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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Sarawak National Party and the interpretations of its nationalism Kadang, Paul Anak Dinggat 1979

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THE  SARAWAK  NATIONAL OF  PARTY  A N DT H E INTERPRETATIONS  I T S NATIONALISM  by PAUL|KADANG B.A.  (Hons.),  A THESIS THE  anak  University  DINGGAT of Victoria, 1 9 7 4  SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L L M E N T REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE (Department o f P o l i t i c a l  STUDIES Science)  We  conforming  accept to  THE  this  thesis  the required  UNIVERSITY  as  standard  OF B R I T I S H  May,  COLUMBIA  1 9 7 9  P a u l Kadang anak D i n g g a t , 1 9 7 9  OF  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s  thesis in partial  an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the L i b r a r y I  further  for  shall  the U n i v e r s i t y  make i t  agree that  freely  of  extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d  this  written  thesis for  It  f i n a n c i a l gain shall  ^  r  P o l i t i c a l Science  Department of The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  June 18, 1979  Columbia  the requirements I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  this  that  not  copying or  for  that  study. thesis  by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t  i s understood  permission.  of  B r i t i s h Columbia,  available for  permission for  by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  fulfilment  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ABSTRACT This political  study  focusses  organization  sought  Sarawak and M a l a y s i a . ties and  of nationalism expansion.  historical As  which  a political I t s area  is  state.  three  federal helped  government  i tinitially  Iban e t h n i c ethnic  sub-stratum  group  a result  o f an i n t r a - a l l i a n c e  government.  to  recruit  of  territorial  fall  The s w i t c h  The advocacy  a multi-racial nationalism  crisis  enabled  SNAP  which  continued  of t e r r i t o r i a l  until This  nationalism  invitation,  t o r e - e m p h a s i s e Dayak  from  nationalism.  multi-racial community,  the strategic came  SNAP's o u s t e r enabled  i t s support.  1974 a t w h i c h  nationalism  a  nationalism  ended w i t h  f o l l o w i n g and i n c r e a s e  which  came f r o m t h e  t o form  to t e r r i t o r i a l  of t e r r i t o r i a l  i n t o power b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t . of advocates  the Dayaks  and t h e  determine  t h e Dayak  SNAP's l e a d e r s , who  Malaysia.  at different  SNAP was o f f i c i a l l y  intended  which  of  conditions  s t i m u l i which helped  o f i t s members f r o m  i n Sarawak.  i n the state.  competitive  t o Sarawak,  o f SNAP's n a t i o n a l i s m  Although  clearly  three  Sarawak's p l u r a l i t y ,  broad underlying  were immediate  r e c r u i t e d most group  over  i s t h e f e d e r a l government  competition,  three  of nationalism.  largest ethnic  vited  provided  In a d d i t i o n , there  party,  the  —  inside  of s u r v i v a l  i n an e l e c t o r a l l y  i s largely limited  the state  electoral  f o r the purpose  o f SNAP a r e e x a m i n e d  SNAP f u n c t i o n s  Outside  conditions  f r o m 1961 t o 1978.  of operations  factors —  SNAP's c h o i c e  as  party  (SNAP) a s t h e  t h e t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s two v a r i e -  and r i s e  spanned  Party  changing  u s a g e b y SNAP  shape t h e p a r t i c u l a r emphasis  times.  the  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  and t h e i r  situation.  These  t o cope w i t h  The a c t i v i t i e s  periods  a plural  on t h e Sarawak N a t i o n a l  time  coupled  the party's  about from  the party  The s a l i e n c e SNAP was i n with  t h e down-  leadership,  i i i  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  Chapter I.  II.  Page INTRODUCTION  DEMOGRAPHIC  1  SETTING  ..  ..  ,.  21  Chinese Malays Dayaks Occupation  III.  FORMATION OF SNAP  31  F o r m a t i o n o f SUPP a n d PANAS Dayak R e a c t i o n s T h e F o u n d e r s o f SNAP Party Objectives  IV.  MALAYSIA  55  Formation of Malaysia SNAP's R e a c t i o n t o M a l a y s i a Acceptance Alliance Building Cabinet Formation  V.  ISSUES AND DAYAK INTERESTS  ..  96  Borneonisation Language  VI.  SARAWAK NATIONALISM:  MULTI-RACIALISM  Land Bumiputera Withdrawal  from  t h e Sarawak  Sarawak f o r Sarawakians  Alliance  118  IV  Chapter VII.  Page RE-EMERGENCE OF ETHNIC NATIONALISM D e b a c l e o f 1970 State P o l i t i c s Election Manifesto, Barisan Nasional Ethnic Nationalism  VIII.  162  1974  BASES OF SUPPORT  207  B a s e s o f S u p p o r t , 1961-1965 E l e c t o r a l P e r f o r m a n c e , 1963 Expansion of Party Organisation SNAP's L e a d e r s h i p E l e c t o r a l P e r f o r m a n c e , 1970 a n d 19 74 The 1978 P a r l i a m e n t a r y E l e c t i o n s  IX.  CONCLUSION  BIBLIOGRAPHY  254  267  L I S T OF  TABLES  Malaysian Population S t a t i s t i c s : Estimated P o p u l a t i o n by R e g i o n s a n d G r o u p s , December, 1967  P r o p o r t i o n o f Melanaus and Dayaks A r e a s (by p e r c e n t a g e ) , 1 9 6 9  in  Selected  SNAP's B r a n c h e s E s t a b l i s h e d f r o m 1961 by D i v i s i o n s a n d E t h n i c A r e a s ..  D i s t r i c t C o u n c i l l o r s , i n 1963, A c c o r d i n g to Party Allegiance  Alignment  o f Dayak C o u n c i l l o r s  SNAP's B r a n c h e s by  Divisions  Racial 1965  Established  and E t h n i c  1965  Classified  by P a r t i e s  from  Areas  to  1966  to  ..  1968  ..  B r e a k d o w n o f SNAP's Members  from  t o 1978  Racial  B r e a k d o w n o f SNAP's N a t i o n a l  f r o m 1972  Council  t o 1978  S a r a w a k G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n s , 19 70; Elected a n d P a r l i a m e n t a r y C a n d i d a t e s i n SNAP b y E t h n i c Groupings  State  Sarawak G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n s ,  1970;  State  Representatives  and E t h n i c  by P a r t i e s  General  Groupings  Tables  11  Page  Coefficient  of Correlation  Composition  o f S t a t e C o n s t i t u e n c i e s , Showing  Votes  12  13  14  15  16  f o r Each  Political  Party:  1970  ..  235  S a r a w a k G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n s , 1979 a n d 1974; E t h n i c B r e a k d o w n o f SNAP's C a n d i d a t e s  237  S a r a w a k S t a t e E l e c t i o n s , 1974; a n d Members E l e c t e d by P a r t i e s  238  Votes  Cast  Coefficient of Correlation of Ethnic C o m p o s i t i o n o f S t a t e C o n s t i t u e n c i e s , Showing V o t e s C a s t f o r E a c h P o l i t i c a l P a r t y : 19 74 ..  Percentage o f E t h n i c Composition o f Each C o n s t i t u e n c y and Percentage o f Votes Cast i n t h e 1974 E l e c t i o n s f o r E a c h C o n s t i t u e n c y  Sarawak P a r l i a m e n t a r y Cast  17  Cast  of Ethnic  a n d Members  19 78:  ..  i n Nine  Elections,  243  Votes  E l e c t e d by P a r t i e s  Sarawak P a r l i a m e n t a r y SNAP's V o t e s  Elections,  239  247  1974 a n d 1 9 7 8 ;  Selected Constituencies  ..  248  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  This and of  paper would n o t have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t  assistance my  thesis  advice  that  received  committee.  of  guidance  R. S. M i l n e p r o v i d e d  completion A  Dr. Paul  of this  i n typing  Lambertson  f o r p o i n t i n g o u t my  their  topic.  i s due t o s e v e r a l  the various  D r . J o h n Wood of  research.  l e dto the  i n Canada.  inconsistencies.  My  f r i e n d s who w e n t o u t  To N a n c y N a s s e r  drafts of this  also  and Grace  paper, I also  has s u s t a i n e d  thanks  o f t h e S a r a w a k Muse um a n d t h a t  Societies,  encouragement and  c r i t i c i s m which  t o J o h n a n d D a l e Y o u n g whose h e l p  staff  i s t o t h e members  the d i f f e r e n t stages  useful  me a s s i s t a n c e .  t h e i r help  me  Cross f o r  a n d t o Dr. C.L. owe a  great  throughout the  to the interviewees,  the  of the O f f i c e of the Registrar of  K u c h i n g , who w e r e g e n e r o u s e n o u g h t o g i v e  me many h o u r s o f  time. Finally,  and  Tennant p r o v i d e d  during  s p e c i a l note o f thanks  c o u r s e o f my s t u d y  debt  thesis.  t h e i r way t o g i v e  deal  My g r e a t e s t  l e d to the s e l e c t i o n o f the research  gave t h e much-needed Professor  from others.  t h e encouragement  patience  this  t o Wendy K a d a n g w i t h o u t w h o s e s u p p o r t , t h e s i s would n o t have been  completed.  understanding,  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  T h i s study i s concerned w i t h plural society. National Party stage, are into  I n concrete  terms, the " p a r t y " r e f e r s t o the Sarawak  (SNAP) and " s o c i e t y " means Sarawak, and, a t a l a t e r  Malaysia  culturally cohesive  the n a t i o n a l i s m o f a p a r t y w i t h i n a  as w e l l .  The s o c i e t i e s a r e p l u r a l i n the sense t h a t they  d i v e r s e and t h a t t h e i r " c u l t u r a l s e c t i o n s a r e o r g a n i s e d p o l i t i c a l sections.""'"  What i s a p a r t y ?  The d e f i n i t i o n which has been adopted here i s  one used by Ranney and K e n d a l l , who d e f i n e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s as "autonomous o r g a n i s e d  groups t h a t make nominations and c o n t e s t e l e c t i o n s  i n the hope o f e v e n t u a l l y g a i n i n g and e x e r c i s i n g c o n t r o l o f the 2 personnel  and p o l i c i e s o f government."  there i s l i t t l e and  question  According  to t h i s  t h a t SNAP i s a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y :  criterion  i t was founded  r e g i s t e r e d as an autonomous body t h a t i s a s e l f - g o v e r n i n g and s e l f -  regulating unit;  i t has i t s own c o n s t i t u t i o n and o f f i c e r s ;  and i t l i s t s  as one o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s the goal o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e s p o n s i b l e and energetic  government f o r Sarawak.  In the next few pages three s e t s o f f a c t o r s n e c e s s a r y f o r the a n a l y s i s o f SNAP's own n a t i o n a l i s m a r e i n t r o d u c e d ;  first,  the concept  o f n a t i o n a l i s m i t s e l f , p a r t i c u l a r l y what i t r e f e r s to and what i t means to a p a r t y ;  second, the p o l i t i c s o f a p l u r a l s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y the  2  assumptions  which  can be  made a b o u t  prevailing within  the s t a t e which  But  history  first  a brief  it;  help  and  third,  the  conditions  to determine p a r t y  o f Sarawak and  activities.  Malaysia. 3  Until in  the  1963  territory  a d v e n t u r e r , who region local  at the  S a r a w a k was was  a British  established  arrived t i m e was  n o m i n a l l y under James B r o o k e  by n e i g h b o u r i n g D a y a k t r i b e s .  T h i s was  how  d o m i n i o n by expanded torial to  the  As  a  territory  S a r a w a k came i n t o a n n e x a t i o n and  an  James B r o o k e , K u c h i n g and  the S u l t a n a t e to a s s i s t  reward  purchases.  the s u r r o u n d i n g  in quelling  a  The time  end  h e was  made  Division.  expanded  his  S i r Charles  o f Sarawak's  the F i f t h  The  rebellion  the F i r s t  James B r o o k e  His successor,  at which  English  for his services  Rajah  presence  of Brunei.  o f w h a t i s known as  being.  e x p a n s i o n came i n 1 9 1 7 ,  Brooke, terri-  D i v i s i o n was  added  Sarawak. C h a r l e s was  s u c c e e d e d by  centenary y e a r o f Brooke  e n a c t e d a new  as w e l l  the  legislature  had  the  Japanese  to B r i t a i n .  particularly  S i r Charles he  abrogated h i s absolute  established  as a l e g i s l a t u r e ,  elected  and  Vyner Brooke.  to which  a quasi-cabinet  named  Realizing To  this  from the Malay  that  the  action,  community.  In  powers  and  called  the  i t a p p o i n t e d members.  t a s k was t h e r e was  1941,  the C o u n c i l N e g r i ,  o c c u p a t i o n o f 1 9 4 2 - 1 9 4 5 t h e R a j a h was  reconstruction.  Sarawak  rule,  c o n s t i t u t i o n which  Supreme C o u n c i l  of  by  Sarawak t o i t s p r e s e n t b o r d e r s .  Sir the  given  British  i n K u c h i n g i n 1839.  governor persuaded  R a j a h a n d was  first  crown c o l o n y .  After  faced w i t h the  t o o immense, h e some l o c a l  which  problem  ceded  opposition,  3  The  colonial  e r a ended  t o g e t h e r w i t h N o r t h Borneo  f o r S a r a w a k i n 1963 when i t was  (renamed  new n a t i o n was named M a l a y s i a .  Sabah),  Singapore  joined  S i n g a p o r e , and Malaya.  The  separated from M a l a y s i a i n  1965. Sarawak embraces t h r e e m a j o r Dayaks.  The f i r s t  political  1960,  (SUPP),  SUPP was a m u l t i - r a c i a l  Most n a t i v e they  (Malay formed  by  and Dayak) l e a d e r s  of Ibans,  Party  the largest  Ra'ayat  Jati  Sarawak  limited  Ibans  i n July,  i t s membership 1972.  sub-stratum  Chinese  Sarawak's t h i r d  political  in April,  1961  a t t h e end o f 1961.  to natives.  p a r t y t o be formed  Like  The f o u r t h p a r t y ,  t o D a y a k s , was f o r m e d  (SCA).  control  o f t h e Dayak group.  parties.  limited  by t h e C h i n e s e .  The e f f e c t i v e  (BARJASA) was f o r m e d  The l a s t  Sarawak C h i n e s e A s s o c i a t i o n  and  SUPP a n d , i n A p r i l ,  ( S N A P ) , was f o u n d e d  BARJASA's m e m b e r s h i p was o f f i c i a l l y which  (PANAS).  leaders.  SUPP, PANAS, a n d SNAP w e r e m u l t i r a c i a l Barisan  Malay,  i n e a r l y 1959.  d i d not join  P a r t y N e g a r a Sarawak  t h e Sarawak N a t i o n a l  a group  was f o u n d e d  p a r t y , i t was d o m i n a t e d  o f PANAS was i n t h e h a n d s o f M a l a y party,  groups—Chinese,  p a r t y t o be o r g a n i s e d i n t h e s t a t e , t h e  Sarawak U n i t e d P e o p l e ' s P a r t y Although  ethnic  Party  by another  Pesaka, group o f  b e f o r e 1963 was t h e  I t s a p p e a l was m a i n l y  to the  of Sibu. To  prepare  were i n s t i t u t e d extended residents  f o rthe transition  by t h e c o l o n i a l  to a l l persons of. S a r a w a k .  over  government.  First,  several  the franchise  measures was  t h e a g e o f t w e n t y - o n e who w e r e c i t i z e n s o r  Secondly,  l e g i s l a t u r e ) were i n c r e a s e d  to self-government,  the seats of the Council Negri (the  to thirty-six  elected  and t h r e e  nominated  4  members.  L a s t l y , Sarawak's  through a  tier  followed  by  system—at  five  Council Negri. councillors cillors  1963  their  the  Negri.  DACs.  Advisory voters  respective  These i n t u r n  D i r e c t e l e c t i o n s to Sarawak's  w h i c h was  first  composed o f  election  base were  the  was  Councils  of  "indirect"  (DAC), and  Above  this  local  to  s p e c i f i e d number c o u n c i l were  government b e i n g  formed by  SNAP, BARJASA, P e s a k a ,  and  the  coun-  their to  the  completed  the  the  district  level,  representatives a  Councils,  finally  Sarawak e l e c t e d o n l y  the  sent  t o be  twenty-four D i s t r i c t  councils.  s e l e c t e d among t h e m s e l v e s  respective  1963,  to  the  Divisional In  first  Council  in  June  Sarawak A l l i a n c e  SCA.  4 Malaya, Peninsular For  which  Malaysia,  instance,  coming o f were  the  an  the  presence  after  together  they  Islamic  they  civilisation The  rule."  and  by  the  power p e n e t r a t e d  These  the  D u t c h , who  not  Straits  were i n to a s s e r t  the  administrators  but To  of  governed  British mere  the region turn their other  and  Gradually  states  British  with  rule."  the  Sarawak.  Two  to Malaya  Settlements.  inland—to  term " i n d i r e c t  i n the  i n P e n a n g i n 1786.  s t a t e s were p r o v i d e d  the  t o be  E n g l i s h began  Sembilan—where  were t e c h n i c a l l y  s u l t a n s , hence  the  and  h i s t o r y than  S i n g a p o r e , were added  known as  Negri  recorded  Europeans  e s t a b l i s h e d themselves  came to be  "indirect  of  West M a l a y s i a  t h r i v e d i n Malacca before  earliest  supplanted  namely M a l a c c a  Pahang and  the  period  to withdraw a f t e r  Selangor,  they  longer  later  i n f l u e n c e and  although  a  Europeans.  forced  settlements,  to  had  Portuguese,  themselves  British  i s a l s o v a r i o u s l y known a s  Perak, through  Residents, advisors  co-ordinate  5  administration involvements Kelantan,  these  spread  which  s t a t e s were to o t h e r  i n 1914  s t a t e s , namely  became  After  the  Japanese  established  the  Malayan Union.  National  Organisation  1,  the  1948,  states. 195 7.  I n May,  produced  the  federation was  the  occupation,  which  Opposition too  o f M a l a y a was  the  Malaysia  Further,  Perlis,  formed.  Plan which  i n 1945,  the  United  British  Malays  however, and  on  February  It consisted of  from B r i t a i n  S e p t e m b e r 16,  in effect  proposed  North Borneo,  and  States."  from the  great,  British  Kedah,  on  eleven  August  Malayan Prime M i n i s t e r , Tengku A b d u l  to i n c l u d e Singapore,  e s t a b l i s h e d on  Johore,  ended  r e c e i v e d i t s independence 1961,  i n 1895.  "Unfederated  (UMNO) p r o v e d  Federation  Malaya  "federated"  and  to e x t e n d Sarawak.  31,  Rahman, the  Malaysia  1963.  Nationalism Amongst that  the  "elusive  term.""'  simple  Boyd  Shafer  definition.  Louis  bemoans t h e  the  a t t r i b u t e s ' — t h a t are  commonly p r e s e n t . "  In  " n a t i o n a l i s m i s what concept Any the  intended  but  a  of  to serve  nationalists  varying combination  definition choice  the  must be  the as  is a  here  realities the  end,  h a v e made i t ;  of beliefs  is totally  a useful concept,in  the  agreement  Snyder c a l l e d  somewhat a r b i t r a r y .  definition  general  " v a r i e d meanings  k i n d r e d w o r d s ) and  fixed  the word  of nationalism there  (and  that  that  students  term l a c k s a  been given the  the  and Yet  i t an  that and  have  myths—  Shafer  concludes  i t i s not  a  conditions." i t c a n n o t be  arbitrary,  examination  of  said  for i t is the  Sarawak  6  National Party.  To t h i s end i t i s necessary to determine the sense i n  which the word i s employed.  According to Carlton Hayes, i n s c i e n t i f i c  research the term nationalism can be used i n four ways:^ (a)  an a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l process of nation-and-state-building;  (b)  a theory or an i d e a l ;  (c)  a set of a c t i v i t i e s , often of a party;  (d)  a sentiment of p r i d e and l o y a l t y .  This paper does not propose to examine nationalism as a broad h i s t o r i c a l process, that i s , as a s e r i e s of changes and events leading to the construction of the s t a t e , which i s taken to mean a country or a formal p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y organization of one or more ethnic groups. do so would require the examination of other p a r t i e s .  To  Since t h i s paper  i s concerned p r i m a r i l y with one p a r t i c u l a r party and i t s r e l a t i o n to nationalism, such an approach i s c l e a r l y beyond i t s scope. I t should be pointed out as w e l l that t h i s paper w i l l not i n v e s t i g a t e the sentiment of n a t i o n a l i s m ;  that i t , i t w i l l not measure  the a t t i t u d e and consciousness of party members, f o r such sentiment i s subsumed as part of i t s nationalism.  Rather, as the term i s used here,  i t r e f e r s to the party's theory or p r i n c i p l e s underlying i t s a c t i v i t i e s during the processes of independence and n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g . As a theory, nationalism may be perceived to be the guideline of party behaviour.  In t h i s sense i t may appear to be an antecedent  c o n d i t i o n , an independent v a r i a b l e which w i l l determine p o l i t i c a l activities.  But f o r the purpose of a n a l y s i s , nationalism may be  7  considered as  a  not  as  a given  a  static  d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e w h i c h may  circumstances within The of  or  root  the  Rather,  change a c c o r d i n g  to  i t is  perceived  the p r e v a i l i n g  state.  of n a t i o n a l i s m  individuals united  concept.  by  i s the  other,  as  "nation",  well  as  that  political  i s , "an  aggregation  ties—ties  commonly  g of  race,  religion,  of n a t i o n a l i s m be  defined  separate  as  and  language,  i s the "the  or  tradition."  principle  fight  distinct  of  of  national  a group  from other  Central  of  to  to  the  doctrine  s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , which  p e o p l e who  determine  consider  may  themselves  f o r themselves  the  state 9  in  which  European century one  they w i l l concept aimed  live  at  fitting  nation  people with  in this a  rights,  system. the  In  sense  government nineteenth  the  i t will and  have."  early  same c u l t u r e and  specific  political  on  cultural  its territorial  coloniser."^ based  enclosed  inhabit a given  the  the  principle  i t s l e g i t i m a c y , was several ethnic  i s equated with  " a s p i r a t i o n of  new  derived  which u s u a l l y  r e f e r to  equal  is  i n the  i t s colonial manifestation,  territories  the  form of  of n a t i o n a l i s m  from which n a t i o n a l i s m  to  the  The  twentieth  language  into  state. In  not  and  or  a  country  ethnic  territory,  sense the  of  self-determination,  extended groups.  to The  imperial term  or n a t i o n - s t a t e .  It  c o m m u n i t y w h o s e members  and  operate  sentiment  colonised population  i n a common  of n a t i o n a l i s m  major  territory;  characteristic  hence  of  it is territorial  economic  f o r self-government  this  nationalism nationalism,  enjoy  refers  c o m m u n i t y whose b o u n d a r i e s w e r e e s t a b l i s h e d by  The  does  of  the  i s that i t the  8  assumption  being  loyalty  the  to  industry  and The  tions  and  what h a s .  that  state  the  as  termed  But  situationally  a r e s u l t of  v a r i e t y of  assertions  .  loyalties  improvement  other  been  local  this  in  as  "congruities  and  growths of  nationalism  an  induced  the  supplanted  by  a  broader  bureaucracy  and  communication.  of  i s not  are  ethnic  always  i s centred  group. of  the  determined  around  S u c h a g r o u p may blood,  case. and  speech,  Ethnic  therefore  the be  and  aspirabased  on  customs  consciousness " i s ultimately  definable  12 only  in subjective  nationalistic potential could  demands; b u t  f o r competitive  become " a  loyalty  terms."  set  rivaling  of  Obviously,  not  every  i n every multi-ethnic nationalisms  solidarity  which are  patterns  i n some s i t u a t i o n s , t h a t  .  .  which  ethnic  state  group  there  asserts  exists  the  e t h n i c a l l y based.  . w h i c h command  They  the  the  state  itself  states  there  exists  is  able  ,13 to  generate.'  potential the is  state.  for ethnic An  the  i s , in multi-national  n a t i o n a l i s t groups  example of  Burma, w h e r e t h e  since is  That  a country which  Karens  1960's f o r the  to  and  challenge  authority  i s facing ethnic  Shans, e t h n i c 14  r i g h t to  the  secede.  the of  insurgents  m i n o r i t i e s , have  fought  In  nationalism  short,  ethnic  potentially disruptive. There  Rupert  i s , in effect,  Emerson, The  for instance, heart  df  the  more t h a n  j u s t one  writes  i n an  matter  i s the  type  article  on  of  nationalism.  Africa  simultaneous  that  existence  o f a t l e a s t t h r e e m a j o r l e v e l s o f s o c i a l and politic a l c o m m u n i t y , and e x i s t e n c e w h i c h i n v o l v e s n o t only l i v i n g s i d e by s i d e , b u t a l s o s t r o n g l y and r e c i p r o c a l l y i n f l u e n c i n g one a n o t h e r . The t h r e e l e v e l s a r e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s o f t h e p a s t , t h e c o l o n i a l and  9  c o l o n i a l l y - d e r i v e d s t r u c t u r e s of the several Pan-African aspirations.15 James C o l e m a n , a g a i n v i e w , he  w r i t i n g on  emerges w i t h  of n a t i o n a l i s m  to  a  schema as  territories  purpose of  for  the  His  v e r s i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m ,  nationalism assertion"  as  understanding  of  In  self-assertion"  recognises  self  or m o t i v a t i o n s  u s e f u l to  adapt  of  the  sense t h a t  political  Coleman's  of  The  usefulness  are  they  the  territorial forms of  of  self  Coleman's  recognising  below  territorial  capable act  concept  by  nationalisms  activities.  schema t o  his  " v a r i e t y of  patterns")  similar  nationalisms.  notion  African situation  the  h i s schema i s u s e f u l  Malaysian  a s s e r t i o n " a b o v e and  "solidarity  limits  the  c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n s these or  he  and  asserts a  pasts,  synonomous w i t h  independent v a r i a b l e s i n the  is  colonial  S a r a w a k and  i t i l l u m i n a t e s the  "modes o f  merely  Since  amongst e x - c o l o n i a l p e o p l e s .  nationalism.  nants  not  well.  with  employed h e r e ,  schema i s t h a t existence  Africa,  present,  as  ( o r "modes of  the  If this  the  of  becoming major  determi-  i s true,then  Sarawak s i t u a t i o n  in  i t  order  16 to  i l l u m i n a t e the The  g r o u p s and  foci  o f n a t i o n a l i s m may  territory.  namely  localities,  at  base there  the  small  and  example of the  point.  Under the  tribes, exist  which contain a  locality  came.  broadly  different only  a  localities  segment  of  i n Sarawak i s t h e  The  by  classified  ethnic heading  s u p e r - t r i b e s , and  Second D i v i s i o n p o p u l a t e d  SNAP's f o u n d e r s  be  Saribas  corresponding  are  four  as  ethnic  sub-parts,  nationalities. which are  a particular  Saribas Ibans,  area,  First,  geographically tribe. an  enclave  from w h i c h most  sentiment  of  One  a region  in of  or  10  locality  can  localities  be  are  termed tribes,  ethno-linguistic the  Ibans,  the  assertions  of  "tribalism." pattern  listed by  and  Third, these they  they  strive  composite other  community, Melanau  as  the  t r i b e s s u c h as  sources of  communal  Kenyahs.  their  For  focus  the  of  their  Islamic  ethnicity  ethnic nationalism  t h a t most Dayaks a r e  proselytising on  the  In  short,  involve around  one  could  h a n d , and i n the  process  inter-communal such  namely  cultural  religion. may  M a l a y s and  be  case of  religious  most  of  antagonism. as  Deep  tribes  of  this  the  the  Dayak Malay-  asserting  Malays  include  f a c t o r of expansion.  may  and the  their Given  the  C h r i s t i a n s , Muslim i s s u e between  the  seated  religion  in  of  the  p o t e n t i a l of  is, a  or  solidarity  stage there  C h i n e s e and  the  That  labelled  activities  a d d i t i o n to  self-identification  properties  this  communal a s s e r t i o n may  either animists  of  and  solidarity  At  In  i n the  are  political  collectivity  and  the  share  tribes  a broader  sentiment  w e l l become a c o n t e n t i o u s the  or  of  which  self-consciousness  name f o r t h e  instance,  of  fact  and  corresponding  others,  above  collectivities  Dayak n a t i o n a l i s m .  two  level  sometimes p e j o r a t i v e l y  g r o u p s , e a c h o f w h i c h has  the  the  Nationalism  identity  The  perpetuation or  are  at  Sarawak, examples  ethnic nationalism.  nationalism.  most M e l a n a u s  In  self-identification  i s termed  Sarawak has  ethnic  small-scale  these  The  for  Second,  t r i b e s sometimes a c q u i r e  define  above i s "Dayak."  ethnic  its  defined  a larger super-tribe.  which  exist  "localism."  characteristics.  Kayans,  i n that  terms of  as  and  M e l a n a u s on ethnic  the  Dayaks  the  other.  nationalism  cleavages  may  centering  language could  lead  to  11  inter-ethnic It  conflict.  should  be p o i n t e d  out that  antagonism between  ethnic  need n o t be permanent.  I n c i r c u m s t a n c e s where b o t h g r o u p s  benefit  solidarity,  by t h e i r  collaborate,  common  however t e m p o r a r y  i t i s possible  or d i f f i c u l t  this  a c t may t u r n  I n t h e c a s e o f Sarawak, t h e M a l a y s and Dayaks u t i l i s e  that  both  legitimise  claims  identification  f o rp o l i t i c a l  Sarawak and M a l a y s i a Malays  Ethnic  and economic  could  f o r t h e two t o  be.  are natives.  groups  i n this  the fact  sense  advantages.  out to  i s used t o  I n t h e case o f  t h e c o l l e c t i v e name f o r D a y a k s , M e l a n a u s , a n d  i s Bumiputera.  Their  p r i v i l e g e s are enshrined  i n the Federal  17 Constitution. There  are therefore  identifications. ethnic at  hand  group  Ethnic  a person  different identity  identifies  varieties  of ethnic  self-  i s ambiguous, and t h e c h o i c e  himself  o f which  may b e d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e i s s u e  and t h e p a r t i c u l a r a d v a n t a g e w h i c h a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n  would  g i v e him. The sorts.  second  The f i r s t  The c o r r e s p o n d i n g nationalism. tories  concern  i s a colonial activities  The o t h e r  are united  under  c a s e o f Sarawak t h i s brought the  together  Federation  of nationalism  kind  unit,  i s territory,  u n i t was t h e F e d e r a t i o n  of Malaya,  e m e r g e s when c o l o n i a l  administrative  colonies  and S i n g a p o r e .  Borneo.  are those o f t e r r i t o r i a l  of nationalism  t h e two. B r i t i s h  i s o f two  s u c h as Sarawak o r N o r t h  and sentiment  a common  which  political  of Malaysia  o f N o r t h Borneo  unit. which  terriIn the  i n 1963  and Sarawak,  From t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s  of these  12  c o n s t i t u e n t p a r t i e s , t h e l o y a l t y to the new  f e d e r a t i o n and  the  acceptance  of i t s p o l i t i c a l a s s e r t i o n r e q u i r e s a h i g h e r l e v e l of n a t i o n a l i s m , d e f i n e d here as How According  pan-nationalism.  are these d i f f e r e n t types of n a t i o n a l i s m s a c t i v a t e d ? to C h a r l e s Anderson, Fred von der Mehden, and  from the v i e w p o i n t the c o n f l i c t  of the c i t i z e n the r o l e s e l e c t i o n i s dependent on  situation.  a s s e r t i o n s may  18  C o n f l i c t s which g i v e r i s e t o n a t i o n a l i s t i c  hinge upon language p o l i c y , l o c a l i s a t i o n of the  s e r v i c e , e l e c t o r a l c o m p e t i t i o n , or r e s o u r c e  P a r t y and  allocation.  civil  19  Nationalism  The  d i s c u s s i o n above has attempted to i d e n t i f y  v a r i e t i e s of n a t i o n a l i s m s . may  Crawford Young,  be found.  the r e l e v a n t  I t has p i n p o i n t e d where these  nationalisms  I t has n o t , however, t r i e d to s p e c u l a t e on how  n a t i o n a l i s m s can be a c t i v a t e d , and,  different  i n a sense, c r e a t e d by a p a r t y .  T h i s paper does not presume n a t i o n a l i s m to be a set of " g i v e n s . " do  To  so i s to i g n o r e the r o l e of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n the r i s e of n a t i o n a l i s m .  O b v i o u s l y not  a l l v a r i e t i e s of n a t i o n a l i s m s owe  p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , but t h i s should not  t h e i r o r i g i n s to  d e t r a c t from the f a c t t h a t  p a r t i e s can a c t as v e h i c l e s which i n i t i a t e and  s t i m u l a t e the growth of  nationalism. Consider,  f o r i n s t a n c e , the i m p l i c a t i o n f o r a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y 20  when i t s assumed " t e r m i n a l community" category  or e x p r e s s i o n  i s merely an  ethnographical  i n the sense t h a t i t i s too fragmented to a s s e r t  13  its  communal demands.  assumed of  a set of  finds a paucity  there  i s an  order  basis  to  of  to  this  it  might  end  i t may  support—the  the  case of  h a v e f o s t e r e d i t s own  instance, both  In  order  to  is  necessary  evaluate to  survival  a party's  orientations  is a  hypothesised  matter  that  where  a s s e r t i o n s — t h a t i s , where  a  may  be  can  create  communal  could  ( S a r a w a k ) and  on  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of  champion  i t .  The  group  or  i t  expected  is  that  community  may  founded,  (Dayak).  i t s nationalism, i t  its activities. become a  and  popularity.  i n such a  be  be  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of n a t i o n a l i s m  may  Change", p o i n t s  be  party  SNAP, what  territory  examine  Nationalism political  on  cannot  opportune n a t i o n a l i s m which a p a r t y  political  In  nationalism  After a l l , nationalism  s u c h " c r e a t i v e " n a t i o n a l i s m may  a territory.  Social  situation  communal demands and  absence of  be  for  of  attract  this  "givens."  self-identification:  one  in  t o be  In  out  the  factor in a party's Daniel  efficacy  situation.  He  of  says  pursuit  of  Bell,  in his "Ethnicity  these  territorial  and  and  ethnic  that  ethnicity . . . i s best understood . . . as a s t r a t e g i c c h o i c e b y i n d i v i d u a l s who, i n other c i r cumstances, would choose o t h e r group memberships a s a means o f g a i n i n g p o w e r and p r i v i l e g e s . In s h o r t , i t i s the s a l i e n c e not the persona which h a s t o be t h e a x i a l l i n e f o r e x p l a n a t i o n . And b e c a u s e s a l i e n c e may b e t h e d e c i s i v e v a r i a b l e , t h e a t t a c h m e n t o f e t h n i c i t y may f l u s h o r f a d e v e r y q u i c k l y d e p e n d i n g on p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c circumstances.21 Bell  i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with  t i m e he  recognises  the  utility  of  ethnic nationalism, "other  but  at  the  group membership" as  an  same  14  avenue by w h i c h p o l i t i c a l As new  conditions within  realities  shelving The  purpose o f t h i s  The concerns plural  such l o y a l t i e s society to  like  political  plans  situations. SNAP's  As a v e r y  broad  interpretations of  conditions.  In this  case  communal g r o u p s .  o f sentiments  i tis a  because  such sentiments  propensity  At the root  or loyalties  and aggregated.  important  possess  The p r e s e n c e o f  citizens tend  which the  of a  to be  plural  responsive  i s seen to have a d i r e c t  which aim to e l i c i t  competition  interpretations of  t h a t c e r t a i n segments o f the p o p u l a t i o n a r e  stimulated,  This  while  f o r the analysis of nationalism  and p o l i t i c i s e d  S a r a w a k who  on most p o l i t i c a l of  t o meet c h a n g i n g  is politically  communal a p p e a l s .  o f SNAP's  be s t a t e d t h u s :  i s the e x i s t e n c e  may h a v e c r e a t e d ,  adjusts to  one v a r i e t y f o r a n o t h e r .  i n the s o c i e t y i t s e l f .  into distinct  the p a r t y  t h e n a t i o n a l i s m o f SNAP,  the nature  f a c t o r necessary  a group  reject  t o meet v a r y i n g  s o c i e t y i n the sense  such  party  changed  the p o l i t i c s  organised of  temporarily  t h e p r o b l e m may  other  change,  c e r t a i n elements o f i t s n a t i o n a l i s m  i n which  changed  nationalism  achieved.  paper i s to analyse  t h e ways  nationalism  hypothesis, its  i t may  be  the country  by e m p h a s i s i n g  others;  particularly its  p o w e r may  p u b l i c support  s u c h as Sarawak and M a l a y s i a .  bearing  in a  system  That i s ,  t h e common e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e p r i m a c y o f communal c r i t e r i a produces the s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g prophecy o f communally-oriented competitive s t r a t e g i e s i n v i r t u a l l y a l l walks o f l i f e . 2 2 In  this  rubric  paper  an approach  of ethnic  forpolitical  nationalism—that  support  falls  under  i s , a s communal o r e t h n i c  the general political  15  assertions. plural  For instance,  and e l e c t o r a l l y  aspiring  politicians  i t has been  competitive  tend  said  that  in a  s o c i e t y — o f which  t o "make a p p e a l s  culturally Sarawak i s o n e —  t o t h e most  easily  mobilised  23 communal  interests."  general  tendency,  evidence  of being  there  changing  of nationalism.  have t o c r e a t e (for  might  might  expand  party,  its political  those  obvious preference a l s o expand  i n which in The  would  context  even c r e a t e  them.  adapts to different  factors.  I t might  a state) o r bases  o r i g i n s and h i s t o r y , and c u l t u r e sort of creative nationalism  constituency.  Conceivably,  sub-ethnic  identify  or t r i b a l  The o t h e r  solidarity  territory,  political  units.  which  party.  i s opened  of a l l of the ethnic  such as t h i s  SNAP  t h i s w o u l d mean S a r a w a k n a t i o n a l i s m .  From  category  to i t l i e s groups.  i s no longer  Sarawak.  Iban  Such an  to Dayaks, t h e e t h n i c  option  namely  as a  a party  and a g g r e g a t i n g  SNAP a s a s u b - e t h n i c  to the a d d i t i o n a l support  b u t a common  where  v a r i e t y may n o t h a v e  the "missing"  i t s scope o f a c t i v i t i e s  base of m u l t i - e t h n i c  category  party  that  show  i t s own g r o w t h b y e m p h a s i s i n g  (for instance  i n this  of similar  would  I t follows  an a p p r o a c h b y a r t i c u l a t i n g  t h e Ibans belong.  an a p p e a l  demands.  the appropriate  framework  By i n d u l g i n g  take  SNAP's a c t i v i t i e s  a political  have t o supply  the right  SNAP c o u l d  demands o v e r  could  that  Since  e x a m p l e , a m y t h o f common  differences).  as a statement o f  o f s u c h demands, t h e p a r t y m i g h t  be h y p o t h e s i s e d  a party  that  a function of ethnic  s i t u a t i o n s and a c c e l e r a t e s  varieties existed,  could  i s hypothesised  i t may be e x p e c t e d  exists a paucity It  I f this  a  social  In the Malaysian Sarawak's  viewpoint,  16  loyalty  to Malaysia  i s pan-nationalism.  potential varieties  of  There  are,  therefore,  several  nationalism.  Conditions The of  prevailing  i t s nationalism  moment  to  illustrate  Basic  conditions  status the  f o r the  reduction  SNAP t h e n  required  could  no  longer  based  solely not  prospect  full  The  aspire  partly  i t to  the  As  responsible  and  to  The crisis  c o n d i t i o n may  i n which a party  coalition  or  the  i s actually  faces  best be  r e l e g a t i o n of  h o p e t o be  the  i n Chapter  acceptance of the  the  thrust  of  p r o t e c t i v e of  the  Malaysia  competition  may  be  of  a  status  by  i n that  to  SNAP  being  major  IV,  state  such  a  Malaysia.  Malaysia  Plan  i t s nationalism  the  a  D a y a k s and  so  their  proposal.  within  f r o m power.  nation-  this  "national" party;  seen  of  a mere component  e m e r g e f r o m what  ousted  Sarawak  i t s nationalism  the  term  there  f o r SNAP's o p p o s i t i o n  clarify  t h e y were b e f o r e  second  at  will  SNAP's u l t i m a t e  define  than  case of  dominant  SNAP became e v e n more o p e n l y  interests  the  to  the  For  development  instance,  a c c e p t a n c e of  t o be  by  For  sovereignty  i n Sarawak, i t c o u l d  important,  In  the  interpretations  chapters.  i s meant  with  a r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  a n a t i o n a l one.  was  sources.  territory.  of  what  associated  several  federation—Malaysia.  that  succeeding  i t is sufficient  involved  induced  i n the  noted  change o f  Most  SNAP's v a r i o u s  be  o r i g i n a t e d from  party,  behind  will  conditions. alism  conditions  In  can  be  the  governing  such a  termed  as  situation  a  a  17  re-interpretation effective  of  a party's  propaganda s t r a t e g y  theory to  attract  words, a r e - d e f i n e d n a t i o n a l i s m  can  a way  from  the  that  can  generate  i n c o r p o r a t i o n of  self-serving. of  the  party,  to  represent.  support  for this the  D a y a k i n t e r e s t s and  political  help  a party  the  a n a t i o n a l i t y ' s or  It matters,  In  o f n a t i o n a l i s m may  form  an  sympathy.  to  citizens.  focus  on  In  issues  From t h i s  even a community's  t h e r e f o r e , which groups r e c e i v e  other  perspective,  interests is the  attention  s e l e c t i o n i n d i c a t e s which groups a p a r t y case of  SNAP, t o  the  degree  r e c e i v e s Dayak s u p p o r t ,  that  i t may  in  aspires  i t articulates  be  said  of  the  to  be  a  Dayak  party. The in  that  into  third  general  i n s t e a d of  power.  The  being  problem  existing nationalism, drawing p o l i t i c a l  threatened  which might  been  with  for a party  support,  government w h i c h has emerges as  c o n d i t i o n i s the  may  expulsion  i n such a  h a v e had  now  subjected  a potential partner.  opposite  In  become a to  stumbling  changing  i t s nationalism.  just  1974.  and  the  Chapter  situation  subsequent VII.  in late  treatment  of  situation  i t s criticisms  short,  party  a remarkable  demand a r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f such a  the  invited  i s that success  block. now  SNAP was  are  one  is  the  this in  The  very  suddenly  conditions  I t s r e l a t i o n s to  i t s nationalism  second  faced  again with  invitation  discussed  in  18 Structure  of the Thesis  The II  elaborates  brings in  rest of the thesis i s divided on t h e p l u r a l n a t u r e  into perspective  the Malaysian  around  a number o f i s s u e s .  which preceded to  the Malaysia  society.  and t r a c e s  SNAP's a c t i v i t i e s  with  p a r t i e s and as i t h e l p e d  ethnic  group  crystallises  o f SNAP a n d t h e two p a r t i e s  i n Chapter  a n d SNAP's r e a c t i o n s  Chapter  I t also  s i t u a t i o n of t h e Iban  The formations  federation other  chapters.  SNAP's e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s m  i t are discussed Plan  seven  o f Sarawak's  the minority  federation.  into  III.  Chapter  IV i s devoted  to the formation  as i t t r i e d  t o form  of the  to forge  Sarawak's f i r s t  an  alliance  elected  government. Chapter V discusses  Borneonisation  i s s u e s which dominated p o l i t i c a l years  a f t e r independence.  racialism the of  are discussed;  t o p i c o f Chapter V I I ; support  summarises  and l a n g u a g e , two o f t h e  a n d communal i n t e r e s t s f o r s e v e r a l  I n C h a p t e r V I t h e e m e r g e n c e o f SNAP's m u l t i the reappearance o f ethnic n a t i o n a l i s m i s and C h a p t e r V I I I  i s devoted  and t h e g r o w t h o f i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n . the f i n d i n g s of t h i s  study.  t o SNAP's  The l a s t  chapter  bases  Footnotes  ..1.  19  t o C h a p t e r I.  A l v i n Rabushka and K e n n e t h S h e p s l e , P o l i t i c s i n P l u r a l S o c l e i t e s : A T h e o r y o f D e m o c r a t i c I n s t a b i l i t y (Columbus, O h i o : C h a r l e s E. M e r r i l l , 1972), p.21. What t h e y mean i s t h a t i n p o l i t i c s c u l t u r a l g r o u p s u s u a l l y c o a l e s c e a r o u n d t h e i r own o r g a n i s a t i o n s . Where t h e r e i s more t h a n one o r g a n i s a t i o n p e r g r o u p , c o m p e t i t i o n c o u l d o c c u r b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s f o r c o n t r o l o f the group.  2.  Austin System  3.  B e f o r e t h i s S a r a w a k was r u l e d b y t h e R a j a h s B r o o k e . F o r an e x c e l l e n t a c c o u n t o f t h e B r o o k e d y n a s t y , s e e S t e v e n R u n c i m a n , The W h i t e R a j a h s (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960).  4.  F o r a c o g e n t a c c o u n t o f M a l a y a up t o 1957 s e e R.S. M i l n e a n d D i a n e K. Mauzy, P o l i t i c s and Government o f M a l a y s i a ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s ) , pp.1-43.  5.  L o u i s L. S n y d e r , The t r a n d , 1964), p . l .  6.  B o y d C. S h a f e r , N a t i o n a l i s m : M y t h a n d b r a c e , 1955), p.7.  7.  C a r l t o n J.H. pp.5-6.  8.  Royal I n s t i t u t e of I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , C a s s a n d Co., 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 1 7 .  9.  R a n n e y and W i l l m o o r e K e n d a l l , D e m o c r a c y a n d (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , 1 9 5 6 ) , p . 8 5 .  J . P i a n o and York: H o l t ,  10.  Clifford and  Civil  Societies 12.  R.  O l s o n , The  Rinehart,  J a m e s D. cit.,  University  Geertz, a n d New  (New  I n o t h e r words,  g r o u p when t h a t  depends  on  flict  Political  p.  (New  (New  Van  Relations  (London:  Frank  Dictionary  (New  p.121.  (Princeton,  New  Jersey:  234.  in Clifford  Nationalism  Sentiments  Geertz,  1963),  e t . , Old  p.109.  in Tropical  Africa,"  a person belongs to a p a r t i c u l a r with that  self-identification Development  Nos-  York: M a c m i l l a n , 1926),  Nationalism  York: Free Press, and  Party  York: Harcourt,  Revolution: Primordial  States,"  person i d e n t i f i e s  ethnicity and  Integrative  Coleman, " T r a d i t i o n  p.11.  1965),  i n t h e New States  1969),  i n t h e Congo  Press,  "The  Politics  International  and W i n s t o n ,  ( P r i n c e t o n : D.  Reality  E s s a y s on N a t i o n a l i s m  C r a w f o r d Young, P o l i t i c s Princeton  11.  Hayes,  Dynamics o f N a t i o n a l i s m  the American  group.  In t h i s  way  (Cynthia Enloe, Ethnic  [Boston: L i t t l e  B r o w n and  Co.,  Con1973],  P.15). 13.  op.  ethnic  C h a r l e s W. A n d e r s o n , F r e d R. v o n d e r Mehden, a n d C r a w f o r d Y o u n g , I s s u e s of P o l i t i c a l Development (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , 1967), p.17.  20 14.  15.  F o r o t h e r i n s t a n c e s o f s e p a r a t i s t movements s e e , f o r e x a m p l e , W a l k e r C o n n o r , " S e l f D e t e r m i n a t i o n : The New P h a s e " , W o r l d P o l i t i c s V o l . XX, No. 1 ( O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 7 ) , p . 5 2 ; W a l k e r C o n n o r , "The P o l i t i c s o f E t h n o n a t i o n a l i s m " , J o u r n a l o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , V o l . X X V I I , No. 1 ( 1 9 7 3 ) . Rupert Emerson, William  "Nation-Building  J. Foltz,  edd.,  in Africa",  Nation-building  (New  i n K a r l W.  Deutsch  and  York: Atherton Press,  1966),  p.97. 16.  James P. C o l e m a n , " T r a d i t i o n c i t . , p.9.  17.  A s o f 1971 M a l a y p r i v i l e g e s w e r e e x t e n d e d t o o t h e r n a t i v e s i n t h e Borneo s t a t e s . F e d e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s have t r i e d h a r d t o p e r s u a d e Dayak l e a d e r s t o t h i n k of themselves as Bumiputeras. See, f o r i n s t a n c e , S a r a w a k T r i b u n e , November 1 3 , 1974.  18.  U s i n g a f i c t i t i o u s I b o townsman as a n e x a m p l e , t h e y p o i n t e d o u t t h a t h e p r o b a b l y v o t e d f o r t h e n a t i o n a l c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n m e n t d u r i n g t h e 1974 Nigerian general election. In another s i t u a t i o n , g i v e n here as the d i s p u t e o v e r t h e n o n - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f wage p o l i c i e s b y t h e g o v e r n m e n t , t h e same man may h a v e p r o t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e g o v e r n m e n t ( C h a r l e s W. A n d e r s o n , F r e d v o n d e r Mehden, a n d C r a w f o r d Y o u n g , I s s u e s o f P o l i t i c a l D e v e l o p m e n t , op. c i t . , p p . 6 2 - 6 3 ) . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p e r s o n a l dimens i o n o f e t h n i c i t y and t h e a m b i g u i t y o f e t h n i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t h a t a r i s e s from a m u l t i p l i c i t y of r o l e s . I n t h e c a s e of Sarawak, f o r i n s t a n c e , a B i d a y u h o r a M e l a n a u who h a s c o n v e r t e d t o t h e I s l a m r e l i g i o n may call h i m s e l f a Malay. B u t i n o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s he may s t i l l d e s c r i b e h i m s e l f a s a B i d a y u h o r M e l a n a u o r w h a t e v e r e t h n i c g r o u p t o w h i c h he o r i g i n a l l y belonged.  19.  C h a r l e s W.  Anderson,  Fred  von  and N a t i o n a l i s m  d e r Mehden, a n d  in Tropical  Africa",  C r a w f o r d Y o u n g , op.  op.  c i t . ,  pp.64-66. 20.  T o q u o t e R u p e r t E m e r s o n , a t e r m i n a l c o m m u n i t y i s one " t h a t when t h e c h i p s a r e down, e f f e c t i v e l y commands men's l o y a l t y " ( R u p e r t E m e r s o n , From Empire t o N a t i o n (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), pp.95-96.  21.  D a n i e l B e l l , " E t h n i c i t y and S o c i a l Change," i n Nathan G l a z e r and D a n i e l Moynihan, edd., E t h n i c i t y : T h e o r y and E x p e r i e n c e (Cambridge, Mass.: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975), p.171.  22.  R o b e r t M e l s o n a n d Howard W o l p e , " M o d e r n i z a t i o n a n d t h e p o l i t i c s o f communalism: a t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , " A m e r i c a n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e R e v i e w , V o l . L X I V , No. 4 ( D e c e m b e r , 1 9 7 0 ) , p . 1 1 1 5 .  23.  Ibid.,  p.1122.  21  CHAPTER I I DEMOGRAPHIC  SETTING  Demography Sarawak i s a s t a t e is  explored  of Malaysia.  i t i s important  composition,  some i n d i c a t i o n  statistics.  Table  the  S a r a w a k ' s own d e m o g r a p h y  to have an i d e a o f M a l a y s i a ' s o f which  c a n be s e e n  1 below d i v i d e s M a l a y s i a  into  Trengganu. second  They  fall  Malacca,  Negri  Before  Sembilan,  the formation  Pahang, Perak,  of Malaysia  r e g i o n i s made up o f t h e B o r n e o under  the l a b e l  o f East  two r e g i o n s .  by  1  Population Statistics:  Estimated  4,351,021  3,157,423  Sabah  590,660  145,000  Sarawak  902,841  E.  Malaysia  Total  Note:  Population  R e g i o n s a n d E t h n i c G r o u p s , D e c e m b e r 1967  8,655,299  Malaysia  Selangor, and  Malaysia.  Chinese  W.  Perlis,  Kedah,  t h e y w e r e known a s M a l a y a .  Malays  All  Johore,  Under  s t a t e s o f Sabah and Sarawak.  Table l Malaysian  own e t h n i c  from i t s p o p u l a t i o n  name o f W e s t M a l a y s i a a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e s :  Kelantan,  The  Before  Groups  Indians & Pakistanis  Others  957,944  188,911  145,000  -  300,660  163,022  296,977  -  442,842  1,493,501  308,022  441,977  -  743,502  10,148,800  4,659,043  3,599,400  957,944  932,413  I n the Borneo  s t a t e s o f Sabah and Sarawak I n d i a n s  numbered l e s s  than  10,000.  