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Community-based residential care facilities in family neighbourhoods : a problem of land-use control… Robinson, John Douglas 1979

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COMMUNITY-BASED RESIDENTIAL CARE F A C I L I T I E S IN FAMILY NEIGHBOURHOODS: A P r o b l e m of Land-use C o n t r o l & E q u i t y by JOHN DOUGLAS ROBINSON B.A., Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES The S c h o o l of Community & R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1979 © John D o u g l a s R o b i n s o n , 1979 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a dvanced d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . S c h o o l of Community & R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 September 24, 1979 i i ABSTRACT Community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a r e d e f i n e d i n terms of the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (1) t h e y p r o v i d e a s e r v i c e t o p e r s o n s a f f l i c t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l or p h y s i c a l d i s f u n c t i o n , (2) the method of t r e a t m e n t i n c l u d e s a r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t the p e r s o n s b e i n g t r e a t e d l i v e t o g e t h e r , a t l e a s t t e m p o r a r i l y , at the p l a c e where the s e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d , and (3) the method o f t r e a t m e n t r e q u i r e s or i s f a c i l i t a t e d by a l o c a t i o n i n w h i c h the n e i g h b o u r s and community f a c i l i t i e s of a n o r m a l r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a a r e a c c e s s i b l e to t h o s e r e c e i v i n g t h e s e r v i c e or t r e a t m e n t . Examples i n c l u d e h a l f - w a y h o u s e s f o r c o n v i c t s r e l e a s e d f r o m j a i l , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s f o r e x - a d d i c t s , homes f o r the p h y s i c a l l y and m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , s h e l t e r s f o r v i c t i m s of f a m i l y v i o l e n c e , and f o s t e r homes. To the e x t e n t t h a t the d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the group to be s e r v e d i s p e r c e i v e d as s o m e t h i n g t h r e a t e n i n g and t h a t the r e s i d e n t s a r e seen as s o m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n a " f a m i l y " , t h e r e i s c o n f l i c t between the o b j e c t i v e of h e l p i n g t h o s e b e i n g t r e a t e d by l o c a t i n g the f a c i l i t y i n a t y p i c a l , f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d and the d e s i r e of the o t h e r r e s i d e n t s of the l o c a l community t o r e s t r i c t l a n d use w i t h i n t h e i r a r e a to homes f o r " n o r m a l " f a m i l i e s and s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l s . D e p e n d i n g on the a t t r i b u t e s of the group to be s e r v e d , t h i s i i i d e s i r e f o r n o r m a l c y i s o f t e n e x p r e s s e d i n f e a r s about d e c l i n i n g p r o p e r t y v a l u e s / p e r s o n a l i n j u r y and p r o p e r t y damage c a u s e d by the u s e r s of the f a c i l i t y , c o r r u p t i o n of the m o r a l s or encouragement of d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r among o t h e r s i n t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d , and g e n e r a l i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of v a l u e s and b e h a v i o u r . A c ademic l i t e r a t u r e and l o c a l e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a r e used to e x p l o r e the s o u r c e s and j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r n e i g h b o u r h o o d o p p o s i t i o n t o such f a c i l i t i e s . Examples of z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f r o m the N o r t h Shore of G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r r e v e a l the v a r i a t i o n s i n l a n d - u s e p o l i c y . Case law and ' r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t u t e law show t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t o r y z o n i n g b y - l a w s can be c o n s i d e r e d u l t r a v i r e s i f t h e y " l a n d zone by p e o p l e z o n i n g " . A l s o , e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i s examined from a human r i g h t s p o i n t of view as t h e y p e r t a i n to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g . The c o n c l u s i o n s s u g g e s t p o s s i b l e programmes and s t r a t e g i e s f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f community-b a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d i n g p o s s i b l e change t o l e g i s l a t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n and the a m e l i o r a t i o n of c o n f l i c t between o p p o s i n g i n t e r e s t group.s. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i Acknowledgement v i i i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 B a c k g r o u n d 1 1.2 The P r o b l e m 2 1.3 . P u r p o s e & Scope of Study 3 1.4 M e t h o d o l o g y 4 2 THEORETICAL ENQUIRIES ON THE NATURE OF CONFLICT IN LAND-USE PLANNING 6 3 PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD RESIDENTIAL CARE F A C I L I T I E S 21 ' 3.1 D i f f e r e n c e & N o r m a l c y 21 3.2 Mechanisms f o r M a i n t a i n i n g a System of V a l u e s 24 3.3 N o r m a l i z a t i o n 28 3.4 P u b l i c V a l u e s & Land Use 31 3.4.1 P r i v a t e P r o p e r t y 32 3.4.2 Change & F e a r 36 3.4.3 I n d i v i d u a l , M a j o r i t y and Community I n t e r e s t s . . . . 40 V CHAPTER Page: 3. PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD RESIDENTIAL CARE F A C I L I T I E S 3.4.4 P u b l i c F i n a n c e 44 3.5 Z o n i n g C o n t r o l . o f . R e s i d e n t i a l Care F a c i l i t i e s : N o r t h Shore Examples 45 3.5.1 The D i s t r i c t of West V a n c o u v e r 47 3.5.2 The C i t y o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r 51 3.5.3 The D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r . . . . . . . . . . . 53 .3.5.4 A l t e r n a t e R e g u l a t i o n 56 3.6 S p a t i a l A l l o c a t i o n of R e s i d e n t i a l Care F a c i l i t i e s 58 3.7 C o n c l u s i o n s 61 4 THE CONTROL OF LAND USE AND EQUITY 64 4.1 A B r i e f H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e . . . . 65 4.2 D e l e g a t i o n o f Power t o L o c a l Government 69 4.3 M a t e r i a l Change i n Use 76 4.4 The C o n c e p t of R e a s o n a b l e n e s s . . . . 89 4.5 Human R i g h t s 100 4.6 C o n c l u s i o n s 125 5 IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL POLICY 129 5.1 S o c i a l P o l i c y 130 5.1.1 Land-use C o n t r o l P o l i c y . . . . 131 5.1.2 P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s 142 v i CHAPTER Rage : 5 IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL POLICY 5.1 S o c i a l P o l i c y 5.1.3 Human R i g h t s 146 5.2 C o n c l u s i o n s 151 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . 158 v i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e : Page: 1 S e l e y ' s Schema of S o c i a l and L o c a t i o n a l C o n f l i c t . 14 2 S e l e y ' s P a r a d i g m of Community-based P l a n n i n g 16 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o acknowledge the p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v i c e and encouragement e x t e n d e d to me by Dr. Henry H i g h t o w e r , Brahm Wiesman and B i l l Lane of the S c h o o l of Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , and John A. MacDonald of the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d to the N o r t h Shore D i v i s i o n o f the U n i t e d Way f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e and to C e n t r a l M o r t g a g e and H o u s i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , whose s c h o l a r s h i p (1977-1979) made my two y e a r s of s t u d y f i n a n c i a l l y f e a s i b l e . I w i s h to acknowledge the p a t i e n c e , s k i l l and a d v i c e p r o v i d e d by my w i f e Grace-Ann i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f my t h e s i s . 1 CHAPTER 1  INTRODUCTION 1. 1 B a c k g r o u n d S i n c e t h e mid-1960's, the d e l i v e r y of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r p e r s o n s r e q u i r i n g r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r a v a r i e t y of p r o b l e m s has been moving away from l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s . The number of p a t i e n t s i n B.C. p s y c h i a t r i c i n s t i t u t i o n s ( R i v e r v i e w ; V a l l e y v i e w ) has been i n s t e a d y d e c l i n e and s u c h d e c l i n e has i n c r e a s e d s h a r p l y s i n c e 1972. ( L i o y , M. , 1975, page 153.) A s t u d y c o n d u c t e d i n 1972 by the p r o v i n c i a l M e n t a l H e a l t h B r a n c h ( P a t i e n t R e s i d e n t S u r v e y ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t 5.4% of R i v e r v i e w p a t i e n t s and 21% of V a l l e y v i e w r e s i d e n t s d i d n o t r e q u i r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l p s y c h i a t r i c c a r e . ( I b i d . ) I n c r e a s e i n the number of i n d i v i d u a l s r e l e a s e d on p a r o l e has o c c u r r e d as w e l l s i n c e 1965-1966 ( I b i d , page 13 4 ) , and most r e v o c a t i o n s of p a r o l e (27.3% i n 1971-1972) " t a k e p l a c e i n the f i r s t few months a f t e r r e l e a s e , when the p a r o l e e has the most d i f f i c u l t y r e - a d a p t i n g to the community. ( I b i d . ) The p r o v i n c i a l government of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has promoted a p o l i c y o f d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n and has e n c o u r a g e d r e s p e c t i v e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s to implement s u c h 2 community-based r e s i d e n t i a l programmes where needed. The a c c e p t a n c e of s u c h p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s by l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s has been l e s s t h a n e n c o u r a g i n g and h a s , i n f a c t , p r o d u c e d much c o n t r o v e r s y and c o n f l i c t . 1.2 The P r o b l e m The t a s k of t h i s s t u d y w i l l be to a d d r e s s the major i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s term, u s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t h e s i s , i n c l u d e s the f u l l r a nge of s e r v i c e s known as group homes, h a l f w a y h o u s e s , h o s t e l s and o t h e r s p e c i a l r e s i d e n c e s . The p r o b l e m i s t h a t of c o n f l i c t between p r e s e n t z o n i n g p r a c t i c e and s o c i a l change. The major i s s u e s of c o n f l i c t may be g e n e r a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as f o l l o w s : The i s s u e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of d i s a d v a n t a g e d p e r s o n s i n h o u s i n g . T h i s n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e s e x c l u s i o n a r y z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s ; " f a i r - s h a r e " h o u s i n g p o l i c i e s ; and l i c e n c i n g of f a c i l i t i e s . The i s s u e of f a i r l e g i s l a t i o n as a means of p r o v i d i n g s t a b i l i t y and of r e f l e c t i n g p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s . T h i s i n c l u d e s d i s c u s s i o n s of s o v e r e i g n t y of 3 power, d e l e g a t i o n of power, and the c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s of d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t g r o u p s . 1.3 P u r p o s e and Scope of the Study Much r e s e a r c h on t h e need f o r r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s has been c o n d u c t e d w i t h l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n g i v e n to the p r o b l e m s of t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . The p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y t h e r e f o r e w i l l n o t be c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e s t a t i n g the need of f a c i l i t i e s t o l o c a t e i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s but w i t h t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n the community. The N o r t h Shore m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of West V a n c o u v e r , C i t y , and D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r have been c h o s e n as the s p a t i a l u n i t of s t u d y . I n f o r m a t i o n on p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s have been g a t h e r e d from s o u r c e s o u t s i d e t h e s t u d y u n i t as w e l l as f r o m w i t h i n i t . F o r the p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y , t h e term "community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y " s h a l l mean a f a c i l i t y p r o v i d e d by a s o c i a l agency w h i c h p r o v i d e s a r e s i d e n t i a l b ase f o r t h o s e p e r s o n s r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l s o c i a l c a r e . The terms " h a n d i c a p p e d " and " d i s a d v a n t a g e d " a r e used to i d e n t i f y t h o s e p e r s o n s r e q u i r i n g s o c i a l c a r e i n s o f a r as t h e y a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h s e p a r a t e s them from o t h e r s i n s o c i e t y . The terms a r e p u r p o s e f u l l y b r o a d . The s c o p e of t h i s s t u d y d e a l s n o t w i t h 4 a s p e c i f i c f a c i l i t y b u t w i t h f a c i l i t i e s i n a g e n e r i c s e n s e . The s c o p e of the s t u d y i s to i d e n t i f y t h o s e v a l u e s and a s s u m p t i o n s i n h e r e n t t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s and t o d e v e l o p a s o c i a l p o l i c y w h i c h a t t e m p t s t o r e s o l v e t h e d i l e m n a of c o n f l i c t and o r d e r from a p l a n n i n g p o i n t of v i e w . 1.4 M e t h o d o l o g y The m e t h o d o l o g y used i n t h i s s t u d y f a l l s w i t h i n f o u r c l a s s e s of e n q u i r y . The s t u d y b e g i n s i n C h a p t e r 2 w i t h a b r i e f r e v i e w of p l a n n i n g t h e o r y r e l a t e d to c o n f l i c t i n l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l . The c h a p t e r c o n t i n u e s w i t h c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s of p r e s e n t z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n as i n s u f f i c i e n t and o f t e n i r r e l e v a n t as a t o o l i n d e a l i n g w i t h some a s p e c t s of p l a n n i n g t h e o r y and t h e n o t i o n o f e q u i t y or f a i r n e s s i n l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . The q u e s t i o n of a p r o p e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r r e s o l u t i o n of c o n f l i c t i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e to r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . C h a p t e r 3 examines the r o l e and e f f e c t of p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s i n the c o n t r o v e r s y of e s t a b l i s h i n g community-bas e d r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r -hoods. The p r i m a r y i s s u e s h e r e a r e t h o s e of l a b e l l i n g , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of v a l u e s to l a n d u s e , and t h e i m p a c t of 5 a t t i t u d e s on z o n i n g c o n t r o l of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s as f o u n d i n N o r t h Shore l e g i s l a t i o n . C h a p t e r 4 examines t h e c o n t r o l of l a n d use as a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e . E n q u i r i e s h e r e r e l a t e t o d e l e g a t i o n of power, i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c r i t e r i a of l a n d u s e , t h e c o n c e p t of r e a s o n a b l e n e s s and, f i n a l l y , t h e k i n d and d e g r e e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n f o u n d i n l a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n . C h a p t e r 5 c o n c l u d e s w i t h a f o r m u l a t i o n of p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h e s and programmes w h i c h c o u l d be employed t o r e s o l v e t h e i n e q u i t i e s f o u n d i n some p r e s e n t l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e s . The a n a l y s i s of d r a w i n g on d o c u m e n t a t i o n c a s e s t u d y . t h i s b o t h s t u d y i s p r i m a r i l y d e s c r i p t i v e , i n r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e and i n 6 CHAPTER 2 THEORETICAL ENQUIRIES ON THE NATURE OF CONFLICT IN LAND-USE PLANNING The d e b a t e o v e r t h e q u a l i t y of t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , t o g e t h e r w i t h q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i e t a l power and w e a l t h , whether j u s t i c e i s p o s s i b l e f o r a l l , and how our v a l u e s d e v e l o p , a l l c h a l l e n g e the b a s i c p r o c e s s e s of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The growth of c i t i z e n and n e i g h b o u r h o o d g r o u p s demanding a p l a c e i n the u r b a n d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s t r u c t u r e , a l l o c a t i o n of i n f r a s t r u c t u r e s u c h as p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s , t h e c h o i c e between the e x t e n s i o n of the u r b a n form upward and o u t w a r d , th e d e b a t e on u r b a n r e n e w a l or the f i s c a l s t r u c t u r e of t h e c i t y , have each c o n f r o n t e d p l a n n e r s and m u n i c i p a l governments w i t h a b a t t e r y of i s s u e s . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , u r b a n p o l i c y - m a k i n g has become b e d e v i l l e d w i t h c o n t r a d i c t i o n s and u n c e r t a i n t y , w i t h c o n f l i c t t h a t as S e l e y (1973) n o t e s , can f i n d no i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g . B o u l d i n g (1962) v i e w s c o n f l i c t a s : ...a s i t u a t i o n of c o m p e t i t i o n i n w h i c h p a r t i e s a r e aware of the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e p o s i t i o n s and i n w h i c h each p a r t y w i s h e s t o occupy a p o s i t i o n t h a t i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h the w i s h e s of the o t h e r . (At page 21.) 7 The i s s u e of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h e s t a b l i s h i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s f i t s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l v i e w s of the c o n c e p t o f f a m i l y demand t h a t s u c h f a c i l i t i e s be seen as i n s t i t u t i o n s t o be l o c a t e d beyond t h e s p h e r e of r e s i d e n t i a l l y - d e f i n e d n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . To t h i s e x t e n t t h e i s s u e becomes s p a t i a l i n c o n t e x t and has l e d p l a n n e r s to implement v a r i o u s k i n d s of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l . In t h e o r y , t h e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of s p a c e has been bound up i n the c o n c e p t of s p a c e as an impure p u b l i c good (Buchanan, 1968). That i s , s p a c e and the use t h a t o c c u p i e s i t w i l l a lways c r e a t e e x t e r n a l e f f e c t s t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t i a l c o s t s and b e n e f i t s , s i n c e by d e f i n i t i o n l o c a t i o n i m p l i e s u n e q u a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o some p u b l i c f a c i l i t y ( d e f i n e d as a p o i n t i n s p a c e ) . T h i s c o n c e r n has been t h e main t h r u s t b e h i n d t h e l o c a t i o n - a l l o c a t i o n s c h o o l w h i c h has s o u g h t n o r m a t i v e s o l u t i o n s to the l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s t h e s p a t i a l e f f e c t of c o n f l i c t t h a t has l e d t o the a n a l y s i s of c o n f l i c t - g e n e r a t i n g f o r c e s . N o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h e s f o r m u l a t e t h e p r o b l e m as a m a t h e m a t i -c a l programming s o l u t i o n s u c h t h a t some a g g r e g a t e s o c i a l w e l f a r e s u r r o g a t e can be s a t i s f i e d i n w h i c h e f f i c i e n c y ( l e a s t s o c i a l c o s t ) and e q u i t y ( f a i r a g g r e g a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n , e q u a l l i n g - f o r example - P a r e t o - o p t i m a l i t y ) a r e synonomous. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , the W o l p e r t s c h o o l a p p r o a c h e s t h e l o c a t i o n of p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s as f o l l o w s : G i v e n the 8 g e n e r a l u r b a n s t r u c t u r e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o l o c a t e p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s so t h a t m i c r o - l e v e l e x t e r n a l i t i e s ( i . e . l o c a l i z e d e f f e c t s ) a r e c r e a t e d . T h i s i s t y p i f i e d by the " n o x i o u s " f a c i l i t y w h i c h no community wants (Mumphrey and W o l p e r t , 1973). The W o l p e r t s c h o o l c o n s i d e r s b o t h the a c c e s s i b i l i t y q u e s t i o n ( d i s t a n c e / c o s t minimum) w h i c h i s r e g a r d e d as " n e u t r a l " (a cookbook a p p r o a c h ) and a l s o d e r i v a t i v e e f f e c t s such as i m p a c t s on l a n d v a l u e s , p r o p e r t y r i g h t s and s o c i a l group d i s p l a c e m e n t . F i r s t , t h e r e i s the q u e s t i o n of u s e r s v e r s u s n o n - u s e r s of a f a c i l i t y . N o r m a t i v e t h e o r y makes l i t t l e a t t e m p t t o c o n s i d e r t h i s , whereas W o l p e r t e t a l s t r e s s the l o c a t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s where a n o x i o u s f a c i l i t y has to be l o c a t e d . Hence, d i s t i n g u i s h i n g u s e r s f r o m n o n - u s e r s i m p l i e s a t r a d e - o f f between them i n s p a c e where p r o x i m i t y , n o t a c c e s s i b i l i t y , can be a c o s t . C l e a r l y , t h i s becomes an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e i n any community-based programme of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . S econd, the e x t e n t of t h e e x t e r n a l e f f e c t s ( i . e . as a f u n c t i o n of d i s t a n c e ) i s a l s o of c o n c e r n . T h i s has l e d t o the c o n c e p t of " i m p a c t f i e l d " ( D e ar, 1974b) w h i c h i s assumed t o d i m i n i s h w i t h d i s t a n c e f r o m th e f a c i l i t y s i t e . However, t h i s depends e n t i r e l y on t h e t y p e of f a c i l i t y and, i n t u i t i v e l y , we m ight e x p e c t th e e x i s t e n c e of b o t h p o s i t i v e 9 ( e . g . a p a r k ) or n e g a t i v e ( e . g . an i n c i n e r a t o r ) k i n d s o f e x t e r n a l i t y . W h i l e z o n i n g and o t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t o r y l a n d - u s e measures may be used f a v o u r a b l y to p l a n f o r h i g h l y u n d e s i r a b l e f a c i l i t i e s , s u c h as an o i l r e f i n e r y , c l e a r l y the p r o b l e m a r i s e s where a c e r t a i n l e v e l of r e a s o n a b l e a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s d e s i r e d . C o n f l i c t w i l l ensue b e c a u s e o t h e r r e s i d e n t s of the community would a l s o i n s i s t on a d i s t a n c e " f i l t e r " on the e x t e r n a l i t y e f f e c t . A s t r u g g l e o v e r the s i t i n g q u e s t i o n i s i n e v i t a b l e . Community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s f i t i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y and t h e r e f o r e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l to a m e l i o r a t e c o n f l i c t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . Any model d e s i g n e d to d e a l w i t h s u c h s i t u a t i o n s of a c c e s s i b i l i t y and d i s t a n c i n g must i n c l u d e the n o t i o n s of " e f f i c i e n c y " and " e q u i t y " . These p r i n c i p l e s become i m p o r t a n t to u n d e r s t a n d i n g the g e n e r a l f o c u s of the W o l p e r t e f f o r t . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t i n t h e n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d as synonomous and i n no way c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n aim (as a s o c i a l w e l f a r e / c o s t f u n c t i o n ) . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n seems d u b i o u s . M o r r i l l (1974) i s e x t r e m e l y c r i t i c a l of the most g e n e r a l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e s e c o n c e p t s i n "optimum" f a c i l i t y l o c a t i o n . A n a l y z i n g v a r i o u s d i s t a n c e m i n i m i z a t i o n c r i t e r i a , he c o n c l u d e s t h a t 1 0 t h e s e can o n l y e q u a t e e f f i c i e n c y and e q u i t y i n an " i d e a l " s o c i e t y w i t h u n i f o r m p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y i n w h i c h minimum a g g r e g a t e c o s t s would t h e n be a c c e p t a b l e ( i . e . i n a C h r i s t a l l e r - l i k e e n v i r o n m e n t , w i t h P a r e t o - o p t i m a l i t y ) . G i v e n any o t h e r d i s t r i b u t i o n exteme, l o c a t i o n must r e s u l t i n an i n e q u i t a b l e s i t u a t i o n . M o r r i l l ' s arguments a r e v a l i d f o r b o t h n o x i o u s and n o n - n o x i o u s f a c i l i t i e s . They do n o t , however, go f a r enough i n t o t h e p r o b l e m of whether s p a t i a l , r a t h e r t h a n s o c i a l , a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s t h e most u s e f u l s u r r o g a t e of e q u i t y . They i m p l y t h a t c o n f l i c t stems from n o t i o n s of g e n e r a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y , n o t from t h e s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g e n v i r o n m e n t of t h e W o l p e r t s c h o o l . F o r W o l p e r t e t a l t h e terms " e f f i c i e n c y " and " e q u i t y " have t a k e n on v e r y p r e c i s e meanings. They have a r g u e d f o r a model of " c o n f l i c t r e s o l u t i o n " i n the s i t i n g of n o x i o u s f a c i l i t i e s . G i v e n t h a t t h e r e i s l i k e l y t o be o p p o s i t i o n to the l o c a t i o n o:f n o x i o u s f a c i l i t i e s , one must m i n i m i z e the e f f e c t s by p r o v i d i n g p o s i t i v e e x t e r n a l i t i e s to the a f f l i c t e d g r o u p . T h i s o c c u r s t h r o u g h c o n c e s s i o n s i n t h e form of a u x i l i a r y " d e s i r a b l e " f a c i l i t i e s , or s i d e -payments ( i . e . c o m p e n s a t i o n ) and, at the same t i m e , m i n i m i z i n g t h e l o c a t i o n c o s t s p l u s the c o n c e s s i o n a r y c o s t s to a c h i e v e e f f i c i e n c y . Hence, " e q u i t y " r e f e r s t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f s i d e - p a y m e n t s t o the a f f l i c t e d group t o g a i n a r e d u c t i o n i n c o n t r o v e r s y . 11 The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s model l i e s i n the p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s e s u n d e r l y i n g the d e c i s i o n to l o c a t e , as w e l l as the n o t i o n s of power and i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n . A method i s s o u g h t to p l a c a t e the most p o w e r f u l g r o u p s i n t h o s e l o c a t i o n s where f a c i l i t i e s a r e most l i k e l y to be s i t e d . As s u c h , i t can be r e g a r d e d as h i g h l y c o n t r o v e r -s i a l , f a l l i n g w i t h i n the " m a n i p u l a t i v e " s e c t i o n of A r n s t e i n ' s " L a d d e r of C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n " ( 1 9 6 9 ) . I t i s a l s o a h i g h l y p r a g m a t i c a p p r o a c h b a s e d on v a r i o u s a s s u m p t i o n s ; f o r example, t h a t b a r g a i n i n g power i s p r o p o r t i o n a l to the a d v e r s e e f f e c t s of the f a c i l i t y . At the same t i m e , however, i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n would t e n d t o f o l l o w the l i n e of l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e , l o c a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s where t h e r e i s l e a s t power to oppose (Hinman, 1970); where i n v e s t m e n t c o s t s and s i d e -payments a r e l i k e l y t o be a t a minimum. The emphasis on the l o c a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n and i m p a c t s of f a c i l i t y i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the W o l p e r t s c h o o l i s s u p e r i o r i n my view i n i t s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c o n f l i c t r a t h e r t h an the n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h , even i f the model f o r r e s o l u t i o n i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l . In the n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h , the p o s t u l a t e of s p a ce as an impure p u b l i c good, g e n e r a t i n g c o n f l i c t i s by d e f i n i t i o n a c i r c u l a r argument t h a t c o u l d e a s i l y be abandoned. I t s i m p l y r e f l e c t s a t r u i s m . S p ace, by d e f i n i t i o n , d i f f e r e n t i a t e s c o s t s and b e n e f i t s t h r o u g h l o c a t i o n a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y s i n c e no m a t t e r where a p u b l i c 12 f a c i l i t y i s l o c a t e d s u c h d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n must r e m a i n t r u e . In a d d i t i o n , Dear (1974b) and T e i t z (1968) have f o u n d t h a t where need ( r a t h e r t h a n demand) i s c o n c e r n e d , a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s a l m o s t v a l u e l e s s as a c o n c e p t . F o r example, i n c a s e s l i k e h o s p i t a l s and d r u g c e n t r e s , o p e n i n g t i m e s a r e a much more c r u c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e of the emergence of community power and q u e s t i o n s of t h e c o n t r o l of l o c a l p l a n n i n g r a i s e a s p e c t s of community d i s c r e t i o n t h a t can be employed i n terms of p l a n n e d or u n p l a n n e d change i n a n e i g h b o u r h o o d . W o l p e r t , Mumphrey and S e l e y (1973) have c o n s i d e r e d s u c h a s p e c t s and o u t l i n e v a r i o u s s c e n a r i o s ( b o t h o p t i m i s t i c and p e s s i m i s t i c ) of p o s s i b l e f u t u r e n e i g h b o u r h o o d / c o m m u n i t y s i t u a t i o n s . To t h i s end, t h e y n o t e the a p p a r e n t h i g h f l e x i b i l i t y of the low-income n e i g h b o u r h o o d where d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers, s u c h as r e z o n i n g , a r e a v a i l a b l e as opposed to h i g h - i n c o m e g r o u p s . T h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d to community c o n t r o l of p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . In. an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the n o t i o n of c o n f l i c t , S e l e y (1973) t r i e s t o l i n k u r b a n c o n f l i c t e x p l i c i t l y w i t h s o c i a l t h e o r y . The a t t e m p t i s to mould D a h r e n d o r f ' s m i d d l e - r a n g e t h e o r y of c o n f l i c t (1968) w i t h u r b a n p a t t e r n s of c o n f l i c t ( i . e . the e m p i r i c a l b a s e ) , the aim b e i n g to f o r m u l a t e a g e n e r a l p a r a d i g m of community-13 b a s e d p l a n n i n g t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e s c o n f l i c t as a f u n d a m e n t a l f a c t o r . I t i s w o r t h w h i l e r e f l e c t i n g on D a h r e n d o r f s schema of c o n f l i c t , one w h i c h may be r e g a r d e d as neo-M a r x i s t : (Applebaum, 1970).. As S e l e y p o i n t s o u t , D a h r e n d o r f ' s main c o n c e r n i s to show t h a t c l a s s c o n f l i c t o c c u r s t h r o u g h a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or s i m p l y t h e " r u l e r s v e r s u s the r u l e d " . I t i s t h r o u g h t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t s o c i a l change o c c u r s . S e l e y a r g u e s t h a t t h i s does n o t seem t o be e n t i r e l y a p p r o p r i a t e b e c a u s e i f D a h r e n d o r f c r i t i c i z e s p r e v i o u s "models of man" as too much "one c l a s s " ( e . g . Marx s t r e s s i n g t h e r o l e of the p r o l e t a r i a t ; P a r s o n s , the b o u r g e o i s i e ) , he f a l l s i n t o the same t r a p by l o o k i n g a t a "one i s s u e " m o d el, namely, a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( a l s o , Applebaum, 197 0 . ) . S e l e y b e l i e v e s t h a t w h i l e th e a n a l y s i s o f a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d u r b a n c o n f l i c t , i t i s n o t of i t s e l f s u f f i c i e n t , as many u r b a n i s s u e s do n o t f i t i n t o a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . He c i t e s e t h n i c i t y and c u l t u r a l i s s u e s i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d change as b e i n g o u t s i d e D a h r e n d o r f ' s schema of a u t h o r i t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S e l e y c o n c l u d e s , t h a t the schema i s n o t s u b t l e enough to i n c o r p o r a t e the i s s u e s c i t e d . 14 A most i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t of S e l e y ' s use of D a h r e n d o r f ' s t h e o r y , however, i s h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of the l a t t e r ' s l i s t of heeds f o r a t h e o r y of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t to the c a s e of u r b a n c o n f l i c t . F i g u r e 1: SELEY'S SCHEMA OF SOCIAL AND LOCATIONAL CONFLICT ( S e l e y , 1973, " P a r a d i g m s & D i m e n s i o n s of Urban C o n f l i c t " , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of P e n n s y l v a n i a . ) DAHRENDORF'S L I S T OF NEEDS FOR A THEORY- OF SOCIAL CONFLICT EXAMPLES TRANSLATED INTO A THEORY OF LOCATIONAL CONFLICT 1. What i s an a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c e p t i o n of t h e phenome-non and how a r e i t s main t y p e s d i s t i n g u i s h e d ? The need f o r an open-ended p a r a d i g m a l l o w i n g f o r s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l p a t h s of c o n f l i c t ; i . e . d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and change. D i s t i n g u i s h e d - l e v e l s of i m p a c t and o p p o s i t i o n . 2. What c o n c e p t i o n of s o c i e t y i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e s t u d y of c o n f l i c t ? The p l a n n i n g p r o c e s as a m i c r o c o s m . s 3\ What a r e the s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h g i v e r i s e to d i f f e r e n t forms of c o n f l i c t ? P o l i c y r e g u l a t i o n s and p r a c t i c e as w e l l as t h e r o l e of t e c h n o l o g y i n s o c i e t y , and t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d g r o u p s i n s o c i e t y . 15 F i g u r e 1 ( C o n t ' d . ) DAHRENDORF'S LIST OF NEEDS FOR A THEORY OF SOCIAL CONFLICT EXAMPLES TRANSLATED INTO A THEORY OF LOCATIONAL CONFLICT 4. How does c o n f l i c t e v o l v e f r o m t h e s e s t r u c -t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s ? a) The i n e q u i t a b i l i t y of i m p a c t s ; b) The i n a b i l i t y of n o r m a l g r i e v a n c e p r o c e d u r e s t o s a t i s f y c o m m u n i t i e s ; i . e . a f a i l u r e of g o v e r n m e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 5. What a r e the dimen-s i o n s of each k i n d of c o n f l i c t and under what c o n d i t i o n s does the f o r m of c o n f l i c t v a r y i n t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s ? a) Demands, s t r a t e g i e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s ; b) S e t t i n g - i n c l u d i n g t a n g i b l e and d e c i s i o n -making c i r c u m s t a n c e s of a p l a n , as w e l l as c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s ; p r e v i o u s r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n s o c i e t y . 6. How can c o n f l i c t r e g u l a t e d ? be I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p o l i c y p r o c e s s of c o n t r o v e r s y r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n t " p a t h s " of c o n f l i c t . t o S e l e y s e t s out the above schema of s o c i a l and l o c a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of p l a n n i n g , w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o n f l i c t emergence and r e s o l u t i o n . (See F i g u r e 1, i t e m 2.) S e l e y c l e a r l y c o n s i d e r s t h a t i t i s the e q u i t y q u e s t i o n ( s e e F i g u r e 1, i t e m 4) i n the i m p a c t s of f a c i l i t y l o c a t i o n w h i c h i s i m p o r t a n t , as w e l l as the f a i l u r e of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g t o d e a l w i t h community d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . S e l e y r e g a r d s t h e a n a l y s i s of d i f f e r e n t " p a t h s " of c o n f l i c t 16 "as p a r t o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s " and as the key c o n c e r n i f c o n f l i c t i s t o be r e g u l a t e d ( s e e F i g u r e 1, i t e m 6 ) . S e l e y ' s p a r a d i g m of community-based p l a n n i n g r e p r e s e n t s a u s e f u l s t e p i n p r o v i d i n g a c l e a r and c o n c i s e p r o c e d u r e f o r a c h a i n of e v e n t s i n the l o c a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s and t h e i r i m p a c t s . F i g u r e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s the p a r a d i g m : F i g u r e 2 : SELEY'S PARADIGM OF COMMUNITY-BASED PLANNING ( S e l e y , 1973, I b i d . ) Community Impact: B a s i s and Mo d e l s of Ac t i o n (Community) Communi t y Improvement G o a l s : I P h y s i c a l — — = I I Q u a l i t y of L i f e - G e n e r a l -Land use I I I R e a c t i v e A & B ** IV I n i t i a t i v e A. S t r u c t u r e B. A d v o c a c y /.