UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Goldsmith’s "Retaliation" and its literary contexts Carson, James Patrick 1979

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata


831-UBC_1979_A8 C37.pdf [ 10.75MB ]
JSON: 831-1.0100217.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0100217-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0100217-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0100217-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0100217-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0100217-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0100217-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

GOLDSMITH'S RETALIATION AND ITS LITERARY CONTEXTS by JAMES PATRICK CARSON B.A., The University of Alberta, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of English) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1979 © James Patrick Carson, 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f English  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e August 28, 1979 Abstract The subject of this thesis i s an examination of the English l i t e r a r y background of Oliver Goldsmith's f i n a l poem, Retaliation, and a detailed consideration of the structure and portraits of the poem i t s e l f . Three types of lit e r a r y works of the Restoration and eighteenth century, though not wholly exclusive of one another, provide the most f r u i t f u l background for this investigation: verse satires, poems i n anapaestic tetrameter couplets, and li t e r a r y portraits. Retaliation i s f i r s t placed into i t s current c r i t i c a l context. Gold-smith's portraiture s k i l l s are identified as one of his major strengths as a poet. The central problem for criticism of his major poems l i e s i n a determination of the role of the author i n his works. Retaliation i s next considered i n the context of mid-eighteenth-century verse satire. The deterioration of the poet's self-portrait as a s a t i r i c norm i s illustrated by examples from Pope, Churchill, and Goldsmith. The eighteenth-century opposition between Horatian and Juvenalian satire i s bri e f l y discussed, and Retaliation i s found to approximate closely to the pole of Horatian or "laughing" satire. The second chapter of the thesis i s concerned with the eighteenth-century "low" style of poems written in anapaestic tetrameter couplets between Prior and Goldsmith. An attempt i s made to explore the range of poems composed in this metrical form. More emphasis i s placed upon poems which are similar to Goldsmith's anapaestic pieces i n structure, diction, or intention. Evidence i s provided to suggest that there i s greater con-tinuity i n the anapaestic tradition of familiar epistles, character-sketches, and light satires than has sometimes been thought. In order to discover i i i i i the characteristics of the anapaestic poetry of this period and to sug-gest why Goldsmith chose this metrical form for his poems of social l i f e , the works of Prior, Swift, and Christopher Anstey are emphasized, but pieces by less influential writers of anapaests—including Pope, John Byrom, Edward Moore, Shenstone, Gray, Richard Owen Cambridge, and John Cunningham—are also examined. Goldsmith 1s other anapaestic poems, the "Letter to Mrs. Bunbury" and The Haunch of Venison, are discussed primarily for what they reveal about Goldsmith's manner of self-portraiture. The f i n a l chapter of this thesis consists of an extended analysis of the structure and portraits of Retaliation. The question of unity in the poem i s of particular importance, because the poem i s unfinished. While the occasional nature of the poem has determined much about i t s struc-ture, Goldsmith paid careful attention to the arrangement of the epitaphs i n order to f a c i l i t a t e a series of contrasts from which his s a t i r i c norms may be inferred. The occasional nature of the poem also induced Goldsmith to strive for a balanced, or equivocating, effect i n his portraiture. Many of the s a t i r i c touches in Retaliation together constitute a playful commen-tary on serious satire. In the course of interpreting the portraits i n Retaliation, I have investigated the variety of Goldsmith's portraiture techniques and suggested some comparisons with s a t i r i c portraits by Dryden and Pope. Table of Contents Abstract i i Introduction 1 Chapter Is Retaliation and Verse Satire in the Mid-Eighteenth Century 18 Chapter II: Retaliation and the Anapaestic Tetrameter Couplet from Prior to Goldsmith 54 Chapter III: The Structure and Portraits of Retaliation • 113 Bibliography of Works Cited 149 Introduction In this thesis I shall examine the structure and portraits of Oliver Goldsmith's Retaliation, Goldsmith's last poem and probably his b e s t — The Deserted Village and The Traveller excepted. I shall consider Retal-iation i n two main contexts: as a prominent verse satire of the late eighteenth century and as an important poem in the tradition of the eight-eenth-century "low" style composed i n anapaestic tetrameter couplets. In a consideration of Retaliation, as of any late eighteenth-century sa-t i r i c poem, some attention may profitably be paid to the decline of verse satire after the death of Pope. A discussion of Retaliation i n the con-text of the decline of verse satire constitutes the subject of my f i r s t chapter. In my second chapter I shall examine numerous poems i n anapaes-t i c tetrameter couplets, i n order to establish the characteristics of the verse form and to suggest what elements of the "low" style appealed to Goldsmith and why he may have chosen anapaests for his poems of social l i f e . My f i n a l chapter w i l l be a close analysis of Retaliation, focus-ing on the question of unity in this unfinished poem and on the matter of portraiture technique, a s k i l l of Goldsmith's which has not previously been examined i n sufficient d e t a i l . Before proceeding to these subjects, I should l i k e to place Goldsmith and his poetry into their current c r i t i -cal context, paying particular attention to the central question of the manner of self-presentation i n his three best poems. "Who wanders not with Erin's wandering bard?Afho s i t s not down with Auburn's pastor mild/To take upon his knee the shyest child?" 1 It i s 1 2 more than a hundred years since Walter Savage Landor wrote these lines, and there i s now considerable doubt how his rhetorical questions should be answered. G. S. Rousseau insists that, with few exceptions, no one wanders anymore through Goldsmith's Characters of European nations or cares to s i t down for very long with the Village Preacher: Historians of the Industrial Revolution, l i k e J . H. Plumb, and c r i t i c s of the literature produced by that revolution, li k e Raymond Williams, have looked at The Traveller and Deserted  Village en passant. But others, poets most of a l l , have forgot-ten them, don't read them, and probably never w i l l again.2 Lest Rousseau's opinions be taken to reflect not on Goldsmith but on the popular image of the modern poet as a man unversed i n English literary tradition, i t should be remarked that apparently sophomore students of literature cannot be induced to enjoy The Deserted Village either.-' What i s even more disturbing to admirers of Goldsmith's serious poetry i s that Robert H. Hopkins, the author of one of the most important books on Gold-smith, likewise questions the value of the two major poems: "Their rheto-r i c i s worthy of study, as are their poetic structures, but there must be discrimination between lit e r a r y history for the puposes of understanding an era and those works that genuinely endure beyond that era."^ The cheq-uered c r i t i c a l heritage of a l l great eighteenth-century writers might occasion suspicion, or at least hope, that the passing-bell has been prema-turely rung. It should be recalled that, whatever the case with Rousseau's modern poets, some of this century's greatest poets did not forget Gold-smith. He figures more than once in the poetry of Yeats: Oliver Goldsmith sang what he had seen, Roads f u l l of beggars, cattle in the f i e l d s But never saw the t r e f o i l stained with blood The avenging leaf those f i e l d s raised up against i t . ' 5 While i t might be argued that Yeats's interest was nationalistic rather 3 than aesthetic, T. S. E l i o t had no such bias when he classed Goldsmith as a major poet.^ Further cause for hope arises from two excellent essays on The Deserted Village, neither one confined to the rhetoric of the poem, in which the respective authors have explored not only the complexity 7 and power of the poetry but also i t s relevance to modern experience. While at present Goldsmith's serious poetry has been largely aban-doned i n favour of his comic prose, especially The Vicar of Wakefield, in Goldsmith's own lifetime and for many years afterwards he was consid-ered primarily a poet, by a l l but his booksellers. According to Katharine C Balderston, i t was only as an afterthought that the prose was even included in the edition of Goldsmith's works planned by Bishop Percy, which eventually appeared i n 1802 (dated 1801). It i s immediately appar-ent on reading through Goldsmith's Collected Works that the ideas on trade and luxury, national characters and human happiness, which are espoused in The Deserted Village and The Traveller, though not perhaps original with Goldsmith, are nonetheless central to his thought. The importance of these two works for Goldsmith has recently been re-emphasized by Roger Lonsdale: "Biographically, his two major poems, both written with pains-taking care and with no immediate financial motive, almost certainly rep-resent what he himself considered the only true manifestations of his 9 l i t e r a r y integrity and talent." While such biographical considerations cannot, of course, determine modern evaluations of the works, they should certainly be made to temper low estimations based on assertions about the general unpopularity or "excessive didacticism" 1^ of these poems. As Landor's verses suggest, Goldsmith's serious poetry was truly popular i n the nineteenth century, as long as i t could be praised for exhibiting such qualities as "pathos, nature and s i m p l i c i t y . " 1 1 But at some point i n the Victorian period, readers discovered that Goldsmith's 4 serious poems were neither natural nor harmonious but rather written ac-cording to "the time's false tradition of 'poetic diction,"' i n verse 12 offering a l l the variety of a "dull tramway." Thereupon, they were damned with faint praise: "Of Goldsmith's poetry i t i s enough to say that the taste and a r t i s t i c training of the age i n which he lived did 13 not admit of any better." Goldsmith's was the so-called Age of Prose, "the most hated of a l l epochs i n l i t e r a r y history by the nineteenth cen-tury,""^ and the most refractory to modern attempts at classification and definition. The concept of "pre-Romanticism" gained general acceptance for a time, or so i t would appear from the vigorous opposition to the notion for the past twenty years. Goldsmith studies have been profoundly affected by this notion, since the standard biography of Goldsmith, that by Ralph Wardle, has been widely c r i t i c i z e d for advancing the view "that 15 Goldsmith was a pre-romantic i n an insufferably neo-classical age." The opposite view—that Goldsmith, along with Johnson, was a Eneo-Clas-s i c a l " reactionary resisting the "pre-Romantic" currents of the new age— also has i t s a d h e r e n t s . L i t e r a r y studies of the period have since been relieved of the "false teleology" inherent i n "pre-Romanticism," partly through the efforts of Northrop Frye; but the label that Frye proposed 17 as a substitute, "The Age of Sensibility," has not met with general acceptance. How could i t , when the greatest English writer of the period, Samuel Johnson, i s also a powerful opponent of sentimentalism? Goldsmith's own position with regard to sentimentalism i s not easily defined, and one widely held view has been that, while Goldsmith offered a critique of the "Man of Feeling" i n The Good Natur'd Man, he succumbed to the prevailing 18 "sensibility" i n The Deserted Village. At the same time, the notion that there was an upsurge i n emotionalism i n late eighteenth-century l i t -er ure has not gone nchallenged. Bertrand H. Bronson, citing Goldsm h's 5 two great "Augustan" poems as part of his evidence, proposes that i t i s at the beginning of the eighteenth century that "the a i r i s heavy with unrestrained emotion," and at the end that the values of Classicism are most refined and those who enunciate them most assured."^ Donald Greene, i n re-examining the supposed origins of sensibility i n latitudinarianism, suggests that s t a t i s t i c a l investigations are necessary i f i t i s to be demonstrated that more sentimental literature was produced i n the mid-20 eighteenth century than i n other periods. The c r i t i c a l trend which has prevailed for more than a decade now i s that Goldsmith i s an "Augustan." The label "Augustan" i n English l i t -erary history, when any attempt has been made to define the term precisely, has generally been applied to the f i r s t four decades of the eighteenth century. Several c r i t i c s , however, have extended the term's reference. Prominent among these i s Paul Fussell, who uses "the term to suggest the •orthodox' ethical and rhetorical tradition wherever found i n the eight-22 eenth century." While Fussell's exposition of the characteristics of eighteenth-century conservative writers and his discussion of the kinds of imagery to be found i n these writers are valuable, his view of the lit e r a r y history of the period—pitting the "Augustan humanists" from Swift to Burke against "the optimistic tradition bounded on one end by Defoe and on the other by Burns and Blake," and including, among others, Gold-smith 2^—has been much less helpful to lit e r a r y study. It i s d i f f i c u l t not to get the impression that Fussell 1 a *"A]a^^ *' are" a /ee-'r lect group representing what i s best i n eighteenth-century literature, and that Fussell's selection i s somewhat arbitrary. Robert H. Hopkins, for instance, disagrees with Fussell and states that both Fielding and Goldsmith should have been included i n the "Augustan" t r a d i t i o n . 2 ^ Other c r i t i c s , i n bringing Fussell's discussion of "Augustan" imagery to bear 6 on Goldsmith's works, write as though Goldsmith had not been ex p l i c i t l y 25 excluded from the number of the "Augustan humanists." ' The minor con-troversy over the relationship of Goldsmith to "Augustan humanism," re-sulting from Fussell's equation of "Augustan" with "good," provides con-siderable support, I believe, for Howard D i Weiribrot's contention that the prescriptive use of the term "Augustan" i s interfering with accurate 26 readings of eighteenth-century works. It remains to be seen i f "Augus-tanism," as Weinbrot hopes, w i l l go the way of "pre-Romanticism." But for now, at least, the occupation of attempting to label Goldsmith's time continues to thrive. Samuel H. Woods, Jr., while he prefers to see Gold-smith linked with "Augustanism" than with Upre-Romanticism," nevertheless regrets " ft] hat the scholarly community has not f u l l y recognized the d i f -ferences between the Augustan mode and what Quintana has called 'Georgian'."' Another recent c r i t i c who i s j u s t i f i a b l y concerned about the treatment of the latt e r half of the eighteenth century as a transitional period and who deplores the use of the terms "post-Augustan" and "pre-Romantic" has arrived at the conclusion that a number of writers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, including Goldsmith, might best be called "Grecian," since Athenian and Alexandrian models had replaced those of 28 Rome — a highly dubious suggestion, at least i n the case of Goldsmith. This mania for supplying and destroying labels has contributed, as might be expected, to some widely divergent opinions about the poems. The difference between the discussion of a Goldsmith poem as a "pre-Ro-mantic" document and as an "Augustan" one can be reduced to a single p o i n t — the role of the author in his work. For the c r i t i c with a "pre-Romantic" bias, the " I " of the poems i s Goldsmith himself. In this view, then, Goldsmith gushes with nostalgia in The Deserted Village. His public state-ments on trade and luxury tend to be lost i n a crowd of autobiographical 7 identifications. Auburn i s Lissoyj the Village Preacher i s Goldsmith's father or his brother Henry or perhps his Uncle Contarine. To the Lissoy extremists, even so relatively minor a figure as "The sad historian of 29 the pensive plain" ( l . 136) 7 can be identified as a l o c a l named Catherine Giraghty,^ 0 though Goldsmith's most recent biographer offers the much more fantastic suggestion of an identification with Goldsmith's mother.^1 For the c r i t i c with an "Augustan" bias, on the other hand, the " I " of Goldsmith's poems i s a persona, serving a rhetorical function i n an im-personal work. Here i s a representative comment by a c r i t i c of this school on The Deserted Village; " i t appears to me more often than not that Gold-smith deploys irony at the speaker's expense much as he does i n Letters 32 from a Citizen of the World and The Vicar of Wakefield." As can be seen from this statement, one of the motives of these c r i t i c s i s to dis-cover a high degree of consistency i n the various works of the Goldsmith canon. As Irvin Ehrenpreis has shown, the concept of the persona, espe-c i a l l y i n combination with irony, can be of invaluable assistance i n d i s -3 3 covering consistency i n an author's works. J J If a particular statement or attitude—say, a sentimental longing for home—is inconsistent with a c r i t i c ' s general view of an author, i t may be found that the offending statement or attitude i s actually that of a persona who i s treated i r o n i -cally by the author. For the c r i t i c s subscribing to the "Augustan" view of Goldsmith, the other main motive for emphasizing the persona, besides a desire for consistency, i s to show that Goldsmith i s l i k e other "Augus-tans." Since i t i s s t i l l widely believed that "Augustan" art i s impersonal and that a poet such as Pope employs a variety of masks for rhetorical purposes,-^ an emphasis'on the persona i n Goldsmith helps to demonstrate that he i s , i n fact, an "Augustan." I believe that the c r i t i c s with an "Augustan" bias are correct, i n -sofar as they emphasize the similarity between Goldsmith's poems and Pope's 8 or Johnson's. I also agree, i n part, with the c r i t i c s who have written with a "pre-Romantic" bias: Goldsmith's poems do contain powerful per-sonal emotions, and i t i s undeniable that his l i t e r a r y works, i n both poetry and prose, frequently embody an important element of autobiography. I cannot, however, accept the assumption that the art of the "Augustans" i s either devoid of emotion or impersonal. Perhaps i t i s worth noting that Maynard Mack, who some years ago i n "The Muse of Satire" viewed^Pope's poems i n terms of rhetorical masks, has i n a more recent essay examined Pope from a radically different point of view. Thirty years ago i t was necessary to defend Pope, and s a t i r i s t s i n general, against charges of vanity and personal malignancy. To effect this defense, Mack and others championed the theory of authorial irrelevance: the author was banished 35 from his works i n favour of personae, who were quite independent. To-day, the direction i n which l i t e r a r y study i s tending i s toward discover-ing how men and women reveal themselves i n their works—-hence, the current popularity of autobiography and travel literature. Hence, too, Mackfts recent comment on Pope: " . . . Horace's satires and epistles supply a powerful opportunity for favorable self-presentation that Pope seized and magnified, and i t may well be that one reason he did so was to satisfy 36 a psychic as well as poetic need to establish . . . an amiable identity.""^ It i s only recently that readers have become sensitive Mto the language of the heart that so often l i e s just under and behind Pope's immense ur-37 banity and i r o n y . I t i s not, then, primarily through the presence and absence of powerful emotions that the major poetry of different periods can be distinguished: the passions are constant; the language i n which 38 they are communicated changes, and must be learned to be intensely f e l t . While I believe that Goldsmith expresses personal emotions i n many of his poems, I do not therefore think that the notion of the persona 9 can be completely dispensed with, at least not in The Deserted Village and The Traveller* Contemporary readers of The Deserted Village, i f John Hawkesworth can be taken as representative, did not see the "I" of this poem simply as Goldsmith: "The Author writes i n the character of a native 39 of a country village, to which he gives the name of Auburn. . . ."-" This, i t seems to me, i s a sophisticated perception about how the poem works. A kind of dramatization does take place. In "Auburn" a kind of f i c t i o n has been created. But the relationship between poet and character i s also carefully specified: Goldsmith i s "in the character"; he i s the animating principle, the controlling intelligence. In The Deserted V i l - lage the speaker i s not a f u l l y developed dramatic creation, independent of the author, capable of having his own emotions or holding his own opin-ions about luxury and depopulation. Nor, I think, does Goldsmith treat this "character" ironically, unless perhaps i n the same manner that we a l l , at times, owing to self-awareness, treat ourselves with irony. An example, involving the portrait of the Village Schoolmaster, w i l l help to c l a r i f y this point: Yet he was kind, or i f severe i n aught, The love he bore to learning was i n fault; The village a l l declared how much he knew; •Twas certain he could write, and cypher too; Lands he could measure, terms and tides presage, And even the story ran that he could gauge. In arguing too, the parson owned his s k i l l , For even tho' vanquished, he could argue s t i l l ; While words of learned length, and thundering sound, Amazed the gazing rustics ranged around, And s t i l l they gazed, and s t i l l the wonder grew, That one small head could carry a l l he knew. (11. 205-16) To Goldsmith as actor i n the poem, we attribute the attitude of sincere affection for, tempered by a certain condescension toward, both the school-master and the yillagers. To Goldsmith as poet, we attribute such effects 10 of versification as the assonance and al l i t e r a t i o n i n a line such as "Amazed the gazing rustics ranged around," effects which, in this instance, are notably expressive of a gently mocking tone.^ The schoolmaster, I think i t can be said, i s treated with irony, the kind of gentle irony for which Goldsmith i s best k n o w n T h e schoolmaster, we infer, i s something of a pedant; he makes a display of his knowledge. His f o l l y i s shown i n Goldsmith's ironic praise of his a b i l i t y to argue even after an argument has been l o s t . The learning of which the schoolmaster i s proud i s shown to reside i n such things as being able to "write, and cypher." He i s not noted for the appropriateness of his expressions nor for the force of his arguments, but for "words of learned length, and thundering sound." The sketch i s appropriately concluded with the depreciatory phrase "one small head." In considering the portrait of the Village Schoolmaster, the reader may r e c a l l an earlier passage i n the poem: I s t i l l had hopes, for pride attends us s t i l l , Amidst the swains to shew my book-learned s k i l l , Around my f i r e and evening groupe to"draw, And t e l l of a l l I f e l t , and a l l I saw. . . • (11. 89-92) The similarities are sufficiently striking, but the differences between the portrait of the Village Schoolmaster and this instance of self-portrayal are even more instructive. Although both the Schoolmaster and Goldsmith as actor i n the poem are proud of their learning and either do or would use i t to attain a position of prominence among simple villagers, the persona possesses a self-awareness that the Schoolmaster lacks. He rec-ognizes and confesses that pride i s his motivation. Such i s the self-analysis undertaken by a truly intelligent and truly sensitive man. The Schoolmaster i s portrayed completely from the outside, and i s gently mocked. Goldsmith as actor in the poem reveals his inner motivations, and we sym-11 pathize with ham, as we are intended to. It i s essential to determine the proper place of Goldsmith i n his poems for two related reasons. F i r s t , I believe that i t i s through exam-ining a work i n relation to i t s author and i t s age that we can most f u l l y extend i t s significance to our own time. A r t i f i c e should not be divorced from personality; aesthetic values should not be separated from human. Literary works should be considered i n a way not very different from that in which Samuel Johnson thought of them—"as human acts to be judged in relation to the agency of their production and appreciation."^ The sec-ond reason for determining afresh Goldsmith 1s place i n his works i s that some of the low estimations of his two major poems have been directly based on the assumption that they involve the kind of ironic personae that have been found i n certain of his prose works. This i s the case with the i n -troduction to the most recent edition of Goldsmith's poems and plays, even though the introduction i s otherwise valuable for the consideration given to the classification of Goldsmith's poems i n terms of the audience for which they were intended. Tom Davis finds that Goldsmith was continually protecting himself from his audience, with irony, parody, buffoonery. This ironic stance i s one of the principal sources of Goldsmith's greatness; but I shall try to show that his highest claim to our admiration i s based on those works i n which the ironies are l e f t behind, and we are presented with an extraordinary integrity and directness. Only i n one of his poems did Goldsmith drop the varieties of cover that protect the poet from his audience, and that i s the Retaliation. It i s for this reason that this i s , to my mind, his finest poem, i n spite of i t s lack of fin i s h and i t s uneven-ness.43 Retaliation i s indeed a fine poem, but i t i s somewhat perverse to praise i t at the expense of Goldsmith's other poems, as Davis does, especially on such dubious grounds as these. In considering Goldsmith's use of the lit e r a r y portrait i n Retalia-12 tion, I am examining part of what has usually been thought Goldsmith 18 best poetry. Hazlitt's remarks are representative: His Traveller contains masterly national sketches. The Deserted  Village i s sometimes spun out into mawkish sentimentality; but the characters of the Village Schoolmaster, and the Village  Clergyman, redeem a hundred faults. His Retaliation i s a poem of exquisite s p i r i t , humour, and freedom of style. Except for the short-lived popularity of Edwin and Angelina,^ the three poems mentioned by Hazlitt are the ones which have always been regarded as Goldsmith's masterpieces. The reason for this high regard has likewise been almost universally shared: an appreciation for Goldsmith's percep-tive analyses of character, whether of nations, social and professional types, or individuals. It i s strange, therefore, that though many of the l i t e r a r y conventions pertinent to The Traveller and The Deserted V i l - lage have been discussed at length, there has been no study of Goldsmith's art of l i t e r a r y portraiture i n these poems. Although Retaliation has f r e -quently been praised i n passing and although the circumstances surrounding i t s composition have been the object of inquiry i n two scholarly articles,' this poem has yet to be the central subject of a c r i t i c a l essay. Gold-smith scholars have been aware, for several years, of the need for such studies: Adequate criticism of "Retaliation" i s almost nonexistent and indeed d i f f i c u l t , because the portraits i n the poem are of ac-tual people, and the extent of Goldsmith's use of li t e r a r y con-ventions for verse portraits and the extent.to which the poem possesses unity s t i l l await investigation.^ It i s quite right to state that d i f f i c u l t questions are raised since real people are portrayed i n Retaliation. What were the relations between Goldsmith and the men portrayed i n the poem like? Are the sketches bio-graphically accurate? Do they contain s a t i r i c distortions? Such d i f f i -13 culties, however, are by no means unique to Retaliation. Achitophel and Zimri, Atticus and Sporus are representations of actual people as well. Since Goldsmith used the real names of the men he sketched, Retaliation may actually present fewer d i f f i c u l t i e s i n this matter than those encoun-tered in such a poem as the Epistle to a Lady, concerning which numerous disputes have arisen and much work has been done i n the identification of Pope's nymphs. While biographical matters are v i t a l to a f u l l under-standing of Retaliation, I shall devote myself primarily to examining the li t e r a r y conventions involved i n the s a t i r i c genre, the verse portraits, and the metrical form. Since the l i t e r a r y portrait tradition i n the eight-eenth century i s largely a s a t i r i c tradition, some consideration w i l l be given to the vexed question of the decline of verse satire i n the mid-eighteenth century. I shall attempt to determine the extent to which Retaliation may be called s a t i r i c . I shall also comment b r i e f l y upon the anapaestic tetrameter couplet, examining other eighteenth-century poems in this metrical form and suggesting what effect the metre has on the nature of Goldsmith's Retaliation. I shall address the matter of unity in Retaliation—surely a central question for a poem which Goldsmith did not l i v e to give the finishing touches to. In attempting to trace the tradition of which Retaliation i s part, I shall be considering numerous eighteenth-century poems. One thing which unites many of the works to be examined in this thesis i s the question of self-portrayal i n eighteenth-century poetry. At the heart of my subject i s the epitaph from Retaliation that we do not have, and perhaps were never intended to have. Notes "t ^ Walter Savage Landor, "Goldsmith and Gray," i n Dry Sticks, Fagoted (Edinburgh: James Nichol, 1858), p. 119. Goldsmith: The C r i t i c a l Heritage,! ed. G. S. Rousseau (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), p. 18. 3 Samuel H. Woods, Jr., "The Goldsmith 'Problem,'" SBHT, 19 (1978), 48. ^ T n e True Genius of Oliver Goldsmith (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1969), p. 235. 5 "The Seven Sages," in The Collected Poems of W. B^ Yeats, 2nd ed. (London: Macmillan, 1950), p. 272. See also "Blood and the Moon," p. 268. 6 "What Is Minor Poetry?" Sewanee Review, 54 (1946), 11. For more extensive commentary on Goldsmith, see El i o t ' s introduction to Samuel Johnson's London: A Poem and The Vanity of Human Wishes (London: Fred-erick Etchells & Hugh Macdonald, 1930). 7 See Earl Miner, "The Making of The Deserted Village," HLQ, 22 (1959), 125-41; and John Montague, "The Sentimental Prophecy: A Study of The Deserted Village," Dolmen: Miscellany of Irish Writing, 1 (l962),"o2-79. ^ See The History and Sources of Rercy's Memoir of Goldsmith (Cambridgey 1926; rpt. New York: Kraus Reprint, 1969), p. 28. 9 "'A Garden and a Grave': The Poetry of Oliver Goldsmith," i n The  Author i n His Work: Essays on a Problem i n Criticism, ed. Louis L. Martz and Aubrey Williams (New Haven:"""Yale Univ. Press, 1978), p. 9. Some years ago Edmund Blunden expressed a similar opinion: "Ever most surely preserved among Goldsmith's plans was that of proving himself a poet, nor i s i t accidental that Johnson's description of his eminence f a l l s into the order Poetae, Physici, H i s t o r i c i " ("Goldsmith's Bicentenary," i n Vo-tive Tablets: Studies Chiefly Appreciative of English Authors and Books fjLondon: Cobden-Sanderson, 193lj, p. 157). 1° Hopkins, p. v i i . 1 1 James Prior, The Lif e of Oliver Goldsmith, M.B.: From a Variety °£ Original Sources Xlondon: John Murray, 1837), II, 544. "~ 12 Coventry Patmore, rev. of the Life of Oliver Goldsmith, by Austin Dobson, St. James's Gazette, 16 January 1888; rpt. as "Goldsmith," i n Courage i n P o l i t i c s and Other Essays 1885-1896, Essay Index Reprint Series (1921; rpt. Freeport, N. Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1968), p. 63. 14 15 13 Patmore, p. 62. Rousseau, p. 4» 15 Morris Golden, rev. of Oliver Goldsmith, by Ralph Wardle, MLN, 73 (1958), 443* See also the reviews of Wardle 1s book by James C l i f f o r d i n Johnsonian News Letter, 17 (October 1957), 6-7J and Katharine C. Balder-ston i n English Literature, 1660-1800; A Current Bibliography, P£, 38 (1959), 327-28. 1 6 See A. Lytton Sells, Oliver Goldsmith: His Life and Works (New. York: Barnes & Noble, 1974)* 1 7 "Towards Defining an Age of Sensibility," ELH, 23 (1956), 144-52. ^ See Andrew M. Wilkinson, "The Decline of English Verse Satire i n the Middle Years of the Eighteenth Century," RES, NS 3 (1952), 227; see also W. F. Gallaway, Jr., "The Sentimentalism of Goldsmith," PMLA, 48 (1933), 1167-81. 19 "When Was Neoclassicism?" i n Studies i n Criticism and Aesthetics^ 1660-1800: Essays i n Honor of Samuel Holt Monk, ed. Howard Anderson and John S. Shea (Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1967), pp. 18, 35« Roland Mortier, writing mainly about French literature i n the last decades of the eighteenth century, finds that i n this period "the undeniable i r -ruption of sensibility coincides with a vigorous rebirth of classicism" ("'Sensibility, 1 'Neoclassicism,' or 'Preromanticism?'" i n Eighteenth  Century Studies: Presented to Arthur M. Wilson, ed. Peter Gay [Hanover, N. H.: The Univ. Presses of New England,;1972J, p. 156). 2 0 " See "Latitudinarianism and Sensibility: The Genealogy of the •Man of Feeling' Reconsidered," MP, 75 (1977), 164, 180, n. 64. Brewster Rogerson, referring to the pathetic style, remarks that " [ t j h i s essential property of sentimentalism was from the beginning implicit i n the stoni-est rationalism that ever came out of France" ("The Art of Painting the Passions," JHI, 14 0-953], 93). 21 See James William Johnson, "The Meaning of 'Augustan,'" JHI, 19 (1958), 521-22. 22 The Rhetorxcal World of Augustan Humanism: Ethics and Imagery  from Swift to Burke (Oxford: ^Clarendon, 1965), p. v i i . 2 3 Fussell, p. 22. 2 h Hopkins, p. 23. 25 See Richard J . Jaarsma, "Satire, Theme, and Structure i n The Trav-e l l e r , " TSL, 16 (1971), 47-65« Fussell, himself, may not have been con-fident .in his exclusion of Goldsmith. He appears to consider Goldsmith to be a humanist i n his attitudes toward insects and the microscope (see pp. 238-41). 2 ^ Augustus Caesar i n "Augustan" England: The Decline of a Classical  Norm (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1978), pp. 3-4. For a~~much briefer, 16 but to my mind effective, attempt to destroy the term "Augustan," see Don-ald Greene, rev. of The Augustan Vision, by Pat Rogers, ECS, 9 (1975), 128-33. 2 7 Woods, p. 59. ^ John Buxton, The Grecian Taste; Literature i n the Age of Nee—  Classicism 1740-1820 "(London; Macmillan, 1978), pp. 2-3. 2 ^ Unless otherwise indicated, a l l quotations from Goldsmith's works are from the Collected Works of Oliver Goldsmith, ed. Arthur Friedman, 5 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon, 196o"7^  3® I take this information from Austin Dobson's notes on the poemj see The Complete Poetical Works of Oliver Goldsmith, ed. Austin Dobson, The World's Classics, 123 (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1907), P« 180. 31 John Ginger, The Notable Man; The Li f e and Times of Oliver Gold- smith (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1977), P* 268. ^ 2 Jack C. Wills, "The Narrator of The Deserted Village; A Recon-sideration," West Virginia University Philological Papers, 22 (1975), 23. 33 "Personae," i n Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Literature;  Essays i n Honor of Alan Dugald McKillop, ed. Carroll Camden (Chicago: Printed for Rice Univ. by Univ. of Chicago Press, 1963), pp. 25-37. For further remarks on irony and ironic personae with particular reference to Robert H. Hopkins's interpretation of The Vicar of Wakefield,, see Ehren-preis, "Meaning; Implicit and Ex p l i c i t , " i n New Approaches to Eighteenth- Century Literature: Selected Papers from the English Institute, ed. P h i l l i p Harth (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1974), especially pp. 145-53* See especially Maynard Mack, "The Muse of Satire," Yale Review, 41 (1951), 80-92. Leo F. Storm takes the theory of impersonal eighteenth-century art to an extreme. He believes that the attitudes Goldsmith expresses in The Deserted Village may well be inconsistent with those he maintains elsewhere, not because a man's opinions may change, but because the at-titudes i n The Deserted Village belong to the genre rather than to Gold-smith ("Literary Convention i n Goldsmith's Deserted Village," HLQ, 33 [1970], 252). 35 Throughout my discussion of the role of the author i n the l i t e r a r y work, I am indebted to E. D. Hirsch, Jr., Validity i n Interpretation (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1967)* The two essays by Ehrenpreis, already cited, have likewise been helpful. 3 6 "Pope: The Shape of the Man i n His Work," Yale Review, 67 (1978), 497-98. -*7 Mack, "Pope: The Shape of the Man i n His Work," p. 5H« 3& See Henry Knight Miller, "The 'Whig Interpretation' of Literary History," ECS, 6 (1972), 77. J 7 Rev. of The Deserted Village, by Oliver Goldsmith, Monthly Review, 17 42 (June 1770), 440-45; rpt. i n Goldsmith, ed. Rousseau, p. 84. ^ In my discussion of the respective roles of poet and actor i n The Deserted Village, I have a general debt to Ralph W. Rader, "The Con-cept of Genre and Eighteenth-Century Studies," i n New Approaches to Eight- eenth-Century Literature, ed. Harth, pp. 79-115* In my views of the per- sona and my treatment of Goldsmith criticism, I owe much to Roger Lons-dale (see n. 9 above), but since he accepts the view that the art of Pope and his contemporaries i s impersonal and rhetorical (see p. 6 of his es-say) he tends to lean heavily toward the "pre-Romantic" view of Goldsmith. ^- See, for example, Ricardo Quintana, "Oliver Goldsmith, Ironist to the Georgians," i n Eighteenth-Century Studies i n Honor of Donald F.  