and P a k i s t a n i s  22  In  the  table  grouped under At  just  total  over  the  above, label  the Dayak p o p u l a t i o n o f  "Others"  440,000, the  together with  " o t h e r s " made up  Sarawak has  Indians  of only  been  and P a k i s t a n i s .  4.3%  of  Malaysia's  population.  Sarawak The  last  Crown C o l o n y  census  of Great  p o p u l a t i o n was the  down i n t o  B r i t a i n was  744,529.  formation of  Federation  o f p o p u l a t i o n t a k e n when S a r a w a k was  the  Two  years  1960.  later,  During  over  the  p o p u l a t i o n was  constituent cultural  the  t h a t time  proposal  calculated  groups,  a the  a period punctuated  Sarawak N a t i o n a l P a r t y and  of Malaysia, three  i n June  still  the  at  for  by the  776,990.  2  Broken  Sarawak p o p u l a t i o n f o r  3 the y e a r  1960  was  as  Ethnic  follows:  Group  Chinese  229,154  30.8  Dayak  333,291  44.8  Malay  129,300  17.4  44,661  5.9  Melanau The  remainder  indigenous"  Percentage of Total  Population  of  the  p o p u l a t i o n was  (0.9%) and  1,631  6,492, c o n s i s t i n g  Europeans  of  "other  non-  (0.2%).  Chinese Bolstered b e t w e e n 1935 approximately numerical  and  by  immigrations  1939—the  equal  to  composition  Chinese  that of of  from  the  the  China—19,000  e n t r i e s were  p o p u l a t i o n grew u n t i l  by  Sea  I n 1960  Chinese  Dayaks  was  as  or Ibans.  follows:  1960  recorded i t the  was  23  Dialect  Group  Number  Cantonese  17,432  Foochow  70,125  Hakka  70,221  Henghua  8,278  Hokkien  28,304  Hylam  5,717  Teochew Other  21,952  Chinese  7,125  Total  Within  the f i v e  populated than  by  229,154  divisions  o f Sarawak, t h e F i r s t  a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same number  100,000.  The  Fourth  12,000 r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h i l e  and  Second  the F i f t h  and  Third  were  of Chinese at s l i g h t l y  Divisions Division  had  o v e r 24,000  had n e a r l y  less  and  3,000.  Malays A definition a Malay  which  a s a p e r s o n who  seems t o b e  gaining  uses the Malay  currency  characterises  l a n g u a g e and b e l o n g s o r a d h e r e s t o 4  the Muslim  religion  and  follows  Malay  customs.  a D a y a k a d o p t s t h e Mohammedan r e l i g i o n as w e l l .  The  infusion  the Melanau-Dayak during which the Malays  Malays  c o m m u n i t y , was  the Malay  have  o f new  group  "coalesced  The  invariably  for instance, i f  becomes a  f r o m 1949  g r e w by o v e r 33 p e r c e n t .  into  Malay  i n t h i s manner, p a r t i c u l a r l y  most n o t i c e a b l e  a palpable  most b u t n o t a l l M u s l i m s , w h i c h has importance  he  Thus,  long  social  Over  category,  functioned  process of drawing converts  to  into  1960, the  years  including  as a f o r c e this  from  of  social  great group  24  had  two  direct  included so t h a t  as M a l a y s . by  1970  population—a years  consequences. The  the Malays  jump  from  By  1970  Melanaus  bolstered  comprised  17.5  the Melanaus  24.9  had  the Malay  per cent of  per cent, which  had  been  come t o  be  population Sarawak's the case ten  before.  Dayaks In They ten  1960,  t h e Dayaks outnumbered  are defined "tribal"  as non-Muslim  groups  Dayaks), Kenyahs, In  1960  of which  Kayans,  b o t h t h e C h i n e s e and  natives,  the Ibans  Kelabit,  t h e D a y a k p o p u l a t i o n was  and  as  a category which  Malays.  covers at  (Sea Dayaks), Bidayuhs Muruts  were t h e most  (Land  numerous.  follows:  Percentage Dayak  Community  Sea Dayak Land Other  The  Total  71  57,619  17  Dayaks  37,931  12  Total  333,291  100  Dayak  (Iban)  of  237,741  "Other Dayaks",  total  Number  (Bidayuh)  which  i n 1960  made up  Dayak p o p u l a t i o n , were d i s t r i b u t e d  a m e r e 12 as  follows:  least  Dayaks  per cent of  the  25  Persons Bisayah  2,803  Kedayan  7,207  Kayan  7,899  Kenyan  8,093  Kelabit  2,040  Murut  5,214  Pun an  4,669 6  Others  37,931  Total  The inhabit  D a y a k s a r e b y n o means a homogeneous g r o u p .  the up-river  shifting  cultivation  They have v e r y culture,  own  in hill  little  else  secluded  rice  and m o s t l y  i n common: live  they  they p r a c t i c e a live  i n long  t h e y h a v e n o common  i n the u l u areas,  i n i t s own t e r r i t o r i a l  houses. language o r  e a c h group i s  domain, where  i t practices  life-style. Comparatively,  of  the so-called ulu;  and, although they  generally its  areas,  Generally  growth.  increase  the Chinese ethnic  F r o m 1947 t o 1960 t h e i r  i n other  ethnic  groups  group  percentage  showed  the fastest  increase  f o r t h e same p e r i o d  was 5 7 . 9 .  rate The  were a s f o l l o w s :  Community Malay  32.7  Melanau  25.6  p.ayaks  29.3  Occupation The  other  point  groups predominate  which should  distinct  economic  be e s t a b l i s h e d occupations.  i s that  these  cultural  26  Malays.  Most o f t h e Malays  are fishermen  and f a r m e r s .  As t h e  towns i n Sarawak grew, t h e M a l a y s  h a v e managed  t o s u p p l y t h e demands  for  I n 1960 o v e r  half  in  f o o d by t h e s e u r b a n  centers.  Sarawak were M a l a y s .  availability rubber  Their  occupation i s farming ( t h e  o f swamp a r e a s h a s a l l o w e d t h e m t o c u l t i v a t e wet p a d i . ) ,  t a p p i n g , and l o g g i n g .  accounted  second  of the fishermen  A l li n a l l ,  agricultural  f o r 72.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e M a l a y w o r k - f o r c e  Chinese.  Perhaps i s their  t h e most  significant  pursuits  i n 1960.  occupational characteristic  of  t h e Chinese  In  1 9 6 0 , 83.7 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h o s e who w e r e e n g a g e d i n commerce  Chinese.  F u r t h e r , they  facturing,  where  (49.3  per cent),  services their  they  predominance i n t h e commercial  also  transport  Another  i n 1960, b u t w i t h i n  the Chinese  other  sectors.  areas.  p r o d u c t s w e r e consumed m a i n l y planters  and rubber  tappers.  manu-  and c o n s t r u c t i o n  In r e l a t i o n  m o s t o f them w e r e  e n t r e p r e n e u r s whose  of t h e urban  were  (58.7 p e r c e n t ) , and  community  p e r c e n t ) were employed i n a g r i c u l t u r a l Furthermore,  into  to other  14.3 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l  (50.5  t h e demands  building  o f t h e Colony.  notable feature of the Chinese i s  i n agriculture.  t h e y p r o v i d e d a mere  were a g r i c u l t u r a l  preponderance  and communications  e x t e n s i v e involvement  workers  their  l e d a t 57.5 p e r c e n t ;  (50.5 p e r c e n t ) .  communities  extended  life  itself  pursuits farmers;  livelihood  more  than  was g e a r e d  dwellers.  Chinese  i n any  that  Some w e r e v e g e t a b l e g r o w e r s  by t h e c i t y  agricultural  i s , they  to satisfy whose  O t h e r s were  pepper  27  Dayaks. systematic isolation poor  Until  way  with  was,  of  late  not  create saleable surpluses.  rubber  fact  that the  almost  planting;  of  total.  by  Dayaks were r u b b e r  1960  low  yield As  only  7.34  per  2  padi  cash cent  crop  distances to the  farming  and  "bazaars",  often did  t h e Dayak  economic  until  advent  the  of the e c o n o m i c a l l y  Melanaus  Logging  .7  6.5  Fishing  .2  7.2  7.3  22.9  88.6  48.0  3.2  15.2  100.0  100.0  jobs  Total  N.  i n 1960 by  were engaged  out  a livelihood  fit  Wolf's d e s c r i p t i o n and  operating  in primitive  s m a l l f a r m s and  of people  i t s products  in primitive f o r the g  s e r v i c e s of  163241  others."  N.  17712  agriculture,  ekeing  gardens.  this  In  e c o n o m i e s who  culturally  defined  of  active  in Selected  Dayaks  Non-agricultural  g o o d s and  hill  o f M e l a n a u s and D a y a k s A r e a s by P e r c e n t a g e s  Smallholdings  lent  travelling  Such  7  Rubber  labour  of  no  Occupation  own  to the p h y s i c a l  a consequence,  T h e y had  areas.  any  tappers.  Proportion  their  the urban  merely  Table  Most Dayaks  Dayaks were i n v o l v e d i n  systems which d i s c o u r a g e d  also  was  life  due  but  isolation  1 9 5 0 ' s , few  the economic  course, hot  communication to the  the  they  "control equiva-  28  Melanaus. of  At  Sarawak's t o t a l  "territory" proximity  proportionately  per  of  that it  In  this  Malays,  be  advanced  areas  and  the  rural  so t h a t  by  e t h n i c group  life the  social  people.  be  i t was  surrounding services  that  the  i n the s t a t e ,  the  urban  are  (75  also  i t i s necessary decade,  either  unusual  of t h i s  some to  since they  they  note  however, call  f o r Melanaus  paper,  the  to  Melanau  community.  Chinese  Concentrated  territories,  than  There  the p a s t  not  the purpose  said  of the colony.  into  that  i n c r e a s i n g number o f M e l a n a u s t o  1970  For  In  Their  a high proportion  the paper  whose  are  dominate  primarily are  t h e most  active  the  i n the  urban  able to u t i l i s e  t h e M a l a y s o r D a y a k s , who  more  are  mainly  citizens.  Dayaks.  of  the  They a r e  the Malays.  prime  of  c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t o f t h e Malay  Occupying  size  stage  cent  t o w n s , means  D a y a k s w e r e drawn  i s available,  a distinct  summary, i t may  commercial  is  At  c a t e g o r i s e d as M a l a y s .  and  data  become f a s h i o n a b l e f o r an  group w i l l  of  exact  per  Bintulu.  to these  the Melanau p o p u l a t i o n are Muslims.  Melanaus.  themselves be  no  o n l y 5.9  a coastal people  S i b u , and  coupled w i t h exposure  the Melanaus are  has  They are  of S a r i k e i ,  more M e l a n a u s t h a n  Although  Christian  a r e a west  sea,  economy. cent)  p o p u l a t i o n i n 1960.  i s the  to the  44,661 t h e M e l a n a u s c o n s t i t u t e d  their  A  least  also  economically  coastal people,  p o p u l a t i o n by  occupations  accessible  are  p a r t s of the  t h e most p r i m i t i v e .  they  the process  fishing  and  country  rice  h a v e managed t o of r e l i g i o u s cultivation,  are  The  the  third  group  i n c r e a s e the  conversions. although  a  Their  sizeable  29  segment  of their  w o r k - f o r c e have  become l a b o u r e r s .  were a t t h e p e a s a n t s t a g e o f economic t h e y had been man-power than their  able  and f o o d  t h e Dayaks, economic  development  I n 1960 t h e M a l a y s for increasingly  t o become ^ a r t o f t h e u r b a n economy b y supplies.  T h e M a l a y s a r e t h e r e f o r e more  but d e f i n i t e l y  life.  providing  inferior  advanced  to the Chinese i n regard to  Footnotes  t o Chapter I I  30  1.  T h i s t a b l e i s a d a p t e d f r o m t h e o n e p r o v i d e d b y M i l t o n J . Esman, A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Development i n M a l a y s i a ( I t h a c a : Cornell U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p.18. Other w r i t e r s on M a l a y s i a have s i m p l y c l a s s i f i e d t h e D a y a k s u n d e r t h e g e n e r i c name o f " M a l a y s i a n " . See, f o r i n s t a n c e , Gordon Means, M a l a y s i a n P o l i t i c s (London: Hodder and S t o u g h t o n , 1 9 7 6 ) , p . 2 9 4 . Thus n o t o n l y i s t h e Dayak p o p u l a t i o n of Sarawak s m a l l i n c o m p a r i s o n t o o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s , t h e r e a l s o a p p e a r s t o b e some c o n f u s i o n a s t o w h i c h c a t e g o r y t h e y belong.  2.  Sarawak Government, Sarawak Y e a r P r i n t e r , 1962), p.11.  3.  The f i g u r e s w h i c h appear i n t h e r e s t o f t h i s c h a p t e r were c a l c u l a t e d f r o m t h o s e p r o v i d e d i n t h e o f f i c i a l c e n s u s r e p o r t o f 1960. See L.B. J o n e s , Sarawak: Report on t h e Census P o p u l a t i o n (Kuching: Government P r i n t e r , 1 9 6 2 ) .  4.  A M a l a y a n was a c i t i z e n o f t h e F e d e r a t i o n o f M a l a y a r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e e t h n i c group he b e l o n g e d t o . A M a l a y s i a n i s a c i t i z e n o f Malaysia. E t h n i c a l l y , he might be a Malay, C h i n e s e , I n d i a n , Dayak o r any o t h e r g r o u p ( T a n S r i Mohamed S u f f i a n b i n H a s h i m , A n I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f M a l a y s i a [ K u a l a Lumpur, 1 9 7 2 ] , p p . 2 4 7 - 2 4 9 , c i t e d i n R.S. M i l n e a n d D i a n e K. M a u z y , P o l i t i c s a n d G o v e r n m e n t i n M a l a y s i a [Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1978], p.l).  5.  Robert P r i n g l e , Rajahs and Rebels: The Ibans o f Sarawak under Brooke R u l e 1841-1941 ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1970), p.19.  6.  The Dayaks m o s t l y p l a n t p a d i t o s u p p o r t t h e m s e l v e s . In contrast to t h e method u s u a l l y p r a c t i s e d i n S o u t h e a s t A s i a where p a d i c u l t i v a t i o n i s e q u a t e d w i t h w e t o r swamp p a d i , t h e D a y a k s p l a n t h i l l p a d i . Their r i c e i s therefore of the dry v a r i e t y . Another d i f f e r e n c e i s that h i l l p a d i h a s a h i g h e r p r o t e i n c o n t e n t t h a n wet p a d i . The n e g a t i v e a s p e c t of h i l l p a d i f a r m i n g i s t h a t i t i n v o l v e s t h e s l a s h i n g and b u r n i n g o f the v e g e t a t i o n . The p r a c t i c e o f s l a s h and b u r n i n t u r n e x p o s e s t h e l a n d t o e r o s i o n and l o s s o f s o i l n u t r i e n t s . This results i n the farmer having t o s h i f t t h e l o c a t i o n o f h i s farm from year t o year, h e n c e t h e name " s h i f t i n g c u l t i v a t i o n " . On D a y a k s " a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e o f t h e Ibans, s e e : Derek Freeman, Report on the Iban (London: The A t h l o n e P r e s s , 1970); V.H. S u t l i v e , " F r o m Longhouse t o Pasar: U r b a n i s a t i o n i n S a r a w a k , E a s t M a l a y s i a " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f P i t t s b u r g , 1972).  7.  T h e t e r m s m a l l h o l d i n g s r e f e r s t o i n d i v i d u a l l y owned a n d m a i n t a i n e d farms and market-gardens. T h e i r p r o d u c t s , i n t h e case o f t h e Dayaks, w e r e f o r home c o n s u m p t i o n .  8.  E r i c R. W o l f , P e a s a n t s 1966), p.3.  (Englewood  B o o k 1962 ( K u c h i n g :  Cliffs,  New J e r s e y :  Government  Prentice  Hall,  31  CHAPTER I I I  FORMATION OF SNAP  The f o r m a t i o n o f the Sarawak N a t i o n a l P a r t y , which had i t s official political  i n a u g u r a t i o n on A p r i l 10, 1961, was developments, each o f which was  self-government.  The f i r s t was  a response to a number o f  produced by the promise o f  the emergence of two p o l i t i c a l  parties,  both o f which, though avowedly m u l t i - r a c i a l , were seen to be dominated p r o g r e s s i v e l y by two e t h n i c groups. product o f the f i r s t  development, was  Dayaks and t h e i r l e a d e r s . the  a b r e a s t o f the p o l i t i c a l  a by-  the l a c k o f u n i t y among the  The t h i r d development was  educated Dayaks, e s p e c i a l l y  those i n the c i v i l  the f a i l u r e o f  s e r v i c e , to keep  endeavours o f o t h e r e t h n i c groups and to form  a p a r t y which they c o u l d dominate. in a crisis  The second, e s s e n t i a l l y  These three developments c u l m i n a t e d  of s o r t s f o r the Dayaks, because the e s t a b l i s h e d  political  parties,  dominated as they were by the Chinese and Malays, t h r e a t e n e d  to s p l i t  the Dayak communities.  acute was  What made t h i s problem p a r t i c u l a r l y  t h a t n e i t h e r the t r a d i t i o n a l l e a d e r s nor the educated  " e l i t e " among the Dayaks was moved t o s t o p t h i s t r e n d , which was i n effect  a dismemberment of t h e i r p e o p l e .  SNAP i n t o  the Sarawak p o l i t i c a l  In t h i s r e s p e c t the e n t r y of  scene was an attempt to stem the  f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f the Dayaks by u n i t i n g them under i t s own  banner.  32  Formation  o f SUPP a n d  PANAS  A turn-around i n o f f i c i a l organization The  precipitated  B r o o k e s , who  British  Crown  activities.  handed  i n 1946  policy  a series  with  of p o l i t i c a l  1950's  suppress p o l i t i c a l  movement  i n the state.  of i n e v i t a b l e  cal  a policy  political  developments  the C o l o n i a l  independence  change  i n Sarawak.  over to the  were c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i n t o l e r a n t  the l a t e  instituted  to  Sarawak, a l b e i t unwillingly,"'"  Until  prospect  regard  Office  of  political  continued  However, f a c e d  with  f o r Sarawak, t h e C o l o n i a l  from suppression  t o encouragement  to  the Government  of  politi-  movements. Not  official from  a l l Sarawakians were a b l e  policy.  the p o l i c y  received  Indeed, the only change  was  to benefit  from t h i s  p e r s o n known t o h a v e  an u r b a n C h i n e s e named Ong  private  encouragement  Ong  been  reversal  of  benefited  Kee  Hui,  from the Governor, S i r Anthony  who Abell.  2 In  1956  had  failed  native Song the in  had  of the i n i t i a t o r s  of a p o l i t i c a l  to develop because of u n f a v o u r a b l e o f f i c i a l  indifference.  Thian  one  C h e o k , he  Sarawak U n i t e d character with  In June  1959,  together with  founded the f i r s t  Peoples' Party emphasis  registered  (SUPP).  on l o y a l t y  I t was  party  r e s p o n s e and  Stephen Yong political t o be  which  and  party,  "non-communal  t o S a r a w a k and u n i t y  of a l l  3 races." a  civil  Ong  Kee  Hui, a c a r e e r  servant with  b u s i n e s s m a n who  the Department  S t e p h e n Y o n g , a l a w y e r , was  had  of Agriculture,  the Secretary  General.  done a s t i n t was  the  as  Chairman,  Sarawak's  first  33  party was thus l e d by the Chinese. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Malay r e a c t i o n was c o o l .  The Malays, probably  mindful of t h e i r small numbers, sought from the beginning to u n i f y t h e i r own people.  This desire was c l e a r l y fundamental to the Malay  National Union (MNU), the most prominent organization the Malays had. Mohammad B a k r i , the President of MNU,  f o r example, stated that i f i t 4  became necessary h i s "union would j o i n the party (SUPP) as one u n i t " . The Secretary General of MNU,  Ikhwan Z a i n i e , took an even more extreme  view by r e j e c t i n g the very p r i n c i p l e of a m u l t i - r a c i a l membership when he s a i d , " i t would be much better f o r each community to form a National Union, such as the Chinese, Malay, Dayak, and Indian National Unions, and eventually merge to form an A l l i a n c e l i k e that i n the Federation of M a l a y " . W i t h the MNU throwing i t s weight against d i r e c t membership i n the SUPP, a few Malays decided to j o i n the party. The temporary advantage of being the only party i n the state manifested i t s e l f i n the SUPP's a b i l i t y to develop i n t o a w e l l organised p o l i t i c a l machine which e n l i s t e d Chinese members en masse.^ Further, when the SUPP contested some seats i n the l o c a l government e l e c t i o n s of 1959 i t drew even n a t i v e (that i s , Malay and Dayak) support. Largely because of the success of the SUPP, the Malays decided to form t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l organization.  Their leaders i n t h i s  endeavour were Kuching-bred urban Malays who, by sheer proximity to  34  the  K u c h i n g - b a s e d SUPP, d i r e c t l y  Chinese. the  In this  the timing  C o l o n i a l Government  SUPP, s i n c e  the Party  had  had  felt  of the Malay  been  SUPP t h a t  a few w e e k s b e f o r e  his  that  will  spell  Malay  faster  leaders  Malayan  "political  decided  people  increasingly The Mustapha  infiltrated  i t s inauguration  in this  small  task  threat  i n s i d e the  the Governor stage  country  i t s enthusiasm f o r the a counter  the  So  of  declared development  . . . . I n  t o a c t when t h e SUPP a c t u a l l y b e g a n  of formulating  with  by communists.  t h e Communist  of the  fortunate, for  short, to  a s members and when t h e C o l o n i a l G o v e r n m e n t  losing  who,  l e a d e r s was  p a r t i e s at the present  progress  strength  become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s e n c h a n t e d  c o n c e r n e d were t h e a u t h o r i t i e s w i t h  doubt  the encroaching  the  recruit  was  party.  stroke  fell  b y h i s i n f l u e n c e a n d p o s i t i o n , was  on A b a n g H a j i  t h e most  powerful  g Malay  i n Sarawak.  position the  He  i n the Malay  Council Negri,  held  the post  leadership  o f Datu  hierarchy.  the l e g i s l a t i v e  body  Bandar, He  was  B a n d a r was  the  support  the  Party  the  of those  Negara  organised.  t h e Government  politicians  Sarawak  PANAS was  detached.  who  a Malay-led  The  f o r Native  d i d not j o i n  (PANAS) b a r e l y  Kuching c l i q u e of the Malay  remained  Advisor  party;  a member o f  i t was  as  Moreover, Affairs.  a the  With  t h e SUPP he  t e n months a f t e r  community, w h i l e  Datu Bandar  also  highest  o f Sarawak, as w e l l  member o f t h e S u p r e m e C o u n c i l , i t s q u a s i - c a b i n e t . Datu  the  launched  t h e SUPP  a l s o dominated the Sibu  became i t s C h a i r m a n ;  was  by  group h i s brother,  35  A b a n g Othman,  Dayak  was  the  Secretary-General.  Reactions  Of  a l l the responses  the  educated  any  desire  Dayaks.  elite,  t o form  This  t h e most their  own  Association  political  organisation  Dayak n a t i o n a l i s m  for  t h e Dayak i n t e l l i g e n t s i a .  party  was  also  to be s t i m u l a t e d  too premature  Mr. E d w a r d B r a n d a h , a p r o m i n e n t Dayak p e r s o n a l i t y  probably  representative  leaders  n o n e o f them  that  by t h e  t h e r e a c t i o n o f t h e Sarawak included  because  i t was  at that  most o f t h e logical  servant  i n the Kuching  a  formed, t h e state-wide  I t s President,  and o b v i o u s l y  area,  offered  o f t h e Dayaks i n t h e c i v i l  place  the a s s o c i a t i o n  juncture  to contemplate.  civil  and  exhibited  dominated  H o w e v e r , when t h e SUPP was  i t , claiming  regarded  that  T h e SDNU w o u l d b e t h e f i r s t  for  political  was  (SDNU) , whose members  Dayaks i n Sarawak.  SDNU c h o s e t o i g n o r e  t h e Dayak t r a d i t i o n a l  important  l a c k o f c o n c e r n was  Dayak N a t i o n a l educated  of both  a  an  service  highly  opinion at the time.  I t i s s t i l l t o o premature f o r t h e whole of Sarawak t o f o r m any p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . At t h i s s t a t e we s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e o n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f o u r y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n and r a i s i n g the standard of l i v i n g f o r a l l communities.9 Thus, from  the beginning  t h e most p o t e n t  w h i c h had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o c o u n t e r tives  of the Chinese The  apparent  Dayak o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  effectively  the p o l i t i c a l  i n t h e SUPP, c h o s e t o e m a s c u l a t e disdain  o f t h e SDNU f o r p o l i t i c s  one initia-  itself. stemmed  from the  36  fact  that  t h e b u l k o f i t s members w e r e c i v i l  reluctant tumble in  to trade  of p o l i t i c a l  fact  clerical  operation the  life.  s i z e o f t h e SDNU i t s e l f .  into  interior  and t h e upper  their  general  t h e Dayaks,  the majority  party.  reluctance  o f them were of the  A n o t h e r f a c t o r was  Not o n l y  most  o f whom r e s i d e d  reaches of the state.  on t h e p a r t  accounted not only any  f o r t h e r o u g h a n d ':.  was i t s m a l l ,  l i m i t e d t o Kuching, i t s influence  o f t h e SDNU i t s e l f  expertise  since  of a p o l i t i c a l  i n s u l a r i n that, being  isolation  careers  a group  w o r k e r s , few, i f any, had any knowledge  permeate  of  Moreover,  and maintenance  diminutive  also  the security of their  servants,  from  t o drop t h e i r  Thus  i n party careers  the t r a d i t i o n a l  i n the u l u , the lack o r g a n i z a t i o n , and  i n favour  of p o l i t i c s  f o r t h e r e f u s a l o f t h e Dayak e d u c a t e d e l i t e  of the e x i s t i n g p a r t i e s , but also  d i d not  i n the ulu, the  i t s supporters  o f i t s members  i t was  t h e r e f u s a l t o form a  to join  Dayak-based  one. The ethnic  the  group  based p a r t y  exercised Jugah,  other  consisted  considerable  t h e paramount  o v e r a l l head  o f Dayaks  influence.  their  o f t h e Kenyahs,  Kayans,  leaders,  men who  S u c h men w e r e  Negri  Kelabit  i n t h e Second  i n f l u e n c e was f u t h e r  w e r e members o f t h e C o u n c i l  be e x p e c t e d t o f o r m an  Temenggong  o f t h e I b a n s , Temenggong O y o n g L a w a i J a u ,  M o n t e g r a i , t h e most p r o m i n e n t I b a n addition,  could  of the traditional  political  Chief  which  groups, and Pengarah Division.  r e i n f o r c e d by t h e f a c t  a n d t h e Supreme C o u n c i l .  In that No  they  other  37  Dayaks e x e r c i s e d If  any  group  a political observed leaders  a s much i n f l u e n c e  o f D a y a k s was party,  this  with interest as w e l l  leadership  it.  at t h i s  Their p o l i t i c a l  activities  t h e Dayaks b e c a u s e , b e i n g  as l e g i s l a t i v e  which  before  1961.  c a p a b l e of " d e l i v e r i n g " memberships  was by  a s t h e s e t h r e e men  were  traditional  insiders,they provided  s t a g e was  to  the source of  unchallenged within"the  Dayak  communities. It  i s significant  as a c a t a l y s t  amongst  organisation,  a  that  t h e e m e r g e n c e o f t h e SUPP d i d n o t a c t  t h e Dayak l e a d e r s  t o f o r m a Dayak  failure  which  a l l o w e d t h e SUPP and  D a y a k members a n d  divide  their  communities.  the  a Kenyah,  SUPP, o n e was  active Its  to  Dayak l e a d e r s  By  their  Edward  own  communal  Jerah,  and  The  while  prospect  he  against  could  of u n i t i n g  to bolster  do  their  Why,  o f t h e SDNU, among t h e  i n warding  and  politically  their  he w a n t e d  to  the banner  position  earliest join  people under  i n the  the nominal  of the  o f PANAS, Malay  t h e same i n t h e D a y a k c o m m u n i t i e s . own  to  therefore,  o f f the encroachment  Thus u n d e r  an  t o s u p p o r t PANAS.  t h e SUPP.  i s probably that  t h e Dayak c o m m u n i t i e s .  communities,  joined  a n o t h e r was  h o w e v e r , among t h e  a t t h e t i m e was  interests  answer  t h e M a l a y s worked  t h e D a y a k s who  D a y a k s b u t M a l a y s , whose o b j e c t i v e was  forces with his fellow natives SUPP i n t o  large,  one-time p r e s i d e n t  s u p p o r t PANAS?  recruit  b o t h were b u d d i n g businessmen  the tendency  p r i m e movers were n o t  defend was  Dayak l e a d e r s .  PANAS t o  Tama Weng T i n g g a n g Wan;  I b a n , J o n a t h a n Banggau Renang; important  Of  political  The  leadership  of  38  PANAS may h a v e c o n v i n c e d party,  the traditional  f o r t h e Datu Bandar  succeeded  Dayal  leaders  i n gaining  to j o i n the  the support  Temenggongs J u g a h a n d Oyong L a w a i J a u , P e n g a r a h s S i b a t , and  because  choice  the latter  o f PANAS  as opposed  was l e s s  Chinese-dominated  organised  and t h e r e  a n d more a g g r e s s i v e  party.  common  custom, and l a n d .  was a g e n e r a l  (at least  place  economically),  t o share  t h e SUPP  fear that, being  equally  interest  i n Native  By j o i n i n g  Rights  better  the Chinese  the control of  PANAS t h e y  and such m a t t e r s  hoped  PANAS was more l i k e l y  apparatus  to allow  and d e c i s i o n making  as law,  t o make a common  any p o s s i b l e encroachment by t h e Chinese  Finally, party  In the f i r s t  made  I n t h e second p l a c e , b o t h t h e Dayaks and t h e M a l a y s had i n  an i n t e n s e  against  t o SUPP seemed t o h a v e b e e n  attractive.  were u n l i k e l y t o r e l i n q u i s h o r even the  Montegrai,  P e n g h u l u s Hang a n d Umpau. The  was  of  i n these  cause  areas.^  t h e Dayaks t o dominate t h e  since  t h e M a l a y s were  numerically  inferior. For organise selves  t h e Dayak  their  communities  own p o l i t i c a l  a s t h e two p o l i t i c a l  d i v i s i o n was, o f c o u r s e , party they  affiliation could  typified the  the r e f u s a l  party  p a r t i e s scrambled  was l a r g e l y  b y Tama Weng, w e r e t h o s e  distinct  within  f o r D a y a k members.  groups:  made b y i n d i v i d u a l  be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e  leaders to  l e dto further division  not into organised  C h i n e s e u n d e r t h e SUPP.  of their  at t h i s  effort.  groups.  The  state  Nonetheless,  The f i r s t one,  D a y a k s who a l i g n e d t h e m s e l v e s  The second were t h o s e  them-  who w e r e  with  39  persuaded chiefs  to join  or their  anti-Chinese-SUPP  g r o u p s were t h o s e Malay as  group  formation one  o f Dayaks  i t cannot  that  SNAP e m e r g e d .  form  the party.  SNAP i n t h a t  The  be  In t h i s  of ethnic  that  their  from  own l a t e n t , i f  I t was  sense, t h e r e f o r e , the nationalism.  l e d to the  fragmentation  the party  hand, e t h n i c  was o r g a n i s e d  On t h e  formation among  o f t h e Dayaks  could  nationalism  i n order  be r e v e r s e d  could  from  dominance o f t h e M a l a y s and C h i n e s e prompted On t h e o t h e r  these  Chinese nor  t h e sense o f f r u s t r a t i o n  at the continuing  towards Dayak f r a g m e n t a t i o n could  apart  t h e SUPP n o r PANAS  was a f a c t o r t h a t  be d e n i e d  and h i s group  t h e impending  t o t h e Dayak  b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e l e d by n o n - D a y a k s .  o f SNAP was a m a n i f e s t a t i o n  SNAP;  and  that  them t o  was an o b j e c t i v e the trend  and t h a t  a Dayak  nation  solidified.  Founders"'"'''  The  prime movers behind  s e v e n men o f s t r i k i n g l y J.S.  Tinker,  these  seven  the formation  similar origin  Edward H o w e l l ,  Matthew Dana, J u l i n to  Quite  To t h e m , t h e D a y a k s p o s s e s s e d  hand, e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s m  Ningkan  of  sentiments.  y e t u n a r t i c u l a t e d , i n t e r e s t s which n e i t h e r  this  loyalty  among t h e D a y a k s who p r e f e r r e d n e i t h e r  leadership.  hope t o r e p r e s e n t  of  PANAS b y , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e i r  o f SNAP w e r e a c o r e o f  and b a c k g r o u n d s .  Stephen K a l o n g N i n g k a n , Edwin  anak N y i p a  o f Sebuyau  and D a v i d  Usit.  They were Howell, In addition  f i g u r e s w e r e two B r i t i s h - b o r n S h e l l w o r k e r s who  acted  40  as u n p a i d party's  consultants  first Mr.  He  J.S.  Tinker, the  journeyed  period  an  the  as  a civil  the  Following rule  by  apex o f  he  in his  sixth  Directly and  Legal year  under T i n k e r  Lionel Ketit.  B o t h men  from Borneo.  H o w e l l was  and  the  in  work as  servant,  later,  at  Singapore,  the  the  The  new  1945.  After that  before  making  he  h i s way  miles for  in  from  Shell  under  education,  employee. Brooke  I t was when he  Military  served  Japanese  and  this as  and  a after  Administration,  he was  the  Raj  during  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n chose  By  Betong  Sarawak's  the  the  Betong.  allowed  to  to  t i m e SNAP was  continue  formed,  retirement. w e r e two had  spent  educated  attended  worked  born  h i s formal  Japanese.  British  a good p a r t  Ketit  too  of  Edward their  first, had  f o r the  w h e r e he  was  Food  at  spent  to h i s family business  i n Betong  to Brunei,  Vice-Chairmen:  i n Singapore,  Raffles Institute.  w h e r e he  a  his career  Department. of  a few  finished  T i n k e r ' s w a r - t i m e c o l l a b o r a t i o n , and  s e r v i c e i n the was  c h a i r m a n , was  the withdrawal of  S a r a w a k became a Crown C o l o n y .  his  found  (1941-45), the  achieved  i n t e r i m p e r i o d of  ignore  in drafting  administrative center  1920's, h a v i n g  enlisted  Officer.  first  i n Saba, a v i l l a g e  w h e r e he  successor  t h a t he  District  In  to Brunei  S u b s e q u e n t l y he war-time  were i n s t r u m e n t a l  party's  i n Simanggang, t h e  Second D i v i s i o n .  its  who  constitution.  received h i s education  t o w n , and  he  and  employed  lives St.  by  away  Andrews  some  from  Control  Howell  time  1933  to  Department the  Shell  41  Oil  until  his resignation  SNAP's f i r s t develop worked 1959, the  into  1961.  S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l was  taught  as  a police  i n Betong,  t o l o o k f o r work.  h i s home t o w n .  served under S h e l l , found  but  had  a history  Dayak e n c l a v e s  i n the o i l - r i c h  which straddles  the border  Seria  that  Ningkan  founded  years  1955-1956 a n d  from  same y e a r  case with  I n M a r c h 1961, found  of Lutong,  b e t w e e n B r u n e i and  followed  Miri  and  secretary  to he  Ningkan  like  SNAP.  Sarawak.  t h e Dayak A s s o c i a t i o n the  August  s u c h men,  he,  service, particularly  was  he  a labourer or c l e r k ,  triangle  1958-1959 he  until  to  had  h i s a r e a by moving  the  i n order to help  o f community  i n t i m e was  F r o m 1947  That  was  of being  assistant.  resigned his position  himself  generally  instead  a j o b as a h o s p i t a l  Ketit,  As  who  L i k e T i n k e r , Ningkan  officer.  f o o t s t e p s o f s o many o t h e r D a y a k men  Brunei  Ningkan,  the p a r t y ' s major t a c t i c i a n .  f o r the Japanese he  in  Lionel  Ningkan among  and  the  Seria  I t was  in  where f o r t h e  f o r the  Shell  Dayak  Club. Other  members o f t h e  Central  Committee were D a v i d  Dana, A z a r i a s M a l o n g , Andrew Bunga and a businessman the e a r l y he  i n the then B r i t i s h  1940's.  travelled  Edwin Howell  to Malaya was  Andrew Bunga had Shell  As  employee  in  Edwin H o w e l l .  Colony  of North  f o r Matthew Dana, a f t e r and  David  Borneo  Seria.  T i n k e r and  was  (Sabah) i n  f o r some  an e n g i n e e r w i t h S a r a w a k ' s P u b l i c W o r k s  Matthew  Usit  h i s education i n  S i n g a p o r e , w h e r e he w o r k e d  a long career, l i k e  Usit,  Betong time.  Department;  Ningkan, working  as  a  42  From t h e above a c c o u n t common.  A l l were m o b i l e  particularly away f r o m  successful  i t i s clear  and s e l f - m a d e . financially,  home i n p u r s u i t  that  t h e s e men  h a d much i n  T r u e , n o n e o f them  but i n s o f a r  o f work t h e y were  as they  quite  were  had  journeyed  u n l i k e most  other  12 Dayaks of t h e i r mobility, all  they  c e n t e r was  education  group  majority  i n Betong,  were m o b i l e ,  t h e urban  society  origin;  a l l had r e c e i v e d  specifically  a characteristic  home, a n d s o c i a l l y  at least  as A n g l i c a n s . sets  major part  at St. Augustine's  which  of  School, Ningkan  and  them a p a r t f r o m  p l a c e o f employment  they had advanced  level  their  n o t o n l y were  t h e same S a r i b a s a r e a , whose  of t h e long-house  the  was  from  the  to the cosmopolitan  life  environment.  i s clear  that  from  t h e Dayak group  Iban  section—that Dayak g r o u p ,  largest  t h e common f e a t u r e o f  a similar  Geographically their  away f r o m  pre-present  The  came f r o m  In addition,  o f Dayaks.  It  shared  than  had been b a p t i s e d and c o n f i r m e d  invariably  of  also  Betong.  where t h e y his  More  h o w e v e r , t h e s e men  Ibans,  their  generation.  community  n o t o n l y was  but also  i s , from  at this that  that  t h e c o r e group  they  actually  o f SNAP's l e a d e r s  emerged from  one s u b - u n i t o f t h e Dayak  t i m e , was  their  the  collectivity.  " t e r m i n a l community" t h e  when t h e c h i p s a r e down, e f f e c t i v e l y  commands  13 men's l o y a l t y . " members f r o m dominated  several  True,  the three existing  communal  a particular  party.  groups,  parties  but i n v a r i a b l y  Thus i n t h e c a s e  recruited one  group  o f t h e SUPP,  though  43  multi-racial, The definitive group. not it  i t was C h i n e s e b a s e d ;  competition criterion  This  type  of party  PANAS, M a l a y ;  a n d SNAP, D a y a k .  l e a d e r s h i p , however, need n o t be t h e  as t o whether  SNAP was r e a l l y  of leadership with  a nationalist  i t s common a n d n a r r o w o r i g i n i s  an a b e r r a t i o n a m o n g s t n a t i o n a l i s t s i s n o t u n u s u a l t o have n a t i o n a l i s t  since  i n polyethnic  colonies  parties  w h i c h d e f i n e t h e i r aims and p o l i c i e s i n terms of wider t e r r i t o r i a l u n i t , yet are c l e a r l y s p e a r h e a d e d b y members o f o n e o r o t h e r o f t h e s t r a t e g i c e t h n i e , f o r example, t h e Kikuyu i n Kenya, t h e J a v a n e s e i n I n d o n e s i a , o r t h e Baganda  in In  other  party  Uganda.1^  w o r d s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o be a n a t i o n a l i s t  a t t h e same t i m e — i f t h a t  d o m i n a t i o n e i t h e r by c o n v e r t i n g , strategic  ethnic  group  party  succeeds  in this  case,  a n d a communal  i n gaining  political  t h e Dayaks  into a  o r by s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p e a l i n g  to cross-ethnic  support.  Objectives The be  found  general  g u i d e l i n e s o f SNAP's a c t i v i t i e s ,  i n i t s "Aims and O b j e c t s " .  s t a t e m e n t s , b u t a t t h e same t i m e to the  provide  they  i n s i g h t s into the p o l i t i c a l  direction-in In  Typically  which  they  orientations—territorial  are general  are r e v e a l i n g i n that persuasion  seek t o l e a d  terms of i t s n a t i o n a l i s m ,  these  i t s ideology, can  and e t h n i c — w h i c h  help  o f i t s l e a d e r s and  the people  i t s ideology  they  o f Sarawak.  incorporates  i n varying  degrees  t h e two have  44  been  instrumental  existence  the  Objects".  party  This  although  at  that  obscured  by  the  1.  i n determining published  statement time  the  label.  party  actions.  a document  entitled  reveals  much o f  gist  its political  The  of  party's  Early  "SNAP's A i m s  its nationalist  A i m s and  doctrine  Objects  To p r o m o t e t h e p o l i t i c a l a d v a n c e m e n t o f i n h a b i t a n t s o f Sarawak w i t h t h e aim o f a c h i e v i n g s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t and ultimate independence.  2.  To  ensure  freedom of  particularly  to  s p e e c h and  secure  the  in i t s  of  somewhat  and liberty.  To e s t a b l i s h a r e s p o n s i b l e and energetic g o v e r n m e n t b a s e d on p a r l i a m e n t a r y democracy.  4.  To  cultural  was  were  3.  p r o m o t e e c o n o m i c and  ideology,  the  religion  blessings  and  development  o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f Sarawak and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o i m p r o v e t h e e a r n i n g - p o w e r o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and thereby to r a i s e the standard of l i v i n g . 5.  To s a f e g u a r d t h e i n t e r e s t s and w e l f a r e o f t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e s and t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f S a r a w a k i n g e n e r a l and e s p e c i a l l y t o p r o t e c t t h e r i g h t s o f t h e individual.  6.  To p r o m o t e t h e l e a g u e o f harmony o f a l l r a c e s and a s p i r i t of cooperation, endeavour.15  There nationalism. Objects", states  Proof  to  particularly  that  inhabitants ultimate  i s evidence  i t seeks  to  to  this  indicate that  first  "promote  independence."^  SNAP e x h i b i t e d  e f f e c t i s found  i n the  of Sarawak w i t h  f r i e n d s h i p and racial^ to i n s p i r e a l l persons w i t h s e l f - r e l i a n c e and h o n e s t  the  goal  the  aim  of  in i t s list  i n which the  political achieving  territorial of  party  advancement  "Aims  and  bluntly of  the  self-government  and  45  The lies  i n the fact  a major the  importance that  of the p r i n c i p l e this  f u n c t i o n , namely  citizens  defined  aspect  of the ideology  of t e r r i t o r i a l  legitimation:  of i t s p a r t i c u l a r doctrine  by t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s t h e m s e l v e s  that  or s t a t e as  the nation  should  receive  has  by Anthony  appear  i n evey n a t i o n a l i s t  SNAP.  According  such r i g h t s as  of the doctrine  S m i t h , who  observes  movement o r p a r t y — i n c l u d i n g ,  t o Smith t h e groundwork  performs  a c c e p t a n c e by  The p r o p o s i t i o n s  summarised  nationalism  above  i . e . , the moral  autonomy, o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . been a d e q u a t e l y  outlined  itself  that  they  presumably,  i n t h e n a t i o n a l i s t argument  r u n s as f o l l o w s : 1.  The w o r l d  i s naturally divided  into nations,  of which has i t s p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r  each  and d e s t i n y ;  2.  t h e n a t i o n i s t h e s o u r c e o f a l l p o l i t i c a l power, and l o y a l t y t o i t o v e r r i d e s a l l o t h e r loyalties;  3.  i f t h e y w i s h t o be f r e e , and t o r e a l i s e t h e m s e l v e s , men m u s t i d e n t i f y w i t h a n d b e l o n g t o a n a t i o n ;  4.  g l o b a l freedom • liberation  5.  and peace  are the functions  of the  and s e c u r i t y o f a l l n a t i o n s ;  n a t i o n s c a n o n l y be l i b e r a t e d and f u l f i l l e d i n t h e i r own s o v e r e i g n s t a t e s . 1 7  The  first  and p e r h a p s t h e b a s i c  then, concerns that to  the issue  feature  o f SNAP's t e r r i t o r i a l  of sovereignty.  SNAP, o f c o u r s e ,  t h e Crown C o l o n y o f S a r a w a k w o u l d , a s a m a t t e r  the status  of a sovereign  nation-state,  that  advocated  of right,  i s , as a  nationalism,  advance  legitimate 18  country.  The c h o i c e  a g o a l was c r i t i c a l  of sovereignty, to the party's  or "ultimate  nationalism  independence",  f o r i t provided  the  as  46  basis  to  l e g i t i m i s e , i . e . , to  exercise  of  principle  authority.  of  No  independence  ensure  a moral acceptance,  disagreement since  the  apparently  for  existed  c o l o n i a l power had  the  over  the  indicated i t s  19 desire fact  to  depart  that,  some p o i n t The building, the  at  become a other  citizenry  conflict,  ideal  of  the  history  the  such b a s i c  over,  as  On badges of  those  the  Britain,  Sarawak would  at  the  to  to  notion  In and  this  of  development  i t s concept  l o y a l t y and  pride  communal l e v e l  nation-  commitment  of  territorial  and  of  l o y a l t y were  of a " m e l t i n g - p o t " n a t i o n a l i t y i n cultural other  group w i t h  words, the  c i t i z e n s h i p be  freedom  i s , the  this:  i t s own  party  dis-  rejected  the  fused. legal  a l l the  As  full  of  s p e e c h and  status  to  of  inhabitants  citizens  Sarawak t h e y were e n t i t l e d as  of  diffuse potential flashpoints  status.  the  was  i t s prescription for  p o s i t i o n was  r i g h t s as  cultural  Great  i n which ethnic  culture  party's  inhabitants  cultural  as  of n a t i o n a l i t y , that  Sarawak were e n t i t l e d given  In  i s nurtured.  issue  SNAP a c c e p t e d  secure  Sarawak-based  territory, the  to  sought  the  i t s turn  SNAP's n a t i o n a l i s m  state.  SNAP c l e a r l y  citizenship,  and  of  of  In  nation.  i s , i t s search  It rejected  that On  sovereign  aspect  common and  tinctive  region.  courtesy  particularly  stake.  which a  the  through the  that  solidarity  from  they  should  religion. their  of  own  be  Moreeconomic  well. e a c h g r o u p was  i d e n t i t y s u c h as  entitled  religion,  to  language,  retain i t s and  own  culture.  47  This  r i g h t i s emphasised  SNAP p r o m i s e d  i n the party's  t o "ensure  t h e freedom  "Aims and Objects",-  i n which  o f s p e e c h and r e l i g i o n , and  20 particularly fourth  goal  development not  SNAP c o m m i t t e d  itself  of l i b e r t y . "  Further,  t o the promotion  In short,  willingly  the fourth  goal  against  in its  of the c u l t u r a l  of Sarawakians, a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n that  seek t o d i s c r i m i n a t e  members. of  to secure the b l e s s i n g s  the party  would  any o f t h e component  identified  ethnic  a t l e a s t one d i m e n s i o n  SNAP's p o l i c y o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m . Introduced  multiculturalism  as p a r t policy.  were c i r c u m s c r i b e d natives,  of the f i f t h  was a n o t h e r  To SNAP t h e r i g h t s o f b e i n g  b y an o v e r r i d i n g  o f t h e s t a t e would  particular  goal  provision  by law e n j o y  position of the party  i s found  so t h a t  aspect  a Sarawak  national  one segment, t h e  certain privileges. No. 5 ,  i n Object  of i t s  This  i n which  21 SNAP p r o p o s e d  to "safeguard  Characteristically advocate.  t h e i n t e r e s t s and w e l f a r e  i t was v a g u e o n t h e k i n d s  Indeed, having  stated  de-emphasise i t s  of  the i n d i v i d u a l , i n c l u d i n g the Chinese.  of  state,  b u t as w e l l  privileges.  f o r i t promised  h e r e , h o w e v e r , was t h a t  each c u l t u r e — D a y a k ,  point  included  this  Malays.  also  and M a l a y s — a s  group  i t would  seemed  to protect  The p o i n t  SNAP n o t o n l y  s i n g l e d out a group  At t h i s  term which a l s o  Chinese,  of safeguards  i t s position, the party  to  established  importance  of the natives."  which  endorsed  eager  the rights  i t had t h e growth  building blocks  of the  o f them a s e n t i t l e d t o i s r e f e r r e d t o as " n a t i v e s " ,  I n p r a c t i c e , h o w e v e r , when SNAP's  a  48  leaders  utilised  t h e term,  SNAP's a c t i v i t i e s  t h e y meant o n l y  confirmed.  Dayaks,  For instance,  areas and, as has been  seen,  i t s leaders  community, s p e c i f i c a l l y  the Iban  a point  i torganised  which only  i n Dayak  emerged f r o m t h e Dayak  22  The  group.  o t h e r p a r t y w i t h I b a n l e a d e r s h i p was P e s a k a .  I t was  formed  23 in  June,  Third  1962, by a c o t e r i e  Division.  of traditional  The o r i g i n a l and Pengarah  l e a d e r s were Penghulu  Francis  Umpau,  support  o f most o f t h e P e n g h u l u s  t h e p a r t y was f o r m e d , Jugah,  was p e r s u a d e d  Iban leaders  Banyang.  (now D a t u k ) ,  In i t s formation i t had the  from the T h i r d  Division.  the paramount-chief o f the Ibans, to resign  from the  f r o m PANAS  and t o l e a d  Soon  after  Temenggong  Pesaka. 24  The  purpose  w i t h o t h e r Dayaks Kayans, it  o f P e s a k a was i n Sarawak,  and Bidayuh  had l i m i t e d  SNAP w h i c h  tribes  that  under  i t s memberships  Iban t r i b e  only.  membership  Dayak  raided  Charles  Brooke,  t h e Ibans  when he ns f o r c e ti n R aa j sa eh r i eesm p loofy epdu n iI tb ia v e  Initially, Thus  from  Kenyahs, at least,  i n contrast to  the beginning,  people.  The much  and p l u n d e r e d t h e t e r r i t o r i e s  the n e i g h b o u r i n g B i d a y u h and Kayan groups. Sir  Ibans,  front"  organisation.  t h e Dayaks were a d i v i d e d a t one time  unite  i t s leadership.  accepted a m u l t i - r a c i a l  Historically  i s , i twould  t o Dayaks  P e s a k a was a t o n e t i m e a p u r e l y  larger  t o f o r m a "common a n d u n i t e d  themselves  Under t h e r e i g n  fought against  of  o f Rajah  each o t h e r  m d itthieo nS se c oa ng da i nD si tv i stihoen T hfior r ef xr po e dhi D isv if si ie ol nd .  25  49  The he  intent had  but  o f t h e R a j a h , o f c o u r s e , was  just  the a n i m o s i t i e s  remained. of  acquired  from the Sultan between  the Iban  the leadership  own  groups  called  Pesaka  Division  summary, t h e n , i t may  be  said  that  parties  were e i t h e r  o r PANAS. insiders,  In  joined could  enter  into  and,  The  several  a common c a u s e  a third  formed  i t was  sub-ethnic  not  groups  party  the  of  or to j o i n  and  political  t h e SUPP  parliamentary that  i n the defence of  core  the largest  Malays  they  founded  SNAP  voting  bloc  as w e l l .  a homogeneous community, b e i n g  to  and  native  at a l a t e r  from which  group  having different  of  Malays  the fragmentation of the  t h e y were a p r i v i l e g e d  in  support.  to the formation  o f D a y a k s who  t o stem  Division  t h e C h i n e s e and  inferior  as a s t r a t e g i c  Dayak community  that  group  instead  the e a r l i e s t p o l i t i c a l  by  Dayak l e a d e r s ,  o b j e c t i v e was  being natives,  p r o b l e m was  of ethnic  altogether  the n u m e r i c a l l y  t o u s e t h e Dayak group  power.  politics  that  s e n s e , SNAP  t h e M a l a y - l e d PANAS, p r o b a b l y b e l i e v i n g  t h e r e was  whose u n d e r l y i n g  of  to avoid  then dominate  addition,  and  Dayak r e a c t i o n s  The most p r o m i n e n t  the Malays rights,  Initially  came,  divisions  a political  Thus i n a r e a l  p a r t i e s w h i c h p r e c e d e d SNAP w e r e d o m i n a t e d respectively.  on  which  eventually  from t h e Second  P e s a k s w e r e c o m p e t i t o r s f o r t h e same r e s e r v o i r In  Peace  surprising  embarked  anak Sarawak.  the t e r r i t o r y  o f t h e two  hardly  of the Ibans  SNAP, t h e I b a n s o f t h e T h i r d their  of Brunei.  G i v e n s u c h s e n t i m e n t i t was  accepting  to pacify  date. and Dayaks  gain  i n Sarawak The composed  s e n t i m e n t s and  loyalties.  50  In Public, two  the  few  SNAP was  months o f expressing  o r i e n t a t i o n s , though  complementary  1961  before  ethnic  conceptually  to e a c h o t h e r .  SNAP's a s s u m e d b a s e g r o u p , t h e  of  Sarawak's p o p u l a t i o n . Dayaks  could  collectivity SNAP, t h e position  had  only  contradictory  the  p o t e n t i a l of  the  party's  core  the  f o r the  the  foundation  be  group  noted  that  could  exert  SNAP t h e  i n f l u e n c e of  ethnic  core  whence i t s l e a d e r s therefore, for  an  the  i s the  emerged.  ethnic  were a t  this  constituted nearly  In  this  sense the  strategic  existing,  was  i t s policy  the  Federal  group  derived  Government. dominant  Translated  an  ethnic  Sarawakian  also part  inferior  territorial-nationalism  their  ethnic  problem with  the  Dayaks as  of  and to  strength  group  Sarawak  for  from  situation,  i s a Dayak-led a s p i r a t i o n  Sarawak n a t i o n h o o d . The  society.  T h i s means t h a t  i n t o the  and  i s not  T h e i r weak p o s i t i o n was  they  Dayak, the  SNAP,  membership.  