__\ V T a n g i b l e VI I n t r a - V I I I n t e r -I Community Community R e l a t i o n s R e l a t i o n s Community P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s G o a l s : C o n t e x t V a r i a b l e s ( P l a n n e r s ) V I I I P a r t i c i p a t i o n X A n t e c e d e n t — ZZ ~ V a r i a b l e s IX C o n t r o l XI I n t e r v e n i n g V a r i a b l e s 17 F i g u r e 2 C o n t i n u e d - C o n t e x t V a r i a b l e s ( P l a n n e r s ) G e n e r a l G o a l s ( P l a n n e r s ) S p e c i f i c P l a n n i n g P r o c e s s e s , G o a l s / A c t i o n ( P l a n n e r s ) : (X A n t e c e d e n t -V a r i a b l e s ) (XI I n t e r v e n i n g V a r i a b l e s ) X I I . ' S o c i a l i z a t i o n A d a p a t i o n I n t e g r a t i o n * — XIV O b j e c t i v e / T a n g i b l e X I I G o a l A t t a i n m e n t XV S u b j e c t i v e ( A r n s t e i n ) •- M a n i p u l a t i o n •E E d u c a t i o n / T h e r a p y B e h a v i o u r Change I n f o r m i n g •- C o n s u l t a t i o n P l a c a t i o n / C o o p e r a t i o n P a r t n e r s h i p D e l e g a t e d Power. C i t i z e n C o n t r o l ' > LEGEND NOTE : DECISION PATHS = CAUSAL LINKS 18 S e l e y ' s p a r a d i g m o u t l i n e d i n F i g u r e 2 may be n e a t l y t r a n s l a t e d as a s h o r t h a n d s c a l i n g method of d e a l i n g w i t h s c e n a r i o s o f the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s and of d e a l i n g w i t h s u c h m e t h o d o l o g y as " i n t e r a c t i o n c y c l e s " w h i c h t r a c e the t e m p o r a l s wings of community g a i n s and l o s s e s i n power. S e e m i n g l y , a l l i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d i n the p a r a d i g m ( e . g . a n t e c e d e n t v a r i a b l e s t h a t p r e d a t e the f a c i l i t y ' s l o c a t i o n ; r e a c t i v e v e r s u s i n i t i a t i v e t y p e s of community a c t i o n where the p l a n n i n g " p u s h " comes a l t e r n a -t i v e l y f r o m w i t h i n or w i t h o u t t h e l o c a l g r o u p ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , S e l e y ' s v i e w p o i n t stems from o n l y a p a r t i a l e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l t h e o r y . At v a r i o u s s t a g e s S e l e y p o i n t s out t h a t the p a r a d i g m needs t o be "open-ended", s i n c e t h e p r o c e s s of f a c i l i t y i m p a c t does n o t show s u f f i c i e n t c o n s i s t e n c y from c a s e t o c a s e . Such f l e x i b i l i t y may, however, s i m p l y d e t r a c t f r o m i t s u s e f u l n e s s and i t may be n e c e s s a r y to s u p p l e m e n t s u c h t h e o r y w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t . A major f a i l i n g of the W o l p e r t s c h o o l (as d e m o n s t r a t e d by S e l e y ) i s t h a t t h e y b e g i n w i t h a o n e - s i d e d a p p r o a c h and work t h i s t h r o u g h , w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t c o n c e p t s of r e c i p r o c i t y and autonomy i n s o c i a l systems c o u l d be of more v a l u e i f i n c l u d e d i n s u c h a p p r o a c h e s . ( G o u l d n e r , 1959.) Whatever the d i f f e r e n c e between the v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s 19 of s o c i a l c o n f l i c i m p l i c i t l y a c c e p t e f f e c t s a r e a maj t t h a t have been t h a t to v a r y i n g or f a c t o r . d e v e l o p e d , t h e y d e g r e e s r e c i p r o c a l To the e x t e n t t h a t l o c a t i o n a l i s s u e s a r e s o c i a l , t h e y a r e a l s o human. T h e r e e x i s t s a dependence upon f e l l o w human b e i n g s i n terms of human r e l a t i o n s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r s u r v i v a l and f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of nee d s . The n e c e s s a r y c o n f l i c t between f r e e d o m and c o n s t r a i n t w h i c h i s e x p r e s s e d i n the e x e r c i s e of community power p r o d u c e s one of t h e c r u c i a l p r o b l e m s of human e x i s t e n c e - the p r o b l e m of s o c i a l o r d e r . R e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r methods, s o c i e t i e s have f o u n d s o c i a l and human, r e l a t i o n s a n e c e s s a r y component i n any s u c c e s s -f u l a t t e m p t t o o r d e r r e l a t i o n s beyond immediate s i t u a t i o n s . At t h e i r most g e n e r a l l e v e l , s o c i a l r u l e s a r e t h e a b s t r a c t , s y m b o l i c c r i t e r i a by w h i c h members of a s o c i e t y d e a l w i t h c o n f l i c t . The use of m u n i c i p a l law ( z o n i n g ) has n o t been an a d e q u a t e t o o l f o r d e a l i n g w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g l a n d - u s e i s s u e s where community a c c e s s i b i l i t y i s n e c e s s a r y . Nor has i t been an a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l f o r d e t e r m i n i n g as a s o c i a l r u l e t h a t e q u i t y p r e v a i l when the p r i v i l e g e of c e r t a i n l a n d uses i s i n d i s p u t e . C l e a r l y r e q u i r e d , as n o t e d at the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s c h a p t e r , i s an " i n s t i t u t i o n a l 20 s e t t i n g " w h i c h can d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the s u b t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s of l a n d use and human r e l a t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s p o s t u l a t e and document a c a s e f o r the use of human r i g h t s l e g i s l a t i o n to su p p l e m e n t m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g law c o n c e r n i n g the s y m b o l i z a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n a community, and f r e e a c c e s s f o r p e r s o n s who need t o r e s i d e i n s u c h f a c i l i t i e s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i n s o c i e t y . 21 CHAPTER 3 PUBLIC ATTITUDES TOWARD RESIDENTIAL CARE F A C I L I T I E S The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s has p r o v o k e d much community i n t e r e s t and c o n t r o v e r s y . A t t i t u d e s r a n g e from t h o s e who p e r c e i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of c a r e f a c i l i t i e s as a t h r e a t to s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d a m e n i t y , t o t h o s e who a d v o c a t e the need f o r such f a c i l i t i e s f o r p e r s o n s who r e q u i r e t h e b e n e f i t s of s u c h a n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t becomes a s u b j e c t w h i c h m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s a r e a s k e d to r e s o l v e by i m p l e m e n t i n g laws and r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e a c h group's i n t e r e s t , b ut i n the g u i s e of the pub l i e i n t e r e s t . 3 . 1 D i f f e r e n c e and N o r m a l c y I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o g e n e r a l i z e about the n a t u r e of p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s . The l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t s u c h f a c t o r s as s o c i a l c l a s s or s t a t u s , age, s e x , r a c e and e d u c a t i o n p r e v e n t any p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of p u b l i c a t t i t u d e . ( S a b i n and Moncuso, 1970, page 162.) C o n f l i c t t h e o r i s t s (see H o r t o n , 1966, pages 701-713) have p o s t u l a t e d the i m p o r t a n c e of d i v e r g e n c e of v a l u e s . With an awareness of s u c h d i f f e r e n c e s by member g r o u p s , d i v e r g e n c e of view may become an o r g a n i z e d s t r u g g l e w i t h i n s o c i e t y . The t e n s i o n , m u t u a l d i s t r u s t , and d i v e r g e n t v a l u e s of the groups g e n e r a t e c o n f l i c t w h i c h , per s e , i n t e n s i f i e s the 22 c o n f l i c t , as w e l l as becoming p r o b l e m a t i c i n i t s e l f . The t e r m " d e v i a n t " i s used as a b r o a d term whereby p e r s o n s a r e l a b e l l e d as d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e c a t e g o r i z e d as n o r m a l . O b j e c t i o n s can be r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o p e r s o n s s e r v e d by v a r i o u s t y p e s of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . However, the term " d e v i a n t " does s e r v e t h e p u r p o s e of e m p h a s i z i n g the n a t u r e of t h e l a b e l l i n g phenomenon, w h i c h i s a p p l i c a b l e to a l l r e s i d e n t s of community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s r e g a r d l e s s ;of t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e or c o n d i t i o n . T h e o r i e s of d e v i a n c e s u g g e s t ways of d e p a r t u r e by i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m th e norms r e g u l a t i n g b e h a v i o u r . As r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e d i f f i c u l t y of u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e c a u s e s of d e v i a n c e has i n c r e a s e d , t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t s have s h i f t e d . The i n f l u e n c e of s o c i e t a l mechanisms f o r s o c i a l c o n t r o l of t h e i n c i d e n c e and n a t u r e of i t s s o c i a l p r o b l e m s has spawned i n t e r e s t i n the r o l e of the s t a t e and t h e f o r m a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t of o r d e r o v e r chaos and c o n f l i c t . The emphasis upon the l a t e n t , d e l e t e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s of f o r m a l a g e n c i e s of c o n t r o l ( i . e . the p o l i c e , t h e ' c o u r t s , c o r r e c t i o n s or w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s and p l a n n i n g d e p a r t m e n t s ) has l e d t o the d e v e lopment of a r e a c t i o n t h e o r y o r , as i t i s commonly te r m e d , l a b e l l i n g . 23 In h i s s t u d y of t h e p o l i t i c a l u s es of l a n g u a g e i n p s y c h i a t r y , s o c i a l work, p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n and law e n f o r c e m e n t , Edelman documents s o c i a l c o n t r o l b a s e d upon the l a b e l " d e v i a n t " and our a c c e p t a n c e of t h i s : The s p e c i a l l a n g u a g e o f the h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s merges c o g n i t i o n and a f f e c t . The term 'mental i l l n e s s ' and the names f o r s p e c i f i c d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r s e n c o u r a g e t h e o b s e r v e r and the a c t o r t o condense and c o n f o u n d s e v e r a l f a c e t s of h i s p e r c e p t i o n : h e l p i n g the s i c k p e r s o n , r e p r e s s i n g t h e da n g e r o u s n o n - c o n f o r m i s t , sympathy f o r t h e f o r m e r , f e a r of the l a t t e r , and so on. (Edelman, 1974, page 299.) S c o t t a r g u e s t h a t l a b e l l i n g i s the f u n c t i o n of s o m e t h i n g q u i t e a b s t r a c t : t h e n o t i o n t h a t no s o c i a l o r d e r can s u r v i v e u n l e s s i t d e v e l o p s mechanisms f o r p r o t e c t i n g i t s s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e , o r s y s t e m of v a l u e s , a g a i n s t the p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t s of chaos and anomaly. ( S c o t t , 1972, page 22.). A s y s t e m of meaning i s c r e a t e d i n w h i c h e v e r y -t h i n g i s p ut i n t o i t s p r o p e r p l a c e by p r o v i d i n g a comprehen-s i v e i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l d i s c r e t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i n w h i c h e v e r y t h i n g "makes s e n s e " . T h i s s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e i s r e g a r d e d as v a l i d and t r u e ; i n d e e d , i t i s s e e n as b e i n g r e a l i t y i t s e l f . 24 L a b e l l e d i n d i v i d u a l s , who behave d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m one's s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e , w i l l o f t e n be s e e n i n a n e g a t i v e way, p a r t i c u l a r l y when s u c h an a t t i t u d e i s r e i n f o r c e d and l e g i t i m i z e d by f o r m a l a g e n c i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i c h c a t e g o r i z e or c l a s s i f y s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s . To l a b e l a d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of group norms, i s to use a s y s t e m of s e g r e g a t i o n . A s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h a d v o c a t e s a n o r m a l i z a t i o n or d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n p o l i c y s u g g e s t s t h a t the " d i f f e r e n t " p e r s o n be t a u g h t to a c t as " n o r m a l " p e o p l e do, and t h a t s o c i e t y be t a u g h t t o accommodate d e v i a n c y . To a c h i e v e such s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s to acknowledge t h a t a r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r i g h t s and p r i v i l e g e s i s n e c e s s a r y and i n e v i t a b l e i f one i s t r u l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o m o t i n g the " p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " . 3.2 Mechanisms f o r M a i n t a i n i n g  a System of V a l u e s W h i l e i t may be t r u e t h a t a p r o c e s s of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i m p l i e s change, m o d i f i c a t i o n and even r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of a s o c i e t y ' s s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e or s y s t e m of v a l u e s , t h e r e a l i t y of most s o c i e t i e s i s t h a t the s t a t u s  quo w i l l s t r i v e to m a i n t a i n i t s s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , f o r as S c o t t m a i n t a i n s : 25 ....no s o c i a l o r d e r can s u r v i v e w i t h o u t d e v e l o p i n g mechanisms f o r p r o t e c t i n g i t s e l f a g a i n s t the chaos t h a t anomaly i m p l i e s . ( S c o t t , 1972, page 24.) The n e g a t i o n , of a l l or even p a r t of t h a t w h i c h i s v a l u e d and p r i z e d i n one's l i f e i s u n l i k e l y t o be g i v e n up w i t h o u t some accommodation, r a t i o n a l e or s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e l o s s ; o t h e r w i s e , i n d i v i d u a l s would soon l o s e t h e i r g r a s p on r e a l i t y and t h e i r own s e I f - r e a l i t y . The same can be s a i d of t h o s e who a d v o c a t e t h e i n c l u s i o n of a l t e r n a t e c o n c e p t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e . The p h y s i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , f o r example, f e e l no l e s s t h e need f o r s e l f -i d e n t i t y w h i c h prompts them t o " n o r m a l i z e " t h e i r l i f e and the e n v i r o n m e n t i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e . S c o t t s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l " u n i v e r s e - m a i n t a i n i n g mechanisms" ( B e r g e r and Luckman, 1966, pages 96-118) commonly f o u n d i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s : a) M i s p e r c e p t i o n - t h i s i n v o l v e s t h e t e n d e n c y to m i s t a k e as n o r m a l and o r d i n a r y , phenomena t h a t i n r e a l i t y a r e anomalous. F o r example, our c o n c e p t i o n of ' f a m i l y ' would have us: see t h i n g s i n a c e r t a i n way, l e a d i n g us to b e l i e v e t h a t any o t h e r c o n c e p t i o n of ' f a m i l y ' , i n f a c t , does no t e x i s t d e s p i t e e v i d e n c e t o the c o n t r a r y . ( 5 % of the t o t a l p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d s on t h e N o r t h Shore a r e n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s w i t h two or more p e r s o n s , n o t i n c l u d i n g common-law r e l a t i o n -s h i p s - 1976 Census, S t a t i s t i c s Canada, " P r i v a t e H o u s e h o l d s by T y p e " . 100% d a t a b a s e . ) b) D e b u n k i n g e v i d e n c e - t h i s i n v o l v e s q u e s t i o n i n g or i g n o r i n g phenomena w h i c h t h r e a t e n one's s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e . I n d i v i d u a l s may r e f u s e to d i s c u s s the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of " d i f f e r e n t " p e o p l e l i v i n g as n e i g h b o u r s by q u e s t i o n i n g or c h a l l e n g i n g s u c h an i s s u e on the b a s i s of o t h e r e x t r a n e o u s o b j e c t i o n s s u c h as t r a f f i c c o n j e s t i o n , s a n i t a t i o n , v a n d a l i s m , p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , e t c e t e r a . c) N i h i l a t i o n - t h i s i n v o l v e s d e n y i n g the r e a l i t y of a n y t h i n g t h a t does n o t f i t i n t o the s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e . F o r example, " T h e r e i s no c r i m e i n our n e i g h b o u r h o o d . " T h e r e may w e l l e x i s t v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e r a t e of c r i m e i n v a r i o u s n e i g h b o u r h o o d s and c l e a r l y t h e a b s e n c e of ANY c r i m e i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . The s t a t e m e n t r e l e g a t e s e n t i r e groups of i n d i v i d u a l s t o an i n f e r i o r o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s i n w h i c h t h e y a r e no l o n g e r t a k e n s e r i o u s l y . d) C o n f i n e m e n t - t h i s i n v o l v e s t h e r e m o v a l of 27 t h e s y m b o l i c a l l y n o x i o u s element from the m i d s t of s o c i e t y , d e m o n s t r a t i n g s o c i a l o r d e r and m a s t e r y o v e r " d e v i a n t " i n d i v i d u a l s . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y f i t s t h i s mechanism. e) N o r m a l i z a t i o n - t h i s i n v o l v e s the e f f o r t t o f o r c e anomalous e v e n t s to change i n s u c h a way as t o become more n e a r l y n o r m a l . The t h e r a p e u t i c r e h a b i l i t a t i v e and c o r r e c t i o n a l a t t e m p t s to i n t e g r a t e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t o a c c e p t e d p a t t e r n s of m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h i s mechanism. f ) Accommodation - t h i s i n v o l v e s change i n t h e s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e i t s e l f so t h a t t h e d e v i a n t phenomenon i s a c c e p t e d i n t o m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y as n o r m a l . T h i s becomes an i m p o r t a n t c o r o l l a r y t o n o r m a l i z a t i o n where s o c i a l and s o c i e t a l change o c c u r s t o accommodate i n d i v i d u a l s as p a r t of a s h a r e d s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e . I t must be remembered, however, t h a t t h e c l e a r r e l u c t a n c e to m o d i f y one's s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e may w e l l mean t h a t o n l y minor a n o m a l i e s w i l l be a s s i m i l a t e d i n o r d e r to a v o i d n e g a t i n g the e n t i r e s y s t e m by w h i c h r e a l i t y i s p a t t e r n e d and made m e a n i n g f u l . Hence, " t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d s h o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e same l i g h t 28 as t h o s e w i t h ' s e l f - i n f l i c t e d p r o b l e m s ' . " ( N o r t h Shore T i m e s , March 2, 1977.) To c o n t a i n and c o n t r o l d e v i a n c e , and t h e r e b y t o m a s t e r i t , i s t o s u p p l y f r e s h and dynamic p r o o f of the enormous powers t h a t f o r m t h e s o c i a l o r d e r . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t mechanisms f o r the main-t e n a n c e of s o c i a l o r d e r a l s o c o n t a i n w i t h i n them t h o s e p r o p e r t i e s by w h i c h s o c i e t y a d j u s t s and changes i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of new s o c i a l o r d e r . 3.3 N o r m a l i z a t i o n In r e c e n t y e a r s , t h e r e have been i n c r e a s i n g c l a i m s f o r change i n t h e s o c i a l o r d e r to accommodate c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e r v i c e s f o r t h o s e w i t h p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l or s o c i a l d i s a b i l i t i e s or h a n d i c a p s . The c o n t i n u u m of s e r v i c e s e n v i s i o n e d would engage an i n d i v i d u a l , i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s f r o m i n f a n c y on, t h r o u g h an i n t e r r e l a t e d s e r i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l and r e s i d e n t i a l programmes. A l t h o u g h i t may be d i f f i c u l t to s e p a r a t e t h e s p h e r e of r e s i d e n t i a l s e r v i c e s f r o m t h e o t h e r s , i t can be a r g u e d t h a t where p e o p l e come from or r e s i d e ought to form t h e b a s i s of any s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y s y s t e m . ( K u g e l and W o l f e n s b e r g e r , 1969, page 82.) A dominant v i e w t o d a y c o n c e r n i n g community-29 b a s e d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i s t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l s e t t i n g s s h o u l d . a p p r o x i m a t e f a m i l y homes, be i n t e g r a t e d i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , and make use of g e n e r i c community r e s o u r c e s . T h i s v i e w r e f l e c t s the i n c r e a s i n g d i s t a s t e f o r s e g r e g a t e d i n s t i t u -t i o n s . The impetus f o r community-based f a c i l i t i e s began d u r i n g the 1960's i n S c a n d i n a v i a n c o u n t r i e s . I t was t h e r e t h a t the p r i n c i p l e o f n o r m a l i z a t i o n was a r t i c u l a t e d . F i r s t p r o p o s e d by N i r j e ( 1 9 6 9 ) , and l a t e r expanded by W o l f e n s b e r g e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) , i n r e l a t i o n to t h e . m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d n o r m a l i z a t i o n has come t o mean "making a v a i l a b l e t o the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d p a t t e r n s and c o n d i t i o n s of e v e r y d a y l i f e w h i c h a r e ( a s ) c l o s e as p o s s i b l e t o the norms and p a t t e r n s of m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y " ( N i r j e , 1969, page 1 8 1 ) . W h i l e the n o t i o n i s n o t e n t i r e l y a new one, i t has been the model f o r t h e community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y . N o r m a l i z a t i o n has o f t e n been m i s i n t e r p r e t e d as meaning t h a t p r o v i s i o n of a n o r m a t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y b e n e f i t t h e r e s i d e n t s c o n c e r n e d . As p o i n t e d o u t ' e a r l i e r ' , the s u c c e s s of n o r m a l i z a t i o n i s c l o s e l y t i e d t o .the d e g r e e of community accommodation t h a t i s e x t e n d e d to grou p s s e e k i n g r e s i d e n t i a l l y - b a s e d f a c i l i t i e s . T h e r e a l s o a p p e a r s to. be an i m p l i c i t a s s u m p t i o n as to the n a t u r e of " n o r m a l community". "Normal" may, i n f a c t , i m p l y t h e e x c l u s i o n of the v e r y group t h a t s e e k s a c c e p t a n c e . T h e r e f o r e , i t s h o u l d now 30 be a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t accommodation, or a change i n s o c i e t a l norms, may be as i m p o r t a n t as t h e c o n c e p t of n o r m a l i z a t i o n . The l a t t e r c a n n o t o c c u r w i t h o u t the f o r m e r . Community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a r e p a r t of a l a r g e s y s t e m of h e a l t h , c o r r e c t i o n s or s o c i a l s e r v i c e c a r e w h i c h r e p r e s e n t a wide d i v e r s i t y of t y p e a c c o r d i n g to t h e s i z e and programme p r o v i d e d . They may be used as a p o i n t o f e n t r y i n t o a c a r e s y s t e m , as a f t e r - c a r e or i n r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The r e s i d e n t s l i v e i n t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s f o r v a r y i n g l e n g t h s of time ( r a n g i n g from a few days or weeks to a y e a r or more and, i n c e r t a i n c a s e s , p e r m a n e n t l y ) . Whatever the l e n g t h of t i m e , t h e f a c t of r e s i d e n c y i s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t of t h e l o n g - t e r m g o a l of e i t h e r r e t u r n i n g a p e r s o n to n o r m a l s o c i e t a l l i v i n g or p r o v i d i n g as n o r m a l or as r e i n f o r c i n g a l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n as p o s s i b l e . I t has been s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t t h e c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n of d e v i a n t s t h r o u g h l a b e l l i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h o s e who r e q u i r e r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s as " d i f f e r e n t " from t h o s e w i t h " n o r m a l l y " - h e l d s o c i e t a l v a l u e s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p s , m e n t a l r e t a r d a t i o n , age or e m o t i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y , a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h when used as a d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m c l a s s i f y and s e g r e g a t e p e o p l e f r o m t h o s e n o t so i d e n t i f i e d . T h i s r e i n f o r c e s the 31 " d i f f e r e n c e " and p r o v i d e s th e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r s e g r e g a t i o n and c o n f i n e m e n t . I t i s a r g u e d h e r e t h a t " d i f f e r e n c e " i s n o t an i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of p e r s o n s b e h a v i n g i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y b u t , r a t h e r , p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n of the b e h a v i o u r . F o r example, p e r p e t u a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e o f , s a y , the m a r g i n a l l y m e n t a l l y i l l o r r e t a r d e d b a s e d on group l a b e l s seems to be e x p l a i n e d p r i m a r i l y as t h e r e s u l t of mechanisms of s o c i a l c o n t r o l b a s e d on v a l u e b i a s . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h s e v e r a l c a t e g o r i e s of a community's s y s t e m of v a l u e s ( s y m b o l i c u n i v e r s e ) w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of t h o s e mechanisms employed i n an e f f o r t to m a i n t a i n such a s y s t e m . A f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n i s i n c l u d e d of t h e p a r t i c u -l a r mechanisms of' l o c a l government used to e f f e c t s o c i a l c o n t r o l - namely, z o n i n g , w h i c h i s s e e n t o r e f l e c t a p u b l i c a t t i t u d e or p e r c e p t i o n of d e v i a n c y and d i f f e r e n c e . 3.4 P u b l i c V a l u e s and Land Use The N o r t h Shore of m e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r has e x p e r i e n c e d much p u b l i c d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g the e s t a b l i s h -ment of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . The c o n f l i c t s w h i c h a p p e a r have p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n and a t t i t u d e toward s u c h f a c i l i t i e s . 32 3.4.1 P r i v a t e P r o p e r t y Under the c o n d i t i o n s of s u b u r b a n s p r a w l , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s a r e framed by the s t r u c t u r e of s p a c e s , where d i s t a n c e i s b u i l t i n to a v o i d s o c i a l c o n f l i c t . E v e r y w h e r e the s i z e of l o t s and s i d e -y a r d r e q u i r e m e n t s m e t i c u l o u s l y s e t f o r t h i n z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s a r e t r a n s l a t e d as mechanisms f o r r e d u c i n g the l i k e l i h o o d of i n t r u s i o n s i n t o e ach homeowner's p e r s o n a l s p a c e . T h i s e n v e l o p e of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s i s i n t e n d e d to f o r e s t a l l s o c i a l b o u n d a r y v i o l a t i o n s g i v e n the p o t e n t i a l f o r d i s c o r d between n e i g h b o u r s i n p r o x i m i t y . P r o p e r t y owners p e r c e i v e t h e homogeneous n a t u r e of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of l a n d as an a l l - e n c o m p a s s i n g means of a v o i d i n g any r i s k o f an i n c o m p a t i b l e use of n e i g h b o u r i n g l a n d . By e l e v a t i n g s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e s to the h i g h e s t p o s s i b l e s t a t u s of a l l l a n d u s e s , s u c h n e i g h b o u r h o o d s can e f f e c t i v e l y e x c l u d e a l l o t h e r u s e s . As one i n d i v i d u a l a r g u e d : T h e r e i s a l r e a d y t o o much i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s o c i a l h o u s i n g i n what i s s u p p o s e d t o be a s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . (The E x p r e s s , J a n u a r y 15 , 1979 .) 33 T h e r e has been a g r a d u a l breakdown i n t h i s c e n t u r y i n the r a n k i n g of i n d i v i d u a l r o l e s i n s o c i e t y and a t r e n d toward an expanded m i d d l e c l a s s w h i c h has e x t e n d e d membership t o t h o s e p r e v i o u s l y e x c l u d e d . R e a c t i o n a r y a t t i t u d e s w h i c h p e r c e i v e d i s s o l u t i o n of a n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d c l a s s a r e o f t e n e x p r e s s e d as o p p o s i t i o n to r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s and as s u p p o r t f o r more o v e r t l y s p a t i a l e x p r e s s i o n s of d i f f e r e n c i n g to r e t a i n the c e r t a i n t y of a d i v i s i o n . The p r i v i l e g e of membership i s f o u n d most s t r o n g l y i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l e n v i r o n m e n t - w i t h the c l u s t e r i n g of s i m i l a r i n d i v i d u a l s and d i f f e r e n c i n g by e x c l u s i o n of a l l n o n - s i m i l a r g r o u p s . The r e s u l t can be as c o n f i n i n g and g h e t t o - l i k e as any n e i g h b o u r h o o d c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d , and p e r h a p s j u s t as a l i e n a t i n g . E n s u r i n g t h a t a n e i g h b o u r h o o d m a i n t a i n s a homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n e n t a i l s m e a s u r i n g t h o s e norms w h i c h make i t homogeneous and i n s i s t i n g on t h e i r •enforcement. Only t h o s e p e o p l e c o n s i d e r e d homogeneous a l o n g s u c h s o c i a l d i m e n s i o n s as income, e d u c a t i o n , r a c e or s t a t u s a r e t a k e n as b a r r i n g i n d i c i a f o r e -c a s t i n g an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l of o r d e r l i n e s s . H e t e r o -geneous l a n d uses a r e n o t o n l y seen as c h a n g i n g a n e i g h b o u r h o o d but a l s o as p r e v e n t i n g t h e c o n t i n u e d 34 development of a homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n . F o r example: ...a b o a r d i n g home would d i s c o u r a g e young f a m i l i e s f r o m s e t t l i n g i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . (The E x p r e s s , J a n u a r y 24, 1979.) E s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t s , on the o t h e r hand, may f e e l t h a t i n t r u s i o n s have a l r e a d y become commonplace, i n d i c a t i n g m i s p e r c e p t i o n of the n a t u r e of r e s i d e n t i a l s e r v i c e s as i n s t i t u t i o n s . R e s i d e n t s may e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s i n t h i s way, c l a i m i n g : . . . g e n e r a l o p p o s i t i o n new f o r the a r e a u n t i c l e a n s up the i l l e g a l t i o n s t h e r e . t o a n y t h i n g 1 t h e c i t y i n s t i t u -(The E x p r e s s J a n u a r y 15, 1979.) or , C o n c e r n about the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . (The E x p r e s s , J a n u a r y 15, 1979.) P r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p has p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l v a l u e i n our s o c i e t y . Owners of s i n g l e - f a m i l y h o u s i n g b e l i e v e t h a t the l o c a t i o n of n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t i a l 35 c a r e f a c i l i t i e s (synonomous w i t h l o w e r - i n c o m e h o u s i n g s i n c e r e s i d e n t s of community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s make l i t t l e or no income) w i l l l o w e r the v a l u e of t h e i r d w e l l i n g b e c a u s e , i t i s s u g g e s t e d , of f e a r t h a t the r a t e of a p p r e c i a t i o n w i l l be r e d u c e d . As one r e s i d e n t opposed t o community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s s u g g e s t e d : . . . p r o p e r t y v a l u e s w i l l be a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e d making r e s a l e d i f f i c u l t . ( C o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o West V a n c o u v e r M u n i c i p a l i t y , A p r i l , 1978.) F e a r s of d e c l i n i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y v a l u e s a r e i n p a r t due t o the f a c t t h a t " p u b l i c " h o u s i n g i s n e v e r " t e s t e d " i n the m a r k e t p l a c e to e s t a b l i s h t h a t s u c h h o u s i n g i s n o t d e l e t e r i o u s t o n e i g h b o u r i n g p r o p e r t i e s . The e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s , however, t h a t a d j o i n i n g p r o p e r t y does n o t i n f a c t d e p r e c i a t e i n v a l u e ( H e c h t , 1970, page 1 0 ) , and t h a t d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d j o i n i n g p r o p e r t i e s has n o t been h i n d e r e d . T h e r e r e m a i n s , i n f a c t , e v i d e n c e t h a t r e s i d e n t s opposed to r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s have m i s p e r c e i v e d and m i s r e p r e s e n t e d th e n o t i o n t h a t s uch f a c i l i t i e s c ause n e i g h b o u r i n g p r o p e r t y v a l u e s to d r o p . As one s o c i a l agency f o r the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d ob s e r v e d : 36 C o o i n d a R e s i d e n c e has n o t been o b t r u s i v e n o r has i t p r e v e n t e d h o u s i n g d e v e l o p m e n t on a d j o i n i n g p r o p e r t y . ( N o r t h Shore T i m e s , March 16, 1977.) In t h i s l a t t e r c a s e , the agency s o l d the a d j o i n i n g p r o p e r t y to d e v e l o p e r s who c o n s t r u c t e d s e v e r a l townhouses, a l l of w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t l y o c c u p i e d . These l a n d t r a n s a c t i o n s a l l o c c u r r e d s u b s e q u e n t to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y . 3.4.2 Change and F e a r U n m i s t a k e a b l y , a n x i e t y and f e a r a r e w i d e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a n t i c i p a t e d s o c i a l change and w i t h h e t e r o g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n s . G i v e n t h a t s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l z o n i n g s t r i c t l y r e g u l a t e s the v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e l a n d u s e s , the t h r e a t s and d a n g e r s a r e s i m p l y t h a t : a n t i c i p a t e d . They e x i s t l e s s on the ground t h a n i n t h e mind.. Some p e r s o n s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s : . . . f o r c e use t o f a c e our p r e j u d i c e s and f e a r s and d e l i v e r us from t h e i l l u s i o n t h a t t h e q u a l i t y of l i f e i s somehow m a i n t a i n e d by k e e p i n g our comm u n i t i e s " p u r e " or "homogeneous" i n a s e l f - r i g h t e o u s s e n s e . (The C i t i z e n , May 17, 19 7 8.) Mary D o u g l a s , i n . h e r a n a l y s i s of a wide range of e t h n o g r a p h i c r e p o r t s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t w h a t e v e r i s u n c l a s s i f i a b l e or w h a t e v e r f a l l s o u t s i d e the b o u n d a r i e s of a c a t e g o r y i s r e g a r d e d as s o c i a l l y p o l l u t i n g and d a n g e r o u s . ( D o u g l a s , 1969, page 168.) Z o n i n g i s o f t e n u s e d to de m a r c a t e s u c h b o u n d a r i e s : . . . f e a r of the unknown might e x p l a i n the s u b s e q u e n t a c t i o n s of t h o s e s i g n i n g the p e t i t i o n to have the home d i s a l l o w e d under a t e c h n i c a l i t y of z o n i n g . ( N o r t h Shore News, May 3, 1978.) In t h i s l a t t e r c o n t e x t , r e s i d e n t s o f t e n employ d e b u n k i n g mechanisms t o d i s c r e d i t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . As Mayor B e l l of the D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r r e m a r k e d : " T h e r e i s a b u i l t - i n b i a s i n most n e i g h b o u r h o o d s toward a group home f o r r e t a r d e d a d u l t s . (The C i t i z e n , March 1977.) When t r a n s i t i o n a l o r s o c i a l l y p o l l u t i n g and da n g e r o u s s o c i a l c a t e g o r i e s a r e so i d e n t i f i e d , t h e n t h e y a r e s u b j e c t to a s u b s i d i a r y axiom: a l l t r a n s i t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s s h o u l d be c o l l e c t e d t o g e t h e r , f o r s p r e a d i n g s u c h a n o m a l i e s i n s p a c e , and i n s o c i a l t i m e , w i l l be d i s t u r b i n g to s o c i a l s a f e t y . F o r 38 example, a h a l f w a y house w o u l d : . . . b r i n g a l i n g e r i n g t y p e of f e a r ( t h a t ) when you l e t y o u r c h i l d r e n out of d o o r s you would wonder... t h e y don't have a r i g h t t o i n s t i l l t h i s f e a r . ( N o r t h Shore News, May 17, 19 7 8.) The m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n w h i c h i s s u e s f r o m f e a r i s p r e v a l e n t , a l t h o u g h as one s y m p a t h e t i c r e s i d e n t o b s e r v e d , t h e r e a l p r o b l e m r e s t s : . . . w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t r e s i d e n t s o f the home a r e r e t a r d e d and w i t h the m i s c o n c e p t i o n and i g n o r a n c e s u r r o u n d i n g r e t a r d a t i o n . ( N o r t h Shore News, March 16, 1978.) P a r e n t s see d a n g e r s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n t a c t between t h e i r c h i l d r e n and, f o r example, the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , n o t i n g t h a t p r o b l e m s " a r e c r e a t e d t h r o u g h o t h e r c h i l d r e n p l a y i n g w i t h r e t a r d e d y o u n g s t e r s " ( N o r t h Shore News, May 3, 1978). Such f e a r of a s s o c i a -t i o n can r e s u l t i n e x c l u s i o n and c o n f i n e m e n t of d e v i a n t i n d i v i d u a l s . As one r e s i d e n t r e m a r k e d : "We don't need 8. to 10 d r u g a d d i c t s among c h i l d r e n " . ( N o r t h Shore News, May 3, 1978.) I t i s c l e a r t h a t such c a t e g o r i e s of i n d i v i d u a l s a r e s u s p e n d e d from o r d i n a r y s p a c e and d e s i g n a t e d f o r " t r a n s i t i o n a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s " , " g r e y a r e a s " , or even " r u r a l s e t t i n g s " d e p e n d i n g on 39 the f a c i l i t y . F e a r of v i o l e n c e t o p e r s o n s and p r o p e r t y i s e s p e c i a l l y p r o m i n e n t i n s t a t e m e n t s by p e r s o n s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . F o r example, t h e r e i s : ...so l i t t l e f a i t h i n ( t h e ) p e n a l s y s t e m t h a t i t s c a r e s me t o d e a t h t o t h i n k what t y p e of c r i m i n a l e l ement would be f o i s t e d upon us. ( N o r t h Shore News, May 3, 1978.) or , t h e : . . . p o s s i b i l i t y of v a n d a l i s m and m i s c h i e f to b o t h p r i v a t e and p u b l i c p r o p e r t y . ( C o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o West V a n c o u v e r M u n i c i p a l i t y , A p r i l , 1978.) S t r a t e g i e s t h a t s e p a r a t e l a n d u s e s m i n i m i z e r i s k s of s o c i a l c o n f l i c t and assume t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n p r o p e r t y i n v e s t m e n t . However, s o c i e t y , as E r i c k s o n s u g g e s t s , w i l l c o n t i n u e to r e - e s t a b l i s h i t s community b o u n d a r i e s as m e a n i n g f u l p o i n t s of r e f e r e n c e as l o n g as t h e r e i s r e p e a t e d t e s t i n g by p e o p l e who a r e on the f r i n g e s of t h e community. R e p e a t e d t e s t i n g of b o u n d a r i e s p r o v o k e s 40 r e p e a t e d d e f e n s e s by t h o s e who r e p r e s e n t the g r o u p ' s i n n e r m o r a l i t y . ( E r i c k s o n , 1966, page 13.) W h i l e some grou p s may c o n t i n u e to be c a t e g o r i z e d as " m a r g i n a l " , i t i s i m p o r t a n t , as P e r i n has s t r e s s e d , t o r e a l i z e t h a t " e a c h s t a t e of t r a n s i t i o n and m a r g i n a l i t y e x i s t s w i t h i n , n ot o u t s i d e o f , t h e v e r y same s o c i a l s y s t e m d e f i n i n g the v a l u e d , s e t t l e d and i n t a c t c a t e g o r i e s " . ( P e r i n , 1977, page 125.) What i s i m p o r t a n t h e r e i s t h a t p u b l i c v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s d e t e r m i n e the k i n d of s o c i a l s y s t e m . Hence, the r e l a t e d t e n d e n c y to m a i n t a i n the s t a t u s quo i s r e f l e c t e d i n any r e s t r i c t i v e l a n g u a g e of z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . 