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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ecological studies in balsam and spruce forests in the northern interior of British Columbia Griffith, Braham Grey 1928

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U . B . C . LIBRARY | CAT * 0 .  L £ a ft7-  ! ACC. *o  ECOLOGICAL STUDIES IN BALSAM AND SPRUCE FORESTS IN THE NORTHERN INTERIOR OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.  by  BRAHAM G. GRIFFITH  A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL  1928  in*  to-  £2.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Introduction  -—  I  Plant Successions after Forest Fires Strip No.l Strip No,2 Plot No.l Plot :No.2 Strip No.3 Plot No.? Strip No.4 Strip No.5 Strip No.6 Plot No.4 Plot No.3 Strip No.6 Plot No. 6  1 2 6 -8 12 13 17 22 24 26 32 33 37 41  -  -  -  -  -  Summary of Strip data Summary of Plot data Conclusions  -  Rate of Growth of Balsam and Spruce Trees Summary of Rate of growth studies Conclusions of Rate of growth Studies —  44 43 46 30 --102 104  Factors governing Balsam and Spruce Reproduction-103 Root systems of Balsam and Spruce Seedlings Summary . — Explanation of Figures Plates  106 107  -  109 I - IX  INTRODUCTION.  The work embodied in the following report was carried out by the writer during the summer months of the year 1926 in the Northern Interior of British Columbia, in the Prinoe George District.  The main object of the work was to as-  certain under what natural conditions balsam and spruce trees reproduce, and especially the time required for these trees to establish themselves after a severe forest fire. The writer wished to make acknowledgement to the Forestry Department of British Columbia for most of the material in the report, and especially to Mr. P. M. Barr, under whose personal direction the work was carried out. Thanks are also due to Dr. A. H. Hutchinson of the Department of Botany, of the University of British Columbia, under whose supervision the report was written.  - 1 Plant Successions after Forest Fires The transect and the quadrant methods were both used in this work. After the burned over area had been looated, and the date of the fire determined, either from local information or from fire scars on neighboring trees, strips were run over the area.  These strips were generally at  right angles to the virgin timber at the edge of the burned area.  The strips were divided into two chain lengths to  aid in tallying the tree reproduction along it.  The trees  were tallied according to species, and recorded in one foot height classes, for a width of 6.6 chains along the strip. Notes were also taken re the general topography of the area, and of the ground flora.  One or two strips  were run over each area, and for a more detailed study of the area, a plot was surveyedout on each area.  An attempt  was always made to plaoe these plots so as to represent the average conditions of the area.  These plots, were either  one square chain or two square ohains in area.  All the  trees on the plots were recorded according to species, in one foot height classes as on the strips. Notes were taken on the topography of the area, on the ground flora, and on an area of one square yard, which was typioal of the plot, all the plants were recorded according to species. The ages were determined of 25% of the trees on the plots in order  -  2 -  to obtain the rate of invasion of the trees sinoe the area was burned. Strip # 1 This strip was located  ten miles north of Prince George.  It was run over a wide open plateau, broken up by numerous deep ravines and gulleys.  The Plateau was approximately  five miles wide, being bounded on the south by a range of hills and the Salmon Biver on the north.  The general eleva-  tion of the plateau was 2100 feet and the soil for the most part a sandy loam.  The area was burned over with the except-  ion of a wet strip through the oentre, several times. last fire being 21 years ago (1905).  The  This fire was a  particularly severe one, leaving very little debris behind. The soil was also very badly burned, there being no trace of any vegetative humus.  There was a belt of virgin timber  through the oentre of the plateau.  This belt was a fairly  wet swampy area about a mile wide, and supported a mixed forest, comprising spruce, (Picea Engelmanni) 8 b a l s a m (Abies lasiocarpa) 8 b i r c h (Betula oocidentalis) 4-^, and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) black spruce (Picea mariana).  along with a few  In the past fires have en-  coached upon this strip of virgin timber at various intervals, so that there are zones made up of different ages-the oldest zone being near the centre, where the trees are approx. 350 years old.  The next zone is composed of trees  -  3  -  the oldest of which are 1.50 years old, whilst at the margin of the forest there is another zone, the oldest trees being 100 years old.  Owing to an abundant water supply, and  ready drainage this forest was particularly dense. The spruce and balsams being particularly thick in the low wet. areas, whilst the Douglas firs sought the drier and higher levels.  The birches for the most part were in the outer  zone, where there was a greater supply of light. At present the whole of the plateau between this stretch of virgin forest, and the hills on the south is shaded by a young growth of poplars (Populus tremuloides) the tallest of which are about 25 feet.  In the shade of  these poplars, seedlings of the coniferous trees are begining to make their appearance. On the northside of the timber belt, the young growth was chiefly Lodge Pole Pine, (Pinus contorta), the soil being sandier and drier for the most part. The strip was run from the south edge of the timber due south over the plateau for a distance of 30 chains, with a width of .10 chains.  All coniferous seedlings were  tallied on the strip in 1 foot height classes, and notes taken on the flora every two chains.  The strip was fairly  level, and the soil varying from fine red loan to a sandy loam.  P r o f i / e  of  S t r i p  /\fo  /  Scale  oS"Cwt  ^ /  CA0/r,  The first 4 chains of the strip was low lying, fairly moist ground.  Here the humus was fairly thick, since it  had not been severely burned by fire.  The ground cover  here was very dense-forming a 100% shade over the ground. This ground cover was composed largely of woody shrubs, Cc^vw I  (Lonioera involuoratum) and (Viburnum pauciflorum)Mgrass with a little fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium) in the less densely shaded areas.  From chainage 4, a very gradual rise  brings us to a drier sandier soil, and with this drier condition the woody ground cover gives place to one of grass, aspens and willows forming a ground shade of about 80%. At chainage ten, there is an undrained pocket with a very dense ground cover of grass only. From now on to chainage 28 the ground is fairly level, and dry, and the general ground cover becomes less dense, but the density of the aspens increase.  The ground cover is made up  largely of scrubby rose bushes (Rosa nutkana), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja Sp.) and a few wintergreesn (Pyrola chlorantha and P. tainor). Between 28 c. and 30 c. there is a deep ravine running east and west.  On the southern aspect of this ravine there  G> > E C ^ ^ u V U £ w £ ^ M . N <» ^ v a E E S S  I I  D CD A C 0 I0 3N A (b  *  «s Co  IT »  N  "FT  ft  • 1 Q» Q s. 6 >  *  ft  b J L NO  »  £  u rs  & i.  .•v.  o&  ?s>  >  u  h>  fr  ^  &  • A B o * a 5  £ Q5 «  0  0)  a 0) } V S a ft a A1 i 5Z £ la Oj is 1 ffN i s Oft  - of -  S k  •v  F  <b  -a *  o> A v ft fc  cb ov Vo "in; I  is very little vegetation, merely a few aspens and birches, At the foot where conditions are wetter and shadier the aspens are much denser, and there is a very dense undercover of Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja Sp.)« (Rubus parviflorus) and grass.  Thimbleberry  The northern aspect has a  ground cover composed of Indian Paint Brushes (Oastelleja Sp.), Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), Squashberry  Viburnum  pauciflorum) and Saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia).  Aspens  are not very common on the northern slope, where light conditions are less favorable, but a^fairly common on the ridge, and at the bottom of the ravine. S t r i p  t  2.  This strip is really a continuation of Strip # 1, Strip f 2 ending near the edge of a cultivated field of clover 14.5 chains in width.  This Strip began on the south  boundary of the field on the top of a deep ravine running east and west.  From the beginning of the Strip the near-  est seed bearing trees were 46 chains north. Over this Strip the stand of poplars is slightly more open than that of the first Strip, and the ground cover is generally speaking less dense, but is composed of a greater variety of plants.  In the drier areas there are such plants  as (Parnassia parviflora), (Habenaria gracilis), and a species of gentiana which is very similar to ((*. sceptrum) but the flowers are much smaller, which may have been due to  - 7 the dry sandy soil conditions.  (Pyrola minor) is quite  common in the shadier places, and Twinflower (Linnaeus borealis) is quite general in its distribution.  On the north,  slope above the clover field at the beginning of the strip the oldest poplars are 17 years old, whilst the oldest spruce are 11 years.  From chainage 0-8 the ground cover was composed  of Indian Paint Brushes (Oastilleja Sp.), Fire Weed (Epilobium angustifolium), and a few grasses.  From 8- to 9.85 c.  there is a deep ravine, the southern aspect of which is almost barren, save for a number of Rose bushes (Rosa nutkana). At the foot of the ravine aspens are numerous, and there is a dense ground cover of Indian Paint brush and grass.  On  the northern slope there are many alders, birches and aspens and a few Mt. maples (Acer glabrumjl, and willows near the ridge with dense ground cover of Indian Paint brush and Bunchberry (Oornus canadensis).  On the ridge 9.2 5 - 9.5 ch.  there are many bushes of Squashberry (Lonicera involucratum) and a few lodge pole pines which are 17 years old. From 9.5 to 12 c. there is a deep ravine running northeast by northwest.  On the southwest exposure there is very little  vegetation, whilst at the bottom and along the northeast exposure aspens are numerous with a ground cover of Fire Weed (Epilobium angustifolium) grass, Pea Vine, (Lathyrus ochroleucus), Labrador tea ( Ledum groenlandicum), Mt.Mapie (Acer glabrum). Red Osier Dogwood (Oornus stolonifera),  HP  - 8 -  Squashberry (lonicera involucratum), Saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolla).  From 12 -18 chains the ground is fairly level,  bat at 18-26 there is again a slight ravine running north and south, at the foot of which the ground cover is fairly dense and Is made up largely of Pea Vine (Lathyrus ochroleucus).  Plot £ 1 This plot was located near Strip #1, and was 20 chains south of the timber line* square chain* sandy loam*  The area of the plot was one  The ground was level, and the soil a red To facilitate counting the tree reproduction  the plot was subdivided into fivefequal strips running north and south.  Then a small representative plot (1 sq. yd.)  was taken inside of the large plot and a list made of all of the plants there.  It was estimated that the arown cover  or dhade of the poplars was approximately 407.. £he ages of many of the young trees were also checked by ring counts. Age  Poo/or He.qht 171 f^t Ami /T> years. £ 1o £ 1o <3 a IO a 11 1o II lo  13  to IS.  14  14 1 6  1 4 IC 15 15  ao  as  14-  count He/qht  t r e a s PIor No 1. •SP -oce. B , •ch m feet At.je m 5(earS Height i-n Feci Ale in Vears. 5 13 06 12 2. II ao IS ia 2 16 A 0  f  It  H 5 i*  . *  ? qp * if +  « N  Uj \0 (h V OS  7  ?  