UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Religion, solitude, and nature in the poetry of the zen monk Ryōkan Yavorsky, Gregory Paul 1980

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RELIGION, SOLITUDE, AND NATURE I N THE POETRYJOF THE ZEN MONK RYSKAN b y G R E G O R Y P A U L Y A V O R S K Y B . A . , M . A . , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1975 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S ( D e p a r t m e n t o f A s i a n S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F A p r i l (cp G r e g o r y P a u l B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A 1980 Y a v o r s k y , 1980 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department nf Al*/%*^ $,4^fL<^ The University of Br i t ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 5 E - 6 B P 7 5 - 5 1 1 E i i ABSTRACT The Zen monk Ryokan (1758-1831), who r e f e r r e d t o h i m s e l f by t h e s e l f - d e p r a c a t i n g term t a i g u o r G r e a t F o o l , i s w i d e l y known i n Japan t h r o u g h f o l k t a l e s w hich s t r e s s t h e e c c e n t r i c i t i e s o f h i s c h a r a c t e r . H i s e x t r e m e l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c a l l i g r a p h y , w i t h i t s s p i d e r y u n r e s t r a i n e d l i n e s , i s most h i g h l y v a l u e d , and new f o r g e r i e s s t i l l appear f r e q u e n t l y . He i s l e s s famous f o r h i s p o e t r y o f which t h e r e remain e x t a n t some 1,400 waka o r Japanese poems and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 450 k a n s h i o r C h i n e s e poems. A l t h o u g h Ryokan's name has become known i n t h e West t h r o u g h t h e Zen boom o f t h e p a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , v e r y l i t t l e c o n c r e t e work has been produced i n e i t h e r t r a n s l a t i o n o r c r i t i c i s m . I t i s my i n t e n t i n t h i s t h e s i s t o examine t h e c o n c e p t s o f r e l i g i o n , s o l i t u d e , and n a t u r e , t h r o u g h a s t u d y o f Ryokan's C h i n e s e poems. I f e e l t h a t t h e s e t h r e e elements a r e c e n t r a l t o an under-s t a n d i n g o f Ryokan's l i f e and p o e t r y . As f o r r e l i g i o n , Ryokan was a S o t o monk who s t u d i e d under t h e Zen Master Kokusen o f E n t s u - j i i n B i t c h u i n what i s today Okayama P r e f e c t u r e . A f t e r g a i n i n g e n l i g h t e n m e n t and r e c e i v i n g i n k a , t h e f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s s p i r i t u a l a t t a i n m e n t , he wandered f o r f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e r e t u r n i n g to h i s n a t i v e p r o v i n c e where he e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e d i n a h e rmitage on Mt. Kugami. U n l i k e t h e m a j o r i t y o f monks o f h i s day, he i i i c o n t i n u a l l y m a i n t a i n e d h i m s e l f by means o f t a k u h a t s u o r mendicancy. T h i s a l i g n s him w i t h h i s p o e t i c model Han-shan ( C o l d Mountain) and o t h e r i l l u s t r i o u s Zen monks such as Shuho Myocho who l i v e d under t h e Gojo b r i d g e f o r twenty y e a r s b e f o r e f o u n d i n g D a i t o k u - j i . Ryokan w r i t e s i n one o f h i s poems, " l i v i n g i n t r a n q u i l i t y t h a t i s b e i n g a monk." The theme o f s o l i t u d e works i n harmony w i t h r a t h e r than i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e i d e a o f s o c i e t y i n t h e s e poems. The r e l i g i o u s s e e k e r i s t r a i n e d by t h e sangha o r community o f monks, and s u p p o r t e d by alms from the l a y community, b u t t h e Zen Way r e l i e s most h e a v i l y on i n d i v i d u a l d e v o t i o n , s t r e n g t h o f d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f - p o w e r ( j i r i k i ) . N a t u r e i s the u n i f y i n g element o f t h e poems f o r i t r e p r e s e n t s to the p o e t , spontaneous e x i s t e n c e , b e f o r e c o n t r i v a n c e s and d u a l i t i e s : Mother Nature as a m i r r o r f o r s e l f - N a t u r e . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e s e major t h e m a t i c elements, t h i s t h e s i s i n c l u d e s some f o r t y - f i v e poems, t h e m a j o r i t y o f which have n o t p r e v i o u s l y been t r a n s l a t e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I : A Note on T r a n s l a t i o n 1 C h a p t e r I I : I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . 6 Chapter I I I : R e l i g i o n 1 2 Chapter IV: Poems on R e l i g i o n 3 0 Chapter V: S o l i t u d e 4 2 Chapter V I : Poems on S o l i t u d e 5 6 Chapter V I I : Nature . . 7 1 Chapter V I I I : Poems on N a t u r e . 8 4 Japanese and C h i n e s e - C h a r a c t e r G l o s s a r y 9 5 Notes 9 8 S e l e c t e d B i b l i o g r a p h y 1 0 1 1 C h a p t e r I : A N O T E ON T R A N S L A T I O N i 2 O n t h e siab j e c t o f t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s , I h a v e o b v i o u s -l y e n d e a v o u r e d , i n a l l w a y s , t o r e m a i n a s c l o s e a s p o s s i b l e t o t h e o r i g i n a l s . E a c h l i n e o f t r a n s l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a l i n e o f t h e o r i g i n a l p o e m . T h e e x c e p t i o n h e r e i s i n c e r t a i n p o e m s w i t h s e v e n c h a r a c t e r l i n e s . W h e r e i t h a s b e e n n e c e s s a r y t o b r e a k u p a l i n e f o r t y p i n g p u r p o s e s , a n i n d e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n d h a l f h a s b e e n u s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e l i n e l e n g t h o f t h e o r i g i n a l . W i t h r e s p e c t t o s y n t a x , I h a v e a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o m a k e t h e o r g a n i z a -t i o n o f p h r a s e s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e o r i g i n a l w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . T h e r e s t r i c t i o n h e r e , h a s b e e n t h e l i m i t n o t o n l y o f E n g l i s h g r a m m a t i c a l p o s s i b i l i t y , b u t a l s o o f a c c e p t a b l e m o d e r n u s a g e . I m i g h t n o t e t h a t t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s w h i c h a p p e a r i n t h i s p a p e r a r e f a r c l o s e r t o t h e C h i n e s e o r i g i n a l s t h a n t h e s y n t a c t i c a l a c r o b a t i c s n e c e s s a r y i n a J a p a n e s e k u n d o k u t r a n s l i t e r a t i o n . I n t h e c a s e o f p u n c t u a t i o n , I h a v e d e f e r r e d t o t h e C h i n e s e c o n v e n t i o n o f u n p u n c t u a t e d t e x t s . H e r e i t i s a q u e s t i o n o f p o e t i c s t y l e . T h e r e h a s y e t t o b e d e v i s e d a s y s t e m o f p u n c t u a t i o n f o r r e a d i n g p o e t r y , a n a l o g o u s t o m u s i c a l n o t a t i o n . J u s t how l o n g a p a u s e i s a p e r i o d , c o m m a , s e m i - c o l o n , o r q u e s t i o n m a r k ? I h a v e p r e f e r r e d t o u s e s p a c e s o f v a r y i n g l e n g t h t o d e n o t e c a e s u r a . T h u s a p a u s e i s r e g u l a t e d b y t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e t h e e y e 3 t a k e s t o p a s s o v e r a s p a c e . T h e i n v e r s e o c c u r s i n t h e b a l l -b o u n c i n g p o e m q u o t e d i n C h a p t e r V, p . 5 2 , w h e r e t h e w o r d s o f t h e f i n a l l i n e h a v e b e e n r u n - o n i n i m i t a t i o n o f c o u n t l e s s c h i l d r e n s ' p l a y t i m e s o n g s we h a v e a l l h e a r d . I h a v e a l s o c h o s e n t o o m i t t h e q u e s t i o n m a r k , r e l y i n g i n s t e a d u p o n t h e r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n t o g r a m m a t i c a l s t r u c t u r e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i n t e r r o g a t i v e . A s f o r c a p i t a l i z a t i o n , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e s a p p l y i n t h e c a s e o f p e r s o n a l n a m e s a n d t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a -t i o n s . H o w e v e r , s i n c e m u c h o f C h i n e s e p o e t r y i s c o m p o s e d o f p a r a l l e l l i n e s o r p a r a l l e l c o u p l e t s , I h a v e c a p i t a l i z e d t h e i n i t i a l l e t t e r o f e a c h l i n e b e g i n n i n g a p a r a l l e l c o u p l e t , e a c h l i n e p r e c e d e d b y a n e n d - s t o p p e d l i n e , a n d t h e i n i t i a l l e t t e r o f e a c h f i r s t l i n e . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e t e r m Z e n , i t i s s p e l l e d w i t h a l o w e r c a s e l e t t e r w h e n i t r e f e r s t o d h y a n a , o r m e d i t a t i o n a l p r a c -t i c e , a n d w i t h a c a p i t a l l e t t e r w h e n i t r e f e r s t o t h e s c h o o l o f B u d d h i s m . I t i s my b e l i e f t h a t t h e l a n g u a g e o f p o e t r y m u s t b e i m m e d -i a t e a n d v i b r a n t i f t h e r e a d e r i s t o e l i c i t i t s m e a n i n g . I f t h e l a n g u a g e o f a p o e m d o e s n o t c a p t u r e o u r a t t e n t i o n , i f i t i s n o t a l i v e t o u s , t h e n t h e m e a n i n g w i t h i n i s n o t t r a n s m i t t e d . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , I h a v e t r i e d a s m u c h a s p o s s i b l e t o t r a n s l a t e t h e s e p o e m s i n m o d e r n s p o k e n l a n g u a g e . R y o k a n ' s p o e m s l i k e t h o s e o f Q H a n - s h a n , whom h e a d m i r e d , a l l u d e d t o a n d s o m e t i m e s i m i t a t e d , w e r e s i m p l y w r i t t e n i n o f t e n c o l l o q u i a l l a n g u a g e . I h a v e t r i e d 4 t o p r e s e r v e t h a t e l e m e n t . T h i s a p p r o a c h h o w e v e r , i s n e i t h e r n e w n o r u n i q u e . I n t h e m i d - 1 9 5 0 ' s G a r y S n y d e r t r a n s l a t e d o n e l i n e o f a H a n - s h a n p o e m , " G o t e l l f a m i l i e s w i t h s i l v e r w a r e a n d c a r s / W h a t ' s t h e u s e o f a l l t h a t n o i s e a n d m o n e y ? " ^ " A n d t h a t i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n t r a n s m i t s a l l t h e f o r c e o f t h e o r i g i n a l . A s f o r t h e c h o i c e o f p o e m s w i t h i n t h i s t e x t , w h e n I b e g a n w o r k i n g o n R y o k a n ' s p o e m s , my s e l e c t i o n w a s b a s e d s i m p l y o n w h a t I w a s c a p a b l e o f r e a d i n g . A s my l a n g u a g e s k i l l s i m p r o v e d a n d t h e t o p i c b e c a m e m o r e c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , I w o u l d r e a d a n d t r a n s -l a t e p o e m s w h i c h c l e a r l y c o n t a i n e d e l e m e n t s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e t h e m e s o f r e l i g i o n , s o l i t u d e , o r n a t u r e . I h a v e , i n t h e c a s e o f t h i s p a p e r , b e e n m o r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h w h a t a p a r t i c u l a r p o e m m i g h t t e l l u s a b o u t t h e s e m a j o r e l e m e n t s o f R y o k a n ' s l i f e t h a n w h e t h e r t h a t p o e m s t o o d w e l l o n i t s o w n a s a p o e m e i t h e r i n S i n o -J a p a n e s e o r i n t r a n s l a t i o n . F r o m t h e M a n ' y o s h u o n d o w n , t h e J a p a n e s e h a v e a l w a y s b e e n g r e a t c o m p i l e r s a n d e d i t o r s o f p o e t r y . M o s t o f t h e p o e m s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s w o r k I am s u r e w o u l d f a l l i n t o t h e i r c a t e g o r y o f z a s s h i o r m i s c e l l a n e o u s p o e m s . T h r o u g h -o u t t h i s p a p e r , t h e c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n a n d a r r a n g e m e n t s . o f p o e m s h a s b e e n s u b j e c t i v e , a n d m a n y p o e m s c o u l d b e m o v e d f r e e l y f r o m o n e c a t e g o r y t o a n o t h e r , b u t t h a t i s d u e t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p o e m s a n d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m a j o r e l e m e n t s o f r e l i g i o n , s o l i -t u d e a n d n a t u r e a r e s o c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d . A f t e r e a c h s e c t i o n o f t e x t , I h a v e i n c l u d e d a s e l e c t i o n o f p o e m s o n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r 5 theme, as the impetus f o r t h i s work has been as much t h e t r a n s l a -t i o n o f Ryokan's p o e t r y as t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . Each poem i n t h i s paper i s s u f f i x e d by a number i n square b r a c k e t s which r e f e r s t o t h e number o f t h e poem i n Togo Toyoharu's work Ryokan Zenshu (Tokyo: Sogensha, 1959). I f t h e r e i s e r r o r i n t h e s e t r a n s l a t i o n s i t i s t h e r e s u l t o f l i n g u i s t i c c o n s e r v a t i s m and my meagre s k i l l s as a t r a n s l a t o r . 6 C h a p t e r I I : I N T R O D U C T I O N 7 This thesis presents the kanshi^" or Chinese s t y l e poems of the Japanese Zen monk Ryokan, whose l i f e spanned the years from 1758 to 1831. The l i t e r a t u r e of t h i s age i s commonly ref e r r e d to as — g chusei bungaku, or medieval l i t e r a t u r e , yet t h i s nomenclature reveals nothing about the l i t e r a t u r e i t s e l f or the times i n which Ryokan l i v e d . In 1853, a mere twenty-two years a f t e r Ryokan's death, Commander Perry s a i l e d into the harbour of Uraga, ending Japanese i s o l a t i o n i s m and ushering the modern age in t o Japan. Ryokan's l i f e -time, from the middle to l a t e Tokugawa era, was a time of great p o l i t i c a l , economic, and c u l t u r a l change i n Japan, yet these changes are not d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t e d i n h i s w r i t i n g . The f a c t i s that Ryokan's l i f e and a r t stood s t i l l against the flow of these changes, pre-serving ancient t r a d i t i o n s against modernity, and i t i s t h i s archaism which i s the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c element of h i s poetic work. But Ryokan was not j u s t a poet. To t h i s day i n Japan, he i s most widely and commonly known as the w i l d l y eccentric monk who passed h i s days playing b a l l bouncing or hide and seek with the v i l l a g e c h i l d r e n , or who cut a hole i n the roof of h i s hut to allow a young bamboo plant to grow and f l o u r i s h . I t i s through the o r a l f o l k t r a d i t i o n that Ryokan.. and the s p i r i t which he represents have become an e s s e n t i a l element of Japanese consciousness. 