3.4.3 I n d i v i d u a l , M a j o r i t y and Community I n t e r e s t Many s o c i a l a g e n c i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l s e r v i c e s have seen " n o r m a l i z a t i o n " as a n o t i o n embodied w i t h i n the c o n c e p t of human r i g h t s . The r i g h t to l i v e i n t h e community r a t h e r t h an be e x c l u d e d and c o n f i n e d t o an i n s t i t u t i o n i s o f t e n v i e w e d i n t h i s l i g h t : P e o p l e have a r i g h t t o l i v e i n the s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l m a i n s t r e a m . ( N o r t h Shore News, May 3, 1978.) 41 Some p e r s o n s a r g u e t h a t the i m p l i c a t i o n s of e x c l u s i o n a r e much l a r g e r : . . . i f t he r i g h t s of t h e r e t a r d e d a r e s u c c e s s f u l l y d e n i e d , t h e n t h e r i g h t s of a l l c i t i z e n s a r e i n da n g e r . ( N o r t h Shore News, March 16, 1978.) and t h a t : . . . i f c o u n c i l i s s i n c e r e i n t h e view t h a t t h o s e l e s s f o r t u n a t e c i t i z e n s be t r u l y a p a r t of the community, t h e n t h i s group c a n n o t be wrong. ( N o r t h Shore News, March 16, 1978.) Some p e r s o n s have e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t e x c l u s i o n c o n n o t a t e s u n d e r l y i n g " p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t t h e u n f o r t u n a t e m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d c i t i z e n s of our community (and) i s a t the r o o t of the p r o t e s t " . ( I b i d , March 9, 1977.) O t h e r s , i n an e f f o r t t o s u p p o r t the needs and r i g h t s of the e x c l u d e d have s u g g e s t e d t h a t " t h e s e p e o p l e ( i . e . t h e m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d ) a r e l e s s of a p r o b l e m t h a n many s o - c a l l e d ' n o r m a l ' p e o p l e " . (The C i t i z e n , March 2, 1977.) The b e l i e f i n human " r i g h t s " t o h o u s i n g has been c h a l l e n g e d by t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d " r i g h t " t o c o n t r o l and 42 d e c i d e t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . S o c i a l a g e n c i e s a r e p e r c e i v e d as " r i d i n g r o u g h s h o d o v e r t h e r i g h t s of the m a j o r i t y " , e m p l o y i n g a " b u l l d o z e r a p p r o a c h " and an " a r r o g a n t " a t t i d u d e , and " t h e r e b y i g n o r i n g the w i s h e s of n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t s " . (The C i t i z e n , March 2, 1977.) G i v e n t h e h o m o g e n e i t y t h a t s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s s e e k , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t r e s i d e n t s would f e e l t h a t f a c i l i t i e s a r e b e i n g "imposed on the n e i g h b o u r h o o d " . ( I b i d . ) The r e i f i c a t i o n or m e n t a l t r a n s l a t i o n of an a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t , h o m o g e n e i t y , i n t o a m a t e r i a l r e a l i t y has g i v e n some p u b l i c o f f i c i a l s d i f f i c u l t y i n d e f i n i n g t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . Mayor B e l l of t h e D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t : "The community has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t a k e c a r e o f c e r t a i n g r o u p s . " (The  C i t i z e n , March 2 , 1977.) Those c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of community-b a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s r e a d i l y acknowledge t h a t f o r t h e c o n c e p t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e to work " i t has t o be done w i t h p u b l i c s u p p o r t f r o m the o u t s e t " . ( I b i d . ) The Browndale Care S o c i e t y , an agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o b l e m c h i l d r e n i n V a n c o u v e r , has i n d i c a t e d an u n w i l l i n g n e s s to e n t e r a n e i g h b o u r h o o d w i t h o u t an i n v i t a t i o n . The s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d , however, i s s t i l l s e en as p r o v i d i n g the 43 b e s t p h y s i c a l , i f n o t l o n g - t e r m s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , f o r p e r s o n s l e a v i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . F o r example: . . . p a r o l e e s ( a r e ) s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s u c c e s s f u l i n r e - a d j u s t i n g to l i f e i n s o c i e t y t h a n t h o s e r e l e a s e d d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e community. (The C i t i z e n , May 17, 1978.) The w i l l i n g n e s s of n e i g h b o u r h o o d r e s i d e n t s to a c c e p t l a n d u s e s w h i c h a r e " d i f f e r e n t " f r o m t h o s e t o w h i c h t h e y have been a c c u s t o m e d i s p r e d i c a t e d on t h e i r i n t e r e s t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , o p e r a t i o n , and i n t e n t of programmes f o r community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . O v e r t u r e s by one s o c i a l agency to the community were c l e a r l y i g n o r e d : ...An i n v i t a t i o n to see t h e home and l e a r n a bout the p r o p o s e d i n h a b i t a n t s went u n a t t e n d e d . A l e t t e r (we) s e n t to the s u r r o u n d i n g n e i g h b o u r s i n f o r m i n g , them of the p r o j e c t . . . a l s o went unanswered. ( N o r t h Shore News , March 16 , 1978.) T h i s i n c i d e n t a p p e a r s t o r e p r e s e n t an o b v i o u s case of n i h i l i s m , where the community's r e s i d e n t s do n o t want to b e l i e v e t h a t s u c h a f a c i l i t y i s p o s s i b l e n o r t h a t i t d e s e r v e s t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i t r e q u e s t s . 3.4.4 P UP 11 c F i n an c e Opponents of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to debunk and d i s c r e d i t the e v i d e n c e f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s u c h f a c i l i t i e s , may f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on o t h e r r e l a t e d i s s u e s of wide community a p p e a l . The a l l o c a t i o n o f p u b l i c f i n a n c e s i s of p a r t i c u l a r n o t e and the d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y f i e r c e . As one i r a t e c i t i z e n r e l a t e d : ...To g e n e r o u s l y waste a l a r g e p o r t i o n of i t ( t a x d o l l a r s ) on a few w h i l e r u n n i n g out of f u n d s f o r many o t h e r s i s n o t n o b l e or m e r c i f u l b u t i d i o t i c and c r i m i n a l . ( N o r t h Shore News, May 3, 1978.) In a community where p r o p e r t y a s s e s s m e n t s a r e h i g h , t h e a p p e a l f o r f i s c a l r e s t r a i n t w i t h i n s u c h a n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g : O p e r a t i n g c o s t s of group homes i n (a) h i g h r e n t d i s t r i c t ( i s ) of c o n c e r n to t h o s e of us who s u p p o r t s u c h programs a t a l l . l e v e l s of government w i t h our t a x d o l l a r s . ( Emphasis added.) ( C o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o West V a n c o u v e r M u n i c i p a l i t y , A p r i l , 1978.) However, o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e s t r o n g a d v o c a t e s 45 f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , a r g u e t h a t : . . . r e t a r d e d p e r s o n s a r e m a i n t a i n e d t h e r e ( C o o i n d a R e s i d e n c e ) at much lowe r c o s t than, at Woodlands. ( N o r t h Shore T i m e s , March 16, 1978.) D e s p i t e t h e f i s c a l c o s t s of e s t a b l i s h i n g and o p e r a t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , t h e n e t b e n e f i t s i t i s a r g u e d , come to s o c i e t y i n the a g e n c y ' s a b i l i t y to a s s i s t the c l i e n t to cope w i t h t h e r e a l i t i e s of a n o r m a l community ( n o r m a l i z a t i o n ) , and the a c c e p t a n c e of s u c h i n d i v i d u a l s by t h e community i n m a i n s t r e a m s o c i e t y ( a c c o m m o d a t i o n ) . M o r e o v e r , e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t the c o s t s p e r c l i e n t s e r v e d a r e l e s s i n community-b a s e d f a c i l i t i e s than, i n l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s w h i l e the s t a n d a r d of c a r e i s c o m p a r a b l e or i m p r o v e d . 3.5 Z o n i n g C o n t r o l of R e s i d e n t i a l Care  F a c i l i t i e s : N o r t h Shore Examples When h o u s i n g i s i n v o l v e d , a z o n i n g c o n t r o v e r s y i s n o t s i m p l y one of m u n i c i p a l i t y v e r s u s l a n d o w n e r , or a case of p e o p l e v e r s u s p r o p e r t y ; i t i s one o f p e o p l e v e r s u s p e o p l e . I t i s b a s i c a l l y a c o n t r o v e r s y between t h o s e who a l r e a d y l i v e i n an a r e a and t h o s e who would l i k e to l i v e i n t h a t or an a d j o i n i n g a r e a . Z o n i n g a l l o w s e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t s of a community to g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e or even 46 d e t e r m i n e who can o r can n o t move i n t o t h a t community. Z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s g i v e i n o r d i n a t e powers and p r i v i l e g e s to e x i s t i n g r e s i d e n t s o v e r p e o p l e o u t s i d e the community. Those who would b e n e f i t f r o m the f i l t e r i n g e f f e c t c r e a t e d by new h o u s i n g , as w e l l as t h o s e w i t h i n the h o u s i n g market who would b e n e f i t f r o m a g r e a t e r s u p p l y of b o t h l a n d and h o u s i n g s u f f e r r e s t r a i n t s on m o b i l i t y and o p p o r t u n i t y . S o c i a l a g e n c i e s i n t e r e s t e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r e l a r g e , u s u a l l y o l d e r , e s t a b l i s h e d homes, i f . t h e y a r e to a v o i d the h i g h c o s t s of c a p i t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e s c a r c i t y of a v a i l a b l e l a n d n e a r the v a r i o u s s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h community-based f a c i l i t i e s . R e s t r i c t i v e z o n i n g can o b v i o u s l y r e d u c e the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s u i t a b l e r e s i d e n t i a l s e r v i c e s . One group, t h o s e who got t h e r e f i r s t , e f f e c t i v e l y e x e r c i s e c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s t r a i n t o v e r the a v a i l a b i l i t y of h o u s i n g b e n e f i c i a l to many o t h e r g r o u p s . I t i s a r g u e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s r e f l e c t the community's p u b l i c a t t i t u d e toward new l a n d u s e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h e r e f o r e to e x p l a i n and u n d e r s t a n d a community's i n t e r e s t i n accommodating new l a n d uses by o b s e r v i n g t h e i r use of z o n i n g . The f o l l o w i n g r e p r e s e n t s a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s of t h r e e N o r t h Shore r e s p e c t i v e t r e a t m e n t m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g by-of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e laws and t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s . 3.5.1 The D i s t r i c t of West V a n c o u v e r The d e f i n i t i o n of terms w i t h i n a z o n i n g b y - l a w i s of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e s i n c e s u c h terms make a by-law m e a n i n g f u l i n ways t h a t a community d e s i r e s . The d e f i n i t i o n of " f a m i l y " i s of i m p o r t a n c e h e r e as a c c e s s by r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s to s i n g l e -f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i l l depend on i t . A d v o c a t e s f o r r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a rgue t h a t i t i s t h e i r aim to employ a " f a m i l y " - o r i e n t e d h o u s i n g model. The i s s u e i s j o i n e d a r ound the q u e s t i o n : What c o n s t i t u t e s a " f a m i l y " ? The z o n i n g b y - l a w of West V a n c o u v e r D i s t r i c t d e f i n e s " f a m i l y " as f o l l o w s : F a m i l y - f o r the p u r p o s e s of i n - l a w s u i t e o c c u p a n c y o n l y s h a l l mean one i n d i v i d u a l or a number of i n d i v i d u a l s r e l a t e d to and d e pendent upon the n o m i n a l head of a s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g , n o t i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n s o t h e r t h a n the f o l l o w i n g : - Husband or w i f e of the n o m i n a l head of a s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g . 48 Son or d a u g h t e r or spouse of son or d a u g h t e r of the n o m i n a l head of the s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g , and the dependent c h i l d r e n of s u c h son or d a u g h t e r or sp o u s e of e i t h e r ; t h i s c l a u s e i n c l u d e s a s t e p s o n and s t e p d a u g h t e r and the sp o u s e of e i t h e r . F a t h e r , mother, g r a n d f a t h e r or grandmother of the n o m i n a l head of the s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g . B r o t h e r o r s i s t e r of the n o m i n a l head of t h e s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g or of the s p o u s e o f the l a t t e r , w h i c h b r o t h e r or s i s t e r i s n o t l i v i n g w i t h h i s or h e r s p o u s e ; t h i s c l a u s e i n c l u d e s the dependent c h i l d r e n of s u c h a b r o t h e r or s i s t e r . (West V a n c o u v e r Z o n i n g ,;By-law No. 2200. ) T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n " f a m i l y " as i t i s known t h r o u g h c o n s a n g u i n i t y or m a r r i a g e . The d e f i n i t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y e x c l u d e s u n r e l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s from c o h a b i t i n g a " s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g " . The d e f i n i t i o n i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d t oward i n - l a w s u i t e s , however, and n o t toward s i n g l e - f a m i l y z o n e s . The D i s t r i c t of West V a n c o u v e r z o n i n g b y - l a w d e f i n e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s i n g l e - f a m i l y zones by r e f e r e n c e to the terms " s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g " and " p r i n c i p a l " : S i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g - s h a l l mean a b u i l d i n g d e s i g n e d f o r use e x c l u s i v e l y as a p r i n c i p a l d w e l l i n g u n i t . 49 P r i n c i p a l - s h a l l mean the e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e or b a s i c and d e t e r m i n a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a p p l i c a b l e t o any b u i l d i n g , s t r u c t u r e or u s e . (Emphasis added.) A d v o c a t e s o f r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s would argue t h a t t h e r e i s no r e a s o n why t h e y s h o u l d n o t q u a l i f y as o c c u p y i n g " p r i n c i p a l s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g u n i t s " . However, a n a l y s i s of the b y - l a w r e v e a l s , i n f a c t , t h a t r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s have been c l a s s i f i e d as a s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t u s e : I n t e r m e d i a t e c a r e f a c i l i t y - s h a l l mean a b u i l d i n g or s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h f o o d , l o d g i n g and c a r e a r e f u r n i s h e d w i t h or w i t h o u t c h a r g e f o r t h r e e or more p e r s o n s who, on a c c o u n t of age, i n f i r m i t y , p h y s i c a l or m e n t a l d e f e c t or o t h e r d i s a b i l i t y r e q u i r e c a r e , e x c e p t i n g a home m a i n t a i n e d by a p e r s o n r e l a t e d by b l o o d o r m a r r i a g e o r s h a l l mean a b u i l d i n g or s t r u c t u r e i n w h i c h f o o d or l o d g i n g a r e f u r n i s h e d w i t h or w i t h o u t c h a r g e , to f i f t e e n o r more a d u l t p e r s o n s i n r e c e i p t of some form of p u b l i c or s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . (West V a n c o u v e r Z o n i n g  By-law No. 2 2 0 0 . ) I n t e r m e d i a t e c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a r e a p e r m i t t e d use i n the "P.H.I P r i v a t e H o s p i t a l Zone 1" c a t e g o r y . A community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y s e e k i n g t o l o c a t e i n a s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d would t h e r e f o r e be r e q u i r e d t o seek r e z o n i n g of the p r o p e r t y d e s i r e d 50 f r o m r e s i d e n t i a l to " p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l " u s e . The M u n i c i p a l A c t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , RSBC, 1960, as amended, r e q u i r e s a f u l l p u b l i c h e a r i n g b e f o r e any amendment can be made to a z o n i n g b y - l a w . The onus i s on the s o c i a l agency a p p l y i n g f o r r e z o n i n g t o c o n v i n c e and p e r s u a d e m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l and t h e community at l a r g e t h a t s u c h a change i n l a n d use i s i n the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . G i v e n the d e f i n i t i o n s of " f a m i l y " , " s i n g l e f a m i l y d w e l l i n g " , " p r i n c i p a l " and " i n t e r m e d i a t e c a r e f a c i l i t y " , t h e chance of s u c c e s s f u l amendment of a z o n i n g b y - l aw i n f a v o u r of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i s l i k e l y t o be d i f f i c u l t . The c o n t r o v e r s y w i l l t u r n on d e t e r m i n i n g what c o n s t i t u t e s " t h e e s s e n t i a l n a t u r e or b a s i c and d e t e r m i n a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " of a community-b a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y . In c o n c l u s i o n , West V a n c o u v e r ' s z o n i n g b y - l aw e f f e c t i v e l y e x c l u d e s r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s f r o m s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s d e s p i t e the c l a i m t h a t f a c i l i t i e s of t h i s k i n d employ a " f a m i l y " - o r i e n t e d h o u s i n g model and a r e t h e r e f o r e a p e r m i t t e d u s e . U n t i l By-law No. 2200 i s amended to i n c l u d e r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s as a p e r m i t t e d use i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , s u c h f a c i l i t i e s w i l l f i n d a c c e s s a . d i f f i c u l t t a s k . 51 3.5.2 C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r The z o n i n g b y - l aw of the C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r d e f i n e s " f a m i l y " as f o l l o w s , b u t a p p l i e s the term i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r of a s i n g l e - f a m i l y zone: F a m i l y - means the p e r s o n s s h a r i n g a h o u s e h o l d , c o n s i s t i n g of a) two o r more p e r s o n s r e l a t e d by b l o o d , m a r r i a g e , a d o p t i o n , or f o s t e r p a r e n t -hood, or b) three, or fewer u n r e l a t e d p e r s o n s ; e x c l u d e s roomers and b o a r d e r s . ( C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r  Z o n i n g By-law No. 3778.) The C i t y ' s d e f i n i t i o n i s more l i b e r a l t h a n t h a t of t h e D i s t r i c t of West V a n c o u v e r . However, s i n c e most r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s (an e x c e p t i o n might be a s e n i o r c i t i z e n f a c i l i t y ) must s e r v e between f i v e and f o u r t e e n r e s i d e n t s , d e p e n d i n g on t y p e , i t does n o t q u a l i f y under the d e f i n i t i o n of " f a m i l y " . S i n c e the C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r b y-law does not d e f i n e i n any p r e c i s e manner " r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y " , i t h a s , as a m a t t e r of h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , i n c l u d e d such f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of " p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l " : P r i v a t e H o s p i t a l Use - means a use p r o v i d i n g f o r t h e c a r e of the s i c k , i n j u r e d , or aged, o t h e r t h a n i n a p u b l i c h o s p i t a l ; i n c l u d e s p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l s , c o n v a l e s c e n t homes, n u r s i n g homes and r e s t homes. 52 However, i n P a r t 4, " G e n e r a l R e g u l a t i o n s " , s e c t i o n 401 " P e r m i t t e d Uses of L a n d , B u i l d i n g s and S t r u c t u r e s " , s u b s e c t i o n 3, p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l u s e s a r e a c o n d i t i o n a l p e r m i t t e d use i n ANY zone: . . . e x c e p t as p e r m i t t e d under ' a c c e s s o r y home o c c u p a t i o n .use' , an a s s e m b l y u s e , or a p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l use may be p e r m i t t e d i n any zone s u b j e c t to a r e s o l u t i o n of C o u n c i l p e r m i t t i n g t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and o p e r a t i o n of any one s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d . u s e , p r o v i d e d a p p r o v a l i n w r i t i n g s h a l l have been a t t a i n e d f r o m a s i m p l e m a j o r i t y of the p r o p e r t y owners, any p o r t i o n of'whose l o t l i e s w i t h i n 200 f e e t of any p o r t i o n of the l o t to be so u s e d , and p r o v i d e d t h a t l o t s , b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c t u r e s so used w i l l be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e r e g u l a t i o n s p r o v i d e d i n P a r t 4 and P a r t 8 of t h i s b y - l a w . ( I b i d . ) W h i l e the C o u n c i l f o r t h e C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r a l l o w s community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s as p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l s t o be a p e r m i t t e d use i n any zone, the p e r m i s s i o n to so l o c a t e i s c o n d i t i o n a l upon the " a p p r o v a l i n w r i t i n g . . . f r o m a s i m p l e m a j o r i t y of the p r o p e r t y owners" s u r r o u n d i n g the p r o p o s e d s i t e . In t h i s , C o u n c i l has c l e a r l y d e l e g a t e d t h e power of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g to a s m a l l p o r t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of the C i t y . The c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s a t t e m p t i n g t o e s t a b l i s h community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i s s i m i l a r t o the r e z o n i n g r e q u i r e m e n t i n t h e West 53 V a n c o u v e r by-law d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . I t i s a r g u e d i n the n e x t c h a p t e r t h a t t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s n o t p e r m i t t e d by The M u n i c i p a l A c t . S o c i a l a g e n c i e s have i n d i c a t e d an u n w i l l i n g n e s s to l o b b y n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t s i n an a t t e m p t to p e r s u a d e them to a c c e p t the v a l u e o f a community-based c a r e f a c i l i t y b e c a u s e of the p r o b l e m of e x p o s i n g p o t e n t i a l r e s i d e n t s of a f a c i l i t y to t h e s t i g m a t i z a t i o n t h a t m i g h t r e s u l t . F a c e d w i t h the p r o b l e m s of a p p r o v a l , and accommodation by n e i g h b o u r h o o d r e s i d e n t s , s o c i a l a g e n c i e s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h o s e a r e a s or m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s where the c h a n c e s of e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a f a c i l i t y a r e b e s t . The C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r w i l l , I f i t w i s h e s t o a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s d i r e c t l y , need to amend i t s z o n i n g b y - l a w to accommodate such f a c i l i t i e s as a p e r m i t t e d use i n r e s i d e n t i a l z o n e s . D e f i n i t i o n of s u c h f a c i l i t i e s i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r to a v o i d t h e c o n f u s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e meaning of " p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l " . 3.5.3 The D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r In 1978, the C o u n c i l of the D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r p a s s e d an amending by-law (No. 5045) to i t s e x i s t i n g Z o n i n g By-law No. 3210. The amendments a t t e m p t e d t o a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e 54 f a c i l i t i e s d i r e c t l y . T h e i r f i r s t s t e p was t o f o r m u l a t e a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e d e f i n i t i o n of " f a m i l y " : F a m i l y - means: 1. one p e r s o n , or two or more p e r s o n s , who a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d by b o n d s . o f c o n s a n g u i n i t y , m a r r i a g e , l e g a l a d o p t i o n or who have a common-law r e l a t i o n s h i p , o r ; 2. a group of not more t h a n f i v e u n r e l a t e d p e r s o n s o c c u p y i n g a d w e l l i n g u n i t on a n o n - p r o f i t b a s i s , o r ; 3. a group of n o t more t h a n e i g h t u n r e l a t e d p e r s o n s o c c u p y i n g a group home, of whom no more t h a n s i x can be p e r s o n s w i t h s p e c i a l n e e d s . ( D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r  Z o n i n g By-law No. 3210, Amended  By-law No. 5045.) The amendment e f f e c t i v e l y p e r m i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t of group homes ( r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s ) i n " f a m i l y " r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The d e f i n i t i o n of group home i s f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n t h e by - l a w as f o l l o w s : Group Home - means: a d w e l l i n g u n i t o p e r a t e d f o r p e r s o n s w i t h s p e c i a l . n e e d s by e i t h e r an i n c o r p o r a t e d n o n - p r o f i t s o c i e t y i n good s t a n d i n g or a p u b l i c body c h a r t e r e d by F e d e r a l or P r o v i n c i a l S t a t u t e . ( I b i d . ) 55 The i m p o r t a n t p h r a s e here, i s " p e r s o n s w i t h s p e c i a l needs I I I t i s t h i s p h r a s e w h i c h d e f i n e s the scope of group homes i n t h e eyes of the community of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r . The p h r a s e i s d e f i n e d a s : . . . e i t h e r an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a p h y s i c a l or m e n t a l d i s a b i l i t y w h i c h has been so d i a g n o s e d and c l a s s i f i e d by a q u a l i f i e d m e d i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r , or an i n d i v i d u a l 65 y e a r s of age or o l d e r ; ( I b i d . ) The d e f i n i t i o n i s c a r e f u l l y p h r a s e d to e x c l u d e t h o s e r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s t o p e r s o n s w i t h s p e c i a l needs w h i c h a r e s o c i a l i n n a t u r e ( i . e . e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , c o r r e c t i o n s , t r a n s i t i o n homes). The h o s t e l , t r a n s i t i o n house or c r i s i s c e n t r e f a c i l i t y does n o t f i t even t h e l i b e r a l i z e d d e f i n i t i o n of " f a m i l y " g i v e n t h e p r o b a b l e n e c e s s i t y f o r a s i z e g r e a t e r t h a n the p e r m i t t e d e i g h t ( i n c l u d i n g s t a f f ) r e s i d e n t s . P r e s e n t p e r diem r a t e s f o r h a l f w a y h o u s e s ( c o r r e c t i o n s ) demand a s i z e of between 10 to 14 r e s i d e n t s t o make o p e r a t i o n of the f a c i l i t y e c o n o m i c a l . I n c r e a s i n g o p e r a t i n g c o s t s f o r c a r e f a c i l i t i e s may make p r e s e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of f a m i l y s i z e uneconomic i n t h e f u t u r e f o r a l l t y p e s of f a c i l i t y . T h e r e f o r e , i n the D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r i t ought to be r e a l i z e d t h a t z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s may r e q u i r e f u r t h e r amendment and m o d i f i c a t i o n i f the l o c a t i o n a l needs of community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a r e t o be me t . 3.5.4 A l t e r n a t e R e g u l a t i o n The W o rking Committee on Group Homes ( R e p o r t #3) of the Committee on B u i l d i n g s and Development f o r th e C i t y of T o r o n t o a d o p t e d a d e f i n i t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y w h i c h i s b r o a d e r i n scop e t h a n any p r e s e n t N o r t h Shore d e f i n i t i o n . In i t s recommended d e f i n i t i o n : R e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y : a) i s any community-based group l i v i n g a r r a n g e m e n t f o r 6-10 i n d i v i d u a l s , e x c l u s i v e of s t a f f , w i t h s o c i a l , l e g a l , e m o t i o n a l , m e n t a l , or p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p s or p r o b l e m s t h a t a r e d e v e l o p e d f o r the w e l l - b e i n g of i t s r e s i d e n t s t h r o u g h s e l f -h e l p a nd/or p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e , g u i d a n c e , and s u p e r v i s i o n u n a v a i l a b l e i n the r e s i d e n t ' s own f a m i l y or i n an i n d e p e n d e n t l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n ; b) may l o c a t e i n a s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g , b o a r d i n g or l o d g i n g h o u s e , or c o n v e r t e d d w e l l i n g h o u s e , or any b u i l d i n g b u i l t f o r t h a t p u r p o s e , b ut w h i c h i n a l l c a s e s must be f u l l y d e t a c h e d and o c c u p i e d w h o l l y by t h a t u s e ; c) i n c l u d e s group homes, f o s t e r homes, h a l f w a y homes, r e s i d e n c e s f o r t h e p h y s i c a l l y or m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d or d i s a b l e d p e r s o n s and s p e c i a l c a r e b o a r d i n g or l o d g i n g houses , b u t does not i n c l u d e a n y t h i n g e l s e d e f i n e d i n t h i s By-law. ( R e p o r t #3, 1977, page 40.) 57 The Committee, however, d i d , as would appear t o be the case i n t h e D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r By-law, make a d i s t i n c t i o n between t e m p o r a r y or s h o r t - t e r m accommodation and r e s i d e n c y of a l o n g e r d u r a t i o n . T r a n s i t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s were c l a s s i f i e d " C r i s i s C e n t r e F a c i l i t i e s " and were n o t zoned f o r e x c l u s i v e l y r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s ( i . e . mixed c o m m e r c i a l / r e s i d e n t i a l ) . They were d e f i n e d i n R e p o r t #3 as f o l l o w s : C r i s i s C a re F a c i l i t y -a) i s a f a c i l i t y w h i c h h o u s e s p e r s o n s i n c r i s e s s i t u a t i o n s and i n w h i c h i t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t s h o r t - t e r m accommodation of a t r a n s i e n t n a t u r e be p r o v i d e d ; b) may l o c a t e i n a s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g , b o a r d i n g or l o d g i n g h o u s e , c o n v e r t e d d w e l l i n g h o u s e , i n a mixed-use c o m m e r c i a l / r e s i d e n t i a l b u i l d i n g , or i n any b u i l d i n g b u i l t f o r t h a t p u r p o s e , b u t w h i c h i n a l l c a s e s must be f u l l y d e t a c h e d . ( I b i d . , page 42 . ) P r e s e n t N o r t h Shore l e g i s l a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s t r i c t i v e . I t ought t o be the aim of r e f o r m e r s to f i n d a s u i t a b l e f o r m u l a w h i c h , at the v e r y l e a s t , a c k n o w l e d g e s and accommodates t h e v a r i e t y and t y p e of f a c i l i t y r e q u i r e d i n the community. The T o r o n t o e x p e r i e n c e a p p e a r s t o p o i n t i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . 58 3.6 S p a t i a l A l l o c a t i o n of R e s i d e n t ! a 1 Care F a c 1 1 i t i e s In c h o o s i n g a d w e l l i n g s u i t a b l e f o r a community-b a s e d c a r e f a c i l i t y , s o c i a l a g e n c i e s must c o n s i d e r a number of f a c t o r s . O b v i o u s l y t h e y r e q u i r e a l a r g e d w e l l i n g , of a t l e a s t f i v e bedrooms, i n a p r e d o m i n a n t l y r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The l o c a t i o n must be r e a s o n a b l y c l o s e to c o m m e r c i a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and community s e r v i c e s . The l a t t e r r e q u i r e m e n t can be m i t i g a t e d t o some d e g r e e by p r o v i s i o n of e i t h e r p r i v a t e or p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Those f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h p r o v i d e a home f o r t h e aged or the p h y s i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d r e q u i r e f a i r l y l e v e l s i t e s w h i c h do n o t r e s t r i c t m o b i l i t y . The c o s t of a b u i l d i n g i s an a d d i t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . However, g i v e n the s i z e of a d w e l l i n g , s o c i a l a g e n c i e s a r e o f t e n p r e p a r e d t o meet s u c h c o s t s i n o r d e r to o b t a i n the d e s i r e d accommodation. The p r i m a r y c o n c e r n of t h i s t h e s i s i s the s u b s t a n t i a l i n f l u e n c e of z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n upon the l o c a t i o n o f community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , c o n s i d e r i n g b o t h t h e d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e w h i c h l e g i s l a t i o n e x e r t s . As we have s e e n i n e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n s , t h e d e g r e e of accommodation of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s f o u n d i n z o n i n g b y - l a w s d e t e r m i n e s b o t h t h e k i n d and r a t e of f a c i l i t y accommodation. F o r example, the D i s t r i c t of West V a n c o u v e r has accommodated m o s t l y l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n a l u s e s 59 ( p r i v a t e h o s p i t a l s ) , p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e aged. I t has e x c l u d e d f a c i l i t i e s of a more c o n t r o v e r s i a l n a t u r e ( d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , h o s t e l and c o r r e c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ) . The C i t y of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r has accommodated fewer f a c i l i t i e s t h a n e i t h e r t h e D i s t r i c t of West V a n c o u v e r or t h e D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r . The l a t t e r d i s t r i c t has a c c e p t e d a w i d e r v a r i e t y of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s b o t h i n t y p e and s i z e . C o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h s e v e r a l r e a l e s t a t e f i r m s on the N o r t h Shore who have been a c t i v e i n l o c a t i n g s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g s t o c k f o r s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d no s h o r t a g e of s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g w h i c h would meet the needs of a r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y and no l a c k of v e n d o r s . They i m p l i e d t h a t community o p p o s i t i o n would l i k e l y p l a y the more c r i t i c a l r o l e i n l o c a t i n g community-b a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s t h a n the s u p p l y of h o u s i n g . T h i s view s u p p o r t s the c l a i m t h a t p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s and t h e l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h r e f l e c t s s u c h a t t i t u d e s a r e s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e s on t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . The D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r has e x p r e s s e d a c o n c e r n t h a t h a v i n g l i b e r a l i z e d i t s z o n i n g b y - law i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r N o r t h Shore m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i t w i l l t h e r e f o r e accommodate more t h a n i t s " f a i r s h a r e " of f a c i l i t i e s . As a r e s u l t , t h e D i s t r i c t of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r would u r g e o t h e r 60 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t o amend t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e z o n i n g b y - l a w s to d e a l w i t h the e x i s t i n g r e a l i t i e s of p r o v i d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l l y - b a s e d s o c i a l s e r v i c e s on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . W i t h i n each m u n i c i p a l i t y t h e q u e s t i o n of c o n c e n t r a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s i n one or a few n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i s an i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n . When s e v e r a l f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e i n the same n e i g h b o u r h o o d , and i n d i c a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h i s i s b e g i n n i n g to o c c u r i n the Lynn V a l l e y a r e a of N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , the p h y s i c a l i m p a c t i s e v i d e n t i n s t r e e t i n t e r a c t i o n s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , n e i g h b o u r h o o d r e s i d e n t s and f a m i l i e s a r e overwhelmed by t h e r a p i d change i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . D i s t a n c i n g , t h r o u g h z o n i n g , between f a c i l i t i e s can e n s u r e t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l s t r e e t l i f e s t y l e s c o n t i n u e . E v e r y n e i g h b o u r h o o d can accommodate a s m a l l r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y - the q u e s t i o n t h a t r e m a i n s i s s i m p l y - how many? House form i s i m p o r t a n t b o t h i n terms of v i s u a l i n t e g r a t i o n and n o i s e i m p a c t . Many c o m p l a i n t s r e l a t e d t o u n c o m f o r t a b l e n o i s e l e v e l s o c c u r i n a t t a c h e d or s e m i -d e t a c h e d h o u s i n g . I n a d d i t i o n , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to f u l l y s o u n d p r o o f a s h a r e d w a l l . A r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e i n a f u l l y d e t a c h e d house form i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y . The s p a t i a l a l l o c a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e 61 f a c i l i t i e s w i l l always a p p e a r u n f a i r so l o n g as c e r t a i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a t t e m p t t o accommodate f a c i l i t i e s w h i l e o t h e r s do n o t . I t seems an i m p o r t a n t f a c t t h a t the P r o v i n c i a l government must assume g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r good management and the f a i r d i s t r i b u t i o n of s e r v i c e s w i t h i n a r e g i o n . They would t h e n become the i n i t i a t o r o f community-based programmes. 3.7 C o n e l u s i o n s I t must be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a g r e a t d e a l of myth and m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . R e g r e t a b l y no c o m p r e h e n s i v e s t u d i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e of C a n a d i a n e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h i s a r e a . The f o l l o w i n g , however, i l l u s t r a t e the case f r o m s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . R e s u l t s o f s e v e r a l s t u d i e s made of a r e a s w h i c h s u r r o u n d r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t e v i d e n c e of a n e g a t i v e i m p a c t on immediate n e i g h b o u r s or a s u r r o u n d i n g community i s l a c k i n g . The C a l i f o r n i a Department of H e a l t h f o u n d t h a t n e g a t i v e community a t t i t u d e toward r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i s the r e s u l t of "a l a c k of knowledge c o n c e r n i n g the program and i t s o b j e c t i v e s , and f e a r of t h e s t e r e o t y p e s of the p e o p l e b e i n g c a r e d f o r i n t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s " . ( C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Department of H e a l t h , 1974, page 1.) I n i t i a l o p p o s i t i o n to s u c h f a c i l i t i e s o f t e n changed d r a m a t i c a l l y when r e s i d e n t s were made aware of the programme o b j e c t i v e s , the n a t u r e of the f a c i l i t y , and t h e r e s i d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . ( I b i d • > page 5.) The f e a r of v i o l e n c e e x p r e s s e d by n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t s a l s o a p p e a r s to be u n f o u n d e d i n p r a c t i c e . P o l i c e r e c o r d s do not i n d i c a t e an i n c r e a s e i n c r i m e or o t h e r o f f e n c e s i n a r e a s where community-based f a c i l i t i e s have l o c a t e d . ( H e c h t , 1970, page 9.) R e c o r d s of p r o p e r t y s a l e s have n o t i n d i c a t e d any f l u c t u a t i o n i n s a l e s w i t h e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e -f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The S t o c k t o n C a l i f o r n i a Department of P l a n n i n g i n d i c a t e d i n a s u r v e y of 200 n e i g h b o u r s of f o s t e r homes, f o r example, t h a t 84% f e l t t h a t t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s had no e f f e c t on p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . Some 9 3% of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n the same s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d no t r a f f i c or p a r k i n g p r o b l e m s . ( L a u b e r and Bangs, 1974, page 10.) A San F r a n c i s c o P l a n n i n g Department s u r v e y i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e i n t e r f e r e n c e - u n u s u a l f o r a r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d - c o n c e r n i n g n o i s e , t r a f f i c volume or p a r k i n g demand of r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w h i c h accommodated community-b a s e d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . ( I b i d . , page 10.) i n d i c a t e P e r m i t - g r a n t i n g a g e n c i e s i n s e v e r a l U.S. c i t i e s t h a t the most f r e q u e n t r e a s o n s f o r d e n i a l of c a r e 63 f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t i n g i n r e s i d e n t i a l zones were a " s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n f r o m n e a r b y l a n d owners and community p r e j u d i c e toward t h e c l a s s or c o n d i t i o n of p e r s o n s who would r e s i d e i n the p r o p o s e d f a c i l i t y " . ( I b i d . , page. 8.) Those r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h g e n e r a t e d the most o p p o s i t i o n were h a l f w a y h o u s e s and group homes f o r s e v e n p e r s o n s or more. In c o n c l u s i o n , i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t o p p o s i t i o n t o r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i s d i r e c t e d toward t h o s e p e r s o n s who would r e s i d e i n s u c h f a c i l i t i e s r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s g r o u n d e d i n p h y s i c a l l a n d u s e . 64 CHAPTER 4 THE CONTROL OF LAND USE AND EQUITY L o c a t i o n of community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s is; o f t e n v i e w e d as an i n c o m p a t i b l e l a n d u s e . At i s s u e i s the c o n f l i c t between l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g . The i n h e r e n t c o n f l i c t h e r e c r e a t e s a d i l e m n a f o r l o c a l g o v e r n -ments and p l a n n e r s a l i k e . The c o n f l i c t a r i s e s f r o m the use of z o n i n g power t o deny a c c e s s to h o u s i n g t o some i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e r e b y r e i n f o r c e t h e c h a r a c t e r of c e r t a i n z o n e s , w h i l e t h e p r i v i l e g e of h o u s i n g as a human r i g h t s i s s u e e m p h a s i z e s t h e i n h e r e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y n a t u r e of z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . The p r a c t i c e of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l f l o w s from a u t h o r i t y i n the B r i t i s h . N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , 1867, as amended, and from The M u n i c i p a l A c t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R.S.B.C. 1960, as amended. The c o n c e p t of e q u i t y i s r e l a t e d t o e x c l u s i o n a r y z o n i n g w i t h i n the b r o a d meaning of " f a i r n e s s " b u t more p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h i n the s e n s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j u r i s p r u d e n c e - r e c o u r s e t o g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s of j u s t i c e t o c o r r e c t or s u p p l e m e n t the o r d i n a r y law. E q u i t y i s used i n t h i s c h a p t e r p u r p o s e f u l l y to mean a f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e of j u s t i c e w h i c h s u p e r -s e d e s common or s t a t u t e law when t h e y c o n f l i c t w i t h i t . 65 The p r i v i l e g e of h o u s i n g r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i s a m a t t e r i n v o l v i n g e q u i t y . R e s o l u t i o n of the c o n f l i c t between opposed i n t e r e s t groups i n a l a n d - u s e d i s p u t e i s a many-s i d e d i s s u e , and the c a s e s t u d y h e r e c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s f a c t . As a r e s u l t , t h e c o n c e p t of. l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l and e q u i t y n e c e s s a r i l y r e q u i r e s d i s c u s s i o n o f s o v e r e i g n t y of p a r l i a m e n t , d e l e g a t i o n o f power, m a t e r i a l change i n l a n d - u s e , t h e c o n c e p t o f r e a s o n a b l e n e s s and human r i g h t s , and the ways t h e s e c o n c e p t s i n t e r r e l a t e . 4 .1 The H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e The C a n a d i a n c o n s t i t u t i o n i s c o n t a i n e d i n c e r t a i n s t a t u t e s of the B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t , namely, the B r i t i s h  N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , 1867 as amended. From S e c t i o n 91 of the A c t t h e s o v e r e i g n t y of p a r l i a m e n t i s e s t a b l i s h e d : I t s h a l l be l a w f u l f o r t h e Queen, by and w i t h t h e a d v i c e and c o n s e n t of the S e n a t e and the House of Commons, t o make Laws f o r t h e P e a c e , O r d e r and Good Government of Canada, i n r e l a t i o n t o m a t t e r s n o t coming w i t h i n C l a s s e s of S u b j e c t s by t h i s A c t a s s i g n e d e x c l u s i v e l y to the L e g i s l a t u r e s of the P r o v i n c e s . (A C o n s o l i d a t i o n of t h e B r i t i s h  N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t s 1867 t o 1975, page 24.) 66 The omnibus c l a u s e f o u n d i n A r t i c l e 92 of the A c t p r o v i d e s supreme l e g i s l a t i v e power under the A c t to r e g u l a t e a s p e c t s of l i f e w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e s : 92. In each P r o v i n c e t h e L e g i s l a t u r e may e x c l u s i v e l y make Laws i n r e l a t i o n to M a t t e r s coming w i t h i n the C l a s s e s of S u b j e c t n e x t h e r e i n - a f t e r e n u m e r a t e d . ( I b i d . , page 27.) In d i s c u s s i n g l e g i s l a t i v e powers, i n 1909 one C o u r t d e c l a r e d : . . . t h e l e g i s l a t u r e w i t h i n i t s j u r i s -d i c t i o n can do a n y t h i n g t h a t i s n o t n a t u r a l l y i m p o s s i b l e , and i t i s r e s t r a i n e d by no r u l e human or d e v i n e .... The p r o h i b i t i o n , 'Thou s h a l t n o t s t e a l ' , has no f o r c e upon the s o v e r e i g n body.... We have no s u c h r e s t r i c t i o n upon the power of the L e g i s l a t u r e as i s fo u n d i n some s t a t e s . ( R i d d e l l , J . i n F l o r e n c e M i n i n g  Co. v. C o b a l t Lake M i n i n g Co. (1909) 18 O.L.R. 275, 279 ( C . A . ) . ) As f a r as any j u d i c i a l r e s t r a i n t on l e g i s l a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , the P r i v y C o u n c i l has a s s e r t e d t h a t i t i s not c o n c e r n e d w i t h the p o l i c y of the l e g i s l a t i o n , w i t h i t s wisdom or j u s t i c e , b u t m e r e l y w i t h i t s c o n s t i t u t i o n a l v a l i d i t y on the b a s i s o f j u r i s d i c t i o n . ( L a s k i n , 1966, pages 187-189.) On t h i s p o i n t L o r d H e r s c h e l l c o n s i d e r e d t h a t f e a r of abuse of s u c h a b s o l u t e power: 6 7 ...does n o t w a r r a n t the i m p o s i t i o n by t h e C o u r t s of any l i m i t upon the a b s o l u t e power o f l e g i s l a t i o n c o n f e r r e d . The supreme l e g i s l a t i v e power i n r e l a t i o n to any s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s always c a p a b l e o f a b u se, b u t i t i s not to be assumed t h a t i t w i l l be i m p r o p e r l y u s e d ; i f . i t i s , the o n l y remedy i s an a p p e a l to t h o s e by whom the L e g i s l a t u r e i s e l e c t e d . ( L o r d H e r s c h e l l , A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  f o r Canada v. A t t o r n e y s - G e n e r a l  f o r O n t a r i o , Quebec and Nova  S c o t i a (1898) A.C. 700, 713.) D u r i n g t h e u r b a n r e f o r m movement i n Canada i n the c l o s i n g decades o f the 19th c e n t u r y , a group of u r b a n s p e c i a l i s t s "imbued w i t h the r e f o r m i n g z e a l and a s i n g u l a r s e n s e of m i s s i o n " w h i l e " n o n e t h e l e s s e m p h a t i c a l l y p r a g m a t i c " ( R u t h e r f o r d , 1974, page X) g r a d u a l l y f a s h i o n e d a c o n c e p t of the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t b a s e d upon the p r i m a c y of s o c i a l j u s t i c e combined w i t h good government. In f a c t , t h e C a n a d i a n B i l l of R i g h t s (1960) n o t o n l y a c k n o wledges th e r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s b u t c o n t a i n s s p e c i f i c r e s t r a i n t s on the l e g i s -l a t i v e powers of F e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t r e l a t e d t o f u n d a m e n t a l freedoms and due p r o c e s s of law. I n t e r e s t and c o n c e r n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of c e r t a i n human r i g h t s and f u n d a m e n t a l freedoms expanded i n Canada d u r i n g W.W. I I , no doubt as p a r t of a w o r l d - w i d e i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e v a l u e s . E g a l i t a r i a n c i v i l l i b e r t i e s or 68 human r i g h t s , h o w e v e r , r e q u i r e p o s i t i v e l e g i s l a t i v e s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r e x i s t e n c e : The a b s e n c e o f d i s c r i m i n a t o r y l a w s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s a r e n o t i n t h e m s e l v e s s u f f i c i e n t t o e n s u r e t h e p r o t e c t i o n and p r o m o t i o n o f human r i g h t s , b e c a u s e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may be p r a c t i s e d i n s o many o f t h e d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s o f p e o p l e . ( T a r n o p o l s k y , 1 9 7 5 , page 6 6 . ) C o n s o l i d a t i o n o f human r i g h t s l e g i s l a t i o n i n t o a c o d e and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , o f i t by a c o m m i s s i o n e n s u r e s v i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e p e r s o n d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h i s i s j u s t i f i e d as b e i n g as i m p o r t a n t t o t h e c o m m u n i t y i t s e l f , b e c a u s e o f t h e b r o a d e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e o f e q u a l t r e a t m e n t , as i t i s t o t h e v i c t i m o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n : M o d e r n - d a y human r i g h t s l e g i s l a t i o n i s p r e d i c a t e d on t h e t h e o r y t h a t t h e a c t i o n s o f p r e j u d i c e d p e o p l e and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s c a n be c h a n g e d and i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r o c e s s e s o f v e r i f i c a t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n , and t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s o c i o -s c i e n t i f i c m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e u s e d t o c h a l l e n g e p o p u l a r m y t h s and s t e r e o t y p e s a b o u t p e o p l e . . . Human R i g h t s on t h i s c o n t i n e n t i s a s k i l f u l b l e n d i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l and l e g a l t e c h n i q u e s i n t h e p u r s u i t o f s o c i a l j u s t i c e . ( D r . D a n i e l H i l l , O n t a r i o Human R i g h t s C o m m i s s i o n , Human R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 6 5 , J u n e . ) 69 E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e — f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s c a n be v i e w e d w i t h i n t h e i m p e r a t i v e s o f s o v e r e i g n t y o f p a r l i a m e n t and t h e s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . D e v e l o p m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s h a s o f t e n b e e n i m p e d e d by z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s w h i c h r e s t r i c t a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e n e e d s o f a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t g r o u p . A d v o c a t e s o f c o m m u n i t y -b a s e d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e u s e o f s i n g l e -f a m i l y z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s e x c l u d e f r o m r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s t h o s e p e o p l e c o n s i d e r e d d e v i a n t , as t h i s t e r m i s d e f i n e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r . They t h e r e f o r e s e e k t o amend l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h i s a l l e g e d l y u n r e a s o n a b l e and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . P r o p e r t y o w n e r s o p p o s e d t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s p o i n t o u t t h a t homes h o u s i n g a number o f u n r e l a t e d p e o p l e v i o l a t e s t h e t e r m s o f p r e s e n t z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s . 4 . 2 D e l e g a t i o n o f P o w e r t o L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t The B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , 1867 as a m e n d e d , S e c t i o n 9 2 , l i s t s t h e c h i e f p r o v i n c i a l p o w e r s w h i c h a r e g e n e r a l l y i n t e n d e d t o c o v e r " e s s e n t i a l l y l o c a l m a t t e r s " w h i c h c o u l d b e s t be d e a l t w i t h by p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y . L o c a l z o n i n g and l a n d - u s e r e g u l a t i o n h a s , t h e r e f o r e , b e e n h e l d a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y t o f a l l w i t h i n t h e l a n g u a g e o f s . 9 2 ( 8 ) - " M u n i c i p a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e P r o v i n c e " ; s . 9 2 ( 1 3 ) - " P r o p e r t y and C i v i l R i g h t s i n t h e P r o v i n c e " ; o r s . 9 2 ( 1 6 ) 70 - " G e n e r a l l y a l l M a t t e r s of a L o c a l or P r i v a t e N a t u r e i n the P r o v i n c e s " . W h i l e t h e r e has been much d e b a t e c o n c e r n i n g the s t a t u s of c i v i l l i b e r t i e s or human r i g h t s as i t p e r t a i n s to f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , i t can be g e n e r a l l y s t a t e d t h a t where such j u r i s d i c t i o n l i e s w i t h t h e p r o v i n c e i t would a p p e a r w i t h i n the ambit of " P r o p e r t y and C i v i l R i g h t s i n t h e P r o v i n c e " . The i m p o r t a n t p o i n t h e r e , however, i s t h a t p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e s have u l t i m a t e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r z o n i n g and l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l . The M u n i c i p a l A c t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R.S.B.C. 1960 as amended, c o n f e r s on m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s e x t e n s i v e powers t o r e g u l a t e t h e use of l a n d , b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c t u r e s , In g e n e r a l , s t a t u t o r y a u t h o r i t y t o d i v i d e t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t o zones and to p r e s c r i b e the p e r m i t t e d or p r o h i b i t e d u s es i s c o n f e r r e d on m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s i n s . 7 0 2 ( 1 ) . The l e g i s l a t u r e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a gave s t a t u t o r y g u i d a n c e ( t h e o n l y p r o v i n c e t o do so) to c o u n c i l s i n e x e r c i s i n g i t s z o n i n g powers by d i r e c t i n g a t t e n t i o n t o c e r t a i n o b j e c t i v e s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : 702.(1) a) The p r o m o t i o n of h e a l t h , s a f e t y c o n v e n i e n c e and w e l f a r e of the p u b l i c ; b) The p r e v e n t i o n of the o v e r c r o w d i n g of l a n d , and t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of t h e a m e n i t i e s p e c u l i a r t o any zone; 71 c) The s c u r i n g of a d e q u a t e l i g h t , a i r and a c c e s s ; d) The v a l u e of t h e l a n d and the n a t u r e of i t s p r e s e n t and p r o s p e c t i v e use and o c c u p a n c y ; e) The c h a r a c t e r of each zone, t h e c h a r a c t e r of the b u i l d i n g s a l r e a d y e r e c t e d and t h e p e c u l i a r s u i t a b i l i t y of the z o n e . f o r p a r t i c u l a r u s e s ; f ) The c o n s e r v a t i o n of p r o p e r t y v a l u e s . ( S .702(2) M u n i c i p a l A c t of  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R.S.B.C. 1960 as amended.) C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s or c o n s i d e r a -t i o n s by m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s i s mandatory. However, the m i n u t e s of c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s need n o t show t h a t c o u n c i l i n f a c t gave i n d i v i d u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n to each o b j e c t i v e . ( W a t l i n g v. Oak Bay (1969) 70 W.W.R.. 534 ( B . C . ) . ) F u r t h e r s t a t u t o r y d i r e c t i o n i s o f f e r e d to c o u n c i l when i t c o n s i d e r s d e v e l o p m e n t p r o p o s a l s : 702.A.(1) a) t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a r e a s t o promote g r e a t e r e f f i e n c y and q u a l i t y ; b) the i m p a c t of development on p r e s e n t or f u t u r e p u b l i c c o s t ; c) t h e b e t t e r m e n t of the e n v i r o n m e n t ; d) the f u l f i l m e n t of community g o a l s ; e) t h e p r o v i s i o n o f n e c e s s a r y p u b l i c s p a c e ; ( S . 7 0 2 A . ( 1 ) , I b i d . ) 72 A g a i n , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be no r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t c o u n c i l s g i v e i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n t o e ach of t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i m p a c t of s u c h wide and g e n e r a l l a n g u a g e i n r e l e v a n t s e c t i o n s of t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t p e r m i t s each c o u n c i l t o adopt i t s own s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s u c h g e n e r a l l a n g u a g e . F o r example, s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e -t a t i o n of the p h r a s e s " p r e s e r v a t i o n o.f" t h e a m e n i t i e s p e c u l i a r t o any zone", " c h a r a c t e r o f e ach zone", or " f u l f i l m e n t of community g o a l s " can r e s u l t i n what Rogers d e s c r i b e s as " . . . t h e s t a t u s quo t h a t i s s o u g h t t o be m a i n t a i n e d i n b u i l t - u p r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s " . ( R o g e r s , 1973, page 120.) The C o u r t s of Canada do not now e x e r c i s e the s u p e r v i s o r y j u r i s d i c t i o n t h e y once e x e r c i s e d , and now: . . . d i s c l a i m any j u r i s d i c t i o n . . . t o r e v i e w the a c t i o n of a m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l a c t i n g w i t h i n i t s powers and i n good f a i t h . ( M e r e d i t h , C.J.O., L e i t c h v,  S t r a t h r o y (1923) 5 3 O.L.R. 665 a t 669.) T h e r e does l i e w i t h the C o u r t s , however, the a u t h o r i t y to r e v i e w m u n i c i p a l a c t i o n s as t h e y p e r t a i n t o the s c o p e of t h e i r d e l e g a t e d powers - h e n c e , the d o c t r i n e of u l t r a v i r e s . The C o u r t s have o f t e n a p p l i e d t h e r u l e of s t r i c t c o n s t r u c -t i o n : common-law r i g h t s c a n n o t be h e l d to have been 73 a b r o g a t e d or a f f e c t e d by s t a t u t e , or by-law p a s s e d under i t s a u t h o r i t y u n l e s s i t i s so e x p r e s s e d i n c l e a r l a n g u a g e . (Lennox, J . Coleman v. Mc C a l l u m (1913) 4 O.W.N. 1127, 24 O.W.R. 470, 11 D.L.R. 138 at 142.) F o r example, when a p e r s o n a c q u i r e s by p u r c h a s e a r i g h t t o use h i s p r o p e r t y , t h a t r i g h t can o n l y be t a k e n away by e x p r e s s l e g i s l a t i o n . ( R e g i n a v. G i r v i n , 1958, O.W.R. 73.) Wh i l e the C o u r t s a r e q u i c k t o s t o p a l o c a l a u t h o r i t y , i f i t a t t e m p t s t o d e a l w i t h a m a t t e r o v e r w h i c h i t has no j u r i s d i c t i o n , w h a t s o e v e r , t h e y a r e h e s i t a n t t o a p p l y the d o c t r i n e i f the m u n i c i p a l i t y has some power o v e r t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r . ( R o g e r s , 1973, page 312. Emphasis added.) In o t h e r words, the d o c t r i n e of u l t r a v i r e s i s t o be a p p l i e d r e a s o n a b l y and w h a t e v e r may be r e g a r d e d as b e i n g i n c i d e n t a l t o the t h i n g s w h i c h a r e a u t h o r i z e d by the l e g i s l a t u r e i s n o t , i n the a b s e n c e of an e x p r e s s p r o h i b i -t i o n , u l t r a v i r e s . T h u s , the r u l e of i m p l i e d powers h a s , to some e x t e n t , l i m i t e d t h e s c o p e of the d o c t r i n e . However, t h e w e i g h t of s e v e r a l r e c e n t c o u r t d e c i s i o n s ( B e l l v. Her M a j e s t y the Queen, 1979 S.C.C. u n r e p o r t e d ; Gay A l l i a n c e Toward E q u a l i t y v. the V a n c o u v e r  Sun, B.C. Boa r d of I n q u i r y , 1977, a f f d . 1976, u n r e p o r t e d 74 ( B . C . S . C . ) , r e v e r s e d 1977, u n r e p o r t e d (B.C.C.A.), a f f i r m e d S.C.C. May, 1979, u n r e p o r t e d ) adds f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to the s c o p e of the d o c t r i n e of u l t r a  v i r e s and t o the j u r i s d i c t i o n ; o f t h e C o u r t s i n r u l i n g on m a t t e r s i n v o l v i n g r e a s o n a b l e n e s s or e q u i t y . These d e c i s i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the r e s p e c t i v e s e c t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e y r e l a t e , namely " M a t e r i a l Change i n Use", " R e a s o n a b l e n e s s " and "Human R i g h t s " . In summary, the B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t 1867 as amended, e s t a b l i s h e d s e p a r a t i o n of powers between the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s . T h r o u g h d e l e g a t i o n of power by t h e P r o v i n c i a l government, m u n i c i p a l governments have t h e a u t h o r i t y to c o n t r o l the use of l a n d . Where a c o n f l i c t o c c u r s between P r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l l e g i s l a t i o n , P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n may p r e v a i l . F u r t h e r , m u n i c i p a l government may be f o u n d t o a c t u l t r a v i r e s s h o u l d a b y - l a w have the e f f e c t of d e a l i n g w i t h m a t t e r s beyond the j u r i s d i c t i o n of m u n i c i p a l government. However, z o n i n g b y - l a w s w h i c h g o v e r n d i v i s i o n o f t h e l a n d s c a p e i n t o r e s i d e n t i a l z o n e s , and t h e r e b y c o n t r o l h o u s i n g , a r e i n h e r e n t l y s u b j e c t i v e . W i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i n h e r e n t l y s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e of z o n i n g b y - l a w s , R o g e r s has i d e n t i f i e d what he terms the " n o t i o n a l r o o t of z o n i n g " : The n o t i o n a l r o o t of z o n i n g i s s e g r e g a t i o n o f p e o p l e and uses t h e y make of t h e i r l a n d . D e n s i t y and de v e l o p m e n t s t a n d a r d s c o n t r o l t h e c o s t of the d w e l l i n g p l a c e on the l a n d and the l a t t e r d e t e r m i n e s the economic (and u s u a l l y t h e s o c i a l ) p o s i t i o n of t h o s e who l i v e i n them. G h e t t o s a r e c r e a t e d f o r the r i c h as w e l l as t h e po o r by w a l l s of e x c l u s i o n a r y r e s t r i c -t i o n s . Land v a l u e s a r e t h u s p r e s e r v e d by k e e p i n g out u n d e s i r a b l e uses and c o n s e q u e n t l y u n d e s i r a b l e p e o p l e . The p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y i n v e s t m e n t i s the prime m o t i v e u n d e r l y i n g many by-laws a l t h o u g h t h e y do not always c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e t h i s p o l i c y . ( R o g e r s , 1973, page 121.) W h i l e t h e e x c l u s i o n a r y n a t u r e of z o n i n g p r a c t i c e i s one a c c e p t e d as a m a t t e r of n e c e s s a r y p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e , i t i s a l s o one w h i c h i s a u t h o r i z e d by P r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e - T h e M u n i c i p a l Act, of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R.S.B.C. I960 as amended. On the o t h e r hand, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , of the k i n d d e s c r i b e d by R o g e r s , i s a m a t t e r of human r i g h t s and i s d e a l t w i t h by a n o t h e r P r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e - t h e Human  R i g h t s Code of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S.B.C. 1973, c.119, as amended. Whether or n o t a m u n i c i p a l government a c t s u l t r a v i r e s i n p r o v i d i n g l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h has t h e e f f e c t of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g i s a s u b j e c t of c o n c e r n , and s h a l l be d e a l t w i t h i n s u b s e q u e n t s e c t i o n s . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , d e l e g a t i o n of c e r t a i n powers t o m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l does n o t a b r o g a t e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a P r o v i n c i a l government t o p r o v i d e c l e a r e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g 76 m a t t e r s w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . 4.3 M a t e r i a l Change i n Use The M u n i c i p a l A c t of B.C R.S.B.C. 1960, as amended a u t h o r i z e s c o u n c i l s t o : . . . r e g u l a t e t h e use of l a n d , b u i l d i n g s and s t r u c t u r e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s u r f a c e of w a t e r , w i t h i n s u c h z o n e s , and t h e r e g u l a t i o n s may be d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t zones and f o r d i f f e r e n t - u s e s w i t h i n a zone, and f o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s c l a u s e the power t o r e g u l a t e i n c l u d e s the power to p r o h i b i t any p a r t i c u l a r use or us e s i n any s p e c i f i c zone or z o n e s . In a p p l y i n g cannons of c o n s t r u c t i o n to b u i l d i n g and z o n i n g b y - l a w s , r a t h e r t h a n use the s t r i c t c o n s t r u c -t i o n d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , C o u r t s h a v e o f t e n v i e w e d s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n as r e m e d i a l s i n c e t h e y a r e d e s i g n e d to p r e s e r v e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s ( M i d d l e t o n , J . i n T o r o n t o  v. W i l l i a m s . , ( 1 9 1 2 ) , 270 O.L.R. 186 a t 191, 8 D.L.R.(2d) 299 (C.A.) and t o s e c u r e community a m e n i t y (Re E s q u i m a l t  v. Wood (1964) 40 D.L.R.(2d) 763 ( B . C . ) . Land-use c o n t r o l , a power g i v e n e x p r e s s l y t o m u n i c i p a l government by the P r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e , c l e a r l y a l l o w s f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . T h a t i s , a c h o i c e i s p e r m i t t e d the m u n i c i p a l i t y as t o t h e ty p e o f use i t w i l l a l l o w i n c e r t a i n or a l l p a r t s o f the ( S . 7 0 2 ( 1 ) ( b ) , The M u n i c i p a l  A c t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R.S.B.C. 1960 as amended.) 77 l a n d w i t h i n i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n . (Township of S c a r b o r o u g h  v. B o n d i (1959) S.C.R. 444 a t 451, 18 D.L.R.(2d) 161 at 166.) In C a n a d i a n m u n i c i p a l law, B o n d i i s a k e y n o t e c a s e . I t i s c i t e d as p r e c e d e n t to i l l u s t r a t e t h a t e x e r c i s e of the common law r i g h t of an i n d i v i d u a l to d e v e l o p h i s p r o p e r t y as he ch o o s e s i s s u p e r s e d e d by the m u n i c i p a l r i g h t to zone l a n d i n a d i s c r i m i n a t o r y way. In Canada, t h e r e i s , however, no s t a t u t o r y d e f i n i t i o n n o r any c l e a r j u d i c i a l d e f i n i t i o n of t h e word " u s e " . I t has been s a i d to mean h o l d i n g or o c c u p y i n g p r o p e r t y (Re D a v i s &  T o r o n t o (1892) 21 G.R. 243 a t 247); or the employment of p r o p e r t y f o r e n j o y i n g r e v e n u e or p r o f i t w i t h o u t i n any way d i m i n i s h i n g or i m p a i r i n g the p r o p e r t y i t s e l f ( P i c k e r i n g  v. G o d f r e y , (1958) O.R. 429, 14 D.L.R.(2d) 520 ( C . A . ) . Beyond t h i s , the C o u r t s a r e n o t i n s t r u c t i v e on the d e f i n i -t i o n of the term " u s e " . R a t h e r , t h e y have c o n s i d e r e d w hether or n o t a s t r u c t u r e w i l l d e s t r o y t h e r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r o f the n e i g h b o u r h o o d (Re Guest v. Weston (1954) O.W.N. 271 ) . W h i l e C a n a d i a n l e g a l d i s c u s s i o n o f the term " u s e " i s l i m i t e d , t h e B r i t i s h Town & C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g A c t , 1971, ( a t s . 2 2 ( l ) a t t e m p t s to d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e use of l a n d and t h e o p e r a t i o n s t h e r e o n . To a i d i n t h i s d i s t i n c -78 t i o n , B r i t i s h C o u r t s have a t t e m p t e d to a p p l y the c o n c e p t o f " m a t e r i a l change i n u s e " . As t h e p h r a s e i s n o t g i v e n s t a t u t o r y d e f i n i t i o n , the C o u r t s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t i s " t h e c h a r a c t e r of the use from a p l a n n i n g p o i n t of view w h i c h must have m a t e r i a l l y a l t e r e d " . ( P u r d u e , 1977, page 82. Emphasis added.) The M i n i s t r y of Town & C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g i n i t s C i r c u l a r No. 67 a d v i s e d l o c a l government as f o l l o w s : . . . i n c o n s i d e r i n g whether a change i s a m a t e r i a l change, c o m p a r i s o n w i t h the p r e v i o u s use of l a n d or b u i l d i n g i n q u e s t i o n i s t h e g o v e r n i n g f a c t o r and the e f f e c t of t h e p r o p o s a l on a s u r r o u n -d i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s n o t r e l e v a n t t o the i s s u e . ( P u r d u e , 1977, page 97.) In t h i s c o n t e x t , t h e l a t t e r c l a u s e c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r r e l e v a n c e of e f f e c t on a s u r r o u n d i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s a t odds w i t h t h e words of t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a where c o u n c i l s a r e e x p r e s s l y d i r e c t e d to c o n s i d e r t h e e f f e c t o f a p r o p o s a l on p r o p e r t y v a l u e s of a s u r r o u n -d i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The M i n i s t r y of Town & C o u n t r y P l a n n i n g f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f m a t e r i a l change i n u s e , s a y i n g : 79 The e f f e c t of the new d e f i n i t i o n i s t o make i t c l e a r t h a t a p r o p o s e d change of use c o n s t i t u t e s d e v e l o p -ment o n l y i f the new use i s subs t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the o l d . A,change i n k i n d w i l l a lways be m a t e r i a l - e.g. from house to shop o r f r o m shop t o f a c t o r y . A change i n the d e g r e e of an e x i s t i n g use may be ' m a t e r i a l ' b u t o n l y i f i t i s v e r y marked. ( P u r d u e , 1977, page 97.) The p o i n t a t i s s u e , w hether the c h a r a c t e r of a use had changed, has been e n d o r s e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o u r t s . However, t h e y t a k e the view t h a t i t i s t h e c h a r a c t e r of a use " f r o m a p l a n n i n g p o i n t of v i e w " t h a t i s r e l e v a n t , and t h a t t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s of change on the s u r r o u n d i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d a r e r e l e v a n t o n l y i n p l a n n i n g t e r m s . The n o t i o n of m a t e r i a l change i n use p l a y s a key r o l e i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n Canada. These f a c i l i t i e s a r e commonly d i s c u s s e d i n terms of w hether or n o t the y c o n s t i t u t e a home as opposed t o a m i n i - i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t y . In V a n c o u v e r , p r e m i s e s used as a f o s t e r home have n o t been c o n s i d e r e d a " p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g h o u s e " as t h e y a r e not used as a r e s i d e n c e f o r a s i n g l e f a m i l y ( S h a u g h n e s sy H e i g h t s P r o p e r t y Owners' A s s o c i a - t i o n v. C h i l d r e n ' s A i d , S o c i e t y of C a t h o l i c A r c h d i o c e s e of V a n c o u v e r (1963) 42 W.W.R. 62 ( B . C . ) . T h i s case f o c u s e d on the i m p l i c a t i o n of the term " p r i v a t e " d w e l l i n g house 80 and f o u n d a f o s t e r home t o be i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e p r i v a t e c h a r a c t e r of a d w e l l i n g . Subsequent c a s e s have c o n c e n t r a t e d on the d e f i n i t i o n of " f a m i l y " and the o p e r a t i o n of a community-based c a r e f a c i l i t y . K e l l y , J.A. i n R e g i n a . v . Brown Camps L t d . (1969) 2 O.R. 461, where a p r o f i t -making o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n s o u g h t t o l o c a t e a c a r e f a c i l i t y i n a s i n g l e -f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d , c o n s i d e r e d the t e r m " f a m i l y " as d e f i n e d i n the Borough of S c a r b o r o u g h Z o n i n g By-law 9510, as c r i t i c a l to h i s d e c i s i o n . In t h i s b y - l a w , the term " f a m i l y " i s d e f i n e d a s : F a m i l y - s h a l l mean one or more p e r s o n s l i v i n g as a s i n g l e h o u s e k e e p i n g u n i t i n a d w e l l i n g , and may i n c l u d e d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t s and n o t more t h a n two roomers or b o a r d e r s . (Borough of S c a r b o r o u g h  Z o n i n g By-law No. 9510.) K e l l y , J . c o n c l u d e d t h a t the o c c u p a n t s were n o t a f a m i l y as d e f i n e d by the by-law s a y i n g : I c o n s i d e r t h a t the i n m a t e s were n o t l i v i n g i n the p r e m i s e s as a s i n g l e h o u s e k e e p i n g u n i t ; were s u c h the c a s e the p r o v i s i o n of t h e i r accommodation and meals would have been t h e i r own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , even a l t h o u g h t h e y t h e m s e l v e s might have c o n t r a c t e d to have s e r v a n t s or i n d e p e n d e n t c o n t r a c t o r s f u r n i s h to them t h e s e s e r v i c e s w h i c h were e s s e n t i a l to t h e i r l i v i n g . 