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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Technological changes and clerical job distribution in Canada, 1911-1971 Adjebeng-Asem, Selina 1980

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TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND CLERICAL JOB DISTRIBUTION IN CANADA 1911 - 1971 by SELINA^ADJEBENG-ASEM B.A. (Hons.), U n i v e r s i t y o f Cape C o a s t , Ghana, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE, STUDIES (Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as co n f o r m i n g t o t he r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Ja n u a r y 1980 ( c ) S e l i n a Adjebeng-Asem, 1980 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be al1 owed without my written permission. Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y The University of Brit ish Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 5th J a n u a r y , 1980 i i i ABSTRACT The two major co n c e r n s o f t h i s paper a r e : a) c l e r i c a l j o b d i s -t r i b u t i o n i n Canada f o r t h e 1911 - 1971 p e r i o d ; and b) t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n o f f i c e equipment f o r t h e same p e r i o d . The c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n i s an im p o r t a n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r women, i n Canada. O n e - t h i r d o f a l l working Canadian women a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y . On t h e o t h e r hand, t he e f f e c t s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes on employ-ment i s an i s s u e t h a t a t t r a c t s a wide v a r i e t y o f a u d i e n c e s : e c o n o m i s t s , academics, l a b o u r o r g a n i z e r s and governments, t o name a few. T h i s t h e s i s u n d e r t a k e s t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n t h e o f f i c e on t h e c l e r i c a l j o b d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r t h e 1911 - 1971 p e r i o d . The assessment i s done w i t h a) an a n a l y s i s o f h i s t o r i c a l d a t a based on the 1911 - 1971 census o f Canada; b) c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f the F i n a n c i a l Post o f the same p e r i o d ; c) d a t a on b u s i n e s s machines from Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . ; d) P r e s c r i b e d Textbooks Guide f o r B.C. High School Commerce; and e) e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e and m a t e r i a l i n t h e f i e l d . The t h e s i s b e g i n s w i t h a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e problem t o be s t u d i e d . Then t h e concepts t o be used a r e c l a r i f i e d , and t h e methods b r i e f l y o u t l i n e d . C h a p t e r I d e a l s w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f o f f i c e work f o r t h e 60-year p e r i o d and how t h i s has been a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n o f f i c e equipment. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f o f f i c e work i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e a r b i -t r a r y p e r i o d s , t h e o l d o f f i c e 1911 - 1920; t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l o f f i c e 1920 -1950; and t h e modern o f f i c e 1950 - 1971. i i i C h a p t e r II d e a l s m a i n l y w i t h o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y : what i t was i n t h e o l d o f f i c e , and the f u n c t i o n s i t performed. These a r e then com-pared w i t h t h e same f a c t o r s i n t h e modern o f f i c e . New o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y which has d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n the p e r i o d and i t s e f f e c t s on o f f i c e o r g a n i -z a t i o n i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d . Chapter I I I a n a l y s e s the e f f e c t s o f t h e s e t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments on the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l e r i c a l j o b s . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n i s done i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e war and post-war p r e s s u r e s , c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n t h e Canadian economy and o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n i n Canadian s o c i e t y . Then, the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e a n a l y s i s f o r the f e m i n i s t movement i n Canada i s b r i e f l y s u g g e s t e d . The t h e s i s i s c o n c l u d e d w i t h the d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p a r t t h a t t e c h n o -l o g i c a l changes i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h i d e o l o g y (sex t y p i n g or o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n ) and economic s t r a i n s p l a y on t h e c l e r i c a l j o b d i s t r i b u t i o n . Then, some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e o u t l i n e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f Contents i v L i s t o f T a b l e s v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i Acknowledgements . .. v i i i I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Chapter I O f f i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n 1911 - 1971 -..v- -., . . . . . .... 7 The O f f i c e 10 O f f i c e Development 16 The O l d O f f i c e 23 I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g P r o c e d u r e : O ld O f f i c e 25 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s o f P r o d u c t i o n 25 Development o f the T r a n s i t i o n a l O f f i c e . . 33 Pr o c e d u r e o f I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g . 36 S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s o f P r o d u c t i o n 38 The "Modern" O f f i c e 42 Chapt e r II ...The Trend o f T e c h n o l o g i c a l Changes: O f f i c e . • • Machines and Equipment 45 The T y p e w r i t e r 56 D i c t a t i n g Machine 58 D u p l i c a t i n g Machines 58 Ad d r e s s o g r a p h 59 M i c r o f i l m . 59 • T e l e t y p e / T e l e g r a p h Machines 60 C a l c u l a t o r s 61 A c c o u n t i n g / B o o k k e e p i n g Machine 61 Data P r o c e s s i n g Machine 62 O r i g i n a t i o n o f Data 63 C l a s s i f y i n g 63 S o r t i n g 65 C a l c u l a t i n g 65 Summarizing 65 S t o r i n g 65 R e t r i e v i n g 65 Reproducing 66 Communicating 66 Computers 66 Changes i n O f f i c e Machines, 1911 - 1920 . . . . . . . . 67 Changes and Developments i n O f f i c e Equipment, 1920 - 1950 73 T e c h n o l o g i c a l Changes i n O f f i c e Machines, 1950 - 1971 . 78 M i c r o f i l m s 81 Computers 83 F u r n i t u r e 84 V Page Chapter I I I C l e r i c a l dob - D i s t r i b u t i o n : A n a l y s i s and I n t e r p r e -t a t i o n ./ • • • • 88 D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n O f f i c e Work 99 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ••' 105 Male/Female D i s t r i b u t i o n . . . 106 Sex T y p i n g 107 Chapter IV I m p l i c a t i o n o f Study f o r t h e ^ F e m i n i s t Movement . . HI . . . . . .HI Trends i n Female Employment as a F u n c t i o n o f C a p i t a l i s m . . 117 I n e q u a l i t y 121 The F e m i n i s t Movement w i t h i n C a p i t a l i s m 126 Chapter V ..Conclusion .... . .. . . . . . . . . 129' Areas o f F u r t h e r Research • • • I 3 2, B i b l i o g r a p h y . . . 1-33 Appendices 141 v i LIST OF TABLES Page 1 P e r c e n t a g e I n c r e a s e Each Decade T o t a l Labour F o r c e and C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n s , Canada 1 9 1 1 - 1 9 7 1 28 II O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 1911 - 1971 (Based on the O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual o f Canada) . . .: 29 I I I C o n t ent A n a l y s i s : F i n a n c i a l P o s t 1911 - 1971 . . . . 46 IV Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . - "Our P r o d u c t s " . . 57 V Steps i n the Data P r o c e s s i n g O p e r a t i o n 64 VI Labour F o r c e 15-years and Over . . . • 89 VII C l e r i c a l Workers as a P e r c e n t o f t o t a l Labour F o r c e . 90 VI I I O f f i c e Employees i n the 1911 Census o f Canada . . . 91 IX O f f i c e Employees o f the 1921 Census o f Canada . . . 93 X C l e r i c a l Workers i n the 1931 Census o f Canada . . . 94 XI C l e r i c a l Workers i n the 1941 Census o f Canada . . . 95 XII C l e r i c a l Workers i n the 1951 Census o f Canada . . . 96 X I I I C l e r i c a l Workers i n the 1961 Census o f Canada . . . 97 XIV C l e r i c a l Workers i n the 1971 Census o f Canada . . . 98 "XV Some C l e r i c a l S u b - C a t e g o r i e s 1971 107 XVI Average S a l a r y Rates p e r Week i n A l l I n d u s t r i e s and f o r S e l e c t e d O f f i c e O c c u p a t i o n s Showing Female and Male Rates f o r S i m i l a r D e s c r i b e d O c c u p a t i o n s i n Four Canadian C i t i e s , O c t o b e r 1, 1971 116 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Page 1 Combined O f f i c e Machines 69 2 Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C l e r i c a l Workers i n Canada 1911-1971 105 3 S k i l l L e v e l s i n C l e r i c a l Work 113 4 Income and S k i l l f o r Men and Women Age 35-44; E d u c a t i o n a l Grade 9-13 114 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s t h e s i s would never have become a r e a l i t y w i t h o u t the h e l p o f a number o f people.. Dr. M e i s s n e r was e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l i n d i r e c t i n g me t o u s e f u l s o u r c e s and the ge n e r a l guidance i n the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s . Drs. Ratner and Walker were a l s o h e l p f u l i n the development o f my p e r s p e c t i v e . To a l l o f them I am e x t r e m e l y g r a t e f u l . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o Dr. P h i l B a r t l e who e d i t e d the m a n u s c r i p t and Mr. Ien B r a d f o r d o f Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . who gave me ac c e s s t o Burrough's i n f o r m a t i o n . I would a l s o l i k e to thank Ms. H y a c i n t h Wettasinghe who t y p e d the t h e s i s w i t h speed and e f f i c i e n c y and a l l my f r i e n d s i n Canada who, i n v a r i o u s ways, gave me moral s u p p o r t . The t h e s i s i s d e d i c a t e d t o the most p r e c i o u s p e o p l e i n my l i f e : my husband, Tommy, and c h i l d r e n , Nana and K o f i , whose i n e s t i m a b l e s u p p o r t , l o v e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s a c r i f i c e s made t h i s work p o s s i b l e . To a l l o f them I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l . The weaknesses o f the t h e s i s a r e my own, the s t r e n g t h s have a l o t to do w i t h the h e l p o f a l l t h o s e mentioned. 1 INTRODUCTION Does t e c h n o l o g i c a l change a f f e c t c l e r i c a l work? In p a r t i c u l a r , what e f f e c t does t e c h n o l o g i c a l . c h a n g e have on t h e ways i n which j o b s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d w i t h i n t h e o f f i c e ? Perhaps, one o f the unique d e v e l o p -ments o f our p r e s e n t e r a o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i s the tremendous 'awareness' o f t h e impact o f t e c h n o l o g y on employment. Academics, l a b o u r , management, government, a l l have a keen i n t e r e s t i n t h i s sub-j e c t . T h i s has g e n e r a t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n t r o v e r s y and an atmosphere o f c o n f u s i o n . T h e r e a r e some who c l a i m t h a t automation i s t h e main v i l l a i n , "a c u r s e " , c a u s i n g unemployment. T h e i r argument i s t h a t a u t o -mation makes t h e j o b l e s s l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e . The f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n w i l l c l e a r l y make the p o i n t : "The most apparent r e s u l t o f a u tomation w i l l be t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f manual i n t e r v e n t i o n i n d a t a p r o c e s s i n g a c t i v i t i e s .... C l e r i c a l , t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l men a r e now b e i n g d i s p l a c e d from many t a s k s as machines t a k e over t h e i r o p e r a t i o n , " ( L e v i n , 1956: 62-70). And, as John Synder, J r . , s u c c i n t l y put i t : " P e r s o n a l l y , I t h i n k t h a t automation i s a major f a c t o r i n e l i m i n a t i n g j o b s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a t the r a t e o f more than 40,000 a week as p r e v i o u s e s t i m a t e s have put i t . We must a l s o keep i n mind t h a t automation i s not o n l y d i s p l a c i n g p e o p l e d i r e c t l y , but a l s o i n d i r e c t l y through what a r e c a l l e d ' s i l e n t f i r i n g s ' i n r e f e r e n c e t o workers who would have been h i r e d f o r j o b s e l i m i n a t e d by a u t o m a t i o n , " ( T e r b o r g h , 1966: 8). There a r e o t h e r s who r a l l y t o automation's d e f e n s e , p a i n t i n g a glow-i n g p i c t u r e o f the new j o b s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s i t would c r e a t e i n the l o n g r u n , o b l i v i o u s t o the p l i g h t o f t h o s e made j o b l e s s i n the s h o r t run. (See J i r i k o w i c (1967) and T e r b o r g h (1966) f o r f u l l d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s a s p e c t . ) 2 The q u e s t i o n o f the o f f i c e and the c l e r i c a l workers who work w i t h i n i t i s e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o modern s o c i e t y . The l i f e b l o o d o f b u s i n e s s , the i n d i s p e n s a b l e arms o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n , the main c o o r d i n a t i o n o f an i n s t i t u t i o n , t h a t i s t h e o f f i c e w i t h o u t which v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e d a y - t o -day a c t i v i t i e s o f the w o r l d c o u l d be c a r r i e d out. With a w i d e s p r e a d i n -t e r e s t i n t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i n g e n e r a l and i n automation i n p a r t i c u l a r , and w i t h the r e c o g n i t i o n o f the importance o f the o f f i c e , and t h e r e f o r e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , t o modern s o c i e t y , one would e x p e c t t o f i n d ample l i t e r a -t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the e f f e c t s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes on c l e r i c a l workers. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s not; a t l e a s t , not i n Canada. As Stromberg wrote: The problem o f s o u r c e has been a n o t h e r major h u r d l e i n the p a t t e r n o f c l e r i c a l work i n g e n e r a l and Canada i n p a r t i c u l a r .... An i n q u i r y i n t o c l e r i c a l work, the s e c t o r o f American o c c u p a t i o n a l l i f e where most working women earn t h e i r pay checks i s l o n g overdue (Stromberg, 1978: 317). W i t h i n the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s f i e l d i s a book by Baker (1964). Her book, b e s i d e s b e i n g o u t d a t e d , t r e a t s o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y i n a c u r s o r y manner, w h i l e Lowe's (1978) comprehensive work on t h e e v o l u t i o n o f o f f i c e work 1901 - 1931 does not d e a l w i t h t e c h n o l o g y and o f f i c e work per se. The l a c k o f l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s f i e l d prompted my i n t e r e s t i n examin-i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes on a s p e c i f i c a s p e c t o f the c l e r k ' s work. T e c h n o l o g i c a l changes have not a f f e c t e d a l l o c c u p a t i o n s e q u a l l y . My attempt i s , t h e r e f o r e , t o t a k e c l e r i c a l work as one occupa-t i o n a l c a t e g o r y , i n s t e a d o f g e n e r a l i z i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f a u t o m a t i o n , t o see what ki n d s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes have permeated t h e o f f i c e s i n c e 1911. I a l s o wish t o examine how they have a f f e c t e d the c l e r i c a l j o b d i s t r i b u -t i o n i n terms o f the o v e r a l l employment r a t e , and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o v e r the s u b - c a t e g o r i e s and how t h i s has a l s o a f f e c t e d the scope o f o f f i c e work 3 and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n o f the o f f i c e . As Hoos a p p r o p r i a t e l y puts i t : " I t i s t h r o u g h a c a r e f u l and d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f aut o m a t i o n i n s p e c i f i c a r e a s r a t h e r than broad and c o n j e c t u r a l s t a t e m e n t s t h a t p r o g r e s s can be made towards.a workable s o l u t i o n o f the problems engendered by automation (Hoos, 1950: 388). I t i s my hope t h a t an u n d e r t a k i n g l i k e t h i s w i l l be a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e a r e a o f t e c h n o l o g y and o f f i c e work and w i l l a l s o p r o v i d e r e f e r -ence f o r t h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n . r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a o f s t u d y . " T e c h n o l o g i c a l Changes" i n t h i s study r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y t o o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y i n c o n t r a s t t o m a n u f a c t u r i n g , d o m e s t i c and so on. I p r e f e r t o use t h e term t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes, i n s t e a d o f a u t o m a t i o n , even though the c oncept automation w i l l be o c c a s i o n a l l y employed. " T e c h n o l o g i c a l change" u s u a l l y has a f a r br o a d e r meaning than automation. While a u t o -mation p l a y s an i n t e g r a l p a r t i n t h e e n t i r e c o n c e p t o f " t e c h n o l o g i c a l change", t he l a t t e r would embody the chang i n g o f almos t any o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o the o v e r a l l p r o d u c t i v e a b i l i t y o f a n a t i o n . U s i n g " t e c h n o l o g i c a l change" i n s t e a d o f automation i s d e l i b e r a t e , even though I use the term more n a r r o w l y than i t s g e n e r a l meaning. The reason i s t h a t most o f the changes t h a t have been t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e c l e r i c a l s e c t o r , I b e l i e v e , a r e not o n l y m echanical i n the sense t h a t would imply a u t o m a t i o n . Some o f t h e s e changes, such as changes i n . o f f i c e f u r n i t u r e , o r g a n i z a t i o n , s c r e e n i n g m a t e r i a l s , a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y mechani-c a l , but a r e f a c t o r s o r t e c h n i q u e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e o v e r a l l produc-t i v e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e o f f i c e . Because o f t h i s , I use t h e term "techno-l o g i c a l change". 4 C l e r i c a l work i n t h i s t h e s i s i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f r e c e i v i n g and p r o c e s s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n an o f f i c e used by an o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , borrowed from L e v i n (1956), u n l i k e the d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e census or the o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n manual, e x c l u d e s s a l e s and a l l r e l a t e d work. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n w i l l e x c l u d e , f o r example, c a s h i e r s , salesmen and saleswomen^'.•While'it would i n c l u d e bank c l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s , t y p i s t s , s t e n o g r a p h e r s , t e l e p h o n i s t s , bookkeepers, s t o c k c l e r k s , and so on, i t w i l l e x c l u d e s t o r e k e e p e r s and c a s h i e r s . - As soon as one i n c l u d e s s a l e s c l e r k s , o f any k i n d , i t becomes d i f f i c u l t t o t e a s e out the " r e a l o f f i c e work", r e c e i v i n g and p r o c e s s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , from the s a l e s work. Where, f o r i n s t a n c e , does one p l a c e a s t o r e k e e p e r ? Is he a salesman o r a c l e r k ? What about the t e l e s h o p worker, the woman who s i t s i n a department s t o r e and t a k e s o r d e r s f o r c a t a l o g u e s - a n d r e l a t e d shopping? Is she a c l e r k o r a saleswoman? One c o u l d argue t h a t some o f t h e s e s a l e s -men and s t o r e k e e p e r s do both s e l l i n g and i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . The paper does not i n t e n d t o d e a l w i t h such c a s e s . To a v o i d any c o n f u s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , c l e r i c a l work i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f i n f o r m a t i o n h a n d l i n g . As a r e s u l t , cash r e g i s t e r s and r e l a t e d machinery w i l l not be d e a l t w i t h i n the s t u d y . "Complex" and/or " s k i l l f u l " j o b s i n t h e study r e f e r t o j o b s t h a t a r e deemed t o be c o m p l i c a t e d , demand a l o n g e r t r a i n i n g and need a g r e a t d e a l o f mental and p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y t o a c c o m p l i s h i n c o n t r a s t w i t h j o b s t h a t a r e r e p e t i t i v e , demand s h o r t t r a i n i n g p e r i o d s , and need f i n g e r d e x t e r i t y , p a t i e n c e and endurance t o be c a r r i e d t h r o u g h . A machine o p e r a t i o n f o r e l e c t r i c d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g , f o r c l a s s i f y i n g , p o s t i n g , computing and t r a n s -f e r r i n g d a t a ( O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual, 1971: 182) would be c o n s i d e r e d complex w h i l e c o p y - t y p i n g w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d l e s s complex. 5 Baker makes a s i m i l a r d i s t i n c t i o n : Two r o u t i n e o c c u p a t i o n s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h computer a c t i v i t y a r e t a b u l a t i n g -- machine o p e r a t i o n and key punching. The former i s - u s u a l l y a man's j o b because i t i s heavy work t h a t r e q u i r e s the l i f t i n g o f cumbersome t r a y s o f c a r d s and f r e q u e n t l y c a l l s f o r o v e r t i m e on swing o r g r a v e y a r d s h i f t s . Women and g i r l s do t h e key punching (Ba k e r , 1964: 233-4). Hoos (1957) makes mention o f men working on a c c o u n t i n g machines w h i l e women do t h e " c o n v e n t i o n a l " c l e r i c a l t a s k o f f i l i n g . I do not i n t e n d t o examine whether t h e s e j o b s are r e a l l y 'complex' or not. The term i s employed here as i t has been p o p u l a r l y used i n t h i s male-dominated s o c i e t y . (The a t t i t u d e t h a t o n l y males a r e c a p a b l e o f complex j o b s w h i l e f e m a l e s are'more s u i t e d . f o r s i m p l e and r e p e t i t i v e j o b s i s an element o f t h e i d e o l o g y o f sexual asymmetry.) The term "complex" here a l s o i m p l i e s c h a l l e n g e . There i s t h e g e n e r a l n o t i o n i n t h i s s o c i e t y t h a t the more complex a p i e c e o f work i s , the more c h a l l e n g i n g i t i s . The o p p o s i t e i s a s s e r t e d t o be t r u e a l s o . Even though I do not i n t e n d t o go i n t o the method adopted i n c o m p i l i n g d a t a f o r t h i s t h e s i s i n t h i s c h a p t e r , a d i g r e s s i o n here t o ex-p l a i n the p e r i o d and t h e p l a c e s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s work w i l l h e l p the r e a d e r s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e a r l i e r c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s b e f o r e they get t o the end where the methods w i l l be o u t l i n e d . The s t u d y i s about c l e r i c a l workers o f Canada. Most o f t h e m a t e r i a l s used a r e o f Canadian o r i g i n . But s i n c e Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s have such c l o s e economic and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , some o f the s u p p o r t i v e l i t e r a -t u r e used i s o f American o r i g i n . . Much c a u t i o n i s e x e r c i s e d i n u s i n g t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . No c l a i m i s made t h a t the American example f i t s i n p e r f e c t l y h e r e , but the examples would be q u i t e c l o s e . 6 The y e a r s 1911 - 1971 a r e s e l e c t e d because the m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e (see methods i n Appendix I.) i n d i c a t e t h a t the o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g y as w e l l as c l e r i c a l j o b d i s t r i b u t i o n from about 1890 - 1911 were about the same. I t was a f t e r 1911 t h a t i n c r e a s i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n o f f i c e s t a r t e d t o t a k e p l a c e . See Baker (1954), Lowe (1977), and S c h u l e (1911).. I t i s my hope, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t u s i n g the 1911 o f f i c e as a model f o r the o l d system, we can o b s e r v e t h e changes t h a t have t a k e n p l a c e i n t he c l e r i c a l p o p u l a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g y . 7 CHAPTER I OFFICE ORGANIZATION 1911 - 1971 An attempt i s made i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o d e s c r i b e and d i s c u s s t he o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the o f f i c e i n the 1911 - 1971 p e r i o d . T h i s w i l l form t h e b a s i s o f our d i s c u s s i o n o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments permeating the o f f i c e f o r the same p e r i o d , and o f how t h e s e developments a f f e c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the c l e r i c a l p o p u l a t i o n , and how they a f f e c t t he o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s . T e c h n o l o g i c a l development i s taken up i n Chapte r II and p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Chapte r I I I . For t he purpose o f a n a l y s i s , t h e p e r i o d o f our d i s c u s s i o n i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e phases: a) 1911 - 1920 - "The o l d o f f i c e " b) 1920 - 1950 - "The t r a n s i t i o n a l o f f i c e " c) 1950 - 1971 - "The modern o f f i c e " . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y and i s based p r i m a r i l y on the d a t a f o r t h i s t h e s i s : c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s done on t h e F i n a n c i a l Post 1911 - 1971 and i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d from Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . D e t a i l s a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix I. For purposes o f s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n c e p t u a l -i s e t h e o f f i c e as a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n changing o v e r t i m e . The most mean i n g f u l way t o un d e r s t a n d t he changing p a t t e r n s o f t h e c l e r i c a l j o b d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t o examine the f o l l o w i n g i s s u e s d u r i n g t he 1911 - 1971 p e r i o d : t he chan g i n g f u n c t i o n s o f t h e o f f i c e , the chan g i n g purposes 8 which t h e s e f u n c t i o n s s e r v e , the changes i n the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n , and the changes i n the t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments o f o f f i c e machines. E x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e s l i t t l e i n s i g h t i n t o the c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada d u r i n g the e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y . Most o f t h e e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s g e n e r a l i z e d from the 1880 1s up t o about 1920. M i l l s (1953), Lockwood (1958) and S c h u l e (1919) s u p p o r t t h i s . M i l l s w r i t e s : "Only i n the n o v e l s o f the t i m e , i n an o c c a s i o n a l pamphlet, i n a manual o f i n s t r u c t i o n .... do the fragments e x i s t out o f which can be b u i l t a p i c t u r e o f the o f f i c e , " ( M i l l s , 1953: 180). Lowe adds t o t h i s when he w r i t e s : There are no Canadian s t u d i e s s p e c i f i c a l l y on c l e r k s . Some v a l u a b l e e m p i r i c a l m a t e r i a l on the development o f c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n are found i n the works o f M e l t z and O s t r y . T h e i r r e s e a r c h i s on o c c u p a t i o n a l composi-t i o n o f the Canadian l a b o u r f o r c e . The s c o p e , however, i s l i m i t e d w i t h the most d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f occupa-t i o n a l change c o n f i n e d t o the 1931-61 p e r i o d . Both M e l t z and O s t r y a r e manpower e c o n o m i s t s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e i r s t u d i e s f o c u s on the impact o f economic v a r i a b l e s on l a b o u r f o r c e s u p p l y and demand. O c c u p a t i o n s are not seen as s o c i a l groups s h a r i n g s i m i l a r s e t s o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f work and common p o s i t i o n s i n the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . Data on the development o f o f f i c e i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s f u r n i s h some u s e f u l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . We can i n f e r from the broad o u t l i n e o f the development and changes i n the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s ( i n c o u n t r i e s such as B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s ) t h a t s i m i l a r changes i n Canada were l i n k e d t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and the r i s e o f l a r g e s c a l e b u s i n e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The w e l l documented move i n economic a c t i v i t y i n a l l i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s over t h e l a s t c e n t u r y from a g r i c u l t u r e t o i n d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n and then towards s e r v i c e s i s known t o u n d e r l i e the r i s e o f w h i t e c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s , " (Lowe, 1977: 2 ) . Lowe c a u t i o n s , however, t h a t t h e s e g e n e r a l o c c u p a t i o n a l t r e n d s must be t r e a t e d w i t h c a u t i o n , because the Canadian economy d i f f e r s i n i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s from' o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l economies s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t s h i s t o r i c a l 9 r e l i a n c e on s t a p l e e x p o r t s and f o r e i g n c o n t r o l o f i t s r e s o u r c e s and m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . These make the Canadian economy unique. And i t i s a g a i n s t t h a t l i m i t e d background t h a t we d i s c u s s t he o f f i c e o r g a n i -z a t i o n . O f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h i s t h e s i s i s d e s c r i b e d and d i s c u s s e d i n terms o f the development o f the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n on one hand and the purpose t o which t h e s e f u n c t i o n s a r e employed on the o t h e r . The o f f i c e f u n c t i o n i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . D e f i n i n g t he o f f i c e f u n c t i o n i n t h i s way i s not o n l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h our d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e o f f i c e , but a l s o e n a b l e s us t o t r a c e t he ty p e s o f machines i n -v o l v e d i n t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g and the n a t u r e and e f f e c t s o f t e c h -n o l o g i c a l changes g o i n g on i n t h e s e machines. Purpose i s d i s c u s s e d here i n terms o f t h e scope o f o f f i c e communi-c a t i o n -- whether t h e o f f i c e f u n c t i o n i s employed t o c o o r d i n a t e and con-t r o l i n t e r n a l and/or e x t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . We w i l l be con-c e r n e d w i t h t h e g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f such purpose and not the s p e c i f i c purposes t o which v a r i o u s o f f i c e s employ t h e i r r e s o u r c e s . The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s and subsequent c h a p t e r s w i l l be based m a i n l y on b i g i n d u s t r i a l o f f i c e s even though v a r i o u s o t h e r o f f i c e s w i l l a l s o be acknowledged. T h i s i s because our data a r e h e a v i l y b i a s e d towards t h e s e t y p e s o f o f f i c e s . Most o f t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and a r t i c l e s i n the F i n a n -c i a l Post and i n f o r m a t i o n from Burroughs a r e made m a i n l y w i t h b i g i n d u s -t r i a l o f f i c e s i n mind. Having o u t l i n e d t he f o r m a t o f t h i s c h a p t e r we b e g i n t o deal w i t h the o f f i c e . 10 THE OFFICE The q u e s t i o n a r i s e s as t o what a s o c i o l o g i s t means by "the o f f i c e " . The o f f i c e i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f modern s o c i e t y . Every b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e , e v e r y f a c t o r y , e v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n and, i n f a c t , e v e r y o r g a n i -z a t i o n i s t i e d t o some o f f i c e and by v i r t u e o f what happens t h e r e i s l i n k e d t o o t h e r b u s i n e s s e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e n t e r p r i s e s and t o t h e r e s t o f s o c i e t y . S c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t t he economy, each o f f i c e i s the peak o f a pyramid o f work and money and d e c i s i o n . Any comprehensive d i s -c u s s i o n o f c l e r i c a l workers must n e c e s s a r i l y i n c l u d e t h e o f f i c e , i . e . , the environment w i t h i n , which they. work. But j u s t what i s the o f f i c e ? D e f i n i t i o n here has proved t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o b l e m a t i c . M i l l s , f o r example, d e s c r i b e s t h e o f f i c e a s : "A p l a c e o f work, a p l a c e where i r r e g u l a r rows o f p e o p l e e n t e r the s k y s c r a p e r monument t o the o f f i c e c u l t u r e t o do t h e i r p a r t o f the b u s i n e s s system, the war system, t he money system, c o o r d i n a t i n g t he machiner y , commanding each o t h e r , p e r s u a d i n g t he peop l e o f o t h e r w o r l d s , r e c o r d i n g the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t make up. the n a t i o n ' s day o f work. They t r a n s m i t t he p r i n t e d c u l t u r e t o the next day's g e n e r a t i o n s , " ( M i l l s , 1953: 189). M i l l s r e f e r s t o governmental o f f i c e s , but not a l l o f f i c e s a r e g o v e r n m e n t a l , not a l l o f f i c e s a r e i n v o l v e d i n the p e r s u a s i o n o f the pe o p l e o f o t h e r w o r l d s , and not a l l o f f i c e s r e c o r d t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t make up t h e n a t i o n ' s day o f work. Small p r i v a t e o f f i c e s , f o r example, do not perform any o f t h e s e f u n c t i o n s . L e v i n (1956) argues t h a t the o f f i c e i s a many-sided e n t i t y and t h a t views o f i t g e n e r a l l y d i f f e r w i t h t he background and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t he o b s e r v e r . T h i s view, w h i l e b e i n g p r o b a b l y c o r r e c t , r u l e s out any 11 p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f comparisons and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . But o f f i c e s can be compared because a l l o f f i c e s have c e r t a i n t h i n g s i n common. A common d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f an o f f i c e i s "the p l a c e where the a f f a i r s o f a b u s i n e s s a re c a r r i e d o u t , " ( G u r a l n i k , 1976). T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s r a t h e r vague s i n c e b u s i n e s s can be c a r r i e d out i n homes, h o t e l s and o t h e r p l a c e s t h a t a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y o f f i c e s . To some p e o p l e , t he o f f i c e may be o n l y a bundle o f papers i n a s a t c h e l i n the back o f somebody's c a r , o r i t may be a b i g s k y s c r a p e r , each f l o o r a s e t o f g l a s s r a b b i t w a r r e n s , o r t h e whole o f a h e a d q u a r t e r s f o r t h e n a t i o n w i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f o t h e r o f f i c e s . G e n e r a l l y , t h e o f f i c e i s c o n s i d e r e d a p l a c e where t y p i n g , f i l i n g and r e c o r d keeping take p l a c e . Yet i t i s d o u b t f u l whether t he mere presence o f a t y p e w r i t e r , f i l e c a s e , o r l e d g e r c a r d p r o v i d e s a workable d e f i n i t i o n o f the o f f i c e . Some p l a c e s c o n s i d e r e d o f f i c e s have none o f t h e s e . A s t u d e n t o f f i c e i n an i n s t i t u t i o n may not c o n t a i n a n y t h i n g a p a r t from books, a desk and a c h a i r . The d i v i s i o n between the f a c t o r y and t he o f f i c e , between t h e salesman i n the f i e l d and h i s s u p p o r t , and between management and the o f f i c e l a c k s p o s i t i v e r e s o l u t i o n . With t h i s d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n , we have attempt-ed t o broaden t he o f f i c e c o n c e p t i n l i n e w i t h our d e f i n i t i o n o f c l e r i c a l work. Doing so a l l o w s us t o view t he o f f i c e w i t h g r e a t e r u n i t y . There i s a whole v a r i e t y o f o f f i c e s : i n d u s t r i a l , c ommercial, i n s t i -t u t i o n a l , p r i v a t e , government, b i g and s m a l l . These v a r i e t i e s o f o f f i c e s do have unique q u a l i t i e s . A small o f f i c e a t t a c h e d t o a h o s p i t a l ward, f o r example, may have a unique s e t o f o f f i c e machines and may have d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g p r o c e d u r e s than a l a r g e governmental 12 i n s u r a n c e o f f i c e . But, l i k e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e r e are c e r t a i n common denominators t h a t e x i s t among t h e s e l a r g e c l a s s e s o f o f f i c e s . The common denominator here i s seen w i t h i n the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , and t h e p r o c e d u r e s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n , and the scope o f o f f i c e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g communi-c a t i o n . A l l o f f i c e s engage,in i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g i n one form o r a n o t h e r , and i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g i n v o l v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s e i t h e r done by hand o r by machine. a) O r i g i n a t i n g d a t a . Data must be o r i g i n a t e d i n some form f o r p r o c e s s i n g , o f t e n c a l l e d s o u r c e documents. T h i s i s o f t e n t o i n c l u d e h a n d w r i t t e n o r t y p e d forms such as s a l e s t i c k e t s , cheques, d e p o s i t s l i p s , and customer i n v o i c e s . Data o r i g i n a l l y r e c o r d e d i n one form may l a t e r be con-v e r t e d i n t o m a c h i n e - u s a b l e form f o r f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g . b) The second s t e p i s c l a s s i f y i n g . I d e n t i f y i n g and a r r a n g i n g items w i t h l i k e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o groups o r c l a s s e s i s c a l l e d c l a s s i f y i n g . C l a s s i f y i n g i s u s u a l l y done by a s h o r t e n e d p r e d e t e r m i n e d method o f o b s e r v a t i o n known as c o d i n g . The t h r e e t y p e s o f codes used a r e numeric, a l p h a -b e t i c and a l p h a n u m e r i c . Code numbers a r e used t o d e s i g n a t e a person's s o c i a l s e c u r i t y number, p a y r o l l number, e t c . A l p h a b e t i c codes a r e used t o c l a s s i f y such d i v e r s e t h i n g s as v i t a m i n (ABC), or f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n (AAA-BB-C). A l p h a -numeric codes, as a u t o m o b i l e l i c e n s e p l a t e s (AB-3260). 13 S o r t i n g i s the t h i r d s t e p . A f t e r the d a t a are c l a s s i -f i e d , i t i s then u s u a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o a r r a n g e or r e -a r r a n g e them i n a p r e d e t e r m i n e d sequence t o f a c i l i t a t e p r o c e s s i n g . T h i s arrangement i s c a l l e d s o r t i n g . A r i t h m e t i c m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the d a t a i s known as c a l -c u l a t i n g and i s the f o u r t h s t e p . In the c a l c u l a t i o n o f an employee's pay, f o r example, the t o t a l o f hours worked m u l t i p l i e d by h o u r l y wage r a t e would g i v e the t a x a b l e g r o s s e a r n i n g s . The f i f t h s t e p i s summarizing. To be o f v a l u e , d a t a must o f t e n be condensed o r s i f t e d so t h a t t h e r e s u l t i n g r e p o r t s w i l l be c o n c i s e and e f f e c t i v e . Reducing masses o f d a t a t o a more u s a b l e form i s c a l l e d summarizing. S t o r i n g i s the next s t e p and i n v o l v e s p l a c i n g d a t a i n t o f i l e s f o r f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e . In the p a y r o l l example c i t e d , the d a t a on hours worked e a r l y i n the pay p e r i o d had t o be s t o r e d u n t i l the p a y r o l l was p r e p a r e d . R e t r i e v i n g i s the s e v e n t h s t e p and i n v o l v e s r e c o v e r i n g s t o r e d d a t a and/or i n f o r m a t i o n when needed. R e t r i e v i n g methods range from s e a r c h e s made by f i l e c l e r k s t o the use o f q u i c k - r e s p o n d i n g i n q u i r y t e r m i n a l s t h a t a r e c o n n e c t e d d i r e c t l y ( i . e . , t h e y a r e o n - l i n e ) t o a computer. The computer, where i t i s used, i s i n t u r n connected d i r e c t l y t o a mass s t o r a g e d e v i c e t h a t c o n t a i n s the i n -f o r m a t i o n . The computer i s programmed t o r e t r i e v e the i n f o r m a t i o n and r e l a y i t t o the i n q u i r y s t a t i o n a t e l e c -t r o n i c speeds. The s t a t i o n may be i n the next room next t o the computer o r i t may be thousands o f m i l e s away. 14 h) The next s t a g e i s r e p r o d u c i n g . I t i s sometimes n e c e s s a r y or d e s i r a b l e t o copy or d u p l i c a t e d a t a . T h i s o p e r a t i o n i s known as d a t a r e p r o d u c t i o n and may be done by hand o r machine. Some machines ( e . g . , Xerox equipment) produce a humanly r e a d a b l e copy document. Others r e p r o d u c e t h e d a t a i n machine-r e a d a b l e form on media such as punched c a r d s , punched paper tape and magnetic t a p e so t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t or i m p o s s i b l e f o r a.person t o r e a d i t d i r e c t l y . I t i s now c l e a r t h a t d a t a may go t h r o u g h many s t e p s a f t e r i t has been o r i g i n a t e d . The t r a n s f e r o f d a t a from one o p e r a t i o n t o a n o t h e r f o r use or f o r f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g i s known as d a t a communication. The communication p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e s u n t i l the i n f o r m a t i o n i n a u s a b l e form r e a c h e s the f i n a l u s e r ' s l o c a t i o n ( S a n d e r s , 1972: 7-8). These p r o c e d u r e s i n the d i s c u s s e d sequence or i n d i f f e r e n t com-b i n a t i o n s go on i n almost e v e r y o f f i c e and t o g e t h e r make the o f f i c e t h e c e n t r a l nervous system o f any e n t e r p r i s e . As put f o r w a r d by Wanous, The o f f i c e i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as t h e nervous system o f a b u s i n e s s o r o t h e r e n t e r p r i s e . The o f f i c e i s t h e c e n t r e i n which i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e c o r d e d , c l a s s i -f i e d , s o r t e d , summarized, computed, and t r a n s m i t t e d as needed. The d u t i e s performed i n the o f f i c e a r e b r o a d l y r e f e r r e d t o as d a t a p r o c e s s i n g . The term a p p l i e s whether the work i s done by hand or by machine. I t i s s i m p l y a n o t h e r name f o r o f f i c e work. Data p r o c e s s i n g thus goes on i n e v e r y o f f i c e , no m a t t e r how l a r g e or small i t may be (Wanous, 1966: 1 ) . However b i g o r s m a l l , the minimum g e n e r a l purpose o f an o f f i c e i s to d i r e c t and c o o r d i n a t e the a c t i v i t i e s o f an e n t e r p r i s e t h r o u g h i t s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . O f f i c e s o p e r a t e on s e v e r a l dimensions such as 15 i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l . The i n t e r n a l dimension i n c l u d e s d i r e c t i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f a p a r t i c u l a r b u s i n e s s from w i t h i n the b u s i n e s s . I t i n c l u d e s , f o r example, c o o r d i n a t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t workers i n the o f f i c e , the workers and management and the customers o r p a r t i c i p a n t s t h a t p a t r o n i z e the o f f i c e . The e x t e r n a l dimension i n v o l v e s i n t r a - o f f i c e c o o r d i n a t i o n . I t i n c l u d e s the c o o r d i n a t i n g o f the a c t i v i t i e s o f one o f f i c e w i t h o t h e r o f f i c e s and c u s t o m e r s , e t c . , t h a t a r e l i n k e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r o f f i c e . These o f f i c e s and customers c o u l d be nearby or s e v e r a l hundred k i l o m e t e r s away. The e x t e r n a l dimension can be e x t r a p o l a t e d t o t h e n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s : On the n a t i o n a l l e v e l the o f f i c e c o o r d i n a t e s the a c t i v i t i e s o f one o f f i c e w i t h o t h e r branches s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h the c o u n t r y and a l s o t o d i r e c t i t s a c t i v i t i e s i n l i n e w i t h n a t i o n a l p o l i -c i e s . Some o f f i c e s have the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d e a l i n g w i t h f o r e i g n n a t i o n s and t h e i r o f f i c e s . Others have branches i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s as i n t h e c a s e s o f e x p o r t and import d e a l i n g s , f o r e i g n p o l i c i e s and f o r e i g n a f f a i r s , i m m i g r a t i o n and t h e l i k e . M u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s a r e dependent upon communication between o f f i c e s i n a m u l t i t u d e o f c o u n t r i e s . I t i s t h r o u g h the a n a l y s i s o f t h e changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n the f u n c t i o n and purpose o f t h e o f f i c e work t h a t we can a p p r e c i a t e the changes t h a t permeated t h i s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n from 1911 t o 1971. We want a t t h i s p o i n t t o c a u t i o n t h a t we a r e aware t h a t the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n as d e f i n e d here goes beyond the door marked " o f f i c e " . A f r e i g h t t r a i n c o n d u c t o r who f i l l s out a r e p o r t i n a moving caboose and a t r u c k d r i v e r who m a i n t a i n s time and m a t e r i a l r e c o r d f o r a working crew would 16 both be h a n d l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . We w i l l want, f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f a n a l y s i s and comparison, t o l i m i t our d i s c u s s i o n o f the o f f i c e by p h y s i c a l bounda-r i e s . We w i l l d i s c u s s t he o f f i c e t h a t i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n a p h y s i c a l s t r u c t u r e - a room o r an a r e a where a group o f workers c o l l e c t i n f o r m a -t i o n , p r o c e s s and use i t i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f b u s i n e s s a f f a i r s . T h i s i s because "moving o f f i c e s " a r e l i m i t e d i n the f u n c t i o n s t h a t t h e y s e r v e and t h e machines t h a t t h e y employ. Almost a l l o f them a r e a t t a c h e d t o o r ar e a p p e n d i c e s o f o t h e r o f f i c e s c o n t a i n e d i n a b u i l d i n g and a r e not as i t were, complete o f f i c e s . The aim a t t h i s p o i n t we want t o emphasize i s not concerned w i t h t h e t e c h n i c a l i t i e s o f the o f f i c e work, but w i t h t h e changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n t h e p r o c e d u r e o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g on one hand, and the changes t h a t have o c c u r r e d i n t h e purposes which t h e s e f u n c t i o n s s e r v e , and then t o see how t h e s e changes i n a g e n e r a l sense have a f f e c t e d t he s o c i a l r e l a -t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n the o f f i c e . OFFICE DEVELOPMENT To u n d e r s t a n d t h e development o f the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e 1911 p e r i o d w i t h our l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e , we w i l l have t o go a l i t t l e f u r t h e r back t o d i s c u s s v e r y b r i e f l y the p r o c e s s e s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n , f o r the o f f i c e development has been one o f the f a c e t s o f urban development. As P e t e r Cowan e t a l (1969) remarked: I f we are t o u n d e r s t a n d the p l a c e o f the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n i n our c i t i e s t o d a y , we must l o o k back i n t o urban h i s t o r y ; f o r t h e r i s e o f the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n as we know i t today i s c l o s e l y bound up w i t h changing p a t t e r n s o f urban l i f e , w i t h major economic and s o c i a l developments - e s p e c i a l l y t h e i n -d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n - and w i t h a s e r i e s o f i n v e n t i o n s and i n n o v a t i o n s i n the f i e l d o f communications," (Cowan e t a l , 1969: 23). 