Hyde, ed. W. H. Bond (New York: Grolier Club, 1970), pp. 297-310. ^ W. R. Keast, "The Theoretical Foundations of Johnson's Criticism," i n C r i t i c s and Criticism, ed. R. S. Crane, Abridged Edition (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1957), p. 176. ^ Tom Davis, Introd., Poems and Plays, by Oliver Goldsmith (London: Dent, 1975), pp. x i , xxi. ^ From William Hazlitt, A C r i t i c a l L i s t of Authors from Select B r i t -ish Poets (London, 1824); rpt.""in Goldsmith, ed. Rousseau, p. 258. ^ S i r John Hawkins called Edwin and Angelina "one of the finest poems of the l y r i c kind that our language has to boast of . . ." (From The L i f e  of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (London, 1 7 8 7 r p t . i n Goldsmith, ed. Rousseau, p. 208). Prior, not content with the extent of Hawkins's praise, called i t "the finest ballad i n our, and probably i n any other, language . . . " (II, 535)• Owing to subsequent great achievements i n the " l y r i c kind" and to increased knowledge about the traditional ballad, appreciation of Goldsmith's "Hermit" has waned. Modern interest has been confined to locating the poem i n the tradition of the eighteenth-century verse tale and to considering the role of the poem i n The Vicar of Wakefield. In the latter area there would s t i l l seem to be room for further work. See Beth Nelson, George Crabbe and the Progress of Eighteenths-Century Narra- tive Verse (London: Associated Univ. Presses, 1976), pp. 82-84; and Robert Hunting, "The Poems i n The Vicar of Wakefield," Criticism, 15 (1973), 234-41. ^ See Oliver W. Ferguson, "Goldsmith's 'Retaliation,•» SAC}, 70 (1971), 149-60; and Richard J. Dircks, "The Genesis and Date of Goldsmith's Retalia- tion," MP, 75 (1977), 48-53. W Samuel H. Woods, Jr., "The Vicar of Wakefield and Recent Goldsmith Scholarship," ECS, 9 (1976), 442. Woods has recently restated the need for studies of the verse portraits i n Retaliation (see "The Goldsmith 'Problem,'" p. 59). Chapter I: Retaliation and Verse Satire in the Mid-Eighteenfeh Century A central concern i n lit e r a r y history i s to discover why certain genres rise into prominence at certain times and why they decline and are replaced by others. There are, of course, various methods for answering these questions: approaches focusing on the personalities of the major writers of the time, on the nature of the reading public, and on the his-tory of ideas have a l l provided useful information. In considering Re- tal i a t i o n as a mid-eighteenth-century satire, I shall not attempt to pro-vide a new theory about the decline of verse satire, but rather to give material derived from these various approaches a different emphasis by bringing i t to bear on the case of Goldsmith and the portrait tradition. The circumstances surrounding the composition o£ Retaliation, the changing hierarchy of genres i n the eighteenth century, Goldsmith's c r i t i c a l remarks, and the manner of self-portrayal among s a t i r i s t s w i l l figure prominently in my discussion. The rise of sentimentalism as an explanation for the decline of satire^" appears to me to be inadequate, for this notion i s connected, albeit d i s -tantly, to the belief that early eighteenth-century literature i s lacking in emotion. Robert H. Hopkins, i n treating Goldsmith as an "Augustan" opposed to sentimentalism, asserts that at the beginning of Goldsmith's career as a writer, "as i n the earlier Augustan age, the battle li n e be-tween the tough-minded and optimistic views of human nature was clearly 2 drawn." I have serious doubts that the eighteenth century, either early or late, saw so clear a division of authors into two warring camps. Cer-18 19 tairily, strong proponents of man's natural benevolence did arise during the course of the century. However, i t i s f o l l y to view a l l expressions of humanitarianism, a l l praise of the simple l i f e , and a l l suggestions that environment and education might corrupt men, as signs of dogmatic benevolism, primitivism, or sentimentalism. While this i s perhaps but stating the obvious, such points have sometimes been ignored i n assess-ments of Goldsmith either as a s a t i r i s t recognizing the depravity of man or as a sentimentalist too charitable to be capable of satire. I am not proposing, therefore, to view Goldsmith as some kind of divided person-a l i t y ; ^ rather, he i s a widely read individual whose ideas were formed through numerous influences. It has long been recognized that the partic-ular social conditions of Ireland were of significance i n the formation of Goldsmith's social and p o l i t i c a l views.^ Likewise complicating any simple view of Goldsmith i s his admiration for and indebtedness to French literature: John Montague cal l s him "the most considerable English l i t -erary representative of the powerful current of ideas then prevalent i n 5 Europe." While differing views of human nature did find expression in Goldsmith's time, i t i s not on this basis alone that writers are to be classified or that a capacity for satire i s to be found. The circumstances surrounding the composition of Retaliation have been frequently discussed, and they are of considerable importance i n determining what kind of poem Goldsmith intended to write and whether or not he exercised a capacity for satire. The origins of the poem may be summarized as follows. Goldsmith was a member of a group which met at the St. James's Coffee-House, a group which included a l l those portrayed ^ Retaliation and possibly Johnson and Joseph Cradock as well.^ At a meeting of this group, probably at the end of January, 1774, i t was decided that the members should write epitaphs for one another. On this occasion Garrick, Cumberland, and Dr. Thomas Barnard apparently produced epitaphs, 2 0 i n which Goldsmith and his peculiarities figured prominently} and Reynolds 7 may have sketched Goldsmith i n pen and ink.' The only epitaph to survive in f u l l i s Garrick's: "Here l i e s NOLLY Goldsmith, for shortness call ' d Noll,/faho wrote l i k e an angel, but talk'd l i k e poor Poll."** There seems to be general agreement that Goldsmith was upset by this couplet. After quoting a slightly different version, William Cooke remarks that "Goldsmith was stung to the heart at the laugh which this l i t t l e jeu d'esprit occa-9 sioned. • • ."' Cumberland notes that, after epitaphs by Garrick and Dr. Barnard were read, he "perceived Oliver was rather sore." 1^ Cumberland claims that his own verses on Goldsmith "were serious and complimentary," and he recollects the f i n a l line as, " A l l mourn the poet, I lament the man."-1-1 Retaliation appears to have been read to the group by Goldsmith ori;%March 1774, at a meeting from which Garrick was absent and at which Caleb Whitefoord and Topham Beauclerk, though not regular members, were present. 1 2 The reactions of those portrayed toward Goldsmith's epitaphs on them might be helpful for determining what kind of poem Goldsmith intended to write. Unfortunately, there i s l i t t l e reliable information concerning these reactions, except i n the case of Cumberland, and there i s l i t t l e agreement concerning how Kearsly obtained the copy of the poem which he published on 19 April 1774« While Cumberland was pleased with Goldsmith's e p i t a p h , M r s . Thrale thought that he had missed the irony. 1^ Thomas Davies believes "that Garrick's features i n the Retaliation are somewhat exaggerated" and that Garrick "was displeased with some strokes of this 15 character." ' Against this stands Garrick's less specific comment that "the whole on a l l sides was done with the greatest good humour."'10 Be-tween Goldsmith's death on 4 A p r i l 1774 and the publication of the poem, Horace Walpole had this to say about Goldsmith: "His numerous friends 21 neglected him shamefully at last* as i f they had no business with him when i t was too serious to laugh. He had lat e l y written epitaphs for them a l l , some of which hurt, and perhaps made them not sorry that his own was the f i r s t necessary."1''' Walpole's comment on the epitaphs must not be accepted without qualification, for i t i s written to support the dubi-ous statement that i n his f i n a l i l l n e s s Goldsmith was neglected by his friends. Oliver W. Ferguson quotes a letter from Lady Phillipina Knight to Dr. William Farr on the subject of Retaliation, i n which she affirms that "the whole Publication i s against his friends choice and done by they 18 know not whom." Cooke, writing some years after the fact, and without first-hand knowledge of the Coffee-House events, comments similarly on the poem's reception there: "though some praised i t , and others seemed highly delighted with i t , they s t i l l thought a publication of i t not a l -io together so proper." ' Cooke believes that the fear engendered by Goldsmith's thus having displayed his a b i l i t i e s as a bold s a t i r i s t resulted in changed relationships with his friends. This opinion does not, however, accord with the atmosphere of good humour and merriment that i s generally believed 20 to have prevailed during the meetings at the St. James's Coffee-House. Joshua Reynolds remarks on the surprise that Retaliation occasioned, but does not suggest that anyone was particularly disconcerted by the poem: "Even his friends did not think him capable of marking with so much sa-gacity and precision the striking features of their characters as he did 21 in the epitaphs." Although, from Cooke's account and from the anonymous letter to Kearsly prefixed to the f i r s t edition of the poem, numerous copies would seem to have been circulating i n manuscript, any one of which could have reached the bookseller, Cumberland states that i t was the mem-22 bers of the group themselves who decided to publish the poem. One observation that might be made about these i n i t i a l reactions 22 to Retaliation i s that persons who were not directly concerned—Mrs. Thrale, Thomas Davies, Horace Walpole, Lady Phillipina Knight, and William Cooke— were inclined to view the poem as much more harshly s a t i r i c than those— l i k e Cumberland, Garrick, and Reynolds—who were directly involved. The notices in the Reviews, following the publication of the poem, offer re-23 marks about wit and delicate satire, good humour and just portrayal, J that have been echoed by the great majority of readers ever since. There i s l i t t l e foundation i n the genesis of Retaliation and the i n i t i a l reac-tions to i t for discovering indignant satire i n the poem, though some of the conventions evident i n harsher satires may be found. What i s most important to note about the composition of the poem i s the audience for which i t was intended. Like The Haunch of Venison and the "(Letter to Mrs. Bunbury]," Goldsmith's other two poems in anapaestic couplets, Re-ta l i a t i o n was written, not for publication, but for the amusement of a small group of friends. In the case of Retaliation, however, Goldsmith had as an additional impetus to excellence the desire to take precedence in witty portraiture over so clever a man as Garrick. Of course, as Gold-smith wrote, he probably came to conceive of a somewhat larger public, the poem being too substantial and too good to remain a private jeud>es-prit—hence the manuscripts that were circulated beyond the members of the Coffee-House society. Although Goldsmith no doubt wished to gain the respect of those portrayed, by displaying an a b i l i t y that they did not know he possessed, he did not wish to draw portraits that would end so-c i a l intercourse with such men as the Burkes and Garrick, or even Joseph Hickey. Since Retaliation was written for a small and highly cultivated au-dience, one of the reasons adduced for the decline of satire^--that the development of a larger and less discriminating reading public made i t 23 d i f f i c u l t for writers to use irony with confidence—is clearly not appli-cable. W. B. Carnochan i s one c r i t i c who finds a distinction between the use of irony i n satire of the early and of the late eighteenth cen-tury: "What i s involved, i n the most inclusive description of post-Augus-tan satire, i s this: the restraints and complications of irony, and es-2.L. pecially of ironic diminution, are abated or lacking altogether. . . . " Another writer finds one of the reasons for the success of Alexander Pope and the relative failure of a s a t i r i s t of the 1790's, William Gifford, to reside in the changing poet-audience relationship: Pope implies much in his satires, making them complex and delightful, whereas Gifford, unable 25 to trust his audience, i s wholly e x p l i c i t . In Goldsmith's lifetime, however, there would s t i l l appear to have been a considerable audience for-satire. The most notable s a t i r i s t of these years, Charles Churchill, while he admittedly capitalized on the topicality of theatrical and po-l i t i c a l subjects, had considerable financial and popular success. Gold-smith' s reference, i n the Dedication to The Traveller, to a "half-witted thing" who writes "tawdry lampoons" on behalf of party (IV, 247), has been taken as an indication of Goldsmith's opinion of Churchill's poetry. Noting this fact, Robert H. Hopkins makes a comment pertinent to the de-cline of satire in the mid-eighteenth century: Churchill's verse satire offers another explanation for why Johnson, Goldsmith, and the other great conservative writers of this period did not write comic verse satire in the t r a d i -tion of Swift and Pope. The radicals working for social and p o l i t i c a l change had appropriated agressive verse satire as a weapon for their cause. 2 0 Johnson's and Goldsmith's avoidance of Churchill's brand of verse satire can, I think, be better viewed as an aesthetic choice than as a reaction to a p o l i t i c a l situation. In Johnson's greatest verse satire, The Vanity of Human Wishes, he draws portraits of h i s t o r i c a l rather than contemporary 24 figures. In the same way, Goldsmith, writing his major poetry i n some sense for posterity, wished to avoid the topical allusions and partisan p o l i t i c a l subjects that appeared in many of the best English models of verse satire and that only when his impetus to write was more immediate, as with Retaliation, did he compose the kind of poem that would require considerable annotation to be understood by a broad reading public. The hierarchy of classical genres has a central place i n eighteenth-century c r i t i c a l writing and i s of significance i n any consideration of the decline of verse satire. The mid-eighteenth century saw the elevation of such species of didactic poetry as georgic and satire; by the beginning of the nineteenth century the hierarchy had been altered again, and l y r i c 27 forms were in the ascendancy. Accompanying this shift toward the l y r i c at the end of the eighteenth century were precepts about the proper sub-jects for poetry. Many of the classical genres conventionally dealt with subjects that were now considered prosaic rather than poetic. Thomas Lockwood has described this process: In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, then, the province of what i s called true poetry simply shrinks—though we must suppose that i t makes up i n depth what i t loses i n ex-tensiveness. The tendency was to allow the province to include human feeling but not human wit, natural imagery but not a r t i -f i c i a l , meditative and symbolic modes of expression but not discursive or d i a l e c t i c a l . Outside the province lay satires, history poems, verse essays, imitations, epistles, mock-epics, r e a l i s t i c and moral fables, theatrical prologues and epilogues, epitaphs, and epigrams.^8 The lower place accorded didactic poetry and the fact that some c r i t i c s and poets began to view s a t i r i c subjects as inherently unpoetic played a significant part i n the decline of verse satire. In the main, Goldsmith appears to have considered poems in terms of genres. The following pas-sage from oneof his early book reviews, though he i s borrowing from the Encyclopedic, seems quite consistent with the views he expresses elsewhere: 25 "There i s no species of poetry that has not i t s particular character; and this diversity, which the ancients have so religiously observed, i s founded i n nature i t s e l f . . . . Thus the pastoral never quits i t s pipe, i n order to sound the trumpet; nor does elegy venture to strike the lyre" ( I , 164)• Similarly, Goldsmith's objections to sentimental comedy are based partly on class i c a l definitions of the comic and tragic genres. S t i l l i t would be an oversimplification to place Goldsmith "clearly" into one tradition or another; for, though most of Goldsmith's poems are of the "unpoetic" kinds, he was perhaps not unaffected by the l y r i c s h i f t . The heroic couplets of The Traveller and The Deserted Village have a greater 29 tendency toward lyricism than do the couplets of Goldsmith's predecessors. The rise of the novel and of biography i n the eighteenth century reveals certain facts about the decline of satire but i s perhaps'even^more pertinent to the tradition of the li t e r a r y portrait. Novels and biogra-phies tend to raise i n the reader the expectation of balanced character-writing, the representation of virtues as well as faults. The depiction of virtues i n s a t i r i c portaits i s minimal, and i s usually associated with the device of concession, designed to heighten the satire by showing, for example, how a man with great natural advantages perversely abuses them: Peace to a l l such I but were there One^whose f i r e s True Genius kindles, and f a i r Fame inspires, Blest with each Talent and each Art to please, And born to write, converse, and l i v e with ease. . . . (AH Epistle to Dr^ Arbuthnot, 11. 193-96)jJ Such an introduction to Addison's character renders everything that f o l -lows a l l the more damning, not least because of the impression of Pope's impartiality that these lines of praise create. Although something re-mains of the s a t i r i c concession i n , for example, Goldsmith's epitaph on Edmund Burke, Goldsmith's portrait i s considerably less s a t i r i c than Pope's. 26 Whereas i n Pope the praise i s subsidiary to the blame, i n Goldsmith each seems to be there for i t s own sake. Pope offers moral condemnation.of Addison; Goldsmith offers a balanced, or perhaps equivocating, view of Burke. Similar to the growing expectation for balanced portraiture i s the career of the word "candour," which Mary Claire Randolph has traced through 31 eighteenth-century satire. She notes that the s a t i r i s t conventionally demanded "candour" from his c r i t i c s and that readers came inevitably to make the same demand of the s a t i r i s t i n the treatment of his targets, thus threatening the techniques of distortion and exaggeration that are among the s a t i r i s t ' s most powerful weapons. Of course, the novel and biography, by their very presence, were in competition with verse satire, and the amount of time spent by some of the greatest writers of mid-cen-tury i n exploring the po s s i b i l i t i e s of f i c t i o n a l and non-fictional prose narratives had by necessity an adverse effect on the production of new •frerse satires. A more complex issue arising from this opposition between the novel and biography on the one hand and verse satire on the other i s the ques-32 tion of particularity and generality. The novel permitted and biogra-phy came to demand a high degree of particularity in characterization. In biography and equally i n history minute details began to be valued for their own sake; i n s a t i r i c portraits particulars are valuable only inso-far as they are representative of a general idea. During the course of the century the locus of truth was displaced from general and abstract ideas to centre instead i n particular facts and frequently, at least i n poetry, i n sense perceptions. Paul Fussell states that Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding "attained an authority almost scriptural 33 durxng the eighteenth century," and as with Scripture widely divergent views were based on Locke's philosophy. In an essay on Goldsmith and 27 empiricism, John A. Dussinger states that "Goldsmith's conception of the true sources of knowledge and wisdom seems to derive from Locke•s theory of the understanding." Locke provides at least one of the foundations for the kind of "general truth" subscribed to by many eighteenth-century writers. These writers, more than those of the next age, had a passion for drawing distinctions between men and beasts and for, what perhaps amounts to the same thing, making comparisons between men and animals for s a t i r i c purposes. Locke finds the distinguishing mark of human be-ings to be their a b i l i t y to generalize: If i t may be doubted whether beasts compound and enlarge their ideas that way to any degree, this, I think, I may be positive i n , that the power of abstracting i s not at a l l i n them, and that the having of general ideas i s that which puts a perfect distinction betwixt man and brutes, and i s an excellency which the faculties of brutes do by no means attain to. 35 For Locke, general ideas are the most valuable: "General truths are most looked after by the mind as those that most enlarge our knowledge; and, by their comprehensiveness satisfying us at once of many particulars, en-36 large our view and shorten our way to knowledge." A century later, i n the margin of a copy of Reynolds's Discourses, opposite a note i n which Edmund Burke states that the "disposition to abstractions . . . i s the great glory of the human mind," William Blake commented: To Generalize i s to be an Idiot To Particularize i s the Alone Distinction of M e r i t — 3 7 General Knowledges are those Knowledges that Idiots possess."-" A notion, in many ways contrary to that of "general nature," which seems to have gained popularity between Locke's time and Blake's, and which i s usually seen as an extrapolation from Locke's philosophy, i s the doctrine of the association of ideas. Related to this, and likewise important i n the literature of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries i s the idea of "local attachment": particular places are able to evoke in certain 28 people ideas peculiar to those places. Local attachment i s a central motif i n Goldsmith's Traveller and Deserted Village, but, as Alan D. McKil-lop has shown, i n these poems local attachment i s rejected for or recon-38 ciled with various forms of cosmopolitanism. A l l of these forces i n c l i n -ing literature toward particularity i n natural description and character portrayal were destructive of satire, at least of the kind of satire i n which truth resides i n the essences of men as communicated through the particulars of human behaviour, and only to a smaller extent i n the par-ticulars themselves. Where Goldsmith stands i n relation to this complex of ideas i s d i f -f i c u l t to determine with precision. Goldsmith was, of course, a novel-i s t , biographer, and writer of histories, and he undoubtedly strove for a balance between faults and virtues i n the portrayal of such figures as Beau Nash, Lord Bolingbroke, and Dr. Primrose. At the same time he spoke out frequently and vehemently against vers i f i e r s whose predilection was for detailed description rather than for arousing the passions: "the puny pedant, who finds one undiscovered property i n the polype, or describes an unheeded process i n the skeleton of a mole, and whose mind, like his microscope, perceives nature only in detail; the rhymer, who makes smooth verses, and paints to our imagination when he should only speak to our hearts . . ." (I, 472). The efforts of the pedant and the rhymer are equally misapplied, for their vision i s confined to particulars, and they communicate neither knowledge nor^feeling. According to Goldsmith, the imagery of poetry should be striking rather than minutely exact; descrip-tion should be natural rather than gaudy; and the affections should be aroused instead of ignored (II, 171, 388). Whereas he everywhere decries minuteness, Goldsmith i s unwilling to allow that sublimity and i t s attend-ant passions may arise from obscurity. Hence his criticisms of Burke's 29 Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and  Beautiful: Distinctness of imagery has ever been held productive of the sublime. The more strongly the poet or orator impresses the picture he would describe upon his own mind, the more apt w i l l he be to paint i t on the imagination of his reader* Not that, like Ovid, he should be minute i n description; which, instead of impressing our imagination with a grand whole, divides our idea into several littlenesses. We only think the bold yet distinct strokes of a V i r g i l , far surpass the equally bold yet confused ones of Lucan, (I, 31n) Goldsmith here reaffirms, against Burke's challenge, a tradition of l i t -erary pictorialism i n which representative particulars suggest the f u l l picture to the reader's imagination, rather than one i n which sensuous;. 39 detail i s indulged for i t s own ornamental value. In poetical descrip-tions Goldsmith prefers the selection of a few details to the highly par-ticularized images preferred by other mid-century poets, such as Joseph and Thomas Warton,^°u The personified abstractions i n the epitaph on Dr. Douglas, for example, depend largely on the reader's imagination for their p i c t o r i a l effect. While Goldsmith opposes minutely detailed descriptions, his Characters of nations in The Traveller and portraits of his friends in Retaliation are presented with a balance between faults and virtues that i s uncommon i n the s a t i r i c portrait tradition. Accompanying this growing tendency toward particularity i s the im-pulse to regard an individual's peculiarities as endearing qualities rather than as reprehensible f o l l i e s , Philip Pinkus observes that "(pjity i s one small, half-submerged element i n the catharsis of s a t i r e . I t i s equally destructive to the sa t i r i c s p i r i t for pity entirely to surface or sink. In the one instance, the reader has too much sympathy to par-ticipate i n a moral judgement of the s a t i r i c target; i n the other, the reader w i l l be inclined to view the s a t i r i s t as a character assassin, 30 rendered, by the absence of natural human sympathy, unfit to deliver a moral judgement on any man. The element of pity found i n levels appro-priate to satire can, perhaps, be best illustrated from the greatest of English verse satirists—Alexander Pope. In the portraits of Old Cotta and his son i n the Epistle to Bathurst, Paul J . Alpers finds "a delicate, rather Shavian, pity wich implies a broad and secure moral sense observing the comic phenomena."^ Another good example, one which well illustrates the technique of portraiture by sparse but significant details of setting and human behaviour, i s the brief sketch of the "frugal Crone" i n the Epistle to Cobhams The frugal Crone, whom praying priests attend, S t i l l t r i e s to save the hallow 1d taper's end, Collects her breath, as ebbing l i f e retires, For one puff more, and i n that puff expires. (11. 238-41) Jean H. Hagstrum c a l l s this sketch "a mock sacra conversazione which i l l u s -trates the p i c t o r i a l i s t c r i t i c ' s dictum that verbal art ought to catch the single and brief dramatic action on the canvas."^ In four lines Pope creates a l i t t l e world of frugality; one instinctively feels, for instance, that even the "praying priests"are i n attendance out of avarice. The representative actions of the Crone are conveyed by the three verbs "tries to save," "Collects," and "expires." While the f i r s t two are per-fect expressions of her frugality, the pun on "expires" i s a stroke of bri l l i a n c e . The Crone blows out the "hallow'd" taper, an act that p i t i -f u l l y demonstrates her passion for frugality; but i n exhaling she dies, the extinguished taper becoming a symbol of her extinguished l i f e . Pope's compassion i s inseparable from his mockery. Paul Fussell says that writ-ers l i k e Swift and Pope, "when contemplating man, w i l l not know whether to laugh or to weep, and so w i l l do both at once."^ When this delicate 31 balance between tears and laughter i s upset, when sympathy predominates or when laughter i s divorced from compassion for the lot of man and from a j u d i c i a l function, the kind of satire practised by Swift and Pope i s no longer possible. Sympathy with the f o l l i e s of mankind can be manifested simply i n a different manner of self-portrayal by the s a t i r i s t : s a t i r i s t s i n the latter half of the eighteenth century came to present themselves as par-ticipating i n the f o l l i e s they depict. It may be useful to examine the differing manner of self-portrayal i n poems by Pope, Churchill, and Gold-smith. What i s remarkable about Pope1s Horatian Imitations and the "orig-i n a l " poems associated with those Imitations, An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot and the Epilogue to the Satires, i s the extent to which the character of the s a t i r i s t dominates the poems. Alexander Pope, wearing the mantle of Horace, represents i n these poems one of the more important expressions of the s a t i r i c norm. The emphasis on the poet's personality i s the char-acteristic of the later Pope which Charles Churchill and other s a t i r i s t s of the late eighteenth century chose to extend.^ Given the emphasis on personality i n some of the greatest satires of Pope, i t i s an over-simplification to regard the decline of satire as the consequence of a shift from traditional values as s a t i r i c norms to personalities intended, but f a i l i n g , to f u l f i l l the same function, i n other words, as a shift from common sense to individual moral sense. Moreover, i f "Byron i s a 'Romantic' s a t i r i s t , i n the basic sense that he wrote from outside soci-ety, against conventional beliefs and practices, against the Establish-ment,"^0 Pope at the end of the F i r s t Dialogue of the Epilogue to the  Satires would seem to f i t a similar description. In the same way that i t i s not i n the absence and presence of emotion, but i n the type of emotion or, perhaps, i n the language of emotion that "Augustans" and Romantics 32 are to be distinguishedj so, I believe, i t i s not i n the absence and pres-ence of personality, but in the manner of self-presentation that early eighteenth-century s a t i r i s t s may be distinguished from those who followed. Recognizing that Pope presents many sides of his personality i n his satires, I have chosen two striking passages, the f i r s t from An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot: Not Fortune's Worshipper, nor Fashion's Fool, Not Lucre's Madman, nor Ambition's Tool, Not proud, nor servile, be one Poet's praise That, i f he pleas'd, he pleas'd by manly ways; That Flatt'ry, ev'n to Kings, he held a shame, And thought a Lye i n Verse or Prose the same: That not i n Fancy's Maze he wander'd long, But stoop'd to Truth, and moraliz'd his song: That not for Fame, but Virtue's better end, He stood the furious Foe, the timid Friend. . . . (11. 334-43) Although i t i s evident that Pope i s writing about himself (Pope's own foot-notes substantiate the fact that he indeed suffered, for Virtue's sake, the abuses he catalogues), the third person and the past tense are used as distancing devices. Of course, the details that Pope has chosen have been largely dictated by the position of this self-portrait immediately following the portrait of Sporus. Thus, the absence of pride and s e r v i l -i t y from his character i s opposed to "Wit that can creep, and Pride that l i c k s the dust" (1. 333), his "manly ways" to Sporus' effeminacy, his Truth to Sporus' l i e s , and so on. In this passage Pope j u s t i f i e s satire on the grounds of extreme personal provocation; i n the following, from the Epilogue to the Satires, quite other grounds—those of moral duty—are supplied:^ 7 Ask you what Provocation I have had? The strong Antipathy of Good to Bad. When Truth or Virtue an Affront endures, Th' Affront i s mine, my Friend, and should be yours. Mine, as a Foe profess'd to false Pretence, Who think a Coxcomb's Honour l i k e his Sense; 33 Mine, as a Friend to ev'ry worthy mind; And mine as Man, who f e e l for a l l mankind. Fr. You 1re strangely proud. P. So proud, I am no Slave: So impudent, I own myself no Knave: So odd, my Country's Ruin makes me grave. Yes, I am proud; I must be proud to see Men not afraid of God, afraid of me: Safe from the Bar, the Pulpit, and the Throne, Yet touch'd and sham'd by Ridicule alone. (Dialogue II, 1 1 . 197-211) Some of Pope's sentiments here are to be frequently encountered in defences of satire. Pope's claims for satire i n the last couplet are not, for example, that different from Young's: "Instructive satire, true to v i r -tue's causel/Thou shining supplement of public laws." Goldsmith, i n An Enquiry into the Present State of Polite Learning, regards the s a t i r i s t ' s function i n society similarly: "An author may be considered as a merciful substitute to the legislature; he acts not by punishing crimes, but pre-venting them; however virtuous the present age, there may s t i l l be grow-ing employment for ridicule, or reproof, for persuasion, or satire" (I, 314-15)• There are no distancing devices i n this second passage from Pope. Pope here uses a conventional argument to add weight to his per-sonal indignation, not i n any way to separate that indignation from him-se l f . As Irvin Ehrenpreis says, "Pope's greatest powers appear i n a work like the Epilogue to the Satires, which could not be more direct without turning ink to a c i d . " ^ Another of Pope's sentiments here i s worthy of comment in an exam-ination of the decline of verse satire. Pope presents himself !las Man, who feeirjsff for a l l mankind," likewise a conventional sentiment (from Terence), but one which sounds remarkably similar to expressions of uni-versal benevolence which, so i t has been said, are characteristic of sen-timentalists, not s a t i r i s t s . The s a t i r i s t Pope, i t would seem, sees no contradiction between "feeling for a l l mankind" and attacking the enemies 34 of mankind, between the moral duty of Christian charity and the defence of Virtue, between good nature and satire. The more optimistic Richard Steele, i n Tatler, No. 242, argues that the essential qualification for sa t i r i s t s i s to be good-natured men: "These Men can behold Vice and F o l l y when they injure Persons to whom they are wholly unacquainted, with the same Severity as others resent the I l l s they do themselves."5° Two years before the publication of the Epilogue to the Satires, Pope wrote similarly to Fortescue, though about judges not s a t i r i s t s : . . . Good nature, properly f e l t , would make a rigorous Judge, & give a sort of Joy i n passing the Sentence, both as i t i s Justice, and as i t i s Example; tho i t might make him weep for i t afterwards, & draw the more pity, not only to consider i t i s a Man that suffers, but that a Man can be capable of the Vice which deserves it.51 I do not wish to obscure fundamental differences between Steele and Pope, but I do believe and I am concerned to show that i n the eighteenth cen-tury "the battle line between the tough-minded and optimistic views of 52 human nature" was often very f u z z i l y drawn indeed. While Pope clearly believes in the depravity of man, he s t i l l upholds an ideal of a judge who i s a good-natured and feeling man. In both of the passages I have quoted, however they may d i f f e r , Pope presents himself as a virtuous man. Indeed, such i s the dominant idea which emerges from the portrayal of the poet i n Pope 1s satires. The Con-ference, by Charles Churchill, though i t lacks the power of Pope, i s an apologia similar i n subject and technique to the Epilogue to the Satires. A dialogue between a member of the nobility and Churchill, The Conference presents the opposing arguments of self-interest and virtue. While many of Churchill's sentiments would not be out of place i n the Epilogue to the  Satires, there i s one point at which the self-presentation i s quite d i f -ferent from anything in Pope: 35 C_. Ah I what, my Lord, hath private l i f e to do With things of public Nature? why to view Would You thus cruelly those scenes unfold, Which, without pain and horror to behold, Must speak me something more, or less than man; Which Friends may pardon, but I never can? Look backI a Thought which borders on despair, Which human Nature must, yet cannot bear. 'Tis not the babbling of a busy world, Where Praise and Censure are at random hurl'd, Which can the meanest of my thoughts controul, Or shake one settled purpose of my Soul. Free and at large might their wild curses roam, If A l l , i f A l l alasI were well at home. No—'tis the tale which angry Conscience t e l l s , When She with more than tragic horror swells Each circumstance of g u i l t ; when stern, but true, She brings bad actions forth into review; And, lik e the dread hand-writing on the wall, Bids late Remorse awake at Reason's c a l l , Arm'd at a l l points bids Scorpion Vengeance pass, And to the mind holds up Reflexion's glass, The mind, which starting, heaves the heart-felt groan, And hates that form She knows to be her own. (11. 213-36)53 In Pope there i s only a hint of the s a t i r i s t as erring man, i n a passage where the mirror image, a s i n Churchill, i s used: In me what Spots (for Spots I have) appear, W i l l prove at least the Medium must be clear. In this impartial Glass, my Muse intends Fair to expose myself, my Foes, my Friends. . . . (Satire II i , 11. 55-58) It must, of course, be admitted that the rakish Churchill's transgressions against conventional morality were much greater, or at least much more obvious, than Pope's. Perhaps the most glaring difference between the two s a t i r i s t s ' manner of self-presentation i s the separation between the public and the private man effected in Churchill's f i r s t couplet. Pope wants the reader to see the consistency of his private behaviour and his public duty as a s a t i r i s t . For Pope, satire i s a supplement to the laws; the s a t i r i s t therefore i s a judge of men's actions and an evaluator of men's characters. In the same way that i t i s widely believed i n our so-36 ciety that immoral or i l l e g a l acts committed by a judge seriously compro-mise the performance of his duty and c a l l into question the integrity of the courts, so for Pope, at least as he presents himself i n his poems, private l i f e has a great deal to do with such "things of public Nature" as the j u d i c i a l function of the s a t i r i s t . "If the attack on vice i s to be effective," suggestsAlvin Kernan, "the character who delivers i t must appear the moral opposite of the world he condemns; he must be fervent, he must be horrified at what he sees, and he must be able to distinguish between vice and virtue without any philosophical shillyshallying about 'what is right and what i s wrong?'"^ Although Churchill does weaken the moral position of the s a t i r i s t by separating public actions from p r i -vate l i f e , the remainder of the self-portrait serves to vindicate i n part his competence as a judge. It i s reassuring to know that Churchill i s capable of deep feelings, that he i s unable to pardon his own faults even though his friends may, that he i s unmoved by the world's opinion, and that his conscience i s so very active. The Prophecy of Famine, a more important poem than The Conference, offers another kind of self-portrayal which was not extensively practised by Pope. Churchill's modern biographer ha"s noted how "Churchill the man and Churchill the ironist are • . . revealed in the frequently used device 55 of self-distortion." Something of this nature occurs in the following passage: Me, whom no muse of heav'nly birth inspires, No judgment tempers when rash genius f i r e s , Who boast no merit but mere knack of rhime, Short gleams of sense, and satire out of time, Who cannot follow where trim fancy leads By prattling streams o'er flow'r-empurpled meads; Who often, but without success, have pray'd For apt, ALLITERATION' S a r t f u l aid, Who would, but cannot, with a master's s k i l l Coin fine new epithets, which mean no i l l , 37 Me, thus uncouth, thus ev'ry way unfit For pacing poesy, and ambling wit, TASTE with contempt beholds, nor deigns to place Amongst the lowest of her favour'd race. (11. 79-92) The primary purpose of this passage i s to oppose the manly s a t i r i s t Church-i l l to the Scottish l i t e r a r y figures pensioned and encouraged by the Ea r l of Bute. Churchill's ironic self-depreciation i s juxtaposed i n the poem to his ironic praise of other li t e r a r y figures, thus providing, at least to some extent, a moral and aesthetic standard by which his s a t i r i c tar-gets may be judged. The s a t i r i c norm supplied by the s a t i r i s t i s , how-ever, threatened somewhat by Churchill's irony. The technique of this verse paragraph i s f a i r l y obvious: Churchill ironically represents his avoidance of false taste i n poetry as a lack of a b i l i t y . Where the irony becomes more troublesome i s i n the opening lines of the following verse paragraph: Thou, NATURE, art my_ goddess—to thy law Myself I dedicate—hence slavish awe Which bends to fashion, and obeys the rules, Impos'd at f i r s t , and since observ'd by fools. (11. 93-96) These lines are not immediately apprehended as ironic at a l l . They are clearly intended to echo the earlier couplet on the subject of modern Judgment, which i s "Form'd after some great man, whose name breeds awe,/ Whose ev'ry sentence Fashion makes a law" (11. 31-32), and Churchill cer-tainly would not wish us to think him i n 'Islavi'sh awe" of the E a r l of Bute. However, Churchill immediately proceeds to inform us that i t i s i n Scotland that Nature "reigns throughout the year" ( l . 108), information which compels the sympatfetic reader to regard Nature with some suspicion as a l i t e r a r y norm. Further suspicion i s aroused since the f i r s t line of this verse paragraph i s borrowed from Edmund's f i r s t soliloquy i n King 3 8 Lear. The concept of Nature has thus been coloured by the unpleasant associations of Scotland and bastardy. According to Churchill, the Scots— "nature's bastards" (1. 