i n Sarawak, a l t h o u g h  influence.  44%  favourable  r e l i a n c e on of  size  Dayak  ethnic  in a  of m u l t i - r a c i a l  then  the  i t became a b l o c u n d e r  the  The  time  seem p o s s i b l e was  building block  even  became  nationalisms.  " n a t i v e s " , were n u m e r i c a l l y  but  proposal  Such e t h n i c p r e f e r e n c e  of  Malays  little  change a f t e r M a l a y s i a , through the  aspect  the  l o o s e l y termed  therefore  then  concept  an  should  being  Dayak s u p p o r t .  i t illustrates  It  that  SNAP i n g o v e r n m e n t .  Rather, as  distinct,  D a y a k s , who  Presuming  Dayak b a s e d p a r t y  to  territorial  put  to a t t r a c t  Malaysia  What made t h i s  of  the  and  the  a political  f o r c e was  that  51  while  they constituted  remained  unrealised.  the majority  of Sarawakians, t h e i r  Not o n l y were t h e y d i v i d e d  into  solidarity  sub-ethnic  26 groups major  but t h e i r groups  centering  on l e a d e r s h i p . headed  largest  While  by a g r o u p  component,  around  SNAP  t h e I b a n s , were  and P e s a k a .  Their  split  division  SNAP was l e d b y a s e l f - m a d e e l i t e ,  of t r a d i t i o n a l  l e a d e r s who w e r e a l s o  into  Pesaka  two  was b a s e d was  parliamentary  27 insiders. the  Iban  Since neither  group  c o m m u n i t y was t h e r e f o r e  succession.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p  appeared w i l l i n g  the other,  saddled w i t h a problem of leadership  between  some i n t e r e s t .  Though c o o p e r a t i o n  situation  benefit  would  to follow  t h e two c o n t e n d i n g e l i t e s  i s of  b e t w e e n t h e m was p o s s i b l e — i f t h e  both p a r t i e s — i t  would  be i n h e r e n t l y  unstable.  Footnotes  52  to Chapter I I I  1.  The t r a n s f e r o f p o w e r f r o m t h e B r o o k e s t o t h e C o l o n i a l G o v e r n m e n t met w i t h o p p o s i t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m t h e M a l a y community and t h e h e i r presumptive t o the Rajah, Anthony Brooke. See, f o r i n s t a n c e , R o y a l I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , Sarawak: P o l i t i c a l and E c o n o m i c Background (London: mimeographed, 1957), pp.2-5.  2.  M i c h a e l B. L e i g h , Sydney U n i v e r s i t y  3.  S a r a w a k T r i b u n e , M a r c h 5,  4.  Ibid.  5.  Ibid.  6.  P a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s was i t s s u c c e s s i n g e t t i n g t h e s u p p o r t o f Chinese c l a n a s s o c i a t i o n s . C.A. L o c k h a r d , " L e a d e r s h i p a n d Power w i t h i n t h e C h i n e s e Community o f S a r a w a k " , J o u r n a l o f S o u t h e a s t A s i a n S t u d i e s (L970-1971), p.212.  7.  M i c h a e l B.  Leigh,  T h e R i s i n g Moon: P o l i t i c a l P r e s s , 1974), p.13.  The  Change i n Sarawak  (Sydney:  1959.  Rising  Moon: P o l i t i c a l  C h a n g e i n S a r a w a k , op. c i t  p.14. 8.  " D a t u " i s a h e r e d i t a r y t i t l e i n Sarawak and Sabah. T h i s s h o u l d n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h "Datuk" o r "Dato" (and t h e v a r i a n t s s u c h as "Dato S r i " ) w h i c h a r e t i t l e s a w a r d e d by a s t a t e a n d , f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e , t h e F e d e r a l Government. Today, a f e d e r a l "Datuk" c a r r i e s t h e t i t l e "Tan Sri". Above "Datuk" o r "Tan S r i " i s a n o t h e r f e d e r a l t i t l e c a l l e d "Tun" I t i s a l s o " n o n - h e r e d i t a r y " a n d i s c o n f e r r e d o n l y by t h e Yang D i p e r t u a n Agung, t h e K i n g . S e v e r a l s t a t e s i n M a l a y s i a s t i l l use "Dato", which i s the o l d s p e l l i n g f o r "Datuk". I n t h i s p a p e r i t i s e m p l o y e d when a p p r o p riate. (R.S. M i l n e a n d D i a n e K. M a u z y , P o l i t i c s a n d G o v e r n m e n t i n M a l a y s i a [Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1978], p.viii.) T h e D a y a k s do n o t h a v e a n y h e r e d i t a r y t i t l e s . Their leadership h i e r a r c h y was a n i n v e n t i o n o f t h e B r o o k e s ( R o b e r t P r i n g l e , R a j a h and - R e b e l s : The I b a n s o f Sarawak u n d e r B r o o k e R u l e 1841-1941 [ I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ] , p. ). O r i g i n a l l y , t h e Dayaks had o n l y " T u a i Rumah", l i t e r a l l y t h e h e a d o f e a c h l o n g h o u s e , t h e D a y a k c o m m u n i t y d w e l l i n g w h i c h c a n r a n g e f r o m s e v e r a l t o o v e r one h u n d r e d families. For a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes t h e Second Rajah, S i r C h a r l e s B r o o k e , i n t r o d u c e d a s u p e r i o r l e v e l o f l e a d e r s h i p a b o v e t h e " T u a i Rumah c a l l e d " P e n g h u l u " whose j u r i s d i c t i o n u s u a l l y e x t e n d e d o v e r one o r more river valleys. A b o v e t h e " P e n g h u l u " , was " P e n g a r a h " . At the apex o f t h e h i e r a r c h y was t h e r a n k o f "Temenggong", t h e p a r a m o u n t - c h i e f . In 1963 t h e r e w e r e o n l y two " T e m e n g g o n g s " i n S a r a w a k . They were Jugah a n a k B a r i e n g a n d Oyong L a w a i J a u . W h i l e t h e f o r m e r was t h e "Temenggong o f t h e I b a n s , t h e l a t t e r was t h e p a r a m o u n t - c h i e f o f t h e K a y a n s , K e n y a h s and K e l a b i t s .  53 9.  10.  ; .  S a r a w a k T r i b u n e , M a r c h 5, 1 9 6 9 , c i t e d b y L e i g h , op. c i t . , p.12. Mr. B r a n d a h was a w a r d e d t h e t i t l e " D a t u k " b y t h e N i n g k a n g o v e r n m e n t . He i s now l i v i n g i n r e t i r e m e n t i n K u c h i n g . Although h i s son-in-law C h a r l e s I n g k a was a c t i v e i n SNAP a n d l a t e r P a j a r , t h e D a t u k r e m a i n s a p o l i t i c a l t o t h i s day, p r e f e r r i n g i n s t e a d t o d e v o t e h i s t i m e t o t h e A n g l i c a n Church. P a j a r , a n a t i v e p a r t y , was f o r m e d i n 1977 b y A l i i K a w i , who was a s e n i o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r b e f o r e he e n t e r e d p o l i t i c s . T e n s i o n s b e t w e e n t h e N a t i v e s a n d t h e C h i n e s e h a v e l e d t o some b l o o d letting. T h e e a r l i e s t l a r g e s c a l e c l a s h b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s o c c u r r e d i n 1857 i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f a C h i n e s e r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t t h e B r o o k e Raj. The r e b e l s were Hakka C h i n e s e g o l d - m i n e r s f r o m Bau, t h e o n l y l a r g e C h i n e s e c o l o n y i n Sarawak. The C h i n e s e s a c k e d K u c h i n g , t h e c a p i t a l , o n F e b r u a r y 18, 1857, a n d n e a r l y k i l l e d t h e R a j a h h i m s e l f . Rajah James B r o o k e m a n a g e d t o g a t h e r a l o y a l i s t f o r c e c o n s i s t i n g m a i n l y o f Skrang Ibans. Soon t h e C h i n e s e were d r i v e n o v e r t h e b o r d e r t o I n d o n e s i a n Borneo ( R o b e r t P r i n g l e , R a j a h s and R e b e l s : The I b a n s o f Sarawak u n d e r B r o o k e R u l e 1841 t o 1941 [ I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 0 ] , p.106). I n 1967, i t was w i d e l y r u m o u r e d t h a t t h e D a y a k s o f I n d o n e s i a h a d waged a war a g a i n s t t h e C h i n e s e i n t h e P o n t i a n a k r e g i o n .  11.  The i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s s e c t i o n was t a k e n f r o m N e l s o n K u d u , S a r a w a k N a t i o n a l P a r t y : i t s H i s t o r y , O r g a n i s a t i o n , and L e a d e r s h i p ( K u c h i n g : Sarawak N a t i o n a l P a r t y , 1973). In a d d i t i o n , Datuk Ningkan p r o v i d e d some b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n on h i m s e l f d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w i n J u n e , 1976. See a l s o M i c h a e l L e i g h , " P a r t y F o r m a t i o n i n S a r a w a k , " I n d o n e s i a , No. 9 ( A p r i l , 1 9 7 0 ) , p p . 1 8 9 - 2 2 4 .  12.  A n o t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y b e l o n g e d t o a c l u s t e r o f I b a n s f r o m t h e S a r i b a s , S e c o n d D i v i s i o n , who h a d s e r v e d t h e J a p a n e s e d u r i n g t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War a n d who, a s a c o n s e q u e n c e , had g e n e r a l l y f a l l e n i n t o d i s f a v o u r w i t h the B r i t i s h . I f t h e i r war-time a c t i v i t i e s were viewed as a c t s of a n t i - c o l o n i a l i s m w i t h t h e o b j e c t o f overthrowing the Brooke R a j , i t i s p o s s i b l e to view t h e i r war-time coll a b o r a t i o n as a c t s o f o p p o r t u n e c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h a " l i b e r a t i n g " power.  13.  Rupert Emerson, From Empire t o N a t i o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960), pp.95-96.  14.  A n t h o n y S m i t h , " I n t r o d u c t i o n : The F o r m a t i o n o f N a t i o n a l i s t Movements," i n A n t h o n y S m i t h , e d . , N a t i o n a l i s t Movements ( L o n d o n : T h e M a c m i l l a n P r e s s , 1976), p.5.  15.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , A p r i l  16.  See  17.  Anthony  Objective Smith,  One  " N a t i o n a l i s m : a Trend  One  No.  3  Mass.: H a r v a r d  1961.  o f SNAP's " A i m s a n d  S o c i o l o g y , V o l . XXI, Objective  11,  (Cambridge,  (1973),  O b j e c t s " on p a g e Report  and  37.  Bibliography"  Current  p.10.  18.  See  o f SNAP's " A i m s a n d  O b j e c t s " on p a g e  37.  19.  S e e , f o r i n s t a n c e , S a r a w a k G o v e r n m e n t , "The G o v e r n m e n t P a p e r o n M a l a y s i a and Sarawak", Sarawak G a z e t t e , V o l . LXXXVIII ( J a n u a r y , 1962), p.9.  54 20.  See O b j e c t i v e  Two  o f SNAP's " A i m s a n d O b j e c t s "  21.  See O b j e c t i v e  F i v e o f SNAP's  22.  By l a t e 1965 a s r e l a t i o n s w i t h i t s a l l i a n c e p a r t n e r s a n d t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t d e t e r i o r a t e d SNAP b e g a n t o r e c r u i t n o n - D a y a k members, p a r t i c u l a r l y Chinese.  23.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  24.  I b i d . , J u l y 20, 1 9 6 2 .  25.  On t h e B r o o k e s ' p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s a n d s u b s e q u e n t p e a c e a g r e e m e n t s see: R o b e r t P r i n g l e , op. c i t . ; S t e v e n R u n c i m a n , T h e W h i t e R a j a h s : A H i s t o r y o f S a r a w a k f r o m 1941 t o 1946 (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960).  26.  To i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o i n t , t h e Kayans t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e I b a n s , o n e - t i m e e n e m i e s , w e r e a c t u a l l y d e s c e n d e d f r o m worms ( J e r o m e Rousseau, " E t h n i c I d e n t i t y and S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s i n C e n t r a l Borneo," i n J u d i t h Nagata, ed., C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l . V I I (1975), p.45.  27.  The t e n d e n c y f o r s u c h e l i t e s t o compete h a s been n o t e d by M a u r i c e D u v e r g e r , P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s , t h e O r g a n i s a t i o n and A c t i v i t y i n t h e M o d e r n S t a t e ( L o n d o n : M e t h u e n & C o . , 1955) p p . x x x i v - x x x v .  June  "Aims and O b j e c t s "  on page on page  38. 38.  18, 1962.  55  CHAPTER I V  MALAYSIA  The  Formation On  Malaya, and  May 27, 1 9 6 1 , T e n g k u A b d u l  called  the three  Borneo. were  of Malaysia  f o ra closer territories  to transform these  are worth  understanding  of British  H i s remarks, which  Rahman, t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f between Malaya,  Borneo—Brunei,  s e t i n motion  territories  into  Sarawak and N o r t h  the p o l i t i c a l  a legal  Singapore,  forces  that  nation-state, Malaysia,  quoting i n part. Sooner o r l a t e r she /Malaya7 s h o u l d have a n unders t a n d i n g w i t h B r i t a i n and the peoples o f Singapore, N o r t h Borneo, B r u n e i and Sarawak. I t i s premature f o r me t o s a y now how t h i s c l o s e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g c a n b e b r o u g h t a b o u t b u t i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t we s h o u l d l o o k a h e a d t o t h i s o b j e c t i v e a n d t h i n k o f a way whereby t h e s e t e r r i t o r i e s c a n be b r o u g h t c l o s e r t o gether i n a p o l i t i c a l and economic c o - o p e r a t i o n . 1  On  economic and c u l t u r a l  f e d e r a t i o n made g o o d s e n s e  their  f o r the f i v e lingua  tration  developed The  controlled  Singapore  territories  franca.  the idea of a  since the f i v e  T h e y h a d a common c u r r e n c y . centre  grounds  territories  h a d much i n common.  s e r v e d as t h e main  concerned.  In addition  Malaysian  Malay  commercial  and/or E n g l i s h  were  t h e y h a d a common p a t t e r n o f a d m i n i s -  by the B r i t i s h .  T e n g k u ' s p r o p o s a l was w e l l  the Borneo  territories,  e x a m p l e , Mr. M a c M i l l a n ,  then  were  the B r i t i s h  timed.  The B r i t i s h ,  who  favourable to the idea.  still For  prime m i n i s t e r , d e c l a r e d the  56  following Intent  June  t h a t t h e Tengku's p r o p o s a l  on r e s e t t i n g  Conservative  the widest  i t s s i g h t s on European i n t e g r a t i o n ,  g o v e r n m e n t was a n x i o u s  administrative  merited  and m i l i t a r y  Mr.  f o r a phased withdrawal  responsibilities  from  discussion. MacMillan's of British  the Southeast  Asian  region. The Tengku's evoked  Singapore confidence,  g o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h by t h i s received h i s proposal  time  had gained the  favourably,  and i n d e e d had  i t by p o i n t i n g t o t h e t h r e a t o f a l e f t - w i n g t a k e o v e r  independant resolved t h o s e who  Singapore.  I n Singapore  by means o f a r e f e r e n d u m voted  ment p a s s e d  indicated  that  Reaction  t h e q u e s t i o n o f a m e r g e r was  i n which over  they were  a motion of support  seventy  pro-merger.  f o r the concept  i n B o r n e o was m i x e d ;  i n an  per cent o f  In Malaya,  Parlia-  i n October 1961.  " t h e r e has b e e n a good d e a l o f  2 c o n f u s i o n and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g commentator.  the other  two b e i n g  A t t h a t time,  was a b i g g e r  merger p r o p o s a l s " ,  I n 1961 o n e o f t h e t e r r i t o r i e s  protectorate, colonies.  over  concept  than  was B r u n e i ,  Sarawak and N o r t h  "a f e d e r a t i o n o f j u s t most B o r n e a n s  w r o t e one a  Borneo,  t h e Borneo  British both  Crown  territories  could accommodate—far  less  an  3 affiliation tories  with  far-away Malaya and Singapore."  o p p o s i t i o n to M a l a y s i a  leaders. Peoples'  came f r o m a " U n i t e d  This anti-Malaysia front Party  h e a d e d b y A.M.  In these  Front" of p o l i t i c a l  c o n s i s t e d o f t h e Sarawak  ( S U P P ) , l e d b y Ong K e e H u i , B r u n e i ' s Azahari  and t h e North  Borneo's  terri-  Party  United  Ra'ayat,  United National  Kadazan  Organization  (UNKO) c h a i r e d  by D o n a l d  When t h e T e n g k u a n n o u n c e d support  from Borneo  Stephens.  t h a t h e was g e n e r a l l y  f o rh i s proposal  the United  optimistic  Front  quickly  about  replied  that the B r i t i s h government s h o u l d be a d v i s e d t h a t so f a r a s the w i s h e s o f t h e p e o p l e i n the three territories a r e a s c e r t a i n a b l e , any p l a n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e p r o n o u n c e m e n t s made b y T e n g k u A b d u l Rahman i n B r u n e i and S a r a w a k w o u l d b e t o t a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e people o f the three territories.^ The  overwhelming  initial  not  to continue,  however.  several  important  rejection against  leaders  After  reversed  D a t u B a n d a r o f S a r a w a k , who Donald  Stephens  o f UNKO.  after h i s public  their  initial  their  d e c l a r a t i o n of support  and  opposition  to h i s b e l i e f  alternative stand  a Borneo  region develop  Plan.  In addition  to the e x t e r n a l  o f domestic  the  felt  that  communist  insurgency.  the plan  itself,  viable  to change h i s  federation threats also  Given  even  Stephens'  work by t h e B r i t i s h  i n t o problems o f s e c u r i t y , B r i t i s h Borneo  possibility  (PANAS), and  the l a t t e r  Donald  T h a t h e was s o o n  o f t h e d a n g e r o f a weak B o r n e o  of turmoil.  British  Sarawak  f e d e r a t i o n was a t r u l y  to t h e Tengku's p l a n .  Stephens  Negara  for Malaysia,  was l a r g e l y t h e r e s u l t o f p e r s u a s i v e  convinced  p a r t i c u l a r l y the  was d u e t o h i s u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h that  of opposition,  the former kept a low p r o f i l e ,  became a n a c t i v e p r o p o n e n t o f t h e M a l a y s i a initial  o f a m e r g e r was  gestures  stand,  l e d the Party While  the idea  who  in a  which  could  faced the  these  Sarawak and N o r t h Borneo w o u l d b e s t  problems, become  parts  58  of  the proposed Malaysian  protected  f e d e r a t i o n where  i n a common d e f e n c e  Operating  i n the generally favourable  on t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t  Committee tives  the l a s t  the Cobbold  of  the delegates An  Given  Consultative Chiefly  the tasks  a guide  February  of inquiring  To t h i s  e n d t h e c o m m i t t e e met  3, 1 9 6 2 .  I t s memorandum  reflected  the consensus  territories.^ the Cobbold Commission,  into  the proposal  t h e Cobbold Commission  f o rquestions  had been  lasted  a mere two m o n t h s .  on the spot  utilised  and compromises.  1962, a n d c o n f i n e d i t s s u r v e y  visit  the objec-  as w e l l as " t o promote and  f o r i n t h e M a c M i l l a n - T e n g k u a g r e e m e n t o f November  recommendations,  its  territories  views and o p i n i o n s  C o m m i s s i o n was b e l i e v e d t o h a v e  Anglo-Malayan Commission,  provided  Solidarity  o f w h i c h was o n F e b r u a r y  from t h e f i v e  c r e a t e d by t h e  from t h e f i v e  and c o l l a t e  the r e a l i z a t i o n o f Malaysia."  times,  atmosphere  Stephens.  the c r e a t i o n of Malaysia...",  to  as  of a Malaysia  o f t h e MSCC was t o " c o l l e c t  expedite four  the leaders  (MSCC) t o b e c h a i r e d b y D o n a l d  concerning  would be  system.  good r e c e p t i o n t o t h e merger, agreed  two t e r r i t o r i e s  23, 1961. and making  t h e r e p o r t o f t h e MSCC  I t arrived  on the scene In  t o Sarawak and N o r t h  Borneo,  where  The m a j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e , i t  9 concluded, In  July  Federation, Points  supported  Malaysia.  1963, t h e S u l t a n o f B r u n e i but, this  on i n d i v i d u a l  setback  decided  aside, Malaysia  and s t a t e matters  raised  against j o i n i n g the  was i n c h i n g t o w a r d s by t h e C o b b o l d  reality.  Commission  59  were b e i n g and  sorted  t h e two  o u t by  Borneo  the Inter-Governmental  colonies,  chaired  Lansdowne Commission w h i c h worked of  t h e new  federation,  In  Sarawak  the p a r t l y appointed  on March was On  8,  1963,  r e a c h e d by July  9,  thus  to j o i n  1963,  the  f e d e r a t i o n on August  SNAP's R e a c t i o n  was  to  Tengku's  such an idea  easing  the entry  the Malaysian  finally  I t was  o f t h e two  legislature,  the d o c u m e n t — t h e  federation,  Lansdowne.  of Malaya the  out the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l arrangements  the L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l  the  The  by L o r d  Committee  colonies."^  the C o u n c i l  federation.^  Negri,  A similar result  o f N o r t h Borneo on March  London A g r e e m e n t — w h i c h  signed.  voted  I t provided  31 o f t h e same  13.  established  f o r the c r e a t i o n o f  year.  Malaysia  proposal  c a u g h t SNAP's l e a d e r s  had been p r o p o s e d b e f o r e — f r o m  as  by  surprise.  True,  f a r b a c k a s 1949  by  the  12 British  and a g a i n  i n 1955.  But  the p e r i o d i c  had  always been  followed  by  had  been  evidence  to i n d i c a t e  move by  the Tengku.  were c o n s u l t e d  o r informed  really  little  a serious  instance, courtesy  and s e n s i t i v i t y  P l a n w o u l d be  foisted  on  ultimate  aroused  colonies  concerned  a n d may  have  decision  to oppose  the concept.  rejection. that  i n advance.  contributed  time  leaders,  Such a l a c k  i n SNAP t h a t the approval  to the party's  Soon a f t e r t h e U n i t e d  concept  1961,  at this  None o f t h e B o r n e o  without  o f the  P r i o r t o May  the proposal  the s u s p i c i o n  the c i t i z e n s  emergence  there was  for  of  the  Malaysia  of the subsequent  Front  was  formed,  60  SNAP a n n o u n c e d The  party In  i t s support  was b a r e l y rejecting  nationalist  politically that of  three  that  mere s t a t e . plan, the  charged  to the Malaysia  Late  SNAP  that  relied  Plan.  h e a v i l y on i t s  o f being  voiced  the proposed  and would  P l a n was a full  i n 1961, a p p a r e n t l y  Ningkan again  British  Plan,  retrogressive i n nature  Sarawak's a s p i r a t i o n  the Malaysia  Sarawak would as a m a t t e r o f r i g h t  The p a r t y  i s , to agree  i n resisting  months o l d a t t h e t i m e .  the Malaysia  argument  independence.  d f t h e body  receive  f e d e r a t i o n was  deny Sarawak i t s  t o s a n c t i o n ;the  sovereign  full  statehood;  reduction  power t o t h a t  of a  a l a r m e d a t t h e momentum o f t h e  h i s o p p o s i t i o n and t h i s  time even  implored  f o r help. To t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e M a l a y s i a P l a n we s a y : 'No merger w i t h M a l a y a . We w a n t t o a c h i e v e selfgovernment and u l t i m a t e independence a l l o u r s e l v e s . We want t o r e m a i n i n t h e B r i t i s h Commonwealth. We are n o t communists. We a r e S a r a w a k p a t r i o t s . We e a r n e s t l y r e q u e s t t h e B r i t i s h government t o p r o t e c t us a s w e l l a s h e l p us t o s t e e r o u r s h i p i n t h e r i g h t direction.'13  Clearly, that  one o f t h e b a s i c  t h e proposed merger would  towards p o l i t i c a l the  very  integrity  maturity.  f o r SNAP's o p p o s i t i o n was  permanently  The b e l i e f  arrest  Sarawak's  i n a right  groundwork o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f n a t i o n a l i s m .  SNAP c o n s i d e r e d  , . this  reasons  t h a t as p a t r i o t s  o f the country  i t "would be f a t a l  the fear progress  to sovereignty i s The l e a d e r s o f to t h e honour and  to h e s i t a t e i n p r o t e s t i n g against  the plan at  . „14 juncture. Further  to t h e argument,  the leaders  o f SNAP b e l i e v e d  that  61  opposition  t o M a l a y s i a was  supporting Malaysia,  they  a sign of  loyalty  contended,  to  Sarawak.  "seem t o h a v e no  Those  loyalty  to  this  country. In a d d i t i o n to belief  that  that  this  only  should  one.  their  patriotism, their  Sarawak s h o u l d  g o a l was  within reach.  to quote  f o r Sarawak, and  r e c e i v e i n d e p e n d e n c e was  s t a t e but  their  their conviction  SNAP l e a d e r s w e r e s a t i s f i e d  S a r a w a k become a s o v e r e i g n  Again,  love  that  that  i t could  not  become  Ningkan:  S i n c e we a r e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r u n t h e show o u r s e l v e s , why s h o u l d we r e f u s e i t and l e t o t h e r p e o p l e r u n i t f o r us? We s h o u l d be p r o u d t o s e e S a r a w a k be r e c o g n i s e d a s a n a t i o n , a n d n o t as a s t a t e w i t h i n M a l a y s i a . 1 6 If  the  statehood, According  cise  of  the to  threatened  first  line  of  s e c o n d was  this  argument the  argument  fear of being  the M a l a y s i a  denial of p o l i t i c a l  i m p e r i a l expansion  by  Malaya.  of M a l a y s i a — a s  opposed  to  leave  Sarawak open to  a constant  i n f l u e n c e s from Malaya.  not  That being  one  the  association,  i t was  Britain.  would  i n the  British  remain  more  such  and  leaders, i f there a  Ningkan h i m s e l f p o i n t e d out Commonwealth a f t e r  a  t h a t i t would  political,  schools,  a  exer-  of being  all—was  have had  than  a l s o an  opinion of party  Sarawak s h o u l d  which  at  risk  of  Malaya.  only  economic,  ever  with  not  i s , the  i n Anglican mission  country  doctrine  f o r Sarawak, b u t  m o s t o f whom w e r e b r o u g h t up any  the  d o m i n a t e d by  i n f u s i o n of In  around  P l a n was  maturity  state  cultural  centered  was  close that  independence."^  Sarawak  62  SNAP's e t h n i c Malayan  c o n c e r n was  imperialism.  group would not  be  Under  the  similarities  Chinese,  f o r M a l a y a had  discounting proposal  strong  was  an  Unfortunately Dayaks  the  to  great  with  Sarawak,  Malays  a powerful  and  f o r they  of Malaya,  Dayaks,  For  of  threatened most  shared  nor  l a r g e Chinese two  by  vulnerable  broad  would  i t be  the  population.  groups  the  Thus  Malaysia  f o r c l o s e r communal a s s o c i a t i o n . no  such  them t h e i r  f a c t when he  majority  f e d e r a t i o n the  r e g i o n a l . l o y a l t y , f o r these  f o r the  this  f e a t u r e w h i c h seemed  proposed  of  the  opportunity  i n Malaya.  alluded  the  Malays  cultural  one  said  peoples  only  option  home was  t h a t he  i n this  existed since  was  country  Sarawak.  t h e r e were Ningkan  "profoundly  c e r t a i n that  do  to  not  no  want  sell  their  18 one  and  only  The politics. being from  the the  home—Sarawak."  other  aspect  SNAP w i t h dominant  of  political  federation, since i n the  with  possible fate of  the  state.  constitute a very  would appear  party  well  sprinkling  being  as  a  Malaysia"  as  the  This  Dayaks,  generally  the  small  party  the  practicalities  good  prospect  chance  i n the  proposed  succeed  s a i d ) was  In  i n Sarawak  clearly  an  ("just  well  Dayaks  a minority  short,  the  federation,  i n u n i t i n g the  Chinese.  o r g a n i s a t i o n based  the  a  unattractive  SNAP  and  Dayaks,  the  of  detached  contrasted  since  condemned t o b e i n g  o f M a l a y s and  N i n g k a n had  a better  of  i t s base group, c o n s t i t u t e  i n Malaysia;  minority  even i f i t should  a diminutive  from  o r g a n i s a t i o n i f Sarawak remained  to be.permanently  parochial  f e a r stems  i t s Dayak base n a t u r a l l y s t o o d  majority  would  this  as  prospect state one.  of  within  63  At would in a  the ethnic  level  institutionalise  such  areas  there  Malay  as r e l i g i o n ,  was f e a r  The level. truly be  last  "How  language,  dimension o f t h i s  have e q u a l  arranged,  immigration m a t t e r s we In  voice  "would laws,  the idea  zealously  First,  into  a Malay m e l t i n g  of assimilation or cultural  constitute expected  a minority  SNAP was  that  the  dominant  party  concerned federal  about  the conduct  structure,  power w i t h  of a t r u l y  about  of the  "that  Sarawak would  I f this  sovereignty,  to keep  free?"  and a l l o t h e r  19  that  SNAP's o p p o s i t i o n  that  the f e d e r a t i o n would  Second, pot—a  could not  f o r Sarawak t o s a f e g u a r d i t s  that  notion  genocide.  independent  deny  which  up t h e  conjured  t h e Dayaks  and as such  could  was  Sarawak's  could  group.  to f o r f e i t  to M a l a y s i a  the federation  Certainly,  i n t h e new f e d e r a t i o n  i t would have  I n such  support.  of Malaysia?"  t o become t h e s t r a t e g i c e t h n i c  for  manifested  o f d o m i n a t i o n was a t t h e s t a t e  c i t i z e n s h i p , and s t a t e  r i g h t to independence.  Dayaks  fear  i t t h e n be p o s s i b l e  b a s e d o n two o b j e c t i o n s .  t h e n be  to c u l t i v a t e the s o l i d a r i t y  i n the running  <• /jSNAPj i n t e n d  federation  and c u l t u r e .  i t be g u a r a n t e e d , " N i n g k a n s a i d ,  summary, i t may b e s a i d  deserved  education,  t o a t t r a c t C h i n e s e and Malay  could  the Malaysian  domination, which would  s i t u a t i o n i t w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t  D a y a k s , much l e s s  that  fuse  would  n o t be  The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s  i t s a s p i r a t i o n o f becoming state.  Lastly,  SNAP was  of p o l i c y decision-making within the  the prospect  the r e s t o f the s t a t e s .  o f being  a partner  having  equal  64  Acceptance SNAP's o p p o s i t i o n 1962;  i t was n o t u n t i l  announced no  the switch  definite  reason  to Malaysia March  after  except  that  p e r s i s t e d into the e a r l y p a r t of i t s leaders  a meeting to admit  gave i n .  i n Betong,  Second  to the " v i t a l  Ningkan  who  Division,  gave  necessity of the  20 realization Why  of  d i d SNAP  f a c t o r s were For communism which The of  its policy  responsible.  The f i r s t  SNAP, w h i c h c o n s i d e r e d  party  perceived  i t s particular i n July  with  p a r t y was communist  anxieties  nationalist  i n c r e a s i n g l y perturbed subversion  alone  their  o f argument  i n the proposed  fall  part  was made c l e a r by would  "never be  an uncompromising  T h i s was mulled  proposal.  t o be a n i m p o r t a n t  by mounting  A t t h e same t i m e ,  t h r e a t o f communism  Borneo  as they  Sarawak m i g h t  takeover.  the  i n Sarawak.  a potential vulnerability  that h i s party  such  communism.  the threat o f  the Malaysia  posture This  Several  the i s s u e of  right-wing,  doctrine.  With  was  to f i g h t  1961 when h e d e c l a r e d 21 t h e Reds."  Malaysia?  irritation,  i t s anti-communist  engineered line  o f these  i t s resolve  o f SNAP's l e a d e r s  independent;  and accept  itself  t o S a r a w a k was a c o n s t a n t  sympathetic  of  change  i n t h e e n d weakened  Ningkan  the  Malaysia."  government  viewpoint revelations  one o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g  over  the prospect  v i c t i m to a  of  being  communist  proponents o f Malaysia  changed  f o r the cause o f the f e d e r a t i o n to emphasise i n the region.  The p a r t i c i p a t i o n  f e d e r a t i o n had been e x p l a i n e d  of B r i t i s h  a s a way  f o r the  65  natives the  o f Borneo  ( t h e Dayaks  Malays o f Malaya  t o commit  benefit.  With  The  the increased  to  I t could  Plan,  to M a l a y s i a  not  only  they  Plan  as a " v i t a l  they  fundamental  w e r e now g i v e n  i n a positive  o f an independent  that  context  concessions.  the  party  i t s stand  The o b j e c t  comminique  Betong on J a n u a r y  Sarawak.  against  i n accepting the way  f o r Sarawak  that Ningkan r e f e r r e d  that  domination,  on t h e Dayaks as  a s s t a t e d a b o v e , was o n e o f t h e  f o r SNAP's o p p o s i t i o n considerably,  to c o n d i t i o n a l acceptance  and  light.  argument w h i c h h i g h l i g h t e d  on t h e t h r e a t o f Malay  fear o f subjugation,  SNAP h a d s o f t e n e d  an  necessity" i n h i s acceptance.  f a c t o r centered  reasons  would not  threat not only i n  on Sarawak as a f u n c t i o n i n g s t a t e b u t a l s o This  between  therefore  t h e most p r a c t i c a l  I t i s i n this  balance  o f common d e f e n c e  be s a i d , t h e r e f o r e ,  N i n g k a n was s e e k i n g  second  a people.  rejection  the Malaysia  o f f e r e d an opportunity  s u r v i v e as a s t a t e .  The  i n Sarawak,  t o t h e s t a t e and government  Plan  menace.  Malaysia  i n which  t h r e a t o f communism was a p o w e r f u l  Malaysia  this  They were  to a cause  numerically  an e t h n i c  e x p o s u r e o f communist  but also  to re-appraise  a major danger The  be a f f e c t e d .  themselves  Malaya and Singapore, opportunity  to r e i n f o r c e  so that w i t h i n M a l a y s i a  C h i n e s e and non-Chinese c o u l d unwilling  and Malays)  to Malaysia.  By J a n u a r y  r e t r e a t i n g from  i n which  the party  o f g e t t i n g concessions  emanated from a s p e c i a l  18, 1 9 6 2 , when SNAP d e c l a r e d  complete  sought  safeguards  was e v i d e n t i n  meeting held i n  that  1962  " t h e Sarawak  66  National  P a r t y ' s door  Malaysia. When b y  We  suggest  i s opened  f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s on  that  s h o u l d be  this  M a r c h SNAP g a v e up  a number o f s a f e g u a r d s insulate  the s t a t e  These proposed which had  as  f o r Sarawak, much a s  safeguards  b e e n s e t up  i t s fight  to  d e a l t w i t h by  i t d i d so  from  were p r e s e n t e d "ascertain  concept a  only a f t e r  safeguards  possible  the  of  referendum." demanding  w h i c h were d e s i g n e d  the  to  federal  government.  to the Cobbold  Commission,  the views  of  the  22  peoples  of  North  23 Borneo and  Sarawak"  Perhaps SNAP t o late  fall  1961  t h e most  and  Worse, the  early  continued  party into  1962  established  a s i d e from  the  the  SNAP w o u l d w i t h e r  viewed  leaders the  of  as the  factor  as  support  position  to  the  one  which  f o r the  situation;  isolation. even  be  that  should  devoid the  of  push  they had  no  happen,  rewards and  day.  faced with  this  patronage  Isolation  this  then,  prospect  c h o i c e but  to  the accept  proposal. SNAP's p r o t e s t a t i o n s h a d leaders.  and  itself  o f M a l a y s i a might  feared that,  government o f  party concluded  Borneo's p o l i t i c a l  By  proposal  SNAP f o u n d  threatened with  concept  away s i n c e i t w o u l d the  compelled  the M a l a y s i a P l a n i t s e l f .  b e g a n t o mount  and  finally  of parliamentary o p p o s i t i o n a f t e r  Party o f f i c i a l s  a dangerous  and  t o push - f o r i t s c a u s e ,  proceedings  commonly a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  Plan.  t h e momentum o f  resistance  I n d e p e n d e n c e Day.  was  the M a l a y s i a  important  i n l i n e was  organisations shunted  on  little  In J u l y  i f any 1961,  impact  on  the M a l a y s i a  the  rest  of  Solidarity  67  Consultative continue  Committee  t o be  (MSCC) was  d i s c u s s e d and  the  B o r n e a n l e a d e r s were prominent  formed  i n order  realization  i n this  that  the  of Malaysia  body:  proposal  could  expedited.  i t s C h a i r m a n was  Donald  24 Stephens  and  the  w e r e Yeo  C h e n g Hoe,  Datuk Abang H a j i None o f  d e l e g a t i o n f r o m Sarawak had Ong  them were i n any  SNAP f a i l e d  e x c l u s i o n from  its  views  in in  the  the  i t was  this  an  a  catalyst  b o d y meant  Yeo  the  i t was  apparently At  that  C h e n g Hoe  Remigus  only  important  for anti-Malaysia  that  Montegrai, Durin.  SNAP.  not  sway t h e MSCC t o  abounded.  delegate  from  They  Pengarah  S i e w , James Wong a n d  excluded  opportunity  plan s t i l l  MSCC a s  Temenggong J u g a h ,  associated with  f o r m a l l y , much l e s s  D e c e m b e r 1961  about  way  t o a c t as  Its  as  Hui,  Openg, L i n g B e n g  Perhaps because body,  Kee  e i g h t members.  able  debating  sentiment. to  introduce  i t s direction.  As  late  existed, for uncertainties  time  no  observed  c o n s e n s u s was after  one  of  reached  i t s meetings  Kuching: What t r a n s p i r e d i n t h o s e / K u c h x n g 7 d e b a t e s seems t o h a v e c a u s e d g r e a t e r c o n f u s i o n i n t h e minds o f our p e o p l e here.25  T h e r e was a  therefore a prolonged  situation  which  p e r i o d of ambivalence  SNAP c o u l d n o t  member o f  t h e MSCC.  vilifying  Malaysia  In  exploit  frustration,  supporters,  simply  about  because  Malaysia,  i t was  i t s l e a d e r s were reduced  accusing  them o f h a v i n g  "no  not  a  to  loyalty  to  26 this  country  ...  m a n o e u v r e d by natives  had  by  no  faith  i n themselves  PANAS, w h o s e C h a i r m a n c l a i m e d then  given  their  support  that  to the  SNAP was  even  two-thirds  of  plan.  outthe  SNAP, w h i c h  68  considered  the  figure inflated,  opinions  of  MSCC may  n e v e r be  of  the  i t s meetings  two  objected  p a r t i e s were e v e r  known.  considered  Whether  the  s e r i o u s l y by  the  What h a p p e n e d , h o w e v e r , was  i n Kuching  the  MSCC r e s o l v e d  SNAP's o p p o s i t i o n b e g a n t o meeting  i n Betong,  convened  MSCC a s  having  mandate  "no  vigorously.  falter  i n January ...  and  at  that at  to support  this  1962,  therefore  party  their  end  Malaysia.  point.  the  the  In a s p e c i a l condemned  acceptance  the  of  the  27 plan  could  not  SNAP c o n c e d e d of  be  taken f o r granted."  that  i t s d o o r was  now  Nonethelsss,  after  open f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s  this,  on  the  concept  Malaysia. Further  evidence  addition  to  It  Commission of  was  a  the  governments and touching The  trend The  of  the  MSCC's w o r k ,  one  Limbang,  itinerary  of  was  which  such  traversed  on  R e j a n g D a y a k s was  also  t o become a m i n o r i t y  applicable  to  of  the  the  majority the  of  Malaysia  Malaysia the  t i p , t h e n on time  Malaysia this:  the  not  only  o v e r any this  the  have been  s i n c e most D a y a k s  to  An  the  since  group.  and  Malayan  first  Rejang  This  the  established.  resided 28  in  To  Dayak p e o p l e s  the  Basin.  covered,  i t inclined.  split  issue  ethnic  issue.  Sarawak, to  in  Commission.  British  R e j a n g was  could  P l a n was,  Cobbold  the  whole o f  i t g r e a t l y m a t t e r e d w h i c h way  the  the  the  e s t a b l i s h e d by  t h a t by  from  constitute  progress  i t s northern-most  Sarawak's o p i n i o n  Basin,  the  Inquiry  i m p l i c a t i o n f o r SNAP was  Rejang  momentum o f  Rejang  differ but  Dayaks  situation  overwhelming vote of  the  was  confidence  69  for Malaysia  i n t h e R e j a n g was b o u n d  SNAP, s i n c e t o c o n t i n u e to  break-away  traditional  In  its.opposition  rivalries  b e t w e e n t h e two p e o p l e s  Since  SNAP's o b j e c t i v e was  respect over  the Malaysia  time  exacerbation  on was  o f the  o f the Rejang and S a r i b a s , t o u n i t e t h e Dayaks  l e a d e r s h i p , i t was t h e r e f o r e u n w i l l i n g t o c a u s e this  effect  to t h e p l a n a t t h i s  from t h e Rejang Dayaks and to r i s k  SNAP's h e a r t l a n d . its  to have an important  issue, at least,  this  under  kind o f s p l i t .  SNAP w o u l d h a v e t o  29 follow  t h e l e a d g i v e n by t h e R e j a n g The  before  the Cobbold  fifty-one for  direction  chiefs  the K a p i t March  these  Commission  Dayaks would  arrived  where they  declared  c o n d i t i o n s , o f course,  R e s o l u t i o n s , were p r e s e n t e d  19.  The i m p a c t  the Cobbold  go was made c l e a r  i n Sarawak.  f r o m t h e R e j a n g met i n S i b u ,  the Third Division,  They h a d t h e i r  by  i n which  Dayaks.  On F e b r u a r y  their  support  f o r Malaysia."''  resolutions,  to the Cobbold  Commission w h i c h a l l o w e d  15,  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e centre  and t h e i r  o f t h e move by t h e s e  even  known a s  C o m m i s s i o n on  c h i e f s was t a k e n  as  important  that  T h i s was a n e x p r e s s i o n o f o p i n i o n t o w h i c h we attach very great weight. The 51 C h i e f s a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e t o g e t h e r w e r e s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t some 112,000 I b a n - D a y a k s o u t o f a t o t a l o f n e a r l y 238,000 a n d many d e l e g a t i o n s o f I b a n D a y a k s who came b e f o r e us a t d i f f e r e n t c e n t r e s c o n f i r m e d t h a t t h e y s u p p o r t t h e K a p i t R e s o l u t i o n s . . . . 31  The 15  move by t h e s e  meeting,  SNAP  finally  chiefs  o n SNAP was p i v o t a l .  conceded  defeat,  although  After this  the February  was n o t  70  announced of  until  safeguards  March  f o r the  Commission a r r i v e d I t was  here  the  of  Federation of  State  of  must be  the  Agong o f  should land  and  remain  rights  should  North the  should  remain  the  of  of  study be the  of other  officers to  any  March  26,  Borneo;  the  official  being  the  State of  f o r nomination There  the  Powers agreed  should  those  State;  not  be  of  only  reserved upon by  be  no  f o r the State;  Yang  Sarawak,  the  State;  rights  protection of (7)  (8)  English  also in The  English  i n schools. (9) As  Malay  t h e r e f o r e be  (10) local State (12)  Head  alteration  customary  years;  the  Each  the  The  should  suitable  the  as  (6)  prevented;  i n Sarawak;  unless  (3)  between  instruction  Iban  elected  i n Sarawak b u t  fifteen  medium o f  or  rotation;  preservation of  i n Malaysia,  remain u n t i l (11)  Supreme Head o f  for at least  especially  Plan  by  especially  hot  Malaysia  be  responsibility  should  members.  and  (4)  of  SNAP  people,  n o m i n a t e d by  The  the  Cobbold  be  language,  the  State of  of  list  Sarawak s h o u l d  eligible  (5)  remain  languages  changed w i t h o u t  be  responsibility  languages  them;  be  of  i t s own  when t h e  deputation  indigenous The  state,  r e m a i n as  should  replace  On  Head o f  Federation;  the n a t i o n a l language secondary  (2)  should  the  The  the  should  the Federation of Malaysia language should  (1)  country;  of Malaysia  the boundaries  Brunei,  Sarawak.  i t published  i n Betong, Ningkan l e d a  i n Malaysia  Dipertuan  t h a t same day  s t a t e of  They a r e :  R a j a h , who  people  On  t h a t SNAP's c o n d i t i o n s f o r a c c e p t a n c e  were p r e s e n t e d . called  2.  The would one  of  Expatriate people should  were not  be  Immigration  found  71  should be  be  under  the  a c c e l e r a t e d but  indigeneous  control of subject  peoples  to  should  the  same p r i v i l e g e s  training  and  scholarships;  i n regard  guarantee and  the  (17)  to  to p r o f e s s ,  Sarawak s h o u l d  The  safeguards;  (19)  Each  the  armed f o r c e s  fair  (16)  Development the  of  fair  share  should  to  should  have a  ( t h e Army, N a v y , a n d  (14)  The  employment;  overseas opportu-  Constitution  freedom of  propagate  provided  of  should  have equal  Malaysian  entitled  be  State;  government  religion  representation  should  State  a  The  equally  of  share  A l l states  p r a c t i c e and  State  (13)  agreement  have adequate  (18)  State;  having  (15)  education;  government;  to  and  t h a t a l l p e r s o n be  right  the  have a  enjoying  nities  the  i n the  should  conscience  freely;  Federal  with c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  fair  c o n t r i b u t i o n of  Air::Force)  of  the  manpower  Federation  32 of  Malaysia. SNAP t h e n f a c e d  safeguards  which  i t tended  the  p a r t y was  any  amendments w e r e  it  regarded  federal  u n w i l l i n g to  the  concerned  issues  relate  language  privileges. within  the  t o be  terms  government  to  Malaysia  to  of  to  by  consider  consider mutually  Sarawak's  (Iban,  Federation.  several conditions  no  longer  agreed entry  u p o n by as  A  now  number o f  be  Certainly  power o f the  the  terms  Specifically,  a n a t i o n a l language) the  that  but  sides.  the  first,  concerned about  Not  changes,  both  state interests.  i t should  SNAP was  of  beyond At  and  negotiable.  f u r t h e r forms  change u n i l a t e r a l l y .  o f communal a n d  Secondly,  stating  they  and  place  i s s u e s were i n v o l v e d w h i c h  of  Sarawak  seemed  72  to  suggest  Dayaks  that  from  federal intervention.  jurisdiction and  that  other  SNAP was i n t e n t o n i n s u l a t i n g  over  customary  i t should  states.  Federation  the State  I t demanded  rights,  have e d u c a t i o n a l  land,  that  T h i r d l y , SNAP made i t c l e a r t h a t  was c o n d i t i o n a l o n f e d e r a l g o o d w i l l In an i n c i d e n t o f unwarranted  c o u l d be e x p e c t e d  that  ultimate federal  protest  Alliance  the process  resist  separation.  r e l a t i o n s c o u l d be e x p e c t e d  underwent  i t s loyalty  to the  t h e terms o f  federal interference,i t  o r even undertake the  Given  the s i t u a t i o n ,  to be acrimonious  of modernisation  to that o f  as  SNAP-  Malaysia  and n a t i o n b u i l d i n g .  Building  The had  by a d v o c a t i n g  would  retain  and development,  equal  t o keep  Sarawak's e n t r y .  the party  Sarawak  immigration,  opportunities  and t h e r e f o r e t h e  Malaysia  accepted  formation  P l a n was a n i m p o r t a n t  i t they  were e a g e r  o f government.  constitute  the only  ruling  i s s u e , b u t once p a r t y  t o move o n t o t h e n e x t  Their preference, party,  obviously,  leaders  problem:  the  was f o r SNAP t o  b u t e a r l y i n 1962 t h i s  d i d n o t seem  33 possible. electoral district the  The p a r t y campaign level  was f a r t o o s m a l l  through  t o mount a n  the t h r e e - t i e r e d e l e c t o r a l  to the D i v i s i o n a l  legislature,  a n d t o o weak  Advisory  the Council Negri.  Council  I t was c l e a r ,  SNAP was t o b e i n p o w e r a t a l l i t w o u l d h a v e Ningkan worked e a r l y towards  this  end.  system from the  (DAC) a n d f i n a l l y  to  therefore, that i f  to be i n c o a l i t i o n . T w e n t y - s i x days a f t e r  he  73  had  accepted  the Malaysia  Plan,  on March  27, 1962, h e a n n o u n c e d  that  34 his a  party  would  significant  another  form an a l l i a n c e  overture,  right-wing  regarded  particularly  and pro-Malaysia  the greater  D a y a k members  with  soon".  s i n c e he c o u l d have party.  But a t that  This  courted  was  PANAS,  t i m e PANAS  was  t h r e a t o f t h e two b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f  i n i t s organisation.  Dayak l e a d e r s ,  BARJASA " v e r y  As w e l l ,  s u c h a s Temenggong J u g a h ,  PANAS h a d many  t h e paramount  traditional  c h i e f o f the  Ibans, Pengarah M o n t e g r a i , h i s l i e u t e n a n t i n t h e Second D i v i s i o n , and Temenggong Oyong L a w a i J a u , t h e p a r a m o u n t Kenyahs.  T h e s e men w e r e n o t o n l y  Council Negri  as w e l l .  At that  position;  whatever the reason,  alliance.  Ningkan professed  "since in  the subject  abeyance u n t i l  such  communal l e a d e r s  time they PANAS  to favour  had n o t been  c h i e f o f t h e Kayans and  appeared  refused  b u t members o f t h e satisfied  to enter  the p r i n c i p l e  discussed  before,  with  i n t o any  their  political  but explained  i t has to be  that  left  t i m e when members h a d u n a n i m o u s l y a g r e e d t o  35 the  proposal."  looked  PANAS' r e c a l c i t r a n c e was t i m e l y  u p o n PANAS's members, p a r t i c u l a r l y  game f o r d e f e c t i o n s . either  In contrast  i n terms o f l e a d e r s  more a t t r a c t i v e Despite  than  SNAP's  t h e Bidayuh Dayaks,  BARJASA l a c k e d  o r pockets  since  important  o f f o l l o w e r s a n d was  as  Dayak  results  the  end o f June  fair support  therefore  PANAS.  h i s e a r l y o p t i m i s m , N i n g k a n was t o b e d i s a p p o i n t e d  the  leaders  of his initiative.  SNAP a n d BARJASA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  "but n e g o t i a t i o n s  floundered  by met a t  when SNAP demanded t w o -  74  thirds  of a l lo f f i c e s  and  control  on  the b a s i s  of their  claimed  36 membership", Malay  domination By  that  appeared  came c l o s e r  i t s l e a d e r s would  n o t g i v e way  to  lightly.  alliance  materialise.  was  indication  t h e end o f J u n e , SNAP was  political  it  an  which  i t had  facing  something o f a c r i s i s .  cultivated  s i n c e March  Worse, N i n g k a n a p p e a r e d t o have that  BARJASA a n d  to r e a l i t y  PANAS w e r e m o v i n g  when t h e l a t t e r  p r e p a r e d " t o work out a  lost  feasible  failed  the i n i t i a t i v e  closer.  announced  agreement  had  The  late  with  The  since  appearance  i n June  any  to  that i t  right-wing  party  37 that  had  declared  BARJASA was prospect (at  quick  to o f f e r  o f a Malay  the time) which  members, s e e m e d  turned  f o r the formation of an  i t s congratulations  dominated a l l i a n c e , could  close  Faced w i t h next  i t s support  to  isolate  SNAP w i t h  the p o s s i b i l i t y  (June) t h a t  Umpau, P e n g a r a h B a n y a n g ,  announcing  intention  present  Third  Division  respectively,  a common a n d  united  Iban c h i e f s . and  to form a p o l i t i c a l  P e n g h u l u Umpau,', who  secretary-general  Dayak  component claimed  Alliance, (Pesaka).  t h e SNAP-BARJASA n e g o t i a t i o n s  Penghulu F r a n c i s  and  the  i t s 50,000 o r more  P e s a k a Anak Sarawak  l e d by  Banyang  i t s strong  o f a Malay-dominated  down, P e s a k a was  their  t o PANAS; a n d  reality.  to the nascent P a r t y  t h e same m o n t h  with  alliance."  The  party,  front,  that  unless  t h e y w o u l d be  Formed  broken  f o u n d e r s were  Penghulu Chundi. both  w e r e t o become P e s a k a ' s warned  had  Ningkan  Upon  Pengarah  chairman  t h e Dayaks  completely  and  "could overwhelmed.'  75  It  s h o u l d ne  for  the  noted  formation  What N i n g k a n the  that the  d i d was  to  SNAP s u c h  t h e Dayaks had  an  but  in  T h i s was  Sarawak.  also  here  the  from  Pesaka, would  support  Dayaks from  to i t s e l f ,  alliance with  second  be  then  justification wholly  rhetoric  Dayak.  so  that  c o u l d become a r e a l i t y — a  traditional  that  In order  8,  such  an  principle  on  the  realization  as  SNAP-  to  together with  of  an  dominance  outlook other  for  Dayaks  draw a l l Dayak to enter  into  strength. afford  SNAP  its territorial  gains.  The  still  considerable to  The addiappeal  convention-  d e f e c t i o n s SNAP t h e r e f o r e n e e d e d t o p o a c h on  would  have been  i t s territory. ideal,  For  agreement.  one  month a f t e r  P e s a k a was  the  two  p a r t i e s met  i n Betong where t h e y  of  to  since i t s very  than  formation  once  a united  would  with Pesaka not  such  For  o f Dayak  SNAP's n a t i o n a l i s t  arrangement  to prevent  less  hundred-delegates  themselves  I f SNAP c o u l d n o t  a SNAP-Pesaka a l l i a n c e  July  the  attraction.  Dayak p a r t y t o p o o l t h e i r  t o h o l d on  would u n d e r s c o r e On  a practical  to present  D a y a k l e a d e r s was  an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  presence  only  had  t h e p r e f e r a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e was  the other  a d v a n t a g e was  reason  alliance  in control.  reach  in  as  t o be  political  SNAP's e t h n i c b a s e ,  Dayaks.  