17 To g i v e our d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e o f f i c e some de p t h , we want t o s k e t c h the h i s t o r y o f the modern c i t y and how the e v o l u t i o n o f the o f f i c e f i t s i n t o i t . The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s r e s p e c t has been g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the work o f Cowan e t a l , who have done a comprehensive work i n the p l a c e of t h e o f f i c e i n urban development i n B r i t a i n . For a g r e a t many y e a r s , from t he m i d d l e ages u n t i l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , most communities o p e r a t e d c l o s e t o what Toe n n i e s c a l l e d "Gemeinschaft". To Toe n n i e s a l l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s a r e c r e a t i o n s o f human w i l l , o f which t h e r e a r e two t y p e s . The f i r s t i s e s s e n t i a l w i l l : t h e b a s i c , i n s t i n c t i v e , o r g a n i c tendency which d r i v e s human a c t i v i t y as from b e h i n d . The second i s a r b i t r a r y w i l l : t h e d e l i -b e r a t i v e , p u r p o s i v e form o f v o l i t i o n which d e t e r m i n e s human a c t i v i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o the f u t u r e , ( T i m a s h e f f , 1967: 99-101). E s s e n t i a l w i l l , T o e n n i e s s t r e s s e s , dominates communal l i f e , w h i l e a r b i t r a r y w i l l c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f b u s i n e s s e s . These two modes o f w i l l , w i l l e x p l a i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f two b a s i c t ypes o f s o c i a l groups. The f i r s t group, t he ex-p e r i e n c e o f e s s e n t i a l w i l l , T o e n n i e s c a l l e d "Gemeinschaft", and the a r b i -t r a r i l y w i l l e d group " G e s e l l s c h a f t " . For T o e n n i e s , the c o n c e p t s o f Gemein-s c h a f t and G e s e l l s c h a f t r e f e r not o n l y t o t y p e s o f human g r o u p i n g , but a l s o t o s t a g e s o f growth. G e s e l l s c h a f t emerges t h r o u g h t he detachment o f person and s e r v i c e s from t h e framework o f G e m e i n s c h a f t , e s p e c i a l l y when goods and s e r v i c e s come t o be bought and s o l d on the f r e e market. With such G e m e i n s c h a f t - l i k e communities t h e r e was no need f o r a s e p a r a t e l o c a t i o n c a l l e d t h e o f f i c e where r e c o r d s were kept and i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e d . F a m i l i e s v a n d sometimes communities p i t c h e d i n t o do t h i n g s t o -g e t h e r . Most o f the t r a d e and o t h e r t r a n s a c t i o n s were done on t h e i n f o r m a l 18 l e v e l and r e c o r d s were e i t h e r kept i n human b r a i n s or w r i t t e n on a l i m i t e d e x t e n t . As p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s w i t h i n a community de v e l o p e d q u a l i t a t i v e l y t h e r e was a c o r r e s p o n d i n g development o f p r o d u c t i o n r e -l a t i o n s . With the s p r i n g i n g up o f c o t t a g e i n d u s t r y , communal r e l a t i o n -s h i p s began t o g i v e way t o more formal and o r g a n i z e d ones. People began to move t o t r a d e c e n t r e s where b u s i n e s s e s f l o u r i s h e d and j o b s were a v a i l -a b l e . The a g g r e g a t e s o f p e o p l e t h a t f l o o d e d t h e s e a r e a s , c o u p l e d w i t h r a p i d economic and s o c i a l developments o f t h e s e t r a d e c e n t r e s , d e v e l o p e d i n t o the c i t i e s o r the urban c e n t r e s . These developments f u r t h e r en-couraged the r u r a l push and the urban p u l l . T h i s r a t h e r s k e t c h y d e s c r i p -t i o n o f the p r o c e s s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d j u s t t o g i v e our argument p e r s p e c t i v e . The concern o f t h i s paper i s not the p r o c e s s o f u r b a n i z a t i o n p e r s e , and we do not i n t e n d t o go i n t o any more d e t a i l s . The p r i m a r y r o l e o f most c i t i e s a t t h i s time was f o r d e f e n c e , t r a d e , o r , i n some c a s e s , f o r p o l i t i c a l or r e l i g i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . D i c k i n s o n (1964) w r i t e s t h a t market p l a c e , t r a d e r o u t e , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l s t r o n g h o l d and the c a s t l e o f the f e u d a l l o r d became the g e n e r a t i n g f o r c e s i n both t h e f u n c t i o n s and the form o f medieval town. In such a c o n t e x t the p l a c e o f the o f f i c e was v e r y small and d i f f u s e d . A f f a i r s o f s t a t e and t h e m i l i t a r y r e q u i r e d some a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , but not v e r y e l a b o r a t e machinery was needed. As Cowan e t a l remarked: "In some l a r g e c i t i e s t h e r e might grow up c e r t a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o f f i c e d i s t r i c t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the law and t h e s e would c e n t r e upon some f o c u s such as the c o u r t s o f j u s t i c e . But the commercial o f f i c e f u n c t i o n , as we know i t t o d a y , was accommodated g e n e r a l l y , w i t h i n o t h e r s t r u c t u r a l elements o f the c i t y (Cowan, 1969: 2 6 ) . 19 I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n was o b s c u r e d i n t h i s way. With the c o m p a r a t i v e l y s i m p l e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e time t h e r e was no c a l l f o r much e l a b o r a t i o n o r i n c r e a s e i n o f f i c e a c t i v i t y which a t t h i s time i n v o l v e d h a n d w r i t t e n r e c o r d s and r e c o r d -k e e p i n g . The main f o c u s o f the c i t y l a y e l s e w h e r e , the e x p a n s i o n o f t r a d e through e x p l o r a t i o n s and d i s c o v e r i e s was p r e p a r i n g the ground f o r fundamental a l t e r a t i o n s i n the c i t y and the s o c i e t y . The l a t t e r p a r t o f the 18th c e n t u r y saw the b e g i n n i n g o f the i n -d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n and t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e c i t y t o cope w i t h i t . F o r some time i t was the c a p i t a l c i t i e s which grew, t h e most; the r i s e o f the i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s d i d not come u n t i l l a t e r . Mumford shows t h i s c l e a r l y : t he c a p i t a l s c o n t i n u e d t o monopolize p o p u l a t i o n . In the 18th c e n t u r y the c i t i e s w i t h o v e r 200,000 • i n c l u d e d Moscow, W r e i r , S t . P e t e r s b u r g and P a l e r n o , w h i l e a l r e a d y i n the 100,000 c l a s s were Warsaw, B e r l i n and Copenhagen. Toward the end o f t h e 18th c e n t u r y N a p l e s , 433,930 i n h a b i t a n t s , P a r i s around 670,000 and London o v e r 800,000; w h i l e the t r a d i n g c i t i e s l i k e B r i s t o l and Herwich, o r t h e i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s l i k e Leeds, Manchester, Iserohn and Paderborn, f o r t h e most p a r t , remained small i n s i z e , t h a t i s , w i t h l e s s than f i f t y thousand i n h a b i t a n t s (Mumford, 1938: 8 1 ) . During the 19th c e n t u r y the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n a t t a i n e d a c l i m a x and the r o l e o f t h e c i t y changed a g r e a t d e a l . The r o l e o f the c i t y i n t h e West changed out o f a l l r e c o g n i t i o n . The c i t y became a c e n t r e f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g , c o t t a g e i n d u s t r y d e c l i n e d , the workers f l o c k e d from the c o u n t r y t o the towns, p a r t l y i n s e a r c h f o r r i c h e r rewards and p a r t l y be-cause they had been d i s p l a c e d from a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r by the e n c l o s u r e movement. The i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n changed the form o f the c i t y . New machinery r e q u i r e d l a b o u r i n l a r g e amounts, and as the e x p a n s i o n o f the p r o d u c t i o n and t r a d e proceeded, so more and more l a b o u r was r e q u i r e d . 20 The workers had t o be housed near t o the f a c t o r i e s . The 19th c e n t u r y i n d u s t r i a l c i t y was born. The symbol o f the c i t y was no l o n g e r the c h u r c h , the p a l a c e , or the market p l a c e , but the f a c t o r y . A l l t h e s e wrought tremendous changes i n the p a t t e r n o f o f f i c e a c t i -v i t i e s . The need t o c o n t r o l and t o f i n a n c e the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o the growth o f o f f i c e s as we know them today and i l l u s t r a t e t h r e e a s p e c t s o f the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n : i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , c o o r d i n a t i o n , and t h e c o n t r o l o f c o m p l e x i t y . I t i s o b v i o u s from our e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n t h a t the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n has a g r e a t d e a l t o do w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . The j o b s t h a t people do i n o f f i c e s have always been concerned w i t h w r i t i n g messages o f one k i n d or a n o t h e r and w i t h r e l a y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . We s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , e x p e c t t h a t when t h e r e i s an i n c r e a s e i n the number of f i n a n c i a l o r o t h e r t r a n s a c t i o n s t h e r e w i l l be a c o r r e s p o n d i n g growth o f the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n . The e x p l o r a -t i o n s and d i s c o v e r i e s o f the p r e v i o u s c e n t u r i e s had a l r e a d y opened up whole new realms f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n and had i n c r e a s e d t r a d e enormously. C l e a r l y , t h i s would i n t u r n l e a d t o a growth i n the number o f messages, b i l l s , agreements and so on which t u r n e d i n t o the d i f f e r e n t e n t e r p r i s e s i n the c i t y . Mumford (1938) w r i t e s : Food-chains and p r o d u c t i o n - c h a i n s o f an e x t r e m e l y c o m p l i -c a t e d n a t u r e were b e i n g formed throu g h o u t the p l a n e t : i c e t r a v e l l e d from Boston t o C a l c u t t a and t e a j o u r n e y e d from Chi n a t o I c e l a n d , w h i l s t machinery from Birmingham and Manchester found i t s way t o the remotest c o r n e r o f the e a r t h . A u n i v e r s a l p o s t a l s e r v i c e , f a s t l o c o m o t i o n and almost i n s t a n t a n e o u s communication by t e l e g r a p h and c a b l e s y n c h r o -n i z e d the a c t i v i t i e s o f masses o f men who had h i t h e r t o l a c k e d the most r u d i m e n t a r y f a c i l i t i e s f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r t a s k s (Mumford, 1938: 151). The o f f i c e and i t s f u n c t i o n s kept growing, and as i t d i d i t became n e c e s s a r y t o s e p a r a t e i t from o t h e r f a c e t s o f urban a c t i v i t y t o which i t has been an i n t e g r a l p a r t . There was a move from Gemeinschaft t o G e l l e s c h a f t . 21 T h i s i s because, as an o r g a n i z a t i o n o r an organism grows i n c o m p l e x i t y , c e r t a i n p a r t s or f u n c t i o n s become s e p a r a t e from o t h e r s . The o f f i c e f u n c t i o n o f communication i s j u s t such a c a s e . When an o r g a n i z a t i o n i s f a i r l y s i m p l e , as i n a c o t t a g e i n d u s t r y or a s m a l l workshop, t h e o f f i c e f u n c t i o n i s i n t e g r a l w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s i t s e l f . But as the e n t e r p r i s e grows and i n c r e a s e s i n c o m p l e x i t y , and e s p e c i a l l y as more l i n k s a re added t o the networks o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l communications, so the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n begins t o s e p a r a t e o f f . H a i r e (1959) has shown t h i s p r o -c e s s a t work i n a l l k i n d s o f e n t e r p r i s e s . T h i s p r o c e s s was i m p o r t a n t because o f the growing c o m p l e x i t y and i n t r i c a c y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n needed t o f i n a n c e , a d m i n i s t e r and s u p p o r t the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n . There began the s p r i n g i n g up o f " o f f i c e q u a r t e r s : where the new o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s c l u s t e r t o g e t h e r . In New York a c l u s t e r o f c e n t r a l o f f i c e s ( e s p e c i a l l y l a r g e r e n t e r p r i s e s ) began t o accumulate i n the l a t e 1880's. These powerful s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f o r c e s t h a t pushed the growth o f t h e o f f i c e were complemented by a s e r i e s o f i n v e n t i o n s and t e c h n i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s which g r a d u a l l y shaped the development o f the o f f i c e as we know i t today. Three i n v e n t i o n s shaped the o f f i c e a c t i v i t y : the t e l e g r a p h , the t e l e p h o n e , and the t y p e w r i t e r w i t h i t s complementary s k i 11, s h o r t h a n d w r i t i n g . The t e l e g r a p h had been i n v e n t e d by Watson i n 1746 and t h e f i r s t t e l e -graph l i n e had been e r e c t e d by Cray and Wheeler i n 1753, but i t was not u n t i l 1851 t h a t the D o v e r - C a l a i s c a b l e w a s . s u c c e s s f u l . In 1856 the A t l a n t i c c a b l e c o n n e c t e d Europe and America. By 1862, a c c o r d i n g t o D e r r y and W i l l i a m s (1960), the w o r l d ' s t e l e g r a p h l i n e s had spanned America from c o a s t t o c o a s t i n 1861. A method o f p r i n t i n g the message was i n v e n t e d i n 1854, and was d e v e l o p e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s as 'Hoase's p r i n t i n g t e l e g r a p h ' . In 1867 the New York Stock Exchange i n s t a l l e d the e l e c t r i c s t o c k t i c k e r . Throughout 22 the l a t t e r p a r t o f the 19th c e n t u r y t e l e g r a p h l i n e s m u l t i p l i e d i n Europe and i n America c o n n e c t i n g c e n t r a l o f f i c e s and exchanges w i t h d i s t a n t branches. The two i n v e n t i o n s which perhaps had the g r e a t e s t e f f e c t upon the n a t u r e o f t h e o f f i c e f u n c t i o n were the t e l e p h o n e i n v e n t e d by B e l l i n 1867 and the t y p e w r i t e r . The t e l e p h o n e changed o f f i c e a c t i v i t i e s t r e -mendously. Not o n l y d i d the a b i l i t y t o speak d i r e c t l y w i t h p e o p l e a t a d i s t a n c e a f f e c t the d i s p e r s a l o f o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s , but w i t h i n the o f f i c e i t s e l f . The t e l e p h o n e changed t h i n g s and i n c r e a s e d the work l o a d . C o n f i r m a t i o n o f o r d e r s , booking o f a p p o i n t m e n t s , i n s t r u c t i o n s and the l i k e became some o f the major p a r t s o f o f f i c e a c t i v i t y . The t e l e p h o n e and the t y p e w r i t e r t o g e t h e r e f f e c t e d f a r r e a c h i n g changes i n o f f i c e space. McLuhan (1964) has d e s c r i b e d i n some d e t a i l the impact o f t h e s e i n v e n t i o n s : At f i r s t , however, the t y p e w r i t e r was not seen as i n d i s -p e n s a b l e t o b u s i n e s s . The p e r s o n a l touch o f t h e hand-penned l e t t e r was c o n s i d e r e d so i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e t y p e -w r i t e r was r u l e d out o f commercial use by the p u n d i t s Once any p a r t o f the economy f e e l s a s t e p up i n pace, the r e s t o f the economy has t o f o l l o w s u i t . Soon no b u s i n e s s -man c o u l d be i n d i f f e r e n t t o the g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d pace s e t by the t y p e w r i t e r . I t was the t e l e p h o n e , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , t h a t sped the commercial a d o p t i o n o f the t y p e w r i t e r . The p h r a s e , 'Send me a memo on t h a t ' , r e p e a t e d i n t o m i l l i o n s o f phones d a i l y h e l p e d t o c r e a t e the huge ex p a n s i o n o f the t y p i s t f u n c t i o n . N o r t h c o t e P a r k i n s o n ' s law t h a t work ex-pands t o f i l l t h e time a v a i l a b l e f o r i t s c o m p l e t i o n i s p r e c i s e l y the zany dynamic p r o v i d e d by the t e l e p h o n e . In no time a t a l l the t e l e p h o n e expanded the work t o be done on the t y p e w r i t e r t o huge d i m e n s i o n s . Pyramids o f paper-work r i s e on the b a s i s o f a s m a l l t e l e p h o n e network i n s i d e a s i n g l e b u s i n e s s ...... P a r k i n s o n had d i s c o v e r e d t h a t 'any b u s i n e s s o f b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e f u n c t i o n s by i t s e l f , i n -d e p e n d e n t l y o f the work t o be done? The number o f p e r s o n n e l and the q u a l i t y o f work are;-n o t . i r e l a t e d t o . e a c h o t h e r ^ a t a l l . In any g i v e n s t r u c t u r e the r a t e o f s t a f f a c c u m u l a t i o n i s not ^ r e l a t e d t o what work i s done, but t o t h e i n t e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n among the s t a f f P a r k i n s o n ' s law says t h a t t h e r a t e o f 23 a c c u m u l a t i o n o f o f f i c e s t a f f per annum w i l l be between 5.17 p e r c e n t and 6.56 p e r c e n t i r r e s p e c t i v e o f any v a r i -a t i o n s i n t h e amount o f work ( i f any) t o be done'...-. What P a r k i n s o n c a r e f u l l y h i d e s from h i m s e l f and h i s r e a d e r s i s s i m p l y the f a c t t h a t i n the a r e a o f i n f o r m a -t i o n movement, the main work t o be done i s a c t u a l l y t h e movement o f i n f o r m a t i o n (McLuhan, 1964: 263). Mumford (1938) summed up a l l t h e s e p a t t e r n s o f i n v e n t i o n and t h e i r impact upon the o f f i c e : With the manufacture o f the t y p e w r i t e r i n the s e v e n t i e s , and the c o i n c i d e n t speed o f h i g h speed s t e n o g r a p h y , more and more b u s i n e s s c o u l d be conducted on paper. M e c h a n i c a l means o f communication and mechanical means o f making and m a n i f o l d i n g the permanent r e c o r d , m e c h a n i c a l systems o f a u d i t and c o n t r o l -- a l l these, d e v i c e s a i d e d the r i s e o f a v a s t commercial b u r e a u c r a c y c a p a b l e o f s e l l i n g i n e v e r v a s t e r t e r r i t o r i e s .... The housing o f t h e b u r e a u c r a c y i n the o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s and tenements and e x p a n s i o n ; t h e i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n back and f o r t h t o work w i t h a l i m i t e d time span r a i s e d one o f the d i f f i c u l t t e c h n i c a l problems t h a t c o n f r o n t e d the c i t y p l a n n e r and the e n g i n e e r (Mumford, 1938: 266). By the end o f the 19th c e n t u r y the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n had become w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d as a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y i n the c i t y : new b u i l d i n g s were b e i n g c o n s t r u c t e d t o house i t ; more and more o f the l a b o u r f o r c e were working i n o f f i c e s , and women e s p e c i a l l y were b e g i n n i n g t o l e a v e d o m e s t i c and f a c t o r y work t o go i n t o o f f i c e work i n l a r g e numbers. The o u t l i n e s o f the o f f i c e as we know i t were l a i d down. THE OLD OFFICE During the 20th c e n t u r y the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n began t o assume an e v e r -i n c r e a s i n g importance t o the Western c i t y . By the 1911 p e r i o d the o f f i c e was a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n Canada as i n any o t h e r Western s o c i e t y (Lowe, 1977: 1 ) . But the e x t e n t o f i t s i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g p r o c e d u r e s , the machines used and the purpose they s e r v e d , were l i m i t e d compared t o the 24 50's and the 70's. T h i s l i m i t a t i o n was i n p a r t dependent on t h e slow s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l development o f t h e 1911 p e r i o d . With the c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i m i t e d economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l development d u r i n g the o l d o f f i c e t h e r e was a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l i m i t e d volume o f o f f i c e work to be done. Hoos (1960) remarked, "The Department o f Labour r e p o r t s a s p e c t a c u l a r growth i n the number o f c l e r i c a l j o b h o l d e r s . In 1910 o n l y one i n 20 workers was i n a c l e r i c a l j o b ; by 1940 t h e p r o p o r t i o n was one i n 10; i n 1950 i t was one i n 8; and i n 1958 the r a t i o was one i n 7,". (Hoos, 1960: 363). The degree o f economic and t e c h n o l o g i c a l growth a f f e c t e d the i n -f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g p r o c e d u r e s i n the o f f i c e , the purpose f o r which i t was employed and the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f employment. In terms o f o f f i c e machines, the most common ones i n use were t h e t e l e p h o n e , the t y p e w r i t e r , the d i c t a t i n g machine and i n some cases l a r g e d u p l i c a t i n g machines (IL0 R e p o r t , Feb., 1960: 156). See a l s o T a b l e I I I . O f f i c e r e c o r d s i n the o l d o f f i c e p e r i o d tended t o be c o n s i d e r e d p r i m a r i l y as l e g a l documents r a t h e r than a s t a t i s t i c a l b a s i s f o r n a t i o n a l b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n which was p a r t o f a l a t e r t r e n d o f s c i e n t i f i c management. C e n t r a l t o t h i s r e c o r d system was the l e d g e r which p r o v i d e d an account o f the d e l i b e r a t i o n o f an e n t e r p r i s e as a whole and the p r o f i t a b i l i t y o f p a r t i c u l a r v e n t u r e s and t r a n s a c t i o n s (Lockwood, 1958: 20). T r a n s a c t i o n s a t t h i s p o i n t were m a i n l y on t h e i n t e r n a l l e v e l . The IL0 R e p o r t s , f o r i n s t a n c e , the l i m i t e d communi-c a t i o n scope o f the o f f i c e i n the e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y . The few a v a i l a b l e machines were manu a l l y o p e r a t e d and were used t o p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t d e a l t m a i n l y w i t h the immediate b u s i n e s s needs r e c o r d i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f the b u s i n e s s i n a day, f i g u r i n g out s a l a r i e s and h a n d l i n g customers o r 25 p a r t i c i p a n t s ' documents. T h i s i n most c a s e s , one can imagine, i n v o l v e d p e o p l e from the l o c a l i t y where the e n t e r p r i s e was l o c a t e d . Manual t e c h -n i q u e s o f p r o c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n were enough t o handle the t r a n s a c t i o n s a t t h i s t i m e . As Baker w r i t e s : "Manually o p e r a t e d t y p e w r i t e r s and o t h e r o f f i c e machines met the needs o f b u s i n e s s a t the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , " (Baker, 1964: 212). INFORMATION PROCESSING PROCEDURE: OLD OFFICE Data were> o r i g i n a t e d by both h a n d w r i t i n g o f r e c o r d s and by t y p i n g w i t h a manual t y p e w r i t e r . Both c l a s s i f y i n g and s o r t i n g the d a t a were done by hand u s i n g pegboards i n i n s t a n c e s where the d a t a was c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e . C a l c u l a t i o n s were done i n the human b r a i n by the bookkeeper who was, i n most c a s e s , the a c c o u n t a n t as w e l l . Summarization o f a l l t h e d a t a c a l c u l a t e d was done by hand and s t o r e d i n f i l e s and l e d g e r s . Re-t r i e v i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n was the duty o f the f i l e c l e r k o r the bookkeeper who went thro u g h the f i l e s t o l o c a t e , p a r t i c u l a r documents. To r e p r o d u c e m a t e r i a l s , carbon papers were used and r e p o r t s were w r i t t e n by hand o r on the manual t y p e w r i t e r . Messages were s e n t on the t e l e p h o n e or t h r o u g h messengers (S a n d e r s , 1972: 9 ) . SOCIAL RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION Work i n t h e o l d o f f i c e was c o m p a r a t i v e l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The most si m p l e d i v i s i o n o f t a s k s was between t h e employer who made the i m p o r t a n t b u s i n e s s d e c i s i o n , the b o o k k e e p e r - c a s h i e r who d e a l t w i t h f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s , and the o r d i n a r y c l e r k who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , f i l i n g , docu-menting bookkeeping e n t r i e s , and r o u t i n e o f f i c e m a t t e r s . The bookkeeper was a t the v e r y c e n t r e o f the o f f i c e w o r l d and c o n t r o l l e d a l m o s t a l l the 26 o f f i c e equipment and m a t e r i a l s (Lockwood, 1965) w i t h h i s day book w i t h i n which he r e c o r d e d a l l the t r a n s a c t i o n s o f the day, the j o u r n a l , the cash book o r the l e d g e r , a l l the c u r r e n t o r d e r s and memoranda which were s p r e a d on h i s i r o n s p i k e on h i s desk and i n s i d e open s h e l v e s o r drawers, w i t h box f i l e s i n which a l l the papers t h a t s e r v e d the o f f i c e and i t s s t a f f were s t o r e d . The f o l l o w i n g example o f a small i n d u s t r i a l o f f i c e from Baker w i l l h e l p t o g i v e us p e r s p e c t i v e . She w r i t e s : J u s t the o t h e r day, the f i r s t t y p i s t i n the c i t y o f P h i l a d e l p h i a who had s e r v e d one f i r m 60 y e a r s d i e d a t the age o f 80. D u r i n g h e r l a s t days she r e c a l l e d how i t was i n the e a r l i e r days. She had come i n t o the o f f i c e from her employer's Sunday School c l a s s i n 1882. She remembered when the o f f i c e was one r a t h e r dark room, th e windows always s t r e a k e d w i t h dust from the o u t s i d e and o f t e n f o r g e d w i t h smoke from a p o t - b e l l i e d s t o v e i n the m i d d l e o f . t h e room. She remembered the green eye-shade and cash book, the l e a t h e r - b o u n d l e d g e r and t h e i r o n s p i k e on t h e desk t o p , the day book and the q u i l l pen, t h e l e t t e r p r e s s and t h e box f i l e . A t f i r s t t h e r e were o n l y t h r e e i n the o f f i c e ; a t the h i g h r o l l - t o p desk, do m i n a t i n g the room, s a t the owner, on a s t o o l b e f o r e a h i g h desk w i t h a s l a n t e d top on t h i n l e g s hunched a book-keeper, and near the door, b e f o r e a t a b l e t h a t h e l d the new machine s a t t h e w h i t e c o l l a r g i r l . ( B a k e r , 1964: 209). Some o f the o l d o f f i c e s , as Lockwood (1965), Baker (1964) and. M i l l s (1962) a t t e s t , o p e r a t e d on such s m a l l s c a l e s . We assume then t h a t such s m a l l o f f i c e s d i d not r e q u i r e s k y s c r a p e r s f o r o f f i c e space nor enormous o f f i c e accommodations. But t h e r e were e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s t r e n d e s p e c i a l l y i n c a s e s o f l a r g e r e n t e r p r i s e s such as the banks and the i n s u r a n c e c o o p e r a t i o n s . The example o f a c l u s t e r o f c e n t r a l o f f i c e s i n New York c i t e d e a r l i e r on i s a case i n p o i n t . Mumford (1938) r e p o r t s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t a number o f i n s u r a n c e companies e r e c t e d b u i l d i n g s i n England i n the a r e a o f the S t r a n d and F l e e t S t r e e t d u r i n g the 1830 1s and t h o s e c l u s t e r s o f b u i l d i n g s s u r v i v e today. 27 In Canada t h e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n was b e g i n n i n g t o grow around t h i s p e r i o d . (See T a b l e I.) Lowe (1977) remarks: "From 1891 t o 1921, c l e r i -c a l growth a c c e l e r a t e d d r a m a t i c a l l y and d u r i n g t he 1911 t o 1921 decade i t reached i t s peak f o r the e n t i r e 80 y e a r s (1891-1971)" (Lowe, 1977: 5 ) . We argue t h a t t h e c l e r i c a l r a t e a c c e l e r a t e d e s p e c i a l l y from 1818 t o 1921. Even though t h e r e a re no data on t h e y e a r by y e a r growth o f t h i s decade (1818 - 1921), we b e l i e v e the p e r i o d o f the f i r s t w o r l d war g e n e r a t e d economic boom and c o u l d i n p a r t account f o r t h i s growth. Lowe (1977) w r i t e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t t h i s growth was i n p a r t due t o the economic boom c r e a t e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t decade o f t h e 20th c e n t u r y by Western s e t t l e m e n t , r e c o r d g r a i n p r o d u c t i o n , and a l s o r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n l a r g e l y i n r e s p o n s e to the e x i g e n c i e s o f t h e two w o r l d wars. Whatever t h e growth r a t e a t t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d , t h e t a s k s i n the o f f i c e s were r e l a t i v e l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and c e n t r e d around the "boss" o r manager, the bookkeeper and a l l - p u r p o s e c l e r k s . The o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n manual o f 1911 c e n s u s , f o r example, shows t h a t t h e r e was no s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t h e c l e r i c a l j o b . There were s i m p l y c l e r k s o r " o f f i c e employee" f o r d i f f e r e n t o f f i c e s , not t y p i s t s , s t e n o g r a p h e r s and o t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d c l e r k s . See T a b l e I I . TABLE I Per c e n t a g e I n c r e a s e Each Decade T o t a l Labour F o r c e and C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n s , Canada 1911-1971 Year T o t a l Labour F o r c e C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n 1911-1921 16.2 109.3 1921-1931 23.8 20.3 1931-1941 7.0 16.5 1941-1951 26.1 85.4 1951-1961 22.4 45.4 1961-1971 33.6 60.1 Based on d a t a a d j u s t e d t o 1951 Census O c c u p a t i o n C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . S ource: Lowe, op. c i t . , p. 6. 29 TABLE II O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 1911-1971 (Based on t h e O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Manual o f Canada) C l e r k , (any s t o r e ) C l e r k , (bar-room) C l e r k , b i l l i a r d h a l l C l e r k , board o f e d u c a t i o n C l e r k , board o f t r a d e C l e r k , b o t t l e maker C l e r k , b r o k e r C l e r k , b u t c h e r C l e r k , chemical C l e r k , c i r c u i t ( c o u r t ) C l e r k , c i t y C l e r k , c o f f e e house C l e r k , l i b r a r y C l e r k , l o c o m o t i v e works C l e r k , l u n c h room C l e r k , m a n u f a c t u r i n g co. (N.S.) C l e r k , p a r l i a m e n t (Dom.) C l e r k , m u n i c i p a l C l e r k , newspaper C l e r k , o f f i c e (N.S.) 1911 C l e r k , commission house C l e r k , s e s s i o n a l C l e r k , county C l e r k , c o u r t house C l e r k , d a i r y C l e r k , e l e c t r i c m a n u f a c t u r i n g C l e r k f a c t o r y (N.S.) C l e r k , government (Dom.) C l e r k , g r a i n e l e v a t o r C l e r k , h o t e l C l e r k , l a b o r a t o r y C l e r k , law o f f i c e C l e r k , u n d e r t a k e r C l e r k , warehouse C l e r k , water department C l e r k , a b s t r a c t C l e r k , a d v e r t i s i n g (N.S.) C l e r k , b i l l (N.S.) C l e r k , b i l l (N.S.) C l e r k , check (N.S.) 30 TABLE II ( c o n t i n u e d ) C l e r k , pawnbroker C l e r k , p h o t o g r a p h e r C l e r k , plumbing company C l e r k , pool room C l e r k , p o s t o f f i c e C l e r k , r a i l w a y m a i l C l e r k , r a i l w a y p o s t a l C l e r k , r e a l e s t a t e o f f i c e C l e r k , r e s t a u r a n t C l e r k , r u b b e r company C l e r k , s a l o o n C l e r k , s a l o o n ( b a r t e n d e r ) C l e r k , steamship company C l e r k , s t o c k b r o k e r C l e r k , t a x o f f i c e C l e r k , t h r e a d m i l l C l e r k , town C l e r k , d e l i v e r y (N.S.) C l e r k , deputy c o u n t y C l e r k , e n t r y (N.S.) C l e r k , l a b e l (N.S.) C l e r k , law C l e r k , m a i l i n g (N.S.) C l e r k , m a i l o r d e r C l e r k , n i g h t h o t e l C l e r k , p a c k i n g ( t r a d e ) C l e r k , p o l i c e C l e r k , p r o b a t e C l e r k , r e c e i v i n g ( t r a d e ) C l e r k , sample C l e r k , s h i p p i n g t r a d e C l e r k , s h i p p i n g , p a c k i n g house C l e r k , w e i g h i n g (N.S.) C l e r k , wrapping ( s t o r e ) 1921 There were: a g e n t s , bookkeepers, c a s h i e r s and a c c o u n t a n t s , c l e r k s i n s t o r e s messenger, bundle and o f f i c e boys, s t e n o g r a p h e r s and t y p i s t s under c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s f o r a l l the 8 major o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . TABLE II ( c o n t i n u e d ) 1931 C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n s 1. S t e n o g r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s 2. Bookkeepers, c a s h i e r s 3. O f f i c e a p p l i a n c e o p e r a t o r s 4. Other c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s 1941 C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n s 1. A c c o u n t a n t s and a u d i t o r s 2. Bookkeepers and c a s h i e r s 3. O f f i c e a p p l i a n c e o p e r a t o r s 4. O f f i c e c l e r k s 5. S h i p p i n g c l e r k s 6. S t e n o g r a p h e r s and t y p i s t s 1951 C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n s 1. Bookkeepers and c a s h i e r s 2. A t t e n d a n t s , d o c t o r s ' arid d e n t i s t s 1 o f f i c e s 3. O f f i c e a p p l i a n c e o p e r a t o r s 4. O f f i c e c l e r k s 5. S h i p p i n g and r e c e i v i n g c l e r k s 6. S t e n o g r a p h e r s and t y p i s t s 32 TABLE II ( c o n t i n u e d ) 1961 C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n s 1. Bookkeepers and c a s h i e r s 2. O f f i c e a p p l i a n c e o p e r a t o r s 3. Stock c l e r k s and s t o r e k e e p e r s 4. S h i p p i n g and r e c e i v i n g c l e r k s 5. Baggagemen and expressmen, t r a n s p o r t 6. T i c k e t , s t a t i o n and e x p r e s s a g e n t s , t r a n s p o r t 7. S t e n o g r a p h e r s 8. T y p i s t s and c l e r k - t y p i s t s 9. A t t e n d a n t s , d o c t o r s ' and d e n t i s t s ' o f f i c e s 10. C l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s 1971 C l e r i c a l and R e l a t e d O c c u p a t i o n s 1. S t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g o c c u p a t i o n s 2. Bookkeeping, a c c o u n t - r e c o r d i n g and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s 3. O f f i c e machine and e l e c t r o n i c d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g equipment o p e r a t o r s 4. M a t e r i a l r e c o r d i n g , s c h e d u l i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s 5. L i b r a r y , f i l e and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c l e r k s and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s 6. R e c e p t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n , m a i l and message d i s t r i b u t i o n o c c u p a t i o n s 7. Other c l e r i c a l and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . 33 W i t h i n such a s i m p l e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d work s i t u a t i o n the r e l a t i o n s between employers and c l e r k s i n e v i t a b l y would be p e r s o n a l . The meaning o f c l e r i c a l s k i l l s and the v a l u e o f c l e r i c a l l a b o u r , Lockwood (1958) a r g u e s , are t o be u n d e r s t o o d and e v a l u a t e d i n t h i s c o n t e x t . C h a r l e s Booth, i n a work on c l e r i c a l workers i n London towards the end o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y and a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 20th c e n t u r y , wrote t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e c l e r k and h i s employer or between him and t h e work he under-t a k e s were u s u a l l y p e r s o n a l . No two o f f i c e boys were q u i t e a l i k e i n the m i s t a k e s t h e y made. T h i s v a r i e t y i n v a l u e was o b v i o u s even i f the work was o f the d u l l e s t r o u t i n e c h a r a c t e r and e s p e c i a l l y when t h e work e n t r u s t e d t o the c l e r k became c o n f i d e n t i a l and r e s p o n s i b l e . "The v a l u e o f a c l e r k ' s s e r v i c e s depends c l o s e l y and somewhat c u r i o u s l y on r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e employer, t h a t i s t o say, upon p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c o m b i n a t i o n i n a c t i o n between men who have l e a r n e d t o know each o t h e r ' s ways and who s u i t each o t h e r . Such r e l a t i o n s , Booth s a y s , were u s u a l l y formed g r a d u a l l y and were the essence o f a l l h i g h v a l u e i n c l e r k s ' work," ( B o o t h , 1956: 22). THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRANSITIONAL OFFICE The e r a o f the o l d o f f i c e was s h o r t . By the end o f the second w o r l d war i n 1918 many d r a s t i c changes o c c u r r e d t o l a y the f o u n d a t i o n s o f the modern o f f i c e as we know i t today. Lowe (1977) remarks t h a t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e showing t h a t a f t e r 1911 a new form o f work o r g a n i z a t i o n emerged i n Canada: t h e modern o f f i c e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by b u r e a u c r a c y , r o u t i n i z a t i o n , m e c h a n i z a t i o n and the s c i e n t i f i c management o f work and t h o s e p e r f o r m i n g i t . He c o n t i n u e s t h a t the r i s e o f the new o f f i c e had p r o f o u n d i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s as w e l l as f o r the l a r g e r Canadian s o c i a l s t r u c -t u r e (Lowe, 1977: 2 ) . 34 The emergence o f t h e "modern" o f f i c e has been a r e s u l t o f a number of f a c t o r s : t he w o r l d wars, the e r a ' o f s c i e n t i f i c management, i n c r e a s e d p o p u l a t i o n and economic development. "Modern" i s used i n r e l a t i v e terms and d e f i n e d "mainly i n terms o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f o f f i c e equipment, i t s use, and the scope o f the o f f i c e work. From about 1918 when t e c h n o l o g y was f a i r l y s i m p l e t o about 1950 when t e c h n o l o g y was i n c r e a s i n g l y becoming modern, i s the p e r i o d we have c a l l e d t r a n s i t i o n a l . S i n c e t h i s p e r i o d c u l m i n a t e d i n the "modern" o f f i c e we d i s c u s s the development o f the "modern" o f f i c e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s p e r i o d . The development o f the "modern" o f f i c e as adapted from L e f f i n g w e l l (1950) may be d e s c r i b e d i n terms o f the f o l l o w i n g developments. Under the impetus o f c o n c e n t r a t e d e n t e r p r i s e and f i n a n c e when the o f f i c e was e n l a r g e d d u r i n g the f i r s t decade o f the 20th c e n t u r y , a need was f e l t f o r a s y s t e m a t i c arrangement o f b u s i n e s s f a c t s i n response t o the expanding o f f i c e . The n u m e r i c a l f i l e w i t h an a l p h a b e t i c a l i n d ex was d e v i s e d and came i n t o broad use. A l o n g s i d e the bookkeeper, the c l e r k o f t e n came t o o p e r a t e a c o m p l i c a t e d system. As the army o f c l e r k s grew, argues L e f f i n g w e l l , t h e y were d i v i d e d i n t o departments, s p e c i a l i z e d i n f u n c t i o n and, t h u s , b e f o r e machines were i n t r o d u c e d on any s c a l e , s o c i a l l y r a t i o n a l i z e d . The work was o r g a n i z e d i n a s y s t e m a t i c and d i v i d e d manner. The c l e r k ceased t o be j u s t a c l e r k i n a vague sense. In 1911 t h e r e were g e n e r a l l y o f f i c e employees o r c l e r k s , but by 1971 t h e r e were d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n and d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the work o f c l e r i c a l w orkers. There were, f o r example: s t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g o c c u p a t i o n s , o f f i c e machine and e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g equipment o p e r a t i o n and so on. Why d i d the army o f c l e r k s grow? T h i s L e f f i n g w e l l does not make c l e a r . The i n -c r e a s e i n c l e r k s i n Canada was the r e s u l t o f p o p u l a t i o n growth and economic development. Kalbach (1971) w r i t e s t h a t f o l l o w i n g t h e census o f 35 1901, l a r g e s c a l e i m m i g r a t i o n o f f o r e i g n born p e r s o n s , combined w i t h a f a v o u r a b l e n a t i o n a l i n c r e a s e , pushed up the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n from 5,371,315 i n 1901 t o 10,376,786 i n 1931. These developments demanded the e x p a n s i o n o f the o f f i c e work and r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h e r c l e r i c a l employment r a t e . See Lowe (1977). The f u n c t i o n and scope o f o f f i c e work began w i d e n i n g w i t h t h e growth o f b u s i n e s s u n i t s and e n t e r p r i s e s t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e economic and p o p u l a -t i o n growth. In Canada where the economy depends on f o r e i g n ownership and e x p o r t s one can assume t h a t t h e o f f i c e s d e a l t not o n l y w i t h i n t e r n a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , and c o o r d i n a t i o n , but a l s o w i t h e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n s and, as o f f i c e s grow, branches would be opened i n o t h e r p l a c e s i n the c o u n t r y and o u t s i d e , and would thus cause the e x p a n s i o n o f o f f i c e work and the need f o r o f f i c e equipment t o cope w i t h i t . I t was t h i s s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , under t h e impetus o f work l o a d , h i g h e r c o s t and t h e need f o r f i l e s and f i g u r e s , t h a t made p o s s i b l e wide a p p l i c a t i o n s o f o f f i c e machines. Machines d i d not b e g i n t o be used w i d e l y u n t i l the second decade of the 20th c e n t u r y . Baker w r i t e s t h a t i n the 1920's machines invaded e v e r y c o r n e r o f the o f f i c e and some hundred new ones made t h e i r appearance each y e a r ( B a k e r , 1964: 213). T h i s i n -c r e a s i n g m e c h a n i z a t i o n was g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the n o t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c management t h a t became p o p u l a r a t t h i s t i m e : F r e d e r i c k T a y l o r , Frank G i l b r e t h and t h e i r numerous s u c c e s s o r s propounded t h a t machines have p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on work and t h a t i n c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t r e s p e c t s t h e worker resembled a machine whose e f f i c i e n c y c o u l d be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y e s t i -mated, and t h a t the main f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g h i s e f f i c i e n c y were (a) w a s t e f u l or i n e f f e c t u a l movements i n d o i n g h i s j o b , (b) f a t i g u e which was 36 b e l i e v e d t o be a p h y s i c o - c h e m i c a l s t a t e o f t h e body, and ( c ) d e f e c t s i n the p h y s i c a l environment, such as poor l i g h t i n g , , i n a d e q u a t e h e a t i n g , e x c e s s i v e h u m i d i t y and the l i k e (Brown, 1965: 72-76). These b e l i e f s were based p a r t l y on t h e a t o m i s t i c view o f s o c i e t y which a r o s e d u r i n g the e a r l y p a l e o t e c h n i c phase o f i n d u s t r y and p a r t l y on the m e c h a n i s t i c approach o f the 18th and 19th c e n t u r i e s ' m e d i c i n e . Cowan e t a l (1969) r e p o r t t h a t i n 1919 t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f O f f i c e Managers was formed t o promote the i d e a s o f s c i e n t i f i c management. The same p e r i o d saw a r a p i d growth o f o f f i c e machines. In the second decade o f the c e n t u r y some hundred new o f f i c e machines were p l a c e d on the market and t h e s e i n c r e a s e d e v e r y y e a r . Cowan and h i s group r e p o r t t h a t by 1930 some 30% o f women i n o f f i c e s were i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r work u s i n g machines o t h e r than t y p e w r i t e r s . But i t was the second w o r l d war, t h e y argue, which a c c e l e r a t e d t he m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f l a m e s e c t i o n s o f the o f f i c e r o u t i n e . The pre-war r a t e o f o f f i c e machine s a l e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s was $270,000,000, by 1948 i t was $1,000,000,000. PROCEDURE OF INFORMATION PROCESSING T h i s s t a g e i n m e c h a n i z a t i o n saw the i n v e n t i o n s and common usage o f t e l e t y p e w r i t e r s , d u p l i c a t i n g machines, a d d r e s s o g r a p h s and a u t o m a t i c stamp-i n g machines and gadgets such as date stampers and even, where l a r g e quan-t i t i e s o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e a re h a n d l e d , l e t t e r - o p e n i n g machines and o t h e r s which a u t o m a t i c a l l y f o l d o u t g o i n g l e t t e r s and i n s e r t them i n t o e n v e l o p e s . A l l t h i s m e c h a n i z a t i o n e n a b l e d the o f f i c e t o cope w i t h t he volume o f work produced by automation and s c i e n t i f i c management i n the f a c t o r y and t o d e a l w i t h i n c r e a s i n g c o m p l e x i t y o f the o f f i c e i t s e l f as the b u s i n e s s u n i t grows b i g g e r through mergers and so on. 37 T h i s m e c h a n i z a t i o n a l s o a f f e c t e d the p r o c e d u r e o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o -c e s s i n g d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Here two s t a g e s o f changes o c c u r r e d from about 1919-1941 and from 1941-1960. The o f f i c e work, Sanders r e p o r t s , moved from "machine w i t h manual a s s i s t a n c e t o e l e c t r o m e c h a n i c a l systems," ( S a n d e r s , 1972: 67). An improvement o v e r the 19th c e n t u r y and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y when most o f the o f f i c e work was e i t h e r done by hand o r by the use o f m a n u a l l y o p e r a t e d machines. In the a r e a o f o r i g i n a t i n g o f d a t a , t y p e w r i t e r s and, i n some c a s e s , cash r e g i s t e r s came t o be used i n the f i r s t s t a g e o f t h i s p e r i o d . These were m a i n l y m a n u a l l y o p e r a t e d machines t h a t had been improved f o r c l e a r e r , f a s t e r o p e r a t i o n . M e c h a n i c a l c o l l a t o r s were used f o r s o r t i n g and book-kee p i n g and cash r e g i s t e r s used f o r c l a s s i f y i n g . Adding machines and l a r g e c a l c u l a t o r s were used f o r c a l c u l a t i n g and a c c o u n t i n g machines and l a r g e adding machines f o r summarization. For s o r t i n g and r e t r i e v i n g i n t h i s s t a g e , m o t o r i z e d r o t a r y f i l e s were used and r e p r o d u c i n g d a t a was done by the h e l p o f Xerox machines, d u p l i c a t o r s and a d d r e s s i n g machines. In t he l a t t e r p a r t o f the 40's (which we have c a l l e d the b e g i n n i n g o f t h e second s t a g e ) , a s e r i e s o f s c i e n t i f i c b r e a k t h r o u g h s g r e a t l y modi-f i e d t he c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n q u a l i f i c a t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n . During t h i s p e r i o d , pre-punched c a r d s , keypunched c a r d s , mark-sensed c a r d s came t o be used f o r o r i g i n a t i n g d a t a . Card f i e l d d e s i g n , s o r t e r s and c o l l a t o r s were used f o r c l a s s i f y i n g d a t a and f o r s o r t i n g . For c a l c u l a t i n g , a c c o u n t i n g machines ( t a b u l a t o r s ) and c a l c u l a t i n g punch machines were used. S o r t i n g was done by movable t r a y s o f c a r d s and r e p r o d u c i n g by t h e e x i s t i n g r e p r o d u c i n g machines as w e l l as r e p r o d u c i n g punched machines. Communica-t i n g the f i n i s h e d d a t a s i n both s t a g e s were done thro u g h p r i n t e d documents and message conveyors l i k e t e l e p h o n e s and t e l e t y p e w r i t e r s . 