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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Ecological studies in balsam and spruce forests in the northern interior of British Columbia Griffith, Braham Grey 1928

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U . B . C . LIBRARY | CAT * 0 . L £ a ft7- i n * to- £2. ! ACC. *o ECOLOGICAL STUDIES IN BALSAM AND SPRUCE FORESTS IN THE NORTHERN INTERIOR OF BRITISH COLUMBIA. by BRAHAM G. GRIFFITH A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL 1928 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction -— I Plant Successions after Forest Fires 1 Strip No.l 2 Strip No,2 6 Plot No.l - -8 Plot :No.2 12 Strip No.3 13 Plot No.? - 17 Strip No.4 - 22 Strip No.5 24 Strip No.6 26 Plot No.4 - - 32 Plot No.3 33 Strip No.6 37 Plot No. 6 - 41 Summary of Strip data - 44 Summary of Plot data 43 Conclusions - 46 Rate of Growth of Balsam and Spruce Trees 30 Summary of Rate of growth studies --102 Conclusions of Rate of growth Studies — 104 Factors governing Balsam and Spruce Reproduction-103 Root systems of Balsam and Spruce Seedlings 106 Summary . — 107 Explanation of Figures - 109 Plates I - IX INTRODUCTION. The work embodied in the following report was carried out by the writer during the summer months of the year 1926 in the Northern Interior of British Columbia, in the Prinoe George District. The main object of the work was to as-certain under what natural conditions balsam and spruce trees reproduce, and especially the time required for these trees to establish themselves after a severe forest fire. The writer wished to make acknowledgement to the Forestry Department of British Columbia for most of the material in the report, and especially to Mr. P. M. Barr, under whose personal direction the work was carried out. Thanks are also due to Dr. A. H. Hutchinson of the Department of Botany, of the University of British Columbia, under whose supervision the report was written. - 1 -Plant Successions after Forest Fires The transect and the quadrant methods were both used in this work. After the burned over area had been looated, and the date of the fire determined, either from local information or from fire scars on neighboring trees, strips were run over the area. These strips were generally at right angles to the virgin timber at the edge of the burned area. The strips were divided into two chain lengths to aid in tallying the tree reproduction along it. The trees were tallied according to species, and recorded in one foot height classes, for a width of 6.6 chains along the strip. Notes were also taken re the general topography of the area, and of the ground flora. One or two strips were run over each area, and for a more detailed study of the area, a plot was surveyedout on each area. An attempt was always made to plaoe these plots so as to represent the average conditions of the area. These plots, were either one square chain or two square ohains in area. All the trees on the plots were recorded according to species, in one foot height classes as on the strips. Notes were taken on the topography of the area, on the ground flora, and on an area of one square yard, which was typioal of the plot, all the plants were recorded according to species. The ages were determined of 25% of the trees on the plots in order - 2 -to obtain the rate of invasion of the trees sinoe the area was burned. Strip # 1 This strip was located ten miles north of Prince George. It was run over a wide open plateau, broken up by numerous deep ravines and gulleys. The Plateau was approximately five miles wide, being bounded on the south by a range of hills and the Salmon Biver on the north. The general eleva-tion of the plateau was 2100 feet and the soil for the most part a sandy loam. The area was burned over with the except-ion of a wet strip through the oentre, several times. The last fire being 21 years ago (1905). This fire was a particularly severe one, leaving very little debris behind. The soil was also very badly burned, there being no trace of any vegetative humus. There was a belt of virgin timber through the oentre of the plateau. This belt was a fairly wet swampy area about a mile wide, and supported a mixed forest, comprising spruce, (Picea Engelmanni) 8 b a l s a m (Abies lasiocarpa) 8 b i r c h (Betula oocidentalis) 4-^ , and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) along with a few black spruce (Picea mariana). In the past fires have en-coached upon this strip of virgin timber at various inter-vals, so that there are zones made up of different ages--the oldest zone being near the centre, where the trees are approx. 350 years old. The next zone is composed of trees - 3 -the oldest of which are 1.50 years old, whilst at the margin of the forest there is another zone, the oldest trees being 100 years old. Owing to an abundant water supply, and ready drainage this forest was particularly dense. The spruce and balsams being particularly thick in the low wet. areas, whilst the Douglas firs sought the drier and higher levels. The birches for the most part were in the outer zone, where there was a greater supply of light. At present the whole of the plateau between this stretch of virgin forest, and the hills on the south is shaded by a young growth of poplars (Populus tremuloides) the tallest of which are about 25 feet. In the shade of these poplars, seedlings of the coniferous trees are begin-ing to make their appearance. On the northside of the timber belt, the young growth was chiefly Lodge Pole Pine, (Pinus contorta), the soil being sandier and drier for the most part. The strip was run from the south edge of the timber due south over the plateau for a distance of 30 chains, with a width of .10 chains. All coniferous seedlings were tallied on the strip in 1 foot height classes, and notes taken on the flora every two chains. The strip was fairly level, and the soil varying from fine red loan to a sandy loam. P r o f i / e of S t r i p /\fo / Scale oS"Cwt ^ / CA0/r, The first 4 chains of the strip was low lying, fairly moist ground. Here the humus was fairly thick, since it had not been severely burned by fire. The ground cover here was very dense-forming a 100% shade over the ground. This ground cover was composed largely of woody shrubs, Cc^ vw I (Lonioera involuoratum) and (Viburnum pauciflorum)Mgrass with a little fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium) in the less densely shaded areas. From chainage 4, a very gradual rise brings us to a drier sandier soil, and with this drier condition the woody ground cover gives place to one of grass, aspens and willows forming a ground shade of about 80%. At chainage ten, there is an undrained pocket with a very dense ground cover of grass only. From now on to chainage 28 the ground is fairly level, and dry, and the general ground cover becomes less dense, but the density of the aspens increase. The ground cover is made up largely of scrubby rose bushes (Rosa nutkana), twinflower (Linnaea borealis), Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja Sp.) and a few wintergreesn (Pyrola chlorantha and P. tainor). Between 28 c. and 30 c. there is a deep ravine running east and west. On the southern aspect of this ravine there A 3-N CD 0 A I 0 (b CD * <b «s Co F 1 & 0 A 0) 1 1 IT • » s. 6 > ft o * a 5 0) 5 « } ft A N •v " F T Q » * Q b ft J L £ • NO u rs B » £ Q s - f -o Oft a a & .•v. V S i . ^ a & o ?s> u 5 Z i > h> fr £ la S Oj is i k ffN I -a * G> > o> cb I E C A ov ^ ^ u V U v Vo £ w £ ^ ft "in; M . N <» ^ v fc I a E E S S is very little vegetation, merely a few aspens and birches, At the foot where conditions are wetter and shadier the aspens are much denser, and there is a very dense under-cover of Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja Sp.)« Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus) and grass. The northern aspect has a ground cover composed of Indian Paint Brushes (Oastelleja Sp.), Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), Squashberry Viburnum pauciflorum) and Saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia). Aspens are not very common on the northern slope, where light conditions are less favorable, but a^fairly common on the ridge, and at the bottom of the ravine. S t r i p t 2 . This strip is really a continuation of Strip # 1, Strip f 2 ending near the edge of a cultivated field of clover 14.5 chains in width. This Strip began on the south boundary of the field on the top of a deep ravine running east and west. From the beginning of the Strip the near-est seed bearing trees were 46 chains north. Over this Strip the stand of poplars is slightly more open than that of the first Strip, and the ground cover is generally speaking less dense, but is composed of a greater variety of plants. In the drier areas there are such plants as (Parnassia parviflora), (Habenaria gracilis), and a species of gentiana which is very similar to ((*. sceptrum) but the flowers are much smaller, which may have been due to - 7 -the dry sandy soil conditions. (Pyrola minor) is quite common in the shadier places, and Twinflower (Linnaeus borealis) is quite general in its distribution. On the north, slope above the clover field at the beginning of the strip the oldest poplars are 17 years old, whilst the oldest spruce are 11 years. From chainage 0-8 the ground cover was composed of Indian Paint Brushes (Oastilleja Sp.), Fire Weed (Epil-obium angustifolium), and a few grasses. From 8- to 9.85 c. there is a deep ravine, the southern aspect of which is almost barren, save for a number of Rose bushes (Rosa nutkana). At the foot of the ravine aspens are numerous, and there is a dense ground cover of Indian Paint brush and grass. On the northern slope there are many alders, birches and aspens and a few Mt. maples (Acer glabrumjl, and willows near the ridge with dense ground cover of Indian Paint brush and Bunchberry (Oornus canadensis). On the ridge 9.2 5 - 9.5 ch. there are many bushes of Squashberry (Lonicera involucratum) and a few lodge pole pines which are 17 years old. From 9.5 to 12 c. there is a deep ravine running northeast by northwest. On the southwest exposure there is very little vegetation, whilst at the bottom and along the northeast exposure aspens are numerous with a ground cover of Fire Weed (Epilobium angustifolium) grass, Pea Vine, (Lathyrus ochroleucus), Labrador tea ( Ledum groenlandicum), Mt.Mapie (Acer glabrum). Red Osier Dogwood (Oornus stolonifera), H P - 8 -Squashberry (lonicera involucratum), Saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolla). From 12 -18 chains the ground is fairly level, bat at 18-26 there is again a slight ravine running north and south, at the foot of which the ground cover is fairly dense and Is made up largely of Pea Vine (Lathyrus ochroleucus). Plot £ 1 This plot was located near Strip #1, and was 20 chains south of the timber line* The area of the plot was one square chain* The ground was