81 ( R e g i n a v. Brown Camps L t d . (1969) 2 O.R. 461.) In h i s Reasons f o r Judgement, Mr. J u s t i c e K e l l y h e l d t h a t a l t h o u g h the d e f i n i t i o n of " f a m i l y " i n t h e Borough of S c a r b o r o u g h Z o n i n g By-law 9510 was s u f f i c i e n t l y wide t o i n c l u d e p e r s o n s who do n o t have a c o n s a n g u i n e o u s or m a r i t a l o r o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p save t h a t they r e s i d e d as a " h o u s e k e e p i n g u n i t " , t h e o c c u p a n c y of the i n f a n t i n m a t e s of an i n s t i t u t i o n s u c h as t h a t p r o v i d e d by Brown Camps were o n l y by " t h e w i l l and at the whim of the Respondent c o r p o r a t i o n " . T h i s f a c t " l a c k s t h e n e c e s s a r y e l e m e n t of a c t i v e p e r s o n a l e l e c t i o n to f o r m a h o u s e k e e p i n g u n i t " , and f o r t h i s r e a s o n the f a c i l i t y c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d " w i t h i n t h e p e r m i s s i b l e u s e s of b u i l d i n g s i n a s i n g l e -f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l zone". ( S u p r a . ) H a v i n g f o u n d the i n m a t e s n o t to be a f a m i l y , K e l l y , J . s a i d , o b i t e r d i c t u m : The o p e r a t i o n was a k i n t o a n u r s i n g home f o r t h e aged, w h i c h i s h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e f r o m a s o c i o l o g i c a l p o i n t of view and of g r e a t b e n e f i t t o t h o s e who seek s h e l t e r i n i t , b u t w h i c h , i f o p e r a t e d f o r p r o f i t , i s n o n e t h e l e s s a b u s i n e s s ... ( D ) e s p i t e i t s r e s i d e n t i a l c o n n o t a t i o n , the whole o p e r a t i o n of Respondent was t h a t of a b u s i n e s s , t h e b u s i n e s s of p r o v i d i n g r e s i d e n t i a l accommodation and s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e i n m a t e s . ( S u p r a . ) 82 A l t h o u g h t h i s l a t t e r q u o t a t i o n a p p e a r s as an i n c i d e n t i a l argument to t h e d e c i s i o n i n R e g i n a v. Brown  Camps L t d . ( s u p r a ) , t h e o p i n i o n a c k n o wledges the way i n w h i c h m a t e r i a l change i n use may a p p l y to a l l e g e d v i o l a t i o n s of p e r m i t t e d - u s e c l a u s e s i n z o n i n g b y - l a w s . An o f f e n c e might be committed by a p r o f i t - m a k i n g group even when o c c u p a n c y by r e s i d e n t s may come w i t h i n t h e meaning of the term " f a m i l y " i n z o n i n g b y - l a w s . A b u s i n e s s i s a s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t use t han a r e s i d e n -t i a l one. However, a q u e s t i o n now a r i s e s as t o whether or n o t a n o n - p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d i n g a community-b a s e d c a r e f a c i l i t y would c o n s t i t u t e a s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n of p r e m i s e s . In a s u b s e q u e n t a p p e a l c a s e , C i t y of B a r r i e v.  Brown Camps R e s i d e n t i a l & Day S c h o o l s (1973) 2 O.R.(2d) at 3 3 7 ) , a p p e a l of w h i c h t o the Supreme C o u r t of Canada was d e n i e d , the C o u r t come to a d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n t han t h a t i n R e g i n a v. Brown Camps.Ltd. ( s u p r a ) . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t Brown Camps L t d . had r e o r g a n i z e d as a non-p r o f i t o r g a n i z a t i o n and was now c a l l e d Brown Camps R e s i d e n t i a l & Day S c h o o l s . The d e f i n i t i o n of the term " f a m i l y " i n the C i t y of B a r r i e Z o n i n g By-law No. 69-33 i s b r o a d : 83 F a m i l y - s h a l l mean one or more p e r s o n s who a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d by bonds of c o n s a n g u i n i t y , m a r r i a g e or l e g a l a d o p t i o n , or not more t h a n f i v e u n r e l a t e d p e r s o n s , w i t h or w i t h o u t one or more f u l l - t i m e d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t s , o c c u p y i n g a d w e l l i n g u n i t . The By-law c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l o t h e r p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t e d to a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s a v i o l a t i o n o f z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n . They a r e : 6.1 GENERAL No p e r s o n s h a l l h e r e a f t e r use any l a n d s n o r e r e c t , a l t e r , e n l a r g e or use any b u i l d i n g s or s t r u c t u r e s i n any R e s i d e n t i a l Zone e x c e p t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r o v i s i o n s of t h i s s e c t i o n and of S e c t i o n s 5 and 12 of t h i s b y - l a w . and : 3.26 'DWELLING' s h a l l mean any b u i l d i n g or p a r t t h e r e o f used as t h e home, r e s i d e n c e or s l e e p i n g p l a c e of one or more p e r s o n s , e i t h e r c o n t i n u o u s l y , p e r m a n e n t l y , t e m p o r a r i l y or t r a n s i e n t l y . (a) ' D w e l l i n g U n i t ' s h a l l mean a s e p a r a t e s e t of l i v i n g q u a r t e r s d e s i g n e d f o r , or used by, an i n d i v i d u a l or one f a m i l y a l o n e , w h i c h s h a l l i n c l u d e a t l e a s t one room, a k i t c h e n and a ba t h r o o m , and w h i c h has a p r i v a t e e n t r a n c e from the o u t s i d e or f r o m a common h a l l w a y o r s t a i r w a y i n s i d e . ( C i t y of B a r r i e Z o n i n g By-law  No. 69-33.) INCORRECT PAGE NUMBERING. THIS PAGE BLANK. 8 5 In the C i t y of B a r r i e d e c i s i o n ( s u p r a ) , D u b i n , J.A. had t h i s t o say of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the case b e f o r e him and t h a t of R e g i n a v. Brown Camps ( s u p r a ) : I t i s to be o b s e r v e d t h a t by a c o m b i n a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l d e f i n i t i o n s ( i n C i t y of B a r r i e Z o n i n g By-Law No. 69-33) the p e r m i t t e d use i n t h i s a r e a f o r a o n e - f a m i l y d e t a c h e d d w e l l i n g i s a v e r y e x t e n d e d one. I t i s f u r t h e r a p p a r e n t t h a t , i n d e t e r -m i n i n g whether t h e r e has been an i n f r a c t i o n of t h i s b y - l a w by Brown Camps, i t i s n e c e s s a r y to d i r e c t one's a t t e n t i o n to the use t o wh i c h the p r e m i s e s a r e b e i n g p u t , and c o n s i d e r i n g the m a t t e r i n t h i s way, Brown Camps cann o t be s a i d to be " o c c u p y i n g a d w e l l i n g u n i t " w i t h i n the d e f i n i t i o n of " F a m i l y " . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h o s e words i n t h a t s e c t i o n a r e d i r e c t e d t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e p e r s o n s a c t u a l l y u s i n g the p r e m i s e s and i t does not m a t t e r , t h e r e f o r e , whether Brown Camps i s a c o r p o r a t e e n t i t y c a r r y i n g on a c o m m e r c i a l e n t e r p r i s e . In t h i s r e s p e c t  the b y - law i s q u i t e u n l i k e the by-law  c o n s i d e r e d i n the case of R e g i n a v.  Brown Camps L t d . (1969) 2 O.R. 461, and i n my o p i n i o n t h a t c a s e i s c l e a r l y  d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m t h e c a s e a t b a r . I t r e m a i n s now to be c o n s i d e r e d whether on t h e e v i d e n c e i t can be s a i d t h a t the use to w h i c h t h e s e p r e m i s e s a r e b e i n g put i s o t h e r t h a n f o r o n e - f a m i l y d e t a c h e d d w e l l i n g s . ( C i t y of B a r r i e v. Brown Camps  R e s i d e n t i a l & Day S c h o o l s , (1973) 2 O.R.(2d) 337 at 339.) (Emphasis added.) 86 A summary of t h e e v i d e n c e drawn from th e C i t y of B a r r i e ( s u p r a ) h e a r i n g was t h a t a) Brown Camps ca n n o t d e t a i n c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r e m i s e s w i t h o u t t h e i r c o n s e n t ; b.) i n each of t h e p r o p e r t i e s t h e r e a r e g r o u p s of c h i l d r e n , n o t more t h a n f i v e i n number, u n r e l a t e d by b l o o d , and r a n g i n g i n age f r o m s e v e n y e a r s to s e v e n t e e n y e a r s ; c) r e s o u r c e s t a f f a r e a v a i l a b l e on an o n - c a l l b a s i s ; and d) the p r o p e r t i e s a l l have p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s b o t h e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l , of r e s i d e n t i a l f a m i l y homes. D u b i n , J.A. c o n c l u d e d : I t i s t h e r e f o r e c l e a r to me t h a t the p r e m i s e s under c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s a p p e a l f a l l s q u a r e l y w i t h i n the r e l e v a n t p e r m i t t e d use i n t h e s e z o n e s . I a g r e e w i t h the l e a r n e d t r i a l Judge t h a t the p r e m i s e s a r e n o t b e i n g used as a c l i n i c o r n u r s i n g home as d e f i n e d by the b y - l a w . The p r e m i s e s a r e b e i n g used f o r t h e c a r e and u p b r i n g i n g of t h e s e c h i l d r e n i n the same manner as i f . t h e y were b e i n g used by p a r e n t s w i t h s p e c i a l e x p e r t i s e t o d e a l w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n who had s i m i l a r e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . The r e s o u r c e group i s composed of e x p e r t s to whom su c h p a r e n t s would t h e m s e l v e s t u r n f o r h e l p when needed. A l t h o u g h th e p e r s o n s on the p r e m i s e s a r e u n r e l a t e d , t h e y f a l l w i t h i n the d e f i n i t i o n of " F a m i l y " i n s.3.28 of the b y - l a w . They a c c o r d i n g l y o c cupy a " d w e l l i n g " c o n t a i n i n g o n l y one " d w e l l i n g u n i t " . E ach house i s a "one-f a m i l y d e t a c h e d dwelling'.'. ( S u p r a , at 344.) F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , th e C i t y f a i l e d to show t h a t a m a t e r i a l change i n use had o c c u r r e d . The c h a r a c t e r of the r e s i d e n -87 t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y was not s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t of o t h e r s i n g l e - f a m i l y r e s i d e n c e s , f r o m a p l a n n i n g p o i n t of v i e w . In summary, t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i n f e r e n c e s t o be drawn from the f o r e g o i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n of m a t e r i a l change i n u s e . F i r s t , s o c i a l a g e n c i e s w h i c h a r e n o n - p r o f i t i n n a t u r e a v o i d b e i n g c o n s t r u e d as a b u s i n e s s r a t h e r t h an a r e s i d e n t i a l use i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . The C o u r t s may i n t e r p r e t a b u s i n e s s as a m a t e r i a l change i n use . Secondly., where s u p e r v i s i o n i s p r o v i d e d i n a r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y w h i c h r e s e m b l e s a p a r e n t a l s i t u a t i o n , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the use w i l l be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e s i d e n t i a l i n c h a r a c t e r ( f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d ) and n o t , f o r example, as a n u r s i n g home or a c l i n i c . The d i s t i n c -t i o n h e r e i s c r i t i c a l . Where p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s o u r c e p e o p l e , l i k e p h y s i o t h e r a p i s t s , d o c t o r s or p s y c h i a t r i s t s , a r e r e s i d e n t i n the f a c i l i t y , a community-based f a c i l i t y would l i k e l y f a i l as a p e r m i t t e d use i n r e s i d e n t i a l z o n e s . T h i r d , z o n i n g b y - l aw d e f i n i t i o n s of " f a m i l y " must be s u f f i c i e n t l y b r o a d to p e r m i t g r o u p s of u n r e l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s t o r e s i d e i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s . 88 F o u r t h , the i m p l i c a t i o n of a " f a m i l y " - l i k e a s s o c i a t i o n of p e r s o n s r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e e l e m e n t of c o n s e n t to a s s o c i a t i o n be p r e s e n t among the r e s i d e n t s of a community-based f a c i l i t y . The v o l u n t a r y a s p e c t of a s s o c i a -t i o n i s p r e s e n t even where e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , f o r example, a r e put i n t o t h e c a r e of an agency at the r e q u e s t of t h e i r p a r e n t s or the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y ( s e e C i t y of B a r r i e , s u p r a , at 342). From a p l a n n i n g p o i n t of view i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , m u n i c i p a l government i s a u t h o r i z e d to zone l a n d u s e s by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g t h e c h a r a c t e r of r e s p e c t i v e zones i n s . 7 0 2 ( 2 ) ( e ) of the M u n i c i p a l A c t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s u p r a . From a p l a n n i n g p o i n t of v i e w , a m a t e r i a l change i n use w i l l c o n s t i t u t e any new use w h i c h i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e f o r m e r , i . e . a b u s i n e s s as compared t o a r e s i d e n c e . A change i n c h a r a c t e r of a use may be m a t e r i a l o n l y i f i t i s marked. Where the p h y s i c a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s , e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l , r e s e m b l e a s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g , a m a t e r i a l change i n use w i l l n o t have o c c u r r e d . L a c o u r i e r , J . at T r i a l D i v i s i o n i n C i t y , o f B a r r i e (1973) 2 O.R. 21, 32 D.L.R.(3d) 671 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s e p o i n t s : I can f i n d i n the e v i d e n c e no s e r i o u s i n c o n v e n i e n c e or d e t r i m e n t to t h e n e i g h b o u r s , and I am q u i t e u n a b l e to c o n c l u d e t h a t the c h a r a c t e r of the zone i s b e i n g changed, or t h a t the o b j e c t i v e of the b y - l a w i s f r u s t r a t e d . 89 By n a t u r e , z o n i n g b y - l a w s a r e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y and r e s t r i c t i v e . T h e r e r e m a i n s a. q u e s t i o n as to the k i n d and de g r e e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w h i c h z o n i n g b y - l a w s c o n t a i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n may be d i r e c t e d toward i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n s or grou p s of p e r s o n s of a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s , r a t h e r t h a n toward l a n d u s e s . 4.4 The Concept of R e a s o n a b l e n e s s I t i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t m u n i c i p a l government i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a may e n a c t z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h i s i n h e r e n t l y e x c l u s i o n a r y . Such e x c l u s i o n , however, i s n o t u n l i m i t e d . The i s s u e of u l t r a v i r e s i s r a i s e d when a t e s t of r e a s o n a b l e n e s s i s a p p l i e d t o z o n i n g b y - l a w s t o a s c e r t a i n w h ether or not t h e by-law e x c e e d s t h e l e g i s l a -t i v e a u t h o r i t y s e t out i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , s u p r a . The B r i t i s h c a s e of K r u s e v. Jo h n s o n (1898) 2 Q.B. 91) p r o v e s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s t r u c t i v e on t h i s p o i n t . The p r i n c i p l e s r a i s e d t h e r e a r e t h o s e a d o p t e d by the Supreme C o u r t of Canada. L o r d R u s s e l l of K i l l o w e n , C . J . h e l d t h a t the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of b y - l a w s ought t o be s u p p o r t e d i f p o s s i b l e : They ought to be, as has been s a i d ' b e n e v o l e n t l y ' i n t e r p r e t e d , and c r e d i t ought t o be g i v e n t o t h o s e who have to a d m i n i s t e r them t h a t t h e y w i l l be r e a s o n a b l y a d m i n i s t e r e d . ( K r u s e v. Jo h n s o n (189 8) 2 Q.B. 91, pages 99-100.) However, L o r d R u s s e l l f u r t h e r n o t e s t h a t grounds of r e a s o n a b l e n e s s may be ad v a n c e d i f : . . . t h e y ( b y - l a w s ) a r e f o u n d to be p a r t i a l and u n e q u a l i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n as between d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s ; i f t h e y were m a n i f e s t l y u n j u s t ; i f th e y d i s c l o s e d bad f a i t h ; i f the y i n v o l v e d s u c h o p p r e s s i v e or g r a t u i t o u s i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e r i g h t s of t h o s e s u b j e c t t o them as c o u l d f i n d no j u s t i -f i c a t i o n i n t h e minds of r e a s o n a b l e men, t h e C o u r t might w e l l s a y , ' P a r l i a m e n t n e v e r i n t e n d e d t o g i v e a u t h o r i t y t o make s u c h r u l e s ; t h e y : w e r e u n r e a s o n a b l e and u l t r a v i r e s ' . But i t i s i n t h i s s e n s e ,  and i n t h i s s e n s e o n l y , as I c o n c e i v e ,  t h a t the q u e s t i o n of u n r e a s o n a b l e n e s s can  p r o p e r l y be r e g a r d e d . A by-law i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e m e r e l y b e c a u s e p a r t i c u l a r j u d g e s may t h i n k t h a t i t goes f u r t h e r t h a n i s p r u d e n t or n e c e s s a r y or c o n v e n i e n t , or b e c a u s e i t i s not accompanied by a q u a l i f i c a t i o n or an e x c e p t i o n w h i c h some j u d g e s may t h i n k ought t o be t h e r e . ( S u p r a , emphasis added.) The scheme of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s M u n i c i p a l A c t ( s u p r a ) i s , u n d o u b t e d l y , t o c o n f e r upon e a c h l o c a l body the r i g h t of s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . The l e g i s l a t i v e mandate i s f o r " t h e p r o m o t i o n of h e a l t h , s a f e t y , c o n v e n i e n c e and 91 w e l f a r e o f t h e p u b l i c " (s . 702 ( 2 ) ( a ) , M u n i c i p a l A c t o f  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . , s u p r a ) . I n p r a c t i c e , s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t by m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n m e n t mus t be b o t h r e a s o n a b l e and i n t r a v i r e s . The c a s e R e g i n a v . B e l l ( 1 9 7 6 ) 69 D . L . R . ( 3 d ) a t 375 i s n o t e w o r t h y . I n t h a t c a s e t h e r e s p o n d e n t m u n i c i -p a l i t y p a s s e d a b y - l a w p u r s u a n t t o s . 3 5 ( l ) , p a r a . 4 o f t h e P l a n n i n g A c t , R . S . O . 1 9 7 0 , c . 3 4 9 , ( O n t a r i o ) l i m i t i n g t h e u s e o f c e r t a i n l a n d s t o " d w e l l i n g s , s e m i - d e t a c h e d d w e l l i n g s and d u p l e x e s " . U n d e r t h e B o r o u g h o f N o r t h Y o r k Z o n i n g B y - l a w N o . 7625 a d w e l l i n g u n i t was d e f i n e d as m e a n i n g l i v i n g q u a r t e r s d e s i g n e d o r i n t e n d e d f o r u s e by an i n d i v i d u a l o r one f a m i l y a l o n e . " F a m i l y " was d e f i n e d as m e a n i n g a g r o u p o f . t w o o r more p e r s o n s l i v i n g t o g e t h e r and i n t e r r e l a t e d by b o n d s o f c o n s a n g u i n i t y , m a r r i a g e , o r l e g a l a d o p t i o n . The D e f e n d a n t , D o u g l a s B e l l , s h a r e d p r e m i s e s w i t h two o t h e r u n r e l a t e d a d u l t m a l e s and was c o n v i c t e d f o r a v i o l a t i o n o f t h e b y - l a w . The c a s e was h e a r d i n a l o w e r c o u r t o f O n t a r i o , and came on a p p e a l t o t h e O n t a r i o H i g h C o u r t . I n h i s d e c i s i o n , E s t e y , J , as he t h e n w a s , o f t h e O n t a r i o H i g h C o u r t h e l d t h a t w h e r e a m u n i c i p a l b y - l a w n a r r o w l y d e f i n e s " f a m i l y " as i n t h e B o r o u g h o f N o r t h Y o r k Z o n i n g B y - l a w N o . 7625 t h e n " t h e e f f e c t o f s u c h a p r o v i s i o n o f t h e b y - l a w i s t o p r e c l u d e t h e s h a r i n g o f r e n t e d a c c o m m o d a t i o n by two a d u l t p e r s o n s u n r e l a t e d by b l o o d o r 92 m a r r i a g e " . ( R e g i n a v. B e l l , s u p r a , at 383.) E s t e y , J . c o n c l u d e d : T h e r e a r e c o n s e q u e n c e s w h i c h c a n n o t r e a s o n a b l y be c o n s i d e r e d t o have been i n t h e mind of t h e e n a c t i n g L e g i s l a t u r e . ( S u p r a . ) The m u n i c i p a l a p p e a l was t h e r e b y d i s m i s s e d . The c a s e was t h e n a p p e a l e d by the Borough of N o r t h Y o r k to t h e O n t a r i o C o u r t of A p p e a l w i t h s u c c e s s . The d e c i s i o n f r o m t h a t C o u r t h e l d t h a t the q u e s t i o n of u l t r a v i r e s had been r a i s e d s q u a r e l y i n the case of C i t y of T o r o n t o v. P o l a i (1969) 1 O.R. 655; 3 D.L.R.(3d) 498; r e v e r s e d (1970) 1 O.R. 483, 8 D.L.R.(3d) 689; a f f i r m e d (1973) S.C.R. 38, D.L.R.(3d) 6 3 8 ) , a c a s e a c c e p t e d as p r e c e d e n t i n t h e mind of MacKinnon, J . and Coram i n t h e i r O n t a r i o C o u r t of A p p e a l d e c i s i o n i n R e g i n a v. B e l l . They a l l o w e d t h e a p p e a l by the Borough of N o r t h Y o r k , u p h o l d i n g i t s a c t i o n as i n t r a v i r e s the P l a n n i n g A c t and The  M u n i c i p a l A c t of O n t a r i o . M a c Kinnon, J . s a i d as f o l l o w s : By-law 7625 (and i t s s e c t i o n s ) e n a c t e d under the s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i v e power d e l e g a t e d to t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y to a l l o w i t to c o n t r o l l a n d use f o r i t s own p r o p e r p u r p o s e s and p o l i c y r e a s o n s , a p p l i e s e q u a l l y t o a l l c i t i z e n s w i t h i n t h e r e l e v a n t z o n e s . The b y - l aw was n o t e n a c t e d i n bad f a i t h ; i t was n o t e n a c t e d due t o b i a s ; i t i s not d i s c r i m i n -a t o r y i n the r e l e v a n t l e g a l s e n s e ; and t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y has not e x c e e d e d t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n g r a n t e d to i t m e r e l y b e c a u s e some r e s u l t s of t h e b y - l a w , no t due to b i a s or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , c o u l d a p p e a r t o be, as t h e D i v i s i o n a l C o u r t put i t , ' b i z a r r e i n the eyes of t h e C o u r t ' . The r e s p o n d e n t s u b m i t t e d t h e r e c o u l d be no l i m i t a t i o n p l a c e d by t h e m u n i c i -p a l i t y under i t s z o n i n g power on t h e number of p e o p l e who c o u l d r e s i d e i n any d w e l l i n g u n i t anywhere, the argument b e i n g t h a t any l i m i t a t i o n would be an a r b i t r a r y , d i s c r i m i n a t o r y , u n r e a s o n a b l e e x e r c i s e of power no t a u t h o r i z e d by the P l a n n i n g A c t . The m u n i c i p a l i t y , i n e x e r c i s i n g i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i n By-law 7625, l i m i t e d t h e number of r e s i d e n t s of a d w e l l i n g u n i t to a s p e c i f i c number or t o a ' f a m i l y ' as commonly u n d e r s t o o d and d e f i n e d . The m u n i c i p a l i t y would have been i n d i f f i c u l t y i f i t had s o u g h t t o l i m i t the s i z e of f a m i l i e s as commonly u n d e r s t o o d , but i t i s n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e , i n the l e g a l s e n s e , f o r t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y to l i m i t the number of p e o p l e who may o c cupy a d w e l l i n g u n i t i n a r e a s i t has d e t e r m i n e d w i l l be r e s i d e n t i a l . The b y - l a w was n o t 'aimed' at u n m a r r i e d c o u p l e s or e l d e r l y widows or at any o t h e r p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l , o r , i n d e e d at anyone's m o r a l conduct-. As has been s a i d i n a n o t h e r c o n n e c t i o n , c o n s e q u e n t i a l e f f e c t s a r e not the same as l e g i s l a t i v e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r . In my v i e w , the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n l i n e t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y drew was a competent l e g i s l a t i v e a c t . ( R e g i n a v. B e l l , (1977) 75 D.L.R.(3d) a t 765.) 94 I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t M a cKinnon, J . f i n d s t h a t the b y - l a w " i s n ot d i s c r i m i n a t o r y i n t h e r e l e v a n t l e g a l s e n s e " s i n c e t h e b y - l a w does a p p l y e q u a l l y t o a l l r e s i d e n t s of the community. B r o o k e , J . , who a l s o p r e s i d e d i n the T o r o n t o v. P o l a i c a s e , f i n d s i n R e g i n a v. B e l l r e a s o n to c o n c u r w i t h an o p i n i o n of E s t e y , J . of the D i v i s i o n a l C o u r t , w h i l e c o n c u r r i n g w i t h MacKinnon, J . t h a t the a p p e a l b e f o r e them s h o u l d f a i l . B r o o k e , J . f i l e d t h i s o p i n i o n : I q u e s t i o n t h a t t h e use of t h e d e f i n i t i o n of ' f a m i l y ' as a method of z o n i n g i n m u n i c i p a l b y - l a w s i s competent m u n i c i p a l l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h i n the s c o p e of the P l a n n i n g A c t , R.S.O. 1970, c.349, or t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t , R.S.O. 1970, c.284. I t i s t r u e t h a t u nder the. P l a n n i n g A c t the m u n i c i p a l i t y may p a s s b y - l a w s w h i c h a r e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y i n the s e n s e t h a t t h e y can s p e c i f y c l a s s e s of b u i l d i n g s , t h e i r d e n s i t y , and c o n t r o l the d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n by l i m i t i n g b u i l d i n g use i n terms of minimum a r e a s . But i t i s q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t m a t t e r t o say t h a t the P l a n n i n g A c t a u t h o r i z e s a b y - l a w w h i c h d i s c r i m i n a t e s between c l a s s e s of p e o p l e t h a t may l i v e i n any b u i l d i n g b a s e d on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of t h o s e p e r s o n s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e r s o n a l to them. In t h i s c a s e t h e word ' f a m i l y ' was not used as a d e s c r i p t i v e word to show the n a t u r e of b u i l d i n g s or the community as a p l a c e where p e o p l e of a l l ages r e s i d e and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s s u c h as s c h o o l s , t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n , e t c . , a r e p r o v i d e d . Commonly used t h e word d e s c r i b e s p e o p l e and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p as members of a h o u s e h o l d , d e s c e n d e n t s of a common a n c e s t o r and p e r h a p s b r o t h e r h o o d s of p e r s o n s r e l a t e d by p a r t i c u l a r t i e s . I n t h i s c a s e t h e word ' f a m i l y ' was d e f i n e d and the e l e m e n t s of the d e f i n i t i o n became p e r s o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n 95 f o r r e s i d e n c e i n the zone. The m i s c h i e f w h i c h f o l l o w s , i s c l e a r and as s e t out i n t h e judgement i n a p p e a l t h e r e may be d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t the most i n n o c e n t p e o p l e . I do not t h i n k p e r s o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n of t h i s t y p e or o t h e r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or q u a l i t i e s have e v e r been s u g g e s t e d as a p r o p e r b a s i s f o r c o n t r o l of d e n s i t y or any i s s u e r e l e v a n t to l a n d use or l a n d z o n i n g . Such a s u b m i s s i o n can o n l y be s u p p o r t e d on the b a s i s of the s t a t e m e n t i n the C i t y of T o r o n t o v. P o l a i to t h e e f f e c t t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e a u t h o r i z e d t o e n s u r e t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of b e t t e r r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s by r e q u i r i n g them to be o c c u p i e d by p e r s o n s who a r e r e l a t e d (and n ot by u n r e l a t e d p e o p l e ) . T h i s i s l a n d z o n i n g by p e o p l e z o n i n g and i s not w i t h i n the scope of the P l a n n i n g A c t . Fo r t h e same r e a s o n I do not a g r e e t h a t s u c h a b y - l a w i s a u t h o r i z e d by s.242 of the M u n i c i p a l A c t . I t i s not p a s s e d f o r the p u r p o s e o f ' h e a l t h , s a f e t y , or w e l f a r e of the i n h a b i t a n t s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y ' . Of c o u r s e i t i s n o t s u g g e s t e d t h a t the i n n o c e n t r e s i d e n c e o f u n r e l a t e d a d u l t s i n the same d w e l l i n g i s w i t h i n the scope of ' m o r a l i t y ' so t h a t the c i t y may s e g r e g a t e them from t h e r e s t of the community. The judgment of the D i v i s i o n a l C o u r t p o i n t s out the b r o a d s e c t i o n of the p u b l i c d i s q u a l i f i e d f r o m r e s i d i n g w i t h o t h e r s i n the a r e a so zoned i f the by-law i s v a l i d and e n f o r c e a b l e . They h e l d i t to be u n r e a s o n a b l y beyond the scope of t h e P l a n n i n g A c t and t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t and u l t r a v i r e s t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y . As I say I doubt t h a t I would have come t o the same c o n c l u s i o n t h a t I d i d i n P o l a i as to the v a l i d i t y of the by-law i f i t were s t i l l o p e n . t o me t o do so. ( R e g i n a v. B e l l , (1977) 75 D.L.R.(3d) a t 757.) 96 From the f o r e g o i n g i t can be seen t h a t the above two c a s e s , T o r o n t o v. P b l a i and R e g i n a v. B e l l , a r e key c a s e s on w h i c h the s e g r e g a t i o n , of " f a m i l i e s " t h r o u g h z o n i n g t u r n s . I t i s c l e a r t h a t a f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e of m u n i c i p a l law i s t h a t b y - l a w s must a f f e c t e q u a l l y a l l t h o s e who come w i t h i n the ambit o f t h e e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . (See F r e d e r i c t o n v . . H o r i z o n R e a l t y L t d . (No. 2 ) , (1973) 6 N.B.R. 846 ( C . A . ) : B u l l o c k v. S c a r b o r o u g h (1959) O.W.N. 297, 19 D.L.R.(2d) 680.) I t i s a l s o a p r i n c i p l e of m u n i c i p a l law t h a t l e g i s l a t i o n must t h e r e f o r e be i m p a r t i a l i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n and must n o t d i s c r i m i n a t e so as to show f a v o u r i t i s m t o one or more c l a s s e s o f p e o p l e . ( F o r s t v.  T o r o n t o (1923) 54 O.L.R. 256 a t 275 (C.A.) I t i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t by t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e z o n i n g b y - l a w s a r e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y ( S i l l e v y v. Sun O i l L t d . (1964) S.C.R. 552, 45 D.L.R.(2d) 541; S c a r b o r o u g h v. B o n d i (1959) S.C.R. 444, 18 D.L.R.(2d) 161.) On A p r i l 24, 1979, the Supreme C o u r t of Canada r e n d e r e d Reasons of t h e C o u r t i n the a p p e a l c a s e of D o u g l a s B e l l v s . Her M a j e s t y t h e Queen (1979), U n r e p o r t e d . Reasons o f t h e C o u r t were by Spence, J . , c o n c u r r e d i n by L a s k i n , C.J.C. and D i c k s o n , J ; d i s s e n t i n g Reasons by M a r t l a n d , J . , c o n c u r r e d i n by R i t c h i e , J . The m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n u p h e l d the a p p e a l of D o u g l a s B e l l . The d e c i s i o n n o t e d t h a t " t h e f a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n i n P p l a i c a n n o t be 97 a p p l i e d t o the d e c i s i o n of the p r e s e n t a p p e a l " . The J u s t i c e s were a l s o of the o p i n i o n t h a t whether or n o t the C o u r t of A p p e a l f o r O n t a r i o were bound by the d e c i s i o n i n P o l a i "upon the i s s u e of the u l t r a v i r e s n a t u r e of the p r o v i s i o n s of the b y - l aw as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the d i s c r i m -i n a t o r y n a t u r e of i t s e n f o r c e m e n t " ( D o u g l a s B e l l , s u p r a , page 7) the Supreme C o u r t o f Canada was n o t so bound i n D o u g l a s B e l l ( s u p r a ) . The d i s t i n c t i o n made was t h a t P o l a i s t r u c t u a l l y a l t e r e d a b u i l d i n g f r o m a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d o n e - f a m i l y to many s i n g l e - f a m i l y u n i t s w h i c h she r e n t e d to t e n a n t s and t h e r e b y c a r r i e d on a b u s i n e s s . D o u g l a s B e l l , on the o t h e r hand, made no s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n s . He s i m p l y o c c u p i e d the d w e l l i n g w i t h two o t h e r s who c o n t r i b u t e d i n some way to the upkeep of the h o u s e h o l d . "The o n l y b a r t o h i s d o i n g so i s the d e f i n i t i o n a p p e a r i n g i n By-law 7625 i n s. 2.32.7 of a d w e l l i n g u n i t as b e i n g 'a s e p a r a t e s e t of l i v i n g q u a r t e r s d e s i g n e d or i n t e n d e d f o r use or used by an i n d i v i d u a l or one f a m i l y a l o n e ' . . . " . ( D o u g l a s B e l l v s . Her M a j e s t y the  Queen, S.C.C. ( 1 9 7 9 ) , u n r e p o r t e d , page 8.) The m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n i n D o u g l a s B e l l ( s u p r a ) n e x t c o n s i d e r e d t h e l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y of the m u n i c i p a l i t y u nder the P l a n n i n g A c t of O n t a r i o , f i n d i n g t h a t the power t o e n a c t a z o n i n g b y - l a w f l o w s from s e c t i o n 35(1) of the P l a n n i n g A c t i n p a r a g . (1) " a u t h o r i z e s b y - l a w s f o r p r o h i b i t i n g t h e use of the l a n d " , i n p a r a g . (2) " f o r p r o h i b i t i n g the e r e c t i o n or use of b u i l d i n g " and i n p a r a g . (4) " f o r r e g u l a t i n g , i n t e r a l i a , the c h a r a c t e r and use of b u i l d i n g s " . ( I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h i s a u t h o r i t y i s s i m i l a r l y p h r a s e d i n s.702 o f the M u n i c i p a l A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, as amended.) In h i s m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n i n D o u g l a s B e l l , Spence, J . d e c l a r e d h i m s e l f i n e x a c t a g r e e -ment w i t h Hogg, J . , E s t e y , C.J.H.C., as he t h e n was, and B r o o k e , J.A. i n the C o u r t of A p p e a l of O n t a r i o , who f o u n d t h a t the by-law i n q u e s t i o n r e s t r i c t e d t h e o c c u p a t i o n of d w e l l i n g s t o a " f a m i l y " and t h e n d e f i n e d " f a m i l y " by r e f e r e n c e t o . c o n s a n g u i n i t y , m a r r i a g e and a d o p t i o n o n l y and so was n o t r e g u l a t i n g t h e use of the b u i l d i n g b u t who used i t . ( D o u g l a s B e l l v s . Her M a j e s t y the Queen, ( 1 9 7 9 ) , u n r e p o r t e d , page 8.) The Reasons f o r the C o u r t by Spence, J . i n summation s t a t e : I n v i e w of the many p o s s i b l e i n e q u i t -a b l e a p p l i c a t i o n s of the d e f i n i t i o n of ' f a m i l y ' w h i c h I have m e n t i o n e d above, I am of the o p i n i o n t h a t the b y - l a w i n i t s d e v i c e of a d o p t i n g ' f a m i l y ' as b e i n g t h e o n l y p e r m i t t e d o c c u p a n t s of a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d d w e l l i n g u n i t comes e x a c t l y w i t h i n L o r d R u s s e l l ' s words as to be f o u n d t o be 'such o p p r e s s i v e or g r a t u i t i o u s i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e r i g h t s of t h o s e s u b j e c t to them as c o u l d f i n d no j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n the minds of r e a s o n a b l e men'. And, t h e r e f o r e , as 99 L o r d R u s s e l l s a i d , the l e g i s l a t u r e n e v e r i n t e n d e d , t o g i v e a u t h o r i t y to make s u c h r u l e s and the d e v i c e of z o n i n g by r e f e r e n c e to the r e l a t i o n s h i p of o c c u p a n t s r a t h e r t h an the use of t h e b u i l d i n g i s one w h i c h i s u l t r a v i r e s of the m u n i c i p a l i t y under the p r o v i s i o n s of the P l a n n i n g  A c t . ( D o u g l a s B e l l , s u p r a , page 11.) A l t h o u g h the d o c t r i n e of u n r e a s o n a b l e n e s s i s not s u f f i c i e n t c ause to make i n v a l i d a m u n i c i p a l by-law by v i r t u e of p r o v i s i o n s i n a M u n i c i p a l A c t , t h e d o c t r i n e s t i l l e x i s t s , . ( K r u s e v. J o h n s o n , s u p r a . ) As L o r d R u s s e l l t h e r e s t a t e d , the q u e s t i o n of u n r e a s o n a b l e n e s s can p r o p e r l y be r e g a r d e d w i t h i n the s e n s e of i n e q u i t y : where b y - l a w s a r e f o u n d to be p a r t i a l and u n e q u a l i n t h e i r o p e r a t i o n as between d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s ; where b y - l a w s a r e m a n i f e s t l y u n j u s t ; where b y - l a w s d i s c l o s e bad f a i t h ; where b y - l a w s i n v o l v e s u c h o p p r e s s i v e or g r a t u i t o u s i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h t h e r i g h t s of t h o s e s u b j e c t to them as c o u l d f i n d no j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n the 100 minds of r e a s o n a b l e men. I t seems a p p r o p r i a t e , t h e r e f o r e , t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e k i n d and d e g r e e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n under w h i c h z o n i n g p r a c t i c e s might f a l l as th e y p e r t a i n to t h e Human R i g h t s  Code o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R.S.B.C. 1973 ,(2nd S e s s . ) c.119. 