, t h e r e were s t i l l p a i n f u l l y a b s u r d r e s t r i c t i o n s . M a l e m o d e l s , f o r example, were r e q u i r e d t o wear y a r d s and y a r d s o f m a t e r i a l a s l o i n c l o t h s t o e f f e c t i v e l y c o n c e a l t h e o f f e n s i v e p a r t s o f t h e male anatomy. I n f a c t , a l l t h e c l a s s e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n were s e g r e g a t e d and women r e c e i v e d l e s s t i m e and f e w e r c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n s o f t h e i r work.^ T h e r e a r e a v a r i e t y o f a r t i s t ' s a c c o u n t s f r o m t h e l a s t h a l f o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w h i c h c h r o n i c l e d e t a i l s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n and c o n d i t i o n s f o u n d i n t h e numerous a t e l i e r s o f t h e E u r o p e a n a c a d e m i c a r t w o r l d . E s p e c i a l l y v i v i d i s t h e j o u r n a l o f a young R u s s i a n noblewoman who a t t e n d e d t h e A c a d e m i e 7 J u l i a n i n t h e l a t e 1870's. R o d o l p h e J u l i a n (1839-1907) opened h i s A c a d e m i e i n 1868 and by t h e 1880's h i s was g e n e r a l l y c o n c e d e d t o be t h e f i n e s t 8 i n s t i t u t i o n a t w h i c h a woman c o u l d r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n . M a r i e B a s h k i r t s e f f d e s c r i b e d t h e h o u r s a t J u l i a n ' s as b e i n g " f r o m e i g h t i n t h e m o r n i n g t i l l noon, and f r o m one i n t h e 9 a f t e r n o o n t o f i v e " . The s y s t e m o f c r i t i q u e s i s r e f e r r e d t o i n an e n t r y f o r S a t u r d a y , O c t o b e r 13: " I t i s on S a t u r d a y t h a t M. Tony R o b e r t - F l e u r y comes t o t h e s t u d i o . He i s t h e a r t i s t who p a i n t e d L e D e r n i e r  J o u r de C o r i n t h e , w h i c h was p u r c h a s e d by t h e S t a t e f o r Luxembourg. The most d i s t i n g u i s h e d a r t i s t s o f P a r i s come t o t h e s t u d i o f r o m t i m e t o t i m e t o g i v e us t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e i r a d v i c e . " 3 By a l l a c c o u n t s t h o s e v i s i t s " f r o m t i m e t i m e " were r a t h e r i n f r e q u e n t i n t h e women's s t u d i o s . N e a r l y a month l a t e r t h e a u t h o r r e f e r s t o t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f t h e a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l u m . On Monday, November 26 M a r i e w r o t e : " I t o o k my f i r s t l e s s o n i n anatomy a t f o u r o ' c l o c k t o - d a y , j u s t a f t e r my d r a w i n g l e s s o n . I t l a s t e d t i l l h a l f - p a s t f o u r . M. C u y e r i s my t e a c h e r ; he was s e n t t o me by M a t h i a s D u v a l , who has p r o m i s e d t o o b t a i n p e r m i s s i o n f o r me t o v i s i t t h e S c h o o l o f F i n e A r t s . I began w i t h t h e b o n e s , o f c o u r s e , and one o f my b u r e a u d r a w e r s i s f u l l o f v e r t e b r a e - n a t u r a l o n e s . T h i s i s f r i g h t f u l when one t h i n k s t h a t t h e o t l j i j r two c o n t a i n p e r f u m e d p a p e r , v i s i t i n g c a r d s , e t c . " M a r i e was s o o n t h o r o u g h l y e n g r o s s e d i n t h e demanding t r a i n i n g w h i c h S o p h i e Pemberton was t o u n d e r t a k e a few y e a r s l a t e r . S t u d y i n t h e a t e l i e r s f o l l o w e d an e x a c t i n g r e g i m e n w h i c h was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e m a i n p a r t s . The f i r s t , e l e m e n t a r y d r a w i n g , was f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o "modeles de d e s s i n " and "a l a b o s s e . " The f o r m e r were p a i n s t a k i n g c o p i e s o f e n g r a v i n g s w h i l e t h e l a t t e r i n v o l v e d d r a w i n g a f t e r t h e p l a s t e r c a s t . When a s t u d e n t had d e m o n s t r a t e d p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e s e b a s i c > 12 d r a w i n g e x e r c i s e s she moved on and p a s s e d "a l a n a t u r e " . The s e c o n d m a i n a r e a o f i n s t r u c t i o n , "a l a n a t u r e " , was d r a w i n g t h e l i v e m o d e l . W i t h p e n c i l , o r more commonly c h a r -c o a l , t h e s t u d e n t s p e n t many h o u r s i n an e f f o r t t o g a i n m a s t e r y o f f i g u r e d r a w i n g . E a r l i e r l e s s o n s , a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y d r a w i n g l e v e l , w ere i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h i s i n t e r m e d i a r y s t a g e o f i n -s t r u c t i o n . The " a c a d e m i e " , o r l i f e d r a w i n g , o n c e m a s t e r e d , a l l o w e d t h e s t u d e n t a r t i s t f i n a l l y , t o u s e o i l p a i n t a n d p r o c e e d t o t h e l a s t l e v e l o f i n s t r u c t i o n . FIGURE 1. C a r d i n a l , 1890, P e n c i l on P a p e r 50 x 34 cm., A r t G a l l e r y o f Gr. V i c t o r i a 5 A t t h i s f i n a l l e v e l t h e a s p i r i n g a r t i s t made p a i n t s k e t c h e s o f t h e l i v e m o d e l an d a l s o c o p i e s t h e p r o f e s s o r ' s own work o r , more i m p o r t a n t l y , t h e O l d M a s t e r s . R o b e r t H a r r i s has l e f t us a d e l i g h t f u l a c c o u n t o f a number o f s t u d e n t s d i l i -g e n t l y c o p y i n g O l d M a s t e r s a t t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y : "On T h u r s d a y I went t o t h e N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y and began a c o p y o f a p o r t r a i t by V e l a s q u e z . On T h u r s d a y s and F r i d a y s o n l y s t u d e n t s a r e a d m i t t e d b u t t h e y a r e t h e r e by h u n d r e d s . T h e r e a r e a l w a y s e a s e l s a r o u n d t h e g o od p i c t u r e s . I am i n a v e r y b a d p l a c e a t my p i c t u r e . T h e r e were t h r e e i n b e f o r e me so I c a n ' t g e t a f a i r c h a n c e . However as I am f u r t h e r on t h a n t h e o t h e r s I d o n ' t m ind. The l a d y who has t h e b e s t p l a c e i s a p o o r s t i c k and d o e s n ' t u n d e r s t a n d t h e p i c t u r e she i s t r y i n g t o c o p y , b u t she i s s e t o f f by a l i t t l e d u f f e r o f a man who i s t h e most p r e p o s t e r o u s d a u b e r i n t h e p l a c e . I d o n ' t t h i n k I e v e r saw a n y t h i n g so u t t e r l y h i d e o u s a s t h e l e e r i n g m o n s t e r he i s c r e a t i n g , and what adds t o t h e s o l e m n i t y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i s t h e l i t t l e f e l l o w ' s e v i d e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n . He s t e p s b a c k , c o c k s h i s h e a d t o one s i d e , and t h e n g i v e s h i s c a n v a s a w i p e , f i n i s h i n g o f f w i t h a d e x t r o u s f l o u r i s h o f h i s b r u s h i n t h e a i r . He seems t o have a g o o d many r e s p e c t a b l e f r i e n d s . He seems so d o g g e d he may mend. The o t h e r i s a young l a d y and i s g e t t i n g on b e t t e r as f a r as she has gone. I t h i n k she must be one o f t h e S o u t h K e n s i n g t o n s t u d e n t s by t h e way she w o r k s . She g e t s w o r s e as she b e g i n s t o p a i n t , b u t she d i f f e r s f r o m t h e l i t t l e d u f f e r i n t h a t she s e e s i t , and e v e r y now and t h e n h e a v e s s u c h a deep s i g h t h a t a l l t h e e a s e l s r a t t l e . " A f t e r t h e s e l o n g , a r d u o u s h o u r s o f p r a c t i c e t h e s t u d e n t p r o g r e s s e d t o t h e l a s t s t a g e o f t h e t h i r d l e v e l and e x e c u t e d an " e s q u i s s e p e i n t e " . T h i s was a m a j o r o i l s k e t c h , o f any s u b j e c t , w h i c h a f f o r d e d t h e s t u d e n t an o p p o r t u n i t y t o demon-s t r a t e h e r m a s t e r y o f a l l t h e a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l u m . The l o n g and demanding a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g was e a g e r l y s o u g h t a f t e r by many t h o u s a n d s o f s t u d e n t s and c o m p e t i t i o n was k e e n t o g e t i n t o t h e a r t s c h o o l s and a t e l i e r s . A c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f c ompetence was r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a d m i t t a n c e and t h a t competence was g e n e r a l l y t h e r e s u l t o f y e a r s o f i n d i v i d u a l 6 study with private tutoring, i f affordable. Sophie Pemberton was more than adequately prepared for her formal art ins t r u c -t i o n and she was to di s t i n g u i s h herself as no woman student had done before her. This thesis w i l l deal with Sophie's l i f e and her ar t . Through newspaper accounts, personal journals, l e t t e r s , and interviews with those who knew her I have reconstructed some of the s a l i e n t d e t a i l s of her l i f e . Her student e f f o r t s , as well, are analyzed within the academic framework detailed above. F i n a l l y , I have focused on some of her smaller, more personal works i n an e f f o r t to reveal the breadth and depth I perceive i n Sophie's a r t . These smaller works demonstrate that, had her career continued to f r u i t i o n , she might well have established a more personal a r t i s t i c s t y l e as she devel-oped beyond the bounds of her academic t r a i n i n g . 7 I I . H e r L i f e a n d A r t S o p h i e T h e r e s a P e m b e r t o n was b o r n i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o n F e b r u a r y 1 3 , 1869. Of t h e t h r e e s o n s a n d d a u g h t e r s i n t h e P e m b e r t o n f a m i l y , S o p h i e was h e r f a t h e r ' s f a v o r i t e . " ^ The two o f t e n w e n t f o r l o n g w a l k s i n P e m b e r t o n Wood and t h e y 2 r e m a i n e d c l o s e u n t i l h i s d e a t h i n 1 8 9 3 . L i k e a l l y o u n g l a d i e s r a i s e d i n w e a l t h y a n d r e s p e c t a b l e V i c t o r i a n f a m i l i e s , S o p h i e h a d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n d r a w i n g , p a i n t i n g , a n d m u s i c . She was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n d r a w i n g a n d p a i n t i n g a n d a t an e a r l y age d e m o n s t r a t e d some t a l e n t f o r t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s . S o p h i e r e c e i v e d h e r f i r s t s c h o o l i n g a t M r s . C r i d g e ' s R e f o r m e d E p i s c o p a l S c h o o l a n d was a w a r d e d a n H o n o u r a b l e M e n t i o n 3 f o r p a i n t i n g i n a s c h o o l c o n t e s t when o n l y t h i r t e e n y e a r s o l d . H e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e v i s u a l a r t s c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t h e r t e e n a g e y e a r s a s she a p p l i e d h e r s e l f w i t h i n c r e a s i n g d i l i g e n c e t o h e r s t u d i e s . T h e r e a r e no r e f e r e n c e s t o a n y i n s t r u c t o r s s h e may h a v e 4 h a d i n t h e f r o n t i e r c o m m u n i t y o f V i c t o r i a . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s he was s e r i o u s a b o u t h e r e f f o r t s and l a t e r n e w s p a p e r a c c o u n t s t e l l o f t h e l o n g h o u r s s h e s p e n t i n t h e d r a u g h t y s t u d i o a t t h e 5 f a m i l y home: " I n t h e t o w e r o f ' G o n z a l e s ' was t h e s t u d i o , w i t h s o u t h w i n d o w s l o o k i n g t o t h e s e a and m o u n t a i n s , a n d a n o r t h l i g h t , and d a y a f t e r d a y a n d n i g h t a f t e r n i g h t a y o u n g g i r l w o r k e d a t h e r p a i n t i n g t h e r e . " The l a r g e s t u d i o was i m p o s s i b l e t o h e a t a n d t h e y o u n g a r t i s t was o f t e n i l l w i t h a c o l d . P o o r h e a l t h was t o p l a g u e S o p h i e t h r o u g h o u t h e r l i f e t i m e , h o w e v e r , e v e n a t an e a r l y age s h e p u r s u e d h e r s t u d i e s w i t h u n d a u n t e d e n t h u s i a s m . D a t e s FIGURE 2. P l a s t e r C a s t , c. 1890, O i l on C a n v a s 61 x 51 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n 9 a r e v a g u e , b u t sometime i n t h e l a t e 1880's S o p h i e a t t e n d e d t h e San F r a n c i s c o S c h o o l o f A r t . L i k e many C a n a d i a n a r t s t u d e n t s who c o u l d a f f o r d i t , S o p h i e r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s p r i o r t o a t t e n d i n g t h e more p r e s t i g i o u s s c h o o l s 7 o f t h e E u r o p e a n A r t W o r l d . S o p h i e ' s a p p e t i t e f o r a more t h o r o u g h t r a i n i n g was o n l y w h e t t e d by h e r b r i e f s t a y i n San F r a n c i s c o . A g a i n , l i k e h e r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s f r o m a l l o v e r N o r t h A m e r i c a , S o p h i e r e a l i z e d t h e v a l u e — i n f a c t , n e a r n e c e s s i t y - o f a c o n t i n e n t a l f i n i s h t o h e r a r t i s t i c t r a i n i n g . The a d d i t i o n o f a E u r o p e a n p e r i o d o f s t u d y t o an a r t i s t ' s c r e d e n t i a l s was o f paramount i m p o r -t a n c e i n t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y c o m p e t i t i v e C a n a d i a n a r t s c e n e . By 1890 S o p h i e ' s p e r s i s t e n t p l e a s f i n a l l y p e r s u a d e d h e r r e -l u c t a n t p a r e n t s t o a l l o w t h e i r d e t e r m i n e d d a u g h t e r t o t r a v e l a b r o a d . T h i s , i n i t s e l f , was a v i c t o r y f o r S o p h i e c o n s i d e r i n g t h e e n t r e n c h e d p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t women a r t i s t s . U n d o u b t e d l y h e r w e a l t h y , u p p e r - c l a s s p a r e n t s had m i s g i v i n g s a b o u t h e r s t u d i o work a t home and t h e y had t o overcome deep r e s e r v a t i o n s b e f o r e a l l o w i n g t h e i r young d a u g h t e r t o t r a v e l t o E n g l a n d t o g c o n t i n u e h e r s t u d i e s . As an u n i d e n t i f i e d c o l u m n i s t was t o remark much l a t e r : " I t was a l l v e r y w e l l , t h e y s a i d , f o r a young l a d y o f t h e '80's and '90's t o p a i n t n e a t w a t e r c o l o u r i n g s t o p a s s t h e t i m e . B u t why d i d S o p h i e have t o be so am-b i t i o u s - a s i f she were a man? O n l y men were g r e a t p a i n t e r s l and h e r e was t h e i r d a u g h t e r p a i n t i n g on huge c a n v a s e s and y e a r n i n g t o s t u d y i n P a r i s and L o n d o n . " S o p h i e was j u s t t w e n t y - o n e y e a r s o l d when she s a i l e d f o r L ondon, E n g l a n d . Her g o a l was t h e Cape N i c h o l S c h o o l 10 o f A r t i n S o u t h K e n s i n g t o n . " ^ She s t u d i e d h a r d and c o n t i n u e d t o a p p l y h e r s e l f w i t h i n d u s t r y . F r i e n d s and f a m i l y were a n x i o u s a b o u t h e r p r o g r e s s and t h e t o l l w h i c h l o n g h o u r s o f work were t o t a k e on h e r h e a l t h . N o n e t h e l e s s , s t u d e n t works f r o m t h i s p e r i o d d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t S o p h i e was l e a r n i n g h e r l e s s o n s w e l l and t h a t she was a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e d f o r h e r f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n . L o n g h o u r s o f p r a c t i c e s u s t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t h e r t e e n a g e y e a r s and t h e b r i e f s t a y a t San F r a n c i s c o more t h a n h e l p e d h e r w i t h t h e a r t i s t i c e x e r c i s e o f t h e E u r o p e a n a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l u m . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e p e n c i l d r a w i n g C a r d i n a l d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e t h o r o u g h n e s s w i t h w h i c h she had p r e p a r e d h e r s e l f . I n t h i s d r a w i n g ( F i g u r e 1) S o p h i e e m p l o y e d b o t h o f t h e two a c a d e m i c -a l l y a c c e p t a b l e d r a w i n g t e c h n i q u e s . The " h a c h u r e " , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c r o s s h a t c h i n g s , i s s e e n i n t h e v e s t m e n t s and b a c k g r o u n d . T h i s t e c h n i q u e p r o v i d e d t h e a r t i s t w i t h a method o f c a p t u r i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f l i g h t and s hade. The "estompe" t e c h n i q u e r e q u i r e d a s m a l l c y l i n d r i c a l r o l l o f p a p e r w i t h a p o i n t e d end. T h i s d e v i c e was u s e d t o smudge t h e p e n c i l l i n e s i n t h e f a c e o f t h e C a r d i n a l and t h e s o f t , smooth m o d e l l i n g e f f e c t c o n v e y s t h e t a c t i l e s e n s a t i o n o f s k i n . S o p h i e ' s "modele de d e s s i n " , a c o p y o f an e n g r a v i n g , shows h e r e a r l y m a s t e r y o f d r a f t s m a n s h i p e v e n a t t h e f i r s t m a j o r l e v e l o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l u m . The s e c o n d m a j o r a r e a o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l u m i s s e e n i n S o p h i e ' s o i l s k e t c h P l a s t e r C a s t ( F i g u r e 2). A f t e r p a s s i n g "a l a b o s s e " and m a s t e r i n g t h e c h a r c o a l o r p e n c i l s k e t c h i n g o f c a s t s , t h e s t u d e n t s were 11 a l l o w e d t o u s e p a i n t . I n t h i s o i l s k e t c h S o p h i e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e i m p o r t a n t l e s s o n s o f l i g h t and shade and t h e i r r e l a t i o n -s h i p t o m o d e l l i n g . She a c c o m p l i s h e d t h e t r a n s i t i o n s f r o m l i g h t t o d a r k t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f h a l f - t o n e s and was s u c c e s s -f u l i n c r e a t i n g a s o f t l y m o d e l l e d s t u d y . The l i l i e s f l y i n g o u t o f t h e d a r k b a c k g r o u n d s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s p a i n t i n g was n o t done a t s c h o o l where t h e p r o f e s s o r may have f r o w n e d on s u c h a f r i v o l o u s a d d i t i o n ; and y e t i t i s t h i s v e r y a d d i t i o n w h i c h d r a m a t i c a l l y p r o v i d e s t h e " e f f e t " . The p r o b l e m o f t h e " e f f e t " was a complex one and u n d e r s c o r e s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f w o r k i n g w i t h t h e " b o s s e " as an i n t e r m e d i a r y s t a g e p r i o r t o a c t u a l s t u d y o f t h e l i v e m o d e l . P r a c t i c a l l y , t h e c a s t s were e a s i e r and c h e a p e r t o o b t a i n t h a n l i v e m o d e l s . They c o u l d be r e a d i l y moved a b o u t and o n c e p o s i t i o n e d w o u l d r e m a i n i m m o b i l e f o r t h e l o n g p e r i o d s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s t u d e n t ' s p a i n s t a k i n g e f f o r t s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h e c a s t s p r e s e n t e d t h e s t u d e n t s w i t h a l e s s o n i n t h e a r t o f t h e a n t i q u e w o r l d . The p l a s t e r c a s t s were o f o r i g i n a l c l a s s i c a l s c u l p t u r e s and a r c h i t e c t u r a l f a c a d e s . T h e r e were p u b l i c c o l l e c t i o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d e n t s t u d y , s u c h as t h o s e a t t h e V i c t o r i a and A l b e r t , t h e B r i t i s h Museum, t h e C o u r V i t r e e i n t h e P a l a i s d e s E t u d e s , and most a t e l i e r s had t h e i r own e x t e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n s o f a l l s h a p e s , s i z e s and k i n d s . ^ The p l a s t e r c a s t s were as p r o l i f i c a t e a c h i n g a i d as a r e t o d a y ' s Kodachrome s l i d e s b u t t h e y h a d a d e c i d e d a d v a n t a g e i n t h a t t h e y p r o v i d e d t h e s c a l e o f t h e o r i g i n a l . As w e l l , t h e c a s t s , w i t h t h e i r smooth, r e f l e c t i v e , w h i t e s u r f a c e s were an i d e a l medium t o t e a c h t h e s t u d e n t a r t i s t 12 a b o u t t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e " e f f e t " . Boime,. i n h i s t e x t The Academy and F r e n c h P a i n t i n g , d e s c r i b e s t h i s as " t h e u n i f i e d 12 r e l a t i o n s o f p l a n e s o f l i g h t and d a r k v a l u e s " . The " e f f e t " was one o f t h e e s s e n t i a l c o n c e r n s o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a c a d e m i c a r t i s t s and s t u d e n t s were r e q u i r e d t o s p e n d h o u r s r e - c o n s t r u c t i n g g r a d a t i o n s f r o m l i g h t t o d a r k i n t h e i r a c a -demic e x e r c i s e s . S o p h i e ' s o i l s k e t c h shows h e r s t u d e n t c o n c e r n f o r t h e " e f f e t " . The m a j o r l i g h t s o u r c e i s o f f c a n v a s u p p e r - r i g h t and t h e d a r k e s t a r e a i s l o w e r l e f t . The b r i l l i a n t h i g h l i g h t s on t h e p l a s t e r c a s t ' s l e f t s h o u l d e r , l e f t c h e e k , and n o s e r e f l e c t t h e d i r e c t l i g h t s o u r c e . T h r o u g h a s u c c e s s i o n o f h a l f -t o n e s f r o m t h e h i g h - l i g h t s t o t h e a r e a s i n shadow, s u c h as t h e n e c k u n d e r t h e c h i n and t h e r i g h t s i d e o f t h e t u r n e d f a c e , S o p h i e h a s c r e a t e d a g ood s e n s e o f m o d e l l i n g . T h a t i s , t h e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l i t y o f t h e p l a s t e r c a s t has b e e n c a p t u r e d on t h e t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l s u r f a c e o f t h e p a i n t e d c a n v a s . As m e n t i o n e d above, t h e w h i m s i c a l t o u c h o f t h e l i l i e s u n d e r s c o r e s t h e " e f f e t " as t h e s e b e l i e v a b l e s p l a s h e s o f l i g h t d a n c e o u t o f t h e d a r k g l o o m o f t h e a r e a i n shadow. C l e a r l y , S o p h i e was m a k i n g good p r o g r e s s i n h e r s t u d i e s and h e r t a l e n t , a m b i t i o n a n d c a p a c i t y f o r h a r d work were t o be r e w a r d e d . I n J u l y o f 1893 t h e D a i l y C o l o n i s t newspaper i n V i c t o r i a c a r r i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g n o t i c e : " A t t h e r e c e n t e x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h e S c h o o l s o f A r t a t S o u t h K e n s i n g t o n , M i s s S o p h i e Pemberton p a s s e d f i r s t i n l i f e , f i r s t i n a n t i q u e , and f i r s t i n s t i l l l i f e . I n a n t i q u e M i s s Pemberton was t h e o n l y s t u d e n t who o b t a i n e d a f i r s t . T h e s e a r e t h e t h r e e h i g h e s t e x a m i n a t i o n s i n a r t h e l d a t S o u t h K e n s i n g t o n .... I t i s a l w a y s v e r y g r a t i f y i n g FIGURE 3. Nude, n . d . , P e n c i l on P a p e r 64 x 20 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n 14 t o h e a r o f t h e s u c c e s s e s o f young V i c t o r i a n s c o m p e t i n g f o r d i s t i n c t i o n i n t h e o l d c o u n t r y . " The w r i t e r was c o r r e c t i n r e p o r t i n g h e r f i r s t c l a s s marks, however, she was n o t t h e o n l y s t u d e n t t o a c h i e v e f i r s t i n a n t i q u e . S t i l l , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t , o f t h e more t h a n one t h o u s a n d c a n d i d a t e s s i t t i n g f o r e a c h e x a m i n a t i o n , l e s s t h a n 7% w o u l d r e c e i v e f i r s t s , S o p h i e was, i n d e e d , o b t a i n i n g " d i s -14 t m c t i o n i n t h e o l d c o u n t r y . " No d o u b t h e r f a m i l y was most i m p r e s s e d w i t h h e r accom-p l i s h m e n t . F i r s t i n a n t i q u e and s t i l l l i f e was a c h i e v e m e n t enough; b u t a f i r s t i n t h e l i f e c l a s s was e x c e p t i o n a l . Women had g a i n e d a c c e s s t o l i f e c l a s s e s o n l y a s r e c e n t l y as t h e e a r l y 1880's. S o p h i e was t o m a i n t a i n h e r h i g h s t a n d i n g d u r i n g t h e n e x t c o u p l e o f y e a r s and on t h e E x a m i n a t i o n i n D r a w i n g f r o m L i f e , May 2, 1896 she a g a i n a c h i e v e d a f i r s t c l a s s mark. O n l y 156 o f t h e 1,228 c a n d i d a t e s d i d s o . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e s e marks w h i c h S o p h i e r e c e i v e d were f o r t h e N a t i o n a l D i p l o m a i n D e s i g n . The S o u t h K e n s i n g t o n S c h o o l , e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1853, was t h e p i n n a c l e o f a n a t i o n a l a r t s c h o o l s y s t e m w h i c h , i n 1864, i n c l u d e d n i n e t y p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l s t e a c h i n g 16,000 s t u d e n t s whose o b j e c t i v e was t h e N.D.D. By t h e end o f t h e c e n t u r y t h i s s y s t e m had grown t o t h r e e h u n d r e d s c h o o l s t e a c h i n g t h o u s a n d s o f " d a b b l i n g f e e p a y i n g a m a t e u r s . " ^ By t h e 1880's t h i s e n t i r e s y s t e m was u n d e r s e v e r e a t t a c k and t h e c r i t i c s n o t e d t h a t i t was a " c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h o s e v a l u e s w h i c h t h e l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s c o u l d u n d e r s t a n d , and t o 16 n o t h i n g e l s e . " The S o u t h K e n s i n g t o n System, as i t was known, 15 was a s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g one w h i c h t u r n e d o u t i t s own t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e b e s t s t u d e n t s and most c h a l l e n g i n g t e a c h e r s i n E n g l a n d shunned t h i s m e d i o c r i t y and c o u l d be f o u n d a t t h e S l a d e , o r t h e R o y a l C o l l e g e o f A r t . S o p h i e n e v e r a t t e n d e d e i t h e r and t h u s d i d n o t b e n e f i t f r o m t h e s t i m u l a t i n g c h a l l e n g e o f t h e s e more p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e a r e no r e f e r e n c e s o r r e c o r d s w h i c h m i g h t c l a r i f y S o p h i e ' s c h o i c e o f s c h o o l s . A l t h o u g h she was t o go on t o t h e demanding r o u t i n e o f J u l i a n ' s , and s p e n t t i m e a t W h i s t l e r ' s s t u d i o , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t S o p h i e a s s o c -i a t e d w i t h her.more f o r w a r d l o o k i n g c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . Her a r t i s t i c e f f o r t s w o u l d r e f l e c t t h e more c o n s e r v a t i v e p a t h o f t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r e a c a d e m i c t r a d i t i o n and o n l y t o w a r d s t h e end o f h e r s h o r t p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r i s t h e r e any e v i d e n c e t h a t she t r i e d t o surmount t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f t h a t d y i n g t r a d i t i o n . The p e n c i l s k e t c h Nude ( F i g u r e 3) shows us t h e k i n d o f work f o r w h i c h she may have r e c e i v e d h e r f i r s t c l a s s marks i n d r a w i n g f r o m l i f e . T h i s s k e t c h r e p r e s e n t s t h e p a s s i n g "a l a n a t u r e " i n t o t h e f i n a l a r e a o f a c a d e m i c i n s t r u c t i o n . S o p h i e ' s s t a n d i n g f e m a l e f i g u r e i s , i n a number o f ways, t y p i c a l o f t h e l i f e d r a w i n g s o f t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r e . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e a r e some q u a l i t i e s i n t h i s s k e t c h w h i c h make i t n o t e w o r t h y . G e n e r a l l y , t h e p o s e s o f t h e m o d e l s were s i m i l a r t o t h e p l a s t e r c a s t s and t h e s t u d e n t a r t i s t had l i t t l e t e c h n i c a l d i f f i c u l t y i n t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e e a r l y l e s s o n s she had l e a r n e d t o t h i s f i n a l a r e a o f s t u d y . However, b e y o n d t h e t e c h n i c a l 16 f a c i l i t y o f t h i s t r a n s f e r e n c e t h e r e were two m a j o r d i f f i c u l t i e s t o be overcome. The f i r s t was t h e more s i m p l e and i n v o l v e d a q u e s t i o n o f e x p o s u r e . T h a t i s , t h e l i v e , n a k e d model r e q u i r e d g e t t i n g u s e t o f o r b o t h m a l e and f e m a l e s t u d e n t s . C l e a r l y , t h i s p r o b l e m w o u l d be more o r l e s s e m o t i o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t d e p e n d i n g on t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The s e c o n d d i f f i c u l t y was a complex one i n v o l v i n g t h e p e r c e p t u a l and l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s . Up t o t h i s p o i n t i n h e r a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g t h e s t u d e n t had made l a b o r i o u s c o p i e s o f p a r t s - h e a d s , n o s e s , h a n d s , e a r s , e y e s , b u s t s , f e e t , and so on. Now t h e e n t i r e human body i n i t s i n t e r r e l a t e d c o m p l e x i t y had t o be c a p t u r e d as a w h o l e . S o p h i e has managed t h i s t a s k v e r y w e l l i n h e r l i f e d r a w i n g . The m o d e l p o s e s i n t y p i c a l f r o n t a l i t y a n d t h e l i n e o f a c t i o n i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t , , I t s t a r t s w i t h t h e shadowed l e f t c h e e k , t r a v e l s down between t h e m o d e l ' s b r e a s t s , t h r o u g h h e r n a v e l , and d e s c e n d s a l o n g t h e o u t - t h r u s t l e f t l e g , S o p h i e ' s u s e o f t h e "estompe" has r e s u l t e d i n a s o f t , t a c t i l e q u a l i t y o f f l e s h i n t h e d r a w i n g and she d e m o n s t r a t e s a s o u n d g r a s p o f t h e w h o l e as a l l t h e p a r t s o f t h e body r e l a t e i n b e l i e v a b l e u n i t y . More t h a n t h i s p h y s i c a l u n i t y t h e r e i s an i m p o r t a n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e g r i t y w h i c h s e t s S o p h i e ' s work a p a r t f r o m many n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y nude s k e t c h e s and d r a w i n g s . The e x p r e s s i v e q u a l i t y o f t h e nude's f a c e makes t h i s an a t y p i c a l s t u d y f o r i t s t i m e . T h i s e f f o r t on t h e p a r t o f t h e a r t i s t i s a r e a c h b e y o n d t h e c o n v e n t i o n and may be a r e s u l t o f S o p h i e ' s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as woman w i t h t h e m o d e l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o draw any c o n c l u s i v e o p i n i o n b e c a u s e S o p h i e l e f t 17 no l e t t e r s or j o u r n a l d e s c r i b i n g her thoughts or f e e l i n g s about t h i s q u e s t i o n . I t would have been v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r Sophie t o i d e n t i f y w i t h her models because of the v a s t d i f f e r e n c e s i n socio-economic c l a s s , however, a b a s i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n as woman c o u l d w e l l have been w i t h i n Sophie's emotional range. Support f o r t h i s argument may be seen i n the d i f f e r e n c e s t o be noted between her commissioned p o r t r a i t s and her genre and f a m i l y p o r t r a i t s . F u r t h e r support comes from f a m i l y members' memories of Sophie's a b i l i t y t o put shop keepers and s e r v i c e people a t ease. One t h i n g i s eminently c l e a r ; a t t h i s stage i n her t r a i n i n g Sophie was w e l l prepared f o r the f i n a l aspects o f the t h i r d area of the academic c u r r i c u l u m . Students a t t h i s stage were encouraged t o m a i n t a i n s k e t c h -books i n which they executed s m a l l , r a p i d sketches of anything and e v e r y t h i n g going on around them. Sophie's sketchbooks from t h i s p e r i o d are f i l l e d w i t h dozens of s m a l l " c r o q u i s " - quick drawings of a few l i n e s which captured the u n w i t t i n g s u b j e c t s - u s u a l l y people s t r o l l i n g on the boulevards or those 17 s i t t i n g a t the next t a b l e i n a c a f e . As w e l l , these s k e t c h -books show t h a t Sophie made many c o p i e s , l a r g e and s m a l l , o f the Old Masters hanging i n the Louvre and other P a r i s i a n g a l l e r i e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y these sketches are of fragments and cannot be i d e n t i f i e d . The copying o f Old Masters or s p e c i a l e x e c utions of the p r o f e s s o r of the a t e l i e r r e p r e s e n t e d the next t o l a s t stage i n t h i s long s e r i e s c o n s t i t u t i n g the academic l e s s o n s . Sophie's Boy w i t h Grapes (Figure 4) i s a good example of t h i s k i n d of copying. Her p a i n t i n g i s probably a copy of a minor V e n e t i a n 19 18 m a s t e r . B o t h F l e m i s h and V e n e t i a n m a s t e r s were f a v o r e d f o r c o p y i n g b e c a u s e o f t h e i r b r u s h w o r k and c o l o r a t i o n . C o p y i n g t h e O l d M a s t e r s i n s t i l l e d some knowledge o f A r t H i s t o r y and t a u g h t t h e s t u d e n t a b o u t t h e t e c h n i c a l e l e m e n t s o f c o m p o s i t i o n , f o r m , c o l o r and so on. S o p h i e ' s p a i n t i n g , now i n n e e d o f r e s t o r a t i o n , shows a c o m p e t e n t us e o f o i l p a i n t as h e r f l e s h t o n e s a r e good and she has a d m i r a b l y c a p t u r e d t h e q u a l i t y o f l i g h t r e f l e c t i n g o f f t h e r i c h v a r i e t y o f s u r f a c e s - f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l o f t h e b o y ' s c l o t h i n g t o t h e woven s t r a w o f t h e b a s k e t and t h e l u s c i o u s s k i n o f t h e g r a p e s . A l t h o u g h h e r u s e o f t h e medium i s e x c e l l e n t h e r d r a f t s m a n s h i p , u s u a l l y a s t r o n g p o i n t i n h e r s t u d e n t w o r k s , i s u n e v e n h e r e . The l a d ' s e y e s r e q u i r e some g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n and h i s l i f e l e s s r i g h t hand i s p o o r l y drawn. The u l t i m a t e t e s t o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g s t u d e n t ' s s k i l l was t h e " e s q u i s s e p e i n t e " . T h e s e l a s t a c a d e m i c e x e r c i s e s were u n f i n i s h e d o i l s k e t c h e s . T h a t i s , t h e y d i d n o t r e c e i v e t h e i r f i n a l t h i n c o a t s o f o i l g l a z e w h i c h w o u l d have g i v e n them t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c h i g h - g l o s s s u r f a c e o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a c a d e m i c p a i n t i n g . E x c e p t f o r t h i s f i n i s h i n g d e t a i l t h e " e s q u i s s e p e i n t e " e x e m p l i f i e d t h e f u l l r a n g e o f t h e a c a d e m i c c u r r i c u l u m . S o p h i e ' s o i l s k e t c h M a n s i ( F i g u r e 5) may be an " e s q u i s s e p e i n t e " e x e c u t e d w h i l e she was s t i l l a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l i n E n g l a n d . T h i s s k e t c h ( f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c a n v a s back) was p a i n t e d i n t w e n t y ^ s i x d a y s f r o m O c t o b e r 31 t o November 25, 1892. A l t h o u g h c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n went i n t o t h e d e t a i l s and f i n i s h o f t h e f a c e , t h e d r e s s and b a c k g r o u n d a r e much more 20 l o o s e l y h a n d l e d . I t i s t h i s u n f i n i s h e d q u a l i t y and t h e s h o r t t i m e s p e n t on t h e work w h i c h l e a d s t o s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t i t i s i n d e e d an " e s q u i s s e p e i n t e " . A l s o , t h e a r t i s t d i d n o t make h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l d e b u t u n t i l 1897, w i t h t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f D a f f o d i l s a t t h e R o y a l Academy, so t h i s i s c l e a r l y a s t u d e n t e f f o r t . Of a l l h e r work known t o d a y , M a n s i s t a n d s o u t as a r e m a r k -a b l e t e s t a m e n t t o t h e a r t i s t i c powers and s k i l l w h i c h S o p h i e p o s s e s s e d a t an e a r l y s t a g e o f h e r d e v e l o p m e n t . The v i t a l q u a l i t y o f t h e m o d e l has been c o n v i n c i n g l y c a p t u r e d . Beyond t h e t e c h n i c a l r e a l i t y o f h e r c o m p o s i t i o n , S o p h i e p o r t r a y s a b e l i e v a b l e p e r s o n a l i t y . T h i s i s t h e u l t i m a t e t e s t o f t h e p o r t r a i t i s t ' s t a l e n t and by t h e t i m e S o p h i e f i n i s h e d h e r s t u d i e s she was w e l l p r e p a r e d f o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r . M a n s i , a s an a c a d e m i c e x e r c i s e , r e v e a l s t h e a r t i s t ' s c o n c e r n f o r l i g h t , c o l o r , f o r m , c o m p o s i t i o n , m a s t e r y o f t h e medium, and, as h a s been n o t e d , p e r s u a s i v e p o r t r a i t u r e . The model i s d i r e c t l y l i t f r o m t h e u p p e r l e f t and S o p h i e c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d t h e d e l i c a t e f l e s h t o n e s t o p r e s e n t a v o l u p t u o u s r e - c r e a t i o n o f t h e m o d e l ' s e n v i a b l e c o m p l e x i o n . The q u i e t i n t e n s i t y o f t h e young woman's e y e s g i v e d e p t h t o what m i g h t have been a n o t h e r v a c u o u s " p r e t t y " f a c e . From t h e h i g h l y f i n i s h e d s u r f a c e o f t h e s k i n t o t h e more l o o s e l y h a n d l e d b o d i c e o f t h e m o d e l ' s d r e s s S o p h i e shows a s u r e h a n d l i n g o f h e r p a l e t t e and a c o m p e t e n t m a s t e r y o f b r u s h w o r k . Between 1893 and 1896 S o p h i e c o n t i n u e d h e r s t u d i e s a t t h e Cape N i c h o l S c h o o l and a l s o made a number o f t r i p s home t o V i c t o r i a . She worked h a r d , on t h e s e v i s i t s home, i n t h e t o w e r s t u d i o a t G o n z a l e s u n t i l by 1895 she was r e a d y t o e x h i b i t some p a i n t i n g s w i t h t h e A r t A s s o c i a t i o n o f M o n t r e a l . The A s s o c i a t i o n s e c r e t a r y Mr. R. L i n d s a y , w r o t e h e r on M a r c h 2, 1895 s a y i n g t h a t h e r " p i c t u r e s h a v i n g b e e n hung i n t h e S p r i n g E x h i b i t i o n , t o commence on Wednesday, M a r c h 6. I have t h e r p l e a s u r e t o i n f o r m y o u t h a t t h e G a l l e r y w i l l be open t o A r t i s t s on T u e s d a y , M a r c h 5 f r o m 9 a.m. t o 6 p.m. f o r t h e p u r p o s e s 19 • • o f v a r n i s h i n g e t c . " Her e n t r i e s i n t h e S p r i n g E x h i b i t i o n C a t a l o g u e , Sweet S e v e n t e e n and A Normandy P e a s a n t were on s a l e f o r $25. e a c h . W i t h t h r e e y e a r s o f s o l i d a c h i e v e m e n t b e h i n d h e r S o p h i e was now r e a d y f o r t h e r i g o r o u s t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e a t t h e Ac a d e m i e J u l i a n i n P a r i s . J u l i a n ' s was n o t a s t r a n g e p l a c e f o r C a n a d i a n a r t s t u d e n t s . J.W.L. F o r s t e r , G.A. R e i d , R. H a r r i s and many o t h e r a s p i r i n g C a n a d i a n s had p a s s e d t h r o u g h one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e a t e l i e r s m a k i n g up t h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d A c a d e m i e . J u l i a n , a h i g h l y c o l o r f u l i n d i v i d u a l , a p p a r e n t l y knew l i t t l e o f t h e a r t s . He was, however, a shrewd b u s i n e s s m a n and had p e r s u a d e d some w e l l - k n o w n p a i n t e r s and s c u l p t o r s t o a c t as v i s i t i n g p r o f e s s o r s . I n i t s day, t h e A c a d e m i e J u l i a n was s e c o n d i n s i z e and r e p u t a t i o n o n l y t o t h e B e a u x - A r t s . B o u g u e r e a u , L e f e v r e , C o n s t a n t , D o u c e t and L a u r e n s were amongst t h e b e t t e r known a r t i s t s v i s i t i n g t h e s t u d i o s t o o f f e r c r i t i c i s m o f t h e a s p i r i n g s t u d e n t s ' work. A l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a r e a s o n a b l e body o f i n f o r m a t i o n as t o S o p h i e ' s a c t i v i t i e s a s a s t u d e n t a r t i s t i n P a r i s , t h e r e a r e s t i l l many una n s w e r e d q u e s t i o n s . F o r example, I have f o u n d no r e f e r e n c e s t o any o f h e r s o c i a l o r p e r s o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . FIGURE 5. Mansi, 1892, O i l on Canvas 45.5 x 35.5 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n No d o u b t she had f r i e n d s and a c q u a i n t a n c e s w i t h whom she s o c i a l i z e d , however, i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t t h e y were f r o m h e r own s o c i a l c i r c l e o r c l a s s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o v i s u a l i z e S o p h i e a s s o c i a t i n g w i t h bohemian a r t s t u d e n t s o r f r e q u e n t i n g t h e c h e a p c a f e s w h i c h were f a v o r i t e s w i t h many o f t h e young s t u d e n t s . R a t h e r , l i k e M a r i e B a s h k i r t s e f f , a few y e a r s b e f o r e h e r , S o p h i e may w e l l have s p e n t h e r l e i s u r e t i m e a t t h e B o i s o r i n t h e s m a r t c a f e s o f t h e Champs E l y s e e s . As w e l l , t h e r e must have b e e n many t r i p s t o t h e E c o l e d e s Beaux A r t s - where t h e a n n u a l P r i x de Rome c o u l d be s e e n - and t o t h e many museums and g a l l e r i e s o f P a r i s . S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e a r e no e x i s t i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o any a r t i s t s o r s t i m u l a t i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h whom S o p h i e may have a s s o c i a t e d o r a d m i r e d . I t i s t h i s c o n s i s t e n t i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e a r t i s t i c community w h i c h marks S o p h i e ' s c a r e e r - b o t h d u r i n g h e r s t u d e n t d a y s and as a p r o f e s s i o n a l . A marked c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e c a r e e r s o f a r t i s t s l i k e C a s s a t t o r C a r r i m m e d i a t e l y comes t o mind. B o t h o f t h e s e a r t i s t s e n j o y e d an immensely f r u i t f u l c o n t a c t w i t h v i g o r o u s and p r o g r e s s i v e a r t i s t s w h i c h d r a m a t i c a l l y a f f e c t e d t h e i r own a r t i s t i c and c r e a t i v e v i s i o n . P e r h a p s , had S o p h i e e n j o y e d a s i m i l a r e x p e r i e n c e , h e r s t o r y w o u l d be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . S o p h i e was t o s t u d y i n t h e a t e l i e r s o f J . P . L a u r e n s and 20 B e n j a m i n C o n s t a n t . U nder t h e i r t u t e l a g e she began an e x t e n -d i s i v e p r o g r a m o f e x h i b i t i n g h e r a r t . I n 1897, a t t w e n t y -e i g h t , S o p h i e made h e r p u b l i c d e b u t as a m a t u r e a r t i s t and h e r p a i n t i n g D a f f o d i l s was g i v e n a p r o m i n e n t p o s i t i o n a t t h e R o y a l Academy E x h i b t i o n . A V a n c o u v e r newspaper n o t e d : "Those o f us who t a k e any i n t e r e s t i n a n y t h i n g b u t d o l l a r s and m i n i n g s h a r e s a r e d e l i g h t e d by t h e news t h a t t h r e e o f t h o s e we know have f o u n d a p l a c e t h i s y e a r i n t h e Academy. M i s s S o p h i e Pemberton has f u l f i l l e d some o f t h e p r o m i s e o f h e r c h i l d h o o d and t h o s e who remember t h e e x t r e m e l y s t r o n g s t u d i e s w h i c h u s e d t o d e c o r a t e h e r m o t h e r ' s h ouse i n V i c t o r i a w i l l n o t be s u r p r i s e d t o h e a r t h a t a l a r g e p i c t u r e by h e r has b een awarded an h o n o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n i n Room 1 a t t h e R o y a l Academy's E x h i b i t i o n o f p i c t u r e s i n L o n d o n . " S o p h i e ' s work c a u g h t t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a number o f E n g l i s h c r i t i c s and t h e r e were m i x e d r e p o r t s a b o u t h e r e f f o r t s : "A l a r g e p i c t u r e , D a f f o d i l s , by M i s s S o p h i e T. Pemberton, i s b o t h u n u s u a l and c l e v e r . The f i g u r e o f t h e s e a t e d g i r l , who s t o o p s t o p i c k up one o f t h e f l o w e r s f r o m t h e f l o o r , i s w ^ l l drawn and t h e l i n e s a r e g r a c e f u l and p l e a s i n g . " A n o t h e r w r i t e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t D a f f o d i l s was a " c o n s c i e n t i o u s p i e c e o f work, b u t s c a r c e l y w o r t h y , as a s u b j e c t , o f t h e l a b o u r 24 and t a l e n t b e s t o w e d on i t . " D u r i n g t h e s e l a s t few y e a r s o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y S o p h i e c o n t i n u e d s t u d y i n g a t J u l i a n ' s w h i l e h e r work was r e g u l a r l y on v i e w , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n E n g l a n d . I n 1897 she had p a i n t i n g s on e x h i b i t i n t h e W e s t e r n E x h i b i t i o n , C l i f f o r d ' s A r t G a l l e r y and t h e C o r p o r a t i o n A r t G a l l e r y i n B r i g h t o n . I n 1898 h e r c a n v a s L i t t l e Boy B l u e ( F i g u r e 6) was a c c e p t e d by t h e R o y a l Academy. A newspaper i n V a n c o u v e r was s p a r i n g w i t h i t s c o v e r a g e : " B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s n o t u n r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e R o y a l Academy a g a i n t h i s y e a r - a n o t h e r p i c t u r e by M i s s S.T. P emberton h a v i n g been a c c e p t e d . Two more p i c t u r e s by t h e same a r t i s t were t o be s e e n a t t h e r e c e n t e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e '91 A r t C l u b h e l d a t t h e Modern G a l l e r y . " An E n g l i s h c r i t i c a t l e a s t v e n t u r e d an o p i n i o n : " M i s s S o p h i e Pemberton shows F r e n c h i n f l u e n c e i n L i t t l e  Boy B l u e i n w h i c h t h e c o l o u r i s n i c e l y f e l t ; t h e m o d e l l i n g o f t h e head i s good and t h e f l e s h t o n e s a r e s o f t and p u r e . " T h i s same y e a r S o p h i e e x h i b i t e d a c a n v a s , now m i s s i n g , c a l l e d W i n d i n g Y a r n s . T h i s c a n v a s was s e e n a t t h e 91 A r t C l u b E x h i b i t i o n , t h e M a n c h e s t e r A r t G a l l e r y , a nd t h e B i r m i n g h a m S o c i e t y o f A r t i s t s ' E x h i b i t i o n . C r i t i c s w r i t i n g i n t h e l o c a l p a p e r s were a g a i n d i v i d e d : " A n o t h e r l a r g e c a n v a s i s r e p r o d u c e d i n l i t t l e i n W i n d i n g Y a r n s ; t h i s i s t h e work o f M i s s S.T. Pemberton, who has s u c c e e d e d i n m a k i n g an e f f e c t i v e p i c t u r e . The two o l d women a r e t e n d e r l y p a i n t e d , and t h e mass o f f r u i t p i l e d up on t h e i ^ s t a l l b e h i n d them g i v e s b r i g h t n e s s t o t h e c o m p o s i t i o n . " A n o t h e r w r i t e r was g e n t l y c r i t i c a l : " I n s p i t e o f many m e r i t s o f a r r a n g e m e n t and c o l o u r , we c o u l d w i s h t h a t M i s s S o p h i e T. Pemberton w o u l d h a n d l e h e r b r u s h w i t h a l i t t l e more f i r m n e s s - m o d e l l i n g o f t h e two women's heads i s a p t t o be a l i t t l e ' w o o l l y ' , t h o u g h t h e p i c t u r e W i n d i n g Y a r n s ( 2 9 5 1 g i s c e r t a i n l y p l e a s a n t and i n t e r e s t i n g as a w h o l e . " S o p h i e ' s g r o w i n g commitment t o h e r p r o f e s s i o n may be r e f l e c t e d i n t h i s h e i g h t e n e d a c t i v i t y . H er d e d i c a t i o n and h a r d work were t o be r e w a r d e d . I n M a r c h o f 1899 S o p h i e a c h i e v e d t h e s i g n a l h o n o r o f w i n n i n g t h e P r i x J u l i a n f o r p o r t r a i t u r e . She was t h e f i r s t woman t o be so h o n o r e d . T h i s p r i z e ( g o l d m edal and 100 f r a n c s ) was awarded a n n u a l l y t o t h e f i n e s t s t u d e n t work f r o m t h e numerous a t e l i e r s o f t h e A c a d e m i e J u l i a n . The c o m p e t i t i o n was open t o b o t h men and woman s t u d e n t s and h e r p e r s o n a l s e n s e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n must have been d o u b l y p r o f o u n d . F i r s t l y , she had, i n some measure, s u c c e e d e d i n t h e s t i l l p r e d o m i n a n t l y m a s c u l i n e e n c l a v e o f t h e a r t w o r l d . S e c o n d l y , she had r e c e i v e d h o n o r a b l e m e n t i o n on t h r e e c o m p e t i t i o n s d u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g y e a r s w h i c h s u r e l y 29 must have s h a r p e n e d h e r a p p e t i t e f o r v i c t o r y . I n d e e d , S o p h i e t r e a s u r e d h e r " P a r i s m e d a l " and she c a r e f u l l y c u t o u t t h e announcement o f w i n n e r s f r o m The G a z e t t e d e s Beaux A r t s m a g a z i n e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n h e r " g l o r y book"."^ The p a p e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were, a g a i n , s p a r i n g i n t h e i r c o v e r a g e o f S o p h i e ' s a c h i e v e m e n t : " M i s s S.T. P e m b e r t o n h a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d h e r s e l f i n P a r i s where she h a s b een w o r k i n g f o r t h e l a s t s i x months a t t h e J u l i a n S t u d i o s . She won t h e g o l d m e d a l t h e r e com-p e t e d f o r by a l l t h e s t u d e n t s b o t h m a l e and f e m a l e , and h e r p i c t u r e - 'Boy B l u e ' - has ^ I s o b een a c c e p t e d by t h e S a l o n w i t h h o n o u r a b l e m e n t i o n . " The l a s t y e a r o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y was a most f r u i t -f u l one f o r t h e t h i r t y y e a r o l d S o p h i e . She had s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d h e r s t u d i e s , emerged as an a c c o m p l i s h e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t , and a c h i e v e d an h o n o r n e v e r b e f o r e a c c o r d e d a member o f h e r s e x . The f u t u r e seemed b r i g h t and f u l l o f p r o m i s e . C o n t e m p o r a r y newspaper a c c o u n t s p r o v i d e v a r i o u s r e p o r t s o f M i s s P emberton's e f f o r t s . Her m a s t e r f u l p o r t r a i t o f B i b i  l a P u r e e ( F i g u r e 7) was e x h i b i t e d a t t h e P a r i s S a l o n i n 1900. O r i g i n a l l y t h i s p a i n t i n g was e n t i t l e d s i m p l y P o r t r a i t b u t 32 as t h e P a r i s i a n d a i l i e s i n d i c a t e , t h e model was w i d e l y known. F o r example, a w r i t e r i n Le P a y s L a t i n commented: un p o r t r a i t de B i b i l a P u r e e p a r Pemberton; ce d e r n i e r p o r t r a i t e s t d'un c o l o r i s s u r ? e t e x p e r t , m a i s nous donne une i m p r e s s i o n i n e x a c t e due p e r s o n n a g e c a r nous a c c e p t o n s m a i l ' i d e e d'une bague de p r i x au d o i g t d'un t e l m i s e r e u x b i e n c o n n u au Q u a r t i e r l a t i n . L ' a r t i s t e a u r a i t mieux f a i t de s u p p r i m e r c e t t e bague." W r i t e r s f o r F i g a r o , L i b r e P a r o l e and R a d i c a l made p a s s i n g 34 r e f e r e n c e s t o S o p h i e ' s a c c o m p l i s h e d c a n v a s . FIGURE 6. L i t t l e Boy B l u e , 1897, O i l on C a n v a s 76 x 51 cm., A r t G a l l e r y o f Gr. V i c t o r i a 28 S o p h i e c o n t i n u e d p a i n t i n g and she had a n o t h e r l a r g e c a n v a s r e a d y f o r t h e R o y a l Academy E x h i b i t i o n o f 19 01. I n t e r e s t e d , ( F i g u r e 8) a l i f e - s i z e p o r t r a i t s t u d y o f two young women was a c c e p t e d by t h e R o y a l Academy. A v e r y b r i e f m e n t i o n a p p e a r e d i n t h e L a d i e s F i e l d : " I n t h e F i r s t G a l l e r y a t B u r l i n g t o n House t h e r e a r e n o t many p i c t u r e s by women p a i n t e r s . . . and t h e r e i s some c a r e f u l work i n t h e l a r g e p i c t u r e o f two g i r l s r e a d i n g by t h e f i r e , I n t e r e s t e d , by M i s s S o p h i e P e m b e r t o n . " A r e p o r t e r f o r . t h e C o l o n i s t , s u d d e n l y g a l v a n i z e d , went on a t g r e a t l e n g t h a b o u t S o p h i e and h e r e f f o r t s i n an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d "On t h e l a d d e r o f Fame: A V i c t o r i a n a t t h e R o y a l Academy i n London" . "The o p e n i n g o f t h e R o y a l Academy i n London, on t h e 1 s t o f May, i s one o f t h e most d i s t i n g u i s h e d and s p e c i a l a n n u a l e v e n t s t o h e r a l d t h e s e a s o n . On t h a t d a y t h e f a s h i o n a b l e w o r l d a s s e m b l e s t o v i e w t h e works o f t h o s e a r t i s t s who a r e so e x c e e d i n g l y f o r t u n a t e a s t o have them a c c e p t e d , f o r 'many a r e c a l l e d b u t few a r e c h o s e n ' f r o m t h e r a n k s o f t h e many a s p i r a n t s who a r e a m b i t i o u s t o c o m p l e t e i n t h e w o n d e r f u l e x h i b i t i o n . As t h e c a t a l o g u e i s s c a n n e d , and t h e names a r e o b s e r v e d o f s u c h c e l e b r i t i e s as S i r Alma Tadema, R.A., J . S a n t , R.A., J . S . S a r g e n t , R.A., e t c . , i t i s w i t h a s p o n t a n e o u s t h r i l l o f p r i d e one s p i e s amid t h i s a r r a y o f t a l e n t t h a t o f a d e a r f e l l o w countrywoman who i s r a p i d l y g a i n i n g h e r crown o f l a u r e l s . The o i l p a i n t i n g c a l l e d I n t e r e s t e d , by M i s s S o p h i e Pemberton, p o s s e s s e s g r e a t m e r i t , and has been h i g h l y p r a i s e d by t h e most c a p a b l e c r i t i c s . As one e n t e r s G a l l e r y No. 1, w i t h s e n s e s f r e s h a nd kee n t o e n j o y t h e a r t i s t i c f e a s t i n s t o r e , t h i s l a r g e p i c t u r e , h a n g i n g i n an e x c e l -l e n t p o s i t i o n on t h e r i g h t w a l l , a t once a r r e s t s a t t e n t i o n . We draw n e a r f o r a c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n and become i n d e e d ' i n t e r e s t e d ' i n t h e d e l i g h t f u l l y c h a r m i n g s u b j e c t - so t y p i c a l o f 'The Good, t h e T r u e and t h e B e a u t i f u l 1 - w h i c h s h i n e s o u t i n t h e sweet f r e s h f a c e s o f t h e two g i r l s who a r e s i t t i n g s i d e by s i d e i n a c o s y c h i m n e y c o r n e r , i n -t e n t l y ' i n t e r e s t e d ' i n a book. I t i s a peep i n t o a happy home. The f i r e i s a b l a z e i n t h e open g r a t e , and s h e d d i n g i t s s o f t g low on a l l a r o u n d . The h i g h m a n t e l , o f a d u l l brown shad e , i s r e l i e v e d by s e v e r a l o r n a m e n t s , and an e m b r o i d e r e d p i e c e o f s i l k o f 29 a v i v i d r o s e c o l o u r , i s d r a p e d f r o m one end - a l l f o r m i n g a s t r i k i n g b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e two g i r l s one a b l o n d e , t h e o t h e r a b r u n e t t e . The l a t t e r i s h o l d i n g a book w i t h e a s y g r a c e on h e r l a p , h e r k n e e s c r o s s e d and a w e l l - s h a p e d f o o t r e s t i n g w i t h abandon upon a b l u e v e l v e t c u s h i o n . The o t h e r g i r l l e a n s a sweet, f a i r f a c e on h e r hand i n p e n s i v e a t t i t u d e , t h e e l b o w r e s t i n g upon h e r o t h e r hand a c r o s s t h e k nee. B o t h a r e c l a d i n s o f t , c l i n g i n g e m p i r e gowns o f w h i t e s i l k o f a b l u i s h t i n t , and a t r a n s p a r e n t f i c h u o f c h i f f o n - f a l l i n g i n g r a c e f u l f o l d s a b o u t t h e s h o u l d e r s o f t h e d a r k - h a i r e d g i r l and l o o s e l y a c r o s s h e r arm. A d e l i c a t e t r a c e r y o f bow k n o t s f i n i s h e s t h e hem o f t h e gown. They f o r m a c h a r m i n g l y d e l i g h t f u l c o n t r a s t t o e a c h o t h e r , as l o v e l y and d i s t i n c t t y p e s o f b e a u t y , w h i l e t h e e x p r e s s i o n upon t h e i r f a c e s , i n t h e d e l i c a t e c o l o r i n g and e x q u i s i t e warmth o f f e e l i n g w h i c h o n l y a m a s t e r t o u c h c a n b e s t o w , p r e s e n t s t o us on t h a t w h i l o m c o l d c a n v a s , t h e l i v i n g b r e a t h i n g r e a l i t y . The l i g h t and shade on t h e f o l d s o f t h e