level, and the soil a red sandy loam* To facilitate counting the tree reproduction the plot was subdivided into fivefequal strips running north and south. Then a small representative plot (1 sq. yd.) was taken inside of the large plot and a list made of all of the plants there. It was estimated that the arown cover or dhade of the poplars was approximately 407.. £he ages of many of the young trees were also checked by ring counts. Age count 0 f t r e a s PI or No 1. Poo/or B , •ch •SP -oce. He.qht 171 f^t Ami /T> years. He/qht m feet At.je m 5(earS Height i-n Feci Ale in Vears. £ 1 o 1 2 13 06 5 £ 1 o ao IS 2. II <3 2 ia a IO A 16 a 11 1 o II lo 13 to 14 IS. 14-1 4 1 4 1 6 IC ao 15 as 15 7 SI > CJ ft ? fi 3 1 ft 0) DJ >.. F! > * t C> a I n £ « £ e> § L r j 8 3 -si o <B l» & < u rs £ a — «o - * OS u Vl J\> JV M o & rv o rw f» — * s - i . *D T\> WI * r n» * » r» je IM o It H 5 i * . * ? qp * if + « N Uj \0 (h V 0> J* OS « -No. of Plants — 10 -There were no balsam reproductions on this plot, and only one /Lodge Pole Pine, which was a large tree being in diameter and 28 feet high, and was 17 years old. The plant count on the one square yard plot was as follows:-Species Oornus canadensis Epilobium angustifolium Oastilleja Sp. Achillea millefolium Bubus spectabilis Salix Sp. Rosa nutkana Glintonia uniflora Rubus pubescens Viburnum pauciflorum Habenaria unalaschensis Populus tremuloides Viola Sp. Moss 107 9 9 7 3 (small shrubs) 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 about 25% of the area. - 11 -t r e e r e p r o d u c t i o n p l o t m i . I t !5 Vo/Vor. { P„p«/«s /r<rmu/4jJ*i) Spruce.. f £ n q * / " " " i n i ) . jD/*/a/«ns o / F / o / r / Z 3 4 / Z -f / z 3 4 o-/ / / z / Z / t S / F 7 / / 3 / / 9 4 <r F / / / C z s- / o G / o / / F / o 7 F 9 /£ / o 6 Z Z£> ? / /z 4 7 < / A4 3 Z / /£ S / c 7 Z Z / /F / z 3 c ZO Z 5 Z zz / 3 Z 3 / Z J Z4 Z 3 / Z. ZC. 3 Z Z Z / / T.Hs S6 F6 z <s 1 4 6' 3 3 - 12 -Plot # 2 This plot was located a few chains west of Strip ft 2, and 66 chains distant from the nearest seed trees - ie -those at the beginning of Strip f 1. This plot was well drained being situated between numerous dry deep ravines. T o p o j r a p / > j o / P / o / ' /Yo. Scc/e /<?m= /C/iotn. - 13 -T r e e . I f e p r o c / u c f / o n . T ' / o f Je * * Sprue* /P. //mti>n/\ S>/rci. / g e / o / e 3p). | Top/ar. fr- • (Reafo/i). 'P/ot JO/ vis sous -/ Z 3 4 t z 3 3' / Z 3 * S / •f -5 •4 o-/ / 3 •f / 3 <o / r h i Z / Z Z 3 /£ / Z-4 / S 3 / Z r /(> XT / • S 9 / / /9 CO /Z < /c « .30 / / i / / / /5 /r a <? / / * / / / Z6 3 / £ - / f 3 «sf / / H o / / / / / 7ofa/s. / J- s z s z 90 ?z 7? / / T r e e . d u e C o u n t T=>/0f A^o. £ spruec B/rcA f t f / a r -/ j e a w / /»/«•/ OiJ- 3 J/r*. U tr-s-o r r i' • •4 S -a sjs S ' Zac/gc po/c £ 9 ' 7 ' zs- S <f » a s 7 * / S /O ' /o // • SO /a ' It f t ' H It ' /S U ' /S /-3 * / s /3 " - 14 -Plant count on Plot of 1 sq. yd Plant Species Cornus canadensis Achillea millefolium Antennaria Sp. Rubus spectabilis Rosa nutkana Epilobium angustifolium Aralia nudicaulis Populus tremuloides Salix Sp. Viburnum pauciflorus Linnaea borealis Moss Number 70 23 6 (dumps) 5 3 3 2 2 1 1 5% of area 35% » » - 15 -Strip £ 3 The location of thisstrip is about a mile west of Willow Kiver in a little over a sixty year old burn. The area is a low lying fairly moist flat of good loam soil covered by approximately 2" of humus. The general aspect of the area is about 2% north. At present there is general over the area a fairly dense stand of poplars, the oldest of which are 60 years, and are 75 feet in height. The forest surrounding this burned area is composed of spruce (Picea Engelmanni) 70°/., Balsam (Abies losiocarpa) 207. and Poplar (Populus tremuloides) 107.. For the most part these are seed bearing trees ranging in height from 90 to 130 ft. The strip started 4 chains west of the fringe of timber and continued for twenty chains west. The general ground flora was fairly dense, rich and foleaoeous- consisting of Mt. Spiraea (Spiraea densiflora), Ked Osier Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera)? Twinberry (Lonicera involucratum), Waxberry (Symphoricarpus racemosa), Larkspur (Delphinium Sp.), Columbines (Aquilegia formosa) and a number of dense large willow clumps, 2-6 incheB in diameter. Scattered throughout the area were a number of young i spruce trees varying from 30 to 40 years, beneath which there is very little vegetation, save a few small winter greens (Pyrola minor). It was interesting to note that there were no spruce or balsam reproduction under 30 years - 16 -Tree I f e p r o c J u c f / j v S t r / p / Y c - =3". it I-^ N-N To p/ar. fP h-erido/Jes). D/^/ance. m cAo/ns from «See</ Trees £ 4 6 ? /o /t / t £ 4 6 s /o / i <o o-/ / ' 3' f - t / /ao * 3r 4/ w 6' Z-4 / /* 6* /S / 6' / 6-t l~/o fc-si / t / I /i-ZO Z H / i / I I / / / / ton / Z / / I / / J / / / / / / / / / C4-ZC / / / / / / Z6 + / / / Tib! S ? f 4£ 6/ / i f FT / / / root -Sprouh. - 17 -of age, and comparatively few young poplar seedlings, but a very large number of young root sprouts from the older poplar trees. After the burn a heavy stand of poplars and willows came in, the oldest of which are now 60 years, followed about twenty years later by a number of spruce seedlings which grew up in their shade, and are now 30 - 40 years old. These spruce seedlings continued to come in for from 10 to 15 years, but sinoe then the shade probably has been too dense for spruce seedlings to develop, since the ground cover as well as the over head covering is very dense. Hot # 3 This plot is fcbout two miles northeast of Willow River Station at twenty chains west of the Fraser River. It is situated in an alluvial flat approximating 1900 feet in elevation in a belt of 45 year old timber, composed mostly of balsam and spruce, which runs back to the river. In 1916 and again in 1922 forest fires had encoached upon this belt of forty-five year old timber. This alluvial flat was bounded on one side by the Fraser River, on the east, and by a shallow depression or gulley 101 deep on the south side, which gave place further south to higher ground, supporting a dense stand of aspens, spruce and balsams of 60 years growth. In the depression aspens and willows are - 18 -Steep S/ope. A/Jer S or amp. Sct/t •••*•<**> - / - 1? -T r e e T f e p r o d a c h o n T ^ / o f / V o . ^ . Spruce- fP'cea 'Qa/scm. {dA/es /as/ocarp*). Te/b/ar- ffofiu/ui f-rcmJo/Je*). P/Of D l l / / S / 0 7 ? £>• / 2. 3 s / z 3 <4 s / Z 3 s 0 - / / / Z / / 3 * Z / * 3 / 3 / / z / 3 3 / * * / 3 / / Z. r <r £ 3 / / f-/C r c S~ z Z / / /o-n 3 z 3 / Z / 3 2. / Z z / / 3 Z z z / / / /(-A Z Z z / Srzo 3 z 3 3 / to-it / s z Z Z lt-Zi £ z / / Z-4-ti 3 ^ / z 3 z / / w •9/ 4' z s zc 3C 9 9 7 / / ? 7' 3 / — 7o f-a/ Pc. p*ro ducf/cr> P / o f / f c Z>. Spcc/es Wumben Sp>rve<2 . CP £.r>£c/manni) /€<? Safean? f d /o&/ocarf>a) 4S f P / r e mo fo'des. /Z> T c M 2 Z 7 • - 20 -Tree. C o u n t FYot Ao. 3 -V * V s V. V •Spruce f ~P- £i>je//***ni). 13/ret /'Se/i/s Sf>.) 73/>/or (T-T*/o / D/f 'St OPS / 2 3 * s / Z 3 4 S / £ 3 4 * / 4 Z / / 3' ^ / 3 3o it 3 £ / ^ £ Z / Z 3S rZ 3 C / Z / / 3 Z 3 4o f 3 7 Z Z s F 3 Z 3 4S / z 4 3 z Z Z 5 so / / Z Z. / /O F r z S 5 ! f 3 / ? r z so 6o / Z / / 3 7 / Z ToM 3t A3 34, fs /4 / Z7 4K 3C <•o 3c To/<?/ AZanber 0/ Zrees over ZZ<reA Spe C/es /V cimoer Spruce f t ? Znge/manm) //<; / V /et'OC*yfa) 3'rti /StfM / ~Pcf>/ar. Zr'mvh /fS. ToM Z 7 Z / f f f e . Count o f Tre»s ~P/o A / f t 3. T>of>/«r a/sam Sprfcc. /ivy// in fee/" /nj/ears / / a - j l i t /» feet. /?£e /it years / A e r j f / t / „ f , r Sf si s 4/ € 30 SS 40 3 S /s 40 AO 4c /s- •40 4 0 3S rc 46 SO 4<Z i S So so S7 zr •if So i t 44 SS 4f 3t 40 C O 4 C 4Z S 7 CO ss so 21 very abundant, with a very dense ground cover of tall grass-es, Spiraeas, (Spiraea densiflora) and Delphiniums. To the west there is a poorly drained slough, where alders are abundant, and also slough grasses. To the north was the dry sandry flat, which had been burned over severely in 1916 and 1922. The nearest seed trees are 50 chains west, where there is a mature stand of balsam, spruce and poplars. The per acre stand of trees on this plot was estimated at 2012 trees, made up in the following proportion:-Spruce 1179, poplars 646, balsams 183 and birch 4. This total takes account only of trees over two inches in diameter. The trees and seedlings were totaLled as for the other plots. This plot was slightly larger than the others, being 1.5 chains x 1.6 chains. The plant count on one square yard was sssfollows:-Speoies No. of Plants Oornus canadensis 135 Vaccinium Sp 11 Habenaria borealis Linnaea borealis 7 Pyrola minor Rib us pub esc ens Aralia nudicaulis 4 4 4 22 -Species Oerastium Sp No. of Plants 4 Rosa nutkana Spiraea Douglasii Achillea millefolium Amelanchier alnifolia Horsetails (Equisetales) Unidentified Plants 2 2 3 Moss Scant Strip f 4. This strip is a little north of Plot f 3, in the 1916 forest fire area. The ground is somewhat drier and sandier than the plot, and is approximately 75 feet greater in elevation. The nearest seed trees are 30 chains north. The first two chains of the strip are fairly level, hut from 2 - 5 chains there is a steep rise with a northern aspect, from 5 chains to 24 chains the ground is fairly level, hut from 24 chains to the end of the strip at ohainage 30, there is a slight depression, with much wetter soil, with a corresponding increase in the density of the ground cover. On the level from c.O to 2 c. trhere the soil is dry and sandry there is very little ground cover, mostly Fire weed (Epilobium angustifolium), Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja Sp.) and a few Oregan grape shrubs (Berberis aquifolium). On the north slope (chain 2-5) the ground cover is somewhat a 0 D) 8-0 3 1 o <t> CTT I 3> I T A i i JV> 0 0 * to 00 * u' o vB «N 0 3 CS o» CO o S 01 f\» o 5 o u » 0 n> 3-» $ BO-r » - v£> 06 * J i* A n> 0 o 3 fN r r» it Cl t ) w w It £ VI »v m. trt 0 S M •*> p> >. 1 1 w 0 a - 24 -heavier, willows being more predominant. From 5 to 20 chains the ground cover is very similar to the first few chains of the strip, but from 24 Chains to the end, Fireweeds, lupins and raspberry bushes are very dense, forming a hundred per-cent shade on the ground. The end of the strip finished one chain from a fringe of seed trees. Strip ft 5 Strip f 5 is a short strip running through an area burned over in 1922, and situated near Plot ft 3» For the greater part the soil is a ddep sandry loam, but is replaced in a few cases by a black loam. The general slope of the strip was about 5%, with a south western aspect. The near-est seed trees are 15 chains north. Ohainage 0 - 2.5 is fairly level supporting a ground cover composed of Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), twin-berry (Lonicera involucratum), Horse-tails (Equisetum Sp.) and a few Squashberry bushes (Viburnum pauciflorus), and Mt. Ash (Pyrus sitchensis), also a few Hazel (Oorylus Sp.), Spiraea (Spiraea Uouglasii) and rose bushes. 