SI >  fi  3  1 ft 0)  DJ >.. * F! >  a In  £ «  £  £  t  C>  CJ ft 8  &  <  u  —  a «o u Vl  &  J\>  JV f»  WI n» r»  —  *  rs  *  M rv o  *  * je  e>  OS 3 - § o rw s r  » IM o  si <oB l» L r j -i. *D T\>  0> J* «  -  — 10 There were no balsam reproductions on this plot, and only one /Lodge Pole Pine, which was a large tree being in diameter and 28 feet high, and was 17 years old. The plant count on the one square yard plot was as follows:Species Oornus canadensis  No. of Plants 107  Epilobium angustifolium  9  Oastilleja Sp.  9  Achillea millefolium  7  Bubus spectabilis Salix Sp.  3 (small shrubs)  Rosa nutkana  2  Glintonia uniflora  2  Rubus pubescens  2  Viburnum pauciflorum  1  Habenaria unalaschensis  1  Populus tremuloides  1  Viola Sp.  1  Moss  about 25% of the area.  - 11 -  t r e e Vo/Vor.  I t  { P„p«/«s  Z  3  o-/  /  t  S  / F  9  4  C  z  s-  F  / o  7  F  /o  6  Z  Z£>  /z  4  A4  3  Z  /£  S  /c  /F  /  z  ZO  Z  Z4  Z  ZC.  3 S6  o / Z  G 9  /  z  7  /  /  /o  Z  3  z  / /  3  4 Z  /  /  /  /  /  /  /  /£  /  <  3  /  /  Z  /  c 5  Z  3  Z  3  3  /  Z.  Z  Z  Z  F6  /  -f  ?  7  f £ n q * / " " " i n i ) .  F / o / r  F  7  /  zz  m i . Spruce..  /  4  <r /o  p l o t  /r<rmu/4jJ*i) jD/*/a/«ns  !5 /  T.Hs  r e p r o d u c t i o n  /  Z  /  J /  z  <s  1  4  6'  3  3  -  12 -  Plot # 2 This plot was located a few chains west of Strip ft 2, and 66 chains distant from the nearest seed trees - ie those at the beginning of Strip f 1.  This plot was well  drained being situated between numerous dry deep ravines.  T o p o j r a p / > j Scc/e  o / /<?m=  P / o / ' /C/iotn.  /Yo.  T r e e . *  Sprue* /P.  *  I f e p r o c / u c f / o n .  //mti>n/\ S>/rci.  o-/  Z  3  4  /  3  •f  /  h i  t  3'  3  z  Z  /  /  / /  *  <o  /  r  3  /£  /  Z  r  /•  S  9  S  3  /(>  XT  /c  /  « .30 / /  /5 /r  /  J-  s  s  z  /  //  Z6  3  3  «sf  /  /  T r e e .  a  s  C o u n t  3  J/r*.  i' S  • '  U Zac/gc  7  '  7  *  zs-  •f -5  •4  /  i / <?  *  ?z  7?  T=>/0f  A^o.  /  / /  /  £ ftf/ar-  a w / /»/«•/  / j e o r r a sjs  90  d u e  /  S  B/rcA  spruec OiJ-  /  z  a  /  /£-/f  7ofa/s.  (Reafo/i).  CO /Z  //  /  •  3  /9  <  / H o  fr-  Z  Z  Z-4  Je  JO/ vis sous -  3 /  Z  T ' / o f  / g e / o / e 3p). | Top/ar.  'P/ot  /  13 -  tr-s-  po/c /  •4  S  -  £  9  '  <f /O  » '  //  •  S S /o SO It  /a ' ft '  H  It  '  /S  U  /S  /-3 *  /s  '  /3 "  -  14 -  Plant count on Plot of 1 sq. yd  Plant Species  Number  Cornus canadensis  70  Achillea millefolium  23  Antennaria Sp.  6 (dumps)  Rubus spectabilis  5  Rosa nutkana  3  Epilobium angustifolium  3  Aralia nudicaulis  2  Populus tremuloides  2  Salix Sp.  1  Viburnum pauciflorus  1  Linnaea borealis  5% of area  Moss  35%  »  »  -  15 -  Strip £ 3 The location of thisstrip is about a mile west of Willow Kiver in a little over a sixty year old burn.  The  area is a low lying fairly moist flat of good loam soil covered by approximately 2" of humus. of the area is about 2% north.  The general aspect  At present there is general  over the area a fairly dense stand of poplars, the oldest of which are 60 years, and are 75 feet in height. The forest surrounding this burned area is composed of spruce (Picea Engelmanni) 70°/., Balsam (Abies losiocarpa) 207. and Poplar (Populus tremuloides) 107.. For the most part these are seed bearing trees ranging in height from 90 to 130 ft. The strip started 4 chains west of the fringe of timber and continued for twenty chains west.  The general ground  flora was fairly dense, rich and foleaoeous- consisting of Mt. Spiraea (Spiraea densiflora), Ked Osier Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera)? Twinberry (Lonicera involucratum), Waxberry (Symphoricarpus racemosa), Larkspur (Delphinium Sp.), Columbines (Aquilegia formosa) and a number of dense large willow clumps, 2-6 incheB in diameter. Scattered throughout the area were a number of young i  spruce trees varying from 30 to 40 years, beneath which there is very little vegetation, save a few small winter greens (Pyrola minor).  It was interesting to note that  there were no spruce or balsam reproduction under 30 years  - 16 -  Tree  it To p/ar. I -N^ N £ 4  Ife procJucf/jv fP  ?  =3".  h-erido/Jes).  D/^/ance.  6  S t r / p / Y c -  /o  m  cAo/ns  /t  o-/  /t  /'  «See</ Trees  from £  4  6  s  /o  /i  <o  3'  f-t  /  /ao  3 r 4/  w  Z-4  /  /*  6*/S  /  *  6' 6'  / 6-t l~/o fc-si  /  i  H  /  Z  /  /  /  /  / /  /  /  /  C4-ZC  /  Z6 + Tib!  /  Z  /i-ZO ton  /  t  S  ?  f root  I  /  I  I  /  I  /  /  /  /  /  /  /  4£ 6/ / i f FT  -Sprouh.  /  /  /  /  / /  J  / / /  /  /  - 17 of age, and comparatively few young poplar seedlings, but a very large number of young root sprouts from the older poplar trees.  After the burn a heavy stand of poplars and  willows came in, the oldest of which are now 60 years, followed about twenty years later by a number of spruce seedlings which grew up in their shade, and are now 30 - 40 years old.  These spruce seedlings continued to come in for  from 10 to 15 years, but sinoe then the shade probably has been too dense for spruce seedlings to develop, since the ground cover as well as the over head covering is very dense.  Hot # 3 This plot isfcbouttwo miles northeast of Willow River Station at twenty chains west of the Fraser River.  It is  situated in an alluvial flat approximating 1900 feet in elevation in a belt of 45 year old timber, composed mostly of balsam and spruce, which runs back to the river.  In  1916 and again in 1922 forest fires had encoached upon this belt of forty-five year old timber.  This alluvial flat was  bounded on one side by the Fraser River, on the east, and by a shallow depression or gulley 101 deep on the south side, which gave place further south to higher ground, supporting a dense stand of aspens, spruce and balsams of 60 years growth.  In the depression aspens and willows are  Steep  A/Jer  Sct/t  - 18  -  S or  amp.  S/ope.  •••*•<**> - /  - 1? T r e e  T f e p r o d a c h o n  'Qa/scm. {dA/es /as/ocarp*).Te/b/ar- ffofiu/ui f-rcmJo/Je*).  Spruce- fP'cea  P/Of  /  2.  3  D l l / / S / 0 7 ? £>•  /  s  0-/  f-/C  /  3  /  /  z  *  *  /  3  /  £  3  S~  z  Z  z  3  r  <r  r  c  /o-n  3  3  <4  s  /  /  Z  /  *  Z  /  *  /  3  3  /  2.  /  Z  z  /  3  Z  z  z  /(-A Z  Z  Srzo 3  z  3  3  z  Z  Z  /  s  lt-Zi  £  z  Z-4-ti3  ^  /  4'  z s  w  •9/  Z  3  s  /  Z.  /  /  /  /  Z  /  /  /  /  /  z  to-it  /  /  /  3  /  z  3 3  T ^ / o f / V o . ^ .  / /  / 3  z zc  7  3C  9  7o f-a/  Pc. p*ro ducf/cr>  9  Safean?  f d f P  T c M  /  7'  3  P / o f / f c Z>. Wumben  Spcc/es Sp>rve<2 . CP  ?  //  z  £.r>£c/manni)  /€<?  /o&/ocarf>a) / r e mo  4S  /Z>  fo'des.  2  Z  7 •  / /  —  - 20 Tree.  -V * •Spruce V V V.  C o u n t  FYot  Ao.  3  73/>/or (T-  f ~P- £i>je//***ni). 13/ret /'Se/i/s Sf>.) T*/o /  s  D/f 'St OPS  /  2  3  *  s  *  /  4  Z  3o  it  3  £  3S  rZ  3  C  /  Z  4o  f  3  7  Z  4S  /  z  so  /  /  S 5  !  f  3  /  ?  /  Z  /  /  3  7  /  Z7  4K  3C  <•o  6o  ToM 3t  A3  Z  /  £  3  4  /  /  3'  ^  /  /  ^  £  Z  /  /  3  Z  3  Z  s  F  3  Z  4  3  z  Z  5  Z.  /  fs  34,  /  Z  S  4  3  /  Z /O  /  /4  F r  Spruce  f t ?  z  so  ~Pcf>/ar.  / /fS.  Zr'mvh  ToM /fffe.  cimoer  /et'OC*yfa)  /StfM  Z 7 Z Count  T>of>/«r  o f  Tre»s  ~P/o  A /ft  3. Sprfcc.  a/sam  /ivy// in fee/"  /nj/ears  / / a - j l i t /» s  feet.  /?£e  /it years  /Aerjf/t/„ f,r  Sf  si  SS  40  40 40 SO  AO 3S 4<Z  so So  S7 it  zr  •40 46 So •if  SS  4f  3t  44 40  CO  4C  4Z  CO  ss  so  4/ 3 S 4c  €  /s /src i S  30  S 7  3  z  //<;  Znge/manm)  /V  3'rti  /V  C/es  Z  r  To/<?/ AZanber 0/ Zrees over ZZ<reA Spe  3  Z 3c  21 very abundant, with a very dense ground cover of tall grasses, Spiraeas, (Spiraea densiflora) and Delphiniums. To the west there is a poorly drained slough, where alders are abundant, and also slough grasses.  To the north was the  dry sandry flat, which had been burned over severely in 1916 and 1922. The nearest seed trees are 50 chains west, where there is a mature stand of balsam, spruce and poplars. The per acre stand of trees on this plot was estimated at 2012 trees, made up in the following proportion:Spruce 1179, poplars 646, balsams 183 and birch 4. This total takes account only of trees over two inches in diameter.  The trees and seedlings were totaLled as for the  other plots. This plot was slightly larger than the others, being 1.5 chains x 1.6 chains. The plant count on one square yard was sssfollows:Speoies Oornus canadensis Vaccinium Sp  No. of Plants 135 11  Habenaria borealis Linnaea borealis  7  Pyrola minor  4  Rib us pub esc ens  4  Aralia nudicaulis  4  22 Species  No. of Plants  Oerastium Sp  4  Rosa nutkana Spiraea Douglasii Achillea millefolium Amelanchier alnifolia  2  Horsetails (Equisetales)  2  Unidentified Plants  3 Scant  Moss Strip f 4.  This strip is a little north of Plot f 3, in the 1916 forest fire area.  The ground is somewhat drier and sandier  than the plot, and is approximately 75 feet greater in elevation.  The nearest seed trees are 30 chains north. The  first two chains of the strip are fairly level, hut from 2 - 5 chains there is a steep rise with a northern aspect, from 5 chains to 24 chains the ground is fairly level, hut from 24 chains to the end of the strip at ohainage 30, there is a slight depression, with much wetter soil, with a corresponding increase in the density of the ground cover. On the level from c.O to 2 c. trhere the soil is dry and sandry there is very little ground cover, mostly Fire weed (Epilobium angustifolium),  Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja  Sp.) and a few Oregan grape shrubs (Berberis aquifolium). On the north slope (chain 2-5) the ground cover is somewhat  D) CTT 3> T 81 I I 0 o 3 <t>  a 0  i  to  00  o  vB o» 01 f\»  S u  n>  $  -  i*  v£> A  fN  r  w VI »v 1  m.  w trt M 1  A  JV> 0 i 0 * u' * 0 «N 3 CS o CO o 5 o  » 0  3-  BO-»» r 06 n> 0 r»  *  J  o 3 it Cl t ) It 0 S  > >. p•*> w 0 a  £  - 24 heavier, willows being more predominant.  From 5 to 20 chains  the ground cover is very similar to the first few chains of the strip, but from 24 Chains to the end, Fireweeds, lupins and raspberry bushes are very dense, forming a hundred percent shade on the ground.  The end of the strip finished  one chain from a fringe of seed trees.  Strip ft 5 Strip f 5 is a short strip running through an area burned over in 1922, and situated near Plot ft 3»  For the  greater part the soil is a ddep sandry loam, but is replaced in a few cases by a black loam.  The general slope of the  strip was about 5%, with a south western aspect.  The near-  est seed trees are 15 chains north. Ohainage 0 - 2.5 is fairly level supporting a ground cover composed of Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), twinberry (Lonicera involucratum), Horse-tails (Equisetum Sp.) and a few Squashberry bushes (Viburnum pauciflorus), and Mt. Ash (Pyrus sitchensis), also a few Hazel (Oorylus Sp.), Spiraea (Spiraea Uouglasii) and rose bushes.  2.5 - 3.5 is  low wet ground, where Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), alder (Alnus stitchensis) are the dominant species.  - 25 77<?e  l ^ & v r o d u c t / o n S t r i p Vo  •2>~Pruce.  N  TUG/sCI//] /O/s/t/ice  A  6  ?  /o  z  A £  /o  Z  /re* 4  To p / i r SecJ 7r<res,  6  *  £  / /  0-'  /- 2  B trcj  /» CAams ?  £  /  / /  /  /  /  W I  /  1  /  t  /  <t  /  /  £  - 26 -  4 - 5 . 5 chains is a 20% slope with an eastern aspect, here Thimbleberries (Rubus parviflorus), Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Rubus pubescens, and rose bushes (Rosa Sp.) form the prevailing ground cover.  5.5 - 6, low ground where  poplars (Populus tremuloides) and Twinberry (Lonicera involucratum) ocour.  6 - 1 0 chains, gentle slope with a  western aspect where there are fewer Twinberry bushes, and Spiraea, but Twinflowers (Linnaea borealis) are guite thick.  Strip f 6 The area over which strip f 6 is run is three miles west of Willow River, along the Fraser River.  The area is  a bench 100 to 200 feet above the level of the Fraser River, and cut up by many ravines and gulleys. large 1916 fire.  