one  about  d e s i r a b l e from  bound  this  intended  their  t o work towards  t i o n a l means b y w h i c h the  talked  a chance not  organisation  of  interpret  intended  alliance. To  an  was  o f P e s a k a , w h i c h was  " u n i t e d f r o n t " Pesaka  Pesaka  statement  a SNAP-Pesaka a l l i a n c e .  founded,  To  over agreed  facilitate  76  negotiations, recruited By  a P e s a k a l e a d e r , Temenggong Oyong L a w a i J a u , was  as the V i c e - P r e s i d e n t  September,  i t was h o p e d ,  SNAP a n d P e s a k a w o u l d SNAP " w o u l d  have  of the b i - l a t e r a l  n e g o t i a t i o n s would formed  the p i l l a r s  seek t o form a l l i a n c e  with  "Council  have  been  of A l l i a n c e " .  c o m p l e t e d and  of a system from  a l l other  right-wing  which  parties in  39 Sarawak",  N i n g k a n was a g a i n  t h e problem centered effectively  t o be d i s a p p o i n t e d  n o t o n SNAP b u t P e s a k a .  s c u t t l e d t h e move  towards  they  and d e c l a r e d  that  "no s i n g l e member  the authority to a c t at t h i s  Thus, w i t h Pesaka  the role  stage  by denying that the They  protested  temporarily  i t s unresolved  deferred.  lost.  leadership  be arranged By l a t e  Sarawak 40  of the party...".  to effect  an i n t r a - e t h n i c a l l i a n c e  Pesaka's d i s o r g a n i s a t i o n could question:  any e f f o r t  Until  to construct  A u g u s t , J u g a h was f i r m l y  and e a r l y t h e n e x t month, N i n g k a n  be  explained  i t had y e t t o l u r e i t s e x p e c t e d  l e a d e r , Temenggong J u g a h , away f r o m PANAS. power c o u l d  "Council of  o f P e s a k a anak  on b e h a l f  that  o f t h e p r o - A l l i a n c e Temenggong u n d e r m i n e d , a n d  i n c l e a r d i s a r r a y , t h e momentum  was a g a i n by  Pesaka.  a n d Umpau  t h e m s e l v e s d i d n o t know what was meant b y N i n g k a n ' s  Alliance",  has  Banyang  an a l l i a n c e  Temenggong h a d a n y a u t h o r i t y t o r e p r e s e n t  a t t h e outcome, b u t  was a b l e  h i s assumption o f  an a l l i a n c e  had t o be  e n s c o n c e d i n h i s new p o s i t i o n t o announce  that  SNAP's a l l i a n c e w i t h P a r t y P e s a k a a n a k S a r a w a k would be e s t a b l i s h e d f i r s t a f t e r w h i c h an a l l i a n c e w i t h a l l r i g h t - w i n g p a r t i e s would follow.41  77  Ningkan's Dayak u n i t  statement  and h i s d e s i r e  objective,  that,  although h i s b e l i e f i n  t o e f f e c t a Dayak a l l i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r  much o f SNAP's a c t i v i t i e s secondary  confirms  during  an u m b r e l l a  the middle  o f 1962, t h e r e  a l l i a n c e which would  BARJASA,  a n d t h e SCA, w h i c h w e r e t h e p o l i t i c a l  communal  groups.  Thus, t h e v e r y  P e s a k a , N i n g k a n was  also waiting  month  that  was  involve  organizations  a PANAS,  of  other  SNAP was n e g o t i a t i n g  f o r BARJASA  to respond  with  t o h i s "terms  42 and  conditions".  with  other  In t h i s  pro-Malaysia  respect  p a r t i e s , b u t i n 1962  D a y a k - b a s e d p a r t i e s must  first  S N A P - P e s a k a a l l i a n c e was  to fade  of  goodwill  part  on t h e p a r t  of Pesaka,  Finally,  by o t h e r  issue  of the  to h i s belief  intrusion into  about Malayan  Malays,  leaving likely,  p a r t i e s t o form  insistence that  concern  seemed  l i m b o was  was  to unite.  clear:  That, t h e  due, n o t t o t h e l a c k t o i n d e c i s i o n on t h e  and t o i n s u f f i c i e n t  funds.  s o t o s p e a k , was  the  an a l l i a n c e a r o u n d t h e  Federation.  due n o t o n l y  external  a chance  broke t h e camel's back,  e n s u r e Dayak d o m i n a t i o n ; of  into  to co-operate  i t sp r i o r i t y  o f SNAP, b u t t o r a t h e r  pro-Malaysia  Ningkan's was  be g i v e n  to inadequate o r g a n i s a t i o n ,  the straw that  drive  SNAP's p o l i c y was  a SNAP-Pesaka a l l i a n c e be formed  that  i t was  such a u n i t y  also  i n t e r v e n t i o n which would  f o r the formation  e s s e n t i a l to  to h i s response  Sarawak p o l i t i c s .  t h e Dayaks I s o l a t e d .  was  At that  to the threat  In p a r t i c u l a r there assist time,  first,  the Chinese  s u c h an  o f t h e Sarawak C h i n e s e  was and  event  Association  78  (SCA)  was  I n s p i r e d by  September that  the  6,  1962,  two  the  the  Malayan  latter's  p a r t i e s were  Chinese A s s o c i a t i o n  (MCA).  s e c r e t a r y - g e n e r a l , T.Y.  "exploring  the  possibility  On  Tan,  of  confessed  bringing  the  44 MCA of  and the  SCA  United  PANAS on called other  the  the  Likewise,  Malays N a t i o n a l prospect  United  of  Faced with affiliate  the  arguing  allowed  t o d i v i d e them.  follows:  the  that  the  cement t h e i r  f o r the 45  p a r t i e s i n t o an  the At  ceased  "were s t i l l  united their  point  anxious  pro-Malaysia pressure,  that  to e x i s t ,  chance to this  s u c h as  of meeting  SNAP and  form the  the they  their  British  remain  communal  and  the  the  PANAS, BARJASA, and  1962,  SCA  could  fellow-Muslim  communally SNAP  and  should  not  situation  still  trying  Until  the  two  alliance  that  they  intervened.  agreed  as  to  from be  first.  groups represented 46 and  was  Dayak  intervention  adamant  be  to  alliance—much  Malayans  SUPP",  the  the  external  to have a l l major e t h n i c  front against  rivalries  SCA.  of  would  own  to u n i t e  political  threat  of  a  be  which  Pesaka  therefore  P e s a k a were  operating  a group w i t h  challenges  Dayaks, a n c i e n t  with  i n Sarawak, t o  SNAP and  i n S a r a w a k was  o f PANAS, BARJASA, and  p a r t i e s were s a t i s f i e d  given  party  Organisation,  In mid-September of  representatives  (UMNO) w e r e c o n f e r r i n g  affiliate  organisations  prospect  leaders  consternation  M a l a y a had  i n J u l y 1962,  p a r t i e s , N i n g k a n ' s r e a c t i o n was  Pesaka,  as  an  National  UMNO's f a v o u r i t e p r o t e g e  party.  early  Organisation  forming  Malaysia  Sarawak r i g h t - w i n g  join.  based  together".  a result  that  They in  of  a  79  a l l the s o - c a l l e d r i g h t - w i n g p a r t i e s — P A N A S , BARJASA, SNAP, SCA, a n d P e s a k a — s h o u l d come t o g e t h e r f i r s t and t h r a s h o u t t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h t h e y h a v e , so as t o have a b e t t e r understanding of each o t h e r . When t h i s h a d b e e n c o m p l e t e d , an a l l i a n c e o f a l l s h o u l d t a k e p l a c e as soon as p o s s i b l e . ^ Clearly  t h e M a l a y a n s had  parties  to  with  S a r a w a k and  SNAP and  listed  four  for  Front"  (SUF)  Sarawak; similar  assist  their  the  present  (c) to  form  a i m s and  had  (a)  p r o s p e r i t y of  on  paving  October  of Malaysia provided  having and  On  objectives:  harmony and tion  thus  Pesaka.  "Sarawak U n i t e d  g i v e n up  the n o t i o n  t h e way 22,  i t was  forged  country;  that ah  (b)  adequate  alliance  would  be  (d)  and  acceptable  to  a  It  the realizaobtained  among a l l t h e p o l i t i c a l  Committee  n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r terms  to work f o r  safeguards  that  parties.  t o work f o r t h e  o b j e c t i v e s i n Sarawak;  Inter-Governmental  their  announced  from the  to u n i t e a l l races  the  extending  for serious negotiations  1962,  been  of  parties  cooperate  with  i t s Sub-Committees to  Sarawak i n  in  the  48 participation  of M a l a y s i a .  had  these  agreed  to  Sarawak w i t h i n t h e fourth  As  objectives. Federation  a b o n a f i d e member o f Given  i t was  probable  o b j e c t i v e s , which r e s p e c t i v e l y  state  and  terms " a c c e p t a b l e  eager  endorsement. Simultaneously,  alliance;  on  October  to  Ningkan 22,  the  SNAP's c o n c e r n  the  Front,  for a  strong  that the  dealt with  second  and  "safeguards"  for  Sarawak", would have r e c e i v e d  continued same d a y  to pursue h i s  that the  SUF  was  SNAP  the  Ningkan's  SNAP-Pesaka formed,  the  80  alliance  between  It  was  called  of  the f i r s t  significant,  t h e two  Dayak-based  t h e Sarawak N a t i o n a l  Alliance.  meeting, at which party f o r on t h e b a s i s  p a r t i e s was The  officers  of o f f i c e r s  also  made  public.  immediate  were e l e c t e d ,  allotted  consequence was  to each party,  SNAP  49 clearly  emerged  as t h e j u n i o r  partner.  President Deputy Chairman Chairman Secretary General Of  the four  presided cordial  atmosphere',',"'^ i t was numerically  a c q u i e s c e n c e may  traditional  posts  the cost  of accepting  agreement,  that  to dominate have  been  i n order  SNAP had  t h e new  N i n g k a n was  some w o r d s o f  clearly  and  SNAP's f o r the  i t indicated  a Dayak a l l i a n c e ,  himself  allowed  of deference  more i m p o r t a n t , to effect  readily  organisation.  an example  a second spot.  b u t added  Since Ningkan  "conducted i n a f r i e n d l y  evident  o f t h e s e men;  SNAP c h a i r m a n g a v e way  the  a SNAP f u n c t i o n a r y .  o v e r t h e m e e t i n g , w h i c h was  voluntary  follows:  Temenggong J u g a h ( P e s a k a ) Pengarah M o n t e g r a i (Pesaka) P e n g h u l u Umpau ( P e s a k a ) S t e p h e n N i n g k a n (SNAP)  o n l y N i n g k a n was  Pesaka at l e a s t  They were a s  that  the  even at  ecstatic  after  caution:  We must u p h o l d and m a i n t a i n i t s /JSNAP'sJ s o l i d a r i t y i n o r d e r t h a t i t w i l l become a s t r o n g f o u n d a t i o n o f o u r p o l i t i c a l emerg e n c e ... W i t h o u t u n i t y among u s we s h o u l d become u t t e r l y d o w n - t r o d d e n and / T i a v e J n o future.51 Yet was it  d e s p i t e Ningkan's v a l i a n t  more a p p a r e n t t h a n r e a l . appeared that  SNAP was  words,  t h e SNAP-Pesaka  With the e l e c t i o n  indeed  e l e c t i o n s were t h e c r o w n i n g p o i n t  working.  But  o f t h e whole  alliance  of t h e o f f i c e as i t turned exercise.  bearers  out,  Beyond  their this,  81  nothing to  had  exist  fade  been a c h i e v e d .  as  a  i n t o limbo  alliance—no tunate,  b o d y , an  informal  alliance  had  a r r a n g e m e n t , was By  1965,  In the  major  the major  decay  of  general  elections.  the  flaw,  of  but  From  the next  an  on  was  formed, the  S U F — w h i c h was  —promised the  scourge of  f o r an  a way  legal  this  was  in principle  institution  such matters  as  two  parties.  the  good  continuation  faith  replaced  by  of  the  alliance  intense  to  of  Thomas K a n a , a  level  such  rival  of  ensure  that  i t would  called  the and  On  the  day  a  not  multi-party also  association that i t  Sarawak A l l i a n c e Malaysia  wither.  coming  part  satisfactory.  of  co-operation  f o r the  a right-wing  an  leaders.  being  Moreover, as  form  marked  of  a  such  began t o  Front  parties in preparation  later  some  This  individual  Sarawak U n i t e d  way  on  political  between t h e  the  unfor-  which would  absence of  Sarawak i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  communism.  organisation  the  a l s o a more  communism was  to protect  In  ceased  In  acceptable  SUF's s t a n d  d i d the  agreed  i n Pesaka,  government.  had  t o make i t a  i t .  SNAP's s t a n d p o i n t ,  the  SNA  s u c h a document m a t e r i a l i s e d  however:  of  the  fast  customs.  upon t h e  advent  SNU  Had  basis  and  f i v e pro-Malaysian  e l e c t o r a l m a c h i n e was  from  the  tactician  contrast, the  the  part  register  g r e w up  contingent  between  be  to  So  even time  when Temenggong J u g a h was  N i n g k a n , as  only  not  1962,  a u t h o r i t y over  religion,  alliance  one  body.  constitution.  have formed  language,  November  t i m e b o t h p a r t i e s had  f o r Dayak u n i t y w i t h  strategy,  of  was  bothered  for their  would p r o b a b l y  strive  there  had  that  By  bureaucratic  that  one  f o r at  provisions it  formal  52  in  (SA)  general,  82  Lastly, what  SNAP was a b l e  t o be s a t i s f i e d  i t d i d n o t d o — s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e SA d e c i d e d  parties  to prevent  S a r a w a k was c o n s i s t e n t external  overtures  with  This  was why  True,  sought  roots i n fear of  from w h i c h t h e Dayaks t o o p p o s e t h e MCA  a n d UMNO  t h e n , t h e SA was a s a t i s f a c t o r y a r r a n g e -  i t t o o k Malayan and B r i t i s h  political  alliance,  partisan  t i m e b y SNAP place  attempt  o f Malayan  t o enter  as i m p a r t i a l .  of p o l i t i c a l  guidance t o e s t a b l i s h the  b u t t h e M a l a y a n s had a c t e d  Moreover, t h e nature  its first  SA—in  SNAP  That  i n Sarawak.  diplomacy.  this  of a kind  Malayan  parties.  i t s nationalist sentiment—its  F r o m SNAP's s t a n d p o i n t ,  loose  not to invite  Malayan p a r t i e s from t a k i n g  intervention, particularly  might n o t b e n e f i t .  ment.  t h e SA b e c a u s e o f  i n t o Sarawak and n o t t o e s t a b l i s h a f f i l i a t e  SNAP was a n x i o u s  to  with  t a c t and  intervention,  Sarawak p o l i t i c s ,  Furthermore, with  branches  with  i n contrast was  perceived  the presence  of the  o f t h e Malayan A l l i a n c e — w h i c h  was  54  controlled ling  from  federal within  totally  t h e f e d e r a l government  capacity  f o r underhanded  Sarawak a p p e a r e d  concerned, t h i s federal  the prospect  was d i m i n i s h e d intervention  in policy  t o have been c i r c u m v e n t e d .  g o v e r n m e n t was a m e n a b l e terms  The c o m p o s i t i o n  of uninvited  greatly.  was a w e l c o m e d e v e l o p m e n t , a p r o o f  In numerical SA.  by Sarawakians,  to state minority  In  short,  implementations  A s f a r a s SNAP finally  was  that the  urgings.  SNAP d i d n o t d o m i n a t e t h e l e a d e r s h i p  of the leadership  medd-  was a s f o l l o w s : " ' " '  of the  83  Position Chairman Vice-chairmen  Secretary-General Financial Officer Publicity Officer It  Name  Party  T. J u g a h L.Y. T a n  Pesaka SCA  Dayak Chinese  L.H. Yuen P. M o n t e g r a i T.H. Bujang S.K. N i n g k a n  PANAS Pesaka BARJASA SNAP  L.B. S i e w K. Menon  SCA  Chinese Dayak Malay Dayak Chinese  SNAP  Indian  may b e s a i d , h o w e v e r , t h a t N i n g k a n  a n d Menon  Ethnic  Group  (who was m a r r i e d  D a y a k woman a n d who l i v e d  i n t h e Second D i v i s i o n ) c o n t r o l l e d t h e  operations  N i n g k a n was s e c r e t a r y - g e n e r a l ,  publicity  of the party; officer.  information  from  Both o f f i c e s  dealt with  t h e Sarawak A l l i a n c e .  and  formal  education, as p o l i c y  N i n g k a n was decisions  implement at i o n .  drafting that  by Ningkan, played  t h e Sarawak A l l i a n c e ' s e l e c t i o n  the resulting  complementary.  campaign  Indeed,  literature  since  latter's agreement.  document.  manifesto,  of both  i tcould  C e r t a i n l y on most  For instance,  a significant  SNAP's m a n i f e s t o  Sarawak A l l i a n c e by s i x months,  of  the dissemination of  t o a s s e r t h i s i n f l u e n c e i n such areas  SNAP, r e p r e s e n t e d  the  a n d Menon was  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e SA c h a i r m a n  was a c h a r m i n g man, b u t s i n c e h e l a c k e d soon a b l e  to a  on education  a role  part i n which  ensured  t h e SA a n d SNAP w e r e ante-dated  have been issues  that  of the  the prototype f o r  there  were wide  SNAP p l e d g e d t o  r e v i s e t h e e d u c a t i o n p o l i c y and work t o w a r d s a minimum o f s c h o o l - l e a v i n g a g e o f 1 6 . I t /SNAP7 w i l l /work t67 e n h a n c e / t h e e d u c a t i o n / facilities i n e v e r y way.^6  areas  84  The  Sarawak A l l i a n c e  when i t s m a n i f e s t o SNAP m e r e l y Alliance pulsory  primary  (c) expand  policy  (b)  secondary  from  that of  t h e p u r s u i t o f power.  it  avoided  building, PANAS and  members w h i c h  not  h a v e any  two  was  alliance  and,  eager to  when t h a t  policy  lower  principle  1963. the  While  Sarawak free,  com-  primary  education,  the  of  age  15  fees  for  of  such  marked  p l a t f o r m was  with  years;  the  impact  secondary congruence  hardly  SNAP's a c t i v i t i e s  were  manifested  in i t s efforts  of  had  as  alliance  partners.  a t t r a c t — o b v i o u s l y the fellow alliance  appropriate partners  SUPP.  to  The  come t o  m e t h o d c h o s e n was an  other  Thus,  Dayak task  they  dimension  they had  of  terms w i t h Pesaka, the that  informal  of  one.  a  formal  would  members.  because  o f D a y a k members, a l t h o u g h  PANAS and  failed,  itself  ethnicity  l a r g e segments o f  p a r t i e s were n o t  i n SNAP's e f f o r t The  J u n e 4,  to  political  behind  large pockets  Dayak-based p a r t y .  same  SNAP's.  were c o n s i d e r d  non-Dayak l e a d e r s l i k e ethnicity  SA's  the  (a) p r o v i d e  up  i s , i t s choice  t h e p a r t y was  SCA  overall  SUPP b e c a u s e b o t h  much e a s i e r i f t h e  BARJASA AND  and  Ethnicity  that  to  training,  The the  on  introduce post  education,  that  on  education  proposals—namely  consistent factors  alliance  the  technical  i s s u e s was  at  did  or  publicised  revise  if possible.^  The  be  to  education;  distinguishable  and  finally  made c o n c r e t e  education, of  was  proposed  some a g r i c u l t u r a l and  in i t s turn, elaborated  other  tactical  85  Cabinet  Formation  The  General  Chapter V I I I . Alliance state the  E l e c t i o n of  For  the  distribution SNAP  control, open.  of  of  i s , the  the  competition Minister.  of  which to  the  contest  contest  h i s own  the  support  own  party,  provided As  the  who  him  basis  by  political  base  empowered  parties.  the  Sarawak A l l i a n c e  Since  Sarawak A l l i a n c e ,  the  near  was  SNAP was  was  as  the  but  the  have been  the  leading  office  of  Chief  instance  of  competitors,  Sarawak A l l i a n c e . this  juncture  recognized  to and  into negotiations with the  in  S a r a w a k was  i t s major t a c t i c i a n  only  the  in  action.  the at  into  effective  P e s a k a an  absence  but  had  intra-Alliance  M i n i s t e r of  later  the  absolute  thrown  Election,  was  in  Pesaka  had  an  accepted  there  Chief  also;  to enter  i t would  party  have been  General  f r o m w h i c h he he  uneven:  l e a d e r s h i p was  for p o l i t i c a l  P e s a k a and  important  operating  was  Within  f o r SNAP and  p o p u l a r i t y , the  SNAP, was  an  the  seats  Sarawak  of  No  36  the  out  one.  of  that  in  23  l e a d e r s h i p , namely  provided  SNAP's s e c r e t a r y - g e n e r a l  tative  the  given  of  w h i c h w o u l d be  N i n g k a n ' s emergence as of  SCA  question  p o s i t i o n of  w h i c h e t h n i c i t y was  product  and  Sarawak A l l i a n c e ,  f o r the This  total  S a r a w a k A l l i a n c e may  a dominant p a r t y  organisation  a  more f u l l y  to note  e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was  s i x , BARJASA f i v e  organisation with absence  i s discussed  (the Council N e g r i ) .  t h e r e f o r e , and  That  58  moment i t i s s u f f i c i e n t  emerged v i c t o r i o u s w i t h  legislature  eleven,  1963  second  difficult  and His  SNAP  merely  have  come.  represen-  other  largest party i f not  a  in  impossible  86  for  Ningkan  to  a degree  not  to  rise  the  top  without  o f BARJASA and  the  SCA.  c o n t r o l the  Alliance  to  legislature,  Such support cooperation  In  i t had  members, p a r t i c u l a r l y  of  the  two  assistance  other  of Pesaka  words, s i n c e  t o have the  support  and  SNAP  of  did  other  Pesaka.  did materialise.  between  the  After a period  D a y a k p a r t i e s , SNAP and  of  continuing  Pesaka  entered  59 into  an  Jugah's  understanding  of m u t u a l  quest  post  of  Governor while  Ningkan s pursuit  of  the  SNAP and  1  addition, would as  f o r the  SNAP was  restrict  the  two  to  concentrate  itself  to  p a r t i e s had  operation,  t h e y now  the  fact  British  colonial  the  allotted  that  at  w h i c h SNAP w o u l d  Pesaka would  state level, of  SUPP was  specific  for the  office  outside  the  backed  levels of  In  while  politics.  back  support  Minister's office.  the  themselves  administration  by  Sarawak i n t o r e s p e c t i v e  candidates  the  Chief  federal level  divided  T h e r e were t h r e e Despite  assistance  Pesaka  Thus, areas of  Chief  just  of  government. Minister.  Sarawak A l l i a n c e ,  SUPP's c h a i r m a n , Ong  Kee  the Hui,  60 as  Chief  Minister.  coalition t i o n was Ong  as  of  The  quite into  an  the  SUPP.  over  Their not  a  grand  sugges-  Sarawak A l l i a n c e , w h i c h  could  accept  s t r u g g l e was  Sarawak A l l i a n c e  Minister.  real  I t was  apart  i t suggested, would p r e s i d e  S a r a w a k A l l i a n c e , PANAS, and  r e j e c t e d by  Chief  itself.  the  Ong,  arena of here  that  from being  extremely  within  the  N i n g k a n ' s a d v a n t a g e became e v i d e n t ,  SNAP's p r i m a r y  important  operative,  functionary  of  the  he  had  for  developed  Sarawak A l l i a n c e .  87  That p a r t y , disparate the  admittedly,  only  a loose  association of four  e l e m e n t s , b u t t h e f a c t s were t h a t  legislature  sible  was  i t had t h e m a j o r i t y i n  a n d t h a t N i n g k a n was i t s s e c r e t a r y - g e n e r a l ,  f o r i t s operations.  The chairman  respon-  o f t h e SA was Temenggong  J u g a h , who was, a s a f e l l o w D a y a k a n d a P e s a k a member c o m m i t t e d t o supporting  Ningkan  as C h i e f  Ningkan's primary Yakub.^ of  A major  leader  t h e Sarawak A l l i a n c e .  a party that also  challenger  enjoyed  the backing  Ningkan proved  He was t h u s much l i k e  too strong  more q u a l i f i e d , o f the Malayan  becoming  who r e c e i v e d  Ningkan's emergence.  Ningkan  won h i s s e a t position  Ningkan  this  DAC, a n d f r o m  government.  had a r e a l i s t i c  indeed  enjoyed  a personal Elections.  F o r one Given the only the  chance of factor of the  Alliance.  victory  as w e l l :  he had  By m i d - J u l y h i s  f o r h e h a d b e e n e l e c t e d a s member o f t h e  t h a t body  he  In t h eend,  was t h e d o m i n a n t  i n t h e Sarawak  he had  a t r a i n e d lawyer;  F o r a n o t h e r , he had t h e s u p p o r t  i n t h e 1963 G e n e r a l  had improved,  i n that  i n t h e Sarawak A l l i a n c e ,  backing  member  H i s a d v a n t a g e was  o f b o t h Dayak p a r t i e s .  Chinese-based party  Secondly,  Second  their  the Chief Minister:  the only  being  Rahman  an e x e c u t i v e  f o r Rahman Y a k u b t o d i s l o d g e .  Ningkan had t h e support  candidate  SCA,  was A b d u l  o f BARJASA, h e was a l s o  p r e d o m i n a n c e o f SNAP a n d P e s a k a  behind  f o r the post  f o r a b a s e a n d was an A l l i a n c e e x e c u t i v e .  h e was a c a d e m i c a l l y  thing,  Minister.  into the Council Negri.  Ningkan's  88 string  of  t i m e he  electoral  showed  members.  But  candidacy  just  defeat.  In  that  there  that  Abdul  Chief  as  he  no  means u n i q u e ,  t h i r t y - t h r e e other  managed  t o be  Rahman Y a k u b ' s was  the  support  he  neither  power n o r  source,  Minister.  received  They  which b a c k f i r e d .  leak  by  f o r at  this  Council  elected  Negri  strengthened  w e a k e n e d by  his  On  leaked  did  from the  and  federal politicians  who  influence,  since t e c h n i c a l l y ,  t r y to  intervene,  but  1963,  news t h a t  N i n g k a n ' s r e a c t i o n was  "absurd  real  real  J u n e 25,  the  his  electoral  p o s t - e l e c t i o n days, t h e r e f o r e , Yakub's o n l y  t i m e had  unnamed  the  fact  as  was  same r e c o r d  were f o r e i g n e r s .  effort an  the  the  s t r e n g t h was at  the  victories  r i d i c u l o u s " , and  the  i t was  Straits  Times,  Rahman Y a k u b w o u l d prompt.  warned  be  A n n o y e d , he  against  other  a  lame  quoting Sarawak's called  "malicious  62 stuff"  being The  the  speculated  day  that  i n the  future.  S a r a w a k A l l i a n c e was  General E l e c t i o n s , i t s executives  formation tion,  of  i t was  Sarawak's f i r s t announced  unanimous c h o i c e duly  the  upon  appointed  placements of Council  with  to  as  cabinet British  government.  t h a t N i n g k a n was  Chief  the  met  Minister.  office  of  declared  i n Sibu  Following the  M i n i s t e r by the  (SNAP) D e p u t y  Abdul Taib  Mahmud  Chief  the  a two-day d e l i b e r a -  the  Governor.  was The  Sarawak A l l i a n c e  Minister  Minister  (BARJASA), M i n i s t e r and  of  a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e made:  (SNAP), C h i e f  James Wong  discuss  s e l e c t i o n , Ningkan  p o r t f o l i o s w e r e made by 63 advice. The f o l l o w i n g  Stephen Kalong Ningkan  winner  Sarawak A l l i a n c e ' s  Upon h i s  Chief  to  the  of  Works  Communications  89  Dunstan Endawie (SNAP), M i n i s t e r f o r L o c a l Government Teo K u i Seng ( S C A ) , M i n i s t e r o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s Awang H i p n i b i n P e n i g i r a n Annu ( B A R J A S A ) , M i n i s t e r o f S t a t e G.A.T. Shaw ( B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e ) , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e B.A. Hepburn ( B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e ) , F i n a n c i a l S e c r e t a r y P.E.H. P i k e ( B r i t i s h e x p a t r i a t e ) , A t t o r n e y General Ningkan's  cabinet  the  major e t h n i c  three  Further, the  i t may  was  be  e t h n i c a l l y balanced: g r o u p s had  observed  that  Ningkan-Jugah agreement.  bloc  i n the  members e a c h  P e s a k a was  Since  British  i n the  excluded,  as  Pesaka c o n s t i t u t e d  of  the  government.  it  survive  as  long  In  as  the  the  case of  the  arranged  the  Ningkan  Ningkan-Jugah agreement  expatriates,  cabinet. by  largest  S a r a w a k A l l i a n c e , i t s a l l e g i a n c e became c r i t i c a l  survival would  two  excluding  to  single  the  administration, endured.  Summary  SNAP's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e which enabled beginning based  i t to  i t sought  party  to  be  however, f a i l e d settled division was  f o r an of  evident  SNAP was  to  s h a r e power w i t h to  forge  known as  to  function  respective  i n the  following  concentrate  P e s a k a was  to  limit  SNAP w o u l d  support  the  other  Dayak s o l i d a r i t y  the  understanding  their  S a r a w a k A l l i a n c e was  and  Dayak N a t i o n a l  parties.  operation.  i n the  Second  its activities Jugah's b i d  (a)  From  Alliance.  of mutual a s s i s t a n c e ,  instances:  alignment the  through a formal  i n i t s disappearance,  areas of  an  This  body,  SNAP and  followed Their  areas of  Dayak-  by  influence—  First  Divisions  while  i n the  Third  Division;  (b)  p o s i t i o n of  a  understanding  and  f o r the  Pesaka  Governor  in  posts— return  90  for  Pesaka's backing  was t o c o n c e n t r a t e the  f e d e r a l one.  early  days It  should  This,  a n d ( c ) SNAP  l e v e l w h i l e P e s a k a was t o o p e r a t e a t  t h e n , was t h e e x t e n t  be s t r e s s e d  that  both organisations.  was t h a t  Minister;  o f Dayak u n i t y  t h e modus v i v e n d i  concerned the d e l i n e a t i o n of posts  were t h e n f a c e d  to veto  at the state  as C h i e f  i nthe  of independence.  Dayak p a r t i e s affected  of Ningkan  with.  The weakness o f t h i s  decisions.  other  Thus,  t h e two  and t e r r i t o r i e s  They were m a t t e r s w h i c h  the matters involved their  between  which  the p a r t i e s  intra-communal  arrangement  s o u r c e s o f power w h i c h w e r e  i n t h e case o f Jugah's  able  b i d f o r the post  64 of  Governor,  their  Government—that  common  their  to reach  ethnic  More  group,  surface  between  until  early  party-building. land sions  were  agreement  1965.  between  When  the issues  on t h e s e i s s u e s  expounded  t h e Dayak-based  important i n that  competition  began  f a i l e d or common t o  s u c h as l a n g u a g e , Dayak p r i v i l e g e s , and l a n d .  Here  of the leaders  own m a k i n g  on s u b s t a n t i t i v e i s s u e s  of contending p o s i t i o n s being  Competition  of their  by t h e C e n t r a l  i m p o r t a n t , t h e two p a r t i e s  any agreement  absence o f any comprehensive rise  was n u l l i f i e d  i s , problems not e n t i r e l y  t o weaken t h e i r u n i t y . neglected  agreement  The  l e d to the  b y t h e two p a r t i e s .  p a r t i e s , SNAP a n d P e s a k a , d i d n o t  i t d i d , t h e immediate  stimulus  was  o f l a n g u a g e , Dayak p r i v i l e g e s , and  they c r y s t a l l i s e d  the p o l i t i c a l  persua-  o f SNAP a n d P e s a k a a n d i l l u m i n a t e d t h e t h e two p a r t i e s .  That  i s , instead  o f becoming  91  the  foci  of i n t r a - e t h n i c s o l i d a r i t y ,  disagreement struggle  i n which  for political  SNAP a n d support.  Pesaka  these issues sought  became p o i n t s  to " o u t - b i d "  in  of  their  92 Footnotes  1.  2.  t o Chapter  IV  W i l l a r d H a n n a , T h e F o r m a t i o n o f M a l a y s i a (New Y o r k : American Univers i t i e s F i e l d S t a f f , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 7 . S e e a l s o J.M. G u l l i c k , M a l a y s i a a n d i t s N e i g h b o u r s (London: R o u t l e d g e , 1967), p.28. T.E. Smith,  "Proposals  for Malaysia",  The W o r l d  T o d a y , 18  (May, 1 9 6 2 ) ,  p.197. 3.  P e t e r Boyce, M a l a y s i a and Singapore i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Diplomacy; Documents and Commentaries (Sydney: S y d n e y U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968) p. 5.  4.  Ibid.  5.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  6.  J.M. G u l l i c k ,  July  31, 1961.  Malaysia  and I t s N e i g h b o u r s  (London:  Routledge,  1967),  p . 61. 7.  Smith,  8.  H.F. A r m s t r o n g , " T h e T r o u b l e d Vol. 41 ( 1 9 6 2 - 6 3 ) , p . 6 8 2 .  9.  Gullick,  10.  11.  op. c i t . , p.199. Birth  of Malaysia",  Foreign  Affairs,  op. c i t . , p . 8 7 .  On S e p t e m b e r 2 6 , 1 9 6 2 , s e v e n t e e n m o n t h s a f t e r t h e T e n g k u ' s M a l a y s i a p r o p o s a l , t h e C o u n c i l N e g r i m e t . B u t i t was n o t t o d i s c u s s t h e p l a n ; i t was t o a p p r o v e i t i n p r i n c i p l e . When Mr. ( l a t e r D a t u k ) James Wong o b j e c t e d t h a t t h e b o d y was b e i n g p r e s e n t e d w i t h a f a i t a c c o m p l i , h e was t o l d t h a t " i f [ t h e H o n o u r a b l e Member] f e l t t h i s way ... t h e r e a r e p r o c e d u r e s o f t h i s C o u n c i l by which they c a n f o r c e t h e Government's h a n d . . . . " ( T h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , C o u n c i l N e g r i D e b a t e s , S e p t e m b e r 26, 1962, p . 3 8 0 , c i t e d b y E d w i n L e e , S a r a w a k i n t h e E a r l y S i x t i e s , Number Five: S i n g a p o r e S t u d i e s on B o r n e o and M a l a y a [ S i n g a p o r e : University of S i n g a p o r e , 1964], p.40). Ibid.  12.  S e e f o r i n s t a n c e , M.N. S o p i e e , " T h e A d v o c a c y o f M a l a y s i a b e f o r e 1 9 6 1 " M o d e r n A s i a n S t u d i e s , V o l . 7, No. 4 ( 1 9 7 3 ) , p p . 7 1 7 - 7 2 3 ; R.S. M i l n e and D i a n e K. M a u z y , P o l i t i c s a n d G o v e r n m e n t i n M a l a y s i a ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r e s s , 1978), pp.44-76; M.N. S o p i e e , F r o m M a l a y a n U n i o n t o S i n g a p o r e S e p a r a t i o n ( K u a l a Lumpur: U n i v e r s i t y of M a l a y a P r e s s , 1974).  13.  S a r a w a k b y t h e Week, 5 0 / 6 1 , December  14.  Ibid.  15.  Ibid.  10-December  16, 1961, p.4.  93 16.  Ibid.  17.  Ibid.  18.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , J u l y 31,  19.  Sarawak by the Week, 42/61, October 15-0ctober 21, 1961,  20.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , March 2,  21.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , J u l y 31, 1961. I n a statement t o the p r e s s , Ningkan r e f u t e d the Tengku's charge t h a t those who were opposed t o M a l a y s i a were communists. "SNAP", Ningkan c o n t i n u e d , "was a r i g h t wing [ p a r t y which would] ... never become a communist p a r t y . "  22.  Sarawak by the Week, 3/62,  23.  Report o f the Commission of E n q u i r y , N o r t h Borneo and Sarawak, L o r d Cobbold, chairman (Kuching: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962), p . v i . T h i s body became commonly known as the Cobbold Commission. None of i t s members were from Sarawak.  24.  Ibid.,  25.  S t r a i t s Times, December 20, 1961,  26.  Sarawak by the Week, 50/61, December 10-December 16, 1961,  27.  I b i d . 3/62,  28.  The Rejang i s the l o n g e s t r i v e r i n Sarawak. The a c q u i e s c e n c e of the Rejang Dayaks t o the M a l a y s i a p l a n was a grave disappointment t o SNAP.  29.  S e v e r a l sources w i t h i n SNAP c o n f i r m e d t h i s .  30.  Report of the Commission of E n q u i r y , North Borneo and Sarawak (Lord Cobbold, chairman) op. c i t . , p.9. Note t h a t SNAP had suggested a referendum as the proper way t o determine the wishes of Sarawakians. In t h i s i n s t a n c e the Cobbold Commission chose t o r e l y on the c o l l e c t i v e wishes of t h e s e penghulus as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the a t t i t u d e of the Rejang Dayaks. S i n c e t h e s e headmen o n l y met f o r one day i n the K a p i t bazaar, they c o u l d not be expected to be conversant w i t h the M a l a y s i a p l a n and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s .  31.  Ibid.,  32.  I b i d . , p.72. See a l s o Sarawak T r i b u n e , March 28, 1962. In c o n t r a s t t o the p o p u l a t i o n of the Dayaks i n the Rejang, the S a r i b a s r e g i o n had o n l y 14,000 members. SNAP's founders came from the S a r i b a s a r e a . O b v i o u s l y the S a r i b a s i s the l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t of the two r e g i o n s .  33.  For i n s t a n c e , i n mid-1962 i t s c l a i m e d membership stood a t 50,000, l e s s than t h a t of PANAS. See i b i d . , June 12, 1962. Both f i g u r e s were probably i n f l a t e d .  1961. p.11.  1962.  January 14-January  20, 1962,  p.3.  p.86.  January 14-January  p.13.  20, 1961,  p.11.  p.4.  p.43.  94 34.  Ibid.,  March  35.  Ibid.,  June  36.  Michael Leigh, Sydney  28, 12,  1962. 1962.  The  University  Rising Press,  Moon: 1974),  Political  Change i n Sarawak  (Sydney:  p.52.  37.  S a r a w a k T r i b u n e , J u n e 28, 1962. I n t h e same m o n t h when P e s a k a was f o r m e d , SNAP's p r i o r i t y was s w i t c h e d f r o m b u i l d i n g a n i n t e r - e t h n i c a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n SNAP a n d BARJASA t o a n i n t r a - e t h n i c o n e b e t w e e n SNAP a n d P e s a k a .  38.  Ibid.,  June  39.  Ibid.,  August  40.  I b i d . , J u l y 2 1 , 1962. The s p e e d i n w h i c h N i n g k a n t r i e d t o f o r g e an a l l i a n c e h e r e and t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e R e j a n g I b a n l e a d e r s f r o m h i s "Council of A l l i a n c e " probably resulted i n increased mutual d i s t r u s t b e t w e e n t h e two D a y a k l e a d e r s h i p c l i q u e s o f t h e S a r i b a s a n d R e j a n g .  41.  Ibid.,  September  42.  Ibid.,  August  43.  Ibid.,  June  44.  S t r a i t s Times,  45.  M a r g a r e t R o f f , The P o l i t i c s o f B e l o n g i n g : P o l i t i c a l Change i n Sarawak and S a b a h ( K u a l a Lumpur: O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 7 4 ) , p.121. N i n g k a n a l s o a r g u e d t h a t t h e two D a y a k p a r t i e s w h i c h i n 1962 c l a i m e d t o h a v e a t o t a l o f 100,000 members, c o u l d d o m i n a t e t h e p o l i t i c s o f S a r a w a k .  46.  Ibid.,  p.125.  47.  Ibid.,  September  48.  Ibid.,  O c t o b e r 22,  1962.  49.  Ibid.,  O c t o b e r 23,  1962.  50.  Ibid.  51.  Ibid.  18,  1962.  29,  1962.  7,  29,  27,  1952.  1962.  1962. September  7,  7,  1962.  1962.  52.  T h i s was t o b e r e p l a c e d b y an i n f o r m a l a l l i a n c e — a gentleman's agreement b e t w e e n J u g a h a n d N i n g k a n , t h e two p r i n c i p a l o p e r a t o r s b e h i n d P e s a k a a n d SNAP r e s p e c t i v e l y .  53.  I b i d . , November 30, 1962. Another worry of the proponents of the S a r a w a k A l l i a n c e was t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o - M a l a y s i a p a r t i e s s p l i t t i n g t h e i r votes i n the general e l e c t i o n s scheduled f o r the m i d d l e o f 1963. See S a r a w a k T r i b u n e , O c t o b e r 18, 1962.  95 54.  The  e x c l u s i o n of Malayan p a r t i c i p a t i o n  jective  of  i n S a r a w a k was  a major  ob-  SNAP.  55.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  56.  Ibid.  57.  Ibid.,  58.  S e e , f o r i n s t a n c e , " R e p o r t on t h e G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n s , 1 9 6 3 " Sarawak G a z e t t e L X X X I X , 1266 ( A u g u s t 31, 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 1 7 4 - 1 9 2 . F o r an e x c e l l e n t a c c o u n t o f t h e 1963 G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n s e e K . J . Ratnam and R.S. Milne, The M a l a y a n P a r l i a m e n t a r y E l e c t i o n o f 1964 (Singapore: U n i v e r s i t y of M a l a y a P r e s s , 1967), pp.266-311. See a l s o M i c h a e l L e i g h , The R i s i n g Moon, op. c i t . , p p . 5 1 - 7 2 .  59.  T h e r e i s no common o p i n i o n b e t w e e n t h e two s i d e s a s t o when t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g was a c t u a l l y r e a c h e d . A c c o r d i n g t o v a r i o u s s o u r c e s i n SNAP i t was n o t r e a c h e d u n t i l e a r l y 1964 ( b e f o r e t h a t c o o p e r a t i o n b e t w e e n them was on a n a d h o c b a s i s ) . E v e n t h e n i t was n o t a f o r m a l understanding b u t a g e n t l e m a n ' s a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n Temenggong J u g a h and N i n g k a n . P e s a k a - S N A P c o o p e r a t i o n t h u s r e s t e d on t h e g o o d w i l l o f two men. See f o o t n o t e 49. Y e a r s l a t e r , i n J u n e 1976, t h e two m a j o r P e s a k a l e a d e r s , Temenggong J u g a h and Thomas K a n a , w e r e t o d e n y t o t h i s s t u d e n t t h a t t h e r e was s u c h a n understanding.  60.  Michael  Leigh,  Straits  T i m e s , J u n e 25,  61.  June  4,  January  22,  1963.  1963.  The  R i s i n g Moon, op. 1963,  cited  c i t . , p.78. i n Leigh,  The  R i s i n g Moon, op. c i t . ,  p.79. 62.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  J u n e 27,  1963.  63.  B r i t i s h i n f l u e n c e extended beyond t h i s s t a g e . T h r e e e x p a t r i a t e s were r e t a i n e d i n t h e Supreme C o u n c i l ( c a b i n e t ) a n d one o f t h e m , G.A.T. Shaw, t h e s t a t e s e c r e t a r y , was p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e t o N i n g k a n . F o r an a c c o u n t o f c a b i n e t f o r m a t i o n i n S a r a w a k s e e M.B. L e i g h , "The D e v e l o p m e n t o f P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and L e a d e r s h i p i n S a r a w a k , E a s t M a l a y s i a " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 1 ) , p p . 1 3 8 - 1 4 0 .  64.  Temenggong J u g a h ' s i d e a o f who was t h e c u l p r i t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s f a i l u r e t o become t h e G o v e r n o r seemed t o h a v e c h a n g e d o v e r t h e y e a r s . I n J u n e 1976 he i n f o r m e d t h i s s t u d e n t t h a t t h e p e r s o n t o b e b l a m e d was N i n g k a n , s i n c e i t was t h r o u g h h i s b e h e s t t h a t he ( J u g a h ) a g r e e d t o o f f e r h i s candidacy. But i n t h e p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e M a l a y a n v e t o Jugah c l e a r l y blamed t h e C e n t r a l Government. S u c h was h i s a n g e r t h a t he was r e a d y t o r e v e r s e h i s s u p p o r t f o r M a l a y s i a , op. c i t . ; s e e , f o r i n s t a n c e , i b i d , p.140.  96  CHAPTER V  ISSUES AND DAYAK INTERESTS  I t i s n e c e s s a r y to note from Chapter IV t h a t a l t h o u g h SNAP r e l i e d h e a v i l y on t e r r i t o r i a l n a t i o n a l i s m , a f a c t m a n i f e s t e d espousal  by i t s  o f the p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a more s a l i e n t  n a t i o n a l i s m i n i t s campaign a g a i n s t M a l a y s i a a c t i v i t i e s was i t s e t h n i c  and i t s subsequent  (Dayak) n a t i o n a l i s m .  T r u e , l i t t l e was  s a i d o r admitted p u b l i c l y about the f a c t o r o f e t h n i c i t y , b u t the f a c t remained t h a t the Dayaks formed SNAP's primary community, the s t r a t e g i c group which c o u l d put SNAP i n a dominant p o s i t i o n i s Sarawak. The  p a r t y opposed M a l a y s i a  because i t threatened  t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r hegemony; determination  merely p r o v i d e d  Chapter V d e a l s w i t h The  purpose o f the c h a p t e r  i n t h i s case the p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f a convenient p u b l i c r e a s o n .  two i s s u e s i n which SNAP was i n v o l v e d . i s to c o n f i r m the s a l i e n c e and the  development o f e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s m . into play:  to deny the Dayaks  Again, o t h e r f a c t o r s w i l l  come  as w i l l be seen, SNAP employed t e c h n i c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  arguments, b u t beyond t h i s , Dayak i n t e r e s t s .  the p a r t y a c t e d  t o defend and a r t i c u l a t e  97  B orneon i s at i o n Borneonisation  was a f a i r l y  straightforward  r e f e r r e d t o t h e replacement i n t h e c i v i l by the  l o c a l Bornean o f f i c e r s .  idea.  It  s e r v i c e of B r i t i s h  I t was a p r o c e s s which e n t a i l e d  i n f u s i o n o f l o c a l t a l e n t i n t o the c i v i l  concomitant d e p a r t u r e o f e x p a t r i a t e s .  expatriates first,  s e r v i c e , and second, t h e  The p r i n c i p l e of  Borneonisation  had wide acceptance. The  Malaysia S o l i d a r i t y Consultative  Committee (MSCC), l e d by  Donald Stephens of Sabah, n o t o n l y endorsed the p r i n c i p l e of Borneon i s a t i o n but a l s o suggested t h a t s t a t e s concerned. over B o r n e o n i s a t i o n the  i t s implementation be l e f t  Moreover, the MSCC recommended t h a t be c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y safeguarded."*"  i s s u e i n Borneo was r e c o g n i s e d  state  to the control  Concern over  by the Cobbold Commission which  recommended t h a t B o r n e o n i s a t i o n o f the p u b l i c s e r v i c e s should proceed as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . Every e f f o r t should be made t o encourage B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s to remain i n the s e r v i c e u n t i l t h e i r p l a c e s can be taken by q u a l i f i e d p e o p l e from t h e Borneo t e r r i t o r i e s . ^ In i t s t u r n , t h e Inter-Governmental Committee (IGC), which was charged w i t h c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e terms o f t h e f e d e r a t i o n , u l t i m a t e l y gave the s t a t e government c o n s i d e r a b l e  leeway i n d e t e r m i n i n g how f a s t o r how 3  slow B o r n e o n i s a t i o n  i n the s t a t e c i v i l  s e r v i c e should be.  T h i s was  because the IGC "saw the p r o c e s s o f r e p l a c i n g e x p a t r i a t e s by l o c a l  98  o f f i c e r s i n somewhat r a t i o n a l formal terms;  i t considered l o c a l  expectations of tenure, and the need to programme the handover so as 4 not to destroy the e f f i c i e n c y of the s e r v i c e s . "  I t was l e f t to the  state government concerned through i t s P u b l i c Service Commission, which i n the case of Sarawak was chaired by Ningkan, to r e c o n c i l e these "expectations" and to produce the "programmes". the  In p r a c t i c e , therefore,  IGC a c t u a l l y put Ningkan i n the p o s i t i o n of deciding what posts i n  Sarawak were ready to be Borneonised.  What the IGC Report d i d not do  was to r u l e out the prospect that c i v i l servants from West Malaysia or Malaya would f i l l federal, as opposed to s t a t e , p o s i t i o n s i n the states. The admittance of Malayan c i v i l servants into Sarawak would hasten the departure of e x p a t r i a t e s who were holding p o s i t i o n s which were now under federal j u r i s d i c t i o n i n the s t a t e .  That i s , although the IGC gave  Borneonisation the status of " f i r s t p r i o r i t y " , i t d i d not provide "any absolute guarantee that no Malayan would be appointed to any f e d e r a l posts i n the Borneo states"."'  The IGC seemed to accord Ningkan the  p o s i t i o n of deciding what posts i n Sarawak were ready to be Borneonised.  In p r a c t i c e Ningkan d i d not enjoy such an o v e r r i d i n g power  over Borneonisation.  Part of the reason was from the fact that the  c i v i l service i n Sarawak were under two l i s t s — f e d e r a l and s t a t e . The problem f o r Ningkan was that although the IGC Report recognised the  j u r i s d i c t i o n of h i s government over Borneonisation i t d i d not  r u l e out the prospect of c i v i l servants from Malaya procuring f e d e r a l  99  j o b s i n Sarawak. f e d e r a l and  Indeed, Malayan c i v i l  s t a t e j o b s i n Sarawak, a l t h o u g h  t h a t the a c t u a l number was service. of  the IGC  s e r v a n t s d i d move i n t o  s m a l l and  i t should be p o i n t e d  t h a t most were i n the  In s h o r t , Ningkan's p o s i t i o n was  weakened by the  out  federal ambiguity  Report.  Compounding the t e c h n i c a l i s s u e of what the IGC  actually stated,  Ningkan's a c t u a l a u t h o r i t y on B o r n e o n i s a t i o n was " f u r t h e r weakened by p o l i t i c a l p r e s s u r e from the f e d e r a l government.  Eager to see  the  removal of the e x p a t r i a t e s and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e from Sarawak, the government e x e r t e d p r e s s u r e on Ningkan to a c c e l e r a t e t h e i r  federal  removal.  Again, Ningkan found h i m s e l f at odds w i t h the f e d e r a l government; w h i l e the former favoured the hasty r e l e a s e of e x p a t r i a t e s , the was  convinced  of the m e r i t s of t h e i r g r a d u a l removal.  a l s o c e n t r e d on the q u e s t i o n s of replacements.  The  latter  Disagreements  federal  govern-  ment not o n l y i n s i s t e d t h a t Malayans be e l i g i b l e as replacements,  but  a l s o appeared to f a v o u r , i n o r d e r of p r e f e r e n c e , Sarawak Malays, Sarawak Dayaks, and  Sarawak Chinese.  Malayans should be excluded  from jobs  Ningkan, i n c o n t r a s t f e l t t h a t 1  i n the s t a t e .  c l e a r l y favoured Dayaks as the prime contenders  Further  he  to r e p l a c e d e p a r t i n g  expatriates. B a r e l y f o u r months a f t e r the i n c e p t i o n of M a l a y s i a , Borneon i s a t i o n i n both s t a t e and and p r o t r a c t e d p o l i t i c a l  f e d e r a l s e r v i c e s was  to become a b i t t e r  i s s u e i n which the Ningkan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  100 was p i t t e d a g a i n s t both the Sarawak Government A s i a n (SGAOU) and t h e f e d e r a l government.  O f f i c e r s Union  SNAP's p o s i t i o n on  Borneonisation  was made c l e a r i n August 1962, at which time i t conceded t h a t Borneon i s a t i o n should  p r o c e e d , but a t t h e same time, t h a t i t was concerned  about t h e q u a l i t y of replacement.  I t s a i d t h a t t h e " e f f i c i e n c y and  i n t e g r i t y of the p u b l i c s e r v i c e must be m a i n t a i n e d i n a h i g h p i t c h , and  t h a t t h e "present  discouraged  s e r v i n g E x p a t r i a t e O f f i c e r s should  not be  from remaining i n the P u b l i c S e r v i c e as long as t h e i r  s e r v i c e s are required."^ The party held; acceptable  Ningkan government l a r g e l y r e t a i n e d t h e views which h i s he endorsed B o r n e o n i s a t i o n  but f e l t  t h a t competent and  replacements would have t o be found b e f o r e  British  expat-  r i a t e s c o u l d be i n v i t e d t o depart so t h a t the e f f i c i e n c y and i n t e g r i t y of t h e p u b l i c s e r v i c e would not s u f f e r i n the p r o c e s s .  Here then  g  was t h e core o f Ningkan's p u b l i c argument. Ningkan's r e s o l v e t o f i n d competent and a c c e p t a b l e meant t h a t B o r n e o n i s a t i o n  was of n e c e s s i t y  replacement  slow and d e l i b e r a t e .  term "competent" i s s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y , but " a c c e p t a b l e " e l a b o r a t i o n because i t .has p o l i t i c a l o v e r t o n e s .  The  needs f u r t h e r  I t means t h a t i n  f i n d i n g a replacement, t h e r i g h t c a n d i d a t e would not o n l y have t o be competent, but o f t h e a c c e p t a b l e and  e t h n i c k i n d as w e l l .  Ratnam had t h i s to say about B o r n e o n i s a t i o n  at t h i s  \  Milne level:  101 There was i n f a c t p r o v i s i o n f o r the p r o t e c t i o n o f N a t i v e s i n the new Sarawak and Sabah c o n s t i t u t i o n s drawn up at the time of M a l a y s i a . But the p r o t e c t i o n was n o t complete; beyond i t s l i m i t s , the q u i c k e r the e x p a t r i a t e s were removed the g r e a t e r the chances t h a t a Chinese would be a p p o i n t e d to a vacancy. However, i f t h e e x p a t r i a t e s ' d e p a r t u r e s c o u l d be slowed down a l i t t l e , the time c o u l d be used t o t r a i n a N a t i v e to f i l l the p o s t . Even i n s i d e - the c a t e g o r y of " N a t i v e s " t h e r e were c o n f l i c t s between the c l a i m s of d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups. In Sarawak, f o r example, s i n c e the days of the Brookes the Malays had been t r a d i t i o n a l l y more prominent than o t h e r N a t i v e s i n the c i v i l service.9 Thus, d o m e s t i c a l l y B o r n e o n i s a t i o n had become a p o l i t i c a l  i s s u e i n which  communal i n t e r e s t s were at s t a k e . . The motive behind the g r a d u a l approach which both SNAP and Pesaka advocated meant a l e a s e of time which would to  take o v e r . ^  tutorship.  The o t h e r motive was  allow q u a l i f i e d  Dayaks  to ensure a p e r i o d of B r i t i s h  SNAP has always accepted as a matter of c o u r s e a c o n t i n u i n g  r e l a t i o n s h i p between Great B r i t a i n and i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and  Sarawak,  even i f t h e l a t t e r were t o become independent.  