4.5 Human R i g h t s D i s c u s s i o n s of human r i g h t s and a l l e g e d c a s e s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as t h e y r e l a t e to z o n i n g m a t t e r s , t o the d e f i n i t i o n of " f a m i l y " and t o r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s must be an academic e x e r c i s e . To the w r i t e r ' s k nowledge, t h e r e i s no c a s e , e i t h e r b e f o r e the C o u r t s or human r i g h t s t r i b u n a l s , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a where the q u e s t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l has been r a i s e d under human r i g h t s l e g i s l a t i o n . W h i l e i t i s dan g e r o u s i n law or i n ac a d e m i c t h e s e s to e x t r a p o l a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e on the b a s i s of a n a l o g y , i t i s f e l t t h a t c e r t a i n : p r i n c i p l e s and law have been r a i s e d i n c a s e s i n v o l v i n g t h e Human R i g h t s . C o d e of B.C. ( s u p r a ) , w h i c h have a s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g on the q u e s t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n i n l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l . The Human p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t R i g h t s Code of B.C. ( s u p r a ) , p r o v i d e s s e v e r a l b a s e s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i t 101 s p e c i f i c a l l y e n u m e r a t e s ; r a c e , r e l i g i o n , c o l o u r , a n c e s t r y , p l a c e of o r i g i n , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , age, p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f and c r i m i n a l c o n v i c t i o n . However, t h i s l i s t of p r o h i b i t e d b a s e s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s e t out i n the Code i s n o t e x h a u s t i v e . In r e c e n t y e a r s , c a s e d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v i n g " r e a s o n a b l e grounds f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " i n d i c a t e t h a t the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s e s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h were n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y enumerated i n t h e Code a r e a d d i t i o n a l l y p r o h i b i t e d cause f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n : p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y ( J e f f e r s o n and B a l d w i n and B.C. F e r r i e s A u t h o r i t y , B.C. H.R.B.I., 1976; s e c . 8 c o m p l a i n t ) ; p r e g n a n c y ( W i l s o n and  V a n c o u v e r V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , B.C.H.R.B.I., 1976; s e c . 3 c o m p l a i n t ) ; a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a c o n t r o v e r s i a l c h a r a c t e r (Bremer and B o a r d o f S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , Sooke, B.C.H.R.B.I., 1977 ; s e c . 8 c o m p l a i n t ) . ; a l t e r n a t e l i f e s t y l e s (Oram and  Pho, B.C.H.R.B.I., 1976; s e c . 3 c o m p l a i n t ) . In Bremer, a l e a d i n g d e c i s i o n of human r i g h t s t r i b u n a l s , R. Germaine, Chairman of the B o ard of I n q u i r y , had t h i s to s a y : . . . t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h e x p r e s s l y do not c o n s t i t u t e r e a s o n a b l e cause a r e n o t a c o m p l e t e d e f i n i t i o n i n a n e g a t i v e f a s h i o n of what r e a s o n a b l e cause i s . . . . I t i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the f a c t o r s l i s t e d i n s u b s e c t i o n 2 ( o f s e c t i o n 8) do n o t r e p r e s e n t an e x h a u s t i v e l i s t . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n was r e a c h e d i n J e f f e r s o n and  The B.C. F e r r i e s et a l (B.C.H.R.B.I. 1976) and i n a c a s e under s e c t i o n 3 of the Code, G. A.T.E. and The Sun (B.C.H.R.B.I. 1975). The l a t t e r d e c i s i o n has been s u s t a i n e d on a p p e a l i n the Supreme C o u r t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , (B.C.S.C. A u g u s t , 1976). 102 (Bremer and B o a r d of S c h o o l T r u s t e e s , Sooke, page 4.) A l t h o u g h t h e G.A.T.E. (Gay A l l i a n c e Toward E q u a l i t y ) c a s e has s i n c e been r e v e r s e d i n t h e B.C. C o u r t of A p p e a l and s u s t a i n e d i n the Supreme C o u r t of Canada, t h o s e a p p e a l s i n v o l v e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the c l a u s e " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " . The i s s u e to w h i c h Mr. Germaine r e f e r s i s t h a t of j u r i s d i c -t i o n of a b o a r d of i n q u i r y t o h e a r a c o m p l a i n t by a c l a s s of p e r s o n s n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y enumerated i n the r e s p e c t i v e s e c t i o n of the Code. The j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e B o a r d of I n q u i r y i n G.A.T.E. has been u p h e l d t h r o u g h a l l a p p e a l s . The Human R i g h t s Code of B.C. i s u n i q u e i n Canada i n t h a t B.C. i s the o n l y p r o v i n c e to i n c l u d e the p h r a s e " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " as grounds f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . An e x a m i n a t i o n of l e g a l q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g human r i g h t s and l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l i s t h e r e f o r e u n p a r a l l e l e d i n Canada and d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . The a f f e c t o f the Human R i g h t s Code of B.C. on o t h e r l e g i s l a t i o n has c a u s e d some d i f f i c u l t y . F o r example, c o n f l i c t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s have been r e a c h e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e e f f e c t of s e c t i o n 7. of the I n n k e e p e r ' s A c t , w h i c h a l l o w s an i n n k e e p e r t o e x p e l a p e r s o n whom he "deems u n d e s i r a b l e " , and s e c t i o n 3 of the Human R i g h t s Code, w h i c h p r o h i b i t s d e n i a l of a s e r v i c e c u s t o m a r i l y a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c . 103 ( R e g i n a v. E x p r e s s H o l d i n g s L t d . (1976) u n r e p o r t e d ; o r Oram and Pho, s u p r a . ) In the l a t t e r d e c i s i o n , t h e b o a r d of i n q u i r y h e l d t h a t the l a n g u a g e of the I n n k e e p e r s '  A c t must be i n t e r p r e t e d as r e q u i r i n g a r e a s o n a b l e i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f u n d e s i r a b i l i t y and t h a t s e c t i o n 7, as so i n t e r p r e t e d , was i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s e c t i o n 3 of the Code. The P r o v i n c i a l C o u r t i n the f o r m e r c a s e , r u l e d t h a t the I n n k e e p e r s ' A c t too k p r e c e d e n c e o v e r t h e Code. In a cas e i n v o l v i n g the I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a v. H e e r s p i n k (1977) 6 W.W.R. 286; a f f i r m e d 1978, 6 W.W.R. 702), i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t a human, r i g h t s b o a r d of i n q u i r y had j u r i s d i c t i o n n o t o n l y to h e a r a c o m p l a i n t b r o u g h t a g a i n s t a p r o v i n c i a l c o r p o r a -t i o n under the Code b ut t o c o n s i d e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f the I n s u r a n c e A c t as c o n t r a v e n i n g t h e Code. In t h i s c a s e a c o m p l a i n t was b r o u g h t by R o b e r t H e e r s p i n k t o the Human R i g h t s Commission t h a t he had been d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t by the I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n v i o l a t i o n of s e c t i o n 3 of the Human R i g h t s Code. Mr. H e e r s p i n k owned p r o p e r t y f o r w h i c h I.C.B.C. had i s s u e d a f i r e i n s u r a n c e p o l i c y and under s e c t i o n .208(1) of the I n s u r a n c e A c t , R.S.B.C. 1960, c.197 t e r m i n a t e d the p o l i c y by a p p r o p r i a t e n o t i c e . No 104 r e a s o n was g i v e n f o r t h e c a n c e l l a t i o n . Mr. H e e r s p i n k a l l e g e d t h a t the r e a s o n f o r c a n c e l l a t i o n was t h a t a l t h o u g h he had been c h a r g e d w i t h p o s s e s s i o n of and t r a f f i c k i n g i n m a r i j u a n a , b u t not c o n v i c t e d of the c h a r g e s , d e n i a l of a s e r v i c e c u s t o m a r i l y a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s v i o l a t e d s e c t i o n 3 of the Code. At t h e b e g i n n i n g of the h e a r i n g , c o u n s e l f o r I.C.B.C. r a i s e d a p r e l i m i n a r y o b j e c t i o n t o the j u r i s d i c -t i o n of the Bo a r d of I n q u i r y . C o u n s e l f o r I.C.B.C. c l a i m e d t h a t t h e a c t i o n of I.C.B.C. was e x p r e s s l y a u t h o r i z e d by p r o v i s i o n s i n t h e I n s u r a n c e A c t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s u p r a , and t h a t " t h e p r o v i s i o n s of the Human R i g h t s Code ca n n o t be t a k e n to have been i n t e n d e d t o , and do n o t , o v e r r i d e t h a t a u t h o r i z a t i o n " . (Mr. Leon Getz,, C h a i r m a n , H e e r s p i n k and I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n o f  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B.C.H.R.B.I., 1977, page 2.) In h i s i n i t i a l d e c i s i o n of the Bo a r d of I n q u i r y C hairman Ge t z s t a t e d t h a t t h e I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was n o t g o v e r n e d by " s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n " of the k i n d e s t a b l i s h e d i n Seward v . " V e r a Cruz" (1884) 10 A.C. 59 i n t h a t i t " d i d not d e a l w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t t h a t i s s a i d t o be embraced by the g e n e r a l words of t h e l a t e r s t a t u t e " , namely, t h e Human R i g h t s Code of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Mr. G e t z f o u n d t h a t the i s s u e was one 105 of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Human R i g h t s Code and the common law. A s t a t u t e c a n n o t be c o n s t r u e d as " w o r k i n g any f u n d a m e n t a l change i n the common law, u n l e s s i t c l e a r l y and u n m i s t a k a b l y uses words h a v i n g t h i s e f f e c t " . ( G e t z , 1977, pages 13/14.) Mr. Getz s a i d t h a t " i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i m a g i n e a c l e a r e r example of a d e l i b e r a t e use of s t a t u t o r y words h a v i n g t h i s e f f e c t t h a n i s p r o v i d e d by s e c t i o n 3 of the Code." ( I b i d . ) Mr. Getz expanded f u r t h e r on t h i s j u r i s d i c t i o n a l q u e r y f i n d i n g t h a t a B o a r d of I n q u i r y c o u l d p r o p e r l y h e a r a m a t t e r i n v o l v i n g the I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e I n s u r a n c e A c t : I f t h e r e i s any doubt about t h i s , t h a t doubt s h o u l d , i n my o p i n i o n , be r e s o l v e d i n f a v o u r of the Code. I t must be bourn e i n mind t h a t the Human  R i g h t s Code i s i n some r e s p e c t s l e g i s l a t i o n of a r a t h e r s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r . S p e a k i n g of a n a l o g o u s l e g i s l a t i o n i n E n g l a n d , t h e Race  R e l a t i o n s A c t of 1965 and 1968, L o r d M o r r i s r e c e n t l y o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e y i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e law of t h a t c o u n t r y 'a new and g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e of f u n d a -m e n t a l and f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p o r t a n c e ' ( C h a r t e r v. Race R e l a t i o n s B o a r d (19 7 3) 1 ALL E.R. 512, 518 (H . C . ) . I t seems to me t h a t the Code, e q u a l l y , i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the law of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a s i m i l a r and g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e of f u n d a -m e n t a l and f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p o r t a n c e . I t i s o f the v e r y n a t u r e of the i s s u e s w i t h w h i c h i t d e a l s t h a t i t s h o u l d be e x p r e s s e d i n words of g e n e r a l and f a r -r e a c h i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t i s c o n c e r n e d n o t w i t h the s p e c i f i c and i s o l a t e d abuse t h a t i s so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the c o n c e r n s of t h e l e g i s l a t i o n e n a c t e d i n an e a r l i e r 106 e r a , an e r a i n w h i c h ' l e g i s l a t u r e s i n t e r f e r e d as T i t t l e " a s p o s s i b l e w i t h the f u n a m e n t a l t r a d i t i o n s of s o c i e t y , and the c o u r t s were but c a r r y i n g out the l e g i s l a t i v e p u r p o s e when t h e y i n v o k e d t h i s p r e s u m p t i o n ( a g a i n s t i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h common-law r i g h t s ) i n o r d e r to c o n f i n e t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e A c t w i t h i n narrow bounds' ( W i l l i s , " S t a t u t o r y I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i n a N u t s h e l l " (1938) 26 Can. B. Rev. 1,20). I t i s c o n c e r n e d , r a t h e r w i t h b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s of b e h a v i o u r , and r e q u i r e s an i n t e r p r e t i v e a p p r o a c h t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s c h a r a c t e r . I n my v i e w , i t demands t h a t ' f a i r , l a r g e and l i b e r a l c o n s t r u c -t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as b e s t e n s u r e s the a t t a i n m e n t of i t s o b j e c t s ' t h a t i s c a l l e d f o r by s e c t i o n 8 of the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n A c t , S.B.C. 1974, c.42. ( G e t z , H e e r s p i n k and.I.C.B.C. (1977) , pages 13 and 14.) To draw i n f e r e n c e on t h e b a s i s of a n a l o g y f r om H e e r s p i n k t h a t the Human R i g h t s Code of B.C. and human r i g h t s t r i b u n a l s a r e the a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r r e v i e w of d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s i n h o u s i n g as i t r e l a t e s t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e s o l v e f o u r i mmediate d i f f i c u l t i e s : 1. I t must be p r o v e d t h a t an a l l e g e d d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a c t has o c c u r r e d under s e c t i o n s 4 or 5 of the Code and r e c e i v e a h e a r i n g b e f o r e a Board, of I n q u i r y . 107 2. The j u r i s d i c t i o n of t h e B oard of I n q u i r y must be a f f i r m e d by d e t e r m i n i n g w hether or n o t t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t and z o n i n g b y -laws a r e s p e c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n as p e r Seward v. " V e r a C r u z " (1884) 10 A.C. 59 at page 68. 3. I t must be shown t h a t the u n r e s t r a i n e d g e n e r a l words of s e c t i o n s 4 and 5 of the Human R i g h t s Code of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s u p r a , m o d i f y the p e r t i n e n t p r o v i s i o n s of t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , s u p r a , and z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n , i . e . t h a t m u n i c i p a l i t i e s can l a n d zone but s h a l l n o t by p e o p l e z o n i n g . 4. I t must be p r o v e d t h a t the a l l e g e d d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n was u n r e a s o n a b l e , g i v e n - t h a t i n c l u s i o n o f a " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " c l a u s e i s a f f e c t e d i n s e c t i o n s 4 or 5 of t h e Code. I t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of most m u n i c i p a l s t a t u t e s t h a t t h e r e be a g e n e r a l omnibus or c a t c h - a l l p r o v i s i o n t o i m p a r t to each l o c a l c o u n c i l the r i g h t of s e l f -g overnment. F o r example, the M u n i c i p a l A c t of B.C., R.S.B.C. 1960, as amended, s a y s : 108 Upon r e c e i p t of a p e t i t i o n f r o m t h e C o u n c i l of a m u n i c i p a l i t y , the L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may, to the e x t e n t n ot i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i n t e n t of t h i s or any o t h e r A c t , c o n f e r s u c h f u r t h e r powers upon the C o u n c i l as a r e n e c e s s a r y t o p r e s e r v e and promote t h e p e a c e , o r d e r , and good government of t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y and t h e h e a l t h , s a f e t y , m o r a l i t y , and w e l f a r e of t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of t h e m u n i c i p a l i t y , and t o p r o v i d e f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f p e r s o n s and p r o p e r t y . ( S . 2 1 8 ( 3 ) , The M u n i c i p a l A c t  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R.S.B.C. 1960, as amended.) F u r t h e r a u t h o r i t y i s g r a n t e d under the z o n i n g p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A c t t o c o n t r o l t h e use of l a n d f o r " t h e p r o m o t i o n of h e a l t h , s a f e t y , c o n v e n i e n c e and w e l f a r e of t h e p u b l i c " i n s . 7 0 2 ( 2 ) ( a ) . The e f f e c t of t h e i n c l u s i o n of " g e n e r a l w e l f a r e " p r o v i s i o n s i s i n t e n d e d t o c i r c u m v e n t to some e x t e n t the d o c t r i n e of u l t r a v i r e s w h i c h p u t s the m u n i c i p a l i t y i n t h e p o s i t i o n of h a v i n g t o p o i n t to an e x p r e s s g r a n t of a u t h o r i t y t o j u s t i f y e a c h c o r p o r a t e a c t . The i s s u e of u l t r a v i r e s has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d i n a f o r e g o i n g s e c t i o n w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of l a n d z o n i n g by p e o p l e z o n i n g . T h e r e a r e , however, a number of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h need t o s e r v e more t h a n t h e number of p e r s o n s p e r m i t t e d under a z o n i n g b y - l a w d e f i n i t i o n of " f a m i l y " or need to p r o v i d e " i n - h o u s e " c a r e s e r v i c e s w h i c h do n o t f i t a 109 q u a s i - p a r e n t a l , r o l e . E s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e s e l a t t e r k i n d s of f a c i l i t y would l i k e l y f a i l as a m u n i c i p a l i t y c o u l d show t h a t a m a t e r i a l change i n use - a change i n c h a r a c t e r -would o c c u r . However, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n hous i n g community-ba s e d r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s of a l l k i n d s as a human r i g h t s m a t t e r i s a n o t h e r way o f v i e w i n g t h e k i n d and d e g r e e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p r e s e n t i n e x c l u s i o n a r y z o n i n g b y - l a w s . The Human R i g h t s Code of B.C. l e g i s l a t e s on d i s c r i m i n a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o h o u s i n g i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s : 4. No p e r s o n s h a l l (a) deny to any p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s th e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u r c h a s e any c o m m e r c i a l u n i t or d w e l l i n g u n i t t h a t i s a d v e r t i s e d or i n any way r e p r e s e n t e d as b e i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r s a l e ; or (b) deny to any p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u r c h a s e or o t h e r w i s e a c q u i r e l a n d or an i n t e r e s t i n l a n d ; or (c) d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t any p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to any term or c o n d i t i o n of the p u r c h a s e or o t h e r a c q u i s i t i o n of any c o m m e r c i a l u n i t , d w e l l i n g u n i t , l a n d , or i n t e r e s t i n l a n d , b e c a u s e of the r a c e , r e l i g i o n , c o l o u r , s e x , a n c e s t r y , p l a c e of o r i g i n , or m a r i t a l s t a t u s of t h a t p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s . and , 109a 5. (1) No p e r s o n s h a l l (a) deny to any p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s th e r i g h t t o occupy as a t e n a n t any s p a c e t h a t i s a d v e r t i s e d or o t h e r w i s e i n any way p r e s e n t e d as b e i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r o c c u p a n c y by a t e n a n t , o r (b) d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t any p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to any term or c o n d i t i o n of t h e t e n a n c y of s u c h s p a c e , b e c a u s e of the r a c e , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , r e l i g i o n , c o l o u r , a n c e s t r y , or p l a c e of o r i g i n of t h a t p e r s o n or c l a s s o f p e r s o n s , or of any o t h e r p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s . (Human R i g h t s Code of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , ( 1 9 7 3 ) , (2nd S e s s . ) c.119.) What i s i m p o r t a n t h e r e i s the l i s t of c l a s s e s or s u b j e c t s f o r w h i c h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g i s e x p r e s s l y p r o h i b i t e d . S e c t i o n 4 i s the t r o u b l e s o m e s e c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . I t i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h Human R i g h t s B o a r d s of I n q u i r y d e c i s i o n s t h a t s u c h enumerated c l a s s e s as t h o s e i n s e c t i o n 4, s u p r a , do n o t r e p r e s e n t an e x h a u s t i v e l i s t i n t h o s e s e c t i o n s of the Code w h i c h s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u i r e t h a t r e a s o n a b l e cause be p r o v e d f o r s u c h d e n i a l or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s of t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a d i s c u s s i o n o f r e a s o n a b l e cause as i t p e r t a i n s to e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n s of k i n d and d e g r e e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n z o n i n g and h o u s i n g i s r e l e v a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g th e q u a l i t y of r e a s o n a b l e n e s s . 110 In o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e the meaning of " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " , i t i s i m p o r t a n t to see i t not s i m p l y as a q u e s t i o n of f a i r n e s s , but i n l i g h t of s p e c i f i c g o v e r n i n g p r i n c i p l e s . The v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s t o d e t e r m i n i n g the meaning of r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e e s s e n t i a l l y the same. The p r i n c i p l e w h i c h emerges i n the d e c i s i o n of Mr. Germaine i n Bremer c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e s the n o t i o n : . . . t h e r e a s o n a b l e cause c o n c e p t i s i n t e n d e d t o p r o t e c t c l a s s e s or c a t e g o r i e s of p e r s o n s and i n d i v i d u a l members of such c l a s s e s or c a t e g o r i e s from p r e j u d i c i a l c o n d u c t r e l a t e d t o the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g group c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e c l a s s or c a t e g o r y from o t h e r s i n s o c i e t y . ( G e r m a i n e , 1977, page 6.) Mr. Germaine e l a b o r a t e d as f o l l o w s : . . . I n e v e r y c o n t r a v e n t i o n , t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s r e a s o n s f o r t h e p r o h i b i t e d c o n d u c t a r e r e l a t e d to the f a i l u r e of the r e s p o n d e n t to make an i n d i v i d u a l a s s e s s m e n t of t h e p e r s o n d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t . The r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n r e l a t i o n to the p e r t i n e n t employ-ment or o t h e r p r o t e c t e d o p p o r t u n i t y , a c o n s i d e r a t i o n f r e e of any r e f e r e n c e to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s ' d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ' . A c o n t r a v e n t i o n of the r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e s t a n d a r d w i l l m a n i f e s t a r e f u s a l to engage i n s u c h an i n d i v i d u a l a s s e s s m e n t . I l l I n e v e r y c o n t r a v e n t i o n t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s r e a s o n s f o r t h e p r o h i b i t e d c o n d u c t i n v o l v e a c o n s i d e r a t i o n by the r e s p o n d e n t of the c o m p l a i n a n t ' s group f a c t o r or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s u c h a s , f o r example, r a c e or r e l i g i o n . Such group f a c t o r s a r e , of c o u r s e , t o t a l l y i r r e l e v a n t and u n r e l a t e d t o the o p p o r t u n i t y d e n i e d or i n r e s p e c t of wh i c h t h e c o m p l a i n a n t i s t r e a t e d u n e q u a l l y . A l l t o o f r e q u e n t l y , a c o n t r a v e n t i o n w i l l be r e c o g n i z a b l e by a q u a l i t y of p r e c o n c e i v e d and u n r e a s o n a b l e o p i n i o n h e l d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t i n r e l a t i o n to the i r r e l e v a n t and u n r e l a t e d f a c t o r . ( G e r m a i n e , 1977, page 7.) . . . I t i s w o r t h a d d i n g t h a t no amount of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s s u g g e s t i n g the a v e r a g e f e m a l e has a l o w e r l e v e l of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h t h a n the a v e r a g e male w i l l s e r v e t o make t h e sex of a p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n r e l e v a n t t o a d e c i s i o n c o n c e r n i n g an employment o p p o r t u n i t y r e q u i r i n g a c e r t a i n l e v e l of p h y s i c a l s t r e n g t h . Such s t a t i s t i c s would n o t a l t e r t h e l o g i c a l f a l l a c y i n h e r e n t i n an a s s u m p t i o n about a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l due to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s sex. I t i s t o be n o t e d , i n d e s c r i b i n g a s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of t h i s n a t u r e as i r r e l e v a n t , we a r e not s a y i n g t h a t f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s c o u l d n e v e r be of a s s i s t a n c e i n human r i g h t s p r o c e e d i n g s. ( G e r m a i n e , 1977, page 8.) Mr. Germaine i n Bremer c i t e s J e f f e r s o n and  B . C . F e r r i e s e t a l (B.C.H.R.B.I. 1976) to i l l u s t r a t e t h a t the l i s t of p r o t e c t e d p e r s o n s or c l a s s of p e r s o n s can be f u r t h e r expanded. I t was c o n c l u d e d i n J e f f e r s o n , 112 a c a s e i n v o l v i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n ' employment, t h a t : . . . p h y s i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d p e r s o n s a r e a p r o t e c t e d c l a s s by t h e f a c t t h a t a p h y s i c a l h a n d i c a p i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o v e r w h i c h a p e r s o n has no c o n t r o l . ( G e r m a i n e , 1977, page 6.) In the c a s e of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s f o r the p h y s i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , the aged, or the m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d , t h e r e i s room t o a r g u e t h a t t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a " c l a s s or c a t e g o r y " w h i c h p o s s e s s a " d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s the c l a s s or c a t e g o r y f r o m o t h e r members of s o c i e t y " . ( I b i d . ) M o r e o v e r , t h e y a r e a c l a s s or group s h a r i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o v e r w h i c h t h e y may have no c o n t r o l . In d i s c u s s i n g the f e a t u r e " c o n t r o l " , Mr. Germaine s ay s : T h i s f e a t u r e may a s s i s t i n a d e t e r m i n a t i o n about whether a p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i s t i n -g u i s h e s a c l a s s of p e r s o n s p r o t e c t e d by the Code but s h o u l d n o t be s t r i c t l y c o n s t r u e d or c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r i l y c o n c l u s i v e . ( l b i d . page 6.) 113 Mr. Germaine draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e d e c i s i o n i n Oram e t  a l and Pho (B.C.H.R.B.I., 1975) t o e x p l a i n why " c o n t r o l " may o n l y a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n a t i o n about whether a c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c d i s t i n g u i s h e s a c l a s s of p e r s o n s p r o t e c t e d by the Code. In Oram, and Pho ( s u p r a ) i t was h e l d t h a t t h e r e was no r e a s o n a b l e cause f o r the d e n i a l of a p u b l i c f a c i l i t y due t o t h e p e r s o n a l a p p e a r a n c e or l i f e s t y l e of t h e c o m p l a i n -a n t . These a r e p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o v e r w h i c h the c o m p l a i n a n t o b v i o u s l y had some measure of c o n t r o l . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m a r i t a l , s t a t u s may be s i m i l a r l y v i e w e d . In t h i s r e s p e c t , e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , b a t t e r e d women or p a r o l l e d p e r s o n s may a l s o c o n s t i t u t e c a t e g o r i e s of p e r s o n s p r o t e c t e d by the Code, as was the c o m p l a i n a n t i n Oram and Pho ( s u p r a ) . The i s s u e of r e a s o n a b l e grounds f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n t h e s e l a t t e r examples would, however, r e m a i n p r o p e r l y a moot q u e s t i o n i f t h e y were a d m i t t e d to p r o t e c t i o n of the Code under a r e a s o n a b l e cause s t a n d a r d . The b u r d e n of p r o o f i n e s t a b l i s h i n g r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e , once an a l l e g e d d e n i a l or d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a c t has been shown, r e s t s w i t h the p e r s o n or p e r s o n s who a r e a l l e g e d t o have a c t e d i n a p r o h i b i t e d way. (See, Bremer, G . A. T . E . and The Sun., I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n of B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a v. H e e r s p i n k . ) A m u n i c i p a l i t y w h i c h has r e f u s e d p e r m i s s i o n to a r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h w i t h i n a s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d , on f a c i n g a c o m p l a i n t 114 of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n u nder s e c t i o n 4 of the Code ( i f a r e a s o n a b l e cause c l a u s e were i n c l u d e d ) , would of n e c e s s i t y need t o e s t a b l i s h two t h i n g s to a v o i d the c o n s e q u e n c e s of a f i n d i n g t h a t the a l l e g a t i o n i s j u s t i f i e d : ( I t ) must f i r s t e s t a b l i s h the cause of t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and s e c o n d l y must s a t i s f y the Bo a r d of I n q u i r y t h a t the cause was a r e a s o n a b l e one. ( G e t z , 1979, page 8.) The n a t u r e o f human r i g h t s c o m p l a i n t s makes the e v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f p a r t i c u l a r argument i n h e r e n t l y s u b t l e . In Bremer, Mr. Germaine n o t e s : B o a r d s o f I n q u i r y w i l l f r e q u e n t l y be r e q u i r e d t o make c o n c l u s i o n s of f a c t b a s e d upon c i r c u m s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e and, p e r h a p s , w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of e v i d e n c e w h i c h may be i n a d m i s s i b l e i n a s u p e r i o r c o u r t . At the h e a r t of a c o n t r a v e n t i o n of the Code i s the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of whether t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s c o n d u c t was m o t i v a t e d by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e a b s e n c e of r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e ; t h e f a c t u a l i s s u e s of m o t i v a -t i o n w i l l i n most c a s e s n o t be a m a t t e r about w h i c h t h e r e e x i s t s any d i r e c t e v i d e n c e . ( G e r m a i n e , 1977, page 6.) Wit h r e s p e c t t o r e s i d e n t i a l to w hether or n o t th e y w i l l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t e v i d e n c e as the c h a r a c -115 t e r of a neighbourhood,.. whether d e s t r u c t i o n of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y w i l l i n f a c t o c c u r , or whether t h e r e e x i s t s any e v i d e n c e of f u t u r e e f f e c t s i s l a r g e l y o p i n i o n e v i d e n c e . F o r example, t o s u g g e s t t h a t b e c a u s e a p a r t i c u -l a r group of p e r s o n s i n t e n d to r e s i d e i n a group r e s i d e n c e or c a r e f a c i l i t y t h e r e w i l l be h a r m f u l c o n s e q u e n c e s i m p l i e s a judgment c o n c e r n i n g the group c h a r a c t e r of such r e s i d e n t s . I t i s an i s s u e where o p i n i o n e v i d e n c e w i l l be c r u c i a l . B e f o r e a b o a r d of i n q u i r y , t h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l c a s e would r e q u i r e t h a t e v i d e n c e show t h e r e i s a l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n between a "group c h a r a c t e r " and " h a r m f u l c o n s e q u e n c e s " . I t seems h e r e t h a t t h e i m p o r t of a " h a r m f u l c o n s e q u e n c e " , w h i l e s u b j e c t i v e and f o r w h i c h no d i r e c t e v i d e n c e may e x i s t , n e v e r t h e l e s s needs t o be shown as grounds f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . B e f o r e a b o a r d of i n q u i r y s uch s u b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e i s a d m i s s i b l e . As n o t e d above, however, Mr. Germaine c a u t i o n e d t h a t the c i r c u m s t a n t i a l n a t u r e of e v i d e n c e s u b m i t t e d to human r i g h t s t r i b u n a l s , n o t a b l y , " t h e f a c t u a l i s s u e of m o t i v a t i o n " ( I b i d . , page 6 ) , may be i n a d m i s s i b l e t o a s u p e r i o r c o u r t . The May 22, 1979 d e c i s i o n of the Supreme C o u r t of Canada, on h e a r i n g a p p e a l of The Gay  A l l i a n c e Toward E q u a l i t y and The B.C. Human R i g h t s  Commission v. The V a n c o u v e r Sun ( u n r e p o r t e d ) i d e n t i f i e s t h i s d i l e m n a . The d e c i s i o n h e r e d i s m i s s e d an a p p e a l by 116 G.A.T..E. from t h e B.C. C o u r t of A p p e a l d e c i s i o n w h i c h h e l d t h e V a n c o u v e r Sun n o t to: have v i o l a t e d s e c t i o n 3 of t h e Human R i g h t s Code of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s d e c i s i o n i s t h e f i r s t o c c a s i o n on wh i c h t h e Supreme C o u r t of Canada has c o n s i d e r e d the p h r a s e " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " as i t a p p e a r s i n t h e Human R i g h t s Code of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The d e c i s i o n t h e r e f o r e i s t h e l e a d i n g c a s e f o r t h o s e who seek c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the meaning of " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " . The m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , p r o v i d e s l i t t l e i n s t r u c t i o n . What i s i m p o r t a n t i n the d e c i s i o n , h o w e v e r s i s t h e k i n d s of t e s t s t o be a p p l i e d to d e t e r m i n e what i s or i s not r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e . The H o n o u r a b l e Mr. J u s t i c e M a r t l a n d , i n h i s m a j o r i t y Reasons f o r t h e C o u r t , a d d r e s s e d t h e q u e s t i o n of o b j e c t i v e t e s t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n by q u o t i n g e x c e r p t s from t h e judgments of B r a n c a , J . and R o b e r t s o n , J.A. of the B.C. C o u r t of A p p e a l . P e r R o b e r t s o n , J.A.: I t i s my view t h a t the words i n s . 