38 These developments a f f e c t e d the scope o f o f f i c e communication and demanded changes i n t h e p r o c e d u r e o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . The o v e r -a l l economic development and s o c i a l changes, t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e changes i n machines and p r o c e d u r e o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g , a f f e c t e d the scope o f o f f i c e work. Most l a r g e o f f i c e s by t h e 60's had branches i n d i f f e r e n t p r o v i n c e s and even began t o have i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s . The banks a r e cases i n p o i n t . T h i s c o u l d g e n e r a t e a c o m p a r a t i v e l y e x t e n s i v e and complex c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l work f o r the o f f i c e . SOCIAL RELATIONS OF PRODUCTION The q u e s t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t i s what were the e f f e c t s o f t h e s e new developments on the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n ? The o l d o f f i c e , we had s a i d , was s m a l l , l e s s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and had fewer and r e l a t i v e l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d machines. T h e r e was e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t t h e r e was no g r e a t demand w i t h i n such o f f i c e s f o r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t h a t goes w i t h l a r g e b u r e a u c r a t i z e d o f f i c e s . The p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e machines a f t e r 1920, and l a r g e c l e r i c a l employment (Lowe, 1977, r e p o r t s t h a t t h e 1941 - 1951 p e r i o d was a n o t h e r peak p e r i o d f o r c l e r i c a l e x p a n s i o n i n Canada), paved t h e way f o r l a r g e b u r e a u c r a t i z e d o f f i c e s w i t h more s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Manual f o r t h e 1911 - 1971 p e r i o d a t t e s t s t o t h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . See T a b l e I I . There were not j u s t c l e r k s or o f f i c e em-p l o y e e s as i n t h e 1911 - 1920 p e r i o d where c l e r k s were d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r t h e v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h o u t b e i n g a s s i g n e d a s p e c i a l c a t e g o r y i n the c e n s u s . By 1931 t h e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n had g a i n e d a s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r y i n t h e census. From t h i s p e r i o d onwards t h e r e was more d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t h e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s . There were 4 main s u b - c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e 1931 c e n s u s , 6 i n 1941 - 1951 and 10 i n .1961. There was more d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n 39 i n t h e 1941-1961 p e r i o d than i n 1931. The d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n appeared t o be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the advancement o f y e a r s , and the more advanced the y e a r s t h e g r e a t e r the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The 1971 census had o n l y 7 sub-c a t e g o r i e s but f a r more d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n than any o f the p r e v i o u s y e a r s . Broom and S e l z n i c k (1963: 647) showed w i t h a s t u d y on the e f f e c t s o f t e c h n o l o g y on human r e l a t i o n s t h a t m e c h a n i z a t i o n which accompanies i n -d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n d i s t u r b s and r e c o n s t r u c t s p a t t e r n s o f human r e l a t i o n s i n o r g a n i z a t i o n . The i n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s which e x i s t e d between the c l e r k and h i s boss, we assume, then were usurped by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f more machines which prompted newer d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t a s k s . A p a r t from the r o u t i n e c l e r k o f o l d , o t h e r c l e r i c a l workers were d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r the machines and the new j o b s t h a t the machines had c r e a t e d . Key punch machines and d a t a p r o c e s s i n g machines had c a l l e d i n t o b e i n g key punch o p e r a t o r s and d a t a p r o c e s s i n g equipment o p e r a t o r s ; and the computer, i t s o p e r a t o r s and programmers. T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t a s k s appear t o be f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e i n -c r e a s e d volume o f o f f i c e work and f u r t h e r p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e machines. B u r e a u c r a c y , Max Weber (1968:,-956-958): s a i d , was meant t o cope w i t h massive and complex o r g a n i z a t i o n a l work. As the o f f i c e p o p u l a t i o n and machines grow, t h e r e f o r e , one can see i t becoming more b u r e a u c r a t i z e d . Some o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f b u r e a u c r a c y a r e formal r u l e s and c l e a r d i v i s i o n o f t a s k s . These p r i n c i p l e s w i l l then be a p p l i e d t o l a r g e i n d u s t r i a l o f f i c e s l i k e t he banks, i n s u r a n c e companies, and even h o s p i t a l s and s c h o o l s . The f a c e - t o -f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the o l d o f f i c e w i l l , i n most c a s e s , g i v e way t o more formal ones. The s m a l l c l o s e l y - k n i t h o r i z o n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the boss, the c l e r k and the bookkeeper w i l l g i v e way t o a v e r t i c a l one, and the h o r i -z o n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t a k e s on a new l o o k . The l a r g e r an o f f i c e grows, the 40 more removed w i l l t h e manager be from the r e s t o f the workers. In some l a r g e o f f i c e s more than one manager w i l l be r e q u i r e d . More i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s o f managers w i l l be added t o a s s i s t t h e top e x e c u t i v e s i n c o o r d i -n a t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g the a f f a i r s o f the n o n - s u p e r v i s o r y members o f t h e o f f i c e , t h e s e managers b e i n g i n t u r n c o n t r o l l e d by t o p management. T h i s p r o c e s s o f v e r t i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n an a u t h o r i t y p a t t e r n which was a l m o s t a b s e n t i n t h e o l d o f f i c e . A l o n g t h i s v e r t i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i l l come a h o r i z o n t a l d i f f e r e n -t i a t i o n which i s n o t h i n g T i k e the o l d . With i n c r e a s e s i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n comes the demand f o r a d d i t i o n a l s k i l l and t r a i n i n g so t h a t o f f i c e employees who undergo a l o n g e r t r a i n i n g p e r i o d t o o p e r a t e the new machines come t o see t h e i r work as more p r e s t i g i o u s than the r e s t and may even g e t h i g h e r s a l a r i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e . i n p r e s t i g e and s a l a r y between a copy t y p i s t and a computer programmer i s a case i n p o i n t . The s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t h a t comes w i t h the m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f the o f f i c e , Lockwood (1965) and Dale (1964) have p o i n t e d o u t , are some o f t h e f a c t o r s t h a t have o b s c u r e d t h e c l a s s p o s i t i o n o f the c l e r i c a l workers and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , the c l a s s c o n s c i o u s -ness o f t h i s group. With r e s p e c t t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the o f f i c e i t s e l f t h e s e d e v e l o p -ments o f machines, t h e growth o f t h e c l e r i c a l p o p u l a t i o n and emergence o f s k y s c r a p e r s were t u r n i n g the o f f i c e i n t o a f a c t o r y . A f t e r the second de-cade o f the 20th c e n t u r y , o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s began t o t a k e a new l o o k . There was a move from small o f f i c e s t o l a r g e and even s k y s c r a p e r s . F l e t -c h e r (1946) g i v e s the f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f l a r g e o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s completed i n London p r i o r t o 1939: The p o r t o f London A u t h o r i t y B u i l d i n g ; Metro-p o l i t a n Water Board B u i l d i n g i n C l e r k e n w e l l ; Underground R a i l w a y O f f i c e s ; Westminster, Royal M a i l House, e t c . In New York the s t o r y was the same. 41 New s k y s c r a p e r s j o i n e d t h o s e which had begun t o c l u s t e r a t the s o u t h e r n t i p o f Manhattan around Wall S t r e e t , and o t h e r s began t o form a new group a t mid-town on 5th and Park Avenues. P a n h e l l e n i c House was b u i l t i n 1928 and the s k y s c r a p e r par e x c e l l e n c e , t h e Empire S t a t e B u i l d i n g i n 1931, a l l d u r i n g the second decade o f t h e c e n t u r y . They were j o i n e d i n the 3 0 1 s by the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e c o l l e c t i o n o f o f f i c e s y e t assembled, R o c k e f e l l e r C e n t r e ( F l e t c h e r , 1946: 885). Canada, t o o , we presume was expanding the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n and the space needed t o accommodate i t . O f f i c e a r c h i t e c t u r e and l a y o u t , w r i t e s M i l l s (1960), moved towards the arrangement o f a s t r a i g h t -l i n e f l o w o f work. One o f f i c e , he p o i n t s o u t , moved t o new q u a r t e r s where 200 former p r i v a t e o f f i c e s were reduced t o 17. T h i s s h i f t , M i l l s s a i d , p r o v i d e d more l i g h t and b e t t e r s u p e r v i s i o n . "People r e a l l y do keep b u s i e r when t h e o f f i c e r i n charge can look a t them o c c a s i o n a l l y , " ( M i l l s , 1960: 196). Grace C o y l e o b s e r v e d as e a r l y as 1929 i n one l a r g e f i r m t h a t : "Orders a r e passed a l o n g by means o f a b e l t and l i g h t s from a c h i e f c l e r k t o a s e r i e s o f c h e c k e r s and t y p i s t s , each o f whom does one o p e r a t i o n . The g i r l a t the head o f the l i n e i n t e r p r e t s t h e o r d e r , puts down the number and i n d i c a t e s the t r a d e d i s c o u n t ; the second g i r l p r i c e s the o r d e r , t a k e s o f f t h e d i s c o u n t , adds c a r r i a g e c h a r g e s and t o t a l s ; the t h i r d g i r l g i v e s the o r d e r a number and makes a d a i l y r e c o r d ; the f o u r t h g i r l puts t h i s i n -f o r m a t i o n i n an a l p h a b e t i c a l i n d e x ; the f i f t h g i r l time-stamps i t ; i t next goes a l o n g the b e l t t o one o f s e v e r a l t y p i s t s who makes a copy i n s e x t u p l i -c a t e and puts on an a d d r e s s l a b e l ; the s e v e n t h g i r l checks i t and sends i t t o the s t o r e r o o m , " ( C o y l e , 1935: 26). Baker (1964) a l s o r e p o r t s t h a t a Commonwealth E d i s o n Company c o n c e n t r a t e d 80 g i r l s i n one room, i n c l u d i n g s t e n o g r a p h e r s , t y p i s t s a n d . d i c t a p h o n e o p e r a t o r s , and adds t h a t even as e a r l y as t h i s t h e o f f i c e o f one l a r g e f i r m was r e p o r t e d t o resemble a f a c t o r y ( Baker, 1964: 214). 42 T h i s t r e n d o f o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n was t y p i c a l o n l y o f l a r g e i n -d u s t r i a l o f f i c e s . THE "MODERN" OFFICE The change from t h e t r a n s i t i o n a l o f f i c e t o t h e "modern" o f f i c e was c o n t i n u o u s and p r o g r e s s i v e . T h e r e i s no d a t a on Canadian o f f i c e i n r e s -pect t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n and scope o f o f f i c e work. But from t h e d a t a (from t h e F i n a n c i a l Post o f t h i s p e r i o d ) a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s t h e s i s we see the p r o l i f e r a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o f o f f i c e machines. And t h e s e developments, we b e l i e v e , a f f e c t e d the scope and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f o f f i c e work. Our d a t a p o i n t out t h a t newer machines l i k e the computers, dat a and word p r o c e s s i n g machines and advanced c a l c u l a t o r s were used i n t h e o f f i c e a t t h i s p e r i o d . The ILO Report has i t t h a t "a second s t a g e i n mechaniza-t i o n i n the 60's began w i t h t h e i n v e n t i o n o f machines which combine s e v e r a l f u n c t i o n s and c a r r y out w i t h o u t i n t e r r u p t i o n two or sometimes a whole se-quence o f o p e r a t i o n s . Simple examples a r e the a d d i n g machine which com-putes and r e c o r d s , and the cash r e g i s t e r which adds and stamps the b i l l . O thers a r e a g r e a t deal more complex, such as t h e bookkeeping machines which p r i n t i n v o i c e s a t t h e same time as t h e y p e r f o r m the a c c o u n t i n g c a l -c u l a t i o n s and p o s t t h e d a t a i n a l e d g e r c a r d . Some o f t h e s e machines a r e e quipped w i t h s e v e r a l r e g i s t e r s o r b u i l t i n a d d i n g machines which p e r m i t d i f f e r e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f data t o be made and t h e y a r e c a p a b l e o f p r e -p a r i n g 100 or more ac c o u n t s per hour," (ILO R e p o r t , 1960: 156). T h i s was a l s o a p e r i o d o f computers t h a t c o u l d combine and do a number o f complex o f f i c e work. T h i s e r a o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d machines a f f e c t e d the t e c h n i q u e s 43 o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g . Sanders (1972) p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s was t h e e l e c t r o n i c e r a i n t h e realm o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g p r o c e d u r e s . Mag-n e t i c tape e n c o d e r s , magnetic and o p t i c a l c h a r a c t e r r e a d e r s , c a r d and tape punches and o n - l i n e t e r m i n a l s came t o be employed f o r the o r i g i n a -t i o n o f d a t a ; c l a s s i f y i n g was done by systems d e s i g n e d and computers o f f -l i n e c a r d s o r t e r s and computers used f o r s o r t i n g . C a l c u l a t i n g and summarization done by advanced c a l c u l a t o r s and computers. M a g n e t i z a b l e media and d e v i c e s and punched media and computers, as w e l l as m i c r o f i l m s , came t o be used f o r s t o r i n g w h i l s t r e t r i e v i n g t h e s t o r e d i n f o r m a t i o n was done through o n - l i n e i n q u i r y w i t h d i r e c t a c c e s s d e v i c e s and i n some cases manual movement o f s t o r a g e media t o computer. Reproducing was done through m u l t i p l e c o p i e s from p r i n t e r s and communication thro u g h o n - l i n e d a t a t r a n s -m i s s i o n , p r i n t e d o u t f i t on computers, v i s u a l d i s p l a y s and v o i c e o u t p u t . With the e x t e n t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l development and the growing f r i e n d -s h i p o f c o u n t r i e s o f t h e w o r l d , c o u p l e d w i t h the o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n growth, the e f f e c t s o f t h e baby boom, and mass i m m i g r a t i o n which began t o show i t s e f f e c t s a t t h i s p e r i o d , the scope o f o f f i c e communication expanded even more and had even more i n t e r p r o v i n c i a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s . As f a r as o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e a l l around us t h a t s k y s c r a p e r s and l a r g e o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s have soa r e d up from the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h i s p e r i o d r i g h t i n t o the 7 0 1 s and t h e y c o n t i n u e t o grow. A c u r s o r y g l a n c e a t any p r o v i n c e i n Canada would show b i g bank o f f i c e s , insurance-(Companies, and so on. We do not have adequate data t o show how t h e s e new developments have a f f e c t e d the i n t e r n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f o f f i c e work and the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s i s an a r e a which a g a i n needs t o be r e s e a r c h e d , i n t o . But c o n s i d e r i n g the compact n a t u r e o f o f f i c e machines i n t h e p e r i o d , we 44 presume t h a t t h e o f f i c e work would take a t u r n from the f a c t o r y n a t u r e o f the 50\s. Hoos (1966) and M i l l s (1953) t a l k e d about t h e t r e n d towards r e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n the 60's. I f s i n g l e machines can do the j o b o f s e v e r a l w o r k e r s , t h e n , the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f a l a r g e group o f workers i n one room d o i n g a b e l t - l i n e k i n d o f o p e r a t i o n would be m i n i m i z e d , making way f o r fewer groups o f workers d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f machines. T h i s t h e n , i n s t e a d o f r e d u c i n g the c l e r i c a l p o p u l a t i o n , would d i v e r s i f y t h e c l e r i c a l work. We w i l l t ake a l o o k a t t h i s k i n d o f i s s u e i n t he l a s t c h a p t e r . The o f f i c e has moved from a r e l a t i v e l y s mall u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d one i n 1911 t o a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e ( s k y s c r a p e r t y p e ) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t y p e o f f i c e i n t he 70's. The p r o c e d u r e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g have advanced from manual t o e l e c t r o n i c and the scope o f o f f i c e communication expanded from i n t e r n a l communication t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l communication. The t r e n d has not been as c l e a r as we d e p i c t i t . There a r e l o t s o f o v e r l a p s . T h i s t r e n d o f development has been g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l development o f o f f i c e machines. In the next c h a p t e r we t a k e a l o o k a t the development o f o f f i c e machines f o r the 60-year p e r i o d . 45 CHAPTER II THE TREND OF TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES: OFFICE MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT The i n g e n u i t y o f i n v e n t o r s and the p e r s i s t e n c e o f o f f i c e machine salesmen have brought about a con-d i t i o n i n which t h e p r e s e n t - d a y o f f i c e manager i s not a s k i n g h i m s e l f whether o r not h i s o f f i c e needs a machine o f some k i n d , but r a t h e r what machine he s h a l l choose from among the m u l t i t u d e o f them. The p urchase o f o f f i c e machines has, i n f a c t , been dominated t o some e x t e n t by t h e demands o f f a s h i o n , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f a p p e a r i n g modern and u p - t o - d a t e , and t h e r e i s no doubt whatever t h a t most o f f i c e s now have more machines than t h e y a c t u a l l y need. I t i s , however, d o u b t f u l i f every o f f i c e has t h e r i g h t k i n d o f machine i n t h e r i g h t p l a c e ( L e f f i n g w e l l , 1950:-270). An attempt i s made i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o o u t l i n e the v a r i o u s o f f i c e machines used i n the 1911 - 1971 p e r i o d and t o d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y t h e g e n e r a l f u n c t i o n s t h a t t h e s e machines p e r f o r m . Then, p l a c i n g t h e machines i n a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , i d e n t i f y which o f f i c e , machines were used i n t h e "Old O f f i c e " , ( i . e . , 1911 - 1920) and t o t r a c e t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p -ments w i t h i n t h e s e machines as w e l l as the development o f new machines dur-i n g the 60-year p e r i o d . P a r t o f the d i s c u s s i o n i s based on a c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s done on the F i n a n c i a l Post ( T o r o n t o ) f o r t h e p e r i o d . (See Appendix I.) The F i n a n c i a l Post i s a l a r g e weekly newspaper w i t h an average s i z e o f about 30 pages. A random sample was used t o s e l e c t one newspaper e v e r y y e a r f o r t h e 60-year p e r i o d . These 60 30-page papers were s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l and any a r t i c l e and a d v e r t i s e m e n t on an o f f i c e or o f f i c e machinery was noted. (See T a b l e I I I . ) The c a t e g o r i e s t h a t came up were grouped and T a b l e I I I was d e v i s e d out o f t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s . TABLE I I I Content A n a l y s i s : F i n a n c i a l Post 1911 - 1971 O f f i c e . Equipment 1911-21 1 9 2 1 - 3 1 1 9 3 1 - 4 1 1941-51 1951-61 T96T-7T T o t a l T y p e w r i t e r 2 2 1 5 6 5 20 D i c t a t i n g Machine 2 4 3 4 8 9 30 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine 1 1 2 9 12 26 A d d r e s s o g r a p h 1 3 4 M i c r o f i l m 3 3 O f f i c e F u r n i t u r e ^ 2 3 5 8 16 T e l e t y p e Machine 7 7 C a l c u l a t o r 1 3 6 10 A c c o u n t i n g Machine 1 3 1 5 . Data/Word P r o c e s s i n g Machine 2 5 7 Computers 14 14 O t h e r 2 1 2 2 5 10 T o t a l : 6 7 6 19 48 73 152 1 R e f e r s t o d i f f e r e n t a d v e r t i s e m e n t s on o f f i c e d e s k s , c a b i n e t s and arrangements. 2 R e f e r s t o a r t i c l e s t h a t were w r i t t e n about the o f f i c e . TABLE I I I - DETAILS Content A n a l y s i s D e t a i l s Year Date Page Content Type A d v e r t i s e r 1912 May 18 7 T y p e w r i t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t Monarch 1914 Nov. 28 13 F i l i n g D e v i c e s A d v e r t i s e m e n t O f f i c e S p e c i a l t y 1915 Jan. 2 22 F i l i n g C a b i n e t s A d v e r t i s e m e n t O f f i c e S p e c i a l t y 1916 1917 1918 1921 Nov. 4 8 T y p e w r i t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t Underwood 1922 -1923 1924 Nov. 14 14 T y p e w r i t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t Remington 1925 1926 1927 Nov. 21 15 Dictaphone A d v e r t i s e m e n t Sonograph 1928 Apr. 4 3 Dictaphone A d v e r t i s e m e n t Sonograph 1929 Apr. 12 5 Dictaphone A d v e r t i s e m e n t Sonograph 1930 Jun. 12 17 Dictaphone A d v e r t i s e m e n t Sonograph TABLE I I I - DETAILS Content A n a l y s i s D e t a i l s Year Date Page Content Type A d v e r t i s e r 1931 Feb. 26 6 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t G e s t e t n e r 1932 1933 Feb. 18 9 O f f i c e Paper A d v e r t i s e m e n t R o l l a n d Paper 1934 Mar. 31 3 Dictaphone A d v e r t i s e m e n t Sonograph 1935 1936 May 2 24 Dictaphone A d v e r t i s e m e n t Sonograph 1937 1938 1939 Apr. 15 3 Dictaphone A d v e r t i s e m e n t Venfax 1940 J a n . 13 11 T y p e w r i t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t L.C. Smith 1941 Feb. 1 3 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t A-B-Dick 1942 Oct. 10 3 10 "Can o f f i c e workers do more work t o o ? " Dictaphone A r t i c l e A d v e r t i s e m e n t E d i t o r , Evening T e l e -gram, T o r o n t o 1943 May 22 9 9 T y p e w r i t e r Addressograph A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t Underwood Underwood 1945 Aug. 18 5 4 T y p e w r i t e r D i c t o g r a p h A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t Royal TABLE I I I - DETAILS Content A n a l y s i s D e t a i l s Year Date Page Content Type A d v e r t i s e r 1946 Jun. 29 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 Mar. 29 Jan. 17 J u l y 9 Aug. 5 Apr. 28 Aug. 23 Oct. 24 3 7 10 12 22 17 10 11 13 6 5 7 9 12 14 15 28 E l e c t r o n i c V o i c e W r i t e r O f f i c e Arrangement D i c t o g r a p h " V i s i d e x " T y p e w r i t e r T y p e w r i t e r C a l c u l a t o r O f f i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n Dictaphone D u p l i c a t i n g Machine T e l e t y p e Dictaphone D u p l i c a t i n g Machine T e l e t y p e T y p e w r i t e r D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t A r t i c l e A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A r t i c l e A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t E l e c t r i c T y p e w r i t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t E d i s o n The O f f i c e S p e c i a l t y M a n u f a c t u r i n g Co. L t d . Sonograph Radar o f B u s i n e s s V i t a l i t y Royal Royal Remington N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f B u i l d i n g Owners & O f f i c e Managers G e s t e t n e r A-B-Dick B e l l A-B-Dick Underwood Underwood Royal TABLE I I I - DETAILS Content A n a l y s i s D e t a i l s Year Date Page Content Type A d v e r t i s e r 1954 Feb. 20 9 D i c t a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t Sonograph 10 C a l c u l a t o r A d v e r t i s e m e n t F i n d e n 12 S t e e l desks f o r A d v e r t i s e m e n t The O f f i c e S p e c i a l t y O f f i c e M a n u f a c t u r i n g Co. L t d G5 " O f f i c e B u i l d i n g s A r t i c l e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n Get a New Look" o f B u i l d i n g Owners & O f f i c e Managers. 21 Cash R e g i s t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t N a t i o n a l 1955 Mar. 12 2 D i c t a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t Sonograph 7 A c c o u n t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t Underwood 8 Addressograph A d v e r t i s e m e n t Venfax 9 D i c t a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t Sonograph 9 O f f i c e F u r n i t u r e A d v e r t i s e m e n t O f f i c e S p e c i a l t y 1956 Mar. 24 7 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t G e s t e t n e r 23 C a l c u l a t o r A d v e r t i sement Burroughs 25 D i c t a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t Royal 27 T e l e t y p e A d v e r t i s e m e n t Remington 1957 Jun. 29 3 E l e c t r i c T y p e w r i t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t IBM 18 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t G e s t e t n e r 19 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t Kodak 24 T e l e t y p e A d v e r t i s e m e n t Underwood 1958 Apr. 26 13 Data P r o c e s s i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t IBM 30 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t NCR 29 T e l e t y p e A d v e r t i s e m e n t Underwood TABLE I I I - DETAILS Content A n a l y s i s D e t a i l s Year Date Page Content Type A d v e r t i s e i 1958 Apr. 26 21 "Modern F i r e R e s i s t - A d v e r t i s e m e n t ant C a b i n e t s " 14 Cash R e g i s t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t Sweda 1959 Apr. 25 7 Addressograph A d v e r t i s e m e n t 21 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t Venfax 23 C a l c u l a t o r s A d v e r t i s e m e n t 26 A c c o u n t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t N a t i o n a l 28 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t 33 T y p e w r i t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t Smith-Corona 35 D i c t a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t P h i l i p s 1960 Aug. 13 14 T y p e w r i t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t IBM 20 D i c t a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t P h i l i p s 33 Data P r o c e s s i n g A d v e r t i s e m e n t Burroughs Machine 1961 Feb. 18 7 11 14 21 31 35 37 PC- 11 A c c o u n t i n g Machine D i c t a t i n g Machine "Your Management Team F u l l o f Auto-c r a t s , S t a t u s Men?" O f f i c e Management D u p l i c a t i n g Machine D u p l i c a t i n g Machine D u p l i c a t i n g Machine O f f i c e E f f i c i e n c y : "Proper L i g h t i n g Puts E f f i c i e n c y Per-formance Up." A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A r t i c l e A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A r t i c l e N a t i o n a l P h i l i p s S t e e l c a s e L t d . M a s t e r f a x G e s t e t n e r A-B-Dick TABLE I I I - DETAILS Content A n a l y s i s D e t a i l s Year Date Page Content Type A d v e r t i s e r 1962 Jun. 2 O f f i c e F u r n i t u r e A d v e r t i s e m e n t S t e e l c a s e 24 Computer A d v e r t i s e m e n t IBM 24 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t B r u n i n g 25 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t ADECO 33 "How Automation Can A r t i c l e D. MacDonald K i l l S o c i e t y . " 1963 Sep. 28 5 Inter-phone A d v e r t i s e m e n t B e l l 21 D i c t a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t IBM 29 T y p e w r i t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t Royal 35 Computer A d v e r t i s e m e n t UNIVAC 41 M i c r o f i l m A d v e r t i s e m e n t Recordak 56 O f f i c e Equipment A d v e r t i s e m e n t H a l i f a x (not s p e c i f i e d ) 1964 Jun. 6 11 O f f i c e O r g a n i z a t i o n A d v e r t i s e m e n t O f f i c e S p e c i a l t y 14 Computer A d v e r t i s e m e n t F r i d e n 16 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t Bruni ng 18 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t SCM 24 Marking System A d v e r t i s e m e n t Weber 1965 Aug. 14 8 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t G e s t e t n e r 11 T y p e w r i t e r A d v e r t i s e m e n t IBM 23 D i c t a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t . Time Master 1966 Apr. 30 25 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t Kodak 25 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t Time Master 1967 Nov. 18 41 D i c t a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t Sonograph 40 Telecommunication A d v e r t i s e m e n t Canadian N a t i o n a l TABLE I I I - DETAILS Content A n a l y s i s D e t a i l s Year Date Page Content Type A d v e r t i s e r 1967 1968 Nov. 18 Jun. 15 1969 Sep. 13 1970 Sep. 26 * T h i s was Canadian N a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s Show (CNBS) E d i t i o n . 23 15 9 49 45 31 27 26 12 9 39 39 B2 B3 B4 B5 Computer P r i n t e r s Computer D i c t a t i n g Machine "Men w i l l S t i l l be Needed a f t e r Post O f f i c e Becomes Mechanized." Word P r o c e s s i n g D u p l i c a t i n g Machine Computers D u p l i c a t i n g Machine D u p l i c a t i n g Machine Computer Computer T y p e w r i t e r " M i n i s and Maxis Show Most Rapid Growth i n Computers" "What Top Management Can Learn About Pro-c e s s i n g " Computer S h a r i n g M i c r o f i l m T y p e w r i t e r D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A r t i c l e A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i A d v e r t i A d v e r t i A d v e r t i A d v e r t i A d v e r t i A d v e r t i A r t i c l e sement sement sement sement sement sement sement A r t i c l e A r t i c l e A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t Burroughs Burroughs De J u r Ottawa Manpower IBM Burroughs O l i v e t t i Underwood Xerox S i n g e r Honeywel1 Olympia Canadian I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y Canadian I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y Commercial C r e d i t C o r p o r a t i o n L t d . Kodak Royal G e s t e t n e r TABLE I I I - DETAILS Content A n a l y s i s D e t a i l s Year Date Page Content Tvoe A d v e r t i s e r 1970 Sep. 26 * T h i s was Canadian N a t i o n a l B u s i n e s s Show (CNBS) E d i t i o n . 2 3 B6 2 B9 6 BIO 2 3 B13 B14 B15 C a l c u l a t o r s D i c t a t i n g Machine Computyper D i c t a t i n g Machine " B i g - l i t t l e Compu-t e r s W i l l F i l l the Gap." "Mathematics i n M i l l i s e c o n d s from D e s k - t o - C a l c u l a t o r s . " D u p l i c a t i n g Machine Improved T y p e w r i t e r : Automatic and Repeat-key A c t i o n C a l c u l a t o r s "When was the l a s t time you saw the top o f y o u r desk?" C a l c u l a t o r s C a l c u l a t o r s C a l c u l a t o r s Data P r o c e s s o r A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A r t i c l e A r t i c l e A d v e r t i s e m e n t A r t i c l e A d v e r t i s e m e n t A r t i c l e A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t B r o t h e r s De J u r Grunding S i n g e r De J u r Canadian I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y Canadian I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y Xerox Canadian I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y T o s h i b a CNSPO Phi 1 i p s De J u r S t e n o e t t e S i n g e r Honeywel1 1971 Jan. 30 9 35 B6 " S u r v i v a l : Now C r u c i a l Computer World." D i c t a t i n g Machine M i c r o f i l m D i c t a t i n g Machine A r t i c l e A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t Canadian I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g S o c i e t y De J u r Kodak P h i l i p s TABLE I I I - DETAILS Content A n a l y s i s D e t a i l s Year Date Page Content Type A d v e r t i s e r 1978 Jan. 29 20 9 C a l c u l a t o r s D u p l i c a t i n g Machine A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t Monroe Xerox 1978 Mar. 25 Apr. 29 Apr. 22 43 27 22 18 13 12 10 9 2 2 9 b) 14 15 21 D u p l i c a t i n g Machine D u p l i c a t i n g Machine Word P r o c e s s i n g "Computer Cram Winner, A Good T a l k -i n g P o i n t . " D u p l i c a t i n g Machine Computer D u p l i c a t i n g T y p e w r i t e r D u p l i c a t i n g D u p l i c a t i n g Machine Machine Machine M i c r o f i l m D u p l i c a t i n g Machine "No one a b l e t o copy s u c c e s s o f Xerox." Cash R e g i s t e r Cash R e g i s t e r D u p l i c a t i n g Machine Computer Computer A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A d v e r t i s e m e n t A r t i c l e A d v e r t A d v e r t A d v e r t A d v e r t A d v e r t A d v e r t A d v e r t sement sement sement sement sement sement sement. A d v e r t i s e m e n t A r t i c l e A d v e r t A d v e r t A d v e r t A d v e r t A d v e r t i sement sement sement sement sement P i t n e y Bowes Xerox O l i v e t t i The S c i e n c e C o u n c i l o f Canada Kodak The Computer Communi-c a t i o n s Group Xerox Olympia Nashua Canon Kodak Nashua Jack Thomas o f Xerox Sharp Sharp P i t n e y Bowes NCR IBM Source: F i n a n c i a l P o s t , T o r o n t o 56 The v e r y o b v i o u s l i m i t a t i o n o f such an approach i s the q u e s t i o n o f adequate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s problem was s o l v e d b e f o r e the sample was s e l e c t e d . A q u i c k study o f the f i r s t s i x months' papers o f 1921, the l a s t s i x months o f 1941 and t h e f i r s t s i x months o f 1961 showed the r a t e o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s and a r t i c l e s t o be f a i r l y d i s t r i b u t e d . A c h o i c e o f one paper each y e a r was, perhaps, enough t o g i v e a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f what machines were commonly i n use and t h e r e f o r e b e i n g a d v e r t i s e d . The problem o f a p o s s i b l e u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was d e a l t w i t h by s u p p l e m e n t i n g t h e d a t a w i t h p r o d u c t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n from Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . o f Canada (see T a b l e I V ) . Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . i s one o f t h e top r a n k i n g b u s i n e s s machine p r o d u c e r s i n America ( S a n d e r s , 1977: 73). A c c e s s t o IBM, which was my f i r s t c h o i c e , was d i f f i c u l t . I was a s s u r e d , however, by both the IBM and Burroughs' p e r s o n n e l t h a t IBM, IVAC, Burroughs and NCR d e a l t m a i n l y i n t h e same machines under d i f f e r e n t t r a d e names. These two s o u r c e s a r e a g a i n supplemented by some o f t h e a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e on o f f i c e machinery o r a u t o m a t i o n . What kinds o f o f f i c e machinery and equipment a r e t h e r e and what do they do b a s i c a l l y ? 1. The t y p e w r i t e r . T h i s i s t h e g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r o f o f f i c e machines. I t was i n v e n t e d t o r e l i e v e t e d i o u s and l a b o r i o u s h a n d w r i t i n g as e v i d e n c e d by t h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t from the F i n a n c i a l P o s t : H a n d w r i t i n g i s t e d i o u s and l a b o r i o u s and which do you p r e f e r t o read - longhand o r c l e a r , l e g i b l e t y p e -w r i t i n g ? With t h e l i - t t l e Underwood you can work two o r t h r e e times as f a s t and make as many c o p i e s as you need ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , Nov. 4, 1921: 8). Four t y p e s a r e a v a i l a b l e : s t a n d a r d , p o r t a b l e , n o i s e l e s s ( a l l manual), and e l e c t r i c . 57 TABLE IV Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . - "Our P r o d u c t s " Year Machine Produced 1890 Large M e c h a n i c a l Adding Machine ( o n l y adding) 2-3 f t . wide, 2 f t . h i g h 1900 Changed t o Adding & S u b t r a c t i n g Machine 1920 E l e c t r i c Adding Machine 1940-1950 C a l c u l a t o r s (add, s u b t r a c t , m u l t i p l y and d i v i d e ) 1950 IBM & UNIVAC made the f i r s t computer c a l l e d UNIVAC 1950-1960 3 o t h e r companies made p o s t i n g computers r RT A C ! Large IBM ) 3 Burroughs) NCR ) Small PHILIPS ) 1960 'T 1 P o s t i n g Computer 1967 'E' P o s t i n g Computer 1969 L2000 S t r i p e M i n i Computer 1972 L5000 S t r i p e M i n i Computer 1973 L8000 S t r i p e M i n i Computer (can a l s o use c a s s e t t e s ) 1974 Disk based B700 M i n i .Computer 1976 D i s k based B80 and B800 Computer 1977 L9000 S t r i p e M i n i Computer Source: I n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by I en B r a d f o r d , C h i e f Salesman, Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . , Vancouver. 58 2. D i c t a t i n g Machine. The d i c t a t i n g machine r e c o r d s and p l a y s back speech f o r t y p e d t r a n s c r i p t s . 3. D u p l i c a t i n g Machines. A g r e a t e r p a r t o f o f f i c e work i s r e p e t i t i v e o r s t e r e o t y p e , e s p e c i a l l y l e t t e r f o r m a t s . These machines embody the economy and c o n v e n i e n c e o f p r e p a r i n g one l e t t e r o r a r t i c l e and g e t t i n g s e v e r a l c o p i e s from i t l a t e r i n s t e a d o f g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e same p r o c e s s any time a copy i s needed. There a r e a whole v a r i e t y o f t h e s e machines, v a r i e t i e s which v e r y o f t e n , but not n e c e s s a r i l y , i n d i c a t e t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancement. a) There a r e t y p e w r i t e r s ( c a r b o n c o p i e s ) . The most common method o f d u p l i c a t i n g one t o s i x c o p i e s i s by the use o f carbon paper i n s e r t e d between the s h e e t s o f paper b e f o r e p l a c i n g them i n the t y p e w r i t e r . b) Then t h e r e a r e t h e p h o t o c o p y i n g machines. T h i s method, commonly c a l l e d p h o t o s t a t , makes d i r e c t c o p i e s o f any r e c o r d o r document w i t h o u t t he use o f p l a t e s o r f i l m s . e) Mimeograph. T h i s i s d u p l i c a t i n g from s t e n c i l s o f v a r i o u s s o r t s and i s an o l d and w e l l known p r o c e s s whereby a s t e n -c i l i s c u t on a t y p e w r i t e r o r by hand w i t h a s t y l u s and then run o f f on a machine which p r e s s e s i n k thro u g h the s t e n c i l onto t h e paper. d) Hectograph. Here, a master i s p r e p a r e d w i t h w a t e r - s o l u b l e i n k , o r t y p i n g through a s p e c i a l h e ctograph t y p e w r i t e r r i b b o n o r carbon. When t h i s master i s p l a c e d on a g e l a t i n e s u r f a c e , t he i n k i s absorbed and may then be t r a n s f e r r e d t o a c l e a n , d r y s h e e t o f paper l a i d on the s u r f a c e . Up t o 25 or 50 good c o p i e s can u s u a l l y be made. 59 e) L i q u i d D u p l i c a t o r s . T h i s i s d u p l i c a t i o n by d i r e c t o r s p i r i t p r o c e s s . Here, c o p i e s a r e made d i r e c t l y from the master. The master i s p r e p a r e d by w r i t i n g o r t y p i n g on t he m a s t e r - s h e e t a g a i n s t t h e back o f which has been p l a c e d t h e carbon s i d e o f a s h e e t o f heavy carbon paper s u p p l i e d e s p e c i a l l y f o r the purpose. Up t o 500 c o p i e s may be q u i c k l y made under f a v o u r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s . 4. A d d r e s s o g r a p h . A d d r e s s o g r a p h i s the name g i v e n t o a d d r e s s i n g machines. The a d d r e s s i n g machines a r e s p e c i a l i z e d d u p l i c a t i n g machines and a r e d e s i g n e d t o d u p l i c a t e many o f s e p a r a t e i m p r i n t s once or t w i c e , i n s t e a d o f t h e same i m p r i n t many t i m e s . T h e r e a r e two g e n e r a l t y p e s : a) p r i n t i n g from s t e n c i l s , f i b r e o r t i s s u e , and b) from t y p e o r p l a t e s . The f i r s t a d d r e s s s t e n c i l s were c u t on paper w i t h p i n - p o i n t t y p e w r i t e r t y p e , the paper b e i n g r e p l a c e d l a t e r by wax and s t i l l l a t e r by t i s s u e . The f i r s t a d d r e s s i n g machines t h a t p r i n t e d from type used movable r u b b e r t y p e , which was l a t e r s uperseded by a t h i n embossed metal p l a t e . These machines have a wide v a r i e t y o f a p p l i c a t i o n i n o f f i c e work. T h e i r o r i g i n a l use gave t h e name " a d d r e s s i n g " as th e y were used f o r im-p r i n t i n g names and a d d r e s s e s on magazines, wrappers o r on e n v e l o p e s . 5. M i c r o f i l m . M i c r o f i l m i s a method where.by. means o f a s p e c i a l p r o -j e c t o r t he n e g a t i v e o f any d e s i r e d o f f i c e m a t e r i a l may be examined f u l l s i z e o r l a r g e r i f need be. A bank cheque i s a case i n p o i n t . F or s e v e r a l y e a r s , banks have photographed cheques on motion, p i c t u r e f i l m . As each cheque passed through t he r o u t i n e , both s i d e s o f the cheque are photo-graphed i n m i n i a t u r e , thus p r o v i d i n g a complete r e c o r d . 60 The l i f e o f a m i c r o f i l m i s c l a i m e d t o be from 250-300 y e a r s i f p r o p e r l y p r o c e s s e d . A few o f the advantages c l a i m e d a r e t h a t : a) s i n c e the camera can t a k e two i d e n t i c a l p i c t u r e s o f the r e c o r d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y on s e p a r a t e r e e l s , one r e e l may be s t o r e d where i t w i l l be s a f e from d e s t r u c t i o n , w h i l e the o t h e r i s used f o r c u r r e n t r e f e r e n c e ; b) the space r e q u i r e d by the r e e l s o f n e g a t i v e s i s a mere f r a c t i o n , about t h r e e p e r c e n t , o f t h a t taken up by the o r i g i n a l r e c o r d s . One U n i t e d S t a t e s government o f f i c e r e p o r t e d t h a t i t s f i l e s o f documents and l e t t e r s t a k i n g up 4,800 square f e e t o f f l o o r space was reduced t o 40 square f e e t by m i c r o f i l m . I n a c t i v e f i l e s may then be con-densed so t h a t b u l k y o r i g i n a l documents may be des-t r o y e d ( L e f f i n g w e l l , 1950: 296). Such a method i s now r o u t i n e i n many l i b r a r i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . 6. T e l e t y p e / T e l e g r a p h Machines. These a r e two t e c h n i c a l d e v i c e s which t r a n s m i t i n s t a n t a n e o u s l y w r i t t e n o r t y p e d messages. The t e l e t y p e w r i t e r has a t y p e w r i t e r keyboard. A message typed a t the s e n d i n g machine i s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t y p e d a t the r e c e i v i n g machine, wherever l o c a t e d , on a t y p e o r sheet o f paper as p r o v i d e d . I t may be used not o n l y between de-partments i n the same b u i l d i n g , but a l s o between b u i l d i n g s and between branch o f f i c e s i n d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s , e i t h e r by p r i v a t e w i r e o r t h r o u g h a c e n t r a l t e l e t y p e w r i t e r exchange o p e r a t e d by the t e l e p h o n e company. The t e l a u t o g r a p h does the same f o r h a n d w r i t i n g . What one w r i t e s on a metal p l a t e i s i n s t a n t l y r e p r o d u c e d i n the same h a n d w r i t i n g a t any de-s i r e d s t a t i o n o r s t a t i o n s wherever l o c a t e d . Data o r i n f o r m a t i o n thus t r a n s m i t t e d may be a u t h e n t i c a t e d , i f d e s i r e d , by t h e a c t u a l s i g n a t u r e o r i n i t i a l s o f the person g i v i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n . 6-T 7. C a l c u l a t o r s . C a l c u l a t o r s a r e machines e s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r r a p i d computation. They were i n t e n d e d p r i m a r i l y f o r f a s t a d d i t i o n , s u b t r a c t i o n , m u l t i p l i c a t i o n and d i v i s i o n . By the 70's, t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancement had made i t p o s s i b l e t o s o l v e complex problems w i t h c a l -c u l a t o r s . C a l c u l a t o r s a r e e i t h e r k e y - d r i v e n or c r a n k - d r i v e n . On a key-d r i v e n c a l c u l a t o r , d e p r e s s i n g a numbered key adds t h a t number, and the sum t o t a l o f f i g u r e s added appears on the d i a l a t t h e bottom o r top o f the keyboard. S i n c e t h e r e i s no p r i n t i n g mechanism, t h e r e i s no way t o check a computation except by r e p e a t i n g i t . O p e r a t i o n i s f a s t s i n c e o n l y one key needs t o be d e p r e s s e d t o add t h a t f i g u r e . The c r a n k - d r i v e n c a l c u l a t o r s may be o p e r a t e d by hand o r equipped w i t h a motor f o r e x t r e m e l y r a p i d o p e r a t i o n . On some a u t o m a t i c models i t i s n e c e s s a r y o n l y t o s e t up the f a c t o r s o f a problem i n m u l t i p l i c a t i o n , d i v i s i o n , o r whatever, whereupon t h e machine does the r e s t a u t o m a t i c a l l y . 8. A c c o u n t i n g / B o o k k e e p i n g Machi ne. In i t s s i m p l e s t form the bookkeep-i n g machine i s a t y p e w r i t e r w i t h an a d d i n g and s u b t r a c t i n g mechanism. I t s v a l u e l i e s i n i t s a b i l i t y t o add and s u b t r a c t items t o and from a g i v e n f i g u r e , p r o d u c i n g a b a l a n c e f i g u r e which i s m e c h a n i c a l l y a c c u r a t e , p r o v i d e d the work Was c o r r e c t l y done. Most a c c o u n t i n g machines have p r o o f keys which cannot be d e p r e s s e d u n l e s s and u n t i l t h e work i s a c c u r a t e , thus p r o v i d i n g an immediate checkup a f t e r each e n t r y . A l l any bookkeeping machine can do i s t o make an e n t r y on some r e c o r d , u s u a l l y a l e d g e r o f some k i n d , i n such a way t h a t t h e r e c o r d shows what took p l a c e as w e l l as the r e s u l t o f the t r a n s a c t i o n . Making t h e s e e n t r i e s i s c a l l e d " p o s t i n g " and may be e a s i l y i l l u s t r a t e d by r e f e r e n c e t o an Accounts R e c e i v a b l e Ledger 62 f o r example. The Accounts R e c e i v a b l e Ledger c o n t a i n s a s h e e t o f c a r d s f o r each f i r m ' s charge customers. When a customer makes a charge pur-chase, the charge s a l e s s l i p ( o r d u p l i c a t e i n v o i c e , as the case may be) i s s e n t t o t h e bookkeeper who l o c a t e s the customer l e d g e r c a r d o r s h e e t , p l a c e s i t i n the bookkeeping machine and p o s t s the t r a n s a c t i o n . T h i s she does by t y p i n g i n the o l d b a l a n c e shown on t h e l e d g e r s h e e t o r c a r d , then she t y p e s the amount o f the p u r c h a s e , which i s m e c h a n i c a l l y added t o the o l d f i g u r e , the t o t a l showing i n a d i a l on a machine. T h i s t o t a l she now t y p e s i n the new b a l a n c e column. Thus, the customer's l e d g e r s h e e t o r c a r d always shows what the customer has bought, p a i d f o r , o r r e t u r n e d f o r c r e d i t and, i n a d d i t i o n , the b a l a n c e owing a t any time. 9. Data P r o c e s s i n g Machine. The o f f i c e i s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o as the nervous system o f a b u s i n e s s o r o t h e r e n t e r p r i s e . The o f f i c e i s the c e n t r e where i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e c o r d e d , c l a s s i f i e d , s o r t e d , summarized, computed and t r a n s m i t t e d as needed. The d u t i e s performed i n the o f f i c e a r e b r o a d -l y r e f e r r e d t o as d a t a p r o c e s s i n g . The term used t o a p p l y whether t h e work was done by hand or by machine. I t s i m p l y was a n o t h e r name f o r o f f i c e work. But d u r i n g the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e 60's, c o n t i n u i n g i n t o the 70's, machines have i n c r e a s i n g l y been i n t r o d u c e d t h a t a r e c a l l e d d a t a p r o c e s s i n g machines. T h i s i s i n t h e sense t h a t t h e s e machines can, w i t h some manual h e l p , p e r f o r m most o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l o f f i c e d u t i e s which used t o be per-formed e i t h e r m a n u a l l y o r by t h e use o f a number o f machines. Reviewing b r i e f l y , a t t h i s p o i n t , the d a t a p r o c e s s i n g c y c l e w i l l b r i n g our d i s c u s s i o n i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e and h i g h l i g h t the e x t e n t o f t e c h n o -l o g i c a l changes. A l l d a t a p r o c e s s i n g , whether i t be done by hand o r by 63 the l a t e s t e l e c t r o n i c methods, c o n s i s t s o f one o r more o f the f o l l o w i n g b a s i c s t e p s . (See T a b l e V.) O r i g i n a t i o n o f Data The f i r s t s t e p i s o r i g i n a t i n g t h e d a t a . Data must be o r i g i n a t e d i n some form f o r p r o c e s s i n g , o f t e n c a l l e d s o u r c e documents; T h i s o f t e n i n c l u d e s h a n d w r i t t e n or typed forms such as s a l e s t i c k e t s , cheques, d e p o s i t s l i p s , and customer i n v o i c e s . Data o r i g i n a l l y r e c o r d e d i n one form may l a t e r be c o n v e r t e d i n t o m a c h i n e - u s a b l e form f o r f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g . There a r e a l s o word p r o c e s s i n g machines which deal m a i n l y w i t h r e c o r d i n g , t r a n s c r i b i n g and d u p l i c a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a t the same ti m e . T h i s , i n a sense, combines t y p e w r i t e r s , d i c -t a t i n g and d u p l i c a t i n g machines i n one s e t . In the a d v e r t i s e -ment most o f the d a t a and word p r o c e s s i n g machines were t o g e t h e r , so we d i s c u s s them t o g e t h e r here. C l a s s i f y i n g I d e n t i f y i n g and a r r a n g i n g items w i t h the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t o groups o r c l a s s e s i s c a l l e d c l a s s i f y i n g . C l a s s i f y i n g i s u s u a l l y done by a s h o r t e n e d , p r e d e t e r m i n e d method o f a b b r e v i a -t i o n known as c o d i n g . The t h r e e types o f codes used a r e numeric, a l p h a b e t i c and a l p h a n u m e r i c . Code numbers a r e used t o d e s i g n a t e persons ( s o c i a l s e c u r i t y number, p a y r o l l number, e t c . ) . A l p h a b e t i c codes a r e used t o c l a s s i f y such t h i n g s as f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n (AAA-BB-C), and a l p h a n u m e r i c codes as a u t o -m o b i l e l i c e n s e p l a c e s ( f o r example AB-398). TABLE V Steps In The Data Processing Operation Processing Methods Originating, Recording Classifying Sorting Calculating Summariza-tion Storing Retrieving Reproduction Communicating 1880-1921 Manual methods Human obser-vation; Handwritten records; Pegboards Hand post-ing Hand posting; Keyboard Edge-notched cards Human brain Pegboards; Hand cal-culators Paper in fi1es; Journals; Ledgers; etc. File clerk; Bookkeeping Clerical; Carbon paper Written reports; Hand-carried messages; Telephone 1940-1950 Manual with machine assistance methods Typewriter; Cash register; Manual Cash register; Bookkeeping Machine Mechani-cal collators Adding machines; Calculators Cash registers Accounting machines; Adding machines; Cash registers Motorized storing fi1es; Microfilm Xerox machines; Duplicators; Addressing machines Documents pre-pared by machines; Message conveyors 1950-1965 Electro-mechanical punched card methods Pre-punched key-punched cards; Mark-sensed cards; Manual Determined by card field design; Sorter; Collator Card sorter Accounting machines (tabulators) Calculating punch Trays of cards Manual tray Reproduction movement; punch Printed docu-ments; Interpreter 1950-1968 Electronic methods Magnetic tape encoder; Magnetic & optical character readers; Card & tape punches on-line Determined by systems design; Computer Off-line card sorter; Computer sorting Computer Maqnet-ized media & devices; Punched medi a; Computer On-line inquiry with di rect access devices; Manual movement of storage section Multiple copies from printers On-line data transmission; Printed output; Visual display; Voice output Source: Sanders, H.D., Computers in Business: An Introduction, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Toronto, 65 S o r t i n g A f t e r the d a t a a r e c l a s s i f i e d , i t i s t h e n u s u a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o a r r a n g e o r r e a r r a n g e them i n a p r e d e t e r m i n e d sequence t o f a c i l i t a t e p r o c e s s i n g . T h i s arrangement i s c a l l e d s o r t i n g . C a l c u l a t i n g A r i t h m e t i c m a n i p u l a t i o n o f the d a t a i s known as c a l c u l a t i n g . In the c a l c u l a t i o n o f an employee's pay, f o r i n s t a n c e , the t o t a l number o f hours worked, m u l t i p l i e d by the h o u r l y wage r a t e , would g i v e the t a x a b l e g r o s s e a r n i n g s . Summarizing To be o f v a l u e , d a t a must o f t e n be condensed o r s i f t e d so t h a t t h e r e s u l t i n g r e p o r t s w i l l be c o n c i s e and e f f e c t i v e . Reducing masses o f d a t a t o a more u s a b l e form i s c a l l e d summarizing. S t o r i n g P l a c i n g s i m i l a r d a t a i n t o f i l e s f o r f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e i s s t o r i n g . In t h e p a y r o l l example c i t e d the d a t a on hours worked e a r l y i n . t h e pay p e r i o d had t o be s t o r e d u n t i l t he p a y r o l l was p r e p a r e d . R e t r i e v i n g R e c o v e r i n g s t o r e d d a t a and/or i n f o r m a t i o n when needed i s the r e t r i e v i n g s t e p . R e t r i e v a l methods range from s e a r c h e s made by f i l e c l e r k s t o t h e use o f q u i c k - r e s p o n d i n g i n q u i r y t e r m i n a l s t h a t a r e c o n n e c t e d d i r e c t l y ( i . e . , they a r e o n - l i n e ) t o a computer. The computer, i n t u r n , i s c o n n e c t e d d i r e c t l y t o a mass s t o r a g e d e v i c e t h a t c o n t a i n s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n . The computer i s programed t o r e t r i e v e the i n f o r m a t i o n and r e l a y i t t o t h e i n q u i r y s t a t i o n 66 a t e l e c t r o n i c speeds. The s t a t i o n may be i n t h e next room, next t o the computer, o r i t may be thousands o f m i l e s away. Reproducing I t i s sometimes n e c e s s a r y o r d e s i r a b l e t o copy o r d u p l i -c a t e d a t a . T h i s o p e r a t i o n i s known as d a t a r e p r o d u c t i o n and may be done by hand o r by machine. Some machines (Xerox e q u i p -ment) produce a humanly r e a d a b l e copy document. Others r e p r o -duce the data i n m a c h i n e - r e a d a b l e form on such media as punched c a r d s , punched paper t a p e , and magnetic t a p e so t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o s s i b l e f o r man t o r e a d i t d i r e c t l y . Communicating I t i s now c l e a r t h a t d a t a may go t h r o u g h many s t e p s a f t e r t h e y have been o r i g i n a t e d . The t r a n s f e r o f d a t a from one o p e r a -t i o n to a n o t h e r f o r use f o r f u r t h e r p r o c e s s i n g i s known as d a t a communication. The communication p r o c e s s c o n t i n u e s u n t i l t he i n f o r m a t i o n , i n a .usable form, reaches t h e f i n a l u s e r ' s l o c a t i o n . These, t h e n , a r e the b a s i c s t e p s i n d a t a p r o c e s s i n g . ( F o r more i n -f o r m a t i o n on d a t a p r o c e s s i n g see Sanders, O p . - C i t . and Wanous, S . J . , Automation O f f i c e P r a c t i c e , W.J. Gage L t d . , T o r o n t o , 1966.) T a b l e V p r e s e n t s t h e s e s t e p s and i n d i c a t e s some o f the ways and the machines used t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e c y c l e . 