the  b e l i e f of i t s core l e a d e r s t h a t to  such a r e l a t i o n s h i p  guide and guard Sarawak as a p o l i t i c a l l y  Great B r i t a i n , they f e l t , would  Indeed, i t was should be  independent  sufficient  nation-state.  ensure t h a t Sarawak would  remain a  v i a b l e independent c o u n t r y and, c o n v i n c e d of t h i s , they were q u i c k to reject Malaysia:  "When Sarawak has a t t a i n e d independence  w i l l remain i n the B r i t i s h C o m m o n w e a l t h . A f t e r of  M a l a y s i a , the p a r t y s t i l l  their  advocated a s t r o n g B r i t s h  she  £too]  acceptance  bias.  102  In Sarawak, Ningkan's most v o c a l c r i t i c s were SGAOU and the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s , PANAS and SUPP. Borneonisation  I n the main they found  had gone f a r too s l o w l y .  of t h e SUPP concluded i n . F e b r u a r y  that  Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , Ong Kee H u i  1964, t h a t "so f a r what has  or f a i l e d t o occur i n the p r o c e s s of B o r n e o n i s a t i o n  occurred  of t h e p u b l i c 12  s e r v i c e has n o t given p e o p l e much c o n f i d e n c e  i n the government".  Abang Othman of PANAS was even more s c a t h i n g  i n his attack.  w i t h o u t s u b s t a n t i a t i n g h i s remarks, t h a t "what has happened Malaysia posts  He  charged,  since  Day i s t h a t i n s t e a d of r e l i n q u i s h i n g some of the l e s s s e n i o r  to l o c a l o f f i c e r s , we see the r e v e r s e  inexperienced  senior l o c a l  expatriate o f f i c e r s 13  happening.  Young and  have been promoted, even  overpassing  officers".  The most c o n s i s t e n t a t t a c k on the way Ningkan handled the Borneonisation  i s s u e came from SGAOU.  slow speed o f B o r n e o n i s a t i o n help  o r h i s explanat i o n , the Union e n l i s t e d the  of t h e f e d e r a l government.  Deputy Prime M i n i s t e r , who  Not s a t i s f i e d w i t h Ningkan's  I t was Tun Razak h i m s e l f ,  discussed  SGAOU's complaints w i t h Ningkan.  the i s s u e of B o r n e o n i s a t i o n  and  The C h i e f M i n i s t e r ' s r e a c t i o n to the  f e d e r a l government's i n i t i a t i v e was one of d i s p l e a s u r e . informed Razak t h a t  then the  He  apparently  i n Sarawak t h e p r o c e s s of r e p l a c i n g the e x p a t r i a t e s  was a c t u a l l y f a s t e r than that  i n the M a l a y s i a n s t a t e s , thus  implying  t h a t the Deputy Prime M i n i s t e r had no j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r p o i n t i n g the f e d e r a l f i n g e r , so to speak, at Sarawak.  I t was h i s hope, Ningkan  103  remonstrated,  t h a t t h e r e be "no f u r t h e r a c c u s a t i o n s from t h e F e d e r a l 14  Government on the matter". On i t s own SGAOU c o n t i n u e d exasperated  t o p r e s s the i s s u e . ^  I t was an  Ningkan who s c o l d e d the Union i n mid-1965: I f i n d your p r o p o s a l s and indeed your i n t e r f e r e n c e i n m a t t e r s which do n o t concern your Union e n t i r e l y u n a c c e p t a b l e .... I t r u s t t h e r e w i l l be no f u r t h e r o c c a s i o n when your Union s t e p s beyond t h e bounds of i t s proper functions.16  Ningkan's commitment t o a slow r a t e o f B o r n e o n i s a t i o n ire of  o f t h e f e d e r a l government, which was convinced  a l s o r a i s e d the  t h a t the i n f l u e n c e  t h e e x p a t r i a t e s i n Sarawak was p e r v a s i v e l y h a r m f u l .  The p o s i t i o n of  t h e f e d e r a l government was t h a t t h e e x p a t r i a t e s be encouraged t o leave and  t h a t replacements c o u l d be e i t h e r from Sarawak o r West M a l a y s i a .  D e c l a r e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r , i f t h e B r i t i s h c o n t i n u e t o run the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e c o u n t r y , when can the people of Sarawak c l a i m t o be independent? Although t h e B r i t i s h f l a g i s no l o n g e r flown i n the c o u n t r y , many B r i t i s h o f f i c e r s a r e s t i l l a d m i n i s t e r i n g and h o l d i n g key appointments i n t h e Government. I , t h e r e f o r e , asked t h a t Sarawakians should r e p l a c e them; i f t h e r e i s none a v a i l a b l e , then we i n Malaya c o u l d come t o a s s i s t . I 7  Ningkan was opposed t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n s It  of t h e f e d e r a l government.  was h i s view t h a t B r i t i s h presence i n Sarawak was advantageous f o r  Sarawakians and the e x p a t r i a t e s were t h e r e f o r e welcome to stay the a p p r o p r i a t e Sarawak-born replacements c o u l d be found.  until  He  r e j e c t e d the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Sarawak was s t i l l under undue B r i t i s h  104  influence.  In h i s r e t o r t to the Prime M i n i s t e r he s a i d , "The  S e r v i c e i s no l o n g e r s e r v i n g under  a C o l o n i a l Government; i t i s no  l o n g e r t h e r e to c a r r y out c o l o n i a l p o l i c i e s . o f f i c e r s who now  Public  Today, even the e x p a t r i a t e  remain i n the S e r v i c e have had t o r e a l i z e t h a t they are  c a r r y i n g out the p o l i c i e s made by the p e o p l e themselves through the 18  elected representatives." e x p a t r i a t e s , Ningkan of B o r n e o n i s a t i o n . o f f e r of Malayan  In r e j e c t i n g any h a s t y withdrawal o f the  i n e f f e c t was  e s t a b l i s h i n g a case f o r a slow r a t e  More than t h a t , he was  r e j e c t i n g the Tengku's  b u r e a u c r a t s f o r s e r v i c e i n Sarawak.  In o r d e r t o a c h i e v e a g r a d u a l implementation of B o r n e o n i s a t i o n , however, Ningkan needed a p l a u s i b l e b a s i s f o r h i s argument. convinced that was  he had found t h i s i n the IGC Report.  He  Ningkan's  was tactic  t h e r e f o r e to r e l y on a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l u n d e r p i n n i n g , s p e c i f i c a l l y  the p r o v i s i o n s p r o v i d e d by the IGC Report which he regarded as the 19  c o n d i t i o n s f o r Sarawak's e n t r y i n t o M a l a y s i a . of t h e IGC Report.  Hence h i s defence  But, as has been p o i n t e d o u t , t h e IGC Report d i d  not p r e c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y of Malayans s e r v i n g i n the s t a t e . o t h e r words, a l t h o u g h Ningkan  wanted t o keep Malayan  In  c i v i l servants  out of Sarawak, the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n s which he  offered  were inadequate.  Unable t o b l o c k t h i s l o o p h o l e c o m p l e t e l y , Ningkan  sought t o r e s t r i c t  the number o f Malayan  to the minimum.  born o f f i c i a l s  A g a i n , he r e f e r r e d t o the IGC  i n the s t a t e  Report:  The S t a t e Government of Sarawak i n t e n d s to see the terms of the Inter-Governmental Committee Report are s t r i c t l y observed i n B o r n e o n i s a t i o n  105  and  t h a t M a l a y a n i s a t i o n would be r e s i s t e d . . . . As a r e s u l t of t h i s p o l i c y , the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r Sarawakian o f f i c e r s i n terms of promotion are immense.20  The  term M a l a y a n i s a t i o n  civil  i m p l i e s at l e a s t  s e r v i c e by M a l a y s i a n s  general  some degree o f takeover  born i n Malaya;  s u s p i c i o n of Malayan presence and  Resistance servants  of  the  i t s usage b e t r a y s Ningkan's  i n t e n t i o n s i n Sarawak.  to M a l a y a n i s a t i o n means t h a t i n Sarawak no Malayan-born  should  take over any  s e n i o r p o s i t i o n s (even those under f e d e r a l  j u r i s d i c t i o n ) from d e p a r t i n g e x p a t r i a t e s . meant t h a t n e i t h e r Ningkan nor M a l a y s i a " of August 1962. Borneonisation,  but  civil  SNAP had  T h i s i s important,  for i t  r e t r e a t e d from the "stand  At t h a t time the p a r t y not  on  o n l y endorsed  a l s o i n s i s t e d t h a t p o s i t i o n s under f e d e r a l j u r i s -  d i c t i o n i n Sarawak be f i l l e d C l e a r l y Ningkan was  by  Sarawakians.  determined to r e s i s t any  a c c e l e r a t e d programme of B o r n e o n i s a t i o n  c a l l f o r an  f o r such an approach, as  has  been p o i n t e d out above, would put the Dayaks at a d i s a d v a n t a g e s i n c e at  t h a t time v e r y  expatriates.  few Dayaks were q u a l i f i e d to f i l l  the p o s t s h e l d  I t c o u l d be s a i d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t Dayak n a t i o n a l i s m  p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Ningkan's p o s i t i o n on B o r n e o n i s a t i o n . o t h e r determinant of Ningkan's p o s i t i o n stemmed from the o r i e n t a t i o n of SNAP's n a t i o n a l i s m . t h a t Malayan-born c i v i l of i t s n a t i o n a l i s m was  Manifested  s e r v a n t s be excluded clearly t e r r i t o r i a l ,  based on the p r o v i s i o n s of t h e IGC  Report.  by was  The  other  by Ningkan's i n s i s t e n c e  from Sarawak, t h i s  aspect  f o r SNAP's argument  was  For SNAP, here,  role  the  106  of the e x p a t r i a t e s had r e g i o n a l concern.  been extended from a communal purpose to a  E x p a t r i a t e s were a v a l u a b l e  source of manpower i n  h e l p i n g Ningkan to i n s u l a t e Sarawak a g a i n s t f e d e r a l encroachment. That i s , the e x p a t r i a t e s were not Sarawak c a n d i d a t e s , and  only u s e f u l i n t u t o r i n g p o t e n t i a l  but a l s o i n o c c u p y i n g these c i v i l  service  posts  t h e r e f o r e denying them to Malayans. I t was  not u n t i l e a r l y 1966  t h a t Ningkan f i n a l l y agreed to  21 accelerate  the d e p a r t u r e  of the e x p a t r i a t e s — a n d F i r s t , i t was  even then o n l y  the terms which he had  prescribed.  To ensure t h i s , he had  c r e a t e d the Sarawak B o r n e o n i s a t i o n  ment Committee, which be c h a i r e d , " t o f i l l  to be  on  Borneonisation. and E s t a b l i s h -  a l l top p o s t s w i t h  local  22 officers". character:  Second, i t was to be c a u t i o u s and programmatic i n B o r n e o n i s a t i o n was to be planned and executed w i t h c a r e , 23  " n o t . . . h a p h a z a r d l y " , he  asserted.  At t h i s p o i n t , Ningkan's p o s i t i o n encountered problems. H i t h e r t o , Ningkan was  able t o f o l l o w a f a i r l y  implementing B o r n e o n i s a t i o n , t i o n a l argument and  independent p o l i c y i n  l a r g e l y because of h i s s t r o n g c o n s t i t u -  because, s i n c e he d i d not  the f i n a n c i a l o u t l a y s were s m a l l .  i n s t i t u t e many changes,  With the new  phase of  Ningkan a l s o i n s t i t u t e d v a r i o u s developmental p r o j e c t s . appear t h a t Ningkan was  Borneonisation, I t would  ready to demonstrate the v i a b i l i t y of h i s  contention  that Sarawak c o u l d and  should  implement B o r n e o n i s a t i o n  i t s own.  In t h i s , however, Ningkan b a d l y m i s c a l c u l a t e d , for' h i s  on  J  107  p r o j e c t s needed f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g  which Sarawak was  unable to r a i s e  24 by  itself.  His only r e c o u r s e was  financial assistance.  But by  this  to t u r n to the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s time the f e d e r a l government had  s e r i o u s r i f t s w i t h Ningkan o v e r o t h e r i s s u e s and was Ningkan had  to be  Borneonisation,  rooted  a major o b s t a c l e is,  removed from power.  of d e v e l o p i n g  between West and  as i t was  had  convinced  that  Ningkan's i n t r a n s i g e n c e  over  i n Dayak and  for  Sarawak i n t e r e s t s , was  to the f e d e r a l o b j e c t i v e s of n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g , t h a t political  consensus and  East Malaysia.  over B o r n e o n i s a t i o n  was  administrative  In a very  co-ordination  r e a l sense, the squabble  a c l a s h between two  competing  nationalisms.  Language Before  SNAP's p o s i t i o n on language i s examined, i t i s n e c e s s a r y  e x p l a i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the language. usage:  The  term n a t i o n a l as opposed to  e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the two  a n a t i o n a l language would be  country,  as would a l s o the o f f i c i a l  for  the o f f i c i a l  only  —that  l e v e l s of government. Malaysia, official  Parliament  one,  language i n 1967  but  there  the  the s i m i l a r i t y  used i n o f f i c i a l  ends,  communications different  o f the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f  empowered to terminate i n West M a l a y s i a .  from Sarawak, Singapore, and  in their  correspondence between the  Under A r t i c l e 161  was  official  taught i n the s c h o o l s o f  language c o u l d be  o f the c o u r t s , o f f i c e s , and  lies  to  Sabah were s t i l l  the use o f E n g l i s h as i t s  Elected allowed  representatives to use  English  108  in  the F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t u n t i l 1973.  F u r t h e r , E n g l i s h was  to be used  in  Sabah and  language at l e a s t up  to  and  Sarawak as t h e i r o f f i c i a l  1973,  a f t e r t h a t time, u n t i l t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e l e g i s l a t u r e s d e c i d e d  otherwise.^ SNAP d i d not The  e s t a b l i s h a p o s i t i o n on language u n t i l March  immediate s t i m u l i was  Malaysia  plan  safeguards. should  and On  the p a r t y ' s  impending acceptance of  the  the concomitant need to e s t a b l i s h c o n d i t i o n s  the matter of language, the p a r t y f e l t  remain the o f f i c i a l  language not  only  that  1962.  and  "English  i n Sarawak but  also in  26 the F e d e r a t i o n  of M a l a y s i a  of E n g l i s h and  the c o n d i t i o n c o n t a i n e d  leaders  as evidence t h a t they had  s i n c e E n g l i s h was at  f o r at l e a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s . "  l e a s t , t h i s was  since being  Iban language i n  choice  regarded by  party  adopted a n a t i o n a l M a l a y s i a n  used i n b o t h B r i t i s h Borneo and an important c o n c e s s i o n ,  Iban themselves, t h e r e was  they were t i l t i n g  t h e r e i n was  The  a s a c r i f i c e on  little  towards the p r e s e r v a t i o n  Malaya.  To  them,  their  doubt t h a t by  and  outlook,  perpetuation  part  t h i s time of  the  Malaysia.  SNAP soon i n t r o d u c e d  a number of a d d i t i o n s to i t s p o s i t i o n .  Since the f i r s t p u b l i c a t i o n of i t s s a f e g u a r d s , i t had the feedback from p a r t y members. f o r the  I t was  f a c t i o n was  responsible  Iban be one  of the n a t i o n a l languages.  time to p r o c e s s  l i k e l y that t h e i r  dissatis-  i n c l u s i o n of a c l a u s e demanding t h a t The  new  p o s i t i o n was  as  While i t i s g e n e r a l l y and 'strongly f e l t by the m a j o r i t y of p e o p l e t h a t IBAN should be one of the  follows;  109  n a t i o n a l languages of M a l a y s i a , the s u b j e c t i s best s o l v e d . . . ( b y ) the f u l l y e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the N a t i o n a l L e g i s l a t i v e C o u n c i l of S t a t e Parliament.27 T h i s new  a d d i t i o n , which r e f l e c t e d the wishes of i t s s u p p o r t e r s ,  high-  l i g h t e d the concern i n the s t a t e f o r the s u r v i v a l of the Dayaks, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Ibans, w i t h i n the f e d e r a t i o n .  I t was  of t h e p r i m o r d i a l sentiments of p a r t y l e a d e r s and  an  expression  supporters  which  emerged out of the f e a r among the Ibans t h a t t h e i r d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e , of which t h e i r language was  one  f a c e t , might be d i l u t e d or even  inundated by the i n f u s i o n of t h i n g s Malay i n t o Sarawak. i n having learned  Iban as a n a t i o n a l language was  advantage  t h a t i t would have been  and used i n the s c h o o l s of the s t a t e , c l e a r l y the best way  perpetuating to spread  the Iban language.  reconciled with The  In s h o r t , SNAP's i n t e n t i o n was  the language to the r e s t of M a l a y s i a ,  i t s s u r v i v a l w i t h i n Sarawak.  mising  The  In t h i s way  t h a t E n g l i s h should  more uncompro-  While p r e v i o u s l y i t had  insisted  be r e t a i n e d f o r at l e a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s ,  argued t h a t t h e r e be no  time  be  Malaysia.  second p a r t of SNAP's language p o s i t i o n was  than i t s demand i n March.  not  but merely to ensure  t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n could  t h e i r need f o r an a c c e p t a b l e  of  it  limit.  The C o n s t i t u t i o n of the new f e d e r a t i o n must guarantee t h a t E n g l i s h i s the o f f i c i a l language of Sarawak f o r a l l purposes...without l i m i t a t i o n of time. The c o n t i n u a t i o n of E n g l i s h as an o f f i c i a l language as i t i s today i n Malaya should not be i m p e r a t i v e l y d i s c o n t i n u e d i n the new f e d e r a t i o n of M a l a y s i a . 28  now  110  Given t h e f a c t t h a t SNAP wanted t o r e t a i n the use of E n g l i s h i n d e f i n i t e l y and t o p e r p e t u a t e the growth of Iban, the subsequent c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n on language was  something of a d i s a p p o i n t m e n t .  The Inter-Governmental Committee (a) e s t a b l i s h e d Malay as the s o l e official ten  and n a t i o n a l language;  (b) r e s t r i c t e d  t h e use of E n g l i s h to  y e a r s a f t e r independence, a l t h o u g h i n E a s t M a l a y s i a E n g l i s h might  be used u n t i l 1973 Negri;  and  or beyond, depending on the d e c i s i o n of t h e C o u n c i l  (c) d i s m i s s e d the n o t i o n that Iban be made i n t o a n a t i o n a l 29  language i n Sarawak.  The Ningkan government c o n s i d e r e d  itself  bound by the IGC Report and defended t h e document as i t passed through the  C o u n c i l N e g r i i n September,  1963.  L e s s than a year l a t e r a  d i s p u t e e r u p t e d over language between the two By J u l y 1964,  the D i r e c t o r of Dewan Bahasa dan P u s t a k e , Tuan  Syed N a s i r b i n I s m a i l , was of  l e v e l s of government.  p r o p o s i n g t h a t Malay be used as the medium  i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l s c h o o l s and as the only o f f i c i a l  language i n  30 1967.  T h i s seemed t o suggest t h a t the f e d e r a l government  p r e p a r e d to throw a s i d e the IGC Report. i n i t i a t i v e was  immediate.  was  Dayak r e a c t i o n to t h e f e d e r a l  The Sarawak Dayak N a t i o n a l Union (SDNU)  warned t h a t "as f a r as Sarawak i s concerned, such s t e p s , i n s t e a d of u n i f y i n g the v a r i o u s r a c e s as he /jNasir7 had c l a i m e d , would  r a c i a l harmony .. . and dampen the s p i r i t Ningkan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  of t h e Dayaks  destroy 31 The  t h e r e f o r e b u f f e t e d on one s i d e by p r e s s u r e  from the f e d e r a l government, which regarded i t s language programme as  I'll  a  c r i t i c a l feature  of nation-building,  and  SNAP, b o t h o f w h i c h f e a r e d  the  demise of  the  Iban  that  language  and  and  on  the  other  by  the  s u c h a programme w o u l d eventually  the  SDNU  lead  to  Dayak c u l t u r e  as  well. In "would  response to  s p e e d up  the  the  f e d e r a l government, Ningkan  teaching  of  Malaya  i n our  promised  schools  ...  as  that  soon  he  as  32 possible  ...."  reinforce  C l e a r l y he  his point  he  was  declared  rejecting Nasir's  that  "English w i l l  position. continue  To  as  a  33 medium o f  i n s t r u c t i o n i n our  constitutional with  the  In  discussions  them t h a t  that  he  explained  recommendation  subsequent ced  one;  the  S a r a w a k be  August  of  the  with  lack of  exempted  1964,  schools."  His  that  his  the  of  teachers  evidently of  declared  line  In  Malay  convin-  dictated  n a t i o n a l programme p r o p o s e d  Ningkan c o n f i d e n t l y  a  in  Committee.  f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t he  f a c i l i t i e s and  was  l a n g u a g e p o l i c y was  Inter-Governmental  the  from  justification  by  Nasir.  that  We a r e n o t r u s h i n g t h e p r o c e s s o f l e a r n i n g t h e N a t i o n a l Language. The M a l a y s i a n G o v e r n m e n t r e c o g n i s e s our s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n the m a t t e r and t h e s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h a p p l y h e r e . 3 4 Ningkan wanted heeding  a  slow development  federal plans.  facilities  f o r the  Besides,  kind  of  and he  was  dragging  argued, the  programme w h i c h  the  his  state  feet  about  lacked  the  f e d e r a l government  had  35 i n mind.  Federal  pressure  continued  t o m o u n t , h o w e v e r , and  a  3 6 running  b a t t l e ensued  between  T h e r e were t h e r e f o r e  the  three  two  l e v e l s of  aspects of  government.  Ningkan's language p o s i t i o n :  112  the  i n f u s i o n of Malay, the  f u t u r e of E n g l i s h , and  E v i d e n t l y Ningkan t r i e d to n e g o t i a t e recognition  so t h a t the  language c o u l d be  f e d e r a l government's r e a c t i o n was as an Iban language. administration and  and  a place  E a r l y i n May  the  f u t u r e of  f o r Iban, a form of  taught i n s c h o o l s .  to deny t h a t t h e r e was 1966,  The  such a t h i n g  as r e l a t i o n s between h i s  the f e d e r a l government became p r o g r e s s i v e l y  SNAP's working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i t s A l l i a n c e p a r t n e r s  H i t h e r t o , the  f o c u s of h i s a t t e n t i o n had  worse  was  p o i n t of b r e a k i n g , Ningkan departed from h i s administration's policy.  Iban.  on  the  language  been to exempt  Sarawak from the N a t i o n a l Language programme, to push f o r the cause of E n g l s h and  Iban.  Then without c o n s u l t i n g  his cabinet  exempt the whole of M a l a y s i a from the programme. the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the " N a t i o n a l  i n East Malaysia" the  He  sought to  H i s argument was  Language i n West M a l a y s i a and  would be an "uneven e x e r c i s e "  l a t t e r at a d i s a d v a n t a g e .  he  37  f o r i t would  that  later put  continued,  I f e e l t h a t t h i s uneveness i s not a good t h i n g f o r our n a t i o n a l u n i t y . I t can set up unwanted and unnecessary s t r a i n s and s t r e s s e s between the Borneo s t a t e s and the r e s t of M a l a y s i a .... What I would l i k e to see, t h e r e f o r e ... would be that ... any changes t h a t are to be made would be c o n s i d e r e d f o r the whole of M a l a y s i a u n t i l 1973.38 Ningkan's o b j e c t was language and  c l e a r l y to modify the f e d e r a l p o l i c y on  perhaps d e f e r  indefinitely  the f u l l use  national  of Malay as  an  39 o f f i c i a l language.  The  second p o i n t was  h i s i n s i s t e n c e that 40  " E n g l i s h would c o n t i n u e to be used f o r many purposes." tance of h i s s u g g e s t i o n was  not  only  i n h i s temerity  The  impor-  i n attempting  to  113  i n f l u e n c e n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , an a c t which earned  him t h e enduring  hostility  of t h e f e d e r a l government, b u t a l s o t h e f a c t t h a t i t was designed t o elicit  f a v o u r a b l e response  i n Sarawak.  In i t s e l e c t i o n campaign d u r i n g  the 1969-70 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n , when i t was i n o p p o s i t i o n SNAP a g a i n i n s i s t e d on t h e " l i b e r a l use o f o t h e r languages.  The E n g l i s h language  41 should  ... be r e t a i n e d ... f o r o f f i c i a l u s e "  decided otherwise.  The i n t e n d e d e f f e c t of SNAP's language p o l i c y was  to help c r e a t e a groundswell advocated  u n t i l the Council Negri  o f support  i n SNAP's f a v o u r .  When SNAP  t h e use o f Iban, i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t the p a r t y was making a 42  d i r e c t appeal f o r support  from t h i s s u b - e t h n i c group.  Likewise,  when SNAP argued a g a i n s t t h e f e d e r a l government f o r t h e c o n t i n u e d use of E n g l i s h , i t was p a r t l y  to i n c i t e Sarawak p a t r i o t i s m .  Summary The  two i s s u e s o f B o r n e o n i s a t i o n and language i n d i c a t e t h e  importance o f SNAP's n a t i o n a l i s m .  The p a r t y ' s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t both the  r a t e of B o r n e o n i s a t i o n and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Malay i n Sarawak should be d e l a y e d r e f l e c t e d t h e concern implementation  of party leaders that a h u r r i e d  o f these two p o l i c i e s would put t h e Dayaks a t a  disadvantage. By 1965 r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the Sarawak A l l i a n c e began to show more s t r a i n s .  P o l i c y i s s u e s again formed the o v e r t c e n t r e s o f t h e s e  i n t r a - A l l i a n c e wranglings.  As w e l l , such i n f i g h t i n g c o u l d a l s o be  i n t e r p r e t e d as t h e s t r u g g l e s f o r p o s i t i o n s of advantage w i t h i n the Alliance itself  and f o r mass support i n s i d e Sarawak.  succeeding pages two o t h e r i s s u e s w i l l be examined: and n a t i v e p r i v i l e g e s .  Of t h e two, t h e q u e s t i o n  g r e a t e r p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i n 1965.  I n the these a r e l a n d  of l a n d  received  In terms o f SNAP's n a t i o n a l i s m ,  i t s p o s i t i o n on l a n d i n d i c a t e d a time when the p a r t y began t o emphasise Sarawak  nationalism.  Footnotes t o Chapter  115  V  .1.  M a l a y s i a S o l i d a r i t y C o n s u l t a t i v e C o m m i t t e e , "Memorandum on M a l a y s i a , " i n R e p o r t o f t h e Commission o f E n q u i r y , N o r t h Borneo and Sarawak, L o r d Cobbold, chairman, (Kuching: Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962), p.85.  2.  Ibid.,  3.  R e p o r t o f t h e I n t e r - G o v e r n m e n t a l Committee, L o r d Lansdowne, c h a i r m a n , ( K u c h i n g , Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1963), p.25, h e r e i n a f t e r r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e IGC R e p o r t . T h e IGC was c h a r g e d w i t h w o r k i n g o u t t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e new f e d e r a t i o n i n c l u d i n g s u c h m a t t e r s a s s a f e g u a r d s f o r t h e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e new s t a t e s ( S a b a h a n d Sarawak), r e l i g i o n , e d u c a t i o n , p o s i t i o n o f i n d i g e n o u s groups and c o n t r o l over i m m i g r a t i o n and c i t i z e n s h i p .  4.  R.S. M i l n e a n d K . J . R a t n a m , M a l a y s i a - - New S t a t e s i n a New N a t i o n : P o l i t i c a l Development i n Sarawak and Sabah i n M a l a y s i a (London: Frank Cass, 1974), p.34.  5.  Ibid.,  6.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , August 31, 1962, p . 6 . I t a l s o added t h a t a l l f e d e r a l p o s t s i n Sarawak, t h a t i s , t h o s e p o s i t i o n s i n t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e which f a l l u n d e r f e d e r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n , must b e f i l l e d b y S a r a w a k b o r n c i t i z e n s .  7.  Ibid.  p.35.  p.37.  My  emphasis.  See a l s o  t h e IGC R e p o r t , A n n e x B, p a r a g r a p h s  5-13 a n d 30.  8.  F r o m a s t a t e m e n t t o t h e p r e s s o n December 3 1 , 1 9 6 5 . S e e f o r i n s t a n c e , S a r a w a k T r i b u n e , J a n u a r y 1, 1 9 6 6 , p . l . N i n g k a n a l s o s a i d t h a t "we c a n not a s k t h e e x p a t r i a t e s t o go f o r n o r e a s o n a n d a l t h o u g h t h e g o v e r n m e n t i s a c c e l e r a t i n g B o r n e o n i s a t i o n , t h e p r o c e s s must go s t e p b y s t e p . "  9.  R.S. M i l n e a n d K . J . R a t n a m , M a l a y s i a — N e w op. c i t . , p . 3 4 .  States  i n a New N a t i o n ,  10.  T h a t t h e D a y a k s w e r e b e h i n d o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s i n l i t e r a c y was w e l l known. F o r i n s t a n c e , i n 1957 9 8 % o f I b a n s w e r e I l l i t e r a t e , a n d 9 3 % of Bidayuhs. I n c o n t r a s t , o n l y 66% o f C h i n e s e were i l l i t e r a t e and 85% o f a l l M a l a y s . These f i g u r e s were c o m p i l e d from Noakes, J . L . , T h e 1947 P o p u l a t i o n C e n s u s R e p o r t o f S a r a w a k a n d B r u n e i ( K u c h i n g : Government P r i n t e r , 1950), c i t e d by L i a n g Kim Bang, Sarawak 19411957 ( S i n g a p o r e : U n i v e r s i t y o f S i n g a p o r e , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 8 .  11.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , J u l y  12.  Ibid.,  13.  Ibid.  14.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , September  31, 1 9 6 1 .  F e b r u a r y 2 8 , 1964.  25, 1964.  116 15. 16.  Ibid.,  May 1 2 , 1965.  S t r a i t s B u d g e t , S e p t e m b e r 2 3 , 1964, p . 2 . C i t e d M o d e r n i z a t i o n i n E a s t M a l a y s i a , ( J u a l a Lumpur: . P r e s s , 1970), p.35.  17.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  18.  Ibid.,  19.  T h e IGC R e p o r t was a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e new f e d e r a t i o n . I t c o n t a i n e d safeguards t o p r o t e c t Borneo i n t e r e s t s i n M a l a y s i a . In the case o f B o r n e o n i s a t i o n , t h e recommendation t h a t t h e p r o c e s s s h o u l d go s l o w l y c o i n c i d e d w i t h D a y a k i n t e r e s t s w h i c h c o n s i d e r e d a s l o w r a t e o f B o r n e o n i s a t i o n a s a way o f " r e s e r v i n g " p o s t s f o r t h e D a y a k s .  20.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  21.  N i n g k a n m a i n t a i n e d c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h Temenggong J u g a h o f P e s a k a during the period. On B o r n e o n i s a t i o n , a t l e a s t , D a y a k u n i t y was m a i n tained. See f o r i n s t a n c e , Sarawak T r i b u n e , M a r c h 31, 1966.  22.  S a r a w a k T r i b u n e , A p r i l 1, 1968. N i n g k a n c o m p l a i n e d h o w e v e r , t h a t implementation o f B o r n e o n i s a t i o n w o u l d s t i l l t a k e some t i m e e v e n i f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t was w i l l i n g t o f u n n e l i n t h e n e c e s s a r y funds. I b i d . , A p r i l 3, 1 9 6 6 .  23.  Ibid.  24.  T h e IGC R e p o r t r e c o g n i s e d t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f u n d e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n S a r a w a k and Sabah. U n d e r S e c t i o n 2 4 ( 7 ) i t recommended t h a t S a r a w a k r e c e i v e a n n u a l g r a n t s from t h e C e n t r a l Government. The F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n s p e c i f i e s u n d e r S e c t i o n 109 o f t h e F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n , t h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t i s t o make t o e a c h s t a t e two g r a n t s c a l l e d c a p i t a t i o n g r a n t s and g r a n t s t o m a i n t a i n t h e r o a d s o f t h e s t a t e s . P a r t IV o f t h e Tenth S c h e d u l e p r o v i d e s f o r a n a n n u a l g r a n t o f $5,800,000 f o r Sarawak. F u r t h e r , f r o m 1964 t o 1968 S a r a w a k was t o r e c e i v e a t o t a l o f 59 m i l l i o n dollars. ( M a l a y s i a , A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l ' s Chambers, The F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n ( K u a l a Lumpur: Government P r i n t e r 1963), a r t . 1 6 1 ) . The C e n t r a l Government t r i e d t o u s e i t s f i n a n c i a l l e v e r a g e t o i n f l u e n c e t h e c o u r s e of B o r n e o n i s a t i o n . (James O n g k i l i , M o d e r n i s a t i o n i n E a s t M a l a y s i a 1960-1970 ( K u a l a Lumpur: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1971), p.39).  25.  Malaysia, Attorney c i t . , a r t . 161.  26.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  M a r c h 2, 1962.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  August  27.  January  national  July  i n James O n g k i l i , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y  5.  13, 1 9 6 4 .  January  13, 1964.  General's  manded  f o r Sarawak.  August  o f 1962.  July  5, 1 9 6 6 .  Chambers, The F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n , op.  3 1 , 1962.  l a n g u a g e was o n l y  See a l s o i b i d . ,  The p o i n t t h a t  one o f t h e c o n c e s s i o n s  The Inter-Governmental  Iban  should  be t h e  which the party de-  Committee began  i t s work i n  117 28.  Ibid.  29.  IGC  30.  S a r a w a k T r i b u n e , J u l y 21, 1964. The T e n g k u , f o r h i s p a r t , d i d n o t do much t o a l l y t h e f e a r s o f t h e B o r n e o p e o p l e s when he s t a t e d t h a t t h o s e who h a d n o t m a s t e r e d M a l a y by 1967 w e r e d i s l o y a l t o M a l a y s i a . After a l l , the Tengku reasoned, " i t t a k e s a c h i l d l e s s than t h r e e y e a r s t o q u a l i f y i n M a l a y a n d i t s h o u l d t a k e an a d u l t h a l f t h a t t i m e t o do s o j " ( S t r a i t s T i m e s , J u n e 14, 1 9 6 4 ) .  31.  S a r a w a k T r i b u n e , J u l y 21, 1964. L i k e t h e N i n g k a n g o v e r n m e n t , t h e SDNU saw t h e IGC R e p o r t a s t h e p r o t e c t o r o f S a r a w a k ' s s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s . T h e SDNU w a r n e d t h a t "what may be a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e M a l a y s a n s t a t e s may n o t and c a n n o t be t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d a s b e i n g g o o d f o r S a r a w a k . "  32..  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  33.  Ibid.  34.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  35.  I b i d . , A u g u s t 9, 1964. L a n g u a g e was one o f t h e i s s u e s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e a c r i m o n i o u s r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e two l e v e l s o f g o v e r n ment. O t h e r i s s u e s i n c l u d e t h e r o l e o f e x p a t r i a t e s and s e c u r i t y . At t h i s t i m e SNAP a n d P e s a k a b o t h managed t o m a i n t a i n a u n i t e d f r o n t and f r o m t i m e t o t i m e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a m e r g e r was d i s c u s s e d a n d p u b licised. O v e r t h e l a n g u a g e i s s u e , J u g a h was q u i c k t o s i d e w i t h N i n g k a n , s a y i n g t h a t "one c a n n o t e x p e c t r e s u l t s o v e r n i g h t and one c a n n o t e x p e c t r e s u l t s w i t h o u t t h e means o f t e a c h i n g (See f o r i n s t a n c e , i b i d . , A u g u s t 21, 1 9 6 4 . )  36.  I b i d . , A u g u s t 20, 1964. The f e d e r a l p o s i t i o n o v e r l a n g u a g e and e d u c a t i o n was t h a t S a r a w a k s h o u l d d e v e l o p a l o n g p a r a l l e l l i n e s and that S a r a w a k s h o u l d n o t be l e f t b e h i n d i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n . These a r e f r o m t h e s t a t e m e n t s made b y t h e F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f Education, Khir J o h a r i , i n Kuching. ( S e e t h e i b i d . , F e b r u a r y 18, 1965.) See a l s o t h e i s s u e o f F e b r u a r y 21, 1965.  37.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  38.  Ibid.  39.  The D i r e c t o r o f Dewan B a h a s a dan P u s t a k a , S y e d N a s i r , r e j e c t e d N i n g k a n ' s p l e a , s a y i n g t h a t , "we (West M a l a y s i a ) c a n n o t w a i t f o r B o r n e o t o c a t c h up." See t h e S t r a i t s T i m e s , May 4, 1966.  40.  I b i d . , May  41.  Ibid., April  42.  I n c o n t r a s t , t h e p a r t y w h i c h was supposed to r e p r e s e n t the Dayaks i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t f a i l e d t o e s t a b l i s h any p o s i t i o n on t h e f u t u r e u s e o r r o l e of the Iban language. T h i s was P a r t y P e s a k a . U n l i k e SNAP i t s u p p o r t e d t h e use o f M a l a y as t h e s o l e N a t i o n a l Language. (See, f o r i n s t a n c e , i b i d . , F e b r u a r y 26, 1969.)  Report,  Sections  3,  28  July  22,  August  May  and  3,  30.  1964.  20,  1964.  1966.  1963. 30,  1969.  118  CHAPTER VI  SARAWAK NATIONALISM:  By years.  MULTI RACIALISM  the middle o f 1965 SNAP had been i n power f o r l e s s than two But as w i l l be seen, i n t r a - a l l i a n c e schism  p a r t y - b u i l d i n g soon t h r e a t e n e d  and c o m p e t i t i v e  to i s o l a t e the p a r t y and put i t a t a  disadvantage r e l a t i v e  to o t h e r members o f the Sarawak A l l i a n c e .  SNAP r e a c t e d to these  challenges,  t h a t i s , how i t r e - i n t e r p r e t e d i t s  n a t i o n a l i s m , i s the s u b j e c t o f t h i s To i l l u s t r a t e be  examined.  How  chapter.  the change i n SNAP's n a t i o n a l i s m three f a c t o r s w i l l  These a r e the matters o f l a n d and the placement o f the  Bumiputeras ( n a t i v e s ) i n Sarawak.  The t h i r d , and most important  factor  was i n f a c t t h a t the SNAP p a r t y had g i v e n up hope o f a c t i n g i n c o n c e r t with  i t s fellow-Dayak p a r t y , Pesaka, through an a l l i a n c e .  The  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t a SNAP-Pesaka c o l l a b o r a t i o n was no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e l e d the l e a d e r s o f SNAP to t r y to " n e u t r a l i s e " Pesaka by expanding i n t o Pesaka a r e a s . from Pesaka.  support  I n s h o r t , SNAP was c h a l l e n g i n g Pesaka f o r Dayak  F u r t h e r , as w i l l members.  In doing so SNAP was h o p i n g to draw away  directiy  support.  be seen, SNAP sought t o r e c r u i t Chinese and Malay  A f t e r t h a t the paper w i l l  r e l a t e SNAP's formal  downfall  f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n on the emergence o f i t s t e r r i t o r i a l ( o r Sarawak) n a t i o n a l i s m .  119  Land"*" The  e v a l u a t i o n of land  " r e f o r m s " was  took over the o f f i c e o f C h i e f M i n i s t e r . government, m i n d f u l  begun w e l l b e f o r e For i n s t a n c e ,  Ningkan  the c o l o n i a l  o f the i n c r e a s i n g demands f o r l a n d ownership by  burgeoning Chinese p o p u l a t i o n ,  had  the  a c t u a l l y s e t up a Land Committee i n  2 1962.  I t was  to " d i s p o s e The  t h i s committee which recommended t h a t n a t i v e s be  of t h e i r land subject  s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s p r o p o s a l  Chinese to buy  to the a p p r o v a l was  o f the  allowed 3  Resident".  t h a t i t would have a l l o w e d  the  l a n d much more e a s i l y .  From the b e g i n n i n g Ningkan o f f e r e d no to t r a n s f o r m  the  recommendations i n t o law.  A l l i a n c e and  SNAP had  illustrate:  SNAP on January 3, 1963,  resistance against e f f o r t s A f t e r a l l , both the  e x p r e s s e d s u p p o r t f o r such a measure. had  Sarawak  To  i n d i c a t e d i t s s u p p o r t f o r such  a p l a n , even to the p o i n t of d e c l a r i n g t h a t i t would, i f e l e c t e d , l a n d to the l a n d l e s s " whether Chinese or n o t . A l l i a n c e e x p r e s s e d s i m i l a r arguments.  Further,  "give  the Sarawak  In i t s manifesto i t supported  the p r i n c i p l e o f a l l o c a t i n g " s u f f i c i e n t l a n d to f a r m e r s " , — a g a i n  with-  4  out  any  apparent m i s g i v i n g s  when the p r o p o s a l  was  about the i n c l u s i o n o f C h i n e s e .  brought b e f o r e  Bumiputera v o i c e d o p p o s i t i o n , safeguards f o r the n a t i v e s .  However,  the A l l i a n c e C o u n c i l , Pesaka  claiming According  t h a t i t d i d not to Pesaka and  and  c o n t a i n enough  Bumiputera  the  proposed l e g i s l a t i o n would make the a l l o c a t i o n o f l a n d to n o n - n a t i v e s too easy.  Whether Pesaka and  Bumiputera were c o r r e c t i n t h e i r  120  assessment i s n o t i m p o r t a n t .  What i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however, was  the  emergence o f a b a t t l e l i n e w i t h i n the SA between those, namely SNAP and t h e SCA,"* of genuinely  who  favoured the Land B i l l s and, by a s s o c i a t i o n , a s e t  m u l t i - r a c i a l p o l i c i e s , and those opposed to the B i l l s  such as Pesaka and BARJASA*' who Chinese and to p r o t e c t  sought to d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t  the n a t i v e s  As Ningkan p r e s s e d  the  under an umbrella of p r i v i l e g e s .  on w i t h h i s l a n d p r o p o s a l ,  o p p o s i t i o n mounted  which brought i n t o q u e s t i o n n o t o n l y Ningkan's premise o f equal opportunities  ( i . e . SNAP's m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m ) f o r a l l Sarawakians, i n -  c l u d i n g the r i g h t to own supplant  l a n d , but a l s o h i s l e a d e r s h i p as w e l l .  Ningkan, BARJASA and Pesaka agreed to r e s i g n from t h e  Sarawak A l l i a n c e , a move which would have s c u t t l e d Ningkan's —and,  together  averted deprived him.  To  w i t h PANAS formed the "Native  political  defeat  Alliance".^  government Ningkan  by w i t h d r a w i n g the l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n  h i s opponents o f a major p o i n t around which to r a l l y  which against  In a d d i t i o n , he s u r v i v e d because he succeeded i n r e t a i n i n g the  support o f Temenggong Jugah, the l e a d e r o f Pesaka who  c o u l d not y e t  9 bring himself  to t o p p l e  a f e l l o w Dayak.  Lacking  i n i s s u e and the  s u p p o r t o f Temenggong Jugah, the N a t i v e A l l i a n c e was  dropped.  The t a b l i n g of the l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n i n the face o f o p p o s i t i o n from BARJASA and Pesaka s i g n a l l e d t h a t SNAP was implement m u l t i - r a c i a l p o l i c i e s ;  now  p r e p a r e d to  i n e f f e c t t h i s a c t e d as a s i g n a l t h a t  SNAP was now w i l l i n g to welcome Chinese members.  SNAP had always  121  opened i t s door to n o n - n a t i v e s ( C h i n e s e ) , but u n t i l i t s show o f initiative  i n the l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n i t was unable to o f f e r t h e Chinese  any i n c e n t i v e s .  Consequently, i t s e f f o r t s  had o n l y produced l a c k l u s t r e r e s u l t s .  to r e c r u i t Chinese members  That i s , b e f o r e i t openly  advocated the l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n , the Chinese had l i t t l e support SNAP.  Now i n the new l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n SNAP had found an i s s u e  which would be p o p u l a r w i t h the land-hungry C h i n e s e . the  Land B i l l s  reason to  I n o t h e r words,  demonstrated t h a t SNAP's commitment to m u l t i - r a c i a l  p o l i c i e s extended beyond  r o u t i n e pronouncements.  s i g n a l e d t o Chinese Sarawakians  The p r o p o s a l i n e f f e c t  t h a t the p a r t y was w e l l d i s p o s e d t o -  ward t h e i r i n t e r e s t s — t h e only n a t i v e - b a s e d p a r t y to be s o — a n d was t h e r e f o r e worthy  of t h e i r support.  Sponsorship o f the Land B i l l s ,  then, was on i n d i c a t o r o f SNAP's  r e j e c t i o n o f a p p a r e n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t o r y concepts a g a i n s t  the C h i n e s e .  T h i s f a c t a l s o became e v i d e n t when Ningkan urged t h a t the word Bumiputera be e l i m i n a t e d . " ^ meaning "son o f the s o i l " .  The term Bumiputera i s a Malay word I n p r a c t i c e i t d e s c r i b e s a n a t i v e who,  by v i r t u e o f b e i n g one, i s e n t i t l e d t o c e r t a i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l over such matters as custom and language."""^  privileges  The i d e a was t h e r e f o r e  s i m i l a r to SNAP's o r i g i n a l concept o f s a f e g u a r d i n g the i n t e r e s t s o f n a t i v e s which i t expressed i n 1961. between the two c o n c e p t i o n s l i e s  The fundamental  difference  i n the b e n e f i c i a r i e s .  Had the  Dayaks been n u m e r i c a l l y s u p e r i o r i n M a l a y s i a they c o u l d i n e f f e c t  122  d e f i n e the terms:of p r i v i l e g e  to t h e i r advantage.  Such a course would  have been p o s s i b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , had Saraxvak been a s o v e r e i g n s t a t e , and SNAP, b e i n g a Dayak p a r t y , c o u l d be e x p e c t e d to l e g i s l a t e which would f a v o u r t h e Dayaks.  laws  But w i t h i n M a l a y s i a the Dayaks were  not a m a j o r i t y , a f a c t which meant t h a t n e i t h e r they n o r t h e i r p a r t y (whether SNAP o r Pesaka) would e v e r be i n a p o s i t i o n t o determine the n a t u r e o f p r i v i l e g e s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r i n t e r e s t s .  That i s ,  from  t h e i r p o i n t o f view, the concept o f Bumiputera p r i v i l e g e s was d e f i n e d by the Malays to s e r v e Malay i n t e r e s t s . distinct  from the M a l a y s — i n r e l i g i o n ,  S i n c e the Dayaks were language, custom, and c u l t u r e  — t h e y , the Dayaks, s h o u l d not a t t h i s time be subsumed under the Bumiputera u m b r e l l a . d i s t i n c t e t h n i c group.  A c c o r d i n g to SNAP the Dayaks  s h o u l d remain a  U n d e r l y i n g the p a r t y ' s o b j e c t i o n to the  e x t e n s i o n o f t h e term Bumiputera to i n c l u d e Dayaks was the s u s p i c i o n t h a t t h i s would be a s t e p toward a s s i m i l a t i o n . By late;.'1965, when SNAP was openly c o u r t i n g n o n - n a t i v e s ( t h e Chinese) as members and p a r t y - f i n a n c i e r s , i t was i n need o f some  12 t a n g i b l e p o l i c i e s as i n c e n t i v e s f o r new members to espouse. t h i s r e s p e c t the f e d e r a l concept o f Bumiputera o r n a t i v e  In  privileges,  was a good one to a t t a c k because i n p r a c t i c e the Chinese would be v i c t i m i s e d , and i n a d i f f e r e n t sense the Dayaks as w e l l , by the advent o f Bumiputera p r i v i l e g e s . s t a t e d h i s case:  I n November 1965, Ningkan thus  123  A l l M a l a y s i a n s are "sons of the s o i l " . In the r o l e o f n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g no one needs to be reminded c o n s t a n t l y o f one's r a c i a l o r i g i n ....13 I t was  h i s hope, he  appear.  s a i d , t h a t the word Bumiputera would soon  I t c o u l d be s a i d , then, t h a t f a r from becoming u n i - r a c i a l  i n tendency, championing as party  at t h a t time c o n t i n u e d The  was  they d i d the cause o f the n a t i v e s ,  to expand p a r t y  support a l o n g  a  course i d e o l o g i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , but  multi-ethnic  Such a p o l i c y was  Pesaka u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e .  SNAP c o u l d not  Pesaka f o r o f f i c i a l l y  they were s t i l l  as the c r i s i s  showed, SNAP's f u t u r e was  continued  of 1965  support of Pesaka and  i t s leader.  Pesaka t h e r e f o r e became more p r e s s i n g .  effort  together  of Chinese and,  contingent  As  challenge  upon the  r e l a t i o n s between  In a very  to a l e s s e r e x t e n t ,  independent  f u t u r e date.  SNAP f a i l  of  r e a l sense SNAP's  Malay members was  to compensate f o r the l o s s of support t h a t would o c c u r  Dayak s o l i d a r i t y between Pesaka and  SNAP-  i n the A l l i a n c e , but  Dayak p a r t i e s d e t e r i o r a t e d , SNAP's need to be  recruitment  of  a t the time i t s r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e  t h a t i t a f f o r d e d SNAP a method by which to circumvent the  the two  1965  indeed, i t embarked on a p a r t y - b u i l d i n g campaign which sought  the support of a l l e t h n i c groups i n Sarawak.  was  the  to espouse m u l t i - r a c i a l p o l i c i e s .  o t h e r p a r t of i t s response f o l l o w i n g the c r i s i s o f  to c o n t i n u e and  line;  dis-  an  should  to endure at some  In o t h e r words, SNAP's m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m was  part of  an  124  e l e c t o r a l s t r a t e g y designed and,  to reduce SNAP's dependency on  u l t i m a t e l y , to g a i n a m a j o r i t y i n the Beginning  from e a r l y 1966,  legislature.  SNAP a c c o r d i n g l y began to open a  s e r i e s o f urban branches w i t h m u l t i - r a c i a l membership. c e l e b r a t e d o f these was open support I t was  d e c l a r e d , on  i n Kuching, where Ningkan had  The  who  the day  brought the l o n g - t e r m p l a n s the branch was  most  secured  o f a prominent Chinese businessman, Datuk Wee  Datuk Wee  Pesaka  the  Hood Teck.  i n t o focus when he  opened, t h a t  Although the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s would not be h e l d u n t i l 1969, i t i s not too e a r l y to p r e p a r e f o r i t / _ s i c 7 by d i s s e m i n a t i n g t h e i r (SNAP) p a r t y ' s manifesto and r e c r u i t i n g members.15 Consistent with post 1965  SNAP's advocacy of m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m d u r i n g  the  p e r i o d , l a t e r , when i n o p p o s i t i o n , the p a r t y vehemently  p r o t e s t e d ^ a g a i n s t P a r t i Bumiputera's " D i r e c t i v e No. T a i b Mahmud, a top P a r t i Bumiputera l e a d e r who Federal Minister.  The  was  8" s i g n e d  by  a l s o an A s s i s t a n t  document d e c l a r e d  We ... i n P a r t i Bumiputera cannot be f o r c e d to give away Malays s e a t s to Pesaka fa Dayak p a r t y 7 . Our b a s i c o b j e c t i v e was to u n i t e the Malays and Bidayuhs ... we oppose any one who becomes the t o o l to s p l i t our race.17 The  row  between Pesaka and Bumiputera a t t h i s  a l l o c a t i o n of seats agreement e n t e r e d by the  f o r the e l e c t i o n due  time concerned  e a r l y i n 1969.  The  the members o f the Sarawak A l l i a n c e was  three p a r t i e s to c o n t e s t and  the original for  to campaign i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  125  areas;  f o r t h i s purpose Pesaka was  and SCA 11.  a l l o c a t e d 22 s e a t s , Bumiputera 15,  T h i s arrangement would not only have k e p t the A l l i a n c e  i n t a c t by denying any one p a r t y the chance o f a c h i e v i n g the m a j o r i t y of seats;  i t a l s o would have made each o f the three p a r t i e s  uni-racial. Chinese.  Thus Pesaka would have been mainly Dayak, and  members.  SCA  Parti^-Bumiputera's base would have been expanded to what Taib  Mahmud c a l l e d above "our r a c e " , t h a t i s , Bidayuhs.  