425), as he calls them later i n the poem—are at-tempting to usurp the rightful inheritance of the English. The complex-i t i e s of Churchill's irony have gone a considerable distance toward mak-ing the character of the s a t i r i s t untenable as a s a t i r i c norm. Thomas Lockwood believes that only later i n l i t e r a r y history do "we encounter, principally i n John Wolcot (or 'Peter Pindar') and in Byron, the tone of self-deprecating irony that i s positively f a t a l to the cr e d i b i l i t y of a 57 poem as serious satire." My survey of the changing manner of self-portrayal as a contributing factor i n the decline of verse satire cannot, however, extend to Byron but must end i n the decade following The Prophecy of Famine, with Oliver Goldsmith's Retaliation. As the circumstances surrounding the composition of the poem would indicate, i t i s somewhat dangerous to treat Retaliation, 58 as P. K. Elkin does, as the best example of the "weakening process" _ that the sa t i r i c s p i r i t was subjected to after the death of Pope. Unlike Pope's attack on Hervey and Churchill's on Hogarth, Goldsmith's " r e t a l i a -tion" was directed not against enemies but friends. There i s , neverthe-less, some significance i n the fact that Goldsmith never chose to exercise his talent for personal satire i n verse except on an occasion when every-thing had to be conducted with much good nature. Therefore, the circum-stances of the poem's composition complicate, rather than invalidate, d i s -cussion of the relationship of self-portrayal i n Retaliation to the de-cline of verse satire. Although Goldsmith did not write his own epitaph i n Retaliation, he nonetheless appears as both speaker and actor i n the poem. In the introductory section of the poem, in which the members of the group who met at the St. James's Coffee-House are compared to various 39 dishes, Goldsmith, as befits a dessert, appears last: "Magnanimous Gold-smith, a goosberry f o o l " (1. 16). By presenting himself i n the third person and by punning on the word "fool," Goldsmith implies that he i s regarded as the butt of the group. While magnanimity and good nature are not qualities inconsistent with the office of the s a t i r i s t , foolishness, under most circumstances, certainly i s . Goldsmith's magnanimity suggests that he i s unwilling to find fault with his friends and that his r e t a l i a -tion i s the product of reflection rather than resentment; his foolishness suggests that he i s insufficiently perceptive to find a l l the hidden faults of his friends. Goldsmith, i t seems to me, plays on these supposed t r a i t s of his character i n the f i r s t epitaph, that on Thomas Barnard. Goldsmith f i r s t states that he was unable to discover any of Dean Barnard's faults: "If he had any faults, he has l e f t us i n doubt,/At least, i n six, weeks, I could not find 'em out" (11. 25-26). This permits the criticism i n the following couplet to emanate ostensibly from an objective source: "Yet some have declar'd, and i t can't be denied 'em,/That sly-boots was curs-edly cunning to hide 'em" (11. 27-28). Goldsmith uses the introductory section of the poem and the f i r s t epitaph to establish aspects of his own character—his magnanimity and, ironically, his foolishness—that influence the way the poem i s read. Thus, while the poem i s written i n good humour, what criticism there i s may be intensified by the knowledge that these are the observations of a magnanimous man. The portraits are intended to demonstrate that Goldsmith i s not the fool, at least with regard to insights into behaviour and character, that his friends may have taken him for. At the same time, however, the inclusion of himself as one of the dishes to be served up during the course of the poem permits the poet l i t t l e weight as a s a t i r i c norm. Goldsmith does not offer him-self as a marked contrast to the men that he portrays i n Retaliation. 40 Quite the reverse i s the case. Retaliation i s not a poem i n which the j u d i c i a l function of satire i s presented very seriously. An alternation between subjective commentary and collective judgement i s to be observed in the portraits. The opening verse paragraph concludes with a description of the situation which pro-vides a pretext for the epitaphs that follow: Here, waiter, more wine, l e t me s i t while I'm able, ' T i l l a l l my companions sink under the table; Then with chaos and blunders encircling my head, Let me ponder, and t e l l what I think of the dead. (11. 19-22) The poet, as he i s presented here, i s a burlesque of the j u d i c i a l s a t i -r i s t . He i s a man whose judgement i s clouded with drink and who has no further object than to offer his opinions on his unconscious companions. His intention to " t e l l what C h e ] think[V] of the dead" might be viewed as a playful commentary on the conventional pretense of the s a t i r i s t that he has portrayed no l i v i n g characters. That Goldsmith intends these four lines as a burlesque on the serious exposer of hypocrisy i s supported by internal evidence. In the epitaph i n praise of the "detector" Dr. Douglas i s a line which echoes that describing Goldsmith's state upon undertaking his s a t i r i c portraits: "When Satire and Censure encircl'd his throne" (1. S3) recalls "Then with chaos and blunders encircling my head." This amusing description of the drunken poet implies that the epitaphs to f o l -low w i l l be subjective commentary, but such i s not really the case. With one major exception, subsequent remindersof the poet's presence are con-fined to half-line expressions, which, while important i n maintaining a colloquial';tone, serve no other function but to f i l l out the metre: "Here l i e s honest Richard, whose fate I must sigh at" (1. 51; my empha-sis) or "Here Reynolds i s l a i d , and to t e l l you my mind" (1. 137; my em-41 phasis). Elsewhere in the poem there i s an impression of objectivity, appropriate to the epitaph form, or of collective judgement, indicated by the use of the first-person plural: "Here l i e s our good Edmund, whose genius was such,/We scarcely can praise i t , or blame i t too much" (11. 29-30; my emphasis). It has been remarked concerning self-portrayal i n the works of Gold-smith that "he was well aware of his f a i l i n g s , and no one satirized more effectively than he the elements of conceit and credulity that made up his fullness as a human being. " ^ In Retaliation Goldsmith does not sat-i r i z e his "conceit and credulity," unless i n calling himself "a goosberry fo o l , " but he does treat himself with irony for his occupation as a hack-writer: When Satire and Censure encircl'd his throne, I fear'd for your safety, I fear'd for my own; But now he i s gone, and we want a detector, Our Dodds shall be pious, our Kenricks shall lecture; Macpherson write bombast, and c a l l i t a style, Our Townshend make speeches, and I shall compile. . . . (11. 83-88) Here Goldsmith portrays himself as a participant i n the f o l l i e s which he takes for his targets. Not only does he include himself among the friends metaphorically depicted as various dishes, but he includes himself among the hypocrites and misfits who deserve to be exposed by Douglas or another detector. Such self-portrayal weakens satire considerably. There i s no reason given i n the poem to consider Dodd's piety, Macpherson's bombast, or Townshend's speeches as representing any greater danger to society than do Goldsmith's compilations—compilations that were frequently writ-ten for the benefit of schoolboys. Even William Kenrick—an enemy i f Goldsmith had one, an offender against "good taste and moral propriety," a man "at war with nearly a l l his c o n t e m p o r a r i e s e v e n he i s exposed 42 for his lectures no differently than Goldsmith for his histories. At the same time, though Goldsmith does not characterize these men as rep-resentatives of e v i l , as animals, or as real threats to moral and social order, he does single them out from the herd—by_ name—and thus partly f i l l s the role of detector vacated by the "death" of Douglas. Retaliation i s a fine poem, but the self-portrayal in the work i s such that i t contrib-utes to render the poem less s a t i r i c a l than the satires of Pope or Church-i l l ; i n fact, i t i s quite another type of satire. Retaliation i s a comic poem; the best-known satires of• Dryden, Pope, and Churchill are a l l , i n some sense, heroic poems. In the Discourse  Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire, after discussing the dis-advantages of the burlesque metre chosen by Samuel Butler and after stat-ing his own preference for satire such as Boileau's, written i n the French heroic measure, Dryden proceeds toward his f i n a l suggestions about the requirements of the more "Noble kind of Satire": "Had I time, I cou'd enlarge on the Beautiful Turns of Words and Thoughts; which are as req-uisite i n this, as i n Heroique Poetry i t self; of which this Satire i s undoubtedly a Species."^" So too Pope, especially i n later works such as the Epilogue to the Satires, presents satire as essentially heroic po-62 etry, requiring powerful passions and Divine inspiration: 0 sacred Weapont l e f t for Truth's defence, Sole Dread of Folly, Vice, and Insolence* To a l l but Heav'n-directed hands deny'd, The Muse may give thee, but the Gods must guide. (Dialogue II, 11. 212-15) Churchill's poetry has a tendency toward declamation, toward "the high oratorical style" associated with Juvenal and the sublime.^ Dryden, Pope, and, to a somewhat lesser extent, Churchill, composed satire mainly in heroic couplets. Goldsmith, who wrote his two "serious" poems in he-U3 roic couplets, chose a "low" metrical form, the anapaestic couplet, for Retaliation* The major satires of Dryden, Pope, and Churchill are a l l public poems, at least in terms of intended audience, whereas Retaliation was written for a group of friends. Although Retaliation may not answer i n many respects to modern def-initions of satire, Goldsmith, I think, would have considered his comici poem as a type of satire. It may be helpful here to glance at the eight-eenth-century distinction between Horatian and Juvenalian satire. Dry-den thought that Horace wrote most of his satires i n the "low" style: "The low style of Horace, i s according to his Subjectj that i s generally groveling." 0^ Juvenal's satires, on the other hand, are more elevated: "His Expressions are Sonorous and more Noble; his Verse more numerous, and 65 his Words are suitable to his Thoughts; sublime and l o f t y . " Joseph Trapp distinguishes similarly between Horatian (or "jocose") and Juvenalian (or "serious") satire: " . . . The Foibles of Mankind are the Object of the one; greater Crimes,,.of the other: The former i s always i n the low Style; the lat t e r generally i n the Sublime: That abounds with Wit only; 66 this adds to the Salt Bitterness and Acrimony." Turning to modern Eng-l i s h writers, Trapp remarks that "the Horatian Satire i s l i t t l e affected among us,"° 7 a significant comment, though, of course, delivered some years before Pope composed his Horatian Imitations or Young his Love of  Famej The Universal Passion. In the preface to those satires, Young states his preference for the "laughing satire" of Horace: This kind of satire only has any delicacy i n i t . Of this d e l i -cacy Horace i s the best master: he appears i n good humour while he censures; and therefore his censure has the more weight, as supposed to proceed from judgment, not from passion. Juvenal i s ever i n a passion, t . . 08 Furthermore, eighteenth-century s a t i r i s t s "liked to repeat Horace's modest 44 avowal that he wrote for his own pleasure and that of a few close f r i e n d s . " ^ It i s clear that many eighteenth-century commentators on satire recognized two types, and i t i s probable .that these commentators.accentuated the(differ-ences between Horace and Juvenal to make them appear to be polar opposites. In the spectrum between these poles, Goldsmith's Retaliation l i e s very near the extreme of "laughing" satire, which has the characteristics of low style, emphasis on foibles instead of crimes, a good-humoured magnani-mous poet, and an audience of a few close friends. Pope, perhaps i n his Imitations of Horace, and certainly i n "original" poems such as the Epilogue  to the Satires, would have liked to have been praised for the qualities which Trapp praised i n Boileau: Boileau "has so happily blended Horace and Juvenal together, that he seems to have found out a beautiful Species of Satire between both." 7^ Modern c r i t i c s have noted how Pope combines the colloquial mode of Horace and the heroic mode of Juvenal.7"*" In one of the best accounts of Goldsmith's ideas on comedy, Ricardo 7 0 Quintana observes that Goldsmith "never lost sight of the s a t i r i c aspect." The kind of comic satire which I have found i n Goldsmith's f i n a l poem i s similar to that which Goldsmith praises i n one of his earliest statements on satire, that i n a favourable comment on Mr. Town of the periodical The Connoisseur; "He i s the f i r s t Writer since Bickerstaff, who has been perfectly satyrical, yet perfectly good-natured; and who never, for the sake of declamation, represents simple f o l l y as absolutely criminal" (I, 14)• Here, Goldsmith aligns himself with good-natured Horatian satire rather than declamatory Juvenalian satire. Goldsmith, neither "benevolist" nor "Augustan," was formed as much through the influence of the periodical essays of Addison and Steele, whose Bickerstaff he praises, as through the poems of Swift and Pope. Goldsmith quotes approvingly from the Con- noisseur, No. LXXI, sentiments on "laughing" satire that are very similar 45 to Young's: "In a word, upon a l l occasions I have endeavoured to laugh people into a better behaviour: as I am convinced that the sting of re-proof i s not less sharp for being concealed;., and advice never comes with a better face, than when i t comes with a laughing one" (I, 15)• Such i s very much Goldsmith's own view on comedy and satire—and, l i k e Samuel 73 Butler, he scarcely distinguishes between the two;'^ Goldsmith i s a comic writer essentially because, for him, comedy provided the most r e a l i s t i c picture of l i f e : "humour, in writing, chiefly consists i n an imitation of the foibles or absurdities of mankind. . ." (I, 84)• Humour i s most d i f f i c u l t to obtain (I, 204), but, as he says i n the "Memoirs of M. de Voltaire," "(n]o satire strikes deeper than humour when particularly ap-plied. . ." ( I l l , 271). While no doubt Goldsmith's preference for comic writing i s deeply rooted i n his personality, his c r i t i c a l remarks on com-edy and satire concern the effectiveness of these i n combatting f o l l y . Young's Satires, for Goldsmith, do not succeed as well as they might, because Young "seems fonder of dazzling than pleasing; of raising our admiration for his wit, than our dislike of the f o l l i e s he ridicules" (V, 328). The moral and j u d i c i a l functions of satire are by no means dead i n Goldsmith's works, though i n Retaliation they are subordinate to his intention to amuse. James Prior's high estimation of Retaliation, though not perhaps just i n a l l i t s particulars, does seem particularly apt i n the comparison of Goldsmith to Horace, at least given the way Hor-ace was viewed by commentators l i k e Dryden, Trapp, and Young: But to be at once searching and accurate, to individualize the man from his species, to unveil foibles without violently shock-ing self-love, and while probing them to i n f l i c t no pain; to be f a i t h f u l yet friendly, witty and discreet; to exhibit minute delicacy of touch, with perfect truth i n the painting so that a l l the world shall see the likeness without the original hav-ing cause for reasonable offence i n the display of his imperfec-tions, i s one of those happinesses that high genius alone can 46 hope to accomplish, and this Goldsmith has done. . . . The same feli c i t o u s qualities exhibited i n a somewhat different manner, have given Horace a reputation that no time i s l i k e l y to impair. "The sa t i r i c image," writes Ronald Paulson, "lacks the complete ab-straction of the comic: a certain disgust', a certain physical involve-75 ment of the reader i s always necessary." In the modern view, as repre-sented by Paulson's statement, there i s l i t t l e satire i n Goldsmith's Re-t a l i a t i o n . Thus, while I have classified Retaliation as a "laughing" or Horatian satire, I am aware that the poem in modern terms, even though i t shares with satire the device of the l i t e r a r y portrait, might be more accurately called comic than s a t i r i c . The poem largely lacks the physi-cal involvementi :lthe depiction of e v i l , and the sense of urgency that most modern readers consider the essential qualities of satire. Thus, i t i s in one way quite just to include Retaliation as a pertinent work when considering the decline of verse satire i n mid-eighteenth-century England. In my survey of this subject, I have argued that Goldsmith and his con-temporaries should be viewed as complex individuals, not as men who f a l l I'clearly" into one tradition or another. Therefore, I have for the most part avoided one of the readiest explanations for the decline of the sa-t i r i c s p i r i t — t h e rise of sentimentalism. I have scarcely touched upon what seems to be a very f r u i t f u l area of discussion—the changing poet-audience relationship that came about with the growth of the reading pub-l i c — p r i m a r i l y because i t i s an area that has l i t t l e application to Gold-smith' s Retaliation, given the intended audience for the poem. I have mentioned the p o l i t i c a l and topical orientation of much of the best verse satire i n the eighteenth century, and I have suggested that Goldsmith's apparent desire to avoid topical subjects and partisan p o l i t i c s i n his poetry may have been a factor i n his decision not to attempt a major verse satire prior to Retaliation. Changes in the hierarchy of poetical genres 47 are of considerable importance i n the decline of verse satire, and the shift toward the l y r i c appears to have had some effect on the nature of Goldsmith's Traveller and Deserted Village. The; supreme achievements of Dryden, Swift, and Pope did not make i t easier for a late eighteenth-7 6 century author to write original and v i t a l satire.' The development of biography and the novel, with the attendant interest i n psychology and balanced character portrayal, Contributed to the decline of satire and,, particularly, of the s a t i r i c portrait. Although i t would be wrong to suggest that Swift and Pope had no interest i n exploring the motives of e v i l men, nevertheless a change i n emphasis may be observed from the predominantly moral vision of the s a t i r i s t to the biographer's and nov-e l i s t ' s concern with personality. The growing acceptance of particular details as valuable i n themselves i n character portrayal and, especially, in natural description was opposed by Goldsmith i n his c r i t i c a l remarks. I have tried to demonstrate that compassion plays a limited but essential role i n the satires of Pope, and suggested that when compassion takes a leading role or when i t never appears at a l l Popean satire can no longer be written. Self-portrayal i s the particular quality of Pope's formal verse satires that later s a t i r i s t s chose especially to extend and trans-form. For this reason, and because self-portrayal i s the central c r i t i -cal question for Goldsmith's poetry, I have considered self-portraiture i n some detail. In the poems examined, from Pope, Churchill, and Gold-smith, the self-portrait of the s a t i r i s t appears to change from that of a man of virtue, to that of an erring but conscientious man, to that of a man treated with such irony that he becomes indistinguishable from the sa t i r i c targets i n the poem. There seems to be a progressive deteriora-tion of the self-portrait as a s a t i r i c norm i n verse satire. In Retalia- tion self-portrayal does not provide a s a t i r i c norm i n any sense. The 48 norms that there are must largely be discovered i n the web of contrasting faults and virtues that joins the several epitaphs and unifies the poem. These contrasts w i l l constitute, i n part, the subject of my f i n a l chap-ter, but brief attention must f i r s t be given to the tradition of the ana-paestic tetrameter couplet, the "low" metrical form that Goldsmith chose for Retaliation. Notes I See especially Andrew M. Wilkinson, "The Decline of English Verse Satire i n the Middle Years of the Eighteenth Century," RES, NS 3 (1952), 222-33. T n e True Genius of Oliver Goldsmith (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1969), p. 25. Paul Fussell believes only "humanists" to be cap-able of satire: "One hallmark of the non-humanist tradition i s the decay of satire i n i t s hands. In Addison, for example, satire turns gentle and optimistic" (The Rhetorical World of Augustan Humanism: Ethics and  Imagery from Swift to Burke lOxford: Clarendon, 1965J, p. 237^ 3 Clara M. Kirk, Oliver Goldsmith, TEAS, 47 (New York: Twayne, 1967), p. 50. ^ See Robert W. Seitz, "The Irish Background of Goldsmith's Social and P o l i t i c a l Thought," PMLA, 52 (1937), 405-11. 5 "Tragic Picaresque: Oliver Goldsmith, the Biographical Aspect," Studies, 49 (I960), 53. ° Richard J . Dircks, "The Genesis and Date of Goldsmith's Retalia- tion," MP, 75 (1977), 51. 7 Dircks, p. 52. 6 I quote Garrick's couplet as i t appears i n The Works of Oliver  Goldsmith, ed. Peter Cunningham -(London: John Murray, 1854), I, 78. 9 "Dr. Goldsmith," European Magazine, 24 (1793), 259. ^ Richard Cumberland, Memoirs of Richard Cumberland: Written by  Himself. Containing an Account of His Life and Writings, Interspersed  with Anecdotes and Characters of Several of the Most Distinguished Persons  of His Time, with Whom He Has Had Intercourse and Connexion (London: Printed for Lackington, Allen, & Co., 1807), I, 37©. I I Cumberland, I, 371. 1 2 Dircks, p. 50. 1 3 Cumberland, I, 369. See Hopkins, p. 10. 15 ' Memoirs of the L i f e of David Garrick, Esq. Interspersed with  Characters and Anecdotes of His Theatrical Contemporaries. The Whole 49 50 Forming a History of the Stage, Which Includes a Period of Thirty-Six  Years (London: Printed for the Author, 1780), II, 159, 158. l o Garrick quoted i n Cunningham, I, 78. 17 "To Masonf" 7 A p r i l 1774, Horace Walpole's Correspondence with  William Mason, ed. W. S. Lewis, Grover Cronin, Jr., and Charles H. Ben-nett, The Yale Edition of Horace Walpole's Correspondence, ed. W. S. Lewis (Mew Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1955), XXVIII, 144. 1 8 "Goldsmith's 'Retaliation,'" SAQ, 70 (1971), 153. ^9 Cooke, p. 174-2 0 See James Prior, The Life of Oliver Goldsmith. M.B.: From a Va-riety, of Original Sources (London: John Murray, 1837;, II, 491; and Dircks, pp. 50-51. 2 1 Portraits, ed. Frederick W. Hi l l e s , The Yale Editions of the P r i -vate Papers of James goswell (London: Heinemann, 1952), p. 52. 2 2 Cumberland, I, 371-72. Dircks (pp. 52-53) accepts Cumberland's account as basically accurate. 23 Seethe reviews of Retaliation i n the Monthly Review, 50 (April 1774), 313-14; and in the C r i t i c a l Review, 37 (May 1774), 392. Both are reprinted i n Goldsmith: The C r i t i c a l Heritage, ed. G. S. Rousseau (Lon-don: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), PP. 128-29, 129-30. 2 ^ "Satire, ..Sublimity, and Sentiment: Theory and Practice in Post-Augustan Satire," FMLA, 85 (1970), 266. 2 ^ Marshall A. Ledger, "The Decline of Verse Satire: Small Thanks to William Gifford," Enlightenment Essays,, 5, No. 1 (1974), 52-53. 2 6 Hopkins, pp. 78-79. 27 ' See Ralph Cohen, "On the Interrelations of Eighteenth-Century Forms," i n New Approaches to Eighteenth-Century Literature: Selected  Papers from the English Institute, ed. P h i l l i p Harth (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1974), pp. 39, 62. 2 8 "On the Relationship of Satire and Poetry After Pope," SEL, 14 (1974), 391. 29 See Wallace Cable Brown, The Triumph of Form: A Study of the  Later Masters of the HeroictCouplet (Chapel H i l l : UnivT of North Carolina Press, 1948), pp. 142-60; William Bowman Piper, The Heroic Couplet (Cleve-land: Press of Case Western Reserve Univ., 1969), pp. 401-05; and Robert Mahony, "Lyrical Antithesis: The Moral Style of The Deserted Village," A r i e l , 8, No. 2 (1977), 33-47. 3° A l l quotations from Pope's poetry are taken from The Poems of  Alexander Pope, ed. John Butt (London: Methuen, 1963). 31 "'Candour' i n XVIIIth-Century Satire," RES, 20 (1944), 45-65. 51 3 2 i am indebted to the discussion of the differences between the lit e r a r y portrait and set characters i n novels i n Alan Simonton Fisher, "The Form, History, and Significance of the Augustan Literary Portrait," Diss. California (Berkeley) 1969, pp. 50-56. See also Houghton W. Tay-lor, "'Particular Character': An Early Phase of a Literary Evolution," PMLA, 60 (1945), 161-74; and Varley Lang, "Crabbe and the Eighteenth Cen-tury," ELH, 5 (1938), 305-33. 33 Fussell, p. 18. 34 "Oliver Goldsmith, Citizen of the World," Studies on Voltaire  and the Eighteenth Century, 55 (1967), 448. 35 John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, II. x i . 10. I quote from the abridgement edited by A. D. Woozley, The Fontana Library (London: Collins, 1964). 36 Locke, IV. v. 10. See also I I . x x x i i . 6. T n e Poetry and Prose of William Blake, ed. David V. Erdman (Gar-den City, N. Y.: Doubleday, 1965), p. 630. 3^ "Local Attachment and Cosmopolitanism—The Eighteenth-Century Pattern," i n From Sensibility to Romanticism: Essays Presented to Fred- erick A. Pottle, ed. Frederick W. Hi l l e s and Harold Bloom (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1965), pp. 200-04. 39 See Jean H. Hagstrum, The Sister Arts: The Tradition of Literary  Pictorialism and English Poetry from Dryden to Gray (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958;. See Chester F• Chapin, Personification i n Eighteenth-Century Eng- l i s h Poetry (New York: King's Crown Press of Columbia Univ., 1955), PP« 34-35. "Satire and St. George," Queen's Quarterly, 70 (1963), 46. & "Pope's To Bathurst and the Mandevillian State," ELjl, 25 (1958), 36. Howard D. Weinbrot finds a "sense of sadness" motivating the portraits of Atticus and Wharton (The Formal Strain: Studies i n Augustan Imitation  and Satire [Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1969J, p. 145). 43 "Verbal and Visual Caricature i n the Age of Dryden, Swift, and Pope," i n England i n the Restoration and Early Eighteenth Century: Essays  on Culture and Society, ed. H. T. Swedenberg, J r . (Berkeley and Los Ange-les: Univ. of California Press, 1972), p. 177. 4 4 Fussell, p. 111. ^5 Alan S. Fisher, "The Stretching of Augustan Satire: Charles Church-i l l ' s 'Dedication' to Warburton," JEGP, 72 (1973), 365. 4 0 P. K. Elkin, The Augustan Defence of Satire (Oxford: Clarendon, 1973), p. 197. G. K. Hunter believes that " i t i s a false antithesis which lumps Dryden and Pope together and sets them against the Romantic attitude 52 in Byron. . ." ("The 'Romanticism' of Pope's Horace," EIG, 10 (1960"), 403). W John Dryden offers only two grounds on which personal invectives may be jus t i f i e d : revenge for personal affronts and the moral duty of making examples of public nuisances. See A Discourse Concerning the Orig- inal and Progress of Satire, i n Poems 1693-1696, ed. A. B. Chambers, Wil-liam Frost, and Vinton A. Dearing, Vol. IV of The Works of John Dryden, ed. H. T. Swedenberg, Jr., George R. Guffey, and Vinton A. Dearing (Berke-ley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1974), 59^60. ^ Satire I, Love of Fame, the Universal Passion, i n The Poetical  Works of Edward"~Young, Aldine Edition of the British Poets (London: B e l l and Daldy, ii.d.; rpt. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1970), II, 59, •^9 "Personae," i n Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Literature:  Essays i n Honor of Alan Dugald McKillop, ed. Carroll Camden (Chicago: Printed for Rice Univ. by Univ. of Chicago Press, 1963), P» 29. 5° Tatler, No. 242, 26 October 1710, The Lucubrations of Isaac Bick-erstaff, Esq; Revised and Corrected by_ the Author (London: Printed for E. and R. Nutt, et a l . , 1723), TV, 220. 5 1 "Pope to Fortescue," 16 August 1736, The Correspondence of Alex-ander Pope, ed. George Sherbum (Oxford: Clarendon, 1956), IV, 27. 52 J Hopkins, p. 25; quoted on p. 18 above. 53 A l l quotations from Churchill's poems are taken from The Poetical  Works of Charles Churchill, ed. Douglas Grant (Oxford: Clarendon, 1956). 54 The Cankered Muse: Satire of the English Renaissance, Yale Stud-ies i n English, Vol. 142 (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1959), p. 22. 55 ' Wallace Cable Brown, Charles Churchill: Poet, Rake, and Rebel (Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas Press, 1953), P» 130. William L»McAdams of-fers an interesting assessment of self-portrayal i n Churchill: "his per-sona' s self-awareness • • . creates the most nearly authentic poetical autobiography i n eighteenth-century satire" ("Monstrous Birth: Charles Churchill's Image Cluster," Satire Newsletter, 8 0-970-71], 104). 5° This allusion, not given by Douglas Grant, i s noted by Frank Brady and Martin Price in their edition English Prose and Poetry 1660-1800: A Selection (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1961), p. 271, n. 12." 57 Lockwood, p. 394. 5 8 Elkin, p. 191. 59 -"A. Norman Jeffares, Oliver Goldsmith, Writers and Their Work, No. 107 (London: Published for the Br i t i s h Council £nd the National Book League by Longmans, Green & Co., 1959), p. 8. o u Prior, I, 293* Kenrick might be called the v i l l a i n of Goldsmith biography; for further references, see Prior, II, 85, 350, 532. 53 6 1 Dryden, IV, 84. 62 poems: John M. Aden writes about the theory of satire in Pope's Horatian 65 Pope expresses a view of satire as ultimately heroic and inspired, as a public guardian and hence an art and conscience superior to l i b e l and lampoon; but dependent, even so, for i t s effectiveness, upon wit, personal example, sensory and passional arousal; with-out bounds as to target, spoken freely i n a style now grave, now gay, but essentially colloquial, with the power to sing as well as to curse, and with the heart to do both. (Something Like Horace: Studies i n the Art and: Allusion of  Pope's Horatian Satires rjtfashville: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, 1969J7 p. 113) 63 Carnochan, p. 265* 6 4 Dryden, IV, 64. Dryden, IV, 63. 6 ^ "Of Satire," i n Lectures on Poetry, 1742, trans, William Bowyer and William Clarke (Menston: Scolar, 1973)* P» 232. See p. 227 for Trapp's use of the words "jocose" and "serious." 6 7 Trapp, p. 236. 6 8 Young, II, 56. 6 9 Elkin, p. 98. 7 0 Trapp, p. 236. 71 See especially H. H. Erskine-Hill, Introd., Pope: Horatian Sat-ires and Epistles, ed. Erskine-Hill (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 196"4j, pp. 13-17. 72 "Oliver Goldsmith as a C r i t i c of the Drama," SEL, 5 (1965), 443. 7 ^ See George R. Wasserman, Samuel "Hudibras" Butler, TEAS, 193 (Bos-ton: Twayne, 1976), p. 47« P. K. Elkin states that there was a "common practice i n the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of using 'comedy' in much the same sense as 'satire'. • ." (p. 13). 7 4 Prior, II, 495-96. 7 5 The Fictions of Satire (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1967), p. 16. 7 ^ W. Jackson Bate, i n order to explain why he thinks Johnson did not really write satire, offers a version of his "Burden of the Past" theory: "Of special interest both c r i t i c a l l y and psychologically are the ways i n which the creative use of a genre often leads (in fact almost always can lead) to at least i t s temporary extinction" ("Johnson and Satire Manque," i n Eighteenth-Century Studies i n Honor of Donald F. Hyde, ed. W. H. Bond (New York: Grolier Club, 1970)7~p, X%)~. Chapter II: Retaliation and the Anapaestic Tetrameter Couplet from Prior to Goldsmith "Excuse any more—for I very well know/Both my subject and verse— i s exceedingly low. . . ."^ So Simkin Blunderhead writes to his mother in Christopher Anstey's New Bath Guide (1766). In this chapter I shall examine the "low" verse form common to The New Bath Guide and Ret a l i a t i o n — the anapaestic tetrameter couplet—by sketching the tradition of poems composed i n this verse form from Matthew Prior to Oliver Goldsmith. Con-tinuous anapaests i n poetry before Prior were largely confined to songs and ballads, and usually popular rather than l i t e r a r y songs. While the employment of anapaests for popular and musical purposes continued unabated during the eighteenth century, Prior made t r i s y l l a b i c metres available 2 to l i t e r a r y poets for a greater range of purposes. The four-stress line, to which I shall limit my discussion, i s the anapaest's "most natural arrangement in E n g l i s h . A l t h o u g h the anapaestic tetrameter couplet i s not common, other than i n songs and ballads, i n the period from Prior to Goldsmith, there are sufficient examples to constitute a tradition* As might be expected when dealing with a "low" verse form, few of the poems in the tradition are among the major poems of the authors represented. Only in the works of minor poets such as Byrom and Anstey i s the anapaes-t i c tetrameter couplet a dominant form. In selecting the poems to be discussed, I shall try to give some indication of the wide range of genres for which this metrical form has been used. At the same time, since I am sketching the tradition i n which Retaliation l i e s , I shall devote partic-ular attention to epitaphs and epigrams, as well as to ballads and verse 54 5 5 epistles when these contain significant character-sketches. The anapaes-t i c couplet i n this period i s essentially a medium for light verse, and many, of the poems have an equal, some a better, claim to satire than does Goldsmith's Retaliation. Another criterion, then, w i l l be to select poems that resemble Goldsmith's i n structure, diction, or intention. In this discussion of the various poets who have written i n the anapaestic tetram-eter couplet, I shall endeavour to il l u s t r a t e i t s characteristics and suggest why Goldsmith used i t for Retaliation. Goldsmith learned the art of the heroic couplet mainly from Dryden, Pope, and Johnson. For the octosyllabic verse tale and the anapaestic familiar epistle and light satire Goldsmith had other masters, most no-tably Prior and Swift. Prior's poems i n anapaests include epitaphs and epigrams, ballads, and translations. What i s probably Prior's earliest attempt i n anapaestic tetrameterrccuplefcaj„ a satire icomppsed^in-16^,. looks back to an earlier poem in this metre as much as i t looks forward to the eighteenth century. Prior's Session of the Poets, not published u n t i l the twentieth century, i s an imitation of the Session of the Poets f i r s t published i n Rochester's Poems on Several Occasions i n 1680 and now thought to be possibly by Elkanah S e t t l e . 4 Both Sessions have the por-5 trait-gallery structure of Pope's Epistle to a Lady or Goldsmith's Re- taliat i o n, though only i n Pope i s the painting metaphor developed. In both Sessions the "Sons of the Muses" gather before Apollo to state their qualifications for the laureateship. Each verse paragraph i s essentially a s a t i r i c portrait comprised partly of a description of a poet and partly of Apollo's dismissal of that poet's claims. Two passages w i l l i l l u s t r a t e the differences between the two poems. I have chosen the portrait of Nathaniel Lee from the 1680 Session and that of John Dryden from Prior: 56 Nfat] L ( W j , stept i n next i n hopes of a Prize, Apollo, remember1d he had hit once i n Thrice; By the Rubyes in's Face, he cou'd not deny, But he had as much Wit, as Wine cou'd supply; Confest that indeed he had a Musical Note, But sometimes straih'd so hard he rattled i'th»Throat, Yet owning he had Sense, t'incourage him f o r ' t , He made him his Ovid i n Augustus's Court. (11. 37-44)°" John Dryden appear'd at the head of the Gang, And with a low bow and learned Harangue He said with Submission he thought t'wou'd be hard If he of the Bays shou'd at length be debar'd Who so well had writ and so frankly declar'd. Declaring says Phoebus, concerns not this court; They that set you at work l e t 'em e'en pay you f o r ' t . Whats Religion to Us, t i s well known that many Have manag'd the Place well without having Any. For matter of Writing ' t i s frankly confest If we'l take your bare word for't You do i t much best. (11. 9-19) It i s immediately apparent that Prior, even i n an early poem not polished for publication, brings a greater smoothness to the anapaestic l i n e . Prior has no lines, l i k e "Confest that indeed he had a Musical Note,/But sometimes strain'd so hard he rattled i'th'Throat," which seem to defy scansion. In place of the reported speech of Apollo i n 1680, Prior's l i v e l i e r verses present Apollo's speech i n dialogue form. Realistic re-production of conversation, extended by Prior i n his imitation of the earlier Session, plays an important part i n many of the anapaestic poems that followed i n the course of the eighteenth century. P r i o r 1 s two ballads i n anapaestic couplets, both written to the tune of "King John and the Abbot of Canterbury," display the same interest in dialogue. In "The Thief and the Cordelier," a slight tale of a priest's comforting of a man at the gallows, the dialogue not only sounds very natural i n the anapaestic metre but serves well to delineate character: What frightens You thus, my good Son? says the Priest: You Murther'd, are Sorry, and have been Confest. 57 0 Fatherl My Sorrow w i l l scarce save my Bacon: For 'twas not that I Murther'd, but that I was Taken. (11. 26-29) It i s to poetry of this kind that we must turn in order to discover the kind of colloquial language that Goldsmith uses in Retaliation. The sec-ond ballad, Down-Hall, i s more autobiographical, more delightful, and even better than "The Thief and the Cordelier" in terms of depiction of character and description of scene. The poem i s about Matthew Prior him-self, who wishes to purchase a country house, and his friend John Morley, who wishes to s e l l him one: VII. And now i n this Journey of L i f e I wou'd have A Place where to bait, 'twixt the Court and the Grave; Where joyful to Live, not unwilling to Dye. Gadzooks, I have just such a Place i n my Eye. (11. 26-29) This i s very fine light verse, indeed. How excellently Prior controls the mood, moving from Matthew*s "Dye" to John's "Gadzooks," an appropri-ate word for the f i r s t one that John speaks in the poem since i t charac-terizes his speech throughout (see 11. 33, 145)1 The entire poem i s im-bued with the mixture of sadness and humour that i s found i n this stanza. The poem in fact presents a l i t t l e "Journey of L i f e , " through enumerating the changes that time has wrought since Morley last visited the inns on the road between London and Down-Hall. Prior captures beautifully the simple speech of the Landlady at the Sign of the Bull: XVIII. Why now l e t me Die, S i r , or l i v e upon Trust. If I know to which Question to answer you f i r s t : Why Things since I saw you most strangely have vari'dj The Hostler i s hang'd, and the Widow i s marry'd. 58 XIX. And PRUE l e f t a Child for the Parish to Nurse, And SISLEY went off with a Gentlemans Pursej And as to my Sister, so mild, and so Dear, She has l a i n i n the Church-yard f u l l many a Year. (11. 70-77) Oswald Doughty comments on Prior's description:; Into this small eighteenth-century inn, Prior has compressed the whole of l i f e . Here are i t s mingled pathos and humour, i t s gaiety and sorrow, i t s unconscious ironies. In the cantering anapaests that sweep the travellers along, we seem to hear the beating of the rhythm of l i f e i t s e l f . Through a l l there i s the sense of this headlong f l i g h t that stays not for the remarried widow, the hanged ostler, the deserted child, or the 'mild and dear' sister who l i e s sleeping in the churchyard, remote from the tumult of l i f e . 