It is part of a  To the south the area is bounded by a  heavy stand of virgin timber of the balsam spruce type, mixed with a few poplars, birches and Lodge Pole Pine. The strip began about 150 yards back from the Fraser River at the top of a deep embankment made by the Canadian National Railway.  Through this embankment an abundant supply  of clear water oozed, revealing the fact that the soil above was fairly moist and well drained although the top  - 27 soil was very dry. line.  The strip ran at an angle to the timber  The beginning of the strip being about 40 chains  from the timber, whilst at the finish of the strip the green timber was only a few chains distant. Chainage 0-5 was a steep western slope, with scant ground cover, 60% mostly of Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), roses (Rosa nutkana), Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), Spiraea (Spiraea lucida), Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), Willows (Salix Spp.), Alder (Alnus sitchensis) and i'winflowers (Linnaea borealis).  Hear the summit of the slope  the twinflowers beoome more abundant, and Rubus pubescens are guite common.  At 5.5 iShains, there is a shallow gulley  running north and south, at the foot of which Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja Sp.) are abundant.  5.5 - 7, western slope, with a ground  cover very similar to the first 5 chains of the strip. From 7 ft 10 chains, the ground is generally level, the ground cover becomes scantier (40°/.) and is composed for the most part of Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), goldenrod (Solidago Sp.) and willow.  Here the soil is powdery dry  clay. From 10 - 13.5 chains there is a dense grove of aspens, beneath whose shade there is a dense grognd cover of Rubus pubescens, Mt. maple (Acer glabrum), Harrow (Achillea millefolium) and a few Fireweeds (Epilobium angustifolium). From 13.5 - 15 chains the slope becomes steeper and drier  - 28 without crops of rock.  Here the type of growth changes  from aspens to Lodge Pole Pine.  On the ground here there  are numerous half burned trunks of large Lodge Pole Pine trees, and a few scattered cones, from which the present growth of young pines probably sprung.  From 18 - 22 chains  there was little ground cover, and the Lodge Pole Pine stand gave place to one of poplars.  At 21.5 chains there was a  slight rise in elevation, with Lodge Pole Pine again replacing the poplars.  22 - 23 chains was level ground, with  a light cover of Fireweed (Epiholium angustifolium), Queen*s Gup (Clintonia uniflora) and Spiraea Lucida.  The ground  elevation rose between 2J - 24 chains, with a western slope, here the ground cover was much heavier being approximately 60% of the area covered.  This cover was composed of Thimble-  berry (Rubus parviflorus), (Rubus pubescens), Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja Sp.), Squashberry (Conicera involucratum), and Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera).  From 24 - 25 chains the slope  was much greater,a rise of twenty-five feet bringing us to the brow of a small knoll at twenty-five chains.  Near the  brow there were several birch clumps, Willows and poplars, but little ground cover besides Spiraea lucida.  From 25 -  26.5 chains therslope was steep, with an eastern aspect, with very scant vegetation, but with some young spruce reproduction growing in decaying wood.  From 26.5 chains to  - 29 30, there was a slight western slope with a general ground oover averaging about 50 percent in density.  Chainage 30  brought us to within 10 chains tf the timber, so that to avoid running into the timber, we swung the strip 45 degrees north, and continued in a straight line until the end of the strip.  We crossed a small gulley at 31 chains running north  and south, there were some Indian Paint Brushes and ferns at the bottom.  On the western slope of the gulley there  were practioally no poplars, but a few willows and birches. There was also no balsam or spruce reproduction in the gulley, but there were some spruce and balsams on the northwest aspect, and a few on the asutheast slope.  The ground cover  was medium on the west slope consisting of Bunehberry (Cornus canadensis), Wintergreen (Pyrola minor?), Spiraea lucida, Squashberry (Lonicera involucratum), Queen»s Cup (Clintonia uniflora), Rubus pubescens, and a few Mt. Maples (Acer glabrum).  From 35 - 48 chains there is a gradual west slope,  with willow still dominant, beneath the willow there is very little other vegetation, but in the more open space there are Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Fairy - Bells (Disporum Menziesii), Golden Rods (Solidago Sp.), Bunehberry (Cornus canadensis), roses (Rosa nutkana) and a few Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus).  There is quite a heavy repro-  duction of spruce in the shade of the willows, which seems guite favorable to them.  Forty-two to forty-four, the ground  beoomes level, and with this condition, Rubus parviflorus  £ X Chi  R  T r e e  4  6  e  10 12 14 16 '3 Zo 21 Z4 2i 28  9 3 /  3  1  2  3  Z  A 7  3  <7  /  3  /  3  /  3 4 7 7  30 31 34 36 38 40 42 44 IO Z5 /(> 2} 39 7  6 lZ  3  17  IO IZ 10  zs  C>ouqIQS 4  /  /  £  8  /o72/47616  /  (  /  rom  2 4  h e  4 Z.  a  6  10 IZ 14  33 18 2  // 2  2} 39 7  ? 2. / //  Z  33 27  Z  R e p r o d u c t i o n  /6 18  /  Z  /  /  /  4 4  £  3  /  /  2.  7  /  7 4 4  £  3 3  3 t r i p  5  N o .  30 3436 404«44464<956 54 2 A / 5" a 7 / 3 3 / / O3 72 1  £  3  /  //  u  1 2  II  a  Z  P o l e  1 5 4  Pme.  I  <Z A  IO 7  3436aa4o42444646So Si i-4 /  1  z  II  Z  6 .  & IO IZ 14 16 ie zo 22 14 z<z 28 30 32  Z  / /  I  S  3  Z Z  /  4-C  /  /  1  £  4  1 S  /  .5"6 7 <5 /  lota! Species Pop!or: CottonwvdBirch. Spruce. Bo/Sam.  / /o 3 IZ 1  1  z  Z 13  II  3414 It,  2.  /  1  Tree  R e p r o d u c t i o n S t r i p No. 6. distance in chains from begmnmj of Strip. Q 10IZ 1416/azo ze. ** 2<k 263032343638AO 12 44464SSo 54  24£ 4 7s 4 / 2 If 2 1 19 9 3 1 3/ Z  Doughs fTr 1 / Lodge P R / Total  3 3  7  /  /  6-8  t  to  34 36 38 Ac 4« 44 4-C 48 fo  28 3o  /  Zr4  ! *  Zo 22 Z4 26  L^odge  l-l  Tefal 1  6 .  *S-tnp.  of  QiTinin 9  f i r  24 ZG.26  to zz  N o .  9  T r e e  Z  2  5  f Ch o/ns 46 46 So rz 5A  L Z  S t r i p  <3 AS <3777. i n  D i s t a n c e  To tot. 9  o-l  p r o d u c t i o n .  3 p fu c e  E n g e l T n a n n  i-z  X  e  /CD 7  sc  <0 6 9 49 96 C  3  /  / 5  4 77Z  IS Z 17  / Z  1  /  4  73/ / 3414 IC 4 C3 903551 71 m Z  3 IS so 2 2/  57  3  /  /  Z  / £  1  IO 35  G  z  IS  3 IO IZ  IO zs  /  1  1  2 II £ Z /CZS 3?7 5 2  44 3 3 & 67C / 33  £ /  II  /  z  5ago «e /  n  //  3 12 / / / 3 / / A 1 zoCo 2629 903*7°cc 7//36 3/ 9 7/356 a/  1  / IO  1  z  1  /  3  - 5 t n  P  N  0  .  6.  -Sco/o / Cm- ' £ c/iotts. T r e e  R e p r o d u c t i o n  S t r i p  / y  Q  5 ,  - 32 and Rubus pubescens become more conspicuous.  Between forty-  four and forty-six, there was a slight slope to the east, which is practically devoid of vegetation save a little Fireweed, Thimbleberry, and an occasional clump of willows and alder.  Forty-six to forty-eight chains, a southwest slope  with a little more willow, Firwweed and Thimbleberry.  At  47.5 chains, there was a slight depression, with several Red Osier Dogwoods growing there.  Forty-eight to fifty  chains, a gradual slope to the southeast, with a cover of Willows, Hazels, Squashberries, and Bunchberries.  Fifty to  fifty-two, steep slope to the southeast, where there is a haavy stand of willows.  2.25 - 3.5, and alder swamp, with  dense undergrowth consisting largely of grass and spiraea densiflora.  A gradual slope fco the west brings us to the  timber here at chainage 55 where the ground cover is 95% dense, consisting of Rubus pedatus, Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus;, Foam flower (Tiarella unifoliata), Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja Sp.), Squashberry (Lonicera involucratum), Twinflowers (Linnaea borealis), Bunehberry (Cornus canadensis) and Queen's Cup (Clintonia uniflora). Plot f 4 This plot was located in the same burn as strip ft 5, being somewhat southeast of strip 5, chainage 40.  The  nearest stand of seed trees were 13 chains southwest, although there were a few seed trees a little nearer to the ooast, which the fire had left undamaged.  The slope of the plot  - 33 was 5% north, and the soil was a powdery olay.  The crown  density of the plot was hbout 30% and mostly oomposed of willows. The plant count on one square yard was as follows:Species  Number  Oornus canadensis  30  Rubus pubescens  16  Tiarella unifoliata  10  Disporum Menziesii  7  Epilobium angustifolium  9  Rubus parviflorus  5  Clintonia uniflora  4  Phegopteris Dryopteris  4  Castilleja Sp.  3  Aster Engelmannii  2  Linnaea borealis  1  Spiraea luoida  1  Moss  85%  - 34 -  T t g g  Tfts.pro  duct  ton  F'/ot.  /Vo.  4-.  spec/es.  J*. A a /$ a/» / Yer a.~E>e/-u/a sp.  /  o-/  3  /as/ocar/>Q  V tan Ve/ra .  6  z  zo  £  /-z  /  J  Z~4  / /o 7 4  /  /o -/Z Tof-J.  /  z  6  3 S  Tree  ZO.  / % /  /Vo  4.  Spec/es. ~3e/-<j/a Sp feytf/m tf  Ajft  //. y>c/s  /fjj?  40  F  0-/7  6-0  F  0• /7  ?0  // //  /OO  //  Ab'cs. /asiocarpa.  e /meini. Tieea /En/j  4  peqtf/xfat-  Jec.f-  a- zs~  Psea^o^^o  4  S  a. SO  7  S  0  0•  7  o-  0-66  /o  /4?e  0-35  0- 2. 5 33  to- t.ifof('«  SO r  - 35 Plot # 5. This plot was situated in the same "burn as Plot f 4, and Strip f 5, being a few chains southeast of strip # 5, chainage 10.  The general aspect of the plot was southwest,  having a slope of about 4%. clay.  The soil was a dry crumbly  The stand of green timber was 12 chains south, and  was composed of seed-bearing spruce, balsam, Douglas Fir, and birch, whilst near the? plot itself there were a number of burned Lodge Pole Pine,debris. was two square chains,  The area of this plot  ihe crown density was approximately  227°, consisting almost entirely of willow. Plant count on one square yard: Species  Number  Asters Sp Rubus pubescens Achillea millefolium  10  Cornus canadensis  10  Disporum lvlenziesii  7  Kpilobium angustifolium  5  Rosa nutkana  3  Spiraea lucida  2  Unidentified leaves  7  Moss  30%  Total Ground Cover  90%  - 36 Tree  R e p r o d u c t i o n  T^/ot  /Vo.6-  3poo/<ss .  Top/or  Sf>rucc -&/rc/i  /7  4*  / s  <6  O-f  Do of/os r / r .  /-z  /  6  7  Z-4  /  F  /  6  /  ^  /  <3/sums'  3 /c-'Z  ZS  Total-  T r e e  /?j?  S  ' 7  e s  'F'to/'  /Vo  <5  >Spe c / e ^ s /OQp/ar Jfe/f/it 4  f t  4  '  7o</</c To/eVK Aj?e  s p r</c<_ //C-Sff/S 6 9 "  &  y  '  /a  "  /o  '  9  S j n  yrsS  '  S  '  /O  /«  /<*  / y  s- "  £"  £>o"f/as  F/r  ?/'t  7 J<rs-  few// 1  7 *  Z  7"  6  7"  3  '  /o  "  F  "  "  S  '  /<f *  7  '  £ -  ^  7  "  « '  y 7'  7"  Strip # 6 . 7 This strip was ran near Foreman, B, §«,over an area burned probably thirty-eight years ago, as indicated by fire scars left on some few of the mature trees.  The mature  stand at the margin of the burned area, was approximately ninety years old, and was oomposed of Black Spruce (Picea mariana) 50%, Lodge Pole Pine (Pinus contorta) 40%, balsam (Abies lasiocarpa) 5%, birch (Betula occidentalis) 5%. At the beginning of the strip Lodge Pole pine was dominant, the stand being approximately 30 feet high, with poplars 20 feet and black spruce 10 feet.  For the most part over  the area, the soil was a white clay to loam, with a fresh covering of humus and moss, about one half inch in thickness. For the first chain or so, the ground cover consisted of willows, Spiraea densiflora, twinberry (Lonicera involucratum) and bunehberry (Cornus canadensis;.  Here the young  blaok spruce and balsams are from twenty-eight to thirtytwo years old.  From two to four chains, and from six to  eight chains the ground was fairly swampy with a dominance of willow.  From eight to ten chains conditions were very  similar to those of the first few ohains—the ground cover, being about 507® in density.  