8 Ryokan i s a l s o known as a h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c a l l i g r a p h e r . The d i s t i n c t y e t s p i d e r y l i n e s o f C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s o r t h e a l t e r -n a t e l y b o l d o r f i n e f l o w i n g l i n e s o f h i s c u r s i v e s c r i p t have l o n g been f a s c i n a t i n g models f o r a s p i r i n g c a l l i g r a p h e r s and c o u n t e r f e i t e r s a l i k e . A l l h i s e x t a n t p i e c e s a r e v a l u e d as n a t i o n a l a r t t r e a s u r e s . Whatever t h e a d m i t t e d s h o r t c o m i n g s o f Ryokan's p o e t i c s t y l e , whether i t be t h e o v e r u s e o f a r c h a i c e p i t h e t s i n h i s waka, o r Japanese s t y l e v e r s e , o r the r e l i a n c e on t h e T'ang dy n a s t y p o e t Han-shan ( j . Kanzan) i n h i s k a n s h i , Ryokan's c a l l i g r a p h y v i s u a l l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s p i r i t which i s th e major r e a s o n f o r h i s c o n t i n u e d p o p u l a r i t y as a f o l k f i g u r e and p o e t . I t i s t h i s i d e a l i s t i c s p i r i t o f t h e man, as much as a n y t h i n g , which a c c o u n t s f o r t h e upsurge i n s c h o l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n Ryokan i n Japan, and which makes him t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s t h e s i s . Ryokan's p o e t i c o u t p u t was q u i t e h i g h ; i n a l l some 1,400 waka and o v e r 450 k a n s h i have been c o l l e c t e d . I t i s from t h e l a t t e r t h a t I have made my t r a n s l a t i o n s and on them based t h i s s t u d y o f major t h e m a t i c elements. There a r e s e v e r a l r e a s o n s why i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t Ryokan s h o u l d have w r i t t e n p o e t r y i n C h i n e s e . The f i r s t i s t h e h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n o f the Japanese w r i t t e n language i n the C h i n e s e language, t h e n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Japanese a r i s t o c r a c y , and t h e r i s i n g m i d d l e - c l a s s o f t h e Tokugawa e r a were e d u c a t e d i n t h e C h i n e s e c l a s s i c s . Ryokan was t h e son o f a nanushi* 1 o r v i l l a g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r and so r e c e i v e d a good C o n f u c i a n e d u c a t i o n . The t h i r d most i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n f o r Ryokan's f a c i l i t y i n C h i n e s e i s 9 the f a c t t h a t he was a B u d d h i s t monk. From t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Buddhism t o Japan i n t h e e a r l y 1 2th c e n t u r y , monks t r a v e l l e d back and f o r t h between C h i n a and Japan, e f f e c t i n g r e l i g i o u s change and c a r r y i n g on t r a d e . Because o f t h e g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e spoken languages o f t h e two c o u n t r i e s , t h e s e monks r e l i e d t o a g r e a t e x t e n t on t h e w r i t t e n word t o g i v e and r e c e i v e t h e i r t r a i n i n g . Poems were composed f o r s o c i a l o c c a s i o n s such as meetings and f a r e w e l l s , as w e l l as t o s i g n i f y t h e i n t u i t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . D u r i n g t h e 13th, 14th and 1 5 t h c e n t u r i e s i n Japan, an e x t e n s i v e and i m p o r t a n t body o f B u d d h i s t p o e t r y was produced under t h e name Gozan bungaku 3" o r " L i t e r a t u r e o f t h e F i v e Mountains." Ryokan chose n o t to a l l y h i m s e l f w i t h t h i s o r any o t h e r p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l o f k a n s h i w r i t i n g . I n s t e a d , he eschewed t h e use o f a r t i f i c e , n e g l e c t e d rhyme schemes and o f t e n wrote poems o f uneven l i n e l e n g t h . The r e s u l t was a s t y l e a l l h i s own. As a model, he f a v o u r e d t h e poems o f t h e T'ang Zen r e c l u s e Han-shan, who l i v e d i n about t h e 7 t h o r 8 t h c e n t u r y i n t h e T ' i e n - t ' a i range i n Chekiang p r o v i n c e a t a p l a c e c a l l e d C o l d Mountain. Han-shan.took t h e same c h a r a c t e r s f o r h i s name, so t h a t t h e y have come t o r e p r e s e n t a s t a t e o f mind as much as a g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n . H i s poems, w r i t t e n i n t h e c o l l o q u i a l language, were based on h i s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , on t h e w i l d mountains around him and on h i s m e d i t a t i o n s . Ryokan's s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s made him a f i t t i n g h e i r t o Han-shan. 10 A l o n g w i t h B u r t o n W a t s o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t R y o k a n s t o o d a p a r t f r o m t h e h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a r y d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h e T o k u g a w a e r a . H i s p o e t i c p r e f e r e n c e w a s f o r T ' a n g p o e t r y , w h i l e t h a t o f h i s c o n t e m n p o r a r i e s m o v e d t o w a r d s S u n g w o r k s . O t h e r p o e t s a i m e d a t p e r f e c t i n g t e c h n i q u e a n d a d a p t i n g k a n s h i t o f i t t h e J a p a n e s e e x p e r i e n c e , w h i l e R y o k a n i g n o r e d s t y l i s t i c s . M o s t i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , R y o k a n l i v e d a l o n e i n t h e c o u n t r y a w a y f r o m u r b a n s o c i a l a n d l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t i e s , c e n t e r e d h i s t o r i c a l l y i n K y o t o a n d K a m a k u r a , a n d l a t e r i n E d o a n d N a g a s a k i . A l t h o u g h t h e c x l e v e l o p m e n t o f N e o - C o n f u c i a n i s m i n e a r l y T o k u g a w a t i m e s c a n b e s a i d t o h a v e c r e a t e d t h e a t m o s p h e r e w h e r e R y o k a n w a s i n t r o d u c e d t o C h i n e s e l e a r n i n g i n h i s c h i l d h o o d , h i s p o e t r y c l e a r l y r e f l e c t s h i s B u d d h i s t m o n k ' s t r a i n i n g . I t i s n o t f o r t h e t e c h n i c a l p r o f i c i e n c y o f h i s p o e t r y t h a t R y o k a n i s r e m e m b e r e d b u t f o r t h e i n t e n s i t y o f h i s u n i q u e a n d i n d i v i d u a l f e e l i n g . - 1 R y o k a n i s t h e r e l i g i o u s n a m e o f Y a m a m o t o E i z o , b o r n i n 1 7 5 8 i n t h e v i l l a g e o f I z u m o s a k i m i n E c h i g o 1 1 p r o v i n c e ( p r e s e n t - d a y N i i g a t a - k e n ) . A s m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , R y o k a n ' s f a t h e r w a s a v i l l a g e a d m i n i s t r a t o r , a n d a s t h e e l d e s t s o n , R y o k a n w o u l d h a v e f o l l o w e d i n h i s f o o t s t e p s . F o r r e a s o n s w h i c h a r e n o t c l e a r , h o w e v e r , R y o k a n , ^ .a t t h e a g e o f s e v e n t e e n , s h a v e d h i s h e a d a n d o e n t e r e d a l o c a l m o n a s t e r y . O n e d a y t h e Z e n M a s t e r K o k u s e n , o n h i s w a y t h r o u g h E c h i g o , s t o p p e d a t t h e m o n a s t e r y w h e r e R y o k a n w a s l i v i n g . R y o k a n f o l l o w e d h i m t o t h e E n t s u - j i , p h i s m o n a s t e r y _ Q m B i t c h u i n w h a t i s t o d a y O k a y a m a p r e f e c t u r e , a n d u n d e r w e n t 11 t r a i n i n g t h e r e f o r t e n y e a r s . A f t e r f i n i s h i n g h i s t r a i n i n g , a n d a f t e r K o k u s e n ' s d e a t h , R y o k a n w a n d e r e d a b o u t f o r f i v e y e a r s . H e r e t u r n e d t o h i s h o m e p r o v i n c e f o l l o w i n g t h e d e a t h o f h i s f a t h e r i n 1795, a n d a r o u n d 1804 s e t t l e d o n t h e s l o p e s o f M t . K u g a m i , i n — g a h u t n a m e d g o g o - a n , t h e " F i v e M e a s u r e s R e t r e a t . " T h e h u t h a d b e e n n a m e d b y t h e f o r m e r i n h a b i t a n t , a f t e r h i s d a i l y f o o d a l l o t m e n t f r o m t h e m o n a s t e r y o n t h e m o u n t a i n . R y o k a n l i v e d a t t h e G o g o - a n f o r t h i r t e e n y e a r s , a n d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w r o t e s o m e o f h i s b e s t k a n s h i . W h i l e a t t h e G o g o - a n , R y o k a n s u p p o r t e d h i m s e l f b y a l m s -t a k i n g a n d g a t h e r i n g w i l d e d i b l e p l a n t s . W h e n h e b e c a m e s o o l d t h a t h e c o u l d n o l o n g e r m o v e f r e e l y o n t h e m o u n t a i n o u s t e r r a i n , R y o k a n m o v e d t o a s h r i n e a t t h e b a s e o f M t . K u g a m i a n d e n d e d h i s l i f e i n a n o l d s t o r e h o u s e i n t h e v i l l a g e o f S h i m a z a k i ^ D u r i n g t h e s e f i n a l y e a r s h e f o r m e d a f r i e n d s h i p w i t h a B u d d h i s t n u n n a m e d T e i s h i n U (1798-1872), w h o c o m p i l e d a c o l l e c t e d o f R y o k a n i s w a k a e n t i t l e d v H a c h i s u n o t s u y u , " L o t u s D e w " (1835) . L i k e H a n - s h a n , R y o k a n w r o t e p o e m s i n s i m p l e l a n g u a g e o n e v e r y d a y s u b j e c t s t h a t c o n c e r n e d h i m d i r e c t l y . H e d e s c r i b e s h i s w a n d e r i n g s , d a i l y m e d i t a t i o n , s e a s o n a l c h a n g e s w i t h t h e i r p l e a s u r e s a n d h a r d s h i p s , a n d t h e n a t u r a l b e a u t i e s w h i c h s u r r o u n d e d h i s r e t r e a t . T h e m a j o r t h e m a t i c e l e m e n t s w h i c h I h a v e c h o s e n t o d i s c u s s - r e l i g i o n , s o l i t u d e , a n d n a t u r e , a r e a l l i n e x t r i c a b l y c o n n e c t e d . R e l i g i o n i s t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e p o e t , s o l i t u d e t h e m o d e o f m a i n t a i n i n g a n d i n t e n s i f y i n g t h i s a t t i t u d e a n d n a t u r e i s t h e e x a m p l e a n d t h e b a c k d r o p a g a i n s t w h i c h R y o k a n l i v e d h i s l i f e . 12 C h a p t e r I I I : R E L I G I O N 13 ST \ * [192] t a r e k a i u w a g a s h i o s h i t o w a g a s h i wa k o r e s h i n i a r a z u w a g a s h i n o s h i n i a r a z u o s h i t t e h a j i m e t e t o m o n i s h i o i u b e s h i Who c a l l e d my p o e m s p o e m s My p o e m s a r e n ' t p o e m s W h e n y o u u n d e r s t a n d t h a t my p o e m s a r e n ' t p o e m s T h e n we c a n b e g i n t o t a l k a b o u t p o e t r y T h i s t e r s e p o e m , p r e s e n t e d i n i m p e c c a b l e Z e n s t y l e , i s n o d o u b t t h e m o s t d i r e c t s t a t e m e n t o f R y o k a n ' s p o e t i c s . I t i s a l s o a s u i t a b l e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f R y o k a n ' s r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e a s i t i s e x p r e s s e d i n h i s p o e t i c w o r k . " W h o c a l l e d my p o e m s p o e m s / My p o e m s a r e n ' t p o e m s . " T h i s f i r s t c o u p l e t n e g a t e s t h e p r i m a r y a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e d i s c e r n i n g m i n d : t h a t t h i s g r o u p i n g o f w o r d s , f o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d , i s p o e t r y . R y o k a n ' s p o e m s a r e b e s t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e i r i n t e n t i o n a l a v o i d -a n c e o f t h e f o u r t o n e s a n d t h e i r i n d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e r u l e s w h i c h g o v e r n e d r h y m e s c h e m e . I t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t R y o k a n m o s t d i s l i k e d " T a l k t h a t s m a c k e d o f p e d a n t r y , e l e g a n c e o r e n l i g h t e n m e n t ; w r i t i n g p o e m s o n a s s i g n e d t o p i c s ; t h e p o e t r y o f p o e t s , t h e w r i t i n g o f 14 w r i t e r s , and chefs' cooking.""1" He sought and admired that which was spontaneous and natural i n preference to that which was excessively r e f i n e d or bound by s o c i a l s t r i c t u r e s . "when you understand that my poems aren't poems / Then we can begin to t a l k about:.poetry." This second couplet resolves the tensions of p o s i t i v e and negative by leaping beyond these meaningless abstractions of the d u a l i s t i c mind: the Zen view. What Ryokan says i s that he w i l l be able^to discuss poetry only with one who understands that h i s poems are not poetry i n the commonly accepted meaning of the word. To r e a l l y understand, i s to transcend the d i s t i n c t i o n ; " t h i s i s poetry" and "that i s not poetry." In t h i s a t t i t u d e , Ryokan i s e x h i b i t i n g "rightview", (Samma D i t t h i , the f i r s t step on the E i g h t f o l d Noble Path of Buddhism), because only that which surpasses form (the "form i s emptiness" of prajna-paramita l i t e r a t u r e ) i s true poetry. Looking beyond form i s a poetic i d e a l which sets Ryokan apart from other kanshi poets who sought to write poems that were s t y l i s t i c a l l y i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from T'ang and Sung dynasty models which they so admired. Ryokan's i d e a l , however, i s also a paradox because the method of learning to compose Chinese poetry has always been by recourse to the great poems of the past. I f we understand Ryokan's non-poetry as the r e j e c t i o n of form and p o e t i c a l devices, then what can we consider to be the essence of h i s poetry? 15 ^ J u l if f I * 8, 4 4 £ # t i t » ft [205] awaremubeshi k o j o b u kankyo s h i t e yoku s h i o d a i s u k o f u wa k a n _ g i n i n a z o r a i k i n t a i wa t o o s h i t o nasu h i z e n t o s h i t e s o r e sho o n a s h i k o r e n i kuwauru n i s h i n k i o motte su s h i n c h u no mono o u t s u s a z u n b a o s h i t o iedomo mata nan o ka nasan How a d m i r a b l e a f i n e gentleman a t h i s l e i s u r e he l i k e s t o compose p o e t r y O l d s t y l e v e r s e p a t t e r n e d on Han and Wei f o r modern s t y l e he makes T'ang h i s t e a c h e r W i t h such e l e g a n c e he c r e a t e s h i s c o m p o s i t i o n s i m p r o v i n g them w i t h n o v e l f l o u r i s h e s But s i n c e he d o e s n ' t s e t down what's i n h i s h e a r t however many h i s t h o u g h t s may be what do they amount t o In t h e f i n a l c o u p l e t o f t h i s poem, Ryokan s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s " f i n e gentleman['s] p o e t r y f a i l s because o f h i s i n a b i l i t y t o overcome form and v e r b a l l y t r a n s m i t s h i n c h u no mono, " t h i n g s o f t h e h e a r t . " Ryokan f e l t t h a t a l l Japanese p o e t r y went d o w n h i l l — w a f t e r t h e K o k i n s h u ( " C o l l e c t i o n o f A n c i e n t and Modern Times," a.d. 905), and t h a t t h e p i n n a c l e o f Japanese p o e t i c accomplishment l a y i n t h e Man'yoshu ("Myriad Leaves C o l l e c t i o n , " e a r l y e i g h t h c e n t u r y ) because the q u a l i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n found t h e r e i n 16 s u r p a s s e d m e r e p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e . I f w e e x a m i n e t h e l a t t e r t e x t , we f i n d t h a t b o t h B o o k s X I a n d X I I c o n t a i n p o e m s o n t h e s u b j e c t o f t a d a s h i s h i n c h o o n o b e r u , " s p e a k i n g a s d i r e c t l y a s p o s s i b l e a b o u t t h e e m o t i o n s . " I t h a s b e e n s a i d o f R y o k a n s o m e t e n c e n -y t u r i e s l a t e r : s h i n o k o k o r o n o u g o k i g a k o n p o n d a . " T h e m o v e -2 m e n t o f t h e h e a r t o f t h e p o e m i s f u n d a m e n t a l . " I t i s b e c a u s e R y o k a n r e s c u e s p o e t r y f r o m m e r e f o r m a l i s m t h a t w e c a n c o n s i d e r h i s . r . k a n s h i a s a r e a l i s t i c a n d r e l i a b l e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e s p i r i t u a l l i f e t h a t m o v e d h i s h e a r t . E d w a r d S a p i r o n c e d e f i n e d r e l i g i o n a s " . . . M a n ' s n e v e r - c e a s i n g a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r a r o a d t o s p i r i t u a l s e r e n i t y 3 a c r o s s t h e p e r p l e x i t i e s a n d d a n g e r s o f d a i l y l i f e . " T h i s d e f i n i t i o n a p p l i e s i n p a r t i c u l a r t o R y o k a n b e c a u s e i t i s p r e -c i s e l y t h r o u g h l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e t r a n s i e t a n d f i n i t e t h a t h e a i m s t o g r a s p t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e e n d u r i n g a n d a b s o l u t e . H i s p o e m s w e r e w r i t t e n n o t f o r p o e t r y m e e t i n g s o r o t h e r s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s , b u t r a t h e r t o s e t d o w n t h e j o y s o f p e r c e i v i n g t h e w o n d e r s o f n a t u r e , t h e b i t t e r n e s s o f t h e c o l d w i n t e r s , t h e h a r d -s h i p s o f o b t a i n i n g e n o u g h f o o d t o s t a y a l i v e , a n d t h e p e r s o n a l i n t u i t i v e r e a l i z a t i o n o f B u d d h i s t p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e a c h i n g s . I n h i s w o r k s , R y o k a n g i v e s a n a d m i r a b l e a c c o u n t o f h i m s e l f a s a m a n i n g e n e r a l , a n d a s a Z e n m o n k i n p a r t i c u l a r . K e r a z — M a s a k a z u , o n e o f R y o k a n ' s d i s c i p l e s w r o t e : s h i g a h e i z e i n o  g y o j o s h i k a c h u n i g u z a i s u , a a " T h e e v e r y d a y c o n d u c t o f t h e 17 M a s t e r i s s u p e r b l y e x h i b i t e d i n h i s C h i n e s e a n d J a p a n e s e p o e m s . " T h e t e r m " e v e r y d a y c o n d u c t " b r i n g s t o m i n d a s t a t e m e n t a t t r i b u t e d fob t o t h e C h i n e s e Z e n M a s t e r B a s o D o i t s u ( c h . M a - t s u T a o - i , 707-5 786): " E v e r y d a y M i n d — t h a t i s t h e W a y . " I n d e e d t h e f o l l o w i n g p o e m b y R y o k a n i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t t h e B u d d h a ' s Way i s n o t t o b e f o u n d i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r c e p t i o n o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s . t a t o i g d s h a n o s h o o y o m u t o mo i k k u o j i s u r u n i s h i k a z u h i t o a r i t e m o s h i a i t o w a b a n y o j i t s u n i m i z u k a r a n o k o k o r o o s h i r e T h o u g h y o u r e a d a s m a n y b o o k s a s t h e s a n d s o f t h e G a n g e s t h e y ' r e n o t e q u a l t o i n t u i t i n g o n e t r u e p h r a s e I f s o m e o n e w e r e t o a s k w h a t i t i s I ' d s a y J u s t k n o w y o u r o w n h e a r t " K n o w y o u r o o w n h e a r t : " t h i s i s t h e c o r e o f R y o k a n ' s B u d d h i s m , t h e g o a l o f h i s s p i r i t u a l l i f e , j u s t a s t h e v e r b a l [338] t r a n s m i s s i o n o f w h a t m o v e s t h e h e a r t i s t h e e s s e n c e o f h i s p o e t r y . 