2.5 - 3.5 is low wet ground, where Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), alder (Alnus stitchensis) are the dominant species. - 25 -77<?e l ^ & v r o d u c t / o n S t r i p Vo £ N •2>~Pruce. TUG/sCI//] B t r c j To p / i r /O/s/t/ice /» CAams /re* SecJ 7r<res, A 6 ? /o z A £ ? /o Z 4 6 * £ 0-' / / / /- 2 / / / / W / I / 1 / t / <t / / £ - 26 -4-5.5 chains is a 20% slope with an eastern aspect, here Thimbleberries (Rubus parviflorus), Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Rubus pubescens, and rose bushes (Rosa Sp.) form the prevailing ground cover. 5.5 - 6, low ground where poplars (Populus tremuloides) and Twinberry (Lonicera in-volucratum) ocour. 6 - 1 0 chains, gentle slope with a western aspect where there are fewer Twinberry bushes, and Spiraea, but Twinflowers (Linnaea borealis) are guite thick. Strip f 6 The area over which strip f 6 is run is three miles west of Willow River, along the Fraser River. The area is a bench 100 to 200 feet above the level of the Fraser River, and cut up by many ravines and gulleys. It is part of a large 1916 fire. To the south the area is bounded by a heavy stand of virgin timber of the balsam spruce type, mixed with a few poplars, birches and Lodge Pole Pine. The strip began about 150 yards back from the Fraser River at the top of a deep embankment made by the Canadian National Railway. Through this embankment an abundant supply of clear water oozed, revealing the fact that the soil above was fairly moist and well drained although the top - 27 -soil was very dry. The strip ran at an angle to the timber line. The beginning of the strip being about 40 chains from the timber, whilst at the finish of the strip the green timber was only a few chains distant. Chainage 0-5 was a steep western slope, with scant ground cover, 60% mostly of Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), roses (Rosa nutkana), Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), Spiraea (Spiraea lucida), Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus stolon-ifera), Willows (Salix Spp.), Alder (Alnus sitchensis) and i'winflowers (Linnaea borealis). Hear the summit of the slope the twinflowers beoome more abundant, and Rubus pubescens are guite common. At 5.5 iShains, there is a shallow gulley running north and south, at the foot of which Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja Sp.) are abundant. 5.5 - 7, western slope, with a ground cover very similar to the first 5 chains of the strip. From 7 ft 10 chains, the ground is generally level, the ground cover becomes scantier (40°/.) and is composed for the most part of Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), goldenrod (Solidago Sp.) and willow. Here the soil is powdery dry clay. From 10 - 13.5 chains there is a dense grove of aspens, beneath whose shade there is a dense grognd cover of Rubus pubescens, Mt. maple (Acer glabrum), Harrow (Achillea millefolium) and a few Fireweeds (Epilobium angustifolium). From 13.5 - 15 chains the slope becomes steeper and drier - 28 -without crops of rock. Here the type of growth changes from aspens to Lodge Pole Pine. On the ground here there are numerous half burned trunks of large Lodge Pole Pine trees, and a few scattered cones, from which the present growth of young pines probably sprung. From 18 - 22 chains there was little ground cover, and the Lodge Pole Pine stand gave place to one of poplars. At 21.5 chains there was a slight rise in elevation, with Lodge Pole Pine again re-placing the poplars. 22 - 23 chains was level ground, with a light cover of Fireweed (Epiholium angustifolium), Queen*s Gup (Clintonia uniflora) and Spiraea Lucida. The ground elevation rose between 2J - 24 chains, with a western slope, here the ground cover was much heavier being approximately 60% of the area covered. This cover was composed of Thimble-berry (Rubus parviflorus), (Rubus pubescens), Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja Sp.), Squashberry (Conicera involucratum), and Red Osier Dogwood (Cornus stolonifera). From 24 - 25 chains the slope was much greater,a rise of twenty-five feet bringing us to the brow of a small knoll at twenty-five chains. Near the brow there were several birch clumps, Willows and poplars, but little ground cover besides Spiraea lucida. From 25 -26.5 chains therslope was steep, with an eastern aspect, with very scant vegetation, but with some young spruce re-production growing in decaying wood. From 26.5 chains to - 29 -30, there was a slight western slope with a general ground oover averaging about 50 percent in density. Chainage 30 brought us to within 10 chains tf the timber, so that to avoid running into the timber, we swung the strip 45 degrees north, and continued in a straight line until the end of the strip. We crossed a small gulley at 31 chains running north and south, there were some Indian Paint Brushes and ferns at the bottom. On the western slope of the gulley there were practioally no poplars, but a few willows and birches. There was also no balsam or spruce reproduction in the gulley, but there were some spruce and balsams on the northwest aspect, and a few on the asutheast slope. The ground cover was medium on the west slope consisting of Bunehberry (Cornus canadensis), Wintergreen (Pyrola minor?), Spiraea lucida, Squashberry (Lonicera involucratum), Queen»s Cup (Clintonia uniflora), Rubus pubescens, and a few Mt. Maples (Acer glab-rum). From 35 - 48 chains there is a gradual west slope, with willow still dominant, beneath the willow there is very little other vegetation, but in the more open space there are Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Fairy - Bells (Disporum Menziesii), Golden Rods (Solidago Sp.), Bunehberry (Cornus canadensis), roses (Rosa nutkana) and a few Thimble-berry (Rubus parviflorus). There is quite a heavy repro-duction of spruce in the shade of the willows, which seems guite favorable to them. Forty-two to forty-four, the ground beoomes level, and with this condition, Rubus parviflorus T r e e R e p r o d u c t i o n . S t r i p N o . 6 . £ E n g e l T n a n n 3 p f u c e <3 AS <3777. D i s t a n c e i n Ch o/ns f rom h e QiTinin 9 of *S-tnp. X 2 4 6 e 10 12 14 16 '3 Zo 21 Z4 2i 28 30 31 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 46 So rz 5A 2 4 6 a 10 IZ 14 /6 18 Zo 22 Z4 26 28 3o 34 36 38 Ac 4« 44 4-C 48 fo to Chi 9 3 / 3 1 3 A 7 Z <7 3 6 lZ IO Z5 /(> 2} 39 7 5 2 / // 2 33 18 2 / / Z / / / 4 4 £ 3 3 / / / u i-z / L 9 To tot. 9 3 / 3 / 3 4 7 7 Z 17 3 IO IZ 10 zs 2} 39 7 ? 2. / / / Z 33 27 Z / / 2. 7 / 7 4 4 £ 3 3 Z 1 2 II a T r e e R e p r o d u c t i o n 3 t r i p N o . 6 . C>ouqIQS f i r L^odge P o l e Pme. X Z 4 £ 8 /o 72 /4 76 16 to zz 24 ZG. 26 30 34 36 40 4« 44 46 4<9 56 54 2 A £ & IO IZ 14 16 ie zo 22 14 z<z 28 30 32 34 36 aa 4o 42 44 46 46 So Si i-4 o-l / / / ( 4 Z. 5 / 5" a 7 / 3 3 / /O 3 72 1 Z 1 5 4 II z 1 / Z / 3 l-l I <Z A IO 7 S I / Zr4 Z Z 4-C / 7 6-8 / / Tefal 1 / / 1 £ 4 1 S / .5" 6 7 <5 / 3 3 / /o 3 IZ 1 1 z Z 13 II 34 14 It, 2. 1 / 1 z 1 / 3 ! * t lota! Tree R e p r o d u c t i o n S t r i p No. 6. Species distance in chains from begmnmj of Strip. 2 4 £ Q 10 IZ 14 16 /a zo ze. ** 2<k 26 30 32 34 36 38 AO 12 44 46 4S So 54 Pop!or: 4 7 s 4 / sc <0 6 9 49 96 IO 35 3 IS so 2 2/ 57 3 / / Z Cottonwvd- 2 C / Birch. If 2 1 19 1 £ / 5 IS Z G z IS 2 II £ Z £ / 5a go Spruce. 9 3 1 3 / 3 4 7 7 Z 17 3 IO IZ IO zs /C ZS 3? 7 5 2 / II «e Bo/Sam. Z 1 / Z / 1 1 4 4 3 3 & / z n / / Doughs fTr 1 / / / 4 a / 1 6 7 C / 3 3 / IO 3 12 / Lodge P R / Z 73 / / 34 14 IC A 1 / / / / 3 Total /CD 7 4 C3 90 35 51 71 m zo Co 26 29 90 3* 7° cc 7/ /3 6 3/ 9 7/3 56 - 5 t n P N 0 . 6. -Sco/o / Cm- ' £ c/iotts. T r e e R e p r o d u c t i o n S t r i p / y Q 5 , - 32 -and Rubus pubescens become more conspicuous. Between forty-four and forty-six, there was a slight slope to the east, which is practically devoid of vegetation save a little Fire-weed, Thimbleberry, and an occasional clump of willows and alder. Forty-six to forty-eight chains, a southwest slope with a little more willow, Firwweed and Thimbleberry. At 47.5 chains, there was a slight depression, with several Red Osier Dogwoods growing there. Forty-eight to fifty chains, a gradual slope to the southeast, with a cover of Willows, Hazels, Squashberries, and Bunchberries. Fifty to fifty-two, steep slope to the southeast, where there is a haavy stand of willows. 2.25 - 3.5, and alder swamp, with dense undergrowth consisting largely of grass and spiraea densiflora. A gradual slope fco the west brings us to the timber here at chainage 55 where the ground cover is 95% dense, consisting of Rubus pedatus, Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus;, Foam flower (Tiarella unifoliata), Indian Paint Brush (Castilleja Sp.), Squashberry (Lonicera involu-cratum), Twinflowers (Linnaea borealis), Bunehberry (Cornus canadensis) and Queen's Cup (Clintonia uniflora). Plot f 4 This plot was located in the same burn as strip ft 5, being somewhat southeast of strip 5, chainage 40. The nearest stand of seed trees were 13 chains southwest, although there were a few seed trees a little nearer to the ooast, which the fire had left undamaged. The slope of the plot - 33 -was 5% north, and the soil was a powdery olay. The crown density of the plot was hbout 30% and mostly oomposed of willows. The plant count on one square yard was as follows:-Species Number Oornus canadensis 30 Rubus pubescens 16 Tiarella unifoliata 10 Disporum Menziesii 7 Epilobium angustifolium 9 Rubus parviflorus 5 Clintonia uniflora 4 Phegopteris Dryopteris 4 Castilleja Sp. 3 Aster Engelmannii 2 Linnaea borealis 1 Spiraea luoida 1 Moss 85% - 34 -T t g g Tfts.pro duct ton F'/ot. /Vo. 4-. spec/es. J*. A a /$ a/» / Yer a. ~E>e/-u/a sp. /as/ocar/>Q V tan Ve/ra . o-/ / 3 z 6 zo /-z £ Z~4 J / / /o 7 4 /o -/Z / Tof-J. z / 3 S 6 ZO. Tree / % / /Vo 4. Spec/es. ~3e/-<j/a Sp Tieea /En/j e /meini. Ab'cs. /asiocarpa. Psea^o^^o to- t.ifof('« feytf/m tf Ajft //. y>c/s /fjj? Jec.f- peqtf/xfat- /4?e 40 F 0-/7 a- zs~ 4 0-35 S 6-0 F 0• /7 4 a. SO 7 ?0 / / 0- 2. 5 S 0 SO / / 0• 33 7 o- r /OO / / 0-66 /o - 35 -Plot # 5. This plot was situated in the same "burn as Plot f 4, and Strip f 5, being a few chains southeast of strip # 5, chain-age 10. The general aspect of the plot was southwest, having a slope of about 4%. The soil was a dry crumbly clay. The stand of green timber was 12 chains south, and was composed of seed-bearing spruce, balsam, Douglas Fir, and birch, whilst near the? plot itself there were a number of burned Lodge Pole Pine,debris. The area of this plot was two square chains, ihe crown density was approximately 227°, consisting almost entirely of willow. Plant count on one square yard: Species Asters Sp Number Rubus pubescens Achillea millefolium 10 Cornus canadensis 10 Disporum lvlenziesii Kpilobium angustifolium Rosa nutkana 5 3 2 7 Spiraea lucida Unidentified leaves 7 30% Moss Total Ground Cover 90% - 36 -T r e e R e p r o d u c t i o n T^/ot /Vo.6-3poo/<ss . Top/or -&/rc/i Do of/os r / r . Sf>rucc <3/sum-O-f <6 / s / 7 4* s' / - z / 6 7 Z-4 / F / 6 / ^ / 3 /c-'Z Total- ZS ' 7 S T r e e / ? j ? e s 'F'to/' /Vo <5 >Spe c / e^s /OQp/ar s p r</c<_ 7o</</c To/eVK £>o"f/as F/r J f e / f / i t //C-Sff/S few//1 Aj?e 4 f t 6 & 9 yrs- S j n /O /« ?