Here there were a few Bodge  Pole pines four inches in diameter, and twenty years old. From ten to twenty chains, the ground cover was guite light, consisting of Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), willow, twinberry (Lonicera involuoratum), grass, and numerous wild  M, vzi  0k  I l l s 1u s » ftt m Ul ve 01 Oo VC A ro  1_  w —  —  —  ro m  lu"  TS-I 5 Ct> u 01 TT~ -  -  —  —  >  ^  -  Ft.  X Ik II ^ -b Lt> -  —  <y  00 o rt> Jk  <1  a  -J  —  •  I  p  —  V  lo"  ^  ©  00  -  —  1 — r» u  —  S _  —  —  -  8 & ro T T -s—  T  CD "S.  a u CB  e>  —  W is K  u  S In <n k  \D  3  |  55 0 >  Si !r vo A ¥OS WW  N  -tr» —  T  T) *  *  Itfl  -3 r»& 4>a t 0\ <t> f A r» M U 00 tt & * K o 0o> u t\ § TU a r 2 — — > a — ffs G ft M » \> r» s f n 5 a In 1 2 4k in 8 u. In 5 5? 0> On N N 0> —  fe  -  —  -  -  r» CD s 6  i r •4 N o _ 0 U 4> BN — •tl n> U N r» IN _ M>  ^  a  —  —  n  IT"  —  —  1" 2 bi  ^fl  —  «  f;  =  —  -  —  —  -  -  r» —  in  -  r»  14 — 13 N LX •4 o. LI V* LI In o> — kfl Oi kJ tfl tfl HM bi — Lfl H u bfl u U  -  Jj> ^  *  1 U n>  01  —  1  1 1  O) T» u, 4k N> tv 00 0 S ? • r— »  —  —  N  "V -  I  lb 3CnX:.  —  VO (N  1 1 4> 1 CD ti  —  n> jk N ffk 0» I 5r»  0> u -  & r \ r v5 2 Ci K S  o u $ SI Cs  F o ®  f; a El a j0 ta u Co H  Wl m n  Ml  m  - 1? strawberry plants.  From twenty to thirty ohains the con-  ditions were still very like those of the previous ten chains, save that there was a much greater production of grass. Strip t This strip was located in the same general area as strip f 6, but the later fire of thiry-eight years ago, had not swept over the portion through which this strip was run, the area being last burned about sixty years ago. The present stand consisted largely of poplars, approximating fifty-seven years, with a fair proportion of large willow clumps.  The virgin stand of green timber was  seventy chains to the north, and another forty to fifty chains to the south.  This stand consisting of Engelmann  spruce, 40%, Lodge POle Pine 407», balsam 57», Douglas Fir 5, and poplar 107®. The general aspect of the slope was slightly north.  Over the entire area there was a relative-  ly dense stand of undergrowth, consisting for the most part of sbrumbs and grasses, of which the following are representative, Spiraea densiflora, roses, Squashberry (Viburnum pauciflorus) and black twinberry (Lonicera involucratum).  The herbaceous covering, was made up of Indian  Paint Brushes (Castilleja Sp.), Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), blue violets (Viola Sp.), strawberry (FragariaJ, bunch berry (Oornus canadensis), Pea vine, (Lathyrus  Oo to $  ft *  w  N  —  <0 0\ u 6)  Balsam  Total  vs Jk «  O o K Ol W 00  s u \o 0 s * >5 **  £  o ©  r 0* t  o-l <t s: 1T r> <0 U>  u  K u iD fts n n> N CDn rv N 0 y Jv O, s p?v> C Jk ' 01 yUSIL 0 S 0 5 0 to o o r»0O «\ O Oo to J 0> h>> —. G> G >5' S 0) W O U TO^ 0 — > « 9s :z 0 CA hi N t \ uQ V, u 0 Oo  v.  M  -  N N  —  c5  C Ji. bl  i Ft  l\> Q> §  <k 5; u 5 3> N - r & v OS N J S » As » . K 0) u v. «o O l J ! k N u t Ai a fo N A.  ft  Oo o  •v.  £  A «N> e\ w — oo os M N ih w r» — N fv "V. •s. •s. V. -  -  f\)  **  --  -  \  -  •tk V) u la Co & 4k f* t;  ^ &  &  (N W 0> u Q> 0) Od 4k.  fv> NJ % fo M Jk. S 5: Nt (M t>» s ^  k fv 5 5 G" 01\ 4 * fs o a> 4s 1  v.  6)  —  — -  -  >*>  -  --  h> — -  N  -  Co I S M 4> k « 0 O« U Nl S u l\ i of Jk  l>  o fS-  <h 3>  «  O Ik CD a 55 u I o B R 3 £ KJ £  «  •fc  fs>  $  3  o =3o 3  0 R U V) 5 (N •s -tc: s> o •(b<it> R S <! 1M 0 A» j C CJ C I 0o s a k *  •V.  CD  *  :  * u O ft i V *  - 41 oehroleuous), Rubus pubescens and grass.  At ohainage eight  to ten, there was a slight knoll, upon which the ground cover was completely changed, to that of the rest of the strip, consisting entirely of Soopalallie (Shepherdia canadensis), and Lodge Pole Pine (Pinus contorta). .Between chainage 32 to 35.5 there was a deep ravine.  Thirty two to  thirty four chains being the northern aspect, and 34.-35.5 the southern.  There was another deep gulley from 35.8 to  40 chains with a stream eight feet in width at 37 chains. Here again, 35.8 to 37, was the north aspect, and 37 to 40 the southern slope. Plot f 6. This plot was located in the same forest burn as strips 5 and 6. The plot sloped slightly to the north, and had an elevation of approximately 2100 feet.  The soil  was loam, with a covering of humus one inch deep. The ground cover on this plot was very luxuriant, being well shaded by a fairly dense canopy of poplars, and large willow clumps. There were also a few large spruce trees on the plot, but little vegetation grew beneath them, save a number of young poplars two feet in height, vvhich seemed to thrive exceedingly well under their shade, and a few winter greens.  For the most part on the plot, the  young poplar growths are merely shoots from the roots of the mature poplars.  At present time the large willow  - 42 clumps are rapidly dying out, this is probably due to an insufficient light supply caused by the dominance of poplars. The ground cover includes, Spiraea densiflora, grasses, rose bushes, moss, Indian paint brush, black twinberry, yarrow, fireweed, strawberry and bunehberry.  On this plot,  the Spiraea has largely replaced fireweed, and Indian paint brush, seeming to thrive best in intermediate light, with a moderate water supply and a slightly northern aspect, and is itself replaced by rose bushes and wintergreen in the dense shade of the spruce and Lodge Pole pine trees.  Over  the plot the general shade of the top canopy was about 50%. Ground cover on one square yard:Species  Number  Oornus canadensis  25  Fragaria Sp.  12  Rubus pubescens  10  Gerastium arvense  9  Achillea millefolium  8  Spiraea densiflora  5  Rosa nutkana  5  Viola Sp.  5  Linnaea borealis  3  Epilobium angustifolium  1  Castilleja Sp.  1  Grass  30 blades  Moss  25%  - 43 -  7~ree He^ir '» Peep  p r o d u c t i o n  T ^ l o t  A^  SpectG%  A  /ot/fe'To/k  ~Pbp/ar  T^'"*  S  6>.  0  pr^ee.  a/s  am.  0-/  /  /-z Z-4  /<?*  4-6  6  / /  4  /  /£  ^  ZO ZS  3/  30  /?  33~  6  /  /  / 3  A 0  / t  Z£ / 3  /  /  SO  //  S3  /V  6c  / 7  /  -r  Tof*!  6 / 0  3  ZO  #  Compose  r<res .  J  of  saccular  sprouts  from  /~A<s  n?<i/-ure.  -«N> N  )  \  *  *  *  ** Ni * V Nl *  V *  \ £  £  *  N >  r S* \ OR>  *  V ft ij * » v SL •I 5 ft SI <? «S  *  * ft •s N  ft  t> a >  ft  < -> «K  b? W  $  N o Vj s  £ 1>  £ $  N>  Gd  * *  1  I*  **  *  1  s VCO ft U «s * cs * *  s  * 03 *£  tA  N>  \  *  ^  *  a bJ  O >N  CI  *  £  15  CA A V ^ * C bi i %> >1 >  1'I  •A si •V  o H  <1  •N * « <s • £  V k V  &  1  t  4. N  *  *  I  I  *  J) A  ON  1*1  O'  <k  *  a t  D  £  j!  tf4  £ **  \ O  \ S  •i  ? N  1 N K V *  ft  «\ fa  <M 0  s  U <  "N  V*  ft U1 $  * *  1 • wo N ft £ ft  *  tX  * F-  e.  $  n k  X  - 46 Conclusions It is difficult to make a general statement in regard to vegetation appearing on newly denuded areas, as after fires, on account of the large number of factors involved, and also since very few detailed investigations bearing on the subject have been published. The poplars (Populus tremuloides) and the Lodge Pole pines (Pinus contorta), are the most light tolerant of our northern trees, as evinced by the fact of their becoming established generally the year following a fire. two genera seldom over-lap one  These  another and which species  will grow in depends primarily upon the available seed supply.  If seed trees of both the poplar and the Lodge  pole pine are in the vicinity, the poplar reproduction will be the greater, due to readier wind dissemination of the seeds, but on dry rooky outcrops, and in undrained pockets, where conditions are unfavorable to growth of poplar, young Lodge pole pines will spring up.  If many Lodge pole pines  had been growing on the area before burning, the fire was not too severe, youn^pines will soon be abundant over the region, since their cones are very resistant to fire, and even require considerable heat to liberate the seeds from the cones.  The poplars flourish under a number of conditions  but are intolerant of shade, being rarely found on northern or northwestern slopes of even small knolls, and seedlings  - 47 -  do not appear beneath the shade of a mat lire poplar stand. The biroh (Betula fontinalis) appears a year or two after fires, on the north or northwestern slopes of small knolls, where it is often associated with the Mountain Maple (Acer glabrum), especially near the summits.  In the case of the  birch, humidity is probably the limiting factor, since the air will retain less moisture in the shady north slopes, than on the sunnier drier south slopes, and birch was often observed out in the open in damp areas. Spruce (Picea Engelmanni) seedlings generally begin to appear four or five years after the area has been burned over but in regions where the fire was less severe may appear a year or two earlier.  Spruce reproduction is more  abundant upon North, or northwestern slopes, than on southern exposure.  Where spruce seedlings appear on the level  areas, in nearly every instance they were on the north side of partly decaying logs, left partly burned by the fire. It is possible that they require decaying vegetative matter to grow in, since even on the northern aspects they showed a preference for decaying vegetative matter.  This pre-  ference might also be due to a greater water supply since decaying vegetation would have a greater waiter retaining capacity than the surrounding soil, thus lowering the rate of dessication.  The seeds of the spruce are widely wind  disseminated, seedlings being found as far as seventy  - 48 chains from the nearest seed trees. Balsam (Abies lasiocarpa) generally are not as ready emigrants as the spruce, coming in a year or two after them, and generally in lesser numbers.  The limiting factor here  was not definitely established, but it is thought to be one of water relationship. The alders (Alnus sitchensis) grow in immediately after fires, in open undrained depressions, or in very wet locations but where the light is abundant. Amongst the ground flora the first to appear are the fireweeds (Epilobium angustifolium).  It is a pioneer form  in the strict sense of the word, its stay being short, as it is seldom found after the over head shade of the poplar begins to appear.  It is more limited in its range than  some other forms, such as Cornus canadensis and Rosa nutkana, becoming especially dense in low lying moist areas, but almost absent on dry exposed regions. Bunehberry (Cornus canadensis) is the most widely distributed of all the plants, not only is it one of the first forms to appear after burns, but its stay is permanent being found under conditions varying from shady wet habitats to dry exposed ones. In burns up to about twenty years of age, the ground cover flora consists largely in the dry exposed places of,* Rosa nutkana, Cornus canadensis, Rubus spectabilis, Pyrola minor, Parnassia parviflora, Spiraea lucida, Linnaea borealis,  - 49 -  Habenaria unalaschensis, and grasses.  This cover is never  very dense, and upon southern exposures becomes practically extinct.  In wetter areas, the ground cover is much denser,  and is composed for the most part of woody shrubs, such as Lonicera involucratum, Viburnum pauciflorum, Rubus strigosus and Oornus stolonifera.  In shady shallow ravines and on  northern exposures conditions are intermediate between the dry open planes, and the open moist areas.  Here the ground  cover is composed of Oastilleja Sp., Rubus parviflorus, Lathyrus ochroleucus, Amelanchier alnifolia, Oorylus californica, and Oornus stolonifera.  Castilleja Sp. is very  widely distributed, being found in scattered clumps, in very slight depressions, in even dry open planes, p A •;>: ,. In old burns of fifty years or more where poplar forms the main stand, casting a heavy shade on the ground the flora is very dense, composed of, Spiraea densiflora, Delphinium, /^quilegia formosa, willows, and grasses. Where coniferous trees forms the overhead canopy the ground cover is not so dense, and consists of low plants suoh as Oornus canadensis, Rubus pedatus, many species of Pyrola, Disporum menzieoii, and Clintonia uniflora.  - 50 Rate of growth of Balsam and Spruce Trees*  The rate of growth of a number of balsam and spruce trees were determined at the Forest Experimental Station, Aleza Lake, B. C., both in an area which had been previously logged, and in virgin timber. The object of determining the rate of growth after logging, was to ascertain the effect of logging upon the remaining trees, since with the removal of most of the larger trees a muoh greater light supply was available for the remaining trees. For this study four plots, four square ohains in area, were surveyed out in the logged over area, upon different slopes and exposures, and two plots of the same are$, in the virgin timber.  On all of these plots the trees were  tallied, as to species, diameter and height.  The rate of  growth was then determined by means of an increment borer. In the trees on the logged over section, the rate of growth was determined for a ten year period before logging, which was in 1919, and for the seven year period since logging. For the trees in the virgin timber the rate of growth was determined year.  in  ten year periods for the ladt thirty  - 51 -  TREE TAL]LY PLOT NUMBE  tfaaiusincr. 7 yrs lOyrs Remarks  Number  Speoies  D.B.H.  Height  1  Spruce  3.5  30 ft  1.65  12 ft  3.20  20 ft  .12  .18  9.20  53 ft  .45  .22  .60  .55  2 3  Balsam »?  Age  .38 -  .17 -  4  tt  5  »t  7.15  50 ft  6  Spruce  9.55  60 ft  .50  .30  3.00  18 ft  .15  .18  7  Balsam  -  8  it  5.2  30 ft  .60  .40  9  rt  3.8  20 ft  .32  .23  10  tl  2.4  12 ft  .10  .09  11  tt  7.65  46 ft  .88  .62  12  ft  1.4  9 ft  .35  .30  13  II  3.0  15 ft  .42  .33  14  Spruce  6.0  30 ft  .17  .21  15  Balsam  3.75  16 ft  .70  .55  16  Tl  3.75  16 ft  .12  .10  17  n  3.7  20 ft  .50  .50  18  tt  1.4  9 ft  19  II  4.0  20 ft  .40  .30  .45  .25  20  Spruce  4.9  20 ft  21  Balsam  1.7  7 ft  -  -  -  -  Top broken  Centre R.  - 52 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Radius Incr. 7 yrs lOyr Remarks  Number  Species  22  Spruce  1.5  10 ft  .18  .30  23  Balsam  1.5  11 ft  .20  .30  24  Spruce  9.6  65 ft  .60  .55  25  Birch  2.9  25 ft  .15  .30  26  Balsam  2.15  10 ft  .15  .15  27  Spruce  2.8  16 ft  .14  .16  28  Balsam  2.45  11 ft  .20  .17  2?  Spruce  3.25  18 ft  .35  .25  30  Balsam  1.9  16 ft  .13  .22 .17  D.B.h.  Height  Age  31  tt  1.25  7 ft  .18  32  rt  1.65  JL0_f1^  _  10.0  42 ft  .4  .47  2.8  15 ft  .55  .22  33 34  Spruce ii  —  35  Balsam  1.6  10 ft  36  Spruce  2.2  14 ft  .40  .40  2.5)  12 ft  .36  .16  37  n  Broken  T nr»  _m  38  Balsam  2.95  18 ft  .40  .17  39  Spruce  2.45  12 ft  .20  .27  40  Balsam  9.4  43 ft  .35  .27  41  ti  2.0  9 ft  .15  .30  Injured  42  it  2.0  12 ft  .18  .27  it  43  it  2.0  12 ft  .25  .25  -1  - 53  -  TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Number  Species  D.B.H. m Height  Age  Radius Incr. 7 yre 10 yr Remarks  44  Balsam  2.7  15 ft  .32  .40  45  Spruce  3.7  20 ft  .25  .35  46  Balsam  3.6  18 ft  .28  .37  47  »t  5.1  30 ft  .38  .77  48  ti  2.7  16 ft  .35  .33  49  Spruce  2.3  20 ft  50  it  7.7  36 ft  .50  .50  51  n  10.1  70 ft  .32  .68  52  Balsam  4.6  25 ft  .40  .65  53  ti  2.0  13 ft  .20  .28  54  tt  1.8  10 ft  .25  .30  55  tt  4.8  35 ft  .75  .55  56  tt  2.5  14 ft  .20  .30  37  it  3.15  18 ft  .30  .35  58  tt  2.75  18 ft  .18  .24  39  it  2.4  18 ft  .23  .30  60  it  3.2  20 ft  .30  .35  61  Spruce  9.10  60 ft  .50  .55  62  Balsam  2.5  12 ft  .27  .29  63  tt  2.6  10 ft  .27  .31  64  Spruce  1.75  10 ft  .30  .30  65  Balsam  4.30  28 ft  .20  .30  —V  _  - 54 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER / Number  Radius Inc. 7 yrs 10 yr  Species  D.B.H.  66  Balsam  2.55  17 ft  .20  .20  67  Spruce  6.6  55 ft  .25  .40  68  Balsam  1.65  12 ft  6?  Spruce  2.40  12 ft  70  Birch  5.10  30 ft  .30  .40  71  Spruce  5.75  35 ft  .25  .45  72  >i  12.65  80 ft  .60  .56  73  Balsam  4.04  20 'ft  .40  .25  74  ii  3.9  20 ft  .30  .35  75  it  1.32  76  Spruce  3.0  25 ft  77  ti  1.85  16 ft  78  u  2.85  15 ft  7?  Balsam  1.85  9 ft  80  tt  8.0  38 ft  .10  .28 B roken top  81  Spruce  1.4  10 ft  .20  .28  82  Balsam  1.9  10 ft  83  Spruce  5.9  40 ft  .25  .15  84  it  2.1  15 ft  .15  .10  85  n  5.15  35 ft  .27  .20  86  Balsam  L0.4  75 ft  .10  .15  87  Spruce  11.1  6o ft  .90  .47  Height  Age  Remarks  -  _  9 ft .35  .25 -  .09  .21  —  —  -  -  TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER I Number 88  D.B.H.  Balsam  15.5  88 ft  .15  .25  11.3  68 ft  .72  .58  1.8  16 ft  j.  4.35  30 ft  .05  .08  12.1  81 ft  .20  .30  15.6  80 ft  .10  .20  It  8? 90  Spruce ii  91 92  Radius Incr. 7 yrs 10 yrs Remarks  Species  Balsam tt  93  Height  Age  94  Spruce  2.4  13 ft  .12  .23  95  Balsam  3.6  17 ft  .50  .60  .10  .25  .35  .25  96  t«  1.15  9 ft 9 ft  97  n  1.25  98  n  2.0  10 ft  99  it  1.6  10 ft  100  n  1.55  10 ft  101  n  1.63  9 ft  102  II  —  —  79 ft  .30  .32  1.88  15 ft  .15  .30  .15  .17  .20  .17  .20  .17  10.8  103  n  104  «  2.1  10 ft  105  Hemlock  1.5  13 ft  106  Balsam  1.8  15 ft  14.9  76 ft  107 108 109  n  Spruce it  2.23  15 ft  4.9  35 ft  Broken top  - 56 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER / Radius Incr. 7 yrs 10yr Remarks  Number  Species  D.B.H.  Height  110  Spruce  7.1  50 ft  .20  .33  111  Balsam  11.3  78 ft  .15  .14  1.3  9 ft  -  -  1.35  9 ft  _  —  112 113  it  »  114  ii  1.9  11 ft  115  n  1.5  9 ft  116  it  1.9  10 ft  117  it  1.85  118  it  119 120  Spruoe II  Age  .06 '  20  .09 —  —  .15  .32  10 ft  .17  .28  13.1  85 ft  .15  .20  11.5  72 ft  .27  .45  2^ ft  .25  .23  4.55  121  Balsam  1.6  8 ft  122  Spruce  1.5  10 ft  .30  .33  123  Balsam  12.9  82 ft  .10  .10  10.8  83 ft  .05  .10  .40  .30  124  II  125  Spruce  5.95  25 ft  126  Balsam  1.35  8 ft  127  it  1.9  128  it  1.72  129  it  2.8 5.85  130  Spruce  131  Balsam  18.3  -  -  -  -  .20  .25  14 ft  .30  .30  25 ft  .07  .21  81 ft  .18  .22  95 ft 9 ft  - 37 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER /. Number  Species  D.B.H.  Height  132  Spruoe  9.3  49 ft  133  Balsam  1.5  9 ft  Age  Radius Incr. 7 yrs lOyrs Remarks .65  .57  —  _  .38  .32  .40  .35  134  it  2.1  10 ft  133  ti  1.95  12 ft  136  tt  18.2  82 ft  .23  .62  137  ii  4.3  20 ft  .35  .25  138  it  2.4  10 ft  .25  .33  13?  n  17.9  87 ft  .25  .30  11 ft  .15  .25  9 ft  .20  .45  .35  .30  140 141  Spruce tt  1.65 1.5  142  Balsam  2.25  14 ft  143  Spruce  1.7  14 ft  19  32  -  -  144  it  2.9  20 ft  .42  .38  145  it  2.2  15 ft  .24  .24  146  tt  1.20  8 ft  .40  .25  1  147  Balsam  1.65  10 ft  148  Spruce  2.9  18 ft  .42  .43  2.0  11.5  .13  .14  2.35  15 ft  .20  .28  9 ft .23  .22  149 150  II  Balsam  151  ti  1.65  152  it  1.5  10 ft  153  ti  1.2  8 ft  mo  -  -  - 58 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER / Number 154  Species Balsam  Radius Incr. Age 7 yrs lOyrs Remarks  D.B.H.  Height  1.2  7.5  • 15  .20 .25  155  n  2.2  10 ft  .45  156  it  1.5  80 ft  —  157  it  2.3  14 ft  .30  .22  158  it  12.3  80 ft  .09  .21  15?  Sprue e  1.65  12 ft  160  Balsam  6.65  37 ft  —  .55  .30  161  it  1.3  8 ft  -  -  162  tt  1.6  9 ft  -  -  163  it  1.6  9 ft  -  -  164  Spruce  3.8  20 ft  165  Balsam  1.4  8 ft  166  ii  40  .65  .30  -  -  1.65  10 ft  _  _  167  Spruce  3.1  15 ft  .20  .20  168  Balsam  9.6  66 ft  .12  .15  169  it  1.3  9 ft  —  _  170  it  1.45  9 ft  .35  .25  171  it  1.55  14 ft  172  ti  1.5  9 ft  .45  .33  173  ti  2.8  20 ft  .20  .30  174  ti  12.3  77 ft  .20  .37  175  ti  10.9  79 ft  .20  .20  „  Centre ^ot  59 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER I  Number  Species  D.B.H.  Height  Radius Incr, Age 7 yr lOyr Remarks  176  Balsam  1.95  9 ft  .13  .17  177  Spruce  2.00  10 ft  .20  .20  178  it  68 ft  .35  .52  179  Balsam  7 ft  .20  .30  180  n  2.5  12 ft  .20  .30  181  it  1.85  12 ft  .30  .40  182  Spruce  2.8  20 ft  .40  .15  183  it  4.65  22 ft  .15  .08  1.9  14 ft  184  II  11.8 1.25  185  Balsam  2.4  10 ft  186  it  1.2  7 ft  187  it  8.7  38 ft  2.8  17 ft  14.5  ...  .40  .30  .35  .45  .35  .45  76 ft  .15  .20  .25  .20  188  •T  189  Birch  190  Spruce  2.65  18 ft  191  Balsam  1.8  12 ft  192  Spruce  2.1  12.5  193  it  1.2  9 ft  194  Balsam  1.25  8 ft  195  it  1.55  9 ft  196  »i  2.15  9 ft  197  Spruce  8.1  31 ft  26  -  -  .18  .19  .40  .25  -  -  .40  .25  .20  .42  Broken trip  - 60 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER /. Species  D.B.H.  Height  198  Balsam  4.9  23 ft  .60  .30  199  Spruce  8.45  38 ft  .52  .41  200  Balsam  4.3  29 ft  .18  .17  201  it  17.35  93 ft  .20  .25  202  Spruce  3.9  20 ft  .15  .35  11.0  64 ft  OO •  Radius Incr. 7 yr 10 yr Remarks  Number  .37  35 ft  .17  .18  203 204  n Balsam  D. B. H.  6.10  -  Age  Centre Right  Diameter Breast Height.  Radius Inor.-Rate of growth. 7 years  -  10 years -  Rate of growth 7 yrs. after logging. Rate of growth 10 yrs. previous to logging.  - 61 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER /f Number  Species  D.B.H.  Height  Age  Radius Incr. 7 yrs 10 yr Remarks  1  Balsam  8.8  63 ft  .1  .15  2  Spruce  7.6  46 ft  .4  .15  3  Balsam  1.5  10 ft  .25  .25  4  it  21.1  91 ft  .30  .20  5  Spruce  6.6  29 ft  .20  .30  6  Balsam  3.1  32 ft  .25  .20  7  n  1.8  8 ft  8  n  6.9  _  .20  .10  9  Spruce  5.0  10  Balsam  2.05  11  Spruce  12 13 14  23 ft  .85 :-.35  8 ft  .24  .25  5.0  26 ft  .45  .45  Balsam  9.9  65 ft  .25  .20  it  2.0  12 ft  .40  .65  1.4  9 ft  .30  .15  II  15  it  3.9  16 ft  .45  .50  16  Birch  4.2  30 ft  .40  .40  17  Spruce  1.9  12 ft  .33  .24  18  Balsam  3.3  17 ft  .42  .36  19  n  4.9  25 ft  20  it  2.0  13 ft  .60  .60  21  it  3.5  14 ft  .45  .40  2.3  10 ft  .50  .25  3.2  13 ft  .75  .37  22 23  II  it  Broken top —  I  35  >75  .52  - 62 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER t. Number 24  Species Balsam  Radius Inor. 7 yrs ie yi Remarks  D.B.H.  Height  3.4  16 ft  .60  .50  Age  25  ti  2.0  7 ft  .25  .20  26  it  Broken top  3.5  18 ft  .20  .45  it it  27  it  5.2  24 ft  .60  .25  28  it  1.2  7 ft  -  -  29  Spruce  10.3  55 ft  30  Birch  2.6  21 ft  .25  .25  31  Balsam  7.1  40 ft  .68  .33  1.0  .58  32  n  1.3  8 ft  .34  .60  33  it  1.3  9 ft  .30  .26  34  it  3.4  16 ft  .20  .14  Spruce  2.5  10 ft  .30  .35  Balsam  2.1  10 ft  36 37  n  2.7  13 ft  j 38  it  1.0  7 ft  39  it  1.7  6 ft  40  it  1.7  8 ft  41  M  2.3  9 ft  .18  .32  42  ti  1.5  10 ft  .30  .18  _  Damaged OV  43  Spruce  2.3  10 ft  .50  .50  44  Balsam  2.5  10 ft  .26  .34  1.3  6 ft  45  ti  -  -  it  Diseased  Damaged  - 63 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Z.  Radius Incr. 7 yr 16 yr  Number  Species  D.B.H.  46  Balsam  1.1  8 ft  47  Spruce  1.8  12 ft  2.6  12 ft  .37  .38  1.6  8 ft  .33  .37  .28  .20  »t  48 4?  Balsam  Height  Age  8  -  •  -  -  -  50  H  7.1  31 ft  51  w  1.0  7 ft  52  "  2.5  10 ft  .60  .40  i 8.?  . 35 ft  .15  .17  12.3  77 ft  .75  .50  53 54  "  55  Spruce  6.0  23 ft  .45  .45  56  Birch  1.6  16 ft  .55  .23  57  Spruce  7.0  30 ft  .10  .12  58  n  3.0  17 ft  i .12  .11  5?  n  2.5  16 ft  .12  .11  60  tt  10.6  50 ft  .42  .48  61  tt  6.6  21 ft  .52  .18  6  62  Balsam  1.0  63  Spruce  4.4  64  Balsam  7.5  55 ft  .56  .54  65  Birch  14.3  68 ft  .25  .40  66  Spruce  2.5  15 ft  .10  .07  1.6  10 ft  .23  .22  67  »»  ft i **  M  Remarks  - 64 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER i Number  Spec ies D.B.H.  Height  Radius Incr Age 7 yrs lOyr _  68  Balsam  1.5  8 ft  6?  it  8.0  63 ft  .20  .30  70  Spruce  7.0  49 ft  .33  .34  71  it  3.2  15 ft  .40  .20  72  ft  2.6  10 ft  .48  .42  73  Mt.Ash  1.2  14 ft  74  Balsam  2.6  9 ft  75  it  15.0  89 ft  76  Spruce  2.3  12 ft  77  Balsam  1.3  7 ft  78  rt  2.7  13 ft  7?  