10. Computers. The computer i s such a complex machine t h a t i t d e f i e s s i m p l e d e f i n i t i o n . To some p e o p l e i t has ushered i n a new e r a i n human l i f e when the most complex j o b s can be a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h i n c r e d i b l e ease •and a t an i n c r e d i b l e speed. The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f computers has g e n e r a t e d 67 both f e a r and hope i n modern s o c i e t y . . But whatever t h e computer i s imagined t o be, i t i s a p i e c e o f machinery t h a t i s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o advances i n v i r t u a l l y a l l f i e l d s o f human endeavour. In i t s s i m p l e s t form i t i s an e l e c t r o n i c machine t h a t performs r a p i d , complex, c a l -c u l a t i o n s o r co m p i l e s and c o r r e l a t e s d a t a , and has a l a r g e memory where i n f o r m a t i o n can be s t o r e d and r e t r i e v e d . These then a r e t h e common machines i n o f f i c e s and t h e i r broad f u n c t i o n s . Having d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y t h e v a r i o u s o f f i c e machines and t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , we b e g i n , a t t h i s p o i n t , t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e machines w i t h our p e r i o d s o f a n a l y s i s , i . e . , t he o l d (1911 - 1920), the t r a n s i t i o n a l (1920 - 1950), and the modern (1950 - 1971) o f f i c e s and t o t r a c e any e v o l u -t i o n a r y t r e n d s i n t h e s e o f f i c e machines f o r the 60-year p e r i o d . Changes i n O f f i c e Machines, 1911 - 1920 F a c t o r y m e c h a n i z a t i o n had a 100-year s t a r t o v e r t he o f f i c e , but i n c r e a s i n g l y and w i t h t he p r e s e n t e r a o f e l e c t r o n i c s , o f f i c e s a r e more than c a t c h i n g up. The f i r s t and t h e g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r o f o f f i c e machinery was the t y p e w r i t e r which was s a i d . t o have begun c l i c k i n g i n t h e 1870's (Baker, 1964: 13). The t y p e w r i t e r , t he d i c t a t i n g machine and the t e l e -phone appear t o be the e a r l y o f f i c e machines used i n t h i s p e r i o d . From the 13 major o f f i c e machines a d v e r t i s e d i n the F i n a n c i a l Post o f the 1911 - 1971 p e r i o d , o n l y t he t y p e w r i t e r and the d i c t a t i n g machine were adver-t i s e d as f a r back as 1911. These were manual. The volume o f o f f i c e work 68 a t t h i s time was small and t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s e d s i m p l e and m a i n l y i n v o l v i n g i n t e r n a l work - work d i r e c t l y i n v o l v i n g t h e p a r t i c u l a r b u s i n e s s o r o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s t r a n s a c t i o n s . E n t e r p r i s e had not much e x t e r n a l o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s . Most o f t h e work t h a t was done around t h i s time was done by human hands and.depended almost e n t i r e l y on human i n t e l l i g e n c e . (See T a b l e V.) Baker, f o r example, w r i t e s : "And t h e s e machines were c a p a b l e o f h a n d l i n g j o b s a t t h e time. M a n u a l l y o p e r a t e d t y p e w r i t e r s and o t h e r o f f i c e machines met t h e needs o f b u s i n e s s a t the t u r n o f t h e . c e n t u r y " ( B a k e r , 1964: 213). The t y p e w r i t e r , l i k e most o f f i c e machines and equipment, has gone through a number o f t e c h n i c a l changes. From the 1880's through 1911 to about the 1930's, the t y p e w r i t e r s t h a t were used were manual. The manual t y p e w r i t e r was improved upon i n s i z e and sound, moved from l a r g e t o p o r t a b l e and then t o ' n o i s e l e s s ' u n t i l i n the 50's i t became e l e c t r i c . The f i r s t a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n our d a t a on an e l e c t r i c t y p e w r i t e r was i n 1957. T h i s was made by IBM and r e a d as f o l l o w s : For the f i r s t t i m e , f o r the man o f a m b i t i o n , t h e IBM " E x e c u t i v e " e l e c t r i c the one and o n l y t y p e w r i t e r w i t h " p r o p o r t i o n a l s p a c i n g " t o g i v e you t h e w o r l d ' s most d i s t i n g u i s h e d l e t t e r s ] ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , June 29, 1957: 3 ) . The t y p e w r i t e r has remained e l e c t r i c s i n c e t h i s t i m e , but has under-gone a g r e a t deal o f change. Changes and added f e a t u r e s which have made i t even more e f f i c i e n t and f a s t e r . In t h e 60's, i n s t e a d o f the t y p e w r i t e r b e i n g used s i n g u l a r l y t o p e r f o r m b a s i c t y p i n g d u t i e s , most b i g companies combined t h e t y p e w r i t e r w i t h o t h e r common language machines f o r more i n -t e g r a t i v e and e f f e c t i v e work. (See F i g u r e 1.) FIGURE I COMBINED OFFICE MACHINES 69 A Typewriter with paper tape-cutting attachment. This ma-chine can be used to prepare documents such as invoices, s t a t e m e n t s , and purchase orders. At the same time the documents are being prepared, selected data can be punched into a p u n c h e d paper tape, which in turn can be fed into other machines for processing or preparing reports. C Teletypewriter. This is a ma-chine w i t h a typewriter-like keyboard. Information recorded in punched paper tape can be fed into the m a c h i n e and a visual copy of the d a t a can be made. Also , the data re -corded in the paper tape can be transmitted t h r o u g h the teletypewriter to distant points over telephone and telegraph wires. E Tape-to-Card Converter. This machine is u s e d to transfer automatically data punched in paper tape to punched cards. F Paper Tape Reader. This ma-chine r e a d s the information that is punched in paper tape and prints it. B Typewriter operated by means of punched paper tape. Punched paper tape can be fed into this m a c h i n e . The machine will automatically t y p e w h a t is punched in the tape. D 10-key Adding - Listing Ma-ch ine. This machine is used primarily for adding and sub-tracting. Calculations may be checked on the printed tape output. Calculations may also be punched automatically in new paper tape. G Calculator. After the data that have been recorded in paper tape have been converted to punched cards, the cards can be fed into a calculator. The calculator will make any arith-metic calculations that may be n e e d e d and p r i n t out the answers. Source: Wanous, e t a l . Automation O f f i c e P r a c t i c e , 1966: 10. 70 The keyboard o f the computer, the most s o p h i s t i c a t e d o f f i c e machinery so f a r , i s s t i l l i n a t y p e w r i t e r form. A p a r t from i t s keyboard b e i n g adapted t o most o f f i c e machines, the t y p e w r i t e r i t s e l f has gone t h r o u g h tremendous changes from the l a t e 60's t o the p r e s e n t . There a r e now t y p e w r i t e r s t h a t have a d i s p l a y board t o e n a b l e the t y p i s t t o see whatever she i s t y p i n g and t o be a b l e t o c o r r e c t m i s t a k e s i m m e d i a t e l y . The 70's has a l s o seen a memory t y p e w r i t e r . T h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f an Olympia S e l e c t r i c T y p e w r i t e r w i l l g i v e us p e r s p e c t i v e : The t y p e w r i t e r which i s ' p u r e l y e l e c t r o n i c 1 and can do the f o l l o w i n g : a. I t remembers what.you t y p e i n t o i t - so i t can r e -t y p e i t f o r you l a t e r . There a r e 50 e l e c t r o n i c f i l e s w i t h a t o t a l c a p a c i t y o f 150 average l e t t e r s . Each f i l e can be r e c a l l e d t o a s p e c i f i c document a t the t o u c h o f a d i a l , a t any t i m e , f o r r e t y p i n g or c o r r e c t i o n . b. I t i s i d e a l f o r s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s - because s t a n d a r d l e t t e r s o r documents can be q u i c k l y and a c c u r a t e l y r e -t y p e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y . S p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n changes l i k e names and p r i c e s can s i m p l y be i n s e r t e d by the o p e r a t o r . c. I t has a l i f t - o f f c o r r e c t i o n . A s i n g l e key d e p r e s -s i o n a u t o m a t i c a l l y l i f t s t y p i n g e r r o r s o f f the page, g i v i n g i t a c l e a n , l e t t e r - p e r f e c t o r i g i n a l . ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , Dec. 9, 1978: 7:) So the t y p e w r i t e r c o n t i n u e s t o be an i m p o r t a n t o f f i c e machine. E v i -dence from T a b l e I I I shows t h a t t h e t y p e w r i t e r has l i v e d t h r o u g h the y e a r s and does not seem t o w i t h e r away i n s p i t e o f o t h e r s o p h i s t i c a t e d o f f i c e machines. T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d by the number o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s on them. The i n c r e a s e i n number and s i z e o f the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s c o u l d p o i n t t o one o f two t h i n g s : a) t h a t the m a n u f a c t u r e r s were becoming many and thus c o m p e t i t i o n was h i g h e r . M a n u f a c t u r e r s needed t o make b i g , b o l d a d v e r t i s e -ments t o get the market they needed, o r b) t h a t t h e s e p r o d u c t s were i n demand, t h e r e f o r e , e n c o u r a g i n g many m a n u f a c t u r e r s t o get i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n . T a b l e I I I 71 shows t h a t the number o f m a n u f a c t u r e r s f o r the v a r i o u s o f f i c e machines has i n c r e a s e d c o n s i d e r a b l y o v e r the y e a r s . I t i s on t h i s b a s i s t h a t we make the assumption t h a t t h e l a r g e r the a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f an o f f i c e machine, the more i n demand i t i s . In the 1911 - 1921 p e r i o d t h e r e was o n l y one a d v e r t i s e m e n t ' o n a manual t y p e w r i t e r . But as the y e a r s advanced t h e number o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n c r e a s e d . The 1931 - 1941 p e r i o d was the o n l y e x c e p t i o n where t h e r e was o n l y one a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n January 1940. One c o u l d , p e r h a p s , a t t r i b u t e t h i s t o t h e war p r e s s u r e s which c o u l d lower the market and, t h e r e f o r e , the bene-f i t o f a d v e r t i s i n g . There were t e n a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n the 1941 - 1961 p e r i o d and t h e s e were, i n most c a s e s , h a l f , o n e - t h i r d and o n e - q u a r t e r s i z e d a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . The number o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s remained the same i n the 1961 - 1971 p e r i o d . T h i s was, perhaps, because a f t e r t h e second w o r l d war t h e r e was a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e machines o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s and t h e r e was t h e need f o r the d i f f e r -ent companies t o f i g h t f o r s u r v i v a l t o keep i n b u s i n e s s . T y p e w r i t e r s had become v e r y common and d i f f e r e n t companies were p r o d u c i n g them. By the 1961 - 1971 p e r i o d , companies had t o spend more o f t h e i r a d v e r t i s i n g money on t h e newer machines t h a t were competing i n t h e f i e l d . The t y p e w r i t e r by now had come t o be a c c e p t e d by brand names and t h e r e was thus no b i g com-p e t i t i o n i n t h a t f i e l d . In t h e 1911 - 1931 p e r i o d , o n l y two companies a d v e r t i s e d t y p e w r i t e r s . By 1971 t h e r e were 7 companies. See T a b l e I I I . The d i c t a t i n g machine i s a n o t h e r o l d o f f i c e hand. The a d v e r t i s e m e n t s on t h i s , l i k e the t y p e w r i t e r , c o u l d be t r a c e d back t o 1911. With the ex-c e p t i o n o f t h e 1931 - 1951 p e r i o d , when t h e r e were few a d v e r t i s e m e n t s due, 72 perhaps, t o the second w o r l d war, t h e number o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s i n c r e a s e d w i t h the y e a r s . T h i s i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t the d i c t a t i n g machine, l i k e the t y p e w r i t e r , has been a v e r y u s e f u l p i e c e o f o f f i c e m achinery. I t has a l s o undergone some t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes, but t h e r e i s not much i n f o r m a t i o n as t o the e x t e n t o f the t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n d i c t a t i n g equipment. The f i r s t a d v e r t i s e m e n t on a d i c t a t i n g machine was i n 1927, which r e a d : What I l i k e i s immediate s e r v i c e . But t h a t ' s o n l y one reason why I v a l u e my D i c t a p h o n e . I use t h e D i c t a p h o n e i n t e r m i t t e n t l y a l l through the day, a f t e r w o r k i n g hours. I don't have t o keep c a l l i n g my s e c r e t a r y o r a r r a n g e my work t o s u i t her c o n v e n i e n c e and she never has t o come to my desk t o t a k e notes o r s i t i d l y w a i t i n g when I'm i n t e r r u p t e d ( F i n a n c i a l . Post-, Nov.; 18, 1927: 15);. T h i s was a s m a l l a d v e r t i s e m e n t about o n e - e i g h t h o f t h e paper s i z e . Then as t h e y e a r s p r o g r e s s e d t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s not o n l y i n c r e a s e d , but they a l s o got b i g g e r i n s i z e . In 1950, f o r example, t h e r e was a h a l f - p a g e a d v e r t i s e m e n t on what was c a l l e d t h e Time Ma s t e r : Time master i s the most sense making and economical d i c t a t i n g machine y e t ! I t i s e l e c t r o n i c , l i g h t , desk-drawer s i z e , uses a movable, f i l e a b l e , p l a s t i c b e l t ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , Nov. 18, 1927: 13). We presume t h a t from t h i s time on, the d i c t a t i n g machine became e l e c -t r o n i c i n p r o c e s s and s m a l l e r i n s i z e . There i s e v i d e n c e from Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . and the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s from the F i n a n c i a l Post t o show t h a t as t e c h n o l o g y advances, machines become more compact, s m a l l e r i n s i z e and move from mechanical t o e l e c t r i c . I f t h i s assumption i s t r u e , then we c o u l d argue t h a t t h e d i c t a t i n g machines i n the 1911 - 1920 p e r i o d were mec h a n i c a l and much b i g g e r i n s i z e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a c count f o r the degree o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e d i c t a t i n g machine on t h e b a s i s o f 73 our d a t a , but we b e l i e v e t h a t w i t h i n c r e a s i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes and improvement on v i r t u a l l y a l l o f f i c e equipment, t h e d i c t a t i n g machine s h o u l d be no e x c e p t i o n . One o f the s t r a n g e s t f i n d i n g s from r e s e a r c h was t h e f a c t t h a t the t e l e p h o n e as an o f f i c e machine had been u n d e r p l a y e d o r t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . The t e l e p h o n e , however, has been one o f t h e c e n t r a l o f f i c e machines. T h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no o f f i c e w i t h o u t a t e l e p h o n e . But t h e r e were no s p e c i f i c a d v e r t i s e m e n t s on t e l e p h o n e s i n r e l a t i o n t o o f f i c e . w o r k . Most t e l e p h o n e a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were on i s s u e s l i k e p a r t y - l i n e and l o n g - d i s t a n c e c a l l s . Wanous (1966), Sanders (1971), Ross (1970), t o mention a few, do not d i s c u s s t e l e p h o n e s . Baker (1964), however, i n "Women a t t h e S w i t c h -b o a r d " d i s c u s s e s t h e t e l e p h o n e o f f i c e b u s i n e s s and how i t i s b e i n g a f f e c t e d by t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n the o f f i c e . T h i s i s an a r e a t h a t needs t o be r e a p p r a i s e d now e s p e c i a l l y w i t h t h e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w i t h i n the s w i t c h b o a r d system where one t e l e p h o n i s t can do the work t h a t used t o be done by many women. The 1911 - 1920 p e r i o d was thus a p e r i o d w i t h few o f f i c e machines. Changes and Developments i n O f f i c e Equipment, 1920 - 1950 A f t e r World War I and a l o n g w i t h F r e d e r i c T a y l o r ' s p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n t i f i c management came the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e machines and e q u i p -ment. These were, i n p a r t , i n response t o the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n t h a t had become n e c e s s a r y w i t h i n t h e o f f i c e as a r e s u l t o f the e x p a n s i o n o f o f f i c e work and t h e a d d i t i o n a l purposes t h a t the o f f i c e f u n c t i o n had t o s e r v e . A l o t o f machines a r e r e p o r t e d t o have made t h e i r . a p p e a r a n c e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Baker r e p o r t s t h a t a f t e r 1920 t h e r e came new machines 74 f o r bookkeeping, b i l l i n g , money h a n d l i n g and v a r i o u s k i n d s o f s t a t i s t i c a l , a dding and c a l c u l a t i n g machines i n the a c c o u n t i n g s e c t i o n o f the o f f i c e . In t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and c i r c u l a t i n g d i v i s i o n , she r e p o r t s , t h a t t h e r e were v a r i e t i e s o f t y p e w r i t e r s , a d d r e s s i n g , d u p l i c a t i n g , d i c t a t i n g machines, en v e l o p e f e e d i n g , f o l d i n g and s e a l i n g , stamping and f r a n k i n g d e v i c e s , and t h e n u m e r i c a l f i l e w i t h a l p h a b e t i c a l index came i n t o wide use. Our d a t a , however, shows t h a t t h e common machines around t h i s t i m e , a p a r t from the t y p e w r i t e r and d i c t a t i n g machines, were t h e d u p l i c a t i n g machines, c a l c u l a t o r s , a d d r e s s o g r a p h . D u p l i c a t i n g machines d i d not appear t o be i n use a t any r e c o g n i z a b l e degree d u r i n g the e a r l y p e r i o d 1911 - 1921. From the 20's onwards th e y began t o make t h e i r appearance, we had one a d v e r t i s e m e n t each i n the 1921 - 1931 and the 1931 - 1941 p e r i o d s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . A p o s s i b l e s i g n t h a t t h e paper work i n t h e o f f i c e had i n c r e a s e d t o t h e p o i n t o f demanding d u p l i c a t i n g and/or p h o t o c o p y i n g i n s t e a d o f j u s t p l a i n t y p i n g . Now t h a t a p h o t o c o p i e r c o s t s l e s s than an o f f i c e t y p e -w r i t e r , l a r g e companies w i l l f i n d t h a t p u t t i n g a new s i g n e t c o p i e r i n each department i s every b i t as p r a c t i c a l as h a v i n g a t y p e w r i t e r a t each s e c r e t a r y ' s desk ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , June 29, 1957: 19). I t was found not o n l y t o be p r a c t i c a l , but a l s o e c o n o m i c a l . From 1941 onwards the r a t e o f a d v e r t i s i n g f o r d u p l i c a t i n g machines i n c r e a s e d (and t h e s i z e s o f t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t got b i g g e r , r a n g i n g , i n most c a s e s , between t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f a page t o h a l f a page). An i n d i c a t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t d u p l i c a t i n g machines were becoming p o p u l a r i n o f f i c e work. The more the demand f o r t h e s e machines and the number o f m a n u f a c t u r e r s p r o -d u c i n g them, t h e more t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d t h e y got. The most common d u p l i c a t i n g machines, Xerox (I have e x c l u d e d d i s c u s s i o n o f a l l the v a r i o u s d u p l i c a t i n g machines p a r t l y f o r l a c k o f space but a l s o because 75 the Xerox machine i s the most commonly used t o d a y ) , s t a r t e d i n t h e 30's w i t h t h e c a p a c i t y t o make a o n e - s i d e d copy o f an o r i g i n a l . D uring the 50's t h e Xerox 4000 was i n t r o d u c e d , which was not o n l y a u t o m a t i c but c o u l d make two - s i d e d c o p i e s . ; T h i s was f o l l o w e d by t h e Xerox 7000, which had the added f e a t u r e o f r e p r o d u c i n g s e v e r a l c o p i e s a t a d i a l o f the machine. Then came the Xerox 4500 w i t h a b u i l t - i n s o r t e r attachment which s o r t s out the numerous c o p i e s t h a t a r e done on t h e machine./(.Based on the • 1971 Xerox P r i c e L i s t ) . . These two l a t t e r f e a t u r e s belong t o the l a t e 60's and m a i n l y t he 70's. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f more advancement i s even a n t i -c i p a t e d f o r t h e f u t u r e . The 1978 F i n a n c i a l Post r e p o r t s on the i n t r o d u c -t i o n o f what i t c a l l s a D i a l - a - C o p i e r . Copying machines t h a t can be d i a l e d t o by the phone t o make as many c o p i e s as r e q u i r e d o f any m a t e r i a l . T h i s a d v e r t i s e m e n t , put i n by the S p e c i a l Report on O f f i c e Machines, F i n a n c i a l P o s t , Dec. 1978, s a y s : Now you can c a l l up y o u r c o p y i n g machine The o f f i c e i n d u s t r y ' s l a t e s t f a s c i n a t i o n , e l e c t r o n i c m a i l , g i v e s c o p i e r s a key f u t u r e r o l e , t a k i n g over where c u r r e n t f a c s i m i l e , t e l e t y p e w r i t e r s and communi-c a t i n g word p r o c e s s o r s l e a v e o f f . I n s t e a d o f s e n d i n g messages by m a i l , b u s i n e s s w i l l communicate, v i a phone l i n e s by " i n t e l l i g e n t " c o p i e r s , which w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y make as many c o p i e s as r e q u i r e d . C o p i e r s w i l l a l s o communicate d i r e c t l y w i t h word p r o c e s s i n g machines. C o p i e r s t h a t a c c e p t e l e c t r o n i c i n p u t , i n c l u d i n g computer i n p u t , a r e j u s t e n t e r i n g t he market. Xerox's 9700 e l e c t r o n i c p r i n t i n g system p r i n t s two pages a second, and can c r e a t e i t s own f i l m s ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , Dec. 9, 1978: 3 ) . I t may be n e c e s s a r y t o emphasize t h a t t h e o f f i c e m a c h i n e r y , d u r i n g the e a r l y p e r i o d , was s i m p l e and few, and most o f t h e machines and e q u i p -ment t h a t became common i n the m i d d l e and l a t e r p e r i o d s might have been i n e x i s t e n c e i n the e a r l y p e r i o d i n s i m p l e forms and i n i s o l a t e d - - c a s e s . 76 Smith, f o r example, p o i n t s out t h a t " i n 1913 a bank statement machine en a b l e d one c l e r k t o do t h e work o f two bookkeepers and t h e r e were improved e l e c t r i c c a l c u l a t o r s which l i t e r a l l y devour f i g u r e s , " ( S m i t h , 1959: 5 ) . Machines l i k e the a d d r e s s o g r a p h and c a l c u l a t o r became prominent from the 1940's onwards. In the d a t a t h e r e a r e no a d v e r t i s e m e n t s on t h e s e machines u n t i l the 1941 - 1951 p e r i o d where t h e r e appeared an a d v e r t i s e m e n t each on t h e s e machines. From the n on the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s became more f r e q u e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n the c a s e o f c a l c u l a t o r s . T h e r e was one a d v e r t i s e m e n t on c a l c u l a t o r s i n t h e 1941 - 1951 p e r i o d . T h i s i n -f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i n f o r m a t i o n from Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . (See T a b l e IV.) Burroughs r e p o r t s t h a t the a d d i n g machine, which l a t e r d e v e l o p e d i n t o t h e c a l c u l a t i n g machine, has been i n e x i s t e n c e s i n c e 1890 when o n l y l a r g e mechanical a d d i n g machines were pro-duced by UNIVAC, IBM and Burroughs. By 1900 t h i s had changed i n t o a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r a d d i n g and s u b t r a c t i n g machine. In 1920 a n o t h e r development brought i n t o b e i n g t h e e l e c t r i c a d d i n g and s u b t r a c t i n g machines. T h i s was the p e r i o d when e l e c t r o - m e c h a n i c a l p r i n c i p l e , v a r i o u s l y a p p l i e d , came i n t o e x t e n s i v e use. The 1940 - 1950 p e r i o d saw t h e development o f what has come t o be known as t h e c a l c u l a t o r , the machine t h a t c o u l d add, s u b t r a c t , m u l t i p l y and d i v i d e . These were m a i n l y ' b i g ' desk c a l c u l a t o r s . S i n c e t h i s p e r i o d c a l c u l a t o r s have seen more m o d i f i c a t i o n than one can imagine. T h e r e a r e a l l k i n d s o f v a r i e t i e s and shapes. They range from t o y - l i k e d e s i g n s t h a t k i d s can p l a y w i t h t o the t h i n c r e d i t c a r d o r pen-l i k e s i z e s t h a t can be snapped i n t o a w a l l e t . Then t h e r e a r e the r e l a t i v e -l y s m a l l e r - s i z e d desk top ones t h a t a r e e l e c t r i c a l l y o p e r a t e d and used f o r 77 massive o f f i c e c a l c u l a t i o n s . The former one, m a i n l y f o r small o r p e r s o n a l i z e d c a l c u l a t i o n s , i s o p e r a t e d on b a t t e r i e s . The c a l c u l a t o r c o n t i n u e s t o see t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n the 70 1 s. A S p e c i a l Report on O f f i c e Machines i n the F i n a n c i a l Post has i t t h a t t h e r e a re now on th e market c a l c u l a t o r s which can speak. Now c a l c u l a t o r s do almost e v e r y t h i n g e x c e p t push t he b u t t o n s .... Be n i c e t o y o u r c a l c u l a t o r . Soon i t c o u l d be t a l k i n g back t o y o u , t e l l i n g you how t o push b u t t o n s . Make a m i s t a k e and i t w i l l s c o l d you i n an i n t i m i d a t i n g n a s a l v i b r a t o . Texas Instruments has i n t r o d u c e d f i v e l o w - c o s t models w i t h "speech s y n t h e s i s " a b i l i t y (TI c a l l s them " l e a r n i n g a i d s " ) . In one c a l l e d Speak 'n' S p e l l , you s p e l l a word by punching t he keys. I f you m i s s p e l l , t h e c a l c u l a t o r t e l l s you so and o r d e r s you t o t r y a g a i n .... 'This i s one o f t h e b i g g e s t t e c h -n o l o g i c a l b r e a k t h r o u g h s ' , c l a i m s Howard S u l l i v a n , T I ' s Canadian m e r c h a n d i s i n g manager ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , Dec. 9, 1978: 6 ) . But t h i s i s , perhaps, not t h e b i g g e s t b r e a k t h r o u g h y e t . The Time Magazine r e p o r t s on t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a M e t r i c C o n v e r s i o n C a l c u l a t o r which i s unique i n t h e sense t h a t i t has f u l l normal c a l c u l a t o r f u n c t i o n s p l u s 28 (14 x 2) i n s t a n t c o n v e r s i o n s from and t o m e t r i c . That i n c l u d e s e v e r y t h i n g , even i m p e r i a l g a l l o n s t o l i t r e s , and square i n c h e s t o s q u a r e c e n t i m e t e r s ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , March 19, 1979: 43). The t r e n d o f t e c h n o -l o g i c a l changes c o n t i n u e s and m a n u f a c t u r e r s seem t o have d e c i d e d t h a t t he b e s t way t o c a p t u r e and expand t h a t market i s w i t h n o v e l , sometimes u s e f u l , c r e a t i o n s such as c o m b i n a t i o n c a l c u l a t o r s . For a w h i l e m a n u f a c t u r e r s c o u l d grab s a l e s w i t h e v e r - s m a l l e r c a l c u l a t o r s , but once t h e y got them down t o th e s i z e o f a w r i s t w a t c h and o p e r a t e d by a pen p o i n t , t h e d i m i n i s h i n g s i z e l o s t i t s a p p e a l . B e s i d e s c a l c u l a t o r s t h a t a r e t h a t small a re hard t o o p e r a t e . So now we have c a l c u l a t o r s cum what-have-you. One model d o u b l e s as an ala r m c l o c k and s t o p watch; a n o t h e r i n c l u d e s a m i c r o - c a s s e t t e r e c o r d e r . 78 Then t h e r e a r e c a l c u l a t o r s f o r s p e c i a l m a r k e t s , such as p e o p l e w i t h bad memories. New "pocket memo" models can h o l d as many as 30 s e t s o f n u m e r ical i n f o r m a t i o n - t e l e p h o n e numbers, f o r i n s t a n c e . And f o r t h e s p e c i a l t y b u s i n e s s , programable c a l c u l a t o r s a re a v a i l a b l e w i t h more programs than e v e r b e f o r e . A new key programable c a l c u l a t o r f e a t u r e s r e p l a c e a b l e h a l f - i n c h square program modules. Change the module and you can s w i t c h from a n a l y z i n g r e a l e s t a t e t o s e c u r i t i e s . But t h e s e t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o p h i s t i c a t i o n s o f the 70's had t h e i r b e g i n n i n g s i n the 3 0 1 s and g a i n e d impetus i n the 40's. They were a r e s u l t o f many f a c t o r s among which were the r e v o l u t i o n a r y e n v i r o n m e n t a l and s c i e n t i f i c changes. O f t e n , changing s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s d e t e r m i n e t h e d i r e c t i o n , s i g n i f i c a n c e and t i m i n g o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes. The changes, s o c i a l and economic, t h a t came a f t e r World War II i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n f l u e n c e d s c i e n c e and t e c h n o l o g y . As Sanders w r i t e s : World War II and the C o l d (and hot) War y e a r s t h a t have f o l l o w e d have p r o v i d e d much impetus f o r s c i e n t i f i c d i s -c o v e r y and t e c h n o l o g i c a l change. During World War I I , f o r example, t h e m u l t i b i l l i o n - d o l l a r Manhattan p r o j e c t l e d t o t h e atomic bomb, b a l l i s t i c . m i s s i l e s were produced, r e s e a r c h i n the realm o f e l e c t r o n i c s l e d t o r a d a r and im-proved communications and weapons systems and EMIAC was b u i l t f o r t he U n i t e d S t a t e s Army by Manchly and E c k e r t t o c o m p i l e a r t i l l e r y t r a j e c t o r y t a b l e s . S i n c e World War II t h e s e break-throughs i n t u r n have l e d t o computer-based e a r l y warning command and c o n t r o l systems, the development o f new e l e c t r o n i c c i r c u i t r y , and t h e b e g i n n i n g s t e p s i n the conquest and e x p l o -r a t i o n o f space ( S a n d e r s , 1972: 65-66). T e c h n o l o g i c a l Changes i n O f f i c e M a chines, 1950 - 1971 These s c i e n t i f i c i n n o v a t i o n s , and the economic growth t h a t made them p o s s i b l e i n the 40's, ushered i n the new e r a o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d o f f i c e machin-e r y . One f i n d s from the d a t a , f o r example, t h a t machines l i k e t he t e l e t y p e , 79 m i c r o f i l m , data/word p r o c e s s i n g machines and computers which a r e h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n i c a l l y a r e a l a t e r development. A l l appear i n the d a t a a f t e r t h e 1950 p e r i o d . The computer and t h e m i c r o f i l m o n l y i n the m i d - s i x t i e s . We do not have any i n f o r m a t i o n about the e x t e n t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes w i t h i n t h e t e l e t y p e machines. Our guess i s t h a t w i t h the i n -c r e a s i n g p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f computers and the a b i l i t y t o r e t r i e v e compu-t e r i z e d messages from d i f f e r e n t computer c e n t r e s , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f d i s -t a n c e , the s i n g u l a r use o f t h e t e l e t y p e machine i s becoming a b s o l e t e , e s p e c i a l l y i n b i g e n t e r p r i s e s . Some e n t e r p r i s e s combine i t w i t h common language and/or word p r o c e s s i n g machines. The d a t a p r o c e s s i n g machine, as i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , used t o s t a n d f o r the t o t a l i t y o f o f f i c e work and the machines i n v o l v e d were the i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g machines a v a i l a b l e a t the p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n t i m e . From 1911 -1921 i t i n v o l v e d the t y p e w r i t e r , d i c t a t i n g machine and, i n some c a s e s , the d u p l i c a t i n g machine. These machines were found t o be i n a d e q u a t e as t h e o f f i c e work expanded t o meet the growing needs o f a growing economy. I t was i n r e s p o n s e t o t h i s need, e s p e c i a l l y the need f o r a f a s t e r and more e f f i c i e n t method t o compile p o p u l a t i o n d a t a , t h a t Herman Hoi T e n t h o f the Census Bureau dev e l o p e d an e l e c t r o - m e c h a n i c a l system a p p l y i n g t h e punched h o l e p r i n c i p l e t o c a r d s f o r s o r t i n g them m e c h a n i c a l l y . Holes punched i n v a r i o u s p l a c e s on a c a r d r e p r e s e n t e d s p e c i f i c items o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The c a r d s were f e d i n t o a machine t h a t made e l e c t r i c a l c o n t a c t s t h r o u g h the punched h o l e s . The key punching machine i s not mentioned i n the d a t a be-cause t h e r e was o n l y one a d v e r t i s e m e n t on "punched c a r d system" i n 1951, and s i n c e t h i s was o n l y one and not s p e c i f i c a l l y on the key punching 80 machine, we d i d not f i n d i t a p p r o p r i a t e to i n c l u d e i t i n the d a t a . T h i s , however, i s s t r a n g e s i n c e the key punch j o b r e p r e s e n t s one o f t h e s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f t h e development o f o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y . The key punching work has o f t e n come under a t t a c k as one o f the most r e p e t i t i v e , f a c t o r y - t y p e g h e t t o e s t h a t women a r e pushed i n t o . We a r e not a b l e t o a c c o u n t f o r the absence o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t s on t h i s machine e x c e p t , p e r h a p s , t h a t the key punching machines d i d not g e t enough chance t o become p o p u l a r b e f o r e the computors and c a l c u l a t o r s s e t i n t o compete w i t h them. Other o f f i c e machines were added as t h e y e a r s advanced and the p r o -l i f e r a t i o n o f machines c o n t i n u e d a f t e r the 1921 - 1951 p e r i o d . By 1951, machines were coming i n t o the market t h a t c o u l d i n c o r p o r a t e the work o f a number o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d a t a p r o c e s s i n g machines l i k e t he t y p e w r i t e r , d u p l i c a t i n g machine and a d d r e s s o g r a p h , and t h e s e machines were c a l l e d d a t a p r o c e s s i n g machines. The word p r o c e s s i n g machines were a l s o common f e a t u r e s o f t h i s p e r i o d . Most o f the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s on d a t a p r o c e s s i n g machines combined them w i t h word p r o c e s s i n g machines. As a r e s u l t we have no numbers t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i n c r e a s e o f t h e s e machines. These were, however, d i f f e r e n t from the d a t a p r o c e s s i n g machine i n t h a t t h e f o r m e r , as i n d i c a t e d , d e a l t w i t h almost a l l t r a d i t i o n a l o f f i c e paper work w h i l s t the l a t t e r d e a l s m a i n l y w i t h o f f i c e communication. But t h i s t r e n d i s changing and t h e r e appears t o be a merger o f t h e two machines i n l a t e r y e a r s . The term Data P r o c e s s i n g Machine was s a i d t o have been i n t r o d u c e d by IBM i n 1964 ( F i n a n -c i a l P o s t , Dec. 9, 1971: s e c t i o n 3d). By the 60's t h e s e machines were be-coming both common and more s o p h i s t i c a t e d . There were o n l y two a d v e r t i s e -ments i n t h e 1951 - 1961 p e r i o d . In f a c t t h e s e two a d v e r t i s e m e n t s were i n 1960. By 1971 t h e r e were as many as 5. The 1979 December Issue o f the 8,lj F i n a n c i a l Post r e p o r t s t h a t t h e r e a r e 40,000 word/data p r o c e s s i n g machines b e i n g used i n Canada and new i n s t a l l a t i o n s a r e r u n n i n g a t 650-700 a month ( I b i d ) . I t i s now b e i n g d e s c r i b e d as the h e a r t b e a t o f t h e o f f i c e . As one d i s t r i c t manager puts i t : "Word/data p r o c e s s -i n g i s not j u s t t y p i n g . I t ' s t h e t o t a l s e c r e t a r i a l f u n c t i o n " . I n -c r e a s e d s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n t h e d a t a p r o c e s s i n g machines has meant a l o t o f changes. I t has meant a s h i f t from h a r d - w i r e d s t a n d - a l o n e p r o c e s s o r s t o such d e v i c e s as s t a n d - a l o n e v i s u a l s c r e e n machines w i t h f u l l o r p a r t i a l cathode ray tube (CRT) d i s p l a y s , o r a t l e a s t one o r t w o - l i n e l i g h t e m i t t i n g d i o d e (LED) d i s p l a y s . As w e l l as t h e demand f o r c o m b i n a t i o n 1 word/data p r o -c e s s o r s , some word p r o c e s s o r s can communicate d i r e c t l y w i t h each o t h e r o v e r phone l i n e s , i n e f f e c t , c r e a t i n g an e l e c t r o n i c m a i l system. I n c r e a s -i n g l y , t o o , t h e y a r e i n t e r f a c i n g d i r e c t l y (and i n d i r e c t l y ) w i t h photo-c o m p o s i t i o n u n i t s , o f f - l i n e p r i n t e r s , o p t i c a l c h a r a c t e r r e c o g n i t i o n (OCR) s c a n n e r s , t e l e t y p e w r i t e r s , computers, and, e v e n t u a l l y , c o p i e r s and even m i c r o f i l m e r s . M i c r o f i l m s . The m i c r o f i l m , l i k e t he computer, i s a much l a t e r d e v e l o p -ment i n o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y . A l l 3 a d v e r t i s e m e n t s on m i c r o f i l m s i n the 60-y e a r p e r i o d were i n t h e 1961 - 1971 p e r i o d . The m i c r o f i l m s t h a t were made i n t h e l a t e 60's were meant f o r b a s i c s t o r i n g and r e s t o r i n g r e c o r d s t o c u t down the space taken by f i l i n g . But by the 70's the m i c r o f i l m came to do more than t h i s . As t h e F i n a n c i a l Post r e p o r t s : "More and more r e c o r d s managers i n b u s i n e s s , government, m e d i c i n e and e d u c a t i o n a r e g e t t i n g f e d up w i t h paper f i l i n g c o s t s and d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h computer s t o r a g e . And even when they use computers, t h e y a r e s c r a p p i n g b u l k y paper p r i n t o u t s f o r m i c r o f i l m o u t p u t . A f o u r - o u n c e m i c r o f i l m magazine h o l d s t h e same 82 i n f o r m a t i o n as a 2,000-page p r i n t o u t r e p o r t and computer o u t p u t m i c r o -f i l m s a r e 20 times f a s t e r than i n p u t p r i n t e r s ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , Dec. 9, 1971: 9 ) . A p a r t from working f a s t e r than t he f i r s t m i c r o f i l m , t he m i c r o f i l m s o f t h e 70's have a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s . The m i c r o f i c h e has come t o be de v e l o p e d as an a d d i t i o n a l wing o f the m i c r o f i l m . A s i n g l e m i c r o f i l m can c a r r y as many as 250 pages, so the i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n c a t a -logues 16 f e e t t h i c k i s e a s i l y reduced to a 4 x 6-i n c h box o f f i l e s . These c a t a l o g u e s a r e a l s o cheaper t o p u b l i s h and m a i l , and e a s i e r t o use and update. But t he f a s t e s t growing m i c r o f i l m a d d i t i o n s a r e : 1) m i c r o - p u b l i s h i n g , i n which p a r t s o f c a t a l o g u e s and o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n i n t e r n a l t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n a re r e p r o d u c e d on t i s s u e r a t h e r than on paper; 2) computer o u t p u t m i c r o f i l m (COM) used t o r e p l a c e b u l k y computer p r i n t o u t s . In COM, computer-generated i n -f o r m a t i o n i s c o n v e r t e d on.or o f f - l i n e t o a v i s u a l form on a cathode r a y tube. I t i s then f i l m e d and may be rep r o d u c e d on a r e a l c a r t r i d g e o r m i c r o f i c h e . For d i s t r i -b u t i o n the o r i g i n a l f i l m can be d u p l i c a t e d as many times as needed; 3) an a c t i v e r e c o r d - k e e p i n g system. Once, t o m i c r o f i l m meant t o f i l m and f o r g e t i t . But f i l m i n g f o r a r c h i v e s has d e c l i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y . The e s t i m a t e i s about 25% d e c l i n e . Behind the change i s the m a r r i a g e between computers and m i c r o f i l m t h a t 83 p e r m i t s documents t o be randomly r e c o r d e d a t high speeds and l a t e r a c c e s s e d i n seconds. Coding f o r r a p i d image r e t r i e v a l i s no problem, even on COM r u s h i n g through a r e c o r d e r a t n i n e pages a second. A computer i s used t o h o l d t h e " a d d r e s s " o f each coded image on a p a r t i c u l a r f i c h e r o l l o r c a s s e t t e . When you want t o r e t r i e v e the i n f o r m a t i o n , the computer g i v e s you i t s a d d r e s s . The c o r r e c t micro-image media i s then i n s e r t e d i n a m i c r o -image t e r m i n a l which a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s p l a y s and f o c u s e s th e c o r r e c t image. I t can p r o v i d e a p r i n t o u t t o o i f needed. Computers. A l t h o u g h C h a r l e s Babbage dreamed o f b u i l d i n g a computer i n t he 1880's, t h e f i r s t o f t h i s k i n d o f e l e c t r o n i c machine was not completed u n t i l 1946.. Ten y e a r s l a t e r i t was p l a c e d i n the S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t e , an i n d i c a t i o n o f t he r a p i d p r o g r e s s made i n computer development. By 1970, f o u r g e n e r a t i o n s o f computing hardware had been d e s i g n e d , the number o f systems i n o p e r a t i o n had r i s e n t o 90,000 and the v a l u e o f t h e s e systems exceeded $26 b i l l i o n ( S a n d e r s , .1972: 67). The f i r s t computer made was, t h u s , a show p i e c e . Computers d i d not get t o be i n s e r i o u s use u n t i l about the 1950's. T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e Burroughs' d a t a which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f i r s t computer was b u i l t i n 1950 by IBM and UNIVAC. The e a r l i e s t computers, Sanders had i t , were l a r g e enough t o s t o r e g r a i n i n . ENIAC was s a i d t o weigh 30 t o n s . These c o u l d c o n t a i n an average o f 5,000 components per c u b i c f o o t . These were too e x p e n s i v e t o be p u r c h a s e d i n l a r g e numbers and e x p l a i n s why t h e y were not a d v e r t i s e d u n t i l t h e l a t e 60's. These f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n computers made i n the l a t e r 50's c o u l d pack an average o f 100,000 c i r c u i t s i n t o a s i m i l a r s p a c e , and each c i r c u i t model c o n t a i n e d a number o f s e p a r a t e 84 components. These a l s o used t r a n s i t i o n s which were more r e l i a b l e than tubes and g e n e r a t e d l i t t l e heat. The t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n computers, i n t r o d u c e d i n 1964, made use o f m i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c , o r i n t e g r a t e d c i r c u i t s , on a l a r g e s c a l e . (Hardware g e n e r a t i o n d e s i g n a t i o n s are a p p l i e d t o computers i n a r a t h e r a r b i t r a r y manner by t h e computer i n d u s t r y . C e r t a i n l y from a m a r k e t i n g p o i n t o f view, i f not e n t i r e l y from a t e c h n i c a l p o i n t o f view, the new l i n e s p r o -b a b l y r e p r e s e n t a new g e n e r a t i o n . See B u s i n e s s Week, J u l y 19, 1970: 21.) D u r i n g the summer and f a l l o f 1970, IBM, RAC, NCR, Burroughs and o t h e r s i n t r o d u c e d new hardware l i n e s . For example, IBM announced the f i r s t models ( t h e 145, 155 and 165) o f i t s new systems 370 l i n e o f computers, s t a t e d by IBM o f f i c i a l s as the computing landmark f o r the 1970's (S a n d e r s , 1972: 73). Burroughs a l s o announced, i n t h i s g e n e r a t i o n , i t s L5000, L8000 and L9000. These t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n models make use o f extended m i c r o - e l e c t r o n i c con-c e p t s t o a c h i e v e f u r t h e r c i r c u i t p a c k i n g d e n s i t i e s . As t h e computers c o n t i n u e t o change i n t h e i r l e v e l s o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , we are t o l d by the a d v e r t i s e m e n t s t h a t they become s m a l l e r i n s i z e and cheaper i n p r i c e . M o s ^ T o f f i c e s can now a f f o r d computers. F u r n i t u r e . The d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e the d i s c u s s i o n o f o f f i c e f u r n i t u r e u n t i l t h i s p o i n t was d e l i b e r a t e . T h i s i s because t h e number o f machines produced and t h e i r degree o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n a l l a f f e c t the types o f f u r n i -t u r e used and t h e i r arrangement w i t h i n an o f f i c e . During the e a r l y p e r i o d , a t the time when development o f o f f i c e machines was slow and a t a lower l e v e l o f s o p h i s t i c a t i o n , we c o u l d imagine t h a t no s e r i o u s c oncern about ty p e s o f f u r n i t u r e o r o f f i c e arrangement was e x p r e s s e d . T h i s might ex-p l a i n why t h e r e were no a d v e r t i s e m e n t s on o f f i c e f u r n i t u r e from t h e 1911 -1941 p e r i o d . 