basically  The problem was  a mix o f Melanaus, Malays and  t h a t P a r t y Pesaka had r e c r u i t e d Malay  P r e s s e d to f i n d a c c e p t a b l e c o n s t i t u e n c i e s f o r i t s Malay  c a n d i d a t e s , Pesaka then i n s i s t e d t h a t i t be a l l o w e d to c o n t e s t any s e a t it  deemed n e c e s s a r y . F o r SNAP, the importance o f D i r e c t i v e No.  final  and documented  8 was  t h a t h e r e was  the  i n d i c a t i o n o f what the p a r t y had s u s p e c t e d :  P a r t i Bumiputera r e p r e s e n t e d communal chauvanism o f which the o b j e c t i v e u l t i m a t e l y was  to a s s i m i l a t e  guise of native unity.  the Dayaks  i n t o the Malay mould under the  F o r i t s p a r t SNAP c o n c e n t r a t e d on p o l i c y and  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e s and o f f e r e d i t s p r e s c r i p t i o n s as s o l u t i o n s f o r the problems o f the s t a t e . SNAP's a p p e a l to a pan-Sarawak b a s e .  Sarawak's  T h i s s t r a t e g y was  to broaden  At one p o i n t Ningkan even appeared  to r e p u d i a t e SNAP's o b j e c t i v e o f s a f e g u a r d i n g n a t i v e i n t e r e s t s when he condemned SNAP's opponents as a g i t a t o r s f o r "communal s u p e r i o r i t y and d i s t i n c t i o n . " was  18  • The r e a s o n a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s statement  t h a t i t i n t e n d e d to h i g h l i g h t SNAP's s i n c e r i t y  —that  towards the Chinese  i s , as a d i r e c t appeal f o r support from the Chinese community  126  s i n c e i n r e j e c t i n g the n o t i o n of communal p r i v i l e g e s Ningkan  impli-  citly  statement  a c c e p t e d n o n - n a t i v e s as e q u a l .  The time i n which t h i s  was made, June 1966, was i m p o r t a n t f o r t h i s was the p e r i o d when SNAP was embarking  on i t s p a r t y - b u i l d i n g campaign and r e c r u i t i n g members  from a l l e t h n i c  groups.  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t Ningkan's the  statement was n o t a c a l l f o r  abandonment o f n a t i v e p r i v i l e g e s , a t l e a s t n o t i n a permanent way.  Indeed, i t would be a c c u r a t e to say t h a t SNAP advocated both p o l i c i e s simultaneously.  C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , i t was even b e f o r e SNAP's w i t h d r a w a l  from t h e A l l i a n c e t h a t i t emphasised its  multi-racialism, particularly i f  l i s t e n e r s were urban d w e l l e r s , who were most Chinese.  r u r a l members, SNAP s t i l l  For i t s  advocated Dayak causes, such as the need f o r  a M i n i s t r y o f Dayak A f f a i r s .  F o r both groups the p a r t y a l s o brought  in  the danger o f f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n .  of  Malay e x p a n s i o n i s t communalism, t h a t i s , o f b e i n g overwhelmed by  Malay c u l t u r e and language.  I m p l i e d here was the t h r e a t  O b v i o u s l y , i t s a n t i - M a l a y b i a s c o u l d not  be e x p e c t e d t o e l i c i t much sympathy from t h e Malay community i n Sarawak.  Withdrawal  from the Sarawak A l l i a n c e  Another f a c t o r which aroused the i r e o f h i s opponents a f t e r the 1965 c r i s i s . In  T h i s was the q u e s t i o n o f Ningkan's  t h e s u c c e e d i n g months a f t e r J u l y 1965, h i s opponents  a t t a c k a g a i n s t Ningkan:  persisted leadership.  shifted  their  he was f a u l t e d n o t o n l y because he and SNAP  127  espoused m u l t i - r a c i a l p o l i c i e s ,  but a l s o because he p e r s o n a l l y had  v a r i o u s shortcomings which r e q u i r e d h i s removal from the o f f i c e o f Chief Minister. to  The focus on Ningkan's p e r s o n a l i t y — h e was  be hot-tempered and p o l y g a m o u s — a l l o w e d h i s opponents to s e p a r a t e  him from h i s s u p p o r t e r s .  The o b j e c t was  b r i n g to the f o r e those i n SNAP who the  alleged  t o : . i s o l a t e the man  and to  were w i l l i n g to cooperate w i t h  r e s t o f t h e Sarawak A l l i a n c e and the f e d e r a l government.  t h i s v i e w p o i n t , t h i s was  a realistic  From  r e c o u r s e , s i n c e w i t h i n SNAP there  were those such as Dunstan Endawie who were l e s s i n t r a n s i g e n t , t h e r e f o r e more c o o p e r a t i v e than Ningkan on p o l i c y i s s u e s .  and  Secondly,  such a t t a c k s on Ningkan's shortcomings gave those who were undecided cause to jump on the a n t i - N i n g k a n bandwagon w h i l e s t i l l the  o p t i o n o f r e m a i n i n g i n the Sarawak A l l i a n c e .  r e c o u r s e was who  g i v i n g SNAP  In p a r t i c u l a r  this  taken by Temenggong Jugah, a p i v o t a l c e n t r e o f i n f l u e n c e ,  i n time c o n c l u d e d t h a t Ningkan was  l e a d e r o f Pesaka, Temenggong Jugah was  unfit  to l e a d .  As the major  increasingly distressed at  Ningkan's m u l t i - r a c i a l p o l i c i e s , s i n c e from Pesaka's v i e w p o i n t the C h i e f M i n i s t e r ought to have done more f o r n a t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y  the Dayaks.  The behihd-the-scene opponent to Ningkan from the 1965 c r i s i s was  the f e d e r a l government,  made uneasy by Ningkan's  Cabinet multi-racial  p o l i c i e s which appeared to accord the Chinese equal o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n d e f i a n c e o f the Bumiputera s t i p u l a t i o n o f the f e d e r a l government. a d d i t i o n Ningkan was  i n c r e a s i n g l y adamant about e x e c u t i n g what he  In  128  called  "Sarawak s o l u t i o n s " to the s t a t e problems.  argument t h a t i n f o r m u l a t i n g l a n d and own at  Since  such o u t l o o k was  v a r i a n c e w i t h those o f the  Ningkan's  h i s s t a t e p o l i c i e s o v e r such i s s u e s  language, primary c o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d  conditions.  I t was  be  given  state-centred  as  to Sarawak's  they were o f t e n  f e d e r a l government whose aim  i t was  to  develop p o l i c i e s designed f o r n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g .  Ningkan's p r o v i n c i a l i s m  was  to the  t h e r e f o r e becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y u n p a l a t a b l e  f e d e r a l govern-  ment . Subsequent to the f i r s t  crisis  (mid-1965) n e i t h e r Pesaka  nor  BARJASA were a g a i n w i l l i n g to g i v e Ningkan t h e i r f u l l s u p p o r t .  By  this  21 time Thomas Kana was I t was  he,  fully  entrenched as Pesaka's top  f o r i n s t a n c e , who  tactician.  e n g i n e e r e d Pesaka's expansion i n t o  the  Batang A l ( i n Lubok Antu D i s t r i c t ) area o f the Second D i v i s i o n , thereby f i n a l l y breaking during  Pesaka's i n f o r m a l  ' ' a l l i a n c e " w i t h SNAP.  was  t h i s f o r a y i n t o the Batang A i t h a t Ningkan p h y s i c a l l y c l a s h e d  w i t h one  o f Pesaka's p a r t y workers, an i n c i d e n t which f i n a l l y 22  Temenggong Jugah that the C h i e f M i n i s t e r must be Within increased. 1966  It  ousted.  Ningkan's Supreme C o u n c i l w r a n g l i n g s over p o l i c y matters Unlike  Pesaka was  now  the p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g  s o l i d l y a g a i n s t him.  which h i t h e r t o had Ningkan, was  convinced  the f i r s t  Worse s t i l l ,  c r i s i s , by the  early  f e d e r a l government,  adopted a s u r r e p t i t i o u s r o l e i n t r y i n g to unseat  openly a g a i n s t him.  Sarawak A l l i a n c e was  d i v i d e d i n t o two  When f i n a l l y camps;  i n mid-1966  o n l y SNAP and,  the  for a  129  while,  the SCA,  Minister.  remained unshaken i n t h e i r support  Within  the f o r t y - t w o  o f the  member l e g i s l a t u r e ,  those  Chief against  23 Ningkan numbered twenty.  The  r e b e l s were l e d by  Taib Mahmud,  the s t a t e M i n i s t e r of Telecommunications and Works, and  Thomas Kana,  the S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l  adversaries  of Ningkan and  F u r t h e r , as i n 1965,  Taib Mahmud were now  major d i f f e r e n c e was  l o s t the c r i t i c a l convinced  support  was  f o r them.  a repeat o f the one  in  the f a c t t h a t i n c o n t r a s t to 1965, o f Temenggong Jugah, who  was  1965.  Ningkan  somehow  q u i t e e a r l y t h a t a m a j o r i t y of the C o u n c i l N e g r i members,  twenty-three out of f o r t y - t w o , were now The  Chief  the f o l l o w e r s o f Thomas Kana  once a g a i n d e c l a r i n g t h e i r support  I t appeared t h a t the r e v o l t o f 1966 One  Both were c o n s i s t e n t  SNAP s i n c e the a b o r t i v e attempt to unseat the  M i n i s t e r i n 1965. and  f o r Pesaka.  o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e was  the o v e r t and  a c t u a l l y a g a i n s t Ningkan. a c t i v e r o l e o f the  Federal  Government on the s i d e o f the r e b e l s . P a r t l y to underscore t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n u n i t y i n t h e i r ranks the r e b e l s were flown Together they had  submitted  Quoting A r t i c l e  to ensure  "no  13.  confidence"  to the F e d e r a l Government.  enough: f o r the F e d e r a l Government to c a l l  Minister's resignation.  partly-  to K u a l a Lumpur on June  s i g n e d a l e t t e r which expressed  i n Ningkan and which they had That was  and  7(1)  f o r the  Chief  o f the Sarawak C o n s t i -  t u t i o n the. Prime M i n i s t e r c a l l e d on the Governor o f Sarawak,  Tun  Abang H a j i Openg, to ask Ningkan to r e s i g n .  and  Ningkan r e f u s e d  130  i n s t e a d i n d i c a t e d t h a t he would convene a s c h e d u l e d meeting o f  the  C o u n c i l N e g r i on June 14 w i t h h i s twenty-one s u p p o r t e r s ,  had  by now  included  c a p i t a l and  the SUPP and  some PANAS members.  which  From the M a l a y s i a n  w i t h f e d e r a l support, Thomas Kana announced t h a t  the  twenty r e b e l s would b o y c o t t the meeting o f the l e g i s l a t u r e . C o u n c i l N e g r i thus met  w i t h o u t the  rebels  There were s i x members from SNAP, two f i v e from SUPP, one o f f i c i o members.  from the by  flying  able  r e b e l s and the  As  from  Independent, and  dissenting vote.  to c a r r y on g o v e r n i n g i n the  the F e d e r a l  Government.  His  three  face of  i f to demonstrate the  coercive  they were a l s o accompanied by  the  the D i r e c t o r o f S p e c i a l Branch.  power h e l d by Inspector On  ex-  forty-  opposition  opponents countered  r e b e l s back to Kuching t o g e t h e r w i t h  to submit the name of Penghulu Tawi S l i as  SCA,  I t appeared  representatives  o f the n a t i o n a l A l l i a n c e i n o r d e r to demand Ningkan's and  proceedings.  the meeting f o u r b i l l s were passed and  f i v e q u e s t i o n s answered w i t h o u t any t h a t Ningkan was  from PANAS, three  from Machinada, one  At  to d i s r u p t the  The  the new the  resignation Chief  Minister.  federal authorities,  General of P o l i c e ,  and  the b a s i s o f the l e t t e r o f  "no  c o n f i d e n c e " , the f e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s on June 17 managed to persuade the Governor to d i s m i s s  Ningkan and  h i s cabinet  and  to a p p o i n t Tawi  24 S l i as C h i e f The i n SNAP.  Minister.  i n t r u s i o n o f f e d e r a l power was  received with  Ningkan's d i s m i s s a l provoked r e a c t i o n s  indignation  from o u t s i d e  the  131  p a r t y where t h e r e were those who  were sympathetic to the  c o n t e n t i o n t h a t F e d e r a l c o m p l i c i t y i n the c r i s i s was  party's  unjustified,  s i n c e the Sarawak A l l i a n c e was  a " f u l l y autonomous body r e g i s t e r e d  i n Sarawak and  to the M a l a y s i a n  only a f f i l i a t e d  A l l i a n c e i n Kuala  25 Lumpur".  Convinced t h a t he would be  r e i n s t a t e d by  Ningkan c a p i t u l a t e d i n o r d e r , he e x p l a i n e d , trouble  ... and  to s t i c k to a p e a c e f u l and  to the s e t t l e m e n t  of t h e d i s p u t e r e g a r d i n g 26  M i n i s t e r o f Sarawak". S l i had  On June 20,  the  courts,  to " a v e r t any  possible  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l approach the o f f i c e o f the  t h r e e days a f t e r Penghulu Tawi  become the de f a c t o C h i e f M i n i s t e r , Ningkan v a c a t e d  official  Chief  his  r e s i d e n c e , the Panggau L i b a u .  In b r i n g i n g the matters to c o u r t , Ningkan kept a l i v e the of who  was  J u l y , 1966. the one  Chief Minister. By  hand and  the F e d e r a l Government, Sarawak A l l i a n c e , and reached a new  a r r i v e at an understanding i t i s necessary  h i s d i s m i s s a l by  Consequently, the c r i s i s d i d not end  l e v e l of i n t e n s i t y .  "no  Tawi  In o r d e r  to  o f SNAP's p o s i t i o n i n the long-drawn  to o u t l i n e the sequence o f events.  Soon a f t e r  the Governor, Ningkan f i l e d a s u i t against the Head  o f S t a t e i n which i t contended the l e g a l i t y and dismissal.  in  September the s t r u g g l e between SNAP and Ningkan on  S l i on the o t h e r , had  crisis,  issue  legitimacy of  the  Ningkan argued t h a t under the Sarawak C o n s t i t u t i o n a  c o n f i d e n c e " motion or l e t t e r i n the C o u n c i l N e g r i need not  to the removal o f the C h i e f M i n i s t e r from o f f i c e .  On  lead  J u l y 1, he  filed  132  another s u i t i n which he sought to r e s t r a i n the Tawi S l i and h i s cabinet  from a c t i n g as m i n i s t e r s .  Ningkan thus fought  i n the c o u r t  and  o u t s i d e o f i t i n h i s attempt to s u r v i v e as C h i e f M i n i s t e r .  But  outside  end  c o n t r i b u t e d to the p a r t y ' s  the c o u r t he committed a t a c t i c a l b l u n d e r which i n the  from t h e Sarawak A l l i a n c e . remaining a l l i e s SNAP.  isolation.  On J u l y 3, SNAP withdrew  As a consequence o f t h i s move, i t s l a s t  i n the government switched  t h e i r support  away from  Three days a f t e r SNAP's w i t h d r a w a l the SCA announced i t s  support  f o r the new government and soon a f t e r some members o f the  b a d l y - s p l i t PANAS a l s o d e c l a r e d t h e i r support D u r i n g the p r e l i m i n a r y h e a r i n g s  f o r Tawi S l i .  on Ningkan's s u i t s which were  heard i n t h e High Court o f Borneo on August 22 and 25, C h i e f J u s t i c e E.R. H a r l e y  scheduled  a hearing  f o r August 29.  This a c t i n e f f e c t  made the i d e n t i t y o f t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r sub j u d i c e .  Thus, when the  C o u n c i l N e g r i met the next day, on August 26, the Speaker adjourned the meeting a f t e r o n l y s e v e r a l minutes but not b e f o r e n o t i n g d i d n o t know who was the l e g a l C h i e f M i n i s t e r . impasse had thus developed i n Sarawak.  t h a t he  A constitutional  A f t e r hearing  t h e case the  C h i e f J u s t i c e handed down h i s judgement on September 7, i n which he  r e i n s t a t e d Ningkan as C h i e f M i n i s t e r .  Ningkan appeared to h o l d the i n i t i a t i v e .  For a while,  A l l t h a t remained to be  done, i t seemed, was f o r h i m to r e g a i n the c o n f i d e n c e Negri.  S i n c e h i s d e f e a t was assured  at least,  o f the C o u n c i l  i n the l e g i s l a t u r e he was under-  133  standably  r e l u c t a n t to f a c e the house.  What he needed was time i n  o r d e r to persuade a t l e a s t some r e b e l s to support regain a majority  i n the C o u n c i l N e g r i .  the f a c t t h a t a c c o r d i n g  h i m and thereby  H i s advantage r e s t e d on  to the Sarawak C o n s t i t u t i o n , the Governor  summons the C o u n c i l N e g r i  to meet only on the a d v i c e o f the c a b i n e t .  In s h o r t , i t appeared t h a t so l o n g as the C o u n c i l N e g r i d i d n o t meet he would c o n t i n u e  as C h i e f M i n i s t e r .  was able to communicate w i t h  F u r t h e r , so l o n g as he  a t l e a s t f i v e o f the r e b e l s and win t h e i r  confidence,  there was a chance f o r him t o s u r v i v e a v o t e o f "no  confidence"  i n the Council Negri.  worst Ningkan c o u l d c o n t i n u e  SNAP l e a d e r s f e l t  t h a t a t the  as C h i e f M i n i s t e r by simply  advising  the Governor t h a t t h e C o u n c i l N e g r i be d i s s o l v e d and a g e n e r a l be h e l d . wait to  Thus, as f a r as Ningkan was concerned, he c o u l d  u n t i l e i t h e r t h e r e b e l s broke ranks o r he a d v i s e d  d i s s o l v e the C o u n c i l N e g r i .  ever,  forc r i t i c a l  simply  the Governor  H i s t a c t i c had one major f l a w , how-  t o the success  t h a t t h e c o u r t would decide  election  of h i s method was the assumption  i n h i s favour and t h a t the c o u r t ' s  d e c i s i o n was n o t n u l l i f i e d by a h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y , such as the F e d e r a l Government, o r o v e r - t u r n e d The Ningkan.  by a h i g h e r  court.  F e d e r a l Government, f o r i t s p a r t , c o n t i n u e d To i s o l a t e the l e g i s l a t i v e i n s u r g e n t s  ensure t h e i r l o y a l t y  to work a g a i n s t  from Ningkan and to  to Tawi S l i , the r e b e l s were c o r r a l l e d once  more from t h e i r temporary s a n c t u a r i e s i n Kuching and were flown to  134  to K u a l a Lumpur.  On September 6 they were flown back to Kuching  and were thus i n town to h e a r Ningkan's r e i n s t a t e m e n t The  Chief Justice's verdict, a t l e a s t  the next day.  t e m p o r a r i l y , r e s o l v e d the  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l impasse, but i t d i d n o t p r o v i d e a s o l u t i o n to the p o l i t i c a l stalemate r e b e l s to d e f e c t .  s i n c e Ningkan was unable to c o n t a c t and urge the Convinced t h a t Ningkan c o u l d not be persuaded to  r e s i g n o r to convene a meeting o f the C o u n c i l N e g r i , where he would have to f a c e a vote o f "no c o n f i d e n c e "  and be f o r c e d out o f o f f i c e ,  the F e d e r a l Government d e c l a r e d a s t a t e o f emergency on September 15. Subsequently, i t amended t h e Sarawak C o n s t i t u t i o n which gave the Governor powers to convene the C o u n c i l N e g r i and to dismiss M i n i s t e r a t the d i r e c t request o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f C o u n c i l members.  the C h i e f  Negri  On September 23, the C o u n c i l N e g r i met and a "no c o n f i d e n c e "  motion was f o r m a l l y passed a g a i n s t Ningkan and h i s second Ningkan was d i s m i s s e d  cabinet.  the next day.  In t h e o r y , a t l e a s t , SNAP c o u l d have e l e c t e d to support government, thereby  even e a r n i n g  r e - e n t r y i n t o the A l l i a n c e .  the new This  c o u l d have happened had Ningkan been r e p l a c e d by Endawie, f o r i n s t a n c e . At one p o i n t t h e r e was indeed the p a r t y l e a d e r ;  an attempt w i t h i n SNAP to make Endawie  but, convinced  would wreck the p a r t y and d e s t r o y s u p p o r t e r s , he r e f u s e d . One  t h a t such a takeover  at this  time  t h e chance o f a t t r a c t i n g new  Ningkan t h e r e f o r e continued  as l e a d e r .  i t became c l e a r that Ningkan would r e t a i n the . l e a d e r s h i p ,  there  135  was l i t t l e  chance o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e r e s t o f the Sarawak  27 Alliance.  The f i r s t  reason i n v o l v e d p e r s o n a l p r i d e ;  o u s t e r he c o u l d not very w e l l support e j e c t e d him.  the government which had j u s t  The second reason, and p o l i t i c a l l y  cant one, i n v o l v e d the c o n f l i c t o f v a l u e s between a nationalist  the more s i g n i f i t h e two s i d e s .  As  p a r t y which was committed to democracy SNAP c o n s i d e r e d  Ningkan's"ousting tionality  after h i s  as an underhanded e x e r c i s e which l a c k e d c o n s t i t u -  s i n c e i n t h e o p i n i o n o f p a r t y l e a d e r s , the r u l e o f due  process o f law had n o t been f u l l y a p p l i e d . Thus, soon a f t e r h i s o u s t e r , Ningkan i n i t i a t e d l e g a l a g a i n s t the new government.  proceedings  SNAP e x p l a i n e d t h a t  u n t i l the c o u r t s decide o t h e r w i s e , Penghulu Tawi S l i i s o n l y a p r e t e n d e r to the o f f i c e o f t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r o f Sarawak. Although the Prime M i n i s t e r s a i d i n Kanowit t h a t the removal o f Datuk Stephen Kalong Ningkan was done l a w f u l l y , the Sarawak N a t i o n a l P a r t y and most people i n Sarawak, and indeed M a l a y s i a cannot agree w i t h t h e Prime M i n i s t e r t h a t Penghulu Tawi S l i ' s Government has been l a w f u l l y formed when t h e very q u e s t i o n as t o whether Penghulu Tawi S l i has been l a w f u l l y 2g a p p o i n t e d C h i e f M i n i s t e r o f Sarawak i s sub j u d i c e . The t h i r d reason why SNAP d i d n o t support because to do so would mean h a v i n g nationalist principles:  the new government was  to compromise  multi-racialism.  on another o f i t s  I t was t h i s a s p e c t o f SNAP's  P o l i t i c a l M a n i f e s t o , and the a t t e n d a n t w i l l i n g n e s s to a c c o r d t h e nonnatives  ( o f Sarawak t h a t i s , the C h i n e s e ) a measure o f economic freedom  g r e a t e r than i t s major p a r t n e r s i n the Sarawak A l l i a n c e would have  136  t o l e r a t e d , a f a c t which prompted PANAS, BARJASA, and Pesaka to form the " n a t i v e a l l i a n c e " i n 1965. acceptable  to the new c o a l i t i o n ,  of m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m . critical  Since  Thus, b e f o r e  SNAP c o u l d become  i t would need to modify i t s p o l i c y  SNAP r e g a r d e d m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m as a  i n c e n t i v e to a t t r a c t non-Dayak support, i t was l o a t h t o  throw away a v a l u a b l e The  aspect  of i t s p o l i c i e s .  f o u r t h b a s i s o f i t s o b j e c t i o n was t h e composition o f the  new government, p r i m a r i l y the dominance o f Muslims i n i t . A t f i r s t glance,  the o p p o s i t e  appeared to be t r u e .  Numerically,  a t l e a s t , the  new government was maintained n o t by a Muslim o r g a n i s a t i o n , b u t by Pesaka, a Dayak-based p a r t y .  But seen from SNAP's v i e w p o i n t , Pesaka's  p a r t i c i p a t i o n was l a r g e l y s y m b o l i c . unimportant to the new government; strength  I t was n o t t h a t Pesaka was indeed, because o f i t s n u m e r i c a l  i n the C o u n c i l N e g r i , Pesaka's support was c r i t i c a l  to m a i n t a i n t h e new o r g a n i s a t i o n . C h i e f M i n i s t e r came from Pesaka.  i f only  To underscore t h i s p o i n t the new To SNAP, however, Pesaka's  p a t i o n xjas merely a s e l f - s e r v i n g manoeuvre, f o r i t s l e a d e r s  particilacked  the r e s o l v e to pursue e i t h e r the i n t e r e s t s o f the Dayaks o r those o f Sarawak w i t h i n  the f e d e r a l s e t - u p .  L a s t l y , as a s t a t e - c e n t e r e d should  party,  enjoy self-government w i t h r e s p e c t  from any i n t e r f e r e n c e from o u t s i d e  SNAP b e l i e v e d  t h a t Sarawakians  to s t a t e p o l i t i c s ,  sources.  free  The major t a r g e t here  was the f e d e r a l government's p o t e n t i a l f o r m a n i p u l a t i o n and i n t e r -  137  f e r e n c e , a p o s s i b i l i t y which SNAP had f e a r e d from the b e g i n n i n g . 1966  In  t h i s s u s p i c i o n f e s t e r e d i n t o b i t t e r resentment a g a i n s t the  f e d e r a l govenment when i t v i o l a t e d what SNAP c o n s i d e r e d conduct o f s t a t e - f e d e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  as the p r o p e r  The o b j e c t o f l i m i t i n g  f e d e r a l c a p a c i t y to i n f l u e n c e s t a t e p o l i t i c s was to c r e a t e Sarawak a s t r o n g m u l t i - r a c i a l i d e n t i t y d i s t i n c t states within  the M a l a y s i a n  federation.  from t h a t o f o t h e r  With r e f e r e n c e  A l l i a n c e a f f a i r s . i n Sarawak, i t was SNAP's c o n t e n t i o n Sarawak A l l i a n c e was an autonomous body. ment had no power to i n t e r v e n e  that the  To p r o t e s t such  from s i m i l a r l y enraged Sarawakians,  SNAP f o r m a l l y withdrew from the A l l i a n c e i n J u l y 1966. explained  to i n t r a -  As such the f e d e r a l govern-  i n its affairs.  i n t e r v e n t i o n and to draw support  within  The p a r t y  that In view o f the undemocratic and u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and d i c t a t o r i a l a c t i o n s taken by t h e Grand A l l i a n c e i n K u a l a Lumpur whereby o n l y two p a r t i e s o f the Sarawak A l l i a n c e , namely, Pesaka and BARJASA were c o n s u l t e d about the removal o f the C h i e f M i n i s t e r o f Sarawak, Datuk Stephen Kalong Ningkan and the nomination o f a n o t h e r C h i e f M i n i s t e r to r e p l a c e him, and t h a t no c o n s u l t a t i o n s were made a t a l l w i t h t h e o t h e r three component p a r t n e r s i n the Sarawak A l l i a n c e , namely SNAP, PANAS and SCA, the Sarawak N a t i o n a l P a r t y t h e r e f o r e has no o p t i o n but to withdraw from the Grand A l l i a n c e i n Kuala Lumpurv29  In a c c u s i n g  the f e d e r a l government o f u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and d i c t a t o r i a l  a c t i o n s , SNAP c l e a r l y aimed a t e x p l o i t i n g the c r i s i s ,  to turn i t into  a c a t a l y t i c event by which i t would draw widespread n o t i c e and  138  sympathy.  I t s announced w i t h d r a w a l s i m p l y h i g h l i g h t e d the drama.  Thus, by the time SNAP was w i t h two  themes.  ousted from power i t had i d e n t i f i e d  The f i r s t was  i t s multi-racial policies  itself  which  contended.that the c i t i z e n s o f Sarawak, i r r e s p e c t i v e o f r a c e , s h o u l d have r e c e i v e d e q u a l treatment under the laws of Sarawak and M a l a y s i a . The second theme was  the p a r t y ' s a n t i - f e d e r a l s e n t i m e n t s ;  end the f e d e r a l Grand A l l i a n c e was s a t i o n which was  partial  to t h i s  viewed as an o p p r e s s i v e o r g a n i -  to Malays, p a r t i c u l a r l y  those o r i g i n a t i n g  from West M a l a y s i a .  Sarawak f o r Sarawakians If  t h e r e was  a s i n g l e s l o g a n which came to r e p r e s e n t SNAP's  n a t i o n a l i s m i n the p e r i o d a f t e r SNAP's w i t h d r a w a l , i t was phrase "Sarawak f o r Sarawakians". . E v e r s i n c e the term was employed  i t has always been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p a r t y ' s  the c a t c h first  position  w i t h r e g a r d to M a l a y s i a . F i r s t employed  i n October 1961,  the term was  used a t a time as  n a t i o n a l i s t i c demand t h a t Sarawak ought to r e c e i v e s o v e r e i g n s t a t u s . Though Sarawak was s l o g a n was  then a c o l o n y of Great B r i t a i n ,  the t a r g e t of the  not the r e t r e a t i n g c o l o n i a l power, but the M a l a y s i a propo-  sal  which sought to deny.Sarawak i t s independent s t a t u s .  the  s l o g a n "Sarawak f o r Sarawakians" was  government and independence  That i s ,  an a s s e r t i o n f o r s e l f -  as w e l l as the r e j e c t i o n o f the M a l a y s i a  139  Plan.  I t expressed  f o r B r i t a i n had  a sentiment  not so much a n t i - B r i t i s h ,  i n d i c a t e d i t s d e s i r e to c o n f e r independence to  Sarawak, but a n t i - M a l a y a , time SNAP was  t h a t was  the p e r p e t r a t o r o f the M a l a y s i a P l a n .  to g i v e up i t s o p p o s i t i o n to the p r o p o s a l .  d i d not l e a d to the abandonment o f any s e p a r a t e nationhood l a t t e r h a l f of 1966,  f o r Sarawak. i t was  this  lingering aspiration for  When the s l o g a n was  r e v i v e d i n the  a g a i n d i r e c t e d a t the M a l a y s i a i s s u e .  T h i s time, however, t h e r e was stood f o r independence.  But  In  a shift  From 1966  i n meaning.  In 1961  the  slogan  onwards, owing to p r e v a i l i n g  c o n d i t i o n s , i t became more ambiguous, i t s meanings m u l t i - f a c e t e d . Depending on the time, and sometimes meant a c a l l  to an e x t e n t the audience,  f o r j u s t treatment  the s l o g a n  by the f e d e r a l government, 30  as an e x p r e s s i o n o f p r o t e s t .  I t c o u l d a l s o stand f o r s e p a r a t i o n ,  p a r t i c u l a r l y when the l i s t e n e r s were Dayaks. d i f f e r e n c e was  i n degree:  s e p a r a t i o n here was  In o t h e r words,  the  the most extreme of i t s  n a t i o n a l i s m continuum w h i l e the b e l i e f i n " p r o p e r " treatment,  of  equal s t a t u s , p r o v i d e d the o t h e r extreme. SNAP's concern and  about the conduct  the r i g h t to secede can be  t r a c e d from the b e g i n n i n g .  SNAP which, w o r r i e d about the guarantees running o f M a l a y s i a ;  i t was  of f e d e r a l - s t a t e r e l a t i o n s It  was  f o r an equal v o i c e i n the  a l s o SNAP (and i n d e p e n d e n t l y  Pesaka as  w e l l ) which demanded t h a t the r i g h t to s e p a r a t e be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o 31 the C o n s t i t u t i o n of M a l a y s i a . I t was h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i n  140  1966,  p a r t y l e a d e r s p r o t e s t e d v i g o r o u s l y when f e d e r a l i n t e r f e r e n c e  proved instrumental power.  i n Ningkan's d o w n f a l l  and  the p a r t y ' s  fall  from  SNAP's r e a c t i o n grew even more extreme, when the f e d e r a l  government i n v o l v e d i t s e l f more deeply time the High Court  o f Borneo had  by mid-September 1966.  At  that  r e i n s t a t e d Ningkan as C h i e f M i n i s t e r .  Once i n o f f i c e , Ningkan immediately c a l l e d f o r a g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n i n an e f f o r t  to r e - c o n s t i t u t e the C o u n c i l N e g r i , w h i l e h i s opponents  demanded an immediate meeting of the e x i s t i n g C o u n c i l N e g r i . From SNAP's p o i n t o f view i t had This course  o f a c t i o n was  parliamentary cise  democracy.  much to g a i n from such an  congruous w i t h  the p a r t y ' s b e l i e f i n  In the second p l a c e i t was  a tactical  through which Ningkan c o u l d a v o i d d e f e a t by h a v i n g  much wanted s i t t i n g of the l e g i s l a t u r e .  to c a l l  exerthe  A t t h a t moment Ningkan's  opponents had  i n c r e a s e d t h e i r group to a m a j o r i t y of t w e n t y - f i v e  the f o r t y - t w o  member l e g i s l a t u r e .  More important,  election.  from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f i t s n a t i o n a l i s m  in  an  e l e c t i o n t h a t c e n t e r e d on s e p a r a t i o n as a core i s s u e might p o s s i b l y c a t a p u l t SNAP i n t o a m a j o r i t y p o s i t i o n — a v i c t o r y which c o u l d i n t e r p r e t e d as  a mandate f o r s e p a r a t i o n .  an e l e c t i o n h a v i n g for  separation.  As  f a r as SNAP was  be concerned,  such a r e s u l t c o u l d c o n s t i t u t e an a c c e p t a b l e  reason  Ningkan h i m s e l f made t h i s s t r a t e g y c l e a r i n  d e t a i l i n g h i s " S t a t e P o l i c y " soon a f t e r h i s r e i n s t a t e m e n t  in  32 September, 1966.  When the government r e f u s e d him p e r m i s s i o n  to  141  use  o f the s t a t e ' s  his  "State  therefore  radio  P o l i c y " by  facilities,  forced  to  disseminate  the newspapers, which were l e s s widespread  l e s s e f f e c t i v e than the  Ningkan s a i d t h a t  Ningkan was  radio.  Regarding the  and  election  he  s u p p o r t / e d / the p r o v i s i o n o f the Bangkok Agreement which c a l l s f o r the r e a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e i r /Sarawak's_7 d e c i s i o n to e n t e r M a l a y s i a by the people of Sarawak.33 A c c o r d i n g to Ningkan's argument the means f o r such a one  t h a t would a l s o s o l v e  the  reaffirmation,  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l impasse i n Sarawak,  was  34 a general e l e c t i o n .  The  constitutional crisis  was  Ningkan's r e f u s a l to c a l l  was  w i t h i n h i s power to do s i n c e he was  problem f o r him  was  that the  the  Council  referred  Negri into session.  the  f e d e r a l government and  Council  Ningkan's c a l l  f o r an e l e c t i o n thus h e i g h t e n e d the between h i s government on  and  the f e d e r a l government on In i t s response the  for  secession.  But  c l e a r l y concerned. escalate  the  Emergency.  tension  created  hand and  the  by rebels  other.  i t s subsequent a c t i o n i n d i c a t e s  that i t  formula  was  C l a i m i n g t h a t i t d i d not want the s i t u a t i o n to l o c a l communists might foment even  f e d e r a l government on September 15, The  held.  f e d e r a l government i g n o r e d Ningkan's  i n t o d i s o r d e r which the  f u r t h e r , the  the one  The  twenty-five  N e g r i demanded t h a t a s i t t i n g be  confrontation  This  Chief M i n i s t e r .  members o f the  the  to here  d e c l a r a t i o n was  a u t h o r i t i e s to i s s u e .  within  the  Under A r t i c l e 150  declared  power o f the  of the F e d e r a l  a State  of  federal Constitution  142  the Yang D i p e r t u a n  Agung, on the a d v i c e of the C e n t r a l Government,  may.issue a P r o c l a m a t i o n  of Emergency i f he  is "satisfied  emergency e x i s t s whereby the s e c u r i t y o r economic l i f e of F e d e r a t i o n o r any Razak, who  was  p a r t thereof i s threatened  ...."  35  t h a t a grave the  Explained  Tun  a c t i n g Prime M i n i s t e r , ...a s e r i o u s s i t u a t i o n has developed i n Sarawak i n the l a s t few days and t h e r e f o r e we have to take action. The c r i s i s i n Sarawak poses a s e r i o u s t h r e a t to the s e c u r i t y of the S t a t e and o f M a l a y s i a as a whole. There i s a communist menace and how t h e r e i s p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y and u n c e r t a i n t y ... the s i t u a t i o n can get out o f hand.36  SNAP condemned the f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n as a breach of f a i t h ;  the  power to amend or suspend the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f Sarawak, i t p r o t e s t e d , 37 belongs to the people of Sarawak.  Significantly,  the  r e f r a i n e d from f u r t h e r p u b l i c statements about s e c e s s i o n .  The  reason  was  not  but  t h a t d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f emergency such a c a l l would s u r e l y l e a d  to  t h a t the p a r t y had  party  suddenly renounced i t s e c e s s i o n i s t i n t e n t  r e p r i s a l s such as d e t e n t i o n o f p a r t y  leaders.  This form o f s a n c t i o n would s u r e l y c r i p p l e SNAP as a w e l l functioning party.  The  first  f o r Sarawakians" i s , then, and  even to 1968,  s t r o n g h o l d , and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the s l o g a n "Sarawak  t h a t i t suggested s e c e s s i o n .  as SNAP s p r e a d  to the Rejang B a s i n ,  Through  1967  Pesaka's  as i t opened more urban branches, SNAP's f i e l d workers  r e l i e d a t l e a s t on s e p a r a t i o n as an i s s u e to a t t r a c t new  p a r t y members.  Thus, f o r i n s t a n c e , when the F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r o f Land and Mines, Datuk  143  Abdul Rahman Yakub, charged t h a t Ningkan was s t a t e to break away from the M a l a y s i a n  attempting  federation",  38  " t o get the  the  party  a g a i n r e f u s e d to deny i t , a l a c k o f response which i n d i c a t e d t h a t SNAP indeed The  favoured  the i d e a .  answer i s s i m p l e :  Why  then would the p a r t y not admit i t ?  to p r e a c h s e c e s s i o n i s an a c t o f s e d i t i o n f o r  which i t s l e a d e r s c o u l d be  arrested.  Under normal  t h i s would be a dangerous u n d e r t a k i n g : Sarawak was  i n a s t a t e of emergency.  i t was  circumstances  more so i n 1967  when  At a time when the p a r t y  was  undergoing a p e r i o d o f massive expansion, a r r e s t s of t h i s s o r t were 39 not welcomed. Moreover, the p a r t y has means.  With t h i s  g u i d e l i n e i n mind, i t can be s a i d t h a t  SNAP's n a t i o n a l i s m was s e p a r a t i o n , the p a r t y ' s i t s option only  manifested  by i t s support  to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l means.  from M a l a y s i a as f a r as through the process  although  f o r the cause of  i d e o l o g y which eschews v i o l e n c e s e r v e r e l y l i m i t e d  SNAP's l o n g - t e r m t a r g e t had  against Malaysia  always been committed to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  Among the Dayaks a t  least,  always been s t a t e autonomy, but w i t h d r a w a l  the p a r t y was  concerned would only  of negotiations a f t e r ,  occur  f o r i n s t a n c e , a c l e a r vote  i n an e l e c t i o n o r through a referendum.  Since  the  "Emergency" s i t u a t i o n made open advocacy of s e p a r a t i o n i m p r a c t i c a l as a r a l l y i n g cry i n order  to g a i n support,  p u b l i c i t y campaign on the o p p r e s s i v e  SNAP c o n c e n t r a t e d i t s  aspect  o f the f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . 40 In SNAP's judgment the d e c l a r a t i o n of the "Emergency" was unwarranted  144  and based on a "very i s o l a t e d and f l i m s y e v i d e n c e o f a s m a l l  gathering  41 ...of  i r r e s p o n s i b l e persons i n Kuching  ....  Also  i t was SNAP's  view t h a t the IGC Report, the London Agreement o f 1963, and the Cobbold Commission Report were t r e a t i e s which p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r the conduct o f r e l a t i o n s between s t a t e and f e d e r a l governments and the framework f o r t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f Sarawak. suspended  The "Emergency" which  t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n i n SNAP's v i e w p o i n t c o n t r a v e n e d the s p i r i t  and l e t t e r o f these " t r e a t i e s " .  I n s h o r t , w i t h the tampering o f the  S t a t e C o n s t i t u t i o n , the f e d e r a l government had reduced Sarawak to the unequal p o s i t i o n o f a "neo-colony", and t h e r e f o r e deserved to be 42 challenged. toward  Without openly i n s t i g a t i n g s e p a r a t i o n ,  i t i n piecemeal fashion.  d i r e c t e d a t an e x t e r n a l  In t h i s i n s t a n c e  SNAP worked  i t s n a t i o n a l i s m was  target.  Another f e a t u r e o f "Sarawak f o r Sarawakians" was SNAP's o b j e c t i v e o f b u i l d i n g a "dynamic,  progressive  and p e a c e f u l m u l t i - r a c i a l Sarawakian  43 society...."  SNAP was n o t engaging i n the r e i t e r a t i o n o f a p o l i t i c a l  cliche''when i t s a i d t h a t i t wanted such a s o c i e t y i n Sarawak, because c e n t r a l to t h a t o b j e c t i v e was the n o t i o n society d i s t i n c t  t h a t Sarawak ought  to have a  from t h a t of the M a l a y s i a n whole.  P a r t o f SNAP's n a t i o n a l i s t sentiment was a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t the f e d e r a l government was e s s e n t i a l l y a n e g a t i v e f o r c e which i n v a r i a b l y i n t e r f e r e d w i t h Sarawak's a f f a i r s .  I n o r d e r to b u i l d a  Sarawakian  s o c i e t y i t was t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o i s o l a t e Sarawak as much as p o s s i b l e  145  from the  c e n t r a l government and  i t s influence.  As  the  party  explained,  We ^Sarawakiansjhave no o t h e r l a n d . Sarawak i s our home and there i s n o t h i n g too b i g o r too much to s a c r i f i c e f o r her defence a g a i n s t the e v i l f o r c e s t r y i n g to dominate and d e s t r o y h e r .... Her economic and p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y s h a l l be her g r e a t e s t s e c u r i t y . T h i s can o n l y be a c h i e v e d when i t i s r e a l i s e d t h a t Sarawak i s f o r the Sarawakians.^4 From SNAP's v i e w p o i n t , p a t r i o t i s m meant not a l s o an a n t i - f e d e r a l s e n t i m e n t .  only  love  f o r Sarawak but  A Sarawakian s o c i e t y c o u l d not  be  built 45  properly  i f the  The government.  f e d e r a l government was  other prerequisite  was  f o r such a s o c i e t y was  In SNAP's view the  weak a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  a l l o w e d to "dominate" the a strong  state.  state  Sarawak A l l i a n c e under Tawi S l i was  For i n s t a n c e ,  i n the  c l e a r t h a t i n i t s s u b s e r v i e n c e to the  case o f the  "Emergency" i t  f e d e r a l government,  Sarawak A l l i a n c e f a i l e d to " p r e s e r v e , honour and  a  defend the  the  State  46 Constitution."  U n d e r l y i n g t h i s a s s e r t i o n was  process of n a t i o n b u i l d i n g the SA would be resist  f e d e r a l d i r e c t i v e s , and  of r e a l i s i n g a dynamic and to the SA,  e i t h e r u n w i l l i n g o r unable to  i t would be  inherently  s e p a r a t e Sarawakian s o c i e t y .  attempt to s e l l out the i n t e r e s t of our  problem w i t h the  SA,  SNAP contended, was  f o r federal manipulation of state The  the  In  incapable  contrast  SNAP c o n s i d e r e d i t s e l f as a " n a t i o n a l i s t p a r t y which would 47  always oppose any The  therefore  the b e l i e f t h a t i n  t h a t i t had  state." become a t o o l  affairs.  o t h e r c o n c e p t i o n o f SNAP's Sarawakian p o l i c y was  t h a t i t would  146  be m u l t i - r a c i a l .  I t means t h a t i n s t e a d o f f a v o u r i n g one p a r t i c u l a r  c u l t u r e , r e l i g i o n , o r custom the government would encourage the growth o f Sarawak's  different  e t h n i c groups.  S i n c e the f e d e r a l  government  c o n s i d e r e d the Malay c u l t u r e , r e l i g i o n , and language as composites o f examplary M a l a y s i a n i d e n t i t y , SNAP's m u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m was opposed to the p o l i c y o f t h e f e d e r a l government.  48  In t h i s way SNAP's  argument  f o r m u l t i - c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s served i t s anti-Malay sentiment. ,  Further,  49  SNAP s m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m  gave the p a r t y a d i r e c t appeal to the  d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c groups i n Sarawak i n t h a t SNAP gave them the o p p o r t u n i t y to p e r p e t u a t e  t h e i r own c u l t u r e , w h i l e the SA and the c e n t r a l govern-  ment t h r e a t e n e d Sarawakians w i t h a s s i m i l a t i o n , o r a t l e a s t a push f o r a "Malayanised"  Sarawak.  which t h r e a t e n e d Sarawak's  Thus w h i l e the SA was d e p i c t e d as a t o o l communal groups, SNAP p r e s e n t e d i t s e l f as  t h e i r s a v i o u r which t h e r e f o r e deserved  t h e i r support.  major i n t e r p r e t a t i o n f o r SNAP's argument  t h a t "Sarawak's  T h i s was the i d e n t i t y must  be p r e s e r v e d a t a l l c o s t , and l e t no one deny us o f t h i s heritage."""^ L a s t l y , SNAP's c o n c e p t i o n o f i t s Sarawakian s o c i e t y c o n t a i n e d a g e n e r a l p r o p o s a l f o r economic p o l i c i e s .  Again,  the f e d e r a l  framework  was viewed as a d e b i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r and i s o l a t i o n from the f e d e r a l government  was c o n s i d e r e d a p r e r e q u i s i t e .  As Ningkan e x p l a i n e d ,  There i s always the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f Sarawak w i t h which we work f o r the achievement o f i t s economic, s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y , not o n l y f o r us today,but a l s o f o r g e n e r a t i o n s to come.51  14 7  With SNAP out of o f f i c e , to  the main o b j e c t i v e o f i t s n a t i o n a l i s m came  i n c l u d e not o n l y the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n s and  a p p r a i s a l o f governmental  measures to see whether an e t h n i c  would b e n e f i t more o r l e s s , but a l s o the r e c r u i t m e n t o f would put the p a r t y back i n power.  activities  That i s , e s p o u s a l o f i t s n a t i o n a l i s m  it  possible.  championed Dayak i n t e r e s t s , i t had extended i t s  to i n c l u d e n o n - n a t i v e ones as w e l l .  racialism.  group  support'which  s e r v e d to m o b i l i s e p o l i t i c a l sympathy from as wide a base as Although i t s t i l l  the  Hence i t s m u l t i -  H i t h e r t o SNAP had c o n c e n t r a t e d mainly on Dayaks;  s h i f t e d to Sarawakians,  i n 1965  and o s t e n s i b l y a t l e a s t Dayak i n t e r e s t s  were overshadowed by those of Sarawak. Evidence i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n s h i f t i n g i t s s t r a t e g y SNAP s t r u c k a 52 sympathetic chord among non-Iban/non-Dayak Sarawakians. 1967  i t won  a by-election  an a r e a w i t h i n Pesaka's  (for a district  heartland.  c o u n c i l s e a t ) i n Pelagus,  I n March i t won  Lawas, F i f t h D i v i s i o n , w i t h a Chinese c a n d i d a t e . won in  still 1967  and  The With of SCA  another one 1968.  i n Limbang.  In January  another e l e c t i o n i n  In January 1968, i t  SNAP t h e r e f o r e won  a l l the e l e c t i o n s  5 3  immediate r e s u l t s o f SNAP's p a r t y b u i l d i n g were encouraging.  f i n a n c e s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e from such tycoons as Wee  Hood Teck  Kuching, James Wong o f Limbang, and l e s s openly from those w i t h i n the i n S i b u as w e l l , more urban branches were s e t up.  one branch was  s e t up ( i n B i n t u l u ) ;  In October  i n November two more (Kampong  1966,  148  G i t a , and T a t a u ) , w h i l e  i n December i t opened up branches i n the  major towns o f the T h i r d D i v i s i o n ( S i b u , B i n a t a n g , Kanawit, K a p i t , Song, and S a r i k e i ) .  By June 1967 SNAP had e s t a b l i s h e d i t s e l f  i n Miri,  the l a s t major town w i t h o u t a SNAP branch. Emboldened  by SNAP's e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r i e s , and o r g a n i s a t i o n a l  resurgence, Ningkan began to press  f o r a general  election.  The  life  of the e x i s t i n g C o u n c i l N e g r i would not e x p i r e u n t i l August 1968. Ningkan and o t h e r l e a d e r s o f SNAP were convinced increased i t s popular  But  t h a t SNAP had  appeal and t h a t t h e r e e x i s t e d a s t a t e - w i d e  back-  l a s h a g a i n s t the s t a t e and f e d e r a l governments over the d i s m i s s a l o f Ningkan and the s u s p e n s i o n o f the Sarawak C o n s t i t u t i o n . t h e r e f o r e eager to have a g e n e r a l the l a t e s t , condemning  i n 1968.  They were  e l e c t i o n , p r e f e r a b l y i n 1967 o r , a t  Ningkan l e d the r e s t o f SNAP's l e a d e r s i n  the A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s  f o r having  the very d i c t a t o r i a l k i n d who w i l l  "no r e s p e c t  f o r the law...  i n pursuit of t h e i r personal  gains  54 rule against  the wishes of the m a j o r i t y . "  Otherwise, Ningkan  reasoned, they would have arranged f o r a g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n to seek a new mandate.  P a r t l y to underscore t h i s p o i n t and p a r t l y to  p r o t e s t the i l l e g a l i t y o f the new  government, SNAP's C o u n c i l  walked out o f a meeting of the l e g i s l a t u r e on June 6,1967. asked to e x p l a i n SNAP's d e c i s i o n t o - b o y c o t t  Negri When  the s i t t i n g o f the C o u n c i l  N e g r i , James Wong s a i d t h a t the r e a l i s s u e was whether Datuk Ningkan was  still  the C h i e f M i n i s t e r , a m a t t e r which remained to be  decided  149  by the F e d e r a l Court o f M a l a y s i a .  U n t i l the matter was  said,  "no r i g h t  the A l l i a n c e " m i n i s t e r s " had  themselves  cleared,  he  to p r e s e n t b i l l s and  palm  o f f as . " m i n i s t e r s . T h e F e d e r a l Court r e j e c t e d Ningkan's  c o n t e n t i o n t h a t the F e d e r a l P a r l i a m e n t d i d not have the power to pass the Emergency A c t o f 1966,  which empowered the Governor  of Sarawak to  d i s m i s s Ningkan as C h i e f M i n i s t e r s h o u l d he r e f u s e to r e s i g n as C h i e f M i n i s t e r a f t e r a vote o f "no c o n f i d e n c e " a g a i n s t the Government i n the C o u n c i l N e g r i .  Ningkan launched a f i n a l a p p e a l to the P r i v y  C o u n c i l i n London which recommended t h a t i t be d i s m i s s e d .  The  56 c o n c l u s i o n o f the l e g a l process was Ningkan's o u s t e r .  i n October, 1968,  Ningkan's a p p e a l was  two y e a r s  after  based on h i s c o n t e n t i o n t h a t  a s i t u a t i o n o f emergency which t h r e a t e n e d the s e c u r i t y of the s t a t e had not e x i s t e d . emergency.  Ningkan thus a p p l i e d a narrow meaning to the word  In d i s m i s s i n g Ningkan's a p p e a l , L o r d MacDermott o f the  J u d i c i a l Committee o f the P r i v y C o u n c i l s a i d of the word /emergency7 i t s e l f was  t h a t "the n a t u r a l meaning  c a p a b l e o f c o v e r i n g a wide range o f  s i t u a t i o n s and o c c u r r e n c e s , i n c l u d i n g such d i v e r s e events as wars, famine,  earthquakes, f l o o d s , epidemics and  government.""^ his  (Ningkan's)  He  further said  the c o l l a p s e o f  t h a t Ningkan had  civil  f a i l e d to e s t a b l i s h  a s s e r t i o n t h a t a s i t u a t i o n of emergency had not e x i s t e d .  The p r o l o n g e d l e g a l proceedings s e r v e d SNAP's i n t e r e s t . case h e l p e d the p a r t y to focus on the high-handed  nature o f  The c o u r t  federal  i n t e r v e n t i o n , the c o u r t case h e l p e d to arouse an a n t i - f e d e r a l  sentiment.  150  F u r t h e r , s i n c e the matter was sub j u d i c e , an a p p a r e n t l y Sli to  government was a boon f o r SNAP's f i e l d workers.  illegal  Tawi  I t gave credence  the p a r t y ' s argument t h a t the new government was l e d by o p p o r t u n i s t s  who cared l i t t l e  f o r the law.  By the time the matter was s e t t l e d by  the P r i v y C o u n c i l the momentum o f SNAP's expansion was w e l l underway. The  r e a c t i o n o f the A l l i a n c e was to persuade SNAP t o r e t u r n to  the government.  The p a r t y r e j e c t e d the o f f e r ,  p o i n t i n g o u t t h a t i t and  the SA were "poles a p a r t , e s p e c i a l l y on matters o f i n t e r e s t  to Sarawak  58 and  her people."  P a r t y l e a d e r s were h o p e f u l  r a c i a l p o l i c i e s and s t r o n g s t a n d a g a i n s t be  a popular  the f e d e r a l government would  p l a t f o r m from which to c o n t e s t  Finally,  t h a t SNAP's m u l t i -  the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s .  i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t by 1968, SNAP was showing s i g n s  t h a t i t had s h e l v e d on February 18.  