/'t 7 J<rs-4 ' 9 " y ' S ' S ' /<* " 3 ' /o " F " /a " s- " / y " S ' /<f * 7 ' /o ' 7 * Z ^ £ -£ " 7 " 6 « y 7 ' 7' 7" 7 " Strip #6 . 7 This strip was ran near Foreman, B, §«,over an area burned probably thirty-eight years ago, as indicated by fire scars left on some few of the mature trees. The mature stand at the margin of the burned area, was approximately ninety years old, and was oomposed of Black Spruce (Picea mariana) 50%, Lodge Pole Pine (Pinus contorta) 40%, balsam (Abies lasiocarpa) 5%, birch (Betula occidentalis) 5%. At the beginning of the strip Lodge Pole pine was dominant, the stand being approximately 30 feet high, with poplars 20 feet and black spruce 10 feet. For the most part over the area, the soil was a white clay to loam, with a fresh covering of humus and moss, about one half inch in thickness. For the first chain or so, the ground cover consisted of willows, Spiraea densiflora, twinberry (Lonicera invol-ucratum) and bunehberry (Cornus canadensis;. Here the young blaok spruce and balsams are from twenty-eight to thirty-two years old. From two to four chains, and from six to eight chains the ground was fairly swampy with a dominance of willow. From eight to ten chains conditions were very similar to those of the first few ohains—the ground cover, being about 507® in density. Here there were a few Bodge Pole pines four inches in diameter, and twenty years old. From ten to twenty chains, the ground cover was guite light, consisting of Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), willow, twinberry (Lonicera involuoratum), grass, and numerous wild M, vzi 0k "S. CD e> | Si ¥ 55 0 > !r N T) * * I-tfl f & o> a \> ? N a vo A — -3 r» & t a <t> 0 r 2 > G f 5 1 2. u — OS W fe 4>u CB A W r» 0\ W M U 00 tt is * K o K u t\ § TU a u - — — S — ffs \D - ft M » In - n r» s <n -— a In k 4k in 8 -In 5 5 N 3 - 0> 0> On I l l s 1 u s 1_ TS-I 5 Ct> X I k » ftt m w u II ^ ve Ul — 01 > -b Lt> 01 — TT~ ^ <y Oo 00 VC A - - - - o ro — — rt> Jk — — ro lu" a m — p I — • ^ © lo" V 00 — - n> 1 jk — r» S — — — ffk u — _ - 0» 5-& ro TT 8 r» T ir -s— •4 ^ N o _ 0 a U 4> 1" -t-r» BN — — •tl 2 T n> U — — n IT" bi r» N ^fl CD r» IN 14 s _ M> — — 13 6 N LX « — = •4 o. LI V* LI f; — — In o> — kfl - Oi kJ — - t f l - — tfl - - HM - bi r» — Lfl - H — u bfl in - u U r» — VO - Jj> O) T» (N u, 4k ^ 1 N> tv 00 * U 0 01 n> - S — ? 1 •— r 1 » 1 & 1 r\5 rv 1 2 4> — Ci K 1 S CD — N "V ti - 0> u f; a - El a ta u H Wl m n M l m Ft. <1 -J N I lb I 3 CX. n: o u $ SI Cs F o ® j0 Co - 1? -strawberry plants. From twenty to thirty ohains the con-ditions were still very like those of the previous ten chains, save that there was a much greater production of grass. Strip t This strip was located in the same general area as strip f 6, but the later fire of thiry-eight years ago, had not swept over the portion through which this strip was run, the area being last burned about sixty years ago. The present stand consisted largely of poplars, approximat-ing fifty-seven years, with a fair proportion of large willow clumps. The virgin stand of green timber was seventy chains to the north, and another forty to fifty chains to the south. This stand consisting of Engelmann spruce, 40%, Lodge POle Pine 407», balsam 57», Douglas Fir 5, and poplar 107®. The general aspect of the slope was slightly north. Over the entire area there was a relative-ly dense stand of undergrowth, consisting for the most part of sbrumbs and grasses, of which the following are representative, Spiraea densiflora, roses, Squashberry (Viburnum pauciflorus) and black twinberry (Lonicera invol-ucratum). The herbaceous covering, was made up of Indian Paint Brushes (Castilleja Sp.), Fireweed (Epilobium angust-ifolium), blue violets (Viola Sp.), strawberry (FragariaJ, bunch berry (Oornus canadensis), Pea vine, (Lathyrus Total Balsam £ o © r* 0 t 1 T <t r> <0 U> o-l s: vs u K D Jk u i - ft s n « Oo N CD n n> Kl O rv N 0 W y Jv 00 - ?v> CO Jk, s p-01 y SI L' 0 s S 5 00 U * * to o O «\ Oo r» 0 u Oo to J —. 0> > \o G> h> G> 5' 0 \ S 0) W O * * U TO ^ 0 s * - :z Q >5 « — >0 9s u hi N t\ CA Oo V, u 0 Oo to 5 * 5 G" fs o 0\ 1 a> 4k 4s fv 1 Ci J. $ fv> NJ •tk l\> ft % - V) fo u la bl * M Jk. Co & Q> S § w 5: ^ & 4k & Nt (M f* t; <k (N 5; W t>» u 5 s ^ N - & 0> OS rv N u JS» A Q> — N »s. 0) v. K Od 0) u o 4k. M v. « - Ol J!k <0 N u 0\ ti u c5 — A a 6) N fo A. ft N •v. Oo N o £ A «N> - Co -e\ w — - IS oo os M N M> 4k ih w r» — « N 0« O - Ul N fv "V. S •s. u l\ •s. if V. o f\) Jk <h - - 3> 0 - R 5 (N 6) — — s v. - o - R >*> - S - 1M - - h> Aj C» — CJ CI s - a -N k * « O Ik I5 B R £ •V. KJ £ « •fc fs> * : * i uOft V * i Ft 3> l> o fS-CD $ 3 o =3-o 3 U •s > c: • <i (b V) -t-t> <! 0 0o CD a u o 3 - 41 -oehroleuous), Rubus pubescens and grass. At ohainage eight to ten, there was a slight knoll, upon which the ground cover was completely changed, to that of the rest of the strip, consisting entirely of Soopalallie (Shepherdia cana-densis), and Lodge Pole Pine (Pinus contorta). .Between chainage 32 to 35.5 there was a deep ravine. Thirty two to thirty four chains being the northern aspect, and 34.-35.5 the southern. There was another deep gulley from 35.8 to 40 chains with a stream eight feet in width at 37 chains. Here again, 35.8 to 37, was the north aspect, and 37 to 40 the southern slope. Plot f 6. This plot was located in the same forest burn as strips 5 and 6. The plot sloped slightly to the north, and had an elevation of approximately 2100 feet. The soil was loam, with a covering of humus one inch deep. The ground cover on this plot was very luxuriant, being well shaded by a fairly dense canopy of poplars, and large willow clumps. There were also a few large spruce trees on the plot, but little vegetation grew beneath them, save a number of young poplars two feet in height, vvhich seemed to thrive exceedingly well under their shade, and a few winter greens. For the most part on the plot, the young poplar growths are merely shoots from the roots of the mature poplars. At present time the large willow - 42 -clumps are rapidly dying out, this is probably due to an insufficient light supply caused by the dominance of poplars. The ground cover includes, Spiraea densiflora, grasses, rose bushes, moss, Indian paint brush, black twinberry, yarrow, fireweed, strawberry and bunehberry. On this plot, the Spiraea has largely replaced fireweed, and Indian paint brush, seeming to thrive best in intermediate light, with a moderate water supply and a slightly northern aspect, and is itself replaced by rose bushes and wintergreen in the dense shade of the spruce and Lodge Pole pine trees. Over the plot the general shade of the top canopy was about 50%. Ground cover on one square yard:-Species Oornus canadensis Fragaria Sp. Rubus pubescens Gerastium arvense Achillea millefolium Spiraea densiflora Rosa nutkana Viola Sp. Linnaea borealis Epilobium angustifolium Castilleja Sp. Grass Moss Number 2 5 12 10 9 8 5 5 5 3 1 1 30 blades 2 5 % - 43 -7~ree p r o d u c t i o n T ^ l o t A^ 6>. He^ir '» A Peep SpectG% ~Pbp/ar /ot/fe'To/k T^'"* S pr^ee. 0 a/s am. 0-/ /-z / Z-4 /<?* 4-6 6 / / 4 /£ / ZO ^ ZS 3/ 6 30 /? / 33~ / 3 / / A 0 Z£ t / 3 SO // / / S3 /V 6c / 7 / - r Tof*! 6 / 0 3 ZO # Compose J of saccular sprouts from /~A<s n?<i/-ure. r<res . ) -«N> N s * * \ * r S* * N > * * V * \ £ \ OR> * ft •s t> a > £ * * N ft ft £ 1> Ni * V ft ij * £ V Nl 5 »v •I ft SL $ * I* * SI <? N> * * * * «S 1 1 s ft V CO U * 03 «s * cs * tA * £ * <-> «K N o N> \ * ^ a b-J b? Vj * CI W s * CA > A ^  V$ £ 1'I * b Ci •A i % > si >1 •V <1 a t •N * & 1 t I I «s <• 4. * £ £ N * * * J) Vk V A tf4 1*1 <k ON O' £ \ O * * \ S •i ? U < s * tX X N 1 ft «\ fa V* ft * * ft 1 * F-e. N K V * <M 0 "N U1 $ • N ft w -o £ $ n k Gd 15 O >N o H D j ! - 46 -Conclusions It is difficult to make a general statement in regard to vegetation appearing on newly denuded areas, as after fires, on account of the large number of factors involved, and also since very few detailed investigations bearing on the subject have been published. The poplars (Populus tremuloides) and the Lodge Pole pines (Pinus contorta), are the most light tolerant of our northern trees, as evinced by the fact of their becoming established generally the year following a fire. These two genera seldom over-lap one another and which species will grow in depends primarily upon the available seed supply. If seed trees of both the poplar and the Lodge pole pine are in the vicinity, the poplar reproduction will be the greater, due to readier wind dissemination of the seeds, but on dry rooky outcrops, and in undrained pockets, where conditions are unfavorable to growth of poplar, young Lodge pole pines will spring up. If many Lodge pole pines had been growing on the area before burning, the fire was not too severe, youn^pines will soon be abundant over the region, since their cones are very resistant to fire, and even require considerable heat to liberate the seeds from the cones. The poplars flourish under a number of conditions but are intolerant of shade, being rarely found on northern or northwestern slopes of even small knolls, and seedlings - 47 -do not appear beneath the shade of a mat lire poplar stand. The biroh (Betula fontinalis) appears a year or two after fires, on the north or northwestern slopes of small knolls, where it is often associated with the Mountain Maple (Acer glabrum), especially near the summits. In the case of the birch, humidity is probably the limiting factor, since the air will retain less moisture in the shady north slopes, than on the sunnier drier south slopes, and birch was often observed out in the open in damp areas. Spruce (Picea Engelmanni) seedlings generally begin to appear four or five years after the area has been burned over but in regions where the fire was less severe may appear a year or two earlier. Spruce reproduction is more abundant upon North, or northwestern slopes, than on south-ern exposure. Where spruce seedlings appear on the level areas, in nearly every instance they were on the north side of partly decaying logs, left partly burned by the fire. It is possible that they require decaying vegetative matter to grow in, since even on the northern aspects they showed a preference for decaying vegetative matter. This pre-ference might also be due to a greater water supply since decaying vegetation would have a greater waiter retaining capacity than the surrounding soil, thus lowering the rate of dessication. The seeds of the spruce are widely wind disseminated, seedlings being found as far as seventy - 48 -chains from the nearest seed trees. Balsam (Abies lasiocarpa) generally are not as ready emigrants as the