7 It i s not necessary to go as far into the history of the anapaestic cou-plet as, say, William Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper" in the Songs of Inno- cence to discover the emotional range which this instrument can reach i n the hands of a master. The anapaestic tetrameter couplet appears to place a distant second or third behind the predominant heroic couplet as the verse form most frequently chosen by eighteenth-century epigrammatists. To mention only important authors, Prior, Swift, Pope, Gray, Smart, and Fielding composed epigrams using this verse form. The relevance of this genre to Retalia- tion i s clear, for the epitaph and mock-epitaph are included i n the epi-gram kind. That the epigram was usually placed at the bottom of the hier-archy of genres—and thus a low verse form was well suited to i t — d i d not mean that such poems should not be fi n e l y wrought. Quite the reverse i s true, for the origins of epigrams in inscriptions on monuments, urns, and tombs were not yet forgotten i n the eighteenth century. In fact, the age was continually reminded of the lapidary nature of epigram by the excavations of Greek and Roman ruins.' Nevertheless, i n a period when 59 marry writers f e l t that various mock-genres could approximate more closely the truth of human experience than could conventional use of classical genres and when man's f o l l i e s and vices were thought to offer more abun-dant f r u i t i n the l i t e r a r y harvest than his virtues, i t i s not surprising that the mock-epitaph and the s a t i r i c a l epigram flourished. Prior i s one of the century's best writers of epigrams and epitaphs, and a significant number of these are in anapaestic tetrameter lines. The following i s a mock-epitaph on Francis Atterbury, occasioned by a legal dispute between Atterbury and Dr. Robert Freind on the location of a new dormitory at Westminster School: MEEK Franco lyes here, Friend, without stop or stay As You value your Peace; make the best of your way. Th6 arrested at present by Deaths catif claw If He s t i r s , He may yet have recourse to the Law: And i n the Kings Bench shou'd a Verdict be found That by Livery and Seisin his Grave i s his ground; He may claim to himself what i s s t r i c t l y his due, And an Action of Trespass w i l l straitway ensue, That You without right on His premisses tread, On a single Surmise that the Owner i s dead. (I, 5 4 9 ) The clever play i n the opening couplet on the "Stay Traveller" motif of classical epitaphs and the depiction of Atterbury as a l i t i g i o u s man who, frighteningly, carries this character even into the grave give the epitaph s a t i r i c point. Two of Prior's best poems are epitaphs i n anapaestic te-trameter lines, though neither has couplet rhyme. "Jinny the Just" i s written i n t r i p l e t s , and "For His Own Epitaph" i n alternately rhymed quat-rains. "Jinny the Just" i s not a mock-epitaph, but rather an epitaph on a woman of low degree: "For Her Sirname and race l e t the Heraults e'n answer,/Her own proper worth was enough to advance Her,/And He who l i k ' d Her l i t t l e valu'd her Grandsire" (11. 31-33). Although the poem was not published u n t i l the twentieth century.^ i t was perhaps not without i n f l u -60 ence i n the eighteenth: "Pope and Swift read the poem in manuscript, and liked i t so much that they asked permission [of Lord Oxford, after Prior's death] to print i t i n their Miscellanies. . . ." Prior's "For His Own Epitaph" illustrates the attraction for the eighteenth-century author to compose verses for his own death. Prior, himself, wrote another such poem, "For My Own Tomb-stone" (I. 466). Pope, a p r o l i f i c writer of heroic couplet epitaphs, wrote his "Epitaph: On Himself" i n anapaestic tetrameter: Under this Marble, or under this S i l l , Or under this Turf, or e'en what they w i l l ; Whatever an Heir, or a Friend i n his stead, Or any good Creature shall lay o'er my Head; Lies He who ne'er car'd, and s t i l l cares not a Pin, What they said, or may say of the Mortal within. But who l i v i n g and dying, serene s t i l l and free, Trusts i n God, that as well as he was, he shall be. (p. 827) His own character, as Pope presents i t here, does not much di f f e r from that which he presents in his satires, though perhaps such a phrase as "cares not a Pin" i s better suited to the anapaestic than to the heroic l i n e . The same impulse which l i e s behind Prior's and Pope's lapidary verses on themselves, as well as Gay's "My Own Epitaph," appears in somewhat dis-guised form i n the Elegy Written i n a Country Church-Yard and motivates the epitaph-writing contest that led to Retaliation. More interesting than the Elegy for my purposes are the occasions on which Gray turned to the anapaestic tetrameter couplet. Thomas Warton preserved these: one day the Bishop having offered to give a Gentleman a Goose Mr Gr<ay> composed his Epitaph, thus. Here l i e s Edmund Keene Lord' Bishop of Chester, He eat a fat goose, and could not digest h e r — And this upon his Lady— 61 Here l i e s Mrs Keene the Bishop of Chester, She had a bad face which did sadly molest her. (p. S 5 ) 1 1 As Pope stands outside society to c r i t i c i z e i t in the Epilogue to the  Satires, so Gray when he sketched his own character i n 1761 j u s t i f i e s his withdrawal from society through hitting s a t i r i c targets both general and particular: Too poor for a bribe, and too proud to importune; He had not the method of making a fortune: Could love and could hate, so was thought somewhat odd; NO VERY GREAT WIT, HE BELIEV'D IN A GOD: A Post or a Pension he did not desire, But l e f t Church and State to Charles Townshend and Squire. (p. 72) Gray stands i n opposition to a society in which only the unscrupulous (like Townshend) and the obsequious (like Squire) are rewarded, i n which human emotions are equated with oddity, and wit with godlessness. Gray's "(Sketch of His Own Character]," i n which Austin Dobson finds a resemblance to Goldsmith's portrait of Edmund Burke, is; less comic than most anapaes-t i c satires and less colloquial even than Pope's unsmiling "Epitaph: On Himself," much less the anapaests of Prior. Gray, of course, was ca-pable of the more colloquial anapaest, as he demonstrates i n The Candi-date. Swift i s probably the most important and most influential writer of anapaests in the eighteenth century. Among his three dozen or so poems in anapaestic tetrameter couplets are many i n the colloquial style. While Swift i s primarily known for; his poems i n octosyllabic couplets, "in such pieces as The Grand Question Debated he discovered,. along with his con-13 temporary Matthew Prior, new resources i n the anapaestic variation." Epigrams, character-sketches, songs, ballads, riddles, and familiar epis-t l e s are among the kinds of poems that Swift wrote i n anapaests. Further 62 cause for treating Swift's anapaestic couplets at some length is found in the fact that Goldsmith appears to have recalled lines from The Grand  Question Debated when composing The Haunch of Venison and Retaliation. 1^ Most of Swift's epigrams in anapaestic couplets;might well be called lampoons. The following is an epigram on Bishop Josiah Hort's obsequious behaviour before the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland: LOrd Pam in the Church (cou'd you think it) kneel'd down, When told the Lieutenant was just come to Town, His Station despising, unaw'd by the Place, He flies from his God, to attend on his Grace: To the Court i t was fitter to pay his Devotion, Since God had no Hand in his Lordship's Promotion* (III, 809) 1 5 Here, as is frequently the case, the epigram constitutes a character-sketch. The effect of this epigram depends l i t t l e on the low diction and conversa-tional s£yle characteristic of the anapaestic couplet. Only in the par-enthetical remark in the first line i s there a strong impression of con-versation. The techniques that Swift uses in this epigram are rather those usually associated with the heroic couplet. The second line of each cou-plet serves to undermine the f i r s t , and effective use is made of parallel-ism andantithesis. The low verse form, however, may have the effect of belittling the subject, rendering a Bishop Hort as insignificant as the usual low subject of satirical epigrams. The name "Lord Pam" likewise serves a depreciatory function. While Dryden and Pope typify their best-known targets by means of Biblical or classical names, Swift draws the name of his target from a more vulgar source^the card-game Loo. The anapaestic couplet as i t is used here is similar to the antithetical cou-plets in Goldsmith's sketch of Burke, though Swift's intention is much more unequivocally satirical. In "Advice to a Parson: An Epigram" (III, 807-08) and "An Epigram, Inscribed to the Honourable Sergeant Kite" (III, 63 817-18), Swift employs the anapaestic couplet i n much the same way that he does i n the lines on "Lord Pam." An example i n Swift of an epigram in which the low verse form i s matched by the lowness of i t s subject i s that which begins "As Thomas was cudgelld one day by his Wife" (I, 327)• Two poems which are not called epigrams, but which are closely related to the epigram kind, are"The Character of S i r Robert Walpole" (II, 539-40) and "A Portrait from the L i f e " (III, 954-55). The eighteenth-century epigram, as I have noted, i s frequently a character-sketch. The epitaph or mock-epitaph almost invariably consists of a brief Character. In fact, the li t e r a r y portrait as i t i s used by Dryden, Pope, Swift, and other eighteenth-century poets, can be seen to have i t s origins i n two seven-teenth-century forms: the epigram, especially as composed by Ben Jonson, and the Theophrastan C h a r a c t e r . T h e couplets i n "The Character of Sir Robert Walpole" are again marked by parallelism and antithesis: With favour & fortune fastidiously blest he's loud i n his laugh & he's coarse i n his Jest of favour & fortune unmerited vain a sharper i n t r i f l e s a dupe in the main atchieving of nothing S t i l l promising wonders by dint of experience improving i n Blunders oppressing true merit exalting the base and selling his Country to purchase his peace a Jobber of Stocks by retailing false news a prater at Court i n the S t i l e of the Stews of Virtue & worth by profession a giber of Juries & senates the buLly & briber Tho I name not the wretch you know who I mean T'is the Cur dog of Brit t a i n & spaniel of Spain. The antitheses i n these lines are manifold: "atchieving" and "promising," "oppressing" and "exalting," "selling" and "purchasing." (Present par-t i c i p l e s are, of course, characteristic of anapaestic lines.) A knave in t r i v i a l matters, Walpole i s basically a f o o l . His experience of the world, according to Swift, only renders him more foolish and less capa-ble of governing. The repetition of commercial terms—such as "selling," 64 "purchase," and "retailing"—implies that for Walpole everything i s a com-mercial transaction: even "peace" must be bought. (The opposition a t t r i -17 buted to Walpole the p o l i t i c a l maxim " A l l men have their price." ) An-other characteristic of these couplets, again one commonly encountered in heroic couplets, i s inversion. Here prepositional phrases precede rather than follow the nouns and adjectives by which they are governed. By this means, terms of opprobrium l i k e "vain" and "briber" are placed i n the strong positions at the ends of lines. Moreover, the second halves of lines frequently serve to deflate the f i r s t : "of Virtue & worth by profession a giber." The al l i t e r a t i o n i n these lines i s insistent and contemptuous: "to purchase his peace," "in the S t i l e of the Stews," "the bully & briber," "& spaniel of Spain." Animal imagery, worthy of remark i n the f i n a l line of the sketch of Walpole, dominates UA Portrait from the Li f e " : COME s i t by my side, while this picture I draw: In chattering a magpie, i n pride a jackdaw; A temper the Devil himself could not bridle, Impertinent mixture of busy and i d l e . As rude as a bear, no mule half so crabbed; She swills l i k e a sow, and she breeds l i k e a rabbit: A house-wife i n bed, at table a slattern; For a l l an example, for no one a pattern. Now t e l l me, friend Thomas, Ford, Grattan, and merry Dan, Has this any likeness to good Madam Sheridan? Although neither the portrait of Walpole nor of Mrs. Sheridan i s sympa-thetic, there i s a considerable difference between the two sketches. The poem on Walpole i s far removed from speech, such being not the least of the effects of inversion in the poem. "A Portrait from the L i f e " i s much more colloquial, especially in the opening line and the closing cou-plet, i n which Swift speaks directly to the friends who constitute his audience• Many of Swift's poems in anapaests are slight,' occasional pieces. 65 In fact, many are to be found i n the hundred pages of "Riddles" and " T r l f l e s " at the end of Harold Williams's edition of Swift's poetry. Swift and his friends wrote poetry of various kinds for diversion. Three of the riddles in Swift are i n anapaestic tetrameter couplets (III, 927, 928-29, 937-38). The riddle had already been written i n this metrical form by Prior, and his "Enigma" i s more successful than any of the ana-paestic riddles in Swift: BY Birth I'm a Slave, yet can give you a Crown j I dispose of a l l Honours, my self having none:  I'm obliged by just Maxims to govern my Life ,  Yet I hang my own Master, and lye with his Wife.  Where Men are a Gaming, I cunningly sneak,  And their Cudgels and Shovels away from 'em take.  Fair Maidens and Ladies I by_ the Hand get. And pick off their Diamonds, tho' ne're so well set;  But when I have Comrades, we rob i n whole Bands,  Then we presently take off your Lands from your Hands;  But this fury once over, I've such winning Arts,  That you love me much more than you doe your own Hearts. ~ T l , 124) The solution to the "enigma," as Wright and Spears indicate in their Com-mentary on the poem, i s the knave of clubs, or "Pam" i n the game of Loo (II, 865). As with most similar productions, Prior's "Enigma" depends for i t s effectiveness on a species of what some would have called "false wit," i n this case, word-plays on the names of the four suits i n cards. Here, however, the word-plays seem truly witty: ladies lose precious jew-els through gambling at Loo, as well as they do the "Diamonds" in the deck of cards. Likewise, there seems to be some ambivalence of subject between an actual knave and the knave of clubs. And the f i n a l l i n e re-mains quite ominous even when the "enigma" has been solved. The anapaes-t i c tetrameter couplet was the metrical form chosen for such ventures into false wit as Esther Vanhomrigh1s rebus on Swift. Swift's answer, interest-ing for i t s depreciatory self-presentation, discusses the nature of the 66 rebus form: A Dean's but a Parson, and what i s a Rebus? A Thing never known to the Muses or Phoebus: The Corruption of Verse, for when a l l i s done, It i s but a Paraphrase made on a Punn. . . . (II, 716) Later i n the century other "corruptions of verse" were found to be com-patible with the anapaestic tetrameter couplet© Here i s a work by John Cunningham "On so mean a Design" (Swift, II, 716) as an acrostic and so hackneyed a subject as a comparison of a mortal beauty to Venus: PRAY t e l l me, says Venus, one day to the Graces, (On a v i s i t they came, and had just ta'en their places) Let me know why of late I can ne'er see your faces: Ladies, nothing, I hope, happen'd here to affright ye: You've had compliment cards every day to invite ye. Says Cupid, who guess'd their^rebellious proceeding, "Underhand, dear mamma, there's.iSome-mischief .a-rbreeding: "There's a f a i r one at Lincoln, so finish'd a beauty, "That your loves and your graces a l l swerve from "their duty." On my l i f e , says dame Venus, I ' l l not thus be put on, Now I think on't, last night, some one call'd me Miss Sutton. (p. 226)1? Cunningham's acrostic i s not, i n fact, without merit. Venus' speech i s a pleasant imitation of the speech of the fine ladies of the day. Such details as "compliment cards" lend v i t a l i t y to what otherwise would be a du l l panegyric. The familiar verse epistle i n anapaestic couplets appears to have i t s origins with Swift and his c i r c l e . The verse epistle i n this metri-cal form appealed to several subsequent writers in the eighteenth century, including John Byrom, Thomas L i s l e , S i r Charles Hanbury Williams, Richard Owen Cambridge, Anstey, and Goldsmith. Some of the earliest verses of this kind are those sent by the members of the Scriblerus Club inviting the Ea r l of Oxford to their meetings: 67 Tho the Dean has run from us in manner uncivil; The Doctor, and He that's nam'd next to the Devil, With Gay, who Petition'd you once on a time, And Parnell, that would, i f he had but a Rhyme. (That Gay the poor Sec: and that arch Chaplain Parnell, As Spiritual one, as the other i s Carnal), Forgetting their Interest, now humbly s o l l i c i t You'd at present do nothing but give us a V i s i t . (The Poems of Alexander Pope, p. 286) Although these collaborative verses were written i n Swift's absence, oth-ers i n anapaestic couplets were written at about the same time (c. 1713) when Swift was one of the company. These verses reveal some of the com-mon territory between the Hudibrastic tradition and the anapaestic couplet tradition. In both metrical forms, poets used feminine rhymes and t r i p l e rhymes l i b e r a l l y , primarily for comic effect. In this brief verse letter, the "Parnell/Carnal" rhyme i s a typical example. Such rhymes are uncommon in heroic couplet verse, except inflight verse such as prologues and epi-logues. John Dryden comments on rhyme i n his qualified praise of Samuel Butler and Hudibras: the double Rhyme, (a necessary Companion of Burlesque Writing) i s not so proper for Manly Satire, for i t turns Earnest too much to Jest, and gives us a Boyish kind of Pleasure. It tickles aukwardly with a kind of pain, to the best sort of Readers; we are pleas'd ungratefully, and, i f I may say so, against our l i k i n g . We thank him not for giving us that unseasonable De-light, when we know he cou'd have given us a better, and more solid. He might have l e f t that Task to others, who not being able to put i n Thought, can only make us grin with the Excresence of a Word of two or three Syllables i n the Close.19 In the major satires of Dryden and Pope feminine rhymes are rare; i n works of lower style, such as Pope's anapaestic "Epitaph (of By-¥ordsJ," even t r i p l e rhymes are encountered: "For the Dame, by her S k i l l i n Affairs Astronomical,/imagin'd, to l i v e i n the Clouds was but comical" (pi 817). Ingenious rhymes, however, are more characteristic of Swift than Pope. In her fine book on Swift, Nora Crow Jaffe states that i n his poetic games 68 with his friends, "Swift regarded rhyme, i n particular, as his forte," 20 and he "cultivated the talent u n t i l i t approached Butler 1s." f c In one of Swift's " T r i f l e s , " in octosyllabics, he sets himself the task of find-ing rhymes for the names of classical authors (III, 987-89)• In another, Swift responds to Thomas Sheridan's verse letter of thirteen anapaestic tetrameter lines a l l rhyming with "drain" with a poem of thirty-four lines a l l rhyming with "Wine": The Verses you sent on the bottling your Wine Were i n evry ones Judgment exceedingly fine, And I must confess as a Dean and Divine I think you inspird by the Muses a l l nine. . . . ( I l l , 1017) And i n two verse epistles dated 23 November 1731, Swift wrote thirty-three anapaestic tetrameter lines, a l l having the same rhyme: To Doctor Sheridan IF I write any more, i t w i l l make my poor Muse sick. This Night I came home with a very cold Dew sick, And I wish I may soon be not of an A-gue sick; But, I hope I shall ne'er be, l i k e you, of a Shrew sick, Who often has made me, by looking ascue, sick. ( I l l , 1030) Although Goldsmith never seems to have had occasion to play rhyming games such as these, the influence of Swift on his poems in octosyllabics and anapaests i s apparent. Occasionally Goldsmith even borrows a striking rhyme from Swift. Very appropriately this couplet from "A New Simile: In the Manner of S w i f t " — " ' T i l l reading, I forget what day on/A chapter 21 out of Took's Pantheon" (11. 5-6) —echoes a couplet from one of Swift's Market H i l l poems, "My Lady's. Lamentation and Complaint Against the Dean": "And pore ev'ry day on/That nasty Pantheon" (11. 149-50). Double and t r i p l e rhymes are characteristic of light verse because they are often 69 inherently funny, but also because i n light verse the poet frequently makes a show of the a r t i f i c e that he seeks to conceal in his more serious verse. Therefore, i n light verse, "[t]he rhymes are ingenious, perhaps outrageous. The rhythms are assertive,ceither excessively regular or excessively i r -22 regular; unusual metric schemes become prominent." It i s only in light verse that anapaestic tetrameter may be said to have gained any real prom-inence in the eighteenth century. Swift's "Riddles" and "Tr i f l e s " are of interest primarily because they reveal a side of a great writer that i s seldom exposed—the man d i -verting himself with his friends. These poems help to f i l l i n the picture of Swift as a poet: "The excremental poems and the poems to Stella rep-resent the extremes of Swift's style. His poems to and for his friends 23 show him i n a more typical mood." For my purposes, these poems have also been important for Swift's experiments with humorous effects i n the anapaestic tetrameter l i n e . The "Riddles" and "Tr i f l e s " do not, however, hold much interest as poems. Among Swift's verses i n anapaestic, couplets, several hold substantial interest as poetry* Three of these—A Serious  Poem upon William Wood, "Wood, an Insect," and "On the Irish Bishops"— are indignant personal assaults that have l i t t l e i n common with later eighteenth-century anapaestic satires like The New Bath Guide or Retalia-tion. A Serious Poem upon William Wood ends with Swift's anticipation that Wood w i l l hang; "Wood, an Insect," with the anticipation that Wood w i l l be scalded i n "his own melted Copper" ( 1 . 36) or boiled " i n a Caul-dron of Oyl" ( 1 . 38). The worst punishment Anstey affords his s a t i r i c victims i s to have departing physicians bombarded with their own medicines from the window of a house (The New Bath Guide, "Letter IV"). Swift's "Place of the Damn'd" i s likewise s a t i r i c , though here the satire i s gen-eral rather than personal. In this poem, as i n Gulliver's fourth voyage, 70 our world becomes a kind of h e l l , and those who deny i t to be so are com-placent optimists: "And HELL to be sure i s at Paris or Rome,/How happy for Us, that i t i s not at Home" (II, 576). Except that his focus i s more on society than individual psychology, Swift offers a view of the world not much different from that offered by existentialists and absurdists. The poem which, while i t i s interesting i n i t s e l f , i s most directly related to later productions i n anapaests, especially Goldsmith 1s, i s The Grand Question Debated: Whether Hamilton1 s Bawn Should Be Turned  into a Barrack or a Malt-House. In this poem Swift r a l l i e s friends rather than r a i l s at enemies. The depreciatory self-portrait i s f i l t e r e d through a complex structure of points of view. Swift here employs the kind of obvious irony that Martin S. Day believes was Christopher Anstey's contri-bution to anapaestic satire. ^ Once Sir Arthur Acheson has argued that the "Bawn" should be made a "Malt-House," Lady Acheson offers her side of the argument, the verbal irony in the f i r s t few lines being emphasized by the use of i t a l i c s : THUS ended the Knight: Thus began his meek Wife: It must, and i t shall be a Barrack, my L i f e . I'm grown a meer Mopus; no Company comes j But a Rabble of Tenants, and rusty d u l l Rumms; With Parsons, what Lady can keep 'herself clean? I'm a l l over dawb'd when I s i t by the Dean. But, i f you w i l l give us a Barrack, my Dear, The Captain, I'm sure, w i l l always come here; I then shall not value his Deanship a Straw, For the Captain, I warrant, w i l l keep him i n Awe; Or should he pretend to be brisk and alert, W i l l t e l l him that Chaplains should not be so pert; That Men of his Coat should be minding their Prayers, And not among Ladies to give themselves Ai r s . (11. 25-38) Similar to the verbal irony on "meek" i s that involved i n the fact that the person of the lowest social standing i n the poem, Hannah the maid, i s unable to "endure so vulgar a Taste" (1. 42) as that which would make 71 Sir Arthur a "Malster" (1. 45) • The poem i s narrated dramatically, and the Dean i s just one among the characters(see 1. 180). A further distanc-ing of the self-portrait i s effected because most of what we hear about Swift i s from the point of view of other people, such as Lady Acheson, Hannah, or, s t i l l another step removed, the Captain i n Hannah's fantasy about the result of a Barrack's being located at Hamilton's Bawn. Mau-rice Johnson remarks that many of Swift's "deservedly famous poems are self-dramatizations of personality, depicting Jonathan Swift not only in the ways he looked to himself but as he imagined he appeared to other eyes." 25 Here are the witty reflections of Hannah's captain on Parsons, which were inspired by viewing the Dean's shabby dress: "Whenever you see a Cassock and Gown, "A Hundred to One, but i t covers a Clown; "Observe how a Parson comes into a Room, "G— d — me, he hobbles as bad as my Groom; M Scholard, when just from his College broke loose, "Can hardly t e l l how to cry Bo to a Goose; "Your Noveds, and Blutraks, and Omurs and Stuff, "By G— they don't signify this Pinch of Snuff. "To give a young Gentleman right Education, "The Army's the only good School i n the Nation; "My School-Master call ' d me a Dunce and a Fool, "But at Cuffs I was always the Cock of the School; "I never cou'd take to my Book for the Blood o'me. "And the Puppy confess'd, he expected no Good o'me. "He caught me one Morning coquetting his Wife, "But he maul'd me, I ne'er was so maul'd i n my L i f e ; "So, I took to the Road, and what's very odd, "The f i r s t Man4I robb'd was a Parson by G—• "Now Madam, you'll think i t a strange Thing to say, "But, the Sight of a Book makes me sick to this Day. NEVER since I was born did I hear so much Wit, And, Madam, I laugh»d t i l l I thought I shou'd s p l i t . (11. 153-74) Again Hannah i s the victim of Swift's obvious irony. What she calls the "Wit" of "a fine spoken Man" (1. 139) i s shown to be nothing more than the oaths and narrow-minded sentiments of "a Dunce and a Fool." The char-acterization through dialogue of this rather typical eighteenth-century 72 Captain is brilliant. In fact, while The Grand Question Debated i l l u s -trates Swift's imaginative capacity for drawing a great deal from a minor debate, "the real merit of the poem lies rather in his conversational ex-26 pertise." What Goldsmith learned about anapaestic dialogue from The  Grand Question Debated can best be seen in The Haunch of Venison. The resemblance between '"Your Noveds, and Blutraks, and Omurs and Stuff,/'By G— they don't signify this Pinch of Snuff" and the final couplet of Re- taliation has been remarked on by Goldsmith's editors. The portrayal of the captain from Hannah's naive perspective has a.great deal in common with the personages of Bath from Simkin Blunder-head' s naive perspective. And perhaps The Grand Question Debated and The New Bath Guide present almost equal claims to the t i t l e of satire. Swift's poem would seem l i t t l e entitled to be termed satiric i f we accept Clive T. Probyn's suggestion that the poem is dramatic in motive as well as technique: . I there is no attempt here to evaluate experience, to give i t didactic shape, to provide extrinsic reasons for its existence; there are no critical norms which can be transported into or out of the poem other than those for which i t exists, the con-frontation and creation through language of exuberant human comedy.27 Probyn is quite right to use the word "comedy" in connection with The  Grand Question Debated, but, as I have shown to be the case for Goldsmith, comedy for an eighteenth-century writer need not exclude evaluation, d i -dacticism, or criticism of follies. Probyn is probably also right to state that there are no critical norms in the poem; however, such norms and a didactic intention may be found outside the poem. To evaluate the Captain, we may import into the poem a satiric tradition of bluff, plain-speaking Captains: a good example of one may be found in Pope's Fourth  Satire of Dr. John Donne, Dean of St. Paul's, Versifyed, 11. 260-71. 73 For the didactic intention we may import into the poem such information as that Swift was an informal tutor to Lady Acheson, as i t appears from "A Panegyric on the D—n, in the Person of a Lady i n the North," 11. 129-54* Swift's didactic purpose i n The Grand Question Debated i s to r a l l y Lady Acheson out of any apparent preference for the anti-intellectualism of the Captain over the learning of Parsons. To teach this simple lesson, Swift creates a Captain whose speech i s l i t t e r e d with oaths, who admits to being a thief, and who i s probably an adulterers It i s not unreason-able, I think, to import into the poem the relevant c i v i l and religious laws that the Captain contravenes. The Grand Question Debated cannot be properly appreciated when i t i s viewed as a self-contained document. As Maurice Johnson argues, "[tjhe moving events of Swift's l i f e cannot be dissociated from his writings; as much as for any poet of his day, his 28 own identity and his poetry seem inseparable." Swift's poetry has only recently begun to receive the c r i t i c a l attention i t deserves, and this new attention can be seen as the direct result of the formulation of c r i t -i c a l theories i n opposition to those which posit that the l i t e r a r y work 29 i s a closed system. Like many poets both before and afj?er his time, Swift wrote songs and ballads in anapaestic tetrameter couplets. Swift has three poems of this description: An Excellent New. Song, Being the Intended Speech of a Famous Orator Against Peace (I, 141-45), "The Yahoo's Overthrow; or, The Kevan Bayl's New Ballad, upon Serjeant Kite's Insulting the Dean" (III, 814-17), and "A Ballad" (III, 840-41). The most interesting of these, both i n i t s e l f and for the purpose of studying the tradition of anapaes-t i c verse leading to Retaliation, i s "The Yahoo's Overthrow," since this poem contains a sa t i r i c portrait of the lawyer Richard Bettesworth. Two poems by friends of Swift—a song by Charles Mordaunt, Earl of Peterbor-74 ough, and a related piece by Pope—are likewise interesting for the por-t r a i t s they contain. In both of these the four-line stanza i s the basic unit of portraiture. Both Peterborough's famous song "Chloe," addressed to Henrietta Howard, later Countess of Suffolk, and the related anapaests by Pope, published twice i n 1969 from the manuscript i n the Pierpoint 30 Morgan Library,'' have the portrait-gallery structure which I remarked on i n connection with Prior's Session of the Poets. The anapaestic cou-plet arranged i n four-line stanzas had been combined with the portrait-gallery structure some f i f t y years before Peterborough's poem in Roches-ter's "Signior Dildo": The Countess of Falmouth, of whom people t e l l Her footmen wear shirts of a guinea an e l l , Might save the expense i f she did but know How lusty a swinger i s Signior Dildo. The Duchess of Modena, though she looks high, With such a gallant i s contented to l i e , And for fear the English her secrets should; know, For a Gentleman Usher took Signior Dildo. The countess o' th' Cockpit (Who knows not her name? She's famous in story for a k i l l i n g dame), When a l l her old lovers forsake her, I trow She'll then be contented with Signior Dildo. (11. 25-28, 37-44) 3 1 And so on through many of the famous or notorious women of Rochester's day. The Earl of Peterborough's "Chloe," composed of portraits of four nymphs, strikes a completely different note from the earlier Earl's "Signior Dildo." Part of the difference i s , of course, to be explained by the ref-ormation of manners that took place between the time Rochester's poem was composed (c. 1673) and the time Peterborough's poem was f i r s t published (1723). In Peterborough, the device of the refrain i s gone, and while there i s some criticism of his nymphs, a tone of l y r i c sweetness pervades 75 the whole. Peterborough, or rather his heart, dismisses the f i r s t three nymphs. Of Celia, he says, "Not the Beauty she has, nor the wit' that she borrows,/Gives the Eye any Joys, or the Heart any Sorrows" (p. 648). He i s unmoved likewise by Sappho, and "Prudentia, as vainly too, puts in her Claim;/Ever gazing on Heaven, tho' Man i s her Aim" (p. 648)• The poem ends with two stanzas portraying the ideal woman—Chloe (Mrs. Howard). Thus, i n Peterborough we find an alteration of the portrait-gallery struc-ture from that i n "Signior Dildo" or A Session of the Poets e The portraits of inadequate persons are followed at the end of the poem by a portrait of the ideal. This procedure i s the one followed by Pope in his anapaes-t i c couplets on the characters of women as well as i n the:Epistle.to a Lady and perhaps also by Goldsmith in Retaliation. Pope's anapaestic poem contains more portraits than Peterborough's, and the satire has been con-siderably heightened. Pope presents another side of Cloe than Peterbor-ough had: Cloe's Tongue would be running, o<n> Trust from her Eyes, More pert s t i l l than witty; more witty than wise; Good Nature (she vow'd) was the Thing she did scorn, Tho but for Goodnature she ne'r could be born. (p. 465) The faults of Pope's Daphne are closer to those of Narcissa in the Epis-t l e to a Lady than to anything in Peterborough's poem: Daphne's Faith li k e an Ague, now c h i l l s and now burns, Freethinking and Bigotry rule her by turns, The Sin she lov'd well, but much dreaded the Smart, And was but a woful good Christian at Heart. (p. 465) In fact, many of the anapaestic lines from this manuscript poem were re-vised as iambics and used again i n "Sylvia, a Fragment" and the Epistle  to a Lady. Such borrowing by Pope from himself has far-reaching conse-76 quences for an assessment of Pope as a verse portraitist: "This i s char-33 acter-drawing by epigram rather than by analysis." While i t seems highly unlikely that Goldsmith would have known Pope's anapaestic poem on the characters of court ladies, he probably knew Peterborough's, and there i s an interesting similarity between the situation of Peterborough and Pope sketching the characters of the same nymphs and Goldsmith and his ci r c l e writing epitaphs for one another. A;.song written about the same time as Peterborough's "Chloe" but for a very different audience i s Isaac Watts's "The Sluggard," included among the "Moral Songs" appended to his Divine Songs for Children (1720). Watts has a considerable reputation as a metrical innovator .-^ Probably his best-known metrical experiment i s that with English sapphics i n "The Day of Judgement," but Saintsbury remarks w i t t i l y that "'The voice of the sluggard' would have been a most early-rising voice i f i t had complained 3 5 i n fluent anapaests a few years before. . . ."^ As an overt attempt to further the moral education of children, "The Sluggard" necessarily differs from any of the anapaestic poems I have discussed thus far.. Never-theless there are also Similarities. The poem i s basically a character-sketch., and characterization i s achieved at least to a small degree through dialogue: •Tis the Voice of the Sluggard; I hear him complain, You have waked me too soon, I must slumber again. As the Door on i t s Hinges, so he on his Bed, Turns his Sides, and his Shoulders, and his Heavy Head. A l i t t l e more Sleep^ and a l i t t l e more Slumber, Thus he wastes half his Days, arid his Hours without Number: And when he gets up, he- si t s folding his Hands, Or walks about sauntring, or t r i f l i n g he stands. (pp. 332-33P 6 The poem ends with an explicit and somewhat complacent statement of the moral: 77 Said I then to my Heart, Here's a Lesson for me, That Man's but a Picture of what I might be* But Thanks to my Friends for their Care i n my Breeding, Who taught me betimes to love Working and Reading. (p. 333) Although moral judgement i s passed on the Sluggard, there i s no humour, r a i l l e r y , or satire i n the presentation of his character. While this poem i s clearly not i n the tradition leading to Goldsmith's Retaliation, "The Sluggard" gives further indication of the range of poems for which the anapaestic tetrameter couplet was used i n the early eighteenth century, and i t ill u s t r a t e s once again the frequent recourse that the writer of anapaests had to the present participle and gerund. What i s interesting and influential about this poem and other of the "Moral Songs" i s Watts's success, "mainly through his excellent rhythm and his pleasant images, 37 i n expressing something of the innocent delight of childhood. M >' The voice of the innocent speaker in "The Sluggard" i s not very different from the voice i n a later anapaestic Song of Innocence, Blake's "Chimney Sweeper. "-^ Another kind of eighteenth-century poem i n which innocent speakers are to be found i s , of course, the pastoral. The only poem in anapaes-t i c tetrameter couplets selected by Goldsmith for inclusion i n his anthol-ogy The Beauties of English Poesy (1767) i s one of John Byrom's better known poems, "Colin and Phebe, a Pastoral," which was f i r s t printed as Spectator, No. 603, 6 October 1714* Christopher Anstey was also familiar with this poem, for he parodied Byrom's opening lines: My time, 0 ye Muses, was happily spent, When Phebe went with me wherever 1 went; Ten thousand sweet pleasures I f e l t in my breast: Sure never fond shepherd like Colin was blestI (I, 1)39 Dear mother, my time has been wretchedly spent, With a gripe or a hickup wherever I wentj 78 My stomach a l l swell'd, t i l l I thought i t would burst, Sure never poor mortal with wind was so curstI (The New Bath Guide, "Letter IV," p. 19) "Colin and Phebe" has a conventional pastoral subject: a swain!s lament for his absent nympho Byrom evidently conceives of the pastoral as a simple form, akin to the ballad or song—hence the use of anapaests arranged in stanzas. The anapaestic couplets i n this poem are arranged i n eight-line stanzas, the arrangement preferred by Byrom in the overwhelming ma-jo r i t y of his subsequent anapaestic poems. Several other eighteenth-cen-tury poets likewise wrote pastoral poems in anapaestic tetrameter couplets. John Dyer's "The Inquiry," for example, i s a lament for the absent "Clio." Edward Moore's "Song the Second" i s an eclogue, i n which Collin and Phebe are the speakers. When quoting John Cunningham's "Damon and P h i l l i s : A Pastoral Dialogue," Edith J. Morley remarks on the "unconventional note" struck by the anapaestic tetrameter measure in this kind of poem.4*"* Cun-ningham was less unconventional than Professor Morley apparently realized. John Byrom wrote over two dozen poems in anapaestic tetrameter cou-plets, and in terms of total numbers of lines he would appear to have written more anapaestic couplets than any other poet between Prior and Goldsmith. Compared to Prior and Swift, Byrom had l i t t l e influence on the subsequent development of this metrical form. Many of his poems in anapaests are entertaining, some are tedious, but few were published prior to the posthumous edition of his poems in 1773* Many of Byrom's poems were written for his own diversion and for the entertainment and informa-tion of his friends: "His hours of leisure were often employed in rhym-ing on any subject which suited his fancy. The f a c i l i t y with which he communicated his ideas in verse, prompted him to choose topics for his Muse which have been seldom attempted by other poets." 4! Byrom wrote a number of anapaestic verse epistles which have very unusual subjects, i n -79 deed. In "On the Patron of England, in a Letter to Lord Willoughby, Pres-ident of the Antiquarian Society," Byrom asks in "plain simple rhymes" (I, 68) whether "hasty transcribers" (I, 66) may not have mistaken Georgius for Gregorius, that i s whether England's patron saint should not be St. Gregory instead of St. George. Four anapaestic epistles are devoted to esoteric theological argument on the nature of the Miracle on the Feast of Pentecost, and the subtitle of another states that i t was "Occasioned by a Dispute Concerning the Food of St. John the Baptist" (I, 191), whether the "locusts" he ate were insects or herbs. Four other epistles—i-three on a textual crux in the I l i a d and one arguing that Horace advised writers to keep their pieces one year rather than nine—show the impressive clas-s i c a l knowledge, combined perhaps with too great a propensity to emend texts, that Byrom attained at Trin i t y College, Cambridge, where the master was Dr. Richard Bentley. Leslie Stephen comments on Byrom's attitude toward such pieces: They were an amusement—a quaint whim characteristic of an oddly constituted brain; and one fancies that when he forces even Hebrew and Greek into the fetters of his •cantering rhymes,' and twists dry grammatical discussion into comic metres, he feels that the process takes the bitterness out of controversy and enables him to treat thorny subjects i n a vein of pleasantry. Classical learning would also seem to be responsible for the s t r i c t form of most of Byrom's poems in anapaests. In the f i n a l stanza of an epistle to Ralph Leycester, thanking him for the present of a hare, Byrom writes: "How age would run on, i f the Muse did not fix/The Rhythmus of dactyls to ninety and six" (I, 140). (It seems to have been quite common among eighteenth-century writers to c a l l anapaests "dactyls."