18 The character "shin," also read "kokoro," t r a n s l a t e d here as "heart" i s generally interchangeable with the term mind. In the context of Zen Buddhism and p a r t i c u l a r l y within the context of Ryokan's poetry, i t i s best understood i n the sense of Mind: cc dd shinbutsu (the Mind i s Buddha), busshin (Buddha Mind; —ee detached from good and e v i l ) , or bussho (Buddha Nature: the capacity f o r enlightenment inherent i n a l l sentient beings). - f f Zen i s often r e f e r r e d to as shinshu , the Sect of Mind or the I n t u i t i v e Sect. — — — g q In se c t a r i a n terms, Ryokan was a monk of the Soto (ch. Ts'ao-tung) l i n e of Zen which was established i n Japan by Dogen Kigen (1200-1253), but which o r i g n i a t e d i n China where i t s founders were Tozan R y o k a i 1 1 (ch. Tung-shan Liang-chieh, 807-869) and Sozan Honjaku"'"1 (ch. Ts'ao-shan Pen-chi, 840-901). In the following poem Ryokan traces h i s s p i r i t u a l lineage even further back, to the very introduction of Zen into China: g i n i yuku mo g i tare ka awareman tadachi n i suho no i t a d a k i n i nobori i c h i z a kunen o h e t a r i ban_ni kotatsu no s h i n i sesshi emyo kore y o r i tsutau wa go s h i todo n i k i t a r u Kore shbsho no en n i a r a z u r y o n i asobu mo r y o gu s e z u 19 O u r M a s t e r ' s c o m i n g f r o m t h e E a s t w a s n ' t m o t i v a t e d b y a t r i v i a l c a u s e F i r s t h e t r a v e l l e d t o L i a n g b u t L i a n g w o u l d n ' t a c c e p t h i m t h e n h e w e n t t o W e i b u t w h o w o u l d s y m p a t h i z e w i t h h i m t h e r e S t r a i g h t a w a y h e c l i m b e d t o t h e s u m m i t o f M t . S u n g a n d o n c e s e a t e d r e m a i n e d n i n e y e a r s I n h i s o l d a g e h e m e t a m a n o f v a s t a t t a i n m e n t t h r o u g h h i m t h e w i s d o m - l i f e w a s p a s s e d o n T h e M a s t e r w h o came t o t h e E a s t i s B o d h i d h a r m a ( c h . k k P ' u - t ' i - t a - m o , j . B o d a i d a r u m a ) a n d t h e man o f ' . ' v a s t a t t a i n -m e n t " i s Eka''""' ' ( c h . H u i - k ' o , 4 8 7 - 5 9 3 ) , w h o c u t o f f h i s a r m w h i l e s t a n d i n g i n t h e s n o w o u t s i d e B o d h i d h a r m a ' s c a v e t o p r o v e h i s r e s o l v e t o b e c o m e t h e l a t t e r ' s d i s c i p l e . A l t h o u g h o n t h e s u r f a c e t h i s p o e m s e r v e s t o t r a c e t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f Z e n , i t a l s o c o n t a i n s t h r e e p o i n t s o f i m p o r t a n c e i n d e f i n i n g R y o k a n ' s own r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e . T h e f i r s t : " A n d o n c e s e a t e d r e m a i n e d n i n e y e a r s , " i n d i c a t e d t h e t g r e a t d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h w h i c h B o d h i d h a r m a a p p l i e d h i m s e l f t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f d h y a n a , i o r Z e n m e d i t a t i o n . H e w a s c a l l e d t h e " w a l l - g a z i n g B r a h m i n , " a n d h i s n i n e y e a r s o f m e d i t a t i o n o n M t . S u n g i s b a s i s o f o n e o f t h e m o s t e n d u r i n g o f Z e n l e g e n d s . N e x t : , a s w i t h B o d h i d h a r m a ' s w a l l - g a z i n g , E k a ' s c u t t i n g o f f h i s a r m w h i l e s t a n d i n g i n t h e s n o w e x e m p l i f i e s t h e f i e r c e d e s i r e t o o v e r c o m e t h e d e l u s i o n s o f t h e w o r l d i n s e a r c h f o r A b s o l u t e T r u t h . B o t h t h e s e p a t r i a r c h s o f Z e n a r e e x a m p l e s t o b e e m u l a t e d 20 b y o t h e r s e e k e r s o f t h e W a y , s u c h a s R y o k a n . F i n a l l y a n d p e r h a p s m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f a l l i s t h e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e f i n a l l i n e o f t h e p o e m ; " t h r o u g h h i m t h e w i s d o m - l i f e w a s p a s s e d o n . " A l t h o u g h i t i s r e c o r d e d t h a t B o d h i d h a r m a p a s s e d o n t h e L a n k a v a t a r a - s u t r a ( j . R y o g a k y o ) 1 1 1 1 1 1 t o E k a , t h i s f a c t i s u s u a l l y o v e r l o o k e d a n d i t i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Z e n v i e w t h a t w h a t B o d h i d h a r m a t r a n s m i t t e d t o E k a o n M t . S u n g w a s t h e s a m e t h i n g w h i c h B u d d h a S a k y a m u n i p a s s e d o n t o M a h a k a s y a p a o n V u l t u r e P e a k : t h e D h a r m a . A s p e c i a l t r a n s m i s s i o n o u t s i d e t h e s c r i p t u r e s , n o t f o u n d e d u p o n w o r d s a n d l e t t e r s ; b y p o i n t i n g d i r e c t l y t o m a n ' s (own) m i n d , i t l e t s h i m s e e i n t o ( h i s own t r u e ) n a t u r e a n d ( t h u s ) a t t a i n B u d d h a h o o d . ^ A s f o r t h e D h a r m a , i t i s t o b e t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m m i n d t o m i n d . T h i s o:f c o u r s e i s t h e e s s e n t i a l d e f i n i t i o n o f Z e n w h i c h s e t s i t a p a r t f r o m o t h e r s c h o o l s o f B u d d h i s m . T h e S e c t o f M i n d , Z e n ( c h . C h ' a n , s k r t . d h y a n a ) i s b a s e d o n m e d i t a t i o n a i m i n g a t u l t i -m a t e k n o w l e d g e o r W i s d o m ( s k r t . p r a j n a ) o f A b s o l u t e N a t u r e r e a l i z e d i n t u i t i v e l y . U l t i m a t e T r u t h ( D h a r m a ) i s p a s s e d o n f r o m M a s t e r t o d i s c i p l e , " f r o m m i n d t o m i n d , " w h e n t h e d i s c i p l e h a s a t t a i n e d i n t u i t i v e k n o w l e d g e o f h i s own n a t u r e t h r o u g h m e d i t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h t h e s t u d y o f s c r i p t u r e s . T h i s i s t h e s c h o o l o f B u d d h i s m t o w h i c h R y o k a n b e l o n g e d . A f t e r t e n y e a r s t r a i n i n g a t E n t s u - j i i n B i t c h u i n w h a t i s t o d a y O k a y a m a P r e f e c t u r e , R y o k a n g a i n e d e n l i g h t e n m e n t a n d r e c e i v e d i n k a , n n t h e f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n 21 o f h i s a t t a i n m e n t , f r o m h i s M a s t e r K o k u s e n . T h u s R y o k a n c a r r i e d o n t h e l i n e o f d i r e c t ' t r a n s m i s s i o n f r o m B u d d h a t o K a s y a p a , f r o m B o d h i d h a r m a t o E k a . k i m i w a k y o k a n o n a g e u c h i k o b e o t a r e t e n e m u r i w a r e w a h o t o n n i y o t t e s o o o m a n a b u a s e i e n k i n k i k u n i t a e z u t o k a m e i m e s s u s o r e n n o u c h i Y o u l a y a s i d e t h e s u t r a b o o k b o w y o u r h e a d a n d s l e e p I s i t o n a c u s h i o n a n d i m i t a t e t h e P a t r i a r c h F r o g v o i c e s n e a r a n d f a r h e a r d w i t h o u t e n d L a m p l i g h t f l i c k e r i n g b e h i n d t h e r o u g h s c r e e n I n t h i s p o e m , R y o k a n c o n t r a s t s h i s c o p y i n g t h e P a t r i a r c h B o d l i l d h a r m a , " b y s i t t i n g I i i m e d i t a t i o n j w i t h t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l a p p r o a c h o f s u t r a - s t u d y , o r t r y i n g t o l e a r n t h e m i n d w i t h t h e m i n d . T h i s i s a r e i t e r a t i o n o f R y o k a n ' s s t a t e m e n t q u o t e d e a r l i e r t h a t r e a d i n g a s m a n y b o o k s a s t h e s a n d s o f t h e G a n g e s i s n o t e q u a l t o a s i n g l e p h r a s e i n t u i t i v e l y r e a l i z e d . R e a d i n g t h e s u t r a ' s i s i n t e l l e c t u a l , w h i l e t h e d h y a n a o f t h e P a t r i a r c h i s i n t u i t i v e . R y o k a n ' s p o e m s a b o u n d w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e p r a c t i c e [366] 22 o f d h y a n a o r z e n m e d i t a t i o n , a s w e l l a s r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e a c t o f s i m p l e s i t t i n g w h i c h m u s t b e i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e p o e t ' s Z e n p r a c t i c e a s w e l l a s D o g e n ' s s h i k a n t a z a ° ° o r " j u s t s i t t i n g ; " D h y a n a , z a z e n , s e a t e d m e d i t a t i o n , i s t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f R y o k a n ' s B u d d h i s t p r a c t i c e , f o r i t i s t h r o u g h z a z e n t h a t h e s e e k s t o " k n o w ( h i s ) own h e a r t , " t h a t i s : t o r e a l i z e " h i s o w n t r u e n a t u r e . " H i s r e l i a n c e o n z a z e n m a k e s R y o k a n a t r a d i t i o n -a l i s t . I n J a p a n , t h e f o l l o w e r s o f t h e S o t o l i n e o f Z e n a r e m o r e n u m e r o u s t h a n t h o s e o f t h e R i n z a i P P l i n e , b u t i t i s n o t a s w e l l k n o w n i n t h e W e s t b e c a u s e i t s m e t h o d s a r e c o n s e r v a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n o u t w a r d l y c u r i o u s . R a t h e r t h a n t h e s h o u t s a n d b e a t i n g s s o m e t i m e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h k o a n i n t e r v i e w s , a n d r a t h e r t h a n i n s i s t o n e n l i g h t e n m e n t a s a s u d d e n i n t u i t i v e f l a s h , S o t o Z e n s t r e s s e s a l i f e o f z a z e n a n d p l a c e s e m p h a s i s o n t h e p r a c t i c e f o z a z e n a s e n l i g h t e n m e n t i n a n d o f i t s e l f . h o z o w a b i k o _ t o t a i s h i m i m i w a k e n t o n i a t a t t e t a r u r u m a d o s h i r a m i t s u k i h a j i m e t e i d e t e ame y a n d e s h i t a t a r i n a o s h i g e s h i a w a r e m u b e s h i k o n o t o k i n o i r y o r y o t a d a m i z u k a r a s h i r u n o m i 1125] s e i y a k y o s o n o m o t o d a z a s h i t e n o i o y o s u 23 A s t i l l n i g h t b e s i d e t h e e m p t y w i n d o w s i t t i n g d o w n I a r r a n g e my r o b e N a v e l i n l i n e w i t h n o s t r i l s e a r s e v e n w i t h • t h e t o p s o f t h e s h o u l d e r s W i n d o w w h i t e n e d i n t h e s u d d e n m o o n t h e r a i n h a s s t o p p e d b u t t h e t r i c k l i n g g o e s o n W h a t a p i t y t h e f e e l i n g o f t h i s m o m e n t b o u n d l e s s a n d l o n e l y i s s e n s e d o n l y b y me - - q q H e r e R y o k a n ' s w o r d s e c h o D o g e n K i g e n ' s t e x t , F u k a n z a z e n g i , V G e n e r a l t e a c h i n g s f o r t h e P r o m o t i o n o f Z a z e n . " I n t h e s i t t i n g p l a c e , s p r e a d a t h i c k s q u a r e c u s h i o n a n d o n t o p o f i t p u t a r o u n d c u s h i o n . Some m e d i t a t e i n p a r y a n k a ( f u l l c r o s s - l e g g e d s i t t i n g ) a n d o t h e r s i n h a l f p a r y a n k a . P r e p a r e b y w e a r i n g y o u r r o b e a n d b e l t l o o s e l y . T h e n r e s t y o u r r i g h t h a n d o n y o u r l e f t f o o t , y o u r l e f t h a n d i n y o u r r i g h t p a l m . P r e s s y o u r t h u m b s t o g e t h e r . S i t u p r i g h t . D o n o t l e a n t o t h e l e f t o r r i g h t , f o r w a r d . o r i . b a c k w a r d . P l a c e y o u r e a r s i n t h e s a m e p l a n e a s y o u r s h o u l d e r s , y o u r n o s e i n l i n e w i t h y o u r n a v e l . K e e p y o u r t o n g u e a g a i n s t t h e p a l a t e a n d c l o s e y o u r l i p s a n d t e e t h f i r m l y . K e e p y o u r e y e s o p e n . I n h a l e q u i e t l y . S e t t l e y o u r b o d y c o m f o r t a b l y . E x h a l e s h a r p l y . M o v e y o u r b o d y t o t h e l e f t a n d r i g h t . T h e n s i t c r o s s - l e g g e d s t e a d i l y . T h i n k ; t h e u n t h i n k a b l e . How d o y o u t h i n k t h e u n t h i n k a b l e ? T h i n k b e y o n d t h i n k i n g a n d u n t h i n k i n g . T h i s i s t h e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f s i t t i n g . 9 T h a t R y o k a n a l l u d e s t o D o g e n i n t h i s p o e m i s s i g n i f i c a n t b e c a u s e D o g e n ' s Z e n i s k n o w n a s t h e z e n o f " j u s t s i t t i n g " . D o g e n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e o n e o f J a p a n ' s g r e a t u r e l i g i o u s M i n d s , — — — x r a s t h e c o m p l e x i t y a n d d e p t h o f h i s w o r k S h o b o g e n z o ( " T r e a s u r y o f K n o w l e d g e R e g a r d i n g t h e T r u e D h a r m a " ) w i l l i n d i c a t e . H e w a s u n c o m p r o m i s i n g i n h i s e f f o r t s t o e s t a b l i s h a p u r e Z e n t r a -d i t i o n i n J a p a n , a n d r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r m i n g l e h i s Z e n w i t h o t h e r r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s , D o g e n c h o s e t o s p e n d m o s t o f h i s t i m e i n s m a l l 24 r u r a l temples. However w e l l known Dogen may:, bev.asi acmetaphysic'alirn mind,: ;.the:nstrength o f S o t o Zen i n Japan i s most c e r t a i n l y due t o h i s emphatic advocacy o f d i l i g e n t r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e . To Dogen, the p r a c t i c e o f zazen i n which the p o s t u r e e x p r e s s e s the u n i t y o f mind and body i s paramount; t h e r e i s no e n l i g h t e n m e n t a p a r t from the p r a c t i c e o f zazen. The most i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i n the s t u d y o f the Way i s zazen. Many p e o p l e i n C h i n a g a i n e d e n l i g h t e n m e n t s o l e l y t h rough the s t r e n g t h o f zazen. Some who were so i g n o r a n t t h a t they c o u l d n o t answer a s i n g l e q u e s t i o n exceeded t h e l e a r n e d who had s t u d i e d many y e a r s s o l e l y t h rough the e f f i c a c y o f t h e i r s i n g l e - m i n d e d d e v o t i o n t o z a z e n . T h e r e f o r e , s t u d e n t s must c o n c e n t r a t e on zazen a l o n e and n o t b o t h e r about o t h e r t h i n g s . The Way o f t h e Buddhas and P a t r i a r c h s i s zazen a l o n e . F o l l o w n o t h i n g else. 1 0 J 3 L [272] h i r u wa j o s h i n i i d e t e yuku yuku j i k i ; o k o i y o r u wa ganka n i _ k a e r i t e z a s h i t e zen n i yasunzu s h o z e n t a r i i c h i n o t o i p p a t s u t o s e i t e n no f u r y u j i t s u n i awaremubeshi 25 A t m i d d a y I g o b e g g i n g f o o d i n t h e w a l l e d t o w n A t n i g h t I r e t u r n b e n e a t h t h e c l i f f s a n d c a l m l y s i t i n z e n How s i m p l e o n e r o b e a n d o n e b o w l T r u l y a d m i r a b l e t h e r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e W e s t e r n s k y I n t h i s p o e m ' s i l l u s t r a t i o n o f R y o k a n ' s s i m p l e m o n a s t i c e x i s t e n c e , t h e i d e a s o f m e n d i c a n c y a n d e r i m i t i s m , t w o o t h e r m a j o r e l e m e n t s o f R y o k a n ' s B u d d h i s m a r e i n t r o d u c e d . H i s t o r i -c a l l y , B u d d h i s m i s a n o u t g r o w t h o f t h e t r a d i t i o n o f t h e p a r i v r a - j a k a o r w a n d e r e r w h o l e f t s o c i e t y i n o r d e r t o f i n d l i b e r a t i o n . T h e B u d d h i s t b h i k s u o r m o n k ( l i t e r a l l y b e g g a r ) w a n d e r e d f o r e i g h t m o n t h s o f t h e y e a r a n d s t a y e d i n m o n a s t e r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d b y k i n g s o r w e a l t h y p a t r o n s d u r i n g t h e r a i n y s e a s o n . E v e n t u a l l y m o n a s t e r i e s b e c a m e m o r e o r l e s s p e r m a n e n t d w e l l i n g - . ' p l a c e s f o r i : m o n k s b e c a u s e t h e y e n c o u r a g e d t h e p r a c t i c e o f m e d i t a t i o n a n d t h e s t u d y o f s c r i p t u r e s . W i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f