85 We f i n d d u r i n g the m i d d l e y e a r s when t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o l i -f e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e machines t h a t c o n c e r n s t a r t e d t o be e x p r e s s e d about o f f i c e f u r n i t u r e and o f f i c e arrangement. Three a d v e r t i s e m e n t s on o f f i c e f u r n i t u r e appear i n the 1941 - 1951 p e r i o d and t h i s i n c r e a s e d w i t h the development i n t h e 1951 - 1961 p e r i o d , and 8 i n t h e 1961 - 1971 p e r i o d . Even a r t i c l e s s t a r t e d a p p e a r i n g , a l o n g t h e same t r e n d , on o f f i c e a r r a n g e -ments. The f i r s t a r t i c l e on t h e o f f i c e appeared i n the 1931 - 1941 p e r i o d and was about the q u a l i t y o f o f f i c e paper - a f a c t o r which one c o u l d assume, on the b a s i s o f l i m i t e d machines and voluminous paper work, c o u l d be a p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f the e a r l y p e r i o d . From then on t h e a r t i c l e s t h a t appeared were about e i t h e r o f f i c e arrangements o r t h e e f f e c t s o f a u tomation on o f f i c e work. A few examples o f such a d v e r t i s e m e n t s w i l l b r i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n t o p e r s p e c t i v e . "How Good Lo o k i n g Is Your O f f i c e ? " T h i s was an a r t i c l e w i t h c a r t o o n s comparing good house-keeping t o good o f f i c e - k e e p i n g ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , J u l y 19, 1949: 11). To t h i n k t h a t the a r t i c l e was w r i t t e n by the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f B u i l d i n g Owners and O f f i c e Managers, and not by a p r i v a t e commercial body, shows t h e importance a t t a c h e d t o t h i s a s p e c t o f the o f f i c e a t t h i s t i m e . The o f f i c e s o f the 1911 t o about the 1950 p e r i o d had f i x e d w a l l s and what was termed " f i x e d p l a n f u r n i t u r e " - f u r n i t u r e t h a t was made perma-n e n t l y f o r s p e c i f i c o f f i c e d u t i e s . By 1950 the open o f f i c e i d e a s p r o u t e d up when i t was r e a l i z e d t h a t an o f f i c e c o u l d be d e s i g n e d l i k e a f a c t o r y t o speed paper f l o w . The open p l a n system has been growing s i n c e t h i s time and i n v o l v e s t h e system whereby f i x e d w a l l s a r e r e p l a c e d by moveable p a r t i t i o n s , bookcases, f i l e s and work s u r f a c e s . T h i s p l a n i s s a i d t o be more e c o n o m i c a l , c o n v e n i e n t , f l e x i b l e , and can improve 86 workflow. Economical i n the sense t h a t by u s i n g space i n new ways, management can o f t e n save space. That may mean a v o i d i n g a move t o l a r g e r premises and the added r e n t a l and r e l o c a t i o n c o s t s i n c u r r e d . Even i f they do move, t h e improvements b e l o n g t o the l a n d l o r d . Open p l a n setups are a l s o s a i d t o o f f e r s a v i n g s i n l i g h t i n g c o s t s . I n s t e a d o f l i g h t i n g an e n t i r e room o r f l o o r , l i g h t s can be mounted d i r e c t l y o v e r i n d i v i d u a l work s p a c e s . Convenient because "an open system can make maximum use o f the o f f i c e f l o w , " says E v e l y n Armour, O f f i c e D e s i g n e r w i t h Storwal I n t e r -n a t i o n a l , T o r o n t o . " I t h e l p s manage the f l o w o f communication and makes use o f ' a d j a c e n c i e s ' t o e l i m i n a t e waste o f time w a l k i n g about an o f f i c e . " The f a c t o r y - t y p e o f f i c e s came under c r i t i c i s m i n t h e 60's where workers s t a r t e d t o complain about the l o s s o f p r i v a c y . The open p l a n system was h i g h l y advocated a t t h i s time because i t was s a i d t o p r o v i d e p r i v a c y t o p o o l - t y p e o f f i c e s . I t had p a n e l s t h a t c o u l d be a r r a n g e d i n t o rooms i f needed, and Storwal even was s a i d t o have an u m b r e l l a - l i k e d e v i c e t h a t f i t s o v e r a c o r r a l o f p a n e l s t o e n s u r e p r i v a c y . As O f f i c e Systems p r o l i f e r a t e d , o t h e r changes came i n t o t h e o f f i c e f u r n i t u r e and arrangement i n t h e 70's. 1) Sound a b s o r b i n g p a r t i t i o n s and c a r p e t i n g . 2) B e t t e r l o o k i n g systems t h a t v a r y c o l o u r , shape and t e x t u r e t o p r o v i d e v a r i e t y and humaneness. "An open-plan o f f i c e does not have t o l o o k l i k e an egg c r a t e . " 3) G r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f components t o p r o v i d e a p p r o p r i a t e work spaces and i n d i v i d u a l i t y t o an a r e a , . e v e n hanging p l a n t e r s . 87 With t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e systems came t h e c o n c e r n o v e r the e f f e c t s o f t h e s e on t h e worker i n the o f f i c e . I n c i d e n t a l l y , a l l 5 a r t i c l e s i n t h e 1961 - 1971 p e r i o d were m a i n l y about the e f f e c t s o f o f f i c e a u tomation on workers. An example i s an a r t i c l e by Dr. John C. McDonald, o f t h e Department o f Labour, Ottawa, "How Automation Can K i l l S o c i e t y " . He argues t h a t automation means l e s s work, more l e i s u r e and new v a l u e s - v a l u e s t h a t i n c r e a s i n g automation has not g i v e n s o c i e t y the time t o d e v e l o p . T h i s , he s a i d , i s g o i n g t o g e n e r a t e a s t a t e o f "anomie" " I t i s o n l y when we s t o p t o r e a l i z e what a sudden s h o r t a g e o r absence o f work would do t o a work o r i e n t e d s o c i e t y t h a t the v e r y r e a l grounds f o r such f e a r become c l e a r , " ( F i n a n c i a l P o s t , June 2, .1962: 33). In summary, o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y has been undergoing p r o g r e s s i v e changes s i n c e o f f i c e s came i n t o b e i n g . These changes have advanced t h r o u g h f o u r s t a g e s : manual, manual w i t h machine a s s i s t a n c e , e l e c t r o - m e c h a n i c a l and e l e c t r o n i c methods. However, none o f t h e s e s t a g e s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d o b s o l e t e o r s t r i c t l y i n d e p e ndent, f o r each has i t s p l a c e and t h e r e i s a l o t o f o v e r l a p p i n g and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between them. Manual methods a r e w e l l s u i t e d f o r low-volume t a s k s . As volume i n c r e a s e s , however, t h e e q u i p -ment needed t o e c o n o m i c a l l y perform t h e t a s k i n c r e a s e s i n s o p h i s t i c a t i o n because g r e a t e r a c c u r a c y and f a s t e r speeds may be e x p e c t e d . There can be l i t t l e doubt t h a t the v a r i e t i e s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes d i s c u s s e d here have tremendous e f f e c t on t h e army o f o f f i c e workers. The next c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s the c l e r i c a l j o b d i s t r i b u t i o n o v e r t h e 60-year p e r i o d , and examines t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e s e c h a n g i n g o f f i c e systems on such d i s t r i b u t i o n . 88 CHAPTER I I I CLERICAL JOB DISTRIBUTION: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION We have d e a l t w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the o f f i c e i n terms o f i t s f u n c t i o n s and purposes and how t h e s e f u n c t i o n s and purposes have changed i n . r e s p o n s e t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes. In t h i s c h a p t e r we do th e f o l l o w i n g : a) D e s c r i b e the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l e r i c a l workers f o r the 60-year p e r i o d ; b) A n a l y s e t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n i n terms o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes t o see i f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes have any e f f e c t on: i ) d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n o f f i c e work and t h e o v e r - a l l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s ; i i ) t h e male/female d i s t r i b u t i o n o v e r the v a r i o u s sub-c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n t h e c l e r i c a l work. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s show the p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l e r i c a l work f o r t h e 60-year p e r i o d . 89 TABLE VI .LABOUR FORCE 15-YEARS AND OVER Year T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n • women.as % o f Labour Force 1911 2,698 : 13.2 1921 3,144 15.4 1931 3,908 17.0 1941 4,498 18.5 1951 5,299 22.0 1961 6,510 27.4 1971 8,813 34.6 Source: Census o f Canada 1971, V o l . / 3 : 1 , p.; 1:1 90 TABLE VII CLERICAL WORKERS AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL LABOUR FORCE YEAR TOTAL Women C l e r i c a l Workers Women as % o f C l e r i c a l as %-;:Of Labour F o r c e Workers 1911 2.2 .7 32 1921 3.8 1.6 42 1931 3.7 1.7 45 1941 3.8 1.9 49 1951 5.6 3.2 58 1961 6.9 4.2 61 1971 9.1 6.2 68 Source: Based on Census o f Canada 1971, V o l . 3, p.2:5 TABLE VI IT OFFICE EMPLOYEES IN THE 1911 CENSUS OF CANADA* I n d u s t r y T o t a l % Women as % o f No. D i s t r i b u t i o n T o t a l i n C a t e g o r y 1. B u i l d i n g Trades 551 .54 30.5 2. C i v i l and M u n i c i p a l Governments: a) O f f i c i a l s and C l e r k s ( C i v i l ) 28,562 28.24 11.9 b) " ( M u n i c i p a l ) 9.257 9.15 4.8 3. F o r e s t r y 256 .25 5.1 4. M a n u f a c t u r e r s and M e c h a n i c a l I n -d u s t r i e s : a) C h e m i c a l , drugs and a l l i e d p r o d u c t s 259 .26 54.1 b) C l a y , g l a s s and cement 126 .12 29.4 c) C l o t h i n g and a l l i e d p r o d u c t s 412 .41 62.9 d) F a c t o r y N.D.S. 1,812 1.79 58.9 e) Food and a l l i e d p r o d u c t s 877 .87 42.2 f ) G o l d , s i l v e r and f a n c y goods 56 .06 55.4 g) I r o n and s t e e l 1,211 1.2 37.8 h) L i q u o r and beverages 211 .21 18.0 i ) L e a t h e r and r u b b e r goods 283 2.8 50.2 j ) M a t e r i a l s gen-e r a l & u n d e f i n e d 609 .6 38.4 O f f i c e Employees: As f a r as p o s s i b l e a l l persons engaged i n c l e r i c a l o r o f f i c e work i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h any i n d u s t r y are i n c l u d e d . 9.2* TABLE VI H( c o n t i n u e d ) ** I n d u s t r y T o t a l % Women as % o f No. Di s t r i b u t i o n T o t a l i n Cate g o r y k) Pulp and paper 183 .18 28.4 1) T e x t i l e s 310 .31 42.9 m) V a r i o u s manu-f a c t u r e r s 1,500 1.48 48.9 n) V e h i c l e s f o r l a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 422 .42 28.7 o) V e h i c l e s f o r water t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 37 .04 37.8 p) Wood m a n u f a c t u r e r s 1,007 .96 24.1 5. P r o f e s s i o n a l 350 .35 13.7 6. Legal P r o f e s s i o n s 2,468 .42 63.3 7. Trade and Mer-c h a n d i s i n g : a) A u c t i o n e e r s & commissioneers 428 17.1 b) Banks 10,471 10.35 5.4 c) B r o k e r s 813 .8 33.0 d) Insurance com-pa n i e s 2,710 2.68 38.2 e) Loan, t r u s t & r e a l e s t a t e 2,182 2.16 33.6 f ) Salesmen and women ( o f f i c e employees) 25,654 25.36 42.3 8. a) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 437 .43 23.6 b) Steam r a i l w a y s 6,410 6.34 12.8 c) S t r e e t r a i l w a y s 214 .21 32.2 d) S a i l and Steam-s h i p 203 .2 17.7 e) V a r i o u s o c cupa-t i o n s 865 .85 33.3 TOTAL: 101,146 100.04 32 ick W i t h i n t he c a t e g o r y " p r o f e s s i o n a l " t h e r e were a r t , music, e d u c a t i o n a l , e n g i n e e r s , e t c . Source: Census o f Canada 1911, V o l . 6, p.. -XI-93 TABLE IX OFFICE EMPLOYEES OF THE 1921 CENSUS OF CANADA v I n d u s t r y T o t a l % No. D i s t r i b u t i o n Women as % o f T o t a l i n C a tegory 1. A g r i c u l t u r e 74 2. B u i l d i n g and Trade 1790 3. Domestic and P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e 4970 4. C i v i l and M u n i c i p a l Govts. 67284 5. F o r e s t r y 621 6. Manufactures 42511 7. M i n i n g . 1195 8. P r o f e s s i o n a l 43386 9. Trade and M e r c h a n d i z i n g 57391 10. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 1877 .03 .81 2.2 30.4 .28 19.2 .54 19.6 25.6 .85 39.2 28.5 34.5 18.1 1.1 36.5 12.1 58.3 50.8 2.5 ALL CLERICAL 221099 99.5 42, Source: Census o f Canda 1921, V o l . 4, p. 2-34. TABLE X • CLERICAL WORKERS IN THE 1931 CENSUS OF CANADA O c c u p a t i o n a l T o t a l % Women as % o f Cate g o r y No. D i s t r i b u t i o n T o t a l i n Ca t e g o r y 1. Bookkeepers and c a s h i e r s 50,971 21.1 42.0 2. O f f i c e a p p l i a n c e o p e r a t o r s 1,742 .7 86.3 3. S t e n o g r a p h e r s & t y p i s t s 68,524 28.4 94.9 4. Ot h e r c l e r i c a l 119,828 49.7 24.2 ALL CLERICAL: 241,065 100.0 . 45 Source: Census o f Canada 1931, V o l . 7, p.. 74 TABLE XI-; CLERICAL WORKERS IN THE 1941 CENSUS OF CANADA O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r y T o t a l No. % D i s t r i b u t i o n Women as % o f T o t a l i n Cate g o r y 1. A c c o u n t a n t s and a u d i t o r s 37,088 10.3 8.1 2. Bookkeepers and c a s h i e r s 37,481 10.4 55.8 3. O f f i c e a p p l i a n c e o p e r a t o r s 3,045 .9 86.5 4. O f f i c e c l e r k s 173,943 48.3 28.7 5. S h i p p i n g c l e r k s 26,322 7.3 3.6 6. S t e n o g r a p h e r s & t y p i s t s 82,055 22.8 95.0 ALL CLERICAL: 359,934 100.0 •; 49 . Source: Census o f Canada 1941, V o l . 7, p. 34 96 TABLE XII CLERICAL WORKERS IN THE 1951 CENSUS OF CANADA O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r y T o t a l '% No. D i s t r i b u t i o n Women as % o f t o t a l i n Cat e g o r y •1. Bookkeepers and c a s h i e r s 88,399 2. D o c t o r s ' and d e n t i s t s ' a t t e n d a n t s 2,626 3. O f f i c e a p p l i a n c e o p e r a t o r s 11,001 4. O f f i c e c l e r k s 276,254 5. S h i p p i n g and r e c e i v i n g C l e r k s 48,906 6. S t e n o g r a p h e r s and t y p i s t i s 118,523 ALL CLERICAL: 545,709 16.2 .5 2.0 50.6 9.0 21.0 100.0 62.0 100.0 88.8 42.7 6.5 95.7 58 Source: Census o f Canada 1951, V o l . 4, p. 11-11; 12-1. TABLE XIII CLERICAL WORKERS'IN THE 1961 CENSUS OF CANADA O c c u p a t i o n a l Category T o t a l % No. D i s t r i b u t i o n Women as % o f T o t a l i n Cat e g o r y 1. Bookkeepers and c a s h i e r s 157,831 2. O f f i c e a p p l i a n c e o p e r a t o r s 28,379 3. Sto c k c l e r k s and s t o r e k e e p e r s 36,899 4. S h i p p i n g and r e c e i v i n g c l e r k s 56,258 5. Baggage men and expressmen, t r a n s -p o r t 1,819 6. T i c k e t , s t a t i o n & e x p o r t agents 8,582 7. S t e n o g r a p h e r s 165,547 8. T y p i s t s , and c l e r k t y p i s t s 51,118 9. A t t e n d a n t s , d o c t o r s ' and d e n t i s t s ' o f f i c e s 3,898 10. C l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n (N.E.S.)* 323,825 ALL CLERICAL: 834,156 18.9 3.4 4.4 6.7 1.0 19.9 6.1 .5 38.8 99.9 62.6 78.8 10.4 6.7 15.4 97.2 95.5 96.5 51.2 " 61 * (N.E.S.) = Not Elsewhere S p e c i f i e d . S o urce: Census o f Canada 1961: Vol./4.-, 21-35 98 TABLE XIV CLERICAL WORKERS IN THE 1971 CENSUS OF CANADA O c c u p a t i o n a l Category T o t a l % No. D i s t r i b u t i o n Women as % o f T o t a l i n Cat e g o r y 1. S t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g o c c u p a t i o n s 337,745 2. Bookkeeping, a c c o u n t -r e c o r d i n g and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s 359,105 3. O f f i c e machine and e l e c t r o n i c d a t a -p r o c e s s i n g e q u i p -ment o p e r a t o r s 51,925 4. M a t e r i a l r e c o r d i n g , s c h e d u l i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s 155,875 5. L i b r a r y f i l e and co r r e s p o n d e n c e c l e r k s and r e l a t e d occupa-t i o n s 35.705 6. R e c e p t i o n , i n f o r m a -t i o n m a i l and message d i s t r i b u -t i o n o c c u p a t i o n s 154,615 7. Other c l e r i c a l r e l a t e d occupa-t i o n s 278,700 25.0 26.0 4.0 11.0 3.0 11.0 20.0 97.0 75.0 73.0 15.0 81.0 64.0 56.0 ALL CLERICAL: 1,373,565 100.0 68 Source: Census o f Canada 1971,.Vol; 3, p. 3:5 99 DIFFERENTIATION IN OFFICE WORK We can c o n c l u d e from the d i s c u s s i o n on the development o f t e c h n o -l o g i c a l changes i n the l a s t c h a p t e r and the d e s c r i p t i o n o f c l e r i c a l workers from T a b l e s VI - XV t h a t as o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y d e v e l o p e d , more s u b - c a t e g o r i e s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o c l e r i c a l work. I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t i n the 1911 - 1921 p e r i o d t h e r e were fewer t y p e s o f o f f i c e machines and t h o s e were l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d . Of the 10 major t y p e s o f o f f i c e machines a d v e r t i s e d i n t h e F i n a n -c i a l Post f o r the 60-year p e r i o d , o n l y 2 were i n t h e 1911 - 1921 p e r i o d and t h e s e were o n l y manual t y p e w r i t e r s and d i c t a t i n g machines. At t h e same time c l e r i c a l work was d i f f u s e d and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . In t h e 1911 - 1921 p e r i o d t h e r e was no s p e c i f i c a t i o n as t o what c l e r i c a l d u t i e s a worker d i d . A l l t h a t i s r e p o r t e d i n t h e census dat a f o r t h e p e r i o d was o f f i c e employees d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r the v a r i o u s i n d u s t r i e s . See T a b l e s IX and X. We i n t e r p r e t t h i s t o mean t h a t t h e r e were, among o t h e r t h i n g s , no machines t h a t r e q u i r e d t e c h n i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and t h a t most o f t h e work done i n t h i s p e r i o d c o n s i s t e d o f s i m p l e c l e r i c a l d u t i e s . T h i s n o t i o n i s a l s o h e l d by Baker (1964: 212-213) and S c h u l z e (1919: 15-18). By 1931 the number o f t y p e s o f machines had i n c r e a s e d from 2 t o 3. Other o f f i c e machines l i k e d u p l i c a t i n g machines f i r s t appeared i n our d a t a . Baker (1964) r e p o r t e d t h a t o t h e r o f f i c e machines, a c c o u n t i n g and b i l l i n g , were b e i n g used a t t h i s t i m e . With the i n c r e a s e i n o f f i c e t e c h -nology came d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n o f f i c e work. S u b - c a t e g o r i e s such as book-keep e r s , c a s h i e r s , o f f i c e a p p l i a n c e o p e r a t o r s , s t e n o g r a p h e r s and t y p i s t s appeared i n the 1931 census f o r the f i r s t t ime. 100 We w i l l argue t h a t i t was t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new machines, c o u p l e d w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g s i z e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e c o r p o r a t e c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e made p o s s i b l e by o v e r a l l economic development, t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e d the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l t a s k s . In the o l d o f f i c e we l e a r n e d from Baker (1964), Lockwood (1962), and S c h u l z e (1919) t h a t t h e bookkeeper d i d t h e a c c o u n t i n g and r e l a t e d j o b s , w h i l e the c l e r k d i d the t y p i n g , f i l i n g and k i n d r e d j o b s . With 7 the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f d u p l i c a t i n g , a d d r e s s i n g , stamping machines and o t h e r o f f i c e a p p l i a n c e s , we presume, came the need t o t r a i n p e r s o n n e l s p e c i f i -c a l l y t o o p e r a t e t h e s e machines. The d i f f e r e n t machines p e r f o r m i n g . d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s and n e c e s s i t a t i n g d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f t r a i n i n g r e s u l t s i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n both the s u b - c a t e g o r i e s and the i n d i v i d u a l t a s k . For example, not o n l y would t h e r e be o f f i c e machine o p e r a t o r s and f i l i n g c l e r k s , the f i l i n g c l e r k , i n s t e a d o f o p e n i n g , stamping, s e a l i n g l e t t e r s m a n u a l l y or s i n g l e - h a n d e d , might have d i f f e r e n t machines a t h i s d i s p o s a l t o do the d i f f e r e n t j o b s o r s h a r e the t a s k w i t h somebody whose o n l y duty might be t o open o r stamp a l l the l e t t e r s t h a t came i n . The Commerce S y l l a b u s and the Textbook Guide f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, f o r i n s t a n c e , show t h a t t h e commercial s u b j e c t s t a u g h t i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1929 had l i t t l e emphasis on o f f i c e machines and a p p l i a n c e s . (We had no i n f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e 1929.) The s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o u l d be s a i d t o r e f l e c t t he o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y a t the time. See Appendix I. In 1929 Penmanship was a s u b j e c t t a u g h t . A p o s s i b l e i n d i c a t i o n t h a t h a n d w r i t i n g was q u i t e i m p o r t a n t a t t h i s time when t h e r e were, p r o b a b l y , not many o f f i c e machines t h a t c o u l d t a k e o v e r t h e e x t e n s i v e h a n d w r i t i n g i n v o l v e d i n o f f i c e work. 101 The emphasis put i n the t e a c h i n g o f Commerce i n B r i t i s h Columbia, deduced from the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t b o o k s used, i n d i c a t e d the l e v e l o f o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g i c a l development. Bookkeeping t a u g h t a t t h i s time i n -v o l v e d a l o t o f penwork, w h i l e we f i n d t h a t by 1959 s t u d e n t s were t a u g h t under bookkeeping, among o t h e r t h i n g s , " u n d e r s t a n d i n g d a t a p r o c e s s i n g which i n v o l v e d d e a l i n g w i t h a number o f o f f i c e machines". In 1967 Wanous 1 book on Automation O f f i c e P r a c t i c e was added, f o r the f i r s t t i m e , t o the bookkeeping l i s t . T h i s book d e a l s w i t h automated o f f i c e equipment. I n c r e a s i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l development appeared t o i n f l u e n c e the p r o d u c t i o n o f r e l e v a n t books f o r h i g h s c h o o l Commerce i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The p r o d u c e r s o f h i g h s c h o o l Commerce books p a i d more a t t e n t i o n t o t e c h n o -l o g i c a l changes. More s u b j e c t s , as w e l l as new s u b j e c t s , d e a l i n g w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes were c o v e r e d . T h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t because most o f t h e s t u d e n t s who g r a d u a t e d from commercial s c h o o l s e n t e r e d the o f f i c e t o work. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n o f f i c e j o b s i n c r e a s e d t h r o u g h t h e 1920 - 1950 p e r i o d . By 1941 t h e number o f s u b - c a t e g o r i e s i n c l e r i c a l work had i n c r e a s e d from 4 i n 1931 t o 6 i n 1941. A c c o u n t a n t s and a u d i t o r s , o f f i c e c l e r k s and s h i p p i n g c l e r k s were, f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e , added t o t h e l i s t . T h i s i n -d i c a t e s d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n o f f i c e work and, p e r h a p s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t book-keepers and c a s h i e r s were no l o n g e r d o i n g the work o f a c c o u n t a n t s . T h i s i s t he p e r i o d machines s t a r t e d p r o l i f e r a t i n g i n t h e o f f i c e . Of the t o t a l o f 152 k i n d s o f o f f i c e machines a d v e r t i s e d i n the 1911 - 1971 p e r i o d , 19 were i n the 1941 - 1951 p e r i o d as a g a i n s t 6 i n the 1911 - 1920 p e r i o d . 102 The o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s manual o f the 1971 Census o f Canada i n d i c a t e s t h a t o f f i c e c l e r k s d i d f i l i n g and r e l a t e d o f f i c e work so t h a t the a l l - p u r p o s e c l e r k o f the o l d o f f i c e who used t o do s t e n o g r a p h y , t y p i n g , as w e l l as f i l i n g , came t o be r e l i e v e d o f the s t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g d u t i e s by 1941. The number o f k i n d s o f o f f i c e machines a d v e r t i s e d had grown from 7 i n the 1921 - 1931 p e r i o d to 19 i n 1941 - 1951. In a d d i t i o n t o the i n c r e a s i n g number o f t y p e w r i t e r s , d i c t a t i n g and d u p l i c a t i n g machines, t h e r e was the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a d d r e s s o g r a p h s and c a l c u l a t o r s as w e l l as f i l i n g c a b i n e t s f o r the o f f i c e . By the b e g i n n i n g o f the modern o f f i c e , a f t e r 1950, the number o f o f f i c e machines c o n t i n u e d t o i n c r e a s e . ' C o n s e q u e n t l y , the number o f s u b j e c t s c o v e r e d by the P r e s c r i b e d Textbook Guide o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n c r e a s e d and so d i d the number o f s u b - c a t e g o r i e s . See T a b l e I I I and Appendix I I . Out o f the 152 d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f machines a d v e r t i s e d from the 1911 - 1971 p e r i o d , t h e r e were 48 i n the 1951 - 1961 p e r i o d , and 67 i n 1961 - 1971. D i c t a t i n g machines moved from 2 i n the 1911 - 1921 p e r i o d t o 4 i n the 1941 - 1951 and 9 i n the 1961 - 1971 p e r i o d s . T h i s p r o b a b l y i n d i c a t e s t h a t o f f i c e machine p r o d u c t i o n was a d v a n c i n g w i t h the a d v a n c i n g o f y e a r s . In a d d i t i o n , s o p h i s t i c a t e d o f f i c e machines, l i k e the t e l e -t y p e w r i t e r , a c c o u n t i n g machines, word and d a t a p r o c e s s i n g machines, and computers, p r o l i f e r a t e d a f t e r 1950. T h i s , presumably a f f e c t e d the c u r r i -culum o f Commerce s t u d e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. By 1956 when we had ade-103 quate i n f o r m a t i o n on the c o u r s e s and p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s used, we found t h a t a d d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s were added t o t h e l i s t o f p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s . See Appendix I I . R e l e v a n t t o our d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s l i s t i s b u s i n e s s machine p r a c t i c e . I n s t e a d o f " l a b o r a t o r y c o u r s e i n M e c h a n i c a l a p p l i -ances used i n the o f f i c e " i n 1930, we have books t h a t deal s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h the s o p h i s t i c a t e d o f f i c e machines b e i n g i n t r o d u c e d , books t h a t d e a l w i t h computers and c a l c u l a t o r s . Wanous' Complete Course i n O f f i c e Work d e a l t w i t h the o p e r a t i o n o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d o f f i c e machines and was an example o f t h e many books a f t e r 1956 which appeared t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes. From 1956 onwards we found more Commerce books d e a l i n g w i t h modern o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y . Bookkeeping and A c c o u n t i n g c o u r s e s began t o have books t h a t appeared t o pay a t t e n t i o n t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes. In the 1957 -1958 book l i s t , t h e books p r e s c r i b e d f o r t h i s c o u r s e were 20th Century Bookkeeping and A c c o u n t i n g , B a s i c and Advanced. By 1960, o t h e r books l i k e U n d e r s t a n d i n g Modern Data P r o c e s s i n g , and Wanous 1 Automation O f f i c e P r a c t i c e were i n c l u d e d . These books deal e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h modern e l e c t r o -n i c o f f i c e equipment. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t from t h e 1960 1s on, A c c o u n t i n g became a s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t , i n s t e a d o f b e i n g combined w i t h bookkeeping - a r e s u l t o f an i n c r e a s i n g development o f a c c o u n t i n g machines i n t h i s p e r i o d . I t might a l s o e x p l a i n the appearance o f a c c o u n t a n t s as a s e p a r a t e s u b - c a t e g o r y from bookkeepers i n the 1941 - 1951 census. With r e g a r d t o b u s i n e s s machines p r a c t i c e , the p r e s c r i b e d books moved from 3 i n the 1950's: a) Comptometer Course f o r b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g ; b) Monroe School Manual o f I n s t r u c t i o n ; c) K e y - d r i v e n C a l c u l a t o r , t o 7 t hrough the 1960's and 1970's t o i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g books t h a t r e f l e c t e d 1041 t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n t h e f i e l d : d) Wanous: Automation O f f i c e P r a c t i c e ; e) K o h l : Computers i n B u s i n e s s ; f ) E n g l i s h : B u s i n e s s Machine P r o j e c t s ; and g) Dool: B u s i n e s s Machine P r o j e c t s . These t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes which a f f e c t e d commercial s u b j e c t s a l s o a f f e c t e d the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t h e o f f i c e c a t e g o r i e s . In t h e \ 1971 ce n s u s , i n a d d i t i o n t o o f f i c e machine o p e r a t o r s , t h e r e was an a d d i t i o n o f data p r o c e s s i n g equipment o p e r a t o r s . The machine o p e r a t o r s , as d e f i n e d by the O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Manual o f Canada, 1971, ( O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Manual, 1971, p. 172) were thos e who o p e r a t e d b i l l i n g , b l u e p r i n t , bookkeeping, d u p l i c a t i n g machines, w h i l e e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g equipment o p e r a t o r s o p e r a t e d machines t h a t r e c o r d e d , s t o r e d , p r o c e s s e d and t r a n s c r i b e d d a t a from punch c a r d s , paper and magnetic t a p e , o t h e r s o u r c e s , s o l v e d m a t h e m a t i c a l , e n g i n e e r i n g o r t e c h n i c a l problems and kept r e c o r d s and s u p p l i e d d a t a . Even i n t h e t y p i n g and s t e n o g r a p h i c c a t e g o r y a d e t a i l e d d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n was made t h a t was n o n - e x i s t e n t i n the p r e v i o u s c e n s u s . I t i n c l u d e d t y p i s t s and c l e r k t y p i s t s , a u t o m a t i c t y p e w r i t e r o p e r a t o r s , t e l e t y p i s t s , and v a r i - t y p e o p e r a t o r s . T e c h n o l o g i c a l changes made a v a i l a b l e machines l i k e the t e l e t y p e -w r i t e r , d a t a p r o c e s s i n g machines and computers. As a r e s u l t o f t h e s e new machines, c l e r i c a l workers were t r a i n e d t o o p e r a t e them, then new s u b - c a t e g o r i e s were i n t r o d u c e d i n c l e r i c a l j o b s t o accommodate the new machines and the new s k i l l s . 105 INTERPRETATIONS Male/Female D i s t r i b u t i o n An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the census o f 1911 showed t h a t men dominated the o v e r a l l c l e r i c a l p o p u l a t i o n from 1911 t o 1941. See t a b l e s IX, and X. In 1911 c l e r i c a l workers c o n s t i t u t e d 2.2%-o.f the l a b o u r f o r c e . Of t h e s e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , 32% were women. In 1921, c l e r i c a l workers c o n s t i t u t e d 3.8% o f the l a b o u r f o r c e . Of t h e s e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , 42% were women. See the graph below. FIGURE 2 Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C l e r i c a l Workers i n Canada 1911 - 1971 100 90H 80. to S-t 70J 104 4 1 1 rn 1 i ••—f 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 Source: Based on Census o f Canada, 1971 V o l . 3, p. 2:5. 106 By 1941, the female component o f the c l e r i c a l p o p u l a t i o n had reac h e d t he 50% p o i n t . From t h i s time onwards, the female component o f the c l e r i c a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d w h i l e t he male component d e c r e a s e d -In 1961, c l e r i c a l workers c o n s t i t u t e d 6.9% of:;:, the l a b o u r f o r c e . Of the s e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , 61% were women. In 1971, c l e r i c a l workers c o n s t i t u t e d 9.1% o f the l a b o u r f o r c e . Of t h e s e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , 68% were women. Another o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n demonstrated by the data i s a degree o f sex t y p i n g w i t h i n the s u b - c a t e g o r i e s i n the c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n . SEX TYPING A c u r s o r y e x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e s IX - XV, f o r example, show t h a t more women a r e i n the s t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g j o b s as w e l l as o f f i c e machine o p e r a t i o n than men, w h i l e more men a r e a c c o u n t a n t s , a u d i t o r s , s h i p p i n g c l e r k s and o f f i c e c l e r k s . For i n s t a n c e , 9.47% o f male c l e r i c a l workers i n 1941 were a u d i t o r s and a c c o u n t a n t s , w h i l e o n l y .83% o f the female c l e r i c a l workers d i d the same j o b . Women, on,the o t h e r hand, predominated i n the s t e n o g r a p h i c , t y p i n g and o f f i c e a p p l i a n c e o p e r a t i o n . About ;11% female c l e r i c a l workers were o p e r a t i n g machines, w h i l e .73% male d i d the same j o b . About 1.15% men were s t e n o g r a p h e r s o r t y p i s t s , 21.65% women d i d the same j o b . T h i s s e x u a l d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n c o n t i n u e d through t o the 1970's. TABLE XV SOME CLERICAL SUB-CATEGORIES 1971 O c c u p a t i o n T o t a l Women as..% o f S u b - c a t e g o r i e s S u p e r v i s o r s : s t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g S e c r e t a r i e s S t e n o g r a p h e r s S u p e r v i s o r s : bookkeeping, a c c o u n t - r e c o r d i n g and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s Bookkeepers and ac c o u n t s c l e r k s T e l l e r s and c a s h i e r s S u p e r v i s o r s : m a t e r i a l r e c o r d i n g , s c h e d u l i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s P r o d u c t i o n c l e r k s S h i p p i n g and r e c o r d i n g c l e r k s Stock c l e r k s and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s Weighers M a t e r i a l r e c o r d i n g , e t c . 2,660 246,240 88,745 12,320 201,810 113,380 13,705 12,685 65,666 56,035 4,090 3,695 83 97 96 47 68 91 7 16 11 20 16 41 Source: Census o f Canada-1971, V o l . 3, p: 2:5 108 T a b l e XVI, f o r example, shows t h a t men i n t h e 1971 census p r e -dominated i n t h e most r e m u n e r a t i v e j o b s , s u p e r v i s o r y , s h i p p i n g and r e c e i v i n g , s t o c k c l e r k s and the l i k e , w h i l e women predominated i n t h e l e s s r e m u n e r a t i v e and r e p e t i t i v e j o b s . Only 930 females were i n the s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n ( m a t e r i a l r e c o r d i n g , s c h e d u l i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s ) w h i l e 12,775 men d i d t h e same j o b . But women predominated i n t h e r e p e t i t i v e and l e s s r e m u n e r a t i v e j o b s such as st e n o g r a p h y , s e c -r e t a r i a l , and t y p i n g . S t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g j o b s , as d e f i n e d by the O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Manual: i n c l u d e s o c c u p a t i o n s c o ncerned w i t h t a k i n g d i c t a t i o n by s h o r t h a n d w r i t i n g , t r a n s c r i b i n g d a t a by t y p e w r i t e r from s h o r t h a n d notes o r d i c t a t i n g machine, making app o i n t m e n t s , answering t e l e p h o n e c a l l s , and p e r f o r m i n g g e n e r a l o f f i c e d u t i e s and the t y p i s t s p e r f o r m g e n e r a l o f f i c e d u t i e s most o f which i n v o l v e t y p i n g . The a c c o u n t s c l e r k performs a v a r i e t y o f r o u t i n e c a l -c u l a t i n g , p o s t i n g and t y p i n g d u t i e s t o a c c o m p l i s h a c c o u n t i n g : p o s t s d e t a i l s a t b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s such as a l l o t m e n t s , d i s b u r s e m e n t s , r e m i t t a n c e s p a i d and due, cheques and c l a i m s , t o t a l s a c c o u n t s u s i n g a d d i n g machine. The a u d i t c l e r k v e r i f i e s a c c u r a c y o f f i g u r e s , c a l c u l a t i o n s , and p o s t i n g s p e r t a i n i n g t o b u s i n e s s t r a n s -a c t i o n s r e c o r d e d by o t h e r workers and co m p i l e s r e p o r t s ( O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Manual, 1971: 172). M a t e r i a l r e c o r d i n g , s c h e d u l i n g , and d i s t r i b u t i n g o c c u p a t i o n d e a l s with: examining o r d e r s f o r goods and s e r v i c e s , r e c e i v i n g , s t o r i n g , s c h e d u l i n g , i s s u i n g , s h i p p i n g , r e q u i s i t i o n i n g and a c c o u n t i n g f o r m a t e r i a l i n s t o r e o r i n use. A c t i -v i t i e s i n c l u d e a s s i g n i n g l o c a t i o n s and space t o i t e m s , v e r i f y i n g q u a n t i t y , i d e n t i t y c o n d i t i o n and v a l u e , b i n n i n g , p i c k i n g , s t a c k i n g and c o u n t i n g , p r e p a r i n g o r committing s t o c k s f o r shipment, t a k i n g i n v e n t o r y o f s t o c k , r e p l e n i s h i n g d e p l e t e d i t e m s , f i l l i n g o r d e r s , and i s s u i n g t o o l s , equipment o r m a t e r i a l t o workers ( O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Manual, 1971: 187). 109 These l a t t e r o c c u p a t i o n s a r e more c h a l l e n g i n g and g i v e more p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l than the former and t h i s might e x p l a i n why they a r e more a p p e a l i n g as j o b s and w i t h i n a male dominated economy came t o be t a k e h y more by men i n the l a t t e r and women the forme r . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s t o the q u e s t i o n o f f e m i n i s t movements i s d i s c u s s e d i n the next c h a p t e r . The o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n demonstrated by the a n a l y s i s i s t h a t c l e r i c a l workers have i n c r e a s e d p r o g r e s s i v e l y o v e r the 60-year p e r i o d . Men dominated t h e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n from 1911 t o 1941. Then, from 1941 t o 1971, women p r o g r e s s i v e l y dominated c l e r i c a l work. T h i s g r a d u a l development c o u l d be due t o s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , such as war-time r e c r u i t m e n t o f women, e f f e c t s o f the f e m i n i s t movement, the r i s e o f b u r e a u c r a c y and the development o f o f f i c e machines t h a t demanded l e s s t r a i n i n g and s k i l l , t h e r i s e i n e d u c a t i o n , and the cheapening o f c l e r i c a l work. Canada was not out o f the D e p r e s s i o n when World War II began. There were about 900,000 r e g i s t e r e d unemployed i n a work f o r c e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3.8 m i l l i o n . In the f o l l o w i n g two y e a r s t h e s e unemployed persons l a r g e l y met t h e i n c r e a s e d demand f o r work c r e a t e d by m i l i t a r y r e c r u i t m e n t and war-time p r o d u c t i o n . By 1942 the s l a c k had been taken up. With war i n -d u s t r y i n f u l l p r o d u c t i o n and the Armed Fo r c e s drawing l a r g e numbers o f males from t he l a b o u r f o r c e , the l a b o u r market had changed from one o f s u r -p l u s and unemployment to one o f s h o r t a g e ( P i e r s o n , 1977: 125-128). To meet the p r e s s u r e o f war needs a t t e n t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , became f o c u s e d on the r e s e r v e s o f p o t e n t i a l women workers who had not y e t been drawn i n t o employ-110 ment. T h i s p u l l o f women i n t o t h e l a b o u r f o r c e d u r i n g t h e war p e r i o d may e x p l a i n the i n c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a b o u r f o r c e and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women i n c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s . The economic n e c e s s i t y o f work made a l o t o f women s t a y on a f t e r the war. The r i s e i n b u r e a u c r a c y had i n c r e a s e d the volume o f the paper work i n the o f f i c e . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d the development o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y t h a t promoted e f f i c i e n c y and demanded l e s s t r a i n i n g and s k i l l i n i t s o p e r a t i o n . The work t h a t t h i s t e c h n o l o g y c r e a t e d s u i t e d a l o t o f women who d i d not have o r d i d not want to undergo l o n g t r a i n i n g t o a c q u i r e work s k i l l s . D i f f e r e n t s c h o l a r s have a t t r i b u t e d d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a t t i t u d e among women. Among t h e s e a r e t h a t women a r e temporal workers who have t o l e a v e t h e i r j o b s t o t e n d t o t h e i r f a m i l i e s , e t c . , (Matheson, 1976); o r t h a t women a r e s o c i a l i z e d to t h i n k t h i s way ( M i t c h e l l , 1971); o r t h a t j o b s t h a t a r e s k i l l f u l a r e not s u i t a b l e f o r women (Durkheim, 1951: 272). I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o p r e d i c t what the t r e n d would be i n the 1980's. But s i n c e m a n u f a c t u r e r s c o n t i n u e t o seek ways o f making o f f i c e machines more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and l e s s l a b o u r i n t e n s i v e , and s i n c e more women a r e b e g i n n i n g t o take i n t e r e s t i n academic and p r o f e s s i o n a l p u r s u i t s i n a d d i t i o n t o , o r i n p l a c e o f , r a i s i n g a f a m i l y , one might see a f u t u r e where the e n t i r e c l e r i c a l p o p u l a t i o n d e c r e a s e s i n r e l a t i o n t o the t o t a l l a b o u r f o r c e . A l o n g w i t h t h e s e changes, one would e x p e c t a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e r a t i o o f females to males i n the c l e r i c a l work f o r c e . Ill CHAPTER IV IMPLICATION OF STUDY FOR THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT An attempt i s made i n t h i s c h a p t e r t o i d e n t i f y some o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s the d a t a o f the t h e s i s have on the f e m i n i s t movement w i t h i n the c a p i t a l i s t system i n Canada. The t r e n d i n female employment as a f u n c t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m i s d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o i n h e r e n t i n e q u a l i t y . The c h a p t e r i s c o n c l u d e d w i t h some s p e c u l a t i o n on the e f f e c t s the f e m i n i s t movement i n Canada may have on t h i s t r e n d i n female employment. I t s h o u l d be made c l e a r a t the o u t s e t t h a t t h i s i s m a i n l y a s u g g e s t i v e c h a p t e r i n t h a t the d a t a f o r t h i s t h e s i s were not i n t e n d e d t o deal w i t h male/female i n e q u a l i t y . The d a t a may, t h e r e f o r e , be i n a d e q u a t e to g i v e f u l l e r s u p p o r t t o some o f the q u a l i f i e d a s s e r t i o n s made he r e . Where a p p r o p r i a t e I have drawn a t t e n t i o n t o . t h e t e n t a t i v e n e s s o f the c o n c l u s i o n s which must s t a n d as a h y p o t h e s i s f o r f u r t h e r t e s t i n g i n f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . I have a l s o drawn e x t e n s i v e l y on some f e m i n i s t l i t e r a t u r e f o r emphasis. In the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r we o u t l i n e d the e f f e c t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes on the o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l e r i c a l work and the t r e n d t h i s appears to be f o l l o w i n g . The t h r e e j o b s , s p e c i f i e d i n F i g u r e s 3 and 4, a r e examples o f j o b s t h a t c o u l d be ranked from l e a s t s k i l l f u l ( t h a t which p r o v i d e s l e a s t c h a l l e n g e ) t o s k i l l f u l , w i t h c l e r k t y p i n g c o n s i d e r e d a t l e a s t s k i l l f u l and s u p e r v i s o r y o f f i c e machine o p e r a t i o n as s k i l l f u l . The r a n k i n g i s based i n f o r m a t i o n from the O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Manual, 1971, i c h d e f i n e s t h e d u t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e t h r e e j o b s as f o l l o w s : a) T y p i s t s & C l e r k T y p i s t s : " p e r f o r m i n g g e n e r a l o f f i c e d u t i e s , most o f which i n v o l v e t y p i n g " - ( p . 172). b) Bookkeeping & A c c o u n t i n g C l e r k s : "concerned w i t h computing, c l a s s i f y i n g and r e c o r d i n g d a t a t o keep s e t s o f f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s " , ( p . 173). c) S u p e r v i s o r , O f f i c e Machine & Data P r o f e s s i n g Equipment O p e r a t o r s : "concerned w i t h s u p e r v i s i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f workers p r i m a r i l y engaged i n o p e r a t i n g o f f i c e machines and e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g f o r c l a s s i -f y i n g , p o s t i n g and t r a n s f e r r i n g d a t a " , ( p . 182). FIGURE 3 P r o p o r t i o n of-Women (age 35-44; E d u c a t i o n a l grade 9-13) A c c o r d i n g t o S k i l l L e v e l o f Three Groups o f O f f i c e Work Oc c u p a t i o n s 100 70\ P e r c e n t o f Women T o t a l i n 60H Each Category 5 ( J 40-3a 10J 01 T y p i s t s & c l e r k t y p i s t s Bookkeeping & a c c o u n t -i n g c l e r k s S u p e r v i s o r o f f i c e machines & d a t a p r o c e s s i n g equipment o p e r a t o r s Some S k i l l L e v e l s i n C l e r i c a l Work. Source: Census o f Canada 1971, V o l . 3, p.2:5. FIGURE 4 Income Arid S k i ill F or Men and Women Age 35-44; E d u c a t i o n a l Grade 9-13 14,000 -|-13,000 _| 12,000 J Average y e a r l y income 4,000 -3,000 -2,000 -I T y p i s t s Bookkeeping S u p e r v i s o r & c l e r k & a c c o u n t - o f f i c e machines t y p i s t s i n g c l e r k s & d a t a p r o c e s s -i n g equipment o p e r a t o r s Source: Canada, Department o f Labour, Women's Bureau 1975 Women i n the Labour F o r c e : F a c t s and F i g u r e s . Ottawa I n f o r m a t i o n Canada. Pp. 154-158 115, Two t h i n g s a r e go i n g on here as a r e s u l t o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes: on one hand, t e c h n o l o g y i s c r e a t i n g l o w - s k i l l e d , r e p e t i t i v e , l e s s - p a y i n g j o b s and, on t h e o t h e r , h i g h - s k i l l e d and w e l l - p a y i n g j o b s . More women a r e pushed i n t o l e s s s k i l l f u l j o b s , e.g., s t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g j o b s . When the j o b s ( s e e F i g u r e 3) become p r e d o m i n a t l y f e m a l e , t h e y a r e f e m i -n i z e d f o r a number o f men who appear t o l o s e s t a t u s d o i n g f e m i n i n e j o b s . F i o n a Nelson u n d e r s c o r e d t h i s p o i n t when she wrote t h a t "the predominance o f any female o c c u p a t i o n come,, w i t h i t a stigma t h a t shys t he male o f f as i f women were some k i n d o f c o n t a g i o u s d i s e a s e " ( F i o n a N e l s o n , 1976: 167). Mathenson w r i t e s : "So c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d was el e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h i n g w i t h women t h a t men e n t e r i n g t h e f i e l d used t o s u f f e r from t he same s o r t o f stigma t h a t might s t i l l a t t a c h t o a male nurse o r SECRETARY (emphasis mine) (Mathenson, 1976: 25). Most o f t h e s e men move on t o h i g h - s k i l l e d j o b s , f o r example, a c c o u n t -i n g , a u d i t i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g . Those t h a t remain i n the l o w - s k i l l e d j o b s e n j o y h i g h e r s a l a r i e s than t h e i r women c o u n t e r p a r t s . See T a b l e XVII and F i g u r e 4. TABLE XVI AVERAGE SALARY RATES PER WEEK IN ALL INDUSTRIES AND FOR SELECTED OFFICE OCCUPATIONS SHOWING FEMALE AND MALE RATES FOR SIMILARLY-DESCRIBED OCCUPATIONS IN FOUR CANADIAN CITIES, OCTOBER 1, 1971 Men $ HALIFAX A c c o u n t i n g c l e r k , j u n i o r 83 95 Bookkeeper, s e n i o r 103 140 Cost A c c o u n t i n g c l e r k 88 105 T a b u l a t i n g Machine o p e r a t o r 81 121 MONTREAL A c c o u n t i n g c l e r k , j u n i o r 90 108 Bookkeeper, s e n i o r 122 145 Cost A c c o u n t i n g c l e r k 100 128 T a b u l a t i n g Machine o p e r a t o r 106 127 TORONTO A c c o u n t i n g c l e r k , j u n i o r 94 111 Bookkeeper, s e n i o r 124 162 Cost A c c o u n t i n g c l e r k 104 137 T a b u l a t i n g Machine o p e r a t o r 108 132 VANCOUVER A c c o u n t i n g c l e r k , j u n i o r 96 110 Bookkeeper, s e n i o r 123 161 Cost A c c o u n t i n g c l e r k 116 150 T a b u l a t i n g Machine o p e r a t o r 117 138 Source: Canada, Department o f Labour, Women's Bureau-1971., Women i n the Labour F o r c e : F a c t s and F i g u r e s . Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada P. 65. 