^) Most of Byrom's poems in anapaestic couplets consist of twelve eight-line stanzas, or exactly ninety-six lines. Hone of the poems in anapaestic couplets i n Byrom's Miscellaneous Poems exceeds this length. This rule which Byrom 80 seems to have followed is an intriguing fact about his use of anapaests, but i t is not a rule that other poets in the tradition felt obliged to obey* The poems in which Byrom displays his wit rather than his learning might be expected to find a more ready audience. "A Description of Tun-bridge, in a Letter to P. M., Esq." contains many clever things as well as being an interesting anticipation of the more famous epistolary des-criptions of a more famous eighteenth-century resort town in the New Bath  Guide. The only poem; of Byrom's to find a place in Dodsley*s Collection  of Poems by Several Hands is the "Extempore Verses on a Trial of Sk i l l Between Messrs. Figg and Sutton," which appeared in the definitive six-volume edition of 1758.44 The poem is a mock-heroic description of prize-fighting, a practice which was beginning to flourish at the time and one which Anstey likewise satirized in The Patriot: A Pindaric Epistle, Ad-dressed to Lord Buckhorse (1767), though only the Appendix to Anstey's poem is in anapaests. In his mock-heroic Byrom skilfully mingles various registers of diction and reference to obtain humour: Such a force in their blows, you'd have thought i t a wonder Ev'ry stroke they receiv'd did not cleave them asunder; Yet so great was their courage, so equal their s k i l l , That they both seem'd as safe as a thief in a mill: While in doubtful attention dame Victory stood, And which side to take could not t e l l for her blood, But remain'd without moving an inch either way, Like the ass in the tale 'twixt two bottles of hay: T i l l Jove to the Gods signified his intention, In a speech that he made them, too tedious to mention; The upshot of i t was, that, at that very bout, From a wound in Figgis side the hot blood spouted out. (I, 29) Especially amusing in these lines are the similes, while the classical gods are treated with pleasant disrespect. Byrom's epistle "To Henry Wright, of Mobberly, Esq: On Buying the Picture of F. Malebranche, at 81 a Sale" deserves mention for i t s clever rhymes and dialogue. Byrom also composed a number of religious poems in anapaestic couplets, of which perhaps the best i s "A Hymn on the Divine Omnipresence; Being a Paraphrase on Psalm CXXXIX. Verse 1-12." While he used the anapaestic tetrameter couplet for a great amount and range of verse, Byrom's strengths i n this metrical form remain those of i t s greater practitioners: the idiomatic phrases and low diction, the use of dialogue, and the presentation of naive,or innocent" speakers. A poet whose output i s much smaller but who i s much better represented in Dodsley's Collection i s Matthew Green. His poem "The Seeker," in ana-paestic tetrameter couplets, appeared in the f i r s t edition of Dodsley 1s Collection in 1748, eleven years after the poet's death. "The Seeker," like so many poems in this metrical form, consists of character-sketches, and once again depiction of character i s accomplished partly through dia-logue: Said a letch'rous old fry'r skulking near Lincoln's-Inn, (Whose trade's to absolve, but whose pastime's to sin; Who, spider-like, seizes weak protestant f l i e s , Which:hung in:',-hissophistry cobweb he spies;) Ah pity your soul, for without our church pale, If you happen to die, to be daran'd you can't f a i l ; The bible, you boast, i s a wild revelation: Hear a church that can't err i f you hope for salvation. (A Collection of Poems by Several Hands, I, 1521 Three parallel character-sketches follow, of a nonconformist, an estab-lished church parson, and a Quaker (Green, himself, was raised a Quaker, but he seem to have become disgusted with the sect and skeptical i n r e l i -gious matters^). The structure of this poem i s somewhat similar to that of Retaliation. The f i r s t verse paragraph offers a brief self-portrait and some justification, or at least a pretext, for the characters-sketches which follow. Green's satire, however, does not appear to be directed 8 2 against individuals, and he attacks vices, at least with the f r i a r , whereas Goldsmith depicts f o l l i e s and peculiarities. Twenty-two years before David Garrick's f o l l i e s were made the subject of Goldsmith's anapaests, Garrick and his wife were praised i n the anapaes-t i c couplets of Edward Moore. A poet, dramatist, and periodical essayist, Moore died i n 1757, about the time Goldsmith was beginning his writing career. Goldsmith regarded Moore as a writer of a b i l i t y who had suffered society's neglect (I, 315, 504)• In the headnote to the fable of Moore's that he selected for inclusion i n The Beauties of English Poesy, Goldsmith writes: Mr. More was a poet that never had justice done him while l i v i n g ; there are few of the moderns have a more correct taste, or a more pleasing manner of expressing their thoughts. It was upon these fables that he chiefly founded his reputation; yet they are, by no means, his best production. (V, 326) "Envy and Fortune, A Tale: To Mrs. Garrick" has a number of similarities to other poems in the anapaestic tradition. Fully one-third of the poem i s i n dialogue, and Moore's praise of Garrick i s indirect i n much the same ways as Swift's praise of his friends i s . As the t i t l e indicates, the poem i s a tale, but i t does not have the form of a ballad, as do most earlier narratives i n this metrical form. Nor has i t much similarity to the mock-heroic of John Byrom. The poem was written three years after Garrick's marriage to Eva-Maria Veigel (Miss Violetta), i n order to counter 46 c r i t i c a l h o s t i l i t y to Garrick and remarks upon his marriage. The poem opens with a dialogue i n which Envy induces Fortune to find Garrick a wife. Knowing the nature of most women, Envy assumes that marriage w i l l destroy Garrick's career. Much of the poem i s a conventional attack on women: 8 3 Away hurry'd FORTUNE, perplex'd and half mad, But her promise was pass'd, and a wife must be had: She travers'd the town from one corner to t'other, Now knocking at one door, and then at another. The girls curtsy'd low as she look'd in their faces, And bridled and primm'd with abundance of graces; But this was coquettish, and that was a prude, One stupid and dull, t'other noisy and rude; A third was affected, quite careless a fourth, With prate without meaning, and pride without worth; A f i f t h , and a sixth, and a seventh were such As either knew nothing, or something too much— In short as they pass'd, she to a l l had objections, The gay wanted thought, the good-humour*d affections, The prudent were ugly, the sensible dirty, And a l l of them f l i r t s , from fifteen up to thirty. (pp. 32-33)4? But Fortune at last finds Violetta, and Envy is thwarted, recognizing that Garrick "must rise on the stage, from contentment at home" (p. 35)• Moore's occasional poetry shows considerable talent in using the various techniques of indirect praise. In "Envy and Fortune," the tale form pro-vides the distancing effect. To the Right Honourable Henry Pelham: The  Humble Petition of the VJorshipful Company of Poets and News-Writers is an exercise in praise through ironic blame. The poem, printed on three separate occasions in 1751 and later included in Dbdsley's Collection (1755), is an anapaestic tetrameter complaint that Pelham's personal in-tegrity and faultless management of public business have resulted in a dearth of material for those who live either by satire or by flattering the great in their vices. Moore's other pieces in anapaestic tetrameter couplets are a l l songs. In fact, John Homer Caskey is of the opinion that, of a l l his song-measures, Moore uses the swinging anapaests best. 4 8 I have already mentioned Moore's "Song the Second" in connection with Byrom and anapaestic pastoral poems. Moore's "Song the First" appears to use certain of the same conventions as Peterborough's "Chloe." Peterborough's poem begins "I said to my Heart, between sleeping and waking" (Crane, p. 647), and Moore's opens similarly: 84 "THUS I said to my heart, in a pet t'other day" (p. 177)• One of the more attractive of the songs i s "Song the Eighth," which Caskey believes was 49 written with Moore's wife i n mind. As i s typical of anapaestic songs, i t i s written in four-line stanzas of which the f i n a l line i s a r e f r a i n — in this case, a simple, but memorable one: I. THAT Jenny's my friend, my delight, and my pride, I always have boasted, and seek not to hide; I dwell on her praises wherever I go, They say I'm i n love, but I answer no, no. II. At ev'ning oft-times with what pleasure I see A note from her hand, " I ' l l be with you at teat" My heart how i t bounds, when I hear her belowl But say not ' t i s love, for I answer no, no. III. She sings me a song, and I echo each strain, Again I cry, JennyI sweet Jenny, againI I kiss her soft l i p s , as i f there I could grow, And fear I'm i n love, though I answer no, no. (pp. 192-93) Perhaps i t i s more: than coincidence that Goldsmith's Retaliation, though the subject i s very different, should have a verbal resemblance to the refrain of a popular song: "Perhaps you may ask i f that man was a miser?/ I answer, no, no, for he always was wiser" ( 11 . 1 2 9 - 3 0 ) . A I have i n d i -cated, i t i s i n popular songs such as Moore's that there i s the most per-sistent tradition of anapaestic tetrameter poems i n the eighteenth century. In most accounts William Shenstone i s one of the few poets credited with having composed poems in anapaests, other than songs and ballads, in the period, between Swift and Anstey: When Christopher Anstey published his New Bath Guide in 1766, 85 anapests had been generally neglected by cultivated poets. Prior's graceful octosyllabics were universally praised and widely imitated; however, in the middle of the eighteenth cen-tury, his equally competent anapests knew but desultory and meager followers in Byrom and Shenstone. 50 I believe that I have already cited sufficient evidence to suggest that this view needs qualification. Further evidence might be supplied by a l i s t of some of the very cultivated men and women, i f not cultivated poets, who wrote anapaestic poems included i n Dodsley's Collection: the Earl of Chesterfield, Lord Lyttleton, Lord Hervey, Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, Goldsmith's friend Robert Nugent (later Lord Clare), Richard Owen Cambridge, and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. For my purposes, Shenstone's conventional love songs hold l i t t l e interest. His ballad which begins "From Lincoln 51 to London rode forth our young squire" (p. 167) i s more interesting, for i t contains some satire on women and the pleasures of the town. "The Progress of Advice: A Common Case," one of Shenstone's "Levities," though i t s stanzaic form suggests the ballad, has a great deal i n common with the epigram: the subject is low and the concluding couplet provides a turn in thought. Richard has asked Thomas for advice on his proposed marriage to the servant Mrs. Lucy, and Thomas replies: "To speak my opinion, There i s not such a bitch in King George's dominion; And I firmly believe, i f thou knew'st her as I do, Thou wouldst choose out a whipping-post f i r s t to be tied to. "She's peevish, she's thievish, she's ugly, she's old, And a l i a r , and a fool, and a slut, and a scold." Next day Richard hasten'd to church and was wed, And ere night had inform'd her what Thomas had said. (pp. 78-79) The character of Mrs. Lucy i s established simply, through Thomas's cata-logue of her faults, a technique that tends to break up the anapaestic l i n e . Again, dialogue i s one of the most important facets of the poem. 8 6 Another of Shenstone's "Levities" i n anapaests has a subject that was congenial to Goldsmith also: the portrayal of an indigent poet. Shen-stone's "The Poet and the Dun" (1741) i s the description of twenty-four hours in a poet's l i f e . In the morning a mercer c a l l s , who has been as patient as Job for over a year. The poet, unable to pay, gives his last s h i l l i n g and reflects: Well, now thou art gone, l e t me govern my passion, And calmly consider—consider? vexationt What whore that must paint, and must put on false locks, And counterfeit joy i n the pangs of the pox? What beggar's wife's nephew, now starved, and now beaten, Who, wanting to eat, fears himself shall be eaten? What porter, what turnspit, can deem his case hard? Or what Dun boast of patience that thinks of a Bard? Well, I ' l l leave this poor trade, for no trade can be poorer, Turn shoe-boy, or courtier, or pimp, or procurer; Get love, and respect, and good l i v i n g , and pelf, And dun some poor dog of a poet myself. (p. 8 6 ) But another messenger arrives at the poet's door, the footman of a great man, bearing a letter i n praise of the poet's last verse epistle. The poet i s inspired to scribble u n t i l morning, when, to complete the frame, the mercer returns and offers his sentiments about l i f e : "'Ah, Friendl ' t i s but idle to make such a pother;/Fate, Fate has ordain'd us to plague one another'" (p. 8 6 ) . Shenstone appears to engage i n an amused presenta-tion of himself as a poet, though there may be l i t t l e foundation for John-son' s remark that Shenstone's imprudent expenditures resulted i n his groves' 52 being "haunted by beings very different from fauns and f a i r i e s . " Shen-stone nicely places the occupation of poet into perspective, by means of an incongruous catalogue of trades that are more highly rewarded by soci-ety. Shenstone's poems i n anapaestic tetrameter couplets consist of love songs and " l e v i t i e s . " Significant use i s made of dialogue, and some sat-ire can be found. His poems i n this metrical form seem quite typical of 87 those composed in the years between Prior and Goldsmith* Many poets from Prior to Goldsmith appear to have found the anapaes-t i c tetrameter couplet a very easy metrical form i n which to work—hence the profusion of epigrams, familiar verse epistles, and occasional or impromptu poems of various kinds. Hence, too, the abundance of anapaes-t i c poems by noble authors or gentleman of independent means, who wrote for their own diversion instead of for their daily bread, as did an Ed-ward Moore or Oliver Goldsmith. (And even Goldsmith's anapaests were writ-ten for pleasure rather than profit.) One gentleman who produced a large number of anapaestic poems in his leisure i s Richard Owen Cambridge, the author of The Scribleriad and a frequent contributor to the World, a pe-rio d i c a l edited by Moore for Robert Dodsley. One of Cambridge's earliest poems i n anapaests i s a poem addressed "To William Whitehead, Esq.," which i s a humorous review of a l l the unpleasantness associated with a l i f e of following the Muses. Better than this self-portrait and mock farewell to poetry are two poems f i r s t published i n 1754 and 1756 respectively and reprinted i n Dodsley's Collection (1758): The Fable of Jotham: To  the Borough-Hunters and The Fakeer: A Tale. Characterizing these two poems, as so many anapaestic poems of the eighteenth century, i s dialogue. In The Fable of Jotham two prospective candidates for a borough i n Corn-wall ride together from London to Exeter, by which time they have exhausted a l l current topics of conversation and are thrown upon other sources of amusement: "Some books, prithee landlord, to pass a d u l l hour; s No nonsense of parsons, or methodists sour, No poetical s t u f f — a damn'd jingle of rhymes, But some pamphlet that's new and a touch on the times." "Oh Lordl" says mine host, "you may hunt the town round, I question i f any such thing can be found: I never was ask'd for a book by a guest; And I'm sure I have a l l the great folk i n the West. 88 None of these to my knowledge e'er call'd for a bookj But see, sir, the woman with fish, and the cook; Here's the fattest of carp, shall we dress you a brace? Would you chuse any soals, or a mullet, or plaice? "A place," quoth the knight, "we must have to be sure, But f i r s t let us see that our borough' secure. (XVIII, 288)53 This is not very different from Anstey's light anapaestic satire and, once allowance has been made for its briefer compass, not much inferior to the New Bath Guide. Although the satire lacks the indignation of a Swift, i t has the same multi-directional nature. In this passage, Cambridge's satire touches upon the ephemeral literary productions of the day, the cor-rupt literary taste of the borough-hunters, the absence of culture in the provinces and of literacy in "the great folk in the West," and the single-minded place-seeking attitude of the knight that is revealed through Cam-bridge' s pun. Austin Dobson finds the host's speech in The Fable of Jotham 5k reminiscent of Prior's Down-Hall. * The resemblance is there, but so also are the differences. The stanzaic form has been abandoned by Cambridge, and the breadth of understanding—expressed through the mingled laughter and regrets of Down-Hall—has not been attained. Cambridge's Fakeer con-sists mainly of an amusing dialogue between a famous Fakeer and a wealthy Indian. The Fakeer has gained his fame "By the merit of running long nails in his breech" (XVIII, 289). The greater part of the satire is left until the application of the tale: Our Fakeer represents a l l the vot'ries of fame: Their ideas, their means, and their end is the same; The sportsman, the buck; a l l the heroes of vice, With their gallantry, lewdness, the bottle and dice; The poets, the critics, the metaphysicians, The courtier, the patriot, a l l politicians; The statesman begirt with th' importunate ring, (I had almost completed my l i s t with the king) A l l labour alike to illustrate my tale; A l l tortured by choice with th* invisible nail. (XVIII, 289) 89 There are not, I think, many better lines i n anapaestic satires of the eighteenth century than the f i n a l line of Cambridge's poem: " A l l tortured by choice with th' invisible n a i l . " The satire in this poem i s harsher and more indiscriminate than i n either the New Bath Guide or Retaliation* Cambridge wrote many other anapaestic tetrameter poems both before and after Goldsmith's death. These include imitations of an ode by Hor-ace and an epistle by Boileau, dialogues of various kinds, comments on the French Revolution, and several epigrams. Several verse epistles writ-ten to Mary and Agnes Berry i n 1789-1790 deserve brief mention even though they f a l l outside the limits of the period I have prescribed. The poems offer a curious resemblance to the rhyming games that Swift played with Sheridan and other friends. One poem, not printed u n t i l 1942, consists of nine lines rhyming with "Swift" (the poet); another, of fourteen lines, a l l rhyming with " d i r t . " ^ ^ Interestingly, the Berry sisters had also thought to compare Cambridge to Swift, as i t appears from the following lines by Cambridge: To my Vanity why would you give such a l i f t As to liken my nonsense to humour of Swift? But when humour & nonsense can scarce be distinguisht, 'Twere time that such ideots were f a i r l y extinguisht. For i f thus, l i k e poor Swift, I continue to write, Like him I shall l i v e to be shewn for a sight.5° The presence of Prior and Swift can be sensed behind many of the anapaests of Richard Owen Cambridge. He i s a significant figure i n the unbroken tradition of anapaestic satire from Prior to Goldsmith. The poet represented by the greatest number of anapaestic tetrameter 5' poems in Dodsley's Collection,is William Taylor (1673-1750) of South Weald. Of the ten poems of his included, seven are i n anapaestic tetrameter cou-plets. Taylor's anapaestic poems, a l l epigrammatic, have two predominant subjects—drink and women. A l l are imitations of "low" characters, and 90 most contain dialogue. "The Brewer's Coachman" i s typical: Honest William, an easy and good-natured fellow, Would a l i t t l e too oft get a l i t t l e too mellow. Body coachman was he to an eminent brewer— No better e'er sate i n a box, to be sure. His coach was kept clean, and no mothers or nurses Took that care of their babes that he took of his horses. He had these—ay and f i f t y good qualities more, But the business of t i p l i n g could ne'er be got o'er: So his master effectually mended the matter, By hiring a man, who drank nothing but water. Now, William, says he, you see the plain case; Had you drunk as he does, you'd kept a good place. Drink waterI quoth William —had a l l men done so, You'd never have wanted a coachman, I trow. They're soakers, like me, whom you load with reproaches, That enable you brewers to ride i n your coaches. (V, 290-91) Although the entire f i r s t half of the poem i s devoted to the character of William, Taylor's focus i s not so much on character as on the humorous ending to the incident provided by William's clever reply to the brewer. Such a focus i s not unusual in humorous epigrams that deal with character types intead of portraits of l i v i n g originals. I have already mentioned two poems by John Cunningham: his acrostic on Miss Sutton and his "Damon and P h i l l i s : A Pastoral Dialogue." Cunning-ham, a pastoral poet and actor, i s almost an exact contemporary of Gold-smith, having been born in 1729, and lik e Goldsmith, in Ireland, and pre-deceasing Goldsmith by one year i n 1773* Like most of the other poets who have been discussed thus far, Cunningham wrote a number<of ballads, songs, and catches i n anapaestic tetrameter couplets. The most frequently anthologized of these i s "The M i l l e r : A Ballad." The poem i s a character-sketch, developed through contrasts between the simple l i f e of an honest miller and the lives of the great, encumbered by cares: Ere the larks early carrols salute the new day He springs from his cottage as jocund as May; He chearfully whistles, regardless of care, Or sings the last ballad he bought at the f a i r : 91 V * While courtiers are t o i l * d i n the cobwebs of state, Or bribing elections i n hopes to be great, No fraud, or ambition his bosom does f i l l , Contented he works, i f there's grist for his m i l l . (pp. 48-49) Quite apart from i t s i l l u s t r a t i v e value as an anapaestic character-sketch, "The Miller" i s a s k i l f u l composition i n i t s own right. In addition to the contrastive structure of the poem i s a chronological pattern, a pro-gress from "the larks early carrols" to the Miller's return from the ale-house when he L'reels to his pillow, and dreams of no i l l " (p. 49)• The lines which I have quoted progress from "the larks early carrols" to the Miller's equally untroubled whistling or singing of ballads, the refer-ence to ballads supplying an interesting self-reflexive use of the genre. Cunningham shows himself to be a poet very much of his time i n his depic-tion of courtiers as f l i e s " t o i l ' d i n the cobwebs of state." Paul Fussell observes that "in general . . . the writers of the eighteenth century w i l l appear to exhibit humanistic habits of response to the degree that they explore the po s s i b i l i t i e s of moral contempt which reside in the images 53 of insects."-^ "The Miller" i s not a s a t i r i c portrait, but a r e a l i s t i c and balanced sketch of a common man, one who may be suitably portrayed in an anapaestic tetrameter ballad. A much less significant piece, but nevertheless an interesting one for i t s place in the tradition of anapaes-t i c tetrameter poems from Prior to Retaliation, i s Cunningham's sa t i r i c sketch of a card-playing soldier, simply entitled "A Character." If Cunningham i s worthy of mention for his work i n genres such as the pastoral, the ballad, and the brief character-sketch, in which the anapaestic tetrameter couplet was used by a large number of poets, he i s also interesting for the purpose of i l l u s t r a t i n g the extension of this metrical form into other genres. The verse fable in the eighteenth century i s composed predominantly i n octosyllabics. The best-known English fabu-92 l i s t s of the eighteenth century—Bernard Mandeville, John Gay, and Edward Moore—all composed their fables in octosyllabics. John Byrom, however, wrote a single fable—"The Ape and the Fox, On the Fruits of Greediness and Credulity"—in anapaestic tetrameter couplets. With John Cunningham three of his four fables are in anapaestic tetrameter, and the fourth is written in alternating anapaestic tetrameter and trimeter lines. Cunning-ham's achievement as a fabulist is not commensurate with Gay's or Moore's, i f for no other reason than lack of quantity. The moral to Cunningham's "The Ant and Caterpillar" recalls Gay—not Gay's Fables, but the final anapaestic song in The Beggar's Opera: A wretch tho' to-day he's o'erloaded with sorrow, May soar above those that oppress*d him—to-morrow. ("The Ant and Caterpillar," p. 28)59 But think of this Maxim, and put off your Sorrow,  The Wretch of To-day, may be happy To-morrow. (The Beggar's Opera, Air L X L X ) 6 0 Although both poets use the same maxim, Gay's song is touched by irony while Cunningham's moral is not. The influence of the anapaestic songs i n so popular a work as The Beggar's Opera should not be ignored. The other kinds of poems which Cunningham appears to have been one of the few to have attempted in anapaests are prologues and epilogues. The met-rical form used for the majority of prologues and epilogues in the eight-eenth century is the heroic couplet, albeit a form of the heroic couplet in which the lowering of tone achieved through such devices as feminine rhyme and colloquial diction is permitted. Most of Cunningham's prologues and epilogues, and he attracted some notice for his compositions in these genres,^" are likewise in heroic couplets, but he wrote one of each in anapaests. The more interesting of the two is "An Epilogue, Spoke by a Child of Nine Year Old": 9 3 As the wise ones, within, have assur'd me i t ' s common, For chits of my age to be aping the woman, To prove that I've talents as well as another, Good f o l k s — I ran forward—in spight of my mother; Don't t e l l me, says I—they shall know how the case i s , I'm not to be check'd i n my airs and my graces; I was born a coquet—and by goles I'm not idle, I can ogle already—look peevish and bridle, And I ' l l practise new gestures each night and each morning, 'Gainst I reach to my teens,—so I give ye f a i r warning. Tho' I move ye, at present, with nothing but laughter, Look well to your hearts, b e a u x l — I ' l l swinge ye hereafter; Have patience, then, pray, and by practice grown bolder, I ' l l promise to please, i f I l i v e to grow older. (pp. 175-76) Perhaps Cunningham thought the anapaestic couplet well suited to the young, though far from innocent, speaker. Or perhaps he wished to use the metre of love songs to emphasize the discrepancy between the ideal and the hor-rifying, i f somewhat funny, r e a l i t y on the stage. Cunningham's achieve-ment in anapaests i s significant primarily for i t s range and variety, but occasionally also for i t s depth. Most of the poets whom I have considered in tracing this tradition wrote a considerable number of poems in anapaests. For Charles Churchill, however, only four anapaestic couplets have been preserved. These lines, i n a poem called "The Conclave," appear to have been written before Church-i l l ' s major satires, and they were not printed u n t i l 1844* Raymond J . Smith comments as follows: The English verse s a t i r i s t of Churchill's day had two major distinct and f a i r l y well-established mediums i n which to work: the octosyllabic (iambic tetrameter) couplet and the heroic (iambic pentameter) couplet. Preferring the heroic couplet, which he molded into something distinctly his own, Churchill was proficient i n both forms. Early i n his career he had tried and then immediately discarded a third type of couplet—one composed of an anapestic rather than an iambic meter. He used this rather unusual meter i n an unpublished satire against the dean, Zachary Pearce, and chapter of Westminster, "The Conclave." . . . An effect of the anapest i s a metrical lightness, one more suitable to burlesque than to the Juvenalian tone that was to become associated with C h u r c h i l l . 0 2 94 Smith i s quite right to contrast the light tone of the anapaestic line with the tone of Juvenalian satire. However, as I have tried to show, the anapaestic metre was not exactly "unusual," as Smith claims. The metrical form i s a common one for ballads and songs, both romantic and s a t i r i c . There are likewise a significant number of epigrams, epitaphs, character-sketches, and verse epistles composed in anapaests, many of which have s a t i r i c intent. In mid-eighteenth-century England there were sufficient models of anapaestic verse to which the prospective s a t i r i s t might turn. Neither Cambridge in his s a t i r i c anapaests, nor Gray i n The Candidate, nor Churchill i n "The Conclave," nor Anstey in the New Bath Guide was a metrical innovator. Rather there appears to be an unbroken tradition of light satire in anapaests from Prior to Goldsmith and beyond. Whereas many poems i n the anapaestic tetrameter traditions examined here, including Goldsmith's, were posthumous publications of authors who have other claims to fame, the New Bath Guide was extremely popular i n Anstey*s lifetime and represents his only claim to a place in English l i t -erature today. Anstey can be credited with having popularized this metri-cal form to a greater extent than can any other mid-eighteenth-century author. John Anstey gives this account of his father's best poem: The epistolary form in which the story i s conceived, and the very frame of the the metre i n which i t i s written, (although not the invention of the Author,) i s new i n i t s application to the subject of a continued poem. . . . The rich vein of genu-ine humour and pleasantry by which every scene and incident i s enlivened, i n a connected system of disguised and temperate sat-i r e , entitles i t to be regarded as one of the most original poems which has appeared i n the last century."3 There i s nothing new i n the anapaestic familiar epistle, nor, I think, in Anstey's brand of light satire, with i t s s a t i r i c devices of parody, blame by praise, the naive speaker, the character-sketch, and the targets who are made to satirize themselves through dialogue. Nevertheless, An-9 5 stey did create something original by combining the tradition of anapaes-t i c light satire with that of epistolary f i c t i o n a l narratives. John An-stey' s assessment of what i s new in his father's poem seems just, though few modern c r i t i c s would honour the New Bath Guide with such superlatives as "one of the most original poems" of the eighteenth century. Perhaps, however, some of these same c r i t i c s are unnecessarily harsh: "The pseudo-Juvenalian s,tyle of Gifford and Churchill and the more hypothetical satire-as-melodrama of tWilliamJ Combe comprise only one end of a spectrum. At the opposite end, amiable and pseudo-Horatian, i s Anstey's New Bath Guide 64 (1766) with i t s innocuous t i t t l e - t a t t l e . . . ." Words li k e "innocuous t i t t l e - t a t t l e " deny Anstey's entertaining poem any value whatsoever. And granted that late eighteenth-century s a t i r i s t s may not have captured the true s p i r i t of Horace and Juvenal, the prefix "pseudo" i s too derogatory. S t i l l , i t i s useful, I think, to consider most anapaestic s a t i r e — i n c l u d -ing two very different poems, the New Bath Guide and Retaliation—as Hora-tian. While there i s a great deal i n Anstey* s poem of interest to students of eighteenth-century satire, I shall confine myself to a brief discussion of Anstey's use of the character-sketch. The poem's f i r s t epistle intro-duces the members of the Blunderhead party. The letter, by Simkin's cousin Jenny, sketches Simkin's character at some length. The letter i s written mainly i n octosyllabics; the genteel Jenny never adopts the anapaestic couplets of Sirakin. In "Letter II" the men who provide the romantic i n -terest for Jenny and for Simkin's sister, Prudence, are introduced: Now i t happens i n this very house i s a lodger, Whose name's NICODEMUS, but some c a l l him ROGER, And ROGER'S so kind as my sister to bump On a p i l l i o n , as soon as she comes from the pump; He's a pious good man, and an excellent scholar, And I think i t i s certain no harm can b e f a l l her; For ROGER i s constantly saying his prayers, Or singing some spiritual hymn on the stairs. 96 But my cousin MISS JENNY'S as fresh as a rose, And the Captain attends her wherever she goes: The Captain's a worthy good sort of a man, For he cal l s i n upon us whenever he can, And often a dinner or supper he takes here, And JENNY and he talk of MILTON and SHAKSPEARE: For the l i f e of me now I can't think of his name, But we a l l got acquainted as soon as we came. (pp. 1 1 - 1 2 ) These two character-sketches i l l u s t r a t e the blame-through-ironic-praise technique of much of the poem. Given the real name of the Methodist preacher, the reader construes the details of Roger's behaviour quite differently from the way Sirakin has. Roger's constant praying and singing i n public places are for the reader clear indications of hypocrisy. What Simkin regards as Roger's gallantry toward Prudence i s shown to be quite another thing when in I'Letter XIV" Prudence describes her election to Methodism by a "vision" of Roger i n her sleep. The character-sketch of Captain Cormorant oper-ates similarly. While Simkin praises the Captain for eating with them frequently, the reader recognizes other motives than disinterested friend-ship. These character-sketches d i f f e r i n important ways from the portraits in such a poem as Retaliation. F i r s t , they are apparently not sketches of actual persons, as i s a true l i t e r a r y portrait. Secondly,, they share an important characteristic of most set descriptions i n f i c t i o n a l narra-tives. They provide an introduction to characters in such a way that the reader i s given an insight into their subsequent actions. Alan S. Fisher distinguishes between the l i t e r a r y portrait and the set description of character: "A portrait i s i t s e l f an exumplum, an argument i n miniature. The author makes his argument neatly within i t . Set descriptions i n f i c -tion do not properly exemplify the author's argument; they introduce i t . " ^ Some character-sketches i n the poem approach much more closely to the l i t e r a r y portrait, as defined by Fisher, and not only because they are sketches of characters who do not reappear later i n the poem. What 97 i s different about, for example, the sketches of Peter Tewksbury and Jack Dilettante i n "Letter X" i s that Anstey supplies a context i n which the reader must view the character-sketches. The introductory verse paragraph of the letter supplies the thesis: "persons of taste and true s p i r i t , I find,/Are fond of attracting the eyes of mankind" (p. 62). In fact, this couplet states one of the more important themes of the entire poem. A number of character-sketches follow, which are exempla supporting Anstey 1s thesis: What sends PETER TEWKSBURY every night To the play with such i n f i n i t e joy and delight? Why, PETER'S a c r i t i c , with true Attic salt, Can damn the performers, can hiss, and find fault, And t e l l when we ought to express approbation, By thumping, and clapping, and vociferation; So he gains our attention, and a l l must admire Young TEWKSBURY'S judgment, his s p i r i t and f i r e , But JACK DILETTANTE despises the play'rs, To concerts and musical parties repairs, With benefit tickets his pockets he f i l l s , Like a mountebank doctor distributes his b i l l s ; And thus his importance and interest shews, By conferring his favours wherever he goes; He has taste, without doubt, and a delicate ear, No v i l e oratorios ever could bear; But talks of the op'ras and his Signiora, Cries bravo, benissimo, bravo, encorat And oft i s so kind as to thrust i n a note While old Lady Cuckow i s straining her throat. . • . (pp. 63-64) The argument i s made throughout: Peter Tewksbury and Jack Dilettante are the stuff which Bath society i s made of. Pretension, attention-seeking, and self-importance masquerade as " s p i r i t " and "taste." The comparison of Jack to a mountebank emphasizes the fact that Jack's "taste" i s with-out a basis i n knowledge. "S p i r i t , " likewise debased, i s that quality of inner emptiness possessed by a man who defines himself entirely through the estimation of other people. Anstey has frequent recourse to the char-acter-sketch i n describing Bath society. His character-sketches are of 98 several varieties: introductions to the major actors in the narrative; exempla in the poem's argument; and commemorative portraits of real per-sons, such as Beau Nash ("Letter XI"). In these different types of char-acter-sketches and i n the poem's various subjects, the anapaestic tetram-eter couplet strikes varied notes, from the vulgar and colloquial to paro-dies of the sublime. Given the great popularity of Anstey's poem, there has been some ques-tion about whether or not Goldsmith was influenced by the New Bath Guide i n his choice of metre for The Haunch of Venison, the "(Letter to Mrs. BunburyJ," and Retaliation. Austin Dobson believes that verbal resemblances between Goldsmith's anapaests and The Grand Question Debated "show plainly that Goldsmith remembered the works of Swift far better than The New Bath  Guide, which has sometimes been supposed to have set the tune to the Haunch and Retaliation"; G. S. Fraser states that Goldsmith gets the anapaestic tradition.-:of the eighteenth-century low style from Prior, Swift, and Gay; but Martin S. Day remarks that the Haunch of Venison "almost certainly derived from the Anstey tradition of anapestic epistles," and though Retalia- tion "displays no specific Anstey influence, the vogue of the New Bath  Guide probably caused Goldsmith to choose s a t i r i c anapests."^ As I have already indicated, the familiar epistle was composed by a number of writ-ers before Anstey; thus the mere fact that two of Goldsmith's three ana-paestic tetrameter poems are epistles does not establish Anstey's i n f l u -ence, as Day implies. In neither subject nor phrasing are there striking similarities between the New Bath Guide and Goldsmith's anapaests, but since no anapaestic couplets by Goldsmith have been preserved that were written prior to 1770, i t i s reasonable to assume that the popularity of the New Bath Guide was one of the factors that brought Goldsmith's attention to this metrical form. It might also be observed that several 9 9 of Swift 1s .anapaestic " T r i f l e s " were f i r s t printed at about the same time as the New Bath GMde. The Appendix to Anstey's Patriot; A Pindaric Epistle, Addressed to  Lord Buckhorse (1767), which to my knowledge has not previously been men-tioned in connection with Goldsmith's anapaests, bears comparison in a couple of passages to the Haunch of Venison, which was composed about three years later. The Appendix to the Patriot i s a dialogue between the author of the poem, his bookseller, and some wits of the town, in which the reason for the Patriot's lack of popularity with the wits i s said to be the poem's lack of personal, more specifically p o l i t i c a l , application. The f i r s t resemblance between the two poems i s slight and probably coincidental. Anstey writes, "Come—pray, Mr. TIGHTBOOT, Find out something, do—/And give us your thoughts on a work of v i r t u " (p. 172); and Goldsmith speaks of the haunch of venison as follows: "I had thoughts, i n my Chambers, to place i t i n view,/To be shewn to my Friends as a piece of Virtu" (11. 7-8). The second parallel between passages i n the two poems i s more sig-nificant, I believe, because there i s a likeness i n situation as well as a verbal resemblance. In Anstey's poem the bookseller attempts to purchase the rights to the author's copy, i n i t i a l l y making an offer of five pounds: I ' l l make i t six pieces; and, as I'm a sinner, Can give nothing more but a family dinner: If you're quite disengaged, you are welcome to stay, I've some very good company dine here to day; There's a pastoral poet from Leadenhall-street, And a liberty-writer just come from the Fleet; With a clever young fellow, that's making an index, Who, perhaps, may assist you to write an APPENDIX; And a taylor, up three pair of stairs i n the Mews, Who does the p o l i t i c a l jobs for the news, And works now and then for the c r i t i c reviews. (pp. 181-82) The author i n Anstey1 s poem refuses the kind offer of dinner with such "good company." In the Haunch of Venison "An Acquaintance, a Friend as 100 he call'd himself" ( l . 