B u d d h i s m i n t o C h i n a came a n e w d e v e l o p m e n t i n I n d i a n m o n a s -t i c i s m : a f o r m o f m o n a s t i c a g r i c u l t u r e t o s u p p o r t t h e c o m m u n i t i e s o f t h o s e w h o s o u g h t t h e W a y . W i t h o u t d e n y i n g t h e s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d b y t h e l a y c o m m u n i t y i n b o t h C h i n a a n d J a p a n , t h e p r a c t i c e o f s s ) * a l m s - t a k i n g ( t a k u h a t s u b e c a m e a r i t u a l e x c h a n g e i n w h i c h t h e m o n k l e a r n e d h u m i l i t y a n d t h e l a y m e n a c q u i r e d m e r i t t h r o u g h . . s e l f r d e n i a l . T h e s h i f t t o s e l f - s u p p o r t d i d n o t m e a n t h a t m o n k s d e v o t e d l e s s t i m e t o t h e i r r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e , f o r t h e Z e n m o n k f i n d s l e s s o n s e v e r y w h e r e . A s t h e Z e n M a s t e r H y a k u j o E k a i t t ( c h . P o - c h a n g H u a i - h a i ) o n c e t a u g h t : " A d a y w i t h o u t w o r k i s a 2 6 d a y w i t h o u t f o o d V " ' " ' " 1 " 1 , A n d t h e M a s t e r N a n s e n " " ( C h . N a n - c h ' u a n ) 1 2 s a i d : " Y o u r e v e r y d a y m i n d , t h a t i s t h e W a y . " T h e n e e d t o e s t a b l i s h l a r g e m o n a s t e r i e s a s t r a i n i n g c e n t r e s i n e v i t a b l y l e d B u d d h i s m i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e w e a l t h y a n d p o w e r -f u l r u l i n g c l a s s e s i n b o t h C h i n a a n d J a p a n . I n ' J a p a n o f t h e K a m a v v k u r a e r a , t h e s u c c e s s o f E i s a i i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e p o w e r . r a n d l e g i t i m a c y o f t h e Z e n s c h o o l b y i n f l u e n c i n g t h e r u l i n g s h o g u n . . WW M m a m o t o Y o r i i e i s a p r i m e e x a m p l e o f t h e t e n d e n c y . I n t h e M u r o m a c h i p e r i o d , w h e n Z e n w a s a t i t s h e i g h t , m o n k s o f t e n w i e l d e d g r e a t p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c p o w e r . T o t h e p r e s e n t d a y , Z e n m o n a s t e r i e s h o u s e a r t t r e a s u r e s o f i m m e a s u r a b l e v a l u e . W i t h o u t d e n y i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e m o n a s t e r y a s a t r a i n -i n g g r o u n d f o r t h o s e w h o s o u g h t r e l i g i o u s s a l v a t i o n , i t m u s t b e n o t e d t h a t R y o k a n h e l d t o t h e s p i r i t r a t h e r t h a n t h e l e t t e r o f t h e B u d d h a ' s L a w . A f t e r t e n y e a r s o f f o r m a l t r a i n i n g , R y o k a n t o o k t o w a n d e r i n g l i k e t h e m o n k s o f e a r l y . I n d i a n B u d d h i s m . R a t h e r t h a n t a k e u p a p o s i t i o n a s t h e h e a d o f a m o n a s t e r y , h e m o v e d b a c k t o h i s h o m e p r o v i n c e , l i v e d i n a n e m p t y h e r m i t a g e , a n d s u s t a i n e d h i m s e l f b y b e g g i n g ; a l i t t l e r i c e a n d f o r a g i n g w i l d p l a n t s . H e e s c h e w e d t h e m o n a s t i c s t r u c t u r e i n o r d e r t o l i v e a s s i m p l y a s p o s s i b l e . 27 oyoso c h i no kenzoku o hanare, soan n i dokusho s h i , j u k a n i k i n h i n s h i , k a i k a rakuyo o _ k a n j i , k e i s e i _ s a n s h o k u o tomo t o s u m wa, kosho no shensho n a r i , k o s h i n no k i k a n n a r i . In g e n e r a l , l e a v i n g the d o t i n g f a m i l y t o l i v e a l o n e i n a g r a s s shack, d o i n g w a l k i n g m e d i t a t i o n b e n e a t h t h e t r e e s / " c o n t e m p l a t i n g the b l o o m i n g f l o w e r s and f a l l i n g l e a v e s , becoming a f r i e n d o f the stream's v o i c e and t h e c o l o u r s o f t h e mountains, t h i s i s the p r e c e d e n t o f t h e a n c i e n t sages and the model f o r the ages t o come.13 T h i s passage from Ryokan's K a n j u j i k i m o n ^ ("Comments on Re-c e i v i n g Food") echoes h i s e a r l i e r p h r a s e : "How s i m p l e one robe and one bowl." In making wandering and b e g g i n g h i s way o f l i f e , Ryokan h o l d s f a s t t o t h e t r a d i t i o n and s p i r i t o f the e a r l y shramanas, monks who r e l i e d on n o t h i n g more than a h a n d f u l o f r i c e , a t r e e overhead f o r a r o o f , and t h e ground beneath them f o r a s e a t , i n t h e i r s e a r c h f o r u l t i m a t e t r u t h . 28 Many p e o p l e today t h i n k t h a t the making o f s t a t u e s and b u i l d i n g o f pagodas cause Buddhism t o p r o s p e r . T h i s , too:, i s n o t s o. No one g a i n e d the Way be e r e c t i n g l o f t y b u i l d i n g s t h a t have gle a m i n g j e w e l s and g o l d ornaments. T h i s merely i s a good a c t i o n t h a t g i v e s b l e s s i n g s by b r i n g i n g l a y t r e a s u r e s i n t o the Buddha's w o r l d . A l t h o u g h s m a l l causes can have l a r g e e f f e c t s , Buddhism does n o t p r o s p e r i f monks engage i n such a c t i v i t i e s . I f you l e a r n one p h r a s e o f t h e Buddha's t e a c h i n g o r p r a c t i c e zazen even f o r a moment i n a t h a t c h e d h u t o r even under a t r e e Buddhism w i l l f l o u r i s h . 1 4 [328] kusa o h a r a i gen n i s a n j i i k u s a i n a r u o s h i r u t a c h i m a c h i d o j i n o omoite kyusha n i k a e r u i t a r i e t e k i r a i b e t s u j i n a s h i kumo wa r e i t o n i a r i mizu wa kyakuka C l e a r i n g weeds and t r e a d i n g the p a t h t o the arcane I r e a l i z e how many y e a r s i t has been Suddenly t o t h i n k o f my t e a c h e r takes me back t o the o l d s h r i n e I went and I r e t u r n e d i t was n o t h i n g s p e c i a l Clouds r e s t i n g on the mountain peaks water f l o w i n g u n d e r f o o t "I went and I r e t u r n e d i t was n o t h i n g s p e c i a l , " t h i s l i n e c o n t a i n s the e s s e n t i a l meaning o f the poem. F o r y e a r s , Ryokan 29 h a s h a r b o u r e d t h o u g h t s o f t h e o l d s h r i n e . T o g o b a c k i s t o r i d h i m s e l f o f a n a t t a c h m e n t t o m e m o r i e s a n d s e e t h e p l a c e a s i t i s n a t u r a l l y . " N o t h i n g s p e c i a l " i s i n d e e d t h e m o s t a c c u r a t e d e f i n i t i o n o f R y o k a n ' s l i f e s t y l e : n o t s t r i v i n g f o r p o s s e s s i o n o f m a t e r i a l t h i n g s , n o r b l i n d l y g r a s p i n g a t r e l i g i o u s s a l v a t i o n . One r o b e , o n e b o w l , a n o l d s t i c k , a n d a t h a t c h e d r o o f o v e r h e a d : t h e s e a r e v e r y m i n i -m a l m e a n s w i t h w h i c h t o c a r r y o u t t h e b u s i n e s s o f l i v i n g . F o r R y o k a n l i v i n g i t s e l f w a s s i m p l e a n d s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . I k k y u — yy S o j u n p u t i t t h i s w a y : We e a t , e x c r e t e , s l e e p , a n d g e t u p ; T h i s i s o u r w o r l d . A l l we h a v e t o d o a f t e r t h a t -I s t o d i e . 1 5 30 C h a p t e r I V : POEMS ON R E L I G I O N 31 4 4 — A a A is if r * '4 731 i l [256] k y o n i k a e r u i e o i d e k u n i o h a n a r e t e c h i s h i k i o t a z u n e i c h i n o i p p a t s u o y o s o i k u s h u n z o k n o n h i ky5 n i k a e t t e k y u y u o t o e b a o k u w a k o r e n a o t a i k a n i n o k o s u n o c h i r i R e t u r n i n g t o M y B i r t h p l a c e I l e f t my h o u s e a n d p r o v i n c e i n s e a r c h o f a t e a c h e r O n e r o b e o n e b o w l how m a n y s p r i n g s h a s i t b e e n T o d a y I r e t u r n e d t o my b i r t h p l a c e t o s e e k my o l d f r i e n d s M o s t o f t h e m a r e n o m o r e t h a n n a m e s i n d u s t b e n e a t h t h e m o s s 32 *•? ? ft * ^ "* * 7 L **• *• * [107] i e n i neko to nezumi to a r i s u b e t e k o r e i c h i m o h i neko wa a i t e hakuchu n i nemur i nezumi wa u e t e genya n i yuku b y o j i n i nan no no k a a r u s e i o u k a g a i s h i b s h i b a k i n i a t a r u s o s h i nana no s h i t s u k a a r u utsuwa o u g a c h i mata hanahada h i n a r i utsuwa wa u g a t a r u r u mo o g i n a u b e s h i yuku mono wa mata k a e r a z u mosh i t s u m i o k e i c h o o towaba h a k a r i wa b y o j i n i ka tamukubesh i In my house t h e r e i i s a c a t and a mouse b o t h a r e f u r b e a r i n g a n i m a l s O v e r f e d the c a t naps i n t h e w h i t e d a y l i g h t s t a r v i n g the mouse scampers i n t h e b l a c k n i g h t What s k i l l does t h e k i t t e n p o s s e s s when s p y i n g a l i f e h e r a im i s o f t e n t r u e What f a u l t does t h e mouse b e a r he gnamed t h r o u g h a j a r and does a bad j o b a t t h a t The h o l e i n t h e j a r can b e r e p a i r e d l i f e t a k e n away canno t be r e s t o r e d I f y o u a s k abou t r e l a t i v e g u i l t The s c a l e s t i p towards t h e c a t 33 f f 4 ** ¥ 7^ *• 4 f If It _ 0 [210] s h i n c h o j o s h a k u o j i s h i k o j i k i s h i t e s h i t e n n i i r u s h i t e n c h u s e k i n i a r a z u c h i t a i nakaba hensen s u men wa harawaru sogo no kaze n i f u k u r o wa omoshi r o f u no k a t a y u k i t e kyuyu no c h i o sugureba shohaku n i kanen t o z a s u E a r l y morning I take my s t a f f and come i n t o town b e g g i n f o o d Town's n o t the same as the o l d days the p a v i l i o n and h i l l s h a l f changed My f a c e swept by the wind a f t e r a f r o s t b e g g i n g bag heavy on t h i s o l d s h o u l d e r I pass by my o l d hangouts p i n e s and oak l o c k e d i n a c h a i n o f c o l d m i s t 34 BjL ^ft r % w ft £ » Ufl > r j | 1 # $ ; » ^ £ & # (119] hotoke wa k o r e / j i s h i n no s a mi c h i mo mata u i n i a r a z u n a n j i n i hozu yoku s h i n j u s h i t e g e t o n i s d t e yuku k o t o nakare nagae o k i t a n i s h i t e e t s u n i mukau mo i t s u k a t o c h a k u no t o k i a r a n y a The Buddha's a c r e a t i o n o f y o u r own mind •the Way has no> r e a l i t y e i t h e r I t e l l y ou you'd b e t t e r b e l i e v e t h i s d o n ' t go s i d i n g w i t h other-opinions:. The c a r r i a g e s h a f t s p o i n t n o r t h y o u l r e headed f o r C h e k i a n g i n t h e s o u t h when do you t h i n k y o u ' l l g e t t h e r e 35 •A & -t- ^  *H 0 f | f [202] kanya k u s a i no uchi koen t o k i sude n i ut s u r u kogai n i take hyakukan shojo n i sho ikuhen t s u k i i d e t e hanso s h i r a m i mushi n a i t e s h i r i n s h i z u k a n a r i kochu kagen no i zo a i t a i s u r u mo mata kotoba nashi A c o l d n i g h t i n the empty room i n the incense smoke time i s already moving on Outside the door a hundred s t a l k s of bamboo on my bed j u s t a few books The moon comes out h a l f the window white i n s e c t s c h i r p i n g the surroundings sunk i n dhyana i n the midst o f t h i s what l i m i t can there be t o my thoughts i n the face of i t again I am without words 36 § l b / a . * a «L _ * » [120] ware mukashi joryo o manabi b i b i to s h i t e k i s o k u o totono kaku no gotoku s h i t e s e i s o o he hotondo shinshoku o wazururu n i i t a r u y o s h i ankan no tokoro o uru mo kedashi shukyo no c h i k a r a n i yoru ikade ka shikan musa n i t a s s h i i t t o k u sunawachi e i t o k u naran n i wa Formerly I l e a r n e d s i l e n t m e d i t a t i o n f a i n t l y r e g u l a t i n g the breath In t h i s way I passed the s t a r s and f r o s t almost f o r g e t t i n g about s l e e p and food I f there i s t r a n q u i l i t y which can be a t t a i n e d i t l i e s i n the s t r e n g t h o f d i s c i p l i n e How can t h i s match the attainment o f nonbeing i n which anything once a t t a i n e d i s e t e r n a l 37 [337] h o g a i k i m i urayamu kot o nakare t a r u o s h i r e b a kokoro onozukara t a i r a n a r i t a r e ka s h i r a n s e i z a n no u c h i t o r a t o okami t o no a r a z a r u o Don't envy me f o r abandoning t h e w o r l d when your u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s s u f f i c i e n t Mind i s t r a n q u i l o f i t s e l f Who knows t h a t beyond t h e b l u e mountains t h e r e a r e n ' t t i g e r s o r wolves 38 /A ft 5L it tit. 7 [183] i n i s h i e o toweba i n i s h i e sude n i sugu ima o omoeba ima mo mata s h i k a r i t e n t e n s h i t e s h o s e k i n a s h i t a r e ka gu mata t a r e ka ken n a r u en n i s h i t a g a t t e j i g e t s u o k e s h i onore o tamotte shuen o matsu hyo t o s h i t e ware kono c h i n i k i t a r i kobe o meguraseba n i j u n e n When you ask about t h e p a s t i t ' s a l r e a d y gone when you t h i n k o f t h e p r e s e n t i t ' s gone to o W h i r l i n g about w i t h o u t l e a v i n g a t r a c e who i s f o o l i s h and who i s w i s e In a ccordance w i t h c a u s a l i t y k i l l i n g time s u s t a i n i n g one's s e l f o n l y t o a w a i t t h e end Blown i n on t h e wind I came t o t h i s p l a c e b e f o r e I t u r n my head twenty y e a r s have gone by 39 * * * * * * * < t * £ ' t 1204] sakuhi wa kono h i to k o t o n a r i konshin wa r a i s h i n n i arazu kokoro wa zenen n i s h i t a g a t t e u t s u r i en wa mono to tomo n i arata n a r i ayamachi o shi reba sunawachi sumiyaka n i aratame yo s h i t s u wa sunawachi ze mo s h i n n i arazu t a r e ka yoku koshu o mamotte tadachi n i shimo b i n to naru o matan ya Yesterday i s d i f f e r e n t than today t h i s morning i s not tomorrow morning Mind moves i n keeping with former causes c a u s a l i t y renews i t s e l f together with matter When one r e a l i z e s e r r o r mend i t promptly i f you have attachments even the r i g h t i s n ' t r e a l Who would hold on to a withered stump* j u s t w a i t i n g f o r the f r o s t to cover t h e i r sideburns o l d customs, o l d ways 40 M t * S% f t is, ij* ± | *SL ft ' * % * * « ware wa k o r e s e i t e n no r o s o g y a ato o kugami n i k u r a m a s h i t e h a r u o s h i r u s a z u i k u r y o no f u s a n enka no gotoku k u c h i i s s h i no uto nagaku mi n i s h i t a g a u yuku yuku h e k i g a n n i t o z a k a r i t e kakyoku o g i n j i z a s h i t e m i r u hakuun no r i n j u n n i i z u r u o k a n a s h i i kana f u s e i myori no kyaku s h o g a i kuku t o s h i t e f u j i n n i h a s h i r u An o l d monk o f the western sky* I c a n ' t reckon t h e s p r i n g s s i n c e my t r a c k s v a n i s h e d on Mt. Kugami How many robes have f a d e d l i k e t h e smoke and haze I always c a r r y t h e same b l a c k s t i c k I walk a l o n g c h a n t i n g a song t h a t f a d e s i n t h e d i s t a n c e w i t h t h e g r e e n r i v e r I s i t w a t c h i n g t h e w h i t e c l o u d s r i s e up i n the t o w e r i n g mountains How p i t i f u l t o be a v i s i t o r i n t h i s f l o a t i n g w o r l d o f fame..and p r o f i t an empty l i f e t i m e s p e n t r u n n i n g about i n t h e windblown d u s t r e f e r s t o I n d i a , where Buddhism o r i g i n a t e d tx #- fa[293] 41 "4 I t fl -At 3 ^ *S it & 4 1 -Tf « 45C « [ 1 4 2 ] meigo wa a i y o r i t e n a r u r i . j . i wa kore i p p a n k y o j i t s u m u j i no kyo shuya f u s h u no zen u g u i s u wa s a e z u r u s u i y o no k i s h i i n u wa hoyu y a g e t s u no mura s a r a n i ho no j o n i a t a r u n a s h i nan zo kokoro no t s u t o b e k i a r a n D e l u s i o n and e n l i g h t e n m e n t come i n t o b e i n g i n t e r d e p e n d e n t l y t h e u n i v e r s a l and t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r e i d e n t i c a l A l l day t h e w o r d l e s s s u t r a a l l n i g h t u n p r a c t i s e d zen The n i g h t i n g a l e c a l l s on t h e weeping w i l l o w bank the dog howls i n t h e v i l l a g e under t h e n i g h t moon S i n c e t h e r e i s no dharma which c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e emotions what thoughts c o u l d I have t o t r a n s m i t 42 C h a p t e r V : S O L I T U D E i 43 [288J s e i n i j u s u r u w a k o r e s h u k k e A b i d i n g i n t r a n q u i l i t y t h a t i s b e i n g a m o n k . . . S o l i t u d e w a s a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n o f R y o k a n ' s l i f e . T h e s o l i t u d e e x p r e s s e d i n h i s p o e m s s t a n d s a s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n -c i p l e , a s t h e p r a c t i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e , a n d a s a n a e s t h e t i c t e n e t i n l i n e w i t h t h e J a p a n e s e c u l t o f w a b i . T h e b r o a d m e a n i n g o f t h e t e r m s h u k k e ( l e a v i n g t h e f a m i l y t o b e c o m e a m o n k ) , c a r r i e s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f l e a v i n g s o c i e t y w i t h i t s c l a s s s t r u c t u r e , l a w s , c u s t o m , p r o f i t s a n d l o s s e s , p l e a s u r e s a n d d i s t r a c t i o n s . W h i l e i d e a l l y t h e s a n g h a may b e a s u p e r i o r c o m m u n i t y t o t h e l a y c o m m u n i t y , i t i s n o n e t h e l e s s a s o c i a l o r g a n -i z a t i o n , a n d f o r t h e m o n k t o s i m p l y c h o o s e t h e f o r m e r i n f a v o u r o f t h e l a t t e r w o u l d b e m e r e l y d u a l i s t i c s u b s t i t u t i o n . I f B u d d h a -h o o d i s t o b e e x p e r i e n c e d : ' i n : t h e l i f e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e n t h e p a t h t o w a r d s r e a l i z a t i o n o f a b s o l u t e w i s d o m ( p r a j n a ) i s n e c e s s a r i l y s o l i t a r y . T o a b i d e i n s o l i t u d e , h o w e v e r , d o e s n o t l e s s e n t h e m o n k ' s s e n s e o f c o m p a s s i o n f o r s o c i e t y . H i s p o s i t i o n i s n o t t h a t o f t h e " s r a v a k a , - d i s c i p l i n e d i n T a o , e n l i g h t e n e d , b u t o n t h e w r o n g p a t h , " ^ b u t r a t h e r t h a t o f t h e B o d h i s a t t v a w h o v o w s n o t t o e n t e r N i r v a n a u n t i l s u c h t i m e a s a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s h a v e b e e n s a v e d . T h i s i s R y o k a n ' s s t a n c e . A s a Z e n m o n k , ^ t h r o u g h h i s s o l i t a r y , s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e d p r a c t i c e , h e s o u g h t i l l u m i n a t e d w i s d o m n o t t o s a v e h i m s e l f , b u t h u m a n s o c i e t y , a n d i n d e e d , a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s . 