3 ( l ) of the Code, " u n l e s s r e a s o n a b l e cause e x i s t s " r e q u i r e t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of an o b j e c t i v e t e s t : does s u c h a ca u s e e x i s t ? I t i s wrong i n law t o s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h i s t h e s u b j e c t i v e t e s t t h a t t h e Board a p p l i e d : what m o t i v a t e d t h e p e r s o n who d e n i e d or d i s c r i m i n a t e d and was t h i s m o t i v a t i o n r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e f o r .the d e n i a l or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ? 117 Of c o u r s e , i n a p p l y i n g the Code the ' c a u s e ' must be c o n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the p e r s o n and the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . A l s o , i t must be b o r n e i n . m i n d t h a t the members of m a j o r i t i e s have r i g h t s and s e n s i b i l i t i e s . I do not t h i n k t h a t i t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n of t h e Code t h a t t h e s e a r e g e n e r a l l y t o be i g n o r e d f o r t h e b e n e f i t of t h o s e who a r e d i f f e r e n t . The words 'unless, r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e e x i s t s ' makes t h i s a b u n d a n t l y c l e a r . I f t h e grounds upon w h i c h the B o a r d r e a c h e d i t s . d e c i s i o n a r e t o be g a t h e r e d from t h e s t a t e d c a s e a l o n e , i t a p p e a r s from p a r a g r a p h 12 t h a t the B o a r d went wrong, i n t h a t i t a p p l i e d t h e wrong t e s t , t h a t of m o t i v a t i o n , and gave no e f f e c t to the e v i d e n c e r e f e r r e d t o i n p a r a g r a p h 1 0 ( 1 ) , t h a t the a d v e r t i s e m e n t would o f f e n d some of the newspaper's s u b s c r i b e r s , w h i c h i n a d d i t i o n w o u l d , of c o u r s e , r e s u l t i n a l o s s of s u b s c r i b e r s and a f f o r d a r e a s o n a b l e cause f o r d e c l i n i n g t o a c c e p t the b u s i n e s s . (G.A.T.E., S.C.C. 1979, u n r e p o r t e d , pages 5 and 6.) In c o n c l u d i n g w r i t t e n R e a s o n s , M a r t l a n d , J . s a y s : S e c t i o n 3 o f t h e A c t does n o t p u r p o r t to d i c t a t e t h e n a t u r e and s c o p e of a s e r v i c e w h i c h must be o f f e r e d t o the p u b l i c . In t h e c a s e of a news-p a p e r , the n a t u r e and scope of the s e r v i c e , i s d e t e r m i n e d by the newspaper i t s e l f . What s.3 does i s t o p r o v i d e t h a t a s e r v i c e w h i c h i s o f f e r e d to the p u b l i c i s to be a v a i l a b l e to a l l p e r s o n s s e e k i n g t o use i t and the newspaper cannot deny: th e : s e r v i c e w h i c h i t o f f e r s to any p a r t i c u l a r member of the p u b l i c u n l e s s r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e e x i s t s f o r so d o i n g . 118 In my o p i n i o n t h e B o a r d e r r e d i n law i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t s.3 was a p p l i c a b l e i n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h i s c a s e . (G.A.T.E. ,': s u p r a , page 9.) The D i s s e n t i n g Reasons i n G.A.T.E. by t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e and the H o n o u r a b l e Mr. J u s t i c e D i c k s o n , c o n c u r r e d i n by t h e H o n o u r a b l e Mr. J u s t i c e E s t e y , however, p u r s u e the d i l e m n a of o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e t e s t s of r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e more c l o s e l y . F o r example, at page 6 of h i s R e a s o n s , t h e C h i e f J u s t i c e s a y s : I a g r e e w i t h MacDonald J . , b e f o r e whom the a p p e a l by way of s t a t e d c a s e f i r s t came, and w i t h S e a t o n J.A., who d i s s e n t e d on the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t of A p p e a l , t h a t the b o a r d ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t no r e a s o n a b l e cause was shown under s.3 was, i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a c o n c l u s i o n of f a c t . At most, i t was a c o n c l u s i o n of mixed f a c t and law. In my o p i n i o n , t h e r e f o r e , t h e m a j o r i t y judgment of t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o u r t of A p p e a l was n o t w e l l f o u n d e d . I n d e e d , a l t h o u g h i t was a r g u e d s t r e n u o u s l y i n t h i s C o u r t t h a t ' r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e ' i n v o l v e d an o b j e c t i v e s t a n d a r d , B r a n c a , J.A. t o o k a d i f f e r e n t v i e w , one t h a t can o n l y be seen as d e s t r u c t i v e of the s u b s t a n c e of s.3 and of the p o l i c y embodied i n i t . I t was h i s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a b i a s a g a i n s t h o m o s e x u a l s , i f h o n e s t l y h e l d by the newspaper, p r o v i d e d r e a s o n a b l e cause under s.3 u n l e s s t h e r e i s bad f a i t h . ( Q uaere , whether h o n e s t y and bad f a i t h can c o - e x i s t ! ) C h i e f J u s t i c e L a s k i n c o n t i n u e s i n h i s q u e s t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e t e s t s , f i n d i n g Reasons t h a t "a to a d d r e s s p e r s o n who the 119 o p e r a t e s a s e r v i c e o r f a c i l i t y c u s t o m a r i l y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c c a n d e s t r o y t h e p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t d e n i a l o f i t s s e r v i c e s , s a v e f o r r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e , by p a r a d i n g h i s a p p r e h e n s i o n s t h a t he w i l l l o s e some b u s i n e s s " i s t h e v e r y k i n d o f " s u b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s w h i c h t h e C o u r t o f A p p e a l m a j o r i t y c h a r g e d a g a i n s t t h e b o a r d a n d , w r o n g l y , i n my o p i n i o n " . The C h i e f J u s t i c e t h e n d i s c u s s e d t h e t e r m " m o t i v a t i o n " , f i n d i n g t h a t a l a y g r o u p l i k e a b o a r d o f i n q u i r y c o u l d p r o p e r l y u s e t h e w o r d " m o t i v e " as a s y n o n y m f o r " r e a s o n " o r " g r o u n d " . He n o t e s t h a t t h e B . C . A p p e a l C o u r t ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e t e r m " m o t i v e " was as i f i t "was b e i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m ' i n t e n t ' f o r c r i m i n a l l a w p u r p o s e s " . He f u r t h e r n o t e s t h a t " I n t e n t i s n o t , h o w e v e r , an i s s u e u n d e r s.3 o f t h e Human R i g h t s C o d e " . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f d i s c u s s i o n o f r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e as i t may r e l a t e t o r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , and as i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e r e a s o n i n g b e h i n d t h e D i s s e n t i n g R e a s o n s , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n f r o m L a s k i n , C . J . C , i s u s e f u l : I w i s h t o r e f e r t o wha t c o u n s e l f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r Sun p u t f o r w a r d as h i s m a i n a r g u m e n t i n t h i s C o u r t . I t was n o t , i t s e e m s , an a r g u m e n t a d d r e s s e d t o t h e C o u r t s b e l o w . The g i s t o f t h e a r g u m e n t was t h a t t h e Human R i g h t s Code p r o s c r i b e s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o n l y on t h e 120 b a s i s of an a t t r i b u t e or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n ; i t does n o t p r o h i b i t a l l u n r e a s o n a b l e d e n i a l s or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s and, h e n c e , as i n t h i s c a s e , a d e n i a l or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n b a s e d on a newspaper p o l i c y or even on "some p e r s o n a l q u i r k " ( t o use c o u n s e l ' s words i n h i s s u p p l e m e n t a r y f a c tum) of t h e newspaper p u b l i s h e r s would be o u t s i d e the s c o p e of the s t a t u t e . T h i s i s an u n t e n a b l e s u b m i s s i o n however b e g u i l i n g i t may seem a t f i r s t b l u s h . I t evades the v e r y q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r i s e under s.3 or under the c o m p a r a b l e s.8 w hich d e a l s w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n employment.. I c o n f i n e m y s e l f h e r e t o s.3. I t d e a l s n o t w i t h a l l s e r v i c e s or f a c i l i t i e s b u t o n l y w i t h t h o s e s e r v i c e s o r f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h a r e c u s t o m a r i l y a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c . The p o l i c y embodied i s p l a i n and c l e a r . E v e r y p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n i s e n t i t l e d to a v a i l h i m s e l f or t h e m s e l v e s o f s u c h s e r v i c e s or f a c i l i t i e s u n l e s s r e a s o n a b l e grounds a r e shown f o r d e n y i n g them or d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n r e s p e c t of them. T h i s C o u r t i s o b l i g e d to e n f o r c e t h i s p o l i c y r e g a r d l e s s of w hether i t t h i n k s i t i l l - a d v i s e d . T h e r e i s more, however, t h a t needs to be s a i d . C o u n s e l f o r t h e V a n c o u v e r Sun would have i t t h a t a l t h o u g h i t c o u l d n o t d i s c r i m i n -a t e a g a i n s t a p e r s o n on the ground t h a t he had o n l y one eye - t h a t would be. a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e l a t e d to an a t t r i b u t e of t h e p e r s o n - i t c o u l d r e f u s e an a d v e r t i s e m e n t s o l i c i t i n g s u b s c r i p t i o n s to a p e r i o d i c a l f o r the b l i n d b e c a u s e o f newspaper p o l i c y a g a i n s t a c c e p t i n g s u c h an a d v e r t i s e m e n t . The argument i s a d e s p e r a t e one, s e e k i n g to c i r c u m v e n t the q u e s t i o n of r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e , w h i c h i s the o n l y q u e s t i o n t o be d e c i d e d once i t i s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t a s e r v i c e or f a c i l i t y c u s t o m a r i l y a v a i l a b l e to the p u b l i c has been d e n i e d to a p e r s o n , w h a t e v e r be h i s a t t r i b u t e s . The a t t r i -b u t e s or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may t h e m s e l v e s p r o v i d e r e a s o n a b l e grounds f o r r e f u s a l (so l o n g as t h e y do n o t f a l l w i t h i n 121 s . 3(2) of t h e Human R i g h t s Code) and, i f n o t , t h e r e may. be t r a n s c e n d i n g grounds t h a t may a f f o r d r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e , b u t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to b e g i n the i n q u i r y i n t o r e a s o n a b l e cause by e x c l u d i n g e v e r y t h i n g e x c e p t a c o n s i d e r a -t i o n of a c o m p l a i n a n t ' s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or a t t r i b u t e s . T h a t f l i e s i n the f a c e of the Human R i g h t s Code and i n t h e f a c e of t h e p l a i n words o f s.3. T h e r e i s no l i m i t a t i o n to p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or a t t r i b u t e s . (G.A.T.E., 1979, u n r e p o r t e d , L a s k i n , C.J.C. a t pages 9/10.) The H o n o u r a b l e Mr. J u s t i c e D i c k s o n , a d d r e s s e s the d i l e m n a s q u a r e l y . He s a i d : Much was made of the word ' m o t i v a t i o n ' and 'the r e a l r e a s o n b e h i n d the p o l i c y ' . These words do not g i v e any p a r t i c u l a r t r o u b l e . We need not i n d u l g e i n n i c e a p p r a i s a l upon t h e meaning of ' c a u s e ' and ' m o t i v e ' , words w h i c h a r e v i r t u a l l y synonymous. I have e a r l i e r a d v e r t e d to the m a t t e r of r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e . ' R e a s o n a b l e n e s s ' i s n o r m a l l y a q u e s t i o n of f a c t . The most r e c e n t a u t h o r i t a t i v e a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h a t s t a t e m e n t i s from L o r d H a i l s h a m L.C. i n In Re W (an I n f a n t ) , (1971) A.C. 682 a t page 699: And, be i t o b s e r v e d , ' r e a s o n a b l e n e s s ' , or ' u n r e a s o n -a b l e n e s s ' , where e i t h e r word i s employed i n E n g l i s h law, i s n o r m a l l y a q u e s t i o n o f f a c t and d e g r e e and n o t a q u e s t i o n of law so l o n g as t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e f i n d i n g of t h e c o u r t . (G.A.T.E., 1979, u n r e p o r t e d , D i c k s o n , J . a t page 18.) 122 D i c k s o n , c o n t i n u e s In my v i e w , Mr. J u s t i c e MacDonald e x p r e s s e d the l e g a l p o s i t i o n c o r r e c t l y when he s a i d : ...Whether p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s amount to r e a s o n a b l e cause f o r d e n i a l or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n under s.3 i s p u r e l y a q u e s t i o n of f a c t . I t must be d e c i d e d as a m a t t e r o f law, under a . p r o p e r . d e f i n i t i o n of the p h r a s e ' r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e ' . The o n l y r e s t r a i n t s w h i c h the law p l a c e s on the t r i e r s of. f a c t a r e t h e p r o v i s i o n s of s . 3 ( 2 ) . They may n o t f i n d the r a c e , r e l i g i o n , c o l o u r , a n c e s t r y , or p l a c e o f o r i g i n o f any p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s r e a s o n a b l e cause u n l e s s i t r e l a t e s to the m a i n t e n a n c e of p u b l i c d e c e n c y or t o the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of prem-iums or b e n e f i t s under c o n t r a c t s of i n s u r a n c e . What the a p p e l l a n t ' s s u b m i s s i o n does i s to t a k e some e l e m e n t s - what i t s u b m i t s a r e the c i r c u m s t a n c e s of i t s c a s e - and ask the C o u r t t o f i n d t h a t , as a m a t t e r of law, th e y must c o n s t i t u t e r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e . But i t i s r e a l l y an i n v a s i o n of f a c t . I f the a p p e l l a n t ' s s u b m i s s i o n i s sound, how l o n g i s t h e l i s t o f d i f f e r e n t p l a u s i b l e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s w h i c h the C o u r t would be bound to f i n d c o n s t i t u t e d r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e ? (G.A.T.E . , D i c k s o n , J 197 9., u n r e p o r t e d , a t pages 18/19.) D i c k s o n , J . expands f u r t h e r on the n o t i o n of r e a s o n a b l e n e s s In an a l t e r n a t i v e argument, c o u n s e l s u b m i t t e d t h a t i f the b o a r d d i d a d d r e s s i t s e l f t o whether r e a s o n a b l e cause f o r the r e f u s a l e x i s t e d on an o b j e c t i v e b a s i s , t h e n the b o a r d e r r e d i n f a i l i n g t o 123 c o n s t r u e the term ' r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e ' s o l e l y i n r e l a t i o n to the c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s of the p e r s o n t e n d e r i n g the a d v e r t i s e m e n t . The argument, as I u n d e r s t a n d i t , would l i m i t the Code to u n r e a s o n a b l e r e f u s a l s b a s e d upon the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p e r s o n s s e e k i n g the p u b l i c s e r v i c e . I t was s a i d the b o a r d e r r e d i n c o n s i d e r i n g the t e x t o f t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t w h i c h gave r i s e t o the d e n i a l of s e r v i c e . The p a p e r , at most, d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t the i d e a of a t h e s i s of h o m o s e x u a l i t y , and i t i s no o f f e n c e t o d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t i d e a s . (G.A.T.E., s u p r a , pages 19/20.) In summary, t h e n a t u r e of t h e Human R i g h t s Code  of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the s u b s t a n c e of d e c i s i o n s from b o a r d s of i n q u i r y and r e l a t e d c a s e law p r o v i d e s e v e r a l n e c e s s a r y p r i n c i p l e s and i s s u e s of law f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s as a m a t t e r of human r i g h t s . F i r s t , the p r e s e n t l a n g u a g e of s e c t i o n 4 of the Code w h i c h d e a l s w i t h h o u s i n g does n o t e x p r e s s l y p r o t e c t t h e h a n d i c a p p e d . Second, where " r e a s o n -a b l e c a u s e " c l a u s e s form a p a r t of the l a n g u a g e of o t h e r s e c t i o n s of t h e Code, t h e enumerated l i s t o f p r o t e c t e d c l a s s e s i s n o t e x h a u s t i v e . T h i r d , t h e r e i s room t o argue t h a t the h a n d i c a p p e d c o n s t i t u t e . a c l a s s of p e r s o n s p o s s e s s i n g a d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , o v e r w h i c h t h e y have no c o n t r o l , a n d , f o r w h i c h t h e y can be d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t . F o u r t h , s.3 of the Human R i g h t s Code 124 has been f o u n d t o a p p l y to the I n s u r a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . As a p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n , m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n s s i m i l a r l y may be i n a p o s i t i o n to have z o n i n g l e g i s l a t i o n r e v i e w e d as u n r e a s o n a b l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n by R ogers c o n f i r m s th e l e g a l s t a t u s of a m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a t i o n : The modern c o r p o r a t i o n might be... d e f i n e d as a l e g a l e n t i t y d i s t i n c t f r o m i t s c o m p o s i t e members, v e s t e d w i t h r i g h t s , powers, i m m u n i t i e s and l i a b i l i t i e s as p r e s c r i b e d by law and, d e p e n d i n g upon the manner i n w h i c h i t was c r e a t e d , i s e i t h e r l i m i t e d i n i t s s p h e r e of o p e r a t i o n by i t s i n c o r p o r a t i n g s t a t u t e or e l s e has most of t h e r i g h t s w h i c h a n a t u r a l p e r s o n p o s s e s s e s . ( R o g e r s , The Law o f C a n a d i a n  M u n i c i p a l C o r p o r a t i o n s , 1959, page 7.) F i n a l l y , s u b j e c t i v e t e s t s of what may c o n s t i t u t e the m o t i v a t i o n w h i c h prompts an a c t of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a r e a d m i s s i b l e t o . a b o a r d of i n q u i r y b u t may n o t be a d m i s s i b l e to a C o u r t of law. The t r e n d h e r e i n G ^ A.T.E. ( 1 9 7 9 ) , u n r e p o r t e d , l e a v e s many q u e s t i o n s y e t t o be r e s o l v e d i n a p p l y i n g the n o t i o n of r e a s o n a b l e n e s s and r e a s o n a b l e cause t o c a s e s of a l l e g e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g of community-b a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y . n eigh-b o u r h o o d s . Answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r e a n a l y s i s of the m a t e r i a l f a c t s and of the law. 125 4.6 C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s c h a p t e r d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h o s e l e g a l c o n c e p t s i n v o l v e d i n l o c a t i n g community-based ,care: f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y . n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w h i c h a r e f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d from t h o s e t h a t a r e a p p l i c a t i o n of u n t e s t e d t h e o r i e s . The power of m u n i c i p a l government to a c t i n m a t t e r s of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l i s c l e a r l y e x p r e s s e d i n P r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e and i s f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n m u n i c i p a l law. As w e l l , i t i s an a c c e p t e d p r i n c i p l e t h a t m u n i c i p a l b y - l a w s a r e by n a t u r e and s c o p e e x c l u s i o n a r y . I t i s a l s o f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t m u n i c i p a l government i s a u t h o r i z e d to zone l a n d use by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the c h a r a c t e r of r e s p e c -t i v e z o n e s . From a p l a n n i n g p o i n t of v i e w , t h e s e powers a r e l i m i t e d i n t h a t f o r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o be made between uses and c h a r a c t e r of u s e , a m a t e r i a l change i n use must have o c c u r r e d . A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n on t h e power of m u n i c i p a l government i n z o n i n g m a t t e r s o c c u r s when m u n i c i p a l government a c t s u l t r a v i r e s i n l a n d z o n i n g by p e o p l e z o n i n g . The r e s t r i c t i o n h e r e i s on t h e k i n d and d e g r e e of d i s c r i m i n -a t i o n p e r m i t t e d m u n i c i p a l government i n the e x e r c i s e of i t s z o n i n g power. The s t a n d a r d of r e a s o n a b l e n e s s a p p l i e d i s w i t h i n an. i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e q u i t y . Z o n i n g b y - l a w s , w h i l e e x c l u s i o n a r y , must a p p l y e q u a l l y t o a l l p e r s o n s . On the o t h e r hand, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s may zone l a n d b u t n o t by way of the p e o p l e who r e s i d e i n d w e l l i n g s upon the l a n d . 1 2 6 The u n t e s t e d t h e o r i e s or p r i n c i p l e s of law i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e t h o s e w h i c h d e a l w i t h t h e Human  R i g h t s Code of B.C. ( s u p r a ) . No case e x i s t s t o the w r i t e r ' s knowledge where d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n z o n i n g and h o u s i n g has been r a i s e d as a human r i g h t s m a t t e r . The p r e s e n t l a n g u a g e of s e c t i o n 4 of t h e Code does n o t p r o t e c t s p e c i f i c a l l y t h o s e p e r s o n s who would be r e s i d e n t i n community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . I n a h y p o t h e t i c a l c a s e , a s s u m i n g t h a t p r o t e c t i o n of the Code was e x t e n d e d to t h e h a n d i c a p p e d under the term " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " , t h e c o n c e p t s of r e a s o n a b l e n e s s and grounds f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n would a p p l y to s.4 as t h e y do t o o t h e r s e c t i o n s of t h e Code w h i c h c o n t a i n t h e p h r a s e . D e c i s i o n s from b o a r d s of i n q u i r y i n d i c a t e t h i s t r e n d . A crown c o r p o r a t i o n , m o r e o v e r , may be f o u n d to a c t i n v i o l a t i o n of t he Human R i g h t s Code t h r o u g h a c t i o n s s a n c t i o n e d by a s e p a r a t e g o v e r n i n g p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e . F u r t h e r , where a " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " s t a n d a r d i s r e q u i r e d i n s e c t i o n s of t h e Code, t h e p r o t e c t i o n of the Code can be e x t e n d e d t o t h o s e n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y e numerated where, as a c l a s s , t h e y can show t h e y p o s s e s s a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , o v e r w h i c h t h e y have no c o n t r o l , and f o r w h i c h t h e y may be d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the h a n d i c a p p e d may t h e r e f o r e be b r o u g h t w i t h i n the ambit of the Code. 127 The p r i n c i p l e of r e a s o n a b l e grounds f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as a means o f d e t e r m i n i n g the k i n d and d e g r e e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n p e r m i t t e d i s an u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e . On one hand, s u b j e c t i v e t e s t s and the c i r c u m -s t a n t i a l n a t u r e of e v i d e n c e a d m i s s i b l e to b o a r d s of i n q u i r y have been u p h e l d i n s u p e r i o r c o u r t s . On the o t h e r hand, the Supreme C o u r t of Canada i n G.A.T.E. ( 1 9 7 9 ) , u n r e p o r t e d , has r u l e d t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e t e s t of e v i d e n c e s h a l l p r e v a i l . The d i s s e n t i n g o p i n i o n s i n t h a t c a s e i d e n t i f y the i n h e r e n t d i l e m n a of p r e s e n t human r i g h t s l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F i n d i n g s i n m a t t e r s of human r i g h t s c o m p l a i n t s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y d e a l w i t h t h e c i r c u m s t a n t i a l n a t u r e and f a c t u a l i s s u e of m o t i v a t i o n . M o t i v a t i o n may not be i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h d i r e c t e v i d e n c e . I t i s , however, commonly a c c e p t e d t h a t o p i n i o n e v i d e n c e , say of e x p e r t w i t n e s s e s , i s not o n l y a d m i s s i b l e but d e s i r a b l e t o m i t i g a t e the s u b j e c t i v e t e s t s w h i c h a human r i g h t s b o a r d of i n q u i r y may a p p l y i n r e a c h i n g i t s d e t e r m i n a t i o n of w hether or n o t r e a s o n a b l e g r o u nds e x i s t f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , e v i d e n c e a d m i s s i b l e by a c o m p l a i n a n t on b e h a l f of a home f o r the h a n d i c a p p e d t o a b o a r d of i n q u i r y c o u l d i n c l u d e c i r c u m -s t a n t i a l e v i d e n c e . However, o b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e l i k e t h e f a c t s t o s u p p o r t , f o r example, no f l u c t u a t i o n i n market v a l u e s of s u r r o u n d i n g ^ p r o p e r t i e s as a r e s u l t of a c a r e f a c i l i t y so l o c a t i n g w ould p r e v a i l i n a s u p e r i o r c o u r t . W i t h r e s p e c t to l o c a t i o n of community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , t h e above e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e s and u n t e s t e d t h e o r i e s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r as the b a s e s from w h i c h s o c i a l p o l i c y can f l o w . 129 CHAPTER 5 IMPLICATIONS FOR SOCIAL POLICY E s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i s p r i m a r i l y a q u e s t i o n of s o c i a l p o l i c y . P o l i c y of t h i s k i n d n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s a m e l i o r a t i o n of the r i g h t s of i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e power of the s t a t e . t o c o n t r o l the a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s . M o r e o e v e r , f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n s o c i a l p o l i c y i s r e q u i s i t e to e n s u r e the r i g h t s of b o t h t h o s e committed to e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s and t h o s e opposed. R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n r e s t s w i t h the P r o v i n c i a l government i n i t s power t o p r o v i d e e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . T hrough d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers i n s e c t i o n 702(1) of t h e M u n i c i p a l  A c t of B.C., R.S.B.C. 1960, as amended, m u n i c i p a l c o r p o r a -t i o n s i n t u r n a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t i o n s w h i c h c o n t r o l t h e use of l a n d and t h e r e b y the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h -b o u r h o o d s . R e c e n t l e g a l h i s t o r y , as documented i n C h a p t e r 4, i n d i c a t e s t h a t a d i s t i n c t i o n ought t o be made between the k i n d of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l t h a t i s d i r e c t e d toward l a n d and t h a t w h i c h i s d e s i g n e d s o l e l y to c o n t r o l p e o p l e and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to o t h e r p e o p l e . A n a l y s i s of t h e 130 power of governments to g o v e r n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s and human r i g h t s i s s u e s r e v e a l s key i s s u e s . F i r s t , w h i l e t h e r e e x i s t p e r s u a s i v e arguments f o r t h e use of j u d i c i a l r e v i e w , s u c h r e v i e w i n v o l v e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of q u e s t i o n s u n r e s o l v e d i n the C o u r t s ; namely, t h e s p e c i f i c g rounds w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e and the c o n c e p t of u l t r a v i r e s . Second, the a t t i t u d e s of t h o s e opposed t o r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s p r e s e n t a r e a l p r o b l e m t h a t needs t o be a d d r e s s e d i n a s p e c i f i c way. As a r e s u l t , the a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h f o l l o w f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s f a l l i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t s o c i a l p o l i c y p a c k a g e s : 5.1.1 Land-use C o n t r o l P o l i c y 5.1.2 P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s P o l i c y 5.1.3 Human R i g h t s P o l i c y 5 . 1 S o c i a l P o l i c y S o c i a l p o l i c y can p r e d i c t a b l y be i n i t i a t e d a t two l e v e l s of government - p r o v i n c i a l and m u n i c i p a l / r e g i o n a l - and at a n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l l e v e l . S u c c e s s of t h e s e r e s p e c t i v e p l a n s depends i n e v i t a b l y upon t h e p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e . F o r example, f i s c a l c o n s t r a i n t s , i d e o l o g y of government, d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a r e a l l f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e the k i n d 131 of a p p r o a c h employed and i t s r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s . N e v e r t h e -l e s s , the a p p r o a c h e s g i v e n below a d d r e s s c u r r e n t l e g i s l a -t i o n and p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s . 5.1.1 Land-use C o n t r o l P o l i c y M u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a have the l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y to r e g u l a t e the use of l a n d . They may r e g u l a t e the d e n s i t y of n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , the c h a r a c t e r o f z o n e s , and t h e typ e o f s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n each zone, and i n i t i a t e r e l a t e d p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s as l i s t e d i n the M u n i c i p a l A c t of  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , R.S.B.C. 1960, as amended. Each of t h e s e has p r o v e n to be a t r o u b l e s o m e s u b j e c t i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . As w e l l , i n D o u g l a s B e l l v s . Her  M a j e s t y the Queen, S.C.C. 1979 ( u n r e p o r t e d ) , as documented i n C h a p t e r 4, one key i s s u e i s a r t i c u l a t e d i n l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l m a t t e r s . A m u n i c i p a l i t y a c t s u l t r a v i r e s when i t zones l a n d by p e o p l e z o n i n g . The d e c i s i o n i n D o u g l a s B e l l ( s u p r a ) t u r n e d on c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e term " f a m i l y " and upon the n o t i o n of m a t e r i a l change i n u s e . E s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h -b o u r h o o d s can b u i l d on t h e s e f a c t s , f o r , i n a d d i t i o n , t h e y a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d . F o r example, where a m a t e r i a l change i n use has o c c u r r e d , as i n the s t r u c t u r a l 132 a l t e r a t i o n of a d w e l l i n g , o p e r a t i o n of a b u s i n e s s (but e x c e p t i n g home o c c u p a t i o n s ) r a t h e r t h an a r e s i d e n c e , or where t h e p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r of a d w e l l i n g changes the c h a r a c t e r of a n e i g h b o u r h o o d , t h e n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have the l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y at p r e s e n t to r e g u l a t e s u c h change. In the case of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , however, where the e x p l i c i t aim i s t h a t t h e d w e l l i n g r e s e m b l e t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g s , one can o n l y c o n c l u d e t h a t e x c l u s i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i s b a s e d on an a t t r i b u t e o f the c l a s s of p e r s o n s who r e s i d e i n such f a c i l i t i e s . P u b l i c a t t i t u d e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s s o . T h e r e f o r e , the i s s u e of e x c l u s i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s from s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i s , a d d i t i o n a l l y , one of human r i g h t s . The s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h f o l l o w d e a l w i t h p r e s e n t l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l measures and w i t h a n c i l l a r y p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s . 1. SEEK REDEFINITION OF THE TERMS "FAMILY" AND "RESIDENTIAL CARE FA C I L I T Y " ( o r s i m i l a r terms s u c h as "Group Home", "H a l f w a y House", "Community-care f a c i l i t y " e t c e t e r a ) IN MUNICIPAL BY-LAWS. P r e s e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of " f a m i l y " i n z o n i n g b y - l a w s o f t e n p r o h i b i t u n r e l a t e d p e r s o n s from r e s i d i n g i n the 133 same d w e l l i n g and p r e c l u d e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . G i v e n r e c e n t C a n a d i a n l e g a l h i s t o r y , t h e r e a p p e a r l i t t l e grounds f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n t h r o u g h z o n i n g b a s e d on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e term " f a m i l y " . T h e r e f o r e , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s ought to accommodate b r o a d e r - b a s e d d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h acknowledge t h a t a l l p e r s o n s have an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e s i d e as a group i n a " s i n g l e - f a m i l y " d w e l l i n g . The d e f i n i t i o n of " r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y " (and a s s o c i a t e d t erms) i n z o n i n g b y - l a w s u s u a l l y e n c o r p o r a t e s r e s t r i c t i o n s on the number of u n r e l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s who may r e s i d e i n one d w e l l i n g . W h i l e i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h a number a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l groups i n need of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t the number n o t e x c e e d 10 p e o p l e . M u n i c i p a l b y - l a w s have o f t e n been more r e s t r i c t i v e making r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h l o c a t e i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s u n e c o n o m i c a l to o p e r a t e g i v e n p r e s e n t p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments p e r diem r a t e s t r u c t u r e s . W h i l e r e d e f i n i t i o n of the terms " f a m i l y " and " r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y " may be under r e v i e w on the N o r t h S h o r e , a c o n t i n u e d l o b b y f o r change would be a p p r o p r i a t e . 134 2 . AMEND THE M U N I C I P A L ACT OF B . C . , R . S . B . C . 1960 AS AMENDED, AND THE COMMUNITY CARE F A C I L I T I E S  L I C E N S I N G A C T , 1969 TO P R O H I B I T THE USE OF ZONING L E G I S L A T I O N TO EXCLUDE R E S I D E N T I A L CARE F A C I L I T I E S FROM S I N G L E - F A M I L Y NEIGHBOURHOODS. The p r e s e n t C o m m u n i t y C a r e F a c i l i t i e s L i c e n s i n g  A c t i n S e c t i o n 8 s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o h i b i t s t h e p r o v i n c e o r a m u n i c i p a l i t y f rom, e n a c t i n g a b y - l a w t o p r e v e n t t h e u s e o f a s i n g l e - f a m i l y d w e l l i n g f o r a c o m m u n i t y -c a r e f a c i l i t y . S e c t i o n 8 p r e v e n t s e n a c t m e n t o f new l e g i s l a t i o n b u t does n o t p r e v e n t r e s t r i c t i o n by z o n i n g b y - l a w s p r e s e n t l y i n p l a c e . A g e n e r a l p r o h i b i t i o n i n t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t o f B . C . ( s u p r a ) a g a i n s t t h e u s e o f z o n i n g b y - l a w s t o r e s t r i c t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y c e n t r a l i z e t h e a u t h o r i t y f o r r e g u l a t i n g r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t . G i v e n t h e u b i q u i t o u s n e e d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s t h r o u g h o u t B . C . , t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e m e r i t i n t h i s a p p r o a c h . P r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s h a v e b e e n r e l u c t a n t t o w i t h d r a w m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s a r e a as d e l e g a t i o n o f l a n d -u s e c o n t r o l t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . Q u e b e c , h o w e v e r , h a s p a s s e d s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e H e a l t h and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s A c t o f t h a t p r o v i n c e . I n B . C . , i f m u n i c i p a l a u t h o r i t y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s t h r o u g h z o n i n g w e r e w i t h d r a w n , t h e p r o b l e m 135 of c o n c e n t r a t i o n of community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s would have to be r e g u l a t e d by the p r o v i n c e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , amendment of the M u n i c i p a l A c t o f  B.C. to r e f l e c t the c o n c e p t s a r t i c u l a t e d i n D o u g l a s  B e l l i s w e l l w i t h i n t h e e s t a b l i s h e d s o v e r e i g n t y of the s t a t e t o a c t i n m a t t e r s of a l o c a l n a t u r e . Amend-ment of t h i s k i n d t o the M u n i c i p a l A c t of B.C. b r i n g s c o n f o r m i t y to t h e s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n of community c a r e f a c i l i t i e s f o u n d i n t h e Community  Care F a c i l i t i e s L i c e n s i n g A c t . 