36) v i s i t s Goldsmith and insists that he have din-ner with him, promising such witty companions as Johnson and Burke. The acquaintance continues, "And now that I think on't, as I am a sinnerI/We wanted this Venison to make out the Dinner" (11. 51-52). When Goldsmith arrives for dinner the next day, his acquaintance informs him that John-son and Burke will not be there: But no matter, I ' l l warrant we'll make up the party, With two f u l l as clever, and ten times as hearty. The one i s a Scotchman, the other a Jew, They both of them merry, and authors lik e you; The one writes the Snarler, the other the Scourge; Some think he writes Cinna—he owns to Panurge. (11. 73-78) The company at the dinner i n Goldsmith's poem i s of much the same charac-ter as i n Anstey's—predominantly p o l i t i c a l hack-writers. The host i n each case uses the expression "as I am a sinner." Such parallels as these, of course, merely suggest, rather than firmly establish, Anstey's i n f l u -ence on Goldsmith's anapaests. However, i f Anstey did influence Goldsmith's choice of metre i n the Haunch of Venison, i t i s quite possible that the Appendix to the Patriot was better remembered by Goldsmith than was the New Bath Guide. The strength of Goldsmith's Haunch of Venison i s precisely the strength of the whole tradition of anapaestic light verse from the time of Prior: the depiction of character through dialogue. Goldsmith describes his ac-quaintance as "An under-bred, fine-spoken Fellow," and the manner of the dinner invitation bears this out: To-morrow you take a poor dinner with me; No Words—I insist on't—precisely at three: We'll have Johnson, and Burke, a l l the Wits w i l l be there, My acquaintance i s slight, or I'd ask my Lord Clare. And now that I think on't, as I am a sinnert We wanted this Venison to make out the Dinner. What say you—a p a s t y — i t shall, and i t must, And my Wife, l i t t l e Kitty, i s famous for crust. 101 Here, Porter—this venison with me to Mile-end; No s t i r r i n g — I beg—my dear friend—my dear friendl Thus snatching his hat, he brusht off l i k e the wind, And the porter and eatables follow 1d behind. (11. 47-58) One of the most masterful things about this dramatic narration of the theft of the venison i s the wonderfully indirect compliment to Lord Clare that Goldsmith manages to include. Again, such indirect praise i s char-acteristic of the light verse I have been examining, and Goldsmith could have learned the art from Swift or from Moore. Scarcely inferior to the dinner invitation i s the conversation around the dinner table, where the vulgar remarks of the Scotchman and Jew provide a poor substitute for the wit of Johnson and Burke. Another quality that Goldsmith shares with the author of The Grand Question Debated i s the imaginative capacity to create an entire narrative and several characters, even i f he borrows a few ideas from Boileau's Third Satire, around a relatively minor incident such.as the g i f t of a haunch of venison. Another thing that Goldsmith has in common with earlier writers of/ anapaests, particularly with Prior and Swift, i s the presentation of self in verse. In fact, the opportunity he saw for comic self-portrayal may have been one of the factors that drew him to this particular metrical form. The self-portrait which emerges from the Haunch of Venison and, to an even greater extent, from the "Letter to Mrs. Bunbury" helps to sup-ply the epitaph on himself that Goldsmith may have intended to write, had his death not prevented the completion of his f i n a l poem. The self -portrait that Goldsmith draws for the amusement of Lord Clare i s that of a vain and pretentious man. In the very effectiveness of this ironic self-presentation, however, a witty, amusing, and talented man i s revealed. Goldsmith characterizes himself partly through dialogue. In response to a question about whether the venison i s his own, Goldsmith sayspreten-102 tiously: Why whose should i t be? cried I, with a Flounce, I get these Things often;—but that was a Bounces Some Lords, my acquaintance, that settle the nation, Are pleas'd to be kind—but I hate ostentation. (11. 41-U) Here i s the pretentious man right down to his gesture of disdain. In the narrative of the poem, i t i s Goldsmith's vanity and pretension that bring about as punishment the loss of his venison and an intolerable dinner among coxcombs and hack-writers. Vanity i s also the character-trait that Goldsmith mocks in the description of his a r r i v a l for dinner: "So next Day i n due splendor to make my approach,/i drove to his door in my own Hackney-coach" (11. 65-66). The splendour i s nicely deflated by^the\ work "Hackney" at the end of the couplet. Goldsmith presents himself as a foolishly vain man i n his anapaestic poems, in the same way that he did i n conversation, where his irony was frequently misunderstood. Goldsmith concentrates on somewhat different character-traits i n his depreciatory self-portrait i n the "Letter to Mrs. Bunbury," written approximately three years after the Haunch of Venison, on or about Christ-mas Day, 1773* To amuse his friends at Barton, the Bunbury residence in Suffolk, Goldsmith presented himself as a pedantic and avaricious man. Perhaps, these character-traits are a humorous reflection on his lucra-tive labours at h i s t o r i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c compilations. He portrays him-self as a pedant primarily i n the prose portion of his letter, in which he offers tidbits of useless information and captiously critiques the verse invitation Mrs. Bunbury has sent to him. The verse portion of Gold-smith's letter i s once again an imaginative extension of a simple situa-tion. The verses begin with a game of Loo at Barton and end i n the court-room before S i r John Fielding, where the Horneck sisters face possible 103 death as pickpockets. Goldsmith, as he presents himself, i s an unlucky and unskilful card-player. He encourages the other players to take chances, but " A l l play i n their own way, and think me an ass" ( l . 15). Goldsmith's losses bring out his true character: "I venture at a l l , while my avarice regards/The whole pool as my own. Come give me five cards" (11. 23-24). By a pedantic interpretation of a statute, Goldsmith brings the Horneck sisters into the Old Bailey, inciting a buzz among the spectators: Pray what are their crimes? They v'e been pilfe r i n g found. But pray who have they pilfered? A Doctor I hear. What yon solemn ^facid odd-looking, man that stands near. The same. What a pitt y . How does i t (Surprize one Two handsomer culprits I never set eyes on. Then their friends a l l come round me with cringing and leering To melt me to pitty, and soften my swearing. F i r s t S ir Charles advances, with phrases well strung Consider Dear Doctor the g i r l s are but young. The younger the Worse I return him again. It shews that their habits are a l l dy'd i n grain. But then theyre so handsome, one's bosom i t grieves. What signifies handsome when people are thieves. But where i s your justice; their cases are hard. What signifies justice; I want the reward. (11. 48-62) Although no doubt he was sensitive about his appearance, Goldsmith even uses a physical description as part of his entertaining self-portrait, and as a contrast to the handsome young g i r l s . Again the compliments are ob-lique . That the "Letter to Mrs. Bunbury" was written i n response tb a verse invitation suggests an obvious reason why Goldsmith chose the anapaestic tetrameter couplet for this poem: Mrs. Bunbury's let t e r was i n the same metre. One of the anapaestic pieces i n Swift's " T r i f l e s " that was f i r s t printed about the time of the New Bath Guide i s entitled "An Invitation to Dinner, from Doctor Sheridan to Doctor Swift." Given the publication of such a piece in 1765, i t i s not necessarily Anstey's influence that induced Mrs. Bunbury to write her epistle to Goldsmith i n this metrical 104 form. With Retaliation, as well, Goldsmith i s responding to another per-son's v e r s e — i n this case, Garrick's anapaestic tetrameter epitaph. (The line that Cumberland remembers he wrote on Goldsmith i s in iambic pentam-67 eter. ) Garrick, himself, used the anapaestic metre frequently, mostly for songs, ballads, and epigrams. However, a few (seven out of one hun-dred and ten) of Garrick's numerous prologues, epilogues, and interludes are written i n anapaestic tetrameter. The epilogue to 'Tis Well It's No  Worse (acted November 1770) deserves mention since i t consists of twehty-^one lines a l l rhyming with "verse," and since every third line ends, refrain-68 l i k e , with the t i t l e of the play. This epilogue—squarely in the t r a d i -tion of the rhyming games played by Swift and Sheridan, and later i n the century by Cambridge—illustrates the continuity of the verse composed in this metrical form during the eighteenth century. Goldsmith's decision to write his Retaliation i n anapaests may have been influenced, as well, by his successful use of the form scarcely more than a month before in the "Letter to Mrs. Bunbury," especially when his intended audience was similar. I have commented l i t t l e on prosody i n my discussion of the poems written i n anapaestic tetrameter couplets. A few remarks on versification are i n order. The anapaestic tetrameter line, as used by Goldsmith—and he seems typical i n this regard—varies from ten to thirteen or fourteen syllables. The most common line i s eleven syllables, consisting of an iambic substitution i n the i n i t i a l foot followed by three anapaests. In the anapaestic l i n e , as in the heroic line, the i n i t i a l foot was the one with which the eighteenth-century poet allowed himself the greatest liberty. The ten-syllable anapaestic tetrameter line has two iambic substitutions; in Goldsmith, these are always i n the f i r s t and third feet, and there i s generally a strong medial pause. Here are examples of ten-syllable lines: 105 What sp i r i t s were his, what wit and what whom. . . . (Retaliation, 1. 53) Such Dainties to theml their Health i t might hurt. . . . (Haunch of Venison, 1. 33) You honour me much—the Honour i s mine. . . . (Grand Question Debated, 1. 73) The f i r s t and third examples il l u s t r a t e the frequent use of the ten-syl-lable anapaestic line for purposes of parallelism. Most irregular lines, as the third example might also i l l u s t r a t e , occur when dialogue i s repro-duced. Two of three anapaestic lines i n Goldsmith which have a disyllabic substitution i n the third foot without a corresponding substitution i n the f i r s t , involve dialogue: He grew lazy at last and drew from himself? (Retaliation, 1. 78) The whole pool as my own. Come give me five cards. Aht The Doctor i s lood. Come Doctor, put down. ("Letter to Mrs. Bunbury," 11. 24, 32) Again these generally exhibit strong medial caesurae. Lines of thirteen or fourteen syllables consist simply of four anapaestic feet with the addition of feminine or t r i p l e rhyme. Triple rhyme i s rare i n Goldsmith's anapaestic poems; i n fact, there i s only one instance: "For a patriot too cool; for a drudge, disobedient,/And too fond of the right to pursue the expedient" (Retaliation, 11. 39-40). Feminine rhyme, however, i s com-mon. Goldsmith avoids t r i p l e t s i n his anapaestic verse, just as he does in his heroic couplet verse. In his avoidance of the t r i p l e t , he i s un-like most of the other poets i n the tradition of light anapaestic verse. Anstey, for example, uses t r i p l e t s frequently i n the New Bath Guide. Goldsmith appears to be a prosodic conservative, even i n his anapaests. His achievement in this metrical form i s an impressive one. George Saints-1 0 6 bury calls the anapaests of the Haunch of Venison and Retaliation "pros-6 9 odically consummate" and "the best since Prior." English poetry i n anapaests between Prior and Goldsmith appears not to have received the attention i t deserves, while the anapaestic satire of the late eighteenth century to some extent has. That anapaestic verse of the f i r s t three-quarters of the eighteenth century has not been compre-hensively studied has sometimes led c r i t i c s discussing individual anapaes-t i c poems into inaccuracy or oversimplification i n statements concerning the unconventionality of this metrical form. The study of anapaestic verse i n the eighteenth century helps to place Prior and Swift i n their rightful positions as influential poets. These two poets—as well as Spenser, Milton, and Pope—influenced the course which poetry followed during the eighteenth century. Much of the verse behind which the pres-ence of Prior and Swift can be detected i s light verse, which sometimes offers l i t t l e scope for c r i t i c a l explication since the a r t i f i c e of such poems may be quite obvious. Playfulness of tone and f a c i l i t y i n rhyming are the characteristic qualities of most light anapaestic verse of the period. Some of the best light verse, particularly Prior's, reveals the same delicate balance between compassion and mockery, the same breadth of understanding of man's situation, that i s often found i n Popean satire. In Prior something of the emotional range of the anapaestic couplet i s explored. In a somewhat different way, the same i s true for Swift, whose poems in this metrical form have an emotional range from a hatred that can only be expressed i n images of degradation and torture to a tender-ness for his friends that e l i c i t s the imaginative creation of pieces that delight as they gently reprove. The same playful imaginative extension of situation i s found i n Goldsmith's three anapaestic poems. Lord Glare's g i f t of a haunch of venison leads to a dinner at "Mile-end" and to Gold-107 smith's amusing reflections on his own vanity. An invitation to play Loo at Barton leads to the Old Bailey and to Goldsmith's presentation of himself as a pedantic and avaricious man. A dinner club calls forth a reverie i n which the members are metaphorically conceived as dishes and in which Goldsmith presents himself as a compiler and a "fool." Such ironic self-portrayal i s another characteristic of the anapaestic t r a d i -tion, one which Goldsmith again shares with Swift. Self-portrayal and 7 0 self-deprecation are sometimes associated with the Horatian voice,' with which the anapaestic tradition shares i t s low, colloquial style. Martin Day's description of anapaestic p o l i t i c a l satire of the late eighteenth century holds true for most satire i n anapaests: "In comparison with heroic couplet satire, this verse was facetious rather than solemn, and more laughing than declaiming. Usually i t was also more ingenious and 71 imaginative." The tone i s usually familiar and comic, rather than b i t -ing. The low, colloquial style has as one of i t s main features the rep-resentation of dialogue, often quite r e a l i s t i c a l l y reproduced. Scarcely a poet who wrote i n anapaests between Prior and Goldsmith f a i l e d to attempt the reproduction of speech and the depiction of character through dialogue. Character-sketches i n anapaestic metre are extremely numerous and might even be said to constitute an alternative portrait tradition to the greater s a t i r i c tradition of predominantly heroic couplet portraiture. A detailed analysis of several anapaestic portraits, those i n Goldsmith's Retaliation, w i l l form the subject of my f i n a l chapter. Notes x Christopher Anstey, The New Bath Guide: Or Memoirs of the B l — n — d — r — d Family, in a Series of Poetical Epistles, in The Poetical  Works of the Late Christopher Anstey, Esq* with Some Account of the Li f e  and Writings of the Author, by His Son, John Anstey, Esq* (London: Printed for T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1808), p. 28. A l l quotations from Anstey's poems are from this edition. 2 George Saintsbury, A History of English Prosody from the Twelfth  Century to the Present Day, 2nd ed. Tl923j rpt. New York: Russell & Rus-s e l l , 1961), II, 429. 3 Saintsbury, II, 509. ^ This information i s taken from the Commentary i n The Literary Works  of Matthew Prior, ed. H. Bunker Wright and Monroe K. Spears, 2nd^ed., 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1971), II, 841, the edition used for a l l quo-tations from Priorj and from The Complete Poems of John Wi'lmot, Earl of Rochester, ed. David M. Vieth~TNew Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1968), p. 232. 5 Jean H. Hagstrum notes that the picture-gallery structure was a common method of formal organization i n Restoration and eighteenth-century poetry (The Sister Arts: The Tradition of Literary Pictorialism and Eng-l i s h Poetry from Dryden to Gray (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958j, pp. x v i i i , 117, 180-82, 222, 256). 0 I have quoted from Poems by John Wilmot, Ea r l of Rochester, ed. Vivian de Sola Pinto (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1953). 7 "The Poet of the 'Familiar Style,•" English Studies, 7 (1925), 9-10. Saintsbury believes that i t was only after Prior, '.'when the greater Muses awoke once more," that the po s s i b i l i t i e s of the anapaest were f u l l y explored (II, 431). 9 See Paul Fussell, The Rhetorical World of Augustan Humanism: Eth- ics and Imagery from Swift to Burke (Oxford: Clarendon, 1965), p. 297} Hagstrum, p. 96j and Pierre Nicole, An Essay'.on True.' and- Apparent' Beauty in Which from Settled Principles Is Rendered the Grounds for Choosing and  Rejecting Epigrams, trans. J . V. Cunningham, Augustan Reprint Society, No. 24 (Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 1950), p. 26. 1 0 Wright and Spears, II, 911. 1 1 Gray's poetry has been quoted from Thomas Gray and William Col-l i n s : Poetical Works, ed. Roger Lonsdale (Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 19777. 108 109 T n e Complete Poetical Works of Oliver Goldsmith, ed. Dobson, The World's Classics, 123 (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1907), p. 228. 13 clarence L. Kulisheck, "Swift's Octosyllabics and the Hudibrastic Tradition," JEGP, 53 (1954), 361, n. 1. 1 4 See Dobson, pp. 239, 244J and Roger Lonsdale, ed., The Poems of  Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith, Longmans' Annotated Eng-lish Poets (London: Longman, 1969), pp. 696, 700n, 702n, 757n. 15 Swift's poetry has been quoted from The Poems of Jonathan Swift, ed. Harold Williams, 2nd ed., 3 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1958). 16 s e e Aian simonton Fisher, "The Form, History, and Significance of the Augustan Literary Portrait," Diss. University of California (Berke-ley) 1969, pp. 15-46. 1 7 I quote this maxim as it appears in The Poems of Alexander Pope, ed. John Butt (London: Methuen, 1963), p. 689n. is A Except when otherwise noted all quotations from Cunningham are taken from John Cunningham, Poems? Chiefly Pastoral (London: Printed for the Author, 1766). 19 A Discourse Concerning the Original and Progress of Satire, in Poems 1693-1696, ed. A. B. Chambers, William Frost, and Vinton A. Dearing, Vol. IV of The Works of John Dryden, ed. H. T. Swederiberg, Jr., George R. Guffey, and Vinton A. Dearing (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of Cali-fornia, 1974), 81-82. 2 0 DUB. Eoet Swift (Hanover, N. H.: Univ. Press of New England, 1977), PP. 127, 39. 21 Goldsmith's echo of Swift in this couplet has been noticed by Lonsdale, p. 658n. Thes resemblance of rhyme in this couplet from the "[Letter to Mrs.' Bunbury3"—"And picking of pockets with which I now charge ye/is by Quinto Elizabeth death without Clergy" (11. 39-40)—to the final couplet in The Grand Question Debated—"For your Life, not a Word of the Matter, I charge ye:/Give me but a Barrack, a Fig for the Clergy" (11. 189-90)— is likely accidental since the two couplets are so different in subject. This resemblance, nevertheless, provides further evidence that Swift's Grand Question Debated was much in Goldsmith•s mind as he composed his poems in anapaests (see above n. 14). 2 2 W. R. Irwin, "Swift the Verse Man," P&, 54 (1975), 225. 2 3 Jaffe, p. 121. 2 4 "Anstey and Anapestic Satire in the Late Eighteenth Century," ELH, 15 (1948), 123-24. 2 y "Swift's Poetry Reconsidered," in English Writers of the Eight- eenth Century, ed. John H. Middendorf (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, I97l7, p. 234. 110 2 6 Jaffe, p. 135. 2 7 "Realism and Raillery: Augustan Conversation and the Poetry of Swift," Durham University Journal, 70 (1977), 6. 2 8 Johnson, p. 240. 29 Nora Crow Jaffe attributes the neglect of Swift's poems to their failure to yield results when approached through New C r i t i c a l methods (pp. 1, 39-40). 3^ Isobel Grundy, "Pope, Peterborough, and the Characters of Women," RES, 20 (1969), 461-68; and R. M. Schmitz, "Peterborough's and Pope's Nymphs: Pope at Work," PQ, 48 (1969), 192-200. The two texts of Pope's poem d i f f e r i n a number of readings. I have chosen to quote from Grundy primarily because she prints cancelled phrases i n footnotes rather than interlineated i n the text, as Schmitz does. 3 1 I have quoted from The Complete Poems of John Wilmot, Earl of  Rochester, ed. David M. Vieth. 32 Peterborough's "Chloe" has been quoted from A Collection of English  Poems, 1660-1800, ed. Ronald S. Crane (New York: Harper & Row, 33 Grundy, p. 467* Schmitz discusses Pope's later borrowing from the manuscript poem in greater detail (pp. 196-200). 34 i n an essay that i s much dated by i t s platitudes about eighteenth-century poetry, V. de Sola Pinto considers Watts to be unorthodox and ad-venturous for his time, given, the variety "of metres he uses i n his poems ("Isaac Watts and the Adventurous Muse," Essays and Studies, 20 [1935], 96-970''• Paul Fussell, J r . discusses Watts as a "prosodic l i b e r a l " (Theory  of Prosody i n Eighteenth-Century England, Connecticut College Monograph, No. 5 QMew London, Conn.: Connecticut College, 1954], pp. 106-08). 35 Saintsbury, II, 507. 3° "The Sluggard" has been quoted from A Collection of English Poems;  1660-1800, ed. Crane. 37 Pinto, p. 105. 38 J Pinto says that Blake "was certainly strongly influenced by the Moral Songs for Children" (p. 105). See also Pinto's essay "Isaac Watts and William Blake," RES, 20 (1944), 214-23. 39 Byrom's poems have been quoted from Miscellaneous Poems, by John  Byrom, M.A. E.R.S. Some Time Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and  Inventor of the Universal English Short-Hand. To Which Are Added His  Life and Notes by the Editor, 2 vols, bound in 1 (Leeds: Printed by and for James Nichols, 1814)• Nichols remarks on Anstey's parody i n his note on the f i r s t two lines of "Colin and Phebe." 4° "John Cunningham 1729-1773," Essays by. Divers Hands, 19 (1942), 48. I l l 4 1 "The Life of John Byrom, M.A. E.R.S.," Miscellaneous Poems, I, xx. & -John Byrom," in Studies of a Biographer (London: Duckworth and Co., 1 8 9 8 ) , I, 103. 4 3 Sairitsbury comments on the use of the word dactyl by Shenstone when he actually means "t r i s y l l a b i c feet—neither more nor less" (II, 5 5 3 ) ; and Paul Fussell, J r . notes that Erasmus Darwin speaks of the dac-t y l i c verse of the New Bath Guide: "The only way Anstey 1s anapests could be confounded with dactyls i s by the reader* s considering every poetic foot as necessarily beginning with a stressed syllable. Darwin must have habitually and unconsciously approached poetic matters from a musical standpoint to have made this error" (Theory of Prosody i n Eighteenth-Cen- tury England, p. 1 4 6 ) . ^ In A Collection of Poems in Six Volumes: By Several Hands (Lon-don: Printed for J . Dodsley, 177W, the edition of Dodsley which I have used, the "Extempore Verses on a T r i a l of Skill, Between Messrs. Figg and Sutton" lacks the eleventh and twelfth stanzas which appear i n the Mis- cellaneous Poems. David Nichol Smith states that this poem was written in 1 7 2 5 (The Oxford Book of Eighteenth Century Verse (Oxford: Clarendon, 1 9 2 6 } , p. 2277* The work of two scholars has been of great assistance to readers of Dodsley*s Collection: R. VI. Chapman, "Dodsley's Collection of Poems by Several Hands," Oxford Bibliographical Society: Proceedings  and Papers, 3 ( 1 9 3 1 - 1 9 3 3 ) , 2 6 9 - 3 1 6 ; and Donald D. Eddy, "Dodsley's Col- lection of Poems by Several Hands (Six Volumes), 1 7 5 8 : Index of Authors," PBSA, 60~Tl966), 9-30. 4 5 See Rev. George G i l f i l l a n , "The Li f e of Matthew Green," i n The  Poetical Works of Armstrong, Dyer, and Green: With Memoirs and C r i t i c a l  Dissertations (Edinburgh: James Nichol, 1 8 5 8 ) , pp. 2 3 3 , 2 3 8 ; and H. Ros-siter Smith, "Matthew Green 1696-1737," mi, 1 9 9 ( 1 9 5 4 ) , 251-52. ^ John Homer Caskey, The Li f e and Works of Edward Moore, Yale Stud-ies i n English, 75 (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1 9 2 7 ) , pp. 61, 9 0 . 4 7 A l l quotations from Moore are from Edward Moore, Poems, Fables,  and Plays (London: Printed for R. and J . Dodsley, 1 7 5 6 ) . 4 8 Caskey, p. 156. 4 9 Caskey, pp. 1 5 5 - 5 6 . 5 0 Day, p. 122. 5 1 Quotations from Shenstone are from The Poetical Works of W i l l i a m  Shenstone: With L i f e , C r i t i c a l Dissertation, and Explanatory Notes (Edin-burgh: James Nichol, 1 8 5 4 ) • 5 2 "Shenstone," i n Lives of the English Poets, ed. George Birkbeck H i l l (Oxford: Clarendon, 190577 III, 352. 53 Quotations from Cambridge are taken from The Works of the English  Poets, from Chaucer to Cowper, ed. Alexander Chalmers (London: Printed for J . Johnson and the London Booksellers, 1 8 1 0 ) . 112 54 "'Cambridge, the Everything,'" i n Eighteenth Century Vignettes, Third Series, A New Edition (London: Chatto & Windus, 1907), p. 196. 55 i refer here to the fourth and sixth poems printed by Richard D. Altick, "Mr. Cambridge Serenades the Berry Sisters," N&Q, 183 (1942), 160. 56 I quote from the third poem printed by Altick, p. 160. 57 For the identification of William Taylor, see W. P. Courtney, "Dodsley's Famous Collection of Poetry," N&Q, 10th ser., 8 (1907), 384. ^ Fussell, The Rhetorical World of Augustan Humanism, p. 251. 59 "The Ant and the Caterpillar," not included i n the f i r s t edition of Poems, Chiefly Pastoral, has been quoted from The Poetical Works of  John Cunningham: With the Life of the Author, i n Vol. VI of Cooke's Pocket  Edition of the Original and Complete Works of Select British Poets (London: Printed for C. Cooke, ri.d.). °° I have quoted from John Gay, The Beggar's Opera, ed. Peter Elfed Lewis (New York: Harper,: & Row; 1973). -6 1 Morley, p. 40. 6 2 Charles Churchill, TEAS, 197 (Boston: Twayne, 1977), pp. 120-21. °3 "Some Account of the Li f e and Writings of the Late Christopher Anstey, Esq.," i n The Poetical Works of the Late-Christopher.'..•Anstey,'. Esq., p. xxi. °^ W. B. Carnochan, "Satire, Sublimity, and Sentiment: Theory and Practice in Post^Augustan Satire," PMLA, 85 (1970), 265-66. 6 5 Fisher, p. 52. 0 0 Dobson, The Complete Poetical Works of Oliver Goldsmith, p. 244; G. S. Fraser, "Johnson and Goldsmith: The Mid-Augustan Norm," Essays and  Studies, 23 (1970), 69; and Day, pp. 140-41. 6 7 See above p. 20. 0 8 For this poem see The Poetical Works of David Garrick (London; 1785;.rpt. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1968), II, 266. °9 Saintsbury, II, 519, 518. 70 Jaffe, pp. 141-43. 7 1 Day, p. 138. Chapter III: The Structure and Portraits of Retaliation The originality of Goldsmith's Retaliation resides i n the combination of the portrait-gallery structure with the tradition of anapaestic mock-epitaphs. The poem consists of a frame followed by nine mock-epitaphs. As I have suggested in connection with Matthew Green's "Seeker," the i n -troductory verse paragraph might be said to provide a pretext, rather than a justification, for the ensuing portraits. The structural principle i n Retaliation i s to be discovered not i n the introduction to the poem but i n the numerous contrasts between the portraits. The arrangement i s not simply that of contrasting pairs of portraits. Rather, as I have i n -dicated, a web of contrasting faults and virtues joins the several por-t r a i t s and provides the unifying principle of the poem. In Retaliation, Goldsmith adopts a balanced manner of portraiture; i n many lines of the poem, he appears to have desired an effect of equivocation. Tom Davis believes that the balanced portrayal of Goldsmith's friends i n Retalia-tion operates similarly to the balanced Characters of nations i n The Trav- e l l e r : "The technique i s essentially the same as that of The Traveller, though i t i s handled more subtly: the praiseworthy qualities are also the qualities attacked."^" Davis's suggestion f a i l s to account f6r the most obvious quality of Retaliation: the great variety of %he portraits resulting from an apparent diversity of portraiture technique. While a similar kind of contrastive structure i s fundamental to both poems, there i s no apparent diversity of portraiture technique i n The Traveller. In that poem Goldsmith adopts a version of Pope's theory of the Ruling Pas-113 sion and combines i t with notions concerning the effects of climate on national character to arrive at the scheme which a l l the Characters i n the poem exemplify: Hence every state, to one lov'd blessing prone, Conforms and models l i f e to that alone* Each to the favourite happiness attends, And spurns the plan that aims at other endsj • T i l l , carried to excess i n each domain, This favourite good begets peculiar pain. (11. 93-98) Davis's suggestion only holds true i n Retaliation for Edmund Burke, whose genius i s both praised and blamed, and possibly for Richard Burke, whose jesting makes his company desirable u n t i l , by carrying his f r o l i c to ex-cess, he becomes an annoyance. It seems obvious that the portraits of; Edmund Burke and David Garrick, on the one hand, are not composed i n the same way as are the portraits of Dean Barnard, Dr. Douglas, and Joseph Hickey, on the other. The portraits in Retaliation range from profound analyses of character to sketches in which l i t t l e or nothing i s learned about the individuals depicted. I have, therefore, elected to divide the portraits i n Retaliation into major portraits and minor ones. The major portraits, i n my opinion, are four: Edmund Burke, Cumberland, Garrick, and Reynolds. Although the portrait of Cumberland i s as much dramatic criticism as character analysis, i t i s much too s k i l f u l and too central to the main contrasts of the poem to be placed among the minor portraits. Likewise, though,the portrait of Reynolds i s short and possibly incomplete, i t i s important because of the way i n which Reynolds approaches an ideal. These four portraits have a close relationship to the main eighteenth-cen-tury s a t i r i c portrait tradition, i n which we find such characters as Wharton, Mac Flecknoe, Bufo, and Sporus. Such earlier portraits i n the tradition w i l l be mentioned when they seem pertinent to Retaliation. The minor 115 portraits i n Retaliation might be called epigrammatic portraits, for they bear a close relationship in length and technique to some of the anapaes-t i c epigrams and epitaphs that were examined i n the previous chapter. The presence of minor and major portraits i n the poem i s probably not solely, or even primarily, due to aesthetic considerations. The two types of portrait are rather the result of the occasional nature of the poem. Unlike Pope in the Epistles to Several Persons or the Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot, Goldsmith could not choose the men he wished to portray from throughout society, from among the l i v i n g and the dead, from heroes and v i l l a i n s , from friends and enemies. His cast of characters was chosen for him. While Dryden was able to overcome a similar limitation i n Ab-salom and Achitophel, Dryden had advantages that Goldsmith did not have. A l l of the characters that Dryden was required to draw were significant public men, whose characters were widely known. Only a few of Goldsmith's characters answer /to„that description• : Goldsmith could .clearly not'attempt to analyze the characters of a l l his subjects in the same depth as he did Garrick's, whom he knew well and about whom he had firm opinions. The particular problems of portraiture and of a r t i s t i c unity that Goldsmith faced, though solved to a considerable degree, limit the success of Retalia- tion, at least i n i t s incomplete state. For one reason or another, Goldsmith appears to have experienced some d i f f i c u l t y in completing his major poems. Four of the last f i v e couplets in The Traveller were written by Samuel Johnson, as were the . 2 f i n a l four lines of The Deserted Village. Retaliation—composed amidst il l n e s s , financial d i f f i c u l t i e s , and labours for the booksellers—is no exception. Perhaps Goldsmith could not shape his material into the uni-fi e d work he would have liked, or perhaps he just ran out of time. In any case, as Arthur Friedman indicates, Goldsmith almost completed the plan 116 that he set out in his introductory verse paragraph: In the b i l l of fare at the beginning of the poem eleven names appear. For the f i r s t seven of these there are complete epitaphs i n the same order as in their f i r s t appearance. For the remain-ing four—Ridge, Reynolds, Hickey, and Goldsmith, i n the order of the i n i t i a l l i s t — t h e r e i s no epitaph for Ridge, Reynolds's epitaph appears at the end of the poem and may be incomplete, Hickey's epitaph i s complete but appears out of order before that of Reynolds, and Goldsmith's epitaph—if indeed he planned one for himself, since i n line 22 he alone i s l e f t alive to t e l l what he thinks of the dead—is absent. (Friedman, IV, 344) Clearly another pretext than that suppled i n the opening verse paragraph would have been necessary had Goldsmith wished to continue the poem with an epitaph on himself. It i s doubtful that the kind of ironic self-por-t r a i t which Goldsmith might be expected to produce would provide a more suitable ending to the poem than does the normative portrait of Reynolds. There i s a certain appropriateness i n concluding a series of li t e r a r y por-t r a i t s with a character-sketch of the greatest portraitist of the day. Reynolds i s an ideal not only i n his personal qualities but i n his profes-sional capacity of understanding and depicting men's characters. If Gold-smith intended to end his poem with the epitaph on Reynolds, then he has used a portrait-gallery structure similar to that i n Pope's Epistle to a Lady, or to Pope's and Peterborough's anapaestic poems on court ladies. If Goldsmith intended to end his Retaliation with the epitaph on Reynolds, he has written a comic satire in which only the f i r s t half of an outer frame i s present. Mary Claire Randolph notes that frequently i n formal verse satires "an outer shell-like framework encloses the en-t i r e piece," and the setting i s one "wherein people pass by and thus pro-vide a steady stream of type-figures on whom the S a t i r i s t can comment 3 to the Adversarius."-^ In Retaliation, instead of type-figures passing by, there are individuals stretched out beneath a table, where the poet— 117 who is, I have suggested, a burlesque of the judicial satirist—can see them to comment on. The adversarius in Retaliation is only suggested, through the device of internal dialogue. Internal dialogue is most evi-dent in the portrait of Hickey, but also appears incidentally elsewhere in the poem, as in the portrait of William Burke: "Would you ask for his merits, alasl he had none" (1. 49). Alexander Pope's frequent use of internal dialogue in his formal verse satires "gives an interesting complexity to the satirist's outlook and makes him appear more reasonable and open-minded to the reader than he would otherwise have seemed."^ Internal dialogue in Retaliation consists almost entirely of questions and answers designed to create an effect of equivocation, for either the an-swers are left in doubt or the answers may be such that, while they deny a fault, they also imply the opposite fault to that which has been denied. Although more will be said about internal dialogue in the discussion <6f the portraits, an example may be necessary here to clarify this point. In the internal dialogue in which Hickey's single fault is determined, this question and answer appear: "Too courteous, perhaps, or obligingly flat;/His very worst foe can't accuse him of that" (11. 131-32). The an-swer is so very definite that the implication may be that not only is Hickey not too courteous, but he lacks common courtesy. Besides the fram-ing device, the satiric portrait, and the implied adversarius, one other point about the relationship of Retaliation to formal verse satire might be made. It was generally accepted in the eighteenth century that the English word satire was derived from satura, the word the Romans used for the genre of formal verse satire. The l i t e r a l meaning of satura is "a 5 mixed dish of meats." It is possible that Goldsmith, by characterizing his friends as various meats, intended an elaborate word-play on the ety-mology of satire. The introductory section of his poem is literally a 118 s a t u r a . Such a w o r d - p l a y seems c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s b u r l e s q u e o f t h e j u -d i c i a l s a t i r i s t ' s f u n c t i o n , w i t h what I have e a r l i e r c a l l e d h i s " p l a y f u l commentary on t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l p r e t e n s e o f t h e s a t i r i s t t h a t he h a s p o r -t r a y e d no l i v i n g c h a r a c t e r s , " ^ and w i t h t h e u s e o f c o n v e n t i o n s o f f o r m a l v e r s e s a t i r e . L i k e w i s e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a b u r l e s q u e o f s e r i o u s s a t i r e i s t h e r e f e r -ence i n t h e o p e n i n g l i n e t o t h e famous b u r l e s q u e p o e t P a u l S c a r r o n . T h a t G o l d s m i t h s h o u l d m e n t i o n S c a r r o n ' s d i n n e r s a s a p a r a l l e l t o t h o s e a t w h i c h he h i m s e l f was one o f t h e d i s t i n g u i s h e d w i t s p r e s e n t a l s o h a s some b i o -g r a p h i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e — t h a t i s , i t adds a l i t t l e t o t h e u n w r i t t e n p o r t r a i t o f G o l d s m i t h t h a t must be r e c o n s t r u c t e d . R o g e r L o n s d a l e r e m a r k s t h a t " G o l d s m i t h was f a s c i n a t e d b y d i s t i n g u i s h e d men—Samuel B u t l e r , B e r k e l e y , B o y l e , Pope—whose g e n i u s was b e l i e d b y a n u n a t t r a c t i v e appearance o r 7 awkward m a n n e r . " S c a r r o n c a n be added t o L o n s d a l e ' s l i s t . When G o l d s m i t h m e n t i o n s S c a r r o n i n one o f h i s l e t t e r s , he a p p e a r s t o i d e n t i f y w i t h S c a r -r o n , a s a k i n d o f t y p e - f i g u r e o f l i t e r a r y m e r i t n e g l e c t e d . L i k e G o l d -s m i t h , S c a r r o n was a f f l i c t e d a t an e a r l y age by a d i s e a s e t h a t r e n d e r e d h i m l e s s t h a n handsome. D e s p i t e h i s u n a t t r a c t i v e a p p e a r a n c e , S c a r r o n was a w i t t y c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t , he m a r r i e d one o f t h e more b e a u t i f u l women 9 o f h i s d a y , and h i s s a l o n was f r e q u e n t e d b y d i s t i n g u i s h e d company. P a r -t i c u l a r l y a s a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i s t , S c a r r o n w o u l d seem t o be t h e k i n d o f man who m i g h t p r o v i d e b o t h a s o u r c e o f f a s c i n a t i o n and a model f o r G o l d s m i t h . B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g t o t h e p o r t r a i t s o f t h e poem, t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e f r a m e — i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e d i s h e s under w h i c h G o l d s m i t h m e t a p h o r i c a l l y c h a r -a c t e r i z e s h i s f r i e n d s — r e m a i n t o be b r i e f l y c o n s i d e r e d . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f some o f t h e s e d i s h e s i s o b v i o u s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h a t Edmund B u r k e s h o u l d "be t o n g u e , w i t h a g a r n i s h o f b r a i n s " ( 1 . 6 ) r e q u i r e s no e x p l i c a t i o n . The p h r a s e u s e d t o d e s c r i b e Thomas B a r n a r d , " v e n i s o n , j u s t f r e s h f r o m t h e p l a i n s " 119 ( l . 5), has the positive association of rarity, high value, and delicacy without luxury. "Our Will shall be wild fowl, of excellent flavour" ( l . 7) indicates, in the light of Goldsmith's epitaph, that William Burke is the opposite of a tame or domestic man. He is ruled by passion, instead of by reason. He may be flighty, but his heart is basically good—hence, the "excellent flavour;" ... The "pepper" ( l . 