gown a r e a d m i r a b l e , w h i l e t h e f i r e l i g h t 'dances and g l e a m s ' on t h e l o v e l y f o r m s o f t h e m a i d e n s and l i n g e r s c a r e s s i n g l y on t h e i r y o u t h f u l brows. A l l c o n g r a t u l a t i o n s t o M i s s Pemberton f o r h e r m a s t e r -p i e c e - t h i s c h e f d ' o e v r e o f a r t - and w e l l may t h e f a r -o f f c i t y i n t h e West be p r o u d o f t h e young a r t i s t who i s s o u n o s t e n t a t i o u s l y w i n n i n g h e r way t o fame and h o n o r ^ i n t h e a r t c e n t r e - t h e g r e a t e s t c a p i t a l i n t h e w o r l d . " W i t h p r o f u s e w o r d i n e s s t h e C o l o n i s t newspaper seemed, i n some mea s u r e , t o be m a k i n g up f o r p r e v i o u s l y s t i n g y comments a b o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s a c c o m p l i s h e d young a r t i s t . S o p h i e r e t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f 1901 and managed t o do some t e a c h i n g b e s i d e s c o n t i n u i n g h e r own work. By e a r l y 1902 she a s s e m b l e d a c h a r i t y e x h i b i t i o n o f h e r r e c e n t work w h i c h t h e V i c t o r i a p u b l i c a t t e n d e d . "The p e o p l e o f V i c t o r i a w i l l h a v e t o d a y and tomorrow t h e u n p r e c e d e n t e d o p p o r t u n i t y o f s e e i n g a t home some p i c t u r e s t h a t have been deemed w o r t h y o f a p l a c e i n t h e R o y a l Academy, t h e P a r i s S a l o n and o t h e r a r t e x h i b i t s i n E u r o p e . M i s s S o p h i e P e m berton, t h e t a l e n t e d a r t i s t , whose work i s on e x h i b i t i o n i n W a i t t ' s H a l l , i s a V i c t o r i a n by b i r t h . She i n t e n d s r e t u r n i n g t o E u r o p e a t an e a r l y day and has v e r y k i n d l y p l a c e d some o f h e r p i c t u r e s on e x h i b i t i o n . A s m a l l a d m i s s i o n f e e w i l l be c h a r g e d , and t h e r e c e i p t s w i l l go t o t h e R.E. C h u r c h . To be a b l e t o s e e p i c t u r e s o f s u c h m e r i t i s an a d v a n t a g e , w h i c h a l l 30 who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t , and e s p e c i a l l y s t u d e n t s o f p a i n t i n g s h o u l d u t i l i z e . A p l e a s i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n i s t h e f a c t t h a t M i s s Pemberton g i v e s t h e p e o p l e o f V i c t o r i a an o p p o r t u n i t y o f s e e i n g h e r two l a t e s t i m p o r t a n t w o r k s , 'John-o-Dreams', and 'The  T w i l i g h t o f t h e L i l i e s ' . T h e s e p i c t u r e s w i l l be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e R o y a l Academy and t h e P a r i s S a l o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e a r e a few d e l i c i o u s l a n d s c a p e s i n w a t e r c o l o u r s , and v i s i t o r s w i l l r e g r e t t h a t t h e r e a r e n o t more o f them. Some p o r t r a i t s o f w e l l known V i c t o r i a n s , w h i c h w i l l g i v e e v e r y one a c h a n c e t o f o r m t h e i r own o p i n i o n o f M i s s P e m b e r t o n ' s s k i l l i n p o r t r a i t u r e and some s t u d i e s i n f l o w e r s and f a c e s , ( s i c l g The w h o l e make up an e x c e e d i n g l y a t t r a c t i v e e x h i b i t . " S o p h i e ' s p l a n s f o r an e a r l y r e t u r n t o E u r o p e were t h w a r t e d by i l l h e a l t h . P e r h a p s t h e i n t e n s i v e p a i n t i n g a c t i v i t y and i n t e r - c o n t i n e n t a l t r a v e l o f t h e p a s t few y e a r s c o m b i n e d t o sap h e r s t r e n g t h . The e x a c t n a t u r e o f h e r i l l n e s s i s n o t c l e a r , however, she t r a v e l l e d t o C a l i f o r n i a f o r t r e a t m e n t o f an a f f l i c -t i o n i n h e r l e g s . She was h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y w a l k i n g and s p e n t t i m e i n P a s o R o b l e s t a k i n g t h e w a t e r s . By m i d - F e b r u a r y , 1902, she w r o t e t o h e r f r i e n d F l o r a B u r n s s a y i n g t h a t : " I am b e t t e r t o o . I t i s n o t s u c h a t r e m e n d o u s e f f o r t t o w a l k a few s t e p s and I d o n ' t w a l k much as t h e y t o l d me n o t t o . . . I grow s t o u t e r d a i l y and w i t h t h e w a t e r d r i n k i n g and t r e a t m e n t we have q u i t e n i c e c o m p l e x i o n s . " N e a r l y a month l a t e r she was s t i l l h a v i n g p r o b l e m s and w r o t e : " I t i s Sunday a f t e r n o o n and I won't p a i n t . I c a n ' t w a l k and my e y e s a r e t i r e d t o r e a d , and s o , i n s t e a d o f h o n o u r i n g t h e S a b b a t h ^ w i t h a s a c r e d v a c a n c y o f mind I am g o i n g t o w r i t e . " H e r l e t t e r s r e m a i n e d s u r p r i s i n g l y c h e e r f u l i n l i g h t o f t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f h e r a i l m e n t . On M a r c h 25, 1902 she w r o t e : " . . . and I c o u l d n o t s t a y a t home w i t h o u t someone as m a i d and m o d e l , as t h e y s a y I s h a l l n o t be r e a l l y w e l l f o r a y e a r . B u t 1 have w a l k e d 6 t e l e g r a p h p o l e s T-,600 y a r d s - a b o u t 1/3 o f t h e d i s t a n c e t o y o u r h o u s e . " 31 FIGURE 7. B i b i l a Pure*e, 1900, O i l on Canvas 23.5 x 61 cm., A r t G a l l e r y of Gr. V i c t o r i a 32 S o p h i e ' s i n d o m i t a b l e w i l l p o w e r , i n s t r u m e n t a l i n w i n n i n g h e r b a t t l e s w i t h h e r f r i e n d s and t h e a r t w o r l d , was as s t r o n g as e v e r and w i t h t h e s t r e n g t h she had she p a i n t e d . "We have had p e r f e c t w e a t h e r and J u n e - b l u e s k i e s . I ha v e b e e n p a i n t i n g down by t h e r i v e r . . . t h e y s a y an a r t i s t has t h e c h o i c e between r o s e s and mud and I seem t o f i n d b o t h t h e r e . B u t t h e l a s t few d a y s I have s p e n £ 2 between t h e b a t h house and b e d - a s a d w a s t e o f t i m e . " H e r r e c o v e r y was l o n g and p a i n f u l and, p e r h a p s , n e v e r c o m p l e t e . B u t , by t h e end o f t h e y e a r she was w e l l enough t o t r a v e l a nd she and h e r m o t h e r l e f t f o r E u r o p e . E a r l y i n O c t o b e r , 19 02 t h e y s a i l e d on t h e D o m i n i o n L i n e ' s S.S. Common-w e a l t h f r o m B o s t o n . T h e i r j o u r n e y s t o o k them a r o u n d t h e c o n t i n e n t a n d f i n a l l y t o I t a l y . T h e y were i n Rome f o r C h r i s t m a s and i n s p i t e o f c o n t i n u e d d e l i c a t e h e a l t h S o p h i e s o u g h t o u t models and p a i n t e d a s much a s p o s s i b l e . " T h i s week I ' v e been i n b e d two d a y s - n o t i l l - b u t n o t w e l l . I h a v e n ' t done much. We had one model - a d e a r o l d woman w i t h q u i e t e y e s - d i f f e r e n t t o t h e o r d i n a r y t y p e o f mo d e l h e r e . I f o l l o w e d h e r o u t o f t h e t r a i n a n d a s k e d h e r t o p o s e . She came n e x t d a y w i t h h e r w h o l e f a m i l y - h e r grown up son and d a u g h t e r , d a u g h t e r ' s f i a n c e and a c o u s i n . T hey a l l s a t i n a row and we p a i n t e d ^ They w o u l d n ' t t a k e t e a so we g o t them w i n e and b i s c u i t s . " As w e l l a s k e e p i n g up w i t h h e r p a i n t i n g S o p h i e was l e a r n i n g I t a l i a n . H er l e t t e r s r e f e r t o v a r i o u s m o d e l s she b e f r i e n d e d and on December 29 she d e s c r i b e d y e t a n o t h e r o f t h e many p e o p l e who p o s e d f o r h e r . "And now we a r e p a i n t i n g a d e a r o l d woman. She t h i n k s us 'buone e b e l l e ' (good and b e a u t i f u l ) and i s p u n c t u a l . B u t m o d e l s a r e so h a r d t o f i n d u n l e s s one t a k e s t h e d r e s s e d up s t r e e t m o d e l . They know us now, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t o be a r t i s t s a nd f o l l o w u s ^ w i t h b ad E n g l i s h , 'do p a i n t me p i c t u r e ' e t c . . . . " By m i d - A p r i l S o p h i e l e f t Rome f o r London v i a P a r i s . On May 10, 1903 she a r r i v e d i n London u n d e r a " l e a d e n s k y and d r i z z l e o f r a i n " . She r e j o i n e d h e r m o t h e r who h a d a r r i v e d e a r l i e r and t h e n s p e n t t i m e i n r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g b o t h s o c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t a c t s . By e a r l y summer she was i n v e s -t i g a t i n g f u t u r e b u s i n e s s and one l e t t e r t o h e r f r i e n d i n V i c t o r i a d e s c r i b e s a p o t e n t i a l c o m m i s s i o n : "Today I went by a p p o i n t m e n t t o s e e L o r d S t r a t h c o n a . . . he saw t h e p h o t o s o f my p i c t u r e s and i s coming^,-t o t h e s t u d i o w i t h h i s w i f e and d a u g h t e r some day." Work was s u s p e n d e d t h o u g h , w h i l e t h e e l d e r l y M r s . Pemberton and h e r d a u g h t e r t r a v e l l e d t h r o u g h F r a n c e f o r t h e summer. Most o f S o p h i e ' s t i m e was t a k e n up a t t e n d i n g h e r i l l - t e m p e r e d m o t h e r who f o u n d n o t h i n g r i g h t and c o m p l a i n e d c o n s t a n t l y . Q u a r r e l s w i t h t h e h i r e d h e l p were smoothed o v e r by t h e d i p l o m a t i c d a u g h t e r who w r o t e : "Mother h a s n ' t b e e n f e e l i n g w e l l . The e x c e l l e n t c u s t o m o f b e g i n n i n g d i n n e r w i t h m e l o n d i s a g r e e d w i t h h e r and w a i t e r s and m a i d s f i n d h e r v e r y t r y i n c j g a n d I have t o f o l l o w w i t h s o o t h i n g words and t i p s . " T h e y t o o k i n t h e s i g h t s o f Caen, Bayeux, J u m i e g e s and t r a v e l l e d a l o n g t h e S e i n e . Between s i g h t s e e i n g a n d - c a r i n g f o r h e r m o t h e r S o p h i e s k e t c h e d and d i d some p a i n t i n g . They c o n t i n u e d t o u r i n g F r a n c e u n t i l t h e end o f November and t h e n Mrs. Pemberton d e c i d e d t h e y • s h o u l d r e t u r n t o I t a l y . S o p h i e was e l a t e d : "We a r e r e a l l y l e a v i n g f o r I t a l y on F r i d a y . I am w i l d w i t h j o y as you may i m a g i n e i t has been so d u l l h|r;e d o i n g n o t h i n g - a n d s u c h w e a t h e r and c o l d rooms." W i t h h e r m o t h e r and y o u n g e r s i s t e r S u s i e , S o p h i e s e t t l e d f o r t h e w i n t e r i n F l o r e n c e . She resumed h e r s t u d i e s o f I t a l i a n and s p e n t much t i m e r e a d i n g and m e m o r i z i n g D a n t e . Her l e t t e r s a r e f i l l e d w i t h a c c o u n t s o f t h e t h e a t r e , t h e e x c e l l e n t c u i s i n e , 34 35 and t h e g a l l e r i e s and museums t h e y v i s i t e d . T h e r e a r e few r e f e r e n c e s t o any s e r i o u s p a i n t i n g and i n J a n u a r y she w r o t e t o Mrs. B u r n s : " I f I were a b e t t e r a r t i s t I s h o u l d p a i n t you as I dream o f y o u as ' F l o r a ' - w i t h t h e f o u r a t t e n d a n t g o l d e n a n g e l h e a d s . B u t much o f o n ^ l s l i f e o n l y p a s s e s i n day dreams -and t o o much o f m ine." Time was b e g i n n i n g t o s l i p by and S o p h i e seems t o have been s u d d e n l y more aware o f h e r a r t i s t i c i n a c t i v i t y . J a n u a r y i s o f t e n a t i m e t o t a k e s t o c k o f o n e ' s a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s and make p l a n s f o r t h e f u t u r e . G i v e n t h e u n s e t t l e d n a t u r e o f t r a v e l l i n g a b o u t an d b e i n g l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r a g i n g m o t h e r , i t i s f u r t h e r t e s t i m o n y t o S o p h i e ' s commitment t o h e r a r t t h a t she a c h i e v e d what she d i d i n 1903. Two c a n v a s e s , John-o-Dreams, ( F i g u r e 9) and S p r i n g ( F i g u r e 10) had b e e n s u b m i t t e d t o t h e R o y a l Academy and a c c e p t e d . A l s o , t h e p a i n t i n g I n t e r e s t e d was r e t i t l e d Un L i v r e O u v e r t and was a c c e p t e d a t t h e S a l o n E x h i b i t i o n . The C o l o n i s t newspaper c a r r i e d i t s u s u a l t e r s e r e p o r t : " V i c t o r i a n H o n o r e d - M i s s S o p h i a T. Pemberton has two p i c t u r e s e x h i b i t e d t h i s y e a r , one i n t h e Academy and . t h e o t h e r i n t h e S a l o n . B o t h p i c t u r e s were p a i n t e d o u t h e r e l a s t summer. The one i n t h e Academy i s John-o-Dreams, and i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e Academy n o t e s f o r t h e y e a r . ^ The p i c t u r e e x h i b i t e d i n t h e S a l o n i s Un L i v r e O u v e r t . " I t i s i r o n i c t h a t t h e r e p o r t e r , i n so few l i n e s , s h o u l d be so i n c o r r e c t . The p a i n t i n g s were n o t p a i n t e d i n t h e summer o f 1902 and t h e r e i s no m e n t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t S o p h i e had two p a i n t i n g s a c c e p t e d a t t h e Academy I S o p h i e f a r e d b e t t e r w i t h t h e r e p o r t e r f r o m t h e N e w c a s t l e W e e k l y : "Two p i c t u r e s w o r t h y o f a t t e n t i o n a r e p a i n t e d by M i s s S o p h i e Pemberton. One o f them i s e n t i t l e d 'John-o-Dreams', and shows a y o ung g i r l r e a d i n g t o a boy, e v i d e n t l y h e r 36 y o u n g e r b r o t h e r . She i s s e a t e d on t h e g r a s s , and he r e c l i n e s b e f o r e h e r , h i s t h o u g h t s s e e m i n g l y c a r r i e d f a r away by what he h e a r s h e r r e a d . The o t h e r p i c t u r e i s c a l l e d ' S p r i n g ' and g i v e s us a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a young g i r l s e a t e d on t h e g r a s s i n an o r c h a r d , ' i n m a i d e n m e d i t a t i o n , f a n c y f r e e ' , ^ c jreaming o v e r a l a p f u l o f s p r i n g f l o w e r s she has c u l l e d . " Womanhood r e f e r r e d t o " ' J o h n - o - D r e a m s 1 , by S o p h i e Pemberton, (as) a s t r i k i n g p i c t u r e o f a p e a s a n t boy and g i r l l o i t e r i n g i n a f i e l d . The f a r - a w a y e x p r e s s i o n i n t h e e y e s o f t h e boy g i v e s t h e p i c t u r e i t s t i t l e . " 5 1 L a d y ' s P i c t o r i a l f o l l o w e d s u i t w i t h i t s comment t h a t " M i s s S o p h i e Pemberton's 'John-o-Dreams' g i v e s us two f i g u r e s i n a f i e l d , t h e g i r l r e a d i n g , h e r companion l i s t e n i n g w i t h w i d e open, w o n d e r - l a d e n e y e s . The c o l o u r i n 52 t h i s c a n v a s i s p l e a s a n t , as i s i t s sunny e f f e c t . " T h e r e were s i m i l a r s h o r t n o t i c e s i n t h e P a r i s i a n d a i l i e s a b o u t S o p h i e ' s p a i n t i n g Un L i v r e O u v e r t w h i c h had b een a c c e p t e d i n t h e S a l o n ' s S p r i n g E x h i b i t i o n . The G a z e t t e de F r a n c e n o t e s t h e l a s t m i n u t e i n c l u s i o n o f h e r " i n t e r e s t i n g c o m p o s i t i o n " : " A i n s i , dans l a s a l l e I , j u s t e m e n t , l e s f i l l e t t e s s a n s s o u c i s de Max Bohm one e t e r e m p l a c e e s ci. l a d e r n i e r e m i n u t e p a r une c o m p o s i t i o n ^ n t e r e s s a n t e de M i l e . P emberton -'Un L i v r e O u v e r t ' . " The c r i t i c f o r t h e J o u r n a l d e s D e b a t s was g r a c i o u s i n h i s comments a b o u t S o p h i e ' s p a i n t i n g : " M i l e . S o p h i e P e m berton, 'Un L i v r e O u v e r t ' , deux j e u n e s f i l l e s l i s a n t p r e s d'une c h e m i n § e . P e i n t u r e t o u t a f a i t g r a c i e u s e de c o m p o s i t i o n e t d ' e x p r e s s i o n , h a b i l e m e n t e t h a r m o n i e u s e m e n t p e i n t e e t d'une j o l i e c o u l e u r . " A n o t h e r w r i t e r had no f i r m o p i n i o n and f e l t t h a t Un L i v r e O u v e r t "me p a r a i t b i e n , m a i s l e t a b l e a u e s t p l e i n d'embu, i l 55 e s t done d i f f i c i l e de l e j u g e r . " F i n a l l y , someone w r i t i n g f o r E u r o p e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t " M i l e . Pemberton e s t t r e s dans ** ' 56 l a s t r a d i t i o n a m e r i c a i n e a v e c 'Un L i v r e O u v e r t ' . " S o p h i e 37 may w e l l have b e e n s u r p r i s e d by t h e l a t t e r ' s comment c o n s i d e r i n g t h e t i m e , money and e f f o r t she had e x p e n d e d t o a c q u i r e t h e l a t e s t E u r o p e a n t r a i n i n g - o n l y t o be j u d g e d f i r m l y i n t h e "/American t r a d i t i o n " . The E n g l i s h a n d F r e n c h newspaper r e f e r e n c e s t o h e r work must have warmed S o p h i e ' s h e a r t . I t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t o f t h e t h o u s a n d s o f p a i n t i n g s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e Academy and S a l o n E x h i b i t i o n s t h e r e were h u n d r e d s s e l e c t e d f o r d i s p l a y . To have o n e ' s work n o t i c e d amongst t h o s e h u n d r e d s , s t a c k e d v i r -t u a l l y f r o m f l o o r t o c e i l i n g i n more t h a n h a l f a d o z e n g a l l e r i e s was no mean a c h i e v e m e n t . The a c h i e v e m e n t s o f 19 03 were, however, a k i n d o f r e -a f f i r m a t i o n o f h e r e a r l i e r work. Un L i v r e O u v e r t and J o h n - o-Dreams were more t h a n two y e a r s o l d . A l t h o u g h t h e i r c r i t i c a l a c c l a i m was r e w a r d i n g , S o p h i e must have b e e n a n x i o u s t o g e t down t o some new p a i n t i n g . She f i l l e d numerous s k e t c h b o o k s w i t h i d e a s f o r p a i n t i n g s , d r a w i n g s o f p e o p l e she saw and e n d l e s s l i t t l e f r a g m e n t a r y c o p i e s o f t h e R e n a i s s a n c e m a s t e r s she a d m i r e d i n t h e g a l l e r i e s o f E u r o p e d u r i n g t h i s l o n g y e a r o f t r a v e l l i n g w i t h h e r m o t h e r . T h e s e f r a g m e n t s r e m a i n u n i d -e n t i f i a b l e . T h e y r e m a i n e d i n E n g l a n d f o r t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e 1904 R o y a l Academy E x h i b i t i o n and h e r m a s t e r f u l p o r t r a i t o f B i b i , renamed V e r l a i n e ' s F r i e n d f o r t h e E n g l i s h a u d i e n c e , was hung "on t h e l i n e " i n t h e S p r i n g show. The London I l l u s t r a t e d News r e f e r r e d t o a number o f o u t -s t a n d i n g p a i n t i n g s i n t h e E x h i b i t i o n and made p a r t i c u l a r m e n t i o n o f S o p h i e Pemberton "whose ' V e r l a i n e ' s F r i e n d ' i s 57 q u i e t l y i m p r e s s i v e . " The L l o y d s newspaper c r i t i c s u g g e s t e d FIGURE 9. John-o-Dreams, 1902, O i l on C a n v a s , 95 x 128 cm., A r t G a l l e r y o f G r . V i c t o r i a t h a t " ' V e r l a i n e ' s F r i e n d ' p r e s e n t s a n o b l e f a c e c h a r g e d w i t h 5 8 m e l a n c h o l y t h o u g h t , e x c e l l e n t l y p a i n t e d . " The D a i l y M a i l s t a t e d t h a t a l t h o u g h ". . . few t h i n g s w o r t h y o f n o t e a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e f i v e l a s t rooms . . . among them a r e . . . M i s s 59 P e m b e r t o n 1 s V e r l a i n e ' s F r i e n d . " L a d i e s F i e l d p o i n t e d o u t t h a t " t h e most s t r i k i n g p a i n t i n g f r o m a f e m i n i n e b r u s h i s a c u r i o u s , c l e v e r s t u d y o f a man's 6 0 h e a d , V e r 1 a i n e ' s F r i e n d , by M i s s S o p h i e P e m b e r t o n . " The c r i t i c f o r T r u t h f e l t S o p h i e ' s p a i n t i n g d e s e r v e d "much more a t t e n t i o n " : " T h e r e i s a p i c t u r e c a l l e d V e r l a i n e ' s F r i e n d by M i s s S o p h i e P e m b e r t o n w h i c h d e s e r v e s much more a t t e n t i o n t h a n i t h a s y e t r e c e i v e d . Whoever t h a t f r i e n d o f V e r l a i n e may be t h a t t h e a r t i s t has p a i n t e d , t h e l i k e n e s s i s a f a i t h f u l one, I f e e l c o n f i d e n t . Few p o r t r a i t s i n t h e E x h i b i t i o n show a s t r o n g e r i n d i v i d u a l i t y . And y e t i t i s a c c o r d e d a g - j o s i t i o n by no means so f a v o u r a b l e as i t d e s e r v e s . " F i n a l l y , t h e w r i t e r f o r Womanhood waxed p o e t i c a b o u t V e r l a i n e ' s F r i e n d and, c o n t r a r y t o t h e F r e n c h c r i t i c ' s o p i n i o n , j u d g e d h e r f i r m l y i n t h e " F r e n c h r e a l i s t i c s c h o o l " . " S o p h i e Pemberton must be c o n g r a t u l a t e d on t h e r e m a r k a b l e s u c c e s s o f h e r e f f o r t , ' V e r l a i n e ' s F r i e n d ' ; t h e i v o r y y e l l o w f a c e l i n e d w i t h p a i n , t h e s t r a i n e d worn e y e s , t h e g n a r l e d hands r e s t i n g h e a v i l y upon a s t i c k , s t a n d o u t i n s t r o n g r e l i e f f r o m t h e d u l l hues o f t h e c l o t h i n g . M i s s P emberton has e v i d e n t l y s t u d i e d i n t h e F r e n c j - ^ r e a l i s t i c s c h o o l , t o w h i c h she c e r t a i n l y d o e s c r e d i t . " Sometime i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1904 M r s . Pemberton and h e r two d a u g h t e r s r e t u r n e d t o V i c t o r i a . S o p h i e b u s i e d h e r s e l f i n t h e t o w e r s t u d i o w i t h t h e many s k e t c h e s she had made w h i l e t r a v e l l i n g i n E u r o p e and p r e p a r e d a number o f p a i n t i n g s . She e x h i b i t e d them, a t t h e end o f t h a t summer, i n t h e V i c t o r i a A g r i c u l t u r a l Show and c a u s e d a s t i r amongst t h e l o c a l 40 t o w n s p e o p l e . The C o l o n i s t newspaper c a r r i e d t h e f o l l o w i n g e x t e n s i v e r e p o r t : " V i s i t o r s t o t h e V i c t o r i a a g r i c u l t u r a l show t h i s y e a r have a g r e a t t r e a t i n s t o r e f o r them, when t h e y c a r e -f u l l y examine t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f p i c t u r e s e x h i b i t e d by M i s s S o p h i e Pemberton i n t h e g a l l e r y o f t h e m a i n b u i l d i n g . T h o s e who remember s e e i n g some few y e a r s ago an e x h i b i t i o n o f t h i s t a l e n t e d young a r t i s t ' s work w i l l be s t r u c k by t h e m a r v e l o u s p r o g r e s s she has made i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s . The c o l l e c t i o n a t p r e s e n t on v i e w c o n s i s t s o f some t h i r t y o i l p a i n t i n g s , r e p r e s e n t i n g some o f h e r l a t e r work; many o f t h e p i c t u r e s have been e x h i b i t e d i n t h e R o y a l Academy and S a l o n , as w e l l as p r o v i n c i a l e x h i b i t i o n s i n E n g l a n d . B e s i d e s t h e s e l a r g e r and more a m b i t i o u s w o r k s , t h e r e a r e some most c h a r m i n g s t u d i e s i n w a t e r c o l o r o f t h e n a t i v e f l o w e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h may f r o m t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n a p p e a l t o t h e t a s ^ | o f some more n e a r l y t h a n p e r h a p s t h e f o r e i g n s u b j e c t s . " The c r i t i c , w r i t i n g f o r P r o g r e s s , commented on t h e i n a d e q u a t e f a c i l i t i e s a t t h e F a i r and o f f e r e d a r a t h e r more c r i t i c a l a s s e s s m e n t o f S o p h i e ' s p a i n t i n g s : " I t i s a p l e a s u r e t o c o n g r a t u l a t e t h e management o f t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n upon t h e i n c r e a s e d p r o m i n e n c e g i v e n i n t h i s y e a r ' s e x h i b i t i o n t o a r t t r e a s u r e s and t h e a r t i s t i c e l e m e n t , t h e c o l l e c t i o n i n o i l s o f M i s s S o p h i e T. P emberton b e i n g t o v e r y many t h e g r e a t a t t r a c t i o n o f t h e f a i r , b u t t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n b e i n g crowned by t h e d i s c o v e r y t h a t i n m i n a t u r e s by M i s s E t h e l W e b l i n g t h e r e had b e e n p r o v i d e d s u b j e c t s f o r e v e n more e n t h u s i a s t i c and u n q u a l i f i e d a d m i r a t i o n . U n h a p p i l y n e i t h e r M i s s P e m b e r t o n ' s n o r M i s s W e b l i n g ' s p i c t u r e s e n j o y a l i g h t i n w h i c h t h e y c a n be s e e n t o any a d v a n t a g e . P r o b a b l y t h e r e was no q u a r t e r o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n d e s i g n e d f o r t h e a c c e p t a b l e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s u c h t r e a s u r e s . H a n d i c a p p e d by i n s u f -f i c i e n t and i l l - p l a c e d l i g h t t h e p i c t u r e s n a t u r a l l y l o s e h a l f t h e i r charm. They are., however, d i s t i n c t l y w o r t h y o f a v i s i t and o f i n s p e c t i o n i n any l i g h t , and ' P r o g r e s s ' c a n b u t a d v i s e t h o s e who have n o t y e t s e e n them n o t t o a l l o w t o d a y t o p a s s w i t h o u t t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f t h e l a s t r e m a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . W i t h r e s p e c t t o M i s s P emberton's p i c t u r e s , ' P r o g r e s s ' c a n n o t s h a r e t h e g e n e r a l and u n q u a l i f i e d e n t h u s i a s m o f many. They a s s u r e d l y show much b r e a d t h , sympathy, im-p r e s s i o n i s t i c s k i l l , and f a c i l i t y i n v i v i d c o l o r i n g . B u t t h e y do n o t c a r r y t h e i r s t o r i e s d i r e c t t o t h e h e a r t , d e f y i n g c r i t i c i s m and a n a l y s i s . I n p o r t r a i t u r e and f i g u r e p a i n t i n g M i s s Pemberton i s most s u c c e s s f u l , a l t h o u g h h e r 41 s y m b o l i c ' S p r i n g ' and 'Autumn' a r e v e r y a d m i r a b l e com-p o s i t i o n s , e x h i b i t i n g none o f £b.e f a u l t s w h i c h m i g h t be p i c k e d i n 'John-o-Dreams'." A month l a t e r , f r o m O c t o b e r 21 t o 28, t h i s same e x h i b i t i o n was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e V a n c o u v e r p u b l i c a t t h e s t u d i o o f James B l o m f i e l d . 6 6 The D a i l y News A d v e r t i s e r c a r r i e d n o t i c e s a b o u t t h e f o r t h c o m i n g e x h i b i t i o n f o r a week b e f o r e i t s o p e n i n g : " M i s s P e m berton, o f V i c t o r i a , a t a l e n t e d member o f one o f t h e f o r e m o s t f a m i l i e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e , who has won r e c o g n i t i o n i n t h e most e x c l u s i v e a r t i s t i c c i r c l e s o f t h e O l d W o r l d , w i l l e x h i b i t a t t h e s t u d i o o f Mr. James B l o m f i e l d , Room 39, F a i r f i e l d B u i l d i n g f o r a few d a y s b e g i n n i n g F r i d a y n e x t . One o f M i s s P emberton's most famous p i c t u r e s , an Academy p i c t u r e , by t h e way, i s 'JOhn-o-preams'. T h i s w i l l be on e x h i b i t i o n among o t h e r s . " 6 7 "To-morrow t h e p a i n t i n g s o f M i s s Pemberton o f V i c t o r i a w i l l be on v i e w a t t h e s t u d i o o f Mr. James B l o m f i e l d , Room 39, F a i r f i e l d B u i l d i n g . The p u b l i c w i l l be a d m i t t e d f r e e . One o f t h e most c h a r m i n g o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n i s t h e n o t e d p i c t u r e 'John-o-Dreams'. M i s s P e m b e r t o n ' s h i g h r e p u t a t i o n as an a r t i s t i n London and P a r i s w i l l e n s u r e a l l a r t - l o v e r s o f V a n c o u v e r s e i z i n g t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e e h e r work."68 "The e x h i b i t i o n o f t h e p a i n t i n g s o f M i s s P e m berton, o f V i c t o r i a , w i l l be on v i e w f o r a week, b e g i n n i n g t o d a y , a t t h e s t u d i o o f Mr. James B l o m f i e l d , 39 F a i r f i e l d . B u i l d i n g , G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t . A r t c o n n o i s s e u r s w i l l s e i z e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y o f e n j o y i n g t h e c h a r m i n g work o f a y o u n g l a d y who has a l r e a d y made h e r name i n E n g l a n d and F r a n c e by h e r e x h i b i t s a t t h e R o y a l Academy, New and G r o s v e n o r G a l l e r i e s and a t t h e S a l o n . " 6 9 The e x h i b i t i o n was w e l l r e c e i v e d by t h e V a n c o u v e r p u b l i c and t h i s f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e was ' r e f l e c t e d i n t h e comments by t h e newspaper c r i t i c s . " I t i s n o t f o r t h e o r d i n a r y woman t o c r i t i c i s e t h e work o f s u c h a t r u e a r t i s t as M i s s S o p h i e T. P emberton. I c a n a d m i r e , d i s c r i m i n a t e between what I l i k e w e l l and what I l i k e b e s t , b u t b eyond t h a t i t c a n o n l y f a l l t o my l o t t o a d v i s e o t h e r V a n c o u v e r i t e s t o v i s i t t h e s t u d i o o f Mr. James B l o m f i e l d , i n t h e F a i r f i e l d B u i l d i n g , and e n j o y as I d i d l a s t week t h e t r e a t o f s e e i n g so many o f t h e w o r ks o f M i s s P e m b e r t o n , a young a r t i s t o f whom a l l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s a r e v a s t l y and j u s t l y p r o u d . 