spruce, coming in a year or two after them, and generally in lesser numbers. The limiting factor here was not definitely established, but it is thought to be one of water relationship. The alders (Alnus sitchensis) grow in immediately after fires, in open undrained depressions, or in very wet locations but where the light is abundant. Amongst the ground flora the first to appear are the fireweeds (Epilobium angustifolium). It is a pioneer form in the strict sense of the word, its stay being short, as it is seldom found after the over head shade of the poplar begins to appear. It is more limited in its range than some other forms, such as Cornus canadensis and Rosa nut-kana, becoming especially dense in low lying moist areas, but almost absent on dry exposed regions. Bunehberry (Cornus canadensis) is the most widely distributed of all the plants, not only is it one of the first forms to appear after burns, but its stay is per-manent being found under conditions varying from shady wet habitats to dry exposed ones. In burns up to about twenty years of age, the ground cover flora consists largely in the dry exposed places of,* Rosa nutkana, Cornus canadensis, Rubus spectabilis, Pyrola minor, Parnassia parviflora, Spiraea lucida, Linnaea borealis, - 49 -Habenaria unalaschensis, and grasses. This cover is never very dense, and upon southern exposures becomes practically extinct. In wetter areas, the ground cover is much denser, and is composed for the most part of woody shrubs, such as Lonicera involucratum, Viburnum pauciflorum, Rubus strigosus and Oornus stolonifera. In shady shallow ravines and on northern exposures conditions are intermediate between the dry open planes, and the open moist areas. Here the ground cover is composed of Oastilleja Sp., Rubus parviflorus, Lathyrus ochroleucus, Amelanchier alnifolia, Oorylus cal-ifornica, and Oornus stolonifera. Castilleja Sp. is very widely distributed, being found in scattered clumps, in very slight depressions, in even dry open planes, p A •;>: ,. In old burns of fifty years or more where poplar forms the main stand, casting a heavy shade on the ground the flora is very dense, composed of, Spiraea densiflora, Del-phinium, /^quilegia formosa, willows, and grasses. Where coniferous trees forms the overhead canopy the ground cover is not so dense, and consists of low plants suoh as Oornus canadensis, Rubus pedatus, many species of Pyrola, Disporum menzieoii, and Clintonia uniflora. - 50 -Rate of growth of Balsam and Spruce Trees* The rate of growth of a number of balsam and spruce trees were determined at the Forest Experimental Station, Aleza Lake, B. C., both in an area which had been previously logged, and in virgin timber. The object of determining the rate of growth after logging, was to ascertain the effect of logging upon the remaining trees, since with the removal of most of the larger trees a muoh greater light supply was available for the remaining trees. For this study four plots, four square ohains in area, were surveyed out in the logged over area, upon differ-ent slopes and exposures, and two plots of the same are$, in the virgin timber. On all of these plots the trees were tallied, as to species, diameter and height. The rate of growth was then determined by means of an increment borer. In the trees on the logged over section, the rate of growth was determined for a ten year period before logging, which was in 1919, and for the seven year period since logging. For the trees in the virgin timber the rate of growth was determined in ten year periods for the ladt thirty year. - 51 -TREE TAL] LY PLOT NUMBE Number Speoies D.B.H. Height Age tfaaius 7 yrs incr. lOyrs Remarks 1 Spruce 3.5 30 ft .38 .17 2 Balsam 1.65 12 ft - -3 »? 3.20 20 ft .12 .18 4 tt 9.20 53 ft .45 .22 -5 »t 7.15 50 ft .60 .55 6 Spruce 9.55 60 ft .50 .30 7 Balsam 3.00 18 ft .15 .18 8 it 5.2 30 ft .60 .40 9 rt 3.8 20 ft .32 .23 10 tl 2.4 12 ft .10 .09 Top broken 11 tt 7.65 46 ft .88 .62 12 ft 1.4 9 ft .35 .30 13 II 3.0 15 ft .42 .33 14 Spruce 6.0 30 ft .17 .21 15 Balsam 3.75 16 ft .70 .55 16 Tl 3.75 16 ft .12 .10 Centre R. 17 n 3.7 20 ft .50 .50 18 tt 1.4 9 ft - -19 II 4.0 20 ft .40 .30 20 Spruce 4.9 20 ft .45 .25 21 Balsam 1.7 7 ft - -- 52 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Number Species D.B.h. Height Radius Incr. Remarks Age 7 yrs lOyr 22 Spruce 1.5 10 ft .18 .30 23 Balsam 1.5 11 ft .20 .30 24 Spruce 9.6 65 ft .60 .55 25 Birch 2.9 25 ft .15 .30 26 Balsam 2.15 10 ft .15 .15 27 Spruce 2.8 16 ft .14 .16 28 Balsam 2.45 11 ft .20 .17 2? Spruce 3.25 18 ft .35 .25 30 Balsam 1.9 16 ft .13 .22 31 tt 1.25 7 ft .18 .17 32 rt 1.65 JL0_f1^ _ — 33 Spruce 10.0 42 ft .4 .47 Broken T nr» 34 ii 2.8 15 ft .55 .22 35 Balsam 1.6 10 ft _m 36 Spruce 2.2 14 ft .40 .40 37 n 2.5) 12 ft .36 .16 38 Balsam 2.95 18 ft .40 .17 39 Spruce 2.45 12 ft .20 .27 40 Balsam 9.4 43 ft .35 .27 41 ti 2.0 9 ft .15 .30 Injured 42 it 2.0 12 ft .18 .27 it 43 it 2.0 12 ft -1 .25 .25 - 53 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Radius Incr. Number Species D.B.H. m Height Age 7 yre 10 yr Remarks 44 Balsam 2.7 15 ft .32 .40 45 Spruce 3.7 20 ft .25 .35 46 Balsam 3.6 18 ft .28 .37 47 »t 5.1 30 ft .38 .77 48 ti 2.7 16 ft .35 .33 49 Spruce 2.3 20 ft _ 50 it 7.7 36 ft .50 .50 51 n 10.1 70 ft .32 .68 52 Balsam 4.6 25 ft .40 .65 53 ti 2.0 13 ft .20 .28 54 tt 1.8 10 ft .25 .30 55 tt 4.8 35 ft .75 .55 56 tt 2.5 14 ft .20 .30 37 it 3.15 18 ft .30 .35 58 tt 2.75 18 ft .18 .24 39 it 2.4 18 ft .23 .30 60 it 3.2 20 ft .30 .35 61 Spruce 9.10 60 ft .50 .55 62 Balsam 2.5 12 ft .27 .29 63 tt 2.6 10 ft .27 .31 64 Spruce 1.75 10 ft .30 .30 65 —V Balsam 4.30 28 ft .20 .30 - 54 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER / Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Inc. Remarks 7 yrs 10 yr 66 Balsam 2.55 17 ft .20 .20 67 Spruce 6.6 55 ft .25 .40 68 Balsam 1.65 12 ft -6? Spruce 2.40 12 ft 70 Birch 5.10 30 ft .30 .40 71 Spruce 5.75 35 ft .25 .45 72 >i 12.65 80 ft .60 .56 73 Balsam 4.04 20 'ft .40 .25 74 ii 3.9 20 ft .30 .35 75 it 1.32 9 ft _ 76 Spruce 3.0 25 ft .35 .25 77 ti 1.85 16 ft -78 u 2.85 15 ft .09 .21 7? Balsam 1.85 9 ft — — 80 tt 8.0 38 ft .10 .28 B roken top 81 Spruce 1.4 10 ft .20 .28 82 Balsam 1.9 10 ft 83 Spruce 5.9 40 ft .25 .15 84 it 2.1 15 ft .15 .10 85 n 5.15 35 ft .27 .20 86 Balsam L0.4 75 ft .10 .15 87 Spruce 11.1 6o ft .90 .47 - -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER I Radius Incr. Number Species D.B.H. Height Age 7 yrs 10 yrs Remarks 88 Balsam 15.5 88 ft .15 .25 8? It 11.3 68 ft .72 .58 90 Spruce 1.8 16 ft j. 91 i i 4.35 30 ft .05 .08 92 Balsam 12.1 81 ft .20 .30 93 tt 15.6 80 ft .10 .20 94 Spruce 2.4 13 ft .12 .23 Broken top 95 Balsam 3.6 17 ft .50 .60 96 t« 1.15 9 ft 97 n 1.25 9 ft .10 .25 98 n 2.0 10 ft 99 it 1.6 10 ft .35 .25 100 n 1.55 10 ft 101 n 1.63 9 ft — — 102 II 10.8 79 ft .30 .32 103 n 1.88 15 ft .15 .30 104 « 2.1 10 ft 105 Hemlock 1.5 13 ft .15 .17 106 Balsam 1.8 15 ft 107 n 14.9 76 ft .20 .17 108 Spruce 2.23 15 ft 109 it 4.9 35 ft .20 .17 - 56 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER / Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yrs 10yr 110 Spruce 7.1 50 ft .20 .33 111 Balsam 11.3 78 ft .15 .14 112 i t 1.3 9 ft - -113 » 1.35 9 ft _ — 114 i i 1.9 11 ft .06 .09 115 n 1.5 9 ft ' — — 116 it 1.9 10 ft 20 .15 .32 117 it 1.85 10 ft .17 .28 118 it 13.1 85 ft .15 .20 119 Spruoe 11.5 72 ft .27 .45 120 II 4.55 2^ ft .25 .23 121 Balsam 1.6 8 ft - -122 Spruce 1.5 10 ft .30 .33 123 Balsam 12.9 82 ft .10 .10 124 II 10.8 83 ft .05 .10 125 Spruce 5.95 25 ft .40 .30 126 Balsam 1.35 8 ft - -127 it 1.9 95 ft .20 .25 128 it 1.72 9 ft 129 it 2.8 14 ft .30 .30 130 Spruce 5.85 25 ft .07 .21 131 Balsam 18.3 81 ft .18 .22 - 37 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER /. Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yrs lOyrs 132 Spruoe 9.3 49 ft .65 .57 133 Balsam 1.5 9 ft — _ 134 it 2.1 10 ft .38 .32 133 ti 1.95 12 ft 19 .40 .35 136 tt 18.2 82 ft .23 .62 137 i i 4.3 20 ft .35 .25 138 it 2.4 10 ft 32 .25 .33 13? n 17.9 87 ft .25 .30 140 Spruce 1.65 11 ft .15 .25 141 tt 1.5 9 ft .20 .45 142 Balsam 2.25 14 ft .35 .30 143 Spruce 1.7 14 ft - -144 it 2.9 20 ft .42 .38 145 it 2.2 15 ft .24 .24 146 tt 1.20 8 ft 1 .40 .25 147 Balsam 1.65 10 ft mo 148 Spruce 2.9 18 ft .42 .43 149 I I 2.0 11.5 .13 .14 150 Balsam 2.35 15 ft .20 .28 151 ti 1.65 9 ft 152 it 1.5 10 ft .23 .22 153 ti 1.2 8 ft - -- 58 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER / Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yrs lOyrs 154 Balsam 1.2 7.5 • 15 .20 155 n 2.2 10 ft .45 .25 156 it 1.5 80 ft — 157 i t 2.3 14 ft .30 .22 158 it 12.3 80 ft .09 .21 15? Sprue e 1.65 12 ft — 160 Balsam 6.65 37 ft .55 .30 161 it 1.3 8 ft - -162 tt 1.6 9 ft - -163 it 1.6 9 ft - -164 Spruce 3.8 20 ft 40 .65 .30 165 Balsam 1.4 8 ft - -166 i i 1.65 10 ft _ _ 167 Spruce 3.1 15 ft .20 .20 168 Balsam 9.6 66 ft .12 .15 169 it 1.3 9 ft — _ 170 it 1.45 9 ft .35 .25 171 it 1.55 14 ft „ 172 ti 1.5 9 ft .45 .33 173 ti 2.8 20 ft .20 .30 174 ti 12.3 77 ft .20 .37 175 ti 10.9 79 ft .20 .20 Centre o^t 59 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER I Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius 7 yr Incr, lOyr Remarks 176 Balsam 1.95 9 ft .13 .17 177 Spruce 2.00 10 ft .20 .20 178 it 11.8 68 ft .35 .52 179 Balsam 1.25 7 ft .20 .30 180 n 2.5 12 ft .20 .30 181 it 1.85 12 ft .30 .40 182 Spruce 2.8 20 ft .40 .15 183 it 4.65 22 ft .15 .08 184 II 1.9 14 ft ... 185 Balsam 2.4 10 ft .40 .30 186 it 1.2 7 ft 187 it 8.7 38 ft .35 .45 Broken trip 188 •T 2.8 17 ft 26 .35 .45 189 Birch 14.5 2.65 76 ft 18 ft .15 .25 .20 190 Spruce .20 191 Balsam 1.8 12 ft - -192 Spruce 2.1 12.5 .18 .19 193 it 1.2 9 ft .40 .25 194 Balsam 1.25 8 ft - -195 it 1.55 9 ft .40 .25 196 »i 2.15 9 ft 197 Spruce 8.1 31 ft .20 .42 - 60 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER /. Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yr 10 yr 198 Balsam 4.9 23 ft .60 .30 199 Spruce 8.45 38 ft .52 .41 200 Balsam 4.3 29 ft .18 .17 201 it 17.35 93 ft .20 .25 202 Spruce 3.9 20 ft .15 .35 203 n 11.0 64 ft OO • .37 204 Balsam 6.10 35 ft .17 .18 Centre Right D. B. H. - Diameter Breast Height. Radius Inor.-Rate of growth. 7 years - Rate of growth 7 yrs. after logging. 10 years - Rate of growth 10 yrs. previous to logging. - 61 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER /f Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yrs 10 yr 1 Balsam 8.8 63 ft .1 .15 2 Spruce 7.6 46 ft .4 .15 3 Balsam 1.5 10 ft .25 .25 4 it 21.1 91 ft .30 .20 5 Spruce 6.6 29 ft .20 .30 Broken top — 6 Balsam 3.1 32 ft .25 .20 7 n 1.8 8 ft 8 n 6.9 _ .20 .10 9 Spruce 5.0 23 ft .85 : -.35 10 Balsam 2.05 8 ft .24 .25 11 Spruce 5.0 26 ft .45 .45 12 Balsam 9.9 65 ft .25 .20 13 it 2.0 12 ft .40 .65 14 II 1.4 9 ft .30 .15 15 it 3.9 16 ft .45 .50 16 Birch 4.2 30 ft .40 .40 17 Spruce 1.9 12 ft .33 .24 18 Balsam 3.3 17 ft .42 .36 19 n 4.9 25 ft 35 >75 .52 I 20 it 2.0 13 ft .60 .60 21 it 3.5 14 ft .45 .40 22 II 2.3 10 ft .50 .25 23 it 3.2 13 ft .75 .37 - 62 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER t. Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Inor. Remarks 7 yrs ie yi 24 Balsam 3.4 16 ft .60 .50 25 ti 2.0 7 ft .25 .20 Broken top 26 it 3.5 18 ft .20 .45 it it 27 it 5.2 24 ft .60 .25 28 it 1.2 7 ft - -29 Spruce 10.3 55 ft 1.0 .58 30 Birch 2.6 21 ft .25 .25 31 Balsam 7.1 40 ft .68 .33 32 n 1.3 8 ft .34 .60 33 it 1.3 9 ft .30 .26 34 it 3.4 16 ft .20 .14 Spruce 2.5 10 ft .30 .35 36 Balsam 2.1 10 ft 37 n 2.7 13 ft _ 38 j it 1.0 7 ft Damaged 39 it 1.7 6 ft OV it 40 it 1.7 8 ft 41 M 2.3 9 ft .18 .32 Diseased 42 ti 1.5 10 ft .30 .18 43 Spruce 2.3 10 ft .50 .50 44 Balsam 2.5 10 ft .26 .34 Damaged 45 ti 1.3 6 ft - -- 63 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Z. Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yr 16 yr 46 Balsam 1.1 8 ft 8 - -47 Spruce 1.8 12 ft • - -48 »t 2.6 12 ft .37 .38 4? Balsam 1.6 8 ft .33 .37 50 H 7.1 31 ft .28 .20 51 w 1.0 7 ft 52 " 2.5 10 ft .60 .40 53 i 8.? . 35 ft .15 .17 54 " 12.3 77 ft .75 .50 55 Spruce 6.0 23 ft .45 .45 56 Birch 1.6 16 ft .55 .23 57 Spruce 7.0 30 ft .10 .12 58 n 3.0 17 ft i .12 .11 5? n 2.5 16 ft .12 .11 60 tt 10.6 50 ft .42 .48 61 tt 6.6 21 ft .52 .18 62 Balsam 1.0 6 ft 63 Spruce 4.4 i ** M 64 Balsam 7.5 55 ft .56 .54 65 Birch 14.3 68 ft .25 .40 66 Spruce 2.5 15 ft .10 .07 67 »» 1.6 10 ft .23 .22 - 64 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER i Number Spec ies D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr Remarks 7 yrs lOyr 68 Balsam 1.5 8 ft _ <•» 6? it 8.0 63 ft .20 .30 70 Spruce 7.0 49 ft .33 .34 71 it 3.2 15 ft 30 .40 .20 72 ft 2.6 10 ft .48 .42 73 Mt.Ash 1.2 14 ft - -74 Balsam 2.6 9 ft .40 .20 75 it 15.0 89 ft 155 .20 .40 76 Spruce 2.3 12 ft .28 .20 77 Balsam 1.3 7 ft - -78 rt 2.7 13 ft .45 .35 7? Sprue e 1.2 12 ft - -80 Balsam 2.4 10 ft .15 .35 81 Spruce 1.5 10 ft 55 - — 82 Balsam 2.25 15 ft .30 .30 83 Spruce 8.6 42 ft .72 .41 84 Balsam 2.4 13 ft .10 .25 Damaged 85 tt 1.97 9.5 .10 .10 86 Spruce 3.2 17 ft .08 .37 Broken t op 87 it 3.9 21 ft .45 .42 88 tt 4.85 30 ft .70 .41 8? it 1.9 9 ft -- 65 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER*., Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yrs 10 yr 90 Balsam 4.5 19 ft .60 .55 91 Spruce 3.75 24 ft .58 .42 92 Balsam 7.7 30 ft 1.00 .35 93 Spruce 3.3 18 ft .45 .30 94 it 9.3 50 ft .60 .50 93 Birch 2.25 18 ft _ Injured 96 Balsam 2.5 12 ft .60 .50 97 Spruce 4.2 17 ft .45 .35 98 . Balsam 6.5 30 ft .70 .80 99 Spruce 1.2 8 ft _ 100 Balsam 3.5 15 ft .50 .25 101 Spruce 4.5 21 ft .65 .40 102 Balsam 2.67 20 ft .30 .23 103 » 1.7 8 ft .25 .25 104 »i 8.3 50 ft .70 .33 105 n 2.3 13 ft — 106 Spruce 1.8 11 ft .08 .17 Reoumbent 107 it 2.5 20 ft .20 .20 108 Balsam 1.3 9 ft _ _ 109 n 1.3 ,9 ft .30 .35 110 II 1.8 8.5 - - Broken trin 111 II 2.3 12 ft .32 .58 tt it - 66 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Z Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr Remarks 7yrs lOyr 112 Birch 13.0 60 ft .10 .70 Damaged 113 Balsam 3.4 20 ft .85 .70 114 Balsam 2.6 13 ft .50 .35 115 Spruce 1.85 13 ft .35 .40 116 Balsam 2.0 14 ft .30 .45 117 Spruce 1.6 13 ft mm 118 tt 1.9 13.5 .25 .40 119 Balsam 1.3 11 ft .23 .25 120 i» 1.5 10 ft .30 .30 121 tt 5.4 2? ft .30 .40 122 it 2.7 12 ft .15 .17 123 II 8.3 60 ft .15 .20 124 Birch 17.0 72 ft 125 Balsam 2.3 12 ft .25 .25 126 Spruce 2.45 12 ft .35 .55 127 Balsam 4.05 19 ft .50 .17 128 Spruce 4.1 16 ft .27 .33 12? ti 1.3 10 ft - - Broken •i'op 130 Mt.Ash 1.25 16 ft - -131 Balsam 6.8 40 ft .13 .22 132 II 2.2 15 ft .25 .35 133 it 4.9 30 ft .50 .60 67 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER£ Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Inor. Remarks 7 yrs lOyr 134 Balsam 1.9 12 ft .20 .20 125 ti 2.1 - - — 136 Spruce 5.1 34 ft .40 .45 127 Balsam 1.65 12 ft as* - Broken 138 Spruce 2.2 18 ft .30 .32 i op " 139 it 2.3 14 ft 18 .35 .35 140 ii 1.5 12 ft - -141 ii 1.7 13 ft - -142 Balsam 20.2 100 ft .25 .55 143 i i 7.9 44 ft .20 .15 144 Spruce 1.2 10 ft - -145 ti 2.5 18 ft .40 .50 146 II 1.9 14 ft .25 .35 147 TI 3.0 17 ft .40 .33 148 I I 2.05 10 ft .35 .15 149 Balsam 2.2 10.5 .45 .50 150 it 3.3 16 ft 38 .43 .42 151 Spruce 2.5 13 ft .30 .45 152 Balsam 3.5 20 ft .12 .78 Injured 153 ti 1.8 10 ft .30 .40 154 it 2.7 20 ft .10 .50 Injured 155 ?i 2.6 12 ft .15 .30 - 68 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Z Number Species D.B.H. Height A&e Radius Incr, Remarks 7 yrs 10yr 1 5 6 Balsam 2.0 12 ft .40 .25 157 »» 1.5 ? ft _ 158 it 2.15 11 ft .30 .35 1 5 ? H 3.? 18 ft — _ 160 It 1.65 ? ft .25 .45 161 It 1.6 ? ft .30 .30 162 It 1.6 10 ft _ • Broken top 163 Spruce 1.85 10 ft .25 .15 164 Balsam 11.? 76 ft .20 .30 Centre rot 165 it 6.8 42 ft .45 .28 166 it 8.2 42 ft .60 .40 167 Spruce 2.? 12 ft .50 .60 168 Balsam 6.0 25 ft .10 .80 16? Spruoe 5.5 27 ft .45 .60 170 Balsam 1.5 ? ft — mm 171 it 3.2 18 ft .35 .45 172 n 11.7 80 ft .15 .30 173 Spruce 3.1 17 ft .40 .15 174 Balsam 1.6 12 ft .20 .30 175 Spruce 2.1 17 ft .30 .40 176 Balsam 2.3 12 ft .20 .35 177 Spruce 7.7 42 ft .50 .55 178 ti 3.85 20 ft .15 .30 Dead top - 69 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER £ Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yrs 10 yr 179 Balsam 4.6 27 ft .50 .50 180 i t 4.0 25 ft .50 .60 181 tt 3.65 23 ft .50 .50 182 tt 7.8 32 ft .50 .40 183 Spruce 3.2 18 ft .20 .40 Damaged 184 Balsam 5.75 27 ft .75 .71 185 Spruce 1.45 10 ft OF mp 186 it 2.2 17 ft .20 .20 187 Balsam 1.2 8 ft wm mm 188 Spruce 3.5 24 ft _ 189 Balsam 2.7 18 ft .37 .30 190 »t 2.0 11 ft .30 .35 191 Spruce 2.8 15 ft 192 tt 1.5 10 ft am 193 Birch 16.5 88 ft .30 .30 194 Balsam 1.85 13 ft .18 .32 Damaged 195 tt 1.6 11 ft 196 it 2.6 14 ft .40 .45 197 it 2.35 15 ft .50 .45 198 I I 2.4 12 ft 27 .50 .50 199 ti 1.3 8 ft 200 Spruce 10.4 54 ft .50 .25 201 Balsam 1.4 8 ft 70 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr Remarks 7 yrs lOyr 1 Balsam 2.1 11 ft .35 .25 2 N 4.7 20 ft .60 .30 3 Spruce 22.4 110 ft .35 .55 4 it 2.2 10 ft .10 .15 Broken TOP 5 Balsam 1.2 7 ft - -6 Spruce 7.6 47 ft .40 .30 7 Balsam 4.6 21 ft .60 .30 8 Spruce 2.8 14 ft .25 .25 9 Birch 3.1 25 ft .25 .50 10 Balsam 2.0 11 ft .40 .35 11 Sprue e 5.7 43 ft .28 .10 12 Balsam 1.27 7.5 .20 .20 13 tt 1.1 6 ft .20 .23 14 ft 5.9 22 ft .35 .15 Heart rot 15 it 1.45 8 ft 16 tt 1.45 9 ft 17 Spruce 6.5 28 ft .35 .30 Broken top 18 Balsam 1.2 7 ft .18 .37 19 N 2.0 10 ft _ 20 tt 2.15 11 ft .15 .22 21 tt 3.1 12 ft .40 .35 22 Spruce 5.5 25 ft .27 .13 i I - 71 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 Number Speoies D.B.H. Height Ages Radius Incr. Remarks 7 prs lOyr 23 Balsam 2.0 10 ft .15 .20 24 rt 1.4 8 ft „ 25 it 1.5 15 ft 26 it 4.2 21 ft .35 .35 27 it 2.4 . 14 ft .20 .20 28 tt 3.4 15 ft .25 .25 2? it 3.8 18 ft .20 .27 30 tt 4.25 20 ft .42 .48 31 Spruce 1.6 10 ft .40 .20 32 Balsam 1.3 9 ft 33 it 10.4 .20 .40 34 Spruce 1.5 9 ft .40 .15 35 tt 1.5 10 ft 36 Birch 2.6 21 ft .20 .30 37 Spruce 2.0 11 ft .25 .20 38 it 3.3 16 ft .30 .32 3? Balsam 3.3 15 ft .40 .25 40 tt 1.5 9 ft 41 n 1.3 9.5 42 ii 3.15 15 ft .37 .33 43 it 1.85 12 ft .30 .22 44 tt 1.85 11 ft .30 .22 - 72 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. 7 yrs lOyr Remarks 45 Spruce 1.05 8 ft — — 46 r» 2.3 12 ft .30 .17 47 »t 1.2 8 ft - -48 tl 1.4 7 ft - -4? Birch 1.85 16 ft .15 .23 50 Spruce 2.5 11 ft .28 51 Balsam 12.5 — .40 .42 52 Spruce 4.8 26 ft .60 .50 5? Balsam 2.1 11.5 .30 .20 54 n 1.55 8 ft .20 .15 55 Spruce 2.3 14 ft .18 .14 56 Balsam 2.0 9 ft .35 .35 57 it 1.1 8 ft - -58 tt 1.9 10 ft .30 .30 5? Birch 1.25 12 ft - -60 Spruce 1.25 7.5 .12 .18 61 Birch 2.2 15 ft .20 .20 62 it 4.8 30 ft .20 .35 63 Balsam 1.5 8.5 - -64 it 1.5 10 ft - -65 it 7.9 59 ft .05 .10 66 II 9.7 84 ft .22 .23 67 II 2.15 12 ft .35 .40 - 73 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 Radius Incr. Number Speoies D.B.H. Height Age 7 yr 10 yr Remarks 68 Balsam 1.6 8.5 .18 .24 69 II 2.0 11 ft _ 70 Spruce 4.9 32 ft .20 .20 71 Balsam 1.4 8 ft 72 M 1.75 10 ft .25 .25 73 II 1.8 12 ft 74 II 1.5 10 ft _ 75 it 1.6 11 ft — — 76 Spruce 2.05 13 ft .20 .15 77 Balsam 2.1 13 ft .20 .55 78 tt 2.35 14 ft .25 .42 79 Spruce 4.75 25 ft .40 .35 80 Balsam 3.0 15 ft .40 .47 81 Spruce £.5 35 ft .30 .40 82 Balsam 1.45 9 ft 83 tt 1.8 9 ft .15 .13 84 Spruce 3.0 14 ft .30 .30 85 Balsam 3.8 16 ft .80 .35 86 II 2.15 11 ft .30 .30 87 Spruce 4.7 22 ft .55 .50 88 Balsam 2.6 15 ft .55 .40 89 Spruce 1.7 11 ft - -- 74 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yrs 10yr 90 Spruce 3.0 15 ft .50 .50 91 Balsam 1.4 7.5 - — 92 it 5.0 22 ft .27 .16 93 it 1.2 8 ft - -94 n 2.5 13 ft .60 .55 95 n 3.55 18 ft .50 .45 96 tt 5.6 23 ft .70 .33 97 tt 2.0 13 ft .20 .30 98 tt 2.35 12 ft .10 .25 ; 94 Spruce 1.35 9 ft .30 .12 j 100 Balsam 1.2 9 ft — 101 tt 1.2 9 ft .20 .20 102 tt 1.5 9 ft _ ; 103 tt 1.0 10 ft .35 .20 104 Spruce 11.1 60 ft 105 Balsam 1.2 9 ft 106 II 1.2 10 ft _ 107 ti .90 7 ft — _ 108 tt 1.05 9 ft — _ 109 Spruce 2.2 13 ft .35 .25 110 tt 2.4 14 ft .30 .25 111 Balsam 19.1 9? ft .30 .53 112 tt 1.3 10 ft — — - 75 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. 7 yrs 10.yr Remarks 113 Spruce 3.5 18 ft 47 .50 .20 114 it 2.8 15 ft .10 .17 115 Balsam 2.6 15 ft .40 .25 116 Spruce 6.8 43 ft .50 .35 117 it 3.7 21 ft .18 .17 118 Balsam 1.4 7 ft 11? Spruce 6.4 27 ft .10 .15 120 Balsam 1.43 9 ft _ 121 Birch 9.8 63 ft .20 .20 122 Spruce 5.6 26 ft .20 .25 123 Balsam 1.80 9 ft .20 .12 124 it 6.5 27 ft .20 .28 Centre rot 125 Srpuce 3.4 20 ft .08 .09 126 Balsam 4.4 20 ft .20 .15 127 Spruce 2.55 12 ft .12 .40 .25 Broken top 128 n 2.0 11 ft .50 129 it 1.65 10 ft .40 .35 130 it 1.75 11 ft i 131 Balsam 4.6 21 ft .55 .13 132 ii 1.25 7 ft 133 Spruce 1.33 10 ft .40 .50 134 II 1.5 12 ft - -- 76 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yrs lOyr 135 Spruce 2.4 12 ft .35 .15 136 Balsam 2.5 37 ft .18 .17 137 Spruce 2.2 11 ft .18 .37 138 Balsam 1.6 ? ft r m 13? tt 1.4 6 ft — 140 it 1.35 6 ft — 141 n 1.4 9 ft 142 Spruce 1.4 8 ft 143 Balsam 1.7 10 ft 26 .20 .22 144 Spruce 2.3 15 ft .25 .15 145 Balsam l.?5 12 ft .18 .10 148 Spruce 3.2 14 ft .18 .07 149 it 2.6 18 ft .13 .10 150 Balsam 1.5 10 ft - -151 ti 1.8 11 ft .33 .19 152 it 1.2 9 ft _ 153 it 5.05 25 ft .20 .20 154 Birch 13.? 64 ft — _ 155 Spruce 1.7 9 ft 156 II 1.7 9 ft 157 it 2.0 10 ft .45 .15 158 Balsam 2.05 12 ft .50 .50 - 77 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 3 Nufcber Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. 