the n o t i o n o f s e p a r a t i o n .  The f i r s t s i g n a l came  Although s e p a r a t i o n remained as an o b j e c t i v e , i t was  never an a l l - c o n s u m i n g  a s p i r a t i o n except f o r a very b r i e f p e r i o d  i n 1966, when Ningkan suggested t h a t Sarawakians be a l l o w e d t h e i r d e s i r e to remain i n M a l a y s i a . were p r e - o c c u p i e d preparing  with  late  to r e a f f i r m  A f t e r t h a t the l e a d e r s o f SNAP  the b u i l d i n g o f the p a r t y ' s o r g a n i s a t i o n and  f o r the coming g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s .  The p a r t y l e a d e r s made  no attempt to d i s a s s o c i a t e themselves w i t h any break-away attempts September 29, when Ningkan denied contained added,  until  t h a t the s l o g a n "Sarawak f o r Sarawakians"  any sentiments o r r e f e r e n c e  t h a t were a n t i - M a l a y s i a .  He  151  I...as l e a d e r o f SNAP d e c l a r e on b e h a l f o f a l l our members our unswerving l o y a l t y to the N a t i o n ....59 On  January 13,  1969,  Ningkan r e a f f i r m e d t h i s new  line.  SNAP, he  said,  i s i r r e v o c a b l y committed to a f u l l support o f M a l a y s i a and i n f a c t i t always has been i n s p i t e o f the unfounded i n s i n u a t i o n s made by c e r t a i n unscrupulous and d i s h o n e s t p r o p a g a n d i s t s from the A l l i a n c e P a r t y i n t h e i r f u t i l e e f f o r t s to d i s c r e d i t the p a r t y . 6 0  The  motive behind the  loud a s s e r t i o n  of  new  l o y a l t y was  line is fairly  made w i t h the  easy to e s t a b l i s h .  coming e l e c t i o n  In t h i s i n s t a n c e , e l e c t o r a l exigency which might i n v o l v e building  after  nationalism. fugal was  the  votes had  Here the  been c a s t became a f a c t o r  pursuit  i n e f f e c t a message to i t s p o t e n t i a l  but  who  separatism. As  were uneasy a t  the  Amongst those who-  allies,  at t h i s time was the  designs o f  The  federal  rights  centriloyalty  those of  who  the  l a t t e r ' s apparent f l i r t a t i o n w i t h  expected to have c l o s e a f f i n i t y to form the  major disagreement between the  t h a t w h i l e Pesaka's c h i e f t a i n s the  of  particularly  t h e i r Dayak c o u n t e r p a r t s i n SNAP—enough a t l e a s t next government.  i n m o d i f y i n g SNAP's  might have been i n t h i s p o s i t i o n  Dayaks, i t s l e a d e r s might be  f o r the  coalition  SNAP's a f f i r m a t i o n  might have been sympathetic to SNAP's concern f o r the state  i n mind.  of e l e c t o r a l o f f i c e moderated the  f o r c e of Ningkan's p r o v i n c i a l i s m . .  SNAP's  was  Pesaka.  with  foundation two  parties  were more t r u s t i n g  of  government, SNAP's l e a d e r s p e r c e i v e d them  as p o t e n t i a l l y  damaging to the  w h i l e SNAP was  rumored to be  political  process of  the  state.  Thus,  c o n t e m p l a t i n g s e p a r a t i o n , Jugah announced  152  t h a t Pesaka would never a l l o w  the s t a t e to break away.  In t h i s  r e s p e c t Ningkan's subsequent d e c l a r a t i o n o f l o y a l t y to M a l a y s i a a tactic  to g a i n Pesaka's c o n f i d e n c e ,  was  which would be necessary i f they  63 were to form t h e government. In a d d i t i o n SNAP's message o f l o y a l t y was d i r e c t e d a t the f e d e r a l government.  As an exchange f o r a h a n d s - o f f p o l i c y by the f e d e r a l  government d u r i n g  the coming e l e c t i o n s and the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g , SNAP  would o f f e r to M a l a y s i a  i t s unreserved l o y a l t y .  Obviously  the p a r t y  was concerned t h a t an u n f r i e n d l y c e n t r a l government c o u l d not o n l y complicate  s t a t e - f e d e r a l r e l a t i o n s , b u t i t f e a r e d t h a t i n the event  t h a t SNAP s h o u l d  c o n s t i t u e the government, the C e n t r a l Government might  o b s t r u c t i t s assumption o f o f f i c e .  T h i s was c l e a r l y expressed by the  p a r t y i n 1969: The p r e s e n t Sarawak A l l i a n c e P a r t y i s accepted and recognised...as the l e g i t i m a t e administ r a t i o n by the C e n t r a l Government.... What we do ask i s t h a t the C e n t r a l Government gives the Sarawak N a t i o n a l P a r t y the same r e c o g n i t i o n when we form the Government w i t h a c l e a r mandate from Sarawakians....64  S ummary The evident  s a l i e n c e o f SNAP's Sarawakian n a t i o n a l i s m , which was most i n the p a r t y ' s p o s i t i o n on the l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n , was  by an i n t r a - A l l i a n c e c o m p e t i t i o n r e s p e c t i v e e l e c t o r a l machines.  incited  between member p a r t i e s to improve The t h r u s t o f the i n i t i a t i v e s  their  taken by  153  SNAP's p a r t n e r s , such as  the p r o p o s a l  f o r an UMNO-backed Bumiputera  p a r t y o r a Pesaka-BARJASA " N a t i v e A l l i a n c e " , had  threatened  SNAP arid i n d o i n g so to put i t a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e .  In t h i s  to  exclude  respect  the t a b l i n g o f the l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n o n l y f u r t h e r d e s t a b i l i s e d the Sarawak A l l i a n c e .  F e d e r a l c o m p l i c i t y i n i n t r a - A l l i a n c e a f f a i r s and  opportune a l l i a n c e which l a t e r c o a l e s c e d and  around the r e b e l l i n g Pesaka  BARJASA p a r t i e s r e s u l t e d i n the o u s t e r o f SNAP's Stephen Kalong  Ningkan as C h i e f M i n i s t e r i n 1966.  That same y e a r  from the Sarawak A l l i a n c e l a r g e l y because i t was the new it  government, and  SNAP was  remained i n s i d e the A l l i a n c e ,  would have been overshadowed and as  the  the Dayak-based p a r t y .  SNAP the o p p o r t u n i t y popular  l e f t without there was  resentment was  had  that i t Pesaka  i n the o p p o s i t i o n gave  to e x p l o i t whatever pan-Sarawak  changed a g a i n s t SNAP and  during  Moreover,  the more powerful  g e n e r a t e d a g a i n s t the new  the emphasis o f i t s n a t i o n a l i s m . were s a l i e n t  power.  In c o n t r a s t , b e i n g  f e d e r a l government by Ningkan's d o w n f a l l . c o n d i t i o n s had  no l o n g e r welcome i n  the p o s s i b i l i t y  r e p l a c e d by  to i n c i t e and  the p a r t y withdrew  The  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and  In s h o r t , the  prevailing  the p a r t y r e a c t e d by  nationalistic  the  changing  f e a t u r e s which  t h i s p e r i o d were, as n o t e d above, i t s  anti-Malayan  sentiment, which a l s o i m p l i c a t e d f e d e r a l c o l l a b o r a t o r s i n the s t a t e , namely members o f the r u l i n g Sarawak A l l i a n c e . a l s o expressed  itself  on p o l i c y i s s u e s .  On  SNAP's n a t i o n a l i s m  Sarawak a f f a i r s ,  SNAP  advocated the p o l i c y o f m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m and on s t a t e - f e d e r a l r e l a t i o n s  154  the p a r t y  contended t h a t the f e d e r a l government s h o u l d a b s t a i n  purely state a f f a i r s .  Incorporated  Sarawakians", t h i s n a t i o n a l i s m  under the s l o g a n  served  from  "Sarawak f o r  to a t t r a c t support f o r the  expansion o f SNAP's branch o r g a n i s a t i o n on a s t a t e - w i d e b a s i s and f o r the f o r m a t i o n  o f an e l e c t i o n p l a t f o r m .  I t should  be noted t h a t the  s l o g a n had been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e p a r a t i s t a s p i r a t i o n s which SNAP e v i d e n t l y harboured.  But i n the l a t e 1960's p a r t y  unprepared to t a c k l e such an e x p l o s i v e o b j e c t i v e was d e f e r r e d claimed  issue.  l e a d e r s were  Consequently the  to an i n d e f i n i t e date, and SNAP l o u d l y p r o -  i t s l o y a l t y to M a l a y s i a .  In s h o r t ,  the o b j e c t i v e s o f i t s  n a t i o n a l i s m , which were c h a r a c t e r i s e d mainly by i t s m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m and  a n t i - f e d e r a l i s m , were to r e c r u i t s u p p o r t , and put the p a r t y  i n power.  back  155 Footnotes t o Chapter VI  1.  Sarawak has an a r e a of about 48,000 square m i l e s , t h r e e q u a r t e r s of which i n 1962 were s t i l l p r i m a r y f o r e s t . At t h a t time l a n d was c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : Mixed Zone Land, an a r e a of 4,600 square m i l e s which may be a l i e n a t e d t o any Sarawakians; N a t i v e A r e a Land of 2,600 square m i l e s which was under n a t i v e customary t e n u r e ; N a t i v e Customary Land which covered a l l l a n d under n a t i v e customary t e n u r e and which became Mixed Zone Land or N a t i v e A r e a Land a f t e r t i t l e was g i v e n ; Reserved Land which i n c l u d e d Crown l a n d and parks and I n t e r i o r A r e a Land which covered l a n d not under the f o u r categories. See Great B r i t a i n , Sarawak: Report f o r the Year 1962 (London: Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1963), pp.50-52.  2.  At t h a t time the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of l a n d i n Sarawak was under the Land Code, f i r s t i n t r o d u c e d i n 1958. A l l l a n d was v e s t e d i n the Crown and a n a t i v e was regarded as a l i c e n s e e o f the Crown. A l i e n a t i o n o f l a n d to a Mixed Zone Land c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Land and Survey Department. In 1960 the a r e a of l a n d under t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was 4,400 square m i l e s . By 1962 o n l y 200 square m i l e s were added, which was e v i d e n t l y n o t s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the Chinese.  3.  Under the new p r o p o s a l , the system of l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was t o be abolished. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the s a l e of l a n d was t o have been through l o c a l committees composed of a p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l s and headmen. The R e s i d e n t , the c h i e f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e r i n each of Sarawaks f i v e d i v i s i o n s , would have to approve each s a l e , however. For a t e x t of a speech g i v e n by Mr. Teo K u i Seng, M i n i s t e r f o r N a t u r a l Resources, over Radio M a l a y s i a (Sarawak) on the new Land Code see Sarawak T r i b u n e , February 22, 1964.  4.  Ningkan c o n s i d e r e d the recommendations of the l a n d l e g i s l a t i o n b e n e f i c i a l f o r Sarawakians i n g e n e r a l . For the Chinese i t would mean the a v a i l a b i l i t y of more l a n d and f o r the Dayaks, who he c u r i o u s l y c a l l e d the "communities o f h i l l p a d i " the recommendations would l e a d t o more i n t e n s i v e forms of l a n d s e t t l e m e n t schemes w i t h modern a m e n i t i e s such as e l e c t r i c i t y and m e d i c a l d i s p e n s a r i e s . Ningkan p r o f e s s e d t o see l i t t l e problem i n the Dayaks r e l i n q u i s h i n g any l a n d which they d i d n ' t immediately need. For Ningkan's e x p l a n a t i o n see i b i d . , March 17, 1966.  5.  The M i n i s t e r f o r N a t u r a l Resources, Teo K u i Seng, whose j u r i s d i c t i o n i n c l u d e d l a n d , was from the Sarawak Chinese A s s o c i a t i o n (SCA). By February 1965 t h i s m i n i s t r y was making good i t s promise t o a l i e n a t e more land to n o n - n a t i v e s . For i n s t a n c e , out of 47 l o t s between f i v e to 20 a c r e s f o r c u l t i v a t i o n i n the F i r s t D i v i s i o n , o n l y two were r e served f o r n a t i v e s . Mr. Teo may have pushed f o r Chinese i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the Ningkan a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , but i t was Ningkan, f o r the C h i e f M i n i s t e r , who had t o s h o u l d e r the u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  .6.  In i t s annual g e n e r a l meeting h e l d i n March 1965, BARJASA argues t h a t n a t i v e s s h o u l d have s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s i n such a r e a s as e d u c a t i o n and the c i v i l s e r v i c e . See i b i d . , March 22, 1965.  156 7.  A major proponent of the " N a t i v e A l l i a n c e " , T a i b b i n Mahmud, who was a s t a t e M i n i s t e r from BARJASA, e x p l a i n e d t h a t "the N a t i v e A l l i a n c e " c o u l d "work b e t t e r (than a m u l t i - r a c i a l p a r t y such as SNAP) among the v a r i o u s r a c e s i n Sarawak by p u l l i n g t o g e t h e r r a c i a l groups which had common problems and i n t e r e s t s at h e a r t . " See i b i d . , May 15, 1965.  8.  BARJASA and Pesaka l e g i s l a t o r s had r e s o l v e d to b l o c k the B i l l s i f they were p r e s e n t e d i n the C o u n c i l N e g r i . These were the Land A d j u d i c a t i o n B i l l , the Land A c q u i s i t i o n B i l l , and the S t a t e Land and R e g i s t r a t i o n Bill.  9.  Though Temenggong Jugah favoured the proposed "Native A l l i a n c e , " regarded the i n c l u s i o n of SNAP as a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n .  he  10.  S t r a i t s Times, November 17,  11.  While A r t i c l e 29 of the IGC Report recommended and A r t i c l e 161A of the C o n s t i t u t i o n of M a l a y s i a gave the Borneo n a t i v e s t h e i r " s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n , " they d i d not s p e c i f y f u l l y what t h i s was supposed to have i n volved. The i n i t i a t i v e to draw the l e g i s l a t i o n and execute the law was l e f t l a r g e l y to the C h i e f M i n i s t e r s of the two s t a t e s . While he was the C h i e f M i n i s t e r , Ningkan would not p r e s s f o r any l e g i s l a t i o n , e v i d e n t l y because t o do so meant t h a t he would have t o r e c o g n i s e the s p e c i a l - p o s i t i o n s of Bumiputeras. H i s s u c c e s s o r , Tawi S l i of Pesaka, was too t i m i d to a s s e r t n a t i v e r i g h t s . T h i s was a cause of much f r u s t r a t i o n i n h i s own p a r t y : once, i n a h a r d l y v e i l e d t h r e a t to the C h i e f M i n i s t e r , Pesaka demanded t h a t A r t i c l e 29 of the IGC Report be " f u l l y implemented". See the Sarawak T r i b u n e , A p r i l 8, 1969.  12.  In 1965 Ningkan's apparent r e j e c t i o n of Bumiputera p r i v i l e g e s and h i s r e f u s a l to extend them to the Dayaks were not w e l l r e c e i v e d by the Sarawak Dayak N a t i o n a l Union (SDNU). In a memorandum to the C h i e f M i n i s t e r e a r l y i n 1965 the SDNU p r o t e s t e d t h a t i t was not f a i r t h a t a f t e r M a l a y s i a had been e s t a b l i s h e d the Dayaks were not t r e a t e d on e q u a l f o o t i n g w i t h the Malays of Malaya (Sarawak Dayak N a t i o n Union, "Memorandum to the Honourable the C h i e f M i n i s t e r of the S t a t e Government of Sarawak i n ( s i c ) the m a t t e r s of C o n s t i t u t i o n a l ( s i c ) General Safeguards, S p e c i a l P r i v i l e g e s and P r e f e r e n t i a l Treatment g i v e n to the Dayaks" (Kuching: t y p e w r i t t e n , March 12, 1965), p.7).  13.  S t r a i t s Times, November 17,  14.  See Chapter E i g h t f o r an account of SNAP's growth. Other Chinese businessmen were a c t i v e i n t h e i r support f o r SNAP. Perhaps the most prominent was Wee Boon P i n g , (no r e l a t i o n to Dato Wee). A f t e r Ningkan's d o w n f a l l i n 1966, they c o n t i n u e d to support SNAP, a p p a r e n t l y on the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t Ningkan would be r e i n s t a t e d as C h i e f M i n i s t e r by the c o u r t s , and t h a t they would r e c e i v e f a v o u r s from the p a r t y i n r e t u r n . A f t e r the P r i v y C o u n c i l decided a g a i n s t Ningkan, t h e i r open support subsided w i t h the n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n of Datuk James Wong's. Both Datuk Wee and Wee Boon P i n g r e s i g n e d from SNAP l a t e r i n 1968.  15.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  June 3,  1965.  1965.  1966.  157 16.  Angered by the document which they c o n s i d e r e d as r a c i s t i n c h a r a c t e r , SNAP l e a d e r s r e p e a t e d l y demanded T a i b Mahmud's d i s m i s s a l .  17.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , November 17, 1968. P a r t i Bumiputera's e x p a n s i o n i s t communalism echoed the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s argument made over two y e a r s back. In a v i s i t t o Santubong, Sarawak, i n March 1966, the Tengku had argued f o r Malay u n i t y : "The o t h e r r a c e s w i l l laugh a t u s , " he s a i d , " i f we are not u n i t e d " ( i b i d . , March 2, 1966).  18.  I b i d . , June 3,  19.  Consequently, a l t h o u g h SNAP was not t o t a l l y d e v o i d of Malay s u p p o r t e r s , t h e i r presence had always been m i n i m a l . SNAP's Malay s u p p o r t e r s were concentrated i n three c l u s t e r s ; Kuching, S i b u , and Limbang. In Kuching the C h i e f SNAP o p e r a t i v e was Abang Othman who chose SNAP a t the d i s s o l u t i o n of PANAS i n 1966. In S i b u the l o c a l Malay l e a d e r was A i n n i e b i n Dhoby. In L i n b a n g i t was Awang Bungsu. A l l were once p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s . What they had i n common was t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o get a l o n g w i t h P a r t i Bumiputera's l e a d e r s .  20.  Ningkan's a c t i o n s were remarkably s i m i l a r t o t h a t of h i s c o u n t e r p a r t i n Sabah, Donald Stephens. Both men enjoyed c l o s e t i e s w i t h e x p a t r i a t e o f f i c e r s and both d i s l i k e d f e d e r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i n the a f f a i r s of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s t a t e s . As a consequence, the f e d e r a l government was t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p s u n a c c e p t a b l e . Another r e a s o n which d i d not endear Ningkan t o the f e d e r a l government was the f a c t t h a t he was sympathetic t o Singapore and Prime M i n i s t e r Lee Kuan Yew's concept i o n of m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m .  21.  Thomas Kana, who i s a Dayak, was a m e d i c a l d r e s s e r i n S e r i a . He r e t u r n e d to Sarawak at Temenggong Jugah's behest i n F e b r u a r y 1965. H i s immediate o b j e c t i v e was t o r e b u i l d Pesaka which had s t a g n a t e d i n t o a s h e l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a f t e r 1963.  22.  Temenggong Jugah's momentous d e c i s i o n was p r e c i p i t a t e d by an i n c i d e n t which was t o become known as the "Mason A f f a i r " . A l f r e d Mason was working f o r P a r t y Pesaka and was a major f i g u r e i n the p a r t y ' s attempt to e s t a b l i s h a f o o t h o l d i n the Lubok Antu a r e a of the Second D i v i s i o n . T h i s u n i l a t e r a l move by Pesaka angered Ningkan who a l l e g e d l y i n j u r e d A l f r e d Mason by choking him at the t h r o a t . The i n c i d e n t took p l a c e i n Simanggang, immediately a f t e r Pesaka's i n i t i a l i n c u r s i o n i n t o Lubok Antu. On Temenggong Jugah's view of the "Mason A f f a i r " (Sarawak T r i bune , September 14, 1966). Ningkan's v e r s i o n was t h a t he had merely r e s t e d h i s hand on Mason's neck and t h a t Mason's i n j u r y was due t o Ningkan's o c c u l t powers (R.S. M i l n e and K.J'. Ratnam, M a l a y s i a — New S t a t e s i n " a New N a t i o n (London: Frank Cass, 1974), p.448).  23.  The immediate i n c i d e n t was Ningkan's d i s m i s s a l o f h i s M i n i s t e r of Comm u n i c a t i o n and Works, Taib Mahmud, who had been g a t h e r i n g support w i t h i n the Sarawak A l l i a n c e a g a i n s t Ningkan. F o l l o w i n g T a i b Mahmud's d i s m i s s a l , o t h e r m i n i s t e r s r e s i g n e d and the 20 d i s s i d e n t members, i n c l u d i n g T a i b Mahmud h i m s e l f , flew o f f to K u a l a Lumpur from where they demanded Ningkan's r e s i g n a t i o n . One key f i g u r e i n SNAP who was d i s t r e s s e d  1966.  158 by the imminent break w i t h i n the Dayak ranks was Datuk Dunstan Endawie, a SNAP V i c e - P r e s i d e n t and C o u n c i l N e g r i Member from K r i a n . He and Edmund Langgu, SNAP's S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l and Member of P a r l i a m e n t from Saratok, c o n s u l t e d t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s from the K a l a k a d i s t r i c t . Datuk Endawie was rumoured t o be ready t o d e f e c t at t h i s time, but t h a t he s t a y e d w i t h SNAP was p r o b a b l y at the u r g i n g of the v o t e r s from h i s constituency. 24.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , June 18, 1978. See a l s o : Gordon Means, M a l a y s i a n P o l i t i c s , (London: In a New N a t i o n , op. c i t . , p.226.  25.  S t r a i t s Budget, September 14, 1966, c i t e d i n M i c h a e l L e i g h , The R i s i n g Moon: P o l i t i c a l Development i n Sarawak. (Sydney: Sydney U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1974), p.104.  26. - Sarawak T r i b u n e , June 29,  1966.  See a l s o Footnotes  No.  55 and  56.  27.  I b i d . , August 9,  1967.  28.  I b i d . , J u l y 4,  1967.  29.  I b i d . , J u l y 3,  1967.  30.  The n o t i o n of s t a t e autonomy remained an o b j e c t i v e of the p a r t y u n t i l i t j o i n e d the government i n 1976. I t had always been seen as the u l t i m a t e t a r g e t , however, not n e c e s s a r i l y as an urgent g o a l which o v e r rides a l l others. The apparent case i n which Singapore was e j e c t e d from the f e d e r a t i o n i n 1965 was p r o b a b l y not l o s t on Ningkan. In s t a n d i n g up t o the f e d e r a l government he may have wished to have Sarawak e j e c t e d from the f e d e r a t i o n .  31.  See Report of the Commission of E n q u i r y , N o r t h Borneo and Sarawak, Lord Cobbold, chairman (Kuching, Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962), p.18. SNAP's view t h a t Sarawak s h o u l d be f r e e t o withdraw from Malays i a was shared by Temenggong Jugah who even submitted a p e r s o n a l memorandum to the Cobbold Commission. See, f o r i n s t a n c e , Sarawak T r i b u n e , March 20, 1962.  32.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  33.  Ibid.  34.  The "Bangkok Agreement" which i s f o r m a l l y known as The Agreement t o N o r m a l i s e R e l a t i o n s Between the R e p u b l i c of I n d o n e s i a and Singapore ended the p e r i o d of c o n f r o n t a t i o n between the two c o u n t r i e s . Article I of the Agreement s t a t e s i n f u l l : "The Government of M a l a y s i a i n o r d e r to r e s o l v e the problems between the two' c o u n t r i e s a r i s i n g out of the f o r m a t i o n of M a l a y s i a , agree t o a f f o r d the people of Sabah and Sarawak who a r e d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d , an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e a f f i r m , as soon as p r a c t i c a b l e , i n a f r e e and democratic manner through General E l e c t i o n , t h e i r p r e v i o u s d e c i s i o n about t h e i r s t a t u s i n M a l a y s i a . " See F r a n k l i n B. W e i n s t e i n , Indonesia Abandons C o n f r o n t a t i o n : An I n q u i r y i n t o the F u n c t i o n s of Indonesian F o r e i g n P o l i c y ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), pp.93-94.  September 14,  1966.  159 35.  M a l a y s i a , A t t o r n e y General's Chambers, The F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n , (Kuala Lumpur: Government P r i n t e r , 1963), p.94. See a l s o : R.S. M i l n e and Diane K. Mauzy, P o l i t i c s and Government i n M a l a y s i a , (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia P r e s s , 1978), p.43; Harry E. Groves, The C o n s t i t u t i o n of M a l a y s i a (Singapore: Malaysia Publications Ltd., 1964), p.222.  36.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , September 16,  37.  I b i d . , September 20,  38.  The M i n i s t e r s p e c i f i c a l l y accused SNAP of t r y i n g t o work out an a l l i a n c e w i t h the SUPP, which had never accepted M a l a y s i a . Ibid., July 5, 1967. D u r i n g the e l e c t i o n campaign i n 1969, the l e a d e r s of P a r t y Pesaka claimed t h a t SNAP's e x e c u t i v e s had not d e c l a r e d t h e i r " u n e q u i v o c a l s u p p o r t " f o r M a l a y s i a , ( i b i d . , May 4, 1969).  39.  Given SNAP's a s p i r a t i o n f o r an independent Sarawak, t h e r e was no doubt t h a t had the f e d e r a l government f o r c e d Sarawak out of M a l a y s i a as i t d i d w i t h Singapore, the p a r t y would have consented.  40.  On the r o l e of the f e d e r a l government and i t s major o p e r a t i v e Syed Kechik i n s t a g i n g the d e c l a r a t i o n of the Emergency and Ningkan's subsequent d o w n f a l l , see Bruce Ross-Larson, The P o l i t i c s of F e d e r a l i s m : Syed Kechik i n East M a l a y s i a (Singapore: by the a u t h o r , 195-b Penang Road, Singapore 9, 1976), pp.34-53. The S t a t e of Emergency was p r o claimed under A r t i c l e 150 of the F e d e r a l C o n s t i t u t i o n (R.S. M i l n e and Diane K. Maiizy, P o l i t i c s and Government i n M a l a y s i a , op. c i t . , p.42.  41.  S e v e r a l sources c l a i m t h a t the demonstration was stage-managed i n order t h a t a s t a t e of emergency may be d e c l a r e d . There i s no c o n c l u s i v e evidence to c o r r o b o r a t e t h i s a l l e g a t i o n .  42.  A c c o r d i n g to the p a r t y ' s argument, Sarawak j o i n e d M a l a y s i a on the unders t a n d i n g t h a t o n l y Sarawak c o u l d amend the Sarawak C o n s t i t u t i o n . (Sarawak T r i b u n e , September 20, 1966.)  43.  SNAP used the s l o g a n to s t i r up support. The audience i n t h i s i n s t a n c e was l a r g e l y Malay; the o c c a s i o n was the opening of a p a r t y branch — the I k a t a n Tujoh Branch. I t s membership was l a r g e l y Malay ( i b i d . , May 1, 1967).  44.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , A p r i l 19,  45.  The P a r t y c o n t i n u e d : "Sarawak's i d e n t i t y must be p r e s e r v e d a t a l l c o s t s ... l e t no one i n c l u d i n g the f e d e r a l government deny us of ( s i c ) t h i s h e r i t a g e . " (Sarawak T r i b u n e , A p r i l 19, 1967.)  46.  I b i d . , May  47.  I b i d . , J u l y 6,  1,  1967. 1967.  1966.  1966.  1967.  160 48.  Ningkan was not alone i n h i s stand i n favour of m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m . Bef o r e the o u s t e r of Singapore from the f e d e r a t i o n , i t s Prime M i n i s t e r , Lee Kuan Yew, a s t r o n g proponent of a "Malaysian M a l a y s i a " i n which n e i t h e r the n a t i o n nor the s t a t e would be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h or d e f i n e d by any p a r t i c u l a r communal group. A s i m i l a r v i e w p o i n t was h e l d by Donald Stephens, Sabah's f i r s t C h i e f M i n i s t e r . See f o r i n s t a n c e : Nancy F l e t c h e r , The S e p a r a t i o n of Singapore from M a l a y s i a ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1969), p.58; Margaret R o f f , "The R i s e and Demise of Kadazan N a t i o n a l i s m , " J o u r n a l of Southeast A s i a n H i s t o r y , V o l . 10, No. 2 (September 1969), p.338.  49.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  50  I b i d . , A p r i l 19,  51.  I b i d . , May  52.  See  53.  S e c t i o n 21(3) of the Sarawak C o n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e s t h a t the C o u n c i l N e g r i has a maximum l i f e of f i v e years f o l l o w i n g i t s e l e c t i o n . Since the l a s t G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n s were completed i n J u l y 1963 and the r e c o n s t i t u t e d C o u n c i l N e g r i f i r s t s a t i n August of the same year, i t f o l l o w s t h a t the l a t e s t time f o r a G e n e r a l E l e c t i o n t o be h e l d was August 1968. See Great B r i t a i n , M a l a y s i a : Agreement Concluded Between the U n i t e d Kingdom of Great B r i t a i n and N o r t h e r n I r e l a n d , the F e d e r a t i o n of Malaya, N o r t h Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore (London: Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1963).  54.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  55.  I b i d . , June 7,  56.  Sarawak T r i b u n e ,  57.  Ibid.  58.  A f t e r SNAP's w i t h d r a w a l from the Sarawak A l l i a n c e i n 1966, p a r t y l e a d e r s , l e d by Ningkan, r e s o l v e d t h a t SNAP would contest the e l e c t i o n s on i t s own. O v e r t u r e s from the Sarawak A l l i a n c e t h a t c o u l d have l e d to the p a r t y ' s r e t u r n were t h e r e f o r e c o n s i s t e n t l y r e b u f f e d . See, f o r i n s t a n c e , i b i d . , June 7, 1967.  59.  I b i d . , September 29,  60.  I b i d . , January 14,  61.  Ningkan was q u i c k t o t r y and e x p l o i t apparent d i s u n i t y w i t h i n the Sarawak A l l i a n c e . For i n s t a n c e , when the A l l i a n c e was t h r e a t e n e d w i t h a r i f t f o l l o w i n g Temenggong Jugah's open complaint t h a t b i a s i n the a l l o t m e n t of development p r o j e c t s by P a r t i Bumiputera's m i n i s t e r s r e s u l t e d i n the Dayaks b e i n g denied t h e i r f a i r share, Ningkan promptly showed h i s support of the Temenggong's p o s i t i o n . D e c l a r i n g t h a t SNAP  1,  May  15,  1967.  1967.  1967.  Chapter E i g h t f o r an account of SNAP's expansion and  March 4,  performance.  1967.  1967. October 6,  1968.  1968. 1969.  161 would not r e j o i n the Sarawak A l l i a n c e , Ningkan made i t obvious t h a t he would welcome c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h Pesaka.. ( I b i d . , October 28, 1967.) 62.  Ibid.  63.  I n t h i s SNAP was s u c c e s s f u l . A f t e r the 1970 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s , Pesaka's l e a d e r s such as Thomas Kana and Temenggong Jugah i n d i c a t e d t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r an a l l i a n c e w i t h SNAP. However, they were una b l e t o e n f o r c e d i s c i p l i n e w i t h i n t h e i r own p a r t y . As a r e s u l t , def e c t i o n s t o the P a r t i Bumiputera camp e v e n t u a l l y ended i n the Pesaka r e j o i n i n g the new government l e d by P a r t i Bumiputera.  64.  Sarawak T r i b u n e , January 6,  1969.  162  CHAPTER VII  THE  RE-EMERGENCE OF ETHNIC NATIONALISM  Introduction T h i s chapter  seeks to e s t a b l i s h the f a c t o r s which determined  the r e v i v a l of SNAP's e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s m . the d e b a c l e of 1970, and  when SNAP was  the e f f e c t which i t had  First  excluded from the r u l i n g  s t a t e development, and  This  and w i l l c e n t r e on  the acceptance of the n a t i o n a l M a l a y s i a n  b u i l d i n g and  is  coalition,  on the a t t i t u d e of p a r t y l e a d e r s .  i s f o l l o w e d by an examination of s t a t e p o l i t i c s themes:  t o be d i s c u s s e d  two  approach to n a t i o n  SNAP's response t o the  evident  e m a s c u l a t i o n of Dayak l e a d e r s i n the Sarawak C o a l i t i o n Government (SCG).  L a s t l y , the chapter  Nasional  and  e x p l a i n how  was  consistent with  The  Debacle of The  to SNAP.  w i l l c h r o n i c l e the f o r m a t i o n  SNAP's subsequent e n t r y  the r e a d o p t i o n  Barisan  i n t o the government  r  of i t s Dayak n a t i v e  nationalism.  1970  outcome of the 1970 Hoping t o a c h i e v e  seven c a n d i d a t e s  of  g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s was  a simple  majority,  a disappointment  i t had  fielded  i n the f o r t y - e i g h t s t a t e c o n s t i t u e n c i e s and  t h r e e of the a v a i l a b l e twenty-four p a r l i a m e n t a r y  seats.  The  forty-  twentyoutcome  163  was t h e r e f o r e To  something  of a let-down,  be i n t h e government, t h e p a r t y SNAP was c l e a r l y  At  one p o i n t  pathy  of close  of P a r t i  alliance  f r o m SNAP's p r o v i n c i a l strong  evidence  seats.  coalition.  o f t h e new  administration. would  B u m i p u t e r a , whose l e a d e r s ' m u t u a l  anti-  with  Further,  P a r t i Bumiputera had a  t h e f e d e r a l government w h i c h ,  outlook,  was a s e r i o u s  suggested  leaders  that  fault.  aspired  they would  I t was  t o be p a r t  co-operate  seen therefore o f t h e new  even  with  Bumiputera. What  Chinese  SNAP  r e a l l y w a n t e d was a D a y a k - b a s e d  support.  which would but  a  twelve  government,"'" w h i c h  o f how much SNAP  g o v e r n m e n t when t h e y  have t o j o i n  an a l l - p a r t y  f o r N i n g k a n was w e l l known.  history  Parti  would  e a g e r t o become a p a r t  i t even proposed  mean t h e i n c l u s i o n  f o r SNAP won o n l y  small  That  have been  i s , i tpreferred sufficient  enough t o e x c l u d e  Bumiputera.  Negotiations  representatives  from  SNAP  a SNAP-Pesaka-SUPP  f o r a majority  the chauvanistic  to t h i s  government  alliance,  i n the Council  Negri  and M a l a y - d o m i n a t e d  end were a p p a r e n t l y  and P e s a k a d u l y  with  gathered  Parti  s u c c e s s f u l and  a t Temenggong  2 Jugah's house on J u l y Governor's Astana  7  before  t o announce  Unknown t o t h e l e a d e r s of  Pesaka as w e l l , w h i l e  proceeding  that  of P a r t i  on group  Bumiputera  had formed  river  to the  a government.  o f SNAP, a n d e v i d e n t l y  SNAP, a n o t h e r was a t t h e t a i l - e n d leaders  they  across  t o J u g a h and Kana  o f t h e SUPP was h o l d i n g of a bargaining  and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  talks  with  session with the  of the federal  164  government.  At t h a t time the SUPP was needed by both SNAP and i t s  r i v a l , P a r t i Bumiputera. whether  That i s , f o r the SUPP the q u e s t i o n was not  i t would be i n the next government  p r e f e r r e d as a p a r t n e r .  but r a t h e r which p a r t y i t  I t s c h o i c e was P a r t i Bumiputera, p r i m a r i l y  because i t had " r e s e r v a t i o n s about a SUPP-SNAP-Pesaka  government...."  I t had a l s o been antagonised by the c o o l n e s s which SNAP had shown towards i t s o v e r t u r e s f o r working t o g e t h e r d u r i n g the 1966 c a b i n e t c r i s i s , and to p o s s i b l e arrangements f o r t h e two p a r t i e s not opposing each o t h e r d u r i n g t h e 1969-1970 e l e c t i o n s .... Furthermore, i f the o n l y Malay p a r t y was e x c l u d e d , might t h e r e n o t be a f e a r of Malay violence?^ These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and o t h e r s , persuaded t h e SUPP to a l l y w i t h P a r t i Bumiputera, w i t h the SCA as a j u n i o r p a r t n e r . combined  s t r e n g t h was  itself  Their  26, j u s t enough t o c o n s t i t u t e the m a j o r i t y ,  a l t h o u g h i t l a c k e d Dayak r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . the f e d e r a l government  A s s i s t e d by a worker from  and l e d by the P a r t i Bumiputera, the  new  4 group immediately sought t o r e d r e s s t h i s shortcoming. From P a r t i Bumiputera's p o i n t of view, Pesaka was p r e f e r a b l e to SNAP, i f o n l y because Pesaka was  clearly  a l r e a d y i n the  A l l i a n c e and i t s l e a d e r s had a more s a t i s f a c t o r y working r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r counterparts  i n P a r t i Bumiputera.  The problem was  that  Pesaka d i d not c o n s i d e r i t s membership i n the o l d Sarawak A l l i a n c e b i n d i n g on i t s p o s t - e l e c t i o n a l i g n m e n t .  Had  have c o u r t e d SNAP and SUPP so a s s i d u o u s l y .  i t done so i t would not B e s i d e s , the prime  165  t a c t i c i a n f o r Pesaka, Thomas Kana, n o t o n l y o b j e c t e d  t o Bumiputera  l e a d e r as the C h i e f M i n i s t e r but a s p i r e d t o t h e post h i m s e l f .  The  problems of Pesaka's r e c a l c i t r a n c e and Dayak r e p r e s e n t a t i o n d i d not endure, however, f o r when Pesaka e x h i b i t e d s i g n s of o b s t i n a c y , Bumiputera simply  bypassed i t s top echelon  e l e c t e d members on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s .  and approached  was awarded  o f t h e government.  a cabinet portfolio."'  Pesaka's  One such member, Penghulu  Abok J a l i n o f B i n t u l u , was ensnared on J u l y 7, j u s t announcement o f t h e f o r m a t i o n  Parti  i n time f o r t h e  F o r h i s t r o u b l e he  Faced w i t h breaches of d i s c i p l i n e  and f u r t h e r d i s a r r a y w i t h i n i t s r a n k s , Pesaka c a p i t u l a t e d and on J u l y 8, Temenggong Jugah announced  that  P a r t y Pesaka i s d e f i n i t e l y w i t h i n the A l l i a n c e and f u l l y s u p p o r t s the C o a l i t i o n Government headed by the new C h i e f M i n i s t e r , Datuk P a t t i n g g i H a j i Rahman Yakub. 6  W i t h Pesaka i n , t h e problem o f Dayak r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was s o l v e d and SNAP once again became odd p a r t y o u t . The f a i l u r e o f a SNAP-Supp c o a l i t i o n to m a t e r i a l i s e had two important consequences.  F i r s t , t h e " d e f e c t i o n " o f t h e SUPP  e f f e c t i v e l y undercut Ningkan's  s t r a t e g y f o r c o a l i t i o n , which was a l s o  to i n c l u d e b o t h Pesaka and t h e SCA. t h e i r party's  e x c l u s i o n from t h e c o a l i t i o n was n e e d l e s s .  was i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f b e i n g wanted a c o a l i t i o n partner. while  I n the o p i n i o n of SNAP's l e a d e r s , The SUPP  by both SNAP and Bumiputera as  The d i f f e r e n c e between the two was t h a t  SNAP consented t o have Bumiputera i n an a l l - p a r t y  coalition,  166  Bumiputera r e f u s e d t o have SNAP as a p a r t n e r .  I n o t h e r words, had  the SUPP chosen SNAP the r e s u l t would have been a f i v e - p a r t y government composed of SNAP, Pesaka, SUPP, Bumiputera and SCA.  As i t was  the SUPP's c h o i c e o f Bumiputera ended i n o n l y a f o u r - p a r t y government: SNAP was kept out o f the c o a l i t i o n .  SUPP's c h o i c e of P a r t i Bumiputera  t h e r e f o r e l e d t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f SNAP from the government. the d o u b l e - c r o s s The  Further,  o f J u l y added a good measure o f p e r s o n a l h u m i l i a t i o n .  top l e a d e r s of SNAP and Pesaka had donned f o r m a l  meeting the Governor t o announce t h e f o r m a t i o n  a t t i r e p r i o r to  of t h e i r  "government".  When, t h e r e f o r e , they were informed  t h a t t h e SUPP had reneged on  t h e i r v e r b a l commitment o f s u p p o r t ,  they were n a t u r a l l y enraged.  As  Ningkan m i l d l y out i t , E v e r y t h i n g was agreed on J u l y 6.... I am s u r p r i s e d and sad t o see t h e SUPP l e a d e r s changing t h e i r s t a n d . 7  U n l i k e t h e SCA and Pesaka l e a d e r s , whose c o n s o l a t i o n was to become p a r t of t h e new c o a l i t i o n — a l t h o u g h t h e SCA d i d not have any c a b i n e t s e a t s — S N A P ' s c h i e f s were t o remain i s o l a t e d and without O p p o s i t i o n Members o f t h e C o u n c i l N e g r i .  That i s , t h e opportunism  of t h e SUPP l e a d e r s , which put SNAP a t a disadvantage, SUPP l e a d e r s the l a s t i n g enmity o f t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s To r e c a p i t u l a t e , i t should  power as  be p o i n t e d  out-manoevered i n i t s b i d f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n  earned the i n SNAP.  out t h a t SNAP had been i n government; i t s  " t e r r i t o r i a l n a t i o n a l i s t " s t r a t e g y f o r an a n t i - f e d e r a l f r o n t l a y i n  167  shambles a f t e r t h e unexpected w i t h d r a w a l of t h e SUPP. importance was the e m b i t t e r e d and  i t s Chinese c h i e f s .  SNAP's e x e c u t i v e s  Of e q u a l  a t t i t u d e o f i t s l e a d e r s toward t h e SUPP  A major consequence o f the c o n v i c t i o n o f  t h a t t h e SUPP l e a d e r s h i p c o u l d not be r e l i e d upon  was the re-emergence o f e t h n i c i t y as t h e s a l i e n t n a t i o n a l i s m . should be p o i n t e d out t h a t a l t h o u g h  It  SNAP's m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m was  g r a d u a l l y de-emphasised, SNAP d i d not abandon i t s m u l t i - r a c i a l membership.  I f anything,  encouraged t h e p a r t y  SNAP's antagonism to t h e SUPP g r e a t l y  (SNAP) t o woo s u p p o r t e r s  away from t h e SUPP.  For i n s t a n c e , p o s s i b l e d e f e c t i o n s t o SNAP from t h e SUPP were those p a r t y members who were opposed t o t h e i r l e a d e r s f o r g i v i n g up t h e r o l e as o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y .  As t h e o n l y remaining  was i n a good p o s i t i o n t o p i c k up those mainly C h i n e s e — f r o m the SUPP. to a t t r a c t  o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y , SNAP  d i s g r u n t l e d v o t e r s — w h o were  I f t h i s were t r u e , and SNAP was a b l e  Chinese v o t e r s , then the p a r t y ' s performance i n the 1964  g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n would show an i n c r e a s e o f Chinese s u p p o r t e r s f o r SNAP.  8  During  the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g t h e 1970 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n , SNAP  t r i e d t o modify i t s m u l t i - r a c i a l approach.  Up t o 1970 the  fundamental purpose o f i t s n a t i o n a l i s m was p a r t y - b u i l d i n g , which was n e c e s s a r y control.  i f SNAP was to be a , s e r i o u s  contender f o r p o l i t i c a l  SNAP's l e a d e r s made a d r o i t use o f t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h  the f e d e r a l government and t h e r e s u l t i n g acrimonious r e l a t i o n s h i p  168  was i n t e r p r e t e d by the p a r t y as defence o f s t a t e r i g h t s and Dayak a s p i r a t i o n s a g a i n s t the c e n t r i p e t a l t e n d e n c i e s government. had  That i s , b e f o r e  and d u r i n g t h e 1970 g e n e r a l  r e l i e d on Sarawak n a t i o n a l i s m t o a t t r a c t  n a t i o n a l i s m was i t s a n t i - f e d e r a l sentiment. had  two n e g a t i v e  of the f e d e r a l  consequences.  support,  and p a r t o f t h i s  However, t h i s  I t may have s t i m u l a t e d  n a t i o n a l i s m and awakened Dayak s e l f - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and but  e l e c t i o n SNAP  strategy  Sarawak consciousness,  i t a l s o earned SNAP ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s l e a d e r , Datuk Ningkan) t h e  h o s t i l i t y o f the f e d e r a l government.  As the r e s u l t s of t h e events  f o l l o w i n g t h e 1970 g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n showed, f e d e r a l d i s f a v o u r u l t i m a t e l y worked a g a i n s t SNAP.  Following  the 1970 e l e c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , SNAP  g r a d u a l l y sought t o modify i t s a n t i - f e d e r a l image i n an attempt t o g a i n acceptance.  F u r t h e r , t h e p a r t y broadened i t s a t t e n t i o n from  p u r e l y Sarawakian a f f a i r s t o M a l a y s i a n  concerns.  v i r u l e n t a t t a c k s on the f e d e r a l government b e f o r e  In contrast to i t s o r d u r i n g the  g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s , i t s c r i t i c i s m s a f t e r the p o l l s were muted, even conciliatory.  F o r i n s t a n c e , on September 9, 1970, t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e  p a r t y l e t i t be known t h a t SNAP supported t h e n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g y , the 9 Rukunegara,  an i n t i m a t i o n which suggested t h a t SNAP hoped t o put t o  r e s t , however t e m p o r a r i l y , The  t h e charge t h a t i t was a s e p a r a t i s t p a r t y .  m o d i f i c a t i o n o f i t s m u l t i - r a c i a l approach a l s o became e v i d e n t i n  March 1971 d u r i n g t h e passage o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n (Amendment) B i l l of 1971.  From t h e Dayak p e r s p e c t i v e , t h e most important p a r t s of  169  the l e g i s l a t i o n were the amendments to A r t i c l e s 153 which made the n a t i v e s of Borneo equal  and 161A"'"'"'  i n s t a t u s to the Malays.  supported the Government when the v o t e was  SNAP  taken on the C o n s t i t u t i o n  (Amendment) Bill."'""'" Not  a l l of SNAP's a c t i v i t i e s were a p p a r e n t l y  toward the C e n t r a l Government.  For  as d e f e r e n t i a l  i n s t a n c e , i n a move which appeared  to be d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t the Government, i t sought c l o s e r c o n t a c t  with  12 other o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s . consider  a "united f r o n t " i n order  co-operation considered now it  For a moment i t was  to  to e s t a b l i s h a common ground f o r  between the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s .  such a " f r o n t " ought not  even w i l l i n g  The  f a c t t h a t SNAP  be taken as a s i g n that SNAP  more h o s t i l e to the C e n t r a l Government than b e f o r e .  was  Rather,  s h o u l d be seen as an attempt by the p a r t y to see whether such a  c o l l a b o r a t i o n could  serve  the Dayaks b e t t e r .  agreements c o u l d be reached and  As  i t was,  no p o l i c y  the proposed " u n i t e d f r o n t " f a i l e d  to m a t e r i a l i s e . The  other  consequence was  and Pesaka s u p p o r t e r s , which was  the s p l i t  l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of  r i v a l r i e s and p o l i c y disagreements. Pesaka favoured the support  among the Dayaks i n t o SNAP  B a s i c a l l y , before  n a t i v e u n i t y based on Malay and  personal 1970,  while  Dayak s o l i d a r i t y  with  of the C e n t r a l Government, SNAP wanted a m u l t i - e t h n i c  c o a l i t i o n under a s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , namely SNAP i t s e l f .  With  t h e i r l e a d e r s u n a b l e t o agree on t h i s i s s u e or work t o g e t h e r ,  Dayak  170  disunity persisted.  The i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s p l i t  f o r SNAP i s examined  below.  State  Politics I t was, n o t remarkably, i n Sarawak t h a t changing c o n d i t i o n s had  a more d i r e c t  and immediate impact on the f o r t u n e s of t h e p a r t y .  First,  the r u l i n g c o a l i t i o n government had begun to encourage d e f e c t i o n s from SNAP.  As a r e s u l t o f government p r e s s u r e  and e n t i c e m e n t s , some  13 d e f e c t i o n s d i d occur.  The most n o t a b l e were t h e p o l i t i c i a n s :  in  May 1971, two o f SNAP's members i n the C o u n c i l N e g r i , Kundai Ngareng and Ngelambong Bangau, c r o s s e d t h e f l o o r t o j o i n Pesaka; l a t e r an Iban Member o f P a r l i a m e n t ,  f o u r months  Penghulu A b i t , f o l l o w e d  suit i n  14 the Dewan Ra'ayat.  By t h e end of 1971 i t appeared t h a t Pesaka  was s u c c e s s f u l l y u t i l i s i n g ment and was b e g i n n i n g never p u b l i s h e d — f r o m  i t s p o s i t i o n as the Dayak p a r t y i n govern-  to a t t r a c t Dayak members—the a c t u a l number was SNAP, which saw l i t t l e  i n c o n t i n u i n g t o support  SNAP i n o p p o s i t i o n .  o p p o r t u n i t i e s o r rewards The morale of SNAP's  l e a d e r s at. t h i s time was so low, i t was a l l e g e d , t h a t they were prepared  t o " c l u t c h at any s t r a w " ^ t o prove t h a t they m e r i t e d t h e  c o n t i n u i n g support  o f p a r t y members.  I t would appear t h a t  from 1971 t h e government had some success SNAP.  Conceivably,  continued.  beginning  i n c a u s i n g d e f e c t i o n s from  c e t e r i s p a r i b u s , t h i s t r e n d would l i k e l y have  171  However, other v a r i a b l e s d i d n o t remain c o n s t a n t , f o r by March 1972,  the s i t u a t i o n i n Sarawak had begun to change, something which  u l t i m a t e l y worked  i n SNAP's f a v o u r .  I n a move d e s i g n e d t o f o r g e  n a t i v e u n i t y , P a r t i Bumiputera and Pesaka announced merge i n t o a s i n g l e o r g a n i s a t i o n .  The  t h a t they would  concept o f such a merger was  f i r s t mooted i n 1968, a l t h o u g h t h e o r i g i n o f Pesaka-Bumiputera a l l i a n c e c o u l d be t r a c e d back t o t h e 1965 a b o r t i v e " N a t i v e A l l i a n c e " . The prime movers a p p a r e n t l y belonged t o t h e P a r t i Bumiputera; s i n c e i n 1968 Pesaka was s t i l l  but  c o n s i d e r i n g some form o f Dayak-based  16 c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h SNAP, progress.  P a r t i - B u m i p u t e r a ' s o v e r t u r e made no  By 1970, i n t h e p e r i o d immediately a f t e r t h e g e n e r a l  e l e c t i o n s , Pesaka was i n f a c t working toward an a l l i a n c e w i t h SNAP and SUPP and o n l y moved back t o the c o a l i t i o n government e f f o r t was undermined.  Subsequently, t h e i d e a o f a Pesaka-Bumiputera  merger was again r e v i v e d and by September in."^  when t h i s '  1972 Pesaka f i n a l l y  gave  E a r l y i n 1973 t h e two p a r t i e s merged t o become t h e Pesaka-  Bumiputera B e r s a t u  (PBB).  The merger between t h e two p a r t i e s was an important phase i n the p o l i t i c a l development  of the state:  a l i g n Sarawak p a r t i e s along e t h n i c l i n e s .  i t represented a trend to I n the case o f t h e PBB  the alignment meant t h e f u s i o n o f two n a t i v e p a r t i e s i n the Sarawak S t a t e Government.  The Iban-based Pesaka symbolised Dayak p a r t i c i p a t i o n  w h i l e t h e P a r t i Bumiputera r e p r e s e n t e d t h e Malay-Melanau  group.  In  172  as f a r as the two  communal p a r t i e s were u n i t e d to e f f e c t  s o l i d a r i t y , i t c o u l d be  s a i d t h a t e t h n i c i t y i n t h i s case was  l e v e l above communalism. was  t h a t the n a t i v e s  a s p i r a t i o n s and Yet  The  r a t i o n a l e f o r the e x i s t e n c e  (Malays and  the  of the  PBB  i n t e r e s t s which r e q u i r e d t h e i r common s o l i d a r i t y . differences—language,  r e l i g i o n , customs, and t r a d i t i o n — w h i c h the two  p a r t i e s sought to  Indeed, about the o n l y a r e a s on which the two  c o u l d be expected t o agree were the p r i n c i p l e of n a t i v e and  at  Dayaks), or Bumiputeras, had c e r t a i n  i n r e a l i t y there, were important b a s i c  represent.  native  t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n to some Chinese t r a d e r s and  groups  privileges,  businessmen.  Even here  18 t h e r e was  no  t o t a l agreement.  