8) of Richard Burke captures the quality of a lively and biting wit. The delicacy of "sweet-bread" (1. 9) and the lighter fare of "sallad" ( l . 11) are contrasted to Brit-ish "pudding, substantial and plain" ( l . 10), a foretaste of the contrasts between the epitaphs themselves. It i s , of course, quite appropriate for a clergyman to be "substantial and plain." In any case, for the eight-eenth-century poet, pudding seems to have been associated with the typi-cal clergyman'Js diet. Gay writes, "Pudding our Parson eats, the Squire loves Hare1! (The Shepherd1 s Week, "Monday," 1. 91); part of the simple fare provided by Pope's Country Mouse for his Town guest is "Pudding, that might have pleas'd a Dean" (Satire II v i , 1. 166); and Savage's Progress  of a Divine: A Satire contains the following lines: "'A Curate?—Where? His Name (cries one) recitel/'Or t e l l me t h i s — I s Pudding his Delight?/ 'Why, Our's loves Pudding'--Does he s o ? — " t i s He." (11. 23-25). 1 0 The choice of dish to which to compare Dr. Douglas must have followed quite naturally. In the opening verse paragraph, David Garrick i s presented as a baffling man, reconciling in himself several contrary qualities: "Oil, vinegar, sugar, and saltness agree" (1. 12). Oil and vinegar have tradi-tionally been considered as opposites in their effects on wounds: o i l soothes while vinegar causes greater pain. Here the words would seem to apply to Garrick's character and conversation: Garrick can be either smooth or sour; his speech can soothe and flatter, or i t can hurt. Likewise the antithesis between sugar and salt represents the sweetness and wittiness 120 of which Garrick is alternately capable. An entire couplet is devoted to Garrick in the opening verse paragraph, more than to any other person. This is reflected in the proportionately longer epitaph on Garrick in the poem. The longest metaphorical description and the longest epitaph are given to the man who was the major source of the retaliatory impulse in Goldsmith. These facts suggest that Goldsmith intended the portrait of Garrick to be the climax of the poem. It is certainly climactic in terms of interest and in terms of artistic merit, but whether or not it also draws together the separate strands of the poem, providing a thematic centre, is a question that I shall attempt to answer when dealing with the portrait of Garrick in detail. For Ridge as "anchovy" (1. 14), as there is no epitaph on him in the poem, nothing can be added beyond what appeared in the Explanatory Notes to the early editions of Retaliation; "'Counsellor John Ridge, a gentleman belonging to the Irish bar, the relish of whose agreeable and pointed conversation is admitted, by all his acquain-tance, to be very properly compared to the above sauce'" (Friedman, 17, 353n). No doubt "Reynolds is lamb" (1. 14) simply in the sense that he is as gentle, or should I say as bland, as a lamb. A "capon" (l. 15), the dish thought fitting to describe Hickey, seems as uncomplimentary as any. Having the basic meaning of "a castrated cock" or, as applied to persons, "a eunuch," capon is used "as a type of dullness, and a term of reproach" (PEP:);. The word is used in this last sense in one of Swift's "Trifles," in which he addresses Sheridan as "you Capon ye" (III, 1033)* The char-acterization of his friends as various dishes has generally been considered the weakest part of Goldsmith's poem. After having heard the poem read, Richard Cumberland wrote to Garrick: "ji . . Dr. Goldsmith's Dinner was very ingenius, but evidently written with haste and negligence. The Dishes were nothing to the purpose, but they were followed by Epitaphs that had 11' humour, some Satire and more panegyric." Goldsmith's primary intention 121 with his Dishes must have been to amuse his friends, and at least with Cumberland he was unsuccessful. Although I would argue that Goldsmith's Dishes are very much to the purpose i n capturing individual or professional characteristics of his friends, I would have to admit that none of these lines i s very memorable except that on Burke, a line i n which the l i t e r a l and metaphorical senses of "tongue" and "brains" coincide. What the opening verse paragraph does i l l u s t r a t e well i s the imagina-tive extension of situation characteristic of many of Swift's and Goldsmith's anapaestic poems. The ingredients with which Goldsmith worked—a dinner club and an epitaph-writing contest—are radically transformed. The de-light that Goldsmith finds i n absurdity i s apparent. He i s not particularly concerned about any inconsistency i n describing his companions as dishes and then, i n the same verse paragraph, having these same companions become quite humanly drunk, nor I think about any inconsistency i n praising men who are 12 sunk "under the table." " Retaliation i s a playful poem, and what Johnson said of Shenstone*s "Levities"—that they are "exempted from the severities 13 of criticism" —may have application for Goldsmith's f i n a l poem with re-gard to, at least, a certain kind of criticism. To write epitaphs on the occasion of men being dead drunk instead of dead i n actuality i s nothing i f not playful. Such le v i t y i s also, of course, consistent with attitudes that Goldsmith held throughout a career i n which he frequently attacked the false f l a t t e r i e s and pathetic f a l l a c i e s of contemporary elegiac com-positions. Here i s how Goldsmith treats the pathetic fallacy i n one of his mock-elegies, "On the Death of the Right Honourable * * *": How sad the groves and plains appear, And sympathetic sheep: Even pitying h i l l s could drop a tearI — I f h i l l s could learn to weep. (T>, 377) 122 Also i n Goldsmith's "Chinese Letters," where these verses f i r s t appeared, are Lien Chi Altangi's observations on epitaphs: When we read those monumental histories of the dead, i t may be justly said, that a l l men are equal i n the dust; for they a l l appear equally remarkable for being the most sincere Christians, the most benevolent neighbours, and the honestest men of their time. To go thro* an European cemetery, one would be apt to wonder how mankind could have so basely degenerated from such excellent ancestors; every tomb pretends to claim your reverence and regret; some are praised for piety i n those inscriptions who never entered the temple u n t i l they were dead; some are praised for being excellent poets, who were never mentioned, except for their dulness, when l i v i n g ; others for sublime or-ators, who were never noted except for their impudence; and others s t i l l for military atenlevements, who were never i n any other skirmishes but with the watch. (II, 5 5 ) The fine series of mock-epitaphs i n Goldsmith's f i n a l poem i s a f i t t i n g culmination to his numerous mockeries of the deviations from truth so common i n expressions of the elegiac impulse. Goldsmith's concern for truth no doubt led to the kind of balanced portraiture he undertook when playfully sketching the characters of actual individuals. While the open-ing verse paragraph succeeds in establishing the playful and colloquial tone, i t does not really provide a context i n which the portraits can be understood. Goldsmith leaves the controlling context to be inferred from the parallels and contrasts found among the portraits themselves. The introduction to the poem only serves to establish some of the contrasts that are developed more f u l l y ; i t . o f f e r s no direct exposition of theme. The f i r s t of the epitaphs, that on Thomas Barnard, i s also the short-est. It i s a minor portrait, or what I have referred to as an epigram-matic portrait. Goldsmith reveals l i t t l e about Barnard's character. Instead the sketch i s structured around the epigrammatic turn of thought which takes the reader from the implication that Barnard i s faultless to the suggestion i n the f i n a l line that Barnard has some manner of fault 123 in the very cunning with which he hides his faults. The unusual expression "sly-boots" (1. 28), which serves to establish the low, colloquial tone, is also used by Swift in one of his "Trifles' 1 (III, 1003). Goldsmith's portrait of Doctor Barnard is, on the whole, complimentary, as i t appears from the fi r s t couplet: "Here lies the good Dean, re-united to earth,/ Who mixt reason with pleasure, and wisdom with mirth" (11. 23-24). Were i t not for the lightness of the metre, this couplet might be found in a serious epitaph. Most of the humour in the couplet arises from the situa-tion, for the Dean lies not beneath the ground but merely beneath the table. S t i l l there is nothing to undermine the praise of Barnard in the second line. He mixes "wisdom with mirth," unlike Richard Burke, who, as Gold-smith depicts him, is a l l "mirth" (Goldsmith repeats the word in line 59), lacking the wisdom which would place the necessary restraints on his jest-ing and thus make "Dick" a more pleasant companion. The sincere praise of Thomas Barnard suggests that Goldsmith wanted both the fi r s t and last characters in the poem to be, at least in part, normative figures. Each of the fi r s t two portraits in the poem begins in the same way, and the same epithet is applied to both Thomas Barnard and: Edmund Burke: "Here lies the good Dean" ( l . 23) and "Here lies our good Edmund" ( l . 29). The epithet which Goldsmith has chosen is not a very distinctive one, and i f Barnard and Burke, as Goldsmith depicts them, are similar in anything, i t is rather intellectual capacity than goodness. The next two portraits, those of the minor Burkes, are likewise introduced similarly to one another: "Here lies honest William" ( l . 43) and "Here lies honest Richard ( l . 51). The second pair of portraits in Retaliation i s set in opposition to the fi r s t pair. William and Richard Burke, as portrayed by Goldsmith are remarkable for their lack of wisdom. While "honesty" was not perhaps the most striking quality of William and Richard Burke, there is no indica-124 tion that Goldsmith's portraits of them were intended i r o n i c a l l y . William Burke, though like Edmund a Member of Parliament, i s not remembered for his a b i l i t i e s as an orator. What he i s known for are his stockjobbing transactions and financial speculations. Dixon Wecter has suggested "that Goldsmith may have had some personal knowledge of the unsavoury reputation which clung to the lesser Burkes who figure i n 'Retaliation' . . . and whose scramble for money did so much to bring the name of Burke into dis-repute. " I 4 There i s a tradition—deriving from Lawrence Dundas Campbell's "Life of Hugh Boyd," i n The Miscellaneous Works of Hugh Boyd.(1800)—that Goldsmith was convinced by Boyd to alter his original sketches of the Burkes, especially that of William, because they were too severe. Wecter believes that this story possibly originated with private remarks that Goldsmith may have made in disapproval of the Burkes' conduct of finan-c i a l a f f a i r s , because Goldsmith would hardly "have aired such grave charges 15 in a facetious poem intended for circulation." Goldsmith had no inten-tion to dissolve friendships by the writing of Retaliation. It i s unlikely that Goldsmith i n i t i a l l y wrote characters of the Burkes which lacked en-t i r e l y the delicacy of the satire i n the printed version. The essence of William Burke's character, for 'Goldsmith, i s that he i s ruled by his heart instead of his head. Goldsmith i s not morally indignant about William Burke's failure to subdue his passions, but neither does he express approval of such submission to feeling. Although the heart of William Burke "was a mint" (1., 43) and although Garrick also had 'lan excellent heart" (1. 97), Goldsmith does not imply that the hearts of men are universally and naturally good. In the portrait of William Burke, Goldsmith i s neither sentimentalist nor vigorous opponent of senti-mentalism. Goldsmith's attitude toward William Burke i s one of gentle mockery. Burke apparently does not conform to the proper order of things, 125 but, i n the world of Retaliation, his failure to so conform i s considered a foible instead of a crime. Every couplet i n the portrait contributes to establish the essence of Burke's character: he acts by inner impulse, and cannot properly explain the reasons for his conduct (11. 45-46). The same opposition between feeling and thinking i s found in the most d i f f i c u l t couplet i n the epitaph: " S t i l l aiming at honour, yet fearing to roam,/The * coachman was tipsy, the chariot drove home" (11. 47-48). Lucy S. Suther-land suggests that Goldsmith's couplet may possibly refer to an incident that took place at S i r William Young's property, Dellaford, i n 1770. Edmund Burke describes the incident i n a letter to S i r William: Permit me just to hint a complaint of the exuberance of your Hospitality. It i s necessary that either the masters or the servants should be temperate} I should not l i k e to be the party under prudential restraints i n your house. If Mr W. Burke had not been a good Whip we should have been obliged to walk home from Dellaford. However, no accident has happened nor much inconvenience.1° It seems quite unlikely that Goldsmith would refer to such an i n s i g n i f i -cant incident that had occurred almost four years before he wrote Retalia- tion. Furthermore, the facts of this incident do not correspond very well with the sense of Goldsmith's l i n e . At Dellaford the servants became tipsy, but William Burke was able to drive the horses. In Retaliation both "coachman" and "chariot" metaphorically represent parts of William Burke: his head and his heart, respectively. Goldsmith's couplet might be paraphrased in this way: William Burke always thinks that he should perform honourable actions, but his feeling of fear prevents the necessary endeavour; his mind i s incapacitated, as i f by drink, and his feelings carry him away from endeavour to safety. The coachman/chariot metaphor, though unusual, i s a good one, since i t supplies the standard by which William Burke's conduct i s judged improper. The coachman i s the proper 126 driver of a chariot, and the normal order of things i s upset when, through the coachman's drunkenness, the horses are permitted to take control. Given Goldsmith's training in. classical logic, the metaphor must have appeared an especially apt one; for, as man i n the logic texts was defined as animal rationale, so the horse was the most common example of animal 17 irrationale. Despite the richness of Goldsmith's metaphor, i t i s intro-duced almost as i f i t were intended as a specific example of Burke's be-haviour. Miss Sutherland may not be wrong to seek a biographical source for the line, even though the one she has suggested seems improbable. The epitaph on William Burke i s structured i n much the same manner as the f i r s t minor portrait, the epitaph on Thomas Barnard. The emphasis i s once again on an epigrammatic turn of thought involving the ac t i v i t y of discovering faults or virtues, as much as i t i s on the faults and v i r -tues themselves. This pattern i s repeated i n a third minor portrait, that on Joseph Hickey. Goldsmith reveals more about William Burke than he does about Thomas Barnard, but the epitaphs on both are weak as portraits be-cause they lack a sufficient number of representative details of behaviour. They are less weak when seen i n the tradition of anapaestic epigrams and mock-epitaphs, in which the emphasis i s sometimes placed as much on the witty turn of thought as on the analysis of character. The epitaph on Richard Burke, though s t i l l a minor portrait, offers a short series of representative actions i n parallel phrases: What s p i r i t s were his, what wit and what whim, Now breaking a jest, and now breaking a limb; Now rangling and grumbling to keep up the b a l l , Now teazing and vexing, yet laughing at a l l ? ( U . 53-56) The epitaph on Richard Burke i s marked by many of the usual characteris-t i c s of anapaestic verse, notably the frequent use of present participles 127 and the colloquial style. Present participles, i n this case, very effec-t i v e l y convey the sense of continuous and unrestrained activity which i s central to Richard Burke's character, as Goldsmith sees i t . The lowness of the style i s likewise appropriate here, for Goldsmith conceives of Richard Burke as a low character, as a buffoon almost. The lin e "Now breaking a jest, and now breaking a limb" evokes the image of a knock-about comedian, though this line also has a definite basis i n Richard Burke's l i f e , as i t appears from the explanatory notes included in an early edition of the poem: "This gentleman having slightly fractured one of his arms and legs, at different times, the Doctor has r a l l i e d him on those accidents, as a kind of retributive justice for breaking his jests upon other people 1" (Friedman, IV, 355n). The breaking of jests, a low expression, seems to be an activity endemic to buffoons and others who try to appear wittier than they are. Samuel Butler's "Small Poet," for 1 8 example, "takes Jests from the Owners and breaks them. . ." (p. 84), and his "Buffoon" "breaks jests, as man (sic] do glasses, by mischance. . ." (p. 254). The guide i n the Tower i n The London Spy "now and then endeav-oured to break a jest to divert his customers, but did i t so l i k e an Ir i s h -man that I had much ado to forbear t e l l i n g the fellow what a fool he was 1 9 i n endeavouring to be witty." 7 Richard Burke has wit, but at the same time he attempts to be too unrelievedly witty: "In short so provoking a Devil was Dick,/That we wish'd him f u l l ten times a day at Old Nick. . ." (11. 57-58). The references to the Devil i n this couplet il l u s t r a t e well how distant Retaliation i s from the satanic imagery and actual curses of earlier verse satires. Again, Goldsmith offers what amounts to a playful commentary on s a t i r i c tradition, whether i t i s intentional or not. The fourth and the longest of the minor portraits i n Retaliation i s a depiction of Dr. John Douglas—scarcely a depiction, actually, for 128 almost all of what Goldsmith reveals about Douglas's character is contained in the first of the seven couplets in the epitaph: "Here Douglas retires from his toils to relax,/The scourge of impostors, the terror of quacks. . ." (11. 79-80). The epitaph opens with a transition from the sketch of Rich-ard Cumberland by way of the contrast between Douglas's "toils" and Cumber-land's laziness (l. 78). According to Sir Leslie Stephen, industry was indeed a prominent character-trait of Dr. Douglas: "his family never 20 saw him without a book or pen in his hand when not in company. ..." What follows after the opening couplet of the epitaph on Douglas are satire on Douglas's targets and description of the society which prompts Douglas's "toils." Thus, the portraiture technique in this epitaph is quite dif-ferent from the techniques employed by Goldsmith in the other epitaphs I have examined to this point. The style Goldsmith adopts for this epi-taph lies in sharp contrast to the low, colloquial style of the epitaph on Richard Burke: Come all ye quack bards, and ye quacking divines, Come and dance on the spot where your tyrant re&lines, When Satire and Censure encircl'd his throne, I fear'd for your safety, I fear'd for my own; But now he is gone, and we want a detector, Our Dodds shall be pious, our Kenricks shall lecture; Macpherson write bombast, and call it a style, Our Townshend make speeches, and I shall compile; New Lauders and Bowers the Tweed shall cross over, No countryman living their tricks to discover; Detection her taper shall quench to a spark, And Scotchman meet Scotchman and cheat in the dark. (11. 81-92) Now this is much closer to serious satire. As is also true of so many satires in heroic couplets, the verses are filled with the names of offend-ers, though the presence of Goldsmith himself among the guilty partly undermines serious satiric intent. The style is likewise raised by the apostrophe to the offenders and by the use of personified abstractions. 129 The seriousness of the apostrophe, however, i s undercut by the low word "quacking." Here i s the kind of mingling of different registers of dic-tion, which, as I have noted, characterizes Byrom's mock-heroic anapaests, and which constitutes one of the chief delights of eighteenth-century poetry. Here, the personified abstractions, as i s frequently the case 21 in the poetry of this period, produce a p i c t o r i a l effect. The f i r s t picture i s that of Douglas seated on a throne, being circled by the f i g -ures Satire and Censure. The second picture represents Detection and her taper, the quenching of the taper paralleling the death of Douglas. Sat-ire on Scots i s typical of Goldsmith's time, but i t i s less typically combined with the praise of a Scot such as that which Goldsmith devotes to Douglas. Of course, the lines on Douglas do not form part of Goldsmith's poem solely by contrast to the rest of i t . An important theme of Retalia-tion i s expressed i n these lines. A l l of the offenders that Goldsmith sin-gles out from the herd share one thing—the misapplication of their talents. Dodd was not formed for piety, nor Kenrick for lecturing, Macpherson for epic poetry, Townshend:for oratory, Goldsmith for wasting his l i t e r a r y t a l -ent on compilations. Where there i s satire elsewhere i n the poem, the misapplication of talents i s frequantly i t s subject. Edmund Burke "cuts blocks with a razor" (1 . 42); Cumberland claims to write comedy, but he does not; and Garrick acts when he should be sincere. Reynolds, the norm in this respect, was born to dojwhathe does so well.: Immediately preceding the portrait of the "bland" Reynolds i s that of the "blunt" Hickey. Reynolds's manners represent a definite contrast to Hickey's, and Goldsmith states e x p l i c i t l y that Reynolds's manners are the norm by which those of other men should be judged (11. 141-42). That the epitaph of the person who might profit most from the example of Reyn-olds's good manners immediately precedes the epitaph of Reynolds, himself, 130 suggests that Goldsmith has carefully planned the ordering of the portraits i n Retaliation. Most of the epitaphs i n the poem have parallels and con-trasts with both the preceding epitaph and the succeeding one. The por-t r a i t of Hickey i s no exception. In his manners, he i s opposed to Reynolds; in his treatment of friends, to Garrick. Garrick "cast off his friends, as a huntsman his pack" (1. 107): the simile implies that Garrick treats his friends as i f they were inferiors or dependents. Of Hickey, on the. other hand, Goldsmith says that "He cherish'd his friend, and he relish'd a bumper" (1. 127). The s a t i r i c norms, as I have said, are mainly found i n the web of contrasts i n the poem. Nearly a l l of the nine men portrayed (ten i f self-portrayal i s counted) are praised for virtues, and many of these virtues are notably lacking from the characters of others i n the club. Given, however, Goldsmith's equivocations between praise and c r i t i -cism, many of these contrasts are complex. The opposition between Garrick's and Hickey's attitudes toward friends i s one of these. The complexity arises from the second half of the line on Hickey and friendship: "he relish'd a bumper." Since a good companion may, or even ought to, enjoy a social drink, Goldsmith appears to be presenting an admirable quality i n Hickey, and this impression i s strengthened by the contrast between Hickey's healthy, and Garrick's diseased, "relish" ( l . 111). But the sec-ond half of the lin e on Hickey provides further problems. Are friendship and alcoholic beverages things of equal value for Hickey, as may be implied by the coordinate and parallel structure of the line? Is Goldsmith prais-ing Hickey, or i s he accusing him of a lack of discrimination, by means of a s a t i r i c technique that Pope had perfected i n The Rape of the Lock—the structural equation of things of very different moral value? As I have already indicated, the same effect of equivocation i s achieved i n the portrait of Hickey by the use of internal dialogue. A question and an-131 swer form i s used to discover Hickey 1 s single f a u l t . The very fact of asking whether or not Hickey has a certain fault raises doubt. Does the questioner have reason to suspect that Hickey has this particular fault? Conversely, a strongly negative reply to the question may imply that Hickey has the opposite fault to that which has been suggested. The faults that are suggested also f i t into the scheme of contrasts and parallels i n the poem—for example, "Perhaps he confided i n men as they go,/And so was too foolishly honest; ah, no" (11. 133-34)• Hickey i s not "too foolishly honest," but may i t not be a good quality to trust one's fellow men? Hickey, i t would seem, i s secretive about himself. He i s somewhat like Thomas Barnard, who hides his faults, and t o t a l l y unlike Goldsmith, who i s "too foolishly honest," since he punningly ca l l s himself a fool and since he openly includes himself among those who are satirized for their faults. The f i n a l line of the epitaph on Hickey depends for i t s effect on something quite apart from the context provided by contrasts and parallels in the poem. The epitaph on Hickey operates within a long tradition of satirizing lawyers,, particularly as cheats and avaricious men. This t r a -dition i s especially strong i n the eighteenth century. The examples are legion. Pope speaks of "vile Attornies" i n the Epistle to Bathurst ( l . 274) and about the lawyers who inundate Brita i n i n his Imitation of The  Second Satire of Dr» John Donne (11. 85-86). Samuel Johnson appears to have entertained a low opinion of the profession, as can be concluded from the following passage from BosweLl's Li f e of Johnson; Much enquiry having been made concerning a gentleman, who had quitted a company where Johnson was, and no information being obtained; at last Johnson observed, that "he did not care to speak i l l of any man behind his back, but he believed the gen-tleman was an attorney." 2 2 132 In the f i f t h number of The Bee, Goldsmith writes, The pawnbroker, the attorney, and other pests of society, might, by proper management, be turned into serviceable members; and, were their trades abolished, i t i s possible the same avarice that conducts the one, ;or, the same chicanery that characterizes the other, might, by proper regulations, be converted into f r u -gality, and commendable prudence. (I, 441) 1 1 1 The Vicar of Wakefield George Primrose t e l l s of the young gentleman to whom he acted as travelling tutor on a tour through France and Italy: "He was heir to a fortune of about two hundred thousand pounds, l e f t him by an uncle i n the West Indies; and his guardians, to qualify him for the management of i t , had bound him apprentice to an attorney. Thus avarice was his prevailing passion. . ." (IV, 120). The sense of consequence im-plied by the word "Thus," in this passage from The Vicar, depends rather on the reader's low estimation of attorneys than on a l o g i c a l premise e x p l i c i t l y stated. The result i s a fine comic touch. It i s this t r a d i -tional treatment of lawyers, suggested here by a few illustrations, which makes an effective climax of the revelation of Joseph Hickey's single fault i n Retaliation: "Then what was his failing? come t e l l i t , and burn ye,/He was, could he help i t ? a special attorney" (11. 135-36).^ James Prior suggests that i n Goldsmith's personal encounters with Joseph Hickey, particularly during Goldsmith's t r i p to Paris i n the summer of 1770, the attorney's unpolished mind and manners f a i l e d to make a f a -vourable impression on the poet. Prior comments on the epitaph i n Retalia- tion: "These lines, with a l l the delicate dexterity shown i n sketching nearly a l l the characters i n that production hint more than they express . . . ." 2 4 The epitaph on Joseph Hickey has been generally regarded as one of the better minor portraits i n Retaliation, i f a favourable c r i t i c a l 25 evaluation may be inferred from frequency of quotation. The most highly 133 regarded of the major portraits, next to the epitaph on Garrick, i s that on Edmund Burke. As i n the portrait of Hickey, so i n the portrait of Burke one of Goldsmith 1s techniques i s equivocation between praise and censure. Certain phrases seem to reflect simultaneously i n two directions. Goldsmith says that Burke i s "too proud for a wit" (1. 38). This may very well be a compliment: the kind of wits that Goldsmith has i n mind are quite l i k e l y low and obsequious, only achieving wit through loss of dig-nity. S t i l l , the matter of how much pride Burke possesses has been l e f t open: might not Burke be guilty of the sin of pride? Or, on the other hand, might not Burke wish to be considered a "wit"? Goldsmith's "delicate dexterity" i n Retaliation consists partly of this effect of equivocation. The occasion of the poem for Goldsmith seemed to be one which demanded that most of the criticism be indirect. His primary audience, i t should not be forgotten, was a group of highly l i t e r a t e men, who might be expected to be more receptive to subtleties of this kind than would the larger pub-l i c reached by the more popular satires of Goldsmith's day. Edmund Burke, as he i s portrayed by Goldsmith, i s essentially a man who has misapplied his great intelligence and sound learning. The essences of the characters of Edmund and William Burke are both clearly expressed i n Goldsmith's portraits. The portrait of Edmund Burke, however, commands much greater credibility, due to the larger number of details through which his essence i s bodied forth. According to Goldsmith, Edmund Burke i s one Who, born for the Universe, narrow'd his mind, And to party gave up, what was meant for mankind. Tho' fraught with all,learning, kept straining his throat, To persuade Tommy Townsend to lend him a vote; Who, too deep for his hearers, s t i l l went on refining, And thought of convincing, while they thought of dining; Tho' equal to a l l things, for a l l things unfit, Too nice for a statesman, too proud for a wit: For a patriot too cool; for a drudge, disobedient, And too fond of the right to pursue the expedient. " " ( 1 1 . 31-40) 134 The word "too" dominates this passage, emphasizing how i l l suited Edmund Burke appears, to Goldsmith, for the career he has chosen. The portrait of Burke i s strongly marked by parallelism and antithesis. In the passage quoted, there are a number of structural parallels. Lines thirty-one and thirty-five introduce compound relative clauses. The second half of each relative clause i s introduced by the coordinating conjunction "And" in lines thirty-two and thirty-six. The parallelism i s continued i n lines t h i r t y -three and thirty-seven, both of which begin with the word "Tho'." The antitheses are numerous: Between "party" and "mankind," between "convinc-ing" and "dining," and between "the right" and "the expedient." These lines are among the most balanced and urbane i n the entire poem. The implication i s that Goldsmith has carefully weighed each of Burke's actions and character-traits before having arrived at a judgement of his character. In the minor portraits, with the exception of the epitaph on Douglas, Goldsmith mainly pokes fun. In the portrait of Burke—at least u n t i l the f i n a l couplet, i n which there i s a lowering of tone—Goldsmith uses the anapaestic couplet i n much the same way Swift had i n several of his anapaestic character-sketches: the major structural devices are those commonly associated with the heroic couplet. In fact, Goldsmith's portrait of Edmund Burke i s , JLn^some -respects, similar to Pope's portrait of the Duke of Wharton in the Epistle to Cob-ham. Wharton shares at least a couple of things with Burke. Both are politicians, and both have great natural g i f t s . Four lines from Pope's portrait w i l l show further similarities: A constant Bounty which no friend has made; An angel Tongue, which no man can persuade; A Fool, with more of Wit than half mankind, Too quick for Thought, for Action too refin'd. . . . (11. 198-201) 135 While both Burke and Wharton are excellent orators, neither has much suc-cess at persuasion. Wharton cannot persuade anyone, and Burke's audience thinks rather of dinner than of his speeches. Again, the adverb "too" i s used to emphasize the sa t i r i c target's unsuitability for certain ac-t i v i t i e s . Burke i s not suited to be a po l i t i c i a n , at least not i f he works for the good of party instead of mankind and not when parliament i s com-posed of such men as Tommy Townshend. Wharton, on the other hand, i s not suited for such fundamental human a c t i v i t i e s as action and thought. Pope's satire on Wharton i s harsher than Goldsmith's on Burke, but both portraits are mild i n comparison to the attack on Sporus. In the Wharton portrait, as i n the portrait of Burke, there i s frequent use of antithesis and r e l -ative absence of conventional metaphor. It i s tempting to suggest that Pope's less vituperative sketches are marked by antithesis and parallelism, and his more virulent s a t i r i c portraits, though frequently antithetical, marked by an abundance of imagery. Animal imagery, i n particular, i s much better suited to the strains of heroic hatred i n the Sporus portrait than to the balanced and urbane tones of the Wharton sketch. If a lack of conventional imagery does, i n fact, characterize Pope's milder s a t i r i c portraits, then i t i s not surprising that Goldsmith's Retaliation, which i s milder satire yet, should have l i t t l e or nothing of the imagery of ani-mals, decay, f i l t h , and the demonic, which so frequently serves to degrade the targets of eighteenth-century satire. The second major portrait i n Retaliation, that of Richard Cumberland, presents few details of characteristic behaviour and concentrates rather on dramatic criticism, a procedure which has resulted i n serious d i f f i c u l -t i e s for interpretation. It seemsclear that Goldsmith c r i t i c i z e s Cumber-land the dramatist, but his attitude toward Cumberland the man i s not quite so accessible. I have already noted that Cumberland regarded the epitaph 136 as wholly complimentary and that Mrs. Thrale thought that he had missed Goldsmith' s subtle irony. A similar division of opinion may be found among c r i t i c s from Goldsmith's time down to the present day. Some c r i t -26 ics believe that the epitaph was intended to be personally complimentary; 27 others, that i t was intended as an ironic assault on Cumberland's vanity. At the centre of this c r i t i c a l debate are the concluding lines of the epitaph, i n which Goldsmith attempts to determine why Cumberland's fools are so very good-hearted: Say was i t that vainly directing his view, To find out mens virtues and finding them few, Quite sick of pursuing each troublesome e l f , He grew lazy at last and drew from himself? (11. 75-78) These four lines are presented as an unanswered question. It seems quite probable, but by no means certain, that Goldsmith intended that an affirm-ative answer should be understood. The possibility, though slight, re-mains that Cumberland may not have drawn his virtuous fools from himself at a l l . If he did so, however, then i t signifies laziness; and this charge may not be a mere poking of fun at a friend, for Cumberland's laziness i s juxtaposed to Douglas's praiseworthy t o i l s . Another ambiguity i s found in the word "vainly." Did Cumberland direct his view i n vain, because virtue was hardly to be found? Or did he direct his view toward society out of pride and arrogance? The l a t t e r possibility cannot be easily dis-missed, for Cumberland has been said to have possessed '.'a vanity that 28 almost defies successful caricature." Lines from a s a t i r i c portrait of an earlier playwright may offer an instructive parallel to the case of Cumberland: Yet s t i l l thy fools shall stand i n thy defence, And j u s t i f i e their Author's want of sense. Let 'em be a l l by thy own model made Of dullness, and desire no foreign aid: 137 That they to future ages may be known, Not Copies drawn, but Issue of thy own. (Mac Flecknoe, 11. 155-60) 2 9 Shadwell forms his fools on the model of his own dullness; Cumberland, on the model of his own virtue. But Dryden's charge against Shadwell i s not confined to the sin of dullness. He deplores the s o l i p s i s t i c attitudes that he discovers behind Shadwell's wit. Shadwell, l i k e the Spider i n The  Battle of the Books, excretes his material entirely from himself. A mi-metic a r t i s t must draw the external world, or, at least, he must not pre-sent what has been drawn from himself as though i t i s an imitation of the real world. Dryden and Swift do not separate the li t e r a r y a r t i s t from the moral agent, and some of the habits of thinking of Dryden and Swift remained in force as long as their works exerted a v i t a l influence. In An Enquiry  into the Present State of Polite Learning (1759), Goldsmith explores the connection between taste and morality. Goldsmith recognizes, however, that i t may be an overly close involvement with his subject that causes him to deduce an universal degeneracy of manners, from so slight an origin as the depravation of taste; to assert, that as a na-tion grows d u l l , i t sinks into debauchery. Yet such, probably, may be the consequence of l i t e r a r y decay; or, not to stretch the thought beyond what i t w i l l bear, vice and stupidity are always mutually productive of each other. ( I , 336) Goldsmith's attitudes here are similar to those of earlier poets i n his assessment of the role of art i n society and, specifically, i n his recog-nition of the effects of dullness on morals. The main target, of course, of the f i n a l four lines of the Cumber-land epitaph i s a society i n which virtue i s so rare that i t can hardly be found i n order to be imitated by the l i t e r a r y a r t i s t . Such a society should prompt the mimetic writer to compose s a t i r i c a l , not sentimental, comedy. Goldsmith was opposed to sentimental dramatic writing during the 138 entire quarter century of his writing career. In Polite Learning he views sentimental comedy as evidence of the depravation of taste i n his c r i t i c a l age: HOWEVER, byjbhe power of one single monosyllable, our c r i t i c s have almost got the victory over humour amongst us. Does the poet paint the absurdities of the vulgarj then he i s low: does he exaggerate the features of f o l l y , to render i t more thoroughly ridiculous, he i s then very low. In short, they have proscribed the comic or satyrical muse from :every walk but high l i f e , which, though abounding i n fools as well as the humblest station, i s by no means so f r u i t f u l i n absurdity. (I, 320) In 1773 Goldsmith's "Essay on the Theatre" was published, possibly i n prep-aration for the "laughing" comedy of She Stoops to Conquer. Goldsmith refers to sentimental comedy as a "species of Bastard Tragedy" (III, 212), and he notes that among the ancients Terence approached the nearest to this type of mixed genre (III, 221). This i s one of the reasons that Cumberland i s called "The Terence of England" i n Retaliation (1. 62). Other reasons are possible. Cumberland's Choleric Man, which was f i r s t produced some eight months after the publication of Retaliation, was based 30 on Terence's Adelphi. If Goldsmith knew of Cumberland's plans for this play, he may very well have called Cumberland the English Terence for this reason. There i s something extravagant about the comparison of Rich-ard Cumberland to one of the greatest class i c a l dramatists, and Goldsmith may have included such an overblown, though double-edged, compliment as a matter of ironic course i n the writing of mock-epitaphs. Goldsmith, as has been noted, was well aware of the false f l a t t e r i e s endemic to lapidary verses. The portrait of Cumberland i s central to the web of contrasts i n Gold-smith' s Retaliation. Cumberland i s "A flattering painter, who made i t his care/To draw men as they ought to be, not as they are" (11. 63-64)• 139 In his "Essay on the Theatre," Goldsmith attributes the popularity of sentimental comedy to i t s "flattering every man i n his favourite foible" (III, 212). Cumberland's drama approaches what Samuel Butler called a 31 "fools' paradise <!of what should be, not what is. ' " - ' In contrast to Cumberland i s Reynolds, who was U S t i l l born to improve us i n every part,/ His pencil our faces, his manners our heart" (11. 