7 yrs 16yr Remarks 159 Spruce 1.25 8 ft — — 160 Balsam 1.20 9 ft — — 161 Spruce 2.3 13 ft .10 .15 Broken top 162 tt 3.35 17 ft .23 .12 163 Balsam 5.3 27 ft .35 .30 164 n 6.9 45 ft .07 .10 163 Birch 13.0 56 ft .10 .20 166 Balsam 11.1 82 ft .15 .15 167 Birch 9.0 70 ft .18 .22 168 Balsam 9.0 50 ft .10 .15 169 Spruce 6.1 37 ft .40 .35 170 tt 3.1 15 ft .18 .17 171 Balsam 2.9 13 ft .15 .15 172 tt 1.65 9 ft .30 .22 173 Spruce 2.4 12 ft _ _ 174 Balsam 1.3 9 ft — 175 Spruce 1.5 9 ft 176 Birch 11.8 7 ft .15 .20 177 Balsam 1.10 8 ft - -178 tt 1.85 12 ft .50 .30 179 tt 2.35 12 ft .37 .23 180 tt 2.3 12 ft .30 .30 - 78 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER jr Number Speoies D.B.H. Heighjr Age Radius Incr 7yrs lOyr Remarks 181 Balsam 2.45 9 ft .20 .20 Damaged 182 it 8.5 54 ft .08 .14 183 N 3.0 12 ft .18 .14 184 H 2.5 13 ft .10 .17 185 Sprudse 16.7 100 ft .22 .38 186 Balsam 1.8 13 ft .10 .10 187 II 2.1 11 ft .05 .15 Broken top 188 TI 1.9 11 ft - • 18? N 10.9 80 ft .13 .17 190 N 1.5 9 ft 191 II 1.65 11 ft .25 .20 192 it 1.45 10 ft .20 .20 193 tt 2.95 16 ft .25 .18 194 ti 4.45 25 ft .30 .30 195 it 1.15 7 ft _ 1?6 it 4.8 31 ft .42 .23 197 tt 1.4 9 ft 198 tt 6.55 14 ft .38 .17 199 Spruce 2.32 25 ft — I 79 -THEE TALLY PLOT NUMBER * Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yrs lOyr 1 Birch 11.9 66 ft .225 .325 2 tt 15.2 72 ft .5 .80 3 Balsam 3.4 22 ft .6 .30 4 n 1.4 12 ft 20 .15 .30 it 2.6 16 ft .45 .35 6 Spruce 1.2 8 ft j 7 Balsam 1.1 8.5 I ! - i ~ 8 1.2 8 ft ! -9 Spruce 1.4 10 ft Recumbent 10 tt 1.8 10 ft .2 .45 Broken top 11 Balsam 2.0 10 ft .15 .35 " M 12 tt 3.2 15 ft - .4 .3 13 n 3.2 18 ft 1 .4 .2 14 Spruce 2.0 12 ft 21 .45 .45 15 Balsam 2.2 14 ft .2 .35 Recumbent 16 « 1.6 11 ft .2 .1 17 tt Spruce 15.6 84 ft .2 .3 18 5.2 15 ft .55 .45 19 Birch 2.8 20 ft .3 .5 20 Spruce 3.4 15 ft 48 .3 .15 21 tt 1.2 9 ft 22 Balsam 1 1 X* 2 55 ft .2 .3 - 80 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER ^ Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr, Remarks 7 yrs lOyr 23 Spruce 4.2 27 ft .7 .35 24 ti 2.1 13 ft - -25 Balsam 16.9 91 ft .1 .2 26 Spruce 4.1 22 ft .3 .15 27 « 1.7 7 ft .3 .25 28 Balsam 1.9 9.5 .4 .3 29 Spruce 9.8 45 ft .4 .6 30 t» 2.0 11 ft 20 .7 .3 31 Balsam 4.6 25 ft .75 .3 32 Spruce 2.8 12 ft .3 .3 33 Balsam 2.7 15 ft .2 .3 Recumbent 34 Spruce 2.6 16 ft .45 .25 35 Balsam 1.7 9 ft .13 .17 36 Spruce 1.6 12 ft 37 ti 3.0 16 ft .4 .25 38 Balsam 1.4 9 ft .30 .30 39 tt 1.9 12 ft 40 ti 8.75 62 ft .25 .25 41 ii 7.9 52 ft .3 .2 42 ti 1.8 9 ft .2 .4 Broken top 43 ir 1.3 8 ft 44 it 2.0 10 ft .35 .25 - 81 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 4 Number Spec ies D.B.H. Height Age Radius 7 yrs Incr. lOyr Remarks 45 Spruce 7.3 47 ft .1 .1 Injured 46 Balsam 7.2 38 ft .35 .05 47 tt 1.7 9.5 — -48 Spruce 10.2 70 ft .35 .20 4 9 Balsam 5.85 2 5 ft .25 .23 50 tt 3.7 12 ft 33 .3 .35 51 tt 3.3 17 ft .5 .3 52 Spruce 6.8 38 ft .6 .35 53 Balsam 1.4 9 ft .3 . 2 54 tt 2.65 12 ft .5 .2 55 tt 1.8 11 ft .2 . 2 56 tt 4.75 42 ft .7 .5 57 tt 1.5 9 ft .27 .33 58 tt 2.85 16 ft .5 .4 59 Spruce 2.8 15 ft .6 .3 60 Birch 13.6 65 ft .3 .22 61 Balsam 1.7 12 ft .4 . 2 62 tt 2.65 16 ft .65 .35 63 tt 4.5 16 ft .8 .1 64 Spruce 1.6 10 ft wm 65 tt 2 . 1 14 ft 66 Balsam 2 . 2 12 ft .4 .25 - 82 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 4 Number Species D.B.H. He ight Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yrs lOyr 67 Balsam 3.45 16 ft .6 . 4 68 tt 2.85 16 ft .8 .55 69 « 2.8 16 ft .5 . 4 70 tt 2.8 16 ft .35 .30 71 tr 3.0 16 ft .25 .55 Injured 72 tt 3.3 18 ft . 4 .55 73 tt 1.75 10 ft .4 .3 74 Spruce 2.1 13 ft 12 ft 14 ft — . 4 .25 75 Balsam tt 2.4 2.6 .4 .5 76 .3 .3 77 tt 2.6 16 ft .5 .5 78 n 2.0 12 ft .5 .25 79 tt 1.4 10 ft .15 .15 80 tt 1.8 9 ft .3 .35 Damaged 81 Birch 15.2 75 ft .45 .5 82 Balsam 2.9 17 ft .3 .4 83 tt 1.2 8 ft 84 Spruce 1.8 12 ft 85 Balsam 2.5 14 ft 24 .5 .9 86 n 2.5 15 ft .4 .35 87 Spruce 1.5 12 ft 88 ft 5.3 18 ft .7 .58 89 tt 1.4 9 ft - -- 83 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Radius Incr. Number Species D.B.H. He ight Age 7 yrs 16yr Remarks 90 Spruce 2.3 12 ft . 4 .35 91 Balsam 1.5 8 ft « 0 92 Spruce 1.6 12 ft _ 93 Balsam 2.5 16 ft -95 n 2.2 12 ft . 4 .25 96 n 1.5 8 ft 97 n 11.6 63 ft .45 .59 98 Spruce 2.7 20 ft . 4 .3 99 Balsam 1.7 95 ft .3 .33 100 Biroh 1.7 16 ft .2 .3 101 Balsam 1.65 10 ft 102 Spruce 1.2 8 ft .10 .20 103 II 1.4 8.5 Recumbent 104 ii 3.2 16 ft .5 .5 105 Balsam 1.9 12 ft .25 .25 106 Birch 1.15 14 ft _ — 107 Spruce 1.35 9 ft — _ 108 n 1.4 11 ft _ _ 109 Balsam 1.2 10 ft _ _ 110 Spruce 2.05 15 ft 30 .3 .25 111 Birch 2.6 20 ft .4 .37 112 Balsam 1.2 8 ft - -- 84 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 4 Number Speoies D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7yrs 10 yr 113 Balsam 1.4 8 ft .28 .34 114 it 1.2 8 ft — 115 Spruce 6.4 34 ft 85 .35 .55 116 Birch 12.1 62 ft .2 .2 117 Balsam I 2.5 J 15 ft 27 .4 .2 118 tt 1.5 9 ft _ _ Recumbent 119 Spruce it 3.14 1.3 16 ft 41 . 4 .3 120 8 ft an. Broken top 121 ti 1.4 12 ft <a» mO 122 •i 3.9 20 ft .5 .25 123 n 4.5 24 ft .6 .45 124 Balsam 2.8 8 ft .1 .4 125 tt 2.4 1 13 ft • - -.4 .25 126 tt 3.3 17 ft . 4 .2 127 it 1.4 1 8 ft _ _ 128 tt 2.9 18 ft . 4 .3 129 Spruce 1.95 12 ft .3 .3 Recumbent 130 it 2.1 13 ft . 4 5 .26 131 Balsam 1.4 9 ft - -132 tt 1.15 8 ft .25 .25 133 II 2.65 17 ft .4 .35 134 tt 1.3 9 ft .30 .20 - 85 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER 4 Radius Incr. Number Species D.B.H. Height Age 7 yrs lOyr Remarks 135 Spruce 1.2 8 ft - — 136 Balsam 1.95 14 ft .2 .18 137 it 3.5 20 ft .5 .3 138 it 1.9 12 ft .15 .25 139 11 12.35 70 ft .2 .7 140 Spruce 2.5 20 ft .4 .2 141 Balsam 2.4 14 ft .25 .25 142 Birch 2.9 25 ft .3 .4 143 Balsam 8.7 62 ft .15 .15 144 11 1.6 8 ft _ 145 Spruce 1.38 10 ft _ 146 Balsam 2.8 68 ft .4 .35 147 11 4.05 18 ft .5 .3 148 11 2.8 15 ft .2 .15 149 Spruce 2.7 14 ft .4 .2 130 11 5.1 21 ft .65 .55 151 Balsam 6.45 24 ft .15 .40 Broken top 152 it 4.0 18 ft .45 .33 Injured 153 11 2.5 14 ft 154 •t 3.6 20 ft .4 .3 155 »i 3.2 20 ft .45 .35 156 11 6.6 33 ft .85 .19 - 86 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER * Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7 yrs lOyr 157 Balsam 1.6 9 ft - -158 it 3.75 25 ft .25 .35 159 tt 1.1 8 ft .35 .25 160 tt 1.9 10 ft - -161 it 1.25 7 ft .20 .30 162 Spruce 5.9 29 ft .3 .2 163 Balsam 1.85 ? ft .2 .4 164 it 12.1 90 ft - -165 Spruce 1.2 8 ft .20 .30 166 it 1.3 2.0 8 ft _ • 167 Balsam 14 ft .3 .3 168 n 2.7 11 ft .3 .45 169 Spruce 1.2 9 ft — — 170 it 1.7 12 ft .25 .25 171 tt 1.8 12 ft .3 .35 172 Birch 2.15 20 ft < .3 .35 173 Spruce 2.2 12 ft .4 .4 174 ti 1.2 8 ft - -175 it 2.2 12 ft .4 .4 176 Balsam 1.3 7 ft - -177 it 4.15 18 ft .6 .4 178 Spruce . 2.9 18 ft .55 .35 - 87 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Radius Incr, Number ,Species D.B.H. Height Age 7 yrs 10yr Remarks 17? Spruce 2.1 11 ft .7 1.00 180 Balsam 1.7 8 ft _ 181 Spruce 2.2 14 ft .7 .55 182 it 2.05 12 ft _ 182 Balsam 2.4 16 ft .4 .4 Injured 184 n 1.2 8 ft .12 .22 183 it 2.2 12 ft .2 .2 Top broken 186 Birch 2.9 25 ft .25 .45 187 Balsam 4.4 .5 .45 188 it 7.6 20 ft .8 .4 189 » 4.25 16 ft .55 .55 ' 190 »i 2.1 16 ft .2 .5 Recumbent 191 tt 2.2 16 ft .12 .17 192 it 7.6 29 ft 1.05 .70 192 it 1.25 8 ft 194 it 4.95 18 ft .7 .5 195 it 4.6 19 ft .6 .5 196 it 2.55 16 ft .2 .2 197 it 1.5 8 ft _ 198 Spruce 4.7 __ .6 .5 199 Balsam 9.1 55 ft .1 .25 200 Spruce 2.8 18 ft .4 .35 - 88 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Radius Incr. Remarks 7yrs lOyr 201 Spruce 1.46 9 ft .2 .3 202 Balsam 5.65 28 ft .5 .75 203 Spruce 4.6 22 ft .4 .47 204 Balsam 3.15 16 ft .2 .25 205 it 6.5 37 ft .8 .53 206 tt 1.55 9 ft .25 .25 207 tt 5.2 24 ft .6 .5 208 II 1.4 10 ft _ 209 it 2.15 11 ft .3 .35 210 Spruce 1.9 10 ft .55 .15 211 Balsam 2.1 14 ft .2 .22 212 Spruce 4.7 26 ft .5 .4 213 Balsam 3.85 20 ft .25 .40 214 II 1.2 7 ft .07 .01 215 H 2.6 12 ft .15 .27 216 it 1.3 8 ft • 217 it 2.7 14 ft .3 .25 218 ii 1.75 12 ft .25 .15 219 Spruce 1.35 10 ft 220 it 1.95 14 ft 221 Balsam 15.7 95 ft .4 .25 222 it 3.1 23 ft .35 .40 - 89 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER Radius Incr Number Species D.B.H. He ight Age 7 yrs lOyr Remarks 223 Balsam 3.25 16 ft .5 .2 224 Spruce 2.1 12 ft 225 n 2.4 13 ft .2 .3 226 Balsam 3.1 15 ft .6 .32 227 Spruce 2.7 12 ft .3 .3 Broken top 228 1.1 8 ft - -\ A ' , - • ..v \ .• \ - 92 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER * Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Bate Growth Glass Remarks 10 20 30 1 Spruce 16 96 ft .28 .32 .25 II 2 it 25.0 110 ft .25 .32 .43 I 3 II 16.0 120 ft 186 .30 .25 .32 I 4 ti 16.0 105 ft • 35 .52 III 5 Birch 8.0 50 ft .20 .15 .15 III 6 Balsam 12.0 80 ft .20 .20 .25 II Heart rot 7 Birch 16.0 70 ft .18 .17 .28 III 8 Spruce 16.0 98 ft .30 .30 .30 III 9 ti 9.0 72 ft 123 .20 .25 .20 III 10 it 16.0 120 ft .40 .45 .42 I ll Birch 15.0 68 ft .10 .13 .17 III 12 Balsam 3.0 22 ft .10 .08 .10 IV 13 Birch 1 1 . 0 ?4 ft .15 .15 .27 III 14 Spruce 11.0 75 ft 132 .35 .45 .45 II 15 tt 18.0 95 ft 175 .25 .25 .25 II 16 •i 18.0 95 ft .25 .20 .23 II 17 Balsam 9.0 85 ft 120 .15 .17 .23 II 18 Spruce 17.0^ 115 ft .25 .25 .35 I 19 tt 7.0 53 ft .10 .15 .25 III 20 it 14.0 85 ft .30 .25 .20 II 21 Balsam 7.0 54 ft .10 .20 .20 III 22 Spruce 7.0 50 ft 92 .12 .16 .15 III - 93 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER & Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Rate of Growth 31ass Remarks 10 20 30 23 Spruce 14.0 108 ft .33 .34 .38 II 24 n 10.0 70 ft .35 .45 .40 III 25 Balsam 12.0 80 ft .30 .38 .37 II 26 it 12.0 90 ft .15 .17 .26 II 27 it 11.0 75 ft .12 .23 .30 III 28 »t 8.0 54 ft .0? .25 III 29 »t 12.0 65 ft .10 .1? .17 30 Spruce 17.0 100 ft 142 .45 .35 .30 I 31 Birch 14.0 75 ft _ II 32 Spruce 1 1 . 0 85 ft .33 .42 .45 II 33 t» 23.0 126 ft .70 .45 .95 I 34 ti 12.0 93 ft 110 .25 .30 .40 II 35 it 16.0 100 ft .30 .30 .35 I 36 Balsam 5.0 30 ft - - - IV Heart rot 37 Spruce 16.0 95 ft .50 .60 .70 II 38 tt 12.0 85 ft .30 .30 .33 II 39 ti 14.0 95 ft .40 .45 .60 I I 40 Balsam 10.0 80 ft 41 n 9.0 73 ft .15 .23 .27 III 42 it 7.0 60 ft .20 .30 .25 III 43 tt 10.0 70 ft .10 .13 .12 II 44 Spruce 17.0 100 ft .30 .30 .35 II - 94 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER S Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Rate Growth 31ass Remafcks 10 2 0 30 45 Spruce 10.0 66 ft 124 .40 .32 .33 I I I 46 ft 16.0 120 ft .33 .32 .52 I 47 Balsam 12.0 91 ft .10 .13 .17 I I Heart tot 48 tt 12.0 91 ft .12 .15 .16 I I 49 Spruce 17.2 103 ft .40 .40 .50 I 50 Balsam 3.8 25 ft .13 .17 .16 I I I 51 it 14.4 75 ft .13 .14 .18 .11 52 n 8.1 75 ft .15 .17 .18 I I I 53 Spruce 14.7 110 ft 112 .58 .42 .60 I I 54 Balsam 12.2 78 ft .30 .30 .35 I I 55 tt 9.0 80 ft .25 .35 .28 I I 56 tt 9.3 95 ft 118 .13 .22 .23 I I 57 Spruce 24.3 112 ft .15 .15 .20 I 58 Balsam 10.5 77 ft .35 .35 .30 I I I 59 Spruce 16.1 105 ft 110 .40 .47 .68 I I 60 « 15.7 105 ft .23 .22 .35 I I 61 Balsam 7.0 60 ft - - - -62 Spruce 12.5 95 ft 105 .30 .30 .35 I l l 63 Hemlock 3.0 12 ft IV 64 Spruce 12.0 80 ft 100 .50 .45 .43 I I 65 n 22.0 112 ft .15 .25 .20 I 66 Balsam 14.0 92 ft .50 .50 . 40 I I - 95 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER * Number Species D.B.H. Height Rate of Growth Class Remarks Age 10 20 30 67 Birch 12.0 80 ft .10 .12 .18 I I I 68 Balsam 4.0 38 ft 68 .10 .13 .27 IV 69 ntt 12.1 87 ft .25 .25 .40 I I 70 10.1 78 ft .23 .22 .35 I I 71 Spruce 14.1 105 ft 120 .35 .60 .53 I 72 ft 3.1 24 ft 65 .30 .30 . 2 0 IV 73 Balsam 12.4 85 ft .35 .43 .42 I I 74 tt 9.8 95 ft .35 .35 .25 I I 75 Spruce 1 2 . 6 8 6 ft 1 0 2 .45 .40 .35 I I I 76 Balsam 11.5 78 ft . 2 8 .27 k25 I I 77 tt 1 0 . 