44 U n l i k e m a n y T a o i s t s a g e s a n d T i b e t a n l a m a s , R y o k a n d i d n o t l i v e i n t o t a l p h y s i c a l s e c l u s i o n . F r o m G o g o - a n , t h e h e r m i t a g e w h e r e h e l i v e d f o r s o m e t h i r t e e n y e a r s , R y p k a n c o u l d s e e t h e . z z - . a a a m o n k s ' q u a r t e r s a t H o n k a k u - m a n d H o s h u - m . D u r x n g t h i s p e r i o d o f h i s l i f e , R y o k a n ' s u p p o r t e d h i m s e l f b y b e g g i n g i n t h e l o c a l t o w n w h i c h w a s w i t h i n a n e a s y d a y ' s j o u r n e y t o a n d f r o m G o g o - a n . T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t h e d i d n o t l i v e i n s o l i t u d e . M t . K u g a m i , o n J a p a n ' s w e s t e r n c o a s t w a s f a r f r o m t h e d e n s e p o p u -l a t i o n a n d b u s y s o c i a l s c e n e i n t h e c a p i t a l . T h e o p e n w o o d s o f K u g a m i w e r e n o t t h e w i l d s o f t h e T ' i e n - t ' a i r a n g e i n b a c k c o u n t r y C h i n a , y e t t h e y w e r e a p e a c e f u l e n o u g h l o c a t i o n f o r R y o k a n ' s lb lb 3D h e r m i t a g e . B e s i d e s , a s C h i a o - j a n , .• a p o e t - m o n k o f t h e T ' a n g e r a i n C h i n a s a i d , t h e p u r p o s e w a s t o " S e c l u d e t h e m i n d , n o t 2 t h e m o v e m e n t s . " H a n - s h a n , t h e p o e t - r e c l u s e whom R y o k a n m o s t a d m i r e d , a b a n d o n e d t h e w o r l d e n t i r e l y , c h o o s i n g t o w r i t e h i s p o e m s h e r e a n d t h e r e a m o n g t h e c l i f f s . C h i a o - j a n , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , c o n s t a n t l y s t r u g g l e d t o r e s o l v e t h e d i c h o t o m y o f a r t a n d a e s t h e t i c i s m , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t h e g a v e u p p o e t r y . B u t f o r R y o k a n , t h e t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e h u m a n a n d t h e a s c e t i c w a s n e i t h e r t o b e o v e r c o m e n o r s t o i c a l l y e n d u r e d ; i t w a s n o m o r e t h a n a f a c t a n d f a c e t o f h i s l i f e a s a m o n k . T h i s t e n s i o n a c t s a s a p o s i t i v e f o r c e i n R y o k a n ' s p o e m s , H i s c o m p a s s i o n f o r h u m a n i t y s u s t a i n s t h e i n t e n s i t y o f h i s s o l i -45 tude and keeps i t from the level of mere selfish quietism. In the midst of solitude, Ryokan maintains an awareness of society and in the midst of the human world, his inner tran-q u i l i t y endures. j f c t M m & t s- © 3- 6 ty ~% £ i * IL *- M si t % * > ra ii I t A A jS JN * [82] muchu mondo j i k i o kote shicho ni i t a r i michi n i yushiki no okina ni au ware ni tou shi nan sure zo kano hakuun no mine ni sumu ya to ware wa tou shi nan sure zo kono ko/jin no naka ni oyuru ya to kotaen to hosshite futari nagara iwazu yume wa yaburaru goya no kane Dream Mondo Begging food I headed into town along the way I met an old man He asked Master what are you doing li v i n g among these white-clouded peaks I asked Old man what are you doing growing older in this red dust I wanted to answer uneither spoke the dream was shattered by the f i f t h watch b e l l As a solitary ascetic, Ryokan's position is somewhat unique. Like his poetry, his existence is natural; free from externally imposed constraints and unregulated by empty formalities. From 46 t h i s s t a n c e , R y o k a n c r i t i c i z e s e v e r y o n e o p e n l y : l a y m e n , m o n k s , a n d e v e n h i m s e l f . ***** 1 ft [399] w a r e o k u o m o t o m u r u h i t o o m i r u n i k a i t o n o m i z u k a r a m a t o u n i k o t o n a r a z u s u b e t e s e n z a i o o s h i m u g o t a m e n i s h i n s h i n s h i b a r a k u mo h i m a n a r a z u W h e n I s e e g r a s p i n g m e n n o d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e s i l k w o r m b o u n d u p i n i t s e l f A l l f o r t h e l o v e o f m o n e y a n d p r o p e r t y n o t a m o m e n t ' s r e s t f o r m i n d n o r b o d y . . . - J L % 4 A * JL a ft. a#t % [2] w a r e s h u k k e n o j i o m i r u n i c h u y a m i d a r i n i k a n k o s u t a d a _ k o f u k u n o t a m e mo y u e n i i s s h o g a i h e n n i h a s u W h e n I s e e m o n k s t h e s e d a y s n o o n a n d n i g h t r e c i t i n g m i n d l e s s l y J u s t f o r t h e i r m o u t h s a n d b e l l i e s a l i f e t i m e s p e n t c h a s i n g e x t e r n a l i t i e s . . . 47 # ^  0 ifl * i t * 4 4 ** i t [185] s h o c r a i m i o t a t e r u n i m o n o k o t o t o _ t e n s h i n n i m a k a s u n o c h u s a n j o n o k o m e r o h e n i s s o k u n o t a k i g i t a r e k a t o w a n m e i g o n o a t o n a n z o s h i r a n m y o r i n o j i n y a u s o a n n o u c h i s o k y a k u t o k a n n i n o b u A l l my l i f e t o o l a z y t o a m o u n t t o m u c h I e n t r u s t my f o r t u n e s t o t h e t r u t h o f H e a v e n I n my b a g t h r e e s h o o f r i c e b y t h e f i r e a b u n d l e o f i k i h d l i h g . Why a s k f o r s i g n s o f d e l u s i o n o r e n l i g h t e n m e n t w h a t d o I k n o w o f t h e d u s t o f f a m e a n d p r o f i t R a i n y n i g h t s i n my t h a t c h e d - r o o f h u t I s t r e t c h o u t my l e g s a n y w a y I l i k e R y o k a n ' s s e l f - c r i t i c i s m i s a t o n c e b o t h r e a l a n d i r o n i c . F r o m t h e l a y m a n ' s p e r s p e c t i v e , w h a t h a s R y o k a n u a c c b m p l i s h e d ? H i s n a t u r e ( " t o o l a z y t o a m o u n t t o m u c h " ) h a s a p p a r e n t l y b r o u g h t h i m l i t t l e i n h i s o l d a g e s a v e a h u t t h a t i s n o m o r e t h a n f o u r w a l l s , a n d a d e a r t h o f m a t e r i a l c o m f o r t s . Y e t i n f a c t , i n R y o k a n ' s c a s e , t h e a t t r i b u t e o f b e i n g " T o o l a z y t o a m o u n t t o m u c h " i s a p o s i t i v e o n e . I f o n e f o l l o w s t h e m o n k ' s p a t h w i t h t h e m i n d o f a n a v a r i c i o u s l a y m a n , t h e r e s u l t i s a monk o f s i m i -l a r c h a r a c t e r . T h i s i s t h e i n f e r e n c e o f t h e s e c o n d r e f e r e n c e : 48 t h a t t h e m o n k s o f R y o k a n ' s t i m e p l a c e d t o o h i g h a v a l u e o n t h e t r a p p i n g s o f r e l i g i o u s l i f e . T h e t r u e f o l l o w e r o f t h e Way i s a s u n c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e l u s i o n a n d e n l i g h t e n m e n t a s h e i s w i t h f a m e a n d g a i n . T h e l a s t c o u p l e t o f t h e f i n a l p o e m b r i n g s t h e l e s s o n h o m e . W h i l e m e d i t a t i n g t h r o u g h t h e l o n g r a i n y n i g h t s , R y o k a n s t r e t c h e s o u t h i s l e g s w h e n t h e y g e t s t i f f . J u s t a s p o l i s h i n g a t i l e w o n ' t m a k e a m i r r o r , m e r e l y s i t t i n g i n l o t u s p o s t u r e o r e m p t i l y m o u t h i n g s u t r a s w o n ' t m a k e a B u d d h a . I n o n e p o e m , R y o k a n d e f i n e s h i m s e l f a s n e i t h e r l a y m a n n o r m o n k . L i v i n g t h u s o u t s i d e t h e s e s o c i a l o r d e r s , w h e r e d o e s R y o -k a n c o m e b y h i s f r e e d o m ? T h e s e c o n d l i n e o f t h e t h i r d p o e m p r o v i d e s u s w i t h a n a n s w e r : " I e n t r u s t my f o r t u n e s t o t h e t r u t h o f H e a v e n . " T h e c h a r a c t e r - - " / ^ i m a k a ( s u ) , t o e n t r u s t , a p p e a r s q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y i n R y o k a n ' s p o e m s , a s d o e s a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r , a h t i -t h e s e c o n c e p t s , c e n t r a l t o t h e p o e t ' s a s c e t i c e x i s t e n c e , a r e t h e c o n v e r s e o f t h e l a y m a n ' s g r a s p i n g a n d s c h e m i n g t o c o n t r o l h i s o w n l i f e . T o a b a n d o n i s n o t o n l y t o c a s t o f f , b u t a l s o t o b e f r e e d f r o m , a n d s o i n R y o k a n ' s p o e t r y , t h i s c o n c e p t i s s y n o n y -m o u s w i t h s i m p l i c i t y a n d p u r i t y . s u t e ( r u ) , t o a b a n d o n . P h i l s o p h i c a l l y , 49 [309] ame h a r e k u m o h a r e k i m a t a h a r u k o k o r o k i y o k u h e n k a i mono m i n a k i y o s h i y o o s u t e m i o s u t e k a n j a t o n a r i s h o g e t s u t o n a n a t o n i s e i o o k u r u T h e r a i n c l e a r s c l o u d s c l e a r t h e a i r c l e a r s t o o My t h o u g h t i s p u r e t h e w h o l e w o r l d ' s b e i n g s c l e a n s e d C a s t o f f t h i s w o r l d a b a n d o n t h e s e l f I b e c o m e a f r e e m a n T h e n e w m o o n a n d f l o w e r s a c c o m p a n y t h e r e s t o f my l i f e L e a v i n g t h e p e r s o n a l f a m i l y a n d t h e s o c i e t y o f m e n , s h a v i n g o n e ' s h e a d , g i v i n g u p o n e ' s p o s s e s s i o n s ; a l l t h e s e c a n b e c l a s -s i f i e d i n t h e c a t e g o r y o f a b a n d o n i n g . " C a s t o f f t h e w o r l d a b a n d o n [ i n g ] t h e s e l f " a r e e q u i v a l e n t a t a l e v e l o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e t a c h m e n t . T h a t h u m a n s a r e e n d o w e d w i t h t h e n e c e s s i t i e s o f a l i f e i s a s t a t e m e n t o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e Z e n M a s t e r D5gen. T h i s r e -a l i z a t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f b o t h D o g e n a n d R y o k a n i n d i c a t e s t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n c e p t o f " e n t r u s t i n g . " T h i s n o t i o n c o n -t a i n s n o e l e m e n t o f s e p a r a t e n e s s o f s e l f a n d o t h e r . T o e n t r u s t d o e s n o t m e a n t o y i e l d o n e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o s o m e a b s t r a c t 50 power. As i t appears i n Ryokamls p o e t r y , i t c o n t a i n s on t h e c o n t r a r y , no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n (bumbetsu) , C C C b u t r a t h e r r e l i e s . , on t h e s t r e n g t h o f c o - e x i s t e n t n a t u r a l n e s s . v*o 4 * *- Bl & & i l ^ ^ 03 ^ [340] hana wa cho o maneku n i kokoro naku cho wa hana o t a z u n e r u n i kokoro n a s h i hana h i r a k u t o k i cho k i t a r i cho k i t a r u t o k i hana h i r a k u ware mo mata h i t o o s h i r a z u h i t o mo mata ware o s h i r a z u s h i r a z u t o mo t e i s o k u n i s h i t a g a u The f l o w e r has no mind t o i n v i t e t h e b u t t e r f l y , t h e b u t t e r f l y d o e s n ' t i n t e n d t o v i s i t t h e f l o w e r When t h e f l o w e r blooms _the b u t t e r f l y comes when t h e b u t t e r f l y a r r i v e s t h e f l o w e r opens Me I don't u n d e r s t a n d p e o p l e p e o p l e don't know me A l t h o u g h unknowing c a c t i n g i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e laws o f Heaven While Ryokan d i d l i v e o u t s i d e o f t h e mainstream o f s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , he was n o t i n any sense a n t i - s o c i a l . H i s u l t i m a t e r e l i g i o u s g o a l o f s a l v a t i o n f o r a l l s e n t i e n t b e i n g s i s a p h i l o -s o p h i c a l i n d i c a t i o n o f t h i s aim. But what was t h e r e a l i t y o f h i s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h humanity? The answer to t h i s q u e s t i o n i s 51 c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d t h r o u g h Japanese o r a l f o l k t r a d i t i o n . W h ile few Japanese t o d a y a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h Ryokan's c a l -l i g r a p h i c a r t , and even fewer s t i l l w i t h h i s waka and k a n s h i p o e t r y , p e o p l e n e v e r f a i l t o i d e n t i f y Ryokan as the monk who _ _ddd _eee p l a y e d w i t h c h i l d r e n . Shuho Myocho l i v e d under the Gojo b r i d g e and a s s o c i a t e d w i t h beggars. Ikkyu S o j u n p r e f e r r e d t o f r e q u e n t b r o t h e l s and keep t h e company o f p r o s t i t u t e s . Ryokan on t h e o t h e r hand, p l a y e d games w i t h t h e v i l l a g e c h i l d r e n . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n c e p t s o f abandoning and e n t r u s t i n g a r e b u t t h e o r y . P l a y i n g games w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n was p a r t o f Ryokan.'s r e a l l i f e and B u d d h i s t p r a c t i c e . W h i l e beggars, through c h o i c e o r c i r c u m s t a n c e , i g n o r e t h e s o c i a l attachments t o w e a l t h and s t a t u s , and p r o s t i t u t e s d i s -r e g a r d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l moral v a l u e s , b o t h remain a s p e c t s o f t h e dichotomy o f r i c h / p o o r , moral/immoral. C h i l d r e n a r e unconcerned. L i k e t h e b u t t e r f l y and t h e f l o w e r o f t h e p r e v i o u s poem, t h e y a r e f f f i n a s t a t e o f mushin (ch. wu-hsin) o r n a t u r a l n e s s . They behave i n a manner which i s w i t h o u t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . They r e a c t w i t h l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r c o n v e n t i o n because t h e y have n o t y e t succumbed t o the p r o c e s s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t Ryokan r e j o i c e s i n t h e i r company. U n l i k e the monks and laymen o f Ryokan's poems, c h i l d r e n l i v e w i t h an u n b r i d l e d sense o f o p t i m i s m and u n f e t t e r e d s p o n t a n e i t y i n an e t e r n a l p r e s e n t r u l e d o n l y by t h e s e t t i n g . s u n . 