11.7 The s a l a r y d i s c r e p a n c y may be the reason why t h e s e men remain. Few women, however, make i t i n t o t h e h i g h - s k i l l e d p r e d o m i n a n t l y male j o b s , but when they do, they e a r n l e s s than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . The women t h e n , i n w h i c h e v e r d i r e c t i o n , a r e g e t t i n g the bad end o f the s t i c k . The f o r e g o i n g i s t h e g e n e r a l p i c t u r e t o which the d a t a f o r the t h e s i s p o i n t . I want, a t t h i s p o i n t , t o go beyond the scope o f t h i s d a t a t o r a i s e some q u e s t i o n s about what the f i n d i n g s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the d a t a have f o r a) c a p i t a l ism w i t h i n a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , and b) s e x u a l asymmetry ( t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f women w i t h i n the c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m ) . TRENDS IN FEMALE EMPLOYMENT AS A FUNCTION OF CAPITALISM The aim here i s t o s p e c u l a t e on the c o n n e c t i o n between the t r e n d i n t h e d a t a and the e x t e n t t o which t h i s i s p r e d i c t a b l e w i t h i n the c a p i t a l i s t system. C a p i t a l i s t economy i n Canada, as i n o t h e r Western i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , i s a system based upon f i n a n c i a l p r o f i t and wage l a b o u r . A l l the h i s t o r i -c a l f o r c e s o f the system e x e r t p r e s s u r e toward a p o l a r i z a t i o n o f s o c i e t y around the b o u r g e o i s i e and the p r o l e t a r i a t . The b o u r g e o i s i e ( c a p i t a l i s t ) owns the means o f p r o d u c t i o n and employs l a n d , l a b o u r and c a p i t a l i n the p u r s u i t o f f i n a n c i a l a c c u m u l a t i o n . The p r o l e t a r i a t (working c l a s s ) s e l l s i t s l a b o u r power t o the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e t h e wages needed t o purchase i t s means o f s u p p o r t . By d e f i n i t i o n t h e n , the c a p i t a -l i s t c l a s s and the working c l a s s e x i s t , they a r e o b j e c t i v e l y p r e s e n t i n s o c i e t y r e g a r d l e s s o f whether or not t h o s e who b e l o n g t o the c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s 'recogh-ize-the e x i s t e n c e , o f c l a s s e s . . There i s a d i v e r s i t y , o f a c t i v i t i e s engaged •in by. t h e ^ p r o l e f a r i a t - w h i c h r s d m e t i m e s ' m a k e s i t d i f f i c u l t to, d i s t i n g u i s h them. 11:8 I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and i t s accompanying t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes have, a l t e r e d the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the working c l a s s e s p e c i a l l y i n the b l u e c o l l a r s t r a t u m and has made i t e a s i e r t o e x p l o i t them. Marx, i n t h e f i r s t volume o f C a p i t a l , had e x p l a i n e d the r o l e t e c h n o l o g y p l a y e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f c l a s s and i n e q u a l i t y i n Western i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s (Marx, 1970: 271-295). A d e t a i l e d M a r x i s t a n a l y s i s o f t h e i s s u e o f t e c h n o l o g y and c l a s s i s beyond the scope o f t h i s paper. S u f f i c e i t t o mention t h a t Marx saw t e c h n o l o g y as one o f the means whereby the b o u r g e o i s i e e x p l o i t e d t h e p r o l e t a r i a t . In a d d i t i o n t o changes i n t h e n a t u r e o f b l u e c o l l a r work, t e c h n o l o g i -c a l advancement has brought about the development o f a l a r g e c a t e g o r y o f p r i m a r y non-manual p r o d u c t i o n p e r s o n n e l working as s c i e n t i s t s , e n g i n e e r s , e t c . T h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l s t r a t u m , i n most c a s e s , has more e d u c a t i o n and s k i l l s , but o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n i n t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f manual l a b o u r e r s because they a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , h i r e d employees. T h i s s t r a t u m i s sometimes d e s c r i b e d as the "New Working C l a s s " . (See Anderson, 1978: 86;) A t , t h e lower end o f t h i s "new c l a s s " i n e d u c a t i o n and income s c a l e i s what Marx r e f e r r e d t o as commercial l a b o u r e r s - s a l e s and c l e r i c a l workers - who h e l p o r g a n i z e and a s s i s t i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and t r a n s a c t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f economic a c t i v i t y . I t i s w i t h i n t h i s group t h a t most Canadian women are l o c a t e d and where they a r e p a i d even l e s s than t h e i r male c o u n t e r p a r t s . Why i s i t t h a t most Canadian women f i n d themselves i n t h e lower end o f the "new working c l a s s " , and why i s i t t h a t they a r e p a i d f a r l e s s than the men i n the same stratum? A t t e m p t i n g t o s p e c u l a t e on the f i r s t q u e s t i o n r e q u i r e s some r e c a l l o f Canadian h i s t o r y . During the D e p r e s s i o n the unemployment r a t e was v e r y high - 900,000 out o f a p o p u l a t i o n o f 3.8 m i l l i o n . By 1942, war i n d u s t r y 119 was i n f u l l p r o d u c t i o n . The armed f o r c e s drew l a r g e numbers o f males from the l a b o u r f o r c e , changing the l a b o u r market from one o f s u r p l u s and unemployment to one o f s h o r t a g e . To meet the p r e s s u r e o f war needs a t t e n t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , became f o c u s e d on the r e s e r v e o f p o t e n t i a l women workers who had not y e t been drawn i n t o employment. The Canadian woman i n the p a s t , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f immigrants and the lower c l a s s woman-who. was-, p r o l e t a r i a n i z e d a l o n g w i t h t he husband and thus had t o work to supplement her husband's income, was a t r a d i t i o n a l housewife and housekeeper who s t a y e d a t home and took c a r e o f the b a b i e s . By t h i r t e e n O r d e r s i n C o u n c i l , the N a t i o n a l S e l e c t i v e S e r v i c e (N.S.S.) programme was e s t a b l i s h e d i n March 1942 under t he j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the M i n i s t e r o f Labour. Prime M i n i s t e r Mackenzie King i n h i s address to P a r l i a m e n t on N.S.S. d e c l a r e d the " r e c r u i t m e n t o f women f o r employment was the most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e f e a t u r e o f the program" ( P i e r s o n 1977:126). He went on to o u t l i n e a t e n - p o i n t p l a n f o r drawing women i n t o i n d u s t r y . In May 1942 a d i v i s i o n o f N.S.S. was c r e a t e d t o deal w i t h employment o f women and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s . Mrs. Rex (Fraudema) Eaton o f Vancouver was a p p o i n t e d a s s i s t a n t , l a t e r a s s o c i a t e , d i r e c t o r o f N.S.S. i n charge o f the Women's D i v i s i o n . A f t e r the war, When the men r e t u r n e d , economic d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h e a f t e r - w a r y e a r s made the women, who had been r e c r u i t e d , s t a y on t o earn an e x t r a income. (See Kolk o , 1978). D e s p i t e h i g h e r r a t e s o f unemployment, more and more women throw themselves a t any p r i c e : - i n t o t he c a p i t a l i s t l a b o u r market, becoming an e v e r g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f the working p o p u l a t i o n . The growth i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n 120 r a t e thus a c c e l e r a t e s r a t h e r than f a l l s d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f h i g h o r r i s i n g unemployment. T h i s i s because when unemployment o r economic a d v e r s i t y s t r i k e s f a m i l i e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y dependent on the income o f working c l a s s m a l e s , the women i n the f a m i l y a r e d r i v e n i n t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t l a b o u r p r o c e s s . Whether t h i s f a c t a c c e l e r a t e s o r i s caused by the s t r u c t u r a l s h i f t i n the c a p i t a l i s t economy from p r o d u c t i o n to s e r v i c e employment can be debated, but t h a t i t i s i n t e g r a l t o the development o f the modern c a p i t a l i s t economy i s c l e a r . The c o m b i n a t i o n o f r i s i n g i n f l a t i o n and gen e r a l unemployment a f t e r 1965".are b e t t e r e x p l a n a t i o n s , though not the o n l y ones, o f the upsurge o f women i n the l a b o u r f o r c e . The economic n e c e s s i t y o f work, c o u p l e d w i t h the f e m i n i s t campaign t h a t a woman s h o u l d fend f o r h e r s e l f i n s t e a d o f b e i n g an appendage t o a man, encouraged a l o t o f women to s t a y on. Hence the q u e s t i o n o f whe'therwomen a r e b e i n g p u l l e d .into the l a b o u r f o r c e by the new openings i n s e r v i c e s , c l e r i c a l p o s t s o r the l i k e cannot be d i v o r c e d from t he f a c t t h a t economic p r e s s u r e s push them i n t o the l a b o u r market more f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f economic s t a g n a t i o n . How the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f cheaper, l e s s s k i l l e d l a b o u r a t such times make p o s s i b l e t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the s t r u c t u r e o f c a p i t a l i s t a c t i v i t y i s a complex i s s u e o f s o c i a l i s t a n a l y s i s which t h i s paper does not i n t e n d u n d e r t a k i n g . But D. Suzanne Cross (1977) r e i n f o r c e s t h i s p o i n t i n her own a n a l y s i s when she w r i t e s t h a t "women, many o f them m a r r i e d , worked out o f n e c e s s i t y i n o r d e r t h a t they and t h e i r dependents might s u r v i v e . " . (.1977-: 67). With the c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n b e i n g one o f the j o b s t h a t r e q u i r e s r e l a t i v e l y l e s s s k i l l , i t a t t r a c t e d a l o t o f women. 121 INEQUALITY We have s a i d t h a t once women j o i n e d an o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y i n t h e i r numbers, the o c c u p a t i o n became d e v a l u e d f o r a l o t o f men because i t l o s t p r e s t i g e and, i n some c a s e s , r e m u n e r a t i o n . The men l e f t and women f i l l e d i n . Michael C r o z i e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , w r i t e s : The l o s s o f economic p r i v i l e g e o f w h i t e c o l l a r employees can be e x p l a i n e d i n a l a r g e measure by the p r o g r e s s i v e d o m i n a t i o n o f w h i t e c o l l a r occupa-t i o n s by women whose l e v e l o f compensation i s d i s -t i n c t l y lower a c r o s s the board i n a l l i n d u s t r i e s ( C r o z i e r , 1971: 219). T e c h n o l o g i c a l changes as a whole seem to have a i d e d t h i s t r e n d . I n c r e a s i n g economic growth and mass t e c h n o l o g i c a l development brought a c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n c r e a s e i n o f f i c e work. B e f o r e the post-war p e r i o d , s p e c i f i c a l l y from 1911 t o about 1940, t h e r e were no g r e a t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s between the c l e r i c a l j o b s t h a t men and women d i d . The q u e s t i o n now i s , how d i d women i n c l e r i c a l j o b s g e t t o be pushed i n t o l e s s s k i l l e d and l e s s r e m u n e r a t i v e j o b s as compared t o male c l e r i c a l workers? We want t o su g g e s t t h a t the development and p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e machines brought a c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t a s k s w i t h i n the o f f i c e - machines c a p a b l e o f d o i n g s p e c i f i c t a s k s and demanding p e r s o n n e l w i t h s p e c i f i c e x p e r t i s e t o o p e r a t e them. T h i s p r o c e s s l e d t o a g r e a t e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f o f f i c e work. In Canada, as i n a number o f Western i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , c a p i t a l i s m and the system o f i n e q u a l i t y i s w e l l e n t r e n c h e d and t h i s a f f e c t s the pr o c e s s o f i n t e r n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n the o f f i c e . Tepperman (1970), f o r example, w r i t i n g on s o c i a l m o b i l i t y i n Canada, argues t h a t the 122 Canadian s o c i e t y i s s t r u c t u r e d i n such a way t h a t some p e o p l e a r e more equal than o t h e r s . A few more examples o f t h e e x i s t i n g n a t u r e o f i n e q u a l i t y i n Canada might emphasize o u r p o i n t . The Royal Commission on t he S t a t u s o f Women i n Canada (1970), Robson and L a p o i n t e (1971) and Bossen (1971) argue a l o n g t he same l i n e s . So t h a t as the i n t e r n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n r e s p o n s e t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes, i t i s e f f e c t e d u n e q u a l l y among workers who a r e u n e q u a l l y c l a s s i f i e d as f i r s t and second c l a s s c i t i z e n s ; t h e former b e i n g men and t h e l a t t e r women. (See Marchak, 1973: 202). Women, t h e n , i n the c o u r s e o f i n t e r n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n g e t the l e s s s k i l l f u l , l e s s c h a l l e n g i n g and l e s s r e m u n e r a t i v e j o b s w h i l e men g e n e r a l l y g e t j o b s t h a t a r e t h e o p p o s i t e . Data p u b l i s h e d i n the Report o f the Royal Commission on the S t a t u s o f Women i n Canada (1970) have shown t h a t women do not e n j o y wage p a r i t y w i t h men i n most j o b s : In Quebec, f o r example, i n the making o f underwear and out-wear, t h e r e a r e a t l e a s t t h r e e d e f i n e d j o b s - c i r c u l a r k n i t t e r , hand o p e r a t o r , and c u t t e r . Men earn on the average 32%, 16% and 49% more than women f o r t h e s e j o b s O n t a r i o and Nova S c o t i a , i n d e e d a l l o f Canada, show s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n t i a l s between men and women p e r f o r m i n g t h e s e j o b s (Report o f the Royal Commission on the S t a t u s o f Women i n Canada, 1970: 158). Bossenf;(1971) found women i n a l l f u l l - t i m e p o s i t i o n s i n Canadian department s t o r e s , save the p o s i t i o n o f c a s h i e r , e a r n e d an average o f 80% o f what men i n the same p o s i t i o n s were e a r n i n g . Marchak (1973': 202-212), Stomberg (1978: 297), H u t c h i n s (1934: 74-78), L l o y d (1975: 17) and Malbun (1972: 222-224) a t t e s t to the f a c t t h a t women a r e p a i d a t l e a s t o n e - t h i r d l e s s than men i n most s e c t o r s o f the North American economy. 123 One o f the arguments used t o j u s t i f y t h i s s e x u a l i n e q u a l i t y i s t h a t women a r e l e s s c a p a b l e both i n m e n t a l i t y and ph y s i q u e t o do complex and s k i l l f u l j o b s . To the q u e s t i o n o f p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y , t e c h n o l o g i c a l development i s known to have made a number o f j o b s l e s s l a b o u r - i n t e n s i v e so t h a t p h y s i c a l a b i l i t y does not appear to be enough c r i t e r i o n to bar women~from d o i n g more s k i l l f u l and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , more r e m u n e r a t i v e j o b s . L a u t a r d ' s (1978) argument t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n o f sex d i m i n i s h e s w i t h t e c h n o l o g i c a l development does not seem t o h o l d i n the c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n a t l e a s t . O f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y has been d e v e l o p i n g s i n c e 1911 and women c o n t i n u e t o dominate i n the s t e n o g r a p h i c and t y p i n g o c c u p a t i o n s . K o l k o , f o r example, w r i t e s : Women c l e r i c a l workers v i r t u a l l y monopolize s e c r e t a r i a l , t y p i s t s and bookkeeper p o s t s w h i l e t h o s e c l e r i c a l t a s k s i n which they a r e n o t dominant a r e g e n e r a l l y t he most r e m u n e r a t i v e ( K o l k o , 1978: 269). In terms o f mental o r academic a b i l i t y i t has been amply demonstrated on the one hand t h a t women a r e s o c i a l i z e d i n most cases t o be l e s s i n t e r -e s t e d i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and on the o t h e r t h a t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y g uarantee a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n f o r women. Marchak (1973) on a sample s u r v e y o f w h i t e c o l l a r workers has shown t h a t a h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n and a l o n g e r t r a i n i n g s k i l l , which i s o f t e n c i t e d to j u s t i f y t h e dominance o f men i n the h i g h , b e t t e r - p a y i n g j o b s , i s o n l y a camouflage. She w r i t e s " R e g a r d l e s s o f e d u c a t i o n , men took t he top j o b s and earned t he top incomes. F or example, 58% o f men w i t h h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n had h i g h c o n t r o l o v e r t he p a c i n g o f t h e i r t a s k s , compared t o 25% o f the women w i t h h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e s e same men earned o v e r $450 per month compared t o 18% o f t h e s e women."(p.148-159) 124 T h i s s e x u a l i n e q u a l i t y has a l o n g h i s t o r y , a h i s t o r y which t h i s paper does n o t i n t e n d t o a n a l y s e . I t s u f f i c e s t o know, however, t h a t much o f t h i s i n e q u a l i t y has been the r e s u l t o f c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y and propaganda. I t has been amply demonstrated t h a t i n Canadian s o c i e t y , as i n o t h e r Western i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s , the women from c h i l d h o o d i s s o c i a l i z e d t o occupy an i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n t o the men.-, Fi o n a N e lson w r i t e s "Sex contempt ...began i n the n u r s e r y , but was f o s t e r e d on the s t r e e t and n o u r i s h e d i n the s c h o o l " ( N e l s o n , 1976: 1 ) . M i t c h e l l (1971) adds t h a t " i n academic s u b j e c t s , a t secondary s c h o o l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , a g i r l ' s c a r e e r i s a d o w n h i l l s t r u g g l e , a d e n i a l o f her p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . The system i s one o f p r o g r e s s i v e l y c o n t r a c t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . The s o c i a l c l i m a t e and s o c i a l o r d e r d e termines t he a t t i t u d e s o f p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s and g i r l s a l i k e i n such a way as t o o f f e r an i n c r e a s i n g l y c o n f i n e d f u t u r e , and even w i t h i n t h i s a more i n v i d i o u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o c c u r s . In p r i n c i p l e , f o r boys and g i r l s t h e r e i s no d i s t i n c t i o n i n the type o f academic s u b j e c t s t u d i e d . In p r a c t i c e , t h e r e i s an ominous d i f f e r e n c e v i s i b l e i n e x a m i n a t i o n s u b j e c t s . Less than t w o - t h i r d s as many g i r l s as boys t a k e s c i e n c e , and l e s s than h a l f as many t a k e mathematics. The s c i e n c e t h a t g i r l s do ta k e i s b i o l o g y r a t h e r than p h y s i c s and c h e m i s t r y , thus a p p a r e n t l y i n d i c a t i n g a p r e f e r e n c e f o r the human and t a n g i b l e as opposed t o the a b s t r a c t and t h e o r e t i c a l . " ( M i t c h e l l 1971: 133). T h i s s o c i a l i z a t i o n and c h a n n e l l i n g has not been because women a r e b i o l o g i c a l l y i n f e r i o r to men, but because c a p i t a l i s m t r i e s to use s e x u a l i t y , m a s c u l i n e - f e m i n i n e s o c i a l i z a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n , i n such a way as t o make women e s p e c i a l l y more e x p l o i t a b l e . Germaine G r e e r (1971) has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e r e i s no b i o l o g i c a l b a s i s f o r sexual d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and i n e q u a l i t y . The f a c t t h a t men and women a r e b i o l o g i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t does not make one sex s u p e r i o r t o the o t h e r . Both Marx and Eng e l s touched on the i s s u e o f the s u b m i s s i o n o f women by man, but i t was i n the O r i g i n o f the Fa m i l y P r i v a t e P r o p e r t y and the S t a t e t h a t Engels t r e a t s t he i s s u e i n any r e a s o n a b l e d e t a i l . Engelsargues "that "the d i v i s i o n o f l a b o u r between both sexes i s caused by o t h e r reasons than 125 s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n o f women. N a t i o n s where women have t o work much h a r d e r than i s p r o p e r f o r them i n our o p i n i o n o f t e n r e s p e c t women more h i g h l y than Europeans do." ( E n g e l s 1942: 122) Contemporary f e m i n i s t l i t e r a t u r e (see G r e e r (1971), F i r e s t o n e (1972), M i t c h e l l (1971), Malbun and Waeher (1972), T r i o f i m e n k o f f (1977) have a l s o proved t h a t b i o l o g i c a l l y men a r e not s u p e r i o r t o women. The male s u b m i s s i o n o f women i s predominant and t y p i c a l i n c a p i t a l i s t i c s o c i e t i e s where c a p i t a l i s m uses t h i s as a method to reduce women t o a r e s e r v e army o f l a b o u r f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n by the system. E n g e l s (1902) wrote t h a t male/female d i s c r i m i n a t i o n had no n a t u r a l but r a t h e r economic c a u s e s . Monogamy was the f i r s t form o f . t h e f a m i l y not founded on n a t u r a l but on economic c o n d i t i o n s . The modern monogamous f a m i l y i s founded on the open o r d i s g u i s e d d o m e s t i c s l a v e r y o f women, and modern s o c i e t y i s a mass composed o f m o l e c u l e s i n the form o f monogamous f a m i l i e s . In the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , t h e man has t o earn a l i v i n g and s u p p o r t h i s f a m i l y , a t l e a s t among the p o s s e s s i n g c l a s s e s . Because he has assumed t h a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , he t h e r e b y o b t a i n s a s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n t h a t has no need o f any l e g a l b a c k i n g . By i m p l i c a t i o n he becomes the b o u r g e o i s and the woman the p r o l e t a r i a n . With the p r o ! e t a r i a n i z i n g o f a m a j o r i t y o f workers and i n c r e a s i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n , comes t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f machines t h a t h e l p t o e x t r a c t s u r p l u s from the work i n g c l a s s , and now the m i d d l e c l a s s man and h i s w i f e . (See Marx, C a p i t a l , V o l . 1: 395.) In t h i s r e s p e c t , o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y has c o n t r i b u t e d t o the e x p l o i t a t i o n o f women and t o the sex t y p i n g o f o f f i c e work. In the o l d o f f i c e where t h e r e were not a l o t o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d machines, men's and women's j o b s 126.; i n t h e o f f i c e were r e l a t i v e l y u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . With t h e advent o f e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g equipment and the numerous o f f i c e gadgets l i k e t h e key punching machines and computers, a l o t o f t h e r o u t i n e c l e r i c a l j o b s have become r e p e t i t i v e , l e s s p a y i n g and, t h e r e f o r e , un-s u i t a b l e f o r most men who have moved i n t o p o s i t i o n s as s t o c k c l e r k s , s h i p p i n g c l e r k s , e t c . , l e a v i n g most women t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h o s e j o b s where they can be most e x p l o i t e d . T h i s sex t y p i n g i s a c u l t u r a l phenomenon which i s r e i n f o r c e d by the c a p i t a l i s t t e c h n o l o g y which i s c r e a t e d by men. The predicament f o r women then i s whether th e y can r e a l i s t i c a l l y e x p e c t t h e i r c u r r e n t e f f o r t s t o r e s o l v e i n e q u a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t economy o r whether t he r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h i s economy make t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t i o n p e r p e t u a l as w e l l as i n e v i t a b l e . THE FEMINIST MOVEMENT WITHIN CAPITALISM The q u e s t i o n a t t h i s p o i n t i s : What e f f e c t has t h e f e m i n i s t movement i n Canada had on t h i s t r e n d ? Whatever can be s a i d t o t h i s i s s p e c u l a t i v e a t t h i s p o i n t s i n c e no s y s t e m a t i c d a t a was c o l l e c t e d f o r t h i s purpose. The 1960's w i t n e s s e d a r e v i v a l o f the women's movement i n Canada. T h i s "movement" o f women, by the v e r y d e f i n i t i o n was a l o o s e m y r i a d o f concerned women a l l i e d i n women's r i g h t s , women's l i b e r a t i o n o r f e m i n i s t groups ( T e a t h e r , 1976: 313). The aim o f women's r i g h t s groups i s t o a c h i e v e e q u a l i t y by working t h r o u g h t h e e x i s t i n g c a p i t a l i s t i c system, by f i g h t i n g t o a b o l i s h j o b d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , g e t equal pay f o r work and t o encourage women t o move t o t h e upper l e v e l s o f t h e v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s and e n t e r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p o s i t i o n s . The argument h e r e , under 127 what C h a r n i e G u e t t e l (1974: 1) has c a l l e d " b o u r g e o i s l i b e r a t i o n " , i s t h a t c a p i t a l i s m i s so de e p l y e n t r e n c h e d t h a t i t cannot be overthrown i n a s h o r t t i m e . Women then s h o u l d f i g h t , a t l e a s t t o g e t a b e t t e r deal w i t h i n the system. Women's L i b e r a t i o n grew out o f new l e f t p o l i t i c s , and Feminism from d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s . (These terms a re o n l y l a b e l s and l i k e any l a b e l s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o a p p l y i n p r a c t i c e as t h e r e i s o v e r l a p p i n g o f groups, i n -d i v i d u a l s and t h e o r i e s . ) Women's l i b e r a t i o n , c a r r i e d t o i t s extreme, argues t h a t c a p i t a l i s m demands s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f some members by o t h e r s and w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , do e v e r y t h i n g i t can t o keep more e a s i l y e x p l o i t a b l e c a t e g o r i e s o f persons such as women ; T n I T / s l j b o r d ^ ^ ^ w i t h t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s not t o make any piece-meal arrangements w i t h i n c a p i t a l i s m t o p e r p e t u a t e i t , but t o q u e s t i o n e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and the v e r y bases o f s o c i e t y and to see and deal w i t h women's r o l e under c a p i t a l i s m as p a r t o f the i s s u e o f the c l a s s ^xuggTe,. I f c a p i t a l i s m i s a b o l i s h e d , men and women would be e q u a l . G u e t t e l w r i t e s : Many o f us a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h a s t r i c t b o u r g e o i s f e m inism which s i m p l y d e c l a r e s t h a t men oppr e s s women, sometimes d e s c r i b e s how, but does not r e a l l y t e l l us why. Women i n the l e f t a r e l o o k i n g t o Marxism t o d i s -c o v e r the b a s i c causes o f our o p p r e s s i o n , and t o g i v e us the s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f our s o c i e t y t h a t w i l l e n a b l e us t o de v e l o p a s t r a t e g y t o o r g a n i z e f o r l i b e r a t i o n ( G u e t t e l , 1974: 1 ) . j h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a on feminism i n Canada appear t o " p o i n t to the f a c t t h a t .''bourgeois femtnism s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g t o a b o l i s h j o b d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , g e t equal pay f o r equal work, and be equal to man and not s u b o r d i n a t e t o him. Women i n Canada appear t o be f i g h t i n g t h e s p e c i a l o p p r e s s i o n o f women as women, b e f o r e women as work e r s . But the l a s t t e n y e a r s (1971-1980) a p e r i o d d u r i n g which women 128 have brought t o awareness t he r e l a t i o n s h i p between s t r u c t u r a l i n e q u a l i t i e s and the p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f e x p l o i t a t i o n may have produced changes i n j o b t r a i n i n g t r e n d s t h a t would be r e f l e c t e d i n the 1981 census f i g u r e s . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t i f the on-going s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f women were t o c o n t i n u e i n t o t he 1980's, women w i l l c o n c e r n themselves w i t h the more immediate problem o f s e x i s t o p p r e s s i o n and the attempts t o a l l e v i a t e t h i s . T h i s w i l l p r o b a b l y mean r e s t r i c t i o n o f the movement t o b o u r g e o i s feminism. I f e v e n t s , however, c o n s p i r e to change t he f a c e o f c a p i t a l i s m , o r i n t e n s i f y p r e s s u r e s towards economic democracy, then we can p r o b a b l y l o o k f o r a s h i f t from b o u r g e o i s t o r a d i c a l f e minism i n which the women's movement w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d more c l o s e l y w i t h t he c l a s s s t r u g g l e . In any c a s e , t he p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n has been demonstrated as one i n which t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n t h e c l e r i c a l f i e l d a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g t o economic and s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y between men and women. T h i s appears t o be one o f the f a c t o r s s t i m u l a t i n g c o l l e c t i v e r e sponse by women aimed a t i n s t i t u t i n g e g a l i t a r i a n r e f o r m s . While t h e r e i s v i s i b l e ambivalence about how t h e s e reforms a r e t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d , i . e . , by moderate o r r a d i c a l f e m i n i s t s t r a g e g i e s , the e f f o r t s t o deal w i t h the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s a r e pronounced and o r g a n i z e d . 129 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION The t a s k a t the b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s was t o a n a l y s e the e f f e c t s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes on the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c l e r i c a l workers o v e r the d i f f e r e n t s u b - c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n the c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s f o r the 1911 - 1971 p e r i o d . T h i s a n a l y s i s was done i n r e l a t i o n w i t h the o r g a n i -z a t i o n o f o f f i c e work, t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes w i t h i n the p e r i o d and how t h a t a f f e c t e d both o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n t h e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n . The o f f i c e was seen t o have moved from a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l u n d i f f e r -e n t i a t e d work p l a c e i n 1911 t o a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l a r g e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t y p e i n t h e 1970's. The p r o c e d u r e o f i n f o r m a t i o n p r o c e s s i n g advanced from manual t o e l e c t r o n i c and the scope o f o f f i c e communication expanded f r o m i n t e r n a l communication t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l . O f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y , on t h e o t h e r hand, has been undergoing e v o l u t i o n a r y changes s i n c e o f f i c e s came i n t o b e i n g . T h i s e v o l u t i o n has advanced through f o u r s t a g e s - manual, manual w i t h machine a s s i s t a n c e , e l e c t r o - m e c h a n i c a l and e l e c t r o n i c . These s t a g e s a r e , however, not a b s o l u t e . There a r e a g r e a t deal o f o v e r l a p p i n g and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s between them. These t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments a f f e c t e d both t h e o f f i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the c l e r i c a l w o rkers. In terms o f o f f i c e o r g a n i z a -t i o n , the p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f o f f i c e machines and t h e advancement o f o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g y n e c e s s i t a t e d i n some cases t h e need f o r l a r g e o f f i c e a r e a s . For example, i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f t y p e w r i t e r s made t y p i n g p o o l s p o s s i b l e . 130, In some o t h e r c a s e s , where s o p h i s t i c a t e d machines were i n t r o d u c e d , i t was assumed t h a t b i g g e r o f f i c e spaces were not n e c e s s a r y s i n c e e q u i p -ment such as d a t a p r o c e s s i n g machines c o u l d d e c r e a s e c o n s i d e r a b l y t h e number o f workers needed t o do t h e j o b . Hoos (1958) argued t h a t t e c h -n o l o g i c a l change i s , i n p a r t , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e t r e n d o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and r e - c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f o f f i c e work. T h i s argument c o u l d n o t , however, be s u b s t a n t i a t e d w i t h our d a t a , but c o u l d p r o v i d e a u s e f u l a r e a o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . One f a c t o r which was c l e a r was t h a t t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n , but how much t h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l change c o n c e a l e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l unemployment c o u l d not be a n a l y s e d w i t h our d a t a . The c o n c l u s i o n from t he a v a i l a b l e d a t a , however, was t h a t c a p i t a l i n t e n s i v e machines l i k e word and d a t a p r o c e s s o r s , key punch machines, and e l e c t r o n i c t y p e w r i t e r s have made a l a r g e r p a r t o f the c l e r i c a l work r e p e t i t i v e and low-paying and, t h e r e f o r e , deemed s u i t -a b l e f o r women i n t h i s male-dominated s o c i e t y . Many women g e t pushed i n t o t h e s e a r e a s w i t h i n t h e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e r e b y s t i g m a t i z i n g them f o r men (Mathenson, 1976; ' 2 5 ) . The male c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s , where p o s s i b l e , move i n t o a r e a s where t h e r e a r e fewer women o r where the work i s con-s i d e r e d more c h a l l e n g i n g , f o r example, a c c o u n t i n g , s h i p p i n g , and r e c e i v i n g c l e r k s . Here t e c h n o l o g i c a l change i s seen t o c o n t r i b u t e t o both t h e occupa-t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n and o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n o f t h e c l e r k ' s j o b . The t r e n d i s f o r women t o be pushed i n t o areas where they have l i t t l e c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r j o b s , and the men i n t o j o b s which g i v e them a l o t o f p e r s o n a l 131. c o n t r o l . Very few men a r e c l e r k t y p i s t s , w h i l e v e r y few women a r e s h i p p i n g c l e r k s . The c l e r i c a l work moved from a p r e d o m i n a n t l y male o c c u p a t i o n between 1911 and 1941 to a p r e d o m i n a n t l y f e m a l e . o c c u p a t i o n from 1941 t o 1971. T e c h n o l o g i c a l changes, however, were not the o n l y f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the c l e r i c a l j o b d i s t r i b u t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n a l s e g r e g a t i o n , and sex t y p i n g w i t h i n t he c l e r i c a l work. Other f a c t o r s i n c l u d e the economic problems t h a t f a c e d Canada d u r i n g and a f t e r the war y e a r s . The f l u - • t u a t i n g c a p i t a l i s t economy c o u p l e d w i t h the hi g h l e v e l s o f i n f l a t i o n made i t n e c e s s a r y f o r a number o f women, m o s t l y m a r r i e d ones, t o work to supplement t he s a l a r i e s o f t h e i r husbands. The i n f l u x o f women i n t o t he l a b o u r market and i n t o c l e r i c a l work where most o f them found them-s e l v e s , cheapened t h e i r v a l u e and lowered t h e i r b a r g a i n i n g power, thus t r a n s f o r m i n g them i n t o a r e s e r v e l a b o u r army. The f u t u r e consequence o f t h i s was t h a t t he areas where they dominated, f o r example, s t e n o g r a p h y , v i r t u a l l y became a g h e t t o , s t i g m a t i z e d f o r men. T h i s t r e n d was a f f e c t e d by the i d e o l o g y t h a t women a r e l e s s c a p a b l e f o r d o i n g c e r t a i n t ypes o f j o b s , e s p e c i a l l y s k i l l f u l and p h y s i c a l l y - d e m a n d i n g j o b s . The c l e r i c a l woman's p l i g h t i s , t h e r e f o r e , a complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t e c h n o l o g y , economy and' i d e o l o g y . The q u e s t i o n which t h i s t h e s i s does r a i s e w i t h some e v i d e n c e i s t h a t t he impact o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i s a f f e c t e d -by the economic and i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e x t i n which t h e s e changes a r e i n t r o -duced. C l e a r l y , t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes d i d c o n t r i b u t e to the c l e r i c a l j o b d i s t r i b u t i o n d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s . The e x t e n t t o which t h e s e changes have been d i r e c t e d by i d e o l o g i c a l m o t i v e s o f c a p i t a l i s m i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e r t a i n and not p o s s i b l e t o determine w i t h i n the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s , but p l a u s i b l e c o n n e c t i o n s a r e a p p a r e n t . 132: AREAS OF FURTHER RESEARCH I t i s l i k e l y t h a t contemporary developments a r e a f f e c t i n g t h e c l e r i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n d i f f e r e n t l y and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed t o document t h e contemporary t r e n d s . I t may be, f o r example, t h a t w i t h t h e h i g h l e v e l s o f i n f l a t i o n and unemployment, men would be making a r e - e n t r y i n t o t he "ghetto a r e a s " o f the c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n . What about t he i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f o f f i c e t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p -ment which i s s o a r i n g i n the l a t e 1970.'s ( t h e c a l c u l a t o r s which can t a l k and the computers which can do almost e v e r y t h i n g ) , c o u p l e d w i t h the f u l l e f f e c t s o f the baby boom g e n e r a t i o n passed i n t o the l a b o u r market? How a r e t h e s e f a c t o r s g o i n g t o a f f e c t the t r e n d s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s ? F i n a l l y , i t might be i n t e r e s t i n g t o f i n d out what i s go i n g t o happen t o t h e q u a l i t y and remu n e r a t i o n o f t y p i c a l women monopolies l i k e s t e n o g r a p h y , key pun c h i n g , e t c . , w i t h t h e promise o f t h e p r e s e n t government t o g i v e women b e t t e r j o b s w i t h b e t t e r pay. 133 BIBLIOGRAPHY A b b o t t , E d i t h 1915 W,omen i n I n d u s t r y . New York: A p p l e t o n . 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Hoffman 1960 " O b s e r v a t i o n s on the dynamics o f a change t o e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g equipment." A d m i n i s t r a t i v e S c i e n c e  Q u a r t e r l y 5 :217-256. Marchak, M.P. 1973 "Canadian Labour F o r c e : Jobs f o r Women." Pp. 148-159 i n M. Stephenson, ed. Women i n Canada. T o r o n t o : New P r e s s Mann, F l o y d and C. W i l l i a m s , K. Lawrence 1962 "Some e f f e c t s o f changing work environment i n the o f f i c e . J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s 18: 90-101. Marx, K a r l 1970 C a p i t a l . V o l . 1. New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s . 137 Mathenson, G. 1976 Women i n the Canadian Mosaic. T o r o n t o : General P u b l i s h i n g . McCourt, K a t h l e e n 1977 Working C l a s s Women and Grass-Roots P o l i t i c s . B l oomington: I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . McLuhan, M. 1964 U n d e r s t a n d i n g Media. New York: M c G r a w - H i l l . 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O c c u p a t i o n a l O u t l o o k Q u a r t e r l y 2 (No. 3 ) : 3-9. P i e r s o n , Ruthe 1977 "Women's Em a n c i p a t i o n and the R e c r u i t m e n t o f women i n t o t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n w o r l d War I I . " Pp.125-128 i n T r o f i m e n k o f f , S.M., and A l i s o n P r e n t i c e , ed. Essays i n  Canadian Women's H i s t o r i e s : The N e g l e c t e d M a j o r i t y . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart. P o r t e r , John 1973 The V e r t i c a l Mosaic. T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s . P o w e l l , C.A. 1961 Impact o f Automation on Employment. Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . 138 P r a t h e r , Jane 1971 "When the G i r l ' s Move i n : A S o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s o f f e m i n i z a t i o n a t the bank t e l l e r s ' j o b . " J o u r n a l o f  M a r r i a g e and the Fa m i l y 33: 777-782 Ross, E . J . 1970 Management by I n f o r m a t i o n System. Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l . Royal Commission on the S t a t u s o f Women. 1970 Report. Ottawa: I n f o r m a t i o n Canada. Sanders, D.H. 1972 Computers i n B u s i n e s s : An I n t r o d u c t i o n . New York: McGraw-Hill S c h u l z e , J.W. 1919 O f f i c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . London: M c G r a w - H i l l . Shepard, John M. 1971 Automation and A l i e n a t i o n : A Study o f O f f i c e and  F a c t o r y Workers. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. P r e s s . S i e m i l l e r , P.L. and F.L. G r a l l u c c i . 1967 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Conference on Automation. New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s . S i n n , R.G. 1955 "What o f f i c e equipment means t o b u s i n e s s : Automation has brought a c h a l l e n g i n g new e r a . " F i n a n c i a l P o s t (May): 49-50. Smith, Georgina M. 1959 O f f i c e Automation and the White C o l l a r Employment. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers U n i v e r s i t y , I n s t i t u t e o f Management and Labour R e l a t i o n s , B u l l e t i n 6. Smuts, R.W. 1959 Women and Work i n America. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . S p a r l i n g , E. A l l a n 1958 Complete Course i n O f f i c e P r a c t i c e . T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l . Stephenson, M.,ed. 1973 Women i n Canada. T o r o n t o : New P r e s s . S t i e b e r , Jack 1957 "Automation and the White C o l l a r Worker." P e r s o n n e l 34 (No.3): 8-17. 139 Stomberg, M., and M. S h i r l e y 1978 Women Working: T h e o r i e s and F a c t s i n P e r s p e c t i v e . C a l i f o r n i a : M a y f i e l d P u b l i s h i n g Co. T e a t h e r , Lynne 1976 "The F e m i n i s t Mosaic". Pp.310-346 i n G. Metheson, ed. Women i n the Canadian M o s a i c . T o r o n t o : General P u b l i s h i Tepperman, L. 1975 S o c i a l M o b i l i t y i n Canada. T o r o n t o : M c G r a w - H i l l . T e r b o r g h , George 1965 The Automation H y s t e r i a . New York: Morton. T e r r y , George R. 1966 O f f i c e Automation. Homewood: Dow Jones - I r w i n . T i m a s h e f f , N.S. 1967 S o c i o l o g i c a l Theory : I t s Nature and Growth. New York: Random House. T r i o f i m e n k o f f , S.M. and P r e n t i c e , A l i s o n 1977 The N e g l e c t e d M a j o r i t y : Essays i n Canadian Women's  H i s t o r y . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and Steward. T u r n e r , B. M a r j o r i e 1964 Women and Work. Los A n g e l e s : I n s t i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a . U.S. Department o f Labour 1975 Handbook o f Women Workers. Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . Walker, R.C. 1957 Toward the A u t o m a t i c F a c t o r y : A Case Study o f Men and Machines. New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Wanous, Samuel James 1966 Automation O f f i c e P r a c t i c e . T o r o n t o : Gage. Weber, C.E. 1959 "Impact o f E l e c t r o n i c Data P r o c e s s i n g on C l e r i c a l S k i l l s . ' P e r s o n n e l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 22: 20-27. Weber, C.E. 1959 "Change i n ma n a g e r i a l manpower w i t h m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f d a t a p r o c e s s i n g . " J o u r n a l o f B u s i n e s s 22: 151-163. Weber, Max 1968 Economy and S o c i e t y . New York: B e d m i n i s t e r . Weinberg, Edgar 1960 " E x p e r i e n c e s w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f o f f i c e a u t o m a t i o n . " Monthly Labour Review 83: 376-380. 140 W h i s l e r , Thomas L. 1 9 7 0 The Impact o f Computers on O r g a n i z a t i o n . New York: Praeger. ~ ~ Woolf, V i r g i n i a 1 9 7 2 A Room o f One's Own. Harmondsworth: Penguin Book. Y a s a k i , Edward K. 1975 "Toward the Automated O f f i c e . " Datamation 21 (No.2): 59-62. 141 APPENDIX I METHODS Two main s o c i o l o g i c a l d a t a were employed i n t h e w r i t i n g up o f t h i s paper. One was h i s t o r i c a l d a t a from: a) the S t a t i s t i c s o f Canada 1911 -1971 Census, b) Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . , and c) P r e s c r i b e d T e x t Books f o r High School Commerce. Two, c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s o f t h e T o r o n t o F i n a n c i a l P o s t f o r t h e p e r i o d 1 9 1 1 - 1 9 7 1 . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e two major a p p r o a c h e s , l i t e r a t u r e and o t h e r s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h i s a r e a o f s t u d y were used. D e t a i l s o f t h e methods a r e o u t l i n e d below. H i s t o r i c a l Data a) S t a t i s t i c s o f Canada The o c c u p a t i o n a l census o f Canada was s t u d i e d f o r t h e 60-year p e r i o d t o f i n d the number o f workers employed, i n Canada as a whole, under t h e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s o f the census was done i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Manuals f o r the c e n s u s e s . The purpose o f the O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s Manuals b e i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e meanings o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i n t h e c e n s u s . The y e a r 1911 was s e l e c t e d as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t because the m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e s t u d y -c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s , Burroughs' machines i n f o r m a t i o n and l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t - i n d i c a t e d t h a t the o f f i c e 142 o r g a n i z a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g y from about 1890 - 1911 were q u i t e t h e same. 1971 was n a t u r a l l y s e l e c t e d f o r th e most r e c e n t census. ) Burroughs B u s i n e s s Machines L t d . A c c e s s t o IBM Canada L t d . , RCA, and IVAC which were o r i g i n a l l y p l a n ned f o r t h i s s t u d y was i m p o s s i b l e . I t was o n l y a t Burroughs t h a t any r e a s o n a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o b t a i n e d on o f f i c e machines p r o d u c t i o n . How-e v e r , t h e c h i e f salesman a t Burroughs' Vancouver b r a n c h , Ien B r a d f o r d , gave the a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on Burroughs was i d e n t i c a l w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n a t any o f the abovementioned companies. T h i s was l a t e r c o n f i r m e d by an IBM s a l e s o f f i c e r . I n f o r m a t i o n from Burroughs c o v e r e d o f f i c e machines produced from 1890 t o 1979 and i s c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e IV i n Chapter I I . P r e s c r i b e d T e x t Books f o r High School Commerce An o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l d a t a which was used was the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t f o r B.C. h i g h s c h o o l Commerce. T h i s was used t o i d e n t i f y any changes i n the t e x t and whether t h o s e changes r e f l e c t e d t h e t e c h n o l o g i c a l developments i n t h e c l e r i c a l f i e l d - a f i e l d which i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y o f Commerce. A d e c i s i o n was made t o use B r i t i s h Columbia's da t a w i t h t h e a s s u r a n c e from the School Board a u t h o r i t i e s i n Vancouver t h a t t h i s would be a good r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the Canadian p i c t u r e . With t h e e x c e p t i o n o f 1929 and 1933, d a t a from 1911 t o 1956 were u n a v a i l a b l e . 1929 and 1933 were, t h e r e f o r e , used as a 143 sample f o r the p a s t . The o b v i o u s l i m i t a t i o n o f i n a d e q u a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e employ-ment o f t h i s data f o r a n a l y s i s . I n f o r m a t i o n from 1956 -1971 was f u l l y documented and can be f o u n d i n Appendix I I . Content A n a l y s i s Content a n a l y s i s was done on the F i n a n c i a l P o s t ( T o r o n t o ) f o r t h e p e r i o d 1911 - 1971. The F i n a n c i a l P o s t i s a l a r g e weekly newspaper w i t h an average s i z e o f about 30 pages. A random sample was used t o s e l e c t one newspaper e v e r y y e a r f o r t h e 60-year p e r i o d . These s i x t y 30-page newspapers were s t u d i e d i n d e t a i l and any a r t i c l e and/or a d v e r t i s e m e n t on an o f f i c e o r o f f i c e machine was n o t e d . The c a t e g o r i e s t h a t came up were grouped and T a b l e I I I o f Chapter II was drawn out o f t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s . The v e r y o b v i o u s l i m i t a t i o n o f such an approach i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f i n a d e q u a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . T h i s problem was s o l v e d b e f o r e t h e sample was made. A q u i c k s t u d y o f t h e f i r s t 6 months' i s s u e s o f 1921, t h e l a s t 6 months o f 1941 and t h e f i r s t 6 months o f 1971 showed t h e r a t e o f ad-v e r t i s e m e n t and a r t i c l e s t o be f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t . A c h o i c e o f one paper each y e a r , g i v i n g t i m e l i m i t a t i o n , was, perhaps, enough t o g i v e a g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f what machines were commonly i n use and, t h e r e f o r e , b e i n g a d v e r t i s e d . A n a l y s i s o f the paper was done i n t h i s way: t h e appearance f o r the f i r s t time o f an a d v e r t i s e m e n t on o f f i c e machine o r equipment was not an i n d i c a t i o n o f the v e r y f i r s t e x i s t e n c e o f such a machine or e q u i p -ment, but an i n d i c a t i o n , w i t h i n such a s m a l l sample, t h a t such an e q u i p -ment or machine was b e i n g produced on a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e s c a l e t o be ad-v e r t i s e d . The number o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g companies i n v o l v e d were a l s o used 144 as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the p o p u l a r i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r i t e m . I t was assumed t h a t i f more m a n u f a c t u r i n g companies produced a p a r t i c u l a r machine o r equipment, then i t s demand i n t h e market was h i g h , t h u s e n c o u r a g i n g c o m p e t i t i o n i n the form o f a d v e r t i s e m e n t . D i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and i n t e r v i e w i n g o f c l e r k s which was the d e s i r e o f the r e s e a r c h e r and which c o u l d have y i e l d e d , perhaps b e t t e r e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , c o u l d not be c a r r i e d out because o f i m m i g r a t i o n problems. APPENDIX II PRESCRIBED TEXT BOOKS FOR HIGH SCHOOL COMMERCE SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts Drovided in r D U J Course Names Industrial Arts (Continued) Industrial Arts 10 (Wood-work, Metalwork, Elec-tricity, Drafting) Industrial Arts 1 Oa Industrial Arts 20 (Wood-work, Drafting) Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books IX orX Industrial Arts 21 (Metal work, Drafting) Farm Mechanics 22 Industrial Arts 30 (Wood-work, Drafting) Industrial Arts 31 (Metal work, Drafting) Farm Mechanics 32 Industrial Arts 91 (Wood-work, Drafting) Industrial Arts 92 (Metal work, Drafting) Farm Mechanics 93 Commerce Typewriting 8 Typewriting 10.. Typewriting 20 Record-keeping 11. Shorthand 21 Shorthand 31. IX XorXI or XII XorXI or XII XorXI or XII XI or XII XI or XII XI or XII XII XII XII Scale of Issue * (I) Junior Electricity (Clarke & Stuart) _ (2) Woodwork for Junior High Schools (Copp Clark) (3) Metalwork for Grades VII, VIII, IX (Mac-millan). _ (4) Farmers' Shop Book (Bruce Publishing Co.) Same text-books as for IA 10. (1) Woodwork Practice and Theory (Copp Clark) _ (2) Draughting for Canadian Schools (Nelson) (1) Machine Shop Practice, Books I and II (Nelson) VIII IX or X or XI or XII XorXI orXII IX or X or XI Xor XI or XII XI or XII (2) Draughting for Canadian Schools (Nelson) (1) Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce Publishing Co.) (2) Draughting for Canadian Schools (Nelson) (1) Woodwork Practice and Theory (Copp Clark) (2) Draughting for Canadian Schools (Nelson) (1) Machine Shop Practice, Books I and I (Nelson) (2) Draughting for Canadian Schools (Nelson) Same text-books as for FM 22. (1) Woodwork Practice arid Theory (Copp Clark) (2) Draughting for Canadian School* (Nelson) (1) Machine Shop Practice, Books I and II (Nelson) (2) Draughting for Canadian Schools (Nelson) Same text-books as for FM 22. 