Sprue e  1.2  12 ft  80  Balsam  2.4  10 ft  81  Spruce  1.5  10 ft  82  Balsam  2.25  15 ft  .30  .30  83  Spruce  8.6  42 ft  .72  .41  84  Balsam  2.4  13 ft  .10  .25  85  tt  1.97  9.5  .10  .10  86  Spruce  3.2  17 ft  .08  .37  87  it  3.9  21 ft  .45  .42  88  tt  4.85  30 ft  .70  .41  8?  it  1.9  9 ft  30  Remarks  <•»  - -  155  .40  .20  .20  .40  .28  .20  -  .45 -  .15 55  -  -  -  .35 -  .35 —  Damaged Broken t op  - 65 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER*., Radius Incr. Age 7 yrs 10 yr Remarks  Number  Species  90  Balsam  4.5  19 ft  .60  .55  91  Spruce  3.75  24 ft  .58  .42  92  Balsam  7.7  30 ft  1.00  .35  93  Spruce  3.3  18 ft  .45  .30  9.3  50 ft  .60  .50  D.B.H.  Height  94  it  93  Birch  2.25  18 ft  96  Balsam  2.5  12 ft  .60  .50  97  Spruce  4.2  17 ft  .45  .35  98  . Balsam  6.5  30 ft  .70  .80  99  Spruce  1.2  8 ft  100  Balsam  3.5  15 ft  .50  .25  101  Spruce  4.5  21 ft  .65  .40  102  Balsam  2.67  20 ft  .30  .23  _  _  103  »  1.7  8 ft  .25  .25  104  »i  8.3  50 ft  .70  .33  105  n  2.3  13 ft  —  1.8  11 ft  .08  .17  2.5  20 ft  .20  .20  1.3  9 ft  _  _  1.3  ,9 ft  .30  .35  1.8  8.5  2.3  12 ft  106 107 108 109  Spruce it  Balsam n  110  II  111  II  Injured  -  .32  -  .58  Reoumbent  Broken  trin tt it  - 66 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Z Number  Species  D.B.H.  Height  Radius Incr Age 7yrs lOyr  112  Birch  13.0  60 ft  .10  .70  113  Balsam  3.4  20 ft  .85  .70  114  Balsam  2.6  13 ft  .50  .35  115  Spruce  1.85  13 ft  .35  .40  116  Balsam  2.0  14 ft  .30  .45  117  Spruce  1.6  13 ft  mm  1.9  13.5  .25  .40  1.3  11 ft  .23  .25  118 119  tt  Balsam  120  i»  1.5  10 ft  .30  .30  121  tt  5.4  2? ft  .30  .40  122  it  2.7  12 ft  .15  .17  123  II  8.3  60 ft  .15  Birch  17.0  72 ft  125  Balsam  2.3  12 ft  .25  .25  126  Spruce  2.45  12 ft  .35  .55  127  Balsam  4.05  19 ft  .50  .17  128  Spruce  4.1  16 ft  .27  .33  1.3  10 ft  -  -  -  -  ti  130  Mt.Ash  1.25  16 ft  131  Balsam  6.8  40 ft  .13  .22  2.2  15 ft  .25  .35  4.9  30 ft  .50  .60  132 133  II  it  Damaged  .20  124  12?  Remarks  Broken •i'op  67 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER£ Species  134  Balsam  1.9  125  ti  2.1  136  Spruce  5.1  34 ft  127  Balsam  1.65  12 ft  138  Spruce  2.2  18 ft  139  it  2.3  14 ft  140  ii  1.5  12 ft  -  -  141  ii  1.7  13 ft  -  -  142  Balsam  20.2  100 ft  .25  .55  7.9  44 ft  .20  .15  1.2  10 ft  143 144  ii  Spruce  D.B.H.  Height  Age  Radius Inor. 7 yrs lOyr Remarks  Number  12 ft  .20  -  -  .40 as*  18  .20 —  .45 -  .30  .32  .35  .35  -  -  145  ti  2.5  18 ft  .40  .50  146  II  1.9  14 ft  .25  .35  147  TI  3.0  17 ft  .40  .33  148  II  2.05  10 ft  .35  .15  2.2  10.5  .45  .50  3.3  16 ft  .43  .42  149 150  Balsam it  38  Broken i op "  151  Spruce  2.5  13 ft  .30  .45  152  Balsam  3.5  20 ft  .12  .78  153  ti  1.8  10 ft  .30  .40  154  it  2.7  20 ft  .10  .50  155  ?i  2.6  12 ft  .15  .30  Injured  Injured  - 68 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Z Number 1 5 6  157  Species  D.B.H.  Height  Balsam  2.0  12 ft  »»  1.5  ? ft  Radius Incr, A&e 7 yrs 10yr Remarks .40  .25 _  it  2.15  11 ft  .30  H  3.?  18 ft  —  160  It  1.65  ? ft  .25  .45  161  It  1.6  ? ft  .30  .30  162  It  1.6  10 ft  _  1.85  10 ft  .25  .15  11.?  76 ft  .20  .30  158 1 5 ?  163  Spruce  164  Balsam  .35 _  •  165  it  6.8  42 ft  .45  .28  166  it  8.2  42 ft  .60  .40  167  Spruce  2.?  12 ft  .50  .60  168  Balsam  6.0  25 ft  .10  .80  16?  Spruoe  5.5  27 ft  .45  .60  170  Balsam  1.5  ? ft  3.2  18 ft  .35  .45  11.7  80 ft  .15  .30  171  it  —  n  173  Spruce  3.1  17 ft  .40  .15  174  Balsam  1.6  12 ft  .20  .30  175  Spruce  2.1  17 ft  .30  .40  176  Balsam  2.3  12 ft  .20  .35  177  Spruce  7.7  42 ft  .50  .55  3.85  20 ft  .15  .30  ti  Centre rot  mm  172  178  Broken top  Dead top  - 69 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER £ Number 179  Species Balsam  Radius Incr. 7 yrs 10 yr Remarks  D.B.H.  Height  4.6  27 ft  .50  .50  Age  180  it  4.0  25 ft  .50  .60  181  tt  3.65  23 ft  .50  .50  182  tt  7.8  32 ft  .50  .40  183  Spruce  3.2  18 ft  .20  .40  184  Balsam  5.75  27 ft  .75  .71  185  Spruce  1.45  10 ft  OF  mp  2.2  17 ft  .20  .20  186  it  187  Balsam  1.2  8 ft  188  Spruce  3.5  24 ft  _  189  Balsam  2.7  18 ft  .37  .30  2.0  11 ft  .30  .35  190  »t  wm  mm  191  Spruce  2.8  15 ft  192  tt  1.5  10 ft  193  Birch  16.5  88 ft  .30  .30  194  Balsam  1.85  13 ft  .18  .32  am  195  tt  1.6  11 ft  196  it  2.6  14 ft  .40  .45  197  it  2.35  15 ft  .50  .45  198  II  2.4  12 ft  .50  .50  199  ti  1.3  8 ft .50  .25  200  Spruce  10.4  54 ft  201  Balsam  1.4  8 ft  Damaged  27  Damaged  70 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 Radius Incr 7 yrs lOyr  Number  Species  D.B.H.  Height  1  Balsam  2.1  11 ft  .35  .25  4.7  20 ft  .60  .30  22.4  110 ft  .35  .55  2.2  10 ft  .10  .15  Age  Remarks  2  N  3  Spruce  4  it  5  Balsam  1.2  7 ft  6  Spruce  7.6  47 ft  .40  .30  7  Balsam  4.6  21 ft  .60  .30  8  Spruce  2.8  14 ft  .25  .25  9  Birch  3.1  25 ft  .25  .50  10  Balsam  2.0  11 ft  .40  .35  11  Sprue e  5.7  43 ft  .28  .10  12  Balsam  1.27  7.5  .20  .20  13  tt  1.1  6 ft  .20  .23  14  ft  5.9  22 ft  .35  .15  Heart rot  15  it  1.45  8 ft  16  tt  1.45  9 ft  17  Spruce  6.5  28 ft  .35  .30  Broken top  18  Balsam  1.2  7 ft  .18  .37  -  Broken TOP  -  19  N  2.0  10 ft  20  tt  2.15  11  ft  .15  .22  21  tt  3.1  12 ft  .40  .35  22  Spruce  5.5  25 ft  .27  .13  _  i I - 71 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 D.B.H. Height Ages  Number  Speoies  23  Balsam  2.0  10 ft  24  rt  1.4  8 ft  25  it  1.5  15 ft  26  it  4.2  27  it  28  Radius Incr. 7 prs lOyr Remarks .15  .20  21 ft  .35  .35  2.4  . 14 ft  .20  .20  tt  3.4  15 ft  .25  .25  2?  it  3.8  18 ft  .20  .27  30  tt  4.25  20 ft  .42  .48  31  Spruce  1.6  10 ft  .40  .20  32  Balsam  1.3  9 ft  33  it  10.4  .20  .40  34  Spruce  1.5  9 ft  .40  .15  35  tt  1.5  10 ft  36  Birch  2.6  21 ft  .20  .30  37  Spruce  2.0  11 ft  .25  .20  38  it  3.3  16 ft  .30  .32  3?  Balsam  3.3  15 ft  .40  .25  40  tt  1.5  9 ft  41  n  1.3  9.5  42  ii  3.15  15 ft  .37  .33  43  it  1.85  12 ft  .30  .22  44  tt  1.85  11 ft  .30  .22  „  - 72 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 Radius Incr. 7 yrs lOyr Remarks  Number  Species  D.B.H.  45  Spruce  1.05  46  r»  2.3  12 ft  47  »t  1.2  8 ft  -  -  48  tl  1.4  7 ft  -  -  4?  Birch  1.85  16 ft  50  Spruce  2.5  11 ft  51  Balsam  12.5  52  Spruce  4.8  5?  Balsam  2.1  54  n  1.55  55  Spruce  56  Height  Age  8 ft  —  —  .30  .17  .15  .23 .28  .40  .42  26 ft  .60  .50  11.5  .30  .20  8 ft  .20  .15  2.3  14 ft  .18  .14  Balsam  2.0  9 ft  .35  .35  57  it  1.1  8 ft  58  tt  1.9  10 ft  5?  Birch  1.25  12 ft  60  Spruce  1.25  7.5  .12  .18  61  Birch  2.2  15 ft  .20  .20  62  it  4.8  30 ft  .20  .35  63  Balsam  1.5  8.5  -  -  64  it  1.5  10 ft  -  -  65  it  7.9  59 ft  .05  .10  —  -  .30 -  -  .30 -  66  II  9.7  84 ft  .22  .23  67  II  2.15  12 ft  .35  .40  - 73 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 Number  Speoies  68  Balsam  69  II  D.B.H.  Height  Age  Radius Incr. 7 yr 10 yr Remarks .24  1.6  8.5  .18  2.0  11 ft  _  32 ft  .20  .20  .25  .25  70  Spruce  4.9  71  Balsam  1.4  8  ft  72  M  1.75  10 ft  73  II  1.8  12 ft  74  II  1.5  10 ft  1.6  11 ft  _  75  it  76  Spruce  2.05  13 ft  .20  .15  77  Balsam  2.1  13 ft  .20  .55  78  tt  2.35  14 ft  .25  .42  79  Spruce  4.75  25 ft  .40  .35  80  Balsam  3.0  15 ft  .40  .47  81  Spruce  £.5  35 ft  .30  .40  82  Balsam  1.45  9 ft  83  tt  1.8  9 ft  .15  .13  84  Spruce  3.0  14 ft  .30  .30  85  Balsam  3.8  16 ft  .80  .35  2.15  11 ft  .30  .30  86  II  —  —  87  Spruce  4.7  22 ft  .55  .50  88  Balsam  2.6  15 ft  .55  .40  89  Spruce  1.7  11 ft  -  -  - 74 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 D.B.H.  Height  Radius Incr. Age 7 yrs 10yr Remarks  Number  Species  90  Spruce  3.0  15 ft  91  Balsam  1.4  7.5  92  it  5.0  93  it  1.2  8 ft  94  n  2.5  13 ft  .60  .55  95  n  3.55  18 ft  .50  .45  96  tt  5.6  23  ft  .70  .33  97  tt  2.0  13 ft  .20  .30  98  tt  2.35  12 ft  .10  .25 ;  94  Spruce  1.35  9 ft  .30  .12 j  100  Balsam  1.2  9 ft  101  tt  1.2  9 ft  .20  102  tt  1.5  9 ft  _  103  tt  1.0  10 ft  104  Spruce  11.1  60 ft  105  Balsam  1.2  9 ft  106  II  1.2  10 ft  _  107  ti  .90  7 ft  —  _  108  tt  1.05  9 ft  —  _  109  Spruce  2.2  13 ft  .35  .25  110  tt  2.4  14 ft  .30  .25  111  Balsam  19.1  9? ft  .30  .53  1.3  10 ft  —  —  112  tt  22  ft  .50 -  .27 -  .50 —  .16 -  —  .35  .20  .20  ;  - 75 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Number  Species  D.B.H.  Height  Age  113  Spruce  3.5  18 ft  47  114  it  2.8  115  Balsam  116  Radius Incr. 7 yrs 10.yr Remarks .50  .20  15 ft  .10  .17  2.6  15 ft  .40  .25  Spruce  6.8  43 ft  .50  .35  117  it  3.7  21 ft  .18  .17  118  Balsam  1.4  7 ft  11?  Spruce  6.4  27 ft  .10  .15  120  Balsam  1.43  121  Birch  9.8  63 ft  .20  .20  122  Spruce  5.6  26 ft  .20  .25  123  Balsam  1.80  9 ft  .20  .12  124  it  6.5  27 ft  .20  .28  125  Srpuce  3.4  20 ft  .08  .09  126  Balsam  4.4  20 ft  .20  .15  127  Spruce  2.55  12 ft  .12  .40  128  n  2.0  11 ft  .50  .25  129  it  1.65  10 ft  .40  .35  130  it  1.75  11 ft  131  Balsam  4.6  21 ft  .55  .13  132  ii  1.25  7 ft  133  Spruce  1.33  10 ft  .40  .50  134  II  1.5  12 ft  _  9 ft  -  -  Centre rot  Broken top  i  - 76 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 D.B.H. Height  Age  Radius Incr. 7 yrs lOyr Remarks  Number  Species  135  Spruce  2.4  12 ft  .35  .15  136  Balsam  2.5  37 ft  .18  .17  137  Spruce  2.2  11 ft  .18  .37  138  Balsam  1.6  ? ft  r  m  1.4  6 ft  —  13?  tt  140  it  1.35  6 ft  141  n  1.4  9 ft  142  Spruce  1.4  8 ft  143  Balsam  1.7  10 ft  144  Spruce  2.3  145  Balsam  148  —  .20  .22  15 ft  .25  .15  l.?5  12 ft  .18  .10  Spruce  3.2  14 ft  .18  .07  149  it  2.6  18 ft  .13  .10  150  Balsam  1.5  10 ft  26  -  -  151  ti  1.8  11 ft  152  it  1.2  9 ft  153  it  5.05  154  Birch  13.?  64 ft  155  Spruce  1.7  9 ft  II  1.7  9 ft  157  it  2.0  10 ft  .45  .15  158  Balsam  2.05  12 ft  .50  .50  156  25 ft  .33  .19  _  .20 —  .20 _  - 77 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 Radius Incr. 7 yrs 16yr Remarks  Nufcber  Species  D.B.H.  159  Spruce  1.25  8 ft  160  Balsam  1.20  9 ft  161  Spruce  2.3  13 ft  .10  .15  162  tt  3.35  17 ft  .23  .12  163  Balsam  5.3  27 ft  .35  .30  164  n  6.9  45 ft  .07  .10  163  Birch  13.0  56 ft  .10  .20  166  Balsam  11.1  82 ft  .15  .15  167  Birch  9.0  70 ft  .18  .22  168  Balsam  9.0  50 ft  .10  .15  169  Spruce  6.1  37 ft  .40  .35  170  tt  3.1  15 ft  .18  .17  171  Balsam  2.9  13 ft  .15  .15  172  tt  1.65  9 ft  .30  .22  173  Spruce  2.4  12 ft  _  _  174  Balsam  1.3  9 ft  —  175  Spruce  1.5  9 ft  176  Birch  11.8  7 ft  177  Balsam  1.10  8 ft  178  tt  1.85  12 ft  .50  .30  179  tt  2.35  12 ft  .37  .23  180  tt  2.3  12 ft  .30  .30  Height  Age  —  —  .15 -  —  —  .20 -  Broken top  - 78 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER jr  Number  Speoies  D.B.H.  181  Balsam  2.45  182  it  Heighjr Age  Radius Incr 7yrs lOyr  9 ft  .20  .20  8.5  54 ft  .08  .14  183  N  3.0  12 ft  .18  .14  184  H  2.5  13 ft  .10  .17  185  Sprudse  16.7  100 ft  .22  .38  186  Balsam  1.8  13 ft  .10  .10  .05  .15  187  II  2.1  11 ft  188  TI  1.9  11 ft  18?  N  10.9  80 ft  190  N  1.5  9 ft  191  II  1.65  192  it  193  -  .17  11 ft  .25  .20  1.45  10 ft  .20  .20  tt  2.95  16 ft  .25  .18  194  ti  4.45  25 ft  .30  .30  195  it  1.15  7 ft  1?6  it  4.8  31 ft  197  tt  1.4  9 ft  198  tt  6.55 2.32  Spruce  Damaged  Broken top  •  .13  199  Remarks  _  .42  .23  14 ft  .38  .17  25 ft  —  I  79 THEE TALLY PLOT NUMBER *  Number  Species  D.B.H.  