4 2 FIGURE 10. S p r i n g , 1902, O i l on Canvas, 100.5 x 142.5 cm., A r t G a l l e r y of Gr. V i c t o r i a 43 I n t h i s e x h i b i t i o n , w h i c h w i l l be open f r e e t o t h e p u b l i c a l l t h i s week, 'John-o-Dreams' w i l l a t o n c e a t t r a c t v i s i t o r s t o t h e s t u d i o . I t i s a f i n e p i e c e o f work, and was e x h i b i t e d i n t h e L o ndon R o y a l Academy i n 1903 and t h e P a r i s S a l o n i n 1902. Two o t h e r l a r g e p i c t u r e s w h i c h w i l l a p p e a l t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a r e ' S p r i n g ' and 'Autumn', a l s o 'A C h e l s e a P e n s i o n e r ' . 'A R u r a l P h i l o s o p h e r ' i s a s p l e n d i d p o r t r a i t , b u t f a r and away t h e gem o f t h e w h o l e c o l l e c t i o n , t o my way o f t h i n k i n g , i s No. 33, 'A S t u d y ' . I n t h i s p i c t u r e o f a y o u ng g i r l ' s h ead a g a i n s t a b a c k -g r o u n d o f w h i t e f l o w e r s , t h e r e f l e c t i o n s a r e m a r v e l l o u s and t h e f l e s h t o n e s a r e e x c e l l e n t . A p u r c h a s e r c o u l d n o t do b e t t e r t h a n s e c u r e t h i s l o v e l y work o f a r t . A l l t h e p i c t u r e s i n t h e e x h i b i t i o n a r e f o r s a l e , and a c a t a l o g u e o f names and p r i c e s i s p r o c u r a b l e a t t h e s t u d i o . The p i c t u r e s have b e e n most c l e v e r l y hung f o r M i s s P e m b e r t o n by Mr. James B l o m f i e l d . " 7 0 A n o t h e r w r i t e r was most t h o r o u g h i n h i s a r t i c l e a b o u t S o p h i e ' s e x h i b i t i o n and d e s c r i b e d , a t l e n g t h , h e r q u a l i t i e s as an a r t i s t : "An u n u s u a l o p p o r t u n i t y i s f u r n i s h e d t o l o v e r s o f a r t i n V a n c o u v e r d u r i n g t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s and t h e o p e n i n g o f n e x t week, i n t h e p r i v i l e g e o f v i e w i n g t h e p a i n t i n g s o f M i s s S o p h i e P e m berton, o f V i c t o r i a , w h i c h w i l l be on v i e w i n t h e s t u d i o o f Mr. James B l o m f i e l d , No. 39 F a i r f i e l d B l o c k , f r o m O c t o b e r 21 t o 28. M i s s Pemberton i s a n a t i v e o f V i c t o r i a who i s by n a t u r e h i g h l y g i f t e d i n t h e r e a l m o f a r t . She h a s t h e n a t u r a l g i f t , w h i c h i s an a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f s u c c e s s i n h e r c h o s e n c a l l i n g , t o a m a r v e l l o u s d e g r e e . Added t o t h i s s h e has most z e a l o u s l y and e a r n e s t l y t o i l e d i n h e r e f f o r t s t o make f o r h e r s e l f a name t h a t s h a l l r a n k h i g h among a r t i s t s . To t h a t end she has s t u d i e d i n t h e a t e l i e r s o f t h e l e a d i n g p a i n t e r s o f P a r i s , g a i n i n g f r o m t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t d e l i c a c y o f t o u c h and e x q u i s i t e b e a u t y w h i c h marks t h e F r e n c h s c h o o l . H a v i n g c o m p l e t e d h e r s t u d i e s t h e r e she s p e n t some t i m e i n Rome u n d e r t h e b e s t i n s t r u c t o r s t h a t c o u l d be s e c u r e d , and t h e r e i n t h e home o f t h e o l d m a s t e r s she r e c e i v e d a l l t h e t r a i n i n g o f t h e I t a l i a n s c h o o l , r i c h i n r e s o u r c e s , c o u l d g i v e h e r . Such e a r n e s t n e s s and f i d e l i t y t o a r t s u r e l y d e s e r v e s s u c c e s s . And M i s s Pemberton ha s c e r t a i n l y won t h a t w h i c h she s o u g h t . A t a p r i v a t e v i e w o f t h e p a i n t i n g s y e s t e r d a y many, i n d e e d , were t h e words o f p r a i s e , n o t mere empty m e a n i n g l e s s p h r a s e s 44 f r o m t h e l i p s o f t h e i g n o r a n t , b u t h o n e s t commendations f r o m c o n n o i s s e u r s o f a r t w h i c h came t o h e r . T h i r t y - f o u r c a n v a s s e s a r e d i s p l a y e d b y M i s s P e m b e r t o n , t h e work on w h i c h has c o v e r e d s e v e r a l y e a r s . Added t o t h e s e a r e a number o f w a t e r c o l o r s o f f l o r a a n d o f v i e w s a b o u t V i c t o r i a and t h e Sound. I t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e t o e numerate a l l o f t h e s e ; h e n c e we g l a n c e a t b u t a few. H e r b e s t work, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , f r o m e v e r y p o i n t o f v i e w , i s 'John-o-Dreams' - a d e l i g h t f u l p a s t o r a l s t u d y . I n t h i s p a i n t i n g M i s s Pemberton shows a t h e r b e s t t h e a r t i s t i c s o u l w i t h i n h e r . T h e r e i s t h e human t o u c h , i n d e s c r i b a b l e , i n t h e f a c e s o f t h e two f i g u r e s p o r t r a y e d and t h e g l a m o r o f d e l i c a c y t h a t charms and p l e a s e s . T h i s p a i n t i n g was e x h i b i t e d by t h e a r t i s t a t t h e S a l o n o f 1892; a g a i n a t t h e R o y a l Academy (London) i n 1903 and a t N e w c a s t l e - o n - T y n e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t y e a r . A s m a l l e r c a n v a s w i l l be t h e c e n t r e o f a t t r a c t i o n t o many d i s c e r n i n g l o v e r s o f a r t . T h i s i s 'A C h e l s e a P e n s i o n e r ' , w h i c h was e x h i b i t e d a t M a n c h e s t e r i n 1903. The a r t i s t h a s b e e n t h o r o u g h l y i n sympathy w i t h h e r s u b j e c t and g i v e s t h e ' o l d age' t o u c h t o t h e p o r t r a i t o f t h e s o l d i e r o f o t h e r d a y s w i t h r a r e s k i l l . Two l a r g e companion p a i n t i n g s , ' S p r i n g ' and 'Autumn', a r e f i n e s p e c i m e n s o f a r t , i n d e e d . The c o l o r i n g schemes i n b o t h o f t h e s e a r e most a p p r o p r i a t e and w e l l w r o u g h t o u t . A f i g u r e t h a t m i g h t be p l a c e d as a companion t o 'A C h e l s e a P e n s i o n e r ' i s 'A R u r a l P h i l o s o p h e r ' f i r s t e x h i b i t e d i n 1898. Here t h e a r t i s t d e l i n e a t e s t o w e l l n i g h p e r f e c t i o n a s t u d y o f a f a r m e r o f S o u t h e r n E n g l a n d . A n o t h e r s t u d y o f l i k e c h a r a c t e r and w e l l w o r t h y o f h i g h m e n t i o n i s t h a t o f 'A Roman P e a s a n t ' . The c a n v a s s e s on v i e w a r e m o s t l y f i g u r e s u b j e c t s . A few i n t e r i o r s , however, a r e g i v e n , among w h i c h i s a p a r t i c u l a r gem, 'S. C l e m e n t e , Rome'. I n t h i s p i c t u r e by s k i l f u l u s e o f t h e b r u s h , t h e a r t i s t has a t t a i n e d l i g h t e f f e c t s t h a t mark t h i s p i c t u r e above t h e o r d i n a r y , and w i l l make i t e s p e c i a l l y n o t e d d u r i n g t h e e x h i b i t i o n . A number o f t h e s t u d i e s a r e f r o m t h e n e i g h b o r h o o d o f C undebec, Normandy. The w a t e r c o l o r s w h i c h a r e shown a r e few i n number b u t t h e y show t h e a r t i s t t o be a v e r y a b l e e x p o n e n t o f t h e modern s c h o o l o f t h i s b r a n c h o f a r t . T h e r e i s t h e ' t o u c h ' and 'go' i n them, n o t t h e mere l a b o r i o u s s t u d i e d e f f o r t s , b u t t h e s k i l l and c o n f i d e n c e as shown i n e f f e c t s w r o u g h t by a s i n g l e s t r o k e o f t h e b r u s h . 45 M i s s Pemberton was c o n c e d e d by a p r o m i n e n t a r t i s t who has v i e w e d h e r w o r k s and i s c a p a b l e o f j u d g i n g , t o be an a r t i s t o f v e r y l a r g e c a l i b r e , c a p a b l e o f g r e a t t h i n g s . I n a l l h e r p a i n t i n g s , t h e r e i s shown a s t r e n g t h t h a t i s m a s c u l i n e and b o l d . T h e r e i s no weakness n o r w a v e r i n g e v i d e n t i n t h e l e a s t d e g r e e . T h i s s t r e n g t h and f i r m n e s s i s e v i d e n t b o t h i n h e r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i d e a s s h e c h o o s e s t o p o r t r a y and t h e method by w h i c h she t r e a t s them. Added t o t h i s , she has t h e f a c u l t y o f h a r m o n i o u s l y b l e n d i n g c o l o r s so as t o o b t a i n b e s t e f f e c t s f r o m what w o u l d a t t h e hands o f some r e s u l t i n h a p l e s s i n c o n g r u i t i e s . T h i s f a c u l t y i s e v i d e n c e d i n h e r p a i n t i n g s t o a marked d e g r e e . Her schemes and d a r i n g a r e s t r i k i n g and y e t a r e h a r m o n i z e d w i t h t h e most e x c e l l e n t e f f e c t . M i s s Pemberton w i l l d o u b t l e s s w i n h i g h p r a i s e s f o r h e r w o r k s as t h e y a r e e x h i b i t e d , b u t i t i s t o be remembered t h a t she has a l r e a d y b e e n t h e r e c i p i e n t o f h o n o r s i n t h e o l d w o r l d . " 7 1 The P r o v i n c e newspaper a l s o r e v i e w e d h e r work f a v o r a b l y and S o p h i e ' s r e p l y t o t h e r e p o r t e r ' s q u e s t i o n r a i s e d eyebrows i n V i c t o r i a : "Are t h e p e o p l e o f V a n c o u v e r g i v i n g you much e n c o u r a g e -ment, M i s s P e m b e r t o n ? " "Oh y e s , I t h i n k t h e r e i s f a r more i n t e r e s t i n p i c t u r e s h e r e t h a n t h e r e i s i n V i c t o r i a . I have been q u i t e im-p r e s s e d a t t h e a p p r e c i a t i o n my work has r e c e i v e d h e r e . " The P r o v i n c e r e p o r t e r c o n t i n u e d : " T h i s was b u t n a t u r a l . A f t e r a l l , we a r e more c o s m o p o l -i t a n t h a n o u r f r i e n d s i n I s o l a t i a - we beg p a r d o n - on t h e I s l a n d . " 7 2 T o d a y ' s r i v a l r y between t h e two c i t i e s a p p e a r s t o have a l e n g t h y t r a d i t i o n . S o p h i e r e m a i n e d i n V i c t o r i a f o r t h e r e s t o f 19 04 and c o n t i n u e d p a i n t i n g . By t h e s p r i n g o f 1905 she was a g a i n i n t h e p a p e r s : "Mrs. Pemberton e n t e r t a i n e d a l a r g e number o f f r i e n d s a t ' G o n z a l e s ' on Wednesday a f t e r n o o n . The h o s t e s s was a s s i s t e d i n l o o k i n g a f t e r h e r g u e s t s by M i s s Pemberton and M i s s S o p h i e Pemberton, t h e l a t t e r o f whom had h e r 46 FIGURE 11. S i r H e n r i J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e , 1906 O i l on Canvas, 118 x 76 cm., A r c h i v e s of B r i t i s h Columbia. 47 many s p l e n d i d p a i n t i n g s on v i e w . The p a i n t i n g s were g r e a t l y a d m i r e d , and t h o s e who were f o r t u n a t e enough t o be p r e s e n t e n j o y e d a r a r e t r e a t . " 7 3 S o p h i e , b e s i d e s f u n c t i o n i n g a s a d u t i f u l d a u g h t e r a t h e r m o t h e r ' s s o c i a l a f f a i r s , was r e c e i v i n g c o m m i s s i o n s f r o m t h e u p p e r c l a s s members o f t h e c a p i t a l c i t y . I n F e b r u a r y , 1905 an i m p o r t a n t c o m m i s s i o n came t o h e r f r o m t h e B.C. N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y . The C o l o n i s t c a r r i e d t h i s r e p o r t : "An e x c e e d i n g l y w e l l a t t e n d e d m e e t i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y was h e l d l a s t e v e n i n g i n t h e 'c a u c u s room' a t t h e p a r l i a m e n t b u i l d i n g s , t h e p r e s i d e n t , C a p t a i n W a l b r a n , b e i n g i n t h e c h a i r . A f t e r due c o n s i d e r a t i o n i t was d e c i d e d by t h e m e e t i n g t o c o m m i s s i o n M i s s Pemberton t o p a i n t t h e p o r t r a i t o f t h e l a t e J o h n F a n n i n , w h i c h i s t o be p l a c e d i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l museum by t h e F a n n i n m e m o r i a l committee." 7'"* S i x weeks l a t e r t h e C o l o n i s t commented on t h e a r t i s t ' s p r o g r e s s w h i c h had b e e n r e p o r t e d t o t h e r e g u l a r m e e t i n g o f t h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y : " A t t h e r e g u l a r m e e t i n g o f t h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y on Monday e v e n i n g , P r e s i d e n t C a p t a i n W a l b r a n b e i n g c h a i r -man, t h e m e m o r i a l c o m m i t t e e r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e p o r t r a i t o f t h e l a t e J o h n F a n n i n , p a i n t e d by M i s s Pemberton, was p r o g r e s s i n g t o w a r d c o m p l e t i o n and w o u l d w o r t h i l y commem-o r a t e t h e l a t e c u r a t o r i n t h e s c e n e o f h i s u s e f u l a c t i v -i t i e s . " 7 5 N e a r l y a month l a t e r t h e p o r t r a i t was f i n i s h e d and t h e C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e r commented on i t s i n s t a l l a t i o n a t t h e e n t r a n c e t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l museum: "A s t r i k i n g l y f i n e p o r t r a i t , e x e c u t e d i n o i l , o f t h e l a t e J o h n F a n n i n has j u s t b e e n hung a t t h e e n t r a n c e t o t h e museum a t t h e p a r l i a m e n t b u i l d i n g s . T h r e e - q u a r t e r s l i f e s i z e , and f r a m e d i n m a s s i v e oak, i t a t o n c e c a t c h e s t h e e y e o f t h e v i s i t o r t o t h e room w h i c h h o l d s so many s p e c i m e n s o f t h e h a n d i w o r k o f t h e d e c e a s e d and i s p r o n o u n c e d , by t h o s e who knew him b e s t i n l i f e , t o be a v e r y f a i t h f u l l i k e n e s s . The p i c t u r e was p a i n t e d by M i s s S.T. Pemberton, t o t h e o r d e r o f t h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y , and i s a 48 c o n s p i c u o u s example o f t h e h i g h l y a r t i s t i c powers o f a p a i n t e r who h a s more t h a n a l o c a l r e p u t a t i o n . " 7 ^ One o f " t h o s e who knew him b e s t " p a i d S o p h i e a h i g h c o m p l i m e n t , i n d e e d , w i t h h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t t h e p o r t r a i t and p o r t r a i t u r e i n g e n e r a l : "The p o r t r a i t o f J o h n F a n n i n w h i c h has b e e n p r e s e n t e d t o t h e Government as a m e m o r i a l o f h i s work as a n a t u r a l i s t i n t h i s P r o v i n c e , i s now f i n i s h e d and p l a c e d on t h e w a l l o f t h e museum l o b b y . I t was d e c i d e d by t h e N a t u r a l H i s t o r y S o c i e t y t h a t a l o c a l a r t i s t s h o u l d be c o m m i s s i o n e d t o p a i n t t h i s p i c t u r e and t h e i r c h o i c e f e l l on M i s s S.T. Pemberton who has a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d r e c o g n i t i o n o f h e r m e r i t f r o m w i t h o u t , h e r p i c t u r e s h a v i n g b e e n a c c e p t e d and hung b o t h by t h e R o y a l Academy a n d t h e F r e n c h S a l o n . We t h i n k t h a t t h e r e c a n be b u t one o p i n i o n as t o t h e wisdom o f t h e s e l e c t i o n . I t i s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t t h i n g t o p a i n t t h e p o r t r a i t o f a w e l l known p e r s o n i n a way w h i c h w i l l p l e a s e e v e r y b o d y . To no two i n d i v i d u a l s d o e s a t h i r d , p r o b a b l y , l o o k a l i k e e v e n when l i v i n g and p r e s e n t , s t i l l l e s s i s i t p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e i r r e c o l l e c t i o n o f h im w i l l be t h e same. B e s i d e s , t h o u g h few p e o p l e have much a r t i s -t i c t r a i n i n g , e v e r y o n e r e a s o n a b l y has an o p i n i o n as t o how a p i c t u r e s h o u l d be p a i n t e d , f o r t h e y e x p e c t t h o s e q u a l i t i e s o f h a n d l i n g and t o n e w h i c h t h e y h a v e l e a r n e d t o a p p r o v e o f i n some f a v o r i t e work w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e w e l l a c q u a i n t e d . And, f a i l i n g t h e s e , t h e y a r e n o t r e a d i l y p r e p a r e d t o a d m i r e e x c e l l e n c i e s u n f a m i l i a r t o them. I t i s f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s we b e l i e v e so many p o r t r a i t s o f e m i n e n t p e r s o n s do n o t g i v e g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , t h o u g h t h e work o f a r t i s t s o f a c k n o w l e d g e d a b i l i t y . B u t som e t i m e s , e i t h e r f r o m a p e c u l i a r sympathy w i t h t h e s i t t e r , o r f r o m some o t h e r c a u s e , a p i c t u r e i s p r o d u c e d w h i c h , a p a r t f r o m a l l q u e s t i o n s o f t e c h n i q u e , p r e s e n t s so b r o a d and d i g -n i f i e d a c o n c e p t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r , so f a i t h f u l an i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t c r i t i c i s m a n d n o t h i n g b u t s a t i s f a c t i o n i s l e f t . T h e s e a r e t h e g r e a t . p o r t r a i t s w h i c h have made t h e memory o f men t o l i v e f o r ages a f t e r t h e s p e c i a l k nowledge o f t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t s has c e a s e d t o be o f i n t e r e s t . P e r h a p s i t w o u l d be u n w i s e and e x t r a -v a g e n t p r a i s e t o b e s t o w upon any p o s t - m o r t e m p o r t r a i t t h e e p i t h e t g r e a t , y e t when we s t o o d i n f r o n t o f t h i s s o b e r and s i n c e r e p r e s e n t i m e n t o f t h e h o n e s t l a b o r e r i n t h e f i e l d s o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h we knew so w e l l as 'Jack F a n n i n 1 , we c o u l d n o t h e l p b e i n g i m p r e s s e d by t h e i d e a t h a t i n some i n d e f i n a b l e way h i s s p i r i t had p o s s e s s e d t h e a r t i s t and t o l d h e r o f h i m s e l f as he w o u l d w i s h t h e w o r l d t o know him." With a ta l e n t for p o r t r a i t u r e and the fortunate s o c i a l connection she enjoyed through her family, Sophie seemed des-7 8 tined for a promising career as a p o r t r a i t a r t i s t . Indeed, she executed a number of commissioned p o r t r a i t s for the upper-class members of B r i t i s h Columbia's c a p i t a l c i t y and also a 79 number fo r wealthy, a r i s t o c r a t i c patrons i n England. However, an examination of these p o r t r a i t s suggests that the a r t i s t did not do her best work under the condition of the patron/ a r t i s t r e l a t i o n s h i p . The p o r t r a i t of S i r Henri Gustave Joly de Lotbiniere (Figure 11) i s an example. S i r Henri, one-time Lieutenant-Governor of B r i t i s h Columbia, appears rather wooden and reminds the viewer of Mme. Tussaud's wax creations. There can be no f a u l t i n g Sophie for her draftsmanship, use of color, compo-s i t i o n , and so on. However, beyond the technical competence of t h i s p o r t r a i t there i s no believable psychological depth. There i s no sparkle of l i f e i n S i r Henri's eyes. The s t i l t e d q u a l i t y of t h i s p o r t r a i t i s a l l the more apparent when i t i s compared to the p o r t r a i t of Mansi or the Nude. I n a l l fairness, as Piper has pointed out: "The general conclusion on the art of port r a i t u r e must be that i t i s very c l o s e l y controlled by i t s conventions. The patterns of the conventions go hand i n hand with those of biography, beginning with that most enduring form, the memorial, the monumental i n s c r i p t i o n , the obituary notice, with purposes commemorative, hagio-graphical, and d i d a c t i c . Such p o r t r a i t s comprise, as i t were, a resonant catalogue of t h e i r subject's virtues an i n d i c a t i o n of t h e i r earthly achievements, and none of t h e i r shortcomings."^0 But even with allowances made for the close control of con-ventions i n Edwardian portraiture t h i s painting i s hardly a 50 " r e s o n a n t c a t a l o g u e " o f S i r H e n r i ' s v i r t u e s . T h i s s t i f f a n d wooden q u a l i t y , a p p a r e n t i n a number o f S o p h i e ' s c o m m i s s i o n e d p o r t r a i t s , i s n o t i c e a b l y a b s e n t i n h e r g e n r e p a i n t i n g s and p o r t r a i t s o f c l o s e f a m i l y members. Her c o m m i s s i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s t r i c t l y a c a d e m i c q u a l i t y and a r e e x c e e d i n g l y c o n s e r v a t i v e . She seems t o have been v e r y c o n s c i o u s o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n v o l v e d and r e v e r t s t o t h e l e t t e r o f h e r a c a d e m i c l e s s o n s . I t may be t h a t she was some-what i n t i m i d a t e d by h e r i l l u s t r i o u s p a t r o n s and was t h e r e b y p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g h e r b e s t work. More l i k e l y , h e r h e a r t was s i m p l y n o t i n t h i s k i n d o f e f f o r t w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a s m a l l p a r t o f h e r known a r t i s t i c o u t p u t . D u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s , f r o m t h e l a t e 1890's t o 1905 S o p h i e e x e c u t e d numerous f a m i l y p o r t r a i t s a n d g e n r e p a i n t i n g s . I n t h e s e works she a p p e a r s much more s y m p a t h e t i c t o h e r s i t t e r s and t h e y s t a n d i n marked c o n t r a s t t o h e r c o m m i s s i o n e d p o r t r a i t s . As m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , h e r f a m i l y p i c t u r e s a r e much l e s s f o r m a l i n t r e a t m e n t and seem more a l i v e . T h e y s t r i k e t h e v i e w e r w i t h t h e i r warm, p e r s o n a l q u a l i t y . Her p o r t r a i t o f h e r m other Mrs. J.D. Pemberton ( F i g u r e 12) i s an example. I n t h i s p a i n t i n g S o p h i e a b l y p o r t r a y s t h e handsome, s t e r n V i c t o r i a n l a d y who was t h e e p i t o m e o f t h e v a n i s h i n g n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y l a n d e d u p p e r - c l a s s . S o p h i e , t h e a r t i s t , has c a r e f u l l y r e c o r d e d t h e r e a l p h y s i c a l p r e s e n c e o f t h i s a u t o c r a t i c woman. S o p h i e , t h e d a u g h t e r , shows t h e v i e w e r a warm, m a t r o n l y s i d e o f M r s . P e mberton. T h u s , t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h i s woman has b e en c a p t u r e d and we c a n a d m i r e t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r e s e n c e o f t h i s p o r t r a i t i n a way w h i c h i s i m p o s s i b l e w i t h t h a t o f S i r H e n r i . FIGURE 12. M r s . J.D. Pemberton, 1897, O i l on C a n v a s , 61 x 50.5 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e p a i n t i n g I t a l i a n P e a s a n t Woman ( F i g u r e 13) shows a warm sympathy f o r t h e m o d e l . T h i s sympathy b r i n g s t h e p o r t r a i t v i v i d l y t o l i f e and y e t t h e r e i s no s t a t e m e n t made a b o u t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h i s woman's e x i s t e n c e . The c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r and i t s n e u t r a l t r e a t m e n t p l a c e s S o p h i e s q u a r e l y i n t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t r a d i t i o n r e f e r r e d 81 t o as t h e " j u s t e m i l i e u . " The " j u s t e m i l i e u " was a compromise between t h e Academy and t h e I m p r e s s i o n i s t s and by t h e 1880's most a r t i s t s and s t u d e n t s i n F r a n c e a d o p t e d t h e s t a n d a r d s o f t h i s h a l f - w a y p o s i t i o n . T e c h n i c a l l y , t h e i r a r t was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a l o o s e h a n d l i n g o f o i l - as o p p o s e d t o t h e h i g h l y p o l i s h e d s u r f a c e s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l A c a d e m i c c a n v a s e s . A l s o , a much l i g h t e r p a l e t t e was f a v o r e d by t h e a r t i s t s o f t h e e i g h t i e s and n i n e t i e s , t h e r e s u l t o f t h e d i r e c t p a i n t i n g and w h i t e g r o u n d s o f t h e I m p r e s s i o n i s t s . S o c i a l l y , t h e work o f t h e " j u s t e m i l i e u " a r t i s t s was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e n e u t r a l i t y r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e . L i k e most p u p u l a r g e n r e p a i n t e r s o f h e r day, S o p h i e ' s p a i n t i n g s , i n t h i s i d i o m , p o r t r a y p o v e r t y as " n e a t and r e s p e c t f u l where 8 2 e v e r y o n e knows h i s p l a c e . " As P i p e r n o t e s , " s u c h was t h e 8 3 way o f l i f e , and few p a i n t e r s p r o b e d more d e e p l y . " T h i s a t t i t u d e i s more c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n I n t e r i o r o f a  C a b i n , W e s t p o r t ( F i g u r e 1 4 ) . S o p h i e ' s p a i n t i n g shows us t h e n e a t , w e l l - s c r u b b e d i n t e r i o r o f a p e a s a n t ' s c a b i n . The p e a s a n t h i m s e l f i s s e e n p r a y i n g , i n t h e d i m l y l i t bedroom, i n r e s p e c t -f u l p o s e on h i s k n e e s . E v e r y t h i n g i s i n i t s p l a c e - r i g h t down t o t h e man's b o o t s c a r e f u l l y s e t by t h e doorway. O b v i o u s l y 53 S o p h i e had n o t " p r o b e d more d e e p l y " i n t o t h e l i f e and c o n -d i t i o n s o f p e a s a n t e x i s t e n c e . S o p h i e p a i n t e d a number o f g e n r e p a i n t i n g s d u r i n g t h i s same p e r i o d w h i c h , l i k e h e r p i c t u r e s o f f a m i l y members and m o d e l s , r e v e a l t h e a r t i s t ' s c o n v i n c i n g a b i l i t y t o c r e a t e a s e n s e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m . T h e s e g e n r e p a i n t i n g s a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l i n n a t u r e . T h a t i s , t h e a r t i s t was d r a w i n g on t h e m a t e r i a l o f h e r own l i f e f o r h e r p a i n t i n g s . The p a i n t i n g S u s i e ( F i g u r e 15) f a l l s i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . T h i s c a n v a s p o r t r a y s S o p h i e ' s y o u n g e r s i s t e r s e a t e d i n t h e 84 l i b r a r y o f t h e i r m a t e r n a l g r a n d p a r e n t s ' home. S u s i e s i t s r e a d i n g i n t h e m o r n i n g s u n . The l i b r a r y i s s u i t a b l y s t a c k e d w i t h f l o o r t o c e i l i n g s h e l v e s o f bo o k s and t h e d e s k i s p i l e d w i t h h e a v y , l e a t h e r - c o v e r e d tomes. The f a t , s t u f f e d f u r n i t u r e and h e a v y g i l t - f r a m e d a r t on t h e w a l l s combine w i t h S u s i e ' s a t t i r e t o p r e s e n t a c a n d i d g l i m p s e o f t h e t a s t e and f a s h i o n o f E d w a r d i a n E n g l a n d . S o p h i e has n o t i d e a l i z e d h e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r and she p r e s e n t s a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d v i e w o f h e r s i s t e r e n g r o s s e d i n h e r r e a d i n g . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e image o f t h i s young woman, d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n h e r r e a d i n g , h as n o t been a r r a n g e d f o r t h e d e l e c t a t i o n o f t h e v i e w e r . T h e r e a r e many a n a l o g o u s w o rks d e p i c t i n g a young woman s u p p o s e d l y r e a d i n g b u t whose mind i s d e c i d e d l y e l s e w h e r e . S o p h i e shows us h e r s u b j e c t a c t u a l l y r e a d i n g . T h e r e i s no c o y p o s e o f v a c u o u s s t a r e i n t o s p a c e ; o n l y a l i t e r a t e , m o t i v a t e d woman, immersed i n h e r p e r s o n a l a c t i v i t y . FIGURE 13. I t a l i a n P e a s a n t Woman, 1903, O i l on C a n v a s , 87 x 66 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n . I n t h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y , S o p h i e d e p a r t s f r o m t h e n e u t r a l i t y e v i n c e d by t h e g e n r e p a i n t e r s o f h e r day. However, t e c h n i c a l l y h e r p a i n t i n g s r e m a i n v e r y much i n t h e compromise t r a d i t i o n . I n S u s i e , f o r example, h e r A c a d e m i c l e s s o n s a r e i n e v i d e n c e and y e t t h e y a r e combined w i t h t h e more v i s u a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g p a i n t i n g t e c h n i q u e s o f t h e I m p r e s s i o n i s t s . The f i g u r e o f S u s i e , w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e d e p t h o f t h e p i c t u r e , shows a g a i n S o p h i e ' s s o u n d g r a s p o f d r a f t s m a n s h i p . The u s e o f h a l f - t o n e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e d e s k , f l o o r and w a l l s , c ombined w i t h an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c u s e o f b r i g h t , a l m o s t p u r e s p l a s h e s o f w h i t e on t h e c e n t r a l c h a i r , window and S u s i e ' s b o d i c e p r e s e n t a t e c h n i c a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d and v i s u a l l y i n t e r -e s t i n g p i c t u r e . A n o t h e r r e v e a l i n g g e n r e p a i n t i n g i s R e j e c t e d ( F i g u r e 1 6 ) . T h e r e i s no d o c u m e n t a t i o n p r o v i n g t h i s t o be a s e l f - p o r t r a i t , however, t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a l l o w s f o r t h i s k i n d o f s p e c u l a t i o n I n t h i s p a i n t i n g a y o u ng woman i s s e a t e d f a c i n g a c a n v a s on an e a s e l . Her slumped p o s t u r e , w i t h one arm h a n g i n g l i f e -l e s s l y , a n d t h e r e j e c t i o n s l i p l y i n g where i t had d r o p p e d on t h e f l o o r m e asure t h e a r t i s t ' s d i s a p p o i n t m e n t w i t h t h e j u d g e ' s d e c i s i o n . T h e r e i s an added p i q u a n c y t o t h i s k i n d o f g e n r e o r n a r -r a t i v e p a i n t i n g b e c a u s e t h e p e r s o n a l c o n t e n t t r a n s c e n d s t h e more u s u a l empty themes o f l a t e n i n e t e e n t h e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y g e n r e a r t i s t s . A l t h o u g h S o p h i e was s t i l l u s i n g t h e t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e s common a t t h e t i m e t h e r e i s some e v i d e n c e i n t h e s e p e r s o n a l , g e n r e p a i n t i n g s t h a t she was s t r i v i n g f o r a more i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t i c s t a t e m e n t . T h i s e f f o r t a t t h e m a t i c i n d i v i d u a l i t y w o u l d l a t e r be r e f l e c t e d i n an a t t e m p t t o f i n d a more p e r s o n a l s t y l i s t i c s t a t e m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h e r l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g s . By 1905, t h e n , S o p h i e was e n j o y i n g a g r o w i n g p o p u l a r i t y a s a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t . She must c e r t a i n l y have been p l e a s e d w i t h t h e r e c e p t i o n o f t h e F a n n i n p o r t r a i t i n t h e c a p i t a l c i t y and h e r a r t i s t i c o u t p u t was s l o w l y g r o w i n g . She was d e v e l o p i n g a r t i s t i c a l l y and seems t o have b e e n s e e k i n g a way o f b r e a k i n g t h r o u g h t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s o f h e r a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g . S o p h i e ' s p l e a s u r e w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h e r c a r e e r was t e m p e r e d w i t h bad news f r o m t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n Academy. The m i n u t e s o f t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y o f t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n Academy o f A r t s f o r May 13, 19 05 d e s c r i b e t h e b u s i n e s s o f E l e c t i o n o f A s s o c i a t e members. The m i n u t e s a r e e x p l i c i t i n p o i n t i n g o u t why S o p h i e was r e f u s e d a d m i s s i o n : "The n e x t name up f o r E l e c t i o n was M i s s S o p h i e P e m b erton, she n o t h a v i n g c o m p l i e d w i t h t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i n s h o w i n g on two p r e v i o u s o c c a s i o n s b e f o r e n o m i n a t i o n , t h e S e c r e t a r y was i n s t r u c t e d t o w r i t e h e r e x p l a i n i n g t h e c a u s e o f h e r name n o t c o m i n g up f o r E l e c t i o n as p e r R e s o l u t i o n : Moved by E. Wyly G r i e r , s e c o n d e d by Mr. F.M. Knowles and R e s o l v e d t h a t t h e S e c r e t a r y w r i t e t o M i s s Pemberton e x p l a i n i n g t h a t h e r n o m i n a t i o n b e i n g made i n e r r o r , t h e C l a u s e o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n r e q u i r i n g t h e number o f p r e v i o u s E x h i b i t i o n s n o t h a v i n g b e e n c o m p l i e d w i t h i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e t o b r i n g h e r name up f o r E l e c t i o n b e f o r e n e x t y e a r . " 8 ^ I f S o p h i e was d i s a p p o i n t e d she made no m e n t i o n o f i t . ' She r e m a i n e d b u s y i n h e r t o w e r s t u d i o t h r o u g h o u t t h e s p r i n g o f 1905 and, by t h e summer months, had an a c t i v e and p e r s i s t e n t a d m i r e r . Canon A r t h u r B e a n l a n d s , o f C h r i s t C h u r c h C a t h e d r a l , was a handsome widower who came o f t e n t o s i t and w a t c h h e r work i n t h e G o n z a l e s s t u d i o . The c o u r t s h i p was n o t l o n g and 57 i n September, 1905 t h e y were m a r r i e d on a warm, sunny day. An e x t e n s i v e a r t i c l e i n t h e C o l o n i s t newspaper r e f l e c t s t h e l a v i s h a t t e n t i o n t h e w e a l t h y , p r o p e r t i e d c l a s s p a i d t o t h i s g a l a s o c i a l a f f a i r : "Wedded ' n e a t h s m i l i n g s k i e s - The c e l e b r a t i o n o f t h e n u p t i a l s - was a v e r y n o t a b l e e v e n t , c h a r m i n g i n a l l i t s d e t a i l and w i t n e s s e d by an a s s e m b l a g e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e e l i t e o f t h e c i t y . . . The b r i d e l o o k e d b e a u t i -f u l i n a c r e a m c o l o u r e d l i b e r t y s a t i n d e m i - t r a i n , p e r f e c t l y p l a i n , t h e b o d i c e w i t h d eep I r i s h c r o c h e t l a c e c o l l a r e t t e i n c r e a m c o l o u r e d s i l k w i t h c h i f f o n . A c o r s e l e t t e o f m o t h e r -o f - p e a r l s q u a r e s and s i l v e r t h r e a d c o m p l e t e d t h e c o s t u m e . She wore a c h a p l e t o f o r a n g e b l o s s o m s i n h e r h a i r . The b r i d a l v e i l o f L i m e r i c k l a c e , w h i c h had b een worn by h e r g r e a t g r a n d m o t h e r , f e l l o v e r h e r i n g r a c e f u l f o l d s f r o m h e a d t o f o o t . " 8 7 S o p h i e was t h i r t y - s i x y e a r s o l d i n 19 05 and p o s s i b l e f e a r s o f s p i n s t e r h o o d c o u p l e d w i t h . c e r t a i n p r e s s u r e f r o m h e r m o t h e r may have had a t e l l i n g i n f l u e n c e on h e r d e c i s i o n t o m a r r y . As w e l l , t h e r e may have b e e n f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . S o p h i e ' s f a t h e r l e f t e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s i n h i s w i l l f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f u n d s t o any d a u g h t e r s w i s h i n g t o p u r s u e a c o u r s e "which i n t h e o p i n i o n o f ( h i s ) T r u s t e e may be c a l c u l a t e d t o a d v a n c e s u c h d a u g h t e r i n a r t , l i t e r a t u r e o r m u s i c o r f o r t h e 8 8 p u r p o s e o f f o r e i g n t r a v e l . " A l t h o u g h t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e w i l l seem c l e a r t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n as t o w h e t h e r S o p h i e r e c e i v e d t h e f u l l b e n e f i t o f them. Money p r o b l e m s were a c o n s t a n t s o u r c e o f argument between M r s . P emberton and h e r , , . 89 d a u g h t e r . B e s i d e s t h e s p e c i f i c p r e s s u r e o f t h e s e p r o b l e m s , S o p h i e , as t h e d a u g h t e r o f a w e a l t h y , u p p e r - c l a s s f a m i l y , was t a u g h t f r o m t h e e a r l i e s t age t h a t t h e f u l l e s t e x p r e s s i o n o f h e r l i f e w o u l d be f o u n d i n m a r r i a g e . T h e r e c a n be no d i s c o u n t i n g o r FIGURE 14. I n t e r i o r of an I r i s h Cabin, Westport, n.d., O i l on Canvas, 50 x 60 cm., Archives of B r i t i s h Columbia. 59 b e l i t t l i n g t h e v e r y r e a l l o v e she f e l t f o r h e r new h u s b a n d , however, t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h i s i s s u e must be s e e n i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e g r a d u a l e r o s i o n o f h e r f i r m commitment t o h e r a r t . I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t d e t a i l s a b o u t t h i s p e r s o n a l m a t t e r r e m a i n o b s c u r e b e c a u s e i t r e p r e s e n t s a most i m p o r t a n t t u r n i n g p o i n t i n S o p h i e ' s l i f e ; h e r m a r r i a g e marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a d e c l i n e as a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t . The Canon was a c h a r m i n g man and seemed g e n u i n e l y i n t e r -e s t e d i n S o p h i e ' s a r t i s t i c e f f o r t s . As t h e g l o w o f e a r l y m a r r i a g e began t o wane, however, he c o n f o r m e d t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g n o t i o n t h a t i t was n o t " p r o p e r " f o r h i s young w i f e t o c o n t i n u e a d e d i c a t e d c a r e e r as an a r t i s t . As w e l l , S o p h i e had a c c e p t e d t h e t i m e - c o n s u m i n g j o b s o f manager o f a l a r g e h o u s e h o l d and m o t h e r t o t h e Canon's f o u r c h i l d r e n . She grew p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t a c h e d t o h i s o n l y s o n , P a u l , t h e n s t i l l an i n f a n t . C e r t a i n l y t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f t h e s e new r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , c o u p l e d w i t h h e r new h u s b a n d ' s a t t i t u d e , w o u l d s e r v e t o impede h e r d e d i c a t i o n t o c r e a t i n g a r t . T h e r e were, however, some a r t i s t i c a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s s t i l l i n s t o r e f o r t h e new Mrs. B e a n l a n d s . I n 1906 t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n Academy, s a t i s f i e d t h a t a l l r e q u i r e m e n t s had b e e n met, h o n o r e d h e r w i t h an A s s o c i a t e Membership. The m e e t i n g o f t h e Academy, a t t e n d e d by G.A. R e i d , F.M. B e l l - S m i t h , E. D y o n n e t and o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d A c a d e m i c i a n s , h e l d i n May o f 1906 c o n f i r m e d S o p h i e ' s e l e c t i o n : " B a l l o t s were c a s t f o r t h e E l e c t i o n o f M r s . S o p h i e P e m b e r t o n Beamlands ( s i c ) , V i c t o r i a , B.C., t o t h e A s s o c i a t e Membership o f t h e Academy. A.F. D u n l o p and H. M a c C a r t h y were a p p o i n t e d S c r u t i n e e r s . 60 On t h e B a l l o t s b e i n g c o u n t e d t h e P r e s i d e n t d e c l a r e d M r s . Pemberton Beamlands ( s i c ) d u l y e l e c t e d . " 9 0 F o r two y e a r s S o p h i e w orked h a r d as w i f e , m o t h e r , and a r t i s t . She e x h i b i t e d a l a r g e c a n v a s , c a l l e d Penumbra, ( F i g u r e 17) / w i t h t h e R o y a l C a n a d i a n Academy i n 1907 and b e g a n a s e r i e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l a n d s c a p e s w h i c h were e v e n t u a l l y e x h i b i t e d i n London. Her e f f o r t s a t l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g were s o m e t h i n g o f a d e p a r t u r e f r o m h e r work t o t h i s p o i n t and t h e V i c t o r i a n e w s p a p e r s commented on t h e s e l a t e s t p a i n t i n g s : "'The S t r a i t s o f t h e G u l f o f G e o r g i a ' i s t h e s u b j e c t o f a p a i n t i n g by Mrs. (Rev.) A~. B e a n l a n d s . The p i c t u r e has b e e n a c q u i r e d by an E n g l i s h g e n t l e m a n and w i l l be e x h i b i t e d i n v a r i o u s c e n t r e s o f t h e homeland. Mount B a k e r i n t h e d i s t a n c e , w i t h a d e l i c a t e p l a y o f p i n k upon i t s s n o w - c l a d summit, a f f o r d s a f i n e c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e u l t r a - m a r i n e o f t h e s t r a i t s b e n e a t h . I n t h e h i t h e r g r o u n d , a t r e e i n b l o s s o m , e x c e l l e n t l y t r e a t e d , i s s e e n . One o f t h e f i r s t e s s a y s o f Mrs. B e a n l a n d s i n ' l a n d s c a p e ' t h e p i c t u r e a u g u r s w e l l f o r t h e new d e p a r t u r e . T h e r e i s a l a r g e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t , w i t h a n i c e a p p r e c -i a t i o n o f v a l u e s t h a t was o n l y t o be e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e p a i n t e r o f t h e ' C h e l s e a P e n s i o n e r ' . The p l a y o f l i g h t and s hade i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d o f t h e p i c t u r e i s s l i g h t l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f M r s . B e a n l a n d s ' i n t e r i o r work. The p a i n t i n g w i l l d o u b t l e s s command a t t e n t i o n i n t h e o l d l a n d , and w i l l show t h a t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s s c a r c e l y t h e w i l d e r n e s s o f a r t w h i c h t h e a r t i c l e s by E n g l i s h v i s i t o r s may have i n d u c e d . " 9 1 The C o l o n i s t r e p o r t e r had much t h e same t o s a y a b o u t t h i s l a t e s t work o f S o p h i e ' s : "Mrs. B e a n l a n d s h a s a c h i e v e d d i s t i n c t i o n by t h e p r o d u c t s o f h e r b r u s h , b u t h i t h e r t o h e r work has c h i e f l y b e e n c o n f i n e d t o p o r t r a i t u r e o r p i c t u r e s i n w h i c h f i g u r e s were t h e p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s . L a n d s c a p e s a r e a l m o s t a new f i e l d f o r h e r . She has j u s t c o m p l e t e d a f i n e p a i n t i b e i n g a v i e w o f t h e G e o r g i a n a r c h i p e l a g o , s h o w i n g Mt. B a k e r i n t h e d i s t a n c e . The p o i n t o f v i e w i s on M o s q u i t o I s l a n d w h i c h i s a t t h e e n t r a n c e o f S a a n i c h I n l e t . A b i t o f t h e i s l a n d , w i t h an o l d s h a c k and a c h e r r y t r e e FIGURE 15. S u s i e , n.d., O i l on Canvas 49.5 x 76 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n 62 i n f u l l b l o o m f r o m t h e f o r e g r o u n d . A t t h e l e f t hand t h e e a s t e r n m o s t p o i n t o f P i e r I s l a n d i s shown. T h i s w i l l be a s u f f i c i e n t d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l o c a l i t y , w h i c h i s one of. t h e b e a u t y s p o t s o f t h i s most b e a u t i f u l p a r t o f t h e D o m i n i o n . The p a i n t i n g i s a d m i r a b l y e x e c u t e d . As shown i n t h e window o f No. 23 B r o a d S t r e e t , i t i s n o t s e e n t o a d v a n t a g e , b e c a u s e t h e g l a s s o f t h e window and t h e shadow o f t h e awning keep t h e l i g h t f r o m f a l l i n g upon i t a d v a n t a g e o u s l y ; y e t e v e n u n d e r t h e s e a d v e r s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s e v e r y o b s e r v e r w i l l r e c o g n i z e i t a t o n c e a s a m a s t e r l y p r o d u c t i o n . I t i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c e n e . The a r t i s t h as c a u g h t t h e l o c a l c o l o r a d m i r a b l y . One does n o t n e e d t o be t o l d , when l o o k i n g a t i t , t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l i s a B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s c e n e , f o r t h e a r t i s t has p r o d u c e d a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f o u r s p r i n g l a n d - s c a p e s . The c o l o r i n g i s good, t h e l i g h t s and shadows i n f i n e c o n t r a s t , and t h e m o u n t a i n b a c k g r o u n d e x q u i s i t e . I n e v e r y r e s p e c t i t i s an e x c e l l e n t p i c t u r e . I t has b een s o l d t o a g e n t l e m a n who w i l l e x h i b i t i t i n E n g l a n d , where i t w i l l s e r v e t o g i v e some i d e a o f t h e b e a u t i e s o f t h i s r e g i o n , as w e l l as i l l u s t r a t e t h e h i g h d e g r e e o f e x c e l -l e n c e a t t a i n e d by one o f o u r a r t i s t s . " 9 2 The c o m b i n e d w o r k l o a d o f r u n n i n g h e r h u s b a n d ' s h o u s e h o l d , c a r i n g f o r t h e c h i l d r e n and h e r c o n t i n u e d e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n h e r s t a t u s as a p r a c t i s i n g a r t i s t must have e x a c t e d t h e i r t o l l on h e r h e a l t h . I n t h e s p r i n g o f 1908 she 1 became v e r y i l l a nd h a d t o u n d e r g o s u r g e r y : "Mrs. B e a n l a n d s , t h e w i f e o f R e v e r a n d Canon B e a n l a n d s , was removed on S a t u r d a y l a s t t o a p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l where she underwent a r a t h e r s e r i o u s o p e r a t i o n on Monday. W h i l e h e r c o n d i t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y f a v o u r a b l e , i n d i c a t i n g as r a p i d a r e c o v e r y as c o u l d i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s be r e a s o n a b l y e x p e c t e d i t i s u n d e r s t o o d t o be q u i t e p o s -s i b l e t h a t s o m e t h i n g l i k e a month w i l l e l a p s e b e f o r e she w i l l be i n a p o s i t i o n t o r e t u r n t o h e r home a t t h e r e c t o r y . " 9 3 C o n t i n u e d p o o r h e a l t h and h e r v a r i o u s d u t i e s as w i f e and m o t h e r d i d n o t p r e v e n t S o p h i e f r o m w o r k i n g on h e r V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d l a n d s c a p e s . By t h e summer o f 1908 she a s s e m b l e d h e r l a t e s t e f f o r t s and, a t a l a r g e s o c i a l i n h e r home, h e l d a 63 p r e v i e w f o r V i c t o r i a ' s s o c i a l i t e s . The p a i n t i n g s drew a p p r e c -i a t i v e comments f r o m t h e r e c e p t i v e a u d i e n c e : "Canon and M r s . B e a n l a n d s were ' a t home 1 a t t h e r e c t o r y on Wednesday and T h u r s d a y a f t e r n o o n , when M r s . B e a n l a n d s ' c h a r m i n g c o l l e c t i o n o f p i c t u r e s was on v i e w . Mrs. B e a n l a n d s i s l e a v i n g V i c t o r i a i n a few d a y s t i m e f o r Quebec where she w i l l s p e n d t h e w i n t e r , and f r o m t h e r e she w i l l p r o c e e d i n t h e s p r i n g t o L o n d o n , Eng; , where she w i l l h o l d an e x h i b i t i o n o f h e r p a i n t i n g s . The c o l l e c t i o n o f p i c t u r e s w h i c h a r e g o i n g t o E n g l a n d were o n v i e w i n t h e d r a w i n g room, a l l b e i n g l o c a l s u b j e c t s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f two most b e a u t i f u l p a i n t i n g s , w h i c h have a l r e a d y b e e n hung i n t h e R o y a l Academy. I t w o u l d i n d e e d be d i f f i c u l t t o s a y w h i c h p i c t u r e a t t r a c t e d t h e most a t t e n t i o n , b u t t h e r e c a n be no q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e one d e p i c t i n g 'Ross Bay' came i n f o r u n i v e r s a l d i s t i n c t i o n , w h i l e t h e one r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e O l y m p i c r a n g e was g r e a t l y a d m i r e d . "94 D u r i n g t h e s p r i n g o f 1909 S o p h i e ' s e x h i b i t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d l a n d s c a p e s was i n s t a l l e d a t t h e Dore G a l l e r y i n L o n d o n , E n g l a n d . They were w e l l r e c e i v e d by t h e London a u d i e n c e , b u t , a s c a n be s e e n f r o m t h e v a r i e t y o f comment i n t h e r e v i e w e r s ' a r t i c l e s t h e p a i n t i n g s were e n j o y e d f o r a number o f d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s . The W o r l d c r i t i c saw them as n o v e l t y : " F u r t h e r and f u r t h e r away o u r a r t i s t s have t o wander i n s e a r c h o f n o v e l themes f o r t h e e x e r c i s e o f t h e i r s k i l l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t among t h e e x h i b i t i o n s h e l d a t p r e s e n t i n t h e West End G a l l e r i e s a r e a s e r i e s o f s k e t c h e s o f V i c t o r i a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by M r s . B e a n l a n d s a t t h e D o r e G a l l e r i e s . " 9 5 Someone w r i t i n g f o r t h e D a i l y E x p r e s s saw them as i n f o r m -a t i v e f o r t h o s e L o n d o n e r s who had c h i l d r e n i n f a r o f f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : "Mrs. B e a n l a n d s 1 e x h i b i t i o n a t t h e D o r e G a l l e r y , o f p i c t u r e s p a i n t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i l l be o f g r e a t i n t e r e s t t o t h o s e whose s o n s have gone o f f t o make homes f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t o g a t h e r f o r t u n e s i n t h e new c o u n t r y . The o l d , p i c t u r e s q u e f a r m h o u s e s , s e t among h e a t h e r and p i n e s , and gay w i t h g o l d e n broom and many a f a m i l i a r f l o w e r , a r e e s s e n t i a l l y E n g l i s h i n t y p e . They l o o k away 64 a c r o s s b l u e i n l e t s o f s e a t o p a l e r b l u e s n o w - t i p p e d m o u n t a i n s , some 11,000 f e e t h i g h on t h e m a i n l a n d o f A m e r i c a . Mrs. B e a n l a n d ( s i c ) , who i s t h e w i f e o f Canon B e a n l a n d ( s i c ) , i s a n a t i v e o f V i c t o r i a , b u t she s t u d i e d i n E u r o p e . She i s a n a r t i s t o f g r e a t m e r i t . " 9 6 The Times c r i t i c saw S o p h i e ' s p a i n t i n g s as a t r a v e l o g u e : " A t t h e D o r e G a l l e r y we a r e t a k e n by M r s . B e a n l a n d s ( M i s s S o p h i e Pemberton) t o one o f t h e l o v e l i e s t r e g i o n s o f t h e e a r t h , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . As a r t , t h e d r a w i n g s a r e o n l y m o d e r a t e l y r e m a r k a b l e ; b u t t h e a r t i s t h as a t l e a s t g i v e n f a i t h f u l t r a n s c r i p t s o f t h e b e a u t i f u l c o u n t r y on t h e c o a s t s o f V a n c o u v e r and V i c t o r i a , and o f t h e m a r v e l o u s s t r a i t t h a t l i e s b e tween. T h i s i s one o f t h e few p l a c e s i n t h e w o r l d t h a t combine snow m o u n t a i n s and b l u e s e a , and Mrs. B e a n l a n d s has shown b o t h i n many o f h e r d r a w i n g s , s u c h as 'Mount B a k e r f r o m Bowker's B e a c h ' and 'Macaulay P l a i n s ' . The l u x u r i a n c e o f t h e v e g e t a t i o n i s d i s p l a y e d i n s u c h d r a w i n g s as t h a t c a l l e d 'A P r o s p e r -ous S e t t l e r ' - a p i c t u r e o f t h e y e l l o w broom w h i c h , t h o u g h a newcomer, i s c o v e r i n g w h o l e t r a c t s o f c o u n t r y . I t i s w e l l t h a t E n g l i s h p e o p l e s h o u l d l e a r n , f r o m a r t i s t s on t h e s p o t , what l o v e l i n e s s p e r v a d e s some o f t h e remote p o r t i o n s o f t h e E m p i r e ; and Mrs. B e a n l a n d s has done h e r g b e s t t o show i t i n t h e c a s e o f V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " The w r i t e r f o r What's On v e n t u r e d a r a t h e r more a r t i s t i c a n a l y s i s and s u g g e s t e d t h a t S o p h i e h a d b e e n " d e c i d e d l y s u c c e s s f u l i n c a p t u r i n g t h e West C o a s t a t m o s p h e r e : " A t p r e s e n t t h e r e a r e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t e x h i b i t i o n s b e i n g h e l d i n t h e s e g a l l e r i e s , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e p e r m a n e n t one o f D o r e ' s g r e a t m a s t e r p i e c e s , w h i c h i s a l w a y s on v i e w . Of t h e t e m p o r a r y e x h i b i t i o n s t h e most i m p o r t a n t i s t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f s k e t c h e s i n o i l o f V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , by Mrs. B e a n l a n d s . M r s . B e a n l a n d s has b e e n d e c i d e d l y s u c c e s s f u l i n h e r r e s u l t i n a t t e m p t i n g t o i n t e r p r e t i n o i l t h e e x c e s s i v e l y b r i l l i a n t a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t . M r s . B e a n l a n d s ' work c a r r i e d w i t h i t s o m e t h i n g more t h a n t h e mere a t t e m p t t o p o r t r a y l a n d -s c a p e and c l i m a t e , f o r i n No. 7, 'The D w e l l e r s on t h e  T h r e s h o l d ' , t h e r e i s a f e e l i n g o f m y s t e r y d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n . The same remark a p p l i e s t o many o f h e r p i c t u r e s a s , f o r example, i n No. 9, 'The Crown o f t h e H i l l ' , w h i c h s t i m u l a t e s one's c u r i o s i t y t o wonder what happens r o u n d t h e bend o f t h e r o a d . I n t h i s l a s t - m e n t i o n e d p i c t u r e t h e w i l d y e l l o w g o r s e s t a n d i n g o u t i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d a g a i n s t a s o f t d i s t a n t l a n d s c a p e o f g r e y i s q u i t e f a s c i n a t i n g and c l e v e r l y r e n d e r e d . FIGURE 16. R e j e c t e d , n.d., O i l on C a n v a s , 101.6 x 107 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n 66 I n No. 30, 'Cadboro Bay', we have a f i n e s t u d y o f r i c h a u t u m n a l c o l o u r i n g o f much warmth an d s u n s h i n e w h i c h c o n t r a s t s e x c e l l e n t l y w i t h t h e s o f t e v e n i n g l i g h t d e -p i c t e d i n No. 32, 'An O l d G a r d e n ' . ' F i n n e r t y ' s ' a l s o d e p i c t s an e v e n i n g s k y o v e r a w i d e s w e e p i n g l a n d s c a p e , g i v i n g a g r e a t i d e a o f b r e a d t h and e x p a n s e . I n No. 5, 'The L u t h e r a n C h u r c h ' , M r s . B e a n l a n d s shows some k n o w l e d g e o f a r c h i t e c t u r a l d r a w i n g . " 9 8 The w r i t e r i n t h e I n d i a n T e l e g r a p h d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e above and r e f e r s t o t h e p a i n t i n g s ' " E n g l i s h . c h a r a c t e r " : "A c o l o n i a l a r t i s t , M r s . B e a n l a n d ( s i c ) , w i f e o f Canon B e a n l a n d ( s i c ) , has an i n t e r e s t i n g e x h i b i t i o n o f p i c t u r e s p a i n t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a on v i e w a t t h e D o r e G a l l e r y . Many o f h e r p i c t u r e s , w h i c h p r o v e h e r t o be an a r t i s t o f no mean t y p e , a r e e s s e n t i a l l y E n g l i s h i n t h e i r c h a r a c -t e r , a n d i t i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r p r o t o t y p e s a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e F a r West."99 A s i m i l a r o p i n i o n was e x p r e s s e d by t h e M o r n i n g P o s t : "Mrs. B e a n l a n d s has v e r y c l e v e r s k e t c h e s made i n V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h i n l o c a l c o l o u r and g e n e r a l c o n f o r m a t i o n c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e t h e l a n d s c a p e o f E n g l a n d , o r r a t h e r S c o t l a n d . The same deep browns, r u s s e t s , g r e e n s and y e l l o w s seem t o be common t o b o t h c o u n t r i e s . ' S h o a l Bay', 'Olympian M o u n t a i n s f r o m Cook S t r e e t ' , and 'The G o l f L i n k s ' m i g h t be g l i m p s e s o f C a l e d o n i a , and t h e ' S u n s e t Glow i n a C o r n f i e l d ' and 'A C o r n f i e l d ' m i g h t have been