52 •e. ffl ES 4 [ 4 3 ] s h u r i no shu kyu a t a i s e n k i n omou_ware koshu t o h i t s u n a s h i t o kochu_no i s h i moshi a i towaba h i i f u m i i yo mu na I n t h e s l e e v e o f my robe t h e r e ' s a b a l l w o rth a thousand i n g o l d Say my s k i l l a t b a l l - b o u n c i n g c a n ' t be b e a t I f you ask t h e i n n e r meaning i n t h i s O n e t w o t h r e e f o u r f i v e s i x s e v e n [108] 53 ? j ^ $ ^ * . r * i 48 ? J l ^ ^~ £ % U "4f v» & s e i y o n i g a t s u no hajime busshoku yaya s h i n s e n n a r i kono t o k i h o t s u o j i s h i t o k u t o k u t o s h i t e s h i t e n n i asobu j i d o t a c h i m a c h i ware o mi k i n z e n t o s h i t e a i h i k i i t e k i t a r u ware o yosu jimon no mae ware o t a z u s a e ho c h i c h i t a r i h a c h i o h a k u s e k i no ue n i h a n a c h i f u k u r o o r y o k u j u no eda n i kaku koko n i hyakyso o tatakawase koko n i k y u j i o u t s u ware u t e b a k a r e s h i b a r a k u u t a i ware u t a e b a k a r e k o r e u t s u u c h i s a r i mata u c h i k i t a t t e j i s e t s u no u t s u r u o s h i r a z u k o j i n ware o k a e r i m i t e warau n a n i n i y o t t e ka s o r e kaku no g o t o k i t o t e i t o s h i t e k o r e n i k o t a e z u i i u r u t o mo mata i k a n i n i s e n kochu no i o s h i r a n t o yoseba g a n r a i t a d a k o r e k o r e B l u e sun s t a r t o f the second month c o l o u r o f t h i n g s a b i t more new and f r e s h T h a t ' s when I p i c k up my b e g g i n g bowl and h i g h - s p i r i t e d head f o r town The c h i l d r e n s u ddenly s p y i n g me n o i s i l y band t o g e t h e r and C a t c h me by t h e monastery g a t e crowding "round s l o w i n g my s t e p s I s e t my bowl on t h e w h i t e s t o n e s hang my bag on a g r e e n t r e e b r a n c h Here we p l a y tug-of-war here we p l a y b a l l - b o u n c i n g When I h i t t h e b a l l they s i n g a l o n g when I s i n g o u t they h i t t h e b a l l 54 Throwing i t there passing i t here heedless of the passing time Passersby look back at me and laugh asking "What's wrong with you" I hang my head don't answer even i f I replied what would i t matter If you want to know the inner meaning here from the beginning just this this In the preceding poems, Ryokan exhibits his understanding on Zen Buddhist philosophy, grasping the essence of an existence which i s passing on moment by moment. In the manner of classic Master/disciple confrontations of Zen koan, Ryokan faces the opponent adult bypassers. In both cases, the response is most assuredly;;not just utter childish nonsense, but rather mimetic expression of his understanding through the activity of the moment. This direct expression of Ryokan's inner nature, synonymous in this case with the spontaneity of the village children in their undefiled state, i s a manifestation of Ryokan's "everyday Mind," or "original face" (honrai no memmoku^ ?^  While a l l men are said to bear within them the pearl of Buddha-wisdom, i t is not always apparent. Thus Ryokan writes, "Men's hearts are not alike/ like faces differing one from another." The T'ang recluse Han-shan wrote that there was no t r a i l which lead to Cold Mountain, but that, "If your heart was like mine / You'd get i t and be 3 right here." 55 Ryokan's h e a r t was one o f v e r y few t o match t h e s t r e n g t h and r e s o l v e t o f i n d a way t o t h a t which Han-shan c a l l e d C o l d Mountain. I t i s w i d e l y a c c e p t e d today t h a t i n d e e d C o l d Mountain d e s c r i b e s a poet, a mental s t a t e , and a g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n . So i t i s t h a t Ryokan's s o l i t a r y q u e s t f o r u l t i m a t e wisdom l e a v e s t h e w o r l d o f man and e n t e r s t h e w o r l d o f Nature. 56 C h a p t e r V I : POEMS ON SOLITUDE 57 SI i c ffi & to K i * "l AH p x U 1 [251] _Tamagawa e k i no r y o j u k u f u b u t s u s e i s e i t a r i shuran n i zoku s u y u s h i kokoro n i kakawaru koro no nan e i y a i k u t a k i ka odoroku c c h i n j o no yume k o s e i ayamatte u s e i no kan o nasu S t o p p i n g by Tamagawa S t a t i o n Caught i n t h e t h i c k o f d r e a r y autumn wind and r a i n a wanderer ,;my h e a r t t r o u b l e d by h a r d s h i p s on t h e r o a d E n d l e s s n i g h t s l.how many times so f r i g h t e n e d by some dream as t o m i s t a k e t h e f a l l i n g r a i n f o r t h e sound o f the r i v e r 58 f £ fa m w ^. "rfl [288] z a s h i t e t o k i n i rakuyo o k i k u s e i n i j u s u r u wa k o r e shukke j u r a i s h i r y o o t a c h i oboezu nanda k i n o uruosu S i t t i n g I h e a r t h e f a l l i n g l e a v e s a b i d i n g i n t r a n q u i l i t y t h a t i s b e i n g a monk U n t i l now I had c u t o f f d i s c u r s i v e thought w i t h o u t r e a l i z i n g i t t e a r s m o i s t e n my c o l l a r 59 ill M It IS $ > [186] ro wa koho n i a r i t o iedomo mi wa fuun no gotoku s h i k a r i koson f u g e t s u no yube koshaku s h i z u k a n i mon o t a t a k u n i n g e n s h i n j i awaku shot o saen komayaka n a r i samoaraba a r e shuya no n a g a k i shoku o k i r u nanso no mae Though my h u t i s on t h e t o w e r i n g mountain my body i s l i k e t h e f l o a t i n g c l o u d s The r i v e r v i l l a g e on a windy m o o n l i t n i g h t My s t i c k t a p p i n g s o f t l y p a s t g a t e s A l l human thoughts and t h i n g s so f l e e t i n g as smoke r i s i n g t h i c k l y from the f l o o r Through t h e autumn n i g h t however l o n g trimming the wick on t h e c a n d l y by t h e s o u t h window. 60 X ML X- % ^ ft. 'ft t f 1 ^ i f ^ [324] s e n d e n k o r i r o k u j u n e n s e j o n o e i k o w a k u m o n o o k a n g a n k o n u g a t a n t o h o s s u s h i n y a n o ame t o k a m e i m e s s u s u k o s o n o m a e A f l a s h o f l i g h t e n i n g - s i x t y y e a r s l i f e ' s u p s a n d d o w n s l i k e c l o u d s c o m i n g a n d g o i n g T h e l a t e n i g h t r a i n t r y i n g t o p i e r c e t h e b a s e o f t h e c l i f f s l a m p f l i c k e r i n g b y t h e l o n e w i n d o w 61 it f 2 tr i t 4 & [271] u o musubu h e k i g a n no moto i s a s a k a koko n i zansho o y a s h i n a u hana o c h i t e y u k i n fukumi h a y a s h i s h i z u k a n i s h i t e s h u n j i t s u n a g a s h i s a r a n i j i n j i no unagasu naku t o k i n i s h o s a i no yuku o m i r u s h o s a i h i z a o d a i t e zaseba enzan bosho no koe I bound my eaves beneath t h e b l u e c l i f f s somehow I'11 l i v e o u t mv l i f e h e r e Mountain b i r d s peck a t t h e f a l l e n p e t a l s f o r e s t s i l e n t on l o n g s p r i n g days Not t h e s l i g h t e s t p r e s s u r e o f human a f f a i r s a t t i m e s I see t h e l o g g e r s p a s s i n g by In a f l o o d o f s i l e n c e I s i t hugging my knees d i s t a n t mountain e v e n i n g b e l l v o i c e 62 [303] kan y a sodc_ f u k a k u ou c h i k u k e i no h i g a s h i senpo bangaku j i n s h o o t a t s u yoya j i r o n i k o t t o t s u o t a k i t a d a k i k u f u s e t s u no kanso o u t s u o C o l d N i g h t My t h a t c h e d shack i s w e l l s h e l t e r e d by t h e bamboo v a l l e y t o the e a s t a thousand peaks t e n thousand v a l l e y s mans 1 f o o t p r i n t s f a d e away F a r i n t o t h e n i g h t a stump b u r n s i n t h e h e a r t h I o n l y hear t h e d r i v e n snow b e a t i n g on t h e c o l d window a % A rf i 4 At t *% f t 63 f'l " i t ;* ft 5- It " 1L % 4 ch • o •si U69] i c h i r o banboku no u c h i senzan y o a i no a i d a a k i n i s a k i n j i t e ha masa n i o c h i ame f u r a z u s h i t e iwa tsune n i k u r a s h i kago o j i s h i t e m o k u j i o t o r i kame o t a z u s a e t e s e k i s e n o kumu meiro no ko n i a r a z a r u y o r i wa yoku kono kan n i i t a r u naken A s i n g l e r o a d amid t e n thousand t r e e s a thousand mountains i n t h e hazy m i s t Not autumn y e t l e a v e s a l r e a d y f a l l no r a i n y e t the c l i f f s a r e always dark C a r r y i n g a b a s k e t I p i c k c l o u d s ' e a r s * b e a r i n g a j u g I draw water from t h e r o c k y s p r i n g A p a r t from t h o s e who have l o s t t h e i r way nobody makes i t t o t h i s p l a c e * the e n g l i s h name f o r t h e mushroom mokuj i i s " j u d a s ' e a r " however, because o f t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e -n e s s o f t h i s term, I have s u b s t i t u t e d t h e name o f an o t h e r e d i b l e mushroom which i s s i m i l a r i n appearance. 64 & & & w % fa ¥ ft 7/ 1* [170] s h u j i t s u k o j i k i s h i yami k a e r i k i t a t t e h o h i o ou r o n i t a i y o no s h i b a o t a k i s h i z u k a n i k a n z a n s h i o yomu s e i f u yau o f u k i s a t s u s a t s u n i s h i t e h o s h i n i sosogu t o k i n i sokyaku o n o b a s h i t e f u s u n a n i o ka omoi mata n a n i o ka utagawan A t day's end f i n i s h e d b e g g i n g I come home and s h u t i t h e s b r u s h w o o d door In t h e f i r e b u r n i n g branches wreathed w i t h l e a v e s I q u i e t l y r e a d Han-Shan's poems The west wind g u s t i n g t h e n i g h t r a i n r u s t l e s as i t soaks the t h a t c h Sometimes I s t r e t c h o u t b o t h l e g s & l i e back what s h o u l d I t h i n k about & what s h o u l d I doubt 65 ' S 3 il. v0)3 YK tf It-[221] kanro fukaku h a i o h a r a u k o t o s a r a n i a k i r a k a n a r a z u jakumaku t o s h i t e hanya o s u g i t a d a k i k u e n k e i no koe S t i r r i n g deep ashes i n t h e c o l d h e a r t h n o t a s i n g l e c o a l glimmers L o n e l y p a s t m i d n i g h t a l l I h e a r i s t h e v o i c e o f t h e v a r v a l l e y stream 66 41 [151] enzan hich.ot.tae k a n t e i rakuyo s h i k i r i n a r i j a k u m a k u t a r i s h u f u no u c h i d o k u r i t s u su s h i e no h i t o F l y i n g b i r d s f a d e i n t o t h e f a r mountains i n t h e q u i e t garden l e a v e s f a l l and f a l l In t h e d e s o l a t e autumn wind s t a n d i n g a l o n e a man i n a b l a c k robe 67 # * * **- 1 A £ ? J." "*M J * . ' * _ i a 5 [270] koson o k o j i k i s h i o w a r i k a e r i k u r u ryokugan.no, . h o t o r i y u h i s a i h o n i kakure t a n g e t s u zensen o t e r a s u as'hi o a r a u s e k i j o n i n o b o r i ko o t a i t e koko n i zen n i anzu ware mo mata sogya no s h i a n i munashiku ryunen o wataran y a A f t e r b e g g i n g f o o d i n t h e rundown town I head back t o the r e g i o n o f t h e b l u e c l i f f s The e v e n i n g sun h i d e s among t h e western peaks the p a l e moon l i g h t s t h e r i v e r b e f o r e me I wash my f e e t and c l i m b up on a b o u l d e r l i g h t some i n c e n s e and s i t t r a n q u i l l y i n zen A f t e r a l l I am a monk how c o u l d I v a c a n t l y f o r d t h e stream o f time 68 f % T [305] zoku n i au zenpan_hoton t o r i t e m o c h i s a r u zoku sodo o d a s u _ t a r e ka a e t e todomen shusho koza s u yuso no moto sou s h o s h o t a r i k u c h i k u no h a y a s h i [305] C a r r y i n g o f f my zen s t i c k * and c u s h i o n t h e t h i e f robbed my t h a t c h e d hut Who d a r e d s t o p him A l l n i g h t s i t t i n g a l o n e by t h e dim window d r i z z l i n g r a i n l o n e l y f o r e s t o f bamboo * Watson t r a n s l a t e s zenpan as "zazen c u s h i o n " however, i t was d e s c r i b e d t o me by a Japanese monk as a c h i n r e s t . I t was used t o keep monks from d r o p p i n g o f f t o s l e e p d u r i n g extended p e r i o d s o f m e d i t a t i o n . 69 [279] chogo j o t a e z u Bono t o k i s o a n . n i f u s u o t o wa k u r e n a i r a n r a n y o r y u wa masa n i sansan k y o k u j i t s u s e i s h o n i fukumare s e i u n r y o k u t a n n i shizumu t a r e ka s h i r a n j i n z o k u o i d e t e g y o s h i t e kanzan no minami n i n o b o r i s h i o B i r d s c h a t t e r i n g u n b e a r a b l y I l i e back i n my t h a t c h e d h u t C h e r r y t r e e s a b l a z e o f f l o w e r s W i l l o w s t r a i l i n g f e a t h e r y l e a v e s The sun s l i p s from t h e mouth o f the?;Mue mountains b r i g h t c l o u d s s i n k i n t o t h e green waters Who'd know 1 1 v e l e f t t h e d u s t y w o r l d b e h i n d c l i m b i n g t h e South Face o f C o l d Mountain * * T h i s poem i s v i r t u a l l y a copy o f a Han-Shan poem. See I r i y a Y o s h i t a k a , Kanzan (Tokyo: Iwanami, 1973) p. 38. 70 w a _ g a y a n o k a n z a n s h i k y o g a n o d a n z u r u n i m a s a r u s h o s h i t e b y o b u n o u e n i h a n a c h i t o k i d o k i y o m u k o t o i p p e n s u I n my h o u s e I ' v e g o t H a n - S h a n ' s p o e m s t h e y ' r e b e t t e r t h a n d i s c u s s i n g s u t r a s I s c r a w l t h e m o n t h e w a l l s f r o m t i m e t o t i m e I r e a d o n e o r t w o 71 Chapter V I I : NATURE 0 72 Mountains and r i v e r s , the whole e a r t h , -a l l m a n i f e s t f o r t h t h e e s s e n c e o f b e i n g . Of t h e many v a r i e d elements o f Ryokan's p o e t i c work, N a t u r e o c c u p i e s a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n . I t i s a t once a theme r e l y i n g upon d e t a i l e d s p e c i f i c s and a b r o a d e r , more g e n e r a l , p o e t i c c o n c e r n . In t h e s e poems, Nature i s the b ackdrop a g a i n s t which human a c t i -v i t i e s t a k e p l a c e , so t h a t i t s laws a r e p l a c e d i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c -t i o n t o t h o s e o f s o c i e t y . Because o f h i s c h o i c e t o l i v e o u t s i d e o f human s o c i e t y , and i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d , an empathy d e v e l o p s between Ryokan and the r e a l m o f Nature. I t i s w h i l e d w e l l i n g w i t h i n the.:world o f N a ture t h a t t h i s p o e t - r e c l u s e seeks t o d i s c o v e r h i s t r u e s e l f - b e i n g . The l i t e r a r y a e s t h e t i c o f Ryokan's poems, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s i m p l i c i t y and f r a n k n e s s , i s a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n o f h i s a s c e t i c e x i s t e n c e . As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the a l t e r n a t i v e o f l i v i n g i n N ature, r a t h e r t h a n w i t h i n human s o c i e t y , i s made w i t h o u t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t one way i s s u p e r i o r o r i n f e r i o r t o t h e o t h e r . I t i s s i m p l y more c o n d u c i v e t o a l i f e d e d i c a t e d t o m e d i t a t i o n , t o a v o i d t h e d e s i r e s and d i s t r a c t i o n s t h a t abound i n t h e human u n i v e r s e . As one r e c e n t American p o e t s u c c i n c t l y p h r a s e d i t , C l a s s - s t r u c t u r e d c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y i i s a k i n d o f mass ego. To t r a n s c e n d ego i s t o go beyond s o c i e t y as w e l l . "Beyond" t h e r e l i e s , i n w a r d l y , t h e u n c o n s c i o u s . Outwardly, t h e e q u i v a l e n t o f t h e u n c o n s c i o u s i s t h e w i l d e r n e s s . 