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (1) General Record Keeping (McGraw-Hill7 (2) Preparing the Payroll (Pitman). B B B B B B B B B B B B B B (1) Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand, New Era Edition (Pitman) . (2) Pitman Shorthand, Progressive Skill De-velopment, New Era Edition (Pitman) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Transcrip-tion (Pitman) B B B A D * Not*.—Old or new editions. SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets; C—Prescribed for teacher use only; D-—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books Commerce (Continued) Business Fundamentals 24 Book-keeping 34 Book-keeping 91 Clerical Practice 32 Clerical Practice 42 Retail Selling 33 Retail Selling 43 Office Practice 44 Secretarial Practice 92. Secretarial Practice 93-Business Machine Prac-tice 39 Drama 10, 20, 30 Music Music 7 Music 8._ Music 10-XorXI XI or XII XI or XII XI or XII XII XI or XII XII XII XI or XII XII XI or XII IX or X or XI or XII VII VIII IX Business Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill) 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, 19th edition (Gage). 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, 19th edition, advanced (Gage) (DA Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (3) Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part I (Pitman) (DA Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (3) Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part I (Pitman) (4) Preparing the Payroll (Pitman) Retail Marketing and Merchandising (Ginn) Retail Marketing and Merchandising (Ginn) A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (D20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (2) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Tran-scription (Pitman). (3) A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (1) 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (2) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Tran-scription (Pitman). (3) A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (1) Comptometer Course for Business Train-ing (Comptometer Co.) (2) Monroe School Manual of Instruction (Monroe Calculator Co.) (3) Key Driven Calculator Course (GageL Stage and School (McGraw-Hill). World Music Horizons (Gage). World Music Horizons (Gage)_ World Music Horizons (Gage).. t One per business machine. VICTORIA, B.C. Printed by DON MCDIJULMID, Printer to the Queen's M HxceOent Majesty 1955 cvr I M C **T-»I 147 SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course and one for the teacher. B—Texts provided in sets. One text per pupil in the largest group receiving instruction at any one time in any class, course, shop, laboratory. In large schools, or in special circumstances, more than one set may be requisitioned if evidence of need is advanced by the principal. C—Prescribed for teacher use only and provided under the Rental Plan, the books being the property of the school and not of the individual teacher. D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books are authorized but not prescribed and may be purchased. DICTIONARY The following dictionary has been authorized for purchase by students in Grades VII to XII: The Winston Dictionary for Canadian Schools (Winston). Text-book changes for 1957-58 are printed in black-face type. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books Scale of Issue Agriculture Farm Mechanics 22 X or XI or XII (1) Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) B (2) White: Draughting for Canadian Schools (Nelson) B Farm Mechanics 32 XI or XII Same text-books as for FM 22. Farm Mechanics 93.. XII Same text-books as for FM 22. Commerce Typewriting 8 Typewriting 1 0 Typewriting 20 Record-keeping 1 1 Shorthand 21 Shorthand 31 VIII IX or X or XI or XII X or XI or XII IX or X or XI X or XI or XII XI or XII Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) ._ Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pit-(1) Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand, new era edition (Pitman) (2) Pitman Shorthand, Progressive Skill De-velopment, new era edition (Pitman).._. Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Transcrip-tion (Pitman) B B B A A A A 148 SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE , r h f ^ , E X T r £ U P c m e ! f h d a S S 0 r c o u r ^ B-Texts provided ,n sets- C—Prescribed ^C^^'^^r' M a n U a' S' """" ^  -1 Course Names Commerce (Continued) Business Fundamentals 24 Book-keeping 34 Book-keeping 9 I Clerical Practice 32 Clerical Practice 42 Retail Selling 33 Retail Selling 43 Office Practice 44 Secretarial Practice 92 Secretarial Practice 93 Busi ness Machine Prac-tice 39 Drama Drama 10, 20, 30-Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books X or XI XI or XII XI or XII XI or XII XII XI or XII XII XII XI or XII XII XI or XII IX-XII Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill) - .. Carlson, Forkner, and Prickett: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, 19th ed tion (Gage) - -Carlson, Forkner, and Prickett; 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, 19th edi-tion, advanced (Gage) (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) -(3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part I (Pitman) (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill). . (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part I (Pitman) (4) Hillmer: Preparing the Payroll (Pitman) Maynard, Dameron, and Siegler: Retail Mar-keting and Merchandising (Ginn) Same text-book as for Retail Selling 33. Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Prac-tice (McGraw-Hill) -(1) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) — (2) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Tran-scription (Pitman) (3) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) Same text-books as for Secretarial Practice 92. (1) Comptometer Course for Business Train-ing (Comptometer Co.) (2) Monroe School Manual of Instruction (Monroe Calculator Co.) (3) Key Driven Calculator Course (Gage) Scale c ' Issue A A B A A B A D A B A A Ommanney: The Stage and School (Mc-Graw-Hill) . t One per business machine. 149 SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course and one for the teacher. B—Texts provided in sets. One text per pupil in the largest group receiving instruction at any one time in any class, course, shop, laboratory. In large schools, or in special circumstances, more than one set may be requisitioned if evidence of need is advanced by the principal. C—Prescribed for teacher use only and provided under the Rental Plan, the books being the property of the school and not of the individual teacher. D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books are authorized but not prescribed and may be purchased. DICTIONARY The following dictionary has been authorized for purchase by students in Grades VII to XII-The Winston Dictionary for Canadian Schools (Winston). Text-book changes for 1958-59 are printed in black-face type. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books Scale of Issue Agriculture Farm Mechanics 22 Xor XI or XII (1) Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) B (2) White: Draughting for Canadian Schools Farm Mechanics 32 (Nelson).'. B XI or XII Same text-books as for FM 22. Farm Mechanics 93. XII Same text-books as for FM 22. Commerce Typewriting 8 Typewriting 10— _ Typewriting ?f> Record-keeping 11 Shorthand 21 Shorthand 31 VIII IX or X or XI or XII Xor XI or XII IX or X or XI X or XI or XII XI or XII Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gaae) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pit-man).. (1) Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand, new era edition (Pitman) (2) Pitman Shorthand, Progressive Skill De-velopment, new era edition (Pitman) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Transcrip-tion (Pitman)... . B B B A A A A 150 SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets; C—Prescribed for teacher use only; D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased. Count Names Commerce (Continued) Business Fundamentals 24 Book-keeping 34 Book-keeping 91 Clerical Practice 32 Clerical Practice 42 Retail Selling 33 Retail Selling 43 Office Practice 44 Secretarial Practice 92— Secretarial Practice 93— Business Machine Prac-tice 39 Drama Drama 10, 20, 30-Grade Placement X or XI XI or XII XI or XII XI or XII XII XI or XII XII XII XI or XII XII XI or XII Prescribed Text-books IX-XII Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill) Carlson, Forkner, and Prickett: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, 19th edi-tion (Gage) Carlson, Forkner, and Prickett: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, 19th edi-tion, advanced (Gage) (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part I (Pitman) (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage)—. — (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part I (Pitman) (4) Hillmer: Preparing the Payroll (Pitman) Maynard, Dameron, and Siegler: Retail Mar-keting and Merchandising (Ginn) Same text-book as for Retail Selling 33. Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Prac-tice (McGraw-Hill) (1) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (2) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Tran-scription (Pitman) (3) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-HillL Same text-books as for Secretarial Practice 92. Comptometer Course for Business Train-ing (Comptometer Co.) Monroe School Manual of Instruction (1) (2) (Monroe Calculator Co.)_ (3) Key Driven Calculator Course (GageL Ommanney: The Stage and School (Mc-Graw-Hill) t One per business machine. 151 SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course and one for the teacher. B—Texts provided in sets. One text per pupil in the largest group receiving instruction at any one time in any class, course, shop, laboratory. In large schools, or in special circumstances, more than one set may be requisitioned if evidence of need is advanced by the principal. C—Prescribed for teacher use only and provided under the Rental Plan, the books being the property of the school and not of the individual teacher. D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books are authorized but not prescribed and may be purchased. DICTIONARY The following dictionary has been authorized for purchase by students in Grades VII to XII: The Winston Dictionary for Canadian Schools (Winston). Text-book changes for 1959/60 are printed in black-face type. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books Scale of Issue Agriculture Farm Mechanics 22 X or XI or XII (1) Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) B (2) White: Draughting for Canadian Schools (Nelson) B Farm Mechanics 32 XI or XII Same text-books as for FM 22. Farm Mechanics 93 XII Same text-books as for FM 22. Commerce Typewriting 8 Typewriting 10 Typewriting 20 -Record-keeping 11 Shorthand 2 1 - . Shorthand 31 VIII IX or X or XI or XII X or XI or XII IX or X or XI X or XI or XII XI or XII Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage). Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage).. Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (fiagp) Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pit-man)— -(1) Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand, new pra pHitinn (Pitman! (2) Pitman Shorthand, Progressive Skill De-velopment, new era edition (Pitman) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Transcrip-tion (Pitman) B B B A A A A 152 SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets; C—Prescribed for teacher use only; D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books Scale of Issue Commerce (Continued) Business Fundamentals XorXI Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business 24 Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill) A Book-keeping 3 4 — XI or XII Carlson, Forkner, and Prickett: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, 19th edi-tion (Gage) A Book-keeping 91 XI or XII Carlson, Forkner, and Prickett: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, 19th ed i -tion, advanced (Gage) A Clerical Practice 32 XI or XII (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) A (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) — - - — B (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part 1 (Pitman) A Clerical Practice 42 XII (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) A (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) B (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part 1 (Pitman) . —- A (4) Hillmer: Preparing the Payroll (Pitman) D Retail Selling 33 XI or XII Walters: Retail Merchandising, 5th edition (Gage) —- A Retail Selling 43... XII Same text-book as for Retail Selling 33. Office Practice 44 XII Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Prac-tice (McGraw-Hill). - A Secretarial Practice 92— XI or XII (1) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) ... - — B (2) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Tran-scription (Pitman) A (3) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill). A Secretarial Practice 93— XII Same text-books as for Secretarial Practice 92. Business Machine Prac- XI or XII (1) Comptometer Course for Business Train-tice 39 ing (Comptometer Co.) — t (2) Monroe School Manual of Instruction (Monroe Calculator Co.) t (3) Key Driven Calculator Course (Gage) t Drama Drama 10, 20, 30 IX-XII Ommanney: The Stage and School (Mc-Graw-Hill) .- B t One per business machine. 153 SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course and one for the teacher. B—Texts provided in sets. One text per pupil in the largest group receiving instruction at any one time in any class, course, shop, laboratory. In large schools, or in special circumstances, more than one set may be requisitioned if evidence of need is advanced by the principal. C—Prescribed for teacher use only and provided under the Rental Plan, the books being the property of the school and not of the individual teacher. D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books are authorized but not prescribed and may be purchased. DICTIONARY The following dictionary has been authorized for purchase by students in Grades VII to XII: The Winston Dictionary for Canadian Schools (Winston). Text-book changes for 1960—61 are printed in black-face type. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books Scale Issue Agriculture Farm Mechanics 22 Xor XI or XII (1) Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) B (2) White: Draughting for Canadian Schools (Nelson)... B Farm Mechanics 32 XI or XII Same text-books as for FM 22. Farm Mechanics 93 XII Same text-books as for FM 22. Commerce Typewriting 8— Typewriting 10 Typewriting 20 Record-keeping 11 Shorthand 21 Shorthand 31 VIII IX or X or XI or XII X or XI or XII IX or X or XI Xor XI or XII XI or XII Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage)—. .. ... .. Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pit-man) (1) Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand, new era edition (Pitman) (2) Pitman Shorthand, Progressive Skill De-velopment, new era edition (Pitman) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Transcrip-tion (Pitman) B B B A A A A 9 154 SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE for « i ^ ^ D ^ ^ " . V W , , f 1 B - T e * t S P r ° V i d e d i n » f C-Presa b supplementary books'may beZch a sed M 3 n U a ' S ' ^ spendable'workbXt Course Names Grade Placement Commerce (Continued) Business Fundamentals 24 Book-keeping 34 X or XI XI or XII Book-keeping 91 XI or XII Clerical Practice 32 XI or XII Clerical Practice 42 XII Prescribed Text-books Retail Selling 33 Retail Selling 43 Office Practice 44 Secretarial Practice 92. Secretarial Practice 93.. Business Machine Prac tice 39 Drama Drama 10, 20, 30. XI or XII XII XII XI or XII XII XI or XII IX-XII t One per business machine. Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill) Carlson, Forkner, and Prickett: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, 19th edi-tion (Gage) Carlson, Forkner, and Prickett: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, 19th edi-tion, advanced (Gage) (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part I (Pitman) _ (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) ._ (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part I (Pitman). _ Walters: Retail Merchandising, 5th edition (Gage) Same text-book as for Retail Selling 33. Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Prac-tice (McGraw-Hill) (1) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (2) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Tran-scription (Pitman) Sea Issu. (3) Sparling: A CompTetTcourseTn"Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) Same t^ext-books as for Secretarial Practice (1) Comptometer Course for Business Train-mg (Comptometer Co.) (2) Key Driven Calculator Course (GageCI A A A A B A A B A A A B A A Ommanney: The Stage and School (Mc-uraw-Hill) SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course and one for the teacher. B — Texts provided in sets. One text per pupil in the largest group receiving instruction at any one time in any class, course, shop, laboratory. In large schools, or in special circumstances, more than one set may be requisitioned if evidence of need is advanced by the principal. C—Prescribed for teacher use only and provided under the Rental Plan, the books being the property of the school and not of the individual teacher. D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books are authorized but not prescribed and may be purchased. DICTIONARY The following dictionary has been authorized for purchase by students in Grades VII to XII-The Winston Dictionary for Canadian Schools (Winston). Text-book changes for 1961-62 are printed in black-face type. Court* Names Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books Scale of issue Agriculture Farm Mechanics 22 X or XI or XII (1) Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) B (2) White: Draughting for Canadian Schools Farm Mechanics 32 (Nelson) B XI or XII Same text-books as for FM 22. Farm Mechanics 93 XII Same text-books as for FM 22. Commerce Typewriting 8 Typewriting 10~ Typewriting 20 Record-keeping 11 Shorthand 21 Shorthand 3 1 VIII IX or X or XI or XII XorXI or XII IX or X or XI X or XI or XII XI or XII Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage).. _ Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pit-man)— (1) Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand, new era edition (Pitman)-(2) Pitman Shorthand, Progressive Skill De-velopment, new era edition (Pitman) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Transcrip-tion (Pitman) B B B A A A A SECONDARY GRADES—VII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets; C—Prescribed for teacher use only; D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased. Courae Names Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books Scale of Issue Commerce (Continued) Business Fundamentals XorXI Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business 24 Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill) A Book-keeping 34 XI or XII Carlson, Forkner, and Prickett: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, 19th edi-tion (Gage) .... — A Book-keeping 91 — XI or XII Carlson, Forkner, and Prickett: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, 19th edi-tion, advanced (Gage) — A Clerical Practice 32.—.— XI or XII (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill)- . A (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) B (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part 1 (Pitman). _ A Clerical Practice 42 XII (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill)- - - A (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) B (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part 1 (Pitman) — - - - A Retail Selling 33 XI or XII Walters: Retail Merchandising, 5th edition (Gage) A Retail Selling 43 XII Same text-book as for Retail Selling 33. Office Practice 44 XII Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Prac-tice (McGraw-Hill) A Secretarial Practice 92— XI or XII (1) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) B (2) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Tran-scription (Pitman) A (3) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill). A Secretarial Practice 93— XII Same text-books as for Secretarial Practice 92. Business Machine Prac- XI or XII Key Driven Calculator Course (Gage)— • tice 39 Drama Drama 10, 20. 30. IX-XII Ommanney: The Stage and School t (Mc-Graw-Hill) B • One per business machine. t The third edition may be used but should not be requisitioned until stocks of the second edition now in the schools are depleted. 157 SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A — O n e text per pupil in each class or course and one for the teacher. B—Texts provided in sets. One text per pupil in the largest group receiving instruction at any one time in any class, course, shop, laboratory. In large schools, or in special circumstances, more than one set may be requisitioned if evidence of need is advanced by the principal. C—Prescribed for teacher use only, the books being the property of the school and not of the individual teacher. D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books are authorized but not prescribed and may be purchased. DICTIONARY A study of school dictionaries is being undertaken. Any change in prescriptions ai recommendations will be announced in a curriculum circular at a later date. Text-book changes for 1962-63 are printed in black-face type. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books Scale of Issue Agriculture Farm Mechanics 22 Farm Mechanics 32 Farm Mechanics 93 Xor XI or XII XI or XII XII (1) Roehl Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) (2) White: Draughting for Canadian Schools Same text-books as for FM 22. Same text-books as for FM 22. B B Commerce Typewriting 10 Typewriting 20 Record-keeping 1 1 Shorthand 21 Shorthand 31 Business Fundamentals 24 IX or Xor XI or XII X or XI or XII IX or X or XI Xor XI or XII XI or XII Xor XI Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pit-(1) Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand, new (2) Pitman Shorthand, Progressive Skill De-velopment, new era edition (Pitman) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Transcrip-Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill) B B A A A A A 158 SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A — O n e text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets; C—Prescribed for teacher use only; D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Text-books Scale of Issue Commerce (Continued) Book-keeping 34. XI or XII (1) Carlson et al.: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, Introductory Course, 21st Canadian edition (Gage).-. A (2) Working papers to accompany 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting (Gage) D Book-keeping 91 XI or XII (1) Leonard and Beard: Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill).- A (2) Solutions Manual for Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for teacher purchase) D (3) Problem solution forms for Canadian Accounting Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for pupil purchase) ____ __ D Clerical Practice 32 XI or XII (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) ... A (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) B (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part 1 (Pitman) A Clerical Practice 42 XII (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) A (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) B (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part 1 (Pitman) A Retail Selling 33 XI or XII Walters: Retail Merchandising, 5th edition (Gage) A Retail Selling 43 XII Same text-book as for Retail Selling 33. Office Practice 44 XII Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) A Secretarial Practice 92 - XI or XII (1) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) B (2) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Tran-scription (Pitman) A (3) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) A Secretarial Practice 93 - XII Same text-books as for Secretarial Practice 92. Business Machine Prac- XI or XII Key Driven Calculator Course (Gage) * tice 39 Drama Drama 10, 20, 30 IX-XII Ommanney: The Stage and School t (Mc-Graw-Hill) B * One per business machine. t The third edition may be used but should not be requisitioned until stocks of the second edition now in the schools are depleted. 159 SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course and one for the teacher. B—Texts provided in sets. One text per pupil in the largest group receiving instruction at any one time in any class, course, shop, laboratory. In large schools, or in special circumstances, more than one set may be requisitioned if evidence of need is advanced by the principal. C—Prescribed for teacher use only, the books being the property of the school and not of the individual teacher. D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books are authorized but not prescribed and may be purchased. DICTIONARY A study of school dictionaries is being undertaken (see page 7). Dictionaries recom-mended by the University for First Year (Grade XIII) English are: American College Dic-tionary (Random House), Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary (Allen), and Webster's New World Dictionary (Nelson, Foster, Scott). Textbook changes for 1963-64 are printed in black-face type. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Agriculture (1) Roehl Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) B Farm Mechanics 22 Xor XI or XII (2) White: Draughting for Canadian Schools (Nelson) . B Farm Mechanics 32 XI or XII Same textbooks as for FM 22. Farm Mechanics 93 XII Same textbooks as for FM 22. Commerce Typewriting 1 ... Typewriting 20 Record-keeping 1—_— . . Shorthand 21 Shorthand 31-Business Fundamentals 24 IX or X or XI or XII Xor XI or XII IX or X or XI X or XI or XII XI or XII XorXI Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) - - — Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) — Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pit-man) - „ (1) Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand, new era edition (Pitman) (2) Pitman Shorthand, Progressive Skill De-velopment, new era edition (Pitman) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Transcrip-tion (Pitman) - - - - -Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill) B B A A A A A 160 SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets; C—Prescribed for teacher use only; D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Commerce (Continued) Book-keeping 34 XI or XII (1) Carlson et al.: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, Introductory Course, 21st Canadian edition (Gage) ... A (2) Working papers to accompany 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting (Gage) D Book-keeping 91 _ XI or XII (1) Leonard and Beard: Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) A (2) Solutions Manual for Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for teacher purchase).. ... D (3) Problem solution forms for Canadian Accounting Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for pupil purchase) .... D Clerical Practice 32 XI or XII (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) A (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage)— — B (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part 1 (Pitman). . A Clerical Practice 42 XII (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) . A (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) B (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part 1 (Pitman) A Retail Selling 33 XI or XII Walters: Retail Merchandising, 5th edition (Gage) . - - A Retail Selling 43 XII Same textbook as for Retail Selling 33. Office Practice 44 XII Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) A Secretarial Practice 92— XI or XII (1) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) B (2) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Tran-scription (Pitman) . — A (3) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) A Secretarial Practice 93— XII Same textbooks as for Secretarial Practice 92. Business Machine Prac- XI or XII Key Driven Calculator Course (Gage) • tice 39 Drama Drama 20, 30 X-XII Ommanney: The Stage and School t (Mc-Graw-Hill).. B * One per business machine. t The third edition may be used but should not be requisitioned until stocks of the second edition now In the schools are depleted. 161 SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course and one for the teacher. B—Texts provided in sets. One text per pupil in the largest group receiving instruction at any one time in any class, course, shop, laboratory. In large schools, or in special circumstances, more than one set may be requisitioned if evidence of need is advanced by the principal. C—Prescribed for teacher use only, the books being the property of the school and not of the individual teacher. D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books are authorized but not prescribed and may be purchased. DICTIONARY References to school dictionaries are given on page 7. Dictionaries recommended by the University for First Year (Grade XIII) English are: American College Dictionary (Random House), Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary (Allen), and Webster's New World Dictionary (Nelson, Foster, Scott). Textbook changes for 1964-65 are printed in black-face type. Court* Names Grade Placement Proscribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Agriculture Farm Mechanics 10 (or X •<(1) Roehl Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) B 22) • (2) White: Draughting for Canadian Schools B (Nelson) — -Farm Mechanics 32 XI or XII Same textbooks as for FM 10. Farm Mechanics 93 XII Same textbooks as for FM 10. Commerce Typewriting 9 Typewriting 10 Record-keeping 9. Shorthand 10- -Shorthand 31. Business Fundamentals - 10 IX orX X IX orX X XI or XII X Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pit-CD Basic Course In Pitman Shorthand, new •ra edition (Pitman) (2) Pitman Shorthand, Progressive Skill De-velopment, new era edition (Pitman) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Transcrip-Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill) 00 CO < < < < < 162 SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets- C—Prescribed for teacher use only; D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased. Course Names Grade Placement Commerce (Continued) Book-keeping 34.. . Book-keeping 91 .... Clerica' Practice 32.. Clerical Practice 42. Retail Selling 33 Retail Selling 43 Office Practice 44 Secretarial Practice 92... Secretarial Practice 93-Business Machine Prac-tice 39 XI or XII XI or XII XI or XII XII XI or XII XII XII XI or XII XII XI or XII Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue C) Carlson et al.: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting Introductory ! Course, 21st Canadian edition (Gage) (2) Working papers to accompany 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting (Gage) — . (1) Leonard and Beard: Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) Solutions Manual for Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for teacher purchase) 13) Problem solution forms for Canadian Accounting Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for pupil purchase) — .. (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part I (Pitman) _ (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part I (Pitman) ... Walters: Retail Merchandising, 5th edition (Gage) _ Same textbook as for Retail Selling 33. Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (1) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (2) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Tran-scription (Pitman) (3) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) Same textbooks as for Secretarial Practice 92. Key Driven Calculator Course (Gage) D A D A B A A B A A A B A A SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course and one for the teacher. B—Texts provided in sets. One text per pupil in the largest group receiving instruction at any one time in any class, course, shop, laboratory. In large schools, or in special circumstances, more than one set may be requisitioned if evidence of need is advanced by the principal. C—Prescribed for teacher use only, the books being the property of the school and not of the individual teacher. D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books are authorized but not prescribed and may be purchased. DICTIONARY References to school dictionaries are given on page 7. Dictionaries recommended by the University for First Year (Grade XIII) English are: American Collepe Dictionary (Random House), Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary (Allen), and Webster's New World Dictionary (Nelson, Foster, Scott). Textbook changes for 1965-66 are printed in black-face type. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Agriculture Farm Mechanics 10 (or 22) Farm Mechanics 32.. Farm Mechanics 93.. Commerce Typewriting 9 Typewriting 10_ Typewriting 11 Record-keeping 9_ Shorthand 10 Shorthand 11 (A)_ Shorthand 11 (B)_ XI or XII XII IX or X X XI IX or X XI or XII XI (1) Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) (2) White: Draughting for Canadian Schools (Nelson) Same textbooks as for FM 10. Same textbooks as for FM 10. Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) Lowe: General Typing (McGraw-Hill) Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pit-man) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand 1962 (Pitman) (2) Pitman Shorthand Progressive Skill De-velopment, new era edition (Pitman) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand 1962 (Pitman) (2) Pitman Shorthand Progressive Skill De-velopment, new era edition (Pitman) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcrip-tion (Pitman) B B B A A A A A A A 164 SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A — O n e text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets; C—Prescribed fo- teacher use on.y; D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Commerce (Continued) General Business 1 1 * (SS 32. 33) XI or XII British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education).... A Morrison: A Commercial and Economic Ge-ography (Ryerson). A Canadian Social Studies Atlas (Dent) B Business Fundamentals 10 X Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill) A Boc kkeeping 1 1 XI (1) Carlson et al.: 20th Century Book-keeping and Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gaoe) (2) Working papers to accompany 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting (Gage) A D Bookkeeping 91 XII (1) Leonard and Beard: Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) Solutions Manual for Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for teacher purchase).. (3) Problem solution forms for Canadian Accounting Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for pupil purchase)— A D D Clerical Practice 32 XII (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) A B A (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part 1 (Pitman) Clerical Practice 42.. XII (1) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) (2) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage) (3) Keast: Canadian Business Arithmetic, Part 1 (Pitman) A B A Office Practice 44.. Secretarial Practice 92— XII XII Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill). (1) Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gaae).. (2) Pitman Shorthand Dictation and Tran-scriDtion (Pitman) A B A (3) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) A Secretarial Practice 93... XII Same textbooks as for Secretarial Practice 92. Business Machine Prac-tice 39 XII Key Driven Calculator Course (Gage) t * Pending consideration of new texts, those formerly prescribed for Social Studies 32 and 33 will be made available and may be used. t One per business machine. 165 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets; C—Prescribed for teacher use only; D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased. Textbook changes for 1966-67 are printed in black-face type. Course Names Grade I Placement Prescribed Textbooks Agriculture Farm Mechanics 10 Farm Mechanics 11 Farm Mechanics 12 Commerce Typewriting 9 Typewriting 10_. Typewriting 11 Record-keeping 9 ... Shorthand 10 Shorthand 11 (A)._ Shorthand 11 (B) General Business II X (1) Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) XI or XTJ. Same textbook as for FM 10. XU I Same textbook as for FM 10. IXorX X XI IXorX X XI or XII General Business 12 Business Fundamen-tals 10 Bookkeeping 11 Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage).. Lessenberry: 20th Century Typewriting (Gage). Rowe: General Typing (McGraw-Hill) Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pitman). 1962 XI XI or XII Bookkeeping 12.. Accounting 12. xn XI xn XII (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand 1962 (Pitman) (2) Pitman Shorthand Progressive Skill Develop-ment, new era edition (Pitman) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) (2) Pitman Shorthand Progressive Skill Develop-ment, new era edition (Pitman) _ Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) (1) Cross, Goulson, Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Department of Education) ... (2) Manual of Resources and Development (De-partment of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce) — — _ (3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education) Smith, The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark).... British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer) Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business Fun-damentals (McGraw-Hill) — _ Carlson et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gage).— Working papers to accompany 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting (Gage) Carlson et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and (1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2) (3) (4) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gage). Carlson et al: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting Advanced Course (Gage) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) Leonard and Beard: Canadian Accounting Practice, Second Edition (McGraw-Hill) Solutions Manual for Canadian Accounting Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for teacher purchase)... Problem solution forms for Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage)_ Scale of Issue B B A A A A B B C D D C C 166 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets; C—Prescribed for teacher use only; D—Some Teachers' Manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased. Course Names Grade I Placement Prescribed Textbooks Commerce (Continued) Office Orientation Office Practice 12 Secretarial Practice i : Business Machines XII XII XII XII (1) Tresslcr and Lipman: Applied English* (Copp Clark) (2) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Practice* (McGraw-Hill) (1 ) Rowe: Gregg Book Two: Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) (2) Newman: Canadian Business Handbook (Mc-Graw-Hill). -(1) Rowe: Gregg Book Two: Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) -(2) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman).. (3) Sparling: A Complete Course in Office Prac-tice* (McGraw-Hill) (1) Agncv. and Pasewark: Ten-Key Adding-Listing Machine and Printing Calculator Course, Third Edition (Gage)..— _ (2) Agnew and Pasewark: Rotary Calculator Course, Fourth Edition (Gage)— (3) Agnew and Pasewark: Key Driven Calculator Course, Fourth Edition (Gage) (4) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) _ (5) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) (6) English: Business Machine Projects (Pitman) (7) Dool: Business Machine Exercises (McGraw-Hill).... Drama Drama 9, 10 IXorX Ommanney: The Stage and School* (McGraw-Hill) English English 8.. VIII (1) McMaster: The Craft of Writing (Longmans) (It is permissible to order all four of the titles shown below. However, the total number of books or-dered must not exceed the number which would be ordered for two titles under the " B" issue requirement.) (a) Falkner: Moonfieet (Macmillan) (b) Heyerdahl: The Kon-Tiki Expedition, school edition (Nelson) _ (c) Warner: Men and Gods (Bellhaven).. (d) Steinbeck: The Red Pony and the Pearl (Macmillan) (2) Newell: Invitation to Poetry (Macmillan) (3) MacDonald: Short Stories of Distinction (Book Society) ... . ... • These are subject to change and hence orders should be kept to a minimum. t One per business machine. 167 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets; C—Prescribed for teacher use only; D—Some teachers' manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased; E—See individual subject and course. Textbook changes for 1967-68 are printed in bold-face type. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Agriculture Farm Mechanics 10 Farm Mechanics 11 Farm Mechanics 12 X XlorXU XII (1) Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) Same textbook as for FM 10. Same textbook as for FM 10. B Commerce Typewriting 9, 10... Typewriting 11. ... Record-keeping 9 . Shorthand 10 Shorthand 11 (A)... Shorthand 11 (B).... General Business 11 General Business 12 Business Fundamen-tals 10 Bookkeeping 11 Bookkeeping 12 IXorX XI IXorX X XI or XII XI XI or XII xn X XI xn (1) Wanous and Haggblade: Persgnal Typewriting (T67) (Gage) ' (2) McConnell: Building Typing Skills (Book 1) (McGraw-Hill) (3) Rowe: Typwriting'Druja for Speed and Ac-curacy (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Book One, General Typing (McGraw-Hill)_. Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pitman) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand 1962 (Pitman).. ...... (2) Pitman Shorthand Progressive Skill Develop-ment, new era edition (Pitman) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand 1962 (Pitman) (2) Pitman Shorthand Progressive Skill Develop-ment, new era edition (Pitman) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) (1) Cross, Goulson, Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Department of Education) (2) Manual of Resources and Development (De-partment of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce) .. E* E* E* A A A A A A A A B B A A A A D B A B C (3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education ) (1) Smith, The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark) (2) British Columhia Acts (Queen's Printer), teacher issue..." (3) British Columuia A « S (Queen's Printer), pupil issue Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business Fun-damentals (McGraw-Hill) (1) Carlson et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gage) (2) Working papers to accompany 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting (Gage) (1) Carlson et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gage) (2) Carlson, et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting Advanced Course (Gage) (3) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) (4) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) • One per machine. 168 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XIII KEY TO SCALE OF ISSUE A—One text per pupil in each class or course; B—Texts provided in sets; C—Prescribed for teacher use only; D—Some teachers' manuals, certain pupils' expendable workbooks and supplementary books may be purchased; E—See individual subject and course. Textbook changes for 1967-68 are printed in bold-face type. Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Commerce (Continued) Accounting 12 . Office Orientation 12 Office Practice 12.. Secretarial Practice 12 Business Machines 12 XII XII xn Drama Drama 9, 10-English English 8. XII xn IXorX vm (1) Leonard and Beard: Canadian Accounting Prac-tice, Second Edition (McGraw-Hill) (2) Solutions Manual for Canadian Accounting Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for teacher purchase).. (3) Problem solution forms for Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) (4) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) (5) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) Stewart: Business English and Communi • Canadian edition (McGraw-Hill)... (1) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Ty. (McGraw-Hill) (2) Newman: Canadian Business Handbook (Mc-Graw-Hill) . (3) Brecker: General U » r . Practice (McGraw-Hill).i 1  Rowe: Book Two, Ofhce Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) (1) (2) (1) Agnew and Pasewark: Ten-key Adding-Listing Machine and Printing Calculator Course, Third Edition (Gage) (2) Agnew and Pasewark: Rotary Calculator Course, Fourth Edition (Gage) (3) Agnew and Pasewark: Key Driven Calculator Course, Fourth Edition (Gage) (4) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) (5) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) (6) English: Business Machine Projects (Pitman) (7) Dool: Business Machine Exercises (McGraw-Hill) Ommanney: The Stage and School (McGraw-Hill). (1) McMaster: The Craft of Writing (Longmans) __ (2) (It is permissible to order all four of the titles shown below. However, the total number of books ordered must not exceed the number which would be ordered for two titles under the " B " issue requirement.) (a) Falkner: Moonfleet (Macmillan) (A) Heyerdahl: The Kon-Tiki Expedition, school edition (Nelson) • O n e r»*r m o r - h i n -169 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XIII (Textbook change for 1968-69 arc printed in bold-face type.) Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Agriculture Farm Mechanics 10 Farm Mechanics 11 Farm Mechanics 12 Commerce Typewriting 9, 10_ Type writing 11 Record-keeping 9_ Shorthand 10 Shorthand 11 (A). Shorthand 11 (B).. General Business 11 General Business 12 Business Funda-mentals lOt Basic Commerce 10 Bookkeeping 11. X XlorXn xn IX or X XI IXorX X XlorXn XI XI or XII xn x x XI Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce). Same textbook as for FM 10. Same textbook as for FM 10. (1) (2) (3) Personal "Typewriting Wanous and Haggblade (T67) (Gage) McConnell: Building Typing Skills (Book 1) (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Typewriting Drills for Speed and Accu-racy (McGraw-Hill)_ Rowe: Book One, General Typing (McGraw-Hill) Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pitman) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) (1) Cross, Goulson, Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Department of Education) (2) Manual of Resources and Development (De-partment of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce)-(3) (4) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education) Horwood: British Columbia (McClelland and Stewart) Smith, The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), teacher issue British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), pupil issue Crabbe et al.: General Business for Economic Understanding, 9th edition (Gage) Steinberg: Basic Economics (Pitman) Chapman: Fundamentals of Canadian Law (McGraw-Hill) Brown: Consumer Education, Revised (Mac-mill an) Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: mentals (McGraw-Hill) (1) Business Funda-(2) (1) (2) New Basic Course In Pitman Shorthand (Pit-man). Dool et al.: Exploring Business, B.C. edition (McGraw-Hill) Carlson et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gage)_ Working papers to accompany 20th Bookkeeping and Accounting (Gage) Century * One per mtrhmn t Ten copies per room m which course fa) taught. J Final year (or this course; orders should be kept to a minimum. 170 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XIII Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Commerce (Continued) Bookkeeping 11_ Bookkeeping 12.. Accounting 12_ Office Orientation 12 Office Practice 12 Secretarial Practice 12 Business Machines 12 XI xn xn xn xn xn xn 1) Carlson et al: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gage) 2) Working papers to accompany 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting (Gage) 1) Carlson et al: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gage). Carlson et al: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting Advanced Course (Gage) 3) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) 4) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) 1) Leonard and Beard: Canadian Accounting Prac-tice, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill)__ 2) Solutions Manual for Canadian Accounting 3) Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for teacher purchase).. Problem solution forms for Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) 4) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) 5) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) Stewart: Business English and Communication, Can-adian edition (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) 2) Reid: Canadian Office Procedures (Pitman) Newman: Canadian Business Handbook (Mc-Graw-Hill) Brecker: General Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) 1) 3) 4) 1) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) 2) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) 3) Thompson: Pitman Secretarial Shorthand, 1967 (Pitman) 1) Agnew and Pasewark: Ten-key Adding-Listing Machine and Printing Calculator Course, 3rd edition (Gage) 2) Agnew and Pasewark: Rotary Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) 3) Agnew and Pasewark: Key Driven Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) 4) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) 5) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) 6) English: Business Machine Projects (Pitman)— 7) Dool: Business Machine Exercises (McGraw-Hill) Scale of Issue 171 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XIII (Textbook changes for 1969—70 are printed in bold-face type.) Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Agriculture Farm Mechanics 10 Farm Mechanics 11 Farm Mechanics 12 X XlorXH XII Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce). Same textbook as for FM 10. Same textbook as for FM 10. Commerce Typewriting 9, 10 Typewriting 11 Record-keeping 9 Shorthand 10 Shorthand 11 (A)... Shorthand 11 (B)_ General Business 11 General Business 12 Business Funda-mentals 10 J Basic Commerce 10 IXorX XI IXorX X XI or XII XI XI or XII xn X X (1) Wanous and Haggblade: Personal Typewriting (T 67) (Gage) (2) McConnell: Building Typing Skills (Book 1) (McGraw-Hill) (3) Rowe: Typewriting Drills for Speed and Accu-racy (McGraw-Hill). Rowe: Book One, General Typing (McGraw-Hill)— Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk (Pitman) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) (1) (2) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) (1) Cross, Goulson, Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Department of Education)_ (2) Manual of Resources and Development (De-partment of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce) (3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education) —__ Horwood: British Columbia (McClelland and Stewart) (4) (1) Smith, The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark) (2) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), teacher (3) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), pupil issue (4) Crabbe et al: General Business for Economic Understanding, 9th edition (Gage) (5) Steinberg: Basic Economics (Pitman). (6) Chapman: Fundamentals of Canadian Law (McGraw-Hill) (7) Brown: Consumer Education, Revised (Mac-millan) Bruce, Heywood, and Abercrombie: Business Funda-mentals (McGraw-Hill) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pit-man) (2) Dool et al: Exploring Business, B.C. edition (McGraw-Hill) E* E* E* A A A A A A A A B B C A C A Et Et Et C A A A * One per machine. t Ten copies per room in which course is taught. t Final year for this course; orders should be kept to a minimum. 172 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XIII Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Commerce (Continued) Bookkeeping 11_ Bookkeeping 12_ Accounting 12_ XI xn xn Office Orientation 12 Office Practice 12 xn xn Secretarial Practice 12 Business Machines 12 xn xn Carlson et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gage) Working papers to accompany 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting (Gage) . Carlson et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gage) Carlson et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting Advanced Course (Gage) — Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) 4) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) 1) Leonard and Beard: Canadian Accounting Prac-tice, 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill) 2) Solutions Manual for Canadian Accounting Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for teacher purchase)-3) Problem solution forms for Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) 4) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) 5) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage). Stewart: Business English and Communication, Can-adian edition (McGraw-Hill)__ Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) Reid: Canadian Office Procedures (Pitman)-.. Newman: Canadian Business Handbook (Mc-Graw-Hill) Brecker: General Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) 1) 2) 3) 4) 1) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) 2) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) 3) Thompson: Pitman Secretarial Shorthand, 1967 (Pitman) 1) Agnew and Pasewark: Ten-key Adding-Listing Machine and Printing Calculator Course, 3rd edition (Gage) 2) Agnew and Pasewark: Rotary Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) 3) Agnew and Pasewark: Key Driven Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) 4) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) 5) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) English: Business Machine Projects (Pitman)— Dool: Business Machine Exercises (McGraw Hill) 6) 7) Drama Drama 9,10_ IXorX Ommanney: The Stage and School (McGraw-Hill). English English 8_ vm (1) McMaster: The Craft of Writing (Longmans)— (2) (All titles may be selected providing the total number of books selected does not exceed two " B " issues.) 173 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XIII (Textbook changes for 1970-71 are printed in bold-face type.) Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Agriculture Farm Mechanics 10 Farm Mechanics 11 Farm Mechanics 12 Commerce Typewriting 9,10.. Typewriting 11 Record-keeping 9_ Shorthand 10 Shorthand 11 (A)_. Shorthand 11 (B)... General Business 11 General Business 12 Basic Commerce 10 X XIorXH xn IXorX XI IXorX XlorXn XI XIorXH xn Scale of Issue Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce). Same textbook as for FM 10. Same textbook as for FM 10. 3) Rowe: Typewriting Drills for Speed and Accu-racy (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Book One, General Typing (McGraw-Hill)_. Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk, Revised (Pitman) 1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) 2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) 1) Wanous and Haggblade: (T 67) (Gage). Personal Typewriting 2) McConnell: Building Typing Skills (Book 1) (McGraw-Hill) 1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) 2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) 1) Cross, Goulson, Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Department of Education) 2) Manual of Resources and Development (De-partment of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce) 3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education). 4) Horwood: British Columbia (McClelland and Stewart) 1) Smith, The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark) 2) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), teacher issue 3) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), pupil issue 4) Crabbe et ai: General Business for Economic Understanding, 9th edition (Gage) 5) Steinberg: Basic Economics (Pitman) 6) Chapman: Fundamentals of Canadian Law (McGraw-Hill) 7) Brown: Consumer Education, Revised (Mac-millan) 1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pit-man) 2) Dool et al: Exploring Business, B.C. edition (McGraw-Hill) E» E* E* A A AA AA A A B B A A C A Et Et Et C A A 174 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XIII Course Names Commerce (Continued) Bookkeeping 12_ Accounting 12.. Office Orientation 12 Office Practice 12_ Secretarial Practice 12 Business Machines 12 XTJ xn xn xn xn xn Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Carlson et al: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gage) Carlson et al: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting Advanced Course (Gage) (1) (2) (3) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) (4) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) Leonard and B ard: Canadian Accounting Prac-tice, Second Edition (McGraw-Hill) Solutions Manual for Canadian Accounting Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for teacher purchase)-Problem solution forms for Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hill) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) nvui. v^fsu^ — -w. ~ — _____ _ . Stewart: Business English and Communication, Can-adian edition (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) Newman: Canadian Business Handbook (Mc-Graw-Hill)— (3) Brecker: General Office Practice (McGraw-Hill). (1) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (1) (2) 2(3) (1) (M Graw-Hill) . . Forkner Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) ; — T V Thompson: Pitman Secretarial Shorthand, 1967 (Pitman) Agnew and Pasewark: Ten-key Adding-Listing Machine and Printing Calculator Course, 3rd edition (Gage) (2) Agnew and Pasewark: Rotary Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) (3) Agnew and Pasewark: Key Driven Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) (4) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) (5) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) (6) English: Business Machine Projects (Pitman)— (7) Dool: Business Machine Exercises (McGraw-Hill ) A B C A D D C C A A B C A A A E* E* E* B C D 175 S E C O N D A R Y GRADES—VIII TO XII (Textbook changes for 1971-72 are printed in bold-face type.) Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks 1 j Scale c i Issue Agriculture ] Farm Mechanics 10 X Roehl: Farmer**, Shop Book (Bruce) i B Farm Mechanics 11 XI or XII Same textbook as fin F M 10. Farm Mechanic 5 12 XII Same textbook us for F M 10. Commerce Typewriting 9, 10 IXorX Typeu riling 11 Record-keeping 9 Shorthand 10 ... .. ! XI IX o r X General Business, (1) Wanous and Haggblade: Personal Typewriting (T 67 ) (Gage) (2) McConnel!: Building Tvping Skills (Book 1) : (McGraw-Hill) . (3) Rowe: Typewriting Drills for Speed and Accu-racy (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Book One. General Typir.g (McGraw-Hil l) Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk, Revised (Pitman) . ... . (1 ) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) • ! (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand ; Skills (P,t:-n;,n) . . Shorthand 11 (A) j X l o r X l f (1) New Basic Cou*«e in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman j (2) Giison and Mel l inger : Developing Shortb >nd I 1 Skills fPitman> Sh»""h ind 11 (B) j XI or XII Forkner: Correlated Dictat ion and Transcript^--I (P i tman) X I o r X H (1) Cro-s, Gou'so.n. Loft: Briti :h Columbia Scarce i Boo!. (Department of Fducation t | (2) Manual of Resource- and Development (De-partment of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce) ... . ~ ..... -(3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education) .... . (4) Horwood: British Columbia (McClelland and Stewart) (1) Smith. The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark) (2) British Columbia Acts (.Queen's Printer), teacher issue (3) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), pupil issue . . . — — (4) Crabbe et al: General Business for Economic Understanding, 9th edition (Gage) (5) Steinberg: Basic Economics (Pitman) (6) Chapman: Fundamentals of Canadian Law (McGraw-Hill) . . -(7) Brown: Consumer Education, Revised (Mac-millan) _ General Business 12 XII Basic Commerce 10 (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pit-man) (2) Doo! et al: Exploring Business, B.C. edition (McGraw-Hill) E* E* E* A A A A A A A A B B A A C A Et Et Et C A A 176 S E C O N D A R Y G R A D E S — V I I I TO XII Course Names Grade Placemen! ! Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Commerce (Continued) Bookkeeping 11 Bookkeeping 12 Accounting 12 . XI XII XII Or Accour. i inc 12* OfT.c Orientation 12 ; Off;.. Practice 12 ; XII XII XII Secretarial Practice 12 Business Machines 12 XII XI I (1 Elements of Accounting (McGraw -(1) (2) (3) (2) (?) (4) (5) (1) (2) (?) Kaluza Hil l ) . . . . Or (1) Seggie et al: Fact (Fundamental Accounting Concept Techniques) (Pitman) Carlson et al: 20th Century Book!.e.ping and Accounting, B-69, chaps. 1-32 (Gage) ... .. Carlson et al: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting Advanced Course (Gage) Robichaud: Understanding Modern Dala Pro-cessing (McGraw-Hil l ) . . (1) Leonard and Beard: Canadian Accounting Prac-tice. 2nd edition (McGraw-Hill > .... Solutions Manual for Canadian Accounting Practice (McGraw-Hill) (for teacher purchase). Problem solution forms for Canadian Account-ing Practice (McGraw-Hili) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) Kohl : Computers in Business (Gage ) Seggie & Robinson: Basic Accounting Practice (Pitman) — Meigs, ct al: Accounting (McGraw-Hil l) . Koh l : Computers in Business (Gage) Stewart: Busine-s Engli-h and Corr.rti.ini-_tio:i. Can-adian edition (McGraw-H'l l) (1) Ro\ e: B >ok Two. Office Production Taping (McGraw-Hill) (2) Reid: Canadian Office Procedures (Pitman) (3) Ncwm.in: Canadian Bus ness Handbook (Mc-Cirav. H:': I . ... Breckcr: General Office Practice (McGraw-Hil l ) -Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) -Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) ... (3) Thompson: Pitman Secretarial Shorthand, 1967 (Pitman) . ... (1) Agnew and Pasewark: Ten-key Adding-Listing Machine and Printing Calculator Course, 3rd edition (Gage).... (2) Agnew and Pasewark: Rotary Calculato: Course, 4th edition (Gage).—'-— (3) Agnew and Pasewark: Key Driven Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) — (4) Wanous: Automation foi Office Practice (Gage) (5) K o h l : Computers in Business (Gage) (6) English: Business Machine Projects (Pitman)... (7) Dooi: Business Machine Exercises (McGraw-Hill) (4) (1) (2) A B± A t A A D D C C A C C A A A B C A A A E* E* E* B C D 177 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XII (Textbook changes for 1972-73 are printed in bold-face type.) Course Names Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Commerce (Continued) Bookkeeping 11. Bookkeeping 12_ XI xn Accounting 12_ xn Office Orientation 12 Office Practice 12 Secretarial Practice 12 Business Machines 12 xn xn xn xn Elements of Accounting (McGraw-(1) Kaluza Hill) Or (1) Seggie et ai: Fact (Fundamental Accounting Concept Techniques) (Pitman) (1) Robichaud: Understanding Modern Data Proces-sing (McGraw-Hill) (2) Syme: Accounting I (Prentice-Hall) _ (3) (Each of the following titles may be ordered provided the total number of books ordered does not exceed one "B" issue): (a) Pitcher: Introduction to Accounting (Gen-eral Publishing) (fc) Boynton et ai: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, Advanced Course—23rd Edition (Gage)_ (1) Seggie and Robinson: Basic Accounting Practice (Pitman) Or (1) Kaluza et ai: Elements of Accounting—A Sys-tems Approach—Advanced Course (McGraw-Hill) (2) Meigs et ai: Accounting (McGraw-Hill) — (3) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage). Stewart: Business English and Communication, Can-adian edition (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) Reid: Canadian Office Procedures (Pitman) (1) (2) (Mc-(3) Newman: Canadian Business Handbook Graw-Hill) Archer et ai: General Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) (3) Thompson: Pitman Secretarial Shorthand, 1967 (Pitman) (4) (1) (2) (1) Agnew and Pasewark: Ten-key Adding-Listing Machine and Printing Calculator Course, 3rd edition (Gage) (2) Agnew and Pasewark: Rotary Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) Agnew and Pasewark: Key Driven Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) English: Business Machine Projects (Pitman) _ Dool: Business Machine Exercises (McGraw Hill) A A B A A C C A A B C A A A E14 Ei* Ei* B C D 178 SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XII Course Names Agriculture Farm Mechanics 10 Farm Mechanics 11 Farm Mechanics 12 Commerce Typewriting-Typewriting 11 Record-keeping 9_ Shorthand 10 Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue X XlorXn xn Shorthand 11 (A) _ Shorthand 11 (B)... General Business 11 General Business 12 Basic Commerce 10 IXorX XI IXorX XlorXII XIorXH XIorXQ Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce). Same textbook as for F M 10. Same textbook as for F M 10. (1) Wanous and Haggblade: Personal Typewriting (T67) (Gage) _ (2) McConnell: Building Typing Skills (Book 1) (McGraw-Hill) (3) Rowe: Typewriting Drills for Speed and Accu-racy (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Book One, General Typing (McGraw-Hill)__ Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk, Revised (Pitman) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) .— Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) xn (1) Cross, Goulson, Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Department of Education) (2) Manual of Resources and Development (De-partment of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce) (3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education) (4) Horwood: British Columbia (McClelland and Stewart) (1) Smith, The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark) (2) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), teacher issue • (3) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), pupil issue . —_ (4) Crabbe et al: General Business for Economic Understanding, 9th edition (Gage) (5) Steinberg: Basic Economics (Pitman) (6) Chapman: Fundamentals of Canadian Law (McGraw-Hill) (7) Brown: Consumer Education, Revised (Mac-millan) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pit-man) — (2) Dool et al: Exploring Business, B.C. edition (McGraw-Hill) A E i * Ei* A A A A A A A A B B A A C A Eis £16 Eis C A A 179 SECONDARY GRADES—Vm TO XII (Textbook change, for 1973-74 are printed in bold-face type.) Scale of /- v -Issue Course Name Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue A A E E E E E E E E E E E C C Agriculture Farm Mechanics 10 Farm Mechanics 11 Farm Mechanics 12 Commerce Typewriting. Typewriting 11...... Record-keeping 9. Shorthand 10 ... Shorthand 11 (A) . Shorthand 11 (B) General Business 1 ] X XIorXTJ XII Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce). Same textbook as for F M 10. Same textbook as for F M 10. IX o r X X I IX o r X X I or XII X l o r X n X I o r X H (1) Wanous and Haggblade: Personal Typewriting (T 67) (Gage) (2) McConnell: Building Typing Skills (Book 1) (McGraw-Hill) (3) Rowe: Typewriting Drills for Speed and Accu-racy (McGraw-Hill) General Business 12 Basic Commerce 10 Bookkeeping 11 XII X I Rowe: Book One, Genera! Typing (McGraw-Hil l )_ . Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk, Revised (Pitman) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) . (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) - _ — Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) (1) Cross, Goulson, Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Department of Education) (2) Manual of Resources and Development (De-partment of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce) (3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education) (4) Horwood: British Columbia (McClelland and i Stewart) (1) Smith, The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark) . (2) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), teacher issue (3) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), pupil issue (4) Crabbe et al: General Business "for Economic Understanding, 9th edition (Gage) 1 5 One per machine. 1 6 Ten copies per room in which course is taught. (5) Steinberg: Basic Economics (Pitman) (6) Chapman: Fundamentals of Canadian Law (McGraw-Hill) (7) Brown: Consumer Education, Revised (Mac-millan) . (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pit-man) (2) Dool et al: Exploring Business, B . C . edition (McGraw-Hill) (1) (Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one " A " issue): (a) Kaluza: Elements of Accounting (McGraw-Hill) .-(. ) Seggie et al: Fact (Fundamental Accounting Concept Techniques) (Pitman) A E 1 B Ei6 A A A A A A A A B B A A C A E*6 E 1 6 E s « C A A E E 180 SECONDARY GRADES—VI I I TO XII (Textbook changes for 1973-74 are primed in boldface type.) Course Name Grade Placement Commerce (Continued) Bookkeeping 12.. Accounting 12_ xn xn Office Orientation 12 Office Practice 12— xn XII Secretarial Practice 12 Business Machines 12 xn xn Drama Drama 9, 10.. Prescribed Textbooks Scale lssui (1) Robichaud: Understanding Modern Data Proces-sing (McGraw-Hill) —— (2) Syme: Accounting I (Prentice-Hall) (3) (Each of the following titles may be ordered provided the total number of books ordered does not exceed one "B" issue): (a) Pitcher: Introduction to Accounting (Gen-eral Publishing) (6) Boynton et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, Advanced Course—23rd Edition (Gage) (1) Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one "A" issue): (a) Seggie and Robinson: Basic Accounting Practice (Pitman) (b) Kaluza et al.: Elements of Accounting—A Systems Approach—Advanced Course (Mc-Graw-Hill) : (2) Meigs et al.: Accounting (McGraw-Hill) (3) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) Stewart: Business English and Communication, Can-adian edition (McGraw-Hill) (1) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) Reid: Canadian Office Procedures (Pitman) Newman: Canadian Business Handbook (Mc-Graw-Hill) (2) (3) (4) Archer et al.: General Office Practice (McGraw Hill) (1) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) (2) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) (3) Thompson: Pitman Secretarial Shorthand, 1967 (Pitman) (1) Agnew and Pasewark: Ten-key Adding-Listing Machine and Printing Calculator Course, 3rd edition (Gage) (2) Agnew and Pasewark: Rotary Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) (3) Agnew and Pasewark: Key Driven Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) (4) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) (5) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) (6) English: Business Machine Projects (Pitman)_ (7) Dool: Business Machine Exercises (McGraw-Hill) A A B B IXorX Ommanney: The Stage and School (McGraw-Hill)... E C C I c / / i SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XII (Textbook changes for 1974-75 are printed in bold-face type.) Cc_r=e Name Grade Place uiem Commt-rcc Typewriting-Typc writing 11 Record-keeping 9. Shorthand 10 Shorthand 11 (A). Shorthand 1MB ) IX orX X I IX o r X Prescribed Textbooks Personal Typewriting Genera] Business 11 \ XI or XII (1) Wanous and Haggblade: (T 67) (Gage) (2) McConnell: Building Typing Skulls (Book 1) (McGraw-Hll)8* (3) Rowe: Typewriting Drills for Speed and Accu-racy (McGraw-Hi'l) . Rowe: Book One, General Typing (McGraw-Hill)—. Troner and Glover: The Junior Clerk, Revised (Pitman) . (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) .— XlorXUi (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) XI orXII; Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) _ Scale of Issue General Business 12i XII (1) Cross, Goulson. Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Department of Education) (2) Manual of Resources and Development (De-partment of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce) _ (3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education.) i (4) Horwood: British Columbia (McClelland and Stewart) Basic Commerce ! 0 Bookkeeping 11 Bookkeeping 1" XI XTJ (1) Smith, The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark) (2) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), teacher (3) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), pupil issue — . •. (4) Crabbe et al.: General Business for Economic Understandng (Gage) (5) Steinberg: Basic Economics (Pitman) — (6) Chapman: Fundamentals of Canadian La.> (McGraw-Hill) . (7) Brown: Consumer Education, Revised (Mac-millan) (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pit-man) (2) Dool et al.: Exploring Business, B.C. edition (McGraw-Hill) (1) (Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one "A" issue): (a) Kaluza: Elements of Accounting (McGraw-Hill) (6) Seggie et al.: Fact (Fundamental Accounting Concept Techniques) (Pitman) (1) Robichaud: Understanding Modern Data Proces sing (McGraw-Hill) (2) Syme: Accounting I (Prentice-Hall) (3) (Each of the following titles may be ordered provided the total number of books ordered does not exceed one "B" issue): A £18 E 1 8 A A A A A A A A B B A A C A £ 1 6 £ 1 9 £ 1 9 c A A E E A A 182 SECONDARY G R A D E S — V I E TO XII (Textbook changes for 1974-75 are printed in bold-face type.) Count Name Grade Placement Bookkeeping 12 (Continued) Accounting 12. Office Orientation 12 Office Practice 12 S e - rial Practice XII xn XII X71 12 Bur ivies- M; . . 12 hi: XJl xn Prescribed Textbooks (a) Pitcher: Introduction to Accounting (Gen-eral Publishing) . . (b) Boynton et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, Advanced Course—23rd Edition (Gage) _ (1) Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one "A" issue): (a) Seggie and Robinson: Basic Accounting Practice (Pitman) (b) Kaluza et al.: Elements of Accounting—A Systems Approach—Advanced Course (Mc-Graw-Hill) Meigs et al.: Accounting (McGraw-Hili) Kohl : Computers in Business (Gage) Scale of Issue (2) (3) Stewart: Business English and Communication. Ca-nadian edition (McGraw-Hil l ) . (1) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) (2) Reid: Canadian Office Procedures (Pitman) ... (3) Newman: Canadian Business Handbook (Mc-Graw-Hill) (4) Archer et al.: General Office Practice (McGraw-(1) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) _. _. ... (2) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription i (Pitman) • j (3) Thompson: Pitman Secretarial Shorthand, 1967 j (Pitman) j (1) Agnew and Pasewark: Ten-key Adding-Listing j Machine and Printing Calculators Course (Gage) (2) Agnew and Pasewark: Rotary Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) — (3) Agnew and Pasewark: Key Driven Calculator Course. 4th edition (Gage) (4) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) (5) Kohl : Computers in Business (Gage) (6) Fnclish: Business Machine Projects (Pitman).. (7) Dool : Business Machine Exercises (McGraw-Hi l l ) B B E C C A A B C A A A E i s E i s E 1 * ' B C D INTERMEDIATE GRADES — IV, V, VI, VII Textbook changes for 1975-76 are printed in bold-face type. Subject Grade Placemeni Prescribed Textbooks Social Studies (Continued) (6) (7) (8C (b) Looking at the Past Series (Ginn): I Ancient Civilizations, II Middle Centuries (A.D. 600-1600) (c) Universal History, Vol III, Ancient Rome. (Fitzhenry & Whiteside) (d) Barker: The Story of Ancient Athens (Mac-millan) McGraw-Hill Paperbacks (McGraw-Hill) (Clarke: Stone Age Hunters, Aldred: Egypt to End of Old Kingdom, Culican: First Merchant Venturers). . Braidwood: Prehisioric Men (Gage) Lavender and Sheffe: Sourcebook for Ancient and Medieval History (McGraw-Hill) SECONDARY GRADES — VIII TO XII (Textbook changes for 1975-76 are printed in bold-face type.) Agriculture Farm Mechanics 10 X Roehl: Farmer's Shop Book (Bruce) B-" Farm Mechanics 11 XI or XII Same textbook as for F M 10. Farm Mechanics 12 XII Same textbook as for F M 10. Commerce Typewriting IX or X (1) Wanous and Haggblade: Personal Typewriting (T 67) (Gage) A (2) McConnell: Building Typing Skills (Book 1) (McGraw-Hill)"' E .s (3) Rowe: Typewriting Drills for Speed and Accuracy (McGraw-Hill) E I S Typewriting 11 XI Rowe: Book One, General Typing (McGraw-Hill) A Record-keeping 9... IX or X Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk, Revised (Pit-A Shorthand 10 X (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) A (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) A Shorthand 11 (A) . . XI or XII (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) A (2) Gilson and. Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) . A Shorthand 11 (B) . . . XI or X l l Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pit-A General Business 11 XI or XII (1) Cross, Goulson, Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Department of Education) A (2) Manual of Resources and Development (Depart-ment of Industrial Development, Trade, and B (3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education) B (4) Horwood: British Columbia (McClelland and A General Business 12 XII (1) Smith, The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark) A (2) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), teacher C S E C O N D A R Y G R A D E S — VIII T O XII Textbook changes for 1975-76 are printed in bold-face type.) Subject <ir.,dc Pijicmeni Pro-ribni 1-\ih.«>).> General Business I 2 (3) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), pupil (Continued) (4) Crabbe et al: General Business for Economic Un-derstanding (Gage) (5) Steinberg: Basic Economics (Pitman) (6) Chapman: Fundamentals of Canadian Law (McGraw-Hill) (7) Brown: Consumer Education. Revised (Mac-Basic Commerce 10 X (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) (2) Dool et al.: Exploring Business, B.C. edition (McGraw-Hill) Bookkeeping 11 . . . . XI (1) (Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one " A " issue): (o/Kaluza: Elements of Accounting (McGraw-Hill) (b) Seggie et al.: Fact (Fundamental Accounting Concept Techniques) (Pitman) Bookkeeping 1 2 . . . XII (1) Robichaud: Understanding Modern Data Process-ing (McGraw-Hill) (2) Svme: Accounting I (Prentice-Hall) (3) (Each of the following titles may be ordered pro-vided the total number of books ordered does not exceed one " B " issue): XII (a) Pitcher: Introduction to Accounting (General Publishing) (bj Boynton et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, Advanced Course—23rd Edition (Gage) Accounting 12 XII (1) Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one " A " issue): (a) Seggie and Robinson: Basic Accounting Prac-tice (Pitman) (b) Kaluza et al.: Elements of Accounting — A Systems Approach—Advanced Course (McGraw-Hill) (2) Meigs et al.: Accounting (McGraw-Hill) (3) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) Office Orientation 12 XII Stewart: Business English and Communication, Cana-dian edition (McGraw-Hill) Office Practice 12... X l l (1) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) (2) Reid: Canadian Office Procedures (Pitman) (3) Newman: Canadian Business Handbook (McGraw-Hill) (4) Archer et al.: General Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) Secretarial Practice XII (1) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing 12 (McGraw-Hill) (2) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (3) Thompson: Pitman Secretarial Shorthand, 1967 SECONDARY GRADES — VIII TO XII Textbook changes for 1975-76 are printed in bold-face type.) SuSjec i Business Machines 12 Grade Placement XII Pre.M-rih-.-ii T c \ ; h , » (1) (2) ( 3 ) (4) (5) (6) Pram a Drama 9, 10 . Deteiopmental Reading IX or X VIII IX, X Agnew and Pasewark: Ten-key Adding-Lisiing Machine and Priming Calculator* Course (Gage) Agnew and Pasewark: Rotary Calculator Course. 4th edition (Gagei Agnew and Pasewark: Key Driven Calculator Course. 4ih edition (Gage) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) Dool: Business Machine Exercises (McGraw-Hill) Ommanney: The Stage and School (McGraw-Hill). . English English English S. VIII, IX. X VIII (1) Gainsburg ci al: Advanced Skills in Reading Series. Canadian Editions (Collier-Macmillan): Books 1. II. and III Teachers' Editions * . (2) Jenkinson ci o/..Tactics in Reading Series (Gage): Books A and B Teacher's Books A and B Card K i l l Card Kit II ( 3 ) Shafer et al:. Success in Reading Series (General Learning): Books 1—6 Teachers' Editions (4) Jenkinson. ci al: Be a Better Reader Series. Sec-ond Canadian Edition (Prentice-Hall) Books I. II. Ill, IV Teachers' Editions Dictionary of Canadian English, Senior Edition (Gage)-': A. Poetry (1) Charlesworth: Second Century Anthologies of Verse. Book 1 (Oxford)' (2) (Either or both titles may be ordered, providing the total number of books selected does not ex-ceed one " B " issue): (a) Dunning, et al: Reflections on a Gift of Watermelon Pickle (Gage) (b) Zweigler: Man in the Poetic Mode #1 (Book Society)' (3) The Leaf Not the Tree Programme (Gage): (a) The Leaf Not the Tree (Teaching Poetry Through Film and Tape) (b) Creative Workshop 1 (c) Creative Workshop Kit 1 B. Mythology (Either or both titles may be ordered, providing the total number of books selected does not exceed one"B" issue): Scale of k-iK-E' B C C C E-'!' C E ; i E : i E : C E" C C 4 | E " E- , J INTERMEDIATE GRADES—IV, V, VI, VII (Textbook changes for 1976-77 are printed in bold-face tvpe.) Subject Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue Social Studies (Continued) (c) Barker: The Story of Ancient Athens (Mac- j (6) McGraw-Hill Paperbacks (McGraw-Hi l l ) (Clarke: Stone Age Hunters, Aldred: Egypt to j (7) Braidwood: Prehistoric Men (Gage) ' C (8) Lavender and Sheffe: Sourcebook for Ancient i and Medieval History (McGraw-Hill) | C SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XII (Textbook changes for 1976-77 are printed in bold-face type.) Agriculture Farm Mechanics 10 Farm Mechanics 11 Farm Mechanics 12 Commerce-'6 Typewriting 9.. Typewriting 11 Record-keeping 9. Shorthand 10 X XI or XII XII Wakeman, McCoy: The Farm Shop (Collier-Mac-millan) - -Same textbooks as for FM 10. Same textbooks as for FM 10. IX or X Shorthand 11 (A).... Shorthand 11 (B).... General Business 11 XI IXorX XI or XII XI or XII XI or XII General Business 12 XII (1) Wanous and Haggblade: Personal Typewriting (T67) (Gage) (2) McConnell: Building Typing Skills (Book 1) (McGraw-Hill) s » (3) Rowe: Typewriting Drills for Speed and Ac-curacy (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Book One, General Typing (McGraw-Hill) Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk, Revised (Pit-man) -(1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pit-man) (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) „ (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman). (2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) _ [Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) (1) Cross, Goulson, Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Department of Education) (2) Manual of Resources and Development (Depart ment of Economic Development) (3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Depart-ment of Education) (4) Horwood: British Columbia (McClelland and Stewart) (1) Smith: The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark).... (2) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), teacher (3) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), pupil issue SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XII ( T e x t b o o k changes f o r 1976-77 are p r i n ted in bo ld - fa re type.) Subject Commerce-1' (Continued) General Business 12 (Continued) Basic Commerce 10 Bookkeeping 11. Bookkeeping 12. Grade Placemen XI Accounting 12.. XII XII Office Orientation 12 Office Practice 12. Secretarial Practice 12 XII XII XII Prescribed Textbooks I Scale of Issue Business for Economic Law (7) ( 1 ) (2) (1) (1) (2) (3) (*) (4 1 Crabbe ei al.: Genera Understanding (Gage). (5) Steinberg: Basic Economics (Pitman) (6) Chapman: Fundamentals of Canadian (McGraw-Hill) Brown: Consumer Education, Revised (Mac-millan) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pit-man) Dool et al.: Exploring Business, B.C. edition (McGraw-Hill) (Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one A issue): (a) Kaluza: Elements of Accounting (McGraw-Hill) (b) Seggie et al.: Fact (Fundamental Accounting Concept Techniques) (Pitman) Robichaud: Understanding Modern Data Proc-essing (McGraw-Hill) Syme: Accounting I (Prentice-Hall) (Each of the following titles may be ordered provided the total number of books ordered does not exceed one B issue): (a) Pitcher: Introduction to Accounting (Gen-eral Publishing) Boynton et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, Advanced Course—23rd Edition (Gage) , (Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one A issue): (_) Seggie and Robinson: Basic Accounting Practice (Pitman) Kaluza et al.: Elements of Accounting— A Systems Approach—Advanced Course (McGraw-Hill)... (2) Meigs et al.: Accounting (McGraw-Hill) (3) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage)..... Stewart: Business English and Communication, Cana-dian edition (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) Reid: Canadian Office Procedures (Pitman) Newman: Canadian Business Handbook (Mc-Graw-Hill) Archer et al.: General Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) Rowe: Book Two (McGraw-Hill) (2) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) (3) Thompson: Pitman Secretarial Shorthand, 1967 (Pitman) (1) (b) (1) (2) (3) (4) £ 1 0 E'o C A A E E A A E C C A A*0 B C SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XII (Textbook changes for 1976-77 are printed in bold-face type.) Subject Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Scale of Issue C o m m e r c e - ^ (Continued) Business Machines 12 XII (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Agnew and Pasewark: Ten-key Adding-Listing Machine and Printing Calculators Course (Gage) Agnew and Pasewark: Rotary Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) Agnew and Pasewark: Key Driven Calculator Course, 4th edition (Gage) Wanous: Automation for Office Practice (Gage)... Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) Dool: Business Machine Exercises (McGraw-Hill) Drama Drama 9, 10. IXorX Ommanney: The Stage and School (McGraw-Hill). Developmental Reading VIII IX. X (1) (2) (3) (4) Gainsburg et al.: Advanced Skills in Reading Series, Canadian Editions (Collier-Macmillan): Books I, II, and 111 Teachers' Editions Jenkinson et al.: Tactics in Reading Series (Gage): Books A and B Teacher's Books A and B Card Kit I . Card Kit II Shafer et al.: Success in Reading Series (General Learning): Books 1-6 - -Teachers' Editions Jenkinson et al.: Be a Better Reader Series, Sec-ond Canadian Edition (Prentice-Hall) Books I, II, III, IV Teachers' Editions English English.. English 8. VIII, IX, X VIII Dictionary of Canadian English, Senior Edition (Gage) A. Poetry (1) Charlesworth: Second Century Anthologies of Verse, Book 1 (Oxford)3 _ (2) (Either or both titles may be ordered, providing the total number of books selected does not ex-ceed one B issue): (a) Dunning et al.: Reflections on a Gift of Watermelon Pickle (Gage) (6) Zweigler: Man in the Poetic Mode #1 (Book Society) 3 (3) The Leaf Not the Tree Programme (Gage): (o) The Leaf Not the Tree (Teaching Poetry Through Film and Tape) _ (b) Creative Workshop I -(c) Creative Workshop Kit I INTERMEDIATE GRADES—IV , V, VI, VII (Textbook changes for 1977-78 are printed in bold-face type.) Subject Social Studies (Continued) Grade Placement! VII Prescribed Textbooks (5) (6) (*) (c) What Happened Series (Copp Clark) (What Happened in B.C., What Happened in Feudal England) _ . They Lived Like This Series (McGraw-Hill) (In Ancient Egypt, In Ancient Meso-potamia, In Ancient Crete) (Each of the following will be issued on the basis of 10% of the total enrolment in the course): (a) Then and There Series (Longman) (Medi-eval Town, Medieval Castle, Medieval Tour-, nament, Medieval Monastry, Medieval Vil-lage) Looking at the Past Series (Ginn): 1 Anci-ent Civilizations, II Middle Centuries (A.D.) (600-1600) Barker: The Story of Ancient Athens (Mac-millan) McGraw-Hill Paperbacks (McGraw-Hill) (Clarke: Stone Age Hunters, Aldred: Egypt to End of Old Kingdom) (7) Braidwood: Prehistoric Men (Gage) (8) Lavender and Sheffe: Sourcebook for Ancient and Medieval History (McGraw-Hill)...! SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XII (Textbook changes for 1977-78 are printed in bold-face type.) Agriculture 2 6 Farm Mechanics 10 Farm Mechanics 11 Farm Mechanics 12 X IXIorXII XII Wakeman, McCoy: The Farm Shop (Collier-Mac-millan) Same textbooks as for FM 10. Same textbooks as for FM 10. Commerce26 Typewriting 9.. or Typing 9 IXorX IX orX Typewriting 11 Record-keeping 9.. XI IX orX i (1) Wanous and Haggblade: Personal Typewriting (T 67) (Gage) — 1 (2) McConnell: Building Typing Skills (Book 1)| (McGraw-Hill)»» —- j (3) Rowe: Typewriting Drills for Speed and Accu-; racy (McGraw-Hill) _ i (1) Fanner et al.: Business Application in Type-1 writing (Gage) - -I (2) Rowe et al.: Typing 300—Volume 1, General, Course (McGraw-Hill) .- J (3) Lloyd et al.: Typing Power Drills, Metric Edi-; tion (McGraw-Hill) (4) Hodgins: Progressive Timed Writings (Mc-Graw-Hill) ] Rowe: Book One, General Typing (McGraw-Hill) | Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk, Revised (Pit- j man) I SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XII (Textbook changes for 1977-78 are printed in bold-face type.) Subject Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Commerce26 (Continued) Basic Commerce 10 Consumer Funda-mentals 10 Bookkeeping 11. Bookkeeping 12 Accounting 12. Office Orientation 12 Office Practice 12 XI XII XII XII XII (1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pit-man) . _. (2) Dool <r  al.: Exploring Business, B.C. edition (McGraw-Hill) (1) Dool et al.: Exploring Business—B.C. Ed. (McGraw-Hill) . (2) Gorden: The Consumer Handbook—99 Com. mercial Rip-Off s and How to Spot Them (Mc-Clelland & Stewart) (3) Daw, Beatty: Yon, The Consumer (Wiley) _ (4) Spetz: Consumer Credit & Consumer Fraud (Pitman) (1) (Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one A issue): (a) Kaluza: Elements of Accounting (McGraw-Hill) (1) (2) (3) (b) Seggie et al.: Fact (Fundamental Accounting Concept Techniques) (Pitman) Robichaud: Understanding Modern Data Proc-essing (McGraw-Hill) Syme: Accounting I (Prentice-Hall) — (Each of the following titles may be ordered provided the total number of books ordered does not exceed one B issue): (a) Pitcher: Introduction to Accounting (Gen-eral Publishing) (6) Boynton et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting, Advanced Course — 23rd Edition (Gage) (1) (Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one A issue): (a) Seggie and Robinson: Basic Accounting Practice (Pitman) : (fc) Kaluza et al.: Elements of Accounting — A Systems Approach — Advanced Course (McGraw-Hill) (2) Meigs et al.: Accounting (McGraw-Hill). (3) Kohl: Computers in Business (Gage) |Stewart: Business English and Communication, Cana-dian edition (McGraw-Hill) (I) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hill) t2) Reid: Canadian Office Procedures (Pitman) 3) Newman: Canadian Business Handbook (Mc-Graw-Hill) ((4) Archer et al: General Office Practice (McGraw-Hill) INTERMEDIATE GRADES—IV , V, VI, VII (Textbook changes for 1977-78 are printed in bold-face type.) Subject Grade Placement Prescribed Textbooks Sca.c j Isst Social Studies (Continued) VII (b) What Happened Series (Copp Clark) (What Happened in B.C., What Happened in Feudal England) (c) They Lived Like This Series (McGraw-Hill) (In Ancient Egypt, In Ancient Meso-potamia, In Ancient Crete) (5) (Each of the following will be issued on the basis of 10% of the total enrolment in the course): (fl) Then and There Series (Longman) (Medi-eval Town, Medieval Castle, Medieval Tour-nament, Medieval Monastry, Medieval Vil-lage) (6) Looking at the Past Series (Ginn): I Anci-ent Civilizations, II Middle Centuries (A.D.) (600-1600) (c) Barker: The Story of Ancient Athens (Mac-millan) _ (6) McGraw-Hill Paperbacks (McGraw-Hill) (Clarke: Stone Age Hunters, Aldred: Egypt to End of Old Kingdom) 1 E E E E E C C C (7) Braidwood: Prehistoric Men (Gage) (8) Lavender and Sheffe: Sourcebook for Ancient and Medieval History (McGraw-Hill).„ SECONDARY GRADES—VII I TO XII (Textbook changes for 1977-78 are printed in bold-face type.) Agriculture26 Farm Mechanics 10 Farm Mechanics 11 Farm Mechanics 12 X XIorXH XII Wakeman, McCoy: The Farm Shop (Collier-Mac-millan) B Same textbooks as for FM 10. Same textbooks as for FM 10. Commerce 2 c Typewriting 9 or Typing 9 Typewriting 11 Record-keeping 9 IXorX IXorX XI IX or X (1) Wanous and Haggblade: Personal Typewriting (T 67) (Gage) (2) McConnell: Building Typing Skills (Book 1) (McGraw-Hill)»» .. (3) Rowe: Typewriting Drills for Speed and Accu-racy (McGraw-Hill) (1) Farmer et al.: Business Application in Type-writing (Gage) (2) Rowe et al.: Typing 300—Volume 1, General Course (McGraw-Hill) (3) Lloyd et al.: Typing Power Drills, Metric Edi-tion (McGraw-Hill) _ _ (4) Hodgins: Progressive Timed Writings (Mc-Graw-Hill) Rowe: Book One, General Typing (McGraw-Hill) Trotter and Glover: The Junior Clerk, Revised (Pit-man) A E E ; A A E J -E 4 ' A -A : : INTERMEDIATE GRADES—IV, V, VI, VII (Textbook changes for 1978-79 are printed in bold-face type.) Subject Grade [Placement Social Studies (Continued) VII Prescribed Textbooks (b) What Happened Series (Copp Clark) (What! Happened in B.C.. What Happened i n ' Feudal England) J (c) They Lived Like This Series (McGraw- j Hil l) (In Ancient Egypt, In Ancient Meso-j potamia. In Ancient Crete) '. J (5) (Each of the following will be issued on the basis' of \0</c of the total enrolment in the course): (n) Then and There Series (Longman) (Medi-eval Town, Medieval Castle, Medieval Tour-nament, Medieval Monastry, Medieval V i l -lage) (b) Looking at the Past Series (Ginn): I Anci-ent Civilizations, II Middle Centuries (A.D.) (600-1600) (r) Barker: The Story of Ancient Athens (Mac-millan) (6) McGraw-Hil l Paperbacks (McGraw-Hill) (Clarke: Stone Age Hunters, Aldred: Egypt to End of Old Kingdom) (7) Braidwood: Prehistoric Men (Gage) (8) Lavender and Sheffe: Sourcebook for Ancient and Medieval History (McGraw-Hill) SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XII (Textbook changes for 1978-79 are printed in bold-face type.) Agriculture 2 6 Wakeman, McCoy: The Farm Shop (Collier-Mac-J Farm Mechanics 10 X millan) .i Farm Mechanics 11 XI or XII Same textbook as for F M 10 Farm Mechanics 12 XI I Same textbook as for F M 10 Business Education-6 Typewriting 9 IX (1) Farmer el al.: Business Application in Type writing (Gage) Or (2) Rowe et al.: Typing 300—Volume I, General Course (McGraw-Hill) (3) Llovd et al.: Typing Power Drills, Metric Edition (McGraw-Hill) (4) Hodgins: Progressive Timed Writings (McGraw-Hil l ) Typewriting 10 X (1) Farmer, et al.: Professional Applications in Tvpewriting (Gage) Or (2) Rowe, et al.: Typing 300—Volume II (Mc-Graw-Hill) SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XII (Textbook changes for 197R-79 are printed in bold-face type.) { Gradf I Placcmc nt Prescribed Textbooks IScalc of Icjue Incf. Educat ion- , ; I (Coniiiwcd) i e/sonj! and Busi- , IX or X (I ) Huffman. Slew an: . General Recordkeeping. 7lh ness Records 9 ! Edition (McGraw-Hill) | A j <2) Andrews: Gregg Office Job Training Program I (a) Albertson: Slock Control Clerk, Training | , Manual (McGraw-Hil l) J E<» ( (b) Rissner: Purchasing Clerk. Training Manual , . (McGraw-Hil l ) _ -.; E*n (c) Hodges: Office Cashier. Training Manual (McGraw-Hil l) _ .' E<* i horthand 10/11 \ X or X I (1) Reid, Thompson, Pitman Shorterhand. Book I (Pitman) | A (2) Reid el al:. Writing and Transcription Skill De-velopment, Book 11 (Pitman) | A Or (1) Beaucamp. Hansen: Programme 21 Simplified Shorthand (Imprest! : A (2) Beaucamp cl al:. Multi-Dict-Programme 21 (Im-prest) .'. A Or ' (1) Forkner. Brown: Forkner Shorthand. Canadian Edition (Gage) _ ; A (2) Forkner. Brown: Forkner Shorthand, Canadian Edition Study Guide (Gage) j A horthand 11 A/1 1B ..._|XIorXII;(1) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman) A |(2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand Skills (Pitman) -j A (3) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription (Pitman) _ J A XII |<l) (a) Reid, el al.: Shorterhand SkilW for the Future, Book III (Pitman) I A (b) Reid, Scott: Building Your Career in Pit-man Shorterhand, Book IV (Pitman) I A Or (2) Beaucamp: Programme 21 Speed Building and Transcription (Imprest) _ Or (3) (a) Brown, Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription, 2nd Edition (Gage) | A (fc) Brown, Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription—Study Guide (Gage) XlorXHl(I) Cross, Goulson, Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Ministry of Education) A ((2) Manual of Resources and Development (Minis-try of Economic Development) B |(3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Ministry of Education) B |(4) Horwood: British Columbia (McClelland and Stewart) _ . ; A XII |(1) Smith: The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark) A (2) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Primer), teacher I o> shorthand 12 1 Ijeneral Business 11 general Business 12 194 SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO XII (Textbook changes for 1978-79 are printed in bold-face type.) Subject j Grade : Pktccmcnl Prescribed Textbooks jScale of Issue iricrs E d u c a t i o n -I (Continued) ersonal and Busi-ness Records 9 I X o r X : ( l l Huffman. Stewart: General Recordkeeping. 7th Edition (McGraw-Hill) (2) Andrews: Gregg Office Job Training Program (a) Albertson: Stock Control Clerk. Training \ Manual (McGraw-Hill) j (b) Rissner: Purchasing Clerk. Training Manual , (McGraw-Hill) (c) Hodges: Office Cashier. Training Manual ; (McGraw-Hill) - -j horthand 10/11 J X or X I .(1) Reid, Thompson, Pitman Shorterhand. Book I '• | j (Pitman) j I I 1(2) Reid et al.: Writing and Transcription Skill De- I j velopment. Book II (Pitman) j Or [ (1) Beaucamp. Hansen: Programme 21 Simplified ; Shorthand (Imprest) I (2) Beaucamp et al.: Multi-Dict-Programme 21 ( Im- : prest) - .'. Or ; ;(1) Forkner. Brown: Forkner Shorthand, Canadian ! Edition (Gage) j ;(2) Forkner. Brown: Forkner Shorthand. Canadian . Edition Study Guide (Gage) | X l o r X I I j ( l ) New Basic Course in Pitman Shorthand (Pitman): i(2) Gilson and Mellinger: Developing Shorthand. Skills (Pitman) j (3) Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription ! (Pitman) j XII it I) (a) Reid, et al.: Shorlerhand Skills for the. Future, Book III (Pitman) I (b) Reid, Scott: Building Your Career in Pit-man Shorlerhand, Book IV (Pitman) horthand 1 1A/ 1 1B I Or jihoMhand 12 1 tjeneral Business 11 X I or XII General Business 12 E 4 0 A A A A A A A A A A XII Or (2) Beaucamp: Programme 21 Speed Building and Transcription (Imprest) Or I (3) (a) Brown, Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription, 2nd Edition (Gage) (A) Brown, Forkner: Correlated Dictation and Transcription—Study Guide (Gage) (1) Cross, Goulsoh, Loft: British Columbia Source Book (Ministry of Education) (2) Manual of Resources and Development (Minis-try of Economic Development) (3) British Columbia Geography Manual (Ministry of Education) (4) Horwood: British Columbia (McClelland and Stewart) (1) Smith: The Citizen's Business (Copp Clark) (2) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Printer), teacher issue A A A • B B • A • A • SECONDARY GRADES—VIII TO Xll (Textbook change > for 1978-79 are printer) in bold-face type.) Subject ; Grade ! Phicement PiesciHeJ Text ecu,U Business Education-' 1 1 (Continued > . General Business 1 2 (Continued) XII Consumer Funda-mentals 10 Bookkeeping 11 i XI Bookkeeping 12. XII Accounting 12. XII Office Orientation 12 Office Practice 12 XII XII (?) British Columbia Acts (Queen's Vt inter), pupil i issue :(4) Crabbe et al.: General Business for Economic ! Understanding (Gage) i(5) Steinberg: Basic Economics (Pitman) j(6) Chapman: Fundamentals of C a n a d i a n L a w j (McGraw-Hil l) 1(7) Brown: Consumer Education. Revised (Mac-j millan) 1(1) Treliving. Murphy: General Business and Con-1 sumcr Fundamentals 1977 (McGraw-Hill) \(2) Gorden: The Consumer Handbook—99 Com-mercial Rip-Offs and How to Spot Them (Mc-Clelland & Stewart) :(3) Daw, Beany: You. The Consumer (Wiley) ;(4) Spelz: Consumer Credit &. Consumer Fraud i (Pitman) (1) (Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one A issue): (a) Kaluza: Elements of Accounting (McGraw-j ' Hi l l ) i (fc) Seggie et al.: Fact (Fundamental Accounting ' | Concept Techniques) (Pitman) j (1) Robichaud: Understanding Modern Data Proc-essing (McGraw-Hil l) (2) Syme: Accounting 1 (Prentice-Hall) (3) (Each of the following titles may be ordered provided the total number of books ordered does not exceed one B issue): (a) Pitcher: Introduction to Accounting (Gen-eral Publishing) (b) Boynton et al.: 20th Century Bookkeeping and Accounting. A d v a n c e d Course — 23rd Edition (Gage) (1) (Either or both titles may be ordered up to a total of one A issue): (a) Seggie and Robinson: Basic Accounting Practice (Pitman) (b) Kaluza et al.: Elements of Accounting — A Systems Approach — Advanced Course (McGraw-Hil l) (2) Meigs et al.: Accounting (McGraw-Hil l) (3) Koh l : Computers in Business (Gage) Stewart: Business English and Communication, Cana-dian edition (McGraw-Hill) (1) Rowe: Book Two, Office Production Typing (McGraw-Hil l) (2) Reid: Canadian Office Procedures (Pitman) (3) Newman: Canadian Business Handbook (Mc-Graw-Hill) : (4) Archer ei al.: General Office Practice (McGraw-Hi l l ) \ 

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