p a i n t e d anywhere i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . Among t h e more s t r i k i n g works a r e 'Mount B a k e r f r o m Bowker's  B e a c h ' , 'Cadboro Bay', 'Macaulay P l a i n s ' , w h i c h w o u l d have been b e t t e r w i t h o u t t h e b r o k e n t r e e i n t h e . f o r e -g r o u n d , and 'The D w e l l e r s on t h e T h r e s h o l d ' . " ^ The w r i t e r f o r Queen, a l l u d i n g t o a now l o s t c a t a l o g u e w h i c h a c c o m p a n i e d t h e e x h i b i t i o n , p o i n t s o u t t h a t S o p h i e ' s d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t t o " i n t e r p r e t t h e e x c e s s i v e l y b r i l l i a n t a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t " was n o t s u c c e s s f u l : ". . . a t t h e Dore G a l l e r y , where a l s o a n o t h e r show, u n d e r v e r y d i s t i n g u i s h e d p a t r o n a g e , i s b e i n g h e l d o f s k e t c h e s o f V i c t o r i a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by M r s . B e a n s l a n d s ( s i c ) . The s k e t c h e s a r e i n o i l , and t h e p r e f a c e t o t h e c a t a l o g u e t e l l s us t h a t t h e y a r e e s s a y s t o i n t e r p r e t t h e e x c e s s i v e l y b r i l l i a n t a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t . L o o k i n g a t t h e e x h i b i t i o n as a w h o l e , a t m o s p h e r i c e f f e c t i s n o t i t s s t r o n g p o i n t , b u t No. 20, 'Cook S t r e e t ' i s an e x c e p t i o n , and ' S h o a l ' s Bay' and 67 'A P o r t r a i t ' show r e a l f e e l i n g f o r t h e b e a u t i f u l . The s m a l l w a t e r - c o l o u r d r a w i n g o f a l o v e l y b e l l - s h a p e d w h i t e f l o w e r i s c h a r m i n g , and s h i n e s o u t as a r e a l b i t o f g o od work, t h e d r a w i n g o f t h e d e l i c a t e p e t a l s b e i n g t e n d e r l y g i v e n a n d t h e b l u e b a c k g r o u n d w e l l s u g g e s t e d . " 1 0 1 The S t u d i o m a g a z i n e w r i t e r d i s a g r e e d and f e l t S o p h i e had a " g e n u i n e f e e l i n g as a l a n d s c a p e p a i n t e r " and, w i t h a s h o r t n o t e on h e r work, r a n a p h o t o g r a p h o f M a c a u l a y P l a i n s . "From an e x h i b i t i o n a t t h e Dore G a l l e r i e s , London, o f some f o r t y s k e t c h e s o f V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , by M r s . B e a n l a n d s (nee S o p h i e T. P e m b e r t o n ) , we r e p r o d u c e one w h i c h f u l l y e v i d e n c e s h e r g e n u i n e f e e l i n g as a l a n d -s c a p e p a i n t e r . . . B u t as a l a n d s c a p e a r t i s t she i s e n t i r e l y s e l f - t a u g h t and has d e v e l o p e d h e r own s t y l e as a s t u d e n t o f n a t u r e upon t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t , a r e g i o n o f b r i l l i a n t s u n s h i n e and p e l l u c i d a t m o s p h e r e . Mrs. B e a n l a n d s has b een a f r e q u e n t e x h i b i t o r i n t h e p a s t y e a r s w i t h t h e R o y a l Academy and t h e P a r i s S a l o n . " F i n a l l y , i n Canada, a w r i t e r d e v o t e d e x h a u s t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e Dore e x h i b i t i o n and, y e t , p r o v i d e d a r a t h e r c o n f u s e d a n a l y s i s o f S o p h i e ' s e f f o r t s : "The name o f Mrs. B e a n l a n d s ( S o p h i e T. Pemberton) i s n o t w e l l known i n E a s t e r n Canada, b u t l o v e r s o f a r t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a have l o n g b e e n f a m i l i a r w i t h h e r c h a r m i n g p i c t u r e s - m o d e s t l y s t y l e d ' s k e t c h e s ' i n t h e c a t a l o g u e o f h e r l i t t l e one-woman show a t t h e Dore G a l l e r y - and t h e i r a d m i r a t i o n w i l l be e n d o r s e d by t h o s e London c r i t i c s who a r e n o t a f r a i d o f t h e v i v i d c o n t r a s t s o f h i g h - p i t c h e d c o l o u r s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e s c e n e r y o f t h e 'demi-E n g l a n d ' ( t o u s e H e n l e y ' s p h r a s e ) o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . As t h e a r t i s t p o i n t s o u t i n a s h o r t f o r w a r d , t h e atmos-p h e r e o f t h e P a c i f i c c o a s t i s v e r y b r i g h t and p e l l u c i d , h a r d l y i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h an i l l i m i t a b l e v i e w , and t h e s u n s h i n e i s more d i r e c t . N e a r l y a l l h e r p i c t u r e s a r e s t u d i e s 'en P l e i n a i r , ' and she g i v e s us none o f t h o s e ' i m p r e s s i o n s ' i n t h e m i n o r k e y o f m y s t e r y w h i c h a r e so f a s h i o n a b l e t o - d a y i n London w i t h i t s low k e y and f a i n t f a r - o f f s u n a n d c l o u d - h a u n t e d t h o r o u g h f a r e s . W h a t e v e r e l s e s h e i s - and she i s s o m e t h i n g o f an e c l e c t i c i n s t y l e and methods o f b r u s h work - nobody c o u l d c a l l h e r i m p r e s s i o n i s t . The t r u t h i s t h a t she has t h o u g h t - o u t a manner o f h e r own w h i c h i s s t r i c t l y p e r s o n a l and n o t a t a l l i m p a i r e d by t h a t i m i t a t i o n o f some m a s t e r ' s m a n n e r i s m s , w h i c h i s t h e i n s i n c e r e s t f o r m o f f l a t t e r y . One f e e l s i n c l i n e d t o d e f i n e h e r most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t s as c o l o u r - f a n t a s i a s , d e l i g h t i n t h e g o l d e n -y e l l o w s and d a r k l i n g p u r p l e s and u l t r a - d e e p - m a r i n e hues 68 and v i v i d greens of Vancouver Island scenery overcoming her sense of t o n a l i t y and f e e l i n g for decorative motives. Now and again on the P a c i f i c Slope Nature may be said to f l i n g her paint-pots i n the face of man, and i n two or three of her studies Mrs. Beanlands presents a mere catalogue of the r e s u l t . But, as a rule, she gives cosmos rather than chaos, a phase of the a r t i s t i c realism which may be described as r e a l i t y , touched with some personal emotion. No. 36, 'Mosquito Island', for example has for i t s motive the contrast of the s t i l l - b r o o d i n g wilderness, barbaric i n form and colour, with the quiet, yet poignant, beauty of a c u l t i v a t e d orchard i n blossom. In No. 7, 'The Dwellers on the Threshold', she shows us the few old pines that guard Beacon H i l l , and subtly contrives to interpolate a note of sadness and solemnity, a sense of the s i l e n t passing of an ancient order of forest monarchs. In No. 10, 'The Olympian Mountains from Beacon H i l l ' , we have a b r i e f but adequate present-ment of one of the f i n e s t views i n the world. In No. 5, 'The Lutheran Church', the tombstone of an Englishman appears i n the foreground, and that which Tuskin, the disestablished prophet, c a l l s the beauty of memorial, i s apparent. No. 17, ' F a i r f i e l d Road', i s most a d r o i t l y composed. In No. 26, 'Time and Et e r n i t y ' , a grotesque dead oak on Mount Tolmie, contrasting with the deathless beauty of Mount Baker afar i n the height of heaven, she has f i n e l y r e a l i s e d a fine idea. If the non-essential d e t a i l i n the foreground had been eliminated, she would have achieved something comparable with the Japanese masterpiece, i n which Fujiyama, the eternal symbol of other-worldly beauty, s i l e n t l y rebukes the ephemeral. We have mentioned but a few of the s t r i k i n g pictures i n an exh i b i t i o n which should appeal even to the stay-at-home Londoner"103 One thing seems clear, given the range and scope of her c r i t i c s ' comments, Sophie had, i n some measure, broken with t r a d i t i o n and developed the beginnings of what might have become a purely personal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the West Coast landscape. Although landscape painting was not greatly emphasized in the academic curriculum there was some t r a i n i n g and encourage-ment given i n the a t e l i e r s . Sophie may have learned from t h i s t r a i n i n g , however, there i s every p o s s i b i l i t y that she taught herself the s k i l l s and techniques necessary to execute successful FIGURE 17. Penumbra, 1907, O i l on Canvas 94 x 134.5 cm., V i c t o r i a : Private C o l l e c t i o n 70 l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g s . A c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r f o r S t u d i o mag-a z i n e s t a t e d t h a t S o p h i e was "a l a n d s c a p e a r t i s t e n t i r e l y s e l f - t a u g h t and (had) d e v e l o p e d h e r own s t y l e a s a s t u d e n t o f 104 n a t u r e upon t h e P a c i f x c c o a s t . " S o p h i e ' s e a r l i e s t l a n d s c a p e e f f o r t s , a number o f w a t e r -c o l o r s f r o m t h e l a t e 1890's, show a p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h a t medium b u t l i t t l e e l s e . C a n o i s t s ( F i g u r e 18.) i s an example. T h i s p a i n t i n g i s r a t h e r s t a n d a r d f a r e f o r i t s t i m e and r e p r e s e n t s t h e E n g l i s h l a n d s c a p e t r a d i t i o n t r a n s p o s e d t o t h e C a n a d i a n s c e n e . Any number o f C a n a d i a n a r t i s t s o f t h e p e r i o d m i g h t have p a i n t e d t h i s s c e n e w i t h more o r l e s s t h e same r e s u l t s . I n 1903, e i g h t y e a r s a f t e r t h e C a n o i s t s , S o p h i e p a i n t e d a s m a l l o i l p a n e l c a l l e d The S e i n e ( F i g u r e 1 9 ) . T h i s p a n e l shows t h a t S o p h i e was aware o f t h e g r o w i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s t o h e r a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g . By t h e . n i n e t i e s and t h e f i r s t few y e a r s o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y an i n c r e a s i n g number o f a r t s t u d e n t s were e x p l o r i n g t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e I m p r e s s i o n i s t s . W i t h t h e i r e m p h a s i s on a d i r e c t r e s p o n s e t o n a t u r e and t h e g r o w i n g p o p u l a r i t y o f a more p e r s o n a l , e x p r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e c r e a t i o n o f a r t - as r e p r e s e n t e d by W h i s t l e r and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S o c i e t y o f S c u l p t o r s , P a i n t e r s and ' G r a v e r s -t h e way was opened t o newer, more s u b j e c t i v e a p p r o a c h e s t o n , • 4_- 105 l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g . S o p h i e ' s s k e t c h o f t h e S e i n e shows some t a l e n t f o r t h i s k i n d o f p a i n t i n g . T h r o u g h a l o o s e , s c u m b l e d h a n d l i n g o f h e r o i l s he has c a p t u r e d t h e e f f e c t o f an o v e r c a s t m o r n i n g on t h e banks o f F r a n c e ' s famous r i v e r . The r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e t r e e s on t h e w a t e r ' s s u r f a c e i s c a p t u r e d t h r o u g h t h e d e f t a p p l i c a t i o n o f d a r k t o n e s o v e r a l i g h t b a s e . A few r a p i d s t r e a k s o v e r t h e s u r f a c e c r e a t e s a s e n s e o f movement i n t h e w a t e r . T h i s p a n e l i s t h e m o s t - " i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c " p a i n t i n g w h i c h S o p h i e made. Her V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d l a n d s c a p e s , w h i c h she e x h i b i t e d a t t h e Dore G a l l e r y i n 1909, were q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . As has b een s e e n , some c o n t e m p o r a r y c r i t i c s r e c o g n i s e d h e r e f f o r t s i n t h i s new d i r e c t i o n . A l t h o u g h , an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e c a n v a s e s t o d a y r e v e a l s l i t t l e i n t h e way o f i n n o v a t i v e l a n d s c a p e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h i s i s n o t t o o f f - h a n d e d l y d i s m i s s them. They must be m e a s u r e d as e a r l y a t t e m p t s i n a c a r e e r w h i c h d i d n o t come t o f u l l f r u i t i o n . They r e t a i n , n o n e t h e l e s s , a f r e s h n e s s and charm a s c r i b e d them by t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r y a u d i e n c e . M a c a u l a y P l a i n s ( F i g u r e 20) was v e r y p o p u l a r i n t h e D o r e show and i s an example o f S o p h i e ' s a t t e m p t t o " i n t e r p r e t t h e 106 e x c e s s i v e l y b r i l l i a n t a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e P a c i f i c C o a s t . " T h i s c a n v a s , t h e o t h e r s i n t h i s e x h i b i t were d e s c r i b e d i n a 107 now m i s s i n g c a t a l o g u e as " e s s a y s . " I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t t h e r e a r e no e x t a n t c o p i e s o f t h e e n t i r e t e x t o f t h e e x h i b i t i o n c a t a l o g u e t o h e l p us b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d S o p h i e ' s i n t e n t i o n s . I n t h e s e p a i n t i n g s S o p h i e u s e d p u r e , unmixed c o l o r s a p p l i e d d i r e c t l y t o h e r s i z e d c a n v a s . She d i d l i t t l e g l a z i n g and a c h i e v e d t h e " p e l u c i d " a t m o s p h e r i c e f f e c t s by t h e j u x -t a p o s i n g o f h e r b r i g h t c o l o r s . See, f o r example, A P r o s p e r o u s  S e t t l e r ( F i g u r e 2 1 ) . I n t h i s p a i n t i n g , now b a d l y i n n e e d o f c l e a n i n g , t h e b r i l l i a n t y e l l o w o f t h e broom weed s t a n d s o u t s h a r p l y f r o m t h e m i x e d p a l e t t e o f t h e g r o u n d c o v e r . The c r i s p 72 b l u e s and p u r p l e s o f t h e s e a , s k y and m o u n t a i n s r e c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i v e s p l e n d o r o f Mt. B a k e r as s e e n f r o m V i c t o r i a . P e r h a p s had S o p h i e c o n t i n u e d w i t h h e r l a n d s c a p e p a i n t i n g she m i g h t have d e v e l o p e d a more p e r s o n a l a r t i s t i c s t a t e m e n t . P e r h a p s , l i k e h e r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i n Canada, she was b e g i n n i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t t h e C a n a d i a n l a n d s c a p e was v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e n e a t E n g l i s h c o u n t r y s i d e . D a n i e l F o w l e r , j u s t b e f o r e h e r , a n d t h e Group o f S e v e n , j u s t a f t e r , d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t i n t e r e s t and c o n c e r n i n t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e C a n a d i a n l a n d -s c a p e were i n t h e a r t i s t i c c l i m a t e o f t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y S o p h i e g o t no f u r t h e r t h a n t h i s t e n t a t i v e b e g i n n i n g . How i r o n i c , i n r e t r o s p e c t , was t h i s e x h i b i t i o n a t t h e Dore G a l l e r y . The e n t h u s i a s t i c r e c e p t i o n o f h e r l a n d -s c a p e s must have b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y r e w a r d i n g c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c l e a r n o t i o n she had o f what she was d o i n g (as e v i d e n c e d by t h e now m i s s i n g c a t a l o g u e ) and t h e l o n g s e r i e s o f o b s t a c l e s she had s u r m o u n t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g h e r t a l e n t and managing h e r c a r e e r . S a d l y , t h i s e x h i b i t i o n was a k i n d o f swan s o n g f o r S o p h i e , b e c a u s e i t was t o be t h e l a s t m a j o r p r o f e s s i o n a l e f f o r t she w o u l d u n d e r t a k e , a l t h o u g h she l i v e d f o r a n o t h e r f i f t y y e a r s . S o p h i e and h e r h u s b a n d s e t t l e d a t W i c k h u r s t Manor, S e v e n o a k s Weald, i n t h e K e n t i s h c o u n t r y s i d e . A l t h o u g h d o m e s t i c d u t i e s k e p t h e r b u s y , she c o n t i n u e d h e r s k e t c h i n g and d i d some p a i n t i n g . A p p a r e n t l y Lady S a c k v i l l e o f K n o l e p e r s u a d e d S o p h i e t o p a i n t a number o f p o r t r a i t s o f t h e S a c k v i l l e f a m i l y members and a l s o some s m a l l o i l s k e t c h e s f o r t h e modest g a l l e r y w h i c h 10 8 Lady S a c k v i l l e o p e r a t e d . B e s i d e s t h e s e e f f o r t s f o r t h e FIGURE 18. C a n o i s t s , 1895, Water/color on P a p e r , 23.5 x 33.5 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n 74 S a c k v i l l e s S o p h i e p a i n t e d a c a n v a s w h i c h was a c c e p t e d by t h e R o y a l Academy f o r t h e i r 1910 E x h i b i t i o n . The B r o m l e y Times made a s h o r t r e f e r e n c e t o t h i s p a i n t i n g : "'Memories', No. 203, by Mrs. S.T. B e a n l a n d s , Aynscombe House, O r p i n g t o n , i s a v e r y p l e a s a n t l y t o n e d s t u d y , and has p o e t i c s e n t i m e n t . " 1 0 9 I n t h e Lydenham G a z e t t e t h e r e was a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s now m i s s i n g c a n v a s : "'Memories' seems q u i t e a p o p u l a r t i t l e f o r p i c t u r e s a g a i n t h i s y e a r . M r s . S o p h i a T. B e a n l a n d s , o f Aynscombe House, O r p i n g t o n , h as a d o p t e d i t f o r h e r o i l s t u d y o f a l a d y k n e e l i n g r e f l e c t i v e l y i n t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f some p r i n t s o r p l a t e s , w h i c h a p p e a r t o have been t a k e n f r o m an o l d c h e s t . The r e a r o f t h e f i g u r e i s e f f e c t i v e l y l i g h t e d f r o m a f i r e and t h e c a n v a s i s one d i s p l a y i n g c a r e f u l work. "HO I t i s t e m p t i n g t o c o n j e c t u r e t h a t S o p h i e knew by 1910 t h a t h e r l i f e as a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t was o v e r and i t was now j u s t a "memory". A l t h o u g h h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r was e f f e c -t i v e l y o v e r , h e r c r e a t i v e u r g e c o n t i n u e d t o m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n a v a r i e t y o f ways t h r o u g h o u t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f h e r l o n g l i f e . She c o n t i n u e d t o p a i n t s m a l l b o t a n i c a l w a t e r c o l o r s . S o p h i e made i t c l e a r t o h e r f a m i l y and f r i e n d s t h a t she d i d n o t r e g a r d t h e s e w i l d f l o w e r p a i n t i n g s a s " A r t " . P e r h a p s she f e a r e d b e i n g c a t e g o r i z e d as a Sunday p a i n t e r o r d i l e t t a n t e -g i v e n t h a t women o f h e r c l a s s were e x p e c t e d t o be a b l e t o e x e c u t e " n e a t w a t e r c o l o r i n g s " . A p a r t o f i t , t o o , may have b e e n h e r own n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p r e j u d i c e a b o u t t h e r e l a t i v e d e g r e e s o f i m p o r t a n c e w i t h r e g a r d t o m e d i a and s u b j e c t m a t t e r . W a t e r c o l o r f l o w e r p a i n t i n g s s i m p l y d i d n o t f i g u r e h i g h l y . Be t h i s as i t may, S o p h i e made many f i n e w i l d f l o w e r s t u d i e s d u r i n g h e r l i f e t i m e . L a d y s l i p p e r ( F i g u r e 22) i s t y p i c a l o f t h e b o t a n i c a l p a i n t i n g s w h i c h S o p h i e e x e c u t e d . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w a t e r -c o l o r shows S o p h i e ' s t a l e n t f o r c a p t u r i n g t h e i n n e r l i f e o f t h e s e b e a u t i f u l f l o w e r s . T h e s e a r e n o t l i f e l e s s , a c a d e m i c s t u d i e s . They a r e , r a t h e r , v i b r a n t " p o r t r a i t s " o f s o m e t h i n g w h i c h p r o v i d e d t h e a r t i s t w i t h g r e a t p l e a s u r e . S o p h i e made d o z e n s o f t h e s e p a i n t i n g s on h e r f r e q u e n t t r i p s t o V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and a l l t h e p o p u l a r s p e c i e s were done many t i m e s . Towards t h e end o f h e r l o n g l i f e t i m e h e r s k e t c h e s o f t h e l i l y , c l e a r l y h e r f a v o r i t e f l o w e r , became i n c r e a s i n g l y g h o s t - l i k e as she s k e t c h e d them a g a i n and a g a i n i n h e r s h a k e y h a n d . 1 1 1 B e s i d e s c o n t i n u i n g h e r s k e t c h i n g , S o p h i e ' s e x t r a v a g e n t s e n s e o f d e s i g n and c o l o r q u i c k l y t r a n s f o r m e d mundane l i v i n g s p a c e s i n t o r i c h and f a n c i f u l i n t e r i o r s . F o r example, one room a t S e v e n o a k s was p a i n t e d t o s i m u l a t e a P e r s i a n g a r d e n i n deep, r i c h c o l o r s o f b l u e and r e d . F u r n i t u r e was l a c q u e r e d 112 and c o v e r e d w i t h d e s i g n s f r o m P e r s i a n m i n i a t u r e s . S o p h i e ' s m o t h e r d i e d i n 1916, h e r h u s b a n d , i n 1917, P a u l , whom she d e a r l y l o v e d , was k i l l e d i n t h e l a s t y e a r o f W o r l d War I . As i f t h e s e t r a g e d i e s were n o t enough, an u n f o r t u n a t e a c c i d e n t was t o add t o h e r woes. S o p h i e was t h r o w n f r o m h e r h o r s e and c a r r i a g e and t h e r e s u l t i n g h e a d i n j u r y r e q u i r e d a c o u p l e o f y e a r s q u i e t c o n v a l e s c e n c e d u r i n g w h i c h she c o u l d do a l m o s t no p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y . A f t e r so much m i s f o r t u n e S o p h i e may have d e s p a i r e d , however, t h e r e was h a p p i n e s s i n s t o r e f o r h e r y e t . I n 1920, t h e f i f t y - o n e y e a r o l d S o p h i e f e l l m a d ly i n l o v e w i t h t h e d a s h i n g and d e b o n a i r H o r a c e Deane-Drummond. FIGURE 19. The Seine, 1903, O i l on Board, 19 x 42 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n . 77 He was older than she and had children nearly her age. They knew each other just weeks before t h e i r marriage at St. James', P i c c a d i l l y . Horace was very much the country gentleman and had made his fortune from tea and rubber plantations i n India and Ceylon. 113 He was a "huntin 1, shootm', and f i s h i n ' " sort of man and i f Canon Beanlands was an u n l i k e l y match for Sophie the d i f -ferences with Horace were even more pronounced. One of his f i r s t g i f t s to his new bride was a complete wardrobe of s t a i d , tweedy dresses and t a i l o r e d white s h i r t s . Sophie was to give up her b e a u t i f u l , f l o a t y tea gowns. With dismay she confided to her niece, Mrs. Harvey - "Oh dear, I can't wear these!" But wear them she did. The Deane-Drummonds t r a v e l l e d to India and Ceylon and then s a i l e d on the Wolverine State's f i r s t d i r e c t voyage from Calcutta 114 to San Francisco i n May, 1921. They arrived i n V i c t o r i a shortly afterwards to v i s i t with Sophie's brother, F.B. Pemberton, and remained into the winter months. In an a r t i c l e written i n the early 1950's, D. Ogilvy Irving, editor of B.C. Magazine, remembers that Sophie was s t i l l sketching when she could. "I was to drive Mrs. Deane-Drummond to a spot near The Bend, on Oak Bay Avenue, where one had a magnificent and uninterrupted view of Mt. Baker. We trundled up to The Bend i n my ancient chariot, and i n a minute the a r t i s t had everything arranged to s u i t h erself. The driver became unnecessary and I was freezing. The skies were blue with cold. Mt. Baker pierced the back-ground with a s o l i t a r i n e s s which was emphasized by the sweeping foreground of i c y waters. 'Yes, my dear, 1 she said i n her gentle way, and smiled i n her gracious manner, 'everything i s just as I want i t . ' So, through chattering teeth, I promised to come back at an arranged time, and h a s t i l y made o f f . 78 When lat e r I returned I found Mrs. Deane-Drummond serenely happy. Oblivious to the elements she had accomplished her work. We drove back to the f r i e n d l y f i r e s i d e and tea at Molton Coombe."115 In t h i s same a r t i c l e , Mr. Irving r e c a l l s that Sophie was most encouraging to her then little-known contemporary Emily Carr: "Mrs. Deane-Drummond was one of the f i r s t to appreciate and speak i n enthusiastic terms about the paintings of another V i c t o r i a a r t i s t , the late Emily Carr. That was before Miss M i l l i e ' s work had attracted the eye of the wider world. I was with Mrs. Deane-Drummond the afternoon she v i s i t e d Miss Carr's studio, and remember being impressed by her praise and s i n c e r i t y . Her opinion has been thoroughly v e r i f i e d . . . . " l l S Indeed, Sophie did more than praise Miss Carr's work. She drew Mr. Mortimer-Lamb's attention to the struggling e f f o r t s of t h i s a r t i s t and he, i n turn, was instrumental i n bringing her work to the attention of E r i c Brown, then Director of the National Gallery. Mortimer-Lamb wrote Brown i n October, 1921: "When I was i n V i c t o r i a recently, I went to see a c o l l e c -t i o n of paintings by a Miss Carr, which Mrs. Deane-Drummond (nee Pemberton) had informed me were quite a d mirable." 1 1 7 Their long v i s i t to V i c t o r i a concluded, the Deane-Drummonds returned to England to l i v e . On the family country estate at Boyce Court, Dymoch i n Gloucestershire, Horace's senile father owned a huge crumbling and dilapidated manor. The old squire l i v e d i n two rooms of the mansion with a servant and had vowed to l i v e to one hundred years. The hounds turned out for his centenary and he died shortly afterwards. Sophie and Horace l i v e d on i n Gloucestershire during the twenties, taking frequent t r i p s to fashionable resort areas, p e r h a p s i n r e s p i t e f r o m t h e a r d u o u s t a s k o f r e p a i r i n g t h e i r e s t a t e . A g a i n S o p h i e i n d u l g e d i n r e c r e a t i n g h e r l i v i n g s p a c e i n a w o n d e r f u l l y e x t r a v a g e n t way. One v e r y l a r g e b a t h r o o m was p a i n t e d t o c r e a t e a s e n s e o f b e i n g o u t d o o r s . The e f f e c t was t h a t o f a s p r i n g d a y w i t h t h e s u n r i s i n g . W a l l s w e r e t r a n s f o r m e d w i t h enormous d e l p h i n i u m s g r o w i n g i n a r i o t o f p a i n t e d c o l o r . To c o v e r t h e f l o o r , S o p h i e u s e d some o f h e r h u s b a n d ' s t i g e r s k i n s . A l s o , d u r i n g t h e t w e n t i e s , S o p h i e r e p a i r e d p a p i e r mache t r a y s and p a i n t e d t h e m w i t h c o l o r f u l f l o r a l d i s p l a y s i n t e r -s p a c e d w i t h b u t t e r f l i e s a nd b i r d s . She c o n t i n u e d t h i s w o r k d u r i n g t h e n e x t c o u p l e o f d e c a d e s a n d d u r i n g W o r l d War I I many o f t h e m w e r e s o l d t o r a i s e money f o r t h e Red C r o s s . T h e r e a r e a f e w s e r i o u s p a i n t i n g s d a t i n g f r o m t h i s p e r i o d a n d s h e e x h i b i t e d o n o c c a s i o n w i t h t h e I s l a n d A r t s a n d C r a f t s C l u b o f V i c t o r i a , B.C., a n d t h e S e v e n o a k s A r t s a n d C r a f t s S o c i e t y , E n g l a n d . H o w e v e r , i t i s c l e a r t h a t she no l o n g e r h a d t h e e n e r g y , o r p o s s i b l y , t h e d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r . She may w e l l h a v e b e e n a w a r e t h a t h e r a r t , by t h i s l a t e d a t e , was an a n a c h r o n i s m i n t h e r o a r i n g t w e n t i e s . As i t i s , h e r p a i n t e d t r a y s , c o l o r f u l i n t e r i o r d e s i g n and o c c a s i o n a l p a i n t i n g s t a n d i n mute t e s t i m o n y t o w h a t S o p h i e m i g h t h a v e c r e a t e d h a d h e r l i f e c i r c u m s t a n c e s b e e n d i f f e r e n t . S o p h i e was t o b e a w idow a g a i n . On H o r a c e ' s d e a t h s h e moved t o L o n d o n a n d b o u g h t a h o u s e . Once a g a i n t h e b a t h r o o m 1 1 8 was s i n g l e d o u t f o r i n d i v i d u a l t r e a t m e n t . The w a l l s a n d c e i l i n g w e r e p a p e r e d w i t h book d u s t c o v e r s . One c o u l d b a s k i n t h e h o t t u b a n d r e c a l l f a v o r i t e b o o k s o r c o n t e m p l a t e w h i c h FIGURE 20. M a c a u l a y P l a i n s , n.d., O i l on Canvas 45.5 x 76 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n . 