0 8 0 ft .27 .25 . 2 8 I I 78 tt 1 0 . 5 75 ft .23 . 2 2 .25 I I 79 tt 9.1 80 ft 1 2 0 . 2 8 .25 .25 I I 8o Birch 7.6 2 0 ft . 40 .35 .25 I I 81 Spruce 3.0 35 ft _ am IV 82 Balsam 9.2 75 ft . 2 0 .15 .20 I I 83 Birch 7.7 69 ft .25 .25 .17 I I I 84 Balsam 11.0 85 ft 89 .35 .50 .35 I I - 96 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER * Rate of Growth Number Species D.B.H. Height Age 10 20 30 Class Remarks 1 Balsam 10.8 78 ft 135 .18 .15 .20 II 2 Birch 9.8 30 ft .15 .10 .20 III Top broken 3 Balsam 15.2 80 ft .15 .18 .17 II 4 Hemlock 4.0 20 ft 54 - - - IV 5 Balsam 4.5 22 ft 54 .37 .33 .305 IV 6 it 10.5 74 ft .13 .15 .14 II Heart rot 7 tt 9.2 73 ft .10 .10 .15 III Heart rot 8 n 12.2 76 ft .13 .15 .17 I 9 Spruce 6.5 45 ft 90 .48 .40 .39 III 10 Balsam 14.0 79 ft .12 .21 .27 I 11 i» 4.0 20 ft .25 .25 .25 III 12 Spruce 4.0 25 ft 52 .45 .55 .35 III 13 Balsam 9.2 76 ft 118 .17 .18 .15 II 14 Spruce 4.0 32 ft .35 .35 .20 IV 15 tt 9.2 30 ft .30 .50 .60 III 16 Balsam 10.8 78 ft .10 .12 .13 II 17 Spruce 16.0 94 ft .45 .25 .53 I 18 Balsam 11.9 79 ft .12 .13 .15 II 19 Spruce 6.0 37 ft .25 .28 .19 III 20 Balsam 10.2 76 ft .33 .37 .30 I I 21 tt 17.5 89 ft .65 .60 .55 I 22 ti 10.5 78 ft .28 .35 .42 II 23 , tt 10.6 76 ft .28 .32 .20 II - 97 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER $ Number Species D.B.H. Height Age Rate of Growth 31ass Remarks 10 20 30 24 Balsam 11.6 73 ft .13. .22 .25 II 25 Douglas/; 17.8 85 ft .45 .53 .52 I 26 Birch 10.6 66 ft .15 .15 .20 III 27 Spruce 19.5 98 ft .10 .10 .10 I 28 Balsam 10.4 79 ft .12 .16 .14 II 2? Spruce 8.0 50 ft 139 .40 .45 .35 III 30 Balsam 19.4 92 ft _ 31 tt 10.3 79 ft .15 .20 .20 II 32 tt 9.4 67 ft .10 .10 .13 II Heart rnt 33 t» 4.0 20 ft .07 .0 9 JO 9 IV 34 Spruce 9.8 86 ft 125 .20 .30 .40 II 35 ti 15.0 89 ft 112 .62 .63 .62 I 36 Birch 10.3 60 ft .08 .12 i.18 II Heart rot 37 Spruce 9.1 73 ft 98 .40 .45 .35 II 38 Balsam 13.3 75 ft .20 .25 .20 II 39 Spruce 17.6 90 ft .51 .25 .35 II 40 Hemlock 5.0 20 ft .50 .45 .45 IV 41 Balsam 5.7 35 ft .30 .20 .23 IV 42 Hem^lock 3.7 25 ft 30 .50 .55 .50 IV 43 Balsam 12.8 85 ft .15 .18 .17 II 44 Spruce 6.0 33 ft .13 .0? .18 IV 45 «t 13.3 100 ft .38 .22 .30 I - 98 -THEE TALLY PLOT NUMBER « Number Spaoies D.B.H. Height Age Rate of Growth 31ass Remarks 10 20 30 46 Spruce 9.7 89 ft .22 .18 .20 II 47 tt 13.0 82 ft 114 .40 .40 .50 II 48 t» 5.1 22 ft .20 .20 .10 IV 4? II 18.5 100 ft .50 .65 .80 I 50 II 11.5 90 ft .50 .50 .70 II 51 Balsam 11.3 70 ft .20 .15 .20 II 52 II 8.1 79 ft .15 .10 .15 III Heart rot 53 Spruce 13.8 88 ft .25 .20 .20 II 54 n 21.0 95 ft .12 .12 .20 I 55 Balsam 14.0 92 ft 140 .35 .35 .15 II 56 Spruce 4.8 47 ft .10 .12 .16 VI 57 it 16.5 89 ft 142 .35 .25 .50 I 58 N 10.9 83 ft .35 .43 .57 III 59 Balsam 13.8 90 ft .20 .25 .23 II 6o it 8.6 64 ft .20 .27 .33 III 61 II 10.0 96 ft 146 .10 .20 .15 II 62 it 7.0 56 ft .15 .35 .17 II 63 II 5.5 45 ft .10 .10 .13 IV 64 Spruce 16.7 91 ft .18 .17 .30 I 65 ii 17.0 98 ft .35 .30 .30 I 66 Balsam 8.5 63 ft .15 .20 .20 III Heart rot 67 Spruce 27.1 105 ft .27 .43 .50 I - 99 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER « Number Speoies D.B.H. He ight Age Growl ;h Rate Dlass Remarks 10 20 30 68 Spruce 16.7 90 ft .15 .15 .25 II 6? Balsam 7.1 58 ft 136 .15 .17 .11 III 70 i» 14.4 92 ft .38 .37 .33 II 71 tt 9.8 71 ft .12 .0 8 .0 8 III 72 tt 8.5 70 ft .15 .15 .20 II 73 tt 11.0 72 ft .15 .13 .18 II 74 tt 8.2 66 ft .12 .13 .15 II 75 tt 9.2 83 ft .25 .20 .20 II 76 tt 8.7 87 ft .15 .13 .20 II 77 tt 5.5 50 ft .13 .17 .15 IV 78 Birch 11.0 75 ft .25 .20 .20 III 7? Balsam 8.2 75 ft .20 .15 .10 II 80 Spruce 12.3 92 ft .50 .50 .50 II 81 tt 16.3 108 ft .15 .32 .48 I 82 Balsam 8.0 65 ft .50 .45 .45 III 83 ti 11.6 83 ft .12 .16 .12 II 84 II 8.0 71 ft .15 .15 .20 III Nearly-dead 85 Spruce 19.8 98 ft .20 .20 .30 I 86 Balsam 9.1 80 ft - - - - Heart rot 87 it 15.1 82 ft 150 .20 .22 .30 I 88 n 4.0 20 ft 63 .25 .25 .28 III 89 Birch 10.8 58 ft .09 .21 .10 II - 100 -TREE TALLY PLOT NUMBER * Number Speoies ^D.B.H. Height Age Rate of Growth Glass Remarks 10 20 30 90 Spruoe 16.2 88 ft • .30 .50 .45 I 91 Balsam 10.6 80 ft H • .20 .15 II 92 Spruce 15.4 100 ft 132 .45 .50 .45 I - 102 -Summary of Hate of Growth Studies Logged Area. Spruce Balsam Diameter in inches 7yr period before logging 7yr period after logging Diameter 7yr period before .logging 7yr period after logging 2 .189 .339 2 .178 .258 4 .228 .339 4 .230 .358 6 .254 .413 6 .285 .506 8 .252 .480 8 .253 .503 10 .355 .518 10 .171 .220 12 .378 .478 12 .197 .156 14 .406 . .600 14 .129 .225 16 16 .224 .162 18 .266 .270 18 .166 .227 20 20 .208 Virgin Timber Spruce Balsam Diameter Average rater of growth for 10 yrs Diameter Average rate of growth for 10 yrs 4 .373 4 .178 6 .169 6 .210 8 .283 8 .203 10 .330 10 .199 12 .439 12 .219 - 103 -Virgin limber Cont»cL Spruoe Balsam Diameter Average rate of growth for 10 yrs Diameter Average rate of growth for 10 yrs 14 • VH -O CD 14 .246 16 .381 • 16 .255 18 .365 18 .600 20 .166 20 22 .770 22 24 .700 26 .250 28 .400 | - 104 -CONCLUSIONS Logging has a marked effect on the rate of growth of both balsams and spruoes. In practically every tree studied there was a decided inorease in the rate of growth since logging. In the balsams the greatest increase in growth was in trees of six to eight inches in diameter, and in the spruce trees the maximum increase was in trees of fourteen inches in diameter. In the virgin timber the spruce trees appear to have two optimal periods of growth, the first in trees of twelve inches in diameter, the second in older trees of twenty four inches. In balsams the optimum rate of growth is in trees of eighteen inches diameter. The spruce trees grow much more rapidly than do the balsam trees, especially in trees up to eighteen inches in diameter. - 105 -Factors Governing Balsam and Spruoe Reproduction. In green virgin timber balsam reproduces much more rapidly than does spruce, the reason for this at the present time is not definitely known, but from general observations it appears as if the cause might be in the nature of the sub-strata. Spruce seedlings apparantly require a sub-strata rich in decaying vegetative matter especially decaying Douglas Fir wood to grow on, as there was always good spruce re-production around decaying Douglas Fir stumps and upon the partly decayed fallen trees. In most instances by digging around the roots of young spruce seedlings the soil was found to be composed largely of decaying wood. Spruce seedlings are more tolerant to shade than the balsams, spruce reproduction being more abundant on slightly northern exposures and when growing on southern slopes are generally on the shady side of clumps of other vegetation; balsams on the other hand prefer medium shade or even bright light. It does not appear as if the water factor was the limiting factor between balsam or spruoe reproduction. - 106 -Root System of Young Balsam and Spruoe Trees. There is a decided difference between the root systems of young spruce and balsam trees. Balsams usually send their roots straight down through the top layer of vegetative humus then down through the hard clay sub-strata. Spruce seedlings however when they come in contact with the clay soil, turn at right angles, and spread out over the surface of the clay. For this reason they are more liable to suffer a water shortage than are the balsams. In decaying vegetative matter such as decaying logs the spruce roots penetrate through directly, sending many rootlets into the decayed wood; the balsams however skirt the outside of the decaying wood, sending out few rootlets until the tap root has reached mineral soil. - 107 -SUMMARY. 1. The work was undertaken with the object of deter-mining the factors governing balsam and spruce reproduction and rate of growth, and the time required for plants to become established after forest fires. 2. The method used in the work, was the transect and the plot method. On the transepts all the tree reproduction was tallied according to species and height, and a record made of the general ground flora and topography. On the plots the tree reproduction was tallied as on the strips, also the age of many of the young trees determined, and a count made of all the plants on a small representative area of the plot. 3* The year following a fire either poplars or Lodge pole pine began to grow in, which genera establishing it-self depending upon seed supply primarily. 4. Spruce seedlings generally began to make their appearanoe three to four years later, growing on the most part on Northern exposures, or on the north side of any fallen logs. They are especially abundant in decaying wood. - 108 -5* Balsams come in about the same time as the spruoe but are more tolerant to light, growing more in the open, 6. Of the ground flora, Epilobium angustifolium, Castilleja Epp., and Cornus canadensis are the first plants to appear in dry open areas, after fires, but in moist areas, many shrubs appear, such as Lonicera involuoratum, Viburnum pauciflorura and Cornus stolonifera. In dry areas these plants are later succeeded by Spiraea lucida, Hubus parviflorus, Rubus nutkana, Rubus Speotabilis, Linnaea borealis and Pyrola minor. In moist area, after the poplar shade becomes fairly dense Spiraea densiflora, Dejphiura Spp., Lathyrous ochroleucus, and grass become abundant. 7. In virgin timber spruoe grows much more rapidly than does balsam. 8. After logging there was always an increase in the rate of growth of the remaining trees, due probably to increased light supply. 9. The root system of the spruoe seedlings is very different to that of the balsams. The spruce roots gener-ally spread out over the surface of the clay sub-soil, whilst, the balsam roots generally penetrate the clay. - 10? -Explanation of Figures. Fig. 1. Vegetation composed of willows, poplars, fire weed, and golden rod, on Plot No. 5. Fig. 2. View looking over the Fraser River above Willow River, B.O., showing poplar reproduction after fire. At the River,s edge most of the trees are cottonwoods. Fig. 3. Very similar to Fig, 2 showing a very recent burn in the foreground. Fig. 4. Growth of cottonwoods, on the bank of the Fraser River. Fig. 5. Black Spruce and Lodge Pole pines growing at the edge of a small lake. Fig. 6. A olose up view of Fig. 6. Fig. 7. A dense stand of Lodge Pole pines of about 100 years old. Fig. 8 and 9. Reproduction of young spruce trees upon a decaying Douglas Fir log. Fig. 10. Typical root system of a balsam seedling growing upon clay soil. F^ .g. 11. Root system of spruce seedling in clay soil. The roots are spread out over the surface of the clay. - 110 -Fig. 12. Root system of a four year old spruce seedling growing in decaying wood. Fig. 13. Root system of a three year old balsam tree, growing under the same conditions as the spruce of Fig. 12. Note how the root grows around the area of deoaying wood. F ' g 6. T^LATEK F ' j j 9. 7=1 ATE W /Oe eay m<j Wood. a t» W a F'S 

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