141-42). Both Cumber-land and Reynolds represent men as better than they actually are, but Reynolds should do so and Cumberland should not: Reynolds works i n the high mimetic form of portrait-painting; Cumberland claims to work i n the lower genre of comedy. Goldsmith refers to Aristotle for his definition of comedy (III, 210), and we may turn to the Poetics for this distinction between higher and lower mimetic forms: "It i s just i n this respect that tragedy differs from comedy. The latter sets out to represent people as worse than they are to-day, the former as better" (Chapter i i ) ; 3 2 and further, "Since tragedy i s a representation of men better than ourselves we must copy the good portrait-painters who, while rendering the individ-ual outline and making likenesses, yet paint people better than they are" (Chapter xv). Reynolds may thus be an admirable painter, while Cumberland misapplies his talents i n the production of "bastard tragedies." The positioning of the portrait of Cumberland between that of Richard Burke and that of Dr. Douglas provides the strongest evidence that Goldsmith carefully arranged his epitaphs i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the contrasts from which his s a t i r i c norms might be inferred. Richard Burke was an amusing man, who laughed at everything. Dr. Douglas exposed hypocrisy and f o l l y wherever i t appeared i n society. Together Richard Burke and Dr. Douglas supply a norm for comedy. Cumberland's comedies should both have amused and have exposed f o l l y , but according to Goldsmith they f a i l e d on both counts. 140 In the representation of his dramatic characters Cumberland offends against truth. Goldsmith hints at a similar offence i n the portrait of David Garrick. Garrick, however, i s not faulted for false representations in the theatre: "On the stage he was natural, simple, affecting. . .". (1. 101). But where Garrick should be most sincere and most natural, i n the company of his friends—there, ."a dupe to his art" (1. 98), he seeks to impress: "Like an i l l judging beauty, his colours he spread,/And be-plaister'd, with rouge, his own natural red"' (11. 99-100). This couplet f i t s into a long l i t e r a r y tradition i n which truth i s known by i t s native simplicity, and falsehood or vice by a glossy veneer, by a painted face, or by the g l i t t e r of jewels. Samuel Butler's Theophrastan Character of "A Player" partakes of the. same li t e r a r y tradition. Butler refers to man's tendency to prefer f i c t i o n to truth, even though " A l l ornament and dress i s but disguise, which plain and naked truth does never put on" (p. 301). Goldsmith, however, plays on the tradition. The "rouge" which i s a necessary part of the actor's equipment i s not noticeable when Garrick i s on the stage, but only at other times when rouge should not have been worn. Garrick, too, misuses great talents, for he acts when i t i s not only unnecessary, but wrong, to do so. Garrick, as he i s portrayed by Goldsmith, seems incapable of forming true friendships, though Goldsmith balances this criticism with an: indication of the fascination with which Garrick's companions behold him: "For he knew when he pleased he could whistle them back" (1. 108). Like Cumberland, Garrick i s viewed by Goldsmith as a vain man. His vanity i s shown through the convincing details of his susceptibility to praise: Of praise, a mere glutton, he swallowed what came, And the puff of a dunce, he mistook i t for fame; ' T i l l his r e l i s h grown callous, almost to disease, Who pepper'd the highest, was surest to please. 141 But l e t us be candid, and speak out our mind, If dunces applauded, he paid them i n kind. (11. 109-14) The portrait of Garrick i s the longest and most detailed i n the poem, and i t holds i t s own with some of the best works i n the eighteenth-century tradition of the li t e r a r y portrait. While i t i s more a balanced character-sketch than a harshly s a t i r i c a l one, i t appears to contain as much satire as any portrait i n Retaliation. In the passage on Garrick's lust for praise, the imagery i s very physical. There i s l i t t l e of the gross phys-i c a l sense of gluttony and swallowing elsewhere i n the poem, even though Goldsmith's delicacy induces him to stop short of actual disease. The eating imagery for fl a t t e r y and the payment for the puffs of dunces made in kind echo the Bufo portrait i n An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot: Proud, as Apollo on his forked h i l l , Sate full-blown Bufo, puff'd by ev'ry q u i l l ; Fed with soft Dedication a l l day long, Horace and he went hand in hand i n song. T i l l grown more frugal i n his riper days, He pay'd some Bards with Port, and some with Praise, To some a dry Rehearsal was assign'd, And others (harder s t i l l ) he pay'd i n kind. (11. 231-34, 241-44) Like Bufo, Garrick i s fed by fl a t t e r y . The portrait of Garrick i n Gold-smith' s higher style of anapaestic c o u p l e t — i t includes an apostrophe to Kenrick, Kelly, Woodfall, and their i l k — i s climactic because i t i s the best portrait i n the poem and also because i t contains several lines of the most intense satire i n Retaliation. The portrait i s also climactic because the "retaliation" of the t i t l e , i s most obvious i n these li n e s . In response to Garrick's clever comment on Goldsmith's height in the phrase "for shortness call'd Noll," Goldsmith produces an equally clever comment on Garrick's height, referring to.ihim as "An abridgement of a l l that was ( 142 pleasant in man" (1. 94j my emphasis). And Goldsmith reflects on Garrick's "wrote like an angel" i n the ambiguous phrase, "To act as an angel, arid mix with the skies" ( l . 120). Several of the important themes of Retalia- tion find expression i n the epitaph on Garrick: the emphasis on truth, as opposed to both insincerity and false flattery, and the concern for proper use of talents. Garrick shares the lack of judgement ("Like an i l l judging beauty"—1. 99) and the apparent capriciousness ("He turn'd and he varied f u l l ten times a day"—1. 104) of the minor Burkes. Ricardo Quintana notes that the portrait of Garrick "shows throughout a good-natured, perfectly 3 3 poised ambiguity of judgement." The portrait of Garrick draws together many of the themes and techniques that Goldsmith has used i n Retaliation and goes a long way toward providing a unified focus for the poem. More than any other character i n the poem Joshua Reynolds serves as a s a t i r i c norm. Reynolds's wisdom l i e s i n opposition to the lack of wis-dom characteristic of William and Richard Burke. The description of Reyn-olds's pencil as "striking, resistless and grand" (1. 139) indicates that he works i n a high mimetic form and, unlike Cumberland, i s entitled to portray characters as better than they really are. His pencil did i n ac-tuality improve Goldsmith's face—perhaps, at least for his immediate audience, the line would have hinted at self-portrayal—and his manners, could readily improve the unpolished manners of a Hickey. The sketch of Reynolds ends with two characteristic gestures of Reynolds's physical behaviour—using an ear trumpet and taking snuff. Perhaps i t i s appropri-ate that the epitaph for a portrait-painter should be imagined in a more pi c t o r i a l manner than the other portraits i n the poem. These characteris-t i c actions were described, i n the Explanatory Notes which accompanied early editions of the poem, "to be as happily given upon paper, as that great Artist himself, perhaps, could have exhibited upon canvas'" (Fried-143 man, IV, 359n). A f i n a l half-line on Reynolds, which i s said to have been the last thing that Goldsmith ever wrote, i s quoted as "By flattery unspoiled" (Friedman, IV, 359n). If this half-line i s authentic, the Reynolds portrait would have made a s t i l l stronger s a t i r i c norm when completed, for Reynolds would have shown the appropriate attitude toward fla t t e r y i n contrast: to David Garrick. As I suggested i n the f i r s t chapter of this thesis, i n the Imitations  of Horace the poet himself represents one of the more important expressions of the s a t i r i c norm. Given the radically different manner of self-portrayal ^ Retaliation, Goldsmith had to seek other means of conveying his norms. F i r s t , he appears to have used an adaptation of the portrait-gallery struc-ture i n which the portraits of inadequate individuals are followed at the end of the poem by the portrait of a normative i n d i v i d u a l — i n this case, Sir Joshua Reynolds. Secondly, Goldsmith wrote character-sketches i n which faults are balanced by virtues, and i n the poem as a whole one man's virtue provides the norm by which another man's fault may be judged. Thirdly, Goldsmith used imagery to supply norms, as in the "coachman/chariot" metaphor i n the epitaph on William Burke and the " i l l judging beauty" simile in the epitaph on Garrick. The simile in the Garrick portrait likewise illustrates Goldsmith's use of liter a r y , and especially s a t i r i c , traditions. Sometimes s a t i r i c tradition i s played upon for comic ends, as i s the case with the traditional satire on lawyers which the portrait of Hickey depends upon for i t s effect. In the instance, however, of the rouge which signi-f i e s Garrick's insincerity, the intent i s wholly serious. Goldsmith's balanced method of portraiture i s often subtly transformed into equivoca-tion between praise and blame, achieving, for example, what Oliver W. Ferguson ca l l s the "delicate ambiguity" of the epitaph on Cumberland.34 Frequently the effect of equivocation i s obtained through Goldsmith's 144 use of internal dialogue, primarily structured i n question and answer form. Delicacy was required of Goldsmith because he was writing for friends and companions about themselves; delicacy was permitted because Goldsmith's intended audience was highly l i t e r a t e . The occasion determined a great deal about Goldsmith's poem. The situation of the dinner club could only produce a comic and playful poem. Retaliation could hardly be expected to have the persistent moral purpose of' The Traveller and The Deserted  Village. The diverse portrait types i n Retaliation were likewise deter-mined by the occasional nature of the poem. Goldsmith was required to sketch men of whom he had no special knowledge, and thus he decided to compose several portraits i n which the emphasis was on epigrammatic wit instead of considered analysis of character. Only the epitaphs on Edmund Burke and Garrick are wholly successful as portraits, because only these have sufficient strength of representative d e t a i l . Most of the other epitaphs succeed but i n other ways than as l i t e r a r y portraits. The minor portraits l i e i n the tradition of anapaestic epigrams and epitaphs; the major portraits, i n the tradition of the more important eighteenth-century sat i r i c portraits, most of which are i n heroic couplets. Corresponding to this division into minor and major i s a general lowering and raising of the style i n which the anapaestic couplet i s written. Even i n the major portraits, however, Goldsmith does not have at his disposal some of the resources which Pope had i n his s a t i r i c portraits. The scheme of the epitaph does not allow Goldsmith to scrutinize, as Pope does, "his char-3 5 acters' dim 'internal view' of themselves";-" and such internal portrayal i s perhaps Pope's greatest strength as a l i t e r a r y p o r t r a i t i s t . The epi-taphs i n Retaliation are basically portrayals from the outside. Only with self-portrayal i n Goldsmith do we have to a significant extent the added dimension of the internal man. Since Goldsmith characterizes his friends 145 under their real names, he i s denied one of the means of typification that Dryden, Swift, and Pope had at their disposal. Nevertheless, i t s occasional nature does not, by any means, prevent Retaliation from being an excellent and, I believe, a lasting poem. John Forster was right to say that the plan of Goldsmith's poem "had grown far beyond i t s original pur-pose" of "r e t a l i a t i o n . " ^ 0 Notes I Tom Davis, Introd., Poems and Plays, by Oliver Goldsmith (London: Dent, 1975), PP» x x i - x x i i . See Friedman1s notes to the poems. In his biography The Notable  Man: The Li f e and Times of Oliver Goldsmith (London: Hamish Hamilton, 1977), John Ginger asserts that Goldsmith had J'a tendency to give up when his material seemed to resist his efforts to get i t into shape" (pp. 180-81). Ralph W. Rader believes that Goldsmith's d i f f i c u l t y i n completing The Deserted Village was the result of a conflict between didactic inten-tion and l y r i c presence ("The Concept of Genre and Eighteenth-Century Studies," i n New Approaches to Eighteenth-Century Literature: Selected  Papers from the English Institute, ed. P h i l l i p Harth (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 19743, P» 101). 3 "The Structural Design of the Formal Verse Satire," PQ, 21 (1942), -372. 4 H. H. Erskine-Hill, Introd., Pope: Horatian Satires and Epistles, ed. Erskine-Hill (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1964), p. 10. 5 I quote from the definition of satura i n P. K. Elkin, The Augustan  Defence of Satire (Oxford: Clarendon, 1973), p. 29. 6 See above p. 40. 7 "iA Garden,-arid, a Grave': The Poetry of Oliver Goldsmith," i n The Author i n His Work: Essays on a Problem i n Criticism, ed. Louis L. Martz and Aubrey Williams (New Haven:- Yale Univ. Press, 1978), p. 8. 8 "To Daniel Hodson," c. 31 August 1758, Letter 11, The Collected  Letters of Oliver Goldsmith, ed. Katharine C. Balderston (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1928), p. 51. 9 I have taken this information from Frederick A. De Armas, Paul  Scarron, TWAS, 194 (New York: Twayne, 1972), pp. 5, 34« 10 These quotations are taken from John Gay: Poetry and Prose, ed. Vinton A. Dearing and Charles E. Beckwith, 2 vols. (Oxford: Clarendon, 1974); The Poems of Alexander Pope, ed. Butt; and The Poetical Works of Richard Savage, ed. Clarence Tracy (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1962). II Cumberland's letter i s quoted i n Richard J» Dircks, "The Genesis and Date of Goldsmith's Retaliation," MP, 75 (1977), 49. Austin Dobson call s the description of the dishes "the poorest part of Retaliation" (The Complete Poetical Works of Oliver Goldsmith, ed. Dobson, The World's Classics, 123 (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1907], p. 224). 146 147 12 Leigh Hunt c r i t i c i z e s Goldsmith for these inconsistencies; see his "Goldsmith: C r i t i c a l Essay on His Writings," i n Classic Tales (Lon-don: John Hunt and Carew Reynell, 1806), I, 51• 13 "Shenstone," i n Lives of the English Poets, ed. George Birkbeck H i l l (Oxford: Clarendon, 190577 H I , 357-58. 14 "Goldsmith and the Burkes," TLS, 12 February 1933, p. 108. I have also found useful information i n William Hunt, "Burke, William," DNB (rpt. 1937-1938). 15 Wecter, p. 108. 1 6 "To Si r William Young," 6 August 1770, The Correspondence of Edmund  Burke, ed. Lucy S. Sutherland (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1960)7 II, 146. 17 See R. S. Crane, "The Houyhnhnms, the Yahoos, and the History of Ideas," i n Reason and the Imagination: Studies in the History of Ideas  1600-1800, ed. J . A. Mazzeo (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 19&2), p. 248. 13 Butler's Characters are quoted from Samuel Butler, 1612-1680:  Characters, ed. Charles W. Daves (Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve Univ., 1970). 19 Ned Ward, The London Spy, ed. Kenneth Fenwick (London: Folio Society, 1955), p. 242. 2 0 "Douglas, John," DNB (rpt. 1937-1938), V, 1243. 2 1 See Jean H. Hagstrum, The Sister Arts: The Tradition of Literary  Pictorialism and English Poetry from Dryden to Gray (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1958), pp. 148, 216-17. op Boswell's L i f e of Johnson, ed. George Birkbeck H i l l ; revised ed. L. F. Powell (Oxford: Clarendon, 1934), II, 126. 2 3 Roger Lonsdale cites some of the passages in this paragraph i n his note to li n e 136 of Retaliation; see The Poems of Thomas Gray, William  Collins, Oliver Goldsmith, ed. Lonsdale, Longmans' Annotated English Poets (London: Longman, 1969), pp. 756n-757n. 24 The L i f e of Oliver Goldsmith, M.B.: From a Variety of Original  Sources ^London: John Murray, 1837), II, 295. 2 5 P. K. Elkin (pp. 192-93) quotes the entire sketch of Hickey, as does Ralph M. Wardle, Oliver Goldsmith (Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas Press, 1957), PP. 281-82. 2 o Among these are S i r Walter Scott, Biographical and C r i t i c a l Notes  of Eminent Novelists (London, 1827), as reprinted i n Goldsmith: The C r i t i -cal Heritage, ed. G. S. Rousseau (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974), p. 273; Hunt, UGoldsmith: C r i t i c a l Essay on His Writings," I, 51; Prior, II, 508; Ricardo Quintana, "Oliver Goldsmith as a C r i t i c of the Drama," SEL, 5 (1965), 452; Elkin, p. 192; and A. Lytton Sells, Oliver Goldsmith: 148 His L i f e and Works (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1974), P» 195. 27 Among these are John Fjorster, The Li f e and Times of Oliver Goldsmith, 5th ed. (London: Bickers & Son, i877T7~P. 380; Robert H. Hopkins, The True Genius of Oliver Goldsmith (Baltimore: .Johns Hopkins Press, 196*9), p. 11; arid Oliver W. Ferguson, "Sir F r e t f u l Plagiary and Goldsmith's 'An Essay on the Theatre': The Background of Richard Cumberland's 'Dedication to Detraction,«" in Quick Springs of Sense: Studies i n the Eighteenth  Century, ed. Larry S. Champion (Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1974), P« 119. 28 Ferguson, p. 117* Contemporaries remarked on Cumberland's vanity: "Mr. Cumberland i s unquestionably a man of very considerable a b i l i t i e s ; ' t i s his misfortune to rate them greatly above their real value, and to suppose that he has no equal" (Thomas Davies, Memoirs of the. L i f e of David  Garrick, Esq's (^ London: Printed for the Author, 17801, II, 275). 2 ^ M a c Flecknoe has been quoted from Poems 1681-1684, ed. H. T. Sweden-berg, J r . and Vinton A. Dearing, Vol. II of The Works of John Dryden, ed. Swedenberg et a l . (Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1972). 3° See' Ferguson, pp. 113-14. 31 I quote from Butler as he i s quoted i n Ricardo Quintana, "Samuel Butler: A Restoration Figure i n a Modern Light," ELH, 18 (1951), 16. 32 Aristotle has been quoted from Aristotle, The Poetics; "Longinus,"  On the Sublime; Demetrius, On Style, trans. W. Hamilton Fyfe (Aristotle and "Longinus") and W. Rhys Roberts (Demetrius), Loeb Classical Library (London: William Heinemann, 1927). 3^ Oliver Goldsmith: A Georgian Study, Masters of World Literature (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967), p. 169. 34 Ferguson, p. 119. 35 John E. Sitter, "The Argument of Pope's Epistle to Cpbham," SEL, 17 (1977), 448. 36 porster, p. 457. Bibliography of Works Cited Aden, John M. Something Like Horace; Studies i n the Art and Allusion of Pope's Horatian Satires. Nashville: Vanderbilt Univ. Press, 1969. Alpers, Paul J . "Pope's To Bathurst and the Mandevillian State." ELH, 25 (1958), 23-42. Altick, Richard D. "Mr. Cambridge Serenades the Berry Sisters." N&Q, 183 (1942), 158-61. Anstey, Christopher. The Poetical Works of the Late Christopher Anstey,  Esq. with Some Account of the Life and Writings of the Author, by His  Son, John Anstey, Esq. London: Printed for T. Cadell and W. Davies, Aristotle. Aristotle, The Poetics; "LonginusV On the Sublime; Demetrius,  On Style. Trans. W. Hamilton Fyfe and W. Rhys Roberts. Loeb Clas-s i c a l library. London: William Heinemann, 1927. Balderston, Katharine C. The History and Sources of Percy's Memoir of  Goldsmith. Cambridge, 1926; rpt. New York: Kraus Reprint, 1969. . Rev. of Oliver Goldsmith, by Ralph Wardle. P£, 38 (1959), 327-28. Bate, W. Jackson. "Johnson and Satire Manque." In Eighteenth-Century  Studies i n Honor of Donald F. Hyde. Ed. W. H. Bond. New York: Grolier Club, 1970, pp. i L ^ ^ O . Blake, William. The Poetry and Prose of William Blake. Ed. David V. Erdman. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, 1965. Blunden, Edmund. "Goldsmith's Bicentenary." In Votive Tablets: Studies  Chiefly Appreciative of English Authors and Books. London: Cobden-Sanderson, 1931, pp. 154-59. Boswell, James. Boswell's Life of Johnson. Ed. George Birkbeck H i l l . Revised ed. L. F. Powell. ITvols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1934. Brady, Frank, and Martin Price, eds. English Prose and Poetry 1660-1800: A Selection. New York: Holt, Rinehart^ and Winston, 1961. Bronson, B. H. "When Was Neoclassicism?" In Studies i n Criticism and  Aesthetics, 1660-1800: Essays i n Honor of Samuel Holt Monk. Ed. Howard Anderson and John S. Shea. Minneapolis: Univ. of Minnesota Press, 1967, pp. 13-35. Brown, Wallace Cable. Charles Churchill: Poet, Rake, and Rebel. Lawrence: 149 150 Univ. of Kansas Press, 1953• Brown, Wallace Cable. The Triumph of Form; A Study of the Later Masters  of the Heroic Couplet. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1948. Burke, Edmund. Volume II of The Correspondence of Edmund-Burke. Ed. Lucy S. Sutherland. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, I960. Butler, Samuel. Samuel Butler, 1612-1680: Characters. Ed. Charles W. Daves. Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve Univ., 1970. Buxton, John. The Grecian Taste: Literature in the Age of Neo-Classicism  1740-1820. London: Macmillan, 1978. Byrom, John. Miscellaneous Poems, by John Byrom, M.A. F.R.S. Some Time  Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Inventor of the Universal  English Short-Hand. To Which Are Added His Life and Notes by the  Editor. 2 vols, bound in 1. Leeds: Printed by and for James Nichols, 1814. Cambridge, Richard Owen. In Vol. XVIII of The Works of the English Poets,  from Chaucer to Cowper. Ed. Alexander Chalmers. London: Printed for J. Johnson and the London Booksellers, 1810. Carnochan, W. B. "Satire, Sublimity, and Sentiment: Theory and Practice in Post-Augustan Satire." PMLA, 85 (1970), 260-67. Caskey, John Homer. The Life and Works of Edward Moore. Yale Studies in English, 75. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1927. Chapin, Chester F. Personification in Eighteenth-Century English Poetry. New York: King's Crown Press of Columbia Univ., 1955. Chapman, R. W. "Dodsley's Collection of Poems by Several Hands." Oxford  Bibliographical Society: Proceedings and Papers, 3 (1931-193317 269-316. Churchill, Charles. The Poetical Works of Charles Churchill. Ed. Douglas Grant. Oxford: Clarendon, 1956. Clifford, James. Rev. of Oliver Goldsmith, by Ralph Wardle. Johnsonian  News Letter, 17 (October 1957), 6-7. Cohen, Ralph. "On the Interrelations of Eighteenth-Century Forms." In New Approaches to Eighteenth-Century Literature: Selected Papers  from the English Institute. Ed. Phillip Harth. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1974, pp. 33-78. Cooke, William. "Dr. Goldsmith." European Magazine, 24 (1793), 91-95, 170-74, 258-63. Courtney, W. P. "Dodsley's Famous Collection of Poetry." N&Q, 10th ser., 8 (1907), 384-85. Crane, Ronald S., ed. A Collection of English Poems,^ 1660^ 1800." New York: 1 5 1 Harper & Row, 1 9 3 2 . Crane, Ronald S. "The Houyhnhnms, the Yahoos, and the History of Ideas." In Reason and the Imagination; Studies i n the History of Ideas 1 6 0 0 -1 8 0 0 . Ed. J . A. Mazzeo. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1 9 6 2 , pp. 2 3 1 - 5 3 . Cumberland, Richard. Memoirs of Richard Cumberland; Written by Himself.  Containing an Account of His Life and Writings, Interspersed with Anecdotes and Characters of Several of the Most Distinguished Persons  of His Time, with Whom He Has Had Intercourse and Connexion.. 2 vols. London: Printed for Lackington, Allen, & Co., 1 8 0 ? . Cunningham, John. Poems, Chiefly Pastoral. London: Printed for the Author, 1 7 6 6 . . The Poetical Works of John Cunningham: With the Life of the Author. In Vol. VI of Cooke's Pocket Edition of the Original and Complete Works of Select B r i t i s h Poets. London: Printed for C. Cooke, n.d. Cunningham, Peter, ed. The Works of Oliver Goldsmith. 4 vols. London: John Murray, 1 8 5 4 . Davies, Thomas. Memoirs of the Life of David Garrick, Esq. Interspersed  with Characters and Anecdotes of His Theatrical Contemporaries. The  Whole Forming a History of the Stage, Which Includes a Period of  Thirty-Six Years. 2 vols. London: Printed for the Author, 1 7 8 0 . Davis, Tom, ed. Poems and Plays. By Oliver Goldsmith. London: Dent, 1 9 7 5 . Day, Martin S. "Anstey and Anapestic Satire i n the Late Eighteenth Century." ELH, 1 5 ( 1 9 4 8 ) , 1 2 2 - 4 6 . De Armas, Frederick A. Paul Scarron. TWAS, 1 9 4 . New York: Twayne, 1 9 7 2 . Dircks, Richard J . "The Genesis and Date of Goldsmith's Retaliation." MP, 7 5 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , 4 8 - 5 3 . Dobson, Austin. "'Cambridge, the Everything.'" In Eighteenth Century  Vignettes. Third Series. A New.Edition. London: Chatto & Windus, 1 9 0 7 , pp. 1 7 9 - 2 0 5 . Dobson, Austin, ed. The Complete Poetical Works of Oliver Goldsmith. The World's Classics, 123 . London: Oxford Univ.. Press, 1 9 0 7 . Dodsley, Robert. A Collection of Poems in Six Volumes: By Several Hands. London: Printed for J . Dodsley, 1 7 7 0 . Doughty, Oswald. "The Poet of the 'Familiar Style.'" English Studies, 7 ( 1 9 2 5 ) , 5 - 1 0 . Dryden, John. Poems 1 6 8 1 - 1 6 8 4 . Ed. Hy T. Swedenberg, J r . and Vinton A. Dearing. Vol. II of The Works of John Dryden. Ed. Swedenberg et a l . Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1 9 7 2 . 152 Dryden, John. Poems 1693-1696. Ed. A. B. Chambers, William Frost, and Vinton A. Dearing. Vol. IV of The Works of John Dryden. Ed. H. T. Swedenberg, J r . et a l . Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1974. Dussinger, John A. "Oliver Goldsmith, Citizen of the World." Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 55 (1967), 445-61. Eddy, Donald D. "Dodsley 1s Collection of Poems by Several Hand3 (Six Volumes), 1758: Index of Authors." PBSA, 60 (1966), 9-30. Ehrenpreis, Irvin. "Meaning: Implicit and E x p l i c i t . " In New Approaches  to Eighteenth-Century Literature: Selected Papers from the English  Institute. Ed. P h i l l i p Harth. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1974, PP. 117-55. . "Personae." In Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Literature: Essays i n Honor of Alan Dugald McKillop. Ed. Carroll Camden. Chicago: Published for Rice Univ. by Univ. of Chicago Press, 1963, pp. 25-37. E l i o t , T. S., introd. London: A Poem and The Vanity of Human Wishes. By Samuel Johnson. London: Frederick Etchells & Hugh Macdonald, 1930. E l i o t , T. S. "What i s Minor Poetry?" Sewanee Review, 54 (1946), 1-18. Elkin, P. K. The Augustan Defence of Satire. Oxford: Clarendon, 1973. Erskine-Hill, H. H.,ved. Pope: Horatian Satires and Epistles. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1964. Ferguson, Oliver W. "Goldsmith's 'Retaliation.'" SAQ, 70 (1971), 149-60. . "Sir F r e t f u l Plagiary and Goldsmith's 'An Essay on the Theatre': The Background of Richard Cumberland's 'Dedication to Detraction.'" In Quick Springs of Sense: Studies i n the Eighteenth Century. Ed. Larry S. Champion. Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press, 1974, pp. 113-20. Fisher, Alan Simonton. "The Form, History, and Significance of the Augus-tan Literary Portrait." Diss. California (Berkeley) 1969. a a s . "The Stretching of Augustan Satire: Charles Churchill's •Dedication' to Warburton." JEGP, 72 (1973), 360-77. Forster, John. The Li f e and Times of Oliver Goldsmith. 5th ed. London: Bickers & Son, 1877. Fraser, G. S. "Johnson and Goldsmith: The Mid-Augustan Norm." Essays  and Studies, 23 (1970), 51-70. Frye, Northrop. "Towards Defining an Age of Sensibility." ELH, 23 (1956), 144-52. Fussell, Paul. The Rhetorical World of Augustan Humanism: Ethics and  Imagery from Swift to Burke. Oxford: Clarendon, 1965* . Theory of Prosody i n Eighteenth-Century England. Connecticut 153 College Monograph, No. 5. New London: Connecticut College, 1954« Gallaway, W. F., J r . "The Sentimentalism of Goldsmith," i.PMM, 48 (1933), 1167-81. Garrick, David. The Poetical Works of David Garrick. .2 vols. London, 1785; rpt. New York: Benjamin. Blom, 1968. Gay, John. The Beggar's Opera. Ed. Peter Elfed Lewis. New York: Harper & Row, 1973. John Gay: Poetry and Prose. Ed. Vinton A. Dearing and Charles E. Beckwith. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1974* Ginger, John. The Notable Man: The Life and Times of Oliver Goldsmith. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1977* Golden, Morris. Rev. of Oliver Goldsmith, by Ralph Wardle. MLN, 73 (1958), 443. Goldsmith, Oliver. The Collected Letters of Oliver Goldsmith. Ed. Kath-arine C. Balderston. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1928. . Collected Works of Oliver Goldsmith. Ed. Arthur Friedman. 5 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1966. Gray, Thomas. Thomas Gray and William Collins: Poetical Works. Ed. Roger Lonsdale. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1977. Greene, Donald. "Latitudinarianism and Sensibility: The Genealogy of the 'Man of Feeling' Reconsidered." MP, 75 (1977), 159-83. . Rev. of The Augustan Vision, by Pat Rogers. ECS, 9 (1975), 128-33. Grundy, Isobel. "Pope, Peterborough, and the Characters of Women." RES, 20 (1969), 461-68. Hagstrum, Jean H. The Sister Arts: The Tradition of Literary Pictorialism .and English Poetry from Dryden to Gray. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago .... • Press, 1958. . "Verbal and Visual Caricature i n the Age of Dryden, Swift, and Pope." In England i n the Restoration and. Early. Eighteenth Cen-tury: Essays on Culture and.Society. Ed. H. T. Swedenberg, J r . Berkeley and Los Angeles: Univ. of California Press, 1972, pp. 173-Hirsch, E. D., J r . Validity i n Interpretation. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1967. Hopkins, Robert H. The True Genius;of Oliver Goldsmith. .'Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1969. ~; &' Hwit, Leigh. "Goldsmith:. C r i t i c a l Essay on His Writings," In Classic  ? Tales. London: John Hunt and. Carew'Reynell, 1806.. I, 41-80. 154 Hunt, William. "Burke, William." DNB (rpt. 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 3 8 ) . Hunter, G. K. "The 'Romanticism* of Pope's Horace." EIC, 10 ( I 9 6 0 ) , 390-404. Hunting, Robert. "The Poems in The Vicar of Wakefield." Criticism, 15 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , 2 3 4 - 4 1 . Irwin, w . R. "Swift the Verse Man." PQ, 54 ( 1 9 7 5 ) , 2 2 2 - 3 8 . Jaarsma, Richard J. "Satire, Theme, and Structure i n The Traveller." TSL, 16 ( 1 9 7 1 ) , 4 7 - 6 5 . Jaffe, Nora. Crow. The Poet Swift. Hanover, N. H.: Univ. Press of New England, 1977. Jeffares, A. Norman. Oliver Goldsmith. Writers and Their Work, No. 107. London: Published for the British Council and the National Book League by Longmans, Green & Co., 1 9 5 9 * Johnson, James William. "The Meaning of 'Augustan.'" JHI, 19 ( 1 9 5 8 ) , 5 0 7 - 2 2 . Johnson, Maurice. "Swift's Poetry Reconsidered." In English Writers of  the Eighteenth Century. Ed. John H. Middendorf. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1971, pp. 2 3 3 - 4 8 . Johnson, Samuel. Lives of the English Poets. Ed. George Birkbeck H i l l . 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1 9 0 5 . Keast, W../.R. "The Theoretical Foundations of Johnson's Criticism." In C r i t i c s and Criticism. Ed. R. S. Crane. Abridged Edition. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1 9 5 7 , pp. 1 6 9 - 8 7 . Kernan, Alvin. The Cankered Muse: Satire of the English Renaissance. Yale Studies i n English, Vol. 1 4 2 . New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1 9 5 9 . Kirk, Clara M. Oliver Goldsmith. TEAS, 4 7 . New York: Twayne, 1 9 6 7 . Kulisheck, Clarence L. "Swift's Octosyllabics and the Hudibrastic Tradi-tion." JEGP, 53 ( 1 9 5 4 ) , 3 6 1 - 6 8 . Landor, Walter Savage. "Goldsmith and Gray." In Dry Sticks, Fagoted. Edinburgh: James Nichol, 1 8 5 8 , p. 119. Lang, Varley. "Crabbe and the Eighteenth Century." ELH, 5 ( 1 9 3 8 ) , 3 0 5 - 3 3 . Ledger, Marshall A. "The Decline of Verse Satire: Small Thanks to William Gifford." Enlightenment Essays, 5 , No. 1 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 4 8 - 5 6 . Locke, John. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Ed. A. D. Woozley* The Fdntana Library. London: Colins, 1 9 6 4 . Lockwood, Thomas. "On the Relationship of Satire and Poetry After Pope." SEL, 14 ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 387-402. 155 Lonsdale, Roger. '"A Garden, and a Grave': The Poetry of Oliver Gold-smith." In The Author i n His Work: Essays on a Problem i n Criticism. Ed. Louis L. Martz and Aubrey Williams. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1978, pp. 3-30. Lonsdale, Roger, ed. The Poems of Thomas Gray, William Collins, Oliver Goldsmith. Longmans' Annotated English Poets. London: Longman, 1969. McAdams, William L. "Monstrous Birth: Charles Churchill's Image Cluster." Satire Newsletter, 8 (1970-71), 101-04. Mack, Maynard. "The Muse of Satire." Yale Review, 41 (1951), 80-92. . "Pope: The Shape of the Man i n His Work." Yale Review, 67 (1978), 493-516. McKillop, Alan D. "Local Attachment and Cosmopolitanism—The Eighteenth-Century Pattern." In From Sensibility to,Romanticism: Essays Presented  to Frederick A. Pottle. Ed. Frederick W. Hi l l e s and Harold Bloom. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1965, pp. 191-218. Mahony, Robert. "Lyrical Antithesis: The Moral Style of The Deserted Village." A r i e l , 8, No. 2 (1977), 33-47. M i l l e r , Henry Knight. "The 'Whig Interpretation' of Literary History." ECS, 6 (1972), 60-84. Miner, E a r l . "The Making of The Deserted Village." HLQ, 22 (1959), 125-41. Montague, John. "The Sentimental Prophecy: A Study of The Deserted V i l -lage." Dolmen: Miscellany of Irish Writing, 1 (19^2j, 62-79. . "Tragic Picaresque: Oliver Goldsmith, the Biographical As-pect." Studies, 49 (i960), 45-53. Moore, Edward. Poems, Fables, and Plays. London: Printed for R. and J . Dodsley, 1756. Morley, Edith J. "John Cunningham, 1729-1773." Essays by Divers Hands, 19 (1942), 39-52. Mortier, Roland. "'Sensibility,' 'Neoclassicism,' or 'Preromanticism'?" I n Eighteenth Century Studies: Presented to Arthur M.. Wilson. Ed. Peter Gay. Hanover, N. H.: Univ. Press of New England, 1972, pp. 153-63. Nelson, Beth. George Crabbe and the Progress of Eighteenth-Century Narra- tive Verse. London: Associated Univ. Presses, 1976. Nicole, Pierre. An Essay on True and Apparent Beauty i n Which from Settled  Principles Is Rendered the Grounds for Choosing and Rejecting Epigrams. Trans. J . V. Cunningham. Augustan Reprint Society, No. 24. Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 1950. Patmore, Coventry. Rev. of the Life of Oliver Goldsmith, by Austin Dobson. St. James's Gazette, 16 January 1888. Rpt. as "Goldsmith." In Courage 156 i n P o l i t i c s and Other Essays 1885-1896. Essay Index Reprint Series. 1921; rpt. Freeport, N. Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1968. Paulson, Ronald. The Fictions of Satire. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1967. Pinkus, Philip. "Satire and St. George." Queen's Quarterly, 70 (1963), 30-49. Pinto, V. de Sola. "Isaac Watts and the Adventurous Muse." Essays and  Studies, 20 (1935), 86-107. . "Isaac Watts and William Blake." RES, 20 (1944), 214-23. Piper, William Bowman. The Heroic Couplet. Cleveland: Press of Case Western Reserve Univ., 1969* Pope, Alexander. The Correspondence of Alexander Pope. Ed. George Sher-burn. Vol. IV. Oxford: Clarendon, 1956. . The Poems of Alexander Pope. Ed. John Butt. London: Methuen, 1963. Prior, James. The Li f e of Oliver Goldsmith, M.B.: From a Variety of  Original Sources. 2 vols. London: John Murray, 1837* Prior, Matthew. The Literary Works of Matthew Prior. Ed. H. Bunker Wright and Monroe K. Spears. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971. Probyn, Clive T. "Realism and Raillery: Augustan Conversation and the Poetry of Swift." Durham University Journal, 70 (1977), 1-14. Quintana, Ricardo. Oliver Goldsmith: A Georgian Study. Masters of World Literature. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967. . "Oliver Goldsmith as a C r i t i c of the Drama." SEL, 5 (1965), 435-54. . "Oliver Goldsmith, Ironist to the Georgians." In Eighteenth- Century Studies i n Honor of Donald F. Hyde. Ed. W. H. Bond. New York: Grolier Club, 1970, pp. 297-310. . "Samuel Butler: A Restoration Figure in a Modern Light." ELH, 18 (1951), 7-31. Rader, Ralph W. "The Concept of Genre and Eighteenth-Century Studies." In New Approaches to Eighteenth-Century Literature: Selected Papers  from the English Institute. Ed. P h i l l i p Harth. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1974, PP. 79-115. Randolph, Mary Claire. "'Candour' i n XVIIIth-Century Satire." RES, 20 (1944), 45-62. . "The Structural Design of the Formal Verse Satire." PQ, 21 (1942), 368-84. 157 Reynolds, Joshua. Portraits. Ed. Frederick W. H i l l e s . The Yale Editions of the Private Papers of James Boswell. London: Heinemann, 1952. Rogerson, Brewster. "The Art of Painting the Passions." JHI, 14 (1953), 68-94. Rousseau, G. S., ed. Goldsmith: The C r i t i c a l Heritage. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974. Saintsbury, George. A History of English Prosody from the Twelfth Century  to the Present Day. 2nd ed. 3 vols. 1923; rpt. New York: Russell & Russell, 1961. Savage, Richard. The Poetical Works of Richard Savage. Ed. Clarence Tracy. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1962. Schmitz, R. M. "Peterborough's and Pope's Nymphs: Pope at Work." PQ, 48 (1969), 192-200. Seitz, Robert W. "The Irish Background of Goldsmith's Social and P o l i t i -Thought." PMLA, 52 (1937), 405-11. Sells, A. Lytton. Oliver Goldsmith: His Life and Works. New York: Barnes & Noble, 1974. Shenstone, William. The Poetical Works of William Shenstone: With L i f e ,  C r i t i c a l Dissertation, and Explanatory Notes. Edinburgh: James Nichol, 1858. Sitter, John E. "The Argument of Pope's Epistle to Cobham." SSL, 17 (1977), 435-49. Smith, David Nichol. The Oxford Book of Eighteenth Century Verse. Oxford: Clarendon, 1926. Smith, H. Rossiter. "Matthew Green 1969-1737." 199 (1954), 250-53, 284-87. Smith, Raymond J . Charles Churchill. TEAS, 197. Boston: Twayne, 1977. Steele, Richard. The Lucubrations of Isaac Bickerstaff, Esq; Revised and  Corrected by the Author. % vols. London: Printed for E. and R. Nutt, et a l . , 1723. Stephen, Leslie. "Douglas, John." DNB (rpt. 1937-1938). . "John Byrom." In Studies of a Biographer. London: Duck-worth and Co., 1898. I, 74-104* Storm, Leo F. "Literary Convention i n Goldsmith's Deserted Village." HLQ, 33 (1970), 243-56. Swift, Jonathan.. The Poems of Jonathan Swift. Ed. Harold Williams. 2nd ed. 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon, 1958. Taylor, Houghton W. "'Particular Character': An Early Phase of a L i t -153 erary Evolution." PMLA, 60 (1945), 161-74. Trapp, Joseph. Lectures on Poetry 1742. Trans. William Bowyer and William Clarke. Menston: Scolar, 1973. Walpole, Horace. Horace Walpole1s.Correspondence with William Mason. Ed. W. S. Lewis, Grover Cronin, Jr., and Charles H. Bennett. The Yale  Edition of Horace Walpole's Correspondence. Ed. W. S. Lewis. Vol. XXVIII. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1955. Ward, Ned. The London Spy. Ed. Kenneth Fenwick. London: Folio Society, 1955. Wardle, Ralph M. Oliver Goldsmith. Lawrence: Univ. of Kansas Press, 1957. Wasserman, George R. Samuel "Hudibras" Butler. TEAS, 193. Boston: Twayne, 1976. Wecter, Dixon. "Goldsmith and the Burkes." TLS, 12 February 1938, p. 108. Weinbrot, Howard D. Augustus Caesar i n "Augustan" England: The Decline of a Classical Norm. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1978. . The Formal Strain: Studies i n Augustan Imitation and Satire. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 19o9. Wilkinson, Andrew M. "The Decline of English Verse Satire i n the Middle Years of the Eighteenth Century." RES, NS 3 (1952), 222-33. Wills, Jack C. "The Narrator of The Deserted Village: A Reconsideration." West Virginia Umversity^Bhilological. Papers, 22 (1975), 21-28. Wilmot, John, Earl of Rochester. The Complete Poems of John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester. Ed. David M. Vieth. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1968. . Poems by John Wilmot^ Earl of Rochester. Ed. Vivian de Sola Pinto. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1953. Woods, Samuel H., J r . "The Goldsmith 'Problem.'" SBHT, 19 (1978), 47-60. — • "Tfie Vicar of Wakefield and Recent Goldsmith Scholarship." ECS, 9 (1975), 429-43. Yeats, W. B. The Collected Poems of W. B^ Yeats. 2nd ed. London: Mac-millan, 1950. Young, Edward. The Poetical Works of Edward Young. 2 vols. Aldine Edi-tion of the British Poets. London: B e l l and Daldy, n.d.j rpt. West-port, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1970. 


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items