p a r t s were g r e a t e r than the sum. was  C l e a r l y , f o r the Bumiputeras In t h i s sense, " n a t i v e "  a c o n t r i v e d d e v e l o p m e n t — a n example of e t h n i c i t y the  of which f o r t h a t time was political  to prop up  the  solidarity objective  a c o n v e n i e n t u n i o n of  two  leaderships.  The major p o i n t which should  be made i s t h a t the merger  c o n s o l i d a t e d the primacy of the Muslim (Malay-Melanau) group. pre-eminence i n the PBB i n s t a n c e , i t was  was  Jugah, w h i l e  from the v e r y b e g i n n i n g .  P a r t i Bumiputera which i n i t i a t e d  i n the e l e c t i o n s of the PBB of P r e s i d e n t was  evident  executive  Muslim For  the merger.  p o s i t i o n s , the symbolic  Also post  awarded t o the c o n g e n i a l , but uneducated, Temenggong  the important o f f i c e of S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l  Datuk P a t i n g g i Abdul Rahman Yakub.  belong t o  H i s nephew, Datuk Amar T a i b  173  Mahmud, was post and  and  Vice-President.  Datuk P a t i n g g i Abdul Rahman Yakub's  h i s Chief M i n i s t e r s h i p t e s t i f i e d  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was With the f o r m a t i o n  reduced to t h r e e :  PBB,  to the f a c t t h a t the  PBB  dominated by Muslims. of PBB,  SUPP, and  the governing p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s were SCA.  The  l a t t e r two  were predomin20  a n t l y Chinese and u n t i l J u l y 1974  e x i s t e d as separate  T h i s f o r m a l d i v i s i o n among ,the Chinese d i d not common experience t h a t the two the two  p a r t i e s would o n l y be  co-operation.  The  Chinese p a r t y was  1974,  SCA,  Indeed, the u n i f i c a t i o n  general  elections,  As the date drew n e a r e r ,  the Chinese p a r t i e s i n t o one o r g a n i s a t i o n . 21 was  dissolved.  however, were s p l i t  Party  on t h e i r new  Datuk C h i a Chin S h i n , were admitted to the SUPP.  Bing  Others,  camp, sought  Prominent among t h e s e were Cheng Yew  T i n g Ming K i o n g , whose e n t r y was  Kiew  f a c i l i t a t e d . b y t h e i r conversion  With the b r e a k i n g  were brought under a s i n g l e o r g a n i s a t i o n ;  up  of the SCA The  now  The  such as Datuk L i n g  g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the Bumiputera  the I s l a m i c r e l i g i o n .  In J u l y  affiliations.  Siong  membership i n the PBB.  increased  l e a d e r s of the  i n c l u d i n g the most prominent men  sensing  of  scheduled  pressure  majority, and  evidence  r e c o g n i t i o n of e x i s t i n g Chinese  the coming of the 1974  the much weaker SCA  defunct  a formal  convincing  Their  immediate impetus f o r a move toward a s i n g l e  f o r the month of August. to s t r e a m l i n e  endure, however.  i n the C o a l i t i o n Government was  groups c o u l d work t o g e t h e r .  organisations.  the  to  Chinese  Sarawak C o a l i t i o n  and  174  Government  (SCG) and i t s s u c c e s s o r  thus dichotomised Until  t h e Sarawak S t a t e Government  were  i n t o n a t i v e and n o n - n a t i v e p a r t i e s .  1979 the new C h i e f M i n i s t e r , Datuk Rahman Yakub, had a  long and amicable p e r s o n a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e f e d e r a l government.  For i n s t a n c e , i t was f e d e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s who t r i e d (and f a i l e d ) t o make him  C h i e f M i n i s t e r i n 1963.  the same year he served  Following h i s defeat  a t the p o l l s  during  at t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l , h o l d i n g such v a r i e d  p o s t s as A s s i s t a n t M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l and R u r a l Development, A s s i s t a n t M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e , and f i n a l l y M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n , b e f o r e h i s r e s i g n a t i o n i n 1970 t o become Sarawak's C h i e f M i n i s t e r . During  h i s s t i n t i n f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s , he was a major f i g u r e as an  a r c h i t e c t o f Malay dominance and as the c o n d u i t  of i n f o r m a t i o n on  22 Sarawak. S i n c e h i s assumption o f power made i t c l e a r t h a t he intended  i n 1970, Abdul Rahman Yakub had  t o spearhead t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f Sarawak  i n t o t h e f e d e r a l framework. He e x p l a i n e d t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m was an " i d e o l o g y to u n i t e us M a l a y s i a n s . I t transcend/ecL? r a c i a l o r i g i n s [and] r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s . . . . • Unless  we regard o u r s e l v e s  f i r s t and 23  foremost as M a l a y s i a n s . . . t h i s country  will disintegrate."  Not  s u r p r i s i n g l y , h i s government approved of t h e e f f o r t by the C e n t r a l Government t o b u i l d Sarawak along i t s own f e d e r a l n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g programme.  I t co-operated  w i t h the C e n t r a l Government when the l a t t e r ,  i n the p u r s u i t o f n a t i o n a l s o l i d a r i t y , c a l l e d f o r the development  175  of a " n a t i v e based" c u l t u r e and  of " n a t i o n a l u n i t y through Bahasa 24  Malaysia",  the N a t i o n a l Language.  While the theme of n a t i o n a l  s o l i d a r i t y o r i g i n a t e d w i t h the C e n t r a l Government, and w i t h i n i t was it.  the Rahman Yakub government which was  The  charged w i t h  Sarawak,  implementing  s t r o n g - w i l l e d C h i e f M i n i s t e r , u n l i k e Ningkan, enjoyed the  support of f e d e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s , and s t a t e - c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s who,  he tended to overshadow h i s  own  because they were i n government, were  regarded as communal r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . M i n i s t e r was  full  a b l e to advocate and  To the degree that the  Chief  execute p o l i c i e s which were p a r t i a l  towards the Malays then, t h i s would have demonstrated the l a c k of e f f e c t i v e n e s s on as e t h n i c  the p a r t of the Dayak or Chinese c a b i n e t  representatives.  The  Rahman Yakub government's p a r t i a l i t y may  a number of i t s a c t i v i t i e s . was  ministers  the r e l i g i o u s c o n v e r s i o n s  One  instance  be  illustrated  of t h i s p o l i c y  by  innovation  to the I s l a m r e l i g i o n among the  Dayaks  25 and  Chinese.  the p a r t y ' s  SNAP's concern f o r r e l i g i o u s freedom dated back t o i n c e p t i o n i n 1961.  But  f o r alarm, s i n c e both the Ningkan and  u n t i l 1970  Sarawak.  been no  cause  Tawi S l i governments adopted  a t o l e r a n t a t t i t u d e toward r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s . the new  t h e r e had  In 1970,  however,  government began to encourage Muslim p r o s e l y t i s i n g i n In response, SNAP l a r g e l y advocated a more t o l e r a n t approach.  I t i n s i s t e d that  i n Sarawak t h e r e  i t p r o t e s t e d what i t saw  should -be r e l i g i o u s freedom,  as maltreatment by the a u t h o r i t i e s of  and  176  26 Christian missionaries On  religion,  i n the Borneo s t a t e s of Sabah and  then, SNAP's p o s i t i o n was  Sarawak.  based on the p r i n c i p l e o f 27  religious toleration.  Here i t s p l a t f o r m stood  as an a l t e r n a t i v e  the f i r e - a n d - b r i m s t o n e  e v a n g e l i s m of the M u s l i m - l e d  to  SCG.  Another example of a measure which f a v o u r e d the Malays and e l i c i t e d communal r e a c t i o n was u n i t y i n Sarawak.  In order  c a l l e d Sabrekas was  formed.  which  the government's attempt to f o s t e r youth  to a c h i e v e t h i s o b j e c t i v e , an  organisation  E x i s t i n g youth o r g a n i s a t i o n s ,  hundred i n t o t a l number, were i n v i t e d to "merge t h e i r  some f i v e  respective  28 organisations"  i n t o Sabrekas, a p p a r e n t l y  imposed t h e i r own the  dissolution.  Sarawak Youth C o u n c i l ,  a f t e r they had  S e v e r a l youth o r g a n i s a t i o n s ,  But  Dayak youth body, the Sarawak Dayak Youth A s s o c i a t i o n The  servants.  and  the o n l y major (SDYA) p o i n t e d l y  SDYA i s an o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r young Dayaks and  i t s members are c i v i l  notably  the Gabungan Kelab Malay.u Sarawak,  the Bidayuh Youth Club d i d merge w i t h Sabrekas.  refused.  conducted or  most o f  I t s r e f u s a l to j o i n Sabrekas  was  symptomatic o f the f e e l i n g of d i s t r u s t which i t s members f e l t  toward  the government.  (and  i t s successor,  anxiety  by  the Sarawak B a r i s a n N a s i o n a l 29  i n s t i t u t i n g f u r t h e r changes.  taken t o g e t h e r the  In t h i s p r e v a i l i n g mood of s u s p i c i o n the SCG /J5BN7 i n c r e a s e d  Dayak  When these p o l i c i e s  are  i t becomes obvious t h a t l i k e the Razak government at  federal level,  the Rahman Yakub government favoured the  Where the government a c t e d  Malays.  to l o o k a f t e r Dayak i n t e r e s t s , the  177  actual execution instance,  e l i c i t e d more apprehension than s a t i s f a c t i o n .  the M a j l i s Adat I s t i a d a t (MAI), was  at the s u g g e s t i o n  For  a government body  of Temenggong Jugah i n o r d e r  created  to modernise Dayak  30 customs and  laws.  But when i t was  Temenggong Jugah h i m s e l f , who,  finally  s i n c e he was  unable to understand the c o m p l e x i t i e s s t a n d a r d i s a t i o n of n a t i v e laws.  formed, MAI  was  p r e l i t e r a t e , was  l e d by clearly  i n v o l v e d i n the c o d i f i c a t i o n  Further,  s i n c e he had  and  e a r l i e r announced  h i s i n t e n t i o n to r e t i r e from p o l i t i c s , h i s appointment suggested a form of p o l i t i c a l  patronage and  the o f f i c e seemed to be a  sinecure.  Furthermore, the body's j u r i s d i c t i o n extended to the Malays and  there  was  s u s p i c i o n i n SNAP t h a t the o l d Temenggong would be unable to prevent the i n f u s i o n o f Malay customs and there was  laws i n t o the Dayak a r e n a .  That i s ,  concern t h a t Temenggong Jugah would r e a l l y be p r e s i d i n g over  the b e g i n n i n g  of the a s s i m i l a t i o n or " B u m i p u t e r i s a t i o n "  of the Dayaks.  Under the p r e v a i l i n g mood of Dayak s k e p t i c i s m , p u b l i c c o m p l a i n t s the Pesaka wing of the PBB helplessness. and  he was he  role  and  p e r s o n a l i t y , openly complained t h a t the Second  l a g g i n g behind o t h e r areas i n development a l l o c a t i o n s , 31  probably  corroborated  ineffectual.  demonstrated t h e i r d i m i n i s h i n g  Thus when Datuk Tawi S l i , the l a s t Dayak C h i e f M i n i s t e r  an important PBB  D i v i s i o n was  only  by  correct.  But  SNAP's c o n t e n t i o n  the i r o n y of the s i t u a t i o n was t h a t Dayak l e a d e r s h i p  Amid mounting c r i t i c i s m , Dayak l e a d e r s  t r i e d to defend the r e c o r d of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  that  i n the BN  i n the  was  government  Datuk A l f r e d Jabu,  178  the government l e a d e r i n the Second D i v i s i o n and  Deputy C h i e f  M i n i s t e r , attempted to d i s p e l c r i t i c i s m s  d i r e c t e d a t Sabrekas.  Temenggong Jugah, i n the middle  insisted  was  fair,  o f 1973,  a theme which h i s son, Leonard  t h a t the government  L i n g g i , the M i n i s t e r w i t h 32  S p e c i a l F u n c t i o n s , was was  to repeat at a l a t e r d a t e .  The  net  t h a t the Dayak group i n the government appeared more as  gists  f o r the Yakub a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and l e s s as e f f e c t i v e  result  apolo-  communal  representatives. I f t h i s were so, the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n of the Dayaks (and at the performance o f the C o a l i t i o n Government s h o u l d have itself  i n an i n c r e a s e of support  e l e c t i o n (1974). to be p o i n t e d o u t . content was  Before  f o r SNAP i n the next  discussing this election,  f e l t i n two ways.  totally autocratic,  F i r s t , a f t e r the debacle o f 19 70, I t was  as  Vice-Chairman  S e c r e t a r y - G e n e r a l o f the p a r t y r e s p e c t i v e l y , a l s o shared  But b e g i n n i n g from 1970, circle.  Two  not that  f o r i n a d d i t i o n to Ningkan h i m s e l f ,  o t h e r s such as Dato James Wong and Edmund Langgu who, and  f e a t u r e s need  o f Dayak d i s -  Ningkan's p e r s o n a l g r i p on the p a r t y began to l o o s e n . he was  manifested  general  two  W i t h i n SNAP the immediate impact  Chinese)  o t h e r f i g u r e s were drawn i n t o  power.  the i n n e r  o f these were Datuk Dunstan Endawie and Joseph B a l a n  Seling.  Datuk Endawie i s a v e t e r a n p o l i t i c i a n whose attachment to Dayak u n i t y i s w e l l known.  B a l a n S e l i n g i s a Kenyah from the Baram area  o f the F o u r t h D i v i s i o n .  He  i s a c l e r i c who  received his training i n  179  Australia.  In 1967  he  r e s i g n e d h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the Borneo  E v a n g e l i c a l Church i n o r d e r  to h e l p  to s e t up  SNAP's branch apparatus 33  in  the Baram, and  i n 1970  was  e l e c t e d to the C o u n c i l N e g r i .  The  o t h e r consequence o f Dayak d i s c o n t e n t which worked to SNAP's advantage was  the i n f l u x o f the Dayak i n t e l l i g e n t s i a i n t o the p a r t y .  SNAP  c e r t a i n l y d i d not monopolise the a l l e g i a n c e o f a l l educated Dayaks. Those who  u l t i m a t e l y j o i n e d the PBB  U l l o k and  Leonard L i n g g i , a l l u n i v e r s i t y graduates.  here was  t h a t SNAP i t s e l f ,  o p p o s i t i o n , was  were A l f r e d Jabu, Stephen What was  because o r .in s p i t e o f b e i n g  a b l e to a t t r a c t p r o m i s i n g  famous were D a n i e l Tajem and Leo  Moggie.  figures.  Wan  Two  important  i n the o f the most  D a n i e l Tajem i s an  Iban  from Sebuyau, Second D i v i s i o n .  He  Zealand and  the P r e s i d e n t o f the Sarawak Dayak  p r e s e n t l y serves  N a t i o n a l Union. on the eve his  M.A.  Leo  as  Moggie i s a T h i r d D i v i s i o n Iban who  o f the 1974  general  elections.  degree from the U n i v e r s i t y of New  1970's he s t u d i e d i n the U n i t e d Management.  l i t e r a t u r e Bureau.  He  Zealand.  l a t e r as  obtained  In the e a r l y  r e c e i v e d h i s M.B.A. i n  Service included a  stint  the D i r e c t o r o f the Borneo  a l s o worked i n the C h i e f M i n i s t e r ' s O f f i c e i n  P r i o r to h i s r e s i g n a t i o n i n 1974,  he had  been the Deputy 34  G e n e r a l Manager o f the Borneo Development C o r p o r a t i o n . was  New  j o i n e d SNAP  W e l l - e d u c a t e d , he  S t a t e s where he  H i s work i n the Sarawak C i v i l  as a D i s t r i c t O f f i c e r , and  Kuching.  received h i s l e g a l training i n  t h e r e f o r e an " i n s i d e r " i n the  Leo  Moggie  c o r r i d o r o f government b u r e a u c r a c y .  180  In e x p l a i n i n g h i s r e s i g n a t i o n from a p r o m i s i n g c a r e e r i n the C i v i l S e r v i c e , he made two o b s e r v a t i o n s which SNAP was to use i n i t s e l e c t i o n campaign. very l i t t l e  First,  the Dayaks ( t h e " r u r a l people")  from the implementation  F u r t h e r , i n a statement  had gained  o f the New Economic P o l i c y .  which seemed to t y p i f y  the Dayaks' a n t i -  a s s i m i l a t i o n mood o f the time, Moggie added t h a t :  "Malaysia i s a  m u l t i - r a c i a l n a t i o n , Sarawak i s a m u l t i - r a c i a l s t a t e .  No race s h o u l d  dominate o r attempt to dominate any o t h e r r a c e , i f the aim i s t o  35 u n i t e the p e o p l e . " and  Moggie's a t t a c k on the government's economic  c u l t u r a l p o l i c i e s was o n l y a p r e l u d e  mounted l a t e r d u r i n g the e l e c t i o n  to those which p a r t y workers  campaign.  E l e c t i o n M a n i f e s t o , 19 74  36 From i t s M a n i f e s t o  o f August 14, 1974, i t was c l e a r t h a t SNAP  i n p r e s e n t i n g i t s view was s t r i v i n g f o r c o n s i s t e n c y .  S e v e r a l major  p o i n t s were c o n t e n t i o u s and w i t h which the p a r t y was i d e n t i f i e d were r e i t e r a t e d by SNAP. entry into  First,  t h e r e was the " c o n d i t i o n s " o f Sarawak's  the f e d e r a t i o n , the terms o f which, SNAP s t r e s s e d , s h o u l d  be f o l l o w e d .  SNAP b e l i e v e d i n honouring the s p i r i t and the l e t t e r o f the London Agreement which brought about by the Recommendations the Inter-Goverrimental Committee Report, whereby Sarawak a c h i e v e d i t s independence i n M a l a y s i a from B r i t a i n ....  Second, SNAP repeated i t s s t a n d on the C o n s t i t u t i o n o f Sarawak and t h a t  181  of Malaysia  as w e l l .  The p a r t y s a i d  that  SNAP has been the champion o f the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l fighter (sic). We stand to uphold and defend the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t s o f the people o f Sarawak and Malaysia. We b e l i e v e t h a t the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l umbrella o f our S t a t e and N a t i o n must be i n v i o l a b l e and s a c r e d and t h a t any changes i n the p r o v i s i o n s o f our C o n s t i t u t i o n must have the consent o f o u r people ^through a 7 referendum. T h i r d , SNAP remained unrepentant i n i t s advocacy o f "Sarawak f o r Sarawakians."  I t maintained  that  the p o l i c y o f Sarawak f o r Sarawakians, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e s p e c t to p r i o r i t i e s f o r both S t a t e and F e d e r a l p o s t s , and promotion i n the c i v i l s e r v i c e , and a l s o i n o t h e r f i e l d s as e n s h r i n e d i n the London Agreement when Sarawak became independent w i t h i n M a l a y s i a . SNAP a l s o b e l i e v e d i n M a l a y s i a f o r a l l Malaysians.. Lastly,  the p a r t y stood s t e a d f a s t on i t s p o l i c y o f m u l t i - r a c i a l i s m .  I t argued t h a t "Sarawak can o n l y s u r v i v e i n M a l a y s i a subscribe root  i f the people  to o u r t r a d i t i o n a l r a c i a l harmony, r i g h t down to the g r a s s -  level." SNAP, then, was c o n s i s t e n t i n i t s advocacy o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  p o s i t i o n s i n o r d e r to d e l i m i t the f e d e r a l c a p a c i t y to meddle i n Sarawak's p o l i t i c s .  Lt also retained i t s multi-racial  policies.  O s t e n s i b l y a t l e a s t , SNAP's Sarawak's n a t i o n a l i s m remained unmodified; but  i n 1974 there were a d d i t i o n s which i n e f f e c t a l t e r e d the emphasis  o f SNAP's n a t i o n a l i s m .  U n l i k e 1970, when these  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  p o l i c y i s s u e s (which a r e l i s t e d above) dominated SNAP's e l e c t i o n platform,  i n 19 74 the p a r t y r e s u r r e c t e d o t h e r aspects  of i t s p o l i c i e s  182  which i n d i c a t e a r e v i v a l o f e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s m . o f these were n a t i v e r i g h t s and r e l i g i o u s was c o n s i d e r e d  vulnerable  The most  freedom;  notable  the government  here i n t h a t i t s r e c o r d s were c h a r a c t e r i s e d ,  r e s p e c t i v e l y , by n e g l e c t o f the Dayak community r e l a t i v e  to o t h e r  communal groups, and the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f Muslim m i s s i o n a r y The  former put the Dayaks a t a disadvantage and the l a t t e r  both the Dayaks and t h e C h i n e s e . in  activities:  19 70,  SNAP accepted  Also, i n repudiation of i t s p o s i t i o n  the p r i n c i p l e o f p r i v i l e g e s f o r Bumiputeras,  thus making the p a r t y more a c c e p t a b l e f e d e r a l government.  threatened  to Dayaks, Malays, and t h e  I t s a i d t h a t "although SNAP /was] committed to  a m u l t i - f a c i a l p o l i c y " , i t would " s u b s c r i b e  to the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  p r o v i s i o n whereby the s p e c i a l p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e n a t i v e s  /were7 en37  shrined i n order 1970  to h e l p the u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d n a t i v e s . "  SNAP had de-emphasised these s u b j e c t s  during  If i n  the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n ,  i t was a l s o hampered by the problem o f p r o v i d i n g c o n v i n c i n g  evidence—  l a r g e l y because the government programmes ( o r t h e i r absence) were y e t to be n o t i c e d and f e l t  d i r e c t l y by t h e p o p u l a c e .  By 19 74 the  s i t u a t i o n had changed, hence the e l e v a t i o n o f these two i s s u e s . Lastly,  during  the l a s t  general  e l e c t i o n s , SNAP d i d n o t a t t a c k  the communist menace i n the s t a t e i n 1974.  S i n c e most o f the communist  t e r r o r i s t s i n Sarawak were Chinese, the absence o f statements c r i t i c a l o f the communists was bound to e l i c i t f a v o u r a b l e from the Chinese v o t e r s ;  response  While SNAP was by no means pro-communist,  183  the new approach i n d i c a t e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o accommodate the  terrorists,  38 probably  Barisan  i n the form o f a n amnesty arrangement.  Nasional In a d d i t i o n to the anti-SUPP mood o f p a r t y l e a d e r s and the l a c k  of e f f e c t i v e Dayak r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n government, the t h i r d f a c t o r which f a c i l i t a t e d SNAP's re-emphasis on n a t i v e n a t i o n a l i s m i n the second h a l f of the 1970's was a p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e o f the f e d e r a l government. Specifically  t h i s was the c o a l i t i o n s which l e d to the f o r m a t i o n o f  Barisan Nasional  (BN)  o r N a t i o n a l Front  governments a t the s t a t e and  39 federal  levels. In o r d e r  to e x p l a i n the concept o f the BN government and the  consequence which i t had on SNAP, i t i s n e c e s s a r y Malaysia's  to review b r i e f l y  n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s a f t e r the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1969.  Whereas i n Sarawak and Sabah v o t i n g took weeks t o conduct, i n West M a l a y s i a  the procedure was completed i n one day.  c o u n t i n g o f votes Alliance—which  i n 1969  i t was c l e a r t h a t a l t h o u g h  Following the  ruling  then c o n s i s t e d o f UMNO, MCA, and the M a l a y s i a n  Congress ( M I C ) — h a d m a i n t a i n e d  the  Indian  i t s dominance, i t had a l s o s u f f e r e d  40 severe  losses.  V i c t o r y marches h e l d on May 12 i n K u a l a Lumpur by  the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s l e d to a r e t a l i a t o r y p r o c e s s i o n b e i n g f o r the 13th by UMNO l e a d e r s and t h e i r Malay s u p p o r t e r s . marchers were a t t a c k e d ,  scheduled  Would-be  a l l e g e d l y by Chinese crowds, and r a c i a l  184  riotmg  ensued. The Yang D i p e r t u a n Agung (the Paramount R u l e r o f M a l a y s i a )  d e c l a r e d a s t a t e o f n a t i o n a l emergency and P a r l i a m e n t was suspended. The  n a t i o n was r u l e d by an eight-man N a t i o n a l O p e r a t i o n s  C o u n c i l (NOC)  42 for  t h e d u r a t i o n o f the emergency.  Convinced  o f t h e need to  c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l consensus, t h e NOC i n i t i a t e d a few measures to a c h i e v e peace and o r d e r .  One o f these was the a d o p t i o n o f the 43  n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g y , the Rukunegara; ban  another was the p r o p o s a l s to  d i s c u s s i o n s on s e n s i t i v e i s s u e s and to r e d r e s s the r a c i a l  i n t h e economic s e c t o r s o f t h e n a t i o n . was to perpetuate  designed  The i n t e n t o f these  imbalance  proposals  Malay p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l i n M a l a y s i a .  The NOC's l i f e was terminated on February 44 r e t u r n e d to p a r l i a m e n t a r y democracy. M i n i s t e r , UMNO c o n t i n u e d  20, 1971 and M a l a y s i a  Under Tun Razak as Prime  to dominate the f e d e r a l  government.  F o l l o w i n g the NOC's recommendations, the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendments and S e d i t i o n A c t s were passed  i n 1971 and p u b l i c as w e l l as p a r l i a m e n t a r y  d i s c u s s i o n s on t h e f o l l o w i n g were p r o h i b i t e d : "(1) the s p e c i a l of  the Malays and o t h e r indigenous  groups,  position  (2) Malay as the o f f i c i a l  language, (3) the s o v e r e i g n t y o f the Malay s u l t a n s and the K i n g , and 45 (4) the c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s o f the immigrant communities."  For  the Dayaks o f Sarawak the C o n s t i t u t i o n a l Amendment was a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h a t as n a t i v e s t h e r e were granted as the Malays of M a l a y s i a .  the same s t a t u s and p r i v i l e g e s  I n theory a t l e a s t  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s  185  which were now opened to them i n t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e , projects,  and b u s i n e s s were g r e a t l y enhanced.  The problem which  p e r s i s t e d was how to t r a n s l a t e these o p p o r t u n i t i e s One way o f l o o k i n g that,  following  development  into  reality.  a t the f e d e r a l o v e r t u r e to SNAP a f t e r 1974 was  the Dayak r e j e c t i o n o f the PBB as t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a -  t i v e s , s i n c e the Dayaks showed p r e f e r e n c e f o r SNAP as t h e i r i t was only  r i g h t t h a t the p a r t y  to operate w i t h i n  the o p p o r t u n i t y  t h e BN framework.  In a d d i t i o n  to promoting l e g i s l a t i v e changes, the Razak  government was a l s o addition  s h o u l d be a f f o r d e d  party,  r e b u i l d i n g the r u l i n g c o a l i t i o n .  That i s , i n  to f o s t e r i n g Malay c o n t r o l o f the c o u n t r y , the Razak a d m i n i s -  t r a t i o n was a l s o i n t e n t on expanding i n t e r - e t h n i c c o - o p e r a t i o n beyond the pre-1969 l e v e l . the  Thus, i n a d d i t i o n  to UMNO's p r e v i o u s  partners,  f r a c t i o u s MCA and MIC, o t h e r p a r t i e s were i n v i t e d to form a  wider c o a l i t i o n government, the B a r i s a n governments were e s t a b l i s h e d  Nasional.  a t the s t a t e l e v e l :  I n i t i a l l y , BN Penang was the f i r s t  s t a t e , where the new c o a l i t i o n government formed i n February 19 71 involved  the r u l i n g Gerakan Rakyat M a l a y s i a ;  i n Perak the BN  government was e s t a b l i s h e d  i n May w i t h the o p p o s i t i o n  Progressive  Several  Party  (PPP) .  People's  months l a t e r the Malay e x t r e m i s t  P a r t a i I s l a m which governed K e l a n t a n and which had members i n the states  o f Trengganu, Kedah, and Perak, agreed i n p r i n c i p l e t o form  BN governments a t both the s t a t e and f e d e r a l l e v e l s .  46  186  Before various  governments  restructured of  1975 SNAP r e m a i n e d (both  ignored  f e d e r a l and s t a t e )  u n d e r t h e B.N.:  at that  coalition-making a t the broadest  SNAP, a s a p p a r e n t l y  neither  considered  SNAP a n e c e s s a r y  for  One was  this.  objectionable.  and i s o l a t e d  time  partner.  that both  found  C h i e f M i n i s t e r o f Sarawak o n t h e o t h e r ,  not  i n which  an acceptable  to challenge  of  1974, t h e s i t u a t i o n was  of  the f i r s t  c l e a r was and  to  reasons  SNAP's l e a d e r s h i p  was w e l l another  and demolish  reversed  after  that  Rahman Y a k u b ,  known.  The  election  SNAP.  B u t i f SNAP was  the general  time.  election  The e x a c t  date  t o SNAP may n e v e r be known. What i s  t h e f e d e r a l government which  t h e s t a t e government w h i c h a c q u i e s c e d .  election  two p o s s i b l e  f o r government b e f o r e  federal overture  t h a t i t was  d i d not apply  and Datuk P a t i n g g i A b d u l  t h e BN may h a v e s o u g h t  candidate  principle  between N i n g k a n on_one s i d e and Tun Razak,  the  opportunity  the newly-found  There were  governments  The a n t i p a t h y  was t h a t  were  t h e s t a t e n o r the f e d e r a l government  Prime M i n i s t e r o f Malaysia,  reason  or Malaysia  possible level  the  other  while the  initiated  Soon a f t e r  i n 1974 t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t p u t o u t f e e l e r s  t h e move  the general to the party  47 to  join  worked  the c o a l i t i o n . i n SNAP's What  question to  Thus,  o f t h e BN u l t i m a t e l y  favour.  prompted  the change  i s not c e n t r a l  speculate  the concept  on t h r e e  i n f e d e r a l outlook?  to the s u b j e c t  factors.  of this  The f i r s t  was  Although  this  t h e s i s i t i s necessary the r e s u l t s  o f t h e 1974  187  g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s themselves.  C o n t r a r y to what the BN may  expected SNAP d i d not d i s i n t e g r a t e at the p o l l s  i n 1974;  have i t won  18 out o f 48 s e a t s i n the C o u n c i l N e g r i , s i x more than i t s p r e v i o u s performance s t r e n g t h was  i n 1970.  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the growth i n the p a r t y ' s  not l o s t on the f e d e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s who  r i s e i n SNAP's s t r e n g t h w i t h apprehension.  regarded  the  Such show o f support must  have been s t a r t l i n g to the government o b s e r v e r s s i n c e they  had  openly commented t h a t SNAP would win o n l y f i v e s e a t s a t the most. In t o t a l votes SNAP had front.  109,092 compared to 142,348 f o r the PBB-SUPP  C l e a r l y SNAP had become too important a f a c t o r i n s t a t e  politics  to be i g n o r e d .  v o t e s , SNAP was  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s i m p r e s s i v e t o t a l o f  c l e a r l y the p a r t y which most Dayaks, and a l a r g e  m i n o r i t y o f Chinese, p r e f e r r e d to s u p p o r t . the Pesaka wing o f the PBB Dayaks.  What t h i s meant was  c o u l d no l o n g e r p r e t e n d to r e p r e s e n t the  I f t h i s s p e c u l a t i o n i s v a l i d , then i t c o u l d be s a i d  the i n c l u s i o n o f SNAP i n the BN was ingful representation.  that  that  to a f f o r d the Dayaks t h e i r mean-  In the l i g h t o f r a t i o n a l e f o r the BN's  own  e x i s t e n c e — i t hoped to i n c l u d e a l l major groups i n the c o u n t r y — t o deny r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the Dayaks would  have been an  inconsistent  act. An added reason f o r the f e d e r a l show o f concern was growing  d i v i s i o n between the two major groups i n Sarawak.  m e r i c a l l y i n f e r i o r Malays, both confirmed,  as the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1970  the The  nu-  and  1974  chose to support P a r t i Bumiputera and i t s s u c c e s s o r ,  188  the PBB, 1974  w h i l e the Dayaks l a r g e l y v o t e d f o r SNAP.  the d i f f e r e n c e s between the Malays and  "By  the end  of  Dayaks were s e r i o u s enough  to warrant a major e f f o r t by Razak to s a l v e the apprehensions of  the  48 Dayaks."  In s h o r t ,  seen as an e f f o r t  the d e c i s i o n to i n v i t e SNAP i n 19 74 s h o u l d  to stem f u r t h e r c l e a v a g e between the two  h a v i n g them share power i n the The  l a s t f a c t o r was  possibility extremist and  that should  groups  the problem o f s e c u r i t y f o r Sarawak and  SNAP be  p r i v a t e l y SNAP's l e a d e r s  left  languishing  in anti-state activities.  eschew v i o l e n c e , but  abandon e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t y p r i n c i p l e s and  Publicly  prolonged  (tacitly  isolation  communist group, the Pasokan Rakyat G u e r i l l a 49  (PARAKU).  I t should  be s t a t e d t h a t there was  From the p o i n t o f s e c u r i t y , t h e r e f o r e ,  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the BN s h o u l d possibility.  The  (for instance,  be  seen as a way  advantage of the p a r t y b e i n g  t h e i r l e a d e r s would be  to  or a c t i v e l y ) to  t a n g i b l e evidence of a c t u a l anti-government a c t i v i t i e s SNAP's members.  the  i n the o p p o s i t i o n , i t s  i n the r o l e o f the o p p o s i t i o n might encourage SNAP's e x t r e m i s t s  Kalimantan U t a r a  by  BN.  elements might i n d u l g e  support Sarawak's own  be  conducted  of f o r e s t a l l i n g i n the BN was  this  that  resources  b u s i n e s s a l l o c a t i o n s ) as  to r e t a i n the l o y a l t y o r p a r t y members to the  by  SNAP's  i n a p o s i t i o n to employ M a l a y s i a ' s  i n development and  no  state-nation.  incentives  189  Ethnic  Nationalism On March 31, 19 76,  Datuk Dunstan Endawie i n a r a d i o speech  informed the s t a t e t h a t , f o l l o w i n g the unanimous d e c i s i o n o f SNAP's N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f March 21, 1976 the p a r t y has d e c i d e d i n p r i n c i p l e to be one o f the component p a r t i e s w i t h i n the B a r i s a n N a s i o n a l both a t the s t a t e and f e d e r a l l e v e l s o f government.50 Why  d i d SNAP agree to j o i n the government?  provided with  by Datuk Endawie h i m s e l f .  The obvious answer was  "The d e c i s i o n " he s a i d , " i s i n l i n e  the h i s t o r i c a l background o f t h e Sarawak N a t i o n a l P a r t y as a  p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i s a t i o n , " i n t h a t l i k e any o t h e r p o l i t i c a l  party,  SNAP's major g o a l was " t o form the government o f the c o u n t r y . . . o n i t s own o r .. . /_as7  a p a r t o f a government alliance....""'"''  Datuk Endawie's  announcement d i d not come e a s i l y f o r the p a r t y s i n c e the f e d e r a l i n v i t a t i o n f o r SNAP t o e n t e r the BN generated a party-wide d i s c u s s i o n . SNAP's l e a d e r s h i p was d i v i d e d i n t o two groups on the i s s u e : centered  around Ningkan and who were opposed to j o i n i n g the BN, and  those who c o a l e s c e d favour  those  around Datuk Endawie and Leo Moggie were i n  o f i t . The s e r i o u s n e s s  o f t h i s d i v i s i o n was such t h a t the  p a r t y ' s Annual General Meeting, normally  h e l d i n January o f each  year,  52 was d e f e r r e d i n 1975 t o J u l y . alone  T h i s time Ningkan was v i r t u a l l y  i n h i s p o s i t i o n , a t l e a s t i n the p a r t y ' s  Committee.  Central  Executive  Other p a r t y l e a d e r s , dismayed a t h i s i n t r a n s i g e n c e and  aware of h i s d i f f i c u l t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  the BN's l e a d e r s h i p , were  190  convinced On  t h a t i t was  J u l y 28,  to r e t i r e as p a r t y  president.  d u r i n g the annual g e n e r a l meeting of SNAP's  Assembly, he was hurdle  time f o r him  voted out of o f f i c e .  to SNAP's e n t r y was  cleared.  53  General  With h i s o u s t e r  the major  Less obvious than Datuk Endawie's 54  p u b l i c e x p l a n a t i o n were s e v e r a l o t h e r reasons. SNAP's d e s i r e to ensure e f f e c t i v e  first  Dayak r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  had been out o f the policy-making-arena t h a t p e r i o d i t had w i t n e s s e d  The  By  was 1976  f o r over ten years;  the p r o g r e s s i v e decay and  it  within  finally  the  disappearance by merger o f the o n l y o t h e r Dayak p a r t y i n Sarawak, the P a r t y Pesaka. SNAP's f o r c e d absence from the government meant t h a t the Dayak community had  been r e p r e s e n t e d  by P a r t y Pesaka;  remained i n government, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e was (not SNAP) c o u l d work e f f e c t i v e l y l a c k e d the l e a d e r s h i p and and  cohesion  to pursue Dayak c a u s e s .  numerical  f o r the Dayaks.  However, Pesaka  to dominate the Sarawak government  T h i s was  t r u e even when Pesaka  Since i t h e l d f i f t e e n out o f t w e n t y - f i v e  had  seats  i n the  i t c o u l d have been expected t h a t Pesaka would have pushed  f o r Dayak i n t e r e s t s . seemed r i g h t . numerical  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i t  s t r e n g t h , as had been the case under the Tawi S l i government  (1966-70). Alliance,  as l o n g as Pesaka  For one  C e r t a i n l y the o p p o r t u n i t y t h i n g , i t was  s t r e n g t h it.was  c u l t u r e , and  for this  purpose  i n the government and w i t h i t s  expected to implement p o l i c i e s  development which c o u l d b e n e f i t the Dayaks.  i n language, For  another,  191  Pesaka was now i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h SNAP f o r Dayak s u p p o r t — a f a c t which s h o u l d have been s u f f i c i e n t causes.  i n c e n t i v e f o r i t to push f o r Dayak  Pesaka was n o t a b l e to do t h i s , however.  e i t h e r u n w i l l i n g o r unable to take the i n i t i a t i v e . government  I t s l e a d e r s were The Tawi S l i  simply wallowed i n g e n e r a l i n e r t i a and almost by d e f a u l t the  much s m a l l e r P a r t i Bumiputera a c t u a l l y l e d the Sarawak A l l i a n c e . Worse, a f t e r Datuk P a t i n g g i Abdul Rahman Yakub became C h i e f M i n i s t e r , Pesaka's i n f l u e n c e d e c l i n e d even f u r t h e r .  A f t e r January 21, 1973,  Pesaka simply ceased to f u n c t i o n as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y when i t merged w i t h P a r t i Bumiputera.  From SNAP's v i e w p o i n t the o c c a s i o n was merely  a f o r m a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f P a r t i Bumiputera's dominance.  With the f u s i o n  o f t h e two p a r t i e s , even t h e symbol o f Dayak r e p r e s e n t a t i o n had disappeared.  By j o i n i n g the government  Dayak presence and to e x p l o i t  SNAP was t r y i n g to r e - a s s e r t  the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d .  run, t h e r e might even be the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t SNAP might Dayak u n i t .  In the l o n g promote  I n 1976, n o t w i l l i n g to provoke the s e n s i b i l i t i e s  o f Malay  and Chinese l e a d e r s i n the BN, SNAP l e a d e r s e x p l a i n e d t h a t the purpose f o r j o i n i n g the BN was to work f o r n a t i v e u n i t y . true:  T h i s may have been  The Dayak and the Malays had i n t e r e s t s i n common which  their solidarity.  But i t s h o u l d a l s o be noted t h a t the u n i t y o f the  Dayak communities has always been a primary t a r g e t o f SNAP. the BN enhanced  required  Being i n  the p r o s p e c t o f f i n d i n g common ground w i t h o t h e r  Dayaks, who, f o r the time b e i n g , were s t i l l 55 the PBB.  i n e i t h e r the SUPP o r  192  The  t h i r d motive was  the d e s i r e by SNAP's l e a d e r s to undercut,  o r a t l e a s t to moderate, what they s t a t e government. government had  The  favoured  c o n s i d e r e d as extremism i n the  z e a l w i t h which the Muslim l e a d e r s of the s t a t e the Malay community was  Temenggong Jugah from as f a r back as 1967. the e a r l y 19 70's,  with  obvious even to  Such b i a s  'persisted into  the C h i e f M i n i s t e r i n c r e a s i n g l y p r e f e r r i n g h i s  56 Malay a d v i s e r s  to, f o r i n s t a n c e , Dayak ones.  Such p r a c t i c e s c o n t r i -  buted to the image t h a t Dayak l e a d e r s w i t h i n the government were i n e f f e c t u a l and  the Dayak community n e g l e c t e d .  By j o i n i n g the  govern-  ment SNAP l e a d e r s thought t h a t they c o u l d f i g h t more e f f e c t i v e l y  on  b e h a l f of the Dayaks f o r development a l l o c a t i o n s , e d u c a t i o n b e n e f i t s , and  o t h e r p r o j e c t s which they would now The  Not  have the r i g h t to  f o u r t h motive concerns the s u r v i v a l of the p a r t y  itself.  o n l y d i d the t h r u s t o f the s t a t e B a r i s a n N a s i o n a l h u r t the Dayaks,  i t was  beginning  to hamper SNAP as w e l l .  First,  t h e r e was  t h a t the funds o f the p a r t y might become exhausted. businessmen such as Datuk Wee instrumental successor, sources by  dispense.  i n f i n a n c i n g the p a r t y .  the B a r i s a n N a s i o n a l ,  of funds.  Tan  past,  Datuk James Wong had  t h e r e f o r e sought to dry up p r e s s u r e was  to l e a v e SNAP.  Siew S i n , f o r i n s t a n c e , a d v i s e d  o n l y l e a v e SNAP but j o i n the SCA  In the  been  The A l l i a n c e government and i t s  In the case o f Datuk Wee,  the A l l i a n c e l e a d e r s on him  o f Finance,  Hood Teck and  concern  as w e l l .  The  these  exerted  federal Minister  t h a t he s h o u l d  E v i d e n t l y under  not  pressure  193  Datuk Wee  withdrew h i s membership on October 15, 1968.  consequence,  As a  SNAP " l o s t most o f i t s f i n a n c i a l underpinning.""'^  That  v i r t u a l l y l e f t Datuk James Wong as the major f i n a n c i e r o f the p a r t y . U n l i k e Datuk Wee,  whose open d a l l i a n c e w i t h SNAP l a s t e d some  e i g h t months, Datuk James Wong's involvement was prominent.  but f o l l o w i n g h i s n o m i n a t i o n to the Ningkan  he j o i n e d SNAP. of the p a r t y . was  always  as e a r l y as i t was  At the time o f the 1963 e l e c t i o n s , James Wong was  Independent;  twenty-  T h e r e a f t e r he remained entrenched as a  U n t i l the takeover i n 19 75 o f the new  an  cabinet,  Vice-Chairman  leadership,  he  i n the i n n e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g group.  Datuk James Wong's deep involvement meant t h a t , u n l i k e Datuk Wee,  who  he was  seemed to c o n s i d e r h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a b u s i n e s s gamble,  virtually  As a r e s u l t , he was 1974, was  impervious to the p r e s s u r e o f p o l i t i c a l  patronage.  the method employed to " n e u t r a l i s e " him was  different:  charged w i t h a b r e a c h o f s e c u r i t y r e g u l a t i o n s .  On October  30,  Datuk James Wong, a l o n g w i t h f i v e o t h e r p a r t y f u n c t i o n a r i e s ,  a r r e s t e d under  the " p r e s e r v a t i o n o f P u b l i c S e c u r i t y  (Detention)  R e g u l a t i o n (1962)" f o r h i s a l l e g e d involvement i n a c t i v i t i e s the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . initiated  I n February 1975,  against  l e g a l p r o c e e d i n g s were  to f r e e him and on March 7, the High Court i n Kuching,  t h a t h i s d e t e n t i o n was however, he was  u n l a w f u l , o r d e r e d him r e l e a s e d .  Moments l a t e r ,  r e - a r r e s t e d under the " I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y A c t  Datuk James Wong was  to remain  ruling  (1967)".  i n d e t e n t i o n u n t i l January 19 76,  194  s e v e r a l weeks b e f o r e  SNAP was  to announce p u b l i c l y i t s d e c i s i o n to  j o i n the, government. The  p o s s i b l e removal o f Datuk James Wong as f i n a n c i e r and  l e a d e r by means o f i n d e f i n i t e d e t e n t i o n was In the f i r s t  p l a c e the s p e c t r e o f acute  distinctly visible,  d i r e c t the f i n a n c i n g o f the p a r t y . d e t e n t i o n was these  viewed as bad  a s e r i o u s t h r e a t to SNAP.  f i n a n c i a l shortage  f o r as l o n g as he was  i n custody  he  was  could  In the second p l a c e ,  from Bau:  now not  continued  f o r the morale o f p a r t y workers.  reasons p a r t y l e a d e r s were concerned.  Anek Uren, a Bidayuh M.P.  party  For  Thus p r o t e s t e d P a t r i c k  " I f the d e t e n t i o n of Datuk James  Wong i s /JEntented7 to c r i p p l e SNAP, s u r e l y t h a t i s the wrong way  to  59 go about i t . "  P a r t i c k Anek was  c o r r e c t i n i d e n t i f y i n g the  motive f o r h o l d i n g Datuk James Wong i n custody, the p a r t y would not succumb was Of  d e t e n t i o n o f Datuk James Wong was  continued SNAP's l e a d e r s  to j o i n the B a r i s a n N a s i o n a l .  so would have smacked o f c a p i t u l a t i o n .  s t e p s were taken by  t h a t the  a f a c t o r i n convincing  p a r t y d i d not admit to t h i s f a c t o r d i r e c t l y ,  Datuk James Wong A f f a i r was  but h i s p r e d i c t i o n t h a t  a p u b l i c show o f f a l s e bravado.  immediate importance, however, was  to s o f t e n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n and  government's  probably  because to have done  However, i t d i d h i n t t h a t  a f a c t o r when i t admitted  SNAP to secure  The  that  the  "various  the r e l e a s e o f Datuk Wong and  o t h e r SNAP members d e t a i n e d under the same c h a r g e . G i v e n f a c t t h a t the f e d e r a l government was  i n v i t i n g SNAP to j o i n the  the Barisan  195  Nasional,  the d e t e n t i o n was  to demonstrate to p a r t y  Datuk James Wong c o u l d be h e l d  i n d e f i n i t e l y and  c o u l d be b l e d dry of funds as a r e s u l t . n i f i c a n c e of the James Wong a r r e s t and coercive persuasion  by  leaders  that  to show t h a t SNAP  In o t h e r words, the d e t e n t i o n was  the f e d e r a l government.  sig-  a d i s p l a y of  I f t h i s were indeed  the case, then SNAP p r o b a b l y demanded Datuk James Wong's r e l e a s e a c o n d i t i o n f o r j o i n i n g the B a r i s a n  Nasional.  I f SNAP's d e c i s i o n to j o i n the B a r i s a n N a s i o n a l by  the f e a r among i t s l e a d e r s  p e r s o n o f James Wong) was  as  was  that i t s f i n a n c i a l l i f e l i n e  t h r e a t e n e d , there was  what the f e d e r a l government might do n e x t .  influenced ( i n the  a l s o concern about  For i n s t a n c e ,  the  government might postpone f u t u r e e l e c t i o n s i n d e f i n i t e l y , e i t h e r by invoking  the I n t e r n a l S e c u r i t y A c t or by  intervening m i l i t a r i l y .  such a s i t u a t i o n , SNAP would e v e n t u a l l y be p a r t y w i t h o u t any  immediate p r o s p e c t  out of power SNAP was harrassments, and it  i n d e f i n i t e s t a y i n the p o l i t i c a l  centered  i t j o i n the  r u r a l people, who the government.  party  felt  short,  motivated  c o l d , both of which  i n the economic f i e l d :  t h a t they c o u l d  that i t could  it  do much more f o r the  formed the b u l k of i t s s u p p o r t e r s , The  In  government.  of SNAP's major concerns was  on the p a r t y ' s b e l i e f  functioning  of r e t u r n i n g to power.  exposed to f u r t h e r p o l i t i c a l l y  c o u l d remedy s h o u l d One  damaged as a  In  should  they  join  i n f l u e n c e the p o l i c y  d e c i s i o n s much more e f f e c t i v e l y as a component o f the  government.  196  Of immediate concern i n t h i s a r e a was purpose of which was,  the T h i r d M a l a y s i a  Plan,  the  among o t h e r t h i n g s to  reduce the i n c i d e n c e o f p o v e r t y i n the r u r a l areas throughout the country...among p a d i c u l t i v a t o r s , rubber s m a l l h o l d e r s . . . . 61 S i n c e the T h i r d M a l a y s i a P l a n was party f e l t  that SNAP s h o u l d  due  to be launched i n J u l y ,  time i t s e n t r y to ensure t h a t i t had  v o i c e i n the a l l o c a t i o n of p r o j e c t s and t h i s economic motive was  development.  minated a g a i n s t — a l t h o u g h  perhaps not  such a l l o c a t i o n s .  Moggie p o i n t e d  a  At the core of  the b e l i e f t h a t the Dayaks had been  As Leo  the  deliberately—when  discri-  i t came to  out,  The i n t e r e s t o f the Dayak community has not been s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d i n the i m p l e ^ mentation of p o l i c y i n the S t a t e o f Sarawak. Thus, when SNAP was  i n v i t e d . t o j o i n the B a r i s a n N a s i o n a l , p a r t y  sought to ensure more funds f o r r u r a l development.  In p a r t ,  i n s i s t e n c e stemmed from t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t these  areas were  leaders  their neglected.  In p a r t a l s o , they r e c o g n i s e d  t h a t these were the areas which  c o n s i s t e n t l y supported  i n c r e a s e d development a l l o c a t i o n s i n t h i s  case were immediate and As  i t was,  one  SNAP;  t a n g i b l e rewards f o r p a s t  future)  support.  o f the reasons t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n o f SNAP's e n t r y  so p r o t r a c t e d was  was  t h a t the p a r t y i n s i s t e d on g r e a t e r c o n c e s s i o n s  r u r a l development.  The  party apparently  the Members, of P a r l i a m e n t •> ->63 r u r a l development. 3  (and  had  for  s u c c e s s f u l l y demanded from  the a u t h o r i t y to award annual grants  for  197  I t has  been suggested above t h a t SNAP's c o n d i t i o n s f o r j o i n i n g  the BN were the r e l e a s e o f Datuk James Wong and from d e t e n t i o n and  the a u t h o r i t y o f M a l a y s i a ' s  to award c e r t a i n annual grants constituencies.  o t h e r p a r t y members Members of  Parliament  f o r development purposes i n t h e i r  Another c o n d i t i o n of e n t r y was  t h a t SNAP would r e t a i n  64 its  i d e n t i t y and m u l t i - r a c i a l membership.  To  do o t h e r w i s e  was  to  become u n i - r a c i a l , which would have meant t h a t SNAP would have e x i s t e d as a t o t a l l y Dayak o r g a n i s a t i o n . SNAP.  True, the p a r t y was  i n t e r e s t s , but  T h i s was  c l e a r l y unacceptable  eager to emphasise and  to a r t i c u l a t e Dayak  t h i s d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y mean the abandonment o f i t s  hard-won m u l t i - r a c i a l f o l l o w i n g .  In other-words, the s a l i e n c e of i t s  n a t i o n a l i s m need not be made a t the expense o f i t s p o l i t i c a l As  the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s o f 19 74 showed, SNAP was  support  o f a s i z e a b l e Chinese m i n o r i t y .  The  f o r such a merger.  Chinese-  the PBB.  t a i n i n g i t s m u l t i - r a c i a l membership the p a r t y would be proposal  the  p a r t y l e a d e r s were  F u r t h e r , i t d i d not wish to merge w i t h  p o s i t i o n to r e s i s t any  strength.  a b l e to a t t r a c t  u n w i l l i n g to " p a r c e l o f f " i t s Chinese members t o , say the based SUPP.  to  By  i n a good  re-  198  Footnotes  to Chapter VII  1.  When t h i s f a i l e d and the new government was announced on J u l y 7 w i t h out SNAP b e i n g i n c l u d e d , the p a r t y nominated one of i t s members as a m i n i s t e r i n the C o a l i t i o n Government (Sarawak T r i b u n e , December 19, 1970).  2.  They had met ment.  3.  R.S. M i l n e and K.J. Ratnam, M a l a y s i a — N e w S t a t e s i n a New N a t i o n (London: Frank Cass, 1974), p.238. They a l s o expressed the p o i n t t h a t the F e d e r a l Government had t h r e a t e n