Height  Radius Incr. Age 7 yrs lOyr Remarks  1  Birch  11.9  66 ft  .225  .325  2  tt  15.2  72 ft  .5  .80  3  Balsam  3.4  22 ft  .6  .30  4  n  1.4  12 ft  .15  .30  it  2.6  16 ft  .45  .35  6  Spruce  1.2  8 ft  7  Balsam  1.1  8.5  1.2  8 ft  Spruce  1.4  10 ft  10  tt  1.8  10 ft  .2  .45  11  Balsam  2.0  10 ft  .15  .35  12  tt  3.2  15 ft  .4  .3  13  n  3.2  18 ft  14  Spruce  2.0  12 ft  15  Balsam  2.2  8 9  16  «  20  j  -  I i~ ! -  Recumbent  -  .4 21  .45  .45  14 ft  .2  .35  1.6  11 ft  .2  .1  tt  15.6  84 ft  .2  .3  18  Spruce  5.2  15 ft  .55  .45  19  Birch  2.8  20 ft  .3  .5  20  Spruce tt  3.4  15 ft  .3  .15  1.2  9 ft .2  .3  22  Balsam  1  1X  *2  55 ft  48  Broken top "  M  1 .2  17  21  !  Recumbent  - 80 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER  ^  Radius Incr, 7 yrs lOyr Remarks  Number  Species  D.B.H.  23  Spruce  4.2  27 ft  .7  24  ti  2.1  13 ft  -  -  25  Balsam  16.9  91 ft  .1  .2  26  Spruce  4.1  22 ft  .3  .15  1.7  7 ft  .3  .25  27  «  Height  Age  .35  28  Balsam  1.9  9.5  .4  .3  29  Spruce  9.8  45 ft  .4  .6  30  t»  2.0  11 ft  .7  .3  31  Balsam  4.6  25 ft  .75  .3  32  Spruce  2.8  12 ft  .3  .3  33  Balsam  2.7  15 ft  .2  .3  34  Spruce  2.6  16 ft  .45  .25  35  Balsam  1.7  9 ft  .13  .17  36  Spruce  1.6  12 ft  37  ti  3.0  16 ft  .4  .25  38  Balsam  1.4  9 ft  .30  .30  39  tt  1.9  12 ft  40  ti  8.75  62 ft  .25  .25  41  ii  7.9  52 ft  .3  .2  42  ti  1.8  9 ft  .2  .4  43  ir  1.3  8 ft  44  it  2.0  10 ft  .35  .25  20  Recumbent  Broken top  - 81 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 4 Number  Spec ies D.B.H.  Height  Radius Incr. Age 7 yrs lOyr Remarks  45  Spruce  7.3  47 ft  .1  .1  46  Balsam  7.2  38 ft  .35  .05  1.7  9.5  —  10.2  70 ft  .35  .20  ft  .25  .23  .3  .35  47  tt  48  Spruce  49  Balsam  5.85  2 5  -  50  tt  3.7  12 ft  51  tt  3.3  17 ft  .5  .3  33  52  Spruce  6.8  38 ft  .6  .35  53  Balsam  1.4  9 ft  .3  . 2  54  tt  2.65  12 ft  .5  .2  55  tt  1.8  11 ft  .2  . 2  56  tt  4.75  42 ft  .7  .5  57  tt  1.5  .27  .33  58  tt  2.85  16 ft  .5  .4  9 ft  59  Spruce  2.8  15 ft  .6  .3  60  Birch  13.6  65 ft  .3  .22  61  Balsam  1.7  12 ft  .4  . 2  62  tt  2.65  16 ft  .65  .35  63  tt  4.5  16 ft  .8  .1  1.6  10 ft  2 . 1  14 ft  2 . 2  12 ft  64 65 66  Spruce tt  Balsam  wm  .4  .25  Injured  - 82 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 4 He ight Age  Radius Incr. 7 yrs lOyr Remarks  Number  Species  D.B.H.  67  Balsam  3.45  16 ft  .6  .4  68  tt  2.85  16 ft  .8  .55  69  «  2.8  16 ft  .5  .4  70  tt  2.8  16 ft  .35  .30  tr  3.0  16 ft  .25  .55  tt  3.3  18 ft  .4  .55  tt  1.75  10 ft  .4  .3  .4  .25  71 72 73 74  Spruce  2.1  13 ft  75  Balsam  2.4  12 ft  .4  .5  —  76  tt  2.6  14 ft  .3  .3  77  tt  2.6  16 ft  .5  .5  78  n  2.0  12 ft  .5  .25  tt  1.4  10 ft  .15  .15  80  tt  1.8  9 ft  .3  .35  81  Birch  15.2  75 ft  .45  .5  82  Balsam  2.9  17 ft  .3  .4  1.2  8 ft  .5  .9  .4  .35  .7  .58  79  83  tt  84  Spruce  1.8  12 ft  85  Balsam  2.5  14 ft  2.5  15 ft  1.5  12 ft  ft  5.3  18 ft  tt  1.4  9 ft  86 87 88 89  n  Spruce  24  -  -  Injured  Damaged  - 83 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Number  Species  D.B.H.  He ight Age  Radius Incr. 7 yrs 16yr Remarks  90  Spruce  2.3  12 ft  91  Balsam  1.5  8 ft  92  Spruce  1.6  12 ft  _  93  Balsam  2.5  16 ft  -  n  2.2  12 ft  .4  .25  96  n  1.5  8 ft  97  n  11.6  63 ft  .45  .59  95  .4  .35 «0  98  Spruce  2.7  20 ft  .4  .3  99  Balsam  1.7  95 ft  .3  .33  100  Biroh  1.7  16 ft  .2  .3  101  Balsam  1.65  10 ft  102  Spruce  1.2  8 ft  .10  .20  103  II  1.4  8.5  104  ii  3.2  16 ft  .5  .5 .25  Recumbent  105  Balsam  1.9  12 ft  .25  106  Birch  1.15  14 ft  _  —  107  Spruce  1.35  9 ft  —  _  108  n  1.4  11 ft  _  _  _  _  .3  .25  .4  .37  109  Balsam  1.2  10 ft  110  Spruce  2.05  15 ft  111  Birch  2.6  20 ft  112  Balsam  1.2  8 ft  30  -  -  - 84 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 4 Number 113 114  Speoies Balsam it  D.B.H. 1.4  8 ft  1.2  8 ft  6.4  34 ft  115  Spruce  116  Birch  12.1  117  Balsam  2.5  118 119  tt  Spruce  Height  J I  Age  Radius Incr. 7yrs 10 yr Remarks .28 —  85  62 ft 15 ft  27  9 ft  1.5  16 ft  3.14  .34  41  .35  .55  .2  .2  .4  .2  _  _  .4  .3  120  it  1.3  8 ft  an.  121  ti  1.4  12 ft  <a»  122  •i  3.9  20 ft  .5  .25  123  n  4.5  24 ft  .6  .45  2.8  8 ft  .1  .4  .4  .25  17 ft  .4  .2  8 ft  _  124 125  Balsam tt  2.4  1  13 ft  • -  -  Broken top mO  126  tt  3.3  127  it  1.4  128  tt  2.9  18 ft  .4  .3  1.95  12 ft  .3  .3  2.1  13 ft  .45  .26  1.4  9 ft  1.15  8 ft  2.65  17 ft  129 130 131 132 133 134  Spruce it  Balsam tt II  tt  1.3  1  9 ft  -  Recumbent  _  -  .25  .25  .4  .35  .30  .20  Recumbent  - 85 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 4 Number  Species  D.B.H.  135  Spruce  1.2  136  Balsam  1.95  137  it  138  Height 8 ft  Age  Radius Incr. 7 yrs lOyr Remarks -  —  14 ft  .2  .18  3.5  20 ft  .5  .3  it  1.9  12 ft  .15  .25  139  11  12.35  70 ft  .2  .7  140  Spruce  2.5  20 ft  .4  .2  141  Balsam  2.4  14 ft  .25  .25  142  Birch  2.9  25 ft  .3  .4  143  Balsam  8.7  62 ft  .15  .15  144  11  1.6  8 ft  145  Spruce  1.38  10 ft  _  146  Balsam  2.8  68 ft  .4  .35  147  11  4.05  18 ft  .5  .3  148  11  2.8  15 ft  .2  .15  149  Spruce  2.7  14 ft  .4  .2  130  11  5.1  21 ft  .65  .55  151  Balsam  6.45  24 ft  .15  .40  Broken top  152  it  4.0  18 ft  .45  .33  Injured  153  11  2.5  14 ft  154  •t  3.6  20 ft  .4  .3  155  »i  3.2  20 ft  .45  .35  156  11  6.6  33 ft  .85  .19  _  - 86 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER * Number  Species  D.B.H.  157  Balsam  1.6  158  it  3.75  159  tt  160  Height  Age  9 ft  Radius Incr. 7 yrs lOyr Remarks -  -  25 ft  .25  .35  1.1  8 ft  .35  .25  tt  1.9  10 ft  161  it  1.25  162  Spruce  5.9  163  Balsam  1.85  164  it  165  -  -  .20  .30  29 ft  .3  .2  ? ft  .2  .4  -  -  7 ft  12.1  90 ft  Spruce  1.2  8 ft  .20  166  it  1.3  8 ft  _  167  Balsam  2.0  14 ft  .3  .3  168  n  2.7  11 ft  .3  .45  169  Spruce  1.2  9 ft  170  it  1.7  12 ft  .25  .25  171  tt  1.8  12 ft  .3  .35  172  Birch  2.15  20 ft  .3  .35  173  Spruce  2.2  12 ft  .4  .4  174  ti  1.2  8 ft  -  -  175  it  2.2  12 ft  .4  .4  176  Balsam  1.3  7 ft  -  -  177  it  18 ft  .6  .4  178  Spruce  18 ft  .55  .35  4.15 . 2.9  —  <  .30 •  —  - 87 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER  Number ,Species  D.B.H.  Height  Age  Radius Incr, 7 yrs 10yr Remarks  17?  Spruce  2.1  11 ft  180  Balsam  1.7  8 ft  181  Spruce  2.2  14 ft  .7  182  it  2.05  12 ft  _  182  Balsam  2.4  16 ft  .4  .4  1.2  8 ft  .12  .22  .7  1.00  _  .55  184  n  183  it  2.2  12 ft  .2  .2  186  Birch  2.9  25 ft  .25  .45  187  Balsam  4.4  .5  .45  188  it  7.6  20 ft  .8  .4  189  »  4.25  16 ft  .55  .55  ' 190  »i  2.1  16 ft  .2  .5  191  tt  2.2  16 ft  .12  .17  192  it  7.6  29  ft  1.05  .70  192  it  1.25  8 ft  194  it  4.95  18 ft  .7  .5  195  it  4.6  19 ft  .6  .5  196  it  2.55  16 ft  .2  .2  197  it  1.5  8 ft  _  198  Spruce  4.7  __  199  Balsam  9.1  200  Spruce  2.8  .6  .5  55 ft  .1  .25  18 ft  .4  .35  Injured  Top broken  Recumbent  - 88 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Radius Incr. Age 7yrs lOyr Remarks  Number  Species  D.B.H.  201  Spruce  1.46  9 ft  .2  .3  202  Balsam  5.65  28 ft  .5  .75  203  Spruce  4.6  22 ft  .4  .47  204  Balsam  3.15  16 ft  .2  .25  205  it  6.5  37 ft  .8  .53  206  tt  1.55  .25  .25  207  tt  5.2  24 ft  .6  .5  1.4  10 ft  2.15  11 ft  .3  .35  208  II  Height  9 ft  _  209  it  210  Spruce  1.9  10 ft  .55  .15  211  Balsam  2.1  14 ft  .2  .22  212  Spruce  4.7  26 ft  .5  .4  213  Balsam  3.85  20 ft  .25  .40  214  II  1.2  7 ft  .07  .01  215  H  2.6  12 ft  .15  .27  216  it  1.3  8 ft  217  it  2.7  14 ft  .3  .25  218  ii  1.75  12 ft  .25  .15  219  Spruce  1.35  10 ft  220  it  1.95  14 ft  221  Balsam  15.7  95 ft  .4  .25  222  it  3.1  23 ft  .35  .40  •  - 89 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER He ight Age  Number  Species  D.B.H.  223  Balsam  3.25  16 ft  224  Spruce  2.1  12 ft  225  n  2.4  226  Balsam  227  Spruce  228  Radius Incr 7 yrs lOyr .5  .2  13 ft  .2  .3  3.1  15 ft  .6  .32  2.7  12 ft  .3  .3  1.1  8 ft  -  -  \  A ' , -  •  ..v \ • .  \  Remarks  Broken top  - 92 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER * Number Species D.B.H. Height Age 1  Spruce  16  Bate Growth 10 20 30  Glass Remarks  96 ft  .28 .32 .25  II  2  it  25.0  110 ft  .25 .32 .43  I  3  II  16.0  120 ft 186 .30 .25 .32  I  4  ti  16.0  105 ft  • 35 .52  III  5  Birch  8.0  50 ft  .20 .15 .15  III  6  Balsam  12.0  80 ft  .20 .20 .25  II  7  Birch  16.0  70 ft  .18 .17 .28  III  8  Spruce  16.0  98 ft  .30 .30 .30  III  72 ft 123 .20 .25 .20  III  9  ti  9.0  10  it  16.0  120 ft  .40 .45 .42  I  ll  Birch  15.0  68 ft  .10 .13 .17  III  12  Balsam  3.0  22 ft  .10 .08 .10  IV  13  Birch  1 1 . 0  ?4 ft  .15 .15 .27  III  14  Spruce  11.0  75 ft 132 .35 .45 .45  II  15  tt  18.0  95 ft 175 .25 .25 .25  II  16  •i  18.0  95 ft  .25 .20 .23  II  85 ft 120 .15 .17 .23  II  17  Balsam  18  Spruce  9.0  17.0^ 115 ft  .25 .25 .35  I  19  tt  7.0  53 ft  .10 .15 .25  III  20  it  14.0  85 ft  .30 .25 .20  II  21  Balsam  7.0  54 ft  .10 .20 .20  III  22  Spruce  7.0  50 ft  92 .12 .16 .15  III  Heart rot  - 93 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER & Rate of Growth Number Species D.B.H. Height Age 10 20 30 31ass Remarks 23  Spruce  14.0  108 ft  .33 .34 .38  II  24  n  10.0  70 ft  .35 .45 .40  III  25  Balsam  12.0  80 ft  .30 .38 .37  II  26  it  12.0  90 ft  .15 .17 .26  II  27  it  11.0  75 ft  .12 .23 .30  III  28  »t  8.0  54 ft  .0?  III  29  »t  12.0  65 ft  .10 .1? .17  30  Spruce  17.0  31  Birch  14.0  75 ft  _  II  32  Spruce  11.0  85 ft  .33 .42 .45  II  33  t»  23.0  126 ft  .70 .45 .95  I  34  ti  12.0  35  it  16.0  100 ft  36  Balsam  5.0  30 ft  37  Spruce  16.0  95 ft  .50 .60 .70  II  tt  12.0  85 ft  .30 .30 .33  II  ti  14.0  95 ft  .40 .45 .60  II  10.0  80 ft  38 39 40  Balsam  .25  100 ft 142 .45 .35 .30  93 ft 110 .25 .30 .40 .30 .30 .35 -  -  -  I  II I IV  41  n  9.0  73 ft  .15 .23 .27  III  42  it  7.0  60 ft  .20 .30 .25  III  43  tt  10.0  70 ft  .10 .13 .12  II  17.0  100 ft  .30 .30 .35  II  44  Spruce  Heart rot  - 94 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER S  Rate Growth 10 20 Age 30 31ass Remafcks Height D.B.H. Species Number 66 ft 124  .40 .32 .33 I I I  45  Spruce  10.0  46  ft  16.0  120 ft  .33 .32 .52  I  47  Balsam  12.0  91 ft  .10 .13 .17  II  48  tt  12.0  91 ft  .12 .15 .16  II  49  Spruce  17.2  103 ft  .40 .40 .50  I  50  Balsam  3.8  25 ft  .13 .17 .16 I I I  51  it  14.4  75 ft  .13 .14 .18 .11  52  n  8.1  75 ft  .15 .17 .18 I I I  53  Spruce  14.7  54  Balsam  12.2  55  tt  56  tt  .58 .42 .60  II  78 ft  .30 .30 .35  II  9.0  80 ft  .25 .35 .28  II  9.3  95 ft 118  .13 .22 .23  II  .15 .15 .20  I  110 ft 112  57  Spruce  24.3  112 ft  58  Balsam  10.5  77 ft  59  Spruce  16.1  105 ft 110  .40 .47 .68  II  15.7  105 ft  .23 .22 .35  II  60 ft  60  «  61  Balsam  7.0  62  Spruce  12.5  63  Hemlock  64  Spruce  12.0  65  n  22.0  66  Balsam  14.0  3.0  95 ft 105  .35 .35 .30 I I I  -  -  -  -  .30 .30 .35 I l l IV  12 ft .50 .45 .43  II  112 ft  .15 .25 .20  I  92 ft  .50 .50 . 4 0  II  80 ft 100  Heart tot  - 95 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER * Rate of Growth Age 10 20 30 Class Remarks Number Species D.B.H. Height 67  Birch  68  Balsam  69  ntt  70  12.0  80 ft  .10 .12 .18  III  4.0  38 ft  68 .10 .13 .27  IV  12.1  87 ft  .25 .25 .40  II  10.1  78 ft  .23 .22 .35  II  105 ft 120 .35 .60 .53  I  71  Spruce  14.1  72  ft  3.1  24 ft  73  Balsam  12.4  85 ft  .35 .43 .42  II  74  tt  9.8  95 ft  .35 .35 .25  II  75  Spruce  12.6  86  .45 .40 .35  III  76  Balsam  11.5  78 ft  .27 k25  II  77  tt  1 0 . 