81 t o r e a d n e x t . S o p h i e l i v e d h e r e t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h i r t i e s and d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . When o t h e r s f l e d t h e bombing o f London S o p h i e s t o o d h e r g r o u n d . The f i r e w a r d e n s , f o r whom she .pre-p a r e d h o t t e a i n t h e m i d d l e o f many c o l d , t e r r i f y i n g n i g h t s , were d e e p l y g r a t e f u l f o r h e r c o u r a g e and c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Her own home s u f f e r e d bomb damage and a l l a r o u n d h e r was i n r u i n s . W r i t i n g f r o m h e r house a t 4 P r i o r y Walk, S o p h i e t o l d f r i e n d s i n V i c t o r i a : " C r e s s w e l l Mews has a g a r a g e and a s m a l l h o u s e d e s t r o y e d . I went t o E d i t h G r o v e where t h r e e h o u s e s were down and some p e o p l e b u r i e d i n t h e r u i n s . . . and t h e t r a g i c news came t h a t H o l l a n d House has been b u r n t down . . . I t i s 8:45 and t h e s i r e n s have gone and bombs and guns a g a i n . . . Lady Robb's house i s a c o m p l e t e w r e c k , t h o u g h a l o v e l y p i e c e o f C h i n e s e c h i n a s t i l l s t o o d on a s i d e t a b l e . " 1 1 9 S o p h i e p e r s e v e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e war b u t i n 194 9 a t e i g h t y , she d e c i d e d t o r e t u r n t o V i c t o r i a t o l i v e o u t h e r r e m a i n i n g y e a r s c l o s e t o h e r f a m i l y and f r i e n d s . A l t h o u g h S o p h i e was a d v a n c e d i n y e a r s , t h o s e who knew h e r remember t h a t she m a i n t a i n e d h e r g r a c i o u s n a t u r e , k e e n m i n d and l i v e l y w i t . An o u t i n g w i t h h e r on t h e b e a c h o r i n t h e p a r k was a l e s s o n i n o b s e r v i n g t h e b e a u t y and c o l o r o f g e n e r a l l y o v e r -l o o k e d d e t a i l s . H e r a r t i s t ' s e ye was s h a r p and i n s p i t e o f h e r s h aky hand she s t i l l s k e t c h e d . A r e p o r t e r spoke w i t h S o p h i e s h o r t l y a f t e r h e r e i g h t y - n i n t h b i r t h d a y : "Mrs. S.T. Deane-Drummond who c e l e b r a t e d h e r 8 9 t h b i r t h -day l a s t week had an i n f o r m a l c h a t w i t h t h e L e a d e r . T h i s g r e a t a r t i s t , who was d r a w i n g s p r i n g f l o w e r s when I a r r i v e d , was r e s t i n g a f t e r h e r b i r t h d a y c e l e b r a t i o n t h e p r e v i o u s d a y, and was a l i t t l e t i r e d , b u t v e r y g r a c i o u s . She r e c a l l e d many i n c i d e n t s i n h e r l i f e t o me, and s m i l i n g l y s a i d 'They a r e a n c i e n t h i s t o r y . ' " 1 2 0 82 F l o w e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e l i l y , h ad been S o p h i e ' s l o v e t h r o u g h o u t h e r l o n g l i f e . She c o n t i n u e d s k e t c h i n g and d r a w i n g them and f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s r e c e i v e d l i t t l e c a r d s w i t h a few l i n e s o f p o e t r y and a f l o w e r s k e t c h on s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s . On O c t o b e r 31, 1959, a f t e r s i x weeks o f i l l n e s s , S o p h i e Pemberton d i e d p e a c e f u l l y . Her companion o f t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s , M i s s K a t h e r i n e R e a r d o n , was h o l d i n g h e r hand a t t h e l a s t moment and h e a r d S o p h i e s a y , t y p i c a l l y , " t h a n k y o u so much." FIGURE 21. A P r o s p e r o u s S e t t l e r , n.d., O i l on C a n v a s , 75 x 50 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n . 84 I I I . C o n c l u s i o n W i t h a s o l i d a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g , o u t s t a n d i n g s t u d e n t a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , and sound s o c i a l c o n n e c t i o n s , S o p h i e Pemberton seemed g u a r a n t e e d a t l e a s t a modest c a r e e r as a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t . She made a good s t a r t i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n and h e r p a i n t i n g s d e m o n s t r a t e h e r f i n e s t a c h i e v e m e n t s and t h e w i d e r a n g e o f h e r a r t i s t i c e f f o r t s . R e asons f o r t h e b r e v i t y o f h e r c a r e e r h a v e been g i v e n . We c a n o n l y s p e c u l a t e as t o t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s h ad h e r l i f e s t o r y been d i f f e r e n t . S o p h i e had overcome so many o f t h e b a r r i e r s and o b s t a c l e s p l a c e d i n h e r way by t h e s e x u a l p r e j u d i c e t o w a r d s women a r t i s t s o n l y t o be u l t i m a t e l y d e f e a t e d by t h e bounds and r e s t r i c t i o n ' s o f m a r r i a g e . B o t h h e r hu s b a n d s were e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e i r c o n v e n t i o n a l , u p p e r - c l a s s a t t i t u d e s a b o u t t h e a l l o w a b l e a c t i v i t i e s o f a w i f e . A p r a c t i s i n g p r o -f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t was n o t one o f them. E v e n b e f o r e h e r f i r s t m a r r i a g e i t had b e e n an u p h i l l b a t t l e . G i v e n t h e u n t i m e l y d e a t h o f h e r f a t h e r and t h e r e s u l t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f c a r i n g f o r h e r mother i t i s r e m a r k -a b l e t h a t she a c h i e v e d as much as she d i d . I t may w e l l b e , t o o , t h a t m a r r i a g e t o t h e Canon was, i n some mea s u r e , an e s c a p e f r o m t h e e x a c t i n g demands o f h e r a g i n g and i l l m o t h e r . S o p h i e ' s h e a l t h was o f t e n a l i m i t i n g f a c t o r . S o p h i e m a i n t a i n e d a b r i g h t and p o s i t i v e frame o f mind b u t by a l l a c c o u n t s s h e was o f t e n i n a d e l i c a t e s t a t e o f h e a l t h and was d e s p e r a t e l y i l l a number o f t i m e s . She s u f f e r e d a s e r i o u s a c c i d e n t a f t e r h e r f i r s t h u s b a n d ' s d e a t h and t h i s may have 85 b e e n t h e f i n a l b l o w w h i c h p r e v e n t e d h e r f r o m c o n t i n u i n g t h e more t h a n a u s p i c i o u s s t a r t t o h e r c a r e e r . H e r a c h i e v e m e n t s were s u b s t a n t i a l and y e t S o p h i e n e v e r r e c e i v e d p o p u l a r a t t e n t i o n and h a s , f o r t h e most p a r t , b e e n l a r g e l y f o r g o t t e n . A c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r commented i n 1907: " T h a t a p r o p h e t i s n o t w i t h o u t h o n o u r s a v e i n h i s own c o u n t r y i s w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e c a s e o f a V i c t o r i a a r t i s t , who h a s had f i v e works a c c e p t e d and hung by t h e R o y a l Academy and s e v e r a l by t h e P a r i s S a l o n , and y e t whose fame o n l y a s m a l l c i r c l e o f f r i e n d s seems t o h a v e h e a r d . One w o u l d t h i n k t h a t any c i t y w o u l d be p r o u d t o c l a i m an a r t i s t o f s u c h d i s t i n c t i o n , and so I b e l i e v e w o u l d V i c t o r i a , i f i t o n l y knew t h a t i n o u r m i d s t i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f o i l s , t h e work o f M r s . B e a n l a n d s , w e l l w o r t h y o f f i n d i n g a p e r m a n e n t r e s t i n g p l a c e i n one o f o u r p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . " 1 N e a r l y t e n y e a r s l a t e r a n o t h e r newspaper a r t i c l e s a y s much t h e same t h i n g : " I must e x p r e s s s u r p r i s e t h a t t h e V i c t o r i a P r e s s has n o t made more o f t h e f a c t t h a t Mrs. B e a n l a n d s i s a V i c t o r i a woman, who has c e r t a i n l y b r o u g h t 'kudos' t o h e r n a t i v e c i t y by h e r r e a l l y s p l e n d i d a r t i s t i c w o r k . " 2 I n 1954 a r a t h e r more a s t u t e c r i t i c n o t e s t h e l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n t o w a r d s S o p h i e ' s work and i s a b l e t o i d e n t i f y some o f t h e p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s : " S i n c e 1904 h e r work has b e en p e r i o d i c a l l y i n V i c t o r i a b u t l a c k o f f u l l r e c o g n i t i o n has e v i d e n t l y b e e n due t o a number o f f a c t o r s , among w h i c h has b e en o u r t r a d i t i o n a l d i s b e l i e f i n t h e v i a b i l i t y o f o u r n a t i v e t a l e n t , h e r own m odesty i n d s p l a y o f h e r work and l o n g p e r i o d s o f r e s i d e n c e i n B r i t a i n . " 3 The f i r s t and t h i r d r e a s o n s a r e e a s y t o a g r e e w i t h , however, S o p h i e ' s e x c e l l e n t r e c o r d o f e x h i b i t i n g h e r work i n E n g l a n d , F r a n c e and w e s t e r n Canada s p e a k s f o r i t s e l f . A l t h o u g h - she d i d n o t l e a v e a l a r g e and v i s i b l e body o f work t h i s does n o t d i m i n i s h t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h e r a c h i e v e m e n t . i 86 S o p h i e ' s a r t i s t i c o u t p u t and e f f o r t s a r e s q u a r e l y w i t h i n t h e " f i n de s i e c l e " a c a d e m i c t r a d i t i o n . Her work f a r e s w e l l when compared t o t h a t o f many o f h e r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s 1 and t h e r e i s no q u e s t i o n b u t t h a t h e r p a i n t i n g s s e r v e d t h e same ne e d w h i c h p r o m o t e d t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a c a d e m i c a r t . S o p h i e ' s own d i s t i n c t i o n between h e r f l o w e r p a i n t i n g s and t h e r e s t o f h e r a r t i s t i c o u t p u t s u g g e s t s t h a t she was most s e r i o u s a b o u t h e r e f f o r t s as a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t . C e r t a i n l y t h e y e a r s o f d i l i g e n t s t u d y and t h e a c c l a i m o f t h e v i e w e r s o f t h e day - as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e newspaper r e p o r t s - d e m o n s t r a t e s a d e d i c a t i o n t o h e r p r o f e s s i o n t h a t i s one o f t h e e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t s t o b e i n g a good a r t i s t . The o t h e r i s t a l e n t . S o p h i e r e c e i v e d a f a i r s h a r e o f t h e p r i z e s , c e r t i f i c a t e s and f a v o r a b l e p o s i t i o n s a t t h e S a l o n and Academy E x h i b i t i o n s w h i c h were awarded i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t a l e n t . F i n a l l y , h e r w i n n i n g o f t h e P r i x J u l i a n f o r p o r t r a i t u r e a t t e s t s t o a modest d e g r e e o f o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f h e r t a l e n t . A l t h o u g h most o f h e r p a i n t i n g s a r e c o n s e r v a t i v e and f a i l t o e x c i t e t o d a y ' s v i e w e r we c a n a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t S o p h i e had a d e g r e e o f t a l e n t t h a t went b e y o n d t h e a v e r a g e . I n d e e d , some o f h e r work c a n i m p r e s s t o d a y ' s v i e w e r b e y o n d s h e e r t e c h n i c a l m a s t e r y . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h o s e p a i n t i n g s i n w h i c h she s h a r e s a g l i m p s e o f h e r p e r s o n a l l i f e d e m o n s t r a t e an e l o q u e n t t o u c h and she t r a n s c e n d s t h e u s u a l b a n a l themes o f l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y a c a d e m i c a r t . I t must be remembered t h a t S o p h i e was a c o m p e t e n t p r o -f e s s i o n a l C a n a d i a n a r t i s t a t a t i m e when Canada h a d few s u c h 87 t a l e n t e d p e o p l e . F u r t h e r , s h e was a woman a r t i s t w i t h an i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n a t a t i m e when t h e a r t w o r l d was a p r e d o m i n a n t l y m a s c u l i n e one. T e s t i m o n y t o t h e s o u n d n e s s o f h e r t a l e n t and a b i l i t i e s may be s e e n i n t h e o u t s t a n d i n g a c h i e v e m e n t o f h e r w i n n i n g t h e P r i x J u l i a n - t h e f i r s t woman e v e r t o do s o . T h e s e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s a l o n e s h o u l d be more t h a n ample t o a s s u r e h e r a p l a c e i n t h e c o l l e c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f a l l C a n a d i a n a r t i s t s t o t h e h i s t o r y o f C a n a d i a n a r t . FIGURE 22. L a d y s l i p p e r , 1902, W a t e r c o l o r on P a p e r , 35 x 27 cm., V i c t o r i a : P r i v a t e C o l l e c t i o n . 89 NOTES Section I 1. For a detailed description of the Canadians studying i n Paris during the period of 1867-1914 see the Art Gallery of Ontario's exhibition catalogue Canadians i n Paris  1867-1914, Art Gallery of Ontario, 1979. See page 4 and also the h e l p f u l Appendix on page 4 8 which d e t a i l s the Canadian a r t i s t s and the Salons i n which they exhibited with t h e i r dates. 2. This " o f f i c i a l " system was made up of a large number of a t e l i e r s which had, been established by i n d i v i d u a l pro-fessors from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. These a t e l i e r s were^usually i n t e g r a l units i n one or more of the famed Academies. Of note were the Academie J u l i a n , the Academie Bonnat and the Academie C o l a r r o s s i . For an exhaustive treatment of the European Academic art world see A. Boime, The Academy and French Painting i n the Nineteenth Century, London, Phaidon Press, 1971. 3. Sophie married twice, however, she remains known by her maiden name under which she did most of her professional work. Her married names were Beanlands and Deane-Drummond . 4. Women a r t i s t s l i k e Sophie Anderson, who s p e c i a l i z e d i n stock genre paintings, and Kate Greenaway, noted for her sentimental p o r t r a i t s of children, established consid-erable reputations i n V i c t o r i a n England. Rosa Bonheur, of course, was i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y famous for her n a t u r a l i s -t i c animal paintings. These and other women a r t i s t s were highly successful i n the t r a d i t i o n a l idiom of the day but i t should be remembered that women a r t i s t s l i k e Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt were as successful i n the growing avant-garde art world of the Impressionists. 5. The importance of access to l i f e classes cannot be under-estimated considering that the most serious academic paintings of the nineteenth century were grandiloquent h i s t o r i c a l themes i n which the nude played a s i g n i f i c a n t part. P o r t r a i t s , s t i l l l i f e s , landscapes and genre were generally regarded as rather i n f e r i o r subjects to paint. 6. Some Canadian a r t i s t s who l e f t accounts are Reid, Forster, and Harris, amongst others. See, for example, Forster's account of his time at Julian's i n his book Under the  Studio Light, Toronto, MacMillan and Co., 1928, p. 17. A description of the studies undertaken may be read i n M.M. Miner, G.A. Reid - Canadian A r t i s t , Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1946, p. 49. F i n a l l y numerous anecdotes about his student days i n the Parisian a t e l i e r s may be found i n 90 R. H a r r i s , Some Pages f r o m An A r t i s t ' s L i f e , N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y L i b r a r y , O t t a w a , n.d. 7. See M. B a s k i r t s e f f , J o u r n a l o f a Young A r t i s t , New Y o r k , 1889. Her d i a r y i s f i l l e d w i t h h e r dreams o f b e c o m i n g a g r e a t a r t i s t and w i n n i n g t h e P r i x de Rome. I n s p i t e o f t h e e n d l e s s f a n t a s i e s t h e r e a r e v a l u a b l e r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e r e a l l i f e c o n d i t i o n s f o u n d a t t h e A c a d e m i e J u l i a n . F o r e xample, on page 141 M a r i e s u g g e s t s t h a t " i n t h e s t u d i o a l l d i s t i n c t i o n s d i s a p p e a r . One has n e i t h e r name o r f a m i l y . " 8. Boime, The Academy and F r e n c h P a i n t i n g , p. 192. 9. B a s h k i r t s e f f , J o u r n a l , p. 140. 10. I b i d . , p. 143. 11. I b i d . , p. 151. 12. The number o f mal e s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g t h e a t e l i e r s was f a r g r e a t e r t h a n t h e f e m a l e s t u d e n t s . However, b e c a u s e t h i s p a p e r d e a l s w i t h one o f t h o s e women s t u d e n t s t h e f e m i n i n e p r o n o u n w i l l be u s e d t h r o u g h o u t . 13. H a r r i s , Some P a g e s , p. 15. S e c t i o n I I 1. E x c e p t where o t h e r w i s e n o t e d a l l p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n f o r m a t i o n have come f r o m i n t e r v i e w s w i t h M r s . A. H a r v e y , one o f S o p h i e ' s n i e c e s . M r s . H a r v e y l i v e d w i t h h e r a u n t f o r many y e a r s and has an e x t e n s i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f p a i n t i n g s , s k e t c h b o o k s , and p h o t o g r a p h s w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o S o p h i e . I am d e e p l y I n d e b t e d t o Mrs. H a r v e y f o r t h e w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d d e t a i l s s he so g e n e r o u s l y p r o v i d e d . 2. Pemberton Wood was t h e name o f t h e f a m i l y e s t a t e i n V i c t o r i a , B.C. J o s e p h D e s p a r d P e m berton, S o p h i e ' s f a t h e r , was t h e f i r s t S u r v e y o r - G e n e r a l o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . He had been p e r s o n a l l y a p p o i n t e d t o h i s p o s t by Queen V i c t o r i a i n 1853. J.D. Pemberton was an u n u s u a l l y s t r o n g - w i l l e d and t a l e n t e d man, e v e n f o r h i s day and age, and amongst h i s a c h i e v e -ments was a b r o n z e m e d a l f o r a d e s i g n he s u b m i t t e d t o t h e G r e a t E x h i b i t i o n o f 1851 and a book he w r o t e , e n t i t l e d F a c t s a n d F i g u r e s R e l a t i n g t o V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a Showing What t o E x p e c t and How t o Get T h e r e , London, 186 0. 91 He received substantial payment for laying out the streets of V i c t o r i a and his estate of 1,200 acres covered most of present day Oak Bay. Pemberton became a member of the f i r s t House of Assembly, along with s i x other representatives, on August 12, 1856. 3. Her c e r t i f i c a t e , signed by Mrs. Cridge, exists today i n her "glory book" which i s i n a private c o l l e c t i o n i n V i c t o r i a . This scrap book i s f i l l e d with souvenirs, mementos, photographs, and press clippings which Sophie kept during her long l i f e . A xerox copy may be seen i n the f i l e s of the Art Gallery of V i c t o r i a . 4. For an exhaustive treatment of the early history of B r i t i s h Columbia see M. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia A History, Toronto, MacMillan & Co., 1971. 5. When Mr. Pemberton b u i l t his huge house "Gonzales" he included a fine studio on the top f l o o r - complete with skylights - for his daughters. The twenty room mansion was b u i l t i n 1885 for $10,000. and remained u n t i l i t s destruction i n 1952, one of the distinguished homes of V i c t o r i a . 6. V i c t o r i a , Daily Colonist, November 9, 1959. 7. Emily Carr did exactly the same thing with vastly d i f -ferent r e s u l t s . 8. In fact, Sophie's uncle helped on her behalf i n per-suading Mr. and Mrs. Pemberton that t h e i r talented daughter should be permitted to pursue her a r t i s t i c i n c l i n a t i o n . 9. V i c t o r i a , Daily Colonist, November, 1959. 10. The choice of this school may well have been a compromise between Sophie and her parents. I have found references to the maternal side of Sophie's heritage - the Grautoffs - who may well have had a home near the Art School. See too, note 84. 11. In fact, Sophie owned t h i s p a r t i c u l a r cast and i t shows up i n a number of photos depicting the i n t e r i o r of her Gonzales studio. 12. A. Boime, The Academy and French Painting i n the Nineteenth  Century, London, Phaidon Press, 1971. 13. V i c t o r i a , Daily Colonist, July 30, 1893. 14. See xerox copies of her c e r t i f i c a t e s i n the Appendices. 15. Q. B e l l , The Schools of Design, London, Routledge and . Kegan Paul, 1963, p. 258. 92 16. Ibid., p. 257. Interestingly enough t h i s system sur-vived u n t i l the Coldstream Report of 1960. For further information see C. Ashwin, Art Education Documents and  P o l i c i e s 1768 - 1975, London, Society for Research into Higher Education, 1975. 17 . A number of these sketchbooks are i n private c o l l e c t i o n s i n V i c t o r i a . 18. The o r i g i n a l painting remains un i d e n t i f i e d . 19. Letter from Mr. Robert Lindsay, Secretary, Art Association of Montreal, to Sophie Pemberton, March 2 , 1895. 20. Constant and Laurens were respected French academic a r t i s t s and l i k e many of the Establishment a r t i s t s from t h i s period they have since slipped into semi-obscurity. More recent research e f f o r t s and a renewed i n t e r e s t i n the late nineteenth century academic art world w i l l restore these i n d i v i d u a l s ' r i g h t f u l , i f modest reputations. 2 1 . For a complete l i s t of Sophie's p r i n c i p a l exhibitions see Appendix F. 22. Vancouver, The Province, June 5 , 1897. This painting i s now i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Archives. 23. London, Ladies P i c t o r i a l , May 29 , 1897. 24. Chelsea, Chelsea Mail, May 7 , 1897. 25. Vancouver, The Province, May 2 1 , 1898. 26. London, Ladies P i c t o r i a l , May 28, 1898. 27. Ibid., May 28, 1898. 28. Birmingham, Mid-Counties Herald, May 29 , 1898. 29. Paris, Journal Des A r t i s t e s , November 20 , 1898. December 4 , 1898. December 25 , 1898. 30. Paris, Gazette Pes Beaux Arts, March, 1899. Although the papers mention that Sophie won the prize for por-t r a i t u r e there are no references to the name of the painting. Sophie's medal i s now i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the Art Gallery of Greater V i c t o r i a . 31. V i c t o r i a , The Colonist, A p r i l 23 , 1899. 32. •• B i b i was the infamous Parisian model Andre de S a l i s . He had a penchant for consuming vast quantities of brandy and claimed to be the close f r i e n d of the poet Verlaine. 93 See J.F. Macdonald, Paris of the Parisians, London, G. Richards Ltd., 1900 and Sophie's a r t i c l e "Models I Have Known: B i b i l a Puree" i n Westward Ho! Vancouver, the Westward Ho Publishing Co., July 1907. Transcripts of Sophie's a r t i c l e may be seen i n Appendices D and E. 33. Paris, Le Pays Latin, A p r i l 1 5 , 1900. 34. Paris, Figaro, A p r i l 6, 190 0 . Libre Parole, A p r i l 6, 1900. Radical, A p r i l 7, 1900. 35. London, Ladies F i e l d , May 18, 1 9 0 1 . 36. This painting was l a t e r r e - t i t l e d for French exhibition however, for consistency I have labeled Figure 8 with i t s o r i g i n a l t i t l e . 37. V i c t o r i a , The Colonist, June 20, 1 9 0 1 . 38. Ibid., January 1 6 , 1902. 39. Mrs. Flora Burns was Sophie's closest f r i e n d i n V i c t o r i a . She maintained an active correspondence throughout the years with Mrs. Burns and these l e t t e r s were made a v a i l -able to me by her daughter Mrs, Keir. 40. Letter to Mrs. Burns, March 3, 1902. 4 1 . Ibid. March 2 5 , 1902. 42. Ibid. Saturday, 1902. 43. Ibid. December 2 2 , 1902. 44. Ibid. r December 29, 1902. 45. Ibid. i June 5, 1903. 46. Ibid. r August 10, 1903. 47. Ibid. i November 30, 190 3. 48. Ibid. i January 18, 1904. 49. V i c t o r i a , The Colonist, June 20, 1 9 0 3 . 50. Newcastle, Newcastle Weekly, June 14, 1903 5 1 . London, Womanhood, June, 190 3. 52. London, Lady's P i c t o r i a l , July 1 1 , 1903. 53. Paris i Gazette de France, May 2, 1 9 0 3 . 94 54. Paris, Journal des Debats, A p r i l 30, 1902. 55. Paris, Journal O f f i c i e l des Theatres, July 5, 1903. 56. Paris, Europeen, May 16, 1903. 57. London, I l l u s t r a t e d London News, May 7, 1904. 58. London, Lloyds Newspaper, May 5, 1904. 59. London, Daily Mail, May 17, 1904. 60. London, Ladies F i e l d , May 21, 1904. 61. London, Truth, June 2, 1904. 62. London, Womanhood, June, 1904. 63. The V i c t o r i a A g r i c u l t u r a l Show was an annual a f f a i r and provisions were made to exhibit arts and c r a f t s . This i s further testimony to the lack of proper f a c i l i t i e s i n the c a p i t a l c i t y . Sophie may have enjoyed the oppor-tunity to show her work to the V i c t o r i a Public but she did not record her opinion about exhi b i t i n g some of her canvases, which had graced the walls of Burlington House, i n a setting surrounded by cows, farm machinery and prize winning vegetables. 64. V i c t o r i a , The Colonist, September 25, 1904. 65. V i c t o r i a , The Progress, October 1, 1904. 66. James Blomfield had his studio i n Vancouver at Number 39, F a i r f i e l d Building. He l i v e d from 1872-1951 and i s best known as a designer of stained glass around the turn of the century. For more information on t h i s a r t i s t see R. Watt, Rainbows i n Our Walls, Vancouver, 1979. 67. Vancouver, The Daily News Advertiser, October 18, 1904. 68. Ibid., October 20, 1904. 69. Ibid., October 21, 1904. 70. Ibid., October 23, 1904. 71. Ibid., October 21, 1904. 72. Vancouver, The Province, October 26, 1904. 73. V i c t o r i a , The Times, February 5, 1905. 74. V i c t o r i a , The Colonist, February 15, 1905. 75. Ibid., March 29, 1905. 95 76. Ibid., May 24, 1905. This p o r t r a i t i s now i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Museum. 77. V i c t o r i a , The Times, May 24, 1905. 78. As i t turned out, Sophie executed very few commissioned p o r t r a i t s . The reasons are complex and not e n t i r e l y clear. She may not have t r i e d as hard as she might have for these jobs. Secondly, even i n the p r o v i n c i a l c a p i t a l s , p o r t r a i t a r t i s t s were a vanishing type as more and more people turned to the p o r t r a i t photographer and there were fewer commissions to be had. 79. I have found some references i n her scrap book to commissions i n Europe but there are no available examples in the c o l l e c t i o n s of Sophie's paintings to which I had access. 80. D. Piper, The English Face, Aylesbury, Thames and Hudson, 1957, p. 326. 81. A. Boime, The Academy and French Painting, p. 17. 82. D. Piper, The English Face, p. 309. 83. Ibid., p. 309. 84. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of th i s painting and i t s setting came from Mrs. Harvey. The maternal grandparents were the Grautoffs who had extensive land holdings i n Great B r i t a i n . 85. It may be that the f a l l e n s l i p of paper came from the R.C.A. with notice of her f a i l u r e to be accepted on technical grounds. 86. Minutes of the General Assembly of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts held i n the g a l l e r y of the O.S.A. i n Toronto on May 13, 1905. 87. V i c t o r i a , The Colonist, September 12, 1905. This a r t i c l e goes into extensive d e t a i l describing the rest of the b r i d a l party and the reception which Mrs. Pemberton held at Gonzales. A l i s t of g i f t s from the distinguished guests includes antiques from the Orient, Indian rugs, and Wedgewood china. 88. See the l a s t w i l l and testament of Joseph Despard Pemberton, Esq., July 22, 1892. I t i s entered i n the Will s Record Book, Court Registry, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Vol. 3, Folder 125. 89. Mrs. Keir, daughter of Mrs. Burns, provided t h i s information. 96 90. M i n u t e s o f t h e New C o u n c i l h e l d i n t h e N a t i o n a l A r t G a l l e r y , Ottawa, May 5, 1906. 91. V i c t o r i a , The T i m e s , May 1, 1907. 92. V i c t o r i a , The C o l o n i s t , May 2, 1907. 93. I b i d . , March 12, 1908. 94. V i c t o r i a , The T i m e s , A u g u s t 5, 1908. 95. London, The W o r l d , May 25, 1909. 96. London, The D a i l y E x p r e s s , May 6, 1909. 97. London, The T i m e s , May 14, 19 09. 98. London, What's On, May 22, 1909. 99. London, I n d i a n T e l e g r a p h , J u n e 19, 1909. 100. London, The M o r n i n g P o s t , May 11, 1909. 101. London, Queen, May 22, 1909. 102. London, The S t u d i o , J u l y , 1909. 10 3. London, Canada: An I l l u s t r a t e d W e ekly J o u r n a l f o r a l l  I n t e r e s t e d i n t h e D o m i n i o n ^ May 15, 1909. 