2 73 R y o k a n ' s l i f e i n t h e o b j e c t i v e w o r l d o f N a t u r e c a n p e r h a p s b e s t b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a s i m p l i c i t y w h i c h e n d u r e s t o t h e p r e -s e n t a s a n i n t r i n s i c - , e l e m e n t o f s u c h J a p a n e s e c u l t u r a l a r t s a s N o d r a m a , f l o w e r a r r a n g i n g , a n d t e a c e r e m o n y . T h e p o e t w h o d e f i n e d h i s r e l i g i o u s e x i s t e n c e i n s u c h p h r a s e s a s : " O n e r o b e 3 4 o n e b o w l , " a n d " A b i d i n g i n t r a n q u i l i t y t t h a t i s b e i n g a m o n k . " r e a l i z e d t h a t s i m p l i c i t y w a s e s s e n t i a l t o s p i r i t u a l a t t a i n m e n t a n d t h a t m a t e r i a l p o v e r t y l e d t o s p i r i t u a l r i c h n e s s . I n t h e B u d d h i s t q u e s t f o r t h e d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e o f a b s o l u t e w i s d o m , t h e e v a n e s c e n c e o f a l l m a t e r i a l p h e n o m e n a i s a b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i c t e n e t . B o t h R y o k a n ' s p o e t i c a r t a n d h i s l i f e p o i n t t o w a r d t h e n e e d t o c u t t h r o u g h s e c u l a r w e a l t h a n d p o w e r , a s w e l l a s s p i r i t u a l m a t e r i a l i s m , i n o r d e r t o r e a c h t h e g o a l . L e a v i n g h o m e a n d t h e f a m i l y o f m a n , g i v i n g u p p e r s o n a l p o s s e s s i o n s , a b a n d o n i n g t h e s e l f - t h e s e a r e p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h a t s t a t e w h e r e a s D o g e n s a i d : " B o t h M i n d a n d b o d y a r e d r o p p e d . " ^ I n R y o k a n ' s p o e t r y , we s e e a d i r e c t n e s s o f p u r p o s e i n s p i r -i t u a l m a t t e r s a n d a s i m p l i c i t y o f m a n n e r i n d a y - d o - d a y a c t i -v i t i e s . T h e f o l l o w i n g p o e m b y P ' a n g Y u n c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s s p i r i t : 74 D a i l y a c t i v i t y i s n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n h a r m o n y w i t h i n W h e n e a c h t h i n g I d o i s . w i t h o u t t a k i n g o r r e j e c t i n g , T h e r e i s n o c o n t r a d i c t i o n a n y w h e r e . F o r whom i s t h e m a j e s t y o f r e d a n d , p u r p l e r o b e s ? T h e s u m m i t o f t h e i n n e r b e i n g h a s n e v e r b e e n d e f i l e d b y t h e d u s t o f t h e w o r l d . S u p e r n a t u r a l p o w e r a n d w o n d e r f u l f u n c t i o n i n g a r e f o u n d I n t h e c a r r y i n g o f w a t e r a n d t h e c h o p p i n g o f w o o d . ^ T h i s s i m p l i c i t y o f m e a n s l e a d s t o a n e x p a n s i o n o f t h e s e n s e s , a n d a l l o w s t h e w o r l d o f N a t u r e t o e n t e r t h e s e p o e m s i n a d e t a i l e d a n d s p e c i f i c w a y , r a t h e r t h a n i n v a g u e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . I t i s n o t N a t u r e o n a g r a n d s c a l e w h i c h s y m b o l i z e s t h e p h i l o s o p h y a n d m e d i t a t i o n i n t h e s e p o e m s , b u t r a t h e r t h e r a i n d r o p s f a l l i n g f r o m t h e e a v e s , o r t h e w i n d t h r o u g h t h e b a m b o o g r o v e t o t h e e a s t , w h i c h s e r v e t o u n d e r l i n e a n d e m p h a s i z e , o r c o n t r a s t w i t h , t h e h u m a n e l e m e n t s o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e . T h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e l i n k b e -t w e e n r e c l u s e a n d N a t u r e m u s t b e t h e c o n c e p t o f t i m e t h a t p e r = m e a t e s t h e s e p o e m s . T h e t o n e o f t h e p o e m s i s s e t b y m e a n s o f i m a g e s f r o m t h e ? n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t o b e s p r i n g b e c a u s e t h e c o l o u r o f t h i n g s i s a b i t g r e e n e r , o r a u t u m n b e c a u s e t h e b i r d s a r e f l y i n g s o u t h , o r w i n t e r b e c a u s e t h e s n o w i s d r i v i n g i n t h r o u g h t h e w a l l s . T h e s e t i m e s o f y e a r , t h e k i s e t s u , 1 3 " s o i m p o r t a n t t o J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e e v e n t o d a y , e v o k e s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s e s i n t h e r e a d e r . S e a s o n f o l l o w s s e a s o n , a n d m a n y p o e m s c o m m e n t t h a t t h e p o e t h a s l o s t t r a c k o f t h e y e a r s s i n c e h e h a s v i s i t e d a c e r t a i n p l a c e , 75 o r l o s t count o f t h e s p r i n g s s i n c e a r r i v i n g a t h i s mountain r e -t r e a t . The c h a n g i n g seasons and t h e i r r e p e t i t i v e c y c l i c a l p a t -t e r n s e r v e t o r e i n f o r c e man's knowledge t h a t , a l t h o u g h a p a r t o f N a t u r e reamins c o n s t a n t , time, human time i n p a r t i c u l a r , f l o w s as sand t h r o u g h t h e neck o f an h o u r g l a s s which cannot be r e s e t . T h i s d e l i m i t s Man from N a t u r e , and f o r t h e p o e t , aware o f h i s m o r t a l i t y and t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f time, i n t e n s i f i e s t h e p r e s s u r e n e v e r t o f a l t e r i n h i s endeavour t o a c h i e v e t h e g o a l o f e n l i g h t e n -.edv.view, and, t h u s , o f l i b e r a t i o n . W h ile t h e a s p e c t o f s e a s o n a l change p r o v i d e s an u n d e r l y i n g sense o f t i m e , a l e r t i n g the r e a d e r t o t h e v i t a l i t y o f N ature on a l a r g e s c a l e , t h e r e a r e o t h e r , more d e t a i l e d , p a t t e r n s i n Nature which s e r v e an i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n i n t h i s p o e t r y . "The 7 c h a t t e r o f a f a v o r i t e b i r d l i k e a t a p e s t r y , " Ryokan s i n g s . I t i s t h i s manner o f d e s c r i p t i v e l y r i c i s m t h a t weaves t h e t h r e a d s d e f i n i n g space, w i t h i t s m u l t i p l e l e v e l s o f meaning, and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . "Who: can e n t e r -t a i n a doubt about the f l o w i n g o r n o n - f l o w i n g o f mountains?" You s h o u l d p r a c t i c e i n s i d e t h e m e d i t a t i o n h a l l , go t o Zen M a s t e r s , o r t a k e y o u r s e l f t o h i g h mountains and deep v a l -l e y s . Green w a t e r s and b l u e m o u n t a i n s — t h e s e a r e good p l a c e s t o wander. Remember t h a t a l l t h i n g s a r e u n s t a b l e . Given t h e B u d d h i s t view o f th e phenomenal r e a l m as a w o r l d o f i l l i l l u s i o n , i t i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e s e poems 76 s h o u l d p r e s e n t N a t u r e a s " f l o w i n g " i n a s t a t e o f c o n s t a n t f l u x . T h e r e i s n o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n R y o k a n ' s p o e m s o f N a t u r e a s s t a s i s , a n d t h i s f a c t r e - a f f i r m s t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t h i s e r e m i t i s m i s n o t j u s t e g o - c e n t r e d q u i e t i s m . T h e p e r v a d i n g r e l i g i o - p o e t i c t o n e i s " t r a n s p a r e n c y " o n t h e p a r t o f t h e p o e t , w h i c h D . T . S u z u k i i n h i s e s s a y , " L o v e o f N a t u r e , " d e f i n e s a s T h e b a l a n c i n g o f u n i t y a n d m u l t i p l i c i t y o r , b e t t e r , t h e m e r g i n g o f s e l f w i t h o t h e r s a s i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e A v a t a m s a k a ( K e g o n ) . . . a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y t o t h e a e s t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f N a t u r e . 9 T h e p o e t i c p r o c e s s o f w h i c h R y o k a n i s a p a r t c o n s i s t s n o t s i m p l y o f t h e p r o j e c t i n g o f h u m a n t h o u g h t s a n d e m o t i o n s o n t o t h e n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . B y h i s h u m b l e r e s i d e n c e i n t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d w i t h o u t c o v e t o u s n e s s o r a t t a c h m e n t s , i m a g e s a n d s e n s a -t i o n s o f N a t u r e p e n e t r a t e t o t h e d e e p e s t l e v e l s o f R y o k a n ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . H a n - s h a n w r o t e : I n my f i r s t t h i r t y y e a r s o f l i f e I r o a m e d h u n d r e d s a n d t h o u s a n d s o f m i l e s W a l k e d b y r i v e r s t h r o u g h d e e p g r e e n g r a s s E n t e r e d c i t i e s o f b o i l i n g r e d d u s t T r i e d d r u g s b u t c o u l d n 1 t m a k e I m m o r t a l R e a d b o o k s a n d w r o t e p o e m s o n h i s t o r y T o d a y I ' m b a c k a t C o l d M o u n t a i n ^ I ' l l s l e e p b y t h e c r e e k a n d p u r i f y my e a r s . E c h o i n g c t h i s p o e m , R y o k a n w r o t e , " I f y o u w a n t t o h e a r a b o u t t h e Way y o u m u s t w a s h y o u r e a r s . " ^ - 5 T h i s c o n c e r n f o r p u r i t y a n d t h e a c u t e s e n s i t i v i t y t o n a t u r a l l a n d s c a p e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t c o n t r i b u t e t o R y o k a n ' s c r e d i b i l i t y a s a p o e t . T h e s e a r e a s s u r a n c e s 77 o f t h e c a r e f u l a c c u r a c y o f h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s n o t o n l y o f t h e o u t e r s p i r i t u a l p r o c e s s e s . As a Zen Master, Ryokan had r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e r e was no dichotomy between t h e two. y u b i n i y o t t e sono t s u k i o mi t s u k i n i y o t t e sono y u b i o benzu kono t s u k i t o kono y u b i t o o n a j i n i a r a z u mata k o t o n a r u n i a r a z u masa n i s h o k i o izanawan t o h o s s h i t e k a r i n i kono h i s h i o t o k u n y o j i t s u n i s h i k i t o k u owaraba t s u k i mo naku mata y u b i mo naken By p o i n t i n g y o u r f i n g e r you see t h a t moon by means o f t h e moon you d i s c e r n t h a t f i n g e r T h i s moon anand t h i s f i n g e r a r e n o t t h e same y e t a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t Now i f you want t o g u i d e the n o v i c e ask t h e M a s t e r o f t h i s p a r a b l e f o r now When a t l a s t y o u ' r e c a p a b l e o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g There i s no moon and t h e r e i s no f i n g e r I f t h e mountains and r i v e r s , by synecdoche f o r N a t u r e , a r e t h e body o f t h e Buddha, t h e n i t can a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y be s a i d t h a t t h e mountains a r e Ryokan's Mind. w o r l d o f Nature, b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , o f i n n e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l , [139] 78 S t a n d i n g a s a d e m a r c a t i o n l i n e b e t w e e n h e a v e n a n d e a r t h , m o u n -t a i n s h a v e t r a d i t i o n a l l y o c c u p i e d a n h o n o u r e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e r e l i -g i o n s o f t h e E a s t . W h i l e t h e A l p s w e r e t h o u g h t t o h o u s e d e v i l s , t h e m o u n t a i n s o f I n d i a , C h i n a , a n d J a p a n h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d t h e a b o d e o f g o d s a n d s a g e s , t h u s i d e a l p l a c e s t o e r e c t m o n a s t e r i e s a n d b u i l d h e r m i t a g e s . M t . K a i l a s / S u m e r u a n d V u l t u r e P e a k c o m e t o m i n d k k k i m m e d i a t e l y , a s t o T ' i e n - t ' a i s h a n i n C h i n a , F u j i - s a n a n d H i e i - z a n i n J a p a n . A f t e r y e a r s o f h o m e l e s s w a n d e r i n g , a h u t o n M t . K u g a m i b e c a m e R y o k a n 1 s a b o d e . W i t h i n t h e b o d y o f J a p a n e s e B u d d h i s t l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e i s o n e p a r t i c u l a r t e x t w i t h w h i c h R y o k a n w a s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y f a m i l i a r . T h a t t e x t i s t h e t w e n t y - n i n t h b o o k o f D o g e n ' s S h o b o g e n z o ( T r e a s u r y o f t h e T r u e D h a r m a E y e ) . t h e Sansuikyo, "*""*"^" o r " M o u n t a i n s a n d R i v e r s S u t r a , " w h i c h d e a l s w i t h m o u n t a i n s a n d r i v e r s a s t h e D h a r m a k a y a , o r " b o d y o f e s s e n c e " o f t h e B u d d h a . F r o m t i m e i m m e m o r i a l t h e m o u n t a i n s h a v e b e e n t h e d w e l l i n g p l a c e o f t h e g r e a t s a g e s ; w i s e m e n a n d s a g e s h a v e a l l m a d e t h e m o u n t a i n s t h e i r o w n c h a m b e r s , t h e i r o w n b o d y a n d m i n d . A n d t h r o u g h t h e s e w i s e m e n a n d s a g e s t h e m o u n t a i n s h a v e b e e n a c t u a l i z e d . . . A l t h o u g h we s a y t h a t m o u n t a i n s b e l o n g t o t h e c o u n t r y , a c t u a l l y t h e y b e l o n g t o t h o s e w h o l o v e t h e m . W h e n t h e m o u n t a i n s l o v e t h e i r m a s t e r , t h e w i s e a n d v i r t u o u s i n e v i t a b l y e n t e r t h e m o u n t a i n s . A n d w h e n s a g e s a n d w i s e men l i v e i n t h e m o u n t a i n s , b e c a u s e t h e m o u n -cci t a i n s b e l o n g t o t h e m , t r e e s a n d r o c k s f l o u r i s h a n d a b o u n d , a n d t h e b i r d s a n d b e a s t s t a k e o n s u p e r n a t u r a l e x c e l l e n c e . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e s a g e s a n d w i s e m e n h a v e c o v e r e d t h e m w i t h v i r t u e . We s h o u l d r e a l i z e t h a t t h e m o u n t a i n s a c t u a l l y t a k e d e l i g h t i n w i s e m e n a n d s a g e s . H 79 The c o ncept o f mountains as mind i s an image c e n t r a l t o t h e theme o f N a t u r e and S e l f - N a t u r e a t t h e h e a r t o f Ryokan's p o e t r y and i s ba s e d a t l e a s t i n p a r t on Ryokan's Buddhism. Zen Bud-dhism d e a l s w i t h t h e d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e o f n o n - v e r b a l s t a t e s and, has t r a d i t i o n a l l y m a i n t a i n e d a h e a l t h y m i s t r u s t f o r language and — mmm w r i t t e n t e x t s . S e t s u j i i c h i m o t s u soku fuch u , "The i n s t a n t you 12 speak about a t h i n g you miss t h e mark." The emphasis has always been on s i l e n t m e d i t a t i o n , d i r e c t r e a l i z a t i o n , and t h e s e methods have been tempered by f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t and c o n f r o n t a t i o n be-tween Ma s t e r and d i s c i p l e . The r e c o r d s o f t h i s s e c t abound w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o s h o u t s and blows d u r i n g t h e s e e n c o u n t e r s . D e s p i t e the admonitions a g a i n s t t h e spoken and w r i t t e n word, t h e Zen s c h o o l has amassed a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f r e l i g i o u s t e x t s , as w e l l as a s s o c i a t e d commentaries, h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , and a r t i s t i c l i t e r a t u r e . Even i n modern Japan, t h e Zen s c h o o l uses t h a t a c q u i r e d l i t e r a t u r e t o d e s c r i b e and d e f i n e , however d i r c u i t o u s l y , t h e immediacy o f contemporary r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . Z e n r i n k u s h u n n n (Phrase A n t h o l o g y o f t h e F o r e s t o f Zen), Mumonkan 0 0 0 (The G a t e l e s s  Gate) , R i n z a i r o k u ^ ^ (The Recorded S a y i n g s o f R i n z a i ) , H e k i g a n r o k u ^ ^ (The B l u e C l i f f R e c o r d s ) , as w e l l as t h e works o f many T'ang p o e t s a r e t h e most commonly used Zen t e x t s . 80 T h e b l u e h i l l s a r e b l u e h i l l s T h e w h i t e c l o u d s a r e w h i t e c l o u d s P l a n t i n g f l o w e r s t o w h i c h t h e b u t t e r f l i e s c o m e D a r u m a s a y s I k n o w n o t - 1 - 3 T h e p r e v i o u s l i n e s , e x c e r p t e d f r o m t h e Z e n r i n k u s h u , b o t h a p p e a r i n s l i g h t l y a l t e r e d f o r m i n R y o k a n ' s p o e m s . T h e s i g n i -f i c a n c e o f t h i s t y p e o f p o e t i c s t y l e i s t w o f o l d . F i r s t , t h e s e l i n e s d e s c r i b e t h e p h e n o m e n a l w o r l d , a n d a t t h e s a m e t i m e , b y a n a l o g y a n d p a r a l l e l p o e t i c s t r u c t u r e , t h e y r e f e r t o a s p i r i t u a l p r o c e s s , t h e u l t i m a t e r e a l i z a t i o n o f w h i c h i s a n o n - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d v i e w , m e r g i n g o r c a s t i n g o f f b o t h s e l f a n d o t h e r . " W i s e m e n a n d s a g e s h a v e a l l m a d e t h e m o u n t a i n s t h e i r o w n . . . b o d y a n d m i n d . " S e c o n d l y , t h e m o d e o f d e s c r i p t i v e l y r i c i s m , w i t h i t s w e i g h t o n t h e o b j e c t i v e ( i f i l l u s o r y ) w o r l d , k e e p s t h e p o e t f r o m l a p s i n g i n t o h i g h l y a b s t r a c t , c o n v o l u t e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c o u r s e . R y o k a n ' s w o r l d , l i k e H a n - s h a n ' s C o l d M o u n t a i n , i s b o t h a g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n , M t . K u g a m i i n N i i g a t a - k e n , a n d s t a t e o f m i n d . A n d t h o u g h , a t f i r s t g l a n c e , t h e s e p o e m s m i g h t b e c h a r a c t e r i z e d , u s i n g W e s t e r n c r i t i c a l m e t h o d o l o g y , a s r e f l e c t -i n g a n a i r o f s t i l l n e s s a n d t r a n q u i l i t y , t h e o p p o s i t e i s i n f a c t t r u e . I t i s t h r o u g h d y n a m i c p a t t e r n s o f N a t u r e , p r e d o m i n a n t ' i n t h e s e p o e m s , t h a t a n y n o t i o n o f l a s s i t u d e i s d i s p e l l e d . G e n e r a l l y t h e p o e m s s h o w m o v e m e n t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e p o e t , w h e t h e r i t b e g o i n g o u t b e g g i n g , o r r e t u r n i n g t o h i s h u t , c a r r y i n g f i r e -w o o d , o r m e r e l y w a l k i n g o u t i n N a t u r e . A f a i r l y l a r g e n u m b e r 81 o f poems, though, show Ryokan i n m e d i t a t i o n , and i n t h e s e v e r s e s i t i s e i t h e r the eye o f t h e p o e t t h a t moves, o r t h e p o e t ' s e a r t h a t d e s c r i b e s t h e a c u t e n e s s o f h i s s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n s . I