0  80  78  tt  1 0 . 5  75 ft  79  tt  9.1  80 ft  8o  Birch  7.6  20  81  Spruce  3.0  35 ft  82  Balsam  9.2  75 ft  . 2 0  .15 .20  II  83  Birch  7.7  69 ft  .25 .25 .17  III  84  Balsam  11.0  85 ft  89 .35 .50 .35  II  ft  65 .30 .30  1 0 2  . 2 8  ft  1 2 0  ft  . 2 0  IV  .27 .25  . 2 8  II  .23  . 2 2  .25  II  . 2 8  .25 .25  II  . 4 0 .35 .25  II  _  am  IV  - 96 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER * Rate of Growth Number Species D.B.H. Height Age 10 20 30 Class Remarks 1  Balsam  10.8  78 ft 135 .18 .15 .20  2  Birch  9.8  30 ft  .15 .10 .20  III  3  Balsam  15.2  80 ft  .15 .18 .17  II  4  Hemlock  4.0  20 ft  54  5  Balsam  4.5  22 ft  54 .37 .33 .305  6  it  10.5  74 ft  .13 .15 .14  II  7  tt  9.2  73 ft  .10 .10 .15  III  8  n  12.2  76 ft  .13 .15 .17  I  -  -  -  II  IV IV  9  Spruce  6.5  45 ft  90 .48 .40 .39  III  10  Balsam  14.0  79 ft  .12 .21 .27  I  11  i»  4.0  20 ft  .25 .25 .25  III  12  Spruce  4.0  25 ft  52 .45 .55 .35  III  13  Balsam  9.2  76 ft 118 .17 .18 .15  II  14  Spruce  4.0  32 ft  .35 .35 .20  IV  15  tt  9.2  30 ft  .30 .50 .60  III  16  Balsam  10.8  78 ft  .10 .12 .13  II  17  Spruce  16.0  94 ft  .45 .25 .53  I  18  Balsam  11.9  79 ft  .12 .13 .15  II  19  Spruce  6.0  37 ft  .25 .28 .19  III  20  Balsam  10.2  76 ft  .33 .37 .30  II  21  tt  17.5  89 ft  .65 .60 .55  I  22  ti  10.5  78 ft  .28 .35 .42  II  tt  10.6  76 ft  .28 .32 .20  II  23  ,  Top broken  Heart rot Heart rot  - 97 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER $ Rate of Growth Number Species D.B.H. Height Age 10 20 30 31ass Remarks 24  Balsam  11.6  73 ft  .13. .22 .25  II  25  Douglas/; 17.8  85 ft  .45 .53 .52  I  26  Birch  10.6  66 ft  .15 .15 .20  III  27  Spruce  19.5  98 ft  .10 .10 .10  I  28  Balsam  10.4  79 ft  .12 .16 .14  II  2?  Spruce  8.0  50 ft 139 .40 .45 .35  III  30  Balsam  19.4  92 ft  31  tt  10.3  79 ft  .15 .20 .20  II  32  tt  9.4  67 ft  .10 .10 .13  II  33  t»  4.0  20 ft  .07 .0 9 JO 9  IV  34  Spruce  9.8  86 ft 125 .20 .30 .40  II  35  ti  15.0  89 ft 112 .62 .63 .62  I  36  Birch  10.3  60 ft  .08 .12 i.18  II  37  Spruce  9.1  73 ft  98 .40 .45 .35  II  38  Balsam  13.3  75 ft  .20 .25 .20  II  39  Spruce  17.6  90 ft  .51 .25 .35  II  40  Hemlock  5.0  20 ft  .50 .45 .45  IV  41  Balsam  5.7  35 ft  .30 .20 .23  IV  42  Hem^lock  3.7  25  ft  30 .50 .55 .50  IV  43  Balsam  12.8  85 ft  .15 .18 .17  II  44  Spruce  6.0  33 ft  .13 .0? .18  IV  45  «t  13.3  100 ft  .38 .22 .30  I  _  Heart rnt  Heart rot  - 98 THEE TALLY PLOT NUMBER « Number Spaoies D.B.H.  Rate of Growth 20 Height Age 10 30 31ass Remarks .22 .18 .20  II  82 ft 114 .40 .40 .50  II  5.1  22 ft  .20 .20 .10  IV  46  Spruce  47  tt  13.0  48  t»  9.7  89 ft  4?  II  18.5  100 ft  .50 .65 .80  I  50  II  11.5  90 ft  .50 .50 .70  II  11.3  70 ft  .20 .15 .20  II  8.1  79 ft  .15 .10 .15  51 52  Balsam II  III Heart rot II  53  Spruce  13.8  88 ft  .25 .20 .20  54  n  21.0  95 ft  .12 .12 .20  I  55  Balsam  14.0  92 ft 140 .35 .35 .15  II  56  Spruce  4.8  .10 .12 .16  VI  57  it  16.5  89 ft 142 .35 .25 .50  I  10.9  83 ft  .35 .43 .57  III  13.8  90 ft  .20 .25 .23  II  8.6  64 ft  .20 .27 .33  III  96 ft 146 .10 .20 .15  II  7.0  56 ft  .15 .35 .17  II  5.5  45 ft  .10 .10 .13  IV  58  N  59  Balsam  6o  it  61 62 63  II  it II  10.0  47 ft  64  Spruce  16.7  91 ft  .18 .17 .30  I  65  ii  17.0  98 ft  .35 .30 .30  I  66  Balsam  8.5  63 ft  .15 .20 .20  III  67  Spruce  27.1  105 ft  .27 .43 .50  I  Heart rot  - 99 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER « Growl;h Rate Number Speoies D.B.H. He ight Age 10 20 30 Dlass Remarks 68  Spruce  16.7  90 ft  .15 .15 .25  II  6?  Balsam  7.1  58 ft 136 .15 .17 .11  III  70  i»  14.4  92 ft  .38 .37 .33  71  tt  9.8  71 ft  .12  72  tt  8.5  70 ft  .15 .15 .20  II  73  tt  11.0  72 ft  .15 .13 .18  II  74  tt  8.2  66 ft  .12 .13 .15  II  75  tt  9.2  83 ft  .25 .20 .20  II  76  tt  8.7  87 ft  .15 .13 .20  II  77  tt  5.5  50 ft  .13 .17 .15  IV  78  Birch  11.0  75 ft  .25 .20 .20  III  7?  Balsam  8.2  75 ft  .20 .15 .10  II  80  Spruce  12.3  92 ft  .50 .50 .50  II  81  tt  16.3  108 ft  .15 .32 .48  I  82  Balsam  8.0  65 ft  .50 .45 .45  III  83  ti  11.6  83 ft  .12 .16 .12  II  84  II  8.0  71 ft  .15 .15 .20  III  85  Spruce  19.8  98 ft  .20 .20 .30  I  86  Balsam  9.1  80 ft  87  it  15.1  88  n  4.0  20 ft  63 .25 .25 .28  III  89  Birch  10.8  58 ft  .09 .21 .10  II  -  .0 8.0 8  -  -  82 ft 150 .20 .22 .30  II III  Nearlydead Heart rot  -  I  - 100 TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER * Rate of Growth 20 30 Glass Remarks Number Speoies ^D.B.H. Height Age 10 Spruoe  16.2  88 ft  • .30 .50 .45  I  91  Balsam  10.6  80 ft  .20 .15  II  92  Spruce  15.4  100 ft 132 .45 .50 .45  I  H•  90  - 102 Summary of Hate of Growth Studies Logged Area. Spruce Balsam Diameter 7yr period 7yr period Diameter 7yr period 7yr period in before after before after inches logging logging .logging logging 2  .189  .339  2  .178  .258  4  .228  .339  4  .230  .358  6  .254  .413  6  .285  .506  8  .252  .480  8  .253  .503  10  .355  .518  10  .171  .220  12  .378  .478  12  .197  .156  14  .406 .  .600  14  .129  .225  16  .224  .162  18  .166  .227  20  .208  16 18  .266  .270  20  Virgin Timber Spruce Diameter  Average rater of growth for 10 yrs  Diameter  Balsam Average rate of growth for 10 yrs  4  .373  4  .178  6  .169  6  .210  8  .283  8  .203  10  .330  10  .199  12  .439  12  .219  - 103 -  Virgin limber Cont»cL Spruoe Diameter  Average rate of growth for 10 yrs  Diameter  Average rate of growth for 10 yrs  14  16  .381  • 16  .255  18  .365  18  .600  20  .166  20  22  .770  22  24  .700  26  .250  28  .400  •  VH -O CD  14  Balsam  |  .246  - 104 CONCLUSIONS Logging has a marked effect on the rate of growth of both balsams and spruoes.  In practically every tree studied  there was a decided inorease in the rate of growth since logging. In the balsams the greatest increase in growth was in trees of six to eight inches in diameter, and in the spruce trees the maximum increase was in trees of fourteen inches in diameter. In the virgin timber the spruce trees appear to have two optimal periods of growth, the first in trees of twelve inches in diameter, the second in older trees of twenty four inches.  In balsams the optimum rate of growth is in  trees of eighteen inches diameter.  The spruce trees grow  much more rapidly than do the balsam trees, especially in trees up to eighteen inches in diameter.  - 105 Factors Governing Balsam and Spruoe Reproduction. In green virgin timber balsam reproduces much more rapidly than does spruce, the reason for this at the present time is not definitely known, but from general observations it appears as if the cause might be in the nature of the sub-strata. Spruce seedlings apparantly require a sub-strata rich in decaying vegetative matter especially decaying Douglas Fir wood to grow on, as there was always good spruce reproduction around decaying Douglas Fir stumps and upon the partly decayed fallen trees.  In most instances by digging  around the roots of young spruce seedlings the soil was found to be composed largely of decaying wood. Spruce seedlings are more tolerant to shade than the balsams, spruce reproduction being more abundant on slightly northern exposures and when growing on southern slopes are generally on the shady side of clumps of other vegetation; balsams on the other hand prefer medium shade or even bright light.  It does not appear as if the water factor  was the limiting factor between balsam or spruoe reproduction.  - 106 -  Root System of Young Balsam and Spruoe Trees. There is a decided difference between the root systems of young spruce and balsam trees. Balsams usually send their roots straight down through the top layer of vegetative humus then down through the hard clay sub-strata.  Spruce seedlings however when they come  in contact with the clay soil, turn at right angles, and spread out over the surface of the clay.  For this reason  they are more liable to suffer a water shortage than are the balsams. In decaying vegetative matter such as decaying logs the spruce roots penetrate through directly, sending many rootlets into the decayed wood; the balsams however skirt the outside of the decaying wood, sending out few rootlets until the tap root has reached mineral soil.  - 107 SUMMARY. 1.  The work was undertaken with the object of deter-  mining the factors governing balsam and spruce reproduction and rate of growth, and the time required for plants to become established after forest fires. 2.  The method used in the work, was the transect and  the plot method.  On the transepts all the tree reproduction  was tallied according to species and height, and a record made of the general ground flora and topography.  On the  plots the tree reproduction was tallied as on the strips, also the age of many of the young trees determined, and a count made of all the plants on a small representative area of the plot. 3*  The year following a fire either poplars or Lodge  pole pine began to grow in, which genera establishing itself depending upon seed supply primarily. 4.  Spruce seedlings generally began to make their  appearanoe three to four years later, growing on the most part on Northern exposures, or on the north side of any fallen logs. wood.  They are especially abundant in decaying  - 108 -  5*  Balsams come in about the same time as the spruoe  but are more tolerant to light, growing more in the open, 6.  Of the ground flora, Epilobium angustifolium,  Castilleja Epp., and Cornus canadensis are the first plants to appear in dry open areas, after fires, but in moist areas, many shrubs appear, such as Lonicera involuoratum, Viburnum pauciflorura  and Cornus stolonifera.  In dry areas these plants are later succeeded by Spiraea lucida, Hubus parviflorus, Rubus nutkana, Rubus Speotabilis, Linnaea borealis and Pyrola minor.  In moist  area, after the poplar shade becomes fairly dense Spiraea densiflora, Dejphiura Spp., Lathyrous ochroleucus, and grass become abundant. 7.  In virgin timber spruoe grows much more rapidly  than does balsam. 8.  After logging there was always an increase in the  rate of growth of the remaining trees, due probably to increased light supply. 9.  The root system of the spruoe seedlings is very  different to that of the balsams.  The spruce roots gener-  ally spread out over the surface of the clay sub-soil, whilst, the balsam roots generally penetrate the clay.  - 10? -  Explanation of Figures. Fig. 1.  Vegetation composed of willows, poplars, fire  weed, and golden rod, on Plot No. 5. Fig. 2.  View looking over the Fraser River above Willow  River, B.O., showing poplar reproduction after fire. At the River,s edge most of the trees are cottonwoods. Fig. 3.  Very similar to Fig, 2 showing a very recent  burn in the foreground. Fig. 4.  Growth of cottonwoods, on the bank of the Fraser  River. Fig. 5.  Black Spruce and Lodge Pole pines growing at  the edge of a small lake. Fig. 6.  A olose up view of Fig. 6.  Fig. 7.  A dense stand of Lodge Pole pines of about 100  years old. Fig. 8 and 9.  Reproduction of young spruce trees upon a  decaying Douglas Fir log. Fig. 10.  Typical root system of a balsam seedling growing  upon clay soil. F^.g. 11.  Root system of spruce seedling in clay soil.  roots are spread out over the surface of the clay.  The  - 110 Fig. 12.  Root system of a four year old spruce seedling  growing in decaying wood. Fig. 13.  Root system of a three year old balsam tree,  growing under the same conditions as the spruce of Fig. 12.  Note how the root grows around the area of  deoaying wood.  F ' g  6.  T^LATEK  F'jj  9.  7=1 ATE  W  /Oe  eay  m<j  Wood.  a  t»  W  a  F'S  

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