104. London, The S t u d i o , J u l y , 1909. 10 5. We know t h a t S o p h i e a t t e n d e d a few c l a s s e s a t t h e s t u d i o o f W h i s t l e r i n P a r i s . See A p p e n d i x D. 106. London, What's On, May 22, 1909. 107. R e f e r e n c e s t o t h e now m i s s i n g c a t a l o g u e h a v e been f o u n d i n t h e s e j o u r n a l s and p a p e r s f r o m w h i c h I have q u o t e d . 108. The S a c k v i l l e ' s were one o f t h e g r e a t f a m i l i e s o f t h e B r i t i s h p e e r a g e . Mrs. H a r v e y has s u g g e s t e d t h a t L a d y S a c k v i l l e was " n a u g h t y " and u s e d S o p h i e ' s t a l e n t s w i t h o u t p a y i n g . 109. B r o m l e y , B r o m l e y T i m e s , May 13, 1910. 110. Lydenham, Lydenham G a z e t t e , A p r i l 30, 1910. 111. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , t o o , t h a t i n t h e l a t e n i n e t i e s S o p h i e a s s e m b l e d two l a r g e p o r t f o l i o s o f w i l d f l o w e r p a i n t i n g s . T h e s e were b e a u t i f u l l y bound b o o k s and she gave one o f them as a g i f t t o h e r y o u n g e r b r o t h e r a n d s i s t e r . I t r e m a i n s t o d a y i n a f a m i l y member's c o l l e c t i o n . The s e c o n d 97 p o r t f o l i o i s now. i n the c o l l e c t i o n of the B.C. Archives. These p o r t f o l i o s are p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g because Sophie included a few l i n e s of poetry describing each wildflower painted. Her choices, from a wide var i e t y of favorite poets, c a r e f u l l y l e t t e r e d i n her d i s t i n c t i v e hand, r e f l e c t her l i f e - l o n g passion for both flowers and poetry. 112. Some of Sophie's lacquered furniture may be found i n 'private c o l l e c t i o n s i n V i c t o r i a . 113. This description of Horace came from Mrs. Harvey. 114. Manila, Manila Daily B u l l e t i n , May 7, 1921. This a r t i c l e i s i n s t r u c t i v e i n revealing the attitudes of Deane-Drummond and showing the kind of man he was: "'In my opinion as one of the oldest planters i n India, speaking the language of the people and having many of them among my acquaintances and friends, there i s no imminence of an uprising i n that country. But i n the event that one occurred and the agitators gained control, I believe that within s i x months the masses would r i s e and overthrow them. The thousands of natives on my plantations are f a i t h f u l and contented. This i s t y p i c a l of India, outside the c i t i e s . 1 This statement was made by Horace Deane-Drummond, wealthy planter of Ceylon and Travancore, a large state i n southern India, upon his a r r i v a l i n Manila with Mrs. Drummond yesterday afternoon on the Wolverine State. Mr. Drummond's plantations are devoted to tea and rubber. He was a pioneer planter i n both these products. The market i s d u l l now and Mr. Drummond did not care for a 'mil l i o n a i r e c o c k t a i l ' because, as he explained, he i s in 'tea and rubber.' He says there i s an overproduction of rubber and for some time to come low prices must be expected. He described the reported p o l i t i c a l unrest i n India as froth and said that i t i s constantly s t i r r e d by educated young Indians i n the c i t i e s , many of whom are b r i e f l e s s lawyers l i k e a class described i n the Bible, 'too proud to work and to beg they are ashamed.' Coming back from English u n i v e r s i t i e s , often with high degrees and scholar-ship honors, these young men seek government positions. Disappointed i n most instances, they grow re s t l e s s and discontented, descend into p e t t i f o s s e r y and jingoism. Outside the c i t i e s , t h e i r voices are not heard. Mr. Drummond discounts t h e i r e f f o r t s as he does those of radic a l s i n the homeland: he has unshaken f a i t h i n the empire at home and abroad. 98 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, He went t o Colombo i n J a n u a r y , 1876, t h e week i n w h i c h K i n g Edward, t h e n t h e P r i n c e o f W a l e s , l a i d t h e f o u n d a t i o n s t o n e f o r t h e b r e a k w a t e r a t Colombo, w h i c h has made t h a t p o r t t h e C h a r i n g C r o s s o f t h e e a s t . I n 1879 he became a p l a n t e r by b u y i n g an i n t e r e s t i n a c o f f e e p l a n t a t i o n . A f u n g u s d i s e a s e s o o n d e s t r o y e d t h i s i n d u s t r y and t h e p l a n t e r s t u r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t e a . I n 1882 t h e a n n u a l e x p o r t o f t e a f r o m C e y l o n was o n l y 14,000 p o u n d s . I t i s now more t h a n 150,000,000 pounds. Rubber was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1900. Mr. Drummond was one o f t h e f i r s t men t o p l a n t r u b b e r i n s o u t h e r n I n d i a . T h i s was i n 1904 and t h e r e c e n t d a t a shows how a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e h as w a i t e d upon s c i e n c e and i n v e n t i o n . F o r t w e l v e y e a r s Mr. Drummond has made h i s home on h i s p l a n -t a t i o n s i n T r a v a n c o r e . . . Mr. Drummond i s a p r o m i n e n t member o f t h e t u r f c l u b i n s o u t h e r n I n d i a . H i s s t a b l e s and h o r s e s were famous a few y e a r s ago and he i n more t h a n one s e a s o n won t h e K i n g ' s and S t a t e ' s c u p s . He i s a l s o d e v o t e d t o s h o o t i n g , as i s h i s s o n . I n an e l e p h a n t h u n t two weeks ago t h e y g o t t h r e e t u s k e r s . . ." V a n c o u v e r , The P r o v i n c e , M a r c h 20, 1954. I b i d . , M a r c h 20, 1954. L e t t e r f r o m H. Mortimer-Lamb t o E r i c Brown, O c t o b e r 24, 1921, N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y . T h i s f o c u s on ba t h r o o m s may be e i t h e r an a c c i d e n t o f memory on t h e p a r t o f t h o s e w i t h whom I have s p o k e n , o r , b e c a u s e o f t h e more p e r s o n a l n a t u r e o f t h e b a t h r o o m , S o p h i e may have been a b l e t o a l l o w h e r i m a g i n a t i o n f r e e r u n . L e t t e r t o Mrs. A. Beaven, h e r s i s t e r , n.d. V i c t o r i a , The Oak Bay L e a d e r , F e b r u a r y 17, 1958. S e c t i o n I I I 1. London, The Week, May 4, 1907. 2. London, A t t h e S t r e e t C o r n e r , November 4, 1916. 3. V i c t o r i a , V i c t o r i a T i m e s , F e b r u a r y 27, 1954. 99 BIBLIOGRAPHY G e n e r a l A l l a i r e , S., A s h w i n , C., B a s h k i r t s e f f , M. B e a n l a n d s , S. , B e l l , Q., B l a c k b u r n , H., ed. Boime, A., C o l l i n s , J . , Dyonn e t , E . , and J o n e s , H.G., F o r s t e r , J.W.L., G r a v e s , A., H a r p e r , R., L e s C a n a d i e n s au S a l o n O f f i c i e l de P a r i s E n t r e 1870 e t 1910: S e c t i o n s P e i n t u r e e t D e s s i n i n The J o u r n a l o f C a n a d i a n A r t H i s t o r y , V o l . IV, No. 2, 1977-78, M o n t r e a l : Owl's Head P r e s s . A r t E d u c a t i o n : Documents and P o l i c i e s  1768-1975, London: S o c i e t y f o r R e s e a r c h i n t o H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , 1975. J o u r n a l o f a Young A r t i s t , New Y o r k : 188 9. M o d e l s I Have Known: B i b i l a P u r e e . Westward H o i V a n c o u v e r : The Westward Ho P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1907. M o d e l s I Have Known: J o h n M i n a r d s . Westward Ho 1 V a n c o u v e r : The Westward Ho P u b l i s h i n g Co., O c t o b e r , 1907. 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P a i n t i n g i n Canada: A H i s t o r y , T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1911. 100 Harris, R., Hess, T., and Ashberry, J . , eds., Lord, B., Macdonald, J.F., Miner, M.M., Munsterberg, H., Ormsby, M., Pemberton, J.D., Peterson, K., and Wilson, J . , Pevsner, N., Piper, D., Reid, D., Rodney, H.M., ed., Rothenstein, W., Royal Canadian Academy, Russell, J . , Sa i s s e l i n , R.G., Some Pages from an A r t i s t ' s L i f e , Ottawa: National Gallery Library, n.d. The Academy i n Art News Annual, Vol, XXXIII, 1967, New York: MacMillan & Co. The History of Painting i n Canada, Toronto: N.C. Press, 1974. Paris of the Parisians, London: G. Richards Ltd., 1900. G.A. Reid - Canadian A r t i s t , Toronto: Ryerson Press, 1946. A History of Women A r t i s t s , New York: C. Potter Ltd., 1975. B r i t i s h Columbia: A History, Toronto: MacMillan & Co., 1971. Facts and Figures Relating to Vancouver  Island and B r i t i s h Columbia Showing What  to Expect and How to Get There, London: Longman, Green and Longman, 1860. Women A r t i s t s , New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1976. Academies of Art: Past and Present, Cambridge: University Press, 1940. The English Face, Aylesbury: Thames and Hudson, 1957. A Concise History of Canadian Painting, Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1973. Creative Canada, V i c t o r i a : University of Toronto Press, 1971. Of Men and Memories, London: Faber and Faber Ltd., 1931. Minutes, May 13, 1905. Minutes, May 13, 1905. The Royal Academy i n Horizon, Vol. IV, No. 5, May 1962, New York: American Heritage Publishing Co. Style, Truth and P o r t r a i t , New York: Harry N. Abrams Inc., 1963. 101 T i p p e t , M., and C o l e , D., Thorn, W., W h i t e , H.C. and B. C a t a l o g u e s B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S o c i e t y o f : : F i n e A r t s , F a r r , D., and L u c k y j , N., F i n k , L.M., G i b s o n , P., Graham, C., H a r r i s , A.S. and N o c h l i n , L., I s l a n d A r t s and C r a f t s S o c i e t y , Newcombe, M., e t a l . , T u e l e , N.C., Watt, R., W i l l i a m s o n , M., From D e s o l a t i o n t o S p l e n d o u r , T o r o n t o : C l a r k e , I r w i n , 1976. A r t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - The H i s t o r i c a l S o u r c e s i n B.C. S t u d i e s , No. 23, F a l l 1974, V a n c o u v e r : U.B.C. P r e s s . The F i n e A r t s i n V a n c o u v e r , 1886 - 1930, U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1969. C a n v a s e s and C a r e e r s , New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y and Sons, 1965. F i r s t A n n u a l E x h i b i t i o n , V i c t o r i a , A p r i l 20-28, 1909. Se c o n d E x h i b i t i o n , V i c t o r i a , November, 1909. From Women's E y e s : Women P a i n t e r s i n Canada, K i n g s t o n , 1975. Academy: The A c a d e m i c T r a d i t i o n i n A m e r i c a n  A r t , W a s h i n g t o n , 1975. C a n a d i a n s i n P a r i s , T o r o n t o , 1979. S o p h i e Deane-Drummohd, V i c t o r i a , 1967. S o p h i e Pemberton R e t r o s p e c t i v e E x h i b i t i o n , V a n c o u v e r , 1954. Women A r t i s t s 1550 - 1950, New Y o r k , 1977. S e v e n t h A n n u a l E x h i b i t i o n , V i c t o r i a , 1909. T w e l f t h A n n u a l E x h i b i t i o n , V i c t o r i a , 1921. T h i r t e e n t h A n n u a l E x h i b i t i o n , V i c t o r i a , 1922. S t r i c t l y A c a d e m i c : L i f e D r a w i n g i n t h e  N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y , New Y o r k , 1974. S o p h i e T h e r e s a Pemberton (1869-1959), V i c t o r i a , 197 8. Rainbows i n Our W a l l s : A r t and S t a i n e d  G l a s s i n V a n c o u v e r 1890-1940, V a n c o u v e r , 1979. T h r o u g h C a n a d i a n E y e s : T r e n d s and  I n f l u e n c e s i n C a n a d i a n A r t 1815-1965, C a l g a r y , 1976. 102 C. Newspapers and Journals At the Street Corner, London, England. Bromley Times, The, Bromley, England. Canada, London, England. Chelsea Mail, The, Chelsea, England. Daily Colonist, The, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Daily Express, London, England. Daily Mail, London, England. Daily News Advertister, The, Vancouver, B.C. Europeen, P a r i s , France. Gazette des Beaux Arts, Paris, France. I l l u s t r a t e d London News, The, London, England. India Telegraph, London, England. Journal des Debats, Paris, France. Ladies F i e l d , London, England. Ladies P i c t o r i a l , London, England. La Libre Parole, Paris, France. Le Figaro, Paris, France. Le Gazette de France, Paris, France. Le Journal des A r t i s t e s , Paris, France. Le Journal O f f i c i e l des T h e a t r e s , Paris, France. Le Pays Latin, Paris, France. Lloyds Newspaper, London, England. Manila Daily B u l l e t i n , Manila. Mid-Counties Herald, Birmingham, England. Morning Post, The, London, England, Newcastle Weekly, Newcastle, England. Oak Bay Leader, V i c t o r i a , B.C. 103 Progress, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Pr o v i n c e , The, Vancouver, B.C. Queen, The, London, England. R a d i c a l , P a r i s , France. S t u d i o , The, London, England. Times, The, London, England. Tr u t h , London, England. V i c t o r i a D a i l y Times, The, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Week, The, London, England. What's On, London, England. Womanhood, London, England. 107 APPENDIX D Models I Have Known I - B i b i La Puree, by Mrs. Beanlands Whistler's a t e l i e r was the dernier c r i among the Parisian art students, so much so that the concierge was stationed at the head of the s t a i r s to c a l l "Pas de place Mesdames, pas de place" to the stream c h i e f l y of Americans who flocked there. . It was at his evening class that I f i r s t saw B i b i l a Puree as model; a l i t t l e old man, smiling and e c s t a t i c , his bright eyes half hidden under a dingy and weather-beaten top hat; his clothes were green with age; his boots were the e l a s t i c - s i d e d ones of the l a s t century, and under his arm was a sheaf of old umbrellas, but while his clothes spoke of misery his whole bearing had an indescribable alertness and bonhomie. "A dandy even i n his rags." I asked him to pose and next day he appeared at my studio and I decided to paint him for my salon. He was never punctual and his locuses were varied and o r i g i n a l - there was an incehdie i n the street - he had to stop on the way to have a tooth pulled out - the waiter had forgotten to c a l l him - a f r i e n d of h i s had had a c r i s e de herfs. But who i s B i b i , one w i l l ask? Vagabond by profession, an habitue of the celebrated Cafe Procope, the fr i e n d of Verlaine, the king of the 1899 c a r n i v a l , whose r e a l name was Andre de S a l i s , whose uncle was the Abbe de S a l i s of the Tichbourne case c e l -e brity; everyone knew him; free drinks were given him; students saluted him; no one was happier than he. B i b i used to say proudly: "J'etais 1'ami de Verlaine et Verlaine e t a i t mon ami," and when that sad genius was dying i n a garret i t was B i b i who was everything to him, who sold his autographs or his poems and when a l l other things f a i l e d , sold himself to a college of surgeons for 40 francs to give Verlaine the necessary food and doctor's care. But sometimes the Fates were unkind i n our quarter. B i b i was not known and M. J u l i e n , returning by the Boulevards, overheard an animated dialogue: "Je suis B i b i l a Puree, je ne paye jamais." "Vous pouvez etre B i b i l e diable," said the i n f u r i a t e d waiter, but you must pay for your drink." This was B i b i who assured me he only drank milk and deplored V e r l a i n e 1 s f a i l i n g for absinthe. B i b i also had an i r r e s i s t a b l e craving for other people's umbrellas. Mine disappeared. He t o l d me one of the models had most probably taken i t . "I w i l l f i n d her and say, 'Give me back the umbrella of Mademoiselle Mees.'" Everyday he reported on the chase; once he had vainly pursued her up the Boulevard Saint Michel u n t i l the subject dropped 108 and i t was n o t t i l l some months l a t e r t h a t I h e a r d o f t h i s s t r a n g e p a s s i o n o f h i s , and t h a t a t t h e a n n i v e r s a r y o f V e r l a i n e ' s d e a t h i t was B i b i who wept t h e most b i t t e r l y a t h i s g r a v e . A f t e r t h e ceremony when t h e l i t e r a r y men were l e a v i n g t h e c e m e t e r y B i b i h a d d i s a p p e a r e d and w i t h h i m t h e i r f i f t e e n u m b r e l l a s . B u t e v e r y o n e f o r g a v e B i b i . As a model he was a l w a y s a m u s i n g , a l w a y s o b l i g i n g . He u s e d t o s a y : " T i e n s nous a v o n s o u b l i e q u e l q u e c h o s e , " and p a s s e d h i s f i n g e r s as a comb t h r o u g h h i s few g r i s l y l o c k s t o make them s t a n d o u t t o h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . Once he c l i m b e d a h i g h s t o o l t o open a window and f e l l , h e e l s i n a i r . N e v e r was t h e r e s u c h a c a t a s t r o p h e . I r a n t o him: "Are y o u h u r t , B i b i ? " "Not i n t h e l e a s t , " was t h e q u i c k r e p l y ; " I o f t e n do t h i s f o r e x e r c i s e . " He was f o n d o f f l o w e r s and a l w a y s h a d a b u n c h o f v i o l e t s t o p r e s e n t t o us a t J u l i e n ' s e v e n i n g c l a s s . " E t l a m o i t r e ( s i c ) p o u r M d m e . J u l i a n . " he u s e d t o s a y . Once when p o s i n g a t t h i s c l a s s he l e f t t h e model t h r o n e as he saw Mdme. J u l i a n come i n w i t h h e r m o t h e r . "Go b a c k , " s h o u t e d M a r i e , t h e bonne who f o r t w e n t y - s e v e n y e a r s had b e e n t h e d r a g o n o f t h e a t e l i e r . B u t , B i b i , p a y i n g no a t t e n t i o n t o M a r i e , p r e s e n t e d t h e v i o l e t s w i t h t h e most c o u r t l y o f bows. "Madame J u l i a n w i l l n o t be o f f e n d e d I t r u s t i f I o f f e r t h e s e f l o w e r s t o Madame, h e r m o t h e r . " When I was i l l B i b i a p p e a r e d a t t h e h o t e l w i t h f l o w e r s and a m e d a l l i o n o f S t . G e n e v i e v e , t h e p a t r o n s a i n t o f h e a l t h , p u r p o s e l y b l e s s e d f o r my r e c o v e r y . I f i n i s h e d my p o r t r a i t . I t was hung on t h e l i n e i n t h e s a l o n and was o f t e n s u r r o u n d e d by t h e s t u d e n t s , who knew B i b i . I n e v e r saw h i m a g a i n . He d i e d s o o n a f t e r w a r d s - a l o n e and i n m i s e r y . B u t h i s memory w i l l l o n g l i v e i n t h e L a t i n Q u a r t i e r and l e t us hope t h a t an a n g e l has p r e s s e d down t h e s c a l e f o r h i s g e n t l e and unknown d e e d s . 1 0 9 APPENDIX E Models I Have Known II - John Minards, by Mrs. Beanlands In the peaceful old churchyard at Polperro l i e many generations of the family of Minards. Nearly a l l have been f i s h e r f o l k and a l l have l i v e d and died i n t h e i r native v i l l a g e . John Minards i s the l a s t of his race, with the exception of a cousin i n trade i n London whom Minards c a r e f u l l y ignored, for the old fishermen with the blood of the Vikings i n t h e i r veins rather despise the shopkeeping c l a s s , t h e i r l i f e i s a constant warring with that grand element the sea, and gives them a fine scorn for the l i f e of c i t i e s . "He has the learning but I have the wit," John said. He used to "put people away" - that i s to say, take v i s i t o r s ' luggage to the station on his handbarrow and i t was i n t h i s capacity that I f i r s t met him. He had just seen an old gentleman of f by the t r a i n . "What a brave old chap one must be to r i s k going up to London," he thought. He had often posed for " a r t i s s e s " and was w i l l i n g to come i f I gave him the small sum he would otherwise make at his f i s h i n g . When he f i r s t married he was only earning two s h i l l i n g s and sixpence a week and then owing to bad times nothing for several weeks. "That was the way to learn a wife to keep house," he said, with a wink. The old Polperro houses are b u i l t of stone, grey gaunt and forbidding with t h e i r feet i n the water l i k e sentinels overlooking the bay, . and always with a backdoor to the h i l l s from which i n times of danger the smugglers could escape. Once i n a bad gale the flood reached the lower rooms, and Minards had just c a r r i e d his bedridden mother up-s t a i r s . A v i s i t o r , Mrs. D—--, c a l l e d i n at the back door and said i t was a grand sight. Minards thought he would learn her to c a l l i t a grand sight when other f o l k s ' property was being s p o i l t , so he opened the front door and i n rushed the water. "Her f e l l a-screeching," and he had to help her out. He had been married three times, and had two daughters. Both died of consumption. It was a great g r i e f to him and yet he was able to say: "After a l l i t was only one trouble. If they had grown up or married there might have been many." Minards came of a strong race. He took great pride i n showing a c l i f f near Willy Wilcock's Hole, apparently f i f t y feet high, with sharp rocks below, and he impressively stated: "My uncle f e l l down here," "Poor man, was he k i l l e d ? " "No, but he hurt himself a b i t . " He had many sto r i e s about his mother. When she was born she said quite d i s t i n c t l y , "Da." The doctor and nurse t e s t i f i e d to i t , and her father was drowned that 110 night. When John was a lad, while the minister was preaching, he stopped to say, pointing to the end of the chapel where John was s i t t i n g with some others, "Will some one s i t with those f i v e lads? They are disturbing my preaching." "That's a l i e , " said John; "you have only stopped because you had nothing to say." Picking up his cap he l e f t the chapel, knowing well what he had to do. He ran home to be the f i r s t to t e l l his mother. Presently his father returned. "Where i s John?" Then came the boy, but he was not flogged. "Polperro was not always an honest place," John once said; "about twenty years ago a dark blue s h i r t was stolen that was hanging out at night." John was twice bewitched at school and had many strange tales of witchcraft. Witches who changed into rabbits and milked the cows and witches as s q u i r r e l s who l i v e d i n the trees and could only be shot i f the gun were loaded with q u i c k s i l v e r . A man whom he knew took his s i s t e r who had f i t s to Plymouth. A witch t o l d them they would meet a woman who would say a c e r t a i n thing to them and that she was the cause of the f i t s . They met her. The man knocked her down and drew blood and the g i r l was quite cured from that day. Wedding cake, Minards t o l d us, must be c a r r i e d upstairs backwards and t i e d i n the l e f t stocking with the r i g h t garter and put under the pillow, getting into bed backwards and i n s t r i c t s i l e n c e . He believed i n white magic as well as black. A l i t t l e boy - Jack - who was posing for me also, had his poor l i t t l e hands covered with warts. John was fond of the ginger-haired l i t t l e tacker, as he c a l l e d him, and got a friend to charm them away. It was done without touching the boy. He only looked at them and said: "They are bad indeed, but they w i l l now go," and the strange but true fact i s that they d a i l y grew smaller and a f t e r I had l e f t Polperro John wrote to me that they had e n t i r e l y disappeared. L i t t l e Jack t o l d me of the Mermaids who l i v e d among the Cornish rocks, saying he had never seen one, but his father had - i t was stuffed, i n a museum. His father had been on a merchant ship and was a great t r a v e l l e r and Jack had many stories of his adventures. "Once a leopard came near my father, and my father was so frightened that his hair stood on end, and my father's hair kept r i s i n g t i l l i t l i f t e d up my father's cap, which f e l l on the ground, but the leopard turned and disappeared i n the woods and then didn't my father run for his l i f e . " I l l A German a r t i s t and his "lady" came to Polperro and Minards was excited and pleased to be asked to pose, or, as he c a l l e d i t , "setting for them." However, they wanted a s i l e n t model and Minards 1 conversation was always g r a t i s and p l e n t i f u l , so next day a very downhearted and depressed fisherman came to report the German as a proper s i l l y and that he had nothing in him but what the spoon put i n . Later when I referred to his handsome wife. "Handsome," he said; "H'm! I think she and I were behind the door when Beauty was di s t r i b u t e d , " and he would not pose for them again, not for a Jew's eye. He was indeed a good f r i e n d and a good hater. When the time came for me to be "put away" there were many good-byes. G i l e s , the tinker, an old crony of Minards, was there too, and I l e f t with his couplet to Minards repeating i t s e l f i n my mind: "I've seen ye likeness on the f l a t : Half an angel, half a cat." APPENDIX F PRINCIPAL EXHIBITIONS A r t A s s o c i a t i o n o f M o n t r e a l 95 Sweet S e v e n t e e n 96 A Normandy P e a s a n t 91 A r t C l u b 76 O l d G a r d e n M e s n i e r e s , B r i t t a n y R o y a l Academy 59 D a f f o d i l s Westham E x h i b i t i o n 194 B r i t t a n y I n t e r i o r 91 A r t C l u b - C l i f f o r d s A r t G a l l e r y 51 A Brown S t u d y 58 A L i t t l e W a i f C o r p o r a t i o n A r t G a l l e r y - B r i g h t o n 50 A N a t i v e o f C o r k 17 9 B l u e and Brown R o y a l Academy 780 L i t t l e Boy B l u e Westham E x h i b i t i o n 163 A L i t t l e W a i f 164 The O l d S m o c k - f r o c k B i r m i n g h a m S o c i e t y o f A r t i s t s 295 W i n d i n g Y a r n s 601 A f t e r n o o n T e a M a n c h e s t e r A r t G a l l e r y 430 A L i t t l e W a i f W a l k e r A r t G a l l e r y - L i v e r p o o l 392. L i t t l e Boy B l u e 113 91 A r t C l u b 15 A P a s t o r a l 44 W i n d i n g Y a r n s 128 P e a r B l o s s o m P a r i s S a l o n L i t t l e Boy B l u e M a n c h e s t e r A r t G a l l e r y 483 W i n d i n g Y a r n s P a r i s S a l o n 1038 B i b i l a P u r e e F r e n c h E x p o s i t i o n T a r r i n g Ropes R o y a l Academy 47 I n t e r e s t e d (Un L i v r e O u v e r t ) W a i t t ' s H a l l ( V i c t o r i a , B.C.) John-o-Dreams The T w i l i g h t o f t h e L i l i e s D a f f o d i l s L i t t l e Boy B l u e B l u e and Brown R o y a l Academy 445 John-o-Dreams P a r i s S a l o n 138 3 Un L i v r e O u v e r t M a n c h e s t e r C i t y A r t G a l l e r y 101 Un L i v r e O u v e r t R o y a l Academy 549 V e r l a i n e ' s F r i e n d ( B i b i l a P u r e e ) S t . L o u i s E x h i b i t i o n Un L i v r e O u v e r t 114 V i c t o r i a , B.C., A g r i c u l t u r a l Show S i r H e n r i de L o t b i n i e r e S p r i n g Autumn John-o-Dreams C o u n t r y L a s s A R u r a l P h i l o s o p h e r S p a n i s h B e g g a r A Roman C e n t a d i n a C h e l s e a P e n s i o n e r S l i g o C a b i n S e i n e , E a r l y M o r n i n g Woods a t M a y f i e l d Norman C o u r t y a r d Chrysanthemums B l o m f i e l d ' s S t u d i o , V a n c o u v e r The A g r i c u l t u r a l Show E x h i b i t i o n 1907 R o y a l C a n a d i a n Academy 13 Penumbra 190 9 The Dore G a l l e r y , L o n d o n S h o a l Bay O l y m p i a n M o u n t a i n s f r o m Cook S t r e e t The G o l f L i n k s A C o r n f i e l d S u n s e t Glow i n a C o r n f i e l d Mount B a k e r f r o m Bowker's B e a c h C a d b o r o Bay M a c a u l a y P l a i n s , B.C. The D w e l l e r s on t h e T h r e s h o l d A P r o s p e r o u s S e t t l e r • Ross Bay A Crown o f t h e H i l l The O l d G a r d e n Time and E t e r n i t y F i n n e r t y s The L u t h e r a n C h u r c h Cook S t . A P o r t r a i t M o s q u i t o I s l a n d F a i r f i e l d Road 1910 R o y a l Academy 203 Memories 1947 L i t t l e C e n t r e G a l l e r y , V i c t o r i a , B.C. R e t r o s p e c t i v e 115 1949 G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a A r t s C e n t r e 22 O i l p a i n t i n g r e t r o s p e c t i v e 1954 V a n c o u v e r A r t G a l l e r y 40 O i l p a i n t i n g r e t r o s p e c t i v e w i t h a s m a l l b r o c h u r e 1959 A r t G a l l e r y o f G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a M e m o r i a l E x h i b i t i o n 1967 A r t G a l l e r y o f G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a 10 O i l s and 1 c h a r c o a l work w i t h a s m a l l b r o c h u r e 19 7 8 A r t G a l l e r y o f G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a M a j o r r e t r o s p e c t i v e 1978 U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M a j o r r e t r o s p e c t i v e 

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