t must be remembered t h a t i n Zen B u d d h i s t m e d i t a t i o n , zazen, the eyes remain s l i g h t l y open, and t h a t t h o u g h t s , sounds and s e n s a t i o n s a r e a l l o w e d to come and go w i t h o u t any a t t e m p t t o c u t them o f f o r to t a k e h o l d o f them. shuya gusaku samete koko n i i n u r u atawazu t s u e _ o h i i t e s a i h i o i z u i n c h u _ k o s e i n i n a k i rakuyo k a n s h i o j i s u t a n i f u k o s h i t e s u i s e i t o k u yama t a k o s h i t e gesshoku o s o s h i c h i n g i n t o k i sude n i h i s a s h i k u hakuro waga koromo o u r u o s u Autumn N i g h t I m p r o v i s a t i o n I awaken u n a b l e t o s l e e p I t a k e my s t i c k and go o u t t h e brushwood door I n s e c t s c h i r p from o u t t h e o l d s t o n e s f a l l i n g l e a v e s p a r t the c o l d b r a n c h From a f a r deep v a - l e y water v o i c e s mountains h i g h i n l a t e moon l i g h t Musing time i s s u d d e n l y gone and my robe i s drenched w i t h w h i t e dew [231] 82 T h i s p o e m i l l u s t r a t e s a l l o f t h e m a j o r c o n c e r n s w h i c h I h a v e t r i e d t o d i s c u s s o n t h e t h e m e o f N a t u r e i n R y o k a n ' s w o r k s : t i m e , s p a c e , n o n - d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f s e l f a n d o t h e r , d y n a m i s m , a n d s i m p l i c i t y . T h e r e a d e r c a n n o t b u t n o t i c e t h e l i n e a r e l e m e n t o f t i m e , w h i c h h a s b e e n p a s s i n g t h o u g h n o t o v e r t l y m e n t i o n e d . T h e e l e m e n t o f s p a c e i s m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l i n t h i s p o e m . T h e d e s c r i p t i o n m o v e s f r o m t h e m i n u t e a n d c l o s e a t h a n d ( " I n s e c t s c h i r p f r o m o u t t h e o l d s t o n e s / f a l l i n g l e a v e s p a r t t h e c o l d b r a n c h " ) t o t h e v a s t a n d d i s t a n t ( " F r o m a f a r d e e p v a l l e y w a t e r v o i c e s / m o u n t a i n s h i g h i n l a t e m o o n l i g h t " ) . D i s t a n c e i n t h i s p o e m i s c l e a r l y a q u a l i t y , n o t o f t h e l a n d s c a p e b u t o f t h e p o e t - m o n k ' s M i n d , w h i c h m o v e s o u t n e a r a n d f a r , t o t h e v a s t a n d t o t h e m i n u t e , w i t h t h e s a m e f a c i l i t y . T h e s a m e i s t r u e o f t h e t r a n q u i l i t y e x p r e s s e d h e r e . I t i s n o t t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s w h i c h a r e s t i l l b u t t h e M i n d o f t h e p o e t w h i c h , u n r u f f l e d a n d t r a n s p a r e n t , r e f l e c t s l i k e t h e p o n d t h a t m i r r o r s t h e i m a g e o f t h e m o o n . I t i s t h i s d i s t a n c e a n d t h i s t r a n q u i l i t y t h a t a r e a n e x p r e s s i o n o f n o n - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d v i e w . I n t h i s p a p e r , I h a v e d i s c u s s e d w h a t I f e e l t o b e t h e c e n t r a l t h e m e s o f R y o k a n ' s C h i n e s e p o e m s : r e l i g i o n , s o l i t u d e a n d n a t u r e . T h e s e t h e m e s , l i k e t h e i m a g e s f r o m t h e n a t u r a l w o r l d i n t h e p r e v i o u s p o e m s , d o n o t s t a n d a l o n e , e a c h s e p a r a t e l y , b u t a r e i n t e r r e l a t e d . R e l i g i o n c a n b e s e e n a s m a n ' s 83 q u e s t f o r t r u e meaning; s o l i t u d e , as a Way towards t h i s g o a l ; and n a t u r e as b o t h t h e u n i v e r s e where t h i s q u e s t t a k e s p l a c e and a complex means o f d e s c r i b i n g t h e former. "Where i s w i l d -14 e r n e s s b u t a b l a n k p l a c e on the map?" Ryokan's poems o f f e r new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . __ [46] s a n g a i jo.jo t o s h i t e k o t o a s a no g p t o s h i tamatama ima nomi n i a r a z u i n i s h i e y o r i s h i k a r i s u b e t e i k k u o r y o k y a k u s e z a r u ga tame n i hyakunen h a s h i naku okan n i t s u k a r u kyo wa:, myoso o kazoureba nagaku k a e r a z u zen wa j a k u j o o t o r e b a t s u i n i u t s u r i g a t a s h i y o t t e omou t o z a n ga kogongo mon o i z u r e b a sunawachi k o r e kusa manman to Three w o r l d s t a n g l e d l i k e hemp Not j u s t now b u t s i n c e l o n g p a s t A l l f o r n o t p e r c e i v i n g a s i n g l e p h r a s e A hundred y e a r s exhausted i n empty coming & g o i n g In t h e s u t r a s c o u n t i n g names & appearances g i v e s no e t e r n a l r e t u r n When y o u . a t t a i n t h e s i l e n t s t i l l n e s s o f Zen i t ' s h a r d t o t r a n s m i t I l i k e t o t h i n k o f Tozan's f a v o r i t e words When you s t e p o u t t h r o u g h t h e g a t e t h e g r a s s i s v a s t b o u n d l e s s 84 C h a p t e r V I I I : POEMS ON N A T U R E 85 A • 7 ^ jr. i W i 1196] kukai hana rozeki kokin go oru ga gotoshi chichi to shite sojitsu uraraka ni saisai to shite roen choku nari On the empty stairway a confusion of petals the chatter of a favorite bird like a tapestry The sun in the window shines gloriously on and on the hearth smoke rises t a l l & slender 86 [168] meimoku su sensho no yube n i n g e n banryo munashi j a k u j a k u hoton n i y o r i r y o r y o kyoso n i t a i s u ko wa genya no n a g a k i n i k i e koromo wa hakuro no komayaka n a r u n i t a n n a r i j o y o r i t a t t e t e i s a i o ayumeba t s u k i s a i k o h o n i noboru C l o s i n g t h e eyes a thousand e v e n i n g summits t e n thousand human concerns a l l v a n i s h D e s o l a t e from t h i s s traw mat l o n e l y t h r o u g h t h i s empty window Incense d i e s o u t i n t h e l o n g b l a c k n i g h t r:. my r o b e t h i c k w i t h w h i t e dew I r i s e from zazen & walk the edge o f t h e garden w h i l e t h e moon c l i m b s t h e v e r y h i g h e s t peak 87 * * * $ >* *! *? « *• 1273] kome o kou s h o j o t a r i _ s a n g e n no oku s a i z a n kyuro no mi iwan ya gento no s e t s u n i a t a r i s h i n k u t s u b u s a n i n o b e g a t a s h i kayu o s u s u t t e _ k a n y a o k e s h i h i o_kazoete yoshun o matsu t o s h o no kome o howazareba n a n i o motte ka kono t o k i o shinogan s e i s h i s u r u mo k a k k e i n a s h i s h i o s h o s h i t e k o j i n n i y o s u Begging R i c e T h i s l o n e l y s i x mat room t h i s - broken down d e c r e p i t o l d body On t o p o f a l l t h i s a w i n t e r season so h a r s h and b i t t e r I can s c a r c e l y say I s i p g r u e l and g e t thr o u g h t h e c o l d n i g h t s c o u n t i n g t h e days w a i t i n g f o r s p r i n g I f I don't beg a l i t t l e r i c e how w i l l I make i t t h r o u g h t h e s e times Q u i e t l y c o n t e m p l a t i n g no means o f l i v e l i h o o d T w r i t e t h i s poem and send i t t o you o l d f r i e n d 88 i e wa j u s u s h i n r i n no u c h i nennen h e k i r a chozu s a r a n i j i n j i _ . n o unagasu naku t o k i n i s a i s h o no u t a o k i k u h i o a t a t t e wa n o i o t s u k u r o i t s u k i n i t a i s h i t e wa kada o yomu tame n i hozu t o n i a t a r u no s h i i o u r u wa o k i n i a r a z u t o I l i v e back i n t h e deep woods y e a r a f t e r y e a r t h e green i v y grows l o n g e r Withouti.the s l i g h t e s t p r e s s u r e o f human a f f a i r s sometimes I hear the wo o d c u t t e r ' s songs I bask i n t h e sun and mend my robes f a c i n g t h e moon I r e a d gathas I say t o t h o s e who t r e a d t h e p a t h the a t t a i n m e n t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n does n o t l i e i n q u a n t i t y 89 )tSc if! S * * -Ik. '58 3 •« [275] soan nagaku t o z a s a z u k a n t e i j i n s e k i mare n a r i shoyo b a i u no n o c h i musu r y o k u t a i n i t e n z u The g r a s s g a t e has l o n g been u n l o c k e d i n t h e garden s c a r c e l y a t r a c e o f anyone Oak l e a v e s a f t e r t h e r a i n y season c o u n t l e s s f a l l i n g on t h e green moss 90 s h i n n y o t e i soku-ji i p p a t s u h a r u n i j o j i t e kono c h i n i k i t a r i s h i n n y o t e i j o rankan n i y o r u royo wazuka n i s h o j i mizu a i o t a t a u s a k u r a wa y u k i no gotoku y a n a g i wa k e b u r i no g o t o s h i I m p r o v i s a t i o n a t S h i n n y o t e i I n s p r i n g I t a k e my bowl and come t o t h i s p l a c e I c l i m b up t o t h e c o t t a g e o f u l t i m a t e r e a l i t y & l e a n on t h e b a l u s t r a d e The r e e d s j u s t s p r o u t i n g t h e water s p a r k l e s i n d i g o b l u e t h e c h e r r y t r e e s l i k e snow and t h e w i l l o w s l i k e smoke 91 3% 'IF f t [296] s a n r i n a i a i t a r i uchu no t e n k i r i a g a r i t e _ u n k a i z u k u n i ka u t s u r e r u manmantaru ko j o u j a k u o m i r u ware kyukoku n i y u k i t e j o z e n o t a s u k u Hazy mountains & f o r e s t s t h e r a i n - f i l l e d sky m i s t r i s i n g c l o u d s & haze where do they go Magpies r e f l e c t e d on t h e r i v e r ' s v a s t s u r f a c e I go t o t h e h i l l s & v a l l e y s t o work on my samadhi 92 / 6 [382] a i o t e mata aiwakaru r a i k y o _ h a k u u n no kokoro t a d a sogo no a t o o todomuru nomi n i n g e n t a z u n e b e k a r a z u Growing t o g e t h e r and d r i f t i n g a p a r t ; coming and g o i n g a r e t h e w h i t e c l o u d s ' h e a r t L e a v i n g o n l y f a i n t t r a i l s t h a t humans cannot t r a c e 93 4 & * tit % % 3-fl [79] s h o g a t s u j u r o k u n i c h i n o y o s h u n y a n i s a n k o t o k a n n i s a i m o n o i z u b i s e t s u s h o s a n o o i k o g e t s u s o r a n n i n o b o r u h i t o o o m o e b a s a n k a t o s h i f u d e o f u k u n d e o m o i b a n t a n F i r s t M o n t h E v e n i n g o f t h e S i x t e e n t h D a y A s p r i n g n i g h t s e c o n d o r t h i r d w a t c h a i m l e s s l y I l e a v e my h e r m i t a g e L i g h t s n o w m a n t l e s t h e p i n e a n d c e d a r a l o n e m o o n c l i m b s a b o v e t h e r a n g i n g h i l l s T h i n k i n g o f a f r i e n d d i s t a n c e d b y m o u n t a i n s a n d r i v e r s I h o l d my p e n i n my m o u t h t h i n k i n g t e n t h o u s a n d t h o u g h t s 94 i 6 & n >® Jf&M- % 6 fa *° 4$ % *L fa [339] Tozan osho no ge s e i z a n wa hakuun h o c h i c h i hakuun wa s e i z a n t o j i hakuun s h u j i t s u y o r i s o mo s e i z a n s ubete s h i r a z u Tozan's Gatha B l u e mountains a r e t h e w h i t e c l o u d s ' f a t h e r w h i t e c l o u d s a r e t h e b l u e mountains' c h i l d r e n A l l day t h e w h i t e c l o u d s n e s t l e down t h e mountains w h i l e t h e b l u e mountains pay no mind 95 JAPANESE AND CHINESE-CHARACTER GLOSSARY a . t)W iJk* g. t e l f h. 4,± i X J - . £ f ft If tL,^" »• iff tt o. 1 J J -fiA r . gD ± J U 96-V . V7 aa. >p - l ^ L f f ^ | | ^ f l^iTi^T bb. „fb frSL'j& — c c . ^ d d . ^ e e . ^ ;CJ> t f f . > ^ n m - #3! im n n . i$ "of o o . % _t p p . _L'P • ^ <H- ^ i t V! r r . ss. ^ J[^-t t . g x uu. ^ j t W W . XX. yy. - ^ C a a a - • T f ^ i 5 ^ : bbb. r 7 ^ c c c . eee. 5. f f f . # J L / ^ ggg. hhh. jfgijg. i i i . ^ Ifl jjj- $Pi.*KifL^ mmm, ffc. ^ ftp ^- <f n n n . ^ *3 £ . ooo. ppp. £ ^ 9 8 N O T E S 1 . A N o t e o n T r a n s l a t i o n 1 . G a r y S n y d e r , R i p r a p a n d C o l d M o u n t a i n P o e m s ( S a n F r a n c i s c o : F o u r S e a s o n s , 1 9 6 9 ) , p . 3 8 . 1 1 . R e l i g i o n 1 . K a r a k i J u n z o , R y o k a n ( T o k y o : K a d o k a w a S h o t e n , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 1 4 0 - 1 4 1 . 2 . W a t a n a b e H i d e y o s h i , R y o k a n S h i s h u ( T o k y o : M o k u r j i s h a , 1 9 7 4 ) , p . 2 . 3 . E d w a r d S a p i r , C u l t u r e , L a n g u a g e a n d P e r s o n a l i t y : S e l e c t e d E s s a y s ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 1 2 2 . 4 . W a t a n a b e , i b i d . 5 . S e e t h e Z e n t e x t M u m o n k a n , c a s e X I X . 6 . L e g e n d h a s i t t h a t e n r a g e d b y h i s e y e l i d s c l o s i n g w h i l e h e w a s m e d i t a t i n g , B o d h i d h a r m a c u t t h e m o f f a n d t h r e w t h e m t o t h e g r o u n d . T e a b u s h e s s p r o u t e d u p f r o m w h e r e t h e y h a d l a n d e d , a n d s i n c e t h a t t i m e , m o n k s h a v e d r u n k t e a k i n o r d e r t o s t a y a l e r t w h i l e m e d i t a t i n g . 7 . M i u r a I s s h u a n d R . F . S a s a k i , Z e n D u s t (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e a n d W o r l d , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 2 2 8 . 8 . I b i d . , p . 2 3 0 . 9 . M a s u n a g a R e i h o , T h e S o t o A p p r o a c h t o Z e n ( T o k y o : L a y m a n B u d d h i s t S o c i e t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p . 1 0 2 - 1 0 3 . 1 0 . M a s u n a g a R e i h o , A P r i m e r o f S o t o Z e n ( H o n o l u l u : E a s t - W e s t C e n t e r P r e s s , 1 9 7 1 ) , p . 9 6 - 9 7 . 9 9 11. A l a n W. Watts, The Way o f Zen (New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1957), p. 98-9.9. 12. See Note 5. Nansen was Baso's d i s c i p l e . 13. Togo Toyoharu, Ryokan Zenshu (Tokyo: Sogensha, 1959), p. 501. 14. Masunaga, P r i m e r o f Soto Zen, p. 32. 15. Watts, i b i d . , p. 162. V. S o l i t u d e 1. Gary Snyder, E a r t h House H o l d (New York: New D i r e c t i o n s , 1969) p. 8. 2. Thomas N e l s o n , The T'ang Poet-Monk C h i a o - j a n (Tempe: A r i z o n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1972), p. 47. 3. Snyder, R i p r a p and C o l d Mountain Poems, p. 42. V I I . N ature 1. R.H. B l y t h , H a i k u : E a s t e r n C u l t u r e (Tokyo: Hokuseido, 1949) p. 14. 2. Snyder, E a r t h House H o l d , p. 122. 3. See Cha p t e r IV, p. -31-. 4. See Chapter VI, p. 58. 5. W i l l i a m Theodore De Bary, The B u d d h i s t T r a d i t i o n : I n I n d i a , C h i n a , and Japan (New York: Modern L i b r a r y , 1969), p. 358. 6. Chang Chung-yuan. O r i g i n a l T e a c h i n g s o f Chan Buddhism (New York: V i n t a g e Books, 1971), p. 174-175. 7. See Cha p t e r V I I I , p. 8 5. 8. Masunaga Reiho, The Soto Approach t o Zen, p. 115. 100 9. D.T. Suzuki, zen and Japanese Culture (New York: Bollingen, 1959), p. 354. 10. Snyder, Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems, p. 48. 11. Michael Tobias ed., The Mountain Sp i r i t (Woodstock: The Overlook Press, 1979), p. 47. 12. Muira and Sasaki, ibid., p. 104. 13. Blyth, ibid., p. 18. 14. Heard in conversation with Chuck Janda, Chief Ranger, Glacier Bay National Monument, Alaska. 1 0 1 S E L E C T E D B I B L I O G R A P H Y J a p a n e s e S o u r c e s H a s e g a w a Y o z o R y o k a n n o s h i s o t o s e i s h i n f u d o T o k y o : W a s e d a D a i g a k u S h u p p a n b u , 1 9 7 4 . I i d a R i g y o 'tlCffl/^ 'Jff . R y o k a n s h i s h u y a k u .^^ .tt^ *^ K y o t o : D a i h o r i n k a k u , 1 9 6 9 . I r i y a Y o s h i t a k a . K a n z a n ^ J j C h u g o k u s h i j i n s e n s h u , V o l . 5 , T o k y o : I w a n a m i , 1 9 7 3 . K a r a k i J u n z o ^^M(|> . R y o k a n N i h o n s h i j i n s e n , V o l . 2 0 , T o k y o : C h i k u m a S h o b o , 1 9 7 1 . N a k a d a Y u j i r o e d . • f £ $ # £ f . R y o k a n jJLlf, S h o d o g e i j u t s u , V o l . 2 0 . T o k y o : C h u o k o r o n , 1 9 7 5 . N i s h i d a M a s a y o s h i j^ pH iE . C h u s e i n o z a n s h o ^ t £ - O . T o k y o : O f u s h a , 1 9 7 1 . N i s h i g o r i K y u g o tgf^p ^ ^ ? • S h a m o n R y o k a n z e n d e n ^'/^j^ ^ - J j f ^ - ^ ^ T o k y o : M o k u b o k u S h o t e n , 1 9 1 4 . . ' ^ O k u m u r a Y o s h i t a r o j i ^ ^ H W a r a b e u t a n o t a b i t^iyX 07j^C T o k y o : M a i n i c h i S h i m b u n s h a , 1 9 7 3 . O s h i m a K a s o k u ^ s ^ ) •?£> • R y o k a n z e n s h u f^, j j j^ T o k y o : I w a n a m i , . . 1 9 2 9 . ' S a i t o M o k i c h i ^ 1$&$o & • K i n s e i k a j i n hyoden jff %^ )^gf T o k y o : K a n a m e S h o b o , 1 9 4 9 . 1 0 2 S a s a k i N o b u t s u n a ^f^4^C_if/f«J« ) . K i n s e i w a k a s h i '^fi ^XiJ^'/C^, T o k y o : H a k u b u n k a n , 1 9 2 3 . S o m a G y o f u Jfe J&J . T a i g u R y o k a n jf|, ^ ' J f_ T o k y o : S h u n " y o d o , 1 9 2 4 . R y o k a n o s h o s h i k a s h u T o k y o : S h u n ' y o d o , 1 9 2 5 . R y o k a n h y a k k o T o k y o : S h u n ' y o d o , 1 9 3 3 . 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