3. AMEND THE MUNICIPAL ACT OF B.C. , R.S.B.C. 1960, AS AMENDED, TO INCLUDE A PHRASE IN SECTION 702(2) STIPULATING THAT COUNCIL HAVE DUE REGARD FOR THE "PROVISION OF SOCIAL HOUSING" WITHIN ITS MUNICIPAL BOUNDARIES. The amendment to s e c t i o n 702(2) adds t o the c r i t e r i a u sed i n p r e s e n t r e v i e w by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of m a t t e r s r e l a t e d to l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l . A d d i t i o n of the p h r a s e " p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l h o u s i n g " would mean t h a t C o u n c i l i s r e q u i r e d to g i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s as one f o r m of s o c i a l h o u s i n g . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t , i n a n o t h e r c o n t e x t , t h e C o u r t s have r u l e d t h a t C o u n c i l s do n o t need t o g i v e e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n t o each of t h e c r i t e r i a l i s t e d 136 i n s e c t i o n 702(2) when p r e p a r i n g m i n u t e s of c o u n c i l m e e t i n g s . However, d e s p i t e t h i s f a c t , u n l e s s c o u n c i l i s e x p r e s s l y d i r e c t e d t o c o n s i d e r t h e q u e s t i o n of s o c i a l h o u s i n g , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d c o n c e r n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s c o u l d be d i s m i s s e d as beyond the scope of s e c t i o n 702 ( 2 ) . 4. AMEND MUNICIPAL ZONING BY-LAWS THAT SPECIFICALLY APPROVE OF THE ESTABLIH-MENT OF RESIDENTIAL CARE F A C I L I T I E S BASED ON THE CONDITIONAL APPROVAL OF A SELECTED GROUP OF MUNICIPAL RESIDENTS. M u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s w h i c h d e l e g a t e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g powers t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s of p e t i t i o n by a s m a l l number of n e i g h b o u r i n g r e s i d e n t s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o a p r o p o s e d c a r e f a c i l i t y a c t u l t r a v i r e s . The M u n i c i p a l  A c t of B.C. ( s u p r a ) does n o t s p e c i f y t h a t the c o n s e n t of a f f e c t e d owners be o b t a i n e d b e f o r e a r e z o n i n g can tak e p l a c e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e when c o u n c i l makes a f i n a l d e c i s i o n on a p r o p o s e d r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y b a s e d on s u c h a p e t i t i o n . S e c t i o n 401(3) of the Z o n i n g By-law No. 3778 of the C i t y o f N o r t h V a n c o u v e r c o n t a i n s s u c h an o f f e n d i n g c l a u s e . They a r e t h e r e f o r e s u b j e c t to r e v i e w . E i t h e r the O f f i c e of t h e I n s p e c t o r o f M u n i c i p a l i t i e s or t h e C o u r t s i s a s u i t a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r a h e a r i n g of t h i s c o m p l a i n t . 137 5. THROUGH THE MINISTRY OF MUNICIPAL AFFAIRS, SOLICIT THE COOPERATION OF MUNICIPALITIES TO PREVENT EXCLUSION OF RESIDENTIAL CARE F A C I L I T I E S IN SINGLE-FAMILY NEIGH-BOURHOODS . T h i s low p r o f i l e , P r o v i n c i a l a p p r o a c h depends upon m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n . Such c o o p e r a t i o n i s n o t - l i k e l y to be s h a r e d by a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The power of p e r s u a s i o n of the M i n i s t r y of M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s w i l l , to some e x t e n t , m i t i g a t e t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . 6. DEVELOP A MODEL ZONING OR LAND-USE CONTROL BY-LAW AS A GUIDE TO MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS. W i t h r e s p e c t t o e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , t h e r e i s m e r i t i n a s t r a t e g y of t h i s k i n d . A r e g u l a t i n g g u i d e t o l a n d - u s e z o n i n g b y - l a w s would p r o v i d e a c o n s i s t e n t r e g u l a t o r y p o l i c y a c r o s s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b o u n d a r i e s . . On the N o r t h S h o r e , s t u d y i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n c o n s i s t e n t r e g u l a t o r y p o l i c y between n e i g h b o u r i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i s a f a c t o r w h i c h has l e d to one m u n i c i p a l i t y accommodating more t h a n i t s r e g i o n a l f a i r s h a r e of s o c i a l h o u s i n g . An o b v i o u s d i s a d v a n t a g e t o t h i s s t r a t e g y i s t h a t i t i s a model o n l y and t h e r e f o r e d i s c r e t i o n a r y . On t h e o t h e r hand, a model p r o v i d e s g u i d a n c e w h i l e 138 a l l o w i n g f l e x i b i l i t y a t t h e l o c a l l e v e l . M o r e o v e r , s o c i a l a g e n c i e s can d i r e c t the t h r u s t of t h e i r l o b b y toward t h e P r o v i n c i a l government i n f o r m u l a t i o n of t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s . 7. AMEND MUNICIPAL ZONING BY-LAWS TO PROVIDE RESIDENTIAL CARE F A C I L I T I E S AS A PERMITTED USE IN ALL RESIDENTIAL ZONES. R e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e a s u p e r v i s e d f a m i l y - t y p e home atmosphere i n a s i n g l e - f a m i l y d e t a c h e d d w e l l i n g . At p r e s e n t community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y r e s t r i c t e d w i t h i n s p e c i f i c zones of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . The e f f e c t i s t o : a) l i m i t the s e l e c t i o n o f s u i t a b l e h o u s i n g s t o c k f o r r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w h i c h do n o t r e q u i r e s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n ; b) c o n c e n t r a t e r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n one zone; and c) r e q u i r e t h a t s o c i a l a g e n c i e s e s t a b l i s h c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n n e i g h b o u r h o o d s seek r e z o n i n g w i s h i n g to s i n g l e - f a m i l y 139 An amendment to. z o n i n g b y - l a w s i n i t i a t e d a t the m u n i c i p a l l e v e l r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r o v i n c i a l , as d e s c r i b e d above, a d d r e s s e s the p r o b l e m of m a t e r i a l change i n use d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 4, and a m e l i o r a t e s t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s i n any one zone. T h i s amendment a l s o a v o i d s t h e n e c e s s i t y of r e z o n i n g and t h e r e f o r e t h e need f o r p u b l i c h e a r i n g s . As t h e r e i s an i n h e r e n t b i a s i n the community a g a i n s t s i t u a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , p u b l i c h e a r i n g on a r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n may not be a f a i r forum. Where t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n i n v o l v i n g l a n d z o n i n g by p e o p l e z o n i n g , t h r o u g h an u n r e a s o n a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the term " f a m i l y " , p u b l i c h e a r i n g s of r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e no l o n g e r the a p p r o p r i a t e forum. REGULATE THE CONCENTRATION OF RESIDENTIAL CARE F A C I L I T I E S IN ANY ONE ZONE. W i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s some measure of the r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i n a n e i g h -b o u r h o o d i s l o s t . A l t h o u g h t h i s p e r c e p t i o n may be a l t e r e d t h r o u g h a c c e p t a n c e o f an a p p r o a c h to i n c l u d e r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s as a p e r m i t t e d use i n o t h e r z o n e s , p r e s e n t p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s i n d i c a t e a g e n u i n e c o n c e r n f o r l o s s of t h e r e s i d e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r of a n e i g h b o u r h o o d . I t may be n e c e s s a r y to e s t a b l i s h 140 an i n t e r i m measure, w h i c h complements p r e v i o u s a p p r o a c h e s , c a l c u l a t e d on the d e n s i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r b l o c k or n e i g h b o u r h o o d u n t i l s u c h time as r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s a r e more g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d . The s u g g e s t e d r e g u l a t i o n might r e a d as f o l l o w s : "A r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y must be s p a c e d a t l e a s t 'X' m e t e r s from a n o t h e r s i m i l a r f a c i l i t y i n any r e s i d e n t i a l zone". A l s o , i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y , as a s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n of m u n i c i p a l government, to document f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of f a c i l i t i e s arid t h e i r l o c a t i o n i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . I f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g i s t o be p r o v e d b e f o r e a human r i g h t s t r i b u n a l , i t must be b a s e d on f a c t . The e f f e c t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s on p r o p e r t y v a l u e s , c r i m e , v a n d a l i s m , p a r k i n g and n o i s e are-some of t h e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h need t o be documented on a l o c a l b a s i s . 9. AMEND THE COMMUNITY CARE F A C I L I T I E S  LICENSING ACT, 1969, TO PROVIDE CONSTRUCTION STANDARDS FOR THE PARTICULAR CASE OF A FACILITY LOCATED IN SINGLE-FAMILY NEIGHBOURHOODS. A major p r o b l e m i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of community-b a s e d c a r e . f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s 141 a r i s e s t h r o u g h e n f o r c e m e n t of b u i l d i n g s t a n d a r d s s e t out i n the Community Care F a c i l i t i e s L i c e n s i n g A c t . The A c t s e t s s t a n d a r d s w h i c h r e s t r i c t the k i n d s of h o u s i n g s t o c k a c c e p t a b l e f o r r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . Even i f s o c i a l a g e n c i e s a r e a b l e to meet the p r o h i b i t i v e c o s t of s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n r e q u i r e d to c o n f o r m t o the A c t ' s s t a n d a r d s , i n so d o i n g the agency may i m m e d i a t e l y c o n t r a v e n e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of a m a t e r i a l change i n u s e . S p e c i f i c a l l y , s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r a t i o n to a b u i l d i n g c o n s t i t u t e s a m a t e r i a l change i n u s e . The amendment above i s n e c e s s a r y to a v o i d c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f the " c h a r a c t e r " and " u s e s " c l a u s e s of p r e s e n t m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g b y - l a w s . A d m i t t e d l y , t h e p r o b l e m h e r e p r e s e n t s an a d d i t i o n a l d i l e m n a . S u i t a b l e s t a n d a r d s g o v e r n i n g the s a f e o p e r a t i o n of a r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t y a r e d e s i r a b l e . However, the p r e s e n t s t a n d a r d s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e Community Care F a c i l i t i e s L i c e n s i n g A c t do n o t d e a l i n a f a i r way w i t h the s p e c i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s of i n d i v i d u a l f a c i l i t i e s as compared t o o t h e r s . I t i s n o t a r g u e d t h a t the s t a n d a r d s be removed b u t r a t h e r t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n to the p a r t i c u l a r s a f e t y s t a n d a r d s w h i c h d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of f a c i l i t y may r e q u i r e . 142 5.1.2 P u b l i c A t t i t u d e s O p p o s i t i o n to r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n s i n g l e - f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , t a k e s many f o r m s . A s o c i a l p l a n b a s e d on e d u c a t i o n i s a n e c e s s a r y means of c o u n t e r i n g o p p o s i t i o n m o t i v a t e d by f e a r or i g n o r a n c e . On the o t h e r hand, o p p o s i t i o n may w e l l be b a s e d on economic f a c t o r s or r e a s o n a b l e c o n c e r n s , and a l t h o u g h e d u c a t i o n may a l l e v i a t e some of t h e s e , e c o n o m i c o p p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l a p p r o a c h e s . The a p p r o a c h e s l i s t e d below d i s c u s s v a r i o u s a l t e r n a -t i v e s w i t h i n the s c o p e of p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s . 1. CONDUCT A PROVINCE-WIDE PUBLIC AWARENESS PROGRAMME JOINTLY BETWEEN PROVINCIAL AND MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS, SOCIAL AGENCIES AND ASSOCIATIONS. T h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e m i s i n f o r m a t i o n a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s c o n c e r n i n g the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . At the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , s e v e r a l m i n i s t r i e s a r e n o t c o g n i z a n t of t h e p r o b l e m s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . T h e i r l a c k of i n v o l v e m e n t may have a s i m p l e cause - t h e y have not been asked d i r e c t l y to become i n v o l v e d . However, g i v e n the p r o v i n c i a l government's c u r r e n t p o l i c y on d e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n and t h e i r a c t i v e r o l e i n t h e p r o v i s i o n of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and h o u s i n g , i t would seem a d v a n t a g e o u s t h a t t h e above a p p r o a c h be i n t i a t e d • 143 T h i s a p p r o a c h would r e q u i r e a c l e a r s t a t e m e n t of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y communicated i n a c o m p r e h e n s i v e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s package to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g f i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e s s u c h as m u n i c i p a l i n c e n t i v e g r a n t s , and d e t a i l i n g p r o v i n c i a l / m u n i c i p a l r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s . R e a l i s t i c a l l y , c o o p e r a t i o n by m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s p l a c e s them i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . They may w i s h to c o o p e r a t e w i t h a p r o v i n c i a l programme b u t may r e p r e s e n t a c o n s t i t u e n c y who oppose the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i -d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . The s t r a t e g y has m e r i t n e v e r t h e l e s s as a means of e n l i g h t e n i n g p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n and t h r o u g h m e a n i n g f u l f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . At a n o t h e r l e v e l , s o c i a l a g e n c i e s can c o n t r i b u t e v a l u a b l e , s p e c i f i c knowledge on the o p e r a t i o n s and programmes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . W h i l e e x p o s u r e of p e r s o n s i n need of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e t o p u b l i c s c r u t i n y and d e b a t e i s n o t d e s i r a b l e , i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o f o r m u l a t e a l i m i t e d p u b l i c e x p o s u r e campaign i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n and r e s p o n s e needed f o r l e g i s l a t i v e amendment. 144 2. PROMOTE THE USE OF MUNICIPAL INCENTIVE GRANTS TO ENCOURAGE MUNICIPALITIES TO ACCOMMODATE, RESIDENTIAL CARE F A C I L I T I E S AND TO DEFRAY MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURES . FOR ADDITIONAL .SUPPORT. .SERVICES . T h i s a p p r o a c h a d d r e s s e s economic o p p o s i t i o n t o r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . I t a t t e m p t s to d e f r a y the b u r d e n of c o s t p l a c e d on l o c a l government. C a l c u l a t i o n s can be made on a p e r - b e d b a s i s . The s u c c e s s of t h i s a p p r o a c h c l e a r l y depends on the w i l l i n g n e s s of s e n i o r governments to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o s t - s h a r i n g . As a r e s u l t , i n t i m e s of f i s c a l c o n s t r a i n t t h i s s t r a t e g y i s one w h i c h may have t o be h e l d i n a b e y a n c e , and c l e a r l y depends upon th e c h a n g i n g c o s t s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e s . 3. ORGANIZE AN INTER-MINISTERIAL WORKING GROUP TO COORDINATE THE LEGISLATIVE MANDATES OF EACH MINISTRY AS THEY PERTAIN TO RESIDENTIAL CARE F A C I L I T I E S . S e v e r a l m i n i s t r i e s of the p r o v i n c i a l government have a d i r e c t or i n d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . C l e a r l y a c o n s i s t e n t m i n i s t e r i a l p o l i c y on t h e s e f a c i l i t i e s w ould a s s i s t i n d e v e l o p m e n t of an e n l i g h t e n e d p u b l i c a t t i t u d e . S i n c e e ach m i n i s t r y has a d i f f e r e n t mandate f o r t a k i n g a c t i o n , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a w o r k i n g group be 145 e s t a b l i s h e d to f o r m u l a t e a c o o r d i n a t e d p o l i c y c o n c e r n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . Such a w o r k i n g group might c o n c e i v a b l y i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g m i n i s t r i e s : M u n i c i p a l A f f a i r s ; Human R e s o u r c e s ; H e a l t h ; Human R i g h t s B r a n c h ; E d u c a t i o n ; A t t o r n e y -G e n e r a l ( C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h ) . I f a c o n s i s t e n t p o l i c y i s t o be i n i t i a t e d a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , i t seems e s s e n t i a l t h a t the v a r i o u s m i n i s t r i e s above c o o r d i n a t e t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . 4. ENCOURAGE REGIONAL HOUSING CORPORATIONS OR FOUNDATIONS TO ESTABLISH A "POOL" OF HOUSING STOCK THEREBY ALLOWING SOCIAL AGENCIES TO CONCENTRATE ON PUBLIC AWARE-NESS AND F A C I L I T I E S PROGRAMMES. T h i s a p p r o a c h would a s s i s t s o c i a l a g e n c i e s i n a c q u i r i n g needed h o u s i n g s t o c k f o r r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s and would a l l e v i a t e a g e n c i e s f r o m t h e t r o u b l e s o m e and t i m e - c o n s u m i n g c h o r e of l o c a t i n g and f i n a n c i n g new a c q u i s i t i o n s . A g e n c i e s would be a f f o r d e d g r e a t e r time t o d e v o t e t o programme dev e l o p m e n t f o r t h i s f a c i l i t i e s o r i n c o m m u n i c a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to an i l l - i n f o r m e d p u b l i c . 146 5.1.3 Human R i g h t s As d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 4, l o c a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i s b o t h a z o n i n g and a human r i g h t s p r o b l e m . The Human R i g h t s  Code of B.C., S.B.C. 1973 (2nd S e s s . ) c. 119, i n s e c t i o n 4, p r o h i b i t s d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g b a s e d on " r a c e , r e l i g i o n , c o l o u r , s e x , a n c e s t r y , p l a c e of o r i g i n or m a r i t a l s t a t u s " . The l a n g u a g e of t h e Code i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to p r e v e n t p r e j u d i c i a l c o n d u c t r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d i s t i n -g u i s h p a r t i c u l a r groups or c l a s s e s of p e r s o n s from the r e s t of s o c i e t y , o t h e r t h a n t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e n u m e r a t e d . In o r d e r t o b r i n g r e s i d e n t s of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n of the Code i n h o u s i n g , a s i n g l e - f o c u s . s t r a t e g y i s s u g g e s t e d . The human r i g h t s i s s u e i s c r i t i c a l . C o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h and a l e a r n e d l e g a l o p i n i o n on r e l a t e d law i s i m p e r a -t i v e . The f o l l o w i n g a p p r o a c h d e a l s w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l f a c t s o f the s t u d y at hand as i t r e l a t e s to the Human  R i g h t s Code of B.C. 147 1. AMEND THE HUMAN RIGHTS CODE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, S.B.C. 1973 (2nd S e s s . ) c.119, TO PROVIDE PROTECTION FROM DISCRIMINATION IN HOUSING TO THOSE IN NEED OF RESIDENTIAL CARE F A C I L I T I E S . Amendment of t h e Human R i g h t s Code of B.C. ( s u p r a ) , s p e c i f i c a l l y t o i n c l u d e the p h r a s e " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , would b r i n g t h o s e i n need of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h i n the ambit of the Code. T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s a p p r o a c h . F i r s t , i t b r i n g s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w i t h i n t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Human R i g h t s B r a n c h of the M i n i s t r y of L a b o u r . S e c o n d l y , t h e terms " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " or "grounds f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n " have o p p o s i t e r e s u l t s : a) The c o n c e p t of " r e a s o n a b l e n e s s " p r o v i d e s a means of e x t e n d i n g an o t h e r w i s e e x h a u s t i v e l i s t of c l a s s e s or c a t e g o r i e s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r o h i b i t e d a g a i n s t to i n c l u d e the h a n d i c a p p e d ; and b) I t opens t h e p r e s e n t e x p r e s s p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t d i s c r i m i n a t i o n on t h e b a s i s of an 148 enumerated l i s t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to r e v i e w as " r e a s o n a b l e " w h i c h c o u l d n o t have been i n the minds of the L e g i s l a t u r e i n e n a c t i n g the Code . C a r e , t h e r e f o r e , must be e x e r c i s e d i n d r a f t i n g amending l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s u i t a b l e amendment to s e c t i o n 4 would be t o i n c o r p o r a t e the term " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " as i t has been done i n s e c t i o n 3. In t h i s way p r o t e c t i o n of t h e Code i s e x t e n d e d t o the h a n d i c a p p e d w i t h o u t c o n t r a d i c t i n g the i n t e n t of t h e Code. 4. (1) No p e r s o n s h a l l (a) deny to any p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s the o p p o r t u n i t y to p u r c h a s e any c o m m e r c i a l u n i t or d w e l l i n g u n i t t h a t i s a d v e r t i s e d or i n any way r e p r e s e n t e d as b e i n g a v a i l a b l e f o r s a l e ; or (b) deny t o any p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s the o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u r c h a s e o r o t h e r w i s e a c q u i r e l a n d or an i n t e r e s t i n l a n d ; or (c) d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t any p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s w i t h r e s p e c t to any term or c o n d i t i o n of the p u r c h a s e o r o t h e r a c q u i s i t i o n of any c o m m e r c i a l u n i t , d w e l l i n g u n i t , l a n d , o r i n t e r e s t i n l a n d u n l e s s r e a s o n a b l e cause e x i s t s f o r such r e f u s a l or d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . 149 (2) F o r the p u r p o s e s of s u b s e c t i o n (1) the r a c e , r e l i g i o n , c o l o u r , sex, a n c e s t r y , p l a c e of o r i g i n , or m a r i t a l s t a t u s of any p e r s o n or c l a s s of p e r s o n s s h a l l not c o n s t i t u t e r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e . Amendment of s e c t i o n 4 as d e s c r i b e d above a d h e r e s s t r i c t l y t o t h e t h r u s t of the Code. I t w i l l p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h o s e opposed t o r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s t o show t h a t t h e r e a r e grounds f o r d e n i a l o f h o u s i n g to the h a n d i c a p p e d , f o r example, and t h a t s u c h g r ounds may be r e a s o n a b l e . F a i r l y , t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y ought t o be p r e s e n t under th e terms of the Code. On the o t h e r hand, d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h o s e p o s s e s s i n g t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of " r a c e , r e l i g i o n , c o l o u r , s e x , a n c e s t r y , p l a c e of o r i g i n a l or m a r i t a l s t a t u s " would r e m a i n c l o s e d t o r e v i e w on the grounds of r e a s o n a b l e n e s s . T h r o u g h an amendment of the k i n d d e s c r i b e d above, a b o a r d of i n q u i r y t h e r e b y becomes a s u i t a b l e i n s t i t u -t i o n a l s e t t i n g ( s e e C h a p t e r 2) f o r h e a r i n g of c a s e s i n v o l v i n g community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . M o r e o v e r , as i t was f o u n d i n H e e r s p i n k , and g i v e n the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r c o m p a r i s o n of the r e s p e c t i v e a u t h o r i t i e s o f t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t and the Code as d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 4, p u b l i c c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e s u b j e c t to r e v i e w 150 b e f o r e a b o a r d of i n q u i r y . S h o u l d a r e v i e w of m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g p r a c t i c e s be f o u n d t o c o n t r a v e n e the Code, t h e n b y - l a w s i n v o l v i n g e x c l u s i o n a r y z o n i n g of t h i s k i n d would have t o be amended or r e p e a l e d . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t an a l t e r n a t e method of amending the Human R i g h t s Code i s a v a i l a b l e . By i n c l u d i n g the term " h a n d i c a p p e d " as a n o t h e r of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g a t t r i b u t e s a l r e a d y enumerated i n s e c t i o n 4, p r o t e c t i o n of the Code to t h o s e i n need of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i s a s s u r e d . The term " h a n d i c a p p e d " i s g i v e n the same w e i g h t as t h o s e o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a l r e a d y s e t o u t . The d i f f i c u l t y w i t h an amendment of: t h i s k i n d , however, i s c r i t i c a l : a) L e g i s l a t o r s w i l l need to be c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e t e r m " h a n d i c a p p e d " or w h a t e v e r o t h e r term i s c o n s i d e r e d i n i t s p l a c e i_s of the same k i n d of d i s t i n g u i s h i n g group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c as t h o s e p r e s e n t l y enumerated; b) The term " h a n d i c a p p e d " or w h a t e v e r o t h e r term i s used i n i t s p l a c e w i l l need to be d e f i n e d i n s . l of the Code. D e f i n i t i o n of s u c h a t e r m i s a t h o r n y i s s u e . 151 c) D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t the " h a n d i c a p p e d " i n h o u s i n g would i n the l a t t e r amendment be an a b s o l u t e p r o h i b i t i o n . S i n c e q u e s t i o n s of r e a s o n a b l e n e s s or grounds f o r d i s c r i m i n a t i o n c a n n o t be r a i s e d b e c a u s e t h e y would n o t a p p e a r i n the l a n g u a g e of s.4, major i s s u e s s u c h as d e n s i t y or c o n c e n t r a t i o n - o t h e r w i s e r e a s o n a b l e i s s u e s - a r e e f f e c t i v e l y e l i m i n a t e d from c o n s i d e r a t i o n . T hese i s s u e s r e l a t e to the i n t r i n s i c a u t h o r i t y g r a n t e d t o m u n i c i p a l g o v e r n -ments by t h e M u n i c i p a l A c t of B.C. i n z o n i n g m a t t e r s . 5.2 C o n c l u s i o n s In t h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n i n g l o c a t i o n of community-b a s e d r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d i n v o l v e s i t u a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o the s o v e r e i g n t y of p a r l i a m e n t . They a r e the n o t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s v e r s u s the power of the s t a t e ; f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; d e l e g a t i o n of power; l a n d z o n i n g by p e o p l e z o n i n g ; r e a s o n a b l e n e s s ; and u l t r a v i r e s . I n a l l of t h e s e , s o v e r e i g n t y o f p a r l i a m e n t d e t e r m i n e s t h a t a p r o p e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g w i l l be p r o v i d e d i n w h i c h m a t t e r s of s o c i a l p o l i c y w i l l be h e a r d or r e v i e w e d . The s o v e r e i g n t y o f p a r l i a m e n t to l e g i s l a t e s o c i a l 152 p o l i c y i s n o t i n d i s p u t e . At t h e m u n i c i p a l l e v e l , t h r o u g h d e l e g a t i o n of power, c o u n c i l s may a c t as the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r t h r e e p r o c e s s e s of government - l e g i s l a t i v e , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and q u a s i - j u d i c i a l . The l o c a t i o n o f community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n v o l v e s a l l t h r e e p r o c e s s e s . I n t h e l a t t e r p r o c e s s , c o u n c i l i s a s k e d t o r e v i e w i t s own l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s . I t i s an u n e n v i a b l e p o s i t i o n . In the c a s e of r e s i d e n t o p p o s i t i o n to t h e z o n i n g of l a n d f o r r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s , the p o s i t i o n o f c o u n c i l may w e l l be u n t e n a b l e . F o r example, on a r e z o n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n , c o u n c i l s a r e r e q u i r e d by the M u n i c i p a l A c t to c o n d u c t a p u b l i c h e a r i n g . I n t h a t c a p a c i t y , t h e y assume a q u a s i - j u d i c i a l r o l e . T h e i r d e c i s i o n w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s i d e r l e g i s l a t i v e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s p r e s e n t l y i n p l a c e , p r a c t i c e s w h i c h t h e y may have i n i t i a t e d i n o t h e r r o l e s . M o r e o v e r , e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i s b o t h a q u e s t i o n of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l and of human r i g h t s . C o u n c i l s may p r o p e r l y c o n s i d e r m a t t e r s of l a n d - u s e z o n i n g but n o t l a n d z o n i n g by p e o p l e z o n i n g . To remove c o u n c i l f r o m t h e i r u n t e n a b l e p o s i t i o n t h e a p p r o a c h e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e some s o l u t i o n s t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y . I f , as i t has been a r g u e d , e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s i s a human r i g h t s m a t t e r , m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l 153 i n i t s q u a s i - j u d i c i a l r o l e i s the wrong c o u r t i n w h i c h to d e c i d e human r i g h t s m a t t e r s . W h i l e c o u n c i l s may be p e r s u a d e d to e n l i g h t e n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n of " f a m i l y " i n z o n i n g b y - l a w s , t h e y may a l s o r e s i s t p e r s u a s i o n . The a p p r o a c h e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e r e f o r e a d d r e s s change i n s o c i a l p o l i c y a t the p r o v i n c i a l , m u n i c i p a l and non-g o v e r n m e n t a l l e v e l s . I f change i s t o o c c u r , c l e a r l y , amended l e g i s l a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . N e i t h e r t h e s o v e r e i g n t y of p a r l i a m e n t n o r t h e d e l e g a t i o n of power t o m u n i c i p a l government i s removed. A c h a l l e n g e of t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n of m u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s to l a n d zone by p e o p l e z o n i n g i s u n t e s t e d i n B.C. C o u r t s . S h o u l d a s o c i a l agency choose t o c h a l l e n g e a m u n i c i p a l d e c i s i o n i n the C o u r t s w i t h o u t p u t t i n g t h e s t r a t e g i e s of t h i s c h a p t e r i n p l a c e , a f a v o u r a b l e d e c i s i o n i s moot. P r e s e n t f a c t s a r e : M u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s a c t u l t r a v i r e s i f t h e y l a n d zone by p e o p l e z o n i n g . M u n i c i p a l z o n i n g b y - l aw d e f i n i t i o n s of " f a m i l y " a r e s u b j e c t to l i b e r a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n as p e r D o u g l a s B e l l . 154 M u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s a c t u l t r a v i r e s when the y d e l e g a t e power of a u t h o r i t y t o make d e c i s i o n s t o a s m a l l group of e f f e c t e d p r o p e r t y owners t h r o u g h p e t i t i o n , as p e r D a v i s (189 2) 21 O.R. 2 43. However, M u n i c i p a l c o u n c i l s a r e now the p r o p e r forum t o h e a r m a t t e r s r e l a t e d t o l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l . E s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s has n o t been c o n s i d e r e d a m a t t e r of human r i g h t s p e r s e . Human r i g h t s l e g i s l a t i o n i n s.4 of the Human R i g h t s Code of B.C. ( s u p r a ) does n o t p r o t e c t the h a n d i c a p p e d from d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g . A l l of t h e s e f a c t o r s need to be a d d r e s s e d b e f o r e j u d i c i a l r e v i e w . o f e x c l u s i o n a r y z o n i n g r e g u l a t i o n s as a human r i g h t s m a t t e r can o c c u r . I n view of the d i l e m n a i n v o l v i n g " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " as s e t out i n G.A.T.E. (S.C.C. 1979, u n r e p o r t e d ) , f u r t h e r s t u d y of a h y p o t h e t i c a l c a s e i s 155 mandat o r y . The l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l package of a p p r o a c h e s d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l f u r t h e r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s . I t i s a r g u e d t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a s t r o n g p r o b a b i l i t y of s u c c e s s , g i v e n the p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 4, f o r a l e g a l c h a l l e n g e of p r e s e n t m u n i c i p a l z o n i n g p r a c t i c e . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t and m u n i c i p a l c o o p e r a t i o n would improve th e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l o c a t i n g community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n r e s i d e n t i a l z o n e s . A d v o c a t e s f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t of community-based r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s s h o u l d be e n c o u r a g e d to o r g a n i z e a p e r s u a s i v e l o b b y b a s e d on documented e v i d e n c e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g f o r r e s i d e n t s of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s b a s e d on the term " f a m i l y " as per D o u g l a s B e l l ( s u p r a ) . The e d u c a t i o n a l package of a p p r o a c h e s w h i c h aims t o m o d i f y p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n c o u l d improve the a t t i t u d e t oward accommodation of community-based c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . T h i s package i s c l e a r l y a l o n g - t e r m a p p r o a c h and t h e p r o b a b l i t y of s u c c e s s i s u n c e r t a i n . I t i s a r g u e d , however, t h a t t h i s package i s e s s e n t i a l s i n c e d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n c a n n o t s i m p l y be l e g i s l a t e d away. 156 The human r i g h t s a p p r o a c h a t t e m p t s to b r i n g the d i s c r i m i n a t o r y a s p e c t of l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l w i t h i n the ambit of the Human R i g h t s Code of B.C. ( s u p r a ) . The p r o b a b i l i t y of s u c c e s s of t h i s s t r a t e g y i s , a t p r e s e n t , u n c e r t a i n . However, t h e r e r e m a i n s s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e to s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s a p p r o a c h would i n time p r o d u c e b e n e f i c i a l r e s u l t s f o r r e s i d e n t s of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . At the same t i m e , f a i r and e q u a l r e p r e s e n -t a t i o n b e f o r e a human r i g h t s t r i b u n a l i s m a i n t a i n e d f o r t h o s e who may oppose s u c h f a c i l i t i e s . A human r i g h t s t r i b u n a l i s , m o r e o v e r , an a p p r o p r i a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g f o r h e a r i n g c o m p l a i n t s c o n c e r n i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n i n h o u s i n g . U n c e r t a i n t y e x i s t s r e l a t e d t o the u n r e s o l v e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of " r e a s o n a b l e c a u s e " ( n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g C h i e f J u s t i c e L a s k i n ' s remarks i n G . A. T . E . ( s u p r a ) ) , and w i t h t h e o b j e c t i v e v e r s u s s u b j e c t i v e t e s t s of d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n . T h i s s t r a t e g y ought to be p u r s u e d w i t h c a u t i o n f o r c a r e f u l d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f f a c t u a l e v i d e n c e of d i s c r i m i n a -t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l as w e l l as e x p e r t l e g a l a d v i c e p e r t a i n i n g to t h e p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s of a p r o s p e c t i v e t e s t  c a s e . A programme d e s i g n e d t o a s s i s t i n t h e e s t a b l i s h -ment of r e s i d e n t i a l c a r e f a c i l i t i e s i n f a m i l y n e i g h b o u r h o o d s s h o u l d , at p r e s e n t , c o n c e n t r a t e i t s e f f o r t s on the l a n d - u s e c o n t r o l p a c k a g e . The i n e q u i t i e s w h i c h r e s u l t from the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e d e f i n i t i o n of " f a m i l y " as documented i n C h a p t e r 4 need to be a d d r e s s e d i n the i n t e r e s t of s o c i a l j u s t i c e . A programme b a s e d can s t r e n g t h e n the ca s e f o r embodied i n many m u n i c i p a l on the human r i g h t s p a c kage r e c t i f y i n g t h e i n e q u i t i e s z o n i n g o r d i n a n c e s . 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